Skip to main content

Full text of "A History of Missouri and Missourians: A Text Book for "class A" Elementary ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

c. \ 


\ \ 

V \ 












»■ ' , 

'V.V J?. ^ 


A History of Missouri 
and Missourians 


A Text Book for "Qass A" Elementary Grade, 
Freshman High School, and Junior High School 

Those states stand highest in general renown which have 
stood highest in popularising their true history. 


Secretary, "State Historical Society of Missouri;" 
Editor, "The Missouri Historical Review ;" Author, 
"Missouri's Struggle for Statehood," "Missouri's 
Hall of Fame." 

Published by 

Columbia, Missouri . 


^ 1923 L 




No state offers a richer history than Missouri. 0)vcrinjf 
over two centuries of recorded annals, the story of her people 
is a resume of the important political, social, and economic 
developments of our nation. In exploration Missouri 
was opened to Spaniard and Frenchman, in settlement to 
Frenchman and American, and in government she was ruled 
by each. Her lead deposits, fur-bearing animals, salt springs, 
and fertile soil attracted her first settlers. Her central geo- 
graphical position made her the crossroads of trade and travel 
from east to west, gave her possession of the fiu* trade and the 
Santa Fe trade, and peopled her land with homeseeking settlers 
from south, east, and north. An American state with ninety- 
five per cent of her people native bom, Missouri offers to 
her citizens advantages possessed by few. 

Missouri history is rich in interest, instruction, and profit. 
It is more than romance, it is a study offering high reward to 
its followers. It is one of the bases for appreciating the value 
of sound patriotism. It is the greatest developer of man's chief 
asset — the critical faculty. It furnishes a fund of information 
from which knowledge grows and wisdom develops. And, 
finally, it profits the State itself in retaining its citizens and 
attracting new ones. Missourians are just awakening to the 
importance of this last. 

The "History of Missouri and Missourians" was written 
in such manner as to make possible the attainment of these re- 
wards. History largely fails when it is presented in purely 
chronological manner. Such history is little more than annals, 
and annals become tedious over a period of decades. History 
also fails in both interest and instruction when it is founded, 
on any one phase of a people's development. The development 
of Missouri agriculture, education, mining, apd transportation, 
is at least as important as a history of Missouri politics. The 

' (5) ; ;:: : ■ : 

6 Preface 

founding and development of Missouri cities is certainly as 

An appreciation of these facts explains tlie reason for the 
present treatment of Missouri history in this book. It is a 
history of Missouri and Missourians. Therefore, it is topical 
first and chronological second. The main emphasis is on the 
people's social and economic development. The political phase 
is not slighted but it is given only its proper proportion. The 
same is true of wars. Missouri's position, her re- 
sources, and the character of her population, are fully dealt 
with in order to appreciate the activities of the people. 

The advantages of the topical, treatment, especially since 
1820, are many. It enables the reader to get a perspective of 
one hundred years on any subject. Instead of a piecemeal pre- 
sentation of a subject, distributed in a dozen places, the reader 
gets a summary review of that subject in one or two chapters. 
This makes possible an intelligent understanding of that sub- 
ject. This method of presentation lends itself to the teacher^ 
making Missouri history, as it should be, both readable and 

The ''History of Missouri and Missourians" also marks a 
departure in ignoring the insignificant and the notorious how- 
ever spectacular. Neither is worthy of treatment in a school 
textbook or a supplementary reader. The truly important 
events in Missouri history are many. There is no need to pan- 
der to so-called interest by including minor happenings. 

The purpose of this history is to tell the true story of Mis- 
souri's development and to recount her contributions to civili- 
zation. If this story is well told a new Stale pride should re- 
sult. Such a pride, founded on facts, will enable Missourians 
to meet with confidence the contentions of strangers. It also 
will enable them to take counsel from the wisdom of their fore- 
fathers. And, it will instill in each the spirit of communion 
with home-land and home-folks — Missouri and Missourians. 

f LOYD C. Shoemaker 

Columbia, Missouri. 


Part 1 


Chapter I. Missouri, The Center State 9 

Chapter 1 1. Missourians 19 

Part II 


The Day of the Frenchman 

Chapter I. Early Spanish and French Explorers, 

1541-1804 27 

Chapter II. First Century of Settlement, 1700-1804. .. 38 

Chapter III. Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804. . 47 

Part III 


To share the duties and privileges of the greatest republic is 
the priceless inheritance of every American citizen 

Chapter I. The Louisiana Purchase, 1803 58 

Chapter II. Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 62 

Chapter III. Life of the People, 1804-1821 77 

Chapter IV. Missourians, The Trail-makers and 

Traders of the West, 1804-1843 94 



Missouri is a grand old state, and deserves to be grandly 


Chapter 1. The Rule of the Fathers, 1820-1844 112 


8 Contents 

Chapter II. Democratic Rule and Political Unrest, 

1844-1860 126 

Chapter III. Civil War Politics and Radical Repub- 
lican Rule, 1861-1870 147 

Chapter IV. The Liberal Republicans and the Demo- 
cratic Return to Power, 1870-1904 .175 

Chapter V. The Period of Independent Voting and 

Political Uncertainty, 1904-1921 196 

Part V. 


Chapter! Early Wars — Black Hawk, Seminole, 

Honey, Mormon, Mexican, and Kansas 
Border Wars 208 

Chapter IL The Civil War 219 

Chapter III. The Spanish- American and Mexican 

Border Wars 233 

Chapter IV. The World War 237 

Part VI 

The test of a civilization is its ability to co-operate 

Chapter I. ' . : A Century of Population 249 

Chapter IL Missouri "Mother of the West" and 

. "Founder of States" ...266 

Chapter III. A Century of Missouri Agriculture ....272 

Chapter IV. A Century of Missouri Mining 283 

Chapter V. A Century of Transportation 294 

Chapter VI. A Century of City Building 303 

Chapter VII. A Century of Journalism and Literature315 

Chapter VIII A Century of Education 326 

Appendix .337 

index .338 



Chapter I 

The Mississippi Valley 

Lying between the Alleghany and the Rocky mountains 
on the east and the west, the Great Lakes and the Gulf of 
Mexico on the north and the south, is the Mississippi valley. 
This valley is the largest in the United States and one of the 
largest in the world. It is also the best fitted for man because 
of the soil, climate, and rainfall. 

The valley takes its nam« from the river. The Mississippi 
river rises in Minnesota and is 2,500 miles long. The Missouri 
river is the main tributary. In fact, the Missouri is the main 
river of the valley. It rises in Montana in the Rocky mountains 
and from its source to its mouth at the Gulf is 4,200 miles 
long. Not only is the Missouri river longer than the Miss- 
issippi river, but it drains three times as much land before it 
joins the Mississippi as the Mississippi does before it joins the 
Missouri. The Missouri drains nearly one-half (42%) of the 
entire Mississippi valley. The total area of the Mississippi 
valley is 1,250,000 square miles, or eighteen times as large as 
the State of Missouri. Since the area of our country exclu- 
sive of Alaska and Hawaii is 3,026,789 square miles, the 
Mississippi valley embraces 41 % of the United States. 

Important as this valley is in size, it is even more im- 
portant in producing food, clothing, shelter, fuel, and metals. 
It is nature's storehouse. Blessed by nature with rich soil, 
valuable metals, broad forests, healthful climate, and abundant 



History of Missouri and Missourians 

rainfall, the Mississippi valley ranks first in the world in use- 
fulness and products. 

Location of Missouri 

In the center of the Mississippi valley lies Missouri with 
an area of 69,420 square miles. It is about 500 miles from 















St. Louis east to the Appalachian mountains and it is nearly 
the same distance from Kansas City west to the Rocky moun- 
tains. From south Missouri to the Gulf of Mexico the dis- 
tance is also 500 miles and from north Missouri to Canada it is 
about 600 miles. This central location is important. It makes 
Missouri the natural meeting place of the people of the 
Mississippi valley. It makes Missouri the central cross roads 
of trade. 

Missouri is also the center state of the Mississippi valley 
in another sense. It has a central climate which gives it cold 

Missouri, The Center State II 

winters in the north and mild winters in the south, hot sum- 
mers in the north and cool siunmers in the mountains of the 
south and southwest. 

Even more important is the fact that Missouri is the cen- 
ter state in natural wealth. This wealth consists principally 
of all the different kinds of soil found in the Mississipi valley, 
most of the metals and minerals, and nearly all of the useful 
kinds of timber. Missouri has prairies, bottom land, and 
mountains. Few states have all of these to such an extent as 

Finally, Missouri is in one respect the center state of the 
United States. Five states lie to the east of her and five to 
the west. Two states lie to the north of her and two to Ihe 
south. Missouri is not, however, the geographical center of 
the United States. It is nearly twice as far from Missouri to 
the Pacific (1,500 miles) as from Missouri to the Atlantic 
(800 miles). 

Nature's Gateway to the West 

Missouri is not only the geographical and the natural re- 
source center of the Mississippi valley, but Missouri is also the 
river center. Like the threads of an immense web, the rivers 
stretch over the valley. The center of this web is Missouri. 
Along her eastern border lies the Mississippi, with its import- 
ant eastern tributaries, the Wisconsin, Illinois, and Ohio rivers. 
These rivers tap or connect with the vast country to the north, 
northeast, east, and in part the southeast, and all of them flow 
toward Missouri. This made it easier for the people from 
those parts and especially from the east to come here in 
pioneer days. It also made it easier to bring eastern goods 
here. Until the coming of the railroads in the middle of the 
19th century, the waterways of the Mississippi valley were the 
main means of travel. Missouri as the river center stood at 
the crossroads of trade. 

12 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Cutting the State into two parts and forming her north- 
west boundary is the Missouri river, with its many tributaries, 
the Yellowstone, Platte, Kansas, and Osage rivers. These tap 
the even larger country to the northwest and the west, and all 
flow toward Missouri. This made it natural for Missourians 
to explore those parts and made it easier for them to bring 
back the furs trapped on plains and mountains. 

Another fact is important. By following the Missouri 
river and its tributaries, whether by water or land, the Mis- 
souri explorer, trader, or trapper came within a few miles of 
other rivers. If he followed the Missouri river up-stream, he 
approached close to the Columbia. If h€^ followed the Yellow- 
stone, he could easily reach the Snake. If he followed the 
Platte, he soon found the Green and the Grand, which form 
the Colorado, and the Arkansas. The Arkansas was close to 
the Rio Grande. In short, the Missouri river was the path to 
the West, and Missouri became the Gateway to the West. 

Many Missourians entered the West by boat and many, 
perhaps more, went by land. In either case, the river course 
was followed. It was because the river was the guide and 
because Missouri was the starting point, that Missourians 
opened the trails and the trade, and later largely settled the 
country to the northwest, west, and southwest. Missouri be- 
came the Gateway to the West. 

Natural Wealth 

Missouri is a favored child of nature. Many states were 
given rich soil, some rich minerals, and others vast forests, 
but few were given all of these. Missouri is one of the 
favored few. She also was given broad rivers, healing springs, 
a healthful climate, sufficient rainfall, and beautiful scenery. 
This great natural wealth was given man to develop, not waste, 
for his own needs and for the needs of his fellowmen. 

Missouri's greatest resource is her soil, of which there 
are many kinds. The most important Missouri soils are bot- 

Missouri, The Center State 1 3 

torn, brown loess, prairie, fertile Ozark, and highland Ozark. 
The bottom soil is very rich and deep. It borders the rivers 
and creeks and broadens out in southeast Missouri to include 
seven counties. The brown loess soil is equally fertile and is 
perhaps more valuable. Beginning in Boone cotmty in central 
Missouri it borders both sides of the Missouri up-stream, get- 
ting much wider, and in northwest Missouri it broadens out to 
include six counties. About half of St. Louis county has 
brown loess, and several counties in southeast Missouri have 
some. Like the bottom soil, it will produce in abimdance, and 
it is especially fine for com and apples. The prairie soil in- 
cludes all the State north of the Missouri except the narrow 
ribbons of bottom and the bands of brown loess. It also 
covers three counties and about half of three more lying south 
and southeast of Kansas City. It is fertile and produces most 
of the grains, hay, and pasture. The Mississippi valley is com- 
posed largely of this prairie soil, and it makes the valley the 
granary of the world. The fertile Ozark soil borders the base 
of the Ozark moimtains. In area it is extensive, but not so 
large as the prairie. In quality, most of it is good while some 
of it is very productive. The highland Ozark is thin and 
stony. It is not a good soil for grain raising or general farm- 
ing, although there are some fertile patches. In area, it is ex- 
tensive, covering nearly half of the State lying south of the 
Missouri. This soil is better for grass farming, such as cattle 
raising and dairying, and some of it is adapted for fruit. The 
Ozarks are the oldest part of the continent. 

Missouri's mineral resources rank second only to her soil. 
These mineral resources are extensive and important. Some 
arc found in nearly all parts of the State. They include such 
useful minerals as coal and iron, lead and zinc, pottery arid 
building clays, marble and stone, sand and gravel, cement rock, 
and mineral springs. Coal is the most important of these. 
Rich veins underlie many parts of Missouri. Missouri's coal 
beds underlie nearly one- third of the state (22,000 square 

I^, History of Missouri and Missourians 

miles), including nearly all the country north of the Missouri 
and ten counties of western Missouri south of the river. These 
beds contain enough coal to furnish fuel for the pe(^le for 
centuries. Only the thick veins are now worked. Missouri 
leads the world in the production of lead and zinc. Most of 
the lead comes from St. Francois and neighboring counties in 

the southeast and from around Jasper county in the southwest. 
The southwest part also produces all of the zinc. Pottery 
and building clays, from which are made tile and brick, are 
found in various parts of Missouri, as are sand and gravd and 
building stone. Marble and cement rock (from which cement 
is made) arc found in quantity and quality in only a few 
places. Mineral springs are rather widely scattered. Some of 
these have healing qualities of much value to man, as are those 
at Excelsior Springs and Eldorado Springs. From other 
springs the early settlers made salt by boiling the water. In 
fact, it was land and lead, salt and furs, that attracted Mis- 

Missouri, I'he Center State 15 

souri's first settlers. Of iron Missouri has extensive deposits 
and years ago the iron industry here was important. 

Missouri was once a great lumber state and even today 
she has much valuable timber. Her y«lIow pine in the south is 
being cut rapidly but she still has much oak and walnut timber. 

Another source of natural wealth in Missouri is her beau- 
tiful scenery. Some states, as Colorado and California, have 
widely advertised their scenery and made it a soiu"ce of wealth. 
In the Missouri Orarks is scenery full of beauty and interest. 
Rugged cliffs, clear streams, big natural caves, some of the 
largest springs in the world, and a mild delightful climate, 
make this part of the State one of the most fasdnating natural 
playgrounds in America. The views around such places as 
Ha Ha Tonka in Camden county. Galena in Stone county, and 

l6 History of Missouri and Missouriams 

Branson in Taney county equal the best in America, In fact, 
the entire Ozark section of Missouri is noted for its scenery 
and natural wonders. In Oregon county is the largest cold 
water spring in the world — Big Ozark or Greer Springs. It 
discharges 486,000,000 gallons of water daily. 

The swift flowing streams of the Ozarks are also becom- 
ing a source of wealth to Missouri. By building dams across 

1 tbe Counlry 

them and putting in machinery, the water is made to work for 
man. In pioneer days they furnished power to turn the big 
water-wheels of grain mills. To-day they furnish power from 
which electricity is imadc. This electricity is carried by wires 
to towns and cities miles away where it is used to light homes, 
run street cars, and operate factories. Water power is some- 
times called "white coal." 


Neariy two hundred and fifty years ago, the name "Mis- 
souri" was first given to a tribe of Indians who lived near the 
mouth of the Missouri river. The river itself was first called 
"Pek-i-ta-nou", meaning "muddy water." The name of the In- 

MissouKi, The Center State ly 

dian tribe was later given to the river, and *Tdc-i-ta-nou" be- 
came "Missouri." The meaning of "Missouri" is tmcertain. 
It is usually thought to mean either "muddy water" or "great 

When the country around the river became a territory, 
the name of the river'was given to the territory. When the 
territory became a state, cut into two parts by this stream, it 
was "given the same name. So the State of Missouri re- 
ceived its liaane "Missouri" from the territory; the territory 
from the river; and the river from the Indians. 

^The Territory of Missouri, organized in 1812, included all 
of the Louisiana Purchase except the State of Louisiana. AH 
of the white people lived in what is now Missouri and Arkan- 
-sas. In 1819 the Territory of Arkansas was set off and in 
1820 the State of Missouri was formed. The shape of Mis- 
souri in 1820 was the same as it is to-day with one important 
exception. Instead of the Missotu'i river north of Kansas City 
being the western boundary, a line was run directly north. 
This excluded from Missouri what are to-day the counties of 
Atchison, Nodaway, Holt, Andrew, Platte, and Buchanan. 
This tract of rich land was held by the Sac, Fox, and Iowa 
Indians. It was called the Platte country. . The United States 
government piu-chased this from the Indians in 1836 and gave 
it to Missouri. This was called the Hatte Purchase, and by it, 
Missouri's boundary was completed. 

Missouri is an easy state to bound. On the north is one 
state, Iowa,^and on the south is one state, Arkansas; on the 
east are three states, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; and 
on the west are three states, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oktahoma. 

Missouri is a large state compared to the states east of the 
Mississi^i, but is rather small compared to many of the big 
states in the west. Her area is a little over 69,000 square 
miles. From east to west her greatest width is 348 miles and 
her average width is 235 miles. Her average length from 
north t» south is 242 miles. Although the shape of Missouri 

1 8 History of Missouri and Missourians 

is not square, still her average width and her average length 
arc nearly the same. 

^ Suggestive Questions 

1. State the geographical position of Missouri in the Mississippi 

2. Name the three ways in which Missouri may be considered the 
center state. 

3. The fact that Missouri is a center state has influenced her his- 

tory in what way? 

4. What can you say of the importance of Missouri's natural 

5. What is the origin of the name, "Missouri?" 

6. When was the original Territory of Missouri organized and 

what did it include? 

Chapter II i 

The First Inhabitant — The Indian 

When the first white man came to Missouri he found 
Indian tribes. South of the Missouri river were the Osages» 
the tallest race of men in North America. North of the Mis- 
souri river were the Missotu-is, Otoes, and lowas. These three 
tribes were gradually pushed westward by the Sacs and Foxes, 
who later took their place in north Missouri. The Kansas 
tribe of Indians lived near the mouth of the Kaw river. The 
Delawares and the Shawnees came later. They were invited to 
settle in southeast Missouri to help protect the white settle- 
ments against the warlike Osages. A few Miamis were in cen- 
tral Missouri. 

The Osages, Missouris, Otoes, Kansas, and lowas, were 
related to each other. They spoke different dialects of the 
same language. All of them had once lived near the mouth of 
the Missouri river. The Osages left first and went west and 
southwest. The Missouris left last, being forced out by the 
Sacs and Foxes. These latter came from Wisconsin. They 
were not braver than the other Indians but they were better 
armed with guns instead of with bow and arrow. The Sacs 
and Foxes were two tribes but they fought as one. They were 
treacherous and they were able. They easily defeated other 
Indian tribes and they gave the white settlers in Missouri 
much trouble. The Missouris were no match for the Sacs and 
Foxes and later they disbanded. Some went with the Osages 
but the majority joined the Otoes. The Delawares and Shaw- 
nees came by invitation from Ohio. They were the white 
man's friends and acted as a barrier between the whites and 
the Osages. The Kansas and the lowas did not play an im- 
portant part in our history. 


20 History of Missouri and Missourians 

t '. 

Just as the Sacs and Foxes forced the Missouris, Otoes, 
and lowas westward, 30 did^t^e white^man by treaty, arms, 
and presents, force the Sacs and Foxes and tibe other Indian 
tribes westward* Finally, by 1833 all Missouri was clear of 
Indian title except the Platte country. The Platte country 
was also cleared by the Indian treaties of 1836. 

The Osages were the most representative Indians of Mis- 
souri,, and well might any state be proud of having produced 
such perfect men. They were the tallest rac^ in North 
America. Few Osage braves were under six feet, many were 
six feet and six inches, and some were seven feet. They, were 
well formed and good looking. They were quick and graceful. 
In war and the chase they equalled any. They thought nothing 
of nmning sixty miles in one day and they shot an arrow with 
such force as to go entirely through a grown buffalo. The 
Osages shaved the head and decorated and painted it with 
great care. They cut and slit the ears and profusely orna- 
mented them, Unlike other Indians they did not drink 
whiskey and they had contempt for any one who was drunk. 
Like most Indians they raised com, beans, and pumpkins ; 
gathered nuts and berries; and cured the meat killed in the 
chase. They planted in the spring, hunted in the simimer, hid 
their food in the ' fall, hunted in early winter, and returned 
home until spring. 

Although the Indians in peace and war played an import- 
ant part in nearly all American settlements, few states were so 
fortunate as Missouri. This was due to our French settlers 
knowing how to deal peaceably and justly with the red man. 
The American rarely got along so well with the Indian as did 
the Frenchman. Again, Missouri was fortunate in having a 
small Indian pQpulation. The Indians in Missouri probably 
never exceeded 15,000 in number. Finally, Missouri was 
fortunate in having a remarkable man in charge of Indian af- 
fairs. This was William Qark, Missouri's last territorial 
governor. The Indians called' ^Glark, "Red Head" from his 
red hair. They all honored and feared him. 


The Indians were once the only Missourians. None of 
the original Indians of Missouri live in the State to-day. They 
are scattered over reservations or ar^ found in Oklahoma. 
Missoim's first inhabitants have gone. They have left little 
to reniember them by except the name of a stream or county, 
and some flint arrow heads scattered here and there. Other 
races were to people the State. 

indian village scene 
The First White Man — The Frenchman 

The first white man to make his home in Missouri was 
the Frenchman. Probably the first white man to see Missouri 
was the Spaniard, De Soto, but he did not stay. The French 
were the first explorers, the first traders, and the first set- 
tlers. The French were the first Missourians if we except 
the Indians. They founded the first settlements along the 
Mississippi ; traded for or trapped the first furs along the 

History of Missouri and Missouriaks 

Missouri AN s 


Missouri ; planted and gathered the first crops ; boiled the first 
sak; and mined the first lead. They named some of the 
streams and cities as, Little Bonne Femme (little good woman) 
and St. Louis, and thousands of their sons and daughters are 
living in Missouri to-day. The French began coming to Mis- 
souri about 1700. They continued to come here for a century. 
The first settJers came from what is now Illinois, just east of 
Missouri. Most of the French in Illinois had come from 
Canada and some from lower Louisiana arotmd New Orleans. 
So the first white Missourians, the Frenchmen, came from the 
north and the south. Missouri was to be a center state even 
from the viewpoint of population. 

The Spaniard, 1770-1804 

Although the French came first, they were soon to lose 
their mother country, France. In 1762 France by a secret 
treaty ceded to Spain all the Louisiana country, i. e., all the 
land that she owned lying west of the Mississippi, but it was 
not until 1770 that Spain sent a governor to St. Louis to 
govern the upper Lomsiana country. From 1770 to 1804 a 
Spanish governor and a few Spanish soldiers lived in St. 
Louis. They mixed with the French people, intermarried, and 
had friendly social relations. There were very few Spaniards 
who came to Missouri but they contributed their share to the 
history of the State. One of the greatest explorers and fur 
traders Missouri produced was a Spaniard, named Lisa, of St. 

The Early Americans, 1780-1804 

Within a decade after the coming of the Spaniard in 1770, 
the American reached Missouri. Only a few came at first, 
but between 1780 and 1804 they came in hundreds. Many 
were from Illinois and Indiana but more were from Kentucky. 
Nearly all were of southern birth, i. e., Kentucky, Virginia, 
and Tennessee. 

24 History of Missouri and, Missourians 

Later Americans^ 1804-1860 

- The flood of Americans that had started before the pttr- 
chase of Louisiana by the Umted States in 1803, grew even 
larger after 1804. At first most of these came from the 
South, Virginia, Kentucky, and the two Carolinas, Maryland, 
and Tennessee, but a few came from the Middle States, 
Pennsylvania, and New York. Later more of the Americajis 
began coming from these Middle States and from Illinois, 
Indiana, and Ohio, although the immigrants from the South- 
em States still were in the majority. From this it is seen that 
the Missourian was at first a full-blood Frenchman with a 
slight Spanish dressing. Later he became half-French and 
half -American. Then he was fairly swamped in the flow of 
new American immigrants. These Americans came from the 
South and easily out-numbered all others, then later other im- 
migrants began coming from eastern states. Missouri was 
again proving to be a center state. 

The German, 1830-1860 

Begimiing about 1830 a new people appeared in Missouri. 
These were the Germans. Some persons of German blood 
had settled in Missouri before this but they had come either 
from Ohio or Pennsylvania. In 1824 an educated German 
doctor named Duden came here and lived two years in Warren 
county. On returning to Germany he wrote a book which 
pictured Missouri as a wonderful land of opportunity. At that 
time Germany was governed by many petty kings and life 
was very hard for the people. So Duden's book became popu- 
lar and thousands of Germans sold their property and came to 
Missouri. This took place between 1830 and 1850. 

In 1848 the German people in Germany rebelled against 
their kings. The people were defeated and thousands left 
Germany. Many of these came to Missouri. Some of our 
counties are to-day peopled by the sons and daughters of these 
early German pioneers, who loved freedom even more than 


their old home-land. Many settled in the country and became 
farmers, while others settled in the city. 

The Irish, 1850-1860 

Just as the Germans left Germany through hope of oppor- 
tunity and love of freedom, so did the Irish leave Ireland. 
The Irish were struggling with the English for freedom and 
independence. The Irish were overcome and their condition 
was desperate. They lacked both freedom and food. They 
began to come to America. The potato crop, the main food 
crop of Ireland, failed. Tens of thousands now left their old 
homes to seek new ones here. Some came to Missouri between 
1850 and 1860. They settled mainly in our cities. 

Recent Americans, 1865-1920 

After the Civil War a new American immigration poured 
into Missouri. These new settlers came mainly from the east, 
especially from Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. As the fonner 
Americans in Missouri had come largely from the south and 
the majority were Democrats, so the ones from the east and 
northeast were usually Republicans. (The Irish were usually 
Democrats and the Germans, Republicans.) Many of the 
Union (or northern) soldiers who had passed through Mis- 
souri during the war, on their return home decided to settle 
here. They also told their neighbors. Moreover, land was 
cheaper here than to the eastward. This eastern and northern 
immigration to Missouri kept up for a niunber of years. 
About 1870 another American immigration set in. This was 
from Iowa and Illinois. Land in these states had become very 
high. Hence a number of people from these states crossed 
over and settled in Missouri. They also were largely Republi- 
can in politics. This new immigration is still going on. 

26 History of Missouri and Missourians 


In recent years Missouri has received a number of 
foreigners. Some of the principal peoples of this class are 
Swedes, Bohemians, Poles, Swiss, and Italians. The number 
of foreign born in Missouri is very small, there being only five 
per cent of Missouri's people born on foreign soil. 

The Negro 

The first negroes on Missouri soil were slaves brought 
here from the West Indies to work the lead mines. This was 
before any permanent settlement had been made in Missouri. 
Prior to the Civil War, the negro population brought from the 
South by the American settler kept increasing. Most of these 
were slaves. Since the war, the negro has been free. 


So "Missourians" means more than most people think. In 
the first place, the Missourian in ninety-five, cases out of one 
hundred is native born. Missourians include the French, Ger- 
man and Irish races grafted on and absorbed by the American 
stock both northern and southern. Missourians are really a 
center people, just as their state is a center state. To under- 
stand this is to appreciate more easily many things in Missouri 
history, Missouri politics, and Missouri thinking even today. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Locate the nine Indian tribes in Missouri. 

2. Which tribes were the most peaceable and which the most war- 

3. Describe the most representative tribe of Missouri. 

4. How do you explain the friendly relations existing between the 

Indians and the first white inhabitants? 

5. What nationalities predominated in the immigration to Mis- 

souri during the period from 1700 to 1804? How does this 
compare with the period from 1830 to 1920? • 

6. What percentage of Missourians are native born? 




The Day of the Frenchman 

Chapter I 



Missouri a Center State of Exploration 

Miss^ri was visited in early days by both the Spanish 
and the French and later was owned by both. The Spaniard 
came first, arriving here only half a century after Columbus 
/liscovered America. The Spaniard did not stay. Others came 
every thirty or forty years on exploring trips. This ccMidnued 
from 1541 to about 1720, a period of nearly two hundred years. 
The Spanish came first from the southeast or Florida, later 
from the southwest or New Mexico. They did not aid in set- 
tling Missouri because they did not have that object in view. 
The Spanish explorer in Missouri sought gold and silver, later 
he came to oppose the French. He failed in both. He never 
stayed long enough to do anything lasting for himself although 
he influenced Missouri history in a way that he least expected. 
He laid open the path to his own country in New Mexico, and 
later along that path developed a great trade — ^The Santa Fe 

The Frenchman came much later. He first appeared in, 
or near, Missouri about 1659. Others came from the north- 
east or Canada and later from the east or Illinois. In half a 
century otlicr French explorers came from the south or Loui- 
siana. This exploring of Missouri by the French continued 


28 History of Missouri and Missourians 

for about a century and a half (16S9-1804). I>uring this time 
settlements were made. The Frenchman wanted to discover a 
water route to the western ocean and build an empire for 
France. Like the Spaniard, he sought gold and silver but 
when he failed to find either in Missouri, he tiuned to other 
objects as salt, lead, furs, and trade. The main work of the 
Frenchman in Missouri was to explore and settle and in this 
he succeeded. It was because the French not only explored 
but aUo settled the Mississippi valley that they claimed and 
maintained their possession of it. The Spanish first explored 
it but did not settle it. 

As a result of European wars, Missouri became a Span- 
ish possession in 1762. Although in 1800 Spain gave back the 
Louisiana country, i. e., the land west of the Missis^ppi river 
to France, and France sold it to the United States in 1803, a 
Spanish governor continued to rule here tmtil the United 
States took actual possession in 1804. So Missouri although 
French in population, remained a Spanish possession for 
nearly forty years. This might be called the Spanish-French' 
period, of exploration but since it differed so^ little, if any, 
from the period before, it is well to think of it merely as a 
continuation of the French period. The rulers were Span- 
ish, the people were French. Missouri was more widely ex- 
plored, especially for lead, salt, and trade. 

The next half century of Missouri exploration (1804- 
1850) is the American period, although during the first twenty 
years of this period the Missouri-French were very active and 
prominent. During these years the exploration of Missouri 
was completed. The exploration was largely for good land. 
Then Missourians in turn became explorers of the states lying 
to the west. Missouri by the latter work became the "Mother 
of States" both by right of exploration and by right of settle- 
ment. These western explorations of Missouri were largely 
for the purpose of trading:. 

Easly Spanish and Fbench Explorers ^ 

The Spaniard Sought Gold and Silver 

, . . ■ . • ^ 

In Apri] 1541, less than half a century after Columbus 
discovered America, De Soto a Spaniard, exploring north- 
vvestward from Florida, discovered the Mississippi river. He 
and his men crossed and traveled over much of Arkansas. 
They probably even entered southeastern Missouri. Although 
kicking for gold and silver, they foimd neither. A year later 
De Soto died and was buried in the river he had discovered 
His expedition failed and only a few survivors ever reached 

It is remarkable that diu*ing the same year, 1541, another 
Spanish expedition was traveling toward, and possibly also enr 
tering, Missouri. This one came from the southwest. It was 
led by Coronado. It also was seeking gold and silver. Coro- 
nado, like De Soto, found no precious metals and he soon left 
for the Spanish settlements in Mexico. Coronado came close 
to Missouri and it is possible that he entered the western parts 
of the State. 

All later Spanish explorers, who came near or entered 
Missouri, started from the Spanish settlements around Santa 
Fe, New Mexico. During the century following De Soto and 
Coronado, there were ait least three of these exploring parties. 
The routes taken by these are not known with exactness be- 
cause they were ovea* the broad plains of Texas, Oklahoma, 
and Kansas. It is probably that some of these explorers en- 
tered Missouri along the west and several may have gone 
quite a distance toward the Mississippi. 

These explorers all speak of Missouri as a beautiful land 
of tall trees, rich grass, and many kinds of luscious fruit — as 
plums and berries. The Spaniards were not, however, looking 
for these. They still sought gold, silver, and precious stones. 
Not finding these, they returned to Santa Fe. 

The last Spanish expedition from New Mexico to Mis- 
souri was in 1720. Its purpose was to trade with the Indians. 

JO History of Missouri and Missourians 

perhaps get the Indians to join in a treaty against the French, 
and to explore the country along the Missouri. This party 
was badly defeated by the Indians. Only one person survived. 
Some Frenchmen may have helped the Missouri Indians in the 
defeat. Almost exactly one hundred years after this Spanish 
trading expedition left Santa Fe, a Missouri expedition 
entered Santa Fe to trade with the people of New Mexico. 

One story told of this expedition of 1720 is that the Span- 
ish came to form an alliance with the Osages against the Mis- 
souris and the French. By chance the Spanish met first the 
Missouris and mistook them for the Osages. They toH the 
Missouris their plans. The Missouris pretended to agree but 
they soon ambushed the Spanish and destroyed them. So 
ended the Spanish exploration period of history. Its object 
had been too narrow. The Spanish in their search for gold and 
silver overlooked the greater wealth Missouri had in furs, lead, 
and rich soil. To Spain belongs the honor of discovering the 
Mississippi river; to France is the greater honor of redis- 
covering it and of exploring and settling the great Mississippi 
valley and Missouri. 

The French Sought Trade and Commerce — Furs, Lead, 

AND Salt 

Between the coming of De Soto and Coronado in 1541 
and the appearance of the French nearly a century passed. 
During this time the Spanish had settled in Florida, New Mex- 
ico, South America, and the West Indies; the English had 
founded a fringe of settlements along the Atlantic; and the 
French held a narrow strip along the St Lawrence and had 
explored westward on the Great Lakes. In 1634 a young 
Frenchman named Nicollet reached the upper Mississippi 
river. His object was to find a water route to the western 
ocean, which would give a short passage to India- 
French traders, soldiers, and missionaries then began tra- 
versing the country lying between the Ohio and the Mississippi. 

Early Spanish and French Explorers 31 

In 1659, two of their traders, Radisson and Groscillicrs, went 
as far west as the Mississippi and not only re-discovered the 
river but may have even discovered the Missouri. If so, they 
were the first white men to see both rivers. Like the early 
Spanish explorers, it is not certain where these men traveled, 
i. e., how far south and west they went These remarkable 
men later served England and founded the great Hudson Bay 

The next explorer to leave Canada for the central 
Mississippi valley was Joliet, a native bom Canadian. He was 
accompanied by a missionary nanoed Marquette and five 
Frenchmen. Traveling down the Mississippi river in two light 
canoes, loaded with smoked meat, com, and presents for the 
Indians, he entered the Mississippi. This was in 1673. Along 
the way he made peace with the Indian tribes, gave presents, 
and smoked the caltunet, or the pipe of peace. This expedition 
wanted to learn where the Mississippi emptied and was hoping 
that the Mississippi led to the western ocean. Joliet passed the 
mouth of the Missouri and noticed its muddy water. The 
expedition may have camped on Missouri soil since a vein of 
iron ore was noticed here. After traveling south, Joliet came 
to where the Arkansas Indians lived. There he camped. The 
Indians gave a feast to the party. The feast consisted of 
buffalo meat, bear's oil, and white plums. Learning from the 
Indians that the Miaeissippi emptied into the Gtdf of Mexico, 
the expedition returned to Canada. Father Marquette later 
died in the wilds of Michigan and Joliet died in Canada. 
This expedition did much to interest the French in the 
Mississippi valley. 

The leading spirit of western French exploration was the 
patriotic French soldier and explorer La Salle, who in 1671 
had discovered the Ohio river. In 1682 he left Canada for 
the west and to him is the honor of being the first white man 
to navigate the Mississippi from its upper course to the Gulf. 
On April 9, 1682, he reached the mouth of the Mississippi. 

34 History of Missouri and Missourians 

ans were hostile and he was forced to return. He then started 
from Kaskaskia, in Illinois, and crossed the Mississippi to 
what is now Ste. Genevieve county. From here he traveled 
westward across the Ozarks until he finally came to the source 
of the Osage, Somewhere in western Missouri he, like La 
Salle, erected the standard of France and took possession of 
the country. During this land expedition (1718-20), Du Tisne 
learned much about Missouri. He found lead, met Indi- 
ans, observed that the Indians had horses, and noted the 
beautiful streams and prairies. He had many interesting ex- 
periences. One time when he and his men were with some 
Indians, he learned that the Indians were planning to scalp 
him. Ehi Tisne wore a wig and had just shaved his head. 
Taking off his wig and throwing it on the ground, he said, 
"You will have my scalp ? Take it up if you dare." The Indi- 
ans were afraid to hurt a man who could, as they thought, 
take off his own scalp. At another time he feared the Indians 
would massacre his party. He told them that if they became 
hostile he would bum the waters in their rivers and fire their 
forests. Taking some brandy, he poured it out and set fire to 
it. The Indians had never before seen liquor bum and they 
were startled. Du Tisne then took a sun-glass from his pocket 
and held it so that it concentrated the sun's rays on some dry 
leaves and again the Indians thought Du Tisne had great 
power. Du Tisne's exploration was important. He opened 
the way across the Ozarks into western Missouri and he made 
friends with the Indians. 

Three years after Du Tisne returned from his exploration, 
a Frenchman named De Bourgmont was ordered by the 
French government to found a fort on the Missouri river and 
to explore the country to the west. This was in 1723. 
Bourgmont with twenty soldiers went up the Missouri river 
and somewhere between what is to-day Brunswick and Malta 
Bend, erected a fort. He called it Fort Orleans. This was 
the first European settlement in Missouri, if the temporary 

Ejou-y Spanish and French Explorers 35 

settlements already mentioiiied are excepted. De BourgmooA 
soon set out with an expedition toward the west. He wanted 
to make treaties with the Indians, get near the Spanish, and if 
possible, open trade with both. He came to the mouth of the 
Kaw, where Kansas City now is, and then went south. He 
made several trips to western and southwestem Missouri. In 
1724 he persuaded twelve Indians to go with him to France. 
These Indians were entertained royally. One of the Indian 
maidens married a lieutenant of De Bourgmont. After some 
time in France, the Indians returned to their home in Missouri 
loaded with presents and full of stories of what they had seen. 
In 1726 Fort Orleans was abandoned. 

Other Frenchmen besides these mentioned explored Mis- 
souri but these were the most important. The effect of the 
explorations was to make known the extent and the resources 
of this land. All of southeast Missouri as far north as the 
Missouri river was fairly well explored and its rich lead de- 
posits and its salt springs were discovered and used. The 
shores of the Mississippi were explored from the Des Moines 
south. Parts of the Ozarks were known as were the prairies 
of western Missouri south of the river. The Missouri river 
had been explored as far west as Kansas City and had been 
traversed as far north as the Dakotas. 

During these years there persisted the old idea of finding 
a water route to the Pacific. This idea was not given up until 
Lewis and Clark made their famous expedition in 1804-1806. 
Another plan developing at this time was to trade with the 
Spaniards in Santa Fe, New Mexico. In 1703 twenty French- 
Canadians left Illinois for Santa Fe to trade. Nothing more is 
known about them. Again, when De Bourgmont started west- 
ward from Fort Orleans in 1723, one of the purposes was to 
get in touch with the Spaniards if possible. The French were 
anxious to trade with Santa Fe but for years the powerful Sac 
and Fox Indians at the mouth of the Missouri prevented them 
from making progress. In 1734 a French expedition went up 


HfSTORif OF Missouri and Missourians 

There He planted ^ a column bearing the arms of France, and. 
in the name of his king, took possession of the Mississippi 
Valley in the hariie of France. La Salle had vision. He plan- 
ned to build here a colonial empire for France. He went to 
France and interested the king. With a fleet and settlers he 
sailed for 1 he mouth of the Mississippi. He landed in Texas. 
Here famine, Indians/ and treachery finally overcame his 
expedition. La Salle was murdered and only a few of 
his settlers survived. - Some of these traveled north and may 
have passed through Missouri on their way to Canada. 

From^^his time French exploration increased in the* 
Mississippi Valley and in Missouri. Permanent settlements 
were made in Illinois just opposite the Missouri side and tem- 
porary settlements were made in Missouri. Hunters, ex- 
plorers, traders, and miners traveled over Missouri. Foxir 
things impressed these early visitors in Missouri — soil, salt, 
lead, and furs. Even before 1700 there were one or two tem- 
porary settlements in Missouri. One was located in what is 
now south St. Louis, and another in Ste. Genevieve county.* 
Not much is known about these early settlements as they 
were later abandoned. Much more is known about what was 
being done in Missouri by the French. 

As eaily as 1688 a Frenchman named La Hontan came 
down the Mississippi and up the Missouri to the mouth of the 
Osage. Here he built several huts. He was the first white 
explorer to go up the Missouri as far as the Osage. He 
was also the first white visitor who hunted in Missouri. He 
had a shot gun and when he discharged it near some Missouri 
Indians, they all rushed from their huts and begged for mercy. 

As early as 1700 the rich lead mines of Missouri were 
well known and were being worked by the Canadian-French 
living in Illinois. The salt springs of Ste. Genevieve county 
were known and their waters were boiled to obtain the salt. 
It was lead and salt that brought Missouri her settlers. 
The profitable fur trade with the Indians in Missouri brought 
hunters and traders and later brought settlers. 

Early Spanish and French Explorers jj 

Even the French government in France knew of Mis- 
souri's rich lead mines and was interested. In 1717 tl» 
Company of the West was founded in Paris. It wis given 
exclusive control over Louisiana for twenty-five years. This 
company began working the lead mines in Missouri and lead 
was sent to Illinois, Indiana, Canada, New Orleans, and even 
to France. The company gave a Frenchman named Renault a 
mineral grant and in 1723 he left France with full equipment 
to mine lead in Missouri. At San Domingo his ship picked up 
500 negro slaves to work the mines. These were the first 
slaves in Missouri. Renault stayed until 1732 and he mined 
large quantities of lead. 

While scores of Frenchmen were working Missouri's lead 
mines, other Frenchmen, usually the Canadian-French, were 
hunting, trading, and exploring in Missouri. The profitable 
fur trade drew many. These traversed not only the Mississippi 
but went up the Missouri and some of its large tributaries. 
Others came here to explore. The old idea of Nicollet and 
Joliet to find a water route to the western ocean had not been 
dropped although the course of the Mississippi was now known. 
The Indians and even some of the French hunters told stories 
of the Missouri river rising far to the westward in high 
nK>untains. They ssud that only a short distance from this 
river source was the banning of another river which flowed 
into the western ocean. A century later these stories were 
found to be true, as tlwo Americans, Lewis and Clark, later 
proved. It is not surprising to find these early French- 
men exploring the Missouri river even though they did not 
reach its source. The French government also heard of these 
stories and as early as 1708 ordered an exploration of the 
Missotui river but this was abandoned. 

Ten years later a French-Canadian named Du Tisne came 
here. He should be remembered because he was the first to 
make a real exploration of Missouri. He went up the Missouri 
as far as the Osage and the Gasconade, but the Missouri Indi- 

Chapter II 


Missouri's fur, lead, salt, and soil brought Frenchmen and 

Americans to our land. 

The Explorer Brings the Settler 

Not long after Joliet and La Salle floated down the 
Mississippi, came Canadian-French missionaries, htmters, 
trappers, traders, and lead miners to Missouri. Several tem- 
porary settlements were made. One in what is now south St. 
Louis on the River des Peres is said to have been the first 
white settlement on the Mississippi river. This was before 
1700. The first permanent settlements appeared on the east 
bank of the Mississippi in the Illinois country. These were at 
Kaskaskia and Cahokia. From these Illinois settlements, 
made by the Canadian-French, men came to Missouri to ex- 
plore and trade, and finally to settle. Around the lead mines 
in eastern Missouri temporary settlements sprang up and some 
of these may have had a continuous life. The establishment of 
Fort Orleans in 1723 was partly for military purposes and 
partly for trade and exploration. The explorer was soon fol- 
lowed by the temporary settler, and the temporary settler by 
the permanent settler. The Illinois-French explorers and set- 
tlers also came to Missouri to get salt. Opposite Kaskaskia, 
on the Missouri side of the Mississippi, in what is today Ste 
Genevieve county, were salt springs. Salt was as necessary 
as lead to the pioneer. It cured his meat and flavored his 
food. Soon some of the Illinois-French built temporary huts 
near the salt springs. The land near these was rich and fertile. 
A natural path led from the salt springs to the lead mines. 
Naturally a settlement appeared and grew. It was called Ste. 
Genevieve. This was the first permanent settlement in Mis- 


The First Century of Settlement, 1700-1804 39 

souri. The date of its founding is not known. It is usually 
placed in 1 732 or 1735, but Ste. Genevieve probably had inhabi- 
tants long before either year. It is also probable that no cer- 
tain year can be set, since traders, miners, and salt makers 
lived in Ste. Genevieve at first for a short time, then for a 
longer time, and finally some made it their permanent home. 
Just as the explorer brought or became the trader and tem- 
porary settler, so the latter became the permanent settler. 

The Founding of St. Louis 

The fotmding of St Louis differed from the founding of 
Ste. Genevieve. The salt springs, the rich bottom land, and its 
location opposite Kaskaskia on the path to the lead mines, 
made Ste. Genevieve. No one man was the founder of Ste. 
Genevieve, and probably no one year can be set as the date of 
its founding. St. Louis, Missouri's second pennanent settle- 
ment, was founded by Laclede in the year 1764, for the pur- 
pose of a fur trading post and settlement. The story of St. 
Louis is one of the most interesting in the history of American 
cities. Its location was a monument to the foresight of 
Laclede, its growth a monument to the energy of its citizens 
and to the resources of Missouri and the West. St. Louis be- 
gan as a fur trading post; to-day it is the raw fur center of 
the world. 

Living in New Orleans in 1762 were two friends, — a rich 
merchant named Maxent and an active young Frenchman 
named Laclede. Maxent obtained from the French governor 
permission to trade with the Indians on the Missouri. He and 
Laclede formed a company, "The Louisiana Fur Company." 
Maxent furnished the money, Laclede was to be the leader 
and do the work. A year later, after making preparations, 
Laclede with a party of workmen, himters, and trappers, 
sailed up the Mississippi. In some respects, this was the 
most important expedition in Missouri history. After three 
months of slow sailing, Laclede reached the Illinois-Missouri 

^.o History of Missouri and Missourians 

country in November 
1763. His party winter- 
ed at Fort Chartres, oil 
''- the Illinpis side. Laclede 

at once began looking 
for a suitable trading 
post location. He and a 
thirteen year old boy, 
Ai^fuste Chouteau, ex- 
plored on foot the Mis- 
souri side along the 
Mississippi. A few miles 
below the mouth of the 
Missouri river Laclede 
found an ideal spot. It 
had a good harbor, a 
fine site free from ordi- 
nary floods, big forest 
trees for building and 
fuel, rich soil for crops, 
springs for drinking 
water, and an excellent 
STATUE OF LACLEDE location for trading on 

both the Missouri and 
the Mississippi. Laclede was delighted. He cut notches in 
' SfMtie of the trees to mark the place, and told his young com- 
panion that when the river was free from ice he would send 
him here wi'th workmen to start building a settlement. Botii 
returned to Fort Chartres. Laclede is reported to have said: 
"I have found a situation where I intend establishii^ a settle- 
ment which in the future, shall become one of the most beauti- 
ful dties of •flie world." 

Young Chouteau with thirty men crossed the Mississippi 
in F^ruary 1764. They landed on the 14th, and on the 15th 

The First Century of Settlement, 1700-1804 


the buildii^ of St. Louis began. Laclede came over in the 
spring. By fall all of his party and many C^.iadian-French 
in Illinois had made St. Louis their home. 

The young man Augiiste Chouteau, whom Laclede had 
with him, was one of a remarkable family. His mother, 
Madame Chouteau, and her children were among the early 
settlers in St. Louis. Madame Chouteau is called "The Mother 
of St Louis." She was a good business woman and a progres- 
sive citizen. She was interested in the fur trade. It is said 
that she brought the first hive of honey bees to Missouri and 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

that from them started the many swarms of wild bees for 
which Missotiri became known. Two of her sons Auguste and 
Pierre were great fur traders and did much to develop that 

The growth of St. Louis was aided by the fact, now 
known by all, tiiat France by the treaty of 1763 had ceded all 
her land east of the Mississippi to England. The French set- 
tlers in Illinois knew that this meant English governors, 
English soldiers, and English laws. These they hated. Many 
crossed over to the Missouri side. Some settled in St. Louis, 
which now grew rapidly. These people did not know tfiat 
France in 1762 had ceded to Spain the country west of the 
Mississippi. When they learned of this, they were disap- 
pointed, but even then they preferred Spain to England. 

The First Immigration of the Illinois-French, 1764-1780 

The effect of the English-French treaty of 1763 was im- 
portant in the settlement of Missouri. Hundreds of the 
Illinois-French left their old homes to come to Missouri. Many 
tore down their houses and carried them across the Mississippi. 
Some Illinois villages weire deserted. Both Ste. Genevieve and 
St Louis increased in population and in five years they 
together had nearly 1000 persons. Some of these Illinois- 
French also settled in the coimtry and aroimd the lead mines. 
Around these isolated farms and mining camps, setdements 
were later to grow. Among the most important which had 
their beginning during this period were Cairondelet and Potosi. 

The Second Immigration of the Illinois-French and the 
First American Immigration, 1780-1795 

Just as the treaty of 1763 and the coming of the English 
gave Missouri her first big increase in population, so did the 
American Revolutionary War and the peace treaty of 1783 
give Missouri her second increase. During the Revolutionary 

The First Century of Settlement, 1700-1804 43 

War Virginia sent General George Rogers Qark with soldiers 
to conquer the Illinois country and drive out the British. This 
was in 1778. The Illinois-French who had not moved to 
Missouri helped Claric in every way and he soon drove the 
British from Illinois and Indiana. The French settlers soon 
regretted the coming of the Americans. After Qark left, his 
soldiers took property from the. French. The government set 
up by the Americans was oppressive and inefficient. The 
American money was at that time of little or no value and the 
Illinois-French were also defrauded by land speculators. This 
awful condition of affairs lasted from 1778 to 1790. It re- 
sulted in the second immigration of the Illinois-French to 
Missouri. New settlements were made. Among these were 
St. Charles 1780, Florissant, near St. Louis, 1785, and New 
Bourbon, near Ste. Genevieve, 1793. 

During these years, between 1780 and 1795, American set- 
tlers also b^an coming to Missouri. Good land and rich lead 
brought them. The first American probably came in 1770 but 
not until ten years later did any considerable niunber arrive. 
The cause of this first American immigration to Missouri was 
the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. This ordinance prohibited 
slavery north of the Ohio and south of the Great Lakes. Many 
of the settlers living in that section owned slaves. Some of 
these settlers began moving westward to Missouri where 
riavery was permitted by Spain. After the passage of the 
Northwest Ordinance many settlers from slave-holding states, 
as Virginia and Maryland, who had intended settling in the 
Northwest country, passed on down the Ohio. Most of these 
settled in Missouri. Th^ helped found Cape Girardeau, 1795, 
New Madrid, 1789, and Little Prairie, 1790, and many settled 
in the country along the creeks. 

The Second American Immigration, 1795-1804 

Although some Americans came to Missouri before 1795, 
they were few compared to the himdreds of families who came 

^6 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Missouri by 1804 had both the people and the resources to be- 
gin the building of a great American territory and state. 

Just as Laclede and the Chouteaus stand out as French- 
men in early Missouri history, so do the Boone and Ausdn 
families as Americans. Daniel Boone was a true western 
American pioneer. He was a hunter, scout, Indian fighter,, 
and settler. Boone was bom in Pennsylvania. He settled 
early in North Carolina. Later he was one of the first white 
men to explore Kentucky where he and his family settled. He 
was defrauded of his Kentucky land and came to Missouri 
where he died in 1820. Boone county was named in his honor. 
His sons were fine men. Moses Austin was the Missouri head 
of the Austin family. He also came early to Missouri where 
he engaged in lead mining. He was very progressive. Years 
later he went to Texas to found an American colony. His son 
Stephen Austin carried on his work in Texas where he died 
highly honored. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. How do you explain that the first permanent settlement in Mis- 

souri was made at Ste. Genevieve? 

2. Compare the founding of St. Louis with the founding of Ste. 

3. Why was the French treaty of 1763 important in the settlement 

of Missouri? 

4. What event in American history gave Missouri her second in- 
crease in population? Explain why this occurred. 

5. What were the causes which led to the great American immi- 

gration into Missouri from 1795 to 1804? 

6. Compare the population of Missouri in 1769, 1895 and 1804. 

Chapter III 


Spain gave Missouri good government. The people grew and 


The Government 

Although the Louisiana country was given to Spain by the 

secret treaty of 1762, she did not send a lieutenant governor to 
upper Louisiana until 1770. From that year to 1804 a Spanish 
lieutenant governor ruled Missouri. In 1800 Spain ceded 
Louisiana to France but no French lieutenant governor came 
to Missouri. In 1803 France sold Louisiana to the United 
States but formal transfer of upper Louisiana did not take 
place tmtil 1804. So from 1770 to 1804 a Spanish lieutenant 
governor ruled Missoiu*i. 

Under Spanish rule the Louisiana country was divided 
into lower and upper Louisiana. Missouri was part of upper 
Louisiana and in population it was the most important part. 
The capita^ of upper Louisiana was St. Louis. Here lived the 
lieutenant governor. The lieutenant governor had an assistant, 
called a commandant, in each of the five districts; and each 
commandant had an assistant, called a syndic, in each of the 
local settlements. These were the only government officials 
except a few surveyors, clerks, and soldiers. There was no 
legislature, town council, tax collector, lawyer, or jury in Mis- 
souri. The lieutenant governor made a few simple laws, which 
he enforced. He and his commandants and syndics applied 
these laws when someone did a wrong or got into a dispute. 
The lieutenant governor was military commander, governor, 
judge, and legislature all combined; his assistants had similar 
powers only in a smaller degree. 


48 History of Missouri anq Missourians 

The settlers both French and American liked this kind of 
government,, although they had no voice in it as we have to-day. 
They liked it because it was cheap, efficient, and quick. In- 
stead of a lawsuit costing much money and time, disputes were 
settled in a few hours without cost There were no lawyers to 
pay. The commandant or syndic heard the parties in dispute, 
and gave his judgment. The case could be appealed to the 
lieutenant governor and from him to the governor general at 
New Orleans, but this was seldom done. There was little 
crime in those days but when a crime was committed, or some 
one gossiped ill of his neighbor, or slandered his neighbor, or 
stole a horse, or talked against the government, then the guilty 
man or woman was quickly judged and punished, usually 
whipped. People knew this, and they were careful. It made 
them respect each other and honor their government. 

Missouri had eight lieutenant governors during the Span- 
ish period. All of these, except perhaps one, were esteemed 
by the people. The last one was a Frenchman called DeLassus. 
Some of his descendants are living in Missouri to-day. The 
Spanish governors of Missouri had no trouble with the set- 
tlers. They had some trouble with the Indians, especially the 
Sacs and Foxes in north Missouri and the Osages in the 
Ozarks. By means of presents they managed to keep on fairly 
peaceable terms. The English they never liked and with them 
had open conflict. 

British Attack on St. Louis, 1780 

Hardly had a decade passed after the founding of St. 
Louis when the news came that the American colonists were 
in revolt against England. In 1778 Virginia sent General 
Geoirge Rogers Clark with his Kentucky riflemen to take from 
the British all north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi. 
General Qark succeeded. The Spanish in Missouri sympa- 
thized with Clark and the Americans. The British decided to 
attack St. Louis, retake Illinois, and march in victory to New 

Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804 ^9 




History of Missouri and Missourians 

Orleans. A force of Indians and a few Canadian-French tinr 
dec British leaders gathered in the north. Word was fortu- 
nately brought to St. Louis, but many of the French settlers 
were in the field plowing. The attack, which lasted only one 
day, was made on May 26, 1780. The French lost many, both 
in killed and wounded, but the British and Indians failed. Not 
only was St. Louis saved but also the other Missouri settle- 
ments. The British withdrew. The next year, war having 
opened between Spain and England, a Spanish and French force 
was sent tc attack the British at St Joseph, Michigan. They 
succeeded and then returned to St. Louis. 

How THE Settlers Lived 

Just as the government during the Spanish rule was sim- 
ple so was the life of the people. Their houses, furniture, 
dress, amusements, towns, farms, business, and transportation 
were much simpler than today. The French Hved in towns. 
They liked to meet their neighbors, observe holidays, play 
games, dress up, dance, and go to church. They were more 
sociable, cultured, and polite than the Americans. The French 
were also noted for their happy disposition, their honesty, and 
their peacefulness. The Americans Hved on farms. They 
were honest and hospitable, but they were not so sociable or 
polite. Their games were those showing out-of-door strength 
or. skill, like wrestling and rifle shooting; the French liked in- 
door games of skill, like billiards, or games of chance, like 
cards. The Americans had a serious disposition. Some of 
them were more inclined to fight and make trouble. They 
were fearless and dared any danger. They were more enter- 
prising than the French but they did not get the Frenchman's 
enjoyment out of life. This was true among the American 
women, who reared large families on isolated farms. 

The French and Americans were different in other ways. 
The main source of living was farming but both did not regard 
farming in the same way. The Frenchman farmed in order 

Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804 51 

to make a living so that he could enjoy life. He was not am- 
bitious to own much land or become wealthy. He lived in 
town and had one or 'two long, narrow thirty- five or forty acre 
lots, about two htmdred feet wide and one and a half miles 
long, back of his garden. This lot was part of a large field 
next to each French settlement The field was called the 
^'common field." Each Frenchman owned his own farm lot in 
the "common field." This field was fenced by all the lot 
owners, each having to do his share. Besides the "common 
field", the French set aside another large tract of ground near 
the village for pasture for their stock and for firewood. It 
also was fenced by all. This was called the "conmions" and 
was owned by all and not by individuals as was the "comnwn 
field." By this kind of farming the French obtained two re- 
sults — the>' were able to earn a living from the soil and still 
live in town, and by co-operating in btiilding one fence for a 
large tract of grotmd they saved themselves much labor. Since 
they lived close to each other they were enabled to help in 
lending tools and labor. It must have been a beautiful sight to 
have seen a hundred men out in the long, narrow fields work- 
ing side by side, throwing jokes, singing songs, and making tfie 
hills echo with their laughter. Certainly the Frenchman made 
farming a pleasure. 

The American farmer was quite different. He wanted 
to make a living but be was equally interested in becoming 
wealthy. He laughed at the little forty acre lots of the French. 
He wanted hundreds of acres, sometimes he wanted thousands. 
The American knew that some day land in Missouri would 
grow in value (in money) just as it had in the east and as it 
was growing in Kentucky. But to own large farms and make 
a living on them, meant isolation in those days. Therefore, 
the American farmer settled farther back in the country. He 
liked such a life. By nature he was independent and he 
wanted to live far enough away that he could not hear the 
bark of his neighbor's dog. He wanted to be next to the 


Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804 53 

forest abounding in wild game that could be killed with his 
rifle or caught by his traps. The American farmer was not un- 
sociable and he was always hospitable but he lived so far from 
others that sociability was not so easy as with the French. 
The Americans also co-operated as in building houseis, "house- 
raising" as they called it, and sharing fresh meat. However, 
distance with roads frequently impassable, prevented them 
from aiding each other as did the French. 

