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Department of Education 

Contributed by the Publishers 



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A.D. 1453-1900 

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VOL. VL i8i 5-1900 



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^ ^ — i ^ - S *^ T^ I - MARv^KD COLLEGE LIBRAH1 

r^^O tn >'' LIBRARY Of THE 

* t^Rr.K 'TE SCHOOL OF fcL'iJ..,TIUN 

-- — Harvard lJnive''sity, 

Dept. of Education Library, 
Gift of the Publishers. 


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The Eeactum in Europe 











Character of the Epoch . . . 8 

Second Peace of Paris ... 4 

Neyshot 5 

Conffreas of Aix-la-Chapelle . 6 

Theboctrinairea 7 

Dnc de Beni asaassinated . — 

The Holy Allianoe .... 8 

Retrospect of Spaniah Hiatory 9 

of 1812 

The CamariUa — 

Spanish American Colonies . 10 
Insorrection of Quiroga and 

Riego 11 

Parties in Spain 12 

Civil War — 

The Holy Allianoe interferes . 18 
The Fi«nch enter Spain . . 14 
Ferdinand returns to Madrid 16 
The ApoetoUc Jnnta .... 16 
Iniranection of the Aggro- 

vUidoi . — 

Portngnese HJstory . . . . 
AocesmoDof JohnVl. . . . 
He aocepte a new Conatitation 
Plota oiBom Miguel . . . . 
Betroapect of Italian History 
Bestoration of Pins Yn. . . — 
Of Ferdinand IV. in Naples . — 

Mnratahot — 

TheCmrlwnari 19 

Bevolntion in Naplea and 

Sicily — 

Snppreaaed by Austria ... 21 
Bevolution in Piedmont . . — 
Abdication of Victor Ema- 
nuel I — 




1821. State of Austria 22 

German Patriotism .... 28 
1817. Demonstration at the Wart- 
burg — 

1819. Murder of Kotcebue . ... 24 
Aoceasion of Charles XIV. in 

Sweden — 

1820. Of George IV. in England. . — 
1828. Accession of Pope Leo Xn. . 26 

1824. Death of Louis ivm. . . . ■- 
Accesaion of Charlea X. . . — 

1825. Hla Coronation — 

1828. Resignation of M. ViU^le . . 26 

Retrospect of Turkish EOstory — 
Reigns of Mnstapha IV. and 

Mahmoud II — 

Peace of Bucharest (1812) . . ~ 
Condition of the Turkish Em- 
pire 27 

1820. Inaurrection of the Greeka . 20 

1826. Death of the Emperor Alex- 

ander L 30 

Renunciation of Conatantine 

and Aooeaaion of Nicholaa L — 

1826. Mahmoud CL auppreaaea the 

Janiaaariea 31 

Treaty of Akerman .... 32 

1827. Kinsdom of Greece erected . — 
Battle of Navarino .... 38 

1828. Nicholaa L declarea War 

againat the Sultan .... — 

1829. Peace of Adrianople .... 34 
1882. Otho of Bavaria accepta the 

Greek Crown — 

1829. PoUgnac Ministry in France . 36 

Insurrectionary aymptoma. . — 

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▲.D. PAGE 

1880. The Ghambera cUssolved . . 87 

OrdinaBces of July . . . . — 

Riots in Paris — 

Poliimac dismissed .... 39 

Mnmcipal Commission . . . — 

Louis Philippe, Lieut. -Qeneral 40 


1880. Abdication of Charles X. . . 41 
Louis Philippe, King of the 

French 42 

Death of Ctooige IV., and Ac- 
cession of Wflliam IV. . . 48 


Louis Philippe and Europe 

1830. The "Citizen King'* . ... 46 

Disturbances in Belgium . . — 

Independence proclaimed . . 47 
Recognized by the Five 

Powers 48 

Leopold L, King of the Bel- 
gians , . 49 

1882. Siege of Antwerp 60 

1838. ScnMffation of Belgium and 

Holland 61 

1880. Insurrection in Poland . . . — 
1882. Poland a Russian Province . 63 

Insurrections in Germany . . 64 

Kossuth in Hungary . ... 66 
Acoeflsi<m of Pope Pius Vin. 

a829) - 

Louis Philippe's Reign . . . — 

Lafayette msmissed .... 66 
The Duchess of Berri in La 

Vendto 67 

Attempts on Louis Philippe's 

Life - 

1881. Pope Gregory XVI 68 

Disturbances in Italy ... — 
Aided by Louis Napoleon 

Bonaparte ~ 

His Attempt at Strassbnrg . eo 

Charles Albert in Sardinia . — 

Louis Philippe's Avarice . . 61 
1888. Overthrow of the Mol^ Minis- 

1840. MiSLtry of M. Thiers' ! ! ! 62 
The Eastern Question . . . — 
Ambition of Mehemet Ali . . — 
Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi . . 68 
Mehemet Ali opposed by Eng- 
land — 

Louis Napoleon's Attempt at 

Boulogne 64 

1840. Body of Napoleon I. trans- 
ferred to Paris 64 

The Bntente Cordiaie . . . _ 

1848. Affair of Mr. Pritchard ... 66 

1844. The French in Africa. . . . — 

Retrospect of Sp anish History — 

Ferdinand VIL's Pragmatic 

Sanction 66 

HisDeatha888) -> 

Accession of Isabella II. . . — 
The Bitatuto Beat promul- 

gateda884) 67 

The Car(<«te in Biscay . . . — 
Affairs of Portugal ; Death of 

John VI., 1826 68 

Accession of Donna Maria da 

Gloria — 

Dom Miguel usurps the Throne 

0828) 60 

Don Pedro, ex-Emperor of 
Brazil, restores his daughter 
Donna Biaria (1883) ... 70 
1886. Affairs of Spain: Christina 
proclaims the Constitution 
of 1812 71 

1840. Dispersion of the Carlists 

1841. Espartero. Regent 

1843. Espied by Narvaez . . . . 

Isabella n. declared of Age . 
Return of Christina .... 

1846. Narvaez dismissed .... 
Louis Philippe's Intrigues re- 
specting the Spanish Mar- 

1847. Discontent in Prance . . . 

1848. Riots in Paris 

Abdication of Louis Philippe . 
Provisional Government . . 
Louis Philippeflies to England 





T?ie Emdutions o/1848 

1848. Second French Republic . . 79 

TheAtelieraNationaux, . . — 

Reaction aininst Socialism . 81 

Louis Na|>oleon President . . 82 

Affairs of Germany . . . . ~ 

1886. Death of Francis I., and Ac- 
cession of Ferdinand I. of 

1837. Death of William IV. and Ac 
cession of Queen Victoria . 


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1887. Th« Crown of Hanover seYored 

from that of England ... 83 
1840. Death of Fredrick William 
m. of Prussia and Acces- 
sion of Frederick William 

IV — 

Affairs of Hunfl»ry .... 84 
1846. The Sdileswig-Holstein Qnes- 

tion 85 

The Baden Besolations . . . — 

1848. Blots in Berlin 87 

German Vor-pttrlament ... 89 
Feeble Ambition of Frederick 

William lY — 

Death of Charles XIV, of 
Sweden and Accession of 

Oscar(1844) 90 

BetroBpect of Italian History — 
MBt^tai and La Oiovineltaiia 91 
1846. Accession of Pope Pius IX. . — 
1848. Insurrection in Sicily and Na- 
ples ~ 

The Austrians expelled from 

Milan 92 

Disturbances in Hungary . . 93 
And Bohemia •— 


1848. Bevolntion at Naples ... 94 
Campaign in North Italy . . 95 
German National Assembly . 96 
The Archduke John elected 

Imperial Vicar — 

Insurrection at Vienna : Mur- 
der of Latour — 

Abdication of Ferdinand I., 
and Accession of Francis 

Joseph 97 

Reaction in Berlin .... 98 

1849. Charles Albert renews the War 

in Italy 99 

Orerthrow and Death . . . 
Accession of Victor Emanuel 
n. and Peace with Austria . — 

War in Hungary 100 

Overthrow and Fli^t of Kos- 
suth — - 

Republic at Rome 101 

Rome occupied br the French 102 
Venice reduced by the Aus- 
trians 103 

The German Parliament dis- 

War in Schleswig-Hoistein '. — 

Napoleon III, and Europe 

1849. Red Republicans .... 
1851. Coup cT^eaf of December 2nd 
Bfassacre on the Boulevards 
Napoleon elected President for 

1>»n Years 

1862. Proclaimed Emperor 


Rivalry of Austria and 


Convention of Olmlltz . 
The Emperor of Austria with 

draws the Constitution . . 
Hie Prince of Prussia becomes 


Treaw of London respecting 

Affairs of Spain 
Expulsion of the English Am- 

Various Fortunes of Christina 
1868. Death of Donna Maria of Por- 







1864. Rome under Pius IX. : The Im- 
maculate Conception . . .116 

1863. Nicholas I.'s Designs upon 

Turkey 117 

Prince Menschikoff*s Message 

to the Divan 118 

Battles of Oltenitza and Sinope 119 

1864. Rupture between Russia and 

the Western Powers ... 120 

The Crimean War 121 

Battle of the Alma . . . . — 
Battles of Balaclava and In- 

kerman 122 

1865. Sardiniajoins France and Eng- 

land 123 

Death of Nicholas I. and Ac- 
cession of Alexander n. . . — 
Capture of Sebastopol . . .124 

1866. Peace of Paris 126 

1867. Treaty of Demarcation ... 126 

Tripartite Treaty . , 
Danubian Principalities 

1858. View of the Period 
State of Italy . . 
La Oiovine Italia . 
Cavour becomes 




The Union of Italy 
... 127 


, 129 

1868. The Infernal Machine ... 180 
Programme of Plombi^res . . 131 

1869. Napoleon in.'s views on Italy 132 
Austrian Ultimatum to Sar- 
dinia 133 

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1869. The Anatriana invade Pied- 
mont 184 

Campaign of 1869 — 

Batde of Solf erlno .... 186 
Bevolt of Italian Duchies . . 186 
Peace of Villaf lanca .... 188 

GaTonr Beaigns 189 

GoTenunent of iEmilia ... — 
Napoleon's plans for the Pope 140 

1800. Cavoar returns to Power . . 141 
Garibaldi's Sicilian £xpedi> 

tion 142 

He enters Naples 148 

Victor Emanuel n. at Naples 144 

1861. Retirement of Francis n. . . 146 
Victor Emanuel King of Italy — 
Vnsettted state of Italv. . .146 
Question of the Pope s Tem- 
poral Power — 

1861. Death of Cavoor 148 

1862. Negotiations with France . . 149 
1864. Ck>nyention of September 16 . — 
1866. Recognition of Italy .... 160 


BetroqMct of German alliftin. 160 

1861. New Austrian Constitution . 161 
Dissatisfaction in Hungary . — 
Prussia ; the Krtuz party . . 162 
Accession of William I. . . . — 

1862. Bismarck Prime Minister . . 163 
The jra<ianaZ«0r«tn .... 164 
The Great German party . . — 
Austria excluded from the 

ZoUverein 166 

Unpopularity of the Prussian 

Goyemment — 

1868. Treaty between Prussia and 

Russia 166 

Polish Insurrection . . . . — 
Emancipation of Russian serfs 

a867) 167 

Russian recruiting in Poland. 168 
Intervention of Western 

Powers 169 

Muraviev's Atrocities . . .161 
Extinction of Poland . . . — 

TAe Franco-German War 

1868. Denmark and the Duchies. . 168 
Death of Frederick VH. . . 164 
Accession of Christian IX. . — 
Federal Execution in Holstein 166 
Napoleon III.'s secret pro- 
posals to Bismarck ... 166 

1864. The Germans seise Schleswig 167 

Conference of London ... 168 

England abandons Denmark . 169 

Denmark subdued : Peace of 

Vienna 170 

1866. Prussian Pretensions ... 171 
Convention of Gastein . . .172 
Austrian Empire divided . . 178 

1866. Treaty between Prussia and 

Italy 174 

Bismarck adopts Universal 

Suffrage 176 

Prussia abrogates the fund . 176 
Prussian and Austrian forces 177 

Campaign of 1866 178 

Battle of Sadowa . . . . . 179 

Peace of Prague 181 

New Northern JDimmI . . . . — 
Its Military Constitution . . 188 
Dtoypointment of Napoleon 

French EsEpeditioii to Mexico 184 
Italian and Austrian Cam- 
paign 1866 186 

1866. Peace of Vienna 186 

Garibaldi's attempt on Rome. 187 
Rome the Italian Capital 

a870) 188 

The Pope declared Infallible 

byaOoundl — 

Retrospect of Spanish aAairs. 189 

1868. Insurrection at Cadiz . . . — 

1869. Serrano Recent of Spain . . 190 

1870. Election of King Amadeo L . — 
Retrospect of French affairs . 191 
Napoleon IIL quarrels with 

Prussia about the Accept- 
ance of the Spanish Crown 
by Prince HohenzoUem- 

Sigmaringen 192 

Opting of the Campaign . . 198 
Battles of Gravelotte and 

Sedan 194 

Napoleon made Prisoner . . 196 
Investment of Paris . . . . — 
Surrender of Mete . . . . — 
Siegeof Paris 196 

1871. Capitulation of Paris ... 197 
Treaty of Ftankfnrt . . . . — 
Proclamation of the German 

Empire 198 

Italian and German Unity . 190 

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The Recovery of France a/ndthe Busao-Turhish War 





Europe after the War 

France after 1871 — 

The Administration of Thiers 201 
Death of Napoleon m. . . — 
The Fall of ^Diiers .... 202 

Marshal MacMahon President — 
The Swtennat ......— 

The Cissey Ministry .... 203 

The Constitution of 1876 . . — 
The Buffet Ministry .... 204 

Victory of the Bepnblicans . — 

1877. The Coup d'etat — 

Influence of Gambetta ... 206 

Death of Thiers — 

Besignation of MacMahon . — 
Jules Gr^yy President . . . — 
Laws against the Jesuits . . — 
The Gambetta Ministry . . 206 
Failure of his foreign policy . — 
Affairs of Germany . . . . — 
The Dreikaiserbund .... 207 
Revolt of Herzegovina against 
the Turks — 







▲.D. PA6B 

1876. Count Andrassy's Note . . . 207 
Murder of the Prussian and 

French Consuls at Salonika 208 
The Berlin Memorandum . . — 
Deposition of Abdul Asiz . . 209 
The Bulgarian Atrocities . . — 

Policy of England — 

Declaration of War by Servia 

and Montenegro 210 

Treaty of Beichstadt . . . . -> 

Defeat of Senria — 

Armistice enforced by Russia — 
Conference at Constantinople 211 

1877. The London Protocol ... 212 
Russia declares War . . . . — 
The Siege of Plevna . ... 213 

1878. The Russians menace Constan- 

tinople 215 

Treaty of San Stefiuio . . . ^ 
Opposition of Austria and 

JSngland 216 

Treaty of Berlin 217 


The Triple Alliance 

1878. Characteristics of the Period, 

1878-1891 219 

Russia and the Treaty of Ber- 
lin 220 

Policy of Bismarck . . . . — 

1879. Alliance between Germany 

and Austria — 

1880. Italy and France in Africa . — 

1883. The Triple Alliance .... 221 

1884. Secret Treaty between Ger- 

many and Russia . . . . — 
Growth of Nihilism in Russia — 
Murder of Alexander n. . . — 
Russia in Afghanistan ... 222 
Murder of Sir Louis Cavagnaxi — 


1879. Lord Roberts in Cabul . . 
1886. The Penijdeh incident . . 

Affairs of Eastern Europe . 
1877-1891. Policy of France . . 

The Boulanger Agitation . 

French Colonial Policy . . 

Disaster of Langson (1886) . 

France in Egypt .... 

1882. Insurrection of Arab! Pasha 
Bombardment of Aleacandria 
Battle of Tel-el-Kebir . . 

1883. Fall of Khartoum . . . . 
1891. Franco-Russian Alliance . 

Fall of Bismarck .... 
Results of his policy . . . 

1891-1900. Characteristics 

period . 229 

The question of Turkey . . . >— 
The Armenian Massacres 

a8M-6) 280 

The Rising in Crete 0896). .231 


The New Problems 
of the 

1891-1900. War between Greece and 

Turkey 0897) 281 

Prince Geon» of Greece, Oo- 
vemor of Crete (1898) . • • t 

The Partition of Africa. . .288 

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▲.D. PAOS! 

1891-1900. The Conference of Berlin 

(1884-6) 2S2 

The Bmssels Conference 

0880-90) — 

Anglo - Oexman Agreement 

0890) 283 

The Niger Question . . . . — 

TheNileValley — 

The Battle of Adowa (1896) . — 
Britidi reconquest of the 

&kHidana896) >- 

The Fashoda Incident 0896) . 284 
SncceflB of Engtiah Policy in 

TheSoer War (1899) . . . . — 
The Goiana- Venezuela boun- 
dary question 285 

Treaty of Washington 0897) . — 
The CTuban Question . . . . — 
The Maine Incident 0898) . . 236 


War between America and 

Spain (1898) 236 

1891-1900. The Far Eastern Ques- 
tion — 

War between China and 

Japan 0894-5) 237 

G^ermany and Kiao-Chow . . — 
Anglo - Busslan Agreement 

(1898) . . . - 

Attacks on the Pekin Lega- 

tlens by the Boxers O900) . — 
Peace Congress of the Hague 
0890). . .... 7: . 238 

PioUems for the new century 239 
New position of America . . — 

The Biee of Japan dio 

Death of Queen Victoria rtOOl) — 
Assassination of Preadent 
McKinleyOOOl) — 



Hap of Europe after 1878 

. 241 
. 24» 
at end 

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DUMNG the yeaors which succeeded the downfall of Anew 
Napoleon and of the militaiy predominance of France, ^^ 
the union and independence of cognate races, effected by the 
revolutions in Bel^um, Greece, and Italy, present a striking 
contrast to their arbitrary separation and subjugation under 
foreign rulers, which so often preyailed in former times, and 
even at the Congress of Vienna. Another marked feature of 
the new q>och is the union of France and England, previously 
the bitterest opponents, as the protectors of libend opinions 
against the despotism of the Eastern Empires. In the inter- 
nal history of nations is to be observed a constant struggle 
for more liberal institutions. One of the worst features 
of the period is the vast augmentation of standing armies 
in the Continental countries, the result of the great military 
struggle with the first French Empire, and of national 
jealousies springing from the adjustments by which it was 
followed. Armies as great during peace as in the previous 
century they were in times of war, impoverish the people 
by withdrawing their flower from agriculture and manu- 
factures, and by the taxes necessary for their maintenance ; 

^ Among the principal books for the period from 1814 to 1900, are 
Seignobos, Eistaire PoliHaue de r Europe Coniemporaine ; Bebidoor, 
Histoire DMomatigue ae V Europe; Stern, Ueschiehte Europcts, 
sect. 1815 ; F^ffe, Ristory of Modem Europe ; Gervinos, Qesch, des 
xiar JahxhunderU ; Menzel (W. ) Gesth, der letzten 40 Jakre (to 1866) ; 
Cantti, Storia di Cento Anni (1760-1860); Lamartine, ffiet. de la 

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while at the same time thej are a constant threat to civil 
freedom, and a dangerous incentiye to war bj the ready 
means they offer for wa,ging it. England* in a great measure 
exempt by her position nrom this disastrous competition, 
and aided by the wottdegrltd progress of mechanical inventions, 
has experienced a rwt increase of material prosperity and 


state of One of the first acts of Louis XYIII. on re-entering his 

Fnaoe. capital was to appoint Talleyrand his chief minister. The 
remnant of Napoleon's army, 45,000 strong, had retired beyond 
the Loire under Marshal Dayoust, but yielding to necessity, 
hoisted the white flag, and was eyentually disbanded. The 
war continued on the north-eastern frontier. The French 
commandants of some of the fortresses in tha t quar ter, though 
willing to recognize the authority of Louis XVJli., refused to 
surrender to foreign troops, and the places had to be besi^^. 
Ab it was considered necessary to the security oi the thn>ne 
that the Allies should continue to occupy some parts of France, 
the English army was stationed in tiie district north of the 
Seine, the Duke of Wellington haying his headquarters at 
Paris ; the Prussians were cantoned to tiie west of that capital, 
between the Seine and Loire ; the Bussians were distributed 
about the Oise, the Mouse, and the Moselle, while Prince 
Sehwarzenberg's headquarters were at Fontainebleau. The 
eastern and southern proyinoes of France* including Proyence, 
were also occupied by diyisions of the allied armies, so that 
two-thirds of France were in their power. The armies of 
occupation at last amoimted to more than a million men. 

A new Chamber of Deputies, consisting of 395 members* 
was elected according to a method sanctioned only by a Boyal 
Ordinance ; but as its constitution was placed on a more liberal 
and democratic footing, this fact escaped obsenration and cen- 
sure. The elections showed that France was become almost 
ultra-royalist. The Chamber of Peers was purged, and the 
peerage declared hereditary. In choosing Talleyrand and 
Fouch^ for his ministers, Louis was guided by the adyice of 
the Duke of Wellington. 
The Second In July were begun the negotiations for the Sbconb Pxace 
|^<** ov Pabib. The French were compelled to restore to their 
lawful owners those works of art which they had carried off 
from yarious European. capitals in order to adorn their own. 
The definitiye treaties between France and the Allies were 

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signed November 2(Hh, 1815. Trance wa43 now depriTed of 
part of the territories which the Peace of 1814 had left to har. 
The Duchy of Bouillon, the towns of PhilippeTille» Marien- 
bnrg, Saarlouis, Saarbruck and some adjacent districts, were 
assigned to the new kingdom of Belgium and to Prussia. The 
part of Alsace north of the Lauter was also detached from 
France, including Landau, which became a fortress of the Ger- 
man Confederation. Part of the county of Otex was assigned 
to Qeneva, but Pemey was retained by France. The fortifi- 
cations of Huningen were to be demolished. From Qeneva to 
the Mediterranean the line of demarcation existing in 1790 was 
to be followed, so that the King of Sardinia regained that part 
of Savoy which had been left to France by the former peace. 
But on the whole France lost only 20 square leagues of terri- 
tory, whilst it had gained 40 by the annexation of the Yenais- 
sin by the Constituent Assembly. The indemnity to be paid 
to the Allies for the expenses of the war was fixed at seven 
hundred million francs (.828,000,000 sterling). A number of 
fortresses extending along the northern frontier were to be 
occupied, at the expense of France, by an allied army not ex- 
ceeding 150,000 men for a maximum period of five years.^ 
This term, however, was eventually much abridged. The army 
of occupation was placed under the command of the Duke <k 
Wellington. Another treaty between Bussia, Prussia, Austria, 
and England, excluded the Bonaparte dynasty for ever from 
the French throne, and bound the contracting parties to em- 
ploy their whole forces for that purpose.^ 

Boyal ordinances of July 24th had expelled twenty-nine Marshal 
members from the Chamber of Peers, had ordered nineteen ^®^ '^^^' 
Oenerals or other officers, who had abandoned the King, to be 
arraigned before courts-martial ; and thirty-e^ht persons to 
be placed under the ati/rveillcmee of the police tUl they should 
be either banished or brought before the tribunals. The most 
remarkable among the Oenerals condemned was Marshal Ney, 
" the bravest of Uie brave," who was shot on the morning of 
December 7th, near the Observatory of the Luxembourg. Ney 

^ Cond^, ValencienneB, Boachaiii, Cambrai, Le Qnesno^^, Maubeage, 
Landreeies, Avesnes, Bocroi, Givet, Gharlemont, M^zienes, Sedan, 
Montm^, Thionville, Lonffwyi Bitche, and the tSte-du-pont of Fort 
Louis. For an analysis of uie treaties, see Koch et SchOD, TraiUs de 
Paix, t. xi. p. 498 sqq. 

^ Martens,, Supplt. li p. 239 sqq; 

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was imdoubtedlj guilty of treachery ; but Louis violated by 
his execution the broader and more honourable interpretation 
of the Capitulation of Paris, which granted an amnesty to all 
within its walls. It was contended, however, that this applied 
only to civilians, and not to the military. Leivalette, Director 
General of the Posts, who had again seized that office on the 
flight of the King, and aided the return of Napoleon, was also 
condemned to death, but escaped through the heroism of his 
wife, who exchanged clothes with him in prison. Sir Robert 
Wilson also aided his flight. The day after the execution of 
Ney a general amnesty was proclaimed ; but the Chamber in- 
sisted on the perpetual banishment of regicides. On the whole 
the measures adopted by Louis XVIEE. were marked by 
moderation. He disappointed the emigrants and ultra- 
Boyalists by declining to support their cause so warmly as 
they had hoped. . Li the south of France the fanatical Royal- 
ists and priest-party took a ferocious vengeance on the Re- 
publicans and Bonapartists. Marshal Brune, one of Napoleon's 
Qenerals, was slain by the populace at Avignon in open day, 
in the presence of several thousand spectators. At Nimes, 
regularly organized bands, led by Trestaillon and Pointou, 
slaughtered the Protestaiits as Bonapartists; and similar 
scenes too k plac e at Toulouse and other towns. 
Conduct of Louis XViil., though far from popular, contrived, like his 
bcm**"" prototype Charles II., through good sense, and by accommo- 
dating himself to the spirit of the times, to die in possession 
of the crown ; while his brother, the Comte d'Artois, like the 
Duke of York in England, by his rigid adherence to obsolete 
principles, ultimately forfeited his own rights and those of his 
family. While Louis courted the middle class, at that time 
the predominant one in France, his brother Charles adhered 
exclusively to the nobles and clergy ; and the Pavilion Marsan, 
that part of the Tuileries whidb he inhabited, became the 
rendezvous of the admirers of the ancient regime, and the 
focus of reactionary intrigues. With all his bigotry, however, 
Charles possessed a certain dignity of character which saved 
him from contempt ; and though he was ridiculed as a Don 
Quixote and a Jesuit, he was hated rather than despised, 
conffress of Li September, Talleyrand was superseded in the Ministry 
ci^peiie. hy the Duke de Richelieu, one of the best and most respectable 
of the emigrant nobles, who had distinguished himself in the 
Russian service, as Governor of Odessa, by his humanity and 

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ability. At the same time Decazes replaced as head of the 
police, Fouch^, Duke of Otranto, the blood-stained missionarj 
of Nantes. BicheUeu's influence with the Emperor Alexander 
sncoeeded in procuring for Fiance a mitigation of the terms 
imposed by the treaties of November 20th, 1815. Already in 
February, 1817, the allied Courts had consented to reduce the 
army of occupation by 80,000 men, and the Congress of allied 
Sovereigns, which assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle at the end of 
September, 1818, decreed that the occupation should be en- 
tirely terminated in the following November. The sum pay- 
able by France was sAao reduce! to 265,000,000 francs, of 
which 100,000,000 were to be acquitted by inscriptions on the 
great book of the public debt of Fiance. These favourable 
terms were chiefly procured through the disinterested influence 
of the Duke of Wellington, who thus shortened the duration 
of the proud position which he occupied and of the vast 
emoluments which accompanied it. Soon afterwards an as- 
sassin attempted his life at Paris ; an act afterwards rewarded 
by Napoleon with a legacy of 10,000 francs. The Cokgbess 
OF Aix-la-ChapeliiB put the finishing hand to the pacifica- 
tion of Europe. France as well as England now formally 
acceded, by a protocol signed November 15th, to the principles 
of the Eurox>ean Pentarchy for the maintenance of Peace, 
published in a Declaration of the same date, and to be upheld 
by means of conferences and congresses. The Congresses of 
Laibach in 1821, and of Verona in 1822, were the result of 
this agreement. 

