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A history of Dorking 
and the neighbouring parishes 

John Shenton Bright 



"Uru Bllk.^.S - 




©arbarto College library 



BOUGHT FROM GIFTS 

FOR THE PURCHASE OF ENGLISH 

HISTORY AND LITERATURE 



«• Subscription of 1916 " 



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° A HISTORY OF DORKING 



AND THE 



NEIGHBOURING PARISHES, 



WITH CHAPTERS ON THE 



LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS, FLORA, FAUNA, 
GEOLOGY, etc., OF THE DISTRICT, 



BY 



J. S. BRIGHT. 



DORKING: 
R. J. CLARK, 16, High Stbbbt. 

LONDON: 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & Co., Stationbbs' Hall Coubt. 

1884. 



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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

SEP 12 1916 

SUBSCRIPTION OF 1916 



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©efcicatefc 

WITH FEELIKGS OF BESPECT 
AND FRIENDSHIP TO 

WILLIAM JOHN EVELYN, ESQUIBE, 

OF WOTTON HOUSE. 



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PREFACE. 



"TV /TORE than a quarter of a century ago the writer 
delivered some lectures on the Literary Associations 
connected with Dorking and the immediate neighbourhood. 
Since then he has been attentive to any allusions and facts 
found in the course of his reading, and has engaged in 
researches for everything which had a special reference to 
that subject, and the history of the town and surrounding 
parishes. 

Dorking itself presents much less material for description 
than many of the towns of Surrey. Guildford has a Castle, 
an ancient Hospital, and returns Members to Parliament ; 
Reigate could formerly boast of a Priory; Godalming has 
a Corporation ; Haslemere has its Electioneering Traditions ; 
Croydon is rich in Roman Remains and Monuments of 
deceased Archbishops; Richmond had a Royal Palace; 
Epsom has its reminiscences of former fashionable resort 
to its Mineral Springs; and Farnham has its Episcopal 
Palace, and other objects of antiquarian attraction ; but 
Dorking is destitute of such sources of interest, and can 
produce only scanty materials for historical statement. It 
is hoped that the beauty of its sylvan Scenery, the wealth 



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VI. PREFACE. 

of Literary Associations, and the Antiquities of the neigh- 
bouring parishes, will compensate for the absence of fuller 
information about the town itself, and make the volume 
acceptable to its readers. 

It seems to have been unaffected by the exciting events 
of the Parliamentary and Royalist conflicts of the seventeenth 
century; and the only allusion to the period is to be found 
in a reference to the gathering of the Royalists, who, under 
colour of a horse-race, met on Banstead Downs; and 
retreated, before Parliamentary officers, to Red Hill, and 
afterwards made their way to Dorking, where history leaves 
them without special further information respecting their 
movements. 

The writer trusts that the fruits of his inquiries will be 
acceptable to his readers, which, though destitute of narrations 
of stirring incidents, like those which have occurred elsewhere, 
are still of interest to the inhabitants of the town and 
neighbourhood. 

Apart from many works which have been examined, the 
author must refer to Manning and Bray's "History of 
Surrey" as the treasury of information respecting the 
Antiquities of the County. This remarkable and unrivalled 
work might, through the efforts of the " Surrey Archaeological 
Society," and the extensive interest felt in the monuments 
and records of the past, be considerably enriched ; since many 
documents have, of late years, been discovered and drawn 
from their hiding places, and published for general in- 
formation. Inquiries have been pursued at the Public Record 
Office; Lambeth Library; the British Museum; and the 
Calenders of State Papers have furnished some items of 
interest. Burke's " Landed Gentry ; " Debrett's "Peerage;" 



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PREFACE. Vll. 

and Watford' s " County Families," have supplied materials 
for the brief notices of a genealogical nature found in the 
volume. 

The outline of the former owners of manors is drawn 
from Manning and Bray's History, where the exact and 
voluminous details of ownership, and pedigrees of ancient 
families are to be found. 

The notices of the Geology, Botany, and Fauna of the 
neighbourhood are necessarily brief. Dorking has not been 
favoured with an observer like Gilbert White, of Selborne, 
nor have we enjoyed the presence of one who, like Mr. 
Newman, of Godalming, has made the natural history of the 
neighbourhood an object of ardent and successful research. 

The writer claims only the office of a compiler in the 
work he presents to the public ; and trusts that his estimate 
of the literature it contains will be judged with leniency by 
those who have a larger acquaintance with the subject, and 
a keener and more critical insight to determine the worth, 
or otherwise, of the authors whose works are mentioned. 
There is some departure from the general plan of associating 
the names and works of the writers, who have made the 
neighbourhood remarkable for literature, in the instances of 
John Evelyn and Thomas Hope, because it seemed un- 
desirable to separate Evelyn from Wotton, and Thomas Hope 
from the mansion of the Deepdene. 

It gives the writer pleasure to avow his grateful obligations 
for the assistance he has received in preparing the volume 
for the press. He presents his thanks to Mrs. Drummond 
and Mrs. Kay ; to W. J. Evelyn, Esq., for the loan of many 
interesting papers and rare pamphlets, and for the portrait 
of the author of " Sylva ; " to the Right Hon. George 



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VU1. PREFACE. 

Cubitt, M.P. ; Sir Trevor Lawrence, M.P. ; and to the Revs. 
E. D. Wickham and A. Cheales for information; Rev. W. H. 
Summers and Mr. Maybank for snggestions ; to Mr. Murray, 
of Albemarle Street, London, for the loan of electros, to 
enrich the volume with illustrations ; and to P. Pennington, 
Esq., M.P., of Broome Hall, and J. L. Wylie, Esq., of Camilla 
Lacey, for engravings of their respective mansions. 

In conclusion it is hoped that the work may be acceptable 
to the inhabitants of Dorking and its vicinity, who may 
find in it a means of reference; to those who visit the 
neighbourhood a cause of increased gratification; to those 
who have enjoyed the scenery a souvenir of past pleasurable 
experience ; and to those who have neither visited the locality, 
nor may do so, some idea of one of the most charming 
spots in our happy country. 

Dorking, 

September, 1884. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



DORKING. 



The Manor ; Courts and Customs ; The Town ; Origin of the Name ; 
Poultry ; Inns and Ancient Houses ; Coinage ; the Town in 1763 ; Funeral 
of the Duke of Norfolk ; Real Battle of Dorking ; Artists ; Public Buildings ; 
Institutions ; Schools and Companies ; Coaches ; Markets, Fairs, and Public 
Celebrations ; Shrove Tuesday ; Things that were ; Legal History ; Political 
Affairs and Subsidies; Military Affairs; Agriculture. 

PLACES OF WORSHIP. 

St. Martin's Church — Its Former Condition and Service; the Present 
Fabric ; the Vicarage ; Ecclesiastical Affairs ; the Parish Register and Extracts. 
The Congregational Church — Its Origin ; Mural Tablets and Inscriptions. 
The Friends' Meeting House — Joseph John Gurney. Wesleyan Church — 
Extracts from Wesley's Diary. St. Paul's Church — Date and Circumstances 
of its Erection; Inscriptions. The Brethren. The Baptist Church. The 
Roman Catholic Church. 

DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES AROUND DORKING. 

Broome Hali Burford Lodge — Sir Trevor Lawrence, m.p. ; Account of 
Orchid Houses. Bury Hill — The Mansion; the Barclay Family. Camilla 
Lacey — Court Life of Fanny Burney; Origin of the Cottage. Cherkley 
Court — Its Fine Situation and Gardens; the Yew Wood. The Deepdene — 
The Site ; the Hope Family ; Anastasius ; Mr. T. Hope's Patronage of Art ; 
Thorwaldsen'B Works; Statuary and Pictures; Gardens. Denbies — Former 
Owners ; Right Hon. G. Cubitt, m.p. ; Bradley. Fredley— Thomas Drummond ; 
Pedigree of the Family ; Conversation Sharp ; Distinguished Visitors to 
Fredley. The Grove — Marquis of Wellesley. Juniper Hall — Former Pro- 
' prietors ; French Colony. Milton and Milton Court — Described in Domesday 
Book ; the Mansion ; Present Owner. Norbury — Mr. Lock ; Druids' Grove. 
Pippbrook House—Its Architecture and Museum. Shrub Hill— Former 
Owner ; the Rothes' Family ; the Epitaph. 



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X. CONTENTS. 

INTERESTING PLACES. 

Betchworth Castle and Park-— Succession of Owners; the Avenue; the 
Chestnuts; Chart Park. Box Hill — Origin of the Name; Quotations from 
DeFoe and Dr. Aikin. Anstiebury and Battle of Ockley— Stone Street ; 
Description of the Battle. Chart Lane. The Glory. Holmwood — 
Residences ; Encampment ; Church and Inscriptions ; Smugglers. Leith 
Hill — Prospects and Tower ; Charles Darwin. The Rookery and Tillingbourne 
— the Fuller Family; Lonesome. Rose Hill. St. Martha's Church — Route 
of the Pilgrims; Martin Tapper's Lines. Westoott — Former Owners of the 
Manor ; the Chapel ; the Church. * The River Mole — Its Source and Course ; 
Quotations from the Poets. 



NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Abinger — Its various Manors ; the Advowson and Church ; Abinger Hall ; 
Bishop Wilberforce. Albury — Description of the Manor; Duke of North- 
umberland ; Henry Drummond ; the Catholic Apostolic Church ; the Mansion ; 
the Silent Pool. Betchworth — Divisions of the Manor ; Village and Church 
of Brockham ; Parish Church ; the Brodies. Bookham, Great — Account of 
the Manor in Domesday Book; Polesden; Slyfield; Church and Memorial 
Window. Bookham, Little — Owners of the Manor; the Benefice. Capel — 
Connection with Dorking ; the Church ; Institutions. Effingham — The Manor 
and its Former Owners ; the Advowson. flolmbury St. Mary — The Church ; 
Residence of Hon. E. F. Leveson-Gower, m.p. Leigh — Ancient Customs ; 
Moated Grange ; Church. Letherhead — Division of the Manor ; Ecclesiastical 
Contention; Former Importance of the Place; the Church and Charities. 
Mickleham — Original State of the Manor ; Westhumble ; Norbury ; Fredley ; 
Polesden Lacey ; the Farquhar Family ; High Ashurst ; the Ryder Family ; 
the Rectory of Mickleham ; the Parish Registers. Newdigate — History of the 
Manor ; the Rectory ; Ancient Fresco ; Old Customs. Ockley — Extent of the 
Manor; Jayes and the Steere Family; Church and Monuments. Oakwood 
Chapel — Its Origin ; Ancient Brass. Shere — Divisions of the Manor ; Value 
of the Manor of Vacherie ; Gumsele ; the Church ; Wills of Former Rectors. 
Wotton — The Manor ; Succession of Owners ; the Evelyn Family ; the 
Church; the Dormitory; Singular Custom; John Evelyn; List of His 
Writings. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pictures of Dorking and the Neighbourhood— R. Redgrave, Esq., r.a. ; 
Other Artists. Shere Mill Pond. Owners of Land. Heights of the Hills. 
Drives Round Dorking. Last Census of the Parishes. 



GEOLOGY. 
Fossil Animalcules; Scenery and Trees. 



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CONTENTS. XI. 

FLORA, FAUNA, etc. 
Ch-chids; Wild-flowers ; Ferns. Helix Pomatia; Insects. 

LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Lord Beaconsfield. Wm. Bray, Esq. — Sketch of His Life; Extracts 
from U is Diary. Sir Benjamin Brodie — Birth and Education ; His Eminence ; 
His Works. William Browne — Selections from His Verse. Colonel Chesney — 
Battle of Dorking. Rev. James Dallaway? Madame D'Arblay — Early Life; 
Evelina ; Camilla. Wm. J. Denison, Esq., m.p. Charles Dickens — Tony 
Weller. Miss Fanshawe— The Letter H. John Hoole. Mrs. Grote. The 
Rev. Jamee Joyce — His Ethical Poems; His Theological Works. Joseph 
Kay, Esq. — His Travels; Treatise on Land. Keats — Lord Houghton's 
Remarks. Dr. Kippis — Intellectual Activity; Fair Controversalist. Major 
Labilliere — His Burial; Political Treatises. Jeremiah Markland — Classical 
Attainments; Retired Habits; Epitaph. Malthas, Father and Son — 
Translations ; Harriet Martineau's Impressions. John Mason, a.m. — His 
Varied Works. Captain Morris — His Songs. John Gough Nicholls. Sir 
Samuel Bomilly. John Skelton. Walter Thornbury. John Timbs. 
Abraham Tucker — Leslie Stephen's Estimate. 

APPENDIX. 



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HISTORY OF DORKING AND 
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



THE MANOR OF DORKING. 

rT^HE earliest information we possess of this Manor is 
derived from Domesday book, and is described among 
the lands pertaining to the crown in these words : 

" The King holds in demesne Dorchinges. Edidd (Editha) 
the Queen held it; and then it was assessed at 10£ hides; 
now at nothing. The arable land consists of 14 carucates. 
There are 2 carucates in the demesne ; and 88 villains and 
13 bordars with 14 carucates. There is a church ; and there 
are 4 bondmen and 3 mills at 15 shillings and 4 pence. 
There are 8 acres of meadow. The wood yields 50 swine 
for pannage and 38 for herbage. It has been valued at 
18 pounds ever since the time of King Edward." 

" One Edric held this manor, gave 2 hides to his 
daughters, who could remove where they pleased, with their 
lands. Richard de Tonbridge hath one of these hides, which 



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3 THE MANOR OF DORKING. 

does not appertain to any manor, and be hath there in 
demesne 1 carucate, with one bordar, and a mill for the hall ; 
and ono acre of meadow. Herford holds another hide of the 
Bishop of Baienx. Richard's hide is valued at 20 shillings, 
Herford's at 10 shillings. Of the 8 manors which Queen 
Edidd had in Surrey, the Sheriff receives 7 pounds, because 
he yields aid when they have need of it." 

The ancient manor of Dorking included the parish of 
Capel; but Milton and Westcott, which now belong to the 
parish of Dorking, constituted distinct manors at the time of 
the Norman Survey. It is probable that the two manors 
which Edric gave to his daughters were what are now called 
the Manors of Hampstead and Bradley. 

The manor was probably given by William the Conqueror, 
to Gundreda, his daughter, on her marriage with the first 
Earl of Warrenne and Surrey. Their descendant, John 
Plantagenet, 7th Earl, claimed the right in the reign of 
Edward I. to hold a market twice (weekly), a fair at Dorking, 
courts leet and baron, with free warren and other franchises 
and immunities. These were allowed by John de Reigate and 
others of the King's Justices. On death of his grandson, 
in 1347, without legitimate issue, the inheritance and other 
estates devolved on the FitzAlans of Arundel, in virtue of 
the marriage of Richard FitzAlan with Alice, sister of Earl 
John. Richard, Earl of Arundel, the second of that name, 
was beheaded in Gheapside in 1897, and .the estates were 
granted to Thomas Mowbray, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, 
who had married his eldest daughter. A fourth of the manor 
descended to John Howard, Duke of Norfolk, who was killed 
at the battle of Bosworth in 1485. After him it came to Thomas 
Howard, and, after great interruptions, to Thomas, Earl of 



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THE MANOR OF DOB KINO. 8 

Arundel, in the reign Charles I., who acquired by purchase 
two-fourths; and his trustees, in whom three-fourths of the 
manor were then vested, on the 21st of March, 1689, 
conveyed the property to Henry Frederick, Lord Maltravers, 
the son and heir apparent of Lord Arundel. 

The property then descended, on the failure of the elder 
branch of the Norfolk family in 1786 A.D., to Charles, 
11th Duke of Norfolk. This nobleman purchased the re- 
maining fourth part of the manor, which had passed through 
the hands of the Stanleys, Sir Thomas Browne of Betchworth 
Castle, Abraham Tucker, Esq., Sir Henry Paulet St. John 
Mildmay, who sold it in 1797 to Charles, Duke of Norfolk, 
and is now in the possession of Henry FitzAlan Howard, 
the 18th Duke. 

.In 1279, John, fal. Earl of Warrenne, had the right of 
holding a market or fair once a year, on the eve of Ascension 
Day ; he had the assize of bread and ale ; the control of the 
pillory and tumbril, infangthief and outfangthief ; and the 
custody of the persons and goods of felons and idiots. He 
held Court Baron and Court Leet, and claimed all stray 
animals if not sued for within a year and a day. Fines and 
fees, mulcts and tolls were constantly demanded of the 
inhabitants of the manor; and mendicants were required to 
pay for their badge before they were allowed to solicit alms. 

The manor was surveyed (circa 1660) by order of Henry 
Frederick, Earl jof Arundel, and appears to have extended 
from the northern part of Aschcomb Heath to the south of 
Wadlehurst in the parish of Capel, and is nine miles in 
length ; and from St. Peter's Hatch, on the east side of 
Holmwood, to the west of Brookwick, is nearly three miles in 
breadth, and includes the two parishes of Dorking and Capel. 

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4 THE MANOR OF DORKING. 

Dorking is divided into five tythings which are called 
Boroughs, which are East Borough, Chipping Borough, 
Holmwood Borough, Milton Borough, and Westcott Borough. 
There are faint historical traces of Hamsted Manor, which 
had Pupworth on the south, and Hampstead Heath on the 
north, and a lane which ran from Westcott to Dorking, by 
Pest House Lane — which was so named from a "several 
house " or infirmary in the time of the plague. 

The invasion of the Saxons in the fifth century was 
marked by cruelty to the original inhabitants, whom they slew 
or enslaved ; and by the destruction of all those works with 
which Boman wealth and civilization had adorned different 
parts of England. Scholars who, like the late Professor 
Bolleston, of Oxford, have investigated this period of our 
history, speak of the Saxon heathen invaders in terms of 
bitter complaint. When these Saxons arrived and settled in 
a region, they gradually made clearings in the woods which 
existed on every hand. These clearings were called " Dens " 
or " Denes." The origin of this word is given by Farley, 
who, in his " History of the Weald of Kent," remarks : 
" The Saxons, instead of haunting the towns, settled on the 
verge of great woods, in which they chased the game they 
were so eager to pursue ; and fed the swine and horses, the 
flesh of which was so prized at their great feasts. So that 
from dwelling on the borders of the waste, and wild wood, 
they entered into its recesses, and made clearings and settle- 
ments which are the origin of the " Denes " of the Weald 
of Kent and Surrey." 

In Domesday Book there is a notice of three crown mills 
in the manor, one of which was called the Lord's Mill, and 
stood at the bottom of Mill Lane; another was Pippbrook 



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THE MANOB OF DORKINO. 5 

Mill ; and the third was Pixham Mill. Another Mill belonged 
to Richard de Tonbridge, and his tenants were obliged to 
grind their corn there. 

Courts Leet were formerly held every three weeks, and 
there are instances of suits lasting six months, and perhaps 
at last the damages were 4d., and the costs 12d. In the reign 
of Henry VI. a copyholder's lands were ordered to be seized 
for having sued another in the Sheriff's Tourn for the Hundred 
of Wotton, there having been no default of the Lord holding 
his court in Dorking. 

The customs and usages of the manor of Dorking were 
as follows: (1) that the widow of a customary or copyhold 
tenant enjoys all the copyhold estate during her said widow- 
hood, paying a fine of one penny ; (2) that if a man purchase 
divers copyholds which were all heritable before, he shall 
pay but one heriot on a death ; (3) that among the sons the 
custom of borough English prevails, whereby the youngest 
inherits the copyhold. 

The greater part of the manor of Dorking was still left at 
the Conquest in a state of nature. The uncultivated condition 
of England suited the tastes of the Normans, and gave them 
abundant means for gratifying, their love of hunting ; since 
in 1066 at least two-thirds of the acreage of England was 
wholly unoccupied, and therefore un-named ; and was a mere 
waste of forest, marsh, and fen, like the back country of 
Canada, or the Australian bush. Wolves, wild boars, deer, 
and other game, were numerous. Swine were fed in large 
numbers upon the mast and beech-nuts of the woods and 
forests; and a few neat cattle, of which there is scanty 
mention in Domesday book, were kept in the pastures. The 
food of the people was barley bread; but bread made from 



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6 THE MANOR OF DORKING. 

wheaten flour was reserved for the lords of the soil. 

The general population was divided into three classes. 
The " Villains " were a kind of serf, and were attached to 
the estate. The "Villains in gross" had no social rights 
whatever. The "Bordars" were somewhat like cottagers, 
who had to pay rent in kind, and supplied the lord with eggs, 
poultry, and other eatables. The feudal system was in- 
troduced by the Conqueror in all its completeness. 

It may assist our readers to understand more clearly the 
nature of the feudal tenure of land which the Normans 
introduced, and the changes which have occurred since, if we 
avail ourselves of portions of an address delivered by G. W. 
Hastings, Esq., at the annual meeting of the Social Science 
Congress held at Nottingham, September 20th, 1882. He 
remarks : " It is to the end of the thirteenth century and the 
middle of the seventeenth, to 1290 and 1660, to the reforming 
legislation of Edward I., and the sweeping changes under the 
Commonwealth, that we must go back before we can find a 
parallel interference with the laws relating to the alienation of 
land. The tenure of land and the mode of its transfer seem 
to have been simple enough in England so long as the 
original Saxon institutions remained. Land acquired by the 
passing from hand to hand of a turf or a twig, in the 
presence of witnessing neighbours, was held by the Bole 
obligation of fealty, and was alienable at pleasure. But on 
the advent of the Norman dynasty, all this was changed. 
The leading policy of that era was to bind the land in fetters 
of iron for the maintenance of a military caste, and the 
aggrandisement of the dominant few. As land was the only 
property, it was the sole souroe of national income, and 
every landowner was taxed from his cradle through all the 



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THE MANOR OF DORKING. 7 

events of his life. Estates were not to be sold, lest the crown 
or the great lords should be robbed of their tenants, and the 
theoretical, and, it may be added, impracticable, object of the 
law was that sixty thousand knights should be maintained as 
the military force of the country, on as many knights' fees. 

* * * * It was a statute of Edward I. which first gave 
legislative sanction and established the principle of free 
transfer. By another Act, passed six years afterwards, every 
landowner was permitted to directly alienate his land, subject 
to the condition that the new owner should hold to the same 
lord, and under the same condition as the tenant who sold. 

* * * * During the suspension of the monarchy 
(1649-1660), no feudal services were tendered, because there 
was no crown to demand them, and when the ancient con- 
stitution was restored, the peers and country gentlemen, 
exuberant as was their loyalty at the moment, refused to put 
their necks under a yoke which neither they nor their fathers 
had been able to bear. By the twelfth of Charles II., knight 
service, with all its tyrannous incidents, was finally abolished, 
and the old Saxon tenure of free socage restored, after 600 
years of deprivation to the descendants of Saxon freemen. 

* * * * On the 1st of January (1883), when the Settled 
Land Act comes into operation, there will not be (with small 
exceptions) an acre of unsaleable settled land in England. 
Every tenant for life, under whatever instrument his interest 
may have been derived, whether act of parliament, settlement, 
or will, can sell the land which he holds for life, or any part of 
it, subject to the conditions that he must obtain the best 
price to be had, and that he must invest the purchase money 
in approved securities for the benefit of those interested . after 
himself." 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 



THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

The origin of the name is somewhat uncertain; but the 
most probable derivation of the word is from the Celtic 
word "Darach" which signifies "an oak," and the ter- 
mination "ing," the usual form of the patronymic, and 
represents the family or clan called after that name. In Kent 
the word oesc, an ash, was applied to the family and tribe of 
the cescings. The original inhabitants of Surrey and other 
counties were named after natural objects and wild animals, 
and their names survive in Ash, Beech, Oak, Wolf, Fox, and 
Eagle. Amid the variety of conjectures respecting the origin 
of the word Dorking, Allen, in his history of Surrey, thinks 
it may have been derived from the name of the Saxon god 
Thor, and remarks that there are two places of which the 
names are of somewhat similar form ; especially as D and Th 
are closely allied in sound. One is in Essex, and is called 
Thurrock; and the other is in Herts, and is known as 
Thorrocking. The derivation of the word " Dorchinges," 
which is the form of the word in Domesday book, was 
supposed by Manning and Bray to be derived from " Dor," 
water, and "wicingas," inhabitants, and to represent the 
dwellers near the streams, and springs near the town. It is 
stated that in the Chorography of Roman towns by the 
anonymous geographer of Ravenna, it is mentioned by the name 
Dolociiida, which signifies a dale of springs. The first ety- 
mology of the name of the town appears to be justified by 
the suggestions of Celtic scholars. The inhabitants of towns 
were originally Celts, and were subject for about four centuries 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 9 

to the Romans who reared their villas as the one at Abiuger ; 
and fixed their camps as at Farley Heath and Holmbury, and 
constructed their enduring roads, one of which is called 
" Stane Street," and ran from the South Coast, and probably 
Arundel, until it passed through the north-west angle of St. 
Martin's Churchyard, along the side of the Fippbrook to 
Mickleham, and on to London. 

It is reported on fair authority that Dorking owes to the 
Romans the introduction of that breed of fowls mentioned by 
Columella, and known for its extra claw and delicate flesh. 
It is a universal favourite with those who keep poultry, and 
those who prefer to see it at table. The passage in which 
Columella mentions these fowls is in his " De Be Rustic a," 
where, after describing various breeds of poultry, he remarks : 
" Sint ergo matrices robii coloris, robusti coporis, quadratoe 
pectorosoe, magnis capitibus, rutilisque cristulis, albis auribus, 
et sub hac specie quam amplissimoe, nee paribus ungulis; 
generosissimoe creduntur, que quinoa habent digitos, sed ita ne 
cruribus emineant transversa c ale aria." 

There is a tradition that the Danes destroyed the town in 
their way to the Southern parts of the country ; and although 
documentary evidence is wanting, it is highly probable, from 
the known character of the invaders, that such an event 
occurred. It may be assumed that the houses, which it is 
said the Danes destroyed in 851, were of the rudest, and, 
compared with the solid and convenient buildings of the 
present day, of the meanest description. If, nearly six 
hundred years after this event, the following description of the 
houses of freeholders and copyholders applied to the homes of 
well-to-do people, it is probable that the cottages and dwellings 
of the mass of the population were even more slightly built, 



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10 THE TOWN OP DORKING. 

and less convenient. Sogers, in his " History of Prices," 
informs us " The freeholders and the copyholders have each 
their rude farm-houses, mainly built in timber frames, and 
lathed and plastered in and out (except on the ceiling where 
hangs the bacon rack), and garnished with sickles and bill- 
hooks; low benches with chests under them running round 
the walls, while in winter the busy farmer sits under the great 
chimney, where the wood for his tools has been drying, and 
shapes his forks and rakes against his summer labours. The 
cottages of the labourers, each with its garden and curtilage, 
are built upon the bare earth, with upright posts, wattled 
with willow or hazel rods, and smeared outside and in with 
clay or mortar. Half way up is a rude floor made of unhewn 
poles, and reached by a ladder. The whole is thatched with 
straw, reeds or broom. Sometimes the hut is wholly made of 
mud or clay, kneaded with a little straw and a few sticks to 
give it adhesion, and carefully thatched to keep the wet from 
the walls. Close to the cottage or farmhouse is the mud 
heap, streams from which in rainy weather pour down to 
and fertilize the lower meadows." 

There are scattered notices in several topographical works 
of a castle which existed on the north side of the old parish 
church, and of a meadow called " Benham Castle Meadow." 
Of this Gough says, " nothing remains but a large ditch." 
It is also said that there was in one of the shady coppices 
near Westcott, a castle which was known as " Black Hawes," 
and belonged to the "Ewtons," of which scarcely any 
remains are now to be found.* Westcott and Milton were 



* If any castles existed, it may be inferred that they were unlike the massive 
Norman strongholds which were the homes and fortresses of the nobility who 
followed the Conqueror and shared the fruits of his victory. 



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THB TOWN OF DORKING. 11 

anciently so full of wood for firing that it might be bought for 
3d. or 4d. per load, the buyer being at the expense of cutting 
and carriage. 

Whatever destruction may have been caused by the 
invasion of the Danes, it is certain that they met with a 
fearful defeat and retribution at Ockley, where the Saxons 
were led by Ethelwulf and Ethelbald, his son. Milton 
remarks, " The Danes, passing over the Thames with their 
powers, and the West Saxons meeting them at a place called 
Aklea or Oke-lea, they received a total defeat with memorable 
slaughter. This was counted a lucky year to England, and 
brought Ethelwulf great reputation." 

The town stands at the angle of two valleys, one of which 

runs towards Letherhead ; and the other extends from Reigate 

to Shalford, and includes a part of Holmesdale. Camden 

mentions the old rhyme 

" The vale of Holmesdale 
never won, ne ever shall." 

Fuller observes "that this rhyme hath one part of history, and 
the other of prophecy. I hope I may humbly mind the 
men of Holmesdale that when William the Conqueror had 
vanquished King Harold at Hastings, he marched with his 
army directly to London through the very middle and bowels 
of Holmesdale ; and was it not won at that time ? However 
if this vale had not been won hitherto, I wish and hope it 
never may be hereafter by a foreign nation invading it." 
The truth of the old rhyme is assailed by the fact, as 
Mr. Long suggests in his excellent notes on Caesar's Com- 
mentary de Bello Gallico, that when the Roman Army 
invaded Britain, the great Julius passed through Dorking, as 
the opening between Box Hill and Denbies afforded a passage 



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12 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

for his legions on their way to the Thames. Several facts 
prove that Dorking was the principal thoroughfare from the 
South Coast to London. The tolls at Eeigate produced one 
mark a year; those of Guildford, fifteen shillings; while 
those of Dorking realized four pounds. The number of inns 
which formerly provided accommodation for travellers and 
merchants proves the same fact. Goods were usually conveyed 
on pack-horses* from one part of the country to another. 
The "Bed Lion" was formerly known by the sign of the 
" Cardinal's Hat ; " and after the Reformation the name was 
changed to that which it has borne for the last three hundred 
years. 

In the number and character of its houses the town has 
undergone great changes. One fine residence called the 
" Dutch House," which had one and twenty windows, varied 
gables, and a fine doorway, has been altered to form three 
tenements, which are formal and unattractive, t Many of the 
houses have stuccoed fronts and parapets, which create an 
impression of unreality, and conceal the principles of 
structure in the building. There is a lofty, massive wall 
belonging to Stapleton House in South Street ; and there are 
the remains of some beautiful barge-boards with a Tudor rose 
in the Mint. The gables and mouldings of three houses in 
West Street, occupied by Messrs. AUatson, English, and Payn, 
deserve attention ; and the old houses of Messrs. Clift and 
Latter, as well as the new ones of Messrs. Fielder and 
Peirson & Co., are an ornament to High Street. 

*On the left-hand side of the road, just after passing Burford Bridge Hotel, 
is a narrow path along which the pack-horses used to travel. This is now 
enclosed in the Fredley Farm Estate. 

fit is said that the Dutch residents in London used, in former years, to visit 
Dorking to enjoy " Water Souchy," a favourite national dish. 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 18 

The old Market House stood opposite the Red Lion. It 
was built in the reign of Elizabeth,* and the assizes were held 
there in the seventeenth century. It was taken down under 
the promise of the Duke of Norfolk to build a new one, but at 
his death the executors declined to fulfil the engagement, and 
the vestry accepted £100 in lieu of the claim, which was 
expended on the improvement of High Street. The old 
tithe-barn is in South Street, where the Non-conformists in 
1666 held their meetings. The town was originally of this 
form ^" with a few lateral lanes, and was divided into East, 
West, and South Streets. It was first pitched in 1649, and 
in 1813 the southern entrance was improved, and lime trees 
planted along the streets. 

Dorking has been considerably extended of late years to 
the west and south-west, where many of the houses and villas 
are examples of architectural excellence, and are surrounded 
by gardens and shrubberies very choicely planted. This 
extension of the town has been made at the sacrifice of some 
of the sylvan beauty of the neighbourhood. "Vincent's 
Lane," which was once delightful for its bowery character in 
the glow and splendour of the summer months, has lost its 
ornament of trees and foliage ; but it has gained in utility, 
and there is now a wide and convenient road for conveyances 
to or from the south-western parts of the town to the railway 
and other principal lines of traffic. Many cottages have 
been built at the eastern part of the town, and the suburb of 
Pixholm appears likely to become a populous neighbourhood. 

In the Patent Bolls, 8 Edward VI., is the following entry ; 
" a grant to Thomas Gravesend for £1151 18*. 2d. of several 

* Dorking is, towards the latter end of Elizabeth's reign, often written 
Darking. 



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14 THB TOWN OF DORKING. 

plots of land ; in the tenure of Stephen Goodwyne is one of 
a parcel of waste land against the ' Cardinal's Hat,' likewise 
a tenement called ' Brotherhedd House.' " This entry with 
the next sign, suggests the influence of the former prevalence 
of the Roman faith. The "White Horse" was originally 
styled the " Cross House," because it was held of the manor 
of St. John of Jerusalem. Another inn, near the spot where 
the Post Office stands, was formerly called the "Lower 
Chequers," but in 1660 the sign was changed out of loyalty 
to Charles n. to that of the "Old King's Head." The 
" Chequers " is now turned into a house of business, which is 
occupied by Mr. Mason, Grocer. The "Great Bell" stood 
on the site where now stands the establishment of Mr. J. L. 
Playfoot, draper and outfitter. The old "Queen's Arms" 
extended from the top of West Street to the Bell Inn, over the 
gate of which hostelry was lately seen the date 1591. The 
relics of the "Queen's Arms"* survived until the first 
quarter of the present century. These remains consisted of a 
large gallery, curiously carved in the fashion of the " Tabard," 
in Southwark, with the bar, kitchen, and ball-room of the inn. 
The latter apartment contained a splendid piece of needle- 
work tapestry, which represented the overthrow of Pharaoh 
and his host in the Bed Sea ; and a space above the tapestry 
was ornamented with bronzed and gilded leather. This room 
was long occupied by a person of mean and sordid habits ; 
and in an eager search for his accumulated hoards, after his 
death, the tapestry was pulled down, and finally used and worn 

* The old sign is thus described by Brayley : " It bears the amis of Queen 
Elizabeth, viz., France and England quarterly, encircled by the Garter, with 
the initials E. B. The supporters on the dexter side a lion rampant, guard 
crowned Or ; on the sinister a red dragon ; above the latter is a white and red 
rose, and on the dexter a Fleur-de-lis, both ensigned with the Royal Crown." 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 15 

out as a carpet. There were other inns, such as the " Boar's 
Head," and the " Hen and Chickens/' in the town, and it is a 
matter of regret to some that many interesting pictorial signs 
have been replaced by formal and unattractive letters. This 
outline shows the extent of accommodation provided for 
travellers ; and if any cause prevented them who came from 
the south coast from reaching the town, they probably stayed 
at the shelter station of Goldharbour, which simply afforded 
protection from the weather. In West Street, opposite the 
homely and comfortable looking " King's Arms," is a house 
which has an inscription to the effect that that tenement, 
and the adjoining one, with certain lands and a plot of 
ground near Denbies, were given by William Williams to 
the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, for ever. 

Here may be introduced the few historical notices of the 
town which have been discovered in several publications and 
manuscripts. Many travellers from abroad who have visited 
this country have usually limited their visits to Epsom, which 
was formerly a place of gay resort; or to Box Hill, from 
which it is probable that Dorking looked like a peaceful village 
in the distance. 

" An old record states that in the XXII. year of the reign 
■of Henry VI. (a.d. 1448), the inhabitants of Dorking seem to 
have been in a bad state, as it is presented at the Court Leet 
(and often repeated) that butchers, innkeepers, tailors, hucksters, 
millers, merchants, drapers, shoemakers, smiths, tanners, 
labourers, bakers, carpenters, and turners took excessive prices ; 
that the watch was not kept ; that there were several assaults ; 
and Matilda Symonds was, as presented in former years, a 
disturber of the peace." These charges against the trade of 
the town arose from the unwise action of the government. 



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16 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

which attempted to regulate the prices of articles of mer- 
chandise, and vainly endeavoured to make the laws of commerce 
bend to the laws of the parliament. About this date we find 
that bowyers were by law not to take of the king's liege 
people more than three shillings and fourpence for a long 
bow. - 

Aubrey, who travelled through the county in 1673, was one 
of the first to describe the aspects and condition of the town. 
He gives details respecting the old church, in the low part of 
which a school was kept for the children of the neighbourhood. 
He observes that the market was well supplied with fish, and 
that handsome (fresh coloured) women were rare among those 
who frequented it ; while most were of a mealy complexion, 
something like the French Picards." 

The same writer states that " In this town is a great plenty 
of cherries, particularly a wild cherry that Mr. John Evelyn 
tells me makes a most excellent wine, little inferior to French 
claret, and keeps longer ; and nowhere are there finer caves for 
the preservation of their liquor than in the sand here/' 

The sand caves to which Evelyn refers are large and 
convenient for the storage of wine, beer, and other articles 
of consumption. They extend, in some cases, under the public 
streets, and run far back into the hilly sides of the town. 
The sand is of a bright orange colour. 

In the seventeenth century, the tradesmen of Dorking used 
to issue tokens, of which Boyne in his work on Coinage 
gives many examples. Those which he describes are all 
farthings ; and show great unsettledness in spelling the name 
of the town, which appears as Darking, Darkin, and Dorking. 
One is by Edward Goodwin, and has on the obverse the figure 
of a man making candles. The names of Bothell, Lissne, 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 17 

Penfold, "Watkins, and others occur on these small coins, which 
probably answered the two-fold object of small change and 
constant advertisement. There is a part of Dorking to the 
west of St. Martin's Church which is called " The Mint," but 
there is no record to justify the supposition that the tokens 
were coined there. The Dorking tokens in the possession of 
Mr. Nealds, of Guildford, and the Bight Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P., of Denbies, have the following dates and names : 



ELIZABETH BOTHEL OF 
DARKING IN SVRRBY 

EDWARD GOODWIN 
OF DARKIN IN SVRRY 

BDMOND LISSNB 
IN DARKIN 



=EB 



=EGE 



=BL 



IOHN PBNFOLD P 

IN DARKIV 1666 WM 

IOHN WATKIN8 1667 W 

IN DARKING — A 

THOMAS STBBDHAN B=V 

DORKING IN 8URRIB =ST 

E 

The Rev. S. Highmore, minister of the Non-conformist 
Church, Dorking, writes a letter, about 1710, which is 
preserved among the MS. in the British Museum. He says, 
" the manor of Bradley belonged to Sir George Sondes, and 
that one of his daughters married Lord Faversham, and the 
other, Lord Rockingham, who now enjoys the estate, and has 
near £300 in the said parish. Sir Adam Brown had the 
manor of Betchworth, and married the sister of the famous 
Lord Shaftesbury. He goes on to say, "There is in the 
parish a vineyard belonging to Lord Howard (father of 
Sir C. Howard), with a wine-press and other necessary 

c 



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18 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

materials, where several hogsheads of wine have been made 
in some years. We have a good ring of eight bells, and value 
ourselves very much upon it." 

There was an act of Parliament obtained to make the 
river (the Mole) navigable ; but some gentlemen of the county 
would not suffer it to take effect. 

The plan which is in the British Museum makes the canal 
start from Burford Bridge, and the course of the river is traced 
from the "Nag's Head," Holmwood Common. In places 
where the Mole meanders very much there were to be cuttings 
across from point to point to reduce the distance of the nav- 
igation. The river, thus altered to new uses, was to flow into 
the Thames at Thames Ditton. 

De Foe lived in the neighbourhood of Dorking for a 
considerable time, and became acquainted with some of its 
inhabitants. In his " Tour " he remarks ; " At this place 
lived another ancient gentleman and his son, of a very good 
family, Augustine Bellson, Esq. ; the father measured seven 
feet and a half, and allowing that he might have sunk for his 
age, being seventy-one years old ; and the son measured two 
inches taller than his father. These families were Roman 
(Catholic) as were several others thereabouts." 

There were formerly some families of distinction in the 
town, which have long disappeared. That of Mr. Budgen, 
M.P. for the county, has no representatives in Dorking. 
Badham, in his " Prose Halientics," speaks of the family of 
the "Butts," whose coat of arms was an arm confred at the 
elbow and erect, grasping a butt fish or flounder. 

A writer in " The Gentleman's Magazine " for May, 
1763, gives the following account of Dorking: "The streets 
are wide and open, and, from its situation, the town is re- 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 19 

markably clean. The population is 1800 persons. The water 
mills are very numerous in the parish, and many send great 
quantities of meal to London. The market appears much 
less considerable than it is, because a custom has long prevailed 
of selling all the corn in the public houses of the town, where 
it is lodged. An incredible quantity of poultry is sold in 
Dorking, and it is well known to all lovers of good eating 
for being remarkably fine. The church is a plain stone 
building, and has a tower steeple, in which is a ring of eight 
small but tuneable bells, with a set of chimes. The church- 
yard is spacious, and to the honour of the late churchwardens, 
from being a receptacle of rubbish, is now made a decent 
burying place ; the cross walks are gravelled and all the filth 
removed. There are two meeting houses; one for the use of 
the Presbyterians, and the other for the Quakers. The 
Dissenters are numerous, but live in great harmony with the 
members of the Established Church. As the country about 
the town is mountainous, it presents a great variety of fine 
prospects, some of which are equalled by few in England." 

A letter from Collins the artist, written in 1807, which he 
sent to his friend Mr. Moore, who lived near the London 
Road, will shew the poor and insufficient arrangements for 
lighting public rooms, and the homely way in which the 
inhabitants of the town were content to enjoy their public 
amusements. He observes : " I live here like a prince. I was 
at the theatre, Dorking, a few nights since, which most 
elegantly gratified the senses, that of smelling not excepted, 
there being four candles to light us all ; two of which by nine 
o'clock (no doubt frightened by the company) hid themselves 
in their sockets." Such a fact shows the immense improvement 
which has taken place in introduction of gas, lamps of every 

c 2 



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20 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

yariety for paraffin and colza oil ; and lastly the electric 
light with its purity and splendour. 



FUNERAL OF THE DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

On December 28rd, 1815, Charles Howard, the eleventh 
Duke of Norfolk, was buried in the mausoleum connected 
with the parish church of Dorking, with great solemnity. 
The funeral procession left St. James* Square, London, about 
nine a.m., and was composed of the coach and six horses of 
the Duke of Sussex, and the principle carriages of nearly 
twenty noblemen and gentlemen. It arrived at Burford 
Bridge about four p.m., and reached Dorking about five 
o'clock. The cavalcade consisted of the Duke's gentlemen 
on horseback, one of whom bore the ducal coronet and golden 
batons of office on a crimson cloth. The chief mourners 
were the Duke of Norfolk, the Earl of Surrey, Lord Viscount 
Andover, Henry Howard, Junr., Esq., and Henry Howard, 
Esq. of Corby Castle, Cumberland. The gentlemen of the 
Duke's household, with his servants, followed in six mourning 
coaches; and the Deputy Garter King of Arms, Norroy, 
King of Arms, three heralds and three pursuivants attended 
in tabards of state to perform the ceremonies usual at the 
funeral of the Earl Marshal of England. 

The funeral was met at the church-gate by the Vicar of 
Dorking, assisted by the Duke's domestic Chaplain; the 
foot-procession was marshalled by the heralds ; Norroy, King 
of Arms, bearing the coronet. The church was crowded to 
witness the funeral service, after which the deputy garter 
proclaimed the Duke's style and titles in the following order : 



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THE TOWN OF DOKKINO. 21 

" The Most High, Mighty, and Most Potent Prinoe, 

Charles Howard, Duke of Norfolk, 

Earl Marshal, 

And Hereditary Earl Marshal of England, 

Earl of Arnndel Castle, 

Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Norwich, 

Baron Mowbray, 

Baron of Howard, Baron of Segrave, 

Baron Brnrese of Gower, 

Baron Fitsalan, Baron Warren, Baron Clnn, 

Baron Osawldestre, Baron Maltravers, 

Baron Qreystook, Baron Furnival, Baron Verdon, 

Baron Lovetot, Baron Strange, 

And Premier Baron Howard of Castle Rising. 

Premier Dnke, Premier Earl, Premier Baron of England, 

And Chief of the Illustrious Family of the Howards." 

The following inscription was, with his arms, on a plate 
of silver gilt, affixed to the coffin. 

Depositnm 

Illnstrisimi Principis 

Caroli Howard, Dncis de Norfolk, 

Comitis Mareschalli Angliaa, 

Jure Hereditaria 

Comitis iterum de Arundel et Surrey, 

Baronis de Fitzalan, Clnn, Oswaldestre, et Maltravers, Ac., Ac. 

Qui diem obiit supremam 

Die Decemb, xvi mo, Anno que Sacro, 

MDCCCXV. 

Annum agens Septuagesimnm. 

As the ancient and distinguished family of Norfolk has 
60 long been connected with Dorking, it may be acceptable 
to introduce a brief outline of its history ; especially as the 
Duke of Norfolk is premier Duke of England, and ranks 
among hereditary Peers immediately after the Princes of the 



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22 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Blood. The stem of the family may be traced to Sir William 
Howard, who was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in 
the reign of Edward I., and there is good reason to trace it 
to Hereward, the exile, who was banished by the Conqueror. 
The mother of Sir John Howard, "the Jockey of Norfolk/' 
was of even more illustrious descent. Her father was Thomas 
Mowbray, the last Duke of Norfolk of an earlier creation, 
and her mother was daughter of Bichard, Earl of Arundel 
and Surrey, the descendant and representative of William de 
Warrene, Earl of Surrey, who married Gundred, daughter of 
William the Conqueror. When Sir John Howard was created 
Duke of Norfolk in 1488, his son, Thomas Howard, received 
at the same time the title of the Earl of Surrey. The Earldom 
of Arundel was absorbed into the family of Howard by the 
marriage of the fourth Duke, Thomas, with Mary, the 
daughter and heir of Henry Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, whose 
only son by this marriage, became Earl of Arundel in right 
of his mother, after the attainder of his father. 

The first Duke of the line was slain at Bosworth, fighting 
on the side of Bichard III. He was attainted, his honours 
forfeited, and his only son Thomas was thrown into the 
Tower. The Dukedom was recovered at Flodden, where the 
Earl of Surrey commanded the English troops, and in 1514 
the revived title of the Duke of Norfolk was granted to him 
as the reward of his brilliant victory. 

From this date the family of Howard has been associated 
with the political events of our country. Two of the 
grand-daughters of the second Duke became Queens of 
England, who were Catherine Howard, wife of Henry VHL, 
and Anne Boleyn, who was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 
who married Elizabeth, daughter of the Duke and became 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 23 

the mother of Queen Elizabeth. The third Duke was 
sentenced to death and escaped ; but his son, Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey, poet, scholar and soldier, was, through the 
jealousy of Henry VHL, beheaded on Tower Hill. The third 
Duke was restored to his honours and was succeeded by 
Surrey's son. The Duke was suspected of intrigues with 
Mary, Queen of Soots, was tried and executed in 1572. The 
title was extinguished until 1664, when it was revived. 
Though the title was extinct for a time, the Howards were 
celebrated, and the three noble families of Effingham, Suffolk, 
and Carlisle spring from them. The Howards of Greystoke 
belong to the elder line, being descended from a grandson of 
Philip Howard, who became Earl of Arundel on the attainder 
of his father, the fourth Duke. His son, the renowned 
antiquary, procured the Arundel marbles for the University of 
Oxford. The Duke, who recovered the title in 1664, was a 
great patron of learning. The revived title remained in the 
direct line until the death of the ninth Duke, who was 
succeeded in the ducal title by the eldest representative of the 
house of Howard, of Greystoke, Charles Howard, at that time 
proprietor of Deep Dene, Dorking. 

Cobbett in his " Rural Bides," has only a brief allusion to 
the neighbourhood, and observes, " Oct. 24, 1821. We 
set off about half-past one o'clock, and came all down the 
valley (from Reigate) through Buckland, Betchworth, Dorking, 
Shere and Albury, to this place (Chilworth.) Very few 
prettier rides in England ; and the weather beautifully fine. 
Ewhurst is a pretty village, from which the first three miles 
is the deepest clay I ever saw, to the best of my recollection. 
This clayey land is fed with the water soaking from the 
Sand Hills." 



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24 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 



THE REAL BATTLE OF DORKING. 

In the year 1880, the prevalent discontent among the 
labouring population of this country, which arose from 
insufficient wages and the terror created by the introduction 
of machinery into agricultural processes, was shared by the 
inhabitants of the villages around Dorking. The names of 
"Captain Swing" and "Captain Rock" were signed to 
threatening letters which were addressed to farmers ; valuable 
farm produce was frequently burned, and there was a wanton 
demolition of machinery. A meeting was announced to be 
held at Wotton Hatch. The magistrates took steps to 
preserve the peace, and fifty-three " specials " were engaged to 
prevent a riot. On the 22nd of November, another and 
larger meeting was held at the Bed Lion Hotel, when the state 
of affairs became so serious, that the magistrates sought the 
aid of Government, and a troop of cavalry was quartered in 
the town. A large hamper of Peace Officers' staves was sent 
from the Home Office. On the morning of the day the mob 
met, and attacked the Bed Lion Hotel, all the windows of 
which were broken, and the magistrates were terrified. The 
Biot Act was read, and the cavalry appeared and cleared a 
space in front of the Hotel, and the disturbance was finally 
checked and quietness restored. Many of the rioters were 
confined in the stables of the Inn ; and committal warrants 
for those who were apprehended, were made out, and in the 
evening a van with four horses conveyed many of the 
offenders to the County Gaol. The cavalry paraded the town 
during the night, to preserve the peace and re-assure the 
inhabitants against the fear of a renewed attack. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 25 



FORMER ARTI8TS OF DORKING. 



Mr. John Nicholson deserves to be mentioned as an artist 
of rare and various ability. He was an Organist and 
Professor of Music. Some of his ornamental writing was 
worthy of a place in a museum of art, and his engraving of 
brass plates was singularly beautiful. He was a modeller in 
wax, and many portraits still remain in the neighbourhood 
which show exactness of observation and delicacy of 
treatment. He was pre-eminent in the art of cameo-cutting, 
and his excellence in this department secured his appointment 
as cameo-cutter to the Queen. He has perpetuated in this 
durable form the profiles of many of the inhabitants, among 
which may be mentioned one of late Lady Caroline Cavendish 
as a work of rare excellence. Other subjects were occasionaly 
chosen and executed, of which the " Conversion of St. Paul," 
in the Paris Exhibition of 1867, was an object of special 
admiration. His son Douglas was equally skilful, and has 
left behind him as a proof of his power, an exquisitive cameo 
of " St. George and the Dragon." 

Mr. John Beckett, a native of Dorking, followed the 
business of house-painter and decorator. His love of the 
fine arts led him to cultivate music, and landscape and 
animal painting. Many of the most attractive aspects of the 
neighbourhood were chosen as subjects for his faithful pencil. 
Some of his pictures represent parts of the town as they 
existed many years ago; but which, through recent 
alterations, are entirely changed. He has preserved views of 
houses, which though diversified in form were built for 
comfort, and with pleasant variety of outlino and detail. In 



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26 THB TOWN OF DORKING. 

some of his works are to be found portions of the streets 
of Dorking, with the quaint signs of the inns and public 
houses ; the coaches that used to run ; and the interior of the 
ancient Parish Church. His paintings are valuable for the 
patient fidelity with which they are finished ; and justify the 
observation, that artists paint those objects best with which 
they have long been familiar, and whose almost unconscious 
knowledge, silently and surely contributes to the excellence of 
their work. 



Public Buildings and Institutions. 



public 11 ALL. 

The foundation stone of this edifice was laid November 
25th, 1871, by the Right Honourable George Cubitt, M.P. for 
West Surrey. The back part of the building had originally 
been a model lodging house, which had. been let off in 
apartments to poor people of creditable character. It was 
then enlarged and adapted to its present uses. It is now let 
for religious services, public meetings, lectures, bazaars, balls, 
concerts, and theatrical entertainments. The Petty Sessions 
and the County Court are held here. The Fire Brigade, 
which renders essential service to the town, has a room in the 
basement for the engine, and other apparatus necessary for 
their work. When the fire bell near the Police Station is 
heard, the members of the brigade instantly repair to the 
scene of danger. The fourth Royal Surrey Volunteers, 
whose head quarters are at Reigate, meet periodically in the 
front of the Hall for drill. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 27 

The edifice, which is an ornament to the town, is held 
by a public company, and the frequent meetings of various 
descriptions which are held in it, show how much such 
accommodation was required. In former days, the only 
available large building was the Parish Church, in which, 
in 1818, a grand oratorio was given by Mr. J. C. Ashley. 
The present state of public feeling is decidedly unfavourable 
to such a use of places of worship. 

COTMANDBNB AND THE ALMSHOUSES. 

De Foe remarks that the word Gotmandene signifies the 
heath or open space for poor cottages. There was some 
years since, an impression that it enjoyed the best air 
in England. Without claiming an exclusive pre-eminence 
in this respect, it has many attractions, which consist of 
extensive views and many glimpses of lovely scenery. The 
"Almshouses" look towards the south and command the 
range of the Deepdene gardens and woods. Poor people of 
good character, who have received no parochial relief, are 
admitted to the privilege of occupying the rooms, receiving 
a weekly allowance of money, and the advantage of medical 
attendance when sick. Grants are made for apprenticing 
youths to learn trades, and to the deserving poor of the town 
and neighbourhood, in times of sickness, accident, and other 
conditions of necessity. 

The Almshouses were begun in 1677, when the Honourable 
Charles Howard, of the Deepdene, and Sir Adam Browne, 
of Betchworth Castle, granted to the churchwardens and 
overseers of the parish, to erect an Almshouse "upon the 
north end of the common or waste land called Cotman 
Deane " in Dorking, and also a lease of the land at a pepper- 



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28 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

corn rent, for two thousand years, from Michaelmes, 1676. 
The following is a brief outline of benefactions to the 
Almshouses. 

Henry Smith, Esq., Alderman of London, gave £1000, 
invested in a farm at Bottesford, in Leicestershire. Another 
gift by Henry Smith, invested in property at Langstock, 
Hampshire. 

Rev. Samuel Cozen, of Dorking, gave property called 
Marsh Land, at Chislet, Kent. Little Benham's Farm was 
purchased with monies received from sale of part of Fordland 
Farm, to the Reading, Guildford and Reigate Railway. 

"In 1788, Mrs. Margaret Fen wick left by will to the 
parish of Dorking, the sum of £800 for the purchase of 
landed property, the proceeds of which were to be applied to 
the apprenticing of poor children, and preferring in marriage 
such maid servants as should have lived and behaved well 
for seven years in any one service; and the surplus to be 
disposed of among the poor." Fordland Farm was purchased 
with this bequest, and was held by the late H. Drummond, 
Esq., M.P., until the sale of it to the Railway and the 
purchase of Little Benham's Farm. 

Other benefactors bequeathed consols, of which the 
following is a list : 





Consols. 


Mr. Joseph Sanders 


... 850 


Mr. Joseph Sanders 


... 850 


Mr. Lowndes 


... 180 


Mr. Summers 


... 184 11 7 


Mr. Ansell , 


... 200 


Mr. J. A. Curtis 


... 240 


Mr. Thomas Stilwell .., 


... 8000 



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THB TOWN OF DORKING. 29 

There are other small sources of revenue, and the whole 
amount received for the purposes of the charity in 1878 was 
£633 28. Od. The affairs of the Institution are managed by 
certain gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood, who 
annually publish a statement of the accounts. 

As the name of Henry Smith appears as one of the most 
liberal benefactors to the Almshouses, it may be well to 
introduce the tradition connected with his name and liberality. 
He was a silversmith of London, and having become very 
rich, resolved from fantastic motives, to spend the remainder 
of his life as a common beggar. The circuit to which he 
limited himself was the County of Surrey, where he was 
generally known by the name of " Dog Smith," because he 
was followed by a dog, and considered all kindness shown to 
his companion as done to himself. Being at Mitcham, and 
having offended some official there, he was taken before a 
justice, was publicly whipped, and resented the injury by 
leaving fifty pounds a year and more for the poor, to every 
market town, except the one where he had been so unjustly 
treated. Dorking shared in the humane designs of Smith, and 
the poor of the town reap at the present day the fruits of his 
kindness in the comforts afforded by the Almshouses. This 
is the legend, which is effectually contradicted by the fact 
that the allotment of his extensive benefactions was left in 
the hands of trustees, whom he had appointed in his will. 

The monument of Smith is in Wandsworth Church, and 
Miss Yonge accepts the following story as genuine. "He 
was determined to find out whether he was caressed for his 
own sake or his money's. So he put on beggars weeds, and 
went on foot through the County of Surrey, accompanied 
only by a dog as companion. On the whole he was satisfied, 



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80 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

and bequeathed a legacy to every village in Surrey but two. 
Two villages were however hard upon him. At one he was 
whipped at the cart's tail, at another he was roughly informed 
that " that they wanted no lousy knaves there." So to one 
village he left them enough to buy a cart- whip, to the other, 
money to buy a small tooth-comb." 



THE UNION W0RKH0USB. 

This building is admirably situated on a slope, which 
commands pleasant and extensive views towards the west. 
The gardens which surround it are very spacious, and the 
airiness of the situation makes it one of the most eligible 
workhouses in England. It was completed in 1841, having 
been built from designs by the late Mr. William Shearburn. 
The cost of building was £5785. Many improvements have 
since been introduced, and the interior arrangments, 
combine convenience, facility of inspection and access, 
with efficiency of classification of the inmates. In the 
central division is the governor's parlour, from which the 
whole of the yards can be easily inspected. At the back 
are the dining hall and chapel, together with the sick wards, 
lying-in rooms, and schoolrooms. Including children the 
building contains sufficient accommodation for two hundred 
and fifty inmates. The Union comprises the parishes of 
Abinger, Dorking, Effingham, Mickleham, Newdigate, Ockley, 
and Wotton. 

M. Bohde Hawkins, Esq. is the present Chairman of the 
Board of Guardians. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 31 

The Poor's Bate in 1642 was 3d. in the pound. 

" " " in 1670 was Id. in the pound. 

" " " in 1787 was 8d. in the pound. 

" " " in 1817 was 8d. in the pound. 
The last amount was probably necessary from the low scale 
of assessment in the parish at that date. . 



COFFEE TAVERN. 

The Coffee Boom at the Public Hall originated by Lady 
Hope (formerly Miss Cotton), was carried on by her with 
considerable success. On her removal from Dorking, E. M. 
Denny, Esq., of Boxhurst, became anxious to continue and 
extend the work which had been so happily begun, and resolved 
upon erecting, as soon as a site could be obtained, a structure 
which should include many other arrangements, for the 
refreshment, innocent gratification, and religious instruction of 
boys, youths, and grown-up men. An eligible site was secured 
in West Street in 1878, and the building was completed 
in 1880, and contains coffee rooms where tea, coffee, cocoa, 
and other refreshments of a solid kind are provided of the 
best quality and at moderate prices. There is a reading 
room where the daily and weekly papers, and periodicals 
are supplied, and a game room is open for those who 
wish to play chess or draughts. There are first and 
second class baths ; the " Boys' Own Coffee Boom " with a 
separate bar for refreshments, and a gymnasium, and an 
American bowling alley. Men are provided with a smoking 
room, and a verandah for their enjoyment in summer 
weather. 



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82 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

There is sleeping accommodation for artizans, and a 
cheaper kind for men of the labouring class, all of whom 
are expected to board in the house. 

In the rear of the building is a large lecture hall, 
capable of holding nearly eight hundred persons, designed 
for social, instructive, and religious gatherings. 

. A brass band is trained by a sergeant of the Surrey 
Militia. A string-band, and bell ringers regularly practice. 
During every evening of the week there are prayer meetings, 
Bible classes, and choir practice. The United Temperance 
Society, and a Band of Hope conducted by the missionary, 
meet periodically here. There is a Penny Bank to encourage 
thrift in the depositors, and a numerous mothers' meeting 
conducted by Mrs. Denny. On Saturday evening there is a 
concert, which provides wholesome and innocent gratification, 
and on Sunday there are Gospel addresses twice in the 
course of the day. 

The aim of these admirable arrangements is to promote 
the temporal and spiritual welfare of the inhabitants of 
Dorking, and it is earnestly hoped that the benevolent 
undertaking may be crowned with success. 

WORKING MEN'S INSTITUTE. 

This Institute is situated in the centre of the town, 
and is convenient for those who live near, and for those 
whose business or engagements lead them to High Street, 
which is the principal thoroughfare. It contains a library, 
which issued to subscribers last year (1882) 1567 volumes. 
Chess, draughts, and bagatelle are provided for the use of the 
members. There are newspapers, magazines, periodicals, 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 88 

and railway guides, which can be read or consulted in 
comfortable reading rooms. Many ladies and gentlemen of 
the town and neighbourhood subscribe to the funds of the 
Institute ; and the Committee specially express their thanks 
to Sir Arthur Cotton and other friends, for the continued 
presentation of newspapers and periodicals. In the last 
annual report, which is the twenty-seventh, the Committee say, 
" they have much pleasure in being able to congratulate the 
subscribers, members and donors of the Institute on its 
continued prosperity, and its recognized position as one of 
the most useful and enduring organizations of the town." 
In this remark there may be an allusion to the fact, that 
many institutions of an educational and religious character 
have appeared and disappeared during the existence of the 
Working Men's Institute. Many of these have been begun 
with enthusiasm ; and after a time divisions of opinion have 
occurred, or interest has languished, and nothing was left 
but for their few steadfast friends to meet at their decease, 
and with heavy hearts make a collection to meet the deficit, 
and in fact, to pay the funeral expenses. It is not to be 
imagined that the air of Dorking is particularly fatal to 
institutions of this kind, since other towns show a similar 
mortality* There is some consolation in the belief that they 
do good while they last, and prepare the way for more stable 
and efficient associations. 

The Working Men's Institute has an annual picnic on 
Boxhill, which attractive spot is placed at their service by 
the kindness of Mrs. Hope. This usually occurs in August, 
when there are bands of music, refreshments, and pleasant 
diversions ; and according to the report, the transient 
gratifications of the day are followed by a solid gain to the 



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34 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

funds. The committee are glad to announce the general 
approbation the Institute enjoys, and the treasurer's account 
shows a satisfactory balance in hand. 

The President of the Institute is Mr. W. Woodland; 
the Vice-Presidents are L. M. Bate, Esq., and B. 
Hicklin, Esq. ; the Treasurer is Mr. W. W. Clark, and the 
Secretary is Mr. Ashworth. 



THE DORKING DISTRICT LOCAL BOARD. 

As the reputation of the town of Dorking depends 
seriously upon its sanitary condition, it was deemed absolutely 
necessary for the inhabitants to avail themselves of the 
powers of the Public Health Act, which is designed to obviate 
the inconveniences of imperfect drainage, to remove 
everything offensive and dangerous, and to superintend the 
supply of water, light, and other matters, needful for the 
comfort of the rate-payers. It considers and determines all 
questions relative to sewage and drains; scavengering and 
cleansing; supply of water, and closing polluted wells; 
street-watering and lighting, highways and pleasure grounds 
for public use ; the quality of the gas ; public clocks ; the 
construction of houses ; lodging houses and cellar dwellings ; 
all offensive trades, as blood-boilers, bone-boilers, soap-boilers, 
tripe-boilers, fell-mongers, and tallow melters ; unsound meat, 
poultry, fish, game, fruit, bread, flour, and milk, exposed for 
sale; infection, epidemic diseases, and hospitals; markets, 
slaughter houses, and mortuaries. 

The Board was introduced in 1880. Mr. Thomas Wood 
is Chairman, Mr. E. L. Jacob is the Medical Officer, and 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 85 

Mr. P. L. Marten is the Clerk, and the following gentlemen 
are the members : 



Mr. William Attlee, 
Mr. John Bargman, 
Mr. W. W. Clark, 
Mr. Frederick Durant, 
Mr. William Jeal, 



Mr. T. W. Marsh, 
Mr. J. L. Playfoot, 
Mr. W. J. Eossiter, 
Mr. Joseph Todman, 
Mr. C. A. White, 



Mr. John Young. 



SCHOOLS. 

The old National School on the north side of St. Martin's 
Church, was the first institution for the gratuitous education 
of the poorer children of the town and neigbourhood. The 
new Schools, which stand at the back of the Public Hall, are 
built upon a site generously given by the Right Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P., and are chiefly supported by the congregation 
assembling in St. Martin's Church. The British Schools 
were founded in 1842, at an outlay of £800, towards which 
sum the Lords of the Council on Education made a grant 
of £130, and are chiefly supported by members of various 
nonconformist communions, who prefer the reading of the 
Scriptures, and the omission of any ecclesiastical form of 
instruction. 

St. Paul's Schools were erected in 1860, at a cost of 
£2,126, and are supported by the congregation which attends 
the church of the district. Mrs. Labouchere, widow of the 
late John Labouchere, Esq., of Broome Hall, founded a school 
in the Falklands, and left a small annuity to assist in 
defraying the expenses of the institution. 

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86 THE TOWN OF DOHKINO. 

There is a mixed school connected with the Boman 
Catholic Church situated in Falkland Grove. 

The school which stands in Pixholm Lane is connected 
with St. Martin's Church, and was built by the liberality of 
the Eev. Theodore Mayo and Miss Mayo, as a proof of their 
filial love and reverence for the memory of their deceased 
mother, Mrs. Mayo, of Riversdale, near Dorking. 

These institutions are visited and examined by Government 
Inspectors, and grants, according to attendance of the 
scholars and degree of proficiency, are made annually by the 
Lords in Council. 

Sunday Schools are connected with almost all the religious 
bodies in the town. The earliest, which dates from 1807, is 
that maintained by the Congregational Church, West Street, 
and was originated by a relative of Robert Raikes, of 
Gloucester, the founder of the system. 



THE POULTRY SOCIETY. 

This institution originated in 1867, and is encouraged and 
supported by the inhabitants of the town, and many of the 
neighbouring gentry. The annual show occurs early in 
December, when, to encourage a wide competition, prizes are 
offered, which include silver cups, and sums of money 
ranging from two pounds to two shillings. Dorking fowls 
may be seen in their highest perfection of size and diversity 
of plumage. There are the pure white, the dark-coloured, 
and cuckoo Dorkings, which justify the reputation of 
these birds in our own country, and in other parts of the 
world. The Cochin with its ungainly form, untuneful voide, 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 37 

and creamy plumage ; the solemn Spanish ; the slender built 
and eager look of the game fowls; the neat and compact 
bantams ; and the golden pencil Hamburgs, form part of the 
exhibition. There are pigeons of the Homing Antwerp kind 
and other varieties, which include turbits, dragons, barbs, 
and Maltese runts. 

There are found geese, ducks, turkeys, and cage-birds. 
Visitors must be interested in the range of variation in the 
same species which, while they retain an inflexible sameness 
in all essential particulars, are capable of such differences 
in size and plumage. The rabbits belong to the silver greys, 
the white Dutch, the Patagonian and Himmalayan breeds, 
and the double-lops have, with largeness of size and long 
pendent ears, a very solemn and judicial appearance. 

Those who successfully pursue the work of breeding, 
certainly contribute to the improvement of poultry ; and are 
entitled to a just appreciation of their efforts, because they 
take hold of the tendencies and powers of nature to improve 
nature itself. Shakespeare's words are verified again, which 
are: 

»* Yet nature is made better by no mean, 
Bnt nature makes that mean ; so, over that art 
Which you say adds to nature, is an art 
That nature makes." 



DORKING GAS COMPANY. 

This company was formed on the 17th of June, 1884, 
when the town, like other places through the country, had 
used the imperfect light supplied by candles and oil lamps, 
enjoyed the vast improvement which gas has so long and 
satisfactorily provided for houses, shops, churches, public 



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38 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

buildings, streets and thoroughfares. The incorporation of 
the company took place in 1871. The amount of gas 
required for the Dorking district for the year 1882, was 
fifteen and a half millions of cubic feet. The works have 
lately been much enlarged and improved by new arrangements, 
which can supply the increasing demands of Dorking, and 
the hamlet of Westcott. 



DORKING WATERWORKS. 

The old waterworks were founded in the reign of George II., 
and the water was conveyed in wooden pipes, which were 
generally the stems of trees bored for the purpose. These 
decayed, and the frequent bursting of them occasioned the 
necessity of frequent repairs, until iron pipes replaced the 
old methods of distributing the water. A new company was 
formed in 1878, and the engines and reservoir are on Tower 
Hill. Owing to the increase of the town, arrangements are 
made to draw additional supplies from the Bookery. The 
inhabitants have the advantage of constant service; and 
the shareholders of the Company, are, after some delay, 
beginning to realize a return for their investments. 

THE H0LL0WAY ESTATE. 

This property was purchased in 1870 by a company of 
influential residents in the town of Dorking, partly to prevent 
it falling into the hands of those who might build upon it 
mean and unsightly houses and cottages, and thus depreciate 
the neighbourhood; and partly to provide ground for the 
erection of villas of a certain class, for those who desire to 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 39 

live apart from their places of business ; or who have retired 
from the engagements of active life; or who are strangers 
from the metropolis and other places, and seek pleasant 
scenery, salubrious air, and freedom from the excitement of a 
large population. 

It is named the " Holloway Estate " from a cutting in the 
turnpike road; and it was hoped that in preparing the 
drainage for the houses, some traces of the Eoman Eoad, with 
relics of pottery and other articles, might be found. It is 
probable that in the course of cultivation for some centuries, 
all traces of the road have been removed, and none were 
found to reward attention and careful investigation. 

On the east is " Tower Hill " where was formerly a tower 
which was familiarly called a " Folly." This has been made 
the centre of a large house. The spot near was originally 
called " Furze Field n and " Windmill Field," and probably 
the latter name arose from the existence of that sort of mill, 
once very frequent, but now seldom seen in the neighbourhood. 

The estate has many beautiful and commodious houses, 
which combine internal convenience with exterior attraction ; 
and there is reason to believe that in time the hopes of the 
originators will be realized, and the " estate " become an 
important and pleasant suburb of the town of Dorking. 

Among the many examples of domestic architecture and 
arrangements for comfort may be mentioned Woodcot, the 
residence of Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton, son of H. Calveley 
Cotton, Esq., son of Sir Robert Cotton, Bart., of Combermere 
Abbey, Shropshire, and Lady Cotton (nee Miss Lockwood), 
daughter of John Lockwood, Esq., of Ashtead, Surrey. Sir 
Arthur Thomas was born May 15th, 1803, at Woodcot, 
Oxfordshire ; was educated at Beading, Langley Broome, and 



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40 ffHE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Addiscombe College ; and appointed to the Royal Engineers in 
1819 ; was employed in the survey of Wales, and at Chatham, 
till he sailed for Madras in 1821; joined the force sent to 
Burmah in 1824-5, and after going through that severe 
campaign with Havelock, returned to India to carry on ir- 
rigation works in Tanjore. In 1889 he went to Tasmania, 
where, in 1841, he married E. Learmouth (daughter of 
Thomas Learmouth, Esq., of Park Hall, Stirlingshire, N.B.); 
returned to India, and planned and executed his great work, & 
weir across the Godavery river, and on his return to England 
in 1866, was knighted by her Majesty, and afterwards made 
Knight Commander of the Star of India. His son and heir 
is Captain Alfred Cotton, born in 1850. His daughter, Lady 
Hope, was married to the late Admiral Sir James Hope, of 
Carriden, N.B., in 1877. 

COTTAGE HOSPITAL. 

This institution was opened in 1878 by the late 
Dr. Wilberforce, Bishop of Winchester. The Bight Hon. 
George Cubitt, M.P. gave £1000 towards the building fund, 
and Mrs. Hope generously gave the site, which commands 
extensive views of the surrounding country. The hospital 
was a great desideratum for a large number of persons, who, 
without availing themselves of parochial assistance, felt that 
medical aid was above their narrow means. There are 
twelve beds in the hospital, and a few cots for children. 
Patients who occupy the wards pay five shillings a week, and 
children three shillings and sixpence. Out patients can 
apply for advice on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays ; 
and can have medicine supplied for a week on payment of 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 41 

a shilling. The institution is under the care of a trained 
nurse, and the whole arrangements are of a satisfactory order. 
Collections are made in the churches for the funds. Charles 
Hart, Esq. is the Secretary of the Hospital Committee. 

THE CEMETERY. 

The cemetery is situated on the east of the town, and on 
the Reigate road, the ground for which was purchased of the 
late H. T. Hope, Esq., of the Deep Dene. There is, at the 
entrance, a keeper's house and a mortuary. There are two 
cemetery chapels, the one on the east for the use of members 
of the Church of England, and that on the west for those 
who belong to Nonconformist communions. The space allotted 
for burials is divided by a yew hedge, and marks the 
boundary of the consecrated and unconsecrated portions of 
the cemetery. The soil, especially in the upper part, consists 
of fine, coloured sand, and there are many large trees around 
the spot, which give an air of sylvan quiet to the scene. 
Few cemeteries can vie with this in the charm of the 
surrounding landscape. Some of the tombs are very 
beautiful, and express the affection of the survivors, who 
often adorn them with flowers and other symbols, which 
express regret for the past, and christian hope for the future. 

The number of burials in twenty-six years amounts 
to 2,554. 

COACHES. 

At the close of the last century, the Dorking coach 
started from London one day and returned the next ; which 



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42 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

contrasts strangely with our present arrangements for 
travelling. The town has, at the present time, two railways, 
which offer the accommodation of about thirty-two trains to 
London and back every day, at a moderate fare, and in an 
hour the traveller may reach the metropolis, or return in the 
same length of time from London to Dorking. Within the 
memory of many inhabitants, a coach used to run from 
London to the town, and meet two coaches, one of which 
ran to Brighton, and the other to Arundel, Bognor, and 
Littlehampton. During the shooting season, the coaches were 
often loaded with game from the county of Sussex. 

About forty years ago, the Dorking coach was driven by 
William Broad, who was well known on the road, and was 
thought by many to be the original of Tony Weller himself. 

The following passage from an article entitled "As the 
crow flies," in " All the year round," and probably from the 
hand of Dickens himself, will throw some light on the locality 
now rendered interesting by its association with Samivel 
and his father. " The crow drops from Banmore Hill upon 
Dorking, which stands close to the old Boman-road or 
Stone-street leading from Arundel and the Sussex Coast. * * 
The literary pilgrim looks in vain for his (Tony Weller's) 
special throne, the Marquis of Granby. The famed house 
where the fatal widow beguiled old Weller, and where the 
Shepherd, after imbibing too deeply of his special vanity, 
was cooled in the horse-trough, is gone. Let the pilgrim 
be informed that the real "Markis" was the King's Head 
(now the Post Office), a great coaching house on the 
Brighton road in old days, and where many a smoking team 
drew up when Samivel was young. Long before old Weller 
mounted his chariot-throne, Dorking was a quiet place, 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 43 

much frequented by London merchants (chiefly Dutch) who 
came down to see Box Hill, and to eat fresh perch." 

The journey from Dorking to London by coach, which 
was the customary method of travelling years ago, had those 
great attractions of which the railway has, in some degree, 
deprived us. While the train has multiplied our conveniences, 
and has provided us with those facilities which appear to 
enlarge the powers of life and action, it must be confessed 
that by the swiftness of its motion, and the course it is 
compelled to take, we lose some of the pleasures of the 
former style of travelling. The fairest landscape requires 
calm attention; and often when a glimpse is caught of a 
fine prospect, the train suddenly plunges amid steep banks 
which shut out the view, or rushes into a tunnel, where the 
brightness of day is exchanged for the gloom of night and 
the roar of unpleasant reverberations. 

The Dorking coach in its journey to London on some fine 
May morning was a pleasure not easily forgotten. It started 
from the Bed Lion amid a circle of spectators who were 
attracted by the preparations for the journey, and noted 
perhaps with neighbourly interest the passengers, the team, 
and Broad, the well-known coachman of the period. It then 
pursued its way by Shrub Hill, down the London Road, past 
the blooms and shrubs of Ivery's nursery garden; allowed 
the traveller to see Box Hill and Denbies clothed in their 
fairest foliage, and the surrounding fields in their freshest 
green ; the Mole, Burford Bridge, &c, and the well-known 
hostelry. It passed Fredley with its memories; Juniper 
Hall with its cedars; Mickleham with its quiet beauty and 
hints of peace and refinement; Norbury with its heights; 
Letherhead with its ancient church, modern villas and 



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44 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

tranquil aspect. It advanced by Ashtead Park with its herd 
of deer and venerable oaks, until it appeared on the breezy 
downs of Epsom ; passed through Ewell, and made its way 
to Clapham, where the wealth of London has made a fringe 
of mansions; and then reached, through the crowd 
and tumult of innumerable vehicles, its halting place in 
Gracechurch Street. The journey presented a singular variety 
of interesting objects. Apart from the pleasure of beholding 
scenery and views so varied as the town of Dorking with 
its spacious street; the* village with its calm; the river with 
its peaceful flow ; the open downs ; the valley with its sylvan 
beauty ; the hills with their verdure and foliage ; the mansion 
and the cottage ; the quiet of the country and the excitement 
of London ; there was something to remind the traveller of 
those fine descriptions of De Quincey in his " Mail Coach." 
That charming writer remarks that by the velocity of its 
movement it first revealed the glory of motion through the 
animal beauty and power so often displayed in the horses ; 
and by the conscious presence of central intellect to guide 
and control the whole. 

In recent years the patrons of the road have maintained 
a coach during the summer months, which leaves London in 
the morning, and returns to town in the afternoon of the 
same day.* 

* William Broad, the well-known coach proprietor and driver of the Dorking 
coach, is supposed by some to be the original of Tony Weller. There is a 
portrait of him at the Bull's Head, and on a grave-stone in the Cemetery is 
this inscription : 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

William Broad, 

Coach Proprietor for 25 years in this town, 

Who died Dec. 30th, 1862, 

Aged 73 years. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 45 



MARKETS, PAIRS, AND PUBLIC CELEBRATIONS. 

