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When, some three years ago, my friend M. Antoniii 
Barth^lemy begged me to write a general History of 
French Art from the twelfth century to the present 
day — a book which he said was much needed — I felt 
at once that, congenial as the task was, it would be 
beyond my ix)wers unless I could count upon the 
help and counsel of the best French Authorities. 

That help and counsel has been given me with 
no grudging hand. From first to last, a ready and 
generous interest has been shown by all in my work. 
And it has been my good fortune to find that the 
most distinguished intellects of France are ready to 
open the- stores of their learning, and to spare neither 
time or trouble, if they can thereby aid any student 
who is really in earnest. To all those who, in Paris 
and elsewhere, have helped and encouraged me, I 
offer my most grateful thanks for endless kindness, 
courtesy, and acts of friendship. 

The original scheme of the book was suggested by 
M. Antonin Barth61emy. And to him are due many 
of its most valuable pages, especially in the first and 
twelfth chapters. From M. Roujon, the distinguished 
Directeur des Beaux Arts, I have received never- 
failing help. For his all-powerful word has unlocked 

viii PREFACE. 

every door, and given me priceless opportunities of 
study in public and private collections. To M. de 
Nolhac, conservateur, and M. Perat^, conservateur- 
adjoint, those well-known authorities, I owe delight- 
ful and instructive days in that great Museum of 
Decorative Art, the Palace of Versailles. With M. 
fimile Molinier, I have been privileged to examine 
the Ivories and other treasures of the Louvre. The 
kindness of M. Bouchot, the learned chief of the 
Gralerie des Estampes, in the Bibliothfeque Nationale, 
and M. Auguste KafFet, enabled me to make a 
thorough study of the MSS. and drawings of the 
Renaissance period. M. Armand Dayot, inspecteur 
des Beaux Arts, and M. Roger Marx, inspecteur 
principal des Mus6es, have supplemented the counsel 
they are so well able to give, with valuable introduc- 
tions, and books and pamphlets which I could not 
have obtained otherwise. M. Eugfene Miintz, Librarian 
of the JEcole des Beaux Arts, placed his erudition at 
the service of my task, giving me invaluable help in 
the choice of my authorities. 

While, to my friends, M. Andr6 Michel, conserva- 
teur au Mus6e du Louvre, and M. L6once Benedite, 
conservateur du Mus^e du Luxembourg, I owe a debt 
that has been steadily growing for years and can 
never be paid, of gratitude for all I have learnt from 
them, whether among the sculptures of the Louvre, 
the paintings of the Luxembourg, or the last word of 
mode mite in the Salons. 

I must add that from MM. Boussod and Valadon, 
and MM. Durand-Ruel, I have for years received 
every assistance and courtesy in my studies in Modern 
French Art. 


In a book of this size it is impossible to give 
anything approaching a complete list of the works 
of each painter and sculptor. I have not therefore 
attempted to do more than indicate a few of the best 
examples ; and those — ^as far as possible — are taken 
from among works I have myself seen. Many well- 
known pictures in private collections both in England, 
France and America, I have been obliged to omit, 
owing to the extreme difficulty of tracing their present 
owners. I shall be grateful for any communications 
on this point, from the possessors of French pictures, 
ancient or modem. 

It has also been impossible to include certain 
branches of French Art. The enamels of Limoges, 
and the pottery of Bernard Palissy, would lead on 
to the porcelain of Sevres, to the modern decorative 
glass and pottery of Gall^, Thesmar, and many more. 
But these would need a volume to themselves ; and, 
as life is short, it was necessary to put some limit to 
this attractive and interesting subject. I have there- 
fore confined myself to the three great fellow arts of 
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting. And if my 
poor words help in any degree to a better knowledge 
of the art and aims of our sister country, I shall be 
more than rewarded for my labour. 


28/^ February, 1899. 



I. INTRODUCTION. The French Race and Soil— An 

Outline of French Art 1 

II. Architecture and Sculpture before the Renais- 
sance, 1100-1500 15 

III. The Renaissance in France, 1475-1589 37 

IV. Architects of the Renaissance 52 

V. Sculptors of the Renaissance 74 

VI. Painters of the Renaissance 88 

VII. Art under Henri IV. and Louis XIII., 1589-1643... 105 

VIII. Reign of Louis XIV.— The Academy and Painters 131 

IX. Reign of Louis XIV. (con^mtitft/)— Architects and 


X. The Art of the Eighteenth Century 187 

XI. Art of the Eighteenth Century (con^inu^d)— Sculp- 
tors AND Architects 220 

XII. What the Revolution did for Art 241 

XIII. Art of the Nineteenth Century— The Classics ... 257 

XIV. The Romantics 284 

XV. The Landscape Painters 302 

XVI. The Peasant Painters 324 



Art of the Nineteenth Century {continued) — 

XVII. Military Painters 343 

XVIII. Genre Painters and Orientalists 307 

XIX. Portrait Painters 389 

XX. Imaginative Painters. Decorative Painters. 

Idealists. Symbolists 405 

XXI. The Impressionists ... 429 

XXII. Architecture of the Nineteenth Century 449 

XXIII. Sculpture of the Nineteenth Century — 1. The 

xIONCjCjKo ... ... ... ... ... ... ... *X.t\j 

XXIV. French Sculpture of the Nineteenth Century— 2. 

Contemporary Sculptors and Medallists 489 

A A^ X^ M2j ^^ ••• ••• ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• ••• ••• ^"XL 


1. Dicidonnaire raisonn^ de rArchitectare Fran^aise . Viollet-Le-Duo. 

2. Mus^ du Trocad^ro Viollet-Le-Duc. 

8. Qothio Architecture Prof. C. H. Mooie. 

4. La Sculptare Fran^aise au moyen age . A. de Baudot. 

5. La Sculpture Fran^aise Louis Grouse. 

6. The Renaissance ........ Walter Pater. 

7. The Renaissance of Art in France Lady Dilke. 

8. Le Louvre Babeau. 

9. La Renaissance en France L^on Palustre. 

10. Diet, des Architectes Fran^ais Baucbal. 

11. Diet, des Architectes Fran^ais Jal. 

12. Diet, des Artistes Frant^ais .... Bellier de la Chavignerie. 

13. Renaissance des Arts en France de Laborde. 

14. Catalogue of £cole Franyaise au Louvre .... F. Villot. 

15. Les Glouet. Artistes ct^l^bres Bouchot. 

16. Modern Architecture Fergusson. 

17. L'Art sous Richelieu et Mazarin Lemonnier. 

18. Le Musde National de Versailles . . . . de Nolhac et Perat^. 

19. L'Art au IS^^ si^le E. and J. de Goncourt. 

20. Watteau. Artistes cel^bres G. Dargenty. 

21. Boucher. Artistes c^l^bres Andre Michel. 

22. Greuze. Artistes cel^bres Gh. Normand. 

23. Les Artistes de mon temps . Charles Blanc. 

24. Ingres et ses oeuvres . . ' Charles Blanc. 

26. Musde du Louvre Th^ophile Gautier. 

26. Peintres et Sculpteurs contemporains .... Jules Claretie. 

27. Corot, Souvenirs intimes Henri Daumesnil. 

28. Les chef d'oeuvres de TArt au 19>ne si^le, Vol. 1 . Andr^ Michel. 


29. Hist, du Departement de Sculpture modeme, Louvre Gourajod. 

90. Le Musee des MoDumeutB Fran^ais .... Alexandre Lenoir. 

31. La Capitale de TArt Albert Wolff. 

32. Maitres et petits-maltres Ph. Burty. 

33. The Barbizon School D. Croal Thomson. 

34. J. F. Millet, sa vie et ses oeuvres Sensier. 

35. Courbet Cmto. H. d'Ideville. 

36. Jules Bastien-Lepage Julia ^L Ady 

37. Charlet Armand Dayot. 

38. Kaffet Annand Dayot. 

39. L'Lcole Orientalist Leonce Benedite. 

40. L'Art Modcmo Andr^ Michel. 

41. Manet Bazire. 

42. Souvenirs de M^nct . ...... . . Antonin Proust 

43. Critique d'Avant Garde . . ... . . Theodore Duret. 

Gazette des Beaux Arts, Ist, 2nd, and Srd series. 

"Salons" by MM. G. Lafenestre, Andn'* Michel, Roger Marx, Leonce 
Benedite, Armand Dayot, etc«, etc. 


o.* - - - 

c ... 

G.O.* - 

M. DB l'Inbt. 

M. DE L*ACAD. Fb. 

Bib. Nat, - 

Clievalier of the Legion of Honour, 
Officier of the Legion of Honour. 
Commandeur of the Legion of Honour. 
Grand Officier of the Legion of Honour 
Membre de VInstitut, 
Membre de VAcctdHnie Fran^aise. 
BUioth^que Nationale^ Paris, 




French Art, at more than one period of its being so widely 
known, so justly celebrated, and exercising so great an in- 
fluence on the Art of Northern Europe, has for a consider- 
able time been completely ignored in England. Our national 
collections — with the one exception, so recent that it cannot be 
taken into account, of Hertford House — contain few examples 
of French pictures or sculptures later than the days of 
Poussin and Claude Lorraine, of Jean Goujon and Germain 
Pilon. And it is safe to say that no modern nation has been 
so ignorant of what French Art has accomplished in the last 
hundred years, as England. 

Within the last decade, however, a remarkable awaken- 
ing of interest has been manifested. This has been mainly 
due to two causes. First, to the efforts of private collectors, 
who have generously allowed the public to see the master- 
pieces in their possession of Corot and Eousseau, Millet, 
Diaz, Troyon, Daubigny, and many others. Secondly, to the 
extraordinary impulse given by the memorable Centennial 
Exhibition of 1889 in Paris, where a unique opportunity was 
afforded to the civilized world of studying the progress of 
French Art since the Eevolution. English artists are now 
beginning to complain that it is not just that they should be 
forced to go out of their own country to study the work of 
their French brethren. And the English Art-loving public 
is slowly waking up to the fact, that a great and splendid 
expression of Art has existed and does still exist across the 

Channel — a national Art, as important, in many respects, 



as the Art of Italy and Spain, beyond which two countries 
a large majority never dream of looking. 

Believing in the extreme importance and value of this 
artistic expression, both in the past and in the present, the 
endeavour of this book will be to supply English people with 
a guide, which will enable them not only to make fuller 
acquaintance with the works of Modern French artists, but 
enable them to judge French Art as a whole. A guide which 
will give them some insight into the history and develop- 
ment of French Art, which for 800 years has stood alone, 
individual and national, untouched by the schools of neigh- 
bouring nations. A guide which will show why it has 
flourished with such remarkable vigour, and what are the 
tendencies of race and soil which have contributed to its 
growth, and its often repeated renaissance. 

We have therefore to ask, what are the influences which 
have fostered the growth of French Art? And by Art, 
Sculpture and Painting alone are not meant. In studying 
this subject it is necessary to take that wider acceptation 
of the term, which happily is obtaining more and more in 
modern days. We must not ignore Architecture, of which 
Sculpture was but the handmaid, until she grew strong 
enough to stand alone. Nor must we forget the miniatures, 
the medals, the ivories, the enamels, the decorative metal 
work. All these bear their part in French Art. All have 
helped in perfecting that expression of the artistic sense in 
France, which has set its stamp of exquisite taste and dis- 
tinct artistic quality on all that the nation has produced, 
whether in the so-called ** Fine-Arts," or in manufactures. 
The same artistic sense which has made French literature 
a model of form, distinction, and purity of diction to the 
whole world. 

We believe that an intimate connection exists between 
the Art of a nation and its literature, and that both are 
influenced by its social and political conditions. We further 
believe that the intellectual and artistic activity of a nation 
is, to a very great extent, formed and modified by its geo- 
graphic aspects. And in France it would seem that each 


province, differing widely in racial as well as in geographic 
character, has brought a distinct note of its own to add to 
the general harmony of the French genius. 

In other nations we see that their Art has undoubtedly 
been affected by conditions of race, soil, and climate. 

The blue sky and blue waves of Italy — its vines, and oUves, 
and cypress groves, the grace and charm of its women, in 
whom the mysterious attraction of the goddess of antiquity 
seems to live afresh, were predestined to produce that most 
perfect flower of Art, which has made the whole country a 
shrine. And to that shrine a ceaseless stream of devotees 
have flocked for hundreds of years, paying eternal homage 
to etemaJ beauty. In Spain — the land of fierce adventure 
and passionate serenade, severe in its natural aspects, with 
a people of strongly-marked characteristics, tough as their 
own Toledo blades, gloomy and fanatical in their religion 
— we get the very key to Spanish Art. And the inex- 
pressible charm which reigns over the English landscape 
— the sense of tranquil security — the country life and 
love of nature which are so closely bound up with the life 
of the whole nation — the deep, heavy colour — the moist 
verdure of hedgerow and pasture, woodland and moorland 
— to aJl these elements we owe our great landscape artists, 
who have so nobly interpreted the solid, steadfast, yet tender 
beauty of their country. 

France is in some respects the most richly-dowered 
country on earth, both in the characteristics of her race and 
in the diversity of her natural gifts. And France has always 
captivated the world by her very contradictions. Despite 
momentary irritations and impatiences, she^ must always be> 
not only to her children, but to all who have once experienced 
her subtle charm, what she was called of old — " La douce 
France ". Her race, composed of many elements, has pre- 
served the characteristics of each, and gradually fused them 
into a harmonious whole. 

From her Boman Conquerors, from the Latinized Gauls 
of Narbonne and Acquitaine, France derives, besides her 
language, the taste for unification and authority, precision. 


distinctness, lucidity. With their irruption into Gaul, the 
Burgundian tribes brought their skill as artizans from beyond 
the mountains. And '' the Gothic people almost immediately 
'* after their settlement in Acquitaine, manifested a singular 
'* aptitude for a yet higher civilization ". From her original 
inhabitants, the Gauls, she gets that courage which, as Sir 
James Stephen says, **when unchilled by oppression and 
** slavery was of an almost incomparable ardour. Keenly 
** susceptible of every kind of impulse, impelled into speech 
** and action by a restless constitutional vivacity, fickle of 
** purpose, impatient of the tranquil rule of law, and involved 
" in perpetual disunions with each other, this ingenious, 
** volatile enthusiastic race might seem to have been moulded 
" by the hand of nature herself, as a living antithesis to 
** their Teutonic Conquerors (the Franks). The subtle, in- 
** sinuating, courteous Gaul despised, even while he obeyed, 
** the sluggish, simple-minded German ; and found inex- 
** haustible food for ridicule in his blunt speech and phleg- 
'* matic demeanour. The Gaul yielded himself recklessly to 
'* every gust of emotion. The German lived under the con- 
^' trol of passions as measured in their outward manifestation, 
"** as they were fervent and enduring in reality. The Gaul 
'* . . . was egregiously vain. The German neither rendered 
** nor coveted any idolatrous homage, but meditating the in- 
** terests of his nation, or his tribe, merged his own fame in 
'* theirs, and cheerfully abandoned his separate purposes to 
*' promote the designs of his associates in policy or in arms." 

Thus from the mercurial, emotional Gauls, and from their 
phlegmatic, but equally passionate Frankish Conquerors, 
France derives, besides courage, enthusiasm for noble causes, 
the desire for self-devotion, not exempt perhaps from a 
certain curiosity with regard to the afifairs of others, her elo- 
quence, her vivacity, and that imaginative faculty in which 
her children take refuge as an escape from the unhappy 
realities of hfe, which are too often their own handiwork. 

The soil of France is as rich in diversities as the elements 
that go to make up her race. And, as with her race, these 
manifold diversities in no way impair that unity, which is the 


object France always has in view, and which is an absolute 
necessity to the French race. 

At one extreme we find Flanders, with its wide expanse 
of flat, fertile country, inhabited by a stolid and masculine 
people. At the other, those provinces of the South, where 
the soft languor of nature, basking lazily in the sun, does 
not hinder the southern character from being vigorously 
equipped for the struggles or excitements of commerce or 
politics — even as the fierce mistral sweeps across the sunlit 
land. There is Brittany — the Armorica of the ancient Gauls 
— dreamy and passionate, with its mysterious landes, peopled 
with supernatural beings who form part of the everyday life 
of the Breton peasant. Brittany, with its robust and serious 
faith, which makes even the most sceptical bow his head as 
the Pardon passes by. Brittany, where* the love even of the 
poorest is pervaded with an element of tender and rehgious 

'* Belle amie, ainsi vas dc nous 

** Ni vous sans moi, ui moi sans vous." 

Champagne, light and ■ sparkling as its own wine. The 
Lyonnais, where, above the busy factories and workshops, 
rises the mystic spire of Notre Dame de Fourviferes. Nor- 
mandy, of fat pastures and racy legends ; whose faithful, hard- 
working race, despite their matter-of-fact appearance, are 
as solid and sturdy as the architecture that bears their name. 
Poitou, which Scaliger called the ** Soul of France '* ; a 
luminous centre of civilization in the dark ages of her history. 
The rugged, volcanic Auvergne, with its industrious people, 
the hewers of wood and drawers of water for the whole of 
France. Touraine where the language is so pure, the 
laugh so hearty and wholesome, and Chateaux and Palaces of 
King and Courtier lie scattered thick along her noble rivers. 
'* L'aimable et vineuse Bourgogne." And Paris, where 
France finds her supreme expression. 

The French soil, therefore, with its unique variations, 
has undoubtedly been a considerable factor in moulding 
the French race, formed in its turn of such diverse elements. 
And all outside attempts to destroy the whole that we call 


France, have only resulted in welding these various and 
widely differing particles into a great unity. For, although 
at times the very existence of France may appear to be im- 
perilled by internal dissensions, all are forgotten if her 
integrity is menaced from without. And it is the actual 
exaggeration of that love of the Patrie — so admirable in 
itself — that leads France, at times, to make herself somewhat 
absurd in the eyes of calmer and less \avacious nations. 
For go where you will, place him in what circumstances 
you will, the Frenchman — be he from Normandy or Bor- 
deaux, from Provence or from Brittany, remains essentially 
French ; and will always be more French than anything 

Sensitive, quick-witted, impulsive, suspicious of other 
nations and ready to take offence, truly patriotic, believing 
in the absolute superiority of his own country over all others 
on earth, the Frenchman, that mixture of Latin, Gaul and 
Franc, is above all an Artist. His delight is in the ex- 
pression of the beautiful in well-ordered form — whether in 
literature — in the Fine Arts — in the cooking of his food — or 
in the trimming of a bonnet. And this keen artistic sense, 
does not merely belong to the educated classes of France. 
It belongs to the very soil. It manifests itself in all parts 
of France. It has done so from the earliest days of her 
history. Those untaught, untrained, nameless monks, who 
covered the Cathedrals of Provence and Acquitaine, Flanders 
and risle de France with sculpture, were sons of the people. 
If we examine the biographies of French artists, we find 
that a large proportion of those who have distinguished 
themselves in painting or sculpture, from the 15th century 
to the present day, have been the sons of poor peasants. In 
French literature it is the same. The most exquisite literary 
taste has been cradled in the peasant's hut, or on the small 
farm. This has been seen during the last twenty years in 
the remarkable poetic revival in Provence ; where it has 
fallen out at the annual meeting of the Felibres, that the 
writer of the prize poem of the year cannot attend to receive 
her prize, because her father needs her help in the hay field. 


Art in France is indeed the heritage of the people. And 
even where it does not attain that full expression which 
makes the Artist, the artistic sense, which belongs to France, 
makes itself felt in every industrial product, in every manu- 
facture. Each dainty article de Paris that we buy for a few 
pence — each yard of stuff — besides being admirably well- 
made, possesses a certain distinction and grace, a harmony 
of colour and design, that in the course of centuries has 
made Paris the arbiter of fashion for the world. And do 
not let us treat this matter too hghtly. It is not the result 
of mere chance, or of a passing fancy. A far deeper signi- 
ficance underlies it. For it is the evidence of forces which 
have won this position by some intrinsic merit of their own. 

The French spirit is intensely articulate. Though the 
thought may not be of the deepest or the greatest, the ex- 
pression of that thought, whether in Art or in literature, is 
always perfectly lucid ; put in the most admirableTform ; and 
fearless, because deeply convinced. That love of the C!On- 
crete rather than of the abstract, which leads France into 
the worship of an exaggerated bureaucratic system, of an 
excessive centralization, enables her also to see the goal 
clearly, and to make direct for it without hesitation or un- 
certainty. There is nothing tentative or nebulous in the 
works of Art or of literature that France has produced. 
That conscience in intellectual matters, which, as Matthew 
Arnold tells us, the Frenchman possesses in such an emi- 
nent degree — ** his active belief that there is a right and a 
** wrong in them, that he is bound to honour and obey the 
** right, that he is disgraced by cleaving to the wrong" — is 
brought to bear on all that he does. It is to be seen and 
felt in his plays, his pictures, his buildings, his manufactures. 
And the reason why we go to France for our china, our 
jewels, our gowns, our stuffs — the reason why we are be- 
ginning to go to France for our pictures and our statues — 
is, that the production of each, whether costly or of no value, 
shows the evidence of that intellectual conscience, which for 
hundreds of years has trained and guided the taste of the 
whole nation. 


The ground is ready — prepared by a series of fortuitous 
circumstances, by qualities of exceptional variety and value 
in race and soil. We have now to see what is the crop it 
brings forth. 

French genius may be said to be the harmonious result 
of two tendencies which at first sight are contradictor^\ The 
taste for positive realizations, and imaginative sentiment. 
And French genius has always shown itself triumphant in 
the handling of those two primordial forms of Art, which are 
the outcome of these tendencies — Architecture, and its im- 
mediate successor Sculpture. The Gallo-Franc is by nature 
an architect and a sculptor. And no people have brought a 
more lively invention, a more sustained and closely reasoned 
logic, a more continuous power of renewal, of fresh growth, 
to bear on these two expressions of the aesthetic idea, than 
the French. 

The object of this book will be to give in as far as 
is possible, a consecutive history of the growth of French 
Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting from the 12th century 
to the present day. And to demonstrate that French 
Art has throughout been in sympathy with the national 
characteristics of the country, and of the people of France. 

In Architecture we shall glance at the early styles. 

The Eomanesque of the Gallo-Eoman provinces of 
Provence and Auvergne ; and the Eomanesque or Norman of 
Bayeux and Caen. The Gothic, which had its origin in the 
very heart of France ; and the Flamboyant, which marks its 
beautiful decay. Then we shall watch the effect of the 
Italian Eenaissance on French architects. The gradual de- 
velopment of the purely French style, in those Chateaux 
that clustered down the Loire like beads upon a rosary — 
those palaces that sprang up in and about Paris, now at 
length the real capital of the Kingdom. The magnificences, 
severe and ofl&cial, of the reign of Louis XIV. The later 
Classic revival of the end of the 18th century. And we shall 
study the Uves and aims of the brilliant line of architects from 
Bullant, De TOrme and Pierre Lescot, from Le Vau and 
Mansart, Le Mercier and Perrault, to Fontaine and Percier, 


Labrouste and Visconti, Brongniart and Duban, Viollet-le- 
Dnc and Charles Gamier. 

We shall see how Sculpture, from being a mere accessory 
to Architecture, develops under the humanists of the French 
Eenaissance into a noble and distinct art, in the hands of 
such masters as Jean Goujon, Germain Pilon, Pierre 

It was a gradual development. And to trace it from its 
source is a task of deep interest and import. 

Sculpture, up to the end of the 13th century was almost 
wholly rehgious. For Architecture till that period was 
almost exclusively in the hands of the Church, and was the 
expression of the religious idea. But as early as Louis le Gros* 
accession in 1108 we get the first faint sign of Naturahsm. 
It is shown primarily in ornament. The leaf of the French 
Arum appears in capitals. A little later we find it in the treat- 
ment of figures. And gradually the Byzantine ideal dies out, 
when Naturalist begins to take the place of Hieratic Art about 
1150, as we may see in the figures of Bourges and Chartres. 

In the reign of Philippe- Auguste (1180-1223), when 
Royalty and the Church turn to the laity for help, the great 
expansion of sculptural Art — the building of the Cathedrals — 
is reached. Gothic Art, strong, fertile, fully equipped, is 
ready to make its superb response to the extraordinary de- 
mands made upon it. And we find the sculptors of the 
13th century are more than capable of carrying out the 
tremendous programme laid before them. For they now 
draw their inspiration, not from an effete Byzantinism, but 
from the wells of truth itself. And they create an original, 
national, Uving, expressive art, admirably suited to its object 
— " picturesque while it is grave, delicate while it remains 
" monumental, an art at once free, ingenuous, flexible and 
*' varied, the eloquent interpreter of the religious thought 
** which inspires it — the docile assistant of those architectural 
" forms, of which its Mission is to accentuate the decorative 
** functions". And Sculpture, like Architecture, gradually 
becomes the exact expression of the habits, the climate, the 
social conditions, and the very race of France. 


At the end of the 13th century, four great Schools of 
Sculpture, each bring their special territorial expression to 
the history of the Art — Champagne — Picardy — Burgundy — 
He de France. In the 14th century however, an important 
change takes place in Sculpture. Architecture has now 
become an exact Science. Sculpture, like Painting, turns 
towards a closer expression of reality. Art, as a whole, is 
tending towards Naturalism. We find what has been aptly 
called " rinqui^tude du portrait ". And we see how this 
preoccupation with the exact portrait, which has been de- 
veloping for half a century in the purely French provinces, 
gains a footing in Flanders, and thence spreads all over 
France. Sculptors now become known by name and gather 
schools about them. Jean d'Arras, to whose chisel we owe 
the earliest Eoyal statue in marble, that of Philippe le 
Hardi (1298-1307), the first of the superb series of authentic 
effigies of the Kings of France. Andre Beauneveu of Valen- 
ciennes. Jean de Cambrai, one of the strongest individualities 
in French Sculpture. And that great Flemish-Burgundian, 
Claux Sluter, whose Philippe le Hardi, Duke of Burgundy, 
at Dijon, has been justly compared as a work of art to some 
of the greatest statues of the 16th, 18th and 19th centuries. 

This brings us to the end of the 15th century and the 
dawn of the French Renaissance ; to a strong territorial ex- 
pression of French Art, the rise of the School of Tours, with 
that noble artist Michel Colombe at its head. And although 
it has been repeatedly asserted that this was a period of 
seniUty — that the French genius was worn out, and needed 
the infusion of new blood from Italy — later and less prejudiced 
research has demonstrated that the racial energy was so 
deeply rooted — the vital force of French Sculpture so intense 
— that it was able to maintain the continuity of a national 
ideal of Art — a logical evolution, through the Franco-Flemish, 
from the old Gothic foundation. In the early Renaissance 
period the architectural form remains Gothic. It is only 
ornament that becomes Italian for a time. And French 
Sculpture really bore the mark of Italy for a very short period. 
Under Fran9ois I. (1515-1547) there was a pause, when Sculp- 

1100-1899. THE FRENCH RACE AND SOIL. 11 

ture became purely decorative and architectural again. But 
this was only a pause to gather fresh strength. For it was 
followed by the great national revival under Henri II. 
(1547-1559), when French Art blossomed once more with 
renewed vigour ; and the permanent instincts of the race 
triumphed over formulas which seemed destined to obscure 
them for ever. That splendid period, when Philibert de 
rOrme and Pierre Bontemps erected the world - famous 
tomb of Fran9ois I. — when Germain Pilon sculptured his 
Birague — and the immortal Jean Goujon gave us the de- 
corations of the Louvre and the Fontaine des Innocents, 
the Dian^ Chasseresse, and how many more masterpieces. 

We then reach the Naturalist reaction under Louis XIII. 
and the successors of Germain Pilon. The ** Siecle de 
Louis XTV." with its Girardon and Desjardins, its Pierre 
Pujet and Coysevox. The purely French Art of the 18th 
century with the Coustous, Bouchardon, Pigalle, the Caffieri, 
Pajou, Houdon. And so we come to the Eevolution — the 
dawning of the 19th century — and all the noble Modern 
School of sculptors, from Rude and the great Barye, to Car- 
peaux and Falgui^re — Fremiet and Mercie — Guillaume and 
Chapu — Saint Marceaux and Rodin. 

While speaking of Sculpture we must also give space to 

the series of French Medals — a form of Art flourishing 

during the Renaissance under Guillaume Martin, Guillaume 

Dupre, Jean Warin, and Germain Jacquet. And now carried 

to what seems the summit of artistic attainment, by Pons- 

carme, Michel Cazin, Dupuis, Chaplain, Patey, and that 

supreme master, Roty. And some mention must be made of 

the ivories, especially those of the 13th and 14th centuries ; 

when great and nameless artists produced such chefs- 

d'oeuvres as the Descente de Croix of the Louvre, the 

Couronnement de la Vienje, and the entrancing Vierge de la 

Sainte Chapelle. 

In the history of French Painting, to which a great part 
of this book will naturally be devoted, considerable difficulty 
and obscurity exists when we attempt to trace its very be- 
ginnings. Sculpture and Architecture had reached a high 


point of attainment before painting began to hold its own in 
France. The earliest paintings are to be found in missals. 
The earliest existing portraits are miniatures in manuscripts. 
And this exquisite art of miniature painting has flourished 
with almost unrivalled success in France, from anonymous 
monks in the 13th century, to Gerbier and Petitot in the 17th, 
Isabey, Guerin, Augustin, Frederic Millet, etc., in the 18th 
and 19th centuries. 

The long roll of authentic French artists begins in the 
15th century, with Jehan Fouquet of Tours, and King Rene 
of Anjou. But the distinctive French School can hardly be 
said to exist before the 16th century, which opens gloriously 
with those renowned portrait artists the Clouets, Jean, and 
Fran9ois his son, both *' peintres du roi " ; with Jean Cousin, 
and Comeille de Lyon. While a httle later, we find Simon 
Vouet, the father of French Orientahsts ; the Le Nains, 
whose poignant pictures of the peasant seem to presage 
the work and aims of Jean Francois Millet, nearly 300 
years before he lived ; and the great Poussin. In the 17th 
century under Louis XIV., artists take their profession 
seriously. The Academy is founded. And Art becomes 
aristocratic and official — depending on the King and the 
government for long years to come — under the system of 
unification and order, instituted by Louis XIV. and Col- 
bert. And now such great names stand out in the crowd 
of painters as Gaspar Poussin (Dughet) and Claude Lorraine 
in landscape ; the lofty and dehcate talent of Le ScBur ; 
Mignard, Largillifere and Eigaud, and the triumphant 
Le Brun. 

With the 18th century comes a reaction against official- 
ism — a return to a gayer, softer, less rigid view of life 
and Art than that of the Grand Steele, We delight in 
Watteau and Lancret, Chardin and Boucher, Greuze and 
Fragonard. While Nattier and Tocque paint the powder and 
paint, the silks and satins of the society of Fetes galantes. 
It is then that the first real intercourse takes place between 
Art and Letters, in the relations of the Philosophers and the 
artists. Art Criticism begins; and Diderot talks of ** locai 

1100-1899. THE FRENCH RACE AND SOIL. 13 

colour ". Then the Revolution bursts upon the world. And 
we find that far from destroying Art, it is to the Revolution 
that Modem Art owes its life. For though in places, the mob 
destroyed many priceless works of Art, the chiefs of the 
Revolution did all in their power to preserve them. The 
Convention organized Museums and Schools of Art, in- 
stituted pubUc exhibitions of pictures, fostered the Academy 
of Rome, created the Museum of the Louvre — and in short 
gave French Art that without which no Art can flourish — 
that of which it had so long been deprived — Liberty. 

At the end of the 18th century we find a fresh Classic 
revival. Its history, the tendencies and the results of the 
Classic school of David and his successors, are of high im- 
portance in any study of the art of the 19th century. While 
the reaction against this false classicism, in the so-called 
Romantic movement under Gericault and Delacroix, is of 
even greater interest. In 1830 we reach the Naturalist re- 
vival — Corot and Rousseau, Dupre and Diaz, Daubigny, 
Harpignies, and Troyon, and all that they have taught the 
modern world. Then the painters of the Peasant — that 
evidence of the Democratic spirit of the age — the great 
Millet — the revolutionary Courbet — Bastien-Lepage, Jules 
Breton, and many more. 

With the Military" painters we again watch the evolution 
of the democratic idea — from Gros, Charlet, Raffet, and the 
Wars of Napoleon, to the terrible struggle of 1870, and its 
painters, De Neuville and Detaille. 

The endless series of Genre painters we shall find sub- 
divided into many groups, as we study the painters of Still 
Life, the Neo-Greeks of 1848, the Modem Classics, the 
painters of History and literature, of everyday hfe, whether 
of town or country or sea-shore. And that Uving and grow- 
ing school of Orientalists, which began with Simon Vouet 
in the 16th century, and numbers among its members such 
men as Delacroix, Decamps, Fromentin, Henri Regnault, 
and many another fine artist of the present day. The 
Portrait painters too repay serious study. And thus we 
reach the most modem developments of French Art. The 



Decorative painters, from Delacroix to the great master, 
Puvis de Chavannes. The SymboHsts, Ideahsts, Mystics, 
such as Gustave Moreau, and Henri Martin. And lastly 
the Impressionist school of to-day, from Manet to Claude 

All through the long centuries from 1100 to 1900, the 
vital energy of French Art, drawn from those varied elements 
of the race and soil of France, has enabled it to stand alone, 
to be itself. While invaded from time to time by foreign 
influences, such is the inherent vigour of the French race 
and French genius, that it has at last always succeeded in 
using those influences for its own ends, subordinating them 
to its own purposes, bending them to its service — not yield- 
ing up its own individuality to them. 

French Art has been true to itself — true to the dominant 
characteristics of the French race. 

As Joubert says ** En France, il semble qu'on aime lea 
** arts pour en juger bien plus que pour en jouir ". And so 
the French race has always been more intellectual than 
impressionable — more reasonable than moral — more literary 
than poetic — ''Uprise de clarte'* — often putting a practical 
business capacity in the place of common-sense — finding its 
highest artistic pleasure in the perfect order of architectural 
lines — making unity the guiding principle of its politics, 
its Uterature, its art. But, in fine, always clinging with 
passionate devotion to what it takes for truth, and to that 
lucidity of expression which is one of the most admirable 
forms of self-respect. 






" That which distinguishes French from all other European 
" Architecture, is, that during more than ten centuries it has 
" been cultivated in various original schools which came into 
** being spontaneously in different provinces, working in emula- 
tion of each other on different principles and with different 
methods, each imprinting on its works its special character 
" and yet a national stamp. From the 11th century each of 
" our provinces had its artists, its traditions, its system ; and 
" this astonishing variety in art has produced chefs-d'ceuvres 
" in almost every case. For all over France the genius of our 
" artists has left the strong impress of its grandeur and its 

Until the end of the 13th century. Architecture is almost 
exclusively in the hands of the Church, and is the aesthetic 
expression of the religious spirit. The castles and palaces 
were to a great extent mere strongholds or fortresses — 
Chateaux-forts — as their name denotes. Protection from 
danger, not beauty of living, was their use. It is therefore 
to the Churches and Abbeys that we must look for the 
earliest dawnings of architectural and sculptural art. 

From the time that Charlemagne introduced the civihzing 
influences of arts and letters from Rome and Spain, to his 
barbarous populations, French Architecture has steadily 
developed on perfectly national lines. Fifty years after his 
death, those germs of the feudal system which already 
existed among the Franks, reasserted themselves. The 

1 Viollet-le-Duc. 



kingdom he had so laboriously welded together, broke up 
into separate provinces; and as M. VioUet-le-Duc points 
out, the particular genius of each province is reflected in the 
architectural monuments of the 9th and 10th centuries. 
** During the 11th and 12th centuries this diversity is 
**yet more marked. Each province forms a school. The 
'* feudal system reacts on architecture ; and as each noble 
*' shuts himself up in his domain, as each diocese isolates 
** itself from the neighbouring diocese, so, step by step, the 
** art of building follows this new political organization. 
** The builders no longer seek their precious materials afar 
** ofif, they no longer use the same receipts ; they work on 
** their own ground, employ the materials within their reach, 
** modify their usages by reason of the climate in which they 
** live, and yield to purely local influences." ^ 

Hitherto art had been wholly confined to the limits of 
the cloister. The Abbey of Cluny (a.d. 909) enfranchised 
by the Pope from all dependence on King, bishop, or noble, 
was not only the type of all Abbeys of the Order of Cluny, 
but ** simple parishes, rural buildings, public monuments in 
**the cities, took these centres of richness and light as their 
** models". 

At the beginning of the 11th century the feudal system 
was fully organized ; and Bishops and Abbots exercised the 
same feudal rights as the lay lords : the Church thus losing 
its purely spiritual character, and becoming a secular power, 
opposed to that of the nobles. But now the people, jealous 
of the oppressive wealth and power of the Abbeys and of the 
feudal lords, used the opportunities offered by the struggle 
between the Church and the laity, and the series of civil 
wars which the feudal system engendered, to enfranchise 
themselves. And the Communes, destined to play so remark- 
able a part in French Architecture, were organized. From 
the 8th century each great monastery had had its atehera 
of builders, carpenters, goldsmiths, sculptors, painters, etc^ 
The lay corporations for these various trades which soo 

^ Viollet-le-Duc, Diet, de V Architecture Fran^aisc. 


sprang up within the Communes, followed the system of the 
monastic organization. And until the end of the 12th century, 
Architecture, even in the hands of lay architects, preserved 
much of its theocratic, origin. 

One voice alone was raised against the growing artistic 
splendour of Monasteries and Churches. All the Monas- 
teries built under the inspiration of Saint Bernard, ** marked 
" by a severity of style very uncommon at that moment, 
" contrast with the richness of the Abbeys under the order 
** of Cluny". But Saint Bernard's reformation was per- 
sonal not national. It was contrary' to the genius of the 
Gallo-Eoman population. His establishments, at the end of 
the 12th century, were left, the isolated protest of a single 
man, against the taste of a whole nation. While Archi- 
tecture, whether religious or civil, made use of every 
resource that sculpture or painting could afiford for its 

French Architecture before the Renaissance is of two 
styles. Romanesque, and that which grew by a logical evolu- 
tion from Romanesque — Gothic. 

In these two styles many diversities and subdivisions are 
to be found, dependent mainly on those racial and climatic 
influences of which I have already spoken. But they are 
distinguished by two absolute principles. In Romanesque, 
the principle of inert stability. In Gothic, that of a perfectly 
scientific principle of exquisitely - balanced equilibrium.' 
Strength distinguishes the Romanesque style. Logical and 
symmetrical beauty and grace the Gothic. 

The early Romanesque Church, built on the lines of the 
Latin Basilica, is marked by massive walls, small apertures, 
horizontal lines, absence of vaultings, thick round pillars, 
round-headed arches — simplicity and inert strength. In 
the later Romanesque buildings, signs of the coming change 
J are found in the general use of vaultings and the conse- 
quent necessity for buttresses. To this I will refer later. 
Romanesque in France is of two styles — that of Southern 
Gaul, the part of France in closest contact with Roman 

and Byzantine influence. And that of Normandy, and 




consequently of England. Let us, following the lines laid 
down by VioUet-le-Duc, first glance at that of Southern Gaul. 

In the 11th century many antique buildings remained 
almost intact, in the valleys of the Rhone and Sa6ne, from 
Marseilles to Chalons. And the Roman remains, found so 
abundantly in Provence, are reproduced in the details — even 
where the whole has been modified to suit fresh conditions — 
of the churches- of Thor, V^nasqueSy Penies, the porches of Notre 
Dame dcs Dons at Avignon, Saint Trophy vie at Aries, and 
Saint Gilles. The constant intercourse of the coast towns 
with the East, is manifested in the Byzantine type of orna- 
ment as well as in the general idea. Higher up the Rhone 
this type changes, as it comes in contact with a second 
Oriental influence from the east of the Rhine. For while 
in the 12th century the Mediterranean Coasts were in direct 
communication with the East, the Byzantine art of the 
Trans-Rhenan provinces had existed from the time of 
Charlemagne, modified of course by local causes. A singu- 
lar admixture of these two architectural influences is to be 
found in the Haute-Sa6ne, Burgundy and Champagne. 
And yet the result is harmonious, in the hands of men who 
probably worked in complete ignorance of the origin of 
the ideas they used, as seen in the church of Tournus, the 
Abbeys of V^zelay, Charlieu and Clnny, 

But there were other channels, as Viollet-le-Duc points 
out, by which the Oriental influence penetrated the Gallo- 
Roman provinces. The Abbey Church of Saint Front, Peri" 
gueuxy founded in a.d. 984, was built exactly on the plan of 
Saint Mark's, Venice, either under the direction of a French- 
man who had studied Saint Mark's (built a few years before), 
or of a Venetian. But in either case by Gallo-Roman work- 
men. For if the architecture — a Church with cupolas upon 
pendentives — is Venetian, ** the construction and details of 
** the ornamentation belong to the Roman decadence, and do 
" not in any way recall the sculpture or method of building 
" employed at Saint Mark's ". Without any wish to plunge 
rashly into the controversy which rages round Saint Front 
in the architectural world at the present moment, it is 


certain that the influence of this church on the buildings of 
Acquitaine in the 11th and 12th centuries was considerable. 
And the Cathedrals of Paitiers, Anjers, and even Le Mans 
show "in the method of constructing the vaultings of the 
** great naves a last trace of the cupola ". But the extent 
and significance of this influence has been greatly exag- 
gerated. Nothing certainly is more natural than the presence 
of oriental influence in the South-west of France. For 
numerous Venetian colonies existed at Limoges and on the 
West coast, carrying the whole commerce between the 
Levant and the North of France and Britain across from 
Marseilles or Narbonne to La BocheUe or Nantes, in order 
to avoid the perils of pirates in the Straits of Gibraltar. 

Li the North of France no monuments exist prior to the 
coming of the Normans. The Danish incursions swept 
everything away. And though some traces of Merovingian 
buildings were probably existent, it is to the Normans alone 
the North owes its architecture. For once established they 
became bold and active builders. They began, as was natural 
with conquerors, by castles as fortresses. But with their 
shrewd sense, they soon recognized the importance of the 
clergy ; and it only took them a century and a half to cover 
the land with buildings, rehgious, monastic, and civil, of a 
richness and magnitude very unusual at that time, bringing 
to bear upon architecture their national genius, positive, 
grand, somewhat barbaric, and yet singularly detached and 
fearless. The Normans also, had constant intercourse with 
the East. But with them the Eastern influence was not mani- 
fested in construction, as in Acquitaine, but in decoration. 
To the first Crusades and the Norman conquests in Sicily 
and Spain, those gorgeous stuffs are due which appear in all 
tombs and paintings of the 12th century. And while in 
Kormandy the architectural forms follow the Gallo-Roman or 
the Bomanesque traditions, the decoration of the 11th and 

12th centuries is Levantine. The noblest examples of 
I Northern Bomanesque, are the Abbey Churches of la Trinite 

and Saint-Etiefine, Caen, commonly called VAhbaye aux Davies, 

and VAbbaye aux Hommes. 


The Eomanesque Church, as I have said, is built on the 
plan of the Latin Basilica, modified to suit the requirements 
of Christian worship. In the 10th century the apse was the 
only portion in which vaultings were found. The nave and 
aisles were covered with timber-work. But this presented 
constant dangers from decay and from fire. And gradually 
stone vaults were adopted. The system of vaulting the 
basilica differed greatly in dififerent parts of France. In 
Acquitaine the cupolas of Saint Front affected the roofs of 
many churches. In Auvergne, and following the Loire as 
far north as Nevers, the barrel roof was adopted, with demi- 
vaults resting upon the walls of the clerestory and support- 
ing the central vault. Notre Datne du Port at Clermont- 
Ferrand, and Saint Etienyie at Nevers are perfect specimens 
of this type. "In these buildings all the thrusts of the 
** vaults are thoroughly maintained ; and it is thus they are 
** preserved intact to our day ". In Poitou, and part of the 
West and South, another system obtained. The side aisles 
were raised to the height of the nave, and the small ribbed 
or barrel vaults of these aisles supported the central vault. 
The Abbey Church of Saint-Savin near Poitiers is con- 
structed on this plan. 

Yet another difference should be remarked between the 
Northern and the Southern styles. In the Churches of 
Auvergne and the South the vaults entirely supersede the 
use of timber-work — the roof of tiles or stone resting upon 
them. While in the North, in Normandy, He de France, 
Picardy, Champagne, and Burgundy, both systems are used. 
Where the basihca is vaulted, the timber-work remains, 
bearing the roof of tiles, slates or lead. For in the cold and 
damp northern climate, roofs resting directly on the vaulting 
were quickly destroyed. And the space between, not only 
preserved the vaultings, but allowed of frequent inspection. 

When the Romanesque builders began to vault their 
naves, the necessity for buttresses was immediately felt. 
The pilaster strip, which hitherto had been httle more than 
ornamental, or at most served to stiffen the wall, was not 
enough to bear the increased pressure put on the walls by 


the vaultings. It gradually grew into a true buttress. And 
the expedients used to augment the power of resistance of 
this clerestory buttress eventually developed the idea of the 
flying-buttress. **In the Abbaye aux Hommes at Caen the 
** forms of the vaults— which date from the early part of the 
** 12th century and are among the earliest that were con- 
** structed over a nave— were such as to exert powerful 
*' thrusts. That is to say, the arches of their groins were 
** curves of low sweep, such as the Romanesque builders had 
*' derived from Roman intersecting vaults, and consequently 
'* of enormous push. To stay these vaults, the expedient 
*' was adopted of constructing demi-barrel vaults, springing 
** from the top of the aisle walls, and abutting against the 
*' wall of the nave under the aisle roofs. These demi-vaults 
** were in reahty concealed continuous flying-buttresses.*' ' 

With this development of the buttress — with the use, 
which soon followed, of independent arches or ribs along 
the groins, serving in some degree to support the vaults — 
and with the introduction of a separate *' support for each 
" rib or arch to be carried, which constitutes the functional 
" grouping of supports — we complete the list of those 
** structural improvements devised by Romanesque builders **. 
• In them we find some of the rudiments of Gothic Archi- 
tecture, which was to develop with such amazing rapidity 
into a system of triumphant and unsurpassed beauty, because 
it was the expression of a purely national Art, and responded 
to the genius and the needs of the race who produced it. 

As with the national political development, so the national 
art emanates from the heart of France — the Royal Domain 
— rile de France. At the end of the 11th and beginning of 
the 12th centuries, it was in the Domaine RoycU, with portions 
of the neighbouring provinces. Champagne, Burgundy, 
Picardy, Orl^anais, and Berry, that Gothic Architecture 
took its birth ; and its earliest perfect example is the 
glorious church of Saint Denis. The principles of Gothic 
construction are to some extent to be found in the Abbey 
Church of Morienval, For as I have endeavoured to show, it 

1 C. H. Moore. 


was suggested long before it came into being. It is not 
only derived from Bomanesque, by a logical evolution ; it 
'* is Bomanesque re-created. Every constructive member of 
** a Gothic building exists, in rudimentary form, in a vaulted 
'* Norman building." But the flying-buttress and the pointed 
arch in the ribs of the vault render the Gothic system possible 
— that highly organized skeleton, which, when its guiding 
constructive principle is once recognized and adhered to, 
may be varied in details of arrangement and decoration, 
internal and external, to a bewildering extent. 

I cannot do better than quote Professor C. H. Moore's 
masterly summing up of VioUet-le-Duc upon Gothic Architec- 
ture, which he says '* came into being as the result of the 
** development of a new constructive system of building. A^ 
** system which was a gradual evolution out of the Boman— 
'* esque ; and one whose distinctive characteristic is thafc 
** the whole character of the building is determined by, and 
** its whole strength made to reside in, a finely organized, 
"and frankly confessed, framework, rather than in walls - 
'* This framework, made up of piers, arches, and buttresses, 
*' is freed from every unnecessary encumbrance of wall, and 
** is rendered as light in all its parts as is compatible withi. 
'* strength in a system whose stability depends not upon anj.'" 
" inert massiveness, but upon a logical adjustment of active 
*' parts whose opposing forces produce a perfect equilibrium. 
'* It is thus a system of balanced thrusts, as opposed to the 
** former system of inert stability. Gothic Architecture is 
" indeed much more than such a constructive system, but it 
** is this primarily and always." 

For it must be remembered — a fact which has too often 
been ignored or misunderstood — that the difference between 
Gothic and Bomanesque Architecture is far more fundamen- 
tal than between the use of pointed as against round arches, 
or of one system of decoration as against another; thougb 
both these differences exist, and are of extreme interest and 
importance. Gothic Architecture is a living being. In its 
constructive system, in its decorative system, it is instinct 
with life. It is to nature that it goes for its decorative systeiu- 


It is to the profoundest principles of mechanical science 
that it goes for its constructive system. And thus the pure 
Gothic building rises from the earth like the tree in the forest 
— its living beauty co-existent with absolute obedience to 
architectural laws. 

The three-quarters of a century from 1150 to 1225, was a 
period unequalled in history for the number and extraordinary 
beauty of Ecclesiastical edifices which were built in the He 
de France. The charming legend at Laon which tells how 
the oxen harnessed themselves to the carts to transport stone 
for the Cathedral up the precipitous rock on which it stands, 
is but t3rpical of the fervent religious enthusiasm which pos- 
sessed the whole population, and the zeal with which they 
voluntarily gave themselves over to the building of innu- 
merable Churches and Cathedrals. It is impossible in a 
hmited space to enter fully into the Gothic renaissance. A 
mere list of Churches and Cathedrals would fill many chapters. 
For besides the great Cathedrals, Abbey Churches such as 
St. Germain des Prh, St. Leu d'Esserant, St. Remi de Reims, 
sprang up all over the face of the land. It is however to 
Saint Denis that we must turn for the earliest example of 
the pure Gothic system of construction. Senlis and Noyon 
follow Saint Denis about the middle of the 12th century. 
And the last years of the 12th and beginning of the 
13th centuries witness the building of Notre Dame de Paris, 
Notre Dame de Chartres, and the Cathedrals of Bourges, 
Laon, Soissons, Meaiix, Rouen, Cambrai, Arras, Tours, Bayeux, 
Coutances, Amiens, Rheims, Chalons, Troyes, Auxerre, Nevers and 


Sculpture first serves merely to enhance the beauty of 
architectural lines. And as it is used chiefly for religious 
purposes so we find it Byzantine in its ideal, until the 
accession of Louis le Gros, 1108. 

'* The Art of Sculpture,'' says VioUet-le-Duc, '' among 
** all the peoples who have attained a high degree of civiliza- 
'* tion, divides itself into three periods : — 


** 1. Imitation of nature following a more or less delicate 
** and intelligent interpretation. 

** 2. The Archaic epoch, during which the endeavour is 
** made to fix the types. 

** 3. The epoch of emancipation and search for truth in 
** the detail, and the perfecting of means of observation and 
** execution." 

All nations do not carry out this whole programme. 
While some work through the three periods, others only 
accomplish the two first and never get beyond the hieratic 
period. This has been the case with most Oriental peoples 
— the ancient Egyptians and the Byzantines. But in high 
civilizations — with sculptural instincts — a curious analogy 
IS seen between the productions of these three periods. 
** Thus the archaic epoch of the Greeks shows the most 
** intimate relation to the archaic epoch of the 12th century 
"in France. Certain statues in the Eoyal doorway of 
** Chartres placed beside certain figures of the archaic period 
** in Greece, reveal remarkable affinities in their manner of 
''interpreting nature, in their conception of types, and in 
** their execution." And the same analogies might be found 
in sculptures of the period of emancipation, between Greek 
Art after Phidias, and French Art after the 13th and 14th 

French Sculpture, I have said, is at first Byzantine in its 
ideal. But at the beginning of the 12th century we get the 
first suggestion of the period of emancipation — of the evolu- 
tion of natural as against hieratic Art — a suggestion very 
faint as yet, but of deep significance ; and strangely enough 
an indication already of the national character of French 
Art. For it is the leaf of a French plant — the French Arum 
of the marshes, that appears in the ornamentation of capitals, 
as we may see at Morienval, Saint-Etienne de Beauvais, Belle- 
fontaine, Camhronne, Other plants are then added by degrees 
— all within the limits of the school of I'lle de France. 

In 1150, we perceive the same evolution beginning in the 
treatment of figures. Again natural begins to take the place 
of hieratic Art, as we may see in the figures at Botmjes 


Bud Chartres, ^ Indeed, it is with the Doorway of Chartres 
that Modern French Sculpture may be said to begin. 

With the reign of Philippe-Auguste and the 13th century 
comes the great expansion of sculptural Art. King and 
Church, as I have shown, now turn to the laity for the 
3rection of the great Cathedrals. And they find that Gothic 
sculpture, in the hands of four great provincial schools — 
Champagne — Picardy — Burgundy — He de France — is fully 
equipped for the enormous programme, and the astounding de- 
mands made upon it. The sculptors of the 13th century no 
.onger go for their inspiration to an effete Byzantine ideal, 
which has ceased to express the genius of the nation, but 
bo nature and truth; creating a living and truly national 
Mrt which is one of the glories of the Middle Ages. And 
Sculpture, hke Architecture begins to express the climate — 
the habits — the social conditions — and the race itself. We 
Qow find a period of idealization of nature — an expres- 
sion of moral sentiments. The figures are human beings 
such as the sculptors have seen and known — but withal 
superhuman, the embodiment of moral and religious senti- 
ments. As for instance the noble warrior in coat-of-mail, 
reverently receiving the sacrament from the priest — at 
Rheims. Or the wonderful woman's head — also at 
Rheims — which brings to one's mind Leonardo's Monna 

With the 14th century. Sculpture changes its character. 
Religious enthusiasm has lost its fire. Architecture, no 
3iiger tentative, is becoming an exact science, not an 
repression of feehng or sentiment. Sculpture, like paint- 
tig, is turning by degrees towards a closer expression of 
eality. Art as a whole is tending to Naturalism. Of this 
v-e see signs in the Apostles of the Sainte Chapelle, Paris ; The 
^ast Jvdgment, facade of Bourges ; South Transept^ Notre Dame, 
^aris ; The two transepts, Cathedral of Rouen, Detail is taking 
^lae place of synthetic breadth in the modelling of the 
flesh. ** Folds of drapery begin to break. Attitudes lose 
** their noble simplicity and become angular. But on 
"the other hand, a more intense truth emphasises the 


** faces — the general type has given place to the indi 

It is on funeral monuments that this Naturalist evolutio 
is chiefly shown ; and these become of supreme interest 
Hitherto, on the tombs of the Eomanesque and pure Gothi 
periods, the efligies have been absolutely impersonal, excep 
as to the costume and the attributes of their social rank^ 
The type of woman, especially, is charming. But the typ^ 
of Madonnas, and of Constance d*Arles at St. Denis, oir" 
Sainte Ozanne in the Crypt of Jouarre are all one. Now, 
however, we begin to perceive "Tinquietude du portrait"- 
Accessories become portraits too. And towards the middle 
of the 14th century, even such figures as those of Christ^ 
and the Virgin — hitherto purely ideal — are subjected to wha'fc 
has by this time become a universal law — that of Naturalism.- 

We must now turn to the actual schools of Sculpture in. 
France, and the best examples from which they can h& 

Sculpture must not be looked upon as uniform in its 
endeavour throughout the whole of France. As I hav^ 
shown in the Introductory Chapter, each province of France 
has its own racial and geographic characteristics. And th^ 
Architecture and Sculpture of each province displays a char- 
acter of its own, corresponding in many particulars with th^ 
local spirit. In the 11th and 12th centuries no less thai3 
eleven different schools of Sculpture can be distinctly 
traced, namely : — 

He de France. 



Poitou and Saintonge. 







^ Louis Gonse. 


The school of Provence, we find — as was to be expected 
om its long occupation by the Romans — strongly affected 
^ Gallo-Roman influence. The ornament is composed of 
Dwds of iconic figures, deeply cut ; of conventional leaves 
d flowers; or monsters like those of Norse sculpture, 
lich in turn are of Byzantine origin. Of this Gallo- 
>man influence, the best examples are at Saint'Trnphyme, 
les ; The Abbey of Montmajour ; Saint Gilles, Gard ; Sainte- 
irthSj Tarascon ; Cathedral^ NimeS ; Maisan Rofnaine, Ntmes ; 
\inte-Marie, Bauches du Rhone ; Saint-Patil'trois-Chuteaiix, 
^6me ; Saint-Pierre de Magicelonne ; Saint-Sauveur, Aix, Bmiches 
' Rhone ; Eglise de Cavaillon, Vaiicluse. 

The school of Languedoc had its centre at Toulouse. But 
I influence extended north to Mendes and Rodez, east to the 
nks of the H^ranlty south as far as Arragon, west to Bay- 
le. From the 11th century this powerful school showed 
ginal tendencies. In the 11th century it was distinctly 
der Byzantine influence. But ** it utilized without ser- 
"ihty all that came to it from the Levant ". Examples of 
8 period are Saint-Servin, Toulouse ; Saint-Nazaire, Carcas- 
ine ; where the vigorous composition of the capitals should 

noted. But in the 12th century, it produced "original 
vorks in which the sentiment of nature appears, and 
reated compositions of a grandeur of style and arrange- 
nent among which the porch of the Church of Moissac 
nust be mentioned in the front rank ''} 

The Schools of Saintonge and Poitou, though unHke 
2hitecturally, must be treated together, as in sculpture they 
>8ely resemble each other. In both the Gallo-Roman and 
^zantine influences are felt. But a new note is struck — 
e influence of Saxon Art from the North. The school of 
tintonge passes to the north of the Charente — from La 
^chelle to Civray, Rochechouart, Angouleme, Montmoreau, cross- 
g the riviere de Tlsle, the Dordogne, the Garonne, and 
i-king in Medoc. The school of Poitou extends — West and 
forth to Nantes, Cholet, Tours, Salins. East to Nevers, St. 
^^nmx, and Montlu^on, South to Ussel, Tulle, and Brives. 

^ A. de Baudot. 


The Cathedral at Angouleme and Notre Dame la Grandty 
Poitiers, are good examples of these schools — the former of 
Saintonge, the latter of Poitou. 

The School of Auvergne extends North to Never s, East to 
the Bhone, South to Toulouse, West to Ageriy Ussel, Neris and 
Bourbon VArchambault, ** In this province Architecture as- 
" sumes a truly monumental character. But its sculpture, 
" in spite of a certain originality and great imagination, 
** especially in the composition of the Capitals, has no special 
** value from the plastic point of view." ^ The best examples 
are the churches of Notre Danie du Port, at Clemuynt-Ferrafid ; 
of Brioude, Issoire, Saint- Nectaire, Saint-Etienne de Nevers, 
Chdtel'Montagne, Cathedral du Puy, apse of Saint Martin dt 
Brives, and certain churches in the Correze. 

The School of Burgundy extended its influence North to 
Sens, East to Epinal, Besangon, Lausanne, Geneva and Cham- 
h4ry, and from Joigny West and South to Cosne, Nevers, 
Boanne, Belley, and Lyons, In the forceful JBurgundian school 
as in that of Languedoc, we see that the sculptors endeavoured 
to free themselves from a mere imitation of the past by turn- 
ing to Nature; thus giving Sculpture a new impulse and 
direction. The composition of the capitals at Autun show 
how superior already this young, healthy art was to that 
of Provence. And it was destined to progress steadily, 
and to do much towards the development of the splendid 
epoque of the 13th century in the Eastern provinces. The 
best examples of Burgundian Sculpture of the 11th and 
12th centuries are to be found in the Churches of Vezelay 
and Avallon ; Saint PhUibert, Dijon ; Sens and Lausanne, 

The School of Tile de France at the end of the 12th cen- 
tury was the most powerful of all the schools of France — 
not only by reason of the great number of its edifices — but 
because it was, as became the Eoyal Domain, the most 
advanced centre in Art. It follows the course of the Eure 
from Chartres to Pont de VArche. Thence to Dieppe, Beauvais, 
Saint Quentin, Laon, Chateau Thierry, Provins, Nogent-sur-Seine, 
Sejis, Montargis, Orleans, and makes its influence felt as far as 

^ A. de Baudot. 


Bourges, Troyes, and Nogent-le-Botrou. The best examples of 
this earlier period are — Saint-Germain des Prh, Paris, Saint- 
Martin dcs Champs, Paris. Saint-Julien le Pauvre, Paris. 
Saint'Loup de Naud. Saint-Denis. Tlie church of Poissy. 
Saint-Quinace de Provins. Church of Moret. Saint Leu d'Esserant. 

The School of Normandy, dming the Eomanesque period 
of which I have spoken from the architectmral stand- 
point, has little to show in Sculpture. Before the 13th 
century its ornament is mostly in geometric forms — which 
cannot be considered of importance in sculpture. The finest 
examples of this period are — VAhhaye aux Dames, Caen, 
VAhbaye aux Hommss (part), Caen, Saint-Gilles, Caen, Lower 
part of the Cathedral, Bayeux, Sainte-Marie aux Anglais (nave), 
Mont St Michel, Part of the Cathedral, Seez. Saint Georges de 
BocJiemUle, Buins of the Abbey of Jumiiges, 

The Schools of Picardy and Champagne have also no very 
special characteristics before the 13th century. 

With the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th cen- 
tury, during the reign of Philippe-Auguste, the vigorous for- 
ward movement I have already indicated takes place. And 
four great Schools of Sculpture detach themselves. 

1. Champagne, which is distinguished by force of expres- 
sion, richness of idea, originahty of style. Examples : Warrior 
and priest, interior of Portal; Birds, flowers, fruit, on 
Capitals ; Woman's head, central Doorway ; Man's head — 
Cathedral, Rheims. 

2. Picardy, less brilliant, less expressive than Champagne, 
is more architectural, understanding better the composi- 
tion of masses. Examples : Cathedral of Amiens. Frieze 
of principal doorway, Notre Dame de Noyon. Virgin over 
the door of the South Transept, Amiens. 

3. Burgundy, powerful and energetic in character, with 
a generous chisel, is enamoured of life and truth, and superior 
to the other two schools in execution of detail. Examples : 
Ornaments on facade of Notre Dame de Dijon. Church of 

4. L'lle de France, unites the qualities of the other 
three schools, while it surpasses them in purity of form and 


elevation of taste, in elegance and delicacy of execution, 
sculptors show the fullest spirit of observation and inventio 
as well as the greatest experience. 

** In their works we find methodical composition — a kee; 
** sentiment of scale, a skilful comprehension of the distri 
** bution of motives, and above all an astonishing purity o 
** line and form ; one is amazed at the novelty, the fertilit 
** which is evidenced in conception, as well as the flexibiht^ii— 
**and certainty of execution.'*^ Examples: Saints o 
Sainte-Chapelle. Idealized and beautiful portraits. 

France happily still possesses five perfect cycles, 
from the destruction wrought by hmnan folly and vandalism 
in which the sculpture of this period may be studied as £ 
whole. The Facade of Notre Dame, Paris. The Fa9ade o 
Cathedral, Kheims. The Facade of Cathedral, Bourges- 
The lateral doorways, Chartres. The facade and Port« 
doree, Amiens. The latter is the best preserved of all. 

This, it should be remembered, was what France wai 
doing nearly 200 years before Donatello hved. Therefore i 
Sculpture, as well as in Architecture, France may fairl 
claim to have led the way for all Europe. 

The sculptures in ivory of the late 13th and early 14tk:^=3 
centuries are far in advance of those of any other country - 
P'or though only a few inches high, such a statuette as th 
Vierge de la Saintc Chapelle, in the Louvre, is as absolutel 
perfect in proportion and beauty as the marble statues o ^ 
150 years later in Italy. The Louvre and the Soutt"^ 
Kensington Museum contain many exquisite examples o 
French ivories of this period. 

The four great schools of sculpture hold their own throug 
the 13th and 14th centuries. The beginning of the 14th centurj?^ 
however, not only brings a change, such as I have indicate<J^ 
above, in the spirit of sculpture, but Art is no longerr 
anonymous. ** L'inquietude du portrait," is accompanied by" 
the appearance of the individual artist. Works are signed. 
The name of each sculptor of note, and his influence on his 
school of disciples, becomes known. For a while Art would 

^ A. de Baudot. 


seem to depend more on the man than on territorial impulse. 
The evolution of this 14th century art, this reahstic portrai- 
ture, shows itself simultaneously in the North and in the 
South — ^in the Cathedral of Bordeaux, and in the Portail des 
liibraires at Rouen, which both belong to the first years of 
the 14th century. In the latter we find a surprising example 
of the new sculpture. In the lovely statues of Saints there 
is not a trace of hieratic art. They are young and graceful 
French women, of a purely French type of beauty. 

The principal examples of 14th century sculpture are : — 
Champagne. Church of St. Urhain, Troyes. 
Normandy. Transepts ^ Cathedral and church of Saint Ouen, 
^ouen. Parts of the Cathedral^ Evreux, Church of St. Jacques, 

Limousin. Parts of Cathedral, Limoges. 
Languedoc. Apse of Saint Nazaire^ Carcassonne. Saint 
-^"n^r^^ Bordeaux, 

Dauphin^. Saint Maurice, Vienn^i (doonoay). 
Lyonnais. Cathedral, Lyons (dooncay and chapel). 
Anjou. Church of Evron, choir and trayise2)ts. 
Auvergne. Parts of Cathedral, Clermont-Ferrand. 
At the end of the 14th century the autonomy of the 
schools of Sculpture is for awhile efifaced. From the 
l^^ginning of the 15th century to the close of the Gothic 
Period, we find but two schools in France. The Burgundian 
■"-^now permeated by Flemish influences. And the vast 
school of the North of France — the actual French Royal 
school, with but slight provincial nuances. For communi- 
cation grows easier; and we see a constant movement of 
Artists, and consequent interchange of ideas, between 
Toulouse, Lyons, Tours, Dijon, Nantes, Paris, Eouen and 
^landers. And another factor comes into hne. Domestic 
*tid state architecture begins jbo occupy princes and nobles 
a-like. The Chateau is no longer merely a fortress, a strong- 
hold — but a dweUing-place to be beautified as well. Much 
of the art that hitherto has been lavished exclusively on 
Ecclesiastical buildings — on Churches and Abbeys — is now 
Wught to bear on the royal and noble castles. And among 


the principal examples of the 15th century, it is necessary f cm 
the first time to mention a number of the Chateaux an 
Palaces, which, under the Kenaissance, were to form th^ 
chief glory of Architecture in France. 

He de France. In Paris, remains of Chateau Gaillon, a^ 
the hcole des Beaux Arts. Bemains of Hotel d^ la Trinumille ^ 
Parts of the Sainte Chapelle du Palais, Bemains of Hotel dc 
Sens, Hotel de Cluny, Chateau de la Ferte'-Milon, Chateatd^ 
de Chateaudun. 

Berry. Hotel Jacqiies Caur, Bourges, 

Poitou. Palais des Comtes, Poitiers. 

Picardy. Tower of CJwir, and Stalls, Cathedral of Amiens^ 
Saint Biquier {Somme). Saint Wulfran, Abbeville. 

Languedoc. Stalls, Cathedral of Auch, Stalls, CathedrcLl 
of Albi 

Champagne. Church of Notre Dame de VEpine, 

Burgundy. Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy, Dijon. Parts 
of the Cathedral, Never s. 

Normandy. Parts of Church of St, Pierre, Caen, Churches 
of Saint'Lo and Vitre. Parts of the Church of Saint Ouen, Palais 
de Justice, Church of Saint Maclou, Bouen, 

In the 16th century, which belongs to our next chapter, 
three distinct schools again declare themselves. He de 
France — Burgundy — and Languedoc, "which have each 
" produced works of true originality and incontestable 
** value ". This then was the condition of French Sculpture 
and Architecture at the beginning of the French Eenaissance. 


Until the end of the 13th century, French Sculpture, as 
I have said, is anonymous. The first sculptor of any note 
whose name we know is 

Jean d'Arras. To him w§ owe the first Eoyal statue in 
marble — that of Philippe le Hardi at St. Denis, begun in 
1298 or 1299, finished in 1307. This statue is of consider- 
able importance, as it begins the series of authentic effigies 
of the Kings of France. It is simple and vigorous in style. 

Pepin de Huy — a ** bourgeois de Paris,** and ** tombier a 


comtesse Mahaut " — was one of the most popular and 
•osperous artists of the first part of the 14th century. His 
lOst important works are the efl&gies of 

^ Margtierite d'Artois, 1311, St. Denis. 

Robert d'Artais, 1317, St. Denis. 

Comte d'Etampes, 1336, St. Denis. 

Comte Haymon, Saint Spire, Corbeil. 

The so-called Blanche de Bretagne, 1341, Louvre. 

And the so-called Marie d'Avesnes^ Louvre. 

The English invasion caused a break for a quarter of 
century in the steady development of sculpture. But we 
nd it flourishing with increasing vigour and life with 

Andre Beauneveu, of Valenciennes, 1360. He was 
culptor, painter, miniaturist and decorator. And his name 
5 one of the most illustrious among the early sculptors who 
Qoulded the tendencies of French Art. The first mention 
if Beauneveu's name is by Froissart, who speaks with 
.dmiration of his work at the Castle of Mehun-sur-Yevre. 
Summoned to Paris from the northern provinces by Charles 
I, in 1364, he was made "Imagier en titre," and com- 
oissioned to erect the king's tomb, (during his hfetime after 
he fashion of the day), and those of his predecessors, Jean 
I. and Philippe de Valois. His realism shows a certain 
hick set, solid, Flemish heaviness, but also a frankness and 
.uthority which give it singular importance. And his in- 
luence, together with that of his great contemporary Claux 
Jluter, was decisive in shaping the course of Franco-Flemish 
,rt. His authentic works are 

diaries F., St. Denis. 

Jean II., St. Denis. 

Philippe VI., St. Denis. 

Philippe YI., Louvre. 

Charles VI., Chimney-piece in the Palace, Poitiers. 

Ste. Catherine, Notre Dame, Courtrai. 

Three other works, in all probabihty his, are 

* This is a very beautiful and remarkable work. The nobility of ex- 
ression is only equalled by the extreme beauty and repose of the lines and 
race of the draperies. 



Marie d*Espagne, St. Denis. 

Jean de Dormans, Louvre. 

Three Statues of Prophets, Musee de Bourges. 

Jean de Lifege, who had died before 1382, and Jean de 
Saint-Eomain are both described as **Imagiers de Paris," 
but no authentic works of theirs are known. 

To Gui de Dammartin, Premier Architecte-Imagier to 
Jean due 'de Berry, the three great iconic statues of the 
chimneypiece in the Palace of Poitiers are attributed. 

Eobert Loisel, a pupil of Pepin de Huy, is known by the 
Bertrand du Guesclin, St. Denis, executed between 1389 and 

Jean ?de Cambrai was the favourite pupil of Beau- 
neveu ; and after his 'master's death he succeeded to his 
place in the favour of that great patron of art, Jean due de 
Berry. He was a magnificent artist, and one of the strongest 
individuahties in early French Sculpture. His most im- 
portant works are all to be found at Bourges. M. de 
Champeaux attributes to him the famous group in painted 
stone — now in the Cathedral, of Jean due de Berry and Jeanne 
de Boulogtie his wife. Also the statue known as Notre Dame 
la Blanche, from the altar of the Sainte Chapelle, now in the 
Musee Cujas; and the funeral statues at Souvigmj. His 
Virgin of the Celestins de Marcoussis, now in the Parish Church 
of that Commune, isi extremely interesting as a realistic 
portrait of a Berrichonne. But his greatest work is the 
celebrated Mausoleinn of Jean due de Berry, in the cr^^pt of the 
Cathedral. This the duke planned during his lifetime in 
imitation of the cenotaph his brother, Philippe le Hardi, 
Duke of Burgundy, was erecting to himself in the Chartreuse 
of Dijon. ^ Jean de Cambrai was charged with the work, 
which was not finished till 1457, after the Duke's death. 
The ^' pletirants,'' or mourning figures round the tomb, 
are exceedingly fine. But the interest culminates in the 
magnificent recumbent figure of the Duke, with a sleepy, 
muzzled bear at his feet. **L*ourson est delicieux d'esprii 
** et d*intimite '* says Gonse. 

» See Claux Sluter, 


Claux Sluter, though a Fleming or Hollander by birth, 
must be regarded as a Bxirgundian sculptor, for all his work 
centres at Dijon. The date of this great artist's birth is 
unknown. He died 1404. Here at Dijon, Philippe le Hardi 
(1342-1404), the first dxike of the second line of dukes of 
Burgundy, gathered about him a group of great artists, 
wishing to rival what his brothers of Anjou and Berry were 
doing in Paris and at Bourges. Among these the painter 
Broederlam of Ypres, and the architect Andre de Dammartin, 
were charged with the construction and decoration of the 
great cenotaph of the Duke of Burgundy in the Chartreuse of 
Champmol at Dijon ; while to Claux Sluter was entrusted 
the sculpture. The Tomb is now in the Palace of the 
Dukes of Burgimdy. Besides this, Claux Sluter was charged 
with the sculpture of the Calvary in the Chartreuse, now 
known as the Puits de Moise, and the doorway of the Chapel. 
Of the Calvary only the great hexagonal pedestal or cistern 
remains, with the noble statues of Moses, David, Jeremiah, 
Zachariah, Daniel and Isaiah — the first three sculptured 
by Claux Sluter, the others by his nephew, Claux de Werwe. 
But fine as all these are, Claux Sinter's work reaches its 
highest excellence in the kneeling figures in the doorway of 
the Chartreuse — duke Philippe — his duchess Marguerite de 
Fkndre — St. John and Ste. Catherine. The superb kneeling 
figure of the duke can only be compared, it is said, to the 
CoUeone of Verrocchio, the Birague of Germain Pilon, the 
Voltaire of Houdon, the Monge of Eude. 

It is interesting to remember that Claux Sluter produced 
these great works of art when Donatello was but just born,, 
Mid a hundred years before Michael Angelo. ** The study 
" of the Classic Antique could not add anything to this force 
"and strength, which from the point of view of the portrait 
"—the rendering of the inner life as well as the physical 
"structure — ^had attained a level which could not be sur- 
" passed." 1 

Claux Sluter died in 1404. But in 1398, he had sum- 
moned to aid him in his great work at Dijon, his nephew, 

^ Gonse. 


Claux de Werwe, of Hattem. The ''pleurants '* on the to 
of the Duke of Burgundy are all by de Werwe, with 
exception of two by Claux Sluter. Claux de Werwe i 
appears to have been the sculptor of the Zacharias, Dan 
and Isaiah, on the Putts de Moise, He was the authoi 
the tomb of Jean Sans Peur (1371-1419), son and successoi 
Duke Philippe le Hardi. He also worked at Setnur, Polii 
Saint B^nigne de Dijon, Baume les Messieurs. These f 
sculptors — Beauneveu, Jean de Cambrai, Claux Slu 
Claux de Werwe — were, it should be remembered, all north 
men. And they mark a great turning-point in French Ai 

Jacques Morel of Lyons, died 1459. He worked first 
the tomb, destroyed in 1562, of CardinaX de Saluces, Lye 
Then at Toulouse, Rodez, Beziers, Avignon, Montpellier, 
was called to Souvigny to erect the tombs of Charles 
and his wife Agnes de Bourgogne. The statues in wl 
Salins alabaster still exist; as do two other statues of 
in the Chapelle Vieille de Souvigny, It is also thought that 
was the author of the memorial Statue of Agnes Sorel, Loci 
This was made during her hfetime, between 1440 and 14 

Antoine le Moiturier of Avignon was a pupil of Jacq 
Morel. In 1469 he completed the tomb of Jean San^ Pi 
Dijon, begun by Claux de Werwe. And it is suggested t 
he was the sculptor of the retable of the Tarasque, Sa: 
Sauvem:, Aix-en-Provence. 





The Renaissance of Art in France is often regarded as some 
clearly-defined, sudden outburst of Classic Art. — As a move- 
ment due to the invasion of Italian artists and workmen — 
to the influx of classical ideas and models — at a given 
moment. It has been commonly said that art in France had 
reached a period of senility. And that if it had not been 

J for the timely infusion of new blood from Italy, the worn- 
out French artistic genius would have wholly disappeared. 
But those who, free from prejudice and the trammels of 
tradition, have studied the period with the most complete in- 
sight and honesty, — those who have not allowed themselves 
to be bUnded by trite, cut-and-dried assertions, which from 

\J^ constant repetition come at last to be accepted as fact, — those 
who have learnt to appreciate the inherent and persistent 
vitality of the national genius of France — recognise that the 
Renaissance of the 16th century had its beginnings long before 
ever an Itahan artist or workman set foot in France. 

Throughout the Gothic period of the Middle Ages, such a 
Renaissance — an afflatus of new ideas, aims, motives — an 
awakening to new Hfe — a desire to make life more beautiful, 
Daore perfect — had taken place more than once in France. 
Boccaccio had come to French Fabliaux for outlines of his 
stories. Dante attributed the origin of Miniature painting 
to Paris. And the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th 

I centuries witnessed the great outburst of chivalry and the 

/ doctrines of romantic love in Provence — prompting the rough, 

strong middle age ** to seek after the springs of perfect sweet- 

"ness in the Hellenic world ". 



Thus the later Benaissance of the 15th and 16th centr 
is not, to quote Mr. Pater, ** so much the introduction 
" wholly new taste ready-made from Italy, but rather 
" finest and subtlest phase of the middle age itself, its 
" fleeting splendour and temperate St. Martin's summer 

"For us the Benaissance is the name of a many-side< 
** xmited movement, in which the love of things of the i 
** lect and the imagination for their own sake, the desir 
** a more Uberal and comely way of conceiving life, r 
** themselves felt, urging those who experience this desii 
" search out first one and then another means of intellet 
** or imaginative enjoyment, and directing them not on 
" the discovery of old and forgotten sources of this ei 
" ment, but to the divination of fresh sources thereof— 
** experiences, new subjects of poetry, new forms of a 

It is towards the end of Louis XL's reign about ] 
that we arrive at the psychologic moment, when the gr( 
has been sufficiently prepared, and the Court of Fran< 
ready to acknowledge Italy as arbiter of taste. Th 
the actual beginning of the period commonly know: 
the Benaissance of Art in France — of that great wa\ 
Italian taste and influence which swept over the cou: 
there to be arrested and transmuted by French ger 
sweetening and modifying the harshness and ruggec 
of Franco-Flemish Art, without in any degree destrc 
the national character, the true French ideal, which welcc 
the invading influence then, as it has so often done before 
since, and bent it to its own uses. 

This Benaissance of Art embraces two distinct perio 

The first, as I have said, begins at the end of the rei{ 
Louis XL, about 1475. And ends with the death of Frai 
L, 1547. 

The second begins with the accession of Henri 11. 
ends with the assassination of Henri III., in 1589. 

The first period covers the reigns of Louis XL (j 
Charles VIII. , Louis XIL, Fran9ois I. The second p 
those of Henri 11. , Charles IX., Henri III. 

1 Pater. 


The movement reaches its high-water mark daring the 
reign of Fran9oi8 I. And gradually ebbs, after the brilliant 
epoch under Henri 11., until it dies out at the accession of 
Eenri IV., giving place to new ideals, new aims, new methods. 
And here let us at once note a misapprehension which has 
obtained the widest belief. Francois I. is generally looked 
upon as, if not the actual originator of the Benaissance, at 
all events its strongest patron, on whom it absolutely de- 
pended for existence. Frederick the Great wrote that 
Francois I. ** created Art in France " ! Many others have 
made assertions almost as loose and incorrect. But the fact 
is that Art had naturally reached a culminating point. 
Francois I. merely had the rare good fortune to be reigning 
at that moment, and to possess the taste and the power to 
encourage the art of the day, without either initiating, 
guiding, or controlling it. 

Many causes had prepared the way for this remarkable 
movement. For nearly a century France had been gradually 
becoming better acquainted with her transalpine neighbour. 
Intercourse between the countries of Europe was growing 
easier. Ties had been strengthened, and curiosity awakened 
by Arts of War and Arts of Peace. Among these combining 
causes, were the conquests of the House of Anjou. The 
residence of the Popes at Avignon. The Due 

lation s with Italy. The marriage of Louis d'Orleans and 
Valentme Visconti, etc., etc. 

But four causes more especially contributed to bring 
Italy and Italian Art closer to the knowledge of French 

1. The first and chief of these was Jean Foucquet*s jour- 
ney to Italy, 1440-1445. 

2. The embassy to Borne of Etienne Chevalier, Argentier 
to Charles VH. 

3. The embassy of De Commines to Florence. 

4. The ephemeral reign of King Bene de Provence, in 

Jean Foucquet's journey is one of the most important 
^*tes in the history of French Art. Foucquet, at that time not 


thirty years old, but already chief of the school of Tours, was 
summoned to Rome to paint the portrait of Pope Eugene IV. 
And the influence of his sojourn there, upon his own mind 
and those of his contemporaries, proved to be immense ; as 
he returned to his native country wholly captivated by the 
Art and life of Italy. King Rene carried his love of things 
Italian still further. For he was ahnost the first to encourage 
the importation of Italian artists into France. He was in 
close relations with the Delia Robbias ; and attached the 
sculptor Francesco Laurana to his person. And here we 
find a curious evidence of the vigour and individuality of the 
French spirit. While Foucquet endeavours, but in vain — 
for he remains French to the end — to Italianize himself, 
Laurana is strongly influenced by French forms ; as may 
be seen in the cenotaph to King Rene's brother, the Comte 
de Maine, at Le Mans. 

The work thus begun, was completed by Charles VIII.'s 
Italian campaign. The Court was now fascinated and en- 
chanted by Italian luxury — by the riches, the art, the 
elegance and refinement of living they found in Florence, 
Milan, Rome, Naples. Charles VIII. summoned a crowd 
of sculptors and decorators from Italy — Guido Manzoni of 
Modena among them ; and Jerome de Fiesole, who de- 
corated Amboise which became a sumptuous museum of 
Italian Art. 

Under Louis XII. the Italian influence grows stronger. 
The King orders at Genoa the splendid tomb for St. Denis, 
in memory of Louis d'Orleans and Valentine Visconti. The 
nobles follow suit. Raoul de Launoy, Governor of Genoa, 
orders from Delia Porta, the sumptuous tomb now in the 
Church of Folleville (Somme). Bri9onnet has Italians to 
decorate his Hotel d'Alluye at Blois. So has Lallemand 
at Bourges. And when Georges d'Amboise, the famous 
minister of Louis XII., builds Chateau Gaillon, he engages 
" ornemantistes italiens " to work under the direction of 
his French architect, Pierre Fain. 

The continual and increasing intercourse between France 
and Italy is now not merely that of individuals. The whole 


army and noblesse of France under Charles Vm., Louis XEL, 
and FranQois I., overflow Italy ; and come back laden not only 
with material spoils, bat wnth those far more precious spoils 
of the intelligence — with ItaUan ideas and examples of life 
and Uving, which respond to the growing desires of the French 
for a fuller, more refined, more beautiful conduct of existence. 
Italy looked on Ufe as a work of art. To the natural 
gifts of the country, adored by the Classics, light, space, 
shade, water, flowers, she now added the splendours of 
modem civiUzation — riches, luxury — the pleasures of a re- 
fined and highly cultivated society. And in this gracious 
setting she placed ** the complete man ". His body, no 
longer despised as in the gloomier Middle Ages, when the 
human frame was contemned — fit only for constant morti- 
fication, to be kept under as a thing vile, hateful, and of no 
account — but now trained with deliberate intention to the 
utmost perfection of form and strength. His soul and his 
mind perfected also in their fullest development — enriched 
by the experience of all possible sides of existence. Man, 
with rights to realize his own ideals and ends — the right to 
be and to enjoy, in the highest attainable degree. Man, ex- 
panding into a richness of being in his three supreme powers 
—action, understanding, feeling. 

In France this perfected ideal of life was eagerly assimi- 
lated. And it quickly showed its results in Architecture, 
Sculpture, Painting, as well as literature. A natural dainti- 
ness of hand — *' nettet^ d'ex^cution'' — has always been a 
characteristic of French Art. And as Mr. Pater has pointed 
out, we find this exemplified to the full in the works of the 
Renaissance. In the silvery colour and clearness of expres- 
sion in Clouet's paintings, as distinct from the greater solidity 
of the great Flemings, Memling and the Van Eycks. In 
Dillon's poetry, and the Hours of Anne of Brittany. In 
the beauty of carvings and traceries with which the 
strong, even heavy Gothic forms were now overlaid. 
In the Chateau de Gaillon — ** a Gothic donjon veiled 
"faintly by a surface of delicate Italian traceries"^ we 

1 Pater. 


find a key to the whole matter. The ponderous mass is 
softened and beautified by the exquisite taste of those who 
now demanded what was refined, what was graceful. 

Through the Middle Ages, France had been broken up 
into many states — Kingdoms within the Kingdom — of which 
the powerful princes and nobles had been almost — in some 
cases completely — independent sovereigns, only owing fealty 
to the King, as vassals to the Suzerain. Art, as I have shown , 
was in a parallel condition, consisting of many independenti 
and indigenous schools. But by degrees these separate 
states politic, and separate schools artistic, had been slowly 
welded together, and centralized after the fashion of all 
things French. ** The King was at last King, and his 
** Court took the initiative both in politics and art," as Lady 
Dilke admirably says. It is therefore to the Court that w^ 
must look henceforth, as the centre of artistic movement. 
During the reigns of Louis XI., Charles VIII., and Louis 
Xn., the Court was not in Paris, but at Tours. And thas 
Touraine and the course of the Loire becomes the head- 
quarters of the early Renaissance and the Italian movement - 
With Francois I. the Court is transferred to Paris. An<3. 
the centre of artistic activity moves with it. 

It is in Touraine, under the pressure of Itahan influenced » 
that we find an artistic phenomenon of the highest impoxr — 
tance. M. Courajod has happily defined this, as ** la detent 
** du style Franco-Flamand ". ** To the ruggedness, tha. 
** harshness of the Burgundian School, in which all tt». 
** endeavours of the 14th century are summed up, a sort 
" tender languor succeeds — a milder, amended interpretatio 
** of nature, a kind of sobriety, of calm and discreet emotiot^*- 
** a pre-occupation with elegance and distinction which a 
" to be the mark of the period." ^ 

Two men stand pre-eminent in influence in the impute^ 
now given to French Art. Jean Perr^al and Michel Colombo- 
Jean Perr^al of Lyons was the principal instrument of tb^ 
vogue for things Italian — ** the chief, who at the head of the 
** men of the south, led the assault on French liberties with 

* Gonse. 


* the greatest ardour ". He was one of those universal 
geniuses, ** Thomme a tout faire, Thomme a la mode,*' who 
i ahuost as disconcerting to posterity as Jean Cousin. For 
ke Jean Cousin, he left an immense reputation, without any 
ne typical work surviving which justifies his fame. He 
as in turn painter, sculptor, architect, poet, decorator, 
liniaturist, or verrier. As hardly more than a youth, we find 
im indispensable to the City of Lyons in organising the 
>lendid receptions and pubhc entries of Cardinal, King, or 
ueen. And from 1494 he entered the Koyal service, ac- 
>inpanying successive Kings in their Italian campaigns, 
id bringing back to Tours and to Paris fresh inspirations 
•r every branch of Art. 

While the restless, clever, ambitious Perr^al — ** 7iostre 
cond Zeusis ou Apelles enpainture "—closely attached to the 
ourt, was bringing all his powers to bear on the introduc- 
on of Italian ideas, a remarkable development in sculpture 
as taking place in Touraine. During the reign of Charles 
Til. Italian influence is shown simultaneously in the 
julpture of Poitou, Gascony, Forez, the Lyonnais, Bur- 
undy, etc. But under Louis XII., these isolated efforts are 
ominated by the school of Tours. And Michel Colombe*s 
ifluence makes itself felt all through French Sculpture. 
?he school of Tours under Michel Colombe is the result 
i the fusion of North and South. It was the school of 
7ours which established the formulas of the new ideal, 
uid the works of Michel Colombe are its most charming 
nd most significant manifestation. 

Michel Colombe is one of the great figures of France, 
^orn in Brittany, his origin and his education were Gothic. 
Q his youth he travelled, and studied the works of the great 
l^mish-Burgundians. Penetrated with memories of Jean de 
^nubrai, Claux Sluter, De Werwe, Le Moiturier, and Jacques 
forel he returned to Tours. And in the very centre of 
^^lian influence, he set to work to apply what he had learnt 
'^tn the strong and rugged old masters. The result is a 
u^gularly beautiful and interesting one. In his work we see 
he loftiest and strongest qualities of Gothic work, combined 


with the new sensations supplied by the Renaissance. In 
the prodigious group — the Saint Sepulcre, in the Church of 
Solesmes, we are instantly reminded of Sluter, of Jean de 
Cambrai, of Beauneveu. While at the same moment delicate 
arabesques speak to us of Italy. The famous Saint-George 
from Chateau Gaillon, (now in the Louvre) is perhaps the most 
perfect example of this fusion. Saint George alone is ItaUan. 
All the rest is purely French — the landscape, the trees, the 
Princesse Lydie, who is a young French girl in dress and 
type. While the Dragon is the Tarasque of the Cathedral of 

In these works of Michel Colombe's — and still more when 
the Renaissance has full sway under Fran9ois I. — we find 
that the innovators, such as Jean Perreal, bring all their 
forces to bear on ornament ; while statuary remains almost 
untouched by Italian feeling. In the first period of th^ 
Renaissance, architectural forms remain French, while th^ 
decoration ** s'enguirlande a I'ltalienne ". For the first agents 
of transmission of Itahan Art throughout Europe, is orna- 
ment borrowed from the antique, and introduced through- 
the commerce of furniture, dress and personal adornments^ 
The base of the structure remains solidly Gothic. Th< 
clothing of the structure, by means of classic arabesque, aloni 
becomes Italian. This is to be seen in all the buildings oi 
the time of Louis XII. and Fran9ois I., at Blois, Orleans^:- 
Chambord, Azay le Rideau, St. Germain, Chateau de Madrid--- 
etc. Gothic ornament, elaborated by the genius of the Frenct= 
race **with such marvellous intuition, such logical perfection 
** such entire originality," is alone attacked by the grea^ 
current of Italian influence. Statuary, whose object is th^^ 
human figure, especially statuary of an iconic character^!:: 
remains almost untouched by foreign ideals. One of th^ 
most remarkable instances of this is the monument of 
Commines (now in the Louvre). Here the efligies 
purely French. The ornaments are distinctly Italian — ^i 

^ A letter to Perreal, 1511, shows that Michel Colombe was horn ahoi 
1480. Besides the works mentioned, he was author of the famous tomb 
FranQois U. of Brittany at Nantes. 


the style of those by Jerome de Fiesole at Solesmes, and the 
tomb of the Children of Charles VIII. at Tours. 

After Michel Colombe's death in 1512, there was a pause 
in French Sculpture. The Franco-Flemish tendencies were 
completely exhausted. Sculpture under Fran<?ois I. became 
essentially architectural and ornamental. '' Of the ideas, 
** sentiments, methods, of the sublime Middle Ages, still ahve 
** at the death of Michel Colombe, nothing remains but vague 
" reminiscence. The spirit of antiquity triumphs without 
** hindrance.*' ^ The evolution of the Italian and classical 
ideal, begun under Charles VIII., touches its apogee. 
France was now overrun by an army of Italian artists, 
who, with Andrea del Sarto, found profitable as well as 
appreciative patronage 

** In that humane great monarch's golden look 
" One finger in his beard or twisted curl 
** Over his mouth's good mark that made the smile, 
" One arm about my shoulder, round my neck, 
*' The jingle of his gold chain in my ear, 
" I painting proudly with his breath on me, 
" All his Court round him, seeing with his eyes, 
" Such frank French eyes, and such a fire of souls 
** Profuse, my hand kept plying by those hearts." 

The great Leonardo da Vinci was getting his 700 
crowns at Tours. Primaticcio and Eosso were painting at 
Fontainebleau. And that delightful swashbuckler of genius, 
Benvenuto Cellini, was making his immortal silver and 
bronze statuettes, his golden bowls and salt cellars, in the 
Petit Nesle for his Sacred Majesty — abusing the architec- 
ture of the door at Fontainebleau, **in their vicious French 
" style " ; and designing the great fountain which makes the 
King exclaim in a strong voice, ** Verily, I have found a man 
" here after my own heart ". 

Under the tremendous pressure of this wave of foreign 
and classic influence, we ask, will it be possible for France 
to discover the elements of a new, expressive, homogeneous 
Art — to give proof once more of her ever-fertile, living, 
national spirit. This is the noble task to which the great 

* Gonse. 


artists of the reign of Henri II. are about to apply themselves. 
We now see how the national genius once more asserts itself. 
How the permanent instincts of the French race triumph 
over formulas which seemed destined to crush them for ever. 
How in painting, sculpture, and architecture, French Art, as 
I have said, merely takes what suits its own genius from the 
foreign invaders, and remains absolutely true to its own 

Of painting of the Benaissance, I must speak in another 

It is in portraiture that French Sculpture found its safe- 
guard against the most violent attacks of ultramontanism. 
In portraiture the French genius has always taken refuge, and 
has found strength, counsel, and inspiration. And portraits of 
the Renaissance remain in essence absolutely French, even 
when they endeavour to be Italian. The bust of Dordet de 
Montal (Louvre) — the effigy of Guillaume de Bochefort (Beaux 
Arts) — and many more anonymous portrait busts, tell us 
that the French spirit was not dead. It was but pausing. 
Feeling its way. Preparing for some fresh effort. When 
the time is ripe, the new ideal springs into life in 
strange perfection. One of the most brilliant epoques of 
French sculpture now dawns. And its most absolute ex- 
pression is found in the works of Jean Goujon. 

The sculptor of the 16th century was still, as he had been 
in the Middle Ages, a workman, taking orders from his 
employer the architect. And at first w^e find Goujon 
employed at Bouen Cathedral and Saint-Maclou, for designs 
of the doors and fountain. Then, leaving Bouen, he joins the 
band of distinguished men who were restoring St. Germain 
TAuxerrois in Paris, under the direction of Pierre Lescot. 
But he soon ceased to work for the Church. For it was 
the Court which now occupied the position, so long and so 
splendidly filled by the Church, as patron of art. ** The 
" development of secular magnificence eclipsed the brilliance 
** of ecclesiastical splendour." ^ Instead of churches, palaces 
were now built. And every resource of Art was brought to 

1 Lady Dilke. 



Wr on these superb dwellings, by an army of artists — 

sculptors, painters, verriers, enamellers, tapestry and metal 
workers, under the supreme direction of such architects as 
fiastien Frangois, Le Nepveu, Philibert de TOrme, BuUant, 
and Pierre Lescot, aided by such sculptors as Goujon, Ger- 
main Pilon, Barthelemy Prieur, etc. 

During the second period of the Benaissance, from the 
death of Fran9ois I. to that of Henri III., the Gothic form of 
Architecture gradually disappears, with the last semblance of 
defence in the Chateaux. We see in its place, the perfecting 
of that singular adaptation of classical styles to the require- 
ments of the country, from which the great architects of the 
16th century evolved such conceptions as Chambord and 
Azay le Rideau, Anet and Ecouen, the Louvre and the 

Society is now growing more complex and more luxurious. 

The Chateau is no longer the Chateau-fort — the place of 

defence : but the splendid country-house or palace, in which 

each great noble gathers a little court about him, as does the 

King with a larger court. A palace in which there must be 

space and room, and rooms in which each can live their own 

iife, as well as the life of society — in which they can surround 

themselves with precious possessions, with works of art, 

tKX)ks, pictures, costly hangings and ornaments. And in 

these palaces each princely personage — Duke or Cardinal — 

Count or Constable — has his own lesser train of poets, 

t>ainter8, sculptors, architects, attached to his person, as has 

the King on a larger scale. This period, therefore, sees the 

Ciomplete transition from the Maison forte, to the Maison de 

2^laisance, The indications of this transition can be traced 

f :roin the middle of the 15th century. At Langeais, Lady 

XDilke has pointed out that in a fortress of the Middle Ages 

"Vve find the first sign of the coming change. The interior 

battlements of the court are replaced by a cornice. While 

€tt Chenonceau, Azay le Rideau, Blois, Chambord, the cornice 

^replaces the outside battlements ; and ** its bold projecting 

** lines encircle each building with a crown ''} 

» Lady Dilke. 



The French instinct for hne and order now asserts itse/j 
afresh. The dormers are grouped symmetrically. The crois^es 
are arranged one above the other. ** Not only do ali 
** openings at irregular intervals disappear before the growing 
** exigencies of an instinct which marshals even the smallest 
" details into fitting place within an ordained framework of 
** well-considered lines, but gradually all these openings are 
** so placed as to give the perpendicular lines of the general 
** design." ^ 

At Chenonceau, in the first year of the reign of Fran9oi8 
I., we get the earlier form of the Chateau. The idea of 
defence is not yet wholly abandoned. But the walls and 
moats are a mere pretence, enclosing nothing but gardens 
and courts. Ten years later at Chamhord, the Gothic form is 
still maintained in the structure. ** Late Gothic caprice and 
" fantastic love of the unforeseen rule trimnphant." But the 
ornament belongs to the Kenaissance. And in the interior, 
galleries, passages, numbers of smaller rooms as well as halls 
of state, testify to the complete change of architectural arrange- 
ment, to meet the exigencies of this complex and pleasure- 
loving society. At Azay le Bideau, all pretence of defence has 
been abandoned. The entrance is a lofty portal richly carved, 
as is the superb staircase it supports. Fran9ois I.*s sala- 
mander, and Claude of Brittany's ermine, decorate the 
frieze ; and the arcade which connects the ground floor and 
upper storeys, is exquisite with arabesques of the highest 

At the Chateau de Longchamps, or Madrid, in the Bois 
de Boulogne, of which nothing alas ! remains but 
drawings and plans, as it was completely destroyed at the 
Revolution — we find the actual Maison de plaisance. Its 
covered galleries, its secret chambers, its great garde robes 
for armour, and weapons, and jewels, and the thirty suits 
that every self-respecting courtier must possess, its enamelled 
tiles, friezes, medallions, by no less an artist than Girolamo 
della Robbia — all fitted solely for the gay luxury of Francois I. 
and his Court. Though built by Italian workmen, Madrid 

1 Lady Dilke. 


18 an example of the ** controlling force of French taste ". 
It is not, as might naturally have been expected, an Italian 
Palace, but a French summer country-house. And it shows 
in a noteworthy manner how France seized upon Italian ideas, 
transmuted them by the inherent nationality of her art, and 
produced a purely French result. 

With Ecouen and Anet, the Tuileries and the Loicvre, we 
reach the full expression of the second period of the French 
Renaissance. At 6couen, Jean BuUant, in building it for 
ihe Connetable Anne de Montmorency, has given us an 
bistorical document of the highest interest. For it shows 
more than any other French Chateau, the final departure 
from the Gothic traditions. The deep fosse on three sides 
is a reminiscence it is true, of defence. But that is merely a 
fanciful detail, a complimentary allusion to the profession of 
the rough and violent Constable, and is not maintained by 
the rest of the building. The lavish use of pillar and pilaster 
—the portal covered with rich decoration, with Doric and 
Ionic columns and arcades, all crowned by the great statue 
of the Constable riding aloft above the entrance — ** the 
" exuberant profusion of creeping ornament which over- 
" flows the bordering lines of every frieze," ^ all show us that 
a new era has dawned. While at Anet we find the supreme 
example of the French Summer Palace. The Chateau was 
Wit by PhiUbert de TOrme for Diane de Poitiers. She 
Was able easily to pay for it out of the '* paulette,** ^ which 
bad been presented to her by Henri II. on his accession ; 
and the work was pushed forward and finished in an in- 
credibly short time. It occupied three sides of a square, 
the fourth being filled by the elaborate gateway and its 
accessories, with Acteon and his hounds above it. Colon- 
nades, galleries, and a terrace give dignity to the elevation. 
And round about, enclosed in walls, are immense gardens 
and courts, in one of which, high above the waters of a 
fountain, Diana herself in the guise of the goddess her name- 

1 Lady Dilke. 

* The yearly tax for the renewal of their patents, paid hy the officers of 
Jostioe and Finance into the Boyal Exchequer. 



sake, reposes with her stag and her dogs, immortahsed by 
the chisel of Jean Goujon. 

The Court having been transferred from Touraine to 
Paris, the later years of Fran9ois I. and the reign of Henri 
II., show increased activity and occupation with regard to 
the Royal residences of the capital. Besides building the 
Chateau de Longchamps, Fran9ois I. put Fontainebleau into 
the hands of Eosso and Primaticcio. And in 1546 he 
appointed Pierre Lescot as director of the works at the 

** In the Louvre Lescot shaped and perfected the Palace 
of the town." 

** II sut marquer de Tempreinte de son genie les inspira- 
*' tions de I'architecture classique, par Theureuse harmonic 
** et la proportion sagement equilibree des ordres corinthien 
** et composite superposes, par la saillie des avant-corps qui 
** rompent la monotonie des lignes, par la creation au-dessus 
'* de Tattique.d'une cr^te ornee de festons du milieu desquels 
** s*elancent des pots a fleur. L'attique avec ses frontons 
** semi-circulaires et ses fen^tres accompagnees de trophees 
** superbes, etait peut-^tre trop riche, et decore de figures trop 
** grandes ; mais telle qu*elle existe encore, entre le Pavilion 
** de I'Horloge et le corps de logis meridional, la fa9ade de 
** Pierre Lescot, aprfes avoir perdu quelques-uns des orne- 
** ments superflus de son couronnement, est a coup sAr uxi 
** des chefs-d'oeuvres de I'art franyais." ^ The west win^ 
with the square block at the S.W. angle — the only bit 
remaining of the old Louvre of Philippe-Auguste — wa9 
finished, and the south wing was begun, before the death, 
of Henri II. And in spite of additions, extensions, and 
alterations in after times, each succeeding architect has been 
obliged to conform more or less to the splendid plan which- 
Lescot conceived, while his own portion remains unrivalled- 
in its beauty and originahty. 

In 1564 another great palace close by the Louvre wad 
begun. The Queen-Mother, Catherine de Medicis, recalled 
Philibert de TOrme, the builder of Anet, who for five years 

' Babeau. 


had been in disgrace. And in May the foundations were laid 
rf the Palace of the Tuileries. De TOrme must have been 
considerably hampered in this work. For Catherine, who 
irided herself on her knowledge of Architecture, not only 
losely superintended the work, but made working drawings 
)r the building. In the original plans of the Tuileries, the 
^lonnade, which supports a terrace on a level with the first 
iorey, recalls the elevation of Anet. These show not only 
le single hne of building, but a large group, with minor 
Durts round a central court. The central pavilion, remark- 
ble for an enchanting spiral staircase, and its wings, were 
lone finished in de FOrme's lifetime. And in spite of the 
stravagances of ornament which Catherine endeavoured to 
3rce on her architect, the building has the dignity we find in 
U good Renaissance work. The Palace, however, was un- 
ortunate from the beginning. At de TOrme's death in 
.570, BuUant succeeded to his various appointments, and 
carried on the work at the Tuileries. He added the two 
mvilions on the North and South, and broke up the front 
mih numberless columns, deep cut niches, and a wealth of 
elaborate detail of ornament in every possible place. And 
vlthough de TOrme's central pavilion and its wings were 
-ompletely re-fashioned under Louis XIV., and the spiral 
Jtaircase destroyed, Bullant's pavilions remained almost un- 
touched in all their beauty, until the Commune of 1871. 

With the Tuileries and the Louvre we near the end of the 
Renaissance. The great wave that had flooded France with 
love of the beautiful, with the desire for a comely and liberal 
Daanner of Uving, with enthusiasm for things of the intellect,, 
tad spent its force. When Lescot died in 1578, the spirit of 
tile Renaissance was dying too. But in the hundred years 
that spirit held sway in the fair land of France, it had ac- 
compUshed its work. The teaching of the Humanists had 
changed the aspect of hfe for all and each. Modem civih- 
zation was an estabhshed fact. 



When within the space of comparatively few years, a 
change takes place in the art of a nation — an appi 
cleavage wide and deep — experience teaches us that 
change is not as rapid as it seems, but has come aboi 
degrees from many causes. Patient and temperate obs 
tion shows us links that maintain the reasonable conti] 
of thought. We discover that the chain is never brok 
the gulf always bridged. Humanity sweeps onward c 
lessly along the road that leads now to some more pe: 
more gracious halting place, now through some arid w 
now into a confused and misty valley, now to the puritj 
severity of lofty heights. But onwards it sweeps ah 
The transition is gradual. The gardens of the house-be 
ful merge gradually into the waste. The waste sinks g 
into the misty valley with its manifold purpose. The v 
rises by slow and imperceptible degrees to the lofty he 
There is no sharp cut, arbitrary line that divides the 
from the other. If we will but search patiently, we 
certain to find the bridge that leads from one appar 
clear cut group or impulse to the next. 

No two ideals in art could seem farther apart — sepa: 
by a more absolute cleavage — than Gothic and Eenaisg 
Architecture. Yet one of the most deeply interesting pi 
mena I know, is the connecting link between the two pei 
supplied by the Architecture of the reign of Louis 
Three examples will suffice to show how perfectly it u 
the spirit and genius of both — ^how closely the two are 
together by this transition period. 

The first example is the Fagade of the Chateati of . 

built in 1501. Here, in the great 13th century Hall, w< 



an example of pure and stately Gothic. And in the magni- 
ficent north wing of Francois I. an unsurpassed example 
of the richest Kenaissance. The Fa9ade of the Eastern 
Wing, by which the Chateau is entered, only faintly suggests 
he coming change by its square-headed windows under 
rocketted and pinnacled Gothic domiers. On the inner face 
f the wing, the Renaissance is more clearly shown. The 
rcade through which the courtyard is entered is composed 
f round pillars encrusted with Jteur-de-lys and ermines' tails 
1 a stone network, alternating with others of four Renais- 
ance panels set on cornerwise — not four square — supporting 
lattened arches of the familiar ** anse de panier '* type of the 
»eriod. It takes but a moment's thought to see that this 
.rcade is the hnk between the Gothic dormers of the Fa9ade, 
aid all the marvels of the Northern Wing. 

The second example is the north-west tower of the Cathe- 
ird of Chartres, Begun in 1506 by Jean Texier under the 
patronage of Louis XII., who contributed largely to the ex- 
pense, it was finished in 1513. At first sight it seems of 
purely Gothic type, with pointed windows, crocketted pin- 
aacles, flying buttresses, and rich Gothic niches with trefoil- 
lieaded canopies and bases, supported perhaps by a dehcate 
pilaster with simple early Gothic capital and square abacus. 
Then suddenly one comes upon a little balcony on an 
exterior stairway, panelled with superb Renaissance sculp- 
toe in vigorous low rehef — a Classic patch, so to speak, 
imong the mass of Gothic work, that would not be out of 
place in Venice or even in Rome. There is nothing that jars 
in this great tower and spire. The transition is so natural 
*nd gradual that it harmonizes absolutely with that triumph 
3f pure 12th century Gothic — the six-storeyed south-west 
tower with its imbricated stone steeple, and with the 
wonderful body of the noble 13th century building. 

The third example is the Palais de Justice at Rouen, 
Built under Louis XII., it is a most interesting specimen of 
the richest late Gothic architecture, with its carved square- 
headed windows, its huge gargoyles at the roof line, its rich 
pinnacled balustrade with panels of roses, crocketted arches 


and fine detached figures. The lofty dormers against ihe 
high-pitched roofs are set in a lacework of stone — pinnacles, 
niches, fleur-cle-lys, with figures everywhere, in the tympa- 
num of the windows, in niches on the pinnacles ; and among 
all the Gothic wealth of ornament, the coming change that 
foimd voice a few years later in the sculptures of the Hotel 
Bourgtheroulde hard by, is suggested by these dainty figures 
on each side of the dormers, that remind one of the little 
loves on the dormers and chimneys of Chambord, and by the 
rose panels of the balustrade. 

Far on into the 16th century, into the very heart of the Ee- 
naissance, this persistence of the Gothic type is still found- 
chiefly, it is true, in ecclesiastical buildings. The Church of 
Saint-Eustache, in Paris, begun in 1532, a Gothic Church 
with classical details, is an example. So is Saint-Etienne 
du Mont, Paris. And the Choir Screen at Chartres, begun 
by Jean Texier in 1514, and finished in the 17th century. 

But with regard to domestic architecture, the new ideals 
of the Eenaissance had full sway with the accession of 
Francois I. in 1515." 

In all the buildings of the Eenaissance three portions 
claim special attention. The roof, the staircase, the chimney- 
pieces. The rest of the building may be plain, almost stern 
inside. But on the roof without — the staircase and monu- 
mental mantelpieces within — the architect seems to concen- 
trate all his efforts. He lavishes on them not only a wealth 
of ornament, but allows his imagination to run riot in the 
most original and fantastic arrangement. Of the roof of 
Chambord, I will speak in its own place. But the marvel of 
the Chateau is its famous double spiral staircase, connected 
at each floor with the four great Salles des Gardes, and 
crovmed outside by the superb lantern. At Blois, the 
magnificence of the celebrated outside staircase surpasses 
all else in that most beautiful of royal Chateaux. At 
Amboise, the spiral staircases are put to a most original 
use. They are huge, brick-paved stairways, mounting by •» 
gentle slope inside two immense round towers ; enabling th© 
King and his guests to ride their horses from the entrance on 


the river level to the living rooms of the palace on the top of 
the cliflf. 

At Chenonceaux, we get one of the first of the straight 
staircases in the wall with a waggon roof, of the same tjrpe 
as the Escalier Henri 11. of the Louvre, medallions at the 
crossing of the ribs bearing portrait heads. The same plan 
is followed at Azay le Eideau : but the ornament is infinitely 
richer. Here pendants hang at the intersection of the ribs, 
while the spaces between are filled with medallions and 
portraits, ermines, salamanders and little loves. These 
straight, waggon-roofed staircases may be best described 
as passages of steps — narrow for their height — mounting in 
two straight flights, with a landing between each floor. The 
open Escalier d'Honneur of Louis XIII. and Louis XTV. 
was then practically unknown. 

The magnificent mantelpieces are a most important fea- 
ture of Renaissance buildings. That of the Salle de Diane de 
Poitiers at Chenonceaux, is a perfect specimen of the earUer 
period of the Eenaissance. So are one or two at Blois. 
The well-known Cheminee de Villeroy, by Germain Pilon, 
in the Louvre — of which the South Kensington Museum ^ 
possesses a fine cast, is an example of the later half of the 
Renaissance. So are two by Hugues Lallemant, now at 
Cluny — with pillars or carj^atides on either side of the fire- 
place, and fine bas-reliefs above surrounded by genii sup- 
porting trophies of arms, Cupids, dolphins, etc. But every 
Chateau and Palace of the period affords many splendid 
specimens, elaborations of the earlier plain Gothic t3rpe. 

Pierre le Nepveu, dit Trinqueau (6. Amboise; d. 1538), 
^builder of Chambord and Chenonceaux, was a proprietor in 
Amboise in 1490, and was still living there in 1508, when it is 
supposed that he worked on the Chateau under the orders of 
Kerre Martin. Louis XII. employed him at Blois. And it 
bas been commonly supposed that he built the Chapel and 
the Fa9ade. The difference of style, however, between this 

^The South Kensington Museum also has other specimens of mantel- 
pieces of the same period. 


fa9ade and thai of Chambord and Chenonceaux is so great, 
that as M. Bauchal points out it is difficult to attribute the 
work to him. 

In 1513 he was entrusted by Thomas Bohier and his wife 
Catherine Briyonnet, with the building of Chenonceaux, upon 
which he worked till 1525. And in 1526 Fran9oi8 I. confided 
to him, and to Anthoine de Troyes, the reconstruction of 
Chambord, which until then was merely a Chateau-fort in the 
flat country. The first plans for this magnificent Chateau 
were made by Domenico da Cortona, who received **900 
** livres toumois de gratification " from the King, for work done, 
and ** patterns and models in wood, as much for the cities 
** and chateaux of Toumai and Andres as for the Chateau 
** of Chambord ".^ To Le Nepveu, however, the central 
staircase — the most original and decorative portion of the 
building — is certainly due. It does not appear in Domenico's 
model, which was to be seen at Blois in F^libien's time. In 
1536 Anthoine de Troyes became contractor for the work 
of the pavilions and square towers ; Le Nepveu remaining 
sole master of the building. He is spoken of in this year as 
** honneste homme Pierre Nepveu dit Trinqueau, maistre de 
**rceuvre de Ma9onnerie du batiment du Ch4tel de Cham- 
**bord ". He died in 1538. And was succeeded by Jacques 
Coqueau or Coquereau. 

In Chambord, despite the fantastic exuberance of detail 
which at first is absolutely bewildering, a little study soon 
shows an underljdng unity of purpose, which could only have 
come from one mind, and that the mind of a master. The 
towers and pavihons of this well-known Chateau are round. 
It is in fact a massive Gothic castle. The original plan was 
the central mass with four towers, measuring 220 feet 
each way, on the north side of an enormous square court 
surrounded by buildings. This court was to have four 
huge round towers, the outside measurement being 520 feet 
by 390. Two of them are standing, and form parts of the 
wing of Fran9ois I. and that of Henri II., which are joined 
by galleries to the central mass. On the south side of the 

^ Gompte des Batiments du Roi. 


court, rebuilt by Louis XIV., the bases only of the two 
comer towers exist, finished by a platform and connected 
by a long range of one-storey buildings. On the body of 
the building the Eenaissance is shown by square pilasters 
of the Corinthian c«:der, slightly raised from the surface, with 
capitals in low rehef, dividing the whole into an infinite num- 
ber of equal panels. Some of these are filled with lofty win- 
dows. Others are left plain. The string courses that divide 
the three storeys are so subdued as hardly to break the surface 
of the central mass. But the moment we reach the cornice, 
the wealth of ornament and fantastic caprice begins. Carved 
brackets support a frieze of shell pattern and deep mouldings, 
surmounted by the balustrade which forms a wide gallery 
round the whole central building. Behind the balustrade a 
flat stone wall runs up some ten feet. And from this rise the 
great grey slate roofs. Double-storeyed dormers break up 
through the wall at intervals ; and superb two-storeyed chim- 
neys hanging out on rich and beautiful corbels, shoot high aloft, 
the white stone of the upper part — above pilasters, and shell- 
headed niches and a wealth of carved flambeaux — ornamented 
'vv^th rounds, lozenges, or zigzags of black marble or slate. 

The roof rises over each of the four great towers in a cone 
svirmounted by a cupola ; and in square pyramidal masses 
^^x^er the rest. While the crowning marvel of the whole is the 
lantern " in the centre, over the great central staircase. This 
l^*ntem is almost entirely open-work — tier upon tier of arches, 
l^iUars, flying buttresses with enormous cartouches of the 
^«damander, domed cupolas one upon the other supported 
t>y light and graceful pillars, each one growing lighter and 
^^^Oore airy, tiU the last is crowned by the huge six-foot stone 
^eur-de-lys against the sky. 

Besides the lofty two-storeyed dormers, and the bewilder- 
^^g forest of chimneys, ** which are more ornamented and 
more ornamental than in any building erected either 
before or since,** ^ the roofs are still further broken by 
giraceful tourelles which spring from the side of the masses 
Nearest the lantern, each finished with a cupola surmounted 

1 FergusBon. 


by a lovely little figure on a high pedestal. The chim 
and dormers are crested with fleurs-de-lys, like foam < 
breaking wave. While in the wing of Fran9oi8 I. armi< 
little loves replace the fleur-de-lys, on the crest of the don 
and chimneys of the gallery joining the wing to the cei 
building. And the dome of the Escalier Fran9ois I. (oi 
fifty-two staircases in the Chateau) in the angle of the c< 
yard, is surrounded with a perfect garland of fleurs-de-lys 
salamanders, vsdth caryatides below. 