Even in building houses the French and the Americans 
differed. Both made their homes out of hewed logs. The 
French placed the logs on end, like a picket fence only as closely 
together as possible. The spaces between were filled with 
mortar or clay and then whitewashed. The Americans placed 
tlie logs lengthwise, one on another. Both styles were rarely 
over one-story high. The first two-story rock house in Mis- 
souri was built by Nathan Boone, a son of Daniel Boone. It 
is still standing three miles north of Marthasviile. The French 
also built some stone houses but generally they built of logs. 
Both the French and the American house had only two rooms. 
One room served as a kitchen, the other as a living room, din- 
ing room, and bedroom combined. Sometimes this combination 
room had one or two small rooms partitioned off for sleeping 
quarters, and sometimes the children slept in the loft or attic, 
which was reached by a ladder. The French two-room house 
was a single building, wider than it was deep. It had windows 
with small glass panes. Since there were no stoves one or 
two big chimneys of rock or clay with fireplaces were used for 
cooking and heating. Porches ran along the entire front and 
rear, the loof over the porches being a continuation of the 
house roof. The American two-room house was a double 
building, also wider than it was deep, with an open place be- 
tween the two buildings or cabins. One roof covered both 
buildings and the open place. The roof was made of clap- 
boards hewed from sections of logs and were about three- 
fourths of an inch thick, four or five inches wide, and three to 

56 History of Missouri anjd Missourians 

were no public schools, but in the villages the Catholic churches 
gave elementary instruction. The mass of the people were un- 

The dress of the first settlers was simple. The French 
dress differed from the American. For everyday wear the 
Frenchman wore a coarse cloth coat with a cape, which could 
be used to cover the head. Both men and women wore blue 
handkerchiefs over the head and moccasins to protect the feet. 
The French woman was more tasty in her dress and followed 
the fashions of Paris. On holidays and Sundays the men also 
wore more stylish clothes. Both men and women loved colors 
in their dress. 

The American settler wore a long hunting shirt or coat, 
which came to the knees. This was made of buckskin or 
coarse cloth. His breeches were also of this material. He 
wore either shoes or moccasins, but preferred shoes. 
Frequently he went barefooted in the summer, especially if he 
were poor. The American liked a hat and always wore one. 
It was made either of skin or of cloth. The coonskin hat was 
popular with hunters. The American woman tried to dress 
like her people "back East." She also wore a hat when she 
wanted to appear well dressed. This hat, which was very 
pretty and attractive, was in the general shape of a bonnet. 


Missouri under Spanish rule was well governed. The peo- 
ple were happy and contented. There was little crime and life 
and property were protected. The settlers were of French or 
American blood. They lived together in peace and harmony. 
The population increased rapidly from 1795 to 1804. The 
early settlers were French; they built our first cities. The 
later settlers were American ; they were our first real country 
farmers. The Frenchman worked in order to enjoy life; the 
American worked to make a living, to own much property, and 
to become wealthy. The American was more ambitious and 

Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804 57 

energetic. It was his energy and independence in pushing 
farther and farther into the wilderness that laid the founda- 
tions of our State. All were law abiding aud honored their 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Describe the political form of government in the Louisiana 
country under the Spanish rule. 

2. Give an account of the attack by the British on St. Louis in 

3. Contrasl the French method of farming with the American 

4. Describe the American and the French pioneer house. 

5. Tell of the chief occupations of the American and Frenchman. 

6. Of what importance was the city in pioneer days? 

7. Describe the dress of the Frenchman. Describe the dress of 
the American. 

8. What was the religion of the people during this period? 

9. Give your impression of the Spanish period. 

54 History of Missouri and Missourians 

five feet long. The clapboards were laid like shingles and 
were held in place with logs placed over them. Nails were 
handmade and were scarce and costly. The floors were 
made of logs hewed on one side and then joined together. 
Sometimes both the French and the Americans had a kitchen 
btiilt at the back of the house. If the family owned slaves, 
cabins weie built for them back of the home. The French 
built their houses along the town's main street and had little 
or no front yard. Back of the house they had beautiftil flower 
gardens, orchards, and vegetable gardens. 

Both the French and the Americans engaged in the same 
pursuits to make a living. The principal occupation was fann- 
ing. Prices were fairly good but it was hard to market what 
one had to sell. The Americans raised com, some wheat, hogs, 
and cattle. Very little grain was sold owing to poor transpor- 
tation, but hams and salt pork were sent by boat to New 
Orleans. The rivers were the only means of getting produce 
to market, tmless one lived near a town. That is one reason 
why all the early settlers lived close to streams. Other reasons 
were water, rich soil, and timber. The roads were little more 
than paths, impassable in the spring and overgrown with 
bushes and high grass in the sunmier. But the early settlers, 
both French and American, did other things besides farming. 

They hunted for wild game as deer, bear, prairie chicken, 
turkey, ducks, and geese. They also hunted and trapped wild 
animals for their furs, which could always be sold. Some be- 
came traders with the Indians, and grew wealthy. Others 
mined lead and sold the lead to the town merchants. Missouri 
lead was used in America and in Europe. Thousands of 
pounds of lead were mined in Missouri in what is to-day Jef- 
ferson, St. Francois, Ste. Genevieve, Madison, and Washing- 
ton counties. The lead belt lay back from the Mississippi be- 
tween the Meramac and Apple Creek, and was about 45 miles 
wide and 70 miles long. The first lead mined was taken to 
Fort Chartres, on the Illinois side, and later to Ste. Genevieve. 

Missouri Under Spanish Rule, 1770-1804 55 

The lead was moulded in the shape of a collar and was hung 
across the neck of a horse. Later it wias moved in two- wheeled 
French carts, the wheels being of solid wood sawed from a big 
log. They had no iron tires, so the Americans called them 
barefooted carts. The oldest wagon road in Missouri was 
from Ste. Genevieve to these lead mines. As other towns were 
founded they received part of the lead for shipment. Most of 
the furs, however, went to St Louis. 

The towns were at that time as they are to-day the centers 
of trade. Here were the merchants and traders. The French 
towns were all very much alike. Each consisted of one long 
street parallel with the river. On this street were built the 
houses. There were no separate buildings for stores. A 
merchant or trader kept his goods for sak in his home. These 
were packed in chests or boxes to be brought out and displayed 
to the buyer. However, there were warehouses for keeping 
furs, but only the big merchants had them. In the town were 
also mechanics, carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, 
and furniture makers. All of these served an important place 
in the life of the early pioneer. Most of the furniture was 
homemade and was simpk, consisting of a table, beds, and a 
few chairs. In most homes were a spinning wheel and a loom 
for nearly all cloth was made at home. 

The gunsmith and the blacksmith were both necessary. 
The pioneer depended on his gun to protect him •from beast 
and Indian, and to provide him with much of his meat and 
part of his furs. The gunsmith -knew how to repair the 
pioneer's rifle. He was a busy man. The blacksmith made 
the few tools used by the farmer and the mechanic. These 
tools were heavy and crude. The principal farm tools were 
the hoe, spade, sickle, mattock, rake, and plow. 

In religion all of the French were Catholics and so were 
some of the Americans. The majority of the Americans were 
Protestants, but the government did not permit them to have 
Protestant churches or ministers, or to hold service. There 

5o History of Missouri and Missourians 

the French visitors of other towns must have rejoiced in see- 
ing again the flag of their mother country! It is said that 
they asked Capt. Stoddard to let the French flag stand for 
twenty-four hours. He consented. On the next day, the 
French flag was lowered and the Stars and Stripes was raised. 
A shout went up and Charles Gratiot, a Frenchman, called for 
three cheers for the American occupation. It was given in 
allegiance to the United States. But there were many present 
who did not rejoice and there were some who wept. Although 
they were French, they honored the mild rule of Spain. They 
did not dislike the United States but they and even some of 
the American settlers feared the change. They knew it meant 
taxes and service in the militia, and these they disliked. They 
did not rebel or protest and as best they could showed their 
good intentions. The majority of American settlers rejoiced. 
So ended the day, March 10, 1804. Missouri had become 
American soil. The formal part of the Louisiana Purchase 
had closed, but the effects will last as long as America ex- 
ists and Missouri is a state. 

The purchase of Louisiana is one of the greatest events 
in American history. It added to this country a domain from 
which have been formed, in whole or in part, thirteen states. 
To-day it is the geographical center of our nation. Its value is 
beyond accurate estimate. Its people are largely native bom 
Americans, industrious, religious, and loyal. In extent it 
stretched from Canada on the north to Texas and the Gulf on 
the south, and from the Mississippi on the east to the Rockies 
on the west. It has been called the largest real estate trans- 
action in history. 

In Missouri history the purchase of Louisiana stands out 
as a land-mark. It brought about changes of the greatest im- 
portance. Missouri's government changed from Spanish to 
American ; her schools changed from village church classes to 

The Louisiana Purchase 6l 

both private and public schools; her religion changed from an 
established state faith, the Catholic, to freedom of worship 
open alike to Catholics and Protestants ; her social life changed 
from French to American ; and her methods of doing business 
became American. Other changes also appeared. The Ameri- 
can inmiigration begun under the latter Spanish rule now in- 
creased. American courts were established and lawyers and 
lawsuits became common. The American land speculator 
promptly put in his appearance and land booms and depres- 
sions became part of our business life. The American editor 
came and soon a weekly newspaper appeared. With the 
American system of popular self-govemmerit came elections 
whereby the people chose their officers and lawmakers. Other 
changes were soon noticed which were not good. With the • 
thousands of new American settlers came some undesirable 
citizens. These lived by their wits and their fists. Crimes 
became more common. Fights and even murders now occured. 
Drinking and gambling were prevalent in the towns. The 
duel also appeared. The peaceful life of the old French vil- 
lage had passed. Rush and hurry to develop the country, to 
found new towns, to make money and become wealthy now 
became the goal of the people. These are only some of the 
important changes, others will later be noticed. Most of these 
were improvements and they enabled Missouri to become the 
great state she is today. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Explain the transfer of the Louisiana Purchase. 

2. What was the attitude of the inhabitants when the formal, 
transfer was made? 

3. What is the importance of the Louisiana Purchase in American 


4. What is the importance of the Louisiana Purchase in Missouri I 


Chapter II ' 

The Government of Missouri 1804-1821 

Americans dislike laws handed down from a higher source; 
they will petition, demand and fight for self-government. 

General Survey of the Territorial Period 


The seventeen years of Missouri history following the 
Louisiana Purchase were marked by several outstanding fea- 
tures in the field of government. These features are important 
and, if remembered, they are a key to this period. In the first 
place, Congress by five different laws provided in general 
tjerms what Missouri's territorial government should be, and 
finally by two niore laws Congress pennitted Missourians to 
provide what Missouri's state government should be. These 
seven laws passed by Congress gradually gave Missourians 
more and more control over their own government until finally 
Missouri became a state in the Union* In the second place, as 
Missouri's population increased during these years and as new 
Missouri cotmties were formed, Missourians wanted less Con- 
gress-government and more self-government in Missouri. They 
petitioned time after time for this privilege of governing them- 
selves and finally only statehood itself would satisfy them. 
This second feature may be called Missouri's struggle for 
statehood. It was successful only after a long and bitter figfat 
in Congress. The third feature was closely related to the second. 
It was slavery. Missourians had slaves during the Spanish rule 
and many more slaves were brought here by the American set- 


Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 63 

tiers who came during this territorial period. When Missouri 
petitioned for statehood, the question arose in Congress 
whether Missouri should be admitted as a slave or as a free 
state and whether the rest of the Louisiana country should be 
slave or free. Only after several years of debating in G)n- 
gress was this question settled. It was this slavery question 
which delayed Missouri in becoming a state and in entering 
the Union. The last feature was the framing of a state constitu- 
tion and the forming of a state government by Missouriiaas. 
These four features — the laws of Congress, the struggle for 
statehood, slavery, and Missouri's statehood — ^are the key to 
the period of government in Missouri from 1804 to 1821. 

The Laws of Congress 

Shortly after the purchase of the Louisiana country. Con- 
gress provided by law for its temporary government. This law 
was passed on October 31, 1803. It made little change in the 
old Spanish system of government exc^ to place American 
officials in control. The old divisions of lower and upper 
Louisiana with their capitals at New Orleans and St. Louis 
were not changed. All power was given the President of the 
United States. He appointed Captain Amos Stoddard, of the 
United States Army, commandant of upper Louisiana. Cap- 
tain Stoddard had all civil and military authority, subject to 
the President's direction. This law of 1803 went into effect 
in Missouri when Captain Stoddard took possession of upper 
Louisiana on March 10, 1804. From that day to October 1, 
1804, Missouri really had a military government of occupation. 
This military government as was intended was only temporary. 
It lasted less than seven months. 

After Congress had passed this temporary government 
law, it began considering a more permanent form of govern- 
ment for die Louisiana country. On March 26, 1804, a new 

64. History of Missouri and Missourians 

law was passed, which went into effect on October 1, 1804. 
This law of 1804 divided the Louisiana Purchase country into 
two parts as had the Spanish, but these two parts were now 
made separate and independent of each other. The boundary 
line between them was what is to-day the southern boimdary of 
Arkansas. The south part was called the Territory of Orleans, 
and its capital was New Orleans. The north part was called 
the District of Louisiana. Missouri was of course part of the 
District of Louisiana. This District was placed under the 
government of the Territory of Indiana. So Missouri now 
was governed by the governor and judges of the Territory 
of Indiana, who lived in Indiana 165 miles away. It looked 
like Missouri was getting poor treatment from the United 
States. She had no voice in her own government and even 
those who governed her did not live here. 

The people of Missouri at once protested. The law of 
1804 was so unpopular that the people in the five old Spanish 
districts of St Qiarles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girar- 
deau, and New Madrid, elected delegates to meet in conven- 
tion in St. Louis. Here a petition of protest was drafted 
against the act of 1804 and against the part of that act which 
declared that all Spanish grants of land made after 1800 were 
null and void. A request was then made for a separate terri- 
torial government in Missouri. It requested a governor ap- 
pointed by the President and a legislative council composed of 
the governor and two representatives elected by the people 
from each of the five districts, or counties. It requested the 
right to have a delegate in Congress. Copies of this petition 
were sent to the President and Congress. Another law (un- 
usually called "act") was passed by Congress. This was the 
act of 1805. It gave Missouri a separate territorial govern- 
ment, but of the lowest rank. It provided for a governor and 
three judges all appointed by the President. These four men 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehocm) 65 

were to make the laws. The governor was to have a secretary, 
who was to be the acting governor when the office was vacant. 
This act of 1805 also changed the name of the District to the 
Territory cf Louisiana. It is clear that Missouri received little 
except a separate government and a change of name. No 
4elegate to Congress, no self-government, no elected officers, 
10 repeal of the law against the Spanish land grai\ts made 
after 1800, were mentioned. Still, Missourians were very 
well pleased with the law of 1805. It was a stq) forward over 
the laws of 1803 and 1804. Excepting the judges and the sec- 
retary, however, it provided a government somewhat similar to 
the old Spanish government, and that was well liked by the 

This act of 1805 was in force seven years. Under it 
Missouri, as the Territory of Louisiana, had three governors. 
The first was General James Wilkinson. The people disliked 
him and the President removed him after serving two years. 
Captain Meriwether Lewis, a very popular man, was appoint^ 
governor. He also served only two years owing to his death 
in 1809. The last governor of the Territory of Louisiana was 
General Benjamin Howard. During these seven years another 
man was the acting governor much of this time, although he 
was only the secretary to the governor. This man was the 
young Virginian, Frederick Bates. He was able and popular. 
He later became Missouri's second state governor. 

The population of Missouri increased rapidly during these 
seven years. In 1804 Missouri had 10,350 persons, of whom 
1,500 were slaves. In 1810 Missouri had a population of 
20,845. This was an increase of 100%. Missourians now sent 
petition on petition to Congress requesting more self-govern- 
ment. Early in 1812 the Territory of Orleans became the 
State of Louisiana. The upper Louisiana country was still 
called the Territory of Louisiana. There was, therefore, both 
a state and a territory with the same name. This was confus- 
ing and combined with the Missouri petitions for more self- 

66 History of Missouri and Missourians 

government, gave Congress good cause for passing a new law 
for Missouri. 

This was the act of 1812. By it, the name "Territory of 
Missouri" was given to the Territory of Louisiana. No change 
was made in boundaries. But a change more important than 
name was made by the act of 1812. This was in government,, 
by which Missouri was raised to a territory of the second rank. 
This change was in the law-making body. A kgislature of 
two houses was created. The upper house, called the legis- 
lative council, was appointed by the President; the lower 
house, called the house of representatives, was elected from 
counties by the people. The people were to have a delegate in 
Congress, who was also to be elected. By this act of 1812 
Missouri had gained much but not all. Her rank had been ad- 
vanced and her people were to elect one of the law-making 
houses and a delegate to represent them in Congress. Missouri 
had also finally received her name. 

In the act of 1812 the name "coimties" was mentioned for 
the first time. Down to this time the five old Spanish districts 
had not been changed. Now they became counties. So 
Missouri's first five counties were St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. 
Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid. As poptdation 
increased other counties were formed until to-day Missouri 
has 114 counties and the city of St. Louis. 

Missouri had only two governors under the act of 1812. 
The first was Benjamin Howard, who was also the last 
governor of the Territory of Louisiana. He resigned in 1813 
and was succeeded by General William Clark. Governor Qark 
and Captain Lewis had been the leaders of the famous Lewis 
and Qark expedition of 1804 to the Pacific ocean. Each be- 
came our governor. Clark was an able man, especially in 
handling the Indians. They called him "Red Head," and they 
feared and respected him. 

The act of 1812 was in force eight years, or imtil 1820. 
During these eight years Missouri had three dd^^ates in Coo- 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 67 

grtss. The first was Edward Hempstead, the second Ruftis 
Eastin, and the last John Scott. All were lawyers and repre- 
sented Missouri well in Congress. Scott later became 
Missouri's first congressman when Missouri became a state. 

The War of 1812 brought Missouri trouble from the Indi- 
ans. It also decreased inmiigration to Missouri, although it 
dd not entirely stop new settlers coming here. When the war 
dosed and peace was made in 1815, Missouri's population 
again increased by thousands. Missouri now wanted more 
self-government and G>ngress passed another law. This was 
the act of 1816. 

By this act the legislative council was made elective. This 
gave Missourians control of their territorial legislature in both 
houses. The governor and judges were still appointed by the 
President Missouri had now risen to the third or highest 
grade of territorial government. Only statehood itself would 
give her complete self-government. This she now sought 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 

Although Missourians b^;an asking Congress for self- 
government as early as 1804, they did not begin forcing to the 
front the question of absolute self-government, or statehood, 
until 1817. In this year they circulated petitions to be sent to 
Congress in which was requested permission for Missouri to 
become a state. These petitions were presented in Congress in 
1818 by Missouri's territorial delegate, John Scott. A bill per- 
mitting Missouri to form a constitution and a state govenunent 
was introduced in Congress, but it did not became a law. In 
the fall of 1818 the Missouri Territorial Legislature petitioned 
Congress for statehood. Congress again took up the matter. 
This time a new subject was considered. It was slavery. Some 
of the congressmen from the northern states wanted to restrict 
slavery in Missouri. A few of the northern congressmen and 
all of the southern congressmen opposed placing any slavery 
restriction on Missouri. All of them knew that slavery had 

68 History of Missouri and Missouriams 

always existed in Missouri but the northern congressmen 
wanted to sec it gradually abolished before they would vote for 
Missouri's statehood. The southern congressmen thought that 
such a restriction on Missouri was unfair and illegal. They 
said that Missourians and not congressmen had the right to 
decide the question of slavery in the proposed new state. AB 
during the winter of 1818-19 Congress dd>ated the Missouri 
question back and forth. Feeling ran high over the nation. 

In Missouri the people were indignant and angry at the 
interference of Congress in attempting to impose restrictions 
on slavery. Public meetings were held throughout the Territory. 
Speeches were made. Resolutions of protest against the pro- 
posed action of Congress were adopted. The people of Miss- 
ouri felt that they and they alone had the right to decide on 
slavery. They also felt that Congress should not delay longer 
in permitting Missourians to form a state constitution and a 
state government. Some even went so far as to threaten 
forming a state government in the near future if Congress did 
not give them permission. 

When Congress met again in December 1819, the Missouri 
statehood bill was taken up for final settlement. The debates 
were just as bitter as before. Finally a compromise was 
agreed upon. This is known in history as the Missouri Com- 
promise. A law was adopted on March 6, 1820, which gave 
Missouri permission to form a state constitution and a state 
government without any restriction on slavery. This is called 
the Missouri Enabling Act. The act of 1820 had other pro- 
visions in it. It set forth the boundaries of Missouri as they 
are to-day, excepting the Platte Purchase country, which was 
added in 1836. It gave the new state. United States public 
lands for public schools, a state university, and a seat of 
government. This act also provided, and this is the important 
part of the Missouri Compromise, that slavery was prohibit- 
ed in all of the Louisiana Purchase country north of 36** 30' 
(the southern boundary of Missouri) excepting the proposed 
State of Missouri. 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 


SUGGliSTED'lN 18 17 

In m Hi»uck's ///.*/. of Mo , \ \. 


Frt>m H'Hick's Hist. •/ A/o., I. 5 

CX)NGRE6S IN 1820. 

From Houck's Rist. oj A/o., 1.6. 












— ■ 


1 J 





pF i 

— :at 

r ._jjj 

ll_, .Tl 

s- — 4 



From Houck's Hist. oJ Mo., I. 12. 


yo History of Missouri and Missourians 

The News Reaches Missouri 

The Missouri Enabling Act was passed on March 6, 1820. 
On March 21st a special messenger from Washington reached 
Jackson, Missouri, and four days later he entered St. Louis. 
Missouri was now to become a state. Self-government had 
finally won. The day and night were given over to celebration. 
Candles were lighted and placed in the front windows. St. 
Louis was celebrating in true pioneer style. Over the territory 
the news spread. It was a joyous time in old Missouri. The 
St. Louis Enquirer, the second newspaper in Missouri, issued 
an extra. 

The First State Constitution, 1820 

An election was called in May to elect delegates to a con- 
stitutional convention. Forty-one of Missouri's most eminent 
men were selected. These have been called "The Fathers of 
the State." They met in St. Louis on June 12, 1820, and 
adjourned on July 19th. In the dining room of the old Man- 
sion House Hotel in St. Louis a constitution was framed 
and adopted. Thus, Missouri, the State, was bom in a tavern. 
The constitution was similar to the constitutions of Kentucky 
and Illinois. It was never submitted to the people. It served 
Missouri for forty-five years. 

Missouri's first constitution was a strong one. It was 
brief, containing only about nine thousand words. Missouri's 
present constitution has about thirty thousand words. The 
former laid down only general principles of government and 
did not go into details. The government it provided for 
Missouri was similar to our present state government except 
that the judges and a number of of ficials were to be appointed 
instead of elected and that the legislature had more powers. 
The total cost of this constitution, including pay of the dele- 
gates, was only $8,000. These forty-one "Fathers of the 
State" did their work well. 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 71 


72 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Some of these forty-one delegates were truly remakable 
men. Among them were men who became United States 
senators, governors, and state supreme court judges. The 
president of the convention was David Barton, an able lawyer 
and orator. He was one of Missouri's first United States 
senators. Other men who became well known and who did 
most to frame the constitution were John Rice Jones, Duff 
Green, Edward Bates, Henry Dodge, John D. Cook, Jonathan 
S. Findlay, Alexander McNair, and John Scott. 

The First State Election, August 1820 

After the constitution was adopted, an election was 
ordered for electing a congressman, governor, lieutenant 
governor, state senators, and representatives. This elec- 
tion was held in August. The campaign was spirited. The 
newspapers carried campaign articles and the men nmning for 
office made speeches. Alexander McNair, of St. Louis, was 
•elected governor ; William H. Ashley, lieutenant governor ; and 
John Scott, congressman. There were no opposing political 
parties. Each voted for the man he liked best. Political 
parties came later in Missouri. 

The First State Government, 1820 

In September the General Assembly of Missouri (the leg- 
islature) met in St. Louis in the Missouri Hotel. Governor 
McNair and Lieutenant Governor Ashley took the oath of 
office. One of the most important things to do was to elect 
Missouri's two United States senators. In those days the 
Legislature did this. David Barton and Thomas H. Benton 
were elected. Barton was popular and he was easily elected. 
He worked hard for Benton. Although Benton became 
Missouri's greatest senator and statesman, his first election 
was close. One of his supporters in the Legislature was Daniel 
Ralls, who was sick in his room. When the votes were being 
cast four stout negroes carried Ralls on his bed into the Icgis- 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehoot 


74 History of Missouri and Missourians 

lative hall. Ralls cast his vote for Benton and died shortly 
after. In his honor Ralls county was named. 

At this session of the Legislature a number of laws were 
made among which was one regarding the seat of government, 
or the capital of Missouri. St. Charles was made the tempor- 
ary capital imtil 1826. The permanent capital was to be located 
by a commission and was to be somewhere within forty miles 
of the mouth of the Osage river. What is to-day Jeffer- 
son City was finally selected. State officers and judges were 
appointed by Governor McNair and were approved by the 
Senate, tiaxes were provided for, and laws relating to different 
matters were passed. Early in December 1820 the Legislature 
adjourned. The old territorial governiment had passed away 
and the new state government was in operation. Missouri 
with her 66,000 people was a state in all respects except one — 
she had not) yet been admitted by Congress into the Union. 
This was not done imtil August 10, 1821, a year and twenty- 
two days after Missoiwi had adopted her first State Constitu- 

Admission Into the Union, August 10, 1821 

When John Scott, David Barton and Thomas Benton, 
Missouri's congressman and two United States senators, ar- 
rived in Washington, they expected to take their seats as rep- 
resentatives of the State of Missouri. They were told that the 
old Missouri question was again smouldering and for them to 
wait imtil it was settled. This time Congress, or rather part of 
Congress, found fault with Missouri's constitution. It con- 
tained a clause commanding the Legislature to pass laws pre- 
venting free negroes from coming into Missouri. This clause 
was denounced by some congressmen as contrary to the Con- 
stitution of the United States. Again there was bitter debat- 
ing. Finally, Henry Qay, of Kentucky, effected a compro- 
mise. Congress passed a law in 1821 on the matter. This law 
provided that when the Missottri Legislature by a solemn pub- 

Missouri's Struggle for Statehood 75 

lie act stated that it wotild not enforce this clause in the con- 
stitution so as to deprive United States citizens of their rights 
and would send a copy of this solemn public act to the Presi- 
dent, then the President could admit Missouri into the Union 
by proclamation. 

The Missouri Legislature met in special session in Jtme 
1821 in St. Charles. It passed the scdemn public act and sent 
a copy to the President of the United States, James Monroe. 
On August 10, 1821, President Monroe issued a proclamation 
admitting Missouri into the Union as the twenty- fourth state. 
Missouri's struggle for statehood had ended. Before this, how- 
ever, Scott, Barton, and Benton had already taken their seats 
in Congress and all three drew their pay from the beginning of 
that session of Congress. The solemn public act of the 
Missouri Legislature was not legally binding, since no legisla- 
ture can say what another legislature may or may not do. The 
constitution of Missouri governs the legislature. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What were the four outstanding features in Missouri history 
following the Louisiana Purchase? 

2. Compare the temporary military government in 1804 with the 
new law- which was passed in 1804. 

3. What did the people ask in their protest? 

4. To what extent did Congress meet their demands? 

5. Who were th€ three governors of the Territory of Louisiana? 

6. State the increase of population during these seven years? 

7. What do you understand by the "Territory of Missouri?" 

8. Trace the steps in self government in the Missouri territory 
from 1805 to 1816. 

9. When the Territory of Missouri petitioned Congress for state- 
hood what great issue arose? 

10. What were the provisions of the Missouri Enabling Act? 

11. After the passage of the Missouri Enabling Act what was Mis- 
souri's first need? 

12. How did the adoption of the constitution of 1820 differ from 
the adoption of a present constitution? 

jS History of Missouri and Missourians 

13. EfiefljT compare the constitution of 1820 with our present con- 

14. Describe the personnel of the first constitutional convention. 

15. Contrast the election of 1820 with a present day election. 

16. How did the election of Missouri's first United States sena- 
tors differ from the election of her senators to-day? 

17. Explain the selection of Missouri's permanent capital. 

18. What was the solemn public act? 

Chapter III 

LIFE OF THE PEOPLE, 1804-1821 

Population and Settlements 

The territorial period of Missouri's history brought 
changes more important than those in government. Some of 
these changes had their beginning when the Americans came 
during the latter Spanish period. The territorial period simply 
gave opportunity for their more rapid growth. Such, for ex- 
ample, were the increase in population and the development of 
settlements. Other changes, however, were new. Among 
these, for example, were changes in education, religion, 
journalism, . and transportation. Although this period may 
seem at first like an overturning of everything that had existed 
before, such was not the case. Missouri history is like a story. 
No part can be well understood without knowing the part be- 
fore. Every chapter is connected with the whole. So during 
this territorial period when the foundations of our state were 
laid, it is seen that all present actions were related to those 
of the past. 

This is especially clear regarding population and settle- 
ments. In 1804 Missouri's population was about 10,000 of 
which 1,500 were slaves. In 1820 Missouri had increased to 
66,000 of which 10,000 were slaves. It was this large increase 
which gave reason to Missouri's request for statehood. Where 
did these thousands of new settlers come from? They came 
principally from Kentucky, Virginia, Maryland, the two 
Carolinas, and Tennessee. Some came from southern Illinois, 
Indiana, and Ohio ; some from Pennsylvania ; and a few from 
New York and the New England states. The large majority, 
however, came from the southern states mentioned, and they 
brought with them their slaves. While in 1804 Missouri's 
white population was about half French and hail American, in 


78 History of Missouri and Missourians 

1820 tfoere were seven *or eight Americans to every Frenchman, 
Although this shows a remarkable American immigration to 
Missouri, the real beginning of this dates from 1795. What 
brought these thousands of American settlers to Missouri? 
It was that which brought the first Americans — cheap land* 

As population increased old settlements grew and new set- 
tlements were made. The latter took most of the new immi- 
grants. Being Americans they pushed farther and farther int«> 
the interior, where good land in large tracts could be easily- 
obtained. Over half of them settled along the Missouri river 
from St. Charles to the western border and along the 
Mississippi from St. Louis to the northern border. The 
Boone's Lick country in central Missouri around what is to-day 
Howard county, attracted many. Here new settlements of 
size appeared, the most important being Franklin, opposite 
Boonville. Franklin was fotmded in 1817 and in 1820 had a 
population of 1,000. It was the second largest town in 
Missouri. Within ten years the Missouri river washed it away. 
The Salt river country, north of St. Charles, attracted many. 
Settlements also thrived back of the Mississippi river counties 
south of St. Louis. Even in southwest Missouri settlers ap- 
peared, especially around Springfield. Many of the new immi- 
grants settled in the older settlements so that all except the 
New Madrid district increased in population. St. Louis grew 
fast. Its population of 1,000 in 1804 increased to 5,000 by 
1820. It was Missouri's largest and most important city. 

The few old Spanish districts of St. Charles, St. Louis, 
Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid became 
coimties in 1812. By 1821 there were twenty-five Missouri 
coimties. All of them were along the Missouri or the 
Mississippi except three. These three were Washington, 
Madison, and Wayne, which were just back and west of the 
Mississippi river counties lying south of St. Louis. 

Although Missouri was growing fast, she was still a 
pioneer district with pioneer conditions. Her settlements were 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 79 

nearly all along the rivers. Her prairie sections had not been 
settled. In 1820 there was only one persi)n to every square 

The New Madrid Earthquake, 1811-1812 

The only district which decreased in population during the 
territorial period was the New Madrid country. This decrease 
'was due to an earthquake which b^an in December 1811 and 
continued in severity for several months. Before this time, 
however, the district had not been growing fast Much of the 
land was too swampy for farming. The trade with the Indians 
had decEned when the Indians moved away. So when the 
earthquake came, many of the settlers were glad to leave. 

The earthquake itself was the most violent and destructive 
natural disturbance which ever came to Missouri. Arkansas, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri were effected, but the cen- 
ter of the shocks was in southeast Missouri. Here the earth 
shook violently. Some land was raised so that river beds stood 
above the water. Other land was lowered so that new river 
beds and lakes were formed. In parts of the cotmtry cracks 
in the earth were made seven himdred feet long and thirty 
feet wide. Trees were torn up and houses were wrecked. 
Well did the poor settler call it "The Big Shake". Many 
homes were ruined and much land made useless for farming. 
Certainly, the people had reason for their terror and fright. 
Many decided to seek new homes. Some had little left and 
their condition was desperate. 

Relief can^ but too late to help most of the real sufferers. 
Congress in 1816 passed a law permitting those having dam- 
aged New Madrid land to exchange it for an equal amount of 
public land elsewhere. All that was necessary was to make 
claim and show title to damaged land. Congress had been 
liberal but it had been too slow. Many had already sold their 
damaged land for almost nothing. Even after the law was 
passed, speculators got most of its benefit by buying the claims 

8o History of Missouri and Missourians 

from ignorant holders. Many of the New Madrid people set- 
tled on public land in the Boone's Lick country and around 
St. Louis. The New Madrid district was long retarded in 
growth by the effects of tliis earthquake. To-day great im- 
provement is being made by draining the land. Most of the 
i^il is very fertile, and grows large yields of cotton, corn, or 

Indian Troubles and the War of 1812 

Although Missouri never had big wars with the Indians, 
she suffered much from Indian attacks. As late as 1812 
Missouri's settlers feared to make homes very far from the 
older settlements because of attacks and thefts by roving bands 
of Indians. A few settlers had gone as far north as what is 
to-day Hannibal and as far west, up the Missouri river, as the 
Boone's Lick country. Two sons of Daniel Boone had boiled 
salt in Howard county and on their return had told of the fine 
country in central Missouri. Benjamin Cooper led a few 
settlers to the new district and by 1812 there were several 
hundred Then came the War of 1812 between England and 
the United States. England tried to arouse the Indians, giving 
them presents, guns, and ammunition. She did this both east 
and west of the Mississippi. The Indians on the east side 
went on the war-path, but, fortunately for Missouri, only a 
few of the Indians on the west side waged war. These were 
the Sacs and Foxes, Missouris, and Miamis (a small tribe) in 
north Missouri. Even these were not organized under one 
leader but fought in separate bands. 

The old Missouri settlements were in no danger, but the 
frontier settlers widely scattered up the Mississippi and the 
Missouri were in daily peril. They built small two-story forts 
of heavy logs and made loop-holes for their rifles. Sometimes 
they built a heavy log fence, called a stockade, around the fort 
and several cabins. The settlers continued to farm but they 
carried their rifles with them. On news of Indians, they hur- 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 8l 

ried to the fort. Some settlers were killed, however, and many 
homes were desirayed and much property stolen. Conditions 
were so dangerous that immigration stopped to these frontier 
settlements. The Missouri militia was called out General 
Henry Dodge of Ste. Genevieve led part of the militia to cen- 


tral Missouri and forced the Miamis to surrender. The Dela- 
wares and the Shawnees in southeast Missouri, unlike the 
other Indians, helped the whites. When the war closed in 
1814, the Indian attacks ended. 

This Indian warfare against the whites was caused not 
only by English persuasion but more largely by the Indian's 
hatred of the white settler taking up land. The Indian fre- 
quently owned this land and had never ^ven it to the whites 
by treaty. To settle this matter, a big meeting was held near 
St. Charles in Jutie, 1815, between Governor William Clark 

82 History of Missouri and Missourians 

and the Indians. The Sacs and Foxes, who had given the 
most trouble, gave up part of their Missouri land, and the 
Osages gave up nearly all of their Missouri land. Other 
treaties were made later until in 1833 the Indian title was exr 
tinguished in Missouri except in the Platte country, which was 
ceded in 1836. 

The Economic Life of the People, 1804-1821 

Men make a living in different ways. Some produce food, 
they are called farmers. Some produce metals, they are called 
miners. Others make things to use, they are called artisans or 
skilled workman like the carpenter, shoemaker, or blacksmith. 
Others buy and sell things or trade one thing for another, they 
are called merchants or traders. Bankers are men who trade 
only in credit and money. Then there are men who make a 
living by giving you advice and instruction, as the doctor, 
lawyer, preacher, and teacher. Such men are called profes- 
sional men. These ways of making a living relate to the 
economic life of a people. Man could not exist without the 
things which concern his economic life. To know the history 
of Missourians it is necessary to know their economic life. 

During the French and Spanish periods of Missouri 
history, the economic life of our people was simple although 
just as important as it was later. It was simple in relating to 
very few things. Men farmed, mined lead, boiled salt, hunted 
and trapped wild animals for food and furs, and traded with 
the Indians for furs. This was their economic life. Each 
part of this life was simple. Man faiuned to produce food for 
his family and not to sell to others. Men mined lead by dig- 
ging shallow holes and melting the ore by an open wood fire. 
Wild animals close at home were trapped for furs, for 
Missouri was a wilderness. Indians brought their furs down 
stream to the Mississippi river settlements and there tradled 
them for the things they needed or wanted. Everything was 
simple. As population increased, this simple economic life be- 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 83 

gan to change. Some of these changes were seen during the 
territorial period. 

Farming which was the main industry grew fast. The 
majority of the new settlers were farmers. Being Americans 
they had large farms, from which it was easy to raise more 
grain and live stock than was needed. Each farmer needed 
such articles as tools, harness, and certain household necessi- 
ties. He traded his farm products for these. The slaves in 
Missouri in 1804 numbered 1,500; in 1820 they numbered 
over 10,000. This meant more workers. Their owners were 
farmers who lived better than the small farmers. They also 
produced more on the farm than they needed and so they 
bought more for their homes. The success of the farmers 
meant success for the people in town as the merchant, artisan, 
and professional man. The farmer's main trouble was trans- 
portation. He still depended on the streams and used the flat 
boat and other kinds of boats for getting to and from market. 
When the steamboat came, it was a great improvement Even 
before this, however, roads were being built. Gradually the 
farmer was getting in closer touch with the outside world. 

The settling of the country and the success of the farmer, 
meant the growth of old towns and the founding of new towns. 
Here were the stores and shops, the merchants and the traders. 
The merchants increased in number. Some of them were 
wealthy. In St. Louis the French, although out-numbered by 
the Americans, were still the leaders in business. They were 
also the wealthiest class. The American ways of doing busi- 
ness were being adopted. Both French and English were 
spoken on the streets of St. Louis. In the interior towns like 
Franklin, the merchants were all Americans and spoke only 
Knglish. The stores carried a variety of goods including hard- 
ware, dry goods, drugs, and groceries. The main articles sold 
were guns, shot, and powder; traps, and tools; calicoes and 
thin cloth for dresses; quinine, calomel, and patent medicines; 
salt, sugar, coffee, tea, and spices. The main things bouf^ht 

84 History of Missouri and MisseultiANS 

£tom the' f armea* and trapper were beeswax and honey ; cured 
meats and salt pork ; butter and lard ; hides and tallow ; wheat 
and some vegetables. Prices were high for goods but were 
never more than fair for what the farmer sold. In times of 
boom and prosperity, the farmer received much more for his 
iproduce than in times of depressions and panic. This was also 
true of farm land and town property. 

Beginning in 1804 Missouri had about 14 years of pros- 
Iperity. Thesfe were boom times. Land near the old settle- 
ments rose in value to $8 an acre before the War of 1812. 
During the war, there was no immigration and land prices 
f tood istill. After peace was declared, immigration again set 
in and from 1815 to 1818 Missotui had a boom that sent land 
as high as $10 an acre. Then came the depression and hard 
times in 1819. Land prices went down over 50% and land 
sold lower than it had ten years before. There was still plenty 
of land to be purchased at $1.25 an acre but this land lay at 
some distance beyond or back from the settlements. As it be- 
came settled it rose in price according to location and soil. 
Therfe were land speculators in those days. They helped to 
make the boom and they also helped to make hard times. 
Many bought land cheap and sold at high prices. They be- 
canlie wealthy. Others thinking tha:t land prices would go 
higher, paid too much and lost everything. 

There was little metal money in those days and people 
did npt need much. Ftus Were used as money at the trading 
posts, a beaver or a deer skin being used in place of money. 
Lead and tobacco were also used. Nearly all business was 
done by barter or exchange. A farmer would sell a dozen 
(ir'ured hams to a merchant and take it out in sugar or other 
iherchandise. Business was carried on this way. Taxes and 
Itod had to be paid for in money, but taxes were low and 
Igovemment land was cheap. There were some Spanish silver 
dollars in circulation and these were cut in halves, quarters, 
atid eighths. An eighth part, or 12J4 cents, was called a "hit." 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 

86 tlisTORY OF Missouri and Missourians 

A quarter, or 25 cents, was called "two bits." Although the 
people usually did not need much money, in hard times they 
felt the need badly. Later when business grew and the State 
became more widely settled, the need for more money was 

There were no banks tmtil the latter half of the territorial 
period. Two were organized in St Louis, the center of 
Missouri's trade and business. Both of these failed, the last in 
1822. Missouri did not have another bank of her own undl 
1837 when the State itself established one. Bodi of the early 
St. Louis banks were formed during the post-war boom times 
when prices were high and people were speculating. These 
banks issued paper money which they promised to pay in coin. 
They also loaned money. When the panic of 1819 came the 
banks could not get their borrowers to pay back these loans 
and the banks could not, therefore, get coin to pay for its own 
paper money. Everybody needed money to pay debts and 
taxes, but nobody could get money for the things he sold. 
Many people lost their property. The two banks failed be- 
cause they were caught in the decline of prices. 

Not only did farmers and merchants increase during these 
years, and bankers appear, but Missouri also saw professional 
men settling here. Among these were lawyers, doctors, sur- 
veyors, preachers, and teachers. Before this Missouri had a 
few professional men including priests but no Protestant 
preachers, and perhaps only one or two lawyers and teachers. 
Many of these now appeared. An American lawyer could be 
found in any town and in St. Louis by 1821 there were over a 
score. Most of these were able men who knew the law. There 
were many lawsuits and these gave employment to the lawyers. 
They also became politicians and soon controlled the public 
offices. There were not yet many doctors or teachers, but 
surveyors and preachers increased. Both preachers and teach- 
ers were poorly paid, and most of the preachers received Httk 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 87 

more than their living. All of these professional men did great 
service. Their life was hard and few of them were slackers. 

The Americans brought the hotel to Missouri. These 
hotels were called taverns. They were found in every town 
and served both bed and board and old time hospitality at a 
reasonable price. The tavern keeper was a man of wide 
acquaintance and experience. Many are the stories told of 
these old taverns. Some of these taverns became noted over 
Missouri and one at Arrow Rock in Saline county has Been 
preserved to this day because of its interesting history. 

Another industry that grew rapidly at this time was lead 
mining. The old mines were better worked and new ones 
were opened. Hundreds of thousands of pounds of lead were 
mined. The Americans adopted new methods for melting the 
lead and built more modem furnaces. Some of the lead used 
by the United States in the War of 1812 was mined here and 
the famous battle of New Orleans was won with Missouri lead. 
It has been said that even in the Revolutionary War Missouri 
lead was used. 

With the American lawyer and preacher came the journal- 
ist, or newspaper editor. The first Misisouri newspaper was 
The Missouri Gazette, established in St. Louis in 1808. Its 
founder was Joseph Charles, a native of Ireland who had be- 
come an American. In 1817 The St. Louis Enquirer was 
established. The third paper was The Missouri Intelligencer 
and Boone's Lick Advertiser at Franklin, Missouri, founded in 
1819. In 1820 two more newspapers were established in 
Missouri, one in St. Charles and one in Jackson. The Mis- 
souri editor played an important part in Missouri history, 
especially in politics and education. A free press is necessary 
to a free state. 

Excepting farming, the greatest growth and development 
was in the fur business. The fur trade and the Santa Fe trade 
are so important and are so closely related to Missouri's 
explorations of the West that they will form a large part of 
the next chapter. 

88 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Transportation also developed and improved in Missouri 
during these years. The government established post roads 
for the mail. There were laid out to connect all the settle- 
ments. They were improvements over the old forest trails. 
The greatest improvement, however, was on water. This was 
the coming of the steamboat in 1817. Before this, river trans- 
portation had been by canoe, mackinaw or flatboat, bull boat, 
and keel boat. The canoe was usually hollowed out of a 
Cottonwood log. The bull boat was larger than the canoe and 
was made of buffalo bull hides sewed and stretched over a 
willow frame, the seams being filled with tallow. Being light 
and large it was the best boat for shallow streams and could 
be propelled either by oars or poles. The flat boat was made^ 
of timber. Its ends were not pointed and its bottom was flat. 
Oars and poles were used with it. For down-stream transpor- 
tation it was good but not for up-stream. The mackinaw was 
similar to the flat boat but it had pointed ends. The keel boat 
was the largest boat and carried large cargoes. Oars and. poles 
were used with it and in addition sails and cordelle. The cor- 
delle was a long rope. One end was tied to the top of a mast 
on the boat. Men on shore took the other end and pulled the 
boat up-stream. It moved fast down-stream but up-stream it 
averaged only fifteen miles a day. Down-stream the cordelle 
was not used. The keel boat was used even after the steam- 
boat came. The keel boats were usually made in Pittsburg 
and cost between $2,000 and $3,000. 

The steamboat was to the river what the railroad waste 
the land. It provided cheaper and quicker transportation. 
The first steamboat reached St. Louis in 1817. It was called 
the Zebulon M. Pike, after the famous explorer. Two years 
later the steamboat. Independence, went up the Missouri river 
as far as Franklin. Steamboat traffic on both rivers had now 
begun. It made travel easier and quicker. It helped greatly 
to develop the coimtry along the rivers. It also carried to 
market the trapper's furs, the farmer's cattle and grain, and 

Life op the People, 1804-1821 

go History of Missouri and Missourians 

the merchant's foods. For fifty years the steamboat on water 
and the wagon on land were the two great means of transpor- 
tation in Missouri. 

Social, Educational and Religious Life of the People. 

The social life of the people changed during this period- 
Some of the changes were bad and some were good. This was 
partly because crinunals and rough men came to Missouri as 
well as settlers. The easy life in the old French viUages 
passed. During the Spanish rule strict order had been main- 
tained. Now order was rdaxed. The sate of liquor was 
allowed without restriction in tavern and store. Gambling 
was common and <:^>eni. Profanity was also common, Sunda.y 
was little observed. It was the best trading day of the werfc. 
• It also was a day of amusement. Nearly every man went 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 91 

armed with either pistol or knife. Fighting was common 
among the lower classes and duels among the professional 
classes. The Indians were frequently mistreated and they in 


turn took revenge on the whites. Speculation prevailed among 
all classes. This was the bad side of the picture. 

Changes for the better were also present. Educated and 
■cultured men and women were also among the new settlers, 
and the majority were peaceable, honest, and industrious. The 
professional classes increased and added their influence and 
service toward improving conditions. The preachers and 
teachers devoted their lives to thwr work. Private schoob 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

and a college were established. St. Louis College (later St. 
{Louis University) was founded by the Catholics in 1819. This 
;Was the first college in Missouri. Many more came later in 
the '30s and '40s. Provision had also been made for a public 
school system in St. Louis. Religious denominations firmly 
estabi ished themselves here ; the Catholics already had a strong 
position. Among the Protestants the Baptists, Congrega- 
tional ists, Episcopalians, Methodists, and Presbyterians were 
the first in Missouri to build churches and hold services. 
Evenj a public library was founded in St. Louis, and some 
citizetis who had private libraries were kind enough to lend 
book^. The helpful influence of the newspapers was impor- 
tant. I The people received education from these as well as 
political news. Another improvement was the postal or mail 
service. Post-routes were laid out over the state and post- 
off icis were opened. Deliveries of mail were made o^ce a 
week] sometimes only once in two weeks. During the Spanish 
perioji the people did not have a public mail service. Now 
they jcould receive letters and papers from other settlements 
and ^Iso from the eastern states. This was a great step 
forward. All of the good changes had their effect in helping 
MissQuri. They increased in influence, while many of the 
bad (^hanges gradually lost in influence. A progressive state 
of edticated and peaceful people could not be made in a day. At 
first It looked as if the bad elements and the bad habits would 
overpower the good, but as time went on the honest and in- 
dustrious citizens got control. This was what happened in Mis- 
souri. Just as our people progressed in their economic life, 
conquering the wilderness, settling the State, and increasing in 
wealth, so did they progress in their social life in establishing 
churches and schools. 

Life of the People, 1804-1821 93 

Suggestive Questions 

1. State the increase in Missouri's population from 1,804 to 1820. 

2. What change in location of settlements came with the great 
American immigration? 

3. Trace the growth of counties to 1821. 

4. What was the effect of the New Madrid earthquake? 

5. What was the effect of the Indian troubles in the War of 1812 
upon the pioneer settlements? 

6. Show how Indian titles were gradually extinguished in Mis- 

7. Show how and why with the growth of the farming industry 
in Missouri came an increase in the number of towns. 

8. Explain the financial boom following the War of 1812. 

9. What was the principal medium of exchange at this time? 

10. Give an account of the first banks in Missouri. 

11. Trace the progress that has been made in transportation. 

Chapter IV 


OF THE WEST, 1804-1843 

"Missouri was the Pathfinder of the West." 

What the Missouri-French Did Before 1804 

During the French and Spanish periods of Missouri 
history three purposes relating to western trade and commerce 
outside of Missouri had been more or less kept in view. The 
first purpose was the old idea of finding a water route to the 
Pacific ocean. This was not a foolish idea. If such a route 
could be found, it meant a short cut for trading with Qiina 
and India as well as with the Spanish settlements in California. 
This short cut would be profitable. After it was learned that 
the Mississippi was not such a route, many thought the Mis- 
souri might prove to be. French expeditions went farther and 
farther up the Missouri until as early as 1734 explorers had 
reached the country of the Dakotas. No further progress was 
made, although the Indians said that only a short distance be- 
yond the source of the Missouri was another river which 
flowed westward to the ocean. The story of the Indians was 
remembered but no one down to 1804 tried to prove it. In the 
meantime the tributaries of the Missouri, especially in Mis- 
souri to the south, were well known and by 1804 all had been 

The second purpose was also an old one but not so old as 
the first. This was the plan of trading with the people of 
Santa Fe. These people were Spaniards and Indians, to-day 
called Mexicans. They had furs, mules, and silver to trade. 
As early as 1703 twenty Canadian-French left Illinois for 
Santa Fe. Later De Bourgmont, founder of Fort Orleans, on 
his expedition to where Kansas City now stands hoped to get 


MissouRiANS Open the West g^ 

in touch with the Spaniards. In 1839 the Mallet brothers 
reached Santa Fe by way of the Platte. The Santa Fe trade 
had begun The routes were by way of the Platte through 
Nebraska, then south, then by way of the Arkansas, and then 
south. The hostile Indians made this trade dangerous. 
Although the trade was small compared to its great size after 
Missouri became a state, still it marked a beginning and should 
be remembered. Both Missouri and New Mexico were at this 
time under Spanish officials. Efforts were made both at 
Santa Fe and St. Louis to establish trading relations. In 1792 
the Spanish governor at Santa Fe sent a man, named Vial, to 
open a direct route to St. Louis. Vial did this and his route 
was practically the same as the Santa Fe Trail followed in 

The third purpose, relating to western trade outside 
Missouri before 1804, developed last. This plan was to extend 
the fur trade. The reason it developed last was because Mis- 
souri for years furnished plenty of furs for traders and trap- 
pears. Missouri was rich in fur-bearing animals. Gradually 
the best fur animals in Missouri began to get scarce. If the 
fur trade was to continue profitable, it was necessary to open 
new fur territory. The Arkansas field was entered. The in- 
dividual trader or trapper could not with safety go into new 
lands peopled with dangerous savages. So, in 1794 the Span- 
ish lieutenant governor of Missouri, Trudeau, and others 
formed The Missouri Trading Company. This company was 
not a success. 

The Osages in western Missouri and eastern Kansas had 
a good fur territory but were giving trouble. The Spanish 
lieutenant governor gave Auguste Chouteau permission to 
build a fort on the Osage river. As a result Fort Carondelet 
in Vernon county, Missouri, was erected. Soon a big fur 
trade developed. 

Another man, a Spaniard named Manuel Lisa, was also 
given permission to trade with the Osages. This was in 1802. 

96 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Lisa was a rival of Chouteau, so Chouteau persuaded some of 
the Osages to move to Aricansas where he also had permission 
to trade. Lisa was an able and shrewd man, and although he 
had failures he never gave up. The question with him noAv 
was where to find a new fur country. When Lewis and Clark 
returned from the West in 1806, Lisa at once saw that they 
had solved his problem. The upper Missouri country was the 
new fur land. 

The United States Government Points the Way, 


The Lewis and Clark expedition was the first of four im- 
portant explorations parties which the United States govern- 
ment directed to learn more about this western country. Kach 
started from St. Louis and each had Missourians in the party. 

The Lewis and Clark expedition was to explore the tipper 
Missouri, cross the Rocky mountains, and reach the Pacific. 
It was to record all important things regarding the new country 
as rivers, Indians, animals, and climate. The leaders were 
Meriwether Lewis, of Virginia, and William Clark, of Ken- 
tucky. Both later became territorial governors of MisscHuri. 
The expedition left St. Louis in the spring of 1804. It fol- 
lowed the Missouri to its upper waters in Montana, crossed 
the mountains, and followed the Columbia river to the Pacific. 

The results of this expedition were many. It opened up 
the northwest to the trader and trapper. It gave the United 
States a claim to this northwest country lying beyond the 
Louisiana Purchase. It settled the question of the water route 
to the Pacific. The people now had some idea of the vast 
country l)dng between the Mississippi and the Pacific One of 
the first results, however, was to open up a new fur country to 
Missourians. The upper Missouri country in the Dakotas and 
Montana and even beyond were soon to see the Missouri f ur 
trader and trapper. 

MissouKiANS Open the West 

^8 History of Missouri and Missourians 

In 1805 the Government sent another expedition from St. 
Louis to explore the upper Mississippi. Its commander was 
Zebuloai M. Pike. It went up the Mississippi to what is novr 
Minnesota and explored carefully the source of that river* 
Like the Lewis and Clark expedition, a careful record was kept 
of everything. 

So well had Pike performed his work that the Govern- 
ment sent him with another expedition in 1806. Pike's second 
expedition was directly west across the plains to the Rocky 
mountains. He was instructed to explore the western and 
southwestern part of the Louisiana Purchase. He went up the 
Missouri and the Osage, then by land westward along the 
Arkansas to the Rocky mountains. In Colorado, Pike dis- 
covered the famous peak which bears his name. He traveled 
south into New Mexico and was captured by the Spaniards 
in 1807. He was taken a prisoner to Santa Fe and then to old 
Mexico. Finally, he was released. On his return he told of 
the great plains and motuntains and rivers he had seen, of the 
fur bearing country to the west, and of the fine opportunity 
for trade with the Spaniards and Mexicans. He said that the 
route from Missouri to Santa Fe could be traveled. Misscntri 
•traders were soon to pour into the country which Pike had ex- 
plored. Another fur region had been opened. In his account 
of his trip, he called the country lying west of Missouri "The 
Great American Desert". From that time down to 1850 all 
the geographies of the United States called the land west of 
Missouri by that name. 

The last expedition of this period left St. Louis in 1819* 
Its leader was Stephen H. Long. Unlike the others, it went 
up the Missouri in a steamboat. This steamboat, called the 
"Western Emigrant", was the second on the Missouri, At 
one end of the boat was a painted wooden serpent. Through 
the serpent's onouth was run the steam exhaust This greatly 
frightened the Indians who thought it was a demon. On 
reaching Nebraska, Long followed the South Platte river to 

MissouRiANS Open the West 99 

the motintains. He explored new country and discovered 
Lcmg's Peak, He then reached the Arkansas and returned. 

. "The Great American Desert" idea did much to delay the 
settling of Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. People read 
that the country had a bad climate, sterile soil, little or no 
water, buffalo, and hostile Indians. Long said that it would 
always be a desert unfit for white people. Lewis and Clark 
and Pike had also said this, so nobody thought of making this 
country his home. For years everybody thought that Missouri 
would be the most western state. As a result many settled 
here who might have gone farther west had they known of 
the fertile land beyond. 

The good which came from these explorers is clear. They 
not only explored a new country but they did it in an accurate 
way. Their records showed the Missouri fur trader and trap- 
per that a rich field awaited him. From now on the fur trade 
and the Santa Fe trade grew by leaps and bounds until Mis- 
sourians were found in every part of the West, Northwest, 
and Southwest. The Missouri, Columbia, Colorado, Arkansas, 
Red, and Mississippi rivers were now open to trade. 

The Fur Trade, 1804-1860 

For the next half century the fur trade of Missourians 
grew larger and larger. Therefore, it did much to make St. 
Louis and to develop Missouri. Together with lead mining it 
ranked next to agriculture in importance. It was largely be- 
cause of the money Missourians received from furs, lead, and 
the Santa Fe trade, that our people did riot suffer like others 
during panics. The fur trade during these years differed in 
two respects from the fur trade during the Spanish period. 
The trade was now largely carried on by organized companies, 
although there still were many individual traders. These 
companies could do things that the small trader could not do. 
A bad trip or two ruined an individual, but a company of 
wealthy men could stand such a loss. The second difference 

joo History of Missouri and Missourians 

was the great extent of country covered. Not only Missotiri 
and Arkansas but all to the west, northwest and southwest, 
even to the Pacific, became trapping ground. Thousands of 
white men as well as the Indians were now gathering furs over 
an area half as large as the entire United States. Part of the 
trade went to the big English fur companies, especially in the 
Northwest, but Missouri received the bulk and St. Louis be- 
came the raw fur center of the world. It is not too much to 
say that St. Louis was founded on furs. 

The first fur company in Missouri was the Missouri 
Trading Company founded about 1794 during the Spanish 
period. It was not a success either on the upper Mississippi 
or the upper Missouri. It built only temporary forts or sta- 
tions in the fur country and the Indians could easily destroy 
them. Again, it sold its goods too high. As a result, the Indi- 
ans traded with the English, who had cheaper goods. When 
Louisiana became part of the United States the trader himself 
could get his goods cheaper and hence he could sell cheaper. 

During the period from 1804 to 1860, there were four 
large fur companies operating from Missouri. When Lewis 
and Clark in 1806 described the country they had explored, the 
Spanish fur trader Manual Lisa at once saw an opportunity to 
develop a rich fur trade on the upper Missouri. In 1807 he 
made his first expedition there. Instead of building temporary 
forts, he built permanent forts, which he kept open for trading. 
On his return to St. Louis he organized the Missiouri Fur 
Company. This was in 1808, the same year that Jo$eph Char- 
less founded Missouri's first newspaper, The Missouri Gazette, 
Both the company and the newspaper did much for Missouri. 
Although Charless was an Irishman and Lisa was a Spaniard, 
they were much alike in one thing — ^both were fighters and 
neither admitted defeat. 

The Missouri Fur Company had bad luck at first. The 
Blackfeet Indians of Montana fought it bitterly and success- 
fully. In 1812 the G>mpany was re-organized, ^d Lisa be- 

MissouRiANs Open the West loi 

came the principal member. It became more prosperous after 
the war but declined again on the death of Lisa in 1820. Ten 
years later the company disbanded. It did a great work on the 
upper Missouri and for two decades was the most important 
iwr company in St. Louis. Lisa was its soul. So active was 
this man that in thirteen years he made at least twelve trips up 
the Missouri, and no trip was less than 670 miles. 