The Corn Market has existed for nearly six hundred years, 
and, since the demolition of the old Market House, has been 
held in front of the "Three Tuns Tavern." The Poultry 
Market has shrunk from its former considerable importance. 
This was, in ancient, and some recent days, attended by large 
numbers of farmers' wives, who came to sell ; and by higglers, 
who came to buy, the choice Dorking fowls and capons, which 
were afterwards sent on to supply the demands of the wealthy 
in the metropolis. The annual Cattle* Fair is still kept, 
though less thronged than some years ago, when the sheep 
pens and cattle extended from the Post Office to the Surrey 
Yeoman. The pleasure fair is now held on Cotmandene, 
where shows, itinerant players, circuses, and stalls for the 
sale of confectionery, and other attractive wares are to be 
found. The Punch Bowl Fair has declined. The Cherry 
Fair held on the last Sunday in July at the "Fox," on 
Eanmore Common, is discontinued; and the Leatherhead 
Fair, where aristocratic ladies had stalls for the sale of fancy 
articles and needlework, is extinct. The grant of a fair to 
be held at Westcott, given by George III. to Sir John Evelyn, 
is in abeyance. 

• There are occasionally processions of the Foresters' Club, 
with music and banners at their annual feast. Some benefit 
societies have waned and disappeared to the regret and loss of 
their few surviving members. 

One of the most memorable public events which has 
occurred in Dorking, was the great feast held on Cotmandene 

* De Foe says that, in his day, Dorking had the greatest fair for lambs in 
England. 



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46 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

to celebrate the passing of the Reform Bill in 1882. About 
twelve hundred persons were accommodated in an enclosure 
which was adorned with flags bearing the names of Grey, 
Russell, Brougham, Althorp, and Durham. It was an un- 
usual event for the quiet neighbourhood, and the supply of 
viands taxed the ingenuity and resources of those who catered 
for the assembly. The bugle sounded for silence, grace was 
said, and the guests, full of glad expectation of the results of 
the Reform Bill, enjoyed the feast with considerable hilarity 
and enthusiasm. The day was closed with a grand display of 
fireworks ; and those who took part in its pleasures remember 
the event as one of the most striking in their experience. 

Another occurrence which created universal sympathy and 
produced an expression of patriotic feeling, was the marriage 
of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, in 1868. The Sunday 
Schools walked in procession, headed by music and banners, 
and the scholars were afterwards regaled with a dinner and 
fruit, which were provided by the liberality of the attendants 
of the different places of worship to which the children 
belonged. A plenteous provision was made for the comfort 
and enjoyment of the humbler classes of the neighbourhood, 
who were gratified with a dinner in the large field opposite 
Shrub Hill House. There was a prevalent desire for the 
happiness of the bride and bridegroom ; and the cost of the 
solid and varied refreshments of the feast was met by the 
gentry and wealthier inhabitants of the town. 

DORKING CRICKETERS. 

Cotmandene, formerly called " The Heath," was the spot 
where cricket matches were played by the inhabitants of the 
town against their rivals from neighbouring places. The 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 47 

contests usually lasted two days ; and the interest created by 
the game rose to a degree of excitement which almost 
approached that of a parliamentary conflict. The Dorking 
eleven have for many years maintained their reputation, 
and the town has produced two cricketers, Mr. Jupp and 
Mr. Humphrey, who have gained the highest distinction both 
in England and Australia. 

In 1777 a poet describes the cricket matches which were 
played, and the local interest which they produced : 

" Behold a happy band near Dorking met, 
Attired for sport, on Cotman's pleasant green, 
At earnest play, flies eager to excel 
From hamlets round ; the crowded booths are filled 
With motley groups of joyous young 
And old, who, as their favourites please, 
Their plaudits give." 

The conclusion of the contest is thus described : 

" But hark ! loud shouts proclaim the finished game, 
That rend the sky, the fortunate are hailed 
By all the joyous circle far dispersed ; 
The merry bells have caught the cheerful sound, 
From Dorking's tower vibrates the tuneful peal." 



MANUFACTURES. 

The town has, from the absence of coal mines, the 
insufficiency of water-power, and the smallness of its pop- 
ulation, never been distinguished for its manufacturing 
industries. Within the memory of some of its inhabitants, 
a few persons were employed in weaving huckaback, sheeting, 
and similar articles of domestic use. The cheaper production 
of these goods by the aid of machinery in localities where 
iron and coal are more accessible, has gradually led to the 
extinction in this, and other towns, of this species of industry. 
The elders of the town remember a weaver sitting by his 



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48 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

shop window busily at work, and attracting the attention of 
boys, girls, and adult passers-by. Aubrey informs us that in 
his day there was a good pottery for earthenware, which 
probably turned out vessels for homely domestic use, and 
destitute of the ornament and beauty which mark the pro- 
ductions of Chelsea, Leeds, and elsewhere. 



Local Usages and Changes. 

shrove tuesday. 

The town has maintained an ancient custom, which in 
former years was prevalent throughout England before the 
Reformation. It is the vestige of the once popular carnival, 
in which, before entrance upon the fasts and restraints of 
Lent, there was a general outbreak of festivity and amusement. 
Though the celebration of the day is less imposing in Dorking 
than the simultaneous gaiety of Rome, Naples, Paris, and other 
places, there is abundant animation and intense popular 
interest. In the morning of the day, a few men dressed as 
mummers, whose costume and manners suggest release from 
the grave decorum of ordinary life, with rude and monotonous 
music, and a few symbols of mysterious signification carried 
aloft, make the circuit of the town. The afternoon is 
devoted to the game of football, when all the shops are 
closed, and windows protected by boarding and shutters. The 
game begins at the church gates, and is carried on by the 
young men of the town chiefly, who, with good-humoured 
rivalry and immense animation, contend for victory. This is 
the principal athletic contest of the town, and as it has survived 



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THE TOWN OF DORKINO. 49 

the change of religion out of which it first sprang, and is 
connected with wholesome rivalry and the pleasure of the 
younger inhabitants, it is likely to be perpetuated to a very 
remote era. 

THINGS THAT WERE. 

Many changes have occurred within the last half century, 
which may be briefly noticed here. The Court Baron, and 
Court Leet, with the appointment of constables and head- 
boroughs, are discontinued. The office of constable lapsed 
with the decease of the late Mr. James White. The "Ale 
Taster" and "Beggar-poker," (which latter word signifies 
"move on,") have ceased. The patrol committee and the 
personal service of the male inhabitants, have given place to 
an efficient police force. The distribution of parish funds 
on Sunday afternoons at the close of divine service has ceased. 
Offenders no longer sit in the stocks, which were placed near 
Butter Hill. The town has lost much of its pleasant character 
by the removal of some rows of trees which adorned the front 
of some of its residences; and the old market house has 
disappeared. 

Certain civil and ecclesiastical anniversaries and usages are 
either forgotten or slenderly recognised. Beating the bounds 
of the parish is no more, since the Ordnance maps define the 
limits and boundaries with scientific exactness. St. Thomas' 
Day was the time for the poor to go out " Gooding," and they 
have ceased their applications. The "Ditchling Singers" or 
Waits, have no part in the celebration of Christmas gladness. 
The oak bough no longer hangs, on 29th of May, from the 
church tower, to remind the population of the return of 



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50 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Charles IT. The fifth of November has lost its Guy Fawkes ; 
and the first of May its "Jack of the Green," who was clad 
in leaves and flowers, and seemed to represent the gaiety of 
spring by his animation and dance. The archery meetings 
have long been suspended ; and other games and amusements 
as Badminton, croquet, and lawn tennis, have taken their 
place, and had a long reign of popularity. 



THE LANGUAGE OP DORKING AND ITS PRONUNCIATION. 

Lord Macaulay writes in his journal, (September 22nd, 1854), 
as follows, and his oberservations apply fully to Dorking and 
the neighbourhood : " As I walked back from Esher (to Ditton 
Marsh), a shower came on. Afraid for my chest, I turned into 
a small ale-house, and called for a glass of ginger beer, I 
found there a party of hop pickers, come back from the 
neighbourhood of Farnham. They had had but a bad season, 
and were returning, nearly walked off their legs. I liked 
their looks, and thought their English remarkable good for 
their rank of life. It was in truth Surrey English, the 
English of the suburbs of London, which is to the Som- 
ersetshire and Yorkshire, what Castilian is to the Andalusian, 
or Tuscan to Neapolitan. The poor people had a foaming pot 
before them ; but as soon as they heard the price, they rose 
and were going to leave it untouched. They could not, they 
said, afford so much. It was but fourpence halfpenny. I laid 
the money down, and their delight and gratitude quite affected 
me. Two more of the party soon arrived. I ordered another 
pot, and when the rain was over, left them, followed by more 
blessings than ever, I believe, were purchased for ninepence." 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 51 

The language of Dorking and its neighbourhood has no 
striking traces of dialect, and no unpleasant harshness of 
pronunciation. Whatever varities are found, survive in the 
rural districts. In the publications of the English Dialect 
Society, the Hon. Granville Leveson Gower has introduced 
many curious words which may be found in Surrey. The 
following examples are selected from many which he has noted 
and preserved in his paper upon the subject : 

bannick to thrash 

beazled tired out 

boffle confusion 

buzzly short, plump 

doddish infirm in body or mind 

gooming stupid, to go about with the mouth open 

Petergrievous .... fretful 

shirty short tempered 

While the pronunciation of English in the neighbourhood is 
free from the harsh or ancient forms which prevail elsewhere ; 
it must be confessed that there is, at the same time, a 
remarkable destitution of local songs and ballads. The carols 
which are sung at Christmas, are of the kind which are 
generally heard elsewhere. 



THE LEGAL HISTORY OF DORKING. 

Judging from the entries relating to Dorking in two 
Assize Rolls of the middle of the reign of Henry III. 
(circa 1244) still preserved in the Public Record Office, it may 
be assumed that the town was a place of small importance 
at that early date. Both Rolls are in excellent preservation, 

e 2 



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52 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

and give an account of the proceedings of the Justices' 
Itinerant, who returned to the respective circuits every seven 
years, and paid their visits to Dorking in the nineteenth and 
twenty-fifth years of that reign. 

The following are a few of the " Placita de Corone apud 
Beremundesiam de Comitate Surraie coram W. de Ebor, 
et sociis suis, anno xix." 

" Verdict of the hundred of Wodetone. William de Seler 
of Dorking, dug in Dorking and found a certain part of a 
certain sword ; for this was attached, and did not come, and 
therefore, he and his pledges in mercy, to wit Roger de Lond, 
Walter de Colle, and Robert de Molentino ; Gilbert Rufus and 
Gilbert Bynorthbrook were then with him, and in like manner 
attached to the aforesaid pledges, and did not come, and 
therefore as to the pledges as before. Afterwards came 
William le Serler, and defended that he found no treasure, 
but they will say that the other found nothing. Afterwards 
came William and made a fine for half a mark by the pledge 
of Roger de Lond." 

" Richard de Brigeshill charged with robbery, came and 
defended everything, and put himself upon the country for 
good and evil, and twelve jurors and four townships say that 
he is not guilty, and therefore he is acquitted." 

"A certain man-thief, and a certain woman-thief (latro 
nissa) were taken and imprisoned at Dorking ; and the man- 
thief was hanged, and the woman-thief escaped, and therefore 
to judgement." 

"Robert Belle is outlawed for robbery. Adam Belle is 
outlawed for robbery, and was in the tithing of Dorking; 
he had no chattels. And Thurstan de Dorking is outlawed 
for the same, and had nothing, neither in the frank pledge 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 53 

because a clerk (a priest). Geoffrey de Dorking and Terrias, 
his brother, put in exigent,* and outlawed for robbery ; had 
no chattels, and were in the tithing of Hugh le Noble, in 
Dorking, therefore in mercy.*' 

"Peter Snoke abjured (the realm) for robbery. His 
chattels, four cows, two oxen, and two beasts, and he had 
likewise corn, but how much is not known ; and had half a 
virgate of land in Dorking. Afterwards it was proved that he 
had corn to the value of five marks, and thirteen sheep ; the 
price of all the chattels 100*., whereof the sheriff shall 
answer." 

In the Assize Rolls, Surrey, of the date of 1241, and in 
the reign of Henry in., are the following entries : 

" Richard Flinthard charged with burglary in the house 
of Gunnilda de Middleton, fled, put in exigent and outlawed." 

"Edith de Hamesby was drowned in a certain ditch in 
Dorking. The first finder came and is not accused. No 
Englecherie, therefore murder." 

" Edward, son of Ralph, the clerk, fell from a certain tree 
so that he died. The first finder came and is not accused, 
nor any other. Judgement misadventure; no Englecherie, 
and therefore murder." 

"Maurice, son of Gunnilla de Lankesette, fell from a 
certain mare, so that he died. The first finder came and is 
not accused, nor any other. Judgement misadventure. Price 
of the mare half a mark, whereof Gregory the sheriff shall 
answer." 

" Vivian, the Chaplain, entered into the house of Pain le 
Wrange, in Dorking, and immediately came Serls, his boy, 
and found him lying on a certain bed dead, with his neck 

* That is, •• called, or demanded at five courts and not appearing outlawed." 



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54 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

broken, and he was covered with the cloak of Edelina, wife of 
the aforesaid Pain ; and Nicholas de Wrancy, then sheriff, 
took the said Pain for that death, and imprisoned him ; and 
it is not known how he was delivered, therefore to judgement 
of the said Nicholas. And the aforesaid Pain is dead. And 
the township of Dorking burried the said Vivian, without view 
of the coroner, therefore in mercy. No Englecherie, there- 
fore murder. And it is certified that the aforesaid Pain 
killed him." 

In an Assize Boll of Edward I. (1293-4), we read that 
under the Hundred of " Wudeton," that the jury returned 
a verdict of not guilty in respect of Gilbert Moramt, who 
had been arrested for the death of William Purye of 
Dorkynge." The next record of interest in connection with 
the town is the list of all the heads of families who were 
taxed in their goods and chattels in the sixth year of 
Edward III. (1888). The town is called "Villata de 
Dorkynge." There are ninety-six names, of which many are 
Norman, as John de Warrenne ; many are described according 
to their place of abode, as Bicardus atte Hatch ; some are 
entered according to their profession, as Bobertus le Clerk ; 
and many by their occupation, as a William the goldsmith, 
John the shopman, Bichardus the ironmonger, and Nicholas 
the carter. The taxes range from fourpence to seven shillings, 
and the total required from Dorking is seven pounds, five 
shillings and a penny. 

In the reign of Henry IV. (1899-1418), the following is 
found in the Banco Boll. " John, Prior of Beygate, parson 
of the church of Dorkynge, summoned to answer to the 
Prior of Lewes concerning a sum of £25, being arrears of an 
annual rent of thirteen marks which he owes him. The 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 55 

Prior of Lewes, by his attorney, says that one John Chierlien, 
late Prior of Lewes, his predecessor, was seized of the 
aforesaid annual rent, as of the right of the church of St. 
Pancras, of Lewes, in the time of King Richard II. , payable 
to him by one Eichard Warnham, late Prior of Eeygate, 
parson of the church of Dorking, predecessor of the aforesaid 
John. The rent had been paid — since time out of mind — until 
the Feast of Easter, Anno 19 Richard II., when aforesaid 
John withheld 66*. &d. of the rent then due, and also the 
whole of the annual rent of two and a half years ensuing, 
namely, up to the 20th February, Anno 22 Richard II. The 
judgement entered up states that the Prior of Lewes shall 
recover against the Prior of Reygate the aforesaid rent and 
arrears since due, which together amount to £51, also 
damages assessed at £20." 

Amerciamenta and Fines of the County of Surrey in the 
25th year of Henry VI., in the hundred of Wodeton, by 
twelve jurors. 
" From the said Hundred for murder except 

the liberties 40 shillings. 

From the tithing of Robert de la Cheppnigge, 

in Dorking, for the flight of Richard 

Flinthard J-mark. 

From the tithing of Pain the Smith, for the 

flight of William, son of Reginald J-mark. 

From Robert de Horle, because he had not 

any pledge. Walter de la Leye for 

trespass. The tithing of Odo de la 

Gorniser, for the flight of Martin the 

the tailor. John de Fischeffold for fine 

for false appeal J-mark each." 



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56 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Then follow several cases of fines of half a mark each for 
false appeal and concealment ; and the township of Dorking 
for trespass 100*. 

In these extracts it will be observed that the word 
" Euglecherie " occurs, and the explanation of this old law 
term is supplied by the following quotations from Spelman 
and Cowell. 

Spelman informs us that in the days of Canute, King of 
Denmark, who conquered and settled peacefully the realm of 
England, dismissed his army at the request of the English 
Barons ; and then adds : 

" Yides legem hanc latam fuisse (ex jure hospitalitatis in 
proesidiun extraneorum) viz Danorum primo, et deinde (cum 
ingressi Normanni) Francigenarum, quorum caedes multo 
gravius plectebatur quam Anglorum. In mitigation e popnoB 
fuit, si legalitur constaret de Englischeria interfecti, hoc est 
Anglicum fuisse; non Danum, non Francum, non extraneum." 

Cowell describes it thus : " If a man were privily slain or 
murdered in old time he was accounted Francigena, which 
word comprehended every alien until Engleceria was proved, 
viz., that he was an Englishman. Every murdered man 
should be accounted Francigena until Engleceria was proved 
before the coroner by two men who knew the father, and two 
women who knew the mother.' * 

An old record states that in the 22nd year of Henry VI. 
(A.D. 1444), the inhabitants of Dorking seem to have been 
complained of, and presented at the Court Leet (and often 
repeated) that butchers, innkeepers, tailors, hucksters, millers, 
merchants, drapers, shoemakers, smiths, tanners, labourers, 
bakers, carpenters, and turners took excessive prices; that 
the watch was not kept ; that there were several assaults ; 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 57 

and Matilda Symonds was, as presented in former years, a 
disturber of the peace." These charges against the towns- 
people arose from the unwise action of government, which 
attempted to regulate labour and merchandise, and make the 
laws of commerce bend to the laws of parliament. 

On the 22nd of July, in the 88rd year of the reign of 
Henry VI. (1455), the following entry occurs in the Early 
Chancery Proceedings. 

"To the most reverent fader in God, and my right 
gracious lord, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Chancellor of 
England. Meekly besechith your gracious lordship, Richard 
Staplere, your pore oratour, that where nowe your said 
oratour bought and bargeyend of Henry Carpenter of Dorking, 
one meer and X acres lond called Dethes, xiiij acres wode 
called Detheschorie, ij acres medowe called Southmeak, and 
xiiij acres londo called Mylkyns, wyth the appurtanences, 
in the parysh of Dorkyng, in the Counte of Surry, for 
xlvjs. viijd., and for all the right and title that your said 
suppliant hadde in a parcel of medowe called Ballydrydon, 
in the said Parish of Dorkynig, &c, and now the said Henry 
wylnot enfeffe your said suppliaunt of the said meer, londe, 
wode and medowe, ne noon estate thereof to hym make. 
Howe be it that he hathe, be oftymes that to doo required by 
your said suppliaunt to his final undoying, &c." At the 
foot of the document it is written that the manucaptors of 
the said Richard Staplere appeared in Chancery as his sureties 
on July 22, 1455. 

There are several examples of trespass upon the pastures 
of people in the town, from which we select these : 

" Johannes Wylott de Dorking is attached to answer to 
Johannes Tayllour unus nunciorum de Saccaria for forcibly 



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58 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

entering his close there and depasturing his cattle. Inquest 
to certify damages 29 Henry viii." 

" John Bower de Parochia de Dorking complains against 
Johannes Taylor and Francisca, his wife, for forcibly 
entering his close there, and depasturing his cattle thereon. 
17 Elizabeth, Pasch." 

In the month of October, 1628, Jasper Goodwyn, of 
Dorking, bought of the Eev. Richard Smythe, of Shere, a 
quantity of wheat, rye, barley, featches, oats, and buck 
(wheat) at the following prices: and was charged with the 
offence of engrossing. 

Wheat 2/6 per bushel. 

Eye 2/- " 

Buckwheat 1/- 

Barley 1/4 

Featches or Vetches 1/4 " 

In statute law, engrossing means the purchasing of large 
quantities of any commodity in order to sell it again at a high 
price. Jasper Goodwyn was trie<J for this offence in the 
Court of Exchequer, but as Mr. Smyth Harte and Mr. Tyllier, 
of Shere, were all ignorant of any transactions after the 
purchase of the corn, though the record is incomplete, it is 
probable that he was acquitted from want of sufficient evidence 
to convict him. 

The subjoined extract of a letter written July 18, 1689, 
by Dr. Thomas Turner, to Mr. Secretary Windlebank, con- 
firms the statement that the assizes were frequently held in 
Dorking. 

"My wife and myself are earnestly importuned by our 
boys' nurse to desire your help and favour in a matter which 
concerns her very much. She is in danger to lose house and 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 59 

land, even all that it is worth, merely by a circumstantial 
defect in law, if it can be proved. I enclose the case. Now 
her request is that you would write your letters to Baron 
Weston, if you have any interest in him, that when this 
matter shall come before bim at the assizes at Dorking, he 
would afford all lawful favour to Richard Blundell and his 
tenant, Joseph Seaman, against William Weller and John 
Ede." 

HOP GROUNDS. 

In the " Depositions of the Court of Exchequer " found 
in the National Record Office, there is an account of a suit 
commenced by the Rev. Philip Walton, appointed Vicar of 
Dorking Parish in 1744, against Mr. Jonathan Tyers, of 
Denbies, who planted six acres of hops, in 1747, on a part of 
Chapel Lands and Denbies. Tyers refused to gather the 
hops ; but left every tenth hill (or four lines planted six feet 
square) for the Vicar to gather as he could, whereas he ought 
to have picked the hops, and given to the Vicar every tenth 
basket. Tyers was adjudged not to have gathered the hops, 
which were not titheable till they had been gathered. The 
decree of the Courts of Exchequer made on February 24, 1758, 
was confirmed by the House of Lords, May 15, 1758. " That 
the method of setting out the tithe of the hops was no good 
setting out ; that the appellant (Tyers) should come to an 
account with the respondent (the Vicar) ; should satisfy and 
pay the respondent for tithes accordingly; the taking of 
which said account was thereby referred to the Deputy 
Remembrancer of the said Court ; should pay the respondent 
the costs of his suit to that time, to be taxed by the said 



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60 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Deputy Bemembrancer ; that an injunction should be awarded 
under the seal of the Court to stay the appellant's proceedings 
at law ; and the consideration of future costs, and all further 
directions were thereby reserved till after the coming in of 
the Deputy Remembrancer's report." 

QUARTER SESSIONS. 

In 1692 the General Quarter Sessions were held at 
Dorking, when Hugh Hare, Esq., of Betchworth, gave a 
charge to the Grand Jury. It is a kind of lay-sermon, and 
reveals the manifold corruptions which flourished and de- 
graded English society ; profane swearing, drunkenness, and 
evils to which it leads, the profanation of the Lord's day, are 
brought before the attention of the magistrates, who are 
urged to impose legal penalties for such breaches of the law. 
The following extract from the charge is painfully interesting ; 
"You are also to inquire if any rector or vicar (who keeps 
a curate) hath neglected once in a month to read the Common 
Prayer in his parish." The frequent daily services and 
celebrations of worship on the Sunday — with the activity of 
the clergy — furnish a striking contrast to the deplorable 
neglect which prevailed nearly two hundred years ago. 

ROGUES AND VAGABONDS. 

In the reign of Elizabeth there are, in the Calendars of 
State Papers, frequent notices of the trouble created by 
large numbers of men who are described as "rogues and 
vagabonds." It is possible that these classes were increased 
by the suppression of monasteries by Henry VIII., and Hume 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 61 

remarks that before that event "the monks lived in a 
hospitable manner; and, besides the poor, maintained from 
their offals, there were many decayed gentlemen who passed 
their lives in travelling from convent to convent, and were 
entirely subsisted at the tables of the friars." There may 
have been difficulty in getting work at a time when there 
were few manufactures, and commerce was limited in its 
range. The trouble of which the government then complained 
still subsists, and local boards and newspapers join in 
lamenting the fact, with which it is so difficult to deal. In 
1571 there are no less than three returns from the sheriff and 
justices of Surrey, met at Dorking "to certify their pro- 
ceedings in keeping watch and ward for apprehending ' rogues 
and vagabonds.' " 

POLITICAL AFFAIRS. 

On the 8th of May, 1648, a meeting was held at Dorking 
to support a petition to parliament in favour of Episcopacy ; 
against the disturbance of ministers in their churches, and 
for the conditional restoration of the king. The following 
resolutions were passed : 

I. — That five hundred copies of the said petition should 
be forthwith printed and sent unto the gentlemen and 
petitioners of the said county. 

II. — That Tuesday, the 16th of May, it is agreed that the 
petitioners should meet at, or upon, Putney Heath, at eight 
of the clock in the morning. 

III. — It is desired that those who shall subscribe the said 
position would show themselves in person in presenting of it, 
if it may stand with their convenience. 



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62 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

IV. — It is desired that all high constables in their several 
divisions and hundreds, should make returns of subscriptions 
of the said petition ingrossed in parchment, one for the 
House of Lords, and another for the House of Commons; 
and that they be delivered to Mr. John Ever shed, or to such 
person or persons as he shall appoint. And that the original 
copies be left with the said high constables, or such as they 
shall appoint; and the charges of the said ingrossment 
are resolved shall be paid by the petitioners at the meeting 
aforesaid." 

A larger meeting was held on Putney Heath, and the 
appearance of the petitioners at Westminster was attended 
with tumult and danger. 



EXTRACT PROM "LAY SUBSIDIES." 

In the year 1457 A.D., the government desired to ascertain 
the number, names, and callings of foreigners residing in 
England. The Earl of Surrey summoned a jury to inquire 
and report. From the following outline it appears that 
several names which have long been known in the neigh- 
bourhood are really of foreign origin. The official document 
begins, " Inquisition taken at Dorking in the thirty-fifth 
year of King Henry the Sixth, before Nicholas Huse, Knight, 
Earl of Surrey, upon oath of Henry Godmann, John 
Godmann, Richard Stapler, Richard Constabyll, John Gerard, 
William Balhore, and others, who affirm upon their oath that 
Gerard de Caleys, Paul de Vanderbysshe, Henry Borrowgrave, 
Martin Sonds, Dynyk Spykewell, John Weller, Henry Lynne, 
and others are foreigners, and not natives of the kingdom of 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 68 

England, the countries of Ireland, Wales, the Duchies of 
Acquitaine, Gascony, and Normandy, dwelling in these parts 
and have lodgings in the same. And that Hormes Staffe 
and twenty-nine other names, among which we find that many 
are Dutch, as Walter Vanderhane, William Vandermeylen, 
and John Vanderbarowe, are described as not born within 
the Kingdom, Countries, Duchies, and Islands aforesaid, 
nor are under the authority of the king, live not within the 
said parts and have no lodgings therein. 

And that there is no person called Vermeyan Esterlyng, 
an Italian." 

Then follow several names of Lombards, Florentines, 
Catalonians, and others. The return proceeds, " Neither is 
there any other merchant, broker, or agent, or attorney, nor 
any other foreign merchant born beyond the Dominions, 
Duchies, and Islands aforesaid, dwelling, dealing, or resorting 
there for the space of six weeks within the said parts, and 
have no house within them, nor lodging in any place within 
the aforesaid parts, with any merchant, foreign broker, or 
agent, or with any of the subjects of the said king; nor 
any other stranger born in any other place outside the 
Kingdom, Duchies, and Islands, is dwelling in the aforesaid 
parts. In testimony of which fact the aforesaid jury affix 
their seals to this Inquisition in the day and year aforesaid." 

In 1664, Mr. Feake, who was an active and dangerous 
Fifth-monarchy man, was apprehended in Dorking, and 
confessed his disaffection to the government, and said he 
would suffer like Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. 

Sir Adam Brown and George Evelyn, Esq., write to 
Sir E. Brett, because they hear " he wants information about 
Mr. Feake, who is a dangerous man, and the people here- 



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64 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

abouts are so affected to him that he will seduce abundance 
of them. Although a stranger, many would be bound body 
for body to have him released." 



MILITARY AFFAIRS. 

The military affairs of the town are connected with those 
of the county, from the history of which we learn that in 
the hundred of Wotton, in which Dorking stands, Henry VIII. 
required thirty-six soldiers, of which fourteen were to be 
archers, and twenty-two bill-men. 

In 1649 a Commission was appointed by General Fairfax 
to repress abuses committed by parliamentary soldiers, or 
those who professed to be so ; and Mr. Laurence Marsh was 
commissioner for Dorking. 

In 1809 the Local Militia was established in Dorking, and 
raised eighty-seven men. In 1818 the Earl of Rothes' corps 
subsisted as a division of the Surrey Yeomanry. A militia 
club was formed in the town to pay for substitutes for those 
members who might be drawn for the service. 

In the year 1859 occurred one of those panics which 
occasionally, and not unreasonably, seize the population of 
England. The threat, or the fear of a French invasion, and 
the patriotic spirit of the people, and corps of volunteers were 
everywhere formed to assist in the defence of our shores. A 
company of the 14th Surrey Rifles was formed in Dorking, 
which seemed to promise well for the future; but many 
changes have occurred, and the corps is much smaller than it 
was at its origin. Efforts are now made to augment its 
number and efficiency. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 66 



AGRICULTURE. 



It appears from the Bailiffs accounts at Dorking, in the 
reign of King Richard II. (1877—1899), that the harvest 
usually lasted five weeks, communibus annis; an ox sold 
for twelve shillings; a cow for six or eight shillings, and 
a cow's hide for twelve-pence ; and pigs were sixpence each ; 
and two hundred and seventy-four rabbits at threepence-half- 
penny each. 

The fore-feet of oxen used in ploughing, and of heifers 
in harrowing, were shod at threepence each; hurdles cost 
twopence each; and washing and shearing sheep tenpence 
per hundred. 

Qx8. Bush. 
♦Thirty acres and a half of barley produced only 41 4 

Five and a half acres of tares " 1 6 

Twenty-eight acres of oats " 88 4 

Thrashing barley was paid for at the rate of two-pence a 
quarter; tares at fourpence; and oats half-penny. Win- 
nowing one-penny for three quarters. Barley sold at four 
shillings and fourpence per quarter ; tares at four shillings ; 
and oats at two shillings and sixpence. 

The wages were as follows: the warrener one penny a 
day. The servants of the landowner were paid according 
to their rank; the bailiff had six shillings a year; other 
servants five shillings and sixpence; the shepherd four shillings 

* " The operations of farming most have been imperfectly understood five 
hundred years ago, and the yield of the harvest must have been greatly inferior 
in quantity to that produced at the present day. Instead of forty-one quarters 
from thirty acres of barley, the present quantity usually reaches about one 
hundred quarters ; and instead of thirty-eight quarters of oats from twenty- 
eight acres, there are now obtained about one hundred and forty quarters. 



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66 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

and sixpence, and he had by custom one fleece at shearing. 
One quarter and four bushels of oats were allowed for their 
pottage. Ploughing for winter and Lent corn cost sixpence 
an acre; harrowing, half-penny; mowing and binding, 
fourpence. The Customary tenants were to harrow a whole 
day and have one meal ; if half a day only they had none. 
A carpenter had fourpence a day for his wages. 

In the seventh year of the reign of Richard II. (1884), 
cows with calves were let for the season at five shillings 
each. No apples nor pears were sold, from their failure 
through the country. The autumn was so rainy that instead 
of cutting and binding wheat and oats at sixpence an acre, 
it cost, with carriage, eighteen-pence. In this year no 
wages are charged in the accounts; for all the servants 
went away out of the lord's service at Michaelmas. As 
" villains " or " natives " could not quit their lord's service 
without the landowner's permission, many gained their 
freedom during this year of scarcity. At this time a groat 
was equal to five shillings of our present money. 

Places of Worship 

(In Chronological Order). 
THE PARISH CHURCH. 

There are but faint traces of the origin of the fabric 
which existed before the destruction of the town by the 
Danes before their defeat at Ockley. It is supposed that 
the first building stood upon a spot where was formerly a 
castle or burgh, and that one Ewton was the founder of 
the church which is noticed in the " General Survey," 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 67 

(1081—1086 A.D.) Manning informs us that the church of 
St. Martin was a sine cure rectory, because the rector had 
the power of intitling a vicar to officiate under him. The 
advowson was originally granted to the Earl of Warrenne, 
and was given by him to the priory and convent of St. 
Pancras, Lewes. 

The following are all the rectors whose names are pre- 
served in the registers of the Diocese. 

Patron. Rectors. 

Prior and Convent of Lewes John de Warren, resigned 

81st March, 1322. 
Ditto John de Malmsbury, resigned 

8th October, 1825. 
Ditto Bobert de Balna, died 1841. 

Concurrent vicars presented by the rectors : 
The Bishop by lapse Henry de Halverton, 1818. 

John de Warren Thomas Everaud, resigned 

1824. 
John de Malmsbury John de Arderne, installed 

April, 1824. 
The living was afterwards, in the reign of Edward III. 
(1834), appropriated to the prior convent of the Holy Cross, 
Beigate; and, on the dissolution of that monastery, was 
granted by Henry VIII. to Lord Howard of Effingham; 
the Earl of Peterborough, Sir John Parsons, Sir John Hind 
Cotton, and the Duke of Norfolk were successively the 
patrons. The right of presentation is now vested in the Bight 
Honourable George Cubitt, M.P. 

It is a tradition that the church which stood until 1835 
was reared in the time of Richard H. This fabric had 
some beautiful signs of a venerable antiquity, and its southern 

p 2 



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68 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

porch was deemed sufficiently choice to merit a place in a 
work by Pratt, devoted to the description and illustration 
of pre-eminent fine examples of southern porches in various 
parts of England. 

In the Bolls Office the following traces of allusion to the 
parish church of Dorking have been discovered. 

"John de Malmesbury, persona ecclesiae de Dorking," 
8rd Edward III. (1880 A.D.) "A writ of inquiry between 
the Prior Nicolas de Clyne, and the Prior of Eeigate and 
Parson of the church of Dorking, to ascertain the Prior of 
Okeburn when his Priory was taken into the King's hands, 
28rd July, eleventh of Edward III. (A.D. 1888), was seized 
of a certain annual pension of twenty shillings, as of the 
right of the Abbey of Beaherlewin, of which the Priory of 
Okeburn is a cell to be taken by the hands of the parson of 
the church aforesaid." An old deed dated at Dorking 1449, 
mentions Richard Clyff as the vicar of the parish. 

In the year 1558, the last year of Edward VI., the 
Marquis of Northampton, and several other gentlemen, were 
appointed to examine the state of << church goodes," and 
to ascertain and preserve the property found in churches, and 
to prevent it from being " embesiled and removed." In the 
Hundred of Wotton, in Dorking Parish Church, were found 
the following articles : 

In primis, one chalice of silver and gilte, and also ij 
chalices containing in all by estymacion xxyj oz. 

Item, a cup of silver contayning by estymacion yj. 

Item, a coope of crymsyn vellat. 

Item, a vestyment of the same. 

Item, a coope of Bridges. 

Batten. 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 69 

Item, a cross cloth of silke. 

Item, xliiij candlestyckes of laiten. 

Item, ij payre of sensars. 

Item, a lampe of pewter. 

Item, a lampe of latten. 

Item, y holy waterpootes of latten. 

Item, ij standard candlestycks of latten. 

Item, two basons of latten. 

Item, a piece of latten. 

Item, a crosse of copper and gilte. 

Item, a canype of cloth. 

Item, a centre cloth. 

Item, v Belles in the steeple, the best by estymacion xvic, 
and the residue under the same rate. 

Item, a chyme. 

Item, a clocke. 

Item, a saunce bell. 

Item, iiy hand belles. 

" All which is committed to the custody of R. A. W. 
Goodwyn, John Hether, and John Hoker, the sixt of October, 
in the sixt year of the raigne of our said sovereign Lord 
(Edward VI.) 

"Lacking* of the former inventory exhibited to the 
former Commissioners iiij painted aulter clothes out of their 
church ther, sins the same inventory was exhibited to the 
aforesaid Commissioners." " Examined by the Commissioners 

• On palling down an old bouse near Dorking, a sacramental cup, Bhaped 
like a wine glass, with curiously shaped stem, was found concealed in the roof. 
It may have been hidden by some one who had stolen it from the church fur- 
niture during the days of Edward VL At the sale of the Bernal Collection it 
realized the sum of eleven guineas. At a meeting of the Sooiety of Antiquaries 
held Hay 11th, 1876, Major Cooper exhibited a gold ring of the fifteenth century 
found at Dorking, on the bezel of which is the Blessed Virgin standing with her 
child in her right arm and a soeptre in her left hand. 



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70 THB TOWN OF DORKING. 

and found to be trewe." 

There was, in pre-Beformation times, a fraternity founded 
within the parish church towards finding one priest to pray 
for the souls of the brethren and sisters of the same 
fraternity for ever. 

On the 17th of November, 1569, a "Declaration was 
forwarded to the Council by Sir H. Weston, Sheriff, and 
others, Justices of Surrey, of their obedience to the provision 
of the Act of Uniformity of Common Prayer and observance 
of the Sacraments." This passage is extracted from the 
State Papers of the reign of Elizabeth, and shows the so- 
licitude of the Queen to establish the reformed faith. 

According to Aubrey, on the north side of the old church, 
there was a reading and writing school; on the south side 
a Latin school ; and in the vestry, then a school house, was 
this curious acrostic inscription : 

" I reland was my native place 

f Betchworth Castle I was Cooke, 

H ere we y having ran my race 

N atare's dissolved, for heaven I looke. 

O thou that read'st, learn this from me, 
Ab I am now, bo thou must he. 
W ealth God me lent, which by last will 

1 did bequeath as I thought beet, 

L caving a stranger the same to fulfil, 
D love which being " 

In the former chancel, on a black marble, was the following 
inscription: "Jacet sub hoc Marmore nobilissimum par 
Conjugum pariter et amantissimum ; Edvabdus Vaux Baroet 
de Habboden, et Elizabetha quoe, ex illustri Suffolciensi 
prosapia oriunda, Vidua fuerat relicta Gulielmi Kkoles. 
Comitis de Banbury, Diem obiit ilia suum, decimo quinto 
Calendas Aprilis, Anno Salutis Mundi, millesimo, sexcentesimo, 
quinquagesimo octavo ; et -SStatis subb sepuagesimo quinto ; 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 71 

Die vere suum clausit sexto idus Septembris, Anno, at 
incarnato Domino, millesimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo primo, 
et iEtatifl su» septuagesimo quarto, Pie obierunt Mundo, 
vivantque in eeternum Deo." 

The former fabric, which stood till 1836, was a gothic 
building with north and south aisles, and a low embattled 
tower over the transepts which divided the nave from the 
chancel. As the burial ground had been used for centuries, 
the soil around the church had risen several feet, and the 
entrance into the building was by a descent of several steps. 

The following passage from A. Beresford Hope, Esq., 
will best describe the interior and the former condition of 
public worship. 

" I may as well attempt to describe the visible form in 
which the Church of England and its worship were first 
made palpable to my childish senses, in the reign of 
George IV., and at an opulent and beautiful market town of 
Surrey, not thirty miles from London, which is now ac- 
customed to very different services. The building was a 
large, and had been a handsome, Gothic church, but of its 
interior the general parish saw very little, except the nave 
and aisles; for the chancel was cut off by a perfectly solid 
partition, covered with the usual sacred writings, and some 
strange painting, 4 ' among which Moses and Aaron shone in 
peculiar uncouthness. The eastern portion of the aisles was 
utilized for certain family pews or private boxes, raised aloft 
and approached by private doors and staircases. These 
belonged to the magnates of the neighbourhood, who were 
wont to bow their recognitions across the nave. There was 



• It is probable that the following entry refers to this strange ornament, 
" Church beautified 1674 A J)., Adam Browne, Esq., and James Mitchell, gent, 
being churchwardens." 



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72 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

also a decrepit western gallery for the band, and the ground 
floor was crammed with cranky pews of every shape. The 
pulpit, of the age of Charles I., stood against a pillar, with 
the reading desk and clerk's box underneath. I need hardly 
explain that the portion of the Communion office preceding 
the sermon was, Sunday after Sunday, read from the desk, 
separated from the Litany on the one side, and from the 
sermon on the other, by such a rendering of Tate and Brady 
as the unruly gang of volunteers, with fiddles and wind 
instruments, in the gallery, pleased to contribute. The clerk, 
a wizened old fellow in a brown Welsh wig, repeated the 
responses in a nasal twang, and with a substitution of 'w* 
for ' v ' so consistent as not even to spare the Belief ; while 
the local rendering of * briefs, citations, and excommuni- 
cations' included announcements by this worthy, after the 
Nicene Creed, of meetings at the town inn of the ' executors ' 
of a deceased Duke. Two hopeful cubs of the clerk sprawled 
behind him in the desk, and the back-handers occasionally 
intended to reduce them to order, were apt to resound against 
the impassive boards. During the sermon this zealous 
servant of the sanctuary would take up his broom and sweep 
out the middle alley, in order to save himself the fatigue of a 
week-day visit. Yet, repulsive and grotesque as were these 
accessories of worship in this town of three London coaches, 
it could at least boast, as countless country churches at 
that period could not, that it was open twice upon every 
Sunday, that Good Friday was not forgotten, and that on 
Christmas day the frequent holly sprigs betokened a faint 
recognition of Christian seasons. It also possessed one of 
the earliest national schools which had been built, so it was 
really not so very backward a parish. The pictures and the 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 73 

rustic band at length bad worked out their term, for a faint 
awakening of the ceremonial conscience in the townspeople 
led to the purchase of an organ, for which no better place 
could be found than a heavy new gallery, stretching across 
the eastern portion of the nave, and still more effectually 
blocking out the chancel. Had the poor old church weathered 
some seven or eight more years of degraded existence, it 
would probably be now standing as a handsome and well- 
restored structure. It was doomed to be replaced, in the year 
1885, by a broad but flimsy galleried appartment, in which, 
at all events, there was an apparent Lord's Table, flanked by 
corresponding praying and preaching pulpits. The clerk and 
his broom followed Moses and Aaron, the fiddle, and the 
bassoon, to the land of shadows, and public worship was, for 
successive years, continued in forms of cold decorum, till in 
fresh hands this second temple gave place piecemeal to a 
newer and nobler fane." 

Owing to the want of accommodation in 1829, there was 
a project to rebuild the parish church, which was abandoned 
probably from fear of too large an outlay. It was then 
proposed to build a chapel of ease, to contain five hundred 
persons, at a cost of £2500, exclusive of the price of the 
ground for a site. It was necessary to secure twelve sub- 
scribers of £50 each to gain the advantage of Parliamentary 
assistance, according to the provisions of an act passed in 
the fifth year of the reign of George IV. (1825). The object of 
the building was to secure that accommodation for the poor 
which could not be found in the old church. The project 
failed; but the end was realized in the re-building of the 
church on a larger scale in 1886. 

The foundation of the fabric which was reared after the 



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74 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

demolition of the old church, was laid October 28th, 1835, 
by Dr. Sumner, late Bishop of Winchester. After this 
building, which cost £9,828, had stood for thirty years, it was 
considered unattractive, and preparations were made for the 
erection of another, more in accordance with the revived style 
of church architecture. The fine old chancel was replaced by 
a new one, finished in 1868, which is built of Bath stone, 
with facings of black flint, from designs by H. Woodyer, Esq., 
of Guildford. The expense of this alteration was generously 
borne by Mrs. Burt, of Pippbrook House, Dorking. It was 
opened by Dr. Ryan, Bishop of Mauritius. The interior Of 
the church is rich in choice ecclesiastical ornament. - The 
reredos has carved marble groups of figures which represent 
saints and angels in the attitude of adoration ; and are placed 
on each side of the altar, and between them is a large metal 
cross with a background of green marble, with alabaster 
panels that contain emblems of the four Evangelists. The 
pulpit, obtained by the late Rev. S. Isaacson from the 
Netherlands, has in the front a carved representation of 
St. Martin dividing his cloak with a beggar ; and the legend 
states that on the following night he dreamt that he saw that 
portion of his garment on the shoulders of Jesus Christ. The 
floor is covered with Mintons' tiles of rich design ; and from 
the ceiling, which is of panelled oak, are suspended seven 
lamps. There are four large brass chandeliers, of which two 
stand without and two within the altar rails. The clergy and 
choir stalls are of carved oak, and are separated from the 
body of the church by gilded gates, surmounted by a hand- 
somely carved oak screen and cross. On the steps from 
the church into the chancel a brass with this inscription 
has been placed: "To the glory of God and to the pious 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 75 

memory of William Henry Joyce, priest, twenty years vicar 
of this parish, this screen was placed Anno Domini 1870." 



The outer walls of the church are built of flint with stone 
buttresses. In the interior blue forest stone is used for piers 
and arches, which latter are twenty-one feet in span. The 
building will accommodate seven hundred persons. The 
foundation stone of the tower and spire was laid by the late 
Bishop Wilberforce in 1872, which was his last act connected 
with church building in the diocese of Winchester. The 
edifice was completed by the erection of the spire in 1877. 
An anonymous donation of £1500, with other generous gifts, 



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76 THB TOWN OF DORKING. 

enabled the vicar and churchwardens to finish the building 
according to its original design, and the capital set of bells, 
which had long been silent, were rung again on New Year's 
Eve, 1878. 

Of the eight bells, the fifth is inscribed, "John WUner 
made me 1626." The first was given by John Spencer, 1709 : 
the second by William Fenwicke, 1709; the third by Mrs. 
Margaret Fenwicke, 1709 ; the fourth by John EoUier and John 
Pinney, 1709; the sixth by Robert Spencer; the seventh, 
" Bichard PhUps made me, 1710; " the eighth the Rev. Mr. 
Philip Walton, Yicar. 

The spire is two hundred feet high, with small lancet holes 
here and there, and has, at its base, figures of the Evan- 
gelists.* Three large stone dials indicate time for those 
who can see, and the chiming of the quarters and the tolling 
of the hours for those who can hear, are of considerable 
service to the inhabitants of the town. The south porch 
was erected as a mark of respect to the Eev. Philip Hoste, 
the former vicar, previous to his removal to Farnham. 
Adjoining the churchyard on the west, is a large room which 
is used for lectures and parochial purposes ; and close by is 
a coffee-room and a soup kitchen, in which are prepared 
dinners, beef-tea, and other comforts for sick and needy 
parishioners. 

The windows of the church are beautiful examples of 
stained glasswork. One in the south transept was erected 
by Mrs. George Cubitt to the memory of her late parents 
(the Eev. James and Mrs. Joyce). Her father was for many 

* There are several moral monuments in the church, among which we note 
one to Thomas Hart, Esq., fortjr-nye years Vestry Clerk of the parish, and 
placed *• by the inhabitants as tribute of respect to the memory of so excellent 
a friend, and conscientious a public man.** 



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THE TOWN OP DOMHNO. 77 

years vicar of the parish, and in the easternmost bay of the 
south aisle and clerestory there are two stained glass windows 
to the memory of her brother, the Rev. W. H. Joyce, who 
was vicar for the space of twenty years. The chief, or east 
window, represents, in different compartments, Christ's entry 
into Jerusalem; the Agony in the Garden; Bearing the 
Cross; Scene befere Pilate; St. John taking the Virgin 
home; the Resurrection ; and the appearance to Mary 
Magdalene in the Garden. The south and north chancel 
side-windows contain figures of the twelve apostles, with 
their names below; and there are groups drawn from the 
Acts of the Apostles, which represent the Election of 
Matthias; Pentecost; and Peter's preaching on that day; 
Peter baptizing; Peter and John healing the lame man at 
the beautiful gate of the temple ; Barnabas laying the price 
of his land at the Apostle's feet ; Peter and John delivered 
from prison; Peter and John before the council; Peter 
raising Dorcas ; Peter's vision ; Peter preaching to Cornelius ; 
and the death of James. As the church is dedicated to St. 
Martin of Tours, there are two windows which represent his 
military and priestly career. He appears as a Catechumen ; 
receiving baptism ; divides his cloak with a beggar, and has a 
vision of the Lord. As a priest he is instructed by Si 
Hilary ; converts his mother ; is elected Bishop of Tours ; 
burns pagan temples, and destroys sacred trees ; celebrates 
mass ; and dies at the age of 80. 

In concluding the description of St. Martin's Church, it 
may be desirable to refer to the Vicars who have held the 
living during the last half-century. Among them we find the 
names of the worthy Rev. Mr. Feacham; the Rev. James 
Joyce, eminent scholar, theologian, and christian poet; the 



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78 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Bey. W. H. Joyce, his son, conscientious and amiable ; and 
the Eev. Philip Hoste, now of Farnham. The present Vicar 
is the Eev. P. R. Atkinson, who is descended from an ancient 
family, eminent as Architects in the county of York. He was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, was B.A. in 1855, 
and has attained the ecclesiastical dignity, one probably never 
before held by any of his predecessors, of Canon of Winchester 
and Archdeacon of Surrey. 

THE VICARAGE OF ST. MARTIN'S 

stands in Sondes Place, on the Westcott Road. This house 
was in the possession of the Sondes' family from the reign of 
Henry HI. (1216—1272 A.D.) Through a marriage with an 
heiress who had property at Throwley, in the county of Kent, 
whither the family removed, the estate in Dorking was dis- 
posed of. There is, in the Harleian Miscellany (vol. x.), an 
affecting account written by the vicar of that parish during 
the Commonwealth, which describes the murder of one of 
Sir George Sondes' sons by his brother, and the subsequent 
execution of the murderer at Maidstone on August 21, 1655. 

Sondes Place, together with eight acres, two roods, and 
thirty-eight poles of land around it, was given by the late 
Duke of Norfolk for a vicarage. The former one was situated 
in Back Lane, now Church Street, and was inconvenient and 
dilapidated. It was sold under an Act of Parliament passed 
in the first year of Queen Victoria, and the proceeds applied 
to the purchase of the new vicarage-house. The remainder 
of the money was made up by a loan from the Governors of 
Queen Anne's Bounty in 1889. The Vicarage of Dorking -is 
in the Deanery of Stoke, and was rated in the Taxation of 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 79 

Henry Yin. at £14 18*. ll^d. per annum, and appears to 
have been charged with tenths to the King, and 2*. Id. for 
procurations and synodals. r The vicarial rent-charge as 
awarded by the recent tithe commutation act is £540. The 
chief lay impropriators are the Bey. Charles Parker, Bodiam 
Vicarage, Hawkhurst, Kent; L. M. Bate, Esq.; and Mr. 
W. Williamson, of Guildford. 

ECCLESIASTICAL. 

During the prevalence of Fresbyterianism, the parish 
church was served by a minister of that communion of the 
name of Mr. Nobbs. It is probable that the former incumbent 
died, and was not ejected from incapacity, ministerial neglect, 
or moral unfitness for the office. The Calendars of State 
Papers published by the Government, supply painful examples 
of the deplorable condition of many parishes where such 
measures of inquiry and action were absolutely needful. 
In the year 1654, at the Committee of Lords and Commons, 
for the judging of scandal, the county of Surrey was divided 
into six clasiss or circuits. This was occasioned by the 
prevalent neglect of discipline, and was designed to inquire 
chiefly into the character of the clergy of the day. The 
Dorking classis, which extended from Crawley to Betchworth, 
and from Letherhead to Ockley, was assigned to the following 
clergymen and lay-gentlemen: Rev. Messrs. Steere, of 
Newdigate; Geery, of Abinger; Cozens, of Dorking; Fisher, 
of Fetcham; Winge, of Ewhurst; and Denys, of Capel. 
Among the laity we find the names of Sir Ambrose Browne, 
of Betchworth ; George Evelyn, of Wotton ; Captain Buttery, 
of Dorking; and six others. Respecting this committee, 



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80 THE TOWN OP DORKING. 

Richard Baxter, though unfriendly to Cromwell, observes : 
" They saved many a congregation from ignorant, ungodly, 
drunken teachers ; that sort of men who intended no more 
in the ministry than to say a sermon as readers say their 
common prayers, and patch up a few good words together, 
to talk the people asleep on Sunday, and all the rest of the 
week go with them to the ale-house and harden them in their 
sin, and that sort of ministers who either preached against 
a holy life, or preached as men that never were acquainted 
with it." 

THE PABISH REGISTER. 

This register, like others of the same date, contains a 
variety of entries, and confirms the following description of 
such records by a writer in the "Cornhill Magazine" for 
September, 1879. 

"The parish register is often to an attentive reader a 
book of real interest. The more regular contents are 
frequently interspersed with curious and miscellaneous 
memoranda. Notices of royal visits and hunts ; of touchings 
for the king's evil ; of thanksgivings for British victories, and 
fasts on account of British defeats; of excommunications 
and public penances ; of executions ; of licences to eat flesh 
in Lent, and to marry during prohibited seasons — as in 
Advent or on Rogation days ; of epidemics ; of monstrous 
births, unusual deaths, and extraordinary ages ; of crops and 
prices; earthquakes and eclipses; floods and storms; of 
the foundation, repairs, and adornment of churches; these 
and many other diverse entries are to be found among the 
insertions of baptisms, marriages, and burials." 



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THE TOWN OP DORKING. 8l 

The old Dorking parish register, which contained the 
registration of baptisms, marriages, and burials, was stolen 
from the vestry ; and the present register begins in the year 
1588, A few extracts which justify the preceding description, 
may be interesting to the reader. 

"1562, February 28th. Owyn Tonny was christened ;" 
(added in a later hand), "who, scoffing at thunder, standing 
under a beech was stroke to death, his clothes stinking with 
a sulphurious stench, being about the age of twenty year or 
thereabouts, at Mereden House." 

From 156S to 1644, there are frequent entries of persons 
who died of the plague. 

" 1627, November 14. John Colcott, aged 108 years, was 
buried." * 

In 1685 two persons were tried at the assizes held in 
Dorking, and were executed. In 1686 five more suffered 
death ; and in 1668 five more — all of them being buried in 
the churchyard. 

" 1788, May 16. Bichard Madderson, aged 29 years, and 
was not above three feet and three inches high ; but in thick- 
ness grown as much as any other person. He was all his 
life troubled with an inward griping distemper, of which he at 
last died very suddenly." 

1622. The following entry is made by a new vicar on 
his appointment ; " Accepi clavem, intravi solus, oravi, tetigi 
sacra, pulsavi companas in nomine Patris, et Filii et Spiritus 

* " Some of your readers may be interested to know that last Sunday night 
a centenarian died in my parish. Mrs. Blackman was born at Newhaven, Sussex, 
on the 7th of September, 1778, and died on the 16th of February, 1879. I have 
known her for the last twelve years, and can testify to her being in full possession 
of her faculties to the end. She was ill for a fortnight, and on my last visit to 
her, a few hours before her death, was still able to converse with me." — Letter 
of Rev. Canon Holmes, Vicar of St. Paul's, Dorking, inserted in the " Times " 
of February 24th, 1879, 



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82 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

Sancti. Secundo die Maii, Ano Domi 1622. Per me Paulum 
Calaphum." 

It appears from the register of burials, and from other 
sources, that the assizes were held in Dorking in the years 
1625, 1636, 1687, 1689, 1647, and 1669, in which years 
several criminals, who had been condemned, were executed 
at the south end of the town, and the place of execution was 
for some time called " Qallow's Green," pn the Cold Harbour 
road. 

The visitation of the plague was frequently felt in Dorking, 
as in other parts of the country. From 1563 to 1647 there 
were, at intervals, numerous deaths in the town and neigh- 
bourhood. The mortality was so great in 1608 that one 
hundred and eight persons were buried in that year; and 
many of those who died from infection were buried in their 
houses, or in the neighbouring fields. 

During the Commonwealth, marriages were solemnized 
in the presence of a magistrate, and notices of marriage 
were published in the market. 



CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
(Founded 1662 A.D.) 

This Non-conformist Congregation originated in the year 
1662 A.D., when many clergymen were ejected from their 
livings for declining compliance with the terms of the Act 
of Uniformity. The movement was begun by the Rev. John 
Wood, formerly incumbent of North Chapel, Sussex, who, 
having a small estate at Westcott (then usually called 
Westgate), retired there, and preached in the town of 
Dorking. Calainy, in his Non-conformists Memorial, remarks 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 83 

" that he died in 1693, aged seventy-eight, and was a grave, 
solid and judicious divine ; who brought forth fruit in old 
age." In the " State Papers " there is a licence given to 
John Wood to be a Presbyterian Teacher in his house at 
Dorking. This is dated April 22, 1678. The place of 
worship was probably a barn on Butter or Borough Hill, 
and was connected with a dwelling house. 

He was assisted by the Bev. James Fisher, who was 
ejected from the neighbouring church of Fetcham. There 
are, in the " State Papers," notices of four licences for 
worship which were granted to James Fisher, the last of 
which runs, "The house of James Fisher, in Dorking, in 
Surrey, licence for a Congregational Meeting-place." In 
the year 1669, Archbishop Sheldon caused a general inquiry 
to be made through the kingdom respecting the numbers 
of Non-conformists in the different Counties. The following 
is an extract from the return for Stoke Deanery, in which 
the parish of Dorking is situated. 

"Dorking four conventicles: — "One at the house of 
Mb. John Wood, their speaker ; about 600. Teachers, the 
said Mr. Wood, and Mr. Kino of Ashtead. 

" Another at the house of Mr. James Fisher; about 100. 
Teachers, Mb. Feake, and other strangers. 

"Another at the house of John Barnard, their teacher. 
And a fourth conventicle," which was at the house of 
Michael Gale, at Sand Place, in Dorking. 

The register of baptisms appears to indicate that the 
Dorking Non-conformist Church possessed a kind of local 
importance, since many of the children were brought by 
their parents from Ewhurst, Horsham, Newdigate, Grinstead, 
Letherhead, Guildford, Chertsey, and Beigate. Some curious 

g 2 



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84 THE TOWN OP DORKING. 

names occur in the register, as Philadelphia, Thomasine, 
Yarico, and Dowzabella. In 1780 there are frequent entries 
of the baptism of the children of soldiers belonging to the 
Scotch Greys, the Old Buffs, the 69th Regiment of Foot, 
and to the Northumberland Militia. The last regiments 
were encamped on Ranmore Common, to be at hand in 
case of any outbreak in London ; and the occurrence of the 
Gordon Riots justified the step. Two of the soldiers died 
from eating the berries of the deadly night-shade. 

The old Church Book, which dates from 1718, contains 
some curious entries respecting Briefs, which were customarily 
addressed to all congregations for help in the way of col- 
lections for cases of accident, distress, and repairs of 
churches. The subjoined are a few examples selected from 
those found in the old registers belonging to the congregation. 

BRIEFS 

In 1786. For Houghton Regis and St. John's, 

Wapping 8 8£ 

" Castle Hays 2 11£ 

" Stony Stratford 1 2 

In 1788. " Ledbury Church 2 2| 

" Fairwell Church 1 7 

In 1744. " Chilworth 4 6 

" St. Albans 8 8 

In 1766. " Hailstorm in Yorkshire 1 1 

" Ditto in Berkshire 7 

" Ditto in Hampshire 1 1 

In 1798. " Fire in Liverpool 7 7 

" at Ellerton Paper Mill 5 6| 

Then follow several more for oyster dredging in the 

Medway and for damages produced by floods. The book 



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THB TOWN OF DORKING. 85 

informs us that the Rev. John Mason and the Bey. Dr. Kippis 
were ordained and consecrated by fasting, prayer, and im- 
position of hands to the work of the ministry* 

In the year 1809 the Rev. Thomas Spencer was engaged 
to preach in the old chapel, built in 1719, for the midsummer 
vacation. This youthful and popular preacher who, according 
to the estimate of the Rev. Robert Hall, seemed likely to 
carry the art of preaching to an unknown degree of 
perfection, was drowned at Liverpool, in the twentieth year 
of his age. He observes, in a letter, " Since I have been 
at Dorking, my time has been fully occupied by a variety 
of engagements. Preaching, walking, reading, and society 
have all urged their claims upon me, and each received a 
measure of attention. * * * The vicinity of this town 
is remarkably pleasant. In my walks I am sometimes led 
to see how the azure skies, meandering streams, flowery 
meads, and rising hills shew forth His eternal power and 
Godhead." 

The following list contains the names of those who have 
successively filled the pastoral office to the present date : 
Rev. John Wood, 1662; Samuel Brookes, 1695; Samuel 
Highmore, 1706; Joseph Stokes, 1717; John Mason, A.M., 
1729; Thomas Coad, 1746; Andrew Kippis, D.D., 1750; 
John Heap, 1754 ; Peter Emons, 1769 ; William Stuck, 1769 ; 
Joseph Hobson, 1797; John Whitehouse, 1812; Alfred 
Dawson, 1826 ; Richard Connebee, 1885 ; John Shenton 
Bright, 1847. The Rev. Thomas Coad, who ministered to 
the congregation, died in 1749, and his funeral sermon was 
preached by Dr. Milner, of Peckham, in whose school 
Oliver Goldsmith was sometime usher. In a note to this 
sermon, Milner adds " as I was composing this discourse 



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86 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

(Feb. 8th, half-past 12 p.m., 1749), I felt very sensibly the 
shock of an earthquake. Since which a more violent shock 
was felt, March 8th, thirty-five minutes past five in the 
morning." The following epitaph is inscribed in the small 
and modest tablet which is now affixed to the walls of the 
schoolrooms connected with the church. 

In Memory 

of 

The Eev. Mr. Thomas Coad, 

Late Pastor of this Church, 

Born at Stoford in Somersetshire, 

Di/d Jany. 24th, 1749, aged 52, 

Non Omnis Morior. 

Here, in expectance of the great assize, 
And hope of endless joys above the skies, 
His mortal part, the Body mouldering lies ; 
How just his hopes, and what his conduct here 
Will, at that day, without disguise appear ; 
Reader, be wise, and for thy change prepare. 

The father of Mr. Coad was, from his energetic Protes- 
tantism, an adherent of the Duke of Monmouth in his 
attempt against James II., and fought in the rising in the 
West of England ; but being defeated was, with many others, 
apprehended, and sentenced to be transported to Jamaica, 
where he preached the gospel to the slaves, and on his 
return to England, published a small work entitled " A 
Memorandum of the Wonderful Providences of God to a poor 
unworthy creature, from June 12, 1688, to Nov. 24, in the 
year 1690." 

The following epitaph refers to an honoured member of 
this church. 



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the town of dorking. 87 

Mart Alexander, 

Born October 5, 1741, 

a widow indeed 

who 

as she had opportunity 

Did good unto all, 

Especially unto those 

of the household of faith, 

long distinguished for 

Christian hospitality, 

Cheerful benevolence, 

and a lively interest, 

Uniformly and practically manifested, 

in this town 

and throughout the world, 

having entered the 92nd year of her age 

peacefully breathed her spirit 

into the hands of him who gave it, 

and left the world 

extensively known, honoured and beloved 

March 26th, 1833. 

The Eev. Jno. Whitehouse entered upon his work in 1812, 

and has left an honourable reputation for ardent piety and 

extensive usefulness. On one side of the pulpit there is 

a tablet and inscription, of which the following is an extract : 

The Rev. John Whitehouse, 

Released from a state of toil and conflict 

entered into rest and peace Jan. 22, 1825, 

having sojourned on earth 38 years, 

during twelve, amidst many infirmities of body, 

he dispensed the word of life in this place. 



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88 THE TOWN OP DORKING. 

The holy doctrine which his lips proclaimed 

was illustrated and commended by his Ufe, 

by the christian virtues, meekness, humility, and love 

which in every relative capacity adorned his character, 

and will long endear his memory to the hearts of survivors. 

" Yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me." 

1 Cor. xv. 10. 

On the other side of the pulpit is another tablet with 

the following inscription : 

Sabred to the Memory of 

the Rev. Alfred Dawson, 

who, after four years of ministerial labour at 

Grantham in Lincolnshire, 

entered into rest March 30th, 1835, aged 41. 

The amiable temper and religious excellence 

which greatly endeared him to a large circle of christian friends 

prepared him to enter on an early immortality. 

So long as this 'sacred edifice stands 

the usefulness of his ministry will not want a memorial; 

For the erection became necessary 

to accommodate the increasing number of his hearers. 

His end illustrated the sufficiency of the gospel he had preached, 

the great husbandman taught him to engraft piety on suffering, 

and the fruit was peace. 

His eminent devotion made his habitation tlte house of God 

while he lived, 

and when he died, God made it the gate of heaven. 

There are other mural tablets in the church which record 
the piety and services of former attendants. New School- 
rooms were built in 1858 at a cost of £800. In 1874 the 
whole fabric was repaired, the pewing improved, the windows 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 89 

were altered, a new organ and a warming apparatus provided, 
which required an outlay of £1055. By the generosity of 
the members of the congregation, visitors, and some friends 
in the neighbourhood, the amount was speedily collected, 
and the place re-opened without the incumbrance of a debt. 

As a fabric, this place of worship is the oldest building 
in the town and neighbourhood, until we reach the ancient 
churches of Mickleham, Wotton, and Ockley. 

THE SOCIETY OP FRIENDS. 

The original meeting house of this body of christians 
stands hidden by houses erected in front of it in West Street, 
opposite that ancient block of buildings now occupied by 
Messrs. Allatson, English, and Payne. The edifice is plain 
and homely in appearance, had formerly a grass plot in 
front of it, and a pleasant curtain of lime trees towards the 
street. The old chapel was, for a time, the depot of the arms 
of the Dorking Rifle Corps ; which supplied a strange contrast 
to the presence of the peace-loving members of the Society of 
Friends who formerly worshipped there. Many years ago, 
Joseph John Gurney, a distinguished member of the Society, 
preached in the old place which, with a tent, and the 
attendant's house, was crowded to excess. During the service 
the last mentioned portion of the building, through the decay 
of the floor joists, gave way, and about sixty persons fell 
into the cellar below. Happily, beyond a few bruises, no 
injuries were sustained, and after a short time Mr. Gurney, 
with exemplary calmness and self-possession, resumed and 

concluded his address. 

The present place of worship, which stands on a pleasant 

spot at the foot of Rose Hill, was erected in 1846. 



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90 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

The Society of Friends in Dorking was originally 
connected with members of the same profession at Horsham, 
Beigate, and Brockham Hurst. 



WESLETAN CHURCH AND JOHN WESLEY (1764 A.D.) 

In former years the members of the Wesleyan Communion 
worshipped in a large room, situated in a yard near the Bed 
Lion. Their society had previously experienced great 
fluctuations, and in some years their worship was conducted 
in the houses of friends in the town. In the year 1850 their 
present place of worship in Church Street was built ; and it 
was opened by the late distinguished Bev. Bobert Newton. 
Divine service is conducted by local and travelling preachers, 
who are connected with the Bedhill Circuit. 

The following extracts from John Wesley's Diary relate to 
his visits to the town. 

" Thursday, 12 " (Jan. 1764). " I preached at Mitcham, 
and in the afternoon rode to Dorking. But the gentleman to 
whose house I was invited seemed to have no desire I should 
preach. So in the evening I had nothing to do. Friday 18, 
I went at noon into the street ; and in a broad place not far 
from the market place proclaimed the grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. At first two or three little children were the 
whole of my congregation, but it quickly increased, though 
the air was sharp, and the ground exceeding wet ; all behaved 
well but three or four gambling men who stood so far off 
that they disturbed no one but themselves." 

" Wednesday, 19 " (Jan., 1771). " About noon I preached 
at Dorking. The hearers were many and seemed all 
attention." 



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THE TOWN OF DORKING. 91 

"Monday, 16" (Dec., 1771). "I rode to Dorking, where 
were many people ; but none cut to the heart." 

" Monday, 28 " (Dec, 1772). " I opened the new House* 
at Dorking, and was much comforted both this and the 
following evening. In returning to London I read over 
Belisarius. The historical part is both affecting and 
instructive. But the tedious detail of the duties of a king 
might very well be spared." 

"Thursday, 1st" (Dec, 1775). "I preached at Dorking, 
and was much pleased with the congregation, who seemed 
to ' taste the Good Word.' " 

" Thursday, 17 " (Jan., 1780). " I preached at Dorking, 
and could not but reflect; in his room I lodged the first 
time I saw poor Mr. Ireland. Emphatically poor ! Poor 
beyond expression, though he left four score thousand pounds 
behind him." 

" Tuesday 28," (1781). I went to Dorking, and buried 
the remains of Mrs. Attersal, a lovely woman, snatched away 
in the bloom of youth. I trust it will be a blessing to many, 
and to her husband in particular." 

" Thursday 20th," (1788). " I went to Dorking, and in 
the afternoon took a walk through the lovely gardens of 
Lord Grimston, (Bury Hill). His father-in-law, who laid 
them out, is some time since numbered with the dead ; and 
his son-in-law, living elsewhere, has not the beholding of 
them with his eyes." 

"Monday, 16" (Feb., 1789). "I went to Dorking. I 
scarce find any society in England like this. Year after 
year it seems at one stay, neither increasing nor decreasing ; 

* " This place of worship has been adapted to form cottages now known 
as Chapel Cottages in Church Street. 



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92 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

only if one or two die, one or two are quickly added to fill 
up the number." 

The last entry in Wesley's Diary occurs when he was 
eighty-four years of age, in which he remarks ; " I went to 
Dorking and found a lively and well-established people." 

ST. PAUl/S CHURCH (A.D. 1857.) 

This church was built and endowed chiefly by the zeal 
and liberality of the late John Labouchere, of Broome Hall, 
and was consecrated by the late Bishop of Winchester, July 
17, 1857. A collection, which amounted to £196 16s. 8d., 
was made at the close of the service for the building of the 
vicarage. The ground for the schools, vicarage, and church, 
was generously given by the late H. T. Hope, Esq., of 
Deep Dene. The late Lieut.-Gol. Atchison and the late 
Mr. Bichard Attlee were the first churchwardens chosen by 
the vestry. Since the consecration the church has been 
twice enlarged. The following epitaph is on the north side 
of the chancel ; " Sacred to the memory of George Tournour 
Horton Atchison, Captain of her Majesty's 67th Regiment, 
and Deputy Assistant Quarter-master General to the troops 
in North China, eldest son of Captain Atchison, of Bose Hill,. 
Dorking." 

" He died at Tien-tsin, China, on the 21st of July, 1861, 
in his twenty-eighth year, after a service of ten years in the 
67th Regiment, including the capture of the Takee forts, 
and the campaign of 1860 in North China." His surviving 
brother officers have erected this tablet as a memorial of 
their deep regret for the loss of one whom they greatly loved 
and respected." 

" Not slothful in business, fervent in Spirit, serving the Lord." 



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• Churchwardens." 



THE TOWN OF DORKING. 98 

A brass plate contains the following inscription — 

" In memory of Lieut-Colonel Henry Alexander Atchison, 
of Eose Hill, Dorking, late of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment. 
Born March 25th, 1806, died September 25th, 1869." 

Another brass plate refers to the liberality of the late 
Thomas Stilwell, Esq., of Trashurst. 

" This inscription is to record the munificence of 

Thomas Stilwell, Esq., of Trashurst, who in addition to 

former liberal gifts to this church, has recently at his sole cost 

beautified the chancel and erected the pulpit and reading desk." 

" Samuel Holmes, Vicar, 

Alexander Weddell, 

Thomas L. M. Winter, 

One of the stained windows of this church was presented 
by Mrs. Hope, and contains the following inscription — 

" To the memory of Thomas Hope, Esq., of the Deep 
Dene, Surrey ; Blaney Castle, Ireland ; and Piccadilly, 
London. Born April 11th, 1807. Died December 4th, 1862. 
By his Widow." 

"the brbthben." 

The place of worship, which has been reared for the use 
of this class of christians, is in Hampstead Road ; and was 
opened for public worship, August, 1868. The services, 
which are conducted by the male members of the fellowship, 
consist of the "breaking of bread" — or the Celebration of 
the Lord's Supper in the morning of every Sunday ; and the 
" preaching of the Gospel " in the evening of the day. 

baptist ohuroh (1869 a.d.) 

Some christians of the Baptist Communion commenced a 
public service in the Old Infant Schoolroom, and formed 



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94 THE TOWN OF DORKING. 

a fellowship in 1869. The memorial stone of their place 
of worship was laid on the 5th of June by Thomas 
Steele, Esq., who gave the site for the edifice. It is a 
commodious structure and the walls of the interior are brick 
in ornamental patterns. There is a large baptistery near 
the pulpit, for the celebration of the rite of baptism by 
immersion. The church was opened for divine service on 
the 25th of October, 1876, by the Eev. J. P. Chown, of 
London. 



ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH (1872 A.D.) 

The present temporary building is dedicated to St. Joseph, 
and will be used as a school when the large church is built 
on the adjacent ground. The present fabric and priest's 
house were erected by the Duchess of Norfolk, on land her 
Grace bought for the purpose. Divine service was begun on 
July 3rd, 1872, by the Bishop of Southwark, who celebrated 
pontifical mass ; the sermon was preached by the Rev. Canon 
Oakley, and the most Rev. Monsignor Capel preached in the 
evening. The ancient manorial rights of the Norfolk family 
partly prompted the Duchess to erect these buildings. The 
Duke of Norfolk is lord of the manor of Dorking. His 
ancestor De Mowbray inherited it from Warrenne, the friend 
and companion of William the Conqueror, who held lands 
extending from Shoreham, on the coast of Sussex, through 
Bramber, Steyning, Horsham, Rusper, Ockley, Newdigate 
to Dorking. Although these rights have been in the course 
of centuries much curtailed, and the property diminished by 
fines, sequestrations, and other losses, there is still a large 
extent of both in the county of Surrey. 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 97 



DISTINGUISHED EESIDENCES. 



BROOME HALL. 

A little to the south of Leith Hill stands Broome Hall, 
which was formerly the residence of Andrew Spottiswoode, 
Esq., and afterwards of the excellent John Labouchere, Esq. 
It is now the property of Frederick Pennington, Esq., M.P. 
for Stockport. The mansion is surrounded by lawns and 
gardens; the terrace commands the prospect of the Weald 
of Sussex with its fertile expanse, part of the county of 
Kent to the east; and to the west, part of the county of 
Hants. The South Downs limit and frame the view on the 
south ; and on the north, Leith Hill forms a magnificent 
background. The gardens and parts of the estate have been 
enriched and adorned by the planting of choice conifers and 
other trees, which add much to the charm of the scenery. 
The residence is rich in works of decorative art, and contains 
pictures by Linnell, and Caldecott ; a fine marine subject by 
Brott, the celebrated " Esther " and " Vashti " by Long, and 
some excellent works by foreign artists. 

Mr. Pennington is the fourth son of John Pennington, 
Esq., of Hindley, county of Lancaster, born in 1819, married 



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98 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

in 1854, Margaret, daughter of the Rev. John Sharpe, Vicar 
of Doncaster and Canon of York, and has a son, Frederick, 
born 1864. Mr. Pennington is a magistrate for Surrey, 
and purchased Broome Hall of the Laboucheres in 1865. 

Mr. W. Spottiswoode was the son of Mr. Andrew 
Spottiswoode, the former proprietor of Broome Hall, and in 
1846 became a partner in the important and celebrated firm 
of Eyre & Spottiswoode, which is one of the oldest printing 
establishments in London. Since then he has been an 
active man of business, as well as a distinguished man of 
science and a man of the world, whose houses in London 
and Sevenoaks were almost constantly filled by distinguished 
guests, both English and foreign. To accomplish all this, 
make elaborate and delicate experiments, contribute a 
succession of papers to the Transactions of the Boyal Society 
and the Philosophical Magazine, to mix frequently in general 
society, to preside over the chief of scientific bodies, and 
manage a large business, was possible only to a man who 
would map out the work of every day and never waste a 
minute of his time. And this was the case with Mr. 
Spottiswoode. 

The Athenaeum remarks, "He was a many-sided man 
whose greatness is not to be described in a single word. His 
earliest mathematical essays, entitled Meditationes Analytic®, 
were published in the same year in which he gained the 
Senior Mathematical Scholarship in his University. The 
dedication is at least curious : " To all those who love to 
wander on the shore till the day when their eyes shall be 
opened and they shall see clearly the works of God in the 
unfathomed ocean of truth, these papers are inscribed." In 
1851 appeared his " Elementary Theorems relating to 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 99 

Determinants." The titles of his mathematical works are 
very numerous. He turned his attention to the polarization 
of light — electrical discharges, rarified gases and other 
physical researches, and his address as president of the 
British Association at Dublin in 1878, and his earlier address 
at Birmingham in 1865, will ever remain monuments of his 
philosophic power." 

His was eminently ap organizing brain, gifted with great 
clearness, complete mastery of detail, unfailing punctuality, 
and power at once to seize the essence of any matter brought 
under his notice. Personally he was most kind and generous, 
eminently tolerant of differences of opinion, and courteous 
to all with whom he came into contact. He succeeded Sir 
Joseph Hooker as President of the Boyal Society in 1878, 
and was the first President who died in his office since Sir 
Joseph Banks. His death, which occurred June 27, 1883, 
was caused by typhoid fever, complicated by congestion of 
the lungs, though his strength had been shaken by a 
severe accident he met with some months before, and by his 
indefatigable attention to the various duties he had under- 
taken to fulfil. 

He was buried in Westminster Abbey, near the grave of 
Archbishop Spottiswood, and his funeral was attended by 
many Members of both Houses of Parliament, Chancellors 
of Universities, Heads of Colleges, Dignitaries of the Church, 
Professors of Science, Fellows of Learned Societies, Men 
famous in the World of Art, Publishers and Printers, 
and others, who testified, by their presence, their high regard 
for the President of the Royal Society, and the Queen's 
Printer. 

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100 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 



BURFORD LODGE. 

This estate and mansion were once held hy G. Barclay, 
Esq., who erected a votive pedestal and urn to the poet 
Shenstone, with this inscription : 

D. M. S. 

Gulielmus Shenstone, 

D. D. L. L. 

•• To the bard of Leasowe's grove, 
Tears of silent tribute lend ; 
Scenes like these he loved to rove, 
Nature's and the Muse's friend. 