Chenonceaux — also the work of Le Nepveu — is on a 
different scale. Here we find the exquisite Maison de 
sance. Built by a woman, Catherine Bric^onnet, while 
husband, Thomas Bohier, gMral des Finances^ was sup< 
tending the King's finances during the Italian campaig 
Chenonceaux has been a favourite residence of distingui 
women, of Queens, and royal favourites. Diane de Poi 
and Catherine de Medicis, Queen Louise, Gabrielle d'Est 
the Duchesse de Mercceur, were in possession of this co\ 
Chateau in rapid succession. While in the 18th cen 
Mme. Dupin gave it fresh fame by the brilliant societj 
gathered about her ; and Kousseau's ** Devin du Villa 
was performed for the first time in the long gallery ac 
the Cher. 

The first impression of Chenonceaux is one of disapp( 
ment. The whole thing is so small ; and the effect is s 
on approaching the entrance, by the great isolated r( 
tower, built in the 15th century by Jean Marques on 
river's bank beside his mill. This not only dwarfs 
building, but is confusing at first to the spectator. £ 
however, from the glowing garden on the riverside, we 
that the building is really a tiny square Chateau, built ] 
out into the river on the foundations of the ancient 
whose piles were driven into the solid rock, and joine 
the farther bank of the Cher by a five-arched bridge, bes 
Philibert de TOrme's three-storeyed gallery. The Cha 
actually blocks the river, which runs through the five ai 
of the bridge, and the great water arch under the Cha 
proper in which the mill wheel was placed, besides the 


smaller ones of the drawbridges, which served to break the 
force of the current. The little Chateau has four tourelles at 
the comers with extinguisher tops, finished with lofty and 
delicate lead ornaments. It is three windows wide on each 
side ; and two storeys high to the cornice, which, instead of 
forming a balcony is an attic of flat pilasters, in relief, but not 
detached from the wall, with richly carved leaf brackets and 
cartouches below. With the roof come three dormers — the 
centre one being two-storeyed, with candelabra ornaments 
tossed high aloft. The gallery is the least interesting part of 
the building. And it is now disfigured inside with decora- 
tions in the worst taste, carried out during the possession 
of Mme. Pelouze and her brother M. Daniel Wilson. 

I have described these Chateaux at some length, because 
it is important to get a tolerably distinct idea of the com- 
plete change that had come over the dwelling-places of 
France with the beginning of the 16th centmy. 

Pierre Lescot {b. 1515? d. 1578), — builder of the Louvre, 
was a gentleman born. His family were " gens de robe '*. And 
he himself was Seigneur de Clagny, near Versailles; by which 
title he is generally spoken of. Ronsard in apostrophising 
** Toy, L'Ecot, dont le nom jusques aux astres vole," says : — 

" Car bien que tu sois noble et de cceur et de race 
** Bien que des le berceau I'abondance te face 

** Sans en chercher ailleurs 

** . . . tes premiers r^gens n'ont jamais pu distraire 
** Ton ccBur et ton instinct pour suivre le contraire." 

It is known that he travelled in Italy. But until 1541 
we do not find his name mentioned as the author of any 
special work. In this year he first comes into public notice. 
The Church of St. Germain I'Auxerrois in Paris was being 
restored. Lescot furnished designs for the Jube or Screen, 
and undertook its construction ; Jean Goujon executing the 
sculptures upon it, of which some are now in the Louvre. 

In 1546 Lescot was taken into royal service. Fran(;ois 
I. "Taima par dessus tout,'* says Eonsard; and now pre- 
ferred him to the Italian Serlio, who arrived in France in 
1541, and even to Bullant and de I'Orme. The King, not 


content with his favourite Palace of Fontainebleau, and h. ^^ 
Chateaux of Chambord, and of Madrid in the Bois ^B-^ 
Boulogne, now determined to outdo the magnificence ^^^ 
jfecouen by a palace in Paris. During the absence of tt^*-® 
Court at Tours, under Charles VIII. and Louis XII., tl^*-^ 
Louvre had been almost deserted, or used under the latt^^^ 
King as an Arsenal. In 1527 Francjois I. had alre€kd 7 
begun operations by destrojdng the great tower of thv^^ 

Louvre, which was too Gothic and too sombre for th. ^ 

dainty spirits of the Eenaissance. But, occupied as he 
with other projects, little was accomplished beyond 
necessary repairs, until Charles V.*s visit in 1540; whe: 
the old fortress was made gorgeous for a time with hanging 
and decorations, and its extreme unsuitability to model 
requirements became evident. At last, however, the momei 
arrived for its reconstruction. And on Aug. 2, 1546, the Kin -i 
gave orders to Pierre Lescot for ** un grand corps d'hostel '* o" — i 
the spot where '* la grande salle '* then was, after plans whic -=1 
the architect had drawn up. Thus began the " old ** Louve^m^ 
which we know. For though the building has taken 3(EIID 
years to finish, it has virtually been carried out on tho^^s 
compelling hues laid down by Lescot in 1546. After ttrm 
death of Fran9ois I. in 1547, Lescot's post as Director of tt=^ 
works at the Louvre was confirmed by Henri II. And ttr ^ 
facade which has served as model for the rest of the buildii 
was completed in two years. This is the south-west angle 
the court, round the spot on which the great tower hi 
stood. Not only was the exterior rebuilt. The interior hi 
now to be remodelled to meet the requirements of State occi 
sions. The whole of the west wing was devoted to a sing. 
State room on the first and second floors. The lower one 
the well-known Salle de Cariatides, The upper one is no' 
occupied by the De Caze collection, but has been much altere 
For thirty-two years, until his death in 1578, Lescot continu^^^ 

his work upon the Louvre ; and apart from his own geniu ^' 

it was his great good fortune to have for associate and frie i^ ^ 
the greatest sculptor of the day, Jean Goujon. To Goujon ^^ 
chisel the building owes the decorations of the fa9ade — thot 


exquisite bas-reliefs which are its glory — the four great 
figures from which the Salle des Cariatides takes its name — 
*Dd possibly the sculptures of the Escalier Henri 11., — though 
^8 is extremely doubtful. They are, however, certainly 
from his atelier. 

Honours came fast on Lescot under the succeeding 
deigns. In 1554 he was made a Canon of Notre Dame. 
But as Canons were obliged to shave at least once in every 
three weeks, Lescot insisted on an exception being made in 
his favour ; and only accepted the canonry on condition he 
should be allowed to keep his beard. In 1556 he was styled 
" Abb^ de Clermont, conseiller et ausmonier ordinaire du Eoy ". 
In 1559, on de TOrme's disgrace, Lescot was given his office. 
And in 1578 he died in his Canonry of Notre Dame. 

His contemporaries speak of him as an excellent painter. 
But no picture has survived. 

All that remains of his work are — fragments of the Jub6 of 
Saint Germain TAuxerrois, now in the Louvre ; the Fontaine 
des Innocents, Marche des Innocents ; the Hotel Camavalet, 
Rue de Sevigne; Architecture of the Tomb of Henri II., St. 
Denis ; and his chief and greatest work, the south-west angle 
of the old Court of the Louvre from the Pavilion de I'Horloge. 
Philibert de L'Orme {b. Lyons, 1515; d. 1570), — builder 
of Anet and the Tuileries, was the first of the new type of 
architect. No longer the maltre magon : but a man of learning, 
accomphshments, acquirements, a courtier and polished gentle- 
man of the world. Without the original genius of Bullant, his 
learning and power of adaptation almost counterbalanced his 
"^ant ** of sensitive feehng and original resource. His talent, 
made up chiefly of reason and science, well personified the 
second period of the Eenaissance.*'^ De I'Orme knew 
l>€tter than most men how to make the best use of his 
kiiowledge. His two published works, Nouvelles inventions 
I>our bien batir, and Livre d'Architecture, are full of personal 
details. So is the MS. Memoir of himself written about 
1660, and discovered in the Bibliothfeque National in 1860. 
He always contrived to attract attention ; and tells us how 

1 Lady Dilke. 



in Borne he measured the Triumphal Arch of Sta. Maria 
Novella, ** just when several Cardinals and nobles " happened 
to be passing. 

At the age of fourteen he went to Italy, where the precocious 
youth seems to have made himself heard of to some purpose. 
For he says, in his Memoirs : " J'ay servi papes, roys, et 
plusieurs cardinaux, et feu Monsieur de Langes, Guillaume 
du Bellay, et Monsieur le Cardinal son frfere me debauchai- 
rent du service du pape PauUe a Eome, oil j'estoys et avop 
une belle charge a St. Martin dello Bosco alia Callabre". 
Four years later he left Eome and returned to Lyons. A 
house there, in the Eue de la Juiverie still shows an extra- 
ordinarily skilful addition by his hand — solving the problem 
of how to connect two parts of the house with a gallery 
by means of two ** voutes a trompe **. The portal of the 
Church of St. Nizier at Lyons — still unfinished — is also by 
de rOrme. 

He was first employed near Paris by Cardinal du Bellay, 
on his Chateau of Saint-Maur-les-Fossez, afterwards the 
property of Queen Catherine de Medicis. It is, however, 
with Henri II. 's accession that de TOrme's known activity 
begins. By letters patent dated April, 1547, he is made 
" Conseiller et ausmonier ordinaire et Architecte du roy,'' to 
superintend the works of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Fontaine- 
bleau, Villers-Cotterets, etc. Next year he is created Abbe 
of Ivry. The year after. Inspector of the Eoyal works. But 
this year, 1549, is of much greater importance. For in it he 
begins the building of Anet, for Diane de Poitiers, Duchesse 
de Valentinois. The King on his accession, had presented 
her, as I have said, with " la paulette," the yearly patent 
tax. And out of this immense revenue of public money she 
built Anet with extraordinary rapidity. De TOrme, besides 
various small works, also built for the beautiful favourite the 
bridge across the Cher at Chenonceaux,^ which, though it 
adds a singular and picturesque touch, destroys the unity 
of design of the gem that we owe to Pierre le Nepveu. 
In 1550 he designed the Chapelle aux Orf^vres. And also 

^ See Le Nepveu. 


^^Bigned the famous monument of Fran9oi8 I. at St. Denis 

^ which is mentioned imder the head of Sculpture. 

In 1559 disgrace came upon de TOrme at the hand of 

^he Queen-Mother — mainly owing to his works for Diane 

de Poitiers. In vain he appeals to Catherine in his Memoir, 

&nd recapitulates all his services to herself and ** le feu 

roy". She remains obdurate. And will not even allow 

him to exercise his profession. So he is forced to amuse 

himself by lawsuits with the monks of St. Barthelemy- 

lea-Noyon ; and in writing his Nouvelles Inventions, After 

5ve yecuiB, however, the Queen-Mother relented — needing 

xim for her new project, the Palace of the Tuileries, close 

io the King's Palace of the Louvre which Lescot was 

itill building. Here de I'Orme had to contend with many 

lifficulties. Catherine herself had made the plans. And de 

'Orme was further hampered by having for official coadjutor, 

Nf adame du Perron, one of the Queen's ladies, who was 

bppointed one of the ** Surintendants des bastiments du roy '*. 

Vj^et, therefore, where he worked untranmielled by advice 

fcnd pressure of other minds, is the best example of his talent. 

He was also given the building of the Tour, or Tombeau 

ies Valois, adjoining St. Denis, destroyed by order of the 

Regent in the name of Louis XV. in 1719, on account of 

its bad condition. The exterior was composed of Doric 

and Ionic colmnns, surmounted by a third Composite order, 

with a cupola and pierced lantern. Beneath this lay 

Grermain Pilon's superb figures of Henri II. and Catherine. 

Like Lescot, a Canon of Notre Dame, Philibert de TOrme 

died in the Cloisters of the Cathedral in 1570. Eich, famous, 

wid successful, he had plenty of enemies. Eonsard was 

jealous of him, and made game of him in sonnets. And 

Palissy in his book Eaicx et Fontaines, attacked his system 

of waterworks, as well as his great wealth. But the fact 

remains that his books may still be read with profit. His 

Nouvelles Inventions are valuable on accoimt of precepts upon 

catting and preparing stone, jointings of masonry, and other 

details of actual building. In these matters his knowledge 

and skill was immense. And he trained his master-masons 


himself with infinite care. He also revolutionized the system 
of timber work hitherto in use : ** And gave his name to the 
** method which is still called * couverture a la PhiUbert de 
** rOnne ' ".^ In 1783 Legrand and Molinos used the actual 
plans which de I'Orme published in 1561 for the dome of 
the Halle Neuve in Paris. 

All that remains of his work is — 

Unfinished portal, St. Nizier, Lyons. 

House in the Eue de la Juiverie, Lyons. 

Kuins of Anet. 

Fac^ade of Anet, ificole des Beaux Arts, Paris. 

Gallery across the Cher, Chenonceaux. 

Touches at Chambord and Chaumont. 

Tribune of Chapel of St. Satumin, Fontainebleau. 

Ceiling and Chimney-piece, Galerie Henri II., Fon- 
His fine staircase in the Cour du Cheval Blanc at Fon- 
tainebleau was replaced in the 17th century by an erection of 
Jacques Lemercier's. The Tuileries are now destroyed. 
The Chateau of Villers-Cotter^ts still exists in part. 

Jean Bullant (b. 1510-15; d. 1578), — builder of ifecouen. 
— Bullant mav be said to stand half- way between the master- 
masons of the early days of the Renaissance, when the archi- 
tect was but a superior workman who lived on the scaffolding; 
and the architects who built the Louvre and the Tuileries. He 
had spent much time in Italy. But he was ** devoid of that 
" tincture of letters and grace of various accomplishments 
" w^hich specially distinguished the more typical men of the 
** time '*.*- This perhaps made him all the more acceptable 
to the violent Constable, Anne de Montmorency, who would 
have found Lescot and de I'Orme too polished and courtly to 
suit his rough humour. And in 1540 he l)egan what was to be 
the absorbing work of his life, when Anne de Montmorency 
commissioned him to carry on the building of his Chateau 
of 6couen, begun some few years earlier. 

Henri II. in 1557 appointed him by letters patent ** Con- 
troleur des bastiments de la Couronne *'. But three years 

1 Lady Dilke. > Ibid. 


Later he was replaced by Francois Sannat, supposed to be a 

protege of the Queen-Mother. At the age of fifty-five he was 

taken into favour again on the death of de TOrme, and recalled 

to Paris to carry on the unfinished buildings of the Tuileries ; 

and also to superintend the works at Catherine's Chateau of 

Saint-Maur-les-Fossez. In 1571 he was completely restored 

to favour — the Queen-Mother appointing him her architect 

to the ** Thulleries *\ Two years later we find he receives 

532 livres as " ordonnateur de la sepulture " of Henri II. 

And in 1575 is ** Controleur des bastiments du roi " and 

architect for the Tomb of the Valois. He also built the Hotel 

de Soissons for Catherine. 

But in spite of all these royal works and important posts, 
he remains the architect of the Montmorencys. The two 
Chateaux he built for the Constable, ^ficouen and the Petit 
Chateau of Chantilly, still survive to attest to his genius. 
Ecouen was his home. At Ecouen the greater part of his 
Ufe was spent. At Ecouen he died in 1678. Happily this 
magnificent specimen of the later Eenaissance was saved 
from complete destruction at the Eevolution, by being used 
as a military Hospital. It is now the School of the Legion 
of Honour. And though little but the mere shell remains, it 
is a document of the highest interest and value — a building 
begun and finished by a skilful and highly original artist, who 
worked at it with a clearly-defined purpose, unfettered by 
convention or interference. 

His work is extremely characteristic, even in its defects. 
At Chantilly, built in 1559 soon after the disgrace of the 
Constable — at Ecouen — in the bridge-gallery of Fere-en- 
Tardenois — whatever might be his respect for antiquity, Jean 
Bullant was quite ready to introduce innovations, ** where 
" arches pierce the pediments, where windows cut through 
" the entablature, where classic orders rise from the bottom 
" of one storey to the middle of the upper one *\^ These 
defective arrangements became extremely popular, thanks 
to Bullant. And a number of churches in the Eenais- 
sance style, which are to be seen in the district round 

^ Palustre. 



]fccouen, if they are not actually from his hand, show his 

Examples of Bullant's work : — 

A few fragments of Pilasters and Carvings from the 
Pavilion de Flore, Tuileries. 

The Doric Column, 100 feet high, in the Halle aux 
Bles. This is all that remains of the Hotel de 

The Pont-Galerie of Fere-en-Tardenois. 

Facade of the Church of Belloy. 

The shell of Ecouen. 

The Petit Ch&teau, Chantilly. 
Besides the four celebrated artists, Le Nepveu, Lescot, 
de rOrme, BuUant, and the host of anonymous workers, 
other architects of the Renaissance whose names have couie 
down to us in connection with famous buildings, must be 

Jean Texier or Letexier (d, Chartres, 1529), — known as 
Jean de Beauce, is one of the earliest of these. Maitre d'oeuvre 
and sculptor, he hved at Vend6me, and worked there on the 
Church of the Trinity until 1506. He signed an agreement 
in that year with the Chapter of the Cathedral of Chartre^ 
to rebuild the Clocher, the north-west tower ^ which had beer^ 
destroyed by lightning. This bell-tower and spire wa^ 
finished in 1513. In 1514 he began the celebrated screen 
round the Choir, which shows he was not only an architect 
but a sculptor of considerable merit. He was unable to 
finish it before his death ; and the work, carried on by 
Franijois Marchand and others, was not finished imtil the 
17th century. Texier also enlarged the Church of Saint- 
Aignan, Chartres, by an arch of fourteen metres across the 
Eure, supporting the sacristy, etc. ; a w^ork of great boldness 
of conception. He died in 1529. 

Bastien FRANgois and Martin Francois of Tours. — 
Bastien Francois, mattre d'oeuvre and sculptor, married a 
daughter of Guillaume Kegnault, the nephew of Michel 
Colombe. In 1500 he became maitre d'oeuvre to the 

^ See p. 53. 


Cathedral of Tours ; and, with his brother Martin, built the 
iipper part of the Northern tower. This belfrey shows an ex- 
'femely bold and original design. Founded on early pointed 
i^ork, it is surmounted by a scaled cupola ; while within it, a 
graceful, spiral staircase rests on a crown of open groins 
>r ribs. The inscription in the dome shows this tower was 
inished in 1507. The Southern tower resembles that of 
^ranc^^ois in general appearance, though it was not begun 
Xktil 1537, and finished ten years later. In the next year, 
508, Bastien Francois and his brother began the exquisite 
'loltre de Saint-Martin, at Tours. Of this, happily for the 
fcxident, the Eastern wing still exists in the playgroimd of a 
Convent School. And the kindly, white-robed sisters are most 
ailing to admit visitors. This cloister shows, as M. Palustre 
oints out, with what rapidity the genius of Bastien Franqois 
eveloped. Following so soon upon the somewhat rugged, 
fciough very advanced work of the tower, we find here an 
xquisite specimen of the purest Eenaissance. A line of 
oxmd-headed arches, their architraves richly but delicately 
•rnamented, and medaUions imitated from Italian plaques 
n the spandrels, is surmounted by an enchanting frieze, and 
3^ cornice. The ribs under the roof, form more round-headed 
arches from pillar to wall ; and at the intersections are round 
cartouches, each one different. This cloister, one of the 
gems of the period, was finished by Pierre Gadyer, in 1519. 

The brothers now erected the Fontaine de Beaune, 

^hich, though despoiled of its basins, is still a beautiful 

specimen of their work. In parts of it — the lower lines of 

^ngs and claws — it seems possible to trace not only the 

same design, but the same hand, as in part of the tomb of 

the children of Charles VIII. in the Cathedral. This may 

well be. For it is now ascertained beyond doubt ^ that Guil- 

laume Eegnault, Bastien 's father-in-law, was employed on the 

tomb (1506) with Jer6me de Fiesole, imder the direction of 

Michel Colombe. Bastien Francois worked with these two 

jcolptors, under his great-imcle Michel Colombe's direction, 

ipon the tomb of Francois 11., Due de Bretagne, at Nantes 

^ Palustre. 


(1502-1506) ; and he was also designated by Colombe (1508) 
to conduct the works of the platforms and tombs at Brou.^ 
But the death of Colombe, and disgrace of Perreal who 
had furnished the first designs, stopped the work. 

In 1513 Bastien was appointed maitre d*oeuvres to the 
city of Tours ; and in 1515 maitre d'oeuvre ** de Macjonnerie et 
de Charpenterie " to the King, in Touraine, his brother suc- 
ceeding to his post at the Cathedral. Bastien Francois 
died in 1523. His brother Martin died in 1525, and was 
succeeded by several generations of architects. Of these, 
Gatien Franc^ois I. worked at Chenonceaux ; the Eglise des 
Minimes at Plessis les Tours ; at Marmoutiers, 1531 : 
and took the place of Pierre Gadyer at the Chateau de 

Pierre Gadyer or Gaxdier, — a Tourangeau architect, 
seems to have replaced Martin Francjois as maitre d'ceuvre 
to the Cathedral of Tours, about 1526. The lower part of 
the Southern tower is attributed to him. His other serious 
claim to fame is, that it is now ascertained that it was 
Gadyer who drew up the plans for the magnificent Chateau 
de Madrid, built by Francois I. in the Bois de Boulogne.*^ 
The oft-repeated legend of its Italian origin is now defini- 
tively destroyed. And, as indeed common-sense might have 
discovered long ago, a building so absolutely French in its 
whole conception, is now known to have been the work of a 
French architect, aided by Delia Eobbia and other Italians 
in all matters of ornament. Gadyer also appears to have 
finished the Cloltre de St. Martin, at Tom's, begun by the 
brothers Francjois. 

Colin Biard or Byart (6. Amboise, 1460), — began his 
known career by work on the Chateau of Amboise, under 
Charles VIII. In 1499 he was chosen with three other 
architects to superintend the rebuilding of the Pont Notre 
Dame which had given way. Later on, Louis XII. entrusted 
him wth the building of the Chateau of Blois. And from Blois, 
Cardinal d* Amboise summoned him to Gaillon. In 1505 he 
returned twice to Gaillon to inspect the works. In the next 

» See M. Colombe. « See p. 48. 


year he made another journey there to determine the founda- 
tions of the Chapel. And in July went with Guillaume 
Senault to Saint-Leu to choose the stone for the Grand 
Maison. It is evident, therefore, that he assisted Pierre 
Fain and Pierre Delorme in the building of this magnificent 
edifice. A drawing on vellum of the decoration for the 
Chapel, still exists among the archives of Gaillon, signed 
with a B. 

In Dec., 1506, Biard was summoned to Kouen with other 
lualtres d'oeuvres, to decide whether the Tour de Beurre, just 
built, should be completed with an aiguille or " terrasse avec 
couronne ". In 1507 we find him at Bourges, in consultation 
about measures to prevent the fall of the Cathedral tower. It 
fell, however, on the 30th of the month. And in 1508 he 
furnished plans for rebuilding it. He is mentioned as having 
been from his youth " mele et entremis du faict de masson- 
erie ". The date of his death is not known. He must 
not, however, be confused with another and better known 
Biard (Pierre), author of the Jube of Saint Etienne du 
Mont, etc.^ 

Pierre Fain, — ** maltre d'oeuvre et sculpteur de Eouen **. 
In 1501 we find the first mention of Pierre Fain. He 
was entrusted with work upon the Archbishop's palace at 
Rouen, by Cardinal Georges d'Amboise. And later at the 
Manoir Abbatial de Saint-Ouen, for the Abbot, [fitienne Boyer, 
which he completed in 1507. 

In this same year Cardinal d'Amboise, the all-powerful 

minister of Louis XII., summoned him to Chateau Gaillon. 

And Pierre Fain agreed with other maitres d'oeuvres for 

the construction of the Chapel and the grand staircase, for a 

sum of 18,000 Uvres. This work was finished in Sep., 1509, 

and the money paid to Fain. The sculptors for this famous 

Chateau were Michel Colombe, Antoine Juste, and FrauQois 

Marchand. The ornamentation was by the best Italian 

artists then in France. Paintings were by Andrea Solario. 

The fiurchitects, besides Pierre Fain, who was the chief master 

at the moment, were Guillaume Senault, Pierre Delorme, 

1 See p. ISO. 


Eoland Leroux, and Colin Byard. The magnificent building 
was destroyed at the Eevolution. Only the entrance, the 
Clock tower, and the Chapel tower are now standing ; and 
form part of the great Maison Centrale de Detention, a mile 
or so from the station of Gaillon, between Paris and Rouen. 
The stalls of the Chapel are at St. Denis. The Fountain 
is in the Louvre. So is the St. George and the Dragon. 
The Facade or Portico is the glory of the court at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts. That court also contains many ex- 
quisite fragments from Gaillon ; and an arcade of two or three 
arches, the pillars ornamented with exactly the same curious 
network pattern enclosing ermines' tails as on the arcade of 
Louis XII., at Blois. This would point to both being the 
work of Colin Byard.^ In 1508 for further sums, Pierre 
Fain and his associates undertake to build the kitchens. 
And Fain alone, agrees to build two half croisees and a 
dormer, for 3*24 livres 10 sols. And the portico, which gave 
passage from the fore-court to the Cour d*Honneur, for 650 
livres. This, as I have said, is now at the Beaux Arts. 
The modern inscription, as M. FjUgene Miintz points out, 
is erroneous ; for it says, ** Fa(,*ade du Chateau de Gaillon 
" bati en 1500 par le Cardinal Georges d'Amboise," instead 
of giving the real date, 1508. It occupies the place once 
filled by the glorious St. George and the Dragon of Michel 

Chateau Gaillon, as built by Cardinal d'Amboise, will 
always remain one of the marvels of the early Renaissance, 
and a chef-d'oeuvre of French Architecture. It was not until 
the end of the 16th century that it was disfigured by the 
monstrous ornamentation, so justly condemned by Fergusson 
and others. 

GiLLES LE Breton (d. 1553?), — maitre d'ceuvre de Paris. 
The place of Gilles Breton in the history of French Art, has 
within the last few years become one of considerable import- 
ance. For he is now proved to have been the architect of the 
chief works at Fontainebleau, under Frangois I. These have 
hitherto been attributed wholly to the Italians. Indeed 

1 See p. 68. 


we are commonly told that Fontainebleau hardly count 3 
in French Art, as it was built entirely by Italians, from the 
plans of Italians. The more honest and careful researches 
of recent authorities have completely disproved these whole- 
sale assertions. 

In 1526 Gilles le Breton was working at Chambord with 
Le Nepveu. The next year he was appointed ** maitre gene- 
ral des OBUvres de Maijonnerie du roi, et son commis voyer," 
a post 6f the highest importance. It was in 1529 that 
Fran<;oi8 I., by a consenting act, took back certain ground 
which Saint-Louis had given in 1259 to the Trinitaires, 
round the old Chateau of Louis VII. at Fontainebleau. 
The king at once began remodelling the ancient Chateau 
— the chief constructor being his maltre-general, Gilles 
le Breton. It is considered more than probable that le 
Breton was the architect as well. For none of the other 
celebrated architects of the time could have furnished the 
plans. Lescot was too young. So was Bullant. So was de 
rOrme, who did not leave Lyons till 1539. Le Nepveu was 
too busy at Chambord, and Fontainebleau does not bear the 
slightest trace of his style. While Serlio, to whom the 
Chateau is attributed, did not arrive in France until 1541. 
It is therefore obvious that he had nothing to do with the 
plans in 1528. 

On April 28, 1528, Le Breton signed a contract to ** pull 

** down the old entrance and build another with a square 

'* tower, besides two smaller ones, and three storeys of 

" little galleries, etc." In Aug., 1531, there is a fresh contract 

for the Chapel of St. Saturnin, and the alteration of a staircase. 

In March, 1540, a third contract for the great staircase 

and accessories, for 18,000 li\Tes. His various works and 

his accounts at Fontainebleau were verified and receipted in 

this year by Philbert de TOrme and others : ** Et il regut d'eux 

** un satisfecit complet '\^ Thus the major part of the works 

at Fontainebleau were finished before Serlio's arrival in 1541. 

M. Palustre attributes to Gilles le Breton the peristyle 

in the Cour Oval. And it must be evident to any one who 

^ Bauchal. 


examines the remains of Fran9ois I/s buildings, that they 
are the work of a French, and not of an Italian architect. 

Le Breton lived at Avon, the little village just beyond the 
Canal and the Modern Artillery School, Fontainebleau ; and 
died there in 1553. 

Chambiges, Pierre I., {d. 1544), — son of Martin Cham- 
biges builder of the Transept at Sens, is first mentioned while 
working with his father at Troyes. Then at Beauvais. 
In 1533-4 he is styled **Ma!tre d'oeuvres de Ma^onnerie 
et pavement " to the city of Paris. He superintended the 
fortifications, and carried out the building of the Hotel de 
Ville under Domenique de Cortone. In June, 1538, he was 
appointed maltre d'ceuvres to the King, at Senlis. And in 
the same year worked at Fontainebleau under the orders of 
Gilles le Breton. 

His most important work, however, was the transfor- 
mation of the Chateau of Saint-Germain-on-Laye. This he 
began in 1539, in which year he made a contract for the 
terraces of the Chateau, which were executed in lias by 
Guillaume Guillain and Jean Langeries. In April, 1540, 
Chambiges received 70,174 livres for the works he had carried 
out at Fontainebleau and Saint-Germain. In 1541 a contract 
for the works at La Muette is adjudged to him : but he 
makes it over the same day to his son-in-law Guillain, and 
Langeries. In this document he is styled *' Maltre d'oeuvres 
de la Ville de Paris ". Therefore it is probable that he gave 
the first plans for the building of the Chateau, which was 
carried on by de TOrme, who built the Chapel in 1549, three 
years after Chambiges' death. 

It is interesting to trace the same peculiarities in all 
Chambiges* work — the use of brick for ornament, while the 
massifs of the wall are in stucco or stone. We see it in his 
portion of Fontainebleau, the cour du Cheval Blanc— 
especially in the fine chimney on the right as we face the 
Chateau, with its huge F in red brick on the white ground. 
At Saint-Germain, it is used not only on the exterior, but in 
the interior. The walls of the barrel-roofed stairway are 
ornamented with white stucco panels, and brick pilasters and 


mouldings. So is the magnificent three-storeyed chimney- 
piece in the great Hall. This inversion of the use of stone 
and brick is a mark of all the Chateaux built by Cham- 
biges — Fontainebleau, Saint-Germain, La Muette, Challuau. 
This Architect must not be confounded — as has often 
happened — with Pierre Chambiges II. M. Bauchal 
says he must have been a grandson or great nephew of 
Pierre I. He married a daughter of St. Quentin, one of the 
contractors for the new Louvre. And was supposed to be 
the builder of the ''Petite Galerie'' of the Louvre in 1566. 
This has been erroneously ascribed to Pierre I., who died 
twenty years before there was any question of building it. 



In studjring the Sculptures of the Renaissance in France, it 
is well at once to accept the fact that a large proportion ^f 
these works of art are anonymous. Or, if they are ii-^^t 
absolutely anonymous, that their authorship is often ©3t- 
tremely doubtful. It is necessary to bear in mind that tl3e 
artist working for his Art, working to express the thoug'l^t 
wnthin him, and imposing that thought upon the public, 
was non-existent at the beginning of the 16th century. 
The artist, as such, is indeed a quite modern development. 
The sculptor or the painter of the Renaissance was still a 
workman. He regarded himself, and was regarded by his 
employers, as one who worked for wages, and who was 
therefore to be ready to turn his hand to anything that his 
patron needed. There was no thought as yet of his putting 
a signature to his work — chef-d'oeuvre though it might b^- 
Jean Goujon's masterpieces are only known by his con- 
tracts with this or that architect or patron. His absolutely 
authentic works are few and unsigned. Others are prov^^ 
to be his by conclusive evidence. Others we think may w^^ 
be his by their general resemblance to his work. 

But what is of real importance, after all, is not the narO^ 
of the artist, but the quality of the work. It is, of courB^» 
deeply interesting to know the name of the creator of a famoti^ 
work. To trace the development of his style and pow^^' 
To observe the effect of outside influences on his geniii^- 
Or the tendencies of the school in which he has been train©<J - 
But this interest in the artist — this demand, which is gro*^^ 
ing more and more imperative in these latter days, for pex^^ 
sonal details — is too apt to take the first place. The wortt^ 

and beauty of his production is put second. And man^y 



people, if they see " Artist unknown " below a superb work 
o( Art, will pass it by with hardly a glance, to become en- 
thusiastic over some quite second-rate production, because 
it is attributed to some one whose name they know. 

If the Diane Chasseresse was one of these many anonymous 
sculptures, would it be less beautiful — would it be less the most 
perfect and exquisite expression of a great artist's genius ? 
Do we, or rather should we, think less of the noble statue 
of Chabot, because we are now almost certain that it is not 
the work of Jean Cousin ; while we are quite certain that it 
is not, as has been suggested, the work of Goujon, with whose 
niethod it has no relation at all ? Or is the frieze on the 
tomb of Louis de Brez^ less exquisite because we cannot be 
sure, though there are strong probabilities in its favour, that 
It, again, is from the hand of Goujon ? Jean Goujon and 
Germain Pilon have become names to conjure with. There- 
fore in the past, the most unlikely and impossible produc- 
tions have been attributed to their chisel ; productions 
^hich, thanks to a more enlightened and scientific method of 
**vt criticism, we now know they could never have touched, 
-'^liis intense desire on the part of the public for a name, 
'^ at the bottom of many frauds. To satisfy this craze for 
authenticity,** thousands of pictures and statues are fur- 
^^shed with the names of artists, who in some cases were 
'^"ther dead, or not yet born, at the time the work was pro- 

As I have already pointed out,^ Sculpture during the 
'^rlier part of the Kenaissance, save for tombs and portrait 
^Xists, is chiefly ornamental. This is natural, and easily ex- 
plained, when we see how France at that moment became 
■covered with dwelling-places of extreme beauty and luxury ; 
-ither new creations, or old Chateaux-forts entirely recon- 
^'^ructed to meet the wants of the day. These Chateaux 
^nd palaces — loaded with carvings on columns, gateways, 
formers, chimneys, balustrades, lines of pilasters with rich 
^^pitals, exquisite arcades, cartouches and trophies without ; 
^nd elaborate chimney-pieces, staircases, and ceilings within — 

' Chap. iii. 


made enormous demands on the talent of the most accom- 
plished sculptors of the day. For much of the work is so 
perfect, of so high an order, that it could only have come from 
a master's hand. A hundred instances might be quoted. I 
will only give a few. 

1. The little amours who crest the dormers and chimneys 
of the Aile Fran^'ois I. at Chambord, and some of the capi- 
tals of pilasters. 

2. Cartouches and pendants on the staircase, Azay le 

3. Details of the outside staircase, Blois. 

4. Cartouches of Labours of Hercules outside north wing. 
Chateau de Blois. 

5. Chimney-piece, dit de Jean Goujon, Chenonceaux. 

In life these Humanists now desired to be surrounded by 
beautiful details. In death they desired their memories might 
be perpetuated by magnificent tombs. These were often 
arranged, and sometimes executed, during their lifetime. 
And with a proud humihty, not content with being repre- 
sented in the vigour and splendour of life, they were fre- 
quently portrayed on the same tomb in death. This is a 
singular characteristic of many of the finest monuments of 
the period. In the splendid tombs of St. Denis, Louis XII. 
and Anne de Br&tagne, Henri II. and Catherine de Medicis, 
lie as gisants, half naked in all the pathetic abandonment and 
humiliation of the death that is common to all ; while above 
the superb canopies, the priants kneel in regal magnificence of 
hfe and power. A more extraordinary contrast it is impossible 
to find than that between the terrible and tragic figure of 
Louis XII. lying nearly naked beside Anne, whose head is 
thrown back with hair flying wild, and his kneeling statue 
above with hands pressed together, upon the prie-dieu. 
For serious beauty this is unsurpassed. The turn of the i 
head is enchanting in its calm reverence and tenderness. - 
This arrangement with slight variations we find in many"^ 
other cases. In Germain Pilon's monument of Valentine^ 
Balbiani (Louvre), below the portrait statue of the " grandi 
dame " with high-bred hands, leaning on her elbow, with h< 


little dog and book of Hours, a bas-relief shows us the almost 
steJeton old woman dead — horrible and pathetic. 

Sculpture now, however, goes a step further. It was not 

until the later period of the Renaissance movement that 

statues and groups of sculpture became common. The 

taste was doubtless encouraged by the influence of Italy, 

the presence at Court of Primaticcio, Benvenuto CelUni 

and others. Cellini's graphic account of the scene in the long 

Gallery at Fontainebleau, when he displays his Mars, and 

Primaticcio uncovers his bronze casts from the antique, shows 

that the demand for statues to ornament the gardens and 

courtyards of the new palaces, had begun imder Frangois I. 

With the reign of Henri II. it grows rapidly. The ** Diane 

Chasseresse," and that lost figure of a nymph that formed 

a pendant to it at Anet, were erected soon after 1550. Ten 

years later Germain Pilon is carving wooden figures of Mars, 

Minerva, Juno, Venus, for Queen Catherine's garden : and 

a year or two after, his famous ** Three Graces," and the 

wooden group of Cardinal Virtues. While under Henri IV., 

sculpture has regained the position it occupied in Greece 

and Rome. 

Before enumerating the known artists of the later Re- 

i^iaissance, it may be well to mention some of the most im- 

iXjrtant anonymous works, or those of doubtful authenticity. 

Several of these are in the Salle Michel Colombe, Louvre, 

^■:inong them — 

Two recumbent figures from the Church of Saint-Ger- 
^■^Ciain TAuxerrois. 

1. Pierre Poncher, Secretaire du roi, d. 1521. 

2. His wife, Boberte Legendre, 1522. 

The authorship of these tombs has long been doubtful. 
"VVithin the last few months, however, it has been dis- 
covered that they are the work of Guillaume Regnaut 
0450-1533) and Guillaume Chaleveau, both of the School of 
Touraine. In both the hands are remarkable and character- 
istic. Roberte Legendre's is a live and noble figure. The 
folds of her soft, heavy cloak are full of stately repose. 

3. Statue of Admiral Chabot, formerly attributed to Jean 


Cousin. A fine cast of this is in the South Kensingtx 
Museum. Below the statue is a lovely despairing little figu 
of Fortune, flung at full length on the ground with a broki 
wheel. This bears, both in touch and general treatmer 
a strong resemblance to the work of Goujon. It is certain 
not by the same hand as the Admiral. 

4. Statue of Magny, Salle Michel Colombe. 

5. Vierge d'Ohvet, attributed to Michel Colombe, Sa.1 

Michel Colombe. 

6. Virgin and child, anonymous, Salle Michel Colomt 

7. Statue of Saint-Eloi from Dijon, Salle Mich 


8. Tomb of Cardinal Bric^onnet, Cathedral of Narbonn 

9. Tomb of Guillaimie du Bellay, Cathedral of Le Mar 

10. Tomb of Artus Gouffier, Oiron. 

11. Tomb of Hugues des Hazards, Blfenod-lez-Toul. 

12. Statue of Marie de Bourbon, Saint-Denis. 

13. The celebrated tomb of the two Cardinals, Georg" 
d'Amboise and his nephew, Cathedral of Rouen. This 
said to be the work of Roland Leroux, architect, and tl 
sculptors Pierre Desobaulx, Regnaud Theroujm, and Andrfe 
Flament, 1520-25. 

14. Tomb of Louis de Brez6, Cathedral of Rouen. 

15. French Shepherd, Mus^e de Cluny. 


FRANgois Marchand (b. Orleans, 1500(?) ; d. 1553(?)),- 
maltre d'oeuvre and sculptor. Francjois Marchand worked fir" 
at Chateau Gaillon, where he sculptured nine bas-reliefs for tl 
facade. He then returned to Orleans and decorated sever" 
houses, notably No. 22 Rue Neuve, and one facing No. 4 R«. 
Pierre Percee, which is now destroyed — only the chimney 
piece remaining in the Musee. With Bemardeau he co:» 
structed the Jube in the Church of St. Pierre, Chartres, J 
1540-43. Of this four bas-reliefs are preserved in the Louvir 
And in 1542 a contract shows that he was carrying on tir 
work of the magnificent Choir Screen in the Cathedral < 


Chartres, begun by Jean de Beauce.^ In this he agrees to 
execute two " histoires de la Purification Nostre Dame et des 
Innocens '* ; and the " revestement d'un pilier ". Francois 
Marchand also assisted Pierre Bontemps in some of his work 
on the bas-reliefs and the recumbent figures of the Tomb of 
Francois I. in Saint-Denis. 

Jean Goujon (6. about 1510; d, 1564-8).— The first 
mentions of this great artist's name are in the Chapter 
accounts of the Cathedral of Kouen and of Saint-Maclou. 
In 1540 he had already been employed to make " les portraiz " 
or designs for the porch and fountain. And the small panels 
in the doors of St. Maclou show his work. Though injured 
by whitewash, which has been carefully scraped off by the 
intelligent Suisse of the Church, these panels are of great 
interest. A good cast of the door is in the South Kensington 

It was about 1540-42 that Goujon left Bouen for Paris, 
to work under Pierre Lescot on the restorations of Saint- 
Germain TAuxerrois. The bas-reliefs of the Jube were his 
^vork. Of these, a superb deposition, and the four evange- 
lists, are preserved in the Louvre. The draperies already 
show Goujon's grace. The touch is firm, strong, and grace- 
W. Bullant was now building Ecouen for the Constable 
Anne de Montmorency ; and Goujon passed two years in his 
^rvice, working at Ecouen, where he was associated with 
f alissy. Fragments of work of this sojourn, collected by the 
excellent Lenoir at the Kevolution, are to be seen in the 
Ijouvre. The Victory, the Chimney-piece of the Salle des 
Gardes, and the Altar from the Chapel, are at Chantilly. At 
Ecouen, Goujon also did the illustrations to Jean Martin's 
**Vitruviu8 ". 

In 1544 - 46, Lescot was building a Hotel for the president 
ie Ligneris, now knovs^ as the Hotel Carnavalet. Here 
Goujon, who seems to have been on terms of intimate friend- 
sWp with the great architect, was associated with him again 
^ the well-knovna and beautiful ornamentation ; and a tew 
years later began work, also with Lescot, for Henri II. 

^ See Texier. 


In 1647, finally Goujon left the Constable's service for 
that of the King, and began his work for Henri II. at the 
Louvre. Here the carvings on the south-west angle of 
Lescot's court are without doubt from his hand. So also 
are the figures in the Salle des Cariatides. Whether the 
sculptures of the Escalier Henri II. are his, or those of one 
of his school, is a moot point. 

In 1560 he finished the exquisite Fontaine des Innocents, 
for which Lescot furnished the architecture. Originally it 
occupied an angle formed by the Kue aux Fers and the Rue 
Saint-Denis, and consisted of three instead of four arcades. 
When it was reconstructed in the middle of the square, the 
fourth side with arch and panels were added, completely 
altering the original conception. 

Later in the year 1650 Goujon went to Anet, where he 
carved the gateway of the Chateau, now in the Court of the 
Beaux Arts ; and the smaller gates, removed to Beauvais. 
But his crowning triumph was the famous statue, raised 
high above the great fountain in one of the garden Courts 
— the Diane Chasseresse, now in the Louvre. **The wide 
"circle of the basin brimmed with sparkling waters, out 
" of which rose in successive tiers, round upon round of 
** decoration, ever increasing in complicated movement, till 
** the final wheel was crowned by the graceful figure of 
** Diana and her dogs." ^ 

This is probably the only remaining example of Goujon '&- 
work in the round. It was saved from destruction by the 
good Lenoir. But not until the poodle, who stands behinc 
his fair mistress showing his teeth, had been broken t^^ZD 
pieces for the sake of the metal pipe through which watesx 
ran from his mouth. The group is too well known to ne^d 
description. But it marks a point of such importance iri 
French Art, that it should not only be admired, but most cs^f^!- 
fully studied. There is an air of courtly good-breeding abo'U.t 
it, which is typical of the time and the personage. The pro**^^ 
stag, with his golden antlers, is as high-bred as Diane hers^l^* 
The chisel is so free and lifelike on the hairy locks of 'fcb-e 

1 Lady Dilke. 



fierce guardian poodle. So firm on the delicious fur of the 
stag. So sharp and spirited on the muscular, hard-trained 
greyhound. So soft and caressing on the exquisite flesh of 

If his chisel had neither the breadth of Greek handling, 
nor the loose and yielding softness of the Florentine, ** the 
** touch has a spirit and sharpness of accent which is 
'* eminently French, swift and ready, with a directness in 
'* attack which is specially serviceable for works of orna- 
" ment." ^ In the work on the Louvre it is easy to distinguish 
between what is from his hand and what is of his invention. 
This is still more evident in the Fontaine des Innocents. 
Except in the Vitruvius, Goujon is hardly mentioned by his 
contemporaries. A curious mystery surrounds his life. He 
lives in his glorious works. Goujon has always been claimed 
as a Huguenot. He lived much with Jean Martin and 
Bernard Palissy. And various theories have been put for- 
ward to explain his sudden disappearance after 1562. Some 
supposed he was killed in one of the massacres ; others that 
he died from a fall off the scaffolding. But a document 
lound at Modena, and pubhshed by M. de Montaiglon,^ has 
set the question at rest ; for it proves beyond doubt that he 
escaped to Bologna, where he died between 1564 and 1568. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Carvings of Jub6 of St. Germain TAuxerrois. 

Fragments from Ecouen. 

Diane Chasseresse. 

Bust of Henry II. (?). 

Four Nymphs, Njmaph, Satyr, and Cupids. 

Carvings of S.W. Angle of Court of Louvre. 

Tribune des Cariatides, Louvre. 

Escaher Henri II. (?), Louvre. 

Panels from Fontaine des Innocents, Louvre. 

Fontaine des Innocents, Marche des Innocents. 

Porte de Nazareth, Hotel Carnavalet. 

Lions, Trophies, Fame, fa9ade Hotel Carnavalet. 

» Lady Dilke. 

^ Gaz. des Beaux Arts, vol. xxxi., 2nd period. 



Four Seasons, interior Court, Hotel Cfitmavalet. 
Gateway of Anet, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Court. 
Wooden panels from Anet, ificole des Beaux Art 

Smaller gates from Anet, Beauvais. 
Stone Virgin from Chapel of Anet, Ch. of Pacy-sui 

Fragments incorporated in restored Chateau, Anet. 
Victory, from ^couen, Chantilly. 
Chimney-piece Salle des Gardes, from ^^couen, Chan 

Altar of Chapel, from Ecouen, Chantilly. 
Wooden doors. Church of Saint Maclou, Bouen. 
Marble Venus from Hotel de la Reine (?), Musee d( 

Illustrations to Jean Martin's Vitruvius. 

Germain Pilon (1535-1598). — Gennain Pilon's father wa 
a sculptor of Loue, near Le Mans. But the more famou 
son was born, it is now ascertained, in Paris in 153£ 
His first known wdrk is the route or canopy of the Tom 
of Frangois I., on which he worked with Bon temps, Frar 
<;ois Marchand, etc., under the direction of Philibert d 
rOrme. In the ** Compte du roi,** 1558, he is mentioned £ 
the author of eight allegorical bronze figures in low relie 
" jolies figures de Fortunes'*. These were melted dowTi i 
the Eevolution. And only the low reliefs on the ceiling ( 
the canopy, and four little winged figures in the spandrel 
remain of his work. 

From 1560 Pilon was employed almost exclusively by tl 
Court. His next work was on the famous Tour des Valoi 
and the Monument of Henri H. in it, designed by Lescot ft 
Queen Catherine. On this he worked for twenty years. H 
part of the tomb consists in the two kneeling bronze figur* 
above, and the two gisants in marble beneath. The kneelii 
bronze of Henri II. is as fine as anything of the period. Tl 
outspread hands are most appealing. To Pilon are also di 
the magnificent marble recumbent statues of Henri II. at 


'atherine — now in the Chapel of St. Eustache at St. Denis. 
^hey lie on bronze mattresses, covered with a monogram of 
t. C. and Fleurs de Lys entwined in a beautiful design of 
lives. The extreme magnificence of the two figures, lying 
ath open eyes in calm repose, can hardly be surpassed. The 
eavy folds of the Koyal robes sober the usual exuberance of 
^ilon's draperies ; and leave on the mind a sense of stately 
ignity which he seldom attains. 

In 1560 Pilon also made carved wooden figures of Mars, 
'linerva, Juno, Venus, for Queen Catherine's garden. 

Two years later he produced the famous group of Cathe- 
ine and two of her ladies, as the Three Graces, to bear the 
>ronze vase containing Henri II. *s heart. This group of 
* des Graces decentes " was placed in the Chapel of the dues 
i'Orleans in the Church of the Celestins, Paris. It stood 
beside the statue of Chabot, and the Italian tomb of Louis 
d'Orleans (now at St. Denis). The Three Graces show that 
the decadence has begun. They are of the earth earthy. 
The whole thing, though charming, partakes of the pretty, 
rather than of the great. The draperies are too tortured, 
and lack beauty of line. The other group of four figures in 
oak (Louvre) for the Chasse de Sainte-Genevieve, which 
Rion produced about this time, are to my mind superior. 
They are very beautiful, though also extremely earthly ; and 
more free than his work in marble. 

With the reign of Henri III. Pilon gained a new and 
powerful patron in the Chancellor Een6 de Birague. He 
entrusted him with the erection of a magnificent monument 
in Sainte-Catherine du Val des EcoUers (Louvre), to his wife 
Valentine Balbiani, whose opportune death enabled the Chan- 
cellor to take orders and become a Cardinal. Twelve years 
later, Pilon erected the Cardinal's own tomb. This is also 
in the Louvre — a kneeling figure in bronze. The lines are 
superb ; and although, as it is Pilon's work, the drapery is 
exuberant, the folds exaggerated, it is here in keeping with 
the character. The Cardinal's robes were originally painjted 
^, as may be still seen by careful examination. But we 
owe the preservation of this magnificent work of art to 


Lenoir, who saved it from destruction in '93 by daubing i 
with whitewash and assuring the destroyers that it wa, 
plaster and not bronze. 

In this year (1586) the Queen-Mother ordered a statue a 
the Virgin for one of the altars in the Chapelle des Valois 
and for this purpose appropriated a block of marble at Si 
l^enis — writing to the Grand Prior by Pilon to give it uf 
On the back of the letter we find in Pilon's writing : ** Cejon 
** d'hui III. jour d'avril 1586 moy Germain Pilon confess. 
** avoir pris . . . pour faire le dit ouvrage*'. This statue 
known as the Vierge de Pitie, is now in the Church St. Pau 
et St. Louis, Rue St. Antoine. The maqiiMe for it in painta 
terra cotta is in the Louvre. Though the hands and th 
face are really exquisite, the drapery is quite distracting in it 
broken and tonnented lines, and extreme fulness. 

The contrast between Goujon's and Pilon's treatment c 
drapery is most marked. In the Cheminee du Chateau d 
Villeroy (Louvre), the two lively nymphs on either side, i 
spite of abundant drapery, are more undressed than Goujon 
nude. Goujon 's draperies are always full of grace. Pilon 
nearly always wanting in dignity. While Goujon's instinci 
were truly Greek, Pilon shows a w^ant of simphcity, and 
strong sympathy with the artificial aspects of hfe. Whi 
he saw, he mastered and reproduced with consummate skil 
His work possesses great charm. But it coincides with tl 
tone and taste of the Court of Catherine de Medicis. An« 
as Lady Dilke points out, from her favourite sculptor 
would be impossible to expect an expression of the lofti* 

Pilon^s portraits, however, are of extreme value. Tl 
bust of Henri III. (Louvre) is a most painful and remarkab 
human document — the close-shaved, conical head, feeb 
mouth and retreating chin. So is the bust of Charles D^ 
with its weak, cruel boy's face. 
Examples : — 

The Three Graces (cast S. K. Mus.), Louvre. 

The Cardinal Virtues (oak), Louvre. 

Cheminee de Villeroy (cast S. K. Mus.), Louvre. 


Valentine Balbiani, Louvre. 

Cardinal de Birague, Louvre. 

Vierge de Pitie (terre cuite), Louvre. 

Bas-reliefs from Chaire des Grands Augustins, Louvre. 

La Force et la Foi (bas-reliefs), Lou\Te. 

Buste d'enfant, dit Henri IV., Louvre. 

Maquette of figure of Henri H., St. Denis, Louvre. 

Christ from Altar of Chap, des Valois ; and Vierge de 
Pitie, Ch. St. Paul et St. Louis. 

Statues of Henri II. and Catherine de Medicis, Chapelle 
de St. Eustache, St. Denis. 

Bronze kneeling figures and marble (jisants. Tomb of 
Henri II. and Catherine, St. Denis. 

Etc., etc. 
Pierre Bontemps. — Nothing certain is known of the 
history of this great artist, save that he was living and at the 
height of his fame in 1556. His name appears in the 
accounts for the Tomb of Francois I. at St. Denis, and 
the Funeral urn containing the King's heart. " This is 
"all; it is suflScient, however, to secure immortality for his 

In the tomb it is certain that he had the general direction 
of the Sculpture — the whole monument being designed by 
Philibert de TOrme.^ The recumbent figures, and the five 
kneeUng ones on the canopy above, are pretty certainly 
his work, helped at the outset by Fran(,'ois Marchand, 
who probably sculptured some of them from Bontemps 
Queues, Bontemps is further the undoubted author of 
the forty-two superb bas-reliefs of the stylobate. These 
J^epresent the campaigns of Francois I. On the west side 
the battle of C^risolles occupies the chief panel, and is of 
astounding force and beauty. The figure of the King, 
riding alone, is most noble. And a remarkable artistic 
effect is obtained by a cannon drawn by two horses 
on rising ground, standing out against the sky. On the 
^ast side the campaign ending wth the battle of Marignan 
and the triumphal entry into Milan, is portraj-ed. The 

' Louis Gonse. - Chap, iv., p. G3. 


forest of spears above the cannons of the Swiss should 1 — > h 
specially noted. They are used with admirable effect, r- 
minding one of the lances in the Burne-Jones windows 
St. James Church, Birmingham. 

The Urn containing the heart of Francjois I. is whol ly 

from the hand of Bontemps. It is a work of art of the highe st 

order. A phnth, sculptured with funereal emblems, skulls ai- _ id 
bones, runs round the base of the pedestal. Higher, on eac rh 
of the four faces, supported by female heads crowned wi= — th 
laurel, is a round medallion in low relief. The subjects ar— re 
Astronomy, Music, Song, Poetry — this last being of espec^H*al 
beauty. Four tablets beneath the cornice bear Latin i n- 
scriptions in verse and prose. The Urn above, carved fr o ^i^ 
a single block of marble, and of considerable width and si zm^ e, 
is supported on four lions' feet. The arms of France, sal^Ma- 
manders in flames, crowned initials, lions' heads, masks ai^^^d 
draperies, cover its surface, round four exquisite bas-reh^^3fs 

worked with almost the delicacy of a cameo. These represe^ nt 

Sculpture, Drawing, Architecture and Geometry — a charmi^^Kg 
and ingenious compliment, intended to unite the Arts a^^od 
Sciences round the heart of the King who gloried in givir^g 
them encouragement. On the cover of the Urn two delicic^ ~«s 
little genii with reversed torches lean against classic masks- - 

Lenoir, to whom we owe so much, saved this precio'us 
work of art — the Urn and its pedestal — from the hands of 
the Revolutionists in 1793, by giving a load of wood in 
exchange for it. 

LiGiER Richer (1500-6; 1567).— Before leaving the 
sculptors of the Renaissance, mention must be made of 
Ligier Richer, a provincial master, the chief of the school ^^ 
Lorraine. For his works exhibit an interesting example <^^ 
indigenous art, untouched in great measure by the schawls 
of Tours and Paris. He was the most illustrious of a familJ 
of sculptors. His father, his son, his two brothers SLn^^ 
several of their descendants, were all sculptors. And ma^i^^ 
of their works have been attributed to Ligier. 

Ligier Richer's works are hke an echo of the successi"^^ 
influences which had reigned in the north ot Europe. li^^ 


f orst tendencies belong to the Middle Ages. His last style to 
I ^be Eenaissance. 

f His first work is the retable or ** Calvary " of Hatton- 

Chatel, near Saint-Mihiel. It is something in the style of 

^he St. Sepulcre of Solesmes — the naturalistic spirit of the 

^liddle Ages, in an Italian setting. The three compartments 

are divided and bordered vnth delicate arabesques on pilasters 

and friezes. In his Pieta of Clermont en Argonne, dramatic 

Sentiment is dominant. Later on this increases, as in the 

effigy of PhiUppe de Gueldre. And his funeral statue of 

Itene de Chalons, known as " La Mort," is repulsive in its 

extreme reahsm. What mars his otherwise very remarkable 

talent is an absence of simplicity and refinement. 

The ** Enfant a la Creche " of the Louvre — an exquisite 
baby, plump and seriously content, is thought by M. Cour- 
nault to be by one of his descendants. So he thinks, is a 
small and finely carved bas-relief in the Louvre of the 
Jxigement de Suzanne. In any case the proportions are 
Bgdmirable, and the two babies and their dogs below the 
judgment seat are deUghtful. Numbers of authentic works 
by Ligier Richer are to be found round his home. 

Like many other esprits litres at that time, he became a 
l?rotestant, and escaped for safety to Geneva, where he died 
in 1567. 

Examples : — 

Retable, Hatton-Chatel, prfes St. Mihiel. 
Fainting of the Virgin, Ch. of St. Michel, St. Mihiel. 
Mise au tombeau, Ch. St. fitienne, St. Mihiel. 
Pieta, or ** Bon Dieu de la Pitie,'* Ch. of l^tain. 
Pieta, terre cuite, Clermont en Argonne. 
Sainte Madeleine, fragment, Chapel Ste. Anne, Cler- 
mont en Argonne. 
Effigy of Duchesse Philippe de Gueldre, Nancy. 
Funeral Statue of Ren6 de Chalons, called ** La Mort,'' 

Ch. of St. Pierre, Bar le Due. 
Enfant a la Creche, Louvre. 
Jugement de Suzanne, Louvre. 



The art of portraiture is a comparatively modem one in 
F'rance. Its birth was in the early 14th century, with 
the first authentic portrait statues of the Kings of France. 
This growing preoccupation with the portrait was con- 
fined for more than a centur\' to sculpture. For France, 
though far in advance of Italy in sculpture at the end of the 
18th and beginning of the 14th centuries, remained well be- 
hind Italian, Flemish, and German artists in painting. It is 
only with the first dawning of the Renaissance, with the 
growth of interest in humanity, with the influence of 
Flemish and Italian Art, that we find painted portraits be- 
coming at all general in France. At first these are miniatures. 
The eariiest kno\\'n French portrait is that of Le roi Jean 
(1350-1864), a miniature painted on a figured (gaufre) gold 
background. A picture, now in the Sainte-Chapelle, repre- 
sents King Jean and the Pope seated, and receiving a 
diptych, also on gold, from the hands of a valet de chambre. 
Portraits are about this period introduced into Manuscripts. 
In the celebrated Book of Hours of the Due de Berry, son of 
King Jean (Bib. Nat. MS. Latin), his portrait is constantly 
introduced. The BibUotheque National possesses a remark- 
able water-colour portrait of Louis II. of Anjou, King of 
Sicily. This is of about the year 1415. And M. Bouchot 
considers it of the highest value in the art of portraiture in 

It is not, however, until the middle of the 15th century, that 
this art bursts into sudden life under the influence of that 
great master, Jean Fouquet, whose journey to Italy in 1440 
was the touchstone of the French Renaissance. To Jean 

Fouquet we must always look as the first purely French . 



portrait painter. For, however great his admiration for 
-^^alian Art — however strong his endeavour to conform to 
^he new ideals he brought back with him from Italy, in his 
portraits he remains essentially himself, and essentially 
French. But Fouquet was more than a portrait painter. 
-fo his miniature work, he gives an extraordinary impulse 
^o the art of painting. In that miraculous " Josephus " of 
^ixe Due de Berry (Bib. Nat.), we find artistic work of the 
-highest order. Both colour, composition, and drawing are 
o£ the most impressive as well as exquisite quality, in some 
t these wonderful pages, where hundreds of figures and wide 
"tretching landscapes are portrayed in the space of a few inches. 
Under Fouquet's inspiration, two other artists, Jean 
ourdichon and Jean Perr^al, now give themselves to the 
ainting of miniatures and portraits. King Eene of Anjou 
l>aints sacred pictures and illuminates his famous Book of 
I3onrs. While a host of nameless painters devote them- 
«^elves to the illuminating of the manuscripts which, to a 
KT^eat extent, represent French painting at the end of the 
1 5th century. The British Museum possesses a very fine col- 
lection of French MSS. of this period — notably the numbers 
43, 44, 49, 50, 53, 54, 58, 60, 94, 95, 99, ioi, 105, 106. 
In several of these, miniature portraits are introduced ; as 
^^ the translation of Saint Augustine by Kaoul de Praelles, 
^'here the translator is seen presenting the book to King 
Charles V. of France.— (B. M., 101). 

At the beginning of the 16th century, portraits become of 
diplomatic importance. They are used as authentic docu- 
ments. Kings and princes send their portraits to the Court 
■^f the lady they \\dsh to marry ; or receive hers, painted by 
^heir ovm portrait painter, sent on embassy for that purpose. 
^ early as 1445 this had been the usage in other countries ; 
^s, for instance, in the famous journey of Jean Van Eyck 
from Flanders to Spain, to paint the portrait of Isabella of 
I^ortugal, for Jean le Bon, Duke of Burgundy. 

Each king and great noble now has his official painter or 
painters attached to his court and person. The painter, 
^s the sculptor, was a paid servant, who was expected to 


turn his hand to anything. Portrait drawings, such as- 
those of the Clouets and their school, were produced in- 
immense quantities. These drawings were kept in books^ 
like photographs to-day ; or a whole book of portraits wass 
given as a present. The painter was in fact a sort ofl 
Photogi'apher in Ordinary. He continually received order& 
for portraits to be finished as quickly as possible ; as whenr 
Catherine do Medicis wTites : ** Que ce soit un crayon pouia 
** estre plus tot fait ". Oil paintings by the Renaissance 
painters were few. They had little time for so lengthy ^ 
2)rocess. These rapid pencil or chalk sketches from the life 
were only occasionally used later on for a miniature or e 
picture. Once, however, having made the sketch from the: 
life, the artist was ready to produce any number of repetitions 
and often entrusted them to his pupils or apprentices. It is 
thus that we find so many variants of the same subject. 

At the accession of Franc^ois I., Perreal and Bourdichom 
are **peintres du roi et varlets de chambre," with Guyot ancK 
Jamet Clouet (1516) as their subordinates. 

This is the first authentic mention of Clouet, the father^ 
and the great line of portrait painters has begun in France. 

Jean Fouquet (1415 circa 1480). — ** Digne predecesseun 

** de Leonard da Vinci, d'Holbein, et de Raphael, Fouquet 

** prend un vol si eleve qu'on doit lui placer parmi ces grands 

** maltres et le nommer desormais avec eux." ^ M. de Laborde 

considers that Fouquet occupies in the history of the French 

School, an identical position with that held by Mantegna in 


In 1440, when Fouquet was not thirty years old, he wae 

sunnnoned to Rome to paint the portrait of Pope Eugene 

IV. This shows that the reputation of the young master 

who was alreadv chief of the school of Tours, was known 

beyond the confines of France. His sojourn in Italy, whicb 

was prolonged till 1445, was destined to exercise an enormou— 

influence on French Art ; and must be looked upon as th^ 

real starting-point of the Renaissance. 

' Aug. de Bastard. 


Miniaturist to Charles VII., Louis XI., Charles VIII., 

ho was the first to give to France the well-defined style of 

portrait, which obtained till the middle of the 16th century. 

J^he greater part of his works which survive, are minia- 

ti\:ires and illuminations in MSS. A few larger paintings, 

liowever, have been preserved. The Louvre happily possesses 

ti%;^'0 — each of extreme importance and interest. The first is 

title portrait of Charles VII., in a blue hat and deep red dress 

l^ordered with fur, between two little white curtains against 

green background. The King's shaven red face with long 

xirple nose, is naifsmd frankly ugly. But the hfe and character 

<:>! the picture as a portrait are intense, and the colour fine. 

'JJhe second is Guillaume Juvenal des Ursins, Chancellor 

<.>i France under Charles VII. and Louis XI., in a dull red, 

f xir-bordered robe, against a golden background. This is also a 

ijQost powerful and lifelike portrait. The delicate painting of 

t-he hands is admirable. And the suggestion of the coming 

lienaissance is interesting in the straight lines of the back- 

^^pround, divided into compartments, with bears supporting a 

shield. There are a few other portraits existent. But the 

^niniatures are fortunately more numerous. 

Chief among these is the Josephus of the Bibliotheque 

In the first illustration, a full page of the Creation, 

^he ItaUan taste that Fouquet had acquired is suggested by 

^he two hairy-men and the two opulent mermaids, who 

^^pport the Due de Berry's coat of arms. On the other hand, 

there are two women's figures in the border which are purely 

French. The colour of these full page illustrations is most 

beautiful. Especially so perhaps in the fourth picture, in which 

Korah, Dathan and Abiram are being swallowed up. The 

Soft dull greys, browns and blues, are most hannonious. So 

^8 the delicate tender green of the meadow where the earth 

opens, on the top of a rock wall round which a furious fight 

^8 going on between men in armour, with spears, swords, and 

shields — the chain armour picked out with fine gold. An 

exquisite landscape with wooded hills stretches far away — 

o^yond the Roman Temple where Moses and Aaron stand. 


And the fire falls from heaven in long fierj' tongues and lini 
like the lash of a stock whip. Fouquet's favourite Oran 
Vermilion, which is found in nearly all his work, ob 
appears in the frame of flaming seraphim round the gold 
figure representing God the Father above ; and in one swo 
sheath in the foreground — a most teUing and subtle touc 
TIk; French landscapes and buildings, which appear wi 
charming na'fvet*' throughout the series, are of a very 8 
vanc(.'d type. The illustrations, of which there are fourtee 
are not mere illuminations, l)ut complete pictures — r< 
works of art on a tiny scale. 

A good many important MSS. have been attribul 
ratlu^' wildly to Fouquet. Among them the Li\'}'' at t 
liib. Nat., and the superb Bible at Corpus Coll., Oxfo 
Tluise arc? most certainly not his, though it is possible tt 
may Ikj l)y his sons or pupils. As is probably the case w 
the ValcTius Maximus (lirit. Mus., 95) and the Froiss 
(Hrit. Mus., 54). 

Examples : Miniatures and Illuminations : — 

1. 40 Miniatures from the Book of Hours painted 

ittienne Chevalier, Coll. of M., Brentano-Larocl 

2. 13()ccaci() of Etienne Chevalier, Munich. 

H. Josej)hus of Due de Berry, Bib. Nat., Paris. 

4. Josephus with Painting of Louis XI. as a mas< 


5. Virgil, Library, Dijon. 
(). I^occacio, Geneva. 

7. One jmge of Roman de la Eose, with man sleepii 

Bib. Nat., Paris. 

8. Book of Hours, Chantillv. 
l^aintings : — 

1. Full length of Etienne Chevalier, Coll. Brenta: 

Laroche, Frankfort. 

2. Virgin and Child, Musee, Antwerp. 

These are both part of an Ex-voto for N. D. 
*\. Small portrait. Coll. Prince Lichtenstein. 




4. Charles VII., Louvre. 

5. Guillauine Juvenal des Ursins, Louvre. 

Jean Perreal, or Jean de Paris {d. circa 1528). — Of Jean 
Perreal very little is positively known. He is one of those 
disconcerting artists, of whose work little or nothing survives 
to sustain the reputation he undoubtedly enjoyed during his 
lifetime. For his reputation among his contemporaries was 
a brilliant one. Lemaire, in his Legejide des V(^nitiem, speaks 
of him as ** Mon singuUer patron et bienfaiteur, nostre 
second Zeusis ou Apelles en painture, Maistre Jeha Perreal 
de Paris, paTctre et varlet de chabre ordinaire du roy *\ 
He accompanied Louis XII. in his Italian campaigns. 
In 1508 his horse is mentioned in accounts of the Royal 
stables. When Michel Colombe designed the tomb of Phili- 
bert de Savoie in 1511, he was ordered to follow the portrait by 
** Maistre Jehan Perreal de I^aris **. In 1514 he was sent to 
England to superintend Mary Tudor's trousseau for her mar- 
riage with Louis XII. — the marriage which the King's death 
cut short. And after the accession of Francois I. we find 
that Perreal and Bourdichon were receiving the highest rate 
of wages for painters in ordinary — 240 livres. 

The only authenticated example of PerreaFs work is the 
little oil painting, a Virgin and child with Charles VIII. and 
A.nne of Brittany, from the collection of M. Baucel, and 
S^nerously presented by him to the Louvre, where it is now 
placed in the Salon Carre. This is a most interesting picture, 
l^^or although it appears at first sight to be in the style of Van 
Eyck — with the Virgin in pink and crimson robes against a 
green background, the green carpet, the glass and metal jug 
of wild flowers, the figures of Charles VIII. and Anne of 
Krittany on either side — yet it shows singular diflferences from 
the Flemish School. The figures are a purely French not 
Flemish type. The child is finely made, graceful, slender, 
^-nd full of movement. The tone is fine ; less hard than 
Van Eyck, less archaic than Memling. 

Jean Clouet, dit Jehannet {d, 1539). — The earliest 
iiiention of Jean Clouet is in 1516. His name appears as 
" Javiet Clomty' one of the ** Valets de garde-robe " to Francois 


I. Each year, until 1522, he is mentioned in the same 
In that year his naone is changed to Jehannet Clouet. 
so, down to 1539 he appears as Jean^ Jainet, Jehan, or Jehm 

He was apparently a native of Flanders. He certa 
was not a Frenchman born. For after his death the I 
presents to his son, Fran9ois Clouet, all the estate of 
deceased, which had reverted to the Crown **par c 
d'aubaine,'' as he had not received letters of naturalizat 
and was therefore unable to dispose of his property by wi 

Jamet, Jehan, or Jehannet — those noms de guerre wl 
were the almost universal fashion of the day — was 
favourite portrait painter of the King; and made hiii 
useful as his patron required — one day painting or drav 
portraits of the King's mistresses — the next decoratin 
piece of furniture or a coat of arms. His fame was gi 
from the extraordinary truth of his likenesses. And 
royal accounts show him continuously employed on porti 
for his Royal master. Jean Clouet settled at Tours, wl 
he married Jeanne Boucault, daughter of a goldsmith. . 
in the Coviptes des bdtiments we often find the King senc 
a messenger hot haste to the city to bring him back 
portraits executed by his painter. Indeed on one occaj 
Jeanne Boucault is pressed into the service, and has to m 
a journey with the portraits which are needed. 

In spite of the nmnerous mentions of Jehannet in c 
temporary documents, in only a single case is his authors 
attached to one of the scores of miniatures and portr 
that bear his name. This is the portrait of Oronce F 
engraved by Thevet in his gallery of Ilommes Illuatres, 1 
portrait, Oronce Fine's son distinctly states to be from 
hand of Jean Clouet. 

M. Bouchot, however, has made a most valuable c 
tribution to our knowledge of the portraits that we n 
attribute with some security to Jehannet. After an 
haustive study of the 300 ** Castle Howard " drawings 
the Clouets, bought in 1889 from Lord Carlisle by the I 
d'Aumale, M. Bouchot points out that these are a consecut 
series of portraits from 1515 to 1570. They are drawn fr 


the life by two (or at most three) artists of the first rank. 
Two hands are noticeable — two different methods. One of 
^b.ese represents the personages hving from 1515 to 1540. 
Tie other those living from 1540 to 1570. 

The first of these artists is an unrivalled draftsman. 

* * He has the fastidious search for likeness, the breadth of 

** drawing, the rigidity and strength of Holbein.''^ M. Bouchot 

Ixas identified several persons among these drawings ; notably 

t:lne " Connetable " Anne de Montmorency at twenty-two 

:>^ears old ; Bonnivet, admiral of France ; Tournon, killed at 

avia ; Chabannes de la Palice ; Fleuranage ; Arthur Gouffier. 

'hese drawings — a third of the size of nature — are to be 

"found translated without the very slightest change except of 

^ize, into miniatures in the manuscript of La Guerre GaUique, 

laow in the Bib. Nat. This MS. was decorated with grisailles 

for Francois I. by Godefroy de Hollande. But the King 

liad miniature portraits of his **preux de Marignan " painted 

in by another artist, under the names of Roman Warriors. 

A.nd some contemporary has been painstaking enough to put 

t:.lie real names to the various characters. If these drawings 

^.nd the corresponding miniatures are not by Jehannet 

'Cllouet, there must have been a second artist — his exact 

c:^ on temporary — who was also one of the greatest of French 


Francois Clouet, dit Janet. — The son of Jean Clouet 

"^•nd Jeanne Boucault, was born in Tours probably about 

1512. For in 1541, the letters of Fran9ois I., making a 

^Kii to him of his father's possessions, are a regular certificate 

of his abihty. While he acknowledges the great talent of 

^lie father, the King adds : ** En quoi sondict fils Ta deja tres 

^ * bien imyte et esperons qu'il fera et continuera encores de 

bien en mieux cy apres '\ 

Immediately after his father's death he entered the Eoyal 

service, receiving 240 livres a year. Until 1540 he was the 

only painter in ordinary ; when Leonard Limousin, the 

I ^nameller, was joined to his service with 120 livres of wages. 

k In 1547 Clouet was charged to take a cast of the King's face 

M 1 Bouchot. Les Clouet. 



and hands after his death, for the painted and dressed effigy 
at the funeral. He also executed the paintings in the decora- 
tion of the Church, banners, etc., for the ceremony. 

On the accession of Henri II. he held the same offices he 
had enjoyed vmder the late King, with an assistant, Boutelou 
de Blois. And on Feb. 10, 1547 (*48 new style), we know 
from a receipt that he was receiving 300 francs a quarter. 
In 1551 he was made coimnissaire au Chdtelety without 
resigning his office of painter in ordinary. And in the 
accounts of '51-'54, we find him painting devices and '*des 
croissants lac^s " of Henri II. and Diane de Poitiers on the 
King's carriages. After the King's death in July, 1559, 
Clouet, or as he is invariably called, ** Janet," took a cast of 
Henri's face, and again made the painted effigy. In De- 
cember of the same year he was created controller general 
of the effigies of the Mint — a position in which Germain 
Pilon succeeded him. 

By his will, made in the presence of the cure of Saint- 
Merry at his house in the Rue Sainte-Avoye, it is seen that 
he was not married ; that he had two illegitimate daughters, 
Diane and Lucrece, to whom he bequeathed 1200 livres 
a year ; and to his sister, Catherine Clouet, the wife of Abel 
Foulon, an income of 600 livres. The last mention of hi» 
name is in 1570, as receiving 123 livres for divers services. 
But although the exact date of his death is unknown, it is^ 
presumed to have taken place in 1572. For in that year, 
while at the height of his fame, he is succeeded in his 
office as painter by Jehan de Court. 

Clouet's reputation was great among the contemporarj' 
poets. Etienne Pasquier, Jodelle, Du Billon, and all the 
poetasters of the age, sing the praises of ** docte Janet". 
And Eonsard orders from him an ideal portrait of his lady- 
love. One and all call him ** Janet " — the sobriquet he 
inherited from his father. And this has helped yet further 
to cause confusion between the works of father and son. 
But the methods of the two men in their crayon drawings 
are ditierent. '' Jeannet Clouet has his own w^ay of dashing 
** down a sketch, because for him this sketch rarely remains the 


' definitive work. Fran9oi8 Clouet on the contrary composes 

' pure pencil drawings, works at them longer, finishes them 

' highly, and takes from them by successive touches, that 

flower, that bloom of freshness, which those of his father 

retain. Of these two men, one possesses the frankness and 

charming naivetd ; the other the science and attainment.**^ 

If Francois Clouet had painted or drawn one quarter of 
tie portraits assigned to him, he would have needed not only 
aperhuman activity and strength, but a life twice as long as 
le ordinary three-score years and ten. His name has been 
ttached to the greater part of the drawings and paintings 
f the period, with an astonishing looseness. Many so-called 
Clouets," though not signed, are dated years after his death, 
others, which are obviously by other artists, still bear his 
lame, even in well-known collections. And, with certain 
xceptions, it is by no means an easy task to assign this 
)r that portrait to him. 

In the seven boxes of portrait drawings in the Bib. Nat., 
Paris, we can easily trace three different hands. 150 out of 
the 800 portrait drawings in this collection are hors pair. 
All — as M. Bouchot points out — with very few exceptions, 
Me of the highest value. And here alone we get an authentic 
guide to the portraits we may certainly attribute to Francois 
Clouet. For a number of these came from a sketch-book of 
Franqois Clouet's, on the blank pages of which Benjamin 
Poulon, his nephew, has perpetrated some very poor portrait 
heads of a later date — signing his name to one of them. And 
against the superb works of his uncle he has written the 
names of the various personages living from 1559 to 1567, in 
red pencil. This precious book gives us a priceless clue to 
the works of the master. In the Castle Howard Collection 
at Chantilly we find the same style, but these are works of 
his early career. In the Bib. Nat., both in the portraits 
from the book, and in others, we have the artist in the very 
perfection of his power. Among the most exquisite of these 
IS a Robert de la Marck, in two coloured pencils. A magni- 
ficent "Dandelot Coligny ". A series of Gabrielle d'Estrees, 

^ Bouchot. 



the earlier ones of enchanting beauty. Two of Cathc 
de Medicis. A superb Charles IX., from which the ni 
ture, now in the Imperial Treasure at Vienna, was pai 
by Clouet. The original drawing of Clouet's miniatui 
Mary Queen of Scots at Windsor. The " Keine Mar^ 
as a child. A noble portrait of Marguerite de Navi 
The beautiful Mme. de Villeroy. Madame de Betz. 
Princesse of la Boche-sur-Yon. Jeanne d'Albret in moun 
dress. These are but a few from the seven boxes. 

Some of these drawings, both in Paris and at Chani 
bear MS. notes which are of extreme interest. Such as 
of the Princesse of la Boche-sur-Yon (the birthplace 
years later of Paul Baudry), where the dress is indicate 
*' red '*. In another, ** le bord du passement d*or et de 
noir *'. In that of Admiral Coligny, the sleeve is n 
" velours rouge '\ And on the back of another are sen 
little sketches of details of the elaborate dress of the pei 
Some of the drawings in the Louvre are of equal intei 
But as they are framed, they cannot be handled and exam 
at the back as well as on the face, as in the case of the '. 
Nat. and the Chantilly collections. 

In Francjois Clouet's paintings ** all is clear, well-stuc 
** There is no apparent sacrifice, no pretentiousness of hi 
** ling. Yet the more closely they are examined the more 
•* penetrates the character, moral and physical, of the per 
" age depicted, the more one discovers the subtlety of mc 
** ling under this silvery aspect, this absence of the resou 
** of Ught and shade, the more one sees that all the de 
" are executed with a lightness, a certainty of hand, to w' 
" none of the partisans of * touch * have been able to 

Lady Dilke points out that the French painters of 
IGth century ** laid on their local tint in a solid layer, rum 
** it up to the extreme edge in mass,'* and on this, when 
they hatched with the brush point. The colour being na 
diluted, these touches melt into one another, forming 
evenly distributed film — an application of the methoc 

» Villot. 


^^iniature painters of the 15th century. This renders Clouet's 
'^^crks specially susceptible to the destructive influence of the 
^ leaner. Even the most careful cleaning tends toj destroy 
ttxis supreme beauty of his work — this exquisite fihn of deh- 
^ate cross-hatchings. 

Several miniatures by Francois Clouet are known. Some 

^X"e from illuminated manuscripts, and Eoyal Books of jHours. 

There is now no doubt that it was Franc^ois Clouet who 

l^ainted the greater part of the miniatures for Catherine de 

^'ledicis' little Book of Hours, in the Louvre. The book has 

been much tampered with. And the frontispiece portrait 

of Henri H. was taken out in the 17th century. It is now in 

title galerie des Estampes of the Bib. Nat. : and is replaced in 

e book by one of the Vicomte de Martigues. ** But all the 

paintings executed on the leaves of the book are by the same 

hand which produced the Catherine de Medicis of Vienna, 

and the Mary Stuart of Windsor.'' ^ Of the Mary Stuart I 

liave spoken above. The payment for Catherine's minia- 

t;xxre is mentioned in the Clairambault MS. 233, as ** to 

* * Fran9ois Clouet dit Janet, painter of the said King " (Charles 

IX.). This miniature, sent vnth several others to Vienna 

a.t the time of Charles' marriage, is now in the Imperial 

Treasure, where also the Charles IX. miniature is preserved. 

The payment of 135 livres is made to Clouet in May, 1572, 

four months before his death, for this portrait. 

Examples : — 

Portrait drawings in one or more pencils. 

The Sketch-book and many others, Bib. Nat., Paris. 
Portrait drawings. Louvre. 

Portrait dravnngs, from Castle Howard and Stafford 
House, Chantilly. 
Miniatures : — 

Book of Hours of Cath. de Medicis, Louvre. 
Charles IX. ; Catherine de Medicis, Imp. Tres., Vienna. 
Mary Queen of Scots, Windsor. 

Due d*Alen9on holding Queen Ehz., portrait, Jones 
Coll., S. Kens. 

* Bouchot. 


Henri III., from Hamilton Palace Coll. 
Henri U., Bib. Nat. 
Paintings : — 

128. Full length, Charles IX. (small), Louvre. 
127. Francois I., head, Louvre. 

130. Henri II., pendant to 128, Louvre. 

131. Fran<;ois de Lorraine, dUc de Guise, Louvre. 
Elizabeth of Austria, Louvre. 

Charles IX. Belvedere, Vienna, signed thus : — 

** Charles VIHI., Tres Chretien, Eoy de France. 
** en I'aage de XX ans. Peinct au vif par Janet, 1563." 

This is the only hfe-size portrait by Clouet. 
Two Portraits, Mary Queen of Scots. Archibald 
Douglas. Marie de Guise. Don Carlos, son of 
Philip II. (?). Fran9ois II., Windsor. 
Eleonore, Queen of France, Hampton Court. 
Francois I. and Lady, Hampton Court. 
Three Portraits, Nat. Gallery. 
Three Portraits — two untouched by cleaning — from the 

collection of J. Lmnsden Propert, Esq. 
Marguerite de France, enfant. And Fran9oi8 due 
d'Alen^on, from Stafford House, at Chantilly. 
Also portraits in many private collections in England and 
France. Some of great beauty and value at Azay le Bideau, 

Jean Cousin (b. Soucy, about 1500; d, about 1589). — 
It is said of Cousin **il jouit d'une reputation merite". 
But he, like Perreal, is one of those baffling personalities 
of whose works little has survived to justify his great re- 
putation. We know that he was well connected. And that 
he began his career as a painter on glass. Glass painter, 
sculptor, and painter, he tried all branches of art in turn. 
And if the works attributed to him were really his, he suc- 
ceeded in each. In 1530 he painted windows for the Cathe- 
dral at Sens — for the Chapel of Vincennes, for the Chateau 
de Fleurigny, St. Gervais, Paris, and Notre Dame of 
Villeneuve-sur-Yonne. Besides these, which still exist, he 
painted between 1552 and 15G0, five windows in grisaille for 


Diane de Poitiers at Anet. These, with some for the Cor- 
deUers at Sens, have unhappily been entirely destroyed. 

Some of his pictm-es survive. His ** Last Judgment *' in 
the Louvre is a work of great importance and interest, fine 
and Michelangesque. It contains some most delightful bogies, 
w'ho run Uke a flock of chickens before an old man with 

Cousin's reputation as a sculptor rests mainly on his 
supposed authorship of Admiral Chabot's statue. But it 
has been proved satisfactorily that this could not possibly be 
his work. 

A number of engravings from Cousin's designs are pre- 
served in the Bib. Nat., such as the Brazen Serpent, and 
Conversion of St. Paul, by Delaune. And a good engraving 
by Leonard Gaiter, 1581, of the Forge — seven naked men 
and a boy. These and his fine books, L*Art de Dessinez 
— 1560 — and the Livre de PonrtraicUire, repubUshed in 1595 — 
the editor speaking of ** feu M. Cousin " — show his dis- 
tinguishing qualities, ** breadth, power, and the severity 
** which usually accompanies their union ".^ 

He is constantly mentioned in documents at Sens. And 
seems, after the fashion of the day, to have turned his hand 
to everything. In the Cathedral accounts in 1530 we find, 
paid to ** Jehan Cousin pour avoir mis a point le petit 
** orlouge ^^^ ". And again, " pour avoir racoustr^, et 
** peint ung ymage de Notre Dame pres de la porte du 
*' coeur ". 

He was the great reformer in glass painting. His glass 
is remarkable for the eiBfects he obtained by using enamel 
colours on white. And the chemicals he used are in great 
part those in use to-day. 

Examples : — 

Glass — 

Great Window, Chapel of St. Eutropius, Sens. 
The Tiburtine Sibyl, Chap. N. D. de Lorette, Sens. 
Same subject. Chateau de Fleurigny, nr. Sens. 
Last Judgment, Chapel of Vincennes. 

1 Lady Dilke. 


Last Judgment, Notre Dame, Villeneuve-smr-Yonne. 

Four windows, Ch. St. Gervais, Paris. 

These have also been attributed to Pinagrier. 

Fragments of windows for Ecouen, Ch. of Ecouen. 
Paintings : — 

Last Judgment, Louvre. 

Eva Prima Pandora, Mme. Chaulay. 

Deposition, Mus^e de Mayence. 

Small deposition, M. Lechevaher-Chevignard. 

Small portrait Diane de Poitiers, M. Arsene Houssaye. 

Five portraits, in the possession of his descendants 
the Bowyers, Eue Hericault-des-Touches, Tours. 

Several etchings. 

The Entree a Rouen of Henry II., illustrated by 

The Entree a Paris — doubtful. 

VAri de dessirier, 

Lii>re de Pourtraicturey 2nd ed., 1595. 
CoRNEiLLE DE Lyon, or De LA Haye. — Until quite 
recently little or nothing was known of Corneille de la Haye, 
except from the praise of his contemporaries. Poets such as 
Eustoge de BeauUeu in 1544, say that since the days of Noah 
such a painter ** pour bien tirer un personnage au vif " has 
never been seen. Bran tome mentions a journey of the 
Court to Lyons in 1564. And how Queen Catherine then 
saw a room full of portraits of all the ladies and gentlemen 
who had accompanied her to Lyons in 1548, in the house 
of the modest artist who had finished them meanwhile. And 
the Queen, being much entertained at the fashions of 1548, 
called the Due de Nemours, who had been with her on 
her former journey, to bear witness to the truth of Comeille*s 
drawings. But here all information ceased. Not one single 
authentic portrait was known of the painter ** superlatif 
Pour bien tirer **. More recently, M. Natalis Eondot dis- 
covered in the archives of Lyons that Corneille ** le painctre 
flamman," was in 1540 made painter to the Dauphin. 
That he was exempted in 1549 from ** Tentree du vin *\ 
And that in 1551 he was appointed painter to Henri II. 


But it remained for M. Bouchot to discover four un- 
doubted pictures by Comeille. 

On certain of the drawings in the famous inventory of 
Eoger de Gaigni^res' collection nov^ in the Bib. Nat., M. 
Bouchot found vmtten, ** Copie sur Toriginal peint par 
** Comeille, dans le Cabinet de M. Gaignieres ". And further, 
two of the four original pictures, bearing at the back Colbert's 
red seal of the viper, which shows that they were bought by 
Louis XrV. from Gaigniferes, are now at Chantilly, and two 
at Versailles. 

Those at Chantilly are the channing portrait of Mar- 
guerite de Valois, afterwards Duchesse de Savoie ; and 
one of the Dauphin Fran9ois, Due d*Angouleme, apparently 
painted about 1536, when he was dying of a galloping 
consumption ; besides a lovely portrait of Gabrielle de 
Rochechouart. The portrait of Marguerite is inscribed, 
** Agee de 25 ans," i.e., 1548, exa,ctly the date of the 
Court's journey to Lyons. CorneiUe painted a second 
picture of this princess, which is at Versailles, No. 3181. 
At Versailles also, is the third of the authentic portraits, 
!No. 3147, the beautiful Marquise de BotheUn, JacqueHne de 
Hohan — the picture much injured by restoration. And the 
fourth, No. 3292, the Due de Montpensier — a veritable 
masterpiece, in excellent preservation. Thanks to these four 
pictures, and to the Hght which M. M. de Grandmaison's 
and Bouchot's researches have thrown on Gaigniferes and 
his collection, it is now possible to restore to this extremely 
interesting master the right to many of the small portraits 
at Chantilly, Versailles, the Louvre, etc. While at the same 
time we see that it was impossible that many pictures, wildly 
attributed to him, were ever painted by Corneille de Lyon. 

Among anonymous paintings, or those of artists of whom 
nothing is known, several at the Louvre, at Versailles, at 
Chantilly, and in private collections, are of highest importance. 

Louvre : — 

The first is by — 

1. Nicholas Froment d'Avignon, working in the 15th 
century. It is a diptych, containing portraits of 


King Bene and his second wife, Jeanne de Laval. 
And was given by King Bene to Jean de Ma- 

2. Portrait of Jean de Bourbon-Venddme, Due 


3. Philippe le Bon, Due de Bourgogne, ecole de 

Bourgogne, 15th century. 

4. Ball at the Court of Henri III., given for the 

marriage of Anne due de Joyeuse and Mar- 
guerite de Lorraine, 15th centur}\ 

5. Jacques Berthaut, cootroleur de la maison du 

roi, 16th century. 
Versailles : — 

1. Charles VII., No. 3052. 

2. Assemblee du Parlement de Bourgogne, tenue 

par Charles le Temeraire, No. 3070. 

3. Charles Quint, young, 3125. 

4. Philippe le Beau, roi de Castille, 3106. 

5. Guillaume Bude, 4045, etc., etc. 

Fran9oi8 I., probably still Comte d'Angouleme ; Jeune 
Feinme, 6cole de Corneille de Lyon ; Henri III. 
with black cap, ear-rings, white collar, Chantilly. 




With the beginning of the 17th century French Art enters 
upon a new path. 

Clouet, Cousin, and Pilon were dead. The Ligue and 
the religious troubles of the end of the 16th century had 
suspended architectural activity for many years. And when 
Henri IV. returned in 1594 to Paris, the last flickering 
flame of the Eenaissance that had lighted France for a 
liundred years, the last traditions of the great masters of that 
fertile time, had died out. 

Overshadowed by the past brilliance of the Renaissance, 
■<imshed by the weighty magnificence of the epoch of Louis 
XIV., the history of Art during the reigns of Henri IV. and 
Ijouis Xni. has been almost wholly ignored. It is indeed 
a singularly obscure and complicated period. But it is a 
period of growth — a most significant and important pause 
l)efore the opening of a new era. Many crossing currents 
meet there, from which the well-ordered art of the Siecle 
^e Louis XIV. will emerge, rolling on Hke some vast river, 
pent in between high banks and well-built quays. 

Voltaire has largely helped to bring about this miscon- 
ception of the 17th century. For in his desire to exalt the 
Grand Monarque he would make us believe that barbarism 
reigned in France until the **beau Sifecle de Louis XIV.,'* 
making that epoch begin not with the century but with the 
King. He declares that ** Francois I. ftt naltre le com- 
raerce, la navigation, les lettres et les arts, mais il fut trop 
xnalheureux pour bien faire prendre racine en France et tons 
perirent avec lui ". As in Perault's frontispiece, Voltaire 

groups round his hero most of the celebrated men of the 




early half of the 17th century, as well as those of the 
beginning of the 18th. In fact the legend of Louis XIV. ha& 
gradually done for the reign of his father, what the King 
actually did for his father's Chateau — when he so smothered 
the buildings of the Versailles of Louis XIII., that they 
almost disappeared in his efforts to preserve them. **And 
** for his contemporaries, as for posterity, there remained but 
" one Versailles — ^his own." ^ 

It will be necessary in this chapter to distinguish between 
those artists whose chief work w^as accomplished before 1648^ 
when the founding of the Academy of Painting and Sculp- 
ture ushered in the reign of law, order, and correctness, and 
those of a later date. Although the personal reign of Louis 
XrV. did not begin till Mazarin's death in 1661, I prefer 
for convenience sake to make the deaths of Richelieu and 
Louis XIII. the limit of this period. In some cases these 
artists outlived the founding of the Academy. But their 
best works will be found to belong chiefly to the earlier 

It is important therefore to endeavour to get some idea of 
the influences, external and internal, which gradually shaped 
the Art of France from 1689 to 1643. 

At the beginning of the 17th century France was no 
longer the leader of Art, as she had been during the Re- 
naissance. Thought in Europe was in an extraordinary 
condition of effervescence. It had escaped from the ex- 
clusively classic influence of the Renaissance, and became 
at once more modern and more natural. In England 
this effervescence of thought attained its supreme expres- 
sion in the poetry of our Golden Age. In Spain, Cervantes 
and Calderon, Velasquez and Murillo represent letters and art. 
With Rembrant and Cuyp, the Dutch* School goes straight 
to nature for its inspiration. Rubens, Van Dyck and Teniers 
reign in Flanders. In Italy the powerful Bolognese School 
of the Carraci, Domenichino, Guido, Guercino, which was- 
destined to exercise such a profound influence on the Art 
of France, is at the height of its fame. Between such 

' Lcmonnier. 


giants in thought as Ba,con, Torricelli, Galileo, Kepler, 
Gilbert, Harvey, there was a continual interchange of ideas. 
The savants of Europe formed **a scientific and philo- 
sophic cosmopohty **. And in science and letters, as in 
art, ** the centre of gravity was no longer found exclusively 
" in Italy '*} 

During the first half of the 17th century, France was 
more or less involved in this movement of European thought. 
** She took something in art or in literature from Italy, 
" Spain, Belgium, adapting it to her instincts, and en- 
'*deavouring to make it agree with her theories. This 
" perhaps resulted in some uncertainty, but also in a happy 
•'variety of aptitudes, tendencies, and productions.** ^ Dur- 
ing the latter half of the century it was far otherwise. 
France tended more and more to concentrate herself upon 
herself — to shut herself off from all the rest of Europe 
— in a splendid and dominating isolation. It was the reign 
of form, of good taste. In it France produced no new ideas : 
but crystallized those she already possessed, and imposed 
them on the whole of Europe. 

At the accession of Henri IV., the condition of Art had 
taken a long step in advance since the early days of the 
Renaissance. Art had now evolved an ideal — an aesthetic 
being. It now endeavoured to bring system, law and order into 
its existence — in fact, to organize. Art was too important and 
recognized a factor in the society of the day, to be allowed 
to continue a haphazard existence. It must be centralized, 
fostered, watched over, and used, by the King himself. Al- 
ready we see this endeavour under Henri IV., when, on his 
return to Paris in 1594 he devoted the entresol of the Grande 
Galerie of the Louvre to the lodging of artists and skilful 
workmen in all branches of decorative work. As he said in 
his letters patent of 1608, he wished to create a ** pepiniere 
** d'ouvriers, de laquelle, sous I'apprentissage de si bons 
"mattres, il en sortirait plusieurs, qui, peu apr^s se repan- 
" draient par tout le royaume et sauraient tres bien servir le 
"public ". So here we get at once a sort of School of Deco- 

1 Lemonnier. ^ Ibid. 


rative Art under the eyes of the King, dependent on his will. 
Instructed too by the "Illustres" — those masters who were 
all inscribed on the list of his Valets de Chambre — ^painters, 
sculptors, goldsmiths, engravers of precious stones, armourers, 
tapestry workers, cabinet-makers — honourably lodged within 
the precincts of the Palace. Already the idea of attaching 
Art, as everything else, to the person of the Sovereign, which 
was to find its supreme expression in the epoch of Louis 
XIV., was beginning to shape itself. Already, in the en- 
deavour to obtain uniformity in the ideal of Art, the first 
blow was being struck at its liberty, and therefore at its life. 
For nearly two centuries Art will become more and more 
official — will drift farther from nature and from truth — until 
the fire of the Eevolution shall purge away the dross, and 
give it life once more. 

The reign of Henri IV. was the time of vast projects. 
Its most important art was decorative. During his reign 
and that of Louis XIII., Paris began to take the form we 
know. When once the troubles of the Ligue were calmed, 
an immense activity manifested itself in all directions. 
The Court was less nomadic. The seat of government 
being fixed in Paris drew thither the noblesse, courtiers, and 
chiefs of all administrations. Financiers and the magistracy 
were daily growing richer and of more importance. Power 
was in the hands of new men such as Sully, Eicheheu, 
Mazarin, and their fellow-workers. All this contributed to 
the extraordinary growth of the city. The embeUishment of 
the city, to which, says Gomboust, " Henry IV. and Louis 
**Xin. seem most to have contributed," was in great part 
* due to private enterprise. 

Paris now overflows its narrow limits and begins to 
absorb its faubourgs. On the rive draite a new enceinte is 
made which follows the present line of the Boulevards, 
from the Place de la Concorde to the northern extremity 
of the Eue Montmartre. Richelieu's Palace (the Palais 
Royal), which he bequeathed to Louis XIII., and the Rues 
Vivienne and Richelieu, became an aristocratic centre. "While 
new and splendid dwellings sprang up in the Place Royale 


(now Place des Vosges), the quartier St. Antoine, the Marais, 
and round the Arsenal. On the rive gauche the expansion 
was equally rapid. When Marie de Medicis rebuilt the 
Palace of the Luxembourg outside the old enceinte, it 
attracted a population of great nobles and religious orders. 
And thus the Faubourg Saint Germain grew up — ** a most 
" agreeable quarter," as the writers of the day say, ** by 
** the minghng of large gardens and great hotels **. While 
up the Seine, a hitherto desert space of marsh and island — 
the He Saint Louis and He de la Cite — was converted 
between 1614 and 1635 into a new centre, chiefly inha- 
bited by financiers and statesmen. In 1648 it numbered 
twenty hotels and seventy houses, and from these one can 
still gather some idea of the Paris of Eichelieu. The hotel 
Lambert, bm'lt by Le Vau (1640), is a good specimen of the 
city architecture of the end of this period, decorated first by 
Le SoBur and afterwards by Le Brun. The plan of these 
hotels was much the same. Space was restricted because 
ground now became dear. Yet room had to be found for 
a garden and a court, besides the buildings. There was no 
great fa9ade on to the street, only the servants' quarters and 
a wide and lofty porte cochere. This opened into the court- 
yard, at the end of which rose the main building, joined by two 
wings to the communs. The garden, when practicable, lay 
beyond the building ; and no great hotel of the period was 
without its gallery, which furnished a splendid opportunity 
for decoration by the chief painters of the day. 

Henri IV. and his successor, both took an active part in 
the architectural movement of their time. For to Henri 
rV. we owe the completion of the splendid Grande Galerie ' 
of the Louvre — that vast hue which extends the whole 
length of the Quays from the Pavilion des Antiques to 
the Pavilion de Flore. The rez de chaussez of the Grande 
Galerie was built by Catherine de Medicis as far as the 
Pavilion Lesdigui^res. But to Henri IV. is due that noble 
facade that faces the Seine between the Pont des Arts and 
the Pont des Saints Peres. The central gateway, now 
known as the Porte Jean Goujon, though it was built long 


after his death, is one of the best specimens of the period. 
Built by Metezeau, the brothers Lheureux were authors of 
the charming friezes, and the sculptors Pierre Biart and 
Barthelemv Prieur also contributed to its decoration. The 
extension from the Pavilion Lesdiguieres to the Pavilion de 
Flore, uniting the old Louvre with the Tuileries, was also 
built by Henri IV. And the whole conception, though 
marred by certain grave faults in its details, is grandiose in 
the extreme. But Henri IV. 's activity did not stop here. 
To quadruple the extent of the Court of the Louvre by 
doubhng the length of the wings, was another of the 
King's schemes, which his son reahzed in part. 

In all this building we see the growing passion for well- 
ordered lines, for huge projects to which every obstacle is 
sacrificed, which is a most marked feature in French genius. 
Doubtless much of extreme historic and artistic interest is 
sacrificed to these vast and well-conceived plans. But on 
the other hand, the result is imposing and magnificent to a 
degree not seen in any other country. 

If the projects of Henri IV. had been vast, those of 
Eichelieu exceeded them. The great Cardinal delighted in 
building. In his Palace in Paris, in the Sorbonne, in his 
Chateau de Eueil, he realized some part of his magnificent 
conceptions, touched with that gravity which is a mark of 
his genius. But it was at his native place, Eichelieu, that he 
proposed to give them unlimited sway, by building a whole 
town, crowned by the Chateau which would surpass any 
Palace belonging to the King. Of this audacious and magni- 
ficent conception hardly anything remains. The town, with 
its wide streets of enormous houses, is too large for its 
population. The huge church in the ornate Jesuit stjde, 
is nearly empty. The Chateau, grave, cold, austere in 
its grandeur without — filled within with a sumptuous dis- 
play of antiques, pictures, tapestries, everything in fact 
that ministered to the great Cardinal's taste for splendid 
intellectual and artistic luxury — was rased to the ground by 
the Bande Noire. Nothing remains but a few outbuildings. 
This idea of creating a whole town by sheer authority, is 


a curious evidence of the personality of the man — of the 
**mind accustomed to consider the things of the physical 
*** world as dependent on will ". 

In the provinces, ** construction/* which is one of the 
most suitable words to describe the works of this date, was 
being carried on rapidly. Henri IV. added largely to Fon- 
tainebleau.^ Gaston d'Orleans and Francois Mansart a little 
later, are responsible for that addition to Blois, which must 
always cause a shock each time one sees it. Happily it was 
never finished. But Mansart's plan was to destroy the whole 
of the peerless Aile Fran9ois I. and rebuild it on the plans of 
the west wing. This, really fine in itself as an example of 
the architecture of Louis XIII., becomes an abomination in 
juxtaposition with one of the chief glories of the Eenaissance. 

But possibly the most important architectural event out- 
side Paris, is the beginning of the Palace of Versailles under 
Louis Xni. — that Palace round which the whole life of 
the French Monarchy was to gather for two centuries, 
making it a priceless museum in which the history of de- 
corative art centres. Of Versailles I shall have so much to 
say later, for it is an epitome of the whole history of the 
Art of the 17th and 18th centuries, that I will not dwell upon 
it here. A mere hunting lodge in the forest was built by Le 
Mercier for Louis XIII. in 1624, who soon became so at- 
tached to it as to desert Saint Germain-en-Laye, which was 
then his usual residence. The little Chateau was a square 
building of brick and stone, opening towards Paris into a 
court, whose walls are now those of the Cour de Marbre. 

With regard to religious Architecture, it would be im- 
possible to enumerate the conventual buildings in Paris 
alone, which sprang up during the early part of the 17th 
century — the Oratoire, the Feuillantines, Val du Grace, the 
Capucines, the filles de St. Joseph, the Religieuses of Port 
Royal, etc., etc. As to Churches, we find after 1610, Saint 
Gervais. The completion of Saint Eustache in 1642. At 
Saint Etienne du Mont work goes on ceaselessly. The Ora- 
toire, begun by Metezeau, and finished by Lemercier in 

^ See Mdtezeau. 


l^iO. Tbe Visitaifon. built bv Francc^is M&nsart. 163*2-34. 
Sftiiii PaTi] ri Sftini Louis. 1»V27-41. The Church of the 
>>rr*:i2ri^. buili i*v Leineroier. Thai of Val dn Grace. 
Besides n:iinibiers more which were only begun, such as 
Sairi Suffice, Saini Rooh, exc. 

HrTe we nnd the architects of the time trammelled by 
their thec^ries derived from antiquity. It is no longer a 
sf •: nxana>us art. such as Gx'thic, or the pure French Re- 
naissance. But the result of reflection and learning. And 
further. French architects now found tliemselves in presence 
of a new stvle of architecture — the Jesuit stvle. This, in 
the hands of that all-pc»werful Ixxly, soon spread all over 
Europe, and even into the new world. In France it was 
intr*:*duced in ltX"»o by Martellaniire, temporal coadjutor of the 
Society of Jesus. The best example of it in Paris, is the 
facade of the Church of Saint Paul and Saint Louis, Rue Saint 
Antoine. Beirun in 1627, and nnislied in Itvll, it is a per- 
fect type of the style. Richelieu gave the doorway, and said 
the first Mass in presence of the Kins:. Queen and Court. It is- 
therefore of special value as bearint: a sort of official stamp. 
The jreneral effect is rich and picturesque. Some of the 
details are of ^reat beautv. But it is loaded with decoration » 
a strange jumble of Renaissance and Classic, pieced to- 
jiether "without the least reference either to the purpose 
" fcT which pillars wei^ originally designed, or to the con- 
•'structive necessities of the buildini: where thev are now 
" found ".^ This style lasted but a short time in France. But. 
meanwhile it had influenced all Flinch reli^ous architecture^ 
introducing a certain theatrical element of gaiety in its 
singular mixture of painting, sculptures, and endless orna- 
ment, which has its own chann. though it mav be a 
debasoil one. 

In comparing the " Style Louis XIIL" i^ith those that 
preceded and succeeileil it. a i^vrtain povertj' of conception 
strikes us at once. We no longer find the daring, robust 
imatnnation of the RenaissaUiV, We have not vet arrived 
ai the severe, classic splendours of Louis XFV'. There is. 


grace and a certain charm : but a want of distinct origin- 
ality. All the work gives a sense of compromise and imi- 
tation ; a growing predilection for well-regulated, carefully 
constructed forms. 

In Sculpture, however, we get a decided return to natu- 
ralism in the works of Guillaume Dupre, Michel Bourdin, 
and Simon Guillain. In Dupre*s medals — in Bourdin*s 
Amador de la Porte — in Guillain's fine bronzes of Louis 
Xin. and Anne of Austria from the Pont-au-Change, we 
see a new pre-occupation with the living model — a desire 
for truth — which had disappeared for a while in the decadence 
of the late [Renaissance. 

In Painting, the influence of Italy, especially of the 
Venetians, is seen in nearly all the pictures of the time. 
Xo longer content with simple portraits or religious 
pictures, the artists who have studied the grand works of 
Michael Angelo, Eaphael, the Bolognese School, and above 
all, the Venetians, are fired with the desire to ** faire grand ". 
And in the new and sumptuous buildings of Paris and the 
provinces, they get an unexampled opportunity for decora- 
tive art. Even the easel pictures show a decorative tendency. 
It is seen ahke in religious, in mythologic, and in historic 
painting. But another point is to be noted. From the be- 
ginning of the 17th century, rehgious painting and sculpture 
are in a condition of decadence. Learning — intellectual effort 
—has replaced simple faith. And from this moment we get 
pictures for Churches, instead of religious painting. Some 
artists will treat their subjects with dignity — even with con- 
viction. But they will see their subject, be it the Deluge or 
a Holy Family, by an act of intelligence, not an act of faith. 


Dubois, Ambroise (6. Antwerp, 1543 ; d. Fontainebleau, 

1615.) — Ambroise Dubois is the first painter of the new 

regime. From henceforth there is, with few exceptions, 

little uncertainty about the history of well-known artists. 

We know who were their pupils, often who were their 

masters. Art, in fact, as I have tried to show, is no 



longer anonymous, obscure : but carefully signed and well 
authenticated, by artists who consider themselves descendants 
of Phidias and Apelles. 

In 1568 when Dubois came to Paris, he was already an 
accomplished artist ; and soon acquired a great reputation. 
Henri IV. made him painter in ordinary and Valet de 
Chambre. He was employed at Fontainebleau, where Henri 
IV. was carrying out important works ; and at the Louvre. 
And was naturalized in 1601. In 1606 he was appointed 
painter to Marie de Medicis, and worked at the Luxembourg 
during her Regency. He was buried in the Church of Avon 
at Fontainebleau, where his tomb may still be seen. 

Dubois formed a school of painters at Fontainebleau. His 
best pupils were his sons Jean and Louis, Paul his nephew, 
and Mogras of Fontainebleau. 

Of his numerous paintings for the Palace of Fontainebleau 
under Henri IV., the only ones remaining are some in the — 

1. Chapelle-haute of Saint-Satumin. 

2. The series of the history of Theagene et Chariclee. 
The pictures of this series are mannered, but fine for the 
time. Five of them were taken from the Queen's room, 
when the doors were raised, and are now placed in the 
antichamber. Three of these are quite the best of the 

3. Some of the paintings of the History of Tancred and 
Clorinda for the apartments of Marie de Medicis. 

The Galerie de Diane was decorated by Dubois. But 
the decorations were destroyed during the Empire. Some 
of the fragments were put on canvas and repainted, under 
Louis Phihppe, and replaced in the Palace in 1840. 

The Louvre contains two pictures by Dubois : — 

1. Chariclee subit Tepreuve du feu. Coll. Henri IV. 

2. Bapteme de Clorinde. 

Fr^minet, Martin {b. Paris. 1567; d. 1619).— With 
Freminet we reach the first of that long line of painters 
whose education was not considered complete until they had 
studied in Italy. At the age of twenty-three Freminet went 
to Italy. He arrived there just as the quarrel between the 


partisans of Michael Angelo and Josephine was at its height. 
Though he took the part of the latter, he studied the former 
and Parma : and stayed for many years in Italy. 

In 1603 Henri IV. made him his first painter ; and en- 
trusted him with the decorations of the Chapel of the Ste. 
Trinite at Fontainebleau. This work, begun in 1608, was 
interrupted by the King's assassination in 1610. But it was 
continued under Louis XIII. ; Freminet being rewarded by 
Marie de Medicis in 1615 with the order of Saint Michel. 
Freminet was a friend of Eegnier, who addressed his tenth 
satire to him. 

His method of painting was a singular one. He 
painted one part after another of either figure or portrait, 
without drawing or even sketching in the whole. His Eiiee 
abandonnant Didon, in the Louvre, may be explained by this 
process. It is hard and academic, with no unity either of 
colour or composition. The decorations in the chapel at 
Fontainebleau are much superior to this picture. While the 
architecture is thoroughly Italian, Freminet's decorations of 
the ceiling remain essentially French. 

VouET, Simon (Paris, 1590-1649).— Simon Vouet is with- 
out doubt one of the most important figures in the art of the 
early 17th century. Apart from the merit of his works, he 
exercised a profound influence on French Art. For he 
formed most of the best artists of the century, counting 
among his pupils Le Sceur, Le Brun and Mignard. His 
own master was his father, a poor and inferior painter. At 
fourteen, however, the lad already painted so well, that he 
was selected to go to England and paint the portrait of a 
lady of quality who had taken refuge there. James I. en- 
deavoured to persuade Vouet to stay. But after a few years 
he returned to France. 

In 1611 he accompanied M. de Harlay to Constantinople. 
And his portrait of Achmet I. — painted from memory, as he 
only saw the Grand Turk during the interview with the 
ambassador — is of special interest. For in it we get the 
first work of the Orientahsts. Vouet left Constantinople the 
next year for Venice, where he copied Titian and Veronese. 


And in 1613 went on to Eome, copying Carvaggio and 
Valentino, and imitating Guido. After painting a number 
of successful pictures, he was summoned by the Dorias to 
Genoa, where he spent two years decorating their palaces. 
Eeturning to Eome, he was elected Prince of the Academy 
of Saint Luke. He was protected by Cardinal Barberini, 
who became Pope, painting him and his nephews the car- 
dinals. Highly respected, he had thoroughly settled himself 
in Eome, having married the artist Virginia Vezzo Veltrano, 
when Louis XIII., from whom he received a pension, re- 
called him to France in 1627. 

On his arrival in Paris with his family and pupils, the 
King and the Queen-Mother gave him a cordial reception. 
He was appointed first painter, given a large salary, with 
lodgings in the Louvre, charged with the drawings for the 
Eoyal Tapestries and the decorations of the Louvre and the 
Luxembourg, besides several works for Saint Gennain-en- 
Laye. He painted all the nobles of the Court, as well as 
several portraits of Louis XIII. One is in the Louvre (976). 
And he furthermore taught the King to use pastels well 
enough to produce a good likeness. In 1632 Eichelieu em- 
ployed him at the Palais Eoyal and the Chateau de Eueil. 
In 1634 he painted the famous gallery of the Hotel de 
Bullion. The next year the gallery of the Marechal d'Efiiat 
at Chilly. Another for the Due d'Aumont. The Chapelle 
Seguier. And the ceiUng of the Hotel Breton-villier. Most 
of the churches in Paris were decorated with his works. 
**And no painter perhaps had such a vogue." ^ 

Although he worked with extraordinary rapidity, he soon 
was only able to furnish drawings, which were carried out by 
his pupils. And often he had not even time to retouch their 
paintings. M. de Chennevi^res says of Vouet, that he brought 
to France on his return from Italy a new taste, a new fashion 
— that decorative painting, reasonable, correct and pleasing 
to the eye, which he had learnt in Eome from the Bolog- 
nese School — the free, live and vivid style of historical 
painting, which markfi his work and that of his pupils. 

» ViUot. 


As chef d'ecole he taught the young and brilUant group 

of artists, his pupils, to apply the ideas he had brought 

back to his native land. To apply them each in their 

own fashion — as painters, sculptors, omwnentistes, to the 

new and sumptuous dwellings which at the moment of 

his arrival were beginning to spring up, as I have said, all 

over Paris. In those new hotels of the Place Eoyale, the 

De Saint Louis, round the Arsenal, in the Quartier Saint- 

Antoine, the Marais, the Faubourg Saint-Germain, a splendid 

and almost unique opportunity was offered to the artists of 

France. And not only did Vouet — to his honour be it spoken 

— teach his pupils to apply the principles he had studied 

in the great Itahan palaces under Guido, Domenechino, the 

later Caracci, and to see the charm of the late Venetians 

— ^but he impressed upon them the absolute importance of 

conscientious draftsmanship and scrupulous attention to 

truth, and to nature, in draperies and attitudes. Keenly alive 

personally to all harmonies of composition, he excelled in 

adapting the principles he had learnt abroad, to that ** viriHty 

" of spirit which was current in the noble generation of that 

" time,*' " for in Art and Letters this was the Golden Age of 

" France ".1 

Examples. Eight pictures in Louvre : — 

972. Virgin, Infant Jesus and St. John. 

973. Crucifixion. 

975. Entombment. 

976. Portrait of Louis XIII. 

977. Allegoric de la Eichesse. 

978. Faith. 

The Annunciation, Corporation Gallery, Glasgow. 
In the singular portrait of Louis XIII., crowned with 
Bays (976), with two symbolic female figures of France and 
Navarre claiming his protection, grave faults of arrangement 
are seen, which produce the odd effect that the King's pro- 
tecting hand is slapping the face of Navarre. In 977 and 
978 there is a certain charm of colour, especially in the tine 
yellows, orange, and flaming heart. Though it must be 

* Marq. de Cheunevieres. 


conceded that the latter has nothing whatever to do with 
** Faith '\ 973 and 975 are fine and interesting works of a 
much higher and more serious order. 