Two; years after the death of Lisa, the second great Mis- 
souri fur company was founded in St. Louis. This was the 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Its leader was William Henry 
Ashley, who became one of the most successful fur traders in 
our histor>'. Around him were such noted traders and trap- 
pers as Andrew Henry, Jedediah S. Smith, William L. Sublett, 
and Jim Bridger. This company lived only twelve years, from 
1822 to 1834, but during this time it accomplished much. 

The first two expeditions, which went to the upper Mis- 
souri in the Yellowstone country, were failures because of In- 
dian attacks. It now gave up the Missouri river trade. In 
1824 a band of Ashley's men went up the Platte to the Rockies, 
then through the South Pass in Wyoming into the great Utah 
Basin around Great Salt Lake. Here was a new territory, 
■ rich in furs and never before touched by a fur company. Ash- 
ley decided to abandon Lisa's idea of permanent trading posts 
because of the expense and danger. He adopted the new idea 
of having all the trappers meet him once a year at a set place, 
or rendezvous. Here he collected the furs and shipped them to 
St. Louis^ Ashley did another new thing. Since he did not 
have rivers all the way to carry his furs and since the Platte 
river was too shallow for boats, Ashley adopted the horse and 
mule pack trains. From now on the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company was successful and Ashley became wealthy. In 1825 
he opened a shorter route to the Utah Basin, called the Platte 
river trail. About 1830 he sold out to Jedediah Smith and two 
of his former partners. 

loa History of Missouri and MrssouRiANS 

MissouRiANS Open the West 


Ashley had lived in Missouri since 1802. He was a native 
of Virginia. During the territorial period he took an active 
part in various businesses. In 1820 he was elected Missouri's 
first lieutenant governor and in 1822 was head of the Missouri 
militia. After retiring wealthy from the fur business, he went 
into politics, where he did great service. Although he was a 
Whig and most Missourians were Democrats, Ashley was our 
congressman from 1831 to 1836. He died in 1839 and his 
grave is in Cooper county. 

Jedediah Smith, who was prominent in The Rocky Moun- 
tain Fur Company, also did much for the West. He determ- 
ined to find a new overland route to the Pacific. In 1826 he 
found a southwest route over the Rockies, down Virgin river 
and across the Mojave Desert to San Diego, in southern Cali- 
fornia. He returned by way of Nevada. Two years latter he 
led another party to California and then traveled by land north 
to the Coltmibia river. There is little wonder that a company 
of such daring men succeeded. 

This company was remarkable in other ways than the 
methods it used to gather and transport furs. It explored the 
Rocky Mountains from Colorado west, northwest, and south- 
west to the Pacific. It discovered Great Salt Lake and the 
South Pass over the Rockies. It opened the Platte river trail 
to Great Salt Lake, the trail from Great Salt Lake to San 
Diego, and several other western routes. It was the first to 
cross the Sierras, the deserts of Utah and Nevada, and to 
travel by land from California to the Columbia. It trained 
scores of men who later became valuable as scouts and guides 
to the exploring parties and armies sent out by the United 
States government. By its activity it opened the richest fur 
district in America. This was done in the short time of twelve 

The third fur company in Missouri was a branch of the 
great American Fur Company, owned by John Jacob Astor. 
This was a New York company and operated all over the 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

United States. Its St. Louis branch was established in 1822. 
It was opposed by all Missouri fur traders. Astor decided to 
crush as many of his rivals as possible and to buy out the 
others. Astor already controlled the fur trade to the north- 
east and determined to control the trade of the west and north- 
west. He gradually crushed or bought out his rivals and gain- 
ed control of the upper Missoiui and the Utah Basin business. 
He was always hated by the trappers since he had a monopoly 
on the trade. In 1834 Astor died and the great western estab- 
lishment at St. Louis was sold. 

The buyers were a group of St Louis merchants and 
traders, called Pratte, Chouteau and Company. Other 
companies were still in the field but from this time on the firm 
of Pratte, Chouteau and Company controlled the fur trade un- 
til 1860. It did a large business and brought much wealth to 
Missouri. Its directors were keen business men of experience 
and wealth. They were largely French. After 1860 the fur 
trade declined but in recent years it has become important and 
St. Louis is again the raw fur center of the world. 

The Missouri-Santa Fe Trade, 1812-1870 

The Missouri-Santa Fe Trade is closely related to the 
western fur trade. Both were controlled by Missourians. Both 
reached their most prosperous years about the same time and 
both declined about the same time. Both had their beginning 
in St. Louis, although the first successful trading trips to 
Santa Fe were made by men from central and western Mis- 
souri at Franklin, Lexington, Independence and Westport 
Landing, now Kansas City. However, during later years the 
St. Louis merchant traders had large interests in the Santa Fe 
trade. Both had small and unsuccessful beginnings, both 
started with the individual trader, and both ended with the 
large trader or company in control. The Santa Fe trade was 
at first a branch of the fur trade and of the three Santa Fe 
products brought back to Missouri the furs of the beaver and 

MissouRiANS Open the West 105 

otter were important. The other two products were livestock 
(horses and mules) and silver. 

Ehiring the Spanish and French periods of Missouri 
history, attempts were made to establish trade between New 
Mexico and Missouri by the Spanish officials in St. Louis and 
the Spanish in Santa Fe. Some of these attempts succeeded 
and a small trade was begim. Toward the close a route was 
made by the Spaniard Vial and this route later became the 
Santa Fe Trail. When the United States took possession of 
the Louisiana country, the Spanish officials in Santa Fe 
changed tlieir policy and tried in every way to prevent Mis- 
sourians from coming to New Mexico. Still some Missourians 
attempted to trade with the Mexicans but they usually failed. 
In 1812 a party of men went to Santa Fe and were arrested. 
Three years later a party of St. Louisians tried to trade with 
the Mexicans and they also were arrested and their goods were 
confiscated. On their return they trapped for fur animals. 

The year of Missouri's admission into the Union, 1821, 
also marked the independence of the Mexicans from Spain. 
Missourians thought that now it would be possible to begin a 
trade with Santa Fe and the other towns of New Mexico 
without being arrested and thrown into prison. In the fall of 
1821 William Becknell and a party of men started from 
Franklin, Howard county, with goods for Santa Fe. The ex- 
pedition was successful and made a profit. The next year 
Becknell made his second trip. It was even more profitable, 
making a profit of 200 per cent. From that time down to the 
70s, when railroads appeared, the Santa Fe Trade flourished. 
Becknell is called "The Founder of the Santa Fe Trade and 
the Father of the Santa Fe Trail". He was the first man to 
make a really profitable trip. He was also the first man to 
use wagons instead of pack animals. He used wagons on his 
second trip in 1822. 

The Missouri starting point of the trade and trail was at 
Franklin and the early traders all lived in central Missouri. 

ids History of Missouri and Missourians 

The importance of the trade was great. For the first 
twenty years, over $3,000,000 worth of goods was sent from 
Missouri, and the amount was even more after the Mexican 
War. In return for the goods, Missouri received thousands of 
head of horses and mules, great numbers of furs, and for a 
long time $150,000 a year in silver. Missouri probably owes 
her prominence as a mule state to this early trade. The silver 
supplied her with money which enabled her to weather panics, 
enjoy prosperity, and have a sound currency. Along this trail 
Missourians later traveled to go to New Mexico and some fol- 
lowed it to Arizona and southern California. Finally the 
Santa Fe railroad largely followed it. Both the Boone's Lick 
Trail from St. Louis to Franklin and the Santa Fe Trail from 
Franklin and Boonville to Kansas City have been marked with 
granite markers by the Missouri Daughters of the American 
Revolution. Missouri could well afford to honor this historic 

The Oregon Trail 

The Oregon Trail like the Santa Fe Trail was closely related 
to the fur trade. Both had their beginnings as routes for fur 
traders. They were alike in other ways. Both started near 
the mouth of the Kansas river and were the same for 40 miles 
west; both served first as trade routes and later as routes for 
emigrants going west to settle; both were through a hostile 
Indian country; both were opened by Missourians; and both 
brought wealth to Missouri and later took settlers from Mis- 
souri. But these two great trails also differed from each 
other. The Santa Fe Trail, which was 750 miles long across 
the plains, led in a southwest direction along the Arkansas 
river, and was surveyed and marked by the United States 
government. The Oregon trail was 2000 miles long across 
plains, mountains, and deserts. It led in a west and northwest 
direction along the Platte river, through South Pass in Wyo- 
ming and across the Rockies, over the rough land and deserts 

MissouRiANs Open the West 1 09 

of Montana and Idaho, and down the Snake and Q)lumbia 
rivers to the Pacific. It was never marked or surveyed by the 
government. Although American traders operated success- 
fully in both the Santa Fe and the Oregon coimtry about the 
same time, the Oregon Trail was not well established until 
twenty years later, 1842. 

The great American Fur Company was the first to carry 
on an overland fur trade with the Oregon country in the far 
Northwest. This trade began about 1812. Changes were 
gradually made in the route to shorten it and to make travel 
easier. The imost important change came in 1822-23 when 
Ashley and Smith of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company dis- 
covered South Pass in Wyoming through the Rockies. South 
Pass gave an easy, gently sloping way over the mountains. 
Through South Pass the trail led to Snake river, along Snake 
to the Coltmibia, and down the Columbia to the Pacific. A 
short distance from South Pass was another trail to the south- 
west. This was the Great Salt Lake Trail to the Utah Basin. 
From Great Salt Lake were two trails: one led west and 
slightly southwest to Sacramento and San Francisco, this was 
the California Trail; another led southwest to southern Cali- 
fornia, this was the Mormon Trail. About one-third of the 
way down the Mormon Trail another branched off to Santa 
Fe, this was the Spanish Trail. So the Far West was gradually 
covered with trails for trade and travel. 

Later there were other starting points of the Oregon Trail. 
These were along the Missouri river from the mouth of the 
Platte to iiie mouth of the Kansas. All of these small routes 
came together about 150 miles up the Platte. The Platte was 
then followed up-stream into Wyoming. 

About 1832 a new element appeared on the Oregon Trail. 
In that year a party of settlers left Independence for Oregon. 
Two years later another party left. These were largely Mis- 
sourians. The big emigration began after the panic of 1837. 
From 1842 r^^ar organized parties began leaving for the 

no History of Missouri and Missourians 

Far West. In 1845 over 3000 left Independence for Oregon. 
By 1843 the Oregon Trail was well /marked and wagons could 
make the trip. So many Missourians settled in Oregon that 
one part, the Willamette Valley, was settled almost entirely by 
people from Missouri. Of course there were thousands from 
other states but Missouri did much to settle the Northwest. 

At this time the Northwest was claimed both by the 
United States and by England. The one to settle it first had 
the best chance of keeping it. Missouri's two United States 
senators, Thomas H. Benton and Lewis F. Linn, did more to 
keep the Oregon country for the United States than did any 
others. It had been opened and was being settled by Mis- 
sourians. These two fought successfully in Congress for the 
protection of their people by the United States government. 

Benton's son-in-law was General John C. Fremont. He 
also was a great explorer. In 1842 he led a party through 
South Pass and again in 1843. He explored the Rockies, the 
Utah Basin, and reached both California and Oregon. After 
gold was discovered in California, Missourians again flocked 
to the West. These went along the old trails already marked 
by the early Missouri fur traders, trappers, and explorers. 


Missourians through exploring parties and trading expe- 
ditions opened the trails of the West. Along these trails the 
early settlers of the West were to travel and later the railroads 
were to follow. They discovered many of the lofty peaks and 
the easy passes and traced the rivers. They discovered such 
natural wonders as Great Salt Lake and Yellowstone National 
Park. Through the fur trade himdreds of men were trained 
who later helped the government in its explorations and in sub- 
duing the Indians. The fur trade and the Santa Fe trade for 
half a century brought to Missouri a commerce of nearly one- 
half million dollars a year. This would be equal to-day to a 
sum many times larger since money in those days was high. 

MissouRiANS Open the West III 

It is not too much to say that Missouri's part in western trade 
from 1820 to 1860 was very important in giving prosperity to 
the State and people. It was also very important in exploring 
and later in settling the West. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What three causes led the people to be interested in western 
trade and commerce outside of Missouri? 

2. State the purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition? What 
was the i;esult? 

3. Of what importance was the expedition of Pike? 

4. How did these pioneer expeditions retard the settlement of 
the west? 

5. What was the beneficial result of thes€ expeditions? 

6. Of what importance was the early fur trade in Missouri? 

7. Which fur company do you consider the most important? 
S. What was the origin of the Santa Fe trade? 

9. What was the route of the Santa Fe trail? 

10. Why was the Santa Fe trade important in Missouri? 

11. Compare the Santa Fe trail with the Oregon trail. 

12. How did the Oregon trail affect emigration? 

13. Give your conclusions as to the importance of the Missouri 
exploring parties and trading expeditions. 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

greatest of these leaders was Thomas H. Benton, one of 
Missouri's first two United States senators. Benton was 
Missouri's United States senator for thirty years, five full 
terms. During the first four terans, from 1820 to 1844, Benton 
became more and more powerful imtil he virtually controlled 
Missouri politically. The rule of "The Fathers", of whom 
Benton became the leader, is one feature of this period. This 
period might be called the Benton period of Missouri politics. 
Another feature is the growth of politicals parties. From 
1820 to about 1830 there were no well defined national political 
parties, hence Missouri had none. This was a decade of per- 
sonal politics. The man rather than his party was what the 
voters considered. The old Federalist party of Hamilton had 
died and all belonged to the party founded by Jefferson. The 
beginning of a new party came with the election of Andrew 
Jackson to the presidency in 1828. The followers of Jackson, 
of whom Benton was a leader, called themselves Democrats. 
They were against the United States Bank and a protective 
tariff. By 1830 the Democrats were fairly well organized. 
Missouri was Democratic down to the Civil War in 1861. The 
opponents of the Democrats organized at the same time. They 
were called Whigs. The Whigs followed Henry Clay and 
favored the United States Bank and a protective tariff. Mis- 
souri was never a Whig state but some of her ablest public 
men were Whigs. Williams H. Ashley, the great fur trader, 
Edward Bates, the great lawyer, and James S. Rollins, the 
orator and statesman, were Whigs. In Missouri the Whigs 
were strongest among the merchants and bankers of St. Louis 
and among the big slave owners in the river slave counties. 
Boone coimty was the banner Whig county in Missouri. The 
day of personal politics in Missouri passed in 1830. From 
that time party politics prevailed. The Whigs were never suc- 
cessful in a general presidential election in Missouri alhough 
one of their leaders, Ashley, was elected three times to Con- 
gress and served five years. 

Missouri Politics, 1820-1844 


Il6 History of Missouri and Missourians 

A third feature of this period in Missouri was the absence 
of great issues between the state parties except on money and 
banking. The Missouri Democrats under Benton's influence 
stood for hard or metal money and sound banking. Benton 
was called "Old Bullion" and Missoim was called "The Bullion 
State". Other states had paper mcmey and wildcat banks, but 
Missouri did not However, even some of the Missouri Demo- 
crats wanted cheap money and banks. The Benton Democrats 
were calkd the "Hards"; the cheap money Democrats, th-e 
"Softs". The Whigs were also in favor of paper money and 
banks. Although on the money question the Democrats dif- 
fered among themselves, they did not split the party. A State 
Bank was established along very conservative lines and the 
Democratic party remained one. No other big issue is found 
between the parties in Missouri during this period. 

Missouri's Go\^rnors and the Missouri State Govern- 
ment, 1820-1844 

During these first twenty-four years of statehood Mis- 
souri elected six governors. These men were: Alexander Mc- 
Nair of St. Louis county, 1820-1824; Frederick Bates of St. 
Louis county, 1824-1825 ; John Miller of Cooper county, 1825- 
1828, and 1828-1832; Daniel Dimklin of Washington coimty, 
1832-1836; Lilbum W. Boggs of Jackson county, 1836-1840; 
and Thomas Reynolds of Howard county, 1840-1844. All of 
these except McNair were bom in southern states — ^two in 
Virginia, two in Kentucky, and one in South Carolina. Mc- 
Nair was born in Pennsylvania. All of these except Rejmolds 
had settled in Missouri before 1820. Only three of these men 
finished his regular four year term — McNair, Miller, and 
Boggs. Bates died in 1825. The lieutenant governor had pre- 
viously resigned, so according to the state constitution, the 
president fro tempore of the Senate became acting governor. 
This man was Abraham J. Williams of Boone county. He 
called a special election and John Miller was elected governor 
to serve out Bates* term. Miller served from 1825 to 1828. 

Missouri Politics, 1820-1844 1 17 

He was re-elected in 1828 and served to 1832. Miller was 
governor seven years the longest of any Missouri governtw. 
Dunklin resigned in 1836 about a month before his term ex- 
pired. The lieutenant governor, Bt^s, became acting 
governor. Boggs then served a full four year term by right 
of election. Reynolds committed suicide early in 1844. The 
lieutenant governor, M. M. Marmaduke, of Saline coimty, 
served out the remainder of the term. All of these six elected 
governors were experienced men and each had held some im- 
portant public office. McNair had helped frame Missouri's 
first constitution. Bates had been secretary of Missouri 
Territory and acting territorial governor. Miller had been an 
office holder and soldier and later was congressman. Dunklin 
and Boggs had both been lieutenant governor of Missouri. 
Reynolds had been a supreme court judge in Illinois. Mis- 
souri's first six governors were men of ability. 

Between 1820 and 1844 the State government was busy 
solving many questions. Missouri was a young state. The 
first thing necessary was to get her government in good work- 
ing order. The beginning of this was made during McNair's 
administration. Laws were made 
and enforced to protect property 
and punish crime. A home for the 
government was provided and in 
1821 the permantnt capital of Mis- 
souri was located, after 1826, at 
Jefferson City. The capitol build- 
ing was begun in 1823 and was 
completed in 1826. It burned in 
1837 and a new one was built in 
1838. This one was greatly enlarged 
m 1887. It burned in 1911. Mis- 
souri's present capitol building was 
finished in 1918 and cost $4,000,000. 
It is one of the finest in the nation. Alexander mcnair 

Il8 History of Missouri and Missourians 

During McNair's tenii the Missouri State Seal was adopted. 
The twenty-three smaller stars rq>reseiit the twenty-three 
states admitted before Missouri ; the large star represents 
Missouri as the twenty-fourth state. The Latin motto of the 
State, "Salus populi suprema lex esto" means, "Let the welfare 
of the people be the supreme law." During Governor Mc- 
Nair's term the State governmenit made its first venture in 
finance. This was the Loan Office Law of 1821. The effect 
of the panic of 1819 was still felt. Times were hard, money 
was scarce, and interest rates were high. The State issued 
$185,000. of Loan Office certificates to help her people, and 
promised to redeem these in money. These certificates, like 
money, were of different amounts railing from 12j^ cents to 
$10. The State accepted them in payment of taxes and soon 
they circulated like money. Farmers could borrow these cer- 
tificates up to $1,000 by giving a note or mortgage on their 
property. All went went until some of the borrowers refused 
to pay their notes. The State tried to collect but the United 
States Supreme Court held that the certificates were uncon- 
stitutional and the notes could not l^ally be collected. The 
borrowers did not have to pay although morally they should 
have paid. The State could also 
have refused to redeem the certifi- 
cates, but Missouri did not. She 
redeemed the certificates dollar for 
dollar. Missouri has never refused 
I to pay her debts or keep her obli- 
I During Bates' term the princi- 
pal law passed was to organize 
the militia to protect the State 
against Indians. All men between 
the ages of eighteen and forty- 
five years were required to be 
PES enrolled in the militia. In April 

Missouri Politics, 1820-1844 119 

of each year "Muster Day" was 
held in each township. All the 
militiamen organized into com- 
panies. In May and October all 
the companies in a county met and 

During Miller's Administration 
the State was very prosperous. 
The government performed two 
things of importance. The peni- 
tentiary was located and built in 
Jefferson City. The Black Hawk 
Indian war broke out in Illinois 
and Wisconsin, and Missouri fear- ^°^^ miller 

ed the Indians might cross the Missisippi and give trouble 
here. Troops were sent to northeast Missouri but no hostile 
Indians were met. 

The term of Governor Dunklin 
from 1832 to 1836 marked one im- 
portant government act. This was 
the Platte Purchase. The Platte 
Country was in northwest Missouri. 
It embraced what are today the six 
counties of APchison, Holt, Noda- 
way, Andrew, Buchanan, and 
Platte. The Sac and Fox Indians 
occupied it but already some white 
settlers had settled there. The 
United States Government in 1836 
gave the Indians $7,500 and a tract 
DANIEL DUNKLIN °^ ^^"^ '" Kansas and the Indians 

in rehirn gave up claim to the 
Platte country. The principal demand for this country had 
come from the people in Clay county. Genera! William Clark, 
■ "Red Head", arranged the treaty. Missouri's United States 

120 History of Missouri and Missourians 

senator, l^wis F. Linn, was the real author of the Platte 
Purchase as it was he who persuaded Congress to give this 
land to Missouri. In 1837 the State of Missouri took posses- 
sion. During Governor Dunklin's administration Missouri 
was even more prosperous than before. Speculation again 
prevailed tut in 1837 hard times set in and continued several ' 
years. By 1836 the people wanted better transportation so in 
that year a railroad convention was held in St. Louis. 
Everybody was enthusiastic and the Legislature chartered a 
number of railroad lines. Nothing further was done, how- 
ever, and it was fifteen years before railroad building began 
in Missouri. 

Governor Bogg's administration was most important and 
exciting. It was filled with seven historic events. In 1837 
the Legislature founded a State 
Bank. Later branches of this bank 
were established over Missouri. 
All were sound and rendered the 
people service. In the same year 
the famous panic of 1837 took 
place. Missouri suffered but not 
so much as did other states. This 
was because she had no wildcat 
banks and wildcat paper money, 
because she had recdved silver 
through the Santa Fe Trade, and 
also because she had not speculated 
so much. It was in 1837 that the 
LiLBURN w. BOGGS United States Government called 
Ml Missouri for troops to fight the Seminole Indians in 
Florida. Colonel Richard Gentry, of Columbia, raised a regi- 
ment. The men suffered severely and Col. Gentry was killed 
in battle. 

It was during Governor Bo^s term that trouble arose 
with the Mormons, which finally resulted in war and their ex- 

MissouKi Politics, 1820-1844 I2i 

pulsion from the State, The mihtia was called out and the 
Moraioins surrendered in 1839. They left Missouri in 1839. 
The story of the Mormon War will be fold later. The next 
important acts during these four years were the founding of 
Missouri's public school system in 1839 and the estabhshment 
of the University of Missouri at 
Columbia the same year. The last 
event was trouble with Iowa over 
the northern boundaTy line. This 
has been called the "Honey War" 
and will also be considered under 
"A Century of Military Missouri". 

Governor Reynolds is best known I 
in Missouri history for being the 
author of the law abolishing im- 
prisomnent for debt. It was a very 
short law but it was also very im- 
portant. It read: "Imprisonment 
for debt is hereby forever abolish- 

Missouri's Congressmen and United States Senators, 

During these twenty-four years Missouri had four United 
States Senators and fourteen Representatives in Congress. Of 
the fourteen Congressmen only five are well known: John 
Scott of Ste. Genevieve county, 1820-25; Edward Bates of St. 
Louis county, 1826-1828; William H. Ashley of St. Louis 
county, 1831-1836; John Miller of Howard county, 1836-1842; 
and John C. Edwards of Cole county, 1840-1842. Of these 
five men, four were natives of Virginia and had settled in 
Missouri before 1820. Edwards was born in Kentucky and 
came to Missouri in 1828. They were able men and each had 
held public office in Missouri. 

122 History of Missouri and Missourians 

John Scott was Missouri's last territorial delegate and her 
first congressman. He had received a fine education and was 
a noted lawyer. His most important service to Missouri was 
in aiding her to secure statehood. He was a delegate to the 
Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1820 and was the 
author of the provision relating to education. In 1824 he 
cast his vote in Congress for Adams, instead of for Jackson. 
This lost him the friendship of Benton and in 1826 the poli- 
tical support of Missourians. 

Edward Bates was a brother of Frederick Bates, Mis- 
souri's second State governor. He was a successful lawyer 
and an able statesman. He had served in the cenvention of 
1820, and although he was only twenty-seven years old, he was 
one of the leaders. He was Missouri's first attorney general 
in 1820 and in 1826 was elected to Congress. He became a 
Whig and was one of the leaders in Missouri of the Whig 
party. In 1860 he became a Republican and in 1861 was ap- 
pointed to President Lincoln's cabinet, being the first man 
west of the Mississippi to hold a cabinet position. He was one 
of the most eminent men Missouri has produced. 

William H. Ashley was one of Missouri's most successful 
and wealthy fur traders. He was Missouri's first lieutenant 
governor in 1820 and served four years. He devoted his later 
life to politics. He was a Whig, and although Missouri was a 
Democratic State, Ashley served five years in Congress. His 
ability was employed in Congress in aiding Missouri and the 
West in developing the Santa Fe Trade and in securing protec- 
tion against the Indians. 

John Miller was the first Congressman from central Mis- 
souri. He had been an editor and a soldier before settling in 
Missouri. A man of force and ability he soon attracted atten- 
tion. Before his election to Congress, he had served as 
governor for seven years. His record as a public official was 

Missouri Politics, 1820-1844 123 

John C. Edwards came to Missouri in 1828. He had 
served Missouri as secretary of state for seven years before 
his election to Congress. He was later elected governor in 
1844 and served four years. He was a lawyer. 

The four United States senators from Missouri during 
this period were David Barton of St. Louis county, 1820-1830; 
Thomas H. Benton of St. Louis county, 1820-1850; Alexander 
Buckner of Cape Girardeau, 1830-1833 ; and Lewis F. Linn of 
Ste, Genevieve county, 1833-1844. Barton and Benton were 
natives of North Carolina ; Buckner and Linn were natives of 
Kentucky. All had settled in Missouri before 1820. Linn was 
a doctor, the other three were lawyers. All were very able 
men and made fine public officials. 

David Barton was the most popular man in Missouri in 
1820. He had served as judge and was elected president of 
the convention of 1820. He greatly influenced the drafting of 
Missouri's first constitution. When Missouri became a state. 
Barton was easily elected to the United States Senate and was 
reelected in 1824. Like Bates, he favored Adams for presi- 
dent in 1824 and his popularity decreased. In 1830 he was 
defeated for reelection. He was an exceptional man and made 
an able and honest public official. 

Alexander Buckner was elected in 1830 to succeed Barton. 
He was a prominent lawyer and was highly respected. He died 
of the cholera in 1833. 

Lewis F. Linn was appointed to succeed Buckner in 1833. 
He was elected in 1834, and reelected in 1836 and 1843. He 
was a doctor, the only one ever elected from Missouri to the 
United States Senate. Although he had never sought public 
office and was not a politician, he was one of the two greatest 
Missouri statesmen prior to the Civil War. He was an advo- 
cate of cheap land to the settlers, the purchase of the Platte 
Country, and the acquisition of the Oregon Country. So 
widespread was his popularity and services that he was 


History of Missouri and Missoueians 

claimed hy the people of Iowa 
and Oregon as their senator al- 
thougti he represented Missouri. 
He was called "The Model Sen- 
ator from Missouri". He and 
his colle^ue, Benton, were close 
friends and worked together. 
To Linn Missouri is indehted for 
the Platte Country and he did 
more than any other public 
official to obtain the great Ore- 
gon Country for the United 


Thomas H. Benton served as Missotrri's United States 
senator from 1820 to 1850 — a period of thirty years. During 
this period he was easily reelected in 1826, 1832, and 1838. 
His control of Missouri became stronger and stronger until it 
seemed that none could defeat or hurt him. He was very able, 
a deep student, a convincing speaker, and honest. He did 
everything he could in Congress to help Jackson abolish the 
United States Bank, and develop Missouri and the West by 
means of cheap public land, protection of trade and frcwitier 
against Indians, and exploratiwi of the West. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Explain the relation between state and national political 

2, What do you understand by the term, "The Rule of the 

3, Contrast politics of 1820-1830 with the political situation in 
Missouri today. 

4. Explain (he rise of political parties in 1830. Name the leaders 
of each party. 

."). What were the state issues between the political parties? 

Missouri Politics, 1820-1844 1 25 

6. To whom was the term, "Old Bullion", applied? Why was 
Missouri called,, "The Bullion State?" 

7. Characterize the first six governors of Missouri. 

8. Describe the state seal of Missouri. 

9. What event occurred following 1821 which proved the integrity 
of Missouri? 

10. What was Muster Day? 

11. What was the important ev€nt during Governor Dunklin's ad- 

12. What were the most important historic events during Governor 
Bogg's administration? 

13. What important law was established during Governor Reynolds' 

14. Name and characterize the first four United States senators 
from Missouri. 

15. Compare the senators with the congressmen of the same 

Chapter II 



.This period of Missouri politics from 1844 to 1860 is 
quite different from the preceding period. The I>emocratic 
party, it is true, ruled Missouri but it became more and more 
divided. The differences between the two periods are many. 
In this period elections were decided by politics rather than by 
the character of the men. Politics reigned supreme. Another 
difference was the appearance and rise to power of new poli- 
tical leaders. "The Rule of the Fathers" was at an end and 
new men, yotmger men, took their place. In the Democratic 
party the new leaders were called the "Central Qique". They 
lived in Central Missouri. At first they supported Benton but 
later they worked against him, and finally they defeated him. 
This period also marked the appearance of big issues or prQl>- 
lems in Missouri politics. These problems related to money, 
more democracy in government (L e., more elective officials 
and shorter terms), the annexation of Texas, State aid to, rail- 
roads, extension of slavery in the territories, and the fight 
against Benton. Of these problems or issues the two most im- 
portant were Benton and slavery. The Benton problem was 
practically settled in 1851 when he was defeated for reelection 
to the United States Senate, but the slavery issue was not set- 
tled until the Civil War ended in 1865. 

The slavery issue and the Benton issue (i. e, the determin- 
ation of the new leaders to defeat Benton) were closely 
related. In fact, nearly all of these issues, except that relating 
to the railroads, were closely related to the fight on Benton. 
It was the great issue of slavery in the territories which finally 
broke up the Whig party, caused the rise of the Republican 
party, and eventually ruined the old Democratic party. 


Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 1 27 

This period of Missouri politics is like a drama. It re- 
veals great actors playing parts fuU of lofty ideals and human 
interests. The first act closes in 1851 when the new leaders 
rise to power and the great Benton is defeated. The next ten 
years are marked with the death of Benton, the border war 
with Kansas, the gradual fall of the old parties, the rise of a 
new party, and always the problem of slavery, growing larger 
and larger in the territories. This act closes with the Demo- 
cratic party of the new leaders (now older, of course) in 
seeming unlimited control of Missouri. The Nation is in con- 
trol of the Republican party and we hear the distant rumblings 
of civil war. The next period from 1861 to 1870 is but a con- 
tinuation of this drama, which is the most tragic in our history. 

Bearing in mind that the two main issues are first the 
desire of the new leaders to defeat Benton, and second, the 
growing problem of slavery extension in the territories, it will 
not be hard to understand this interesting and instructive 
period in Missouri state politics. It should also be stated that 
during this period Missouri was always Democratic in both 
national and state elections and that the new leaders who dis- 
placed Benton were generally of southern birth and southern 
sympathy, and were pronoimced advocates of slavery and 
slavery extension in the territories. Despite Missouri being a 
Democratic state during these years, a new class of people 
were settling here, who differed from the proslavery leaders 
of the Democratic party. These people came from the free 
states lying to the east of Missouri, especially from Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. During the forties and 
fifties a large German immigration flowed ito Missouri, settl- 
ing in St. Louis and the neighboring counties. This German 
class of settlers like the freestate settlers from the east, also 
opposed the proslavery leaders of the Democratic party. Many 
of the eastern and Geiunan settlers at first voted the Demo- 
cratic ticket, but later helped split that party and some, includ- 
ing all of the Germans, eventually went into the new Republi- 

128 History of Missouri and Missourians 

can party. The main point to remember, however, is that this 
new immigration was pro-Union in sympathy and was not pro- 
slavery or prosouthem. The Irish immigration abo began 
pouring into Missouri in the fifties. The Irish became Demo- 
crats. So it is seen that instead of Missouri having a popula- 
tion of the same stock and the same general ideas in politics 
as she had before when her people came largely from southern 
states, she now had a mixed population holding conflicting 
ideas in politics. The Nation was dividing along sectional 
lines and Missouri was also dividing on the big question of 
slavery extension in the territories. 

The Election of 1844 and the First Statewide Attack 

ON Benton 

The election of 1844 is important. The issues in Missouri 
in 1844 were "Hard" or "Soft" money, the annexation of 
Texas, the election of two United States Senators, five con- 
gressmen, and a governor, and a new State constitution. Most 
important of all, however, is the fact that this election marks 
the beginning of two great movements — the fall of Benton 
and the division inside the Democratic party. Both are closely 
related to each other. Each of the issues of this election will 
now be considered as well as its relation to Benton and the 
Democratic party. 

The "Hard" and "Soft" money issue began shortly after 
the panic of 1837, in which year was established The Bank of 
Missouri controlled by the Missouri State Government This 
bank and its branches were conservatively managed and Misr- 
souri's money was on a sound, metal basis. Benton was a 
hard, or metal, money man. He believed in gold and silver. 
Many Missourians in both parties believed in easier or cheaper 
money. The easy money Democrats were called "Softs". 
They opposed Benton. By 1840 the "Softs" and the Whigs in 
St. Louis voted together and by 1844 the split in the Demo- 
cratic party had become statewide. Benton was the leader of 

Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 129 

the "Hards" and was suK)orted by all hard money men and by 
a group of younger politicians in Central Missouri, who were 
called the "Central Qique". Although the Whigs had put out 
state candidates in 1840, they voted with the "Soft Demo- 
crats in 1844. 

The immediate aimexation of Texsis was also an issue in 
Missouri and the Nation in 1844. Many Missourians had set- 
tled in Texas and had fought for Texas independence against 
Mexico. Texas now desired to become a state. Benton was 
opposed to annexing Texas, without first having an agreement 
with Mexico, since Mexico had not yet recognized the inde- 
pendence of Texas. He said that it would hurt Missouri in 
her profitable trade with Santa Fe, since Mexico would take 
offence and stop her province of New Mexico trading with 
the United States. He also thought annexation would lead to 
war with Mexico, and in this he was right. Missourians, how- 
ever, wanted Texas. Benton realized this. Besides, the 
national slogan of the Democratic party in 1844 was "Annexa- 
tion of Texas and Occupation of Oregon". This slogan helped 
the Democratic party in Missouri and really in part helped 
Benton, since he had always stood for the occupation of the 
Or^on country. 

The third great issue was the actual election of officials, 
especially of members of the Legislature and of governor. 
The new Legislature was to elect two United States senators, 
one for six years to succeed Benton and one for four years to 
fill out the term of Linn, who had died in 1843 and in whose 
place David R. Atchison had been temporarily appointed. 
There were also five Congressmen to be elected. The Benton 
or "Hard" candidate for governor was John C. Edwards. His 
opponent was the "Soft" candidate Charles H. Allen, who 
was supported by the Whigs. 

The last issue in 1844 was the question of calling a consti- 
tutional convention to frame a new constitution for Missouri, 
Many objecfed to the old constitution of 1820. Some disliked 

Ijo History of Missouri and Missourians 

its provisions regarding all judges being appointed and holding 
office during good behavior instead of being elected for a 
term of years. They also thought the Le^slature had too 
much power and that it should be limited on some subjects. 
Others thought that the system of county representation in the 
Legislature was unfair to the populous counties since they had 
little ,more representation than the sparsely settled counties, 

Benton and the "Hard" Democrats won, John C. Ed- 
wards was elected governor. The Legislature was closely 
divided and Benton was re-elected by a majority of only eight 
votes. Atchison, one of the new leaders, was elected senator. 
Among the congressmen elected were two able men who later 
became governors of Missouri, Sterling Price and John S. 
Phelps. The leader of the Missouri House of Representatives 
was Claiborne F. Jackson, another man who later became 
governor. In a few years these new leaders turned against 
Benton and finally defeated him. The people voted in favor 
of a constitutional convention. 

Senator David R. Atchison was a native of Kentucky. He 
was a lawyer of ability and had served both in the Legislature 
and on the bench. He came from Platte county. He was one 
of the younger leaders and after 
1848 opposed Benton's views on 
slavery. He was a strong States* 
right man and favored the slave 
states. He was re-elected in 1848 
but was defeated in 1854. 

Governor John C. Edwards, o£ 
Cole county, was also a Kentuckian. 
He was a lawyer and had served 
Missouri as secretary of state and 
as congressman. His administra- 
tion was a success and Missouri 
grew in wealth and population. It 
JOHN c. EDWARDS WES marked by several important 

MissouKi PouTics, 1844-1860 131 

events. One of the first was trouble between Iowa and Missouri 
over the northern boundary line. This is called the "Honey 
War" and will be considered under **A Century if Military 
Missouri". The boundary line was finally determined by the 
United States Supreme Court in 1848. In 1845 the constitu- 
tional convention met and framed a new constitution. It was 
submitted to the people, who rejected it in 1846. It was a 
good constitution but, somehow, it did not satisfy the people. 
The most important event was the outbreak of war between 
the United States and Mexico. The national government 
called for voltmteers and Missourians enlisted by the himdreds. 
They were led by such men as Alexander W. Doniphan and 
Sterling Price. The Missouri troops made a wonderful record 
in conquering New Mexico and several large provinces in Old 
Mexico. This was in 1846 and 1847. On their return they 
received a great welcome. The story of Doniphan's Expedi- 
tion will be told under "A Century of Military Missouri". 
During Governor Edward's administration the third State 
institution was established, the first being the State peniten- 
tiary at Jefferson City and the second the University of Mis- 
souri at Columbia. This was the establishment of a State 
hospital for the insane at Fulton in 1847. Since then three 
more State hospitals have been established at St. Joseph, 
Nevada, and Farmington. Excluding the Mexican War, the 
most important event during these years was the gathering 
opposition to Benton. 

The Fight Against Benton and His Defeat 

The money issue had hardly been settled in Missouri in 
favor of the "Hards" and the Texas question had hardly been 
disposed of by immediate annexation in 1845, when the fight 
on Benton was renewed. The new Democratic leaders of 
Missouri were detenmined to defeat the great statesman. He 
had held his high office since 1820. Some though that this 
was long enough and that some other person should have a 

1^2 History of Missouri and Missourians 

chance. The politicians gave expression to this view. Benton 
had not built up a real political machine. He had not dis- 
tributed political offices as he might have done. This weak- 
ened him with the politicians. His position on hard money 
and the Texas question had weakened him with the people. 
Moreover, he had been very independent and frequently had 
been rude even to those who had helped him. He was a great 
man and the people admired him for his ability, renown, in- 
dustry, and honesty. He was never, however, a popular hero 
having the love of his voters. Gradually the young politicians 
began secretly, and later openly, criticising and attacking him. 
Benton was losing in Missouri and fie was" now losing in 

During President Andrew Jackson's rise and rule to 
power, Benton had been powerful in the national councils of 
the Democratic party. He and Jackson became close friends, 
and Jackson was always the real hero of Missourians. After 
the national election of 1840 the Democratic party in Confess 
became more and more southern in sympathy and ideals and 
passed under the control of southern leaders. Benton was 
first of all a believer in the Union. He loved it and fought 
for it, in and out of politics. He opposed everj'^thing and every 
measure which he thought might hurt the Union. The south- 
em leaders were believers in the doctrine of States' right and 
in the right of extending slavery in the new territories. Ben- 
ton had no faith in these southern leaders. He thought that 
they were trying to destroy the Union. They in turn hated 
him. The new prosouthern leaders in Missouri knew this con- 
dition and took advantage of it. Benton had lost influence in 
Congress ; now he was to lose influence in Missouri. 

The Missouri election of 1848 was purely a struggle be- 
tween the Democrats and Whigs. The fight against Benton 
did not enter into it, at least not openly. The Democratic can- 
didate for governor was Austin A. King, of Ray coimty; the 
Whig candidate was James S. Rollins, of Boone county. 

MissouKi Politics, 1844-1860 


Governor King was easily elected and the State went Demo- 
cratic as usual. Three rising young men, out of the five 
elected to Congress, were later to achieve prominence in pub- 
lic office, — John S. Phelps (already mentioned and first 
elected in 1844), Willard P. Hall (who had been first elected 
to Congress in 1846 and who later became acting governor), 
and James S. Green (who later became United States Sena- 
tor). All three were very able men. When the Legislature 
met. Senator Atchison was easily reelected to the United 
States Senate. 

Governor King was a native 
of Tennessee. He was a lawyer of 
ability and had practiced both in 
Boone and Ray county. He had 
served in the Legislature and on 
the bench and later he served in 
Congress. During his administra- 
tion (1848-1852) some important 
events occurred. The Slate Govern- 
ment began giving financial aid to 
railroads, the fight against Benton 
succeeded, and the split in the 
Democratic party widened so that 
in 1851 Missouri elected a Whig 

Uiiited States Senator. During austix a. kixg 

these four years the State establi^ed a school for the deaf at 
Fulton (1851) and a school for the blind at St. Louis (1851). 
The story of the building of Missouri railroads will be told in 
"A Century of Commerce and Transportation". 

The fight against Benton which had begun in 1844 
entered its second and last stage in 1849. The issue then was 
money, the issue now was slavery extension in the territories. 
The Nation had gained much new territory as a result of the 
Mexican war. The South wanted slavery permitted in this 
territory, the North wanted slavery prohibited there. Benton 

134 History of Missouri and Missourians 

wanted California to be admitted as a free state and all the 
rest of the new territory to be divided by the Missouri Com- 
promise line extending westward. The new prosouthem lead- 
ers in Missouri now saw an opportimity to defeat Benton and 
they planned carefully and well. 

A set of resolutions, called the "J^^^kson Resolutions", 
were introduced in the Mission Senate by Claiborne F. Jack- 
son. These resolutions stated that only the people in a terri- 
tory could prohibit slavery and that Congress did not have this 
power. They further declared that if Congress did assiune 
such power, then Missouri would stand by the southern, slave- 
holding states. Finally, they instructed Missouri's United 
States Senators to vote accordingly. These resolutions were 
adopted by the Legislature by a large vote and were sent to 
both Benton and Atchison. Similar resolutions had either 
been adopted or proposed in other southern states, but Benton 
saw that the "J^^^^on Resolutions" were a direct attack on 
him and his policy. He accepted the challenge. 

The State was campaigned by Benton and his opponents 
from one corner to the other beginning in 1849 and lasting 
until the election in 1850. Benton now waged the bitterest 
and most relentless fight of his life. He appealed to the peo- 
ple. He might have refused to fight on this issue but he pre- 
ferred battle to compromise and eventual inglorious defeat. 
He opposed the "J^^^kson Resolutions" on the groimd that they 
threatened the break up of the Union and that they were 
passed by his political enemies and not by the people. 

The election resulted in giving the Whigs the largest nimi- 
ber of members in the Legislature. The Benton men came 
second and the anti-Benton men third. No one of the three 
had a majority. On the point at issue, the "Jackson Resolu- 
tions", the Whigs really felt like Benton, but they had opposed 
each other for years. They refused to help him now. Finally, 
after repeated voting in 1851 the anti-Benton men, led by the 
new leaders, voted with the Whigs and elected Henry S. 

Missousi Politics, 1844-1860 135 

136 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Geyer of St. Louis. Benton had finally been defeated after 
serving Missouri thirty years in the United States Senate. His 
successor Senator Geyer, was a native of Maryland. He was 
an able lawyer and one of the Whig leaders of Missouri. 

But Benton did not know, or he refused to acknowledge 
defeat. He had been a fearless fighter all his life and he was 
determined to continue the fight. He felt that he was right 
and he felt that the -Union was rapidly approaching destruc- 
tion and war unless a change came soon. Benton decided to 
do his part until the end. In 1852 he ran for representative in 
Congress from St. Louis and was elected. The "Jackson 
Resolutions" and the question of slavery extension were still 
the issues. In 1854 when Senator Atchison was up for re- 
election to the United States Senate, Benton worked hard 
against him, as Atchison was one of the prosouthem leaders. 
Again he stumped the State and again the Legislature split 
into three parties. So bitter was feeling that even the Legisla- 
ture could not agree and actually failed to elect a successor to 
Atchison. So Missouri for two years, 1855-1857, was repre- 
sented in the United States Senate by only one man, Henry S. 
Geyer. Benton, himself defeated, had succeeded in defeating 
one of his strongest opponents and political enemies. Senator 
Atchison. In. 1855 Benton ran for governor. He was now 
over seventy years old but he again waged a vigorous cam- 
paign. He was hopelessly defeated, and he retired to his home 
and library in Washington. Here he died in 1858, the greatest 
statesman Missouri has produced and "The Greatest States- 
man of the West". Three years to the month after his death 
the Nation was engaged in a civil war which lasted imtil 1865. 

Administkation of Governor Price, 1852-1856, and the 

Struggle for Kansas, 1854-1857 

The election of 1852 was the last in which the Whig party 
had a candidate for governor in Missouri and a candidate for 

Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 137 

president of the United States. After this election the Whig 
party rapidly went to pieces. Two new parties appeared, the 
American party, which lasted only through the one general 
state and national election of 1856, and the Republican party, 
which did not appear in a Missouri general election until 1860 
although it had put out a national ticket in 1856. By 1860 lihe 
Democratic party had split into two parts. The Republican 
had grown rapidly in strength over the North, and a Union 
party had appeared. It is clearly seen thait there was deep 
political unrest in the fifties. This led to the break-up of 

The chief cause of this unrest and of this break-up was 
the question of slavery extension in the territories. This ques- 
tion firsit rose to prominence in 1820 when the Missouri Com- 
promise bill was passed. Despite this settlement in 1820, it 
again rose to prominence after the Mexicon War in connection 
with slavery in the new territory acquired. Again it was set- 
tled by the Compromise of 1850, but again it rose to promi- 
nence when the Kansas-Nebraska bill was passed in 1854. It 
was settlect once more in 1857 when Kansas became a free soil 
territory but peace between Kansas and Missouri did not come. 
Finally, in 1860 the national victory of the Republican party 
and the closely following secession from the Union of some of 
the Southern states brought matters to a crisis and war broke 
out. Missouri as a state in the Union was affected by these 
currents of national life from 1850 to 1860, and as a state 
bordering on the new- Territory of Kansas she was vitally con- 
cerned. It was during Governor Price's administration that 
the Kansas troubles began. 

Sterling Price was elected governor of Missouri in 1852. 
He served a full, four-year term. Governor Price was a 
native of Virginia. After coming to Missouri he settled in 
Chariton county where he was a merchant and later a 

138 History of Missouri and Missourians 

farmer. He had served in the Mis- 
souri Legislature and in Congress, 
During the Mexican War he suc- 
cessfully led a regiment of Missouri 
troops. He was a very popular 
man, being perhaps the only one 
trusted both by the Benton and the 
anti-Benton men. He made a good 
governor, and later at the outbreak 
of the Civil War he was perhaps 
the most beloved man in the State. 
During his administration the 
Benton fight continued over the 
STERLING PRICE "Jacksou Rcsolulions". More state 

financial aid was given the rail- 
roads, the public school system was reorganized, and the 
struggle for Kansas began. The new public school law, passed 
in 1853, was important in providing for a separate state super- 
intendent of schools and a county school commissioner in each 
county. The public schools immediately improved-and public 
education advanced rapidly down to the Civil War, whidi 
practically stopped instruction over a large part of Missouri. 
However, the greatest event of political importance was the 
Kansas trouble. 

The settlement of Iowa and western Missouri brought a 
demand that the Kansas and Nebraska coimtry be opened for 
settlers. The reason was cheap land. The new country was at 
that time a great Indian reservation. The people in northwest 
Missouri were especially interested in having Kansas opened. 
Besides the Indian title there was another problem to solve. 
The Missouri Ccflnpromise had made all north of 36° SC free 
soil, excepting Missouri. Kansas and Nebraska lay north of 
that line. But Missourians wanted to make Kansas a slave 
territory and later a slave state. Senator Atchison was one of 
the leaders in pressing the question on Congress. In 1854 

Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 139 

Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska bill. This bill opened 
the two territories to settlement and provided tihat the settlers 
should decide the issue of slavery. Everyone expected that 
Nebraska, lying west of free soil Iowa, would become a free soil 
territory and state, and that Kansas, lying west of Missouri, 
would become a slave territoiy and state. The passage of this 
bill was one of the causes, if not the main cause, for the death 
of the Whig party, the rise of the Republican party, and. the 
later split in the Democratic party. 

When the news reached Missouri that Kansas was open 
to settlement, there was great satisfaction. Missouri had a 
vital interest in making Kansas a slave territory since the State 
already had free soil on the north and east (Iowa and Illinois) 
and, therefore, did not want to have free soil on the west. 
Free soil ^^o close at hand meant loss of runaway slaves. The 
South also wanted Kansas to become a slave state so as to 
aid them in Congress, especially in the Senate. So really Mis- 
souri and the South had a big issue at stake in Kansas. Bear- 
ing this in mind, it is easier to imderstand why Missouri fought 
so hard for Kansas. 

The first settlers in Kansas were Missourians, but north- 
em settlers began coming in almost immediately. Many of the 
northern settlers came largely to vote Kansas a free territory, 
although some came intending to settle. These northern voters 
and settlers were aided by northern abolition societies. Mis- 
sourians realized the danger. They organized in bands and 
companies and secret lodges. They were determined that 
Kansas should not be made a free state largely by New Eng- 
land voters. On election day many crossed over into Kansas 
and voted. They aided the proslavery settler and elected a 
proslavery territorial legislature, which established slavery. 
The northern settlers refused to obey the legal government 
and adopted an anti-slavery constitution and government mak- 
ing Kansas a free territory. Kansas now had its own civil 
war, the northerners geitting aid from New England and other 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

eastern states, the southerners receiving aid from Missouri. 

Bands of armed Missourians invaded Kansas to stamp out 
the northern territorial government and drive out the nonthem 
voters and settlers. Some were led by prominent men, among 
whom was ex-Senator Atchison, a man of influence, honesty, 
and wealth. The antislavery men in Kansas called these Mis- 
sourians "Border Ruffians" and the Missourians accepted <tiie 
name. However, most of them were not ruffians but were men 
fighting for a principle in which they believed and against what 
they regarded as an unwarranted intrusion on the part of the 
northern people. 

The antislavery forces organized. Outrages were com- 
mitted by both sides. There was fighting that resulted in death 
and crime. One of the abolitionist leaders w^as John Brown, 
who was a fanatic in his hatred of slavery. Things went from 
bad to worse until no man's life was safe in Kansas. The anti- 
slavery people increased and Missouri and the South appealed 
for southern men to settle in Kansas. This they refused to do, 
although they hoped to see Kansas a slave state. The reason of 
their refusal was the danger of losing their slave property. In 
1857 civil war was stopped by the United States Government 
An election was held, and Kansas elected an antislavery legisla- 
ture. The struggle for Kansas was over ; the antislavery forces 
had won. Buit the Kansas Border Troubles were not over. 
These will be considered under Governor Stewart's administra- 

Administration of Governor Robert M. Stewart, 


The election of 1856 in Missouri was another Democratic 
victory. The Whig party had passed and a new party called 
the American party was in the field, followed by the old Whig 
voters. The new Republican party did not appear in Missouri 
in 1856, although it had out a national ticket. This election also 
marked the passing of Benton. He was badly defeated for 

Missouri Poutics, 1844-1860 


governor. The successful candidate for that office was Trus- 
ten Polk, The L^slature elected was strongly prosouthem 
and anti-BenttHi. 

Governor Polk was a native 
of Maryland. He was a lawyer 
and made his home in St. Louis. 
A few days after he became 
governor he was elected, in 1857, 
United States Senator for six years 
to succeed Senator Henry S. 
Geyer. He was strongly pro- 
southern and was expelled from 
the Senate in 1862 on the charge 
of disloyalty. The same Legisla- 
ture elected James S. Green, of 
Lewis county, as the other United 
TRUSTEN POLK States Senator. Senator Green, 

who was a lawyer, was a native 
of Virgima. He was one of the ablest, if not the foremost, 
orator Missouri has produced. Although a young man he 
'had held important public positions 
and was one of the leaders of the 
Democratic party in Missouri. He 
did more through his public . 
speeches to defeat Benton in 18?0 
and again in 1856 than any other 
man in this State. He was a re- 
markable orator, a shrewd poJi- 
tician, and an able senator. 

On his election to the United 
States Senate, Governor Polk re- 
signed the governorship, and Han- 
cock Jackson, the lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, served until the special ^^^^^ 3 ^^^^^ 
election was held in August, 1857. 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

At this spcdal election, Robert M. Stewart, the Democratic 
candidate, was opposed by James S. Rollins, one of the ablest 
Whig leaders of the State, who ran on the American ticket. 
The contest was close and Governor Stewart was elected by a 
majority of only 334 votes — this indicates the great growth 
of the opposition. Governor 
Stewart was a native of New York- 
He made his home in St. Joseph. 
He was an able lawyer and had 
filled many important public of- 
fices. He was deeply interested in 
railroads, being president of lihe 
Hannibal and St. Joseph road. He 
was one of the proslavery leaders 
but during the Civil War sided 
with the Union. The principal 
events of his administration were 
the establishment of a state bank- 
ROBERT M. STEWART ^^S System which gave Missouri 
better banking facilities, the cre- 
ation of the office of state bank examiner to inspect banks, 
and the Kansas Border Troubles. 

The Kansas Border Troubles immediately followed the 
victory of the antislavery settlers in Kansas. Missourians had 
cea.sed invading Kansas and Kansans now began to invade Mis- 
souri, especially southwest Missouri. They raided with armed 
bands the western border counties of Missouri, carried off 
slaves, robbed the citizens, destroyed property, and killed inno- 
cent people. Sometimes their invasions were repelled, at other 
times they left only when they could carry off no more plun- 
der. Missourians called them "Jayhawkers". Some fotight 
solely against slavery, but most of them were rascals, thieves, 
and robbers. Finally, Governor Stewart called out the Mis- 
souri militia, and the Kansas and the United States Govern- 
ment sent troops to put an end to such conditions. In 1860 

Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 143 

quiet was again restored to be followed in 1861 with war be- 
tween the states. 

The Election of 1860 and the Division of Parties 

The election of 1860 is one of the most important in 
American history. It marked the break-up of the old parties, 
the rise of the Republican party to national power, and, by the 
election of Lincoln to the presidency, led to the secession of 
the southern states. However, in Missouri, it showed the re- 
markable organization of the state Democratic party, the vot- 
ing strength of the conservative Whigs who now voted for the 
new Constitutional Union party, and, most important, an over- 
whelming desire by Missourians for peace, compromise, and 
conservatism. Missourians knew by experience what radical 
proslavery or radical antislavery policy meant. Either led to 
war. Missourians also knew the effects of war. They had 
had experience on Kansas soil and on Missouri soil. 

The national political situation in 1860 was a result of 
the old Kansas-Nebraska bill of 1854, which had killed the 
Whig party, and of slavery in the territories, which now split 
the old Democratic party. The new Republican party of the 
North was opposed to more slave territories. Its leader was 
Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois. It was the extreme antislavery 
party of the North. Many of the old Whigs and conservatives 
of the nation rallied under a new party called the Constitu- 
tional Union party. The Constitutional Union party stood for 
compromise on the slavery question and for preservation of 
the Union. Its candidate for president was John Bell, of Ten- 
nessee. ' It was the most conservative of all the parties. The 
old Democratic party divided into two .parties, a northern and 
a southern. The cause of this division was the question of 
slavery in the territories. The northern Democrats were mod- 
erate and conserva^tive. They wanted the people in a territory 
to have the privilege of deciding for or against slavery. The 
candidate for president of the northern Democrats was 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

Stephen A. Douglass, of Illinois. These northern Demo- 
crats were called Douglass Democrats. Their proposed settle- 
ment of the slavery question was the same as had been tried in 
Kansas. The southern Democrats remembered how the Kan- 
sas affair had ended in a victory for the antislavery peopde and 
they did riot want to try this method again* They organized 
and nominated John C. Breckenridge, of Kentucky. The 
Breckenridge Democrats, as they were called, demanded that 
Congress protect slavery in the territories. They were the ex- 
treme proslavery Democrats of the south. So, there were two 
radical parties. One was a northern party, the Republican,, 
against slavery, and the other was a southern party, the 
Breckenridge Democratic party, for slavery. There were also 
two moderate parties. One was the Constitutional Union 
party, for compromise, and the other, the Douglass Demo- 
cratic party, was for settlement of slavery by the people in a 

The state election in Missouri was held in August I860. 
There were four candidates for governor. Claiborne F. Jade- 
son was the Douglass Democratic candidate for governor; 
Sample Orr was the candidate of the conservatives or the old 
Whigs. The other two parties had candidates but the election 
really lay between Jackson and Orr, both nmning on moderate 
or conservative party tickets. The candidates of the other 
two parties, the Republican and Breckenridge Democratic, to- 
gether received only 10% of the votes cast. Jackson was 
elected governor. This election shows that Missouri was con- 
servative on the slavery question and stood for compromise, 
since 90% of the votes cast were for the conservative parties. 
It shows that Missouri was opposed to the two extreme or 
radical parties, since these two parties combined received only 
10% of the votes. On the other hand, the radical proslavery 
party, the Breckenridge Democratic, elected the largest num- 
ber of men to the Legislature, and they and the Douglass mem- 
bers were easily in the majority. In other words, the election 

Missouri Politics, 1844-1860 I45 

was a Democratic victory with the Douglass Democrats win- 
mng the governorship and the Douglass and Breckenridge 
Democrats controlling the Legislature. 

The national election, held in Missouri in November, 1860, 
gave similar results. Douglass carried Missotiri over Bell by 
a very small margin. These two together received 70% of the 
votes cast, and Brenckenridge and Lincoln received 30%. 
Missouri was still in favor of the moderate or conservative 
parties. However, the radical parties. ..i>oth the amtislavery 
Republican and the proslavery Breckenridge Democratic party, 
were gaining strength. The strength of the Republicans was 
in St. Louis and the neighboring German population cqtmties. 
The voting strength of the Breckenridge Democrats was main- 
ly in the Ozark coimties. The Constitutional Unionists were 
strongest in the old Whig slave counties, with scattering sup- 
port in the Ozarks. The Douglass Democrats carried the rest 
of the State. The principal thing to bear in mind regarding 
the two elections in Missouri in 1860 is the decision of Mis- 
souri to take a moderate, conservative stand. Missouri feared 
what a victory of either of the radical parties might bring — 
war. And Missouri did not want war if peace could be kept 
through moderation and compromise. War to Missouri meant 
not only a conflict between North and South, but it meant civil 
strife inside Missouri. By 1860 Missouri had a population of 
1,063,000 whites and 115,000 slaves. Missouri had too many 
slaves for her people to be entirely antislavery in sentiment and 
she had too few slaves for her people to be entirely proslavery. 
Missouri bad a divided population. She was a border state 
between North and South. Every interest of Missouri lay in 
the direction of peace and compromise. 

146 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Compare the political period of 1844 to 1860 with the period of 
182a to 1844. 