In December, 1818, BicheUeu, alarmed at the number of French 
Liberal members returned to the Assembly, among whom was Ministries. 
Lafayette, resigned the Premiership, in which he was succeeded 
by General Dessolles ; but Decazes, who became Minister of 
the Interior, was the real chief of the Cabinet. A more lib- 
eral policy was now adopted : the freedom of the press was 
extended, and an amnesty granted to many banished persons. 
Decazes was supported by the party called Docirinadres, which 
took its rise about this time. At its head was Eoyer CoUard, 
and it counted in its ranks many men distinguished by their 
talent, as G-uizot, Yillemain, Barante, Mol^, and others. But 
the assassination, by Louvel, of the Due de Berri, second son 
of the Oomte d'Artois, when returning from the opera, Feb- 
ruary 13th, 1820, occasioned a return to less liberal measures. 
Louis, at the instance of his brother and of the Duchess of 

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Augoulfime, now reluctttntly dismissed Decases, and Bididieu 
returned once more to power. Seven months aftw her hus- 
band's death the Duchesse de Bern gave birth to a Piinoe, the 
Due de Bordeaux (September 29th, 1820). Bichelieu intro- 
duced into the Minisixy M. VillMe, an ultra-Boyalist, who, in 
Deoember, 1822, became Prime Minister. The revolutions 
against the Bourbon GoTemments in Spain and Italy in 1820, 
produced in France a further reaction which at length com- 
pelled Bichelieu to retire.^ 

The Carbimcm, and other secret societies, had been intro- 
duced into France a few years after the restoration, and 
included in their members some Frenchmen of distinction, 
as Lafayette, Manuel, D'Argenson, Ccmstant, and others. 
Lafayette presided over the central committee of the Parisian 
Ca/rhonari. This restless spirit wanted, it is said, to make 
himself Dictator, Bevolutions were several times attempted 
in different parts of France, but without success, though some 
of the Carbonari were put to death for them. 
The Holy The overthrow of Napoleon placed the supreme power in 

4ii« Europe in the hands of the Pentarchy, or five Great Powers, 

viz., England, Austria, Prussia, Bussia, and France. The 
Emperor Alexander I., whose inclination to mysticism was in- 
creased by his connection with a kindred spirit, the Baroness 
Krudner, of Biga, whom he visited secretly every day, to pray 
with her and hear her counsels, conceived the idea of sanction- 
ing the new system by a holy bond, and of regulating in future 
the measures of policy by the precepts of religion. With this 
view he persuaded the Emperor of Austria and the Elng of 
Prussia to join with him in a treaty executed at Paris, Sep- 
tember 26th, 1815, and subsequently styled the Holt Alli- 
ance .^ All the potentates of Europe were invited to subscribe 
to it, with two exceptions : the Turkish Sultan, and the Boman 
Pontiff. In the preamble to this Convention the Signatories 
solemnly declared that the object of the act was to manifest to 
the universe their firm resolution to take for their rule of con- 
duct, both in the administration of their respective States, and 
in their political relations with foreign Governments, those 
holy and Christian precepts of justice, charity, and peace, which 
are not applicable to private life alone, but which ought also 
directly to influence the counsels of Princes, and to guide all 

^ See Daudet, Louis XVIIL et le Due Decazes. 
' Martens, SuppU*. IL p. 552 sqq. 

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their steps, m the only means of consotidating and peifectmg 
all human institations. It is needless to say that this Holy 
Alliance, like other holy leagues of the same description, be- 
came an instrument of deieqpotism and was regarded with 
little &TOur in England. 

A revolution which broke out in Spain encouraged the outp ^^^ 
break of revolutions in Portugal and Naples. The members ^|^^. 
of the Holy Alliance after their meeting at Laibach on Janu- 
ary 2nd, 1821, suppressed the revolution in Naples, and after 
their meeting at Verona in October, 1822, took measuresf or th e 
suppression of the risingin Spain. The King, Ferdinand VAX., 
had returned from his French captivity foil of projects of 
vengeance against his subjects, and with a determination to 
abolish the reforms introduced by the liberal Cortes in Church 
and State. During the war and the captivity of Ferdinand, 
the Cortes had, in March, 1812, established a new Constitution, 
the work of a small democratic faction, by whidh the Boyal 
authority waa reduced to little more than a name. That As- 
sembly was declared altogether independent of the King, and 
was to consist only of one Chamber, invested with the legis- 
lative power ; the prerogative of the King in that respect being 
restricted to proposing, and a temporary veto. The Cortes were 
also to determine yearly the amount of the land and sea forces; 
to confirm treaties of alliance and commerce ; and to propose 
to the King the names of 120 persons, out of whom he was to 
select the 40 members of his Council of State. All ecclesi* 
astical benefices and judicial offices were to be filled up by 
selecting from three persons named by this Council. The King 
was not to leave the Kingdom, nor to marry, without the con- 
sent of the Cortes, under the penalty of losing his throne. 

Ferdinand VIL restored to liberty by Napoleon in 1814 ^g^^* 
(«tf2>fu, vol. v., p. 512), immediately after his return applied the'cSm. 
himself to restore the ancient regime. On the other hand, the ^'^^' 
Cortes in turn had encroached on his prerogatives even in the 
most trivial matters. Ferdinand issued decrees in May abolish- 
ing the Constitution. All Liberals and Freemasons, and all 
ac&erents of the Cortes, and of the officers appointed by them, 
were either compelled to fly or subjected to imprisonment, or 
at least deposed. All national property was wrested from the 
purchasers of it, not only without compensation, but fines were 
even imposed upon the holders. Dissolved convents were re- 
established. The Inquisition was restored, and Mir Capillo, 

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Bishop of Almena, appointed G^rand Inqtiisitor, who acted 
with fanatical severity, and is said to hare incarcerated 50,000 
persons for their opinions, many of whom were subjected to 
torture. But awtoe da fe were abolished. The Jesuits were 
restored and made controllers of education. Q-uerilla bands 
were dissolyed, their leaders dismissed without reward, and 
commands in the regular army bestowed only upon the nobles. 
The adherents of Joseph Bonaparte and of the former French 
Gh>Ternment were banished. By these measures some of the 
brayest and most loyal spirits of the country were driyen into 
the ranks of the opposition, and 10,000 persons are computed 
to haye fled into France. The Kingdom was goyemed by a 
Camarilla, consisting of the Sing's &yourites, selected from 
the lowest and most worthless of the courtiers ; while most 
of his faithful friends, the companions of his exile, were dis- 
missed. This CamariUa administered justice and bestowed 
offices accordingly as it was bribed, 
spaidah The French invasion of Spain had occasioned a revolution 

A 1^ ^ Spanish America. Till the dethronement of the Royal 
Family of Spain, the American colonies had remained loyal, 
and an insurrection attempted by Qeneral Miranda in the 
Caraccas, in 1806, had been speedily suppressed. But, like 
the mother country, the colonists revolted at the usurpation of 
Napoleon and his brother Joseph ; and thus, properly speaking, 
they were no more to be called rebels than the Spaniards of 
the Old World. As, however, they declined to submit to the 
Juntas erected in Spain, they were declared to be rebels by the 
Regency established at Cadiz, August 81st, 1810. The insur- 
rection had broken out in Venezuela in April, whence in the 
course of the year it spread over Rio de la Plata, New Granada, 
Mexico, and Chili. The insurgents demanded to be put on an 
equality with the inhabitants of Spain, freedom of manufac- 
tures and commerce, the admission of Spanish Americans to 
all offices, the restoration of the Jesuits, etc. The insurrection 
acquired its greatest strength in Venezuela, where it was first 
headed by Miranda, and subsequently, after 1813, by Simon 
Bolivar. In some of the other provinces its progress, owing 
to the dissensions of the inhabitants, was not so rapid and 
successful. After the restoration of Ferdinand, however, the 
movement had gone too far to be recalled, even had that 
Sovereign and hla commanders displayed more moderation 
and good faith than was actually the case. Ferdinand ex- 

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hausted Ms disordered finances in a vain attempt to leooyer 
these col<»iies, for which purpose an expedition, under Qeneral 
Morillo, was despatched to America in 1815.^ In 1819 the 
Floridas were sold to the Americans for one million and a 
quarter sterling. 

The loss of the American colonies, and a bad system of rural ^^^^J' 
economy, by which agriculture was neglected in favour of isso. 
sheep breeding, had reduced Spain to great poverty. This 
state of things naturally affected the finances ; ^e troops were 
left unpaid, and broke out into constant mutinies. A suc- 
cessful military insurrection, led by Colonels Quiroga and 
Eiego, occurred in 1820. Mina, who had distinguish^ him- 
self as a guerilla leader, but having compromised himself in a 
previous mutmy, had been compelled to fly into France, now 
recrossed the Pyrenees to aid the movement. The Constitution 
of 1812 was proclaimed at Saragossa ; and Ferdinand, alarmed 
by an insurrection of the popidace and the threats of Gtoneral 
Ballesteros, who told him that he must either concede or ab- 
dicate, was obliged to swear to it at Madrid. The long-pro- 
mised Cortes were convened in July, when Ferdinand opened 
the Assembly with a hypocritical speech, remarkable for its ex- 
a^eration of Liberal sentiments. The Cortes, at the dictation 
of the army, immediately proceeded again to dissolve the con- 
vents, and even to seize the tithes of the secular dei^, on the 
pretext that the money was required for the necessities of the 
State. The Inquisition was once more abolished, the freedom 
of the press ordained, the right of meeting and forming dubs 
restored ; a large number of persons was dismissed from ofKce, 
and replaced by members of the Liberal party. But on the 
whole the insurgents used their victory with moderation, and, 

^ It Ib impossible for us to describe the straggle between Spain and 
her colonies. The chief results were, that Bolivar achieved the inde- 
pendence of Venezuela and Granada, which were erected into the Re- 
public of Colombia, Dec. 1819. In the previous May, the States of the 
Kio de la Hata, or Buenos Ayres, had been constituted into the Ar- 
gentine Republic. The independence of Chili and Peru was also 
secured by the aid of Bolivar, and the Republic of Bolivia was estab- 
lished in Upper Peru in August, 1825. In Mexico, Iturbide, who had 
become leader of the insurgents after the death of Hidalgos, Morelos, 
and Mina, caused himself to be prodaimed Emperor in 1822, but was 
dethroned in the f ollowingyear, when the Republic of Mexico formed 
a league with Colombia. The independence of Colombia, Mexico, and 
Buenos Ayres, was recognized by Great Britain, Jan. Ist, 1826. In 
Paraguay, Francia ruled as despot from 1810 to 1837. 

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with the exoeption of some few yictiins of reyenge, contented 
themselTes T?ith depriying their opponents^ the Sermlest of 
their places and emoluments. 
Parties in The Spanish revolutionists were divided into three parties : 
Spain. j-i^Q j)4camMado8, answering to the French Scms-culottee ; the 

CommimeroB, who were for a moderate constitutional system ; 
and the AniUeros, known b j the symbol of a ring ; who, dread- 
ing the interference of the Holy Alliance, endeavoured to 
conciliate the people with the crown. There were riots in 
Madrid in 1821 $ when the DecamieadoB broke into the prison 
where the Canon Yinuesa was confined, who had attempted a 
counter-revolution, and murdered him with a hammer. Mar- 
tinez de la Bosa was courageous enough to denounce the act 
in the Cortes ; but it was approved by the great majority not 
only of that Assembly, but also of the nation ; and in com- 
memoration of it was instituted the " Order of the Hammer," 
having a small hammer for its badge. In Eastern Spain the 
Secret Societies seized several hundred obnoxious persons and 
shipped them off to the Balearic Islands and to the Canaries. 
The Qovemment was too weak to interfere, and could only 
bring back a few in secret. General Morillo, who after his 
return from America had been appointed Governor of Madrid, 
attempted to re-establish a reactionary Ministry, but was 
compelled by popular agitation to dismiss it The revolution, 
though originated by ^e soldiery, was adopted by the more 
educated class of citizens. On the other hand, the clergy and 
the peasantry were bitterly opposed to it. In the summer of 
1821 guerilla bands were organized in the provinces in the 
cause of Church and King, and obtained the name of " Army 
of the Faith." One of the most noted leaders of these bands 
was Maranon, a monk of La Trappe. He was the first to 
mount to the assault of the fortified town of Seo de XJrgel, 
where was established, in July, 1822, what was called a 
" Eegency during the captivity of the King," under the pre- 
sidency of the Marquis Mata Florida, the Bishop of Tarragona, 
an4 Baron d'Eroles. The Boyalists got possession of nearly 
all Catalonia, but before the end of the year they were for the 
most part reduced by Mina, the Constitutional general. In 
these civil disturbances dreadful atrocities were committed on 
both sides. 

Theravagesof the yellowfever, whichhadbeen imported from 
America, and carried off many thousands, had some effect in 

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allaying these distarbanoes. The Prencli QoTemment, with ^*«'*?'- 
the xQterior design of interfering in Spanish affairs, seized the hS^ aiu-^ 
pretext of this disorder to pla^ a cordon of troops on the ^^* 
Fprenees ; to which the Spaniards opposed an army of obser- 
vation. Ferdinand, relying on the Army of the Faith, and on 
his Foreign Minister, Martinez de la Bosa, a Moderado, 
thought he might y^iture on a coup dPStai before the appear- 
ance of the French ; but his guards were worsted in a street 
fight, Jnly 7th, 1822. General Ballesteros and Morillo de- 
clared themselres averse to any infringement of the Constitu- 
tion ; at the same time Eiego suddenly returned to Madrid, 
and was elected President of the Cortes. Ferdinand was now 
base enough to applaud and thank the victors, to dismiss the 
Moderad^ from the Ministir, and to replace them by EscalU 
adoB, or Badicals. The bloodthirsty fury of the dubs and the 
populace was gratified by the illegal execution of two Boyalist 
commanders,— Colonel Geoiffeux and Oeneral Elio. This state 
of things attracted the attention of the Holy Alliance. In The Con- 
October, 1822, the three Northern Monarchs assembled in fSo^^ 
congress at Verona to adopt some resolution respecting Spain. 2^^^» 
It appeared to them that every throne in Europe was threat- 
ened. The Frendi Ministry, considering that the establish- 
ment of a Bepublic on the other side of the Pyrenees woidd 
endanger the Bourbon throne, were also inclined to intervene; 
while tiie English Cabinet, in which Canning was now Foreign 
Secretary, as well as the great mass of the English people, were 
averse to any interference, and especially by France. The 
policy of Mettemich was now predominant. The Emperor 
Alexander had more than ever set his face against revolutions, 
had given up all his Eastern projects, and even abandoned the 
revolutionary Greeks, however serviceable that movement 
might eventually prove to him. It was at first the object of 
the three allied Powers to dispense with the co-operation of 
France in the affairs of Spain, and to bear down the opposition 
of England ; but ultimately they resolved to support France, 
and each of the four Powers addressed a note of much the 
same tenor to the Madrid Cabinet, insisting on an end being 
put to the present state of things. The Duke of Wellington, 
who had attended the Congress for England, declined to in- 
terfere, and on returmng home through Paris, warned Louis 
gainst interference in Spain, to which, indeed, the French 
King himself, as well as his Minister, TilKle, was averse. 

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But the Spaniards refused to listen to moderate counsels, and 
replied haughtily to all the exposttdations of France ; so that 
Chateaubriand himself, who had now become Minister at War, 
in the place of Montmorenci, though he had opposed at Verona 
the use of force, now adopted the contrary opinion. 

In reply to the note of the Powers, San Miguel, the Spanish 
Minister for Foreign Affa^ told them that the constitution 
was the same which had been recognized by the Emperor 
Alexander in 1812, and declined to make any alteration ; 
whereupon the ambassadors of the three Powers demanded 
and received their passports, Januaiy 11th, 1823. In the 
spring, the French army of observation, which had been in- 
creased to 100,000 men, was placed under the command of the 
Duke of Angouleme. To resist the threatened invasion, the 
Spanish Government appointed Mina to the defence of Cata- 
lonia, BaUesteros to that of Navarre, Morillo took the command 
in Qalicia, Asturia, and Leon, while O'Donnell, Count of 
Abisbal, was stationed with the reserve in New Castile, to 
support either of those generals, as occasion might require. 
But these troops were few and ill-disciplined ; while in Old 
Castile stood guerilla bands, under the priest Merino, ready to 
aid the French invasion. An attempt on the part of Ferdinand 
to dismiss his Liberal Ministry induced the Ministers and the 
Cortes to remove him to Seville (March 20th, 1828), whither 
the Cortes were to follow. 
The^^ch The Duke of Angouleme addressed a proclamation to the 
1823. * Spaniards from Bayonne, April 2nd, in which he told them 
that he did not enter Spain as an enemy, but to liberate the 
captive King, and, in conjunction with the friends of order, to 
re-establish the altar and the throne. The French crossed the 
Bidasoa, April 7th. The only serious resistance which they 
experienced was from Mina. BaUesteros was not strong enough 
to oppose them, while the traitor O'Donnell entered into ne- 
gotiations with the enemy, and opened to them the road to the 
capital. BaUesteros was compelled to retire into Yalenda, 
and the French entered Madrid Mav 23rd. The Spaniards re- 
ceived the French as deUverers. A Begency, composed of the 
Duke del Infantado and four other nobles, was now instituted 
tiU the King should be rescued from the hands of the Liberals, 
and immecUately commenced an unmeastired reaction. A 
French corps was despatched into Catalonia against Mina, who 
stiU held out in that province ; and another against Seville, 

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where the Cortes had reopened their sittings; but on the ad- 
vance of the French they retired to Cadiz, Jnne 12th, taJdng 
with them the King, whom they declared of unsound mind, and 
a proTisional Segency was appointed. Zayas arrested for a 
while the march of ike French at TaJavera de la Beyna, but 
was compelled to yield to superior numbers. Mina was shut 
up in Catelonia ; Ballesteros, driven from Valencia into Gran- 
ada, was defeated in the mountains near Campillo de Arenas, 
when he capitulated and acknowledged the Eegency at Madrid. 
About the same time Morillo surrendered at Corunna. These 
events enabled the Duke of Angoul^me to march with the bulk 
of his army to Cadiz, where he arrived August 16th. Fort 
Tro^adero was captured on the Slst, Fort St. Petri on the 20th 
of September, when the bombardment of the city was begun. 
Cadiz having capitulated, October 1st, Yaldez conducted the 
Kii^ to the French camp in a boat, while the Cortes made 
their escape by sea. All further resistance being now hopeless, 
Mina also capitulated, and surrendered to the French the for- 
tresses which he still held in Ca-talonia, on condition of a free 
and unmolested retreat (November 2nd). Biego, who had 
endeavoured to annoy the French rear, was captured while 
attempting to join Mina. Sir Bobert Wilson and a few other 
Englishm^i had aided the Spanish Liberals in this struggle. 
The Duke of Angouleme returned to Paris before the end of 
the year, but Spain continued to be occupied by an army of 
40,000 French. 

The first act of Ferdinand after his release waste publish a KinK 
proclamation, October Ist, revoking aU that had been done ^^SSSt^ 
since Mardi 7th, 1820. The Inquisition, indeed, was not re- 
stored ; but the vengeance exercised by ^e secular tribunals 
was so atrocious that the Duke of Angoul&me issued an order 
prohibiting arrests not sanctioned by the French commander : 
an act, however, which on the principle of non-interference 
was dLaavowed by the French Government. The brave Biego 
was condemned to death at Madrid, November 7th, and the 
King and Queen of Spain made their public entry into Madrid 
on iSie 13th. The whole Spanish army was now disbanded, 
and its place supplied by the " Army of the Faith.'* These 
men were gradually formed into a militia caJled " Boyal Yolon- 
teers,'' who plundered and murdered the Constitutionalists 
to their hearts' content ; while the CamariUay now directed 
by Victor Saez, the King's confessor, only laughed at the 

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16 MO]>EBN BTJBOPE [Oiup. LXVni. 

exhortations to moderation addressed to them bj the French 
and ihiglish Ambasoidors. It is computed that 40,000 Con- 
stitutionalists, chiefly of the educated chusses, were tluoim into 
prison. The French remained in Spain till 1827. It was the 
occupation of Spain by the French that induced Canning, then 
the English Fnme Minister, to recognize the BepubUcs of 
South America, in order that if France held Spain it should 
not be Spain with the Indies. 
The Zea Berxnudez, tiie new Minister, endeavoured to rule with 

juiSk moderation. But he was opposed on all sidea The nobles 
and cknrgy attacked him because he attempted to tax them. 
His most dangerous enemy, however, was the Af08toi.ic 
JinvTA, erected in 1824 for tiie purpose of carrying out to its 
full extent, and independentiy of the Ministry, the victory of 
bigotry and absolutism. Sa^ was at the head of it, and the 
Kmg sometimes attended its sittings. Every day it engrossed 
more and more the whole power of the State, and was thus 
engaged in continual conflicts with the Ministry. In 1825 
2Sea Bennudez, having caused the notorious Bessiires to be 
shot for having orgamzed riots in order to force the King to 
dismiss his literal Ministry, was compelled to resign. He was 
succeeded by the Duke del Infantado, who in turn succumbed 
to intrigue. The Junta now procured the appointment of the 
weak and incapable Salmon, and in the spring of 1827 excited 
in Catalonia an insurrection of the SeroUes. The insurgents 
styled themselves Aggramados (aggrieved persons), beoiuse 
the Eing did not restore the Inquisition, and because he some- 
times listened to his half-Liberal Ministers, or to the French 
and English Ambassadors, instead of suffering the Junta to 
rule uncontrolled. The history of the revolt is obscure. Saez, 
who had been relegated to his bishopric of Tortosa, and pro- 
bably also the Northern Powers, were concerned in it, and the 
object seems to have been to dethrone Ferdinand in &vour of 
his brother Carlos. But the Duke del Infiantado, during his 
brief administration, had restored a regular army of 50,000 
men, at the head of which EspaSa, accompanied by the "King 
in person, proceeded into Catalonia, when the insurgents were 
subdued, we province disarmed, and many persons executed. 
Portugal was also shaken by revolutions during this period. 
The B^afent, who, on the deatb of his mother Maria, March 
20tii, 1816, ascended the throne with the title of John YL, 
continued, after the down&ll of Napoleon, to reside in Brazil, 

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which had been erected in 1815 into the United Eingdom oi BeyoiuUon 
PortngaJ, Brazil, and the Algarves. Lord Beresford, as a ^ao?'*^"*^' 
member of the Portuguese Begencj, as well as Commander- Jobn vl 
in-Chief of the Army, directed the affairs of Portugal. The "^ 
discontent at this state of things was fanned into a revolt hj 
the Spanish Bevolution of 1820. Colonel Sepulveda estal)- 
lished in August a Provisional Government in Oporto ; and 
General Amarante, who had been despatched from Lisbon to 
quell the revolt, was compelled by his own troops to join the 
Junta of Oporto. In the middle of September a constitution 
even more liberal than that of Spain was proclaimed in Lisbon, 
and a Junta appointed to conduct theGovemment in the Swing's 
name. Lord Beresford, who had been absent in the Brazils 
during these occurrences, on his return to Portugal early in 
OctoW, found that his power had departed, and was compelled 
to return with his officers to England. The English Govern- 
ment f orebore to interfere, and left the settlement of matters 
to King John. That Sovereign was himself driven from Brazil 
in April, 1821, by an insurrection of the Portuguese soldiery 
in favour of the constitution promulgated in the mother coun- 
try, and sailed for Portugal, leaving his eldest son, Don Pedro, 
Eegent of Brazil. On his arrival in Portugal in July, John VI. 
accepted the constitution which had been framed during his 
absence ; but his wife, Charlotte, a sister of Ferdinand VIE. of 
Spain, refused to take the oath to it. 

The interference of the Holy Alliance and of the French in Beacdon in 
the affairs of Spain, encouraged the reactionary party in Portu- Po'^oflP^- 
gal. Towards the end of February, 1823, Count Amarante, 
the Queen's most distinguished adherent, raised the standard 
of revolt at Villa Franca, and was immediately joined by 
several regiments. Dom Miguel, the Queen's youngest and 
favourite son, fled secretly from Lisbon toward the end of May, 
and proceeded to the camp of the insurgents ; when Sepulveda, 
betraying the freedom which he had himself established, also 
joined the reactionary movement. The people of Lisbon fol- 
lowed the impulse of the soldiery ; the Cortes, seeing them- 
selves abandoned, dispersed; the Ministers resigned; the 
King, as usual, submitted, and on the 5th of June the new 
constitution was abolished. This reaction was accomplished 
without bloodshed. From this time all the Queen's efforts 
were directed to dethrone her husband and procure the crown 
for Dom Miguel. TOie Marquis Loul^, the King's chamberlain 

VI. c 

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and favourite, who had the reputation of a Liberal, was found 
murdered, March Ist^ 1824, and the Minister at War received 
letters threatening him with a similar fate. Dom Miguel, 
having assembled the garrison of Lisbon, April 30th, exhorted 
them to extirpate all Freemasons and Liberals; caused all 
generals, ministers, and officers suspected of Liberalism to be 
apprehended, and even the King, his father, to be placed under 
surveillance. John would no doubt have now been compelled 
to resign his crown but for the interference of the French and 
English Ambassadors and the diplomatic corps. To avoid the 
machinations of his son, John went on board the ** Windsor 
Oastle,'' a British man-of-war, in the Tagus, May 9th, whither 
he was followed by all the foreign ambassadors. From this 
refuge the King issued orders forbidding anybody to obey his 
son ; when Dom Miguel, finding himself abandoned by part of 
his troops, threw himself at his father's feet and implored his 
forgiveness. This he obtained, but he was ordered to leave 
the Kingdom, and took up his residence at Vienna. While 
these events were passing in the mother country, Don Pedro 
constituted himself Emperor of Brazil by the aid of the revo- 
lutionary party, October 12th, 1822, and the Empire of Brazil 
was declared independent. John YI. was induced through 
British mediation to recognize the new empire. May 15th, 1825. 

Bev^tioiis The endeavours of the Spaniards to set up a constitutional 
^' King, roused a similar desire in other countries. The Italian 
peninsula, like the Iberian, was also shaken bv revolutions. 
Pius VU. had re-established, so far as was possible, the ancient 
state of things, and was favoured by all the European Powers. 
Ferdinand IV., restored to his Kmgdom of the Two Sicilies 
by Austria, had been put, as it were, under her guardianship 
by his treaty of alliance with that Power of AprH 29th, 1815. 
By a Concordat with the Pope, Ferdinand restored the Papal 
influence in Naples, though he refused to acknowledge his 
vassalage to the Holy See by the ancient tribute of a white 

Mnrat shot, palfrey. An attempt by Murat to regain the crown proved 
fatal to that adventurer. Murat, the son of a vilh^e shop- 
keeper, not content with an asylum in the Austrian States, 
and a fortune such as he could not have ventured to dream of 
at the beginning of his military career, after many hair-breadth 
escapes and romantic adventures in flying from France to 
Corsica after the restoration, made a descent at Pizzo, in 
Calabria, October 8th, 1815, in the hope that the j^eople would 

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declare in his favour ; but f aUing into a snare laid for him bj 
the podetia of the place, lie was captured and shot as a com- 
mon rebel, October 13th. 