Stella, Jacques (b. Lyons, 1596; d Louvre, 1657). — 
The family of Jacques Stella originally came from Flanders, 
Francois, the painter's father, settling at Lyons when his 
son was only nine years old. From his childhood Jacques 
Stella showed considerable talent. At the age of twenty he 
went to Florence. Here Cosmo de Medicis employed him 
for decorations at the fetes in honour of his son Ferdinand's 
marriage ; and gave him lodgings and the same allowance he 
was already giving to Jacques Callot the engraver. After 
spending seven years in Florence, Stella and his brother 
Fran^'ois went on to Rome. Here he stayed for twelve 
years, stud}ing the antique and painting numbers of pictures. 
A close friendship sprang up between him and Poussin, 
whose manner he endeavoured to imitate, Poussin preserving 
a wann and paternal affection to the end of his life for 
the family of this companion of the best years of his 

In spite of many offers from Italy and Spain, Stella 
returned in 1634 to Paris, Richelieu positively forbidding 
him to go to Spain by invitation of the King, who had 
seen and admired his work. The Cardinal gave him an 
allowance of 1000 livres and lodgings in the Louvre. While 
ten years later he received the Cross of Saint Michel, and 
the brevet of first Painter to the King. 

It has been suggested that a certain tendency towards 
familiar subjects rather than to the finest spirit of antiquity, 
of which, however, there are traces in his pictures, shows that 
he was perhaps unconsciously faithful to the Flemish tradition. 
His pictures were engraved by the best engravers of the 
day : especially by his niece Claudine Stella. And besides 
his pictures, there are engravings of numerous graceful sets 
of children's games, vases, goldsmiths* designs, and archi- 
tectural ornaments, with which he amused himself in the 
winter evenings. 

The Louvre possesses (501) a small and very artificial 


example of Stella's work — a picture, painted on Oriental 
Alabaster, of Christ receiving the Virgin into Heaven. 

Blanchard, Jacques, " Le Titien Franjais *' (Paris, 
1600-1638). — Blanchard went to Eome in 1624. He spent two 
years working there. He then visited Venice, where he made 
a special study of Titian, bringing back to France that richer 
palette of the Venetians which distinguishes his work. So 
close indeed was his study of the Venetians, that he was 
known as ** Le Titien Franc^ais,'' a title he certainly never 
deserved. But his pictures — especially his Holy FamiUes — 
were much sought after, and he painted with extreme facility. 
He only had two pupils — his son Gabriel ; and Louis de 
Boullongue, one of the founders of the Academy. 

Of his four pictures in the Louvre, the finest (26) is a 
large three-quarter length, " St. Paul in Meditation '\ Here 
Titian's influence is very evident. 


Androuet du Cerceau, Jacques II. (1556-1614). — 

Jacques II., son of Jacques I., is closely identified with the 

reign of Henri IV. He had been known as an architect for 

ten or twelve years before the King's accession, working 

under his elder brother, Jean-Baptiste, on the Pont Neuf , and 

on the rez de chaussez of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre. 

In 1690, on his brother's death, Henri IV. gave his position 

to Jacques II. But replaced him in 1694 by Louis Metezeau, 

who was made ** Ordonnateur des Batiments du roi, et 

architecte en ordinaire". This appointment Du Cerceau 

opposed vehemently, but in vain. Two years later his suit 

was rejected, and he was made to rank second. He, however, 

fortifi^ Melun and Pontoise for the King, and in 1598 

became his private architect. He made plans for the Chateau 

de Pau and the city of Nerac. He also finished the Chateau 

de Montceau and that of Verneuil for the King's two favourites. 

It is probable that in spite of his secondary position 
under Metezeau, he had a good deal to do with the com- 
pletion of the Grande Galerie, as far as the Pavilion 
Lesdiguieres. The second part, begun in 1600 and finished 


in 1609, from that point to the Pavilion de Flore, is certainly 
Du Cerceau's work. It is far from sharing the piquancy 
and charm of the earlier portion. Colossal Corinthian pil- 
asters 40 feet high in couples, adorn the facade, with no 
reference to the external structure or to the interior arrange- 
ments. **As usual also, the entablature is cut through by 
'* the windows ; and a series of pediments, alternately semi- 
** circular and straight-lined, give a broken line, which aggra- 
** vates instead of mitigating the overpowering heaviness of 
** the roof." ^ This correct and frigid architecture foreshadows 
a new tendency in French Architecture, which is soon to for- 
sake its gay and original inspirations for more rigid, more 
severe, more classic rules. 

In 1602, when Du Cerceau acquired the house his brother 
had built in the Pre-aux-Clercs, he is styled controllcur et 
architecte des hatiments du rot. And in 1608 receives a pension 
of 1200 livres as architecte du roi. In the same year the King 
gave him the droits seigiieuriaux of La Chastre, Launay and 
the forest of Pichery. Some attribute the plans of the new 
Palace of Saint-Germain to Du Cerceau ; others to Duperac. 
He was certainly architect for the enlargement of the 
Hotel de Conde, when the Due de Bellegarde acquired it 
in 1611. 

He died in Paris in 1614, and was buried in the Pro- 
testant Cemeterj'. 

Metezeau, Louis (6. Dreux, about 1559; d, Paris, 1615). 
— Louis Metezeau was made controller and architect of the 
Eoyal buildings in 1594, ousting Du Cerceau, Jacques II., 
from the post. In 1605 he was created architect in ordinary 
to the King, and ** garde des meubles du Palais des Tuileries," 
with a salary of 2400 livres Tournois. He is further de- 
scribed as ** ecuyer, sieur de Germainville et de Bressac, pres 
Dreux ". — A man of mark. He almost certainly made the 
plans for the Pavilion des Antiques (i.e., the ground floor 
of the Galerie d'Apollon). The first floor of the Petite 
Galerie, attributed falsely to Coing and Tournier, who were 
only the contractors. The plans for the great pavilion near 

^ FergUBson. 


the Pavilion Lesdiguieres. And the alterations in that part 
of the Grande Galerie built before Henri IV. 's accession. 

To Metezeau also are due the designs for the old Porte 
de la Biblioth^ue, now known as the ** Porte Jean Goujon,*' 
with its columns, balcony, attic, and rich pediment. Lastly 
Metezeau was the author of the great works at Fontaine- 
bleau under Henri IV. To him we owe the Galerie de Diane 
(now the Library). The Cour des Princes. The buildings 
of the Cour des Offices. The porte du Dauphin — that curious 
building crowned by a dome, which closes the interesting 
Cour Ovale. Built in honour of the baptism of Louis XIII., 
who was five years old, it presents a singular mixture of Tuscan 
orders, columns, masques of Tragedy and Comedy, initials 
of Henri IV. and Marie de Medicis, and dolfins (dauphins) 
intertwined instead of volutes on the capitals. 

De Brosse, Salomon^ (Verneuil, 1565-1626).— Son of 
Jehan de Brosse architect to the Eeine Margot, a nephew 
of Androuet du Cerceau, Jacques II., De Brosse was first 
employed by his uncle. In 1613 he gives receipts for sums 
paid to him for works on the Hotel of the Due de Bouillon, 
of which he was both designer and contractor. Upon the 
death of Du Cerceau he became architect to the Queen- 
Mother ; and began his great work, her palace of the 
Luxembourg, finished in 1620 ; also the Fontaine de Medi- 
cis. Marie de Medicis allowed him 1200 livres a year. And 
from 1615 to 1625 he received 2400 livres as architecte du 

From 1616 to 1621 he was engaged on the front of St. 
Gervais. And between 1619 and 1622 he rebuilt the Grande 
Salle of the Palais de Justice, which had been burnt in 1618. 
He also furnished plans for the Aqueduct of Arcueil, begun 
in 1613 and finished in 1624 : for the Chateau de Coulom- 
miers, destroyed in 1737 ; and for the Palais des Etats de 
Rennes, completed by Courneau in 1654. The Chateau de 
Montceaux has been attributed to him, but WTongly, as it was 
built by Du Cerceau before De Brosse is even mentioned. 

Fergusson considers the Luxembourg the most satis- 

' Sieur de Plessis, pr^s Verneuil. 


factory building of that period. In plan it is essentially 
French. But in its sobriety one is reminded ** that it was 
** built for a Medici, who insisted that the Pitti and other 
** palaces of her beloved Florence should form the key-note 
** of the design".^ 

Le Mercier, Jacques (6. Pontoise, about 1585 ; d. 1654). 
— In 1607 Le Mercier went to Eome to complete his studies. 
And while there he gave the plans, Sauval says, for the Church 
of Saint Louis - des - Fran^ais, and began its construction. 
Immediately on his return to France he was employed on 
the Louvre, w^ith 700 livres salary. In 1613 he rebuilt the 
Hotel de Bouillon or de la Rochefoucauld, Rue de Seine. 
Four years later, as architecte du roi, he began the old 
buildings at Versailles of the Cour d'Honneur — now known 
as the Cour de Marbre — the nucleus round w^hich the whole 
of the magnificent palace was to grow up in the next reign. 

In 1624 one of his greatest works was begun. For in 
this year RicheUeu ordered him to draw up plans for the 
completion of the Louvre. Le Mercier adopted Metezeau's 
old plan. He proposed to add a central paviUon to the 
West and South wings, which were already built. Beyond 
these pavihons the wings were to be repeated. And on the 
North and East sides they were to be reproduced ; thus form- 
ing a vast court. This has eventually been done : but with 
many modifications, of which I must speak in the next 
chapter. Le Mercier began his work by puUing down the 
North wing and the old Tour de la Librairie. He built the 
pavilion de I'Horloge, keeping closely to the dispositions of 
Lescot's work — for which he had a deep respect — ^in the 
rez de chaussez, first floor, and attic. Above the attic he 
placed another storey with lofty round-headed bays, and 
adorned by four groups of cariatides by Jacques Sarazin. 
This storey he finished with three concentric pediments ; 
and crowned the whole by a lofty Dome. He then completed 
the further buildings of the West side, closely copying 
Lescot's wing, to the angle of the court (now Galleries of 
French Sculpture). And in 1640 began the North side. He 

^ Fergusson. 

1589-1643. ART UNDER HENRI IV. AND LOUIS Xni. 123 

was, however, only able to finish the rez de chaussez, as far 
as the central PaviUon. 

While this work on the Louvre was going on, Le Mercier 
was largely employed in other directions by EicheUeu. In 
1629 he began the Palais Cardinal, finished in 1636. This 
is now the Palais Eoyal. And nothing remains of Le 
Mercier's Palace but the gallery des FroueSy facing the inner 
fountain court. In the same year Le Mercier furnished 
plans for the Cardinal's Church of the Sorbonne, and super- 
intended the works until his death. In 1631 he undertook 
the building of the magnificent Chateau de Eichelieu,^ 
finished in 1637. And then gave plans for the Church. 

He began the Church of Saint Eoch in 1633, building 
the choir and part of the nave. In the same year he suc- 
ceeded Francois Mansart at the Church of Val-du-Grace, 
then only 10 feet above the soil. He carried it up to the 
cornice of the great order of pilasters. And in 1651 built 
the Chapel of the Saint Sacrement. About 1635 he was 
appointed architect in ordinary and first architect to the 
King, with a salary of 3000 livres. 

The first Theatre of the Palais Eoyal, the Hotels Colbert, 
de Liancourt, and de Longueville, engraved by Marot, etc., 
were Le Mercier*s work. Outside Paris he built the Chateau 
and Church of Eueil for Eichelieu. And at Fontainebleau 
carried on the buildings of the Chapel de la Ste. Trinity ; de- 
corated the Chambre du Eoi ; and replaced Gilles le Breton's 
beautiful stairway in the Cour du Cheval Blanc by the existing 
one. As an engineer, Eichelieu made him draw up plans for 
a great canal round Paris, which should contribute to its 
defence. But the canal was never made. 

Besides his buildings, Le Mercier published Le Mag- 
nlfique Chateau de Richelieu, 

A noble portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, engraved 
by Edelinck, shows us what manner of man was the favourite 
architect of the great Cardinal. 

Mansart, Franqois (Paris, 1598-1666). — His father was 
styled ** Charpentier du roi ". 

1 See p. 110. 


So much of Mansart's most important work was done in 
the reign of Louis XIII. that it is necessary to class him 
with the architects of this period. His first work was the 
Church of the Visitation des Filles de Sainte-Marie, Rue 
Saint Antoine (now the Temple Protestante), built on the 
model of N. D. des Anges in Eome. In 1634 he also restored 
and added to the Hotel Camavalet. In 1635 he built the 
Hotel de la Vrilliere, now the Banque de France. And in 
the same year Gaston d'Orleans entrusted him with those 
unfortunate alterations at Blois — the great unfinished building 
which closes the court on the West — replacing the early 
wing with its charming arcade and varied motives, which we 
only now see in Du Cerceau*s^ book, the Excellents Bastivients. 
In 1642 Mansart built the Chateau de Maisons, near 
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, for Rene de Longueil. This is one 
of the most remarkable examples of the country chateaux 
of the new order of men and things. In 1645 he built the 
rez de chaussez, having furnished plans for the whole — of 
the Monastery and Church of Val-du-Grace. Colbert con- 
sulted him on plans for finishing the Louvre. He furnished 
sketches, but without wishing to tie himself irrevocably to 
them ; and thus lost this great work. 
The hst of his works is a long one. 
In Paris : — 

The front of the Monastery of the Feuillants. 

The high Altars of the Filles Dieu, hopital de la 

Trinity, and Saint-Martin-des-Champs. 
The Church of the Dames Sainte-Marie, Chaillot. 
Front of the Church of the Minimes, Quartier St. 

The Hotel Mazarin (now Bibliotheque Nat.), Rue de 

Hotels de Jars and de Coislin, Rue de Richelieu. 
Hotels Conti, Bouillon, d'Albret. The door of 
the Hotel Guen^gaud. Hotel d'Aumont, Rue 
de Jouy. Hotel de Fienbert, Quai Saint Paul. 
Hotel de Chateauneuf, Rue Coquilliere. 

^ Du Cerceau, Jacques I., father of Jacques II., author of Les plus er- 
celleiits bastimenta de la Fra^ice^ 1576. 


In the provinces : — 

Chateau de Fresnes, between Claye and Meaux. 
Chateaux de Berny and de Bercy. Chateau de 
Bfidleroy, Calvados. Chateau La Fert6 Eeuilly^ 
Parts of Chateaux Choisy sur Seine, La Fert^ St. 
Aubin (Loiret), and Petit Bourg, on the Seine 
between Paris and Corbeil. Also some of the 
buildings of Coulommiers, Richeheu and Gfevres 
en Brie. 
The Hotel de Ville of Troyes is also attributed to 
From what we know of Mansart, as well as by what we 
see of his works, it is evident that he was thoroughly imbued 
with Classic doctrines. **He drew his inspiration from an- 
"tiquity and from Italy. The pediment, the column or 
"pilaster, and above all, the cupola, the inevitable cupola, 
"these were his great means of action." ^ 


Barth^ilemy Prieur (b. 1540 — 50; d, 1611). — A pupil 
of Germain Pilon, Barth^lemy Prieur succeeded his master 
as first sculptor to the King in 1598. But many of his 
most important works were done years before, when he 
worked with Bullant for the Montmorencys. He was em- 
ployed at jficouen, the Louvre, Fontainebleau, the Celestins, 
the Church of Montmorency, and St. Denis. At the 
Louvre we owe to Barth^lemy Prieur **the recUning 
" figures, representing Fames and geniuses, which decorate 
"the tympanum of each arcade on the petite galerie".^ 
At Fontainebleau he cast the bronze of the Diane a la 
Biche, now in the Louvre, for Henri IV. *s fountain in the 
Queen's Garden. Only the two statues remain of the 
splendid Mausoleum which Madeleine de Savoie caused 
Bullant to erect to her husband the Constable Anne de 
Montmorency. They are now in the Louvre, and in them 

^ Lemonnier. '^ Babeau. 


Prieur has returned to the traditional forms of the Middle 
Ages. The Constable's is a grand and stately figure. The 
Duchess's effigy is very fine ; the chisel simple and noble. 
His monument supporting the urn which contained the 
Constable's Heart, from the Church of the Celestins, is ver\' 
inferior to those of the earlier Eenaissance. 

Lenoir formally attributes to Prieur the two academic 
figures in bronze of the tomb of Christophe de Thou, from the 
Church of Saint Andre des Arts (Louvre). The bust of De 
Thou above them is also attributed to him, and may well be 
his. And a further attribution is the kneeling figure of Marie 
de Barban9on-Cany, first wife of Auguste de Thou, in the 
Salle de Pujet. This is a very lovely figure of a most lovely 
woman, with a fine distinguished face, as of a drawing by 
Clouet, kneeling on one side of her lord, with a little dog 
upon her dress. The whole monument is by Anguier. But 
this channing statue is by quite another hand. 

Jean de Bologne, or Jean de Douai (Douai, 1524- 
1608). — Sculptor and architect like his master Michael 
Angelo — Jean de Bologne lived almost continually in Italy, 
where most of his works are to be found, notably the 
celebrated fountain of Bologna. His great Henri TV. for 
the Pont Neuf was not finished at his death : but was 
completed by his pupils Franqueville and Bordoni, and 
brought by them to Paris. Destroyed at the Revolution, 
the fragments are in the Louvre. The four nations in 
the guise of slaves chained at its foot, are now attributed 
to Franqueville (b. 1548). 

Jean de Bologne made a series of little compositions cast 
in bronze, which were sent all over Europe, and were the 
delight of the amateurs of the period. Eichelieu had a 
complete set. There were many in the Royal Garde Robe, 
of which some are still in the Louvre. And with one of 
these an interesting experiment was made lately. It was 
photographed and then enlarged upon the screen, when the 
result was disastrous for Jean de Bologne, as the whole thing 
appeared out of proportion and drawing. The same experi- 
ment with one of the exquisite Ivories of the early 14th 


century, produced a magnificently proportioned statue, perfect 
in every detail. 

Dupr6, Guillaume {b. 1610). — Married to a daughter of 
Barthelemy Prieur, Dupre became sculptor and Valet de 
Chambre du roi. In 1604 he was made controller of the 
effigies of the mint, and of the ** fontes d'artillerie ". 

The day after the assassination of Henri IV., Dupre and 
Jacquet modelled busts in wax of the King. Jacquet's was 
preferred, and displayed at the funeral — he was the author 
of the Henri IV. of the Belle Cheminee at Fontainebleau. 
But curiously enough, Dupre*s wax has at last been found, 
according to M. Bapst. For the wax bust of the King, 
at Chantilly, can, he believes, be by no other artist than 
Guillaume Dupre. 

Dupre's handUng of bronze was most remarkable. And 
his glory are his medals. The first was made in 1597, 
representing Henri IV. as Hercules, with Gabrielle d'Estrees 
on the reverse. 

The portrait bust of Dominique de Vic, Vicomte d*Er- 
nienonville in the Louvre, is a very beautiful and remarkable 
work of art, dated 1610. 

BouRDiN, Michel (1679-1640), was one of the artists in 
whose works we see the distinct naturalist tendency of this 

ffis Amador de la Porte, Grand Prieur de France, from 
the Priory of the Temple, is a fine kneeling figure, (now in 
Louvre). In this, Bourdin has not endeavoured to flatter 
his model : but to make the man*s portrait a life-like and 
characteristic one. The stout, rather heavy-faced personage 
is only distinguished by his air of simplicity and banhomie, 
which the artist has given with striking truth. 

His other works are the statue of Louis XI. for the 
Church of N. D. de Clery (1622), and an effigy in 1610, of 
Henri TV. 

GuiLLAiN, Simon (6. Cambray, 1581 ; d. 1658). — Simon 
Guillain, the son of a sculptor of some reputation at Cam- 
bray, was the third of the naturalist sculptors of the period. 
His Flemish origin displays itself in his work. Belonging 


to the vunirise (see next chapter) through his father and 
his brother-in-law Cochet, as well as in his own right, he 
quitted it on the founding of the Academy. But his chief 
work was done before this date — as in 1(548 he was already 

He must have been a picturesque and original personality, 
(juillet de Saint-Georges represents him w^ith a ** fine figure, 
** quick temper, and that touch of pride of the man who feels 
** he is worth something, and is not afraid of blows ". It 
seems he was the terror of robbers, who abounded even in 
Paris. He went out anned with a sort of flail with steel 
points hidden under his cloak, with which he charged his 
assailants, "breaking the swords with which he was op- 
** posed". Guillain, hke most of his contemporaries, went 
to Italj'. But unlike them, antiquity and mythology bore 
a small part in his w^ork. Most of it was religious statuaiy. 
His chief works were the statues of the Facade of St. Gervais. 
The retable of the High Altar at St. Eustache. Twelve or 
more statues for the Church of the Sorbonne. Figures of 
the Virgin, Saint Theresa, etc., at the Cannes Dechaussees. 
The Mausoleum of Catherine de la Tremouille at the Ave- 
Maria — this is now in the Louvre (705), a self-conscious 
kneeling figure. And finally the great monument which 
adorned the Pont du Change. 

The three bronze figures of Louis XIII., Anne of Austria, 
and Louis XIV. as a little boy, are now in the Louvre. 
** These are works of the first class, which perhaps have no 
** analogy in the painting or in the sculpture of the time. 
** The little Louis XIV., in his royal costume, so thoroughly 
** a child, yet with something which already betrays the 
** monarch; Louis XIII., whose affected, and at the same 
**time martial air, the artist has succeeded in rendering, by 
**very delicate nuances — here is reality — tnie and historic. 
** The Anne of Austria is even better. Guillain has expressed 
** in her, all the expansion of life, all the pride of race. The 
** queen is at once Queen and Woman.*' ^ 

(iuillain was not only able to see the truth of nature^ 

' Lemonnier. 


but to reproduce it. He united suppleness and breadth of 
execution with careful observation. 

Versailles possesses a fine portrait of Guillain, by Noel 
Coypel (3403), seated before the model of his monument 
on the Pont du Change. 

Sarbazin, Jacques (b. Noyon, 1588, d. 16G0). — Although 

Sarrazin lived until 1660, he must be placed with the 

masters of the early 17th century ; for no artist had such 

a vogue during the reign of Louis XIII. He came to Paris 

in 1608, studying there under Nicholas Guillain. In 1610 

he went to Home, where he remained for eighteen years. 

He then returned to Paris, and never left it until his death. 

His works were in nearly every church in Paris. He 

was employed by the Marquis d'Efiiat at Chilly. By 

Richelieu at Eueil. By M. de Longueil at Maisons. But 

above all Sarrazin was the chosen sculptor of the Crown ; 

and as such we find him at the Louvre. Here he was the 

author of the great cariatides supporting the Dome of Le 

Mercier*s Pavilion de THorloge. For these he made models 

which were carried out by Gilles Guerin, and Buyster and 

Van Opstal, the Flemish sculptors. These sculptors also 

worked under him upon the ** Eenommees," the trophies, 

lions, masks, etc., on the building. ** The conception of the 

** cariatides is beautiful and elegant : it is distinct both 

"from the inspirations of the 16th and 17th centuries; 

"this perhaps has not been suflSciently noticed. It is 

"neither Goujon, Pilon, or Bernini. The personality of 

"the artist is revealed in the delicacy, the soft suavity, 

" the abstraction one may almost say of these ^eat figures." ^ 

The tomb of Henri de Conde — now reconstructed in 

the Chapel at Chantilly — is without doubt his chief work. 

While his contemporaries turned for their thoughts to 

Ariosto or Tasso, Sarrazin went back as far as Petrarch. 

The idea of the monument is borrowed in great measure 

from the " Triomphes ". He gives us the Triumphs of 

Death, Fame, Time and Eternity, in a series of bas-reliefs, 

while four great bronze figures — Religion, Justice, Piety, 

^ Lemonnier. 



Valour, and little genii of sorrow, adorn the magnificent 
monument. Though in these ideas we find in place of 
human sentiment a sort of moral rhetoric, the figures are 
noble in the extreme, and suitable, according to the spirit 
of the age, to surround the tomb of the illustrious dead. 
But though most of the bas-reliefs are in direct imitation 
of the antique, with Roman Soldiers and Eagles, in the 
Trimnph of Death there is a certain realistic grandeur which 
is impressive. 

Besides this Sarrazin was the sculptor of the tomb of 
de B^ruUe for the Church of the Carmelites ; and the monu- 
ment in the Church of Saint Paul, in memory of Louis XIII. 

BiARD, Pierre (b. 1559 ; d. 1609), — was the author of the 
remarkable Jubd of St. ^jtienne-du-Mont — a unique work 
of its kind. It was begun in 1600, and is happily intact. 
Two very important monuments were erected by Biard for 
the due d'fepemon, Henri III.'s mignon. The first was 
the Mausoleum of his wife. Marguerite de Foix, at Cadillac- 
sur-Garonne. The second, the tomb of her brother the 
Bishop of Aire, at Bordeaux. These were both destroyed in 
1792. The marble statues were broken — the columns used 
for Altars to la Patrie — the bronze statues sent to Rochefort 
for cannons. The bronze Fame, however, which sur- 
mounted the Mausoleum of Cadillac, was saved on account 
of its beauty by a librarian, the citizen Rayet, and is now 
in the Louvre. It is an extraordinary work of life and 
realism ; and gives Pierre Biard an important position in 
French Sculpture. 



The spirit of Art in this remarkable epoch, for which the 
reign of Louis XIII., the inspiration of Eichelieu, prepared 
the way, is expressed in two phenomena : — 

The founding of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. 
The Palace of Versailles. 

In the first we get the theory of Art. In the second that 

theor}' is shown in practice. The life of French Art in the 

loth and 16th centuries had centred first in Touraine, and 

later in Paris. Now for over a hundred years we shall find 

Versailles the focus of activity. For Art now becomes official 

and aristocratic, and gathers round the actual person of the 

King. It is no longer towards the Louvre that we must 

look for the history of Art. At Versailles we find it written 

large, in marble and bronze, in painting and sculpture. In 

Le Brun's superb decorations — in the h'eavy magnificence 

of Mansart's Classic buildings — in the splendour of Le 

N6tre'8 gardens and parks, fountains and terraces. 

The founding of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture 
did not, however, emanate from the King. It is intimately 
bound up with the question of the Corporations and Trade 
Guilds of the Middle Ages. Into this question it is ob- 
viously impossible to go at length here. It will be enough 
to say that the members of the Corporation of Master 
painters and sculptors of St. Luke, founded in the 18th 
century, had come in course of time to hinder the free 
exercise of Art among those who did not belong to the 
maitrise or freedom of the Guild. At several different 
periods its regulations and scope had been altered. Fran- 
cois I., who apparently bore it little goodwill, considerably 
curtailed its powers. The restrictions he introduced in 1539 



were destined to relieve artists from the heavy burdens im- 
posed on them by the maitrise. At the end of the IGth 
century, however, fresh powers were granted to the guilds of 
all ** arts et mestiers," wiiich were now introduced in towns 
which had hitherto escaped from them. And in Henri IV. 's 
endeavour to restore French industries, and organize Art and 
trade, he established a strict system of monopolies, and pro- 
tection against all foreign productions. 

From time to time in the beginning of the 17th centurj', 
the Corporation of Master painters and sculptors tried yet 
further to extend the powers and privileges they already 
possessed. And in 1G47 they made a fresh attempt to 
apply the regulations of 1618 ; reducing the number of 
painters of the King's and Queen's households; and for- 
bidding independent artists to sell pictures, keep shops, 
work for churches or for private persons, under a penalty 
of 500 livres. 

The independent painters at once seized on this as a 
pretext for revolt against the maitrise ; saying that their 
position would be rendered impossible. That it was a 
pretext, to some extent, is certain. For such painters as 
Poussin, Vouet, Philippe de Champaigne, Bourdon, the 
sculptor Sarrazin, and many others, had exercised their 
art freely, without belonging to the maitrise. 

But the whole position of artists had changed. ** Sous 
**rinfluence de I'antiquite et de la Renaissance TArt avait 
J ** constitue sa theorie et m^me sa philosophie, il se considerait 
" comme appele a exprimer un ideal ; cette conception donnait 
**a ceux qui I'exerc/aient une haute idee de leur valeur." ^ 
These artists considered it beneath the dignity of the 
heirs of Phidias and Apelles to belong to a corporation, 
*' debased" by practising a trade and by the mediocrity of 
many of its members, who were indeed mere journeymen. 
They therefore seized eagerly upon the opportunity given 
them by the fresh regulations of the itiaitrise. And replied 
by taking the initiative in creating a body to counteract its 
power and tyranny. 

* Lemonnier. 


The notion of an Academy was in the air. The '* Aca- 
deinie Fran9aise *' was already in being. And Le Brun was 
talking with Testehn about an Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture, while Jacques Sarrazin, Juste d'Egmont, and. 
Coraeille the elder were actually taking the initiative in 
the matter. For it is these three to whom the project and 
the first movement towards its fulfilment are due. They, 
with. M. de Channois, prepared the petition, ** tendante a 
" supplier sa Majeste de delivrer ceux qui exer^aient les arts 
"et qui etaient continuellement occupes au service de sa 
"Majeste de Toppression d'une mattrise incompatible avec 
" la liberte de Tacademie, leur donnant ce titre, parce qu'en 
"eflfet c'^tait le moyen de les distinguer d*avec le coq)s de 

Thus we see that the original movement came from the 
artists themselves. We must in justice bear in mind that, 
as I have said, Louis XIV. did not create the Academy. It 
was founded outside the initiative of the Government, *' whose 
"almost unique role was to consecrate the already estabhshed 
"fact ". The first statutes were more a declaration of prin- 
ciple, of an ideal, than a working organization. And there 
is no doubt that until 1654 the Academy worked feebly, and 
was in constant peril of dissolution — now endeavouring in 
despair to bring about a junction with the maitrise — then in 
still greater despair, trying to rid itself of this very incon- 
gruous second body. It was not until that year (1654) that 
the Academy obtained its full constitution. A royal decree 
separated it once for all from the maitrise ; and modified 
its original constitution. 

It had a Protector, and a Vice-Protector. Its chief was 
called the Director. He had for assistants, or substitutes 
if necessary, four Hectors, chosen among the Aiiciens (or 
founders), and taking precedence of them. The Anciem 
changed their name to Professors, and their number was 
fixed at twelve. Below them came the Acad^mistes. Finally 
a Chancellor was chosen from the rectors, professors, and 
councillors ; and a treasurer, secretarj% and ushers were 
instituted. The King further allowed thirty of the 


members of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture to 
enjoy the same privileges as the ** Forty ** of the Academie 
Fran(;aise.^ The Academy was granted the use of the 
gallery of the ** college royal de I'universit^ '* for its 
sittings and work. It was allowed 1000 livres a year for 
teaching. Finally the monopoly of teaching was conceded 
to it ; and its Rectors were constituted judges of all differ- 
ences relative to the practice of art, even of payments for 
works of painting and sculpture. 

But there was the reverse of the medal. From hence- 
forth the Academy, now entering on its trimnphant career, 
became more and more dependent on the powers that be. 
The King held it through Colbert. Colbert held it through 
Le Brun. And even so, royal intervention did not produce 
unity. The nuiitrise still existed, with a large nmnber of 
members. Mignard, Dufresnoy, Anguier and others, still 
upheld it, only coming over to the Academy some years 
later. And a third group, the King's Painters, and the 
guests of the Louvre, maintained their independence be- 
tween 6ie two bodies. It was not until 1661, when at 
Mazarin's death the King became King in deed as well 
as in word, that the Academy triumphed. And in Art, as 
in government, the dream of Louis XIV. and Colbert was 
accomplished, in *'the concentration of discipHned force". 
For this history of the Academy cannot be separated from 
the history of the time. The same ideal is manifested in 
both — the same progressive march towards unification, 
order — the same tendency to absorb everything into the 

Thus the Academy, founded in 1648 on principles of 
equahty and confraternity, with the object of rendering 
irtists independent, placed them in fact, by the statutes of 
1654-5, under a hierarchy, under governmental and adminis- 
trative direction. And that body, founded in the name of 
liberty, was destined to become for those who opposed it, 

' " Exemption ties charges de tutclle et curatelle, du guet ct de la garde : 
*• droit de comifiitthniis (juridiction dea maitres des requ»'te8 de I'Hotel pour 
** les academiciens, ou des maitres des requetes du Palais, u leur choix)." 


as tjrrannical a corporation as the old maitrise, until in its 
turn it was driven out by the fiery besom of the Revolution ; 
and liberty for Art was once more claimed by David. 


Perkier, Francois, dit Le Bourguignon (1590-1656). — 
While quite young, Perrier painted pictures in the Chartreux 
of Ijyons. And so determined was he to get to Italy and 
study there, that he engaged himself as guide to a blind man 
on his way to Eome. In Rome he copied the best masters for 
a picture dealer. And was counselled and helped by Lanfranc. 
In 1630 he returned to France, painting more pictures for 
the Chartreux at Lyons. He then went to Macon, where 
his two brothers, a painter and a sculptor, were established. 
His reputation began here, and he soon went on to Paris, 
livhere he painted pictures from Vouet's drawings. 

About 1635 he returned to Italy for a sojourn of ten 
years ; settling finally in Paris in 1645. Here his greatest 
work was the Gallery of the Hotel de la Vrilliere, built by 
Mansard. This magnificent dwelling was bought in 1713 
by the Comte de Toulouse, who took its name. It is now 
the Banque de France. And some of the original paintings 
still exist. Francois Perrier was one of the twelve Anciens 
who founded the Academy of Painting and Sculpture, 
opened on 1st February, 1648. He was the first master 
of Lie Brun. 

Examples — Louvre : — 

Acis and Galatea. 

Orpheus before Pluto. 

iEneas and the Harpies. 

Galerie doree. Hotel de la Banque. 
Le Nain, the Brothers Antoine, Louis, Matthieu (6. 
Laon, beginning of 17th century; cZ. 1648, 1648, 1667). — 
All that is known of the early history of these three brothers 
is that they were taught their art at Laon by a ** foreign 
painter". That they came to Paris and lived in the same 

Antoine and Louis worked together, Antoine excelling 


in miniatures and cabinet portraits, Louis painting bust 
portraits. Matthieu, the youngest, was appointed **peintre 
de la Vilie Paris, et lieutenant de la compagnie bourgeoise du 
sieur Duri,*' in August, 1633. The three brothers became 
members of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 
February, 1648. Their letters of admission were signed 
by Le Brun. And Louis and Antoine died in May the 
same year, within three days of each other. Matthieu, 
** peintre de Bambochades," was made peintre de TAcademie 
Eoyale in 1662. He died in 1667. 

It is virtually impossible to distinguish between the work 
of these three brothers. The attribution of special pictures 
to one or another is chiefly guess-work. But they occupy 
a most honourable and remarkable place in the history of 
French Art, by their originality and care for truth. Among 
the pictures of the period, those by the brothers Le Nain 
stand out with striking distinctness. Some seem to sug- 
gest of the work of the most modern artists. The re- 
markable picture in the Louvre, **Eetour de la Fenaison," 
foreshadows of the work of J. F. Millet. ** The serious and 
'* sad expression of the figures they introduce even in rustic 
** scenes of the Cabaret or the Guard room, the type of heads, 
**a greyish-green tone, vivid and numerous whites — thrown 
** up by draperies generally of a light, clear red — in fine, a 
** sort of reflection of the Spanish School — these are the 
"characteristic features of their style. ''^ 

They painted many easel pictures of various dimensions. 
Large canvases for the churches of Notre Dame in Paris 
and in Laon. And the vaulting of the Chapel of the Virgin, 
St. Germain des Pr^s. 

Examples in England : — 

Group of portraits. National Gallery. 

The Musicians, Dulwich Gallery. 

The Players, Buckingham Palace. 

Children and Piper, Stafford House. 

Interior with figures. Corporation Art Galleries, 

> Villot. 


Portrait of a young gentleman, Fitzwilliain Museum, 

The Song, Lord Aldenham. 
Louvre : — 

La Creche, 539. 

La Forge, 540. 

Le Eetour de la Fenaison, 542. 

Portraits dans un interieur, 548. 

Reunion de Famille, 543a. 

Henri II. due de Montmorency, 545. 

Card players, 546. 

Le reniement de St. Pierre, 547. 

Eepos des Paysans (Salle La Caze), 548. 

Procession dans I'lnt^rieur d'une Eglise, 544. 
This last is attributed to the Le Nains. It is not wholly 
like their work. But it is a fine picture, with superb colour 
in magnificent vestments. 

PoussiN, Nicholas (b. Les Andelys, Nonnandy, 1594 ; 
•d, Rome, 1665). — While quite a youth, Poussin's sketches 
attracted the attention of a painter, Quentin Varin of Beauvais, 
who lived at Les Andelys ; and the lad worked with him 
until he was eighteen. He then set out for Paris ; and 
being penniless painted ** trumeaux " — the panels between 
windows and those over doors — on the road to pay his 
way. His first master in Paris was Ferdinand EUe, a 
Fleming. But Poussin soon left him for I'Allemand, an 
artist from Lorraine. A young Poitevin gentleman then 
took Poussin under his protection, and carried him ofif to 
bis Chateau in Poitou. Here, however, the young man's 
mother treated the painter as a servant. He therefore left 
the house ; and worked his way back to Paris by painting 
en route. He was now twenty. Some of the pictures of 
this period were landscapes for the Chateau de Clisson. A 
Bacchanal for a gallery in the Chateau de Chevemey. St. 
Francis and St. Charles Borromeo for the Choir of the 
Capucins at Blois. 

After an illness in Paris he returned to his home for a 
year. He then set out for Rome. But he got no further 


than Florence ; and returning to Paris he became intimate 
with Philippe de Champaigne, also a pupil of TAllemand's. 
Both the young men were employed by Duchesne, a medi- 
ocre artist, who was entrusted with the decorations of the 
Luxembourg. Again Poussin endeavoured to get to Rome. 
But he was obliged, by want of money, to stop in Lyons,, 
where he painted a number of pictures. 

It was not until 1(523, that six pictures in Paris, painted 
in distemper in less than a week for the College of the 
Jesuits, drew the attention of tlie Chevalier Marini to 
Poussin. Marini lodged him in his own house ; employed 
him on drawings for his poem of Adonis ; and declared 
himself his patron. And when Marini returned to Rome^ 
Poussin, after completing various pictures, rejoined him 
in Rome in the spring of 1624. Here Cardinal Barberini 
also became his patron. But upon the death of Marini,. 
and the departure of the Cardinal on missions to France 
and Spain, Poussin was reduced to such straits that he 
sold a battle-piece for fourteen crowns, and a Prophet for 
less than two. Despite his poverty he diligently studied 
antiquities, architecture, anatomy, perspective, ** and sought 
** among the great authors the subjects which would best 
** express moral character and the afifections — force of ex- 
**pression appearing to him as one of the most desirable 
** qualities ".1 

During a serious illness Poussin was tenderly cared for 
by his countryman, Jean Dughet, whose daughter he married 
in 1(529. As he had no children he adopted his wife's two 
brothers, Jean Dughet, the engraver, and Gaspar Dughet, 
known as ** Gaspar Poussin," who, with Claude, was the father 
of P'rench landscape. 

Poussin now established himself on the Pincian Hill,, 
close to Claude Lorrain and Salvator Rosa. And when Car- 
dinal Barberini returned to Rome his success began. From 
the year 1(324 a close intimacy had sprung up between 
Poussin and Stella; and when the latter was lodged in 
the Louvre, a long correspondence was carried on between 

• Villot. 


the two artists. Poussin also corresponded for twenty-eight 
years with Freart de Chantelou, maltre d'hotel of Louis XIII. 
The pictures which he painted for these friends inspired M. de 
Noyers, Minister of State and superintendent of the Royal 
buildings, with the strong desire to induce him to return to 
Paris. But Poussin could not make up his mind to quit 
Rome. He only yielded after a second letter from the 
Minister, and one from Louis XIII. himself. 

In 1640, after many delays, Poussin and Jean Dughet 
at length arrived in Paris. Here they were lodged in the 
Tuileries; and treated with great distinction by the King 
and Richelieu. In the next year Poussin was appointed 
first painter to the King.^ And besides pictures for the 
Chapels of Saint Germain and Fontainebleau, this extraor- 
dinary artist in two years painted the compositions of the 
Labours of Hercules destined for the Grande Galerie of the 
Louvre — eight designs for Tapestry from the Old Testament — 
orders for Richelieu — frontispieces for books ; and drawings 
of ornaments for furniture. 

In spite however of the King and the Cardinal's support, 
Poussin found himself the victim of the intrigues of Vouet, 
Feuquiferes, and the architect Le Mercier. In 1642, therefore, 
he returned to Rome. And the deaths of Louis XIII. and 
Richelieu decided him never again to leave Italy. His great 
talent matured late. As the moment of his journey to France 
approaches **his talent grows loftier, purer; and after his 
** return to Rome it reaches its apogee ". ** This celebrated 
"artist, after the most laborious existence possible, compar- 
** able in its noble gravity with that of the most renowned 
** philosophers of ancient times, died at the age of seventy- 
** two years, leaving his poor relatives in Normandy the 
** modest sum of 10,000 crowns, which had been so gloriously 

lA the Louvre we have a good example of his first style 
in the Plague of Ashdod (710). After his return to Rome 

^ Above the '* painters in ordinary " was the ** premier peintre du roi," an 
important function, filled before Le Brun by men such as Vouet and Poussin. 
« Villot. 


in 1642, The Manna (709) is an excellent specimen of his 
second and finest style. And if in his old age his hand 
becomes somewhat heavy and tremulous, his imagination 
grows even bolder and more poetic. 
Examples in England : — 

Sixteen pictures, of which seven are original, Dul- 
wich Gallerv. 
National Gallerj' : — 

Bacchanalian Dance. Cephalus and Aurora. Venus 
sui-prised by Satyrs. Nursing of Bacchus. Bac- 
chanalian Festival. Landscape. Plague at Ashdod. 
The last two are doubtful. But the first five are of the 
highest beauty and value. 

Four pictiures at Hampton Court. 

The Duke of Rutland possesses one set of The Seven 

Sacraments, Belvoir Castle. 
Lord Ellesmere has the other. 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

Best examples of Poussin's early style — The Plague (710) 
is undoubtedly a fine picture ; individual figures are of great 
beauty, especially the boy on the right. Le Jeune Pyrrhus 
Sauve (726) is full of vigour and movement. Of his second 
and finest manner are the charming and graceful Bergers 
d'Arcadie (784), and The Manna (709), which is fine in 
colour and in movement, with small figures. Among the 
pictures of his old age, in La Feimne Adultere (710) the 
colour is sad, and the figure of Christ poor and unworthy. 
The Adoration of the Magi (712) is flat, yet fine. But the 
best of this period are the Four Seasons (736-739), for though 
again the colour is verj' sad, the landscapes are exquisite, and 
the whole series full of poetry. 

There are four important pictures at Chantilly. 
Gelli^e, Claude, dit Le Lorrain, known in England 
as Claude Lorraine (b. 1600, Chateau de Chamagne, on 
the Moselle, diocese of Toul ; d. Rome, 1682). — The parents 
of this noble painter died when he was twelve years old. He 
then joined his eldest brother, an accomplished wood- 
engraver, at Fribourg (in Breisgau), who employed him for 


a year in designing ornaments and arabesques. He then 

went with a relation, a lace merchant, to Rome ; where he 

gave himself up entirely to study. His slender resources 

being exhausted he went to Naples, and spent two years 

with Geoflfroy Walls, a Cologne painter, who taught him to 

paint landscape. He then returned to Rome and studied 

under Agostino Tassi, in whose house he lived till 


In this year he returned by way of Loretto, Venice, the 
Tyrol and Bavaria to his native country ; and then went to 
Nancy. Here a relation introduced him to Charles Dervent, 
painter to the Due Henri de Lorraine, who was engaged 
upon the decoration of the vaulting in the church of the 
CarmeUtes. Dervent employed Claude to paint the archi- 
tecture in his decorations. But the death of a gilder who 
fell from the scaffolding, disgusted him with this kind of 
work, and he determined to return to Rome. At Mar- 
seilles he joined Charles Errard, the King's painter, who 
twenty years later was to be one of the foremost in founding 
the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. And they arrived 
in Rome on St. Luke's Day, 1627. 

Claude now established himself in Rome. And two 
landscapes which he painted for Cardinal BentivogUo had 
so great a success, that the Cardinal and Pope Urbain VIII. 
declared themselves his patrons. His works quickly became 
so popular, that several painters who frequented his studio 
stole his compositions, and, imitating his manner, sold these 
pastiches as his works, before the master had finished the real 
picture. It has been supposed that it was in order to guard 
himself against this traffic, that Claude formed the habit of 
making a careful drawing of each picture, with the date and 
name of the owner. Whether or not this precious collection, 
now known as the Libro di Verita or d' invenzioni, owes its 
origin to fear of plagiarism, or loss of memory, or, as is 
Diore probable, to the artist's wish to preserve a recollec- 
tion of his works, matters but little. That it exists is 
the main thing. It was begun when he was working on 
the pictures ordered by the King of Spain; and consists 


of 200 drawings washed with bistre. This collection accord- 
ing to his will, was always to remain in his family as 
an heirloom. Cardinal d'Estrees endeavoured to buy it 
from the painter's grandsons. But they refused to part with 
this precious treasure at any price. Other heirs however, 
later on, w^ere less scrupulous. They sold it for 200 crowns 
to a jeweller, who resold it in Holland. About 1770 it was 
secured by the Duke of Devonshire, and has ever since ])een 
safely kept at Devonshire House. It was engraved in 
aquatint by Earlon, and published by Boydell in 1774. 
Loaded with honours and riches, Claude worked on, in spite 
of suffering forty years from gout, to the very end. A draw- 
ing of his, dated 1682, the year of his death, is in possession 
of the Queen. He was buried in the Trinita-del-Monte, 
from whence in 1840 M. Thiers had his remains removed, 
and buried in Saint-Louis-des-Fran9ais. 

Besides the immense number of his pictures — in 1G44 
alone, he painted seventeen — he produced many eaux-fortes, 
beginning in 1630, which sell at high prices. England 
happily possesses many of the finest specimens of this truly 
great master's work. The Claudes of the Dulwich Gallerj% 
especially the numbers 205, 215 and 220, are of the greatest 
beauty. So is the Eepos de la Sainte Famille, with its delicate 

Examples — National Gallery : — 

Queen of Sheba, 14. 

Isaac and Rebecca, 12. 

Embarkation of St. Ursula, 80, 

Landscape, 19, and Nos. 6, 55, 58. 

Coast scene on the Mediterranean, Hertford House. 

Large landscape, Hertford House. 

Europa, Buckingham Palace. 

Port de Mer, Hampton Court. 

Landscape. A Seaport. Landscape, Rome in distance. 
Landscape, Claude painting. And a port, Wind- 
sor Castle. 
The pendants known as — 

The Worship of the Golden Calf, Grosvenor House. 


The Sermon on the Mount, Grosvenor House. 
The Libro di Verita, Devonshire House. 
Two hundred and seventy sketches, British Museum. 
Sixteeen pictures in the Louvre, of which seven are more or 
less doubtful or repainted. Seven of these are recorded in 
the Libro di Verita. 

Port demer,Soleil levant, signed Claudio in Roma, 810. 
Campo Vaccino, Rome, rather hard and dull, 811. 
F^te Villageoise, signed Claudio inv. Roinse, 1()39, 312. 
Port de mer, soleil couchant, pink sunset, signed 

Claudio inv. Romse, 1639, 818. 
Landing of Cleopatra. Sir Joshua Reynolds also had 

a landing of Cleopatra, sold 1795, 250 guineas. 
David crowned by Samuel, Coll. Louis XIV., lovely 

landscape, Romae, 1647, 815. 
Ulysses and Chryseis, Coll. Louis XIV., golden sky, 

a glow of gold, 316. 
Port de mer, soleil voile par une brume, Claude in 
Roma, 1646, 317. 
These are not comparable to our collections in the National 
Gallery and at Dulwich. 

Ten pictures in the Gallery of Madrid. Five of these 
are in the Libro di Verita, and mentioned as ** painted for 
the King of Spain *'. 

MosNiER, Jean {b. 1600, Blois : d. 1650 or 1656, Blois).— 
An artist of Blois, he painted decorations in the Bishop's 
Palace at Chartres, at Chinon, Saumur, Tours, Nogent le 
Rotrou, Chateau de Valen9ay, and the Chateau de Cheverny, 
three miles from Blois, where his paintings still exist. 
He lived five years in Rome ; was a friend of Poussin ; 
and was protected by Marie de Medici, who made his 
acquaintance during her exile at Blois. The Louvre 
possesses one of his pictures, La Magnificence royale, from 
the collection of Louis XIV. 

La Hire, Laurent de {b, Paris, 1606 ; d, Paris, 1656). — 
La Hire, one of the twelve founders of the Academy who 
took the title of Anciens, was a pupil of his father and of 
Lallemand. He worked in the Palais Royal for Richelieu, 


for Chancellor Seguier, and for many others. He painted 
a number of portraits. And decorated many Hotels in the 
Marais, and the Church of the Capucines in the same 
(juarter. Nine pictures by La Hire are in the Louvre. 
Most of them large, tedious, academic compositions. But 
4<)0 deserves attention as a charming landscape. The fore- 
ground trees are conventional ; but the distance is full of 
a delicate sense of nature. 

Gaspar Dughet (commonly called Gaspar Poussin) 
{b. Rome, 1(318 ; d. Rome, 1675). — Son of Jean Dughet, a 
Parisian settled in Rome. He studied for three years under 
his brother-in-law Poussin. Having no children, Poussin 
adopted Gaspar Dughet, who took his name. Gaspar 
Poussin 's landscapes were chiefly painted in the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome, though he also worked at Milan, Perugia 
and Florence. Many of them are painted direct from 
nature, as he worked a great deal in the open air. He care- 
fully studied the works of Claude Lorrain. 

The National Gallery possesses some of the verj' finest 
specimens of the artist's work. The ** Italian Landscape,** 
bequeathed by Lord Farnborough, is of the utmost beauty. 
The hill town, with waterfall and olive grounds in the fore- 
ground, and snow alps behind, is a noble rendering of nature, 
despite touches of conventionality from which no pictures 
of the period are wholly free. The same may be said of 
the ** Evening view near Albano," with a flock of sheep 
coming down a road through the forest after the half-naked 
shepherd, and of The Landstorm, Dido and iEneas, and 
the Calling of Abraham. Nearly all the great collections 
in England have examples of the work of Gaspar Poussin 
or of his school. 

In the Royal Collections we find : — 

Paysage, Buckingham Palace. 

Jonas thrown into the Sea. and two landscapes, 
Windsor Castle. 

Italian Landscape, National Gallery. 

Evening view near Albano, National Gallery. 

The Land Storm, National Gallery. 



Dido and ^Eneas, National Gallery. 

The Calling of Abraham, National Gallery. 

Castle in a Wood, Dulwich Gallery. 

Children of Niobe, Dulwich Gallery. 

Mountainous Landscape, Bath Art Museum. 

Landscape, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. 

Two Landscapes, FitzwilUam Musemn, Cambridge. 

A Land storm. National Gallery, Edinburgh. 

Three Landscapes, Corporation Galleries, Glasgow. 
There are many more in private collections. 

MiGNARD, Pierre (b. Troyes, 1610; d. Paris, 1(395). — 
Pierre Mignard was destined by his father to be a doctor — 
his eldest brother Nicholas being already a painter. But 
the child showed such talent for art, that his father sent 
him when only twelve years old to a painter named 
Boucher at Bourges. After a year's study Pierre returned 
to Troyes ; and then went to Fontainebleau, where he spent 
two years in studjring the paintings and sculptures in the 
Chateau. On his return to Troyes he painted the Chapel of 
the Chateau de Coubert, belonging to the Marechal de Vitry. 
M. de Vitry then placed the young painter with Vouet, 
who wished him to marry his daughter. Mignard however 
refused the honour, going off to Rome in 1(386, where he 
found his fellow-student du Fresnoy. His first works in 
Borne were two large pictures of the family of M. Hugues 
de Lionne and M. M. Arnaud. These established his repu- 
tation as a portrait painter. He painted the Popes Urbain 
Vm., Innocent X., and numbers of celebrated persons. 

Alphonse Louis du Plessis, Cardinal de Lyon, the elder 
brother of Richelieu, coming to Rome, Mignard in eight 
months copied for him the decorations by Annibal Carraci 
of the Gallery of the Farnese Palace. In 1654 he started 
to join du Fresnoy at Venice, being received with great 
distinction by artists and nobles ahke at Rimini, Bologna, 
Modena, Parma, Mantua. After some mouths in Modena 
and Venice he returned to Rome, painting Alexander VII. — 
and numbers of pictures of the Virgin, which were known 

as " Mignardes." 



At length, after twenty-two years in Koine, Louis XIV. 
recalled him to France. Arriving at Marseilles in 1657, he 
was attacked by serious illness, and spent seven or eight 
months at Avignon with his brother Nicholas. Here it was 
that the friendship with Moliere began, which lasted their 
lives. In Lyons he painted several portraits. But he had to 
hurr}*^ on to Fontainebleau, where Mazarin had ordered a 
portrait of the King. This was painted in three hours, and 
sent to Spain to the Infanta who Louis XIV. was to marrj\ 
Royalty and nobles all now desired to be painted by this 
distinguished and successful painter. The due d'fipemon 
gave him 1000 crowns for his portrait ; and paid him 40,000 
livres for the decoration of a room in the Hotel de Longue- 
ville. For the Queen-Mother he painted the fresco in the 
Dome of the Val-du-Grace, with 200 figures of Saints, the 
three persons of the Trinity, and Anne of Austria. 

In 1664 he was made chief of the Academy of St. Luke, 
refusing to belong to the Royal Academy of Painting and 
Sculpture, because he would not take a lower place than Le 
Brun, of whom he was intensely jealous. It was not until 
Le Brun's death in 1690 that Mignard joined the ranks of 
the Academy. He succeeded his adversary as " premier peintre 
du roi ". And in one sitting of the Academy on March 4 
was made academician, professor, rector, director and chan- 
cellor ! Being further appointed director of manufactures. 
In 1677 he decorated the Grand Salon at St. Cloud, for 
Philippe d'Orleans, the King's only brother. And a few 
years later painted the little Gallery at Versailles, and the 
rooms which opened from it. These decorations, which 
were engraved by Audran, were destroyed in 1736. In 
1691 Louvois consulted him about the decoration for the 
Dome of the Invalides. This, although he was then eighty- 
one, Mignard begged to undertake himself. With extraor- 
dinary vigour he sent Louvois the whole scheme completed 
in two months. But although it was accepted, he died 
before he could put the work in hand. 

In his last years he painted Mme. de Maintenon as 
Sainte Fran9oi8e, Louis XIV. for the tenth time. The 


Royal family of England. St. Matthew for Trianon. And 
his last picture, signed **P. Mignard pinxit 1695, aetatis 83,*' 
was a St. Luke (now in the Louvre), in which he has repre- 
sented himself standing behind the Saint, a brush in one 
hand, and a piece of paper on which the subject is sketched 
in the other. He finished all but a corner of the carpet. 

At Versailles, among many works by Mignard, two call 
for special notice. One is the great picture, so well known, 
of Louis XIV. in armour on horseback, crowned by Victory 
after the conquest of Maestricht. It now occupies the place 
of one of the two pictures by Veronese, in a superb frame 
by Vasse over the mantelpiece of the Salon d'Hercule. The 
other is the portrait of his daughter, Catherine Mignard, 
the young Comtesse de Feuquieres, the ** Queen of Beauty 
"of the sifecle Versaillais ". **Her father has desired to 
"represent her as the messenger of his own glory. Very 
** slender, very elegant, facing the spectator, dressed in a 
" blue dress and lilac mantle, with flowers in her black hair, 
" she holds in one hand the trumpet of fame and the 
" sketch of her father's portrait. Drawings by Mignard lie 
" on the table ; and what better way of assuring immortality 
** for himself than to entrust it to such an exquisite Re- 
" nommee ? *' ^ 

Examples in England : — 

Le Dauphin et sa famille, Buckingham Palace. 

Hortense et Marie Mancini ; Charlotte (or Henriette) 
d*Orleans and children ; Louis XIV. ; La diseuse 
de bonne aventure, Windsor. 

Two Portraits of Louis XIV., enfant, Hampton Court. 
These can hardly be authentic as Mignard never saw Louis 
XTV. until he was eighteen years old. 

Portrait Louis XIV., E. A. Leatham, Esq. 
Louvre. Ten Pictures. The best are : — 

Portraits of Le Grand Dauphin, his wife and three 
children. (A replica at Versailles. Sacristy of 
Church of Notre Dame), 638. 

Portrait of Mignard by himself, 640. 

^ M. de Nolhao. 


La Vierge a la grappe, 628. 

Saint Cecilia, 684. 

Fran^oise d'Aubigne, Marquise de Maintenon, as Ste. 

Fran^oise, 689. 
St. Luke painting the Virgin (see above), 858. 
Versailles : — 

Louis XrV. crowned by Victory, Salle d*Hercule. 
Catherine Mignard, Comtesse de Feuquiferes. 

Duchesse de Maine, as a child blowing bubbles. 
Comte de Toulouse, son of Mme. de Montespan, 
enfant, ** en j'oli amour nu ". 
Chantilly : — 

MoHere. Mazarin. Henriette d'Angleterre. Mme. 
de Suze, Henriette de Coligny. 
Madrid : — 

Jeune Prince de la Maison de France ; Marie Theresa ; 
and three others. 
Le S(EUR, Etjstache (b. Paris, 1617 ; d. 1655). — Le 
Soeur was one of the few painters of the time who posi- 
tively refused to go to Rome. He however studied the 
best Italian works which were brought to Paris. But he 
stands alone, and remains a distinct and marked figure 
among his contemporaries. He was placed with Vouet as 
a youth, and made rapid progress in his art. Admitted to 
the Guild of Master Painters, he left them on the founding 
of the Academv, of which he was one of the twelve Ancient, 
After leaving Vouet, he painted eight pictures in his manner. 
But he soon became master of his own style — the style which 
he kept perfectly pure and individual during his short life. 

It was now that he painted the celebrated decorations 
for the Hotel of M. Lambert de Thorigny. These are now 
in the Louvre. They consist of a charming series of six 
pictures, the ** History of Cupid," from the Cabinet de VAvwur, 
and the great ceiling, ** Phaeton demande a ApoUon la 
conduite du char du soleil " — a composition of extraor- 
dinary vigour, and yet breezy lightness. The colour is 
extremely delicate, pure and harmonious. Five pictures 


from the Chambre des MuseSy which are of great beauty, 
especially the two largest, 598 and 599. And the ceiling 
of another room, ** Ganymede enleve par Jupiter,*' a painting 
of great beauty and force. Le Soeur also painted decorations 
in the Louvre for Anne of Austria. They existed in 1710, 
but are now probably destroyed, as they cannot be traced. 

In 1645 he began the famous series of twenty-four 
pictures — the life of St. Bruno — for the Chartreux de Paris, 
now in the Louvre. In all we find great breadth and 
freedom of treatment, an honesty of purpose and grace 
which is most remarkable. The bright blue, which, until 
he takes' the habit, seems to be an attribute of St. Bruno, 
is a somewhat unpleasing note in the otherwise sober and 
tender colour. The picture No. 578, in which St. Bruno 
receives a messenger from the Pope, is of great beauty, espe- 
cially the landscape of mountains and olive trees outside 
the Chartreuse, and the charming figure of the messenger. 
*' At an epoch of decadence, when painting in France only 
•* shed a factitious hght, the pale reflection of the good 
*' traditions which were dying out in Italy, le Soeur knew 
" how to free himself from the academic methods to which 
** his master had at first bound him down, and to keep intact 
*• to the end of his short existence that purity of sentiment 
** which characterises the most noble geniuses of the greatest 
•' days of art." ^ 

Besides these series, he painted manv pictures for private 
persons. For the Churches of Saint Etienne-du-Mont, St. 
Germain TAuxerrois, St. Gervais, and others. And the May 
offering in 1649 for Notre Dame, of St. Paul at Ephesus. 
This and several of the others are now in the Louvre. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Eleven pictures from various Churches. 

Histoire de Cupidon, 591-596. 

Ceiling, Phaeton, 597. 

The Muses and ceiling Ganymede, 598-608. 

Vie de Saint Bruno, 564-587. 

K^union d'Artistes. 

» Villot. 


In England : — 

Holy Family, National Gallery. 

Drawing in Sepia, Art Museum, Nottingham. 

Queen of Sheba, Devonshire House. 
Le Brun, Charles, Painter, Engraver and Architect 
(6. Paris, 1619 ; d. Gobelins, 1690). — Son of a sculptor, Le 
Brun drew from his earliest years; his father placing him 
with Le Bourgignon. At eleven, Chancellor Seguier took 
him into his Hotel, and sent him to Vouet. After this he 
went to Fontainebleau to study the Eoyal collection of 
pictures. At fifteen he painted several remarkable pictures 
for Cardinal Richelieu, which were approved by Poussin. 
His intense activity manifested itself early ; he painted 
without ceasing, engraved a I'eau forte, and modelled in wax. 
In 1642, when Poussin returned to Rome, Seguier sent 
young Le Brun thither with him, giving him a pension of 
200 crowns. After staying there for four years, he returned 
to Paris, stopping on his way at Lyons, where he left several 

In 1647 he painted the Martyrdom of St. Andrew for 
Notre Dame. The next year he took an active part in estab- 
lishing the Academy of Painting and Sculpture. In this 
he occupied all grades ; finally becoming director in 1683. 
In 1649 he worked at the same time as Le Soeur at the Hotel 
Lambert, decorating the great Gallery with the ** Labours of 
Hercules '*. And Fouquet gave him an allowance of 12,000 
francs, besides orders for pictures at Vaux. Fouquet also 
presented him to Mazariu, and Mazarin presented him to 
Louis XIV. The Queen-Mother now ordered a picture for 
her Oratory (now in Louvre). 

1660 was a year of great importance in the painter's life. 
He designed the decorations for the Place Dauphine, on the 
entry of the King and Marie Therese. Colbert in the same 
year appointed him director of the Gobelins — the ateliers 
for all the tapestries, furniture, goldsmith's work, mosaics, 
and marqueterie of the Crown. For all these Le Brun 
furnished the designs, and superintended the execution. 
But further, Le Brun was summoned to Fontainebleau, 


to paint a picture for the King on some subject from the 
Life of Alexander. He chose the ** Family of Darius *'. 
It made his fortune with Louis XIV., who came in nearly 
every day to see how the work progressed, and **was no 
** less satisfied with the intellect, manners, and conversation 
** of the painter, than with the productions of his brush *'. 
The Eling was so charmed with the picture, that he gave 
Le Brun his portrait set in diamonds. And in 1662 ap- 
pointed him his ** premier peintre " ; gave him 12,000 francs 
a year ; ennobled him ; and made him director of his collec- 
tions, with power to buy works of art for them. Four other 
pictures of the Life of Alexander were painted at the Gobelins, 
and are now in the Louvre, the whole series being intended 
for reproduction in tapestry. 

After the fire of 1661, which destroyed the Galerie des pein- 
tures, Le Brun restored the Louvre, and built and decorated 
the Galerie d'Apollon — so called in honour of the ** roi soleil ". 

In 1666 he persuaded the King to found the French 
Academy at Rome, to which the best pupils of the Academy 
of Painting and Sculpture were sent on gaining the *'Prix 
de Rome," to study for three years. And Errard was made 
its first Director. In 1667 he accompanied the King on his 
campaign in Flanders ; and to this time we probably owe the 
magnificent sketch from nature of Turenne, at Versailles. 
It is merely a head, rapidly painted for a tapestry cartoon 
of the meeting of Louis XIV. and Philip IV. But it is a 
chef d'oeuvre that once seen can never be forgotten. 

In 1676 he painted the Chateau of Sceaux, furnishing 
designs for fountains and statues in its park. He also painted 
pictures for the King, decorated the staircase at Versailles, 
and fa9ades of pavilions at Marly. And in 1679 he under- 
took his greatest work, the painting and ornamentation of 
the Grande Galerie at Versailles. It is happily spared 
us, and is one of the most remarkable works in France. 
Seventy-three metres in length and twelve in breadth, the 
ceiling contains a History of the Grand Monarque in thirty 
magnificent compositions.^ 

» See p. 164, 184. 


When Louvois succeeded Colbert as ** surintendant des 
batiments *' in 1683, his jealousy of Colbert extended itself 
to those his predecessor had employed. He therefore set 
up Mignard in opposition to Le Brun, whose works he criti- 
cised with ceaseless acrimony. Though still supported by 
the King, and given fresh rewards and marks of favour, 
Le Brun had not the fortitude to withstand the intrigues of 
Louvois and Mignard. He ceased going to court. And 
falling ill was taken in a dying condition to his house of 
Montmorency at the Gobelins, where he expired on the 
12th of February, 1690. He was buried in the chapel of 
St. Charles, which he had decorated, in the church of St. 
Nicholas au Chardonnet. 

** During the whole time he enjoyed the royal favour, Le 
** Brun exercised a despotic power on Art. Painters, sculptors, 
** decorators, whatever their talent, had to make up their 
** minds only to work from his drawings, or according to his 
** advice.''^ Hence the uniformity of style in works of this 
period. — A period of unity and science, of instruction in 
Art, which is greatly due to the influence of the King, 
Colbert, and Le Bnin, whose ideal of beauty was thoroughly 
in accord. It was not an exalted ideal. But no one can deny 
that it was one of extreme grandeur. If he was a genius of 
second rank, he was a universal one.'-^ In spite of weakness 
of colour, which was red and sombre, heaviness of drawing, 
and a slackness of execution, Le Brun is an eminent artist 
by reason of the inexhaustible fertility and the nobility of 
his conceptions. 

Examples. Twenty-six pictures in the Louvre. Among 
them are : — 

The Family of Darius. 511. 

Passage du Granique. 509. 

Entree d 'Alexandre a Babvlone. 519. 

» ViUot. 

^ " Architect, sculptor, engiuecr, machiuiBt as well as painter, with a 
marvellously poised brain for the composition of immense decorations, the 
Premier Peintre directed the execution of a whole illustration in figures of 
the reign of Louis XIV."— De Nolhac et Perate. 


Versailles : — 

Decorations of the Grande Galerie des Glaces, con- 
taining thirty pictures of the Hi&tor>^ of Louis 
Cartoons for Tapestr}^ — the series of the twelve 
months, or *' Chateaux," by Le Bnin and Van 
der Meulen. 4680-91. 
Portrait of Turenne. 8488. 
In England : — 

Massacre of the Innocents, Dulwich Gallery. 

Hortensia, Birmingham Art Gallers'. 

Judgment of Paris, Bath Art Museum. 

Holy family, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 

Hercules and Diomed, an early work mentioned by de 

Piles, Nottingham Art Museum. 
Le Combat, Buckingham Palace. 
Princesses Antoinette and Louisa of Saxe-Coburg, 
Windsor Castle. 
Bourdon, Sebastien (6. Montpellier, 1616 ; d. Paris, 
1671). — One of the twelve Anciens who founded the Academy, 
Bourdon deserves consideration as a painter of merit greatly 
admired by Sir Joshua Ee3nQolds, who was proud of pos- 
sessing the ** Return of the Ark," now in the National 
Gallery. He, like Le Brun, began painting in his infancy, 
being sent to Paris to study at seven years of age. At fourteen 
he was painting fresco decorations at Bordeaux. He then en- 
listed. But his officer seeing his talent, gave him his release, 
and he went to Eome. M. Hesselin then took him back to 
Paris ; and his small battle pieces, hunting scenes and land- 
scapes were much sought after. After a sojourn in Sweden, 
where he became first painter to Queen Christina, he returned 
to Paris and found himself famous. 

In 1663 he painted the great galler}^ of M. de Breton- 
villier's Hotel in the He Notre Dame. This, the history of 
Phaeton, twenty fathoms in length, has been incorrectly attri- 
buted to Le Brun. He had numerous pupils. His four 
discourses at the Academy were — 1667, on Poussin's Aveugles 
de Jerico. 1668, St. Stephen, by Carraci. 1669, on the six 


parts of the day for the light in pictures. 1671, on the 
Study of the Antique. 

The Louvre has thirteen pictures and four portraits. 

His own portrait. 9. 

Deposition. 71. 

Portrait of Rene Descartes. 78. 

Return of the Ark, National Galler}'. 
CouRTois, Jacques, dit Le Bourgignon (b. St. Hip- 
polyte, Franche-Comte, 1(V21 ; d. Rome, 1676). — Of Courtois, 
better known as Le Bourgignon, it is not easy to speak as 
a French painter. He went to Italy at the age of fifteen. 
And in Italy he spent his whole life, painting chiefly battle 
pieces. Of these there are three excellent small specimens in 
the Louvre. The colour is rich and sober, in places it almost 
amounts to a grisaille in tones of brown. The movement is 
vigorous and full of life, the composition admirable. 

Battle. 154. 

Combat de Cavalerie. 149. 

Marche des TrouT)es. 150. 
Febvre, Claude (b. 1638, Fontainebleau ; d. London,. 
1675). — An excellent portrait painter. He painted the King,. 
Queen, and principal personages at Court. He became a 
member of the Academy in 16()8. Then went to England, 
where his portraits were almost as much esteemed as those 
of Van Dyck. And died in London 1675. Portrait d'un 
mattre et de son ^leve. Louvre. 5*29. 

Fosse, Charles de la (b. Paris, 1686; d. Paris, 1719). — 
A pupil of Le Brun, he went to Rome at the age of twenty- 
two — Colbert, interested in his drawings, giving him a pen- 
sion to enable him to continue his studies. Returning to Paris 
after five years' study in Rome and Venice of the great 
colourists, he first painted a fresco in the Chapelle des 
Mariages at St. Eustache. Then the roof of the Choir and 
the Dome of the Church of the Assumption. He was then 
employed at Versailles, and Meudon, the Maison de Choisy, 
and different Churches in Paris and the provinces. 

In 1678 he joined the Academy, and rose through all the 
grades to Chancellor. But what renders him specially inter- 


English people is, that Lord Montagu, who had 
m while Ambassador in Paris, summoned him to 

to decorate Montagu House. He stayed four 
aaking his preparations. And returned the next 
iging with him Eousseau and Monnoyer to help 
L the architecture and flowers of his paintings. 
i took him eighteen months. William IH. wished 
3main in England and decorate Hampton Court, 
nard being old, Mansart recalled la Fosse to 
lopes of his getting the concession for the decora- 
le Invalides, which Mignard was too old to carry 

Fosse stayed with Mansart on his return, and 
ise sketched all the subjects for this colossal work : 
•nly painted the Dome and the four supporting 
I fresco. This cupola is 56 feet in diameter, and 
ation comprises thirty-eight figures forming three 
be principal one representing St. Louis placing his 
i sword in the hands of Christ. 
;eilings of the Salon d'ApoUon and the Salle de 
; Versailles, are by La Fosse. He also painted 
)f the Chapel, aided by Jouvenet and Ant. Coypel. 
ares by him are in the Louvre. But the decora- 
idontagu House, the Invalides, and Versailles show 

to the greatest advantage. 

OYER, Jean Baptiste (6. Lille, 1634 ; d. London, 
L flower painter of great merit, came to England in 
I La Fosse. He decorated the great drawing-room, 
3ase and other rooms in Montagu House with 
nd fruit. And worked a great deal with Kneller, 
ig flowers into his portraits, 
ve pictures in the Louvre, 
jcorations at Holyrood. 
jcorations at Montagu House. 
iNET, Jean (b. Rouen, 1644; d. Paris, 1717). — 
, whose grandfather taught Poussin the elements of 
came to Paris In 1661. Le Brun employed him at 
;, where he painted some of the decorations of the 
Mars, and of the roof of the Chapel (see La Fosse). 



He became a member of the Academy in 1674, and rose to 
be rector in 1707. He painted the ceiling of the Parliament 
House at Rheims, and other decorations, besides numbers 
of sacred pictures which were greatly sought after for 
Altar pieces. In 1713, his right hand being paralysed, 
he took to painting with his left. And thus painted the 
ceiling of the Parliament House at Rouen, and The Matj- 
uificat in Notre Dame, Paris. 

Eleven of his pictures are in the Louvre. Of these (455), 
the P6che Miraculeuse, gives a good idea of what was then 
admired as a sacred picture. On a huge canvas, a scene 
upon the deck of a fishing vessel at Marseilles or Civita 
Vecchia is portrayed, with the figure of Christ throw^n in. 
By far the finest of these pictures is a portrait (441) of 
** Fagon, premier m^decin de Louis XIV. '\ It is a most 
striking and life-like piece of work, both as to character and 
painting. In England there is a portrait of Madame de 
Maintenon as St. Cecilia, Barnard Castle ; and a Descent 
from the Cross in the Parish Church of Wednesbur^\ 

Les Boulogne — Bon de Boulogne, dit L'Aine ; Louis 
DE Boulogne, dit Le Jeune (6. Paris, 1649 ; d, 1717 ; />. 
1654; d. 1738), — were sons of Louis de Boulogne, also an 
historical painter, and must be noted ; for the two brothers 
and their two sisters, Genevieve and Madeleine, were all mem- 
bers of the Academy. Some of Bon's pictures in the Louvre 
are interesting. (51) ** L'Annonciation '' is graceful, showing 
late Italian tendencies. His reception picture at the Academy 
(53), ** Hercule combat les Centaures,'' is fine in colour and 
in movement. 

Santerre, Jean Baptiste {b. Magny, pr^s Pontoise, 
1650 ; d. Paris, 1717), — entered the school of Bon de 
Boulogne. He experimented on fixity of colours in the 
open air, reducing the number which could be safely em- 
ployed to five. He dried his pictures in the sun ; and only 
varnished at the end of ten years. Santerre worked with 
extreme slowness. Voltaire speaks of him with enthusiasm. 
** II y a de lui des tableaux de chevalet admirables, d'un 
**coloris vrai et tendre. Son tableau d'Adam et Eve est un 


**des plus beau qu'il y ait en Europe." This is somewhat 
exaggerated praise ! But many of his portraits are really 
beautiful works of art. 

Santerre seems to have been an eccentric character.* He 
abandoned portrait painting, on account of the extreme irri- 
tation caused him by stupid remarks on the likenesses. ** He 
"declared he would not henceforward paint anything but 
'* fancy heads, and that he would only copy from his models 
'* such features as pleased him.'' In spite of these singular 
conditions, many people submitted to them. He also 
painted allegoric or mythologic half lengths, which were 
extremely popular. He was received into the Academy 
with the picture of Susanne au Bain (835), now in the 
Louvre, and a portrait of Coypel. But he had an academy 
of his own, of young girls who often served as his models. 
Examples — Louvre : — 
Susanne au Bain. 885. 
Portrait de Femme. 836. 
Portrait de Santerre. 837. 
Versailles : — 

Duchesse de Bourgogne, salle des Gardes de la Reine. 

Le Eegent, Philippe d'Orl^ans. 3701. 
Two portraits of Louise Adelaide d'Orleans, Abbesse 
de Chelles. 3725-6. 
The portrait of the Duchesse de Bourgogne is Santerre's 
chef d*oeuvre, and one of the most charming portraits of the 
whole period. 

LARGiLLifeBE, NICHOLAS (6. Paris, 1656; d. Paris, 
1746). — Although both Largillifere and Rigaud lived till 
the middle of the 18th century, so much of their most 
important work belongs to the reign of Louis XIV., 
that they must be noted in this chapter. At three years 
old Largilliere's father — an Antwerp merchant — took him 
to Antwerp, sending him to London when he was nine 
years old, where the boy stayed twenty months devoting 
himself exclusively to drawing. On his return to Antwerp 
he entered the studio of Antoine Goubeau, a Flemish 


painter of landscapes and fairs. Largilliere was already 
sufficiently accomplished to be able to help his master, 
painting flowers, fish and fruit in his pictures. At eigh- 
teen he left Goubeau and went to England, where he 
worked for four years. Sir Peter Lely received him kindly, 
and employed him to restore some of the great masters, and 
to enlarge others for Windsor ! Charles II. was so delighted 
at his restoration of an ** Amour endomii " that he wished 
to see him, and ordered several pictures from him. He 
finished three : l)ut on account, it is said, of the Catholic 
persecutions, returned to France. Here he painted many 
portraits, among others one of Van der Meulen, who with 
Le Brun made friends with him. Charles II. tried to 
persuade him to return to England. But he found him- 
self too well established in France. Though he painted 
historical pictures, animals, fruit and flowers, his chief work 
was portrait painting. On his reception at the Academy, 
his diploma picture was the portrait of Le Brun, now in the 
Louvre. After the Accession of James II., he returned for a 
short time to England to paint the King and Queen. But in 
spite of exorbitant offers he refused to remain, and returned 
to France. 

Twelve pictures in the Louvre. Of these the most im- 
portant are : — 

Portrait of Le Brun. 482. 

Portrait of Coustou (sculptor). 492. 

President de Laage. 488. 

Un Magistrat. 490. 

Portrait d'Homme. 486. 

Comte de la Ch&tre. 483. 

Largilliere with wife and daughter. 491. 

Portrait d'un echevin. 487. 
This last is a delightful bit of self-important pomposity, 
gloves in hand, in his black robe over crimson velvet. The 
colour in all these portraits is fine, rich and charmingly 
Versailles : — 

The Eegent, Due d'Orlians. 4302. 


Le Peletier, maltre de requetes. 4409. 
Conseiller d'etat Morant. 4410. 
Largilliere painting his Mother's portrait. 4416. 
Chantilly : — 

Mile. Duclos in the role of Ariane ; and two others. 
Madrid : — 

Infanta Anne Victoire, fiancee de Louis XVIII., and 
three others. 
In England : — 

Mme. de I'Aubespine, M. Sedelmeyer. 
Two portraits of Noblemen, Barnard Castle. 
Mme. de Parabere, Mr. Charles Butler. 
RiGAUD, Hyacinthe (6. Perpignan, 1659 ; d. Paris, 
1743). — Eigaud was one of the many artists whose youth 
was adventurous and full of struggles, and whose talent 
and determination triumphed over all difficulties. At eight 
years old he lost his father, Matthias Eigaud, a painter 
and the son of a painter. At fourteen his mother — that 
valiant Marie Serre, whose noble double portrait (784) we 
all know in the Louvre — sent the boy to Montpellier to 
study with Pezet, an inferior painter. Pezet however owned 
fine pictures, and these young Eigaud copied, learning more 
from Eanc, with whom he made friends, than from his 

In 1681 he came to Paris, and followed the classes at 
the Academy. He also painted thirty-three portraits in two 
years. And Le Brun, who saw his portrait of La Fosse, 
advised him to devote himself to this line of painting, instead 
of competing for the Prix de Eome. This advice he followed. 
He copied Van Dyck's portraits, and became intimate with 
Largilliere, and the elder de Troy. But Eigaud had ambi- 
tions, and wished to be received as a historical painter at 
the Academy. The Academy however wished him to enter 
its ranks as a portrait painter, and only yielded in 1700. His 
entrance pictures were the St. Andre, and the portrait of 
Desjardins, (both in the Louvre). He became Eector in 1733. 
In 1709 he was made one of the Noble Citizens of Perpignan. 
And in 1727 Louis XV. gave him the Order of St Michel. 


Ri^aud was a painter of Royalty. He painted portraits on: ^ 
five Kings, all the princes of the blood, and the most dis — = 
tinguished personages of Europe ; producing thirty to fortjr^s^ 
portraits a year, all with his own hand. 

He has seventeen pictures in the Louvre : — 
Portrait of Louis XIV. 781. 
Full length Phihp V. of Spain. 782. 
Marie Sen-e, mere de Rigaud, two heads facing. 784. 
Man and woman, portrait heads, unknown. 789. 
Presentation in temple, small, gorgeous draperies. 780. 
Robert de Cotte, premier architecte du roi. 730. 
J. F. P. de Crequi, due de Lesdiguieres, enfant. 702. 
Cardinal de Polignac, a magnificent portrait, face in 

bad condition. 791. 
At Versailles, Rigaud is grandly represented : — 
Le Due de Noailles. 4800. 
Boileau (in 1706), rephque d'atelier. 4276. 
Martin Desjardins. 3588. 
Mignard, in black, in red chair. 3578. 
Mignard, working, in full dress. 3680. 
Dangeau, grand Maltre (in 1702). 3652. 
Louis XV., enfant; twenty-four copies were made 

of this picture from 1716 to 1721. This is the 

original, painted in 1715. 3695. 
Louis XV. (in 1730). 3750. 
Louis XIV. ; Armand Jean le Bouthillier de Ranee,. 

Abb6 de la Trappe; Jules Hardouin Mansart, 

Louis XIV. (1701), in military dress, with order of 

the St. Esprit, Madrid 
Fenilon, Buckingham Palace. 
Three veiy doubtful portraits, certainly not by Rigaud,. 

but by a very inferior pupil, Dulwich. 


Reign of Louis XIV. — contimicd. 


In the last chapter I showed how the Art of the reign of 
Louis XIV. manifested itself in theory. In this we shall see 
its manifestation in practice — that is to say, in the buildings 
of the time. For Sculpture is mainly used as a decorative 
accessory to the Architecture of the epoque. 

We now reach one of those periodic Classic reactions 
which are landmarks in the history of French Art. But each 
of these revivals of Classic Art has its own character. That 
of the ** Si^cle de Louis XIV." is no longer softened and beauti- 
fied by the daring yet dainty grace, the joyous carelessness of 
the Renaissance. A reign of law and order, of oflBcial and 
aristocratic art, has taken the place of those enchanting 
and spontaneous creations of the earlier Classic revival. 
The men of the Renaissance were unlearned, and dared to be 
themselves. Now everv' one has read his Vitruvius. Nearlv 
everv one has been to Rome. He knows too much ; and at 
the same time not enough. The pedagogue has taken the 
place of the uncultured artist. And the architects of the 
day adopt the severely classic style which they suppose to 
represent the architecture of Imperial Rome. With the 
growing knowledge of and admiration for Classic form as 
evidenced in the literature of Corneille and Racine, an imi- 
tation of Roman Classic architecture was considered the 
most desirable form in architecture. The anachronisms 
we find in it, are not more startling than portraits of Louis 
XIV. in full Roman armour, with an enormous wig. It 
was an imitation. Not a national and spontaneous art. 

But it reflected the tendencies of the time. And as we find 

(161) 11 






all through the history of French Art, the architects oi 
France were sufficiently strong to impress a certain nationa 
character upon it, which distinguishes the ** Style Louis XIV/ 
from that of other nations. 

What this style was at its verj' best, may be seen in th( 
North facade of the Louvre by Le Vau ; and in the Palace o 
Meudon by Hardouin-Mansart. Meudon, ** being withou 
** any pillars or pilasters, avoids all those shams which s< 
** often disfigure the designs of the age. It is impossible t( 
** study this building and the northern facade of the Louvr^ 
" without feeling that this was the true style of the age 
** which if the architects had only persevered in cultivating 
** they might have produced something as beautiful as i 
" was appropriate." ^ 

Increased room was needed for the growing exigencies o 
a magnificent Court. The modern recjuirements of light an< 
spaciousness for splendid assemblies, ceremonies and recep 
tions, were met by the large windows, the lofty ceilings, th 
galleries and saloons of Versailles, the new Louvre, an< 
many another lesser palace. But while the gain was im 
mense within the buildings, the uniformity of ideal withou 
often degenerates into an overpowering monotony. Th 
chief fault of the new buildings of the Louvre and Versaille 
is their want of sky line. The length of Perrault's famou 
Colonnade — the eastern facade of the Louvre — splendi 
though it is, is too great for its height — 565 feet agains 
95. If Perrault's design had been carried out in it 
entirety this would have been avoided. The Domes h 
proposed to place at each end, and the huge grouf 
of statuary upon the pediment in the centre, w^ould ha\ 
broken the monotony of the long hne, and given it heigh 
The same fault is evident to a far greater extent at Ve: 
sailles. Supposing Hardouin-Mansart to have been iiioi 
original and less correct, it is difficult to imagine wht 
glorious results might not have been obtained in that moi 
splendid of Palaces, where unequalled opportunities wei 
given the architect. As it is, though the effect of tl 

' Fcrgusson. 

1643-1715. REIGN OF LOUIS XIY .—continued. 163 

Garden Front at Versailles is grand from its very size, it is 
like the wall of some vast street. It leaves one utterly un- 
moved, save with dismay at thinking what it might have 
been. It is cold, oflBcial, monotonous. One longs to break 
down ; to build up ; to thrust deep openings through those 
stately walls, which would give light and shade, and break 
the long flat line of the balustrade against the sky. One 
yearns for towers or domes — for one of those deep cornices to 
crown the building, which are the glor}' of the Renaissance — 
for the high roofs of Maisons and Meudon. For anything in 
fact to give variety to the splendid monotony of that front of 
1300 feet. But when we look for originality, it is not upon 
the exterior, but in the interior of the buildings of this age 
that we find it. 

Owing to the growing restrictions of space in Paris, 
the outside of the Hotels offered but little inducement for 
decoration. But it was far otherwise within. Here every 
imaginable adornment was lavished upon the great saloons, 
galleries, staircases, vestibules. And nowhere has internal 
decoration been carried to a further point of perfection than 
*t Versailles, where we are oflfered the most splendid examples 
possible of the Louis XIV. or ** Eococo " style. It may be 
all wrong in the eyes of the architectural purist. But for 
sheer magnificence of effect — for actual beauty and richness 
of detail in marbles and painting, in gilded stucco, carved 
wood, superb gilt bronze, on all of which the greatest artists 
of the day did not disdain to work — it cannot be surpassed. 
Take, for example, the Salon de Mars. The modillions of 
the grand golden cornice are empty casques. And in the cov- 
ings of the ceiling are golden trophies, and lovely cupids in 
gilt stucco riding eagles and taming lions. While golden oak 
wreaths frame the paintings of the ceiling by Audran, of Mars 
in his chariot drawn by wolves. Or, again, the Salon 
d'ApoUon, with its ceiling by Lafosse ; and its golden wreaths 
hanging right out from the ceiling, and winged muses of 
extreme beauty, on which the great sculptor Coysevox did 
not refuse to work. 

But all this glory of decorative art culminates in the 


Grande Galerie, dite des GlaceSy and the Salons de la Guerre 
et de la Paix, which form its two extremities. Here decora- 
tion, with one object ever in view — the glorification of the 
King — can scarcely be carried further. Seventy-five metres 
long by 10-50 wide and 18 high, the coved roof represents 
in thirty subjects the history of the Grand Monarque, 
painted under the direction of Le Brun from his own most 
carefully painted designs. Boileau and Bacine composed 
the inscriptions for each of these subjects, which are set in 
carved and gilded sculpture of indescribable richness and 
variety. The great trophies of gilt bronze upon magnificent 
coloured marbles, the twenty-four groups of lovely children 
in gilded stucco along the cornice, are due to Coysevox. 
The capitals of the pilasters, the frames of the Venetian 
mirrors — all the details of ornament — are by the first 
artists of the day. While in the Salon de la Guerre, in 
Coysevox*s immortal has relief, the King, young, radiant, 
triumphant, tramples nations in chains under his horse's 
feet. When we add to the decorations that have survived war 
and revolution, all that has been lost — the statues, vases, in- 
laid tables, carved cabinets, and above all the famous silver 
mobilier made at the Gobelins by the goldsmith Ballin to 
adorn the Gallery — we get an idea of splendour almost un- 
equalled. Most of these treasures are dispersed or destroyed. 
The silver furniture was sent to the mint in 1690, to defray the 
expenses of the war against the League of Augsbourg. Only 
Ballin's bronze vases in the gardens — chef d'ceuvres which re- 
pay the most careful study — and some of the great cartoons 
for tapestry in the museum, in which many of these silver 
works of art are represented, give us some faint notion of 
these vanished glories. 

But there is another example of this style of decoration 
nearer than Versailles. Le Brun had already tried his hand 
on a somewhat similar work, which every visitor to Paris 
knows. In February, 1661, the ** Galerie des rois " at the 
Louvre, as it was then called, was destroyed by fire. The 
King entrusted Le Brun with its reconstruction. Le Vau 
rebuilt it. The two Marsys, Renaudin, and Girardon exe- 

1643.1716. REIGN OF LOUIS XLY.-^canUnued. 165 

cuted the magnificent plaster (stiic) ornaments of the ceiling. 
The panels of the walls were decorated with flowers by 
Baptiste, and divers subjects by BaUin, la Babonnifere, and 
Lfonard Gontier. While Le Brun designed the mytholo- 
gical subjects of the ceiling, reserving for his own hand the 
central compartment, representing the triumph of Apollo 
—a fresh delicate flattery to the King. Every precious 
work of art, modem and antique, was gathered together in 
this marvellous gallery, which we now know as the Galerie 
d'ApoUon, where, says the Mercure <jalant in almost the 
words of the historian of Solomon's Temple, ** gold was the 
" least precious thing ". 

Such were the tendencies of Architecture and decorative 
Art under the ** roi-soleU *\ Without, severely classic ; within, 
the utmost magnificence and luxury of the Rococo style. 


Le Vau, Louis II., son of Louis I. (b. 1612 ; d 1670).— 

The favourite architect of Mazarin, of Fouquet, and of Louis 

XIV. in the early years of his personal government, Le 

Van's reputation was already beginning when in 1640 he 

built the Hotel Lambert on the He St. Louis. ^ In 1653 he 

began the chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte for Fouquet, which 

was finished in 1660. Although at times Le Vau produced 

works of considerable beauty — such for instance as the north 

fa<?ade of the Louvre (see above), and the south pavilion of the 

river front — his imaginative faculty was mediocre. And at 

Vaux this showed itself. ** He sought for effect by means of 

** mere accumulation, and endeavoured to astonish by sheer 

" splendour." Vaux, the abode of the rich financier as well as 

the statesmen, displayed all the contemporary theories — the 

park d la fran^^aise, parterres, vast courts, the Italo-classic 

style of the principal building. ** But it is no longer, as at 

*' Richelieu, the outcome of a settled, well-reasoned convic- 

" tion ; there is on the contrary something factitious, compo- 

'* site ; it would seem that the rules are no longer so thoroughly 

'* believed in.*'^ But Vaux is of considerable importance in 

' See p. 109. * Lemonnier. 


the history of the period. For it fonas a transition betwee 
Lemercier's Richelieu, and the Versailles of Louis XIV. 

In 1054 Le Vau succeeded Lemercier as Architecte d 
Roi. And hke him, he was ordered to continue the works oi 
the Louvre and the Tuileries. To him are due all the build 
ings on the north of the court, and those on the interio 
\x\K>n the east and south, as far as and including the centra 
pavilion. This pavilion, which was of considerable merit 
faced the Cupola of the College des Quatre Nations (now th 
Institute), which according to the instructions left by Mazarir 
Le Vau began across the river in 166*2. Unfortunately L 
Vau did not share Lemercier*s respect for the works of his pr€ 
decessors. For after rebuilding the first floor of the Petit 
Galerie — now the Galerie d'Apollon — he disfigured the firs 
part of the Grande Galerie, by doing away with the arcad 
of the rez-de-chaussee. 

In 1664 he began his works of destruction on the Tuil 
eries, destro^nng de TOrme's spiral staircase, and replacin 
the circular Dome l)y the wretched quadrangular dom 
which existed till 1871. He further mutilated the building 
by modifying the wings of the central pavilion, destroyin 
the roofs with their large windows, to replace them by 
storey of a Corinthian order, surmounted by an attic ; th 
whole set back to preserve the terraces on the garden fron* 
He then pulled down the rich upper part of Bullant*s pavilioi 
replacing it by a Corinthian order with attic and balustrade 
and then finished the corresponding pavilion on the nortl 
and united it with the pavilion de Marsan, of which he wa 
also the author. 

In 1664 he furnished a project for the eastern fa^ad 
of the Lou\Te. This was sent to Italy, and discusse 
by the best architects there, who rejected it with som 
warmth. Bernini was then summoned from Rome. An 
it is fortunate for France that before the foundations wer 
even above ground, Bernini, irritated by the severe criticisi 
his plans encountered, returned to Italy, laden with mone 
and brevets, leaving his favourite pupil Rossi behind, wh 
was soon induced — by what means it is not known — to foUoi 

^^B.1715. REIGN OF LOUIS XTV.—contmued. 167 

liis master, Paris was thus spared the abominable disfignre- 
tuent of such a plan as Bernini's. And in 1667 Le Vau was 
aofain summoned to discuss with Le Brun and Perrault the 
latter's project for the Colonnade of the Louvre. They how- 
ever could not agree. And the King finally chose Perrault's 

Meanwhile, in 1665, Le Vau had been at work ut Ver- 
sailles, where he added two pavilions and an Orangery to 
the old buildings. He also built a number of hotels in 
Paris. In the provinces he constructed the buildings at 
Vincennes, now used as the officers' quarters. The Chateaux 
de Seignelay, du Raincy, and du Saint-Sepulcre near Troyes. 
And in 1668 the enormous works were begun, which were to 
transform the hunting lodge of Louis XIII. into the palace 
of Louis XIV., and the seat of court and government. He 
died at the Hotel de Longueville in October, 1670. 

Perrault, Claude (6. Paris, 1618 ; d. 1688). — Under 
the fine engraving of Perrault by Edehnck, the physician- 
architect is glorified in a quaint quatrain : — 

" II n*est point de secret dans la Nature entidre, 

•' N'y dans les Arts qu'Il n'ayt connu, 
*' Et modeste il n'usa de toute sa Lumi^re 

** Que pour voir non pour estre vu." 

The intelligent face with firm yet sympathetic mouth, gives 
a distinctly attractive impression of the man. Son of Pierre 
Perrault, Parliamentary barrister, Claude studied mathe- 
matics, then medicine, which he practised, and finally archi- 
tecture, for which he had a most pronounced taste. 

When in 1664 Colbert became ** surintendant des Bati- 
ments," he and the King determined to give a definitive shape 
to the various projects and designs for the completion of the 
Louvre. Le Van's plans for the eastern fa<?ade did not seem 
to them worthy of the majesty of the edifice. A model on a 
large scale was made in wood and stucco by Colbert's orders, 
exquisitely finished with painting and gilding. And all com- 
petent architects were called in to examine it, and present their 
plans and suggestions for its completion. None of the plans 
wholly satisfied the King and Colbert. They therefore sent 


to Borne for Bernini, who had just completed the Colonnad 
of St. Peter's. Before Bernini's arrival, however, Claud 
Perrault through his brother Charles, the author of tb 
delightful ContcSy and ** premier commis de la surintendan 
des batiments," sent in his plan to Colbert. It was at firs 
rejected. He then altered it and submitted it to Le Brui 
and Le Vau. But the three were unable to agree. 

Meanwhile, Bernini had returned to Bome, and soo 
Charles Perrault contrived — it is a little doubtful whatn:: 
means were employed — to induce the favourite pupil,««> 
Eossi, to follow him — leaving merely the foundations o 
Bernini's enormous and utterly incongruous building, which 
would have necessitated the destruction of the greater part 
of Le Mercier and Lescot's buildings. 

Colbert now returned to the French schemes, and chose 
two — that of Le Vau, who was now more popular than ever, 
after the defeat of the Italians, and the plan by Perrault. 
After fresh alterations by Perrault, both projects were pre- 
sented to Louis XIV., by Colbert, who favoured Perrault's, 
and therefore recoimnended Le Vau*8, but in such a manner 
as to give his master the honour of choosing the other. The 
King, finding Perrault's design ** handsomer and more 
majestic " than Bernini's, adopted it ; and the work was 
instantly begun. 

Had the scheme been carried out in its entirety, it would 
have been nmch richer and more varied than it is. As it 
was, great difficulty was experienced in joining it on to the 
existing buildings of Le Vau. It was too high and too 
long. So they had to be added to. It overlapped by 36 feet 
at each end. The northern projection was allowed to remain. 
But in order to bring the southern angle into line, a whole 
new front along the river face — the existing river front — was 
added to Le Van's fine fa^*ade, as far as the Petite Galerie. 

In 10(57 the main work of the Colonnade was finished. 


But the pediment was not placed until 1674. The works 
were all carried out under the direction of d'Orbay, Le Van's 
son-in-law. The river face was finished in 1680. But it was 
not covered in, and Le Van's domes showed behind the new 

1643-1716. REIGN OF LOUIS XIV .^-cotUinued. ' 169 

buildings. There was no sculpture, and the roofless build- 
ings remained in this condition till 1755, like some palace 
stricken with sleep by the enchanter's wand in one of Charles 
Perrault*s Contes, All money, all energy, had been diverted 
from the Louvre to Versailles. 

In 1668 Perrault drew up plans for the Observatoire and 
its great staircase, finished in 1675. And in 1669 competed 
with Le Brun and Le Vau for the designs of the Arc de 
Triomphe for the place du Tr6ne. His plans were chosen ; 
and he began the work in 1670. But it was only com- 
pleted as far as the pedestals of the columns. The rest, 
which was in plaster, fell into ruin; and the whole thing, 
which was engraved by Sebastien Leclerc, was swept away 
in 1710. 

Perrault contributed certain portions to various churches, 
but these have been mostly destroyed. The Colonnade of 
the Louvre, and the Observatoire are his greatest titles to 
fame. About 1668 he was made Architecte du Eoi ; and elected 
a member of the Academy of Architecture in 1673. He died 
in 1688. He published a VUnwitcs in 1674 ; and Uordonnance 
des cinq especes de Colonnes in 1683. 

Marot, Jean I., Architect and Engraver (6. Paris, 1619 
or 1620 ; d. 1679), — was the son of Girard Marot, a cabinet 
maker. He built in Paris, the front of the Church of the 
Feuillantines ; the Hotels de Passort ; de Mortemart, rue St. 
Guillaume ; de Monceaux ; and the Maison Eoland, rue de 
Cliry. In the provinces, the Chateaux of Toumy (Yonne), 
de Lavardin (Maine), and the fountains (bairn) of the 
Chateau de Maisons. With Lemercier he made a project 
for the completion of the Louvre. This was rejected. But 
it was engraved by him, as well as his other works. In 
1669 he made a contract for four grottos at the Chateau of 
Saint Germain — two for the apartments of Mademoiselle de 
la Valliere, and two for those of Mme. de Montespan — at a 
cost of 4000 hvres. 

Marot left a considerable work as an engi'aver. His 
chief publications are Le Magnifique Chateau de Richelieu (see 
Lemercier). U Architecture Frayigaise, in which his son Daniel 


(Collaborated — it only appeared in 1727. And Le Petit Maroi 
published in 1764. Daniel Marot left France for Holland 
and attached himself to William Prince of Orange, layinj 
out the gardens of the Hague and Loo; and when th( 
Prince succeeded as William IH. to the English throne 
Marot went to London and laid out the gardens of Hamptoi 

Bruant, or Bruani), Liberal (6. about 1635 ; rf. Paris 
1697). — Son of Sebastien Bruant and brother of Jacques I 
Liberal Bruant belonged to a family of architects. In 1661 
he was already architecte du roi. And in 1670 succeede< 
his father as ** maltre general des ceuvres de charpenterie di 
roi/' receiving from 1671 to 1680, 1600 livres a year, as wel 
as 500 as architect. 

He made the plans and drawings for the Hotel de 
Invalides, of which the first stone was laid in Novembei 
1671. And also for the Church of the Invalides, of whicl 
he built the Choir and Nave. The north faQade and th 
Dome were built by Mansart, who also made alterations ii 
the plan of the buildings. In the same year he fumishe 
the first plans for the Place Vend6me, and began the work 
there. But here again Mansart succeeded him in 1685, whe: 
all the plans were changed. In 1662 Bruant furnished th 
plans and designs for Richmond Palace in England, for th 
Duke of York. He was made a member of the Academv c 
Architecture at its foundation in December, 1671. And i 
his acte de d^ces in 1694 is qualified as escnyer, conseillo 
sccrdtaire du roi et architecte ordinmre des batiments de s 

Mansart, Jules B. Hardouin {b. Paris, 1646 ; d, Marlj 
1708). — Son of Raphael Hardouin, painter in ordinary, an 
Marie Gauthier, niece of Francois Mansart,^ J. B. Hardoui 
studied with his uncle and took his name. And on Franvoi 
Mansart 's death in 1661, he worked upon the Hotel d 
Vendome under Liberal Bruant. 

It was in 1672 that the King remarked him at work i 
the Place Vend6me. His father presented him, and he aske 

* See chapter viii. 

^^3-1715. REIGN OF LOUIS Xl\\—contimicd. 171 

for permission to compete for the plans of Clagny for Mme. 
^e Montespan. Mansart's plans were chosen, but he did 
Hot begin Clagny (now destroyed) until 1676. Mansart now 
Ijegan his works of destruction, starting wnth the Palace of 
iSaint Germain-en-Laye, where he made profound altera- 
tions. Five enormous pavilions replaced the charming 
tourelles of Pierre de Chambiges, and he also built the 
great terrace on the north. These works went on till 
1682. In the next year, 1675, Mansart was admitted to 
the Academy, and appointed Architecte du Eoi. 

In 1678 he finished the petit chateau^ the mfliicujeriey and the 

house of la Quintinie, head gardener, at Versailles. And in 1679 

hegan the great works of the Palace of Versailles, the fa(;ade 

-on the garden being finished in 1680. The grand escalier, 

i;he grand commun, and the stables were finished in 1685. 

The Orangerie was built in 1688. And the Grand Trianon, 

'with the exception of the Colonnade, in the same year. The 

original Chateau of Louis XIII. was preserved — the brick and 

«tone hunting lodge built by Lemercier. This now forms 

the central part of the Palace, known as the Cour de Marbre. 

But it is completely enveloped and overshadowed by Man- 

sart's enormous buildings. Some extremely interesting 

pictures preserved in the Museum, and engravings by 

Israel Silvestre, enable us to follow the successive trans- 

fonnations which the Chateau and the Park underwent. 

Le Vau had been working upon Versailles since 1669, 
when Louis XIV. determined to make it the principal 
Eoval residence. And from 1678 Mansart continued these 
important constructions, destroying, or modifying, as was 
his wont, much of his predecessor's work. It was in 
1682 that the King definitively transferred the seat of 
government to Versailles. But notwithstanding the presence 
of the Court and the government, the building went on 
\^ithout cessation. 

In 1684 Le Van's original Grotte 4'Apollon was demohshed, 
to make room for the new north wing. The famous groups 
by Girardon of the *' Eoi-SoleiF' served by nymphs, and 
the horses of his chariot stabled below — were moved to their 


pnessLS ^yfs^uOiL Btx^ the " Eosqaet " in wfakh they stand 
w&s m^dtt <& Laii*ired veAis laser from Hubert Bobert" 
designs. Ic was ac^mt 161^) that the exterior of the Chatea 
awioirueii zk^ torm. we know. The Chapel was began b 
Mazisart in 1*5^. the f<:>andations having been laid te 
vcars before : and was Snished ot Robert de Cone in 171C 

Man^arts activitv h-iwever was not confined to Versailles 
In 1*>*'J he recoils the fat.^e and two ^^alleries of th 
Chateau de Ihknipierre. This maj^ficent building ha 
r.*r<rG rtsttjreii by :rs 'i-wner. the doc de Luynes.) He begai 
Marly f^ir th*: Kicur. wh*:* als*3 ennobled him in this sam 
vear onder the title ot C^rmte de Sa^-nne. From 1684 t 
l^jV) he built Notre I>anie de Versailles. The Maison de 
Lazaristes. Be*jan the Pont Koval. Built St. Cvr. Th 
Place des VictO'ires. And undert*.»ok the building, on nei 
plans, of the Place Vendome. which had been begun b 
Bruant. These two Places are the best examples of Mar 
sart's invention, which bei.'ame, as I have said, so popula 
in all European cities : namely, the construction of a whol 
series of Hotels on a uniform plan, which causes them t 
h'Xjk like one izreat Palace. " Having at Versailles reduce 
*• the architecture of a palace to that of a street, he nej 
*• tried to elevate the architecture of a street to that of 
•• palace." ^ This deception did not find favour with Frenc 
architects, and was seldom if ever attempted in Frenc 
cities after the reign of Louis XIV. 

Mansart seems to have l»een an excellent man of busine$ 
as far as his o\%ti fortunes were concerned. For in 1687 1: 
sold his position as contr^^ller of the Boyal buildings to h 
cousin, Jacques Jules Gabriel. His salar}' in 1691 wt 
raised to 12,000 livres. And in 16V>^), when he was mac 
surintendant des Batiments in place of the Marquis c 
Villacerf — a position already held by Coll>en and Louvois- 
he sold it within two months to Francois Blondel, couucilk 
to the King, for 130,000 livres. 

The most important works of the last fifteen years of h 
life were : — 

' Fer^ussou. 

^ '^^'iS.lTlS. REIGN OF LOUIS XJY .—contmued. 173 

The great Gallery for the due d'Orleans, on the spot 

^here the Theatre FranQais now stands. The Portail of 

the Invalides, and the Dome which was finished in 1707. 

The Chateau de Meudon, which he rebuilt for the Dauphin, 

having already made alterations there for Louvois. The 

lower part of the Cascade of St. Cloud, and the grand 

staircase of the Chateau. In 1700 he built the Chateau 

<ie Boufflers (Aisne) ; and his own Hotel in the rue de la 

T^ompe at Versailles ; having the year before built himself 

a. Hotel in Paris (rue des Tournelles). He also made 

journeys into the provinces, such as his visit to the due 

<ie Lorraine at Nancy in 1701, for the beautifying of 

"Nancy and Lun^ville. And besides Hotels in Paris, gave 

plans for numberless buildings all over France, and even 

in Spain and Piedmont. Saint-Omer, Lyons, Chateau 

Gaillon, Eouen, and countless Chateaux testify to his 

\)oundle88 activity. While Chambord, alas ! bears the mark 

of his destructive energy. For he rebuilt the principal 

entrance, and furnished plans for the two avaiit-corps of the 

facade of the Place-des-Armes, on whose foundations the 

bamwiks of the Mar^chal de Saxe were built at a later 


Le N6tre (b. Paris, 1613; d. Tuileries, 1700).— Any 

study of the artists who contributed to the splendours of the 

epoque of Louis XIV. would be incomplete without mention 

of the celebrated Le Notre. Architecte et dessinateur du jardin 

<ln roi, he was the son of Jean le Notre, the King's chief 

gardener. Le N6tre was well known on both sides of the 

Channel. He began by designing the park and gardens of 

Vaux-Ie-Vicomte for Fouquet, and made the grotto and 

cascades. These works introduced him to the notice of 

Louis XIV., who took him into his service. The parks and 

gardens of Versailles, which had been begun under Louis 

Xni. by Boyceau, were now entrusted to Le Notre, who 

laid them out much as we see them now; though some 

alterations and additions were made in the eighteenth 

century under the direction of Hubert Kobert. Le N6tre 

also had charge of the arrangements of the parks and 


gardens of the other Royal Palaces, and created the gardens 
of the Tuileries. He laid out numbers of gardens and parks 
in France, England, Prussia and Italy, thus leaving his mark 
in the ** French Garden " that became so popular in the greater 
part of Europe for nearly a century. Already councillor of 
the King, and controller-general of buildings, arts and manu- 
factures in France, the King ennobled him and gave him 
the cross of Saint Michel in 1675. Le Notre died at the 
Tuileries, aged eighty-seven, and was buried in the Church 
of Saint-Roch close by. 


Angitier, Francois, dit L'Aine (1()04-12 (?), 1(5(59); 
Michp:l (1(514, 1(586). — The documents relating to the 
early history' of Fran(,*ois Anguier are not satisfactory. He 
studied mider Simon Guillain ; and it is said that he spent 
two years in Italy. The date of his birth is quite undeter- 
mined, some giving it as 1604, some as 1612. He however 
first appears in France about 1(545, with a well-established 
reputation ; as he was at once entrusted with important 
works. These were the tombs of Henri II., de Montmorency^ 
beheaded in 1632, of Jacques-Augustin de Thou, of the due 
de Chabot-llohan, of the Cardinal de B^rulle, etc. 

In 1652 he was w^orking on decorations in the Louvre 
for the Queen-Mother. Francois Anguier belonged to the 
Maitrise, and ahvays refused to enter the Acade^ny. But 
though ** he w-as not an Academician, he is very academic ". 
He was willing to use the whole mythologic and al- 
legoric apparatus of the day — Hercules and Fames — his 
soldiers all dressed in Roman costumes, while they fight 
modem battles — as in the monument to Henri de Longue- 
ville (Louvre). In fact ** he is as decorative, sometimes as 
** theatrical as anyone else of the time '*. In the fine 
tomb of Montmorency — with its two Corinthian orders, 
its sarcophagus, its Hercules and Alexander, Montmo- 
rency dressed as a Roman leaning on a Classic trophy, 
the duchess in a conventional dress — we are very far away 
from reality, and from all real sentiment. It is ** religious. 

16431715. REIGN OF LOUIS XIV .—continued. J-TJn^ 

art," after the manner of Vouet or Bourdon. In the Rohan- ^ 

Chabot tomb (Versailles) he has chosen the nude for the 

principal personnage. But you feel that this is not the 

penetrating naturalism of certain of the funeral monuments 

of the Renaissance, but the nude of the model. In one 

of Anguier*s works, however, we get a most remarkable 

departure from this academic treatment. In the lovely, 

kneeling figure of Gasparde de Ch4tre, second wife of de 

Thou (Louvre), the sculptor has frankly cast aside all 

mannerisms, and given himself honestly and wholly to 

reality. And thereby he has produced one of the most pure 

and charming works of art of the century. 

Michel Anguier is more celebrated than his brother. His 
life was longer, as he only died in 1686, thus belonging 
to the most brilhant portion of the reign of Louis XIV. 
He spent ten years in Rome ; and to Rome his work owes 
much. When about 1652 he returned to Paris, he brought 
with him casts from the Laocoon, the Wrestlers, etc. 
The lengthy list of his works from 1652 to 1660, show 
that he was held in high esteem, and that he worked with 
remarkable facility. We find him at Saint Mand^ and later 
at Vaux, with Fouquet — at the first Chateau sculpturing a 
Charity, the likeness of Mme. Fouquet and her two children 
— ** pour marquer la tendresse et I'union qui regnaient dans 
"cette famille". 

He was a favourite of Anne of Austria. And in 1655 he 
contributed the sculptures to the decoration of her apartments 
on the ground floor of the Petite Galerie of the Louvre, Roma- 
nelli and Pietro Sasso doing the paintings and the stucco work. 
These apartments are now the Galeries des Antiques, and 
their decoration merits close attention, for — with the Galerie 
d'Apollon — they are intact ; and are as admirable examples of 
the pagan ideal of the decorative art, as Mme. Fouquet and 
her children, or the Montmorency tomb, are of the religious 
art of the period. After 1660 Michel still worked for Anne 
of Austria, not at the Louvre, but at Val-du-Grace. To his 
chisel also are due the high reliefs on the Porte St. Uenis, 
and some of the decorations at Versailles. A very fine little 


Hercules and Atlas in terra-cotta by Michel Anguier is ncr^w 
in the Louvre ; and a graceful Ainphitrite. 

The An^iers exercised a considerable influence on tfce 
Sculpture of the period, first by their own works, then throu^rh 
their pupils, among whom were Regnaudin, Van Cle\"€. 
Girardon, and the Marsys. It has been said they form tJie 
transition l>etween the first and second halves of the centurV *. 


belonging to the time of Anne of Austria, Mazarin, and tin^ 
early days of Le Brun. And they may well be looked on ^^ 
the masters of the decorative school of sculpture. 
Examples. Fran<,*ois Anguier : — 

Monument of Henri de Longueville, Louvre. 
Tomb, Jacques-Auguste de Thou, Louvre. 
Gasparde de la Ch&tre, femme de de Thou, Louvre. 
Tomb, Henri Chabot, due de Bohan, from Church o ^ 

the Celestins, Paris, Versailles. 
Henri II., due de Montmorency, in the Chapel of the^^ 
Lycre, Moulins. 
Alichel Anguier : — 

Decorations, Galeries des Antiques, Louvre. 
Hercules and Atlas, terra-cotta. Louvre. 
Amphitrite, Louvre. 

Trophies in high relief, Porte St. Denis, Paris. 
GuERix, GiLLES (6. 1606; d, 1678).— Though Gilles 
Guerin is in some degree one with the naturalistic movement 
of the Louis XIII. epoque, yet he belongs to both reigns, and 
partakes of the tendencies of both. An artist of very varied 
qualities — strong, and with undoubted originality — his merits 
have not been fully appreciated by posterity. In 1653 he 
executed for the city of Paris, a statue of the young Louis 
XIV. trampling the Fronde under foot. The marble statue 
is now at Chantilly. The only cast that was ever made of 
it is at Versailles. But long before this he had been employed 
by Eichelieu and Mazarin. 

Among his works are the Mausoleum of Henri II. de 
Cond6. for the chapel of Valery en Gatinois. Part of the de- 
corations at Maisons. The four figures of the children who 
hold up the curtains of the alcove in the King's bedroom, 

1643-1715. REIGN OF LOUIS XIW .--continued. 177 

Louvre, are also his. So are the decorations of the Chateaux 
of Chevemy, du Fayel, and de Guermande. His portraits 
are fine. The kneeling figure of Charles, due de Lavieuville 
(d. 1653) from the Church of the Minimes, now in the Louvre, 
is of great merit. 

GiRARDON, FRANgois (6. Troyes, 1628; d.ni5). — Francois 
Girardon, destined to become the most docile interpreter of Le 
Bran's ideas, the chief of the pleiad of decorators of Versailles, 
in his earliest works shows his origin. He was a Cham- 
penois, son of Nicholas Girardon, a master-founder of Troyes. 
But once in Paris he soon shook oflF his provincialisms. 
An order from Chancellor Seguier for his chateau of St. 
Li^baut near Troyes, brought him rapidly to the front. He 
then obtained leave to go and study in Eome. On his re- 
turn in 1652, he quickly became Le Brun's homine de cmifiunce, 
the sculptor who could most sympathetically translate the 
master's ideas. To this period is due the tomb of Jer6me 
Bignon, the King's librarian. Girardon then went back to 
Rome to collect works of art. On his return he was con- 
sidered an important and thoroughly established artist. 

In 1665 we find him employed with the two Marsys and 

Renaudin, upon the magnificent stucco sculpture of the ceiling 

in the Galerie d' ApoUon. To stimulate their zeal, a prize of 300 

golden crowns is oflFered them, which is awarded to Girardon. 

In 1669 he is commissioned to execute the colossal bronze 

of the King for the Place Vend6me. This was melted down 

at the Revolution, and only the little bronze model remains 

in the Louvre. It is marked by an imposing nobility. But 

Girardon did not venture to depart from the calm of his 

model, the Marcus-Aurelius in Rome. His two most famous 

works are the Mausoleum of Richelieu at the Sorbonne, which 

was erected in 1694 ; and the Rape of Proserpine in front of 

the Colonnade, Versailles, 1699. His most delicate chef 

d'oeuvre perhaps, is the has relief of nymphs on the 

Fontaine de Diane. 

Among his other works at Versailles are the famous group 
in marble of the Bains d'Apollon, where at the entrance of 

her palace, the six attendant nymphs of Thetis serve the 



San god when he retnms to rest each evening, while t 
horses of his chariot are stabled in a grotto below. It 
sculptured in 1672. and "' le roi soleil '* poses as Apollo. Th 
charminor fontaine de la Pyramide, with its tritons, dolphin 
and cray-fish scnlptnred in lead, is also Girardon's wor 
It is uncertain whether the model of an equestrian status -- 
of Louis Xr\". in 2nnc, in the CEil de Boeuf. Versailles, is du^* - 
to Girardon or Desjardins. With slight variations, it recall^^ 
the latter artist's statue for the city of Lyons, and Girardon'^ 
famous statue of the Place Venddme. But the Kin g ha^s=- 
grown sad and old, the face spread, the eyes encircled withr^ 
wrinkles. There is also a fine bust of Lamoignon in terra — ' 
cotta by Girardon. at Versailles. 