2. Show how immigration into Missouri affected the political 

3. Why *'• the election of 1844 important? 

4. WL 1 1 <c 'on and his followers oppose the annexation of 

5. Since \ ; - - P^nuocatlc how do you explain the elec- 
tion of a Vviiw I . '' d V.uc.-^ . ii'itOL in 1851? 

6. How do you expiiun i '.toi.'. ^ tp ^^Hion to the "Jackson 

7. What are the causes which contnuai d ^o t:iO dt.. . v ;'• . 

8. Why did the Legislature fail to elect Missouri's second ' -r.*.'**! 
States senator in 1855? 

9. Explain the break up of the political parties from 1852 to 1857. 

10. Why were the Democrats able to elect their candidate, Sterl- 
ing Price, for governor in 1852? 

11. What was the effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill on the politi- 
cal parties? 

12. Why was Missouri so vitally interested in the Kansas Strug- 

13. Classify the four political parties in I860, stating what each 
party stood for. 

14. The result of the election of 1860 proved that Missouri wished 
to take what attitude on the slavery issue? 

Chapter III 


RULE, 1861-1870 

The ten years from 1861 to 1870 are the most important 
and significant in Missouri political history. The events which 
occurred in Missouri during this decade not only influenced 
American history and decided Missouri history of that day but 
their effects determined Missouri's political history for a third 
of a century afterward and shaped Missouri's taxation policy 
and even her constitution for nearly fifty years. Such an im- 
portant period deserves the clearest explanation and the most 
serious study. Important issues and decisive events followed 
each other quickly. Hardly was one question settled imtil a 
new problem arose and demanded attention. 

In the beginning of this period the problem was would 
Missouri srand for the North or the South? Would Missouri 
stand by the Union or secede? The majority of Missourians 
wanted peace and compromise and the Union preserved 
Then the Civil War opened. Missouri hoped to remain neu- 
tral, but she could not. Her State government elected in 1860 
sided with the South and was forced to flee from the State be- 
fore the Union army. A provisional government was established 
which stood for the Union. Missouri had finally decided this 
problem. Then came the issue of freeing the slaves in Mis- 
souri. The conservative Union men in Missouri wanted only 
gradual emancipation* They were opposed by the radical 
Union men who wanted immediate emancipation. These radi- 
cal Republicans, or Radicals as they were called, were in the 
minority but soon they grew stronger. In 1864 they took 
possession of the State government. They framed a new con- 
stitution in 1865, freed the slaves immediately, and disquali- 
fied from voting and holding office practically all Missourians 


148 History of Missouri and Missourians 

who opposed them. They kept control until 1870. As a result 
of their policy, a new party called the Liberal Republican was 
formed by many of the old Republicans and Union meo. 
Other Republicans and Union men combined with old Whigs 
and old Union Democrats and formed a new Democratic 
party. The new Democratic party could do little by itself but 
it did all it could to help the Liberal Republicans. Finally, in 
1870 the Liberal Republicans defeated the Radicals. 

The rule of the Radicals was so extreme and harsh and 
was so hated by the majority of Missourians that its memory 
did much eventually to place and keep in power the Demo^ 
cratic party for thirty years. Again the large war debt of Mis- 
souri and her railroad debt made taxes very high between 
1865 and 1870. This caused Missourians to place in their new 
constitution of 1875 restrictions on levying taxes and contract- 
ing debts. Since 1870 Missouri has feared high taxes and for 
years much of this fear was based on her experience during 
the decade from 1861 to 1870. 

Again, before considering this period in detail, it should 
be remembered that the elections of 1860 in Missouri showed 
that Missourians stood for compromise, conservatism, and 
peace, and did not approve either the radical proslavery or the 
radical antislavery party. During this period party names 
meant little or nothing. Issues meant everything. During this 
period the conservatives were victorious in the beginning. 
Then the prosouthem radicals had their way in making the 
old State government join the South. Three years later tfie 
antislavery radicals had their way in taking the control of the 
new provisional State government from the Union conserva- 
tives, in emancipating the slaves, and in disfranchising the ma- 
jority of the voters in Missouri. In short, the period began 
with the conservatives in power. Then the radicals, although 
always in the minority, obtained control, and in 1870 the con- 
servatives again returned. 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 149 

Missouri for Compromise and Conservatism 

The State election of 1860 showed that Missourians were 
for cfMnprotnise and conservatism. In reality both the new 
governor and the largest single faction of the Legislature were 
prosouthern. Governor Claiborne F. Jackson of Howard 
county, was a native of Kentucky, He was a successful 
merchant and soon went into poli-i 
tics where he achieved success in' 
both houses of the Legislature. He 
was one of the new Democrat lead- 
ers who had helped defeat Benton. 
Just before his inaugural address to 
the Legislature, South Carolina 
had seceded (Dec. 21, I860). In 
this address, he favored Missouri 
joining the South if the Union were 
dissolved and he recommended call- 
ing a State convention to consider 
the relation of Missouri to the 
Union. However, Governor Stew- 

__.,., „ jj ^ ^, CLAIBORNE F. JACKSON 

art in his farewell address at the 

same time urged Missouri to stand by ■ihe Union. What would 

Missouri do? 

The Legislature did not want to decide a problem so im- 
portant. Ii, accordingly, called a state-wide election of dele- 
gates to a State Convention to consider this question. The 
prosouthern leaders hoped the people would elect prosouthern 
delegates, the Union leaders wanted Union delegates. Both 
sides were active. The Missouri leader of the new Republi- 
can party was Frank P. Blair of St. Louis. He had been a 
I>emocrat and a follower of Benton. He did not oppose 
slavery but he did oppose slavery in the territories. Above all 
things he was an unconditional Union man. He was bom in 
Kentucky. On coming to St. Louis he practiced law but soon 


150 History of Missouri and Missourians 

drifted into politics. He was a remarkable man, one of the 
greatest Missouri has produced. His father had been an influ- 
ential politician in Washington, D. C, imder President Jack- 
son, and his brother became a member of President Lincoln's 
cabinet. Frank P. Blair now worked unceasingly to keep Mis^ 
souri in the Union. 

The vast maiority of Missourians wanted to see the 
Union preserved. (They hoped to see a compromise between 
the North and the South. Part of them including all the Re- 
publicans and a number of the northern Democrats and some 
old Whigs, were "unconditional Union men." They were de- 
termined that Missouri should remain in the Union at any 
cost. Blair was their leader. The larger part of the Union 
men, however, were "conditional Union men." They wanted 
the Union preserved but they would not agree to keeping Mis- 
souri in the Union at any cost. They said that Missouri might 
even join the South under certain causes, but they would not 
pledge Missouri to join the South even if compromise failed. 
In short, they were for the Union but not for it imder all cir- 
cumstances. These "conditional Union men" included the 
great mass of Missourians. Since they were for the Union, 
they worked with the "unconditional Union men" to that 
extent. Under Blair's leadership a Union ticket was put out. 
Opposing them was a small group which favored immediate 
secession. The election was held in February 1861. The 
Union ticket won by an overwhelming majority, j Missouri 
had again decided for compromise and conservatism and for 
the preservation of the Union. 

The State Convention for Compromise and Conserva- 
tism AT ITS First Meeting — March 1861 

Missouri never had a state convention which more accu- 
rately represented the wishes of her citizens on a great issue 
than did the first meeting of the State Convention of 1861. The 
people had elected their ablest leaders. The Convention met 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 1 51 

in Jefferson City and after electing Sterling Price president 
adjourned to St Louis. Price was undoubtedly the most 
popular man in Missouri. He had won honor in the Mexican 
War, had been trusted by Renton and anti-Benton men, and 
had made Missouri a good governor. He was a conservative, 
conditional Union man. A committee on resolutions was ap- 
pointed. Its chairman was Hamilton R. Gamble, of St. Louis, 
an able, conservative, conditional Union man. He was 
respected by all. Another leader of the conditional Union 
delegates was John B. Henderson, of Pike coimty. Certainly 
the Convention was tmder able leadership. 

The resolution committee presented several resolutions. 
The three important ones were : first, that at present there was 
no sufficient cause for Missouri to secede; second, that Mis- 
souri would support all attempts at compromise between the 
North and the South ; and third, that both the North and the 
South should avoid civil war. The Convention adopted these 
resolutions, which tmdoubtedly reflected the wishes of most 
Missouiians. The Convention also decided not to dissolve but 
merely to adjourn subject to call by a permanent committee, 
which it appointed. 

The Convention at this meeting was carefully feeling its 
way. Its resolutions spoke for the Union, compromise, and 
peace. It was, as were Missourians, a conditional Union body. 
It did not openly stand for the Union under all circumstances, 
but on the other hand, it did not stand for secession even if 
compromise failed. It was simply a conservative body want- 
ing peace and preservation of the Union. It would not even 
say what Missouri would do in case a compromise failed. 
Missouri herself did not know. The two minority parties 
knew what they wanted Missouri to do. The prosouthem men 
of the State government favored compromise but did not think 
it was possible. They believed war would come and then they 
wanted Missouri to secede and join the South. Governor 
Jackson and Lieutenant Governor Reynolds were their leaders. 

l^Z History of Missouri and Missourians 

The unconditional Undon men, largely Republicans, wanted 
Missouri to stand and fight for the Union if war came. Frank 
P. Blair was their leader. Events soon occurred which swept 
all Missourians, even the conditiqpal Unionists, into one cw the 
other of these two exposing sides. The real political struggle 
for Missouri was now at hand. 

The Spring of 1861 and the Capture of Camp Jackson 

The State convention adjourned, subject to future call, on 
March 22nd. The Legislature adjourned on the 28th. The 
southern sympathizers were much stronger in the Legislature 
than in the Convention. These southern leaders in the Legis- 
lature had tried to pass a bill reorganizing the State militia 
whereby the State could be better armed but in this they failed. 
The kind of delegates elected to the Convention showed that 
Missouri wanted peace, not war. An effort was also made in 
the Legislature to re-elect Senator James S. Green, an avowed 
secessionist. He had made a remarkably able senator but 
owing to his open sympathy for the Soutlh he was not elected. 
Waldo P. Johnson, of St. Clair county, was elected. Senator 
Johnson was a lawyer and a Democrat. He was r^;arded as a 
Union man and as being more conservative than Green. How- 
ever, during the war Green took no part except to warn his 
friends that the North would win. Johnson was expelled from 
the United States Senate in 1862 and foi^ht for the Confed- 

While the Legislature and the Convention were passing 
only conservative laws, hoping for compromise, and calling for 
peace and neutrality, another set of men were quietly and effi- 
ciently preparing to fight to keep Missouri in the Union. 
Tliese were the unconditional Union men — the American and 
German Republicans — in St. Louis. Their leader was Fraiik 
P. Blair. ' They not only voted in the day time but they drilled 
at night They not only elected Union delegates to the Con- 
vention but they organized military dubs to do battle later. 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 153 

They had no gtuis but no militia was harder trained. They 
called themselves the "Wide Awakes" which was a fitting 
name. Their general purpose was to prepare to fight for the 
Union and to keep Missouri in the Union. Their immediate 
purpose was to prevent the United States arsenal at St. Louis, 
with its 40,000 guns and stores of ammtmition, from, falling 
into the hands of the Missouri secessionists and the South. 
With Blair as their leader they drilled all winter. Soon a new 
man appeared who was a captain in the United States army. 
He and Blair worked together. They both had courage, they 
saw civil war coming, and they were prepared to fight for the 
Union. This man was Captain Nathaniel Lyon. 

Captain Lyon, or General Lyon as he was later called, was 
not a Missourian but was a native of Connecticut. In fact, he 
lived in our State only a few months. Still no other man so 
influenced our history in so short a time as did General Lyon. 
He was an army man and a graduate of West Point He op- 
posed slavery and hated secession. His one passion was for 
the Union. Their first work was to get possesion of the St 
Louis arsenal and crush any secession movement in Missouri. 

Opposing them in their purpose were the leading officials 
in the State government, especially Governor Jackson and 
Lieutenant Governor Reynolds. These latter were in favor of 
the South and they soon became the Missouri leaders in favor 
of secession. On April 13, 1861, Fort Sumter in South Caro- 
lina surrendered to the Confederates. The Civil War had be- 
gfun. President Lincoln called for 75,000 men. Missouri's 
quota was 4,000. The request for them was telegraphed to 
Governor Jackson. Three days later Governor Jackson 
refused to fiimish a man. Four days later the United States 
arsenal at Liberty, Missouri, with its 11,000 pounds of powder 
and 1,500 guns, was quietly captured by prosouthem men. 
Blair and Lyon determined to act. 

Early in 1861 Governor Jackson had planned to capture 
the St. Louis arsenal. Although Blair and Lyon prevented this 

154 History of Missouri and Missourians 

by themselves occupying it, a State military camp was estab- 
lished nearby by order of Governor Jackson. This was called 
Camp Jackson. Its soldiers were prosouthern men. Mttch of 
its arms had come from the South. General Lyon r^arded it 
as a secession camp. On May 10th, with 7,000 men, he sur- 
rounded it. There were only 700 men in it tmder General 
Frost when he surrendered. After being disarmed, they waited 
in line. Thousands of St. Louis citizens gathered to see 
Lyon's troops and the prisoners. Some jeered Lyon's men, 
others threw sticks and stones. The soldiers, many of whom 
were Germans, became excited. A few shots were fired, then 
a volley was fired. Some innocent spectators were killed, 
three of the prisoners, and one of the soldiers. The news flew 
over Missouri and grew larger and more terrible with each 
retelling. The St. Louis Germans were reported as robbing 
and killing everywhere and as being ready to march over 
Missouri. What was the result? It enabled Governor Jack- 
son to control the Legislature and to arm Missouri ; it caused 
Sterling Price to go with his State for the South; it gave 
strength to the secessionists in Missouri ; it swung htmdreds of 
men into the southern cause ; and it virtually marked the open- 
ing of civil war in Missouri with both sides determined to fight 
it out. 

The L^slature, which had been in special session since 
May 2nd, now immediately passed a military bill reorganizing 
the State Militia on a war basis. The bill was passed within 
thirty minutes after the Camp Jackson neWs was telegraphed 
to Jefferson City. A few days later it appropriated over two 
million dollars to prepare Missouri for defence. Neitfijcr of 
these measures could have been passed had there been no 
Camp Jackson affair. However, so angry and excited was 
the State that a formal act of secession might have been 
passed if ihe people had not referred this subject to the 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 155 

Both sides in Missouri now prepared for war. General 
Price offered his services to the Missouri State Government. 
He was appointed commander of the State troops. General 
Lyon and Blair were also busy. Each side was arming. Com- 
promise was attempted, but finally all peaceful effort failed. 
War in Missouri was openly accepted by both sides on June 
11, 1861. On that day three State officials met with three 
Union officials at the Planters Hotel in St. Louis. The two 
opposing leaders were Governor Jackson and General Lyon. 
Governor Jackson proposed to keep Missouri absolutely neu- 
tral, aiding neither the North nor the South, and repelling all 
attempts at invasion. He virtually proposed abandonment of 
secession and of aid to the South. In return he asked that the 
Federal Government disarm the Home Guards (Blair's "Wide 
Awakes") and not extend further its military control over 
Missouri. Lyon refused. He regarded Missouri as part of 
the United States and as subject to the authority of the United 
States. Where his Government was concerned he would not 
agree to or grant a single concession. Governor Jackson now 
wanted peace and neutrality for Missouri. In this he probably 
represented the majority of Missourians. General Lyon 
wanted no neutrality for Missouri. The National Government 
to him must be free to act. This meant war.\ The story of 
that W3X will be told under "A Century of Military Missouri." 

Governor Jackson and Secession 

Within twenty-four hours after the meeting at the Plan- 
ters Hotel, Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling for 
50,000 volunteers. He soon went to Boonville and then turned 
south. Battles were now being fought on Missouri soil be- 
tween the Missouri State troops imder General Price and the 
Union troops imder General Lyon. But Missouri and even her 
old State Government had not formally seceded. Governor 
Jackson issued a call for a special session of the Legislature to 
meet at Neosho, Mo., on October 21, 1861. Only a few mem- 

1^6 History of Missouri and Missourians 

bers met. They passed an act of secession declaring Missouri's 
withdrawal from the Union. The United States Government 
never regarded Missouri as out of the Union, but the Con- 
federacy accepted this secession act as legal. The secession 
legislature elected John B. Clark, Sr., and R. L. Y. Peyton to 
the Confederate Senate and eight men to the Confederate 
House, at Richmond, Virginia. Missouri was thereafter 
always represented in the Confederate Congress and some of 
these men later played a very important part in Missouri's 
political history. This legislature adjourned to Cassville and 
then disbanded. After this session, all Missourians who fought 
for the South were called Confederates, before this they had 
been called members or soldiers of the State Guard. 

Governor Jackson went south and died at Little Rock, 
Ark., on December 6, 1862. Lieutenant Governor Reynolds 
now became the Confederate governor of Missouri. He had 
no power, however, and made only appointments to the Con- 
federate Congress. The real power was in a new government 
that had been established by the Convention in July 1861. 

The Provisional Government of Missouri, 1861-1864 

The State Convention held its second session in Jefferson 
City beginning July 22, 1861. The members of the old Legis- 
lature had dispersed. Governor Jackson and his officials had 
fled south, and General Price was now at the head of the 
Missouri State Guards fighting the Union forces. The Con- 
vention immediately formed a new State government, called 
the Provisional Government. Only twenty delegates besides 
Price had left the Convention and it was now a strong but 
conservative Union body. It was determined to keep Missouri 
in the Union and to help preserve the Union. Just as the 
Camp Jackson affair and the Planters Hotel conference had 
welded together the prosouthem men so had these welded to- 
gether the Union men. Both realized that war was now inevit- 

Missouri Politics, 1861-187C 1 57 

abte and that one must take his stand for the Union or for the 
old State Government and the South. 

The Convention at this second meeting made Robert Wil- 
son, of Andrew county, president. It declared vacant the 
offices of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, 
and the seats of all members of the l^slature. On July 30th, 
it appointed men to fill the first three offices for one year and 
made provision for electing a legislature but later postponed 
the election. In fact, the Convention was a Union le^slature 
and the only legislature having power in Missouri until after 
the November election of 1862. 
Hamilton R. Gamble, of St. Louis, 
was appointed governor and Wil- 
lard P, Hall, of St. Joseph, lieuten- 
ant governor. Both men were 
finely fitted for these offices at 
this time. Governor Gamble was a 
native of Virginia. He was a 
lawyer and had practiced first in 
Howard county and later in St. 
Louis. He had served Missouri as 
secretary of state, as a legislator, 
and as a member of the Missouri 
Supreme Court. He had been a — 

,,., . , ...,,,. HAMILTON R. GAMBLE 

Whig, then a conditional Umon 

man, and was now a conservative but determined Union 
man. He was religious, honest, and able. He commanded 
the respect of all conservatives and even most radicals. 
Willard P. Hall was a native of Virginia, He was a lawyer 
of high ability. He was a man of education, being a gradu- 
ate of Yale. He had served Missouri in the Mexican War 
and in Congress. He was a strong but conservative Union 
man. On the death of Governor Gamble in January 1864, 
he becam? governor and served one year. The Missouri 

1^8 History op Missouri and Missourians 

conservatives now had a Union 
government, moderate and wisely 
guided. The Convention also de- 
clared void the new militia law of 
the old legislature. 

The provisional govenmient had 
the support of all consfervatives. 
It had at first three great prob- 
lems to solve. It needed money 
but taxes could not be secured 
because the State was in confusion 
and war. It solved this by issuing 
and selling bonds. Agiun, some of 
the civil officers were not loyal sup- 
porters of ihe new government. It solved this when the Con- 
vention held its third meeting, in October 1861. At this meet- 
ing an ordmance was passed. requiring all officers to take an 
oath of loyalty to both the United States government and the 
Missouri provisional government. Those officers who refused 
to take this oath were ousted and their places were filled with 
loyal men. This ordinance also provided that any person tak- 
ing this oath before December 17, 1861, would be ejtempt 
from arrest for offenses previously committed against the 
provisional government. Many took this oath of loyalty. 
Finally, It was difficult to enforce the laws of the State, keep 
the courts open, and give her citizens a fair Jury trial. Mis- 
souri was now imder martial law, laid down and enforced by 
military officers. This problem was never fully solved until 
peace was declared in 1865. 

Soon another problem arose. Missouri's two United 
States senators, Trusten Polk and Waldo P. Johnson, had goqe 
with the South and both were expelled from the United States 
Senate on charges of disloyalty on January 10, 1862. In the 
absence of Governor Gamble, two new senators were ^pointed 
by Lieutenant Governor Hall, until the Legislature could fill 

Missouia Politics, 1861-1870 159 

the vacancies. But Missouri now had no legislature and no 
date had been set for electing one. The Convention had post- 
poned such an election fearing a new legislature might over- 
turn much which had been done to keep Missouri strongly 
supporting the Union. Not all Missourians were loyal to the 
new government, and the Convention was not taking chances. 
However, it was becoming clear that an election must be held 
at least to elect a legislature and congressmen. The people had 
supported the Convention even though many of its acts oould 
be excused only on the basis of necessity but would the people 
continue to support it on that basis in the future? It had been 
electted in February 1861 to consider the relations of Missouri 
to the Union. Since July 1861 it had created the executive 
department of a new govenmient and had itself really become 
the legislative department without restriction on its power. 
In exercise of powers it was a convention, l^slature and 
government combined. A State election of some kind was 
becoming important. Moreover, a new issue, was quickly ris- 
ing. This was the question of emancipation, or freeing the 

The Convention met a fourth time on call of Governor 
Gamble, June 2, 1862. It provided for a general election in 
November, 1862, of congressmen and members of the legisla- 
ture. A test oath was required of all voters. This was the 
first real voter's test oath in Missouri and, although strict, it 
was mild compared to a later one. It required all voters to 
swear allegiance to the United Sttettes Government and not to 
give aid to its enemies or to those of the provisional govern- 
ment. It further required each voter to swear that he had not 
taken up arms against either of these two governments since 
December 17, 1861. (The date of the first oath of allegiance.) 
This oath was also required of all elective and appointive civil 
officers, jurymen, attorneys, preachers, and teachers. The 
Convention thereby disqualified all voters who had not been 
loyal Union men since December 17, 1861. Only loyal Union 

i6q History of Missouri and Missoujoans 

men could now hold office, vote, serve on juries, practice Ib.^w, 
preach, or ttach. Missouri was rapidly being wdded into a 
strong Union state with her government in the control of 
Union men, but these men were still moderate and conserva- 
tive compared to those .who came later. The Convention did 
not include the state offices in the November 1862 election. 
Instead, it decided that Governor Gamble and Lieutenant 
Governor Hall should hold office for a full four year term, i. 
e., until the 1864 election. At this meeting of the Convention 
the new issue of emancipation first rose to prominence. An 
ordinance providing for gradual emancipation was presented 
but was voted down by the Convention by a large majority. It 
was this issue of emandpation, however, that k^t growing 
stronger and stronger- until it forced the conservative Union 
men in Missouri to compromise and finally forced them out O'f 
power and replaced them with the radicals. In short, it was 
the question of emancipation which gave rise to two new 
parties in Missouri, the conservatives and the radicals. The 
question is so important and its history is so significant that it 
will be considered tmder a separate heading in this chapter. 

The main issue in the November 1862 election in Missouri 
was emancipation. A large ixiajority of the members elected to 
the Legislature favored some kind of emancipation. They 
were divided on the kind, whether immediate or gradual. 
However, they could do nothing, since the Missouri constitu- 
tion of 1820 prohibited the Legislature from emancipating the 
slaves without giving compensation to or obtaining the consent 
of their owners. Missouri at this time had no funds available 
for this purpose even had the memb^srs agreed on the method. 
So the Legislature decided to leave this issue to the old Con- 
vention of 1861. 

The L^slature then proceeded to elect John B. Hender- 
son, of Pike county (now of St. Louis), and B. Gratz Brown, 
of St. Louis, to the United States Senate. Senator Henderson 
was one of two men who had been appointed to the United 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 l6i 

States Senate by Lieut. Gov. Hall in 1862, the other was Rob- 
ert Wilson of Andrew county. Senator Wilson was a native 
of Virginia. He served Missouri as a soldier, State senator, 
and United States senator. He had been a Whig and was now 
a Union man. He was a lawyer. Senator Henderson was a 
native of Virginia. He had been a Democrat, then a con- 
ditional Union man, but was now one of the strong conserative 
Union men in the Convention. He was a very able lawyer. In 
Congress he served with marked success and was the author of 
the 13th amendment to the United States Constitution freeing 
the slaves. B. Gratz Brown was bom in Kentucky. He was a 
cousin of Frank P. Blair and of General Joseph Shelby, the 
famous Missouri Confederate cavalry leader. Both Blair and 
Brown became unconditional Union men but were now 
classed as conservatives on the question of emancipation. 
Brown later became one of the leaders of the Liberal Republi- 
can movement in Missouri after the Civil War. He was a 
journalist and an able one. This Legislature held a second 
session in November 1863 and on February 13, 1864, passed 
an act providing for the people to vote in November 1864 on 
the question of holding a constitutional convention. The peo- 
ple in that election approved the proposition. 

On January 31, 1864, Governor Gamble died. He had 
wrecked his health trying to give Missouri a moderate govern- 
ment in time of war. He had done all he could to keep the 
radicals from getting control because he feared what their rule 
would be in Missouri. He was truly a noble character. On 
his death Governor Hall became acting jgovemor and served 
tmtil after the election in 1864. He was the last of the old, 
conservative provisional government of Missouri. 

Emancipation, 1863-1865 

Although Missouri was a slave state with 115,000 slaves 
in 1860, there had always been some sentiment against slavery. 
Moreover, Missouri's slaves were not increasing so fast as her 

1 62 History of Missouri and Missourians 

white population. This had been true since 1830, when Mis- 
souri's slaves had been 21% as large in number as her white 
population, while in 1860 they were only 11% as large. Over 
two-thirds of these slaves were in a very few counties along 
the Missouri and the Mississippi river and the rest o»f the 
slaves were so sparsely scattered as to have little influence on 
a big political issue. Again, slavery was not adapted to Mis- 
souri agriculture. Slaves are profitable only on big planta- 
tions. But Missouri never adopted the plantation system. 
The only two Missouri crops in which slaves could very 
profitably be used were tobacco and hemp,- and only certain 
sections of Missouri were adapted to these crops. Finally, 
Missouri's population was changing. Her northern and her 
Grerman settlers of the '50s were not proslavery men. Usually 
they were against slavery. Even many southern bom Missou- 
rians did not approve oi slavery but owing to its existence 
here they kept quiet. 

After the war opened slavery in Missouri practically came 
to an end. It was now an easy matter for a slave to run away 
into a free state or escape to the Unioo army. The demand 


for emancipation grew and conditions were such as to present 
little opposrition. When General Fremont came to Missouri in 
1861 to command the Federal army, he issued a proclamaition 
freeing the slaves of all owners in arms against the United 
States. This immediately aroused the people. It was prema- 
ture. President Lincoln at once disapproved it and soon Fre- 
mont was removed from Missouri. President Lincoln wanted 
to keep the loyalty of the border states like Kentucky and Misr- 
souri. He realized that emancipation might become an issue. 
During the winter of 1861 and 1862 he advocated paying the 
owners for their slaves in these border states and a bill nearly 
passed both houses of Congress in December 1862 providing 
for this in Missouri. If it had passed, Missouri would very 
likely have supported it. 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 1 63 

Although the question of emancipation had been voted 
down in the State Convention in June 1862, the Legislature 
elected in November 1862 was in favor of emancipation. But 
it refused to consider the issue owing to the 1820 constitutional 
provisions. The Legislature left this to the State Convention. 
In the meantime President Lincoln had issued his preliminary 
Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862, and his final 
one on January 1, 1863. These did not free the slaves in the 
border states but they did much to aid emancipation sentiment 
there. The leaders in the State Convention and also Governor 
Gamble were in favor of gradual emancipation. They feared 
the effect on public opinion and on the public safety of imme- 
diate emancipation. They realized, however, that a determined 
group of radicals, who were loyal Union men, were going to 
work hard for the immediate destruction of slavery. To pre- 
vent the radicals from doing this, the State Convention was 
convened for the fifth and last time in June 1863. It adopted 
a resolution of gradual emancipation freeing all slaves after 
July 4, 1870. Instead of appeasing the radicals this action only 
aroused them to greater activity. They not only opposed this 
resolution and the longer existence of slavery but they now 
opposed Governor Gamble's government. They held a Radi- 
cal political convention in Jefferson City where they adopted 
resolutions requesting Governor Gamble to resign. They ap- 
proved the vigorous prosecution of the v/ar by the United 
States government and President Lincoln's emancipation 
proclamation. They recommended that negro troops be em- 
ployed, and requested the State Legislature to call a constitu- 
tional convention to free the slaves at once. They sent a dele- 
gation to confer with President Lincoln or rather to criticise 
the way the war was being conducted in Missouri. President 
Lincoln refused to interfere further with slavery although he 
sympathized with them. 

The fight was now on between the conservatives and the 
radicals. The names Democrat and Republican meant nothing 

164 History of Missouri and Missourians 

now. All who could vote were for the Union and against 
slaver)'. In the general electicm of 1864 the Radical Republi- 
cans, or Radicals as they were called, were victorious. They 
elected the governor and a majority of the Legislature, At the 
same time the pef)pie voted to hold a constitutional convention. 
The end of the conservative Union provisional government 
of Missouri had come. Missouri was now to have six years 
of Radical Rule. 

The Constitutional Convention of 1865 And Rule of the 
Radicals, 1864-1870 

rhe November 1864 election gave the Radicals control of 
the Missouri Legislature and of the Executive Department, 
and authorized the election of delegates to a new constitutional 
convention. To complete their control of Missouri, the Radi- 
cals needc'i only to elect Radical delegates and get possession 
of the State Judiciary, i. e., the Su- 
preme and circuit courts. They 
soon accomplished these latter two 
and as a result remained in power 
until 1870. The new governor was 
Thomas C. Fletcher, the first na- 
tive Missourian to hold this office. 
He was born in Jefferson county, 
Missouri, had received a common 
school education, and was a lawyer. 
He had long opposed slavery, had 
early become a Republican, and had 
served in the Union array. He was 
re-elected governor in 1866 and 
served until 1868. He was Missou- 
ri's first Republican governor. Governor Fletcher was a 
Radical and carried out the will of the Radicals. 

The Civil War had practically ended In Missouri but the 
State was not at f>eace. The law was not enforced in many 


Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 165 

parts of the State and in other parts its method of enforce- 
ment did not give justice. Taxes were high and kept increas- 
ing. Missouri had a large railroad and a large war debt to 
pay. Bandits were still present in some coimties. Soldiers 
from both Northern and Southern armies were returning after 
the war. Everything was unsettled, people were discontented 
and discouraged, the Southern states were imdergoing the 
pains and sufferings of reconstruction, and radical men were 
in control of the National government and the State govern- 
ment. Many men in the North although not a majority 
hated and distrusted the men of the South. Some feared that 
the South would resort to arms as soon as possible. Others 
wanted to take revenge on the beaten foe for the sufferings 
and cost caused during the war. When war comes to a country 
there usually is first great enthusiasm. As it progresses, this 
gives place to waves of depression in defeat and of elation in 
victory. Later comes stem determination. When the war 
ends the victors are usually filled with joy and the defeated are 
humble in sorrow. Then comes the real test. Will the victors 
deal generously or severely with the foe? It takes gteat 
courage to deal generously for it demands that faith and trust 
be placed in those against whom the war was waged, the 
enemy. Most countries have failed in this great test and bit- 
terness and hatred grow instead of faith, hope, and lasting 
peace. Perhaps the finest example of a nation meeting this 
test successfully w^s the United States after having defeated 
Spain. To-day there are no hard feelings between victorious 
America and defeated Spain. Our country had faith and trust. 
The Radicals in Missouri in 1865, although some were 
men of high ability, did not have faith in their fellow citizens. 
They were possibly honest in their convictions in the beginning 
but they were wrong in many of their methods. Finally, con- 
victions gave place to policy and government positions. The 
radical emancipationist and radical loyalist became the radical 

1 66 History of Missouri and Missourians 

politician, his leaders left him, and his fellow citizens finally 
overthrew him. 

The delegates elected to the new constitutional conventicm 
met in St. Louis on January 6, 1865. It was controlled by the 
Radicals who elected Arnold Krekel, of St. Charles, president, 
and Charles D. Drake, of St. Louis, vice-president. Drake 
was the leading power in this convention. He was a native of 
Ohio. He had served as a cadet in the United States navy and 
later had practiced law in Ohio, Illinois, and St. Louis. He 
was a very able lawyer and legal author. He had served in 
the old State Convention from 1861 to 1863 ; was the leader in 
the constitutional convention of 1865; was elected Missouri's 
United States senator in 1867; and became chief justice of the 
United States Court of Claims in 1870. The constitution 
framed by the convention was correctly called the "Drake 
Constitution." On January 11,1865, just five days after con- 
vening, the convention by a vote of 60 to 4, immediately abol- 
ished slaveiy in Missouri. Governor Fletcher issued a procla- 
mation to that effect on the day following. The emancipation 
ordinance was never submitted to the peple, the convention 
having voted against such submission. Thus Missouri emanci- 
pated her (iwn slaves eleven months before the Thirteenth 
Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted. 

Having settled the slavery question the convention then 
framed a new constitution for Missouri. This constitution was 
both good and bad. It was good in being more modem and 
progressive in some respects than the old one. It dealt with 
corporations, which were then coming into prominence in 
Missouri's economic life. It contained improved provisions on 
education. Of doubtful value was the changing of the 
governor's tenn from four to two years. But its good 
character was nullified by its bad features. These features 
related to voting, office holding, preaching, teaching, and 
practicing law. They all came under a new test oath which 
was well called "The Ironclad Oath." By tliis oath an at- 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 167 

tempt was made to exclude from voting, office, or public 
influence all except the old unconditional Union men. It 
provided that no man could vote or hold office unless he 
took an oath that he had never by word or deed given aid or 
S3rmpathy to the South or to those fighting against the United 
States Government. This oath was also required of all 
lawyers, teachers, and ministers, before they could practice 
their professions. An oath of loyalty and allegiance was 
proper but not an ex post facto law applying to the past, 
present, and future. Many who at first in 1861 had sided 
with the old State Government against the National Govern- 
ment had later, after December 17, 1861, supported the pro- 
visional government. This oath included them the same as 
the fighting Confederates. Besides, the war was over. Mis- 
souri needed a spirit of good will, not test oaths. There 
were further severe penalties attached to violation of this 
oath or to falsely taking the oath. Fines and even imprison- 
ment were set forth. These were like the cracker on a whip 
and stung the pride of a majority of Missourians. This oath 
ruined an otherwise good constitution, helped defeat the radi- 
cal party in charge of the government, and was repealed by 
the Missouri voters in November 1870. About all it accomp- 
lished was to breed ill will in Missouri, disfranchise a ma- 
jority of Missourians, and help keep the Radicals in power 
until 1870. Its effects, however, were greater. It split the 
old Union party and gave rise to the Liberal Republicans. 
It gave strength through adversity to the new Democratic 
party and its memory helped keep this new party in power 
for years. 

The new constitution was adopted by the convention on 
April 10, 1865, by a vote of 38 to 13. Although this vote 
showed a large majority for the constitution, it also revealed 
a number of delegates who opposed it. In fact, many of the 
Radicals did not approve the "Ironclad Oath". The conven- 
tion decided to submit the constitution to a vote of the peo- 

1 68 History of Missouri and Missourians 

pie on June 6th but the Radicals made certain that it would 
be adopted and go into force by providing two things. First, 
only those could vote on the constitution who took the "Iron- 
clad Oath". Second, the convention by ordinance threw out 
of office ?11 judges and most of the county officers. The 
governor was given power to fill these vacancies by appoint- 
ment until a general election was held. This was called the 
"Ousting Ordinance". It was not submitted to the people. 
This "Ousting Ordinance" had been adopted March 17th. 
Its purpose was clear, The Radicals thereby obtained con- 
trol of the local offices in the coimty and of the State Judi- 
ciary from the circuit judges to the Supreme Court judges. 


There was now no chance of the State Supreme Court de- 
claring null and void any of the provisions of the new con- 
stitution including the "Ironclad Oath", the "Emancipation 
Ordinance", the "Ousting Ordinance", or the future acts of 
the Radicals. The Radicals by the election of 1864, the 
constitution of 1865, and the ^'Ousting Ordinance", obtained 
complete control of the government machinery in Missouri. 
Despite all of these precautions, the new constitution was 
adopted by the people by a majority of less than 2,000 votes. 
Although the campaign for and against the constitution had 
been very bitter, thereby indicating that a large vote would 
be cast, still so strict was the "Ironclad Oath" that only 60% 
as many votes were cast as had been cast m November 1864. 
This meant that 40% of the Union voters of November 1864 
had either stayed at home through fear or disgust or they 
could not honestly take the "oath". There is little wonder 
that opposition against the Radicals grew fast. Besides, the 
Radicals had just begun to rule. They had other plans which 
were soon to become laws. 

The Radical Legislature, elected in November 1864, met 
again in November 1865. The constitution of 1865 was now 
in force. It contained a provision, not mentioned before, 
which gave the Legislature authority to enact a system of 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 1 69 

registering by districts the names of all qtialified voters. 
This registry provision contained even more power than the 
"Ironclad Oath" and, eventually, caused even more oppo-^ 
sition. The Legislature proceeded to exercise this power. It 
passed the "Registry Act" of 1866. The State was divided 
into small districts. Over each district was placed a super- 
intendent of registration elected by the people. These super- 
intendents registered the names of the qualified voters. Only 
such persons could vote. If the superintendent refused to 
register a person, that person could not vote. This new 
officer was the sole judge of voters. He had unlimted 
power. The State courts and the State government supported 
him. The bad part of the law was the way in which it was 
enforced. Radical superintendents, and they constituted the 
majority, registered only Radical voters. Other persons now 
had no voice in their government. The Radicals, although 
constituting only a minority of the people, ruled the State. 
But the "Registry Act" of 1866 and the other measures 
mentioned did one good thing. It forced the opposition to 
organize and co-operate. A new Democratic party appeared. 
Its leaders were such old Union Democrats as Lewis Bog>' 
'and John S. Phelps, both of whom later became governors. 
They did not have much material to work with since many 
of the old Union Democrats could not vote or were denied 
the vote and, of course, under the "Ironclad Oath" all of the 
old Southern Democrats were without the vote. A more im- 
portant party at this time was the new Conservative Union 
party. Its leader was the great Union Republican of 1860, 
Frank P. Blair. Its followers were largely conservative 
Republicans, who did not approve the new radical laws and 
methods. Separated, these two new parties could do noth- 
ing, so the Democrats agreed to support the Conservative 
Unionists in the 1866 election. They were easily defeated, 
however, by the Radicals, who won everything. After this 
defeat the Conservative Union party ceased to exist. How- 

I70 History of Missouri and Missourians 

ever, it bad served two important purposes, in arousii^ the 
opponents of the Radicals and in strengthening the new 
Democratic party. 

The Radicals now saw another weakness in the lanr 
which might prove their defeat. The "Registry Act" of 1866 
made the superintendents of registry elected by the people. 
In some districts Democrats and in other districts Conserva- 
tive Union men had been elected. This was not good for 
the cause of the Radicals, so in 1868 a second "Re^stry 
Act" was adopted. This act made the superintendents 
appointive by the governor. The governor was a Radical. 
There was now no weakness in the Radical machinery. Their 
real weakness was to be in public opinion, which finally 

The Democrats had now become well organized. Even 
in 1867 they had elected a Congressman to fill an unexpired 
term. In the same year the United States Supreme Court 
declared the "Ironclad Oath" as a qualification for practicing 
professions, unconstitutional, but as a voting qualification it 
was still legal. Frank P. Blair and most of the old Conser- 
native Unionists and many of the 
old Whigs now became Democrats* 
Despite the additions to the Demo- 
cratic ranks, the Radicals again 
won in 1868, electing the gover- 
nor, six of the nine congressmen, 
and carrying Missouri for Grant. 
The main cause of their victory 
was the "Registry Act" of 1868 
as it was enforced. Governor Mc- 
Clurg was the second native Mis- 
sourian to become Missouri's chief 
executive. He was bom in St. 
Louis county. He had taught 
JOSEPH w. McCLURG school, practiced law, and then be- 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 1^71 

came a merchant after moving to Camden county. He was an 
unconditional Union man in 1860. He was the first governor 
to advocate prohibition by law. There was one surprise 
in this election. An amendment to the Missouri constitu- 
tion was defeated which would have given the negro the 
right to vote. It was bady defeated, showing that many 
Radicals as well as all Democrats opposed it. Before Mis- 
souri could take up this question again, however, the Fifteenth 
amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted, 
thereby settling it. The 1868 election marks the high-tide of 
power of the Radicals. Their downfall was due to a split 
within their own ranks. 

Many of the Radicals were now becoming insurgent. 
They disapproved of the Radical policies and methods. The 
foremost leader of the insurgents was a prominent Republi- 
can editor who came to Missouri in 1867. He was Carl 
Schurz, a man of German birth. Through his editorship of 
the Westliche Post, a St. Louis German newspaper, and his 
wide influence over the Germans in Missouri, he wielded 
great political power. In 1869 he was elected to the United 
States Senate. In 1870 he was chairman of the committee 
on resolutions in the Republican State Convention. His report 
advocated the removal of all political disabilities, i. e., the 
"Ironclad Oath", and the adoption by the people of the 
amendment proposed by the late Legislature granting to all 
classes the right to vote. A minority report of this com- 
mittee was made. This report opposed immediate removal 
of the political disabilities. The minority report was adopted. 
Schurz and 249 delegates, or about one-third of the total 
number, withdrew from the convention. These insurgents 
met, organized, and nominated a full ticket called the Liberal 
Republican ticket. B. Gratz Brown was their candidate for 
governor. He was a native of Kentucky and a cousin of 
Frank P. Blair and General Joseph Shelby. He was a 
lawyer. During the 'SOs he had been one of the Benton 

172 History of Missouri and Missourians 

leaders and had been an anti-slavery extension man. He had 
opposed secession and early became a Republican. He had 
served in the Union army and from 1863 to 1867 he had 
been one of Missouri's United States senators. 

The Democrats did not put out a ticket. They supported 
the Liberal Republicans, who swept the State by a 
majority of 41,000. Brown was elected governor. The 
Democrats elected five congressmen, the Liberals two, and 
the Radicals three. The Democrats and the Liberals also 
elected the Legislature. However, the most important result 
of the election was the adoption by the people of six con- 
stitutional amendments removing the political disqualifica- 


tions on voting. The "Ironi:lad Oath" was repealed by a 
vote of 127,000 to 16,000. The power behind the Radicals 
had been taken away. The Liberal Republican movement 
spread over the Nation and national organization was per- 
fected in 1872. It advocated lower tariffs and civil service 
reform. It soon died and the Republican and Democratic 
parties alone remained as the two great parties. In Missouri, 
the Liberal Republicans and the Democrats again worked 
together successfully in the election of 1872. The great 
work of the Liberal Republicans was in the two elections of 
1870 and 1872. 

So ended the rule of the Radicals in Missouri. They 
had had strong leaders and they had exercised almost un- 
limited power since 1864. They ruined a good constitution 
with an "Ironclad Oath", which deprived the majority of 
Missourians from voting and holding office and many men 
from teaching, preaching and practicing law. They put a 
blot on a constitutional convention authorized by Missourians 
by ousting the legally elected judges of the States. They 
stigmatized themselves by "Registry Acts" which violated the 
sympathy and the sense of justice of most citizens and which 
drove from their own ranks the ablest and most influential 
leaders. Their rule left memories which lived half a century 

Missouri Politics, 1861-1870 1 73 

both to the detriment of themselves, their party, and their 
State. Still, Missouri actually prospered, grew in wealth, 
and increased in population during the rule of the Radicals. 
Taxes were high, but the schools flourished as never before 
considering the lack of education during four years of war. 
The first State appropriation was made for the support of 
the University of Missouri. The agriculture department of 
the university and the school of mines were established. A 
board of statistics was created. The state normal schools at 
Kirksville and Warrensburg, and Lincoln institute at Jeffer- 
son City, were founded. A state insurance department was 
created. A separate State superintendent of public schools 
was established. Progress was made in paying off the great 
railroad debts of the 'SOs and the war debt of the '60s. New 
settlers, mostly from northern states, poured in and helped 
develop Missouri's resources. In short, Missouri was pros- 
perous, growing, and advancing rapidly. These things all 
took place under the rule of the Radicals. The bad things — 
the "Ironclad Oath," the "Ousting Ordinance," and the 
^'Registry Acts," — are remembered and they should serve as 
warnings to future generations. The good things — emancipa- 
tion of the slaves, rapid payment of the debt, increase in 
wealth, growth in population, and advancement of educa- 
tion — ^are also remembered and fliey should serve as guides. 
The reason for the failure of the Radicals was this: they 
could not forgive a fallen foe and trust their fellow-citizens. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. State the difference between the Liberal Republicans and the 
Radical Republicans. 

2. Hy whom was the new Democratic party formed? 

3. How does the election of 1860 prove that Missouri stood for 
compromise and conservatism? 

4. What was the issue for calling a State Convention in 1861? 

5. Give the three important resolutions which were adopted by 
the Convention? 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

6. In what way did the Convention reflect the public opinion of 

7. What preparation to keep Missouri in the Union was made by 
the Unconditional Union men under Blair? 

8. What was the effect in Missouri of the capture of Camp Jack- 

9. What were the events which led to the establishment of a pro- 
visional govfernment in Missouri? 

10. Show how the people were divided in the election of 1862 on 
the issue of emancipation. 

11. Why do you think that slaves were not so profitable in Mis- 
souri as in some of the southern states? 

12. Why did President Lincoln disapprove General Fremont's 
emancipation proclamation? 

13. Explain the Ironclad Oath; the Ousting Ordinance; and the 
Registry Acts. 

14. Discuss the progress of public welfare during the Rule of the 

15. Discuss the insurgent movement in the Radical party which 
gave rise to the Liberal Republican party. 

Chapter IV 


The Three Features of This Period 

The period of Missouri politics from 1870 to 1904 had 
three important features. If these features are remembered 
it will not be difficult to understand these thirty-four years. In 
the first place this period marked the growing power of the 
individual voter. The voter rather than the politician or the 
statesman said plainly what he wanted. The growing 
political power of the voters, or the people, made itself felt 
in several ways. It was reflected in the rise of third parties, 
that is, new parties other than the Democratic or Republican 
parties. Including the Liberal Republican party, not less 
than four "third" parties came into existence during this 
period. These four new parties were the Liberal Republi- 
can party of 1870 and 1872, the Grange (a Farmers' party) 
or People's party of 1874, the Greenback party of 1880, and 
the Populist party of 1892. There was also a Prohibition 
party but it never became strong. Each of the four new 
parties had a considerable following. Of course, the follow- 
ers of these new parties had once been followers of one of 
the old parties. These followers were simply attempting to 
exercise their political power as voters to obtain something 
they wanted from or through the government. The growing 
political power of the voters was also reflected in the fusing 
or absorbing of these four parties with one or the other of 
the two old parties or in the latter changing their policies so 
as to attract the new party. For example, the Democratic 
part}' absorbed many of the Liberal Republicans in 1872; 
the Republican party and the Grangers voted together in 
1874; the Democratic paity absorbed many of the Green- 


176 History of Missouri and Missourians 

backers after 1880; and the Democratic party absorbed the 
Populists in 1896. In each case the old party had to give 
something, that is, make a concession. In several cases the 
old party simply adopted the principle of the new party and 
the latter went to pieces. However the point to remember is 
that some of the voters broke away from their old party^ 
organized a new one, and were usually induced to come back 
by concessions. In case only of the Liberal Republican was 
a new party successful on election day, but one new party 
was successful in 1896 in strongly influencing the Demo^ 
cratic party. Finally, the growing power of the voters was 
seen in the position taken by the people as compared to the 
position taken by their party leaders. The party leaders now 
followed or interpreted the people's wishes instead of the 
people following or interpreting the leaders actions. The 
old Democracy of Jackson and Benton, and the old Republi- 
canism of Lincoln, were passing. These three men, and 
there were others, had told the people what the people and 
the government should do. The people now told their party 
what was the problem and expected their leaders to solve it. 
In short, the people, or the voters, were now inclined to dic- 
tate and direct, while the leaders were kept busy trying to 
interpret the people's wishes and solve, or attempt to solve^ 
their problems. It should not be understood that the voter 
was supreme and the political leader was a mere servant. 
The party machinery, which was controlled by the leaders, 
was still powerful in both parties. Again, the ties of party 
loyalty were strong with the majority of the voters in both 
parties. The memory of the rule of the Radicals in the 
sixties and the achievement of the Confederates helped to 
keep alive the political allegiance of Democrats, and the 
victory of the Northern armies under a Republican president 
and the gratitude of the negro population aided in cementing 
the ties of loyalty to the Republican party. Party loyalty 
was still the rule but both inside and outside of the two 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 1 77 

parties was the growing power of the voter in directing the 

The second feature of this period from 1870 to 1904 is 
the growing inclination of the people to ask and expect the 
government to solve their problems. They not only demanded 
that the government increase its field of service in aiding 
education, taking care of the insane, and providing for the 
health and safety of the citizens, but the people wanted it to 
aid them in solving their economic problems. For example, 
when in the latter seventies money was high, prices declining, 
and debts becoming difficult to pay, the people wanted the 
government to issue more money. Some wanted "green- 
backs" or paper money printed by the government and others 
wanted more silver money coined. Again, when similar con- 
ditions came in the nineties, the people demanded more 
money. Since this was a matter for the national government 
to decide, it resulted in national politics greatly influencing 
state politics. However, the people did demand that the state 
government solve economic problems as the regulation of 
railroad rates, lowering of taxes, and greater economy in 
government. Strangely enough although the people wanted 
their government to do more things and regulate more things, 
they gave Ihe government less power to do things. The con- 
stitution of 1875 contained more restrictions on the govern- 
ment than either the one of 1820 or the one of 1865. Dur- 
ing this period the character of most legislation was restrictive 
and regulative. The former was due to the experiences of 
the fifties and sixties when both the State and the counties 
went deeply in debt, which caused high taxes. The regulative 
legislation was due to the growth of corporations against 
which the individual unaided could not compete. 

The third feature of this period is the dominance of the 
Democratic party and the growing strength of the Republi- 
can party. The Liberal Republican and Democratic parties 
were successful in 1870 and 1872. From 1872 to 1900 the 

178 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Democrats carried the State at all elections except the one in 
1894, which was not a general four-year election. However, 
the Republicans were increasing in strength due to the immi- 
gration from Republican states as Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio, 
where land was higher than in Missouri, and to the emigra- 
tion of many Missouri Democrats to Texas, Oklahoma, Mon- 
tana, and the West, where land was cheaper than in Mis- 
souri. The following table of votes for governor makes 
clear .the relative strength of the two parties during these 
years : 

Vote Cast for Governor in Missouri, 1870-1921 

(All figures represent thousands except in the percent columns. In the "Third" 
parties column the figures represent the total of all "Third" parties, the 
party whose name is in parenthesis cast the largest vote of this total.) 



% Incr. 






% Plural- 
ity to To- 
tal Vote 
































































































































'Democrats and Liberal Republicans. 
""Repub. and Grangers (People's Party) 


From this table it is seen that from 1870 to 1900 inclu- 
sive there were held ten elections for governor. The first 

Missouri Politics, 187Q-1904 1 79 

five elections were from 1870 to 1880 inclusive and the 
Democratic, including the Liberal Republican, candidate re- 
ceived both a majority and a plurality of the votes. The per 
cent of this plurality vote to the total vote cast was large, 
varying from thirteen to twenty-five percent. The last five 
elections were from 1884 to 1900 inclusive and in only two, 
1896 and 1900, did the Democratic candidate receive a 
worthwhile majority and in all five the percent of his plu- 
rality vote to the total vote cast was small, varying from two 
and one-half to six and one-half percent. The reason for 
this relative decline in the plurality of the Democrats after 
1880 was due to the increase in the Republican vote. This 
increase in turn was due in part to the fact that the Demo- 
cratic parly after 1880 ceased to reward the old Union 
Democrats and Whigs and turned more and more to the old 
Confederate Democrats and new Democratic leaders. From 
1870 to 1880 the successful candidate for governor either 
Democrat or Liberal Republican had a Union war record or 
had not opposed the Union. Three of the five governors 
had served in the Union army. These naturally obtained the 
votes of many Union soldiers. When in 1884 the Demo- 
cratic party candidate was a Confederate general, many of 
the Union soldiers who either had supported the Democratic 
Union candidate in 1880 or had not voted, now voted the 
Republican ticket. They were reinforced by the new Repub- 
lican settlers from Iowa, Illinois, and Ohio. In short, the 
strength of the Democrats between 1870 and 1880 lay in 
their fusion with the Liberal Republicans and in their Union 
Democratic candidates. After 1880 the strength of the Re- 
publican lay in immigrants from Republican states and in the 
Union soldier voters. 

l8|o History of Missouri and Missourians 

Fusion of the Liberal Republicans and Deuocbats, 

The victory of the Liberal Republicans who were sup- 
ported by the Democrats gave Missouri a strong man for 
governor in 1870. B. Gratz Brown was a man of courage, 
conviction, fairness, and education. He was a native of 
Kentucky and was a cousin of Frank P. Blair and Joseph 
Shelby. He had practiced law in St. Louis but soon became 
an editor. He had been a Benton 
Democrat, a Republican, an un- 
conditional Union man, and a 
leader in keeping Missouri in the 
Union. He was one of the found- 
ers of the Liberal R^ublican 
party. The "Ironclad Oath" had 
been abolished by the voters at the 
1870 election. On the recommen- 
dation of Governor Brown the 
Legislature amended the registra- 
tion laws. All Missourians now 
could vote. During Brown's ad- 
ministration, a state hospital was 
established in St. Joseph and Frank 
P. Blair was appointed United States senator to serve out 
the term of Senator Drake, who had resigned. 

In the election of 1872 the Liberal Republicans and the 
Democrats again voted together. The state officers were di- 
vided, the Democrats getting the larger share including the 
office of governor. The Democratic candidate selected was 
Silas Woodson of St. Joseph, who was a lawyer of ability. 
He was a native of Kentucky, where he had been a Whig. 
On coming to Missouri he became a Democrat. During the 


Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 i8l 

war he retired from public life and 
took no part in ihe struggle. This 
made him a good compromise can- 
didate without enemies on either 
side. After the war he had helped 
organize the new Democratic party. 
He received about 50% more 
votes than Brovm had received 
but his Republican opponent re- 
ceived nearly 100% more votes 
than his Repubhcan predecessor 
had in 1870. So it is clear that 
although Woodson was a good 
compromise candidate he was not silas woodson 

a strong candidate since the per- 
centage of his plurality vote to the total vote cast was only 
13%i, or about half of the percent obtained by Brown. The 
Republicans although defeated had added greatly to their 
strength. Of course the total vote cast in 1872 was very 
large owing to every man being now permitted to vote. 

During Woodson's administration the state debt was re- 
funded and the third state normal school, now the state 
teachers college, was estabUshed at Cipe Girardeau. The 
first two state normal schools had been established in 1870 
at Kirksville and Warrensburg. In 1873 the problem of 
electing a United States senator to succeed Frank P. Blair 
arose. Blair could not be reelected owing to his strong con- 
victions and his courageous political record. He had been a 
Benton Democrat, a Republican, an unconditional Union 
man, and later one of the leaders in reorganizing the new 
Democratic party. In all of his political work he had been 
fearless and, of course, had made enemies. The Legislature 
elected a Democrat, Louis V. Bogy, of St. Louis, a man who 
had taken no part in the war. 

1 82 History of Missouri and Missourians 

The election of 1872 marked the last appearance of the 
Liberal Republican party both in Missouri and in the nation. 
This party began in Missouri. Its founder was Carl Schurz. 
It stood for reconciliation between the North and the South, 
removal of the political restrictions on voting, lower tariffs, 
and civil service reform. Its success in Missouri in 1870 in 
combination with the Democrats led to a national organiza- 
tion in 1872. Its candidate for president in 1872 should 
have been someone like Brown or Schurz. It nominated 
Brown for vice-president and Horace Greeley of New York 
for president. The national convention of the Democrats 
also nominated both and adopted the Liberal Republican plat- 
form. The mistake made was in the presidential candidate^ 
who did not have a strong record and was not popular. 
Greeley and Brown were defeated in the nation but they car- 
ried Missouri. After this the Liberal Republican party dis- 
appeared. Some became Democrats and others became Re- 

Fusion of the Union and .Confederate Democrats, 


By 1874 the Democratic party was composed of men 
who differed widely from each other in their former political 
views. They were held together by mutual concessions and 
by their Democratic loyalty. The two main groups were 
the Union Democrats, who had stood by and had frequently 
fought for the Union during the war, and the Confederate 
Democrats, who had fought in the Confederate army or had 
sympathized with the Confederate cause. The former group 
was given the office of governor and many of the appointive 
offices down to 1880 and the latter group controlled the Leg- 
islature and the United States senatorship. These two 
groups held together well and made a strong combination so 
long as mutual concessions were given. However, the Con- 
federate group gradually became stronger in the party and 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 183 

after 1880 control passed to them and to new leaders, who 
had taken no part in the war. The election returns seem to 
indicate that when this took place, that is, the ascendency of 
the Confederate Democrats, some of the former Union men 
swung over into the Republican party. 

The Democrats nominated Charles H. Hardin of 
Audrain county for governor in 1874. Hardin was another 
compromise candidate but his rec- 
ord during the war had been 
stronger than that of Woodson. 
He had been a Whig in Kentucky, 
where he had been bom, and on 
coming to Missouri he had re- 
mained a Whig. During the war 
he had been a Union man and 
had opposed secession but had 
taken no active part. After the 
war he became one of the leaders 
of the Democratic party. He was 
a lawyer and a strong supporter 
of education. The opposition can- 

didaw was William Gantry of Charles H. hard™ 
Pettis county, a farmer. He was nominated by the People's 
party, which was supported by the Grangers and the Repub- 
licans. So the opposition party was again a fusion party. 
The Granger party, or the Farmers' Alliance party, was a 
farmer's organization which made its first and only import- 
ant political appearance in 1874. The times were hard, 
farmers were deeply in debt, money was scarce, prices had 
been declining since the war except for temporary advances 
in 1868 and 1872, and a nation-wide panic had occurred in 

, 1873. The year 1874 was one of depression and failure in 
business. The Grangers or rather the People's party beUeved 
that the causes of these bad conditions were the high rail- 

; road rates, the money system, the eastern corporations, and 

184 History of Missouri and Missouriaks 

government expenses. They demanded regulation of rates, 
more money, and lower taxes. However the Demojcrats were 
successful. At this election the people by the small majority 
vote of 283 endorsed a resolution in favor of calling a con- 
stitutional convention. 