Tho' no more the path he guides, 
Through the dell's embow'ring shade, 
Still his spirit there presides, 
Still his urn shall deck the glade." 

This property came afterwards into ^he possession of the 
late Dr. Gordon, and is now the seat of Sir Trevor Lawrence, 
M.P. for Mid-Surrey. It is situated near the western slope 
of Box Hill, at the foot of which the Mole flows towards 
Burford Bridge. In addition to the beauty of the lawns, 
the park, and the river, there are conservatories which contain 
many plants remarkable for wealth of bloom and attraction 
of foliage. The collections here, especially of orchids, are 
a source of great interest to the proprietor, who has inherited 
from his mother, Mrs. Lawrence of Ealing, a genuine love of 
gardens and gardening. The orchid houses rank among the 
first in England, for the number and variety of that class 
of growths, which, for peculiarity of structure, range of form, 
and vivacity of colour, may be considered the most curious 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 101 

in the vegetable kingdom. The attention, skill, constant care, 
and ingenious adaptations to realize, as far as possible, a 
resemblance to the natural conditions in which they grow, 
produce the most attractive results in the exquisite variety 
of charming flowers, some of which we may notice in the 
following brief outline. 

The Cool Rome is filled with odontoglossums from the 
mountainous parts of New Grenada, Columbia, Peru, and 
Guatemala, which, in their native habitats, enjoy an equable 
atmosphere, and grow amidst the moisture produced by 
heavy rainfalls, and in the shade of woods and forests. This 
house, which is kept as cool and moist as possible in summer, 
contains the Odontoglossum Alexandra, named in honour 
of the Princess of Wales, and has lovely spikes of white 
flowers ; the 0. Pescatorei, Grande, and Vexillarium, which 
latter has large-lipped rosy blooms. There is also the rare 
0. Andersonianum, the Lycate Skinneri, with its chaste 
variety called "album," of which the blossoms last eight 
weeks in perfection. In addition to these choice plants may 
be seen the 0. Coronarium, and the fantastic 0. Cirrhosum. 
Suspended from the roof, and growing on bare blocks of 
box-wood, are many Oncidiums, including 0. Varicosum, 
Eogersii, which, with the Masdevallias with their weird, 
drooping, trifid flowers, and the Medusae Manodes, deserve 
special notice. 

Rouse No. 2 is devoted to plants which require a somewhat 
higher temperature, and less moisture. Here are the Laelia 
Elegans from Brazil ; splendid Cattleyas ; the very fragrant 
Trichopilias from South America; Bollceas and Pescatorias 
from the same region, where, as collectors report, it rains 
every day of the year. Here is the vast mass of bloom of 



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102 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

the chaste winter-flowering Caelogyne Gristata from Nepaul; 
Cypripediums from New Grenada ; Cymbidiums from Sikkim 
and Assam ; immense plants of the Zygopetalum Maxillare ; 
and some terrestrial Calanthes. From the roof hang large 
Indian Dendrobiums, and the rare Odontoglossum Londes- 
burghianum. 

, In House No. 3 are to be found Gattleyas from Brazil and 
the neighbouring countries. The blooms of these orchids, 
which range in colour, from pure white to brilliant scarlet and 
rich purple, create universal admiration. Laelia Harpophylla 
produces its wealth of scarlet flowers, and the chaste 
Dendrobium Suavissimum, with many other growths, whose 
roots clasp bare blocks of wood, enrich the collection. 

No. 4 House is chiefly filled with orchids from the East 
and West Indies. Here are to be found the Calanthe Vestita 
Rubra, and Veitchii, and Cypripediums (Venus' Slippers), 
comprising all the best known varieties. One of the last 
mentioned curious plants (C. Candatum) has the two side 
petals run out to a length of more than two feet. The 
Dendrobium Nobile, Fimbriatum, the Dove Orchid from the 
West Indies, the fine Vanda tricolor Eusselliana ; Stanhopeas 
with their grotesque flowers which hang from the bottom 
of the baskets in which they grow; lovely Burlingtonias, 
and other orchids enrich this department. 

Shelley justly styles them 

** The parasites, 
Starred with ten thousand blooms, flow around 
The gray trunks, and as gamesome infants' eyes, 
With gentle meanings, and most innocent wiles, 
Fold their beams round the hearts they love, 
These twine their tendrils with the wedded boughs." 

There is another house devoted to orchids from the hottest 
parts of the world; among which are to be found the 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 103 

Phaloenopsis from Borneo and Manilla ; the Angroecum from 
Madagascar ; the Saecolobium Giganteum from Cochin China ; 
and others which bloom in beauty and profusion in the early 
months of the year. The Mexican house is filled with 
orchids which require more sunshine than many other 
specimens. A small house with an eastern aspect has many 
plants which come from the Peruvian Andes. The curious 
Masdevallia Toranensis is remarkable for its rarity ; and, to 
conclude this brief outline, there are the wonderful Cape 
Orchid, Disa Grandiflora, and fine American Cypripediums. 

The health and perfect condition of this rare collection 
prove the skill and experience of Mr. Spyers, the super- 
intendent; and suggest the resources and intelligence of 
Sir Trevor Lawrence, who, upon application, gives permission, 
especially to lovers of orchids, to visit the houses. 

Sir John James Trevor Lawrence was born in 1881, and 
married in 1869, Bessie, only child of the late J. Matthew, 
Esq., and is M.P. for Mid-Surrey. 



BURY HILL. 

Bury Hill is supposed by Puttock to derive its name 
from Burgh, a fort ; and tradition hints that the hill on the 
right of Milton Heath is a tumulus (a place of burial after 
a battle), which is rendered probable from a neighbouring 
meadow being known as "Warfield." It is thought that 
the Burgh was occupied as a Boman station for the protection 
of the road which ran from the south coast to London, which 
was not probably formed until the time of Honorius and 



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104 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Arcadius (circa 895). In old deeds a piece of land in 
Westcott is called Burghland. 

The mansion is finely situated oi\ a slope which is 
surrounded by plantations, and has, in the foreground, a 
large sheet of ornamental water, which is a beautiful object 
in summer, when the island is rich in foliage ; and in winter 
when it is frozen, and becomes a scene of animation from the 
number who find pleasure in the heathful and graceful 
exercise of skating. 

To the east is the Nower (which word signifies a projecting 
headland), on which is a rustic temple much resorted to in 
summer months by the inhabitants, and visitors to the 
neighbourhood. The gardens belonging to the mansion are 
large and choicely planted; and the numerous varieties of 
rhododendrons give great charm to the walks and terraces. 
There is a fine collection of conifers which include the Pinus 
occarpa, P. leiophylla, P. insignis, P. lareana, Pseudo strobus, 
and many others. Some have attained a considerable height 
and are beautiful growths. The Pinus insignis is more than 
thirty feet high ; the Abies Douglassi, forty-five feet ; the 
Pinus Cembra, twenty feet ; the Pinus romana, twenty-eight 
feet. The Pinus pinaster, escarina, and the Cupressus 
Gossantiana, with many others, are in a most flourishing 
condition. There is a Wistaria Sinensis, said to be a cutting 
from the first plant brought into the country by Captain 
Welbank.* 

There is an observatory, furnished with telescopes and 
instruments, and over the entrance, the following lines 

* The gardens are, in the summer, usually thrown open for one day 

for the inhabitants of the town ; but the paths and walks round the mansion 

are strictly private, and permission to pass through them must be obtained 
of Mr. Barclay. 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCIES. 105 

from Dante. 

•• Per ohe, se tu alia veritu oirconde 
La tua misura, non alia parvenza 
Delle soBtanzie che t'appajono tonde, 
Ta vederai mirahil convenenza 
Di maggio a pid, e di minore a meno, 
In ciascun oiclo, a sua intellegenza." 

Paradiso, Canto xxviii. 

There is a tablet affixed to the structure which bears the 
inscription : 

"Erected by Arthur Kett Barclay, 1848." 
• This property was originally a part of the waste of 
the manor of Milton ; and was enclosed during the last 
century by Edward Walter, Esq., M.P. for Milbourn Port, 
Somersetshire, who resided first at Ghadhurst Farm. By 
his marriage with Harriet, the youngest daughter and 
co-heiress of George, Lord Forester, whose only surviving 
child, a daughter, was married to James Bucknell, third 
Viscount Grimston, (created Baron Verulam in 1790), and 
on the decease of her father, inherited the property. It was 
sold by Lord Verulam to Robert Barclay, Esq., about 1805. 

The late Mr. Robert Barclay, from his connexion with 
Mr. Thrale, had several opportunities of meeting and 
conversing with Dr. Johnson. On his becoming a partner 
in the celebrated brewery in Southwark, Johnson advised him 
not to allow his commercial pursuits to divert his attention 
from his studies. " A mere literary man," said the Doctor, 
" is a dull man ; a man who is solely a man of business is 
a selfish man ; but when literature and commerce are united, 
they make a respectable man." Mr. Barclay saw Johnson 
a few days before he died, when the latter observed "that 
they should never meet more; have you any objection to 
receive an old man's blessing ? " Mr. Barclay knelt down, and 



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106 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Johnson gave his blessing with great fervency. On Mr. 
Thrale's death in 1781, Mr. Robert Barclay became the head 
of the celebrated brewery, known as Barclay, Perkins, & Co. 
Dr. Johnson had been left executor to Mr. Thrale, and, in 
his new capacity, was seen at the sale "bustling about with 
an inkhorn, and a pen in his button hole, like an exciseman," 
and on being asked what he really considered the value of 
the property which was to be disposed of, answered, "We 
are not here to sell a parcel of boilers and vats, but the 
potentiality of growing rich beyond the dreams of avarice." 

The Barclay family traces its descent from Alexander 
de Berclay, circa 1826, who is described as holding land 
in Gloucestershire, was direct descendant of Roger de 
Berclai in the time of Edward the Confessor, and inherited 
the old family estate in the shire of Mearns in Scotland. 

David II. granted to him and Kathleen his wife the 
lands of Mathers. 

David Barclay of Mathers, born 1580, sold the property 
of Mathers, and married the daughter of Sir John 
Livingstone by whom he had : 

Colonel David Barclay, born 1610, served with great 
distinction under Gustavus Adolphus in his wars against 
Austria, and for the defence of the Protestant cause. He 
purchased the lands of Urie, Co. Kincardine, from 
William, Earl Marischal, and married the daughter of Sir 
Robert Gordon, of Gordonstone ; and had, for his son, Robert 
Barclay, the Apologist, who was born in 1648. His book, 
" an Apology for Christian Divinity," represents and defends 
the doctrinal views of the Society of Friends, and contains 
many proofs of the author's learning and piety. In 1669 he 
married Christian, daughter of Gilbert Mollison, Esq., of 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 107 

Mollison, and from him descended the Barclays of Bury Hill 
by his second son David. 

David Barclay, second son of Robert Barclay, of Urie, 
married first, in 1707, Anne, daughter of James Taylor, Esq., 
of London, and secondly, in 1728, Priscilla, daughter of 
John Feame, Esq., of London, from whom descended Robert 
Barclay, of Bury Hill. David Barclay entertained Queen 
Anne, George I., George II., and George HI., when they 
visited the city of London on Lord Mayor's Day. 

Robert Barclay, born 1751, married Rachel, daughter of 
John Gurney, Esq., of Keswick, and settled at Bury Hill. 

Robert Barclay, of Urie, born 1781-2, married in 1776, 
Sarah Anne Allardice, of Allardice, heiress of the Earls of 
Airth and Monteith, and of Prince David, Earl of Strathearn, 
son of Robert II. King of Scotland. Mr. Barclay Allardice 
died in 1854, and the representation of the male line devolved 
to Charles Barclay, son of Robert, and his heir born in 1780. 
Charles Barclay, Esq., was M.P. for Southwark, Dundalk and 
West Surrey, and High Sheriff in 1842. 

Arthur Eett Barclay, Esq., born in 1806, married in 1886, 
Octavia, daughter of Ichabod Wright, Esq., of Mapperly, 
Co. Notts, and was F.R.S., J.P., and D.L. 

Robert Barclay, born 1887, now represents the family of 
the Barclays of Mathers and Urie, and is the present chief 
of the house, married in 1877, Laura Charlotte Rachel, 
eldest daughter of Marmaduke Wyvill, Esq., of Constable- 
Burton, M.P. for Richmond, Co. York, by Laura his wife, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Charles Ibbetson, Bart., of 
Denton Park. The family of Robert Barclay, Esq., consists 
of a son and heir, Robert Wyvill, born November 23, 1880, 
and a daughter, born December 16, 1881. 



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108 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 



CAMILLA LACEY 

Is a memorable spot, both for its natural beauty and its 
literary associations. The name " Camilla " was derived 
from one of Miss Burney's novels, but the word " Lacey " is 
one which occurs again in the neighbourhood, as in " Polesden 
Lacey," is probably derived, according to the suggestion of 
Dr. Doran, from a word which signifies "added fields 
or lands." 

Having noticed in the section devoted to " Literary 
Associations " the works which make her name so well known, 
it will be advisable to notice those incidents in her life which 
make " Camilla Lacey " so attractive. She was the daughter 
of Dr. Burney, celebrated from his knowledge of music, 
and his history of that delightful art. 

In 1786 she was appointed, through the influence of 
Mrs. Delany, to be one of the keepers of the Queen's robes. 
Of the duties of this place at Court, Macaulay remarks-: 
"What was demanded of her was that she should consent 
to be as almost as completely separated from her family and 
friends as if she had gone to Calcutta, and almost as 
close a prisoner as if she had been sent to gaol for a libel ; 
that with talents which had instructed and delighted the 
highest living minds, she should now be employed only in 
mixing snuff and sticking pins; should sometimes fast till 
she was ready to swoon with hunger; should sometimes 
stand till her knees gave way with fatigue ; that she should 
not dare to speak or move without considering how her 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. Ill 

Mistress, (Madame Schwellenberg, Mistress of the Robes), 
might like her words and her gestures." 

An extract from a letter to her sister amusingly describes 
some of the restraints of Court etiquette : " Directions for 
coughing, sneezing, or moving before the King and Queen. — In 
the first place you must not cough. If you find a cough 
tickling in your throat, you must avert it from making any 
sound ; if you find yourself choking, with forbearance you 
must choke — but not cough. In the second place you must 
not sneeze. If you have a vehement cold you must take no 
notice of it ; if your nose-membranes feel a great irritation, 
you must hold your breath ; if a sneeze still insists on 
making its way, you must oppose it by keeping your teeth 
grinding together ; if the violence of the repulse breaks 
some blood-vessel, you must break the blood-vessel — but 
not sneeze. In the third place you must not, upon any 
account, stir hand or foot. If, by any chance, a black pin 
runs into your head, you must not take it out. If the pain 
is very great, you must be sure to bear it without wincing ; 
if it bring tears into your eyes, you must not wipe them off ; 
if they give a tingling by running down your cheeks, you 
must look as if nothing was the matter. If the blood should 
gush from your head by means of the black pin, you must 
say nothing about it." 

After five years endurance of the restraints of Court life, 
and the growing despondency of her mind and failure of 
strength and spirits, she was released from her appointment, 
though Queen Charlotte was reluctant to let her go. She 
enjoyed a pension of a hundred a year, and left the Court 
on July 7, 1791. 

On her visit to Mr. Lock, of Norbury, she became 



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112 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

acquainted with the French exiles who then occupied Juniper 
Hall; where she listened with rapture to Talleyrand, and 
Madame de Stael, and took French lessons from the 
Chevalier D'Arblay, to whom she was married in 1798, in 
Mickleham Church. He had been Adjutant- to Lafayette, 
and was on guard at the Tuileries on the night when 
Louis XVI. fled to Varennes. She fell in love with him and 
married him on no better provision than a precarious annuity 
of one hundred pounds. 

Dr. Burney visited his daughter at Westhumble and 
observes : 

" And thence I went to Camilla Cottage at Westhumble ; 
a cottage built on a slice of Norbury Park, by M. d'Arblay 
and my daughter, from the production of Camilla, her third 
work ; and where, and at Mr. and Mrs. Lock's, I passed my 
time most pleasantly, in reading, in rural quiet, or in 
charming conversation." This small residence here mentioned 
by Dr. Burney, of which the structure was just now completed, 
had playfully received from himself, the name of Camilla 
Cottage; which name was afterwards adopted by all the 
friends of the Hermits. Its architect, who was also its 
principal, its most efficient, and even its most laborious 
workman, had so skilfully arranged its apartments for use 
and for pleasure, by investing them with imperceptible 
closets, cupboards, and adroit recesses; and contriving to 
make every window offer a freshly beautiful view from the 
surrounding beautiful prospects, that while its numerous, 
though invisible conveniences, gave it comforts which many 
dwellings on a much larger scale do not possess, its pleasing 
form, and picturesque situation, made it a point, though in 
miniature, of beauty aud ornament from every spot in the 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 118 

neighbourhood, whence it could be discerned." 

The Cottage was named " Camilla Lacey " from the fact 
that it was built with the proceeds of the novel of that title. 
She felt considerable interest in the progress of the building, 
and in providing conveniences for its inmates ; and remarks 
in reference to the digging of the well, which was very deep, 
that it was " impervious." Many distinguished visitors 
found their way to Camilla Lacey, who had first visited 
Fredley and " Conversation Sharp," and were desirous of an 
interview with one who had been eminent as a writer of 
fiction with scarcely an imitable model, and had supplied the 
means of pleasure without impairing the sense of moral 
obligation. 

Sir Walter Scott writes " I was introduced by Rogers to 
Madame D'Arblay, the celebrated authoress of "Evelina" 
and " Cecilia " ; an elderly lady with no remains of personal 
beauty, but with a simple and gentle manner. She told me 
she had wished to see two persons — myself of course being 
one, and George Canning. This was really a compliment to 
be pleased with, a nice little handsome pat of butter, made 
up by a neat-handed Phyllis of a dairy maid, instead of the 
grease fit only for cart wheels." Monsieur D'Arblay's 
gardening furnished her with constant amusement. She 
informs us that under his management the shrubs were like 
Noah's dove which found no rest for the sole of its foot. 
Like a soldier, as he was, he cut the hedge with his sabre, 
and intending to free the garden from weeds, annihilated a 
bed of asparagus. Her last days were shadowed by 
bereavement, and she had to mourn the loss of her husband, 
her son, and many friends whose converse formerly brightened 

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114 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

her career in life. Her religious diary she would not allow 
to meet the public eye. 

The original Cottage has been gradually enlarged and 
improved by successive owners and tenants ; among the 
latter may be mentioned Lady Caroline Cavendish. The 
place afterwards came into the possession of Mr. and 
Mrs. Wylie, who have improved the building by the addition 
of several rooms, which have windows commanding different 
prospects of the charming neighbourhood. There are many 
choice works of art in the mansion, which include water-colour 
and oil-paintings, valuable china, statuettes aud other 
ornamental objects. There is an apartment named "The 
Burney Room" which contains the original manuscripts of 
the novels "Evelina," "Cecilia," and "Camilla," with 
many of the authoress* original letters, and other papers 
relating to her friends and correspondents. The pictures on 
its walls consist of portraits of Fanny Burney, afterwards 
Madame D'Arblay; Queen Charlotte, her Royal Mistress; 
Dr. Burney ; Dr. Johnson, her friend ; Baretti ; Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan, and others of her distinguished con- 
temporaries. As an additional ornament, there are plaques 
of choice Wedgewood manufacture; and, to complete the 
arrangement, there are early editions of her works, and 
such as relate to her life and times. 

Her son, the Rev. Alexander D'Arblay, who had taken 
orders in the Church of England, was appointed to Ely 
Chapel. The place had long been shut up, and during the 
first days of his ministry he caught influenza, and in three 
weeks from his first seizure, died on January 19, 1887, to the 
great sorrow of his mother, who was then in her eightieth 
year. She died on January 6, 1840. 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 115 



CHERKLEY COURT. 

This magnificent residence was recently built by 
Abraham Dixon, Esq., and presents an imposing aspect, 
towards the south and west, of a wide and attractive 
landscape. The views towards Norbury, Denbies, and 
Leatherhead, are singularly impressive, and by their quiet and 
beauty, incline the spectator to doubt whether he is within 
a few miles of the vast population and earnest life of the 
metropolis. The interior of the mansion is rich in pictures, 
and various ornamental objects, which have been gathered 
during the frequent and extensive travels of the owner. The 
conservatories are rich in rare and curious plants ; and the 
tropical department contains fine fruiting bananas, palms, 
nelumbiums, pontederias, bougainvillias, and other growths, 
which attract by their colour and fragrance. 

Below the mansion, on the south, there is a yew wood of 
considerable extent, and solemn and impressive aspect. It 
is quite unique in this neighbourhood, and probably is 
unrivalled by any similar collection of trees of this order in 
our country. Many of these yews are of a patriarchal age, 
and are much diversified in tint of foliage and variety of 
form. Some are pyramidal ; others are like a dome in 
shape; and many are curiously irregular in their growth. 
One is called " The Cauliflower Yew," from its close 
resemblance to that plant ; and another is twenty-four feet 
in girth, and has a trunk singularly knotted and contorted, 
as if it had had a hard and troubled existence. 

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116 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Near this wood is the old Roman Road which ran from 
the South Coast to London. There are traces of a camp 
now, through the lapse of time, growth of plants and trees, 
not very discernible, but where the Romans who accompanied 
Julius Caesar in his second invasion of Britain probably 
halted, and especially as near at hand is a patch of clay 
amidst the surrounding chalk, where water could be obtained. 
Coins have been found near the camp which bear the names 
of Augustus, Vespasian, and Domitian, and other Roman 
Emperors. Some pottery has been discovered, consisting of 
domestic vessels, and cinerary urns which contain fragments 
of bones. Coins of a more modern date have been found 
which are French, and belong to the time of Louis XVI., but 
how they were brought there it is impossible to explain. 

Abraham Dixon, Esq., is the second son of Abraham 
Dixon, Esq., of Whitehaven, Co. Cumberland, by Laetitia, 
daughter of John Taylor, Esq., of Gomersal, Co. York, 
born 1815, married 1847, Margaret, daughter of Richard 
Rathbone, Esq., of Liverpool, and is J.P. for the county of 
Warwick. 



HOPE AND THE DEEPDENE. 

Evelyn and Aubrey speak of this place with admiration ; 
the former observes, "August 1, 1655, I went to Dorking 
to see Mr. Charles Howard's amphitheatre, garden, or solitary 
recess, being fifteen acres environed by a hill. He shew'd us 
divers rare plants, caves, and a laboratory." Aubrey is 
much more profuse in his description, and remarks, " Here 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 117 

the Hon. Charles Howard hath very ingeniously contrived a 
* long Hope * (i.e. according to Virgil, Deductus Vallis) in the 
most pleasant and delightful solitude for house, gardens, 
orchards, boscages, &c, that I have ever seen in England. 
He hath cast this hope into the form of a theatre, on the 
sides whereof he hath made several narrow walks, which are 
bordered with thyme, and some cherry trees, myrtles, &c. 
Here was a great many orange trees and syringas ; and the 
pit (as I may call it) is stored full of rare flowers and choice 
plants. The house was not made for grandeur, but re- 
tirement, neat and elegant, suitable to the modesty and 
solitude of the proprietor, who in this iron age lives up to 
that of primitive times. Here are no ornaments of statuary 
or carver, but the beauty of the design and topiary speak 
for itself, and needs no addition out of the quarries. In 
short, it is an epitome of Paradise, and the Garden of Eden 
seems well imitated here." 

Aubrey visited the spot between 1673 and 1692, and 
speaks with still greater enthusiasm of the place, which may 
be partly due to the " civil entertainment given to him by 
Mr. Newman (the steward) by his master's order," and 
declares that " the Pleasures of the Garden, &c, were so 
ravishing that I can never expect any enjoyment beyond it, 
but the Kingdom of Heaven." Mr. Howard died on the 
81st of March, 1718, and was interred in a vault in Dorking 
Church. The following tribute to his character was written 
by Lady Burrell, and aflixed to some brick-work which formed 
part of his laboratory. 

"This votive tablet is inscribed to the memory of the 
Honourable Charles Howard, who built an Oratory and 
Laboratory on this spot. He died at the Deepdene in 1714. 



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118 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

If worth, if learning, should with fame be crown'd, 

If to superior talents fame be due, 
Let Howard's virtue consecrate the ground, 

Where once the fairest flowers of science grew. # 

Within this calm retreat, th' illustrious sage, 

Was wont his grateful orisons to pay ; 
Here he perused the legendary page, 

Here gave to chemistry the fleeting day. 

Cold to ambition, far from courts removed, 
Though qualified to fill the statesman's part, 

He studied nature in the paths he lov'd, 
Peace in his thoughts, and virtue in his heart. 

Soft may the breeze sigh through the ivy boughs 
That shade this humble record of his worth ; 

Here may the robin undisturbed repose, 
And fragrant flowers adorn the hallowed earth." 

This fine property descended to the Hon. Charles Howard, 
of Greystoke, who died in 1720; then to his eldest son, 
Henry, who died without issue ; afterwards to Edward, 
9th Duke of Norfolk; then to the 10th Duke, and finally 
to Charles, 11th Duke, who sold it to Sir William Burrell 
in 1791. Subsequently the estate was sold by Sir Charles 
Merrik Burrell to the late Thomas Hope, Esq., father of 
Henry Thomas Hope, its late owner, whose widow still 
possesses the estate. 

The Hope family is of great antiquity; one of them, 
John de Hope, swore fealty to King Edward I. in 1296. 
Another of the same name came from France in the retinue 
of Magdalene (eldest daughter of Francis I.), the first Queen 
of James V. He promoted the Reformation in Scotland, and 
his son Henry was much engaged in foreign trade, particularly 
with Holland, and married Jacqueline de Tott, a French lady, 

* G. Bobins, the celebrated auctioneer, suggests that " Deep Dene was 
originally Deep Dens, seclusion and mystery being the grand accompaniments of 
science in those days, when a dark chamber, a long beard, a parrot and a 
crocodile, constituted a philospher." 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 119 

by whom he had two sons, viz., Henry, who settled in 
Holland, and was the founder of that opulent branch of 
Hopes who were merchants in Amsterdam ; and Thomas, of 
Craighill, who attained great eminence as a member of tho 
Scottish Bar, was appointed Lord Advocate, and created a 
Baronet of Nova Scotia, 1628. 

The afore-mentioned Henry Hope had a son who married 
Anna, the grand-daughter of Sir Thomas Hope, and their 
son Archibald married Anne Glaus. Thomas was the third 
son of Archibald and Anne, and married Margaret Marselis, 
whose children all died except one, John Hope, who married 
Philipina Barbara Van der Heaven, and had issue three sons, 
Thomas, Adrian and Henry Philip. In the "Annual 
Register" for 1780 it is stated that the father of Thomas 
Hope, author of " Anastasius " died on the 26th of December, 
1779 ; and that he was descended from the elder branch of 
the Hopes of Scotland; raised the credit of the house of 
Amsterdam;* presided as Representative of the Prince of 
Orange, first in the West India, and afterwards in the Dutch 
East India, Companies. As a merchant he would prescribe 
laws to the Sovereigns of the East, and greatly sway the 
scale of empire in Europe." 

Thomas was the distinguished author of "Anastasius" 
and other works, who purchased the estate, and, in 1806, 
married the Hon. Louisa Beresford, younger daughter of the 
Bight Rev. William, Lord Decies, Archbishop of Tuam. 

The late Mr. Thomas Hope has left at the Deepdene, and 
in English literature, numerous and decisive proofs of his 

* The present Hope family is in possession of great wealth, and has a rich 
and extraordinary number of jewels, one of which, the property of the late 
H. T. Hope, Esq., of the Deepdene, is a blue diamond valued by Mr. Streeter, at 
£30,000.— ( Times, November 3, 1381.) 



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120 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

powers in the use of the pencil, and his ability as an author. 
His work of fiction entitled " Anastasius, or Memoirs of a 
Greek," contains the result of careful observations of the 
scenery and inhabitants of the Mediterranean shores and 
islands. There is much quiet humour in the tale, especially 
when Anastasius is about to become a Mussulman, faintly 
objects to his teacher that the Mohammedan faith cannot 
become universal, because in high latitudes the fast of 
Ramadan (which requires abstinence from food from sunrise 
to sunset) would extend over some months, and the faithful 
would die of hunger; and after suggesting some other 
difficulties, the following counsel is tendered as conclusive 
against all objections. " Whenever you meet with an infidel, 
abuse him with all your might ; and no one will doubt you 
are yourself a stanch believer." Anastasius remarks "I 
promised to follow the advice/' Mr. Hope's work on 
"Architecture," is rich in illustrations of the churches of 
Northern Italy, and became a pioneer in the revival of public 
interest in that branch of the arts. His volume on 
" Furniture," condemns the flimsy and gaudy style which 
was then prevalent in France, and was imported into our own 
country. Another publication which showed his knowledge 
and industry was " The Costume of the Ancients," which 
contains illustrations of the dress, weapons, and worship of 
many historic nations, and has been of great use to artists, 
who, under its guidance, have given both truth and beauty to 
their works. 

His patronage of art was extensive and crowned with 
distinguished success. Under his encouragement Flaxman 
produced a series of illustrations of Dante's "Divina 
Gommedia." The original drawings form a part of the 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 121 

treasures of the Deepdene Library, and though probably too 
statuesque and classical in character for mediaeval subjects, 
impressively represent the principal incidents of that sur- 
prising poem. Several choice pieces of sculpture from the 
hand of Flaxman adorn the vestibule of the mansion. 
Mr. Hope was a signal benefactor to Thorwaldsen, the 
celebrated Danish Sculptor, who, having been supported by a 
government allowance, was about to leave Borne in dejection 
and disappointment. He was brooding over his want of 
success. There stood the model of his Jason, a figure of 
surprising beauty, which no one had given him a commission 
to execute in marble. Mr. Hope was detained in Borne by a 
passport difficulty, and ordered the Vetturino to drive him to 
Thorwaldsen's studio, and generously gave him the desired 
commission. It stands at the Deepdene, and is one of its 
many ornaments. The classic beauty of the face, the sweet- 
ness of the lips, the upper one just curled in superb disdain 
of the foe, and the grace of the limbs, attest the genius 
of the sculptor, and justify the insight of the patron. 
Thorwaldsen always kept the anniversary of Mr. Hope's visit 
as the most auspicious event in his life; and testified his 
gratitude in a way which showed the power of his hand, the 
vigour of his imagination, and the fervour of his gratitude. 
He presented his patron with a votive mural tablet, upon 
which he had sculptured in alto relievo a graceful female 
figure, pensive and dejected, though still persevering in the 
use of style and tablet ; the lyre, the symbol of joy, is laid 
aside and mute; the owl, the emblem of night, obviously 
intimates darkness and sorrow ; the flame of the lamp seems 
ready to go out when the genius comes, whose wings are not 
yet folded from swift and recent flight. He has scarcely 



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122 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

drawn near to the lamp before he lifts the oil-cruse, and pours 
forth the much desired supply. The inscription, " A Qenio 
lumen" expresses the meaning of the design, which was to 
symbolize the timely and seasonable relief which Mr. Hope 
afforded, and the light it shed on the future career of the sculptor. 



The exterior of the mansion is imposing, and reminds 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 123 

those who have been in Borne of some of the historic palaces 
which abound in that city and its environs. It was much 
improved and embellished by the late Henry Thomas Hope, 
Esq. ; and the interior and the open loggia have recently been 
decorated by French artists in a style which shows con- 
siderable refinement of taste. The entrance hall is a square 
apartment with a gallery on three sides, which contain choice 
works of art. In the basement are to be seen 

" Oephalus and Aurora " by Flaxman. 

" The Belvidere Apollo" a copy by Flaxman. 

" Venus coming from the Bath" copy from Canova by 
Bertolini. 

" Antinous" a copy from the antique. 

" Tits Emperor Hadrian" antique. 

"Hygeia" an antique. 

" A Shepherd and Dog," by Thorwaldsen. 

" Silenus and Bacchus" group in bronze. 

" The Gladiator," in bronze. 

" The Medici Apollino" a copy in Carrara marble. 

" Athenian Boy" pulling a thorn from his foot; in bronze, 
by Pisani. 

" The Crouching Venus" in bronze. 

" The Oapitoline Doves" mosaic. 

There are copies of the Lanti Vase in bronze; large 
Tazze — a beautiful cenotaph ; busts of Soman Emperors, and 
a fine copy of the Florentine Boar. 

The galleries contain "A Genius" in bronze; "Jove's 
Eagle;" "The Knife Grinder;" " Diana and Antinous;" 
" Master Charles Hope ; " " Master Adrian Hope ; " " Master 
Henry Hope;" "Mrs. Hope;" and "Lord Wriothesley 
Russell;" all by Thorwaldsen. "Henry Philip Hope" by 



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124 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Bartolini ; and many other choice works of art. 

The Deepdene is not only rich in statuary but possesses 
many admirable and priceless pictures, which were originally 
in the Palais d'Orleans, and were acquired by the late 
Thomas Hope, and further increased by his son, Henry 
Thomas Hope, and by Mrs. Hope, who is the present owner of 
the mansion. The details which are now introduced have 
been enriched by extracts from a catalogue of the pictures, 
prepared by Cecil Lister Kaye, Esq., who has obligingly 
allowed the author the privilege of making them. 

The Vestibule contains two fine works by Gauffier, a 
Roman artist. The first represents "Ulysses and Nausicaa; ,, 
and the second, " Hector reproaching Paris ; " both Homeric 
subjects. " The Six Poets " are by Giorgio Vasari, whose 
"Lives of Painters, Sculptors, and Architects" supplies 
much interesting information not found elsewhere. The 
picture represents Petrarch, Dante, Guido Cavalcante, 
Bocaccio, Gino da Pistoia, and Guiton d'Arezzo. 

The Great Hall is, in addition to the superb sculpture, 
adorned with a fine picture of " Henry Philip Hope," brother 
of Mr. H. T. Hope, by Sir Thomas Lawrence. There is a 
small monument on the terrace to the memory of Henry 
Philip Hope, with the inscription, 

•• Fratri Optimo, H. P. H." 

There are a " Venus and Adonis " by Carlo Maratti ; " The 
Last Supper " by Jordaens ; and " Damocles " by an 
unknown artist. This picture was bought by Mr. T. Hope of 
a Frenchman named Dubost, who received a commission 
from him to paint a portrait of Mrs. Hope, which was done 
so badly that he could not be the painter of "Damocles," 
and his name was erased from the picture. In revenge he 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 125 

painted and exhibited a picture which was a caricature of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hope, under the title of "Beauty and the 
Beast," until Mr. Beresford, the brother of Mrs. Hope, cut it 
to shreds in the presence of a large number of spectators. 
There is a fine work which represents the "Author of 
Anastasius " in Turkish costume, and is full length and life 
size. 

The Ball Gallery has the fine picture by Haydon which 
represents the " Bepose of the Holy Family in their flight to 
Egypt." There are " Orpheus attended by the Mus6s of 
Poetry and History," by N. Poussin; "Damocles," by 
Westall; and "Judith and Holofernes," by the great artist 
Giorgione ; " Death of Adonis, " by Bubens ; " St. Francis," 
by Fra Bartolomeo ; " Angelica and Medoro," by Guercino ; 
and a " St. Sebastian," by Andrea del Sarto. 

The Billiard Room is adorned with the grand picture of 
" The Fall of Babylon," by Martin ; painted for Mr. Hope, 
and is a companion picture to " The Fall of Pompeii," by 
the same artist. There is a cool " Landscape " by G. Poussin; 
and two " Views of St. Albans " by Mulready ; " The Holy 
Family attended by Angels," by N. Poussin ; and a " Portrait 
of the Duke de Yalentinois," alias Ceesar Borgia, by Gorreggio. 
There are three fine Marine pieces by Vandevelde and 
Backhuysen. The gem of this apartment is " The Temptation," 
by Titian ; of which " the colouring is extremely fine, and 
the head of our Saviour is admirable for the expression of 
goodness and divine wisdom. The Tempter is represented by 
a young man holding a stone in his hand. Drawing, colour, 
and the grand effect of this picture, render it worthy of the 
highest eulogy; and it ought to be regarded as one of the 
most valuable works of the master." 



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126 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

The Library Corridor contains "The Music Master," by 
Sharp, which gained the first prize in 1809, was purchased 
by Mr. Hope from the Directors of the British Institution. 
"The Importunate Author" is by J. S. Newton, and is a 
scene taken from Moliere's Comedy of "Le Facheux." 
There are Dutch Landscapes by G. Berkenheyde. "The 
Violin Player," by Uchterveld; "Views in Venice," by 
Marische; " The Bepose in Egypt," by Gauffier; and "The 
Singing Lesson," by Tarken. 

The Library has a fine portrait by BaffaeUe of "Marc 
Antonio," the eminent engraver; a "Magdalen," by L. 
Carracci ; a " Saint Cecilia," by Domenichino ; and 
" Lucretia " and " Boman Daughter and her Father," usually 
called "La CharitS Bomaine," by Guido. There are two 
valuable works by Holbein, one of which is a portrait of 
some one now unknown ; and the other of his friend and the 
distinguished Scholar " Erasmus," and has the date 1582 a.d. 

The Boudoir is adorned with several portraits of the Hope 
family, among which may be noticed those of Mr. Adrian 
Hope, born 1709 ; Mr. John Hope, born 1751, and his wife 
nee Fhilippina Barbara Vander Hoeven ; a charming portrait, 
the Hon. Mrs. Hope, by Sir Thomas Lawrence; Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas Hope; Master Charles Hope, as Bacchus, 
youngest son of Thomas and Hon. Mrs. Hope, by Lawrence ; 
General Sir John Hope, Mr. Thomas and Mr. Adrian Hope 
as children, with a dog. There is an admirable picture of 
Mrs. Hope, the present owner of the estate, in a grey dress, 
with a row of pearls round her neck, by Lacretelle, an 
eminent French Artist. 

The Drawing Room has two fine pictures of " Fruit and 
Flowers," by Van Huysum, and two works with the same 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 127 

subject by Van Os. " The Madonna and Child," by Perugino, 
is eminently beautiful for arrangement and colour. Mieris is 
seen to considerate advantage in two choice examples, which 
are a "Lady Buying Poultry," and its companion picture a 
"Lady Buying Fruit." "The Interior of a Church in 
Italy" is by Canaletti; "St. Peter Healing the Sick," by 
Schidone ; " St. John the Baptist," by Domenichino ; a 
portrait by Denner ; " The Interior of a Church," by Arnold ; 
and a "Female Saint," by Baffaelle, holding her drapery 
with one hand, and a flower in the other. 

The Small Drawing Room is devoted chiefly to the works 
of artists of the Dutch School, among which may be noticed 
a "Landscape," and a "Bepose in Egypt," by Van Huysum; 
"Scene in Holland," "View in Holland," "The Hawking 
Party," " The Stadthaus in Amsterdam," and " The Hague," 
by Berkenheyde, — all faithful representations of scenes and 
buildings in Holland, with which country the name of Hope 
is honourably associated.. There is a "Street Scene," by 
P. C. La Forguo," "The Judgement of Paris," by Mieris; 
and a " Dutch Scene," by Vander Heyden — much admired 
by Sir Joshua Beynolds, who remarks, that it has "a 
view of a Church and two black friars going up steps. 
Notwithstanding this picture is finished very minutely, 
Vander Heyden has not forgotten to preserve great breadth 
of light." 

The Small Dining Room is rich in portraits of the Hope 
Family. " Lady Decies," mother of Hon. Mrs. Hope, is by Sir 
Joshua Beynolds. "Hon. Mrs. Hope and Children," the 
two boys are Henry and Adrian Hope. " Mrs. Henry 
Hope," by Phillips ; a fine portrait of " Eev. W. 
Harness ; " " The Burgomaster and his Family," which 



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128 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

represents Mr. Hope, of Amsterdam, his wife, two sons and 
two daughters. Then follow portraits of the " Children of 
the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle," and include those of 
the Earl of Lincoln, Lord Francis, Lady Beatrice, Lady 
Emily, and Lady Florence Pelham Clinton. 

The Dining Room is rich in chefs-d'ceuvres of Raffaelle 
and Veronese. There is a "Magdalen," by Correggio, 
which was once taken to Spain by the second wife of 
Philip V., and afterwards returned to Italy by one of her 
household. The documents of the Boman Academy verify 
the work as the production of Correggio. There is a " Holy 
Family," by Schidone ; a " Holy Family, St. Mark, and 
the Doge Banieri, ,, by Tintoretto. The Doge is reading out 
of a book which Joseph is holding, and our Saviour is 
pointing to it. There is an impressive "Betrayal," by 
Guercino ; and a fine " Charity," with the usual emblem of 
little children, by Vandyke ; and the " Incredulity of 
Thomas," by Guercino. The two pictures by Veronese are 
among the finest works of the artist. The first to be noticed 
is " The Contention of Virtue and Vice for the possession 
of the Artist." This represents a woman having the hands 
of a harpy holding a pack of cards in her hand, and leaning 
towards Veronese who is flying away from her, and throws 
himself into the arms of Virtue who is coming forward and 
holding him. Vice is rising from her seat, and under her 
drapery there is a bust of a sphinx and a poignard. Behind 
her is a fragment of a monument, on the cornice of which 
is written 

" Honor et Virtus post mortem florent." 

The face of Vice is hidden as if the artist anticipated the 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 129 

sentiment of Pope, 

44 Vice is a monster of such frightful mien, 
As to be hated needs but to be seen." 

The other picture, the " Marriage of Wisdom and Strength," 
has a lovely landscape. Wisdom in the form of a beautiful 
woman raises her looks towards heaven, and her forehead 
is adorned with a bright star or a conventional figure of the 
sun. At the base of the colonnade near which she sits is the 
inscription "Omnia Vanitas." The ground is strewn with 
the emblems of royalty. Near her is a Cupid seated, holding 
a sword and a crown, behind is Hercules with the skin of the 
Nemean lion thrown over him, and resting on his club. Both 
these works of Veronese are in the highest preservation, and 
were formerly in the Gallery of the Palais d'Orleans. 

The " St. Michael and Satan," by Baffaelle, which is 
similar to the great picture in the Louvre, was painted for 
Francis I., who rewarded the painter in the most munificent 
manner. Baffaelle acknowledged the liberality of the king 
by sending him a "Holy Family," whereupon Francis 
doubled the amount of the original payment. The picture 
at the Deepdene was probably painted for Cardinal Cenci, 
and differs from the Paris picture in the colour of the wings 
of the Archangel, and of the drapery. It is described by 
Carlo Maratti, as an " Opera Maravigliosa," and presents in 
a splendid manner the victory of the Archangel over the 
power and malice of Satan. 

The Back Staircase has a picture of a " Market Place in 
Holland," by Ouwater ; " View of a Castle," by Berkenheyde ; 
"Thetis bearing the Armour of Achilles," by West, which 
was painted by commission for Thomas Hope, Esq. ; and 
there is a fine work of Hilton's, of which the subject is 

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180 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

" Queen Philippa interceding with Edwaxd III. for the lives 
of the Burgesses of Calais." 

The Landing contains a " Landscape " and the 
" Martyrdom of a Saint/' by Salvator Eosa ; " Our Saviour 
Bound," and a " St. Sebastian," by Domenichino ; " The 
King and Queen of Holland and Family," by Gonzales ; 
" San Marco by Night," by Guardi ; and " Nine Views of 
Venice " and " Boman Peasants," by unknown artists. 
There are a " Scene in the Apennines," by Fairbairn; 
" Narcissus and Cupids," by West ; and " Mr. Hope of 
Amsterdam," by Sablet, which represents him playing at 
cricket. 

The Study possesses four pictures by Mariesche, which 
are " Views of Venice ; " " The Campagna of Borne," by 
Burrer ; and " The Piazza di San Marco," by Guardi. 

The Bedrooms have several choice works of art, of which 
the most remarkable are "Venus and Cupid," by Palma 
Vecchio ; " Buins in Italy and Ephesus," by Mayer ; 
" Bacchante and Fawn," by Meramee; " The Cup of Tea," by 
Sharp ; " The Poor Wanderer," by Kreuseman ; " Girl at 
Venice," by Inskipp; "The Last Supper," by Germiniani ; 
" Madame Sentupery," (daughter of Mrs. Hope), by Halfeld ; 
and three portraits of " Miss Hope," afterwards Duchess of 
Newcastle; in the first she is painted as playing at cat's 
cradle ; in the second, as a child offering a biscuit to a King 
Charles' Spaniel ; and in the third, on a pony, and a dog 
running at her side. 

In a small room near the Conservatory which is decorated 
after the style, and with groups of figures, similar to those 
found at Pompeii, there stands the superb Minerva Victrix 
which was found near Ostia, and purchased by the late Thomas 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 181 

Hope for his gallery of sculpture. Mrs. Hope has kindly 
provided hand-catalogues for the information and pleasure 
of visitors ; but some detail of the pictures may be acceptable, 
and may render the sight of these works more impressive 
and instructive. Descriptions of the Jasper vase which 
represents Perseus and Andromeda, the costly china, the 
choice bronzes, miniatures and enamels, would be too 
numerous even for a brief outline of them. 

The gardens of the Deepdene are rich in ornamental 
trees of great size and beauty. On the north side is a 
magnificent tulip tree, (Liriodendron Tulipifera), the bole 
of which measures ten feet in circumference. There are 
specimens of the copper-coloured beach, the Hungarian lime, 
evergreen oaks, cedars of Lebanon, Pinus insignia, Morinda, 
Pinsapo, Abies clanbraziliana, and Douglassi, with many 
ether native and foreign growths of singular beauty. The 
Conservatory is rich in exotic ferns, lovely creepers, and 
richly blooming plants. The southern side of the mansion 
is clothed with magnolias and adorned with sculpture ; so 
that, as a writer observes, " On one side of the house is 
England, and on the other side is Italy." On the slopes 
and dells to the west of the mansion the rhododendrons 
flourish by thousands, and in the month of June exhibit 
such a profusion of flowers, and such a mass of fine colour, 
as to make travellers, who have seen the wonders of the 
Himmalayan blooms, express their grateful surprise. At 
the top of the hill, which is reached by a path overshadowed 
by magnificent beeches, is the Terrace, whence the visitor 
looks northward upon the dell with its Italian garden, and 
the landscape bounded by the North Downs; and from a 
splendid avenue of limes he can look southward, and see at 

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182 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

his feet the spot which was originally a vineyard, and in 
the distance the weald of Sussex and the South Downs on 
the Coast. 

The present owner of this fine property is Mrs. Hope, 
daughter of Monsieur Joseph Bichat, who was married to 
Mr. H. T. Hope in 1841. Their daughter, Henrietta Adela, 
became Duchess of Newcastle by her marriage in 1861 with 
Henry Pelham Alexander, sixth Duke of Newcastle, born 
in 1884 and deceased 1879. Their son, Henry Pelham 
Archibald Douglas Pelham Clinton, was born in 1864, and 
succeeded to the title in 1879. The heir presumptive is his 
brother, Henry Francis Hope, born 1866. The eldest 
daughter, Lady Beatrice Adeline Pelham Clinton, was 
married September 16, 1880, to Cecil Lister-Kaye, Esq., 
son of Sir John Lister-Kaye, Baronet, of Denby Grange, 
Wakefield, who died in 1855, having married the Lady 
Caroline Pepys, third daughter of Earl of Cottenham, by 
whom he had two sons, the present baronet and Cecil 
Lister-Kaye, Esq. Lady Emily Pelham Clinton was 
married June 24th, 1880, to S. E. Don Alfonso Doria, 
Duca d'Artigliano, second son of Prince Doria-Pamphilj 
Landi, by his marriage with the Lady Mary Talbot, daughter 
of the sixteenth Earl of Shrewsbury. The remaining female 
member of the Duke of Newcastle's family is Lady Florence 
Josephine. 

Somewhat to the south is the Mausoleum of the family, 
which was, under letters patent from the Bishop of 
Winchester, consecrated as a burial place by John (Beresford), 
Bishop of Baphoe, in the autumn of 1818. Thomas 
Hope, Esq., was interred there on the 3rd of February, 
1881, and his son, Henry Thomas Hope, Esq., was buried 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 133 

there in 1862. There was a large and solemn gathering of 
the townspeople, who testified their respect to one who had 
been always willing to promote their welfare ; and many of 
the neighbouring gentry, and persons of distinction from 
London, who attended as mourners, made the scene unusually 
impressive. 



DENBIES. 

This spot was originally called Aschcomb Hill ; and 
probably derived its present name from an owner or tenant 
of a farm whose name was Denby. The house and some 
land were purchased by Mr. Jonathan Tyers, of Mr. Wakeford, 
in 1734. On the death of Mr. Tyers, the Hon. Peter King 
bought the property ; and his son, Lord King, sold the 
house and a portion of the land to James White, Esq. 
Mr. Joseph Denison, an eminent London Banker, was the 
next owner; and his son, William Joseph Denison, Esq., 
M.P. for West Surrey, enlarged the estate by the purchase 
of land from the Earl of Verulam and the late Duke of 
Norfolk. It was, on Mr. Denison's death, bought by the 
late Thomas Cubitt, Esq., whose son, the Eight Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P. for West Surrey, is the present owner. 

As before noted, this property was owned by Mr. Jonathan 
Tyers, the founder of VauxhaJl Gardens, who is chiefly 
remembered for the grotesque decorations of the grounds 
with statues, inscriptions, and dreary verse. In the centre 
of a gloomy wood, which he called " II Pensoroso," he built 
a small temple and covered it with a number of serious texts 
and admonitory sentences. At the termination of one of 



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184 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

the walks were the figures of a " Gentleman's skull " and a 
"Lady's scull," with verses inscribed on a pedestal below 
them of a sufficiently repentant style. At a short distance 
from the temple, which had a clock that struck every minute, 
were two figures as large as life, representing the christian 
and the unbeliever in their last moments, with a statue of 
Truth treading on a mask. 

Thus, while Tyers was providing for the gaiety and 
dissipation of London by the opening of Vauxhall Gardens, 
he reserved all his seriousness and gloom for the cheerful 
scenes of the country. 

Mr. Tyers is known as the father of Tom Tyers, who 
wrote an " Essay on Addison and Pope ; " and in his " Political 
Conferences " anticipated a form of literary composition 
which has been adopted with such success by Walter Savage 
Landor in his "Imaginary Conversations." He was very 
frequently in Johnson's company, and Boswell remarks, " he 
abounded in anecdote but was not sufficiently attentive to 
atcwracy" He is humorously described in the " Rambler " 
as " Tom Restless." Johnson once observed to Boswell : 
"Tom Tyers described me best; Sir," said he, "you are 
like a ghost, you never speak till you are spoken to." 

The present mansion at Denbies was built by the late 
Thomas Cubitt, Esq.; and the church was built after the 
designs of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, and among other 
beautiful objects in the interior, the pulpit commands special 
admiration. The woods, plantations, and gardens, have 
been greatly improved since the present family has had the 
estate ; and the house contains many fine works of art ; a 
large collection of fossils from the neighbouring chalk-pits; 
many specimens of objects of natural history and coins 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 135 

which relate to the neighbourhood of Dorking and the 
County of Surrey. 

The late Thomas Cubitt, Esq., was highly esteemed by 
her Majesty and the late Prince Consort, and as a proof of 
their regard for him the Prince planted, on July 15, 1851, 
two trees, which stand as permanent and flourishing evidences 
of royal favour. One is a Cedrus Deodara, and the other is a 
Sequoia Sempervirens. 

The views from Denbies are wide and impressive; and 
when the spectator looks eastward along the valley towards 
Beigate, and the light of the summer sun gilds the scene, 
it forms so splendid a panorama as to incline us to quote 
the poet's words : 

" Earth hath not anything to show more fair." 

From Banmore Common, which is on the north of the 
residence, the Crystal Palace, St. Paul's, London, and 
Windsor Castle, may be seen in favourable conditions of 
the atmosphere. 

In 1780 the Northumberland militia and a regiment of 
foot were encamped on Banmore Common, and were ready 
to be marched to London to arrest the confusion and mischief 
created by the rioters, who insulted the aristocracy, burned 
Newgate Prison, destroyed Lord Mansfield's library, furniture, 
manuscripts, and curiosities. These riots were produced by 
fear of the Boman Catholics, whose chapels were destroyed, 
and are known in history as Lord George Gordon's riots. 
Dr. Johnson said, " The sight was dreadful, thirty-six fires 
all blazing at one time." The outrage began on the 2nd 
of July, and the flames were not quenched until the 9th. 
The Northumberland militia and the regiment of foot 



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186 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

rendered invaluable service in the suppression of disorder 
and the restoration of quiet and safety. 

On the slope of Denbies the lime-works are still in 
operation and furnish some of the best lime in England for 
building purposes. As a proof of its excellence it may be 
remarked that in the erection of Somerset House, the Bank 
of England, London Bridge, and the new Houses of 
Parliament, this lime was used; and is still extensively 
required for domestic and public edifices in various parts of 
England. The " lime-mania " which once existed has 
passed away; new works have been begun towards 
Betch worth, and the range of the North Downs is rich in 
chalk and innumerable fossils. 



BRADLEY — DENBIES. 

The Manor of Bradley belongs to the Denbies Estate, and, 
in the time of Edward III., belonged to a family named 
Bradele. It came afterwards into the possession of the 
Sondes family, one of whom became Earl of Feversham, 
then passed into the hands of the son and heir of the Earl 
of Rockingham. It was held afterwards by Henry 
Talbot, Esq. ; Edward Walter, Esq., of Bury Hill ; Viscount 
Grim8ton ; W. J. Denison, Esq., and is now the property of 
the Right Hon. George Cubitt, M.P. 

Mr. Cubitt is the eldest son of the late Thomas Cubitt, Esq., 
and was born 1828, and married, 1858, Laura, daughter of 
the Rev. James Joyce, Vicar of Dorking. He was educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. in 1851, M.A. 1854, 
is J.P., D.L., and has been M.P. for West Surrey since 1860. 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 187 



FREDLEY. 

This is the seat of Mrs. Drummond, widow of the late 
Thomas Drummond. Descended from an ancient Scotch 
family, he pursued his studies with honour and success in 
the Cadets' College, Woolwich, became Lieutenant in the 
Royal Engineers, and was professionally engaged in the 
survey of Ireland. He invented the heliostat, which was 
first stationed at Leith Hill, and reflected light to 
Berkhamstead in Hertfordshire, a distance of forty-five miles. 
To him we are also indebted for the splendid invention of 
the " Drummond Light." 

The celebrated aphorism that "property has its duties 
as well as its rights," was first penned by him in a letter 
sent to the magistrates of Tipperary, while he was Under 
Secretary for Ireland. The sentiment was no doubt obscurely 
felt long before; but we must avow our obligation to his 
sense of justice and felicity of expression, which gave 
compactness of form and clearness of outline to that which 
before was dim and indistinct ; for 

" Though truths in manhood darkly join/* 
Deep seated in our mystic frame, 
We yield all honour to the name 
Of him who made them current coin." 

By his comparatively early death, probably accelerated by 
his official zeal, Ireland lost the great benefit of his extensive 
knowledge and patriotic interest in her welfare. Apart 
from his personal attainments and official service, he was 
distinguished by his descent from one of the great historic 



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188 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

houses of Scotland. The brief abstract of the family from 
■which he came may be fitly introduced to the reader by an 
extract from an able genealogist, who begins the narration 
of the Drummonds in the following words : 

"Le nom de Drummond a toujours 6t6 mis par les 
historiens au nombre des plus anciens et des plus fameux 
de l'Ecosse. Gette maison, eclatante par une longue suite 
d'ancetres, tire son origine de Farbre genealogique des rois 
d'Ecosse ; et ce qui est un avantage bien rare, elle peut preuver 
que pres que tous les rois de 1' Eur ope son sortis de ses 
premiers ancetres. Elle commence sa filiation & Maurice qui 
vivait au commencement du onzieme siecle. n etait fils de 
George, cadet de TAndr6, roi des Huns, et commandoit le 
vaisseau, qui portait en Hongrie, Athelin Edouard, heritier 
legitime de 1' Angleterre, avec sa mere Agathe, et les princesses, 
ses soeurs, Marguerite et Christine. Une tempete furieuse le 
fit echoner sur les cdtes d'Ecosse, aupr&s d*un lieu qui est 
encore appell6 VEsperance Sainte Marguerite ou Queensferry 
du nom de la Princesse St. Marguerite, qui fut depuis reine 
d'Ecosse, epouse du Eoi Milcolumbe III., surnomme Kenmoir ; 
en consideration de ce service, et aussi pour ses grandes 
qualites, le roi combla de favours, and ne negligea rien pour 
l'attacher & sa cour. II lui donna, entre autres terres, celle 
de Drymen on Drummond, dans la viscomt6 de Dumbarton, 
d'du ses descendans ont pris leurs noms, et leurs titres, et 
voulut qu 'il portat pour armes trois barres ondees de couleur 
rouge. La reine Marguerite lui fit epouser une de ses 
dames d'honneur." 

The Drummond family has furnished Dukes of Eoxburgh, 
Perth, and Melfort ; Marquis of Forth ; Earls of Marr, Perth, 
and Kerr ; Viscount Strathallan ; Barons Drummond, 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 189 

Inchaffiray, Maduty, Cronilix, and Stolhall; Knights of the 
Garter, St. Louis, Golden Fleece, Bath, and Thistle ; 
Ambassadors; Queen of Scotland; Duchesses of Albany 
and Atholl; Countesses Monteith, 2 Montrose, Eglington, 
Marr, Bothes, 8 Tullibardine, Dumfermline, Boxburgh, 
Wigtown, Sutherland, Balcarras, Crauford, Arran, Errol, 
Marshall, Einnoul, Hyndford, Effingham, Macquary in 
Prance, and Castel Blanco in Spain ; Baronesses Fleming, 
2 Elphinstone, Willoughby, Hervey Olyphant, Bollo and 
Kinclaven. 

A daughter of the Earl of Monteith, Annabella, married 
John, eldest son of the Earl of Carrick, who succeeded to the 
throne of Scotland by the title of Bobert III. " Queen 
Annabella's second son was James, who succeeded to be first 
king of Scots of that name." 

The pedigree of Thomas Drummond, Esq., Under 
Secretary for Ireland, is traced from one of the branches of this 
numerous and historic family. Thomas Drummond was 
known for his daring adventures in the reign of James IV. 
of Scotland, and fled to Ireland, and thence to London, where 
he procured favour from Henry VII., by whose intercession 
he got a pardon from King James IV. ; after that he returned 
to Scotland, and lived at Kincardine with his niece Annabella, 
wife of William Lord Graham, who sold him the lands of 
Drummonddirenock, (which signifies the Irish Drummond 
lands), formerly called Waigtown. He married — Scott, 
daughter of the Laird of Mongie. Thomas, his son, married 
the daughter of Duneaid McKenzie. His son, John, married 
the daughter of James McGruder. His son, John, married 
the daughter of Livingstone of Glentirran. John was killed 
by the clan Macgregor, in 1589. He was Under King's 



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140 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Forester of Glenartney ; his kinsman, Lord Drummond, being 
Hereditary Keeper of the Koyal Forest. The secret Council 
granted a Commission of fire and sword to various noblemen 
and gentlemen for the pursuit of the whole Clan, of whom 
nearly two hundred are mentioned in the Commission, which 
was executed with extreme severity. 

Omitting a few descents, there follows Patrick Drummond, 
who joined the Duke of Perth in the cause of Prince Charles, 
in 1745; but was designedly prevented by his wife from 
active service, by pouring a tea-kettle of hot water into his 
boots, which disabled him from mounting his horse. The 
Earl of Perth, after the battle of Culloden, was long in 
concealment at Drummondirenock, and gave him a grant of 
the house and lands at Dalwhinnie. He was succeeded by 
James, who became the representative of Innermay, Drum- 
mondirenock, and Comrie, W.S., 1788 ; and sold his estate 
to Viscount Melville, 1800 ; and married Elizabeth Sommers, 
from whom descended, with other issue, Thomas Drummond, 
Under Secretary for Ireland, who married Miss Kinnaird 
in 1835, and had issue Mary, married in 1868 to Joseph 
Eay, Q.C., deceased 1878 ; Emily ; and Frances, deceased. 

The crest and motto of the Drummond line from which 
Thomas Drummond sprang, consists of a hand holding a 
heart, and the motto is " Loyal au Mort " (Loyal to the 
Dead), and arose from the following circumstance. In 1490, 
Thomas Drummond, chief of the clan, and guardian to his 
orphan nephew who was carried off in a raid by the Murrays, 
whom he pursued with many of his followers, was met by 
a messenger who delivered a packet containing the bleeding 
heart of the boy. Thomas Drummond held the heart in his 
hand and exclaimed " Loyal au Mort." 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 141 

Fredley Farm was the residence of Kichard Sharp, 
Esquire, once M.P. for Portarlington. He was author of a 
small volume entitled "Letters and Essays," which affords 
us a glimpse of his learning, acumen, and felicity of ex- 
pression. The "Essays" discuss various topics; as those 
of study, style, eloquence, philology, and metaphysics. 
These pages show an immense extent of reading ; are enriched 
with many happy quotations and sparkling anecdotes, 
which illustrate and enforce the lessons he desires to convey. 
Sydney Smith, Lord Brougham, and Lord Jeffrey solicited 
him to contribute to the Edinburgh Beview. He complied 
with their request, but the articles he wrote cannot now be 
identified. His verse is easy and pleasant, of which the 
following passage, which refers to Fredley Farm and the 
neighbourhood of Dorking, may be introduced as a specimen. 

44 No more, oh London ! but when duty calls, 
To breathe the cloud that hovers o'er thy walls, 
To stem thy crowds, endure thy deafening noise, 
Gaze at thy splendours, or repent thy joys. 
From thee far off I turn my willing feet, 
To the lone quiet of my lov'd retreat ; 
To stray from field to field in careless ease, 
And count the blossoms on the tardy trees, 
Climb the high down to meet the rising sun, 
Or in my copse his mid-day fervour shun. 
Or should some honour'd guest, half smiling, deign 
To trace the limits of my little reign, 
Then proud of both, each varying scene I show, 
The impending cliff, the gulfy stream below ; 
The box-clad hill in whose unfading groves, 
Fragrant and fair, the lingering traveller roves." 

It is, however, by his powers of conversation that he is 
chiefly remembered, and it may be assumed from the in- 
tellectual eminence, scholarship, and genius of his friends 
and visitors, that these were of the most distinguished order, 



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142 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

and justified the name by which he is generally known, of 
" Conversation Sharp." There must have been a rare fluency 
of expression, apt introduction of anecdote, compactness, and 
force of argument, and the light of a vigorous imagination to 
suffuse the whole with an indefinable charm. It appears to 
have realized Cowper's description of one 

" Who, when occasion justified its use, 
Had wit as bright, as ready to produce, 
Gould fetch from records of an earlier age, 
Or from philosophy's enlightened page, 
His rich materials, and regale your ear 
With strains it was a privilege to hear." 

It is probable that no Boswell could have faithfully recorded 
such conversation as that heard at Fredley Farm; and 
therefore we must lament the loss, in this case, of some of 
the fairest efforts of a cultivated and powerful mind in the 
sphere of social intercourse; where in moments when ex- 
pansion of feeling, genial intellectual activity, pleasant 
utterance, variety of felicitous allusion, and innocent repartee, 
combine to produce one of the greatest and purest pleasures 
of life. 

Lord Macaulay describes, in a letter to his sister, some of 
the characteristics of Mr. Sharp, and remarks : " The other 
day I met Sharp, and had a long talk with him about 
everything and everybody, metaphysics, poetry, politics, 
scenery, and paintings. One thing I have observed in Sharp, 
which is quite peculiar to him among town-wits and 
diners-out. He never talks scandal. If he can say nothing 
good of a man, he holds his tongue. I do not of course 
mean that in confidential communication about politics he 
does not speak freely of public men; but about the follies 
of private individuals. I do not believe that, as much as I 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 148 

have talked with him, I ever heard him utter one word. I 
passed three or four hours very agreeably in his company 
at the Club." 

Mr. Sharp's distinguished friends and acquaintance who 
visited Fredley Farm between 1797 and 1885, may be 
roughly classified as follows : 

Poets and Novelists. — Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth,* 
Coleridge, Southey, Campbell, Moore, Bogers, Crabbe, 
Washington Irving, Christopher North, and Captain Basil 
Hall. 

Politicians and Orators. — Lord Brougham, Grattan, 
Huskisson, Fancis Horner, Lord Lansdowne, Plunkett, Lord 
John Russell, Sheridan, and Sir Samuel Bomilly. 

Metaphysicians. — Sir James Mackintosh, Dugald Stewart, 
and John Stuart Mill. 

Historians. — Lord Macaulay, Grote, Hallam, and James 
Mill. 

Artists. — Calcott, Collins, Copley Fielding, Chantrey, 
Sir Thomas Lawrence, and Wilkie. 

Eminent Scholars.— Home Tooke, Porson, Whately, 
and Whewell. 

Distinguished Foreigners. — Denon and Talleyrand. 

Editors of Reviews. — Lord Jeffrey and J. E. Lockhart. 

Men op Science. — Babbage, Sir Humphrey Davy, 
Faraday, and James Watt. 

Wns. — Luttrell and Sidney Smith. 

Distinguished Ladies. — Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. Somerville, 
and Madame de Stael. A distinguished American visited 



* There is a beech in Norbury Park which overhangs the Mole which has 
W. W. carved in its bark by the Poet, because the tree was spared at his 
intercession. 



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144 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

him on the 6th of June, 1815, and observes, " We dined at 
Mr. Vaughan's with several men of letters ; but I saw little 
of them, excepting Mr. Sharp, formerly a member of 
Parliament. He has been made an associate of most of 
the literary clubs in London, from the days of Burke down 
to the present time. He told me a great many amusing 
anecdotes of them, particularly of Burke, Porson, and 
Grattan, with whom he had been intimate, and occupied 
the dinner time pleasantly as the same number of hours 
have passed with me in England. He gave me a new 
reading in Macbeth, from Henderson, to whom Mrs. Siddons 
once read her part for correction when Mr. Sharp was 
present. The common pointing and emphasis are : 

Macbeth. — If we should fail ? 

Lady Macbeth. — We fail t 

But screw your courage to the sticking place 
And we'll not f ail. 

'No,' said Henderson, 'that is inconsistent with Lady 
Macbeth's character. Bead it thus, Mrs. Siddons : 

Macbeth. — If we should fail ? 

Lady Macbeth (with contempt). — We fail ? 

But screw your courage to the sticking place 
And we'll not fail.' " 

The Earl of Albermarle observes in his work entitled 
" Fifty years of my life ; " " In Conversation Sharp's little 
dining room, in Upper Grosvenor Street, I met with men who 
could boast of personal acquaintance with the members of 
the Club, as Burke, Johnson, and Reynolds." 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 145 



THE GROVE. 

Just beyond " The Beehive " on the London Eoad are a 
house and grounds which have attained some notice from the 
fact that the Marquis of Wellesley once lived there. The place 
was originally built, and the gardens and walks arranged by 
Mr. Beeves, who delighted to ornament the retreat with 
verses contributed, by some of his literary friends. They 
were affixed in different parts of the garden, so that his 
visitors might enjoy the calm of the grove and the pleasure 
of poetic composition at the same time. 

The subjoined verses were contributed by Mrs. Knowles, 
the wife of the celebrated Dr. Knowles. 

" Come, gentle wanderer, sit and rest, 
No more the winding maze pursue ; 
Art thou of solitude in quest, 
Pause here, and take the solemn view. 

" Behold this spirit-calming vale, 
Here stillness reigns, — 'tis stillness all. 
Unless is heard a warbling tale, 
Or distant sound of waterfall. 

" The lettered stone, the Gothic gate, 
The hermit's long forsaken cell, 
Warn thee of thine approaching fate, 
fear to die — not living well. 

" But if in virtue thou increase, 
Thoult bear life's ill — nor fear to die ; 
Then every breeze will waft thee peace, 
And foretaste sweet of promised joy." 

Mrs. Knowles was intimate with Dr. Johnson, and on one 
occasion complained to him that men had much more liberty 
than women: Johnson said, "Why, Madam, women have 

L 



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146 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

all the liberty they should wish to have. We have all the 
labour and the danger. We go to sea, we build houses, we 
do everything, in short, to pay our court to the women." 
After an amusing discussion, Mrs. Knowles remarks, " Well, 
I hope in another world the sexes will be equal." 

The mansion has been recently enlarged and adorned by 
the present owner, E. Arnold, Esq., and the grounds contain 
fine trees, pleasant sward, and spacious gardens. 



JUNIPER HALL. 

Sir Cecil Bishopp appears to have been the owner of 
this property in 1762, which he greatly improved, and, as 
noticed under the head " Mickleham," prepared the way for 
further additions to the beauty of the estate. It was 
afterwards sold to Mr. Jenkinson, who built the present 
mansion ; and in preparing for the foundations, a spear-head, 
fragments of weapons, and two skeletons were discovered. 
It passed in succession into the hands of Mr. Worrell, then of 
Mr. Broadwood, the celelebrated manufacturer of pianos, 
who built the prospect tower near the summit of Boxhill. 
From him it was held by Miss Beardmore, at whose death 
it was purchased by F. Kichardson, Esq., the recent 
proprietor. It is a charming place for its sylvan beauty, 
its pleasant gardens, and its magnificent cedars which were 
planted a hundred and twenty years ago, and from the 
sheltered spot in which they stand are perfect in shape, 
rich in admirable foliage, and produce abundance of cones. 
The mansion contained many choice works of art, a large 
collection of interesting autographs, and the original 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 147 

manuscripts of Sir Walter Scott's "Lady of the Lake," 
"Old Mortality," and "Anne of Geierstein," with many 
other objects of literary interest. The property has been 
sold (1882) to J. MacAndrew, Esq. 

Juniper Hall is memorable as the residence of the 
French Colony, which consisted of emigres who, in 1798, 
fled from the excesses and cruelties of the later phases of the 
French Revolution. Madame de Stael; Talleyrand, ecclesiastic, 
politician and wit; Guibert, Narbonne, General D'Arblay, 
Sicard, Lally Tollendal, Jancourt, Marquis Girardin of 
Ermonville, the Duke of Guignes, the Princess d'Henin, 
the Princesse de Poix, Madame de Chatre, and Mademoiselle 
de Montmorin, completed the circle assembled at Juniper 
Hall. 

The author of the life of Madame de Stael, referring to 
their social intercourse, remarks, " She is the cynosure of 
these conversasioni. If Talleyrand excels all in bon-mots and 
epigrams, she dazzles all by the splendid variety and happy 
pertinence of her ideas, the richness of her style, and the 
general enthusiasm of her sentiments. At one time she 
thrills the company by her passionate recitation of a tragedy ; 
at another she entertains them, and particularly commands 
the applause of Talleyrand, by reading the first chapter of 
her work 'On the Influence of the Passions on the 
Happiness of Individuals and of Nations. 9 " " She reads," 
writes Mrs. Phillips, " the noble tragedy of ' Tancrede/ till 
she blinded us all round." These distinguished visitors to 
England "were obliged to economise; most of them lost 
their all in the wreck of their country ; and those who, like 
Madame de Stael and Narbonne, retain ample resources, are 
embarrassed by the difficulties which attend the remittance 

l 2 



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148 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

of their funds. The few that have any means share them 
with the many that have none. They are content with one 
small carriage, which they have bought for their drives in 
the beautiful scenery of Surrey. It can hold but two persons. 
Talleyrand and Narbonne gaily take their turns to ride 
behind as footmen ; and, breaking the glass from the back 
of the vehicle, keep up the liveliest conversation with its 
inmates. Madame de Stael assures us that she never heard 
more brilliant talk than in these excursions." 

Madame d'Arblay writes, " Madame de Stael is at the 
head of the French Colony in this neighbourhood ; and is a 
woman of the first abilities, I think, I have ever seen. She 
exactly resembles Mrs. Thrale in the ardour and warmth of 
her partialities. I find her impossible to resist. She is 
only a short walk from here (Westhumble), at Juniper Hall. 
There can be nothing imagined, more charming, more 
fascinating than this little Colony; between their sufferings 
and their agrSmens they occupy us almost wholly. The 
Colony at Mickleham made the most of their resources of 
enjoyment, amidst scenery celebrated for its picturesque 
beauty, with occupations tending to their culture, and with 
the characteristic gaiety of the French temperament. Their 
want of means compelled them to sacrifice their jewels and 
laces. Talleyrand parted with the remains of a superb 
library; others gave lessons in French; and others 
undertook 'menial offices' — but they never failed to amuse 
themselves." The Colony broke up in January, 1794, when, 
at the request of the French Republic, Charles Maurice de 
Talleyrand Perigord, ci-devant Bishop of Autun, received 
notice to quit England, and the fact is mentioned in a letter 
from the Count de Narbonne to Mrs. Phillips in these words : 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 149 

" Mardi, a cinq heures, un messager d'etat est vena chez 
Talleyrand, lui apporter un ordre de quitter le royaume avant 
cinq jours, ce'st a dire avant Dimanche prochain; en y 
ajoutant qu f il etoit charg6 de le prevenir que si, au jour 
indiqu6, il n'etoit pas parti, il seroit dans le cas de la 
deportation, et deport6 sur le champ." 

The following letter was received from him on his arrival 
in America. 

Copy of autograph letter from M. D. Talleyrand. 

9 Mars, Philadelphia. 

Le 14 Mars j'etois encore a Falmouth, et le 28 Avril je 
suis descendu & Philadelphie, vous voyez Monsr. que notre 
travers6e a 6t6 heureuse. Nous n'avons pas reucontr6 un 
seul batiment qui nous ait interroge. Apres dix on douze 
jours de mal etre, je me suis fait a la mer comme si c'6toit 
mon metier; il me semble meme que je ne me suis pas 
trop ennuy6. Vous nous aviez munis de si bon livres que 
le terns s'est pass6 la comme ailleurs. Cecilia a 6t6 lu par 
tous nos passagers, et meme par notre capitaine qui s'est 
fort aisfonent accoutum6 aux moeurs gentlemen; le matin 
il lisoit Evelina et Cecilia, et le soir au lieu de manger du 
boeuf sal6, il nous d6mandoit du sirop de vinaigre de 
Mde. Lock. Nous avons trouv6 ici en arrivent un embargo 
qui est bien p6uible, &c. Voulez vous bien Monsieur vous 
charger de cette lettre pour M. de N. que n'est peutetre 
pas assez heureux pour etre avec vous. Alors vous vondriez 
bien mettre son adresse, et la lui envoy er. S'il n'est plus 
en Angleterre, je vous demande de vouloir bien me donner 
de vos nouvelles directement, ainsi que de celles de votre 
famille ; s'il y est encore, ne prenez pas cette peine la vous- 
meme. Ses lettres seront remplies surement de vous et des 



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150 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

votres, de Mde. Phillip, de Mde. D'Arblay. Mon adresse 
est, &c. J'ai Thonneur de vous renouveller, Monsieur, 
l'assurance des sentimens de consideration, et de respect avec 
lesquels j'ai l'honneur d'etre votre tres humble et tr&s 
obeissant serviteur Talleyrand. 

Voulez vous bien faire mille complimens de ma part 
a M. D'Arblay. 

During Talleyrand's passage to America the tedium 
of the voyage was relieved by the perusal of " Evelina " and 
" Cecilia/' which became more interesting to him from his 
personal intercourse with their authoress. 

Madame de Stael returned to Goppet, and at her 
departure actually sobbed on saying farewell to Mr. Lock 
of Norbury. The French Colony, as it was called, which 
had been driven to the shores and retreats of England, was 
again dispersed to find safety in other countries. 



MILTON AND MILTON COURT. 

The Manor of Milton or Midleton is in Dorking parish, 
and is thus described in Domesday book : 

"Baldwin, holds of William (Fitz-Anscuff) MUdetone, 
which Uluric held of King Edward. It was then assessed 
at 6 hides ; now at 4 hides. The arable land consists of 5 
caracutes. There is in the demesne 1 caracute ; there are 
10 villains, and 9 bordars with 4 caracutes. There are 
4 bondmen; and 1 mill at 2 shillings; and 2 acres of 
meadow. The wood yields 9 hogs for pannage, and 10 hogs 
for herbage. In the reign of King Edward, it was valued 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 151 

at 70 shillings ; subsequently at 60 shillings ; and the same 
at present. In the hundred of Copthorne are 2 hides 
pertaining to this manor, valued at 20 shillings." 

In the reign of John this manorial estate was transferred 
from the family of Paganel, by the marriage of an heiress, to 
John de Somery. In the ninth of Edward II., (1816 a.d.,) 
it belonged to the prioress and nuns of Eilbourn ; and after 
the suppression of that convent, Henry VIII. annexed this 
mansion to the Honour of Hampton Court. Queen Mary 
settled it, with other estates, on the restored monastery of 
Shene, which was a second time suppressed in the beginning 
of the reign of Elizabeth. After some temporary grants, 
that Queen conveyed, by letters-patent dated March 14th, 
1599, 0. S. to George Evelyn, Esq., of Long Ditton, to hold 
of the Honour of Hampton Court, as one-fortieth of a 
knight's fee, at an annual rent of 40 shillings. It descended 
with other estates to Sir Frederick Evelyn — then to Captain 
George Evelyn, and afterwards to William John Evelyn, Esq., 
of Wotton House, by whom it was sold to L. M. Bate, Esq., 
the present owner. 

The old mansion called Milton Court was probably built 
in the later years of Queen Elizabeth's reign. The plan of 
this interesting fabric is in the form of an E and was 
designed as an architectural compliment to Elizabeth, whose 
initial is expressed in this solid and durable manner. The 
rooms are large, and the staircase is remarkable for the 
form and solidity of the newels and hand-rails, which 
resemble those at Slyefields. Some years ago this large 
mansion was let out to a number of poor families, whose 
poverty formed a contrast to the spacious rooms and 
apartments they were allowed to occupy. 