Yarious secret societies had sprung up in Naples and Sicily, Secret 
which, on the departure of the Austrian troops in 1817, began ^^^^ ^ 
to manifest themselves. The chief of these were the so-called 
Carbonari^ or charcoal-men : to oppose whom was instituted 
the loyal society of Ccdderarii (tinkers or braziers, who use the 
coals). The Carbonari comprised more than half a million 
persons, chiefly of the higher and better educated classes, and 
of the army. The Galderarii had originated in Sicily, with the 
Prince of Canosa, the Minister of PoUce^ at their head. It 
was rumoured that a society of Samfedisti had been formed 
under the auspices of Count De Maistre, the publicist, in which 
were enrolled Princes and Prelates, with the design of uniting 
all Italy under the Pope, a project afterwards reyived. The Setroiution 
Spanish revolution of 1820 had an electrical effect at Naples ; iSsa^^^^* 
and it is remarkable that here also the insurrection was organ- 
ized by the soldiery. On the night of June Ist, Lieutenant 
Morelli proclaimed the Constitution at Nola, at the head of a 
squadron of horse ; and, hastening to Avellino, was immedi- 
ately joined both by the civil and military officers there, who 
had long been Garhonari, General Pep^, the Commandant of 
Naples, put himself at the head of the insurrection, and with 
a regiment of cavalry joined the insurgents at Salerno ; while 
General Carascosa, whom the King had despatched against 
them with 5,000 men, remained undecided and inactive. 
Symptoms of revolt having manifested themselves at Naples 
itself, the King, without striking a blow, conceded all demands ; 
dismissed his Ministers, repla^ them by Liberals, and pro- 
claimed the Spanish Constitution of 1812, which the people 
hardly knew even by name, instead of the Liberal Sicilian 
Constitution of the same date; which, however, had been 
abn^ated. The Sicilians also rose ; not, however, to aid the 
sister country, but to proclaim their own independence. 
Ferdinand lY., under the pretext of illness, abandoned the 
government to his son Fiunds, Duke of Calabria; when 
Caracosa and Pep^ returned to Naples, and the army, the 
people, the Court, and the Crown Prince himself assumed the 
Carbanari colours (black, pink, and sky-blue).^ 

^ For the Neapolitan insurrection, see Colletta, Storia di Napolu 
t. ii 

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BerointioD The Neapolitan revoliition was entirely a military one, and 
in NaikiM. ^^^ Qj^Yj fighting that oocorred was between some regiments 
which differed in opinion ; that of Sicily was a popnlar insur- 
rection. The Viceroy, General Naselli, having diisplayed the 
Carb<mart colours, the people of Palermo assumed the yellow 
badge of Sicily ; and on the festival of St. Rosalia, July 15th, 
the chief one of the Palermitans, they demanded the independ- 
ence of the island under a Prince of the Royal House. Gene- 
ral Church, an Englishman, who commanded the garrison at 
Palermo, having attempted to interfere, was compelled to fly 
for his life ; Naselli also fled after having established a Pro- 
visional Junta, to which, however, no respect was paid. The 
people, having defeated the troops in a battle, obtained entire 
possession of Palermo, which during two consecutive days be- 
came a scene of robbery and massacre. A new Junta was now 
appointed, at the head of which was the Prince of Villa Franca, 
and one Vagleia, of Monreale, a monk. But the revolutionary 
Government at Naples despatched 5,000 men against Palermo, 
and compelled that city to capitulate, October 5th. 
The Ckm. The Neapolitan revolution inspired the Austrian Govem- 

$!roppaa, ment with alarm for the safety of all Italy, and Mettemich 

1820. brought about a Congress at Troppau in October, 1820, which 
was attended by the Emperors ^exander and Francis, and 
the Crown Prince of Prussia ; by the Ministers, Mettemich, 
for Austria ; Hardenberg, for Prussia ; Nesselrode and Capo- 
distria, for Russia ; Caraman and Laferronays, for France, 
and Sir Charles Stewart, for England. Ferdinand, at the 
invitation of the Allies, obtained the reluctant consent of his 
people to go to Troppau in the character, as he affirmed, of a 
mediator, and after renewing his oath to the constitution. T7p 
to this period Alexander had acted in a liberal and beneficent 
spirit. He had emancipated the serfs in Courland, Esthonia, 
and Livonia, had ameliorated their condition throughout the 
Empire, and had promoted education tod favoured religious 
toleration. But the military revolutions in Spain and Italy 
filled him with alarm, for the soldiery were the main prop of 
his own power. In spite of the opposition of England and 
France, and even at first, in some degree, of Russia, which 

The ck>ii- dreaded too great a preponderance of Austria in Italy, Metter- 
£2Sidb, ^^b succeeded in forming a League between Austria, Russia, 

1821. and Prussia for the suppression of the Neapolitan rebellion. 
The Congress was transferred to Laibach in January, 1821, 

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when it waa determined to send an Austrian army into the 
Neapolitan dominions. Franoe aoquiesoed, and England, 
single-handed, could do nothing but protest. Next month, 
60,000 Austrians, under Geneiul Frimont, marched into the 
South of Italy, with Ferdinand in their train, who plainly 
threatened to abolish the new constitution. The Neapolitans 
had raised an army equal in number to that of the invaders, 
and such was the national enthusiasm, that it was joined by 
the friends and kinsfolk of the King, and even by the Prince 
of Salerno, his son. But the constitutional troops were for 
the most part raw and ill-disciplined, and badly supplied with 
arms and provisions; and the Austrians, after overcoming 
some slight^istance from Pep^ and Carascosa, entered Naples, 
March 24th. Ferdinand now gave vent to the wrath which he 
had postponed at his restoration. The people were disarmed, 
aU suspected persons were arrested, and confiscations and exe- 
cutions became the order of the day. Walmoden was sent with 
a body of Austrians into Sicily, to restore the ancient state of 
things in that island. 

The effects of the Spanish revolution also extended to Pied- Berohition 
mont, where Victor Emanuel L, after his restoration, had ^oST* 
placed everything as much as possible on the old footing. The 
CarhonaH were also active here, and were in communication 
with those of Naples, and with the malcontents in France. 
They even induced Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, to 
enter into their plots. That Prince, though but a distant kins- 
man of the £ing, was presumptive heir to the throne, Victor 
Emanuel, having only a daughter, whose succession was barred 
by Salic law. The GarlxmaH flattered Charles Albert with the 
hope of becoming King of all Italy if the revolution should 
succeed ; and after some hesitation he agreed to enter into 
their schemes. On the 9th of March, 1821, Colonel Arsaldi 
proclaimed at Alessandria the Spanish Constitution, and the 
troops at Turin also hoisted the three-coloured flag. Victor 
Emanuel, abandoning the Ghovemment to the Prince of Carig- 
nano, abdicated the throne March 13th, in favour of his brother, 
Charles Felix, then residing at Modena. The insurrection was 
put down by a portion of the troops which remained faithful 
to the King, helped by an Austrian force under Count Bubna. 
Victor Emanuel, however, declined to resume the crown which 
he had relinquished. The Prince of Carignano, who had 
secretily assured the new King that he, as well as the higher 

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Societies in 
and Silvio 



class in general^ was adverse to the reyolution, was only pun- 
ished by two years* relegation from the Court ; and Charles 
Felix, who was also childless, maintained the Prince's right to 
the crown, in spite of the endeavours of Austria to obtain it 
for the Duke of Modena, son of the Archduke Ferdinand and 
of Beatrix, the only daughter of Victor Emanuel. 

Lombardy also contained many secret societies, and was, in 
fact, the chief centre of the Carbonari, and of the society of 
*' Italian Federation," which was to be the nucleus of the in- 
surgent populations. Lombardy was to have risen when the 
Piedmontese army had crossed the Tidno. But this expecta- 
tion was frustrated, and such was the vigilance of the police, 
that any outbreak was prevented; though the Archduke 
Eainer, who resided as Viceroy with his family at Milan, fled 
at the first alarm of danger. Towards the end of 1821 the 
police discovered and captured some members of a secret 
society, among the most noted of whom were Conf alionieri and 
Silvio PeUico. The latter, in a well-known work, has related 
the particulars of his imprisonment in the fortress of Spielberg 
at Brunn, the capital of Moravia. The Emperor himself is 
said to have regulated, down to the minutest particulars, the 
treatment of the prisoners confined there. 

While the Austrian Government, guided by the counsels of 
Mettemich, kept so vigilant an eye on the domestic afEairs of 
other countries, the home administration was conducted on a 
system of laissez-aller, which though popular enough with the 
indolent, pleasure-seeking Viennese, was highly detrimental to 
the interests of the State. Everything was neglected. In a 
time of peace, the Gbvemment got every year deeper into debt. 
The Eussians, in conformity with the Peace of Adrianople, 
were allowed to settle at the mouth of the Danube, and thus 
virtually to command that river. The harbour of Venice was 
suffered to fill with sand, and the steam navigation between 
that port and Trieste to be monopolized by the English. In 
the midst of this frivolity of the Austrians and their Gbvem- 
ment,the Bohemian, Hungarian, and Italiannationalities began 
to expand and to develop themselves into formidable Powers. 
The movement, taking its origin inBohemia and Hungaryin the 
study of national antiquities and literature, assumed at length 
a political cast, and begot a desire for national independence.^ 

Wolfgang Menzel, Oesch. der letzten 40 Jahre^ B. i. S. 26. 

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With regard to Ohurch matters, the Emperor and his Ministers, 
were far from being bigoted. Intellectual culture among the 
clergy was discouraged ; the pretensions of Borne were re- 
pressed, and the Pope was obliged to confirm the Italian 
bishops nominated by the Emperor. The Jesuits were ex- 
cluded from the Austrian dominions till 1820, and were then 
only admitted in Italy and Gkilicia. 

The after-shocks of that great social conrulsion which had Germaii 
agitated Europe since 1792, were also felt in Ctermany as well i»*ri«**nn- 
as in Italy and the Spanish Peninsula. The Germans in 
general were desirous of an extension of their political liberties, 
and a confirmation of them by means of constitutions, which 
had indeed been promised by the Act of Confederation. This 
matter occasioned some serious disputes between the King of 
Wurtemberg and his subjects. But the Germans are a people 
who seem little capable of initiating revolutionary movements, 
and require to be influenced by an impulse from without. 
States were assembled in Wurtemberg, Baden and Hanover, 
but not in Prussia. Till the second French Revolution in 
1830, political demonstrations in Germany were mostly con- 
fined to the students of the universities. These, however, were 
mere harmless mummeries, such as the adoption of a particular 
dress, the displaying of the German colours, and other acts of 
the same kind. The most remarkable demonstration occurred 
in 1817, on the celebration of the third centenary of the Be- 
f ormation ; when on the 18th of October, the anniversary of 
the battle of Leipsic, a number of students from various uni- 
versities assembled at the Wartburg near Eisenach, the scene 
of Luther's concealment. Afterthe festival had been celebrated 
with songs, speeches, and a procession by torch-light, most of 
the students dispersed; but a few remained behind, and 
amused themselves with burning certain insignia of the Ger- 
man military service, as well as some histories and other works 
of an anti-Liberal tendency. The whole affair was absurd and 
harmless enough, and would speedily have sunk into oblivion 
had it not been magnified into importance by the notice taken 
of it by the Prussian and Austrian Ministers. Hence it 
attracted the attention of the Emperor Alexander, who in the 
following year took upon himself to interpose in the domestic 
affairs of Germany by directing his Minister Stourdza to de- 
nounce to the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle the revolutionaty 
movements of the German students. Among the agents of 

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Murder of Eussia in Oermanj web Augustus von Eotzebue, the dramatist, 
Kote^ue. ^j^^ ^^ suspected of transmitting to St. Petersburg informa- 
tion against the students, and in a weekly paper which he 
edited, employed himself in turning them and their professors 
into ridicule. One Band, a student of Jena, irritated by the 
denunciations which he heard against Kotzebue, and inflamed 
by a mistaken patriotism, set off for Mannheim, Kotzebue's 
residence, and stabbed him to the heart, March 23rd, 1819. 
After the murder, Sand made an ineffectual attempt at suicide, 
and in conformity with the German law, which requires con- 
fession of a crime before execution, was not executed till 
fourteen months afterwards. This act of Sand*s confirmed the 
German statesmen in their notion of a secret and widespread 
conspiracy, or rather, perhaps, afforded them a pretext to act 
as if such a thing really existed. At a Congress of German 
Ministers, held at Carlsbad in July, 1819, which was attended 
by the Princes Mettemich and Hardenberg, Count Bechberg 
from Bavaria, and others, were adopted what have been called 
the Carlsbad Besolutions, viz., a more rigid superintendence 
of the press, the suppression of the independence of the uni- 
versities, and the establishment of a central Commission of 
Inquiry at Mainz, to discover the existing conspiracy, and to 
punish the participators in it. These Besolutions were adopted 
by the Federal Diet, September 27tlL But though the Com- 
mission sat ten years, filled the prisons with students, and 
deprived of their chairs, and even banished, many of the pro- 
fessors at the universities, still it did not succeed in discover- 
ing any conspiracy, for in fact none existed. 

Few other events of European importance occurred during 

the reign of Louis XVIII. of France. It will suffice to remind 

the reader of the English expedition to Algiers under Admiral 

Sir E. Pellew, afterwards Lord Exmouth, in August, 1816 ; 

when, with the assistance of a small Dutch squadron, the 

fortifications of the place were destroyed, 7,000 Algerines 

killed, and that nest of pirates was reduced to submission, 

though not without great loss on the part of the British. The 

Dey was compelled to abolish Christian slavery for ever, and 

to liberate upwards of 8,000 Christian slaves of all nations, 

]>eath8 of who were detained at Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoh. George III. 

S^™*' died January 29th, 1820, and was succeeded on the throne by 

xra^d Q^eorge IV., who had long been Begent. Sweden also had ex- 

^ perienced a change of Sovereign by the death of Charles XTTT. 

to Algiers. 

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io Febnuuy, 1818, and the aceession of Bemadotte, Crown 
Prince by adoption, wi th t he title of Charles XIV. On the 
decease of Pope Pius YIL, August 20th, 1823, the Cardinal 
della Genga, a bigoted churchman, was elected to the Papal 
chair, and assum^ the title of Leo XII. 

Louis XYIII. died unregretted, September 16th, 1824 g«^o^ 
He was not destitute of talent ; he had considerable literary xvni. 
culture, and as he had sense enough to accommodate himseU ^J^JJ^- 
to the temper of the times, he was a suitable King to succeed France, 
the turbulence of the Bepublic and the Empire. His brother, ^®^*' 
Charles X., who now ascended the throne, had, during the 
last year or two, been virtually ruler of France. Some of his 
first measures seemed to promise liberality. He suffered the 
Constitntion to remain, and be abolished the censorship of 
the press. This last act, howeyer, was soon recalled ; while 
the dismissal of 150 generals and superior officers of the time 
of Napoleon enlisted against him the feelings of the army. 
The favour which he showed to the House of Orleans seemed 
a concession made to the Liberal party. Louis Philippe, the 
head of the family, had returned to France. He had married 
Amelia, daughter of Ferdinand lY. of Naples, by whom he 
had many children, and appeared to lead far &om the Court 
a quiet ^and secluded life. But under this exterior he con- 
ceded ambition, and sought to recommend himself to the 
people by the assumption of a citizenlike simplicity. Charles X. 
mistook his character. In the hope of conquering him by 
generosity, and identifying the interests of the elder and 
younger Bourbons, Chajrles conferred upon him, unsolicited, 
the title of Boyal Highness, and directed that the vast estates 
should be restored to him which, before the Bevolution, had 
formed the wpamage of the House of Orleans. But Louis 
Philippe did not respond to these generous acts by giving 
the King his political support. At the same time, in order 
to secure the Crown to the elder branch of the House of 
Bourbon, Charles declared his son, the Duke of AngoidSme, 
now past middle age, Dauphin, and he caused this act, as 
well as the magnificent grant to the Orleans family, to be 
confirmed by the Chambers. 

Charles X* was crowned with the usual solemnities at Coronation 
fiheims, May 29th, 1825. He soon, however, discovered x.,!^;^ 
from unmistakable symptoms that the ancient re^ms had 
inevocably departed. He sought to combat revolutionary 

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ideas by means of religion, and the influence of the parti 
pritre. The Jesuits were re-established, and new colleges 
founded for them ; the Court assumed an air of ostentatious 
doYOtion; magnificent processions of ecclesiastics paraded 
the streets ; and great pains were taken to inspire the soldiery 
with religious fervour. But it soon became manifest that 
such projects were useless. The death of General Foy, one 
of the heads of the Liberal party, NoYember 28th, gave occa- 
sion for a popular demonstration. His funeral was attended 
by 100,000 persons in mourning and bareheaded, though it 
rained in torrents, and a subscription for his widow reached 
a million francs, the Buke of Orleans contributing 10,000. 
The popular feeling was still more directly manifested at a 
review of the National Guard, April 29th, 1827. No cries 
were heard but Vive la Charte ! not a single cheer was raised 
for the King ; and some of the regiments shouted Ahasles 
minidres ! a has les Jeswitee ! On tiie next day the National 
Guard was dissolved. M. VillJle hoped to overcome the 
opposition to the Government by a new Chamber ; but the 
elections gave 428 Liberals against 125 Ministerialists, and 
Yillile, who was highly unpopular, felt himself compelled to 
resign (January Srd, 1828). 

Mfuitaac's M. do Martignac, who now became Prime Minister, intro- 

Ministry. ^hqq^ some popular measures. Among these were a new law 
of the press, relaxing the rules prescribed to journalists ; and 
several regulations against the Jesuits. At this period Boyer 
Collard was President of the second Chamber ; on the left or 
Opposition benches of which sat Benjamin Constant, Lafayette, 
Casimir P^rier, Lafitte, and other distinguished men. Mar- 
tignac's foreign policy was also Liberal. He acted in con- 
junction with England in the affairs of Portugal and Greece ; 
the French fleet took part in the battle of Navarino, and 
General Maison led a French army into the Morea. But 
before we relate these events we must take a brief retrospect 
of the Greek Revolution. 

TheTarUsh The Turkish Empire had long been in a declining state. 

Bmpire. rjr^^ Sultans Were little more than the puppets of the Janis- 
saries. The reforms attempted by Selim III. had terminated 
in his deposition in 1807, as we have already related. Sis 
successor, Mustapha lY., had scarcely enjoyed the throne a 
year when he also was dethroned, July 28th, 1808, in an 
insurrection headed by Mustapha Bairactar, Pasha of Bust- 

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chuk. His half-brother, Mahmoud II., was now eleyated to 
the throne, which, however, he enjoyed only by sufferance of 
the Janissaries.' The war which broke ont again with Bussia 
in 1809 inflicted fresh losses on Turkey, and it would probably 
have gone hard with hor had not the imminence of a war 
with France induced the Emperor Alexander to grant the 
Porte moderate conditions. By the Peace of Bucharest, 
however. May 28th, 1812, Bussia remained in possession of 
Bessarabia and the eastern part of Moldavia as far as the 
Pruth. Turkey seemed almost in a state of dissolution. The 
army was disorganized ; in Egypt Mehemet All had nearly 
rendered himself independent; in the provinces the pashas 
were constantly revolting. 

That the Turks should have so long maintained their empire Condition 
in Europe over peoples so much more numerous than them- xo^h 
selves, must perhaps be ascribed to the circumstance that Empire, 
these peoples are composed of various races unfitted to com- 
bine in any general political object, and that the Turk, as a 
soldier, is far superior to those over whom he rules. He has 
never mingled, like the conquerors of the North, with the 
Christian races he has subdued and regards as his slaves. 
His fatalism and his indolence deprive him of all wish to 
acquire the arts and manners of a higher civilization ; hence 
the line between liim and his European subjects is as strongly 
drawn as in the first days of conquest, and will most probably 
remain so as long as he holds supreme power. Exclusive of 
Armenians and Jews, the European subjects of the Sultan are 
composed of four distinct races, speakii^ different languages, 
and having different laws and customs, viz. Slav, Boumans, 
Albanians, and Greeks. Of these races the Slav, inhabiting 
Bulgaria, Servia, Bosnia, the Herzegovina, and Montenegro, 
amounting to upwards of seven million souls, is by far the 
most numerous. But these different Slav races were never 
united among themselves. The Montenegrins, in their inac- 
cessible mountains, have preserved from the earliest period a 
sort of independence, which the Servians also have partly 
succeeded in achieving. The Bouman or Wallach population, 
inhabiting the trans-Danubian provinces of Moldavia and 
Wallachia, and still speaking a bastard Latin dialect, come 
next in point of number, counting about four million souls. 
The Albanians or Amauts, inhabiting the west coast of 
Turkey, the ancient Epirus, amount to about one and a half 

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AUPftshaof million. It was among these mountaiiiears that Ali Pasha 
Jaonina. ^£ Jannina, established towards the end of the last centur j a 
kind of independent rule. This remarkable baorbarian was 
the son of Yeli Bej, Aga of Tebelen, and of Ohamco, a woman 
of great beauty and spirit, said to ha^e been a desoendant of 
Scanderbeg. Ali's early years were spent in marauding expe- 
ditions; his more ambitious schemes were fostered by a 
marriage ¥rith Emina, daughter of the Pasha of Delvino, one 
of the three Pashalics into which Albania is diyided, the 
other two being Paramatia and Jannina. Ali's father-in-law 
haying been strangled for aiding Greek sedition, was suc- 
ceeded in his Pashidic by Selim, who favoured and befriended 
Ali ; but Selim having incurred the suspicion of the Porte, 
Ali treacherously murdered him, and sent his head to Con- 
stantinople. Por this base and inhuman act he was re- 
warded with the Pashalic of Thessaly, where by his extortions 
he amassed sufficient treasure to purchase the Pashalic of 
The Greeks. The Greeks, the smallest in point of number of all the 
European races under Ottoman sway, comprising hardly 
more than one million souls, have alone succeeded, by means 
of European sympathy, in asseriing their entire independence 
of the Turks. They inhabit the Morea, the adjoining province 
of Livadia, or ancient Greece proper, the islands of tiie Archi- 
pelago, and the Ionian Islands, besides being scattered in 
some of the larger cities of the Turkish Empire, as Oonstanti. 
nople, Smyrna, etc. The increase of wealth, acquired by 
commerce, had inspired them with new tastes and more ex- 
tended ideas. Young men of the upper classes were sent to 
Paris and other places for education ; in the schools established 
at home the Greek classics were read, and, whatever may be 
the right of the modem Greeks to trace their descent ^m 
the ancient Hellenes, inspired the youth with a love of liberty 
and a desire to emulate their assumed ancestors. Among a 
people thus disposed, the Spanish revolution of 1820 was not 
without its influence. Their aspirations for independence 
were encouraged by the dUettaTUe Philhellenism whidi, in 
many parts of Europe, had become a sort of fashion. We 
have already adverted to the origin of this feeling in the time 
of Voltaire and Catharine II. of Bussia; in which latter 
country, however, it was solely a political idea, cherished with 
the view of weakening Turkey and rendering her an easier prey. 

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The disappointed hope that something wotdd have been Idsiotm^ 
done for them at the Congress of Vienna, led the Greeks to q^^ 
form Secret Societies, or Hetaireise, with the Tiew of securing 
their independence by roYolt. These societies contained some 
distingnished persons, as Count Capodistrias, Secretary of 
the Emperor Alexander, nay, it was even supposed the Em- 
peror himself. HowoYer this may be, it is certain that the 
Greeks relied on Russian aid. A rising of the Greeks, though 
often contemplated, was first actually agitated to any purpose 
by Alexander Tpsilanti, son of the Fhanariot Hospodar of 
Wallachia, before mentioned, and a general in the Russian 
service.^ From Kischneff in Bessarabia, whither he had re- 
moved from Moscow the central committee of the Hetairia, 
he despatched agents in all directions to incite the Greeks to 
rise (1820). But the insurrection first broke out in Moldavia 
and Wallachia, in 1821, during which the Christians displayed 
as much barbarity as their lords, by massacring great numbers 
of Turks in Jassy and Gkdatz, and plundering their houses. 
This revolt, however, was disclaimed and reproved by Alex- 
ander and denounced by the Patriarch, and was easily put 
down by the Turks. Soon after insurrectionary symptoms 
began to show themselves in Greece, especially among the 
Mflonotes, as well as in the north of the Morea, in the Archi- 
pelago, and at Athens, where the inhabitants compelled the 
Turks to take refuge in the Acropolis. Ali, Pasha of Jannina, 
took part in the movement, and was joined by Odysseus, the 
leader of some Albanian tribes despatched agamst Ali by the 
Sultan. A dvil war now began. It was marked by the most 
frightful massacres. The chief events of the first two or 
three years were, the promulgation of a new Constitution for 
Greece on New Year's Day, 1822 ; the reduction and murder 
of Ali Pasha, who, though still a Mahommedan, caused a 
diversion in favour of the Greeks (February 6th) ; the taking 
of Scio by the Turks in April, when they massacred some 
25,000 of the inhabitants, and enslaved about double that 
number, so that, including the fugitives, the island was 
almost depopulated ; and the capture of Napoli di Romania 
by the Greeks, under Kolokotroni, December 21st. At this 
period Mavrocordato, a Phanariot of ancient family, was the 
principal leader of the revolution. The war continued through 

^ See Phillip's History of the Greek Betfoluiwn, 

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1828, and it was not till the following jear that the Western 
Powers began to interfere. Sultan Mahmoud had treated 
the Greeks with moderation, in order apparently to deprive 
Bussia of any pretence for intervention, and the Emperor 
Alexander re£rained from interfering, though he proposed to 
the principal European Powers early in 1828 that the Qreeks 
should be placed in the same relation to the Porte as the 
Danubian Principalities, and should be governed by four 
Hospodars. The European Governments, however, were not 
yet prepared to interfere, though in many countries a strong 
Philhellenistic feeling prevailed. The first active aid for the 
Greeks came from England. The accession of Oanning to the 
Ministry, as Foreign Secretary, was favourable to their cause, 
and early in 1824 they obtained in London a loan of JB800,000. 
Lord Byron, an ardent Philhellenist, not content with assist- 
ing them from his own resources with money and arms, pro- 
ceeded to Greece to give them his personal aid. He was 
accompanied by Colonel Stanhope. But a nearer acquaint- 
ance with the Greeks speedily dissipated all classical illusions. 
Byron died at Missolonghi, April 19th, from vexation, disap- 
pointment, and the effects of the climate. Stanhope was 
cheated and laughed at by the treacherous Odysseus, who 
seems to have possessed all the slyness of his classical name- 
sake.^ In December, 1824, Canning recognized the Greek 
Government by sending them a friendly note. 
Death of The death of the Emperor Alexander L, who, at the early 

i^AoMMioii ^^ ^^ forty-eight expired after a short illness at Taganrog on 
of Nicholas the Sea of Azov, December Ist, 1825, accelerated the crisis of 
^ the Greek revolution. The Bussian throne now devolved to 

Nicholas I., Alexander's youngest brother, in &ivour of whom 
Constantino, the second broker, Gt>vemor of Poland, had 
' formally renounced his rights. Nicholas, however, seems not 

to have been aware of this ; at all events, when the news of 
Alexander's death arrived at St. Petersburg, he caused the 
troops to swear obedience to Constantino. ^Hxis drcumstanoe 
was near producing a revolt. Constantino persisted in and 
publicly notified his renunciation of the crown. But when 
the soldiery were again called upon to take the oath to 
Nicholas, a large portion of them, incited, it is said, by a 

^ That chief, being suspected of intriguing with the Turks, was put 
to death at Athens m June, 1825. 

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faction led bj Prince Trubetzkoi, who were for establishii^f 
a federative repablic> refused to accept the change, and it 
became necessarj to shoot down some of the raiments with 
artilleiy. When Nicholas was crowned at Moscow, Oon- 
stantine hastened from Warsaw, was the first to do him 
homage, and embraced him in public, in order that no doubts 
might remain of the good faith of this transaction. 

The accession of Nicholas inaugurated a new era in Eussian a new em 
poHcj. Alexander, like his predecessors since Peter the Ghreat, ^u^^l!'''^ 
bad favoured the introduction of foreign culture and manners. 
Nicholas was distinguished by his predilection for the ancient 
Muscovitism, and a bigoted adherence to the Greek Church. 
He Qiade no secret of his pretensions to be the Pope and 
Emperor of the Greeks, wheresoever they might dwell, and it 
might be anticipated that he would not remain a passive 
spectator of the Greek revolution. The Buke of Wellington, 
who was sent to congratulate Nicholas on his accession, was 
at the same time instructed to come to an understanding with 
him on this question. The Tsar at first disputed the right of 
other Powers to intermeddle with his policy regarding Turkey, 
but at length consented to sign a secret Convention, April 4th, 
1826, by which he recognized the new Greek State ; which 
was, however, to pay a yearly tribute to the Porte. Turkey 
was to be compelled to accept this arrangement, to which the 
accession of the remaining members of the Pentarchy was to 
be invited. 