Under Governor Hardin's administration five features 
are worthy of mention. The depression in business and 
prices continued. The unalterable laws of economics were 
now making the people pay for the high cost and waste of 
the war, for the extravagance and speculation in 1866-1870, 
and for the ill-advised voting of state and county bonds to 
build railroads. Moreover, Europe had just been engaged in 
several wars, which in turn brought depression there, 
economy on the part of the people, and reduced buying by 
them of American products. The next feature was the fine 
progress made in Missouri in bringing about better feeling 
between the Union and Confederate soldiers and sympa- 
thizers. Governor Hardin did much to aid this growth of 
good fellowship. The third feature 
was the election of Francis M. 
Cockrell of Johnson county to the 
United States Senate in 1875. This 
was a victory for the Confederate 
Democrats as Cockrell had fought 
bravely for the South in the war. 
He was a native Missourian and 
was a man respected and loved by 
thousands. He served Missouri as 
United States senator from 1875 
to 1905, a period of thirty years, 
being the first and only Missourian 
who equalled the senatorial record 
FRANCIS M. COCKRELL of thc great Benton. The fourth 
feature was the creation by the Le^slature of a state rail- 
road and warehouse commissioner. This new officer was to 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 1 85 

collect data regarding the railroads in Missouri with a view 
of aiding in their regulation. It was a step toward meeting 
one of the demands of the People's party for rate regulation. 
The most important event was the framing and adoption 
of the present constitution of Missouri of 1875. The con- 
stitution of 1865 had been unpopular owing to its authors 
and its "Ironclad Oath". The last was removed by the voters 
in 1870 and opposition to ihe constitution was dying. It was 
an excellent doctunent in many ways and the people gradually 
came to appreciate it. This is shown by the very small ma- 
jority of only 283 votes cast in 1874 in favor of a new con- 
stitutional convention. The new convention met in 1875 with 
sixty-eight delegates, — sixty Democrats, six Republicans, and 
two Liberals. To understand the constitution they framed, 
it is necessary to understand Missouri history especially since 
1850, to know the kind of men the delegates were, and to 
appreciate the business depression which had existed since 
1873. The first has already been presented and it may be 
summed up as regards its worst features in these words, — 
freedom of the legislature to bond the State, go in debt, issue 
special charters, and enact special laws; high taxes; and 
almost unrestricted power of local bodies and of the voters 
to issue bonds. The delegates were men who had gone 
through troublesome times including war, high prices, high 
taxes, speculation, low prices, and depression. Some had lost 
much of their property, others had suffered through an un- 
limited government in the sixties, and many, if not all, had 
felt the pressure of high taxes and scarce money. As a re- 
sult the delegates were very conservative men. They had 
more concern for the people and for property than they had 
for government. They themselves were men of property. 
They were educated men and hence they were concerned 
about forwarding education. Finally, the business depression 
which became acute in 1873 and continued for years was felt 
by all. Men of education and property became conservative 

1 86 History of Missouri and Missourians 

in depressions. In fact most people do unless they fear loss 
of everything, then they are inclined to be radical in politics. 
So from these brief statements, there was only one kind of 
a constitution that could have been framed in 1875 — a con- 
servative constitution with restrictions on the government's 
powers and on the people's powers as voters for bonds and 
taxes, with protections for the individual against the govern- 
ment and against other individuals, and with provisions for 
education. This was the kind of constitution actually framed 
in 1875 and adopted that year by the people by the large 
majority of 76,688 votes. 

The constitution of 1875 will not be examined. It was 
very long, containing 25,000 words. It was adequately fitted 
for the times and it has served Missouri well for nearly half 
a century. Its restrictions on the government and on the 
voters, as regards taxes and bonds, have been both beneficial 
and harmful. It has prevented undue expense and extrava- 
gance in government, but it has frequently prevented 
progress. It has given the individual many safeguards but 
frequently the courts could not therefore easily or quickly 
give justice. Some of these defects have been remedied by 
amendments and in 1922 a new constitutional convention was 
elected which drafted for adoption of the people further 
revisions. One clause in the constitution of 1875 changed 
the governor's term to four years and another provided that 
at least one-fourth of the state revenue be set aside for the 
public schools. 

In 1876 the Democrats nominated for governor their able 
Civil War veteran candidate, General John S. Phelps, a 
Union Democrat of Springfield. Phelps was a native of 
Connecticut. He had been a consistent Democrat before, 
during, and after the war. During the war he had com- 
manded a Union regiment. He was a lawyer of ability. 
He was one of Missouri's strong governors and received the 
largest majority vote cast for a Missouri governor from 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 1 87 

1840 to 1920. The most marked 
features during Governor Phelp's 
administration were the rapid re- 
covery of the country to pros- 
perity, demand for currency re- 
form, financial support of the 
schools, strikes, and the election of 
George G. Vest to the United 
States Senate. The depression 
which had begun in 1873 con- 
tinued for five years, but by 1879 
prosperity again began to appear 
and continued five years. Business 
became better. However, the john s. phelps 

price of com was low until 1881, being around fifty cents a 
bushel, and the people were still in debt. This brought about 
3 demand for more money and a 
reform in the currency system. 
In 1878 the Democratic party ad- 
vocated the issue of greebacks and 
the unlimited coinage of silver to 
give the country more money. 
One of Missouri's congressmen, 
Richard P. Bland, of Laclede 
county, was the leader in Congress 
an this reform. He became head 
of the free silver branch of the 
Democratic party from 1873 until 
18%. In that year, 1896, the 
Democratic party adopted as part 
of its platform this principle of 
silver coinage but did not nomi- 
nate Bland for president. Bland 
was congressman from 1873 to 
1900 excepting one term. He was 
MONUMENT TO^ RICHARD P. ^ remakablc man, able, honest, and 

l88 History of Missouri and Missourians 

courageous. Of course the money question was a national 
problem but it had great influence on state politics. Greater 
financial support was given the public schools and the state 
educational institutions during these years. Railroad con- 
struction greatly increased in Missouri, 867 miles being built. 
Strikes increased in Missouri, but fortunately no deaths 
resulted and order was soon re- 
stored. The Democrats in 1879 
again elected to the United States 
Senate a Confederate veteran, 
George G. Vest, of Sedalia. Sena- 
tor Vest served until 1903. He 
had served under General Price 
and had represented Missouri in 
the Confederate Senate. He was 
an able lawyer and an orator of 
first rank. Senator Cockrell and 
he were close friends and repre- 
sented Missouri well in the United 
GEORGE G. VEST States Senate. In 1879 the State 

created a board of immigration to 
attract settlers to Missouri and a bureau of labor statistics 
to gather data on labor and industry in Missouri. 

The Democrats put forward as their candidate for 
governor in 1880 another Civil War veteran who had fought 
for the Union, Thomas T. Cnttenden of Warrensburg. He 
was elected by only a fair majority vote but he received the 
largest plurality vote given a Missouri governor down to 
1912. This was the last election until 1896 in which a Demo- 
cratic candidate for governor received a majority vote worth 
mentioning and it was the last time down to 1912 that any 
man's percent of plurality vote to the total vote ran over 
ten per cent. This shows that the two parties were getting 
more and more equal in followers, although the State went 
Democratic for a quarter of a century longer. The "third" 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 189 

political party at this election was the Greenback party, 
which cast a considerable vote. It soon went to pieces as 
the Democrats had already taken a stand for more money. 

Governor Crittenden, who was a 
lawyer and a partner of Cockrell, 
was a native of Kentucky. During 
the war he had fought for the 
Union, and after the war, like 
Blair and Phelps, he had become a 
strong Democrat Under his ad- 
ministration Missouri enjoyed great 
prosperity. The thrift and saving 
of the people during the hard 
times of the seventies now began 
to bear fruit. Fortunately the 
State government, instead of using 
this prosperity to incur debt, pro- 

j , ^ J ., ij J Li THOMAS T. CHITTENDEN 

ceeded to reduce the old debt. 

Ruilroad building increased, brining capital to Missouri, 
work for her people, and better transportation for country 
and city. The State created a 
bureau of mines and mine inspec- 
tion in 1881 which indicates that 
Missouri was rapidly advancing ia 
the mining industry. 

In the 1884 election the Demo- 
crats for the last time had a Civil 
■ War veteran as iheir candidate for 
governor, John S, Marmaduke, 
son of Governor M, M, Marma- 
duke. But this time the can- 
didate and the majority of the 
State officers were ex-Confeder- 
ates, while Governor Phelps was 
JOHN s. MARMADUKE an cx-Union man and so were the 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

majority of the State officers. Governor Mannaduke was 
elected by only 11,000 plurality, and his majority was less 
than a thousand. It is significant that the Democrat vote 
showed an increase of only 5% over 1880 while the Republi- 
can vote increased 35%, The "third" party in this election was 
the Prohibition party but its vote was small. However, the 
effect of prohibition sentiment was seen in the Legislature 
when it passed a "local option law" in 1887 under which a 
large part of Missouri eventually went dry. 

Governor Marmaduke was a native of Missouri, having 
been bom in Saline county. He had received a fine educa- 
tion and was a man of business ability. Before his election 
he had lived in St. Louis. He died while in office in 1887 
and Lieutenant Governor Albert P. 
Moorehouse, of Nodaway county, 
served the remainder of the term. 
The first two years of this admin- 
istration were years of depression 
but prosperity came again in 1887 
I and continued for several years. 
The Legislature passed a number 
I of important acts during these 
four years, in addition to the local 
option law. A law was passed 
regulating the railroads to prevent 
their pooling to keep up the rates 
and to forbid their charging more 
ALBERT P. MOREHOUSE fo^ short hauls than for long hauls. 
A new railroad and warehouse commission was created. The 
State capitol was remodelled at a cost of $220,000. The 
agricultural experiment station was established as part of the 
college of agriculture. The training school for boys was 
established at Boonville, the industrial school for girls was 
established at ChilUcothe, and a state hospital was established 
at Nevada. Missouri was advancing in taking care of the 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 191 

public needs of her citizens. Much of this appreciation of 
Missouri's needs was due to Governor Mamiaduke, who was 
a fearless and able worker for the people. 

The New Democratic Leaders, 1888-1904 


Fusion of the Democrats and the Populists. 1896 

The year 1888 marked the rise to power of a new group 
of leaders in control of the Democratic party in Missouri 
state politics. Many of the Civil War veterans had passed 
away and many more had retired or were retired from 
active public life. Senators Cockretl and Vest remained in 
the United States Senate but these alone represented the old 
veterans of the war. 

The Democratic candidate for governor in 1888 was 
David R. Francis of St, Loiiis. 
He was a native of Kentucky and 
had received his higher education 
in Missouri. He had been a suc- 
cessful man, both in business and 
politics. Although St. Louis was 
Republican and Francis was a . 
Democrat he had been elected 
mayor in 1885. He carried the 
State in 1888 by a plurality of 
13,000 but he did not receive a 
majority of the votes cast. During 
his administration the Australian 
ballot law for voting was adopted, 

the governor's mansion was re- '^'^^'^ «■ ■'"^^^^'^ 
paired, and a state school text book commission was created 
providing for uniform text books. The farmers began to 
feel the effects of hard times and low prices during the latter 
part of this term and they c^ain organized. By the next 
general election they had become powerful as a "third" party. 


History of Missouri and Missouhians 

Governor Francis later held many important public positions, 
serving in the cabinet, as president of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition in St. Louis in 1904, and as ambassador to Rus- 
sia in 1915. 

The campaign of 1892 was fought on the tariff issue. 
This was the issue in Missouri although the State could do 
nothing to solve it since it was a national problem. The 
Democratic candidate for governor 
was William Joel Stone of Vernon 
county and the Republican candi- 
date was William Warner of Kan- 
sas City. Both had served in Con- 
gress and both later became United 
States senators from Missouri. A 
strong "third" party came out un- 
der the name of the Populist or 
People's party, and it cast 37,000 
votes. It was for cheap money. 
Governor Stone was elected by a 
plurality of 30,000 but he did not 
receive a majority. It is note- 
WILLIAM J. STONE „^„|,y ,^^, -^ ^-^ ^,^^^^^ ^ 

Republicans' vote decreased by 8,000 for the first time since 

Governor Stone was a native of Kentucky. He had re- 
ceived a liberal education and he became an able lawyer. 
He was one of the most successful leaders of the Democratic 
party in Missouri, He later served as United States senator 
from 1903 until his death in 1918. During his administration 
the silver question became more and more pressing. From 
1893 to 1896 the country had the worst depression since the 
seventies. This may have influenced the off-election of 1894 
when Missouri was carried in a landslide by the Republicans. 
The Democratic party advocated the free coinage of silver 
as a remedy. This had long been advocated by America's 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 1 93 

^eatest free silver authority, Missouri's congressman, Rich- 
ard P. Bland. This also met the approval of the Populists, 
who in 1896 joined the Democrats. The important State 
jneasures passed during these four years was the creation of 
a new state banking department, provision for building and 
loan supervision, and increased support of the educational 

The campaign of 18% was waged entirely on the money 
issue. The Democratic party adopted the principle and work 
of Bland but nominated W. J. Bryan of Nebraska for presi- 
dent. As in 1S?2 Missouri had furnished the issue but was 
denied the candidate. The Populists went over to the Demo- 
crats, who on the issue of more silver money earned Mis- 
souri for governor by a majority of 19,000 and by a plurality 
of 43,000. The nation went Republican. In Missouri the 
Republican vote increased 31% and the Democratic vote in- 
creased 32%. The "third" party vote was practically elimi- 

The new executive was Governor 
Lon V. Stephens, of Boonville, 
Missouri. He was bom and reared 
in Missouri, and had made a suc- 
cess as a banker and as state 
treasurer. During his administra- 
tion the Federal soldiers home at 
St. James and the Confederate 
soldiers home at Higginsville were 
made state institutions, the state 
board of charities and corrections 
was organized, the state hospital 
at Farmington was established, the 
Missouri colony for the feeble- 

... I- , , -K. < ti I-O" V. STEVENS 

minded was founded at Marshall, 

the fruit experiment station was established at Mountain 

Grove, the first Missouri state fair was held at Sedalia, the 

194 History of Missouri and Missouhians 

state historical society of Missouri was established at Colum- 
bia, and an appropriation for a World's Fair at St. Louis 
was authorized by. the people. The Spanish-American war 
was fought at this time and Missouri met with loyalty the 
call of the Government for volimteers. The account of that 
war .will be related under a "A Century of Military Mis- 

The campaign of 1900 was again waged on national 
issues. These issues grew out of the Spanish-American war, 
over which the State had no control. Missouri went Demo- 
cratic and elected Alexander M. 
Dockery, of Daviess county, gov- 
ernor both by a majority and a 
plurality vote. Governor Dockery 
was a native Missourian, He had 
practiced medicine and later had 
become a successful banker. He 
was a successful business man and 
politician. From 1883 to 1899 he 
had served as congressman and 
had made a reputation for fair- 
ness, integrity, and ability. The 
State and the country were now^ 
prosperous. During this four year 

A. U. DOCKERY , r- .. t ^ 

term the State created a. factory 
and industry inspection department, a .board of mediation 
and arbitration, and provided for a high school inspector. 
These show that factory, labor, and educational matters were 
assuming more importance. The Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition, or World's Fair, was held in St. Louis in 1904 and did 
much to advertise Missouri and to broaden and deepen the 
pride of Missourians. 

Missouri Politics, 1870-1904 195 

Suggestive Questions 

1. How did the growing power of the individual voter manifest 
itself in politics from 1870 to 1904? 

2. With the growing political power of the voter what did the 
people demand from the government? 

3. What is the third characteristic feature of this period? 

4. What party which had its origin in Missouri afterwards be- 
came a national party? 

5. Emphasise the five important features under Governor Hardin's 

6. What events had transpired in Missouri history to make the 
people feel the need of a new constitution in 1875? 

7. Discuss some of the merits and some of the demerits of the 
constitution of 1875. 

S. From the explanation in this text what do you consider one of 
the most important clauses in the constitution of 1875? 

9. What conditions brought about a demand for more money and 
reform in the currency system during Governor Phelps' ad- 

10. While Democratic governors were being elected in Missouri, 
yet the plurality by which they were elected leads you to what 

11. Beginning in 1888 you note what change in the Democratic 
party leaders? 

12. Note what you consider as some of the most important legisla- 
tion enacted under the new Democratic leaders from 1888 to 

Chapter V 


The two important features of this period from 1904 to 
1922 are the independence of the individual voter and the 
doubtful poUtical character of Missouri. These two features 
are closely related since independent voting causes political 
uncertainty During this period Missouri elected five gov- 
ernors, three of whom were Democrats and two Republicans. 
Missouri voted for five presidents, and three times she cast 
her vote for a Republican and two times for a Democrat 
This indicates a doubtful state politically. Again, Missouri 
in 1904 elected a Democratic governor, and a Republican 
lieutenant-governor, legislature, and State officers; in 1908^ 
a Republican governor, lieutenant-governor, and House of 
Representatives, and a Democratic Senate and State Officers; 
in 1912, and in 1916, a Democratic governor, State officers^ 
and legislature, except a Republican state auditor in 1916; 
in 1920, a Republican governor, state officers, and legisla- 
ture ; in 1906 and 1914, a Democratic state superintendent of 
schools, and in 1910 and 1918, a Republican state superin- 
tendent of schools. These facts indicate independent voting. 

The campaign of 1904 found the Democratic party di- 
vided both in Missouri and in the nation. A conservative 
Eastern man, Alton B. Parker of New York, was the Demo- 
cratic presidential candidate, and a new man, Joseph W. 
Folk of St. Louis, wais the candidate for govemqr. For the 
first time since 1868 Missouri went Republican for president 
and for all state officers except that of governor. However, 
Governor Folk was elected by a majority of 5,000 and a plu- 
rality of 30,000. The Legislature elected a Repuiblican 
United States senator. Major William Warner of Kansas 
City, to succeed Senator Cockrell. Senator Warner was a 


Missouri Politics, 1904-1922 197 

Union veteran from Wisconsin. He was a forceful man, an 
able lawyer, a public servant of integrity, and an excellent 
speaker. He was greatly beloved by the old Union veterans. 
Governor Folk, who was a lawyer, was a native of Tennessee, 
He had received a fine education. _ 

On coming to Missouri, he settled 
in St, Louis, where he took an 
active part in Democratic politics. 
He was elected city attorney in 
1900 on a reform platform. He 
vigorously prosecuted all bribe- 
takers in the city government, and 
soon made for himself a state and 
national reputation. He was elected 
governor on the record he had 

During Governor Folk's admin- 
istration two state normals, now 


teachers colleges, were established, 

one at Springfield and one at Maryville ; a state sanatorium 
was established at Mt. Vernon; a state dairy commissioner, 
board of horticulture, and library commission, were created; 
and boards of examiners were provided for lawyers, dentists, 
and osteopaths. By a vote of the people the constitution 
was amended providing for the initiative and referendum 
now in force, and permitting a special road and bridge tax 
to be levied. In 1907 a primary law was passed under which 
candidates for office were selected at a primeary election. 

Tlje campaign of 1908 .was one vigorously waged be- 
tween ^e two old parties. Th,e Republican candidate was 
Herbert S. Hadley of Kansas City. He had been elected 
attorney -gen era! of Missouri in 1904. While holding this 
office he had made a state and national reputation in his 
prosecution of trusts, especially the Standard Oil Company. 
His record elected him governor by a plurality of 16,000, but 

198 History of Missouri and Missourians 

he did not receive a majority. 
Governor Hadley was a native of 
Kansas. He had received a fine 
education and was a lawyer of 

i ability. He returned to the law 
office after his term expired but 
continued to wield a strong in- 
fluence in Republican politics until 
his removal to Colorado. The Re- 
publican candidate for lieutenant 
governor was finally declared 
elected by a very small plurality, 
and the Republican presidential 
'candidate, William H. Taft, carried 
HERBERT s. HADLEV Missouri over William J. Bryan 
by 629 votes. The state officers elected were Democrats, the 
Senate was Democratic, but the House of Representatives 
was Republican. This bi-partisan character of the State 
government made it difficult to obtain important legislation. 
Much of the legislation was regulative or inspectional in 
character. These departments, commissions, and boards 
were created : a game and fish department, a food and drug 
commissioner, a department for inspection of petroleum oils, 
a board of public accountancy, a board of examination of 
nurses, a hotel inspection deparment, and a board of pharm- 
acy. A court of appeals, the third in the state, was estab- ^ 
lished at Springfield; a state industrial home for negro girls 
was provided for by law: a state poultry experiment station 
was established at Mountain Grove: a birth and death regi- 
stration law was passed; and a state capitol commission was 
created. The State capitol burned in 1911 and the people 
authorized the issuance of $3,500,000.00 in bonds to build 
and furnish a new capitol. 

Missouri Politics, 1904-1922 igg 

During Governor Hadley's administration Senator Stone 
was re-elected by the Legislature in 1909 and another Demo- 
crat, James A. Reed of Kansas City, was elected by the 
Legislature to the United States Senate in 1911. Senator 
Reed was a native of Ohio. He had been reared and edu- 
cated in Iowa where be became a lawyer. On moving to 
Kansas City he became influential in politics and served two 
terms as mayor. He was an able lawyer and a fine public 
speaker. He was re-elected by popular vote in 1916. 

Toward the latter part of these four years an insurgent 
movement began in the national Republican party. The main 
issue was over the rules governing the national House of 
Repreisentatives. Both the House and the Senate, as well 
as the presidency, were Republican. In the off -election of 
1910 this issue and the tariff issue were before .the country. 
The new House was Democratic and elected as speaker one 
of Missouri's congressmen. Champ Clark of Pike county. 
Champ Clark was a native of Kentucky. He was a lawyer, 
legislator, public speaker, and statesman. He had served 
long in Congress and was one of the most beloved men in 
our public life. He narrowly missed nomination to the 
presidency in 1912. He continued as speaker . until 1919 
when the house had again become Republican. He died in 
1921, aftei a service of twenty-six years in Congress. 

In 1912 the Republican party split. The old organi- 
zation renominated President Taft. The new party, which 
took^the name "Progressive Party", nominated former pres- 
ident Theodore Roosevelt. In Missouri the Republicans nomi- 
nated J. C. McKinley for governor, the Progressives, Albert 
D. Nortoni, and the Democrats, Elliott W. Major. The 
Democratic candidate was elected by a plurality of 119,000, 
'which was the next to the largest plurality ever received by 
a Missouri governor. He did not receive a majority. The 
total vote was 2 per cent less than in 1908, just as the total 
vote in 1904 when the Democrats were not strogly imited 

200 History of Missouri and Missoubians 

r «H^ 

Missouri Politics, 1904-1922 201 

showed a decrease of 6 per cent. 

Governor Major had been elected 

Missouri in 

vemor Hadley 

3 the office of 

r Major was a 

having been 

unty. He had 

Champ Clark. 

le in Bowling 

lemocratic Leg- 

ws passed dur- 

Eirst, those pro- ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^ , 
to small high 

ommon schools, and second, an act creat- 
; service commission to control rates and 
e, railroad, street railway, light, and gas 
; board of pardon and paroles, a state 
t, a land reclamation department, a com- 
d, and a children's code commission, were 
•13 the Seventeenth amendment to the 
stitution was adopted providing for the 
States senators by direct vote of the peo^ 
;an to take a new interest in better high- 
ways at this time. In 1916 the national government became 
involved in the Mexican Border War and ■ the Missouri 
National Guard was the first to give service. The story of 
this will be told under "A Century of Military Missouri", 

The campaign of 1916 found each party united. A 
g.eneral European War had been in progress for two years. 
The main issues of the campaign related to the attitude of , 
the United States toward the European' belEgerants and td 
th« Mexican border troubles. The Democratic candidate for 
governor was Frederick D. Gardner of St. Louis. The Re- 

202 History of Missouri and Missourians 

publican candidate was Judge Henry Lamm of Sedalia. The 
Democrats carried the State and the nation. Senator Reed 
was re-elected to the United States Senate and all except one 
of the state officers were Democrats. The Legislature was 
also Democratic. The total vote ,vas large, being 12% over 
the 1912 election. The election itself was close. Governor 

Gardner received a . plurality of 

2,000. Governor Gardner was a 
native of Kentucky. He settled in 
St. Louis and made a sucess in 
business. He became interested in 
the» high interest rates charged 
I farmers for money they ix)rrowed 
and proposed a state farmer's land 
hank. This proposal combined with 
a well conducted campaign on the 
basis of a business man for 
governor, secured for Governor 
Gardner both his nomination and 
his election. He had never held 


any state office before 1916, 
■The first two years of Governor Gardner's administra- 
tion were largely filled with war activities throughout the 
State: The remarkable record made by Missouri and Mis- 
sourians in support of their country in the World War will 
be related under "A Century of Military Missouri", Legis- 
lative acts aside from war legislation provided for .the 
creation of a state tax commission, a state prison board, 
abolition of the contract system, in the penitentiary, a state- 
wide mother's pension law, and a local tax levy for county 
hospitals. X. P. Wilfley, of St. Louis, was appointed United 
States Senator in 1918 to fill temporarily the vacancy caused 
by the death of Senator Stone, who died on April 14, 1918. 
In the November election of that year Judge Selden P. 


Missouri Politics, 1904-1922 303 

Spencer of St. Louis was elected to complete Senator Stone's 
ic m. Senator Spencer, who was a Republican, was a native 
of Pennsvlvania. He had received a fine education and after 
coining to Misouri had held public office. He was re-elect- 
ed to the United States Senate in 1920. The 1918 election 
gave the Republicans control of the House of Representa- 
tives in Missouri, They also elected the state superintendent 
of public schools. ^ 

During the latter part of Governor Gardner's term the 
Missouri presidential suffrage bill, giving • Missouri women 
the right to vbte, became a law on April 5, 1919. A few 
months later, the Federal suffrage amendment was approved 
by the Missouri Legislature. This ended a campaign for 
woman suffrage which had begun in Missouri fifty years 
before. Another important law which went into effect was 
the prohibition act. A national prohibition amendment to the 
United States constitution was adopted. Other state legis- 
lation created a department of beverage inspection, a soldiers' 
and- sailors' compensation commission, enlarged the f imctions 
of the state board of health, and authorized counties to erect 
memorials to soldiers and sailors. A number of centennial 
celebrations were held in 1920 in commemoration of Mis- 
Sj^uri's century of statehood. 

The campaign of 1920 was waged on the issues growing 
out of the world war. Some of these were political as the 
League of Nations, others were economic as the high prices, 
which reached the highest level since 1864. The war closed 
in November 1918 and a post war boom began in 1919 and 
continued until the fall of 1920. The people became extrav- 
agant, went heavily in debt, speculated, and all classes, except 
the salaried and income classes, shared in the high profits 
and incomes received. Land and property doubled in value. 
Fortunes were made in a few months only to be reinvested 
at a figure as high or higher than that received. Money was 
easy to make but instead of the people saving their profits. 

History of Missouri and Missourians 

Missouri Politics, 1904-1922 205 

many of them spent freely or tried to make more money. 
In fact it was the biggest boom the United States had ever 
had and it ended in being one of the most disastrous. Instead 
of these years being years of real prosperity, which can only 
be built on the sound foimdations of thrift and work and 
saving, they were really years of discontent. The people 
complained of the high prices they paid, the high rents, high 
labor costs, and high clothing and food bills. By the fall 
of 1920 everything was getting ready for a great change. 
The banks were loaned to the limit, the interest rates were 
getting higher and higher, and wise men were beginning to 
fear a panic. The people did not realize these things, but 
they did realize that things were not well adjusted. If they 
had known what had taken place in Missouri and in the 
nation one hundred years before, they might have been more 

The election of 1920 resulted in a victory for the Repub- 
licans never equalled in the nation or in the State. Both 
houses of Congress and the presidency went Republican, 
,and MisJsouri for the first time in fifty years elected a Rep- 
publican Legislature in both houses. All the state offices 
were Republican and Governor Hyde of Trenton, the Repub- 
lican candidate, was elected by a majority of 57,000 and a 
plurality of 141,000. Both were the largest ever cast in 
Missouri. The total vote was very large owing to the 
woman vote. 

At this election a number of amendments to the consti- 
tution were adopted. One permitted Kansas City to frame 
a new charter, one permitted road districts to vote increased 
taxes for roads, and another authorized the state to issue 
$60,000,000 of road bonds. An amendment was adopted 
authorizing pensions for the blind, and another authorized 
a bond issue of $1,000,000 for creating a soldiers settlement 
fund. A "bone dry" enforcement prohibition act passed by 
the 1919 Legislature was approved on a referendum vote and 

2o6 History of Missouri and Missourians 

an initiative measure providing for a vote on holding a State 
constitutional convention carried. 

Governor Arthur M. Hyde was 
bom in Mercer county, Missouri. 
He received a fine education and 
became a lawyer. He also engag- 
ed in business. He had never held 
a state elective office. *T)uring 
the first two years of his admini- 
stration three sessions of the Leg- 
islature were held (one regular and 
two special), a state constitutional 
convention convened, and Missouri 
celebrated her centennial of ad- 
mission into the Union. A county 
ARTHUR M. HYDE Unit education law was passed, a 

number of acts relating to the children's code, a state finance 
consolidation law, a state budget law, a state agricultural 
consolidation department law, a county library law, and a 
Missouri road law providing for the expenditure of the $60,- 
000,000 road bonds. Some of these were held up by refer- 
endum petitions. In August 1921 the people at a special 
election authorized a convention to revise and amend tht 
constitution, amended the constitution so as to enable women 
lo hold any office in the State, amended the constitution so 
as to authorize the $60,000,000 road bond issue to be paid 
from motor vehicle Uscense fees, and authorized the Legis- 
lature to inciT not exceeding $15,000,000 indebtedness for 
bonuses to Missouri soldiers, sailors, and marines. The first 
special session of the Legislature in June and July, 1921 
dealt with road legislation, the second special session in Nov- 
ember, 1921 enacted a soldiers' and sailors' bonus law and 
provided for the issuance of the road bonds. The election 
of delegates to the new constitutional convention was held ott 
Jan. 31, 1922 and the convention convened on May 25, 192i^ ' 

MisspURi Politics, 1904-1922 207 

During August 1921 a statewide centennial celebration 
was held in Sedalia, in connection with the State Fair, under 
the direction of the Missouri Centennial Commission, which 
had been created by the Legislature. Many celebrations were 
held over the State, notably in Kansas City, St. Louis, St. 
Charles, and Springfield. These did much to instruct the 
people in the history of Missouri and to develop State pride. 
It is fitting that "A Century of Missouri Politics" and, in 
fact, "A Century of Missouri's Statehood" should so close. 
The founders of Missouri built well and their descendants 
have proven worthy of their work. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What facts lead you to the conclusion that there has been in- 
dependent voting in Missouri since 1904? 

2. What do you understand when it is stated that Governor Folk 
was elected by a majority of 5,000 and a plurality of 30,000? 

3. What national amendments affecting Missouri were passed 
during Major's administration and Gardner's administration? 

4. Discuss the recent amendments to the constitution. 




Chapter I 

Early Wars — Black Hawk, Seminole, Mormon, Honey, 
Mexican, and Kansas Border Wars 

Durinp her century of statehood Missouri has played an 
important part in each of the four great wars and the Mexi- 
can Border Trouble waged by the national government. 
These were the Mexican War, 1846-1848, the Civil War or 
the war between the states, 1861-1865, the Spanish- American 
War, 1898, the Mexican Border Trouble, 1915-1917, 
and the World War, 1917-1918. Besides these wkrs, Mis- 
souri has taken part in other military operations as the 
Black Hawk War, Seminole War, Mormon War, Honey 
War, Mormon War, Kansas Border Wars, and Philippine In-, 
surrection War. 

The Black Hawk War, 1832 

The Black Hawk war began and ended in 1832. It was 
a war between the Sac, Fox, and Winnebago Indians on one 
side, and the militia of Illinois and Wisconsin and the United 
States government troops on the other side. By treaty with 
the United States these Indians had given up claim to their 
land in Illinois and the Sacs and Foxes had settled west of 
the Mississippi. The Winnebagoes need not concern us. 
However, under Black Hawk and the Prophet, their leaders, 
the Sacs and Foxes gave the white settlers in Illinois much 
trouble. They crossed to the east side of the Mississippi in 
1831 and began plundering and killing. Missouri furnished 


Military Missouri 209 

some of the United States soldiers who were sent from St 
Louis to subdue them. One of her sons, Henry Dodge, who 
had moved to Wisconsin, was one of the military leaders. 
Although the fighting was in Illinois and Wisconsin, Mis- 
souri prepared to resist any possible Indian invasion by Black 
Hawk. General Richard Gentry was ordered by Governor 
Miller to raise 1,000 volunteers. Five companies were raised 
in Boone county and others in Callaway, Clay, Lincoln, 
Marion, Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Ralls, Ray, and St. 
Charles. Under General Grentry the Missouri troops marched 
to what is now Clark county. Other troops covered the 
Grand river and the Chariton river country. Missouri was 
prepared to protect her citizens. However, the Indians were 
soon defeated in Illinois and Wisconsin, and Black Hawk 
was captured. This ended the war. Black Hawk died near 
the Des Moines river, in Iowa, in 1838. 

The Seminole or Florida War, 1837 

The Seminole or Florida war grew out of the refusal of 
the Seminole Indians in Florida to move west of the Mis- 
sissippi. They had an able leader in their chief Osceola, 
who, beginning in 1835, successfully defied the United States 
government and army. In the fall of 1837 President Van 
Buren asked Senator Benton whether Missourians would go 
to the swamps of Florida to help defeat the Seminoles. 
Senator Benton answered, "The Missourians will go wherever 
their services are needed." On September 8, 1837, the sec- 
retary of war wrote Colonel Richard Gentry of Columbia to 
raise 600 volimteers. On October 6, 1837, just twenty-eight 
days later, Colonel Gentry's regiment left Columbia to do 
battle on the field of war hundreds of miles away. His 
force was composed of men from the coimties of Boone, 
Callaway, Chariton, Howard, Jackson, Marion, and Ray. 
Other companies were raised, of which two were composed 
of Delaware and Osage Indians to serve as scouts and spies. 

210 History of Missouri and Missourians 

After a river and ocean voyage the men disentnarked in 
Florida on November 15th, They received orders to march 
to Lake Okee-cho-bee, 
one hundred and thirty- 
five miles inland. On 
Christmas day the battle 
with the Indians be^an. 
The Missourians were 
forced to wade knee- 
deep in the swamps to 
approach the foe. Col. 
Gentry was mortally 
virounded and died that 
night. After the loss of 
their leader, the Mis- 
souriar^ bravely con- 
tinued the fight until 
the Indians were defeat- 


ed. The loss m killed 
and wounded was one hundred and thirty-ei^t, most of 
whom were Missourians. "The Missourians will go wherever 
their services are needed." The survivors of Colonel Gen- 
try's troops were returned to their hemes early in 1838. 
Missouri had written a page of honor and glory in the history 
of the State and nation. 

The Mormon War, 1838-1839 

Between 1823 and 1830 a new religious denomination 
arose in western New York. Its founder was called Joseph 
Smith and its followers were called Mormons. They grew 
rapidly and in 1831 began settling in Jackson county. Here 
they purchased land and a city was founded twelve miles 
west of Independence. Within two years the Mormons in 
Jackson county numbered 1,200, about one-third of the total 
population. Hostility between them and the other settlers 

Military Missouri 21 1 

soon appeared. The pioneer settlers disliked the Mormons 
on account of their religion, their attitude against slavery, 
and their claims to ultimately possess the coimtry. Hostility 
of feeling was followed by open hostility. The Mormons 
were molested, much of their property was destroyed, and 
finally in 1833 they were forced to leave Jackson county. 
They suffered much and they lost much. The inhabitants of 
Clay county hospitably gave them temporary shelter and 
work. But the same causes which drove them from Jackson 
county forced them to leave Clay county in 1836. The older 
settlers feared them and their rapid growth in numbers. 

The Legislature created Caldwell county in 1836 and it 
was understood that the new county was to be the home of 
the Mormons. They emigrated there in 1836. New arrivals 
came from the eastern states and their population reached 
15,000. As they increased, they expanded into Carroll and 
Daviess county. Clashes involving loss of life and property 
took place in these counties between the Mormons and the 
older settlers. The militia was called out, and State troops 
opposed the Mormon troops. Both sides were now determ- 
ined. Finally in 1838 Governor Boggs issued an order to 
Greneral Clark in which he stated that "the Mormons must 
be treated as enemies and must be exterminated or drizen 
from the State if necessary for the public peace." State 
troops under General Lucas now began pouring into Caldwell 
county to capture Far West, the Mormons' principal city. 
The Mormons agree3 to surrender their leaders and to leave 
the State. It was now winter. The sufferings and losses of 
the Mormcns were heavy, but by April 23, 1839, all had left 
Caldwell county. They emigrated to Illinois and in about ten 
years they moved to Utah. The leaders who were sur- 
rendered either escaped or were freed. A division later 
occurred among the Mormons. The Reorgan'zed Church of 
Latter Day Saints left Utah and today has its church head- 
quarters in Independence, where it has a large number of 

212 History of Missouri and Missourians 

The Honey War or 
The Iowa-Missouri Boundary Dispute, 1839-1840 

The Iowa-Missouri Boundary dispute of 1840 has been 
popularly called 'The Honey War". It was not an armed 
conflict but it involved military operations both by Iowa and 
Missouri. The dispute arose over a narrow strip of land 
claimed by each. A Missouri farmer in Clark county cut 
down three bee trees, filled with honey, on this strip. He 
escaped, but when the sheriff of Clark county tried to col- 
lect taxes on this strip from an lowan, the sheriff was 
arrested, taken to Burlington, Iowa, where he was later re- 
leased. The Missourians in Clark, Lewis, and Marion coun- 
ties were aroused, and so were the people of Iowa. Governor 
Boggs sent 200 militiamen to Clark county and about 600 
Missourians gathered on Fox river near Waterloo. The snow 
was deep, the weather cold, and the men had only a few 
blankets. On the Iowa side was camped the Iowa militia 
with 300 men. Grovemor Lucas of Iowa was with them. 
Before open conflict arose, better judgment prevailed and a 
movement started to have a commission appointed by Mis- 
souri and Iowa to make peaceable settlement. So ended 
"The Honey War", but the boundary dispute was not settled 
until the United States Supreme Court had decided on the 
legal boundary line and in 1851 had stone posts erected every 
ten miles. 

The Mexican War, 1846-1848 

Th part taken by Missourians in the Mexican War was 
one of glory, honor, and lasting value to their State and 
country. Like all western people, they wanted to see the 
United Stat'es expand, and as Missourians they were 
especially interested in New Mexico where was located Santa 
Fe, the western end of the Santa Fe trade and trail. They 
responded quickly to the nation's call for men and 7,C00 saw 

Military Missouri 213 

service. They endured hardships bravely and they battled 
victoriously against a foe superior in numbers. They crossed 
deserts and mountains, invaded a hostile country and fought 
Mexicans and Indians. By their victories they added New 
Mexico to the United States and also conquered two pro- 
vinces in old Mexico. They gave New Mexico her first 
American military commander, her first American governor, 
and her first American code of laws. 

The outbreak of war between Mexico and the United 
States in 1846 found Missourians ready to enlist in the pro- 
posed military expedition to Santa Fe. Governor Edwards 
called for volunteers in May and within a month 1358 Mis- 
sourians had gathered at Fort Leavenworth. They repre- 
sented the counties of Callaway, Clay, Cole, Franklin, How- 
ard, Jackson, Lafayette, Platte, Saline, and St. Louis. The 
mounted volunteers numbering 856 elected Alexander W. 
Doniphan, of Clay county, as their colonel. The entire force 
including 300 United States dragoons was under the com- 
mand of another citizen of Missouri, Colonel Stephen W. 
Keamj|r of the United States Army. The expedition follow- 
ed the Santa Fe trail and after traveling 900 miles reached 
Santa Fe in August. A force of 7,000 Mexicans had plan- 
ned to attack them in a mountain pass, but at the approach 
of the Americans the Mexicans fled. 

After taking peaceable possession of Santa Fe, General 
Kearney by proclamation annexed New Mexico to the United 
States. He appointed Colonel Doniphan and Willard P. Hall, 
who were adopted Missourians, to draft a constitution and 
code of laws for the territory, and he appointed Charles 
Bent, another Missourian, as governor. General Kearn(^ 
then departed with his 300 dragoons to San Diego in southern 
California, where he successfully aided the United States 

Shortly after General Keamf/s departure, Colonel 
Sterling Price, another Missourian, arrived from Fort 

214 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Leavenworth with 1,200 Missouri volunteers from the coun- 
ties of Boone, Benton, Carroll, Chariton, Linn, Livingston, 
Monroe, Randolph, Ste. Genevieve, and St. Louis. Colonel 
Doniphan now marched against the Navajos, a warlike tribe 


of Indians who were giving trouble. Despite the mountain- 
ous country and the cold weather, the Missourians reached 
the Indian strongholds and a treaty of peace was made. After 
returning to Santa Fe, Colonel Doniphan with about 1,000 
Missourians marched south toward Chihuahua, located south 
of the Rio Grande in old Mexico. The plan was to join the 
United States army here. The march was through deserts. 
The suffering of the men and their animals from thirst and 
cold was terrible. After crossing the Rio Grande, supplies 
were found. At Brazito, in old Mexico, a battle was fought 
on Christmas day, 1846, and the Mexicans were badly de- 

Military Missouri 


feated. From Brazito Doniphan's expedition went to El Paso, 
Texas, where it was well received. From here the march 
was resumed to Chihuahua, 200 miles farther. Fifteen miles 
from Chihuahua a force of 4,000 Mexicans, well armed and 
supported by artillery, attacked the Missourians in the moun- 
tain pass of Sacramento. Here the battle of Sacramento was 


fought and' the Missourians again were victorious. The 
Mexicans had prepared strings and handcuffs for the Mis- 
sourians. The Mexicans lost 200 killed and 300 wounded, 
the Missourians lost one killed and eleven wounded. After 
reaching Chihuahua the march was resumed southeastward to 
Saltillo, 470 miles away. The city was captured and the ex- 
pedition continued to the mouth of the Rio Grande river. 
Here the men took ship and reached their homes during the 
summer of 1847. Their land marches had extended 3,000 
miles. They had successfully fought two pitched battles with 
the Mexicans, had defeated the Navajos, had conquered three 
large provinces, and had entered a score of towns and cities. 

2i6 History of Missouri and Missourians 

And all this they accomplished in . the midst of a hostile 
population of hundreds of thousands of people, against a foe 
vastly larger in numbers, and with the loss of less than 50 
men. It is interesting to note that seventy years later another 
Missourian, General John J. Pershing, led another expedition 
into old Mexico. 

After Colonel Doniphan left Santa Fe, Colonel Price 
became the military commander. An insurrection arose 
among the natives and Governor Bent and many Missourians 
were killed. More reinforcements arrived from Missouri 
and the insurrection was suppressed. However, the total loss 
was large, 400 men dying in battle or from disease. In 1848 
the war ended, and Mexico ceded New Mexico and Cali- 
fornia to the United States. The United States armies had 
obtained successes everywhere and not the least of these were 
the capture of New Mexico and Doniphan's Expedition, to 
which Missouri had contributed 7,000 men. 

The Kansas Border Troubles, 1855-1860 

The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854 foimd 
Missouri determined to make Kansas a slave territory and 
New England determined to make Kansas a free territory. 
Missourians organized in Blue Lodges and the New Eng- 
enders in Northern Emigrant Aid Societies. Both sent set- 
tlers and both sent merely voters. The proslavery Missouri- 
ans settled or voted in such proslavery towns as Atchison, 
Kickapoo, Lecompton, and Leavenworth in northeastern Kan- 
sas ; the free soil men settled or voted in Hampden, Lawrence, 
Manhattan, Ossawotamie, Topeka, and Wabaunsee lying west 
of Kansas City, Although threats were made by both sides, 
conditions were generally peaceable until after the proslavery 
was the legal government, and the free soil people in the 
same year had formed an antislavery government in oppo- 
sition. The proslavery government called to Missourians to 
come to its aid. From 1855 to 1857 Missourians responded. 

Military Missouri 217 

Under General Atchison of Missouri 1,000 Missourians 
set out to attack Lawrence in 18SS. By agreement with the 
governor of Kansas the attack was not made. In May 1856 
the Missourians returned and destroyed much property in 
Lawrence. Three men were killed. John Brown of Ossa- 
wotamie retaliated by murdering five unarmed proslavery 
settlers in Kansas. This aroused both Kansas and Missouri. 
In August 1856 the Missourians invaded Kansas and destroy- 
ed Ossawotamie. The antislavery Kansans now planned to 
destroy Lecompton. About 3,000 Missourians . met on the 
border and considered a destructive invasion of Kansas. This 
was prevented by the intervention of the United States 
troops. In 1857 Kansas elected an antislavery government. 
This ended the invasion of Kansas by Missourians. 

Under the leadership of John Brown and others, the 
Kansans began to invade Missouri in 1857 and continued to 
destroy, rob, and murder until 1860. Their worst deeds were 
committed in Cass, Bates, Vernon, and Barton counties. The 
invaders were called "J^y^awkers". People soon feared for 
their lives and property. Some left the country. Slaves 
were stolen and houses were burned. The people organized 
to resist the bands but conditions became so bad that Gover- 
nor Stewart called out the militia in 1858. The governor of 
Kansas aided and temporary peace was restored. Trouble 
soon broke out again and in 1859 the Missouri Legislature 
voted $30,000 to enable Governor Stewart to protect the- 
border. Things quieted down until November, 1860, when 
James Montgomery invaded Missouri. Again Governor 
Stewart sent troops and order was restored. 


Suggestive Questions 

1. Name the wars in which Missouri has taken a part. 

2. Give the main facts in the Black Hawk war. 

3. Discuss the Seminole war as to cause, the leaders, and the 

21 8 History of Missouri and Missourians 

4. Describe the immigration of the Mormons into Missouri. 

5. What was the objection urged against the Mormons? 

6. State the cause of the Honey war. 

7. Why was Missouri interested in the Mexican war? 

8. What was Missouri's response to the national call for sol- 

9. Describe Doniphan's expedition. 

10. What was the cause of the Kansas Border troubles? 

Chapter II 

THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 

The Military Struggle for Missouri 

The Civil War in Missouri can be easily understood if 
four main points are kept in mind. In the first place the 
possession of Missouri by the North was almost necessary 
if the Federal Grovemment hoped to defeat the Confederacy. 
Missouri's central geographical position made her the con- 
necting trade and transportation route between the East and 
the West and between free soil Illinois and free soil Kansas. 
With both Missouri was joined by the Missouri river and by 
the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad, Missouri could also 
furnish wealth and men, for she was one of the leading states 
in both. In St. Louis she possessed the largest city in the 
Mississippi valley and one of the strongest in pro-Union sen- 
timent, especially among the Germans. On the other hand, 
the possession of Missouri was not essential to the Confed- 
eracy, and the Confederacy did not make serious and determ- 
ined effort to possess or retain Missouri. In fact even after 
the Missouri State Government had seceded and sent repre- 
sentatives to Richmond, Va., the Confederate Government did 
not know what to do with Missouri. The efforts in Missouri 
for the Confederacy were made by Missourians. 

In the second place, Missouri was geographically tied to 
the North. On three sides she was surrounded by free soil. 
This made it easier for the Union forces to possess and re- 
tain her. This made it harder for the Confederate forces to 
battle for her. The North could and did pour in troops 
from Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas; the South could come in 
only from Arkansas and to reach the rich counties in Central 
Missouri must travel on foot or horse 200 miles. The Union 
forces could travel east or west by railroad from Hannibal to 


220 History of Missouri and Missouriaks 

St. Joseph or by river from St. Louis to Kansas City. Both 
the r^lroad and the river were soon in Union hands. Mis- 
souri as a state was geographically tied to the North and 
northern Missouri was geographically part of the North. 

In the third place, the United States Government had 
practically every advantage in Missouri over the old State 
Government and the Confederacy. 
Convention and government with 
with adequate powers. It had at 
of the people supporting it. It ha 
tion, and transportation. It had m 
better equipped, and better fed, 
solidated instead of being divided, 
the Missouri river it kept the C 
south Missouri from combining, i 
it had vastly greater resources in ' 

Finally, Missourians themsel^ 
peace failed in the spring of 1861 s 
and others with the North. This 
sections and by counties, but e 

families. This resulted in the worst kind of warfare — neigh- 
bor against neighbor. This led to injustice, murder, plunder, 
bushwhacking, and general guerilla fighting. 

The Military Struggle for Missouri 
June 12, 1861-Maech 8, 1862 

The open military fight for Missouri began with the 
break between General Lyon and Governor Jackson at the Plan- 
ters Hotel conference in St. Louis on June 12, 1861. The 
seisure of the United States arsenal at Liberty, the capture of 
Camp Jackson, and the passage of the State military bill, had 
preceded this, but formal and open-warfare was not accepted 
until June 12th. From that day both Lyon and the Federal 
Government, and Jackson, Price, and the State Government, 
waged active warfare. This military struggle lasted nine 

Military Missouri 221 

months and had two periods. The first period ended on 
Augmt 10, 1861, when the Confederate and Missouri troops 
were victorious at the battle of Wilson's Creek. The second 

period ended on March 8, 1862, when the Union troops were 
victorious at the battle of Pea Ridge. The last battle set- 
tled the military fate of Missouri. The State was to remain 
in the Union both from a political and from a military stand- 

222 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Greneral Lyon's military plan was sound and simple, and 
if he had been supported by his superiors in command, the 
military struggle for Missouri would have ended on August 
10, 1861. This plan was to send trained Union troops to 
southwest Missouri to cut off General Price and the State 
troops in their retreat before Lyon's army. General Lyon 
was to take his army up the Missouri river to central Mis- 
souri, get possession of the Missouri river, keep the pro- 
southern men in north Missouri from enlisting in Price's 
army, and defeat General Price before he had time to raise 
and train his soldiers. The Union troops in southwest Mis- 
souri were to cut off Price's army as it retreated toward 

General Price's and Governor Jackson's military plan 
was first to get men and second to get time to train and 
equip them. They also hoped to keep possession of a point 
or two along the Missouri river, at which recruits from north 
Missouri could pass over This plan was successful in ob- 
taining men, but owing to Lyon's activity with his trained 
soldiers the last part of the plan could not be carried out. 

Governor Jackson left St. Louis on June 12th. He 
caused the bridges to be destroyed along the way. On reach- 
ing Jefferson City he issued a call for 50,000 men. General 
Price was the commander-in-chief of the State troops. Lyon 
with 1,500 men followed at once. The State Government left 
for Boonville where the State troops were gathered under 
Colonel Marmaduke. Here the battle of Boonville was 
fought on June 17th. Lyon with his larger force was suc- 
cessful. The State troops were scattered and Governor Jack- 
son with a small body of men retreated to Warsaw, Benton 
county. The defeat of the State troops at Boonville was im- 
portant. It greatly discouraged the prosouthem men. Again, 
it gave the Union troops possession of all north Missouri and 
of the Missouri river itself. Finally, it forced Governor Jack- 
son and the State Government to flee, and together with ad- 

Military Missouri 


224 History of Missouri and Missourians 

vancing Union troops from the west it made General Price 
and his army at Lexington retreat immediately. 

Lyon could not follow at once owing to securing wagons 
and supplies, and later he was delayed by high water. In 
the meantime Grovemor Jackson and his troops had moved to 
Lamar, Barton county, where they were joined by General 
Rains with more State troops. Part of the Union troops at 
Springfield, which had been sent there by Lyon, were now 
ordered under Sigel to Carthage to cut off Price. But Price 
had already passed and gone to join General McCuUoch with 
his Arkansas Confederates. Sigel now tried to hold Jackson 
until Lyon could arrive. The battle of Carthage ensued on 
July 5 th between 1,000 Union troops and 4,000 State troops. 
Jackson was victorious and Sigel and his men barely escaped 
back to Springfield. 

Price now trained his men at Cowskin Prairie in south- 
west Missouri, and gathered supplies and equipment. Lyon 
arrived in Springfield on July 13th. He had 6,000 men un- 
der him but the term of enlistment. of 3,000 would expire 
in August. Lyon telegraphed for more men so as to attack 
Price immediately. No reinforcements arrived. Price was 
now growing stronger in every way. Lyon determined to 
risk battle rather than see lost all that he had gained. 

On August 10th, the opposing armies met in the bloody 
battle of Wilson's Creek, ten miles southwest of Springfield. 
Lyon had 5,400 men and Price and McCuUoch 11,000 armed 
and 2,000 unarmed men. McCuUoch was in conmiand of the 
the joint Missouri and Arkansas troops. General Lyon was 
killed and twenty- four per cent of the men under him were 
killed. Of the State troops and Confederates, 1,242 were 
killed, wounded, or missing. McCuUoch and Price were vic- 
torious. If McCuUoch had followed the advice and entreaty 
of Price in pursuing the Union troops, the latter might have 
been captured together with their vast stores of equipment 
and ammunition which were badly needed by the Confeder- 

Military Missouri 225 

ates. But McCulloch declined, stating that he was to protect 
Arkansas and that Missouri had not joined the Confederacy. 
The Union troops retreated to Rolla, leaving Price in control 
of all southwest Missouri. However, a greater loss to the 
Union was the death of General Lyon. He had arrived in 


St. Louis on February 6, 1861, and he died at Wilson's Creek 
on August 10, 1861. During these six months and four days 
he had worked fast and hard, had planned carefully and dar- 
ingly, and had fou^t bravely and courageously. He together 
-with Bl^r did more to keep Missouri in the Unio than any 
other two men. Colonel Sneed, Price's chief of staff at 
Wilson's Creek, said this of Lyon: "Lyon had not fought 
and died in vain. By wisely planning, by boldly doing, and 
by bravely dyiiig, he had won. the fight for Missouri." 

Price now marched to Lexington where he found 
Colonel Mulligan with 3,000 Union men. Price's army grew 

226 History of Missouri and Missourians 

larger and increased to 15,000 men, of whom one-half were 
armed. He beseiged Mulligan and, from September 18th to 
the 21st, the battle of Lexington was fought. The Union 
troops fought behind entrenchments and Price's men attacked 
behind hemp bales, which were moved forward. Mulligan 
was forced to surrender. The losses were slight on both 
sides. If Price could have kept Lexington, the effect of this 
battle would have been important. Men now began enlisting 
under him in large numbers. They came from north and 
south of the Missouri river. But, Union troops were also 
advancing from the north, the east, and the west, and 20,000 
had been sent to Springfield. On September 30th, Price was 
again marching for southwest Missouri. There he was safe 
from possible capture and he was also able to protect the 
secession State Legislature, which met at Neosho on October 

General Fremont, who was now in charge of the Union 
troops in Missouri, collected 40,000 men at Springfield. He 
planned to defeat Price, overrun Arkansas, and capture New 
Orleans. This was the same General Fremont who had failed 
to send Lyon a man at Wilson's Creek and had failed to help 
Mulligan at Lexington. Before he had time to begin his 
campaign, Fremont was removed. His successor. General 
Hunter, ordered the Union troops to withdraw to Rolla and 
Sedalia on November 2nd. Southwest Missouri was again in 
control of Price and remained so for three months. The old 
State Government, or rather what was left of it, had now 
joined the Confederacy. But this meant little if Missouri 
was controlled by Union armies. Price had to defeat these 
armies to make secession effective. His army had greatly in- 
creased by recent enlistments and was in good condition. 
The Federal authorities also must wage battle to defeat Price. 
This condition made battle necessary for both sides. 

By the middle of February, 1862, General Curtis with 
his Union troops moved on to Springfield. Price retreated 

Military Missouri 227 

into northwestern Arkansas. He joined forces with McCul- 
loch and Van Horn. General Van Horn took command. He 
had under him 25,000 men, of whom 5,000 were Indians. 
Curtis had 10,500. At Pea Ridge, Arkansas, just below the 
south Missouri boundary line, the two armies met in a three 
days battle. Curtis was victorious and the Confederates were 
forced to retreat. The Union loss was 1,351 men, the Con- 
federate loss was probably greater and included the death of 
General McCulloch. The military struggle for Missouri had 
€nded in a Union victory. Missouri now was clear of regu- 
lar Confederate armies. Price and 5,000 of his men were 
transferred east of the Mississippi to aid the Confederacy. 
The hope of the Confederates in keeping Missouri was now 
abandoned and not until 1864 was a Confederate army of 
size again in the State. The battle of Pea Ridge determined 
the military fate of Missouri. 

Federal Military Orders and Confederate Recruiting, 


After the battle of Pea Ridge about 5,000 of Price's 
men followed him east of the Mississippi to aid the large 
Confederate armies. This number soon increased to 8,000. 
They were organized as the First and Second Missouri Bri- 
gades. They fought throughout the war and at its close 
there were only 800 left. Such was the record made by 

Many of the old soldiers under Price returned to Mis- 
souri after the battle of Pea Ridge. They came back to re- 
cruit men for the Confederate armies. They found many of 
the citizens discontented and willing to enlist. The causes of 
this discontent were the Federal, or Union, military orders. 
In October, 1861, the State Convention had adopted a mili- 
tary bill which established a Missouri State Militia. This 
was composed of the pro-Union supporters, and companies 
were in nearly every county. In the spring of 1862 this 

228 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Missouri State Militia passed under the control of the Union 
commander of Missouri, General Schofield. The Southern 
sympathizers in Missouri were harassed by their Union 
neighbors and they thought that soon they might be drafted 
to fight for the Union against the South. So when the re- 
turning Confederate soldiers of Price began to recruit in 
1862, many Missourians joined them. The Union troops de- 
termined to break up these recruiting bands and to prevent 
them from going south. 

The Confederate recruiting leader in northeast Missouri 
was Colonel Joseph C. Porter, of Lewis coimty Most of 
his men were unarmed and his camp in Lewis coimty was 
broken up in July, 1862. Followed by the Union troops he 
and 2,000 of his men, of whom only 500 were armed, were 
overtaken at Kirksville by Colonel John H. McNeil. Here 
the battle of Kirksville was fought on August 6, 1862, and 
Porter was badly defeated. This practically ended Confed- 
erate recruiting in northeast Missouri, although Confederate 
recruits continued to slip through the Federal line on the 
Missouri river. 

Confederate recruiting had also begun in central and 
western Missouri south of the river. A force of these re- 
cruits under Colonel Upton Hayes gathered at Lee's Summit,, 
in Jackson county, and they were reinforced by Clinton 
county recruits, under Colonel Hughes, and by the guerillas 
under Quantrell. They attacked the Federal force under 
Colonel James T. Buel at Independence on August 11, 1862^ 
and captured it. Five days later they attacked Major Foster 
and his Union troops at Lone Jack. The battle of Lone Jack 
was bitterly fought and neither side was entirely victorious. 
However, owing to approaching Union troops the Confeder- 
ates were forced to retreat and were soon out of the state. 
Although the organized and open recruiting of the Confed- 
erates was a failure due to the Union troops, small bands 
were able to get through the lines and reach the Confederate 

Military Missouri 229 

Border Warfare, 1861-1863 

The opening of the war in Missouri in 1861 was imme- 
diately followed by renewal of war on the Kansas-Missouri 
border. ''Jivol' Lane and his Kansas Freebooters soon in- 
vaded Missouri. When General Price marched north to Lex- 
ington in 1861, he had chased Lane out of flie State, but 
while he was at Lexington, Lane and his men returned and 
on September 23, 1861, they looted and burned Osceola, 
Missouri, and killed a score of people. Later they plundered 
Butler in Bates county and Parkville in Platte county. Soon 
the Kansas "Red Legs", so called from their red morocco 
leggins, under such leaders as Lane and Jennison became a 
terror to all western Missouri. No man's life or property 
was safe. 

In retaliation for these outrages, Quantrell, the most dar- 
ing of Missouri guerrillas, on August 21, 1863, led a force of 
250 men from Jackson county to Lawrence, Kansas, the 
home of Lane. The town was burned, the stores and banks 
were looted, and 183 persons were killed. Lane managed to 
escape. But the sacking of Lawrence brought revenge. 