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152 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Since it has been in the possession of the present lord 
of the manor, L. M. Rate, Esq., it has been improved and 
embellished in pleasing harmony with the original character 
of the fabric. The gardens are spacious, admirably laid 
out with alleys, walks, and borders, planted with choice 
shrubs, and seem to realize Lord Bacon's ideas of the true 
and pleasurable arrangement of such surroundings to a 
mansion. There is a fine expanse of water in the 
neighbouring mill-pond. The Pippbrook flows through the 
grounds, and there is a handsome gateway with its motto 
" Spero meliora " which leads to the residence, memorable 
as the former habitation of the eminent Scholar, Jeremiah 
Markland. The present owner is Lachlan Mackintosh 
Bate, Esq., born 1821, educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, 
B.A. 1854, M.A. 1857, called to the Bar of the Inner 
Temple 1869, and is a magistrate of the County of Surrey. 



NORBURY. 

This estate, according to Brayley, was held in succession 
by Oswold, a Thane; by William Husee in 1815 ; by William 
Wymeldon, in the reign of Henry VI. (circa 1450); by 
Thomas Stydolph, and by Anthony Chapman, who sold it 
to William Lock, Esq., in 1774. At the house of Mr. Lock, 
Sir Thomas Lawrence was encouraged to make his first 
attempt at modelling, and succeeded in making an excellent 
likeness of his friend, who was a generous patron of art and 
literature. Lord Lytton relates an incident which occurred 
in the family of this gentlemen. He was at Como, and was 
awaiting the return of young Mr. Lock and his bride, who 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 153 

were approaching in a skiff the place where he stood, to 
welcome them. A sudden squall, such as frequently bursts 
upon inland lakes, overtook them, and he saw them sink and 
perish without the slightest opportunity of saving them 
from a watery grave. 

The mansion which belongs to this estate stands in a 
commanding situation, and looks toward the south, with its 
fine expanse of woodland, pastures, and the outline of the 
South Downs; and on the north are seen the town of 
Leatherhead, and the country around London. There are 
some choice works of art, which have been produced by the 
chisels of Baily, and Canova ; and the drawing-room contains 
some wall-paintings of considerable attraction. The east 
and west walls of the apartment are adorned with landscapes 
which represent the lake scenery of Cumberland, of which, 
part was painted by Barret and Gilpin, and the figures were 
executed by Fastorini. In the two spaces between the three 
windows of the room are two fine female figures, painted by 
Cipriani, which represent the two daughters of Mr. Lock, 
one of whom became Mrs. Angerstein, and the other married 
Lord Wallscourt, of the Irish Peerage. 

Chief among the attractions which this estate possesses 
are the splendid ancient yew trees, which have survived many 
revolutions of religion and national history. The grove 
which they form is called " The Druid's Grove," and without 
being too credulous we may imagine that the ancient ministers 
of that mysterious worship celebrated their rites there. The 
monks of another faith rejoiced in the fair possessions of 
Norbury Priory, or where startled when they knew that 
Henry VIIL and Lord Thomas Cromwell were resolved to 
eject them from their pleasant home. Some of these yews 



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154 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

have special designations which are suggested by their form, 
among which we may find " The Fallen Giant," " The King 
of the Park," and "The Horse and its Bider." The 
admirers of Wordsworth will recall that poet's description 
of yew trees : 

" Huge trunks ; and each particular trunk a growth, 
Of intertwisted fibres serpentine 
Uncoiling, and inveterately convolved ; 
Not uniformed with phantasy, and looks 
That threaten the profane ; a pillared shade 
Upon the grassless floor of red brown hue, 
By sheddings from the pining umbrage tinged 
Perennially — beneath whose sable roof 
Of boughs, as if for festal purpose, decked 
With unrejoioing berries— ghastly shapes 
May meet at noontide ; Fear and trembling Hope, 
Silence and Foresight ; Death the Skeleton, 
And Time the Shadow ; there to celebrate, 
As in a natural temple scattered o'er 
With altars undisturbed of mossy stone, 
United worship." 

4 * Many of these trees are of great age and venerable aspect; 
and of a girth seldom equalled. In some instances the 
circumference of stems is full seven yards at three or four 
feet from the ground. One is upwards of twenty-two feet in 
circumference, that has had seven huge limbs cut off. Others 
approach these measurements, and all show signs of immense 
age. In this park, as elsewhere, the decay of trees is 
followed by others of a different kind — that after the oak, 
there rises the beech — and after the beech the ash 
spontaneously springs up." 

It is said that the Glea Bubiginea, or Dotted Chestnut 
moth, which is very rarely seen, feeds on the juice of the 
ripe berries in the month of October, and is then easily 
caught. 

Hamerton, in his "Life of Turner," observes, "In 1797, 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 155 

Turner sends to the Academy Exhibiton, a Study in September 
of the Fern Bouse, Mr. Lock's Park, Mickleham, Surrey. 
Castles and abbeys he has seen in all their grandeur, yet 
still thinks that the Fern House in Mr. Lock's Park is worth 
drawing and exhibiting also. This is most characteristic of 
Turner, and we shall find him, throughout his career, always 
ready to turn from great things to little things ; his power of 
taking an interest in what he saw being always active, and 
neither deadened by too much stimulus, nor atrophied by the 
insufficiency of it." 

Thomas de la Garde Grissell, Esq., the present proprietor 
of Norbury, is the eldest son of Thomas de la Garde 
Grissell, Esq., who died in 1868, by Eliza Millicent, daughter 
of Edward Leathes, Esq., of Normanton, Suffolk; and 
grandson of the late Thomas Grissell, Esq., J.P., of Norbury 
Park. He was born in 1857, and married Frances Adelaide, 
daughter of Thomas Beale, Esq., of Heath House, Go. Salop. 
Mr. Grissell inherited the property from his grandfather. 

Before we leave Norbury* and its formerly distinguished 
owner, we may insert a passage from a poem entitled " Leith 
Hill/' published in 1789, which shows the estimation in 
which Mr. Lock was held as a patron of the fine arts : 

" But haste my muse by other themes inspired, 
To yonder crowned hill, the seat of taste, 
Of attic elegance, of worth and Lock ; 
Patron and judge of every finer art, 
Delighting in the pride of Ancient Greece, 
Which emulative Britain makes her own." 



•As the grounds of Norbury are private property, persons who wish to 
visit the Druid's Grove should apply by letter to T. D. Grissell, Esq., or leave 
their cards at the mansion. 



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156 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 



PIPPBROOK HOUSE. 



This mansion was formerly the residence of W. S. Crawford, 
Esq., M.P. for the city of London, and an active magistrate 
of the neighbourhood. The property was sold by his son to 
the late Mr. Forman, who almost re-built the house under 
the superintendence of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, and is a 
fine example of domestic Gothic architecture. There are 
many specimens of tapestry and choice furniture in the 
house. There are valuable works of art, and a museum 
which is rich in antiquities of various countries; and of 
civilizations which have long disappeared. There aye Greek 
and Etruscan vases ; Egyptian papyri and objects of worship ; 
choice examples of sculpture; Roman weapons of various 
kinds; exquisite iridescent ancient glass vessels; bronzes; 
implements used by men in pre-historic ages; and some 
works of mediaeval art. These were collected by the late 
Mr. Forman, the former husband of Mrs. Major Burt ; and, 
as a private museum, it is not accessible to the public. 
The mansion is surrounded by fine trees, and stands in the 
midst of pleasant gardens and shrubberies. On the east 
boundary is a charming avenue of limes, recently planted by 
Mrs. Hope, on the drive which leads from the London Road 
to the Deepdene. The present owners of the property are 
Major and Mrs. Burt. 

SHRUB HILL. 

This mansion commands, on the northern side, a fine 
view over a fair meadow, the Pippbrook, Denbies, and the 
North Downs. On the southern side there were gardens, 



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DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 157 

shrubberies, and some fine trees which extend to Cotmandene. 
The building is a curious pile which has reached its present 
form and size by additions to the original plan. The house 
was the residence of the ancient family of the Earl of Rothes, 
who purchased it in 1792. It was built in the reign of 
Charles L, and was, before the Earl bought it, successively 
the property of Mr. Daye, a solicitor; Lord Berkley of Stratton; 
Henry Grenville, Esq., Ambassador at Constantinople ; 
Charles Shaw, Esq. ; Lord Cathcart ; Charles Mannigham, 
Esq.; John Smith Budgen, Esq.; William Marriot, Esq.; 
and, until recently, of the heir of the late Earl of Rothes. 
Lady Elizabeth Wathen was the last of the family who 
occupied the mansion, and sometime after her decease, the 
property was sold by public auction, and bought by 
Mr. Ledger, of Croydon. The Wathen Estate, as it is named, 
is now sold in plots for building purposes, and, both towards 
the Pippbrook and Cotmandene, there is likely to be a large 
increase of houses at the east end of the town. 

The Rothes family sprang from Bartholdus Leslyn, one 
of the Hungarian Magnates who attended Margaret Atheling 
into Scotland, to become the wife of King Malcolm Canmore. 
Leslyn married the King's sister, and was appointed Governor 
of Edinborough Castle. From him descended George Leslie, 
created Lord Leslie by James II., in 1457. The title of 
Earl of Rothes, derived from Rothes, a seignury on the banks 
of the Spey, was afterwards conferred. The last Earl was 
taken ill in the hunting-field, and was conveyed to Betchworth 
Castle, where he died, February 21st, 1817. The mansion 
was honoured with a royal visit in 1816, when Queen 
Charlotte, on her return from Brighton to Windsor, break- 
fasted at Shrub Hill. On the death of Lady Elizabeth 



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158 DISTINGUISHED RESIDENCES. 

Wathen (n6e Leslie), the effects were sold by auction, among 
which were found, in a lumber room, six gilded eggs, which 
were preserved as relics of the breakfast. 

The subjoined inscription is on the sepulchral memorial of 
the late Earl of Eothes : — 

"To the memory of the Eight Honourable George 
William, Earl of Kothes, Baron Leslie and Bambreigh, one 
of the sixteen representative Peers of Scotland, and Colonel 
of the Surrey Yeomanry Cavalry from their first enrolment ; 
who departed this life on the eleventh day of February, 1817, 
in the forty-ninth year of his age, after a constant residence 
in this Town for twenty-five years; during which eventful 
period, comprehending the whole of the War with revolutionary 
France, his Lordship was uniformly actuated by a zeal for 
the public good, and shone before men an eminent example 
of loyalty to his sovereign, of reverence for the Civil and 
Beligious establishments of the country, of ardour in his 
military command, and of moderation and equity in the local 
administration of justice ; whilst in private life he conciliated 
the respect and love of all classes by the urbanity of his 
deportment, by the warmth of his friendship, by the 
cheerfulness of his conversation, and by the exercise of 
every conjugal, parental, domestic, and social virtue. The 
, inhabitants of Dorking, deeply affected at the awful suddenness 
of his dissolution, grateful for the benefits he conferred upon 
them, and desirous to perpetuate their cordial sense of his 
meritorious character, have caused this monument to be 
erected." 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 159 



INTEEESTING PLACES, 



BEYCHWORTH CASTLE AND PARE. 

According to Domesday book, Becesworde, which was 
afterwards divided into the three manors of West Betchworth, 
East Betchworth, and Brockham, belonged to Richard de 
Tonbridge, ancestor of the Clares, Earls of Gloucester. 
West Betchworth had been held by Sarah de Bendeville in 
the reign of John, and was afterwards held by John de 
Berewyke; Boger Hoese; Richard, Earl of Arundel, (called 
the Earl with the carpyd hat), who received, from Richard II., 
licence to embattle his castle. From the Arundels the 
castle passed into the possession of Sir Thomas Brown, 
who obtained, in 1449, license to fortify and embattle his 
mansion at Betchworth, with permission to empark the 
manor, enjoy the right of free warren, and hold manorial 
courts. The castle and property came, by marriage with an 
heiress of Sir Adam Brown, into the hands of William 
Fenwick, Esq. It was bought then by Abraham Tucker, Esq., 
who bequeathed it to Sir Henry Paulet St. John Mildmay, 
who sold it to Henry Peters, Esq. It was afterwards sold 
by the youngest son of Mr. Peters to Henry Thomas 



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160 INTERESTING PLACES. 

Hope, Esq., who annexed it to his estate, and caused the 
castle, which was* very delapidated, to be pulled down. A 
great part of the castle had previously been dismantled by 
Mr. Fenwick, and only so much left as sufficed for the 
purposes of a mansion. 

Near the remains of the 
castle is the magnificent av- 
enue of lime trees, two hundred 
and eighty yards in length. 
Their height, regularity, and 
arrangement, remind us of the 
nave and aisles of a vast 
cathedral. In winter their 
coral buds ; in spring when 
they unfold their tender leaves ; 
in summer when there is the 
hum of innumerable bees ; and 
in autumn when decay changes 
their foliage into the colour of 
gold ; they are variously attractive. 

In fine and sunny June weather they recall the lines of 
Tennyson, who writes : 

44 The broad ambrosial aisles of lofty lime 
Made voice with bees and breeze from end to end." 

A short distance from the avenue are to be seen some of 
the finest Spanish chestnut trees in our country. It is very 
probable that they were planted in 1449, and are, therefore, 
more than four hundred years old. Their boles measure, about 
three feet from the ground, from seventeen to twenty-three feet 
in circumference. Some of them have been fractured and rent 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 168 

by storms ; and others are deformed by unsightly tumorous 
growths. Gilpin, in his '< Forest Scenery," remarks, "I 
heard, also, that near Betchworth Castle, in Surrey, there 
are not fewer than seventy or eighty chestnuts measuring 
from twelve, eighteen, and twenty feet in girth ; and some of 
them very picturesque forms; but I saw them only at a 
distance." 



CHART PARK 

is in the Holmwood tything, and was formerly designated 
the Vineyard, from a plantation of vines on the slope of the 
hill. It formerly belonged to the Howards; the Talbots; 
Captain Thomas Cornwall, B.N., who married Elizabeth, 
heiress of Henry Talbot; and was afterwards sold by Sir 
Charles Talbot, to whom it had been bequeathed by 
Mrs. Cornwall, who resided there until 1802, when Thomas 
Hope, Esq., purchased the property, took down the house, 
and added the park to his own estate. 



BOX HILL. 

This celebrated spot takes its name from the box trees 
which grow there. It is commonly stated that they were 
first planted by an Earl of Arundel, in the reign of Charles I. ; 
but as they are alluded to in leases with the dates of 1603 and 
1608 ; and as the family name of De Buxeto is found in a 
document of the thirteenth century, relating to this neigh- 
bourhood! it is probable that they are the remains of extensive 

m 2 



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164 INTERESTING PLACES. 

plantations which once flourished at Boxwell in Gloucester- 
shire, Boxmoor in Hertfordshire, and other parts of England. 



time owned tne property, ior ±±u,uuu. 



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INTEBESTINQ PLACE8. 165 

Since the importation of box- wood from Portugal and otber 
countries, the value of these plantations has been much 
reduced. Evelyn says that " the wood is much used by the 
turner, engraver, carver, mathematical instrument maker, 
comb, and pipe and flute maker; the roots of the tree for 
the inlayer and cabinet maker." 

The hill may be approached, on the southern side, by a 
path which leads by the Castle Mill on the Eeigate Road, 
across the fields, and then by the road which runs under the 
railway arch. The usual route to the hill is that on the 
London Road, by a foot-path close to Burford Bridge Hotel, 
and by a carriage-road a little further on. The Hotel just 
named is well known from the beauty of its situation, and 
the number of distinguished persons who have, at different 
times, had recourse to its accommodations. The Queen, 
when Princess of Wales, stayed there several days. Lord 
Nelson was there during a short period of inaction before 
the Battle of Trafalgar. Several literary men have re- visited 
this hostelry, and one, whose words we quote, has left his 
impressions on the place. Mr. Black, in the dedication in the 
"Princess of Thule," refers in the following terms to the 
hotel : 

" It was a still warm evening in June, and we were in a 
little old-fashioned inn at the foot of Box Hill — the windows 
open, a mild west wind blowing through the elms, the yellow 
sunset shining along the hills. A great silence lay over the 
valley ; the air was fragrant with various scents ; doves were 
calling in the distant trees. In the dusky corner of the 
room, where the piano stood, some one, with a sweet strange 
thrill in her voice, was singing ' Lady Barnard,* and 
'Woodstock Town,* and 'The Bailiff's Daughter/ And it 



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166 INTERESTING PLACES. 

occurred to one of the party, sitting at the open window 
there, that this story, although it dealt with far other scenes, 
and with people not familiar to us in the south, had, 
nevertheless, for its heroine, a girl who was brave and 
bountiful in her love, who was proud, and sweet, and 
sensitive in all her ways; who was generous to the poor, 
true to her friends, and loyal to her own high notions of 
womanhood; and that therefore that this story might well 
be dedicated, as it is now dedicated, To our Good Belle." 

There is another allusion to Box Hill in Black's 
" Strange Adventures of a Phaeton," in which he begins his 
romantic tale in these words : " It was all settled one evening 
in the deep winter time. Outside, a sharp east wind was 
whistling round the solitudes of Box Hill ; the Mole at the 
foot of our garden, as it stole steadily through the darkness, 
cracked the flakes of ice that lay along its level banks ; and 
away on Mickleham Downs, and on the further uplands 
toward the sea, the cold stars were shining down on a thin 
coating of snow." 

De Foe visited the spot, and has left a singular account 
of a large number of people who met on Sundays near the 
" Great Beech," on Box Hill. Ladies and gentlemen were 
accustomed to come in their carriages from Epsom, and 
other places in the vicinity, for the purpose of seeking 
pleasure amid these bowers, walks, and glades. He suggests 
that the conduct of the visitors was blamably immoral, and 
that the whole scene recalled " the groves and high places " 
of Jud©a, where deities were worshipped, who never frowned 
upon the sensual delights of their devotees. As the hill 
became the scene of a weekly rendezvous, a vintner from 
the " King's Head," Dorking, opened a cellar or cave on the 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 167 

hill for the sale of beer, wines, and spirits. This tended to 
make things worse, and the pleasant spot was profaned by 
riot, dissipation, and intemperance. Some young men of 
Dorking determined to put an end to these scandalous 
proceedings. Whether this arose from some surviving traces 
of religious zeal which marked the town in the time of 
the Commonwealth ; or from a youthful love of adventure 
and pleasure in a daring enterprise, cannot now be 
ascertained. But the result was, that the vintner's stores 
were scattered, and all he possessed there completely 
destroyed. This daring act, strange to say, went unpunished ; 
and the inhabitants of the neighbourhood had the satisfaction 
of knowing that the Sunday gaities had been brought to a 
close. 

Mackay, who travelled through England in 1714, speaks 
of Box Hill as " that Temple of Nature nowhere else to be 
equalled for affording so surprising and magnificent idea 
of heaven and earth, whether you lose yourself in the aged 
yew groves of Mickleham, or try your patience in angling 
for your delight in trouts at Leatherhead." 

In the "Monthly Magazine" for 1798, Dr. Aikin thus 
describes Box Hill. "Its peculiarity arises from its 
resemblance to the bold, broken crags of mountainous 
countries; which, however, it only holds on this (the 
Leatherhead) side; for where it bends round to join the 
Beigate ridge of chalk hills, it puts on the same rotundity 
of form with the rest. Its crest affords a walk uncommonly 
striking, winding through plantations of box, and at 
openings affording a bird's-eye view of all the charms, as 
well of the Leatherhead vale, as of that much longer one, 
in which the former terminates. Viewed from near Burfoi;d. 



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168 INTERESTING PLACES. 

Lodge, the vast perpendicular wall of verdure, forming a 
side screen to those grounds, has an effect of real sublimity, 
as well as of uncommon beauty ; a similar happy 
circumstance is perhaps scarcely to be met with in any 
other ornamental scene." 

Harriet Martineau states in her " Autobiography," " One 
yearly holiday was especially refreshing to me. With the 
first fine weather in May, Mr. and Mrs. Fisher and I, used 
to go for a few days to Box Hill, or Godstone, or some other 
pretty place not far off, and carry a book or two, and lie 
on the grass, or ramble among the hills, commons, or lanes, 
as if we had nothing to do; I never came home without 
fresh spirits for my work, and valuable suggestions about 
new efforts." 

Box Hill has been termed the " Cockneys' Paradise," and 
it is much to the credit of his taste and understanding, that 
he so frequently chooses the spot for the enjoyment of his 
holiday. Thousands of persons of all ranks and conditions 
have visited, and still, in summer, continue to visit, the hill. 
There are small companies and large gatherings who come, 
during the fine season of the year, to seek pleasure in its 
glades, its smooth and inviting sward and fair prospects. 
Some of the wealthy classes come with their choice viands 
and wines and their brilliantly-dressed footmen ; and others 
come with simpler fare, spread their feast and enjoy their 
pleasant talk, in which, to use Goldsmith's thought, if there 
is not much wit there is a good deal of laughing, which 
answers quite as well. A small party will arrive with a few 
musicians, and then to the sound of harp and violin there 
will be the cheerful dance, which reminds us of the sylvan 
festivities which Claude ropresents in some of his Italian 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 169 

landscapes. Schools, clubs, societies, congregations, artizans 
employed in large metropolitan establishments, and wedding 
parties, come in succession to this pleasant spot, from which, 
in a fair and sunny afternoon, in addition to the extent and 
variety of the prospect, which embraces the woods and 
plantations of the neighbouring gentry, and the distant 
outline of the South Downs, may be seen the town of 
Dorking, reposing in the valley as the abode of health and 
the image of social peace. 

Beaven describes the pleasant parties, which met on the 
hill in his day, in these lines : 

44 Here oft the happy master, gay inclined, 
With youthful sports cheers his declining years ; 
Above vain pride, his servants join the guests, 
To sprightly dance, on Nature's carpet green, 
Inspired by Sampson's* animating strings, 
Who fills his empty purse at every wake ; 
The rural rout, the rustic wedding's joy." 

On the western side of the hill is the spot where lie 
interred the remains of Major Peter Labelliere, who is 
reported to have been buried with his head downwards, that 
at some future change, in which the world would be turned 
upside down, he would be found standing erect. This idea 
arose, most probably, from some wanton joke ; and therefore 
should be rejected. The Major was a man who had some 
innocent fancies, and was, from the known humility of his 
disposition, more likely to desire to be buried with his head 
downwards, that he might resemble the Apostle whose name 
he bore — who was, according to ecclesiastical tradition, 
crucified in that manner, t 

* A noted blind fiddler of Betchworth. 

f There is a cottage on the hill, at which, on Thursdays, visitors may have 
refreshments and the use of the cottage gardens. At other times special 
application must be made to Messrs. Hart, Hart, Ss Marten, Dorking, for the 
accommodation desired. 



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170 INTERESTING PLACES. 

As Mrs. Barbauld has expressed in some verses the 
pleasures which many have realized in their visit to Burford 
Bridge, we will introduce a few of them. 

«• From the smoke, and the din, and the hurry of town, 
Let the care-wearied cit to this spot hasten down ; 
And, embosomed in shades, hear the lark singing shrill, 
At the cottage that stands at the foot of the hilL 

" Let the fierce party zealot suspend his alarms, 
Nor dream of invasion, nor here talk of arms, 
Here the sweet charms of nature his passions shall still, 
As he treads the soft turf at the foot of the hill. 

" Here the belle that is drooping from crowds and night-air, 
May her freshness renew, and her roses repair ; 
And the sick gather health, without doctor or pill, 
By a walk from the foot to the top of the bill. 

" Here's a health to the cottage and health to the plains, 
Ever blithe be your damsels, and constant your swains ; 
Here may Industry, Peace, Contentment reign still, 
While the Mole softly creeps at the foot of the hill." 

In the " Times," of January 9, 1888, there is an extract 
from the report of Sir Joseph Hooker, the director of the 
Royal Gardens at Eew, which states that " In the increasing 
dearth of box-wood, merchants were looking with hope to 
India. Some five tons of Indian box-wood were sold in 
London at the high price of £30 a ton ; but India cannot be 
relied on for a supply, and the expense of conveying the 
wood from the forests would be too high." After the lapse 
of some generations the trees which flourish on Box Hill 
may realize their former high prices. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 171 



THE CAMP ON ANSTIEBUB* AND THE BATTLE OF OOKLEY. 

This camp is situated less than a mile and a half from 
Holmwood Station, and crowns the summit of a hill which 
is now overgrown with wood. There are three concentric 
circles of mounds and ditches, enclosing a space about 
three hundred yards in diameter, and more than eleven acres 
in extent. On the southern side there has probably been a 
landslip, by which the continuity of the works has been 
destroyed. It was a British camp of refuge for non- 
combatants and property, which could be protected there 
"from sudden forays, which constitute the warfare of 
savages." The* name which these works retained was Hean 
Stige byrig, from Hean Stig, the High Way ; the Roman road, 
called Stone Street, ran within half a mile of the hill. This 
hill is at present part of the Kitland's Estate, the property of 
D. D. Heath, Esq. At one time it belonged to the Bury Hill 
Estate, and probably gave its name to that property. 

The Danes probably used such entrenchments when they 
found them ready to their hand, and it is likely that they 
occupied this spot before the battle of Ockley was fought. 
The village itself lies nearly two miles and a half from 
Anstiebury. 

After the Danes had made settlements in Ireland, the 
Western Isles, and elsewhere, they invaded England, took 
and sacked Canterbury and London, and were, in 851, on 
their way through Surrey, and along the J3tone Street to 
Winchester, eager for the overthrow of the West Saxon King. 



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172 INTERESTING PLACES. 

" They crossed the North Downs and plunged into the Weald, 
then the most savage part of the South of England. This 
was no plundering excursion, for there can have been no spoil 
there, except the swine in the forests." 

" Up the Stone Street from his post of observation upon 
the Channel, perhaps from Arundel, came Ethelwulf and his 
son Ethelbald, and the host of the West Saxons. The South 
Saxons, and the scattered foresters of the Weald, would 
flock to his standard upon the march. By the old English 
constitution every man, on pain of being pronounced a 
worthless outlaw, was bound to rally to the King's standard 
in such a crisis. And when the Golden Dragon of Wessex 
was in the field, and the beacons blazing on the Downs, and 
the answering smoke of Danish ravage was going up to 
heaven from London to the Weald, no true Englishman in 
Hampshire, or in Sussex, or in Surrey, but came in the 
train of Ethelwulf to live or die with him." 

The hosts met " hard by Ockley Wood," or by the Wood 
of Oak Lea. Near this place is Friday Street, which was 
probably a heathen settlement, whose name is connected 
with Frea, the goddess of nature. The struggle was, most 
probably, on the lower slopes of Leith Hill, and not in 
the village of Ockley, where the ground was marshy and 
covered with woods. In the slopes of Etherley Farm in 
1882, two oak coffins were found, roughly made, and a few 
human remains. Wood ashes were found near this spot, 
where the victors were gathered round their watch-fires. The 
aldermen, kings, thegns, and churls were buried ; the 
distinction of a coffin being reserved for the chiefs. 

The old chroniclers dwell with intense interest on this 
victory. Henry of Huntingdon describes the battle in these 



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INTERESTING PLACEB. 173 

terms : " You might see there the warriors, thick as the 
ears of corn, charging upon either hand, and rivers of blood 
rolling away the heads and limbs of the slain. God gave 
the fortune of war to those who believed on Him, and 
ineffable confusion to those who despised Him/' The 
exaggeration of " rivers of blood," probably gave rise to the 
tradition that the blood stood " ancle deep on Ockley Green." 
There are, however, traces of the flight of the vanquished 
in Battle Bridge, near Gatton, and at Slaughterford near 
Horley. 

" On Holmbury Hill, 850 feet above the sea, more than 
three miles from Ockley, is an entrenchment of the same 
class as Anstiebury. It is a camp of refuge, and a monument 
of forgotten warfare of British tribes among themselves, or 
against the Bomans. It consists of a double bank and 
ditch, the entrance defended by a re-entering work upon 
the least steep side, the north. This, roughly speaking 
square, with an angular extension, following the contour of 
the hill towards the south. The sides are about a furlong 
each way, and it contains about ten acres. It is unlike 
Roman work ; for the Boman legions, masters of the country, 
were planted where they could command watering places 
and roads, and not perched upon out-of-the-way summits. 
Still it is not so hopelessly un-Boman in shape as 
Anstiebury is." 

" Stone Street, or Stane Street, was the Boman road from 
Chichester and Arundel, to London. Leaving the former 
place it follows the line of the present road generally — over 
Brignor Hill, through Coldwaltham to Pulborough, and 
through Billingshurst and Slinfold. Beyond this point it 
is disused for two short intervals, but runs on at the existing 



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174 INTERESTING PLACES. 

road through Ockley, past the green to Buckinghill Farm. 
Here the road to Beare Green and Dorking turns abruptly 
to the right ; but the Stone Street can be traced across the 
fields by a slight depression in the ground, and by the flints 
lying along it. Near Bearehurst it follows, for a few yards/ 
the modern private road, and is then to be seen clearly in 
the fields before the house. It goes up the hill, through 
Bound Woods copse, crosses, by a slight cutting, the lane 
near Minnick Wood Farm, and bearing slightly to the left 
passes close to Anstie Grange Farm. It continues below 
Bedlands, above Folley Farm, parallel almost to the road 
over the Holmwood Common, till it becomes obscure on 
nearing Dorking. From Dorking it continued north-eastward, 
near Walton-on-the-Hill and probably by Streatbam to 
London." * 

Sir Leopold George Heath, K.C.B., of Anstie Grange, is 
the youngest son of the late George Heath, Esq., Serjeant- 
at-Law, of Eitlands, by Anne Raymond, daughter of 
William Dunbar, Esq., born 1817, married in 1853 Mary 
Emma, daughter of A. C. Marsh, Esq., of Eastbury, Herts, 
and has issue, with other children, Arthur Raymond. Sir 
Leopold was educated at the Royal Naval College, is a 
magistrate for Surrey, a Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
and the Order of Medjedie; was late Commodore in the 
Indian Ocean, and formerly a Naval A.D.C. to the Queen. 

Eitlands is the residence of Douglas Denon Heath, Esq., 
who is the second son of the late George Heath, Esq., 
Seijeant-at-Law, (who died 1852), by Anne Raymond, 



* The information respecting the battle near Ockley, the Camps, and Stone 
Street, has been chiefly extracted from an able monograph, recently published 
by H. E. Maiden, Esq., of Eitlands. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 175 

daughter of William Dunbar, Esq., born 1811 ; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, (B.A. 1832, M.A. 1885, and was 
Senior Wrangler), and is a magistrate for the county of 
Surrey, and, formerly, judge of the Bloomsbury County 
Court. 



CHART LANE. 

As this lane, which most visitors admire, illustrates the 
remarks of a popular writer on the formation of such narrow 
shady roads, we will introduce them for the pleasure of our 
readers. Eingsley observes: "Curious things to a minute 
philosopher are these same narrow lanes. They set him on 
archselogical questions, and more than I could solve ; and I 
meditate as I said how many centuries it took to saw 
through the worn sand-banks. The dyke, ten feet deep, up 
which he trots", with the oak-boughs meeting over his head, 
was it ever worth a man's while to dig out the soil ? surely 
not. The old method must have been to remove the soft 
upper spit till they got to tolerably hard ground, and then, 
MacAdam's metal being unknown, the rain and the wheels 
of generations gradually sawed deeper till this road-ditch 
was formed. Many of these hollow lanes, especially those 
on the flat ground, must be as old, or older than the 
Conquest. In Devonshire I am sure they are. But there 
are many of them one suspects were not made by water, but 
of cowardice prepense. Your indigenous Celt was, one fears, 
a sneaking animal, and likes to keep, when he could, under 
the cover of banks and hill-sides; while your bold Roman 
made his raised road straight over hill and dale, " ridgeways " 



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176 INTERESTING PLACES. 

from which, as from an eagle's eyrie, he could survey the 
conquered lowlands far and wide. It marks strongly the 
difference between the two races, that difference between the 
paved track with its established common way for all 
passengers, its regular stations and milestones ; and the 
Celtic track- ways winding irresolutely along in innumerable 
ruts, parting to meet again, as if each savage, (for they 
were nothing better), had taken his own fresh path when he 
found the next line of ruts too heavy for his cattle." — 

Kingsley*8 Miscellanies, vol. i, p. 160. 



THE GLORY. 

This is a beautiful wood to the south of Dorking; and 
may be approached from Chart Lane and Cotmandene; or 
from the Horsham Eoad, leaving St. Paul's Church on the 
left, and entering by a gate not far from the Cottage Hospital. 
There are, in the centre of the wood, the remains of a 
magnificent group of Scotch firs — two of the noblest having 
been, with many other fine trees, uprooted in the storm of 
October, 1881. There were, formerly, some openings 
through the woods, which afforded visitors some lovely views 
of the surrounding country. One looked towards Boxhill; 
another commanded the prospects of the Redland Woods, 
and the Holmwood and its pleasant wildness; and another 
led the eye to the west, where the hills stretch from Denbies 
towards Guildford. In spring the contrast between the 
light and cheerful green of the larch, and the solemn foliage 
of the firs ; and during the year the profusion of the various* 
bushes and trees, make the spot one of most pleasant 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 177 

retreat. There is a rich variety of wild flowers; and in 
autumn the blackberry bushes produce abundance of fruit. 
Among the larger trees may be noticed the larch, the birch, 
the oak, the* beech, and the alder; and the entomologist 
finds, during the months of summer, many species of 
butterflies, and diurnal and nocturnal moths. On the south 
of " the Glory " is Trashurst, the residence of the late 
Thomas Stilwell, Esq., whose kind benefactions to the 
inmates of the Almshouses on Cotmandene will long be 
gratefully remembered. 



HOLMWOOD. 

The old way of spelling this word, as found in deeds of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, is Homewood; and 
in more ancient records it is described as the wood of the 
Earls of Warren. In 1649 it is described as one of the 
wastes of the manor of Dorking. In the reign of James II., 
large red deer were preserved for, and chased by, the monarch 
himself; and horse-loads of strawberries were sent thence 
to the London market. There are now many residences on 
the Common, inhabitated by wealthy persons who find the 
air and scenery very delightful. The views towards Eeigate 
and the North Downs are extensive and beautiful. The 
Church at Holmwood was built in 1838, and that in 
North Holmwood in 1875. Some of the villas are admirable 
examples of domestic architecture, and especially Oakdene, 
the late residence of the Marquis of Blandford, and that of 
Mr. Boehm, the celebrated sculptor, opposite North 
Holmwood Church. . There are many lodging-houses on 



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178 INTERESTING PLACES. 

the Common, which receive visitors in summer from Brighton, 
London and elsewhere, who find the foliage, the woods, the 
breezy open spaces, and the calmness of the neighbourhood, 
a happy change from their usual places of abode. 

In the month of July, 1876, there was an encampment at 
the Holmwood. The force consisted of McMurdo's Divisional 
Staff; or the third Division of the second Corps d'Armee, 
and General Rain6s', or the first Brigade of that Division, 
together with a portion of the Divisional troops. The first 
Brigade was composed of the Perth Rifle Militia, the Renfrew 
Militia, the Ayr and Wigton Militia, and a Company of the 
61st Regiment. The Divisional troops were composed of a 
detachment of Royal Engineers, with Telegraph Train, and the 
Armagh Militia. There were a few dragoons and orderlies, 
a very few Royal Engineers, a half troop of Militia Train, 
and a few mounted Militia policemen. There was a review 
by the Duke of Cambridge on the 17th of July; and the 
inhabitants of the Holmwood and Dorking were gratified 
with the excellent conduct of the soldiers. 

'* Water lands Farm" is a small and picturesque homestead 
on the east of the Common, and has often attracted both 
professional artists and amateurs to sketch, paint, and 
engrave it. The building is now occupied by Col. DeCetto, 
son of the late Bavarian minister to the Court of St. James'. 

At Arnolds is the seat of Edward Kerrich, Esq., youngest 
son of the late John Kerrich, Esq., of Harlestone, Co. Norfolk, 
by Elizabeth, daughter of John Walker, Esq., of Walls' End, 
Co. Northumberland, born 1807, educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford; J.P. for Surrey, and, lastly, County Treasurer, 
married, 1829, Mary Evelyn Susan, second daughter of 
Richard Fuller, Esq., of the Rookery, and has, with other 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 179 

issue, Henry Walker, Kerrich- Walker, (of Newton House, 
Chester le Street, Co. Durham), who assumed the latter name 
by Royal licence in 1877, under the will of John Walker, Esq., 
of Stelling Hall, Co. Northumberland, born 1832, married, 
1864, Isabella, eldest daughter of G. Reid, Esq., of London, 
and has, with other issue, Edward Henry, born 1865. 
Edward Kerrich, Esq., died February, 1883. 

Oakdene is a handsome residence which was built by 
Mrs. Labouchere — and was afterwards purchased by the 
Marquis of Blandford in 1873, who sold it, in 1881, to 
Wildman Cattley, Esq., the present proprietor. 

There are other mansions of considerable beauty, which 
belong to Lady Macdonald, Mrs. Rumbold, A. Sconce, Esq., 
M. Rohde Hawkins, Esq., and Mrs. Chaldecott. 

The Ladies Legge, who live near North Holmwood 
Church, are descended from Thomas Legge, Sheriff of 
London 1343. George Legge was created Baron Dartmouth 
in 1682. The second Baron was created Viscount Lewisham 
and Earl of Dartmouth in 1711. 

Oakdale is the residence of John Vivian Hampton, Esq., 
second son of the late John Lewis Hampton-Lewis, Esq., 
of Henllys, Co. Anglesey, (who died 1871), by Frances 
Elizabeth, only child of Thomas I* Anson, Esq., of Harmley, 
Co. York ; born 1835, married, 1868, Lady Laura Elizabeth, 
eldest daughter of George Augustus Constantine, second 
Marquis of Normanby, and has issue Constance Laura. 
Mr. Hampton was educated at Harrow, and is a magistrate 
for Surrey. 

The Holmwood Church was built in the year 1838. It 
originated chiefly from the zeal and munificence of Mrs. F. 
Seymour Larpent, who died in 1879 at the advanced age of 

n 2 



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180 INTERESTING PLACES. 

88 years. The Rev. E. D. Wickham, the present vicar, 
remarks: "To her we principally owe, in this place, the 
first beginning of our Church and its Schools, and the 
formation of this Parish. Mrs. Larpent never ceased to 
retain her affectionate interest in the Holmwood; e.g., to 
her the parishioners are largely indebted for their finely-toned 
bell, and, by her will, she left a legacy to the National 
School, which has enabled the Committee to appoint an 
additional assistant master, much needed in consequence of 
the increased number of the children." 

The following additions have been made to the fabric, 
parsonage house and schools, chiefly through the exertions 
of the present vicar. 

Chancel added 1842. 

Tower and North Aisle 1845. 

Vestry 1848. 

South Aisle 1862. 

New Bell 1875. 

Churchyard enlarged 1852. 

Meadow given as glebe 1876. 

Parsonage built 1844. 

Ditto enlarged 1852. 

School built 1844. 

Dwelling-house enlarged 1854. 

New Schoolroom built 1870. 

The Church is dedicated to St. Mary Magdelene, and 
the patron of the incumbency is the Bishop of the Diocese. 
The interior of the Church is an example of chaste ec- 
clesiastical ornamentation; and in the columns near the 
pulpit, and in the chancel, the beauty of the stone, from the 
neighbouring range of Holmbury, deserves special attention. 



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INTERESTING PLAGES. 181 

There are several painted windows, one to the 
late John Gough Nichols, Esq.; one which represents the 
Beatitudes ; and a good eastern one with appropriate 
subjects drawn from the life, death, and resurrection of our 
Lord. There is a mural tablet to the memory of Seymour 
Larpent, Esq., Judge Advocate; and one to Sir George 
Bennie, with a representation of the three arches of London 
Bridge, with the construction of which his name is identified, 
and has the following inscription — 

In memory of 

George Rennie, C.E., F.B.S., 

Born 3rd Dec, 1792, 

Died Good Friday, 80th March, 1866. 

Mors Janua Vita. 

There is a cenotaph to the memory of Mrs. Henderson, 

which represents a pillar originally erected to her memory 

at Lausanne ; but which has entirely disappeared. On the 

shaft of the pillar is this inscription : 

Olympia, 

the 

affectionate 

and beloved wife 

of 

D. G. Henderson, Esq., 

Died 1st of March, 1848. 

also 

Olympia, Infant, 

who joined her on the 3rd, 

aged 7 days. 

" Blessed are the dead which 

die in the Lord." 



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182 INTERESTING PLACES. 

Underneath the representation of the shaft, &c, at 
Lausanne, with the Lake of Geneva, Dent du Midi, &c, is 
this inscription ; 

" This monument 

is raised by a devoted husband, 

To perpetuate the memory of 

a beloved wife, and sincere christian, 

in the Church which she munificently 

aided to erect, and in which she loved to worship." 

It bears a representation of a marble column, which marks 

the spot where her lamented remains rest at Lausanne, 

in Switzerland, where she died, aged 81. 

There have been only two incumbents since the Church 
was built. The first was the Rev. J. S. Utterton, afterwards 
Archdeacon of Surrey, and Suffragan Bishop of Guildford, 
who, after a life of great activity, died while engaged in 
divine service at Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, at the close 
of 1881. The next is the Rev. E. D. Wickham, formerly of 
Balliol College, Oxford, who has held the incumbency 
since 1851. 

The present Incumbent is the son of James Anthony 
Wickham, of North Hill, Frome, Somerset, born 1768, 
married, 1800, Marianne, only child of Hill Dawe, Esq., of 
Bridgewater, and died 1854. His fourth son is the Rev. 
Edmund Dawe Wickham, Vicar of Holmwood, born 24th 
February, 1810, and married, 26th May, 1886, Emma, only 
child of Archdale Palmer, of Cheam Park, and has issue, his 
son, Reginald Whalley, born 29th January, 1851, Archdale 
Palmer, the second son, born 1855, and other children. 

A School in North Holmwood was established by the 
efforts of Mr. Utterton, Charles Barclay, Esq., Mrs. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 183 

Larpent, and other friends ; and services were conducted in the 
building on Sunday evenings, until the erection of North 
Holmwood Church in 1876, which is dedicated to St. John the 
Evangelist, and was erected at a cost of £2,700, and the 
living is in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester. 

Goldharbour Church was built and endowed by the 
liberality of the late John Labouchere, Esq., of Broome Hall, 
in the year 1841, when that part of the Holmwood was 
constituted a separate parish. 

The Holmwood was, many years ago, notorious for the 
frequency of highway robbery, which was, probably, favoured 
by the opportunities of concealment afforded by the bushes 
and clumps of the common, and by the neighbouring woods 
which furnished places of concealment and opportunities of 
escape in case of pursuit. The older inhabitants tell, with 
some amusement, that it happened that one highwayman 
met another engaged in the same nefarious business, and 
to their mutual disappointment, each, instead of meeting 
with a victim and finding plunder, discovered one who was 
as needy and dangerous as himself. A story is still told of 
a farmer who travelled weekly from Dorking to Horsham 
by the old way round by Beare Green, who used to carry 
his gold in his purse, before branch banks and cheques 
provided a safer way of transmitting money from place to 
place ; on arriving near Beare Green there was a large open 
space which lay in the road to Horsham, and was entered 
by one gate and left by another at a considerable distance. 
Two highwaymen had fastened the gates with ropes, in the 
hope of stopping the farmer who was on horseback ; and as 
he approached they said with eagerness, "that is he." 
This exclamation, and the sight of the gate which was 



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184 INTERESTING PLACES. 

fastened to prevent his advance, and to make him a prey 
to their villany, impelled him to put spurs to his horse, 
which cleared one gate and then the other ; and thus escaped 
from their grasp, and left them with joy at the success of 
his courage and presence of mind, and thoughts of their 
disappointment and vexation. The institution of the rural 
police, the increase of population in country districts, and wide 
open roads, have, with other auxiliary influences, freed travellers 
from the dangers of former days. 

The practice of smuggling was very prevalent in the 
Holmwood, and there was, from the South Coast to London, 
an established method of communication, with depots at 
convenient distances. This illegal traffic was maintained 
by the connivance and co-operation of the villagers and 
others on the road. There was, at that time, a prevalent 
laxity of feeling upon the subject of smuggling, while 
occasional large profits, and the pleasure of drinking spirits 
so cheaply, attracted many to share in the undertaking. 
This practice has been discontinued through the greater 
vigilance of the Coast Guard, the change in duties upon 
many articles, and probably to the increase of temperance 
in the population generally. 

There were, sometimes, incidents which showed the 
ability and stratagem of the smugglers. Some of the boldest 
of a daring gang were waited for in Dorking by some 
foot-soldiers and excise officers — and coolly entered the yard 
of the "Ked Lion" by the western passage, and were 
supposed to be caught by those who closed in upon them, 
but being well-mounted they escaped by the eastern approach, 
and left their would-be capters to digest their vexation, 
while they pursued their triumphant course to London. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 185 



LEITH HILL. 

This hill is 966 feet above the sea level ; is the highest 
point in the south of England, and consists of the Lower 
Greensand formation. The view from this spot embraces 
the wealds of Surrey and Sussex, the forest ridge which 
stretches from Horsham to Hastings, and the North and 
South Downs. The following extract from the writings of 
John Dennis, the fierce critic and antagonist of Addison and 
Pope, shows an appreciation of the beauty and breadth of 
the prospect which every visitor to the hill will cheerfully 
confirm. He says, " In a late journey I took through Surrey, 
I passed over a hill, which showed me a more transporting 
sight than ever the country had shown me before in England 
or Italy. The prospects which in Italy pleased me most, 
were the Valdarno from the Apennines; Borne and the 
Mediterranean from the mountains of Viterbo, the former 
at forty, the latter at fifty miles distance ; and the Gampagna 
of Borne from Tivoli and Frascati, from which places you 
see every foot of that famous champaign, even from the 
bottom of Tivoli and Frascati to the very foot of the 
mountains of Viterbo, without anything to intercept your 
sight. But from a hill I passed in my late journey, I had 
a prospect more extensive than any of these, and which 
surpassed them at once in rural charms, pomp, and 
magnificence; the hill I speak of is called Leith Hill, and 
is situated about six miles south of Dorking. It was a 
sight that looked like enchantment and the vision beatific. 



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186 INTERESTING PLAGES. 

Beneath us lay open to our view all the wilds of Surrey 
and Sussex, and a great part of those of Kent, admirably 
diversified in every part of them with woods, and fields of 
corn and pastures, and everywhere adorned with stately 
rows of trees," In 1863, W. J. Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton 
House, raised the tower somewhat higher, and added the 
great convenience of a staircase to the top of the building, 
by which visitors can gain the best view of this lovely 
region. 

On the west side of the tower the following inscription 
was placed by the original founder, 

" Ut terram undique beatam 

videas, Viator, 

H»c Turris, de longe spectabilis 

Sumptibus Eicardi Hull, 

Ex agro Leith Hill Place, Armig 

regnante Georgio Tertio, 

Anno Domini MDCCLXVI. 

extructa fuit 

oblectamento non sui solum 

sed vicinorum 

et omnium. 

The other inscription is as follows : 

Hanc turrim restauravit 

Gulielmus Johannes Evelyn 

Dominus Manerii 

A.D. MDCCCLXHI. 

Mr. Bichard Hull, the original builder of the tower, was 

buried beneath the structure, and the annexed inscription, 

which Allen says was engraved on a stone and afterwards 

broken in pieces, has been preserved: — "Underneath this 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 187 

floor lieth the body of Eichard Hull, Esq., a native of 
Bristol, who departed this life January 18, 1772, in the 88rd 
year of his age. He was the eldest bencher of the Inner 
Temple, and served many years in the parliament of Ireland, 
where, by probity and vigilance, he zealously supported the 
interests of his constituents, and, after a long and faithful 
service in that station, he retired from the exercise of public 
to the enjoyment of private virtues; the testimony of a 
good conscience being his reward. He was a person eminent 
for the accomplishments of his mind, and the purity of his 
heart. He lived, in the earlier part of his life, in habits of 
intimacy with Pope, Trenchard, Bishop Berkeley, and many 
other shining characters of those times, and to wear off 
the remainder of his days, he purchased Leith Hill Place 
for a retirement, where he lived the life of a rural 
philosopher; and, by his particular desire and direction, 
his remains are here deposited, in a private manner, under 
this tower which he erected a few years before his death." 

With the aid of a good telescope the following places 
may be seen in a cool clear day : — Windsor Castle ; Butser 
Hill, Hants; High Clere, Wilts; Inkpen, Berks; Wendover, 
Bucks; Dunstable Downs, Bedfordshire; Berkhampstead, 
Herts ; Hollingbourne, the seat of B. Duppa, Esq., beyond 
Maidstone ; Tretingfield, Kent ; Westwell Downs, between 
Ashford and Faversham, Kent; Frant Church, Sussex; 
Crowborough Hill, Sussex, which is the greatest elevation 
of the forest ridge of the Wealden, and 804 feet above the 
level of the sea ; Hindhead, Surrey, the western point of the 
chain which continues, with occasional interruption from 
Leith Hill ; Ditchling Beacon, the highest point of the South 
Downs, 856 feet above the sea level ; — all these places, with 



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188 INTERESTING PLACES. 

probably the sight of about forty-one parish churches, form 
an impressive panorama. 

Dr. Whewell, late Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
says in a letter : "I am writing in an arbour wainscotted 
with moss, in the garden of one of the prettiest inns, lying 
in one of the prettiest valleys in this part of England. Not 
so beautiful, you know, as your part of the world, where 
you have sea and mountains, and distant towers and winding 
rivers ; but what the good people in the south look upon as 
very delightful scenery. There is an endless expanse of 
rich, plain country, bordered, in different directions, with 
long lines of hills, and when you mount some of the most 
prominent points of these ranges you have under your eye 
a prospect quite inexhaustible in its details, consisting of a 
patchwork of light-green fields, dark-green hedgerows and 
woods, and neat houses and villages. The hill which we 
have been visiting to-day is Leith Hill, and it is estimated 
to command a view of not less than two hundred miles in 
circumference." 

In a poem, entitled " Leith Hill," the writer thus describes 
the scenery : 

" From the smooth platform of a mouldering tower, 
The tomb of worth, a mark of taste refined, 
Which stands a faithful and conspicuous guide 
To that judicious, central point of sight, 
Where best encircling prospects meet the eye ; 
Contemplate first the mighty view beneath, 
Fields beyond fields, in vast succession, spread 
Their oultur'd surface ; and in all forms 
The lively hedgerows bound their wide domain, 
With various vegetable wealth o'ergrown. 
The clover's fragrant light empurpled bloom, 
Or yellowing brightness of the ripening corn ; 
The umber'd tinoture of the bushy heath, 
With other hues immingling, tint the ground, 
And gaily clothe the many-coloured scene. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 189 

Arising here and there, smooth gentle hills ; 
Emboss the plain, and tufted woods unmix, 
Enshade— enrich, and beautify the whole. 
O'er all the power of animation reigns, 
Gladdening the land with rural life and joy.*' 

After a farther description of the scenery, the poet alludes 
to Mr. Hull — the original builder of the tower : 

44 Tet one more tribute to departed worth, 
'Tie thine who smiled on death ; thine Hull 
Who gaily bade prepare thy latest pillow, 
Even here on Leith, thy favourite haunt in life, 
In death thy tomb. Respected be thy name, 
For thou wert all society demands 
Of man ; wise, virtuous, accomplished, good." 

Mr. Hull was a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
sat in several Irish Parliaments. He died in 1766, and his 
remains are buried under the tower. 

In 1837, some labourers, who were digging for stone in 
Mr. Evelyn's manor, found a jar containing many gold 
pieces ; among which were one of Henry VIII., representing 
him seated on his throne ; one of Edward VI. ; one of 
Elizabeth ; a rose of Henry VIII., and twenty angels of the 
same reign. 

It is necessary to be cautious in passing through some of 
the wilder parts of Leith Hill Common, as the following 
fact will prove. On the 27th of July, 1876, George Thompson, 
who was on a walking tour with a friend, reached the hill 
and inadvertently trod upon a black adder which bit him 
in the calf of his leg. Having reached the village of Ockley, 
a medical man was called in to attend him; but it was 
too late, the patient was beyond the reach of professional 
assistance, and died on the following Saturday. The adder 
was supposed to be the Ooronella Iceris. Canon Tristram 
states that this is the only adder that can hold on by its 



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190 INTERESTING PLAGES. 

teeth, and is of the same species as that which fastened on 
St. Paul's hand in the Island of Malta. 

Mr. Darwin was a frequent visitor to Leith Hill Place, 
and describes, in his work on *" Vegetable Mould and Earth 
Worms," the following fact. A lime-kiln stood in a grass 
field near Leith Hill Place, and was pulled down thirty-five 
years before my visit; all the loose rubbish had been carted 
away, excepting three large stones of quartzose sandstone, 
which it was thought might, hereafter, be of some use. An 
old workman remembered that they had boen left on a bare 
surface of broken bricks and mortar, close to the foundations 
of the kiln; but the whole of the surrounding surface is 
now covered with turf and mould. The two largest of these 
stones had never since been moved; nor could this easily 
have been done, as when I had them removed, it was the 
work of two men with levers. * * * * The base of 
the stone was buried from 1 to 2-inches beneath the general 
level, and the upper surface projected about 8-inches above 
this level, or about 4-inches above the sloping border of turf. 
The second stone was larger than the one just described, 
viz., 67-inches in length, 39 in breadth, and 15 in thickness. 
The stone had, as a whole, sunk about 2-inches into the 
ground. At this rate it would have required 262 years for its 
upper surface to have sunk to the general level of the field." 

Mr. Darwin mentions the fact that a lady, at Leith Hill 
Place, assisted him by ascertaining the weight of worm- 
castings, which were found during a year on a given space 
of ground. These, when well dried before a fire, weighed 
8£-lbs. "This would give," he remarks, "for an acre of 
similar land, 7*56 tons of dry earth annually ejected by 
worms." 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 191 

Leith Hill Place was purchased, in 1847, by the late 
Josiah Wedgwood, Esq., who was the eldest son of Josiah 
Wedgwood, of Maer Hall, and Etruria, Co. Stafford, 
formerly M.P. for Stoke-upon-Trent. He was born in 1795, 
and married Caroline, daughter of B. W. Darwin, Esq., of 
Shrewsbury, sister to the late Dr. Charles Darwin. Mr. 
Wedgwood was educated at Eton and Edinburgh, and died 
March 11, 1880. 



THE ROOKERY AND TILLINGBOUBNE. 

The Eookery is one of those lovely spots which strangers 
visit and remember with pleasure. This property was 
originally called Chertgate, and was sold, about the middle 
of the last century, by the Comber family to Abraham 
Tucker, Esq., of Betchworth Castle, who re-sold it to Mr. 
David MaJthus, who translated St. Pierre's "Paul and 
Virginie," and Goethe's "Sorrows of Werther ,, — a work, 
at one time, of European popularity. Mr. MaJthus took 
advantage of the spot, which forms the lower part of the 
Vale of Meriden, and through which the Pippbrook flows, 
to build a house, to plant, and improve the property. It 
has been in the possession of the Fuller family ever since 
1768, and is now held by G. A. Fuller, Esq. 

The present owner of the Rookery is George Arthur 
Fuller, Esq., third son of Richard Fuller, Esq., by Frances, 
daughter of H. Boulton, Esq., of Gibbons Grove, Letherhead, 
born 1810, succeeded his brother Richard in 1854, married 
in 1846, Georgiana, daughter of the Rev. Loraine L. Smith, 
of Passenham, Co. Northampton, and has issue Arthur 



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192 INTERESTING PLAGES. 

Clarges Loraine, born 1847, and married Lady Victoria 
Alexandrina, daughter of George, second Earl of Strafford. 

In the month of June, when the islets of the stream, 
which is widened in front of the mansion, are covered with 
masses of rhododendron bloom, the scene is charming; 
since the tranquility of the spot, the gleam of the brook, 
the masses of foliage, the shade of the surrounding woods, 
the sound of the corn-mill, and the signs of wealth and 
refinement in the mansion, combine to produce a pleasant 
and abiding impression. There is a footpath by the house 
which will lead the visitor through magnificent beeches until 
he comes to a gate, when he will cross a narrow lane and 
take the stile directly facing him, and he will then arrive 
at the Tillingbourne estate, which belongs to the Duke of 
Norfolk. On the way to Broadmoor there is a spot called 
"Lonesome," where, according to Manning, Mr. Theodore 
Jacobsen, a Dutch merchant, in coming to Dorking to eat 
water-souchy, a dish then much in repute, chanced to see the 
retired spot, and being struck with its beauty, purchased the 
land, and erecting a house from his own designs, named it 
" Lonesome " on account of its seclusion and privacy. This 
occurred in 1740, and it became his summer residence until 
1768, when it was sold to Mr. Jeremiah Joye. It now belongs 
to the Duke of Norfolk, and is occupied by G. Bonnor, Esq., 
There is a small cascade, and a clear stream which flows on 
until it falls into the Wey, which is an affluent of the Thames. 
Passing through this spot the visitor will reach Broadmoor, 
which is an open and breezy space, somewhat rough and 
wild, that aids to diversify the aspects of the scenery. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 198 



ROSE HILL. 



Certain legal documents in the possession of the writer 
describe the successive changes of proprietorship through 
which this part of Dorking has passed. It came into the 
hands of Eichard Lowndes, Esq., about seventy years ago, 
and the name of Lord Brougham and Vaux occurs in 
connection with that circumstance. One of the conditions 
upon which this property was sold, was "that the said 
messuages, or tenements, or other buildings, if any, should not 
be used for the purpose of an inn, victualling-house or beer shop, 
nor should any offensive or noxious trade be carried on, or 
used in or upon the said messuages/' A part of Rose Hill 
was originally a cherry orchard, and its southern limit was 
Townfield Lane — afterwards Sweetheart Lane — and is now 
known as St. Paul's Road. The entrance to Rose Hill from 
the Bull's Head is not attractive, and probably many visitors 
to the town miss the opportunity of seeing one of the 
pleasantest parts of Dorking. Around a fine paddock, in 
which sheep and cows are usually found and give an air of 
rural quiet, there are numerous ornamental villas. There 
are two fine lime trees in the centre, which appear to have 
formed part of an avenue in former days, and are, when 
loaded with their tassels of seed in July, objects of 
considerable beauty. There are examples of the ash, elm, 
beech and walnut, which make the spot very charming in 
summer. The mansion to which the estate was originally 
attached, stands at the foot of Rose Hill, and is now 
divided into two residences. That on the east, was the house 

o 



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194 INTERESTING PLACES. 

where Louis Philippe resided, during the troubles of the 
first French Revolution; some years before his death, he 
passed along the South Eastern Railway, and, at Dorking 
Station, made inquiries respecting his former residence. 



ST. MABTHA S CHURCH AND " THE PILGRIMS WAY. 

It was a prevalent custom in Mediaeval England to go 
on pilgrimages to certain shrines, among which that of 
Thomas a Beckett was very popular. Having fallen a victim 
to the anger and cruelty of Henry II., his assassination in 
the cause of the church awoke general sympathy; the 
penitence of the King at his tomb, and the report of miracles 
wrought by his intercession, drew thousands to Canterbury 
to seek his aid, or acknowledge by gifts and offerings his 
assistance in times of distress. The pilgrims from the West 
of England, probably from Wales and other places, would 
meet near Guildford, and take the following route to 
Canterbury. They would enter Chantley Wood, and proceed 
to Farthing Copse, Half-penny Copse, St. Martha's Chapel, 
Newland's Corner, Coal Kitchen, (a sheep walk) Hakes 
Down, Open Grove, Redhams, Whitegate, Ranmore Common, 
Frewnice Wood, Chapel Farm* (a station), Hadler's Lane, 
Cross Waypole, Pigeon Holes, Dukes' Plantation, Betchworth 
Hills, Ondley Lane, Gatton, Titsey, Chivering, Oxford, 
Cuxton, Wortham, Dipping, Hollingbourne, Charring, and to 
Canterbury. 

*The Chapel, the ruins of which stand in Westhumble, was probably 
founded in the reign of Edward in., (1327— 1377), after the alienation of the 
manor to the priory of Beigate. It was probably desolated in the reign of 
Henry VIII., by Lord Thomas Cromwell ; but little is known of its history. 
The pilgrims used to halt here for acts of devotion. 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 195 

St. Martha's Chapel, is one of the most remarkable points 
on the whole of the " Pilgrim's Way." This church belonged 
to Newark Priory, to which it was appropriated in 1262, A.D. 
In 1463, it was re-built and enlarged for the accommodation 
of pilgrims; and forty days' indulgence was granted to 
such as should resort to the place, on account of devotion, 
prayer, pilgrimage or offering; and should there say the 
Paternoster, the Angel's Salutation, and the Apostle's Greed ; 
or should contribute, or otherwise assign anything towards 
the maintenance, repair and re-building of the same. It 
was dedicated to St. Martha and all Martyrs, from a tradition, 
that in very early times, some Christians had suffered death 
for their faith on this spot. 

Many of the pilgrims would reach St. Martha's and 
continue their journey along the hills; and others would 
travel by the vale of Albury, by Shere, Gomshall, Abinger, 
and Wotton, and would saunter from church to church, and 
from fair to fair, and frequently those who went to 
Canterbury to celebrate the anniversary of St. Thomas' 
death, (December 29), and those who went for the feast of the 
Translation on the 7th of July, would meet on the way. 
There were the winter and summer pilgrims, most of whom 
would, from the existence of many relics, and it is said, some 
of 6, Beckett himself, found there, be attracted to visit 
St. Martha's. 

In Dean Stanley's " Memorials of Canterbury," the 
following passage upon this subject is found: "It has been 
supposed, and with much probability, that Henry II., when he 
landed at Southampton, July 8, 1174, made his pilgrimage to 
Beckett's tomb, may have approached Canterbury by this 
route. Devotees who came from Brittany, Anjou, the western 

o 2 



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196 INTERESTING PLACES. 

part of Normandy, and the adjacent provinces of France, 
would come to St. Swithin's shrine, and then travel by i!he 
" Pilgrims' Way," to Canterbury. The road is occasionally 
indicated by yew trees left standing in arable fields. Under 
the picturesque height of Box Hill, several yews remain in 
the ploughed land, reliques, no doubt, of this ancient way; 
a row more or less, marks its progress as it leads to Reigate." 

St. Martha's is sometimes called a chapel; but the 
payment of tithes renders it a church proper. The old 
building, though sadly dilapidated, contains an effigy on an 
altar tomb, a far richer ornament than might be expected in 
such an exposed and sequestered situation. The cure is a 
donative. 

This church is an object of frequent allusion in Mr. Martin 
Tupper's tale, entitled, " Stephen Langton, or the days of King 
John.' 1 The lines we now introduce relate to this structure : 

" Tell what various tribes have trod, 
With various hopes, this ancient sod, 
The painted Briton, years of yore 
Hunting down the wolf or boar ; 
The Roman watcher posted here 
Leaning on his iron spear ; 
The fair-haired Angle, piling high 
Beacon fires against the sky ; 
With vulture eyes the hungry Dane 
Gloating o'er the fertile plain ; 
Patriot Saxons, who withstood 
The Norman conquering for good ; 
Monks to bless with book and bell ; 
Crusaders bidding all farewell ; 
Footsore pilgrims hither came, 
Mid-way from St. Beckett's tomb ; 
Rustics, on the sabbath day, 
Duly toiling up to pray ; 
Mourners weeping round the bier 
Brought for humble burial here ; 
And thousands more, in dresses quaint, 
Than tongue can tell, or pencil paint ; 
Here laughed or wept, or fought their fill, 
Or lived or died on Martyr's Hill." 



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INTERESTING PLACES. 197 

In a pamphlet published by Captain Eenouard James, 
R.E., there occurs this passage. 

" It is said that Bunyan frequently selected the hilly 
districts of south Surrey as his hiding place from 
persecution ; two houses, one on the Quarry Hill, Guildford, 
and the other known as Horn Hatch, on Shalford Common, 
being pointed out as among those he occupied. The struggles 
of the pedestrian through Shalford swamp might have 
given Bunyan the idea of the "Slough of Despond;" the 
Surrey Hills he loved so well, might be called the 
" Delectable Mountains ; " St. Martha's Hill would answer 
to the " Hill Difficulty ; " and the Vale of Albury, and the 
scenery of which he passed so many days of true 
humiliation, might be considered the " Valley of 
Humiliation ;" and lastly, " Doubting Castle " actually 
exists to this day, near the "Pilgrims Way," being 
approached, as its namesake is supposed to be, by a path 
near Box Hill, in West Surrey. It is right to state that the 
antiquity of the last is not verified." The above extract 
respecting Bunyan makes us wish that we possessed more 
satisfactory evidence that the immortal dreamer drew the 
imagery for his " Pilgrims Progress," from the scenery of the 
neighbourhood. It is, however, well authenticated, that 
Bunyan preached in the neighbourhood of Guildford more 
than once ; but it was after his release from Bedford gaol, 
where his work was written. 



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198 INTERESTING PLACES. 



WESTCOTT. 



This village is on the road from Dorking to Guildford. 
The way to it is very open and pleasant, and has, on the left, 
Bury Hill with its plantations, and on the right, the 
residences of Mrs. Bovill, and A. Powell, Esq., J.P., and 
open fields and views of Denbies. Westcott is mentioned 
in Domesday book, as having three bondsmen, fourteen 
villains, and five bordars; a mill, and a wood which feeds 
thirty swine. In the sixth of John, and until Henry III., 
it was held by the Gilberts; afterwards by the families of 
Valence and Hastings ; then by the Beauchamps and the 
Nevils. The manor at length descended to Henry Nevil, 
Lord Abergavenny, who jointly with the Earl of Dorset, 
conveyed it to Sir Francis Stidolph, and George Duncan, 
Esq., as trustees for sale. It was purchased by Bichard 
Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton, and finally came into the 
possession of W. J. Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton House. In 
1742, Sir John Evelyn obtained a grant of two fairs, to be 
holden on Westcott Heath, on the 15th of April, and the 28th 
of October. This fair has not been held for many years, 
owing to the change in the habits of the people, and the 
opportunity of visiting the Crystal Palace, the seaside, and 
other places of resort; and to the greater facilities for 
purchasing articles supplied by the activity of trade and 
commerce. 

There are some fair mansions in the hamlet, which 
consist of the Vicarage ; and Bokefield, the residence of Miss 
Barclay. Broomfield is the residence of Sir Thomas Paine, 



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INTERESTING PLAGES. 199 

who was knighted by her Majesty, as President of the 
Incorporated Law Society, on the occasion of the opening 
of the new Law Courts. Sir Thomas is the only son of the 
late Mr. Thomas Paine, paymaster of the Royal Navy, and 
Charlotte, his wife; and was born in 1822, at Great 
Yarmouth. He is now the head of the firm of Paines, 
Layton and Pollock, and was elected President of the 
Society in July last. In 1847, Mr. Paine married Anna, 
eldest daughter of the late Mr. James Neave, of Downham 
Grove, Wymondham. 

In 1840, the small Chapel with burying ground, known as 
St. John's, Westcott, was founded by John Worsfold, Esq., 
at a time when no place of worship existed nearer than the 
town of Dorking on the east, and Wotton church on the 
west of the hamlet. There is an endowment of £40 a year, 
a house and a meadow for the use of the minister, and some 
small additional bequests, for the distribution of bread, 
and for the support of the Sunday School, which were 
provided by the liberality of the late Mr. Worsfold. It is 
founded according to the principles and usages of the 
Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, and the appointment 
of the minister is in the hands of a number of trustees. 
There is a monumental tablet and excellent marble bust of 
the founder in the chapel, and an inscription, which records 
his benefactions for the maintenance of Divine worship, 
and other purposes. 

The church which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was 
designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, and was consecrated by 
the Bishop of Winchester, in 1852. It was built chiefly 
by the liberality of the Barclay family. The late Charles 
Barclay, Esq., gave one thousand pounds; and the late 



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200 INTERESTING PLACES. 

Arthur Rett Barclay, Esq., generously contributed to the 
fund, and the late Lady Mary Leslie, bequeathed one 
thousand pounds towards the endowment of the living, which 
is a perpetual curacy of the annual value of one hundred 
pounds, and is in the gift of Robert Barclay, Esq., of 
Bury Hill. 

In the reign of Henry VIII., and on the 10th of July, 
1530, there was a deed of sale of gardens and land, in 
Westcott, called Burgland (a word probably connected with 
Bury), and another of land and wood, called Marly dens, 
and witnessed by George Taylor, Geoffrey Stilwell, John 
Stilwell, and others, on the 14th of June, 1544. 

On the right of the road to Westcott, is the seat of 
Arthur Powell, Esq., the eldest surviving son of James 
Powell, Esq., of Clapham, by Catherine, daughter of the 
Bev. Nathaniel Cotton, of Thornbury, Co. Northampton ; was 
born 1812, and married in 1842, Charlotte, younger daughter 
of the late Bev. Peter Guerin Crofts, of Mailing House and 
Sompting Abbot, Sussex, and has, with other issue, Arthur 
Crofts, M.A., of Brazenose College, Oxford. Mr. Powell is 
a Commissioner of Taxes, a Magistrate for the County of 
Surrey, a Governor of Christs' Hospital, and one of the 
Council of the County School. 



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THE RIVER MOLE. 201 



THE RIVER MOLE. 

This river was known in former times by the name of 
Emlyn, or Amlyn, which is prpbably a word of Celtic origin. 
In old deeds it is written Emyln and streme. Like all 
rivers in Surrey, which rise to the south of the North Downs, 
it makes its way to the Thames through openings in the 
chalk ranges. It has its source in the Wealden Series, 
and derives its supplies from a district of country which is 
from twelve to fourteen miles in extent. One considerable 
feeder is in the Holmesdale Valley; another rises in the 
valley between Bletchingly and White Hill ; another springs 
from Wray Common, passes under Bell Street, Reigate, 
and through Reigate Park ; another comes from Merstham ; 
the latter are supplied from the Greensand formation. The 
Holmesdale branch finds its way through a narrow valley 
at Redhill. The most southern source of the Mole is at 
High Beeches, near the Balcombe Station, in Sussex ; and, 
as it passes along the Wealden Series, it carries large 
portions of the soil, which often makes the river turbid. 
These various affluents, including the Pippbrook, near 
Dorking, are united into one stream at Box Hill, which 
then flows by Letherhead, Stoke D'Abernon, Cobham, to 
East Moulsey, where it falls into the Thames. " The Mole," 



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202 THE RIVER MOLE. 

Camden observes, " coming to White Hill, (Box Hill), hides 
itself, or is rather swallowed up at the foot of the hill there ; 
and for that reason the place is called " the Swallow ; " 
but about two miles below it bubbles up and rises again, so 
that the inhabitants of this tract, no less than the Spaniards, 
can boast of having a bridge that feeds several flocks of 
sheep." The spongy and porous quality of the soil allows 
subterranean passages to be formed in the banks and bottom 
of the river. As in ordinary seasons these are full, and do 
not discharge water faster than it is supplied, the river 
suffers no diminution. In times of drought the 
water is drawn into these passages, the river is much 
reduced, and its bed, in some places, becomes quite dry. 
By the bridge at Thorncroft, the stream re-appears, and 
flows without interruption towards Letherhead. Thomas 
Fuller, in his "Worthies of England," says, "I listen not 
to the country people telling it was experimented by a goose, 
which was put in and came out again with life, (though 
without feathers); but hearken seriously to those who 
judiciously impute the subsidency of the earth in the 
interstice aforesaid, to some underground hollowness made 
by that water in the passage thereof." 

" From calculations made on different days, after 
measuring the height and velocity of the current received 
into these pools, it was ascertained, when both were in 
activity, that the swallows of the outer pool engulphed 72 
imperial gallons per second, 4,820 per minute, and 259,200 
per hour ; and those of the inner pool, 23 imperial gallons 
per second, 1,880 per minute, and 82,800 per hour." — Brayley. 

De Foe, who resided some time in the neighbourhood of 
Dorking, relates a sudden overflow of the river, which 



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THE BITER MOLE. 

carried away the fish from the ponds that were supplied 
by its waters. Sir Adam Browne, of Betchworth Castle, 
and a number of boys and youths from Dorking, raised a 
high dam, which caused the river to flow in its natural 
bed, while the overflow had made, in a hollow part of the 
field, a kind of lake opposite the Stomacher at Boxhill. As 
the water subsided, the fish were all re-taken and restored 
to the ponds, from which they had been swept by the 
sudden flood. The Mole has been frequently noticed by 
our English poets. Drayton remarks, in his " Polyolbion," 
that the river is one 

" Which like a noozling mole 
Doth noozle underneath." 

He gives a faithful representation of the Thames and 
the Mole, and says of the last-named river : 

" 'Gainst Hampton Court he meets the soft and gentle Mole," 

and is a little inclined to dally with her, which Thames and 
Isis, the parent of the Thames, see with some displeasure, as 
they are anxious for him to hasten on to unite with the 
Medway : 

44 Bnt Thames would hardly on, oft turning back to show, 
From his much lov'd Mole, how loth he was to go. 
The mother of the Mole, Old Holmesdale, likewise bears 
The affection of her child, as ill as they do theirs." 

She tries to prevent their meeting in vain : 

" Old Holmesdale raised hills to keep the stragglers in, 
That of her daughter's stay she need no more to doubt, 
(Yet never was there help, but love could find it out). 
Mole digs herself a path, by working day and night, 
(According to her name to show her nature right), 
And underneath the earth for three miles space doth creep." 

Thames is forced on ; yet the Mole is honoured : 

** Thames did understand what pains the Mole did take," 

and requites her attachment ; for 

" Up towards the place where first his much loved Mole was seen, 
He ever since doth flow towards delightful Sheen.* 1 



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204 THE RIVER MOLE. 

Thomson alludes to the river thus : — 

44 Here let me trace the matchless vale of Thames, 
Fair winding up to where the Muses' haunt 
In Twitnam's bowers, to royal Hampton's pile, 
To Claremont's terraced height, and Esher's groves, 
By the soft windings of the gentle Mole." 

Milton in his vacation exercise speaks of "the Sullen 
Mole that runneth underneath." 

In 1881, Miss M. D. Bethune printed a pleasant poem 
on the "Emlyn Eiver — or the Mole," in which, with fine 
appreciation of the beauty of the country through which 
it flows, and the objects which adorn its banks, thus 
writes of its origin: 

•• From a lowlier fount 
Its deep abundant waters bubble forth 
In far St. Leonard's forest, where its spring 
Is all unsought, no pilgrimage is made 
To the bright source ; but, silent and alone, 
It sends its welcome waters all abroad 
Through meadows of rich grass aud grateful corn ; 
By wooded banks, where fringing alders dip 
Their pendent branches in the clear, cold wave, 
And, as the light wind stirs among them, shew 
The silver lining of their glossy leaves ; 
And thus the gentle river journeyeth on, 
Long time unmarked, save by the fresher green, 
Where thankful meads, whose thirsty sides she bathes, 
Strew bright-eye flowers along her lingering way." 

The river is very beautiful in certain parts of its course, 
where it is overhung with alders, willows, poplars, and 
other trees; while here and there it is dotted with white 
and yellow water lilies; affords choice passages for the 
artist, and some pleasure for the angler. The fish found 
in the Mole include the following kinds : — pike, carp, tench, 
bream, roach, gudgeon, dace, bleak, eels, trout,* and 
minnows. Lilly, in his "Memoirs of his Life and Times," 

• Swete, in his work on Angling, affirms that trout, of the weight of three 
pounds, were often caught in the Mole. 



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THE RIVER HOLE. 205 

informs us that in the time of the Long Parliament, 
many came from London to fish for trout at Letherhead, 
and that Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke suffered from a surfeit 
from eating too many trout caught there. 

In Pope's " Windsor Forest," there is an epithet applied 
to the river which is scarcely correct, since he calls it the 

" Sullen Mole that hides its diving flood.*' 

A passage from the same poem may be fitly introduced from 
its happy description of the pleasures of fishing in the Mole : 

•• In genial spring, beneath the quivering shade, 
Where cooling vapours breathe along the mead, 
The patient fisher takes his silent stand, 
Intent, his angle trembling in his hand ; 
With look unmov'd, he hopes the scaly breed, 
And eyes the dancing cork, and bending reed. 
Our plenteous streams a various race supply, 
The bright-ey'd perch, with fins of Tyrian dye, 
The silver eel, in shining volumes roUM, 
The yellow carp, in scales bedrop'd with gold, 
Swift trouts, diversify'd with crimson stains, 
And pikes, the tyrants of the wat'ry plains." 



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206 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 



NEIGHBORING PAEISHES. 



ABINGER. 

This parish consists of a narrow tract of land which is 
about nine miles in length from north to south, and scarcely 
more than a mile in breadth from east to west. It contains 
5,400 acres, of which 2,528 are arable; 712 meadow; 
785 wood and pasture ; and 1,000 common or rough land ; 
and 85 glebe, all of which are titheable, except 400 acres 
of woodland in the weald of Surrey. 

Domesday book informs us that "William Fitz-Anscuff 
holds Abincebourne, which was held by Huscarle of King 
Edward. He was assessed at 6 hides; there were in the 
demesne 10 villains and 8 bordars. There are a church 
and 5 bondmen, and a mill valued at 6 shillings; 3 acres 
of meadow, and woods yielding 40 swine. It was valued 
at £8 in the time of King Edward, and since at £7. 

The same William holds Padendene, of which no part is 
held in demesne; but there are 12 villains and 5 bordars, 
a mill valued at 6 shillings, and 4 acres of meadow. A 
wood yields 40 lean and 15 fat swine. Hugh, the Homager, 
holds 3 hides of this manor, with a hall and one carucate 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 207' 

in demesne. In the time of King Edward, the manor of 
Fadendene was valued at £9, afterwards, and at present, 
at £7." 