It was precisely at this juncture that Turkey was still Brtermtoa- 
further weakened by a domestic convulsion. Towards the j^issaries. 
end of May, 1826, Sultan Mahmoud 11. issued a hoMiecherif 
for the reform of the Janissaries, which, however, still left 
them considerable privileges. Nevertheless, that licentious 
soldiery rose in insurrectioli on the night of June 14th, and 
plundered the palaces of three grandees whom they considered 
to be the authors of the decree. The riot was continued on 
the foUowing day. But the Janissaries had neither plan nor 
leaders, and the Sultan, who had previously assured himself 
of the support of the Ulema, as well as of the marine, the 
artillery, and other troops, putting himself at the head of the 
hands that remained faithful to him, and displaying the 
tunic of the Prophet, dismissed the crowd which surrounded 
it to the slaughter of the Janissaries assembled in the Hippo- 
drome. In a single night 4,000 were massacred and cast into 

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the Hellespont ; in the following days 25,000 more. Their 
wives and chilcben were also mnrdered, and their very name 
The Treaty Mahmond had vanquished his domestic enemies, but by 
il^^""^' the same act had rendered himself defenoeless against ex- 
ternal ones ; and, being hampered by the Greek insurrection, 
he found himself compelled to submit to all the dictates of 
Russia r^arding the points which had been left undecided 
by the Treaty of Bucharest By the Treaty of Akerman, 
October 7th, 1826, the Porte consented that the Hospodars of 
Moldavia and Wallachia, though appointed by the Sultan for 
a period of seven years, should rule independently ; that they 
should have a divan chosen from among the Boyars, and 
should not be deposed without the sanction of the Tsar. The 
Servians, though still tributary to the Porte, were to elect 
their own princes; the Porte was to restore the districts 
which had been taken from them, and to re£rain from inter- 
fering in their affairs. Bussia was to occupy the east coast 
of the Black Sea, and her vessels were to have froQ entrance 
into all the Turkish waters. 

Greece was not mentioned in this treaty; but Canning 
perceived the necessity of preventing the Bussians from in- 
vading Turkey in its present defenceless state under pre- 
tence of the Greek causa The events of the last year or two 
had been unfavourable for the Greeks. Mehemet Ali, who 
cherished hopes of the whole Turkbh succession, had, early in 
1825, despatched into the Morea an army of 17,000 men 
under his adopted son, Ibrahim, by whom the Greeks had 
been defeated, and Navarino taken in May, as well as the 
little island of Sphagia which lies before it. Hence Ibrahim 
made incursions into the Morea, but achieved no extensive 
or lasting conquests till in April, 1826, having been joined 
by the Turkish commander Bedschid Pasha, Missolonghi, 
after a protracted and heroic defence, yielded to their united 
arms, April 22nd, 1826. The Greeks had now exhausted the 
loan, and their affairs began to look desperate. Canning 
apprehaaded that Nicholas might come to an understanding 
with Mehemet Ali to divide Turkey between them ; and these 
fears were shared by the Prench and Austrian Cabinets. All 
that part of Greece not occupied by Ibrahim had fallen under 
the influence of Kolokotroni, a mere agent of Bussia. Lord 
Cochrane and General Church, who arrived early in 1827 to 

Erection of 
the Greek 

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assist tlie Greeks as Tolimteers, iinadrisedly promoted the 
yiews of Biissia, by aiding, on the recommendation of Kolo- 
kotroni, the election of Count Capodistnas as President of 
Greece. In this state of things was condnded the Treaty of 
London of July 6th, 1827, which foonded the Kingdom of 
Greece. Prince Mettemich did not approve the erection of 
this State, for fear that religious sympathy might pktce it 
under Russian influence ; but as the alternative lay between 
English and Russian views, he adopted the former. He also 
helped to persuade the French €k)vemment to consent to the 
erection of the Greek Elngdom, to which Charles X. was per- 
sonally averse; and it was stipulated that the new King 
should be selected from one of ihe European dynasties. To 
this Canning agreed, on condition that the Greeks should be 
allowed to choose their own Sovereign. This negotiation was 
the most important act of Canning's short administration as 
Premier. He had held that office since April, and died in 
the following August 

The Treaty of London was executed only by the three little of 
maritime Powers, England, France, and Russia; and in i^f™^' 
Angast the fleets of those countries, under Admirals Cod- 
rington, De Rigny, and Heiden, appeared in the Greek waters 
to support the treaty. In the harbour of Navabino lay an 
Egyptian fleet of flfty-one men-of-war and upwards of forty 
other ships, which were now blockaded by the allied fleets. 
In consequence of Ibrahim having violated an armistice which 
had been agreed upon, as well as to arrest the horrible atro- 
cities which he committed in the adjacent district, the allies 
entered the harbour and almost totally destroyed the Turco- 
Egyptian fleet, October 26th. After the battle, Oodrington 
sailed to Egypt and compelled Mehemet Ali to recall Ibrahim. 

The battle of Navarino, an act of doubtful policy on the J5J?«<>' 
part of the Western Powers, naturally enraged the Sultan. **"^^ ®' 
He declared all treaties at an end ; and though he consented 
to allow the Greeks an amnesty, he altogether rejected the 
idea of recognizing their independence. The Ambassadors of 
the three Powers consequently took their departure from 
Constantinople December 8th. To Russia the Porte gave 
particular cause of offence by refusing to carry out the 
stipulations of Akerman, and by an offensive Firnum, issoed 
December 20th. Nicholas, in consequence, now released from 
the Persian war by an advantageous peace, declared war 

VI. D 

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34. MODEEN EUEOPE [Chap. LXVin. 

against the Snltan, April 26th, 1828. France and England 
remained idle spectators of this war, though a French army, 
under Oeneral Maison, was despatched to occupy the Morea. 
The Bussians, under Wittgenstein, crossed the Pruth early 
in May, captured Brahilo, June 19th, but finding Shumla, 
the key of the Balkan, impregnable, masked it with a corps 
of 30,000 men, and proceeded to Yama, which surrendered 
October 10th. To the west, the Bussians, imder Wittgenstein, 
were unsuccessful, and were obliged to recross the Danube. 
In the following summer, Oeneral Diebitsch, having taken 
Shumla (June 11th), crossed the mountains and appeared 
before Adrianople, which immediately surrendered, ^oi^^h 
his force consisted of only 15,000 men. A Bussian division 
had penetrated to Midiah, within 65 miles of the Bosphorus. 
The Bussian army in Asia, under Paskiewitsch, had also 
been successful ; Wellington and Mettemich intervened, and 
the Porte, seeing the inutility of further resistance, signed 
the Peacs of Adbianoplb, September 14ith, 1829. The 
stipulations of this treaty were Uttle more than a confirma- 
tion of those of Bucharest and Akerman, except that the 
Hospodars of Moldavia and Wallachia were to be appointed 
for life, and no Turks were to reside in those Principalities, 
nor any Turkish fortresses to be maintained there. Bussia 
restored nearly all her conquests. The passage of the Darda- 
nelles was to be free. The most important article was that 
by which the Porte acceded to the provisions of the Treaty of 
London with regard to the Greeks. But two or three years 
were still to elapse before the final settlement of the Greek 
Kingdom, during which Oapodistrias governed in the interest 
of Bussia. He had, however, to contend with conspiracies 
and insurrections. The little Greek fleet was burnt by Miaulis, 
July 30th, 1831, to prevent it being used in the Bussian in- 
terest, and shortly after Oapodistrias was assassinated (October 
9th). He was succeeded in the Government by his younger 
brother Augustine. Meanwhile the Ministers of the five 
Powers at London were endeavouring to establish the Greek 
pi«otho Kingdom. The proffered Orown was declined by Prince 
in Greece, j^poi^ of Saie-Coburg ; but at last King Louis of Bavaria, 
whose poetical temperament rendered him an enthusiastic 
Philhellenist, accepted it for his younger son Otho, May 7th, 

^ Martens, Nouv, BeeueH, t viiL p. 143 sqq. 

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1832. The distinguished Hellenist and Homeric scholar, 
Thiersch, had visited G-reece in the preceding year, and 
warped, perhaps, by his favoarite studies, as well as bj his 
own amiable temper, had beheld everything in a favourable 
light. The National Assembly of the Greeks recognized Otho 
for their King, August 8th, and a Provisional Government of 
Bavarian Ministers was appointed till he should take pos- 
session of the throne. Otho landed at Nauplia, February 5th, 
1833 ; but it was not till June 1st, 1835, that he took the 
Government into his own hands, when he removed his resi- 
dence to Athens. In the interval, the Bavarian Government 
had had to contend with many cUfficulties and insurrections, 
which continued under the new King. 

M. de Martignac, and the Liberal French Ministry which Oiangeof 
had assisted the Greek cause, had been dismissed b^ore the bS^' ^^ 
Peace of Adrianople. M. de Martignac had never enjoyed 
the King's confidence. On July 30th, 1829, the Chambers 
were dissolved, and a few days after the Ministry received 
their dismissal. Nothing could be more impolitic than the 
choice of their successors. Prince Jules de Polignac, a most 
unpopular person, who had been bred up in the bosom of the 
Boyal family, and shared in its exile, was now appointed head 
of the Ministry. The selection of his colleagues was still 
worse. M. Labourdonnaye, detested for the harshness and 
severity of his character, received the portfolio of the Interior, 
but soon resigned. The most injudicious appointment of all 
was that of General Bourmont, as Minister at War, one of 
the leaders in the war of La Vendue, a man of great political 
as well as military talent, but hated and contemned by the 
nation for his desertion to the allies just before the battle of 
Waterloo. The installation of this Ministry was hailed with 
a universal shout of disapprobation. The joumaLLsts, among 
whom may be named Guizot, Thiers, and Benjamin Constant, 
assailed the Government in the most unmeasured terms. 
Alarming symptoms appeared in the provinces. A union 
to resist all unconstitutional taxes began in Brittany, and soon 
spread throughout France. The revolutionary society called 
Aide-toi was instituted, and Lafayette began to agitate in 
several of the provincial towns, especially Lyons, where he 
was received with tumultuous applause. 

The Chambers were reopened March 2nd, 1830. The 
King, in his opening speech, expressed his determination to 

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ypy-iti fatiTi the privileges of the Crown, and to repress all 
attempts to overthrow them. In this assembly appeared 
M. Ouizot, as leader of the party called, from their somewhat 
pedantic constitutional system, the Doetrinaire$, The Chamber 
of Peputies complained, in an address to the throne, of the 
Government's want of confidence in the people. Symptoms 
of opposition were also displayed in the Chamber of Peers, 
where Chateaubriand thundered against the Ministry, and 
even the Duke of Fitz-James, who, though a favourite of the 
X[ing*s, was an enemy of Polignac's. Montbel, one of the 
Ministers, advised the King to dissolve the Chambers, and 
appeal to the people by a manifesto ; though the majority of 
the Ministry counselled moderation. It was thought that 
some popularity might be gained by an expedition against 
Algiers, which piratical state, under the Dey Hussein Bey, 
had infested the commerce of France, plundered her settle- 
ments, insulted her Consul, and fired on the ship of an officer 
sent to demand redress. But the British Government was 
opposed to the expedition ; a large English fleet was des- 
patched into the Mediterranean, and it became necessary for 
the French to obtain the consent of England to the enterprise. 
This circumstance, as well as the appointment of General 
Bourmont to the command of the expedition, deprived it of 
all merit in the eyes of the nation. The fleet was to sail from 
Toulon, May 16th ; on that day the Chambers were dissolved, 
and the new ones were to meet early in August. At the same 
time a partial change was made in the Ministry. But the 
expedition was not so successful as had been hoped. It was 
detained by storms, and at the outset two brigs fell into the 
hands of the Algerines. This was all the news that arrived 
during the elections, in which the society Aide-toi, and the 
Comite direct€v>r, under Lafayette, busied themselves against 
the Crown. The result was that a Chamber was returned 
still more hostile to the Government than the former one. 
When the elections were completed, news arrived that Algiers 
had capitulated, July 4th ; a victory, however, which, though 
announced with great pomp, had no effect whatever on the 
nation. A grand Te Deurn was appointed to be performed, 
and Bourmont was made a Marshal of France ; but the people 
flocked to the Palais Boyal, to pay their homage to the Duke 
of Orleans. It became evident that either the Chambers or 
the King must fall. Under these circumstances the King and 

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OoTemment resolved on a coup d^itat. The 14tb Article of 
the Charter provided that the King might issue ordinances 
necessary for the execution of the laws and the safety of the 
State. Availing themselves of this Article, the French Minis- onUnanoes 
ters published, July 25th, the celebrated and fatal ordinances <>< ^^y- 
of St. Cloud, by which the freedom of the press was suspended, 
a number of Liberal journals suppressed, the law of election 
altered, by diminishing the number of electors and raising 
the qualification; the Ch ubers, which had not yet met, 
were again dissolved, and new Chambers appointed to meet, 
September 28th. Further ordinances named a considerable 
number of councillors of State, selected from the ultra-Boy alist 
party. Yet these violent measures had been adopted without 
taking the necessary military precautions to insure their success. 
The troops in Paris numbered not 12,000 men, and these had 
been placed under the command of Marmont, who was un- 
popular with the army. 

The ordinances appeared in the Moniteu/r, July 26th. The Blots in 
tumult and agitation in Paris were extreme. Groups assem- ^*'*'* 
bled in the streets; daily labour was suspended; all master 
printers or manufacturers, of Liberal politics, closed their 
workshops, as if by common accord. In the evening the 
windows of Prince Polignac's hotel were broken by the mob. 
On the following day a protest against the ordinances appeared 
in nearly all the Liberal journals. It was now that M. Thiers 
first prominently appeared, who was to rise from the calling 
of a journalist to one of the first offices of the State. The 
gene d^curmes, who were directed to destroy the presses of the 
Liberal newspapers, met with a determined resistance at the 
office of tiie Temps, and could with difficulty find a locksmith 
to open the doors. Collisions occurred between the mob and 
the gens d^a/rmes, and the more timid citizens closed their 
shops. It was between five and six o'clock in the evening 
before the troops appeared ; but the sight of them only iu- 
creased the rage of the people, who began to assail them with 
stones, tiles, and other missiles. Meanwhile the Liberal 
deputies having assembled at the house of Casimir P^rier, 
drew up a protest denying the King's right to dismiss Cham- 
bers which had not yet met, and declaring all new elections 
imder the ordinances illegal. The night was spent in arming. 
It was arranged that the disbanded National Guard should 
reappear in itnif orm on the following day, and thus give the 

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insurrection an appearance of legality. The pupils of the 
Polytechnic School mingled with the people, and Lafayette 
arrived in Paris from tbe country. 

While these things were going on the Ministers had assem- 
bled at Prince Polignac's, and had resolved to declare Paris 
in a state of siege, to send for troops from the provinces, and 
to arrest the Deputies who had signed the protest. But they 
were not strong enough to carry out these measures. Mar- 
mont had not disposed even the few troops he had so as effect- 
ively to hinder the operations of the people. The King, at 
this critical juncture, had gone to hunt at Eambouillet ! 
Saooess of On the 28th the men of the Faubourg St. Antoine, inter- 
the Mob. gpersed with a few National Guards, took possession of the 
Mdtel de Yille, and hoisted on the roof the three-coloured flag, 
which was also displayed in most of the streets. Marmont, 
who had expressed his disapprobation of the ordinances, and 
had undertaken the command unwillingly, wrote to the King, 
advising him to negotiate ; but Charles, instead of either dis- 
missing him or following his advice, ordered him to resist. 
Marmont now directed two columns against the H6tel de 
Ville ; but many of the soldiers began to fraternize with the 
mob, and only the Swiss G-uards did their duty. The Liberal 
Deputies having assembled at the house of Audry dePuyravauz, 
debated whether they should turn the revolt into a revolution. 
Puyravaux himself, supported by Laf avette, Lafitte, and others, 
was for that course ; while Oasimir Perier, General Sebastiani, 
and Guizot advocated constitutional measures and another 
protest. At length it was resolved to send a deputation, 
headed by Lafitte and Arago, to Marmont, to reqiiire that all 
further effusion of blood should be arrested. Marmont now 
again advised the King to yield. But Charles would make 
no concessions, and Marmont was directed to concentrate his 
troops in the neighbourhood of the Tuileries. Eeinforcements 
were anxiously expected. But the line of telegraphs had been 
intercepted, and the messages despatched to St. Omer and 
Lun^ville to bring up troops by forced marches came too late. 
On July 29th the people had obtained possession of all Paris, 
except the quarter of the Tuileries, where Marmont maintained 
his ground, but not without considerable bloodshed. Lafayette 
having, at the request of the Deputies, assumed 'the command 
of the National Guard, fixed his quarters at the H6tel de Ville, 
whence he issued a proclamation calling on the people to 

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achieTe their liberty or die. On the evening of the 29th the 
people succeeded in getting possession of the Toileries, and 
were thus entirely masters of the metropolis. They acted for 
the most part with moderation and forbearance, though they 
plundered the Archbishop's palace. The number of the slain 
seems to haye been about 700. 

Consternation reigned among the courtiers at St. Cloud. TheOowt 
As happens in such conjunctures, advice of the most various 
kinds -was tendered to the King. Most were for making con- 
cessions. Many gave up the King for lost, and thought only 
of saving the dynasty by proclaiming the Duke of !^rdeauz 
and a regency. All seemed to have lost their heads, except 
G-uemon de Eanville. That Minister had at first advised 
moderation ; now he dissuaded from all concession, because it 
was too late. The only course, for the King, he contended, 
was to fly to some loyal province, to rally round him what 
troops remained faithful, as well as a loyal Chamber. He 
might then n^otiate with success, which at present, after his 
troops had been beaten, was impossible. But this sensible 
advice was supported only by the Duke of Angouleme. Charles 
yielded to the advocates of concession. Polignac was dis- 
missed, and the Duke de Mortemar, who had served in the 
army of Napoleon, and had lately represented France at the 
Court of St. Petersburg, was appointed in his place. Mortemar, 
in conjunction with Vitrolles and D' Argout, proceeded to draw 
up some new ordinances, in which a few necessary concessions 
were made ; and he appointed Casimir Pdrier to the finances, 
and General Gerard, Minister at War. Charles, who, after a 
hand at whist, had gone to bed and to sleep, was awakened, 
and after some little hesitation signed these concessions, with 
which De S^monville, Vitrolles, and D'Argout hastened to 

On the morning of the 81st what was called a Mtmicipal Municipal 
Oammianon was instituted and installed at the H6tel de Yille, S^™^' 
to watch over the public safety. Its members were Lafayette, 
Casimir P^rier, Lafitte, Gerard, Puyravaux, Lobau, Yon 
Schonen, and Mangin. The Commission proceeded to name 
some Ministers : (MiUon Barrot as General Secretary, Gerard 
as Commander of the Forces, Lafayette as Commandant of the 
National Guard. The authority of the new board was uni- 
versally recognized. In fact, the revolution seemed to be 
accomplished, as nearly aU the troops of the line had joined 

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the people, while the guards had retired to St. Cloud. Such 
was the state of things at Paris when De SemonTille arrived 
to announce the with<L»wal of the unpopular ordinances and 
the appointment of a new Ministry. The Municipal Com- 
mission refused to listen to him ; Yon Schonen coldly obserred, 
« It is too late ; the throne has fallen in blood." De S^monyille, 
after the failure of a similar attempt with the Deputies at the 
house of Lafitte, returned in despair to St. Cloud to relate his 
ill success. Mortemar now proceeded to Paris to try what he 
could do with the more moderate party ; but having equally 
failed, he vaDished, to reappear a few days after in the ante^ 
chamber of the Duke of Orleans. 

Louis Philippe had apparently taken no part in the move- 
ment. He had spent the whole summer at his seat at Neuilly 
in the bosom of his numerous family ; but in this retirement 
he had been secretly making a party, among whom may be 
named Talleyrand, liafitte, and Thiers. These men persuaded 
the Deputies that they could not do better than raise Louis 
Philippe to the throne. The Parisian populace, who had long 
looked upon him as their friend, would offer no opposition ; 
Talleyrand, who enjoyed a great reputation in the Courts of 
Europe, would reconcile them to the change of dynasty ; the 
bourgeoisie of the National Guard, with their leader Lafayette, 
would acquiesce. Of the two parties from whom opposition 
might be expected, the Royalists had been conquered, while 
• the Bonapartists and BepubUcans knew not how to use their 
sudden and unexpected victory. A proclamation, drawn up 
by Thiers, was posted on the walls of Paris, recommending 
the Duke of Orleans, who had foaght at Jemmapes, as the 
"Citizen King." The Deputies having met in the Pahiis 
Bourbon, signed a paper requesting the Duke of Orleans to 
undertake the government of the fingdom, with the title of 
Lieutenant- General, and to uphold the three-coloured flag till 
the Chambers should have fully assured the realization of the 
Louis The Duke of Orleans entered Paris on foot, July 30th, like 

u^Smair ^ pri^at^ gentleman. His first care was to see Talleyrand. 
General. He had no doubts about the Parisians. His only anxiety was 
how foreign Governments might regard the revolution ; and 
when Talleyrand had satisfied him on this point, he no longer 
hesitated. He sent the same night for the Duke of Mortemar, 
who undertook to carry to the King a letter in which Louis 

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Philippe still spoke of his fidelity ! Charles was deceived by 
it. So little did he imagine that the Buke of Orleans wonld 
betray him, that on July 31st he named that Prince by a 
formal patent Lieutenant-General of the Eangdom, and re- 
quested him in a letter to maintain the rights of the Crown. 
The Duke now published a proclamation concluding with the 
words : " In future a charter will be a truth." The Deputies 
also made a separate proclamation, in which they pledged 
themselves to procure the legal establishment of certain rights 
which they specified. In order to obtain the support of the 
Municipal Commission, the Duke of Orleans proceeded, at the 
head of the Deputies, to the Hdtel de Yille. He won Lafayette's 
heart by exclaiming : " You see, gentlemen, an old National 
Guard, who is come to visit his former general." An agree- 
ment was speedily concluded in the brief phrase, " A popular 
throne with republican institutions.*' Lafayette then embraced 
the Duke, and, conducting him to the balcony, placed him 
under a three-coloured flag, as the man of the people. 

The new Lieutenant- GPeneral now proceeded to name a The new 
Ministry selected from all parties, except the Boyalists. Ministry. 
Among them were Dupont de TEure, who inclined to the 
Bepublicans ; Ouizot, the representative of the Doetrinairea ; 
Lafitte, Louis Philippe's confidant ; Baron Louis, the favourite 
of Talleyrand ; Bignon, a Bonapartist ; the Duke de Broglie, 
to show the aristocrat^-that they would not be excluded from 
the new regime; General Gerard, and Admiral Bigny. Thus 
was completed tl'e " Bevolution of July," called also the Grande 
Semaine, and frtm the superior importance of the 27th, 28th, 
and 29th, the " Three Days." 

On July 81st Charles X. quitted St. Cloud .for Trianon. Abdication 
During this short march he was deserted by some of his x.f'^!^ 
guards. At Trianon, De Banville repeated his advice to the 
King to fly to Tours, and assemble a Chamber in that city. 
But Charles still relied on the Duke of Orleans, and was for 
waiting till he should hear from him. The anxiety of the 
Duchess of Berri was, however, so great that she induced the 
King to proceed on the following day to Eambouillet, where 
they were joined by the Duchess of Angouleme. The soldiers 
now began to desert in troops. A letter having at length 
arrived from the Duke of Orleans, purporting that the King 
had become too unpopular to retain the Crown, Charles pub- 
lished an ordinance announcing his abdication in favour of his 

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grandson the Duke of Bordeaux, whom he proclaimed as 
Henry Y., and calling on the Lieutenant-General to conduct 
the Regencj in the name of the young King (August 2nd). 
Charles X. But Louis Philippe had other views. In his speech to the 
£^^d! Chambers, though he announced the abdication of the King, 
and the Dauphin's renunciation of his rights to the throne, he 
f orebore to mention that these things had been done in favour 
of the Duke of Bordeaux. He refused to receive any com- 
munications from the King, and repulsed all who came to him 
on the King's behalf. He saw that he could reckon on the 
majority of the Parisians. Advocates for a Republic could 
be found only among some of the lowest class. The middle 
classes would not hear of it, though at the same time they 
saw that the old line of the Bourbons could not remain. 
Louis Philippe now began to take measures for driving 
Charles and his family from France. Marshal Maison, 
Odillon Barrot, and Yon Schonen were sent, as if officially, 
and by order of the Lieutenant-General and the Deputies, to 
accompany the King over the frontier. On their arrival at 
Rambouillet they found the King asleep ; but Marmont told 
them that, for such a step, it was necessary to have a written 
order from the Duke of Orleans, and the Commissioners 
hastened back to Paris to procure one. The Duke displayed 
excitement and displeasure at their return, exclaiming, " He 
must go ! he must go ! " It was determined to effect the 
King's expulsion by means of the Parisian mob. Before break 
of day an insurrection was organized ; the word was given *' to 
Rambouillet ! " and arms were distributed to the people, who 
were to march thither and compel the unfortunate Eang and 
his family to fly. Marshal Maison, who with his fellow Com- 
missioners had driven back to Rambouillet, told Charles that 
the people of Paris were marching against him. When the 
truth at last stared the old King in the face he gave vent to 
such an ebullition of rage that Maison was glad to hasten from 
his presence. But 60,000 men were marching on Rambouillet ; 
and Charles, having no means of resistance, at length con- 
sented to go into exile. The Commissioners gave him a mLiii- 
tary escort to Cherbourg, where he embarked for England. 
Nothing could exceed the respect with which the unfortunate 
monarch was treated during this journey by all ranks of the 
people. In England, the royal fugitives were at first received 
at Lulworth castle, in Dorsetshire, and subsequently took up 

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their abode, for the second time, at the palace of Holyrood, 
at Edinburgh, which had been placed at their disposal by 
the English €k)vemment. Great Britain was now ruled by 
William IV. ; his brother, Gteorge IV., having expired, after 
a long iUness, June 26th, 1830. 

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L^ T OUIS PHILIPPE opened the Prenpli Legislature August 

KiDg^^the ^ 3rd. The Chamber of Deputies drew up a Declaration 
French. in which the throne was announced to be vacant, through the 
abdication of the elder branch of the Bourbons, and the prin- 
ciples were announced on which the new reign was to be con- 
ducted. Many alterations and additions were made in the 
existing Charter; of which the following are the most im- 
portant : — ^The Boman Catholic Religion was to be no longer 
the dominant one, but all confessions were put on an equal 
footing: the censorship was abolished, and unconditional 
freedom of the press established : the King was to have no 
power to suspend a law, nor to appoint Special Commissioners 
in order to supersede the usual tribunals : no foreigners were 
to be admitted into the French military service : every French- 
man of the age of twenty-five to be an elector, and at the age 
of thirty capable of being elected a Deputy : the Peers named 
by Charles X. were abolished, and the sittings of that Chamber 
were to be public : the Chambers, as well as the King, to have 
the privil^e of proposing laws : the King to be called " King 
of the French :'* and the three-coloured &ig to be substituted 
for the white one (August 7ih, 1830).' 