. Four days later General Thomas Ewing of the Kansas 
troops issued from Kansas City his notorious "Order No. 
11". It commanded all persons in Jackson, Cass, Bates, and 
a part of Vernon county, except those living in or near the 
principal towns, to leave their homes within fifteen days. 
Loyal persons were permitted to move to military stations or 
to Kansas. The order was severely executed. Hundreds 
were forced from their homes, property was destroyed and 
plundered, and in Cass county only 600 of the 10,000 inhabi- 
tants were permitted to remain. Bands of robbers, bush- 
whackers, and soldiers roamed over the blighted district until 
the war closed and when the people came back in 1866 they 
frequently found nothing except their land. 

230 History of Missouri and Missourians 

General Ewing was strongly denovmced for this cruel 
order. On his staff was Colonel Bingham, a Missourian. 
Bingham was an artist of ability. He painted a picture, 
"Order No. 11", which depicted the sufferings of the people. 
This painting is known throughout Missouri. 


Other retaliations were practiced. Among these was 
the Palmyra Massacre on August 18, 1862, by the Union 
troops and the Centralia Massacre of September 27, 1864 
by Bill Anderson and his men. The war in Missouri had 
become one of cruel practices and bitter hatreds. 

Price's Raid, 1864 

During 1863 the Missouri Confederate military leaders 
made a number of small raids in Missouri. Such men as 
Marmaduke, Shelby, Poindexter, and Jeff Thompson led 

Military Missouri 231 

these raids. The principal object was to obtain recruits. The 
most famous raid was that of General Price in 1864. 

General Price had been transferred to Arkansas and had 
successfully equipped a force of 12,000 men. He planned to 
enter Missouri when most of the Union troops were in the 
South, capture St. Louis if possible and at least Jefferson 
City, set up the old State Government, have recruits flock to 
his army, and perhaps wage a successful struggle for Mis- 
souri. He entered southeast Missouri on September 20, 1864. 
Half way to St. Louis he was opposed by Union troops un- 
der General H. S. Ewing. Although victorious, Price march- 
ed to Franklin county and then to Jefferson City. Federal 
troops were now pouring into Jefferson City from all parts 
of Missouri. Price passed around the city on October 8th. 
On his route westward he destroyed much railroad property. 
In this he was aided by Quantrell, Anderson, and other 
guerrillas. A small force was sent across the Missouri rjver 
and captured Glasgow. But Price continued westward. Vol- 
unteers did not enlist in large numbers. At Independence 
Price found himself pursued by one Union army under Gen- 
eral Pleasanton and opposed by another under General Cur- 
tis. Along Big Blue river and Brush Creek, lying midway 
between Independence and Kansas City, the three days battle 
of Westport was fought. It was one of the most bitterly 
fought battles of the war, and in proportion to the number of 
men engaged it was one of the most fatal. Price was forced 
to retreat to Arkansas. The raid had been a failure. Instead 
of 23,000 recruits, which he had expected, only 6,000 were 
enrolled. His losses equalled this number. 

The war was over in Missouri, but bushwhacking con- 
tinued until 1865. Missouri contributed 110,000 men to the 
Union service and perhaps 30,000 to 40,000 men to the Con- 
federate service, out of a possible 236,00 men of military age. 
In short, 65 per cent of Missourians of military age in 1860 
had entered military service. This is a very high record. 

232 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Although no battles of first rank were fought in Missouri, 
there were 1,162 battles, engagements, and skirmishes in Mis- 
souri from 1861 to 1865. This is 11 per cent of the total 
combats of the Civil war and more than occurred in any 
state excepting Virginia and Tennessee. Although Missouri 
ranked only eight in population in 1860, still in the number 
of men she furnished the Union army alone she ranked 
seventh. In addition she supplied between 30,000 and 40,000 
men to the Confederate cause. Certainly Missouri bore her 
'share, and more, in the war between the states. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. State the four reasons why the possession of Missouri by 
the North was necessary if the Federal government hoped to 
defeat the Confederacy. 

2. When was the open military fight for Missouri begun? 

3. State General Lyon's military plan. State General Price's 
and Governor Jackson's military plan. 

4. Describe the important battle in which these opposing armies 

5. Discuss the battle of Lexington. 

6. Why was the battle of Pea Ridge a decisive factor in the 
military fate of Missouri? 

7. What was the great incentive for Confederate recruiting in 

8. What were the events which led up to the issue of "Order 
No. 11?" What was "Order No. 11?" 

9. What was the purpose of Price's raid in 1864? 

10. What is Missouri's record in her contribution of service men 
in the Civil war? 

11. How does Missouri rank in number of battles and engage- 
ments fought in the State? 

Chapter III 


The opening of war with Spain on April 21, 1898, was 
followed two days later by President McKinley's call for 
125,000 volunteers. Missouri's quota was one light battery 
and five regiments of infantry. The National Guard of Mis- 
souri at once responded and assembled at Jefferson Barracks, 
near St. Louis, to be mustered into service. Light Battery 
A, recruited in St. Louis imder Captain Frank M. Rumbold, 
was the first to be mustered in on May 1st and after two 
months of training at Chickamauga landed in Porto Rico. It 
served here one month and after the close of the war was 
mustered out in November. The five regiments of Missouri 
voltmteer infantry were all mustered in during May and were 
trained at various camps over the United States. Owing to 
the early close of the war, none of these s?iw service in Cuba 
or Porto Rico but all were waiting opportunity to serve their 
country. These five infantry regiments represented every 
part of Missouri. The First Regiment of Missouri Volun- 
teer Infantry, under Colonel Edwin Batdorf, was recruited 
in St. Louis. The second, under Colonel William E. Caf f ee, 
was recruited in Butler, Clinton, Jefferson City, Joplin, La- 
mar, Nevada, Peirce Qty, Sedalia, and Springfield. The 
third, under Colonel George P. Gross, was recruited in Kan- 
sas City and Independence. The fourth, under Colonel 
Joseph A. Corby, was recruited in St. Joseph, Bethany, Car- 
roUton, Chillicothe, Fulton, Hannibal, Jefferson Barracks, 
Mar)rville, Mound City, and Warrensburg. The fifth, imder 
Colonel Milton Moore, was recruited in Kansas City, Carth- 
age, Coltunbia, Excelsior Springs, Harrisonville, Higginsville, 
Jefferson Barracks, and Mexico. 

When the President made his second call for 75,000 vol- 
unteers on May 25, 1898, Missouri immediately responded 



History of Missouri and Missourians 

and raised the Sixth Regiment Missouri Volunteer Infantry. 
This was the last regiment mustered into service but it saw 
more service than any other. The sixth, under Colonel 
Fletcher Hardeman, was recruited in Bloomfield, Brookfield, 
California, Carondelet, De Soto, Doniphan, Kennett, Lutes- 
ville, St. Louis, and Willow Springs. It became part of Gen- 
eral Lee's army, went to Cuba, and took part in the occupa- 
tion of Havana. It was highly trained and was called the 
best regiment in Lee's army. Part of the Third Regiment 
of United States Volunteer Engineers was also composed of 
Missourians which saw service in Cuba. The man who was 
first to plant the American flag on Cuban soil during the 
war was a Missourian, Arthur Lee Willard of Kirksville. 

Missouri furnished a total of 8,109 soldiers in this war 
and in no instance was any of the men or officers of Mis- 
souri troops reported for infraction of military discipline. 
Missouri can take pride in her quick response to the Nation's 
call for men, in the record made by her men, and in the sup- 
port given by her citizens. Missouri's greatest gain from the 
war, aside from the objects for which it was waged, was the 
cementing of the ties of friendship and loyalty between her 
citizens of Northern and Southern sympathy. The sons of 
Union soldiers and the sons of Confederate soldiers alike en- 
listed and marched shoulder to shoulder in support of their 

Following the close of the Spanish-American war, the 
United States forces in the newly acquired Philippine Islands 
were faced with an organized insurrection of the natives in 
1899. The insurrection was put down in 1900 but fighting 
between the United States troops and some of the savage 
natives, like the Moros, continued for years. There were 
Missourians in the United States army who took an active 
part in these struggles, and both privates and officers cast 
credit on their state. One of the privates, Ferdinando Keith- 
ley, of Barry county, while on picket duty saved an entire 

Military Missouri 235 

camp from massacre by bravely repelling an attacking party 
of twenty Moros one night. He received eleven spear 
wounds in his body but he held off the Moros and then 
crawled one mile to camp to warn his comrades. He died 
the next morning. One of the Missouri oficers was Lieuten- 
ant John J. Pershing, of Linn county. He had fought Indi- 
ans on the plains and Spaniards in Cuba. He served in the 
Philippines almost continuously from 1899 to 1914. He 
made a remarkable record, conquered the Moros, and gave 
the natives a just administration. It was due to this record 
that he was later called upon to serve his country in the 
Mexican Border Trouble of 1915 and 1917, and later in the 
World War of 1917 and 1918. 

The Mexican Border Trouble, 1915-1917 

When the raids of Mexican bandits and the destruction 
of American lives and property early in 1915 made it nec- 
essary for the United States Government to act, General 
Pershing was placed in command of the El Paso, Texas, dis- 
trict. Here he patrolled the boundary line until March, 1916, 
when he was ordered to lead an expedition of 10,000 men 
into Mexico in pursuit of Villa, the Mexican bandit leader. 
With his 10,000 United States cavalrymen he dashed across 
the line and for eleven months lived iii a foreign country. 
He was 400 miles from his base of supplies, surrounded by 
deserts and mountains, bandits and hostile people. He did 
not make war on Mexico for strangely enough that country 
was neither at peace nor at war with the United States. 
General Pershing did not capture Villa but he did conduct 
his expedition, called the Punitive Expedition, in a way that 
reflected credit to America. 

However, Missouri did more than furnish the com- 
mander. She furnished men, 5,030 in number, in the Mexi- 
can Border Trouble. On June 3, 1916, the National Defense 
Act was passed by Congress which federalized the National 

236 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Guards of all the states. Missouri was the first state to 
comply with that act. On June 18, 1916, the call of the 
President for the Missouri National Guard was issued. Two 
days later the Missouri soldiers began assembling at the State 
Rifle Range at Nevada. They were the first to mobilize. On 
July 1st they began leaving for Laredo, Texas, and soon all 
reached the Border. The number furnished by Missouri was 
5,030 officers and men. For six months they patrolled 145 
miles of the border. Due to the care taken of the men, there 
was little sickness and no camp diseases. The men were 
under the general command of Brigadier-Greneral Harvey C. 
Qark, of Nevada. Most of the force was mustered out on 
December 30, 1916, but some were in service until shortly 
before war was declared against Germany. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What was Missouri's quota in the Spanish- American war? 

2. State the facts concerning the regiment which saw the most 

3. Describe the services of Ferdinanda Keithley. 

4. In what way did Missouri contribute to the Mexican Border 

Chapter IV 

THE WORLD WAR, 1917-1918 

The history of America's participation in the World War 
against the German Empire and its aUies from April 6, 1917, 
to November 11, 1918, is one of highest credit to the pat- 
riotism of our citizens and to the courage of our soldiers. 
The entire United States was placed on a war basis in pro- 
ducing and conserving food, in making war supplies, and in 
selecting soldiers. In all of these activities Missouri and 
JMissourians did their share and in several instances they 
did more than was required or was expected of them. This 
war record of Missouri falls into four divisions: first, the 
military record of Missouri soldiers; second, the war record 
of the army of citizens at Home; third, the record of native 
Missourians who were prominent leaders in the nation during 
the war; and fourth, the gratitude of the State of Missouri, 
as expressed after the war, for the Missouri soldiers who 
were inducted into service. The individual records of Mis- 
souri soldiers in training camp and on battle field would fill 
volumes. Their bearing of hardships and privations, their 
exhibition of bravery and courage, proved that they were 
worthy sons of their patriotic ancestors. 

Military Record of Missouri Soldiers 

Missouri furnished a total of 156,232 officers and men 
in the World war. Of this total, 14,756 were Missouri 
national guardsmen, 92,843 were Missouri selective service 
men, 30,780 were volunteers in the regular army, 14,132 were 
enlisted men in the navy, and 3,721 were enlisted men in the 
marine corps. In short, acording to the report of the adju- 
tant general of Missouri, our State contributed 138,379 men 
to the army, 14,132 men to the navy, and 3,721 to the marine 


238 History of Missouri and Missourians 

corps, — a total of 156,232. It will be impossible to consider 
here the large number of volimteer enlistments from Missouri 
in the different branches of the United States military and 
naval service, since they were widely scattered among van- 
our organizations over the nation. Mention should be made 
of the 12th Engineers of St. Louis, composed of railway em- 
ployees, which was sent to France on July 28, 1917, was the 
first regiment in France to receive the six months service 
stripes, and performed a great service in aiding in the con- 
struction of army transportation routes in France for the 
American Expeditionary Force and for later arrivals. Ex- 
cepting the 12th Engineers and the various volunteers, am- 
bulance and medical organizations, the first large division of 
Missouri soldiers to be inducted into service was the Missouri 
national guard. 

The Missouri national guard has always made a fine 
record for its training and patriotism. In the Spanish Ameri- 
can war it quickly and patriotically offered its service. In the 
Mexican Border trouble it gave excellent service to the 
government. When war was declared against the German 
Empire on April 6, 1917, its full war strength of 14,656 
officers and men were inducted into national service. After 
training at Camp Clark, Nevada, Mo., it was sent to Camp 
Doniphan, Okla., on Sept. 28, 1917. The 1st Missouri Field 
Signal Battalion, of Kansas City, under Major Ruby D. Gar- 
rett, was detached and sent to France as part of the famous 
42nd (Rainbow) Division, which was composed of national 
guard units of twenty-six states. In. France this division saw 
early service and the Missouri battalion made an enviable 

The rest of the Missouri national guard was consolidated 
with the Kansas national guard to form the 35th Division. 
Missouri furnished two-thirds and Kansas one-third of the 
men. The 35th Division began leaving for France in April 
1918. It saw active service in the Vosges mountains, the St. 

Military Missouri 


Mihiel sector, and the great Meuse-Argonne offensive. It 
made a remarkable record for bravery and effective fighting. 
It was given one of the most dangerous and important parts 
of the battle line and it successfully performed its work. Its 
casualties were very heavy, including 1,530 killed and 6,389 
wounded. Its members were awarded two Congressional 
Medals of Honor and 85 Distinguished Service Crosses. It 
was discharged from service during the spring of 1919. 

Speaking of this division in its remarkable fighting 
record along the Meuse-Argonne front, Frederick Palmer, 
the official war correspondent, said: 

"In an advance of over seven miles the 35th had suffered 
7909 casualties. Nearly half of its infantry was dead on the 
field or i« the hospital. The other half was in a coma from 
fatigue. Every rod gained had been won by fighting against fire 
as baffling as it was powerful. To say that the 35th fought five 
days as a division is hardly doing it justice. A division may be 
said to be fighting when only one brigade is in line while the 
other is resting. All the men of the 35th were fighting. There 
were soldiers who did not have five hours sleep in that period 
of unbroken battle strain in the midst of the dead and dying. 
Only the powerful physique of the men, with their store of re- 
serve energy which they drew on to the last fraction, enabled 
them to bear it as long as they did. Their courage and endur- 
ance and dash performed a mighty service in a most critical 

The first Missouri selective service men were sent to 
Camp Funston, Kansas. Here they were organized as part 
of the 89th Division in September, 1917, and were trained 
under General Leonard Wood. After eight months of train- 
ing the division was sent to France. It was in active service 
in the St. Mihiel advance and in the Meuse-Argonne offen- 
sive. No division made a finer record. Its casualties were 
1,760 killed and 5,838 wounded. Its members received nine 
Congressional Medals of Honor and 138 Distinguished Ser- 
vice Crosses. It was discharged in May 1919, after having 

^40 History of Missouri and Missourians 

served as part of the Army of Occupation in CJermany. The 
89th Division has been called the "Fighting 89th". It and 
the "Brave 35th" showed the nation that the men of the 
Middle West are brave, fearless, and efficient 

The loss of Missourians in the World war, including 
casualties in camps at home, and on the battlefields of 
France, was 3,644 killed and 6,944 wounded — a total of 
10,588, according to the report of the adjutant general of 
Missouri. Missouri troops bore over 3% of the total battle 
deaths and wounded of the American forces. Of battle 
deaths, excluding wounded, the Missouri boys suffered 3.4% 
of America's sacrifice on the battlefield. Five of the seventy- 
eight Congressional Medals of Honor were awarded Mis- 
sourians and one hundred sixty- five Distinguished Service 
Crosses were also awarded Missourians. The first American 
to give his life in his country's service in France was a Kan- 
sas City volunteer. Dr. William T. Fitzsimmons. The first 
recruiting station for seamen for the United States navy to 
fill its quota in 1917 was Kansas City, Missouri. In 1917 
Missouri furnished more marines than any other district. The 
second ambulance corps to land in France was from St. 
Louis. In fact, Missouri did her part, and more, in every 
way in furnishing able, loyal, and patriotic soldiers and sea- 

The Army of Missourians at Home 

Just as Missouri boys in camp and on battlefield upheld 
the high traditions of their State, so did the army of citizens 
at home do their part in organizing their forces to produce 
food, make war materials, economize in consumption, buy 
liberty bonds, contribute to the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., K. 
of C, and Camp Library movements, and in a hundred ways 
show their ability, thrift, and patriotism. This army of Mis- 
sourians at home made sacrifices and showed courage that 
did much to make possible the victory of American arms. 

MiuTARY Missouri 241 

AVar means men first, but it also means food, clothing, trans- 
portation, supplies, money, and a thousand things in order to 
be successful. Missouri supplied her share of men; she also 
furnished her share of money and materials. 

Missouri's war governor was Frederick D. Gardner. He 
was awake to the situation which confronted the State and 
Nation when war was declared on April 6, 1917. Three days 
later he issued the first state war proclamation calling a 
statewide food conference in St. Louis, the first of its kind 
in the United States. On April 24th the Missouri Council 
of Defence was organized imder the direction of F. B. Mum- 
ford, dean of the agricultural college of the University of 
Missouri. This council was in existence twenty-one months 
and during this time it was, in the words of Governor Gard- 
ner, "The supreme authority of the Commonwealth in rela- 
tion to the State's duty to the Nation during the entire period 
of the war." It performed a great work. Its 12,000 mem- 
bers reached every hamlet in Missouri. Missouri's rise from 
rank fourteen in the value of food crops in 1916 to rank five 
in 1917, was largely due to Missouri's Council of Defense. 
It spent its funds wisely and economically. Out of $100,000 
available, it spent only $76,086.47. Still it was rated as a 
class "A" council. Only eight other state councils won that 
distinction, and not one of these had an appropriation uijder 
$1,000,000. Dean Mumford was also State Food Adminis- 
trator and as such performed equally significant work in be- 
half of Missouri. 

Missourians not only co-operated in organized bodies to 
produce food and obtain efficient service in support of the 
war, but they also acted as one body in their individual sup- 
port of the war. In each of the Liberty Loan drives they 
subscribed more than their quotas. Even children did their 
part in purchasing war savings stamps. In November 1917, 
over 700,000 Missouri women signed the Hoover Food 
Pledge, placing Missouri first in the nation in proportion to 

242 History of Missouri and Missourians 

population and seccmd even in actual numbers. Her Boy 
Scouts organized and greatly increased the garden food sup- 
ply. Her universities and coU^es offered the services of 
their experts and of many of their students. Her citizens co- 
operated with Lieutenant Governor Wallace Crossley, who as 
State Fuel Director issued and enforced helpful regulations 
regarding the fuel supply of the State. A delegation of Mis- 
sourians was among the first to go to Washington, D. C, 
to list Missouri's lead and zinc mines among the national as- 
sets for prosecuting the war. The Missouri farmers increas- 
ed their yield of crops from 50% to 100% to supply food 
for the armies. The St. Louis chemical industry increased 
its output and the packing house centers of Kansas City and 
St Joseph increased their volumes. Ever3rwhere in Missouri, 
as in the nation, conservation, economy, and production in- 
creased. Truly Missouri and Missourians supported with 
sacrifice and patriotism the boys at the front 

Missourians Among the Nation's Leaders 

In no period of American history have Missourians oc- 
cupied so many important positions in national and interna- 
tional affairs as they did during the years 1917 and 1918. 
They were among the leaders in statecraft, diplomacy, mili- 
tary and naval affairs, and in the many high offices con- 
nected with the prosecution of the war. Of the scores of 
Missourians serving, only a few of the foremost can here 
be mentioned. 

The commander of the American army in France was 
the great Missourran from Linn county. General John J. 
Pershing. The fine morale of the American soldiers and 
their wonderful success on the field of battle were exhibited 
under General Pershing. He was the only lead'ng com- 
mander of a nation's army who in this war held his position 
with satisfaction to his country from the opening to the close 





of hostilities. He had executive ^ility and political astute- 
ness. He did not fail once, he never spoke the wnmg word, 
he always left the right impression, and he seems to have 
committed not one important error either at home or abroad. 
Somehow, he met every test. He served his country with 
ability, honor, and success. He was the great Missourian of 
the war. 

Standing second only to 
Pershing, was another Mis- 
sourian, General Enoch H. 
Crowder, of Grundy, coun- 
ty. As judge advocate 
general of the American 
army he had for years 
given splendid service in 
the thousands of military 
cases and problems which 
came up for his decision. 
When the Selective Service 
Act became a law, General 
Crowder was entrusted 
with its operation. No 
man had a more diffi- 
cult task than General 
Crowder and no man could 

MAJUR U£Nh:RAL . , ... 

ENOCH H. CROWDER havc performed it better. 

The young men of America were listed and without political 
favoritism 4,000,000 men were inducted into service. The 
name of General Crowder and his monumental work will live, 
Missourians were seemingly everywhere performing ser- 
vice for their country. Commander Joseph H. Taussig, of 
St, Louis, directed the first American flotilla of destroyers 
in active American service. Rear Admiral Leigh C. Palmer, 
of St Louis, became chief of the bureau of navigation and 

Military Missouri 245 

as such he had charge of raising 250,000 men for the navy. 
He was the "Crowder of the Navy." Brigadier General 
Edgar Russell, of Breckenridge but a native of Pleasant Hill, 
became chief signal officer of the American forces in France. 
Rear Admiral Robert E. Coontz, of Hannibal, was placed in 
charge of the Puget Sound navy yards. And there were 
scores of other Missourians occupying high positions both in 
the army and navy. 

Missourians also furnished many inventions of value to 
their country. A. A. Kellogg, of Clinton, invented an instan- 
taneous explosion mechanism for shells, which worked havoc 
on the battlefront of the enemy. Captain T. S. M. Smith, 
of St. Louis, solved the problem of crossing the Meuse river 
by forming a temporary footbridge of canvas floats. Lieu- 
tenant Julien A. Gehrung, of St. Louis, discovered a treat- 
ment for poison gas, adopted by the French army, which 
saved thousands of lives and gave sig^t and hearing tg many 
more. Gregory C. Davison, a native of Jefferson City, was 
the inventor of a depth bomb to destroy German submarines. 

As in the field of invention and war, so in the field of 
execution in America were Missourians among the leaders. 
The United States secretary of agriculture, who was director 
of food production, was Hon. David E. Houston, of St. 
Louis. Hon. Carl Vrooman, a native of Macon county, was 
assistant secretary of agriculture and the leader in the speak- 
ing publicity campaign for food production and food conser- 
vation. George Creel, of Lafayette county, was chairman of 
the national committee on information and publicity. Hon. 
David R. Francis, of St. Louis, performed an invaluable 
service as ambassador to Russia. Hon. Breckenridge Long, 
of St. Louis, was assistant secretary of state. Hon. A. M. 
Dockery, of Gallatin, was assistant postmaster general. Ed- 
ward R. Stettinius, of St. Louis, was general purchasing 
agent in America both for Great Britain and France. Robert 
S. Brookings, of St. Louis, was a member of the United 

246 History of Missouri and Missourians 

States central purchasing 6oard. J. Lionberger Davis, of St. 
Louis, was managing director in the office of the national 
custodian of enemy property. Henry Miller, of Hannibal, 
was a member of the American commission of railroad ex- 
perts to assist Russia. John Hunter, of St. Louis, rendered 
great service in the construction of the American marine 
fleet. Bainbridge Colby, of St. Louis, was a member of the 
United States shipping commission. Oscar T. Crosby, of St 
Louis, was assistant secretary of the United States treasury. 
Ford F. Harvey, of Kansas City, was a member of the 
national Red Cross war finance committee. Miss Julia Stin- 
son, of St. Louis, becaine chief nurse of the American Expedi- 
tionary Force. James F. Holden and J. A. Middleton, of Kan- 
sas City, and H. M. Adams, of St. Louis, were appointed on 
the board of traffic managers of the director general of 
railroads. Hale Holden, of Kansas City, was appointed su^ 
perintendent-in-chief of all the railroads of the United States 
under Director General McAdoo. These were men called 
from the private walks of life who at the sacrifice of their 
business interests gave their services to the country. Mis- 
sourians in Congress were equally loyal and patriotic. Both 
in State and Nation, in camp and on field, at home and 
abroad, Missourians served well and faithfully their country. 

Gratitude of a Grateful People 

When the 50th General Assenibly of Missouri met in 
1919 a number of acts were introduced in the interests of 
the Missouri soldiers who had served from this state. This 
legislation, expressive of the gratitude of a grateful people, 
was passed practically by a unanimous vote. It provided for 
the creation of a Missouri soldiers' and sailors' employment 
commission. During the first two years of its existence the 
commission received applications for assistance and secured 
positions for 19,874 Missouri soldiers, sailors, ^nd marines. 
An act was passed providing for the publication by the adju- 

Military Missouri 247 

tant general of a history of Missouri military units in the 
war and of a biographical sketch of every Missourian in 
service. This work, which will embrace six volumes, will 
be distributed to all libraries and public schools in the State. 
The General Assembly dedicated the east corridor of the 
new capitol to the purposes of a Missouri soldiers' and sail- 
ors' memorial hall. Here are displayed the battle flags and 
war trophies of Missouri units in all the wars in which the 
State has taken part. This legislation authorized counties 
and cities to erect memorials in honor of its citizens who 
served in the World War and provided that any sum between 
$250. and $1,000. raised for this purpose would be duplicated 
by the State. Provision was also made directing the adjutant 
general to procure and present an appropriate medal to each 
Missouri soldier, sailor, and marine who had served in the 
World War. An appropriation was made to carry out these 
provisions and to erect a monument on the battlefield of 
France in memory of the Missourians who gave their lives 
there. A large appropriation was also made for reorganizing 
the Missouri national guard. 

At a special election held in August 1921 the people gave 
further evidence of their gratitude. The Legislature was 
authorized to incur not exceeding $15,000,000. indebtedness 
for bonuses to Missouri soldiers, sailors, and marines. At a 
special session of the Legislature in November 1921 a sol- 
diers' and sailors' bonus law was passed and payment of the 
bonus began in 1922. So did Missouri show gratitude in 
every way to her defenders. It is fitting that "A Century of 
Military Missouri" should so close. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. In what four divisions does the war record of Missouri fall? 

2. How many men and officers did Missouri furnish in the 
World War? 

248 HisrpRY OF Missouri and Missourians 

3. The Missouri National Guard was placed largely in what 
military division? The Missouri Selective Service men were 
in what division? 

4. What can you say of the record of the 35th and the 89th 

5. How did the army of citizens at home contribute to the suc- 
cess of the war? 

6. What was Governor Gardner's first official war proclama- 

7. Discuss the record of the Missouri Council of Defense. 

8. Who was the most renowned Missourian during the war? 

9. Name ten Missourians and tell the service each performed 
for his country during the World War. 

10. In what ways have the people of Missouri expressed their 




The test of civilization is the ability to co-operate 

Chapter I 

This chapter on population treats of Missourians as a 
whole. AH Missourians are greater and more important 
than any one Missourian. So important is the study of 
population that it is necessary to a true understanding of 
our history. If one knows the facts regarding Missouri's 
population during her century of statehood, he will possess 
information which will help explain many things relating to 
politics, war, education, city building, and industry. 

The study of Missouri's population is interesting. The 
population figures alone may mean little, but when in- 
terpreted they tell a fascinating story. This story relates 
how Missouri grew rapidly in population during her first 
half century, how she later held her own for thirty years, 
and how as compared with other states she has been losing 
rank in population during the last twenty years even though 
her population continued to grow. This story explains why 
Missouri was once Democratic by a large majority, then by 
a fair majority, and later by a small plurality. This story 
describes how Missouri was once a southern state in popula- 
tion, then a western state, and to-day is a conservative central 
state. This story tells, how the foreign bom living in Missouri 
did much to keep the State in the Union and bring success 
to Union arms during the Civil War, and how later the for- 


250 History of Missouri and Missourians 

eign bom helped increase the population of Missouri's cities. 
It also relates how Missouri was once a rural state with 
few city dwellers, and how to-day half of her people live in 
cities and her country districts are losing population. And, 
finally, it illustrates how Missourians have been settling the 
West until now more Missourians leave Missouri than Mis- 
souri receives from other states. Before telling this story, 
it should be remembered that a mere decrease or a mere in- 
crease in population may mean nothing as regards being 
good or bad in itself. For example, if Missouri's cities were 
to double in population and Missouri's coimtry districts were 
to remain the same in population, instead of hurting the 
country districts this condition in one respect might aid them 
in furnishing them with a larger market for their produce 
close at home. This would mean either higher prices or 
lower costs, especially freight costs, and would result in 
more profitable farming, mining, and lumbering. This 
would mean better homes, schools, churches, and roads in 
the country. So, it is well to remember that there is a silver 
lining to the so-called dark cloud. 

This subject of Missouri's population will be considered 
from four points of view. First, a general survey of Mis- 
souri's population from 1820 to 1920 will be made, including 
population by decades, per cent of increase, density per 
square mile, rank of Missouri, date of organization of coun- 
ties (which indicates the gradual settling up of the State), 
and urban, i. e., city, and rural population. Second, the 
white and the negro population will be set forth. Third, 
the native and the foreign population will be considered. 
And, fourth, the native American population in Missouri will 
be described in regard to the states from which it came. 
The growth of individual cities will be told under "A Cen- 
tury of City Building," and the emigration of Missourians to 
other states will be related under "Missouri, the 'Mother of 
the West' and 'Founder of States/ " 

A Century of Population 251 

General Survey 

From 1820 to 1870 Missouri rose from rank 23 to rank 
5 in population; From 1870 to 1900 she held this rank. 
Since 1900 Missouri's rank has decreased and to-day it is 
9th. During the first fifty years of statehood, from 1820 
to 1870, Missouri's population increased 2,500%, or from 
66,586 to 1,721,295. Her per cent of increase each decade 
(every ten years) was very large, the hghest being 173% 
between 1830 and 1840, and her lowest being 47% between 
1860 and 1870. From 1870 to 1920 Missouri's total popula- 
tion doubled, but the largest part of this increase was from 
1870 to 1900. From 1820 to 1870 Missouri grew from two 
to seven times as fast in per cent of increase as did the 
United States but since 1870 the per cent of increase has 
been less than that of the United States. 

Corresponding with Missouri's increase in population 
has been the increa$e in density of her population, i. e., the 
average number of persons to the square mile. In 1820 this 
density was only .9, or less than one person to the square 
mile, and in 1920 it was 49.5, or nearly 50 persons to the 
square mile. The average density for the United States in 
1920 was 35.5, so Missouri has 40% more persons to the 
square mile than the average for the United States. Mis- 
souri to-day ranks 9th in population, 18th in area, and 19th 
in persons per square mile. From this table other interest- 
ing facts may be brought out: 

252 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Population of Missouri : 1810 to 1920 




Number In- 



% Increaaa 
over precid- 

% Increase 
for U. 8. 

Total Den- 
sity per aq. 
mile in Mo. 


















































































The per cent of increase since 1870 has steadily fallen until 
between 1910 and 1920 it was only 3.4%. In 1880 Missouri 
for the first time had a smaller per cent of increase than the 
United States, and to-day it is less than one-fourth as much. 
Missouri's population in 1920 was 3,404,055. 

The first reason for Missouri's rapid growth from 1820 
to 1870 was because she received many more people from 
other states than she sent to other states. This is called in- 
terstate migration. From 1820 to 1870 Missouri gained 
through interstate migration. The second reason was because 
Missouri gained by receiving a large number of foreign bom 
people. Of course, Missouri also gained and still gains 
through natural increase, i. e., through more births 'than 
deaths. From 1870 to 1900 Missouri continued to gain by 
interstate migration and from 1870 to 1890 Missouri also 
profited largely from immigration of the foreign bom, but 
since her population had become large both of these gains 
were in per cent smaller as compared to the years when 
the total population was much less. In short, down to 1900 

A Century of Population 253 

Missouri, owing especially to her cheap land in the firs^ 
place and to her profitable manufactures in the second place, 
attracted people in large numbers. Since 1890, however, the 
foreign bom inmiigration to Missouri has decreased, and 
since 1900 Missouri has lost through interstate migration. 
Cheaper land in the West has attracted more Missourian$ 
during the last twenty years than Missouri land has attracted 
citizens of other states. 

As Missouri's population grew what parts of the State 
were settled? This is answered by looking at a map of Mis- 
souri's counties and by checking from the table which shows 
the years of their organization. A county was not organized 
until it had settlers, so the gradual settling of Missouri is 
seen from the counties organized. 

Table of Missouri Counties 

(The figures in parenthesis indicate the number of counties 
organized that year.) 


1812 (5) — Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, St. Charles, St. Louis, 

Ste. Genevieve. 

1813 (1)— Washington. 
1816 (1)— Howard. 

1818 (8) — Cooper, Franklin, Jefferson, Lincoln, Madison, Mont- 
gomery, Pike, Wayne. 

1820 (10) — Boone, Callaway, Chariton, Cole, Gasconade, Lillard (now 

Lafayette), Perry, Ralls, Ray, Saline. 

1821 (2)— St. Francois, Scott. 

1822 (D— Clay. 

1826 (2) — ^Jackson, Marion. 

1829 (2)— Crawford, Randolph. 

1831 (1)— Monroe. 

1833 (9) — Carroll, Clinton, Greene, Lewis, Morgan, Pettis, Pulaski, 

Ripley, Warren. 

1834 (2) — Henry, Johnson. 

1835 (6) — Barry, Benton, Cass, Polk, Shelby, Stoddard. 

1836 (4) — Audrain, Caldwell, Clark, Daviess. 

254 History of Missouri and Missourians 

1837 (5)— Linn, Livingston, Macon, Miller, Taney. ' 

1838 (3)— Buchanan, Newton, Platte. 

1841 (15) — Adair, Andrew, Bates, Camden, Dade, Gentry, Grund>v 
Holt, Jasper, Osage, Ozark, St. Clair, Scotland, Shannon, 

1844 (1)— Dallas. 

1845 (18)— Atchison, Cedar, De Kalb, Dunklin, Harrison, Hickory. 

Knox, Lawrence, Mercer, Mississippi, Moniteau, Noda- 
way, Oregon, Putnam, Reynolds, Schuyler, Sullivan, Texas 

1849 (3)— Butler, Laclede, McDonald. 

1851 (5) — Bollinger, Dent, Pemiscot, Stone, Vernon. 

1855 (3) — Barton, Maries. Webster. 

1857 (4) — Douglass, Howell, Iron, Phelps. 

1859 (1)— Carter. 

1860 (l)~Christian.' 

1861 (1)— Worth. 

1876 — ^Thc City of St. Louis was separated from St. Louis 

In 1820 Missouri had 25 counties, all of which were 
along the Missouri or the Mississippi river except three. Of 
these 25 counties, 15 were south and 10 were north of the 
Missouri river. By 1830 seven more counties had been 
formed, of which only four were along the two big rivers. 
This shows that the settlers were beginning to push back 
into the interior. By 1840 the large number of 30\new 
counties had been formed, showing that Missouri was gain- 
ing fast in new immigrants. By looking again at the tab|e 
of population it will be seen that between 1830 and 1< 
Missouri increased 173.2%. Of these 30 counties, only 
were along the two rivers. The north prairie section and 
the south prairie and fertile Ozark section were now be- 
ginning to receive settlers. Between 1841 and 1850 Missouri 
added 37 counties. The large majority of these were the 
prairie counties, north and south, and the rich bottom coun- 
ties in southeast Missouri, but one-fourth were highland 
Ozark counties. By 1850 all the counties except one north 
of the Missouri river had been organized. From 1851 to 

A Century of Population 255 

1861 the last 15 counties were added, of which 10 were high- 
land Ozark counties. 

Next in importance to an increase or a decline in total 
population, is the distribution of the population in the city 
and the country. This is referred to as urban population 
and rural population. Urban population, according to the 
United States census, includes all inhabitants living in cities 
of 2,500 or more persons. When the rural population of a 
state increases fast it usually indicates some of these facts, — 
good land at cheap prices, good land at lower prices 
than most states, profitable farming, a per man yearly in- 
come nearly equal to or higher than that of a city laborer, 
and perhaps foreign emigration. When the rural population 
of a state declines fast it usually indicates some of these 
facts, — good land at lower prices in other states, unprofitable 
farming, a per man yearly income less than that of a city 
laborer, the growth of cities, and perhaps a smaller foreign 
immigration. It should be remembered that the entire United 
States has been steadily increasing both in urban and in rural 
population, but the per cent of urban increase has been much 
higher than the per cent of rural increase. Missouri has 
been affected by the national tendency in population just as 
she has been affected by national politics and national wars. 
In some decades Missouri has gone contrary to the national 
tendency in population but over a period of years she has 
gradually followed the general trend. 

The century of Missouri's population from the view- 
point of urban and rural divides itself into three periods. 
The first period from 1820 to 1860 saw her rural population 
growing at a very rapid rate. Missouri's cheap land attracted 
native Americans and foreign bom citizens by the hundreds 
of thousands. The period was one of rural growth. There 
were, of course, many towns, some of fair size and of greiil 
trading importance, but there was only one large city, St. 
Louis, with a population over 10,000. St. Louis had 160,000 

256 History of Missouri and Missourians 

and had been growing at an exceedingly rapid rate since 

The second period from 1860 to 1900 saw Missouri's 
rural population continue to grow fast but at a much slower 
rate than her urban. Between 1860 and 1870 St. Louis was 
joined by St Joseph and Kansas City in the class of big^ 
cities. The first two gained 100% and the last 600% in 
population during these ten years. Moreover, their combined 
increase was one-third of the total increase of Missouri in 
actual numbers. Still, in 1870 less than 25% of Missouri's 
population lived in towns of size. Between 1870 and 1880 
the per cent* of increase of the three large cities was actually 
less than the rest of the state, being only 21% compared 
with 27^%. Of course, in numbers the nu-al population 
growth was several times the urban growth. Only 23% or 
less than one-fourth of Missouri's population lived in cities 
over 4,000 in 1880. Missouri was still a rural state with a 
fast growing rural population. Between 1880 and 1890 
conditions of growth were reversed. Now the three cities 
forged ahead again with an increase of 298,000 or nearly 
th^ree-fifths of Missouri's total increase. Missouri now had 
29 cities of 4,000 and over and by 1890 these 29 cities had 
30% of Missouri's total population. Further, Missouri's ur- 
ban population in cities of over 2,500 (the census reports be- 
fore 1890 do not classify the cities of 2,500) was 32% of 
the total. But Missouri was still rural by a big majority. 
Between 1890 and 1900 this urban tendency was repeated, 
the cities grew faster than the country both in per cent and 
in numbers. The urban increase was 32% and the rural in- 
crease was 8j4%. Twenty-one Missouri coimties lost popu- 
lation. By 1900 Missouri had 50 cities of over 2,500 and 
36% of Missouri's total population lived in these cities and 
64% lived in the smaller towns and in the country. Even 
the three large cities now had 27% of the population. But, 
if all Missouri towns in 1900 are included regardless of size 

A Centuky of Population 257 

25*8 History of Missouri and Missourjans 

46% of Missouri's population lived . there, and only 54^ 
lived in the country. Missouri had almost reached an 
equilibrium between city and country population. 

Conditions in Missouri in 1900 were ready for a tremen- 
dous growth in urban population, especially in the large 
cities, and for a decline or at least a standstill in country 
and rural population. (Rural population includes all towns 
under 2,500.) These were the conditions: rising land prices 
in Missouri, rising labor wages, slow rise in farm product 
prices, cheap* land to the west, northwest, and southwest, easy 
transportation to these lands, profitable manufacturing and 
big railroad centers tending to build up the cities, and decline 
in foreign immigration to Missouri. And this was the re- 
sult. Between 1900 and 1910, 62 Missouri cities over 2,500 
had a gain of 24% which was 147% of Missouri's total 
gain! This meant that rural Missouri had lost 3J^% for the 
first time in her history, and 71 counties showed decreases. 
Urban Missouri now had 42j4% of Missouri's population 
and rural Missouri had 57^%. But if all towns are added 
to urban Missouri, there was 53.4% of Missouri's population 
in towns and 46.6% in the country. Between 1910 and 1920 . 
the same tendency was seen. Urban Missouri had a gain of 
14% which was 171% of Missouri's total gain. Rural Mis- , 
souri had lost 4% in population and 89 counties showed de- 
creases. Urban Missouri by 1920 had 46.6% of Missouri's 
population and rural Missouri had 53.4%. If all towns were 
added to urban Missouri, there was 58% in towns and 42% 
in the country. Briefly, between 1900 and 1920 urban Mis- 
souri had increased 40% and rural Missouri (including towms 
under 2,500) had lost 8%. Since 1890, a period of 30 years, 
urban Missouri has nearly doubled (83%), and rural Mis- 
souri has been at a standstill in population (actual loss was 
about 5,000). Since 1890 Missouri has lost in foreign bom 
and since 19C0 she has lost in interstate migration, i. e., more 
American citizens have left Missouri than have come to Mis- 

A Century of Population 

White and Colored 


Missouri has never had a large colored population com- 
pared with the white population. This colored population is 
a negro population since Missouri even in 1920 h?d less than 
one thousand persons of color other than negroes. From 
1820 to 1860 nearly all negroes in Missouri were slaves, the 
number of free negroes never being more than 3.3% of the 
total negro population. After the Civil War all negroes 
were free. 

The negro population has never increased so fast in 
numbers as the white, and only twice (1820-1830 and 1910- 
1920) has it had a larger per cent of increase. Moreover 
the negro population has twice (1860-1870 and 1900-1910) 
had an actual decrease in numbers. The largest increase in 
negro population was from 1820 to 1860, during the years 
of slavery, when it increased 108,003 or 1,0X%. During 
the same period the whites increased over one million or 
1,800%. From 1860 to 1920 the negro increased only 
60,000 or 50%. During the same period the whites increased 
2,161,000 or 200%. This table summarizes the facts: 

Missouri's White and Negro Population 



% White 


^-> Nof ro 



























































26o History of Missouri and Missourians 

Native American Born and Foreign Born 

Missouri has always been a state of native bom citizens, 
that is citizens bom in the United States. To-day 9A}^% of 
Missouri's population is native bom and only S}^% is 
foreign born. However, in decades past the foreign bora 
percentage has been much higher. Missouri had some 
foreign born before 1850, principally Germans, but not a large 
number. Between 1850 and 1860 Missouri had her largest 
increase both in number and in per cent of foreign bom. 
In 1860 about 14% of Missouri's population was foreign 
born. The increase was also very large between 1860 and 
1870, but since 1870 the increase has been getting smaller 
and smaller and during 30 years of the last SO years Mis- 
souri's foreign bom has actually decreased in nimiber. To- 
day Missouri's foreign bom is smaller in number than in 
any census year since 1860. This table will show the trend 
of Missouri's foreign bom population since 1850. 

Missouri's Foreign Born, 1850-1920 

Tear Foreign Increase % Increase % Total 

Bom Foreign Bom Foreign Bom Population 







































This foreign bom population has also changed in charac- 
ter since 1850. In 1850 three-fifths had come from Germany^ 
one-fifth from Ireland, and the other one-fifth largely from 

A Century of Population 261 

Canada and the British Isles. In I860 the proportion was 
about the same except that now one-fourth had come from 
Ireland and only a little over one-half from Germany. 
Twenty years later, 1880, the proportion still remained the 
same but some Swiss had appeared. By 1900 the German 
bom still made up one-half of the foreign bom but the 
Irish bom had fallen to one-seventh. The decline in Irish 
born was largely filled with foreign bom from Russia, Italy, 
Austria, and Sweden. In 1920 the German bom was only 
30%, the Irish S%, and the Canadian-English 9%, but the 
foreign born from Russia had risen to 10%, from Italy to 
8%, from Austria and Hungary 9%, and from Czecho-Slo- 
vakia and Poland to 7%. Briefly, almost one-half of Mis- 
souri's foreign bom in 1920 came from countries which had 
sent practically no people here in 1860. 

Where do Missouri's foreign bom live, in the country 
or the cities? In 1900, 70% lived in Missouri cities, in 1910, 
76% lived in Missouri cities, and in 1920, nearly 80%. Mis- 
souri's foreign bom population is an urban population. 


Sources of Missouri's Native American Population 

Missouri is a state of native bom Americans. This has 
been true for the last one hundred years. In 1920 nine out 
of every ten persons in Missouri had been bom in the United 
States, the actual proportion being 94.5%, and seven out of 
every ten persons had been bom in Missouri. Down to 1850 
the native free population of Missouri had been born either 
in Missouri or in the southern states lying to the east. The 
northern states had contributed some settlers but only a small 
per cent of the total population. The five great southern 
states, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, and 
Maryland (especially the first three) had been the horiies 
of Missourians. Missouri was settled largely by southerners. 

262 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Between 1850 and 1860 five northern states began pouring 
in settlers, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and New 
York. But even in 1860 there were nearly twice as many 
native free born in Missouri from the southern states as 
from the northern states. By 1870 the northern native bom 
whites exceeded the southern native bom whites, althoughj 
of course, owing to the great increase of persons bom in 
Missouri, the State was still largely southern in stock. By 
1880 the northern immigrants were 40% larger than the 
southern, and Iowa and Kansas had joined the other north- 
ern states in sending Missouri settlers, while Maryland had 
practically dropped out of consideration. In 1880 the Mis- 
souri settlers of southern birth reached their highest number. 
Since that year the southern states have gradually sent fewer 
and fewer settlers. In 1900 the northern born settlers were 
over twice as large as the southern born and in 1910 they 
were two and one-half times as large. The principal cause 
of this change has been the fact that Missouri land down to 
1860 was cheaper than southern land. The Civil War pros- 
trated the southern states, reduced the growth of their adult 
white population, and, owing to various causes, resulted in 
making land very cheap in those states after the war. This land 
remained cheap for decades. On the other hand, although 
Missouri land was cheap, it was rising faster than southern 
land. But, the land in northern states was rising even faster. 
So, the cheaper Missouri land attracted settlers from the 
northern states. This also partly explains why Missouri has 
become a close state politically, since before 1870 her settlers 
had come largely from Democratic states and after 1870 her 
settlers had come largely from Republican states. Missouri, 
since 1870, received more northern settlers than southern. 
This table makes clear these and other interesting facts. 

A Century of Population 


Missouri's Native American Population Showinc] Num- 
ber Born in Missouri, and Number Born in the North- 
ern AND THE Southern States Which Contributed 
Most to Missouri's Population : 





Born In 

Bom in Ky., 

Tenn., Va., 

N. C, Md., 

and Ark. 

Bom in 111., 0., 
Pa., N. Y., 
Iowa, and 







Total native white 






Total native 























Bom in 

I all other states 

^Arkansas included for first time. 

Howa included for first time. 

'Maryland not included, — too small. 

^Kansas included for first time. 

'North Carolina not included, — too small. 

''Tbe 1920 census figures by states are not available at this time. 

Interstate Migration 

Down to 1900 Missouri attracted a larger and larger 
number of settlers from other states, but beginning in 1860 
Missouri lost a larger and larger number of those born in 
Missouri who went to other states. However, down to 1900 
Missouri gained more than she lost through this interstate 
migration, i. e., native born Americans coming to Missouri 
and native born Missourians leaving Missouri. In 1850 only 
one native free born Missourian in eight to nine lived out 
of Missouri, in 1860 one in six to seven, in 1870 one in six, 
and in 1880 one in five to six. But in 1900 one in four to 
five native bom Missourians lived out of Missouri, in 1910 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

one in three to four, and in 1920 one in three. The reasons 
for this emigration of Missourians bom in Missouri to other 
states will be set forth in the "Missouri, 'Mother of the 
West' and 'Founder of States.' " Of course, it was largely 
due to cheaper land in the West. The result of this growing 
emigration of Missourians was to show an actual net loss 
for Missouri through interstate migration in 1910. By 1920 
this loss was 315,235. Another result was to lessen the 
natural growth of the Democratic vote since part of rural 
Missouri, which was at first largely of southern Democratic 
stock, sold its land at higher prices than it had paid and 
many moved westward and southwestward to buy cheaper 
land. It should be remembered that Republican rural Mis- 
souri counties have also lost population but the Democratic 
rural counties, being the first settled, were among the first 
to lose and, therefore, have lost more. This table will make 
clear other facts: 

Interstate Migration To and From Missouri 


Born In Mo. 
and Ltring 
in Missouri 

Bom in Mo. 
and Living in 
Otlier States 

Bom in Other 
States and Liv- 
ing in Missouri 

Net Gain or Loss by 
Interstate Migration 





205,398 Gain 





339,179 " 





444,408 " 




688,161 , 

402,584 " 








236,787 " 





92,220 Loss 





315,235 " 

^Applies oniy to native lK>m free. 

*.^>plles to native bom whites. 

'Applies to total native l>orn from 1880 to 1920. 

^Figures are approximate. 

A Century of Population 265 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Why is a study of population essential to the understanding 
of Missouri history? 

2. If we interpret population figures what transitions and events 
in Missouri history may ht explained? 

3. What rank in population has Missouri held since 1820? 

4. With increase of population what was the change in fhe loca- 
tion of the newly organized counties? 

5. Define the terms, rural population, urban population, and 
density of population. 

6. Missouri's population is considered from what four points of 

7. What factors will influence the increase or decrease of rural 

8. How do you explain the rapid growth of the rural popula- 
tion from 1820 to 1860? 

9. From 1860 to 1900 Missouri's rural population continued to 
grow fast but at a much slower rate than her urban. Why? 

10. Beginning in 1900 why was there such a rapid growth in 
urban population? 

11. What per cent of Missouri's population is native born and 
what per cent foreign born ? 

12. Is the foreign born population an urban or a rural popula- 

13. Down to 1850 what states sent the most settlers to Mis- 

14. Beginning in 1860 what great change took place in the im- 
migrant population to Missouri? 

15. Why did northern settlers so outnumber the southern set- 
tlers after 1860? 

16. If northern settlers predominate over southern settlers what 
will be the effect on the state politically? 

17. What other factor in population has tended to decrease the 
Democratic vote and increase the Republican vote? 

18. Why have rural Democratic counties lost more through in- 
terstate migration than rural Republican counties? 

Chapter II 



Virginia is "the Mother of Presidents," Kentucky "the 
Mother of Governors," and Missouri "the Mother of the 
West and Founder of States." This means that Virg'nia 
has been prominent in giving birth to presidents, Kentucky 
in producing governors for herself and other commonwealths, 
and Missouri in opening and settling the West and in sup- 
plying settlers who aided in founding western states. Mis- 
souri deserves this title through her explorers, traders, sol- 
diers, statesmen, and settlers. 

Under the Austins of Potosi, Missouri, Missourians 
fought for Texas' independence and later made homes in the 
"Lone Star State" by the thousands. Missourians led in the 
settling and founding of Oregon. They were prominent in 
the settling of California. Under Doniphan and his army of 
Missourians they added the Southwest to the Nation. Later 
they rushed in large numbers to help settle Colorado, Idaho, 
Kansas, Montana, Oklahoma, and Washington. They gave 
Colorado, California, New Mexico, and Wisconsin, their first 
governors; and they later gave governors to Arizona, Idaho, 
and Utah. In addition, they have furnished to western 
states, statesmen, senators, and representatives in Congress. 

Missouri's central geographical location and her early 
settlement were the main causes for the prominent part play- 
ed by her in the West. This part began in trade and ex- 
ploration and has been told under "Missourians the Trail- 
makers and Traders of the West." It is not necessary to 
retell the story of the great exploring expeditions of Lewis 
and Clark, Pike, Long, and Fremont. All started from Mis- 
souri and were composed largely of Missourians. Missouri 
was the pathfinder of the West. It is also not necessary to 


Missouri "MotheIr of the West" 267 

retell the story of Missouri's fur trade to the west and north- 
west and of her great Santa Fe trade to the southwest. 
Through this western trade Missouri became the commercial 
center of the West and along these trade routes, Missourians 
later traveled to settle the West. 

Missouri also deserves credit for the important services 
rendered the West through two of her great statesmen, Sen- 
ator Thomas H. Benton and Senator Lewis F. Linn. These 
two meii worked harder and more successfully to obtain and 
retain the great Oregon Gauntry, i. e., Washington, Oregon, 
and Idaho, than any others in the United States. To them 
this nation and these three states owe a great debt. In fact, 
although Linn was Missouri's senator and died on Missouri 
soil, he was called "The Father of Oregon." He was also 
called the "Iowa Senator" because he did so much for the 
early settlers in that territory. Senator Benton was the 
West's greatest advocate and friend in the United States 
Senate. His life was largely devoted to the West. He advo- 
cated cheap government land to enable settlers to buy, and 
he urged government protection against the Indians to en- 
able settlers to stay. 

Missourians Settle Many Western States 

Down to 1850 and even later Missouri was largely a 
pioneer state in population. Her population was small and 
lier land was cheap. Therefore, there was no great incentive 
for ahy larger number of her people to emigrate westward. 
Only states west of the Mississippi river will be considered 
here since the states east of the Mississippi have sent Mis- 
souri more people than Missouri has sent to them. This 
latter was true of Iowa after 1870. By 1850 only 37,824 
Missouri-born lived outside of Missouri. These had gone 
principally to California, Arkansas, Texas, and Oregon, in 
the order named. Although Missouri had sent twice as 
many to each of the first three as she had to Oregon, still. 

268 History of Missouri and Missourians 

in proportion to the native bom of other states, Missouri 
ranked higher in Oregon than in any state. In fact, in Ore- 
gon there were twice as many Missourians as there were 
citizens from .any other state. Missourians ranked first in 
number in Oregon* down to 1900, a period of fifty years. 
Missourians largely settled Oregon. In 1910 there were 
25,456 native bom Missourians in Oregon and they ranked 
third in ntunber. Missourians ranked high in California in 
1850 and held next to the highest rank in number for forty 
years. Since 1900 Missourians have ranked third in Cali- 
fornia. In 1910 there were 67,786 Missourians in California. 
Although many Missourians have gone to Texas, they have 
not ranked high in ntunber compared with the emigrants 
from southern states. In 1910 there were 59,061 Missourians 
in Texas and they ranked fifth. The same general condition 
applies to Arkansas as to Texas. In 1910 there were 54,046 
Missourians in Arkansas and they ranked third. 

By 1870 Missourians were settling other states besides 
California, Arkansas, Texas, and Oregon. Thousand$ were 
now flocking to Kansas, Colorado, Montana, Idaho, and 
Washington, — especially to the first three. There were more 
Missourians in Kansas in 1870 than there were in any othei 
state except Missouri. They numbered 23,829 but compared 
to the natives of other states they ranked only fourth. In 
1900 they had risen to second rank and in 1910 to first rank. 
From 1870 to 1900 more Missourians went to Kansas than 
to any other state, and by 1910 there were 139,803 Missouri- 
ans living there. 

In 1870 the Missourians in Colorado numbered 1,595 
and they ranked fourth. In 1880 they numbered 12,435 and 
ranked third. In 1900 they numbered 31,188 and ranked 
second. And in 1910 they had risen to 50,729 and ranked 

In 1870 the Missourians in Montana numbered 1,252 
and they ranked second. In 1880 they numbered 2,493 and 

Missouri "Mother of the West" 269 

they ranked first. In 1900 they numbered 10,562 and still 
ranked first, but in 1910 they ranked third although they 
numbered 15,703. 

In 1870 there were only 533 Missourians in Idaho but 
so small was the population of the territory that they ranked 
third. In 1880 there were 1,393 and they ranked second. 
They held this rank until 1900. In 1910 they numbered 15,289 
and ranked third. 

In 1870 Washington had 936 Missourians and they 
ranked fourth. By 1880 they had risen to second rank and 
niunbered 3,160. In 1900 they had fallen to seventh rank 
and numbered 16,757; but by 1910 they had risen to fifth 
rank and numbered 38,665. 

By 1880 Missourians had begun going to Wyoming 
where they numbered 1,163 and ranked fourth. In 1900 
they had increased to 4,412 and in 1910 to 7,295, but they 
have never ranked higher than fourth. 

By 1900 Missourians had appeared in var)dng numbers 
in Indian and Oklahoma territories, Nebraska, New Mexico, 
and Arizona. Excepting only Kansas, there were more 
Missourians in 1900 in what later became Oklahoma than in 
any other state outside Missouri. They numbered 80,304 
and ranked second. By 1910 Oklahoma ranked first in 
native bom Missourians and Missourians ranked second in 
Oklahoma. They numbered 162,266. 

In 1900 Nebraska claimed 26,588 Missourians and in 
1910 they had increased to 32,929. Compared to other states, 
Missourians have not ranked high in number in Nebraska. 

In 1900 there were 3,458 Missourians in New Mexico 
and they ranked second. In 1910 they had increased to 
11,605 and had the same rank. 

In 1900 there were 3,187 Missourians in Arizona and 
they ranked fourth. In 1910 they had increased to 5,206 
and had advanced to third rank. Missourians have settled 

Chapter III 

Agriculture is Missouri's most important industry. It 
employs more people and produces more wealth than any 
other. Missouri is a great agricultural state. It ranks fronk 
fifth to eighth in the annual value of all crops and normally 
stands fourth in the number and value of live stock. Mis- 
souri ranks sixth in the ntmiber of farms and in the number 
of acres in farms, and seventh in the value of farm land 
and farm buildings. In 1920 Missouri had 263,004 farms^ 
embracing 34^ million acres. The total value of these 
farms, including land and buildings, live stock and machin- 
ery, was over 3^ billion dollars. These figures give some 
idea of the supremacy held by agriculture in Missouri. 

The present status of agriculture in Missouri is the re- 
sult of a century of work and progress. During part of 
this time the growth was rapid and the farmer prospered,, 
but during other years the growth was slow and sometimes 
the farmer suffered severely through crop failures, animal 
diseases, and low prices for his products. The two greatest 
aids to Missouri agriculture were the introduction of agri- 
cultural machinery and the improvement of transportation 
through the steamboat and the railroad. The former directh 
increased production; the latter made farming a profitable 
business. To-day Missouri agriculture has greater opportunity 
for future development than ever before. 