There are, in the parish of Abinger, three manors ; viz., 
Abinger or (Abingworth), Paddington-Pembroke, and 
Paddington-Bray. 

The manor of Abinger was held by the Paganels, Barons 
of Dudley in 1211. It passed afterwards to the Charpenvilles ; 
Sir John Aylesbury ; Sir Humphrey Stafford ; Edward 
Elrington, Esq., and others, and finally, in 1622, into the 
possession of the Evelyns of Wotton House. W. J. 
Evelyn, Esq., the representative of the family, is the 
present owner. 

The Manor of Paddington-Pembroke was held, in 1272, 
in the reign of Edward L, by John de la Tynde, and was 
held in succession by John de Hastings, whose son became 
Earl of Pembroke; the Beauchamps; Lord Abergavenny; 
and, in 1629, was sold to Richard Evelyn of Wotton, and is 
now owned by W. J. Evelyn, Esq. 

The Manor of Paddington-Bray passed from Alan 
Trenchmere to William de Braose ; and afterwards to Adam 
de Gurdon, by the service of half a knight's fee, and the 
delivery of a pair of gilt spurs, value sixpence, in lieu of 
all services. It was found that there was one toft valued 
at 6d. per annum ; 100 acres at 3d. an acre ; 50 acres at 2d. 
an acre; 7 acres of pasture at 3d.; all other customs 
amounted to £4 10s. lid. ; 3 pounds of wax at 6d. per lb., 
and 1 pound of pepper at 12d. This manor is remarkable 
for the number of times, in the course of two hundred 
years, it has changed owners. It passed from the Sydleshams 
to the Yonges, Sir John Leigh, Sir W. Boche, Sir Edward 



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208 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Bray, the Elringtons, Sir John Morgan, Sir Christopher 
Parkins, and finally into the possession of the Evelyn 
family in 1624. 

The advowson is in the deanery of Stoke, and the 
patronage of the living, which is a rectory, has descended 
with the manor of Abinger. The registers commence in 
1559. The rent-charge is (with £16 on 85 acres of 
glebe) £600. 

The building stands on a higher site than that of any 
other parish church in the county. It was repaired in 
1797; again in 1824; and, recently W. J. Evelyn, Esq., 
repaired the north chancel, which belongs to him as patron, 
and liberally assisted in the general improvements of the 
fabric. The Countess of Donegal presented to the church 
a silver flagon, a cup, paten, and plate for offerings. There 
are, in the church, memorials which record the death of 
the Rev. Thomas Crawley ; Eev. Robert Offley, who devised 
two farms in Sussex for the support of Oakwood Chapel; 
Commodore Robinson ; Lady Scarlett ; and in the churchyard 
tombs to the memory of John Humphrey Skardon, Esq. ; 
and Lord Abinger and his first wife. 

Abinger Hall was formerly in the possession of the 
Dibble family ; and afterwards it became the residence and 
property of the Countess of Donegal, who was a friend 
and correspondent of Swift. He speaks of her "as the 
glory of the Granard race " — and continues : 

" Now destined by the powers divine, 
The blessing of another line, 
Then would you paint a matchless Dame, 
Whom you'd consign to endless fame, 
Invoke not Cytherea's aid, 
Nor borrow from your blue-eyed maid, 
Nor need you on the Graces call, 
Take qualities from Donegal." 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 209 

After Captain Pitts and Mr. Skardon had possessed the 
property, it was sold to Sir James Scarlett, who, in January, 
1885, was made Chief Baron of the Exchequer. He is 
remembered for his eloquence as a pleader, and his ability 
as a judge. He died in 1844. Lady Abinger, daughter of 
Lee Steere Steere, of Jayes, and widow of the Eev. Henry 
John Eidley, of Ockley, survived him. Mr. Eidley was a 
descendant of Bishop Ridley, the Protestant marytr; and 
among the relics possessed by Lady Abinger, was the chair 
in which he used to study. The property is now in the 
possession of Sir T. H. Farrer, Permanent Secretary to 
the Board of Trade, who has pulled down the old mansion, 
which was not an attractive edifice, and of a colour which 
scarcely harmonized with the surrounding scenery ; and has 
reared one under the superintendence and after the designs 
of Mr. Waterhouse, the eminent architect. It is a noble 
pile, built of brick, and enriched with terra cotta 
ornamentation. It looks well from a distance by its 
contrast to the colour of the surrounding woods and 
plantations ; and the interior arrangements happily 
correspond to the exterior and imposing aspect of the 
fabric. 

Sir T. H. Farrer was raised to the dignity of a baronet in 
August, 1883, and the following is a brief outline of his 
career and domestic relations. . 

" Sir Thomas Henry Farrer, Baronet, Permanent Secretary 
of the Board of Trade, is the eldest son of Thomas 
Farrer, Esq., of Lincoln's-inn-fields, by his marriage with 
Cecilia, daughter of Richard Willis, Esq., of Halsmead, 
Prescot, Lancashire, and was born 1819, was educated at 
Eton; graduated at Balliol College, Oxford; B.A. in 1841; 



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210 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

and called to the Bar in 1844. Mr. Farrer is a magistrate 
for Surrey, and has been connected with the Board of 
Trade for thirty years. He has been twice married ; first 
to Frances, daughter of William Erskine of the Indian 
Civil Service, in 1854 ; and secondly to Catherine Euphemia, 
daughter of Hensleigh Wedgewood, Esq., and has a son 
and heir, Thomas Cecil, born in 1859." 

It was to this mansion that the body of the late eminent 
prelate, Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Winchester, was 
conveyed, after his sudden death — occasioned by a fall from 
his horse at Eversheds' Bough. The Bishop was riding 
with Lord Granville to visit the Hon. Leveson Gower, at 



Holmbury, when the fatal event occurred. A massive cross 
of antique form, with a pastoral crook sculptured on its 
front, has been reared upon the spot, to commemorate the 
painful circumstance. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 211 

As this memorable and painful incident occtired near 
Abinger, we subjoin the following details extracted from the 
third volume of the life of Bishop Wilberforce, in which 
occurs the letter written by Lord Granville to the Rev. B. 
G. Wilberforce. 

Walmer Castle, 

September 25th, 1882. 
Dear Mr. Wilberforce, 

It was in Rotten Row that he wished ( to put himself in 
my hands' for our journey to Holmbury, (the seat of the 
Hon. Leveson Gower, M.P.,) at the end of the week. We 
hardly spoke in the South Western Railway to Letherhead. 
But on getting into a fly, which took us to Burford Bridge, 
he became cheerful and talked a great deal. He appeared 
to know to whom all the houses we passed belonged, and 
had some characteristic anecdote to tell of the owners. 
After getting on a hack hunter called Carrick Beg, (a " little 
rock,") which Bernal Osborne had bought for me some 
time before in Ireland, his spirits became like those of a 
boy ; galloping very fast up the long hill, apparently careless 
as to the ground we were riding over, talking almost 
incessantly on political, religious, and social topics. He 
dwelt much on the subject of conversion to Catholicism, 
and on the character and influence of Dr. Manning, whose 
name I had mentioned, forgetting at the moment that he had 
been your mother's brother-in-law. He seemed a little anxious 
on going down the steep decline leading towards Mr. Farrer's 
house, and asked whether I was sure it was the right way. 
At the bottom of the hill I aeked him if he was ever tired by a 
long ride, " Never on such a horse as this." He then told 
me, in his pleasantest manner, an amusing story, which 

p 2 



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212 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

indirectly intimated his superior horsemanship over that 
of a nohle and political friend of his and mine. We broke 
into a gentle canter over a smooth surface of turf. I was 
riding on his left, slightly in advance. I heard a thud on 
the ground, and turning round I saw him lying motionless. 
From the groom's account it appeared that the horse, 
probably a little tired, had put his foot in a gutter of 
the turf, and stumbled without coming down. Your father 
must have turned a complete summersault, his feet were 
in the dirction in which we were going, bis arms straight 
by his side — the position was absolutely monumental. I sent 
the groom for assistance to Mr. Farcer's house. I took 
off the Bishop's boots and his neck-handkerchief. I 
remember my sense of despair at not knowing whether 
there was anything I could do which would be of use. 
For a long time I could feel no pulse; at last I could feel 
the beating distinctly. I mentioned this to an intelligent 
bailiff who came with labourers. He said he could 
see no sign of life. I was afterwards told by the doctor 
that it was my own pulsation, and not that of what, alas ! 
was a corpse which I had felt. 

I shall never forget the expression of sorrow on the 
faces of Mr. Gladstone and of my brother, when I arrived 
at Holmbury, at the end of this fearful ride. 

Yours sincerely, 

Granville. 

The Bishop's body was taken to Abinger Hall, where, 
having been vested in the robes of office, it lay on the 
drawing-room floor till Monday. On the afternoon of that 
day the hearse started for Lavington, which was reached 
late at night, and the coffin was placed in the library of 



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NEIGHBOURING* PARISHES. 218 

the Bishop's residence, where it remained till Friday, 
July 25th, when the funeral took place in the parish 
churchyard. 

The following passage, from Mr. Darwin's work on 
"The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action 
of Worms," relates to an interesting circumstance which 
occurred on Mr. Farrer's estate at Abingor. Mr. Darwin 
says : " Late in the autumn of 1876, the ground of an old 
farmyard was dug to a depth of 2 to 2£-feet; and the 
workmen found various ancient remains. This led Mr. 
T. H. Farrer to have an adjoining field searched. On a 
trench being dug, a layer of concrete, still partly covered 
with tesserae (small red tiles), and surrounded on two sides 
with broken walls, was soon discovered. It is believed 
that this formed part of the atrium, or reception room, of 
a Boman villa. Many fragments of pottery, other objects, 
and coins of Boman emperors, dating from 133 to 361, and 
perhaps to 376 a.d., were likewise found. Also a halfpenny 
of George I., 1751. The presence of this latter coin seems 
an anomaly; but no doubt it was dropped into the ground 
during the last century, and since then there has been 
ample time for its burial under a considerable depth of 
the castings of worms. From different dates of Boman 
coins we may infer that the building was long inhabited. 
It was, probably, ruined and deserted 1400 or 1500 years 
ago. It appears at first sight a surprising fact, that this 
field of light, sandy soil should have been cultivated and 
ploughed during many years, and that not a vestige of 
these buildings should have been discovered. No one 
suspected that the remains of a Boman villa lay hidden 
so close to the surface. But the fact is less surprising 



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214 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

when it is known that the field, as the bailiff believed, 
had never been ploughed to a greater depth than 4-inches." 
He adds: "although the concrete floor (of the villa) did 
not appear at first to have been penetrated by worms, yet 
the next morning little cakes of earth bad been lifted 
up by the worms on the mouth of seven burrows, which 
passed through the softer parts of the naked concrete, and 
between the interstices of the tesserae." (Mr. Farrer 
supplied Mr. Darwin with many observations of the action 
of worms on this spot.) " Knowing what great muscular 
power worms possess, and seeing how soft the concrete was 
in many parts, I was not surprised at its having been 
penetrated by their burrows ; but it is a more surprising fact 
that the mortar between the rough stones was found by 
Mr. Farrer to have been penetrated by worms. Finally, we 
may infer that a large part of the fine vegetable mould which 
covered the floor, and the broken down walls of this villa, 
in some places to a thickness of 16-inches, was brought 
up from below by worms." 

Through the invitation of Mr. Hicklin, of Rose Hill, 
Dorking, a member of the British Archaeological Association, 
several of the Council of that body paid a visit to Abinger, 
and examined the portion of the villa already exposed to 
view. There were silver and bronze coins, red and white 
tesserae, pieces of Samian pottery, nails attached to portions 
of roof tiles, and shells of the oyster and large white 
snail. The part of the villa which has been laid bare — 
and is now protected with a covering of straw — shows the 
atrium or reception hall; an apartment to the north-east, 
measuring 11 -feet by 6-feet; and another room running 
eastward, of similar dimensions; and another below this 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 215 

on the south side, of a square form, measuring 11 -feet 
6-inches by 11-feet. Although at Holmbury there are traces 
of a Roman camp, and on Farley Heath, near Albury, 
many Roman coins have been found, this is the only 
instance of a villa being found in the neighbourhood of 
Dorking. 



On the outskirts of the parish is a nmall nonconformist 
church, built, nearly sixty years ago, on land given by 
Mr. Bray, the Lord of the Manor. Recently, a beautiful 
structure, for the use of members of the Church of England, 
has been reared by the late G. E. Street, Esq., R.A. ; and, 



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216 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

at some distance to the west, with fair and extensive prospects 
to the south, stands the mansion of the Hon. Leveson 
Gower, M.P. for Bodmin. 

The scenery around Abinger is varied and charming. 
There is Friday Street, which lies in a little valley, with 
a breadth of water which resembles an inland lake. There 
are masses of fir-trees; and the village, amidst the great 
and constant changes of the outer world, still preserves some- 
thing of its primitive aspect. There is a pair of stocks at 
Abinger, which is probably one of the few surviving in the 
country. They were used as recently as 1820 and 1880, for 
the purpose of punishing boys who behaved in a disorderly 
manner in church during divine service. 



ALBURY. 

This manor is thus described in Domesday book : " Roger 
(de Montgomery) holds of Richard (de Tonbridge) Eldeberie, 
which was held by Azor of King Edward. It was then 
assessed at 4 hides ; now at 2J hides. There are 5 carucates 
of arable land. One is in the demesne; and 11 villains 
and 6 bordars, with 6 carucates. There is a church ; and 
4 bondmen, and a mill at 5 shillings. The woodland yields 
80 swine. One of these hides is held by a knight, who 
bath there in demesne 1£ carucates; and 1 villain and 
1 bondman ; and one acre of meadow. The whole manor, 
in the time of King Edward, was valued at 10 pounds; 
afterwards at 100 shillings ; and now at 9 pounds." It 
is supposed that Al-bury, or Elde-berie, had reference to 
the old Roman camp on Farley Heath in this parish. This 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 217 

has been thoroughly investigated by Martin Farquahar 
Tupper, Esq., and the outlines of the Roman military 
quarters have been satisfactorily ascertained. The coins 
which were found by him included examples of the reign 
of Domitian, Aurelius Claudius, Constantine, Constantius, 
and one of Magnentius (350 a.d.) had a monogram of 
Christ between Alpha and Omega.* The manor was held, 
in 1222, by David de Jarpenvill ; and John D'Abernon had 
a charter of free-warren, and his heir was seized of it in 
1327, which passed, with the manor of Stoke D'Abernon, 
to the family of Bray. After several changes of proprietor 
it came into the hands of Mr. Duncumb, the Hon. Henry 
Howard, Heneage Finch, a younger son of the Earl of 
Nottingham, and one of the judges of the seven bishops 
in the reign of James II., and received a handsome piece 
of plate for his refusal to condemn the prelates. He was 
afterwards made Earl of Aylesford, and during his life 
the mansion of Albury was burnt down. The estate was 
afterwards sold to the Hon. William Clement Finch, at 
whose death it was bought by Samuel Thornton, Esq., 
Governor of the Bank of England. It was then purchased 
by Charles Wall, Esq., who, in 1819, conveyed it to the 
late Henry Drummond, Esq., formerly M.P. for West 
Surrey, whose daughter and heiress, Louisa, was married 
to the Duke of Northumberland, who is the present owner 
of the estate. There is another small estate styled Weston, 
upon which stood a house occupied by Elias Ashmole, the 
celebrated antiquary ; and afterwards by Dr. Bobert Schaw, 

* " The first well authenticated instance of the resuscitation of " mummy 
wheat " occurred in Mr. Tupper's garden in Albury in 1840. The seed, brown 
and shrunken, could scarce have been less than 8000 years old, sealed vases 
of it having been found in a tomb in the Thebaid by Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, 
and by him brought to England." 



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218 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

and the Hon. Robert Clive. This has been recently pulled 
down. 

According to Aubrey there were in the old church, which 
was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, several portions of 
painted glass, of which in the south window there are some 
remains, and in the north window of the chancel traces of the 
Virgin and Child, and in the central north window are 
figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, and a font of Sussex 
marble of a primitive type. There are sepulchral memorials 
of the Duncumbs, Sir Robert Godschall, Knt., and a tomb 
raised by the late Henry Drummond, Esq., to the memory of 
three sons, in the style of the middle ages with shields and 
quarter-foils. 

In the register of the church are two entries of marriages, 
in the time of Cromwell, solemnized in the presence of 
Lawrence March, Esq. 

Albury is a rectory in the deanery of Stoke, and is 
rated in the Bodleian Valor at 8 marcs, and in the King's 
Books at JB17 12*. 8|<Z., and paying for procurations and 
synodals 7*. 5d. Under the recent tithe-commutation act, 
the rent charge has been fixed at £500; the number of 
titheable acres being estimated at 8130 ; viz., arable, 1910 
acres ; pasture, 600 acres ; woodland, 620 acres. The glebe 
lands amount to about 70 acres; of which about 10 are 
attached to the rectory house. The register commences 
in 1559, and there are defects from 1623 to 1641, and 
from 1680 to 1728. The Duke of Northumberland is patron 
of the living. The old church stands within Albury Park, 
at a short distance from the mansion ; and is now entirely 
dismantled. Many of the Duncumbes lie buried here; and 
the place will ever be memorable from the fact that three 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 219 

eminent clergymen have officiated in the fabric. The first is 
the celebrated mathematician, Oughtred, of whom John Evelyn 
says in his diary — "Came that renowned mathematician 
to see me, I sending my coach to bring him to Wotton, 
being now very aged. He believed the sun to be ' material 
fire.' " The next was Bishop Horsley — the doughty 
antagonist of Priestley, the able commentator, and powerful 
preacher. The last was the late Rev, Hugh Mc'Neile, 
the popular preacher of St. Jude's, Liverpool. The new 
parish church was finished and consecrated in 1841, which, 
though it is a fair and beautiful fabric, can never possess 
the sacred associations connected the more ancient fane. 

Albury has become well-known from the erection of a 
church by the late Henry Drummond, Esq., for the use 
of a communion which is styled " The Catholic and 
Apostolic Church," but more popularly the Irvingite Church. 
It professes to restore the ancient organization of the church 
and appoints Apostles, Prophets, Evangelists, Pastors, and 
Teachers. These officers are chosen for their special 
aptitudes, and appointed to certain spheres of christian 
labour. Their doctrines are orthodox; the service has 
some few symbolical acts ; and there is a prevalent 
expectation of the second advent of Jesus Christ, which 
is fostered by the study of unfulfilled prophecy. In the 
early days of this body of christians there was an imagined 
revival of the gift of tongues, which Irving did not originate 
and was afraid to discourage — this has entirely disappeared. 
The church is a beautiful building, and has an altar, a font, 
and a chair, beautifully carved, on the north side of the 
edifice. 

During Mr. H. Drummond's life there were frequent 



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220 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

conferences held at Aibury, when clergymen of various 
communions, entertained with almost regal hospitality, 
discussed the difficult questions of unfulfilled prophecy, 
and were probably at last convinced of the wisdom of 
Bacon's remark that "truth is the daughter of time," and 
that divine providence will best expound the mysteries 
of prophecy. 

The mansion was much enlarged by Mr. Drummond, 
who caused an embattled tower, with oriels and clustered 
chimnies, to be annexed to the mansion ; and, more recently, 
has enriched and enlarged it with other improvements. 
There is a fine collection of paintings, which includes the 
portraits of Edward HI. ; Henry IV. ; Henry VI ; 
Edward IV.; Richard HI.; Henry VH. ; Henry VHI. ; 
and Prince Arthur ; Queen Elizabeth ; Lord Burghley-Cecil ; 
Earl of Salisbury; Paul rebuking Peter, by Guido; a 
Holy Family, by Correggio; Cardinal Bentivoglio, by 
Vandyke ; a portrait of Melancthon, by Holbein ; the Hon* 
Andrew Drummond, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and many 
others of rare beauty. The gardens are spacious, laid out 
with taste, and rich in choice growths. The Tillingbourne 
stream flows through them, and there is a fine yew hedge 
of great length and thickness, which runs along an avenue 
leading to the kitchen garden.* 

The following is a brief outline of the distinguished 
family which owns Aibury House and the extensive property 
in the neighbourhood : 

1. — Algernon Seymour, seventh Duke of Somerset, was 

•The late Mr. H. Drummond was asked by the writer respecting the 
admirable description of the gardens in Gobbett's "Rural Bides," and was 
informed that such was the quick observation and power of description possessed 
by Cobbett that he walked only once through the grounds. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 221 

created Baron Warkworth, Co. Northumberland, with 
remainder to Sir Hugh Smithson, who, in 1740, married 
the Duke's only surviving child. 

2. — Sir Hugh Smithson, K.G., second Earl, assumed, 
by Act of Parliament, 1750, the surname of Percy, and 
Duke of Northumberland, and, 1766, Baron Loraine, of 
Alnwick. 

8. — He was succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh, the 
second Duke. 

4.— Hugh, K.G., the third Duke. 

5. — Algernon, K.G., P.O., the fourth Duke. 

6. — George, P.O., the fifth Duke, created Earl of Beverley. 

7. — Algernon George Percy, sixth Duke, P.O., D.C.L., 
eldest son of the fifth Duke, by Louisa, sister of first 
Lord Wharncliffe, born 1810, succeeded 1867, married, 1845, 
Louisa, daughter of the late H. Drummond, Esq., educated 
at Eton, St. John's College, Cambridge, (L.L.D. 1842), 
is Lord-Lieutenant of Northumberland, and Colonel of 
Northumberland Militia. His son and heir is Henry George, 
Earl Percy, P.O., born 1846, and married in 1868, Edith, 
daughter of the eighth Duke of Argyll. 

In the village are to be found many residences which 
betoken comfort and wealth ; among them we note the house 
of many gables which belongs to M. F. Tupper, Esq., the 
author of " Proverbial Philosophy " and some striking works 
of fiction. His tale of "Stephan Langton" describes the 
scenery with great felicity, and the events of the narrative 
have a close connexion with the locality and scenery of 
Albury and St. Martha's Hill. 

"The Silent Pool," which most visitors to the 
neighbourhood should never fail to see, has been so happily 



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222 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

described by Mr. Tupper, that we shall favour our readers 
with an extract from his work. "There is," he observes, 
"a still, clear lakelet, buried in a thick jungle of box, 
hollies, and other evergreens, overshadowed by old beeches ; 
it appears to be an indentation, or chasm in the chalk 
hill side, possibly dug out by our troglodytic ancestors, or 
later when chalk or stone began to be use for building 



purposes — many an ancient wall, hereabouts, having been 
reared of alternate layers of hard chalk and burnt bricks. 
Whatever then be its origin, there still exists in wonderful 
calm beauty our ' Silent Pool ; ' where, in the deep, clear 
water, a mirror to the speck of blue heaven above, and 
the spreading trees that almost arch it over, you may even 
now see the large trout, moving more like lazy tench than 
any swifter fish, among the groves of tall, green reeds 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 228 

below; and you may note how suddenly, after shelving 
sides, the middle becomes some twenty feet deep, like a 
chalk pit, however little you may guess that depth for the 
exquisite clearness of the water ; perhaps in those troglody tic 
times, our mole-like ancestors unexpectedly tapped a strong 
spring which overwhelmed them and inundated their little 
wood." 



BETCHWORTH. 

Domesday book informs us : that " Richard de Tonbridge 
holds in demesne Becesworde, which Cola held of King 
Edward. It was then assessed at 6 hides ; how at 2 hides. 
The arable land amounts to 7 carucates. One carucate 
is in demesne: and there are 6 villains and 10 bordars, 
with three carucates. There are 6 bondmen; and a mill 
at 10 shillings; and three acres of meadow. The wood 
yields 80 swine for pannage, and 6 for herbage. There is 
a church. In the time of King Edward, and afterwards, 
it was valued at 9 pounds; now at 8 pounds." The 
parish is on the east of Dorking, and contains the manors 
of East Betchworth, Brockham, Wonham, and the reputed 
manor of Agland Moor. 

The manor of East Betchworth was held by the Earl 
of Warren and Surrey, and Earl Hamelin, in conjunction 
with the Countess Isabel, who died in 1199, and gave the 
advowson to the prior and convent of St. Mary Overy, 
Southwark. The manor passed, successively, into the 
possession of the Earls of Arundel, Duke of Norfolk, Lord 
Abergavenny, Sir Ralph Freeman, the family of the 



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224 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Bouveries, and lately into the hands of the Goulburns. 
It is said that the manor of East Betchworth was held of 
the manor of Eeigate, by the service of the tenants of 
the former mowing, yearly, a meadow on the east side of 
Bell Street in the town of Beigate. 

The manor of Wonham passed from a family of that 
name to the Earl of Bomney, then to John Stables, Esq., 
and afterwards to Lord Templeton. 

The manor of Agland Moor was formerly owned by the 
Woodman family, from whom it came into the possession of 
John Bouverie, Esq., and afterwards was purchased by 
Henry Goulburn, Esq. 

Moor Place is near, which consists of an ancient mansion 
and demesne. There are, in the mansion, some fine examples 
of ancient furniture, among which is a bedstead supposed 
to have belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, and used by him during 
his residence at Esher. 

The manor of Brochham belonged originally to the Earls 
of Warren, and descended to Thomas, the son of Ralph Niger. 
In 1254, John Fitz-Adrian obtained a grant of this land 
of Brocham, and from his family it passed to the Frowicks, 
and afterwards to Sir Philip Coningsby,* then to Mr. Wright, 
and finally to the late Henry Thomas Hope, Esq., in whose 
family it still remains. 

- In 1254, John FitzAlan, Lord of Brockham, obtained 
from the Bishop of Winchester a licence for a chapel there. 
In 1847, Christ Church was erected as a Memorial Church 
by the friends of the late Henry Goulburn, Esq., M.A., of 

* As the late Lord Beaconsfield wrote his " Coningsby," as he informs us, 
" amid the glades and galleries of the Deep Dene/' it may be conjectured that 
he drew the title of his popular novel from the name of a former owner of the 
manor of his friend Mr. Hope. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 225 

Trinity College, Cambridge. It is in the Diocese of Rochester, 
and Archdeaconry of Kingston-on-Thames. The church 
contains a memorial window to the late Sir George Hamilton 
Seymour, G.C.B., G.C.H., and P.C. It was placed in the 
north transept of the church by his son and daughter-in-law, 
Leopold and Mary Seymour. There are schools which were 
originally established by William Peters, Esq., of Betchworth 
Castle, and H. T. Hope, Esq., of Deepdene, which became 
Board Schools in 1877. 

There is a Hose Association which, while it is supported 
by the gentry of Dorking and its neighbourhood, derives 
its name from the village of Brockham. The Bev. A. Cheales, 
the vicar, has by his skill in the cultivation of roses, and 
his interest in creating an innocent emulation in the pro- 
duction of this favourite English flower, greatly advanced 
the objects of the association. 

Brockham Park is situated to the south of the village, and 
has a beautiful mansion which is the residence of Lieut.-Col. 
Seymour, of the Grenadier Guards. The well-known Seymour 
Crest, a Phoenix rising out of a ducal crown, recalls the 
famous epitaph to the short-lived mother of a short-lived 
king. It was originally in Latin : 

Phoenix J ana jacet, nato Phoenice : dolendum 
Stecula PhoBnioes nulla tulisse duos. 

Which has been rendered thus in English : 

44 Soon as her Phoenix bad was blown, 
Boot Phoenix Jane did wither ; 
Alas ! no age has ever shown 
Two Phoenixes together."— 1537. 

Brockham has a Home for the training of orphan children 
for domestic service. This Institution originated in the 
benevolent designs of the Hon. Mrs. Way, of Wonham 

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226 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Manor, and is now under the management of a committee of 
ladies. It can always be visited on application to the 
matron of the Home. 

There is a pleasant green in the village of Brockham, 
around which are many well-built houses, and some cottages 
with their attractive gardens. The Mole, with its bridge and 
aquatic plants, adds much to the interest of the place. On 
the north may be seen Brockham Warren, which is seven 
hundred and thirteen feet above the level of the sea, and the 
mansion which stands there is the residence of Sir Benjamin 
Brodie. There is an ornamental pump, erected, as the 
inscription states, 

" To the memory 

of Henry Thomas Hope, Esq., 

by his neighbours and tenants 

in the district of Brockham, 

to commemorate his numerous acts 

of benevolence, and his readiness 

on all occasions, both to 

promote and support public improvement s." 

Brockham Lodge was for many years the residence of 

Captain Morris, whose poetic compositions will be noticed 

elsewhere in the volume. 

The parish Church of Betchworth is dedicated to St. 
Michael, and is a large stone building of Norman origin, 
and is covered with Horsham slate. There is, in the chancel, 
a remarkable oak chest in a single piece, except the lid ; its 
length is seven feet, and its width two feet, eight inches, 
and the sides are from four to five inches in the thickness, and 
the ends about ten inches. There are traces in the building 
that it once belonged to the Roman Communion ; and there 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 227 

is a fine brass which represents a priest with a chalice, paten, 
and consecrated wafer. The vicarage was granted to the 
Priory of St. Mary Overy, Southwark; it was afterwards 
granted by Henry VIII. to Thomas and William Burnell. 
This grant was revoked by Edward VI., and the vicarage 
was given to the Dean and Canons of Windsor. In the time 
of Cromwell the value of the vicarage was £16. This was 
afterwards augmented by Edward Fellows, Esq., who gave 
£200 to Queen Anne's bounty for this purpose. The Dean 
and Chapter of Windsor sold the impropriation to the 
Hon. W. H. Bouverie, under the Act for the Bedemption 
of the Land Tax. There are numerous tablets to the memory 
of the Harveys, the Bouveries, Lady Morton, Mrs. Freshfield, 
and the family of the Stables. 

There are several charities connected with this church, 
which comprise those of Mrs. John Turner, Mrs. Fenwick, 
Mrs. Ann Beynolds, Alderman Cade, Mr. Bichard Arnold, 
and William Hatton. 

Broome Park, formerly called "Tranquil Vale," was 
purchased by the late Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, Baronet, 
Serjeant- Surgeon to the Queen, and distinguished as an 
eminent practitioner, and author of many interesting works. 
In the front of the mansion are two fine cedars of Lebanon ; 
and in various parts of the gardens and estate are to be 
found fine and lofty elms, chestnut trees, and other growths, 
which adorn and enrich the place. 

The Brodies descended from an ancient Scottish family. 
Alexander Brodie, of London, was born 1711. 

Peter Bellinger Brodie was Bector of Winterslow, Wilts ; 
and married Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Collins, Esq., of 
Milford, Salisbury. 

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228 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, of Boxford, Suffolk, was 
born in 1788 ; appointed Serjeant-Surgeon to King William 
IV.; married, 1816, Anne, third daughter of Mr. Serjeant 
Sellon; was created a Baronet in 1884, and died October, 
1862. 

Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, the second baronet, was 
born in 1817, and deceased 1880. He was F.B.S.; M.A.; 
Waynflete Professor of Chemistry, and Aldrichian Professor 
in the University of Oxford. 

Sir Benjamin Vincent Sellon Brodie, the present baronet, 
was born in 1862. 

Colonel Goulburn, the present proprietor of Betchwortk 
House, is descended from the family of that name which left 
Cheshire in the seventeenth century, and settled in Jamaica. 
Mundee Goulburn was sent to England, entered Eton and 
Oxford, settled in London, married the Hon. Susannah 
Chetwynd, and died in 1818. 

The eldest son, the Bight Hon. Henry Goulburn, was born 
1784, entered Parliament, represented the University of 
Cambridge in 1807, was Secretary of State for the Home 
Department, Under Secretary for the Colonies, Chief 
Secretary for Ireland, and Chancellor of the Exchequer; 
married the Hon. Katherine Montagu, second daughter of 
Lord Bokeby, and died in 1856. 

Betchwortk Olump consists of a group of beeches which 
crowns the hill not far from the Railway Station. It stands 
on the central ridge between the two chief valleys of the 
South of England; which are the Valley of the Thames, 
and that of the Weald of Sussex. It commands a prospect 
of thirty miles each way, extending westwards to the Berkshire 
Hills, and southwards to the Downs above Shoreham. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 229 



BOOKHAM — GREAT. 



This manor belonged to the Abbots of Chertsey, and in 
Domesday Book it is described in these words : " In Fingeham 
Hundred the Abbot of Chertsey holds Bocheham; which in 
the time of King Edward was assessed at 26 hides, now at 
13 hides. There is, in demesne, 1 carncate and 82 villains ; 
4 bordars have 18 carucates. There is a church and 3 
bondmen, a mill worth 10 shillings, and 6 acres of meadow. 
The wood yields 80 swine for pannage, and 80 for herbage. 
In the time of King Edward the whole manor was valued 
at £16; now at £15." The parish comprises an area of 
8,223 acres, of which 1,536 are arable, 194 meadow, 256 
woodland, 784 commonland, 109 tithe-free, and 834 occupied 
by buildings, ponds, gardens, waste and pasture. 

The Abbey of Chertsey being suppressed, the manor was 
granted to Lord William Howard. On the death of Thomas, 
son of the Deputy Earl Marshal, he was succeeded by his 
brother, who, in 1801, sold the estate to James Lawrell, Esq. 
It came afterwards into the possession of Louis Bazalgette, 
Esq., and was subsequently purchased by David Barclay, 
Esq., second son of Robert Barclay, Esq., of Bury Hill. 

Eastwick Park appears to have been comprised in the 
manor of Great Bookham, and yet to have been regarded as 
a distinct manor. The house in the park was greatly im- 
proved by Mr. Barclay, with a fine portico, beautiful panels, 
imitative bronze relievos of classical subjects, and some 
admirable paintings. This property is now in the possession 
of William Keswick, Esq. 



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280 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Booltham Grove was formerly a small cottage fitted up 
by General Thomas Howard as a shooting box, and was sold 
afterwards to Adam Brodrick, Esq., and is now held by the 
Hon. Guy Cuthbert Dawnay, the fourth son of William 
Henry, sixth Viscount Downe, by Mary Isabel, daughter of 
the Hon. and Bight Bey. Bichard Bagot, Bishop of Bath 
and Wells, born 1848, and educated at Eton and Christ 
Church, Oxford. 

In the parish is a small estate and a beautiful residence 
named Bookham Lodge : and Bagdon Farm was held for 
many generations by a family of the name of "Wood." 
Many brass coins of the time of Gallienus have been found 
in this part of the parish. 

Polesden Lacey was formerly included in the manor of 
Great Bookham. Its history dates from 1317, and it passed 
successively from Thomas de Geddyng to John Castleton, 
of Long Ditton ; to Antony Bous ; Thomas Harris, an 
attorney at Dorking ; to the Moores ; Francis Geary ; Bichard 
Brinsley Sheridan; Mr. Bonsor, and finally to Sir Walter 
Bockliffe Farquahar, the present owner, who is the eldest 
son of the late Sir Thomas Harvie Farquahar, and married, 
in 1837, the Lady Mary Octavia, youngest daughter of Henry, 
sixth Duke of Beaufort. His heir is his son, Henry Thomas, 
who married Alice, eldest daughter of the Bight Hon. Henry 
S. W. Brand, M.P. 

Sly field is a manor which belonged to a family of the same 
name in 1507, and came into the possession of the Shiers, 
and ultimately was bequeathed by Dr. Shortridge to Exeter 
College, Oxford. The fine mansion which belonged to the 
estate has been partly pulled down, and the remainder let as 
a farm house. It contains a fine staircase ; the principal 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES* 231 

rooms are panelled, and the ceilings consist of ornamental 
plaster work. 

The advowson and rectory of this parish formerly belonged 
to the abbey of Chertsey. The altarial offerings, with all 
small tithes, except hay and wood, were given to the vicar, 
who was to find two lights before the altar of St. Nicholas. 
The patronage of the living passed through many hands, 
until it was sold to the trustees of Bichard Brinsley Sheridan, 
and afterwards to the Bev. W. Heberden. Under the tithe 
commutation act, the rectorial rent-charge was fixed at 
JB442 8*. 0d. 9 and the vicarial at £165 2*. Id. The church 
is a spacious edifice, and the monuments and inscriptions 
are specially interesting. A brass plate to the memory of 
Edmund Slyfield and Elizabeth, his wife, contains the 
following items of genealogy and family history : 

" Of Slyfield place in Surrey soile, here Edmond Slyfield lies, 
A stovt Esquier, who allways sett Godes feare before his eyes ; 
A justice of the peace he was, from the sixt Eynge Edward's dayes, 
And worthely for vertves vse dyd wyn deserved prayse ; 
He toke Elizabethe to wyfe, a dame of famovs rase, 
She of the Pawletts dyd dissend, and Capells in lyke case ; 
Of Sydneys stooke she was a bravnche, and to the Gaynsfords nye ; 
Dame Nature to the gentell Moyles, and Fynches dyd her tye. 
To Arvndels, White and Lamberts, eke of byrthes discent she was ; 
And He with Her, and She with Hym, theire days in Love did pass. 
In wedlock She broughte forthe to Hym 3 sones, and daughters 11, 
Which carefullye they dyd instrvct, to serve the God of heaven." 

There are several benefactions for the poor of the parish. 
There is a rent-charge of £31 4*. Od. (land tax being 
deducted) left by Sir G. Shiers ; a bequest of 50*. by Mr. 
John Browne, which is usually distributed in October; and 
there is another source of income from the munificence of 
Henry Smith, to whom the County of Surrey owes so 
much. 

In the chancel of the church, which is dedicated to St. 



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232 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Nicholas, there is an imposing mural monument, which 
consists of a stucco lofty weeping willow clasped with ivy, 
and overhangs a tablet to the memory ef the Rev. Gerard 
Andrews, Dean of Canterbury ; and of the Bev. Gerard 
Thomas Andrews, whose only epitaph he desired to be 

•* God be merciful to me a sinner." 
" Suffer the word of exhortation." 
" Prepare to meet thy God." 

There is a brass on the north side of the altar which was 
placed to the memory of the Rev. W. Heberden, fifty-four 
years vicar of the parish ; and on the south side is a brass 
which records the birth and decease of Charlotte Sophia 
Beaufort, daughter of the first Marquis of Stafford, married 
first, Marquis of Worcester; afterwards, sixth Duke of 
Beaufort ; born January 10, 1771, and died August 12, 1854. 

One monument is reared to the memory of Sir Francis 
Howard, Knt., grandson of Lord Howard of Effingham, 
Lord High Admiral of England, who died in 1651. Another 
is found to the memory of Francis, Lord Howard of 
Effingham, who died in 1684. There are tablets to the 
memory of the widow of John, fourth Viscount Downe, and 
to Henry, the third Viscount. There are tablets to the 
memory of Joseph Bonsor, Esq., of Polesden; Louis 
Bazalgette, Esq. ; Colonel Moore ; Cornet Geary, who fell in 
the war in America in 1771; and a fine brass of Bobert 
Shiers in his student's costume. 

On the south-east of the interior is a fine window of 
coloured glass which contains figures of Old and New Testa- 
ment heroes and martyrs in the following order : 

St. Stephen, St. Peter, St. Michael, St. Paul, Antipas. 

Gideon, Moses, Joshua, Elijah, David. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 233 

" To the honour and glory of God, and to the beloved and 
revered memory of Field-Marshal Lord Raglan, this window 
is dedicated by one -of his Nieces, as a tribute of her affection, 
and of her veneration of his noble character, and for his 
heroic and christian virtues, A.D. 1859." 

" Fitz-Roy James Henry Somerset, youngest son of the 
fifth Duke of Beaufort, born 30th September, 1788 ; entered 
the army 1804, and served from 1807 to 1815 throughout 
the Campaigns of the Peninsula and Belgium. As Military 
Secretary, he was associated with the exploits and councils of 
the Duke of Wellington, by whose side, in the moment of 
victory, he lost his right arm at Waterloo, and whose warm 
friendship and confidence he continued to enjoy until the 
Duke's death. He was created Baron Baglan on the 20th 
October, 1852, and left England in 1854 as Commander-in- 
Chief of the British Army in the East. He first planted the 
flag of England in the Crimea, and by his constant courage 
and skill, both as General and Diplomatist, sustained the 
honour of his country. The devotion felt by those who served 
under him was warmly shared by the officers and soldiers of 
the French Army. From that humble abode, his head- 
quarters before Sebastapol, there radiated a moral force, a 
serene and unquenchable spirit of faith and trust and duty, 
which alone could have resisted the innumerable difficulties 
by which the British Commander-in-Chief and his army were 
encompassed. Notwithstanding the victories of the Alma 
and Inkerman, Lord Baglan experienced, in the Crimea, 
difficulties and trials of no ordinary character, which were, 
in fact, the almost natural consequence of a divided command, 
and for which it would be hard to find a parallel in all the 
annals of war; these he met invariably with christian 



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284 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

fortitude, gallantry, and forbearance; he simply cast away 
every thought of self, and remembered, to use his own words, 
' his duty to the Queen ; ' toiling always from early morning, 
and entering his labours deep into the night, and, bearing in 
his own noble way those cares and sorrows which fell to his 
lot, he sank and died at his head-quarters before Sebastopol, 
28th June 1855." 

" If when ye do well and suffer for it, ye take it patiently, 
this is acceptable with God." 

" Commit thy way unto the Lord, trust also in Him, and 
He shall bring it to pass, and He shall bring forth thy 
righteousness as the light, and thy judgement as the noon- 
day." 

" Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right." 

" Even so Lord, for so it seemed good in Thy sight." 



BOOKHAM — LITTLE . 

This is a small parish adjoining Great Bookham on the 
east, East Horsely on the west, Cobham on the north, and 
Dorking on the south. 

Domesday Book informs us that " Halsar holds of 
William (de Braose), Bocheam which Godtovi held of Earl 
Harold. It was then assessed at 5 hides; now at 2 hides. 
The arable land consists of 3 carucates. There is one 
(carucate) in demesne, and 3 villains and 8 bordars have one. 
There are 4 acres of meadow. Of fat and lean hogs 11 each. 
In time of King Edward, and afterwards, it was valued at 
50 shillings ; now at 60 shillings." 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 235 

In 1275, Sir John Haunsard died seized of this manor ; 
one part of which he held of the Earl of Gloucester ; one 
part of William de Braose ; and the remainder of the Ahbot 
of Chertsey. In 1285, Sir William Haunsard is said to have 
held one knight's fee at Bocham. In 1281, William de 
Braose, the fifth in descent from him mentioned in Domesday 
Book, had a grant of free-warren from Edward I. It came 
afterwards into the possession of Balph Gamoys and 
Margaret, his wife, and Thomas de Geddying. It afterwards 
reverted to the male line of the Braoses ; then the Grenvilles, 
the Cookseys, the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Howard of Effingham, 
and Lord Monson owned it in succession. The last mentioned 
nobleman sat as one of the judges in the trial of Charles I., 
though he did not sign the death-warrant of the king. 
After having been held by Sir John Garret, Benjamin Madox, 
Esq., whose daughter married Edward Pollen, of the dis- 
tinguished family of the Hampshire Pollens, it came into 
the possession of the present owner, the Bev. George Pollen 
Boileau Pollen. 

The patronage of the living is invested in the owner of the 
manor. The present rent-charge, exclusive of £8 on 41 acres 
of glebe, and of £10 to the Vicar of Effingham on 29 acres, 
is £162. The estimated number of acres in the parish is 
926 ; of which about 490 are arable ; 148 meadow ; 112 wood- 
land ; and 118 acres of commons, with 15 of gardens. The 
registers commence in 1642. The church is a small edifice 
with a small wooden tower, containing one bell, and has a 
shingled spire. There is a number of tablets to the memory 
of the Pollens, whose original name, Boileau, was borne by 
an ancestor who fled from the barony of Castelnau in 
Languedoc, in 1690, on account of the Bevocation of the 



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286 NEIGHBOURING PABI3HES. 

Edict of Nantes, and the persecution of the professors of the 
Protestant faith. 

The parish shares in the benefactions of Henry Smith, 
whose trustees allotted the rental of a farm in Sussex, which 
is expended in the purchase and distribution of bread, meat, 
and clothing to the most needy of the parishioners. Sir 
Benjamin Madox left property situated in All-Hallows Lane, 
London, for the benefit of the rector, the repair of the fences 
of the churchyard, the roads and bridges, and to assist the 
parish clerk, who should see to " the better setting and 
singing of psalms in the church." 



CAPEL. 

This parish is noticed in Domesday Book, and takes its 
name from a chapel erected there in early Norman times. 
It is described as a member of Dorking (Dorking cum 
Capella), and paid a pension to the Abbey of Lewes, which 
had been founded by Earl Warrenne. The greater part of 
the parish belongs to the manor of Dorking, and the re- 
mainder to Westcott. Temple Elfande is a manor farm 
which was originally given to the Knights Templars ; but at 
the Dissolution, in the time of Henry VIII., it was in the 
hands of the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem. In the 
bailiff's account in the Court of Augmentations (1588), Sir 
Bichard Oowper, Knt., is charged for the Parsonage of Capel : 
twenty quarters of wheat ; six porkers ; one boar ; two 
capons ; two hens. 

It was afterwards demised by indenture under the Common 
Seal of the Brethren of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 



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NEIGHBOUBINO PARISHES, 287 

17th July, 16 Henry VIII., to John Willet for thirty years 
at a rent of £5 a year. It was held subsequently by Sir 
Richard Cowper, Mr. Ezra Gill, John Frankland, Esq., who, 
in 1882, sold this, and his adjoining property in Newdigate, 
to James Shudi Broadwood, Esq., of Lyne. 

The other chief landowners of the parish are the Duke 
of Norfolk; D. D. Heath, Esq., of Kitlands ; F. Pennington, 
Esq., M.P., of Broome HaU; and Mrs. Kerrich, of Arnolds or 
Arnold' 8 Bears. 

In the wood called Enton's Coppice, on the west of Gapel 
Street, is a fosse of small dimensions, which marks the 
site of the ancient castle of Entons. According to an 
untrustworty tradition, the Danes carried away the castle 
gates and bell to their camp at Anstiebury, whither they also 
took the women of the country ; but the latter, one night, 
opened the gates to their husbands and brothers, who, 
entering in, slaughtered the surprised garrison; and after- 
wards brought down the bell and "hung it in the church 
steeple." 

The living was originally held by the Priory of Eeigate, 
and Bishop Edindon gave them a licence to grant to Roger 
de Brocham for the term of his life, at a certain yearly rent, 
the tithes of a certain chapel called la Capele, belonging to 
the parish of Dorking. In 1588, the rent of the church 
at Oapel, with mansion house and appurtenances, was 
£4t 18s. 4d. It was afterwards granted, in 1541, to Lord 
Howard of Effingham, and passed afterwards to Sir John 
Hind Cotton. It was sold by him to Mr. Rogers, for £5,700, 
who devised it to his widow. The living is a vicarage, 
and is in the nomination of the Impropriator. It was 
purchased by the late Charles, Duke of Norfolk. In the 



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238 .NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

particulars of certain estates which his Grace offered for sale 
in 1819, it is stated that "the Rectory and Parsonage of 
Capel " comprises the small tithes of 8,955 acres of land. 

Under the recent tithe commutation act, the number of 
acres in this parish is stated to be 4,955 ; of which 812 are 
exempt from tithes, and 4,148 subject to them. The arable 
land contains 2,882 acres ; meadow 779 ; woodlands 802 ; 
commons 120; and curtilages 30. The property was. not 
sold in 1819 ; but in 1844 it was disposed of by the trustees 
to Charles Webb, Esq., of Clapham. The tithes have been 
commuted for a rent-charge of £610. 

The church, dedicated to St. John, consists of a nave 
and chancel of one piece, with a tower and shingled spire 
containing five bells. A. Spottiswoode, Esq., constructed the 
south porch; and J. S. Broadwood, Esq., an attached building 
on the north side open to the nave, and a gallery for the 
school children, in the front of which are the arms of 
Broadwood and Tschudi of Glaris. There are some memorials 
of the Cowpers; and a tablet to the memory of Elizabeth 
Ballingall, which ends with these words : " Filia dilectissima, 
Uxor amantissima, Arnica fidelissima, Vale." 

In Capel Street there is a good school house, and there 
are charities which were bequeathed by Mr. Aid. Smith, in 
1126, and Mr. Thomas Summers (a member of the Society 
of Friends), both which aim to relieve the necessities of the 
needy and deserving poor. At Osbrook there is an old 
timber-framed house, which is a curious specimen of the 
mode of building in the sixteenth century. The last yeoman 
in Capel sold his land about 1840 to Walter Calvert, Esq., 
of Ockley Court. 

In addition to these provisions for the good of the needy 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 289 

inhabitants of the district, it is desirable to notice the valuable 
aid rendered to the suffering poor by the establishment and 
continued support of the Capel Village Hospital. The 
building was erected by Mrs. Charlotte Broadwood, as a 
memorial to her late husband, the Eev. John Broadwood, of 
Lyne. The building, with the land adjoining, was vested in 
four Trustees, and was opened for the reception of patients by 
the Bishop of Winchester in October, 1866. 



The Institution is under a Committee of Management, 
which consists of H. F. Broadwood, Esq., Lee Steere, Esq., 
C. S. Mortimer, Esq., Bev. H. J. Gore, and the Bev. E. D. 
Wickham. The Bev. T. B. O'Fflahertie is a member of the 
Committee, and Secretary and Treasurer to the Hospital. 
Patients are required to pay something, according to their 
circumstances ; but the principal support of the Institution is 
derived from the subscriptions of the wealthy inhabitants, and 
collections made at the Harvest Thanksgiving Services held in 
neighbouring parish churches. Gifts of vegetables, fruit, 



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240 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

poultry, rabbits, and game ; flannel, linen, and other articles 
necessary for the comfort of the patients are supplied by the 
benevolence of the supporters of the Hospital. 



EFFINGHAM. 

Two manors called Epingeham or Effingham are noticed in 
Domesday Book, one of which belonged to the Abbot of 
Chertsey, and the other to Eichard de Tonbridge. Of the 
first it is recorded : " Oswold holds of this church (Chertsey) 
Epingeham, which he also held of King Edward. It was then 
assessed at 6 hides; now at 2£ hides. The arable land 
consists of 2 carucates; and there are 2 villains, and 9 
bordars, with half a carucate; and one acre of meadow. 
The wood yields 10 swine for pannage. The manor is 
valued at 408." 

Oswold, probably a Saxon thane, the tenant of the Abbot 
of Chertsey, likewise held lands of Eichard de Tonbridge, 
and was one of the household officers of the Crown, holding 
lands in this county of the King. It afterwards reverted to 
the crown, and William I. gave the manor to Eudo de 
Dammartin. It was afterwards held by Alicia de Dam mar tin, 
who married in succession John de Warblington and Roger 
de Clere. Stephen de Gravesende bought it, and afterwards 
it passed into the ownership of John Pikard, the Stoughtons ; 
and was granted by William Pulteney, Knt., to the Bishop 
of Worcester, and John de Ludham, and William de 
Churchull, clerks, with other estates. 

In 1479, Lawrence a Downe died seized of the manor of 
Effingham, alias Place Court, and of the manor of Le Lye. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 211 

It is probable that Oswold and his successors took the name 
De la Legh from that estate, and gave tithes to the Abbot of 
Chertsey, which were afterwards given to the _ Priory of 
Merton, at a rent of fifty shillings a year. Walter de 
Geddynges, who died in 1812, was the owner of the manor. 
At length it became the property of Lawrence a Downe; 
it passed then into the possession of John Legh. Henry VIII. 
purchased it of the Legh family. Edward VI. granted this 
estate, with the manor of Great Bookham, to Lord William 
Howard, created by Queen Mary, Baron of Effingham. 
This property passed afterwards through several hands, and 
was, in 1882, disposed of in lots, when the manor and 
manor-house (included in the "Homestead of the Upper 
Farm "), with Lee Woods and other lands, were purchased 
by Sir Thomas Hussey Apreece, and now belongs to Colonel 
Evelyn Latimer Parratt. 

Manor of Effingham East Oourt. Domesday Book informs 
us that " Oswold holds of Richard (de Tonbridge), Epingeham, 
which Azor held of King Edward. It was then assessed at 
6 hides; now at 2£ hides. Besides these 6 hides, Oswold 
holds (of the King) 1 hide and 1 vergate, which was held 
under King Edward by a freeman, who was compelled by 
necessity to sell to Azor, in the time of King William. 
There are in all 5 carucates of arable land. Two carucates 
are in demesne ; and there are 6 villains, and 5 bordars, with 
2 carucates. There are 6 bondmen ; and 4 acres of meadow ; 
and the wood yields 5 swine for pannage, and 8 for herbage. 
In the time of King Edward the manor was valued at 100*. 
and afterwards of £4 10*. 0d., and now at £6." 

This manor was held by the Clares, Earls of Gloucester 
and Hereford, and afterwards by other descendants of Richard 



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242 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

de Tonbridge, until the reign of Henry VIII. Gilbert de 
Clare married Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I., whose 
son was killed at the battle of Bannockburn, in 1818. 
Margaret de Clare married Piers Gaveston, the favourite of 
Edward II., and afterwards became the wife of Audley, Earl 
of Gloucester. It then came into the possession of Ealph, 
Earl of Gloucester, Lord Bourchier, the Duke of Buckingham, 
the Earl of Wiltshire, and again to another Duke of 
Buckingham. In 1528 it was escheated to the crown for a 
debt due to Henry VIII., and was given to the Marquis of 
Exeter, beheaded in 1540. It belonged afterwards to Viscount 
Montacute, whose grandson sold it and a farm called Nyce 
Court, to Thomas Gray. After numerous intermediate 
ownerships, the estate was purchased in 1869 by Lady 
Caroline Maxse, who now owns the manor. 

Lady Caroline Fitzhardinge Maxse, of Effingham Hill, 
is the daughter of Frederick Augustus, fifth Earl of Berkeley, 
by Mary, daughter of William Cole, Esq., married, 1829, 
James Maxse, Esq., who died in 1864, leaving, with other 
issue, Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse. 

The mansion, called Effingham Hill, stands on a com- 
manding situation near the Common. The Earl of Lovelace 
also owns property in the parish. 

The Advowaon has a very early history. William de 
Dammartin gave the church of Effingham to the prior and 
convent of Merton; and Abbot Butherwyke of Chertsey 
granted to the same foundation a lease of the tithes of 
la Leigh, at Effingham East Court. In 1297, the Bishop of 
Winchester visited the parish, and the vicarage was endowed 
with all the altarage money, small tithes, &c, and a pension 
of two marks was annually settled on the vicar, and is still 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 248 

payable at the office of the Duchy of Cornwall. After the 
suppression of the priory, it was granted to John Poynet, 
Bishop of Winchester ; but in the next reign it belonged to 
William Hammond, Esq. In 1642 it was purchased of 
Carew Ealegh by William Gray, Esq., owner of Effingham 
East Court, and afterwards descended with that manor until 
1808 or 1804, when a portion of the tithes was sold by 
General de Lancey to William Currie, Esq., of East Horsley, 
but was afterwards purchased by the Earl of Lovelace. 

The living is a vicarage in the gift of Andrew Cuthall, 
Esq., valued at £226 per annum, with glebe and house. 
The church is dedicated to St. Lawrence, and the registers 
are perfect from 1565. The building consists of a nave and 
chancel, a transept, and a western tower containing three 
bells. In the pavement of the church there is an ancient 
grave slab of Walter de Geddynges, Lord of Effingham in 
the fourteenth century, with an inscription in Boman and 
Saxon characters. There are also mural monuments to the 
memory of Sir Thomas Apreece, the Farleys, the Parratts, 
and the Cookes. The last family held lands in the parish 
in the reign of Henry VI. The National School has the 
following inscription : " To the glory of God, and for the 
benefit of the parishioners, this school is erected, the gift 
of Charlotte Stringer, now deceased, aided by a grant from 
the parliament fund of education. This stone was laid 
26th July, 1855, by Edgar P. Stringer, husband of the 
foundress. The land for this building was given by the 
Earl of Lovelace." The whole cost was £900. There is also 
a Wesleyan Chapel in the village, which was built in 1854. 
There are traces on Effingham Upper Common, of a small 
camp of an irregular form ; and on the small eminence called 

r 2 



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244 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

" Standard Hill " there are remains of a tumulus or barrow. 



HOLMBURY ST. MARY. 

In the southern part of the parish of Abinger is the new 
church which stands in the village of Felday. The following 
statement of the formation of the ecclesiastical district, and 
the architectural details and decorations of the edifice (the 
latter supplied by Mr. Street) have been kindly communicated 
by the Rev. J. Shearme, the present incumbent : 

The Ecclesiastical District or Parish of Holmbury St. 
Mary has an area of two and a half square miles, taken out 
of six parishes, viz., Shere, Abinger, Ewhurst, Cranleigh, 
Ockley, and Ockham, all in the Diocese of Winchester. 
It extends from the. village of Sutton, in Shere, on the north, 
to Forest Green on the south. 

It was constituted a new Parish for Spiritual Purposes by 
order in Council, on the 14th September, 1878, on the 
recommendation of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for 
England, with the consent of the Bishop of the Diocese. 
The Bishop of the Diocese for the time being is sole patron. 

The Endowment of the living consists as yet of only JB10O 
per annum, and £50 per annnm granted in perpetuity by 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

The Church munificently offered to the district in 1877, 
by George Edmund Street, Esq., R.A., has been built on an 
appropriate site granted by the late Reginald Bray, Esq. 
The churchyard has been laid out, planted with yews, and 
enclosed by a substantial oak paling, with a lych-gate from 
Mr. Street's design, at the cost of W. Bowman, Esq., F.R.S, 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 245 

The church, dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, together 
with the churchyard, was consecrated by Edward Harold, 
Lord Bishop of Winchester, November 6th, 1879. The 
church is in the Early English style; it has a nave with 
north and south aisles, chancel with organ chamber on its 
south side, and a north-west porch. The ground slopes so 
much that provision is made under the church for two 
vestries and a room for the sexton. The walls are built of 
Holmbury-hill stone, with windows, doors, &c, of Bath stone. 
The south porch and the organ chamber both have stone- 
* groined ceilings. From the former, entrance is obtained by 
two doorways to the church, and another doorway opens to 
a newel staircase, which leads to the belfry. The western 
bay of the nave is separated by a high screen from the 
church. It is intended to be always left open for private 
prayer, and the great Bible is to be kept here on a desk. 
Over this bay rises a bell turret, finished with a shingled 
spire. It contains five bells arranged for chiming, and cast 
by the eminent organ-builder, Mr. Lewis. They are 
beautifully cast, and with religious inscriptions, after the 
old fashion, instead of the modern custom ctf giving the 
maker's and churchwardens 1 names. The inscriptions are : — 
(1) " Patrem nostrum celebramus ; " (2) " Christum Filium 
salutamus;" (8) " Sanctum spiritum laudamus;" (4) "Caros 
mortuos ploramus ; " (5) " Vivos ad preces vocamus." 

Entering the nave through the western screen, we find 
arches on each side, carried on pillars of blue Pennant 
stone, with smaller shafts of red marble, and instead of a 
chancel arch, are open traceried oak screen, surmounted by 
a cross. On one side of this is the pulpit, which is painted 
and gilded, and on the other the lectern, which is the gift 



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246 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

of the people of the parish, and in the centre a litany-stool, 
the gift of the Eev. Cyril Holland. The chancel has oak 
stalls for the choir, a very rich pavement of encaustic tiles, 
with marble steps leading to the altar, which is magnificently 
famished with altar-cloths wrought by the Sisterhood of 
St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, and given by them to the 
founder. The altar furniture includes an antique cross of 
Limoges enamel, altar candles, a beautiful chalice made by 
Barkentin, and dossal curtains designed by Mr. Street and 
worked by Miss Bowman and Mrs. Kempe. Mr. and Mrs. 
Paget Bowman presented a handsome alms-dish and flower 
vases. 

On the marble reredos behind the altar is a picture 
painted by an Italian artist — probably Spinello Aretino — in 
the fourteenth century; a group of Scriptural figures with 
our Lord giving His blessing in the centre, painted in rich 
colours on a gold ground. The chancel is also provided 
with handsomely-carved sedilia, and a credence in the south 
wall. The roofs are all open, showing the timbers, but the 
oak roof of the chancel is much more elaborate than that of 
the nave. Almost all the windows are filled with stained 
glass, all executed by Messrs. Clayton and Bell, from 
Mr. Street's designs, as indeed is everything in the church. 
The west window of the nave, and the three windows of the 
outer aisle on the north side, contain subjects from the life 
of our Lord. They are memorials (1) to her husband, by 
Mrs. Thompson, of Inholm ; (2) to his wife, by Mr. T. H. 
Street; (8) by her sisters; and (4) by her mother, to the 
memory of the founder's wife, as a memorial to whom the 
whole church has been erected. The chancel windows are 
five in number. The east window has the Crucifixion, with 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 247 

St. Mary and St. John, and in the outer lights St. George 
and St. Edmund kneeling before the Cross. The side 
windows have figures of the following saints and worthies : — 

(1) St. Anne teaching the Virgin Mary, and St. Agnes ; 

(2) St. Lucy and St. Eatherine ; (3) St. Luke, the patron of 
painters, and St. Thomas, the patron of architects; and 
(4) Hiram, architect of the temple, and William of Wykeham, 
the great Bishop and architect of the diocese in which the 
church is situated. The font stands at the west end of the 
south aisle, and has an oak cover, the gift of Miss Wells, 
of the Aldermoor. Near it, in a little window at the west 
end, are the arms of the founder, with the motto of his 
family, " Fidelis inter perfidos," and, under the west window, 
a beautiful old terra-cotta of the Virgin and Child, in Luca- 
della Robbia ware, given to the church by Mr. J. R. Clayton. 

On the exterior, the most unusual features are the 
considerable height of the east end, and the recessed and 
canopied tomb of the founder's wife, provided in the lower 
part of the south wall of the chancel. The organ was built 
by Messrs. Lewis, at the cost of £400. 

Not far from the church are several residences which 
have been recently built or enlarged. Holmbury House, 
formerly " The Deacons," was once inhabited by Mrs. Marsh, 
author of " Emilia Wyndham," and " Two Old Men's Tales," 
and other novels, which have been displaced by recent works 
of fiction. The present structure has been enlarged and 
embellished by the Hon. E. F. Leveson-Gower, and commands 
magnificent views over the Weald of Surrey and Sussex, 
and portions of Hampshire, and the prospect is bounded on 
the south by the Downs which run along the coast of 
Sussex. 



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248 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

The Hon. E. P. Leveson-Gower is a member of the 
Granville family, whose ancestor was co-heir of the Barony 
of Clifford in 1628, and is connected with several of the 
most distinguished families in the English peerage. His 
father was created Viscount Granville and Baron Leveson 
in 1815; and his brother, Lord Granville, is Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs (1888). The Hon. E. P. Leveson-Gower, 
M.P., was born 3rd May, 1819; married, 1st June, 1888, 
Lady Margaret Mary Frances Elizabeth Compton, second 
daughter of Spencer Alwyne, second Marquis of Northampton, 
who died 22nd May, 1858, leaving a son, George Granville, 
born 19th May, 1858. Mr. E. F. Leveson-Gower was 
Barrister of the Inner Temple ; M.P. for Derby, 1847 ; Stoke- 
upon-Trent, 1852-7 ; and for Bodmin since 1859. 

At Holmbury St. Mary is the residence of Sir William 
Bowman, the distinguished oculist, who was born 1816; 
educated at King's College, London, and became Honorary 
Fellow of the College of Surgeons 1841 ; filled the office of 
Surgeon to the Boyal London Opthalmic Hospital, and King's 
College Hospital, and some time Professor of Physiology 
and General Morbid Anatomy at King's College, London. 



LEIGH. 

The name of this place is of very frequent occurrence 
in various parts of England, and reminds us of the original 
state of our country before agriculture and civilization 
produced those changes which turned the wildness of nature 
into conditions of pleasant cultivation and rural beauty. 
According to Leigh Hunt the word means "a meadow," 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 249 

" a common ; " and according to others " a green by a 
river's side." There are, in the parish, several open spaces 
which give a specially English character to the neighbourhood, 
and, in addition to the pleasure of such "greens" or 
"commons/' afford occasional advantages to the cottagers 
who live around them. 

Leigh is a small parish in the Weald of Surrey, and 
adjoins Buckland and Horley on the east, Newdigate on the 
west, and Betchworth and Beigate on the north. It is not 
mentioned in Domesday Book. The greatest part of the 
parish is called 8Kellwood i and has a Court Leet and Court 
Baron. It was originally in the possession of the Earls of 
Warrenne, but was afterwards given by King Henry II. to 
the Priory of Merton. In 1226 (10 Henry IH.) an inquest 
was held for determining the customs and services of the 
Prior's tenants in Shellwood and Fifhide ; and it was alleged 
that they ought to repair in harvest-time to the Bidripe 
(reaping in harvest) of the Lord; the jury disallowed this 
claim, but found that the tenants of those lands could not 
marry a son or daughter out of the precincts without licence 
of the Prior, though they might so marry within the same. 
They were subject to the payment of Peter-pence and other 
rates. In 1252 the Convent obtained a grant of free-warren. 
In 13 Edward I., 1285, Nicolas le Gras had a grant of 
free-warren to him and his heirs in Leigh. In 1635 the 
Homage at the Court Baron complain of the disafforesting 
of the manor, which deprived the tenants of the means of 
feeding swine. 

On the dissolution of the Religious Houses, Henry YIH. 
granted the manor to Sir Thomas Nevil, and the advowson 
of Leigh by the service of one knight's fee, with remainder 



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250 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

to Sir Thomas Southwell, by whom it was conveyed to 
Henry Lechford, Esq., and in succession to Dr. Edward 
Alston, and Sir Ambrose Browne, of Betchworth Castle, and 
ultimately to the Beaumonts, one of whom sold the Manor, 
in 1806, to his Grace, Charles, Duke of Norfolk. 

Leigh Place, which is now a farm-house, has evident 
marks and traces of the wealth and social position of its 
former owners. It is surrounded by a moat; and in the 
kitchen is a beam which is carved, as are the posts and 
banisters of the staircase ; all are of oak, and perfectly black 
from age. The fire-place in the hall is of the most ancient 
type ; the chimney is wide, and reminds the spectator of the 
introduction of that arrangement into English households 
which has had so important an influence upon the domestic 
life of our country. There are portions of woodwork finely 
carved, with paintings let in near the centre; fragments of 
painted glass — probably of Flemish artists ; and some of the 
rooms have concave wooden ceilings. There is one room 
called the " Blind Boom " which was a kind of prison 
where sometimes local offenders were kept, and probably, as 
there is an inscription in Greek cut over the fire-place, which 
is a prayer to God for deliverance, there may have been 
some one detained in obscurity who had a righteous claim 
to his freedom. 

Some few years ago the moat was cleared out, and many 
portions of beautiful carved oak, fragments of painted glass, 
and some portions of armour were found. The armour may 
have been worn by some who fought on the field of Agincourt, 
or at a later period in the civil wars of the seventeenth 
century. The pieces which were found have been forwarded 
to some museum of antiquities ; and the " Moated Grange " 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES* 258 

has lost some objects of considerable local interest. 

It was most probably the residence of the Ardemes 
(temp. 1482). It was afterwards owned by Sir John Dudley 
(1580), by the Shelleys, the Copleys, and then came into 
the hands of Mr. Woodman, whose wife was buried in 1639, 
and the parish register remarks " Ooncio habita ejus exequiis " 
(a discourse was delivered at her funeral). It was owned 
afterwards by Mr. Budgen and Mr. R. C. Dendy, and came 
to be the property of Messrs. Daniel and John Watney, who 
married daughters of the late Mr. Dendy. Arthur Stacey, 
Esq., is now the tenant of the place. 

Stumblehole is a farm which was originally in the pos- 
session of Robert de Molendino, whose son granted to William 
de Wauton a rent of fourpence a year, received from Thomas 
de la Hoks for an acre of land which he held of him in 
the Parish de la Legh, with homage, fealty, wards, marriages, 
reliefs, escheats, and other appurtenances. This farm came 
into the possession of Mr. Smith Budgen and Mr. Brown of 
Reigate. 

The Rectory was given, in the time of Richard L, by 
Hamelin, Earl of Warrenne, to the Prior and Convent of 
St. Mary Overy, Southwark. It was afterwards held by the 
Prior of Newark, but no Vicar was appointed. The Bishop 
received thirteen shillings and fourpence for his tenths. 
In 1589 the living came into the possession of Edward 
Shelley, with the mansion, glebe, and tithes. The tenant 
of the mansion was to find a priest for the service of the 
church ; wine and wax for the same ; to repair the chancel ; 
to find servants* horse meat and man's meat when the Prior 
sent to receive oats and rent. In the same reign it came 
into the hands of Sir Thomas Nevil, Robert Southwell, 



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254 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Henry Lechford, Esq M who purchased the Eectory of the 
Crown, and after many changes the right of presentation 
came into the possession of the Duke of Norfolk. The 
church is in the deanery of Ewell, and has, at the west, a 
low square tower which contains four hells. There are some 
monumental inscriptions, of which the following are most 
remarkahle : that to the Eev. Jacob Marchant, a French 
refugee ; a rector of the parish, who died in 1720 ; and a 
small whole-length figure in brass, of a female, flat head- 
dress, hands lifted up and joined, and over it, in a scroll, 
" Mercy J'hn and graunt m'cy." On the south side of the 
chancel, within the rails, and partly covered by them, on 
a brass is the following inscription : " Orate pro Animabus 
Eicardi Ardern, Gentilman et Johanne uxoris ejus," &c. 

There are several mural tablets to the wealthy family of 
the Dendys ; one to the late Mr. Preshfield ; the Eev. George 
Whitelock; and a beautiful painted glass window, placed 
by the members of the Charrington family, to commemorate 
the death of John Evelyn Charrington, Esq. It consists 
of three compartments, which contain fair and lovely forms 
with appropriate symbols of " Faith, Hope, and Charity." 

The Parish Eegister is complete, and dates from the 
reign of Elizabeth, and there is necessarily considerable 
variety in the hand-writing and in the language of the 
entries. Some are in English and others are in Latin. 
There do not appear to be any of those curious records which 
are found in many registers, and marriages, baptisms, and 
burials appear almost exclusively on these ancient pages. 
The font is large, and was probably originally designed for 
baptism by immersion. The chancel is very large for the 
size of the fabric. The church has a square tower, a south 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 255 

porch, and a gallery at the western end. 

There are several charities. Henry Smith gave land by 
deed in 1627 ; and there are three houses with orchards and 
other sources of income for the benefit of the poor, aged, 
and infirm, and for the education of children of both sexes. 

There is a farm-house called " Swain's " which, according 
to tradition, was inhabited by Ben Jonson, the contemporary 
of Shakespeare, and one of the great dramatic poets of our 
country. There is one room in this house which is still 
called his study. 



LETHERHEAD. 

This ancient place was known to the Saxons by the name 
of Leodride, and Alfred bequeathed it under that designation 
to his eldest son Edward. In Domesday Book, the church 
of Leret is mentioned in connection with the King's manor 
of Ewell. It was afterwards called Leddrede and gave its 
name to the ancient family de Leddrede. The parish is 
bounded on the north by Maldon and Ashtead ; on the east 
by Ashtead and Headley ; on the south by Mickleham ; and 
on the west by Fetcham and Stoke d'Abernon. 

The ancient name of the manor was Pachesham, and in 
Domesday Book it is said to be in the hands of Odo, Bishop 
of Baieux. There were in this manor, which was assessed 
at two hides, eleven villains, eight bordars, four bondmen 
and two half-shares of a mill at twelve shillings; and five 
acres of meadow. The wood yielded only three swine. The 
manor was divided into three parts, all of which were held 
of the Bishop. Hugh was one who held the largest share; 



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256 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Banulf was the second ; and Baingiard held the remainder. 
In the time of William Bufus it reverted to the crown. 
This manor was afterwards given to Piers de Gaveston, 
the favourite of Edward II., and was afterwards divided 
and came into the possession of the Fitzwarins, Stydolfs of 
Mickleham, Lady Mary Tryon of Norbury, and subsequently 
into the hands of the present owner, B. Ladbroke, Esq., 
of Headley. 

It is remarkable that we find no account of Letherhead 
in Domesday Book, and it is probable that it was included 
in Fachesham and Thorncroft manors. The present style of 
the manor is Pachesham and Letherhead. 

The manor of Thorncroft, as described in the Domesday 
survey, belonged to Bichard de Tonbridge, and had nine 
bondmen, a mill of twenty shillings, five acres of meadow, 
and the wood yields only one hog. It was called Torncroste, 
or the place for the Sheriffs Town, or County Court. In the 
reign of Henry III. it came into the possession of Philip 
Basset and his wife Ella, Countess Dowager of Warwick, 
who, in 1270, gave their lands in Leddred to Walter de 
Merton towards the endowment of the college at Maldon, 
which was afterwards removed to Oxford. In 1348, it was 
found by an inquisition conducted by the warden and scholars 
of Merton College, that they held the manor of Thorncroft 
of Hugh le Despenser, and afterwards held it by licence in 
frank almoigne, free from all burdens and taxes usually 
paid to the King. The present resident of Thorncroft is the 
Dowager Marchioness of Cholmondeley. 

Letherhead appears, from tables in Sogers' " History 
of Prices," to have been, from the frequency of quotation 
of the value of corn, stock, and other agricultural matters 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 257 

at this place, the principal centre of business in this division 
of Surrey. There is, in this work, a number of details 
respecting the size of farms in the manor of Thorncroft in 
1884, which ends with the following passage : "A woman holds 
a tenement in ' Newgate ; " another a shop in Letherhead. 
The estate, which is said to contain thirteen and a half acres, 
is held on the service of paying a wreath of red roses on 
Midsummer-day" In a farm at Letherhead which was let at 
an annual rent of £14 18*. 4i. in 1887-89, there was an 
abatement of two marks (£1 6*. 8d.) on the plea of excessive 
cheapness of corn. 

Oivons Orove is delightfully situated on the eastern side 
of the Mole. Randalls or Little Pachesham is a part of 
the ancient manor held by Eanulf, of whose name the present 
designation is an undoubted corruption. It is said, that 
in the 20th of Edward III., John Bandulf obtained a licence 
to have divine service performed there. After a succession 
of owners, among whom are found the names of Sandes, 
Hon. General Thomas Pagett, the Earls of Tyrconnel, it 
was purchased by J. Henderson, Esq. There is a large 
mansion, a fine park, and some farms connected with 
the estate. 

At Randalls Park is the mansion of John Henderson, Esq., 
second son of the late Robert Henderson, Esq., of Randalls 
Park, (who died 1871), by Isabella, daughter of Robert 
MacCellan, Esq., of Garnet Hill, Glasgow ; born 1852 ; 
married, 1881, Eveleen Mary, eldest daughter of the late 
John Smith, Esq., of Mickleham Hall, Surrey; educated 
at Harrow, and Trinity College, Cambridge, (B.A. 1875). 

Bishop Tanner's Additamenta state that there was a 
" Prioratus de Ripa Mola, sive Mole Bank in Parochia da 



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258 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Ledrede in Com. Surrey et Dioces. Winton." This was 
founded by Henry Apurdele in 1268, and had four monks 
of the Cistercian order of St. Benedict. The late Kev. 
Mr. Dallaway printed a small volume, describing the history 
of the Priory, which informs us that, in 1842, Roger de 
Apurdele, grandson of the founder, established a Chantry 
in the church of Letherhead. (This Chantry, with an 
ancient inscription, has, through alterations and im- 
provements in the interior of the fabric, been removed.) 
Many quarrels occurred between the monks and the tenants 
of the farms, which belonged to Merton College, Oxford. 
Peter Puddencake, a monk, said, "Coloni Surrienses, gens 
porcissima, quia non solvunt decimas," which means " The 
Surrey farmers are as stupid as pigs because they do 
not pay tithes. ,, 

There was a great contention between the vicar and 
the monks about the wax-lights, and the bishop decided 
the case by granting the vicar all the candle-ends for the 
future. Another contention arose about fishing in the Mole ; 
when it was ruled that the vicar should have all the gudgeons 
he could hook up. In the dole of bread and cheese, usually 
made in the church-porch, the vicar claimed the first slice ; 
but the bishop determined that he was entitled only to 
the parings. 

The Priory was granted by Henry VIII. to Thomas 
Cheesman, the King's Falconer. This building, now called 
the Priory, was afterwards included in a new fabric built 
by W. Cotton, Esq., and, after successive ownerships, is 
now the property of Arthur Tritton, Esq. 

The church of Ledred was said to be founded on the 
King's fee, and the patronage appears to be invested in the 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 259 

crown in the reigns of the Edwards I. and II., although 
the ahhot of Colchester laid claim to it. Edward III. 
presented the living twice in 1846, when he confirmed the 
right of the prior of Ledes, in Kent, to whom the 
appropriation of the benefice had been given by Pope 
Clement VI. ; and a vicarage having been endowed, the 
prior retained the rectory, with the advowson of the vicarage, 
until the dissolution of the convent in the time of Henry VIII., 
who granted the rectory and the advowson of the vicarage 
to the dean and chapter of Rochester. The rectorial rent 
charge is stated to be J6582, and the vicarial, £269 2s. 5d. 
The register of baptisms and burials is comparatively recent, 
and the entries of marriages begin in 1690. The church 
is an ancient structure, and is dedicated to St. Mary and 
St. Nicholas. The tower, which is embattled, is not in a 
direct line with the nave, and its roof is covered with heavy 
Horsham slabs. The church was repaired and improved 
in 1826, 1888, and 1848. The large east window has a 
rich effect from being filled with brilliantly stained glass, 
most of which was collected by Mr. Dallaway at Rouen. 
There is another window in the south aisle with paintings 
of King Saul, and the Witch of Endor ; St. John the Baptist ; 
and Death on the Pale Horse. In the south wall of the 
chancel are a piscina and sedilia. There are several imposing 
monuments and sepulchral memorials, which perpetuate the 
names of Admiral Sir James Wishurst, Lieut.-General Layton, 
the Byrons, Beauclercs, Gores, and many others. 