The Chamber of Deputies, under the presidency of Lafitte, 
chose the Duke of Orleans for King by 219 votes against 33 ; 
39 members abstained from voting. When Lafitte and the 
Deputies proceeded to the Palais Boyal to announce their de- 
cision Louis Philippe affected to complain that it was highly 
disagreeable to him to be withdrawn from domestic life, but, 
from love to his country, he would make the required sacrifice. 
Then, supported by Lafitte and Lafayette, he showed himself 

^ See HUlebrand, Qegchichte FrankreiehBy and Ollivier, VEmpire 

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in the baloonj of his palace, and was received bj the people 
-with cries of Vive U Bai ! In these proceedings the Chamber 
of Peers was not consulted. Chateaubriand was the onlj 
Peer who had the courage to maintain the rights of the Duke 
of Bordeaux ; but he was supported by only nineteen of his 

The new Ejng was enthroned, August 9th, at the Palais Thedttsen 
Bourbon, where the Deputies held their sittings. Casimir ^^' 
P^er having read the Declaration of August 7th, and Baron 
Pasquier the accession to it of the Peers, the Duke of Orleans 
took an oath to observe it, and ascended the throne as Louis 
Philippe, amid the acdamations of the Assembly. The new 
'King applied himself to acquire popularity among the Parisians 
by displaying himself as a " Citizen King.'' Anybody and 
everybody was admitted to his presence in pantaloons and 
boots ; he appeared in the streets on foot, in a great coat and 
round hat, with the proverbial umbreUa under his arm, and 
shook hands familiarly with the people. The church of St. 
Genevieve became once more the Pantheon, and Yoltaire and 
Rousseau were again adored. Louis Philippe displayed his 
prudence by relinquishing to his children, on the day of his 
accession, all the estates of the House of Orleans, so that they 
became private property, and could not be forfeited with the 
Crown. France, as usual, acquiesced in the proceedings of 
the capital; though there were some slight msturbances at 
Nimes and in La Yend^. 

The news of the French Revolution ran through Europe Disturb- 
like an electric shock, firing all the elements of discontent in ^l^um. 
various countries. Belgium, unwillingly united to Holland 
by the policy of the Allies to encircle France with powerful 
States, first felt the explosion. Many were the elements of 
discord between those two countries. They spoke different 
languages, had different customs and manners, and opposite 
commercial interests. The Dutch were rigid Galvinists, the 
Belgians bigoted Catholics ; and hence the two peoples felt 
for each other all the bitterness of religious hate. In this 
state of things a desire had sprung up in Belgium for a union 
with Prance, where, under the reign of Charles X., the Catholic 
Church again flourished. The Belgians also complained that 
they were saddled with part of the burden of the enormous 
national debt of Holland, that they contributed to the build- 
ing of Dutch ships, the maintenance of Dutch dykes, and other 

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objects, from which they derived no benefit whateTer. Their 
discontent was increased by the unpopular Goyemment of 
King William I., who treated Belgium like a conquered 
Biota at Already before the breaking out of the French Beyolution 

®"'*^^* symptoms of insurrection had appeared at Brussels, on occasion 
of the prosecution of Be Potter, a political writer, towards 
the end of 1828. A serious riot had also occurred at the 
Catholic College of Louvain, in February, 1830. After the 
disturbances in France William I. thought it prudent to make 
some concessions to the Belgians, but they failed to give 
satisfaction, On the night of August 25th the revolt broke 
out at Brussels. The opera of the Muette de Partid, which 
turns on the revolt of Masaniello, was represented that evening, 
the incidents of which were vociferously applauded. After 
the performance the mob broke into, plundered, and even 
burnt the houses of some of the more unpopular Ministers, 
thechief of whomwasYanMaanen. Next day the old Brabant 
colours, red, orange, and black, were hoisted on the Town 
House. The troops were now called out, but having no orders, 
did not act with decision, and were driven back into their 
barracks. From this period the insurrection ran its natural 
course almost without opposition. A burgher-guard was 
formed, and succeeded in keeping down the mob, but not 
without some bloodshed. On the 28th of August forty of the 
principal inhabitants of Brussels assembled, and having chosen 
Baron Secus as their President, and the advocate Van de 
Weyer as Secretary, despatched a deputation to the Hague, to 
request the King to make the concessions which had been so 
long desired. But William I. was not disposed to give way. 
He employed his eldest son to soothe the people with promises, 
whilst his brother, Prince Frederick, assembled at Vilvorde 
as many troops as possible. On the 31st the two Princes 
required the burgher-guard of Brussels to strike the national 
colours, and restore the custody of the city to the King's troops. 
This demand increased the prevailing irritation. The example 
of the capital had spread into the provinces. At Yerviers 
dreadful excesses were committed, and many labourers re- 
paired to Brussels, to settle the question in the capital On 
the night of September 1st barricades were thrown up in the 
streets to prevent the entrance of troops. The Prince of 
Orange now came to Brussels alone, stepped into the midst of 

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the armed masses, and promised that a Commission should 
be immediately appointed, to consult with himself about the 
measures to be adopted. But this proceeding gave no satis- 
faction, and a proclamation issued by the Commission was 
publicly burnt. The Prince now proposed a legislative and 
administrative separation of Belgium from Holland ; in short, 
merely a union under the same crown. This concession ap« 
peared to give universal satisfaction ; it was even supported 
by the people of Amsterdam; but the King would decide 
nothing till the meeting of the States-General, which were to 
assemble at the Hague, September 13th. But when the 
States met nothing was done. The King even recalled Yan 
Maanen, who had been dismissed, and the Belgians began to 
suspect that they had been deceived. 

The revolt now assumed a more democratic and violent Open 
form. The impulse came from Liege. On September 15th "^**^* 
the Li%eois rose, and after dispersing the burgher-guard, 
drove out the King's troops. The boldest of these insurgents 
then proceeded to Brussels, where they led an attack on the 
Dutch troops. On September 20th they headed the people 
in disarming the National Guard ; after which all the depots 
of arms were seized, the public buildings occupied, the public 
boards cashiered, and a Provisional Government was estab- 
lished, of which De Potter, who was then at Paris, was ap- 
pointed the head. On September 28rd Prince Frederick 
attacked Brussels with 6,000 or 7,000 men; but though he 
penetrated into the town and occupied the upper part of it, as 
the Bue Boyale, the Park, etc., he found that he was not strong 
enough to maintain those positions, and on the night of the 
26th he was compelled to retire. 

In these and the following days the Dutch troops were Belgium 
driven from most of the towns of Belgium, while the Belgian SSotm?^ 
soldiery declared for the national cause. Antwerp, Maestricht, ent, isao. 
Mechlm, Dendermonde, and the citadel of Ghent alone re- 
mained in the hands of the Dutch. Now, when it was too 
late, the States-General at the Hague sanctioned by a large ma- 
jority the legislative and administrative separation of HoUand 
and Belgium, September 29th. But the victorious Belgians 
refused to listen to anv terms. De Potter had arriv^ in 
Brussels, and assumed the direction of the Provisional Govern- 
ment, which on October 5th proclaimed the independence of 
Belgium, appointed a Commission to draw up a Constitution, 

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convoked a National Congress at Brussels, and annulled what- 
ever the Belgian Deputies had done in the 8tates-Gteneral at 
the Hague without the knowledge of the Provisional Govern- 
ment. On the 9th the House of Orange-Nassau was declared 
to have forfeited, by its late proceedings, all its claims on 
Belgium; and the Prince of Orange, who had proclaimed 
himself the head of the separated Belgian administration, was 
pronounced to have no right to the Begencj, unless he should 
be elected by the National Congress. In the elections for that 
assembly, however, the moderate party prevailed; even De 
Potter himself was not returned ; and the Prince of Orange, 
encouraged by this circumstance, issued another proclamation, 
October 16th, in which, as if resolved to carry out the revolu- 
tion in spite of his father, he recognized the independence of 
Belgium, and, as he expressed it, " placed himself at the head 
of the movement." But the Provisional Government answered 
this appeal by discommending him to interfere no further in 
their affairs. 

It was the wish of the Belgian liberals to be united to France. 
But such a union was displeasing to the European Powers ; 
and Louis Philippe, whose own usurpation was hardly yet 
consolidated, ventured not to offend them by encouraging the 
Belgian revolution. He procured the recognition of some of 
the Powers by engaging neither to suffer a republic in Belgium 
nor to unite that country with France ; a proposition which 
had been made to him by the Belgians tlu*ough COndebien. 
But at the same time he bade the Oreat Powers remark that 
they must abstain from undertaking anything against Belgian 
independence, or that he should not be able to restrain the 
public opinion of France. Bussia was at first inclined to 
support King William ; but all at length concurred in the 
views of Louis PhDippe, and the principle of non-intervention 
was for the first time unanimously recognized. A conference 
of ministers, with regard to Belgian affairs, was opened at 
London, November 4th, composed of Talleyrand, Lord Aber- 
deen, Prince Esterhazy, Yon Bulow, and Count Mutussze- 
„ The London Congress recognized the Indepbndbnce of 

Jl^^led* Bbloittm, December 30th. This act, and the recognition of 
by tfie Five Louis Philippe, were the first blows struck at the principle of 
legitimacy asserted by the Holy Alliance, and maintained at 
all preceding conferences since the Congress of Vienna. In 

Belgian In- 


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both these acts Great Britain took the lead. The Belgian 
National Congress, which had been opened at Bmssdbs Nov* 
ember 10th, determined that it must proceed hand in hand 
with the Congress in London. Bnt William I. was not in- 
clined to relinquish what he could hold; consequentlj the 
war went on, and while the Congresses were sitting several 
battles occurred in the neighbourhood of Maestricht and in 
the Duchy of Luxembourg. The London Congress assigned to 
Holland the limits which it had possessed in 1790, with the 
addition of Luxembourg, and it imposed upon Belgium part 
of the Dutch debt. With this arrangement King William 
declared himself satisfied; but the Brussels Congress pro- 
tested against it, February 1st, 1831 ; and William, therefore, 
continued to retain possession of Antwerp. 

The Belgian Congress voted a new Constitution February Leopold i. 
7th, which was to consist of a king and two representative ^^um. 
chambers. The choice of a sovereign occasioned some diffi- 
culty. Among the candidates named were the Prince of 
Orange, the Duke of Nemours, and the Duke of Leucbten- 
berg. The London Conference proposed Prince Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg, who was at length accepted by the Brussels 
Congress, June 4th, 1831. Leopold made his solemn entry 
into Brussels, July 21st, and took the oath to the new Con- 
stitution. But he was not to enjoy his new dignity without 
dispute. Xing William had silently collected a large army, 
with which the Prince of Orange suddenly entered Belgium 
while Leopold was absent on a tour in the provinces. The Attack by 
Belgian Provisional Oovemment, confident that the great h<>"*"<*- 
Powers would not suffer the armistice to be broken, had ne- 
glected the army, and the mob who had been victorious in the 
towns were no match for disciplined troops in the open field. 
The Prince of Orange proclaimed that he came not to conquer 
Belgium, but only to obtain more advantageous conditions. 
Advancing upon Li^, he defeated the Belgians under General 
Niellon at Tumhout, August 3rd, and on the 8th overthrew, 
near Hasselt, General Daine and the larger portion of the 
Belgian army. A Dutch division proceeded to Antwerp to 
reii^oroe General Chass^, repulsed the Belgians imder General 
Tiecke, in whose camp Leopold was, and, breaking down the 
dykes, laid a large portion of Flanders under water. Duke 
Bernhardt of Saxe- Weimar, whom Eing William had ap- 
pointed Governor of Luxembourg, now threw himself between 

VI, E 

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Louvain and Brussels, thus cutidng off Leopold from Ids 
oapital* while the Prince of Orange was advancing against 
him with superior forces. The two rivals met at Tirlemont, 
August 11th. A great part of Leopold's army was composed 
of men in blouses, who fled at the first onset. A few companies 
of the Brussels National Ouard ventured to oppose the Butch, 
but were too weak, and the whole army fled in disorder to 
Louvain. That place surrendered at the first summons of the 
Butch, but Leopold escaped to Mechlin. 
Tiie English Meanwhile a French army of 50,000 men, under Marshal 
imd French (j^jaird, who was accompanied by Louis Philippe's two eldest 
poid. sons, entered Belgium, to which step Talleyrand had obtained 

the consent of the English Ministry. An English fleet under 
Admiral Codrington also appeared in the Scheldt. B^liard 
and Adair, the French and English negodators, proceeded to 
the Butch camp, when the Prince of Orange ccmsented to an 
armistice, and the forces on all sides retired to their former 
positions, August 12th. The Butch, by this demonstration, 
and through Bussian influence, succeeded in obtaining more 
&kvoxurable conditions. It was decided that Belgium should 
cede part of Limburg, as well as Luxembourg, and take upon 
itself yearly 8,400,000 guilders of the Butch debt. ISmg 
William, however, would not consent to the new articles, in 
the hope that, when the Ozar had put down the revolution in 
Poland, he should be assisted by Bussia, as well as by the 
German Powers. But in this expectation he was disappointed. 
sie«e of In May, 1832, King Leopold proceeded to France, and in an 

Antwerp, interview with Louis Philippe at Compiigne, obtained the 
hand of his eldest daughter, Louisa. The marriage was cele- 
brated in the following August, when Leopold assured the 
Belgians that his children should be educated in the Catholic 
foith. As the King of the Netherlands had not yet consented 
to the conditions proposed, an embargo was laid upon Butch 
vessels in England, and a French army was set in motion to 
drive the Butch from Antwerp. WilHam I. declared tlutt he 
would yield only to force, and an English fleet under Admiral 
Malcolm began to blockade the Butch coast early in November, 
and about the middle of that month the French laid siege to 
Antwerp. Ohass^ made a brave defence, and did not surrender 
till the citadel was reduced to a heap of rubbish, Becember 
23rd. Even then William refused to accept the capitulation, 
or to abandon the forts Lillo and Liefkenshoek. At length, 

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on May 21st, 1833, a preliminary treaty was signed ; but it 
was not till January 22nd, 1839, that Holland consented, by 
a definitive treaty, to accept tbe London Protocol ! 

The Bussian autocrat, the main prop of legitimacy in Europe, Bi/dag in 
found himself called upon to support his own authority ^^^^^ 
at home. At the news of the outbreak in France Nicholas 
contemplated suppressing it by force, and the Eussian officers 
talked familiarly of a promenade to Paris. But the irritation 
of the Tsar was somewhat soothed by the elevation of Louis 
Philippe to a constitutional throne, and his attention was soon 
after Averted from the affairs of France by a revolt among his 
Polish subjects. In 1829 Nicholas had received the crown of 
Poland at Warsaw. All had then appeared tranquil in that 
subject kingdom, but the elements of discontent lay festering 
under the surface. Society still consisted only of a proud and 
restless nobility and a peasantry of slaves ; nor had the causes 
of Poland's former misfortunes been removed by the Consti- 
tution given to it by the Emperor Alexander after the model 
of the French Charter. The misery of the Poles was increased 
by the harshness of the Qrand Buke Constantino's government, 
who ruled like a Tartar Prince, though he was suspected of 
being destitute of physical as weU as moral courage. The Re- 
volution, which, like the rest in Europe about this time, had 
its first impulse from the dethronement of Charles X. in France, 
began by a conspiracy of some young Polish students and sub- 
alterns to seize Constantino at the Belvedere, a residence of 
the Prince's in the vicinity of Warsaw ; when it was expected 
that the Polish troops in that city, who numbered 10,000 men, 
would rise and drive out the Bussian garrison of 7,000. The 
execution of this plan was prematurely hastened by a suspicion 
that it had been discovered, since the national troops had been 
Withdrawn from Galicia and the Grand Duchy of Posen, and 
their place supplied by Austrians and Prussians. In the dusk 
of evening, on November 29th, 1830, twenty young men pro- 
ceeded to the Belvedere, where they killed General G^ndre and 
the Vice-president Lubowicski ; but Constantino escaped by 
concealing himself in a garret. Meanwhile the citizens of 
Warsaw had risen en masse^ armed themselves at the arsenal, 
and seized many of the Bussian officers in the theatre : the 
Polish soldiers luid joined the people, and murdered General 
Stanislaus Potocki, and others of their officers who refused to 
renom^ce their allegiance. The defection of the Polish soldiery 

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gave great strengUi to the movement, and the insurrection 
was now joined by many persons of distinction. After some 
deliberation it had been resolved to confine the revolt to the 
Bossian provinces of Poland, or Lithuania, Yolhynia and Fo- 
dolia, in order to avoid the hostility of Austria and Prussia. 
General Chlopicki, who had distinguished himself in the wars 
of Napoleon, assumed the chief command, and eventually a 
sort of absolute dictatorship. He was supported, among others, 
by Prince Lubecki, Professor Lelewel, Count Ostrowski, and 
Prince Adam Czartoryski. The last, a descendant of the an- 
cient Princes of Lithuania, and related to the Bussian Im- 
perial Family, had been a favourite of the Emperor Alexander 
and the Poles, in case of success, had marked him out for 
their future King. Constantino retired with the troops which 
remained faithful to him to a village within a mile or two of 
Warsaw. Here he permitted the Polish part of his force to 
join, if they wished, their brethren in Warsaw, and with only 
6,000 Bussians retreated towards Yolhynia. He had referred 
to the Imperial Court a deputation which waited upon him 
with a statement of their claims and grievances ; but Nicholas 
would hear of nothing but unconditional submission, and early 
in 1831, a large Bussian army, commanded by Biebitsch, pre- 
pared to reduce the Poles to obedience. At the command of 
the Emperor, Chlopicki laid down his dictatorship in January ; 
but the Poles headed by Czartoryski, pursued the insurrection 
more vigorously than ever. Induce Badzdvill was now ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of theirf orcesin place of ChlopicM. 
Diebitsch, having issued a proclamation wMch left the Poles 
no choice between slavish submission or destruction, the Diet 
declared, January 25th, that Nicholas had forfeited the Polish 
crown ; and they prepared to support their resolution by all 
the means in their power. The army was raised to between 
50,000 and 60,000 men; but a great portion of them was 
armed only with scythes. Negotiations were entered into 
with foreign Powers ; and in order to conciliate them, it was 
resolved, February 3rd, that Poland should be governed by a 
constitutional monarchy. But the Poles were disappointed in 
their hopes of foreign support. Austria and Prussia assured 
the Tsar that they would not countenance the rebellion, and 
that they would join their arms with his if it extended to their 
own Provinces. Austria, however, from dread of Bussia, 
would willingly have seen an independent Polish Kingdom, 

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and offered to sacrifice Galida for that purpose, provided a 
Eong should be chosen from the House of Austria, and France 
and England shoidd concur. Lord Palmerston, however, de- 
clined, and was followed by France. Louis Philippe only used 
the Polish insurrection to induce Nicholas to recognize his own 
accession and the independence of Belgium, while England 
and Austria afforded the Poles no substantial aid. 

Diebitsch, who had collected an army of 114,000 men, with Poland a 
836 guns, at Bialystok and Grodno, crossed the PoUsh frontier j^rinoe. 
February 5th. We cannot enter into the details of the insur- 
rectionary war. The campaign was marked by several desper- 
ate battles fought with varying success ; but at length the 
Poles, though aided by insurrections in Podolia, the Ukraine, 
and Lithuania, were compelled to yield, after an heroic defence, 
to superior numbers and discipline. The cholera had ravaged 
the armies of both sides. Diebitsch died of it June 10th, and 
a few weeks afterwards the Grand Duke Constantino, at 
Witebsk. Warsaw surrendered September 8th, to Paskiewitsch, 
who had succeeded Diebitsch in the command, and on the 28th 
of the same month, the Bussian General Biidiger entered 
Oraoow. On the approach of the Bussians, the mob at Warsaw, 
like that at Paris on the advance of the Duke of Brunswick, 
forced their way into the Palace and compelled a change of 
government, then broke into the state prisons and committed 
an indiscriminate massacre. The PoUsh divisions in the pro- 
vinces were speedily dispersed, and before the end of autumn 
the insurrection was entirely quelled. Paskiewitsch, who was 
made Prince and Governor of Warsaw, re-established the 
Bussian regimen. An amnesty was indeed granted Novem- 
ber 1st, but with so many exceptions that hardly anybody was 
safe. Paskiewitsch directed his efforts to abolish the nation- 
ality of Poland, and to reduce it as much as possible to a 
Bussian Province. The University of Warsaw was suppressed, 
the archives, libraries, scientific collections, etc., were removed 
to St. Petersburg, the Polish uniform and colours were abol- 
ished, and the Polish soldiery incorporated in Bussian regi- 
ments. Prince Badzivill and other leading Poles were relegated 
to the interior of the Empire, and it is computed that in 1832, 
80,000 Poles were sent into Siberia. Polish children were 
snatched from their parents and carried into what are caUed 
the military colonies of Bussia; the Boman CathoUc Church 
was persecuted agreeably to the Tsar^s GrsBco-Bussian system ; 

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and on February 26th, 1832, Poland was declared a Russian 
nisiixrao- Even the inert mass of the German Confederation was 

stirred by tiie French Bevolntion of 1830. The most charac- 
teristic trait of Carman history at this period is that the so- 
called constitutions moulded on the French Charter, which 
had been bestowed on some of the minor States, were estab- 
lished by Russian influence. But Russia had set her &ce 
against a Prussian Constitution. The establishment of a 
ZoUverein, or customs union, between Bavaria and Wurtem- 
berg, subsequently adopted by other German States, seemed 
a step towards German unity.^ But the partial revolutions 
which occurred in Germany in 1830, were more calculated to 
confirm the ancient state of things than to lead to such a con- 
summation. In Saxony, the old King, Frederick Augustus, 
had died in May, 1827, and had been succeeded by his brother 
Anthony. No line of Princes was more bigoted to the old order 
of things than the House of Wettin ; and the circumstance 
that while the royal i^mily professed the Roman Catholic 
religion, their subjects were Protestants, augmented the danger 
of collision. In June, 1830, a few days before the breaking 
out of the French Revolution, the citizens of Dresden and the 
University of Leipsic had wished to celebrate the Jubilee of 
the Augsburg Confession ; but the demonstration was sup- 
pressed in order not to give offence to the Court. This pro- 
ceeding occasioned disturbances which had not been quelled 
when the news of the French Revolution arrived in Saxony. 
Serious riots ensued both in Leipsic and Dresden, in which 
latter capital the Council House and police buildings were 
burnt. In order to allay the storm King Anthony found him- 
self compelled to adopt his son, Frederick Augustus, who was 
very popular, as co-regent, to dismiss his Minister, Einsiedel, 
and to make some improvements in the Constitution. Insur- 
rections also broke out in Brunswick, where the tyrannical 
Duke Charles was deposed in favour of his brother William ; 
and in electoral Hesse, where William IL abdicated in favour 
of his son, Frederick William. Disturbances likewise occurred 
in Hesse Darmstadt, Baden, and other minor States, as well 
as in Switzerland, where reforms were effected in several can- 
tons. Prussia and Austria proper were little affected by the 

^ Treitschke, Deutteke Gewhichteim neungeknten JcthrhunderL 

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French Beyolution of 1830. But it gave axL impnlse to the Kocumth in 
awakening nationality of the Hungarians. When in November, ^"*«*^' 
1830, the Emperor Francis caused his son Ferdinand to be 
crowned King of Hungary, the Diet made much larger de- 
mands than it had ever done before : namely, that the Magyar 
tongue should in future be the official one instead of Latin ; 
that Magyars only should be appointed to commands in Hun- 
garian regiments, etc. The two Tables, that is, the upper and 
lower Houses of the Diet, or the Magnates and the States, now 
introduced the use of the Magyar language in their debates. 
In consequence of these proceedings the Diet was not again 
assembled till 1832, when Louis Kossuth first appeared as the 
ahleg(xt, or proxy of an absent noble. 

After the overthrow of Charles X., Mina, Valdez, and Spain, 
hundreds of Spanish liberals who had sought refuge in 
France, made an irruption into Spain. Louis Philippe at 
first supported them. He assured Lafayette, who took a 
great interest in their success, of his i^vourable views towards 
them, and even gave him money in support of their cause. 
But, as in the case of Belgium and Poland, his interest in 
their success only extended so far as it might affect his own 
political interests, and he treacherously abandoned them to 
their fate as soon as Ferdinand YII. acknowledged his djmasty . 
The Minister Mol^ had warned the Spanish emigrants of their 
danger. They were already on the frontier when Louis Philippe 
sent orders to disarm them . They preferred, however, to enter 
Spain, but were speedily defeated at every point by superior 
forces. It was with the greatest difficulty that Mina, after 
wandering several days in the mountains, succeeded in escaping 
back to France. Italy was not at this time disturbed, though Italy, 
insurrections, which we shall rel ate f urther on, broke out in 
the following year. Pope Pius VlL. had, in 1823, been suc- 
ceeded by the Cardinal della Genga, an old man of seventy- 
four, who, as Leo XTT., ruled severely and kept down the 
Carbona/ri, On his death, in 1829, Cardinal Castiglione was 
elected to the vacant chair as Pope Pius YIII. 

The reign of Louis Philippe, the "Citizen King," was character 
without any fixed principles, and only a continued system of p^^'g 
trimming, both in foreign and domestic policy. His first reign. 
Ministry, chosen from among the party which had triumphed 
in the " great week," consisted of Bupont de I'Eure, Laifitte, 
Gerard, Mol^, Guizot, Br<^lie, Louis, S^bastiani, Casimir 

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P&rier, and Dupin. Bignon* Napoleon's celebrated secretaxy, 
had also a place in it, but without a portfolio. Four of 
Charles X/s Ministers, PoUgnac, Pejronnet, Guemon de 
Banville, and Chantelanze, had been arrested, and the popu- 
lace clamoured loudlj for their death. They were to be ar- 
raigned before the peers at the Luxembourg, December 15th, 
and the people threatened to enforce their execution. To 
avert disturbances, the King, under pretence of making pre- 
parations against foreign Powers, coloured by a fsdae rumour 
that Russia and Prussia were to invade France, appointed 
Marshal Soult Minister-at-War, and directed him to oi^anize 
a large force. The unpopularity, however, of acting against 
the people was left in the first instance to the National G-uard 
under La&iyette, who appeared on the side of order, defended 
the Luxembourg against the attacks of the mob, and captured 
Diiminaiof some 400 of their more turbulent leaders. Lafayette having 
Lafayette. ^^^ rendered himself unpopular, Louis Philippe found him- 
self strong enough, with the support of Soult, to dismiss him 
from the command of the National G-uard, and at the same 
time to disband the artUlery, who had shown a disposition to 
fraternize with the mob. Dupont de FEure, fearing some 
similar trick, resigned, and was succeeded as head of the 
Ministry by Lafitte. The ex-Ministers of Charles X. were 
condemned to perpetual imprisonment, with loss of rank and 
civil rights. 
]>(mieetic Louis Philippe's domestic policy was necessarily in some 
£j3Smi. degree reactionary, because the principles on which he had 
ippe. accepted the throne were untenable. Lafitte was dismissed 

in March, 1831, and Casimir P^rier then became Prime 
Minister, who immediately caused several noted Republicans 
to be arrested. Li his foreign policy, Louis Philippe en- 
deavoured to acquire a little popularity without risking a 
breach with the great Powers. Thus in July, 1831, he des- 
patched a naval expedition against Dom Miguel, in order to 
influence the elections then pending by the eclat of an easy 
victory. But as at the same time Poland was left unaided in 
the midst of her troubles, this manoeuvre deceived nobody. 
The new Qovemment was at once exposed to the intrigues 
and insurrections of the Carlists and of the Republicans. 
Serious riots occurred at Lyons, Grenoble, and other places 
in the south of France. Republican demonstrations having 
been made at Paris on the occasion of General Lamarque's 

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funeral, June Ist, 1832, when barricades were erected and 
several persons killed, Paris was declared in a state of siege, 
by the advice, it is said, of M. Thiers. The Polytechnic School 
was now dissolved, and all suspected persons arrested, in- 
cluding the leaders of the legitimists, Chateaubriand, Fitz« 
James, and Hyde de Neuville ; but these last were speedily 
liberated. The Duchess of Bcnrri, after attempting an insur- The 
rection in Provence in the spring of the year, passed through BenSf"^ 
France to La Vendue, and endeavoured to raise the people in 
favour of her son the Duke of Bordeaux, or Henry V. Some 
conflicts ensued between the insurgents and the roval troops ; 
but the contest soon appeared hopeless, and the Duchess re- 
tired to Nantes. Here she was betrayed by one Deutz, a 
Oerman Jew. A daughter was bom at Blaye, May IQth, 
1833, when she affirmed that Count Luchesi Palli was the 
husband to whom she had been secretly united. This declara- 
tion deprived her of any daugerous influence, and Louis 
Philippe liberated her, June 8th, when she proceeded to 
Palermo. In the previous September Charles X. and his 
family had quitted Holyrood to take up his residence at 
Prague. This change was attributed to various motives. 
Some said that Charles was pursued by creditors, others that 
Mettemich wished to have the Duke of Bordeaux as a pledge 
against the French usurper. Another claimant of the Frendi 
throne, the Duke de Beichstadt, had been removed by death 
July 22nd, 1832. 