The Musetmi of Troves owns some of his best works : — 
Marble has relief from the tomb of Mme. de Lamoig- — 

Bust of Louis XIV. (marble). 
Bust of Marie Ther^se (marble). 

Bas relief (bronze), St. Charles communiant les pesti- 

f^res, from Church of St. Nicholas du Chaxdon- 

net, Paris. 

A crucifix for his native country has remained the 

acknowledged model for crucifixes in wood, bronze and 


Mausoleum of Louvois by Girardon and Van Cleeve, 
now in the Church of the Civil Hospital, Ton- 
Bust of Louvois, Louvre. 
Of the Mausoleum to his wife only a very mediocre Pieta 
remains in the Church of Ste. Marguerite, rue St. Antoine, 

Desjardins, Martin {b, 1640; d, 1694). — Desjardins, a 
man of considerable power and held in high esteem, may 
be considered Girardon's rival in talent and reputation. 
Much of his admirable work was done in bronze or gilded 
lead. Therefore much was melted down at the Eevolution. 
This was the fate of the full length statue of the King in 
gilded lead, ordered by the due de la Feuillade at his own 


^643-1716. REIGN OF LOUIS XlW^continwd. 179 

cost for the place des Victoires. The six has reliefs in 

t>Tonze from its pedestal are now in the Louvre. They 

commemorate the Treaty with Spain. The Passage of the 

Bhine. The Conquest of Franche Comt^, 1674. The peace 

of Ximeguen, 1678, etc. And **show a rare elegance of 

•*hand and happy judgment in the composition". Four 

slaves in bronze, which were grouped round the pedestal, 

are now let into the facade of the Hotel des Invalides. 

XDesjardin's statue was inaugurated with great pomp in 

1.686, preceding Girardon's for the place Vend6me by twelve 

years, and surpassing it in vigour of quality. Previous to 

this he had made the fine equestrian statue of the King 

for the Place de Bellecour at Lyons. Some authorities 

consider (see Girardon) that the model in zinc in the (Eil 

de Boeuf (2194) at Versailles is a reduction of the Lyons 


Desjardins was Rector of the Academy, and ** Sculpteur 
du roi,'* at his death in 1694. His bust of Ed. Colbert, 
Marquis de Villacerf,^ and the admirable bust of Mignard, 
of firm and yet impetuous execution, show that he knew 
when necessary how to treat the portrait with magisterial 

Examples — Louvre : — 

Portrait bust, Pierre Mignard, 654. 

Portrait, Ed. Colbert, Marquis de Villacerf, 653. 

Six has rehefs from Statue of Louis XIV., Place des 

Marble has relief, Hercules crowned by Glory. 
Four slaves, bronze, Fagade of Hotel des Invalides. 
Versailles : — 

Bronze bust (?), Chambre du roi, 2166. 

Bas relief, plaster, Justice holding a medallion of 

Antoine d'Aubray, from the Oratoire, 477. 
Model of Equestrian Statue Louis XIV. (?), 2194. 
Diane chasseresse. Cabinet de Diane, Gardens. 
At Versailles, in a fine portrait of Desjardins by Eigaud 
(3583), the sculptor presents himself with " superb assurance, 

> This bast was long attributed to Coysevox on account of its beauty. 

■ zlrz th^yt tzL kZ}i *7r:c:£ irr rj-r im?:'^!. dnped in a s^ 
":\.Zrz :j:rkk. tI:.:! >b:Trf ii> Iwie j-iIIat, die rigrht hai 
"\-z\h, — z :ci k j-.-j.iiiSil rrrrLTir £iji besii. ihe left on his hi 
" b:l-ii=^ & I**!*^' "^"-^ ' >i:f^v:h Ir ibe biftckinrv'kiind. ac^aiD 
"zzri- -z^rzznr cVt. t^^ ui ."--ir-ifiiT .f the Plioe des Yictoir 


Prrrr. P:z?j=^ : Mics^f..-<, !-±I: i. lt59H.— Pier 
P::;-r^:. i :rz^ S: -Tbrrri-rr. rszVterkn:. ruiphadc, proud. 
is-ilJT lAkfc ^ th-r r«rr?*:zif ::fcr-:- :: a11 Fieneh Scnlptu 
izL :r>e 17:h ^erinrTr. B::: ::r^r wh: e?:€em the mventi^ 
fa^^:IITT ani ^ smoere "..vr :: nsiTirv. as higher qnaliti 
thai: nifjne exrci::Tr p.Trrr ir-.: :A>:e f:r ihe mise en seen 
C:t^t:x ix-.ll rank higher :r,an h:> il'jusiri^as rival. Ai 
C:t^t:x was a pTirely Frviio!: ar-:>:. whiie Pa jet was tl 
•irv::^ie cf I:al:aii:>ir.. I: hr >h,^y3t himself free from I 
Bm::. :: was rniv :^" rail ■:;n.^er :hr over-aiasierinir tvrani 
of Beniiiii. To rhe end :f his rvsilc'ss life. Pujet iemain< 
the p'rc*vincia3 — independen:. disinterested, intolerant of tl 
sen-ile neeessirie? of the ::fe <^i Pans and the Conrt. 

A: Marseilles vonns: Pajet was apprenticed to a build 
of iralleys. and was soon employed on their omamentatio 
The fashion of the day was pomiH>ns figures in ^Ided wo< 
on poop and prow. These were mostly made at Touloi 
and artists of considerable reputation worked upon them, 
luav be seen in the Musee de la Marine. Work beinc^ sla^ 
at Marseilles, young Pujet set out on foot to Genoa. th< 
to Florence, and then to Bome. Here rmfonunatelv he h 
in \%"ith the mannerist. Pierre de Cortone ; and learnt fro 
him the elements of decadent drawing, and deplorable fc 
mulas. This left an indelible mark on the young arti$ 
which Jean de Bologne and Bernini were to complet 
Happily there was good stuff underneath : and in mai 
cases Pujet rose high above the influences of the Romi 
and Bolognese schools. 

In n*43 Pujet was back at Marseilles, working at t] 
carving oTgalleys for his daily bread, and painting. Thr 
years later he is again in Rome, and this time measures ai 

■ De Nolhac, Versailles. 

1643-1715. REIGN OF LOUIS XIY .—continued. 181 

draws from the antique. In 1649 he is once more in Toulon, 
carving in wood and stone, and painting very bad Holy 
pictures. But at last he gets his opportunity in an order for 
the Cariatides supporting the balcony of the Hotel de Ville, 
Toulon. A new idea of plastic art seizes him. He turns 
his cariatides, struggling under the weight of the balcony — 
into the porters on the quays who he has watched panting 
beneath their loads. They are magnificent in force and in 
reality. Had he only kept to such an ideal of work, what a 
new and splendid line of art might have opened before him. 
But Italy had laid too strong a hand on his talent, and tempted 
him back to the decadent Italian ideas of the 17th century. 

Two works however, are in the same line of thought as the 
cariatides — Hercules overcoming the Hydra, and La Terre, 
for the Chateau de Vaudreuil. He had been enticed to Paris 
by M. Girardon, who carried him off to Normandy to execute 
these two important works. The Hercules, which was 
supposed to be lost, was found some years ago, broken and 
buried in the park ; and is now in the Mus^e de Eouen. 

Fouquet, enthusiastic over these works, would have 
divers groups for Vaux. And he despatched Pujet to work at 
them at Genoa — notably the Hercule Gaulois (now in the 
Louvre). Here again we get no God, but sheer brute force. 
It is inferior to the Hercules of Vaudreuil, and far inferior to 
the figures at Toulon ; showing the growing influence of 
Italian formulas. Seriously affected by his patron Fouquet's 
disgrace, Pujet settled down for some years at Genoa, which 
Were the happiest of his life. Here he sculptured the colossal 
St. Sebastien and St. Ambrose for Sta. Maria-in-Carignano, 
ftnd a Conception for the Brignoli, which is now in the 
Albergo dei Poveri. 

For ever restless, Pujet wanders back to France. He 
Worked at Marseilles, Aix, Toulon ; and Colbert attached him 
to the Arsenal of Toulon as decorator of War Vessels. It 
has been commonly supposed that Pujet invented this style 
of decoration. This, however, is erroneous. It had come 
into fashion long before; and was soon abandoned after 
England gave it up. 

■^Tvj— 3^*" 'W T^ ^i •; . — S' ^"^yr 

IrJi'.Cit Kill llir * e'^.LTTifHr Kill lTi:»t?S:i£S. 3:r V€ESAiij€S.< 

tr»cij*^ *2i.ii.iiiiksiL te ii* vit? ixLJT j:ns>5fred % pro- 
---Zi'j^L tt!i-;:c'c r .jL'tir: rffTLiei i: 7*7 Im zzmrt lijkC 6fM) 

i-jrr zr/rjz Tti itT.^::: ir «!- Tiizj-c :t ica i^: Lie Hatpc, the 

-■'T^ Ti-f TTkr n. l''.>r I :_~:»=r: i*ii ii-rc ibf jrar tief ore. 
Lrr i-nz.- t!Ij:-' L't-iti tttJi ijjr "C"-iriL Trriu.r"::saeiic;aI:T to 
p-^rrc ,^'i ti-r Z_i^ :-^ .h-'fe.i it T>=iij";hr: — ibe Fe^c-iis and 


;;,r >_-rXii.:r:r ill-: li'-j^cei -stks rz^iiei, Ac-i ifciez: 10 Paris 
.r. I'Ar^. T:-- fiz- -^ rikr rt:lt: Li? reez: :*llrii " ihe nimnph 

Kii'rri.r L»T^-hi:r::x. "Lii j»:»j.^<t!.7<ei ks zi::c:h nrfi as vitrour 
" ar.': v/.-^-ivr — '.:iiL:::ts " w^iici. lis work atonnds — he 

• ^onii LiTc jier:ie:Te5 'r«ef :re eTer he :.->;k his loci in hand 

• iha; L:s %t;}.-^:^ T^as ice :f ihe sirar^esi thai could be 
*' ';}y>s^i: f',r s-cT^lf iiire. Ir ih:> niass :f men, amis, horses, 
" aud ever. i:i:ld:r^'5, he has fcr^otien :ha: he could not 
" jfjiroduce the iLiost essential actor — ^ihat ray of simlicrht 
" which Alexander intercepts, and without which the com- 
** fK/siiion has no meaning. " It is, however, a very fine and 
vii.forous piece of work. 

P^xairiples — LouNTe : — 

Perseus and Andromeda. 

Milo of Crotona. 

Alexander and Diogenes (has relief). ' 

Hercule Gaulois. 

Hercule de Vaudreuil, Musee de Rouen. 

I't'HUi de Milan (relief), Marseilles. 

Mij^lallion of Louis XIV., Musee de Marseilles. 
TliiH latUjr in a magnificent work, only surpassed as a portrait 
of i\n*. King by tbo wax by Benoist, at Versailles. 

Ht. HubaHtien and St. Ambrose, Sta. Maria-in-Cariir- 
nano, (lenoa. 

('on<;i«ption, Albergo dei Poveri, Genoa. 

^^1716. REIGN OF LOUIS XIV .—continued, 183 

CoYSEVOX, Antoine (pronounce Coezevau) (b, Lyons, 
1640; d. Paris, 1720). — A Lyonnais, robust, fearless, enter- 
prising. In Antoine Coysevox we find the solidity of the 
£urgundian united to the enterprise and animation of the 
southerner. He not only displayed the fine intelligence of 
the artist, the marvellous skill of the practitioner, but in 
the fullest sense of the word he was an upright man. ** It 
" would be difficult to find a nobler life, a career better 
"employed, and a more entire professional dignity."^ 

At seventeen Coysevox was already in Paris, completing 
his artistic education in the studio of Lerambert, one of 
Guillain*s best pupils. There he remained for ten years. 
In 1666 he married Lerambert*s niece, who died a year 
after her marriage. And in the certificate of her death it is 
stated that Coysevox had that year been appointed Sculpteur 
du rot. In the same year, 1667, after working at the Louvre 
he was sunmioned to Saveme by the Cardinal de Furstenberg, 
to decorate his sumptuous palace. This was destroyed by 
fire in 1780. But we know that Coysevox contributed 
figures, friezes, and ornaments of the grand staircase. In 
1671 he returned to Paris with a brilliant reputation. Le 
Brun was at the apogee of his power; and the young 
master was already on intimate terms with him, as is shown 
by the bust of Le Brun, which served as Coysevox 's recep- 
tion work when he entered the Academy in 1676. In 
this year he returned for a time to Lyons; and thought 
of remaining there as Director of the new School of Design, 
founded under the patronage of the Paris Academy. It was 
probably at this moment that he executed the lovely Vi^rge 
de la rue du Bat-d' Argent, now in the Church of St, Nizier. 
Here also he married his compatriote, Claude Bourdiet, in 

Le Brun, however, persuaded him to return to Paris. 
He obtained him lodgings in the Gobelins ; and entrusted 
him with important works at Versailles between 1677 and 
1685. Here Coysevox showed a prodigious activity. To 
him are due the decorations of the Salon d'Apollon, the 

^ Gonse. 


Salon de la Guerre, and the Galerie des Glaces. The 
twenty-four exquisite groups of children along the cornice in 
the latter, and the matchless ** chutes de trophees ** in gilt 
bronze on marble, which constitute ** the most magnificent 
** decorations in the world," were all, if not actually executed 
by his hand, carried out under his direction. To find anything 
to compare with his has relief in stucco of the triumphant 
young King, with the superb attendant bronze figures, and 
the Fame below, in the Salon de la Guerre, we must go 
back to Jean Goujon. 

But Coysevox*s work was not confined to the interior of 
the Chateau. He composed groups, and sculptured marvel- 
lous vases for the bosquets and terraces. He was employed 
besides at Trianon, in ornaments of pilasters and tympanums. 
Then at the Invalides. Later at Marly, where his creative 
genius had full scope. And between whiles he produced 
** delightful and personal imitations of the antique," such 
as his ** Nymphe i la Coquille " and the ** Venus pudique ". 

At Versailles, outside the Chateau on the Parterre d'Eau, 
we find the Garonne and the Dordogne, in bronze, cast by 
Keller. And the great marble Vase on the Terrace, com- 
memorating the ** Submission of Spain, and the Defeat of 
the Turks in Hungary ". This is a magnificent work of art. 
The handles of a grinning satyr's head with goat's horns 
and crowned with ivy, are marvels of vigour and beauty of 

On the destruction of Marly at the Revolution, its treasures 
were dispersed. Happily most of those by Coysevox were 
saved. His winged horses, bearing Fame and Mercury, had 
already been placed in 1719 at the grilles of the Tuileries, 
where Coustou's famous ** Chevaux de Marly " were put oppo- 
site to them in 1793. Coysevox's allegoric groups of Neptune 
and the Seine were given to the town of Brest. And his 
Flora, Hamadryad, and Berger Fluteur (now in the Louvre) 
were placed in the gardens of the Tuileries. His works at 
Marly were very unequal. Indeed it is probable that some 
attributed to him were executed by pupils. In portraiture 
Coysevox reveals himself as great a master as in decorative 

2643-1716. REIGN OF LOUIS XIY. --cotiiinned. 185 

scuJptnre. In the Compies des Batimeiits at Versailles we 
find that his first portrait busts of the King and the Dauphin 
were in 1679. Numerous busts of the King, the Queen, and 
Monseigneur follow. One (789), larger than nature, remains 
of the King, in the rez de chaussez at Versailles. Of this 
M. de Kolhac says, ** What pride, what authority in this nobly 
^' energetic head, and how one feels that this superb expres- 
^' sion could only belong to the one and only Coysevox ** ! 
One of the two busts of the Dauphin, sculptured either in 
1679 or 1682, is preserved in the Salon de Diane. He also 
made an equestrian statue of the King for the Etats de 
Bretagne at Rennes. And for the Echevins de Paris a full 
length statue, which is now in the Cour d'Honneur of the 
Hotel Camavalet. His bronze bust of the Grand Conde, 
now in the Louvre, is a magnificent work of art. Coysevox 
returned many times to that strange and disquieting physi- 
ognomy — the face as of a bird of prey, of the Victor of Rocroy. 
Of these a bust and a medallion at Versailles are chef 
d'oeuvres. In all these portraits we find vigour, precision, 

If Colbert and Louvois, Le Brun and Mansart practically 
made his fortune, Coysevox was great artist enough to be 
able to free himself, when necessary, from those tendencies 
of w^hich they were the high priests. And one of his highest 
titles to honour is that he remained through life true to 
national ideals — that he never allowed his purely French 
genius to be affected by Italy or any other outside influence. 
Both in portraiture and in decoration he is one of the chief 
masters of the French School — one of those whose talent is 
the most varied, the most supple, the most abundant. The 
touch of his chisel is of incomparable skill. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Nymphe a la Coquille. 555. 

Berger Fluteur, signed, 1709. 5G0. 

Le Rhone. 558. 

Venus, on tortoise, signed, 1686. 55(). 

Marie Adelaide, duchesse de Bourgogne, as Diana, 
1710. 561. 


Tomb of Mazarin, from Chapel of the College des 

Quatre Nations. 
Busts of Marie Serre, mother of Eigaud, 559 ; Charles 

Le Brun, 554 ; Louis II. de Bourbon, le Grand 

Conde ^bronze), 552 ; Bossuet, marble, 562 ; 

Michel le Tellier, bronze, from St. Germain des 

Pr^s, 563. 
Tomb of Le Brun, St. Nicholas-au-Chardonnet. 
Tomb of Colbert, Saint-Eustache. 
Tomb of Nicholas de Bautru, Marq. de Vaubrun, 

Chateau de Serrant (Maine et Loire). 
Kneeling statue of Louis XIV., for monument of 

VcBU de Louis XIII., now behind Altar, Notre 

Dame, Paris. 
Winged horses. Gates of the Tuileries. 
Bust Eobert de Cotte, 1707, Bib. St. Genevieve. 
Versailles : — 

Stucco bas relief Louis XIV., Salon de la Guerre. 
Busts of Louis XrV., Vestibule 38; Grand Dauphin 

at twenty. Salon de Diane ; Colbert ; Marie 

Adelaide, duchesse de Bourgogne, Chambre du 

roi, one of the marvels of Versailles, dated 1710. 
Vase of the Soumission de I'Espagne, Terrace of 

Parterre d'Eau. 
Garonne and Dordogne, Parterre d*Eau. 
Statue of Louis II. de Bourbon, le Grand Conde. 




Each epoch, as I have already said, contains the germ of 
the succeeding one. But this genn is not always of the 
same nature, nor is it to be found in the same place. In 
the epoch of Louis XIV. we have already perceived signs 
of a desire for something softer, gayer, less rigid, and more 
in keeping with the traditions of the French race than 
the ** Grand Style '*. This desire showed itself neither in 
painting nor in architecture, which were the one severely 
official and decorative on an enormous scale, the other 
severely classic. But it was hinted at in decorative sculpture 
— in those delightful gilt bronzes and plaster work of the 
ceilings at Versailles — in some of Girardon and Coysevox's 
graceful nymphs and fountains. 

Now, however, the ** grand siecle " is over. Louis XIV. 
is dead. And France, so long held bound by the legend of his 
age in a path that was contrary to her genius — pompous, 
magnificent, and at last sad, serious, conventional — breathes 
again. After Mme. de Maintenon, Mme. de Pompadour. After 
Le Brun, Boucher. After the huge wigs and voluminous 
draperies of Eigaud and Largilliere, the powder and satin 
coats of Nattier and Tocque. The mere portraits of the Mar« 
quis de Dangeau and the Marquis de Marigny, painted less 
than fifty years apart, reveal two different worlds. 

France, kept within the rigid bounds of officialism in 
thought, in action, for sixty years, cries aloud for fresh air^ 
for light, for life, for amusement. Away with pomposity. 
Away with Greece and Eome. We live in France. Life is 
short. Let us enjoy it while we can. ** The farandole 
** succeeds the procession.*' 

No more science. No more theology. Life is what we 



want. We have been caged too long — now the doors are open. 
Our Oh-mpus shall be the Olympus of Ovid, not of Homer 
or Virgil. We will worship the Goddess of Love. But she 
shall be a light-hearted Goddess of our own — a Goddess of 
Love without jwison and daggers — of Love that brings 
smiles, not tears — of Love that amuses — Love adorned with 
ribbons and roses — with soft rosy flesh and a httle pink nose, 
and pouting red lips that always laugh and ask to be kissed ; 
Love that we meet in our Fetes galajites, where, with chann- 
ing manners and charming clothes, we embark for Cythfere 
in the midst of an enchanting landscape, while the clouds 
above only shower little Loves upon us instead of thunder 
and rain. 

Instead of magnificence the eighteenth century gives us 
•\ grace. Instead of great ideals, we get every note in the scale 
of gallantry, of coquetry, of all that is gay, that is superficial, 
that is amusing in human life. Earth and sky are made to 
lend themselves to this universal worship of love and life. A 
love that is merely of the lips and eyes. A life that only lives 
tor the moment — that is at best but a life of sentiment. 
Life is turned into a dainty poem. And that poem is painted 
by Watteau. 

And thus the century dances on, with its shepherds and 
shepherdesses in silk and satin ; its fair ladies and their 
gallant lovers in powder and paint ; its Cupids and Hearts 
and Darts. And it never hears or heeds the terrible under- 
tone of suffering and sorrow and coming retribution, as it 
transforms nature herself into one vast d^cor de theatre. 

It is in painting that the art of the eighteenth century 
finds its most complete expression. And four great painters 
in a manner sum up the tendencies of the time : Watteau, 
Boucher, Fragonard, Greuze. 

In Watteau we find the Poet of the eighteenth century. 
Watteau, the great poet of Love — of a serene and gentle love 
with no note of passion — of a tender and tranquil paradise. 
Watteau, who had the genius to create a world and a race 
of his own ; a dreamland as of one of the kingdoms of 
" Shakespeare's Comedies. " Watteau a renouvele la grA.ce. 


"La gr&ce chez Watteau, n'est plus la gr&ce antique ; un 

" charme rigoureux et solide, la perfection de marbre de la 

" Galatee, la seduction toute plastique et la gloire materielle 

" des Venus. La gr4ce de Watteau est la grace. Elle est 

'* le rien qui habille la femme d'un agrement, d*une coquet- 

** terie, d'un beau au-dela du beau physique. Elle est cette 

*' chose subtile qui semble le sourire de la ligne, Vkme de 

** la forme, la physionomie spirituelle de lamatiere."^ 

Boucher, the Amuser, ** bom brush in hand,** reflects the 
very spirit and life of his time. He shows his century its 
own face in a ** mirror wreathed with roses " — ** the ideal of 
** the world about him, the dream of a society crazy for 
'* pleasure, whirled along in a perpetual carnival '\'^ A 
society that only cares to Jook on the joyous semblance of 
life ; on nature arranged to suit an endless play. This side 
of the eighteenth century is rendered by the painter par ex- 
cellence of La Pompadour and Louis XV. 

With Fragonard a deeper note is struck. He also is a 
poet. But Fragonard, the Proven9al, the man of the South, 
writes a poem of different meaning to that of the great 
Watteau, the man of the North. Fragonard is the son of 
Tasso, of Cervantes, Boccacio, Ariosto. He writes the 
poem of desire. " The breath of a sigh turns in it into a 
** kiss.'* The century is moving on — the change is coming. 
Fragonard laughs and mocks, and sighs and laughs again, 
with his pagan spirit, his Gallic wit. For he knows that 
life is not merely a play — that nature is not merely a set 
scene for that play. And in Fragonard we get at times a 
note that cuts right across the prettiness, the follies, the 
loves, the gallantries, the powder and paint of the 18th 
century, as the swift blaze of a sword-cut through the air 
of a spring morning. A note that startles and sobers us — 
a note of truth and vigour that foreshadows the aims of the 
great painters of the 19th century, not only in thought, but 
in actual method. Few pictures can be more ** Impres- 
sionist " than some of his portraits. And his ** Orage," 
now in the Louvre — a really great picture, with loaded ox- 

' De Qoncourt. * Andre Michel. 


cart, terrified sheep, stnigglinc: men, against the great storm- 
cloud — conveys to the luind a sense of haste and terror 
seldom surpassed. While of his ** Callirrhoe," de Goncourt, 
that past master of all that pertains to the 18th centur}', 
says : '* The cr\* of a picture so novel for the 18th centur}' 
"is Passion. Fra^onard bring^s it to his times in this 
" picture, full of a tragic tenderness, where one might think 
" one saw the entombment of Iphigenia. ... It points out 
**a future path to French painting — that of pathos." 

There was however another tendencv in France besides 
the perpetual Carnival. The Philosophers were preaching 
loudly. As against the corruption in those of high degree, 
thev exalted the virtues of the lowlv ones of the earth. 
Powder and paint, silk and satin were anathema. The 
honest heart could only beat under home-spun. The happy 
ignorance of the Savoyard, gnawing his crust and his garlic 
by the roadside, is more to be desired than the wealth of 
the Fermier General and the consolations of his Cordon-bleu , 
This crj' for simplicity was but one of many affectations 
that marked the real, deep, growing love of humanity. 
" The last century," says M. Guizot, " had this merit, that 
'* it loved man and men. It reallv had a true affection for 
** them, and desired their welfare. The love of justice and 
** humanity, of justice and humanity for all, which character- 
** izes this epoch, what is its source if it does not come from 
" a lively sympathy with man, and a tender interest in his 
** welfare." This love of man, these doctrines of humanity 
and simplicity introduced a new element into Art. 

The 18th centurv is nothing if not literan'. Art criticism, 
or at all events ** Art journaHsm," had begun with Diderot's 
famous " salons ". And they mark the beginning of a new 
state of things. Such art criticism is too literary-. It seizes 
upon the subject, the idea merely ; and uses it as a text on 
which to develop a series of thoughts, of reflections, which 
have nothing to do with Art. 

Diderot's salons, however, had a very considerable effect 
on the relations of Art and literature — an effect far more 
widespreading than their intrinsic critical value. He used 


pictures and statues as worthy objects for literature ; while 
hitherto Art and literature had lived in two separate worlds, 
separated by insunuountable barriers. Artists and writers 
saw little of each other. Mine. Geoflfrin had separate dinners 
for her artists and her men of letters, they knew so few 
people in common ! ** Diderot breaks down all these barriers. 
" A man of letters himself, he haunts the studios, he talks, he 
** disputes, he rubs up his ideas against their theories, his poetic 
** aesthetics against their plastic or picturesque aesthetics. 
** To the public, hitherto closely shut away from such things 
** in hterary taste, he opens the windows upon art ; through 
** all his sentimental expressions, and the dissertations of 
** the thinker, he educates his reader's understanding ; he 
'* teaches them to see and to enjoy, to appreciate the truth 
** of an attitude, the dehcacy of a tone.''^ 

But Diderot may well be pardoned for being too literary 
in his Salons. Painters and sculptors were moved by the 
same impulse. And most of the pictures and sculptures of 
which he speaks were full of literary intention. They were 
intended to move the public by the subjects and the ideas 
they suggested. And the philosophers, with Diderot and 
Kousseau, found an exponent of their ideas and ideals in 
Greuze. " Fais nous de la morale, mon ami ! ** cries 
Diderot. Greuze replies with the '' Pere de Famille," with 
*' La Malediction Paternelle," with '' Le Fils puni," with 
^* Le retour de Nourrice ". And Society — weary of its Fetes 
galantes, and taking its philosophy with hardly greater 
seriousness than its mythology — claps its hands with en- 
chantment at this new and delightful morahty. 


Watteau, Antoine {b. Valenciennes, 1684; d. Nogent 
(Vincennes), 1721). — " Watteau, I'homme du Nord, Tenfant 
** de Flandres, le grand poete de 1' Am our, le maitre des 
**serenites douces et des paradis tendres, dont I'oBuvre 
** ressemble aux Champs Elysees de la Passion ! Watteau 
*'le melancolique enchanteur, qui met un si grand soupir 

^ Gustave Lanson 

^i=-T.H : .E ras3::2: t.^"^ Ch. x. 

' it: jk ' LUD^rr - ELiI^rTir^ TitTI-H: ^ J fruawr :>H, Otc 1a 

cc* "jinj c. T. xjiu ^ir ;• ELSjatT-f :iirt ^rjih^ssi-'ii. :c JiZi idler. 
J i: t ~"^-t - Ujr zlizi: i^tiLT ,Ljf -i*..!! ::.. Ai .csscnz^ ^at^i^-t but 
:ie r* •.11 zir-l .£ ;:it^ji:£ i.c i^aj» js^jhi '*rAc:rtEa,i izificd up 
- ?i-ZiT i.;».in 1~.-1 T-_"LL 4^ cinjr ijifcssdr. vi: iai a talent 

TitT X :ir£ Tks. ^.i.ii ijLjsxifnL Zbr uitfCcr reuTUitcd to 
Vi^cji'jtcji»:^ jlZj: Hit Ti.i.i: a:. :»fcr±LT rw-tiHT. ielicaie, 
i«i«: Liiji'rc.:. xiks jrn icriC!i:*.i ::z. J'ats^ "aiibrc:: ixJ or 

.-'.'ul'^ -^tI: IT' _l^ iJ-r-ILkT-rC.. "W-lil TTIi.lI. 1;=: j^Um and 

:_:^k^:Li4i:^nrrii To.nrr* :t iltr io.rr i:c ^c:T:z!^zii leaders. 

jr.,::- ^r ■5r.rvz-.-r~. .ii-r Zihinz^L <sz:is^ AZj.ii-ri: be*is. another 
i.'^c-^r.TS Al ijuiu Ir rv^:L_rr^i -t-as Iasuc. Wa^ea;! was a 
::-:*ri -i^i^'.-: i. j^:ii^:i: . n :•: lir '.Ar.ifA^ :»; tj. His rapid 
rxr:*:rii;::i. 1:2 x*:-*ri .: i.uic " i^l ;:iins :: a rxT:!!^," made 
?.,:r- tr-:»r.::L- :- :lr rjrs :: L:> :jisk-uias:er. He was given 
i:.zrK ir^z.^. a -a^Trrk. ar.i sc-i everr iav "as a eharitv *\ 
\zA h\ :i.r: L-.i^^i.: Wis kei: lo Saini Nicholas — who he 
vx.ji icL-^-* f/T LrATi. and c::ild da>h d withoui a model. 

Ho"A ih^ ^^ra: anis: escap^ed tpcm :h:s den is not quite 
';^;rta;ij. fca; GiUot. jus: ihen eiecied to ;he Academy, saw 
v^jij^: of hi-! drawing, and invited him to come and hve with 
hirii, Thouf^h he »taved but a short time, his eniianoe into 
(/illot'n Studio had a marked induenee up^^n him. With 
(HIUa h'; gained his love of onmedv and modem scenes. He 


th<:fi }i«:l]M:d Audrau, the decorator, who was painting the 
^nHfii\U:Hf aral^cftques, and grotesques, so much in fashion for 
]rt%wMirii^H anrl ceilings. Here Watteau for the first time 
i'ti'ioyij] a fairly comfortable existence. But tired of work- 
ing for others, Watteau now painted a small picture, •* Un 

' De Goncourt. 


depart de troupes *'. He showed it to Audran. Amazed 
and alarmed at the talent of his gifted assistant, Audran 
made light of it. Fearing to lose his valuable help, he 
begged Watteau not to ** spoil his real talent" by such 
pictures. Watteau happily saw through his motives. 
Through his friend Sponde, a painter and a compatriot, 
he sold the picture to M. Sirois, who not only gave him 
60 francs, but ordered a pendant, and remained one of his 
warmest patrons. The second picture, ** Une Halte d'Armee,*' 
was taken from nature at Valenciennes, where Watteau now 
w^ent. For this he received 200 francs. Both pictures have 
been engraved by Cochin, and are now in the Corporation 
Art Gallery, Glasgow. 

On his return to Paris, Watteau, whose two pictures had 
already given him some reputation, fell in with the well- 
known amateur Crozat. He was engaged to do some 
decorations in his splendid Hotel, where he not only had 
food and lodgings, but Crozat placed his inestimable col- 
lection of paintings and drawings at his disposal. Here 
Watteau lived with the works of the finest masters, Italian 
and Flemish. And was specially drawn to the studies of 
Rubens and Van Dyck. His restless, irritable, and inde- 
pendent nature, however, soon made him leave his protector. 
And his melancholy, solitary temperament caused him to 
shut himself up in a tiny and obscure lodging, only known 
to M. Sirois. But the beauty of those Italian masters he 
had grown to know and love at M. Crozat*s, had filled him 
with a wild desire to go to Italy. His only resource was to 
compete for the Prix de Rome. This he did. A subject 
less suited to the poet of the 18th century than ** David and 
Abigail " can hardly be imagined. He only won a second 
prize. This meant a further delay. With the desire for 
Rome stronger than ever upon him, he was ready to risk 
any adventure. He determined to try to obtain the King's 
Pension through the intercession of the Academy. He 
therefore placed the two little pictures, all his stock-in-trade, 
in one of the passage rooms of the Academy. They were 

seen and admired by the Academicians. De la Fosse 



lingered before them longer than the rest ; and after hearing 
the story, invited Watteau into the Salle des Seances. Here 
he gently reproached the young artist with want of faith in 
his own talent ; and assured him that the Academy would 
be honoured in receiving him as one of its members. He 
was elected on the spot. This was in 1712. 

Watteau took this extraordinary success with his usual 
insmiciance and distrust of his own powers. He had neither 
pride nor ambition. And saw little in his membership save 
that the door to Italy was closed for ever. He still lived 
in retreat, constantly changing his dwelling. He studied 
harder than ever. He refused to believe in his great genius, 
though fame and orders almost overwhelmed him. Dis- 
satisfied with his work, he spent much time in rubbing out 
and repainting. And — as with Rousseau a hundred years 
later — his friends had considerable difficulty in dragging his 
pictures from him. The seeds of consumption were already 
undermining his health, and increasing his restless irritability 
and wandering habits. He never took the trouble to send 
in the necessary picture for his reception at the Academy, 
until five years after his election. But it was worth waiting 
for. It was the ** Embarquement pour Cy there *\ 

Two years later Watteau went to England, where he was 
received with all honour, and made a considerable monetar^'^ 
success. But the climate and the coal smoke were disastrous 
to his delicate chest, and after a year he returned to Paris. 
His first work on his return was a sign for his friend Ger- 
saint, the picture dealer. The composition, painted entirely 
from nature in eight days, by the dying man, had a pro- 
digious success.^ But it was the last important work of 
the great master. His days were numbered. At the end of 
six months he was seized with a desire for his native air. 
Leaving Gersaint*s house, his friend TAbbe Haranger, canon 
of St. Gennain TAuxerrois, took him as far as M. le 
Febvre*s house at Nogent, near Vincennes. And here, on 
the 18th of July, 1721, Watteau expired. On his death- 

1 It found its way to M. de Julienne's Collection. A fragment was of late 
in the Sohwitzer Collection. Where the other half is, is not known. 


bed he tried to make up for his injustice to Pater, saying he 
had feared his talent (see Pater). And his estate, which he 
left to his four friends, Gersaint, TAbbe Haranger, M. de 
Julienne, and M. Henin, consisted of 9000 francs, and a 
number of drawings. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

^ L'Embarquement pour Cythere. 982. 

" Gilles," a great picture, Salle la Gaze. 983. 

Jupiter and Antiope, spoilt by bitumens. 991. 

La Finette. 985. 

L'indiflferent. 984. 

L'Automne. 990. 

Le donneur de Serenades, L'amante inquiete, and 

several others, Chantilly. 
Picture in the SJglise St. Medard, Paris, 
L*homme a la Guitare, Windsor Castle. 
Bal Champ6tre, and F^te Champetre, Dulwich, 
Three pictures, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 
Six pictures. National Gallery, Edinburgh. 
The Encampment, and Breaking up the Camp, Cor- 
poration Art Gallery, Glasgow. 
Pastoral Group, Hertford House. 
F^te under trees, Hertford House. 
These last are two of the most superb pictures ever 

painted by Watteau. 
The Duet, Sir Francis Cook. 
La Gamme d'Amour, Julius Wernher, Esq. 
Actors of Italian Comedy, Asher Wertheimer, Esq. 
A Garden Scene, and A Garden Scene with Pierrots, 

Charles Morrison, Esq. 
Vue prise dans le pare de Saint Cloud; F^te Champetre, 
the original of the one in the Arenberg Coll. at 
Brussels, Madrid Gallery. 
Collection of drawings, British Museum. 
Lancret, Nicholas (b, Paris, 1690 ; d. Paris, 1743). — 
Destined at first to become a die-sinker, Lancret soon obtained 

^ A replique of this picture, considered by some authorities to be finer 
than the original, is in the Royal Collection at Potsdam. 


leave from his parents to abandon this profession for painting ; 
and entered the studio of Duhn, a professor at the Academy. 
Charmed with Watteau's methods, he then entered the 
studio of Gillot, Watteau's master. Watteau, who at first 
was very intimate with Lancret, " advised him to leave the 
** studio and to take no further guide but nature, to draw 
" ^^ews of the landscapes in the environs of Paris, and to 
** invent compositions in which he could use his studies ".^ 
This excellent advice Lancret followed ; and painted two 
pictures which received the approbation not only of Wat- 
teau but of the Academy, to which he was admitted as atjre'e. 
Delighted with his success, he worked with enthusiasm, and 
exhibited two pictures in the place Dauphine, at the F^te 
Dieu. These were so completely after Watteau*s manner, 
that he was complimented on them as his own work. The 
success made Lancret's reputation : but embroiled him with 
Watteau, who was furious, and never forgave him. In 1719 
Lancret was received at the Academy under the same title 
as Watteau, ** peintre de f^tes galantes **. 

His life was absorbed by his art. In the country he 
sketched everything that came under his eye, and it was only 
in his last years that his friends could induce him to give up 
drawing in the winter with the pupils from the model at the 

Examples : — 

Twelve pictures in the Louvre. 

The four seasons, very charming, with lovely land- 
scapes, Winter especially. 462-65. 

Le nid d'oiseau. 467. 

Les Tourterelles. 466. 

Le9on de Musique. 468. 

L 'Innocence. 469. 

Le Gascon puni. 471. 

La Cage, charming landscape. 472. 

Le dejeuner de Jambon, Chantilly. 

The four ages. Four pictures, National Gallery. 

A kitchen, Hertford House. 

» Villot. 


Mile. Camargo, dancer, Hertford House. 
Les deux amis ; and Nicaise, J. Pierpont Morgan, Esq. 
L'EscarpoIette ; and L*Hiver, Marquise de Lavalette. 
A Garden party, Lord Wantage, V.C. 
Pater, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph {b. Valenciennes, 1696 ; 
d. Paris, 1736). — Pater's father, a sculptor, sent him when 
very young to Paris to study painting. Here he entered the 
studio of his compatriot, Watteau. But Watteau*s difficult 
temper, and irritable, uncertain character, prevented the un- 
fortunate lad remaining long with him. Watteau repented 
of his injustice towards his pupil at the end of his life. 
He sent for him, confessed he had feared his talent, and 
made him work with him. But these precious lessons only 
lasted for a month, when Watteau's death put an end to 

Never was artist more assiduous in his profession than 
Pater. He was haunted by the fear of becoming infirm be- 
fore he had secured enough to live on, and worked day and 
night. This broke down his health, and he died before he 
could enjoy the fortune for which he had sacrificed his life. 
Examples — Louvre : — 
F^te-Champ^tre. 689. 
Com^diens dans un pare. 690. 
La Toilette, charming interior with red lacquer 

mirror and boxes. 691. 
Conversation dans un pare. 692. 
Pictures in the Trianon, Valenciennes, Nantes, Angers, 
and in the collections at Cassel, Dresden, the 
Hermitage, Berlin, etc. 
Pastoral Group, Hertford House. 
Mons. de Pourceagnac, Arlequin et Pierrot, La f^te 
champ^tre, Le joueur de flute, Buckingham 
Ladies bathing (366), National Gallery, Edinburgh. 
Carnival Scene, Corporation Art Gallery, Glasgow. 
The Pleasure Barge, Baron Alfred de Rothschild. 
Le desir de plaire, or La Toilette, Marquise de 


Lemoyne, FRANgois {b. Paris, 1688 ; d, Paris, 1737).— 
At the age of thirteen, Lemoyne entered the studio of 
Galloche. And in 1711 gained the Grand Prix de TAca- 
demie. But he did not go to Borne, as the state had for 
some years been obliged to stop sending pensionnaires, on 
account of the wars at the end of Louis XIV.^s reign. In 
1716 he was elected, and in 1718 received into the Academy. 
His diploma work was Hercules and Cacus. In 1723 he 
travelled with two friends for six months in Ifaly, and there 
was much struck with the ceilings of Michael Angelo, Pietro 
de Cortona, and Lanfranc. During this journey he painted 
the Hercules and Omphale, now in the Louvre. And on his 
return, finished the roof of the Church of the Jacobins. He then 
competed for the Prix du roi to the members of the Academy, 
dividing it with Troy; and was made Professor. Two 
years later he painted the allegorical picture of the young 
King, Louis XV., giving peace to Europe. This was placed 
in 1729 over the mantelpiece in the Salon de la Paix, 
Versailles, where it still exists. 

But his most celebrated work at Versailles was begun in 
1732 and finished four years later — the ceiling for the 
Salon d'Hercule. This splendid room was built for the 
ballroom under Louis XV. Vasse worked from 1729 to 
1734 on the decorative gilt bronzes, including the beautiful 
cornice with trophies of arms between each modillion, the 
exquisite capitals of the pilasters of coloured marbles, the 
ornaments of the grand chimney-piece on pink marble, 
and the magnificent frame that once contained Veronese's 
** Kepas chez Simon '*. To Lemoyne was entrusted the 
enormous ceiling, for which, on a huge canvas, 18 metres 
50 by 17 metres, he painted the Apotheosis of Hercules. It 
was well restored in 1885, and is certainly a chef d'oeuvre of 
decorative painting. The Grisailles round the edge above 
the cornice are particularly fine. It contains 142 figures 
much larger than life. The king was so much pleased with 
this great work, that he made Lemoyne his premier peintre 
in the place of Louis de Boulogne. But the fatigue of this 
gigantic work and another ceiling for a chapel in Saint-Sulpice, 


"^^X^Ji both of which he had been working for neaxly seven years 

added to the vexation of not enjoying as premier peintre all 

ttie privileges Le Brun had been allowed under Louis XIV. — 

a.s well as the death of his patron, the due d'Antin, affected 

X^emoyne's reason. And ten months after his appointment, 

during a bout of fever, he stabbed himself nine times with a 

sword, imagining he was going to be arrested and imprisoned, 

and died. Among his pupils were Natoire, Boucher, and 


Examples in Versailles : — 
Ceiling of Salle d'Hercule. 

Louis XV. donnant la Paix a TEurope, Salon de la 
Louvre : — 

L*01jrmpe, sketch for ceiling. 535. 
Junon, Iris, et Flore. 536. 
Hercule et Omphale. 537. 
L 'education de T Amour. 538. 
Desportes, Francois {b. Champigneul, Champagne, 1661 ; 
d' Paris, 1743). — Son of a wealthy cultivator, Desportes was 
s^nt to an uncle in Paris when twelve. Showing an aptitude 
for drawing, he was placed with a drunken old Flemish 
animal painter, Nicasius. But when Nicasius died, the lad 
determined to study from nature, and from the antique at 
the Academy. To support himself he helped other painters, 
putting scenery, ceilings, etc., into their pictures. 

In spite of considerable talent for portraits, he did not 

get on. So in 1695 he went to Poland. Here he painted 

Sobieski, the Queen, and nobles, and made a great success. 

On Sobieski 's death Louis XIV. recalled him to France. 

And he now almost abandoned portraits for paintings of 

animals and hunting scenes. In 1699 he was received at 

the Academy with his own portrait (249, Louvre). The 

King gave him an allowance and rooms in the Louvre. And 

he worked at Anet, Clichy, I'Hotel de Bouillon, and the 

Menagerie, Versailles. He now began to paint the finest 

dogs in the King's pack. And always accompanied Louis XIV. 

on his hunting parties. He also painted for Monseigneur 


at Meudon. And about this timd he began painting flowers, 
fruit, and gold and silver vases for Lord Stanhope — the 
King ordering a similar series. In 1712 he obtained six 
months' leave of absence, and went to England, taking a 
number of pictures with him, which were eagerly bought. 
On. his return to France he painted all the rare animals in 
the King's menagerie. A great favourite with the Eegent, 
he painted for the Palais Eoyal, and La Muette, and fur- 
nished designs for screens and tapestries. Louis XV. and 
all his nobles employed him in turn. 

A hard worker, gifted with extraordinary facihty, he 
produced an immense number of pictures, though all were 
carefully and faithfully studied from nature. His last work 
was a great stag hunt, and dessus de partes for Choisy. His 
admirable drawing, his vivid and harmonious colour, his 
truth to nature, stand comparison with the best Flemish 
masters of his style. 

Twenty-six pictures in Louvre : — 

Desporte's portrait with gun, dogs, and game. 249. 

Portraits of Sporting Dogs of Louis XIV. 229-30. 

Fruit and dead birds, very beautiful. 245. 

The Stag Hunt. 227. 

Four fine examples on the Escalier de la Reine, 
OuDRY, Jean-Baptiste {b. Paris, 1686 ; d, Beauvais, 
1755). — Son of Jacques Oudry, a maitre peintre who sold 
pictures on the Pont Notre Dame — Jean-Baptiste learnt 
the elements of drawing from his father. He subsequently 
studied under de Serre ; and then with LargiUifere. Laxgillifere 
treated him like a son, made him stand by his easel when 
he was painting interesting heads — and they were many from 
the hand of such a master — and gave him the reason for 
every stroke of the brush. His father, who was Director of 
the Guild of St. Luke, made Oudry and his two brothers 
enter the Maitrise. At first he painted portraits. But the 
fruits and animals he introduced into them so impressed 
Largilliere, that he advised Oudry to devote himself to 
animals and still life. This he did. But meanwhile he 


had to live, and painted a **^ Nativity " and a ** St. Gilles '* for 
the Choir of Saint-Leu, and an '* Adoration " for the Chapter 
of St. Martin des Champs. 

In 1717 he was made professor of the Maitrise. But two 
years later he deserted the Guild, and entered the Academy 
as an historical painter, with a picture of ** I'Abondance et ses 
attributs **. His first great success was a full-length of Peter 
the Great, who wanted to carry him off to Kussia. The Due 
d'Antin, however, persuaded him to remain in France ; and 
Louis XV. gave him a studio in the Tuileries", followed by 
rooms in the Louvre ; while Fagon, intendant des Finances, 
ordered an important series of pictures for Fontenay-aux- 

His success was now great. The King mad^ Oudry 
paint his dogs in his presence. He accompanied the Eoyal 
hunts, making endless studies in the forest in order to give 
his pictures the greatest possible exactitude. Though his 
reputation was great abroad, he refused to leave France, 
where he was indeed fully occupied. For Fagon first made 
him superintendent of the manufactory of Beauvais, founded 
by Colbert, which he wished to reconstruct. And he was 
later appointed superintendent of the Gobelins. He suc- 
ceeded, thanks to his extraordinary energy, in both these 
tasks. For a long while he himself made all the models for 
tapestries at Beauvais — hunting scenes, country amusements, 
Molifere's comedies. La Fontaine's fables, etc. And then 
called Boucher and Natoire to his aid. But he managed, in 
spite of the work of both these great establishments, to paint 
a host of pictures; and spent his time on f^te days and 
Sundays in making studies of landscape in the Forfet de St. 
Oermain, at Chantilly, in the Bois de Boulogne and the 
Gardens of Arceuil. He drew all the evening, and it was 
thus that in 1729-30 he made 275 drawings in white on blue 
paper for La Fontaine's fables in four volumes, which were 
printed in 1760. He also read two remarkable lectures at the 
Academy. One, upon the method of studying colour by 
comparing objects one with another — it reads like a bit of 
Zola's monograph on Manet — was published. 


Eight pictures in Louvre : — 

Blanche, Chienne de la Meute de Louis XV. 666. * 

La Ferme, a charming landscape. 670. 

Paysage. 672. 

** Le Cerf force par Louis XV. a la Roche qui pleura^ 
Fontainebleau," Escalier de la Heine, Fontaine- 

Two magnificent pictures, Chantilly. 

Six pictures, Barnard Castle, etc. 
Nattier, Jean Marc (b. Paris, 1685 ; d, Paris, 1766). — 
The favourite portrait painter of the court of Louis XV., 
was son of Marc Nattier, also a portrait painter, who died in 
1705. At fifteen Nattier gained a first prize at the Academy. 
And in 1709 Jouvenet, who w^as his godfather, wished to 
obtain a place for him in the French School in Eome. But 
Nattier refused. He was already engaged on drawings of 
the Eubens Gallery at the Luxembourg; having obtained 
leave from Louis XIV. to have them engraved by the best 
engravers of the day. Elected to the Academy in 1713, he 
went to Amsterdam in 1715, where Peter the Great was 
then staying. Here he remained, painting the Czar and all 
the Russian court, till Peter's visit to Paris in 1717. The 
next year Nattier was received into the Academy, on his 
diploma picture of ** Perseus bringing Medusa's head to the 
marriage of Phineus " (Musee de Tours). But it was not 
till 1720 that, having lost all his savings through Law's 
speculations, he turned definitively to portraiture — painting 
all the celebrated personnages of the day. 

Nattier, who for many years was the favourite portrait 
painter of the House of France, has left us at Versailles a 
charming and interesting series of pictures of the Royal 
family. He painted every member of it ; most of them more 
than once. We get the poor little due de Bourgogne, son 
of the Dauphine Marie Joseph, at four years old, who died 
sadly when he was ten — a charming portrait in his little blue 
coat and orders of the Saint-Esprit and Toison d'Or. A 
still more brilliant picture is that of another grandchild of 
Louis XV., the little daughter of Mme. Elizabeth iMnie, 


Infante), then nine years old. Her grandfather evidently 

wished for a souvenir of the little maiden's visit in 1749. 

He never saw her again, for she never returned to France, 

and died wife of Joseph H., and Empress of Germany. 

Then come numbers of portraits of Mesdames, the daughters 

of Louis XV., from their childhood on. Madame Henriette 

as Flora. Little Mme. Louise, holding flowers. Madame 

Adelaide as Diana — a delicious picture. The lovely colour 

of the background reminds us of Boucher at his very best. 

These three are now in the Petits Appartements ; and are 

of the highest interest and beauty. Perhaps, however, 

Nattier's triumph is the channing portrait of the amiable 

Queen, Marie Leczinska, who was so often painted by many 

of the excellent portrait painters of France. No other 

picture of her can exceed this in charm and quality. It 

was exhibited in the Salon of 1748. The Queen is sitting, 

dressed in a dark-red dress trimmed with fur. A ** marmotte" 

of black lace is loosely tied over a white lace cap. Her lelt 

arm rests on a console, upon which we see the crown, the 

regal mantle, and the Gospels. The expression of the 

Queen's face is delightful in its kindly, motherly gentleness. 

Another very important work is the portrait of Mme. Henriette 

plajring the bass viol (3800). This, Nattier considered one 

of his best works. So is the well-known three-quarter length 

of Mme. Adelaide in a crimson and white shot silk dress 

powdered with embroidered stars, and holding a shuttle and 

gold thread (3801). This is signed '' Nattier pinxit, 1756 ". 

Chief Examples : — 

Mile, de Lambesc et le Jeune Comte de Brionne. 
She as a Goddess arming the boy, Louvre. 659. 
Versailles : — 

Queen Marie Leczinska. 

Due de Bourgogne, dated 1754. 3887. 

Dauphine Marie Joseph de Saxe, dated 1751. 2197. 

Daughter of Mme. Infante, afterwards Empress of 
Germany, date 1749. 4464. 

Mme. Elizabeth (Mme. Infante), Duchess of Parma, 
about 1759. 3875. 


Mine. Henriette as Flora, dated 1742. 3818. 

Mine. Adelaide as Diana, dated 1745. 3805. 

Mme. Louise. 4428. 

Mme. Henriette playing a Bass Viol. 3800. 

Mme. Adelaide singing, (a replique by Nattier). 4456. 

Mme. Adelaide with shuttle, date 1756. 3801. 

Nattier and his family, begun when the four children 
were young, 1730. Finished 1762, long after the 
death of the young woman at the clavecin. 4419. 

Queen Marie Leczinska, Buckinghsun Palace. 

Lady as Diana. 51. Lady with powdered hair. 570. 
Barnard Castle. 

Due de Penthi^vre, H. L. Bischoffsheim. 

Hebe, Chantilly. 

Mme. de Bovuille, Lord Burton. 

Several portraits to which it is diflScult to assign 
names, Madrid Gallery. 
Van Loo, Charles Andr6, dit Carle (b, Nice, 1706 ; d. 
Paris, 1765). — As a mere child Carle Van Loo was taken to 
Italy by his eldest brother, Jean-Baptiste, who stood in the 
place of father and master. The brothers went first to 
Turin, summoned by the Duke of Savoy, and then to Rome. 
Here at nine years old little Carle was placed with Luti ; then 
with Le Gros, who taught him to model and carve in wood 
and marble. And in 1719 the brothers returned to Paris, 
where they were lodged by the Prince de Carignan in his 
Hotel de Soissons. Carle was now able to help his brother 
Jean-Baptiste, sketching in his pictures, painting draperies ; 
and was one of the students who, with Chardin, helped him 
to restore the paintings of Eosso and Primaticcio in the 
Galerie Fran9ois I. at Fontainebleau ; and his love of huge 
w^orks now led him to compose and paint scenery for the 
Opera House. 

In 1724 he won the premier prix de peinture at the 
Academy. But before starting for Rome he painted a number 
of small portraits, some of them full-lengths, which were 
much sought after. It was in 1727 that he set out for Rome, 
accompanied by his nephews, Louis and Francois, and by 


Boucher. In Borne he threw himself with enthusiasm into 

fresh studies ; and at the age of twenty-four had produced 

some remarkable works, such as the Apotheosis of St. Isidore 

for the Church of San Isidoro, being created Chevalier 

by the Pope in 1731. On his return to Paris in 1734, 

Carle Van Loo was elected to the Academy, and received the 

following year upon his ** Flaying of Marsyas *'. He became 

Professor in 1737, and in 1763 was made Director. Honours 

came thick upon him. The King gave him the order of St. 

Michel in 1751, and in 1762 made him premier peintre, with 

6000 livres a year. His reputation was immense, and he was 

oven^^helmed with orders. The King of Prussia endeavoured 

to tempt him to the Prussian Court, but he sent his nephew, 

Charles Amadee, in his place. In 1764 he was commissioned 

to paint the history of St. Gregory in the Cupola of the 

Invalides. His sketches — all made from nature — were 

prepared, and were exhibited in the Salon of 1765. But he 

died before the work could be begun. 

Examples in Louvre : — 

Van Loo's portrait by himself. 904. 

Une halte de chasse. 899. 

Institution of the order of the St. Esprit by Henri III. 

Queen Marie Leczinska, a superb portrait. 900. 

Louis XV., the well-known portrait in armour, about 
1750, Versailles. 3751. 

Mile, de Clermont aux Eaux min^rales de Chantilly, 

Louise Henriette de Bourbon - Conti, Duchesse 
d*Orl^ans, Chantilly. 

Marquise de la Ferronays, M. Sedelmeyer. 

Louise Isabelle de Bourbon, Madrid Gallery. 
TocQui, Louis (b. 1696; d, 1772).— This excellent 
portrait painter, who entered the school of Nicholas Bertin 
at an early age, soon gained a considerable reputation. In 
1731 he was elected to the Academy, and received three 
ye€u:s later. In 1739 he painted the Dauphin, son of Louis 
XV., then ten years old; the very charming portrait is now 


in the Louvre, and shows the strong likeness between Louis 
de France and Mesdames his sisters. The next year Tocqu6 
painted Queen Marie Leczinska, the great official full-length 
that faces Van Loo's portrait in the Lou\Te. But perhaps 
his chef d'oeuvre is the superb portrait at Versailles of the 
Marquis de Marigny, in his blue fur-trimmed coat (4333) — a 
most remarkable and striking work of art. His success was 
immense, and he was much in request abroad. The Empress 
summoned him to St. Petersburg in 1757, where he stayed 
for a year, returning by way of Stockholm and Copenhagen 
in 1760, painting Royal and Court portraits. He married 
the daughter of Nattier. 
Examples in Louvre : — 

Queen Marie Leczinska. 865. 

Louis de France, dauphin, son of Louis XV. 868. 

Portrait presumed to be Mme. de Graffigny. 869. 

Dumarsais. 870. 

Portrait d'un homme, brown coat, red waistcoat. 875. 
Versailles : — 

Empress Elizabeth Petrovna, sketched in, only hands 
and face finished. 3853. 

Marquis de Marigny. 4333. 

Marquis de Matignon. 3771. 

Gresset. 3805. 

Mme. Salle, Coll. Lord Hindlip, England. 
Drouats, FRANfOis-HuBERT {b. Paris, 1727 ; d, Paris, 
1775), — the portrait painter, was pupil of his father, Hubert, 
the miniature painter, and in turn of Carle Van Loo, 
Natoire and Boucher. Elected to the Academy in 1754, he 
was received as Academician four years later on his portraits of 
Coustou and Bouchardon, now in the Lou\Te. After the death 
of Nattier he became premier peintre du roi, and the official 
Court painter of Louis XV., and of Monsieur and Madame. 
Several excellent portraits of the daughters of Louis XV. 
are to be seen at Versailles, notably one of Mme. Sophie 
(3810). And some, which have been attributed to Nattier, 
may well be by him. The Louvre has one of his best works, 
the charming picture of the Comte d'Artois (Charles X.), and 


Mme. Clotilde (Queen of Sardinia), as children, with a goat 
<266). There is also an interesting portrait by him at 
Chantilly, of the Dauphine Marie Antoinette, as Hebe. 

Chardin, J. B. Simon (b, Paris, 1699 ; d. Paris, 1779). 
— Chardin, after a long period of neglect, has of late been 
restored the position his admirable work deserves. Noel 
Cojrpel was the first to instil an admiration for truth into 
the yoimg painter. Coypel employed him to paint a gun in 
one of his portraits — that of a chasseur. And the care the 
master took in arranging the light and position of this 
accessory, revealed instantly to Chardin the importance of 
close attention to nature, of exactitude in place, colour, 
chiaroscuro. When asked for a sign for a surgeon's shop, 
Chardin, instead of representing the surgical implements of 
the day, painted a quaint bit of contemporary life. A man 
wounded in a duel is brought to the surgeon's door, who 
bandages him, while all round the crowd of passers by are in 
a state of violent excitement; dogs bark, the water-carrier 
stares, the lady in the vinaigrette puts her head out of the 
door in a state of alarm ; haste, catastrophe, pervades the 
whole picture. It made an immense success. Chardin and 
some other Academy students were then taken by J. B. Van 
Loo to restore a gallery at Fontainebleau, and Van Loo 
bought one of his pictures closely imitating a bas relief, 
^which Chardin had exhibited in the Place Dauphine. 

Chardin's first picture in the style of w^hich he was soon 
to be a master, was of a dead rabbit. This induced him to 
devote himself to ** Still Life"; to which he later added 
living animals. A member of the Corporation of St. Luke, 
and encouraged by the praises of its artists, Chardin sent ten 
pictures to the Academy. They were placed haphazard in 
one of the outer rooms ; and Largilliere, Louis de Boulogne 
and Cazes took them for Flemish masterpieces. When the 
young artist was discovered, he was proposed and received 
in the same day as a full member of the Academy, rising in 
1755 to the post of Treasurer, which he occupied for twenty 
yeajrs. In 1757 he obtained lodgings in the Louvre and a 
pension of 1200 livres; and in 1765 succeeded Michel 


Ange Slodtz at the Royal Academy of Rouen. Chardin 
worked to extreme old age. His pictures are remarkable for 
truth of gesture and expression, harmony of colour and 
knowledge of chiaroscuro, mellowness and firmness of touch. 
After great popularity, they fell much out of favour till of 
late. But Chardin was not only the painter of natures 
nwrtes. He was the historian of the Petite Bourgeoisie. 
** No woman of the tiers etat looks at his pictures," says a 
curious little pamphlet of the day, " but thinks that she sees 
** herself and her surroundings.'* With the Classics and 
Romantics the bourgeoisie soon fell out of favour; and 
Chardin with it. 

Twenty-eight of his pictures are in the Louvre. Among 
those of special value are : — 

Le Singe Antiquaire. 97. 

Le Chateau de Cartes, 1741. 103. 

Peaches and grapes. 110. 

And several admirable ** Natures Mortes ". 106. 

Girls at work, Dulwich. 307. 

Bread and wine. National Gallery. 

La Fontaine, and La Blanchisseuse, Sir Francis Cook. 
Boucher, FRAN901S (b. Paris, 1703 ; cZ. Paris, 1770). — 
** Le Peintre des Graces et des Amours," the future premier 
peintre du roi and Director of the Academy, son of a 
humble painter who sold cheap prints and drew designs 
for embroideries, had no real master but Lemoyne. And 
with Lemoyne he only stayed about three months. Lemoyne, 
however, made so profound an impression on the lad, that 
Boucher's earlier pictures were often taken for those of his 

About 1721 Francois Boucher went to live with the 
father of Cars the engraver, who carried on a trade in 
theses, the sort of placards or cartouches then greatly in 
favour. These Boucher designed ; and they w^ere at once 
engraved by Laurent Cars, who became his intimate friend, 
and later on his chief engraver. For this work the pere 
Cars gave him food and lodging, with 60 francs a month — 
a little fortune ! The most important of these thises were 


^or England. One is dedicated to Marlborough — ** forti, felici, 
invicto ". Mars is seen above with Fame, surrounded with 
Loves, and gives orders to Vulcan and his Cyclops, forging 
arms below. 

In 1723 Boucher gained the premier prix at the Academy. 
But did not go to Kome. This secured him food, lodging, 
instruction, and 300 francs a year for three years ; with 
time besides to work at 24 francs a day for the well-known 
amateur, M. de Julienne, the friend of Watteau who was 
bringing out his CEuvre de Watteau ; and Boucher engraved 
125 of Watteau's pictures for it. He also exhibited several 
small pictures in 1725 in the Place Dauphine. And two years 
later he went to Eome at his own cost, with Carle Van Loo 
and his two nephews. He was elected to the Academy on 
his return in 1731; and received in 1734, as **Peintre 
d'Histoire," his picture being ** Eenaud aux pieds d'Armide '*. 
The year before, he had married Marie-Jeanne Busseau, then 
only seventeen, a very lovely woman. La Tour exhibited 
an exquisite pastel of her in 1737. And in 1761 Koslin 
exhibited another portrait of Mme. Boucher, ** qui est 
toujours belle," said Diderot. The celebrated beauty was 
not only of use to Boucher as his model, but turned her 
hand to work in the studio, engraving, and copying some of 
his pictures in miniature ; while a rare ea%L forte of hers 
also exists. 

Boucher's success now grew apace. In 1735 — already 

professor-adjoint — he painted the four charming grisailles for 

the Chambre de la Reine at Versailles. And was soon 

employed under Oudry on designs for tapestry for Beauvais, 

such as the well-known ** BalauQoire," the '* Chasse au 

Tigre," and '* Chasse au Crocodile ". In the Salon of 1737 

—the first that had been held since 1704 — he had several 

pictures **pour le Roy". In 1742 he received a royal 

pension, and began the decorations of the Hotel Soubise. 

And his Goddesses, his Dianas, his Auroras — above all his 

Venus — his swarms of little loves — all the fantastic mythology 

of the time — alternate with landscapes, with pastorales, with 

shepherds and shepherdesses who seem to step off the boards 



of the Opera, with all the pretty follies and falsehoods in 
which the 18th century delighted. No one knew how to 
render them with more absolute conviction than Boucher. 
And they succeed one another with incredible rapidity in 
those ten triumphant years from 1742 to 1753. For he is 
now the favourite painter of the Femme ministre. And Mme. 
de Pompadour's favourite was not likely to lack employment. 
1752 had brought him a pension of 1000 livres, and the 
much-coveted lodgings and studio in the Louvre. Three 
years later he succeeds Oudry at the Gobelins. Though his 
' patroness, la Pompadour, died in 1764, her influence on the 
King was strong even after she was gone. And in 1765, on 
Van Loo's death, the King appointed Boucher his premier 
peintre ; and he also became Director of the Academy. 

It is impossible to give any idea of the prodigious quantity 
of pictures the artist produced in his long and successful 
career. He tried all styles — Religious, mythological, fantastic 
subjects. Landscapes, animals, decorations. Scene paintings 
for the Opera, for the Foire de St. Laurent, and the Foire 
de St. Germain. Dessus de portes, ceilings, panels for 
carriages, models for tapestry. A Pantin for the Duchesse 
d'Orleans that cost 1500 livres. Fans, watch cases, ostrich 
eggs, chinoiseries — nothing was too trivial for his brush. 

His drawings form an enormous and important part of 
his work. He himself calculated his illustrations and 
drawings at over 10,000. For Boucher was the first to raise 
original drawings into a lucrative part of the artist's work ; 
and his, produced so rapidly in sancjuiiie, in pencil, in chalk, 
were eagerly sought after by his admirers. 

Amid the general laudation with which Boucher's genius 
was acclaimed by his contemporaries, only one voice was 
persistently raised against the Pompadour's favourite, and this 
was Diderot's. The mere sight of his pictures threw Diderot 
into a frenzy of anger, and violent and brutal criticism. But 
there was a more profound reason than mere fashion for Bou- 
cher's enormous popularity. ** He is one of those men who 
" signify the taste of a century, who express it, personify it 
" and incarnate it. French taste of the eighteenth century 


is manifested in him in all the specialism of its character. 

Boucher will remain not only its painter, but its witness, 

* its representative, its type."^ He does not represent the 

rhole of the eighteenth century art. ** He is not equal 

* either to Watteau or Chardin : but he is par excellence the 

^* painter of Louis XV. and of the Pompadour. "^ 

By one of those strange but common revolutions in art, 
the names of Boucher and Van Loo became terms of 
reproach in the mouths of critics and classical fanatics. 
Though David might say **N'est pas Boucher qui veut,'* no 
one heeded him. In 1812 the Journal de VEmpire warns 
Prud'hon not to imitate the style of " Boucher de ridicule 
m^moire " — ** de Boucher maudit ". In 1822 one of his land- 
scapes fetched twenty-two francs ; a shepherd teaching a 
shepherdess to pipe, forty-one francs. The detractors have 
now disappeared in turn. And Boucher has once again taken 
his rightful place among French artists, because he was a 
bom painter and the creator of a type. 

Examples. Among twenty-one pictures in the Louvre : — 
Diane sortant du Bain. 30. 

Venus conmiande de Vulcain les armes d'Enee. 31. 
Vulcain donne a Venus les armes d'i^n^e. 36. 
Le But, the celebrated picture of Loves shooting at a 

Heart. 42. 
Toilette de Venus. 43. 
Venus d^sarme I'Amour. 44. 
Lever du Soleil ; Coucher du Soleil, bought by Mme. 

de Pompadour, 1753. Hertford House. 
CeiUng Salle de Conseille, 1753, Fontainebleau. 
Four Grisailles, Chambre de la Eeine, Versailles. 
A number of pictures for Tapestry, Trianon. 
Pan and Syrinx, National Gallery. 
Vteus et TAmour, Windsor Castle. 
Three pictures. Corporation Art Gallery, Glasgow. 

49, 50, 51. 
Pictures at National Gallery, Edinburgh ; Castle 
Barnard; Art Museum, Bath; collections of 

^ De Goncourt. ' Andr6 Michel. 


Mme. de Falbe, Asher Wertheiiner, Esq., Alfred 

de Rothschild, Esq., etc., etc. 
Portrait of Mme. de Pompadour, painted 1757 on 

porcelain, Lord Pirbright. 
Arion sauv^ des Eaux, Metrop. Art Mus., New York. 
Fragonard, Jean Honore (6. Grasse, 1732; d. Paris, 
1806). — Honore Fragonard before all else is a Proven9al. 
** La gueuse parfmnee," as his native land has well been 
called, was his fairy godmother. Till eighteen he grew up 
under the southern sun, in all the joy of light and warmth, 
of gracious and enchanting natural surroundings. His work 
reflects his race and his country. And his gay confidence in 
Providence and in himself, is expressed in his laughing 
answer when questioned on his early life and the way in 
which he had formed himself: **Tire-toi d*affaire comme tu 
** pourras, m'a dit la Nature en me poussant dans la Vie '\ 

At eighteen the family came to Paris about a law suit 
which ruined them ; and Fragonard became clerk to a 
notary. But he detested the profession, and instead of 
figures made caricatures in his books. The notary had the 
sense to see his talent. And his mother took him to Boucher. 
Boucher however said Fragonard did not know enough — he 
might come back when he had learnt the elements of drawing. 
He went on to Chardin, who only gave him prints of the 
day to copy. And the lad spent half his time wandering 
among. the churches of Paris, looking at the pictures, and 
often painting them from memory at home. At the end 
of six months he took some of these memory sketches to 
Boucher. Amazed at his progress, Boucher at once received 
him, and set him to work on his own great paintings for the 
manufactory of the Gobelins. This was his whole appren- 
ticeship. At the end of t\vo years Boucher made him com- 
pete for the Prix de Kome — not as an Academy student — 
but as his own pupil. This he gained in 1752. 

Once in Rome his head was turned by all he saw. He 
hardly knew what line to take, and did so badly at fii*st that 
no one believed in his talent. Natoire was then chief of the 
Academy. And the pupils were so idle under his weak 


^txathority that M. de Marigny was obliged to intervene. 

Tw^o years later Fragonard was mentioned as gifted, but 

too versatile. The truth was that Rome was too much for 

tiiin, as it was for Goethe. He confessed later that the 

genius of Michael Angelo frightened him. Raphael brought 

tears to his eyes. And he turned to the 17th century, to 

Baroccio, Solimfene, Pierre de Cortone, Tiepolo, feeling that 

he might some day hope to rival their work. After a time 

he regained his equilibrimn ; and his masters soon began to 

recognise the fire and vigour of his work. He obtained 

leave to stay an extra year in Rome. And here his close 

relations with Hubert-Robert, the landscape painter, and 

the amiable and accomplished Abb6 de Saint-Non began. 

Some of Saint-Non's etchings from the drawings of the two 

young artists, who went with him to Naples and spent 

ixionths with him in the Villa d'Este, show the Abb6 as a 

remarkable artist. And to this period are due many exquisite 

'vvorks of ** Frago," as his friends called him. 

1761 saw Fragonard back in Paris after five years' 
ixicessant labour and study. As it was only possible then 
C ^ee next chapter) for elected Academicians, professors, and 
f viU members, to exhibit in the Salon, the first step was to 
elected. Fragonard *s picture w^as the ** Callirrhoe '* of the 
lOUvre. Though he treated it in a theatrical fashion — for 
was taken from Rameau's opera — it is a great picture. 
le colour is exquisite, with the red draperies below the group 
i white and beautiful figures. And through it rings that 
ovel cry of passion and pathos of which de Goncourt speaks. 
Xt was a triumph for the artist. '* M. Fragonard," writes de 
ISlarigny to Natoire, *' has just been received at the Academy 
with a unanimity and applause of wliich there have been 
few examples." Fragonard, however, contented himself 
^'ith the title of ** agre^ ". He did not attempt to become an 
Academician. And the Salon of 1767 was the second and last 
in which he exhibited. Disgusted with official work, after the 
difficulties he had experienced with regard to the payment for 
his Callirrhoe by M. de Marigny, he henceforth w^orked only 
for amateurs, who strove to secure his smallest compositions. 


Fragonard married in 1769. And in 1773, Bergeret, the 
Fermier-Gen^ral, took him and his wife back to Italy, on one 
of those stately journeys of the last century, where theatres, 
picture galleries, Naples, Vesuvius and the Pope, were all 
visited in leisurely fashion ; and a year was spent in study 
and observation where now we give a month. Fragonard 
began to draw before they reached the frontier, and drew 
without ceasing the whole time. But when, on the friends' 
return by Venice, Vienna, Leipzig and Dresden, ** Frago " 
requested to have his drawings returned to him, there was a 
dispute. They even went to law ; and Bergeret w^as con- 
demned to return the drawings, or pay 30,000 francs, which 
he preferred to do. The quarrel, one is glad to know, was 
made up, and the old friendship restored. 

In Fragonard's lodging at the Louvre his studio was 
arranged in harmony with the subjects he delighted in. He 
decorated it with paintings of wreaths of flowers, shrubs, a 
fountain, a swing, rich draperies. And there, in a fantastic 
light, he produced those rapid and brilliant pictures which 
have made de Goncourt say, that he is ** Un esquisseur de 
genie ". Some of his subjects which may now be considered 
somewhat indecent, were then, it must be remembered, in 
accordance with the extremely broad taste of the time. But 
his portraits, his exquisite pictures of children and scenes of 
child-life, his decorations, and very many of his pictures, are 
without a touch of offence. He tried all styles, working 
without ceasing and with extraordinary facility. Miniatures, 
which he imbued with a grace and brightness all his own ; 
pastels, gouaches, water-colours, charming eaux fortes and 
drawings a la sanguine. His drawings are a most important 
part of his work. 

The Revolution ruined Fragonard. The fashion deserted 
him for David's school. And though David himself was 
always faithful to him, he died in comparative poverty in 
1806, obscure and forgotten. 

Examples in Louvre : — 
Callirrho^. 290. 
Le9on de Musique. 291. 


La Musique. 296. 

L'etude. 297. 

L 'Inspiration. 298. 

Figure de Fantaisie. 299. 

Jeune Femme et enfant. 800. 

L'ora^e. 301. 

Portrait de Fragonard. 302. 

Un Buveur. 303. 

L'Heure du Berger. 

It is supposed that Fragonard painted the forty- 
two little portraits of Princes and Princesses of 
the House of Bourbon at Chantilly, as his 
name figures in the accounts of payments for 

Young Scholar, and La Lettre, Hertford House. 

Day, and Night, Mme. de Falbe. 

Head of Girl, James Knowles, Esq. 

F^te Champetre, Corporation Art Gallery, Glasgow. 

Fragonard's chef d'oeuvre, however, has only just 

been revealed to the public, in the series of decorative 

pictures known as the '* Roman d'Amour de la Jeunesse ". 

These were painted for Mme. du Barry about 1772 ; 

but she returned them to the painter. And in 1793 he 

transported them to the salon of his friend M. Malvilan 

at Grasse, where they have remained ever since, unseen 

except by a favoured few. Messrs. Agnew in exhibiting 

them, November, 1898, have made known the charm and 

beauty of one of the most important works of the 18th 


Tbinquesse, L., a very interesting painter of the school 
of Watteau and Fragonard, a pupil of Largillifere, is now 
almost unknown. His works are extremely rare. The only 
example I know of in England, is the ** Scfene d'Amour,'* 
in the possession of Reginald Vaile, Esq. It is signed 
and dated 1786, and was exhibited at the Guildhall, 

Greuze, Jean Baptiste (6. Toumus, near Macon, 1725 ; 
d. Louvre, 1806). — ** To personify an epoch, however short. 


** is a happiness which at the same time is a warrant of 
** duration. Greuze knew this happiness, which perhaps 
*'was beyond his deserts.** His talent manifested itself 
early. But his father, a master tiler, intended him to he 
an architect, and at eight years old forbade him to draw. 
A pen and ink drawing however of the head of St. James, 
done in secret, at last softened the father's heart. The boy 
was allowed to go to Lyons and work with M. Grandon, 
the father of Mme. de Gretry. Here he only learnt how to 
manufacture a picture a day. Longing for a wider sphere 
he set out for Paris, where he worked industriously from 
the model at the Academy under Natoire, painting small 
pictures to earn his bread. 

Pigalle now became interested in him. And Greuze*s 
first important picture, which had been exhibited at the 
house of the well-known amateur, M. de la Live de Jully, 
created a sensation at the Salon of 1755. It was **Le Pere 
de Famille expliquant le Bible a ses enfants**. Here was 
a wholly new style. The familiar scene, the everyday details, 
the personnages resolutely taken from a humble bourgeoisie, 
fell in exactly with the new philosophic ideas of simplicity 
and morality. Greuze was famous at once. He was 
presented at the Academy by Pigalle, and elected upon his 
*' Aveugle tromp^ '*. At the end of the same year he went to 
Italy with the Abbe Gougenot. And in 1757 brought back 
a certain niunber of Italian scenes. But though Italy had 
no great influence upon him, the journey disturbed him ; and 
it was some time before he recovered his own style. In the 
Salon of 1759, where he had sixteen pictures and drawings, 
Diderot is discontented with his apostle, and declares he 
cares for him no longer. While in the next one (1761) 
all is forgotten and forgiven. He raves over the famous 
" Accord^e du Village'*. And in succeeding years becomes 
positively lyric over la peintiire morale of '* mon ami 
Greuze ". *' Ah ! mon Dieu ! comme il me touche ! mais 
'* si je le regarde encore je crois que je vais pleurer," he 
cries before *' Le Paralytique ou la Piete fihale " (now in the 
Hermitage). And over the '* Malediction Paternel *' and 


*' Le Fils puni," Diderot and the public can hardly find 
epithets to express their rapture. 

Although Greuze was elected to the Academy in 1755, 
he did not take the trouble to paint his reception picture 
for many years. After several warnings to conform to the 
statutes, the Academy forbade him to exhibit in the Salon 
of 1767. And after this mark of displeasure, Greuze at last 
decided in 1769 to paint his picture. He foolishly chose a 
subject w^hich would admit him to the professorships and 
other privileges of Historical painters — *' Septimus Severus 
and Caracalla " (Louvre, 368). It was so thoroughly unsuited 
to the painter of tearful, sentimental women, and chubby- 
iaced children, that he failed hopelessly to do himself 
justice. The Academy did not refuse it. But Lemoyne, 
who was Director that year, made a severe little speech, 
and announced to Greuze that in consideration of his earlier 
pictures, which were ** excellent,'* he was received as a 
** genre painter". Here was a terrible blow to Greuze. It 
also gave a legitimate opportunity to the many enemies 
his unbounded vanity and self-infatuation, as well as his 
success, had created. The public for once was thoroughly 
in sympathy with the Academy. All agreed that ** Greuze, 
** tnithful in what is simple, and sublime in what is naif 
^' (which is still tolerably strong praise), was incapable of the 
** heroic style ". 

Greuze was furious ; and refused to exhibit again in the 
Salon, until the Revolution threw open the doors of the 
Louvre to all artists. But this was too late for his glory 
and his fortune. For twenty-five years his vogue had been 
immense. Times and taste alike had changed. After having 
amassed considerable sums, most of which had been squan- 
dered by his wife, he found himself at seventy-five ruined, 
without resources, imploring in vain for orders. And in 
1806 he died in indigence. Many of Greuze's portraits are 
really fine. The portrait of M. de Wille is a chef d'ceuvre. 
So is that of Fabre d'Eglantine in the Salle la Gaze. And 
the sketch of himself in the same room, as well as his great 
portrait, are very fine works. 


Among the fifteen pictures in the Louvre, the mos 
important are : — 

Portrait de Jeaurat, peintre. 373. 

Greuze peint par lui-meme. 65. 

Greuze, sketch, Salle la Gaze. 382. 

Fabre d*Eglantine. 379. 

L'Accordee du Village. 369. 

Le Malediction patemel. 370. 

Le fils puni. 371. 

La Cruche Cassee. 372. 

Portrait de Fontenelle, Versailles. 4374. 

Napoleon I., Consul (a replique), Versailles. 4634. 

Head of girl ; Girl with apple ; Girl carrying a lamb^ 

National Galleiy. 206, 1020, 1154. 
Two pictures, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. 318, 

Five pictures. National Gallery, Edinburgh. 554, 

344. 379, 356, 386. 
Two pictures. Corporation Art Gallery, Glasgow. 

200, 201. 
La fiUe paresseuse ; Le Silence ; T^te d'Enfant,, 

Buckingham Palace. 
Louis XVI., ilme. de Pompadour, Hampton Court. 
Portrait of Eobespierre, Lord Rosebery. 
Two girls* heads, Baron Alfred de Rothschild. 
Three very beautiful examples, Chantilly. 
Lord Wantage, V.C, Lord Pirbright, E. A. Leatham,. 
Esq., C. J. Galloway, Esq., etc., etc., have speci- 
mens of Greuze in their collections. 
Of many other painters of less importance space will not 
allow me to speak at length. Among them are the three 
Coypels. Noel Coypel [1628-1707] , the director of the 
Academy of Rome. Antoine [1661-1722] , who painted the 
roof of the Chapel at Versailles. And his more celebrated 
son, Charles Antoine [1694-1752], who was one of the 
first to give the vogue to literary painting in the 18th cen- 
tury. His Perseus and Andromeda (Louvre, 180) is a 
curious mixture of Le Brun and Boucher; with naked 


nymphs, agonized King and Queen in pseudo-Eoman dress, 
lightnings, clouds, and Loves with torches. Pierre Sub- 
LEYRAS (1699-1749), who painted for Popes and Cardinals 
in Rome, and a great picture for St. Peter's, to be repro- 
duced in mosaic, an unknown honour for a living artist. 
Claude Joseph Vernet (1714-1789), the marine and 
landscape painter, who was born at Avignon; and going 
to Rome at eighteen spent twenty years there. Who, 
though his colour is less warm, his style less lofty than 
that of Claude Lorraine, always tries to render nature with 
breadth, truth, and simpHcity. His famous series of sea- 
ports were ordered by Louis XV. in 1753. Some of these 
are in the Louvre. There are also three of his pictures at 
DuJwich. And many others in different collections, pubHc 
and private, in England. 

Art of the Eighteenth Century. — continued, 


France has never struck a more purely personal note in Art 

since the Middle Ages than that of the eighteenth century'. 

And although, as I have said, the most complete artistic 

expression of the period is to be found in painting, the 

sculptors of the eighteenth century were more absolutely 

French than they had been for three hundred years. For 

with the end of the Grand Si^cle, in Sculpture as well as in 

painting, a new ideal appears, charming and original. This 

new tendency in Sculpture had begun even under the rigid 

officialism of the reign of Louis XIV. Once more Sculpture 

had led the way to a purely national art. Girardon suggests 

it. Coysevox develops it. With the Coustous, Eobert Le 

Lorrain, J. B. Lemoyne, it waxes strong. Till with their 

pupils, with such artists as Bouchardon, Pigalle, Pajou, 

Clodion, Houdon, it reaches its full expression. Statuary 

has shaken itself free from pedantry. It becomes instinct 

with life, with movement, with that special grace that is the 

hall-mark of the eighteenth century Art. If reUgious 

sculpture remains feeble and conventional, it is because 

religious life has lost its fervour. Humanity is what is 

occupying the minds of men in the eighteenth century ; and 

portrait sculpture redeems the weakness of religious sculpture. 

It is par excellence the age of portrait busts ; and these show 

qualities of rare merit. ** Flesh quivers in marble and 

'* bronze ; technique assumes an infinite * brio ' ; the rendering 

" of the epidermis, that ultimate object of the sculptor's 

*' attainment, that authentic signature of the great masters, 

'* whether they are called Phidias, Praxiteles, Beauneveu, 


1715.1789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTVBY .—continued, 221 

<< 01 

Sinter, Donatello, Colombe, Michael-Angelo, Goujean, 

"Cojrsevox or Pujet, becomes current coin of the trade." 

In Architecture the same tendencies, though in a less 

degree, are observed. Architecture for a time loses the 

severity, the pomposity of the seventeenth century. It 

becomes humanized, intimate, familiar, livable. The facades 

take elegant curves. They are decorated with rounded 

balconies of rich, bulging iron work. The storeys are lower. 

The gentle ascent of the staircase seems to welcome the 

visitor in powder and satin, who arrives in a vinaigrette or a 

Sedan chair. 

Much was done during the eighteenth century towards 
the embellishment of Paris. The Bourg du Roule became 
one of the Faubourgs in 1722, adding a large and important 
district to the city ; and the Avenues d'Antin and de 
Marigny were opened in the Champs Elysees. Under 
Louis XTV. the northern Boulevards had been planted. 
Under Louis XV. the southern were planted, and finished in 
1761 ; and those between the Invalides, the ficole Militaire 
and Vaugirard were traced out and planted. In 1770 the 
Champs Elysees were entirely replanted ; and the splendid 
avenue was prolonged to the famous Pont de Neuilly, which 
Perronnet completed in 1772, to replace the old wooden 
bridge ruined by ice. 

Under Louis XVI. the architect Goudoin built the ficole 
de M^decine ; Peyre and de Wailly, the Odeon ; Desmaisons, 
part of the Palais de Justice ; Le Noir, the Theatre de la 
Porte St. Martin ; Louis, the Galleries of the Palais Eoyal, 
and the The&tre Frantjais. The Palace of the Elys^e is one 
of the most important buildings of the epoque. Begun in 
1718 for the Comte d'Evreux, it was enlarged by Mme. de 
Pompadour and her brother, the Marquis de Marigny ; then 
again by the financier Beaujon ; and took its final form under 
the ownership of the Duchesse de Bourbon-Cond^, who 
gave it her name, ** Elysee Bourbon ". A good example of 
domestic architecture of the end of the reign of Louis XV. 
and beginning of Louis XVI., is the Petit Trianon at 
Versailles. This was built by Gabriel in 1768. And six or 


seven years later Marie Antoinette added the charming 
Jardin Arujlais about it, under the influence of the universal 
Anf^lomania of the day. 

But with the latter part of the century a fresh influence 
made itself felt. The discovery of the Greek Temples ot 
Pcestum was destined to produce an immense effect on 
French Architecture. They created intense enthusiasm 
among French architects. M. Lagardette had measured 
these buildings, and published his measurements and draw- 
ings in a folio volume. And for a time the Order of Paestum 
columns was used with wild prodigality on buildings of all 
sorts. The Lyc^e Bonaparte was built under this influence 
in 1780 by Brongniard. The Classic tendencies that were 
to reign supreme during the Empire, were already beginning 
to make themselves felt. But this important and interesting 
subject belongs to another chapter. 


Gabriel, Jacques Ange (6. 1698; d, 1782). — Why. 
except that he was son of Jacques-Jules Gabriel, and great- 
nephew of J. Hardouin Mansart, Gabriel should have been 
made a member of the Academy when barely thirty, is not 
known. At thirty he was appointed Controller of the 
Buildings at Fontainebleau. In 1742 he was made Architecte 
du roi ; and later in the same year, on the death of his father, 
premier Architecte to Louis XV. Before his father's death 
he had taken over the building of the front and towers of the 
Cathedral of Orleans. And in 1745 he became Inspecteur- 
g6neral des Batiments, and furnished plans for the restoration 
of Rheims; for carrjring on the Palais des 6tats, Dijon, 
which he eventually built between 1775 and 1784 ; and for 
the ftcole Militaire, Paris. In 1752 he made the plans for the 
Place Louis XV., which was inaugurated in 1763. But the 
Colonnades and the rue Koyale were not finished till 1772. 
Between 1753 and 1774 he rebuilt the central Pavilion of 
the Cour d'Honneur at Versailles, now known as " TAile 
Gabriel **. And also built the Theatre. It was inaugurated in 
1770, and was considered at the end of the eighteenth century 

1715-1789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— ccwi^inM^d. 223 

as one of the most sumptuous in Europe, with its sculptures 
by Pajou and Guibert, and its exquisite decorations. Having 
been much altered by Louis Philippe, it now belongs to the 
Senate, and is not open to the public. 

In 1755 M. de Marigny confided to Gabriel a work of the 
utmost importance — the restoration of the Louvre. Perrault's 
wing had never been roofed in, and was becoming absolutely 
ruinate. Gabriel began by restoring Perrault's Colonnade ; 
and then undertook the reconstruction of the opposite fa9ade, 
looking on the court. This was in so perilous a condition 
that it was necessary actually to rebuild it ; which was done 
carefully. And Gabriel then proceeded to unite the fa9ade upon 
the river with the western wing upon the court, destroying 
what remained of Le Van's work. He then added the 
sculptures to the greater part of Perrault's building. These 
form the ornamentation, so worthy of admiration, which 
now exists. About the same time, he rebuilt the Chapel 
of Compifegne. And in 1759 he decorated the great anti- 
chambre du roi at Fontainebleau after his own designs. 
Besides these works, he finished the Palais Bourbon ; 
added to the Grand Chateau de Choisv, and built the 
small one. 

SouFFLOT, Jacques-Germain (b. Trancy, Yonne, 1709 ; 
d. Paris, 1780). — This celebrated architect began his studies 
at Lyons. He then went to Eome, where, through the 
interest of Saint- Aignan, then Ambassador, he was appointed 
Pensionnaire du roi} After three years in Rome, Soufflot 
went to Asia Minor. And in 1737 returned to Lyons to 
superintend the building of the Church of the Chartreux, 
for which he had already sent plans from Italy. He 
also built the new buildings of the Hotel Dieu, enlarged 
the Loge de Change, restored the Archev^che in Lyons ; 
and in 1747 received 500 livres for the levelling of the 
Rhone from Saint-Clair to Ainay. In 1749 he was admitted 
to the Academy of Architecture, and the following year 
accompanied M. de Marigny to Rome. But he was obhged 
by his health to return to France, and halted again at 

^ See Vien, chap. xii. 


Lyons, where he furnished plans for the old Grand Theatr"^ 
and for a Concert Hall. 

Soufflot took part in the open competition in 1752 fo:^' 
the Place Louis XV., which was gained by Gabriel. And twc^ 
years later was entrusted with the reconstruction of the? 
Cathedral of Rennes. In the sanie year his plans for the- 
Lyons theatre being accepted, he was given a salary of 6000' 
livres and travelling expenses. The theatre, which was- 
finished in 1756, was rebuilt in 1828. In 1755 he prepared 
plans for the Hotel de Ville at Bordeaux ; was made con- 
troller of the works at Marly ; and, a Httle later, of th^ 
Monuments de Paris. In the following year he fumishei 
plans for the 6cole de Droit, though the work was not> 
begun till 1771, and for the Tr^sor and Grande Sacristie oC 
Notre Dame. In 1757 he was created Chevalier of th^^ 
Order of Saint Michel, and prepared the plans for Sainte — 
(Tcnevi^ve (the Pantheon). The first stone of this greats 
church was laid in 1764, Soufflot carrying on the works as- 
far as the beginning of the Dome. 

Few parts of France are untouched by the popular 
architect's hand. He superintended the building of the 
Cathedral of Kennes in 1760, for which he had given the 
plans six years before ; and in 1770 was called to Sens 
to decide with Coustou upon the place for the Dauphin's 
tomb : finishing the Hotel Dieu at Macon in the same 
year. In 1771 he had the temerity to ** improve** the 
principal door of Notre Dame, repairing it and removing 
the central pillar ! This, happily, has since been restored 
under the vigilance of M. Viollet-le-Duc. Lyons was 
the chief provincial centre of his work; and in 1772 he 
was made controller-general of the embellishment of the 
city, **en recompense de ses travaux a THotel de Ville, 
**a rh6pital general, a la loge de change, et a la salle de 
** spectacle, et pour son desinteresscvient *'. Again, the follow- 
ing year, he was summoned to Lyons to direct the works 
on the place Royale, and granted leave of absence for 
this purpose. On the suppression of the appointments of 
controleurs-g^neral, he was made *'intendant-general des- 

17151789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— ca»t/inu«d. 225 

batiments du roi,*' and lodged at first in the rue de Champ- 
fleury; afterwards obtaining a house in the enclos de 
rOrangerie at the Louvre, where he died in 1780. 
Among his many works were : — 

The Guichet de Marigny in the Grande Galerie du 

Louvre (now destroyed). 
Twenty pavihons of the Pont Neuf (also destroyed). 
Hotel Lauzun, au Eoule. 
Some works at the Louvre. 
Chateau de Chatou for Bertin. 
The Orangerie, Chateau de St. M^nan. 
The Church of the Visitation, Le Mans. 
Parts rebuilt of the Abbey of St. Germain d'Auxerre. 
He also wrote two books : 1, Plafis and cuts of the 
three Temples at Pcestum, 1750 ; 2, CEuvres ou 
recueils de plusimirs parties d^ architecture , 1767. 
Couture, Guillaume Martin (6. Eouen, 1732 ; d. 1799), 
^after completing his education in Italy came to Paris, and 
there built the Hotels de Saxe and de Coislin. In 1773 he 
was admitted to the Academy of Architecture. And two 
years later built the Jube of the Cathedral of Eouen upon 
designs of Le Carpentier, who had just died. In 1776 he, 
with Moreau and Antoine, undertook the rebuilding of the 
portions of the Palais de Justice in Paris, which had been 
burned down. But he was replaced by Desmaisons. In 
1777, having succeeded Constant d*Ivry as architect of the 
Madeleine, he modified the original plans, adding two bays, 
as he did not consider the nave of sufficient length. The 
works, however, were interrupted by the Revolution, and the 
Madeleine as we now know it was not completed until 1842, 
by Huv6,^ who was appointed in 1828, Pierre Vignon having 
carried on the works during the first Empire. Couture 
built the great Barracks at Caen, which were not finished 
until 1835. He was made premier Architecte du roi and 
Grand Cordon of Saint Michel. And died in 1799. 

Desmaisons, Pierre, — was admitted to the Academy 
and appointed Architecte du roi in 1762. In 1770-72 he 

^ See chap. xxii. 



furnished plans for the double staircase of the Archev^he. 
Assistant to Couture in rebuilding the burnt parts of the 
Palais de Justice, upon his retirement Desmaisons with 
Moreau, finished the Cour de Mai ; and he continued archi- 
tect of the Palais de Justice until 1791. 

Wailly, ' Charles de (6. 1729; d. 1798), — a pupil of 
Blondel, and later of Servandoni, gained the Grand Prix 
d 'Architecture in 1752, and two years later his brevet as 
*' elfeve de Rome '*. He, however, obtained leave to divide 
this privilege with his friend Moreau, who had only gained 
the second prize after four attempts. In Italy de Wailly was 
made member of the Institute of Bologna. And on his 
return to France he was admitted in 1767 to the first class 
of the Academy of Architecture without the usual prelimi- 
naries of passing through the second class. In 1771 he was 
admitted to the Academy of Painting upon the same favour- 
able terms. And next year was appointed architect of the 
Palace of Fontainebleau in conjunction with Peyxe, who was 
henceforth associated with him in many of his best known 
works. In 1773 de Wailly obtained a prolonged leave of 
absence, in order to complete the decoration of the Hotel 
Spinola at Genoa. And he returned to Italy afterwards for 
other works. In 1779 he and Peyre built the Theatre of the 
Od^on, one of their best known works. And de Wailly later 
on built the Hotel de Voyer, rue des Eons Enfants, w^hich 
became the Chancellerie du due d'0rl6ans, etc. Among his 
other works, he modified the plans of the Op6ra Comique, 
then the Italian Opera House — finished the Chapel of the 
Virgin, St. Sulpice — and built a chapel at Versailles, which 
is now a Protestant church. Such was his popularity that 
Catherine of Russia, ever on the lookout for fresh talent, 
offered him the Presidency of the Academy of Architecture 
in St. Petersburg, with a large income. But he refused to 
expatriate himself. After the conquests of Holland and 
Belgium, he was sent to those countries to chose works of 
Art for the French museums. And on the creation of the 
Institute he became one of its original members. 

Peyre, Marie Joseph (b, 1730), — gained the Grand 

1716-1789. ART OP THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— con^inwed. 227 

Prix de Eome in 1751, the year before de Wailly. In 1769 
he entered the Academy. In 1772 was appointed architect 
of Fontainebleau with de Wailly. And in 1779, again in 
association with de Wailly, he furnished fresh plans for the 
Od^on, began by his brother-in-law Moreau, which was 
finished in 1782. 

Moreau-Desproux, Louis Pierre (d, 1793). — For four 
years Moreau gained the second and third prizes at the 
Academy. And it was not until 1754 that he obtained the 
brevet of ** El^ve de Eome," thanks to his friend de Wailly (see 
ante). In 1762 he was admitted to the Academy, and made 
director of buildings to the Ville de Paris. In the same year 
he began the fa9ade of the Palais Royal, looking upon the 
Cour d'Honneur and the rue St. Honor6. And also began 
the rebuilding of the Opera House at the corner of the rue 
de Valois, which was burnt down in 1781 after a representa- 
tion of OrpMe. 

In 1772 Moreau was ordered to continue work on the 
front of St. Eustache, which had been begun by Man- 
sart de Jouy. And upon this he worked until 1788, when 
the works were stopped afresh, and the front left as it 
remains to-day. The triangular fronton which exists, was 
added by Moreau. Appointed Architecte du roi in 1783, he 
perished on the guillotine ten years later. 


Nicholas Coustou (1658-1732) ; Guillaume Coustou 
(1677-1746), — nephews and pupils of Coysevox, came from 
Lyons, where their father had married Coysevox's sister. 
From 1700 Nicholas was his uncle's most active collaborator. 
To the two brothers are due the delicious allegoric marble 
of the Passage du Rhin, in the vestibule of the Chapel at 
Versailles. It was begun, under Louis XV., by Nicholas, 
and finished after his death by his brother. Coysevox had 
intended that the brothers should render his magnificent 
"stuc" in the Salon de la Guerre in marble.^ But funds 
ran short, and the whole scheme was never carried out. 

^ See Coysevox. 


Two of Nicholas Coustou's best works are at Lyons — the 
bronze figures of the Saone and the Rhone. He also is the 
artist of the splendid ** Jules Cesar*' in the Louvre, and the 
statue of Louis XY. as a Boman. 

Guillaume, the younger brother, is the most famous. 
For to him we owe the charming '* Marie Leczinska " 
with a peacock, while an amour offers her the Cro^Ti (Louvre, 
543). The *' Adonis resting from the chase ** (547). The 
decoration of the portail d*honneur des Invalides. The 
Tomb of Cardinal Dubois in the Church of St. Roch. The 
Tomb of the Dauphin in the Cathedral of Sens. And lastly, 
the famous '* Chevaux de Marly,'* now on the Place de la 
Concorde, at the entrance to the Ave. des Champs Elsyees. 

Le Lorrain, Robert (b. 1666, d. 1743), was pupil of 
Girardon, and master of Pigalle. Girardon looked on him as 
his right hand. He employed him first on figures for the 
tomb of Richelieu. Le Lorrain won the prize of the Aca- 
demy, and went to Rome as Pensionnaire du Roi : but on 
account of fever he was obliged to return immediately to 
France. He entered the Academy in 1701, becoming 
Professor in 1717, and Rector in 1737. He was much 
occupied at Versailles and Marly. He exhibited groups in 
several Salons from 1704 to 1737. The Prince de Rohan- 
Soubise employed him on the iiv^ch^ de Strasbourg — the 
palais de Saveme — and on his vast hotel (now the Archives 
Nationales), where most of his sculptures happily remain — 
Force, Wisdom, Hercules, Pallas, and the Four Seasons. 
But his chef d'oeuvre is on the Hotel de Rohan (now the 
Imprimerie Nat.). This is his famous group in high relief 
of **Les chevaux du Soleil a I'Abreuvoir **. It is a work of 
extraordinary verve and vigour, quite outside the classic 
lines, as indeed was all Le Lorrain's work. He shows a 
completely novel sentiment, with **the most free, most 
** spirited, most living execution ". 

Michel-Ange Slodtz (6. 1705; d. 1764), — the most 
famous of the numerous family of Slodtz, was the pupil of 
Girardon, and the master of Houdon. He spent fourteen years 
in Rome, returning to Paris in 1747. His St. Bruno in St. 

1715-1789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— conrtntt^d. 229 

Peter's is considered one of the best modern statues in Eome. 
But his chef d'oeuvre is the tomb in marble and bronze of the 
Abbe Languet (Diderot's b^te noire), at St. Sulpice in Paris. 
Speaking of the central figure, Diderot says, '' I know of no 
" sinner who would not be inspired bj'- it with some belief in 
** divine mercy ! *' Slodtz was much absorbed by his functions 
as designer to the King of decorations for public rejoicings 
and for "pompes funebres/* which left him little time for 
sculpture. Among his works are a bas relief in bronze for 
the altar of one of the side chapels at Versailles, and the fine 
** Hannibal ** in the Garden of the Tuileries. 

Lemoyne, Jean Baptiste (6. 1704; d. 1778). — Le- 
naoyne, grandson of Monnoyer the flower painter, and the 
talented pupil of Le Lorrain, was the heir of the manner of 
the Coustous. And though somewhat affected, he had a real 
sentiment for nature, which is specially seen in his busts. 
His faults were the faults of an excessive imagination. But 
these, when face to face with the portrait, disappear. 

Lemojme was the master of Pigalle, one of the Caflieri, 
Pajou, Falconet, etc. His two most important works were 
the Tonib of Louis XV. in the ifecole Militaire. And the 
Tomb of Mignard, with his beautiful daughter, Mme. de 
Feuquiferes, kneeling before her father's bust (by Desjardins). 
This was in the Church of the Jacobins. Its debris are now 
in St. Roch, where the Uvely Mme. de Feuqui^res has become 
a Magdalen at the foot of the cross, in the Chapel of Calvary. 
There is also an important Baptism of Christ by Lemoyne 
in St. Roch. A beautiful balcony, rue des Saints P^res. 
Busts of Comte de St. Florentin, due de la Veilliere, Versailles, 
1908 ; Fontenelle, one of his best works, Versailles, 850 ; 
Mile. Clairon, 1761, Theatre Fran9ais ; Cr6billon, Musee de 

BoucHARDON, Edme (b. 1698, Chaumont en Bassigny ; 
d, 1762). — If the works of Lemoyne and Slodtz were too 
exuberant, what they lacked was found in excess in Bour- 
chardon. He possessed that correctness, balance, and distinc- 
tion which please the semi-cultivated public. No one of his 
time was more admired, more acclaimed. ** He has known,** 


said Mariette, '* how to unite the grace of Corregio with the 
** purity of the antique.'* ** He is the Phidias of France,** 
cried Voltaire. A learned and cultivated man, a fervent 
disciple of the Ancients, he was a consummate draftsman, 
knowing every secret of his trade. But Coustou*s teaching 
enabled him to be something more than a mere imitator of 
the Classics. 

His most important work is undoubtedly the great Foim- 
tain in the rue de Grenelle. The well-known bas relief on it 
of Winter, with delightful naked babies and a dog wanning 
themselves before a fire of sticks, is a charming work. His 
** Love carving a bow from Hercules club ** is another of his 
most popular works. But the head and wings make the 
figure appear top-heavy (Louvre, 508). The model in 
bronze of the equestrian statue of Louis XV. for the Place 
Louis XV., on a pedestal ornamented with bas reliefs, has 
been replaced in its original position. Cabinet du Roi, 
Versailles. There is also a bas rehef, bronze, date 1747, 
side chapel, Versailles. 

PiGALLE, Jean Baptiste (6. 1714 ; d. 1785). — It has 
been cleverly said that ** Bouchardon was only a talent ; 
** Pigalle is a temperament, and one of the most lively, one of 
** the most brilliant of the eighteenth century. As an actual 
** practitioner in marble, no one could teach him anything; 
** he is, like Houdon, a sculptor of the epidermis, a virtuoso 
**of the chisel.**^ His vigorous, fertile imagination gives 
all his works a certain accent of life and originality. He 
has many defects ; when he makes a mistake it is often a big 
one. But his qualities are those which make the masters — 
the true artists — the **lumineux,** as Fromentin calls them. 

Pigalle was the seventh son of a humble joiner in Paris. 
Robert le Lorrain, who was a neighbour, took the child at 
eight years of age into his studio ; where he made the 
acquaintance of Lemoyne, whose teaching completed what 
Le Lorrain had begun. And his natural instincts for life 
and movement were fostered by two such vigorous masters. 
About twenty he became a student at the Academy. But 

' Gonse. 

1715-1789. ART OP THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— con^nued. 231 

he failed to obtain the Prix de Rome, from a certain want 
of faith in his own talent. Some friends however enabled 
him to go to Rome. And there he was fortunate in obtaining 
the friendship and protection of the son of G. Coustou, 
himself a successful artist, who secured him several orders 
in Italy. 

On his return to Paris he set to work on his *' Mercure 
attachant ses talonniferes **. When Lemoyne saw it he cried, 
" Would that I had done it ! *' It is indeed a delightful 
thing. And one is not surprised that on the mere sight of 
the model, Pigalle was elected to the Academy. The 
small marble (Louvre, 720) was his diploma work in 1744, 
when he was received with enthusiasm. Louis XV. was 
so enchanted with the Mercury, that he ordered Pigalle 
to reproduce it in marble on a seven-foot scale, and to make 
a pendant to it. This was the ** Venus giving orders to 
Mercury". The plaster model was in the Salon of 1747. 
The King had small reproductions made of both in BisciUt 
de Sevres ; and sent the marble statues as a present to 
his ally, Frederick II. They are now both at Potsdam. 

Among Pigalle's other celebrated works is the extraor- 
dinary ** Voltaire nu,'* now at the entrance of the Library of 
the Institute. It seems to have been a caprice, possibly a 
wager. The naked figure sits on a rock, pencil in hand, 
with eyes uplifted in inspiration. Another important work 
is the monument of Louis XV. at Rheims, still in the centre 
of the Place Royale. The original statue of the King was 
melted down at the Revolution. But the most interesting 
part of the monument, the two great bronze statues of 
"France" and *' Commerce" on the pedestal, were happily pre- 
served. The latter, with his Mercury, is Pigalle's finest nude 
— a magnificent countryman, sitting, gravely contemplative, 
on a sack of com, while the wolf and the lamb lie down 
together at his feet. The Tomb also of the**Marechal de 
Saxe *' in Strasbourg Cathedral is an important work. 
Though the accessories may be too exuberant, the dignity 
of the fine statue of the Marechal, stepping calmly down 
into the tomb, redeems all. 


A -EZsZ'.-^T :t JiZxiH jLsn 

yi^r:-zz-r, Ikrr-r •.'Li^Tir 11. J m.} : h reprriiin for th^^ 
?r— r -if tIt ? tsLi-i KJkr:;^. ijjf cTen £i:er. 782 — 

i-r-.-'Z/r fn?*, 'j M. Gi-^r^. S':::rr^::i-M"aj':'r. 7S5. 

TrTTr-c'iiirr rrTriciii-T: 1 1. LiDiriirc: Tandtie. Cabinets- 

L:ii:^ XV. i? Riiiir. Enj:»er:r. PMaciion in terre- 
cuii^ :f ^lAnie f :r BellrVLlIr idesrrLved^, Versailles. 

Vojta.rr mi. B:bi:':ihe:3Ur '3r rinsrimt. 

T'^/iiiL of the Harcouns. Xc-rre Dame. 

Narcisse. Chateau de Sa^n. Conriande. 

Jenne fille a I'epine. Mn?^ Conde. 

Le Negre Paul. Mus^x- d 'Orleans. 
The Cap'fieri. — Philippe I., the head of this distinguished 
and *;xtrenjelv interesting faniilv of artists, came to France 
in the tinif of Louis XIV. He was employed on the deco- 
rations of Versailles. He did much of the carved and gilt 
wo^^rlwork in the Km^'s appartements, metal capitals for the 
Grande Galerie and Cabinet des Bains, frames for pictures, 
furniture, etc. 

jAcgrES Caffieri {b. 1678 ; d. 1755),— his third son 
was '*/f/n/Ieur et cufcleur du roi'\ He is the artist to whom 
iH duo the famous gilt bronze case of Passement's celebrated 
clock, in the Salon de THorloge, Versailles ; the fine bronzes 
of Zephyr and Flora on the mantelpiece in the chambre k 
couclKjr du Dauphin are his. And so is the marvellous toilet 
table, ** la reine des commodes a ventre rebondies," of the 
Wallace Collection. He was the father of Philippe H. and 
of Jean Jacques. 

JMhlippe II. (6. 1714 ; d, 1774) was an artist of rare merit. 
He made tin; great gilt bronze Cross and six Candlesticks for 
the High Altar of Notre Dame, to replace the exquisite silver 

a.715.1789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— «w«nM«d. 233 

garniture of Claude Ballin which was sent to the mint in 
1 760. The Seven Years* War had so completely exhausted the 
lEloyal treasury that the King had to appeal to the Churches 
"for assistance. This was. the worst blow that ecclesiastical art 
"fcreasures sustained. The Eevolution only finished the work 
•of destruction the Monarchy had begun. Nothing of this set 
of gilt bronze now remains. Happily the set Caffieri made 
for the Cathedral of Bayeux is still intact. He also worked 
on the decorative bronzes of Versailles. 

Jean Jacques (6. 1725; d. 1792), his younger brother, 
yras **a man and a master*'. He is the last and most 
illustrious of the numerous family, and is too often con- 
fused with his brother, the ciseleur-doreur. His life was 
one of extraordinary success. Though he spent five years in 
Eome, it in no way modified his great and original talent. 
In 1759 he was received at the Academy upon the delicious 
little ** Fleuve " of the Louvre. His busts, however, are the 
most important and personal part of his work. These were 
mostly in terra-cotta or plaster. He only worked to order 
in marble, and charged a high price, 3000 francs. For these 
superb marble busts, his chief patron was the Com^die 
Fran9aise. In the Foyer a magnificent series is to be seen, 
of the deepest interest to historian and artist alike. Caffieri 
died in 1792 in the same house in which he was born, rue des 

Examples : — 

Fleuve, small, 1759, Louvre. 518. 

Portrait d'homme, painted terra-cotta. Louvre. 520. 

Statues Comeille, and Moliere, Institut. 

Pingri, terra-cotta, Bibliotheque St. Genevifeve. 

Busts, Kameau, plaster. Du Peirsac, terra-cotta, 

Bibliothfeque de I'lnstitut. 
Busts, marble, at the Com^die Fran9aise. 
Buirette de Belloy. Piron. P. Corneille, 1777. La 
Chauss6e, 1785. J. B. Kousseau, 1787. Kotrou, 
a strange and magnificent work of art. 
Pajou, ** CiTOYEN DE Paris " (6. 1730 ; d, 1809).— Pajou 
incarnates in marble the taste and grace of his time, as 


did Boucher and Fragonard on canvas. He was a pnpf/ 
of Lemoyne. At eighteen he gained the Prix de Rome; 
and twelve years later he became an Academician. His 
antique is antique after the fashion of Ch^nier. His 
grace is the grace of Clodion, his son-in-law. His best 
period is about 1770. To that belong what I must consider 
his two chefs d'oeuvres — the enchanting bust of Mme. du 


Barry in the Louvre ; and the bust of Marie Antoinette in the 
Salon des Cabinets de la Reine, Versailles. ** Toute jeune 
*' encore, mais devenue d6ja la * petite reine ' qui fait Torgueil 
*' et rinquietude de Marie-Th^rese, Pajou a fix6 sa gr&ce en 
** ce buste frais et nerveux, digne pendant du marbre de Le- 
** moyne qui est au Musee de Vienne." ^ 

Pajou's '* Psyche '' (Louvre, 776) is probably his most 
popular work. It is indeed the most completely eighteenth 
century Pysch^ one can imagine, without a touch of Greek 
feeling about it. As M. Andr6 Michel well says : ** The flowing 
** curls of her hair seem waiting for a cap of the national 
** colours, . . . the opulent softness of her bosom from which 
** before she stabs herself she has cast off the great soft gauze 
'* veil — the very nuance of her sorrow — all is deliciously in 
'* sympathy with the style, the taste, the ideas of the 

Examples in the Louvre : — 

Queen Marie Leczinska as Charity, ordered after the 
Queen's death, Salon, 1769. 777. 

Pluto and Cerberus, small, diploma for Academy. 771. 

Psyche, 1790. 776. 

Bacchante, 1774. 774. 

Busts, M. Labile. 775. Mme. du Barry. 773. De 
Buffon. 772. 

Carlin Bertinazzi, terra-cotta, Com^die Fran9aise. 
Versailles : — 

High reliefs. Foyer of Theatre. 

Sculptures, theatre, now Salle du Senat. 

Turenne, statue, marble. 2836. 

De Buffon, statuette, bronze. 2155. 

J De Nolhac. 

1715-1789. ART OP THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.— continued 235 

Louis XVI., bust, in annour, 1779, Petit Trianon. 

Marie Antoinette, bust, marble. Salon des Cabinets de 

la Reine. 2213. The clay model of this is at 

Clodion. Claude Michel, dit Clodion (6. Nancy, 1738 ; 
d, Paris, 1814), — tenth child of Claude Michel and Anne 
Adam, learnt the first elements of sculpture from his uncle, 
Lambert-Sigisbert-Adam, who had become famous by the 
central group of the Bassin de Neptune at Versailles. On 
his uncle's death in 1759, Clodion entered Pigalle's studio ; 
and shortly obtained the Grand Prix. But being obliged by 
the rules to spend a certain period in the Ecole des Aleves 
prot^g^s, founded by M. de Marigny, he only reached Rome 
in 1762. His natural instincts led him to the production of 
charming little models, which delighted his fellow pupils. 
But, in truth, he cared little for the great masters of the past. 
His success was rapid. M. M. Julienne and La Live de 
Jully, who greatly admired his works, set the fashion for 
them ; and between 1767 and 1771 he had already sold much. 
Indeed it is probable that the easy life and facile success 
which Italy brought him would have kept him there in- 
definitely, had not M. de Marigny recalled him to France in 
1771 to imdertake work for the King. From this moment 
his life, according to his historians, becomes dual. On one 
side the clever modeller in terra-cotta, who allows his fancy 
to run riot in pretty follies. On the other the serious and 
cultivated artist sometimes gets the ascendency in ** ceuvres 
longuement m^dit^es **. So enormous was the number of his 
commissions, that he had to arrange his whole existence with 
a view to carrying them out. In the great house of the 
Place Louis XV. his old aunt sees to his material needs, 
while he directs his assistants and carries on half-a-dozen 
works at the same time. No artist was more in fashion — 
more sought after. Despite his numerous assistants, loud 
complaints are made by his patrons because he will not 
work fast enough ; and he is too busy even to send a recep- 
tion piece to the Academy. 


Beside? portraits, nymphs, bacchantes and statues of 
Saincs, and b^s rtliefs sacred and profane, Clodion executed 
numbers of dectrrarive works for prirate houses in Paris. 
AmoniT these '.^ne of the most admirable is the beautiful 
mantelpiece, in Mme. de Serilly's K"»udoir now in the South 
Ken>ins;n:on Museum. This little gem of eighteenth century 
decoration is not as well known as it deserves to be, although 
it has been manv vears in the museimi. J. J. Lagrenee, dit 
le Jeime. painted the subjects on the panels, lunettes, and 
ceiling. Jean Simon Rousseau de la Rottiere, carved the 
gilt and painted decorative sculptures in low relief, on the 
pilasters and ceiling. And the gilt metal ornaments on 
Clodion *s mantelpiece are bv the famous Gouthiere. The 
white marble thermale figures supporting the mantel- 
piece, are certainly one of Clodion's chefs d'oeuvres. An- 
other remarkable specimen of his decoration is to be seen in 
the Hotel de Chambrun, rue de Monsieur. But the most 
famous of his works of this order was the Salle des Bains, 
in the Hotel of Baron de Bezenval. rue de Grenelle. Clodion 
had a free hand as to the decoration of this sumptuous 
nymphaeum. Stone vases ornamented with arabesques, 
forming fountains, filled the niches. Long bas reliefs 
representing n^Tuphs and Tritons decorated each side. And 
a life-size *' Source." leaning on an um, occupied the end 
of this marvellous room. Happily this remarkable decoration 
is not lost, though no longer in its original position, de 
Bezenval's descendant, the Comte de Chabrillan, having 
moved it in 1822 to the Chateau de Digoine (Sa6ne-et-Loire). 
Curiously enough Clodion's latest works show a complete 
change of style. The master of Loves and Nymphs has 
followed the times. And his " Entree a Munich," a bas 
relief for the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, is purely First 

Examples : — 

Bacchante, Louvre. 