Primitive Period to 1840 

Down to 1840 Missouri agriculture was in the primitive 
stage. The farm homestead was largely independent of the 
rest of the world. It was an economic unit which produced 
the food, clothing, shelter, and most of the manufactured 
articles used on the farm. Under this system the farm was 
primarily cultivated to provide the necessities of the family 


A Century of Agriculture .273 

and the home and not primarily for the purpose of making 
money or accumulating wealth. Of course men made money 
by buying and selling farms but men farmed primarily to 
make a living and not to make money. The acreage 
of cultivated land was small and there was practically no 
machinery. The tools, which were handmade, were feW 
in number and were crude. Com, the main crop, was 
usually poorly cultivated, owing to poor plows; wheat was 
not raised in large quantities owing to the laborious methods 
used in cutting by sickle or scythe, threshing it by stamping 
or pounding, and separating it from the chaff and straw by 
hand or a hand-driven machine. As late as 1839 the annual 
production of corn in Missouri was only 17 million bushels 
and the production of wheat was only one million bushels. 
Even had there been a great surplus of grains, the diffi- 
culties of transportation were too great to warrant extensive 
development of agriculture. The river steamboat was just 
entering its great phase of usefulness, the dirt road was im- 
passable half of the year, and the railroad had not arrived in 

Land was cheap, great "areas of good government land 
being still obtainable at $1.25 an acre. The land was rich 
and produced in abundance. The principal garden vege- 
tables, except tomatoes, were grown. Living was cheap and 
no one was in need of meat owing to wild game and forest- 
fed hogs. The price of board and lodging was $1.00 a week 
and a 15 pound turkey sold for 12 J4 cents in the '20s. 
Small orchards were plentiful and both wild and tame fruits 
were abundant. The pioneer farm folks were very sociable. 
They helped each other in every way possible. However, 
they had few conveniences, very few schools, poor 
roads, little medical attention, much sickness and a high 
death rate among women and children. The forests were 
full of wild animals, some harmful to both man and beast; 
poisonous snakes were common ; fevers and chills were f re- 

274 History of Missouri and Missourians 

quent in the home; and prairie and forest fires sometimes 
devasted whole areas of land. Aside from lack of transpor- 
tation, the pioneer farmer's greatest hardship was clearing 
land. As early as 1825 it cost in labor at 62>< cents a 
day about $6.00 to clear an acre of land. A very few acres 
of cleared land were sufficient to raise the family food. In 
short, during this primitive period, it was easy to obtain land 
and make a living, but it was difficult and it was imneces- 
sary to make money by farming. , 

Period of Transition, 1840-1860 

During this period the farm changed to a money making 
business. Under the new plan the farm was cultivated pri- 
marily for the purpose of making money and secondarily for 
the purpose of providing food and clothing for the family. 
Of course, the change from the old system was gradual and 
progressed at different rates in different sections. In some 
parts of Missouri the old self-sufficing homestead still ex- 
isted at the end of this period while in other parts it had 
passed away before 1840. However, there was a gen- 
eral change during these twenty years between 1840 and 186C 
toward making the farm a money making business. Land 
was now becoming more valuable and much of the best land 
had been taken up by settlers. In parts of the State farm 
machinery was being introduced, combined with better tools 
and implements. The reaper, the iron plow, the thresher, 
and other labor saving machinery had appeared. This made 
possible greater production of grains. By 1849 the annual 
production of com in Missouri had increased to 36 million 
bushels and of wheat to nearly three million bushels, — an 
Increase in ten years in com of over 100% and in wheat of 
nearly 200%. By 1859 corn had again doubled to nearly 73 
million bushels and wheat had increased to over four million 
bushels. Com has always been Missouri's main crop but in 
those days it was much more important compared witli 

A Century of Agriculture 

276 History of Missouri and Missourians 

wheat than it is to-day. For example, in 1859 Missouri pro- 
duced 17 bushels of com to one bushel of wheat, but in 
1920 Missouri produced only six bushels of com to one 
bushel of wheat. Another factor which was making farming 
a money making business was the development of transporta- 
tion. The roads were being improved, the steamboat traffic 
was flourishing, and the railroad had appeared. St. Louis 
and other markets were growing fast. All of these combined 
with a remarkable increase in population and the introduction 
of improved live stock, brought about a new era in agricul- 
ture in Missouri. The farmer was prosperous and making 
money, his land was increasing in value, his production was 
increasing, and population was growing. Missouri Avas now 
an agricultural state with great possibilities. 

Period of Rapid Growth, 1860-1890 

The period from 1860 to 1890 marked another era of 
rapid growth and expansion. Missouri increased greatly in 
population, most of which was rural, and large areas of new 
land were brought under cultivation. Following the Civil 
War a land boom appeared. Agricultural produce prices were 
high, the acreage yield was high, and the farmer made 
money. His land advanced rapidly and an after-war 
prosperity was present. This gave place to a severe depres- 
sion in the '70s. Land fell in value and corn averaged only 
32 cents a bushel compared to 43 cents in the latter '60s. 
Wheat fell from $1.08 to 93 cents a bushel but this decline 
was not so severe as in the case of corn. This difference 
in decline between com and wheat combined with the use 
of agricultural machinery greatly stimulated the production 
of wheat. Corn increased from an annual average of 66 
million bushels to 103 million bushels, an increase of 56% ; 
wheat increased from Syi million bushels to nearly 17 million 
bushels, an increase of 200%. The value of the wheat crop 
was now equal to one-half the value of the com crop whereas 

A Century of Agriculture 277 

in the latter '60s its value had been only one-fifth of the 
com crop. In the '80s the price of com rose to an average of 
35^ cents a bushel and the production rose to an average of 170 
million bushels, an increase of 65%. Wheat fell in price 
to 79 cents and, although agriculture was rapidly expanding 
and transportation was improving, the average production 
of wheat rose to only 21^ million bushels, an increase of 
only 36%. Moreover, the total annual value of the corn 
crop rose to 57 million dollars but the value of the wheat 
crop was only 17 million dollars. By 1890 Missouri was 
nearing her full acreage both in wheat and in corn. During 
the next thirty years the corn acreage increased only 10% 
and the wheat acreage about 20%. 

The production of oats was increased even more rapidly 
than wheat during this period from 1860 to 1890, rising from 
an average of 5 million bushels in the latter '60s to 31 mil 
lion bushels in the '80s, an increase of 500%. The produc- 
tion of tame hay also increased greatly. Corresponding with 
the great growth in grain farming was the expansion of the 
live stock industry. This industry also improved through 
the introduction of better breeds. Milk cows more than 
doubled in number and in value. Other cattle increased 
nearly 200% in number and about 150% in value. Hogs 
increased 150% in number and in value. Sheep alone show- 
ed little improvement in number, price per head, or value. 
Horses more than doubled in number and nearly tripled in 
value. But it was in mules that Missouri advanced fastest* 
From an average of only a little over 70,000 head in the 
latter '60s, Missouri mules had increased to 230,000 head by 
1890 and their value had risen from 4J^ million dollars to 
15 million dollars. Farm wages showed only small in- 

This period from 1860 to 1890, excepting the four years 
of war and the depression of the '70s, was on the whole one 
of great agricultural expansion. 

278 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Period of Depression, 1891-1900 

The period of Missouri agriculture from 1891 to 1900 
was as a whole the worst ever experienced. The depression 
was nation-wide and prices dropped to low levels. The 
average price of com was only 29)i cents and, although the 
average production was slightly higher than in the '80s, the 
average value was one-seventh less. Wheat dropped to an 
average of 62 cents a bushel and the total average value de- 
creased one-third. Agricultural organizations sprang into 
new life and attempted to obtain relief through political 
action. The entire country was prostrate for several years 
from a business standpoint but conditions began to materially 
improve toward the close of the period. It seems that how- 
ever severe is a depression in Missouri and in the United 
States, of one thing the people may be certain — improvement 
and prosperity will again appear. 

Period of Prosperity and Rising Prices, 1901-1920 

This period from 1901 to 1920 has five characteristics, 
— great agricultural prosperity, rising land and produce 
prices, better farming as a result of agricultural education 
and higher priced land, increased production, and decreasing 
rural population. The last has been considered. Never in 
the history of Missouri was there such widespread pros- 
perity. This prosperity, the result of such causes as higher 
prices and greater production, found expression in better 
homes and schools, improved farms, higher standards of 
living, finer live stock, better machinery, good roads, auto- 
mobiles, and easier working conditions. The World War 
and the after- war boom marked the climax to this general 

The rising land and produce prices were equally marked. 
Between 1900 and 1910 land doubled in value. During the 
war and post-war boom much of the land again doubled and 

A Century of Agriculture 279 

nearly all land increased over 50%. The prices for grain 
and live stock showed steady advances, reaching very high 
figures during the war and post-war period. Between 1901 
and 1910 the average price of com rose to 46 cents, between 
1911 and 1920 to 85 cents, and during 1917, 1918, and 1919 
it averaged $1.32. Wheat averaged 81 cents between 1901 
and 1910, $1.39 between 1911 and 1920, and $1.87 between 
1916 and 1920. Milk cows doubled in price and for three 
years averaged over $70. a head compared with $25. in the 
'90s. Other cattle increased in price but not to such an 
extent. Hogs rose from $4.25 a head in the '90s to over 
$6.00 between 1901 and 1910, to $13.00 between 1911 and 
1920, and to $18.50 in 1918 and 1919. Horses and mules 
more than doubled in value during these twenty years, and 
sheep showed even greater gain in total value. The most 
marked increases in all live stock were during the last ten 
years. To offset part of the profits from the rising prices, 
farm labor also doubled in price and fertilizer costs increased. 
However, the farmer was now working on a rising market 
which meant a larger income. 

The Missouri farmer not only became more prosperous 
and received higher prices for his products during this 
period but he also became a better farmer. Through the 
agricultural college of the University of Missouri, he and 
his children received instruction in scientific farming, in in- 
creasing the yield of crops, in improving the breeds of stock, 
and in building up the fertility of the soil. The state board 
of agriculture through its bulletins, reports, and lecturers, 
was another educational force of great service. Various agri- 
cultural organizations, including the farm bureaus and the 
county agents, carried this better farming campaign to every 
door. County and state fairs were held. The big agricul- 
tural papers and magazines now reached every rural commu- 
nity and were read by tens of thousands of Missouri farm- 
ers. Even the large city dailies issued a weekly edition de- 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

voted largely to agricultural news. Agriculture was included 
in the course of study in grade and high schools, and in the 
state teachers' colleges. Everywhere and by every means 
the Missouri farmer received aid, encouragement, and in- 
struction in better farming. The rising value of land also 
made better farming necessary. A poor farmer may make a 
living and even a profit on good land at $50. an acre al- 
though he owes 50% of its value, but it is necessary for one 
to be a good farmer to make a profit on $100. to $200. an 
acre land if he owes 50% of its value. Since about one-half 
of the farms were mortgaged, i. e., the owners owed part of 
the value, this was an important item in the cost of farming. 
As a result of better farming and of higher prices for 
agricultural products, production increased. The corn crop 
rose from an average of 171 million bushels in the '90s to 
200 million bushels between 1901 and 1910. From 1911 to 
1920 it averaged 177 million bushels, and for five of these 
twenty years the crop rose to • over 240 million bushels. 
Wheat showed even greater gain. Between 1901 and 1910 
the wheat crop averaged 30 million bushels compared with 
18 million in the '90s, and between 1911 and 1920 it rosQ to 
nearly 37 million bushels. For the two years 1918 and 1919 
the wheat crop actually averaged 56^ million bushels. Oats 
also showed a great increase during the last ten years of this 
period. From this table other interesting facts are made 



(yearly averages) 

(000 omitted) 

per acre 



(000 omitted) 


Value on Farm 
(000 omitted) 

























A Century of Agriculture 28 1 


















$ 5,615 





.92 7/10 






.79 1/10 






.61 9/10 















The progress of Missouri agriculture during the last 
century has been remarkable. Down to 1840 farming was of 
the primitive, self-sustaining type. In fact, even down to 
1850 farming in Missouri was still in its infancy and had 
just begun to grow. In 1850 there were 54,458 farms in 
Missouri, containing 9^ million acres, and of this only 
Yz was improved land. In 1920 there were 263,004 farms, 
containing 34% million acres, and of this nearly % was im- 
proved land. In 1850 the value of all farm property in Mis- 
souri, including land, buildings, machinery, and livestpck, 
was 87 million dollars and this property averaged only 
$8.95 to the acre. In 1920 this had increased to over iyi 
billion dollars and averaged $103.27 to the acre. Although 
the average Missouri farm in 1920 was only 132.2 acres 
compared with the average farm of 178.7 acres in 1850, the 
former was valued at $13,654. and the latter was valued at 
$1,599. In 1850 there was $75. worth of machinery and 
implements on the farm compared with $526. worth in 1920. 
The land and buildings on the average Missouri farm in 
1850 were valued at $1,161. compared with $11,645. in 1920. 
Considered from every viewpoint, Missouri agriculture 
has made progress which is truly remarkable. The Missouri 

282 History of Missouri and Missourians 

farmer in 1920 was worth more, lived better, farmed better, 
and produced more, than at any previous time in the State's 
history. The standard corps of com and wheat will doubt- 
less continue to be the foundation of Missouri agriculture 
but these will be supplemented in value with the development 
of the State's great possibilities in the fields of dairying and 
fruit raising. Missouri already stands first in poultry and is 
an important fruit state. Great as has been the progress of 
Missouri agriculture during these one hundred years, a pro- 
gress even greater awaits Missouri agriculture in the future. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Why is agriculture an important industry in Missouri? 

2. What have been the two greatest aids to Missouri agri- 

3. What was the economic position of the farm prior to 1840? 

4. What were the obstacles in pioneer days to the extensive 
development of agriculture? 

5. Describe the transition period between 1840 and 1860. 

6. ■ How do you explain the rapid growth in agriculture from 

1860 to 1890? 

7. When was the greatest agriculture depression? 

8. What were the characteristics of the period of great pros- 
perity from 1901 to 1920? 

^. What educational agencies have improved farming in Mis- 

10. What have been some of the results of better farming? 

11. Contrast farming in Missouri in 1850 with farming in 1920, 
as to the value of all farm property; the size of the average 
farm; the value of machinery on the farm; and the value of 
the land and buildings on the -average farm. 

Chapter IV 


Missouri's first industry was mining. Lead has been 
mined in Missouri for 200 years, coal and iron for 100 years, 
and zinc for over 50 years. These four minerals are only a 
part of Missouri's vast mineral products, which include such 
a wide field as clay and sand, rock and marble, nickel and 
copper, cobalt and barytes, and even silver. Missouri is a 
mineral state of first rank and has few rivals in the diversity 
of her mineral products. Missouri's mineral wealth was 
known to some extent a century ago, and in fact Missouri's 
lead was being mined even two centuries ago. The early 
explorers noted the southeast Missouri lead fields and these 
fields soon attracted Missouri's first settlers. Around the 
lead mines settlements grew and commerce developed. Lead 
played an important part in the settlement and development 
of Missouri. Later other Missouri minerals contributed their 
share, until to-day mining ranks as one of the great indus- 
tries of the commonwealth. 

The history of the lead industry in Missouri covers 
more than two centuries. The first important mines were 
opened about 1725 by two Frenchmen, Renault andLaMotte, 
who came to find silver and stayed to mine lead. The early 
mines were in what are to-day Madison, St. Francois, and 
Washington counties. These counties combined with Frank- 
lin, Howell, Jefferson, and Crawford, still produce nearly 
75% of Missouri's lead. This is called the southeast Mis- 
souri lead field. It lies south and west of St. Louis and is 
80 miles wide and 85 miles long. It is one of the greatest 
lead fields in the world. There were settlements in this dis- 
trict over a quarter of a century before St. Louis was found- 


284 HiSTORV OF Missouri and Missourians 

ed in 1764, Lead mining soon became an important industry 
in Missouri after Renault and La Motte opened .the south- 
east field. Lead became an article of commerce, could be 
readily sold, and was used to pay debts. In fact it took the 

place of money just as furs did. Lead was mined bv miners, 
farmers, and even Indians. It was as necessary as powder 
to the pioneer, trapper, and soldier. Missouri lead was used 
throughout the Mississippi valley, it was shipped to New 
Orleans, and it was used even in Europe. Missouri lead was 
used in the Revolutionary War and Missouri lead helped win 
the battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. It added 
wealth to Missouri, helped develop such cities as Ste. Gene- 
vieve, St. Louis, and Potosi, and aided in bringing settlers to 
the pioneer Territory and State. 

The early methods of lead mining and smelting were 
crude. However, the industry was profitable since the ore 

A Century of Mining 285 

was close to the surface, was very rich, and was easily re- 
duced, or smelted. Improvements began with the coming of 
the Americans. Moses Austin, one of the early American 
settlers and mine owners, introduced a new type of furnace, 
the first of its kind in America, which greatly increased the 
profits of lead mining. He also sunk the first regular min- 
ing shaft in Missouri. This was in 1789. From that year 
lead mining became more and more important. By 1804 ten 
important lead mine districts had been opened in the south- 
east Missouri field and the annual production was }i million 
pounds (375 tons) valued at $40,000. 

Other lead fields were later opened. In fact, lead has 
been found in nearly every county in central and southern 
Missouri. The central Missouri lead field, lying south and 
west of Jefferson City, was added. This field is 75 by 85 
miles in size. The southwest Missouri lead field in the 
southwestern corner of the States, which was opened about 
1850, has an area of 125 by 75 miles. However, the large 
bulk of Missouri's lead still comes from the old southeast 

Although the pioneer lead mining was important, it was 
very small in volume compared with the product of to-day. 
The commercial production of lead in large quantities began 
about 1870. This year marked the beginning of the modern 
period of Missouri lead mining. From 1870 to 1889 th;^ 
annual production was 29,000 tons. From 1889 to 1903 it 
rose to 72,000 tons, and in 1917, due to the demand and high 
prices of the World War, it increased to 345,000 tons, which 
had a value, before smelting, of $34,000,000. More lead ore 
was produced in Missouri during 1916, 1917, and 1918 than^ 
was produced in the first 169 years of lead mining in Mis- 
souri (1720-1889), and its value during the three years was 
one-third more than its total value during the 169 years. 
The total value down to 1889 was $60,000,000. and down to 
1903 it was $111,000,000. The normal annual production: is 

286 History of Missouri and Missourians 

about 250,000 tons, valued at about $10,000,000. The south- 
east and central districts produce nearly 90% of the lead 
mined in Missouri. The total investment of capital in the 
lead industry in Missouri is very large. The methods of 
mining and smelting are as different from those of pioneer 
days as is the total production. One of the Missouri lead 
companies, at Flat River and Bonne Terre in St. Francois 
county, is said to be the largest lead-ore producing company 
in the world. Millions of dollars are now invested in deep 
sunken shafts, modern equipment and machinery, huge 
smelters and railroads. Missouri to-day, as she has for years, 
stands first in lead, producing nearly one-third of the lead ore 
mined in the United States. 


Of Missouri's three most important metals — lead, zinc, 
and iron — zinc was the last to be produced. Although lead 
was the first ore mined in Missouri and still ranks first in 
value, zinc to-day is a good second. The ores of lead and 
zinc are usually found together but the southeast Missouri 
lead field does not produce zinc in commercial quantities. 
The great zinc district of the United States is the famous 
Joplin zinc belt which includes a number of counties in 
southwest Missouri, southeast Kansas, and northeast Okla- 
homa. The richest part of this district is in Missouri, espe- 
cially in Jasper, Newton, and Lawrence counties. Twenty 
years ago Missouri alone furnished 80% of the zinc pro- 
duced in the United States, but owing to the opening of new 
fields in other states, Missouri now produces from 20% to 
25%. However, Missouri still ranks first in zinc. 

The story of zinc mining in Missouri is as interesting as 
the story of gold mining in California. The first zinc smel- 
ter was erected at Potosi in 1867 but it was not until the 
"discovery" of zinc in southwest Missouri about 1870 that 
Missouri zinc became important and drew thousands of per- 

A Century of Mining 287 

sons from over the nation. The strange part of the story of 
Missouri zinc lies in the fact that for years zinc ore had 
been mined in the lead mines of southwest Missouri and had 
been thrown away. The miners, who had mined lead there 
since 1850, called the zinc ore "jack" and "black jack." It 
greatly bothered them in separating the lead. Around these 
lead mines large piles of this "black jack" were heaped, 
nobody dreaming that more wealth lay in the cast-off heaps 
than in the lead ore which had been obtained. About 1866 
a mining expert for one of the lead companies became in- 
terested in this "black jack." After several years of work 
and experimenting he succeeded in properly smelting or sep- 
arating it and obtained zinc. The news of the rich zinc 
field in Missouri was soon known and a "zinc rush" began 
pouring in that resembled a western "gold rush." The 
worthless "black jack" now became immensely valuable and 
besides there remained the almost inexhaustible zinc fields 
which had not been touched. By 1873, the output of Mis- 
souri zinc ore was 960 tons valued at $8,640. Both the 
output and the value rose steadily. In 1916, owing to the 
demands of war and high prices, Missouri produced 304,070 
tons of zinc ore, which had a value of $24,228,596. The 
normal production is about 250,000 tons and the normal an- 
nual value is about $10,000,000. Just as lead has influenced 
the history of Missourians in southeast Missouri, so has zinc 
in southwest Missouri. It has peopled counties, built cities, 
stimulated commerce, and greatly increased Missouri's wealth. 
Missouri is indeed fortunate in possessing what is perhaps 
the richest zinc field in the world. 


Missouri was the first state west of Ohio to produce 
and smelt iron ore. Missouri is rich in iron ores, and the 
discovery of iron deposits by the pioneers over a century 
ago was an important factor in the development of the 


288 History of Missouri and Missourians 

southern part of the State. There is scarcely a county m 
the Ozark region which does not contain iron ore. Nearly 
half of the counties of the State have important iron ore 
deposits. Much of this ore is of excellent quality and com- 
pares favorably with that used in other states. 

Iron was the second metal mined in Missouri. In 1815 
the first iron furnace was erected in the State near Ironton. 
Here the ore near Pilot Knob was used. The Pilot Knob 
ore, which is of fine quality, was first mined in 1825. 
The great iron deposits of Iron Mountain were mined in 
1844 and for the next third of a century produced nearly 
200,000 tons of pig iron. Down to 1887 the iron production 
of Missouri gradually increased until in that year Missouri 
produced 430,000 tons of iron ore. From 1887 to 1900 the 
production decreased, but in 1900 the iron industry again 
revived. Since 1900 the iron industry has grown as new de- 
posits were found and as prices rose, and has fallen as old 
deposits proved unprofitable and as prices fell. Down to 
1903, which covers the period of greatest growth and de- 
velopment, Missouri had produced between eight and nine 
million tons of ore, valued at $35,000,000. Missouri's largest 
output was previous to the decline in production at the Iron 
Mountain and Pilot Knob mines. In 1918 the iron produc- 
tion of Missouri was 71,968 long tons with a mine worth of 
$270,337, but the iron ore smelted in Missouri in 1918 was 
valued at $3,082,136. Although compared with the great iron 
year of 1887 the present production of iron is small, this 
does not indicate that the iron industry in Missouri will con- 
tinue to decline. In fact, it is not improbable that Missouri 
will again regain her position as an important producer of 
iron ore and it is almost certain that she will become an im- 
portant iron smelting state. Missouri has vast iron deposits 
which some day will be worked. Missouri has vast coal 
deposits and lies next to the Illinois coal beds. Moreover, if 
the Mississippi river is ever latilized, as it could be with 

A Century of Mining 289 

proper channel development, to bring the rich iron ores from 
Minnesota, Missouri will become one of the centers of the 
iion industry of the United States. The day may be not 
fcT distant when Missouri will claim high rank as an iron 
stite just as she does as a lead and zinc state. 

Barytes, Copper, Nickel, and Silver 

Missouri produces a large variety of metals, all of which 
are important but many of which are not widely known to 
the public. The deposits of nickel, which is one of the iron 
group of metals, in Missouri are the largest in the United 
States. These deposits are principally in Madison county. 
Production of Missouri nickel began about 1850 and by 1898 
had risen to 2,000 tons a year. Mine La Motte, near Fred- 
ericktown, has produced more nickel and cobalt than all the 
other states in the United States. No nickel ore has been 
mined in Missouri in recent years, yet in 1915 Missouri pro- 
duced 822 tons of nickel as a by-product in refining copper. 

Copper is also produced in Missouri. The richest field 
is in Madison county. In 1918 Missouri produced 577,665 
pounds of copper, valued at $142,683. Silver is produced in 
Missouri as a by-product of lead mining. In 1916 Missouri 
produced 129,450 ounces of silver valued at $85,178. Down 
to 1915 Missouri ranked first in the production of barytes, 
and now ranks second. Barytes are used in the manufacture 
of paints. The baryte production of Missouri has increased 
rapidly. In 1914 Missouri produced three-fifths of the 
baiytes in the United States. In 1917 the production rose to 
59,046 tons valued at $391,363. The principal field is in 
Washington county. Missouri also ranks high in the pro- 
duction of tripoli, a mineral found in southwest Missouri 
which is used as a polishing power. Many other minerals 
and metals might be mentioned but these are sufficient to 
indicate the remarkable wealth of Missouri in this field. 

290 History of Missouri and Missourians 


Missouri is one of the greatest coal states in the country. 
Her coal fields underlie 24,000 square miles or over one- 
third of the State. Half of Missouri's counties have coal, 
Missouri's coal supply, still unmined, is nearly 84 billion tons,, 
or enough to last 17,000 years at the present rate of produc- 
tion. Even if Missouri produced all the coal it uses, in- 
stead of only 40% as at present, Missouri has enough coa^ 
to last 5,800 years. However, it is probable that Missouri 
will not only produce all the coal used in the State but 
eventually will supply coal in large quantities to other states,, 
unless some cheaper fuel or source of heat and energy is dis- 
covered. Certainly Missouri's coal is one of her greatest 
natural assets and will continue to become more and more 
important as a source of wealth. 

Although the presence of coal in Missouri was known 
as early as 1804, possibly earlier, there was little develop- 
ment for decades. Even as late as 1840 Missouri produced 
annually only about 10,000 tons. By 1850 this had increased 
to 100,000 tons and in 1876 to 1,008,000 tons. In 1885 
the production reached 3,080,000 tons and in 1903 it rose 
to 4,238,586. During the World War production was 
again stimulated, owing to demand and prices, and during 
each of the years 1917, 1918, and 1919, the, production passed 
the 5 million ton mark. From 1840 to 1919 Missouri pro- 
duced a total of 148,000,000 tons, valued wholesale at 
$272,000,000. The average annual production is between 4 
and 5 million tons and the average value is about $10,000,000. 
Missouri produces bituminous and cannel coal. The bitumi- 
nous coal, which is the more important, lies in six large pro- 
ducing fields : ( 1 ) the Bevier field occupying part of Boone, 
Chariton, Howard, Macon, and Randolph; (2) the Lexington 
field in Clay, Lafayette, and Ray; (3) the Southwestern 
field in Barton, Bates, Henry, and adjacent counties; (4) 

A Century of Mining 291 

ihe Novinger field in Adair; (5) the Marceline field in 
Linn; and (6) the Mendota field in northwestern Adair, 
Putnam, and Schuyler. The cannel coal, which is deposited 
in pockets of limited area, is found in thirty- five counties. 
The principal cannel coal counties lie to the south and west 
of the main coal fields. These counties are Bates, Cole, 
Cooper, Henry, Miller, and Morgan. The cannel coal beds 
are remarkable for their depth or thickness, ranging from 
10 to 75 feet. One cannel coal deposit in Missouri is 90 
feet thick. In 1919 the six largest coal producing counties 
were, in the order named, Lafayette, Barton, Adair, Macon, 
Randolph, and Ray. Other producing counties of size were 
Henry, Linn, Vernon, and Bates. The first six counties pro- 
duced from S0% to 90% of Missouri's total coal production. 

Stone and Clay Products 

Although the value of the annual production of Missouri 
lead, zinc, and coal is high, averaging about $10,000,000. for 
■each, still the value of Missouri's stone and clay products 
€ach year is higher than any one of these three in normal 
peace years. Missouri is again fortunate in her almost un- 
limited wealth of stone and clays, as well as gravel and sand. 
The value of Missouri's gravel and sand alone in 1916 was 
jiearly one million dollars and her stone production that year 
was worth over one and a quarter milion dollars. In 1914 
the value of Missouri's building stone, lime (made from 
lime rock), clay products, and Portland cement (made from 
limestone and shales), was $13,541,182. Of this amount the 
■clay products, as clay fire brick, common brick, and sewer 
pipe, totaled over six million dollars, and the Portland cement 
totaled four and one-half million dollars. So, the importance 
of Missouri's stone and clay products is evident. 

Missouri has almost every kind of building stone, rang- 
ing from common limestone rock and sandstone to granite 
and finest marble. This natural wealth has been a great 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

benefit to the State in furnishing building material for her 
own citizens and for the citizens of other states. Missouri 
ranks second in the Union in the production of limestone 
for building. Missouri's present state capitol building is 
built of Carthage stone, which is one of the most beautiful 
of fine building materials. 

Missouri also ranks high as a producer of lime, which 
is made from lime rock. Most sections of the State abound 
in lime rock. The value of Missouri's lime production in 
1917 was nearly one and a half million dollars. In the pro- 
duction of Portland cement, now so widely used in the erec- 
tion of buildings, Missouri is one of the foremost states, 
Missouri has five large cement plants located in St. Louis, 
Jackson, Ralls, and Cape Girardeau counties. In 1916 the 
value of Missouri's Portland cement was over seven million 

In valuable clays Missouri is equally fortunate. From 
her many kinds of clays are made such a variety of products 
as fire brick, common brick, sewer pipe, tile, and pottery. 
Large clay product factories are located in Audrain, Buch- 
anan, St. Louis, Jackson, Henry, and other counties. The 
importance of this industry is growing faster than almost 
any other of the mineral industries of the State excepting 
perhaps that of manufacturing cement. In 1916 Missouri's 
clay products had a value of nearly seven and three-fourths 
million dollars. In the production of plate-glass Missouri is 
also advancing. Her excellent quality sands, from which 
glass is made, are found largely in Jefferson, St. Charles, 
and Franklin counties. 

From this brief survey the increasing importance of 
Missouri's mineral wealth is apparent. Only a part of Mis- 
souri's minerals have been here set forth. For example, 
Missouri is one of the foremost states in mineral springs 
possessing health-giving qualities. Some of these are already 
widely known over the nation as those at Excelsior Springs 

A Century of Mining 293 

in Clay county. Although mining and salt-making were Mis- 
souri's first industries, the mineral industries of Missouri arc 
still among the foremost in the State. The records show that 
although these industries have played an important part in 
the history of Missouri, they promise to play a part equally 
as important, perhaps more important, in the future. To 
aid the mining and mineral industry of Missouri, the State 
has established a state geological survey and a school of 
mines and metallurgy at RoUa, Missouri. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Justify the statement, "Missouri is a mineral state of first 

2. Name the three most important metals found in Missouri 
and locate the field where each is mined. 

3. What was the importance of lead mining in pioneer daysf* 

4. Why did lead mining not become a profitable commercial 
industry on a large scale before 1870? 

5. The annual lead production of Missouri is what part of the 
total production of the United States? 

6. Missouri produces what per cent of the zinc of the United 
States and this places her in what rank? 

7. What was the cause of the "zinc rush" to Missouri? 

8. How have the great zinc fields influenced the hstory of 
southwest Missouri? 

9. What is the extent of the iron ore deposits in Missouri? 

10. When and where was iron ore first mined? 

11. What are the possibilities of Missouri becoming one of the 
centers of the iron industry? 

12. What are some of the metals mined in Missouri which arc* 
not widely known to the public? 

13. How extensive are the coal fields of Missouri? 

14. Compare the output of coal in 1840 with that of 1919. 

15. Describe the two kinds of coal beds found in this slate. 

16. What is the value of Missouri's clay and stone products? 

17. How has this natural resource benefited the State? 

Chapter V. 


One of the most important factors in the progress of 
a state or nation is transportation. Upon transportation 
facilities depend commerce and wealth, the comforts and 
necessities of life, and even the widespread intelligence of 
the people. In fact, the development of a people depends more 
largely on their transportation facilities than on any other 
factor excepting character and natural resources. This is 
especially true in a large country like the United States. 
Without adequate transportation, our cities would decline, 
factories close, mines stop producing, and farms become un- 
profitable as money making concerns. Even worse than 
these results, would be the calamity of lessened intercourse 
between our people, the decline in general information, and 
even the probability of overproduction of food in one section 
and of famine in another section. To-day, the United States 
is dependent on its transportation industry. Travel, freight, 
and mail are necessary in a modem state. These depend on 

The Steamboat 

Transportation of persons and goods has until recently 
been confined to the water and the land. In pioneer Missouri 
the land and water transportation facilities were primitive. 
These have already been described as regards the movement 
of passengers and freight both in Missouri and to and from 
Missouri. The two-wheeled "barefooted" cart of the French- 
man, the four-wheeled wagon and prairie schooner, and the 
pack train, were the reliance on land of the Missouri pioneer 
settler and the Missouri western trader. The various kinds 


A Century of Transportation 295 

of boats and barges, all propelled by hand, were the reliance 
on water until the coming of the steamboat. 

The steamboat revolutionized water transportation. The 
first one, the "Zebulon M. Pike", landed at St. Louis in 
1817. In 1S19 the "Independence" first navigated the Mis- 


souri river from St. Louis to Franklin and Chariton and 
made the round trip in twenty-one days. Flat boats were 
still used after this for carrying grain, ores, and bulky arti- 
cles, but the steamboat gradually displaced the other river 

The steamboat had a wonderful influence on the de- 
velopment of Missouri. The river towris and counties in- 
creased rapidly in wealth and population. The Mississippi 
and the Missouri river became great arteries of commerce. 
From 1830 to 1860 the traffic grew larger and larger. The 
climax of this traffic was reached between 1850 and 1860 
owing to the lai^e emigration westward. By 1850 the steam- 
boat annual arrivals at St. Louis totaled 2,899. Regulai 
schedules were observed by the steamboats. The coming of 

296 History of Missouri and Missourians 

the railroads in the '50s and '60s brought competition which 
gradually ruined the river traffic. In the '70s it had ceased 
to be very important and in the '80s it had practically ceased 
to exist as a transportation factor. 

However, it managed to survive and in 1912 a revival 
of interest in river transportation began in Kansas City and 
St. Louis. Public spirited citizens in these cities gave time 
and money to arouse the co-operation of the public. Con- 
gress was appealed to and the national government promised 
to spend money to improve the channel of the Mississippi 
and the Missouri. If the channels are made permanent, and 
they can be if adequate improvements are made, Missouri 
will again have the benefits of the low freight rates obtain- 
able through river transportation. Already barge lines are 
operating at a profit to owners and customers between St. 
Louis and New Orleans, and some headway has been made 
in this direction between Kansas City and St. Louis. River 
traffic has a very important place in Missouri's freight trans- 
portation system to-day if only our people will awaken to its 
advantages. Missouri has two great rivers which, if prop- 
erly controlled, can be made to serve man. 

Although river transportation performed a great service 
to Missouri, it had many defects. It could serve only a 
limited area of the State. Again, it was operative only dur- 
ing the open seasons when the rivers were clear of ice. 
Finally, it was very hazardous both for the owners and the 
patrons. The history of the steamboat traffic on the Mis- 
souri is one filled with wrecks due to snags, sandbars, and 
explosions. The loss in life and property was great. Some 
of these defects are .inherent, but others, such as snags, sand- 
bars, and changing channels, can be removed. 

The Railroad 

Although the steamboat for years solved the problem 
of water transportation, it was soon recognized that little 

A Century of Transportation 297 

progress was being made in solving the problem of land 
transportation. The forest and prairie trails gave place to 
interior roads and by 1819 Missouri had fifteen mail routes. 
The American brought the post-roads and a regular mail 
service. But these roads were never satisfactory and in cer- 
tain seasons were almost impassable. This condition was a 
hardship to the pioneer settler and a restriction on the de- 
velopment of the State. 

During the thirties and forties hundreds of railroads 
were chartered over the Nation. The states gave them credit 
and financial aid. Most of them failed and left the states 
to pay very large debts. Missouri needed and wanted rail- 
roads, but she was conservative and at first refused to offer 
her credit and money to have them built. In 1836 a rail- 
road convention was held in St. Louis. Several lines or 
routes were endorsed. A number of railroads were granted 
charters by the Legislature but no money was given. None 
of these railroads was built. Ten years passed and the peo- 
ple kept demanding railroads. Another railroad convention, 
a larger and more important one than before, was held in St. 
Louis in 1849. The purpose was to decide on a route or 
routes to the Pacific. Of course, Missouri hoped that such 
a line would cross Missouri. Senator Benton had hereto- 
fore opposed government aid for railroads, and no transcon- 
tinental road could be built without such aid. However, at 
this convention Benton made a great speech in favor of 
such a road in which, pointing to the west, he said: "There 
lies the East, there lies the road to India". This is the 
most quoted speech of Benton's. 

Two years before (1847) Missouri had chartered the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. In 1849 the Pacific rail- 
road and in 1851 the North Missouri, now the Wabash, were 
chartered. Others followed fast for the people were demand- 
ing railroads. In 1849 the State was out of debt and pros- 
perous. In 1851 the State granted financial aid to help build 

248 History of Missouri and Missoubians 

railroads and the National Government gave them land. 
Once begun there was no stopping. The roads were finally 
built, although slowly. When settlement was made in the 
'60s it was found that the State of Missouri had lost 
nearly $25,000,000- through financial aid or credit. The 
first railroad actually 'irsnin was the Pacific, Inter the Mis- 


souri Pacific, and the first one finished was the Hannibal 
and St. Joseph. 

The first locomotive west of the Mississippi was run 
on the Pacific railroad out of St. Louis in 1852. At that 
time Missouri had only five miles of railroad. Progress 
in railroad building was slow since the cost of construction 
proved to be much higher than had been estimated. The 
State lent her credit in large amounts. Congress made 
liberal grants of public land to the roads. Despite these aids 
Missouri had only 817 miles of railroad by 1860. The 
Pacific and the Hannibal and St. Joseph road had made 
great progress, the latter being the first to cross the State. 
By 1860 all the roads except the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
railroad had defaulted payment on their bonds. The 
Civil War made matters worse. Construction practically 

A Century of Transportation 


stopped and property, equipment, and bridges were destroyed 
along many lines. However, by 1865 trains were running 
from Kansas City to St. Louis over the Pacific and from 
St. Joseph to Hannibal over the Hannibal and St. Joseph. 
Between 1866 and 1868 the State foreclosed her mortgages 
and sold the roads. Construction now began in earnest and 
by 1870 Missouri had 2,000 miles of railroad. St. Louis had 
become an important railroad center with rail connection with 
the north, east, south, and west. In 1869 the Burlington 
bridge across the Missouri river, the first to span that river, 
was completed at Kansas City, in 1871 the Wabash bridge at 
St. Charles was completed, and in 1874 the famous Eads 
bridge across the Mississippi river at St. Louis was finished. 
Kansas City now became an important rail center. 

From 1870 to 1880 the rail mileage nearly doubled and 
it continued to increase rapidly down to 1900. To-day Mis- 
souri has over 8,500 miles of railroad and ranks eighth in 
this respect in the United States. In 1918 every Missouri 
county except three had at least one railroad. The following 
table shows the railroad mileage in Missouri for different 
periods : 

1852 5 miles 1880 3,965 

1854 38 " 1890 6,142 

1855 139 " 1900 6.887 

1860 817 " 1904 7,000 

1870 2,000 " 1914 8,138 

1918 8,529 

The two greatest rail centers in Missouri are St. Louis 
and Kansas City. Each has a fine union station. Twenty- 
six railroads enter the union station in St. Louis and over 
one-half as many enter the Kansas City union station. The 
remarkable transportation facilities afforded these two cities 
have been the principal cause of their commanding position 
in commerce and population. This is also true of the other 
large cities in Missouri. In fact, although Missouri lost 

^OO History of Missouri and Missourians 

much money by lending her credit in the building of rail- 
roads, she was more than repaid in the development of the 
State through the final construction of these roads. Not so 
fortunate, however, were the many counties in Missouri 
which issued bonds in the '60s and 70s for constructing 
railroads, many of which were never built. 

The story of the railroads would not be complete with- 
out a statement regarding their regulation by the State. In 
the early days of the railroads they adopted practices which 
helped some shippers and ruined others. They did this by 
means of different rates and by rebates. Regulation by law- 
was begun in Missouri in the '80s to stop these practices. 
Since the railroads had been in the wrong in the past, the 
people after correcting the abuses went farther and in 1905 
they lowered the rates to a point which prevented many of 
the roads from earning an income and some from paying ex- 
penses. The result was that a number of important roads 
were forced into bankruptcy, their equipment was impaired, 
and their service became less efficient. Other states also 
did this and the railroad facilities of the nation were 
impaired. Missouri realized this and was one of the few 
states to grant an increase in rates. The increase did not 
come in time, however, to save some of the roads from 
bankruptcy. In 1913 the Public Service Commission law of 
Missouri was passed, which placed the railroads largely un- 
der the general regulation of an expert public service com- 
mission appointed by the governor of Missouri. Despite this 
change, which was for the better compared with the old sys- 
tem, the railroads continued to deteriorate largely through 
lack of adequate rates. After the United States entered the 
World War the National Government took control of the 
railroads in 1917. After the return to private ownership the 
powers of the National Government continued to increase 
as regards regulation. To-day the rates for freight and pas- 


A Century of Transportation 301 

senger traffic are practically set by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission both as regards interstate and intrastate business. 

Street and Road Transportation 

The street railway was introduced in Kansas City 
and St. Louis by 1875 and later in other Missouri cities. 
It was at first another form of evolution of the old stage 
coach. The first cars were built with stage coach bodies, 
mounted on flanged wheels, running on flat iron rails, with 
horses as motive power. In the latter 70s the horses were 
discarded and the cars were pulled by a cable. About 1895 
this gave place to electricity. Accompanying this progress 
were improvements in the cars until to-day one may ride 
with convenience in all seasons from his suburban home to 
his place of work in the city. 

Another form of rail transportation similar to the street 
railway is the interurban line, also run by electricity. Mis- 
souri has a number of these lines close to the large cities 
and in southw*est Missouri, but the great development in this 
field over the State at large is still in the future. As Mis- 
souri increases in population interurban lines will become 
necessary unless the automobile traffic develops so as to be 
dependable in all seasons. • 

During the last ten years much progress has been made 
in arousing interest in public good road building. However, 
Missouri has not until recently begun to make the progress 
necessary to furnish good roads to her people throughout the 
year. In 1920 the people voted to issue $60,000,000 of road 
bonds. In 1921 the Legislature passed a large number of 
laws relating to the expenditure of this money for the build- 
ing of good roads. A state highway commision of four men 
was created which body has general supervision over the 
construction of roads built with State monev. The Federal 
Government is also making road appropriations to supple- 
ment the State money. Missouri in 1920-1921 took the first 

302 History of Missouri and Missourians 

step forward in planning the construction of durable public 

Perhaps one of the most important causes of the 
awakened interest in good roads is the automobile. The 
automobile traffic in Missouri for pleasure and business is 
tremendous. This traffic to be efficient demands good 
roads. The number of licensed cars in Missouri is increas- 
ing each year. The new $60,000,000 road bond issued will 
probably be paid largely, perhaps entirely, from the license 
fees paid by automobile owners. The next step in trans- 
portation is to improve the facilities already provided by man 
and nature. The aeroplane will also develop as a swift 
means of locomotion, but the main reliance of Missouri and 
Missourians for at least the immediate future is to build on 
the firm foundations of the past. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What influence had the steamboat on the development of 


2. What caused river traffic to decline? 

3. What is necessary to revive river traffic and why is water 

transportation important? 

4. Name the first two cross-state railroads in Missouri. 

5. How did the State encourage the building of railroads? 

6. Since what date has there been the greatest increase in rail- 

road mileage? 

7. What has been the attitude of the State in railroad regula- 


8. What was the recent legislation in regard to good road 



Chapter VI 


During the last fifty years there has been in all countries 
a remarkable growth in the number and in the population of 
cities. The main causes of this growth have been greater 
transportation facilities by land and water and the building 
of modem factories. The transportation facilities have made 
the cities great trading centers, and those places which were 
located on the important trade routes grew fastest. The 
modern factories employing thousands of men and producing 
millions of dollars worth of manufactured goods added popu- 
lation and wealth to the cities, and those places again grew 
fastest which had the best transportation means to distribute 
their goods, and which were close to the areas producing the 
Taw materials used in the factories. So, fundamentally, large 
cities are founded on trade, transportation, and factories, i. 
«., on economic factors. This is true of four of Missouri's 
five largest cities, St. Louis, Kansas City, St. Joseph, and 
Springfield — each having a population over 25,000; the fifth 
city, Joplin, has been founded largely on the mining industry, 
but this is not an exception, since modern mining is not un- 
like modern manufacturing. Economic factors have been 
very important in building nearly all of Missouri's 63 cities 
having a population over 2,500. The exceptions are those 
cities which have no factories but which have good railroads 
and cities with colleges and state institutions. A college 
town is an educational- factory center and must have trans- 
portation facilities. As a conclusion, it is clear that those 
cities will grow fastest which are on trade routes, which have 
the best transportation facilities, or which through their loca- 
tion are best adapted to manufacture goods or produce 
juineral products at the lowest cost. 


304 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Missouri Cities 

Missouri has 63 cities, each of 2,500 inhabitants 
or more. These 63 cities have a population of 1,586,903, 
or 46.6% of Missouri's total population. This shows that 
cities are becoming important in Missouri. But most of 
these cities are small and there are only five which have 
over 25,000 inhabitants. Still, these five cities — St. Louis, 
Kansas City, St. Joseph, Springfield, and Joplin — ^have 79% 
of the population in all 63 cities. Moreover, there are only 
eight cities in Missouri having a population between 10,000 
and 25,000 — Cape Girardeau, Carthage, Columbia, Hannibal, 
Independence, Jefferson City, Moberly, and Sedalia. This 
shows that although Missouri has a large urban population 
nearly equal to its rural population, four-fifths of this city 
population is in five cities and S5% is in thirteen cities. 
With very few exceptions it is the large cities which have 
grown .fastest. This has been true in Missouri since 1840, 
although some of the 63 cities existed in 1840 and nearly all 
of them were in existence by 1870, fifty years ago. In other 
words nearly all of the 63 cities have had time to grow, but 
to-day only five have become big cities and only thirteen 
have a population over 10,000. 

St. Louis has been Missouri's largest city for over a 
century. From 1820 to 1830 it grew very slowly, increasing 
from 4,598 to 5,852. It was not incorporated until 1823. 
By 1840 it had grown to 16,469. It was still not a large 
city but its position, its trade, and above all its increasing 
steamboat traffic promised to make it a great city. By 
1850 St. Louis had increased to 77,860 and now ranked 
eighth among American cities. Its rapid gfowth continued 
and by 1860 it had a population of 160,773. Much of this 
growth was due to the foreign immigration of the Germans 
and the Irish. Despite the Civil War it increased to 310,864, 
by 1870. The steamboat transportation had now declined 

A Century of City Building 305 

and although St. Louis had obtained the first railroads the 
new transportation did not at first offset the loss of the old. 
By 1880 St. Louis had increased to only 350,518, but in 1890 
it had again grown fast and had a population of 451,770. It 
had now become a great railroad center. Since that time 
the increase has been slow but steady. To-day St. Louis has 
a population of 772,897 and ranks sixth in the United States. 

The first great business which St. Louis developed was 
the fur trade. Only five years after it had been founded 
St. Louis's fur trade was $80,000. a year. In 1820 it was 
$2,500,000. a year. Finally, it passed the billion-dollar mark. 
The second great asset of St. Louis was the steamboat, 
which brought trade from all directions. When the railroad 
displaced the steamboat, St. Louis soon became a great rail- 
road center with lines extending everywhere. The third im- 
portant asset was the coming of the factory. This developed 
an industrial district which is one of the largest in area in 
the United States. The fourth economic asset of St. Louis 
has been her great financial resources. St. Louis is wealthy 
and its great banking houses not only finance St. Louis 
business but the business of other cities and states. St. Louis 
is the only city in the United States with a Federal Reserve 
bank and a Federal Farm Loan bank. Of course, none of 
these could have made a great city had it not been for the 
remarkable geographical location of St. Louis, its nearness 
to raw materials, its wonderfully rich trade territory extend- 
ing in all directions, and its enterprising citizens. 

St. Louis has lived up to its position and opportunity 
as a great city. Its schools, churches, streets, parks, mod- 
em conveniences, homes, business houses, museums, botani- 
cal gardens, theatres, hotels, and public buildings are equal 
to those of other modem progressive cities. St. Louis 
is known over the United States for being a city of 
homes, for having one of the largest union railroad stations, 

,306 History of Missouri and Missouhians 

forr having one of the finest botanical gardens in the world, 
■for having large and beautiful parks, and for having suc- 
'cessf-ully given the largest and best World's Fair, the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition of 1C04, ever held. It is also 
known for the high standard and excellence of its schools. 

St. Louis is also a music center. But among those things 
which have cast great credit on this city has been the com- 
parative absence of the sordid slums usually found in lai^e 
cities. St. Louis is known not as a city of slums but as ?. 
city of homes, churches, and schools. 

Since 1870 Kansas City has been the second largest city 
in Missouri and to-day ranks I9th in the United States. It 
entered the small city class in 1860 with a population 01 
4,418. In 1920 it had grown to 324,410. These sixty years 
of great growth are very similar to the sixty years of growth 
of St. Louis from 1820 to 18S0. In 1820 St. Louis entered 
the smal) city class with a population of 4,598 and in 1880 
it had 350,519. Another similarity between St. Louis and 
Kansas City lies in both getting their start as trading centers. 

A Century of City Building 307 

then as steamboat ports, and later as railroad and factory 
centers. Each city is located almost on the boundary line of 
Missouri, and hence each city derives much of its trade 
from other states. Each has a neighboring city of nearly 
the same name in another state. St. Louis, Mo., has East 
St. Louis, in Illinois; Kansas City, Mo., has Kansas City, 
Kansas. Each has a Federal Reserve Bank. Both Mis- 
souri cities have lived up to their opportunities and both 
have successfully met and solved many of their great prob- 
lems. St. Louis has met a great fire (1849), a cyclone, loss 
of steamboat transportation in the '70s, and the rise of a 
rivai in Chicago. Kansas City has met the problem of get- 
ting railroads in the '60s, of getting back its population 
after the Civil War, of successfully out distancing its early 
rival, Leavenworth, Kansas, of making beautiful streets, 
boulevards, and parks out of steep hills and muddy gulleys, 
and of bravely going through and of finally conquering one 
of the worst real estate depressions (1887-1891) a city could 
possibly have. Kansas City is truly either a city of miracles 
or a city of remarkable courage and faith. 

Unlike the founding of St. Louis, the early beginning of 
Kansas City did not show the careful planning of any man 
or the steady growth following the founding. Although ex- 
plorers early visited the present site of Kansas City and 
although one or two French traders had settled at the mouth 
of the Kaw, or Kansas river, about 1800, the beginning of 
Kansas City is found in 1821 when Francois Chouteau,, a 
Frenchman, established a trading post on the south bank of 
the Missouri river. The little post of 31 persons did a con- 
siderable business. Later it became known as Westport 
Landing. Westport itself was an inland town three miles 
south, and is now part of Kansas City. From Westport 
Landing and Westport grew Kansas City. Westport was 
laid off in 1833 by J. C. McCoy. Kansas City was f iitst 
called "the town of Kansas" in 1847, in 1854 "the City of 

joS History of Missouri and Missourians 

Kansas", and in 1889 "Kansas City". The first agency to 
build up the town was the Santa Fe trade. The first large 
cargo from New Mexico reached Kansas City in 1845. By 
1850 Kansas City was the exclusive eastern terminus of the 
freighting business and 600 wagons left annually for Santa 
Fe. Being the closest Missouri river point to Santa Fe, 
Kansas City soon crowded out rivals for the great trade of 
the Southwest. By 1860 the freight shipped from Kansas 
City was 16,500,000 pounds, employing 7,084 men, 6,147 
mules, 27,920 yoke of oxen, and 3,033 wagons. As early as 
1853 Missouri's great statesman, Thomas H. Benton, on a 
visit to Kansas City predicted that it would become a great 
commercial and manufacturing city. It grew rapidly in the 
latter '50s owing to the great steamboat traffic, the western 
freighting business, and the immigration of settlers to Kan- 
sas territory. Its small population of 478 in 1855 increased 
to 4,418 by 1860. During the war its population declined to 
3,500 and its Santa Fe trade went to Leavenworth. In the 
latter '60s it obtained several important railroads, notably the 
Missouri Pacific nmning eastward and the Union Pacific 
westward, and by securing a bridge across the Missouri 
river, the first ever built, it obtained access to the north Mis- 
souri coimtry through the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. 
Its destiny was now secure. By 1870 it had seven railroads 
and a population of 32,360. Leavenworth was no longer a 
real rival. Since then its remarkable growth is seen in these 
figures: 1880, 55,785; 1890, 132,716; 1900, 163,752; 1910, 
248,381 ; 1920, 324,410. 

To-day Kansas City is a modem city in every sense of 
that term. It is a great railroad and factory center. Its 
stockyards and packing houses in Kansas City, Kansas, are 
known over the nation. It has beautified its environment 
with parks and boulevards. Kansas City is known as one 
of the most beautiful park cities in the United States. It 
has no slums. It has one of the best and most beautiful 

A Century of City Building 309 

jio History of Missouri and Missourians 

residence districts in the country. Its schools and churches 
are unsurpassed. Out of its high hills and cliffs it has made 
a fair>' playground of unsurpassed scenic beauty for its 
citizens. Its union station, recently built, is widely known 
and its memorial building now under construction will be a 
monument both to Kansas Cty's heroes and to Kansas City's 
progressive citizens. It has well Hved up to its motto: "Make 
Kansas Cty a good place to live in." 

The building of St Joseph, Missouri's third largest city, 
was similar to the founding of Kansas Cty. Both began as 
trading posts, founded by Frenchmen. Both became freight- 
ing centers and outfitting centers for the trade westward. 
Both were the eastern termini of western trades and trails. 
Both became great river ports and later railroad centers. 
Both obtained great factories and packing houses. Both 
became progressive cities. Although St Joseph was younger 
it grew faster at first, but after 1870 Kansas City took the 
lead. Like Kansas City and St Louis, the city of St. 
Joseph is located close to the Missouri boundary line. 

Chi a trip up the Missouri river a St. Louis Frenchman 
noticed a river crossing at a place which the Indians called 
Blacksnake Hills. Here Joseph Robidoux established a trad- 
ing house in 1827, from which grew the city of St. Joseph. 
It was ideally located geographically, being on a natural 
route east to west and being a good river port Its trade at 
first was in furs and peltries. Soon settlers came and in 
1843 the foundation of the city was laid. In 1851 it was in- 
corporated. The town grew fast The steamboats brought 
it supplies for the north Missouri country and the great 
trains of freighters and emigrants going west It became the 
outfitting point for the West and Northwest. Caravans, stage 
coaches, and the pony express, brought it trade and news. 
With the coming of the railroad in 1859 it became the west- 
ern terminus of the Hannibal and St. Joseph route. By 1860 
it had a population of 8,932 and in 1870 this had increased 

A Century of City Building 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

to 19,565. Although the early transcontinental railroads 
passed either to the north or to the south, St. Joseph 
grew on account of its rich trading territory in Missouri, 
Iowa, and Kansas. By 1880 it had grown to 32,431 and by 
1890 to 52,324. It was now a railroad center. Most Mis- 
souri cities, excepting Joplin which had opened new mines, 
did not grbw fast between 1890 and 1900. Those were 
years of hard times and business depressions, and factories 
do not expand and cities rarely grow fast during business 
depressions. By 1910 St. Joseph had a population of 77,403 
and its population in 1920 was 77,939. 

St. Joseph is the great city of northwest Missouri It 
is built on the most substantial bases of a rich trading terri- 
tory, fine railroad transportation, and great factories. It is 
a wholesale and packing center. Considering its size it is 
one of the wealthiest cities in the country. Showing its pro- 
gressiveness, it has built on these economic successes a fine 
system of schools, parks, and modem city improvements. 

The fourth city of size in Missouri is Springfield, "The 
Queen of the Ozarks." Located at an altitude of 1,500 feet, 
on the Ozark plateau, Springfield is favored by nature in 
climate, water, resources, and scenery. It is an inland city 
but like the other Missouri cities it draws part of its trade 
from other states. Also like other Missouri cities it is 
located on trade routes and these have been developed 
through the railroads. Springfield is a railroad center and 
a factory center. It serves southwest Missouri. 

Springfield was founded in 1833 by John P. Campbell, 
who had come from Tennessee. It grew slowly and by 1858 
had a population of only 1,200. It was a strategic military 
point during the Civil War and this served to depress busi- 
ness. After 1865 business revived quickly. By 1870 it had 
a population of 5,555 and in 1890 it had 21,850. By 1910 it 
had increased to 35,201 and by 1920 to 39,631. Its slowest 
growth was between 1890 and 1900, the decade of depres- 

A Century of City Building 313 

sion. The development of the fniit, poultry, and mining in- 
dustries in the Ozarks and in southwest Missouri, combined 
with the factories and railroads in Springfield have furnished 
the economic bases of the city. The rick Ozark soil of the 
prairies has built up a prosperous farming class which to-day 
gives Springfield an economic position as strategic as was 
its military position in the early '60s. 

The fifth city, of size in Missouri is Joplin, the great 
center of the richest zinc mining field in the world. 
This field extends from southwest Missouri to Kansas, 
Oklahoma, and Arkansas. Joplin is the acknowledged indus- 
trial and financial center of this region. Its railroad trans- 
portation is adequate. The business of Joplin was built on 
lead and zinc. Joplin grew from mining camps. The town 
was platted in 1871 and chartered in 1873. In 1880 it had 
a population of 7,038 and in 1890 it had 9,943. By 1900 it 
had increased to 26,023 and in 1920 its population was 
29,902. Since its principal business is based on the lead and 
zinc industry, it grows tremendously when that industry 
flourishes, i. e., when the price of lead and zinc is so high 
as to profitably work the mines. The recent development 
of the southwest Missouri fruit industry is also becoming an 
important asset to Joplin. 

• Conclusion 

Each Missouri city and town, large and small, has an 
interesting history, which is well worth studying. The citi- 
zens of each will be well repaid in learning that history. 
What has made the town, what has built it, what has it 
failed to do, what does it lack, — in short, what are its advan- 
tages and its limitations from an economic, educational, and 
convenience point of view? It is the quality of the town, 
not the size, and it is the progressive character of the citi- 
zens, not the figures on population, which make the city 

jl4 History of Missouri and Missourians 

worth while. The size depends largely on economic factors 
as transportation, factories, and trade territory; the character 
depends entirely on human factors as faith, courage, and 

Suggestive Questions 

1. What factors in general contribute to city building? 

2. What are some of the advantages the city affords? 

3. Why are cities important in the history of Missouri? 

4. Trace the growth of St. Louis from 1820. 

5. What four great advantages aided in the growth of St. 

6. What are some of the things for which St. Louis is known? 

7. In what way does the founding and growth of Kansas City 
resemble St. Louis? How does it differ? 

8. What was the greatest agency in the early building of Kan 
sas City? 

9. How has Kansas City lived up to the motto, "Make Kansa*" 
City a good place to live in?" 

10. How did the geographic location of St. Joseph contribute to 

its growth? 
n. What economic factors have entered into the building o^ 

12. How does a great industry contribute to the prosperity of 




Missouri ranks high in journalism and in literature. In 
each the State has made important contributions. Some of 
the Nation's great editors and authors were either born in 
Missouri or accomplished much of their work in Missouri. 
Among the eminent Missouri editors and reporters are such 
widely known men as Nathaniel Paschal, George Knapp, 
William Hyde, Carl Schurz, Joseph Pulitzer, Joseph B. Mc- 
Cullagh, William R. Nelson, John N. Edwards, Walter B. 
Stevens, William Marion Reedy, and Walter Williams. 
Among the eminent Missouri authors are such noted writers 
as Mark Twain, Eugene Field, Winston Churchill, Augustus 
Thomas, Sara Teasdale, and Fannie Hurst. Some of these 
are known to every well-informed Missourian and others 
have a reputation which is more than nation wide. Missouri 
has reason to be proud of her journalists and authors. 