Fresh insurrections occurred at Lyons in the spring of 1834, Fiescbi's 
which were not suppressed without considerable bloodshed, ms^chine. 
They were instigated by certain secret political societies, 
several of the leaders of which were brought to trial in May, 
1835, and condemned to imprisonment or transportation. Chi 
the 28th of July this year, on the celebration of the fifth 
anniversary of the July revolution, a diabolicalattemptwas.made 
on the King's life by a wretch named Fieschi, who from the 
window of a small house on the Boulevard du Temple, dis- 
charged at Louis Philippe, while passing, what was called an 
** infernal machine,*' consisting of about a hundred gun-barrels 
fixed on a frame, and fired simultaneously by means of a train 
of gunpowder. Fortunately the King escaped unhurt, but 
great znany of his suite were either killed or wounded. Fieschi 
was arrested and guillotined. This attempt occasioned what 
were called the *' Laws of September," to expedite the pro- 

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ceedings of the tribunals in cases of rebellion, and to curb the 
liberty of the press. M. Thiers, now Minister of the Interior, 
took a principal share in these proceedings, and scrupled not, 
in spite of the liberal doctrines which he so loudly professed 
when in opposition, to resort when in office to the most abso- 
lute and tyrannical measures. M. G-uizot, who was his col- 
league in the Soult Ministry, was distinguished from his rival 
by a more honourable and consistent conduct. In the follow- 
ing February M. Thiers became President of the Council and 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs. But in consequence of his 
views on the Spanish question his Ministry was dissolved 
after an existence of abput half a year ; when Count Mol^ 
became President, and M. Guizot was appointed Minister of 
Public Instruction. In June, 1836, another abortive attempt 
was made on the King's life by a workman named Alibaud. 
In the same year Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the 
future Emperor of the French, undertook his extraordinary 
and rash conspiracy at Strassbui^; but before relating his 
attempt we will briefly advert to the affairs of Italy, where 
this Prince had already made himself conspicuous by his 
participation in revolutionary movements. 
Distarb- Symptoms of revolt first showed themselves in the Italian 

JSS^ *" States after the death of Pope Pius VIIL in 1831, and during 
the conclave which elected Cardinal Capillari to the vacant 
chair, with the title of Gregory XVI., Francis, Duke of Modena, 
detested for his absolutism and intolerance, who is thought to 
have entertained the ambitious project of making himself 
King of Central Italy, was driven out by his subjects, and a 
Provisional Government established (February, 1831). Sin- 
gularly enough, this revolt was led by Menotti, the head of 
the Modenese police, and a favourite of the Duke. Bologna 
next felt the shock, where the Papal Pro-legate was in Hke 
manner expelled, and a Provisional Government erected. In 
the same month the Archduchess Maria Louisa, widow of 
Napoleon, was driven from her Duchy of Parma. Similar 
scenes occurred at Ferrara, Ancona, and Perugia. Louis 
Napoleon and Charles Louis Napoleon, the sons of Louis 
Bonaparte King of Holland, were at this time residing at 
Florence, whence they corresponded with Menotti, the leader 
of the Modenese revolution. When the insurrection broke 
out in the Papal States the two brothers joined the insur- 
gents at Spoleto. 

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The Advocate Yicini opened at Bologna, February 26th, Italian 
what was called an Italian National Congress, with the avowed oo^Sm. 
purpose of establishing the unity of Italy; and General 
Zucchi, who had served under Napoleon, but who had sub- 
sequently entered the Austrian service, endeavoured to organize 
a revolutionary army. But the Austrians put down these 
attempts with unwonted promptitude. An Austrian army 
under General Frimont entered the disturbed districts early 
in March, when the insurgents fled in all directions. After 
some feeble attempts at resistance, Zucchi was defeated, 
captured, and thrown into an Austrian dungeon, and the 
Austrians entered Bologna March 21st. Spoleto capitulated 
on the 30th, and the insurrection was at an end. "me elder 
of the two sons of Louis Bonaparte died at Forli, during the 
riots, March 17th. The younger, Charles Louis Napoleon, 
escaped disguised as a servant in the retinue of his mother, 
Hortense, whose anxiety for the safety of her sons had brought 
her to Spoleto. 

The Italians relied without any solid grounds on the aid of Louis 
France. Louis Philippe had no idea of entering into a war ^d*^y. 
with Austria for Italian liberty, though public opinion in 
France compelled him to some demonstrations on that side. 
Hence he exhorted the Pope to moderation, and on July 5th 
Gregory XYL published an edict promising some reforms in 
the administration. These, however, did not satisfy the 
Italian people. They were encouraged by the opinion that 
the Austrians, who, with the exception of the citadel of 
Ferrara, had evacuated all the places they had entered, feared 
the intervention of the French, and the insurrection was re- 
sumed. At a meeting held at Bologna it was determined to 
convoke in that town another National Congress on January 
5th, 1832. The Pope assembled his troops at Bimini and 
Ferrara. The National Guard of Bologna, under General 
Patuzzi, marched against them, but were defeated after a 
short combat at Cesena, January 20th. The Papal army, 
composed in a great part of bandits, had committed such dis- 
orders and cruelties, that Cardinal Albani, the Pope's repre- 
sentative, was ashamed to lead them against Bologna ; and 
the Austrians were therefore called in once more. But so 
great was the clamour of the French liberals at this invasion, 
that Louis Philippe was compelled to make a demonstration 
by taking possession of Ancona. The act, however, was almost 

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immediatelj disavowed, and on Maj 2nd the Papal troops 
were admitted into that place. 
Churies Neither Naples nor Sardinia was disturbed by these occur- 

san^ia. rences. The old King, Ferdinand lY. of Naples, who after 
his restoration had assumed the title of " Ferdinand I., King 
of the Two Sicilies/' had died January 4th, 1825, and was 
succeeded hj his son, Francis I. The latter Sovereign died in 
November, 1830. His son and successor, Ferdinand 11., had 
rendered himself popular hj introducing some reforms into 
the administration, and hj liberating political prisoners. In 
Sardinia, Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, had succeeded 
to the crown on the death of Charles Felix in April, 1831. 
The situation of this Prince between Austria, which he feared, 
and the liberals, whom he had betrayed, was somewhat critical; 
but on the whole he inclined to the liberal side, where his 
interests seemed to lie. 
Prince After his flight from Italy, Prince Napoleon had for the 

si^iwgf most part lived with his mother, Queen Hortense, at her 
ch&teau of Arenenberg in the Thurgau. While residing in 
Switzerland he employed himself in studying the science of 
artillery in the school of Thun, under the tuition of Duf ours. 
At this period his character seemed to be earnest and thought- 
ful, though he was not averse to the pleasures of youth. He 
aspired to a literary reputation, and composed at this time 
" Political Dreams," " Bemarks on the PoUtical and Military 
Condition of Switzerland," and a ** Handbook of the Science 
of Artillery." The unpopularity which Louis Philippe had 
incurred suggested to him an attempt on the Crown of France. 
Hence his abortive conspiracy of Strassburg in 1836 ; the best 
excuse for which is, that he merely wished to attract the notice 
of the world, and to exhibit himself as a leader to those who 
desired the downfall of Louis Philippe. After some prepara- 
tions at Strassburg, through Colonel Yaudray and o^ers, he 
caused himself, on the morning of October 30th, to be pro- 
claimed Emperor, when he was joined by a small portion of 
the troops. The greater part, however, remained faithful to 
the King ; and the Prince and his fellow conspirators were 
arrested and conducted to Paris. Louis Philippe was sur- 
prised and embarrassed by this strange event ; but he im- 
mediately dismissed the Prince, thinlang that the ridicule 
which attached to so rash and inconsiderate an enterprise 
sufficed to render him harmless. Prince Napoleon now pro- 

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ceeded to America ; but alarmed at the illness of his mother, 
returned to Switzerland the following year by way of 
England. His Strassburg accomplices were acquitted at the 
assizes in January, 1837, an event which strengthened the 
opposition by manifesting the disposition of the people. After 
the death of Queen Hortense, October 5th, Louis Philippe 
called upon the Swiss to expel the Prince from their terri- 
tories, who, however, demurred to comply, as Napoleon 
had been made an honorary citizen of the Thurgau. But he 
voluntarily relinquished a privilege which might tell against 
his claims to the French Crown, declared tha.t he was, and 
would remain, a Frenchman, and in the autumn of 1838 he 
took up his residence in London. 

The discovery of Louis Philippe's insatiable avarice increased Avaitoe 
his unpopularity. To his inheritance, the richest in France, he Phmppe. 
had added all the possessions of Charles X. and Cond^ ; he had 
entered into partnership with the Bothschilds, and not content 
with all his wealth, he solicited marriage portions for his 
children, and even tried to augment them by false representa- 
tions. Thus on the marriage of the Duke of Nemours to the 
Princess Victoria of Coburg, early in 1837, Louis Philippe 
destined for him a miUion francs besides the domain of 
Bambomllet ; but the Chamber demurred, and it turned out 
on inquiry that Bambouillet had been valued much too low. 
Marriage settlements were also procured for the Duke of 
Orleans, who espoused a Mecklenburg Princess, May 30th, 
and for the Queen of the Belgians. Towards the end of 1837 
the reign of Louis Philippe obtained a little military glory by 
the conquest of Constantine, taken by storm by General 
Bamremont October 13th. In the winter a naval expedition 
was despatched to Hayti, which compelled the negro govern- 
ment of that island to pay a compensation of sixty million 
francs to the expelled planters. 

Towards the end of 1838 the leaders of three of the four Ministi 
parties into which the Chamber was divided, namely, Thiers, ^*®'*» 
Guizot, and Odillon Barrot, the respe^ive heads of the centre 
gauche^ tbe cefntre droit, and the cote gauche, having formed a 
coalitioii, the Mol^ Ministry was overthrown early in the 
following year by an adverse address moved and carried by 
M. Thiers. Louis Philippe now wished Marshal Soult to 
conduct the Government; but as M. Thiers, whose services 
the Marshal considered indispensable, appeared to set too 

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much value on them, the arrangements went off, and the 
Duke of Montebello, son of Marshal Lannes, became Prime 
Minister. But his hold of power was short. The Republicans 
of the secret society called la eociete des families, led by Blanqui 
and Barb^s, succeeded, May 12th, in seizing the Hotel de Yille, 
throwing up barricades, etc. They were soon put down ; but 
their attempt induced Soult, ever ready to throw his sword 
into the scale of danger, to accept the office of Prime Minister. 
Early in 1840, however, the €h)vemment was again overthrown 
by Thiers on the question of the marriage-settlement of 
the Duke of Nemours, and Louis Philippe found himself 
compelled to place that intriguer at the head of the Ministry. 
M. Q-uizot was now appointed Ambassador at the Court of 
St. James's. But the Eastern question, which nearly involved 
France and England in a war, soon proved &.tal to the Ministry 
of Thiers.^ 
The East- Mehemet Ali, not content with the Isle of Gandia in 
eraqaes- reward of his services to the Sultan in Q-reece, had thrown a 
covetous eye on Syria. The Porte seemed in no condition to 
defend that Province, and in the autumn of 1881, Mehemet, 
under pretence of punishing the Pasha of St. Jean d'Acre for 
some sdBEronts, despatched thither his son Ibrahim, with an 
army. Acre did not fall till May 27th, 1832. But Ibrahim 
had betrayed his real design by occupying a great part of the 
country. After the capture of Acre he proceeded to take 
Damascus and Tripoli ; and having defeated Hussein Pasha, 
July 7th, whom the Sultan had despatched against him with 
a large army, he entered Aleppo and Antioch. The G-rand 
Vizier, Redschid Pasha, who attempted to oppose his progress, 
was defeated and captured at Konieh, December 21st. 

The Sultan Mahmoud II., trembling for Oonstantinople 
itself, implored the aid of Russia, as well as of England and 
France. Nicholas having despatched a fleet to Oonstantinople, 
the French also sent one, but only to watch that of Russia. 
Ibrahim continuing to advance, and Mehemet Ali having 
refused French mediation, the Sultan had no alternative but 
to throw himself upon the protection of Russia. In April, 
1883, Nicholas sent 5,000 men to Scutari, while another 
Russian army of 80,000 crossed the Pruth. But an English 
fleet having appeared and joined the French, the Russians 

^ Mazade, Monsieur l%iers. 

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withdrew, and Mehemet submitted to mediation, by wbich 
Syria was assigned to him, to be held as a fief of the Porte. 
Mahmoud, indignant at being thus treated by the Western 
Powers, threw himself into the arms of Eussia, and by 
the Treaty of XJnkiar Skelessi, July 8th, 1833, agreed not 
to suffer any but Eussian ships to pass the Dardanelles. 
But on the protest of England and France, the treaty 
was subsequently modified in favour of those countries in 
January, 1834. 

The Porte, encouraged by England and Eussia, attempted 
in 1839 to recover Syria; but Ibrahim totally defeated the 
Turkish army at Nisib on the Euphrates, June 24th. Sultan 
Mahmoud, who had experienced little but misfortune during 
his reign, died a few days after (June 28th), leaving his 
empire to his son, Abdul Medjid, then only seventeen years 
of age, yet already enervated by premature enjoyment. The 
French now wished the Osmanli sceptre to be transferred to 
Mehemet Ali, as better qualified than Abdul for the difficult 
task of maintaining the integrity of the Turkish Empire ; but 
this proposition was opposed by England as well as Eussia. 
So strong was the opinion of the approaching fall of the ^|?*?JS 
House of Osman, that the Capudan Pasha, Achmet Fewzi, ** ™k**" • 
carried the Turkish fleet to Alexandria, and placed it at the 
disposal of Mehemet. The English Ministry now proposed to 
France to prevent any further extension of Mehemet's power, 
and to aid the Porte, though not in such a manner as to 
forward the views of Eussia. The French, however, took up 
the cause of Mehemet, and were for establishing him in the 
independent possession both of Egypt and Syria. Some warm 
diplomatic correspondence ensued ; till at length England per- 
suaded Eussia, Austria, and Prussia to join her in the Treaty 
of London, July 15th, 1840, by which both Syria and Candia 
were to be restored to the Porte. A small English and 
Austrian army was landed in Syria, and being joined by some 
Turks and Druses, defeated the hitherto victorious army of 
Ibrahim at Kaleb Medina, October 10th. Acre, bombarded 
by the English fleet under Admiral Stopford and Admiral 
Napier, surrendered November 4th, and Mehemet, seeing 
the impossibility of successful resistance, agreed to the 
provisions of the London Treaty, November 27th, and re- 
stored Candia and Syria, as well as the Turkish fleet, to 
the Porte. The young Sultan was after this mostly guided 

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by the oounsels of England, ablj conducted by Sir Stratford 
Canning, afterwards I^rd EedcHffe, her Ambassador at Con- 
LonjsNapo- This sijSair created great indignation in France, and rendered 
a^npt at *^® Thiers Ministry highly unpopular. A rupture with Eng- 
Boulogne, land seemed for some time imminent ; but Louis Philippe, as 
usual, only employed the conjuncture to promote his domestic 
interests, and under the alarm of a European war, carried the 
project for the fortification of Paris by a girdle of forts ; de- 
signed rather to keep down the populace within thaji to 
repel an enemy from without. Prince Napoleon had also 
seized the occasion to make another attempt on the Crown. 
Landing at Boulogne, August 4th, with a few followers, of 
whom Count Montholon was the most distinguished, he pro- 
claimed himself Emperor of the French, and named M. Thiers 
as his Minister. Being repulsed by the troops, he was nearly 
drowned in his attempt to escape by the upsetting of a boat, 
but was saved and captured. M. Berryer undertook his defence 
before the Chamber of Peers ; but he was condemned, and 
sentenced to imprisonment at Ham ; where he passed six 
years, for the most part spent in study and writing. 
The body of Another attempt on the King's life by an assassin named 
Sira^to'*^' I^r™^^s» October 17th, is said to have occasioned the dismissal 
Paris. of M. Thiers on the 29th. That minister had become so un- 

popular, and the state of French affairs was so discouraging, 
that a change of ministry was absolutely necessary. Marshal 
Soult now again became the nominal prime minister, but M. 
Guizot, to whom was intrusted the portfolio for foreign af&drs, 
exercised supreme influence in the cabinet. The transfer of 
the remains of Napoleon I. from St. Helena to Paris by the 
consent of England, served to heal the temporary breach of the 
entente cordiale between England and France. The body 
arrived at Paris December 15th, 1840, and was entombed with 
great solemnity at the Invalides. But so vivid a resuscitation 
of Napoleon's memory was not perhaps the discreetest act on 
the part of Louis Philippe. 
The M. Humann, the minister of finance, having in 1841 caused 

OordSoe. & new census of the people to be taken, in order to include 
persons who had hitherto escaped taxation, disturbances broke 
out in several parts of France, and even in Paris ; but the 
rioters were reduced to order, and M. Guizot proceeded against 
them witib severity. The death of Louis Philippe's eldest son. 

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the I>uke of Orleans, killed hj a fall from Ids carriage, June 
13tli, 1842, was a severe blow to the new dynasty. The Duke 
indeed left two sons, Louis Philippe, Count of Paris, and 
Bobert, Duke of Chartres; but the eldest was only in his 
fourth year, and thus the prospect was opened of a long mi- 
nority. The main spring of Louis Philippe's policy was the 
maintenance of peace, and especially the preservation of the 
entente eordiale with England ; a policy, however, which he 
sometimes pushed to a length which irritated the national 
feelings of the French, and rendered him unpopular. An in- 
stance of this sort occurred in the afiEair of Mr. Pritchard, an 
English missionary at Tahiti. Mr. Pritchard having been im- 
properly arrested in 1843 by the French captain D'Aubigny, 
the English Government made peremptory demands for satis- 
facti<m, which were granted by the Cabinet of the Tuileries. 
In so doing they only obeyed the dictates of justice and good 
sense ; but they offended the national vanity of the French 
and rendered M. Q-uizot's administration unpopular. In pur- 
suance of the same policy, Louis Philippe in the following 
year paid a visit to Queen Victoria in England, when he was 
invested with the Older of the Gurter. By these means the 
reign of Louis Philippe was passed in profound peace with re- 
gard to Europe ; though the military ardour of the French 
was at the same time gratified by battles and conquests in 
Africa. The French succeeded in establishing themselves at 
Algiers, where, under the auspices of Qeneial Bugeaud, a 
dreadful system of r<i»zias was inaugurated, and every sort of 
cruelty perpetrated on both sides. As Abd-el-Kader, the 
celebrated leader of the Arabs, supported himself against the 
French by the aid of the Maroquins, an expedition was under- 
taken f^ainst the Emperor of Morocco, who by the overthrow 
of his army at the battle of the Isly, August 14th, 1844, was 
compelled to sue for peace. For this exploit Bugeaud was re- 
warded with the marshal's baton. About the same time the 
Prince de Joinville with the French fleet attacked the town of 
Mogador, and compelled it to surrender. 

The canning of Louis Philippe sometimes outran his caution, spaniah 
In spite of ail his care, the affair of the Spanish marriages in ^"^^* 
1846 nearly led to a rupture with Great Britain. But before 
we relate that transaction it will be necessary to take a brief 
retrospect of Spanish history. 
After losing his first Sicilian wife, Ferdinand YII. had mar- 

VI. F 

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Vn., 1888. 

ried in 1816 his niece, Maria Isabel Francesca, second daugh- 
ter of the Ejng of Portugal, while his brother Don Carlos 
married the Hoard daughter. Maria died in a year or two, and 
in 1819 Ferdinand married a niece of the King of Saxony, who 
also died in 1829. Bj none of these three wives had he any 
issue. At the age of forty-six, and debilitated in constitution, 
he married for his fourth wife Maria Christina, daughter of 
Ferdinand IV. of Naples, and sister of the Duchess of Berri, 
and of Maria Carlotta, married to the Spanish Eang's youngest 
brother, Francisco. Three months after this marriage the new 
Queen appearing to be pregnant, Ferdinand published a 
PragnuUic Scmction abolishing the Salic law, March 29th, 
1830. Ferdinand's brothers, Carlos and Francisco, as well as 
Charles X. of France and Francis I. of the Two Sicilies, brother 
of the Spanish Queen, protested against this act, which threat- 
ened their collateral clsulms to the throne of Spam. But Fer- 
dinand persisted, and on the 10th of October, 1830, his Queen 
was delivered of a daughter, Isabella, who was recognized as 
Princess of the Asturias, or heiress apparent of the throne. 
Ferdinand having being seized with a severe illness in the 
autumn of 1832, Don Carlos either extorted from him a revo- 
cation of the Pragmatic Sanction, or caused one to be forged. 
But Maria Christina, who had borne another daughter in the 
preceding January, declared herself Begent for her daughter' 
Isabella during the King's illness, and sought popularity by 
some liberal measures. She granted an amnesty to the insur- 
gents who had risen after the French Bevolution of July ; she 
re-established the universities, which had been dissolved after 
the Restoration ; and, by the advice of Martinez de la Bosa, 
she announced a speedy reassembly of the Cortes. Ferdinand 
unexpectedly recovered, and resumed the reins of government 
in January, 1833, when he confirmed all that the Queen had 
done; and Don Carlos, after protesting, withdrew to Don 
Miguel in Portugal. In pursuance of the more liberal policy 
inaugurated by Christina, Ferdinand again appointed Zea 
Bermudez to the ministry, and agreeably to the Queen's pro- 
mise, reopened the Cortes, July 29th, when that assembly did 
homage to his daughter Isabella as their future soveragn. 
Ferdinand YII. did not long survive this event. He was again 
attacked by his disorder, and expired in dreadful torments, 
Sept. 29th, 1833. 
Isabella 11. was now proclaimed Queen, and her mother 

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Christina assiuned the Begency. The Pin^matic Sanction Queen 
was recognized by Louis P^lippe and by the English Goyem- "*^>«"*- 
ment ; bat the Northern Powers, as well as the Pope, refnsed 
to acknowledge it. Spain itself was divided in opinion and 
torn by &ctions. The Liberals and moderate party supported 
the Queen, and were hence called ChrisHnoBj while the Serriles 
dechued for Don Oarlos, and obtained the name of OtwligU. 
The Ohrutinos^ though not at one among themselyes, prevailed. 
In 1884, Zea Bermudez was compelled to resign in favour of 
the still more liberal Martinez de la Bosa. On the 10th of 
April the new minister proclaimed the EskUido Beat, a 
constitution modelled by the advice of Louis Philippe. 
But it was not suf^ently liberal to please the extreme 
party; warm disputes arose between the Moderados and 
Progresietas, and Martinez de la Bosa, to whose embarrass- 
ments was added that of civil war, was unable to maintain 

The Ca/rlists had raised an insurrection in Biscay in 1833. xheCariist 
Their strength lay chiefly in the Basque provinces, which had »«*»«"*<»• 
been injured by the system of centralization adopted by 
Ferdinand after the French modeL The insurrection also 
spread to other provinces, but not to any great extent. The 
priest Merino in Old Castile, and Locho in LaMancha, raised 
some guerUla bands. The Basque army, which had gradually 
increased to 25,000 men, found an excellent leader in Zum- 
alacarragui Generals Sarsf eld, Yaldez, and two or three more 
in vain attempted to subdue it. Don Carlos, who had been 
driven from Portugal and taken refuge in England, returned 
secretly through France, and appearing in Zumalacarragui's 
camp, June 9th, 1834, was received with acclamation. But 
he was totally unfit for the enterprise he had undertaken. He 
surrounded himself with the Stiffest etiquette, and he con- 
tinued to maintain the Apostolic Junta, a former member of 
which. Father Cirilo, was his most intimate confidant. Spahi, 
like other parts of Europe, was this year visited by the cholera^ 
when a hundred monks, suspected of having poisoned the 
fountains, were murdered in Madrid alone, and many others 
in various towns. This popular prejudice was manifested in 
other countries with the same results. 

In 1885 Mina undertook the command of the OJmsUnoe, 
but, like his predecessors, was worsted by Zumalacarragui after 
a sanguinary campaign of five months. Yaldez, who resumed 

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Death of 
John VL of 


the attempt with 20,000 men, had no better snoeess. These 
unfortunate campaigns exhausted the troops and money of the 
Spanish Goyemment, and o(nnpelled the Regent to applj to 
the Western Powers for aid. Louis Philippe pursued in the 
affidrs of Spain his usual double and self-interested policy. 
He had formed the design of marrying his sons to Ohristina's 
daughters, and he courted the friendship of the Spanish Segent 
and pressed upon her his advice, yet without talnng so decided 
a part in her affairs as might excite the hostility of the Nor- 
thern Powers. In like manner he went hand in hand with 
England in opposing Oa/rlism, but so as not to give too much 
strength to the Frogresiataa. It was not tiU the summer of 
1835, after the unlooked-for resistance of the Basques, that 
Louis Philippe prepared to give Christina any active assist- 
ance, agreeably to the Quadruple Alliance formed in the pre- 
ceding year. But as that allianoe had reference primarily to 
the affairs of Portugal, we must here briefly resume the history 
of that country. 

After the banishment of Dom Miguel, before recorded, 
Portugal remained tranquil till the death of the weak but 
well-meaning King John VL, March 10th, 1826. As Don 
Pedro, his eldest son, now Emperor of Brazil, was precluded 
by the constitution of that country from assuming the crown 
of Portugal, he transferred it to his youthful daughter, Donna 
Maria da Gloria, while Dom Miguel, John's second son, asserted 
his claim as the only legitimate male heir. The question of 
the succession, therefore, was somewhat analogous to that 
which subsequently arose in Spain, turning on the claims of a 
direct female and collateral male heir. Both pretenders to 
the crown were absent, and public opinion in Portugal was 
very much divided The Liberals, led by Count Yillaflor, and 
composed for the most part of the educated and commercial 
classes and a portion of the army, were for Donna Maria, while 
the Serviles, as they were called, with the Marquis de Chaves 
at their head, comprising the clergy, the peasantry, and the 
remainder of the troops, espoused the cause of Dom Miguel. 
The adverse parties had already come to blows, when the 
arrival of 6,000 English soldiers in the Tagus in December, 
despatched by Canning, decided the question in favour of 
Donna Maria. The Serviles now submitted. Queen Maria was 
acknowledged, and Donna Isabella, the young Queen's aunt, 
was placed at the head of the Begency . The Cortes being as- 

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sembled, January 2nd, 1828, accepted the charter of a oonsti- 
tation drawn up by Don Pedro on liberal principles. 

These proceedings were highly displeasing to the Northern 
Powers, who, as the assertors of legitimacy and of the princi- 
ples of the Holy Alliance, espoused the cause of Dom Miguel. 
Under these circumstances a compromise was adopted. Dom 
Miguel, as before suggested by Don Pedro, was betrothed to 
his niece, and it was arranged that he should undertake the 
Eegency in her name. He accordingly returned to Lisbon, 
after paying a visit to England on his way, and took the oath 
to the Constitution, February 26th. But on the 13th of March, 
immediately after the departure of the English army, he dis- 
solved the Chambers and annulled Don P^ro's Constitution ; 
and as the clergy and the great mass of the people were in 
favour of the ancient absolutism, an attempt at insurrection 
in support of the Charter proved abortive. 