Various Terra-cottas, Louvre. 

Faune and Faunesse, Chantilly. 

The great Sevres Vase. 

1715-1789. ART OP THE EIGHTEENTH CENTVRY. ^-continued. 237 

Bacchante portant un Satyre, Museum d'Orl^ans. 

Sainte C6cile, Cathedral de Eouen. 

Mort de la Vierge, has relief, Cathedral de Rouen. 

Chemin^e aux Termes, east side, South hall, South 
Kensington Museum. 

Numbers of groups, has reliefs, etc., in private 


HouDON, Jean-Antoine (6. Versailles, 1741; d. Paris, 

1828), — son of a servant of M. de la Motte, who was in 

time made Concierge of the ^cole des illfeves prot^gis, it 

is probable that the child gained his first enthusiasm for Art 

in the studios of the professors of the school — Lemoyne, 

Adam, Slodtz, Vass6, Bouchardon. But from the outset 

he was himself. At twelve years of age his mind was made 

up, and he entered the Royal School of Sculpture. 

In the Salon of 1795 he describes himself as pupil of 
Michel Slodtz : but it is known that he also studied with 
Pigalle and Lemojme. This however matters little. With 
a Houdon the inspiration comes from within, not from 
without. His own words best describe his aims : ** Un 
'• des plus beaux attributs de Tart si difl&cile du statuaire est 
** de conserver avec toute la v6rit6 des formes et de rendre 
**presque imp^risable Timage des hommes qui ont fait la 
•'gloire ou le bonheur de leur patrie. Cette id^e m*a 
** constamment suivi et encourag^e dans mes longs travaux.'* 
At fifteen he gained a third medal at the Academy. At 
twenty he triumphantly carried off the Grand Prix de Rome. 
But Rome, its teaching and examples, were powerless to 
turn the young artist from the passion for truth as against 
official art, that already possessed him. His stay in Rome 
was devoted to the most determmed study. It was no oft- 
repeated classic subject which he sent as his Morceau de 
pensiarmaire, but the famous **ficorch6," which has become 
classic in every studio. And the Procurator general of the 
Carthusians, recognizing the talent of his young country- 
man (for he was a Frenchman), gave him an important 
order — the ** Saint Bruno," which is still to be seen at Santa- 
Maria-degU-AngeU. It is a stately and impressive work in 


its penetrating sentiment, in its absolute simplicity both <^^^ 
pose and execution. And is indeed an extraordinary one f 
a young artist not yet twenty-five. ** He would speak, 
cried Pope Clement XIV., **if the rule of his order did 
** impose silence.** 

On Houdon's return to Paris in 1771, after ten year^s- 
absence, he presented himself for election to the Academ^^ 
with the model of ** Morph6e,** of which the exquisite marble 
statuette is now in the Louvre — only spoilt by the horri^S 
suggestion of whiskers. It was his reception piece eigh 
years later. But in the Salon of 1771, at which th 
**Morph6e'* appeared, Houdon began his incomparabl 
series of portraits, with his first bust of Diderot. Th 
second, of 1775, is now at Versailles. He had found th^* 
true expression of his great talent. And from this momenta 
that wonderful series of nearly 200 busts follow each other' 
in rapid succession, in which he is to write with unequalled- 
power and insight the character and temperament, as well as 
the mere physical peculiarities of all his most remarkable 

To the student of human nature Houdon 's portrait busts 
must always remain the most intensely interesting part of 
his great work ; though they are only a part. Yet what a 
part. What a marvellous record. The Lafayette ; the Ben- 
jamin Franklin ; the many busts of Voltaire — at Versailles, 
in marble with a wig, at the Louvre, old and serpent-like 
in bronze — the Mirabeau, courtier and orator, so sure of him- 
self; the Jean- Jacques Kousseau. The Louis XV., with 
those drooping eyelids, and that smile, tolerant of his own 
failings and those of others, effeminate and sensual — what a 
human document. The Louis XVI., of Versailles, in which 
the artist has given a sense of kindly majesty. And above 
all, what a triumph of art is that positively miraculous 
** Molifere'* of the Com^die Fran9aise. Houdon only had a 
few contemporary engravings and portraits to guide him. 
But the incomparable genius of Molifere lives for ever in 
his marble effigy through the incomparable genius of the 

1715-1789. ART OF THE EIGHTEENTH C^lifTVRY ,— continued. 239 

But as I say Houdon did not confine his work to portraits. 
For in his famous ** Diane Chasseresse" he attained the 
summit of the sculptor's ambition. In vain had the Empress 
Catherine tried to tempt him to Russia. He contented 
himself by sending models for two monuments for the 
GaUtzin family, and a bust of the Empress. These were ex- 
hibited in the Salon of 1773. In 1775, with the monument 
of the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, came the model for 
the "Femme au Bain,'* which was completed in marble in 
1783, while a negress in lead, painted in natural colours, 
holding a white marble drapery with one hand, poured 
water from a golden beaker. The group was placed in the 
Pare de Mo^ceau, but was destroyed at the Revolution. 
It was a daring innovation for those days ; and one cannot, 
save for the interest of such a work, lament its destruc- 
tion over much. But Houdon's greatest triumph was 
to come in that same Salon of 1783, with the famous 
Diane Chasseresse, in which he attained the summit of his 
artistic desire. The bronze — he cast it himself in 
1790 — hght and charming, classic, while very human, is too 
well known in the Louvre to need comment. A marble 
variant is in the collection of the Hermitage. In 1781 he 
had exhibited his charming '' Frileuse " (Montpellier). 

The magnificent " Voltaire assis " of the Com6die Fran- 
^aise dates from 1778. M. Louis Gonse has selected a fine 
engraving of it by Gaujean, as the frontispiece to his Sculptv/re 
Frangaise, It was in 1785 that Houdon undertook his voyage 
to the United States, to make his models for the statue of 
Washington ordered by the Virginian Parliament. He left 
Le Havre with Frankhn on 22nd July, 1785 ; stayed a 
fortnight with Washington in Philadelphia; and, after 
making the necessary notes and models, returned to France, 
January, 1786. This statue now adorns the capitol of Rich- 
mond, Va. It kept the artist at work for several years. 

Though he continued his series of busts, after 1808 his 
powder diminishes. In 1812 he exhibited two statues. General 
Joubert, and Voltaire dressed as a Roman. It is almost 
the end. One bust of the Emperor Alexander in 1814. 


And then the great sculptor is seen every evening at tl:3( 
Fran^ais with a servant, sitting in the stalls ; and taking bi ^s 
of china or pebbles out of his pocket he rubs them with 
thumb — the sculptor's own motion — and then sleeps to tbe 
end of the performance. In 1828 he slept the long sleep 
of the dead. 

Examples in Louvre : — 

Bronze Statue, Diane Chasseresse. 716. 
Marble Statuette, Morph^e. 709. 
Busts of Benjamin Frankhn, 715 ; De Buffon, 714 ; 
Diderot, 1771, 708 ; L ' Abbe Aubert, 710; Jean 
Jacques Eousseau, bronze, 711 ; Mirabeau, two, 
terra-cotta and marble, 717, 718 ; Voltaire, bronze, 
Child's portrait, bust, Nouvelles acquisitions. 
Voltaire assis, statue, Comedie Francjaise. 
Versailles : — 

Busts of Diderot, 1775, 855 ; Louis XVI., 1834 ; Mira- 
beau, 4960 ; Lafayette, date 1790, 1573. 
Rousseau, Library in towTi of Versailles. 
Diane, marble. The Hermitage. 



To appreciate the effect of the Revolution on Art in France, 
it is necessary to consider the condition of artists in the n 
eighteenth century. 

The Academy of Painting and Sculpture, founded in 1648 
in the interests of liberty for Art, had become a close body, 
exercising a tyranny even greater than that of the ancient 
Corporation of St. Luke (see chapter viii.). No artists who - 
did not belong to the Academy either as "agrees" or 
members, were allowed to exhibit their works in public. 
Even the Academicians displayed the most singular aversion 
to the public. One of their members, Serres, was actually 
expelled from their ranks for having independently exhibited 
his picture, ** La Peste de Marseille," for money. With one 
brief exception during the year, all other artists were con- 
demned to obscurity until they could obtain entrance into 
the magic circle. In the eighteenth century, outside artists 
had obtained permission to hold what was called the ** Exposi- 
turn de la Jetinesse" in the Place Dauphine, on the day of 
the F^te Dieu. But this was only open for two hours. 
Ajid the luckless young artist who missed this chance had 
no other till the next year. 

The Salons however, held under the auspices of the 

Academy, filled exclusively with the works of its members, *' 

were becoming important annual institutions. It was the 

right thing to visit them if you wished to be in the 

fashion. ** Ah ! ah ! " — the ** true, interesting, curious 

"and remarkable conversation between Marie Jeanne 

'*la bouquetifere and J6r6me le Passeur," a pamphlet 

published in 1787, gives us some idea of this. It 

begins : — 

(241) 16 


Marie. — Ah 1 ah ! la ous done qu'vous m'menez 7 

C'est pas t'ici qu*j'avons affaire. 
J^rdnie. — N'ayez pas peur, mamzell', venez ; 

Vous Tsavez, je n*cherch' qu*a vous plaire 
... on n*s*rait pas du bon ton, 
Si Ton n'avait pas vu I'Salon. 

But though from Marie Jeanne and J6r6me to Diderot, a 
were beginning to play the critic, artists lacked the one 
thing needful — Liberty to exercise their Art. 

It was this Libei-ty which the Kevolution of 1789 gave 

At the last Salon held under the Ancien B^gime in 1789, 
only 350 pictures were exhibited. On the 21st August, 1791, 
the National Assembly decreed that an Exhibition open to 
all artists, French and foreign alike, should be held in the 
Louvre. In this 794 pictures were showTi. In 1793 — the 
year of the Terror — the numbers had increased to more than 
1000. In 1795 to 3048. 

When we think of all the duties that pressed upon the 
leaders of the Revolution in building up a new State, as well 
as pulling down an old one — with finances exhausted, that 
had to replenished — with the enemy at the gates, and armies 
to be created for the defence of the Patrie — it is almost un- 
believable that the Convention found time to create public 
instruction, to organize Art, to initiate public musemns, to 
give orders to artists. It has been said, and truly, that the 
Revolution always found the right man for each part of its 
great work. Carnot to ** organize Victory *\ Cambon for 
finance. Lakanal and Daunou to create the vast system 
of public instruction which, with constant additions and 
amendments, has remained the basis of the French system 
of public instruction of to-day. For Art its choice was no less 
fortunate. For in Louis David, then thirty-one years old, 
it found a man of genius admirably qualified for the task 
he undertook. 

^ On the 23rd Brumaire, An II. (1793), the Convention, 
upon David's report, formed a National Jury of Fine Arts, 
consisting of fifty members and ten substitutes. By a 
decree of the 6th Flor^al in the same year, the Convention 


^vited all artists to reproduce on canvas or in marble the 
^ost glorious events of the Eevolution, to be judged by this 
Jiiiy. And the prizes and rewards distributed amounted to 
442,000 livres. The French Academy in Eome was not 
forgotten. On David's advice the Convention raised the 
allowance of the pensionnaires to 2400 francs a year. 
Finally, to the Eevolution is due the great work of the 
organization of public museums. And more especially the 
opening and agrandissement of that priceless treasure house 
— the Museum of the Louvre. 

It is true that Galleries of works of Art had existed in 
the Louvre and elsewhere under the Ancien E6gime. But 
they were the property of the King, and only decorated Eoyal 
palaces. In 1750 an attempt had been made to popularize 
some of these treasures. One hundred and ten pictures from 
the Eoyal collections had been placed in the Luxembourg ; 
and the public was admitted twice a week to see them. 
This step was taken on the representations of Lafon de 
Saint- Yonne, who complained that these chefs d*ceuvres were 
buried in little rooms at Versailles, where no one could see 
them. And he demanded that they should be collected in the 
Louvre. But this was all. 

On the 27th July, 1793, Segrais proposed and the Con- 
vention decreed, that a museum should be opened in the 
Louvre. And that besides the works of art which formed the 
** Cabinet du Eoi," some of those treasures which the 
suppression of the monasteries and confiscation of the 
property of the Emigres placed at the disposal of Govern- 
ment, should be collected there. A sum of 100,000 li\Tes was 
voted for the further purchase of works of art. On the 8th 
November, 1793, the ** Miis^mn Central des Arts " was opened 
in the Louvre ; and all artists were allowed to work there 
for five days in the week. The Convention regarded the 
Louvre from the first as a dep6t for art treasures, whose 
iJQiniense riches would allow the creation of a number of 
I^rovincial Museums. Already, in 1791, a sum of 100,000 
Jivres — the origin of the existing ** Caisse des Musses ** — had 
^en granted for the purchase at private sales, of pictures 


and statues ** which it is important that the Republic should 
** not allow to go to foreign countries *\ These were to be 
deposited in the Louvre. This grant was supplemented by 
Barrfere, who in a most interesting State paper of September, 
1791, proposes that a grant shall be made to enable the 
Minister of the Interior to remove pictures, statues, vases, 
precious furniture and marbles, from ** all the ci-devant 
'* royal houses, chateaux, gardens, parks of emigres and 
"other national monuments," to be placed in the Lou\Te; 
with the one exception of the ** objects in the Palace of 
** Versailles, its gardens, and the two Trianons, which are to 
** be preserved as they are by a special decree **. 

The victories of the armies of the Repubhc soon began to 
augment the collections in the Museum Central des Arts. 
The works of art, taken by the victorious armies from 
foreign nations, were transported to Paris by order of the 
Convention. The first consignment came from Flanders on 
August 31, 1794. Bonaparte added the spoils of Italy in 
1796. But this was more than some of the French artists, 
who owed so much to Italy, could tolerate. They had been 
accustomed to regard Italy as a Shrine of Art — a place of 
pilgrimage. And it seemed to them positively sacrilegious 
to tear these glorious works from the collections they had 
adorned for centuries. Fifty — among whom were Girodet, 
Lethiere, Denon, Perrier, Soufflot, Pajou — protested vehe- 
mently against these ** emprunts forces ". An equal number 
protested against the protest. Among the latter were Isabey, 
Gerard, Carle Vernet, Chardet, Regnault, and Eedoute. 
In 1798 a further development was instituted. Hertault 
de Lamerville reminded the ** Conseil des Cinq-cent '* of the 
initial doctrine of the Convention with regard to Art. And 
demanded in the name of the Commissions of Public 
Instruction, that schools of Painting, Sculpture, and Archi- 
tecture, attached to museums which already existed at 
Caen, Le Mans, Toulouse, etc., etc., should be founded in 
the provinces. 

In speaking of the effects of the Revolution on Art, it is 
usual to treat the revolutionists as a set of mere Vandals — 


ignorant savages who took delight in destroying everything 
they could lay hands on — monuments, libraries, archives, 
and all things precious and beautiful. It has been neces- 
sary- more than once in these pages to record the total or 
partial destruction of buildings of priceless interest, and all 
that they contained — such as the Chateaux of Madrid, 
Gaillon, Anet, Ecouen, the Abbey of St. Denis, etc., etc. 
That wanton, wicked, brutal excesses were committed, 
no one would deny. But these excesses took place during 
a very short period — that which witnessed the impious pre- 
sence of the Goddess of Reason on the altars of French 
Cathedrals. They were the work of the ignorant and 
savage mob, drunk with the sight of blood, with the lust 
for power. They were not directed or countenanced by 
the leaders of the Revolution. Far from it. For in the 
special domain of Art, we find the Revolution from the very 
first showing an undeniable solicitude not only for contem- 
porary Art but for the monmnents of the past — a solicitude 
which the Ancien Regime had not always displayed. ** La 
'* culture des Arts chez un peuple, agrandit son commerce et 
"ses moyens, ^pure ses mceurs, le rend plus doux et plus 
** docile a suivre les lois qui le gouvernent." With these 
words good Alexandre Lenoir begins his book. And they 
are a very good exposition of the ideas which inspired the 
Convention in its dealings with Art. 

As early as 1790 the Constituant Assembly appointed a 
** Commission des Monuments,'' whose duty was to draw 
up an inventory of all buildings and works of art, which, 
by the confiscation of ecclesiastical property, were declared 
to belong to the ** chose publique **. The Commission was 
also to watch over the dep6ts in which these treasures 
were rapidly accumulating. The buildings allotted for these 
dep6ts were the Convent of the Petits Augustins, for sculp- 
ture and painting, of which I shall speak farther on. The 
Convents of the. Capucins, Grands-Jesuits, and Cordeliers, 
for books, manuscnpts, etc. Under the Convention in 1798 
a temporary Commission des Arts replaced the Commission 
des Monuments. It was divided into twelve sections. It 


numbered the most eminent men of the time in its ranks. 
It filled the interregnum after the abolition of the old Royal 
Academies. And was, in reality, the origin of the Institnt 
de France, which replaced it in 1795. Matthieu, in the 
report upon which this Conunission was instituted, used 
these remarkable words: **It is the duty of the Conven- 
** tion to do to-day for Arts, for Sciences, and for the 
** progress of Philosophy what Arts, Science, and Philo- 
** sophyhave already done to bring about the reign of Liberty". 
At the same time the Convention, moved by the terrible 
and disgraceful excesses which were being committed in the 
name of Liberty, took the most severe measures against 
plunderers of Archives or Libraries. And on the 4th June, 
1793, condemned any one who should injure artistic monu- 
ments which were national property to two years in irons. 

To these two Commissions are due a most important in- 
stitution in the history of Art — the Musee des Monuments 

On the 4th January, 1791, Alexandre Lenoir, an artist, was 
commissioned to collect the fragments of Architecture and 
Sculpture contained in the Churches and Convents which 
it was desirable to preserve. The Convent of the Petits 
Augustins, in the rue St. Honor^, was, as I have said, set 
aside for these collections. And the public was admitted to 
see them on September 1, 1795. A better man than the 
excellent Lenoir could not have been found for such a 
task. He worshipped the national Art of France. He 
considered that French Sculpture had been too long neglecte^l, 
and that it was desirable to place it once more in a position 
of honour. 

It is impossible to exaggerate the debt the world owes to 
the good Lenoir. And it is a matter of surprise that in a 
country where statues spring up so readily to commemorate 
those who have distinguished themselves in Art, in Letters, 
in Science, and in Politics, no memorial has been erected of the 
man who rescued some of the most superb works of Art that 
modem Europe has produced, from utter destruction. To 
Lenoir we owe the tombs of Louis XII., Franfois I., Henri 11., 


which he found among the ruins of St. Denis. ** O douleur ! " 
he cries, ** ces chefs d'oeuvres de I'Art avaient d^ja ^prouve 
"la fureur des barbares. C'^tait en 1793.'* To him we owe 
the Diane Chasseresse of Goujean, broken to pieces for the 
sake of the leaden pipes of the fountain. The glorious Birague 
of Germain Pilon he covered with whitewash, and persuaded 
the vandals it was made of plaster and not of bronze, and 
therefore was no use for cannons. For the Urn of Bon temps 
he gave a load of wood, and thus preserved one of the most 
exquisite works of the Renaissance. He collected painted 
glass to show the progress of that art. And a series of 500 
busts, statues, and has reliefs ; together with such architec- 
tural treasures as the Facade of Anet, and parts of Chateau 
Gaillon, including some of its beautiful woodwork. 

Lenoir's idea was to present a view of the historic, chrono- 
logic progression of French Sculpture. Beginning with 
the Goths, he carried his work down to his own time and 
the '* style antique restaur^ dans nos contr^es par les le9ons 
'* pubUques de J. M. Vien ". He arranged four halls, en- 
deavouring to give to each the exact appearance of the century 
it was to represent, and a ** Sepulchral Chamber for the 
* * Mausoleum of Fran9ois I." And besides restorations of parts 
of Anet and Gaillon, he planted a ** Jardin iilysee *' round 
his museum, and placed in it the tombs of Descartes, La 
Fontaine, Boileau, Molifere, Montfaucon, and a ** majestic 
** ogival chapel covering the ashes of H^loise and Abelard **. 
Some of his restorations have caused considerable diffi- 
culties in these latter days of more exact knowledge. The 
excellent man seems to have patched together anything that 
would make a good monument. For instance, the de Com- 
mines monument was placed on the top of St. George and 
the Dragon from Gaillon. Charles d'Orleans' statue from 
the C^lestins, was mixed up with a bas relief from St. Jacques- 
la-Boucherie, set in Eenaissance arabesques from a third 
place. And so forth. But these are anachronisms for 
which we readily grant absolution when we remember 
the inestimable benefits Lenoir has conferred on Art. His 
museum was suppressed at the Restoration. Its chief 



treasures found their way to the Louvre or the Beaux Arts ; 
while the great monuments of St. Denis were in tiill'- 
restored to their own place. But his idea of an historic 
record of French Sculpture has been magnificently revived 
in the modem Museum of Comparative Sculpture and Archi- 
tecture of the Trocadero. 

Lenoir's museum, however, though short lived, was not 
without influence upon the first generation of the centurj\ 
Michelet says of it : ** Que d*4mes ont pris dans ce musee 
** Tetincelle historique, I'interet des gi'ands souvenirs, le 
** vague d^sir de remonter les Ages ! Je me rappelle Temo- 
**tion, toujours la m^me et toujours vive, qui me faisait 
** battre le coeur quand, tout petit, j*entrais sous ces voAtes 
** sombres et contemplais ces visages pales, quand j*allais et 
** cherchais, ardent, curieux, craintif, de salle en salle, et 
** d'4ge en age. — Je cherchais, quoi ? — je ne sais — La vie 
** d'alors sans doute et le genie des temps.*' 

But there is one point on which it is hard to forgive the 
Convention. In those Royal residences which it was decided 
to spare, the internal decoration appeared a manifestation 
of useless and ridiculous luxury' to the men of the Re- 
volution. While they showed themselves eager to preserve 
the buildings and the pictures and statues they contained 
from ruin, they were equally ready to sacrifice furniture, 
hangings, woodwork — in a word, the results of the admirable 
and incessant efforts of three centuries of French Decorative 
Art. Yet even here we find Matthieu making certain 
reservations. In December, 1793, he expresses his regret that 
there had not been enough members in the Commission of 
Arts whose training enabled them to judge of the value of all 
artistic productions. ** It is necessary," he said, ** to collect 
** with equal care and method everything that pertains to 
** artistic production.'' He therefore proposed that Hassen- 
fratz, Dufoumy de Villiers, and Fragonard, qualified by their 
special knowledge in matters of Decorative Art, should be 
included in the Commission. This was done. But it was 
too late to save much that was of immense value. The 
treasures of French Decorative Art — furniture, tapestries, and 


all the dainty ornaments of the reigns of Louis XV. and 
Louis XVI., were dispersed to the winds. And almost every 
great house in England, and in many other countries, 
testifies to the manner in which these precious objects 
flowed out of France. Much however remains. Owing to 
ceaseless endeavour during the present century, under Louis 
Phihppe, the Second Empire, and the enlightened Art 
Direction of the Third Republic, Fontainebleau and the 
Louvre have recovered many of their lost treasures. While 
much at Versailles remains practically untouched. 

To sum up the effects of the Revolution on Art, we may 
say that its benefits were fourfold. First of all it gave 
liberty to artists — liberty for the free exercise of their pro- 
fession. It created the Museum of the Louvre, and public 
galleries of Art in the provinces, with schools of Art attached 
to them. By the hand of Lenoir it inaugurated a Museum 
of the History of French Architecture and Sculpture — the 
origin of the present invaluable ** Mus^e de Sculpture 
Comparee du Trocad^ro". Lastly the Commission des 
Monuments, and its successor, the Commission des Arts of 
the Convention, laid the foundations on which the ad- 
mirable system of administration of Fine Arts in France 
to-day has been developed — a system so perfectly organized, 
^ public spirited, so wisely generous, as to serve for a model 
which other nations might copy with enormous advantage 
hoth to artists and the public at large. 

Some Painters of the Revolution. 

Lebrun, Madame Elizabeth Louise Vig^e (b, Paris, 
1755; d. Paris, 1842). —The amiable " Peintre du roi," 
though she Uved late into the nineteenth century, belongs 
'SO completely to the epoch of revolution that she must 
te mentioned here. Her father, a portrait painter, died 
when she was twelve years old. Briard, a second rate 
artist, gave her a few lessons. She also received help and 
•counsel from Doyen, Greuze, and Joseph Vernet. She 
iiiade rapid progress ; and at fifteen painted portraits with 


success and talent. While still very young she married 
Lebrun, a picture dealer doing an immense business; and 
found herself in the midst of fine pictures, which she studied 
with good results. She was admitted to the Academy on 
May 31, 1783 ; her reception picture being ** La Paix rame- 
nant TAbondance," a tiresome and artificial composition now 
in the Louvre (521) — very inferior to her portraits. 

But by this time Mme. Vig^e Lebrun was already the 
favourite Court painter. And her portraits of Marie Antoin- 
ette and her children will always be indissolubly associated 
with her name, for they are the most popular and best 
known of the Queen's portraits. Several of the most 
important of these are at Versailles, portraying Marie 
Antoinette in the fulness of her beauty and charm. The 
earliest of the series (8892) was painted in 1779. Roger 
engraved it after the Restoration, and it was attributed to 
Roslin. It is, how^ever, the picture of which the artist speaks 
in her Sauvenirs — the Queen ** avec un grand panier, v^tue 
** d'une robe de satin et tenant une rose a la main ". The 
second is the well-known portrait of the Queen tying up a 
bouquet of flowers (3893). The great picture of Marie 
Antoinette and her three children (4520) was painted in 1787. 
It is that one which, taken for a moment from its frame in 
the Salon of that year, was maliciously called ** Madame 
Deficit," in allusion to the Queen's growing unpopularity in 
connection with the embarrassed financial position. And in 
1789 it was removed from the State rooms, as the Queen 
could not pass the portrait of the Dauphin she had lost 
without tears. The last of the series is dated 1788 — a full 
length of the Queen sitting by a table, in a white dress, and 
blue toque and mantle. '* One would like to believe that in 
** this pretty picture one saw a truthful work — if one did not 
**know that the merits of the Queen's favourite artist were 
**<)f quite another order. These w^orks lack documentary 
** sincerity : they attenuate unpleasing details — the round full 
**eyes, the Austrian lip — but they know how to set oflf the 
** special charm of a beauty at once incomplete and sovereign 
** — the proud look, the elegant carriage, the dazzling fresh- 


"ness of complexion.'*^ Two other pictures at Versailles 
which possess much of the same charm and interest, are 
those of the elder Dauphin and Madame Roy ale in 1784, 
sitting on a grassy slope and holding a bird's nest (3907). 
And that of the Duchesse d'Orl^ans, in a white dress, leaning 
against a red cushion. 

Alarmed at the events which preceded the Revolution, 

Mme. Vig6e Lebrun left France for Italy in 1789. Here her 

success was as great as in her own country. She spent 

much time in Rome and Naples ; visited Milan and Venice ; 

and spent three years in Vienna. In 1795 she went to Prague. 

Then via Dresden and Berlin she reached St. Petersburg ; 

and only returned to France in 1801. Later on she visited 

England, where she stayed for three years ; and then crossed 

to Holland. In 1808 and 1809 she went to Switzerland, 

and returned to France, never to leave it again. Wherever 

she went she was received as a personnage of great talent 

and distinction. Honours were heaped on her. She was a 

member of the Academies of Rome, Parma, Bologna, St. 

Petersburg, BerUn, Geneva, Rouen, Avignon. Her diligence 

was great. According to a note in her own hand she 

painted 662 portraits, 15 pictures, 200 landscapes, some in 

Switzerland and some in England, and many pastels. 

Examples in Louvre : — 

Eight pictures. 

La Paix ramenant TAbondance. 520. 
Mme. Vig6e Lebrun peinte par elle m^me. 521. 
Hubert Robert. 524. 
Claude Joseph Verne t. 525. 
Versailles : — 

Marie Antoinette, 1779. 3892. 

Marie Antoinette faisant un bouquet. 3893. 

Marie Antoinette and her three children, 1787. 4520. 

Marie Antoinette, 1788. Chambre a Coucher. 2097. 

Madame Royale and the Dauphin, 1784. 3907. 

Duchesse d'Orl^ans, two repliques. 3912, 4525. 

Gr^try, 1785. 4556. 

1 De Nolhac. 


Caroline Bonaparte, Queen of Naples, and her 
daughter Marie-Letitia-Josfephe, 1807. 4712. 
One of Mme. Vigee Lebrun's last works. 
Chantilly : — 

Marie Therese. 

Marie Caroline, Queen of Naples. 

Marie Louise Josephine, Queen of Etruria. 

M. de Calonne, Windsor Castle. 

Portrait of a lady, M. Pierpont Morgan. 

Marie Antoinette and her children (small replique, H 
inches by 6, of 4520 at Versailles), Lord Pir- 

Two charming portraits, Madrid Gallery. 
Egbert, Hubert (b, Paris, 1733; d, 1808).— Hubert 
Eobert also belongs to the last days of the Monarchy and the 
full tide of the Revolution. Destined for the priesthood, it 
was through the intervention of Slodtz that he was allowed 
to turn painter and go to Rome. Here M. de Marigny heard 
him so highly praised by the young artists who returned to 
France, that after seeing one of his pictures he made him a 
pensionnaire in the Academy of Rome. In 1759, when the 
Abbe de Saint-Non came to Rome, it will be remembered ^ 
that Hubert Robert and Fragonard accompanied him on 
his journey through Italy and Sicily. He remained for 
twelve years in Italy, drawing and painting every monu- 
ment of interest. His ardour for work and reckless daring 
exposed him at times to considerable dangers. He climbed 
the walls of the Coliseum. He made an excursion on the 
cornice of St. Peter's. He narrowly escaped death in the 
Catacombs ; and this last adventure inspired Delille's fourth 
song in his poem ** I'lmagination '*. 

In 1760 on his return to France, he was received into 
the Academy as an architectural painter. Catherine II. 
twice invited him to come and settle in Russia — in 1782-91. 
But in spite of magnificent offers he refused, and sent her 
pictures which were royally paid. Keeper of the King's 
pictures, Conseiller de TAcademie, Hubert Robert's life up 

1 See p. 218. 


to the Revolution was a series of successes. He was among 

other things designer of the Royal Gardens ; and to him are 

<]ue the alterations and replanting of the gardens at Versailles. 

Of these works Robert has left some deeply interesting 

records in his two pictures in the Palace (774 and 775). 

The first shows the entrance to the Tapis- Vert, groups of 

workmen and promenaders, the Colonnade on the left, and 

Pujet's Milo of Crotona still on its pedestal. The second 

shows the transformation of the present bosquet des Bains 

d'ApoUon. The trees of the old bosquet are being hewn 

down — one of the groups of the Horses of the Sun has 

ahready been brought — delightful people in long laced coats 

and three cornered hats are standing about — and the great 

mass of the palace looms up behind white statues. 

During the Revolution, Hubert Robert not only lost all 
his appointments, but he was imprisoned for sixteen months. 
During his captivity his almost superhuman energy and his 
love of art never failed him. At first colours and canvases 
were refused him. Nothing daunted, he contrived to get 
colours brought in to him in the handles of earthenware 
pipkins. And with these he painted the coarse plates 
destined for his food. Later on these rules were relaxed ; 
and he painted fifty-three pictures and made a host of 
drawings, which he gave to his companions in misfortune. 
Among these was the portrait which the poet Roucher sent 
to his wife on the eve of his death. ** And alone, tranquil 
'* in the midst of terrible events, when at night by the gleam 
"of torches the prisoners were moved in open carts from 
*' 8te. P^lagie to St Lazare, his only thought was to draw the 
"fearful scene, of which he produced a remarkable picture." ^ 
It was by a mere chance that he escaped death. Some un- 
happy prisoner of the same name was executed in his place. 

All the most distinguished persons of the later eighteenth 
century were among his friends — Visconti, Greuze, Joseph 
Vemet, Mme. Vig6e Lebrun, Gr^try, Delille, Le Kain, and 
Voltaire, for whom he painted the decorations of his Theatre 
at Ferny. His atelier was at the Louvre. But he lived 

» vniot. 


at Auteuil, in Boileau*s country house. Painting to 
last hour, he was struck down by an attack of apoplexy ^ 
his brush actually in his hand. 

Among his nineteen pictures in the Louvre the best 

Maison Carrel a Nlmes. 768. 

A very charming small landscape beside it. 

Euines d'un Temple. 808. 

Paysage, a waterfall through arch of bridge. 809 
Versailles : — 

Le Tapis- Vert, 1775. 774. 

Les Bains d*Apollon. 775. 

Id. — Dessin lav6 a la plume. 5038. 

F^te de la F^d^ration au Champ de Mars, 1 

Two pictures, Fitzwilliam Mus. Camb. 451, 452 

Three pictures, Castle Barnard. 75, 76, 337. 

Six pictures, Mus6e de Rouen. 501-506. 
ViEN, Joseph Marie (6. Montpellier, 1716 ; d. P 
1809). — ^A contemporary of Boucher, Greuze, and Fragoi 
and, though their junior, of Nattier and Tocqu^, V 
long life saw the end of the Monarchy, the whole of 
Eevolution, and the triumph of the Empire. He was 
master of David. And claimed — though his proph 
generally were made after the event — to have inaugui 
the Classic revival which David brought to perfectic 
the end of the century. 

When in 1740 he arrived in Paris, he entered Nat< 
studio : painting pictures during the day for a dealer oi 
Pont Notre Dame, and attending the Academy class« 
the evening. In 1742 he gained the Grand Prix de R 
He went viu Marseilles the next year to Rome ; and hei 
stayed five years, painting, besides studies and copi< 
number of Church and easel pictures — among then] 
" Ermite endormi '* of the Louvre. In 1750 he was ba 
Marseilles, working there, at Tarascon, Montpellier, 
Lyons on his way to Paris. 

In Paris his work at first was not appreciated. 


careful study of nature in his pictures, was too far away 
from the powder and paint, the Heart and Dart style of 
the day. Natoire who shared the prejudices of the time on 
the questions of grace and style, thought his pupil in a bad 
way; the pictures Vien presented at the Academy were 
considered insuflScient, and his election was postponed. Not 
in the least discouraged, Vien refused a Professorship at 
the School of St. Luke, and sent in the ** Embarkation de 
Ste. Marthe " to his judges. His success this time, in spite 
of the cabal against him, was complete. **And Boucher 
*' declared if Vien was rejected he would never set foot again 
*' in the Academy." Elected in 1751, he was received in 1754 ; 
and M. de Marigny gave him lodgings in the Louvre. 

Soon overwhelmed with work, he founded a school of his 
own ; and among his prodigious number of pupils, Kegnault 
and David were the most famous. The King of Denmark and 
the Empress of Bussia made him dazzling offers. In 1771 
Louis XV. made him director of the ** ^Ifeves proteges **. 
And in 1775 Louis XVI. appointed him Director of the 
Academy of Bome in succession to Natoire. This had 
hitherto been a life post. Vien was the first Director 
Appointed for ten years. Vien, with his wife,^ family, and 
three pupils, one of whom was David, arrived in Bome in 
Ifovember ; a fortnight later a courier brought him the 
Cordon of St. Michel ; and Pius VI. gave him a dis- 
tinguished reception. 

Vien's directorship was not unfruitful. He established 
* yearly exhibition for the students ; and on the instigation 
of M. d'Angivilliers ordered the sculptor pupils to execute 
figures from the antique, either in the round or in bas relief ; 
while he also was the first to introduce work from the living 
model for three whole days in the week. Vien called himself 
^*le Sectateur des Grecs," he posed as a reformer, and con- 
sidered himself the regenerator of Art ; and though he 
was much less of a painter than the charming ** petits 
maitres," his contemporaries, whose ideals he despised, 

^ Madame Vien, Marie-Ther^se-Reboul, was an Animal painter, and was 
received at the Academy in 1757. 


and who his successors proscribed, it is right to remeu 
that he did draw from nature. 

Returning to Paris in 1781, he was made Rector of 
Academy. And in 1789 he was appointed premier peintn 
roi, and honorary member of the Academy of Architect 
But though the Revolution carried off his appointments 
his fortune, nothing broke down his courage, or his behe 
his own mission. In 1796 he competed for a prize oflf* 
by the Government, and gained it. He was then eif 
years old ! 

In 1799 Bonaparte made him member of the Ser 
Count of the Empire, and Commandeur de la Le, 
d'Honneur. The 9th Brumaire, An IX., he was fete( 
the ** regenerator of the French School ". David wai 
the head of the manifestation. A sort of throne in 
studio was decorated with this inscription, ** A Vien, les 
reconnaissants **. David, at the end of the repast ** w 
'* gaiety and decency reigned," raised his glass in a t< 
'*Au Citoyen Vien, notre maltre *\ Another pupil a 
**Vien fut le maltre de David. David est notre mal 
*' notre gloire est a David, la gloire de David est a \ 
'* Celebre Vieillard ! . . . Le culte de Tantique 6tait oubl 
etc., etc. And Vien replied: ** Oui, mes enfants, qi 
'* j'embrassai cet art, je vis qu'il s'egarait dans de ; 
*' systemes. Je dis : il faut que cela change, et cela i 
** J'ai combattu, j'ai persevere et cela a c^te.*' The **cel 
Vieillard *' was never troubled by false modesty. 

The Louvre possesses his '* Ermite Endormi " (96^ 
huge picture, all in browns, finely drawn, but deeply u 
teresting. And his ** St. Geiinain, tlw^qxxe d'Auxei 
(9(54). This is a fine ecclesiastical picture, far superio 
the ** Ermite". The Musee de Rouen has four of 
pictures (574-577). 


Art of the Nineteenth Century, 
the classics. 

As I have already pointed out, periodic revivals of worship of 
the antique have taken place in the history of French Art. 
The first of these was the Classic revival of the French 
Benaissance. The second was the severe and rigid classi- 
cism of the Sifecle de Louis XIV. The third, which ushered 
in the Art of the nineteenth century, is usually known as 
" Style Empire " — thereby leading people to believe that it 
was suddenly introduced by the First Empire. The fact is 
that this third Classic reaction only culminated at that 
moment, under the dominant influence of a man of genius 
and of prodigious force of character and purpose — Louis 
David. Its first symptoms may be detected as far back as 
the middle of the eighteenth century. **Le8 monuments 
"respectables des anciens, tels qu*on les voit encore en 
"Italic," are then spoken of by the Mercure with grave and 
gracious condescension. 

A number of important books, published during the last 
half of the century, served to attract general attention to the 
art of Greece and Rome, and helped to bring about that 
revolution in taste which substituted Diderot's ** grand gout 
severe et classique," for that of La Pompadour. Leroy's 
*^ Ruines des plus beaux Monuments de la Grice,'' published 
1758 — Mariette's treatise on the engraved gems of the Royal 
Collections — Bartholi's ** Receuil des peintures antiqii-es" — De 
Caylus' '* Receuils d'antiquites'' — Winckelman's ''UArt dans 
^dnliquiW — Sir William Hamilton's invaluable collections 
and learned works — and the excavations and researches at 

Herculaneum, Pompeii, Paestum, Palmyra, Baalbec — all 

(257) 17 


these stimulated a growing enthusiasm for the beauties of 
classic Art. 

M. de Marigny's successor under Louis XVI., the Comte 
d'Angivilliers, was one with the movement. On his appoint- 
ment as Director of buildings, arts, academies, and manu- 
factures in 1774, he suggests that the King should every 
year order ** four or five pictures in the genre of history, 
'* which seems to be neglected and growing weak '*. And 
announces that he intends " as far as possible to restore to 
** Arts all their dignity, to recall them to their ancient origin 
** and their true destination '*. 

In the Petit Trianon — in the Petits appartements of 
Versailles — the ornamental sculpture, the exquisite gilt 
bronzes of Eiesener, Beneman, and that prince of ** Ciseleurs- 
doreurs,*' the great Gouthifere, all display classic motives. 
In some cases it is difficult to distinguish the work of Louis 
XVI. from that of the Empire, so nearly are they allied. 

In Architecture, when, after the stress and storm of the 
Kevolution, building began once more under the Empire, 
nothing but Classic architecture is tolerated. And we get 
the Madeleine and the Bourse. 

Canova in Sculpture seconds David *s efforts. His in- 
fluence is immense : and his ** pure antique " bids fair for a 
while to impose itself on France. But as has always been 
the case in French Sculpture, other influences were at work 
— influences purely national, vigorous, modern. Eude and 
Barye will soon sweep away the cold, correct, elegant 
classicism of Pradier and the followers of Canova, with the 
rush of a life, a strength, a beauty all their own. For with 
them and with David d'Anger's vehement and impressive 
portraiture. Modern French Sculpture begins. 

It is however in painting that the Classic revival exer- 
cised by far the deepest, most important, most lasting 
influence on Modem Art. For though Vien, the ** c^lfebre 
vieillard," might to some extent have been his predecessor, 
it is to David, and to David alone that we must look as at 
once Prophet and High Priest of antiquity. As early as 
1783, when David went for a second time to Borne to 

8O01830. THE CLASSICS. 259 


>liinge anew into the sacred springs of '* 1 'Antique tout 
'TO," his rigid classic style begins with his ** Serment 
ies Horaces ". Six years later Paris is enchanted by the 
' archaeological exactitude " of his ** Brutus," ordered by Louis 
CVI. just before the Kevolution, in 1789. And the pubUc 

* repeated with admiration that the head of Brutus was 
' copied exactly from an antique bust in the Capitol, the 

* Statue of Bome and the bas relief of Bomulus and Bemus 
'from the original monuments". The costumes, and the 
nodels of furniture which were made by the cabinet-maker 
Facob from David's own drawings, were studied with interest 
md curiosity. They were taken from Etruscan Vases. And 
these studio ** properties," which appear in the Horaces — 
Socrates — Brutus — even in the portrait of Mme. B^camier — 
tad a rapid and marked effect on French furniture and in- 
terior decoration. 

" Les formes s^vferes et carries " were then the fashion. 
iiVomen had given up stays and high-heeled shoes. Light 
tnd airy clothes, and the curling hair of a Vig6e-Lebrun or 
b Madame Boland replaced the satins with paniers, and stiff, 
ong-waisted bodices. While with men, a republican simpli- 
city, flowing locks and quiet cloth coats, had succeeded the 
)owdered hair and charming ** fancy dress " of Louis XV. 

Under the Empire the classic tendencies in dress de- 
veloped into that debased Boman style which is known as 
** Empire". The dress of the Empress Josephine, and 
Marie Louise, of Mme. L6titia Bonaparte as the Boman 
Mother, of Napoleon and his generals, when he plays at being 
a Boman Emperor — as in David's ** Distribution des Aigles," 
at Versailles, or the ** Sacre " of the Louvre, or Bobert 
Lefevre's great ofl&cial ** Caesar** of 1811 — is all late Boman. 
For it was unfortunately to Boman and not to pure Greek 
Art that David and his school turned. They drew their in- 
spiration from tainted sources. Their knowledge was but 
>artial. Pure Greek Art, such as the nineteenth century has 
•evealed it to us, in all its perfection and glory, was but httle 
nown in 1800. The friezes of the Parthenon were only 
rought to England in 1816. And if David and his school 


had not yet learnt, from the very insuflScient data before 
them, to distinguish between Greek and Eoman Sculpture, 
the learned Winckehnan knew no better. David's whole 
ideal was that of beauty. And though the data were inade- 
quate, he felt that the beauty he sought was only to be 
found in the Antique ; that here alone could he discover 
beautiful hues, heroic motives, noble gestures. In his 
Sabines, painted in 1799, he imagined that he was actually 
representing the Hellenic ideal ; though we only see in 
it an admirably drawn, but intolerably conventional pic- 
ture, cold in colour, irritating and theatrical in composi- 
tion, and full of archaeologic and historic anachronisms. 

David's ** Classic fanaticism being compHcated by a re- 
** volutionary fanaticism,*' all that was not strictly in accord- 
ance with this new ideal of classical beauty, was placed on 
the index. The whole of the gracious art of the eighteenth 
century was shut away as a thing abominable, beneath con- 
tempt. Watteau, Boucher — ** Boucher maudit " — ** Boucher 
de ridicule memoire " — Lemoyne, Pigalle, even the strong, 
vigorous, vivid Fragonard, were supposed to have ** neglected 
" all that belongs to the ideal " — to represent ** the most com- 
"plete decadence of taste and of an epoch of corruption". 
The subHme, the heroic, the classic, the academic style 
alone is tolerated by the makers of the revolution. And 
by a strange Nemesis the very man who had swept away the 
old Academies, was the chief instrument in creating a fresh 
and even more rigidly academic style of painting, and of 
introducing the reign of ** Pompiers" — of *' gens en cusque" 
to modern Art. For David and his atelier, his pupils and 
followers, and especially his great successor Ingres, imposed 
this Classic ideal upon the nineteenth century for sixty 

In the rival studios of J. B. Regnault, and F. A. Vincent, 
the same doctrines were preached. And though, as time 
went on, David began to suspect that he had not reached the 
true source of antique beauty, it was no movement of re- 
pentance for his deliberate rejection of modern contemporary 
life that made him cry, **Ah! if I could only begin my 

180ai880. THE CLASSICS. 261 


Studies over again, now that antiquity is better known, I 

should go straight to the goal*'. 

What a gulf lies fixed between the art of the school of 

David, and that of the eighteenth century ! And yet, which 

is the most living, the truest to the lovelier aspects of nature, 

the most enchanting in its poetry — such a picture as one of the 

Watteaus at Hertford House, or David's ** Sabines " ? Yet 

that David the Classic, is the father of Modem Art, cannot be 

denied. For he bore within his breast those germs of Modem 

Art, that a few years later were to burst into such marvellous 

life. Face to face with the living human being, David's 

genius seems vitalized by the contact. We can see it in his 

portraits — always admirable — often of deep significance. 

Nothing for instance can be more intense in vigour, and in 

emotion, nothing can be more truly ** Modem," than his 

sketch of the dead Marat's head. We see this too in some 

of his splendid presentments of contemporary events. Yet 

lie deliberately crushed down those instinctive yearnings for 

€t truer, a more living art, both in himself and in his followers, 

^^rith a fierceness of repression that has something pathetic 

in it. He refused to see, in his worship of the beauty which 

lie imagined he could only discover in the antique, that the 

life about him contained as great and greater beauty than 

^hat of a false classicism. 

With this dawn of the nineteenth century, Art enters upon 
^fc new phase. Political, social, moral ideals have changed in 
'those few years since the Eevolution. And the new century 
ushers in new men, new ideals, new ways and means in Art 
«« in things political and social. The artist is a free man. 
He has henceforth not only liberty to exercise his art : but 
liberty to speak the truth that is in him. It is true that the 
Monarchy, or the Empire, or the Institute, or the stupidity of 
the public, have at times obstructed the free-will of the artist 
of the nineteenth century. But the growth of self-respect, 
of a noble independence, of the finer qualities of the Demo- 
cratic spirit, has enabled artists in France, often through 
fierce and bitter opposition, to say what they had to say with- 
out fear or favour. 


French Art in the nineteenth century divides itself into 
a series of groups or movements. These exemplify the 
curiously articulate genius of the French race. Each group, 
each movement, has a definite object in view. It is ab- 
solutely aware of its objects, of what it needs. There is no 
hesitation, no groping about for expression. Straight to 
their goal go Classics, Eomantics, Naturalists, Kealists, 
Neo-Greeks, D^coratifs, Idealists, Impressionists — and how 
many more sub-divisions and passing fashions ? They are 
all immensely in earnest — sometimes bitterly, fiercely in 
earnest. With none has the decisive victory remained. 
And with none is it well that victory should remain. For 
so surely as a system arrogates to itself an exclusive source 
of inspiration, so surely does it destroy the source of life 
within it, and become not only tyrannical but sterile. 
All through the history of French Art in the nineteenth 
century we see the ceaseless struggle between the old and 
the new, between tradition and present effort. What we 
learn from the spectacle — deeply interesting, deeply in- 
structive, deeply edifying in its history and its achievements 
— is, that the only thing in art that really matters, the only 
thing that bears weight, the only thing that leaves its mark 
on the age and on all ages to come, is individual genius — 
the mind of the one man —who, be he Classic or Romantic, 
Naturalist, Symbolist, or Impressionist, is great enough to 
stand alone, to be himself, to give to the world that message 
which is in him to give. 

David, Jacques-Louis (6. Paris, 1748 ; d. Brussels, 
1825). — By a quaint chance Louis David's first counsellor 
in art was Boucher, a distant relative, wnth whom his 
mother proposed to place him. But Boucher was old ; and 
passed the young man on to Vien. Two years after his 
admission to Vien's studio, Louis David, unknown to his 
master, competed for the Prix de Eome, and won it. But 
Vien was so incensed at his pupiFs independent action that 
he got the decision reversed, and David was only awarded 
the second prize. In 1772 and 1773 he again competed, not 
even receiving an ** honorable mention '\ He was, however, 


< c 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 263 

^-J successful in 1774 with his '* Stratonice ** : and in the 
^' "^ ■ following year went to Italy with his master Vien, who had 
just been appointed director of the French Academy in Eome. 
'^ ■ ffitherto David's work had been more in sympathy with 
the style of his relation Boucher, as when he decorated the 
Salon of Perregaux, the banker ; or completed the ceiling 
began by Fragonard, for the celebrated dancer, Mile. 
Guimard. But in Borne he soon became absorbed in that 
study of the antique which was to be the passion of his life. 
Vien in later days, when David was famous, took the credit 
of this conversion to himself. But as I have already shown, 
Vien had a happy knack of prophesying after the event, and a 
boundless belief in his own importance. In any case David 
did little but draw while in Eome. The few pictures 
liowever that he sent back to Paris were highly approved. 
In 1778 the judges of the ** Envois de Eome '' say that ** le 
sieur David shows the greatest facility with his brush ; his 
colour is animated though rather same, his method of 

* * draping broad and truthful ". The ** Paste de Saint Eoch,'* 
^^hibited in Eome in 1779, was a great success. Though 
^Xn ** rhetoric and style it closely approaches academic art, 

* * it has more energy in the drawing, and greater truth ".^ 
In 1780 David returned to Paris. He was elected to 

^le Academy on his " B^isaire " ; and received in 1783 on his 

* Death of Hector '*. These are both works of his period of 

transition. The rigid and severe style he was to impose on 

-4:iis followers, was not yet fully developed. But David began 

^to feel the necessity for closer study of ** T Antique tout cm '*; 

^nd in this same year he returned to Eome with his young 

"%vife, and his brilliant pupil Drouais. The picture painted 

in Eome, ** Le Serment des Horaces," marks the beginning of 

liis regular antique style. It was exhibited in the Salon 

of 1785, and confirmed the master's growing reputation and 

authority. His ** Mort de Socrate " two years later, is a better 

picture, and a good example of his ** Eoman " manner. The 

cartoon sketch for this picture is interesting, as showing 

his method of work. The whole composition is admirably 

^ Andre Michel. 


and carefully drawn in, in the nude, without draperies or 
accessories. In 1789, as I have mentioned, David painted 
his " Brutus " for the King. 

But now the Eevolution burst upon France. And, 
intimately associated wnth the terrible drama, David's 
pictures of the revolutionary period present a singular 
contrast to his earlier work. A life, a vigour, an emotion 
is displayed in them, very far removed from his cold, dry, 
severe style of Classic beauty. David's work for Art during 
the Revolution has already been spoken of (chap. xii.). But 
though he took so prominent a part in politics as an adherent 
of Robespierre and member of the Convention, as well as the 
chief organizer of Art, he did not wholly escape from the perils 
of the Terror. On the 15 th Thermidor he was arrested an A 
imprisoned for four months in the Luxembourg. And on th^ 
9th Prairial, An III. (1794), he was again incarcerated iio 
the Luxembourg for a further three months. After hi^ 
final release he renounced politics, and devoted himsel - 
exclusively to Art, both in practice and in theory. ¥o^ 
when the Directoire created the Institute on the ruins o» - 
the old Royal Academies, David was one of the two original- 
members of the class of Beaux Arts, whose delicate missior:3 
it was to select the other members. 

David's portraits of the revolutionary period are o^ 
extraordinary force and life. His theories paled before ther 
surging Hfe about him. There was no thought of ** Classic 
beauty " when he drew that marvellous little head of Marat 
— Marat who he loved — dead in his bath ; and wrote in the 
four comers, **A Marat TAmi du Peuple, David". One 
feels that eveiy stroke carried with it anger, pity, regret. 
The portraits begin with Lavoisier and his wife in 1788. 
And as the awful drama of the time sweeps on, they grow in 
emotion and intensity, with Michel Gerard and his family, 
Mme. d'Orvilliers in 1790, and the terrible Barrfere in the act 
of making the speech which cost Louis XVI. his life. 

Then begin the Bonaparte series. Like many another re- 
volutionist, David was completely carried away by the attrac- 
tion, the genius of the Premier Consul. His faithful pupil 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 265 

and biographer DeI6cluze, describes the General's visit to 
David's studio in the Louvre. The pupils are dismissed. And 
in three hours that wondrous sketch, now in the collection of the 
Marquis de Bassano, is made in spite of many interruptions 
from the impatient model. Only the head was finished. But 
^«vhat a head ! And next morning David breaks out in enthusi- 
astic praise to the eager pupils, of Bonaparte and his successes. 
** Enfin, mes amis, c'est un homme auquel on aurait ^leve 
^* des autels dans I'antiquit^ ; oui, mes amis, Bonaparte est mon 
^* heros ! " The hero had troublesome views on Art. What 
he demanded in a picture was not a likeness, but an object 
to rouse the admiration of the people. It was needless, he 
told David, that he should sit for him. The painter's task 
was to make his genius hve. And that wonderful sketch 
from the life is therefore of far greater value as a document, 
than the ofiBcial "Bonaparte crossing the Alps"; or the 
^* Distribution des Aigles," which in spite of fine passages is 
cold and strained. 

In the famous ** Sacre de I'Empereur Napoleon," however, 
we get a real chef d'oeuvre. Here again, all is from the 
life. At first the great contemporary work seemed to David 
against his principles. But as it progressed during the four 
years that he devoted to it, he confessed that in the long 
vestments of the priests, the crimson robes of the prelates, 
the court dresses of the ladies, the uniforms of generals, he 
had found ** more resources of art than he expected ". The 
tragic portrait of the Pope, the kneeling Josephine, above 
whose head Csesar in his white satin tunic and long crimson 
velvet mantle holds the crown, with all their brilliant 
entourage, form a subject likely indeed to yield artistic 
suggestions. And David — now premier peintre to the 
Emperor, and membre de I'lnstitut, expressed a naif surprise 
at his own success. The picture finished. Napoleon, with 
Josephine, his military household, his ministers, preceded and 
followed by musicians and horsemen, arrives at the rue St. 
Jacques.^ For half-an-hour he walks up and down before 

^ Near the Sorbonne, in the old church of Cluny, which David used as 
ills studio. 


the great canvas in silence, examining every detail; whil^ 
David and the whole company, greatly moved, stand motion- 
less. At length Caesar breaks silence. ** C*est bien, David,^ 
** vous avez compris toute ma pens^e." And making two 
steps towards the painter, Napoleon lifting his hat bowed 
shghtly, saying in a loud voice, " David, I salute you " ! 

In 1799 the ** Sabines,'' sketched out during his captivity 
in the Luxembourg, was finished and exhibited. This was 
the first picture in David's "Greek" style. It was the 
subject of much curiosity and discussion when exhibited for 
the second time at the Salon of 1810. Already a vague 
feeling was abroad that the true sources of Greek art had not 
been reached, that the picture presented archaeological ana- 
chronisms. And many preferred Girodet's '* Deluge," to the 
** Hellenic ideal" according to David. But until the end of 
his life he persisted in this cold, theatrical style — breaking 
away from it occasionally into some really magnificent 
portrait full of life, truth, and emotion — such for instance* as 
his **Pere Fuzelier'* (1814), the doyen of the Custodians of 
the Louvre; or the three ** Comm^res*' ; or the channing 
portraits of Joseph Bonaparte's daughters (1822). The well- 
known ** Leonidas" was exhibited in 1814. 

Two years later after the Restoration, by the law of 
January, 1816, David was exiled from France. Pennission 
to go to Rome was refused him. He therefore settled in 
Brussels.^ Here he painted many pictures in the style to 
which he remained faithful — *'L'Amour quittant Psj'-che,'* 
**Telemaque et Eucharis," *Ma Colere d'Achille," etc., etc. 
And here he died on the 29th December, 1825. His influence 
on his pupils, and through them on the public taste, was un- 
exampled. Nearly all the best known painters of the end 
of the eighteenth and early years of the nineteenth century 
passed through his studio, or came under his influence ; his 
most famous disciples being Girodet, Drouais, Gros, Gerard, 
Isabey, Ingres, Leopold Robert, Granet, etc., etc. While 
Guerin, though a pupil of J. B. Regnault, may be considered 
as one of David's school and most devoted adherents. 

• » See Rude. 

1900-1880. THE CLASSICS. 267 

examples in the Louvre : — 
Les Sabines, 1799. 188. 
Ltomdas aux Thermopyles, 1814. 187. 
Le Serment des Horaces, 1784. 189. 
Brutus, 1789. 191. 

B61isaire demandant Taumone, 1784. 192. 
Sacre de TEmpereur Napoleon I., 1808. 
Pope Pious VII. and Card. Caprara, 1805. 198. 
Madame E^camier (sketch). 199. 
M. and Mme. P6coul, 1783 (father and mother in 
law of David). 196, 197. Etc., etc. 
Versailles : — 

Barfere, 1790. 4607. 

Marat, study of head in pen and ink ; Nouvelle 
acquisition. Distribution des Aigles. 2278. 
, Bonaparte crossing the Alps. 

Michel Gerard, Mus6e du Mans. 
Bonaparte, sketch, Coll. du Due de Bassano. 
Peste de St. Eoch, 1799, Marseille. 
Portrait, Mme. Vig^e-Lebrun, Musee de Eouen. 
Napoleon taking the oath of fidelity to the French 

Constitution, Barnard Castle. 
Death of Milo of Crotona, Irish Nat. Gall., Dubhn. 
GiRODET DE Eoucy-Trioson, Anne-Louis (6. Montargis, 
^"^Gl ; d. Paris, 1824). — Left an orphan in early youth, and 
^opted by M. Trioson, an army doctor, Girodet took his 
■^^nefactor's name on the death of his only son. Having 
Wmt the principles of drawing from Luquin, he entered 
David's studio at eighteen. 

In 1789 he won the first prize of the Academy — defeating 
Gerard — and went to Eome. He stayed there more than 
five years, thus escaping the whole of the Eevolution. On 
his return to Paris, the ** Poems of Ossian *' which had taken 
the world by storm, had considerable influence on Girodet. 
He had a literary turn of mind, and even wrote some very 
poor poems himself. And here in the heart of David's studio, 
in the very centre of the Classic reaction, we find the first 
faint suggestion of the coming Eomantic movement. ** To 


*' the great scandal of his master, he turned early towards a 
** sentimental mannerism, a kind of academic Komanticism." 
** Atala au tombeau '' (1808) and the " Ossian," suggesteti 
these dangerous tendencies. Del^cluze describes Davids 
visit to Girodet's studio, high perched in the attics of th( 
Louvre, to see the finished " Ossian'*. The master looke< 
long and silently on the picture ; exclaiming at length 
** Ma foi, my good friend, I must confess it — I don't undei 
** stand that sort of painting. No ! my dear Girodet, I don' 
*' understand it in the least ! ** The visit ended abruptly. An 
down in the court of the Louvre, David raged. "Ah! 9a 
*' he is mad, is Girodet, he is mad ! . . . What a pity 
" With his fine talent that man will never produce anythin 
**but follies — he has no common sense!'* The genen 
opinion of the rabid Classics was that it would be we 
for painters and for poets to send the ** bard of Morvan 
back into the mists from which he came, and follow th 
singer of Achilles. But *' Ossian " made an impression a 
the same. It was destined for Malmaison, which Girodc 
and Gerard were decorating. The ** Atala" in 1808, an 
the ** Deluge,'* which though painted in 1806 was exhibite 
in 1810, and gained the Grand Prix d*histoire, mark tt 
zenith of Girodet's career. 

In easy circumstances, with a delicate constitution, ac 
lack of much imagination or inventive power, he worke 
slowly and produced but few pictures. He however mac 
an immense number of drawings — illustrating Eacine, Vigi 
Anacreon, Sappho, Bion, Moschus, Ossian. His lat< 
paintings were laboured and very inferior. " In looking ; 
** the pictures of Eaphael and Veronese, one is pleased wit 
** oneself,'* said David. ** Those men make one believe thi 
** painting is an easy art ; but when one sees those of Girode 
** painting seems a trade fit only for galley-slaves.'' 

At the Restoration Girodet was made member of tl 
Acadimie des Beaux Arts, and chevalier of the Legion 
Honour. He died December 9, 1824 ; and Louis XVII 
ordered the Cross of OflBcier which he had intended to gi^ 
him, to be placed on his cofiBn. 

1800-1880. THE CLASSICS. 269 

Examples — Louvre : — 

Scfene du D61uge, 1810, premier midaille. 360. 
Someil d'Endymion, 1792, Kome. 361. 
Atala an Tombeau, 1808. 362. 
Versailles : — 

J. B. Belley, the coloured deputy from San Domingo^ 

1796. 4616. 
Napoleon recevant les clefs de Vienne, 1808. 1549. 
La rivolte du Caire, 1810. 
Gerard, Franqois, Baron (6. Eome, 1770 ; d. Paris^ 
1837). — His father, intendant to the Bailli de Suffren, then 
Ambassador to Kome, brought young Fran9ois back to 
Paris when he was twelve. Through the Bailli de Breteuil, 
the lad was admitted to the httle school which M. de 
Marigny had founded for twelve young artists, known as 
the " Pension du Eoi *'. After eighteen months he left it for 
Pajou's studio. He then went to Breuet. And finally, in 
1786 entered David's studio. 

In 1789 he competed for the Prix de Eoine. Girodet, 

as I have said, gained it, and Gerard only obtained the second 

prize. Family troubles, the death of his father, and return 

of his mother, an Italian, to Kome, in 1790, interrupted his 

work. And when the Revolution broke out Gerard was 

included in the conscription of 1793. David rescued him 

from this by an almost worse fate ; appointing him a member 

of the Revolutionary tribunal ; and in order to escape from 

its terrible duties he feigned illness, and almost gave up his 

work. In 1795 however, he exhibited his ** B61isaire '* which 

the painter Isabey bought, saving the young artist from 

something approaching to starvation. Isabey did more. 

He insisted on Gerard receiving the extra profits, when 

he resold the picture to M. Meyer, the Dutch Ambassador. 

And it is to Gerard's gratitude that we owe the charming 

portrait of Isabey and his daughter (Louvre) — the first of a 

long series of successes. The ** Psyche et T Amour " — cold and 

aflfected — exhibited in 1798, was immensely admired. But 

still the artist found it hard to live. 

It was not until 1800 that his vogue as a portrait 


painter began. Once begun, his success was prodigiou 
No one understood better how to flatter and make thin* 
pleasant for his sitters. Even Madame Recamier, discoi 
tented with David's glorious, half-finished portrait, came 1 
the ** roi des peintres, et le peintre des rois *\ The mast* 
never forgave the slight. And when in 1805 the charmic 
and faithless lady returned to David and begged him 1 
go on with the picture, he answered dryly that artist 
hke women, were capricious. ** Souflfrez que je garde voti 
** portrait dans T^tat oil nous Tavons laiss6.*' He eve 
threatened to destroy it. Happily he did not carry oi 
his intentions. 

And now all parties in the State, all dynasties in thos 
years of upheaval and change, pass through G6rard*s studi< 
Empresses, Generals, Kings, Dancers, Statesmen. And fi 
the fashion grows and the years roll on, the baron Geran 
premier peintre du roi, becomes more and more artificia 
His portraits lose the happy directness and simplicity ( 
his early work. His subject pictures grow colder in color 
and in decadent classicism. 

In 1819 Louis XVUI. created him a Baron. In 182 
Charles X. bought his tiresome ** Daphnis and Chlo6 '* ; an 
he painted the King's Coronation in 1829. Louis Philipp 
ordered, among other works, four pendentives for th 
Pantheon, which kept him busy from 1832 to 1836. Th 
**Peste de Marseille,'* which he presented to the sanitar 
administration of that city, was one of his last works. H 
died in January, 1837. 

Examples — ten pictures in the Louvre : — 

Psyche et TAmour, 1798. 328. 

Daphnis et Chlo6, 1824. 329. 

Portrait of Isabey and his daughter, 1795. 332. 

Mme. Visconti. 337. 

Pendentives, Pantheon. 
Versailles : — 

Austerlitz, 2765 ; Entree de Henri IV. a Paris ; Mme 
Eecamier ; G6n6ral Hoche, sketch, 4936 ; Nape 
l^on I., Nouvelle acquisition ; Josephine, 469? 

180O-188a THE CLASSICS. 271 

5135 ; Marie-Louise et roi de Rome, 4703 ; Mme. 
Mire, Maria-Laetitia-Bonaparte, 4558 ; .Le Eoi 
de Rome, 4707 ; Murat, 1114 ; Due de Berr}% 
4798; Duchesse de Berry et enfants, 4799; 
Charles X., two great portraits, 4794-95 ; Sacre 
de Charles X., 1792 ; Lamartine ; Numerous 
sketches and studies for portraits, of great beauty ; 
Bonaparte, Premier Consul. Les trois ages. Duchesse 

d'Orl^ans, Chantilly. 
A sumptuous Portrait of Charles X., Madrid Gallery. 
Gros, Antoine-Jean^ Baron (6. Paris, 1771 ; d. Meudon, 
1835). — Baron Gros, the son of a miniature painter, was the 
most devoted and docile of all David's pupils. His natural 
tastes and his vigour of character, led him away from the 
rigid path of Classic art, traced out for him by his imperious 
master. His battle pictures, his great paintings of contem- 
porary events, seemed to point to a leader in a new, realistic, 
living art, which should regenerate the so-called " School of 
History and Style *\ But although David could show a cer- 
tain indulgent hberahty towards less gifted pupils, and advise 
them to paint how and what they would, so long as they did 
It Well — ^yet with artists of great talents such as Gros, he 
^iisisted almost fiercely that they should remain faithful to 
"le grand art " that he taught them. 

Gros entered David's studio in 1785. In 1792 he tried 
Unsuccessfully for the Prix de Eome. But thanks to David 
^nd Regnault he obtained a passport in 1793 ; started on his 
t)wn account for Italy ; and after many difficulties arrived 
ii Genoa. Here his imagination was excited by the works 
of Van Dyck, Pujet, and above all, Rubens. Here also in 
1796, he made the acquaintance of Josephine, an acquaintance 
as important in its effects, as his introduction to Ruben's 
colour. She carried him oflf to Milan, and presented him to 
Bonaparte, who at once took a Uking for him, attached him 
to his staflf, allowed him to paint his portrait — that wonderful 
portrait now in the Louvre of ** Napoleon at the bridge of 
Arcole " — and to follow the course of that series of memorable 


battles. Here Gros saw life indeed ; and his robust talent 
responded eagerly to the drama of war under such a leader. 
He was also appointed member of the conmiission for select- 
ing the works of art which were to enrich the museum of the 
Louvre (see chap. xii.). And he distinguished himself by the 
delicacy and probity with which he carried out this difficult 
task, in Bologna, Modena and Perugia. He arrived at Borne 
in March, 1797, and after a few months there returned to 
Milan. He was now to make an even closer acquaintance 
with the realities of war. Disaster overtook the French 
armies in Italy while Bonaparte was in Egypt. And Gros had 
to take an unwilling part in the terrible siege of Genoa which 
Massena sustained in 1799. He at last escaped on an 
English vessel, and reached Marseilles in an almost dying 
condition from hunger and privations. Here however he 
was nursed back to life by a friend, and reached Paris in 
1801, after nine years' absence. 

Hitherto, with the exception of the ** Napoleon at the 
bridge of Arcole," his pictures had been small portraits, or 
classic subjects. But now a competition was opened for the 
best picture of the battle of Nazareth, where Junot with 500 
men defeated 6000 Turks and Arabs. Gros* sketch (Musee 
de Nantes) gained the prize. But the picture was never 
painted. In 1804 he painted the ** Pestifer^es de Jaffa''. 
This picture, so full of emotion, of vigour and truth, painted 
under the double influence of the glamour of Kuben's colour 
and of actual, first-hand knowledge of war and all its 
sufferings, created a profound effect. The young artists of 
the day hung a wreath upon the frame in the Salon. They 
recognized and did homage to what they were dimly seeking 
for — life, truth, feeling, colour. This picture was followed 
in 1806 by the **Bataille d'Aboukir". In 1808 came the 
** Champ de Bataille d'Eylau ". In 1810 the ** Bataille dea 
Pyramides ". 

Gros now received an important commission from M. de 
Montalivet, the decoration of the Cupola of the Pantheon 
— finished after many vicissitudes, in 1824, it earned him 
the title of Baron. In 1816 he was made member of the 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 273 

Institute, Honorary Councillor of Museums, and Professor 
of the iicole des Beaux Arts. 

But David had seen with something akin to despair that 
his favourite and most tractable pupil was leaving the paths 
he, the master, had indicated. When exiled to Brussels in 
1815-16 he left the leadership of his school to Gros, and 
ceaselessly implored him to leave these ** sujets futiles et 
tableaux de circonstance '* for **fine historical pictures". 
Unhappily, Gros, who looked on David with positively 
pious veneration, listened to the urgent appeals his im- 
perious master made him. He believed more in David's 
opinion than in his own genius. Every contemporary pic- 
ture or portrait that he painted, seemed to him an infidelity. 
When, on the day of Girodet's funeral, the members of the 
Institute lamented over ** the irreparable loss the school 
**had sustained at a moment when it needed some power- 
** ful hand to hold it back from the abyss into which the 
'* so-called Romantic school was dragging it," Gros exclaimed 
with tears in his eyes, ** For myself, not only have I not 
** enough authority to direct the school, but I must accuse 
** myself of being one of the first who set the bad example 
** others have followed". And the great and successful 
painter, who might have been one of the leaders of Modem 
Art, humbly returned at David's bidding to his Plutarch. 

In Baron Gros we witness the tragedy of a great talent 
doing violence to itself. His contemporary war pictures, in 
which his genius found full expression, had been ruthlessly 
criticised by the upholders of the Classic school as opening 
the door — so M. Guizot said in 1810 — to a school which, 
** accustomed to seek for truth without adding beauty as a 
** necessary condition, will easily sink into hideous exaggera- 
**tion". Now, the classic subjects he painted as a self- 
imposed penance — especially a Hercules and Diomed (Salon 
1835) — called forth even more violent criticisms from the 
adherents of the new powerful Komantic school. None 
guessed the drama that tore his honest heart. He was 
laughed at — sneered at — treated as a **dead man". And 

wearied out with what he considered the lasting disgrace 



and shame that he had brought upon himself and his schoo/i 
Baron Gros lay down on his face in three foot of water a-^ 
Meudon, on June 25, 1835, where two boatmen discovered 
his body next day. 

His suflFerings and his genius were not without fruits. 
Among his pupils from 1815 to 1835 we find the names of 
Charlet, Raflfet, Paul Huet, Barye. Of his generous kindness 
to Delacroix, I speak in its own pla<5e. And though he 
was not actually Gericault's master, there can be no doubt 
that his works — those which were part of his own being — 
the Jaffa — the Eylau — the Aboukir — ^powerfully aflfected the 
young genius who was to lead the new revolution. 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

Les Pestif^r^es de Jaffa. 388. 

Napoleon a Eylau. 389. 

Fran9oi8 I. et Charles Quint. 390. 

Bonaparte a Arcole. 391. 

His pupil, Alcide de la Rivalli^re. 392. 
Decorations : — 

Ceiling, Salle 1, Louvre. 

Ceiling, Salle 5, Musee Charles X., Louvre. 

Cupola of Pantheon (Ste. Genevieve), Paris. 
Versailles : — 

Bataille d'Aboukir, Grande Salle des Gardes. 1799. 

Napoleon and Fran9ois II., after Austerlitz. 1551. 

Napoleon receiving the Queen of Prussia, Tilsitt 

Departure of Louis XVIII. from the Tuileries, 1815 - 

Portrait of Gros by himself, painted in Italy 

4786, etc. 
Sketch for the Pestiferees de Jaffa, Chantilly. 
Sketch for battle of Nazareth, Musee de Nantes. 
Gu^RiN, Pierre-Narcisse, Baron (b. Paris, 1774; (F 
Kome, 1833).— Though a pupil of J. B. Regnault, Gu^rir 
w^as a follower of David, and may be considered as belonging 
to his school. His ** Retour de Marcus-Sextus,'* in 1798— 
incredible as it may now seem — was a prodigious success. 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 275 

Though he had gained the Prix de Rome, his health 
prevented his remaining more than six months in Italy. 
And while still a student he was made Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, in 1803. 

In 1815, the King increased the number of members of 
the Academie des Beaux Arts, and made Gu6rin an 
Academician. In 1816 he was appointed Director of the 
;6cole de Rome : but was obliged to refuse the appointment. 
And when in 1822 he succeeded M. Thevenet, and went to 
Rome, his health was so bad that he was unable to paint 
during the whole six years. Returning to Paris in 1829 
the King made him a Baron. And when Horace Vernet 
was made Director of the !fccole de Rome, Gu6rin could 
not resist the desire to accompany him, and see Rome 
once more. He did so, only to die at the end of a few 

His studio in Paris was much frequented, being one of 
the three most important of the day. G^ricault, Dela- 
croix, Champmartin, Ary Scheflfer, and many more of the 
best known ** Romantics " passed through it ; though they 
had but little in common with such teaching as was to 
be had there. Delacroix thus describes it. ** Our masters, 
** in order to give the Ideal to the head of an Egyptian, make 
** it as near as possible resemble the Antinoiis. They say, 
'* We have done all we can, but if, thanks to our corrections 
"it is not yet sufficiently beautiful, the fault lies with its 
** irregular nature — with this flat nose, these thick lips, which 
'* are things intolerable to look upon.'* 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

Retour de Marcus-Sextus. 393. 

Offirande d Esculape. 394. 

Andromaque et Pyrrhus. 396. 

En6e et Didon. 397. 

Clytemnestre. 398. 

Aurore et C^phale. 399. 

Louis XVIII., Buckingham Palace. 
Ingres, Jean-Dominique-Auguste (b. Montauban, 1780 ; 
rf. Paris, 1867). — Though Ingres was for many years looked 


upon with distrust, as too " Gothic " in his tendencies 
admirer of the primitives — though on his first joume 
Italy he made endless studies in the Campo Santo of ] 
exclaiming " C'est a genoux qu'il faudrait copier ces homi 
** Ik *' — yet Ingres is the Classic of Classics — the implac 
successor and continuator of David and the Classic schc 
the irreconcilable adversary of Komantics and Natura! 
Ingres was one of David's most distinguished pupils. Ha 
gained a second prize in 1800, he carried oflf the first Pri 
Rome in 1801 with " The Ambassadors of Agamemnon '^ 
ing Achilles '\ This picture was so much admired by I 
man, who was passing through Paris, that David was seric 
annoyed. A coolness began between master and p 
They drifted further and further apart. And from ] 
Ingres endeavoured to avoid any personal communici 
with the master he was to succeed. Although he g€ 
the Prix de Rome in 1801 he was not sent to Rome 
1806. These years he spent in ** drawing to learn, 
** painting to hve'\ 

Many of the portraits of this time are of high signifies 
They demonstrate his absolute sincerity, his vigour, his 
cision as a draftsman. The great portrait of Napoleo: 
his throne (1806) shows what power the young master 
already attained. ** La belle Z61ie," of the Mus6e de Re 
is also of this year. And before he left for Italy he drev 
dehghtful pencil portraits of the " Famille Forestier*'- 
father, mother, friend, the servant, the dog, and the p 
daughter who gives Ingres the note on the piano as he t 
his violin ; for he was a great musician, and spent his evei 
playing duets with the young lady, to whom he was 
engaged. The parents wished to postpone the marriag 
his return from Italy. His own words best describe 
reason of its final abandonment. ** Un beau soir, le soi 
** adieux, la jeune fille contraria mes id^es eii peinture et nu 
''tele; cela m'avertit, je la laissai de c6te." Nothing 
come between him and his own views in Art ! 

In 1808 Ingres sent his famous '* CEdipe interrogea 
Sphynx "from Rome. In it we find what became his 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 277 

Signature in all his best works — that intensity and purity in 
his treatment of the nude. In a sort of unimpassioned dis- 
tinction, an intellectual as apart from sensual worship of 
fonn, in his actual modelling of flesh, he stands alone. In 
his best portraits, as in the "GEdipe," the ** Baigneuse " (1808), 
^'Jupiter and Thetis " (1811), the ** Odalisque " (1814), M. 
Aiidr6 Michel says the influence of the masters of the fifteenth 
century is shown, " in his fine and uncommon method 
**of modelling in the lights, and indicating with a nervous 
** and sober precision the most subtle modulations of form ". 
For many years Ingres remained quietly in Rome, given 
^wholly to the determined pursuit of his plastic ideal — a 
complete stranger to the moving drama of his own country 
— battles, victories, defeats, conquests, disasters, changes of 
dynasties and changes of opinion, that were breeding a new 
race of men in Art as well as in Literature. 

In these fruitful years of quiet and incessant labour we 
get his "Romulus," his '* Marcellus," " Ossian," 1812. 
* * Fiangailles de Raphael," 1813. " Aretino et Tintoret," 
X817. *' Death of Leonardo da Vinci," 1818. " L'entree de 
Charles V. k Paris," 1821. Besides these and others, many 
I^ainted and pencil portraits. And such small historical 
Iiictures as the ** Fran9oise de Rimini," 1819, which made 
tihe followers of David accuse him of being Gothic — an 
imitator of Jean de Bruges. 

His detractors and critics were many. And it was only 

with the " Voeu de Louis XIII." that his first victory was 

scored. It was an order for the Cathedral of Montauban, 

his native place. And though he says he would have 

preferred to paint an "Assumption," he began the work 

at Florence in 1821, sparing no pains to **make the thing 

" Rapha^lesque and my own ". It was exhibited after Ingres' 

return to Paris, in the famous Salon of 1824 — that Salon 

which marked the final break between the Classics and 

fiomantics ; for it introduced new men, new ideals, to 

the world. Delacroix exhibited his *' Massacre de Chio ". Ary 

Scheffer his ** Gaston de Foix ". Constable for the first time 


m Prance showed landscapes that revolutionized landscape 


painting. And the artistic world was divided into Homerists 
and Shakesperians. 

Ingres now threw himself into the strife. The educated 
Classics who ** ranged themselves round him, found it 
** convenient to make him * I'homme de la resistance/ and 
*' helped to exalt the most orthodox tendencies of his art and 
** his genius ". Those who had for so many years disowned, 
discouraged, and mocked him, now lavished tenderness and 
enthusiasm on him, rendered all the more vehement by the 
alarming effect of the *' Massacre of Chios *\ A new leader 
was wanted for the Classic school. Its chief in exile — 
Girodet dead — Gerard, now the official portrait painter, a 
traitor — ** That man ! — may God forgive him, if He can *' ! 
said Ingres later on — Ingres was the man to restore this 
dying school to life. Ingres, amazed and enchanted at 
this sudden and unexpected burst of popularity, decided to 
stay in France, to open a studio, to profess and maintain 
a doctrine. He was soon admitted to the ranks of the 
Institute. In after years he was made Grand Officier de la 
Legion d'Honneur and Senator of the Empire. And hence- 
forth the works he cares for most are those which illustrate 
the *' Saving Gospel " he preaches — " Point de paix avec les 
*'mechants" — the wicked in this case being the Romantics 
and Colourists, as represented by Delacroix and Rubens. 
The ** Apotheosis of Homer," painted for a ceiling in the 
Louvre, gave an excellent opportunity of preaching this 
gospel. The drawing is magnificent. The unity of purpose 
admirable. But the flat, cold, crude colour gives the im- 
pression of a frigid and uninteresting has relief. 

Ingres held strong and peculiar views on Colour. ** It 
**is without precedent that a great draftsman should not 
** find the colour that exactly suits the character of his draw- 
'ing." And again — ** A thing well drawn is always well 
'* enough painted *\ Colour was really of little use to him. 
He used it merely to emphasise the drawing in his pictures. 
*' Rubens and Van Dyck," he would say, **may please the 
**eye, but they deceive it — they belong to a bad school of 
** Colour — the school of falsehood." His exquisite drawings, 

1800-1830. THE CLASSICS. 279 

of which M. Bonnat has so large and precious a collection — 
those portraits in which a few light touches of the pencil 
give the most deUcate modelling of flesh within the purest 
outline — were the part of his work for which he cared least. 
Ingres, the last of the great Pagans, wished to be re- 
membered as "painter of history and violinist — priest of 
** Eaphael, the Antique, and Mozart ". The influence of this 
strong, intolerant, and bigoted nature on the Art of France 
was prodigious. While Kector of the 6cole des Beaux Arts 
he taught the students — to use his own words — ** to see 
^^ and cojpy naUire by the help of the Antiqiie and BaphasV\ 

One of almost his last works, is perhaps his best known 
and his most charming — ** La Source ". Begun as a study in 
1824, he turned it into a picture in 1856, when he was 
seventy-six. It was exhibited in the Great Exhibition of 
1862, in London ; and is now in the Louvre. " C'est un 
**morceau de nature, et c'est une vision." 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

Homere d6ifi6, 1827. 417. 

Eoger d^livrant Ang^lique, 1819. 419. 

CEdipe interrogeant le Sphynx, 1808. 421. 

La Source, 1856. 422. 

Ch^rubini, portrait, 1842. 418. 

M. and Mme. Kivifere. 426, 427. 

L'Odahsque et TEsclave. 

Napoleon I. sur son Tr6ne, Invalides. 

Portrait of himself at 24. Mme. Devan9ay. Venus 
Anadyom^ne. Francesca di Kimini ; Chantilly. 

St. Symphorien, Cathedral, Autun. 

Vceu de Louis XIII., Cath., Montauban. 

La Belle Z61ie, Mus6e de Kouen. 
Prud'hon, Pierre (6. Cluny, 1758; d, Paris, 1823),— 
though he does not belong to the Classics, was so completely 
their contemporary that he must be spoken of with them. 
A charming and unexplained apparition, Pierre Prud'hon 
may be said to belong to no school, no group, no time. He 
followed no one. He left no successor. For his only pupil. 
Mile. Mayer, died before him ; and her talent was the 


outcome of a passionate tenderness for the unhappy master, 
to whom her love brought the only consolation of his life. 
Prud'hon belongs to the school of Corregio and Leonardo 
more than to any other. " He seems to have been raised up 

* to bridge over the transition between the eighteenth century 

* and modem painting. He inherits from the one the senti- 
' ment and pursuit of grace ; he maintains the tradition 
' of plump little loves ; but. he already possesses all the 

* melancholy of a new age ; an intimate sadness mingles 

* even with his smile — reflex of a cruel and recent ex- 

The thirteenth child of a poor mason at Cluny, Pierre 
Prud'hon was brought up by the monks of the famous 
Abbey. The pictures there inspired him with a love of 
drawing, which soon developed in so marked a manner that 
the Bishop of Macon remarked it, and sent the boy to the 
admirable Fran9ois Devosges, at Dijon. Devosges, to whom 
Bude owed so much (see Eude), was director of the School 
of Fine Arts at Dijon. Under his teaching Prud'hon made 
rapid progress ; and in 1780 Devosges and an enlightened 
amateur, M. de Joursanvault, sent the young man to Paris 
with a letter to Wille the engraver. There he stayed three 
years ; and on his return to Dijon obtained the triennial prize 
established by the States of Burgundy, and went to Home 
to finish his education. Here he chose a line of his own. 
Though he studied the antique in order to " paint beautiful 
forms," he only used it as a means to an end. And his 
enthusiasm went forth to Corregio and Leonardo rather than 
to Eaphael and Michael Angelo — Leonardo, **my master 
"and my hero, the inimitable, the father, the prince, the 
** first of all painters ". 

On his return to Paris in 1789, life began for him in all its 
sadness and cruelty. Unknown and poor, he had committed 
the folly — unpardonable in most cases, and especially so in 
that of the artist — of marrying young. Worst of all he had 
married badly. His wife was a woman of detestable temper. 
And his whole life was poisoned by the misery she brought 
on him. It is pathetic to think of the surroundings in a 

1800-1880. THE CLASSICS. 281 

garret in the rue Cadet — poverty — reproaches from the "wife 
— tears from the numerous and half-starved children — in 
which for several years Prud'hon produced those enchanting 
dreams of the loves of Cupid and Psyche, ** L 'Amour r^duit 
a la raison," ** L*Union d'Amour et de TAmitie," and so forth. 
For a time he had to gain a scanty living by drawings for 
the heads of official papers, for brevets — even for bonbon 
boxes. Among these, little chefs d'ceuvres may be found. 
Then escaping for a time from Paris, he employed him- 
self while with some relations in the country, on the 
charming illustrations for the Amours pastorales de Daphnis 
et ChM. 

On his return to Paris in 1797, David and Girodet turned 
a cold shoulder on him. He was too much given to the 
wavs of ** Boucher de ridicule memoire " to suit them. 
Gros was kind to him, but anything but encouraging. ** De 
^' la famille et du talent," he said. ** C'est plus qu'il n'en faut 
** pour mourir a la peine.'* But he added, '* Celui-ci ira plus 
"' loin que moi ; il enfourchera les deux siecles avec des 
** bottes de sept lieues ". 

At last however, through the engravings of his lovely 
•drawings, Prud'hon's name became known. In the Salon 
of 1799 he exhibited his first large painting, ** La Sagesse 
ramenant la V6rit6 sur la Terre ". And it was ordered for a 
ceiling at Saint-Cloud. Lanois employed him to decorate 
the Salon of his hotel (now Hotel Rothschild, rue Laffite). 
His most important decorative works followed — the ceil- 
ing of the Salle grecque, medallions in the Salle des Antonins. 
The **Triomphe de Bonaparte, or la Paix," and **Minerve 
conduisant le G^nie des Arts a Timmortalite " secured him 
popularity, despite the opposition of the Classics. And 
Bonaparte not only ordered the charming portrait of 
Josephine in the park of Malmaison, but after his second 
marriage appointed Prud'hon drawing master to the Empress 
Marie-Louise. From 1808 to 1814 he produced his very 
best works — delightful portraits of women — Mme. Copia, 
Mme. Jarre, and Mile. Mayer; ** L'enlevement de Psyche," 
'** Le Z^phjrr qui se balance," portraits of the roi de Rome, 


and decorative and allegoric works connected with th -^ 
marriage of Napoleon. 

During his later years he painted several pictures irrr 
collaboration with Mile. Mayer, whose tender devotioirr: 
consoled him for the desertion of his wife. But his friend'^ 

terrible suicide in 1821 broke his heart. His last pictures 

*' La famille malheureuse," the " Christ en Croix," a draw — 
ing of the " Portement de Croix," and a sketch 'TAm^- 
d61ivr6e " — show the effect of this tragedy on his mind. AndT 
he died in February, 1823. 

Many of his pictures, such as the famous ** Justice etr 
Vengeance poursuivant le Crime " (Louvre, 747), are so 
injured by bitumens that it is difficult to get any just idea* 
of his colour from their cold black shadows. The best 
examples are : — 
Louvre — 

Portraits of I'lmp^ratrice Josephine. 751. Mme^ 
Jarre. 752. Le naturaHste Bruun Neergaard^ 
753. Baron Denon. 754. 
L 'enlevement de Psyche. 756. 
Etc., etc., etc. 

Portrait, M. de Talleyrand, Ville de Paris. 
Assumption of the Virgin, Hertford House. 
Mme. Copia, M. Bischoflfsheim. 

IsABEY, Jean-Baptiste (6. Nancy, 1767 ; d. Paris, 1855)^ 
— miniature painter and lithographer, was a pupil of David's. 
He was premier peintre to the Empress Josephine ; director 
of the decorations of the Opera ; and assistant conservator of 
the Musee Royal. His miniatures are of world-wide 
reputation, and represent the most distinguished personages 
of the Revolution and Empire. His drawings and paintings 
of people and contemporary official events are admirable. 
The well-known ** Congr^s de Vienne,'* and the ** Revue du 
premier Consul dans la cour des Tuileries," are in the posses- 
sion of H.M. the Queen. 

IsABEY, Louis-GABRiEL-EuGfeNE (6. Paris, 1833; d. 1886),. 
was son of J. B. Isabey, and a painter of great distinction. 

i^oo-ieaa the classics. 283 

Bis pictures are mostly marine or ceremonial. But all 
possess fine qualities of colour and composition and true 

The " Bois de Varangeville," and the ** Manoir Ango '* 
are admirable specimens of his landscapes, which have much 
in common with de Wint. The provincial museums in 
France contain many of his sea-ports, etc. 



The history of the Komantic movement in Art is so closely 
allied with that in literature, that it is impossible to dwell 
on one without mentioning the other. Indeed it is some- 
times thought that the movement was much more hterary 
than artistic ; and that this contributed to the decadence 
of its impulse in Art. To Walter Scott and Victor Hugo, 
to Byron and Georges Sand, the Eomantic movement in 
literature owed its life. And these great names exercised 
a profound influence on the young painters, who, after 
G^ricault's death were enlisted under the leadership of 
Eugene Delacroix. To these men the revolution in Art 
is due. To them we may look as the fathers of Modem 

The material liberty of Art which David inaugurated, 
was well-nigh lost at the Restoration, when the Fourth 
Class of the Institute was revived with all its ancient powers, 
passions, and prejudices. Liberty of thought in the hands 
of David's followers degenerated into the bitterest tyranny 
of thought, which was fostered by Ingres until the revolution 
of 1848 once more swept aside conventionalities. 

The young artists of the nineteenth century came into 
the world at a moment when all things combined to move 
imagination and emotion. The Revolution and the Empire 
could not but affect the generation to which they gave birth. 
That "jeunesse soucieuse" bore the stigmata of glories 
and of disasters such as the modem world had never 
witnessed. These ardent, unquiet young spirits, '* souffrant 
** d'un inexprimable sentiment de malaise," demanded some- 
thing less rhetorical than Delille's verses, or Guerin and 

Girodet's cold academies. And they turned instinctively 


1812-1848. THE ROMANTICS. 285 

to the masterpieces of foreign literature that now became 
known to them — to Dante, to Goethe, Byron, Shakespeare. 

** No artistic question is more important than this old 
** quarrel between the ancients and the modems, which 
** at first was purely literary, and now is in some senses 
** universal ; it impassioned a century ; fifty years ago it 
** split up literature ; it is the incentive of the art of to-day ; 
** it reappears from time to time under new titles or 
** pseudonyms . . . and whether it is the name of Delacroix, 
** of Ingres, of G6r6me, of Courbet, or of Manet that is put 
** forward, the process is always the same and always alike ; 
"it is eternally trying to know whether to-morrow is worth 
** more than yesterday, and if the pursuit of a new truth or a 
** vibrant modem art, is preferable to servile imitation and 
** to respect for tradition." ^ 

Out of the very heart of the Classic school, from Gu^rin's 
studio itself, came the young apostle who was to preach 
liberty, truth and life — the revolutionist, who was to break 
the bonds of academic tradition, which in so few years had 
again fettered Art, and bound her once more hand and foot. 
In the studio itself, Theodore G^ricault began to show that 
the '* academies *' he was obliged to produce there, did not 
satisfy his ardent spirit. ** He found in nature and life 
"more beauty than in Eoman bas-reliefs; — the Apollo 
"Belvidere himself no longer seemed to him the supreme 
** ideal — and when he made his vigorous crayon studies from 
" heads of Negroes and Negresses, his last thought was to recall 
** by them the profile of the Antinoiis." ^ His ** Officier des 
Chasseurs a Cheval," exhibited at the Salon of 1812, shook 
the Art of the day to its very foundations. But the defini- 
tive break with tradition was made by his "Radeau de la 
M6duse " in 1819. " It marks a date in the history of 
"French painting, and the commencement of an evolution.'* 
For this great picture of a contemporary event, reinstates 
the drama, the pathos of human life once again in the do- 
main of Art. And although this presentment has since 
at times developed into melodrama and the mere painting 

> J. Glaretie. ^ A. Michel. 


of anecdote, G^ricault's picture did an enormous service 
to Art. Apart from its own intrinsic merits, it infused 
strong feeling and pulsating life into the frozen, sterile, 
official academic school. And besides the example of his 
own works, Giricault did signal service to Art in France by 
his journey to England. This resulted in Constable and 
Bonnington becoming known in Paris : and of the effect 
their works had on French Art, I will speak later on. 

At the age of thirty-three death robbed the world of a great 
genius, a great leader. His short life had done more than 
that of any other painter for the freedom of thought and 
method in Art. But he left a worthy disciple in his friend 
Delacroix, who was ready to snatch the torch from his dying 
hand, and through bitter opposition lead his followers to 

The war for the next twenty years was d outrance. On 
one hand the defenders of tradition, of the " grand " style 
of Academic painting, of the Classic ideal, of everything that 
was opposed to Eubens in colour, to life, or to nature. On 
the other the reformers, intoxicated with colour and move- 
ment, spurred on to fresh efforts by the very opposition 
that met them at every^ turn. They felt their cause was a 
righteous one, that their battle was worth the winning. For 
it was freedom not only for themselves but for their fellows 
— liberty for Art itself — for which they fought. 

The Classics laid claim to certain ancestors. Under 
Ingres the watchword was Raphael, Leonardo, Corregio — 
but specially Raphael. The Romantics replied with Michael- 
Angelo, Titian, Giorgione, Veronese, Rubens, Van Dyck — 
but specially Rubens. The Classics cried " Malfaiteuxg ! ** 
The Romantics shouted **JPerrjj(jtte8 ! " The Classics took 
their motives from Sculpture — cold regularity of design — 
the immobilitv of a late Roman bas-relief. The Romantics 
in their revolt against this sculptural painting, rushed to the 
other extreme. They exaggerated the legitimate tendencies 
of Romanticism, seeking only for expression. ** Sentiment '* 
— ** Character,*' were the words they hurled back on the 
upholders of '* Classic beauty ". And the beauty that 

1812-1848. THE BOMANTICS. 287 

Delacroix sought after was not beauty according to Ingres, 
not the beauty of each separate part, but the beauty of 
the whole. 

The Art of the Classics was imitative. It is true they 
honoured the nude. They made most careful and con- 
scientious ** academies *' from models in the studio. Nothing 
shows this better than some of David's magnificent studies 
for his pictures. But they sought no fresh inspiration from 
nature. Their pictures were imitations of the antique, of 
Eaphael, of the masters of the Renaissance, ** even of 
Lebrun's pictures *'. Imagination became merely an exercise 
of memory. The most successful and most admired, were 
those who best remembered the lessons they had lee^raed 
from their masters, the copies with which they had filled 
their portfoUos. 

The Romantics studied nature even less. Certainly it was 
necessary for the student to go through a course of study 
from models at the Beaux Arts, or in his master's studio. 
But when he had once mastered the human figure, its 
proportions, its muscles, its bones, then drawing from the 
model was considered not only superfluous but harmful. 
It was supposed to blight the imaginative faculty. Passion, 
movement, life in fact, nmst come from an effort of the 
artist's heart and brain, not from the living human creature 
before his eyes. 

The Romantics cried, ** Down with the race of Agamem- 
non ". They sought for their inspiration in the world of 
chivalry ; in the moving drama of modern life ; in truly 
heroic and humanist scenes. When Delacroix in 1824 
exhibited his ** Massacre de Scio," Baron Gros, who had so 
generously befriended the young painter two years before, 
exclaimed ** C'est le massacre de la peinture," and abandoned 
him to his fate. While Jal, giving utterance to the en- 
thusiasm of all the fiery young spirits who were soon 
to come to actual blows for Victor Hugo's Hcniani in 
the parterre of the Theatre, wrote, " Je ne connais pas M. 
^* Delacroix, mais, si je le rencontre je lui ferai la scene la plus 
'* extravagante, je I'embrasserai, je le f61iciterai et je pleurerai, 


** GUI, je pleurerai de joie et de reconnaissance. Brave jeune 
** hoinme ! la fortune lui soit en aide ! II a bien m^rit^ des 
**Art8; il a bien miriti des ennemis du despotisme ; il Ta 
** montr6 dans toute son horreur ! " 

It was a generous time, a noble time. There were 
extravagancies, absurdities, of course. But men cared, 
cared deeply, and fiercely, nay suffered for their watchwords. 
The twenty years, from 1828 to 1848, were replete with 
splendid aspirations, fine enthusiasms, in art, in literature, 
in politics. Pure theories, things of the spirit, of the mind 
and of the heart, were more real, of infinitely more immediate 
importance to the ardent young refonners of 1830, than the 
prices of the Bourse. Artists, in painting, in poetry, in prose, 
all made common cause. Georges Sand and Delacroix, Alfred 
de Musset, Chenavard, Deveria, Alexandre Dumas, Victor 
Hugo, all strive with conviction for ** those useless things, 
** which are nevertheless so necessary to the life of a nation — 
** poetry, grace, the ideal *'. 

The subsequent decadence of the Romantic school was 
due to two causes. First, a too exclusive devotion to subjects 
of the Middle Ages. Secondly, because certain exaggerations 
which were real and honest in the leaders, were de parti pris 
in their followers. As the servile followers of David reduced 
the Classic school to a condition of impotent decadence, so 
the followers of such leaders as G^ricault and Delacroix who 
painted what was in their hearts to say, became intolerable, 
because, having nothing special to say on their own account, 
they endeavoured to imitate the vehement enthusiasm, the 
exuberant life of their chiefs. Where their leaders were 
brilliant, they were flashy. Where their leaders touched the 
heights and depths of life, passion, poetry, they were only 
noisy. Where their leaders were strong, they were merely 


Gericault, Jean-Louis-Andr6-Th6odore (b. Rouen, 
1791 ; d. Paris, 1824).— Coming to Paris in 1806 Gericault 
entered Carle Vernet's studio in 1808. But he merely 

1812-1848. THE ROMANTICS. 289 

passed through it to that of Gu^rin, where he was the fellow- 
student of Champmartin, Cogniet, Ary Scheflfer, Delacroix, 
etc. His methods, so at variance with those of the school of 
David, especially his drawings from the model, exasperated 
the cold, correct, academic Guirin, who told him he had better 
give up Art, that he could never succeed in it. 

In 1812 — on such apparent chances do things turn — a 
dapple-grey horse in a cart on the road near St. Cloud, 
suddenly turned restive as G^ricault was passing, and began 
to plunge in the sunshine. Giricault stopped — made notes — 
and the few lines jotted down on the spot were soon trans- 
formed by his vivid imagination into the idea of a great 
picture. His friend M. Dieudonn^, lieutenant des Guides de 
TEmpereur, posed for the head. A cab-horse was brought 
round each morning to keep **du cheval** in the painter's 
eye. And in an incredibly short time (M. Villot says twelve 
days) the '* OflBcier des Chasseurs a Cheval " was finished. It 
created a stupor at the Salon of 1812. David when he saw 
it cried, ''Where does that come from? I do not know 
*' that touch." And despite wild criticism, it gained a gold 
medal for its young painter. He was only twenty. He had 
created a revolution in Art that shook academic tradition to 
its very centre. The picture was shown a second time in 
1814, when G^ricault's pendant, the ** Cuirassier blessi'* was 
also exhibited. Both pictures were bought some years later 
by the Due d'Orl^ans. Louis-Philippe had fortunately lent 
them to the Soci^te des Artistes when the revolution of 
1848 broke out. And they were thus saved from destruction 
in the Palais-Eoyal. At the sale of the King's pictures in 
1851 they were acquired by the Louvre for 23,400 francs. 

At the Restoration, G^ricault enlisted for a short time in 
the Motisquetaires du roi, attracted, no doubt by his love oi 
horses and military life. But on the return from Elba, his 
regiment was disbanded, and he returned to his brush. 

It was about this time that he was turned out of Gu^rin's 

studio for some charge d'atelier — a bucket of water which was 

intended for his friend Champmartin, and which unluckily 

fell on the master's head. 



In 1817 G^ricault left for Italy, where Michael-Angelo 
became the god of his idolatrj' before whom he " trembled ". 
But besides copies and studies, he brought back to France 
sketches of a scene after his own heart — the bands of loose 
horses rushing wildly through the shouting crowds at the 
F^te of the Barbari on the Corso. From these he intended 
to paint a huge picture. He began it. But the unfinished 
canvas has been lost or destroyed. All that remains are the 
drawings and painted studies for it, now in the Museum of 
Eouen and the collection of M. Marcille. 

When G^ricault returned to Paris in 1818, public feeling 
was much excited by the account, published by two of the 
survivors, of a great naval disaster in 1816. The moving drama 
of this shipwreck seized upon G^ricault's imagination. The 
result was his great picture, the ** Badeau de la Meduse '\ 
The artist spent months in collecting documents for this 
work. He found the carpenter of the Medtise, who made 
him a model of the famous raft. '* During several months/' 
Bays his biographer, M. Charles Clement, ** his studio was a 
** sort of morgue *'. He spent days in the hospitals, studying 
the effects of illness and suffering. All his friends — especially 
if they were ill — were pressed into the service as models. 
The two officers of the Mdduse, figure as the man who holds 
out his arms to the Ar(j2is and the one against the mast. 
Eugene Delacroix lies with arms inert, his head against the 
edge of the raft. Such methods of study were an absolute 
innovation in modern painting. The picture, when finished 
and exhibited in the Salon of 1819, had but little success, and 
raised a perfect storm of abuse. It was too novel, too 
contrary to all received ideas. But it is without doubt the 
starting point of Modern French Art. For " by it drama, 
" moral life, human pathos once more reappeared in art ". 

Gericault now made a journey to England, where his 
works were greatly appreciated. This proved of immense 
importance to French artists ; for he was the chief instru- 
ment in inducing Bonnington and Constable to come to 
France. In England his passion for horses was fully satis- 
fied. He was a splendid rider, and delighted in horses and 

1812-1848. THE ROMANTICS, 291 

horsemanship. Many of his fine lithographs, now extremely 
rare, were done in London. So was the beautiful ** Horse 
race at Epsom " (Louvre), fine in colour and in truth to 
nature. On his return to Paris Gericault worked diligently at 
studies, water colours, and easel pictures. But in 1823 his 
fatal illness began. And after eleven months of frightful 
suffering, borne with magnificent composure and fortitude, 
he died in January, 1824. 

Giricault's rightful place is at the head of any study of 
Modern French Art. " For his genius marks the starting 
" point of the Eevolution which took place in French Art at 
*' the beginning of this century." ^ 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

Officier des Chasseurs a Cheval, 1812. 339. 
Cuirassier Bless^, 1814. 341. 
Le Eadeau de la Meduse, 1819. 338. 
Carabinier. 343. 

Course de Chevaux a Epsom, 1821. 348. 
Cheval turc dans une icurie. 345. 
Two small racing pictures. 351, 352. 
Les Croupes, cinq chevaux dans une ^curie. 347. 
Mus6e de Eouen : — 

Portrait de Delacroix, 219 ; Les Suplicies, 220 ; 
White Arab, 218; T^tes de Chevreuils, 214; 
Chevaux de Postilion, 213. Sketches for Course 
de Chevaux libres, and many others, among 
them the two first ideas in sepia and in pen and 
ink for the Wreck of the M^use, 755-779. 
Drawings and water colours, Coll. M. Bonnat. 
Drawings and water colours, Coll. M. Marcille. 
Cheval sortant de I'ecurie, Chantilly. 
Delacroix, Ferdinand- ViCT0R-EuGi:NE (6. Charenton, 
1798 ; d, Paris, 1863). — Eugene Delacroix's earliest years 
were passed at Marseilles, where he gained that love of hot 
sunshine, vivid colour, turbulent life, which — so he con- 
sidered — so profoundly affected his work in later years. His 
father, a member of the Convention, and minister of Foreign 

1 Albert WolfE. 


Affairs under the Directoire, came with clean hands and 
empty pockets out of his offices. And under the Empire 
was successively prefect of Marseilles and Bordeaux. 
At Bordeaux, Eugene got a fair classical education, ffis 
father, however, died before he was of age, and left him penni- 
less. He had already, in spite of the opposition of his family, 
determined to be a painter. An elder married sister in Paris 
gave him shelter. He secretly turned his attic into a 
studio. And Eiesener, the artist, who was fortunately a 
relation, overcame the prejudices of the family against the 
lad's vocation. Not taking pupils himself, Eiesener placed 
his young cousin with Guerin. 

In Guerin 's studio Delacroix made Giricault's acquaint- 
ance. The closest friendship sprang up between the two. 
And on G^ricault's death in 1824, Delacroix found himself 
the head of the new school. But the young master's debut 
had been earlier than this. Shut up in his sister's attic 
Delacroix had imagined a great picture. In 1822 he finished 
** La Barque du Dante ". There is a charming story of the 
broken frame made of four laths and coloured with yellow 
powder, as Delacroix was too poor to buy one — of Baron 
Gros' recognition of the young man's talent, and how he 
made the administration put the chef d'oeuvre into a fine 
new frame, and hang it in the Salon carre — of the artist, 
overcome with gratitude, and enthusiasm for the painter of 
Jaffa and the Aboukir, knocking, trembling at his door — 
of Gros' paternal advice to ** Come to us, we will teach 
** you how to draw " ; and how he said the picture was 
*' Rubens reformed ". The picture made Delacroix famous 
at once. It was followed in 1824 by his ** Massacre de Scio," 
which was the signal for the final break between Classics 
and Romantics. For, as I have said, this was too much even 
for Baron Groa 

Besides his position as a reformer, Delacroix's work must 
be regarded under three aspects. Colourist. Poet. Deco- 

Constable at the Salon of 1824 was a revelation to him. 
Under the glamour of his colour, Delacroix obtained leave to 

1^12-1848. THE ROMANTICS. 293 

retouch his '* Massacre de Scio ". And in a fortnight he re- 
painted it throughout, using the strongest, purest, most vivid 
colours he could find. Few Frenchmen have gone so deeply 
into the harmony of colours. His was not merely a natural 
instinct for colour. It was a profound scientific knowledge 
of colour— of the effects of colours one on another — of the 
laws that govern them — of ** melange optique/' the process 
by which absolutely opposed colours are fused by the eye 
of the spectator into the one the artist intends him to see — 
of ** modulation " of colour, the process known to the oriental 
of superposing tone upon tone of one pure colour, and making 
it scintillate and vibrate. To Delacroix the reform in colour 
in France during this century is entirely due. It will always 
be one of his greatest titles to fame. 

As a poet — a poet in form, in colour, in ideal — Delacroix 
turned instinctively to Goethe, Byron, Shakespeare, Dante. 
This was not because the great poets, past and present, 
suggested good subjects. But because in Hamlet, in Faust, 
in the Inferno, in what he called ** Byron's burning soul," he 
found an answer to the fever of his own soul, his own times. 
In his youth he gave himself to the passionate ideals and 
aspirations of the thinking youth of France ; to enthusiasm 
for the Greeks — Byronism — ^Anglomania — and even, for a 
moment, to Liberalism. After the Revolution of July (1830) 
he painted his ** Barricade ". Save the ** Boissy d'Anglas," it 
was his one poUtical picture. And even in this he has incar- 
nated an ideal, rather than given us a page of actuality. For 
what is his tremendous heroine of the barricade, his virago 
half naked, with Phrygian cap, but an allegory of Liberty. 
Liberty in modern guise. Liberty for the people. Liberty 
for Art. The picture, exhibited in the Salon of 1831 was 
bought by the Direction of Beaux Arts, and quickly turned 
with its tsice to the wall. It is now in a place of honour in 
the Louvre. 

In this same year Delckjroix made a journey to Morocco 
with M. de Momay, which produced results of extreme 
importance. This journey — his only distant one — revived 
all the impressions he had received in his childhood of 


light, sun, colour. The strange people, their manners and 
customs, their dehghtful clothes, above all their horses 
— for he always had a passion for well-bred horses — were an 
enchantment to him. And to this journey are due such 
pictures as ** Muley-Abd-er-Ehaman,*' ** Les Convulsionnaires 
de Tanger,*' ** Les Fenmies d* Alger," " La Noce Juive," etc. ; 
and the numerous pictures, sketches, and lithographs of Arab 
horsemen, of Lions and Tigers, which form one of the most 
important contributions of the century to the work of the 
** Orientalists". But this was only a part, though a con- 
siderable one, of Delacroix's work. He was too great and 
fertile an artist to confine himself to one method or line of 

Though war was declared on him by Ingres and the In- 
stitute, though the doors of the Academy were closed against 
him for five-and-thirty years, Delacroix had staunch friends. 
His varied social relations, the friendship of the Due d'Orl^ans, 
the protection of M. Thiers, who had been the first to write 
in praise of the ** Barque du Dante,'* stood him in good stead. 
And the Direction des Beaux Arts began to understand that 
Delacroix's greatest powers lay in decoration. In 1833 he 
was entrusted with the decoration of the Salon du roi at 
the Chamber of Deputies (Palais Bourbon). It was finished 
in 1838. In the segments of the ceiUng he placed magni- 
ficent reclining figures — Justice, War, Agriculture, Industries. 
Below them in a frieze between the archivolts of doors 
and windows, came animated groups symbolising these 
abstractions. On the piers between the windows, eight 
colossal figures represented the seas and rivers by which 
France is girt about and fertilized. For this work Dela- 
croix took counsel with one man only — ** I'homme inimitable 
** et que Ton doit le plus ^tudier," as he wrote — Veronese. 

The Salon du roi was hardly finished when he received a 
much more important commission — the decoration of the 
Library of the same Palais Bourbon. A little later the 
cupola of the Library of the Luxembourg was entrusted to 
him. These two works were carried on together ; and left him 
httle or no time for pictures for the Salon. The decoration 

1812.1848. THE ROMANTICS. 295 

tor the Palais Bourbon was a sort of ** r^sum^ of the history 
"of ancient civilization''. That for the Luxembourg, a 
passage from the fourth canto of the Inferno, when Dante 
and Virgil reach the Limbo of Poets and Sages. 

His decoration of Heliodorus for the Chapel in St. Sulpice 
in 1850, was interrupted for some time by two of his most 
important decorative works. The Salon de la Paix, at the 
Hotel de Ville, destroyed during the Commune in 1871. 
And the centre-piece in Le Bran's great ceiling of the Galerie 
d'Apollon. This central panel, which Le Bran had reserved 
for his own hand, is one of Delacroix's masterpieces. "ApoUon 
vainqueur du Serpent P)rthon " is the subject. And in reading 
Delacroix's own description of it one might imagine, as M. 
Andre Michel says, that it was wTitten by ** the most 
" impenitent classic ". 

For Delacroix, though he was treated as the Scapegoat 
of Komanticism, though he was indeed the leader of the 
movement after G^ricault's untimely death, never indulged 
in the extravagances and exaggerations of those who called 
themselves his followers. The great dead were his only 
masters. He always venerated their methods. What he 
did was to bring back their colour, their methods, to Modern 
Art in France. And though the Institute only admitted him 
to its membership when he was sixty, and he was there- 
fore debarred from a professorship at the J^cole des Beaux 
Arts, he was not only willing but anxious to enter its ranks. 
Examples in the Louvre : — 

La Barque du Dante. 207. 

Scenes des Massacres de Scio. 208. 

La Barricade, or La Libert^ guidant le peuple. 209. 

Les Femmes d'Alger. 210. 

Naufrage de Don Juan. 212. 

Entree des Croises a Constantinople. 213. 

Portrait de Delacroix. 214. 

Bataille de Taillebourg (Galerie des Batailles), 

Les deux Foscari, Corps de Garde Marocain, water- 
colour sketch for Taillebourg, Chantilly. 


La Justice de Trajan, Mus^e de Bouen. 

Muley-Abd-er-Ehaman, Mus^e de Toulouse. 

Boissy d'Anglas a la Convention Nationale, Mus6e de 
Decorations : — 

Apollon Vainqueur, Galerie d'Apollon, Louvre. 

Salon du roi, Palais Bourbon. 

Bibliothfeque, Palais Bourbon. 

Bibliothfeque, Palais du Luxembourg. 
England : — 

Execution of Marino Faliero ; Faust and Mephistc^' 
pheles, Hertford House. 
Deveria, EUGENE-FRAN501S-MARIE- Joseph {b, Pari^» 
1810 ; d, Pau, 1865). — Eugene Deveria is a singular example 
of a man of one picture. Into that picture he put all h^ 
had to say. There was nothing left, no reserve to dra\^" 
upon, no foundation for future growth. What he said, wa^ 
a really magnificent page in the history of the Bomantic? 
movement. For one moment he seemed to bid fair to be su 
rival of Delacroix. The sensation made by his " Naissanc^ 
de Henri Quatre,'* in 1827 was profound. The students 
went wild. In Hersent's studio the casts of the antique 
were smashed and thrown out of the window by the young 
barbarians, who thought they had found an artist superior 
to Phidias ! The critics talked of " Veronese " ; and the 
enthusiasm was immense. It was indeed an extraordinary 
work for a young man of seventeen. It is truly French in 
feeling ; and Venetian in richness of tone and touch. 

Eugfene Deveria lived with his elder brother Achille, an 
excellent artist, who abandoned painting to allow his brother's 
talent full scope, and devoted himself to lithography. Their 
house was the very centre of romanticism. Artists, poets, 
writers, actors, musicians all met there. All eyes were 
turned to the beautiful sister Laura, while Achille, ** always 
** pencil in hand, exercised a great influence on these 
** artists *'. 

Nothing could have been more promising than Eugene 
Deveria's d^but and circumstances. But he had had the 


ortune of a prodigious success to begin with. And 
pt in his ceiling in the Louvre of the ** Meeting of Louis 
. and Pujet at Versailles," he never again approached the 

of the picture of 1827. A few years later he disappeared 
L the world of Art. Touched with a sort of strange 
bicism he became a protestant, lived at Eaux Bonnes, 
spent his time in endeavouring to convert the invalids, 
w hthographs, a few portraits, and one picture which he 

to the Salon in 1857, were all the artistic work he 
uted in these later years. 

Naissance de Henri IV., Louvre. 250. 

** Puget presenting the Milo of Crotona to Louis XIV. 

in the gardens of Versailles." Ceiling. Louvre. 

Le Serment du roi (Louis PhiHppe) aux Chambres, 

Versailles. 5124. 

'henavakd, Paul (b. Lyons, 1808). — A pupil of Hersent, 

Chenavard was first known by a sketch in the com- 
ion opened in 1833 for a picture for the Palais Bourbon. 

subject was ** Mirabeau apostrophant le Marquis de 
ix-Brez6 " in the Constituant Assembly of 1789. Chena- 
's sketch made a great sensation. Delacroix, who was 
oi the competitors, declared that it deserved the prize. 