In the front of the north transept there formerly existed 
the Chantry of the Apurdeles, and the gallery appropriated 
to the mansion in Letherhead. These were in part panelled 
with carved wainscotting, and on the entrance door, in 

s 2 



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260 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

golden letters, was this sentence, " Hanc Oantariam fundav 
Rogerii de Aperdele, A.B. 1840," which was inscribed v chiring 
the repairs made under the direction of Mr. Dallaway. 

There is a tablet to the memory of Robert Qardyner, of 
Thorncroft, chief serjeant of the cellar to Queen Elizabeth, 
which concludes with these lines : 

*• We leave hyme whear he loekt to be — our Lord receyre his spreet, 
With peace and rest in Habram's brest, whear we at length may meet." 

Another tablet is that of Miss Harriet Cholmondely, who, 
whilst accompanying her Royal Highness, the Princess of 
Wales, on the 2nd of October, 1806, and Lady Sheffield in 
a barouche and four, on a visit to Mr. Lock, of Norbury, 
was overturned at the sharp corner of the street near the 
" Swan Inn," leading to Mickleham. The other ladies 
were only slightly injured, but Miss Cholmondely was thrown 
against a tree, received a violent concussion on the left 
temple, and death immediately followed. 

In the churchyard are graves with inscriptions to the 
memory of Richard Duppa, Esq., author of a " Journal 
kept at Rome upon the subversion of the Ecclesiastical 
Government in 1798," and the " Life of Michael Angelo ; " 
and the grave of Lieut. -Colonel Drinkwater Bethune. 

In the report of the Commission respecting Charities, 
published in 1825, it appears that the town of Letherhead 
is unusually well provided with bequests for the benefit of 
its poor. The following is a list of the benefactors : Mr. 
John Lucas left «£400 stock for the Free School; £100 to 
pay a mid- wife to attend poor women ; and JB100, the interest 
of which is to provide four wheaten loaves weekly for four 
poor persons. 

John Skeet, in 1608, left money to purchase lands, the 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 261 

rent of which was to purchase bread for the poor. The rents 
amount to £44 annually, which supply forty poor persons 
with a half-quarten loaf weekly. 

Henry Smith's benefaction, devised in 1627, now produces 
£18 annually, and is expended in the purchase and distribution 
of cloth among poor parishioners. 

Edward Hudson bequeathed, in 1692, an annuity of £8 
per annum, to purchase and distribute beef to poor 
parishioners on the eyes of the festivals of Christmas, Easter, 
and Whitsuntide. The vicar is to have 15*., and the clerk 
68., for reading prayers when the meat is distributed. 

Elizabeth Rolfe gave, in 1777, by will, the interest of 
£400, partly to engrave a copy of her gift, keep it legible, 
together with the inscription on the tomb of Dame Mary 
Thompson, who was buried in the church, and the residue 
of the interest to be distributed among poor families who 
do not receive parochial relief. 

William Denne, Esq., bequeathed, in 1786, JE250 stocks, 
in the four per cents., to provide coal for the poor in the 
winter season. 

John Sandes granted a rent charge of 50s. a year, from 
an estate at Little Pattisham, to provide bread to be given 
away at the discretion of the vicar and churchwardens every 
Sunday. 

Eichard Joye left, by will, in 1812, £1200 stock, in the 
three per cents, the interest of which is to be bestowed in 
gifts of 10*. every month for six poor and aged persons, at 
the discretion of the vicar and churchwardens. 

The charities of the parish amount to £800 annually. 

About the year 1874 the church was considerably improved 
by introducing a better arrangement of the seats ; and the 



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262 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

old peal, which consisted of eight bells, was increased by 
two new ones at a cost of £300. There are two fine windows 
in the south transept, by Buckley and Co., of Bruges and 
London, to the memory of Dr. Utterton, late Bishop of 
Guildford, father of the present incumbent. One represents 
" The Raising of Lazarus," and was given by the parishioners 
and other friends ; and the other " The Last Supper," 
presented by the family of the late Bishop — who is interred 
in the churchyard, and whose grave is distinguished by a 
beautiful white marble monument. 

The Mansion is a large and imposing structure, and was 
originally built in the reign of Henry VII. In the reign 
of Charles II., Sir Charles Bludworth owned the property, 
whose sister was married to Lord Chancellor Jeffreys. This 
unhappy man was concealed here in an underground vault, 
when he was proscribed and a reward offered for his head, after 
the Revolution in 1688. He had ventured here to see his 
daughter who was at the point of death, and whose funeral 
was solemnized on December 2nd of that year. The mansion 
was re-built in 1710 by Dr. Akehurst, a physician, and, after 
having been owned and improved by Colonel Gore, the Wades, 
and Colonel W. H. Spicer, it was held by Joseph Payne, Esq., 
a distinguished teacher of youth and lecturer on the subject 
of education. It is now in the possession of A. D. 
Miller, Esq. 

Letherhead was formerly a place of great importance, 
which may be inferred from the fact that the Sheriff's Tourn 
was held there ; William Frankelen held lands of the King's 
fee, to find a booth in which to hold the County Court ; Walter 
le Hore held lands by the tenure of providing a house for 
a prison; and William Oxencroft held land for finding a 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 263 

pound for cattle taken for the King's debt. 

There was a bridge over the Mole prior to the 81st of 
Edward III.'s, reign (1858), when a licence was granted 
to collect money for its repair. In 1782 it was declared by 
Act of Parliament a county bridge, and widened afterwards 
to the extent of twenty feet. Near the eastern end are the 
remains of the noted ale-house, which was celebrated by 
Skelton — tutor and afterwards poet-laureate to Henry VIII. 
Under the title of "The Tunning of Eleanor Ruminying," 
this noted ale-wife becomes the subject of his coarse and 
amusing verse. In the frontispiece to this poem she is 
represented in a wood engraving as an old, ill-favoured 
woman, holding a black-jack in her hand, with the inscription : 

14 When Skelton wore the laurel crown, 
My Ale put all the Ale-wives down." 

The house has been much altered of late years, and is now 
known by the sign of " The Running Horse." 

A short distance from the Church are the National Schools, 
erected in 1888. St. John's Foundation School, on the Epsom 
Road, was instituted in 1852, and was originally located at 
Clapton ; it is for the free education, with board and lodging, 
of the sons of the poorer clergymen of the Church of 
England. The present School, which was erected in 1878, 
is of red brick with stone dressings, in the Elizabethan style 
of architecture. 

The town has much increased of late years, and the 
erection of houses is still going on. Like some other parts 
of the county of Surrey, it is likely to become a populous and 
important neighbourhood. The Congregational Church was 
founded nearly sixty years ago. This outline of Letherhead 
may be fitly closed by an extract from Tyerman's "Life 



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264 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

of Wesley " : — Wednesday, February 23rd, 1791. He arose 
at 4 a.m., as he also did on the day following, and, 
accompanied by Mr. Rogers, set out to Letherhead, eighteen 
miles from London, to visit a magistrate, in whose dining 
room he preached from ' Seek ye the Lord while He may 
be found, call upon Him while He is near.' This was Wesley's 
last seruion." 



MICKLEHAM. 

In Domesday Book we read the following details con- 
cerning Mickleham: " Oswold holds of Richard (de Tonbridge) 
Miclielham. The same person held it of King Edward. 
Then it was assessed at 5 hides, now at 2 hides. The arable 
land amounts to 5 carucates. One carucate is in demesne ; 
and there are 8 villains, and 6 bordars, with 4 carucates. 
There are 2 bondmen; and 1 acre of meadow. The wood 
yields one hog. In the time of King Edward it was valued 
at 100*., and now at £6." 

"Nigel holds of the Bishop of Bayew Micleham which 
Ansfrige held of King Edward. Then, as at present, it was 
assessed at 5 hides. The arable land amounts to 4 carucates. 
Two are in demesne ; and there are 4 villains, 4 bordars, and 
2 bondmen. There is a church, and 2 acres of meadow. 
The wood yields 8 swine. In the time of King Edward it 
was valued at -£3, and now at £4." 

"Hugh de Port holds of the Bishop Berge. Three 
freemen held it, who could remove whither they pleased. 
It was then assessed at 5 hides ; now at 2£ hides. These 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 265 

four manors Hugh holds as one manor. It is assessed in the 
hundred of Waleton." 

There were three manors in Mickleham at the time of 
the survey : one belonged to Kichard de Tonbridge, and the 
others to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. The four manors probably 
referred to other manors which Hugh held elsewhere. At 
present there are, in this parish, the manor of Mickleham 
or Littleburgh, the manors of Norbury, Westhumble, Polesden 
Lacey; and the reputed manors of Fredley, Ashurst, and 
the estate of Boxland. 

The manor of Mickleham, after being escheated to the 
crown in the reign of William Rufus, was held by the 
ancestors of Robert de Mikelham. Gilbert de Mikelham, who 
had the rents and services of John Adrian and Roger de 
Tune in Mickleham, with their bodies and their progeny, and 
rendering annually a pound of cumin. In 1827, John de 
Mykleham granted the manor to his daughter, who married 
John Dewey, and yet, by the original deed, "nothing more 
passed by the conveyance than the Farm at Fridley." It 
came afterwards into the possession of the Apurdeles; 
William of Wykeham ; the Stydolfs ; the Tryons ; Anthony 
Chapman, Esq. ; B. B. Hopkins, Esq. ; Charles Talbot, 
Esq. (1780), Sir George Talbot ; and is now with the 
advowson in the possession of Winthrop Mackworth-Praed, 
Esq. 

Winthrop Mackworth-Praed, Esq., the patron of the 
living, is the eldest son of the late Bulkley John Mackworth- 
Praed, Esq., of Owsden Hall, Suffolk, (who died in 1876,) 
by his first wife, Emma, fourth daughter of the late M. Dick, 
Esq. ; born 1831 ; married, 1868, the fourth daughter of 
the late James Ewing, Esq., and has, with other issue, Robert 



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266 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Herbert, born 1866. 

Westhumble or, according to the ancient form of the word, 
Wistomble, formed part of Bishop Odo's manor, and was 
afterwards held by the Mikelhams and Apurdeles. In 
17 Edward III., John de Mykelham had a licence to alienate 
to the Prior of Reygate one messuage and two shillings 
and eight-pence rent, and the advowson of the church of 
Mykelham, for the maintenance of two priests to pray (daily) 
for the souls of his ancestors, and his own soul, in the Priory 
Church at Reygate. In 1876, the Prior of Reigate held the 
fourth of a knight's fee in Mickleham of Edward le Despenser, 
representative of the family of Glare. It came into the 
possession of Sir Francis Stydolf in 1620, and then through 
his descendants till the sale to Mr. Chapman in 1776 ; thence 
it passed into the hands of Sir Francis Geary, Sir William 
Geary, Mr. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, in 1809, and at his 
decease, in 1816, the manor, together with Chapel Farm 
and Phenice Farm, was bought by Mr. Thomas Hudson, 
from whose trustees Camilla Lacey and the manor became, 
in 1874, the property of J. L. Wylie, Esq. The other part of 
the property is in the possession of the Right Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P. 

Westhumble Chapel stands near Chapel Farm, and was 
probably a station for the pilgrims who traversed the North 
Downs on their way to the shrine of Thomas & Becket at 
Canterbury. They descended into the valley of Mickleham, 
where there is a break in the hills, and crossed the Mole 
at a bridge which is known as " Pray Bridge," and passed 
on to Reigate, where another chapel stood on the site of the 
old Market Hall. 

The chapel is supposed to have been founded in the reign 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 267 

of Edward III., after the alienation of the manor to Reigate 
Priory. The farm contains about a hundred and seventy-six 
acres. The experiment of growing hops was made by 
Mr. Tyers, of Denbies, which led to a law-suit between the 
Rev. P. Walton, of Mickleham, and the Vicar of Dorking. 
Mr. Walton obtained a decree in his favour, and Mr. Tyers, 
to end the experiment, grubbed up all the hops. 

The old cottage, built by Madame D'Arblay, has been 
enlarged and improved by its present owner, J. L. Wylie, 
Esq., who is also Lord of the Manor of Westhumble. 

Norbury was constituted a distinct lordship previously to 
the Domesday Survey, and was held by Oswold, a Saxon 
thane. It was vested in Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester ; 
held by William Husee of the Earl, and afterwards came 
into the Wymedon family, from whom it descended to the 
Stydolphs, the Tryons, Anthony Chapman (in 1766), William 
Lock (in 1774), and was afterwards held by Mr. Robinson, 
Mr. Maitland, Mr. Sperling, and now belongs to Thomas 
de la Garde Grissell, Esq. 

Fridley consists of a portion of lands and tenements 
formerly settled by John de Mikelham on his son-in-law, 
John Dewey, whose descendants appear to have assumed the 
name of Fridley. In 1435, Roger de Fridele demised to 
James Janyn and Nicholas Glover, which had devolved on 
him at the death of his father, John Dewey, with the advowson 
of the living, to be held by the grantees for one hundred years, 
at the rent of a red rose. The estate passed, with the advowson, 
to William Wydowson in 1492, who presented to the rectory 
as patron. In 19 Henry VIII., Fridley belonged to Sir 
John Mordaunt, of Turvey in Bedfordshire ; and his grandson 
Lewis, Lord Mordaunt, sold it in 1571 to William Leaver. 



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268 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

After repeated transfers, the estate, in 1762, was conveyed 
to Cecil Bisshopp, Esq., who, in 1778, succeeded his father 
as the fifth baronet of his family ; who designed to build a 
museum on Mickleham Downs, but relinquishing that design, 
he enlarged and fitted up an ale-house (called the "Boyal 
Oak ") for his own residence, which, from the abundance of 
juniper trees in the neighbourhood, was called " Juniper 
Hall." * This property passed successively into the hands 
of Mr. Jenkinson (a wealthy lottery office keeper), Mr. Worrell, 
Mr. Broadwood, Miss Beardmore, Francis Richardson, Esq., 
and is now the property of John Mac Andrew, Esq. 

Polesden Lacey is a manor which belonged to William 
Sackville, of Dorking, and afterwards came into the pos- 
session of the Stydolphs, in 1689. It was afterwards owned 
by Thomas Edwin, and Mr. Charles Windham ; the latter of 
whom sold it, in 1784, to Admiral Sir Francis Geary, who 
died in 1796, aged eighty-six, after. seventy-two years active 
service. His son, Sir William Geary, sold Polesden and the 
manor to the trustees of Bichard Brinsley Sheridan, Esq. 
Mr. Joseph Bonsor held them afterwards, and are now the 
'property of Sir Walter Rockliff Farquahar. 

The Farquahar family is descended from the ancient 
stock of Gilmerscroft, N.B. 

Sir Bobert Farquahar, of Lentuck, Co. Aberdeen, was 
Provost of Aberdeen in 1661. 

Walter Farquahar was fifth son of John Farquahar, of 
Lentuck, and, having attained eminence in the medical pro- 
fession, was created a Baronet in 1796; was physician to 
George IV. when Prince Regent. 

Sir Thomas Harrie Farquahar, born 1775 ; married 

* For further details of the mansion see " Juniper Hall." 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 269 

Sybilla Martha, only daughter and heiress of Eev. Morton 
Rockliff, of Woodford, Essex, and died in 1836. 

Sir Walter Rockliff Farquahar, born 1810, and succeeded 
in 1886 ; married, in 1837, Mary Octavia, youngest daughter 
of Henry Charles, sixth Duke of Beaufort, and has issue, a 
son and heir, Henry Thomas, born 1838, and married, in 
1882, Alice, daughter of Hon. H. B. W. Brand. Sir W. R. 
Farquahar was educated at Eton ; is D.L., and was High 
Sheriff for Surrey in 1859. 

The name of Francis Rous, Provost of Eton, A.D. 1656, 
is associated with the estate of Polesden. There is, in the 
Print Room of the British Museum, a fine engraving of this 
Scholar, by Faithorne. He is dressed in the usual solemn 
costume of the period, and wears a low hat with large and 
ample brim. He has the look of learning and authority; 
both of which were necessary for governing an institution 
where the youth of the nobility and gentry were trained for 
their future careers. According to the practice of the period 
the following eulogium is found under the engraving : 

" Adam the first this Image elaymes as his, 
Within the second Adam's image is, 
That is the hidden Face not seen by thee, 
But God it sees, and it God's Face shall see." 

Ashurst, or High Ashurst formed part of the original 
manor of Mickleham. In 1436 the trustees of Roger de 
Fridele conveyed to William Ashurst, of East Betchworth, 
all their lands, rents, and services in Mickleham. This was 
conveyed by William Ashurst to Robert Gaynesford, whose 
son and heir granted a third part of the manor of Mickleham 
to Lord Wyndsor and others, in trust for Thomas Stydolf 
and his heirs. This passed with Letherhead, Norbury, &c, 
to the Tryons, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Benjamin Bond Hopkins, 



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270 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Mr. Robert Boxall, Mr. Villebois, Mr. Strahan, Sir Richard 
Glass, Mr. J. G. Wilson, and is now the property of the 
Hon. Dudley Ryder, who bought it of Mr. J. C. Wilson 
in 1882. 

The family of which the Honourable Henry Dudley Ryder, 
of High Ashurst, is one of the representatives, is traced to 
the Rev. Dudley Ryder, Rector of Bedworth, Co. Warwick, 
ejected for Non-conformity in 1662. His grandson became 
Attorney General, and Lord Chief Justice in 1756, was 
created a peer by the title of Lord Harrowby, and died the 
day following, before the patent could be completed, leaving 
a son : 

Nathaniel Ryder, M.P. for Tiverton; created Baron 
Harrowby of Harrowby, Co. Lincoln, 1776 ; and left three 
sons ; Dudley, the eldest son, was the second Baron, (the 
third son became Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry) ; created 
Viscount Sandon and Earl of Harrowby, 1809, and died 
December, 1847. 

Dudley, the second and late Earl, was born in 1799, and 
was the eldest son of the first Earl by Susan, daughter of 
the first Marquis of Stafford ; succeeded in 1847 ; married, 
in 1823, Frances, daughter of the first Marquis of Bute ; was 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; D.L. for the County of 
Stafford; Ecclesiastical Commissioner; M.P. for Tiverton 
1819, for Liverpool 1882-1847 ; Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster 1854-5 ; Lord Privy Seal 1855, and died 1882. 

The Hon. Henry Dudley Ryder, of High Ashurst, is the 
second son of the second Earl ; was born in 1886 ; married, 
in May, 1859, Supan Juliana Maria Hamilton, only daughter 
of Villiers Dent, Esq. His son's name is John Herbert 
Dudley Ryder. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 271 

MicMeham Rectory was alienated from the Priory of 
Reigate in 17 Edward III., and its value was stated at ten 
marks per annum. In 1400 the convent disposed of the 
patronage, and different persons presented to the living 
between that time and the dissolution. Henry VIII., in 
1542, granted the advowson to Lord William Howard, from 
whom it descended to the Earl of Peterborough, by his great 
grand-daughter Elizabeth. She presented to the living in 
1669, having settled the advowson on her grand-daughter, 
Baroness Mordaunt. It was sold (under sanction of an 
Act of Parliament) to Sir John Parsons. Sir John Hinde 
Cotton held it, and it was afterwards transferred to the 
Talbots, and is now held by Winthrop Mackworth-Praed, 
Esq. 

The benefice is a rectory in the deanery of Ewell, and in 
the time of Edward I. was returned at the annual value of 
twenty marks. In the King's Books it is valued at £18, 
paying 7*. 7d. for procurations, and 2s. Id. for synodals. 
The present rent-charge on 2788 titheable acres (exclusive of 
£10 on the glebe) is £425. The estimated acres in Mickleham 
parish is 2820, of which 584 are arablo, 1167 meadow, 582 
woodland, 186 box, and 158 common. The Priory lands, 
which contain eighty-two acres, are now included in Norbury 
Park, are exempt from tithes. The church is dedicated to 
St. Michael, is noticed in Domesday Book, and exhibits 
traces of Anglo-Norman architecture. In 1872 it was 
thoroughly repaired and restored at the expense of Winthrop 
Mackworth-Praed, Esq., the patron of the living. The nave 
is divided by four semi-circular arches, and in the east 
window of the Norbury Chapel are some remains of canopies 
in stained glass, and on each side of the window is a canopied 



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272 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

niche in stone, richly sculptured in the style of Henry VI.'s 
reign. 

The Church is in the early Norman style, and will ac- 
commodate three hundred and sixty persons. It was restored 
in 1822, when the sum £2254 was expended on the fabric. 
There is a monument to the memory of John Stydolf, of 
Norbury,* who died May 8th, 1576, A.D., which has the 
following epitaph — 

•* Inveni portum, spes and fortuna, valete 
Nil mihi vobiscum, ludete nunc alios, 
Quo cunque ingreditur, sequitur mors 

„ Corporis umbram." 

There is an altar tomb to the memory of William 
Wyddowson, in which there are small figures of a man and 
woman praying, with a supplicatory scroll issuing from the 
mouth of each. The man is represented in a citizen's gown, 
with long hair ; and his wife in a long pendent head-dress, 
and a rosary at her girdle. Beneath the whole is this 
inscription : 

"Here lyth the body of William Wyddowson, citizen 
and mercer of London, and, of the parish church of Mekyllham, 
late patrone ; and allsoe here lyth ye body of Jone hys wyfe, 
the whych dyssesyd the XXIII day of Septe'byr, in the Vth 
yere of Kyng Hary the VIIJ., on whoys soullys God have 
mercy. Ame\" 

Another monument, raised by Richard Stydolf to his 
brother, Thomas, who died June 21st, 1652, has this passage : 

" Bo8a haec maligna pustularum 
Lividitate co' tacta exaruit." 

There are inscriptions to the memory of the eldest yeoman 
of his Majesty's confectionary office, and to the yeoman of 

* For description of Norbury, Juniper Hall, Burford Lodge, Fredley, and 
Box Hill, see index. 



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NEIGHBOURING PABI8HES. 273 

his Majesty's scullery, (1685 A.D.). There are tablets 
■which record the decease of William Lock, of Norbury Park, 
and several members of his family; of Henry Peters, Esq., 
of Betchworth Castle, and others of the inhabitants of 
Mickleham. In the churchyard are tombs which bear the 
names of Jenkinson, of Juniper Hall; George Barclay, of 
Burford Lodge; and Joseph Kay, Esq., Q.C., of Predley. 

The parish registers contain some singular entries, which 
suggest the religious usages and social condition of former 
days. There are licences to Lady Stydolph and others to 
eat meat in Lent " for the recovery of health." Under date 
1675, it is stated that " on the 19th Sunday after Trinity, 
John Lucas, Sen., Lydia, his wife, and three sons, John, 
Henry, and James ; and Ann, wife of Thomas Williter, were 
denounced and excommunicated." "In 1678, June 9, 2nd 
Sunday after Trinity, Ann Williter was absolved from 
excommunication." There are many notices of "briefs," 
which were originally issued by papal authorities, and were 
entrusted to mendicant friars to collect money for cases of 
distress from fire and flood, and any other disasters which 
occasioned loss of property. After the Reformation they 
were issued by the King — and were finally discontinued by 
an act of George IV. (1829). One entry is for a collection 
for repairing the parish church of Wallingford, which was 
rent from top to bottom by an extraordinary storm of 
thunder and lightning, happening upon Ascension Day at 
night, 1688 ; the amount of the collection was two shillings 
and eight-pence. Another is for the repair of St. Paul's 
Church, London, in 1688 and 1687. The former produced 
three shillings and seven-pence, and the latter, seven-pence. 
It is probable that the parishioners considered it scarcely 



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274 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

right to contribute to an edifice so distant, and situated in 
the centre of the wealth of the metropolis. 

Sir James Mackintosh, in his valued correspondence with 
Mr. Sharp, of Fredley Farm, called this spot " The Happy 
Valley." The view of Norbury, with its magnificent woods, 
the windings of the Mole, and the pleasant pastures and 
slopes which meet the eye, combine to make the vale of 
Mickleham attractive at all seasons of the year. Its beauty 
in spring can scarcely be exaggerated; trees in all variety 
of form and foliage, in charming diversity of tint; conifers, 
with their staid and sober aspect ; and deciduous growths in 
their freshest green, adorn the landscape and gratify the 
beholder. 

The neighbourhood of Mickleham has been distinguished 
in past days for the residence of the learned and literary ; 
among which the names of Richard Sharp, and Madame 
D'Arblay, will readily occur. It has been visited by James Mill* 
and John Stuart Mill, Keats, and Professor Daniel, the eminent 
meteorologist and chemist. In recent days the vicinity has 
retained its former prestige, in the presence of authors like 
Dr. Charles Mackay — so well-known for his popular songs, 
his knowledge of Celtic, and his numerous publications; 
George Meredith, Esq., critic, poet, and one of our first 
writers of fiction; and Mr. J. E. H. Gordon, a native of 
the valley, has attained distinction in science, and specially 
in the important and popular department of electricity. 

Box Lands, an estate which was part of the manor of 
Mickleham, was originally held by the de Wautons, and in 
the reign of Edward III. it was in the families of Cornwaill 

* James Mill used to say that it took him six weeks to set up the 
metaphysical state of his mind alter a residence of some months in the country. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 275 

and Cosyn. In 1868, Thomas de Cornwaill died at the age 
of sixteen, " seized of eight acres of land, together with a 
native, and all his progeny." In the fourth of Richard II., 
the son and heir of William Cosyn sold all his lands, rents, 
and services to Thomas de Berme. In the course of time 
the property often changed owners, and was held by the 
late Samuel Weller Singer, by whom the villa called 
" Riverdale " was built; Alfred Singer, Esq. is the present 
owner, and the estate pays a rent-charge of twenty shillings 
a year to the Congregational Church, West Street, Dorking. 



NEWDIGATE 

The situation of this parish is on the southern limits of 
Surrey, and really belongs to the Wealden district. It is 
chiefly included in the hundred of Copthorne, while the 
hamlet of Parkgate only pertains to the hundred of Beigate. 
It is bounded on the west by the parish of Capel; on the 
south-east and north-east by Charlwood and Leigh ; on the 
south it is adjoined by Busper, in Sussex ; and on the north 
by Dorking. 

The village of Newdigate stands about five miles to the 
south-east of Dorking, and was formerly covered by a 
portion of that dense forest which extended from the sea to 
the North Downs. It is not noticed in the Domesday Survey, 
probably because it was included in the extensive manor of 
Churchfield or Beigate, which belonged to the Conqueror, and 
was afterwards given to the Earl of Warren. Hamelin 
Plantagenet, Earl of Warren and Surrey, in the reign of 
Henry II., gave the Church of Newdigate to the Prior of 

t 2 



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270 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

St. Mary Overy, Southwark. The manor appears to have 
been granted by this nobleman, or one of his descendants, 
to the family of Montfort; for in 21 Edward I., John 
de Montfort obtained the right of free-warren for his 
lands in Newdigate. His eldest son was slain at Striveling, 
in 1814, when the estate came into the possession of his 
brother Peter, who, being a clerk in holy orders, obtained 
u dispensation from his vows, was made a knight, and 
married Margaret, daughter of Lord Furnival. His only 
son and heir, Guy de Montfort, married Margaret, daughter 
of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in 1818, (in his 
father's life time), and soon after, this, and other estates in 
Surrey, were settled in such a manner as to vest the 
remainder in the Earl and Countess of Warwick, in default 
of issue from his daughter's marriage. Guy de Montfort 
died childless ; and the Earl settled the estates in reversion 
on his own sons, Thomas and William, the former of whom 
succeeded to the earldom in 1869, and died in possession of 
the manor of Newdigate. The Earl was arraigned before 
his peers as an accomplice with Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, 
in a conspiracy against the government of Bichard II. He 
confessed himself guilty, and, having besought the King's 
mercy, his life was spared — but he was condemned to 
perpetual imprisonment, and his lands and goods were 
confiscated. By this forfeiture, Sir Baldwin Freville, 
grandson of Elizabeth, one of the two sisters and co-heiresses 
of Peter de Montfort, claimed this and other estates of 
the Montfort family; and it appears that he succeeded in 
establishing his right to this manor, as well as to that of 
Ashtead. Sir Baldwin's son died without issue in 1419, 
and the estates devolved on his three sisters, one of whom, 



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NEIOHBOUKING PARISHES. 277 

Joyce Freville, was married to Sir Roger Aston. She died 
in 1447; and on a partition of the "Frevilles' Estates" 
in 1468, "Ashtede and Newdigate" were allotted to Sir 
Robert Aston, Knt. His grandson, Sir Edward Aston, 
transferred Newdigate to Henry VIII., in exchange for lands 
in Staffordshire ; and that sovereign granted the manor to 
the Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge. It 
has, however, since passed into the hands of the Duke of 
Norfolk. 

The ancient family of the Newdigates had lands and 
tenements in the village as early as the reign of King John, 
(1199—1216). From the will of Thomas Newdigate de 
Newdigate, dated in 1482, it may be inferred that he possessed 
much property here. His great-grandson, who die.d 1576, 
left all his lands at this place to his son, Walter, with 
directions that his youngej son, Thomas, should be provided 
with a chamber, meat, drink, and apparel, and forty shillings 
a year in money ; or the annual sum of ten pounds in lieu 
of the provisions, at his option. Walter Newdigate died in 
1590 ; his son, Thomas, in 1612, leaving two daughters, his 
co-heiresses; and gave his lands to his nephew, West 
Newdigate, on condition of his paying one thousand pounds 
to each of his cousins. The money not being paid, the 
estates came into the possession of Mary, elder daughter 
of Thomas Newdigate, and wife of William Stepher, her 
sister having died without issue. Mrs. Stepher executed a 
conveyance of the estate to Mr. John Budgen, which 
afterwards descended to Thomas Budgen, Esq., M.P., of 
Dorking, whose grandson sold the estate in 1807, with 
Newdigate Place Farm, to the Duke of Norfolk. This farm 
was originally a fine building with a quadrangular court, 



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278 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

and was the seat of the Newdigates for several generations, 
at least from the time of Edward III. to that of James I. 
The greater part was taken down by J. S. Budgen, Esq., 
nearly a century ago, and the remaining portion converted 
into a farm house. 

Iwood or Euood is described as consisting of a mansion 
and park, which originally belonged to the Earls of Warren 
and Surrey, and passed afterwards to Richard FitzAlan, who 
died in 1374-5. His son was beheaded for opposition to 
Richard II., but his son, Thomas FitzAlan, was restored 
in blood in 1899, on the accession of Henry IV. It passed, 
by marriage with one of his co-heiresses, to William 
Beauchamp, Earl of Abergavenny, whose estate was 
transferred to Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Worcester. His 
daughter bcame the wife of Sir Richard Nevil, whose great- 
grandson, Sir Henry Nevil, conveyed the property to George 
and Christopher Darell, with all the buildings and iron-works. 
In the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth, this estate had several 
proprietors, and passed from the Goches to Dr. Morton, 
Thomas Grimstead, Esq., and finally to the Duke of Norfolk. 

Eenfold is an adjoining property and formerly belonged 
to Sir Thomas Poynings, Knt., and Ralph Fane, Esq. It 
extends into Newdigate, Gapel, and Dorking, and is now in 
the possession of the Duke of Norfolk. 

One of the large landowners in the parish of Newdigate 
is William Farnell- Watson, Esq., of Henfold, only son of the 
late William Farnell-Watson, Esq., J.P., D.L., and High 
Sheriff, 1877, of Henfold, Surrey; and Redlees, Isleworth, 
Co. Middlesex, (who died 1879), by Eliza Marguerite, 
daughter of John Power, Esq., of Richmond, Surrey; born 
1858, married ; 1876, Evelyn, daughter of Beale Blackwell 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 279 

Colvin, Esq., of Monkham's Hall, Go. Essex. Mr. Watson 
was educated at Eton; and has, with other issue, Harold, 
born 1876. 

Oudworth belonged originally to Walter de la Foyle. It 
became afterwards the property of the Newdigates, of one 
of whom it was purchased by Mr. Ede, in 1686 ; and in 1775 
the estate was sold by one of his family to Lee Steere, Esq., 
who died in 1785, and left the reversion, after the death of 
his widow, to Lee Steere-Witts, Esq., who, in consequence, 
assumed the name of Steere in place of that of Witts ; and 
to his family the property belongs. 

Weskland or Wykeland is a reputed manor held by the 
Prior of Merton, who, in 19 Edward I., had licence to 
hold a messuage and sixty acres of land in Newdigate ; an 
ancient demesne of the crown. Henry VIH., in 1540, 
granted this property to Robert Southwell, Esq. It was 
purchased, in 1625, by E. Jordan, Esq., of Gatwick, then 
passed to John Sharp, Esq., in virtue "of his marriage with 
Philippa, one of the co-heiresses of Thomas Jordan. Mr. 
Sharp died in 1771, having disinherited his eldest son, and 
entailed the estates on his three grandsons in succession. 
John Jenings Sharp barred the entail in 1785, since which 
time the property has several times changed hands. 

Lyne is a manor which belongs to J. S. Broadwood, Esq., 
whose seat stands on the boundary line of the two parishes 
of Newdigate and Gapel. The mansion is a large, recent 
erection, ornamented with a picturesque tower on the north, 
some handsome Flemish gateways, and stands in the midst 
of a paddock, meadows, and woodlands. 

According to recent survey under the Tithe Commutation 
Act, the parish contains 4027 acres, 2 rods, and 10 poles; 



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280 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES, 

of which 2297 acres, 3 rods, and 10 poles are arable ; 854 
meadow; 866 woodland; and 5 common or waste. The 
Duke of Norfolk ; Lee Steere, Esq., of Jayes ; Parnell- Watson, 
Esq. ; and J. S. Broadwood, Esq., are the chief landowners. 

The living of Newdigate is a rectory in the deanery of 
Stoke. In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas it is valued at 
twenty marks, and in the King's books at £8 18*. 4d„ 
paying for procurations and synodals, 8*. 9d. The advowson 
was given by Hamelin Plantagenet, Earl of Warren and 
Surrey, to the prior of St. Mary Overy, Southwark; and 
since the dissolution of the monasteries, it has been vested 
in the crown. The rent-charge is fixed at £480 10*. per 
annum. The registers commence in 1559, and have been 
regularly continued ever since. It appears that the Newdigate 
family lived at the manor house, and had a mortuary chapel 
within the churchyard. 

There are several charities connected with Newdigate, 
There is a portion of a rental of a farm at Worth, which is 
expended in bread, meat, and clothes for the poor ; and there is 
a school founded by the Rev. George Steere in the seventeenth 
century. The school house was repaired by J. S. Broadwood, 
Esq., of Lyne, in 1888, who added the interest of £200, 
three-and-a-half per cents., to augment the income. There 
is connected with it an exhibition to Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

Many of the original deoorations of the church were 
concealed by whitewash ; and during a recent partial 
restoration, portions of a beautiful fresco of St. Christopher 
were discovered, of which the Rev. S. M. Maybew writes; 
" The superiority of style, colour, and design marks it the 
work of an artist. The face of the infant Christ is peculiarly 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES, 281 

engaging, and a majestic repose enobles the form. Christopher 
is altogether the giant, and with upturned and wonder-filled 
visage looks upon him whom he bears. The Saint is assisted 
in his passage by the stem of a tree, having leafy branches ; 
and on the east side appears a monk. The infant Saviour 
is clothed in a long garment of red, with a rich embroidered 
collar; his hair auburn, his fingers raised in benediction; 
his left hand having a golden orb and elevated cross, with 
a nimbus about his head. St. Christopher is clothed in an 
ample-sleeved coat, embroidered, with a girdle about his 
loins ; his legs bare ; from his shoulders falls a purple cloak, 
fastened by a golden brooch of three disks ; a coloured fillet 
encircles his head, tied in a knot on his right ear ; a nimbus 
also shines about his head. Three ships and a boat are on 
the water, and on the western side is a man fishing. A 
portion of this noble work had been destroyed in a former 
age. It was reserved for the year 1876 to complete its 
destruction." 

This was rendered necessary for the restoration and 
improvement of the fabric, which has recently been 
accomplished to the great advantage of the congregation. 

Many vestiges of old Saxon customs are still retained 
in this and other parishes of the weald. On St. Thomas' Day 
the poor families proceed to the dwellings of their more 
wealthy neighbours, to solicit assistance towards improving 
their own housekeeping during the approaching Christmas. 
Mummers appear about Christmas, and on Christmas Eve, 
and during the holidays, parties go round singing carols and 
was-hail songs, (was-hail signifies "Be in health/') the 
remains of the ancient practice of wassailing, expecting 
refreshment in return, or a largess in money. The following 



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282 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

is a specimen of a was-hail song. 

44 A wassail, a wassail, a was-hail bowl well sing, 
With cinnamon and peppermint, and other spices in ; 
A wassail, a wassail, with jolly sugar'd ale, 
And joy come to yon from our wassail. 
Good Master, and good Mistress, as you sit by the fire, 
Oh, think of us poor wassailers who tramp it through the mire. 
A wassail, a wassail, &e. 

" Well wassail increase to your store, well wassail sheep and kine, 
We'll wassail bees and apple trees — well wassail horse and swine. 
A wassail, a wassail, &c. 

" Hang out your silken handkerchief upon your golden spear, 
And welcome to your wassailers to taste your Christmas cheer. 
A wassail, a waissail, of jolly nappy ale, 
And joy come to you from our wassail. 

A wassail, a wassail, a was-hail bowl we sing, 

With cinnamon and peppermint and other spices in." 

In wassailing apple trees, the tree is struck with a stick, 
and all the party shout : — 

" Stand fast root, bear well top, 
Pray God send a good howling sop ; 
On every bough, twigs enow, 
On every twig, apple big. 
Hats full, caps full, half -quarter sacks full ; 
Holloh, boys, holloh ! " 

On which a horn is blown, and the whole throng hurrah 
joyously. 



OCKLEY. 

In the Domesday Survey the manor of Ockley is thus 
described : 

"Ralph holds of Richard (de Tonbridge), Hoclei, which 
Almar held of King Edward. It was then, as at present, 
assessed at 1 hide. The arable land amounts to 4 carucates. 
There is 1 in the demesne; and 4 villains and 3 bordars, 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 288 

with 4 carucates. The wood yields 20 swine, and there are 
2 bondmen. It is valued at 70 shillings, as in the time of 
King Edward." 

In this manor the same Eichard holds half a hide, which, 
in the time of King Edward, was held by Alwin, who could 
remove with it where he pleased. It was then assessed at 
half a hide ; now at nothing. It is valued in Hoclei." 

The manor of Ockley is in the Hundred of Wotton, and 
the earliest historical information states that it descended 
from Eichard de Tollbridge to Gilbert de Glare, Earl of 
Gloucester, who fell in the battle of Bannockburn, (1314 
A.D.,) and left three sisters unmarried. Hugh le Despencer, 
the favourite of Edward H., married the eldest, and his 
descendant, Edward, Lord le Despencer, held in her right, 
Ockle, and other estates in Surrey, which probably belonged 
to his son, Thomas, created Earl of Gloucester by Eichard U. 
in 1397, and executed and attainted for rebellion against 
Henry IV. in 1400 A.D., when his estates escheated to 
the crown. 

In the thirteenth century, Alicia de Dammartin held one 
knight's fee in Ockley of the honour of Glare. In 1300 A.D., 
Nicolas Malemeyns was lord of the manor of Ockley, and, in 
1302, obtained a grant of free-warren, the right to hold a 
market, and a fair within the manor. This passed successively 
to different families, and was sold, about 1638, to George 
Duncumbe, Esq., of Albury. Sir William Duncumbe possessed 
it in 1675, and sold the manor and lands to Edward Bax ; 
who, almost immediately afterwards, disposed of it to Mr. 
John Evershed, of Eversheds, in this parish. It was sold, 
in 1751, to Dr. Frank Nicholls, who was an eminent 
physician and reader in anatomy in the University of Oxford. 



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284 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

His son and heir, John Nicholls, Esq., M.P. for Blechingley, 
sold the manorial estate to Lee Steere, Esq., of Jayes, 
whose daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, married Richard 
Witts, Esq. In 1795 this property came into the possession 
of Lee Steere Witts, Esq., who took the surname of Steere 
in compliance with the will of his maternal grandmother, 
and his grandson of the same name is now the owner. 

The subjoined are the details concerning the family of 
the Steere8, of Jayes : — 

Lee Steere is a member of one of the oldest families in 
the country, as we find the Steeres living at Jayes, Ockley, 
their present seat, at the time of the Conquest, and it is 
exceedingly rare for a family to be able to trace an unbroken 
pedigree up to that traditional starting point of the 
genealogists, and rarer still to find them at the present time 
in the possession of their ancient domains. Mr. Steere is the 
son of the late Lee Steere Steere, Esq., by Sarah, daughter of 
the late Bobert Harrison, Esq., of Ripley Court, Surrey, and 
was born June 21st, 1808. From Harrow he went to Trinity 
College, Oxford ; and, in 1826, married Ann, daughter of the 
late James Eiers Watson, Esq., of Hessle Mount, Yorkshire. 
He is a Justice of the Peace both for Sussex and Surrey, 
of which latter County he is also a Deputy Lieutenant, and 
was High Sheriff in 1848. He was returned to Parliament 
for West Surrey, on the death of Mr. J. I. Briscoe, the 
former member. 

On Ockley Green is Elderslie, the residence of George 
Arbuthnot, Esq., son of the late George Arbuthnot, of 
Elderslie; born 1815; married, 1850, Miss Mary Thomas, 
and has, with other issue, George, late Lieut. Scots Grays, 
and formerly Lieut, of 58rd Regiment ; born 1852 ; married, 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 285 

1875, Mary Bose, eldest daughter of William Leslie, Esq., 
of Warthill, Go. Aberdeen, and has issue a son, born 1878. 
Mr. Arbuthnot was educated at Eton, is a magistrate for 
Surrey, and was formerly a merchant at Madras. * 

Ockley Court, with an attached farm, is situated near 
the Church, about a mile eastward of the old Roman Road, 
usually called " Stane Street." This site was purchased by 
the Bax family, and sold to Thomas Tash, Esq., in 1744. It 
came afterwards into the possession of the Calvert family; 
and was made the frequent residence of Charles Calvert, Esq., 
M.P. for Southwark, and is now in the possession of Captain 
Calvert, whose name is Archibald Motteux Calvert, and is 
the eldest surviving son of Charles Calvert, Esq., M.P., of 
Ockley Court, by Jane, youngest daughter of Sir William 
Rowley, Baronet; born 1827; succeeded his brother, 1870; 
married, 1862, Constance, youngest daughter of William 
Peters, Esq., of Ashfield, Crawley, Co. Sussex, and has, 
with other issue, William Archibald, born 1868. Mr. Calvert 
is a magistrate for Surrey, and a Colonel, Royal Artillery. 

There is a farm estate called Everaheds* which is noticed 
in the Domesday Survey. Among other details it is said, 
" This land belonged to a freeman, who could remove with 
it whither he pleased," (et potuit cum ea ire quo libtritj, which 
probably means that the land was- free as well as the holder 
of it; that he was not in a state of villenage, but could 
dispose of it as he thought proper. 

The living of Ockley is in the deanery of Stoke. In the 
20th of Edward I., it was valued at thirteen marks; in 
the King's books its value is stated at £16 5*. 2Jd. ; paying 

* Aubrey states that the Eversheds, Steeres, Harpes, and others, have had 
estates hereabouts ever since the Norman conquest. 



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286 NEIGHBOURING PABISHEff. 

for procurations and synodals, 8*. 9d. Until 1694 the 
advowson passed with the manor ; but it was then sold by 
Sir William Duncumbe, to John Constable, of Ockley, 
yeoman, who re-sold it to E. Budgen, Esq., the younger, of 
Dorking, who bequeathed it, in 1719, to John Budgen, M.D., 
in trust for his nephews, who, in 1724, conveyed their 
interest to the Master and Fellows of Glare Hall, Cambridge. 
The Church is a substantial building, with nave and chancel, 
and massive western tower, containing a peal of six bells. 
It has recently been repaired and considerably improved. 
It contains some modern monuments and sepulchral slabs 
of ancient date. The mural tablets contain the names 
and dates of decease of Lee Steere Steere, Esq. ; the Bev. 
Thomas Woodrooffe, B.D. ; Elizabeth, wife of George 
Arbuthnot ; George Arbuthnot, Esq. ; Charles Calvert, Esq., 
M.D. ; and of the Evershed family. In the churchyard 
are several tombs, among which are those of Lee Steere Steere, 
Esq., of Jayes ; George Arbuthnot, Esq., of Elderslie ; the Bev. 
Thomas Woodroffe; of Louisa Ann, eldest daughter of the 
late Major-General P. A. Agnew; and the family tomb of 
Lieut-General Polliott, of Leith Hill. 

Aubrey remarks, " that it was anciently the custom here 
for betrothed lovers to plant rose trees at the head of the 
grave of a deceased lover, should either party die before 
the wedding." " In this churchyard,' 1 he says, " are many 
red rose trees, planted among the graves, which have been 
there beyond man's memory." 

There is no monument of the battle of Ockley, which took 
place on the neighbouring heights ; but there is one which 
perpetuates the memory of her, whose beneficent interest 
in the education of the young led her to make arrangement, 



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NEIGHBOURING PATCHES. 287 

by will, in aid of a school for the children of poor parishioners. 
This building stands at the western end of the Green, and 
over the principal entrance is V.B., encircled with the garter, 
and Jane Scott, 1840. She also left money for the 
construction of a well, which is surmounted by a roof with 
four gables, and is supported by four solid columns in the 
Norman style. 

This outline of Ockley may be fittingly concluded by the 
following lines by Miss Bessie Bayner Parkes. 

" Ockley is a model village, 
Planted ma inly amidst tillage ; 
The tillage on that wholesale scale, 
Which doth in England much prevail ; 
No garden-farms of dainty trim, 
But all things with an ample rim 
Of hedge and grass, a double charm 
In every fertile English farm, 
A sweet concession to the need 
Of Nature for her roadside mead. 
A fair appeal to human sight, 
And simple beauty's lawful right. 

" Ockley has a church and spire, 
A many generation'd squire, 
Straight roads which cut it left and right, 
A noble green by nature dight, 
Old houses quaint and weather streaked, 
And troops of children, rosy cheeked. 

** Here when the morning broadening over 
Glorious fields of wheat and clover, 
Strikes on every glistening leaf, 
And kisses all the firs on Leith. 
The sense of freedom, rest, and calm, 
Falls on the town-sick heart like balm. 

" Ockley has a village school, 
Ton pass the well, and next the pool, 
When a fair building meets the eye, 
Framed with simple symmetry ; 
Above the portal, pass it not, 
Are writ plain words, a name, Jane Scott." 



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288 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 



OAKWOOD CHAPEL. 

At a short distance from Ockley is the edifice known as 
Oakwood Chapel, which was founded before 1290, in which 
year Sir Walter Fancourt presented a priest to the chantry 
there; before which time some of the Roman clergy, who 
came from Wotton and Dorking, visited the place to celebrate 
divine worship for the few villagers who lived in the 
neighbourhood. This small chapel Btood in the forest, which, 
like many rural parts of England, was infested with wild 
animals and beasts of chase. Sir Edward de la Hale, in the 
fifteenth century, enlarged and adorned the building, as an 
act of thanksgiving for the preservation of his son from a 
violent death. While both were hunting the wild boar, his 
son fell from his horse, and was exposed to the fury of the 
wounded animal. The young man was stunned by the fall, 
and his father, in his agony of distress, spurred his horse 
towards him, when an arrow, which whizzed through the 
branches of the oak trees, struck and killed the boar. Sir 
Edward threw himself off his horse, embraced his son, and 
reverently kneeling poured out his thanksgivings to God for 
the deliverance of his son from death. He resolved, so the 
tradition runs, to devote some portion of his wealth to the 
service of God, which resolution led him to restore and 
improve Oakwood Chapel, and endow it with some lands for 
the maintenance of divine worship. 

In the changes which took place at the Reformation, and 
in the reign of Edward VI. (circa 1547 a.d.,) most of the lands 
were alienated to secular uses, and there was consequently 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 289 

no stipend for the minister. In 1552 a petition was presented 
to the King, asking him to allow the service to be continued 
in the Chapel, which the petitioners stated had been built 
time out of mind for singing the divine service, and to 
which there had always belonged a churchyard, a small house 
and garden adjoining called the "Priest's House." The 
petition further stated that since the death of the late 
curate, Sir Hamlett Gelynge, there had been no service in 
the Chapel, which exposed the inhabitants to intolerable 
ignorance of Almighty God, His holy word, and their duties 
to their king. 

The King ordered a priest to be appointed at a salary of 
£8 6s. 8d., to be paid out of the exchequer yearly. This 
decree, through the death of the King (1553), was not 
carried out by Mary; but Queen Elizabeth confirmed the 
order on her accession to the throne. 

In 1709 the Chapel had fallen into a very dilapidated 
condition. The north wall was giving way, and to meet the 
expense of supporting it, three of the bells were sold, the 
proceeds of which, with eight pounds more collected, provided 
the means of building the large buttresses. 

Since that time various donations, and the bequest of 
farms in Sussex and the neighbourhood, have improved the 
income of the incumbent. The patron of the living is W. 
J. Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton House, who has recently repaired, 
enlarged, and adorned the edifice. 

There is, in the floor of the Chapel, a brass which 
represents Sir Edward de la Hale, armed cap-a-pie, with a 
massive sword, standing in the attitude of prayer upon an 
heraldic, or symbolical monster, while a petition for mercy 
is inscribed on a scroll near his head, and below the feet is 



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290 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES, 

the following inscription : — " Hie jacet Edwardus de la Hale 
armig, de Com. Surr., qui obiit viii die mensis Septembr, 
Anno Dni Millo. duo CCCCXXXJ. Cujus Anime Deus 
miseretur. Amen." 



SHE RE* 

Shere, with Cranley, formed the ancient manor of Essira, 
which was granted by Edward the Confessor to Editha, his 
consort. The northern and eastern parts of Shere, with 
Ewhurst, were probably given to Harold as the ancient 
manor of Qomselle. Both Shere and Gomselle have long 
since been divided into subordinate manorial estates. Shere 
is thus described in Domesday Book : 

"The king holds in demesne Essira, which had been 
held by Editha, the Queen. It was then assessed at 9 hides ; 
and yet, at that time, there were in the manor 18 hides. Now 
it pays no tax. The arable land amounts to 14 carucates. 
In the demesne are 2 carucates ; and there are 19 villains, 
and 6 bordars, with 12 carucates. There is a church, and 
there are 6 bondmen; and 2 mills, at 10 shillings, and 3 
acres of meadow. The wood yields 50 swine. Ever since 
the time of Edward it has been valued at fifteen pounds. 
In Wodeton Hundred the King hath in demesne 3 virgates, 
which lie in Essira, with which they are valued." 

The manor was afterwards given by William Bufus to 
William de Warren, whom he created Earl of Surrey. By 
a deed, in the reign of Henry III., it was partly granted 
to the Abbot and Convent of Edward-stow, near Netley, in 
Hampshire. Boger de Clere, who held it of the Earl of 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 291 

Warren, conveyed it to Fitz-Geoffrey, whose grandson fought 
against Henry III. under Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and 
was taken captive and his estates confiscated. The property 
was recovered hy Bichard, who, dying without issue, 
left his possessions to his four sisters. The manor was 
subsequently divided between the representatives of two of 
the co-heiresses, the portion of Joan, the younger sister, 
and widow of Theobald le Boteler, forming the manor of 
Shere Vacherey; that of Aveline, the manor of Shere 
Eboracum. 

Shere Vachery was held by the great grandson of Theobald, 
who was appointed chief butler of Ireland to Henry H., one 
of whose descendants fought for Henry VI. at Towton, when 
the Yorkists triumphed, and he was beheaded at Newcastle. 
Edward IV. gave the manor to Lord Audley, whose son 
engaged in the insurrection against Henry VII. , fought in the 
battle of Blackheath, was made a captive and executed, on 
Tower Hill. It afterwards came into the possession of 
Sir Eeginald Bray, who was much engaged in various offices 
in the court of Henry VII., and, from his knowledge of 
architecture, added much to the improvement of the Boyal 
Chapel at Windsor, and laid the foundation of the Chapel 
of Henry VII., at Westminster. This manor is now in the 
hands of the descendants of Sir Reginald Bray. 

The manor of Vacherie was surveyed in the reign of 
Edward I. (circa 1290), and the following is a statement 
of its value : — 

£ 8 d 
"A Messuage, Garden, and Fishpond, valued at 

per annum 6 8 

120 acres of Arable land, at 4<2. per acre ... 2 

u 2 



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292 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

20 acres of Meadow, at 8d. per acre 

23 acres of Pasture, at 4d. per acre 

92 acres of Wood, at 4d. per acre, for pannage ... 

A Park, valued per annum at 

Assessed rents, at per annum 

Lands let to firm, at per annum 

Capon and Quit-rent at Christmas 

38 Cocks, rendered at Christmas, value 1*. id, each 

100-lbs. of Pepper 

100 Eggs 

2 Pairs of Gilt Spurs 

1 pair of Gloves at Pentecost 

12 Barbed arrows at Midsummer 

Customary Eents 

8 Quarters and 2 Bushels of Oats at Michaelemas 

Pleas and Perquisites of Courts 

A Coney Warren, per annum 

£48 8 0} 
Out of which was paid to a Chantry Priest at 

Vacherie 4 16 



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tShere Eboracum extends into the parishes of Cranley and 
Budgwick. This was separated from Shere Vacherie in the 
reign of Edward I., and came successively into the hands 
of Bichard de Burgh, son and heir of Aveline Fitz-Geoflrey ; 
Elizabeth, a daughter and sole heiress of William de Burgh, 
married Lionel, Duke of Clarence, (second son of Edward III.,) 
whose daughter, Philippa, married Mortimer, Earl of March, 
whose son, Roger, was, in the reign of Bichard II., recognized 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 293 

by Parliament heir to the throne ; his son and heir, Edmund, 
died without issue, and the estate, in 1425, devolved on 
Richard, Duke of York, among whose estates was this manor 
of Shere, called Shere Eboracum, from the Latinized title 
of this nobleman, Dux Eboracencis, or Dux Eboraci. It 
afterwards descended to Elizabeth, of York, who married 
Henry VII. It was assigned by Henry VIII. to the Queen 
Consort — granted to Sir William Fitz-Williams, who sold it 
to Sir Edward Bray, whose descendants now possess it. 

Oomsele in Shere had, according to Domesday Survey, 
thirty villains, eight bordars, and six bondmen, and a mill 
at forty pence. The manor appears to have been given by 
King Stephen to his son, William of Blois — but it was after- 
wards annulled. The manor of East Gomsele was held by 
William MaJvoisin, Alan Trenchmere, William de Braose, 
Roger le Savage, one of whose descendants forfeited the estate, 
which was afterwards settled, by Richard II., as part of the 
endowment of the Abbey of St. Mary de Grace, Tower Hill, 
London; and the manor has since been styled Gumsele 
Tower Hill. 

West Qwmsele was a portion of the manor of Gumsele 
granted by Henry II. to William le Clere. It was afterwards 
given to Peter de Mauley, who had been accused, by some 
historians, of being the executioner of Prince Arthur, Duke 
of Bretagne, son and heir of Geoffrey, King John's eldest 
brother. Henry HI. gave the manor to the convent at Netley, 
hence the name of Gumsele Netley. After the surrender 
of the monastery, Henry VIII. conveyed the manor to Sir 
Edward Bray. 

A part of this property, with the ancient manse, was 
sold to William Heath, who transferred it by way of exchange 



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294 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

to John Hussey, of Button Place, from whom the property 
descended to the late Edmund Shallet Lomax, Esq., of Netley, 
in the parish of Shere. 

Sutton, in Shere, is a small manor, formerly held in part 
by the Bishop of Baieux. It is in the eastern part of the 
parish, and, with the mansion, belonged to Edmund Hill in 
the 25th of Elizabeth, and afterwards was held by Richard 
Holman, Thomas Hussey, Edward Shallet, Esq., and then 
by the Lomax family, who now dwell in the new mansion 
at Netley, in Shere. 

A farm called the manor of Edmondes was originally 
held by a family of that name, is now held partly by the 
Lomax family and partly by W. J. Evelyn, Esq., of Wotton 
House. 

The advowson is a rectory, and, in the 5th of Edward III., 
the lord of Shere Vacherie paid to the rector the sum of one 
shilling and six-pence towards the Papal tax called Rome-scot, 
or Peter-pence. The present rent charge is £940, exclusive of 
a few pounds on a few acres of glebe. The patronage of the 
living was formerly in the possession of the Bray family ; but 
is now owned by the Bev. T. L. Adams, the Rector of the 
parish. 

The Church is dedicated to St. James. Among the 
remains of the painted glass is the bray, or hemp-breaker, 
the device of Sir Reginald Bray. There are many tablets 
and monuments to the memory of the Brays, Lomaxes, 
Duncumbes, and Anna, daughter of the Earl of Ormond, 
and others formerly connected with the parish. There is a 
fine brass of Robert Scarcliff in the north chancel. The 
font is of Sussex marble, very ancient and curious in its 
form. There are many benefactions connected with the 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 295 

church, among which is a legacy for the special purpose of 
improving the psalmody in public worship. 

The first register commences in 1545 ; the second begins 
in 1691, and contains the names of children born in the 
parish, with occasional notes of changes, e.g., October 2, 1788, 
" This day a duty of three-pence takes place on the christening 
of any and every child baptized, except such as receive relief 
from the parish, the duty to be received by the officiating 
minister." Garbetia, Gernilia, Damaris, and Zelotes are 
the only unusual names. The register of burials notices, 
those whose remains were buried in " linhen," and in January 
3rd, 1878, occurs the entry, " Harriet Grote, aged 86." In the 
registry of marriages it is stated on October 2, 1783, that 
for every marriage the officiating minister to receive a duty 
of three-pence ; and for every burial, except that of a person 
who received relief from the parish, the same amount. There 
are some names which occur frequently, as the Brays, Goes, 
Lomaxes, Duncumbes, Eversheds, Whapshots, Kelseys, 
Lovelands, and Haybeetles ; many of the latter are of common 
occurrence in Surrey villages. 

From the curious items in the Church records we find 
that about the year 1500 a.d. the vestments of the priests 
were of damask, silk, satin, and velvet, some of them 
embroidered with greyhounds' and harts' heads of gold. 
There were also crosses and vessels of silver. 

Wakes or drinkings were held, in the reign of Henry VII., 
on the Day of Pentecost, when fifty-six shillings were 
collected. In 1534 a Kyngame was held which produced 
fifty shillings and two-pence. Eight shillings received from 
the collection of pennies by the married women on 
Hokmonday. Collected at a drinking made by John Bedford 



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296 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

at bis own expense, from the strangers attending at his 
instance, seven pounds, three shillings and four-pence. 

The Church was formerly rich in images of saints, among 
which may be mentioned those of St. Nicholas, St. Anthony, 
St. Sock, and St. Mary of Pity. There were lights maintained 
by bequests ; and there were Roodwardens besides the 
Churchwardens. In 1547 the Church-plate was seized by 
Henry VIIL, and the Churchwardens charged the parish 
seven shillings for their expenses when they carried the 
plate up to London. 

There is an interesting collection of the wills of former 
inhabitants and rectors of Shere, among which is the will 
of James le Boteler, second Earl of Ormond, dated at 
Vachery, 81st August, 1879. The earliest of the wills of 
the rector 8 is that of Robert Sekynton, 1390, who bequeaths 
his soul to Almighty God and the Blessed Virgin, and leaves 
to the Church considerable legacies, and, to his brother's wife, 
covering for the bed of rabbit skins, his linen and cloths 
for everything — " curtains, quilts, sheets, furniture to others, 
and the residue to bestow for his soul. ,, In the will of John 
Walter (1106) are bequeathed all his blocks of stones, lying 
about the manse of his Rectory, to repair the steps before 
the high altar of the Church. Robert Scarcliff (1412) 
directs that his coffin should be covered with black cloth 
containing twenty-four yards, to be given afterwards to poor 
parishioners to pray for his soul and the souls of all his 
benefactors; and leaves splendid vestments, adorned with 
falcons of gold and stars of gold, to other churches ; and a 
picture, representing the Trinity, the Blessed Mary, and 
St. Christopher, in four divisions, to the Church of Shere. 
John Pope (1475) leaves six shillings and eight-pence to be 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 297 

given to any priest and clerk present at his funeral in Wells 
Cathedral. John Banaster (1489) desires that " his body may 
be buried at the ' ffriers prechors/ at Guldeford, and to Sir 
Xpofer ffeldon, priest, to sing at Gylford there as his body 
shall lye by the space of two years for the health of his soul 
xiiili." John Pyttis (1589) wills that " at the daye of my 
burying, and at my moneth daye, the poor people that comyth 
to the Church of Shere, praying for my soule and all christian 
souls, shall have meate and drinke, and one penny to every 
poor man, woman and child, shall have meate and drinke that 
comyth to the Church of Shere to pray for my soule." Eobert 
Paterson (1554) begins his will thus, " My body I bequeath to 
the earth, there to be humate without great pompe or solemmitie 
other than prayer, which I most heartily desire all christian 
people of their charity to make and effunde for my soul, 
to the blessed trinitie and father of all, in whom is all my 
affyaunce and trust." Afterwards there are clauses which 
require the great bell to be rung between seven and eight 
every night, between his burial and his months day, four 
solemn sermons in Chichester Cathedral, and a mass for 
his soul, to be sung for forty days.* 

In the year 1821 a small nonconformist place of worship 
was built at Gumshall, and stands near the " Black Horse 
Inn." This chapel, with that at Felday, have been maintained 
by the congregationists of the County of Surrey, for the 
spiritual benefit of the villagers of both places. 

At Barrows Lea is the seat of Sir William Arthur-Temple- 
Felix Clay, born December 9th, 1842, and married, July 1st, 



* The above details are extracted from a paper read at the Surrey 
Archecelogical Society's Meetings by the Hon. Granville Leveson Gower, who 
kindly forwarded a copy for the writer's use. 



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298 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

1869, Margaret, fifth daughter of Arthur-Kett Barclay, Esq., 
of Bury Hill, Dorking. 

This family descends from the Clays of Ohapel and Crick, 
Co. Derby. George Clay, a member of a younger branch 
(which was settled at Cambridge for two generations), 
married, in 1670, Elizabeth, second daughter of Felix 
Calvert, Esq., of Adbury Park, Herts, and was the father 
of Felix Clay, of Enfield, whose son, William Clay, of the 
City of London, was father of George Clay, Esq., born 1757, 
merchant and ship-owner : and left an only son, Sir William 
Clay, M.P. for the Tower Hamlets, Secretary of the Board 
of Control from 1839 to 1841 ; and created a Baronet in 1841 ; 
born in 1791 ; and married Harriet, daughter and co-heiress 
(with her sister, Mary, wife of James Temple Boudoin, Esq., 
second son of Sir John Temple, Bart.,) of Thomas Dickason, 
of Fulvell Lodge, Co. Middlesex, and had issue Sir William 
Dickason Clay, second Baronet; married Mariana Emily, 
eldest daughter of Leo Schuster, Esq. of Upper Belgrave 
Street, London ; and died October 14th, 1876. 

Sir William Dickason was succeeded by his brother, Sir 
George, third Baronet ; was Leiut.-Colonel in the army ; and 
married, in March, 1862, Caroline Elizabeth, only daughter 
of Sir John Palmer Bruce Chichester; married secondly, 
October, 1876, Mary Caroline, daughter of Sir John and 
Lady Walroud, and died 1878. The present Baronet suc- 
ceeded his brother 30th June, 1878 ; and has sons, of whom 
the eldest is William Temple, born June 26th, 1870. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 299 



WOTTON. 



This parish gives its name to the Hundred in which it 
is situated. It is styled in Domesday Book OdeUm, or 
Wodeton — and the word is propably derived from Woden, 
the popular deity of the Saxon people. The parish is almost 
nine miles in length from north to south, and seldom 
exceeds a mile in breadth. On the north it has Effingham ; 
on the east Dorking and Ockley ; on the south Blinfold and 
Budgwick in Sussex; and on the west it adjoins Abinger. 
The four parishes of Wotton, Abinger, Slinfold, and Budgwick 
meet in so narrow a space that, to use a popular phrase, it 
has been said a horse might stand with a foot in each of 
them. There are two streams in the parish ; of which one 
rises in Oakwood Hill, runs into the Aran; and the other 
starts from the northern side of Leith Hill, runs through 
Lonesome Bottom, by Wotton House, near which it is joined 
by another small streamlet, and flows through Abinger and 
Albury to the Wey, near Guildford. 

The most ancient traces of the history of the manor 
informs us that Geadwalla, king of the West Saxons, gave 
the manor of Wotton to Christ's Church, Canterbury (687 a.d.,) 
and that in 1010 a.d. Archbishop Elphege appropriated the 
same for the clothing of the monks of that place. 

The following account of the manor of Wotton is given 
in Domesday Book : — 

" Oswold, one of the King's Thanes, holds Odeton, which 
Heraldus held of King Edward; but the Hundred Jury 
declare that they know not by what tenure Heraldus held it. 



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800 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

It was then assessed at 6 hides, and now at 5 hides. The 
arable land is * * * *. One carucate is in demesne ; 
and there are 20 villains, and 7 bordars, with 8£ carucates. 
There is a mill at 20 pence, 8 acres of meadow, and a wood 
yielding 50 swine for pannage and 28 for herbage. In the 
time of King Edward, and afterwards, it was valued at 8 
pounds ; now at 7 pounds. Of these hides, one is in the 
tenure of Richard de Tonbridge; and Gorbelin holds it of 
him. Tedric held it of Heraldus as a distant manor. It 
was then assessed at one hide; now at half a hide. The 
land is half a carucate; and there are 2 villains and 1 
bondman. It was formerly valued at 20 shillings ; at present 
at 10 shillings." 

There are in this parish, besides the principal manor of 
Wotton, that of Gosterwood, and a part of the manor of 
Westland. 

The manor of Wotton was held in the reign of King John 
by Ralph de Camoys, who joined in the insurrection against 
that monarch, and was deprived of his estates. These were 
recovered in the reign of Henry III. His son joined the 
baronial army, and was, after the King (Henry III.) was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Lewes, appointed one of the 
Council of State for the government of the kingdom. William 
le Latymer then held the manor in capite of the king, as 
one knight's fee, and had the privilege of free-warren, and 
the right of holding fairs in Wotton. From Richard de 
Tonbridge the superiority of this land descended to the* 
Glares, Earls of Gloucester, and afterwards to the Despensers ; 
though Thomas Latymer, Knt., died seized of the manor of 
Wodeton in the 29th of Edward III., having been the 
usufructuary tenant under the family of Despenser. 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 801 

In the early part of the reign of Richard II., in 1381, 

on the death of William, Lord Latimer, the manor eame 

into the possession of his cousin, Sir Thomas Camoys. 

On his death, the feoffees in trust granted the same to Roger, 

Lord Gamoys, who released all his right in the manor and 

advowson of Wotton and of Oakwood Chapel to T. Morstede, 

Esq., who, in 1485, granted this estate to John Mychell, 

and others, Aldermen of London. After having been held 

by several proprietors, a moiety of the manor was held by 

Sir Eobert Southwell, and Sir David Owen; and King 

Henry VII., hearing that certain hawks in a wood were the 

joint property of these two knights, issued a warrant which 

signified that anything in itself entire could not be held in 

common, ordered that all the hawks should be taken for 

the king's use. In 1514 the whole manor belonged to Sir 

David Owen, the natural son of Owen Tudor, the second 

husband of Katherine de Valois, and widow of Henry V. 

He left this manor to his second son, John, and his heirs 

male; and from the 87th of Edward VHI. to the 2nd of 

Philip and Mary, John Owen held his courts here as lord 

of the manor. His son and heir conveyed it, in 1579, to 

George Evelyn, Esq., of Long Ditton, who died in 1608. 

To him succeeded his son, Richard Evelyn, Esq., whose eldest 

son, George, having died without surviving male issue, left it 

to his brother, John Evelyn, Esq., the author of " Sylva " and 

numerous other works on science, art, and religion. His son, 

John Evelyn, was like his father in his love of learning — his 

taste for the pleasures of gardening — and he showed some 

capacity for poetic composition. "Sylva" Evelyn was 

succeeded by his grandson, John Evelyn (his own son having 

died before his father), who, having held several public 



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802 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

appointments, bad maintained the family reputation for love 
of science and literature, died in 1763. The estate then 
devolved on his eldest son, Sir Jonn Evelyn, who married, in 
1732, Mary, eldest daughter of Hugh Boscawen, Viscount 
Falmouth. He was succeeded by his only son, Sir Frederick 
Evelyn, Bart., who adopted the military profession, and 
was engaged in the battle of Minden, 1759. Lady Evelyn 
devised by will dated September 12th, 1814, the Wotton 
Estates to John Evelyn, descended from Sir John Evelyn, 
of Godstone, the second son of George Evelyn, Esq., of 
Long Ditton, by his first wife. On his death, in 1827, the 
property descended to George Evelyn, Esq., his third and only 
surviving son, born at Galway, in Ireland, September 16th, 
1791, and having entered the 3rd Regiment of Foot 
Guards, fought at Waterloo, where he was wounded severely. 
Subsequently, on his marriage, he exchanged into the 
half-pay of the 60th Rifles. He died on February 15th, 
1829. In 1821 he married Mary Jane, daughter of 
J. H. Massy-Dawson, Esq., of Ballynacourt, Ireland, and 
after a minority of fourteen years was succeeded by William 
John Evelyn, Esq., the lord of the manor, who married, on 
the 28th of October, 1873, Francis Harriet, eldest daughter 
of the Rev. G. V. Chichester, brother of Lord O'Neill, of 
Shanos Castle, County Antrim, and has a son and heir, 
John Harcourt Chichester Evelyn, born September 9th, 1876. 
As it may be interesting to trace the descent of the present 
heir we introduce his pedigree for general information. 

"The family of Evelyn in England is traditionally 
descended from a Branch of the noble family of Eveline in 
Normandy. One of these Evelins followed Robert, Duke 
of Normandy, to the Holy Land in 1100 a.d., and became 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 803 

Lord of Barnth. The representative of the Norman Evelins 
in 1650 was William Evelin, Physician and Confessor to 
Henry IV., Louis XHL, and Louia XIV. This William 
Evelin was welcomed as a kinsman by John Evelyn (Author 
of Sylva, &c, when they met in Paris, 1650 a.d. (see 
Evelyn's Diary). The first direct or authenticated ancestor 
of the English Branch of the family is William Aveiln or 
Evelin, of Harrow-on-the-Hill, in the County of Middlesex, 
who died in 1476, and whose grandfather is supposed to have 
come over to England from Normandy about the beginning 
of the fifteenth century." 

The Manor of Gosterwood, in Wotton parish, originally 
belonged to a family named Gostrode, and afterwards be- 
longed, in 1817, to Henry de Sumersbury, who was seized 
of one virgate of land of eighty acres ; ten acres of meadow 
with appurtenances at two shillings rent, at Gostrode, in the 
ville of Wodeton, held of Nicholas Malemeynes at ten 
shillings a year, and suit of court at Ockley for all services of 
the annual value of twenty shillings. From the Gostrodes 
it came successively into the possession of William Skerne, 
of Kingston, Robert Draper, Peter Bardsey, Sir Edmund 
Howard, Sir Henry Wyatt, Edmund Hill and Richard Hill, 
who conveyed it to Sir Frederick Evelyn. 

The Manor of Westland extends into the parishes of 
Wotton, Ockley, Ewhurst, Cranley, Wonersh, and Albury. 
The courts are held at Oakwood Hill. It belonged, in the 
reign of the Henry VI. to John Newdegate, and was demised 
to John Shepherd for twenty-one years at a yearly rent of 
thirteen shillings and four-pence. It was afterwards owned 
by Ralph Legh and Edmund Deny, Sir William Forman, 
Sir William Roche, Sir Edward Bray, Thomas Godman, of 



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804 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

Letherhead, and John AUwyn. Henry Allwyn son of the 
last mentioned, transferred the property to George Evelyn, 
Esq., of Wotton, and his son and heir, Richard, and their 
heirs ; whose representatives are still in possession. 

The benefice is a rectory in the deanery of Stoke, and 
the patronage has from time immemorial descended with the 
manor. Under the late Commutation Act, the number of 
acres in this parish (exclusively of 564 acres of waste and 
public roads) is estimated at 3,192; of which 2,804 are 
titheable, viz., arable land, 1,687 acres; meadows, 492; 
woodlands, 825; and of underwood, 388 acres, which are 
exempt from tithes, as being part of the Weald of Surrey. 
The present rent-charge, inclusive of £22 on 140 acres of 
glebe, is £548. 

The register book of the parish contains entries of 
baptisms and burials from the year 1596, and marriages from 
1603. The Church is a venerable structure, and is approached 
through an avenue of magnificent trees, which almost conceal 
it from the public road. The Dormitory, in which numerous 
members of the Evelyn family are buried, is rich in mon- 
uments, tablets and inscriptions; and is, from its unique 
character and the perfect preservation of its memorials and 
tombs, deserving of special attention. The parsonage house 
is situated about a quarter of a mile from the Church ; is 
surrounded by some fine elms and other trees ; and has on 
its north side the Deer-leap beechwood, where there are 
traces of an ancient Barrow, surrounded by a double ditch, 
of which the outermost is a hundred and forty-five paces 
in diameter. 

A few years ago it was discovered that in the south-east 
wall of the Church there was a "lepers' window," which 



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NEIGHBOURING PABI8HES. 805 

allowed persons afflicted with leprosy, and were therefore 
excluded from the congregation, to stand outside the edifice, 
and see, in pre-reformation days, the ministrations of the 



WOTTON CHURCH. 

priest at the altar. The window has been re-opened, and 
filled with stained glass, which, by representing the miracle 
of the healing of the leper, recalls it original uses. 

The "Evelyn Chapel, ,, or "Dormitory," "contains some 
interesting monuments, in various styles, to the memory of 
the former owners of the estate, and other members of the 
Evelyn family. Few country churches can rival this sacred 
place for the associations which it suggests by its calmness, 
the sense of its antiquity, and its historical memories. 

Among the monuments is one to John Evelyn, with the 
following inscription : 



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806 NEIGHBOUMNO PARISHES. 

" Here lies the body of John Evelyn, Esq., of this place, 
second son of Richard Evelyn, Esq., who, having served the 
public in several employments (of which that of Commissioner 
of the Privy Seal in the reign of King James the 2nd was 
the most honourable), and perpetuated his fame by far more 
lasting monuments than those of Stone or Brass, his 
learned and useful Works, fell asleep on the 27th day of 
February, 1705-6, being the 86th year of his age — in full 
hope of a glorious resurrection through faith in Jesus Christ. 
Living in an age of extraordinary Events and Revolutions, 
he learnt, as himself asserted, this truth which, pursuant 
to his intention, is here declared, ' that all is vanity which 
is not Honest, and that there is no solid Wisdom but in 
real Piety.' " * 

The following is the inscription on the tomb of his wife : 

" Mary Evelyn, the best daughter, wife, and mother, the 
most accomplished of women, and regretted by all who knew 
her, is deposited in this stone coffin, according to her own 
desire, as near as could be to her dear husband, John Evelyn, 
with whom she lived almost three score years, and survived 
not quite three, dying at London the 9th of February, 1708-9, 
in the 74th year of her age." 

There are also tablets to the memory of the Rev. Dr. Bohun, 
the Earl of Rothes, Major Augustus, and Lady Elizabeth 
Wathen. One should be specially noted, which is a monument 
to Captain George Evelyn — the father of the present proprietor 

* The following passage from his " Advice to My Son," written in the reign 
of Charles II., 1672 a.d., shows the Christian spirit of John Evelyn: "Try all 
things, hold that which is good. For from every sect and community of 
Christians something may be learned. For some have a better confession; 
others perhaps a better discipline ; a third fewer errors ; and by what instrument 
soever an holy life is advanced, use it, though you grind it at the Philistines' 
forge ; resolving, however, to have no other Master but Christ ; no religion but 
the Christian ; and no rule but Scripture ; and no rule but right reason." 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 807 

of the Wotton and Deptford Estates. It has an inscription 
written by Dr. Arnold, his school-fellow and early friend. 
After having alluded to his service in the 8rd Regiment of 
Foot Guards, and his being wounded at Hougomont, in the 
battle of Waterloo, concludes with these words : 

"His early years gave a beautiful promise of vigour of 
understanding, kindness of heart, and christian nobleness of 
principle, his manhood abundantly fulfilled it. Living and 
dying in the faith of Christ, he has left to his family a 
humble but lively hope that, as he was respected and loved 
by men, he has been forgiven and accepted by God." 

There is also a remarkable monument in alabaster to 
George Evelyn (obiit 1608) and his second wife, with small 
figures of his twenty-four children. 

There is a curious custom annually observed in the 
churchyard. William Glanville, the nephew of John Evelyn, 
left property for the payment of forty shillings to five poor 
boys of the parish of Wotton, who, with their hands laid upon 
his grave-stone, should repeat by heart, in a plain and audible 
voice, the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, the Ten 
Commandments, read the fifteenth chapter of first Epistle to 
the Corinthians, and write in a legible hand two verses of the 
same chapter. With the remaining sum, apprentice fees, not 
exceeding ten pounds each, are to be given for the binding out 
of such poor boys to handicraft trades or husbandry. During 
his life time, the father of the founder of this charity ordered 
his body to be placed in a leaden coffin, carried out to sea, and 
buried in the Goodwin Sands.* This desire was complied 

• John Evelyn remarks in his " Dairy," " He was a man of excellent parts. 
He died in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and wilFd his body to be wrapp'd 
in lead, and carried downe to Greenwich, pat on board a ship, and buried in 
the sea betweene Dover and Calais, about the Goodwin Sands. This occasioned 
much discourse, he having no relation at all to the sea." 

v 2 



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808 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

with by his family and surviving friends. 