Encouraged by this success, Miguel proceeded to further DomMintei 
violence. On the 17th of June, declaring the succession 5£2m, 
established by his brother to be invalid, he seized the throne i828. 
for himself, as legitimate King, and his usurpation was sanc- 
tioned by acclamation by the assembled Cortes on the 26th. 
Miguel now displayed all his real character. The leading 
Liberals who had not succeeded in escaping were thrown into 
prison; some of them were executed, the rest were treated 
with the greatest cruelty. The young tyrant sometimes as- 
saulted his sister the Eegent to the danger of her life ; and 
he displayed his levity and caprice by making a gi^devtmt 
barber, one of his favourites, Duke of Queluz. He succeeded, 
however, in maintaining himself upon the throne, and two 
conspiracies in 1829 were suppressed and punished by bloody 
and illegal executions. Don Pedro despatched a fleet to 
Terceira, and made some unsuccessful attempts in favour of 
his daughter. Donna Maria had retired to Brazil, where, in 
1880, she was betrothed to the young Prince Augustus von 
Leuchtenberg, whose sister Don Pedro had married. In 1831, 
Don Pedro being compelled by a revolution to relinquish the 
throne of Brazil to his youthful son, Don Pedro 11., took 
charge of his daughter's affairs in person, and sailed for 
Terceira with a well-appointed army and fleet. He landed 
at Oporto, July 8th, 1882, and was received with enthusiasm ; 
but Miguel kept him shut up a whole year in that town. 
Napier, however, the commander of Pedro's fleet, having 

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almost annihilated that of Miguel in a battle off Cape St. 
Vincent, July 5th, 1838, it became possible to ship an army 
at Oporto for Lisbon. MigueFs forces having been defeated 
in a battle, he was compelled to flj, and Pedro entered Lisbon 
July 28th. Two months after. Donna Maria arrired from 
Qio^ re- I<ondon, and assumed the Crown September 23rd. Marshal 
sumeathe Bourmont, driven from France by the Eevolution, having 
Crown. obtained the command of the Miguelite forces, made an 
attempt upon Lisbon, which was defeated October 10th; but 
Miguel still maintained himself in the provinces. 
The Qnad- In this state of things the Northern Powers, the patrons of 
SanM!^884. legitimacy even in such representatives of the principle as 
Carlos and Miguel, having assumed at a Congress at Mun- 
chengratz a hostile, or at all events adverse, attitude to the 
policy of France and England, the latter Powers concluded 
with the Queens of Spain and Portugal the Quadruple Alliance 
before mentioned, April 22nd, 1834. Miguel, alarmed by 
this step, agreed by the Treaty of Evoramonte to quit the 
Peninsula, May 26th, and he subsequently fixed his residence 
at Bome. On the 24th of the following September, Don 
Pedro died. The marriage of Queen Maria with the Prince 
of Leuchtenberg was celebrated in January, 1835 ; but in the 
following March the youthful bridegroom was carried off by 
a cold, and Queen Maria, on the proposal of England, shortly 
after accepted the hand of Prince Ferdinand of Coburg. 
SpaniBh The Spanish Queen did not derive much benefit from the 

****"• Quadruple Alliance. By a treaty of June 28th, 1836, Louis 
Philippe, indeed, allowed the Chrutinos the aid of the so- 
called Foreign Legion, composed of all the scum of Paris ; 
which had been sent to Algiers, and served as food for powder 
in the fights with the Arabs and Kabyles. A Legion of much 
the same kind, under General Evans, was also organized in 
Finland. But before these troops could arrive the position 
of Christina had become very critical. Although the Carlists 
had lost their great general Zumakcarragui, kiUed at the siege 
of Bilbao, June 25th, yet his place was ably filled by the brave 
and youthful Cabrera. The Spanish Government, besides 
having to contend with the Carlists, was also menaced by the 
factions and discontent of its own supporters. The Begent, 
indeed, in her heart detested the Progregidcu, and it was only 
with reluctance that she was driven, through the success of 
the Carlists, to court their aid. That paity established in 

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1835 a Junta at Barcelona, and demandod that the Gonsti- sp 
tuldon of 1812 should be restored ; nor could Mina, whom ^S*o£^^2 
the Queen had appointed Governor of that place, succeed in restored, 
restoring obedience to the Government. The example spread : 
Juntas were erected at Saragossa, Valencia, Seville, Malaga, 
Oadiz, and other places ; till at last the revolt broke out in 
the capital itself. The Begent was compelled to proclaim 
the Constitution of 1812, at her castle at La Granja, August 
13th, 1836, and to place Galatrava, a Liberal, at the head of 
the Ministiy. 

On that very day General Lebeau, at the head of the French 
Foreign Legion, had at length entered Spain, and published 
a manifesto, proclaiming that he had been sent by the King 
of the French to support the Queen. But no sooner did 
Louis Philippe hear of the proclamation at La Granja than 
ho publicly disavowed his general in the Moniteur. He well 
knew that a government founded on the Spanish Constitution 
of 1812, instead of following his counsels, would make common 
cause with the Bepublican party in France. Agreeably, how- 
ever, to the Quadruple Alliance, he suffered his Legion to 
remain in Spain, where it continued to %ht in the Christina 
cause till it was almost exhausted. Meanwhile Don Carlos 
not only prospered in the North, but also gained adherents 
in Andalusia and the South. In the spring of 1837 he even 
felt himself strong ^aough to make an attempt on Madrid, 
and gained a victory at Villa de las Navarras ; but on the 
appearance of Espai-tero, who had relinquished the siege of 
Bilbao he lost heart and retired, and from this time his cause 
declined. Among the fanatical decrees which he issued in 
Biscay, was one directing that all Englishmen should be put 
to death, because they prevented him from receiving assist- 
ance by sea ! 

The Cortes, on the model of 1812, were opened by Christina PoUcy of 
June 18th, 1837, when she took an oath to the Constitution. Ch'****"*- 
She nevertheless &,voured a reactionary policy, and was sup- 
ported in it by the victorious Espartero, who belonged to the 
Moderados, That party was also favoured by Louis Philippe, 
who wished to suppress the insurrection in Spain, and to form 
a matrimonial connection for his sons with the Spanish family ; 
while England opposed this policy by supporting the Proves- 
iatas. In the autumn of 1838, Narvaez having failed in an 
attempt to overthrow Espartero, was compelled to fly to 

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England. Maroto, who soon afterwaxds obtained ihe com- 
mand of the Basque army, seeing the incapacity of Don Carlos, 
resolved to abandon the cause of legitimacy, and concluded a 
treaty with Espartero at Vergara, August 31st, 1839, by 
which the Basque Provinces agreed to acknowledge Queen 
Isabella 11. on condition of recovering their Futeros, or ancient 
customs. Carlos now fled over the Pyrenees; when Louis 
Philippe caused him to be apprehended and kept him in 
honourable custody at Bourges. General O'Donnel dispersed 
the remains of the Carlists in the summer of 1840. 

Espartero was rewarded for his success with the title of 
** Duke of Victory." Christina tried to persuade him to annul 
the Basque Fueros ; but he would not consent, and he was 
supported in his policy by an insurrection at Barcelona. 
Christina now fled to Valencia, and placed herself imder the 
protection of O'Donnel; but in her absence the people of 
Madrid rose and proclaimed a Provisional Q-ovemment, an 
example which was followed by most of the principal towns 
of Spain ; and the Begent found herself compelled to appoint 
Espartero Prime Minister. Espartero made a sort of trium- 
phal entry into Madrid September 16th, and in the following 
October, Christina laid down the Eegency in his favour and 
qtdtted Spain. This step was not taken entirely on political 
grounds. A secret marriage with Munoz, a private in the 
guards, by whom she had several children, as well as an 
accusation of embezzling the public money, had rendered her 
contemptible. She proceeded to Bome, and thence to France, 
where she took up her abode till, as the instrument of Louis 
Philippe, she might find an opportunity again to interfere in 
the affairs of Spain. 

The Begency of Espartero, who was a moderate Progresista, 
attracted the envy and opposition of the other generals. Hence 
what were called the Pronunciamentos, Wherever the people 
were dissatisfied with the proceedings of the Q-ovemment or 
the person of the Begent, they pronounced against them and 
threatened to throw Spain into eternal confusion. To this, 
however, an end was put by the Cortes confirming Espartero 
in the Begency, May 8th, 1841 ; though Aj^elles was named 
guardian of Isabella. Espartero maintained himself in the 
Begency, in spite of much opposition and many insurrections, 
tiU July, 1843, when being defeated by Narvaez in Valencia, 
he was compelled to fly to England. The policy of Spain at 

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this period turned much on the marriage of the jonng Queen, 
The Moderados wanted to marry her, or at all events her 
sister, to a French Prince ; the moderate FrogresUias approved 
the English proposal of a German Prince ; while the uUras of 
the latter party wished her to espouse her cousin, the son of 
Louisa Charlotte. That Princess had formed a project to 
keep her sister Maria Christina for ever out of Spain, and to 
seize upon the Government. But her plans were cut short 
by a sudden death, January 29th, 1844. 

The young Queen Isabella 11. was declared of age by the Betum of 
Cortes, November 10th, 1843, when she took the oath to the <^™**"*- 
Constitution. Narvaez, who now enjoyed the supreme mili- 
tary power, being a Moderado, and consequently favouring 
the views of France and Christina, the Queen-mother ven- 
tured, after her sister's death, to return to Madrid. She 
obtained the guidance of her daughter, but intent only on the 
gratification of her base inclinations, suffered Narvaez to rule. 
She created Munoz Duke of Bianzarez and a grandee of Spain, 
and employed herself in accumulating large sums for her 
numerous children by him. Meanwhile Narvaez pursued a 
reactionary policy by curtailing the power of the Cortes, re- 
storing the prerogatives of the Crown, recalling the exiled 
bishops, and otherwise promoting the interests of the Church. 
In 1845, in company with Christina and her two daughters, 
he made a tour in the provinces ; when they were met at 
Pamplona by Louis Philippe's sons, the Dukes of Nemours 
and Aumale, with a view to forward the projected marriages. 
Narvaez was now created Duke of Valencia. But he was 
suddenly dismissed, April 4th, 1846, for having, it is sus- 
pected, favoured the suit of Francis, Count of Trapani, son 
of the King of Naples, for the hand of Isabella. Isturitz, 
who had bd^ore held the reins of power, now became Prime 

Other suitors to the young Queen were her cousins, Don TheSpanish 
Henry, second son of the Infant Francis de Paula; and ">*^*««*- 
Charles Louis, Count of Montemolin, son of Don Carlos, who 
had made over to his son all his claims to the Spanish throne. 
An insurrection was even attempted in favour of Don Henry ; 
but its leader. Colonel Solis, was shot, and Don Henry ban- 
ished from Spain. A marriage with the Count of Monte- 
molin would have united all the claims to the Spanish throne ; 
but both France and England opposed it. Louis Philippe, 

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wil^ the acquiesoence of Ohristina, bad selected for Isabella's 
husband, Francis de Assis, the eldest son of Francis de Paula* 
a young man weak in mind and body ; while be destined bis 
own son, the Duke of Montpensier, for Isabella's younger and 
healthier sister, Maria Louisa. Louis Philippe had promised 
Queen Victoria, when on a visit to him at the Chiteau d'Eu 
in Normandy, in 1845, that the marriage of his son with the 
Infanta should not take place till Isabella had given birth to 
an heir to the throne, llie young Queen had manifested her 
aversion for Francis de Assis, and Prince Leopold of Saxe- 
Ooburg had proceeded to Madrid in the spring of 1846 to sue 
for her hand. But by the machinations of Louis Philippe 
and Christina, Isabella's scruples to accept her cousin were 
overcome, and the King of the French, sacrificing without 
remorse the domestic happiness of the young Queen, gained 
a transient and not very honourable triumph by the faii 
(lecompli of a simultaneous marriage of Isabella with Francis 
de Assis, and of Montpensier with her sister, Maria Louisa, 
October 10th, 1846. Louis Philippe's deep-laid plot was, 
however, ultimately frustrated by unforeseen circumstances. 
The expulsion of the Orleans dynasty from France at once 
severed the family connection between the two crowns ; and 
even had Louis Philippe remained in possession of the French 
throne, the hopes of the Duke of Montpensier would still 
have been frustrated by Queen Isabella giving birth to a 
daughter in 1851. By Serrano's advice Isabella emancipated 
herself from her mother's guidance, and favoured the party 
of the Progresistas, while Christina proceeded again to Paris 
to seek the advice of Louis Philippe. Isabella banished all 
the ancient Spanish etiquette, and the Court became a scene 
of scandalous dissipation. 
Difltarb- While Louis Plulippe was thus engaged in the a&irs of 

i^tSce. Spain, his own faU was preparing in France. The discontent 
which extensively prevailed in that kingdom was increased by 
the scarcity in the years 1846 and 1847. Disturbances broke 
out in several places, and the Liberal party began to agitate 
an electoral reform. The Central Electoral Committee at 
Paris declared itself en permcmeneef and incited the Provincial 
Committees to petition the Q-ovemment. At a grand reform 
banquet, held at Ch&teau Eouge near Paris, July 9th, 1847, 
at which 1,200 persons were present, the King's health was 
omitted, but the toast of " the sovereignty of the people " 

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was dnmk with aoclamatioii. A similar banquet took place 
at Le Mans, August 10th, under the presidency of Ledra 
BoUin, and was followed bj many others in Tarions places. 
The reactionary policy of Onizot, and his determination 
to maintain the English alliance, were highly unpopular; 
while the corruption of some members of the Admimstration 
and of the Chambers had rendered the Qoyemment in general 
eont^nptible. The French Sepublicans were encouraged by 
the triumph of the Badicals in Switzerland, and by the pro- 
gress of Maszini's doctrines in Italy. The leaders of the first 
French Sevolution had been content with claiming liberty, 
equality, and eternity; the ideas of the soi'dMcmt philo- 
sophical and revolutionary Badicals had now advanced con- 
siderably further. Oammuninn, an offshoot of 8t. Simonism, 
had spread very extensively among the lower classes of the 
French, while Louis Blanc had brought forward a gigantic 
scheme of Utopian Socialism by which the State was to form 
one large happy family, providing work and maintenance for 
all its members. The elements of disturbance and revolution 
were insidiously stirred by Thiers, with the design of 
supplanting Ouizot, and again seizing the reins of govern- 

The Eing, on opening the Chambers, December 27th, 1847, inBurrec' 
indiscreetly alluded in offensive terms to the reform banquet, pariil'iMs. 
and intimated his conviction that no reform was needed. In 
consequence of this speech very sharp debates took place on 
the Address, which lasted till the middle of February. The 
Electoral Committee of Paris, in conjunction with a committee 
of the Opposition Deputies, and of the officers of the National 
Ouard, determined to have a colossal reform banquet in the 
Champs Elys^s on the 22nd February, 1848, when it was 
expected that 100,000 spectators would be present. But it 
was forbidden by Ouizot, who threatened to prevent it, if 
necessary, by military force. Odillon Barrot and most of the 
Deputies now abandoned any further opposition, though 
Lamartine and a few followers continued to declaim against 
the arbitrariness of the Qovemment. The f £te did not take 
place, as Marshal Bugeaud, who had between 50,000 and 
60,0()0 men in Paris ajid its neighbourhood, was prepared to 
suppress it, while the guns of the forts were directed upon 
Paris. But symptoms of revolt began to manifest themselves 
among the Parisian populace; barricades were thrown up, 

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and some conflicts took place with the Municipal Guard. The 
riots were renewed on the 23rd, and the National Guard, which 
was called out for the protection of the city, manifested a 
hostile disposition towards the Government bj shouts of Vive la 
Beforme ! Abas Ghmot ! The King was weak enough to yield 
to this demonstration, by dismissing Guizot, and sending for 
Count Mol^ to form a new Administration. The tumult con- 
tinued in the ensuing night, but without any very marked 
character, till a Lyonese named Lagrange, a determined Re- 
publican and influential leader amongst the secret societies, 
gave matters a decided turn by conducting a large band, 
carrying a red flag, to the hotel of Guizot, where a battalion 
of infantry had been drawn up for his protection. A shot, 
fired, it is said, by Lagrange himself, haying killed their com- 
manding ofEicer, the troops answered by a ToUey, which pros- 
trated many dead and wounded on the pavements 
^^dflion While these scenes were passing out of doors, all was in- 
GoTenunent decision in the Palace. Count Mol^ declined to accept the 
and King. Ministry, and recourse was then had to Thiers. But matters 
had gone rather further than that statesman had contemplated, 
and he required that Odillon Barrot should be joined with 
him. Thiers now required the King to consent to the reforms 
demanded, to summon a new Chamber, elected on the prin- 
ciples of them, to forbid the troops to use any further violence 
towards the people, and to dismiss Marshal Bugeaud; in short, 
to disarm and countermand his enormous military preparations. 
Louis Philippe had completely lost his head. He agreed to 
all the demands of Thiers, who immediately issued a procla- 
mation stating that reform was granted, that all motive for 
further opposition was removed, and that the soldiery had 
orders not to fire. But the proclamation came too lat« ; and, 
as the signature had been omitted, it only excited the sus- 
picions of the people, as intended to disarm them. Bugeaud 
was dismissed on the morning of February 24jth, having pre- 
viously signed an order forbidding the troops to fire. Many 
of the soldiers now began to fraternize with the people ; fresh 
barricades were erected, and the attack drew hourly nearer and 
nearer to the Tuileries. The Palais Boyal was stormed, and 
its costly furniture destroyed ; while the troops, agreeably to 
their orders, looked quietly on ; the Municipal Guards were 
massacred without assistance. The Duke of Nemours, who 
had been appointed Regent in case of his father's abdication. 

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rejected Bugeaud's pressing instances to resort to force. Louis 
Philippe would not listen to his Consort's exhortations to put 
himself at the head of the troops. As the storm approached 
the Tuileries, indeed, he mounted his horse and rode towards 
the troops ; but he uttered not a word. The soldiery also re- 
mained dumb ; but some of the National Q-uards cried Vive la 
Beforme ! A has les minigtrea ! The King turned back, and 
all was lost. It was a repetition of Louis XYI.'s review of 
August 10th. 

At length Louis Philippe, at the instance of the Duke de Abdicatioii 
Montpensier, signed an Act of Abdication in fovour of the phm^. 
Count de Paris, his grandson, and then hurried to St. Cloud. 
General Lamorici^re took the Act of Abdication, and exhibited 
it to the people ; but Lagrange tore the sheet from his hand, 
exclaiming, *' It is not enough — the whole Dynasty must go ! ** 
As Lamoriciire turned to depart, his horse was shot and he 
himself wounded. His soldiers lifted him up and fired. This 
incident aided the Sepublican cause. The Boyal family were 
in consternation, and at a loss how to act. Thiers had vanished 
nobody knew whither, and left them to take care of themselves. 
The Duke de Nemours, as Begent, conducted the Duchess of 
Orleans, with her two young sons, to the Chamber of Deputies ; 
but the mob broke in and prevented the proclamation of the 
Begency. In the midst of the tumult, Marie, an advocate, 
mounted the tribune, and proposed a Provisional Government. 
The motion was received with shouts of applause. Dunoyer, 
at the head of another band, carrying a flag captured at the 
Tuileries, now forced his way into the Chamber, and exclaimed : 
" This flsbg proclaims our victory ; outside are 100,000 combat- 
ants, who will have neither King nor Regency." It was but 
too plain that all was lost, and the Eoyal family made their 
escape from Paris. 

A Provisional Government was now appointed, consisting ProTisionai 
of Dupont de TEure, Lamartine the poet, Arago the astrono- Sent"' 
mer, Marie, Gkmier Pagis, Ledru Bollin, and Cr^mieux. 
These names were received with acclamation by the members, 
and by thearmed mob which filled the precincts of theChamber. 
On the motion of Lamartine, the new Government resolved to 
fix itself at the H6tel de YiUe, in order to prevent the estab- 
lishment there of a Bepublican Socialist Directory. Louis 
Blanc, Marrast, Bastide, Mo9on, and other leaders of the £e- 
publicans and Socialists, had indeed already taken possession 

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to mob 

of that building, and would no doubt have opposed the Pro- 
yiflional QoTemment, had not the latter deemed it expedient 
to coalesce with them. It is to the firmness of Lamartine that 
must be attributed the preserration of any degree of order 
among these discordant elements. He allowed the Bepublic 
to be proclaimed only on condition of its future approyal by 
the people, to whose newlj-elected representatires was to be 
intrusted the settlement of the Constitution. Lamartine also 
caused a guard of young people to be formed for the protection 
of the Ghoremment, and thus eliminated one of the most 
dangerous elements of the revolt. 

letters, however, still wore a threatening aspect. The mob 
had broken into the Tuileries, demolished all the furniture, 
and taken up their abode in the palace. Lamartine resisted 
with admirable courage all attempts at intimidation, and 
calmed the minds of the people by his exhortations. The 
middle classes, alarmed at the prospect of a Bed Republic, 
assembled, the National Guard appeared on the Place de 
Gtriret and the mob with their red flag began gradually to 


Philippe in 

Louis Philippe, who was not pursued, fled towards the i 
coast, and after a concealment of nine days procured a passage 
for England in the name of William Smith. He was accom- 
panied by the Queen and a few attendants, while the Duke de 
Montpensier, with the other ladies, except the Duchess of 
Orleans, who proceeded to Qermany, took a different route to 
the coast, in order to lessen the risk of detection. Louis 
Philippe landed in England March 3rd, and took up his resi- 
dence at Claremont, the property of his son-in-law, the King 
of the Belgians. 

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THE new French Goyemment proceeded to oonsolidateitself . The Sooond 
Louis Blanc was appointed " Minister of Progress," as a^bUc. 
a pledge for the furtherance of the '' organization of labour." 
The Luxembourg, abandoned bj the Peers, received a new 
senate in a committee of labourers and mechanics, who there 
discussed their interests and demands. At their head was 
Albert, a workman in a blouse, who had obtained a place in 
the Government next to Louis Blanc. The scheme adopted 
was to open large national workshops, where all who applied 
might find employment and wages. Thus the State was con- 
vei^^d into a manufacturing firm, to whose service, as the paj 
was good, and the superintendence not over strict, flocked all 
the lazy, skulking mechanics of Paris and its neighbourhood. 
They soon numbered 80,000, to be maintained at the public 
expense, to the ruin of private tradesmen. Thus the Bevolu- 
lution of 1848 was not like that of 1830, merely political, but 
sodal also, like the first fievolution, but based on such absurd, 
though less inhuman principles, that the speedy fall of the new 
system was inevitable. 

The Provisional Government was recognized throughout 
France. Marshal Bugeaud acknowledged its authority, and 
was followed by the whole army. The Due d'Aumale, who 
commanded in Algiers, surrendered his post to Gteneral Ohan- 
gamier, and proceeded to England with his brother the Due 
de Joinville, who had hitherto commanded the French fleet. 
The Provisional Government superseded Changamier by 
Oavaignac, the brother of an influential republican. The 
priests also submitted, for the Church was not threatened with 
persecution. After the interval of a fortnight the prefect of 
police drove out the crowd which had taken possession of the 

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Tuileries, and that palace was converted into an hospital for 
old and infirm labourers. The same dangerous elements were, 
however, afloat as in the first Sevolution, and if they did not 
gain the ascendency it was because the higher and middle 
classes, instructed by experience, actively opposed them. The 
inscriptions of Liberte, EgalUe, Fratemite, struck the eye on 
every side ; the titles of Monsieur and Madame again gave 
place to those of OUayen and CUayenne ; the Goddess of Lil^rt j 
with her red cap appeared at every public festival, and trees 
of liberty were planted in all the public places. Low journals 
were published under the names of La Chiillotine, La Car^ 
magnole, etc., which adopted all the slang of aana-cvlottisme, 
and exhorted to plunder and murder in the style of Marat. 
The ultra-democrats Oabat, Blanqui, and Easpail formed a 
sort of triumvirate, and incited the Communist clubs to proceed 
to extremities. They attempted to put down Lamartine and 
the more moderate party, and to establish a Bed Bepublic 
under Ledru Bollin. But the citizens and National Guards 
were on the alert. A mob having been collected, April 16th, 
to petition for an alteration in the relations between master 
and servant, 100,000 National Guards assembled to preserve 
the peace, and shouted, A has Cahat I a has U commvmsme ! 
From this day the extreme party was defeated. 

The National Assembly met at Paris, May 4th. The ma- 
jority of it were men of moderate opinions, some even desired 
a reaction ; yet when Dupont de I'Eure, in the name of the 
Provisional Government, resigned its power into their hands, 
a Bepublic was voted by acclamation, and an Executive Com- 
mission was appointed to conduct the public business till the 
new Constitution should be established. The members of the 
Commission were Lamartine, Arago, Gamier Pages, Marie, 
and Ledru Bollin ; and Louis Blanc, Albert, and the Socialists 
were excluded. A mob of Socialists and Communists broke 
into the Assembly, May 15th, and endeavoured to enforce a 
government in conformity with their views, but the attempt 
ftdled. This party was entirely overawed by the force dis- 
played at a grand review held on May 21st ; after which, 
Barbis, Albert, and Hubert were indicted and sentenced to 
transportation, and Blanqui to seven years' imprisonment. 
Louis Blanc was also indicted, but escaped by flight. 

When the news of the Bevolution arrived in England, Prince 
Napoleon, who had in May, 1846, succeeded in escaping to 

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that coimtrj from his prison at Ham, immediately set off for 
Paris ; but retumecU in compliance with the wishes of the 
ProTisional OoYemmenl On the 8th of June he was elected 
a representatiye for Paris, and he was also returned in the de* 
partoients of Charente and Tonne. Two of his cousins, 
Kapoleon, son of Jerdme, and Peter, son of Lucien, sat in 
the Assembly. These moT^ments <^ the Bonaparte family 
excited the apprehension of Lamartine, who attempted to 
obtain with re^urd to Louis Napoleon the enforcement of the 
old decree for the banishment of the Emperor Napoleon's 
posterity. Louis Napoleon, thinking that his opportunity was 
not yet arrived, thanked the electors who had returned him, 
and declared himself ready to discharge any duties which the 
people might intrust to him, but for the present he remained 
in London. 

An attempt of the Government to dismiss part of the work- Reaction 
men from the aieUers naUanoMx produced one of the fiercest so^^m. 
battlesParis had yet seen. These workmen, who now numbered 
near 100,000, and were regularly drilled, threw up barricades 
more artificially constructed than any that had yet been made, 
and defended them with desperation. The battle began on 
the 23rd of June, and lasted four days ; but the insui^nts 
were at length subdued by the superior force of the troops of 
the line and the National Guards. Many of the latter had 
come up from the provincial towns to aid in the suppression 
of Socialism. Some thousands of persons f^ in this san- 
guinary affray, among them the venerable Monseigneur Affre, 
Archbishop of Paris, while exhorting the rioters to peace. 
Gteneral Cavaignac, who had been appointed Dictator during 
the struggle, now laid down his Qj£ce, but was appointed chief 
of the Executive Oommission with the title of President of the 

The fear which Socialism had inspired had produced among The New 
the more educated classes a reaction in favour of monarchy. ^^^^^^' 
The national workshops were now suppressed, as well as sdl 
clubs and the revolutionary press. Even Lamartine and 
Cavaignac lost their popularity, and persons like Thiers b^an 
to appear, and to give a different direction to affairs. Cavaig- 
nac, however, who now directed the Government of France, 
had little personal ambition ; he aimed at preserving peace 
both abroad and at home, and avoiding the extremes either of 
Socialism or deqK>tism. Besides the Sepublicans and Socialists, 

VI. o 

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three parties were in the field — the Legitimists, or adherents 
of Charles X/s djnastj, the Orleanists, and the Bonapartiats. 
Lonis Napoleon had remained quietly in London till he was 
again elected a representative for Paris, as well as for fonr 
departments — ^the Moselle, Tonne, Lower Charente, and 
Corsica. He now returned to France, and after ina,king a 
short speech in the Assembly, September 26th, took no further 
part in the debates. Meanwhile the new Constitution was 
prepared — a Republic, headed by a President elected every 
four years, but almost entirely dependent on the NationiJ 
Assembly. For the Presidency became candidates Louis 
Napoleon, Cavaignac, Lamartine, Ledru BoUin, and Baspail, 
Louig the representative of the Socialists. Li his address to the 

^gg^||<^ electors, Louis Napoleon promised order at home, peace abroad, 
Prerident. a reduction of taxes, and a ministry chosen from the best and 
most able men of aU parties. But the educated classes of 
Frenchmen entertained at this time a contempt for his abilities, 
and his pretensions were ridiculed by the newspapers. The 
peasantry and the common soldiers were his chief supporters. 
Thiers, however, and other intriguers of Louis Philippe's time, 
advocated his claims ; but only in the expectation that he 
would display his incapacity, and serve as a stepping-stone to 
the restoration of the Orleans dynasty, while others supported 
him from envy and jealousy of Cavaignac. The election took 
place December 10th, when Napoleon obtained five and a half 
million votes, while Cavaignac, who stood next, had only about 
one and a half million, and the other candidates but very small 
numbers. Napoleon was installed in the office which he had 
thus triumphantly won, December 20th, and took up his resid- 
ence in the Elysee. He appointed OdiUon Barrot Minister 
of Justice, Drouyn de Lhuys to the Foreign (Mce, Malleville 
to the Home Office, Qeneral Bulhiire to the War Department, 
De Tracy to the Navy, and Passy to the administration of the 
finances. To MarshiJ Bugeaud was intrusted the command of 
the army, and to Changamier that of the National Guard ; 
while Jer6me Bonaparte, ex-king of Westphalia, was made 
Qovemor of the InvaUdee, 
Oennany. The shock of the French Eevolution of 1848, like that of the 
previous one, vibrated through Europe. The Oermans were 
among the first to feel its influence. 