Baron Gros showed off its beauties to the admiring 
d. But the drawing did not gain the prize. 
L few months later a large drawing was exhibited of ** The 
mention," just at the moment when Louis XVI. had been 
emned. Unluckily for the artist, Louis Philippe was 
kcted by this drawing when he visited the Salle des 
;ins, for it was of the utmost historic as well as artistic 
•est. The King recognized the portrait of his father; 
was extremely annoyed at seeing him placed between 
at and Santerre. He forbade that the drawing should be 
bited, and had it sent to the Tuileries to study it at his 
re. Months after, Chenavard discovered his lost picture 
le study of the Minister of the Interior, M. Thiers, 
ifter these unfortunate experiences Chenavard retired to 
', where he began long years of study, ** living and 
rking, so to speak, under the eye of the great masters ". 


During fifteen years he explored the painters of each country. 
Michael Angelo, Raphael, Corregio, Leonardo, Titian, in 
Italy. Velasquez in Spain. Albert Diirer at Nuremberg. 
Holbein at BAle. Eubens in Antwerp. Eembrant in 
Holland. Van Dyck at Windsor. His profound study of 
each great artist, of each school, was all with one object in 
view. His ambition was to decorate the French Pantheon. 
And after the Eevolution of 1848 he unfolded his scheme to 
M. Ledru-Eollin. It was a Universal Palingenisis — the 
moral Evolution of Humanity, from the noblest phases of 
antiquity to the French Eevolution. Ledru-Eollin, as 
Minister of the Interior, with half the Eevolution on his 
hands, found time to go through all Chenavard's drawings, 
and listen to his great scheme. After two days' reflection, 
the work was given to him. A credit of 30,000 francs was 
opened. And he tlirew himself into the gigantic task of 
which he had dreamed for so many years. 

For four years all went well. Besides forty smaller 
compositions, he drew eighteen great cartoons 6 yards high 
by 4 or 5 in width, drawn vnth the utmost care in '' clair^ 
obscur'\ The decorations were to be in camaieu. Then 
came the Coup d'etat. Certain clerical influences were 
brought to bear on the work. Chenavard's compositions,, 
in which philosophy and religion were mingled, gave offence. 
The Pantheon was once more turned into a Church. And in 
a single day the result of twenty years' toil and research 
was stopped. Only 16,000 of the 30,000 francs had been 
paid. But for this wretched sum Chenavard allowed the 
State to keep his eighteen Cartoons, which thus cost less 
than £40 apiece. 

Chenavard was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour 
in 1853. But for many years he withdrew from public life. 
In 1869, however, he again appeared as a competitor for the 
great prize of 100,000 francs with his fine composition ** Divina 
Tragedia," now in the Luxembourg. Some of the figures in 
this are of extreme beauty, especially the group of ** V^niis 
cndormie et saiiv^e par Bacchus et par V Amour ". 

Some of the Cartoons for the decoration of the Pantheon 

1812-1848. THE ROMANTICS. 299 

are in the Mus^e de Lyon. So is his ** Seance de Nuit de 
la Convention **. 

ScHEFFER, Art {b. Dortrecht, 1795 ; d, Argenteuil, 1858). 

— The son of a German painter, settled at Dortrecht, Ary 

Scheflfer came as a mere lad to Paris, where he entered 

Gu^rin's studio. Among the vehement young Eomantics 

and the decadent Classics he pursued a middle course, 

endeavouring, but in vain, to conciliate the two doctrines 

in his own work. Attracted by Romanticism, he turned to 

it for his subjects and his friends, while he tried to adhere 

to tradition in his treatment and composition. For a time 

we get the exquisite drawing, purity of expression, lofty 

feeling, and frigid colour of his ** Mignon,'* his " Marguerite at 

the Well," his ** Dante and Beatrice," etc. Then he turned 

more to religious painting — the ** Christus Consolator," the 

** St. Augustine and Monica," ** Temptation ". All these are 

well-known in England by engravings ; for no French artist 

of the century enjoyed so great a vogue on this side of the 

Channel as ** the gentle dreamer, Ary Scheflfer ". His touch 

of sentimentality, and his extreme purity of expression and 

loftiness of feeling, commended itself to the public taste of 

England in a remarkable degree. There was nothing 

startling or hard to be imderstood in his pictures. But 

though a highly popular, if not a great artist, Ary Scheflfer 

as a man did noble and valiant work for art, in the stormy 

days of the Bomantic and Naturalist battles against Ingres 

and the Institute. Highly successful himself in his gentle 

and unadventurous art, he was ready to risk his own success 

and reputation in the defence of his less fortunate and more 

heroic friends. Rousseau and many others had cause to thank 

Ary Scheflfer for his courageous and generous championship. 

Many of his portraits are of great value as well as beauty. 
And in his httle picture of the ** Death of Gericault," there is 
a touch of penetrating, personal emotion, which gives it a hfe 
and an intensity few of his works possess. His artistic gifts 
— though strangely transmuted on the way — have descended 
one cannot but feel to his great-nephew, M. Ary Renan.^ 

^ See p. 425. 


Examples in the Louvre : — 
La Mort de G^ricault. 838. 
Les Feinmes Souliotes. 839. 
La Tentation du Christ. 840. 
Saint Augustin et Sainte Monique. 841. 
Versailles : — 

Gaston de Foix ; B^ception des Hussards command^ 

par le Due de Chartres, 2787 ; Lobau, 1173 ; 

Armand Carrel. 
Talleyrand ; Le due d'0rl6ans ; Eeine Marie Amelie ; 

Portrait de Lafayette, 1819, M. le Colonel Conolly. 
Portrait de Lafayette, 1819, Mus6e de Eouen. 
Hertford House : — 

Marguerite at the Fountain, Portrait of a Child, The 

Prodigal Son, Francesca da Eimini, Sister of 

Child with a Kitten, E. A. Leatham, Esq. 

Delaroche, Hippolyte, dit Paul {b. Paris, 1797 ; d. 


Paris, 1856). — Pupil of Gros, and son-in-law of Horace 
Vemet, whose daughter he married in Eome in 1835, Paul 
Delaroche for a time seemed one with the Eomantic move- 
ment. But he was one of those in the thirties who endea- 
voured to conciliate both sections, to be the connecting 
link that should join together the doctrines of the revolution- 
ary Eomantics under Delacroix, and those of the academics, 
the Classics, under Ingres. He made his first appearance 
in the Salon of 1822, with a ** Joas et Josabeth,'' and a 
** Descent from the Cross '*. In the famous Salon of 1824 he 
exhibited the ** Philippe Lippi " — ** Jeanne d*Arc " — *' Saint 
Vincent de Paul," and ** Saint Sebastien ". His ** Prise du 
Trocadero " — the three great pictures painted in 1827-28 — 
increased his reputation. And in 1831 this was confirmed 
by the well-known ** Enfants d*;fedouard *\ He continued 
to exhibit till 1837, when disgusted by the attacks of the 
critics on his ** Charles I. insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers'* 
(now in the Bridgwater Gallery), he determined never again 
to exhibit in pubUc. 

J18i8. THE ROMANTICS. 301 

"Correct, and cold/* — no artist's reputation has ever 
fared more disastrous defeat and calamity from his too 
husiastic disciples, than that of Paul Delaroche, when 
T his death they organised an exhibition of his works, 
•m that moment the vogue he had enjoyed for many 
rs ceased ; though some of his pictures, widely known 
)ugh engravings, long represented the whole achievement 
Modem French Art, in the eyes of the British public. 
Examples : — 

Les Enfants d'ifedouard, 1831, Louvre. 217. 

Death of Queen Elizabeth, Louvre. 216. 

Assassination of the Due de Guise, 1835, Chantilly. 

Prise du Trocadero, 1827-8, Versailles. 1787, 4803, 

Decoration of the Hemicycle of the Palais des Beaux 
Arts (1837). 

Strafford, 1837, Coll. Duke of Sutherland. 

Vainqueurs de la Bastile, Ville de Paris. 

L'Enfance de Pic de Mirandole, Mus^e de Nantes. 

Abdication of Napoleon, Musie de Leipzig. 

Une Martyr au temps de Diocl6tien, known as ** The 
Floating Martyr *\ 

Marie Antoinette aprfes sa Condamnation, Comte 



The eternal battle of the old and the new, of present effort 
against mere tradition, which I traced in the last chapter, 
now enters upon a fresh phase, with the rise of the new 
school of landscape painters. 

At the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, landscape painting in France had sunk into 
an unequalled condition of decadenca Since the days of 
Poussin, Dughet and Claude Lorrain, no artists, save 
Watteau and Fragonard, had attempted to rescue landscape 
from the utter deadness and artificiality which had overtaken 
it. And even Watteau's delightful landscapes, though extra- 
ordinarily true to nature in colour, light and atmosphere, are 
in a sense artificial, as was all art in the eighteenth century. 

Such of the classical artists as were not servile imitators 
of Poussin, went out in ,the summer to collect motifs ; and 
then mixed them up on canvas into a carefully arranged, 
well-balanced composition, full of cascades, rocks, broken 
bridges, gnarled and blasted trees and well-preserved ruins, 
all painted in those deadly browns that were supposed to be 
the colour of landscape. To these they added groups of 
heroes, philosophers, nymphs, or other personages, who have 
as little to do with the landscape as each of its parts has 
with the other. 

Take, for instance, the description of the picture in 

the Louvre by Victor Bertin (1775-1842), a ** view of the 

**city of Phoonos and the Temple of Minerva". **A river 

** traverses the middle distance, and divides the picture 

" in two parts. In the foreground, on the right, two men 

'* cross a small bridge and seem to direct four other per- 

** sons who land from a little boat. On the further bank 



"'stands a temple dominated by high mountains.*' This is a 
good specimen of a classic landscape of the year 9. Nature 
as she is, was never thought of. 

But with the beginning of the new century, a new spirit 
made itself felt, which may be traced to two distinct in- 
fluences. In Uterature Jean Jacques Bousseau, Bemadin de 
St. Pierre, Chateaubriand, had already taught the world to look 
on nature as something infinitely beautiful and sacred. And 
with the Bomantics in Uterature came one of her truest 
worshippers and vindicators, Georges Sand. But yet 
another influence was at work. For in the twenties the 
pictures of Constable and Bonnington were becoming known 
in Paris. We must never forget that to the school of the 
Cromes and Constable belongs the honour of having been the 
first to go back to the teachings of the old Dutch and Flemish 
masters, and to study nature honestly. In the Paris Salon 
of 1824, Constable received a gold medal for the Hay Wain.^ 
And his pure and brilliant colour was a revelation and in- 
spiration to French artists. 

The ** Bomantics " of whom I treated in the last chapter, 
were emancipating the painting of history, poetry, and real 
life, from the classic trammels. And now a band of men 
arose, bom in the first few years of the century while the 
breath of Eevolution was still in the air, who were to free 
landscape from its false and classic bonds, and paint nature 
as she is, not as they considered she should be. 

That these men should meet with desperate opposition 
from the school of Classic landscape was but natural. We 
have only to compare a picture in the Louvre by Bidault, with 
one by Paul Huet, or still more by Bousseau, to see how deep 
was the gulf between the style, treatment, aims, and out- 
look on nature of the two schools. 

Bidault, the first landscape painter admitted to member- 
ship of the Institute, on account of his serious and correct 
manner of expressing ** inanimate nature " ; and Baoul 
Bochette, the permanent Secretary, were sworn to crush 
this new heresy of Naturalism. They were backed by the 

^ Now in the National Gallery. 


whole weight of the Ecole des Beaux Arts under the direction 
of Ingres. And the bitterness of their opposition to the 
brilliant group of landscape painters, which included Corot, 
Dupre, Paul Huet, Marilhat, Eousseau, Diaz, Daubigny, 
Troyon and others, is almost inconceivable to us in these 
days of greater freedom of thought and action. For thirty 
years Corot never sold a picture. Theodore Bousseau's 
life was marred and embittered to the very end, by the 
treatment he received from those in authority. And the 
rest only slowly won their way to favour and fame. 

The aims and ideals of these men were singularly diflferent 
from those of their opponents. Not content merely to break 
with the classic and tedious landscape of the past, they 
fought for life, for truth in Art. **Ils etaient ainsi,*' said 
Th^ophile Gautier, ** les violents de 1830; fous de poesie, 
** enrages d'art, eperdus de verite.'* They sought to penetrate 
into the very essence and being of nature — to hft the veil 
that hides her secrets from our duller eyes. And they 
have taught us of the nineteenth century, amateurs, artists, 
and the public at large, to see a thousand beauties in the 
world about us, which would have remained unknown or 
unnoticed had they not first been revealed to us through 
the pictures of these men. 

This, known as the French landscape school of 1830, is 
one of the most important artistic movements that has been 
seen in Modem Europe. Its influence and results are in- 
calculable ; for it has affected, in greater or less degree, the 
art of both hemispheres. To it we owe the Mauves — the 
Marises — the Mesdags of the Modern Dutch school. To it 
we owe an increasing number of the younger English artists. 
To it the growing American school of landscape, which 
promises to take an important place in the art of the civilized 
world in the next fifty years, almost owes its existence. 
While on French artists its influence has been unlimited. 
For to all artists of the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
it has given new standards of colour and method. It has 
given new and lofty aims and ideals. It has taught them 
to seek for the poetic representation of nature, while at the 


same time they endeavour to give the actual truth of her 
endless moods and aspects. 

Before passing on to the great painters of 1830, it is 
necessary to speak of a few of the classic school who were 
more or less involved in the movement. 

BiDAULT, Jean-Joseph-Zavier (6. Carpentras, 1758 ; 
d, 1846) .-r-I have already mentioned Bidault's opposition to 
the landscape painters of 1830. This probably in future will 
be his strongest claim to fame ; although in 1823 he became 
a member of the Institute, in succession to Prud'hon ; and 
received the Cross of the Legion of Honour. 

Paysage, 19 ; Vue de Subiaco, 20 ; Vue de la Ville 
d'Avezzano, Louvre, 21. 

Bertin, Victor (6. 1775 ; d. 1825). — Victor Bertin was 
also one of the school of Classic landscape. But he had 
many distinguished artists among his pupils — Michallon, 
Cogniet, Roqueplan, Corot, etc. The Government, attracted 
by his own work and the success of his school, created a new 
prix de Rome for landscape, which for several years was 
carried ofif by his pupils. 

City of Phoenos and Temple of Minerva, Louvre. 11. 

Aligny, Theodore Caruelle d' (h. Chaumes, 1798 ; d, 
1871). — Aligny was also a Classic. But he had a much 
more honest feeling for nature than his predecessors. And 
his friendship for Corot and appreciation of his talent when 
they met in Rome in 1826, had an immense effect on Corot*s 
work for many years. His pictures are rigid in execution, 
and composed with extreme care, according to the best 
traditions of the Classic school. 

Prom6th6e, 1 ; and Villa Italienne, 2, Louvre. 

Amalfi, Fontainebleau. 

Two Landscapes, St. ttienne du Mont. 

Michel, Georges (6. Paris, 1763; d. 1843). — One 

of the elder school, who shows an admirable feeling for 

nature is Georges Michel. He might be compared to the 

Cromes and some of the early English landscape painters, 

with his pale, clear skies, against which dark trees and 

almost always a windmill are thrown in strong contrast. 



Sir John Day possesses six fine paintings by this dehghtful 

Of ** La Plaine " and ** Le Moulin " in the Retrospective 
Exhibition of 1889, Paul Mantz said : ** They are excellent 
** examples of the second and best manner of this solitaire 
** silencmix, whose works, without any trade value, found their 
** way noiselessly into certain studios. . . . Michel always 
"pays more attention to the effect of masses than to the 
*' drawing of detail — and it is on this point that he was an 
"initiator — a latent one — for under the Restoration Michel 
** was only known in the purlieus of second-hand dealers." ^ 
Aux environs de Montmartre, Louvre. 626. 
Interieur de Foret (palier de la Marine), Louvre. 

Six Landscapes, Hon. Sir John Day. 
View near Paris, J. P. Heseltine, Esq. 
La Bouille, near Rouen, E. E. Leggatt, Esq. 
MiCHALLON, Achille-Etna {h, Paris, 1796 ; d. 1822).— 
Michallon is the first artist who gives a suggestion in his 
work of " Romantic *' landscape. His aim was to be a second 
Salvator Rosa. His glory, that he was the first to induce 
Corot to take to painting and study with him. Though not 
very Tia'if himself, he encouraged naivetd in his pupil ; and 
his advice to Corot when he took him into the country, 
sounds like a precept from the most modern of teachers in 
the present day. '' Se mettre en face de la nature ; t&cher de 
'* la rendre exactement ; faire ce qu*on voit et traduire 
** rimpression re9U.*' 

Paysage, 623; La Mort de Roland, 624; Th^see 

poursuivant les Centaures, 625, Louvre, 
Two Landscapes, Barnard Castle. 
Flers, Camille (6. Paris, 1802; d. 1868).— With 
Camille Flers we come to one of the regular Romantic 
school — a companion of Roqueplan, Decamps, Paul Huet ; 
and the master, while still a very young man, of a brilliant 
pupil — Cabat. Flers* father was director of the then cele- 
brated porcelain manufactory of the brothers Nast. And 

^ Gaz. des Beaux Arts. 


after studjring with an aged portrait painter, Demarcy, who 
had learnt the use of pa,stel from La Tour, young Camille 
was for a time attached to the manufactory. He then 
showed such serious talent that he was placed with Cic^ri, 
the famous scene painter. Seized, however, with a desire to 
see Brazil, of which a friend had given him marvellous 
accounts, he started for Rio Janeiro as a cook — drawing 
throughout the voyage. After acting as cook to a planter 
who treated him much as a negro slave, Flers returned to 
Eio, and made his dMut as a character dancer before the 
Emperor. Then, after two years of adventures worthy of a 
hero of Dumas, he found himself back once more in Paris at 
M. M. Nast's manufactory, and settled down to paint in 

In 1831 he exhibited a Swiss landscape at the Salon. 

And then devoted himself chiefly to pictures of Normandy 

and Picardy. In these he irritated the academic artists by 

daring to paint two things that had hitherto been ignored — 

apple trees in full blossom — and the French sky in its limpid 

clearness. ** Flers excelled in a certain fine and spirittielle 

'* harmony." And he exercised a distinct influence on his 

contemporaries by his technique, and his method of giving 

^expressions of nature. 

Paysage, Environs de Paris, Louvre. 286. 
HuET, Paul (b. Paris, 1804; d. 1868).— ** Paul Huet 
will make a mark in the history of our epoch 'by the part 
he played in the first movements of the Artistic Eenais- 
sance of Romanticism. He perceived at a time when no 
one any longer painted, that the business of a painter is to 
*' paint." ^ 

Much of Paul Huet*s youth was passed on the lie 

Seguin in the Seine, near St. Cloud. It is now stripped of 

its noble trees, and given over to pigeon shooting, and noisy 

^urgeois restaurants. But it was then haunted by wood- 

stealers and poachers — a delightful tangle of meadow and 

forest, with huge elms like those of an English park. And 

a singular analogy exists between the early studies of Paul 

1 Ph. Burty. 

> c 


Huet on the lie S^guin in 1820 and 1821, and English land- 
scape painting of the same date. The same methods and 
aims are apparent in both, though Huet had never seen 
Constable, who did not exhibit in Paris till 1824. 

Paul Huet was a pupil of Gros and of Pierre Gu^rin. 
His first real encouragement came from Delacroix, who saw 
some of his studies. He was henceforth closely associated 
with the Romantic movement, and may be considered to 
belong more to the Romantic school than to that of the 
hardier and more vigorous painters of nature. In 1831 he 
sent four water-colours and nine oil-paintings to the Salon, 
and had an immediate success. As Michelet said of him, 
" II ^tait ne triste, fin, d^licat, fait pour les nuances fuyantes, 
**les pluies par moment soleill^es. S'il faisait beau, il 
**restait au logis. Mais Tond^e imminente Tattirait." A 
perfect example of his work is the ** Calme du Matin '* at the 
Louvre, which also possesses his fine **Inondation de Saint 
Cloud '*. Paul Huet also illustrated Paid et Virginie for 
Curmer, and published several sets of admirable landscape 
lithographs. But his etchings form a most important paitrt 
of his work ; and his portfolio of six, published in 183S 
had a lasting influence on Jeanron, Charles Jacque, Daubign"^^ 
and others. 

L'Inondation de St. Cloud, Louvre. 412. 

Calme du Matin, Louvre. 413. 

Valine de la Toucque, Luxembourg. 

Eight Decorative Panels, Hotel Lenormant. 

Vue de Rouen, Mus6e de Rouen. 

Vue de Iq. Campagne de Naples, Musee de Bourges. 

Palais des Papes a Avignon, Mus6e d 'Avignon. 
Dupr6, Jules,^ 0.* {h. Nantes, 1812 ; d. Lisle Adaurr:^ 
1889). — With Jules Dupr^ we reach the leader and thinker ^^ 
the group of landscape painters of 1830. Son of a porcela* 
manufacturer at Nantes, he began his artistic career lil^^ 
many of his contemporaries by painting on china, at his unci ^ 
M. Arsfene Gillet's. His first picture, exhibited in that memo ^ 
able Salon of 1831, was bought by the Due de Nemours. 

* This artist should not be confused, as he often is, with Julien Dupre, 
excellent animal painter, but of secondary importance. 


A man of wide reading and deep thought, whose criti- 
cisms on all matters artistic, Theophile Gautier was always 
glad to obtain, he was the first who showed the direct return 
of Art towards reahty. He was the initiator of the move- 
ment. The first to conquer the truth of nature, the intimate 
and delicate phases of landscape. The first who instinctively 
turned to expressive detail, the result of close and honest 
observation. The first to reveal the beauties of the soil of 
France — the forest — the village — the pasture land. Few 
masters have more finely interpreted the fierce and stormy 
effects of nature. Corot called him ** the Beethoven of 
Landscape ". And this is specially true of his *' Marines ". 
For his sea-pieces were the result of the Franco-Prussian 
War, when he was shut up for six months at his house at 
Cayeux-sur-mer. And the agony of his country seems 
suggested in the noble gravity and sadness of these 

In early days Dupr6 used to give a Spartan dinner every 
fortnight, to those who had been maltreated by the Jury of 
the Salon. It was always well attended. The company 
conspired openly against the tyranny of the Academy ; 
and endeavoured to start an organization based on the 
statutes of Enghsh Art Societies. 

Some remarkably fine examples of Dupr^'s work are to 
be seen in the collection of Sir John Day. Mr. Alexander 
Young of Blackheath also owns some. Many others are in 
New York and Boston ; in M. Chauchard's collection in 
Paris ; and in pubUc collections in France. 
Le Matin ; and Le Soir, Luxembourg. 
Port Saint Michel, Paris ; and Soleil couchant, 

Mare dans la for^t de Compifegne, Baroness N. de 

Passage d'animaux sur un Pont, Berri; etc.. Coll. 

M. Chauchard. 
Crossing a bridge, Hertford House. 
Marine — Fishing boat in storm ; Trees against stormy 
sky ; Pond vnth boat, Hon. Sir John Day. 


Barques echou^es — clair de lune, General Hopkinson. 
The open sea, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

CoROT, Jean-Baptiste-Camille (b. Paris, 1796 ; d, Paris, 
1875). — Although Jnles Dupr6 must be regarded as the 
leader of the great group of landscape painters of 1830, 
Camille Corot was the eldest in years, and will always re- 
main the poet par excellence. The son of a small mercer at 
the comer of the rue du Bac and the Quay, he was for eight 
years a ** commis " in the cloth trade. At the age of twenty- 
six, however, he at last obtained his father's unwilling 
consent to abandon trade and devote himself to painting, 
with an allowance of £60 a year. He first studied with 
Michallon. And with him he obtained a glimpse of ** Eo- 
mantic *' landscape. Michallon, however, died a few months 
later, in 1822. And Corot entered the studio of Victor Bertin 
(see p. 305), one of the leaders in Classical landscape. Itx 
1826 Corot went to Rome; and there made the acquain- 
tance of Aligny, whose influence left a mark on his wortc 
for many years. These early pictures of Corot's are dis--- 
tinguished by strong lines, precise drawing, and deliberat^^ 
soberness of detail. 

For fifteen years he strove with the traditions of Classic^ 
landscape. But he gradually freed himself from its trammels^ 
and developed a style absolutely his own. — A style in which* 
with delicate and silvery colour, he endeavours to expres 
the veriest poetry of nature, while at the same time h 
remains true to her actual facts. 

His first picture, a ** vue prise k Narni," appeared in th 
Salon of 1827, hung between a Constable and a Bonnington — - 
And he exhibited regularly, as he was not considered dangerous^ 
or important enough to merit exclusion. But for thirt}^'^ 
years he never sold a picture. Alfred de Musset was the first - 
critic who observed upon his w^ork, in the ** Salon'* of 1836. 
And Gustave Planche mentioned him in 1837 and 1847. 
Architects were not aware of his existence. So that his 
only chance of decorative work was in the studios of his 
brother artists, who not only loved the man but admired the 
master (see Daubigny). Indeed it was not until he w^as 


ly sixty that the pubhc began to take him into favour, 
when fame and fortune came to ** the Theocritus of the 
h," as he has well been called, his whole desire was to 
those who were less fortunate than himsell 
)ne of the most lovable of men, Corot*s pictures seem a 
ction of his own sunny, tender, tranquil nature. ** Corot*s 
; is a casement thrown open upon nature," Albert Wolfif 
said. But perhaps his friend Jules Dupr6 best summed 
is genius, when he said, " Corot eth^r^e, le grand artiste 
rot, peignait, pour ainsi dire, avec des ailes dans le dos **. 
)orot*s pictures are now well known in London, and 
ly appreciated. Mr. J. S. Forbes* collection is of special 
•est and value, as in it we are enabled to see the sequence 
growth of Corot*s work in some sixty canvases, from 
B of his earliest pictures in Rome, to work done in the 
year of his life. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Une Matinee, 138; Vue du Forum Eomain, 139; 
Vue du Colys^e a Rome, 140; Chateau de St. 
Angelo, Rome. 

Concert Champ^tre, Chantilly. 

La F^te Antique, Musee de Lille. 

itangs de Ville d*Avray, Mus^e de Rouen. 

Diane et ses Nymphes, Musee de Bordeaux. 

L'etoile du soir, Mus^e de Toulouse. 

Eonde des Nymphes, Coll. M. Barbedienne. 

Le Matin ; Le Soir, M. Crabbe. 

Biblis, Coll. M. Otlet. 

White Cliffs ; and Le Bateleur, ColL M. Mesdag. 

L'arbre bris^ ; and The bent tree, Coll. Alexander 
Young, Esq. 

Pastorale, Souvenir d*Italie ; and La Saulaie, Coll. J. 
Forbes White, Esq. 

Danse des Nymphes (upright), late Charles Dana, 
Esq., New York. 

Danse des Nymphes (oblong), T. G. Arthur, Esq. 

The Ravine ; Les Bavardes ; A hot day ; and eight 
other pictures. Coll. Hon. Sir John Day. 


Le Lac ; Lac de Garde ; and many other pictures, 
Coll. J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

Le H^tre, Art Gallery, Cardiff. 

St. Sebastien ; Macbeth and the witches, Walters 
Coll., Baltimore. 
Rousseau, Theodore (6. Paris, 1812 ; d. Barbizon, 1867). 
— Theodore Rousseau was the son of a tailor, who came 
originally from Salins in the Jura, and the boy showed an 
early aptitude for drawing. At thirteen he was taken by 
an uncle, who had an interest in some saw mills, to the 
forests near Besangon. Here Rousseau first experienced the 
fskscination of the forest. And his uncle wisely persuaded 
his parents to allow him to enter Remond's studio in Paris, 
instead of the £cole Poly technique for which he was destined. 
The first picture he painted from nature — a study from the 
Butte Monmartre — already showed a mastery of his brush, a 
sense of pure air, clear light, and delicate detail. From 1828 
to 1831, he worked in winter with Guillon-Lethiere, who 
though a Classic was not a bigoted one ; and in the summer 
in the open air in Auvergne, Compifegne, and the environs of 
Paris. In 1831 he sent his first picture to the Salon — ** Pay- 
sage, site d'Auvergne ". In 1883 he sent in a '* Vue prise des 
C6tes, Granville," which is now in Russia; and he began his 
studies in the Forest of Fontainebleau. In 1834 he showed 
a ** Lisiere de bois coup^, for^t de Compifegne," for which he 
obtained a third medal. It was much remarked ; and was 
bought by the young Due d'0rl6ans. But instead of this 
bringing him success, as might have been expected, it was 
the beginning of his terrible struggle against misfortune and 
opposition. The landscape painters of the Institute, alsmned 
at his growing reputation, and at the power of his work, 
closed the doors of the Salon to him. Two years later they 
refused his magnificent " Descente des Vaches ** — the herds 
coming down in autumn from the high pastures of the Jura. 
And the next year rejected his celebrated ** Avenue des 
Ch4taigners ". This was a direct attack by the authorities 
of that day upon the supposed heresy of Naturalism. And 
Rousseau, finding that his public career was hopelessly 


spoilt, retired to Barbizon, where he lived almost entirely, 
in close friendship with J. F. Millet and the other members 
of the so-called *' Barbizon " School, until his death in 

In 1840 he made a journey with Jules Dupr^ into Berry. 
And later on painted some of his finest works with Dupr6 in 
the environs of Tile Adam — such as " Le Givre " — the 
" Lisifere de Bois " — and finally the superb ''Avenue de Tile 
Adam," now in the collection of M. Chauchard, in Paris, one 
of the greatest landscapes of the century. After the Revolu- 
tion of 1848, Rousseau began to be known and appreciated by 
the pubhc, who for fourteen years had been unable to see his 
work through the determined prejudice of the Classic school 
in authority. But though he received a first medal in 1849, 
and the Legion of Honour in 1852, though his pictures began 
to sell and he became fairly well appreciated, his life was an 
unhappy and unsuccessful one to the end. 

Rousseau's distinguishing characteristic was that he de- 
lighted to go deep into the infinite details of nature. In his 
pictures he gives us these — the delicate differences of plants 
and weeds, brushwood, mosses, dead leaves, pebbles and 
lichens — without losing the breadth and majesty of his picture 
as a work of art. The best example of this careful analysis 
of detail, and great breadth of conception and execution, may 
be seen in his " Marais dans les Landes " in the Louvre. 
liousseau also was the first to paint the vivid greens of spring. 
And this raised a furious outcry ; for the accustomed russet 
tree and brown grass of classic landscape, made all other 
-colours seem almost indecent. 

Many of his pictures have been injured, some wholly 
destroyed, by his use of bitumens. The dangerous prepara- 
tion was introduced to him by Ary Scheffer ; and both 
airtists paid dearly for the passing brilliancy of colour obtained 
ty its use. But his later method of successive delicate 
glazes of pure colour one upon the other, produces the most 
euperb effect in his best pictures. Rousseau's influence on 
liis contemporaries and followers has been immense. And 
»mong the great French landscape painters he is by some 


given the first place, because he is in many ways the most 
complete master. 

Examples in Louvre : — 

Sortie de For6t, a Fontainebleau, coucher de soleiU 
827 ; Lisiere d'une For^t, 828 ; Le Vieux Dor- 
moir du Bas Breau, 829 ; Le Marais dans les 
Landes, 830 ; Bord deEiviere, 831 ; Efifet d'orage,, 
Paysage, Chantilly. 
Avenue de rile Adam ; and Effet d*orage, Coll. M^ 

La Descente des Vaches, Coll. M. Mesdag, Hague. 
Le Givre ; and Early Summer afternoon, Coll. Mr. 

Walters, Baltijnore. 
Sunset; Mountain Eoad ; Village Sunset, etc., ColL 

Sir John Day. 
Les Marais, Coll. Alex. Young, Esq. 
Le Soir, Coll. T. G. Arthur, Esq. 
Several fine examples in the Coll. J. S. Forbes, Esq. 
Clair Bois, For6t de Fontainebleau, James Donald, 
Diaz de la Pena, Virgilio Narcisse {b, Bordeaux, 
1808; d. Mentone, 1876).— Diaz was the son of a Spanish 
bourgeois, who fled to Bordeaux for political reasons and 
died soon after. Mme. Diaz settled at Sfevres teaching 
Spanish and Italian ; and on her death, a Protestant pastor 
took charge of the ten-year-old boy. Owing to the bite of a 
venomous fly, while lying asleep on the grass at Meudon, the 
boy lost his right leg ; but his vigorous temperament never 
allowed this misfortune to stand in his way ; he fished, swam, 
fenced, and even danced with the best. At about fifteen 
he was placed in M. Arsene Gillet's studio, to learn china 
painting, where Jules Dupre, Cabat, and Eafifet were working. 
But he soon tired of this work ; and spent his spare time in 
painting Eomantic and Eastern scenes. About 1830, while 
he was still painting on porcelain, Diaz met Rousseau in 
Paris ; and this arcquaintance, which ripened in course of 
time into the closest friendship, had an untold effect on his 


career. For Rousseau taught him how to use those pure and 
brilliant colours which delight us in his pictures. 

Diaz is the fantaisiste of the great group of French 
landscape painters. None were more truly original than this 
fiery Franco-Spaniard, whose flashing colour and extra- 
ordinary vigour of treatment speak of his southern origin. 
** C'est le grand virtuose de la palette, qui se joue des diffi- 
**cult6s; tout est chez lui du premier jet; ses ceuvres sont 
" fait de verve sous le coup des enchantements du coloris.*'^ 

Diaz began by painting nymphs and bathers, figure 
subjects mythologic and sacred, and oriental pictures, in 
which latter the colour is so fine that it seems incredible that 
he never was more than a few hundred miles from Paris. 
All these gave him that singular flexibility of brush and 
pencil, for which he is so remarkable. But his friendship 
with Rousseau, and the enchantment of the Forest, caused 
him to turn his mind almost wholly to landscape — to those 
beautiful forest pictures with Ught glancing on the tree stems 
by w^hich he will always be known. 

In 1831 he exhibited his first picture in the Salon ; and 
went to Fontainebleau about the same time as Rousseau, in 
1837. And by 1844, though he could still say he was 
** learning to draw," he had reached his full strength. He 
produced with great rapidity and success figures, flowers, 
and landscapes, which were soon much sought after. Both 
his landscapes and his figures are well represented in the 
collections of Mr. J. S. Forbes, Mr. Alexander Young, and 
Sir John Day. There are also two small pictures by Diaz at 
Hertford House. But there are none in any other public 
collections in Great Britain. 

Examples in Louvre : — 

]&tude de Bouleau, 252 ; Sous Bois, 253 ; La Reine 

Blanche, 254 ; Les Boh^miens, 255 ; La Fee aux 

Perles, 256. 

Plafond de la chambre de Mme. la Duchesse, Chantilly. 

Les coupeuses d*Herbes, and twenty-seven other 

pictures, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

1 Albert Wolff. 


Stormy sunset, or The fisherman ; L*orage ; Sous bois, 
Alex. Young, Esq. 

Pond in the Forest ; and three other pictures, Hon. 
Sir John Day. 

Venus and Cupid ; and Fountain in Constantinople, 
Hertford House. 

Sous Bois, Charles Roberts, Esq. 

L'orage, Walters Coll., Baltimore, U.S. 

For^t de Fontainebleau ; The Bathers, Vanderbilt 
Coll., New York. 

Someil des Nymphes, J. Inman, Esq. 
Troyon, Constant {b. Sfevres, 1810 ; d. Paris, 1865).— 
The father of Constant Troyon, an employ^ at Sfevres, died 
early, and his widow supported herself and her two sons by 
making dainty little feather pictures. The boys began while 
quite young to earn their livelihood by painting on china at 
the manufactory. But all their spare time was spent in roam- 
ing over the country sketching from nature. In 1842 Constant 
Troyon left Sfevres and went to Paris. And entering the 
studio of Eoqueplan, he found the great school of landscape 
painters in its glory. ** From the day that he becsune a 
** painter of animals, Troyon took a place of his own in 
** the School," says Charles Blanc. And without doubt he is 
one of the greatest animal painters since Cuyp and Paul 
Potter. His animals are not specimens from a show-yard : 
but living beasts in their natural surroundings. For Troyon 
was truly a landscape painter ; and the landscape in his 
pictures is not a mere setting, but as important a part of the 
whole as the animals themselves. The weather, the time of 
day, the season of the year, are all dwelt on with absolute 
sincerity, and have their own value in the picture. 

For many years Troyon was hampered by the methods of 
porcelain painters. ** He was nearly forty before he acquired 
''the power that has since made him famous; and all his 
** good pictures were produced in the last fifteen years of his 
*' life— that is between 1850 and 1865." ^ 

His famous '* Boeufs allant au Labour " is in the Louvre ; 

1 D. C. Thomson. 


and the Cabinet picture of the same subject is in the priceless 
collection of M. Chauchard. Mr. J. S. Forbes, Mr. Alexander 
Young, Sir John Day, Mrs. Guthrie, and other English 
collectors have fine specimens of his work. And many of 
his best pictures are in America, in the Walters and Van- 
derbilt collections, and that of Quincy Shaw, Esq., Boston. 
Examples : — 

Bceufs se rendant au labour, Louvre. 889. 

Le retour de la Ferme, Louvre. 890. 

Cabinet picture of Les Boeufs, Coll. M. Chauchard. 

Valine de la Toucque, Coll. M. Chauchard. 

Le Matin, depart pour le March6 ; and La Vache 

Blanche, M. Prosper Crabbe. 

Approaching storm; and Landscape with Cattle^ 

Hertford House. 

Daubigny, Charles FRAN901S (6. Paris, 1817 ; d. Paris, 

1878). — Charles Daubigny inherited a taste for painting — his 

father being a second-rate landscape painter, and an uncle 

and aunt miniaturists. The child was delicate, and was sent 

to Valmondois on the Oise, where he grew to boyhood in the 

delightful country he afterwards made his own. As a mere 

boy he painted decorations on clocks, fans, glove boxes, etc. 

At seventeen he set up for himself ; and with his friend 

^ignon contrived to save £56, upon which the two lads started 

on foot for Italy. But after a year there, the money being 

exhausted, they returned to Paris. In 1838 Daubigny got 

liis first picture into the Salon, ** The Apse of Notre Dame 

from the East ''. And in 1840 he exhibited a ** St. Jerome 

in the Desert **. He then worked for six months in Paul 

Delaroche*s studio, and intended to compete for the Prix de 

Home. But owing to a mistake — a fortunate one for his 

admirers — he was prevented doing so. And he turned to the 

study of landscape which he felt was his true vocation, while 

tihe figure drawing gave him new power both in appreciation 

of colour and drawing. His first landscapes were on the 

Oise near the house of his old nurse, La Mfere Bazot. 

From 1841 to 1847 he sent landscapes to the Salon 
pretty regularly, as well as etchings. And these latter, which. 


as I have said, were largely inspired by Paul Hnet's work, 
are of immense value. ** In the latter mode of expression he 
" greatly excelled, and a complete set of Daubigny's etchings 
** is a veritable treasure house. "^ This was an arduous part of 
his life, for he was working hard to support not only his 
own family, but that of his widowed sister — painting all day, 
and drawing illustrations on wood or stone at night. But in 
1848 his circumstances improved. He received a second class 
medal at the Salon for his five beautiful landscapes; and 
the State began to buy his pictures for provincial museums. 
In 1857 he exhibited the well-known "Printemps," now in 
the Louvre — a sort of idealization of the very spirit of spring, 
with its cloud of apple-blossoms and young trees and green 
com. And henceforth honours came thick upon him. 

1866 was the year of his first visit to England. He was 
invited by certain English painters — Lord Leighton at their 
head — to come to London, havincj that vear exhibited his 
grand picture ** Moonlight," at the Eoyal Academy, where it 
was so badly hung that Mr. H. T. Wells, E.A., bought it on 
the opening day as a sort of protest. The ten years from 
1864 to 1874 were his best period. It was then that he 
painted his " Bords de la Cure. Morvan " — ^the " Villerville 
sur Mer " — the exquisite " Lever de Lune " — the " Moon- 
Ught on the Oise," and many more. The delightful repose 
and calm of his pictures make them some of the most popular 
of all the French landscape school. He was greatly in- 
fluenced by Corot, who looked upon him almost as a son. 
And almost Daubigny's last words on his deathbed were— 
** Adieu ! Je vais en haut voir si lAmi Corot ma trouve des 
** motifs de paysage ". 

Examples : — 

Les Yendanges en Bourgogne, Louvre. 184. 

Le Printemps, Louvre. ISo. 

Saint Cloud, Chantillv. 

Lever de Lune. Van Gogh Coll. 

Villerville sur Mer, M. Mesdag. 

Bords de la Cure, Morvan ; St. Paul's from the Surrey 

* D. C. Thomson, 


side ; Mantes ; Hauling the Nets, Alex. Young, 
Moonlight on the Oise, etc., J. S. Forbes, Esq. 
Marine — Sunset over dark blue sea ; The Storks ; and 

four others, Hon. Sir John Day. 
Return of the flock,^ G. A. Drummond, Esq., 
Chintreuil, Antoine ( b. Pont de Vaux, 1816 ; d. 
epteuil, 1873). — The landscapes of Chintreuil are but 
jldom mentioned among the works of the landscape painters 
f 1830. His two large and lovely landscapes in the Louvre, 
re admirable examples of the artist's work, which ought to 
5 better known. They are specially remarkable for their 
are and brilliant colour, for their atmospheric qualities, and 
>r the infinite delicacy with which the painter expresses 
assing effects. The flat plain bathed in delicate sunlight, 
'hich he calls "Pluie et soleil," as the light rain clears off, 
1 extremely beautiful. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Pluie et Soleil, 125 ; L*espace, 123 ; Le Bosquet aux 

chevreuils, 124. 

Effet de Soleil a travers le brouillard, Mme. Esnault- 


Jacque, Charles (b. Paris, 1813 ; d. 1894). — A Parisian 

orn, like so many of the most devoted nature-painters of the 

rench landscape school, Charles Jacque began his artistic 

ork by wood engraving and etchings for book illustrations. 

e began painting in 1845, at which time he was closely 

sociated with Eousseau and Millet. From that time he 

Voted himself to animals and landscape. His flocks of 

Sep, whether feeding quietly in the open or along the edge 

the forest, while a shepherd or shepherdess watches them 

the shade of the heavy foliaged oak trees, or pressing 

gerly into the fold or the bam, are well known and always 

lightful. His studies of poultry are also admirable. He 

d a special liking for cocks and hens, raising quantities 

Itself, and painting their ways with insight and humour. 

^ This was Daubigny's last picture. 


Sir John Day has an inimitable Httle picture of the " bass^ 
cour " — a delightful study of bird character. 

Though a less powerful artist than his great associates^ 
Charles Jacque is well worthy of his place in the group p; 
and gained an honourable and meritorious position in nine- 
teenth century art. He was one of those who proposed to- 
form a Nouvelle Society in 1847, as a protest against the old 
Jury of the Salon. And later he also wished to found a " Society 
des Animaliers " on the same lines as the " Aquarellistes ". 

Troupeau de Moutons, Luxembourg. 166. 

The Flock, 200 ; and Forest Scene, 227, Mappin Art: 
Gall., Sheffield. 

Cr^puscule, Corp. Art. Gall., Glasgow. 

The Approaching Stonn ; and Forest Pastures, Eightz 
Hon. Sir H. D. Davies, M.P. 
Harpignies, Henri, 0. * (6. Valenciennes, 1819). — M- 
Harpignies is almost the last survivor of the great group oE 
landscape painters of 1830. ** Born, with Courbet, in 1819' 
** — that is seven years after Eousseau . . . Harpigniesa 
** worked with the older men of 1830 quite as much as a. 
** companion and fellow-labourer as a pupil and follower . . . 
" and without him the renascence of art in our century had 
** wanted a characteristic note." ^ Harpignies was a pupil or 
Achard. He also studied in Italy ; and on his return to- 
France in 1852, he at once became one of the new school of 
landscape painters. In 1853 he had two landscapes in the 
Salon — " Vue prise dans Tile de Capri " and ** Chemin Creux, 
** efifet de Matin, environs de Valenciennes ". Thirteen years 
later, in 1866, he received his first medal. In 1875 he was 
made Chevalier and in 1883 Officier of the Legion of Honour, 
and received the Grand M^daille d'Honneur at the Salon 
of 1897. Many of his pictures have been painted on the 
Allier and the Loire, which gave scope for the composition 
he loves — rocky ground and straggling, wind-driven trees, 
against the river and the clear sky. But he has also painted 
a good deal on the Eiviera, and the Campagna of Eome. This- 
artist, who, as Mr. Charles Perkins has well said ** stands in 

* R. A. M. Stevenson. 


** the first rank of living French Painters," has been httle 

known on this side of the Channel, until M. Obach's 

admirable exhibition of his works in April, 1896, revealed 

him to the English public as a great nature painter both in 

oils and water-colours. Sir John Day has some admirable 

examples of his work, which maintains all its best quahties 


Le Colis^e ; Lever de Lune ; Un Torrent dans le Var, 


Chemin Creux, 1853 ; Un Sauve qui pent, 1857, Musie 

de Valenciennes. 

Vue prise dans le Morvan (water-colour), Musie 

d 'Orleans. 

Sohtude, which gained the Medaille d'Honneur, Salon 

1897, and five other fine examples, Hon. Sir 

John Day. 

Sentier de St. Prive, Alexander Young, Esq. 

PoiNTELiN, AuGUSTE Em., 0. * (6. Arbois, Jura). — M. 

Pointehn, among the living artists of France, gives us subtle 

8.nd poetic renderings of nature, which are of great beauty 

*nd value. He is more in sympathy with the art of Corot 

than that of the Impressionist painters of landscape. His 

pictures in the Salon of 1897 were considered a triumph of 

*ii8 art 

Soir de Septembre, 231 ; C6tes du Jura, vues de la 

plaine, 232, Luxembourg. 

Prairie dans la C6te d*Or, Musie de Sens. 

Cdteau Jurassien, Musee de Besan9on. 

MoNTBNABD, FREDERIC, * (b. Paris). — M. Montenard, 

^ho was created a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 

-'-SQO, has been successively a pupil of Dubufe, of Mazerolles, 

^f Delaunay, and of Puvis de Chavannes. He has made 

^Ixe south of France his own ; living between Toulon and 

•^yeres. And no artist in France knows better how to 

^^nder the light and hot sunshine, the white dusty roads, 

^he blue sky and sea, and the fierce rush of the mistral, 

^^ the land of OHve and Cypress. M. Montenard's pic- 

^res may be seen in every salon. And the Luxembourg 



possesses a fine sea-piece of the ** Correze sailing from 
Toulon ". 

La Corrfeze quittant la rade de Toulon, Luxembourg. 

Village de Six-Fours, pres Toulon, Musie de Niort 
Two Landscapes, M. le Dr. Cazalis, Cannes. 
Dans les Vignes, Provence, 1892 ; French Battleship, 
1897, Coll. John Nicholas Brown, Esq., Pro- 
vidence, E.L 

YoN, Ch. Edmond, * (6. Paris, 1836), is best known 
as an engraver. Many of his original wood engravings 
are of great value. But the "Pont Valentri a Cahors," 
now in the Luxembourg, shows that his landscapes in oil are 
of high excellence. 

VuiLLEFROY, Felix-Dominique, * (6. Paris, 1841), a pupi 
of Hubert and M. Bonnat, is an excellent animal and land- 
scape painter, as may be seen by ** Le Eetour du Troupeau, 
1880, Luxembourg; and **Dans les Pres,*' 1883, Luxenci-- 
bourg. This last has been engraved by Yon. 

Cabat, Louis, 0. *, M. DE lInstitut {b. Paris, 181S » 
d. 1893). — A pupil of Flers, and a contemporary of Roussea— ^^ 
and Diaz, he appeared first in the Salon of 1833 — exhibitii^ *\ 
two pictures in the Indre — ** Le Moulin de Dompierre, 
Picardy — and '' Un Cabaret a Montsouris ". The ne: 
year came the **Ville d'Avray,** now in the Luxembours^ ^ — 
For a while it seemed as if M. Cabat was to belong d< 
finitively to the Romantic and Naturalist camp. But aft< 
a time he deserted to the more academic painters ; thouj 
he always retained a strong personal affection for his mast( 
Flers, and for those with whom he was associated in thoj 
moving times. He was made director of the French Act 
demy at Rome, in 1879. 

GuiLLEMET, I. B. Antoine, 0. * (6. ChantiUy, 1842), - 
pupil of Corot, has a serious and poetic landscape, ** Bercri^^J 
en Dicembre,** in the Luxembourg. 

FRANfAis, FRANgois-Louis ( b. Plombiferes, 1814 ; -^• 
1897), one of Corot 's most faithful and devoted disciples, ^^ 
represented in the Luxembourg by a *' Fin d*Hiver " of gre^** 


beauty, which shows the influence of the master and friend 
who died in his arms. A most striking and interesting 
portrait of Fran9ais was painted in 1897, a few weeks before 
his death, by M. Carolus-Duran. This is now in the Luxem- 
bourg — a precious addition to that great collection. The 
greater part of M. Fran^ais' work has been reproduced in 
eaux-fortes, or wood engravings. He furnished numerous 
drawings for illustrated books. 

BiLLOTTE, Ren6, * (b. Tarbes), a pupil of Fromentin, 
is beginning to be better known in London than most con- 
temporary French painters of landscape. He is the painter 
of Snow and of Quarries. " La Neige a la Porte d'Asniferes," 
Liiixembourg, is a fine example of his work. And his contri- 
butions to the Salon of the Champ de Mars, 1898, were of 
a high order of merit — true to nature, and full of real appre- 
ciation of colour and poetic insight. 

IwiLL, Marie- Joseph, * (b, Paris), among the younger 
painters holds a foremost place. His eight pictures in the 
Champ de Mars in 1897 were one of the most important 
contributions made by any landscape painter that year. His 
** Assisi " was most striking, with the brown bed of the 
Tiber below. So also was ** Les Graves de Berck'*. 

Adan, Louis-]fcMiLE (6. Paris, 1839), pupil of Picot and 
Cabanel — (See Imaginative Painters). Damoye, Pierre 
Emmanuel {b. Paris), pupil of Corot, Bonnat, and Daubigny 
— ^IjE Poittevin, Louis (6. La-Neuville), pupil of M. 
fiouguereau, must also be mentioned, though space fails to 
enumerate more of the admirable landscape artists of the 



The great struggle for liberty and truth in Art, begun by 

G^ricault and Delacroix, and carried on by the landscape 

painters in the thirties, reached a further stage in the forties. 

For twenty-five years the public and the Institute had waged 

war against the Komantics who rebelled against a false 

classicism, and the Naturalists who dared to paint nature 

as they saw it. They now found themselves confronted with 

a fresh development — one destined to afifect the art of the 

whole civilized world — confronted with two men to whom 

the honour belongs of having once and for all defied and 

shaken off the oppressive and deadening tyranny of academic 

tradition — with two men who dared to paint the human 

beings about them with the same passion for truth, that 

their friends and associates showed in landscape. 

These men — '* the Eealists,'' as they were contemptuously 

called — have completed the work of the modem revolution. 

They have changed the whole modem outlook on Art. They 

have shown us the truth. They have shown us that the 

peasant is no longer a sort of stage property, merely to be 

used to embellish a landscape, set up in becoming clothes 

with a lamb or a milkpail at the turn of a road or the corner 

of a wood. They have shown us that there is deep signi^ 

ficance — poetry, pathos, tragedy and comedy, in the everyday 

life of the fields and of the workshop. They have shown u 

that the painter, if he would indeed be a ** reahst,*' must s 

the spirit as well as the mere matter. That there ar^ 

beautiful as well as ugly sides to life. That the artist wh 

chooses what is merely hideous or revolting, is as littL*^ 

worthy to be called a realist, as the other who refuses U ** 

see that beautiful young women with smooth hair, whi 


1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 325 

hands, and untanned skin, are not commonly found gleaning 
3om or herding cattle in French fields. 

To Gustave Courbet and Jean Fran9oi8 Millet this great 
revolution is due. 

The ** Discovery of the Peasant," as it has been called, 
svhich created so wild an outcry in the middle of the century, 
is now not only an accepted fact, but its results are seen 
n every exhibition we enter. In France, in England, in 
BoUand, in Belgium, in America, every show, little or big, 
jwarms with Peasant Life, and le brave ouvrier. And we are 
ipt to forget that before the advent of J. F. Millet, Gustave 
Uourbet, and later on Bastien-Lepage, pictures of the actual 
peasant, in the joys and the sorrows of his life, were absolutely 
ion-existent. And further — what gives such deep value and 
significance to this movement is, that these men painted the 
ife that was their own, the people and places and animals 
fcmong which they had lived from childhood. In a word, 
;he pictures of these men are, one and all, the expression 
)f the Democratic Spirit. And the more true they are — 
he nearer they get to the spirit of the fields, the woods, 
he workshop, the bam — the closer they keep to the actual, 
Jways seen with that divining of the hidden truth, that we 
all " the artistic sense'* — so much the finer are their pictures 
s works of Art. 

Moreover, the individual temperament, and the race 
istincts of each of these artists, leave their distinct traces 
n his work. The French peasant, the peasant of the north 
specially, is by nature serious and grave, with a touch of 
melancholy. " L'ouvrier de Paris est un r^volt6 — le pay- 
san au contraire est un r^sign^," it has been well said. 
L.nd that resignation is nowhere more strongly shown than 
a the works of J. F. Millet, the peasant painter. For he, 
•nd his successor, Bastien-Lepage, painted their own life, 
he hfe of their families, the Hfe of their villages. With 
^lillet and Bastien-Lepage we get the peasant as they knew 
^ini, each in their own province. The peasant of Normandy 
Qd the Seine-et-Mame — the peasant of the great plains of 
^^ Meuse. With Courbet, the revolutionary, we get not only 


the life of the Jura peasant — the life of the Jura forests with 
its roedeer and its hounds — but the life of the " rivolW 
— of the workman of the city, the maker of Smeuia, 
the builder of barricades. While Lhermitte shows that 
although he has travelled by another road, he has ako 
arrived at the truth. He is with the people, not of them. 
In his pictures we feel that it is an expression of the dramatic 
sense, the strong sympathy of the artist who apprehends the 
situation. Not the man of the people painting the drama of 
his own life. 

When, however, we come to the work of the highly 
popular artist, Jules Breton, we feel at once that his pictures, 
charming as they are, lack the truth, the force, the power, 
that ** v6rit6 qui empoigne,'* in fine, the very qualities which 
make the work of the other artists of such extreme value 
to the Art of the nineteenth century. Jules Breton is a 
painter of pleasant things, of beautiful things — yet of things 
not as they are, but as they might be in some better world. 
We see that although there was a certain feeling for truth in 
some of his earliest pictures, such as the *' Benediction des 
Bl^s," this was cast aside for deliberate compositions, painted 
from carefully selected, pre-eminently suitable peasant models. 
His pictures are not pictures of real people, in the joys and 
sorrows and hardships of their everyday life. They are not 
pictures of real people painted out of doors, in the air and 
light of the country in which they live. 

** engager I'id^al du r^el, c*est bien la le travail de Tartiste, 
** et qu'est ce que I'ldeal dans I'Art si ce n*est Tessence du 
**Vrai."^ It is the truth that these men have taught us. 
It is the truth henceforth that we demand ; not some pretty, 
untruthful idealism, from which we must sooner or lat^r 
shake ourselves free. We want the real truth. Not a mere 
sordid imitation of the outside of things : but the greater 
truth, " I'essence du Vrai," which gives us not only the 
faithful rendering of the outer semblance, but the hidden 
spirit, that inner radiance which is the life. 

Millet, Jean-Franpois, * (6. Gr^ville (Manche), 1814 ; d. 

^ Charles Blanc. 


1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 327 

Barbizon, 1875). — Jean Fran9ois Millet came of good peasant 
stock, who had lived for many generations in the hamlet of 
Gruchy, in the Commune of Griville, near Cherbourg. His 
father, though he worked hard in the fields was an artist at 
heart, alive to the beauties of nature. " Normandy peasants 
" are hke Scottish country folks, for though generally poor 
"they are frequently very well trained and deeply read.'* 
And at eighteen, when his father, seeing the lad's talent, 
consented to his going to Cherbourg to learn to paint, Jean 
Fran9ois could read his Bible and his Virgil in Latin ; and 
these remained his favourite books. 

For a time he studied with Mouchel in Cherbourg, who 

prophesied he would be " a great painter ". But in 1835 

his father's death forced him, as eldest son, to return to 

Gruchy to manage the farm. This he did quite simply, with 

calm resignation. His mother and grandmother, however, 

realized the immense sacrifice. And in 1836 they sent him 

back to Cherbourg, where he worked with Langlois, himself 

a. pupil of Gros. Langlois, who Millet was already able to 

help with his pictures, obtained a grant for him of £16 

a. year from the Municipal Council of Cherbourg. This 

^was increased by the council of the province to £40 ; and in 

December, 1836, he started for Paris. Here, after a time, 

lie entered Paul Delaroche's studio, where the master disliked 

liim and he learnt little. In the next few years he supported 

liimself by painting nude figure pictures and portraits ; and 

in 1840 sent a portrait of his father to the Salon. It however 

xnade no impression. At Cherbourg he was asked to paint a 

"portrait of the deceased mayor from a miniature. And here 

liis respect for truth began to stand in his way. For he used 

a model for the hands of his portrait ; and this model was a 

labouring man, who had also been in prison. That the 

respected late mayor's hands should be painted from a 

criminal, deeply shocked the excellent provincials. The 

council refused to pay for the picture ; and many of his 

friends turned against him. 

In 1841 Millet married Mile. Pauline Virginie Ono of 
Cherbourg; and went to Paris in 1842, when a portrait 


was refused at the Salon. In 1844 he sent in the " Laiti^re " 
in oils, and ** La Legon d'fequitation " in pastel. This latter 
" was greatly admired by Diaz for its colour, and by Thore 
** for its harmony *'} This was the one ray of light in years of 
poverty, distress, and discouragement. For his troubles grew 
apace ; and as a climax, in April, 1844, his wife died. 

The next year matters began to mend a little. His 
portrait painting grew more popular in Cherbourg. He was 
even offered the post of drawing-master to the College, which 
he declined. And as he could not bear to face Paris again 
without a home, at the end of the year he married Mile. 
Catherine Lemaire of Cherbourg — the devoted and courageous 
Madame Millet, who only died in 1896. On their way to 
Paris, Millet and his wife spent a month at Havre, where he 
painted many portraits and the "Ofifering to Pan," now at 
MontpelUer, and also had a small exhibition which brought 
him popularity and a little money. At this period he painted 
numbers of small pictures of nude figures with great skill. 
But on accidentally hearing himself called ** Millet, who only 
paints naked women," he determined to give up the nude 
entirely. This is a matter of regret, for such a picture as 
** L* Amour Vainqueur " ^ is of the highest value for its beauti- 
ful drawing and sentiment as well as for the richness of its 

Millet now began to gather friends about him — Diaz was 
the first and the warmest. His picture of ** CEdipus taken 
from the tree," was well noticed in the Salon of 1847 by 
Th^ophile Gautier and Thore, who both prophesied that the 
painter would become famous. In the same year he drew 
the well-known crayon portrait of himself. And in the year 
of revolution, though only just recovering from severe illness, 
he sent his ** Vanneuse " to the Salon, where it was given a 
place of honour in the Salon Carr^.^ 

In 1849 Millet left Paris, taking his wife and babies to 
Barbizon. This move was partly to avoid the cholera : but 

* D. C. Thomson. « Collection of J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

^ This picture, sold at the Secretan Sale, was burnt in a disastrous fire in 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 329 

chiefly because he longed for the pure country air to breathe, 
and for peasants to paint. Bousseau and Diaz were already 
settled there. And here Millet made his real home. He had 
now found his true vocation. To the Salon of 1850-51 
he sent one of his finest pictures — the first " Sower " ; 
followed in 1851 by ** Going to labour ". And for the next 
twelve years he painted at his very best The ** Kepas des 
Moissonneurs " in the Salon of 1853, gained him a second class 
medal. And in 1855 his '* Greffier " was secretly bought by 
Bousseau for 4000 francs. For though their merit began to 
be recognised to some degree, the pictures did not sell ; and 
by this time. Millet with his large and rapidly increasing 
family, was harassed by debts, and sorely wanted money. 
The misery of his life has been greatly exaggerated. But 
that from 1850 to 1860 the struggle for life was a very hard one, 
there is no doubt. His want of method, his dreamy dis- 
position, his generous, hospitable nature, kept him in constant 
difficulties. But even at their worst, nothing hindered his 
painting. In 1856 he painted the superb " Berger au Pare *\ 
The ** Glaneuses ** were in the Salon of 1857 ; and the 
famous "Angelus" in that of 1859. 

In 1860, Millet, who was still pressed for money, entered 
into a contract with M. Arthur Stevens of Paris, brother of M. 
Alfred Stevens the well-known Belgian painter. By this, the 
dealer agreed to buy all Millet's works for three years, allowing 
him £40 a month ; paying him at the rate of £4 for drawings, 
and as much as £120 for the more important pictures. 
During these years Millet painted among other pictures 
** L'homme a la Houe,'' ** La Naissance du Veau,'* ** La 
Tondeuse,** ** La Cardeuse," ** La Gardeuse d'oies," etc. 
And about the same time the grand and little-known picture, 
"Maternity". In the Salon of 1865 he exhibited ** La 
Bergfere *'. This picture is now in the collection of M. 
Chauchard ; and hangs opposite the ** Angelus," with the 
*" Sheepfold at night " between them. In colour, composition, 
and feeling, the Bergfere is one of the most beautiful of all 
Millet's pictures. 

The Exposition Universelle of 1867 gave Millet the oppor- 


tunityfof a magnificent display — Rousseau being president 
of the Jury. He sent to it the " Glaneuses," the *' Bergere,'* 
the " Angelus," the *' Tondeuse/' the " Berger an Pare," 
*' Death'^and the Woodcutter," the ** Pare a Moutons," the 
" Potato Planters," and the ** Potato Gatherers ". For this 
splendid collection he received a first class medal. But 
against this great success, which thoroughly estabhshed his 
reputation, came the death of Eousseau in December of 
the same year — a blow which completely unnerved Millet 
and seriously affected his health. In 1868 he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. And when the appoint- 
ment was mentioned at the meeting in the Salon Carre of the 
Louvre, the authorities, who had been a little doubtful as to 
how the artists would receive it, were completely disconcerted 
for a minute or two at the burst of loud, prolonged, sincere 
applause that greeted Millet's name. 

He was • now at the height of any fame he attained 
during his life. Acknowledged as a master, though still 
detested by the classics, he was named one of the Jury of 
the Salon. His pictures sold more easily, and for better 
prices. Unhappily, however, his health began to fail 
seriously in 1870 ; and frequent illnesses interfered with his 
work. The Kepublican Government gave him a commission 
in 1874 for four decorative panels for the Pantheon — *' The 
Four Seasons ". He at once began charcoal sketches for 
them. But it was too late. Throughout the autumn hia 
feebleness increased. And on the 20th of January, 1875, he 
died, surrounded by his devoted family. 
Examples — Louvre : — 

Les Glaneuses. 644. 

Le Printemps. 643. 

tglise de Greville. 641. 

L'Angelus; La Bergere; Le Pare a Moutons (nuit),. 
Coll. of M. Chauchard, Paris. 

L 'Amour Vainqueur; L'Angelus (pastel); and forty 
to fifty drawings, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

Pictures in the collections of Hon. Sir John Day ; 
James Donald, Esq. ; Alexander Young, Esq., etc. 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 331 

In public galleries in New York and Boston. And, The 
Sower, La Tondeuse, Femme menant boire sa 
vache, and many others, Coll. Quincy Shaw, 
Esq., Boston, U.S.A. 

CouRBET, GusTAVE (6. Omans (Doubs), 1819; d. Tour 
de Peilz (Suisse), 1877).— With Gustave Courbet, the son of 
a wealthy farmer of Omans in the Doubs, we find different 
expression of Democratic Art to that of J. R Millet The 
boy was destined by his ambitious father for the bar. But 
even at the little seminary at Omans, he showed more 
aptitude for drawing than for lessons. And years after, one 
of his school-fellows, Monsignor Bastide, would speak of 
" un portrait ipouvantable que fit de moi mon ami Courbet 
** a quinze ans '*. 

Nature was more attractive to the young ** savage ** 
than books. Nature round Omans is indeed attractive. 
And young Courbet loved his native country and all that 
pertained to it, with passion. When at twenty he was 
sent to Paris to ** faire son droit,'* he hastened to do 
something quite else. He had learned " the principles of 
art " from a painter, M. Flageoulet, at Besan9on. And as 
soon as he arrived in Paris law was thrown to the winds ; 
he frequented the studios of Auguste Hesse and Steuben, 
and copied the Dutch, Flemish and Venetian masters with 
a sort of ** frenzy *\ But he was too much of a country 
man to be happy in Paris. He needed the clear air, the free, 
out-door life of his beautiful Jura country, and most of his 
year was spent in his old home. The life of the fields, the 
woods, the village, he knew and loved. And this was what 
he set himself to paint. A Eepublican by education and 
inclination, he was further penetrated by a passionate 
sympathy for the working classes. Among them he began 
to find subjects for his pictures. And after the revolution of 
1848, he threw himself with renewed enthusiasm into this 
hne of thought. It is significant, however, that Courbet's 
first picture in the Salon of 1844 was a portrait of himself. 
He was a prey to an overweening vanity. I have been told by 
one who was his intimate friend, that there was one subject 


on which M. Courbet would talk for ever, and that was '* M. 
Courbet himself '*. Therefore from 1844 we get pictures of 
Courbet standing, Courbet sitting, Courbet smoking, Courbet 
reading — in fact, Courbet at every hour of the day. 

In 1849, before the pohtical reaction had begun, Courbet 
received a second class medal at the Salon for the '*Apres 
diner a Ornans ". This put him hors concours, i.e., permitted 
him to exhibit henceforth without passing the Jurj' of the 
Salon. The next year he determined to make his name 
famous, and sent nine pictures to the Salon — two landscapes, 
four portraits, and three large compositions — " L'enterre- 
ment d'Ornans," ** Les Casseurs de Pierres," ** Le Eetour de 
la Foire *\ The reaction was in full tide, and these pictures 
raised a storm of fury. The works of art as such were never 
thought of. It was the supposedly dangerous sociahstic 
suggestions of their subjects which exasperated the authori- 
ties. And the exasperation was increased by Courbet's second 
class medal, which enabled him to exhibit as many more 
Stonebreakers and Village Funerals as he chose. It is safe 
to say that no artist has ever been treated to such indignities 
in the way of criticism as Courbet. But here again his 
extraordinary vanity came in. After the 2nd of December, 
1851, as his men of the people gave such offence, he deter- 
mined to try peasant women. So in the next three years 
we get his *' Baigneuses,'* ** Fileuse,'' ** Cribleuses de Ble ". 
But they were as little appreciated as the others. And now 
laughter was added to abuse. Courbet's vanity, his intense 
desire for personal success, forced him on. If he could not 
capture that success with one set of subjects he must find 
another. Unlike Millet and Eousseau, he could not fight a 
losing battle for the sake of an ideal. And though he was 
never untrue to his studies of hmnanity, he laid them aside 
for awhile, devoting himself more exclusively to nature — to 
forest, sea, and sk\% green leaves and snow, animals and 

Before doing so, however, he painted in 1855 a singular 
picture, ** L'ateher du peintre — all^gorie r^elle," in which he 
summed up the last seven years of his life — the types \\nth 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 333 

whom he had been occupied. On the right the beggar, the 
labourer, the tradesman, the priest, the poacher, the croque- 
jnort. On the left his friends; among them portraits of 
Baudelaire, Champfleury, Proudhon, Promayet, Bruyas. 
WTiile between these groups, Courbet himself sits painting 
a landscape of Omans. In this same year he painted the 
magnificent ** Homme bless^,'* and his own portrait, known 
as "THomme a la ceinture de cuir ". These were both 
bought by the State in 1881, and are now in the Louvre. 
Both these pictures are painted with such reticence and care, 
that it is curious to recollect that they were supposed in 1855 
to be revolutionary in execution as well as in feeling. 

The greater part of every year Courbet spent wandering 

through the mountains about his old home, or in journeys 

to Montpellier and Berry. With a gun beside his palette, 

the great preacher of '* pleine air ** produced such pictures as 

the "Biche forc^e 4 la neige," *'Le Cerf a lean,'* " Les 

Braconniers," " La Curee," '' L'hallali du Cerf ". As I have 

said, Courbet courted success. And success began with his 

" Fighting Stags,'* in 1861, which twenty years later was 

bought by the State, and is now in the Louvre. But in 1866 

came his greatest triumph, with the ** Kemise des Chevreuils 

au Kuisseau de Plaisirs Fontaine ". Thanks to the public 

spirit of certain gentlemen, this is also in the Louvre. It is 

hardly possible to imagine a more exquisite rendering of 

nature than this picture of the harbour of the dainty Eoe- 

deer, secure in their cool, shady retreat, beside the stream 

in the Jura valley. This picture, and the "Casseurs de 

Pierres,'* perhaps show us Courbet 's genius "at its very best. 

The poetry of nature in one. In the other a masterly 

rendering of the toil, the weariness, the dull monotony of 

the labourer's life. 

Many of his nude pictures are fine. The drawing and 
texture are admirable. But the colour of his flesh is often 
so cold, that it leaves the impression on the eye of a dead 
Tather than of a living body. This is specially noticeable in 
the famous ** Femme au perroquet ". 

Courbet's system, as he himself explains it, was to replace 


the cult of the ideal by the sentiment of the real. ** Savoir 
** pour pouvoir, telle fut ma pens^e. Etre si. m^me de traduire 
" les moeurs, les idees, I'aspect de mon ^poque, selon mon 
** appreciation ; ^tre non seulement un peintre, mais encore 
** un homme ; en un mot, faire de Tart vivant, tel est mon 
** but.*' This excellent explanation of his position as a 
** Kealist " prefaced the catalogue of a private exhibition of 
his works in 1855. And after, as he considered, regenerating 
modem painting, he thought, unfortunately, that he was 
equally capable of regenerating humanity. 

As time went on he became more and more incensed 
against all authorities, political or artistic. And partly from 
conviction, partly from pose, partly from the desire for noto- 
riety, he lavished abuse on *' Them,*' as he termed all those 
in authority. In 1870 he was nominated Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour. This filled him with indignation. And 
he refused in such a letter as has seldom been sent to the 
Minister of Fine Arts. 

Then came the war of 1870, and the Commune of 1871. 
Courbet now seems to have lost his head completely. 
After the 4th of September, Jules Simon made him President 
of the Commission of Fine Arts. And one of his first acts 
was to ask that the Vend6me Column might be removed 
from Paris, to efiface all traces of the Empire, whether 
First or Third. \\Tiile at the same time, by one of those 
singular contradictions we sometimes meet with in Paris 
during times of excitement, he was full of concern for the 
safety of the Arc de Triomphe ; and one at least of his 
proposals for its preservation gave rise to more amuse- 
ment than confidence. But the Column was his b^te-noir. 
And during the Commune, when he was made Directeur des 
Beaux Arts, others who sympathised with this foohsh fury 
against a historic monument encouraged him in his desire 
for its destruction. On the 12th of April, therefore, a decree 
appeared, ordering the demolition of the Column. As all 
know, it was pulled down. But Courbet*s actual share in 
the matter has never been fairly demonstrated. It was 
convenient to throw the whole odium upon him. And when 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 335 

he was arrested at the beginning of June, 1871, he was 
condemned to six months imprisonment, and to defray the 
whole cost — some 400,000 francs — of the reconstruction of 
the Column. 

The unfortunate artist eventually managed to cross the 
frontier ; and spent the last years of his life at La Tour-de- 
Peilz, where he still succeeded in producing some fine works, 
such as " La Truite," and the portrait of his father. But 
his health and spirits were broken. And he died in 1877. 
Examples in Louvre : — 

L'enterrement a Omans. 143. 

L*homme bless^. 144. 

Combat de Cerfs. 145. 

Bemise des Chevreuils au ruisseau de Plaisirs fontaine. 

L'homme d. la Ceinture de cuir. 147. 
Le Philosophe Trapadoux, Coll. M. Antonin Proust. 
Les Casseurs de pierres. Coll. M. Binant. 
Biche forc^e sur la neige, Coll. M. le Comte de 

La Femme au Perroquet, M. M. Durand-Eilel. 
Pay sage, Alexander Young, Esq. 
L 'Immensity, Const antine A. lonides, Esq. 
Bastien-Lepage, Jules. * (b. Damvilliers, 1848 ; d. Paris, 
-*-884), — the son of Claude Bastien, one of the small peasant- 
t^ioprietors of the Meusian district, was bom at Damvilliers, 
^ village near Verdun, which in the days of Fran9oi8 I. had 
^€en strongly fortified. Madame Bastien 's father, M. Le- 
page, a retired tax-collector, made his home with the family, 
-fc^s little pension helping to keep the household in com- 
^(^arative ease. There was no lack of refined tastes in the 
family. Claude Bastien drew well ; "the mother embroidered 
"** patterns of her own tracing " ; and the delightful old grand- 
father, so charmingly described by M. Andr^ Theuriet in 
** Sous Bois," was renowned all the country over for the 
beauty of his flowers. 

As a tiny child, Jules showed an uncommon talent for 
drawing, which was fostered by his father, who made him 


draw some object in the room every evening before going 
to bed — believing that his talent would help him later on to 
a post in the administration of forests. At eleven Jules 
went to the College of Verdun. And here his artistic gifts 
attracted so much attention that M. Fouquet, the drawing 
master, told him he ought to be an artist. The idea grew in 
the boy's mind. He cared for nothing but drawing. And 
when he left college at eighteen, he declared, to the utter 
dismay of his parents, that he wished to go to Paris and 
study painting, instead of trying for the safe official post for 
which their sacrifices had prepared him. The father and 
grandfather opposed what seemed to them so wild and 
reckless a scheme. His mother alone pleaded for him, in 
spite of her horror of the unknown perils of the great city. 
But happily a relation in the Bureau des Postes in Paris 
suggested a way out of the difficulty. And in 1867 Jules 
qualified as assistant in the Post Office, and went to Paris 
as a supernumerary clerk. Here for six months he Uved two 
lives in one — sorting letters from 3 a.m. to 7 a.m. ; and spend- 
ing every free moment of the day at the courses of the Ecole 
(les Beaux Arts. Naturally he broke down under the strain. 
His relations were at last convinced that it was useless to 
oppose so fixed a determination. His mother actually went 
out to field work to earn a little money for her boy. The 
grandfather contributed all he could out of his slender 
savings. And when the Council-General of the Dept. de la 
Meuse added an allowance of 600 francs, Jules, with barely 
enough to keep body and soul together, entered M. Cabanel's. 
studio in 1868, and became a regular student at the l^cole 
des Beaux Arts. 

The first picture he exhibited was the portrait of a young 
architect in a green coat, at the Salon of 1870. It attracted 
some attention. But that summer War was declared. 
Jules joined a company of francs-tireurs under the painter 
Castellani. He was wounded in the chest by a fragment of 
a shell, in the trenches. The same day another shell struck 
his studio, and ruined the picture he had just painted — " La 
Source " ; and when peace was signed he went home 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 337 

broken in health, to recover slowly in his native air, and 
paint his neighbours for practice. When he returned to 
Paris in 1872, the struggle for Ufe was harder than ever in 
the impoverished country. But his quiet determination 
carried him through ; though he was forced to turn his hand 
to anj^hing for a living, from fans and shop-signs to news- 
paper illustrations. 

In 1873 a perfumer ordered an advertisement for his 

wares ; and Jules produced a little picture after the manner 

of Watteau — youths and maidens coming hand-in-hand to 

drink of the fountain of youth in a green meadow. He 

wished to send it to the Salon. The perfumer consented on 

condition that it bore his address and the name of his special 

cosmetic ! This naturally could not be. The bargain came 

to an end ; and the picture was exhibited as ** Le Prin- 

temps '*. To the Salon of 1874 he sent another panel of the 

same type — ** La Chanson du Printemps,'* in which the 

influence of Puvis de Chavannes is plainly seen. But it also 

displays a touch of reaUsm. The little peasant girl listening 

fco the dancing Cherubs was a child from his own village ; 

and the red roofs of Damvilliers are seen in the background. 

A far more important work, however, was exhibited in 

the same Salon — the noble portrait, '* Mon grand pfere,'* 

signed for the first time with the name '* Jules Bastien- 

Ijepage " ; for Jules out of gratitude and affection to his 

mother's family had adopted their name. The picture was 

the event of the Salon. A crowd gathered before it the 

nioment the doors had opened ; and Bastien-Lepage found 

himself famous. The kindly old man, in his every-day 

clothes, painted actually ** en plein-air," sitting among the 

flowers that he loved in his garden, struck a note so new, so 

powerful — the drawing was so superb — the painting so ad- 

Dairable — the whole thing was so instinct with life — that 

though the unconventional methods raised great discussion, 

the talent and strength of the new painter were beyond 

dispute. This success brought the young artist not only 

fame but commissions. M. Hayem (the distinguished 

wnateur) ordered his portrait, which appeared in 1875, with 



" La Communiante *'. This latter picture marked a new 
departure. Its extraordinarily fine brushwork, its extreme 
delicacy and finish, its uncompromising truth of detail, 
recall the work of the old Flemish masters, in strong contrast 
to the broader methods of his earlier pictures. And it began 
the series of small portraits which form so remcurkable a part 
of Bastien-Lepage's work. 

In this same year (1875) he determined to compete for 
the Prix de Eome. The merits of his picture ** L*annonciation 
aux Bergers " have never, I think, been suflSciently recog- 
nized. It only obtained the second prize, the first going to 
Comerre, a more academic artist. But the next morning 
Bastien-Lepage*s fellow competitors had fastened a palm 
branch to its frame — a silent token of their opinion. Keenly 
disappointed, more for the sake of his parents than for 
himself, Bastien-Lepage competed again the next year. But 
** Priam at the feet of Achilles '* was so uncongenial a subject 
that he failed once more — happily perhaps for his own talent • 
And he went back to Damvilliers to work out the great 
problem he had set himself — how to paint the Peasant in 
the open air. Had he gone to the Villa Medicis we might 
never have had ** Les Foins,'* the ''Potato gatherers,** or 
** Jeanne d'Arc ". 

He was now in full tide of work, prosperous and famous, 

to the delight of his parents, whose pride in his pictures and 

his success was intense. In 1876, with M. Andr6 Theuriet 

and his brother fimile, he took the walking tour in the 

Argonne, so enchantingly recorded as " La Chanson du 

Jardinier *' in Saus Bois. But that autumn brought the first 

break in the happy home in the Grande Place. Claude 

Bastien died suddenly of congestion of the lungs, to tb© 

intense sorrow of his son, who only found comfort itx 

work. To the Salon of 1877 he sent the portraits of his 

parents. To that of 1878 the beautiful httle portrait of M- 

Andre Theuriet, and his chef d'oeuvre, ** Les Foins," now on© 

of the treasures of the Luxembourg. He now spent tb® 

winter months in Paris — his brother !l&mile, who wa^ 

studying Architecture, sharing his large studio in tb^ 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 339 

Impasse du Maine. Each year saw some large composition 

of peasant life, as well as more of the exquisite little portraits. 

In 1879 he paid his first visit to England, where he was 

warmly welcomed. He studied Rembrandt's etchings at the 

British Museum, painted portraits, sketched the shipping in 

the Thames, and spent the last day of his stay in making a 

silver-point drawing of the Prince of Wales, which developed 

into the splendid little Holbeinesque portrait in oils. On his 

return to Paris he received the Legion of Honour. And then 

went home to DamviUiers to paint the great picture he had 

dreamt of for years — " Jeanne d'Arc ^coutant les Voix ". 

Noble and striking as is the figure of Jeanne — a real Meusian 

peasant — the picture, partly on account of the visualized 

"Voices," did not attain the success that the artist and his 

friends had hoped. The M^daille d*Honneur went to Aim6 

Morot's " Good Samaritan *'. And for the first time Bastien- 

Lepage began to doubt his own powers — that saddest phase 

of depression that can befal the artist. But a second visit to 

England restored his confidence. And the next two years were 

: the period of his most active production. In 1881 he made a 

; short tour to Como and Venice. But Venetian art did not 

appeal to him. He was indeed ** Le Primitif " that his 

friends loved to call him. And London, and the life of its 

streets, entertained and charmed him far more than Tintoret 

and Titian. In June, 1882, he paid his last visit to England, 

and painted M. Coquelin, Blackfriars Bridge, a large picture 

of a flower girl, and the delightful Uttle ** Shoeblack '*, 

Popular as he was in London, he was if possible even 
more so in Paris. And his close friendship with the strange 
genius, Marie Bashkirtsefif, became one of the important facts 
of his life. But the end of both the friends was nearer than 
any one dreamed. In 1888 a fatal malady was undermining 
his health though he concealed his sufferings, and no one 
guessed that the painter of '* L*Amour au Village," f^ted and 
acclaimed by all Paris, was stricken with a terrible and 
deadly disease. But soon the truth could no longer be 
Wdden. His health failed fast. ** A journey to Algiers was 
'* recommended, and his * valiant little mother,* as he called 


** her, who had never left home except for a few days, 
** at once prepared to accompany him/* ^ Though at first he 
revived, nothing could stay the inevitable end. His brother 
lilmile joined him, bringing news of the immense success of 
the exhibition of his works at Georges Petit's ; and in June 
he was taken back, slowly dying, to Paria Marie Bash- 
kirtseff was dying too ; and the last meeting of the two 
young geniuses is one of the saddest romances of modem 
days. Eleven days later Marie died. Jules Bastien-Lepage 
lingered for five weeks more ; and saying with a smile to 
his mother, '* It is time for children to go to sleep," his 
sufferings ended on 9th December, 1884. 
Examples : — 

Les Foins, 1878, Luxembourg. 

Portraits of '* Mon Grand pfere," 1874; ** Mes 
Parents " ; M. E. Bastien-Lepage ; S.A.R 1^ 
Prince de Galles, 1879, M. 6mile Bastien-Lepage • 

M. Andre Theuriet, 1878, M. Andr6 Theuriet. 

Mme. Sarah Bernhardt, 1879, M. Blumenthal. 

Jeanne d'Arc ^coutant ses voix, Metropohtan Ar^ 
Museum, New York. 

La Saison d'Octobre, or The Potato Gatherers, 187^-9 
George M*Culloch, Esq. 

Going to School, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 
Lhermitte, Leon-Augustin, 0.* {b. Mont-Saint-Pfere? » 
Aisne). — M. L6on Lhermitte, a pupil of Lecoq-de-Bois- 
baudran, is one of the most vigorous of the living painter^ 
of the peasant. His earlier works are mostly in charcoal - 
And it is by these that he is best known in England, *s 
these splendid black-and-white drawings of the life of th^ 
workshop and the fields have been exhibited in London 
at various times. He first exhibited a charcoal drawing in 
the Salon of 1864, '' Les bords de la Mame " ; followed in 
1865 by '* Souvenir d une vallee a Mont-Saint-Pere," also in 
charcoal. In 1874 he received a third class medal; and a 
second class in 1880. He was created chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour in 1884 ; and is now ofiicier. 

' Julia M. Ady. 

1848-1884. THE PEASANT PAINTERS. 341 

His first important oil painting was exhibited in the 

Salon of 1874, *' La Moisson '\ FoUowed in 1876 by the 

charming ** Lavage des Moutons '\ In the Exposition 

TJniverselle of 1889 M. Lhennitte's oil pictures, *' La 

Moisson," *' Le Vin,'* ** L'aieule,'' *' La paye des Moisson- 

neurs," etc., made a profound impression by their power and 

truth. His pastels also, in the pavilion des Pastellistes, were 

of extraordinary vigour and great beauty. 

Examples — Galerie du Luxembourg : — 

La paye des Moissonneurs, 1882 ; La vielle demeure 

L'Aieule, 1880, Museum of Ghent. 
Les Vendanges, 1884, Metropolitan Art Museum, New 

Le Vin, M. Henry Vasnier. 
La Mort et le Bucheron, 1893, The Artist. 
Breton, Jules-Adolfe, C* (6. Courriferes, Pas de 
Calais, 1827). — A pupil of F^lix de Vigne and of Drolling, 
^I. Jules Breton is one of the most popular of living 
French painters. At the age of twenty he entered the 
^cole des Beaux Arts. He received a third class medal 
in 1855, a second class in 1857, and first class in 1859. 
Ke was created chevaher of the Legion of Honour in 
1861 ; and is now commandeur. In fact his whole 
career has been one of remarkable success. For although 
lie has devoted himself to the painting of pictures 
of the French peasant, he has always known how to con- 
ciliate the taste of the public. In colour and composition 
M. Jules Breton's work is very beautiful and attractive. 
But his pictures are so evidently painted from carefully 
selected, well-arranged peasant models, that they lack the 
ring of truth and conviction which the peasant pictures of 
Courbet, Millet, Bastien-Lepage, and Lhermitte convey. 
One of his earlier pictures, the ** Btoediction des Blfes,*' 
now in the Luxembourg, was painted in 1857 — the " Eappel 
des Glaneuses " in 1859 — '' Les Sarcleuses '' in 1861. 

M. Jules Breton is the head of a family of artists. His 
brother, M. ifcmile Breton, is a well-known and excellent 


landscape painter. So is his son-in-law, M. Adrien Demont. 
While his daughter, Mme. Virginie Demont-Breton, is one ot 
the most powerful French painters of sea-shore and fisher- 
folk. Her picture *' Le Plage " (1882) is in the Luxembourg. 
And the Museum of Ghent possesses her very fine ** Loups 
de Mer " of 1885. 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

La Benediction des Bl^s (Artois), 1857. 

Rappel des Glaneuses (Artois), 1859. 

La Glaneuse, 1877. 

Misfere et desespoir, 1849, Mus^e d'Arras. 

Plantation dun Calvaire, 1859, Musee de Lille. 

Many pictures in Provincial Museums. 

Les Sarcleuses, M. le Comte Duchatel. 

6tude pour le Pardon, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

Les Communiantes, 1884, Lord Strathcona and 
Mount Royal, Montreal. 



HAT France, a great military power, should always have 
)S8e8sed and encouraged a long line of military painters is 
it natural. With that clearness of vision, as regards all 
ings concerning the history of her national Ufe, which is 
le of her most remarkable attributes, France has gloried in 
cording the prowess of her armies in ** painted story '\ 
he special point of interest, however, in the military 
ctures of the nineteenth century is not merely their 
icellence as works of art. It is the evidence they afford of 
e increasing preoccupation among modern artists with 
tual truth — truth not only of detail but of intention ; of 
e desire to represent not the mere outside aspect of that 
nth, but, as with the peasant painters, to give its essence. 
nd in this endeavour they aU betray, whether consciously 

unconsciously, the growing force of the democratic 
►int. The Humanists of the Eenaissance have become 
e individuahsts of the nineteenth century. And with this 
spect for the individual, the human creature as such, has 
-come of supreme importance in art as in literature. 

Until the nineteenth century, military pictures were 

trely aristocratic and official. Parrocel, Van der Meulen, 

Niartin des Batailles," produced endless representations of 

^ Wars of Louis XIV. and Louis XV.; some of topo- 

aphic value ; some curious as historic records ; some 

teresting as tableaux de vuxurs, but one and all official. 

bey have nothing to do with the actualities of war. The 

ctures of the First Eepublic and the Empire become of 

eater moment to the historian. In order to minister to 

Le glory of Napoleon after he became Emperor, all the 



campaigns of those momentous years of the close of the 
eighteenth and dawn of the nineteenth centuries, were 
carefully recorded by such artists as Guillon-Lethiere, 
Lecomte, Bouchot, Carle Vernet, etc. Girodet, Guerin, 
David, each painted great official pictures of contemporary 
military events. And these, owing to the exactitude with 
which portraits and details are treated, are of extreme value 
as authentic documents. 

With the nineteenth century, however, the individual, the 
actual soldier, his heroism, his suffering, his every-day life, 
his character, comes into hne. Of Baron Gros* pictures of 
the events of his own day, I have already spoken : but it is 
necessary to refer again to them here. For in the ** Peste 
de Jafifa '* and the ** Battle of Aboukir " we discover the first 
indications of realism, the first suggestion of the democratic 
spirit. By the old official method of Van der Meulen and 
Martin des Batailles, the interest was concentrated on the 
King, the General, the Stafif, standing in comfortable 
security. The battle, where men were fighting and dying, 
was a mere decor de Theatre, with the appropriate smoke and 
flashes from guns at a discreet distance. By the new 
method of democratic realism, the sphere of interest is 
shifted from the Stafif to the army — from the General to 
the fighting man, to the rank and file. 

To two supreme artists the revolution is chiefly due — 
Charlet and Rafifet. With Rafifet, in his unequalled litho- 
graphs, we get the epic of war, grandiose and tragic, allied 
with an almost miraculous exactitude of detail — all the tragedy 
and horror of warfare in a handsbreadth. Charlet on the 
other hand, gives us the cheery, the amusing, often the 
grotesque view of the French Soldier. The Gallic flavour, 
the Gallic character, of the little recruit who calls to the old 
sergeant who is making such good practice among the enemy, 
to leave at least one for him — of '* Valentin et ses prisonniers " 
— of the Soldiers of those tremendous caricatures — of those 
splendid pages of the French Soldier's life — comic and 
pathetic at once. With Charlet it is rarely that the pathetic 
becomes the tragic. When it does it is overpowering — as in 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 345 

the picture now in the Museum of Lyons — " li^pisode de la 
Oanipagne de Bussie *\ 

At Versailles the evolution of modem military painting 
may be very fully studied, and on an enormous scale. Many 
artists who only attained mediocrity in their other works — 
second-rate followers of the Eomantic school — have produced 
good military pictures, far more full of life and truth than their 
attempts to revive the cult of the Middle Ages. Couder's 
^'Lawfeld" and *'York Town," Bouchot's ** Zurich," 
Phillipot*s " Eivoli," are all admirable pictures in the great 
Galerie des Batailles — that vast panorama of the glories of 
the French arms from the days of Clovis to the first 
Empire, which Louis Philippe ordered wholesale from the 
Artists of his reign. 

Horace Vemet, the favourite, one may almost say the 
only official painter of the events of Louis Philippe's reign, 
does endeavour to be historically accurate ; and we see that 
he strove for a certain amount of local colour and truth. 
The conquest of Algeria furnished him with the opportunity 
of fiUing room after room with huge, carefully -balanced 
compositions, good in drawing, dull in colour. In his por- 
traits and in his localities he sought to be exact. But seen 
by the illumination of later methods, his pictures are in- 
tolerably tedious. In Bellange we get the transition between 
officialism and reaUsm. But it is with Pils and Protais that 
we find the actual break with tradition, and that they are 
beginning to paint what they see. It has been wittily 
said that Protais' soldiers dream, while those of Pils act and 
do their duty. But the point is that these artists painted 
TCal soldiers ; though they modified these soldiers by their 
own individual temperaments. And in Pils* great picture at 
Versailles of the Battle of the Alma, we see at once that the 
revolution is an accomplished fact — that modem military 
painting is bom. It is a step that leads us on quite 
naturally, without shock or hesitation, to Aime Morot's 
^^Reichshoflfen," or de Neuville's " Champigny ". 

The intention and object of militarj' painting of the last 
thirty years is to show us the intimate side of war. This of 


course has its perils. In all military pictures since 1870 we 
have to put loss, or the risk of loss, on one side, against gain 
on the other. We lose, or we may lose grandeur, in a too 
exclusive preoccupation with the individual. We run the 
risk of falling into anecdote — the fait divers — mere melo- 
drama. But if we lose or run the risk of losing on the side 
of grandeur, we gain enormously on that of human interest 
and of truth. And some modem French military painters 
have proved that it is possible, while giving the absolute 
truth of detail, the most intense rendering of the emotional 
aspect of war, to preserve grandeur of style, and produce a 
really fine as well as moving work of art. 

Charlet, Nicholas-Toussaint (6. Paris, 1792 ; d, Paris, 
1845). — When Charlet*s father, a Eepublican Dragoon, died, 
all the inheritance he could leave his boy was a pair of boots 
considerably the worse for wear in the campaigns of the 
Sambre and Meuse, his leather breeches, and the deduction 
of nine francs seventy-five centimes for linen and shoes from 
his pay. But happily there was a valiant mother to look 
after the child and devote herself to his education. She firsl^ 
placed him at the school of the Enfants de la Patrie ; then a** 
the Lycee Napoleon. The excellent woman's means, how"-' 
ever, were soon exhausted ; and Charlet, who adored hi ^ 
mother, cut his studies short and took a small post in on 
of the Mairies in order to help her. He did not keep it fo 
long, on account of his Bonapartist opinions. And in 181 
we find him, as Sergeant-Major in the Garde Nationale, a* 
the Barriere de Clichy.^ The son of the old Dragoon of th 
Kepubhc fought so fiercely in that vain attempt to driv 
back the Kussians, that he was made captain of hi 
company. Here, however, his military exploits began an 
ended. The Empire fell. He laid down his arms ; an 
turned to his pencil instead of his musket. In those splendiii 
lithographs, in his fine studies and pictures of the actua»l 
soldier of the Empire, who he remembered in his father 

^ Horace Vemet's picture in the Louvre (966), "La Barriere de Clichy, ** 
contains portraits of the artist and of Charlet, as well as of Mar^chal Monce^^ 
M. Odiot, and M. de Marguery-Dupaty, homme de lettres. 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 347 

who he had seen and with whom he had fought side by 
side in those days of July — his mihtary ardour found ex- 
pression. And Gros, Eafifet, and Charlet remain the three 
most important artists of the Napoleonic epoch. 

Charlet had two masters. The first was one Le Bel — 
an obscure painter of David's school, of whom the pupil 
speaks in an3rthing but respectful terms. In 1817, however, 
he went to Gros ; in whose studio he met Delaroche, Roque- 
plan, Bonnington, Bellang^, Lami, Barye, etc. Gros soon 
perceived the talent of his new pupil ; and urged him at first 
to try for prizes, competitions, prix de Rome, and what not. 
Meanwhile Charlet was drawing diligently. His drawings 
delighted Gros, who was often to be found poring over them 
at his friend Delpech*s, the publisher, who was beginning 
to show Charlet's first lithographs. It was now that his 
** Grenadier de Waterloo " appeared. Its success was so 
immediate that a second stone had to be prepared — the first 
was soon too worn. But its success was due to its political 
signification. As works of art Charlet*s productions at first, 
whether drawings or lithographs, did not sell. 

In 1820 the honest Baron Gros advised the young artist 
to leave the studio. ** Allez, travaillez seul, suivez votre 
"impulsion, abandonnez vous ^ votre caprice, vous n'avez 
"rien A apprendre ici.'* So away went the valiant, in- 
dependent, light-hearted Charlet encouraged by the great 
Blaster's words, to draw and paint the French army in all 
Its moods ; and though he knew poverty at close quarters 
wi those early days, his gay humour and happy philosophy 
carried him through every difficulty. Charlet seems never 
to have forgotten that he was a soldier's son, and that he 
bad once himself worn the uniform of his country. Looking 
like some distinguished staff officer, with his handsome face, 
clean shaven save for the heavy moustache and imperial, his 
hest friends were officers of note, such as Colonel de la 
Combe his devoted biographer, and M. Alexandre de Rigny, 
colonel of the 2nd Hussards. 

Success came slowly. In 1818 he was so put to it to 
^toi his livelihood that he undertook to decorate a Uttle inn 


at Meudon. But this led to a meeting of great import 
While he was hard at work painting ducks, rabbits 
brioches on the shutters, he was asked to join a che 
party on the first floor. One of the members met him sa 
" You do not know me, M. Charlet, but I know you, 
** have a great respect for you ; for your lithographs c 
** only come from the pencil of a good fellow ; and if you 
** dine with us it will be an honour and a pleasure to u 

It was Giricault ! And from that day a friend 
began, which was only broken by G6ricault*s death. 
1820 the friends went to London, where G^rica 
** Eadeau de la Meduse " was exhibited. And each visitc 
payment of his shiUing entrance received a lithograph ol 
picture, the joint work of the two artists. Charlet's 1 
graphs had an undoubted influence on Gericault at 
moment ; while G^ricault's fiery genius had an equal i 
on his friend. And if his time had not been so absc 
with lithography and his work as Professor of drawir 
the 6cole Polytechnique, the number of Charlet's oil pici 
would have been greatly augmented. That he had the 
painter's temperament is shown by his splendid 
** Grenadier de la Garde," in the Louvre, his ** iipisode 
Eetraite de Kussie,'* and others — notably the large pain 
at Versailles — " Convoi de blesses " and ** Passage du ] 
a Kehl ". These, says M. Armand Dayot, ** are honou 
** specimens of oflScial painting . . . the Episode de la Be\ 
** de Eussie is an audacious and powerful work, almost a ^ 
** of genius ". Of this picture Alfred de Musset dar€ 
say in 1836, " Except G^ricault's Meduse and Pous 
** Dehcge, I know no picture which produces such an eflf< 

Charlet*s life was one of ceaseless labour. An( 

summed it up when, with his wife and his two sons b 

him, his pencil fell from his hand on the last day of 184 

he said, ** Good-bye. T am dying, for I can work no louj 

Examples : — 

OH Pictures, 

Le Grenadier de la Garde, Louvre. 
Convoi de blesses, Versailles. 


Passage du Bhin d Kehl, Versailles. 

Soldat de la B6publique, Chantilly. 

Episode de la Retraite de Russie, Mus6e de Lyon. 

G^n^ral B^publicain d la t^te de ses troupes, Mme. 

Waterloo, M. Auguste Cain. 

Drawings and Lithographs, 

Many Sepias. 

Series of " Galerie Militaire depuis 1792 ". 

Illustrations for Biranger's " Chansons y' etc., etc. 
Charlet said he had made more than 1500 drawings in 
sepia, water-colour, pen and ink, and eaux-fortes, besides 
nearly as many he had torn up dissatisfied, while M. de la 
Combe has collected 1090 lithographs. 

Vernet, Horace, G.O.* (6. Paris, 1789 ; d, Paris, 1863).— 
Horace Vernet was by right of inheritance a painter. Son 
of Carle, and grandson of Joseph Vernet, it would have been 
strange if he had not cared for Art. Like his father he was a 
nian of the world ; and passionately devoted to horses, to arms, 
and to sport. For a moment it seemed as if his love of things 
military would have sent him into the army. But before he 
was twenty his father settled his career for him ; married him 
to Mile. Louise Pajol ; and obtained him the post of draftsman 
to the depdt de la guerre. His first patrons were the Empress 
Marie-Louise and King J6r6me. At the Barriere de Chchy, 
side by side with Charlet,^ he distinguished himself greatly, 
Mid received the Legion of Honour. Under the Bestoration 
Horace Vernet was an ardent Bonapartist ; his pictures and 
lithographs did much to popularise the Napoleonic Legend ; 
Mid in 1822 his pictures were refused at the Salon as 
seditious. He therefore opened an exhibition in his studio, 
to which all Paris flocked, and the success was immense* 
Louis-Philippe, as due d'Orlians, now became his warmest 
patron. And Charles X., feeling how important it was to 
attach such a successful artist to his person and his cause, 
ordered the pictures of ** Bou vines '* and ** Fontenoy," and 
a ceiling at the Louvre. 

1 Seo Charlet. 


Vernet was now (1828) made Director of the tcole de 
Kome.^ And on his return to France, his patron Lonis 
Philippe was upon the throne, and his period of greatest 
activity and success began. For from his return from 
Rome in 1834, to the revolution of 1848, with one brief 
interval, Horace Vernet may be said to be the one mili- 
tary painter of the reign of Louis Phihppe. He was now 
at liberty to devote himself to his favourite subjects ; and 
began by the great battles of the Empire — J^na, Friedland, 
Wagram, etc., followed by the siege of Antwerp. Then- 
came the Algerian campaign, of which he became the real- 
historian. His three pictures of the siege of Constantine,— - 
exhibited in 1839, roused the greatest enthusiasm ; for they 
were narrative pictures — the story told by an ingenious and - 
accomplished historian, in whose work ** conscientious in- 
" f onnation equals certainty of execution ". The French public 
desired information about this new and exotic acquisition, 
where the French army fought with such splendid bravery 
against a little-known, courageous, and picturesque people. 
Horace Vernet was able to give them this information in 
such guise that it was intelUgible to the illiterate, and of 
deepest interest to the learned. In 1842 the African series 
was interrupted for a moment. Some annoyance caused 
him to drop his work, leave Paris, and go to Bussia. 
But he only painted a couple of pictures for the Emperor 
Nicholas. And returning to France in 1843, he took up the 
broken thread of his battle pictures, and produced the finest 
of all his works, the enormous ** Prise de la Smalah 
d'Abd-el-Kader ". It is gigantic in size — 21 metres long by 
5 high — and most happy and skilful in its simplicity of 
treatment. **It is a work in which the qualities of the 
" painter efface themselves before the impeccable science of a 
** draftsman, of an illustrator of genius.'* - These words sum 
up at once the greatness and the weakness of Horace Vernet. 
He was not a painter, he was a narrator. 

The revolution of 1848 was a crushing blow to his pro- 
jects and his hopes. During the Third Empire he produced 

1 See Gu^rin. * De Nolhac and P^rat^. 

10-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 351 

it little, though Napoleon III. made him grand officier de 
Legion d*Honneur in 1862, a few weeks before his death, 
ifted with extraordinary facility, he used pencil, brush, and 
urin with almost equal ease and certainty of hand. 
Examples — Versailles : — 

Prise de Constantine. 2021, 2022, 2023. 

Prise du fort de St. Jean d'Ulloa. 2024. 

Prise de la Smalah d'Abd-el-Kader. 2027. 

Etc., etc., etc. 

La Barrifere de Clichy, Louvre. 956. 

Ceiling of Salle 2, Mus6e Charles X. , Louvre. 957, 958. 

Portrait, due d'Orl^ans, afterwards Louis Philippe, 

The Duke of Orleans entering Constantine, and a 
great number of other pictures, Hertford House. 
Eaffet, Denis- Auguste-Marie (6. Paris, 1804 ; d. 
renoa, 1860). — After receiving a rough and ready education 
t a little school in the Quartier, Eaffet at the age of fifteen 
7a8 apprenticed to a turner in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. 
le stayed here for three years, delighting his employer by 
lie skill with which he used his lathe. But his taste for 
liings military was already declared. From his babyhood 
is warhke tendencies had manifested themselves. The 
'ontaine de Birague and the steps of the ilglise de Saint- 
*aul witnessed heroic deeds of arms, when little Eaffet — 
Iways chosen as leader — led his liliputian troop into the 
eld armed with broomsticks and such like, to the no small 
onstemation of their peaceful elders in the Faubourg 

Raffet's artistic faculty was very late in developing. In 
he weekly reports which the head of the Institution Ballet 
ent his mother, an ominous black mark always stood 
kgainst " progress in drawing **. It was not until he was 
lighteen that his love of art really awoke. Then, to the 
lonstemation of the good turner, he took a sudden disgust to 
;he turning of chair-legs. His worship of the Flag — of all 
Dhat pertained to the glory of the soldier — roused in him the 
vehement desire to become the painter of the soldier. He 


joyfully left his lathe ; and went off to ask counsel of M. 
Cabanel, a painter, gilder, and porcelain decorator. This 
worthy man took the lad into his atelier, where he earned 
six francs a day ; and besides giving him sound advice on 
painting, his patron allowed him to attend some of the classes 
in Suisse's Academy, then greatly in vogue. Here Eaffet 
learnt to draw from nature, and made friends with de 
Kudder and Theodore Le Blanc, two of Charlet's pupils. 
It was Theodore Le Blanc, then a captain of Engineers, 
whose death at the siege of Constantine in 1837, Raffet 
immortalized in one of his most celebrated lithographs. 

De Rudder introduced Raffet to Charlet, who was de- 
lighted with his drawings, welcomed him warmly, offered 
him a place in his studio, and became greatly attached to 
him. Six months later the young artist entered the tcole 
des Beaux Arts. Here for five years he worked under 
Charlet, and became so perfect a draftsman that the best 
authorities declare it is difficult to say which is the work of 
master or pupil in certain works from 1825 to 1830. But^ 
according to M. Arniand Dayot, Charlet only lightly re^ — - 
touched one of Raffet's drawings — the " Waterloo " — wher^ 
with a few touches he toned some of the lights which ha<V 
been left a little too strong. Raffet, however, perceived that:== 
he ran a certain risk of becoming merely the follower o 
Charlet's compelling talent. He had mastered all th 
subtleties and mysteries of lithography. And he turned t 
Baron Gros, whose battlepieces had inflamed his imagination^* 
for something broader and more vigorous. A few months 
after he entered Gros' studio he published an Album, con — 

taining the famous " Waterloo '* and ** La Moskowa ** 

Gros happened to see the former, sold for a franc on th 
Quays. He exclaimed with admiration, asked the name o 
the artist, and when told it was a young man named Raffet^i^ 
a pupil of Baron Gros, denied his existence ! But from that^ 
day Gros remembered the name of his brilliant pupil, wh 
he said had come on a fruitless errand, as he, Gros, coul 

teach him nothing more than he already knew about battles 

Raffet nevertheless worked on steadily in the studio, gainings 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 363 

immense power in drawing. At the same time orders came 
thick upon him ; and he produced illustrations, vignettes, 
drawings, and the thirty-three plates for the MusSe de la 
Revolution Franfaise, in which his talent, which had de- 
veloped so slowly, shows itself complete. 

One album of hthographs now succeeded another. In 
the intensely interesting collection of Eaffet's works, pre- 
served under the pious care of his son, M. Auguste Eaflfet, of 
the D^partement des Estampes, BibHothfeque Nationale, the 
variety of subject and of style is extraordinary. We find a 
vignette outside some popular song, an advertisement for 
some book or play, next to some lifelike sketch of a soldier, 
some magnificent Uthograph where he has put 10,000 men 
in to the space of an open octavo, or some caricature, which, 
while it made the pubUc laugh, cut at the same time like a 
^whip lash. At the end of 1831 Eaffet made a hasty journey 
to Antwerp. He wanted to see his hero, the soldier, at 
i?vork in earnest. He arrived in time to see the surrender of 
t;he Citadel ; and hurried back to Paris with sketch books 
filled with drawings from life, which were soon transformed 
into the fine Album of the Siege of Antwerp. This pubhcation 
oompleted his reputation. His fame was secure. But he 
^was to do better still. Two of his greatest triumphs were 
produced in 1833, the placards for the poems N6mesis and 
Napoleon en Egypte, These ** will rank for ever among the 
**very purest marvels of lithography".^ 

While working almost ceaselessly at his lithographs, 
Raflfet yet found time to paint direct from nature. His oil 
pictures are rare, and he never exhibited them in the Salon. 
But such pictures, sketches, and studies as exist show a very 
brilliant colourist. In water-colour however he did much. 

The eccentric and remarkable wanderer and patron of 
^he arts, Prince Anatole Demidofif, was closely attached to 
Haflfet. And with this singular and devoted companion, a 
^ries of journeys began which gave Eaffet extraordinary 
opportunities. Such of his original sketch books of these 
Journeys as we have been fortunate enough to see/ reveal the 

' Annand Dayot. 



man and the artist in a delightful manner. Not only do 
they show the keen observer, intense enjoyment of every 
novelty, an absolutely truthful method of work in tiny 
studies of uniforms, accoutrements, the special set of a strap, 
a buckle, an epaulet, a bit of harness : but the vast plains of 
the Danube and the Crimea — magnificent ceremonials and 
reviews where thousands of men are engaged — are indicated 
with such marvellous power and subtle knowledge, that 
the few strokes on the six-inch page of a Uttle sketch book 
give the effect of grandeur we too often find lacking in a 
huge picture. With Prince Demidoflf, Raffet travelled in 
Spain, where we get bullfights and bullfighters, Andalusian 
beauties and dancers. At Gibraltar he was fascinated by the 
43rd Highlanders ; and some of his large water-colour and 
lithograph studies and portraits are of great interest. The 
journey in 1836 took the Prince and the artist down tix^ 
Danube, through southern Russia and the Crimea.^ They 
also visited England and Scotland. 

But one of Raflfet's most valuable contributions to con- 
temporary history is the book of full-length water-colour 
portraits of " Diplomates aupr^s de la Sainte Sifege " at 
Rome and Portici in 1849. The heads are finished with 
extreme care and deJicacy, and are some of the most lifelike 
and characteristic portraits of the time. They begin with 
Pius IX. and Cardinal Antonelli. And the racial differences 
between the representatives of the different nations are 
depicted with a saga^sity and vivacity which is, as far as I 
know, unequalled. This book is preserved in the Bibliothfeque 
Nationale — a rare feast for the student of modem history. 

This journey to Rome at the time of the siege was also 
productive of a magnificent series of drawings of the French 
army and the events of the siege. Among them "Votre 
reception n'est ni polie ni politique " — and the beautiful 
plate of the engagement imder the great Stone Pines of 
Panfili are of special value. Raflfet*s second visit in the 
spring of 1860, in which to get fresh notes to complete bis 
Albimi of the siege of Rome, cost the world a great artist. 

1 See Prince Demidoff's well-known book of Tiavels, illuBtrated by Raffet. 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 355 

He contracted fever — and died on his way home at Genoa, in 
February, 1860. 
Examples : — 

Grenadier de la V^ Eepublique (oils), Louvre. 761 

Complete collection of Lithographs, Bibliotheque 

Diplomates, 1849 (water-colour), Bibliothfeque Na- 


Water-Colours of Algerian Campaign, 1841, Chantilly. 
Canonnier de la Eepublique (oils), M. Cain. 
Barkhat,^ a Eussian Horse (oils), E. E. Leggatt, Esq. 
Six sketch books of Journey down the Danube and 
Crimea, from collection of Prince Demidoff, Miss 
Lucy Cohen. 
The most celebrated of the Lithographs in the 
Napoleonic series are : ** Moskowa.*' " Bataillon 
Sacr6 a Waterloo." " Lutzen." " L'ceil du maitre." 
** Attention ! L*Empereur a Tceil sur nous ! " ** Serrez 
vos rangs ! ** ** lis grognaient et le suivaient tou- 
jours." '^La Eevue Nocturne." '* Le E^veil." 
In the Algerian Series : ** Marche sur Constantine." 
" Combat d'Oued Alleg." 
Bellang6, Hippolyte (6. Paris, 1800 ; d. Paris, 1866). 
^BeUangA entered the l^cole des Beaux Arts in 1818. A 
pupil of Gros, he represents the transition period between 
officialism and the intimate and realistic painting of Military 
pictures. His ** Prise de Mouzaia " at Versailles is an 
admirable example of this transition. 
Examples — ^Versailles : — 

Wagram, 1749; Prise de Mouzaia, 5123; Combat 

Two pictures, Chantilly. 

Fording a Stream ; The Despatch ; Grenadier ; Hert- 
ford House. 
Protais, Paul Alexandre {b, Paris, 1826). — With the 
Crimean War, Protais, like Pils, found his opportunity. And 

^ From the Demidoff collection. 


he was one of the first to break away from the aristocratic 
and oflScial view of war, and paint the soldier as he saw him. 
He has always seen him through a veil of sentiment ; "the 
** melancholy soldier/' as M. Bigot says, who seems "to 
" emerge from a reading of Bern or of Obermann **. 

In Versailles we have a good example of his work — the 
Prise du Mamelon Vert. 1904. 

Avant le combat, and Apr^s le combat, Chantilly. 

Pictures in the Museums of Marseilles, Orleans, 
Toulon, etc. 

La Separation . . . arm^e de Metz, 1872, Mme. la 
Baronne James de Eothschild. 
PiLS, Isidore, O.*, M. de l'Inst. (6. Paris, 1815 ; d. 
Paris, 1875). — Isidore Pils inherited from his father not 
only a clearly marked artistic sense, but the power of 
lively and accurate observation. The father, a gallant 
and cultivated soldier who Oudinot attached to his 
personely spent the intervals of actual fighting in making 
vigorous sketches of all he saw in the campaigns of the 
First Eepublic and Empire. His son Isidore's vocation 
was manifested early ; and at fifteen the lad entered 
Lethifere's studio, leaving it two years later for Picot's. He 
was preparing to compete for the Prix de Rome in 1836, 
when the consumptive tendencies he had inherited from his 
mother first showed themselves. His father was poor. So 
he had to take refuge in the H6pital de Saint-Jean — to 
which he was destined to return more than once. 

In 1838, however, he gained the Grand Prix de Rome, and 
set out for the Villa Medici. But Italy did his delicate health 
harm instead of good. Racked with fever, interrupted by 
journeys in search of relief to Ischia, Naples and the 
mountains, his work suffered. Nor did Italy suit his talent. 
All his life through his career was blighted by constant illness. 
But with a gentle and half-sorrowful obstinacy Pils strove to 
overcome all obstacles, and to discover the true path to follow. 
He had hitherto tried religious commonplaces. In 1848 bis 
" Rouget de I'lsle '* was inspired by the spirit of the times. 
Then he began like his father to observe what was going on 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 357 

about him, and to paint what he saw. The ** Death of a 
Sister of Charity *' and ** Prifere k THospice " were scenes he 
had witnessed in his long, sad sojoumings at the H6pital 
Saint- Jean. Then a ** Distribution de soupe ** by soldiers to 
the poor in the Gardens of the Luxembourg, revealed to him 
his true vocation. He became a modern painter, a miUtary 
painter. And the Crimean War soon confirmed his popu- 
larity with the ** D^barquement en Crim^e," and the fine 
" Bataille de TAJma,'' for which he was awarded a First medal. 
Unluckily an ofiicial order from Government for the 
** Reception des Chefs Arabes '' interrupted him in his new- 
found Une of work. He spent two years in Algeria making 
studies for it. But constantly ill — once at the point of death 
at Fort Napoleon — plunged without preparation into the 
new and strange life, light, colour and types of the East, 
Pils was as one lost. He had neither physical strength or 
artistic vigour and agility to stand such a shock, necessitating 
a completely fresh point of view. The great theatrical 
picture proved a failure, which sorely discouraged the poor 
painter of the " Alma ". And his studies of Kabylles are far 
superior to it. 

During the Siege of Paris he produced some remarkable 

water-colours, full of his old vigour. For he had returned to 

his soldiers who he loved and understood, his soldiers who 

had brought him his real success. ^ In oils he always found 

difficulties. And when as Professor at the iicole des Beaux 

Arts, and Membre de I'lnstitut, he was commissioned to paint 

the ceiling of the grand staircase of the Opera House, he failed 

again. Hopelessly discouraged, worn out with ill health, he 

died a few months later, 'Crying in his last delirium to his 

pupils to work, work always " d'apres nature, d'aprfes nature," 

and calhng on the name of G^ricault, the hero of his youth. 

Examples : — 

Bouget de I'lsle chantant pour la premiere fois la 
Marseillaise, Louvre. 702. 

Passage de TAlma, Versailles. 5014. 

La prifere k I'Hospice, Ville de Toulouse. 

Water-colours of Soldiers, Chantilly. 