Having introduced this outline of the manor of Wotton, 
and a few details of the family of the present owner of both 
the manor and the estate, we insert the following brief sketch 
of the life and works of the celebrated John Evelyn, whose 
name is inseparably connected with the mansion and the 
neighbourhood. Complete information respecting his life 
and career is accessible in many articles in Biographical 
Dictionaries, and recently published Lives of him; and in 
his " Diary " and Correspondence. 

John Evelyn was born at Wotton in 1620, and received 
his earliest instruction in the porch of the parish Church'. 
His education was continued at Lewes, and afterwards at 
Balliol College, Oxford. He resided for some time in the 
Middle Temple; and, in 1648, he began those travels abroad of 
which the "Diary" contains such admirable descriptions. 
On his return from Italy he married the daughter of Sir 
Bichard Browne, his Majesty's resident at the Court of 
France. This young lady was twelve years old at the time 
of her marriage, and was left for a time under the care of 
Lady Browne. 

After the Bestoration he was made a Commissioner for 
the sick and wounded in the Dutch War ; Commissioner of 
the Plantations; Commissioner of the Mint; was one of 
the Trustees of the Boyle Lecture ; and one of the earliest 
Members of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts. 

He laid the foundation of Greenwich Hospital ; contributed 
to establishment of Chelsea Hospital ; was one of the founders 
of the Boyal Society ; one of the surveyors of old St. Paul's ; 
and induced Mr. Henry Howard to give the Arundelian 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 809 

Marbles to the University of Oxford. He was honoured by 
King Charles II.; and was acquainted with many of his 
distinguished fellow-countrymen, among whom may be named 
— Lord Clarendon, John Locke, Sir M. Hale, Lord Chancellor 
Somers, Sir Thomas Browne ; and his correspondence 
includes, among many others, the names of Pepys, Aubrey, 
Dr. Bentley, Boyle, and Meric Casaubon. He saw most of 
the wonderful events of the seventeenth century, which 
embraced the Civil War, the Bestoration, the Plague and 
Fire of London, the flight of James II., and lived until 
nearly the extinction of the Stuart dynasty, which extended 
from James I., 1603, to Queen Anne, 1714. 

He is usually known by the name of "Sylva" Evelyn, 
from his important work on Forest Trees.* This book 
describes the planting, management, and uses of timber- 
producing trees; and had so great an influence upon the 
country gentlemen and Government of England, that not 
many years after its publication, as he himself remarks, 
more than two millions of oaks and other trees were planted. 
These have since supplied timber for those fleets by which 
Great Britian has maintained her superiority at sea. 

His "Diary" extends over a period of sixty-four years, 
and is simply indispensable to all who would understand 
and describe the history of the seventeenth century. It is an 
historical authority, which will ever be read with interest; 
while his name and example must be ranked among the 
treasures of the English nation. 

He was a steadfast Episcopalian and Royalist in times of 
national change and disturbance ; and enjoyed the friendship 

•Lord Beaconsfield in "Lothair" remarks, "you should read Evelyn's 
* Sylva.* Evelyn was a man who was almost perfection." 



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810 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

of Bishop Jeremy Taylor, whose piety, sympathy, and spiritual 
advice consoled him under the loss of his dear and promising 
children, and guided him amid the anxieties which arose 
from his personal experience and public troubles. In one 
of the Bishop's letters to him, he says : " I am a debtor to 
you for your prayers, the comfort of your letters, the charity 
of your hand, and the affections of your heart." 

John Evelyn removed, in 1694, from Sayes Court, Deptford, 
to Wotton, with the wreck of his domestic treasures, and, 
after a residence there of eleven years, closed his honourable 
and useful life in London, in February, 1705, in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age. 

The following list of his works will shew his constant 
literary activity, and his delight in all the varieties of 
human knowledge, art and science. His "Treatise on 
Religion," though mainly composed of extracts from authors 
of different communions, proves his profound interest in the 
subject. His charming " Memoir of Mrs. Godolphin," lately 
edited by Bishop Wilberforce, deserves the widest popularity. 
He published the first "Gardeners' Almanack," and his 
inquiries extended from " Panificium," or the making of 
bread, to a " Philosophical Discourse on the Earth." 

His works were published with the following titles and 
dates : — 

1. Of Liberty and Servitude 1649 

2. A Character of England 1661 

8. The State of France 1642 

4. An Essay on the First Book of Lucretius ... 1656 

5. Dedicatory Epistles to the French Gardener ... 1658 

6. The Golden Book of Ghrysostom concerning the 

Education of Children 1659 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 311 

7. An Apology for the Koyal Party 1659 

8. The Late News from Brussels Unmasked ... 1660 

9. The Manner of the Encounter between the French 

and Spanish Ambassadors at the Landing of 

the Swedish Ambassador — 

10. A Panegyrick at his Majesty King Charles 1 

Coronation 1661 

11. Instructions concerning the Erection of a 

Library, &c 1661 

12. Tyrannus 1661 

18. Fumifugium; or the Inconvenience of the Air 

and Smoke of London* 1661 

14. Sculptura; or the History of Chalcography and 

Engraving on Copper and Mezzotinto ... 1662 

15. Sylva; a Discourse on Forest Trees 1664 

16. Dedicatory Epistles, &c. ; a Parallel of Ancient 

and Modern Architecture 1664 

17. Another part of the History of Jesuitism ... 1664 

18. Ealendarium Hortense 1664 

19. Public Employment and Active Life preferred to 

Solitude 1667 

20. History of Three Late Impostors 1669 

21. An Idea of the Perfection of Printing, from the 

French of Boland Freart 1668 

* Evelyn remarks, in his preface to " Fumifugium," " that this glorious 
and ancient city (London) should wrap her stately head in clouds of smoke and 
sulphur, so full of stink and darkness, I deplore with just indignation ; that the 
buildings should be composed of such a congestion of mis-shapen and ex- 
travagant houses ; that the streets should be so narrow and incommodious in 
the very centre and busiest places of intercourse ; that there should bo so ill and 
uneasy a form of paving underfoot ; so troublesome and malicious a disposure of 
the spouts and gutters overhead, are particulars worthy of reproof and 
reformation." 

He advises the removal of all brewers, dryers, salt-boilers, and lime-burners 
to a distance of six miles from the city, and the slaughtering of all cattle 
outside the walls. 



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812 NEIGHBOURING PABISHES. 

22. Navigation and Commerce 1674 

28. Terra ; a Philosophical Discourse of the Earth ... 1675 

24. Mons. de la Quinlynye's Treatise of Orange 

Trees, &c. ... 1698 

25. Advertisement to the Translation of the Complete 

Gardener 1698 

26. Ditto to Mons. de la Quinlynye's Directions 

concerning Melons — 

27. Ditto concerning Orange Trees — 

28. Mumismata ; a Discourse on Medals 1699 

29. Acetaria ; a Discourse of Salads 1699 

80. An Account of Architects and Architecture ... — 

81. Letter to Viscount Brouncker concerning a New 

Engine for Ploughing 1670 

82. Dedication to Benatus Bapinus of Gardens ... 1673 
88. Letter to Mr. Aubrey, concerning Surrey 

Antiquities 1670 

34. Abstract of a Letter to the Royal Society con- 
cerning damage done to his Gardens in the 
preceding Winter 

85. Diary and Letters — published 

86. Miscellaneous Writings — edited by Mr. Upcott 

87. Life of Mrs. Godolphin 

88. History of Beligion 



1684 
1818 

1847 
1850 



John Evelyn, the third son of " Sylva " Evelyn, gave 
early promise of literary attainment. He made several 
translations from Benatus Bapinus, Plutarch, and from 
French works which described the lives of several Viziers 
of the Seraglio, and produced a few original poems, which 
have been preserved in Dryden's " Miscellanies " and 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 818 

Nichol's " Collections." He died in the prime of life, when 
prospects of official promotion in Government appointments 
were very cheering. His second daughter, Elizabeth, married 
Simon Harcourt, Esq., eldest son and heir of Simon, Lord 
Viscount Harcourt, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, 
by whom she became the mother of the first Earl Harcourt. 

The description of the seat, the gardens and the sur- 
rounding scenery, from the pen of John Evelyn, fitly 
introduces some reference to the condition and treasures 
of Wotton House at the present day. 

" It is situated in the most southern part of the shire ; 
and though in a valley, yet really upon a part of Leith Hill, 
one of the most eminent in England for the prodigious 
prospect to be seen from its summit, though by few observed ; 
from it may be discerned twelve or thirteen counties, with 
part of the sea on the coast of Sussex, in a serene day. 
The house is large and ancient, suitable to those hospitable 
times, and so sweetly environed with those delicious streams 
and venerable woods, as, in the judgment of strangers as 
well as Englishmen, it may be compared to one of the most 
tempting and pleasant seats in the nation, and most tempting 
for a great person and a wanton purse to render it con- 
spicuous. It has rising grounds, meadows, woods, and water 
in abundance. I will say nothing of the air, because the 
pre-eminence is universally given to Surrey, the soil being 
dry and sandy; but I should speak much of the gardens, 
fountains, and groves that adorn it, were they not as 
generally known to be amongst the most natural, (and till 
this late and universal luxury of the whole nation, since 
abounding in such expenses) the most magnificent that 
England afforded, and which gave one of the first examples 



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814 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

to that elegancy, since so much in vogue, and followed for 
the managing of their waters, and other elegancies of that 
nature." 

Wotton House is a large brick-built and imposing pile. 
It was formerly somewhat irregular, but the recent erection 
of the western wing has given it a completeness which, while 
it has provided a noble library and suites of bedrooms, has 
added much to the beauty of the fabric. A recent enlarge- 
ment on the south-eastern side has increased the internal 
accommodation, and the front is enriched with terra cotta 
ornaments, which contain a part of the family motto, 
in Greek : " Hold fast that which is good." 

As the mansion has belonged to the Evelyns for more 
than three hundred years, it may be imagined that it contains 
many treasures and choice works of art which former 
owners have gathered, preserved, and bequeathed to their 
successors. 

The following is a brief outline of some of the most 
interesting objects in the library and apartments of Wotton 
House : 

The MS. of the "Officium Sanct© and Individu© 
Trinitatis," composed and collected by John Evelyn for his 
annual and quotidian use, with Calendar, Tables, &c. The 
MS. is beautifully written by Richard Hoar, and signed by 
him; it is bound in old crimson morocco with crest and 
John Evelyn's monogram. 12° — date 1650. This book of 
Prayers was presented by John Evelyn to Mrs. Godolphin; 
it was sold by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson on Friday, 
March 7th, 1878, for thirty-six pounds, ten shillings, and 
now belongs to the Wotton Library. 

There are various papers on religious topics, in Evelyn's 



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NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 815 

hand-writing, among which may be noted "Advice to My 
Son " and " Advice to My Grandson." 

There are manuscripts of Evelyn's " Diary" in good 
preservation; e.g., (1) Codex A., from the beginning till 
February 8rd, 1706, twenty-four days before his death, all 
in his hand-writing. 

(2) Codex B. The " Diary " from the beginning till 
October, 1644, in Evelyn's hand-writing, except the last few 
lines, which are in the hand-writing of his grand-son, Sir 
John Evelyn, Bart., and is an unfinished, amplified version 
or transcript of Codex A. This shews that it was John 
Evelyn's intention to re-copy the "Diary," but that he 
had not finished the work when he died. Codex C, copied 
from Codex B. in a youthful handwriting, apparently in the 
year 1787, by John Evelyn's grand-son, afterwards Sir John 
Evelyn, of Wotton. 

In the library is to be found the Prayer Book used by 
Bishop Juxon at the execution of Charles I., with a note 
in John Evelyn's hand-writing. The Czar of Muscovy's 
letter to Charles II. on his restoration ; and other interesting 
documents, are preserved among the treasures of Wotton 
House. 

There are several portraits of John Evelyn : 

One by Vanderborcht »tat 20 

Another by Walker, with his hand on a skull ... " 27 
Another by Kneller, holding the " Sylva " ... "68 

There are etchings of Wotton House by John Evelyn; 
a Bible which he annotated ; and a " Hortus Siccus " com- 
piled by him at Padua, and curiously illustrated with pen 
and ink sketches. There is a portrait of the wife of John 
Evelyn, and two paintings of flowers in water-colour on 



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816 NEIGHBOURING PARISHES. 

vellum, by her in 1650. 

The works of art include portraits of Archbishop Tillotson; 
Lord Chancellor Harcourt ; Mrs. Godolphin ; Lady Godolphin 
and her son; Duchess of Marlborough; Charles I. when 
Prince of Wales, after Mytens ; and likenesses of members 
of the Evelyn, Harcourt, Brown, and Glanville families. 
Among the sculptures is a copy (one-quarter size) of the tomb 
of Sir John and Lady Evelyn, at Godstone ; and a bust of Sir 
John Evelyn, of Wilts, copied from his tomb. In the picture 
gallery are paintings by Paul Veronese, Carlo Maratti, Julio 
Bomano, Guido, Palma Yecchio, Hemskirk, and other 
masters. 

Two small panes of glass were purchased at a glazier's 
in Dorking, in 1844, and were bought by Mr. Malleson, of 
Pulborough. One of them was inscribed with a diamond 
by John Evelyn's hand: "Tibi nos, Tibi nostra supellex 
ruraque servierint," with his cypher, "John Evelyn," the 
motto "Omnia explorate, et meliora retinete," date 1641. 

The other had an eye dropping tears on a flaming heart, 
with the words, though not in Evelyn's writing, 

" Thou that betrayest me to this flame, 
Thy power be to quench the same." 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 817 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



PICTURES OF DORKING AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

R. Redgrave, Esq., R.A., has admirably illustrated the 
neighbourhood of Wotton, and contributed many charming 
pictures to the Exhibition of the Royal Academy which 
suggest the beauty of the surrounding scenery. In 1849 he 
painted "The Evelyn Woods;" and in 1850 there was a 
fine work entitled "Beech Trees/' with this suitable motto 
from Isaiah lxv. 22, " For as the days of a tree are the days 
of my people, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of 
their hands." In 1852 he exhibited " The Woodland Mirror;" 
in 1858 " The Forest Portal ; " and, in 1855, " The Source 
of the Stream " and " Little Red Riding Hood," of which 
latter work Mr. Buskin wrote, "Mr. Redgrave has, as far 
I know, never painted so good a landscape. The ferns in the 
centre are beautiful, and there is evidence of painstaking 
and good feeling everywhere." In 1858 he painted the 
pathetic picture, " The Emigrants last look at Home," and, 
in 1860, " The Bridle Road." Then followed, in succeeding 
years, "A Treasury of Waters," "Ancestral Woods," "The 
Return to the Hall" from the avenue leading to Wotton 



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818 MISCELLANEOUS. 

House, "The Failing Tear," "Startled Foresters M (deer 
alarmed), " Sermons in Stones," " Tranquil Waters," " The 
Wreck of the Forest," and "Calling Sheep to the Fold." 
In 1874 Mr. Eedgrave painted a landscape looking from 
Leith Hill over the Weald of Surrey and Sussex, which is 
described as "To Market below the Hills," and is now in 
the possession of F. Pennington, Esq., M.P., of Broome Hall ; 
and an "Avenue at Denbies" for the Eight Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P. Mr. Eedgrave has, during the last thirty 
years, painted two subjects annually in oil, and many water- 
colour landscapes of scenes in the neighbourhood of Wotton, 
Abinger, and Dorking, which fact shews what wealth of 
pictorial beauty exists around, and only awaits the eye to see, 
and the hand to represent it, for the gratification of the 
public. 

The following passage, extracted from the Athenaeum of 
December 7th, 1878, refers to another artist who has found 
pleasure in the scenery of the neighbourhood, of whom the 
critic says : " Mrs. Allingham has brilliant deep-tinted and 
homely studies of Surrey Cottages, seated amid towering 
trees and superb foliage. There are not fewer than eleven of 
these beautiful works ; we can name only two or three ; but 
they are all delightful. " A Summer's Day " shows a road- 
side cottage with trees about it, and a gravelly lane before it ; 
the whole scene saturated, so to say, with a splendid lustre. 
" Netty Farm, Share" shows a brilliant noon, a little garish, 
as it should be, foliage unlimited in quantity and vividness 
of colour, a deep blue sky ; the whole of a rare solidity, and, 
technically speaking, as strong as if it were painted in oil. 
Oossips, Shere, Surrey, is, we think, the best; it shows a 
cottage at the brow of a hill, where a ruddy sunlit road dips 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 319 

downward through the wood, a very vivid and perfectly 
harmonious picture." 

There are many pictures at Wotton House, by Mr. Mott, 
of the scenery of Abinger and the neighbourhood; and 
Mr. Hook, Mr. Birket Foster, and other artists who, either 
constantly or occasionally, select rural subjects for their 
pencils, have found attractive passages, and objects for works 
of great charm and beauty. Many of these works remain 
in the mansions of the gentry around, and others are 
dispersed through the country, where they diffuse a knowledge 
of the singular variety and sweetness of Surrey scenery. 

Yicat Cole, Esq., B.A., who, like Mr. Bedgrave, delights 
in Surrey scenery, has painted two admirable pictures for 
the Bight Hon. George Cubitt, M.P., which represent " Leith 
Hill " in the freshness and beauty of spring ; and " Boxhill" 
in all the wealth and vivid colour of autumnal foliage. There 
are, at Denbies, and in the London residence, many smaller 
though beautiful works, of which the subjects were taken 
from the immediate neighbourhood. 

In 1858 Mr. John Brett painted, at Mickleham, "The 
Stonebreaker, or Born to Labour," the scenery of which is 
Boxhill and its curious yew trees. Of this picture Mr. Buskin 
remarks: "This, after John Lewis's, is simply the most 
perfect piece of painting, with respect to touch, in the 
Academy this year. I know no such thistledown, no such 
chalk hills, no such natural pieces of far-away cloud in any 
of the pro-Baphaelite works." 

There is only one work of the late admirable landscape 
painter, Linnell, which can be certainly considered as 
representing any part of the neighbouring scenery of Dorking. 
This was exhibited in the "Old Masters' Exhibition/' in 



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320 MISCELLANEOUS. 

1888, consisted of a lovely picture of " Leith Hill," in which 
there are cattle and sheep driven along in the foreground, 
the Hill in middle distance, and a distant landscape on the 
left, and dated J. Linnell, 1861. 

Mr. Birket Foster has produced choice pictures from 
Holmwood Common, the Mole, and other spots in the 
neighbourhood. Mr. Naftel has treated the same subjects, 
though with a difference, which, while it preserves the 
essential features of the landscape, expresses the individuality 
of the artist. In recent years there has arisen a number of 
artists in the town who are natives ; and many have come 
to reside there, or in the vicinity. The list includes Mr. W. 
W. Caffyn, Mr. Daws, Mr. Douglas, Mr. H. Fielder, Mr. C. 
Gibbs, Mr. Frank Walton, and Mr. Wilkinson. Besides these 
gentlemen, there are many visitors from London and other 
parts of the country, who find in the lanes, embowered with 
ancient trees ; the windings, the bridges, and lilies of the 
Mole; the cottages and woods; and the few ancient and 
well-timbered farm houses, sufficient and diversified 
employment for their pencils. 



BHERE MILL-POND. 

This interesting spot is noticed by Hamerton in his 
" Etching and Etchers," in the following passage : 

"The preparation of this volume has compelled me to 
examine all the most notable etchings which have been 
produced since the invention of the art. In the course of 
these studies I have looked over several thousand plates, and 
having selected two or three hundred of the best, weighed 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 321 

their relative merits with the most scrupulous care. The 
reader will therefore do me the justice to believe that any 
expression to which I commit myself, has been preceded by 
long deliberation. It is easy to blame; and censure has 
always this element of safety, that there is imperfection, or 
at least limitation, in all human endeavour, and that he who 
discovers faults places himself on a judicial seat, whilst 
humble admiration implies some acknowledgment of 
inferiority. A great critic of literature observed to me that 
it needed courage to praise without reserve, and there is so 
little reserve in what I am going to say, that I need this 
courage now. 

"With the single exception of one plate, by Claude (Les 
Bouviers), this is the finest etching of a landscape subject 
that has ever been executed in the world. In all fine art, 
strength and delicacy are the extremes of expressional power, 
and the stronger the strength, and the more delicate the 
delicacy, the larger in this sense is the compass of the artist. 
In this plate we have both, and both in supreme degree. 
The strength is not expressed by violence, but by the 
unimaginable richness of the great soft masses of near 
foliage, and the rapid sketching of the nearest reeds. The 
wild duck is put in with a few incisive lines of dry-point so 
true in movement that the bird is set before us with a vital 
force. The heavy body hangs from the lifting wings, and the 
head peers forward in the alarm of sudden flight. Under 
the reeds the water is dark with full reflections, but where 
the wild duck has just quitted it there is a bright confusion 
of momentary disturbance. The smooth little wavelets play 
softly among the reeds, and their liquid swelling, and the 
flight of the bird are the only notes that break the melody 



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822 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



of repose. And, as to the right hand, we have foliage in 
the utmost fullness of great masses, so in the centre and 
left of the composition we have it in its slenderest grace. 
There is no contrast in human or animal form so marked 
and extreme as this. From the wild duck to the heron, 
from the ox to the giraffe, the transition is not so great as 
that from the orbed immensity of the full foliaged chestnut 
to the slimness of the young poplar, whose leaves may almost 
be counted, and whose trunk may be grasped by the hand. 
But all these things are obvious, and may be expected in 
words ; that which is not so obvious, nor so easily written 
about, is the subtle play of soft gradations, like the 
modulations of the tenderest music, the passage from all 
that is richest and fullest to all that is thinnest and clearest, 
a transition managed without abruptness, without violence, 
and yet passing from extreme to extreme." 



OWNERS OP LAND IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



In 1873 there was a Parliamentary return of owners of 
land in England, and the following list of the proprietors of 
landed property in the neighbourhood of Dorking is presented 
in alphabetical order, as found in the official return, from 
forty acres and upwards, with fractions of acres omitted. 

ACRES* 

117 



Exors. of R. Attlee, Esq. 

Albury Rectory 

Lord Abinger 

H. D. Barclay, Esq., Great Bookham 
Robert Barclay, Esq., of Bury Hill 



59 

642 

563 

1927 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 



823 



Beginald Bray, Esq., Shore 

H. F. Broadwood, Esq., Newdigate 

Sir Benjamin Brodie 

Edward Budd, Esq., Letherhead 

Captain Gazalet, Gapel 

Thomas Chitty, Esq., Letherhead 

Gordon W. Clark, Esq 

Bight Hon. George Cubitt, Denbies 
A. Dixon, Esq., Letherhead 
Mrs. Drummond, Fredley 

Bev. E. B. Evelyn 

W. J. Evelyn, Esq., Wotton House 
Sir T. H. Farrer, Abinger 

J. Frazer, Esq., Shere 

W. Freshfield, Esq., Newdigate ... 
G. A. Fuller, Esq., Bookery 
Edward Goulburn, Esq., Betchworth 
T. D. Grissell, Esq., Norbury ... 
Thomas Grissell, Esq., Letherhead 
M. B. Hawkins, Esq., Holmwood 
D. D. Heath, Esq. 
Sir Leopold G. Heath, Anstie 
Mrs. Henderson, Letherhead 
Exors. of Mrs. Hope, Deepdene , 
Ditto ditto 

Bev. W. F. Hotham, Buekland 
Misses Hunt, Shere 

Duke of Norfolk 

Duke of Northumberland 
Oakwood, Trustees of 



AOBSS. 

1585 

2686 

481 

98 

229 

47 

96 

8989 

280 

80 

164 

8609 

198 

1745 

146 

623 

1036 

689 

336 

3111 

821 

286 

535 

8981 

244 

80 

67 

4849 

8765 

136 

x 2 



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824 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



F. Pennington, Esq., Broome Hall, Capel 
L. M. Rate, Esq., Milton Court 

G. F. Richardson, Esq., Letherhead 

Hon. P. C. Scarlett, Abinger 

Exors. of William Stevens, Esq., Dorking 

Lee Steere, Esq., Charlwood 

J. G. Stilwell, Esq., Dorking 

C. M. Tatham, Esq., Effingham 

George Trist, Newdigate 

Rev. E. D. Wickham, Holm wood 

R. L. V. Williams, Esq., Abinger 

Henry Wise, E sq., Brockham 

John Worsfold, Esq., Brockham 
H. Young, Trustees of, Dorking 
John Young, Esq., Dorking 



ACRES. 

709 
146 
178 
990 

99 
8771 

78 
115 
178 
156 
418 
274 

87 
170 
278 



HEIGHTS OF THE HILLS 



around Dorking and its neighbourhood, according to the 
Government Map. 





SAND HILLS. 


FEET. 


Caesar's Camp, 


Farnham 


... 600 


Hindhead ... 


... ... ... ... 


... 894 


St. Martha's 


... 


... 578 


Ewhurst Mill 


... 


... 880 


Coneyhurst ... 


... 


... 847 


Holmbury ... 


... 


... 857 


LeithHill ... 


... 


... 966 


Anstiebury ... 


... 


... 806 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 




CHALK HJLLS. 






FEET. 


Hog's Back 


... 504 


Newlands* Corner 


... 528 


White Downs, near Kanmore Common .. 


... 744 


Kanmore Church 


... 620 


Norbury Park 


... 400 


Headley Church 


... 584 


Brockham Warren 


... 700 


Box Hill 


... 600 



825 



DRIVES BOUND DORKING AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

1. Round Holmwood Common and back by Brockham 

Green. 

2. Over Kanmore Common and back by Westhumble Lane. 

3. Through Mickleham, Letherhead, Bookham and Ef- 

fingham, and back by Kanmore Common. 

4. Through Westcott and Logmore Lane, and back by 

Coldharbour. 

5. Bound Holmwood Common and Blackbrook, and back 

by Chart Lane. 

6. Through Westcott, Wotton (ask at the Lodge if you 

may drive round by the House), Abinger Common, 
Leith Hill, and back by Coldharbour. 

7. Through Punchbowl Lane to Golden Lands' Farm, Root 

Hill, and back by Brockham Green. 

8. To Tillingbourne Waterfall, turning on the Guildford 

Road by Wotton Hatch, Broadmoor, on to Leith Hill, 
Ockley Green, Beare Green, and back by Holmwood 
Common. 



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826 MISCELLANEOUS. 

9. To Albury and the Silent Pool, and back. 
10. To Betchworth, through Buckland, and back. 



WALKS ROUND DORKING AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

1. Deepdene Park, on the Beigate Boad, to Betchworth 

Park, Avenue and Castle — turn to the right for 
Brockham, and return by the turnpike road. 

2. Punchbowl Lane to Qolden Lands' Farm, by Tilehurst 

Lane and Pondtail Farm, to Brockham and by 
Betchworth Park to Dorking. 
8. Chart Lane, by Dene Street, to Holmwood, and by 
Horsham Boad to Dorking. 

4. The Glory, by St. Paul's Schools, cross to the western 

side of the Glory, and return by St. Paul's Road, 
formerly called Sweethearts' Lane. 

5. Holmwood, to Bedland Woods, and by Coldharbour Lane 

to Dorking. 

6. Coldharbour Lane, turn to the right by Chadhurst Farm, 

and return by Milton and Guildford Boad to Dorking. 

7. Through the Nower to Bury Hill, over Hungry Hill to 

Westcott, and back by Milton Court to Dorking. 

8. Bookery, on the Guildford Boad, across to Tillingbourne, 

and back by Logmore. 

9. Rokefield, near Westcott, to Wotton Bectory, Church, 

by Wotton House, and back by road to Dorking. 

10. Bokefield, Deerleap, Bishop Wilberforce's Monument 

at Eversheds' Bough, by back of Abinger Hall to 
Gomshall Station, and return by train. 

11. Banmore Common, turn to the left to Pickett's Hole, 

Coombe, and back by Westcott or Bokefield. 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 327 

12. Denbies, by the private carriage road near the South 
Eastern Railway Station, past the mansion, and 
return by the London Road. 

18. Eanmore Common, Old Dean, Pilgrims' Chapel, by 
Camilla Lacy and Westhumble to Dorking. 

14. Box Hill, by the entrance near Burford Bridge, round 

the south side of the Hill, descend, cross the fields 
to Castle Mill, and by the Beigate Road to Dorking. 

15. By the London Boad to Mickleham, turn by Juniper 

Hall, bear towards the south side of Boxhill, and 
return to Dorking. 

16. To Mickleham Downs by Juniper Hall, through the 

fields to Letherhead, or by the National Schools to 
Mickleham, and back by road to Dorking. 

17. To Milton Street and Magg's Well,* by Meriden Wood, 

and back by the Warren and Logmore Lane. 

census — 1881. 

The last Census, taken in 1881, gives the number of 
houses and inhabitants of the parishes noticed in this work. 





HOUSES. 


POPULATION. 


Abinger 


... 241 


... 1172 


Albury 


... 228 


... 1286 


Betchworth 


... 828 


... 1779 



* Magg's Well stands in a wood not far from Meriden Farm. There is a 
reservoir, which was built by the owner of the property ; and the qualities of the 
water were supposed to be medicinal. It is named from a poor woman who 
received some benefit from its use. It is probable that the cure was gained 
partly by the frequent ablutions, and partly by the pure and wholesome air 
which surrounds the spring. Tourist parties visit the spot, and enjoy the 
scenery and quietness of the spot. In the " Gazette of Health " it is said that 
•• Magg's Well, and the salutary qualities ascribed to it, are of great antiquity. In 
scrofulous and cutaneous cases it has been, time out of mind, deemed equally 
efficacious. The water taken internally has long been believed to be cathartic 
and emetic. The farm, where it is, belonged to the College, Guildford." 



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* 



328 



MISCELLANEOUS. 







BOUSES. 




POPULATION. 


Buckland 79 


... 401 


Capel 




... 265 




... 1840 


Dorking 




... 1852 




... 9577* 


Effingham ... 




.. 121 




585 


Great Bookham 




.. 280 




.. 1018 


Leigh 




... 104 




.. 528 


Letherhead 




.. 668 




.. 8588 


Little Bookham 




41 




214 


Mickleham 




.. 160 




.. 799 


Newdigate ... 




... 129 




.. 664 


Ockley 




... 118 




.. 628 


Shere 




... 842 




... 1719 


Wotton ... 




... 181 




... 699 


* In 1783 there 


wereonl 


y 1800 inhabitants 


in Dorki 


ng- 



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GEOLOGY. 829 



GEOLOGY OF DOKKING AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD, 

Abridged from the Works of Dr. Qideon Mantell and 
Dr. Fitton. 



" The strata composing the ridge of which Leith Hill is 
the highest point, consists of the usual arenaceous deposits 
that belong to the lower division of the chalk formation; 
namely, of greenish grey, fawn coloured, and ferruginous 
sands ; with seams of chert passing into chalcedony, similar 
to those which occur at Tilburstow near Godstone. The 
view from Leith Hill embraces the general features of the 
Wealds of Surrey and Sussex, of the Forest Ridge, and the 
North and South Downs, with glimpses, in the remote 
distance towards the south-west, of those of Hampshire ; and 
shews, within the boundary of the chalk, an irregular zone 
of sand-hills with argillaceous beds at their bases, emerging 
from beneath the escarpments of the downs, and partly 
surrounding the western termination of the central wealden 
district. 

To render this intelligible to the general reader, we shall 
confine our attention to two principal groups of strata which 
appear on the surface; namely, the Chalk and the Wealden. 
The Chalk formation presents a well-defined geographical 



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— 



880 GEOLOGY. 

boundary; its upper beds, composed of a white calcareous 
limestone, constitute those chains of rounded hills termed 
the North and South Downs. The Wealden deposits occupy 
the whole country between the cretaceous strata, and have 
been laid bare by the removal of superincumbent layers of 
chalk. But a careful examination of the phenomena under 
review, proves that the removal of the chalk was occasioned 
by a force acting from beneath, which elevated the entire 
series of tertiary, cretaceous, and wealden strata. The strata 
of white chalk and flint, constituting the chief mass of the 
North Downs, will be seen dipping northwards at a con- 
siderable angle, and will find, as he approaches Dorking (from 
Burford Bridge), that the chalk-marl and gait successively 
emerge from beneath the base of the downs, and are succeeded 
by clays and sands, and finally by ferruginous sands and 
sandstones, that rise up into the elevated range of Leith 
Hill. 

" Every intelligent observer, who sees the chalk downs for 
the first time, cannot fail to be struck with the remarkably 
smooth and unbroken outline of the hills, and of the gently 
swelling combes and undulated valleys with which their 
surface is intersected. These appearances are, of course, 
more obvious on the South Downs and other chalk tracts 
reserved for pasturage. When the short turf, which is the 
natural covering of the chalk, is removed, a bed of loose 
flints, with interspersions of loam and sand, is generally 
found spread over the surface of the white chalk. The chalk 
is more or less deeply grooved and perforated by nearly 
cylindrical and vertical pipes or holes. There is scarcely a 
chalk-pit in the North Downs in which one or more sand-pipea 
or sand-galb, as they are termed, may not be observed. Some 



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GEOLOGY. 881 

layers of chalk appear to be nothing more than an aggregation 
of well-defined fossil organisms. In illustration of these 
remarks we subjoin figures of a few of the usual forms found 
in the Surrey chalk. 




19 
FOSSIL ANIMALCULES, ETC., FROM THE CHALK. 

(The originals are invisible to the naked eye.) 

1. Spines of a Sponge. 

2. Three cells of a Textularia, seen in a transverse direction. 
8. Textularia. 

4. Ditto. 

6. A Group of Animalcules : — a. Botalia; b. Pyxidicula; 

c. Portion of a different species of Botalia ; d. A few 

cells of a Textularia. 

6. Five cells of a Textularia, a fore-shortened view. 

7. Two cells of a Oaillonella. 

8. Probably some kind of Badllaria. 

9. Botalia; the dark annular spot with a white centre in 

each cell arises from air-bubbles. 
10. Rotalia, resembling the cell of a Gephalopod. 



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882 GEOLOGY. 

11. Pyxidicula, seen in different positions. 

12. Ditto ditto. 

18. An Annular Carapace of an Animalcule. 



From an examination of these calcareous rocks, we may 
comprehend how the denudation of the wealden deposits was 
accomplished, and how the chalk escarpments on the north 
and south were formed. The Wealden consists of alternations 
of layers of clay, sand, and shale, with beds of limestone, 
grit, and sandstone of variable thickness, compactness, and 
plasticity. The frequent alternations of layers of hard rock 
with beds of soft clay, have given rise to numerous ridges 
and valleys that run parallel to the Forest Ridge (which runs 
from Loxwood and Horsham to Fair light, near Hastings). 
By the effect of the elevation of these strata, numerous 
transverse fissures were formed — and thus there are four 
river valleys ; those of the Arun, the Ouse, the Adur, and the 
Cuckmere, which traverse the South Downs, and empty 
themselves into the English Channel; while, in Surrey, the 
river valleys of the Wey, the Mole, the Medway, and the 
Stour, cut through the North Downs, and carry their waters 
into the Thames. 

In conclusion, we learn that the present configuration of 
the neighbourhood and landscape resulted from physical 
changes which took place in periods incalculably remote, and 
long antecedent to the creation of the human race. 

The Wealden Epoch is the most ancient era, and comprises 
the period during which the strata of clay, sand, grit, &c, 
that make up the Wealden formation, were deposited. Its 
total thickness probably amounts to a thousand or fifteen 
hundred feet. The innumerable layers of the remains of 



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GEOLOGY. 888 

fresh-water mollusca, and Crustacea, and the prodigious 
accumulation of the bones of numerous species and genera 
of reptiles; of trunks, branches, and leaves of trees and 
marsh plants; the whole consisting of sediments brought 
down by streams and rivers, and slowly deposited in bays, 
gulfs, deltas, and estuaries, incontrovertably prove that this 
epoch must have been of long duration. 

The Cretaceous Epoch embraces the deposition of that 
extensive series of strata whose fossil contents demonstrate 
that they were accumulated in an ocean of vast extent. The 
subsidence of the Wealden must have taken place before the 
lowermost chalk strata (the Neocomiam) were deposited. The 
period through which the cretaceous ocean flourished with 
but little alteration in its physical characters, let us estimate 
as we may the rapid production of these infinitesimal forms 
of which the chalk is so largely constituted, must have 
extended through countless ages. 

The Elevation of the country embraces the third period in 
which those subterranean movements commenced which 
gradually forced up the Wealden, and the Cretaceous formation 
which covered it: and ultimately elevated large masses of 
those ancient ocean and river beds above the level of the 
waters, and converted them into dry land." 

The town of Dorking stands upon the lower green-sand, 
as do the villages of Westcott, Goldharbour, Abinger, and 
Wotton. Of this formation is the irregular range of hills 
which runs nearly parallel with the chalk of the North Downs, 
and reaches its highest point at Leith Hill, which is nine 
hundred and sixty-six feet above the sea level. On the 
south of Dorking, Ockley, Capel, Newdigate, and Holmwood 
stand on the Wealden formation. The chalk of Denbies, and 



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884 GEOLOGY. 

the hills which ran towards Eeigate, is rich in fossils which 
range from the bones of large mammals to the shells of 
minutest organisms. The quality of the lime made near 
Dorking and Betchworth is universally allowed to be the best 
in the country; and, some years ago, there was so great 
excitement about this material, that it produced what was 
popularly called " The Lime Mania." 



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TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 885 



SCENERY, TREES, WILD-FLOWERS, PERNS, and 

FAUNA. 



The seasons of the year are marked by successive forms 
of beauty. Evergreens, which include yews, firs, pines, 
hollies, cypresses, junipers, and ivies, relieve the dreariness 
of winter. The rising sun, seen through the Glory Wood, 
recalls Cowper's lines : — 

44 'Tis morning ; the sun with ruddy orb 
Ascending, fires the horizon ; while the clouds 
That crowd away belore the driying wind, 
More ardent as the disk emerges more, 
Besemble more some city in a blaze, 
Seen through the leafless wood." 

Under such circumstances the broad expanse of Denbies 
and the North Downs are suffused with a tender roseate 
light. Spring offers an abundance of attraction from the 
time when the foliage of the lilac heralds the vernation of 
large shrubs and trees, until the robinia or pseudo-acacia 
brings up the rear. The gradation of tint in the unfolding 
foliage, which often forms a delicate vail, that allows the 
spectator to see the build and ramifications of the trees ; the 
freshened verdure of the fields, the variety of wild flowers, 
the blooms of the garden, and the cheerful notes of the 
Surrey nightingales, combine to give a charm to the neigh- 



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886 TREES, FLOWERS, PERNS, ETC. 

bourhood, which allures many from London and elsewhere, 
to enjoy the fascinations of the season of spring. The 
summer is full of beauty from the maturity and abundance 
of foliage, the growth of the crops, and the ripening of fruit ; 
but the birds have nearly all ceased to sing, and the charm of 
novelty is somewhat abated. Autumn has special attractions 
from the variety and mass of the trees of the gardens, 
pleasure grounds, and woodlands. There is an interesting 
diversity in the colours of fading leaves ; the beech leaf dies 
with a cheery warmth of tint, the oak fades in sober russet, 
the elm with a delicate amber, the larch with a strawy sickly 
hue, and the vine with a fine yellow, an evanescent green, 
and a touch of fiery scarlet. The best time for observing 
scenery in autumn, as for all the blooms of the gardens, 
is a little before sunset. The quality of the light then 
mysteriously reveals and intensifies all colours upon which 
it falls. 

The late Rev. Dr. Raffles, a relative of Sir Stamford 
Baffles, in his life of the Rev. T. Spencer, thus describes the 
scenery of Dorking. " I am not a stranger to the scenery. 
I once visited it ; and the remembrance of those happy days, 
in a thousand pleasing pictures, crowds at this moment on 
my mind. The country is sufficiently bold and varied to 
inspire ideas of grandeur and magnificence, though not so 
romantic and vast as to excite astonishment and terror. 
From the summit of abrupt and lofty hills, clothed with 
luxuriant foliage, the delighted eye may roam at leisure over 
woods and valleys that will not yield in fruitfulness and 
beauty to the fairest plains of Italy \ and in deep embowered 
glens, made cool and fragrant by meandering streams, the 
mind may yield to melancholy musings, and to solemn 



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TEEES, FL0WEB8, FERNS, ETC. 887 

thought — so unbroken is the silence — so profound the 
solitude." 

The trees around Dorking consist of all the growths of 
the English forest and woodland; are a great ornament 
to the neighbourhood, and a constant source of attraction. 
Beeches grow luxuriantly on the chalk, and many fine 
specimens may be seen in Denbies Park. There are ancient, 
magnificent yews in the Norbury Estate ; fine groups of 
cedars at Juniper Hall; Spanish chestnuts of vast size, 
immense girth, and varied growth in Chart Park ; the limes 
of the Betchworth Avenue are universally admired; and 
well-grown Abele poplars at Burford Bridge. There are 
horse-chestnuts, with their fan-like leaves' and spikes of 
bloom; well-grown and ancient oaks, sycamores, elms, poplars, 
firs ; and the historic woods of Wotton, which remind us of 
him who wrote the " Sylva " ; and through whose writings 
so many oaks and other trees have been planted in the soil 
of England. 

In the "Flora of Surrey" it is stated that "the whole 
number of flowering plants and ferns in the United Kingdom 
is 1566; included in this amount are 61 ferns and allies, 
whilst in the " Plants of Surrey " the whole number is 984, 
of which 82 are ferns and allies, showing that our county 
possesses more than three-fifths of the Flora of the United 
Kingdom, and more than one-half of the ferns and allies." 
More complete details will be found of the Flora of the 
neighbourhood in the work published by the Holmsdale 
Natural History Society. 

The following list of Orchids includes those which are 
readily found on the hills to the east and west of Dorking. 



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888 TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 

Aceras anthropophora Man Orchis. 

Cephalanthera grandiflora.. Great White Helleborine. 

Epipactis latifolia Broad-leaved Helleborine. 

Epipactis media Narrow-leaved Helleborine. 

Oymnadenia conopsea Fragrant Orchis. 

Habenaria bifolia Lesser Butterfly Orchis. 

Habenwria chlorantha Great Butterfly Orchis. 

Herminium monorchia Musk Orchis. 

Neottia nidus avis Bird's Nest Orchis. 

Ophrys apifera Bee Ophrys. 

Ophrys muscifera Fly Ophrys. 

Orchis latifolia Marsh Orchis. 

Orchis maculata Spotted Orchis. 

Orchis mascula Early Purple Orchis. 

Orchis pyramidalis Pyramidal Orchis. 

Orchis ustulata Dwarf Orchis. 

Spirantlies autumncdis Ladies' Tresses. 

In the Flora of the neighbourhood the following plants 
are introduced as having a special interest, and are found 
within five miles of Dorking. The localities where they grow 
are named, when there is no fear of their extirpation by 
eager visitors from London. 

Anagallis tenella Bog Pimpernel — Leith Hill. 

Aquilegia vulgaris Columbine — Denbies. 

Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade — Denbies. 

Butomus umbellatvs Flowering Bush — Brockham. 

Oaltha minor Marsh Marigold — Gomshall. 

Oaltha palustris Common Marsh Marigold — Mole. 

Campanula, glomerata Clustered Bellflower — Mickleham. 

Oonvallaria majalis Lily of the Valley — Milton. 

Claytonia perfoliata Clay tonia — Bury Hill. 



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TREES, FLOWERS, PERNS, ETC. 889 

Oynoglossum sylvaticum . . Green-leaved Hound's-tongue — 

Norbury Park. 

Dipsacus pilosus Shepherd's Rod — Betchworth 

Castle. 

Drosera rotundifolia .... Sundew — Leith Hill. 

Euphorbia ptatyphyUa. . . . Broad-leaved, warted Spurge — 

Gapel. 

Fragaria elatior Hautboy Strawberry — Box Hill. 

Fumaria capreolata Ramping Fumitory — Wotton. 

Galanthu8 nivalis Snowdrop — Mole. 

Oercmium pyrenaicum .... MountainCrane's-bill — Mickleham 

Helleborus foetidus Fetid Hellebore — Mickleham. 

Helleborus viridis Green Hellebore — Ranmore Com- 
mon. 

Eippuris vulgaris Mare's-tail — Bury Hill. 

Iberis amara Candytuft — Mickleham. 

Iris fastidissima Stinking Iris — Polesden. 

Lathrcea squamosa Toothwort — Polesden. 

Leersia oryzoides Cutgrass — near the Mole. 

Lilium martagon Turk's-cap Lily — Ranmore Com- 
mon. 

Lithospermum officinale . . Common Gromwell — Mickleham. 

Menyanthes trifoliata .... Bogbean — Gom shall. 

Mxmotropa hypopitis .... Yellow Bird's-nest — Polesden. 

Myosotis repens Creeping Water Scorpion Grass— 

Leith Hill. 

Narthecium ossifragum . . Bog Asphodel. 

Papaver somniferum .... Opium Poppy — Mickleham. 

Phyteuma orbiculare .... Globe Rampion — Mickleham. 

Pohjgala calcarea Chalk Milkwort — Buckland Hill. 

Potamogeton perfoliatum . . Perfoliate Pondweed — Mole. 

y 2 



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840 TREES, FLOWERS, PERNS, ETC. 

Scirpua ccespitosus Scaly-stalked Club Bush — Leith 

Hill. 
Triticum caninum Fibrous-rooted Wheat-grass — 

Betchworth Hills. 

Teucrium botrys Cut-leavedGermander — Bookham. 

Thesium humifusum .... Bastard Toadflax — Banmore 

Common. 

Verbascum nigrum Dark Mullein — Dorking. 

Viola calearea Chalk Violet — Fetcham Downs. 

VUcum album* Mistletoe — Burford Bridge. 

In the vicinity of Leith Hill the Vaccinium Myrtillus grows 
in profusion. It is a small shrub which produces a purple 
berry, known by the name of "Hurts." This fruit is 
gathered chiefly by children, who sell them to householder* 
in the neighbourhood, who use them in different kinds of 
pastry, and proceeds of the sale go to make up and enlarge 
the small means of some of the poorer families in the villages. 
There is, in addition to these growths, a large variety 
of fungi, which includes many of the agarics, the polypori, 
and pezizas. Many of the first class are such as can be 
eaten with safety; but the general dread which prevails 
respecting them causes them to be neglected. There are 
twenty-seven different kinds of mosses ; and the lichens are 
very numerous; and furnish abundant opportunities for 
students of those plants to increase their information, and 
identify the species which have been ascertained and 
classified. 

* Mr. Justice Fry, in the " Contemporary Review," observes — " The 
• Impatient Fulva* (the tawney-flowered Touch-me-not) has now thoroughly 
established itself in the tributary stream which runs through Abinger and Shere 
to the Wey. It has attractive flowers hung on the daintiest flower-stalks, that 
never open, and almost escape attention ; yet they, and not the large flowers, 
are the great source of seed vessels to the plant — the great security that the 
life of the race will be continued." 



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TREES, FLOWERS, PERNS, ETC. 341 

The Ferns here enumerated may be found in the 
neighbourhood of Leith Hill, 

Adiantum nigrum Black Maiden-hair. 

Asplenium trichomanes .... Common Spleenwort. 
Asplenium ruta rmvraria .... Hue Fern. 

Athyrium filix femina Lady Fern. 

Blechnum spicant Hard Fern. 

Botrychium lunaria Moonwort. 

Lastrcea dilatata Broad Buckler Fern. 

Lastroea filix mas Male Fern. 

Lastroaa oreopteris Mountain Fern. 

Lastroea spinulosa Prickly Buckler Fern. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum .... Adder's-tongue. 

Polypodium vulgare Common Polypody 

Polystichum aculeatum* .... Soft Shield Fern. 

Polystiehum angular e* Prickly Shield Fern. 

Pteris aquilina Common Bracken. 

Scolopendrium vulgare Hart's-tongue Fern. 

The business of fern-gathering has been carried on for 
some years by men from London, who convey large baskets 
from the neighbourhood. Visitors usually carry away many 
specimens ; and the result is that many kinds are now much 
reduced in number; and one of the finest order is now 
nearly, if not quite, exterminated. The Osmunda regaiis, 
the Royal Fern, which used to rear its fine, tall, and lovely 
fronds, is now scarcely to be found where once it flourished 
in great abundance. As about one-half of all the ferns 
which grow in England are to be found in the vicinity of 
Dorking, it is scarcely surprising that they should be thinned 

* These are given on the authority of John Stuart Mill, who found them 
near Coldharbour. 



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842 TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 

by collectors, visitors, and men whose living depends upon 
gathering them and selling them elsewhere. 



THE FAUNA. 

The quadrupeds found in the neighbourhood of Dorking 
include the Common Bat, Great Bat, Eared Bat; the 
Hedgehog, Shrew and Water Shrew, the Mole, Badger, Fox 
Weasel, Stoat, Polecat; the Common Martin, Otter; the 
Common Mouse, Harvest Mouse, Field Mouse, and the Brown 
Bat; the Squirrel, Hare and Babbit; the Dormouse; and 
the Water-vole. 

The birds are numerous, and consist of the Merlin, 
Kestrel, Sparrow-hawk, Kite, Buzz$r4> Hen-harrier; the 
hort-eared Barn, and Tawny Ovls ; Great Gray and Bed- 
ba^pd Shrike; the Spotted Flycatcher; the Missel Thrush, 
Song* Thrush, Fieldfare, Bedwing, and Blackbird ; the 
Hedge-sparrow, Robin, Redstart, Stonechat, Whinchat, 
Wheatear, Grasshopper-warbler, Sedge-warbler, Beed-wren, 
Nightingale, Blackcap, Garden-warbler, Whitethroat, Lesser 
Whitethroat, Wood, and Willow-wren; Chiffchaff; Golden- 
crested Begulus ; the Great, Blue, Cole, Marsh, and Long- 
tailed Titmouse; White, Pied, and Gray Wagtail; the Tree 
and Meadow-pipit ; the Sky and Wood-lark ; the Common, 
Black-headed, and Cirl Bunting; Yellowhammer ; the 
Brambling, Tree, and House-sparrow ; Greenfinch, Hawfinch, 
and Goldfinch, Siskin, Linnet, Lesser and Mealy Bedpole; 
Bullfinch and Crossbill; Starling, Chough, Book, Jackdaw, 
Magpie, Jay, Green, Spotted, and Lesser Spotted-woodpecker ; 
Wryneck, Creeper-wren, Hoopoe, Nuthatch, Cuckoo, King- 
fisher; Swallow, Martin, and Sand-martin, Swift, Nightjar; 






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TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 848 

Ring, Stock, and Turtle-dove; Pheasant, Partridge, Red- 
legged Partridge, and Quail; Golden-plover and Lapwing; 
Heron and Bittern ; Common Sandpiper ; Woodcock, Common 
Snipe and Jack Snipe; Land-rail, Moorhen, Water-rail, Coot, 
Bean Goose, Hooper, Pintail Duck, and Wild Duck; Teal, 
Widgeon, Little Grebe, Kittiwake, Common Gull, and Black 
Grouse. 

The Reptiles are the Common Lizard, Slow-worm, Ringed 
Snake, Viper, Frog, Toad, Great Water-newt, and Eft. 

The Fishes, which are chiefly found in the Mole, are the 
Perch, Bull-head Stickleback, Carp, Prussian Carp, Golden 
Carp, Gudgeon, Tench, Bream, Roach, Dace, Chub, Red-eye, 
Bleak, Minnow, Stone Roach, Spined Loach or Groundling, 
Pike, Trout, Sharp-nosed Eel, Broad-nosed Eel, and the 
Lampern, or River Lamprey. 

As the Helix Pomatia has a curious history, the following 
remarks may be read with interest. This species of snail 
abounds in Titing Farm, which stands near St. Martha's 
Hill, although it is found on some chalk lands in the south 
of England. It is not an aboriginal species in this country, 
and was introduced probably by Sir Eenelm Digby in the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth. Other authorities trace the 
introduction of this mollusc to Thomas, Earl of Arundel, 
the collector of the Arundelian Marbles, whose Countess 
delighted in such food ; and, as Evelyn remarks, " this huge 
fleshy snail was had w deliciis by the Earl himself." Sir 
Eenelm Digby dispersed some near Newport Pagnel; and 
others were introduced at Kerby, in Northamptonshire, by 
Lord Hatton ; but they did not increase, and have not been 
found further north than Gloucestershire. They were a 
favourite dish with the ancient Romans, who had their 



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844 TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 

Gochlearia, or nursery, and fattened them with bran soaked 
in wine. 

Among insects the Lepidoptera and Geleoptera are very 
numerous. A catalogue of them would require several 
pages merely to give their names, as far as they have been 
ascertained and arranged by able entomologists. Mr. Henry 
Fielder has caught and preserved a numerous collection of 
Lepidoptera ; and states that there are seventy different kinds 
of butterflies, and three hundred varieties of diurnal and 
nocturnal moths found in the neighbourhood of Dorking. 
The neighbourhood of Mickleham is specially rich in some 
forms of insect life, of which spot Mr. E. C. Rye, F.L.8., the 
distinguished entomologist, speaks as follows : — 

" Starting from the well-known ' Running Horse/ the 
entomologist has a choice of many hunting grounds. Box 
Hill will surely tempt him, though there is nothing to get 
there save the Common Lidni, and other Geodephaga, once 
deemed rare, but now well-known to be spread over a wide 
range of chalky districts in the south. Headley Lane, a 
turning on the left of Boxhill Road, will produce much more. 
Under a gigantic beech here, many fine ant's-nest beetles 
have been found, and Oicones, Amphotis, Ischnoglossa, Leptinus, 
and other good things lurk in its crannies. Apions, rare 
elsewhere, are here abundant; and the fir trees harbour 
many peculiar forms (the blood-red Lycus mmutm seeking 
their shade in the long grass) ; Aphodii, and other dung 
frequenters, different from the vulgar herd, swarm at times ; 
Anisotoma grandis, Oinnomonea, Litura, &c, have often been 
taken by evening sweeping, with Hydnobius, and good 
Omjyodce Oorizus, &c. ; and the fungi are specially productive. 
Bugs of all forms abound ; and he who gets a dozen Zierona 



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TREES, FLOWERS, FERNS, ETC. 845 

coerulea into his net, on the .top of Mickleham Downs, is 
not likely soon to forget that lovely scion of a much abased 
race." 

Mr. T. R. Billups, M.E.S.L., famishes a list of Ooleoptera 
and Eymenoptera, which have, with many others, been taken 
at Mickleham. 



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346 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 



LITEBAKY ASSOCIATIONS. 



While the neighbourhood of Dorking is celebrated for 
its scenery, it has the additional attraction of having been 
the residence of many who have distinguished themselves 
in various departments of literature. There is a vivid interest 
felt in the birth-place and homes of men of intellect and 
genius; and many visit, with pleasure, the dwelling where 
Shakespeare was born ; and students and admirers of Milton 
frequently travel to Horton, where the Poet once lived and 
wrote. Dorking and its vicinity can boast of many names 
which are still fresh in the memory of Englishmen. The 
works which have been produced by these distinguished 
authors embrace history, philosophy, art, poetry, fiction, and 
political economy ; and render a visit to the place additionally 
interesting and pleasant. 

The outlines of the life and productions of these authors 
will, we hope, prove acceptable to our readers. 

LORD BEACONSF1ELD, FORMERLY MR. D'iSRAELI. 

This distinguished author and statesman has given an 
account of the origin of " Coningsby," the work which 
brought him into celebrity, and helped him forward in the 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 847 

pathway to political eminence. He says, speaking of 
Mr. Hope and others, " Living much together, without com- 
bination we acted together. Some of those who were then 
my companions have, like myself, since taken some part in 
the conduct of public affairs; two of them, and those who 
were not the least interested in my speculations, have de- 
parted. One was George Smythe, afterwards seventh Lord 
Strangford, a man of brilliant gifts, of dazzling not definite 
culture, and fascinating manners. His influence over youth 
was remarkable, and he could promulgate a new faith with 
graceful enthusaism. Henry Hope, the eldest son of the 
author of " Anastasius," was of a different nature, but he 
was learned and accomplished, possessing a penetrating 
judgment, and an inflexible will. Master of a vast fortune, 
his house naturally became our rendezvous, and it was at 
Deepdene that he first urged the expediency of my treating 
in a literary form those views and subjects which were the 
matter of our frequent conversation." Mr. Disraeli dedicates 
" Coningsby " to Mr. Hope in the following words : — 
To Henry Hope. 

"It is not because these volumes were conceived and 
partly executed amid the glades and galleries of the Deepdene, 
that I have inscribed them with your name, nor merely 
because I was desirous to avail myself of the most graceful 
privilege of an author, and dedicate my work to the friend 
whose talent I have always appreciated, and whose virtues I 
have ever admired. 

But because in these pages I have endeavoured to picture 
something of that development of the new, and, as I believe, 
better mind of England, that has often been the subject of 
our converse and speculation. 



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848 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

In these volumes you will find many a thought illustrated, 
and many a principle attempted to be established, that we 
have often together partially discussed and canvassed. Doubt- 
less you may encounter some opinions with which you will 
not agree, and some conclusions the accuracy of which you 
may find cause to question. But if I have generally succeeded 
in my object, to scatter some suggestions that may tend to 
elevate the tone of public life, ascertain the true character 
of political parties, and induce us for the future more carefully 
to distinguish between facts and phrases, realities and 
phantoms ; I believe I shall gain your sympathy, for I shall 
find a reflex to their efforts in your own generous spirit and 
enlightened mind." 

Grosvenor Gate, 

May-day, 1844. 

In a later edition of "Coningsby" the distinguished author 
remarks : — " ' Coningsby ' was published in the year 1844. 
The main purpose of the writer was to vindicate the just 
claims of the Tory party to be a popular political confederation 
of the country; a purpose which he had, more or less, 
pursued from a very early period of life. The occasion was 
favourable to the attempt. The youthful mind of England 
had just recovered from the inebriation of the great Con- 
servative triumph of 1841, and was beginning to inquire 
what, after all, they had conquered to preserve. It was 
opportune, therefore, to show that our political institutions 
were the embodiment of our popular necessities. This the 
writer endeavoured to do without prejudice, and to treat of 
events and characters of which he had some personal 
experience, not altogether without the impartiality of the 
future." 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 849 

" It was not originally the intention of the writer to adopt 
the form of fiction as the instrument to scatter his suggestions, 
but, after reflection, he resolved to avail himself of a method 
which, in the temper of the times, offered the best chance of 
influencing opinion." 

" In considering the Tory scheme, the author recognized 
in the Church the most powerful agent in the previous 
development of England, and the most efficient means of 
that renovation of the national spirit at which he aimed. 
The Church is a sacred corporation for the promulgation and 
maintenance in Europe of certain Asian principles, which, 
although local in their birth, are of divine origin, and of 
universal and eternal application." 

" In asserting the paramount character of the ecclesiastical 
polity, and the majesty of the theoratical principle, it became 
necessary to ascend to the origin of the Christian Church, 
and to meet in a spirit worthy of a critical and comparatively 
enlightened age, the position of the descendants of that race 
who were the founders of Christianity. The modern Jews 
had long laboured under the odium and stigma of mediaeval 
malevolence. In the dark ages, when history was unknown, 
the passions of societies, undisturbed by traditionary ex- 
perience, were strong, and their convictions, unmitigated by 
criticism, were necessarily fanatical. The Jews were looked 
upon, in the middle ages, as an accursed race, the enemies of 
God and man, the especial foes of Christianity. No one, in 
those days, paused to reflect that Christianity was founded 
by the Jews ; that its Divine Author, in his human capacity, 
was a descendant of King David ; that his doctrines avowedly 
were the completion, not the change, of Judaism; that the 
Apostles and Evangelists, whose names men daily invoked, 



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350 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

and whose volumes they embraced with reverence, were all 
Jews ; that the infallible throne of Borne itself was established 
by a Jew ; and that a Jew was the founder of the Christian 
Churches of Asia." 

" The European nations, relatively speaking, were then only 
recently converted to a belief in Moses and in Christ ; and, 
as it were, still ashamed of the wild deities whom they had 
deserted, they thought they atoned for their past idolatry 
by wreaking their vengeance on a race to whom, and to whom 
alone, they were indebted for the Gospel they adored." 

" In vindicating the sovereign claim of the Church of 
Christ to be the perpetual regenerator of man, the writer 
thought the time had arrived when some attempt should be 
made to do justice to the race which had founded Christianity." 

" The writer has developed in another work ('Tancred') 
the views respecting the great house of Israel which he first 
intimated in 'Coningsby.' No one has attempted to refute 
them, nor is refutation possible; since all he has done is 
to examine certain facts in the truth of which all agree, and 
to draw from them irresistable conclusions which prejudice 
for a moment may shrink from, but which reason cannot 
refuse to admit." 

Grobvenor Gate, 

May, 1849. 

Mr. Disraeli found most of the prototypes of his characters 
in the distinguished statesmen, the conspicuous members 
of the nobility, and persons of wealth and fashion who moved 
in English society forty years ago. Some of these characters 
are typical of a class ; others are composite, and by his 
giving variety of manner to persons well-known, they 
are somewhat disguised, and can only be approximately 



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UTERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 351 

ascertained. It was at the Deepdene that he reviewed the 
movements of the political and fashionable world, and where 
he found ample materials for the exposition of his principles, 
and for the characters which, when first published, gave 
such interest to his work, and still impart variety and 
animation to the pages of his novel. 

During his life-time, a key to those characters was 
published in a later edition of " Coningsby," though whether 
with his consent is unknown. From this may be selected 
the following as examples of the range and variety of the 
personages introduced into his pages, some of whom were 
identified, and about whose individuality there is a general 
consent of opinion among those who moved at that time, 
in that circle of society. These names include — Mr. Croker ; 
Theodore Hook, Esq. ; Lord Lincoln ; Marquis of Hertford ; 
Lord and Lady Palmer ston; Lady Jersey; Earl and Countess 
of Carnarvon; Duke of Buckingham and Cbandos; the 
Prince and Princess Lieven; Lord John Manners; Quintin 
Dick, Esq. ; J. A. Eoebuck, Esq., M.P. ; Mr. G. 0. A. Head, 
and others. 



WILLIAM BRAY, ESQ. 

This gentleman was descended from an ancient family, 
one of whose members, Sir Reginald Bray, was engaged in 
important political and military affairs during the reign of 
Henry VII. He took an important part in arranging for 
the marriage of the King with Elizabeth, daughter of 
Edward IV., by which alliance the houses of York and 
Lancaster were happily united. By his architectural 
knowledge, and his liberality, he contributed to the building 



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352 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

of St. George's Chapel, Windsor; and Henry the VII.'s 
Chapel, at Westminster. Mr. William Bray, the subject of 
this notice, succeeded to the possession of the manors of 
Gomshall and Shere, which had belonged to his ancestors 
from the reign of Henry VIH. Having entered the 
profession of the law, he became a solicitor, and practised 
in London ; and, through the patronage of Sir John Evelyn, 
he was, in 1761, appointed Clerk of the Board of Green 
Cloth. He became one of the Council of Antiquaries, 
afterwards its Treasurer ; and many of his communications 
are printed in the " Archoologia." On the death of Mr. 
Manning, who had been for some years compiling the 
"History of Surrey," Mr. Bray undertook to complete the 
work, which required patient research, considerable labour, 
and extensive correspondence. His next literary undertaking 
was the editing of the "Evelyn Memoirs/' which he 
completed in 1817. Although in his eightieth year, he 
transcribed, in his own handwriting, nearly the whole of 
" John Evelyn's " valuable " Diary." He died in 1882, in the 
ninety-seventh year of his age. His " Tours " through 
several counties of England, teem with antiquarian in- 
formation. He was a member of the Club which used to 
meet at Wotton Hatch and Dorking. The Duke of Norfolk, 
Sir John Evelyn, Sir William Gray, Mr. Budgen, Mr. Steere, 
Mr. Tucker, and other gentlemen belonged to the Club, which 
met for social intercourse. Some of the items of his expenses, 
extracted from selections from his diary, may be contrasted 
with the changes with which we have become painfully 
familiar. In introducing a few of these it must be remembered 
that they are payments made by a gentleman of property and 
social position in the country. He accordingly enters — 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 858 

1756. " Jan. 31. I bought, this morning, four pairs of 
gloves at Id. per pair — riding gloves 9d." 

"April 17. To Bramley; breakfasted at the 'Jolly 
Farmer,' paid for breakfast 6d" 

1757. "Dec. 1 (London). Paid for a fortnight's *board 
and lodging £1 4*. Od. Tea at Prosser's Coffee House 4d. 
Wine after dinner 8d." 

1758. " April 19. Breakfast at the New Exchange Coffee 
House for 6d." 

1762. " Dined at the * King's Head/ Dorking, and paid 
for dinner and wine 2s" 

In the early part of Linnell's career, the artist painted a 
few portraits of considerable merit, though his principal 
works, in the later periods of his life, represented the rural 
scenery of the County of Surrey. He painted one of "Mr 
William Bray" in 1881, when Mr. Bray was ninety-five 
years old. This was exhibited in the Royal Academy 
Exhibition of Old Masters, in 1888. 

In addition to the previous details respecting the Bray 
family, the annexed outline will furnish further information 
concerning it. 

Sir Richard Bray is said to have been of the Privy Council 
of Henry VI., and by others is called the King's Physician. 

Sir Reginald Bray, his son, was a Knight Banneret, K.G., 
and Lord Treasurer in the reign of Henry VII. 

Sir Edmund was summoned to Parliament as Baron 
Braye, in the reign of Henry VTH. 

Sir Edward Bray, of Vachery Park, Shere, lived in the 
reign of Elizabeth. 

Reginald Bray, of Shere, baptized 1555. 

Edward Bray, " born 1577. 



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854 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Edward Bray, of Shere, baptized 1640. 

Edward Bray, " baptized 1687. 

Bev. George Bray died unmarried, and was succeeded by 
his brother. 

William Bray, the Antiquarian, baptized November, 1786. 

Edward Bray, of Shere, born January 81st, 1768. 

Reginald Bray, F.S.A., born 1797. 

Reginald More Bray, born September, 1842 ; and married 
Emily Octavia, daughter of A. K. Barclay, Esq. of Bury Hill, 
and has a son and heir. 

There is a tradition that Rousseau visited the neigh- 
bourhood of Wotton during his residence in England. This 
is confirmed by an entry in Mr. Bray's Diary, in which, 
referring to the meeting of the Club at Wotton Hatch, he 
observes, "Among the company was Mr. Spence," and in 
a foot-note is added, "of Parkhurst, where Rousseau was 
his guest for some time." Mr. John Morley, in his "Life of 
Rousseau," appears to verify the above statement, when he 
remarks : " He spent a few weeks at the house of a farmer 
at Ghiswick, thought about fixing himself in the Isle of 
Wight, then in Wales, then somewhere in our fair Surrey, 
whose scenery one is glad to know attracted htm. Ar- 
rangements were made by Hume with Mr. Davenport, for 
installing him in a house at Wooton, near Ashbourne, in 
Derbyshire. 

SIR BENJAMIN BRODIE. 

This distinguished member of the medical profession was 
descended from the family of Brodie, of Brodie, in Banffshire ; 
and was born, in 1788, at Winterslow, in Wiltshire, of which 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 855 

parish his father was rector. After a course of education at 
home, he proceeded, in 1801, to London, where he began 
his studies in chemistry and anatomy. His interest in the 
latter branch of his profession was deepened by the admirable 
lectures of Abernethy, which combined excellent instruction, 
with suitable illustration and striking anecdote. His reading 
embraced many of the best known works on Mental 
Philosophy ; and he gained, according to his own statement, 
most good from the works of Bishop Berkeley. He went for 
a time to assist Mr. Clifton, of whose shop in Little Newport 
Street he gives the following discription : " Mr. Clifton's 
treatment of disease seemed to be very simple. He had in 
his shop five large bottles, which were labelled Mistura Salina, 
Mistura Oathartica, Mistura Astringens, Mistura Oinchonce, and 
another of which I forget the name ; but it was some kind 
of white emulsion for coughs ; and it seemed to me that out 
of these five bottles he prescribed for two-thirds of his 
patients. I do not, however, set this down to his discredit ; 
for I have observed that while young members of the medical 
profession generally deal in a variety of remedies, they 
generally discard the greater number of them as they grow 
older, until at last their treatment of diseases becomes almost 
as simple as that of the iEsculapius of Little Newport 
Street." He adds: "It is usual in these days to regard 
this class of practitioners with little respect ; but the fact is 
that they were very useful persons, and, having no very 
ambitious aspirations, they were within the roach of the 
poorer orders of society.' * He met with the late Henry 
Drummond, Esq., of Albury, who ventured as a craniologist 
to describe his faculties, and assigned the cause of his 
celebrity to his possession of the organ of constructiveness. 

z 2 



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856 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Sir Benjamin informed him that he was completely mistaken ; 
and that it was only by taking great pains that he acquired 
any dexterity in performing operations. In 1808 he first 
entered St. George's Hospital as a pupil under Sir Everard 
Home; and though tempted to cultivate general literature 
he abandoned the pursuit, and returned to those studies in 
which he became so eminent. In 1808 he was elected 
Assistant-surgeon to St. George's Hospital. In 1810, being 
only twenty-eight years of age, he received the Copley Medal 
of the Royal Society, for papers "On the Influence of the 
Brain on the Action of the Heart ; and the Generation of 
Animal Heat ; " and " On the Effects produced by certain 
Vegetable Poisons." "Few events," he observes, "that 
have occurred to me, have gratified me so much as this." * 

In 1819 he was appointed Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology to the College of . Surgeons ; and 
was, for fourteen years, Assistant-surgeon, and, for eighteen 
years, Surgeon of St. George's Hospital. He gradually 
formed the acquaintance of such distinguished men as Sir 
Joseph Banks, Lord Holland, Sir. W. Knighton, and many 
others. His advice and assistance were sought by 
George IV., and he was made Serjeant-surgeon by William 
IV., who, in 1884, conferred upon him the dignity of a 
baronet. In that year he fell from a pony in the Isle of 
Wight, and dislocated his shoulder, in which joint, long 
after, disease showed itself. In 1860 his eyesight became 
impaired, and operations, which were not successful in 
results, were performed by distinguished oculists. In April, 



*<< , 



*A Medal was awarded to the second Sir Benjamin Brodie, 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Oxford, by the Boyal Society, in 
1850, for his investigations " On the Chemical Nature of Wax." With the 
exception of Sir William Herschel, and his son, Sir John Herschel, this is the 
only case in which father and son have received the like honour." 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 857 

1862, he was seized with fever at his estate, Broome Park, 
Surrey, and died October 21st, being perfectly conscious 
until within a few hours of his decease. He was buried in 
Betchworth Churchyard in a simple and quiet manner, the 
Presidents of the Boyal Society, and of the Colleges of 
Physicians and Surgeons only being present, in addition to 
the members of his family. 

His "Autobiography" contains an instructive outline 
of his constant diligence and professional success. He is 
very fair in his estimate of all the medical men with whom 
he co-operated, and others with whom he became acquainted. 
His works on Psychology are illustrated by many facts he 
met with in the course of his practice; or which were 
supplied by the information of his eminent friends, and the 
books he had carefully studied. The discussions on the 
nature of mind, the functions of the brain, and the exercise 
and conditions of memory, are thrown into the form of 
dialogue in which doubts and objections are happily met. 
He delivered and published numerous addresses on many 
interesting topics, among which are counsels to medical 
students, the question of civilization, the labours and dis- 
tinction of John Hunter, Ethnology, and other subjects, which 
show the range of his information, and the diligence which 
marked his career. The greater part of his published works, 
which extend to three octavo volumes, consists of discussions 
relating to the varied branches of the profession of which 
he was so distinguished an ornament. 

The son of Sir B. Brodie, Benjamin Collins Brodie, 
was distinguished for his scientific attainments, and was 
appointed, in 1855, Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of Oxford. He was President of the Chemical Society in 



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858 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

the years 1859 and I860, and was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1843, and received the Royal Medal which 
was awarded him in 1850. In the " Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers," published by the Royal Society, he is credited with 
twenty-five papers on various chemical subjects, which prove 
that the tendency of his mind was towards transcendental 
physics. He succeeded to his father's title in 1862 ; lived 
at Brockham Warren, near Dorking; and died at Torquay 
on the 24th of November, 1880, aged sixty-four. 

WILLIAM BROWNE. 

This poet resided at Betchworth Castle about a century 
before Abraham Tucker came to dwell in the same place. 
Browne's works are entitled "Britannia's Pastorals," and 
" The Shepherd's Pipe." Though Ben Johnson praised his 
verse, it must be confessed that much of his writing has little 
to excite interest; and has, therefore, silently passed into 
obscurity. The folllowing passage is the most humerous we 
can discover, and here insert it : 

" It happened lately at a fair or wake, 
(After a pot or two, or much mistake), 
Two iron-soled clowns, and bacon-sided, 
Grumbled ; then left the farms which they bestrided, 
And with their crab cudgels, as appears, 
Thrashed, (as they use) at one another's ears ; 
A neighbour near, both to their house and drink, 
(Who though he slept at sermons) could not wink 
At this discussion, with a spirit bold, 
As was the ale that armed them, strong and old, 
Stept in and parted them ; but Fortune's frown 
Was such, that there our neighbour was knocked down. 
For they, to recompense his pains at full, 
Since he had broke their quarrel, broke his ekulL 
People came in and raised him from his swound, 
A Burgeon then was called to search his wound, 
Who op'ning it, more to endear his pains, 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 359 

Cried out, Alas ! look, you may see his brains ! 
Nay, quoth the wounded man, that can never be, 
For I should ne'er hare meddled with this brawl 
If I had had but any brains at all." 

The reviewer of a volume of selected poems, in the 
Athenaum for July 81, 1880, remarks : " We must give our 
readers an opportunity of judging some of his (the Editor's) 
most iappy discoveries. Here is an exquisite bit of fancy from 
the sweet and rambling pages of ' Brittania's Pastorals.' " 

44 A rose as fair as ever saw the North, 
Grew in a little garden all alone, 
A sweeter flower did nature ne'er put forth, 
Nor fairer garden yet was never known. 
The maidens danced about it morn and noon, 
And learned bards of it their ditties made ; 
The nimble fairies, by the pale-faced moon, 
Watered the root, and kissed her pretty shade. 
But, well-a-day, the gardener careless grew, 
The maids and fairies both were kept away. 
And in a drought the caterpillars threw 
Themselves upon the bud and every spray. 
God shield the stock ! if heaven send no supplies, 
The fairest blossom of the garden dies.'* 



COLONEL CHESNEY. — THE BATTLE OF DORKING. 

In "Blackwood's Magazine" for May, 1861, an article 
appeared, written by Colonel Ghesney, which was designed, 
after the panic of the previous year, to show our unreadiness 
to meet the attack of an invading army, and the inefficiency 
of the volunteers to defend the country. It represents the 
English army as having marched from the Waterloo Station 
to Harwich, where it was reported the enemy had landed. 
It is found, however, that the landing has occurred at 
Worthing, and the invaders have reached Horsham; but 
not without some loss at Brighton, where the enemy had 
been attacked. The English forces are sent to Dorking, 



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860 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

and the volunteers are posted at Leith Hill, whence they 
are driven by hunger to Dorking, where they sack a baker's 
shop. The colonel and officers are represented as disorderly 
as the men. The regiment, of which the writer is an 
imaginary officer, retreats to a hill above Dorking, and 
bivouacs there. Food, loaves, a barrel of rum, packets of 
tea, and joints of meat are supplied to the hungry volunteers, 
who, unfortunately, have no cooking pots and kettles at 
hand. Firewood is abundant, but they have only their 
pocket-knives to cut it. The invading army forces its way 
by the foot of Box Hill ; the volunteers and other portions 
of the army are defeated, and London is captured. 

A writer in the " Saturday Review " remarks : " If any 
event of a defensive war could be calculated upon, it would 
be a battle on the line of hills near Dorking ; and, for such 
a battle, preparations might be made beforehand." 

In 1879 there was a number of Engineers actually 
surveying the hills to the north of Dorking, for the purpose 
of preparing for fortifications. It is probable that the 
" Battle of Dorking " may have drawn the attention of the 
military authorities of the country to the nature of this 
locality, because any invader from the south coast* would, 
probably, choose this route to London. This work has been 
translated into French and Italian, and has been adapted in 
the latter language to the political affairs of Italy. 



* It is said that Napoleon I. designed to take this route in his projected 
invasion of England, and that there was a part of the Vendome Column which 
related to this part of his plan. 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 861 



THE REV. JAMES DALLAWAY. 



This prolific author was Vicar of Letherhead, and at the 
early age of twenty-three years was chosen a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and dedicated a work on the " Origin 
and Progress of Heraldry in England" to the Duke of 
Norfolk, who appointed him Chaplain and Physician to the 
British Embassy at Constantinople. He afterwards became 
Secretary to the Earl-marshal of England, had a living in 
Glamorganshire, and another at Slinfold, in Sussex. A 
living in Glamorganshire was given to him by the Marquis 
of Bute, but was afterwards exchanged for the Vicarage of 
Letherhead. His works related to the Fine Arts in England, 
and Statuary and Sculpture among the Ancients; Histories 
of portions of Sussex; and the editing of the "Letters of 
Bishop Bundle; " the works of Lady Mary Wortley Montague; 
and Horace Walpole's " Anecdotes of Painting." m He died 
at Letherhead, June 6th, 1834. His love for the neighbourhood 
of his vicarage led him to prepare a description of Letherhead, 
pleasantly illustrated with etchings by Mrs. Dallaway. 

MADAME D'ARBLAY, n6e FRANCES BURNEY. 