Journalism in Missouri 

Journalism in Missouri is more than a century old. The 
first newspaper was established in St. Louis in 1808. This 
was the Missouri Gazette. Its founder and editor was a 
native bom Irishman, Joseph Charless. For seven years this 
little four-page sheet was the only newspaper west of the 
Mississippi river. It became the Missouri Republican and 
later the St. Louis Republic. It suspended in 1919, after a 
long and valuable career of 111 years. St. Louis was also 
the home of Missouri's second newspaper, the Western 
Journal, foimded in 1815. This paper finally became the 
St. Louis Enquirer and for several years was largely con- 
trolled and edited by Missouri's great statesman, Thomas H. 
Benton. The third Missouri newspaper was the Missouri 


3i6 History -OF Missouri and Missourians 

Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, founded in 
1819 by Nathaniel Patten and Benjamin Holliday at old 
Franklin, Howard county. Although this paper did not dif- 
fer in size or character from the two St. Louis papers of 
that day, it is usually referred to as the first country news- 
paper in Missouri. Other pioneer newspapers established 
about this time were the Missouri Herald at Jackson in 
1819, the Missourian at St. Charles in 1820, the Corre- 
spondent AND Record at Ste. Genevieve in 1821, the Mis- 
souri Gazette at St. Charles in 1823, and the Jeffersonian 
at Jefferson City in 1825. The number of newspapers in 
Missouri kept increasing until by 1850 each section of Mis- 
souri except the Ozark counties had several newspapers. The 
first newspaper in the Ozark region was the Ozark Stand- 
ard, established at Springfield in 1838. 

Naturally the early newspapers followed the trend of 
settlement. The first ones were on or near the Mississippi 
or the Missouri river. Later as population spread into the 
interior, the pioneer editor followed with his small wagon- 
load of equipment of type and press. By 1897 Missouri had 
894 newspapers, not including trade journals, but in 1921 the 
number had fallen to 721. The latter included 73 dailies 
and 648 weeklies and semi-weeklies, and they were published 
in 424 places. The first daily newspaper in Missouri was 
the St. Louis Herald, which was pubUshed in 1834 but 
which was soon discontinued. The next daily, which con- 
tinued publication, was the Missouri . Republican of St. 
Louis. In many ways the Missouri Republican (first call- 
ed the Missouri Gazette and later the St. Louis Republic) 
was one of the greatest newspapers Missouri has produced.. 
It was the first weekly, the first metropolitan newspaper, 
the first permanent daily, the first in adopting modem print- 
ing machinery, the first to use extensively the telegraph for 
news, and it had the longest life. St. Louis and Missouri 
owe much to the old Missouri Republican. 

A Century of Journalism and Literature 317 

Missouri journalism is divided into three periods. The 
first was the period of pioneer journalism and extended 
from 1808 to 1850. This period was characterized in general 
by two features, little mechanical equipment for printing 
newspapers and emphasis on ideas rather than on news in 
the newspaper itself. The early newspapers were small in 
size and contained only four pages (two sheets) to an issue. 
The early Missouri Gazette measured only twelve inches 
by eight inches. Gradually the size increased until in the 
'40s and '50s some of the Missouri newspapers measured 
thirty-one inches long by twenty-five inches wide. They 
were called "blanket-sheets." Both the type setting and the 
press work were done by hand. With the invention of 
modem printing machinery the size decreased and the num- 
ber of pages increased. 

The pioneer Missouri newspaper contained little news. 
It was an idea or a fact-paper rather than a "news" paper 
in the modem sense. It contained articles from other news- 
papers and magazines, chapters and poems from books, let- 
ters from subscribers (usually signed with a pen name), 
unattractive advertising in large quantity, and usually very 
interesting and instructive editorials. Foreign and national 
news was given as much, if not more, attention and space as 
state and local news. Owing to difficulty in obtaining paper 
and to delay of the mails, the pioneer Missouri newspaper 
was frequently irregular in its time of publication. The 
newspapers in St. Louis were naturally of a different type 
as the city grew in size. Here the news feature was first 
introduced, the first telegraph reports, the best machinery, 
and the first reporters. But even down to 1850 the Mis- 
souri newspaper differed greatly in many important features, 
especially in the news feature, from the newspaper of today. 
Still, it was during this pioneer period that the Missouri edi- 
tor performed a great service to his community and his state. 
In the cbuntry he labored under great disadvantages, the 


3i8 History of Missouri and Missourians 

greatest of which was his small income. This frequently 
forced him to engage in some other occupation in order to 
make a living. 

The second period of Missouri journalism was from 
1850 to 1880. This period marked the awakening of Mis- 
souri journalism and the transition from the old to the new 
journalism. The first fifteen years of this period saw the 
wider use of the telegraph, a deeper interest in political ques- 
tions, the development of news stories (especially during the 
Civil War), the continued use of the "blanket-sheet,'^ and to- 
ward the close the suspension of a number of country 
papers owing to the war. The last fifteen years of this 
period witnessed the rise of real "news" papers, the great 
growth of the metropolitan press in St. Louis, Kansas City, 
St. Joseph, and other towns, the decrease in size and the 
increase in pages of the newspaper, the introduction of 
modern machinery in the city newspaper plants, and the de~ 
velopment of the country press through the facilities of the 
mail, railroad, and telegraph. In 1867. the Missouri Press 
Association was organized in St. Louis. This event marked 
the beginning of co-operation among Missouri editors, which 
has done much to elevate the profession of journalism in 

The third period of Missouri journalism is the modem 
period, from 1880 to date. The same tendencies noticed in 
the last fifteen years of the second period now strengthened 
and broadened. Better machinery, the application of chem- 
istry to such practical problems as "cut" or illustration work, 
and more adequate transportation facilities, made possible 
the modem city and country newspaper. As the newspaper 
improved, its circulation increased. The income of the edi- 
tor rose, but more important was the development of the 
Missouri editor into a practical business man running his 
paper on a business basis. This latter alone did much to 
elevate journalism in Missouri. The old practice of paying 

A Century of Journalism and Literature ^jg 

subscriptions (frequently in arrears) in produce, as com, 
wood, or potatoes, has long since been abandoned. This 
period also marked the growth of the small city daily and 
the tendency to issue evening rather than morning dailies. 
In 1859 there were four morning daily papers in Missouri Jto 
one evening daily paper. In 1921 there were four evening 
dailies to one morning daily. 

The last important feature of this period was the estab- 
lishment of the school of journalism of the University of 
Missouri in 1907. Its founder was a native bom Missouri 
editor, Walter Williams. This was the first school of 
journalism in the world. It opened in 1908 and has trained 
many men and women in preparation for a journalistic 
career. Instruction in journalism has since been introduced 
in other Missouri educational institutions. 

The Missouri editor has performed a service to his 
state which is invaluable. This is true of the pioneer editor 
and the modem editor, of the country journalist and the city 
journalist. He has been a builder and a teacher. The great 
progress of St. Louis would not have been possible without 
such a paper as the old Missouri Republican. To-day each 
Missouri city has from two to five daily newspapers, and 
every Missouri community is served by at least one local 
newspaper. It is true that we do not hear to-day of such 
outstanding Missouri editors as Joseph B. McCullagh, 
Joseph Pulitzer, or William R. Nelson, or of such remark- 
able reporters as John N. Edwards or Walter B. Stevens, but 
as a whole Missouri journalism to-day is higher, Missouri 
newspapers are better, and Missouri journalists are more 

adequately equipped for their work. 

■ . , . 

Literature in Missouri 

Literature in Missouri, like journalism, is more than a 
century old. The first Missouri poem was written in 1780 
by a St. Louis schoolmaster, John B. Trudeau. It was called 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

souri, but about twenty-five per cent were now claimed by 
other cities and towns. Another characteristic of this period 
was the appearance of women as authors although men were 
still in the majority. 

i Among the many writers of this period some of the 
mo*t successful and most eminent were Mark Twain, Eugene 
Field, John N. Edwards, Adolph Ernest Kroeger, W. T. 
Harris, B. J. Snider, James W. Buel, Nathan C. Kouns, 
Frederick L. Billon, Mrs. Kate Chopin, and William Vin- 
cent Byars. The first two are known to every school boy 
and girl. Both were Missouri bom and Missouri reared. 
Mark Twain — his real name was Samuel Langhom Clemens 
— Was bom in Florida, Missouri, and was reared in Hanni- 
bal^ He was Missouri's greatest man of letters and America's 
greatest humorist. He was more than a mere fun-maker and 
a writer of fiction, however, and was perhaps more deeply 
interested in the philosophy of life. Eugene Field was a 
native of St. Louis, 
where he also was 
reared. He was a 
journalist and worked 
in St. Louis, Kansas 
City, St. Joseph. Den- 
ver, and Chicago. He 
was a poet of rank and 
his "Little Boy Blue" 
breathed a deep sympa- 
thy for child life. He 
ranks as Missouri's. 
greatest children's poet. 
John N. Edwards was 
a journalist and did 
most of his work in 
EUGBNE HELD Kausas City. He was 

a remarkably able re- 
porter and writer. His field was semi-historical on subjects 

A Century OF Journalism and Literature 323 

relating to the Civil War. Adolph Ernest Kroeger was a 
native of the Duchy of Schleswig in Europe. He made his 
home in St. Louis where he achieved distinction as a 
scholar and writer oh philosophy. W. T. Harris was also a 
St. Louisan by adoption. His writings an education and his 
great work for public education gave him a national reputa- 
tion. He was one of the most learned scholars in the United 
States. Benton Jacques Snider, another St. Louisan by 
adoption, also had a national reputation in the field of phil- 
osophy and classic scholarship. James W. Buel was the 
most prolific author who ever lived in Missouri. Most of 
his works related to description and travel, biography and his- 
tory. Nathan C. Kouns was a native of Fulton, Missouri, 
and later made his home in Kansas City and Jefferson City. 
He was a novelist of rank. Frederick L. Billon, another St. 
Louisan by adoption, was a historian whose works promise 
to live. Mrs. Kate Chopin, a native of St. Louis, was a 
painstaking author of rare ability. Her stories were among 
the finest produced in America on the subject of Creole life 
in the South. 

The third, and present, period of literature in Missoun 
extends from 1900 to date. It is characterized by several 
features. In the first place, the authors are largely native 
bom Missourians. Although St. Louis still maintains her lit- 
erary ascendancy, other cities and towns are now producing 
more writers of ability than ever before. In the second 
place, the novel, the short story, and the poem predominate. 
This is largely a period of light literature where the imagina- 
'tion and the polished style of the author are in the ascendancy. 
Again, women divide honors with men as authors. On the 
whole, it is a period of greater literary activity than any 
previous period and it is well maintaining Missouri's rank as 
established by Missouri's greatest writers. 

Among some of the foremost literary characters of this 
period are Winston Churchill, Augustus Thomas, Rupert 

324 History of Missouri and Missourians 

Hughes, Walter B. Stevens, Louis Houck, Fannie Hurst,, 
Sara Teasdale, Homer Croy, J. Breckenridge Ellis, Louis 
Dodge, William Marion Reedy, Harris Merton Lyon, and 
Mary Alicia Owen. Winston Churchill is a native of St. 
Louis. He is Missouri's greatest historical novelist. Augustus 
Thomas is also a native of St. Louis and is Missouri's great- 
est dramatist. Rupert Hughes is a native of Lancaster, Mis- 
souri, and is one of Missouri's eminent short story writers, 
novelists, and dramatists. Walter B. Stevens, a St. Louisan 
by adoption, is Missouri's most popular and prolific historical 
writer. He is also one of Missouri's two greatest reporters. 
Louis Houck, of Cape Girardeau, is Missouri's most eminent 
historian of the early period down to 182L Fannie Hurst, 
a native of St. Louis, is widely known for her short stories. 
Sara Teasdale, of St. Louis, . shares with Eugene Field the 
honor of Missouri's foremost poet. Homer Croy, a native 
of Maryville, Missouri, is well known for his humorous writ- 
ings and works of fiction. J. Breckenridge Ellis, of Platts- 
burg, Missouri, is one of Missouri's most widely known 
novelists. Louis Dodge, of St. Louis, is also a novelist of 
rank. William Marion Reedy, of St. Louis, did more through 
his magazine, the St. Louis Mirror, to develop a new school 
of Missouri and Mid-West writers than any other person. 
His essays and editorial comments on varied subjects are 
classic in style and beauty. Harris Merton Lyon, of Kansas 
City, is perhaps Missouri's greatest short-story writer. Mary 
Alicia Owen, of St. Joseph, is Missouri's greatest authority 
and writer on folk-lore. Missouri has every reason to be 
proud of her century of literature. To-day the States 
stands high eyen in comparison with the best and the oldest 
of America's literary centers. 

A Century of Journalism and Literature 325 
Suggestive Questions 

1. What was the name of the first Missouri newspaper? When 

was it established? By what name was this paper known 

2. Name two other early newspapers and the editor of each. 

3. What characterized the first period of Missouri journalism? 

4. What progress in journalism was made from 1850 to 1880? 

5. What facilities have added to the rapid growth of the 

modern city and the country newspaper? 

6. What was the first book of Missouri poems? 

7. What characterized the first period of Missouri literature? 

Name two authors of this period. 

8. In what sense was the period of Missouri literature from 1860 

to 1900 the "Golden Age" of Missouri letters? Name four 
authors of this period, each prominent in a different phase 
of literature. 

9. What features characterize Missouri literature from 1900 to 

date? Name five authors of this period, each prominent in 
a different field of literature. 

Chapter VIII 


Education in Missouri, like journalism, is more than a 
century old. Its beginnings may be traced back into the 
Spanish-French period. Since that period in the 18th cen- 
tury to the modem period in the 20th century many changes 
have taken place, many educational problems have been 
solved, and many obstacles have been overcome. The private 
school, the church school, and the public school appeared and 
^ach made its contribution and performed its service to the 
people. The original idea of the settlers that the parents 
should educate their children still remains in Missouri, but 
in addition has been adopted the broader idea that the State 
should educate the children of to-day in order that it may 
have the progressive, enlightened citizens of to-morrow. Edu- 
cation is now free to all, and undoubtedly the greatest of 
Missouri's assets, greater even than her natural resources, is 
her schools, colleges, and universities. 

Elementary Education 

The first schools in Missouri were private schools. 
They appeared during the Spanish-French period and were 
conducted by the village priest and by the private school- 
master. These schools were confined to the towns. From 
an early date St. Charles, Ste. Genevieve, and St. Louis had 
schools under the village priest, where elementary instruc- 
tion was given and later instruction in the Latin, French, 
and Spanish languages. The first private boys' school in 
St. Louis was opened by John B. Trudeau (Jean Baptiste 
Trudeau). Trudeau was Missouri's first schoolmaster; he 
was also Missouri's first poet. He taught from 1774 to 
1827, a period of over half a century. The first private 


A Century of Education 327 

school for girls west of the Mississippi was established about 
1790 by Mme. Rigauche. This also was a French school 
and was located in St. Louis. Here the elementary branches 
were taught as well as music, languages, and the "graces." 
In the private French schools tuition was charged. 

The coming of the Americans after 1804 added other 
types of schools. The village priest schools and the private 
town schools of the French period continued, but now the 
Protestant ministers and the private American schoolmasters 
began giving elementary instruction in the towns and the in- 
terior settlements. Another addition, the most important, 
was the appearance of the district subscription school in the 
pioneer settlements. The families in a community employed 
the teacher and paid him according to the number of 
children sent by each family. Sometimes the community 
built a log schoolhouse and sometimes the children were 
taught at the home of the teacher. The first English district 
school in Missouri was opened by Benjamin Johnson on 
Sandy Creek, in what is now Jefferson coimty, in 1806. The 
district subscription school gradually spread over Missouri as 
the American settlers pushed into the interior. It was frequently 
founded even before the newspaper and the court house. 
Later it became the basis of the elementary public school and 
it continued for many years even after the free public school 
had appeared. Previous to the coming of the public school 
another type of school appeared in Missouri in which ele- 
mentary instruction was frequently given as well as second- 
ary education. This was the academy and the ladies' semi- 
nary. Since these latter were primarily secondary schools, 
i. e., similar to high schools, they will be considered under 
secondary education. 

To-day elementary education in Missouri is given almost 
entirely in the public schools, i. e., tax-supported schools 
free to all persons between six and twenty years of age. 
The first movement in Missouri to establish a system of pub- 

328 History of Missouri and Missourians 

lie schools was made in St. Louis in 1817 but the first public 
school in St. Louis was not opened until 1838. The story of 
the public school system in the State is filled with inter- 
esting and instructive lessons. The development was slow, 
owing to several causes. In the first place, the private school, 
the academy, and the district subscription school, at least 
partially served the needs of elementary education, but of 
course this service was confined to those who were able to 
pay. Naturally, in those early days, many opposed school 
taxation for the benefit of educating the children of other 
citizens. Besides, some persons had no children and they 
also objected. In other words, although the people in gen- 
eral believed in education, they did not regard it as the duty 
of the State to imdertake this expensive work, but they 
thought that it was the duty of the parents. In the second 
place, the public school in Missouri was at first frequently 
regarded as a school for the poor children and the orphans. 
For example, in Missouri's first state constitution (1820) 
was an excellent article on education in which was stated 
"One school or more shall be established in each township, as 
soon as practicable and necessary, where the poor shall be 
taught gratis." As a result of this attitude, many persons 
preferred to send their children to private schools. Natur- 
ally, these persons, who were influential leaders, were not so 
interested in the development of a public school system. To- 
day, the public school is open to the poorest child and is good 
enough for the richest child. In the third place, much of 
the public school land donated to Missouri by the United 
States was sold early and therefore did not bring a good 
price. Moreover, the money received from this land was in 
vested in stock of the State Bank and for years the income 
on the money was very small. Since this income was one 
of the main sources of support for the public schools, this 
resulted in delaying the growth of a public school system. 
Finally, the Civil War practically closed the public schools of 

A Century of Education 329 

Missouri. As a result of these and other factors, the pub- 
lic school system in Missouri developed slowly and only after 
overcoming many obstacles. 

The first general law for a public school system in Mis- 
souri was passed in 1835. The most important early law 
was the Geyer Act of 1839. The Geyer Act was the foun- 
dation of Missouri's present school system. It provided for 
the various state, county, and township school funds; a state 
superintendent of schools; the ages of the white school 
children (eight to sixteen years), — no provision was made 
for the education of negro children imtil the constitution of 
1865 ; and a state university. The Geyer Act was a complete 
"paper system" of public education. It was virtually an 
adoption of Thomas Jefferson's famous and worthy plan for 
free public education for all the people from the elementary 
grades to the university. Unfortunately, the Geyer Act, as 
such, was never fully put into operation. In 1843 organized 
common schools were supported in forty-two of the seventy- 
seven counties. In 1854 out of 233,327 children of school 
age in the State, only 86,505 were in the public schools, the 
remainder being in private schools or not attending any 
school. During the '50s much progress was made but even 
in 1859 only one-half of the children attended the public 
school. The average teacher's salary for the year was $121. 
The equipment was also poor, for in 1859 the total amount 
raised to build and repair public school houses was only 

After the Civil War the people awakened to the need of 
better education. From that time the State advanced rap- 
idly. Both the constitution of 1865 and that of 1875 empha- 
sized public education for both white and negro children. 
For decades the State has appropriated one-third of the 
general revenue for the public schools in addition to the in- 
come from the state school fund. The school districts in 
town and country have voted larger and larger taxes for 

v33D History of Missouri and Missourians 

schools. City schools, unsurpassed, appeared and great pro- 
gress has lately been made in the rural schools by way of 
greater support and consolidation. This table taken from the 
report of the state superintendent of schools for 1921 will 
make clear the remarkable progress that has taken place in 
the public school system of Missouri during the last fifty 

1867 1920 

Total value of schoolhouses $1,480,729 $65,605,240 

Total value of school equipment 58,075 6,120,465 

Number of public schoolhouses 

(St. Louis excluded) 4,135 9.486 

Number of log schoolhouses 2,274 Very few 

Total amount paid for teachers' wage.... 641,974 16,831,753 

Number of teachers — public schools .... 6,262 21,126 

Number of children — public schools 169,270 672,483 

Average salary of teachers (male) $38.60 $95 

Average salary of teachers (female) $29.81 $65 

Average number of months taught per year 4.6 7 to 8 

Number of school libraries in Missouri.. 12 8,996 

Equally instructive of Missouri's progress in education 
is the difference in the character of the course of study of- 
fered fifty years ago and of that of fered to-day. The elemen- 
tary education of that day was confined to a few subjects, 
as writing, reading, arithmetic, geography, history, and Eng- 
lish grammar. To-day not only are these subjects taught 
more thoroughly but many other subjects of cultural and 
practical value have been added. 

The State has not only improved the school system by 
giving it more adequate financial support but also by passing 
and enforcing laws regulating and raising the elementary 
public schools. The qualifications of teachers were raised 
through examinations, teachers* institutes, and better training 
in teachers' colleges. The attendance of pupils was increased 
by the compulsory attendance law of 1905. Special state aid 
was provided for weak districts. County supervision was 

A Century of Education 33 1 

finally rrictde effective by the law of 1909, which required 
each county to select a county superintendent and which also 
provided a state subsidy of $400 to help his salary. The 
great need of teachers in elementary schools was also parti- 
ally met by a law (1913) providing teacher-training in high 
schools. In 1913 the free textbook law and the state board 
convention law were passed. In 1921 a county unit law, 
making the county the unit of school administration for 
schools below a certain rank, was passed. This law was held 
up by the referendum. One of the greatest forces in pro- 
moting better schools and welding all the teachers together 
in an enthusiastic, progressive body, is the State Teachers* 
Association, which is the second largest in the United States. 
The State has also maintained for years special schools. 
These schools are supported by the State and have perform- 
ed a great service. The school for the deaf and dumb 
children is located at Fulton; the school for the blind, at St. 
Louis; the home for the feeble minded and the epileptic, at 
Marshall; and the school for the incorrigible boys, white 
girls, and negro girls, respectively, at Boonville, Chillicothe, 
and Tipton. 

Secondary Education 

The early secondary schools in Missouri were the aca- 
demies and the ladies' seminaries. Both were tuition schools. 
The academy idea of education was found in nearly all 
parts of the country. The female seminary idea originated 
in the South. Some of the early academies chartered in 
Missouri were: Jackson, 1820, in Cape Girardeau county; 
St. Charles and Franklin, 1820; Louisiana, 1822; St. Marys, 
1822; Potosi, 1824; Ste. Genevieve, 1824; Boonville, 1825; 
and Fayette, 1825. The academy spread rapidly over Mis- 
souri and by 1850 there were 204 academies in the State, in 
which were enrolled 8,000 students. A few of these 
academies became military schools. To-day the academies 

332 History of Missouri and Missourians 

have nearly passed away. Of the military academies three 
have survived; Kemper, at Boonville, Missouri Military, at 
Mexico, and Wentworth, at Lexington. 

The female seminaries also had their beginning, at the 
time of the academy. Many were church schools. The 
Sacred Heart academy at St. Louis was founded by the 
Catholics as early as 1818. Among the early seminaries were 
Elizabeth Aull, at Lexington, 1820; Lindenwood, at St. 
Charles, 1830; and Howard Payne, at Fayette, 1834. The 
female seminary idea also spread rapidly over Missouri. A 
nimiber of them are now junior colleges of the State, i. e., 
half-way schools between the high school and the college and 
university. Some of the cities also have established junior 
colleges but these are a part of the public school system. In 
1921 Missouri still had forty-four fully accredited academies 
and eighteen junior colleges. 

The secondary schools in Missouri to-day are the high 
schools. They are all the development of the last fifty 
years of Missouri's public school system, excepting three 
high schools in St. Louis, St. Joseph, and Kansas City. The 
first high school in Missouri was opened in St. Louis in 1853 
with 70 pupils. In 1921 St. Louis had six first class 
high schools with 12,268 pupils. The second high school in 
Missouri was opened in St. Joseph in 1866 and the third in 
Kansas City in 1867. Owing to various causes the growth 
of the high school idea in Missouri was slow. Perhaps the 
two main reasons were first the fact that the high schools 
had no legal status in any Missouri constitution and second 
the strength of the private schools, especially the academies, 
giving secondary instruction. Even as late as 1899 Missouri 
had only 27 four-year, 38 three-year, and 60 two-year high 
schools, — a total of 125 high schools of which one-half gave 
only two years work. In 1921 Missouri had 3% first class, 
94 second class, 166 third class, and 64 unclassified high 
schools, — a total of 720 high schools of which over one-half 

A Century of Education 335 

were first class high schools. In fliese 720 schools were en- 
rolled 74,248 pupils, of which 68,011 were in first class high 
schools. Much of this progress was due to the law of 1903, 
which gave the high school a firm legal basis by providing 
for state inspection of high schools by the state superintend- 
ent of schools. This inspection has accomplished much in 
developing the high school spirit and in raising the standards. 
Moreover, the people now appreciate the great work being 
accomplished in their high schools The cities and towns are 
continuously advancing and lately the progressive rural dis- 
tricts have solved the problem of secondary education by 
consolidations with town high schools or with other country 
districts. The future of the Missouri high school was never 
brighter than it is to-day. 

Equally as important as the progress of the high 
school in numbers and enrollment, has been the improvement 
in its course of study. Prof. C. A. Phillips, of the Warrens- 
burg state teachers college, has described this in these words : 
*'The early academies and high schools were for such stu- 
dents only as expected to attend college. At the present 
time, however, the modem high school curriculum in the 
State makes provision* for practically all sorts of people — 
teacher-training classes for those who would begin teaching, 
vocational agriculture, vocational home economics, the trades, 
all the sciences, histories, languages, and technical subjects. 
Indeed, a modem high school curriculum is the equivalent 
of the ordinary college curriculum of thirty or forty years 
ago, except for the languages demands made by those col- 

Higher Education 

Higher education in Missouri, or "the college and uni- 
versity era," had its beginnings in church schools. The first 
college was organized by the Catholics in St. Louis in 1819 
and became St. Louis University in 1832. The Uni- 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

versity of Missouri, the head of the public school system of 
Missouri, was established at Columbia in 1839. Other insti- 
tutions of college rank founded in Missouri were: Central 
College at Fayette, founded by the Methodists> 1844 ; William 
Jewell College at Liberty, founded by the Baptists, 1849; 
Westminister College at Fulton, Presbyterian, 1853; Wash- 
ington University, St. Louis, founded in 1854 by a St. Louis 
merchant, Wayman Crow; Drury College at Springfield, 
Congregational, 1873; Park College at Parkville, Presb)^e- 
rian, 1875; Tarkio College at Tarkio, 1883; and Missouri 
Valley College at Marshall, Presbyterian, 1888. These col- 
leges, with' the Central Wesleyan of Warrenton and the Mis- 
souri Wesleyan of Cameron, constitute the "College Union.'^ 
The state normal schools, now called teachers colleges, were 
organized in 1870. The first two were established at Kirks- 
ville and Warrensburg. In 1873 a third school was founded 
at Cape Girardeau, and in 1905 two more were established — 
one at Springfield and one at Maryville. These five state 
teachers colleges are also part of the public school system. 
They were established primarily to train teachers. They 
now give a full four year college course and their enrollment 
is rapidly increasing. Down to 1920 these schools had en- 
rolled more than 145,000 students. Education for the ne- 
groes of the State was first provided for with the establish- 
ment of Lincoln Institute at Jefferson City in 1866. In 1879 
this institute was taken over by the State and in 1921 the 
Legislature changed its name to Lincoln University. ^ 

The two leading universities in Missouri are Washington 
University at St. Louis and the University of Missouri. Tht 
former was founded in 1854 by Wayman Crow, a St. Loui.v 
merchant. Through the public spirit of leading citizens of 
St. Louis this institution received large gifts in money and 
property until to-day it has an endowment fund running into 
the millions of dollars. Washington University is supported 
by the income from this fund and from tuition charged stu- 

A Century of Education 335 

dents. It maintains a number of complete schools or col- 
leges in which higher instruction is given in the arts and 
sciences, engineering, medicine, law, dentistry, business and 
commerce. It is one of the leading universities in the Mid- 
dle West. 

The University of Missouri at Columbia, the capstone of 
Missouri's public educational system, was founded by the 
State in 1839. The United States also gave Missouri public 
land for th^ establishment of such an institution. Although 
the first state university established west of the Mississippi 
river, the growth of the University of Missouri was slow. 
Not until 1867 did it receive from the State an appropriation 
for support. As Missouri awakened to the need of such 
an institution adequately equipped, the State began to sup- 
port it more liberally. The University of Missouri is to-day 
one of the greatest universities of its kind in the United 
States. Its separate colleges provide professional education 
in agriculture, arts and science, law, education, engineering, 
journalism, commerce, and medicine. Another college of the 
University of Missouri is the school of mines and metallurgy 
located at RoUa, Missouri. The entrollment of the Uni- 
versity of Missouri for 1921 was over 6,000 students. 

Suggestive Questions 

1. Who was Missouri's first schoolmaster? 

2. What beginnings were made in elementary education during 

the Spanish-French period? 

3. What changes in education took place with the coming of 
the Americans? 

4. How did the district subscription school differ from the pub- 

lic school? 

5. Why was the development of the public school system slow 
in Missouri? 

6. Illustrate Missouri's progress in public education. 

336 History of Missouri and Missourians 

7. In what kind of schools did secondary education have its be* 
* ginning in Missouri? 

8. Indicate the progress i^ade by the high school in Missouri 

during the last fifty years. 

9. Describe the general progress of higher education in Mis- 



Reference Books Desirable for a Small Working Library 

on Missouri History 

(All of these works, excepting complete sets of back volumes 
of the publications of the State Historical Society of Missouri and 
of the Missouri Historical Society, can be secured for about $25.00.) 

Cabr^ Lucien, Missouri, A Bone of Contention. 1899. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. A brief general work on the history of Missouri. It is 
largely political in treatment and is not down to date. 

HoucK, Louis, History of Missouri from Earliest Explorations 
and Settlements until the Admission of the State into the Union. 
3 vols., 1908. Donnelley and Sons, Chicago. The best work pub- 
lished on Missouri history down to 1821. 

McElroy, John, Struggle for Missouri. 1909. National Publishing 
Co. A presentation of the Civil War in Missouri. 

Meigs, William, Thomas Hart Benton. Lippincott 

Missouri Historical Review. State Historical Society of Mis- 
souri, Columbia. A quarterly magazine of over one hundred pages 
to the number. Subscription price $1.00 a year. Complete set of 16 
vols., bound, $60.00. Contains valuable articles on every phase of 
Missouri history. 

Missouri Historical Society Collections. Missouri Historical 
Society, St. Louis. Contains valuable studies on Missouri history. 

Shoemaker, Floyd C, Missouri's Hall of Fame. Missouri Book 
Company, Columbia. Devoted to the lives of eminent Missourians. 

Shoemaker, Floyd C, Missouri's Struggle for Statehood, 1804- 
1821. Floyd C. Shoemaker, Columbia. An intensive study of Mis- 
souri government from 1804 to 1821. 

Thwaites, Reuben G., Daniel Boone. Appletons. 

ViOLETTE, E. M., History of Missouri. 1918. D. C. Heath & Co. 
An excellent treatment of those topics in Missouri history that have 
significance in the history of the nation. 

Williams, Walter, The State of Missouri, An Autobiography. 
May be obtained from The State Historical Society of Missouri, 
Columbia, at $1.00. Contains valuable information on Missouri. 



Academies, 331-332 

Acts of Congress. See Congress 

Adams, H. M., 246 

Admission of Missouri into the Union, 

Agriculture in Missouri, during Span- 
ish period, 50-53; 1820-1921, 272- 

Amendments to constitution. See Con- 

American Fur Co., 103-104, 109 

American immigration to Missouri, 43- 
46, 77-82 

American settlements in Missouri, 43- 
46, 77-82 

Americans in Mis6ouri, 23-27, 60 

Anderson, Bill, 230-231 

Ashley, William H.. 72, 101-103. 114, 

Astor, John Jacob, 103-104 

Atchison, David R., 129130, 133, 136, 
138-140, 217 • 

AuU, Elizabeth, Seminary, 332 

Austin, Moses and Stephen, 45-46, 285 

Automobiles in Missouri, 302 

Arsenal, at Liberty, 153; at St. Louis, 

Bank of the State of Missouri, 120 

Banks in pioneer Missouri, 86 

Baptists in Missouri, 92 

Barton, David, 72, 74-75, 123 

Barytes. See Mining 

Batdorf, Edwin, 233 

Bates, Edward, 72, 114, 122 

Bates, Frederick 65 116-119 

Battle of New Orleans, 87; Brazito, 
214; Sacramento, 215; Boonville, 
222; Carthage, 55; Wilson's Creek, 
224; Lexington, 225; Pea Ridge, 
227; Kirksville, 228; Independence, 
228; Lone Jack, 228; Westport, 231 

Becknell, William, 105 

Bent, Governor, 216 

Benton, Thomas Hart, 72, 74-75, 110, 
114, 116. 128-136, 315, 320 

Big Ozark spring, 15 

"Big Shake," The, 79 

Billon, Frederick L., 322-323 

Bingham, G. C, 230 

Black Hawk War, 119, 209 

Blair, Frank P., 149-156, 169-170, 180- 

Bland, Richard P., 187-188, 193 

Boats. See Steamboat 

Boggs, Lilburn W., 116. 120-121 

Bogy, Louis V., 181 

Bonds. See Transportation, Soldiers 
Bonus, Pension for Blind, Roads 

Booms, 84, 203-204. See a//0 Agricul- 

Boone, Daniel, 45-46 

Boone's Lick country, 78 

Boone's Lick Trail, 108 

Boonville. battle of. 222 

"Border Ruffians." 140 

Border Troubles before Civil War, 
138-140, 142 

Border Warfare. 1861-1863, 229-230 

Boundaries of Missouri. 68-69 

Brackenridge, Henry M.. 320 

Brazito, battle of. 214 , 

Breckenridge Democrats, 144-145 

Bridger, Jim, 101 

British attack on St. Louis, 48-50 

Brookings. Robert S., 245 

Brown, B. Gratz, 160-161. 171. 180, 

Brown, John, 217 

Bryan, W. J., 193, 198 

Buckner, Alexander, 123 

Buel, James T., 228 

Buel, James W., 322-323 

Byars, W. V., 322-323 

Caffee, W. E., 233 

Cahokia, settlement at, 38 

California Trail, 109 

Camp Jackson, 154 

Campbell, John P., 312 

Cape Girardeau, 44, 66 

Capitals of Missouri, 63, 74 

Capitols of Missouri, 117-118 

Carondelet, 42 

Carthage, battle of, 224 

Carts, early French, 55 

Catholics in pioneer Missouri, 55-56 

Cement. See Mining 




Centennial celebrations in Mo.» 207 

"Central Clique," 126 

Central College, Fayette, 334 

Centralia Ma&sacre, 230 

Central Wesley an College, Warrenton, 

Charless, Joseph, 87, 315 

Chopin, Mrs. Kate, 322-323 

Chouteau, Augustc, 40-41, 95 

Chouteau, Francois, 307 

Chouteau, |tiadame, 41-42 

Churchill, Winston, 315, 323-324 

Cities in Missouii, 303-314 

Civil War, 219-232 

Civil War politics, 147-164 

Clark, Champ, 199 

Clark, George Rogers, 143 

Clark, Harvey C, 236 

Clark, John B., Jr., 156 

Clark, William, 20, 66, 81 82, 119 120 

Clay, Henry, 74 

Clay products. See Mining 

Clemens, Samuel L., 321-322 

Clothes of pioneer French and Ameri- 
cans, 56 

Coal. See Mining 

Cockrell, Francis M., 184 

Coins in pioneer Missouri, 84-85 

Colby, Bainbridge, 246 

Colleges, 332, 334 

"College Union," 334 

Colony for feeble minded, 193 

Common field and commons, 51 

Compromise, Missouri, 68 

Confederates in Missouri, 219-232 

Confederate Soldiers home, 193 

Congress, act of, 1803, 63; 1804, 63- 
64; 1805, 64-65; 1812, 66-67; 1816, 
67; 1820, 68; 1821, 70, 74-75 

Conservative Union party, 169-170 

Constitution of 1820, 70-72; 1845, 129 
131; 1865, 164-168; 1875, 185-186 

Constitutional convention, 1861, 150- 
152, 156-160; 1922, 206. See also 

Constitutional Union party, 143-145 

Conventions. See Constitution, Rail- 
roads, Politics 

Cook, John D., 72 

Coontz, Robert £., 245 

Cooper, Benjamin, 80 

Copper. See Mining 

Corby, Joseph A., 233 
Corn. See Agriculture 
Coronado, 29 


Council of Defence, 24 
Counties, 66, 253-254 
Creel, George, 245 
' Crittenden, Thomas T., 188-189 
Crosby, Oscar T., 246 
Crossley, Wallace, 242 
Crow, Wayman, 334 
Crowder, E. H., 244 
Croy, Homer, 324 
Curtis, General, 226, 231 
Davis, J. Lionberger, 246 
Davison, G. C, 245 
De Bourgmont, 34-35 
De Lassus, 59 
Delawares, 19, 81 
Delegates to Missouri's const, conv., 

1820, 72 
Democratic party. See Politics 
Depression of 1819, 84; 1837, 120; 

'70s, 183-184; '90s, 191; 1920-1921, 

De Soto, 29 

District of Louisiana, 64 
Dockery, A. M., 194, 245 
Dodge, Henry, 72, 81, 209 
Dodge, Louis, 324 
Doniphan, A. W., 131, 213-216 
Doniphan's Expedition, 212-216 
Douglass Democrats, 144-145 
Drake, Charles D., 166, 180 
Dress in pioneer days, 56 
Drury College, Springfield, 334 
Duden's book, 24 
Dunklin, Daniel, 116, 119-120 
Du Tisne, 33-34 
Earthquake of 1811, 79-80 
Eastin, Rufus, 67 
Education, in pioneer Missouri, 56, 

90-92; a century of, 326-336 
Edwards, John C, 123, 129-131 
Edwards, John N., 315, 319, 322 
Eighty-ninth Division, 239-240 
Election, first State, 1820, 72. See 

also Politics. 
Ellis, J. Breckenridge, 324 
Emancipation, 160-164, 166 
Emigrant Aid Societies, 216-217 
Enabling Act of 1820, 68 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

Ewing, H. S., 231 

Ewing, Thomas, 229-230 

Exploration of the West, 35-36, 94- 

Explorers, 27-36 
Farmer, Early American and French, 

Farmington, 45 

Farm machinery and farms. Set Ag- 
Farmers' Alliance party, 183-184 
"Fathers of the State," 70-72 
Federal Farm Loan bank, 305 
Federal Reserve banks, 305 
Federals in Missouri, 231-232 
Federal soldiers home, 193 
Field, Eugene, 315, 321-322 
Findlay, Jonathan S., 72 
First settlements in Missouri, 32, 34, 

Fitzsimmons, W. T., 240 
Flatboats, 88 

Fletcher, Thomas C, 164-170 
Florissant, 43 
Florida War, 209-210 
Folk, Joseph W., 196-197 
Foreign born in Missouri, 26, 260- 

Forts, Chartres, 40; Carondelet, 95; 

Orleans, 34, 38 
Foxes, 19-20. See also Sacs and 

FrancU, David R., 191192, 245 
Franklin, town of, 78, 104 
Fredericktown, 45 
Fre« negroes, 74 
Free silver campaign, 187, 193 
Fremont, John C, 110, 162, 226 
French explorers, 21-23, 27-36 
French settlements, 38-46 
Fruit experiment station, 193 
-Fur trade attracted French, 28; extent 

of, 95, 99-104; of St. Louis, 305 
Gamble, Hamilton R., 151, 157-161 
Gatnbling in picmeer dajrs, 61, 90 
Gardner, Frederick D., 201-203, 241 
Garrett, Ruby D., 238 
Gehrung, Julien A., 245 
General Assembly, first state, 72-74. 

See alto Politics 
Gentry,- Richard, 120, 209-210 
Gentry, WiUUm, 183 

Geography of Missouri, 16-18 

Geological survey, 293 

Germans in Missouri 24, 127-128, ISO- 
IS 2. See alto Population 

Geyer Act of 1839, 329 

Geyer, Henry S., 136 

Glasgow, captured, 231 

Government in Missouri, under Span- 
ish, 47-57; 1804-1821, 62-75. Stt 
also Politics 

Governors of Missouri. See Govern- 
ment in Missouri 

Grange or People's party, 175, 183 

Gratiot, Charles, 60 

Great American Desert, 98 

Great Salt Lake Trail, 109 

Greeley, Horace, 182 

Green, Duff, 72 

Green, James S., 133, 141, 152 

Greenback party, 175 

^regg, Josiah, 107 

Gross, G. P., 233 

Hadley, Herbert S., 197-198 

Hall, Willard P., 133, 157, 161, 213 

Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad. See 

Hardeman, Fletcher, 234 

Hardin, Charles H., 183-186 

"Hards," 116, 128 

Harris, W. T., 322-323 

Harvey, Ford T., 246 

Hayes, Upton, 228 

Hempstead, Edward, 67 

Henderson, John B., 151, 160-161 

Henry, Andrew, 101 

Holden, Hale, 246 

Holden, James F., 246 - 

Holliday, Benjamin, 316 

Home for feeble minded, 331 

Home Guards. See "Wide-Awakes" 

Honey War, 212 

Hoover food pledge, 241-242 

Horses. See Agriculture 

Houck, Louis, 324 

Houses, American and French, 53-54 

Houston, David E., 245 

Howard, Benjamin, 65 

Howard county, 78 

Howard Payne seminary, 332 

Hughes, Colonel, 228 

Hughes, Rupert, 324 

Hurst, Fannie, 315, 324 



Hunter, General, 226 

Himter, John, 246 

Hunting in pioneer Missouri, 54 

Hyde, Arthur M., 205-207 

Hyde, William, 315 

Illinois country, 38, 42-44 

Illinois-French, 38, 42-44 

Immigration to Missouri. See French, 
Americans, Germans, etc., and Pop- 

Independence, and Santa Fe trade, 
104, 106; Oregon Trail, 109; bat- 
tle of, 228 

Indiana territory, 64 

Indians in Missouri, 19-21; troubles 
in 1812, 80-82 

Industrial school for girls, 190; for 
negro girls, 198 

Initiative and referendum, 197 

Interstate migration, 263-264 

Iowa- Missouri boundary dispute, 131;' 

lowas, 19 

Irish in Missouri, 25, 128. See Popu- 

Iron. See Mining 

"Ironclad" oath, 166-168, 180 

Jackson, Claiborne F., 134, 144, 149- ' 
156, 220-224 

Jackson, Hancock, 141 

"Jackson Resolutions," 134 

"Jawhawkers," 142, 217 

Jefferson City, 117 

Jeffessonian, 316 

Johnson, Benjamin, 327 

Johnson, Waldo P., 152, 158 

Joliet, 31 

Jones, John Rice, 72 

Joplin, 313 

Journalism in Missouri, 315-319 

Kansas Border troubles, 138-140, 142, 

Kansas City, 35, 104, 106, 306-310 

Kansas Indians, 19 

Kansas-Nebraska bill, 137 

Kaskaskia, 38 

Kearn^, Stephen W., 213 

Keel boats, 88 

Keithley, Ferdinando, 234 

Kellogg, A. A., 245 

Kemper academy, 332 

King, Austin A., 132-133 

Kirksville, battle of, 228 

Knapp, George, 315 

Kouns, Nathan C, 322-323 

Krekel, Arnold, 166 

Kroeger, Adolph Ernest, 322-323 

Laclede, founder of St. Louis, 39-40 

La Hontan, 32 

Lamm, Henry, 202 

La Motte, 283 

Land, prices of, etc., 43-44, 84. See 

also Agriculture 
Land office law, 1821, 118 
Lane, Jim, 229 
La Salle, 31-32 
Lawrence, Kan., 229 
Lawyers in pioneer Mbsouri, 86 
Lead, attracted French, 28, 32-33; 

early mines, 32-33, 54-55; bring 

settlers, 38, 43. See also Mining 
Legislature, first state, 1820, 72-74. 

See also Politics 
Lewis, Meriweather, 65 
Lewis and Qark expedition, 33, 96 
Lexington, and Santa Fe trade, 104; 

battle of, 225-226 
Liberal Republicans, 171-172, 174-182 
Liberty, arsenal at, 153 
Liberty Loans, 241 
Life of the people, 1770-1804, 50-56; 

1804-1821. 77.93 
Lincoln, Abraham, 143, 153, 162 
Lincoln Institute (now University), 

173, 334 
Lindenwood seminary, 332 
Linn, Lewis F., 110, 123-124 
Lisa, Manuel, 23, 95-96, 100-101 
Literature, 319-325 
Little Prairie, 44 
Lone Jack, battle of, 228 
Long, Breckenridge, 245 
Long, Stephen H., 98 
Louisiana country, 36, 46 
Louisiana Fur Company, 39 
Louisiana Purchase, 58-61 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 192, 

194, 306 
Lumber, 15 

Lyon, Harris Merton, 324 
Lyon, Nathaniel, 153-155, 220-225 
McClurg, Joseph W., 170-171 
McCoy, J. C, 307 
McCullagh, Joseph B., 315, 319 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

McCulloch, General, 224-225 

McKinley, J. C, 199 

McNair, Alexander, 72, 116-118 

McNeil, John H., 228 

Major, Elliott W., 199-200 

Mallet brothers, 36 

Mansion house hotel, 70 

Marmaduke, John S., 189-190, 230 

Marmaduke, M. M., 117 

Marquette, 31 

Maxent, 39 

Merchants in pioneer Mo., 55 

Methodists in pioneer Mo., 92 

Mexican Border Trouble, 235-236 

Mexican War, 212 216 

Miamis in War of 1812, 80-81 

Middleton, J. A., 246 

Migration. See Population 

Mileage of railroads. See Transpor- 

Militia law, 118 

Military orders of Federals, 227-228 

Miller, Henry, 246 

Miller, John, 116-119, 122 

Military Missouri, 208-247 

Mineral wealth of Missouri, 13-14 

Mining in Missouri, 283-293 

Mississippi river, 9. See also Trans- 

Mississippi valley, 9-12 

Missouri, the center state, 9-18; loca- 
tion of, 10-11; gateway to the West, 
11*12; natural wealth of, 12-16; 
name, 17; people of, 19-26; Indi- 
ans in, 19-21; French in, 21-23; 
Spanish in, 23; Americans in, 23- 
26; Germans in, 25; foreigners in, 
26; negroes in, 26; explorers of, 27- 
36; early trade in, 30-36; early lead 
mining in, 32-33; first century of 
settlement in, 1700- 1804, 38-46; 
government of Spanish in, 47-57; 
population of, 17951810, 44-45; 
capitals of, 63; boundaries of, 68; 
first five districts of, 64, 66; strug- 
gle for statehood of, 62 75; first 
state constitution of, 70-72; first 
state election in, 72; state govern- 
ment in, 1820, 72-74; boundaries of, 
68-69; population of, 1820, 74; ad- 
mission of, 75; government in, 1804- 
^B21, 62-75; special legislature of, 

1821, 75; counties of, 1812-1821, 78; 
forts in. War of 1812, 80-81; pi- 
oneer life in, 1804-1821, 82-92; poU- 
tics in, 1820^1844, 112-125; the 
"Bullion State." 116; governors of, 
18201844, 116-121; land office law 
of, 1821, 118; state bank of, 120 
troubles with x Mormons, 120-121 
politics in, 1844-1860, 126-145; im 
migration to, 1844-1860, 127-128 
constitution of, 1845, 129, 131 
boundary dispute of, with Iowa, 
131; in War with Mexico, 131; at- 
titude on Kansas-Nebraska bill, 139- 
140; for compromise, 1860, 149-150; 
public opinion in, 1860-1861, 149- 
152; state convention in, 186., 150- 
152, 156-160; provisional govern- 
ment of, 156-161; constitutional con- 
vention of, 1865, 164-168; emancipa- 
tion of slaves by, 166; state debt 
of, 173; constitution of, 1875, 185- 
186; constitutional convention of, 
1922, 206; population of, 249-265; 
^ counties of, 253-254; agriculture in, 
272-282; mining in, 283-293; trans- 
portation in, 294-302; cities in, 303- 
314; journalism and literature in, 
315-325; education in, 326-336 
Missouri Compromise, first, 68; sec- 
ond, 74-75 
Missouri Council of Defence, 241 
Missouri Enabling Act, 68-70 
Missouri Fur Company, 100-101 
Missouri Gazette, 87, 315-317 
Missouri Herald, 316 
Missouri Intelligencer, 87, 315-316 
Missouri Military history, 247 
Missouri Military academy, 332 
Missouri Press Association, 318 
Missouri Republican, 315-316, 319 
Missouri river, 12, 17, 33-36 
Missouri School of Journalism, 319 
Missouri State Guard, 156 
Missouri State Militia, 227-228 

Missouri Trading Company, 95, 100 

Missouri Valley College, Marshall, 334 

Missouri Wesleyan College, Cameron. 

Missouri and the Oregon Trail, lOS- 



Missouri and the Santa Fe trade, 

Missouri and the West, 266-271 
Missouri AN, The, at St. Charles, 316 
Missourians, 19-26; the trail-makers of 

the West, 94-111; in the World 

War, 237-246 
Missouris, 16-17, 19, 30 
Money, 1804-1820, 84; effect of San- 
ta Fe trade on, 108 
.Monroe, James, 75 
Montgomery, James, 217 
Moore, Milton, 233 
Moorehouse, Albert P., 190 
Mormons, trouble with, 120-121; War 

with, 210-211 
Mormon Trail, 109 
Mules, effect of Santa Fe trade on, 

107. See also Agriculture 
Mulligan, Col., 225-226 
Mumford, F. B., 241 
Murphy's Settlement, 45 
Muster Day, 118-119 
Native population of Missouri, 260- 

Natural resources of Missouri, 32-33 
Negroes in Missouri, 26, 33, 259 
Nelson, William R., 315, 319 
Neosho legislature, 155-156 
New Bourbon, 43 

New England and Kansas, 139-140 
New Madrid, founding of, 44 
New Madrid claims, 79 
New Madrid county, 66, 78-80 
New Mexico, trade with, 95, 104-108 
Newspapers in pioneer Mo., 87. See 

also Journalism 
Nickel. See Mining 
Nicollet, 30 

Normal schools, 173, 181, 197 
Northwest Ordinance, 43 
Nortoni, Albert D., 199 
Oaths of loyalty, etc., 158. 159. 167 
Oats. See Agriculture 
"Old Bullion." See Benton 
Order Number Eleven, 229 230 
Oregon, emigration to, 108-110; work 

of Linn for, 123-124; occupation of, 

Oregon Trail, 108-110 
Orr, Sample, 144 
Osages, 19-20, 48 

Osceola, burninf of, 229 

Otoes, 19-20 

"Ousting Ordinance," 168 

Owen, Mary Alicia, 324 

OzASK Standaxo, 316 

Pacific railroad. See Transportation 

Palmer, L. C, 244 

Palmyra Massacre, 230 

Panic. See Depressions 

Park College, Parkville, 334 

Parker. Alton B., 196 

Paschal, Nathaniel, 315 

Patten, Nathaniel, 316 

Pea Ridge, battle of, 227 

Pension for the blind, 205 

People's party, 183-184, 193 

Pershing, John J., 235, 242 244 

Petition for statehood, 1817, 67 \ 

1818, 67 
Peyton, R. L. Y., 156 
Phelps, John S., 133, 186-187 
Pike, Zebulon M., 98 
Pioneer life in Missouri, 50-56, 82-92 
Planters hotel conference, 155 
Platte Purchase, 17, 20, 68, 119-120, 

Pleasanton, General, 231 
Poindcxter, Col., 230 
Politics in Missouri, 1820-1922, 112- 

Polk, Trusten, 141, 158 
Population of Missouri, 44, 45, 65, 

74, 77-78, 249-265 
Populist party, 175 
Porter, Joseph C, 228 
Potosi, 42 

Poultry experiment station, 198 
Powersite, dam at, 14 
Pratte, Chouteau and Co., 104 
Presbyterians in early Missouri, 92 
Price, Sterling, 137-140, 151, 155-156, 

213-214, 220-231 
Price's raid, 1864, 230-231 
Prices of farm products, etc. See 

Progressive party, 199 
Prohibition, 203, 205 
Protestants in pioneer Missouri, 55-56 
Provisional government of Missouri. 

1861-1864, 156-161 
Public opinion in Missouri, 1860^1861, 

144-145, 149-156 


History of Missouri and Missourians 

Public School System, 1839, 126. Set 
alto Education 

Public tenrice cominiMion, 201, 300 

Puliuer, Joseph, 315, 319 

QusntreU, 229, 231 

Queen of the Ozarks, 312-313 

Radical Republican party, 164*173 

Radisson and Groseilliers, 31 

Railroads, 120, 133, 296-301 

Rains, General, 224 

Ralls county, 74 

Ralls, Daniel, 72 

"Red Legs," 229 

Reed, James A., 199 

Reedy, WiUiam Marion, 315, 324 

Registry acts, 169-170 

Religion in early days, 55-56, 90-92 

Renault, brings first slares, 33, 283 

Republican party, 178, 137, 143-145. 
See oho Liberal Republicans 

Rerolutionary War, 43 

Reynolds, Thomas, 116, 121 

Reynolds, T. C, 151, 156 

Rigauche, Mme., 327 

Rivers, 11-12 

Roads, 206, 301-302. See also Trans- 

Robidoux, Joseph, 310 

Rocky Mountain Fur Co., 101-103, 109 

RoUa, School of Mines at, 293 

Rollins, James S., 114, 132, 142 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 199 

Rule of the Radicals, 164-173 

Rumbold, Frank M., 233 

Rural Missouri. See Population 

Russell, Edgar, 245 

Sacramento, battle of, 215 

Sacred Heart Academy, 332 

Sacs and Foxes, 19-20, 35, 48, 80, 82, 
119-120, 208-209 

St. Charles, 43, 74 

St. Charles county, 66 

Ste. Genevieve, 32, 38-39, 42, 55 

Ste. Genevieve county, 66 

St. Joseph, Michigan, 50 

St. Joseph, Missouri, 310-312 

St. Louis, 32, 38-42. 48-50, 104, 107, 
153-154, 304-306, 315-317, 328 

St. Louts college, 92 

St. Louis county, 66 

St. Louis Enquikxb, 70, 87, 315 

St. Louis Heraij>, 316 

St. Louis Rxpublic^ 315 

St. Louis University, 333 

St. Michael's settlement, 45 

Salt, 28, 32, 38 

Salt river country, 78 

Sanu Fe Trail and trade, 27, 35-36, 

94-95, 104-108, 308 
Scenery, 15-16 
Schofield, General, 228 
School for blind, 133, 331 
Schools for incorrigible boys and 

girU, 331 
School for deaf, 133, 331 
School of mines, 293, 335 
Schools. See Education 
Schurz, Carl, 171, 182, 315 
Scott, John, 67, 72, 74-75, 122 
Secession legislature, 1861, 155-156 
Seminaries, 331-332 
Seminole Indian War, 120, 209-210 
Settlements in pioneer Missouri, 33, 

38-46, 78-79 
Settlers of Missouri, 23-26, 77-78 
Shawnees, 19 
Shelby, Joseph, 161, 230 
Sigel, General. 224 
Silver. See Money 
Slavery, extension of, 126-127, 137; in 

Missouri, 33, 83, 161-164 
Smith, Jedediah S., 101, 103 
Smith, T. S. M., 245 
Snider, B. J., 322-323 
Social life in pioneer Missouri, 90-92 
"Softs," 116, 128 
Soil, 13 

Soldiers bonus, 206, 247 
Soldiers' and sailors' employment 

agency, 246 
Soldiers' and sailors' memorial liall, 

Soldiers' settlement amendment, 205 
Solemn public act, 1821, 75 
Southwest Missouri, early settlement 

of, 78 -s 

Spanish explorers, 23, 27-36 
Spanbh land grants, 64 
Spanish Louisiana, 44-57 
Spanish settlements in New Mexico, 

Spanish-American War, 233-235 9 
Spanish-French period, 47-48, 50-56 
Spanish Trail, 109 



Speculation. See Booms 

Spencer, Selden P.» 203 

Springfield, Mo., 78, 312-313 

State aid to railroads. See Railroads 

State bank, 116, 120 

State fair, 193 

State food administrator, 241 

State guard, 156 

State historical society, 194 

State hospitals, 180, 190 

State militia, bill of 1861, 154 

State sanatorium, 197 

State seal, 118 

State Teachers' Association, 331 

State teachers' colleges, 173, 181, 197, 

Steamboat, 88, 294-296 
Stephens, Lon V., 193-194 
Stettinius, Edward R., 245 
Stevens, Walter B, 315, 319, 324 
Stewart, Robert M., 142 
Stinson, Julia, 246 
Stoddard, Amos, 59, 63 
♦Stone, Wm. J., 192-193, 199, 202 
'Stone. See Mining 
Street and road transportation, 301- 

Sublett. William L., 101 
Taft. William H., 198199 
Tarkio College, Tarkio, 334 
Taussig, J. H., 244 
Taverns, 87 

Tcasdale, Sara, 315, 324 
Territory of Louisiana, 65-66 
Territory of Missouri, 66 
Territory of Orleans, 64-65 
Test oath, 159 
Texas, 129 

Thirty-fifth division, 238-239 
Thomas, Augustus, 315, 323-324 
Thompson, Jeff, 230 
Tools on pioneer farm, 55 
Towns, first in Missouri, 55 
Trade in pioneer days, 30-36 

Trails, 104110 

Training school for boys, 190 

Transfer of upper Louisiana, 59-60 

Transportation, 88, 294-302 

Trudeau, John B., 319, 326 

Twain, Mark, 315, 321-322 

Umphraville, Angus, 320 

Union army, 219-232 

University of Missouri, 121, 334-335 

Upper Louisiana, 59-60, 63 

Urban Missouri. See Population 

Van Horn, General, 227 

Vest, George G., 187-188 

Vial, 36 

Vote cast for governors, 1870-1920, 

Vrooman, Carl, 245 
Wagon road, first in Missouri, 55 
Warner, William, 192, 196-197 
War of 1812, 80-82 
Wars of Missouri, 208-247 
Washington University, 334-335 
Waterpowcr in Missouri, 16 
Wentworth academy, 332 
Western Journal, 315 
Westminster College, Fulton, 334 
Westport, 307; battle of, 231 
Westport Landing, 104, 106, 307 
Wheat. See Agriculture 
Whig party. See Politics 
White persons. See Population 
"Wide-Awakes," 153, 155 
Wilfley, X. P., 202 
Wilkinson, James, 65 
Willard, Arthur Lee, 234 
William Jewell College, Liberty, 334 
Williams, Abraham J., 116 
Williams, Walter, 315 
Wilson, Robert, 157 
Wilson's Creek, battle of, 224-225 
Woman Suffrage, 203 
Woodson, Silas, 180-181 
World War, 201-203, 237-248 
Zinc. See Mining 

'^IV i tt RFW