Detaille, Edouard, 0.*, M. de lInst. {b, Paris, 1848). 
— Monsieur Detaille, a Parisian bom and bred, was educate 
at the Lyc^e Bonaparte. At College his exercise books were 
covered with drawings. But he is a most determined 
worker. And this passion for drawing did not prevent his 
gaining a solid education, and his diploma of Bachelier h 
lettres at seventeen. This once accompUshed, his family 
allowed him to follow his irresistible vocation ; and he 
entered Meissonier's studio in November, 1865. Here he 
spent two years ; and a close affection and regard sprang up 
between master and pupil. At first the way was not easy. 
The future master had to unlearn all he knew — to give up the 
chic for serious study. But as M. Claretie says, ** resolu, 
** tres energique, avec sa fine nature de Parisien qui semble 
** double d'Anglais," M. Detaille by sheer determination was 
able to sever himself for awhile from what he dehghted in, and 
give himself wholly to absolute study of the very rudiments 
of his art, until the day when Meissonier said, ** It is weU, 
** now you can walk alone '' ! By means of endless studies 
of every kind — horses, soldiers, people of every type (every 
one of them from the life), landscapes, dead game, studies 
from the nude — M. Detaille gained that amazing certainty of 
hand and eye which we find in his best pictures or in his 
smallest drawing. 

His first picture was not a military subject. It was the 
Studio of his Master, in the Salon of 1867. The winter of 
1807-68 he spent in the south of France, where he painted 
his ** Cuirassiers ferrant leurs chevaux sur la route d'Antibes " 
and his ** Halte de Tambours," which so delighted his 
*' model *' that he bought it on the spot for 800 francs, 
according to M. Claretie, selling it later for a big price to 
Princesse Mathilde. In 1869 Th^ophile Gautier began to 
praise the young artist highly for the attitudes, truth and 
spirit of his grenadiers — ** Le Eepos pendant la Manoeuvre ". 
And in the same year he showed several charming Direotoire 
and Empire pictures, both in oils and water-colours. His first 
great success, however, was in the Salon of 1870 — ** Combat 
entre les Cosaques et les gardes d'honneur ". It is so extra- 

.820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 359 

Drdinarily living in its truth of detail, that it has been said 
one could swear the painter must have been there and seen 
it all. M. Detaille however was soon to see War in earnest, 
and leave his Directoire and the Wars of Napoleon for the 
horrible realities that he witnessed and took part in. 

In August, 1870, he left his studio and half-drawn picture, 
and enlisted in the 8th battalion of the Garde Mobile de 
la Seine. He was first encamped at Saint-Maur ; then sent 
to Villejuif. In the battle of Chatillon, M. Detaille was in 
the barricaded house. Then he was moved to Pantin, and 
fought at Bondy. And in November General Appert made 
him his secretary. This gave the young artist more liberty ; 
and enabled him to see nearly all the events of the siege, fol- 
lowing Charlet's well-know^n precept, ** II faut tout croquer 
** sous le feu ". The one which struck him most, was the 
fierce battle of December 2 on the Marne, which he saw 
%t close quarters. He recorded it in a terrible drawing from 
oaemory — a rank of Saxons struck down by a mitrailleuse. 

In the Salon of 1872 M. Detaille exhibited his famous 
* Vainqueurs ** — the Prussians leaving a house in the out- 
skirts of Paris. This was a great success, and the young 
painter was given the Legion of Honour. He followed it in 
1873 with *' En Retraite " ; in 1874 with the " Cuirassiers 
3e Morsbronn *' ; and in 1875 with the delightful ** Eegiment 
jui passe " on the Boulevard. 

It is needless to follow the highly successful and dis- 
tinguished artist step by step. But his association with 
AJphonse de Neuville, his friend and rival, merits notice as 
in interesting and instructive episode in the histories of the 
ijwo greatest modem artists of the soldier. The two artists — 
ot whom Meissonier said with a touch of almost paternal 
affection, " ils ont bien du talent, ces jeiines ijens " — travelled 
together in the summer of 1874 to Sedan, and visited the 
battlefields of Metz, Forbach and Froeschwiller. They 
vrorked together in the superb Panorama of Champigny in 
Buch complete sympathy, that it requires an expert to say 
^here the work of one begins and the other ends. But 
xievertheless a very distinct difference exists between their 


work as artists. M. Detaille does not seek for that drama in 
his pictures which gives so poignant a significance to every- 
thing de Neuville painted. He contents himself with the 
utmost exactitude he can attain. And in that attainment he 
is unsurpassed among modem artists. But while his pic- 
tures interest, they do not stir the heart and excite the 
patriotic ardour and imagination of the spectator as those 
of de Neuville ; who, while he gives the absolute truth of 
detail, gives a glimpse of the hidden truth, the spirit of 
heroic endeavour and endurance, evQn in disaster. 

M. Detaille's career has been one of brilliant success. 
The Panorama of Champigny was followed in 1883 by one 
of E^zonville, exhibited in Vienna that year. His best 
known work of 1897 is the fine equestrian portrait picture 
of the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Connaught, 
T.R.H.'s Diamond- Jubilee gift to The Queen. M. Detaille 
is a well-known and always welcome guest in England. 
And his pictures and drawings are immensely popular both 
in Europe and America. 
Examples : — 

Le R6ve, 1888. Luxembourg. 

Sortie de la Gamison de Huningen, 20 AoM, 1815, 

1892. Luxembourg. 
'* Haut les T6tes," Grenadiers A cheval & Eylau. 

Cosaques de T Ataman. Emperor of Bussia. 
Bivouac des tirailleurs de la famille imp^riale. 

Emperor of Bussia. 
Portraits of H.B.H. the Prince of Wales and H.R.H. 

the Duke of Connaught. H.M. The Queen. 

En Beconnaissance, Champigny. M. M. Boussod 

and Valadon. 

Neuville, Alphonse de, * (b. Saint Omer, 1835 ; d. 

Paris, 1887). — ** Un peintre de race, ^mouvant, personnel et 

" vrai." Alphonse de Neuville*s family, rich and well connected, 

destined him for some brilhant ofiicial post. Their dismay 

therefore was great when, after obtaining his haccalauriat al 

sixteen, he announced that he would do nothing but follow 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 361 

the profession of arms : and after much opposition he entered 
the preparatory Naval School of L'Orient. While there his 
true vocation revealed itself. M. Duhousset, the professor of 
drawing and an excellent and enlightened man, soon per- 
ceived de Neuville's talent. Believing that he had the 
making of a real artist, he devoted himself to developing his 
pupil's powers ; and at the end of the perparatory year 
Duhousset prophesied, ** Eemember, whatever you do, you 
** will never be anything else than a painter ". On his return 
home de Neuville found that his family had changed its 
mind, and forbade him to enter the Naval School. To this 
he submitted without much reluctance ; for this year had 
■convinced him that Art rather than Arms was to be his 
mistress. And he consented to go to Paris and study law, 
which would give him a respite, and time to study drawing. 

In Paris he joined the most popular law classes, and 
never attended them ! All his time was spent in drawing 
soldiers at the ficole Militaire, or the Champ-de-Mars. At 
the end of three years he managed to get through his 
examination somehow, to the delight of his relations, who 
saw him on the steps of a fine official career. But de 
Neuville then made the frightful announcement that he was 
going to be an artist. The family were horrified. A year's 
determined opposition ensued. He remained quite calm. A 
painter or nothing, was the ultimatum of this ''enfant terrible ". 
At last his father gave way before such determination ; and 
took him to Paris to see if he had any prospect of success. 

The beginning was not encouraging. First they went to 
Bellang^. He was in a bad humour, and advised the young 
man to "go back to the country " and get some good post 
that would enable him to live comfortably, unknown, but 
peaceful. Then to Yvon. He was civil — looked at the 
sketches, and said there was nothing serious in them. ** Go 
*' back to the country." Picot, to whom de Neuville went by 
himself a few days later, was contemptuous — and told him to 
work in charcoal, as he was unworthy to paint. After his 
third study de Neuville left ; took a little studio ; and in the 
winter of 1858-59 he painted the ** Batterie St. Gervais " 


(Sibastopol). This he thought it right to show to Picot, 
who was amazed at the qualities he saw in his despised 
pupil. It was exhibited in the Salon of 1859 and gained a 
third medal. Delacroix now was extremely kind to the young 
artist, who spent hours alone with him, getting precions 

In 1861 his ** Chasseurs de la Garde '* in the trenches 
gained a second class medal ; and he was now recognised as an 
artist who must be considered. But his pictures, in spite of 
much praise, did not sell. So he took to illustrations. M. 
de St. Victor says that " no artist but Gustave Dore had so 
** rapid a hand or so fertile a power of improvisation ". His 
drawings in the Taiir du Monde alone would fill five or six 
volumes, besides Guizot's Histoire de France, etc., etc. 

In 1864 a very important picture, " Attaque des rues de 
Magenta," was bought by the State for his native town, St. 
Omer. And in 1866 the ** Sentinelle de Zouaves " is de- 
scribed as ** a work of a more intimate character, which 
** already suggested his later manner '*. In the " Chasseurs de 
la Tchemaia " of 1868-69, the modem tendencies are more 
pronounced. It is the trooper himself who interests this 
modem master. The battle now is relegated to the back- 
ground. The soldier, his ways, his looks, his character, 
takes the front place. 

When the War broke out de Neuville served first as an 
auxiliary engineer officer, and then as orderly officer on the 
staff of G^niral Callier. He thus witnessed all the fighting 
on the north of Paris during the siege. His " Bivouac 
devant le Bourget " began his new series, in 1872. And from 
henceforth he imposed on himself the poignant role of 
historian of the War of 1870. In 1873 came his greatest 
triumph — the well-known ** Derniferes Cartouches a Balan "— 
and the " Combat sur la voie ferr^e ". To show how he 
worked, the history of the ** Derniferes Cartouches '* is of 
deep interest. He went to Balan with one of the officers 
who had been present, and sketched all the action on the 
spot from his descriptions. Hastening back to Paris he 
spent a month in heaping materials together — clothes, arms, 

1820-1899. MILITARY PAINTERS. 363 

etc., etc. Then he shut himself up, and no one saw him. 
But for several days the neighbours were startled by strange 
sounds — breakages, blows of a hatchet, reports of fire- 
arms. The first visitor who penetrates to the studio starts 
back in alarm. The walls are full of bullet holes, the 
furniture broken, doors off their hinges cleft with the hatchet, 
windows hanging from their frames, curtains torn — and in 
dense smoke de Neuville, with his eyes flaming, is painting 
the little Moblot of the ** Derniferes Cartouches ". Several 
years later, when he had moved to his fine studio in the rue 
Legendre, close to Meissonier's palace on the boulevard 
Malsherbes, and next door to his devoted friend Detaille, he 
sedd the old atelier was still in the same state — he could not 
bear to give it up. *' II m*a port6 bonheur. C'est la que 
" j'ai fait aussi le Combat sur la voie ferr^e, et Villersexel. 
** n me rappelle mes premiers succes. De temps en temps 
**jy vais faire un petite pelerinage." ^ 

I have already mentioned the close friendship existing 
between de Neuville and M. Detaille, who he called " la 
sagesse de Nations *' ; for the latter always arranged all de- 
tails in their many journeys. It lasted unbroken to the end 
of de Neuville's brilliant but all too short career. For in 
1887 he died, after months of terrible illness. 
Examples— Luxembourg : — 

Le Bourget, sketch, 1873 ; Attaque par le feu d*une 
maison barricad^e a Villersexel, sketch, 1875 ; Le 
Parlementaire, 1884, repetition. 

Combat sur la voie ferr^e, Chantilly. 

Les derniferes Cartouches, 1873, M. C. J. Lefevre. 

Bivouac devant le Bourget, Musee de Dijon. 

Batterie St. Gervais (Sebastopol), Musee de St. Omer. 

Champigny, Versailles. 

Le Bourget, 1878, Vanderbilt Collection, New York. 

Une Surprise aux environs de Metz, 1875, and 
Capture difficile, John Nicholas Brown, Esq. 
Meissonier, Jean-Louis-Ernest, G.O. *, M. de l'Inst. 
(^. Lyons, 1815 ; d. Paris, 1891), stands on the borderland 

^ Goetschy. 


as it were between genre and military painting. Though 
the greater number of his well-known works belong to the 
former group, yet some of his most important belong to 
the latter. Therefore, as one of the chief historiographers 
of the Napoleonic epoque, I shall class him for convenience 
sake among the military painters. The master is as well- 
known in England and America as in France. 

About 1830 he came to Paris, and found his way to 
Cogniet's studio. But his talent was already formed. In 
this period of violent dissensions, of theories upheld almost 
at the point of the sword between the two rival camps of 
Classics and Bomantics, Meissonier, a mere lad, was strong 
enough and original enough to stand alone, to be himself. 
The Dutch masters were utterly neglected, almost unknown 
in those days, in France. To them Ernest Meissonier turned. 
And in the Salon of 1834 he exhibited a little picture, ** Bour- 
geois flamands '* ; to be followed in 1836 by the " Joueurs 
d'^checs,'* and ** Le petit Messager". This fetched the 
sum of 100 francs then ; for the poor boy from Lyons was 
glad enough to sell his petits boiishomvies at such a price, 
and the young artist's dibuts were difficult. But in 1840 he 
gained a third class medal ; in 1841 a second class with his 
well-known *' Partie d'ifichecs '* ; and in 1843 a first class, 
with '' Un peintre dans son atelier*'. Meissonier was now 
a made man. His small and exquisitely finished pictures 
became more and more popular. Dutch subjects — the Bravi 
of the Italian Benaissance — France of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries — followed each other in rapid succession. 
And the petits bonshommes were no longer sold for 100 or even 
1000 francs. 

It was in 1861, however, that a commission from the 
Emperor turned his talent into a fresh line of thought and 
work — a picture of Solf^rino. The picture did not plearse the 
Tuileries ; so it was turned over to the State budget, and is 
now in the Luxembourg. But admirable as it is in itself, it 
is of yet more importance as having turned Meissonier from 
pure genre to military history. Once started in the new 
line, he threw himself into it with the utmost vigour. 


He soon however quitted contemporary history for the 
ore picturesque and more dramatic episodes and costumes 
: the Wars of Napoleon I. And now come the mag- 
ficent series which have made his name for ever famous — 
1805," " 1807," " 1814," " Le Guide," " Le portrait du 
3rgent," " Moreau et son 6tat Major," " V6dette," " L'or- 
)nnance," etc., etc. All the episodes and events of the 
•^eryday life, of the glory and disasters, of those memor- 
)le campaigns. 

Every line, every touch, was the result of the most care- 
.1, exact study. To paint the Napoleon of ** 1814," pale and 
agic, M. Meissonier had an absolutely exact copy of the 
.mous Redingote grise made by his tailor. And dressed in 
lis, and mounting a wooden horse in the studio saddled 
cactly like the Emperor's, M. Claretie says the artist spent 
3ur8 upon hours in almost tropical heat, studying every 
im of the folds and creases that the coat would take on the 
Drse's back, the light on the boots, and each minute detail, 
hich was drawn over and over again with that unerring 

Such drawings and studies as those now placed in the 
luxembourg are of the very deepest interest and importance, 
id repay the most careful attention. Three are the gift of 
[. Charles Meissonier, the painter's son — also an artist. 
he others were bought by the State at the Meissonier sale 
Examples in the Luxembourg : — 

Napoleon III. a Solferino, 205 ; Napoleon III. entour6 
de son etat Major, 206 ; L'attente, 207 ; Le 
Chant, sketch, 208 ; 6tude de paysage, 209 ; 
Blanchisseuses a Antibes, 210 ; Portrait, Alex- 
andre Dumas. 
'* 1805," Cuirassiers de 1805 avant le combat ; Ve- 
dette sous Louis XV. ; Amateurs de Tableaux, 
'* 1814 " and many others, M. Chauchard. 
Le Guide, M. Prosper Crabbe. 
Fifteen pictures, Hertford House. 


Friedland, " 1807 " (oils), Central Museum, New York 
Friedland, ''ISO?" (gouache), John Balli, Es^ 

A Noble Venetian (portrait of Artist), M. E. Gambar 

Causerie, John M. Keiller, Esq. 
Gentleman of Louis XIII., Sir James Joicey, M.P. 
** 1814," sketch, Mrs. Guthrie. 



!)erm Genre is such an elastic one, that it is difficult to 
its legitimate range, or define its exact signification, 
g French genre painters especially, we find work of 
Qe, almost distracting variety — from the literary and 
ic painting of Cogniet to the idylls of Henner — ^from 
bleatix de mceurs of Boilly to the modem classicism of 
Qe — from the still life of Vollon to the orientalism of 
nps and Fromentin. The extraordinary command over 
and means, the high level of excellence in the actual 
nanship of their profession attained by French artists 
aks to the unrivalled training they receive — increase 
fficulty when we come to decide who shall be selected 
3es where the general standard is so high. Indeed, so 
is the field, that one runs the risk of merely presenting 
of names, in endeavouring to give any idea of the genre 
jrs of Modem France. A certain amount of classifica- 
tiowever, is possible. And I propose to keep as closely 
ly be to six or seven tolerably defined groups ; though 
veil to bear in mind that these groups are necessarily 
vhat arbitrary, and that many of the artists they in- 

have distinguished themselves in other branches of 
ng. But at best this chapter cannot be more than a 
1, and a very imperfect sketch, of so elaborate a 

le historic and literary painters, such as Cogniet, J. P. 

ms, Cormon, Maignan, Luminais, Courtois, are inter- 

Their pictures are often of considerable merit as 

of art ; and are, besides, worthy of attention as clever 

ological records, such for instance as Cormon's "Stone 




Still more interesting are the Neo-Greeks or Pompelans 
of 1848. If the Romantics had revived and rehabilitated the 
cult of the middle ages, so this little company of ultra-refined 
artists revived the cult of paganism. ** Literature and paint- 
** ing were inundated with pastiches." It was ** a sort of 
'* effeminate Greece, like enough to that Attica of the rue de 
** Br^da, discovered by Pradier*'. These excellent people, 
who possessed both talent and good taste, took themselves 
very seriously. They believed they were inaugurating a real 
revolution ; that they were the last word of what was 
modern ; while in fact their revolution was but a masque- 
rade. It was pretty enough while it lasted. But it quickly 
disappeared, to give place to a much more solid and real 
revival of classicism. For although for a while the Neo- 
Greeks had been grouped round M. G6r6me, he was far too 
strong a master and profound a scholar to tolerate their 
graceful afifectations. M. Ger6me has been the chief apostle 
of the school of the Modern Classics — those learned artists 
who seek to bring before us the actual life of everyday Greece 
and Rome, accurately pourtrayed, from the type of the 
human beings to the texture as well as the form and colour 
of their garments. While with M. Henner we get another 
development of Classic Art. For in his poetic rendering of 
the human form, we are transported into the Greece of the 
Poets, far back in the beginnings of time, when man and 
nature were not troubled by clothes or archaeological re- 
search — when every wood, every valley had its nymph, and 
the Gods held high Court on Olympus. 

In another group we find subject painters of a senti- 
ment, such as Jules Lefebvre or Bouguereau. In another 
the masters of still life — Vollon and Desgoflfe. 

The painters of Mcvurs, of everyday life, are always- 
popular. And in the case of many of the painters I have 
placed under this head they deserve popularity, for they are 
excellent artists. We find among them the delightful 
Boilly. Tassaert, the painter of sordid miseries of the poor. 
Bonvin and his Religieux and Religieuses. Butin and his^ 
fisher-folk. Deschamps the painter of Babies. While with 



Roll and Dagnan-Bouveret we reach two of the strongest 
of contemporary painters. Of these two artists I shall speak 
at length. But Dagnan-Bouveret leads us on from mere 
genre to one of the most interesting developments of nine- 
teenth century art — the school of the OrientaUsts. From 
the sixteenth century, when Simon Vouet went to paint the 
Grand Turk at Constantinople, many French painters have 
occupied themselves with the East. The true Orientalist 
school, however, came into being with this century. Many 
circumstances have combined to turn the attention of France 
to the East. The Greek War of Independence ; the con- 
quest of Algeria ; the opening of the Suez Canal ; politics, 
colonization, science, literature, have all aided this better 
knowledge, this more vivid interest, creating a demand for 
greater exactitude of detail and local colour. French artists, 
i stirred by these and other impulses, have eagerly grasped the 
I chance of wider opportunities of study than even Italy can 
5 afford. And in the East they have found problems of colour, 
f of line, of light, hitherto undreamt of, into whose solution 
-' they have thrown themselves with passion — problems which 
*' grow in intensity and interest the further east we go — 
problems which tell us that in the lands of the sunrise a vast 
untrodden field still awaits the artist of the future. 

In their earnest endeavours to solve above all the 

mysteries and splendours of light, the Orientalists have 

done much to redeem genre from the degradation of the 

mere anecdote. For it must be confessed that the peril of 

the French g^nre painter is his extraordinary facility and 

;-. admirable training. He may so easily be tempted merely to 

tiJ' produce the fait divers, the melodrama of the boulevard, the 

* cleverly drawn and painted scene which entertains the 

nTi public, who does not want to think, but finds its pleasure in 

trt such a magnificently painted Unir de force as Eoy bet's fat 

r ^ flirting cook plucking the turkey. He may — worst of all — 

bd^' treat his noble profession as a mere trade, and say with one 

p '- Wghly successful and popular painter that **rArt c'est un 

i -J commerce " ! 

r^r CoGNlET, L6oN (b. Paris, 1794; d. 1880),— a pupil of 


Gu^rin's, would almost seem at first sight to belong to the 
Classics. But as a master of other masters he belongs 
wholly to the living painting of the end of the nineteenth 
century ; for it has been truly said, ** II a fait des peintures, 
'* mais surtout il a fait des peintres *\ His studio was one of 
the most popular and respected in Paris ; and among his 
pupils, who loved the man and honoured the master, we 
find some of the most distinguished artists of the last forty 
years — Barrias, J. P. Laurens, Gagliardini, Jules Lefebvre, 
Luminais, and M. Bonnat, whose noble portrait of his old 
master is one of the glories of the Luxembourg. 

Cogniet gained the Grand Prix de Eome in 1817. And 
in reply to questions from Guerin to whom he was tenderly 
attached, he confesses that what strikes him more than "the 
** sculpture of the ancients, the painting of the masters, or 
^* the physiognomy of the Eoman people " are the beauties 
of nature not only in Italy but on the way thither. Excel- 
lent and honest artist ! He never failed in his allegiance to 
nature ; or tried to impose a hard and fast system on his 
pupils. Cogniet soon deserted classic subjects to become a 
painter of history, whether in his well-known *' Tintoret 
peignant sa fiUe morte ** (Musee de Bordeaux), or the 
admirable *' Grenadier de Moscou,'* which is like a bit of 
Beranger in painting. Or the ceiling at the Louvre, 
" Bonaparte in Egypt,** which helped to make his fame. 
Or that really excellent '* Garde Nationale 1793," at 

Laurens, Jean-Paul, 0.* {b. Fourquevaux, Haute- 
Garonne, 1838), — pupil of Cogniet and Bida, may be taken 
as the modern type of the historical painter. His pictures 
are strong and living representations of historic events, ren- 
dered with real artistic feeling and a fine sense of colour. 
His vocation was determined by the visit of a band of travel- 
ling ItaUan painters to his native place, where they were 
engaged on some painting in the cathedral. The young 
Laurens watched them at their work ; and when they left 
Fourquevaux he followed them for a time on their wander- 
ings, taking part in their work and their adventures. Then, 


f to Toulouse, he gained the prize at the ifccole des 
x Arts of that city, which enabled him to spend three 
1 in Paris with Bida and Cogniet. 
[is first Salon picture (1864) was* the *' Death of Tibe- 
'. And in 1869 he obtained a medal — painting, drawing, 
making lithographs meanwhile to earn a living. His 
1 of the **Duc d'Enghien,** in 1872, was his first decisive 
)ss. And since that time his position has been an assured 

He is now President of the Salon, and OflScier de la 
on d*Honneur. 
Ixamples — Luxembourg : — 

L'Excommunication de Eobert le Pieux. 

Delivrance des Emmur^s de Carcassone. 

La Mort du due I'Enghien, Alen9on. 

L'Interdit, Le Havre. 

Mort de Marceau. 

Faust, M. Besonneau, Angers. 
Iaignan, Albert, 0.* (b. Beaumont, Sarthe, 1845), — a 
[ of M. Luminais, is a staunch upholder of historical 
ting, an artist who cares to represent not merely the 
but the idea behind the fact. His *' Louis IX. and the 
jr " (Angers), his ** Kenaud de Bourgogne et les Bour- 
i de Belfort" (Belfort), his ''Admiral Carlo Zeno" 
e), are well-known in public collections. The Luxem- 
g possesses a singular picture representing Carpeaux 
ig asleep in his chair, while all the figures which the old 
er had made live in bronze and marble, dance round 
and the great Fountain of the Observatory. The 
)mmage a Clovis H." is an admirable example of his 
: in the Mus6e de Eouen. And so is his ** Death of 
iam the Conqueror," exhibited in 1898 in the Guildhall 
ibition. In his ** Paradis Perdu," exhibited in the 
ibition of 1889, M. Maignan showed superb force and 
ir as a water-colour artist. 

jUMINAIs, Evariste-Vital (6. Nantes, 1822), was also 
3f Cogniet's pupils, a historical painter of much merit. 
JouRTOis, Gust AVE {b. Pusey, Haute-Saone), — a pupil of 
rer6me, is another painter of historic and literary subjects 


who has also produced many portraits. His very beantifal 
work, ** Une Bienheureuse'* (The Sleep of the Blessed Dead), 
which gained a first gold medal in the Paris Exhibition, 
1889, was exhibited af the Guildhall, 1898. So also was his 
remarkable and daring portrait of Mme. Gautreau, which in 
its singularities of pose and arrangement recalls some picture 
of Piero della Francesca. In both his mastery over varying 
tones of white is of great interest. 

CoRMON, Ferdinand, 0.* {b, Paris), — a pupil of Fromen- 
tin's, has chosen a line of work specially his own, devoting 
himself to the early ages of the human race. In his immense 
canvas, now appropriately placed above the fine collection of 
flint implements in the great hall of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 
he has depicted the ** Stone Age ". His *' Funeral of a Chief 
in the Iron Age '* belongs to M. Avice, and was exhibited in 
the Guildhall Exhibition, 1898. And at the Luxembourg, 
his ** Cain,'* flying across the sandy desert, illustrates Victor 
Hugo's lines — 

'* Lorsque avec ses enfants vetus de peaux de betes, 
" £chevele, livide au milieu des tempetes, 
*• Cain se fut enfui de devant Jehovah. . . ." 

Lefebvre, Jules, C.*, M. de lInst. (6. Touman, 
Seine-et-Marne, 1834), — one of Cogniet's best known pupils, 
has been called '* the Sully Prudhomme of painting'*. His 
delight is in rendering the human form in its utmost perfec- 
tion, by means of such nude figures as the ** V^rit^ *' of the 
Luxembourg, the ** Cigale," ** La Gloire du Matin,*' " Diane 
surprise," or *' Le E^ve ". He has also painted many por- 
traits. His pictures have always had a great vogue both on 
the continent and in America. They are painted with 
extreme finish and care, and the draftsmanship is beyond 

Bouguereau, a. William, C.*, M. de l'Inst. (b. La 
liochelle, 1825). — Pupil of Picot, M. Bouguereau gained the 
Grand Prix de Eome (histoire) in 1850. He received a second 
class medal in 1855 ; and a first class in 1857. He was 
elected a Member of the Institute in 1876 ; appointed Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour in 1885 ; and received a 


M^daille d'Honneur in 1878 and in 1885, besides foreign 
orders. His career therefore has been one of great success 
since his first Salon picture of 1847 — *' Egalit^ (devant 
TAnge de la Mort "). His pictures, of an extremely smooth, 
waxy texture, fine drawing, and academic perfection, have 
enjoyed great popularity on both sides of the Atlantic, 
and command high prices. The subjects are semi-religious, 
such as the *' Vierge-Consolatrice '* of the Luxembourg — or 
mythologic, as ** L'amour bless6 " — or of children under such 
titles as " Premier Deuil,'* or ** La Sceur ainee ". 

Three pictures are in the Luxembourg : — Triomphe 
du Martyr, 29 ; Vierge-Consolatrice, 30 ; La 
Jeunesse et T Amour, 31. 

Two children sleeping. Collection of Mr. J. D. Allcroft. 

A Peasant ; The first kiss. Sir H. D. Davies, M.P. 

Cupid and Psyche, George McCulloch, Esq. 

And great numbers have gone to America. 
Hamon, Jean-Louis (6. Plouah, Cdtes du Nord, 1821 ; d. 
1874), was the leader of the Uttle group of the Neo-Greeks — 
who, if their influence was not profoimd, certainly formed 
a charming episode in the Art of the century. Theophile 
Gautier with his almost unrivalled power of saying the right 
thing in the right way, describes them thus : ** They recall, 
** due proportion preserved, the minor Poets of the Greek 
** Anthology ; charming, ingenious, subtle intelligences, who 
** do not get beyond the elegy, the little ode, or the epigram ; 
" or again engravers of gems who put a bacchanal into the 
" bezil of a ring. They have'a horror of all that is vulgar or 
" showy, and vigour seems almost brutahty to them. They 
" paint as Sybarites crowned with roses, from an ivory palette, 
" in Pompeian studios, where Anacreon, Theocritus, Bion, 
" Moschus, Andr6 Ch^nier, to whom they go for inspiration, 
" lie on a table of citron wood/' 

Hamon, a charming painter of dainty things, has been 
unduly despised and neglected. If his glass was not a large 
one, he drank in it. And his ** Com^die Humaine *' now in 
the Louvre, the delightful little idyll ** Ma soeur n'y estpas," 
and a whole series of charming little pictures of Loves caged 


in hencoops, chained butterflies, **La cantharide esclave," 
** La Saison des papillons," and such like graceful, poetic, 
antique inventions, delighted both pubUc and critics for a 
time. While his last success just before his death — *' Triste 
Rivage," where the Poets and the Lovers bom of their 
dreams with Love himself to guide them, press forward to 
welcome Ophelia, just cast upon the shore — was his swan- 
song, touching a deeper and more enigmatic note than any 
he had reached before. 

G£r6me, Jean-Leon, C.*, M. de lInst. (b. Vesonl, 
1824). — If for a while the Neo-Greeks grouped themselves 
about this great painter, it was that in Delaroche's studio they 
found themselves under the spell of his strong and vigorous 
personality. His father, a goldsmith of Vesoul, not only 
gave his boy the best education he could : but when he saw 
that young Leon carried off every prize in drawing, he 
brought him from Paris a box of colours and a picture by 
Decamps. The copy the lad made of this picture was seen 
by a friend of Paul Delaroche ; and at his instance yountj 
Ger6me was sent off to Paris w^ith a little fortune of £50, to 
enter the popular master's studio. Here he stayed for 
about three years. But during one of his absences at Vesoul, 
a terrible occurrence, resulting in the death of one of the 
pupils, caused Delaroche to close his atelier. When Ger6me 
returned from Vesoul, the master told him to go to Drolling 
— *'I wish for no more pupils. Besides I am going off to 
** Borne ". M. Ger6me with the calm determination whict 
has always distinguished him, refused to agree to such * 
decision. ** I do not accept two masters. I shall not ^^ 
** to Drolling. If you are going to Eome I shall go too.'* Ai^-* 
they went. This was in 1844. When they returned ^^ 
Paris, M. Gerome entered Gleyre's studio for a time. B**^^ 
he soon returned to Delaroche, with whom he collaborated ^^ 
the '* Passage des Alpes par Charlemagne " — at Versailles. 

Failing to obtain the Prix de Bome, he sent his fir^* 
picture to the Salon of 1847. It was the ** Combat ^^ 
Coqs ". The success was immediate. The young paint^^' 
acclaimed by Th^ophile Gautier as a new master whose adve J^^ 


larked the year, found himself famous. And from that 
ioment his triumphs have followed hard on each other. 

M. G6r6me has made the Greece of Alcibiades, the 

k)ine of the Caesars, the hfe of Egypt, besides that of his 

wn country, live for us on his canvas. Whether it is the 

reathless pause of the ** Pollice Verso " in the Amphitheatre 

-or the tragic " Duel de Pierrot " in the snow — in his 

Eminence Grise '* coming slowly down the staircase of the 

'alais-Cardinal — the " Prisonnier " being rowed up the Nile 

-or that extraordinary meeting of East and West, the 

Siamese Ambassadors received by Napoleon III. at Fon- 

linebleau *' — one and all show extreme erudition, astonishing 

icihty, care, thought, power. But they also show a deep 

Qsight into the time, the place, the characters, which prove 

i. G6r6me to be more than the mere archteologist — prove 

dm to be a seeker for truth, a thinker, an artist and a poet. 

Like so many modem artists, M. Ger6me is not content 

vith paint and canvas alone. And his ** Gladiators," his 

* Anacreon,'* and the ** Tanagra " of the Luxembourg show 

lim to be a skilful sculptor as well. 

Examples : — 

Combat de Coqs, 1847, Luxembourg. 

Exception des Ambassadeurs Siamois, Versailles. 

Duel de Pierrot, Chantilly. 

Sifecle d*Auguste, Musee d'Amiens. 

Le Prisonnier, Musee de Nantes. 

Cl^op&tre et Csesar, 0. Mills, Esq., New York. 

Louis XIV. et le Grand Conde, Vanderbilt Collection. 

L'J&minence Grise, 1876, Mrs. S. D. Warren, Boston. 

La Mort de Caesar, M. J. Allard. 

Execution of Mar6chal Ney, Alex. Henderson, Esq., 

Le Bain Maure, H. J. Turner, Esq. 
Henner, Jean-Jacques, 0.*, M. de lInst. (b. Bem- 
viller, Alsace, 1829). — In the same year, 1847, that M. Ger6me 
nade his triumphant debut with the '* Combat de Coqs," a 
^oung Alsacian, five years his junior, entered the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts. The boy had been brought up upon the 



Holbeins of B4le, near by his home. And as his parents 
watched him drawing his bonshommes, saw him each year 
carry off the drawing prizes at his school at Altkirch, and 
heard of young men who had gained the Grand Prix de 
Eome in far-oflf Paris and become famous, they determined 
their Jean-Jacques should be famous too. The father bought 
old pictures here and there, and hung them up to teach him. 
And on his deathbed he made his children swear that they 
would give le petit the chance of becoming a great man. 
Well did they keep their word. And well did Jean-Jacques 
Henner deserve their loyal devotion. 

In 1858, after some years spent first in DroUing's, then 
in Picot's studio, Henner gained the Prix de Home with a 
** Death of Abel ". It already showed those quahties in the 
painting of flesh for which the master's work is so remark- 
able. In Eome M. Henner at once fell in love with the 
** sombre masses of the trees which will henceforth be 
** found in nearly all his pictures, and which are Uke his 
** signature '*} Quietly, steadily he worked. And after his 
return from Eome, his success began. In 1863 and 1865 he 
had already gained medals ; the third came in 1866 for his 
portraits in the Salon of that year. M. Henner's portraits 
have always been an important and deeply interesting part 
of his great work. In them he seeks for more than the outer 
semblance. He questions, he divines, he tries to seize the 
inner Hfe, the hidden character of his sitter. Few more 
intensely expressive portraits have been seen of late years, 
than his profile of an American lady in deep mourning, which 
was exhibited in the Salon of 1895. 

But the chief glory of M. Henner's work is in genre. 
And if with M. Ger6me we see the life of historic Greece 
and Eome, in M. Henner's Naiades and Baigneuses we 
meet the very spirit of the antique which the poets have 
sung. He believes in the truth : but in that truth which 
does not banish either the idea or the ideal. And therefore 
while painting the human form as few men now paint it, he 
gives us, whether in his portraits, or in some lovely nude 

1 J. Clarctie. 


igure, piping on a reed flute in the dusky twilight, in the 
hadow of the trees, a poem that lives and will live. 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Suzanne au Bain, 1865 ; Naiade, 1875 ; Dormeuse, 

1893. ^ • 
Biblis chang^e en Source, 1867, Mus^e de Dijon. 
Portrait de mon Frfere, 1883, M. Henner, Bemwiller. 
La Source, Lord Strathcona and Mount Eoyal. 

VoLLON, Antoine, 0.* (b. Lyons, 1833), is the greatest 
iving representative of those painters of still life for whom 
he French school has long been celebrated. '* La plus 
* excellente manifere de peindre est celle qui imite mieux et 
'qui a le plus de conformity au naturel qu*on represented* 
rhese words of Leonardo da Vinci's have been M. Vollon's 
vatchword. And the masters to whom he has gone for 
ounsel, have been, curiously enough, not Chardin, but 
lieonardo and Velasquez. 

As a child he worked as a graver. As an apprentice he 
^as an enameller. But this beautiful art did not satisfy his 
.rtistic ambitions. He left the workshop ; and began to 
>aint nature without a master. His first picture, ** Aprfes le 
Jal," had a success at Lyons. And this gave him courage to 
ome to Paris, where he sent a '* Portrait of a Man '* to the 
^alon, which the Jury promptly refused. He then turned 
his Natures Maries, And in 1864 the Salon accepted 
Art et gourmandise," and an ** Int^rieur de Cuisine " now 
t Nantes ; and in 1866 the delightful ** Singe k I'Accordeon '*. 
i'hus began those Poissons de Mer, Chaudrons, armour, 
Tiits, the gold and silver of his vases and platters, the 
darkle of jewels, and all the vigorous, brilliant, living colour 
ad light and air of his so-called '* Natures Mortes," which 
ave make his name famous in both hemispheres. 

But Vollon is not merely the greatest living painter of 
:ill life. He dehghts himself from time to time with a fine 
kndscape — a picture such as his ** Port Vieux de Marseille,'* 
r the ** Route de Roquencourt pres Versailles ". Or gives us 
.uch a striking study of humanity as the ** Espagnol," or the 
jrand ** Femme du Pollet k Dieppe," which held its own 


as one of the most impressive pictures in the Centennial 
Exhibition of 1889. 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Curiosites, 1868 ; Poissons de Mer, 1870. 

Le Singe a I'Accordeon, 1866 ; Le Chaudron, Musee 

de Lyons. 
Int^rieur de Cuisine, Mus^e de Nantes. 
Le Singe du Peintre, Musee de Kouen. 
La Femme du Pollet k Dieppe, Mr. Duncan. 

Desgoffe, Blaise-Alexandre, C* (6. Paris, 1830), is 
another painter of still life, whose admirable work merits 
close attention. His favourite subjects are crystal vases, 
jewels, and the triumphs of the old Goldsmith's and 
Armourer's Art. The Luxembourg possesses three fine 
examples of his pictures, Nos. 87, 88, 89. There are also 
examples at Chantilly. 

The Luxembourg also has a *' Coin d'Atelier '' by Dantan 
(Joseph-Edouard), who paints interiors, especially the interior 
of studios, with rare facility. 

BoiLLY, Louis-Leopold (b. La Bassee prfes Lille, 1761 ; 
d. Paris, 1845). — First among the painters of rruxurs is the 
delightful Boilly, born at the little town of La Bassee while 
Boucher was still alive and Greuze and Fragonard were at 
the height of their fame. His well-known ** Arriv^e d'une 
Dihgence," now in the Louvre, is a curiously exact record of 
contemporary life in 1803. So also are the small and 
charming pictures ** Cache-Cache '* and ** La Toilette," 
which were seen in May, 1897, in the very remarkable 
exhibition of Portraits de Femmes et d'Enfants at the 
Beaux Arts. While in the beautiful little picture of " Mme.. 
Tallien assise dans un Jardin,'* he gives an important and 
exquisitely finished portrait. There is also an excellent 
Boilly in the Musee de Eouen and an admirable example at 

Tassaert, ^^iCHOLAS-FRANgois-OcTAVE (6. Paris, 1800; 
(I. 1874), constituted himself the painter of the sordid miseries 
of the poor in Paris. Whether such subjects can be reckoned 
with as high art is a question. Tassaert's pictures — some 


f them of a poignant indecency — are nearly always more 
terary than artistic. They however enjoyed a considerable 
ogue ; and their chief admirer was Alexandre Dumas. 
Iver thirty examples of Tassaert's work were sold at the 
imous sale of the Dumas collection in 1892. 
The Luxembourg has a good specimen : — 

Une Famille Malheureuse. 274. ^ 

While Tassaert records the sordid side of extreme poverty, 

BoNViN, FRANgois-SAiNT, * (b. Paris, 1817 ; d. St. Ger- 

lain-en-Laye, 1887), will always be known as the kindly 

ainter of the Convent. An artist of high merit, Bonvin's 

irork was produced in circumstances of such difficulty, that 

is quality becomes even more surprising. For in order to 

\e he was obliged to take a small post in the Prefecture of 

^olice, becoming later on Inspector of the Cattle Market at 

^oissy. And yet, in the intervals of official work, thanks to 

true artistic temperament and a splendid detennination, he 

)und time to produce such admirable works as : — 

L'iicole des Frferes, M. Lutz. 

Les petites orphelines. 

L*Ave Maria, Luxembourg. 

Les Soeurs de Charity, Musee de Niort. 
BuTiN, Ulysse, * (b. St. Quentin, 1838 ; d. Paris, 1883), 
le pupil of Picot and Pils, devoted his talent more ex- 
usively to the life of the coast-dwellers of Brittany — the 
irdy and romantic fisher-folk, whose lives, whose characters, 
hose ways, and homes, have inspired so many artists of 
te, both in literature and painting. Ulysse Butin's fine 
cture of ** La P^che," belonging to M. Charles Ferry, 
jcalls some of our English Sea and Coast painters in its 
eling for nature and the hfe of sea-faring people. His 
icture in the Luxembourg, ** L'enterrement d'un Marin, 
VillerviUe (Calvados)," gives an admirable idea of his 
nowledge of the people he painted, and of his artistic 

Ebnouf, Emile, * ( b, Paris, 1845 ; d, Le Havre, 
.894), is another delightful Sea-painter. The Luxembourg 
x)Bses8e8 his '* Brumes du Matin". *' Le Pilote," a well- 


known picture, is in the Muste de Eouen. And "La 
Veuve *' in the Mus6e de Quimper. 

Flameng, Marie- Auguste, * (b. Metz, 1843 ; d. Paris, 
1894), is another artist who was captivated by the life of the 
northern coasts. The Luxembourg possesses his charming 
** Bateau de P6che, a Dieppe ". While the Mus^e de Tonl 
has an ** Embarquement d'huttres a Cancale," 1888. But 
the painters of fisher folk and of Breton peasants are legion. 
And although many are painters of merit, there is not space 
to enumerate them all. We must therefore pass on to one 
of the more important of genre painters. 

Roll, Alfred-Philippe, 0.* (b, Paris, 1847). — A Parisian 
born, pupil of M. M. Ger6me and Bonnat, M. Roll is an 
artist gifted with such extraordinary facility, that it is diffi- 
cult to say which may be called his special line of work. 
And one approaches each fresh picture that he paints with a 
certain interest and curiosity as to how he will render his 
subject. ** The artist who continues Courbet among us with 
** the greatest brilliancy,*' M. Roll disdains ** invention ". He 
is a painter of the actual. Confident in his power, he attacks 
subjects of immense difficulty, and carries them through 
with a triumphant audacity positively startling at times. 
His well-known and enormous canvas in 1889 of the " Ffete 
du Centenaire des T^^tats Generaux " is a victory of no mean 
order over paralyzing difficulties, in the huge crowd of nota- 
bilities of the day grouped round poor M. Camot, in hot 
sunshine beside the Bassin de Neptune at Versailles. 

In the ** Joies de la Vie,'* another large decorative canvas 
for the Hotel de Ville, by unclothing his personages among 
the roses and flowery grass M. Roll has gained the oppor- 
tunity he delights in of painting the play of sunshine on 
flesh, while he takes his picture out of the actuahty of 
to-day — though it cannot be said he has made it either 
poetic or antique. His ** Europa " at the Exposition Uni- 
verselle of 1889 was another example of this. Though she 
was nude, with her charming little brown bull, she was just 
as much a woman of to-day as " Manda Lam^trie, Fermiere " 
next to her. 


The ** Gr6ve des Mineurs/' and " Le Travail, chantier de 
Suresnes," are extremely powerful bits of actuality. In the 
latter — another huge canvas — M. EoU has shown that 
panting engines, crossing rails, sweating workmen, can be 
so treated as to make a fine picture. While in the Strike he 
has introduced the ugly and tragic touch of human interest 
in an impressive mcmner. 

The versatile artist is at the height of his fame and 
popularity. And so distinct is his talent that one may hope 
to see it develop still further. 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

En Avant, 1887 ; Manda Lam^trie, Fermifere. 
Centenaire des ;^tats G^n^raux, Versailles. 
Grfeve des Mineurs, Musee de Valenciennes. 
F^te de Silfene, Mus^e de Gand. 
Portrait M. Alphand, La Sorbonne. 

Dagnan - BouvERET, Pascal-Adolphe-Jean, 0.* (6. 
Paris), is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and 
important modem artists in France. His powers are so 
great, his work is so varied, that it is diificult to say whether 
he can be called a genre painter, an Orientalist, or a mystic. 
Pupil of M. G6r6me, Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 
1885, and OflScier in 1894, M. Dagnan-Bouveret's career has 
deservedly been one of immense success. 

His first pictures in the Salons of 1875-77 were classic 
pictures and portraits. In 1878 he obtained a third-class 
medal. And the next year exhibited his first studies of the 
ways of his contemporaries, ** Une noce chez un Photo- 
graph ". In 1882 came ** La Benediction" ; with the amus- 
ing " Vaccination" in the next year ; and in 1885 ** Le Pain 
B6nit," now in the Luxembourg. All these pictures showed 
such keen observation, such humorous appreciation of 
character, such fehcity of treatment, that M. Dagnan- 
Bouveret's admirers were led to expect far greater things of 
him. And they were not disappointed. For in 1887 he 
exhibited his magnificent ** Pardon Breton," which was the 
event of the Salon. 

But in that same Salon he had a second picture of quite 


equal significance, which marked a new departure in the 
artist's career — the strangely beautiful picture of the Virgin 
Mary walking under a pergola of vines, the strong sunlight 
shining through the semi-transparent leaves upon her soft, 
warm-white draperies. The sensation the picture created 
was profound. It gave the first indication of the mystic 
tendencies of the artist, which have since fully developed in 
his two large compositions : " The Last Supper,** exhibited 
at the Goupil Galleries in 1897 ; and the ** Supper at 
Emmaus,** shown at Messrs. Tooth*s, 1898. But it further 
showed that M. Dagnan-Bouveret, like so many artists of 
to-day, had fallen under the spell of the East ; and that 
henceforth he, like his brother Orientalists, would be pro- 
foundly occupied with those questions of line, light, and 
colour which await their solution in the East. 

This has proved to be the case. And his Algerian 
pictures have placed M. Dagnan-Bouveret in the forefront 
of the Orientalist school. While as a portrait painter this 
distinguished and gifted artist ranks high. 
Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Le Pain Benit, 1885. 

T6te de femme Arabe (Ouled Nayl), 1888. 

Le Pardon, 1887, M. Engel-Gros. 

L'accident, 1880, Walters Collection, Baltimore. 

La Viorge, 1885, Pinacotheque, Munich. 
The Orientalist school of this century may be said t^ 
have begun with Delacroix and Decamps. 

Decamps, Alexandre-Gabriel (b, Paris, 1803; d. Fon^ 
tainebleau, 1860), began his visions of the East early. FotT 
in 1827 he exhibited a ** Soldier of the Vizir's Guard,'" 
followed in 1831 by a ** Vue prise dans le Levant," and 
** Cadji-Bey," chief of police in Smyrna, on his rounds. 
From this time Decamps continued his noble studies of the 
East. For in Turkey and Asia Minor he found the light 
and colour for which his strong and vigorous imagination 
craved. In some of his French pictures, such for instance 
as the ** Garde-chasse," we recognise a forerunner of the 
peasant painters, and understand Decamps' admiration and 


lection for J. F. Millet. But in his eastern pictures, while 

adeavouring to render truth and local colour, Decamps 

ives a fierce and savage interpretation of what he sees — 

la vision d'un Orient brul6 par une lumifere implacable ". 

Examples : — 

La Caravane, sketch, Louvre. 205. 
Bouledogue et terrier ^cossais, Louvre. 206. 
Turkish children by the fountain ; Rebecca at the 

well; and several others, Chantilly. 
Scourging of Christ, M. Chauchard. 
The Ape and the Tortoise, M. Durand-Ruel. 
Arabs resting ; Police Patrol, Smyrna ; and many 
others, Hertford House. 
Decamps was soon followed by 

Marilhat, Prosper {b. Vertaizon, Puy-de-Dome, 1811 ; 
. Paris, 1847), who took a more gentle and classic view of 
yria and Egypt. He kept closer to reality than Decamps, 
ainting subjects which suited his taste ** almost like por- 
•aits ". His drawing was careful, his colour soft and 
''arm, his light strong ; and everything, though exact, was 
^ndered with real poetic feeling. 
We find in the Louvre his — 

Ruines de la Mosquee du Khalife Hakem, au Caire. 
Four pictures, Chantilly. 

Troupeau de buffles au bord du Nil, M. H. Gamier. 
Le Caf6 Turc, Mme. Moreau-Nelaton. 
Benisoef on the Nile ; The Erechtheion ; Banks of 
the Nile, Hertford House. 
Soon beside these two early Orientalists, the great master, 
)elacroix takes his place — ** le vrai maltre moderne, le 
'' souverain traducteur de la gr&ce et de la force Arabe et de 
la magie du paysage Africain," as Fromentin said of him. 
^Tiile Decamps had taken Turkey and Asia Minor, and 
JarilhatjSyria and Egypt, Delacroix went to Morocco for 
lis setting. And he was the first to give the true sensation 
►f the East in his splendid visions of colour and light and 
aovement. Then came the delightful painter and writer, 
Fromentin, Eugene, 0.* {b. La Eochelle, 1820 ; d, 1870). 


— One of the most attractive personalities of the middle of 
the century, with the twofold gifts of writer and painter, 
Eugene Fromentin was an artist to the core. And whether 
on canvas or in his books, it is always the poet who speaks. 
A pupil of Cabat the landscape painter, Fromentin at 
twenty-five was in full possession of his talent. In 1847, 
after spending four years in Algeria, he exhibited his "Gorges 
de la Chififa," which made a deep impression. It struck a 
fresh chord among the Orientalists. A colourist and a poet, 
Fromentin rendered all the novel and seductive charm of 
local truth combined with exquisite harmony and purity in 
the three silvery notes of the Sahel — white, blue, and green. 
And about the same time his fate duns le Sahara was published, 
Mme. Georges Sand being one of the first to perceive its 
unusual merit, finding in it ** le juste et le vrai maries avec 
** le grand et le fort ". 

Fromentin desired to give, with the most absolute truth 
of local character, a calm and poetic vision of the East— of 
the Arab Encampment — of the Hawking party in the hot, 
early sunshine — of the Arab women on the Nile bank. And 
to preserve a certain lofty breadth in his Art, which he con- 
sidered in peril — as indeed it was and is — from ** curiosity 
*' and the taste for anecdote. Le genre a d6truit la grande 
** peinture et denature le paysage m^me *'. 

Examples — Louvre : — 

Chasse au Faucon, la cur^e. 305. 
Le Campement Arabe. 306. 
Femmes Arabes au borde du Nil. 307. 
Arabes chassant au faucon, Chantilly. 
Many in America. 

Arabs Watering Horses, 130 ; Crossing a ford, 141, 
Vanderbilt Collection. 

Belly and Guillaumet followed Eugene Fromentin in the 
close study of the East, and in their determination to solve 
the problems of light in its direct and indirect efifects. 

Belly, L^on (b. St. Omer, 1827; d. 1877), "in hi^ 
** * Feimnes Fellahs au bord du Nil,' and in his * Caravane 
" * de pelerins * under the red-hot desert sun, had given sucb^ 


i exact sensation of the East, that it seemed impossible to 
irpass it, when Guillaumet . . . brought a formula which 
tight pass for a definitive one *'.^ 

Guillaumet, Gustave Achille (b. Paris, 1840; d. Paris, 
i7), is represented in the Luxembourg by three fine pictures 
* Laghouat, Sahara Alg6rien ** ; ** La Seguia, prfes de 
jkra"; and "Le Desert". 

Leroy, Paul Alexandre Alfred (b. Paris, 1860), — a 
ang OrientaHst who bids fair to be a leader, is also repre- 
ited in the Luxembourg by a very remarkable landscape, 
[j*Oasis d*El Edntara " ; one of the most admirable of 
Ddem renderings of the colour, light, and heat of the 

Constant, Benjamin, 0.*, M. de l'Inst. (6. Paris), is 
le of the most important and best known modem artists 
bo has been captivated by the picturesque splendours of 
fitern subjects. In his great compositions, however, he 
not so much occupied with the local truth as with the 
agnificence and picturesqueness of the setting. In 1872 his 
Ion picture — the third he had exhibited — was a ** Samson 
Dalila *'. The next year he showed a ** Femme de Eiff ". 
ad from that date we have had a series of subjects with 
[orocco, Tangiers, and Seville for their setting, such as 
le fourteenth century ** Lendemain d'une Victoire a 
AJhambra" ; or the thirteenth century ** Passetemps d'un 
^alife,** at Seville ; ** Les dernier s rebelles " ; ** Les Favorites 
5 TEmir," or ** Les Femmes de THarem ". In all of these 
ictures an extraordinary command over colour, drawing, 
ad skilful disposition is seen. But M. Benjamin Constant 
oes not wholly confine himself to these eastern subject 
ictures. He is one of the popular portrait painters of the 
ay, delighting to render the robes of the Star of India, or 
tie jewels and soft, shining, silken draperies of beautiful 

Examples : — 

Les Demiers Rebelles, Luxembourg. 
Lord Duflferin, portrait. 

^ L^once Benedite. 



Lady Helen Vincent, portrait. 

Passetemps d'un Kalife, a Seville, Comtesse de Gasa 
Miranda (Mme. Christine Xillson). 

Regxault, Alexaxdre-Georges-Hexri {b. Paris, 1843; 
d. Buzenval, 1871). — Son of the celebrated chymist and 
physicist, M. H. Victor Eegnault, Henri's childhood was 
passed in an atmosphere of extreme cultivation — on one 
hand the strong character and profomid scientific attain- 
ment of his father ; on the other the love of art and literatuie 
of his charming mother. 

At twenty-three, after a brilliant passage through the 
atelier of Cabanel and the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Henn 
Regnault gained the Prix de Rome, with his " Thetis ". While 
his fellow competitors were working anxiously, Regnault 
amused himself, singing like a bird while he dashed in his 
Thetis just at the last moment — modifying the original 
sketch considerably as he painted it. Already he had 
attained that marvellous impetuosity of execution which 
corresponded to the impetuous and ardent enthusiasm of his 
nature. As if he had some prescience of how short his 
career was to be, Regnault 's existence was a breathless one 
for those five remaining years. In Italy he " travels, 
** observes, listens, rides on horseback, spurs on his whole 
** existence, breathes in Art at every pore ". And though he 
was the most daring colourist of the day, he yet could 
appreciate the most delicate nuances of the great masters. 
But in Fortuny's studio in Rome he gained his first vision 
of the East. From that moment the East impassioned this 
ardent nature. And in 1868 he went to Spain. There 
Velasquez fairly intoxicated him. And as he was obliged as 
Pensionnaire de Rome to send in some copy, he chose th»t 
most marvellous Velasquez, ** Les Lances *\ But uior^ 
opportunities were to come. The Revolution of 1868 brok^ 
out ; and Madrid was turned into a camp — a camp dazzling' 
with colour and picturesque incidents and effects. All was an 
enchantment to the young artist. And after seeing Prim's 
triumphal entry in October, he set to work instantly with his 
usual enthusiasm, to paint *' the chief in uniform of a 


revolution in rags ". Prim however was not flattered. He 
fused the picture ; and thus it happily found its way to the 

But Begnault was still a student ; and was obliged to 
ear himself away from Madrid and return to Rome. It 
►leased him less than before, and he hastily painted his 
nvai of Judith, and hurried back to Spain. The war being 
Dver he went straight to Andalusia. Alicante charmed and 
amazed him. But once at Grenada — once in the Alhambra — 
nothing else seemed to exist. The enthusiasm of his letters 
before this vision becomes positively lyric. For months he 
lingered, painting his '* divine mistress, the Alhambra ". 
Yet after awhile he desired even more. He knew Fortuny 
had received his revelation of light in Morocco. So to 
Morocco he must go. And at Tangiers he found the light 
he sought for. 

In an immense studio which he built, he proposed to 
paint a picture which should be his last envoi de Borne, and 
which amid the splendours of the Alhambra should symbolize 
the magnificence of Moorish civilization. But before beginning 
it he painted his ** Sentinelle marocaine," the '* Sortie du 
Pacha,*' the ** Execution sans jugement," and finished the 
famous ** Salom6 " of the Salon of 1870. These done he 
Wrote to his father about his gigantic work, asking him to 
send the very best canvas, 7 met. 50 in height by 5*50 wide, 
aiding details as to colours, fish glue, gilder's plaster. 
* Then forward with the big brushes, the ladders, and to the 
assault ! If they don't give me the medal of honour for 
this campaign, I don't know what they can want ! " 

Alas ! another sort of campaign was before the artist. 
V"ar was declared. The news grew worse and worse, till 
begnault could bear it no longer. All visions of the Moors, 
be Alhambra, Art, and glory were thrown aside for the 
lefence of his country in her hour of need. And through the 
siege of Paris in the artists' battalion, he rarely touched 
brush or pencil, save for a few pencil portraits of friends, or 
three remarkable water-colours. 

On January 18, 1871, he refused an oiBfer of promotion, 


ending a fine, stoical letter to his captain with these words : 
" You have in me a good soldier ; do not lose him by 
** turning him into a poor officer". Next day came the 
battle of Montretout. All day they fought. And when the 
retreat was sounded at Buzenval, Begnault, sad and angry, 
said to Clairin, his friend and brother-artist, ** I will be with 
** you in a moment ! I want to fire a last cartridge ! " He 
turned back towards the enemy. A ball struck him fuU in 
the forehead, and he fell dead. 

In the inner court of the ilcole des Beaux Arts, one of 
the most beautiful monuments of modem times, erected by 
his fellow-artists, keeps Regnault*s memory green — as M. 
Chapu's enchanting Jetiiiesse kneels palm branch in hand, 
before his bust. 

What he dreamt of doing, what he had already accom- 
phshed, was seen at the posthumous exhibition of his works 
and unfinished sketches in 1872, an amazing record for the 
artist of twenty-seven. Gifted with such a temperament, so 
original as a thinker, so magnificent and daring as a draughts- 
man, so superb as a colourist — one ccm but beheve that Henri 
Regnault might have risen to the highest attainment of the 
artist, when life had revealed the idea behind mere colour 
and form. 

Examples — Louvre : — 

Portrait 6questre de Juan Prim. 

Execution sous les Rois Maures a Grenade. 

Portrait de la Comtesse de Barck. 

Alhambra, 1869, water-colour, Luxembourg. 




f the portrait, whether on canvas or in marble, French 

rt during its worst days of peril from foreign influences, 

: decadence from internal weakness, has always found its 

blvation and its renaissance. Once in presence of the 

uman being, it has drawn fresh life and fresh power from 

le contact. The very existence of French painting began, 

J we have seen, in portraiture. And from the Clouets and 

omeille de Lyon in the sixteenth century, a long, unbroken 

iccession of portrait painters — Mignard and Santerre, 

largiUifere and Rigaud, Nattier and Tocque, Greuze, 

'ragonard, Vig^e-Lebrun and many more — triumphantly 

irried the tradition, vigorous and vital, down to the Revolu- 

on, and the nineteenth century. 

A portrait painted by the great artist, must always be one 

f the most intensely interesting productions of the painters' 

rt. For the portrait painter has to do more than reproduce 

he outer seeming of his sitter. Behind that outer seeming 

11 the greatest masters have shown that an idea is ever 

resent to them ; and that the hidden meaning, the soul, the 

baracter, the temperament of the human being, must be 

iligently sought for and made to shine forth by their art. 

L'4me et le corps ne font ensemble qu'un tout nattirel," said 

ossuet. It is not enough to ** catch a likeness ". Any one 

ith the slightest pretentions as a painter can manage that 

LUch. But, as M. Andre Michel has truly said : ** While 

capable of drawing eyes, nose, and mouth extremely 

Well, you may be absolutely incapable of making a good 

portrait. The human face, infinitely varied in the exterior 

adjustment of its elemental forms, infinitely complex in the 

inner being which these forms cover and reveal . . . offers 



** to the artist the most attractive and the most diflScult of 
** problems. All are not capable of the observation, at once 
** attentive and docile, naive and strong, which is needed ; an 
" empire over oneself and a patience is required which some 
" of the greatest have not been able to attain." 

Sometimes, as with Delacroix, the artist's over-mastering 
personality stands in the way of his work. He has to 
struggle against a superabundance of ideas : he sees too 
rapidly ; his mind, his ideal, outpaces his observation. And 
though few feel it to the same degree, this danger lies in the 
path of every portrait painter worthy of the name — the danger 
of a family hkeness between each portrait. He may try, but 
he tries in vain, to blot out the whole of his own personality, 
to forget his own existence, to live utterly and completely in 
his model. But " however faithful a portrait may be, how- 
** ever intimate its resemblance, it bears as an indelible 
** signature, the personal mark of the artist who has painted 
**it'\ Yet at the same time, when kept within bounds by 
the supreme self-abnegation and reticence of the great artist, 
this personal mark adds to the intense and suggestive interest 
of a portrait. We see a human being through the tempera- 
ment of a diviner of mysteries. And no matter what the 
subject, the work of art may be a great one, if — as Latour 
desired to do — the artist can ** descendre jusqu'au fond et le 
*' remporter tout entier". 

Of the earlier portrait painters of the nineteenth century, 
much has already been said incidentally in the chapters upon 
the Classics, the Peasant painters, and the Genre painters. 
David, Gerard, Gros, Ingres, among the Classics — Bastien- 
Lepage, Dagnan-Bouveret, Henner, Benjamin Constant, 
and many more artists of the last thirty years — have pro- 
duced admirable portraits. But these in most cases have 
not been the most important part of their work. 

In the works of these artists, and of the portrait painters 
par excellence who in the nineteenth century have carried on 
the French tradition of portraiture, two distinct methods are 
seen. In one, the artist renders the man in his habit as he 
is — in a milieu suggesting his tastes, his occupations, his 

1850-1899. PORTRAIT PAINTERS. 391 

everyday life — or in some portrait group. In the other, the 
sitter is completely detached from any suggestive accessories. 
The interest is concentrated on the human being, his character 
and temperament, unaided by any adventitious surroundings 
— set against a background which at most is merely decorative, 
and has nothing to do with the subject. The two methods 
are equally in favour. A preference for one or the other is 
merely a question of taste. Both have been in use since the 
earliest days of portrait painting. And as modem examples 
of both we may take two pictures in the Luxembourg — M. 
Fantin-Latour's deeply interesting portrait group, **Un 
Atelier aux Batignolles '* ; and M. Bonnat's portrait of his 
master, "L6on Cogniet". In the first the artist has repre- 
sented Edouard Manet painting in his studio with a group 
of friends about him, Zola, Claude Monet, Bazile, an Im- 
pressionist artist who was killed during the war, etc., etc. 
In the second the humorous face of the kindly old artist, 
looks out with sparkling eyes, from a background undisturbed 
by any accessories. 

But it is better to allow each artist in turn to speak for 

Delaunay, Jules-Elie, 0.*, M. de l'Inst. (b. Nantes, 
1828 ; d. 1891). — Like his friend and compatriot Baudry, 
Delaunay was a true Breton. Both, says M. Lafenestre, 
** were tender and proud, sensitive and outwardly reserved. 
** Both enamoured of their work, with the same anxious 
** conscientiousness — both hard working and determined, 
*' beneath an appearance more or less worldly and dis- 
** engaged, knew how to live silently in a noisy age, and 
*' to remain independent in the midst of intrigue." 

Delaunay was brought up in an atmosphere at once" 
religious and patriarchal. A pupil of Flandrin, he executed 
a number of mural paintings in the Church of the Monastery 
of the Visitation at Nantes. And some in the Chapelle de 
la Vierge, Church of the Trinite in Paris. But it is as a 
portrait painter that his name will live. If he had only 
painted the portrait of ** Mme. Bizet," this alone would have 
been suflScient to place him in the very foremost rank of art. 


But it is only one among many. This picture, painted in 
1878, was exhibited in the Centennial Exhibition of 1889, 
and again in the "Portraits de Femmes et d'Enfants" at the 
Beaux Arts in 1897. It is all in black. And the great 
pathetic black eyes, brimming with tears, are haunting in 
their anguish and loveliness. The noble portrait of the 
artist's mother, now in the Luxembourg, is a chef d'oeuvre 
of emotionaJized truth. Each of his portraits is intensely 
personal. Take for instance that of the fine, worn soldier, 
'*G6n6ral Mellinet *'— the wonderful " Mme. Bizet," of 
which I have spoken — or " Mme. Toulmouche,*' fresh and 
smiling in her summer dress in the sunny landscape. Each 
in its very different way is a triumph of character study — of 
that shining forth of the soul, which makes the really great 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Peste a Rome, 1869, 78 ; Portrait de la mfere de 

I'artiste, 1872, 80. 
Portrait de Mme. Bizet, Mme. Bizet. 
Three pictures, Mus^e de Nantes. 

BoNNAT, L6oN, C.*, M. DE l'Inst. (b. Bayonne, 1833). 
— Bom at Bayonne, the natural tendencies of the Meridional, 
that vigour and vehemence, that love of strong, rich, deep 
colour, that audacity of treatment which we connect with 
southern peoples, were fostered and developed by the circum- 
stances of L6on Bonnat's boyhood. He had wished to enter 
the navy. But his father having established himself as a 
bookseller at Madrid, his son joined him there at fifteen, 
helped in his business, and devoured the books that came in 
his way. Among others he found Vassari, fell in love with it, 
and forthwith began to draw. In the evening he attended 
the classes at the Academy, under that distinguished and in- 
spiring master, Frederic de Madrazo. But beyond this, the 
lad saturated himself with the spirit of the great masters in 
the unrivalled Gallery. Murillo, Titian, Ribiera, Goya, had 
each some message for him. And above all others he turned 
to Velasquez. At seventeen he painted his first picture, the 
** Childhood of Giotto ". Then Madrazo put some commis- 

1860-1899. PORTRAIT PAINTERS. 393 

sions in his way — a copy of a full-length portrait of Queen 
Isabella, and one of the old King Fruella 11., which still* 
hangs among the Kings of Spain. 

After his father's death, the Municipal Council of Bayonne 
were induced to give young Bonnat an allowance of 1500 
francs. And at twenty he went to Paris, entered Cogniet's 
studio and the ]^cole des Beaux Arts, and a life of deter- 
mined work began ; for the allowance of £60 had to sufl&ce 
for all his needs ; and he painted everything that came in 
his way, even natures mortes. In 1857 he competed for the 
prix de Bome ; and though he only gained the second prize, 
Robert Fleury persuaded him to go to Rome all the same. 
The Bayonne allowance was continued to him ; and early in 
1858 he arrived. Here, as elsewhere — for M. Bonnat has 
always made and kept many friends — he was welcomed by 
his fellow artists. Schnetz, the director of the Villa M^dicis, 
gave him excellent advice ; and Chapu, the sculptor, intro- 
duced him to Rome. 

Michael- Angelo in Rome entranced him as Velasquez had 
done in Madrid ; and in 1859 he thought of painting ** The 
Creation ". But Schnetz advised him to choose something 
simpler ; so he painted his ** Good Samaritan **. It was 
exhibited in the Salon of 1859, bought by the State, and is 
now at Bayonne. In 1861 he exhibited ** La Mariuccia," 
the first of the Italian studies which soon made his name 
known. And in 1863 his charming ** Pasqua Maria " had a 
brilhant success, while he received a medal for his ** Martyre 
de Saint Andr6,** and was placed hors concaurs. The warm, 
vigorous tones, the intensity of life he communicated to such 
Italian pictures as the ** Mezzo bajocco, Eccelenza," the 
"** Roman peasants before the Famese Palace,*' ** Saint 
Vincent de Paul prenant la place d'un gal^rien," brought the 
artist a speedy recognition. But he did not intend to keep 
for ever to Italian subjects. He went ofif with Ger6me ; saw 
Cairo, Jerusalem, and Athens ; drew fresh inspiration from 
the East ; and in 1870 began his Oriental pictures with 
*' Une Femme Fellah et son Enfant/' and ** Une rue de 
Jerusalem ". 




When the war broke out he was at Pampeluna. He 
hurried back for the defence of Paris, and during the Com- 
mune returned to Madrid, to see Velasquez. At Bayonne 
he painted a superb portrait of Mme. Mohnier. And at 
Ustaritz, the famous portrait of the old Basque servant, 
who ** with ten sous a-day managed to give help to others 
** poorer than herself ". The ** Paysanne d*Ustaritz " in the 
Salon of 1872, was one of M. Bonnat*s greatest triumphs. It 
was followed in 1873 by another — the ** Barbier Turc "—an 
astounding bit of colour, which was exhibited again in the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1889, and made a profound impres- 
sion. As did the terrible but fine " Christ en Croix " of 

But M. Bonnat^s portraits, which now became his life- 
work, made an even greater impression in 1889. When they 
were grouped together — *' Cardinal Lavigerie," ** Jules Fen:}% 
** Countess Potocca," ** Alexandre Dumas," " M. Pasteur, 
** Victor Hugo," ** M. Puvis de Chavannes " — seldom have 
a more magnificent set of human documents — of works of art 
full of extraordinary insight into the varying characters and 
qualities of the sitters — of rich, strong, brilliant colour — been 
exhibited. Each year adds fresh examples to the long 
list of the master's works — to the gallery of illustrious names 
which the great artist is filling for the historian of the 
future. Each year those qualities he possesses in such an 
eminent degree, of truth, insight, absolutely faithful and 
honest work, add fresh lustre to the name of L6on Bonnat. 
Examples — Luxembourg : — 

S. E. le Cardinal Lavigerie, 1888. 

Leon Cogniet, 1880. 

Le Sculpteur Aime Millet, 1869. 

M. Thiers ; Victor Hugo, Versailles. 

S.A.K. Le Due d'Aumale, Chantilly. 

Le Christ, 1874, Palais de Justice, Paris (Cour 

St. Vincent de Paul, 1866, :fcglise de St. Nicholas deft 
Champs, Paris. 

Many portraits in the United States. 


Mrs. John Carter Brown and John Nicholas Brown, 
Coll. J. N. Brown, Esq., Providence, Ehode 

Carolus - DuRAN, Charles - AuGUSTE - i^MiLE, C* (6. 
ille, 1837). — As with many another famous artist, M. 
irolus-Duran*s success was won through the stress of 
)verty. difficulties, and actual suffering. For at one period 

his career he nearly died of the privations he endured, 
ring in Paris for nearly three years, often on a sou's worth 
bread as his food for the day. 

From his earUest childhood he showed such taste for 
•awing, that he was at last sent to the Academy of design 

Lille. Here he made slow progress under ** le pere 
nicJwn,'' whose pupil the famous artist is now pleased to 
.11 himself; for he was kept to the "flat" and the 
round " for years ; and it was not until 1852 or 1853 
at he was promoted to the class of painting. In 1855 
J came to Paris with his then dying father, his mother and 
$ter. And now the terrible struggle began. For after his 
ther's death, the brave lad determined he would no longer 
; a burden to his mother, but fight his own way. Though, 

he now says, he painted ** nicely," he knew nothing, 
verything had to be learned. At last in despair he decided 

emigrate to Algeria as a mason ; and was setting out to 
Eilk to Marseilles, as he could afford no other means of 
Einsport, when a friend offered to advance him two terms* 
nt. Installed in a little studio half underground, he lived 
r three years as he could, sometimes going without dinner 
re days out of seven. To use his own words, " I painted 
my friends as I could not pay for models ; I went to the 
Louvre to copy the masters, to draw the antiques . . . and 
to warm myself into the bargain ". Worn out with such an 
jstence he fell ill. A friend found him nearly dying of 
ver, took him to his own rooms, nursed him tenderly, and 
e future master slowly recovered. He then returned to 
ille. And after some delay, which he occupied in painting 
aall portraits, he gained the pension offered by the depart- 
ment in 1858, and returned in triumph to his studies in 


Paris with 1200 francs a year. Three years later he com- 
peted again in Lille for a sum of money bequeathed by a 
Chevalier Wicar, a contemporary of David, for the purpose 
of sending some promising young artist to Rome from time 
to time. And gaining the coveted prize, Carolus-Duran went 
off to spend four ideal years in Italy. £7 a month had to 
suffice for food, clothes, lodgings, models, colours, and journeys. 
But after what he had already endured such an existence 
seemed Paradise. 

Though* he exhibited a portrait in the Salon of 1859, and 
several pictures and portraits in that of 1861, his first real 
success came with ** L'Assassini," a souvenir of the Cam- 
pagna. It is now in the Mus^e de Lille, a fine and strong 
bit of painting. But M. Carolus-Duran had yet to feel the 
magic of Velasquez, before he attained his full strength. Soon 
after his return from Rome he started for Spain ; and there 
found both the country and the master capable of giving an 
answer to all the questions and ambitions of his own vigorous 
artistic temperament. And when he came back to Paris, 
and married Mile. Croizette, herself an artist of great charm 
and talent — the original of the well-known " Dame au Gant " 
of the Luxembourg — his career of triumphant success began. 

Those magnificent portraits of men and women — those 
delightful pictures of his own babies — his daughters Anne- 
Marie and Sabine, who we have all watched growing up 
year by year on their father's canvases — form one long 
brilliant procession. And its course is broken now and again 
by such an enchanting caprice as " Beppino, un futur Doge" 
— the dear, staggering sixteenth century baby, now one of 
the treasures of Mr. J. S. Forbes' matchless collection. Or 
by the dramatic and impressive sadness of a *' Mise en 
tombeau ". Or again by masterly landscapes such as those 
in the Salon of 1897, where we see the sun set once more in a 
blaze of colour behind Eoqueburne across the marshes of the 
Argence, or over the plain of Fr^jus — or seem to wander again 
through that fragrant forest of pines and myrtles and tall 
white heath, outside M. Carolus-Duran's villa on the Gulf at 
St. Eygulf. 

1850-1899. PORTRAIT PAINTERS. 397 

Examples in Luxembourg : — 

La Dame au Gant, 1869. 

Un soir dans TOise. 

The daughter of the Artist and her two children, 

The Artist Fran9ais, 1897. 

L'Assassini, 1861, Mus6e de Lille. 

Beppino, J. S. Forbes, Esq. 

The Poet with the Mandoline, 1894, The Artist. 
EiCARD, Louis-GusTAVE {b. Marseille, 1824 ; d. Paris, 
1873). — A pupil of Cogniet, Bicard strove to return to the 
methods of the early ItaUans. His portraits are of a most 
moving quality. Slightly veiled, with a tinge of melancholy, 
the painter seems to endeavour to make the eyes reveal the 
hidden character and thought of his sitter. The Louvre 
has two extremely fine examples of Bicard's portraits — one 
of himself ; the other of the painter ** Heilbuth ". The 
" Madame de Calonne " (250) in the Luxembourg, is also 
a remarkable picture, with a suggestion in its method of 
treatment of Leonardo. 

There are also portraits by Bicard in the museums of 
Versailles, Marseilles, Grenoble and Montpellier, etc. And 
an exquisite portrait of Miss Alice Schlesinger, in the 
possession of Miss Schlesinger, was exhibited at the Guild- 
hall, 1898. 

HUBERT, Ernest-Antoine-Auguste, C.*, M. de l'Inst. 
(b. Grenoble, 1817). — M. Hubert had many masters ; David, 
d'Angers, Bolland, and Paul Delaroche. He entered the 
ficole des Beaux Arts in 1836 ; and three years later won 
the Prix de Bome. In 1851 and 1855 he gained first class 
medals. He was made Director of the School of Bome in 
1867 ; a Membre de I'lnstitut in 1874 ; and in 1895 his long 
and useful career was rewarded by a medal of Honour. 

M. Hubert, now eighty-one, has painted numbers of sub- 
ject pictures, mostly Itahan — such as ** La Malaria " (now at 
Chantilly) and " Les Cervarolles " in the Luxembourg. His 
portraits, however, are the most remarkable and interesting 
part of his work. The Galleries of Versailles contain two 


most important examples. " The energetic figure of Prince 
** Napoleon (5143) forms a pendant to the fantastic appa- 
'* rition of Princesse Clotilde (5144) in her silk and white 
^* muslin dress, with gold lace : the blue eyes and chestnut 
^* hair responding to the tones of the fur-trimmed velvet 
** mantle, the dull red of a curtain in the shadow, the fading 
'* rose and green of the twilight sky, make a chef d'oeuvreof 
** this canvas of Hebert's, inspired by Eicard.*' ^ 

GiGOUX, Jean - FRANgois, 0.* (6. Besan9on, 1806), 
painter and lithographer, was one of the ** bataillon sacre " 
who with G^ricault, Bonnington, and Delacroix, turned to 
the great masters of the Louvre for counsel and copied them 
to improve their own technique, a matter for which David 
and his school cared little. M. Gigoux's " Demiers moment 
de Leonard de Vinci ** is painted, as Paul Mantz says, ** with 
*' a vigorous execution and generous impasto pleasant to 
" behold ". And in his portrait of the PoHsh general " Joseph 
Dwemicki,*' he proves himself a modem of the modems, an 
uncompromising realist in the best sense. His portraits of 
contemporary artists, of Delacroix, Delaroche, Sigalon, etc., 
etc., are of great interest. So is the portrait of Charles 
Fourier, the founder of the Phalanstere. A survivor of the 
great battles of the early days of the century, Gigoux to 
extreme old age kept alive all the ardours and enthusiasms 
of his youth. 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Portrait du general polonais, Joseph Dwernicki, 1833. 

Charles Fourier. 133. 

Demiers moments de Leonard de Vinci, Mus^e de 

Four Sacred pictures, Eglise St. Gervais, Paris. 
Gaillard, Claude-Ferdinand, * (b. Paris, 1834 ; d. 
Paris, 1887), — a pupil of Cogniet, won the Grand Prix de 
Eome igravure) in 1856, for an '* Acad^mu'' engraved from 
nature. One of the people, the son of a modest family of 
artisans, the artist gained in that early school of toil, in that 

1 De Nolhac et Pirate. 

1850-1899. PORTRAIT PAINTERS. 399 

struggle for the actual necessaries of life, the solid, sterling 
character which is shown in his works. On his return from 
Rome he tried for the grand prix de peinture ; but failed. 
This threw him back on his original metier. The ** Portrait 
de Jean Bellin,'* which he had engraved from the famous 
original in Rome, was considered too independent in its 
methods in Paris, and was refused at the Salon. It was not 
until 1865 that his fine plate in the Gazette des Beaux Arts 
of Ant. da Messina's ** Condottifere," brought complete 
recognition of his talent. He was regularly employed by 
the Gazette until his death. And this constant study of the 
great masters in engraving their works for the Gazette, was 
a precious school for the artist. 

In 1871 he made a success as a painter in the Salon, with 
his very remarkable portrait of ** Ma tante ". This had been 
preceded by the magnificent portrait of ** Monseigneur de 
Segur " in 1866. And his crayons of Pere Didon, Prince 
Bibesco, and Pio Nono, place him definitively among the 
great portraitists. Gaillard's whole preoccupation, whether 
he handled the brush or the burin, was with the portrait in 
its deepest sense. And some of his portrait etchings from 
nature are of rare merit and importance. 
Examples : — 

Among his best known engravings are L*homme k 
Toeillet, after Van Eyck ; La Vierge au donateur, 
Jean Bellini ; portrait of Jean Bellini, from the 
Capitol ; portrait du Condotti^re, after Ant. da 
Messina ; etc., etc. 


Luxembourg : — 

Monseigneur de Segur, 1866. 
Mme. E. (la tante de Gaillard), 1871. 
Saint S^bastien, 1876. 
L'abbe Rogerson, 1869, M. Judisse. 
An exhibition of the artist's works, drawings, engravings, 
paintings, was held in 1898 in one of the rooms of the 
Luxembourg Museum. 


Cabanel, Alexandre, C.*, M. de l'Inst. (6. Mont- 
pellier, 1824 ; d. Paris, 1889).—'* The student applauded by 
** all from, his childhood, the master d la mode before he had 
" reached full manhood, the venerated professor before age 
** had touched him, he travelled with tranquil step, without 
** trying halts, without painful anxieties, along the straight 
"road he had chosen, to the very end.'* M. George Lafe- 
nestre thus sums up the life of Cabanel, a man much beloved, 
whose only jealousy was in favour of his pupils against 
rival studios. His ateher was indeed the most generally 
frequented in Paris ; and among hundreds of other pupils 
it turned out such artists as MM. Bastien-Lepage, Collin, 
Cormon, Gervex, Aim6 Morot, Paul Leroy, Friant, Des- 
champs, Benj. Constant, Carrifere, Besnard — artists whose 
methods and aims are so widely different as to show that 
Cabanel was a true artist himself, more anxious to draw out 
and form original talent in his pupils, than to impose hard 
and fast academic rules upon all alike. 

Grand Prix de Eome in 1845, he received a second class 
medal in 1852, and a first class in 1855. In 1863 he was 
welcomed as a Member of the Academy. And his portrait 
of the Emperor in 1865 gained him a Medal of Honour at the 
Salon. His portraits are of greater value than his subject 
pictures, or even than his decorations, which, however, 
form an important part of his work. In 1863, the year he 
exhibited the well-known ** Naissance de Vtous," his portrait 
of the Comtesse de Clermont-Tonnerre showed the artist's 
high qualities as ** the interpreter of aristocratic beauty". 
In 1865 M. Paul Mantz called the portrait of Mme. de Ganay 
** a happy step towards this modern grace which still awaits 
**its historian and its poet''. And from 1868 to his death, 
all the leaders of Parisian society for twenty years passed 
through his atelier, a long procession of the most charming 
and best known women of the aristocratic, financial, manu- 
facturing, moneyed worlds, and of the foreign colony. While 
one of his last was one of his most attractive pictures — the 
beautiful and touching portrait in 1886 of the ** Foundress 
of the Order of Little Sisters of the Poor ". 

1860-1899. PORTRAIT PAINTERS. 401 

Among Cabaners decorations were those of the Salle des 
Caryatides in the Hotel de Ville, destroyed in 1871 ; The 
Glorification of St. Louis, Chap, de Vincennes ; The Child- 
hood of St. Louis, Pantheon. 


Si Louis, Versailles. 

Naissance de V6nus, Luxembourg. 

Portrait M. Bruyas ; Portrait de TArtiste ; and several 
other pictures, Coll. Bruyas, Mus^e de Montpellier. 

Le Po^te Florentin, M. Bessonneau, Angers. 
Chaplin, Charles, 0.* (b. Les Andelys, 1825 ; d. Paris, 
1891). — A naturahzed Frenchman, son of an English father 
and a Norman mother, Chaphn*s pictures show few English 
qualities. He never travelled beyond France. And it was 
quite late in hfe, when his talent was completely formed, 
that he made acquaintance with the works of Reynolds and 
Gainsborough, who have often been considered his artistic 
ancestors. A pupil of Drolling and the ]fccole des Beaux 
Arts, Chaplin's first Salon picture, in 1845, was a ** Portrait 
de femme ". But for several years he felt his way, painting 
ambitious compositions, and landscapes in which the influence 
of Daubigny, Breton, Dupr^, and Millet may be perceived. 

His first success and first medal came in 1851, with a 
portrait of his sister. In 1857, a genre picture, ** Les 
premieres roses," was bought by the Empress. And two 
years later he exhibited his first attempts at decoration — 
** Poetry" and "Astronomy". A third panel, **rAurore," 
was refused by the Jury on account of the figure being 
completely nude. This made some amount of stir ; and its 
result was to bring the young artist an important commis- 
sion — the decoration of the Salm des Fleurs at the Tuileries. 
These decorations were of course destroyed in 1871 : but 
the drawings which still exist are full of grace and charm. 
His decorations in private houses in Paris, Brussels, the 
Hague, and New York, fonn a very important portion of his 
work. But his gracious and charming portraits of women 

are the part of his work by which Chaphn will be best 



remembered. Though always somewhat artificial and man- 
nered, they recall to a certain degree the masters of the 
eighteenth century, with here a touch of Boucher or Fra- 
gonard, there a line of Beynolds or Gainsborough. The 
** Portrait de jeune fiUe " in the Luxembourg, with the 
sleeping kitten on her lap, has a sprightly attractiveness all 
its own. So has the lovely ** Souvenirs *'. Luxembourg. 

Mme. la Comtesse A. de la R., Mme. la Comtesse de 
la Rochefoucauld. 

YvoN, Adolphe, 0.* {b. Eschviller, Mozelle, 1817), 
pupil of P. Delaroche and professor at the 6cole des Beaux 
Arts, began his career as a portrait painter. But a journey 
to Russia in the forties seems to have turned his attention 
to historical painting. He began by a number of drawings 
of Russian types ; and in 1850 exhibited his ** BataiUe de 
Koulikovo,*' followed by his large paintings of the First and 
Third Empires, and completed the series with the ** Charge 
des Cuirassiers a Reichshoflfen,** in the Salon of 1875. 

In his portraits in 1888 it was pointed out that **he had 
** not ventured to go into the depths with his President of 
'* the Republic. His M. Ritt was far more hving.*' 

Examples — Versailles : — 

Magenta and Solferino. 5015-16. 

Ney soutenant I'arriere-Garde (retraite de Russie). 


Three episodes in the taking of the Malakoflf, Sebas- 
topol. 1969-71. 

Gervex, Henri, 0.* (b. Paris, 1852), a pupil of Fro- 
mentin, Cabanel, and Brisset, has an amusing and interesting 
document in the Luxembourg, ** Le Jury de peinture," in 
which the hanging committee of the Salon is seen at work. 
It will be of value in future as a record of the now vanished 
Palais des Champs Elysees. And further as a group ot 
portraits of the best known artists of the day in 1884-5, 
painted five years before the famous schism which resulted- 
in the establishment of the Second Salon. Besides this M^ 
Gervex has painted many excellent portraits. His picture 


int reparation *' is another portrait group. For while 
longs more strictly to genre painting, it contains por- 
\ of the best-known surgeons in Paris. And his " Satyre 
it avec une bacchante/' in the Luxembourg, is a good 
iple of the work for which the artist was given a second 
medal in 1874. He " has been attracted,** says Paul 
bz, **by limiinous effects and hghtness of shadows. He 
worshipper of surface. And in choice of tone and quahty 
ight he has obtained surprising effects.'* 

Satyre et bacchante, 1874, Luxembourg. 

Le Jury de peinture, 1885, Luxembourg. 

Le docteur P^an, le Docteur P6an. 
'riant, ilMiLE, * (b. Dieuze, Alsace-Lorraine). — M. 
at, a pupil of Cabanel and Devilly, in his portraits 
5hes the ''peluche*' background which is sometimes 
ily an excuse for laziness, and adopts the second method 
Drtrait painting. M. Andr^ Michel in 1888 says of one 
is pictures, ** I like to see people in their homes, 
Tounded by the common witnesses of their tastes and 
jir Uves ; our acquaintance with them is thus made easier 
i less trivial. I am infinitely grateful to M. Friant for 
nting Mme. B. in her boudoir, leaning on her piano, and 
using for a moment to speak to a friend." 
Sometimes his portraits remind the spectator of a Terburg 
, Gerard Dow. They display acuity of observation, 
linty of hand, and energetic conciseness, firm, full and 
>us painting, and a great mastery over technical diflfi- 
es. In his well-known picture *' Le Toussaint," in the 
embourg, the most exact observation in every detail, in 
y movement is to be seen. But in this picture, and still 
e in the ** Douleur " in the Salon of 1898, the arrested 
.vement and a certain brutality of realistic conception, 
ces the eye most unpleasantly, despite the extraordinary 
. of execution. 
Examples : — 

La Toussaint, Luxembourg. 

Portrait, M. Jules Claretie. 

Portrait, M. Coquelin dans le r6le de Crispin, 


LoBRiCHOK. TiMOLEON,* (6. Comod, Jura, 1831). — A pupil 
of Picot*s, has for many years shared with Deschamps the 
title of the painter of Childhood. But while Deschamps 
chooses the joys and sorrows of abstract childhood, M. 
Lobrichon devotes himself to the portraits of real children. 
He has painted many genre pictmres as well. But in the 
Exhibition of 1889 he exhibited solely as a portrait painter. 

Debat-Ponson. Edouard-B., * (b, Toulouse), pupil of 
Cabanel, is one of the later members of that School of 
Toulouse whose works show a certain affinity. The 
sculptors of Toulouse are perhaps superior to the painters. 
For these, excellent as their work is, are all somewhat 
incUned to a sadness and blackness of colour. In the Exhi- 
bition of 1889 M. Debat-Ponson exhibited some admirable 
portraits, among them one of M. Constans, then Ministre de 
rint^rieur, 1880. 




That the later vears of the nineteenth centurv should witness 
a reaction in Art was but natural, and to be looked for in 
the necessary course of events. For a considerable period 
the success of the actual, of so-called '* Realism/* of the 
most material \new of Art, had held its own triumphantly, 
insolentlv. It has onlv been needful in the last thirtv vears 
to walk through the annual exhibitions, in order to see that 
in the vehement revolt against the Academic, the Classic, the 
Moyen-Afje — against all that has been included in the tenn 
of ** Pompier " — the dramatic suggestions of literature or 
historv' were despised, and poetrj', faith, imagination, scorn- 
fully swept aside as unworthy a moment's attention. In this 
revolt, the popular Art of the last thirty years has become for 
the most part a sort of lurid photography — every fait divers 
seen through windows thrown wide open upon reality, as 
it has well been said, taken instantaneouslv " life-size and like- 
ness guaranteed ". And the work of art has too often become 
a mere record — painted it is true with skill and power — of 
the lowest tendencies of a morbid and neurotic society. Such 
are the depths to which ** Naturalism '* in Art has fallen. 

But we do not go to Art to be reminded of the base and 
hideous actualities of life. We are only too keenly aware 
of them. Saddened and disgusted with the brutalities of 
existence, we seek some refuge from ourselves. And we turn 
to Art to show us some fairer state of being — some calmer 
and loftier outlook on life — to re\'ive our faith in the ultimate 
destinies of mankind — to elevate and ennoble our thoughts, 
and kindle our aspirations — whether in the presentment of 

some poetic vision of nature, or in the mystic conceptions of 



Faith and Religion, or in heroic and transcendental dreams 
of humanity. 

Though Corot — the divine Corot — was requested, civilly, 
by the extreme realists ** to kill once and for all the njrmphs 
** with whom he peopled his woods, and replace them by 
** peasants " — yet whether he painted nymphs or peasants, 
matters little in the message he has to give us. And the 
very reason that makes us stand dreaming before Corot's 
silvery visions, where the nymphs dance beside the waters of 
Lac Nemi or Ville d'Avray, is the same that makes us stand 
dreaming before Millet's ** Bergere*'. Both speak to us of 
the au deld — of that something beyond the mere outward 
seeming of nature, that satisfies the cravings of our imagina- 
tion. And in France, some of the successors of Corot the 
poet, of J. F. Millet the mystic, moved by this piteous desire 
of human nature for some refuge in the arid waste of 
materialism, by this cry of the outraged soul for some 
mystery, for something to worship, have given themselves 
with ever-growing fervour and conviction to the ideal, to 
what is mystic and symbolic, to the contemplation of pro- 
found and exalted abstractions. 

Through all the worst times of the worship of actuaUty, 
French Art has found an escape into regions of imaginative 
beauty by means of a purely national form of expression. 
Decorative painting has been as much the possession of 
France since the sixteenth century, as it was the possession 
of Italy until that period. And in decorative painting— ii^ 
vast schemes of colour and form — the artist's imaginative 
faculty has always found salvation. In the earlier half of the 
nineteenth century, the decorative tradition, dear to France, 
found a superb exponent in Eugene Delacroix. But he stood 
alone. And for a while decoration fell into abeyance, untii- 
Paul Baudry carried us into the gracious land of fable an^ 
faerie, among Gods and Muses, and a race of himian being^ 
created by his own love of the beautiful, who died with him. 
But about 1860 a greater than Paul Baudry arose ; and the 
nobler works of the greatest decorative artist of the century 
began to be known— the master, who, with his ** War and 


Peace," with his ** Bois Sacre/' with his " History of Ste. 
Genevieve," transports us into regions of pure thought, of 
lofty symboUsm, of serene philosophy, in which a profound 
reverence for humanity is combined with a profound respect 
for nature. To Puvis de Chavannes the highest expression 
of ideal Art in France owes its birth — an expression at once 
so exalted in thought, so simple in the purity of its manifesta- 
tion, as to satisfy the aspirations of the sage and the child. 

But the revolt from materiaUsm, from actuality, from 
what has well been termed ** a brutal realism," has spread 
far beyond the limits of decorative painting. It has mani- 
fested itself in many ways ; for in the last thirty years many 
influences have been at work in Northern Europe. As with 
the Romantic movement of the twenties and thirties, hterature 
has led the way in the new development ; and literature and 
plastic art once more show the same tendencies. Literature 
has become introspective. Art also turns to introspection. 
It endeavours to suggest ideas, rather than represent facts ; 
to reveal hidden subtleties of character ; to pourtray the in- 
tangible, the spiritual, the poetic, even the sublime. Nothing 
is too obscure, too mysterious, too mystic, for the brush. 
And while much of this modem art is decadent, an equiva- 
lent in painting or sculpture for the decadence of Baudelaire, 
of Verlaine, of MaeterUnck, of Ibsen, it is interesting and 
Suggestive. For it forms part of the great revolt from realism 
tK)wards idealism. 

Though the actual work of the Enghsh Pre-Raphaelites 
is but little known in France, the growing appreciation of 
CDur two great English idealists, Mr. Watts and Sir E. 
^ume Jones, marks the strong reaction in French public 
ti^aste against a tcrre iv terre materialism. The influence 
CDf the painter-poet Gustave Moreau, whose death in April, 
1898, is one of the most serious losses French Art could 
E^ustain, is a proof of this. Almost unknown in England, 
^nd hitherto rarely seen in France, Gustave Moreau's work 
^hows singular affinities to that of our English idealists. 
^V^orking for himself, for his own inner satisfaction, and 
for a very few enlightened amateurs who have been able to 


appreciate his great qualities, some small part of his work 
has been found in private galleries, difficult of access. The 
rest, his later work, has till now been absolutely unseen. 
But as Professor of Tfecole des Beaux Arts in succession to 
I'jlie Delaunay, Gustave Moreau's atelier became a centre 
of " militant originality," of pupils who the master has 
inspired with a sincere enthusiasm for Axt and for his own 
views on Art, with an admiration and reverence without 
limit for the great masters and nature herself. Death has 
unlocked the doors of that inner sanctuary, to which even 
his pupils were not admitted. And the generosity of M. 
Charles Hay em has enabled the public to gain some idea 
of the artist's methods and aspirations, by a splendid gift of 
his pictures to the Luxembourg. 

As I have already said the ideal, the mystic, the symbolic, 
are questions which occupy an increasing number of French 
artists. This pre-occupation, this desire for the au deld, 
manifests itself in the most singular ways, in the most 
unexpected places. If at one end of the scale we find the 
pure and lofty conceptions of Puvis de Chavannes, or the 
symbolism of Gustave Moreau's colour harmonies, at the 
other end we get such examples of perversion and bad taste 
as '* Le Christ chez le Pharisien " or the *' Descente de 
Croix " of the clever artist Jean Beraud, or ** THdte '* of 
M. Blanche. Without going to such lengths as Jean Ber- 
aud, some artists, followers of Von Uhde and Skredswig, 
endeavour to modernize the sacred story — to express with 
sincerity and reverence the '* passion of pity,'* by representa- 
tions of Christ in modern surroundings, such as ** L'Ami des 
humbles " of M. Lhermitte, or " Le Christ Consolateur *' of 
M, Besson. Or place the '* Flight into Egypt," and ** Hagar 
and Ishmael," among the sand dunes of the Pas de Calais, 
or the tulip and hyacinth gardens of the Low Countries. 
Others bring all the resources of modem art to the painting 
of sacred pictures, as with M. Dagnan-Bouveret's ** Last 
Supper," and the ** Disciples at Emmaus ". Or use all that 
archaeological research and local colour can give, in such a 
set of illustrations of the New Testament as M. James 


'issot's now famous series. Others again, prefer merely to 
idicate their poetic thought, leaving it to the divination of 
liose to whom it speaks. M. Aman-Jean is haunted by the 
aystery of '* Vetemel feminin ". And in his beautiful and 
ecorative panels he endeavours as (Edipus before the 
Iphinx or Leonardo before Mona Lisa, to read the secret 
hat hes hidden in her eyes or the enigma of her smile. 

But the greater proportion of these artists are not con- 
ent with suggestion. Their thought must be clothed in 
ery visible shape. Each ** i " must be carefully dotted, 
f they do not aim so high as Divine apparitions or even as 
Lngels, every one may make essay of Muses— Muses who 
oo often do not float, but apparently have been studied from 
ery solid coryphees securely suspended by wires from the 
lies of a theatre. Such are the ** Harmonies de la Nature " 
vho inspire M. Collin's composer ; or Destrem's *' Stet 
Japitolium fulgens ". And even (though we must speak of 
bis artist with far more serious respect) M. Henri Martin's 
sraphic beings who lead the Poet through the mystic wood, 
r his ** Apparition de C16mence Isaure aux Troubadours," 
Bmind one a little too much of a pantomime. 

But go where we will in these later days, the same 
Bndency is manifested. M. Adrien Demont must needs 
all one of his charming landscapes ** The Annunciation ". 
Jid strangest of all, the painter of the most rigid actualities 
f Soldiers and soldiering, M. Detaille, cannot withstand the 
3mptation; and in **Le E^ve" he has endeavoured to 
Dmbine his usual methods with a touch of the au deld. But 
lis has already been better done, we cannot but recollect, in 
Laffet's great imaginative work, ** La revue nocturne''. 

Baudry, Paul-Jacques-Aime, C.*, M. de l'Inst. {b. 
ja-Koche-sur-Yon, Vendue, 1828; d, Paris, 1886).— The son 
t a Vend^an Sabotier, whose only recreation was his violin 
vhich he played to the stars in the stillness of the forest, 
Paul Baudry inherited from his father a love of silence, of 
lature, and of music. Indeed so strong was his talent for 
nusic that for a while it seemed likely that he would become 
»lie menetrier or violinist of his native place. But his talent 


for drawing was yet stronger. And he had the rare good 
fortune of finding a really enlightened artist, Sartoris, a 
pupil of Abel de Pujol, in the drawing master of the little 
town of Bourbon- Vendee, now known as la-Roche-sur-Yon. 
Sartoris, struck with the child's remarkable gifts, persuaded 
the family he must be painter, not musician ; and at the end 
of three years declared he could teach him no more, but that 
he must go to Paris. The parents were poor. But Sartoris 
persuaded the municipal council of the little town to give the 
boy a pension of 600 francs a year. And at sixteen young 
Paul set out for Paris ; sad at bidding adieu to his home ; but 
registering a vow, as he passed the statue of General Travot, 
that he too would become famous and an honour to his 
native place. 

In Paris he entered Drolling's studio ; and from that hour 
he lived wholly in his work, allowing no pleasure to distract 
his mind for a moment. He was the model pupil. In 1847, 
the first time he competed for the Prix de Rome at the tcole 
des Beaux Arts, he carried off the second prize. In the two 
following years, he found the subjects so trivial — ** des sujets 
**a la fleur d'oranger" — that he felt success would be im- 
possible ; for already his personality was making itself felt ; 
and his love of colour, brilliant, flashing colour, while the 
tradition of the Ecole was cold and grey, was beginning to 
give him the reputation of a revolutionist. But in 1850 the 
** Zenobie poignard^e et retrouvee par les bergers'* en- 
chanted him ; and he carried off the premier Grand Prix 
triumphantly. In Rome he threw himself straight into the 
anns of the greatest masters of the Italian renaissance— and 
henceforth his only teachers were to be Raphael, Michael- 
Angelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Correggio, 
Titian, and Veronese, especially the three latter. 

His envois de Rwm were treated with great severity by the 
members of the Institute in Paris; even the beautiful ** La 
Fortune et le jeune enfant," now in the Luxembourg, did 
not find favour in their sight. But Baudry had come to 
man's estate, and dared to be himself. And after his return 
to Paris, the Salon of 18o7 was a triumph for him, with this 


icture, four other compositions, and the portrait of Beul6. 
1 a moment he had stepped into the foremost rank of the 
)unger artists in the estimation of the public. And the 
don of 1862 confirmed his triumphant position in two 
anches of painting, with his portrait of M. Guizot, and the 
autiful *' Perle et la Vague ". 
But Baudry had higher ambitions than a facile success 
a fashionable portrait or genre painter. His dream was 
revive the great traditions of Decorative painting, which 
3med for a while in abeyance. In such manifestations of 
t he felt that his love for colour, his desire for imaginative 
mpositions in which he might realize those visions of grace 
d beauty which haunted him, could have full play. Money 
ittered little to him, provided he could but realize his ideal. 
5 sought and found his first opportunities in the decorations 
the Hotel GaUiera, the Hotel of Mme. de Paiva, and that of 
. Fould (these latter were bought by the due d'Aumale and 
noved to Chantilly). But his greatest work was yet to 
tne to him. His old comrade and friend in Rome, M. 
larles Garnier, was building the new Opera House in 
jis. And he offered the decoration of the Foyer to 
indry. This was indeed the chance he had longed for. 
id the successful, popular artist, who might have become 
3 richest, the most fashionable painter of the day, made 
3 dehberate choice between present success and posterity. 
'ery advantage was abandoned for the perfecting of this 
»t scheme. The master — sought after, praised, and ad- 
red — determined to leave nothing undone that could 
mre the success of his work. And we have the un- 
unpled instance of an artist at the very height of his 
•eer going back to school — back to Rome, to the Villa 
^dicis, where the master of thirty-five becomes the student 
2e more. He felt he needed fresh counsel from the mighty 
inters of the Renaissance. And for a year he worked 
rder than any young student — copying Michael- Angelo in 
3 Sixtine Chapel for ten hours a day ; elaborating his great 
mpositions at night ; shut up alone with his idea in the 
ence of the Chambre Turque. Then came a journey to 


England to copy the Raphael Cartoons ; another to Spain- 
but Velasquez had little to say to him — before setting to 
work. For ten years Baudry devoted himself to the Foyer 
of the Opera House. And when it was at last accomplished 
and exhibited in the Palais des Beaux Arts before bein^ 
placed in position, the amazing quality of the work— tht 
Triumph of Music, more especially music of the theatre- 
was realized — its vast extent, its extreme beauty, its imagina- 
tive power and charm. 

Baudry's portraits form a most remarkable and charac- 
teristic part of his work. So also do his easel pictures. But 
it is as a decorative painter that he desired to be known ; 
and as one of the great D^coratifs of the century he will go 
down to posterity. His ** Glorification de la Loi '* for the 
Cour de Cassation, is his other most important decorative 
work. And the beautiful '* Enlevement de Psyche " in a 
cupola of the gallery at Chantilly is another example. He 
was preparing a scheme of decoration for the walls of the 
Pantheon — the history of Jeanne d'Arc — and had made notes 
and sketches, when his untimely death in 1886 cut short 
this brilUant and deservedly successful career. In lb97 
a statue to the master was erected in his native place ; and 
thus his lx)yi8h dream was realized. 

** Historical painter, decorative painter, portrait painter. 
** Paul Baudiy to the very end was a faithful artist, 
*' enamoured of perfection, severe towards himself, as much 
" in love with the present as he was respectful to the past"^ 

Examples : — 


Triumph of Music, Foyer of the Opera, Paris. 
Glorification de la Loi, Cour de Cassation, Paris. 
Les Heures, Hotel de Paiva. 
Rome, Florence, Naples, Genoa, etc., Hotel de 

L 'enlevement de Psyche ; Saint Hubert ; and three 

decorations from Hotel de M. Fould, Chantilly. 

^ M. Lafenestre. 


Les Noces de Psyche, ceiling, Mr. Vanderbilt, New 


La Fortune et le jeune enfant, 1857 ; La V6rit6, 1882 ; 
Portrait, M. Peyrat, S^nateur, 1883, Luxem- 
La Vague et la Perle, lately sold in Stewart Collection^ 

New York. 
Psyche et T Amour, engraved by Waltner. 
And many portraits. 
Puvis DE Chavannes, Pierre, C* (b. Lyons, 1824 ; d. 
October, 1898). — Since these pages went to press, not only 
France but the world at large has sustained an irreparable 
I068 in the death of M. Puvis de Chavannes, a noble man as 
well as a noble artist, whose place can never be filled, because 
be was absolutely himself. 

"A thinker who paints, rather than a painter who 

** thinks." Thus M. de Fourcaud describes the great artist, 

who stands supreme at the end of the nineteenth century. 

In Couture's studio, which Puvis de Chavannes entered 

^^ Paris, he found nothing to satisfy him. And Ary 

Schefifer to whom he passed on, had hardly more to give 

^m. At that moment confusion reigned in French Art. 

'A.mong the militant party a profound disquiet was felt 

"■""■^orot was still ignored — Millet and Courbet ostracised — 

'tie landscape painters feeling their way. On the other 

*^^nd, the influence of Ingres was still dominant among the 

^^nmants of the dying and sterile classic school. 

From 1850 to 1859 the doors of the Salon were closed to 

-t^uvis de Chavannes. His work during those years is but 

"*'i"*tle known. But in 1859, the decoration of a dining- 

^^Dom in a villa for his brother at Lons-le-Saulnier, revealed 

*^i8 true vocation. As he himself expressed it, ** Je sentis 

* * autour de moi de I'eau pour nager ". The ** Eetour de la 

C^hasse," now in the museum of Marseilles, was his first 

siaccesB. The next year, the municipality of Amiens — to 

"^fceir everlasting honour be it spoken — furnished him with a 

^f^ciagnificent opportunity, of which he has made yet more 


magnificent use. The museum of Amiens was being rebuilt, 
and Puvis de Chavannes was called upon to decorate it. In 
the Salon of 1861 appeared '* Peace" and '* War"— the earliest 
of these decorations. Th6ophile Gautier was one of the first 
to acclaim the genius of the new master. ** It is not canvas, 
'' but the scaffolding and great wall spaces that this artist 
** needs," he cried with enthusiasm. To these two, Puvis 
de Chavannes added later the four glorious subjects on the 
great staircase — ** Le Labour," **Le repos," " Ludus pro 
patria," and ** Ave Picardia Nutrix ". Then from 1876 to 
1878 came the ** Childhood of Ste. Genevieve" in the 
Pantheon ; followed by a long series of triumphs of which 
I give a list later on. 

Until Puvis de Chavannes arose, landscape had been 
banished from decorative painting. In landscape, in nature 
herself, he has found a new method. ** Inventer dans un 
*' art," says Poussin, ** c'est penser dans cet art, — c'est 
'* d^couvrir des harmonies propre k cet art." Puvis de 
Chavannes has discovered some of those harmonies. He has 
gone straight to nature for some of his loftiest conceptions. 
It is the familiar country of the Isle de France which is used 
to give us that sense of exquisite repose and purity in the 
*' Childhood of Ste. Genevieve ". It is the plain of Picardy — 
that delightful land through which thousands rush without 
so much as a glance, as they hurry from Calais to Paris — 
which we recognise in the noble ** Ave Picardia Nutrix ". 
And what is the setting of ** Pauvre Pecheur," save the flats 
of the mouth of the Seine ? 

But this landscape, this inspiration of nature, is used 
with a lofty reticence to enhance the intellectual conception 
he would present. And his human beings symbolise types of 
humanity rather than actualities. 

In his ** Eepos " we do not ask where is that country of 
lofty mountains, and cypress groves, and oleanders blossom- 
ing l)eside the river — we do not ask to what nation those 
noble and beautiful human beings belong to. We are con- 
tent — yes, thankful — to beheve that somewhere, some when, 
they have existed or vrill exist, even if it should but be in 

/ 1860-1898. IMAGINATIVE PAINTERS. 415 

the mind of the poet. In his '* Labour," it is of the toil of 
all the ages, strong, patient, heroic, that those calm and 
splendid forms in the vast landscape tell us — types and 
sjrmbols of the forces that have built up the world. And 
why ** Pauvre Pfecheur " moves us far more than any brutaUty 
of the "imitator of nature,*' of the terre d terre realist, is 
that he is no mere half-starved fisherman, but a type of sad 
humanity letting down his net beside the illimitable ocean of 

In decorative painting it is not enough to cover an im- 
mense canvas with paint and people. The building for 
which it is destined, the exigencies of position, must be ever 
present to the artist's eye in his vision of the whole, which 
is to enhance the beauty of architectural line, that inflexible 
setting in which his conception is to live. 

In his drawings and cartoons we may follow the manner 
in which M. Puvis de Chavannes works out his noble com- 
positions. ** Nothing is less complicated," says M. Andr6 
Michel; **the conception springs directly and frankly from 
** the very nature of the subject. The claim of literary 
^* invention is reduced to the smallest possible limits. From 
**the first moment, plastic invention and construction 
** solicit and command the whole effort of his thought." 
Gradually the Unes of the whole, always subordinated to the 
architectural setting, arrange themselves. The masses are 
balanced with a view to this setting ; the individual parts 
take more precise form and shape ; and by degrees the rhythm 
of the whole appears — each element of the future creation, 
with its own character and value in the synthesis which is 
being evolved. 

It has been the fashion among certain persons to say 
that the master cannot draw, because by synthetic abbrevia- 
tions — somewhat excessive at times — he has sacrificed and 
subordinated forms and movements to the exigencies of his 
general conception. But in decorative painting, sacrifice is 
more necessary to the power of the whole, than in any other 
branch of Art. It is only by deliberate sacrifices in form and 
in colour, that the master has been enabled to produce works 


of a truly incomparable greatness. And if his critics will 
but examine some of his drawings in charcoal, in sanguine, 
in pencil and silver-point — such as those, for instance, in the 
Luxembourg — they can easily satisfy themselves. He not 
only knows how to draw, but it is not possible to study 
nature more closely, or to find in nature herself more noble, 
more truthful, more rhythmic suggestions than those which 
M. Puvis de Chavannes uses to express his great conceptions 
:)f life and poetic thought. His Art is purely French ; we 
find in it the best traditions of the French School — com- 
position, eloquence, science, united to an unsurpassed love 
and reverence for nature. For this great artist has discovered 
how to ally the true classic sense with the modem spirit. 
Inter Aries et Naturam ! He is not afraid to seek for the 
purest classic feeling in his vision of Rouen of to-day, with 
its factory chimneys and gothic spires ; or in the tranquil 
and fertile plain of Picardy. '*And over the heads of 
** Italianizers or Ultramontanes he joins hands with the old 
'* masters, founders of the French tradition — French, not 
'* Latin or Roman — those who invented the opiis frarnvgc-- 

imm^ ^ 

Examples : — 


Retour de la Chasse, 1859, Mus^e de Marseille. 
Masilia, Colonic Grecque ; Marseille, porte de TOrient, 

Hotel de Ville, Marseille. 
Peace, and War ; Labour ; Rest ; Ave Picardia 

Nutrix ; Ludus Pro Patria, Musee d'Amiens. 
Doux Pays, 1882, Hotel de M. Bonnat. 
Le Bois Sacre, cher aux Arts et aux Muses, 1884 ; La 

Vision antique ; L 'Inspiration chretienne ; Le 

Rhone et la Sa6ne, 1886, Mus^e de Lyon. 
Le grand Hemicycle de la Sorbonne, 1887-89. 
Life of Sainte Genevieve, Pantheon, Paris. 
Inter Artes et Naturam, Musee de Rouen. 
L'ete ; L'hiver ; Victor Hugo remettant sa IjTe k 1& 

Ville de Paris, Hotel de Ville, Paris. 

* Andrt' Michel. 


La Lmuiere inspiratenr des Muses, Public Library, 
Boston, U.S. 

Ecisel Picturea. 

Pauvre P^heur, Musee du Luxembourg. 
D^colation de St. Jean Baptiste, M. M. Durand-Ruel. 
MoREAU, GusTAVE, O.*, M. DE l'Inst. (6. Paris, 1826 ; 
d. 1898). — ^A pupil of Picot, M. Gustave Moreau entered 
the ficole des Beaux Arts in 1846. Forty-five years 
later he was to return there as Professor. But meanwhile 
he was destined to encounter that bitter or disdainful oppo- 
sition, which has been the lot of nearly all the greatest 
artists of the century. What Sir E. Bume-Jones has 
represented in English Art, that Gustave Moreau, consider- 
ably his senior, had already foreshadowed in France. For 
with both *' the richness of technical beauty yields nothing 
" to the splendour of the sjTubol ". A poet and a colourist of 
most singular quahty, M. Gustave Moreau has lived in and 
for his art. Undisturbed alike by the mistrust and miscon- 
ception of the many, or by the unbounded admiration of the 
few, he has worked silently, steadfastly, giving himself 
^«^kolly to the guidance of his imagination. Like Puvis de 
Ctavannes — like all the greatest painters — he has gone to 
tHe pure and ever flowing spring of classic inspiration, where 
^BiCh may find what he needs. As did his real master, 
Chass6riau,^ whose death at thirty-seven deprived France 
of one of her most exquisite spirits, Gustave Moreau 
endeavoured to envelop the powerful evocation of Dela- 
croix in the hieratic form of Ingres '*. 
ffis career may be divided into two periods. In the first 
he exhibited — at rare intervals it is true — in the Salons, and 
took part in other public exhibitions. In 1852 and 1853 his 
"Pieta," and his ** Cantique des Cantiques," were bought 
by the State. He received medals in 1864-5-9. And in 1875 
he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. To this 
first period belong ** Le Minotaur," 1855 ; *' OSdippe et le 
Sphinx," 1864 ; ** Le Jeune Homme et la Mort," in memory 

^ Theodore Chasseriau (6. Panama, 1819 ; d, 185C). 




of Th6o. Chass^riau, 1865 ; *' Diomfede d^vor6 par ses 
chevaux" and *' OrpWe," 1866; *' Hercule," " Salorn^." 
and ** L'Apparition," 1876. 