It is stated that in the childhood of this once popular 
writer, she was so slow to learn the usual lessons taught at 
that time, that she was generally called, by some of her 
mother's friends, by the compromising name of " the Dunce." 
When about eighteen years of age, she began the practice of 
secret and desultory writing, and even in her fifteenth year 



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862 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

had burnt a " History of Caroline Evelyn." She resumed 
the subjoct afterwards and produced her " Evelina," which, 
after Dodsley had refused to look at the MS., was sold to 
Mr. Lowndes for twenty pounds. 

It awakened considerable surprise and admiration that 
so young a lady could produce a work which revealed such 
a knowledge of life, and such a variety of character. It has 
been remarked that "she knew the world by inheritance." 
The Burney family had, for three generations, been passing 
through a variety of social changes. Her great-grandfather, 
James MacBurney, spent a considerable patrimony and sank 
from the position of a country-gentleman to that of land- 
steward to the Earl of Ashburnham. His son married an 
actress, and was consequently disinherited of what remained 
of the family fortune, dropped the Mac, and called himself 
James Burney. The father married a maid-servant, by 
whom he had a son, who became a dancing-master. James 
Burney afterwards married Mistress Anne Cooper, and had 
several children, among whom was Charles, the father of 
Fanny, who was born at Lynn on the 18th of June, 1752. 

"Evelina" was received and read with considerable 
interest by some of the most distinguished leaders of fashion, 
and by many of the principal literary men of the day. 
Edmund Burke sat up all night to finish its perusal. Gibbon 
read the five volumes in a day. Sir Joshua Beynolds admired 
it ; and though the Duchess of Portland protested that she 
would never read "Cecilia" (which was another of her 
works), read it through three times. Dr. Johnson used to 
recite passages from "Evelina;" and Talleyrand studied 
it to get an insight into the English language. 

Her life at the Court of George HI. supplied many 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 868 

materials for "Diary and Letters," which afford many 
interesting details of the Royal family, and public events of 
the period. She afterwards published " Cecilia ; " in which 
it is probable that there are many passages which have 
been touched and improved by the aid of her honoured 
friend, Dr. Johnson. There is an allusion to his estimate 
of "Cecilia" in Boswell's Life, which is: "On Monday, 
May 26, 1 found him at tea, and the celebrated Miss Burney, 
the author of ' Evelina ' and ' Cecilia,' with him. I asked 
him if there would be any speakers in Parliament, if 
there were no places to be obtained. Johnson : ' Yes, Sir ; 
Why do you speak here ? Either to instruct and entertain, 
which is a benevolent motive; or for distinction, which 
is a selfish motive.' I mentioned ' Cecilia.' Johnson (with 
animated satisfaction) : ' Sir, if you talk of ' Cecilia,' 
talk on.' " 

"Camilla" was begun in 1794, and finished in 1795, 
and was the realization of an idea she entertained while 
still at Court; and was published partly by subscription, 
to promote which the Dowager Duchess of Leinster, the 
Hon. Mrs. Boscawen, Mrs. Crewe, and Mrs. Lock kept lists 
and received the names of subscribers. It was dedicated to 
the Queen, who accepted a copy of the work, and the author 
received a present of a hundred guineas from the King and 
Queen. The reviews of the work were somewhat severe; 
Horace Walpole spoke of the " deplorable Camilla ; " 
Edmund Burke was ill at Beaconsfield, and a copy of 
" Camilla " lay on the bed on which he was slowly dying ; 
and when Mrs. Crewe went to see him, he pointed to it and 
said, " How ill I am you may easily believe, when a new 
work of Madame D'Arblay's lies on the table unread." 



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864 LITEKART ASSOCIATIONS. 

Madame D'Arblay in a letter remarks : " The sale is 
truly astonishing. Charles has just sent to me that five 
hundred only remain of the four thousand, and it has 
appeared scarcely three months." 

"The Wanderer, or Female Difficulties," was published 
in 1814, and the booksellers fixed the high price of two 
guineas a copy, which somewhat limited the sale, yet three 
thousand, six hundred copies were sold and paid for in the 
first half-year. This work was even more " deplorable " than 
the flatness of " Camilla." 

The details of the remuneration for this work are supplied 
in a letter to her father, in which she observes : " I am to 
receive merely five hundred pounds upon the delivery of the 
MS. ; the two following five hundred pounds by instalments 
from nine months to nine months, that is, in a year and a 
half from the day of publication. If all goes well, the whole 
will be three thousand pounds, but only at the end of the 
sale of eight thousand copies." 

Her pen was employed in the interests of the poor French 
priests in 1795, who had been driven to our shores by the 
Bevolution, and her father tells her in a letter that he had 
reeceived twenty pounds, seven shillings from the publisher 
for that humane object. Her work, entitled " Tragic Dramas 
for Representation in Families," has disappeared from 
public notice. This brief sketch may be concluded by 
introducing the stanza written by her husband, whom she 
survived twenty-two years, and were by him placed under 
her picture : 

*• La Baison, si souvent tranchante and atrabiliaire ; 
Toujours dans ses ecrits plait autant qu'elle eclaire, 
L'indulgence, l'amour ; allument son flambeau, 
C'est Sagesse eniiii, non l'Ennui peint en beau." 



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866 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Londesborough, and was afterwards purchased by the late 
Thomas Cubitt, Esq., whose son, the Right Hon. George 
Cubitt, M.P., is now the owner. 

CHARLES DICKENS. 

This popular writer has made Dorking the scene of some 
of the most interesting chapters in the " Pickwick Papers." 
Sam. Weller is a favourite all over the English-speaking 
world, for his mother wit, his good sense, his diverting 
phraseology, and his share in the romantic incidents of the 
story. His father, " Tony Weller," and the events which 
occured at the " Marquis of Granby's " Inn, add much to 
the interest of the town. 

As we never heard of any living prototype of Sam, his 
father, and the crapulous Stiggins, " the Shepherd," in the 
neighbourhood, the location of these characters must be 
ascribed to the imagination of the Novelist, and illustrates 
the words of one whose own experience and unrivalled works 
justify their application to himself. 

** And as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name." * 

MISS FANSHAWS. 

The celebrated riddle, frequently attributed to Byron, by 
which Miss Fanshawe is best known, arose, Mr. Harness 
said, from an accidental conversation at the Deepdene. 

•Although Colonel Chesney and Charles Dickens did not reside in Dorking, 
as many other authors, it appeared desirable to introduce their names and an 
allusion to those of their works which may be fairly considered among the 
literary associations of the town. 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 867 

Mr. H. T. Hope was entertaining, with his usual liberality, 
a number of eminent literary friends; and in the course 
of the evening some remarks turned on the letter H, and 
the unworthy treatment it received in the centre of met- 
ropolitan civilization. The party retired soon afterwards, 
but the discussion had touched and engaged Miss Fanshawe's 
thoughts, and while others were asleep, her mind was busily 
employed in the composition of the riddle. Next morning, 
at breakfast, she brought down the lines, and read them to 
the delighted guests : — 

** 'Twas whispered in heaven, 'twas mattered in hell, 
And echo caught faintly the sound as it fell ; 
On the confines of earth, 'twas permitted to rest, 
And the depths of the ocean its presence confessed. 
'Twill he found in the sphere when 'tis riven asunder, 
Be seen in the lightning, and heard in the thunder. 
'Twas allotted to man with his earliest breath, 
Attends at his birth, and awaits him at death, 
Presides o'er his happiness, honours, and health, 
Is the prop of his house, and the end of his wealth. 
In the heaps of the miser, 'tis hoarded with care, 
But is sure to be lost on his prodigal heir ; 
It begins every hope, every wish it must bound, 
With the husbandman toils, with the monarch is crowned." 

The Rev. W. Harness published a small volume of verse 
by Miss Fanshawe, from which we extract the following 
specimen of her lighter compositions. Lord Harcourt desired 
her always to write her name, Catherine, with a E. 

" And, say, amid the countless names 
Borne by contemporary dames — 
Exotics fetched from foreign nations, 
Or good old English appellations- 
Names hunted out from ancient books 
Or found on dairy-maids and cooks ; 
Genteel, familiar, or pedantic, 
Grecian, Roman, or romantic, 
Christian, infidel, or Jew, 
Heroines, fabulous or true, 
Ruths, Rebeccas, Rachels, Sarahs, 
Charlottes, Harriets, Emmas, Claras, 



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868 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Auroras, Helens, Daphnes, Delias, 

Martias, Portias, or Cordelias, 

Nannies, Fannies, Jennies, Hetties, 

Dollies, Mollies, Biddies, Betties, 

Saoonari88as, Melesinas, 

Dnloibellas, Celestinas ; 

Bay is there one more free from blame, 

One that enjoys a fairer fame, 

One more adorned with Christian graces, 

(Although I say it to your faces, 

And flattery we don't delight in), 

Than Catherine at this present writing ? " 

The lines on the letter H are generally ascribed to Lord 
Byron, which, in the absence of exact information, is not 
surprising. The testimony of the B$v. W. Harness is quite 
sufficient to determine the question of authorship. 



JOHN HOOLE. 

Hoole is known chiefly as the translator of Tasso's 
" Jerusalemme Liberata ; " " Binaldo ; " the " Orlando 
Furioso ; " and some portions of Metastases works. He 
attempted dramatic composition, and his play, entitled 
" Cleone," was acted for a few nights with some applause. 
He was well acquainted with Italian literature, though his 
translations are generally considered very remote from the 
tender or tragic interest of the originals. Before he translated 
" Tasso," there were two versions of the poet by Harrington 
and Fairfax, both superior to his own. He lived in the 
neighbourhood of Dorking, where he died, and was buried at 
Abinger in the year 1808. 

MRS. GROTE. 

Mrs. Grote was one of the most remarkable women of 
her time. She was an excellent musician, possessed great 



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LITERAKY ASSOCIATIONS. 869 

powers of conversation, and was a clear and vigorous writer. 
In literature she was, occasionally, a contributor to the 
Edinburgh Review, the Westminster Review, and the Spectator. 
In 1861 her "Collected Papers" were published, in which 
is the very characteristic one that describes her long warfare 
with the Stewards of Lady Grenville, at East Burnham. 
Her "Memoir of Avy Scheffer" was successful; but her 
"Personal Life of George Grote" had a wider circulation. 
Her drawing-rooms in London were frequented by the Mills, 
the Marquis of Lansdowne, Sir William and Lady Molesworth, 
Hallam, Bunsen, Mademoiselle Jenny Lind, Moscheles, 
Mendelsohn, Chopin, and Thalberg. Her last residence was 
on the hills of Surrey, and near the village of Shere, in the 
churchyard of which parish she was interred. The coffin, 
with the simple inscription " Harriet Grote, born July 1, 
1792, died December 29, 1878," was borne by four villagers, 
and the service was read by the Sector, and the Dean of 
Westminster. 

THE REV. JAMES JOYCE. 

The works of this excellent clergyman, which are best 
known, consist of one prose and one poetical production. 
The volume of verse, entitled "The Lay of Truth," was 
published in 1825, and dedicated to Lord Grenville, then 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford. Its object was to 
combat the principles, and to counteract the influence of 
infidel and licentious modern poetry, respecting which he 
observes in the preface : " Our language has received a blot, 
and much as I venerate 

• The muse of fire, which can ascend 
The highest heaven of invention/ 

AA 



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870 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

I could fervently wish that the light of Genius were never 
kindled, or that it were extinguished at once, rather than 
it should flash terror and destruction on the dearest interests 
of mankind." 

The work treats of the most serious topics which can 
engage our attention. It surveys the dignity of man, 
enumerates the presumptive proofs of the immortality of the 
soul, and dwells upon his capacity for religion, and indefinite 
improvement. It describes the baneful influence of sensual 
pleasure, and denounces the seductive influence of modern 
poverty — while it urges the necessity of cultivating moral 
feeling to understand spiritual truth. The work properly 
belongs to the class of ethical and didactic poetry ; and is 
marked by refinement of taste, felicity of illustration, and 
universal seriousness of purpose. 

The following passage, which describes strength of feeling 
with feebleness and inadequacy of verbal expression, may 
be adduced as an example of his manner; and will remind 
some readers of James Montgomery's hymn on " Prayer." 

" There is a prayer which speaks not, and a grief 
Which sheds no tear, and yet implores relief ; 
There is an eye which dares not lift to heaven 
Its trembling gaze, yet asks to be forgiven. 

* * • • • 

'Tis a deep settled woe within, which breaks 
The fountains of the heart, not dews the cheeks ; 
It is a sorrow which can find no vent 
In human words for feebler "oaea meant, 
Bat in that speechless language all is shown 
To heaven, who reads the soul, nor heeds the voice's tone." 

This was followed by a work on "The Love of God." 
This treatise contains an argument of some originality, which 
is, that as the Jews were nationally indisposed to philosophy 
and scientific inquiries, the idea of loving God, which is 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 871 

enforced in the Hebrew Scriptures, must have reached them 
in a supernatural way, and could come to them by special 
inspiration from God alone. Some of his hymns have made 
their way into popular collections for public worship, and are 
used by various communions of christians. Mr. Joyce was 
an eminent scholar; and his views on moral subjects, the 
evidences of the truth of Christianity, and the influence of 
beliefs upon life, are deserving of attentive consideration. 



JOSEPH KAY, ESQ., Q.C. 

Mr. Eay was born at Salford in 1821, being descended 
from an ancient Lancashire commercial family. He received 
his earliest education in his native place, and was 
subsequently trained with the sons of the late Sir Thomas 
Fowell Buxton. After a successful career at Cambridge, 
where be took his degree, he received the honourable 
appointment of "Travelling Bachelor" of the University. 
This gave him the opportunity of visiting Germany, Italy, 
and Switzerland, in which latter country he examined the 
admirable Training School for Teachers, then under the 
care of Vehrli, and an institution for instructing youths in 
the science and practice of husbandry. Ever intent upon 
those questions which would benefit his countrymen, he 
studied everything relating to land, education, and social 
life on the Continent ; and came to the conclusion that the 
land was better tilled, and the people were generally better 
off than in England. This awakened enquiry into the 
subject of the tenure of land. On his return from the 
Continent he began the earnest study of our Land Laws; 

aa 2 



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872 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

and, in 1850, published a work in two volumes, entitled 
"The Social Condition and Education of the People in 
England and Europe." A few years ago he also published 
an important treatise on " The Law relating to Ship-masters 
and Seamen." 

His interest in education was keen ; and when his brother. 
Sir James Kay Shuttleworth, and Mr. Tufhell established 
the first English Training College for Teachers, Mr. Kay, for 
about a year, undertook its management, and thus con- 
tributed to the complete success of the experiment. Mr. Kay 
was called to the Bar by the Inner Temple in 1848, and, in 
1869, he became a Queen's Counsel. Shortly afterwards he 
was elected a Bencher of the Inner Temple. He was 
appointed Judge of the Salford Hundred Court of Becord in 
1862; and when the Manchester Court of Becord was 
amalgamated with the Salford Hundred Court, he remained 
one of the Judges of the New Court. He held this ap- 
pointment, and that of Solicitor-general of the County 
Palatine of Durham, till the close of his life. 

For some time before his decease he retired to Fredley, 
near Dorking, the residence of Mrs. Drummond, the widow 
of Captain Thomas Drummond, whose eldest daughter, Mary 
Elizabeth, Mr. Kay had married. Notwithstanding the 
pressure of a painful disease, he continued his humane 
endeavours by his correspondence and articles published in 
newspapers on Land Law Beform, &c, with the hope of 
promoting the happiness and well-being of his fellow-men, 
and thereby showed that suffering had neither impaired his 
intellect, nor diminished his sympathy with ignorance and 
want. To rare talents and extensive learning he united 
persuasive address, and wisely directed desires for progress 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 378 

and improvement. He departed this life October 9th, 1878, 
leaving a sacred memory to her who soothed him with all 
the assiduity of unwearied love ; and bequeathing an honoured 
name, which his friends, acquaintances, and the public might 
cherish with love and admiration. 

The learning and brilliant conversational power of Sharp, 
the science, intelligence, and administrative ability of 
Drummond, and the worth, attainments, and character of 
Eay, combine to make Fredley classic ground, and confer 
upon this charming spot an attraction which few places can 
command. 

keats. 

Keats, according to the " Life and Letters " compiled by 
Lord Houghton, was in the neighbourhood of Dorking in 
1817. In a letter addressed to Bailey, Eeats says: "At 
present I am just arrived at Dorking, to change the scene, 
change the air, and give me a spur to wind up my poem 
(Endymion), of which there are wanting five hundred lines." 
In a letter to Reynolds, from Letherhead, Eeats observes: 
" I like this place very much. There is a hill and dale, and 
a little river. I went up Box Hill this evening after the 
moon; 'you a' seen the moon, came down and wrote some 
lines.' " Lord Houghton informs us that " 4 Endymion * was 
finished at Burford Bridge on the 28th of November, 1817* 
So records the still existing manuscript, with many corrections 
of phrases, and some of lines; but with few of sentences 
or of arrangement. It betrays the leading fault of the 
composition, namely, the dependence of the matter on the 
rhyme, but shows the confidence of the poet in his own 



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374 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

profusion of diction, the strongest and most emphatic words 
being generally taken as those to which the continuing verse 
was to be adapted." 

Mortimer Collins informs us, in his "Walk through 
Surrey/' that at the " Fox and Hounds," near Boxhill, the 
waiter heard Eeats reciting — 

" For wine, for wine, we left our kernel tree, 
For wine we left oar heath, and yellow brooms, 
And oold mushrooms ; " 

and shortly appeared on the lawn with a decanter of sherry 
and a plate of uncooked fungi. 

DR. KIPPIS. 

This writer was, in the year 1750, pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church in Dorking, whence soon after he removed 
to take charge of a fellowship meeting in Prince's Street, 
Westminster. His literary activity was remarkable; his 
learning and antiquarian knowledge were very great ; and he 
was distinguished for his ability as a teacher. He wrote 
many works, among which may be mentioned his Lives of 
Sir John Pringle, Captain Cook, Dr. Doddridge, and Dr. 
Lardner. His principal undertaking was an improved edition 
of the " Biographia Brittanica ; " but the labours of Kippis 
extended only to five folio volumes, which formed a very 
small part of the original plan. Boswell regrets that Dr. 
Johnson declined the undertaking which subsequently engaged 
the efforts of Kippis — since Johnson had a special talent 
for that kind of composition. 

His sermons, pamphlets, and compilations have now 
ceased to be read, and are only reviewed to ascertain the 
types of thought, which were prevalent during the last 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 875 

century, and are treated much as a Palaeontologist examines 
the fossils of some ancient formation. 

He had an earnest controversy with Dr. Josiah Tucker, 
Dean of Gloucester, on the subject of the repeal of the 
Test and Corporation Acts, of whom he said, "Dr. Tucker 
is the ablest apologist of the Church of England." The 
Dean replied, " You, Sir, appear to me in th» light of a very 
able advocate for your cause; and, what is much better, 
but which, alas! can be said of a very few controversial 
writers, in the light of an honest man ; you are on the whole 
a candid and impartial searcher after truth." Bobert Hall 
once said in reply to a friend who asked him, "Was not 
Dr. Kippis a clever man ? " Hall replied, " He might be a 
clever man by nature for aught I know, but he laid so many 
books upon his head that his brains could not move." This 
remark is one of those exaggerations in which Hall was wont 
to indulge; for Kippis was a man of incessant study and 
arduous inquiry; yet when reduced to its real meaning 
conveys the truth that there should be a wise proportion 
between reading and meditation. Compared with Jeremy 
Taylor's reading, Kippis' acquaintance with books was very 
small, and yet for vigour, and acuteness of reasonings, and 
splendour of imagination, the Bishop is simply unrivalled. 

MAJOR PETER LAB ILL IE RE. 

This devout, though eccentric man, was probably of 
Huguenot extraction, and was for some time engaged as tutor 
in a large school in London. It is said that an early 
disappointment in love was the cause, or occasion, of his 
innocent peculiarities. Before coming to Dorking he had 



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S76 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

been a Major in the Marines. The Duke of Devonshire 
generously allowed him J61Q0 a year, and up to the last 
year of his life he received annually an invitation from his 
Grace to spend a month at one of his seats. This visit 
was usually paid on the 6th of June. 

He died on the 7th of June, 1800, and was followed to 
his grave on BoxJSill by a vast concourse of the inhabitants 
of Dorking. 

In the "Gentleman's Magazine" for July, 1800, the 
subjoined passage occurs: "June 4. At Dorking, Surrey, 
in a very advanced age, Major Peter Labilliere; his 
commission as a Major in the army bearing date January 17, 
1760. On the 11th (according to his own desire) he was 
interred on Box Hill, near Dorking, in the following manner : 
the place appointed to receive his remains was about ten feet 
deep, more in the form of a well than a grave. The coffin 
was let down, and placed on its head, with the feet upright 
in that situation. The chalk was put in (Box Hill being 
very chalky), and made very firm round the coffin up to the 
feet, and then the other part was filled up." 

It is commonly reported that he desired to be buried 
with his head downwards, that when the world was turned 
topsy-turvey he should come right at last. The more 
reasonable explanation is that as his name was Peter, he 
desired, in some degree, to resemble that Apostle, who, 
according to ecclesiastical tradition, was crucified with his 
head downwards. He was scrupulously devout, somewhat 
plain in feature, ascetic in life, and his motto was " Libertas 
Deo Duce." The few tracts which he wrote, like thousands 
of the same kind, have found a quiet resting place in the 
British Museum. In his "Letter to the Majesty of the 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 877 

People" he observes: "For the last twenty-four years of 
my life, I have undergone the several trials of an unsuccessful 
virtuous love, great difficulties and distresses from prodigality, 
neglect of my affairs in early life, and an ill-judged good 
nature of being security." One of his small works is entitled 
" The Christian Political Mousetrap ; or the world reformed 
by order, truth, and good-humour." Aittther is " The 
Christian Political Beehive." These tracts plead the cause 
of popular liberty, with collects, texts of scripture, passages 
from distinguished divines, and fervid persuasions of his 
own. No political reformer more ardently desired social 
changes ; and none ever used more mild and gentle methods 
to gain the fulfilment of his wishes. 

JEREMIAH MARKLAND. 

Manning, in his " History of Surrey," remarks that " the 
town of Dorking derives lustre from having been the retreat 
of the learned Jeremiah Markland." This scholar was the 
son of a clergyman, the Rev. Ralph Markland. He was 
born October 22nd, 169S ; was educated at Christ's Hospital, 
and afterwards at Peter House, Cambridge. His early efforts 
in authorship vindicated Addison from the strictures of Pope. 
These were followed by his " Epistola Critica ; " his " Notes 
on Propertius ; " a new edition of the Thebaid, and 
Achilleid of Statins; and a new edition of "The Silvae." 
These were succeeded by his "Dissertation upon Four 
Orations" ascribed to Marcus Tullius Cicero; some works 
on Greek and Latin Grammar; and an admirable edition 
of the "Mulieres Supplices" of Euripides. He assisted 
Dr. Taylor with his editions of Lysias and Demosthenes; 



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878 UTBRAET ASSOCIATIONS. 

and contributed valuable suggestions to Dr. Mill's New 
Testament. He obtained a Fellowship at Peter House ; and 
after residing at Twyford, and Uckfield, he settled at Milton 
Court, near Dorking, where he pursued his classical labours. 
Even in the days of Bentley he achieved the distinguished 
reputation as a critical scholar ; and at the present day the 
chieftains of Carman exegesis quote his opinions as an 
authority, and mention his name with respect. Against the 
persuasions of his Mends he preferred a life of privacy, and 
seldom went beyond the limits of his garden. It is surmised 
that some disappointment in early life tended to produce his 
preference for solitude and study. It seems, however, that he 
was at times inclined to complain of his obscurity, as the 
following anecdote will show. Mrs. Piozzi observes, in her 
account of the life of Dr. Johnson, "I remember when 
lamentation was made of the neglect shown to Jeremiah 
Markland, a great philologer, as someone ventured to call him ; 
' He is a scholar undoubtedly, sir/ replied Dr. Johnson, * but 
remember he would run from the world; and that it is not 
the world's business to run after him. I hate a fellow whom 
pride, or cowardice, or laziness drives into a corner, and 
does nothing when he is there but sit and growl; let him 
come out as I do, and bark.' " Elsewhere Johnson expressed 
his admiration for the scholarship and character of Markland. 

He supported the widow, with whom he lodged at Milton 
Court, in a law-suit against her son, which unhappily went 
against her. Bishop Law often assisted him, and Archbishop 
Seeker was willing to help him in the straits to which his 
benevolence had brought him. His former pupil, Mr. Strode, 
generously allowed him £100 a year for his life. 

Markland declined all suggestions to secure his ap~ 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 879 

pointment as Professor of Greek in the University of 
Cambridge. He was unwilling to accept orders in the 
Church which were offered him by Bishop Hare. He thus 
describes his manner of living : " Forty years ago I drank 
nothing but water for several years ; but, as Dr. Boerhaave 
told me, I must come to wine, which I find to be true." He 
was attacked, in 1776, by the gout, and expyed on July 7th 
of that year. 

In his will he says, "My books and papers I leave to 
Dr. William Heberdm, of PaU McUL Everything else which 
belonged to me I leave to Mrs. Martha Rose, of Milton, who 
I believe to be one of the most worthy persons, and know 
to be one of the greatest objects of humanity and Christian 
compassion, I was ever acquainted with in a long life ; whom 
I make my sole executrix." He was followed to the grave 
by his friend, Mr. Nichols ; and the following epitaph, written 
by his friend, Dr. Heberden, on a brass plate, is to be seen 
in St. Martin's Church — 

Jeremiah Markland 

Was born October, 29, 1698; 

Educated in School, Christ's Hospital, London ; 

And elected Fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 
Unambitious of rewards and honours, which his abilities 
and application might have obtained far him in the learned 
professions, he chose to pass his life in a liberal retirement. 
His very accurate knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages 
was employed in correcting and explaining the best ancient 
authors, and more particularly in illustrating the Sacred 
Scriptures. To these rational pursuits he sacrificed every 
worldly view; contented with the inward pleasure resulting 
from such studies, and from the public and private assistance 



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S80 LITERABY ASSOCIATIONS. 

which they enabled him to communicate to others. But, 
above all, his uncommon learning confirmed in the highest 
degree his hopes of a happier life hereafter. He died at 
Milton, in this parish, the 7th day of July, 1766. 

There is, in the Print Boom of the British Museum, an 
engraved portrait of Markland, which was presented by Dr. 
Burney, father qf Madame D'Arblay. 



MALTHUS, FATHER AND SON. 

The father of the celebrated Malthus lived at the Rookery, 
and translated " Goethe's Sorrows of Werther," which book 
was long the favourite of melancholy and dejected readers. 
To this work he added a translation of St. Pierre's graceful 
tale of " Paul and Virginia." 

His son was born in 1766, and, after studying at Jesus 
College, Cambridge, turned his attention to subjects with 
which his name will ever be associated. He became 
Professor of History and Political Economy at Haileybury. 
His theory of population was that as the inhabitants of the 
country were doubled in number every twenty-five years, 
and as the means of subsistence did not multiply in the 
same ratio, there would result, without some restraint, a 
super-abundant increase of the people. His work is written 
in a serious spirit; but his explanations of his views did 
not protect him from charges of hardness of heart and 
inhumanity of temper. Such charges were as unfounded 
as they were unjust. His contributions to Political Economy 
prepared the way for more thorough discussions and more 
extensive inquiries ; and he may be considered as one of the 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 881 

pioneers who have opened the way to the science of sociology, 
or the relations and conditions of civilized life. 

Darwin expresses his obligations to Malthas in the 
following passage; "As soon as I had fully realized this 
idea (the idea of Natural Selection), I saw, on reading 
Malthus on Population, that Natural Selection was the 
inevitable result of the rapid increase of all .organic beings ; 
for I was prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence, 
by having long studied the habits of animals." 

Harriet Martineau, speaking of Malthus, said, in reference 
to his conversation and her own deafness: "He was not 
quite the only one of my new friends who did not use my 
trumpet in conversation. Of all the people in the world, 
Malthus was the one whom I heard quite easily without it ; 
Malthus, whose speech was hopelessly imperfect, from a 
defect in the palate. I dreaded meeting him, when invited 
by a friend of his, who made my acquaintance on purpose. 
He had told this lady that he should be in town on such 
a day, and entreated her to get an introduction, and call 
and invite me; his reason being that whereas his friends 
had done him all manner of mischief by defending him 
injudiciously, my Tales had represented his views precisely 
as he could have wished. I could not decline such an 
invitation as this ; but when I considered my own deafness, 
and his inability to pronounce half the letters of the 
alphabet, and his hare-lip, which must prevent my offering 
my tube, I feared we should make a terrible business of it. 
I was delightfully wrong. His first sentence, slow and 
gentle, with the vowels sonorous, whatever might become 
of the consonants, set me at ease completely. I soon found 
the vowels are in fact all that I ever hear. His worst letter 



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882 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

was I; and when I had no difficulty with his question, 
'Would not you like to have a look at the Lakes of 
Eillarney ? ' I had nothing to fear. It really gratified him 
that I heard him better than anyone else; and whenever 
we met at dinner, I somehow found myself beside him, with 
my best ear next him ; and then I heard all he said to 
everybody at the table." 

Autobiography, Vol. I., p. 829. 

JOHN MASON, A.M. 

This Congregational minister divided his labours as a 
pastor and preacher in almost equal proportions between 
Dorking and Cheshunt. It was in the former town that he 
wrote his " Self-knowledge," which, for neatness and style, 
orderly arrangement, and felicitous quotation of classic and 
christian authors, is worthy even now of some attention. It 
has been translated into several European languages. His 
"Student and Pastor" contains counsels of permanent 
worth; and shows his acquaintance with a large and 
diversified range of reading. He published a " Treatise on 
Elocution/ 9 and fifteen sermons entitled " Sabbath Evenings 9 
Entertainment." They are like many discourses of the last 
century — solemn, ethical, and unimpassioned. An acute 
and somewhat severe critic remarks "that they are only 
likely to be read by one who is cast on an uninhabited island, 
and has no other book to read." The same remark would 
apply to much of the sermon literature of the past century, 
which, however dull to read now, had its uses in preserving 
alive the Christian sentiment, and silently preparing for a 
better state of things. It was the custom of Nonconformists 



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LITBRABY ASSOCIATIONS. 883 

in Mason's day to attend divine service in the morning and 
afternoon of Sunday; and the evening was devoted by 
Christian parents to acts of domestic worship, the examination 
of children and servants respecting their knowledge of the 
public discourses; and in repeating the answers to the 
catechisms then in use. To help parents and heads of 
families in these services these sermons were published. His 
writings belong to the past, and furnish another example 
of works which, for a time, enjoy considerable popularity, 
and then retreat, before more attractive productions, into 
obscurity and forgetfulness. 

In the churchyard of Cheshunt there is a grave-stone to 
his memory, upon which is inscribed : — 

Here rests all that was 

mortal of the late 
Bev. learned and pious 

John Mason, M.A. 

who was minister to the 

Congregation of Protestant Dissenters 

of this Parish for 17 years. 

He ceased from his labours and was 

called to his reward 

Feb. 10, 1768, aged 58 years. 



" Be ye followers of them who, through faith 
and patience, inherit the promises." 



captain morris. 



This writer of convivial songs lived at Brockham Lodge 
during the summer, and in London the greatest part of the 



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884 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

year. He was a member of the " Old Beef Steak Society," 
which met for pleasant intercourse and social enjoyment. 
His verse recounts the pleasures of love, the gay enthusiasm 
produced by wine, and the enchantment of genial society. 
His two volumes of "Lyra Urbanica" contain examples 
of those compositions, which, during the reign of George IV., 
had a short-lived popularity ; and are now seldom read except 
by those who wish to understand something of the habits 
of a former period of English life and manners. He' lived 
to be nearly ninety-three years of age, and though he 
appears to have retained to the last some gleams of his 
early and long-continued gaiety of mind, there are some 
lines which betray his suspicions that his powers had not 
been wisely applied, nor his talent faithfully used. He 
writes, when eighty-six years of age : 

41 Too long I perhaps, like the many who stray, 
Have upheld the gay themes of the Bacchanal's day ; 
But at length time has brought, what it ever will bring, 
A shade that excites more to sigh than to sing." 

A few passages selected from his songs will give our 
readers some insight into his temper and habits of life. 

The following stanzas describe his love of London in 
contrast to life in the country. 

44 In the country you're nailed like a pale in a park, 
To some stick of a neighbour that's cramm'd in the ark ; 
And 't is odds, if you're hurt, or in fits tumble down. 
You reach death ere the doctor can reach you from town. 

" In the country, how sprightly ! our visits we make 
Through ten miles of mud, for Formality's sake ; 
With the coachman in drink, and the moon in a fog, 
And no thought in your head but a ditch or a bog. 

41 In town let me live then, in town let me die ; 
For in truth I can't relish the country, not I. 
If one must have a villa in summer to dwell, 
O give me the sweet shady side of Pall Mall." 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 885 

On the election of the Prince of Wales as a member of 
the "Beef Steak Club," he sh%s: 

" Like Britain's island lies our steak, 
A sea of gravy bounds it, 
Shallots, confusedly scattered, make 
The rook-work which surrounds it ; 
Tour isles best emblem there behold, 
Remember ancient story ; 
Be like your grandeures,' just and bold, 
And live and die with glory." 

The next stanza, taken from a song which breathes the 
spirit of fervid loyalty, is addressed to George IV. 

" Destruction hung over the civilized globe, 
Religion lay orush'd, and in tatters her robe ; 
All morals derided, Humanity dead ; 
Faith, Honesty, Truth, Peace, and Loyalty fled. 
But firm was our Monarch, whose wise-ordered plan 
Redeemed the lost blessings of earth and of man." 

He describes his summer residence at Brockham Lodge 
thus : 

•• Well, here Tm now fix'd in my cot, 
My revels and rovings all past, 
Forgetting alike and forgot — 
To this come our frolics at last. 
I'm hid, like a snail, in my shell ; 
And should ne'er be disooverM at all, 
Did the smears on my paper not tell 
That, like snails, I leave tracks as I crawl." 

Here is a brief description of the neighbourhood of 
Dorking from his point of view : 

11 Indeed, on all sides of this Paradise ground, 
Fair seats and famed villas spread beauty around. 
One only defect this Arcadia shows, 
No clear crystal wide-water'd river here flows ; 
But a dull dormant, mud-mingled stream of no worth 
Creeps, ashamed of itself, and oft hides in the earth ; 
To its shy bury'd course a fit name they affix, 
The Mole — a true type of this branch of the Styx, 
Which seeks from the surface of earth to remove, 
As conscious 't were fitter below than above." 

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886 LITERABY ASSOCIATIONS. 

He was a frequent visitor at Carlton House, where the 
Prince of Wales enjoyed his society, and was equally 
well-received at Norfolk House, the residence of the Duke of 
that name. It is said that John Eemble appealed to the 
Duke to grant Captain Morris some annuity, or gift, which 
would brighten the later years of his life, and release it 
from the restraints of an inadequate income. The Duke 
presented him with Brockham Lodge as the result of Kemble's 
appeal. It is said that coming one day into the bookseller's 
shop in Dorking, there chanced to be deposited a pianoforte, 
and the old bard having looked round to see there were no 
strangers present, sat down to the instrument, and sang 
with much spirit " The Girl I left behind me ; " yet he was 
past his eightieth year. " Do what you will," said Curran, 
"you will die in your youth." He was buried on the east 
side of Betchworth Church; but, having overlived his 
companions and friends, there is no stanza to remind us of the 
character of his life, nor the poetical ability he possessed. 



JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

This eminent antiquarian descended from John Nichols, 
whose name is well-known as a diligent collector of local 
history, and eminent in the department styled "Oldbuck 
Literature." His volumes of "Anecdotes" contain much 
curious information respecting literary matters. Mr. J. G. 
Nichols was born in 1807 ; and it is stated that in his early 
boyhood he had for a school-fellow the celebrated Lord 
Beaconsfield, in a school kept in Islington by a Miss Roper. 
In addition to his works on the " Reformation," the 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 887 

"Collectanea Topographica and Genealogica," he rendered 
efficient assistance as editor and reviser of the publications 
of the " Camden Society." The following outline of his 
works will show the range of his antiquarian learning. 
These include "Autographs of Royal, Noble, Learned, and 
Remarkable Personages, conspicuous in English History from 
Richard II. to Charles II. ; " " Account of London Pageants ; " 
"The Fishmongers' Pageant on Lord Mayor's Day;" "The 
Unton Inventories ; " " Description of St. Mary, Beauchamp 
Chapel, Warwick ; " " Examples of Inlaid and Encaustic Tiles; " 
" The Topographer and Genealogist ; " " The Chronicles of 
Calais ; " " Inventories of the Wardrobe of H. Fitzroy, Duke of 
Richmond ; " " Diary of H. Machyn ; " " Pilgrimages to 
Walsingham and Canterbury by Desiderius Erasmus, with 
Notes by J. G. Nichols; " " Memoirs of the Earl of Arundel ; ,f 
"The Chronicle of Queen Jane;" "The Chronicle of the 
Grey Friars, London ; " and many other works of a similar 
character. For many years he was the chief manager of 
the "Gentleman's Magazine," and furnished an interesting 
account of matters and persons connected with that periodical 
under the title of Autobiography of Sylvanus Urban, Esq. 

John Bruce Nichols, only son of John Gough Nichols, Esq., 
F.S.A., (eldest son of John Bowyer Nichols, F.S.A.) by Lucy, 
daughter and co-heiress of the late Frederick Lewis, Com- 
mander R.N.; born 1848; married, 1874, Frances Eliza, 
daughter of Henry Morgan, Esq., of Norwich ; and has, 
with other issue, John Cradock Morgan Niehols, born 1876. 
Mr. Nichols was educated at St. John's College, Oxford, and 
was B.A. in 1872, and M.A. 1875. 



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388 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 



SIR SAMUEL ROMILLY. 

This distinguished jurist and able parliamentary orator 
was descended from a Huguenot family, which was compelled, 
by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, to leave France 
and the landed property of which it was possessed. The 
father of Sir Samuel was a jeweller in London. His early 
deficiencies of education were repaired by extraordinary 
diligence ; his mind improved by travel and intercourse with 
Diderot, D'Alembert, and Mirabeau; and, after a time, he 
entered on the profession of barrister, and joined the Midland 
Circuit. He enjoyed the acquaintance of many distinguished 
persons, both in France and England, which must be 
ascribed solely to bis personal merit. He was a young 
man, barely twenty-six years of age, the son of a jeweller, 
unknown at any public school or university ; a barrister of 
only a year's standing could have been indebted to nothing 
but his own personal character for his admission into such 
society, and for the esteem and respect with which he was 
regarded by his superiors in rank, age, and reputation, at 
the very commencement of his active life. He was made 
Chancellor of the County Palatine of Durham, and, in 1805, 
the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) offered him a 
seat in Parliament. He sat afterwards as member for 
Queenborough ; and then for Horsham, by purchase from the 
Duke of Norfolk. It is stated that in his farewell speech 
to the electors of Bristol, that a circumstance very rare in 
election scenes occurred, of which he says: "There was 
nothing in this speech at all calculated to excite the passions, 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 889 

and I know not to what cause is to be ascribed the effect 
it produced; but it is certain, that before I got to the 
conclusion, I saw the tears streaming down the cheeks of 
many of my hearers." He was elected for Westminster, 
and was at the head of the poll; but never sat for the 
place, as the death of Lady Bomilly so affected him as to 
produce delirium, which led him to terminate his life, that 
had thus become insupportable. 

He is remembered with honour for his persistent and 
successful efforts to mitigate the extreme severity of English 
law, which attached to three hundred crimes of various 
degrees of guilt, the punishment of death. 

He lived at Tanhurst ; and remarks in a letter : " From 
Leith Hill we saw, on Easter Tuesday (April 14, 1814), the 
light of the illuminations in London, on account of the 
recent events in Paris." 

JOHN 8KELTON. 

Skelton was the first Poet Laureate, and was tutor to 
Prince Henry (afterwards Henry VIII.) Anthony 6 Wood 
states that though he was Hector of Diss, in Norfolk, " he 
was more fit for the stage than the pulpit." Dallaway says, 
though some doubt his statement, that when the Court of 
Henry VIII. was frequently kept at Nonsuch Palace (about 
six miles distant from Letherhead), the Laureate, with other 
courtiers, visited that town for the amusement of fishing in 
the River Mole; and were made welcome at the Cabaret of 
Elynour Rummyng. One of his poems is entitled "The 
Tunnying of Elynour Rummyng," and contains a description 
of a real ale-wife, and the various gossips who kept thronging 



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890 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

to ber for drink. In the first pasms these lines occur : 

" And as men say 
She dwelt in Sothray, 
In a certain stede 
Bysyde Lederhede." 

His description of the degraded habits of the people of 
Letherhead was probably a summary of the effects of 
intoxication he may have witnessed in the course of his 
life ; or his quick wit and fertile fancy tempted him to overpass 
the limits of solemn truth. If he has not overdrawn the 
condition and habits of the villagers, then our views of the 
rural innocence and simple manners of former days must 
undergo a painful change. Elynour Bummyng was, at once, 
pawnbroker, ale-wife, and virago, and herself and her 
customers are described by Skelton with a coarse realism 
befitting the unpleasant subject. 

Mr. Stopford Brooke, in his Primer of English Literature, 
remarks "that his earliest poems are after the manner of 
Chaucer, but he soon took a manner of his own, and, 
being greatly excited by the cry of the people for Church 
Reformation, wrote a bitter satire on Wolsey for his pride ; 
and on the clergy for their luxury. His poem, * Why come 
ye not to Court ? f was a fierce satire on the great Cardinal." 

Brewer, in his admirable "Beign of Henry VHL," in- 
troduces frequent quotations from Skelton's works, one of 
which is a fierce satire against the Duke of Albany, who, 
in 1523, attempted to invade England, and retreated in 
ignominious haste, and brought upon himself and the Scots 
the scorn of the poet, who, in a "multitudinous jingle," 
expresses the national feeling of the period. 

The poem on Colin Clout was also the cry of the country 
Colin; and of the Clout or mechanic of the town, against 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 891 

the corruption of the Church. Both are written in short, 
" rude, rayling rimes, pleasing only the popular ear ; " and 
Skelton chose them for that purpose. Both have a rough 
impetuous power; their language is coarse, full even of 
slang, but Skelton could use any language he pleased. He 
was an admirable scholar. Erasmus calls him the " glory 
and light of English letters." Oolin Clout represents the 
whole popular feeling of the time, just before the movement 
of the Reformation took a new turn, by the opposition of 
the Pope to Henry's divorce. We owe to him some pretty 
and new love lyrics ; and the " Boko of PhyUyp Sparowe," 
which tells of the grief of a nun, called Jane Scrope, for the 
death of her sparrow, is one of the gayest and most inventive 
poems in the language. 

The house where Elynour Bummyng lived is near the 
bridge in Letherhead, and, though somewhat altered by 
recent repairs and additions, retains its distinction as an 
ale-house. The names of some of her descendants occur 
in that part of the parish registry which describes the 
baptisms, marriages, and burials of the beginning of the 
last century. 

MR. S. W. SINGER 

The village of Mickleham reminds us of an honoured 
name in the world of letters. Mr. Singer was, in early life, 
engaged in commerce ; but, having a strong love of learning 
and literature, became by immense application a distinguished 
English scholar ; editor of many valuable works ; and well 
acquainted with the history of some of the fine arts. He 
inquired into the origin of "Printing and Engraving on 



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392 LITERABY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Wood;" and explored the curious subject of "Playing 
Cards." He wrote " Prefaces to ' Chapman's Homer ; • " 
and the "Table Talk of John Selden." He published a 
new edition of Cavendish's "Life of Cardinal Wolsey," to 
which he added many valuable notes and illustrations. 
"Bishop Hall's Satires;" Bacon's "Essays;" Lovelace's 
" Poems ; " and Chalkhill's " Thealma and Clearchus." He 
translated Tieck's " Midsummer Night," and Luther's 
"Simple Way to Pray." His edition of Shakespeare, and 
his vindication of a certain text of the poet, brought him 
into an arena where the literary controversy was occasionally 
very excited. His knowledge of languages, and clear insight 
into the structure of Saxon, Norman, French; and his 
acquaintance with the Scandinavian dialects, as well as his 
large acquaintance with English literature, qualified him to 
pronounce judgements which are always worthy of respectful 
consideration. 

WiLTER THORNBURY. 

This prolific writer was born in 1828, and, at the age of 
seventeen, began a series of topographical papers which were 
printed in the " Bristol Journal." He was a frequent con- 
tributor to the " Athenamm ; " " Household Words ; " " All 
the Year Bound ; " and other periodicals. His novels include 
"Every man his own Trumpeter;" "True as Steel;" 
" Monarchs of the Main ; " and " Tales for the Marines." 
His books of travel contain " Life in Spain ; " " Life in Turkey ; " 
and " Experiences in the United States ; " with descriptions 
of Egypt and Palestine. His lyrical poetry was much 
admired. He published " Songs of the Cavaliers and 



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LITERABY ASSOCIATIONS. 893 

Eoundheads ; " and edited " Two Centuries of Song." In 
the sphere of antiquities he wrote " Shakespeare's England 
during the Reign of Elizabeth ; " and contributed 
important information about "Old London." His history 
of " British Artists from Hogarth to Turner " is interesting ; 
but his principal work in the depafripent of art was his 
"Life of Turner/' prepared under the supervision of Mr. 
Buskin, who described him " as working under the glare of 
a tropical sun." This outline of his works is necessarily 
incomplete ; and it must be added that, as lyrist, novelist, 
biographer, traveller, and critic, he died of over-work in 
his forty-eighth year. He lived in Dorking for some years, 
and closed his life in the neighbourhood of London. 

JOHN TIMB8. 

This industrious and prolific author spent a part of his 
early life in the town of Dorking. Some pleasing papers 
in the "Leisure Hour" describe his experiences in this 
locality, the state of the town and neighbourhood, and furnish 
some interesting information. His published works amount 
to more than seventy volumes. The " Year Book of Facts " 
was continued for thirty-eight years. His writings are useful 
and entertaining. He was a diligent collector of facts, 
curious information, and anecdotes, which, but for his activity, 
might have been silently lost and forgotten. He wrote on 
the subjects of Abbeys and Castles ; Club Life ; Curiosities 
of Science; Eccentricities of Men and Animals; the Cities 
of London and Westminster; Errors; Delusions; Useful 
Inventions; the Lives of Wits; and other miscellaneous 
topics. His life was marked by unwearied industry; and 



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394 LITERACY ASSOCIATIONS. 

his volumes are consulted with advantage both by authors 
and the general public. 



ARRATTAM TUCKER. 

The author of the " The Light of Nature pursued " was 
the son of a London merchant, and was left to the 
guardianship of his uncle, Sir Issac Tillard, from whom he 
did not gain much assistance in the way of education. The 
Baronet's advice to young Tucker was, as he was expected 
to write often to his relations, that he should adopt St. Paul's 
Epistles as the model of his correspondence. He purchased 
Betchworth Castle in 1727, and soon after was made a 
magistrate. In a poem on " Boxhill," by Edward Beaven, 
there is an allusion to his character and person in the 
following lines : 

" For Tucker fills the magisterial chair, 
Who long has gained the love of human kind ; 
The featured soul's displayed in his free eye, 
The beam of honour strong and mercy's shade." 

He devoted himself to the pursuits and pleasures of a 
country life until blindness withdrew him from outward 
objects to the study of philosophy, and the completion of a 
work which has given him a place among the metaphysicians 
of England. His work has been honoured with the ap- 
probation of Paley, Bev. Bobert Hall, and Sir James 
Mackintosh. He was a steady, though not a slavish, 
follower of Locke and Hartley. There is scarcely any 
subject which concerns morality or religion, the present or 
the future, which he does not discuss in very simple and 
homely language; since it was his maxim to think with 
the wise and speak as the vulgar. There is an inoffensive 



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LITERACY ASSOCIATIONS. 895 

egotism in his writings, which enables us to know more of 
his habitudes of thought and personal experience, than 
philosophers usually disclose. Paley praises him for the 
profusion of his illustrations, which are, for the most part, 
of a very homely description ; but grow so naturally out of 
the train of thought as to be unfit for any other topic, and 
are as much parts of the idea as the wing is part of the 
bird, and the flower of the plant. 

Sir James Mackintosh remarks : " He was endowed with 
a singular capacity for careful observation and original 
reflection; with a fancy, perhaps unmatched, in producing 
various and happy illustrations. Take him all in all, however, 
the neglect of his writings is the strongest proof of the 
disinclination of the English nation, for the last half-century, 
to Metaphysical Philosophy." 

Paley observes: "I have found in this writer more 
original thinking and observation, upon the several subjects 
he has taken in hand, than in any other writer, not to say 
in all others put together." 

The following passage, from Leslie Stephen's "English 
Thought in the Eighteenth Century," may be fitly introduced 
here: 

"The ablest and most original exponent of this theory 
(the utilitarian theory of happiness) was Abraham Tucker, 
author of the ' Light of Natured Pursued/ Few men have 
led more blameless or happier lives than this neglected 
philosopher. He delighted neither in fox-hunting, nor in 
place-hunting. Philosophical theories were the game which 
he loved to follow, through all the windings of some 
speculative labyrinth, and his ambition was to be received as 
a worthy colleague of Locke instead of Chatham. His 



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39& LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

devotion to abstract inquiries was free from the slightest 
tinge of moroseness or indifference to practical affairs. He 
was an example of that rarest of intellectual compounds — the 
metaphysical humorist. He might have stood for a likeness 
of Mr. Shandy; and Montaigne is perhaps the writer to 
whom, though at a long distance, he bears the closest 
resemblance. This mixture of shrewdness and kindliness, 
which made him active and amiable in all the relations of 
life, shows itself in every page of his book. Listening to 
abstract disquisitions upon theology, ethics, and metaphysics, 
we strangely learn to love the author, whose eye is always 
twinkling with suppressed humour, even in the gravest 
passages of his discourse. There is something so simple 
and child-like in his outbreaks of playfulness, that his 
incongruities never shock us. Indeed, his illustrations, quaint 
as they may be, have frequently the merit of an almost 
incomparable felicity. We see the old gentleman writing in 
his study, and when perplexed to explain his theories, raising 
his eyes and smiling complacently, as he presses into his 
service the first object that meets his gaze. The childish 
game of cat's-cradle, the handiwork of the village carpenter, 
the groom saddling a horse, a girl going to a ball, or 
something that reminds him of his own courtship; these, 
and a hundred other familiar objects, enable him to expound 
his views on fate, free-will, a future life, the mechanism of 
the human mind, and the purposes of the Almighty. To 
be candid is part of his nature; a difficulty, instead of 
heating his temper, receives a genuine welcome; for does 
it not give one more problem, over which he may brood for 
hours, and which may serve as a point of attachment for 
some new webs of theory? He would have regarded a 



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LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 897 

fallacy which was too easily exposed, just as a sportsman 
would regard a fox which did not give him a good run. No 
man's pen was ever freer from gall. An antagonist is, 
therefore, a friend in disguise, to be met with a quaint joke, 
instead of a bitter sarcasm. 

And, of course, it follows that Tucker is not seldom 
wearisome and immeasurably prolix. He never hurries ; he 
cares nothing for concentration; the twentieth statement 
of any proposition is as prolix as the first ; and he utterly 
ignores the principle that the secret of being tedious is to 
say everything." 

In 1778 Tucker published a small volume on " Vowel . 
Sounds," in which he anticipates some of the principles 
advocated by the friends of phonetic spelling. He proposes 
a reformation of our alphabet, which 'certainly errs by defect 
and excess; and desires a change of characters for our 
vowel sounds. Though many have attempted to introduce 
alterations ; the letters, spelling, and vowels of our language 
hold their own, and defy the endeavours of reformers to 
make any change in the accepted form of writing and 
printing. He introduces the subject of English verse, and 
professes to show the practicability and pleasure of the 
Hexameter, as applied to our language. He has one piece 
of advice which may still be useful to some, who, as he 
remarks, "eat their own words" by a close and indistinct 
utterance." " Therefore " (he remarks), " our French 
masters are continually plying us with * Ouvrez la bouche, 
Monsieur/ ' Ouvrez la bouche." We laugh at them for cutting 
faces; and they, in return, charge us with mumbling and 
whispering. For certainly the French have a greater agility 
and wider stretch of cheeks than we, so that you may often 



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898 LITERARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

look down their throats, as they seem to confess by the 
phrase 'rire a gorge deployee,' laugh with the throat 
displayed." Another of Tucker's works turned upon the 
question of personal identity, and is entitled " Man in quest 
of Himself." One more remains to be mentioned, which 
is " Advice to a Son against Party Clubs." These, with the 
works already noticed, show his love of metaphysical 
speculation, and his interest in the practical affairs of life. 

There is, at the entrance of the Church of St. Martin's, 
Dorking, a sculptured mural monument to his memory, thus 
inscribed : 

" Near this place are deposited the remains of Abraham 
Tuckeb, of Betchworth Castle, Esq., who departed this life 
the 20th day of November, in the year of our Lord 1774, 
aged 69. And of Doreothy, his wife, daughter of Edward 
Barker, Esq., late Cursitor Baron of the Exchequer. She 
died the 7th of May, 1754, in the 48rd year of her age." 



FINIS. 



Printed bt R. J. Glare, 16, High Strket, Dobuho. 



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APPENDIX. 



"OoweWs Interpreter'' (published 1727 a.d.) supplies the 
following explanations of words which occur in the account 
of various manors. 
1. — Bondmen were those who bound themselves by covenant 

to serve the lord of the manor. 
2. — Bordars were dwellers in cottages, and supplied the lord 

of the manor with poultry, eggs, Ac., for his board 

or entertainment. 
8. — Oarueate, a portion of land which might be tilled with 

one plough in a year and a day. 
4. — Cwrtilage, a yard or paddock. 
5. — Demesne originally signified land held of a superior 

or lord. 
6. — Hide, about one hundred and twenty acres. 
7. — Eerbage is the fruit of the earth produced by nature 

for the bite or mouth of the cattle; but is commonly 

used for a liberty that a man hath to feed cattle in 

another man's ground. 
8. — Homager, one that is bound to do homage, and who 

anciently said to the lord " I become your man." 



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400 APPENDIX. 

9. — KnighVs fee, one who held on condition of military 

service. 
10. — Infangthief, privilege granted to lords of certain manors 

to judge a thief taken within their fee. Outfangtkief, 

a liberty or privilege at Common Law, whereby a lord 

is enabled to call any man dwelling within his own fee 

and taken for felony in another place, and to judge 

him in his own court. 
11. — Pannage is the food of mast of beech or acorns that 

swine feed on in the woods. 
12. — Socage, ancient tenure by which tenants were obliged 

to cultivate the lands of their lord. 
18. — Thegn signifies a freeholder. 
14. — Villains were such persons as belonged to the land, 

tilled the lord's demesne, and might not depart without 

his licence. 



<! 



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ITSIDEX. 



PAGE 

Abinqer .. .. 206 

Extent of Parish . . 206 
Notice of in Domesday Book 206 

Divisions of the Manor . . 207 

TheAdvowson .. ..208 

The Hall .. .. 209 

Farrer, Sir Thomafc . . 209 

Wilberforce, Bishop . . 210 

Darwin, Charles . . 214 

Roman Villa .. ..214 

Alburt .. .. 216 

Domesday Book .. 216 
Coins found on Farley Heath 217 

Former Owners of Manor . . 217 

Duke of Northumberland . . 217 

Old Church ., ..218 

Bectory .. ..218 

Distinguished Incumbents . . 219 

Catholic Apostolic Church . . 219 

Mansion and Pictures . . 220 
Pedigree of the Northumberland 

Family .. ..221 

Silent Pool .. ..222 

Alexander, Mrs. . . . . 87 

Anstiebury Camp . . 171 

Arbuthnot, George, Esq. . . 284 

Arnold, E., Esq. .. ..146 

Atchison, Captain . . 92 

Atchison, Leiut.-Col. . . 93 



PAGE 

Baptist Church . . . . 93 

Barclay Family (see Bury Hill) . . 105 

Barclay, Misses . . . . 198 

Baxter, R. (quoted) . . 80 

Beaconsfield, Lord .. 346 

Beaconsneld, Lord (quoted) . . 309 

Beaven, (quoted) . . . . 169 

Beckett, John . . . . 26 

Betchworth Castle .. 169 

Owners .. .. 159 

Avenue .. .. 160 

Blackman, Mrs. . . . . 81 

Blandford, Marquis of . . 179 

Boehm, Mr. . . . . 177 

Bonner, George, Esq., . . 192 

Bookham — Great .. . . 229 

Manor .. ..229 

Former Owners . . 229 

EastwickPark .. ..229 

David Barclay, Esq. .. 229 

Grove .. ..230 

Hon. G. Cuthbert Dawnay . . 230 

Polesden Lacey .. 230 

Farquhar, Sir W. T. . . 230 

Slyfield .. ..230 

Advowson .. .. 231 

Remarkable Brass . . 231 

Monuments .. .. 232 

Fine Window . . . . 233 

CC 



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402 



INDEX. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Bookham — Little 


234 


Canal projected 


18 


Notice in Domesday Book 


234 


Canning, George 


113 


Benefice 


236 


Capel 


236 


The Pollens 


. 235 


Knights Templars 


236 


Madox's Bequest 


. 236 


Enton's Coppice 


237 


Bordars 


. 6 


Benefice 


237 


Bovill, Mrs. 


. 198 


Church 


238 


Bowman, Sir William 


, 248 


Charities 


238 


Box Hill 


. 163 


Village Hospital 


239 


Why so named . . 


. 165 


Cardinal's Hat 


14 


Quotation from Black 


. 165 


Census .. 


327 


De Foe's Account of 


, 166 


Chart Lane 


175 


Dr. Aikin 


. 167 


Chart Park 


163 


Harriet Martineau 


. 168 


Cherkley Court 


115 


Resort for Pleasure Parties . 


. 169 


Mansion 


115 


Burial of Labilliere 


. 169 


Yew Wood 


115 


Mrs. Barbauld's Verses 


170 


Chesney, Col. 


359 


Brat, William, Esq. 


. 351 


Chichester, Rev. G. V. 


302 


His Family 


. 352 


Cholmondeley, Marchioness of . . 


256 


Diary 


. 353 


Cholmondeley, Miss 


260 


Brethren, The 


. 93 


Church, St. Martin's 


66 


Brett, John 


. 319 


Advowson 


67 


Broadwood, J. S., Esq. 


. 280 


Ecclesiastical Furniture 


69 


Broome Hall 


. 97 


Ancient Inscriptions 


70 


Bunyan, John 


. 197 


Description of Worship by A. 




Burford Bridge Hotel 


. 165 


B. Hope, Esq. 


71 


Queen's Visit 


. 165 


New Fabric 


73 


Burford Lodge 


. 100 


New Chancel 


74 


Verses to Shenstone 


. 100 


Present Fabric 


75 


Orchid Houses . . 


. 102 


Bells 


76 


Burney, Fanny— Mde. D'Arblay 108 


Windows 


77 


Court Life 


. Ill 


Vicarage 


78 


Burney Boom 


. 114 


Parish Register and Extracts 


81 


Burney, Dr. 


. 112 


Clay, Sir W. D. 


298 


Burt, Major 


. 156 


Classis, Dorking 


79 


Bury Hill 


. 103 


Clinton, Lord Francis Henry . . 


132 


Mansion 


. 104 


Clinton, Lady Beatrice A. Pelham 132 


Conifers 


. 104 


Clinton. Lady Emily Pelham . . 


132 


Observatory 


. 105 


Clinton, Lady Florence Josephine 


132 


Robert Barclay (late) 


. 105 


Coad, Rev. Mr. 


86 


Barclay Pedigree 


. 107 


Cobbett (quoted) 


23 






Cold Harbour 


15 






Coleoptera 


344 


c 




Cold Harbour Church 


183 


Caesar, Julius 


11 


Cole, Vicat, r.a. 


319 


Calvert, Col. 


285 


Collins, the Artist 


19 


Camilla Lacey 


108 


Congregational Church 


82 


Cottage . . 


113 


Its origin 


83 



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INDEX. 



403 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Register 


.. 83 


Doria-Pamphili, Prince 


. 132 


Briefs, Record of 


.. 84 


Dorking .. 


. 1 


Pastors, List of 


. 85 


Manor 


. 1 


Epitaphs 


. 87 


Owners of Manor 


. 2 


Coningsby 


. 351 


Fair 


. 3 


Cotmandene 


. 27 


Boroughs 


4 


Cotton, Sir Arthur 


. 39 


Courts and Customs 


. 5 


Cowell's Interpreter (appendix) 


. 399 


The Town 


. 8 


Oubitt, Thomas, Esq. (late) 


. 135 


Origin of Name 


. 8 






Fowls 


. 9 






Ancient Houses 


. 10 


D 




Castle 


. 10 






Tolls 


. 12 


Dallaway, Rev. James 


.. 361 


Houses 


. 12 


Danes, The 


.. 11 


Inns 


. 14 


D'Abblay 


.. 361 


State of Town in 1448 


. 15 


Early Life 


. 362 


Notices of Town 


. 16 


Evelina 


. 362 


Coinage 


. 17 


Cecilia 


.. 363 


Highmore's Letter 


. 17 


Johnson's Approbation 


. 363 


Old Families 


. 18 


Camilla 


. 363 


" Gentleman's Magazine " 


. 18 


Literary Genius 


. 364 


Battle of, real 


. 24 


Dawson, Key. A. 


. 88 


Artists 


. 25 


Deepdene 


. 116 


Public Hall 


. 26 


Gardens 


. 117 


Almshouses 


. 27 


Votive Verses 


. 118 


Union Workhouse 


. 30 


Hope Family 


. 119 


Coffee Tavern 


. 31 


Thomas Hope 


. 119 


Working Men's Institute 


. 32 


Anastasius 


.. 120 


District Local Board 


. 34 


Thorwaldsen 


.. 121 


Schools 


. 36 


Statuary 


. 123 


Poultry Society . . 


. 36 


Pictures 


. 126 


Gas Company 


. 37 


Chef d'CEuvres . . 


. 128 


Waterworks 


. 38 


Marriages 


. 132 


Holloway Estate 


. 38 


Mausoleum 


. 132 


Cottage Hospital 


. 40 


Denbies 


. 133 


Cemetery 


. 41 


Former Owners 


. 133 


Coaches 


. 41 


Jonathan Tyers 


.. 134 


Drive to London . . 


. 43 


Tom Tyers 


. 134 


Markets and Fairs 


. 45 


Church 


.. 134 


Reform Celebration 


. 46 


Cubitt, Right Hon. G., m.p. 


.. 136 


Cricketers 


. 47 


Bradley 


.. 136 


Manufactories 


. 47 


Denes 


.. 4 


Shrove Tuesday 


. 48 


Denison, W. J. 


.. 365 


Former Customs 


. 49 


Denny, E. M.,Esq. 


. 31 


Language 


. 50 


Dickens, Charles (quoted) 4 


12, 366 


Legal History 


. 51 


Dixon, A., Esq. 


.. 116 


Fines 


. 55 


Donegal, Countess of 


.. 208 


Englecherie explained 


. 56 



cc 2 



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404 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

68 
59 
60 
60 
61 
64 



Engrossing 

Hop Grormds 

Quarter Sessions 

Bogues and Vagabonds 

Political Affairs 

Military Affairs 

Lay Subsidies . . . . 62 

Agriculture . . .. .65 

Walks and Drives round Dor- ' 
king .. 326-6 

Drummond, Mrs. .. 137 

Duppa, Richard . . 260 



Effingham .. .. 240 

Notice in Domesday Book . . 240 

Owners of Manor . . 240 

Effingham East Court .. 241 

Advowson .. .. 242 

National School .. 243 

Ethelbald .. ..11 

Ethelwulf .. ..11 

Evelyn, George, Esq. . . 302 

Evelyn, John (see Wotton) 

Evelyn, W. J., Esq. .. 302 



Fanbhawe, Miss . . . . 366 

The Letter H .. ..367 

The Letter K .. ..367 

Farquhar, Sir Walter R. . . 268 

Fauna .. ..342 

Feake, Mr. .. ..63 

Ferns .. ..341 

Fishes .. ..343 

Fossils .. ..831 

Fbkdlet .. ..137 

Thomas Drummond .. 137 

Drummond Pedigree . . 189 

Conversation Sharp . . 141 

Distinguished Visitors .. 143 

Lord Maoaulay (quoted) . . 142 

Mrs. Siddons . . 144 

Friends, Society of ..89 

Fry, Mr. Justice , . 340 



PAGE 

Geology .. .. 829 

Gilpin (quoted) .. ..163 

Glory, The .. ..176 

Gordon, J. E. H., Esq. ..274 

Goulburn, Col. . . . . 228 

Gower, Hon. E. F. Leveson . . 248 

Gower, Q. Leveson (quoted) . . 61 

Granville's Letter, Lord . . '21 

Grissell, G. T., Esq. ..155 

Grote, Mrs. . . . . 368 

Grove, The . . . . 145 

Marquis of Wellesley . . 145 

Verses by Mrs. Enowles . . 145 

Dr. Johnson . . . . 145 



H 

Hampton, G. V., Esq. . 1 179 

Hastings, G. W., Esq. . . 6 

Heath, Douglas Denon, Esq. . . 174 

Heath, Sir Leopold . . 174 

Helix Pomatia .. .. 343 

Henderson, John, Esq, . . 257 

Hills, Height of .. 324 

Holmbuby St. Mary . . 244 

Origin of Church . . 244 

Description of Bells . . 245 

Interior of Church . . 246 

Memorials .. .. 246 

Holmes, Kev. Canon . . 17 

Holmesdale, Rhyme of . . 11 

Holmwood .. .. 177 

Its state in 1649 .. 177 

Villas .. .. 177 

Encampment there . . 178 

Church .. ..180 

Windows and Inscriptions . . 181 

The Wickham Family .. 182 

Bobbery and Smuggling . . 183 

Hoole, John . . . . 368 

Hope, Lady . . . . 31 

Hope, Mrs. . . . . 132 

Hope, H. T., Esq. . . 93 

Horse, White .. ..14 

Hoste, Bev. Philip . . 76 

Howard, Hon. Chas. . . 117 



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INDEX. 



405 









PAGE 


Jeffreys, Judge 




.. 


262 


Johnson, Dr. (quoted) 


106, 


134 






145 


363 


,378 


Jonson, Ben 




. . 


255 


Joyce, Rev. James 






369 


Works 




. . 


370 


Joyce, Rev. W. H. 




, . 


78 


Juniper Hall 




. . 


146 


Date of Erection 




, . 


146 


Richardson, F., Esq 




. . 


146 


• French Colony 




. . 


147 


Talleyrand 




.. 


147 


Madame de Stael 




. . 


147 


Talleyrand's Letter 




.. 


149 



Eat, Joseph, Esq. 


.. 371 


Travelling Bachelor 


.. 371 


Legal Appointments 


.. 372 


Marriage and Decease 


.. 373 


Eay, Mrs. 


.. 372 


Keats 


.. 373 


Lord Houghton's Remarks 


.. 373 


Eerrich, E., Esq. 


.. 178 


Eippis, Dr. 


.. 374 


Biographia Brittanica 


.. 374 


Fair Controversialist 


.. 375 



Labilliere, Major Peter .. 375 

Burial .. .. 376 

Writings .. ..377 

Labouchere, Mrs. . . 35 

Ladbrooke, R., Esq. . . 256 

Land, Owners of . . 322 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas . . 152 

Lawrence, Sir Trevor . . 103 

Legge, The Ladies . . 179 

Leigh .. .. 248 

Weald of Surrey . . 249 

Customs in Harvest . . 249 

Owners .. .. 260 

Leigh Place and Moat . . 250 

Stumblehole .. .. 253 



page 

Leith Hill .. .. 185 

Prospects .. .. 185 

Dennis' Impressions . . 185 

Tower and Inscription . . 186 

Hull, Richard, Esq. .. 186 

Places Visible .. ..187 

Dr. Whewell .. ..188 

Leith Hill, a Poem .. 188 

Discovery of Coins . . 189 

Adder, Bite of .. ..189 

Charles Darwin . . 190 

Lepidoptera .. .. 344 

Leslie, Lady Mary . . . . 200 

Letherhead .. .. 255 

Ancient name of Manor . . 255 

Thorncroft, Manor of . . 256 

Red Roses .. ..257 

Givons Grove . . . . 257 

Randalls Park .. ..257 

Ecclesiastical Contention . . 258 

Advowson .. .. 259 

Painted Windows .. 259 

Tablets .. ..260 

Charities .. .. 261 

Mansion .. .. 262 

Former Importance of theTown 262 

St. John's School .. 263 

Lime Works . . . . 136 

Linnell, Artist . . . . 319 

Lister-Kaye, E. Cecil, Esq. . . 132 

Literary Associations .. 346 

Lovelace, Earl of . . . . 243 

Louis Philippe . . . . 194 



M 

Mac Andrew, J., Esq. . . 147 

Macaulay, Lord (quoted) 50, 108 

Mackay, E. C, Esq. . . 274 

Mackintosh, Sir James . . 274 

Magg's Well . . . . 327 

Maiden, H. E., Esq. . . 174 

Malthus, Father . . 380 

Malthas, Son . . 380 

His Political Economy . . 381 

Interview with H. Martineau. . 381 

Mabkland, Jeremiah .. 377 



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406 


INDEX. 






PAGE 


N 




His Learning 


.. 377 




PAGE 


Love of Retirement 


.. 878 


Newdigate 


,. 275 


Benevolence 


.. 378 


Wykeland 


.. 279 


Epitaph 


.. 379 


Lyne 


.. 279 


Marsh, Mrs. 


.. 247 


Extent of Parish 


.. 280 


Martha's Church, St. 


.. 194 


Charities 


.. 280 


Pilgrims' Route . . 


..194 


Ancient Fresco 


.. 281 


Chapel 


.. 195 


Old Customs 


.. 281 


Dean Stanley's Notice 


.. 195 


Nichols, John Gough 


.. 386 


Martin Tupper's Lines 


.. 1% 


His Works 


. 386 


John Banyan 


.. 197 


His Heir . . 


. 387 


Mason, Ret. John 


.. 382 


Nicholson, John 


. 25 


His Works 


.. 382 


Norbury 


. 152 


Epitaph 


.. 383 


Mr. Lock 


. 152 


Maxse, Lady Caroline 


.. 242 


Lord Lytton 


. 152 


Meredith, George, Esq. 


.. 274 


Mansion and Prospects 


. 153 


Mickleham 


.. 264 


Druids' Grove 


. 153 


Notice of in Domesday ] 


Book 264 


Wordsworth's lines 


. 154 


Owners of Manor 


.. 265 


Turner's Drawing 


. 155 


West Humble . . 


.. 266 


The Grissell Family 


. 155 


Former Owners . . 


.. 266 


Norfolk, Funeral of Duke of 


20,21 


Chapel 


.. 266 


Northumberland, Duke of 


. 217 


Norbury and its Lordship 


.. 267 






Fredley 


.. 267 


o 




Polesden Lacey . . 


.. 268 




High Ashurst 


.. 269 


Oakwood Chapel 


. 288 


Mickleham Rectory 
Church 
Monuments 
Parish Registers . . 


.. 271 
.. 271 
.. 272 
.. 273 


Its origin 

Petition to the King 
Repairs 
Ancient Brass 


. 288 
. 289 
. 289 
. 289 


Briefs 


.. 273 


Ocklet 


. 282 


Box Lands 


.. 274 


Its Manor 


. 283 


Milton Court 
Former Owners 


.. 150 
.. 151 


Jayes 
Elderslie 


. 284 
. 284 


Mansion 
Gardens 
Mole, The Riybr 


.. 151 
.. 152 
.. 201 


Ockley Green 
Ockley Court 
Eversheds 


. 284 
. 285 
. 285 


Name and Course 


.. 201 


Church 


. 286 


The Swallows 
Thomas Fuller . . 
De Foe's Account 
Poetical Allusions to 
Miss Bethune's Poem 


.. 202 
.. 202 
.. 202 
.. 203 
.. 204 


Roses in Churchyard 

Ockley, Battle of 
Orchids 
Orchids at Burf ord Lodge 


. 286 
. 172 
. 338 
. 100 


Fish found in it 


.. 204 






Morris, Captain 


.. 883 


P 




Love of London 


.. 384 






Songs 


.. 384 


Paine, Sir Thomas 


. 198 


His Death and Grave 


.. 386 


Parratt, Col. 


. 241 



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INDEX. 



407 





PAGE 


s 




Paul's Church, St. 


.. 92 




PAGE 


Date of Erection 


.. 92 


Scenery 


. . 335 


Epitaphs and Memorials 


.. 92 


Scott, Sir Walter 


.. 113 


Pennington, Frederick, Esq., 


m.p. 97 


Settled Land Act 


. . 7 


Pictures by Redgrave 


.. 317 


Seymour, Sir George 


Hamilton 225 


Pictures by Mrs. Allingham 


.. 318 


Seymour, Lieut.-Col. 


. . 225 


Pictures by Mott, Hook, 


and 


Shenstone, Verses to 


.. 100 


Birket Foster 


.. 319 


Shere 


.. 290 


Pippbrook House 


.. 166 


Notice in Domesday Book . . 290 


Its Gothic Architecture 


.. 156 


Shere Vachery 


.. 291 


Museum 


.. 156 


Survey of Manor 


. . 291 


Powell, A., Esq. 


.. 198 


Shere Eboracum 


. . 292 


Praed-Mackworth, W., Esq. 


.. 265 


Gumsele 


.. 293 


Pray Bridge 


.. 266 


Sutton 


.. 294 


Prince Consort 


.. 136 


Church Records 


.. 294 






Wills of Former Rectors . . 297 






Sheridan, R. Brinsley 


.. 230 


Q 




Shrub Hill 


.. 156 




Rothes' Family 


.. 167 


Quadrupeds 


.. 342 


Epitaph 


.. 158 


Queen Charlotte 


.. 157 


Siddons, Mrs. 


.. 144 






Silent Pool 


.. 221 






Singer, S. W. 


.. 391 






His Works 


.. 392 


R 




Skelton, John 


.. 389 


Raffles, Rev. Dr. 


.. 336 


Works 


.. 389 


Raglan, Lord 


. . 233 


Satires * . 


. . 391 


Ranmore Common and Militia . . 135 


Smith, Henry, his I 

Gifts 
Spelman (quoted) 
Spottiswoode, Mr. 
Stael, Madame de 
Stane Street 
Steere, Lee, Esq. 
Stillwell, Thomas 


listory and 

.. 28 
.. 47 
.. 98 
.. 148 
.. 173 
.. 284 
. . 177 


Rate, L. M., Esq. 
Redgrave, R., Esq., b.a. 
Reptiles 

Richardson, F., Esq. 
Rogers, Thorold (quoted) 
Roman Catholic Church 


.. 152 
.. 317 
.. 342 
. . 146 
.. 10 
.. 94 


Connexion with the Norfolk 
Family . . . . 94 


Surrey, Flora of 


.. 337 


Romilly, Sib Samuel 


.. 388 






Parliamentary Career 


. . 388 






Rookery, The 


.. 191 


T 




Malthus and Son 


.. 191 






The Fuller Family 


.. 191 


Thornbubt, Walter 


.. 392 


Lonesome 


.. 192 


His Works 


. . 392 


Rose Association 


.. 225 


Tillingbourne 


. . 191 


Rose Hill 


.. 193 


Timbs, John 


. . 393 


Villas 


.. 193 


Various Works 


.. 393 


Rouse, Francis 


.. 269 


Trashurst 


. . 177 


Rousseau 


.. 354 


Trees 


. . 336 


Ryder, Hon. Dudley 


.. 270 


Tritton, Arthur, Esq 


. . 258 



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408 



indkx. 



' 


PAGE 


Tucker, ABiufeftM' 


.. 394 


Early Life 


., 394 


Estimate of -his Work* 


. . 394 


Leslie, Stephen {quoted) 


. . 895 


Work on Bounds . 


.. 397 


Epitaph . * s - 


. . 398 


Tapper, M., Esq. (quoted) 


i96 r m 



Utterton, Bishop 



v 



Vicarage 
Villains 



w 



182 



78 



PAGE 

Wickbam, Rev. E. D. . . 182 

WHberforoe, Bishop 74, 211 

Wild Flowers . .' .\ 338 

William the Conqueror . . 2 

Wordsworth (quoted) . . 154 

Wotton . . • . . 299 

Extent of Parish . . 299 

* Extract -from Domesday Book 299 

Divisions of the Manor . . 300 

Former Owners . . 301 

Present Lord of Manor . . 301 

Manor of Gosterwood . . . 303 

Manor of Westland . . 303, 

Pedigree of the Evelyn Family 303 

The Rectory . . 304 

Church and Leper's Window 304 

Dormitory . . . . 305 

Evelyn's Tomh, John . . 306 

Evelyn's Tomh, Mary . . 306 

Evelyn's Tomh,* Capt. George 307 

Glanville's Bequest . . 307 

Curious Custom . . 307 

Evelyn, John, Author of Sylva 308 



Warrenne, Earl of 


.. 3 


Birth and Education 


. . 308 


Wathen, Lady Elizabeth 


. . 15f 


Offices held hy him 


.. 308 


Watson, W. Farnell, Esq. 


. 278 


Correspondents 


.. 309 


Wedgewood, Josiah; Esq. 


. 191 


His great Work " Sylva" 


. . 301 


Weller, Samuel 


. . 366 


Diary • 


.. 309 


Webleyan Church 


.. 90 


List of his Works 


. . 310 


Wesley's Diary 


. 90 


Bis Description of Wotton 


.. 313 


Wescott 


. 198 


Wotton House 


.. 313 


Chapel 


i 199 


Library 


.. 314 


Church 


. 199 


Pictures, &c. 


.. 315 


Whitehouse, Rev. John 


. 87 


Wylie, J. L., Esq. 


.. 266 



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