But after 1880 he ceased to exhibit at all. His later 
works have never been seen. The door of his studio was 
kept jealously closed against all comers. Yet it is interesting 
to observe that as he withdrew himself more completely 
from the world, his influence on the world of art grew ever 
stronger. Eound about the Poet-Artist — the recluse 
** enferm^ dans sa tour d*Ivoire ** — a legend rose. And the 
desire for his pictures increased as the possibility of seeing 
them was withheld. The few rare examples of his paint- 
ings which were to be seen might be counted on one hand. 
The rest were in the private collections of amateurs 
sufficiently enlightened to appreciate their rare qualities, or 
in the inviolable sanctuary of that closed studio. A few— a 
very few comparatively — of the early pictures had been 
photographed or engraved. And from these reproductions, 
the pupils — disciples perhaps would be the better word — of 
M. Gustave Moreau had to gain their impressions of the 
master's work. For a master he had truly become ; and 
when on the death of M. felie Delaunay in 1891, he 
succeeded him as Professor at the ficole des Beaux Arts, 
his atelier on the Quai Malaquais became a centre for 
militant originaHty.^ The young and daring spirits flocked 
to him for counsel. Those who yearned for escape from the 
actual, turned to *' the inspired initiator and the artist 
" predestined to be the link between the Romantic school 
** and the new symbolism ".^ 

But one singular result of the lack of opportunity to his 
pupils for studying his colour, may'be observed in their work. 
The master's colour is one of his greatest and most singular 
charms ; at once delicate and intense. His methods are 
almost those of the enameller. His manner of using blue 
as a basis to work upon is quite original. And some of his 
water-colours — notably ** L'Apparition," ** Le Jeune Homme 
et la Mort," and the wonderful little ** Crucifixion " — all in 

^ M. Aim^ Morot has succeeded Gustave Moreau. ' Roger Marx. 


the Loxemboorg — sparkle like jewels. But the pupils have 
only been able to study his form — his intention — to listen 
to his inspiring views on Art. And while endeavouring to 
cultivate that form and intention, their colour, with few- 
exceptions, is remarkable for its cold sadness. All this is 
now changed. The doors of that closed studio have been 
thrown open by death. And one of M. Gustave Moreau's 
most profound and enhghtened admirers, M. Charles Hayem, 
has given the public an opportunity of studying some of the 
master's choicest works, in his superb gift of six pictures to 
the Luxembourg. 

Such work as that of M. Gustave Moreau met with little 

sjrmpathy during the reign of realistic art. Even such a 

distinguished critic as M. Paul Mantz expresses himself with 

a certain reserve as late as 1889, the year M. Moreau was 

made a Membre de Tlnstitut; though he confesses that 

**he has ended by interesting us '' ! And after speaking of 

the artistes sympathy with the late fifteenth century, and 

suggesting that his inspiration was drawn from Mantegna 

and Crivelli, he says, " The master's sincerity is absolute ; he 

"is not systematically retrospective, he has passed through the 

" rose garden and its scent has clung to his clothing ; but he 

** possesses an individual caprice, and a fantasy all his own ". 

But such a judgment would seem cold beside those of the 

critics of the last six or eight years. For every year has 

added to the rapid growth of his influence on artists and 

critics aUke. And his death in April, 1898, was one of the 

most serious blows French Art could have sustained. 

Examples in Luxembourg : — 


L'Apparition, 1876. 
(Edippe et le Sphinx, 1864. 
Le Jeune Homme et la Mort, 1865. 
L'Amour et les Muses. 
These six last are the gift of M. Charles Hayem, 1898. 
Cazin, Jban-Chaeles, O.* (6. Samer, Pas de Calais, 


1841). — Since the death of Corot no landscape painter has 
shown better right than M. Cazin to be regarded as his 
legitimate successor. The harmonies of his composition, the 
values which give them birth, the truly poetic sense of 
nature, all suggest kinship with the great master. Tbe 
difference, however, between the two artists is more than 
merely a difference of degree. It is one of temperament. 
The sunny, happy disposition of le p^re Corot shows itself in 
the least of his sketches. His view of nature is tender, 
poetic, but always gay. M. Cazin, a man of the north, 
also gives us a dreamy, poetic view of nature. But it is 
touched with the welt-schmerz of the age — the intimate, 
reflective sadness of the pessimist. ** The veiled serenity 
** and gentle melancholy " of his pictures render them in- 
finitely attractive and full of repose. Some artists, as M. 
Andre Michel has delightfully said, call upon us with loud, 
authoritative voices, to come and see the corner of the world 
they have discovered. ** One might say that every stroke of 
" their brush attempts to explain how things are made, and to 
" reveal them by displaying them. ... It was a mistake on 
** the part of the Almighty that they were not consulted during 
** the seven days of creation ! Cazin takes you gently by the 
" arm — and under his breath, almost without a word, without 
" a gesture, he invites you to contemplation.*' 

His pictures of twilight, of the smmner night when the 
stars come out in the blue-black sky over Pisa, or a single 
light shines through the chink of a shutter from thos^ 
sleeping houses across the canal of some French provinci^*^' 
town, have a penetrating charm, a repose all their own. 

But what is specially remarkable about M. Cazin' ^ 
pictures is the manner in which he treats figures in land ^ 
scape. Though he had already exhibited in 1865 and 186t5^ 
it was not until 1876 that he appeared as an artist — ar:^ 
artist thoroughly matured, both in power and in knowledge 
by ten long years of silent endeavour, intellectual cultivation^ 
and foreign travel. From 1871 to 1875 he hved chiefly ii^ 
England, and there devoted much time to fascinating ex 
periments in pottery. He also painted in Holland, Flanders 



aly ; was a Conservateur de Musee, and a professor. And 
L the Salons of 1876-77-78 his pictures at once produced a 
vid impression of surprise. They struck a fresh and un- 
cpected note. Here were episodes from the Bible story 
eated after a purely modern method, with a familiar land- 
jape used to enhance the poetic emotion they conveyed to 
le spectator. For M. Cazin was one of the very first to be 
)uched with the mystic reaction of which I have already 
Doken. In these early pictures, " La fuite en Egypte," 1877, 
Le voyage de Tobie" 1878, *' Le Depart," 1879, "Judith," 
Hagar and Ishmael,'* 1883, etc., landscape plays a con- 
derable role. The figures fonn a natural and harmonious 
art of the whole, as in the noble pictures of Poussin or of 
lembrandt, who treated such subjects of history and legend 
1 much the same way. 

From 1883 to 1888 M. Cazin again gave himself a time 
)r study and reflection, spending much time in northern 
taly. Since then landscapes have formed the chief part 
f his exhibited works. And in his figure pictures, legend 
nd history have given place to a more purely modern 
2ntiment of the aspects of humanity, such as **La 
oumee faite,'' " Les Voyageurs,'* etc. But whether he paints 
'orking men and women of to-day, or Judith going forth 
•om the deserted ramparts, or Tobias and his angelic guide, 
r Hagar and Ishmael in the desert, M. Cazin always treats 
is subjects with dignity and elevation, and a profound 
oetic sense. 

The Luxembourg contains the ** Hagar and Ishmael," 
883, and the ** Chambre Mortuaire de Gambetta *\ 

Fantin-Latour, Henri-Ignace-Theodore,* (6. Grenoble, 
836). — Pupil of his father, and of M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran. 
rl. Fantin-Latour belongs to the growing school of Imagina- 
ive painters. Though in his earlier portraits he was some- 
imes accused of sacrificing the interest which should be 
oncentrated on his sitters to the details of their setting, each 
resh work brings him nearer to those purest traditions of 
French Art, in which expression of thought has come before 
I puerile imitation of outward appearance. A friend of 


Manet — a passionate admirer of Wagner's music — every year 
sees M. Fantin-Latour making a fresh step onwards towards 
the ideal, as against the merely photographic. At the same 
time he never permits his execution to be sacrificed to his 
idea. His admiration and knowledge bom of long study 
of the Venetian school is profound. And he knows ac- 
curately how to produce unexpected and special effects 
flashing and shimmering in rich and serious harmonies, 
with the grain of his canvas— with the stone — or with 

In his scenes from Wagner's operas it would seem as if 
he tried to rival with the brush the glorious harmonies of 
the master he worships. And in such grandiose conceptions 
as the "Dernier Theme de Schumann,'* or the "Vision" 
from Oberon, he transports us into realms of purest fantasy 
— pursuing his way calmly, unmoved alike by fashion or by 

Examples : — 

Un atelier aux BatignoUes, 1879, Luxembourg. 

Fleurs Varies, Mrs. Edwards. 

These are flowers of Midsummer, G. Woodwiss, Esq- 

The bather, C. J. Galloway, Esq. 

Homage a Eugene Delacroix, 1864 ; Sctee de Tann-^ 
hauser, 1864; Scenes de Rheingold, 1878-80 r 
Scenes de la Walkure, 1879. 
Caeri^re, Eugene,* (6. Goumay, Seine et Oise). — M. 
Carriere, a pupil of Cabanel's, is among the most interesting 
modem representatives of French Art. His system, his 
point of view, has been met by violent attacks. He has been 
accused of affectation, of pose. But no clamour has turned 
him aside from his personal vision, in which life and nature 
appear to him through a tender haze. 

He seeks his poem and his drama, in the fine and 
tremulous atmosphere of Parisian interiors, at the hour when 
the fading light gently obliterates all strongly marked con- 
trasts, and softens colours and forms. ** It is the milieu of 
** his dream, the choice of his spirit, this veiled harmony in 
** which nothing is lost but all is refined, this soft cosy 


'* refuge, where far from all brutal contact the beloved vision 
" exists in the heart of the accustomed ways.*' 

Each of M. Carrifere's pictures, suggestive and intensely 
buman, is the dream of a personality. We perceive the 
beads of his personages, modelled with exquisite and sugges- 
tive delicacy, through this strangely nebulous atmosphere. 
Whether in his portraits — or in the lovely *' Matemite " 
Df the Luxembourg — or in such a picture as the ** Theatre 
Populaire," 1895 — a profound human sentiment, tender and 
sad, is always present. And to his view of art we might apply 
Baudelaire's words, ** What can be seen in sunlight is always 
' less interesting than what takes plac^ ^behind a window 
* pane. In this dark or luminous hole life lives, life dreams, 
'• life suifers/' 

In the Universal Exhibition of 1889 M. Carrifere's con- 
tribution of three portraits and two subject pictures were 
rewarded by the decoration of the Legion of Honour. 
M. Carriere's contributions to the Salon of 1898 serve 
to accentuate his peculiar methods. One, a portrait group 
of an elderly lady and her grandchildren, is full of tender- 
ness, and vague, almost melancholy sentiment. The second, 
a decorative panel for the Amphitheatre of Free Instruction 
at the Sorbonne, is a deeply interesting work — two symbolic 
figures just waking from sleep, above Paris wrapped in a 
mysterious smoke-like atmosphere, with long lines of mist 
beginning to rise from the dimly seen city. 

Examples : — 

Matemite, 1892, Luxembourg. 
A Portrait Group, 1897, Luxembourg. 
L'Enfant Malade, 1885, Mus6e de Montargis. 
Portrait, Louis Henri Devillez, 1887. 

Martin, Henri-Jean-Guillaume {b. Toulouse), pupil o 
M. Jean-Paul Laurens, received a first class medal in 188 
tor a '* Paolo et Francesca ". In 1885 he was given a bmirse 
ie voyage — one of those travelling scholarships which are of 
such inestimable value to the young artist. And at the 
Universal Exposition of 1889, where he exhibited four 
pictures, he received a gold medal. 


M. Henri Martin is a bom decoratif and symbolist. 
Perhaps, if that is a title to fame, he is one of the most 
'* discussed *' artists of the day. For it is difficult to keep 
his name out of any symposium in Paris on Modern Art ; 
and once mentioned, it is a signal for the most unbridled and 
unending discussion. 

In 1895 his picture "L'Inspiration," destined to form 
part of a great scheme of decoration for the Hotel de Ville of I 
his native city, was bought for the Luxembourg ; which also 
robbed Toulouse of another of his canvases. The city, how- 
ever, has gained in the end. For the picture of 1898, 
" L'Apparition de Cl^mence Isaure aux Troubadours," is 
undoubtedly the best of the three. 

In both " L 'Inspiration '* and ** Clemence Isaure," M. 
Henri Martin chooses the edge of a southern pine wood for 
his locality — the late sunset for his hour of day. In both 
light flashes here and there upon the tall, red, pillared stems. 
In one, the poet wandering through the mysterious forest 
is attended by gentle and seraphic beings, floating like 
trails of evening mist behind his head, who reveal to him 
the thought for which he seeks. In the other, the amazed 
and enraptured troubadours perceive a cloud-like group of 
mystic forms, from the midst of which Clemence Isaure, pro- 
tectress of the Arts, with the symbolic "peiisee" at her breast, 
delivers to her well-beloved poets the charter of their Floral 
Games. It is interesting to compare the two pictures ; for in 
three years M. Henri Martin has made a great stride forward. 

His well-known and well-abused method of producing the 
play of light he loves, is by little dots or comma-shaped 
strokes, which at a short distance melt into a whole. This 
treatment answers its purpose in his hands admirably for 
decorative work ; though it is somewhat worrying to the eye 
if seen too close. But this peculiar touch is greatly modified 
in the " Clemence Isaure ". Each year M. Martin's pigment 
grows softer, more melting. Each year the presentment 
of his conception, without losing distinction or strength, 
becomes more harmonious, more poetic ; for each year shows 
a decided advance upon the preceding one. 

[ 18601898. IMAGINATIVE PAINTERS. 425 

Examples : — 

Paolo et Francesca aux Enfers, 1883, Mus^e de Car- 

L'Inspiration, 1895, Luxembourg. 

L'Apparition de Cl^mence Isaure aux Troubadours, 
1898, Hotel de Ville, Toulouse. 

Decorative Frieze, Hotel de Ville, Toulouse. 
Aman-Jean, Edmond (6. Chevry-Cossigny, Seine et 
Mame). — Among those modem painters who occupy them- 
selves with all the introspective, psychologic enigmas of 
character and temperament which so fascinate writers and 
artists of the present day, M. Aman-Jean holds a prominent 
place. " L'^temel feminin '* is his study. And he analyses 
every movement, every pose, every thought of those subtle 
creatures, who appear on his canvas, reflective, contem- 
plative, fragile, graceful. *' The gestures are half- weary, the 
** hands with tapering fingers drop lazily, the unfathomable 
** mystery of the glance and the vague smile — irony, in- 
^* terrogation or regret — reveal the flight of unquiet 

M. Aman-Jean 's work is distinctlv decorative — even 
when it is not avowedly so, as in the panel of 1895, " La 
Jeune fille au Paon '\ The beautiful portrait in the Luxem- 
bourg for example, with its grave and harmonious colouring, 
is almost Japanese in its decorative qualities. The artist, 
whose personality as well as whose talent has in the last few 
years made him the chief of a very considerable school, 
believes that poetry still exists in our modem life. And to 
reveal these poetic suggestions is the task he has set himself 
— a task he is fulfilling with rare distinction. 

Renan, Art (6. Paris). — Son of the famous and learned 
philosopher, and great-nephew on his mother's side of Ary 
Scheflfer the artist, M. Ary Eenan could hardly fail, with 
such parents and such traditions, to distinguish himself by a 
very distinct personality. And in this we are not doomed to 
disappointment. His work shows an exquisite distinction, a 
symlx)lism at once poetic and philosophic, a quality both as 

* Roger Marx. 


to colour, draftsmanship, technique, and imagination which 
is rare. 

A pupil of Delaunay and Puvis de Chavannes, a follower 
of M. Gustave Moreau — on whose work he has written an 
admirable treatise — M. Ary Eenan has much in common 
with this master in his sense of colour, his delight in what 
is rich and precious in material, what is beautiful in fonn 
and colour. Producing little, but that little of a very high 
order, M. Ary Eenan's work is hardly known in England. 
And his small and exquisite ** Plainte d'Orph^e " passed 
almost unnoticed at the Grafton Galleries in 1894. But in 
France his position as one of the leaders of the Jeuiie Ecok 
is a recognised one. And his remarkable picture, " La 
Phalene,*' which was exhibited in the Salon of 1895, was 
the painting chosen by acclamation in the Quartier Latin 
that year. 

The Luxembourg possesses his ** Sappho". His first Salon 
picture in 1880 was a portrait. His second in 1882, ** Le 
Plongeur '*. 

CoTTET, Charles (6. Puy, Haute Loire), is undoubtedly 
one of the most interesting of the younger painters. Each^- 
year since the State in 1893 purchased his ** Kayons du Soi^^ 
(port de Camaret) " for the Luxembourg, the strong anc^ 
serious personality of the young artist has developed steadily- — 
Each year he has added some fresh contribution, som^ 
stronger and deeper note to the series of pictures to which^ 
he gives the collective title, ** Au pays de la Mer '\ As with^ 
J. F. Millet*s toilers on the land, these toilers of the sea — 
their lives, their sorrows, their joys — belong to no one comer ' 
of France or any other country. M. Cottet synthetises, while 
others analyse. It is the spiritual vision set forth by the 
very simplest and humblest elements that suggests this 
deeply significant work. And his great triptych of 1898, 
which has been bought for the Luxembourg, reaches a 
height that he has not yet attained of pathos and power both 
of conception and execution. The central panel is ** Le 
d'a4iea/' while right and left are ** Ceux qui s'en vont '" 
loi restent *\ Before the subdued emotion — the 


rave harmonious colour of the lamp-lighted room — of the 
roup of men on the boat as she steals away under the stars 
-of the women watching on the rugged shore — it is im- 
)ossible to remain unmoved ; or to imagine that a great 
nture does not await so serious and self-respecting an artist. 
TissoT, James, * (6. Nantes, 1836). — A pupil of Flandrin 
Mid Lamothe, M. Tissot entered the ficole des Beaux Arts in 
1857. In the Salon of 1859 he exhibited two paintings of 
saints, a la cire, two portraits of women, and a ** Promenade 
dans la Neige ". His " Faust et Marguerite '' of 1861 is now 
in the Luxembourg. From that time, for some twenty years 
he constantly contributed to the Salons, and exhibited in 
England portraits and genre pictures, for the most part of 
an extremely exact contemporary realism, such for instance 
18 " The Last Evening," belonging to Mr. Charles Gassiot ^ — 
i scene on board some ocean steamer. 

In 1886, however, M. Tissot's work and aims underwent a 

omplete change. As he himself tells us, he started for the 

last in the autumn of that year to study the scenes of the 

Tew Testament, and render them from his own point of view. 

IVhile some," he says, ** like the schools of the Kenaissance, 

liave been occupied only with the mise en scene, and others, 

like the mystic schools, with sentiment alone, they have 

with one accord abandoned the ground of historical and 

topographical accuracy . . . This is why, attracted as I 

was by the divine figure of Jesus, and by the entrancing 

scenes of the Gospel story, and desiring to represent them, 

as faithfully as I could do, in their different aspects, I 

determined to start for Palestine, and to visit it as a 

devout pilgrim." 

The results of that visit are well known. For ten years 
I. Tissot devoted himself wholly to the series of 365 small 
crater-colour pictures, " The Life of our Lord Jesus Christ," 
vhich have been exhibited since 1896 in the Lemercier 
jallery in London. When in 1894 they were first shown in 
Paris they created, and justly, a profound sensation. For 
"by its decision, its evident sincerity, and an obstinate and 

» Exhibited Guildhall, 1898. 


*' pathetic insistence, the work commands and retains our 
sympathy '*.^ In some degree it reminds us of the naturalist 
work of the French miniaturist masters of the fifteenth 
century. We have their preciseness and minuteness of 
detail. But if Jehan Fouquet had been to the East, he 
would have given us what unhappily is wanting in M. 
Tissot's rendering — colour, light, and warmth. For though 
he has seen Egypt and Palestine as the devout pilgrim, he 
has not seen them as the colourist. 

The work, otherwise, is an amazing example of illustra- 
tion, exact in every possible detail; though wanting in 
imaginative or really religious quality. 

DuBUFE, GuiLLAUME, * (6. Paris, 1853), is the son of 
Edouard Debufe (1819-1883), and grandson of Claude-Marie 
Dubufe (1790-1864), two of the best known portrait painters 
of the early half of the century. A pupil of his father and of 
MazeroUe, M. Dubufe seldom paints portraits, though had he 
given himself to that hne of work, his own talent as well as 
the tradition of two generations would have ensured him a 
speedy success. M. Dubufe is however of too independent a» 
character to care to reap where others have sown. And hi® 
painting is distinctly decorative, with a grace and lightnes- 
of its own. As an instance of his graceful decorative trea*^ 
ment of sacred subjects, we may cite his triptych of **!> ■ 
Salutation Angelique," or, again, the very charming series C^ 
water-colour drawings, illustrating the Life of the Virgir^ 
which have been reproduced by Boussod and Valadon. 

M. Dubufe, with M. M. Carolus-Duran and Duez, wai^ 
one of the chief organisers of the Soci6t(^ Nationale de=' 
Beaux Arts, founded in 1890 under the presidency 
Meissonier, and familiarly known as the '* Salon of th 
Champ de Mars ". 

* Andre Michel. 



Impressionism — one of those clever but somewhat misleading 
terms to which the French language lends itself with such 
readiness — is almost the latest development of French Art. 
None of the successive artistic movements of the nineteenth 
century have been subjected to more opposition, ridicule, 
abuse, and misrepresentation. And with some reason. For 
of late ** Impressionism " has too often signified the daubings 
of some young person ignorant of the very first principles of 
drawing or painting, who dares to call himself an ** Im- 
pressionist," because he is too lazy or impatient to submit 
to the ceaseless training and study that are necessary for the 
artist ; too ignorant to use his brush or his pencil, and takes 
to a palette knife instead. It is such as these who bring 
discredit on the really fine artists who they pretend to 

A certain kind of Impressionism in painting is no new 
thing. We find artists of every period, in every school, in 
every country, whose work at times has been Impressionist 
— if by Impressionism we mean the vivid, personal impression 
of a fugitive effect whether in landscape or figure — an im- 
pression of colour, of light, of movement, of emotion — the 
sudden revelation, gone in a moment, as the breath of the 
wind across the grass. 

The Impression is something more than the sketch. 
There is no finality about the sketch. It is the suggestion, 
the step on the way that leads up to some more permanent 
record ; a delightful step, it is true, which we often find 
more attractive than the laboriously finished composition, in 
which the vigour and freshness of the first intention is some- 
times lost. The Lnpression in a way is final. It is the 



permanent record of the fugitive effect. And to produce that 
permanent record of the effect, the emotion, the movement, 
which may only last for five minutes — nay, for five seconds 
— requires far more technical skill, far more sound know- 
ledge, far more lively imagination, than is needed for many 
a highly finished and perfectly academic composition, studied 
day after day from the model. 

If the Impressionist — I do not of course speak of the 
ignorant and impertinent dauber — if the Impressionist is 
able to produce this effect, he must be master of every 
available means in order to attain such an end. And it is i 
only when he possesses absolute knowledge of the laws of 
colour, absolute technical dexterity in both drawing and 
painting, that he can afford to be an Impressionist — to play 
with his subject, so to speak, because he is certain of himself 
and of his own powers. The ignorant and lazy painter con- 
siders Impressionism to be a short cut. Not so the real 
artist, with whom it is the deliberate choice of certain 
methods by which to record certain phases of nature which. 
are usually considered too delicate, too evanescent, for the- 
brush. And light and fleeting as the effect of the picture 
may appear, it is often the result of the most patient, solid- 
work. For instance, the actual p&te of Mr. Whistler s famous^ 
** Wave '* is of extraordinary thickness — solid as the four — 

mile-deep Atlantic — one colour superposed on another with 

unlimited skill and knowledge of the result to be produced. - 
And the excellent M. Belot, an engraver, gave Manet eighty^ 
sittings as his model for " Le Bon Bock '*. 

Modern Impressionism has not come into being in a 
night hke some unhealthy toad-stool growth. It is the 
result of a regular evolution in the heart of the French 
school of the nineteenth century. The Impressionists of 
to-day, if they can trace their ancestry back to some of the 
giants of the earher times, are the sons of those great artists 
of the thirties and forties who dared to go straight to nature 
and paint her as they saw her, each from his own personal 
standpoint, discarding once for all the bondage of false 
formulas both in subject and treatment. Millet was one of 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 431 

their forerunners — Constable and Bonnington have had their 
share in the evolution — Corot,Cour bet, Manet are their parents 
— those who dared in a period of narrow, academic dogmatism 
to use the absolutely simple methods, that direct touch, that 
breadth and mass, that we find in Rembrandt and Velasquez. 
Those who dared to study in the open air ; who dared to 
banish for ever from their palettes the bitumens and other 
abominations which were the curse of the French school of 
the day ; and to give us in their place the sensation of every 
delicate, subtle nuance of clear, light, transparent colour, of 
tone, of the true '* relations between the state of the atmos- 
" phere which illumines the picture, and the general tonality 
*** of the objects painted in it ". These are some of the 
principles which the Impressionists learned from their im- 
mediate forerunners — principles known to the great masters 
of the past : but lost sight of for many years under the 
deadening influence of the Classic decadence. 

But another factor has had much to do in developing 
^Modern Impressionism. This is the influence of Japanese 
-Art. The more complete and scientific knowledge of 
Japanese Art which has spread throughout the Western 
^World in the last twenty-five years of the nineteenth cen- 
'afcury, has been of incalculable importance in its bearings on 
^Modern Art, whether plastic or textile. By its very limita- 
tions, Japanese Art has grown to be purely impressionist, as 
^well as intensely naturalistic. And when it became known 
«t its best, artists perceived that certain effects which here- 
tofore had been overlooked altogether, or considered im- 
^Kjssible in Art by reason of their elusive nature, were not 
-only possible, but contained elements of beauty which re- 
paid both study and endeavour. Whether consciously or 
^unconsciously, this Japanese Art has largely influenced the 
Impressionist school. In no artist's work is it more evident 
than in that of M. Degas, whose very perspective has been 
effected by that of Japan. While many of the landscape 
"painters, since the methods of their Japanese brethren have 
become known, see that it is possible to paint a red roof, a 
white wall, a green tree, a blue river, a yellow road, frankly, 


boldly, without attenuations, or false shadows, in the fall 
blaze of the midday sun — and yet to produce a work of art. 

It is novel, it is daring, it is full of dazzling, palpitating ^-^ 
light this Impressionist painting. It often exasperates and 
confuses the public, because the Impressionist has en- l"^" 
deavoured to find a language of his own, absolutely suitable "^-^ 
to the expression of his thought. ** The indolent eye of the 
** public, etccustomed to conventional forms, to writings 1^ 
** consecrated by the whole of a glorious past, is slow to |^ 
** make the effort necessary to decipher this language, which 
** the unprejudiced read with ease." ^ And because the Im- 
pressionist puts on his canvas what he sees, not what he is 
expected to see, the public shouts with derisive laughter, or 
grows stupidly angry. But Impressionist painting neverthe- 
less is perfectly sincere. And in the hands of such masters 
as M. Claude Monet, as M. Besnard, as M. Renoir, it is full 
of poetry, of emotion, of beauty, of intense truth to nature 
and to life in their most subtle and often most charming 

The Impressionist doctrine has been summed up by theic 
latest historian as ** the study of luminous phenomena and o^ 
** social phenomena ". These artists are not occupied witJ^ 
the past in history or in tradition. They desire to represeni- ^ 
modern life, and the world in which they find themselves a^"^ 
the present moment. Light is what they have sough '■' 
beyond all besides. And while the more lyric Romantic^^ 
chose the sunset as their favourite effect in nature, the Im- — 
pressionists in their preoccupation with close analysis tak^ 
the light of full midday. ** In this ardent and exclusive 
** contemplation of atmosphere made visible," says M. Andr& 
Michel, . . . '* and the better to express its splendour, or^ 
** its more fugitive nuances, they have made use of all that> 
** science has been able to teach about colours ; they hav^ 
** decomposed the elements of each tone, and placed them 
** side by side upon the canvas, in order to obtain by this- 
** ' milamje optiqn^ ' more transparent lights, more dehcate 
" vibrations." These little blots of pure colour, which, when 

' LeoDce Benedite. 

18614899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 433 

seen close, are a fraitful source of rude and imbecile merri- 
ment to the ignorant public, resolve themselves at a little 
distance — the right distance — into flaming skies, shivering 
trembUng leaves, luminous dancing shadows, reflected in 
liquid, rippling waters. Such effects as these were worth 
recording. They do not sum up the whole of Art. They 
are not the ultimate end and attainment of the painter's 
craft. But they form a hnk, a very solid and brilliant link, 
in the ever-lengthening chain. And such as they are, they 
are worthy of serious and intelligent consideration. 

To Edouard Manet we must look as the real leader of 
the Impressionist movement. His influence has been of 
deeper import than has, I think, been fully grasped as yet. 
For although the chiefs of the Impressionist School were 
not his pupils in the strict sense of the word — he seldom 
even criticised their work — yet they instinctively gathered 
about him ; and his influence had much to do with the de- 
velopment of their methods and their aims. Manet opened 
the eyes of many men ; and taught them to look about them, 
to see for themselves, and to paint what they saw. It was 
ttiainly owing to him that his contemporary, M. Degas, left 
i^is portraits, and turned to those scenes of the Theatre or 
^lie Bacecourse, which have made his name famous. 

Claude Monet — the modem heir of much of the great 
^t^umer's passionate and fantastic love of passing, fleeting, 
^^ivid dreams of colour, light, and atmosphere — was one of 
^ke first to recognise the power and truth of Manet's 
doctrine. Pissarro, who began as the ** classique raisonable,'* 
ic^ined the camp of revolt. Cezanne gave himself to his bathers 
^oid boaters. Sisley to landscapes. Benoir to those rainbow 
Reflections in portrait and figure paintings, dazzling, and 
<iehghtful. Mme. Berthe Morizot to her luminous sea- 
pieces, or her genre pictures, at once strong and feminine. 
And Caillebotte, whose legacy of forty Impressionist pictures 
to the Luxembourg in 1896 made so profound a sensation in 
the art world, soon joined the group. Some of them, dis- 
daining the ridicule with which their work was greeted, still 

exhibited; Manet gained his medals and his cross. M. 



Renoir in spite of the miserable positions assigned to his 
pictures, persevered for a considerable time in sending them 
to the Palais de I'lndustrie. M. Sisley has till quite recently 
exhibited at the Champ de Mars. M.M. Claude Monet, 
Renoir and Sisley were already known in the atelier of Gleyre, 
Mr. Whistler's master. And Claude Monet was in fact the 
godfather of the movement. For it was the title of a picture 
of his — *' Impression " — which was taken up ironically by 
the adversaries, and used to designate the whole group. 

To this first group others must be added, who exhibited 
with them in 1874 at Nadar's on the Boulevard des Capu- 
ciues — Bracquemond, Boudin, Lepic, Lupine, de Nittis, 
Legros, Millet, Desboutin. A little later they were joined 
by Raffaelli, Lebourg, Forain, etc., who were soon taken up 
by the public, and whose names appeared in the annual 
catalogues of the Salons. M. Besnard, though considerably 
their junior, now ranks as one of the most brilliant of the 
school. While numbers of other artists w^hose talent has 
developed on quite other lines, ** though they have not 
"borrowed Manet's paint brush, have looked through his 
" glasses '\ And the spirit and genius of Manet have been 
with Roll, with Gervex, Bastien-Lepage, Cazin, Lhermitte, 
and many more ; though their strong and vigorous personality 
has led them into paths of their own. 

But Art in France is never absolutely stationary. It is 
always searching, reaching forward to some fresh revelation. 
And already signs are to be seen of a new movement among 
the younger artists, of which it is too soon to speak with any 
authority. Certain among them ** while they profit by the 
*' acquisitions of the school of the open-air, while they 
" remain attentive to the play of reflections and deUcate 
'* harmonies of the envelope, are returning to a closer study 
** of form, and a relatively sombre and 'ancient' mode of 
*' painting, which reposes us from the excesses of impres- 
** sionism ".^ These artists would seem to consider that 
the preoccupation of the Impressionists with light — some- 
times with violent, unmitigated light — has been carried 

• Andre Michel. 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 435 

far enough. They prefer the crepuscule. And they choose 
the mysterious light of plain or forest, or the dimness of an 
interior, at the lovely hour when daylight dies on the earth, 
but still Ungers on tree-tops and cloud and hill. Such men 
as M. Ren6 Minard, M. Lucien Simon, MM. Prinet, Griveau, 
Boulard, Dauchez, etc., will have to be counted with in the 
twentieth century. 


Manet, Edouard,* (6. Paris, 1833 ; d, 1883).— The fate of 
all the most original artists of the nineteenth century — 
Delacroix, Gericault, Rousseau, Corot, Millet, Courbet — has 
been opposition, abuse, neglect, and at last, often too late, a 
tardy recognition. But the abuse which was meted out so 
unsparingly to his predecessors, was as nothing compared 
with that lavished upon Edouard Manet. 

The eldest of three brothers in a well-connected family 
belonging to the magistracy, Edouard Manet was destined 
for the bar or the army. As a child his education was carried 
on by the abb^ Poiloup. He then entered the College RoUin, 
where his life-long friendship began with M. Antonin Proust. 
But the boy's passion for Art already displayed itself. From 
an uncle in the Artillery, an enthusiastic sketcher in pen and 
ink, the nephew soon caught the fever ; covering his exercise 
books with portraits, landscapes, and fanciful drawings. And 
when at sixteen his studies at the College were ended, he 
declared that he preferred Art to the Code, and that a lawyer 
he would not be. His family were of a different opinion. 
They promptly sent the youth to sea in a merchant vessel. 
And he had an uneventful voyage to Rio Janiero, making 
pencil sketches of all he saw — a picturesque corner of the deck 
of the Gtuideloupe — an amusing face or scene in South America,. 
In the later days he often laughed over his first essay in 
painting. As the vessel neared the coast it was discovered 
that the cargo of Dutch cheeses had been damaged by salt 

water. Edouard Manet offered to repair the disaster. 

*' Consciencieusement, avec un blaireau, je refis la toilette des 

"tetes de mort, qui reprirent leur belle teinte lie de vin. 

" — Ce fut mon premier morceau de peinture.** 


Upon his return, Manet, in spite of his family's protests, 
entered Couture's studio. Couture, a disappointed man, 
whose temper was irritable and whose tongue was bitter, 
was specially severe on any student who showed signs of 
originality. His pupils were to perpetuate his own methods. 
They were to learn the lessons he taught them, and nothing 
else. Manet's personality and audacity were evident in 
every line he drew. And his method of work from the model 
— taking here an ear, there a turn of the neck, there a 
shoulder, and treating it independently of the rest — in- 
furiated the teacher. Manet's principle, both then and for 
the rest of his Hfe, was to make use of all technical in- 
struction : but to observe nature closely, and reproduce it 
according to his own feeling ; neither borrowing from his 
predecessors, or his memory, but boldly facing reality. 

The scenes of the terrible days of December, 1851, made 
a profound impression on the young artist. And the story 
of his adventures and hairbreadth 'scapes have been vividly 
told by M. Proust who shared in them, and by Bazire in his 
Life of Manet. Unsettled and distracted by national events, 
unsatisfied by Couture's teaching, Manet while ostensibly 
remaining a pupil in the studio, made several joumejrs to 
study the foreign galleries. He first went to Germany and 
Austria ; and later on to Italy. His sketch books in 
Florence are crowded with notes of extreme interest. He 
merely glanced at Rome : but Venice and its collections 
enchanted him. He spent some time there ; and we are 
told that a rapid copy of a Tintoret was ** a marvel of clever 
reproduction ". This journey left a certain mark upon his 
work for some time. 

But Manet was still unsatisfied — groping, seeking for 
light and truth. Couture's studio offered little that suited 
either his taste or his temperament. He and M. Proust 
took counsel with the great masters of the Louvre ; and it 
was in the Louvre, with Velasquez and Goya, that Manet 
found the answer to all his questionings and aspirations for 
light and for truth. Spain alone could satisfy him ; and to 
revive and respect the teaching of Spain under modern 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 437 

^pects, by modern methods, became his ambition. Disgusted 
by the brutalities of Couture's criticism, or rather abuse, 
Manet finally left his studio, and gave himself up with 
increasing ardour to work according to his own convictions. 
From early dawn till twilight in his simple studio of the rue 
Lavoisier, he was to be found at his easel. A few, a very 
tew friends in art and letters recognised his talent. And 
Mr. Whistler, M.M. Legros, Fantin-Latour, Zola and 
Baudelaire, were from the first his most faithful, most 
valiant exponents and defenders. 

In 1861 he made his first appearance at the Salon with a 
portrait of himself and his young wife, and ** The Spanish 
Guitar Player '\ Over both the cry of ** reaUsm " was raised. 
** Bealism '* was the bete-noir of the moment. But still the 
delightful " Guitar player " was less maltreated than might 
have been expected. Theophile Gautier, with his generous, 
honest recognition of what was fine, no matter whence it 
came, was enthusiastic. *' Caramba,'* he cries, ** there is a 
** guitarero who does not hail from the Op6ra-Comique, 
** . . . but Velasquez would greet him with a friendly little 
**wink, and Goya would hand him down a light for his 
*' papelito/' And more than this. The Jury of the Salon, 
inspired by Delacroix, actually gave Manet a mention honorable. 
It was his first success. And his last for many a year. 

In the two next years the partisans of tradition were too 
strong. Manet was excluded from the Salon. In the 
famous — or infamous — Salon of 1863, such was the enmity 
displayed by the Jury to all but received and well-authenti- 
cated talent, that the Exposition des Refuses was opened in the 
same building as the Salon des Acceptes. In this ** den of 
Kevolution,*' as it was supposed to be, Manet was one of the 
artists whose works attracted most attention. But a sur- 
prising list of names were grouped about him. Legros, 
Bracquemond, Jongkind, Harpignies, Whistler, Saint-Marcel, 
Sutter, Lavielle, etc. Manet's ** Dejeuner sur Therbe," ** le 
Bain," ** Le Fifre de la Garde," made a profound impression. 
The Emperor and Empress scandalized the official world by 
adventuring themselves into the dangers of the den, and 


Still more by a^diniring what they found there. And the 
obedient public followed their example. It was a heavy 
blow to officialdom ; and it had its efifect. In the next year 
Manet appeared again at the Salon in company with many 
of the other refuses ; though the critics atta.cked him with 

His ** Olympia " of 1865, now in the Luxembourg, which 
in some of its treatment, especially in the brevity of the 
shadows, and the delicate modelling of the contours in the 
lights, has much in common with the work of Ingres, 
created a perfect scandal. It is curious to read over some of 
the criticisms of the day. 

The next year, however, the ** Joueur de Fifre " and the 
** Acteur tragique " were refused by the Jury. And in 1867 
both Manet and Courbet were excluded from the Universal 
Exposition. They replied by opening independent exhibitions 
of their own works, to let the public judge whether they 
were indeed the ruffians and criminals they were supposed 
to be. Manet exhibited fifty pictures. It was a grand 
record of work of the most varied kind. With the beauti- 
ful ** Enfant a ri5:p6e," might be seen ** le Buveur d'Ab- 
sinthe,*' " le Guitarero," **Lola de Valence," " le Christ mort 
et les Anges " ; besides sea-pieces, portraits, still-life, flowers, 
animals, eaux fortes, and three fine copies. As he said 
in the quiet and dignified introduction to the catalogue, 
*' The Artist does not say to you to-day. Come and see 
** faultless works : but, Come and see sincere works *'. The 
protest had its effect. If his pictures were still laughed 
at, they were for nine years admitted to the Salons. And an 
increasing number of persons saw that Manet must be 
counted with seriously. M. Zola, in 1867, had pubhshed a 
study upon the artist, which is a chef d'oeuvre of artistic 
criticism. And other writers now followed his example. 

The year 1870 marks a most important stage in the 
artist's career. It was just before the war that a mere 
accident — the visit to a friend near Paris, in whose park he 
began painting — revealed to Manet a new method — painting 
in the open-air. And after he had served throughout the 

561-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 489 

iege of Paris in the artists* battalion of the Garde Nationale, 
dth Meisonnier as Colonel, he once more took up his brush 
-but as a new man. No longer an exclusive follower of 
ae Spaniards, Manet had found the full use of his powers. 
Jid henceforth he was the pioneer, opening the way for 
lose who have come after him in the school of plein-air. 

Then the recognition waited for so long, so courageously, 
egan to come to him. M. Theodore Duret, whose Critique 
Avani Garde is the most valuable work on the Impressionists, 
ad long been one of his devoted defenders, and had already 
ought an example of the master's second manner. And 
ow M. Durand-Ruel came forward. Recognising the 
nmense importance of the artist's work, he bought 50,000 
rancs-worth of these despised pictures ; thus beginning his 
slebrated collections of Impressionist paintings. Others 
X)n followed such a lead. M.M. Ephrussi, Bernstein, 
lay, and many other enlightened amateurs, possessed them- 
slves of Manet*s pictures. M. Faure, the celebrated singer, 
wns a collection of thirty-five. 

The ** School of the Batignolles," as it was called, 
athered new converts to itself. And the fine sea-piece in 
872, the fight between ** The Kearsage and Alabama," so 
riginal in treatment, so true to nature, won the artist many 
dmirers. But it was ** Le Bon Bock " which brought him 
really popular success. And until 1876 unkind fortune 
3emed to have relented in some degree. But in this year 
Le Linge," and " Desboutin " the engraver's portrait, were 
oth refused admission to the Salon. This time the Jury 
as gone a step too far. Manet was an artist of recognised 
ower. The press, with hardly an exception, cried out with 
idignation at such treatment. For, as one distinguished 
erson, since well-known in public life, said truly in a letter 
3 the artist, *' The Jury is at liberty to say, I do not hke 
Manet. But not to cry, Down with Manet — A la porte, 

The artist had only one more insult to endure. The 
Iniversal Exhibition of 1878 followed the example of that 
f 1867. Manet's pictures were excluded. But now the 


Jury of the Salon was transformed by the introduction pf 
new blood. After 1878 Manet, if not welcomed by all, 'WWW 
received with courtesy at the Palais de Tlndustrie. In 1880 
his magnificent portrait of M. Antonin Proust conquered all 
prejudices. In 1881 seventeen members of the Jxiiy 
triumphed over an adverse minority ; and Manet was given 
a second medal. Among the valiant seventeen we find the 
names of Carolus-Duran, Cazin, Duez, Gervex, Guillaumet, 
Henner, Lalanne, de Neuville, Roll, Vuillefroy. — It is 
pleasant to record them. And in December of the same 
year, M. Antonin Proust, then Directeur des Beaux Arts, 
had the happiness and satisfaction of giving his friend the 
Legion of Honour. It was an act of courage. But it was 
also one of justice. And happily it came just not too late. 
For in little more than twelve months the artist, who had 
led the way so bravely for so many years, despite opposition, 
ridicule, and persecution, died painfully, just as success and 
recognition as a master among the masters had come to 

Examples — Luxembourg : — 

Olympia, 1865 ; Le Balcon, 1869, etc. 

Portrait, M. Antonin Proust, 1880; Jeanne, 1882, 
Collection M. A. Proust. 

Le Guitarero, 1861 ; Le Fifre ; Le Bon Bock, 1873 : 
Hamlet ; and many others. Collection M. Faure. 

L'enfant a I'^^p^e, Metropolitan Art Museum, New 
Degas, Hilaire-Germain-Edgar (6. Paris, 1834). — A 
pupil of Lamothe, M. Degas entered the 6cole des Beaux 
Arts in 1855. Ten years later he exhibited a pastel, " Scfene 
de guerre au moyen age,*' in the Salon ; the next year a 
** Steeple Chase ** ; and in 1867-8 various portraits. But two 
influences were destined to have a profound effect on the 
artist's work and career. First the friendship and principles 
of Manet. Secondly the Art of Japan. 

M. Degas has always been distinguished by the science 
and precision of his drawing. He in fact prefers the point to 
the brush. And hence to some extent his predeliction for 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 441 

pastel, with which he can obtain at the same time an ex- 
quisite and harmonious colour effect with scrupulously exact 
draftsmanship. But while Manet^s example induced him to 
leave his portraits and devote himself to modem life — to 
grace in motion, to scenes of the racecourse and the theatre 
— Japanese Art completely transformed his outlook on Art. 
He not only became a decorative painter, as is every Japanese 
artist. But he even adopted in some cases the very methods 
and perspective of Japan — thereby producing effects so un- 
usual as to cause confusion and dismay to the spectator — who 
while willing enough to think such effects perfectly legitimate 
and even admirable in the hands of a Japanese, considered 
them but little short of criminal in those of a European. 

Examples of M. Degas's work are to be seen in the 
Luxembourg, the collections of M.M. Durand-Ruel, and of 
many amateurs in Paris, the United States, and in London. 

Monet, Claude (6. Paris, 1840), — pupil of Gleyre, stands 
at the head of the Impressionist School. A great artist, with 
a profound knowledge of ways and means, he endeavours to 
render the purest poetry of nature, her most exquisite, most 
elusive aspects, with the brush. A legitimate heir in his 
passionate sense of colour of the great Turner, M. Claude 
Monet has gone further in his analysis of colour, of Hght, of 
atmosphere, than any other member of the Impressionist 
School. He paints straight from nature ; and seeing nature 
with the eye of the colourist as well as the poet, he is not 
afraid to find in nature colour hannonies hitherto hardly 

As soon as artists such as Corot, Courbet, and Manet 
began to paint straight from nature, they saw that painting 
must no longer be black, but light ; that nature was full of 
light ; and that only the clearest, purest, lightest tones 
should be used to reproduce on canvas ** I'^ther ardent et 
** sublime, manteau brillant, emanation souveraine de Z6us " ! 
Delacroix, the first colourist of the nineteenth century in 
France, led the way. Then came Corot and Courbet ; and 
Manet completed the revolution which was to open the eyes 
of artists and public to the enchantment of light and colour. 


That the exclusive worship of light and colour has led luany 
of its devotees into noisy, and sometimes absurd excesses is 
but to be expected. But M. Claude Monet has already won 
a place wholly his own ; and made a contribution of the 
very highest value, as well as of exquisite beauty, to the study 
of colour and of nature in her most fugitive and most poetic 

The Luxembourg now contains two admirable examples 
of the artist's work. ** Jardin des Tuileries " and ** A snow 
scene ". 

The doors of M. Durand-Euel's appartement in Paris have 
been decorated with fruit and flowers by M. Claude Monet ; 
and some of these decorations, notably a branch of oranges, 
are of striking beauty. M. Durand-Euel also possesses a 
large collection of his finest pictures. A number of his 
pictures are in America, where they are greatly appreciated. 
Mr. Desmond FitzGerald, of Brookline, Mass., ovnis perhaps 
six of the finest landscapes Monet has ever painted. And the 
** Champ d'Avoines," belonging to Mr. John Nicholas Brown, 
of Providence, RL, is also among his best. Mr. Potter 
Palmer, Chicago; Mr. Frank Thomson, Philadelphia ; Mr. H. 
0. Havemeyer, New York ; Mr. A A. Pope, Cleveland ; Mr. C. 
Lambert, Paterson, are also among the principal collectors of 
Monet's works in the United States. 

While in France the chief collectors are the Couite de 
Camodo, M. Faure, the well-known singer, M. Durand-Ruel, 
whose private collection in the rue de Rome comprises many 
of the finest Monets, M.M. Decap, Pellerin, Gallimard and 
Berard, in Paris ; and M. Depeaux in Rouen. 

In 1891 M.M. Durand-Ruel organised an Exhibition in 
their galeries of the rue Laffite of fifteen of Monet's celebrated 
series of " Haystacks ". In 1895 they exhibited the twenty 
views of " Rouen Cathedral ". And some of them were again 
exhibited at the Petit Galleries in 1898, with Views of 
Vernon, and Norwegian Landscapes. 

Renoir, Pierre Auguste (b. Limoges, 1841). — A pupil 
of G ley re, where he was associated with M.M. Claude Monet 
and Sisley, M. Renoir first appeared at the Salon in 1864 

861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 443 

svith " La Esmeralda *\ In spite of his pictures being 
" skied," or put out of the way in comers, he persevered for 
many years in sending to the Salons. In 1879, with three 
other pictures, he exhibited his amazing portrait of ** Mile. 
Jeanne Samary of the Com6die Fran9aise " — a superb ex- 
ample of his art. M. Eenoir excels in portraiture of women 
and children. His light and rapid brush gives their supple 
and subtle grace. He is the figure-painter par excellence of 
the earlier Impressionists. On his canvas he groups life-size 
igures, generally half-lengths — a sort of magnified genre 
3ainting. But all are plunged in a rainbow atmosphere, in 
>vhich the play of multi-coloured, reflected Hghts produces 
%n eflfect at once novel and charming. 

M. Eenoir was one of the first of that little group known 
IS rifecole des Batignolles who gathered round Edouard 
Vianet. And although, as I have said, Manet did not pre- 
;end to, or even to criticise the work of those w^ho met 
together twice a week at the Caf6 Guerbois, he was always 
3ager to help them on by pointing out the merits of their 
work to critics or amateurs. Fantin-Latour in his ** Ateher 
mx Batignolles ** (Luxembourg) has immortalized some of 
bhe group. Manet sitting at his easel, M.M. Eenoir, Claude 
Monet, Zola, Maitre, Astruc, and Bazile, gathered about him, 
3LS he paints M. Otto Schoederer*s portrait. 

M. Eenoir was one of the original members of that 
Impressionist Exhibition in 1877, which made such a stir 
md first showed the public that the Impressionists were a 
body who had to be taken into account in future. The 
majority of those who visited the rue Le Peletier seemed to 
fchink *' that the artists who exhibited were not perhaps devoid 
** of talent, and that they could perhaps have produced good 
"pictures if they had chosen to paint like the rest of the 
''world, but that their first object was to make a row to 
*' enrage the public ".^ While the amateurs or critics who 
ventured to admire these works were treated as amiable 

A recent exhibition of the works of the four chief Impres- 

^ Tht'-odore Duret. 



sionists Q898), at Monsieur Durand-Ruers galeries in the 
rue Laffite, has proved how public taste has changed. And 
the larcre room filled only with M. Renoir's works showed 
the solid worth, as well as briUiancy and vivid charm of 
colour and treatment in the artist's work. Most of the same 
amateurs who I have mentioned as collectors of Monet's 
pictures, pay great attention to the works of Renoir, Sisley, 
and Pissarro. 

Exhibitions of Renoir's works were held in the Durand- 
Ruel Galleries in 1892 and 1898. 

Among the finest examples by Renoir are : — 

La Fenune au chat. Collection Durand-Ruel; La 

Terrasse ; La Femme a T^ventail ; P^heurs an 

bord de la mer ; Dejedner k Bougival ; La Loge ; 

Portrait de Mademoiselle Samary ; Jardin a Fon- 

tenay aux Roses ; La Tasse de Th6 ; La Bouque- 

tiere ; La Source ; etc., etc. 

PissARRo, Camille (b. Saint-Thomas, West Indies, 1830), 

was a pupil of M.M. A. Melbye and Corot. His first Salon 

picture, ** Paysage k Montmorency," was exhibited in 1859. 

And it is curious in reading over the " Salons " most in 

sjTnpathy with the aims of the newer school, to find that for 

several years such critics even as M. Theodore Duret, chide 

him gently for a certain want of light in his pictures ! He 

is certainly the one of the Impressionists whose methods are 

most in keeping with those of the earlier naturalist school. 

And it was not until he came under the all-powerful influence 

of Manet that he left the manner of a '' classique raisonable/' 

and joined the band of the BatignoUes. 

M. Pissarro chose for his earlier pictures the landscape of 
the pure country districts, plough lands and harvest fields, 
leafless or full-flowered trees, the country road, the fanu 
yard, the village street. But with his second manner his 
subjects too have changed. And the boulevards with all their 
sense of movement, of haste, of clear, bright atmosphere, 
have become his favourite theme. He treats such subject 
with a never-failing freshness, variety, and charm, with an 
intense appreciation of the light and colour and life of the 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 445 

great city, preserving in all a breadth and harmony of con- 
ception and execution which is most impressive. 
Among the chief examples of his work are : — 

Sydenham ; La veill6e ; Retour des champs ; Vne de 
Rouen — all reproduced in L'Art Impressionniste 
by G. Lecomte, 1892 — L'fighse d^Eragny ; Le 
Printemps ; Paysanne gardant ses Oies ; Le 
Pont de Charing Cross ; Vue de Pontoise ; La 
r^colte des pommes de terre ; Vue de Knocke, 
Flandre occidentale ; Vue de Louveciennes. 
Exhibitions of the works of M. Pissarro were organised 
by M.M. Durand-Ruel in 1892-94-96. In 1897 an exhi- 
bition of Views of Rouen took place. And in 1898 a very 
remarkable one of views of Paris, taken from the Boulevard 
des ItaUens, during the Carnival or in winter, and the place 
du Th^&tre Fran9ais, near the Avenue de Top^ra. 

Besnard, Paul Albert, 0.* (6. Paris). — Pupil of J. 
Br^mond and Cabanel, M. Besnard gained the Grand Prix 
de Rome in 1874. But this vigorous and original artist very 
soon broke loose from the bonds of academic system, and 
began to see light and colour for himself. Having exhibited 
pretty regularly since 1864, in 1882 M. Antonin Proust 
called attention to his sincerity of expression, "which has 
" not been sufficiently remarked " in ** L'abondance en- 
courageant le travail '*. And the vigour and life of his 
portraits in 1884 of M. Legros, Mr. J. Johnston, London 
correspondent of the Figaro, and M. Magnard its editor, were 
most striking. Then came the grand decorations of the 
ficole de Pharmacie, which confirmed M. Besnard's repu- 
tation as a thoroughly original artist, and a great decorator. 
" With Besnard," says M. de Lostalot, ** we enter the 
" domain of fantasy : but fantasy regulated by science. The 
" artist went to Rome, as we know. But should we reproach 
** him if he has not stayed there ? The lilcole des Beaux Arts 
" admirably fulfils its use as a nursery garden for ordinary 
"talent. If it helps on the growth of a wild plant is that a 
'* reason to cry that it is profaned ? M. Besnard, brought 
** up, instructed by the School, owes it great gratitude, but 


*' not to the extent of renouncing his artistic being in which 
** the desire for novelty, for a fresh departure, is surging.' 

M. Besnard, though he did not strictly belong to the 
earlier group of Impressionists, has more and more given 
himself over to the aims and objects, the studies, the en- 
thusiasms which move them. His chief preoccupation also, 
is with light, colour, and atmosphere. On these points he is 
a great theorist. '* He does not consider that light is a thing 
'*by itself, intended to illumine objects: but that it is 
** already a colour, or rather a mixture of diluted colours * — 
absorbing all reflections from the surfaces it touches on 
reaching the earth, and renewing and increasing their 
luminous vibrations. 

Even when he startles us, M. Besnard is always interest- 
ing. There is a rhythmic amplitude about his figures— 
especially his women — which is suggestive of true ** style," 
in these days when style is rare. That h^ chooses excep- 
tional effects is true — as in the ** Flamenco," 1898, or the 
'* March6 aux chevaux Arabes," 1898, or *' La Femme qui se 
chauffe,'* in the Luxembourg, which is a marvel of reflected 
lights. But as M. Paul Mantz, that most severe and fear- 
less of critics, said in 1889, **this study of artificial light 
** would not have displeased Rubens '\ And in his amazing 
''Portrait de Theatre'* of 1898, with the sweep of its mira- 
culous pink satin gown, and the delicious tone of the set 
scene behind, he has created an enchanting masterpiece 
from a flash of colour, of light, of a laugh, as Mme. R^jane 
raps out some delightful impertinence. 

M. Besnard like so many seekers for light, has been led 
to the East. And during a winter and spring in Algiers he 
found the light and colour that responded to those visions 
that had haunted him. But Algeria as seen by M. Besnard 
contrasts curiously with the Algeria of many of the earlier 
orientahsts. ** It is an Algeria, seen through a transparent 
*'mist of reflections, and exquisite, vaporous tints.'' And over 
it all seems 

•• Courir un frisson d*or, de nacre et d'emeraude ". 

In M. Besnard's decorative paintings — such as those of 

1861-1899. THE IMPRESSIONISTS. 447 

the Hotel de Ville, the Mairie of St. Germain TAuxerrois,' 
etc. — this preoccupation with light and colour produces a 
brilliant and happy result. While in the celebrated frescoes 
of the 6cole de la Pharmacie, to the beauty of. decoration is 
added the beauty of original and poetic sentiment. 

SiSLEY, Alfred {b. Paris, 1840^), another pupil of Gleyre, 
and a true lover of the country, delights to render its gayest 
aspects. In his methods of colour he belongs to the Impres- 
sionist school ; he has indeed been often called a '* pointiliste,'' 
which seems to be — whatever it may mean — a serious ac- 
cusation, one almost capable of leading the miscreant to the 
cour d'Assises in time. If, however, his pictures were looked 
at without prejudice, it is probable that such a delightful 
work as the ** Boat Race at Henley," now in the Luxem- 
bourg, would disarm criticism, and be found to be a most 
vi\nd and artistic rendering of the scene, with its brilliant 
colour, light, and atmosphere. M. Sisley is well-known for 
his views of Moret, near Fontainebleau, and landscapes 
about that town. 

Among his best works are : — 

Les bords du Loing ; Effet d'automne ; La Seine k 
St Mammas ; La riviere ** La Serpentine " k 
Londres ; Le pont de Moret ; La Seine k Marly ; 
Paysage a Louveciennes. 

BouDiN, Eugene,* (b. Honfleur, 1825 ; d. 1898), must be 
classed among the Impressionists ; though for some reason 
he has never been subjected to the same distrust and per- 
secution as the rest of the school. He received a third class 
medal in 1881 ; a second class in 1883 ; and was made a 
chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1889. His two admir- 
able pictures, *' Corvette Russe dans le bassin de TEure " 
<1887) and " Villefranche— la rade" (1893), are in the 

M. Boudin exhibited with the Impressionists in their 
early exhibitions. And his methods, and appreciation of 
colour and light, show that his aims are the same as 

^ M. Sisley died January, 1899, at Moret, after a long and painful illness. 


Among the members of the Impressionist group wp may 
also mention : — 

GcKNEUTTE, NoRBKRT (1854-1894), who died at the ajje 
of forty, just as his fine etchings and his singular and 
interesting paintings were giving him a distinct position. 
MoNTiCELLi, Adolphe (b, Marseilles, 1824 ; d. 1886), who, 
though belonging to a much older generation, had a great 
deal in common with the later school in his methods of 
colour, and his most curious and fantastic scenes. Bracque- 
MOND, Fi&Lix, O.* (6. Paris), the celebrated engraver. 
MoRisoT, Mme. Berthe, the pupil and friend of Manet, of 
whose delicate, yet vigorous work the Luxembourg contains 
an admirable example. 



Unity of purpose — so remarkable an attribute of the French 
artistic genius, which finds its highest enjoyment, its most 
natural and national expression, in the well-ordered lines 
of Architecture — is nowhere seen to greater advantage than 
in the relations of Architecture and the State. The State 
in France has always recognized its duty to Art, although 
perhaps it has not been uniformly successful in fulfilling 
that duty. But as a Builder, the State has given evidence 
of a lively artistic conscience ; and this has produced results 
of extreme grandeur and importance. The evils of excessive 
centralization and State aid may be great. They may 
encourage a condition of tutelage, and check private initia- 
tive and enterprise. But on the other hand, with regard 
to public works, the gain of a certain unity of purpose is 
immense. A Haussman may not be an unmixed blessing. 
But ** it must be acknowledged that if Paris were divided 
into a number of vestries or other local organizations, with 
a Corporation in the He Saint Louis, and a County Council 
**on the Boulevards, it would not be the very beautiful city 
** that every one owns it to be." ^ 

What is termed in France '* The Administration of Fine 
Arts " is no new invention. Art, as I have endeavoured to 
show, was at first wholly dependent upon the Church ; then 
with the full development of the Feudal system, on the King 
and the great nobles ; and was found grouped in independent 
provincial schools. Later on, as the kingdom and body 
politic became organized and centralized, Art followed the 
same impulse. It became ordered and organized in the 

^ A. Barth^lemy. 

(449) 29 


Guilds, and centred more and more round the King and his 
Court, wherever that might happen to be fixed — in Touraine 
or in Paris. Till, with the founding of the Academy, Art 
became official, almost exclusively dependent on the King 
and the State. 

The official department of Art has seen many vicissitudes. 
Up to the Eevolution of 1789, the ** Direction des Beaux 
Arts " was included in the administration of the Eoyal 
Buildings and Eoyal Demesne. The first Eepubhc made it 
a part of the Ministry of the Interior. In 1830 Louis 
Philippe transferred it to the Ministry of Commerce and 
Public Works. In 1833 it was divided between the Ministry 
of the Interior and that of Public Instruction. In 1848 it 
was attached — with some show of reason — to the Museums. 
With the third Empire it was first joined to the Ministry of 
State ; then to the Imperial Household. And when in 1870 
a separate Ministry of Fine Arts was formed, it was given 
the direction of the State Stud Farms ! After the fall of the 
Empire, the Direction of Art was tossed about from one 
department to another — always, let it be remembered, doing 
good work for the State in spite of these many administra- 
tive changes — till in 1881, Gambetta during his brief term 
of office created a ** Ministry of Art *' — not of Fine Arts— a 
step of great importance. This, however, was only for a 
time. And the Administration of Fine Arts now forms 
part of one of the eleven ministries of the French Govern- 
ment — the ** Ministfere de Tlnstruction Publique et des 
Beaux Arts ". But though it is under the Minister charged 
with that department. Art has a separate head in the 
Director of Fine Arts, who enjoys a position of almost 
imlimited independence ; and, happily for the interests of 
French Art, is not changed with changes of Government. 
Many distinguished men have filled this unique position. 
And it is now occupied by M. Eoujon, under whose wise 
and able conduct French Art has entered upon a period of 
imprecedented liberty. 

Besides being the chief patron of Art, in whose hands are 
vested the powers of reward and encouragement, the State 


in France exercises three distinct functions in regard to Art. 
First, as an Educator. Secondly, as a Curator. Thirdly, as a 
Builder. And in this last — in its relations to Architecture — 
the State is enabled to encourage all other branches of Art, 
in the embellishment of the buildings it erects. 

The State acts as an Educator by three means. By the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris. By the Academy of France 
in Kome. And by the travelling Scholarships granted to 
young artists whose works in the two Salons show such 
talent as would be benefited by a sojourn in foreign countries. 
The scope of these Scholarships has been greatly extended 
of late. Italy, Sicily, and Greece are no longer considered 
the only field for study. And the Boursiers now go to Spain. 
Algiers, Egypt, and even to the far East to study the monu- 
ments of India, China and Japan. 

The importance of the Educational function of the State 
with regard to Architecture has been admirably pointed out 
by Mr. W. H. White, late Secretary of the R.I.B.A. *' Any 
one,** he says, '* with knowledge sufficient of France and its 
architects . . . cannot fail to admit the direct influence of 
organization or system upon the national Architecture of 
that country. It has not only men enough to design and 
** superintend the erection of public buildings, but the talents 
" of those men are uniformly good, some are exceptionally 
" good. This result is largely due to systematic training. 
'* A student of the School in Paris and in the Academy at 
'* Rome, who for a time works in a subordinate quality on 

* important public buildings, in due course endows the 
'* capital with a Bibliothfeque de Ste. Genevieve, or a Palais 

* de Justice ; and though I am treating of Paris alone, the 

* system holds good for all France. Years pass and he 

* is elected by the Academy to fill a vacant chair in the 

* National Institute ; he is chosen by the State to fill per- 

* haps one of the important offices of Inspecteur-G6n6ral 

* des Monuments Nationaux des Edifices Diocesains, or des 

* Batiments Civils, whereby he becomes one of the profes- 
' sional advisers of the Minister entrusted with the charge 
' of a public department. Thus Schools, Academy, and 


" State work together for the general good. The State 
** moreover, recognizes and supports the Acad^mie des Beaux 
** Arts as the domain of the living chiefs of painting, sculp- 
*' ture, architecture, — the acknowledged arbiters in questions 
** arising out of the theory and pra.ctice of the Fine Arts, 
** and men, who in early life have won the honours that 
** School or Academy ofifer to merit, whom the State, eco- 
" nomically careful of its investments, assists in their unequal 
** struggle with the sordid interests of the community at 
** large, and who, figuratively and substantially, reimburse 
** the country a hundred times for the cost of their training 
** in Paris, Rome, Athens, and among the master edifices of 
'* France." 

As a Curator, the State has done work of incalculable 
importance to the whole civilized world. It has recognized 
that it is the trustee of the treasures of Art which belong to 
the Nation ; and therefore that it has a plain duty in regard 
to Museums, and in the protection of artistic and historic 
buildings. French museums are of comparatively recent 
date. In fact they nearly all date from the Revolution, before 
which event Art treasures were in private collections. The 
Revolution, as I have already shown, created provincial 
museums, as well as the national ones of the Louvre and 
Lenoir's Museum of Comparative Sculpture and Architecture. 
Now every provincial city has its museum, which is aided 
by the State as well as supported by the local Municipality. 
And the four National Museums of France are the Louvre, 
the Luxembourg, Versailles, and Saint-Germain. While two 
other museums of very recent date have been instituted with 
regard to their direct educational effect on the artists of 
France. These are the Museum of Decorative Art, and the 
Museum of Comparative Sculpture of the Trocadero. 

This last, which originated in the excellent Lenoir's 
'*Musee des Monuments Fran^ais '* of 1795, "is, from an 
'* educational point of view, one of the greatest achievements 
"of the present Government in France". It was revived 
and reconstituted through the exertions of VioUet-Le-Due 
and the "Commission des Monuments historiques ". 


And this brings us to one of the most important move- 

aents of the century. "Founded in 1837 the Committee 

have slowly but steadily made their way, thanks to the 

energy and talent of such men as Merimee, Vitet, 

Lenormant, de Laborde, Lamartine, Vaudoyer, Labrouste, 

Questel, Victor Hugo, Lasteyrie, VioUet-Le-Duc, Beul6, 

Quicherat, Abadie, Kuprich-Kobert, M.M. Boeswillwald, 

Antonin Proust, and many more. The Committee enjoy 

an almost complete independence, disposing as the 

members think fit of the money — more than a million 

francs — put every year in their hands by the State. It 

' may be that their restauratiofis have not always been fault- 

' less. But they have done great service. They had from 

* the first three objects in view : a classification of the 
'monuments of France; the constitution of a museum of 
'arts, reproducing the different specimens of French 

* architecture and sculpture from the time when those arts 

* first had conscience of themselves ; and the passing of a 

* bill empowering the Government to oppose the destruction 
*of a classified building, when such a destruction is con- 
''templated by the owner, whether private individual or 
' pubhc body. The classification has been made, and is still 
"carried on as far as the movable objects of art are con- 
'* cerned ; the Trocadero Museum has been established ; and 
'* since 1887 France has had a law protecting her historical 
"buildings, such as Sweden, Norway, and Denmark 
"possessed long ago, Italy in 1872, and other countries at 

* different times." ^ 

Lastly the State is a great public builder. And if it fully 
recognizes its duty and its power, it may in itself become a 
^eat artist. For its duty in this department is to promote 
lihat perfect artistic collaboration between architects, painters, 
md sculptors, which alone has given and will give the world 
aoble and complete monuments. This artistic completeness 
is often lost sight of. But we may safely say, that in spite 
3f many failures, in no country is its importance so fully 
recognized as in France. The revival of Decorative Art is 

^Antoniu Barthelemy. 


bringing to the architect's aid the talents of the best artists 
in all departments, who with the splendid spirit of the 
sculptors and painters of the past, are ready to serve together, 
if thereby they can produce a whole which shall be worthy 
of the highest civilization. 

The work done by the State in France as a builder is 
of prodigious importance in the nineteenth century. It has 
left a mark on Paris — to say nothing of the provinces — un- 
equalled since the days of Louis XIV. It has given Paris 
some of its noblest monuments ; while it has preserved and 
restored those which otherwise would have been lost. To 
the architects of the nineteenth century are due the com- 
pletion of the Louvre and the Madeleine. The building of 
the Arc-de-Triomphe. The Bourse. The Bibliothfeque Ste. 
Genevieve. The Ecole des Beaux Arts. The Palais de Justice. 
The New Sorbonne. And the New Opera — "one of the 
" monuments of the century which represent progress in 
** Architectural design, and the most typical creation of the 
** Style Napoleon III.".^ The nineteenth century has also wit- 
nessed the opening of that superb street, the rue de Eivoli. 
Begun by Napoleon I., it was carried from the Place de la Con- 
corde beyond the Tuileries. Napoleon III. cut through the 
thick mass of buildings about the Palais Royal, and it was 
pushed on to the Hotel de Ville. It has now been carried 
right on by the rue St. Antoine to the Place de la Bastile— 
a magnificent artery from West to East. Besides this, 
under Baron Haussman and the Empire, and of late under 
the Republic, new Boulevards and Avenues, streets, squares 
and public gardens, have been opened out in all directions. 
And while they have undoubtedly destroyed many buildings 
of historic interest, they have helped to produce a general 
effect of extreme magnificence. 

The temporary buildings of the great Exhibitions — 
especially that of 1889— must not be forgotten. They have 
displayed architectural quahties of a very high order. 
While the magnificent permanent Palace of Art which is 
to form so large a part of the Universal Exposition of 1900, 

' Fergusson. 


will endow Paris with a fresh evidence of the high archi- 
tectural attainments of her artists, and the importance of the 
State as a Builder. 


Brongniart, Alexandre-Th^iodore {b. Paris, 1739 ; d. 
1813), will always be remembered as the author of the 
Bourse, in Paris. It was begun in 1808, in the full tide of 
the Classic revival. And whether such a building be suitable 
or no for such a purpose, it is a stately and magnificent 
object, surrounded by a colonnade of sixty-six Corinthian 
pillars ; and is one of the purest specimens of classical archi- 
tecture in Paris. It was finished by Labarre in 1826. To 
Brongniart, who was received as a member of the Boyal 
Academy of Architecture in 1781, were also due the TheMre 
Lou vols ; the Hotels de Bondy, Montessor, and Monaco ; the 
Bains Antiques in M. de Bessenval's Hotel, decorated by 
Clodion ; ^ the chapel in the cemetery of Mont St. Louis, 
etc., etc. 

Baltard, Louis-Pierre {b. Paris, 1764; d, 1846), owed 
his success to no master but himself. He was both architect 
and painter, as well as a prolific writer on architectural 
subjects, from the monuments of Rome, to prisons and 
fortifications. Government architect. Professor of Archi- 
tecture at the ficole des Beaux Arts, and honorary president 
of the Society of Architecture at Lyons, he exhibited draw- 
ings, paintings and plans in most of the Salons from 1791 to 
1835. In the city of Lyons he built the Magazin a Sel, the 
prison de la Perrache, and the Palais de Justice — his last 
work. He succeeded Dufourny as architect to the prisons 
of Paris, of Bicetre, and of les Halles et Marches ; and built 
the chapels of Ste. Pelagic and Saint Lazare; and the 
magnificent Abattoirs of La Villette. 

Huvi;, Jean-Jacques-Marie (6. Versailles, 1783 ; d. 1852), 
the son of another J. J. Huve, also an architect, was pupil 
of his father and Percier. Under Vignon he was appointed 
Manager of Works in 1808 for the ** Temple de la Gloire,*' 

* See Clodion, chap. xi. 


which in 1817 was transformed into the Church of La 
Madeleine. And on Vignon*s death in 1828 Huv6 was 
appointed architect, and completed the work in 1842. Its 
cost amounted to £520,000. 

Percier, Charles {b. Paris, 1764 ; d. 1838). 

Fontaine, Pierre - Francois - Li&onard (6. Pontoise, 
1762 ; d. 1853). 

The names of these two artists are so indissolubly con- 
nected that it is not possible to treat them separately. In 
work as in friendship, they were associated. Percier, the son 
of an old soldier who was Conciferge at the Tuileries, gained 
the premier prix d* Architecture in 1786 on a, projet de Paiais 
pour la vPAinion de toutes les Academies. In Rome he found his 
friend Fontaine who he had known at the ficole, and who, 
only receiving a second prize, had come to Italy at his own 
expense. The two young men began to work together. And 
from this moment no influence could weaken their generous 
and devoted union. Returning to France in 1793, the two 
friends found themselves penniless ; and were glad to fur- 
nish designs to the famous cabinet-maker, Jacob.^ But 
at last Percier was appointed architect to Malmaison. He 
of course shared his good fortune with Fontaine. And their 
future was assured when Napoleon entrusted the two friends 
with the completion of the Louvre. 

Perrault's building was ruinate, and had to be finished 
before anything else. Napoleon then (1802) demanded a 
scheme for uniting the Louvre with the Tuileries on the 
north of the Carousel. Percier and Fontaine submitted no 
less than eleven plans. But before any decision was arrived 
at, the rue de Eivoli was opened ; and on the Emperor's 
return from Austerlitz, the vast space of the place du 
Carousel was swept free of the buildings and houses which 
encumbered it. In 1807 the Arc de Triomphe du Carousel 
was erected between the two palaces, winning the grand prix 
d 'architecture for Fontaine in 1810. They then set about 
the northern gallery from the Tuileries. This they carried 
as far as the pavilion de Eohan. But happily the fall of the 

> See David, p. 259. 


Empire put an end to their scheme for cutting the huge 
j)lace in two, by a transverse Une of building from the Pavilion 
Lesdiguiferes to the Pavilion de Rohan ; and the magnificent 
open space was saved from fresh disfigurement. After 
Napoleon's fall their position as architects to the Louvre 
was continued ; and they completed the decoration of the 
Musee Charles X., etc. They had already (1807) built the 
two great staircases at each end of the Colonnade of the 
Louvre ; and re-arranged the interior of the Grande-Galerie. 
The nine bays, the columns of precious marbles which 
divide them, and the lighting of this magnificent gallery, 
are due to Percier and Fontaine. It was finished just before 
the marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise, 2nd April, 1810. 

After 1830 Fontaine alone continued architect to Louis 
Philippe ; and Percier spent the last years of his life in his 
friend's appartement in the Louvre. With the third Empire, 
Fontaine hoped that at last he would be able to carry out 
his projects for the completion of the Louvre. But he died 
in 1853. And it was left to Visconti and Lefuel to accomplish 
the great work. 

Visconti, Louis-Tullius-Joachin (b. Eome, 1791 ; d. 
1853). — Though he was the son of an Italian — Ennius 
Visconti, the celebrated archaeologist, who Napoleon I. em- 
ployed to organize the museum of antiques and pictures at 
the Louvre — yet Visconti must be included among French 
architects. He was naturalized at the age of eight ; brought 
up in the Louvre by his father; as a pupil of Percier he 
entered the Iiicole des Beaux Arts in 1808 ; and gained the 
second prize in 1814. He was made an Oflicier of the Legion 
d'Honneur in 1846 ; and a Membre de I'lnstitut in 1853. 

In spite of his father's high position, Visconti began 
humbly as manager of works at the Entrepot des Vins in 
1820. He then became sub-inspector to the Ministere des 
Finances ; inspector in 1822 ; and a little later architecte-voyer 
to the third and eighth arrondissements— a post he kept for 
twenty-two years. In 1824 he built the Fontaine Gaillon. 
And the next year, as architect to the Bibliotheque Nationals 
he prepared twenty-nine different plans for the restoration 


and arrangement of this vast building. But it proved a dream 
that he was unable to realize. Under Louis Philippe he 
executed many works — among them the Fontaine Moliere; 
the Hotel Collot, quai d*Orsay ; Hotel Pontalba ; many 
tombs, etc. And as architect to the Minister of the Interior 
for Fetes PiMiqms — undertakings in which the imaginative 
faculty bears so large a part — his success was very great. It 
was Visconti who arranged the funeral of Napoleon I., in 
1840, of which Victor Hugo gives so moving a picture in 
Choses Vues ; and the F6te of 15th August, 1853. Visconti 
also gained the competition in 1842 for Napoleon's tomb. 

But his greatest work was the completion of the Louvre,, 
for which he furnished the general plan. The difficulties 
were immense, because the lines were not parallel. But he 
cleverly managed to disguise, not to destroy, this defect ; 
and by means of a double lateral gallery, succeeded in 
harmonizing the apparently insurmountable dilBferences of 
parallelism between the buildings along the river face, and 
those along the rue de Eivoli. The first stone was laid in 
July, 1852. In July, 1853, the walls were half way up of the 
buildings joining the old Louvre — i.e., the Cours Visconti and 
Lefuel, and the pa\'illons Daru, Denon, and Molien, with 
which every one who has visited Paris is familiar as the part 
of the palace by which we enter the picture galleries. Those 
of the rue de Eivoli were finished as far as the roof line. 
But on 29th November, 1853 — fifteen months after this im- 
mense work was begun — Visconti died suddenly of apoplexy. 
And his superb scheme had to be carried out by Lefuel. 

Lefuel, Hector Martin (b. Versailles, 1810 ; d. Paris,. 
1880), entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1829. He gained 
the grand Prix de Eome in 1839. Became architect of the 
Palace of Meudon ; then of that of Fontainebleau ; and in 
1854 succeeded Visconti on the works of the Louvre and 

On succeeding Visconti, Lefuel made various alterations 
and additions with regard to the decorations : but he adhered 
to the general plan of his predecessor. He arranged the 
interiors, designed the rich ornamentation on the rue de 


Eivoli, and decorated the facades, directing the work of 154 
sculptors and an army of decorators. And on 14th August, 
1867, the ** New Louvre '' which we all know, was solemnly 
inaugurated by the Emperor. 

Blouet, Guillaume Abel (b, Paris, 1795; d. 1853), 
**un veritable artiste, une intelligence d 'elite, un homme 
** plein de decision et de jugement,*' gained the prix de Borne 
in 1821. Ten years later we find him chief of the French 
scientific expedition to the Morea. And in 1832 he replaced 
Huyot as the architect chosen to complete the Arc de 
Triomphe de Tfitoile. This magnificent monument was 
begun in 1806 by Chalgrin. But the work had progressed 
slowly ; architects and plans ahke had been frequently 
changed ; and it was not until Blouet succeeded Huyot, that 
the work was vigorously pushed on to its completion. 
Thoroughly convinced of the high merit of Chalgrin's original 
conception, BloueVs only endeavour was to carry this to its 
logical conclusion. He returned to Chalgrin's plan of monu- 
mental trophies on the four piles of the Arch. And M. 
Thiers suggested that Rude should furnish the scheme of 
decoration.^ To Blouet therefore France owes the ** definite 
" realization of the finest architectural idea of the century ".'- 

Besides this great work, Blouet was one of the chief 
authorities on penitentiaries upon the cellular system. He 
constructed the buildings for the well-known Agricultural 
Colony of Mettray ; and wrote many valuable reports and 
suggestions on prisons. He also restored and embellished 
the gardens and palace of Fontainebleau ; and erected the 
tombs of Bellini and Casimir Delavigne. 

DuBAN, F6lix (b. Paris, 1797 ; d. 1870), was for the last 
twenty years of his life one of the best known personalities 
in Paris. " As he walked along the Quai Voltaire, on his 
" way to the ficole des Beaux Arts or the Institute, even 
*' those who were not personally acquainted with him 
** were tempted to bow to him, because they felt themselves 
"in the presence of a man of note."^ Dignified and im- 
posing, yet with the eye of the dreamer, Felix Duban might 

^ See Rude, chap, xxiii. * jjouis Gonse. •* Charles Blanc. 


have been mistaken for a speculative philosopher — a retired 
Minister of State — a subtle writer — for anything rather than 
the professor of such a positive science as Architecture. 
Indeed — as his friend M. Charles Blanc has pointed out— 
the strong dose of poetry which he brought to bear on archi- 
tecture might have upset the absolutely essential balance 
between sentiment and reason, without that first quality of 
a builder — the firm, steady good sense which Duban 
possessed in so high a degree. 

It was this poetic and imaginative faculty which not only 
enabled Duban in his admirable drawings and plans to 
reconstitute the buildings of ancient Rome and Pompei — the 
spot where first he experienced the enchantment of the 
Greco-Eoman genius — but later on helped him to complete 
the Galerie d'Apollon, and to build the iicole des Beaux 
Arts. This last was a most complicated work. Its require- 
ments were many and varied, with its studios for work from 
the model, for the teaching of all the arts ; assembly rooms 
for the professors ; cells for the competitors for the Prix de 
Rome ; a Library ; a Museum for the diploma works ; vast 
spaces for casts from the antique ; one hall for competitions, 
another for prize works ; a great gallery for the Envois de 
Bovie ; and a theatre for the distribution of prizes. Added to 
this, the remains of the ancient Convent of the Petits 
Augustins, their cloister, their garden, their church, had all 
to be turned to some use. And it was necessary also to incor- 
porate those exquisite specimens of French Architecture 
already on the spot, which Lenoir had collected during 
the revolution — the gateway of Anet, the fragments of 
Gaillon, etc. Duban s perfect taste enabled him to succeed 
in this most diflicult task ; evolving a building which was 
mainly in the style of the Italian renaissance, ** but with a 
" more lively sentiment of the spirit of antiquity ". And to 
those who much frequent the Ecole des Beaux Arts, the 
whole building is invested with the charm of unity and 

But Duban's success did not stop with the Beaux Arts. 
To hun we owe the restorations of the Sainte-Chapelle ; 


the fa9ade of the Old Louvre facing the river ; the Galerie 
d'Apollon which had remained untouched since the great fire 
of 1661 ; and the Chateau de Blois, that most marvellous of 
Renaissance buildings. In all these, Duban's extraordinary 
intuition as well as his profound archsBologic knowledge^ 
enabled him to reconstitute each building by an effort of 
imagination ; and to work from the vision which his in- 
telhgence and his poetic instinct had conjured up. 

Needless to add he was a most active member of the 
Commission des Monuments historiques. 

Labrouste, Henri {b. Paris, 1801 ; d. 1875), — ^pupil of 
Vaudoyer and Lebas, won the grand prix de Eome in 1824 
with a Cour de Cassation. His fine drawings of the Temple of 
Neptune at PsBstum are preserved in the Archives of the 
Institute. They were a revelation of the true import of 
Doric architecture in all its magnificence ; and Labrouste 
was the first to discover traces of the use on the exterior 
of polychromatic work, which made a considerable stir at 
the Institute. 

His great work was the Bibliothfeque Ste. Genevieve 
(1843-49). And he succeeded Visconti as director of the 
works of the Bibliotheque Nationale. Besides this M. 
Labrouste built the Hospice at Lausanne. La Prison cellulaire 
d'Alexandrie. Le petit college de Sainte-Barbe at Fontenay- 
aux-Eoses. And with M. Due, his fellow- worker at Paestum, 
he organized the ceremonie des funerailles des victinies de Juin^ 

Diocesan Architect of Ile-et-Vilaine ; Vice-president of 
the Soci^t6 Centrale des Architectes ; Member of the Com- 
mission des Monuments historiques, of the Conseil des 
batiments civils, and of the Jury des beaux-arts, M. Labrouste 
was one of the most influential architects of the century. 

Vaudoyer, Leon {b, Paris, 1803; d. 1872), gained the 
premier prix de Eome in 1826 with a projet de Palais pcnir 
VAcademie de France a Rome. In 1845 he was appointed 
architect to the Abbaye Saint-Martin des Champs, whose 
buildings were appropriated to the Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers. Vaudoyer restored the church and refectory of the 


famous monastery; and added the new portions of the 
building, which harmonize admirably with the fine remains 
of the original edifice. To Vaudoyer also, is due the monu- 
ment to General Foy in Pere Lachaise, of which David 
d'Angers executed the sculpture. But his greatest work is 
the new Cathedral of Marseilles. He laid the foundations in 
1855, and devoted the whole of the remaining years of his 
life to this magnificent work, though he was not destined to 
see its completion. 

His son, M. Alfred Vaudoyer, is also a distinguished 

QuESTEL, Charles Auguste (b. Paris, 1807 ; d. 1888), 
a pupil of Vincent, Blouet, and Duban, was one of the most 
active of the architects of the third Empire. 

The Amphitheatre of Aries, and the Pont du Gard were re- 
stored by him. While among his original buildings are the 
Church of Saint-Paul, Nlmes, 1838 ; Fountain of Nlmes 
1846 ; Prefecture, 1862, and Mus6e, 1864, Grenoble ; Hospice 
de Gisors, 1862 ; Asile des Ali^nes, Paris, 1863 ; etc., etc. 

Lassus, J. B. Antoine {b. Paris, 1807 ; d. 1857), one of 
the greatest Gothic architects of the century, was charged 
with the restoration of the Palais de Justice, and the Sainte 
Chapelle — that gem of early pointed architecture. He also 
began the restorations of Notre Dame, and of Saint Denis, 
in conjunction with Viollet-Le-Duc. He built the ilglise 
Saint Nicholas, Moulins ; the Eglise Saint Nicholas, Nantes. 
And was the author of many and learned works upon the 
history of Gothic Architecture — among others the valuable 
monograph on the Cathedral of Chartres, written in collabora- 
tion with M. Amaury-Duval. 

Viollet-Le-Duc, EuGfeNE, C* (b. Paris, 1814 ; d, Lau- 
sanne, 1879). — Few men have had so great an influence on 
the Art of their own time, few have made so valuable a 
contribution to the history and science of architecture as 
Viollet-Le-Duc. His writings alone would have formed a 
life's work for most men. The famous Dictiomiaire raisonne 
de rArchitecture Fran^aise, in ten volumes, is the standard 
work on its subject. So is the Dictionnaire du MobUierfrangais, 


Not to mention essays and books innumerable on kindred 
subjects. But it is as a restorer of some of the most precious 
buildings of France that we must study VioUet-Le-Duc's 
career. For from 1840 he worked continually for and with the 
Commission des Monuments historiques, and helped to found 
that most valuable institution the Museum of Comparative 
Architecture of the Trocadero. It is indeed impossible to 
over-estimate the debt which France and the world at large 
owes to this distinguished and learned man. 

A pupil of Leclere, young Viollet-Le-Duc on leaving his 
studio in 1831, travelled for eight years in France, Italy, and 
Sicily, closely studying the buildings of these countries. On 
his return in 1839 he was appointed auditor to the C<ynsdl 
des hatiments civils and inspector of works at the Sainte- 
Chapelle with Lassus. 

In 1840 the Commission des Monuments historiques 
entrusted him with the restoration of the Abbey Church of 
V6zelay ; ^ and of the churches of Montreal ; Saint Pierre- 
sous-V^zelay ; Semur ; Saint-Nazaire ; Carcassonne ; and the 
Hotels de Ville of Saint-Antonin and Narbonne. A com- 
petition for the restoration of Notre Dame de Paris was opened 
in 1843. The plans of Viollet-Le-Duc and Lassus were chosen : 
but it was several years before the works began. Meanwhile 
in 1846 he was appointed Architect to the Abbey Church 
of Saint-Denis, and Inspector-general of diocesan edifices in 
1853. Besides these important functions he carried on the 
restorations of Amiens and Eeims. And his colossal Diction- 
aries were published between 1853 and 1858. After the 
death of Lassus in 1857, Viollet-Le-Duc remained sole archi- 
tect of Notre Dame. The beauty of his restoration of that 
incomparable cathedral is known to every one who has visited 
Paris. He built the fleche which crowns the transept, and 
completed the work as we see it to-day. 

But in spite of these prodigious tasks, Viollet-Le- 
Duc found time from 1851 to 1854 to travel in Germany, 
England, Spain, and Algeria, for the purpose of study. 
And in 1858 he undertook the rebuilding of the Chateau de 

^ See chap. ii. 


Pierrefonds — a work of extreme interest and magnificence, 
which was not completed till 1875. 

Among his other restorations and constructions are the 
Churches of Saint- Andr6, Autun ; Notre Dame k Beaune ; 
Notre Dame at S^mur-en-Auxois ; Neuvy- Saint -S^pulcre 
(Indre) ; Saint Sernin, and Le Convent des Jacobins, 
Toulouse ; Le Chateau de Montbard (C6te d'Or) ; Salle 
Syndicale, Sens ; Church and Cloister of Moissac ; Bamparts 
of Carcassonne ; Palais des Papes and ramparts, Avignon ; 
Church of Eu. 

Bailly, Antoine-Nicholas, M. de lInst. (b. Paris. 
1810), a pupil of Debret, was chief divisional architect to the 
City of Paris, and diocesan architect to the departments of le 
Cher, rindre, les Basses- Alpes, and la Drome. He built the 
Tribunal de Commerce, a fine work in the Renaissance style, 
in Paris, 1860-65 ; the fa9ade of the Lyc^e St. Louis, 1861- 
65 ; and the Mairie of the fourth Arrondissement, 1866. 

As Diocesan architect at Bourges his work was of great 
importance ; as to him is due the restoration of parts of the 
Cathedral, and of the justly celebrated Hotel Jacques Coeur — 
one of the most delightful of mediaeval buildings. Bailly 
also rebuilt the Cathedral of Digne ; and the tower of that 
of Valence ; besides many private hotels and chateaux. 

Magne, Auguste (b. Etampes, 1816 ; d. 1885), pupil of 
Debret and Gu^nepin, is the author of the restorations of 
the Palais de ITnstitut, and the Mont Saint-Michel. While 
in Paris he built the Eglise Saint Bernard, 1862 ; the 
Theatre du Vaudeville, 1872 ; the March^ des Martyrs ; 
and the Marche de I'Ave-Maria. 

BcESWiLLWALD, Emile, C* (6. Strasbourg, 1815), a pupil 
of Labrouste, entered the i^cole des Beaux Arts in 1837. 
An architect of much distinction and learning, he has been 
one of the most active members of the Commission des 
Monuments historiques. The Commission appointed him 
their Inspector-General ; besides which important office he 
has been architect to the Sainte-Chapelle, and diocesan- 
inspector of the Basses-Pyrenees, Eure-et-Loir, wad la 
Sarthe. To M. Boeswillwald are due the plans for the 


restoration of the Cathedral of Laon, which were exhibited 
in 1844, and again in 1855. He also built the churches of 
Niederhaslach, Neuwiller, and Guebwiller, in Alsace-Lorraine, 
etc., etc. 

Denuelle, Alexandre {b, Paris, 1818 ; d. 1879), though 
not strictly speaking an architect, was an architectural 
painter, whose work as painter to the Commission des 
Monuments historiques was of great value. To M. Denuelle 
is due the decoration of Saint-Germain-des-Prfes, Paris ; of 
the Grande Galerie of the Louvre ; of the Cathedrals of 
Limoges, Bayonne, Toulouse, Carcassone, Grenoble, Orleans, 
Beauvais, Amiens, S6ez, Fr^jus ; the Abbey of St. Denis ; 
the Oratory at Birmingham ; and numberless other buildings 
in France. 

Ballu, Theodore {b. Paris, 1817 ; d, 1885), who com- 
pleted the modem Gothic Church of Ste. Clotilde, begun by 
Gau, rebuilt the Hotel de Ville, after its destruction during 
the Commune of 1871. 

Millet, Eugene (6. Paris, 1819; d. 1879), a pupil of 
Labrouste and Viollet-Le-Duc, was in turn the master of 
many of the most distinguished architects of to-day. He 
designed the well-known Church of Paray-le-Monial ; the 
Chapelle Saint-Gilles at Troyes ; the Churches of Ch^teau- 
neuf ; Chatel-Montagne, etc. But his greatest work was 
the restoration of Saint-Germain-en-Laye — a gigantic under- 
taking which he did not live to carry out. It has been in 
hand for twenty-five years, and it is not yet finished : but 
the old palace, which has undergone so many changes and 
such cruel usage, has been admirably reconstituted. 

EuPRiCH-EoBERT, Victor-Marie-Charles (b. Paris, 
1820 ; d. 1887), was one of the most active and valuable 
members of the Commission des Monuments Historiques, 
which, as I have said, has conferred such inestimable benefits 
not only on France but on all who are interested in the 
architecture of the past. To his learning and care we owe 
the restoration of some of the most magnificent monuments 
of the Middle Ages and the Eenaissance. — The Abbaye-aux- 

Dames, Caen; the Chateau d*Amboise, which is still going on; 




Saint-Sauveur, Dinan ; Saint-Luc, Calvados ; The Cathedral 
of Seez, Orne ; and many others. 

From 1851 M. Euprich-Eobert lectured on the history and 
composition of ornament at the Imperial school of design 
and mathematics. And besides his innumerable drawings 
and plans which appeared every year in the salons, and 
most of which are now in the Archives of the Monuments 
Historiques, he wrote many valuable pamphlets on archi- 
tectural subjects. 

Garnier, Charles, G. 0.*, M. de lInst. (b. Paris, 1825 ; 
d, Paris, 1898). — The death of M. Charles Garnier, in 
August, 1898, removes a distinguished and well-known 
personality from French Art. A pupil of Leveil and Lebas, 
Charles Gamier entered the ficole des Beaux Arts at the age 
of seventeen. In 1848 he carried ofif the grand prix d'archi- 
tecture. And his friendship with Baudry, which had begun 
at the Ecole, was strengthened when the painter arrived at 
the Villa Medicis, two years later. 

After Charles Garnier's course of study in Eome w^as over, 
he travelled with Th^ophile Gautier and Edmond About in 
Italy, Greece, and Turkey; returning to Paris in 1854. 
Eight drawings of the actual condition and a restoration of 
the ** Temple de Jupiter-Pan-hellenien," at Egina — made in 
1852 — w^ere exhibited in the Salon of 1855. Meanwhile, 
Garnier was appointed sub-inspector of works for the re- 
storation of the Tour-St.-Jacques, a small and ill-paid post ; 
and in 1860 he became architect to the city of Paris. 

But his great talent was not recognized until M. Walew- 
ski. Minister of State, opened a competition for the con- 
struction of the New Opera House. His project was one of 
170 which were sent in by all the best architects in France. 
It was unanimously chosen. A plaster plan, executed at the 
artist's expense, was exhibited by a special decree without 
appearing in the catalogue, at the Salon of 1863, and the 
works of the New Opera House were begun at once. With 
unlimited money at his disposal, M. Garnier was able to 
give full scope to his vivid imaginative faculty. The mag- 
nificent building was not finished until 1875 — during the War 


of 1870-71 it was used as a granary. The architect called to 
his aid the talent of all the best sculptors and painters of the 
day. Carpeaux's "Danse" on the exterior, and Paul Baudry's 
decoration of the Foyer, give some idea of the superb scale 
on which M. Garnier carried on his Hfe's-work — for such in 
fact it was. With a few exceptions since 1875, he has been 
almost exclusively occupied with his duties as permanent 
architect to the Opera. Among the exceptions are : The 
Casino of Monte Carlo, 1879. The House, No. 195 Boule- 
vard Saint-Germain, Paris, 1880. The Observatory, Nice. 
Panorama Marigny, Champs Elysees, Paris, 1883. And the 
extremely interesting historic series of dwellings, L'histoire dc 
Vhahitation, at the Universal Exposition of 1889. 

Paul Baudry's portrait and Chaplain's medal have made 
us familiar with the personal appearance of this great 
artist, who was also a distinguished writer upon his pro- 

Vaudremer, ^mile-Joseph-Auguste, O.*, M. de 
l'Inst. (6. Paris, 1829). — A pupil of Blouet, M. Vaudremer 
gained the grand prix de Eome in 1854. His most important 
works are the Prison de la Sant6. The restoration of the 
lateral fa9ade of the church of Saint Germain I'Auxerrois. 
And the Bishop's Palace, Beauvais. 

The most important works of M. Sauvageot, Louis- 
Charles, * {h. Santenay, C6te d'Or, 1842), a pupil of M. 
Emile Millet and VioUet-Le-Duc, are to be found at Kouen, 
where he is Government and City Architect. Among these 
are the Theatre des Arts, the Mus^e-Bibliothfeque, the Church 
of St. Hilaire, and many other buildings and monuments. 

Ni:N0T Paul, 0.*, M. de l'Inst. (6. Paris), who gained 

the Prix de Eome in 1877, has had a rapid success in life ; 

for eighteen years later he was elected a membre de I'lnstitut, 

\ in recognition of his great work, the building of the New 


Formig6, J. Camille, 0.* {h, au Bouscat, Gironde, 1845), 
a pupil of Laisne, was the architect of what were familiarly 
known as the two " Bltie Palaces " at the Universal Exposition 
of 1889, or to give them their official names, the Palais des 



Arts-LiWraux, and the Palais des Beaux-Arts. To M. 
Formig^ was also due the plan of the great central fountain 
in the gardens, of which M. Coutan was the sculptor. 

M. Formig6 has for many years been employed by the 
Commission des Monuments historiques. 

BouvARD, Joseph- Antoine, 0.* (6. St. Jean de Bournay, 
Isfere), — a pupil of Dufeux, is closely connected with the 
Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900. For he was the author of 
the Palais des Expositions Diverses at the first — that charm- 
ing central dome, which we cannot but regret, now that it 
has been demolished to make way for the gigantic Exhibition 
of 1900, to which M. Bouvard is the Director of Works. 

Among his other works are the building for the Archives 
de la Seine, and the completion of the Hotel Camavalet. 

DuTERT, Ch. L. F., 0.* (6. Douai, 1845).— M. Dutert who 
carried ofiF the Prix de Kome in 1869, was a pupil of Lebas 
and Ginain. An artist of bold and original genius, he con- 
structed the Galerie des Machines of the Exhibition of 1889, 
showing therein what admirable use modern architecture 
might make of novel materials, *' and how utilitarian iron 
'* work, honestly confessed without deception or falsehood, 
'* might possess its role and its own beauty in decoration". 
For the whole eifect of those great arches was grandiose in 
the extreme. And M. Dutert's last work — the New Museum 
of Natural Histor}^ adjoining the Jardin des Plantes, has more 
than confirmed the reputation he gained in 1889. 

In this great red brick and white stone building, M. 
Dutert has given proof once more and in an even more 
impressive manner, of his originality, while preserving a 
proper architectural dignity in the whole conception. It is 
in the decoration of this great building that M. Dutert has 
shown his power of dealing with novel elements. ** His 
*' primordial, essential idea is this ; to give up at all hazards 
" those bmial, classic, worn-out elements, that arsenal of 
" mouldmgs, profiles, capitals, consoles, and cornices, with 
" which our architects' brains have been so stufifed that they 
" come into being beneath their pencil of themselves, so to 
*' speak, naturally — as the commonplace epithets from the pen 


" of a society chronicler, or the ' flowers of rhetoric * from 
'* that of a bygone latinist/* 

M. Dutert has had the courage to return to the methods 
of the Gothic architects ; and to seek his suggestions for deco- 
ration in the natural world. Therefore, as he has built a 
Museum of Natural History, his capitals are no longer 
Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian, but formed of gigantic lions and 
lionesses. The round-headed arcade of the principal door is 
composed of great palm leaves ; the band above of cockle 
shells. Along the band of shells in very faint relief which 
separates the two storeys, huge birds of prey spread their 
wings at intervals, each the work of sculptors such as M.M. 
Gardet, Valton, Boutry, Louis Noel, etc. ; and each forms 
a crown of the arcade of the ground floor. It is one of the 
best and most striking portions of the building. Saurians 
and crustaceans are used as consoles to some of the upper 
windows ; and while they represent rare or extinct species, 
they are always so interpreted as to lend themselves to the 
strict architectural necessity of their position. Lines of shells 
replace the usual dentils beneath the windows. And 
insects decorate the gutter below the roof. While in the 
interior the beautiful balusters and balconies of stairs and 
galleries are composed of iris, ferns, chrysanthemums, and 
laurels, absolutely true to the nature of each plant, and yet 
subordinated to the exigencies of architectural harmony. 

sculpture of the nineteenth century. 

1. The Pioneers. 

From the First to the Third Empire. 

** The finest sculpture is still the product of France. And 
*' why? Because sculpture is a formal art, which lives by 
" tradition, and which can only flourish where it is well 
** taught. . . . The superiority of France in this great art— 
** I speak of the superiority of the moment — is derived no 
** doubt from various causes, for instance that exquisite 
'* sense of measure which is natural to the French spirit. 
** But it is derived also from the uninterrupted sequence of 
** vigorous study, which has produced an uninterrupted 
'* succession of illustrious masters.*' These words were 
written by the eminent critic, M. Charles Blanc, nearly forty 
years ago. They demonstrate admirably the secret of that 
impulse, which during this century has been given to Sculp- 
ture, and has once again helped to place France in the proud 
position of leader in Modem Art. 

The glory of French Sculpture has always been its inherent 
personality — its strong national note. What produced its 
decadence at the beginning of the century was no leick of 
talent — no lack of training, so absolutely essential to art— 
but the chilling of the warm, generous, fearless national 
genius by the powerful, the dominating pedagogy of Louis 
David's false ideal of Classic beauty, aided and abetted by 
the Italianizing influence of the delightful and seductive 

It has been suggested that a sort of self-mistrust in- 

matters of Art, led the men of the revolution and the first> 



Empire to turn eagerly to the traditions of a ready-made 
art — that it was a sense of their own ignorance — the need of 
something stamped by the hall-mark of centuries of cultivation 
as stable and settled — that led them to seize on the art of 
Greece and Rome, as it was then known, and take it as their 
model and ideal. I cannot agree with this ingenious and 
amusing theory. As I have endeavoured to demonstrate, 
the Classic revival of David and the Empire had its origin 
far bfiwjk in the eighteenth century. But be the causes what 
they may, it is undeniable that the living, personal French 
Art of the eighteenth century, had at the beginning of the 
nineteenth given place to a debased Classic ideal. And the 
all-powerful influence of David, and of Canova — twice 
summoned to Paris by the Emperor, whose taste for all 
things Italian was manifested both in Architecture and 
Sculpture— had a profound eflfect on the sculptors of the 
day. While these classic tendencies were fostered — at all 
events in decorative sculpture — by the nco-pompeiian tastes 
of the architect Percier. 

We have but to glance at the early nineteenth century 

sculpture in the Louvre to see evidences of these tendencies 

on all sides. We find an amazing amount of talent. Some 

artists display much grace. All show facility. While here 

and there in portraiture, face to face with the human being. 

we get a certain sense of life. But for the most part, if not 

frigidly classic, all are correct and elegant to the point of 

positive irritation. In such works for instance as those of 

Pradier — the author of the ** Style Louis Philippe," and the 

most popular artist of his day — we find nothing noble or 

moving. The soft, smooth touch has no word to say to us. 

The works are at once faultless and exasperating. But 

while even the older men — KoUand, Lemire, Dumont, are 

affected in some degree by this overwhelming current of 

classicism ; while the younger men — Chaudet, and Cortot, 

Cartellier, Bosio, and many another, are unable to resist it ; 

to say nothing of the High priests of a close " imitation of the 

Ancients," such as Kamey, Moitte, etc. — yet help is at hand. 

The regeneration which G^ricault, Delacroix, and the 


landscape painters wrought in painting, was brought about in 
Sculpture by three great artists — David d'Angers, Rude, and 

It is no exaggeration to say that Modem Sculpture, 
whether in France, in England, or in America, owes its 
being to the impulse given to the Art by the lofty and mag- 
nificent conceptions of these three masters. The desires, 
the ambitions, the questionings and searchings for a nobler, 
a more true and living art, that were at once the glory and 
the torment of the leaders in letters and in painting of the 
Romantic movement, haunted the three great sculptors like- 
wise — the two fii*st brought up in the strictest sect of artistic 
Pharisees. For David d'Angers was a pupil of David the 
painter and Roland the sculptor. And Rude, with his premier 
prix, was only prevented going to the School of Rome 
by lack of public funds ; and while in exile in Brussels was 
under the direct influence of David. Out of the heart of the 
Classic school they came — these Pioneers, who swept away 
the deadening, cramping formulas of a false classic ideal, by 
the profoundest respect for the higher ideals of pure Greek 
Art ; and brought Hfe, truth, imagination, and patriotism to 
the renaissance of the art of Sculpture. 

Before studying the history of the modern school, and its 
three great founders, David d'Angers, Rude, and Barye, 
certain artists of the first Empire and the Restoration must 
be mentioned. In a few of them we find germs of that 
honest love of nature and sense of life, which has so dis- 
tinguished modern French sculpture. But most of them, 
although their talent is undeniable, yield to the overwhelm- 
ing pressure of the Classic revival under Louis David, or the 
insipid sentimentality of the Restoration ; to the deadening 
influence of academic or oflicial art. 

Chinard, Joseph {b. Lyons, 1756 ; d. 1813), the sculptor 
of the Directoire and the Consulate, is now well-nigh for- 
gotten. But all his works bear the stamp of truth, and of a 
vigorous if somewhat naif personality. Not one person in a 
thousand looks at his "Carabinier" of the Arc de Triomphe du 
Carrousel. Nevertheless it is a most living figure. The bust 


f Mme. R^camier, copied and so widely distributed by 
/hifflet, which has been sometimes attributed to Houdon, 
7as by Chinard. And some of his terra-cotta medallions 
re of great value. His life was chiefly spent at Lyons, 
rhere he was Professor at the School of Fine Arts. 

Chaudet, Antoine Denis {b, Paris, 1763 ; d. Paris, 1810), 
hared the Imperial favours so lavishly bestowed on Canova. 
nspired by the immortal sculptures of Jean Goujon, Chaudet 
nth Moitte and Rolland decorated the ceils de boeuf of the 
ez-de-chausee and the upper storeys of the Louvre in 1808, 
irhen Percier and Fontaine completed Perrault*s building, 
lis statue of Napoleon as Caesar adorned the Venddme 
'olumn until 1814. And his well-known bust of the 
Cmperor (now at Arras) has become classic. 

In spite of a certain conventionality, his '* Amour *' (534, 
jouvre) is graceful, with a charming set of conceits in low 
elief on the plinth. And '*Le Berger Phorbas et CEdipe** 
533) is a statue of considerable merit. 

Dupaty, Louis (b. Bordeaux, 1771 ; d. Paris, 1825), took 
p sculpture somewhat late. He had been intended for the 
magistracy, but renounced it for Art, trying landscape paint- 
ig under Valenciennes, and historical painting with Vincent, 
efore he settled upon sculpture. He gained the prix de 
iome in 1799, staying in Italy for eight years. For his 
3vely '*Biblis chang^e en Fontaine" (667, Louvre) alone he 
p-ould deserve mention ; not to speak of many statues and 
usts in public gardens and galleries. 

Cahtellier, Pierre {b. Paris, 1757; d. Paris, 1831), the 
»upil of Bridan and master of Eude,^ had a true sense of 
ife, strong convictions, and an honest nature. This was 
[lade evident in the excellent teaching his pupils received in 
is justly popular atelier ; and in the fine bas relief of the 
Capitulation of Ulm " on the Arc du Carrousel, and that 
f the " Char de la Gloire " above the Colonnade of the 
jouvre. At Versailles we find a bust and statue of Louis 
$onaparte, King of Holland ; and a fine statue of Pichegru, 
V Cartellier. 

' See Rude, p. 480. 


Bosio, Francois-Joseph (b. Monaco, 1773 ; d. 1845).— 
" The abundant and facile Bosio " — chevalier of Saint- 
Michel, Baron, Premier Sculpteur du Roi, Professor of the 
^^cole des Beaux Arts, and Member of the Institute from the 
founding of the seventh chair — was equally in favour under 
the Empire and the Eestoration. All the Court, under both 
regimes, posed for him. The bronze chariot of the Arc du 
Carrousel is his ; so are some of the has rehefs of the 
Venddme Column ; the Louis XIV. of the Place des 
Victoires ; the Henri IV. enfant, of Pau ; and the silver 
replica at Versailles ; where we also find a bust of Napoleon 
and one of Charles X. 

GiRAUD, Pierre - Francois - Gregoire (6. Luc. pres 
Draguignan, 1783 ; d. Paris, 1836), is another of those 
artists who has not deserved the neglect he has met with. 
A fine classical scholar, and pupil of his compatriot, J. B. 
Giraud, he developed a thoroughly original and personal 
talent. His stately ** Projet de Tombeau " (697) of the 
Louvre is in wax, a substance Giraud always preferred to 
clay ; and its effect in this case is that of finely polished 
bronze. The conception is full of real feeling; for it was 
the result of a profound sorrow, and of the desire to per- 
petuate the memory of his wife and two infant children. 
It is of great value in the history of Art, for it betrays the 
coming revolution. Eomanticism is already in the air. 

His well-known '*Chien Braque" (695) was exhibited in 
the memorable Salon of 1827 ; and is a fine and life-Hke study. 

CoRTOT, Jean Pierre (b. Paris, 1787 ; d. 1843), is better 
represented in the Louvre by his ** Soldat de Marathon" — 
heavy though it be — than by his stiff and silly ** Daphnia 
and Chloe ". He was one of the purely official school. He 
produced numbers of Royal Statues; was given the fourth 
group, ** Le Triomphe de 1810," on the Arc de Triomphe in 
preference to Rude ; and was eulogized by Raoul Rochette, 
the perpetual secretary of the Academy and the sworn foe 
of naturalism. 

Pradier, James (6. Geneva, 1792; d. Bougival, 1862), 
who has been called the author of the Louis Philippe style,. 


belonged to a French Protestant family, which had taken 
refuge in Geneva after the Edict of Nantes. He was 
studying at the Municipal School of Geneva, when Vivant 
Denon, the director of the Louvre, remarked his aptitude 
for sculpture. He took him to Paris, obtained a pension 
for him from Napoleon to enable him to complete his studies, 
and placed him with Lemot, in 1809. He gained the grand 
prix in 1813. And after five years in Rome returned to 
Paris, and exhibited for the first time in 1819 — not in 1817 
as has been often stated. The piece was the " Centaure et 
Bacchante " now at Rouen. In 1827 he was a Membre de 
rinstitut, and Professor at the iicole des Beaux Arts. 

Pradier's gifts — his facility, his decent paganism, his cor- 
rectness and elegance — were such as suited the taste of the 
time. *' He sets out every morning for Athens, and arrives 
** every evening at the rue de Breda "' ! said the caustic Pr^ault. 
His Psyches, his Sapphos, his Fils de Niob6, even his pretty 
" Toilette d'Atalante," are exasperating in their insipid 
elegance. He fills the place in sculpture which Delaroche 
filled in painting — that safe and happy mean which brings 
prosperity ; for it is certain to make no demands upon the 
greater depths of feeling and intelligence. 

Besides the works I have mentioned, the Louvre owns 
his excellent bronze bust of Maxime Du Camp. To Pradier 
also are due the bust of Louis XVIH. at Versailles. Four 
** Renomm^es " on the Arc de Triomphe de I'iltoile. Twelve 
** Victories '* for the Tomb of Napoleon. ** Com^die gaie et 
Com^die serieuse " for the Fontaine Moliere, rue de Riche- 
lieu. And the statues of ** Lille "and of "Strasbourg" on 
the Place de la Concorde ; besides innumerable busts, statues, 
and groups. 

Among other more or less academic artists may be men- 
tioned SiMART, Pierre Charles (1806-1857), who sculp- 
tured seven of the bas reliefs for the tomb of Napoleon, and 
the pediment of the Pavilion Denon at the Louvre. Jaley, 
J. L. Nicholas (1802-1866), a good pupil of Cartellier's, 
whose statue of Louis XI. is in the Louvre. Lemaire, 
Ph.-Joseph-Henri (1798-1880), author of the Pediment of 


the Madeleine, and the has relief of the Funeral of Marceau 
on the Arc de Triomphe. Perraud, J. Joseph (1819-1877), 
the author of the somewhat famous bas reUef of "Les 
Adieux " now in the Louvre, which was acclaimed by the 
partisans of pure classicism as the last word of Greek Art. 
It is indeed an admirable bit of sculpture : but was so much 
better done 2000 years ago, either in Athens or in Rome. 
Cl6singer, Jean-Baptiste-Auguste (6. Besan^on, 1814; 
d. Paris, 1883), who enjoyed a brilliant but ephemeral 
reputation. And is now best known as the son-in-law of 
George Sand, having married Mile. Solange Dudevant. 
In 1847 his ** Femme piqu^e par un Serpent *' brought 
him great popularity. His statues of Rachel and George 
Sand at the Comedie Fran9aise are inferior. 

But before Duret, Francisque {b, Paris, 1804 ; d. Paris, 
1865), we pause among the Classic pastiches of many of the 
other sculptors of this period, with a sense of rehef. With 
his ** Jeune Pecheur dansant 1ft Taren telle '* a finer, stronger, 
more honest chord is touched. It is a pity that such an 
impulse only lasted for a time; and that Buret's later 
works did not carry him beyond the youthful vigour of this 
early effort. 

Preault, Auguste (b, 1810; d, 1879), must be by no 
means forgotten in speaking of the beginning of the 
Romantic movement. For though perhaps he is better 
remembered as the author of many mordant bon mots which 
are still quoted in the studios, he was also the author of the fine 
** Jacques Coeur" at Bourges ; of the **C16mence Isaure*' 
in the garden of the Luxembourg; of the ** Marceau," an 
admirable statue on the place d'Armes at Chaxtres ; and the 
*' Cavaher Gaulois " of the Pont d'lena. 

We now reach the true Pioneers of Modem Sculpture. 

David, Pierre Jean, dit David d'Angers (6. Angers, 
1789 ; d. 1856). — Among his contemporaries David d'Angers 
ranked as the first sculptor of the age. His medallions 
were placed far above the works of Houdon in the past, 
or of Rude in the present. This opinion has however 
been modified. In a few important works he attained a 


complete revelation of his powers, such as the Pediment 
of the Pantheon — the " Philopomfene " of the Louvre — the 
tomb of ** General Gobert " at Pfere Lachaise — and I am 
incUned to add the tomb of the ** Comte de Bourck,"^ 
also in P^re Lachaise. 

But his medallions are without doubt the most im- 
portant part of his work, worthy, so M. Charles Blanc con- 
siders, to be placed beside the drawings of Ingres, or 
Charlet's lithographs. They are indeed instinct with the 
quahty which distinguishes all his work — the sensation of 
life. In these medallions we get a series of portraits of all 
his contemporaries, a series of extreme intrinsic interest, and 
of the very highest historic as well a.s artistic value. Through 
them we know what manner of men and women, to take a 
few names at random, Bonaparte — the Bonaparte who Gros 
saw at the bridge of Arcole — K16ber, Gericault, Alfred de 
Musset, Lafayette, the captivating Mme. E^camier, Goethe^ 
Schiller, Flaxman, Fennimore Cooper, Lady Morgan, 
Bentham, Spurzheim, Lamartine, George Sand, Jules 
Janin, Theophile Gautier, Lord Byron, Victor Hugo, 
Delphine Gay, Dumas, Thiers, Guizot — every one of note, 
in fact — appeared to the artist, who worshipped genius, and 
knew so well how to render the type, the character, the 
nationality — nay, even the colouring of his sitter. It is an 
education in itself to study the series which adorns the walls 
of the Salle Bude at the Louvre — that Hall to which, alas ! 
such a fraction of the thousands of visitors ever penetrate. 

David d'Angers — son of a sculptor in wood who served 
the Republic as a soldier in La Vendee — ** a delicate and 
'* sickly child, was carried oflf by his father among the 
** baggage of the army '\ He was brought up to the sound 
of drum and cannon, amid the horrors and heroisms of war ; 
and his whole soul was aflfected by so strange an education. 
He belonged to the French Revolution, and the passions it 
engendered. But those passions in David d'Angers were 
always generous and noble ones. Though a thorough-going 
republican, he could nevertheless dedicate one of his finest 
works to the Vendean general, Bonchamps, a fanatical 


royalist — ^because the general had spared the hfe of David's 
father, taken prisoner after Saint-Florent. 

At ten years of age, in spite of all opposition, the child 
was determined to be an artist. He had mastered the 
rudiments of education and drawing at the iicole centrale of 
Angers. And one fine day, with fifty francs in his pocket, 
lent him by a painter named Delusse, he set out for Paris. 
Arriving there with nine francs, he became a stone carver to 
gain his bread. But after a time a pension was allowed him 
by the city of Angers, and in gratitude he added the name of 
his native place to his own. As the pupil of Louis David 
and KoUand he soon began to make his way. And as 
Pensiaiinaire (he only gained the second prize) he spent the 
usual time in Bome studying the antique. 

After his sojourn in Rome he heard that Lord Elgin 
had brought the marbles of the Parthenon to England. 
And as a pious pilgrim of old to the Holy Land, David 
instantly started for London. What he gained from a 
profound study of Phidias was what he already possessed 
in no small degree — the sense of life. " The taste for noble 
"lines, moderation of movement, measured gesture, the 
** selection of forms, and the