The Imperial throne of Austria was now occupied by Fer- 
dinand L Francis, the last of the Bomano-Oerman and the 

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first of the Austrian Emperors, after an eyentfol reign which Deaths of 
had commenced almost contemporaneously with the first ^J^SS«m^iV. 
French Bepublic, died March 2nd, 1835. His son and sue- gjf^,. . 
cesser would have been still less fitted for such eyentf ul times. wSuam m. 
Ferdinand was the personification of good nature, but weak 
both in body and mind, without any knowledge of business, 
and led by his Minister, Prince Mettemich. The death of 
the English Eong William IV. in 1837 had also yacated the 
crown of Hanoyer, and seyered it from its connection with 
Great Britain. Victoria, our late gracious Soyereign, who then 
ascended the throne of England on the death of her undo, was 
disqualified by her sex, according to the laws of Hanoyer, from 
succeeding to that crown, which consequently deyolyed to her 
uncle Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberhmd. One of the 
first acts of the new King's reign was to abolish the Oonstitu- 
tion which had been established in 1833, and to restore that of 
1819. But this coup cPetat was attended with no more serious 
result than the resignation of seyen G^ttingen professors. 
King Frederick William m. of Prussia died June 7th, 1840. 
Of this King it may be said, that as few Soyereigns of modem 
times haye experienced greater misfortunes and humiliations, 
so few or none more richly deseryed them by the yadllation 
and timidity of his counsels, his want of all political principle, 
and his treachery towards bis neighbours and allies. His son 
and successor Fiederick William IV. b^^n his reign with some 
liberal measures, which, howeyer, soon appeared to be the 
effects of weakness rather than of wisdom and beneyolence. 
Prussia had been promised a Bepresentatiye Constitution in 
1815, but nothing had yet been done. Frederick William IV. 
summoned to Berlin a sort of Diet or Parliament, not, how- 
eyer, in l^e spirit of this promise, but merely composed of the 
proyincial assemblies united together. The King opened this 
mock assembly April 11th with a fine sentimental speech, in 
which he obseryed that he would neyer allow a sheet of paper 
— that is, a Charter — ^to stand like a second Proyidence between 
him and the country ! He complained of the spirit of inno- 
yation and infidelity that was abroad, and with that union of 
religion with despotism affected by the two most powerful of 
the Northern Courts, explained, " I and my house will serye 
the Lord." The Chamber, in their address, claimed, but in 
yain, the promised Bepresentatiye Constitution. 

A trifling insurrection haying occurred in Poland in 1846, 

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Qnestioii of 
tne Danish 

Frusna and Bussia agreed that the Bepublic of Cracow should 
be incorporated with Austria ; which accordingly took place 
in NoYember, in spite of the opposition of Lord Paknerston, 
the English Minister. 

In Hungary, after the death of the Archduke Stephen, the 
Palatine, his bodl Joseph was elected to that high office. In 
1847 the Emperor Ferdinand himself proceeded into Hungary, 
to be crowned with the holy crown of St. Stephen as King 
Fe»idinand Y. Instead of the usual Latin oration, he spoke 
on this occasion in the Hungarian tongue ; a circumstance 
which increased the hopes of the Magyars of forcing, with their 
own language^ their desires also of independence on the Slav- 
onians, Germans, and Wallachians liying in Hungary. Kos- 
suth now distinguished himself as the most eloquent speaker 
and most influential member of the Opposition. The States 
of Bohemia also exerted themselves for the freedom of the 
press and the right of self -taxation ; and even in Austria itself 
projects of reform were agitated. 

It was about 1846 that complications began to arise con- 
cerning the Danish boundary. The old King, Frederick YI., 
had died in 1 839. He was succeeded by Hs great nephew. 
Christian Vlll., then fifty-four years of age, whose only son, 
Frederick, did not promise to leave any posterity. In the 
Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, females were excluded from 
succeeding to the Sovereignty, though, as we have seen, such 
was not the case inDenmark.^ Frederick's aunt, Charlotte, 
sister of Christian VUX, was therefore next heir to the throne 
of that Kingdom, in the event of Frederick's death. Charlotte 
was the mother of Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse, who had 
married in 1844 the Grand Duchess Alexandra, daughter of 
the Emperor Nicholas ; and hence the Imperial family of 
Eussia had obtained a near interest in the Danish succession. 
On the other hand, Duke Christian, of Schleswig-Holstein- 
Sonderburg-Augustenburg, as the nearest male agnate of the 
Danish Boyal &.mily, began to entertain hopes of succeeding 
in Schleswig and Holstein, and did everything that lay in his 
power to support the German party in those Duchies. But in 
1846 King Christian YIII., in the interests of Bussian policy, 
issued letters patent extending the Danish law of female suc- 

^ The Danish crown was made transmissible en qwnouUle at the 
same time thai it was made hereditary (in 1660). 

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cession to the wbole of his dominions, thns annihilating with 
the stroke of a pen all the hopes of the German pfi^ in 
Schleswig and Holstein. 

The Germans now began an agitation on this subject, in mie ScWes- 
which they confounded the totally distinct rights of Schleswig ^tSn 
and Holstein. The latter Duchy having an entirely German q^eation. 
population, and being a member of the German Confederation, 
its affairs came properly under the consideration of the Ger- 
man Diet. Witn Schleswig the case was entirely different. 
That Duchy was ceded to Canute, King of Denmark and Eng- 
land, by the Emperor Conrad 11., in 1030, when the boundary 
of the Eyder was re-established as the natural one of Denmark ; 
while Holstein did not come under the dominion of the Danish 
Crown till 1460, in the reign of Christian I., Count of Olden- 
burg, who had claims on the female side. The German Btmd 
had no right to interfere with the internal affairs of Schleswig. 
At most, as an international, not a national question, it had a 
right to demand that the claims of the German agnates to the 
succession should be respected. About half of the inhabitants 
of Schleswig, however, spoke Low German, and this portion 
of the popxdation desired that the union of the two Duchies 
should be maintained, and that both should, if possible, be 
incorporated with the German Bimd, This sufficed to produce 
in Germany an agitation in their favour, especially as the 
question opened up the prospect of territorial aggrandizement, 
and the acquisition of ports on the North Sea. The rights of 
the two Duchies were confounded, and the enthusiasm of the 
Germans was excited by articles in newspapers, and by the 
popular song SeMeswig-Hohtein meer^umeehkmgen. Meetings 
were held in Holstein, and the German Diet promised that the 
rights of the Bwnd and the succession of tiie legal agnates 
should be asserted, A meeting in Holstein, was dispersed by 
the Danish military ; but the peace was not further disturbed, 
and matters remained in this posture till the death of Chris- 
tian VUI., January 20th, 1848. He was succeeded by his 
son, Frederick VII., and a few weeks after, the French Revo- 
lution broke out. 

This event not only inflamed the Schleswig-Holstein ques- gj^^**" 
tion, but also, as we have said, set all Germany in combustion, tions. 
In the smaller States it displayed itself in a desire for G^rmjan 
unity, while in the Austrian dominions it produced an in- 
surrection of the Hungarians, Slavs, and Italians. Eevo- 

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lutionarj symptoms first appeared on the banks of the Bhine- 
At Mannheim the people assembled and demanded a German 
Parliament, the freedom of the press, and the arming of the 
people. Similar disturbanoes took place at Karlsruhe. A daj 
or two after Welker farther demanded, in the Chamber of the 
States of Baden, that the Bund should abrogate all its un- 
popular resolutions, that the militarj should take an oath to 
the Constitution, that persons of all religious denominations 
should be placed on a footing of perfect political equality, that 
Ministers should be made responsible, that aU feudal burdens 
still remaining should be abolished, that taxation should be 
more equally distributed, that labour should be protected, and 
lastly, that the Ministry should be purified. These resolutions 
became the programme of the Bevolutionists throughout Gbr* 
many. The peasants from the surrounding country had 
flocked in crowds to Karlsruhe, and in the following night 
the hotel of the Foreign Minister was burnt down. The 
Grand Duke of Baden now promised everything demanded. 
Similar movements took place in Darmstadt and Nassau. In 
the Electorate of Hesse, a '* Commission of the People " was 
established at Hanau, which threatened to depose the Elector 
if he did not grant all their demands within three days. On 
the 10th of Imurch everything was conceded. Similar conces- 
sions were made in Oldenburg, Brunswick, and other of the 
smaller States. The Governments of the hurger middle States, 
Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, alone opposed any resistance to the 
people, till Ausbria and Prussia were likewise observed to be 
in confusion. Commotions also arose in Switzerland, where 
Badicalism was now triumphant. The seven Catholic Cantons, 
Lucerne, Schwytz, XJri, Unterwalden, Zug, Freiburg, and the 
Yalais, had in 1846 united against the attacks of the others, 
and formed what was called the Sonderbund; but this league 
was soon overthrown by the Swiss Badicals under Duf our. In 
1848 Free Bands were organized in Switzerland to aid the es- 
tablishment of a BepubUc in Germany. Applications were 
also made to the French Gbvemment for aid in that project, 
which, however, was refused. 

The leaders of the Opposition in various German Chambers 
held a meeting at Heidelberg, March 8th, and published a 
proclamation to the (German people, promiong them a national 
representation, and inviting them to attend a grand assembly, 
or as they called it, Vor-parlament, in which a representative 

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sjstenx was to be prepared. The smaller Oerman Sovereigns 
met the movement bj making the leaders of the Constitution- 
alists .their Ministers, or bj appointing them to the Diet. 
Austria and Prussia concerted together a reform of the Con- 
federation, and published a declaration, March 10th, that a 
Congress of Princes would assemble at Dresden on the 15th, 
to take the proposed reform in hand. But the Congress was 
prevented by Austria herself becoming absorbed in the revo- 
lutionary vortex. 

The whole strength of that vast but ill-compacted Empire Bevoiution 
seemed to collapse in a single day. When the news of the ™ Austria. 
French Revolution arrived in Hungary, Kossuth carried in 
the Diet at Pesth an address to the Emperor, March 3rd, de- 
manding " a National Government, purged from all foreign 
influence." Addresses for reform were also got up in Vienna 
itself, in some of which the dismissal of Mettemich was de- 
manded. Kossuth had agents in the Austrian capital, who 
read to the Yiennese his address to the Hiingarian Diet. After 
a slight attempt to put down the people by force, that method 
was abandoned, and the Archduke Louis, the Emperor's uncle, 
advised him to yield to their demands. Prince Mettemich now 
quitted Vienna for London, and the Emperor granted freedom 
of the press, a national guard, and a Liberal Constitution for 
the whole Empire. A national guard was immediately formed, 
and kept the mob in order. Kossuth made a sort of triumphal 
entry into Vienna by torch-light, March I5th, at the head of a 
numerous Hungarian deputation, which, accompanied by 
several thousand armed men, with banners and music, pro- 
ceeded to the Burg to deliver the Hungarian address to the 

Biots also occurred in several parts of Prussia, as Breslau, Biote in 
Konigsberg, Erfurt. At Berlin, meetings were held in the ^'""• 
Thiergarten, at which addresses to the King were prepared. 
The Prussian Government at first resorted to military force to 
disperse these assemblies, and some blood was shed. But at 
the news of what was passing in Vienna, the King announced, 
March 17th, freedom of the press, the assembly of a Landstag, 
or Diet, for April 2nd, the conversion of the German Staaten- 
hund (Confederation of States) into a Bundesstaat (Confeder- 
ated State), and the incorporation of East and West Prussia 
and Posen in the Bwnd, But the people further required 
the formation of a burgher-guard, the withdrawal of 

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the military from the town, and the dismissal of the Ministry. 
These demands were canied to the palace by a great multitude, 
when the King appeared on the balcony and promised that 
everything should be conceded. In consequence, however, of 
some misunderstanding, an affray with the military suddenly 
began, barricades were thrown up, and a riot ensued which 
lasted all night, in which upwards of 200 persons lost their 
lives. Henry von Amim, who had been Prussian Ambassador 
at Paris during the Bevolution, and was now made Foreign 
Minister, advised the King to put himself at the head of the 
people. William, Prince of Prussia, the King's brother, fled 
from Berlin, and the people wrote on his palace, "National 
PoUcy of Part of the Prussian Ministry had resolved on an attempt 

I^SJl^jy to place Frederick William IV. at the head of the new German 
nationality, and that Sovereign lent himself to the project with 
the same feeble mixture of covetousness and irresolution which 
his father had displayed with regard to the filching of Han- 
over. On the 2Ist March the army assumed the German 
cockade in addition to the Prussian ; the King rode through 
the streets decorated with the three German colours, preceded 
by the students carrying a banner of the Empire with the 
double eagle. In proclamations addressed " To my people," 
and '* To tibe German nation," it was declared *' that Prussia 
rises into Germany," and that "the Princes and States of 
Germany shall deliberate in common, as an Assembly of Ger- 
man States, as to the regeneration and reconstruction of 
Germany." The King rejected, indeed, the titles of '* Emperor " 
and of " King of the Germans," which had been given him in 
one of these proclamations. But he yielded entirely to the 
demands for internal reform. The bodies of those who had 
fallen, March I8th, were conducted to the grave in a solemn 
procession, which the King beheld from his balcony; and 
Dydow, the preacher, pronounced a funeral oration over them, 
(hi the same day the King granted all the demands of the 
Baden scheme. Biots broke out at the same time in other 
parts of Prussia, and especially the Bhenish Provinces; to 
pacify which, Oamphausen, of Cologne, was appointed head 
of the Ministry, 
its^ectfl The proceedings at Berlin on the 21st of March produced 
*" '^*" a bad impression in Gkrmany. Frederick William's attempt 
at usurpation was received with the unconcealed scorn of all 

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in Ger- 


parties at Vienna, Munich, and Stuttgart. But hia con- 
cessioiis to his people, as well as the revolution at Vienna, 
prevented the Saxon, Hanoverian, and Bavarian Gh>venim6nt8 
from any longer opposing the demands of their subjects. 
The King of Hanover granted the Baden scheme of reform. 
The Exng of Saxony, on the news of Mettemich's dismissal, 
immediately appointed a Liberal Ministry. In Bavaria, the 
old King, lK>uis, abdicated in favour of his son, Maximilian 11., 
March 20th. At Munich, in addition to the other revolutionary 
elements which prevailed throughout Germany, the King had 
made himself unpopular by an intrigue with an op^ra-dancer. 

The Vor-parlament (preliminary Parliament) was opened in The vor- 
the Paul's Church at Frankfurt, March 31st. It cousisted, vfuciament, 
for the most part, of Opposition members from the Ohambers 
of the middling and smaller German States, but many nonde- 
script persons were admitted. There were but few Prussian 
members, and Austria was represented only by Wiesner, a 
Jew writer. Hacker, Struve, and other violent democrats, 
aimed at a German Bepublic, or, at all events, the estab- 
lishment of a German Parliament, from which Princes were 
to be excluded. But as these Princes weie at the head of 
lai^e standing armies, it is difficult to see how this project 
was to be accomplished. The cowardice, boasting, drunken- 
ness, and other vices of the German democrats, made them 
contemptible from the beginning ; and, though they succeeded 
in creating a great deal of disorder, they never had a chance 
of success. JjOL all their skirmishes with the r^ular troops 
they were invariably defeated. 

The effects of the movement manifested themselves in The aims of 
Schleswig and Holstein by a demand for union, with a separ- H^tSnf ' 
ate Constitution, and the admission of Schleswig into the 
German Bund. A Provisional Government for the two 
Dudiies was appointed, March 24th, with the Duke of 
Aiigustenburg, Count Beventlow, and Beseler at the head. 
Frederick William IV. assured the Duke of Augustenburg 
by letter that he would protect his title, and that he approved 
the union of Schleswig with Holstein. The Prussian army 
had been offended by their dismissal from Berlin; a war 
with Denmark might obliterate the feeling, as well as restore 
the King's popularity. The Diet at Frankfurt adopted the 
Prussian view, authorized Prussia to interfere in the Danish 
question, and admitted into their Ass^nbly a Deputy from 

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SoUeswig-Holstein. The Prussian and Hanoverian troops of 
the Btmd defeated the Danes in several battles ; and on May 
18th, General Wrangel entered Jutland, and enforced a con- 
tribution of ihxee million dollars. He contemplated holding 
that province as a material guarantee for the compliance of 
the Danes with the German demands ; but on Maj 26th he 
received an order of recall and the progress of the campaign 
was arrested, owing, it is thought, to Bussian influence. 
Death of In Sweden, the tranquillity which had prevailed ever since 

^^}^i the restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of France, was 
Sweden, not now disturbed. The Crown Prince, Charles John (Bema- 
dotte), had succeeded to the Swedish Throne, with the title 
of Charles XIY., on the death of Charles XIII. in 1818 ; and 
in conjunction with the Four Estates, had ruled with wisdom 
and moderation. Charles XIV. died in 1844, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Oscar. During the Dano-G-erman conflict 
Oscar offered his mediation, and on its rejection by the Ger- 
mans, promised the Danes his aid. The pretensions of the 
Qermans to Schleswig were also condemned by the Norwe- 
gians. As Prussia, which suffered from the Danish blockade, 
did not seem inclined to follow up her victories, the Ministry 
of the Confederation resolved, Jiily 1st, to raise an army and 
to carry out the German pretensions without her add. The 
contingents of Wurtemberg and Baden began their march 
for the North at the beginning of August, but on the 7th of 
that month the ArchdiS^e John, who had now been elected 
Eeieh8verwe$er, or Yicar of the new German Confederation, 
gave the King of Prussia full powers to negotiate an armistice 
with the Danes. Prussia had accepted Swedish mediation, 
and Conferences were going on, which resulted, August 26th, 
in the armistice of Malmo. The King of Denmark consented 
that during this armistice, which was to last for seven months, 
Schleswig and Holstein should have a common Government ; 
half to be appointed by himself, and the other half by the 
King of Prussia, on behalf of the JBtend. 

The revolution at Vienna naturally set all Italy in a flame, 
and led to very important developments. 
state of In 1888 the Emperor Ferdinand had caused himself to be 

^^^' crowned, at Milan, King of Lombardy and Venice, and in the 

same year the French IumI evacuated Ancona. The dominion 
of Austria seemed to be sufficiently stable in Northern Italy, 
BO long as peace with France was preserved, to assure the 

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Gbjlp. LXX.] the BBVOLTJTIONS OF 1848 91 

tranquillity, or the servitude, of the other Italiui States. But 
under the surface glowed a volcano of faction. Masrini had 
founded a secret league called La gumme Italia^ or ** Young 
Italj," the object of which was to emancipate Italy frcoa the 
yoke of foreigners. In 1840, when the afEairs of the East 
threatened a breach between France and the Northern Powers, 
the ItalianB began to stir; and partial attempts at insur- 
rection were subsequently made in 1848 and 1846. The 
death of Pope G-regory XYI. in June, 1846, seemed to open 
brighter prospects to the patriots of Italy. The Conclave Piusix. 
diose for his successor Cardinal Mastai Ferretti, who assumed 
the title of Pius IX. The new Pope began his reign with 
some liberal measures, which made him very popular in Italy. 
He granted amnesties, deposed all unpopular magistrates, 
allowed a greater liberty of the press. It was an opinion 
entertained by many, that the unity and independence of 
Italy could be achieved only by means of the Pope ; and it 
was hoped that Pius IX. might be induced to head the league 
of ** Young Italy : " but there was an afterthought that the 
tool should be thrown aside when it had answered the pur- 
pose. The club called Oireolo Bomano took up this idea, pre- 
tended a great affection for the Pope, and cheered him when 
he appeared in public. Pio None consented to a sort of Pto- 
liament, and to the formation of a guardia civiea, or burgher- 
guard. He even entertained the idea of an Italian Zollvereint 
or customs-union, as a prelude to political unity. Leopold II., 
Grand Ihike of Tuscany, was also induced by some popular 
demonstrations to authorize a bui^her-guard, and certain 
political reforms. Austria, however, warned the Pope as to 
his proceedings. That Power garrisoned the citadel of Fenara, 
agreeably to the Treaties of 1815 ; but she now proceeded to 
occupy the whole town ; an act against which Plus was per- 
suaded to protest, and even to make preparations for war.^ 

Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, also announced about numrrec. 
this time some liberal measures. In November, 1847, he tiianit^^' 
concluded a customs-union with Borne and Tuscany, and in i^^- 
February, 1848, he granted a new Constitution to his subjects. 
On the North he c^tivated the friendship of the Swiss. The 
South of Italy had been disturbed before the French Boto- 

^ StUlman, The Union ofIMp ; Manrice, The BevoluHonary Mave- 
ment of 1848-48 in Italy, Atuirta cmd Htmgary. 

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lution. An insturection liad broken out at Palermo, January 
12ih, 1848, and on the 29th in Naples, when King Ferdinand 
n. granted a Constitution. The principles of Mazzini also 
pervaded Austrian Italy. The Austrian Gbyemment affected 
mildness, but it is difficult to reconcile men to a foreign yoke. 
A crusade was got up a^inst tobacco, the sale of which was 
an Austrian monopoly, by a renunciation of smoking ; and at 
the beginning of 1848 all intercourse with Austrian officers 
was broken off. At this time the apathetic Archduke Bainer 
was Viceroy in the Austrian dominions in Italy, while Marshal 
Badetzki, then eighty-two years of a^, held the military 
command. Badetzki, who foresaw the coming storm, in vain 
besought his Oovemment for reinforcements, and that Milan, 
Verona, and other places should be strengthened. The Arch- 
duke left Milan for Vienna, March 17th, and on the evening 
of the same day the insurrection in that capital was publicly 
known at Milan. Next morning Casati, the Podesta, the 
Archbishop of Milan, and Count Borromeo, the chief of the 
Lombard nobles, who had long been initiated in the con- 
spiracy, displayed the three-coloured fla^, and demanded 
from Count O'Donnel, who conducted the Government in 
the absence of the Archduke, that he should assent to all 
the demands of the Lombard people, as had been done in 
Vienna. O'Donnel hesitated, the Podestk apprehended him, 
and the people threw up barricades. A street fight ensued, 
which lasted four days; during which the troops suffered so 
severely that Badetzki withdrew them, except at the gates 
and in the citadel. His force consisted of only 20,000 men ; 
Charles Albert of Sardinia was approaching with his whole 
army ; and Badetzki, feeling that he was not strong enough 
to hold the insurgent town, evacuated it on the night of 
March 22nd. 
Charles Charles Albert had received no injury from Austria ; but 

^J^ the opportunity was too tempting to be lost. He declared 
MUan. war, took possession of Milan, and pursued the rstreatii^ 
Badetzki; who, after reducing to ashes the little town of 
Melegnano which had obstructed his retreat, and withdrawing 
the garrisons from several places, took up a strong position 
between the Mincio and the Adige, in the triangle formed by 
the fortresses of Mantua, PescUera and Verona; where he 
awaited reinforcements from Germany. The Austrian garri- 
sons in Brescia, Cremona, Como, Padua, Treviso, Udine, sur- 

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Chaf. LXX.] the revolutions op 1848 93 

rendered. Yenioe was lost through the cowardice of the 
commandiBhnt. A capitulation was entered into with the 
insurgent people, the Austiians left the city, and the advocate 
Manin placed himself at the head of the restored Bepublic. 

Obarles Albert, though called the Spcbda d^ItcUia, or sword 
of Italy, and though his forces &r outnumbered those of 
Badetzld, did not venture on a battle. He hoped that his 
conneetion with the revolutionists at Yienna would obtain for 
hini the g^ of Italy, which all parties agreed m ust be wrested 
from Austria, though they differed as to what was to be done 
witli it. Badetzki could expect no aid from Vienna, where 
the Government was in a state of dissolution. Count Kolowrat, 
the hope of the Liberals, had succeeded to Mettemich's place, 
but could not allay the storm. The Archduke Louis resigned 
the conduct of affairs to the Archduke Francis Charles, who 
ruled with as weak a hand, and Kolowrat was succeeded by 
Count Fiequelmont. Kossuth, in order to wrest Hungary KoBsnth's 
&om Austria, endeavoured to perpetuate the disturbances at <^®°^''^- 
Vienna. The Emperor Ferdinand had promised the Hun- 
garians many reforms, and even permitted a national ministry 
independent of that at Vienna, of which Count Batthyani was 
the head, while Kossuth administered the fbances. Kossuth 
demanded for Hungary the Baden scheme of reform, which 
would give the aristocracy their last blow. He also required 
the incorporation of Transylvania with Hungary, a national 
Hungarian bank and the exclusion of Austrian paper money ; 
also, that Hungarian troops should not serve the Emperor out 
of the Austrian dominions. The Diet at Pesth, overawed by 
the aspect of affairs, in its last sitting, April 11th, at which 
the Emperor Ferdinand was present, gave all these demands 
the force of law. 

The Bohemians also demanded a new Constitution and insnrroc- 
reforms very similar to those required by the Hungarians. sShe^. 
I^f essor Palacky, the historian of Bohemia, ?ras the soul of 
the Tschech party, as Kossuth was of the lid^gyar movement 
in Hungary. Palacky was invited by the Vor-parlameni to 
take his seat among them ; but he declared that he was a 
Tschech, and would not meddle with Gterman affairs. The 
Bohemians invited Ferdinand to Prague, as the riots still 
continued at Vienna; but he took rSuge in preference at 
Innsbruck among his faithful Tyrolese. The suppression of 
a riot at Prague, by Prince Windischgratz, in June, was the 

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at Naples. 

jBrst reactionary triumph of the Imperial arms. Nor did 
diaries Albert, in spite of his numerical superiority, make 
much progress in Lombardy. Gkuribaldi, who was bom at 
Nice, July 4th, 1807, and after some exploits in South 
America returned to Europe in 1848, had raised about 8,000 
Yolunteers ; but the King of Sardinia, dreading the triumph 
of the Maz2sinists and BepubUcans, did not encourage the 
arming of the people. He sent 2,000 men to assist and 
secure Yenice, but that city preferred to remain a Eepublic. 
As at one time the Austrian Q-oYemment seemed disposed to 
surrender, Charles Albert refused to join a league of the Italian 
States proposed by the Pope. 

After the revolution at Paris the movements already in 
progress in Central and Southern Italy broke into a perfect 
storm. Pius IX. in some degree aUayed it at Some by 
announcing a new Constitution for that city, including a 
temporal ministry and a chamber of deputies (March 15th). 
But at the news of the revolution at Vienna the Romans were 
seized with a sort of fury. All flew to arms ; the Palazzo di 
Yenezia was stormed, and the Austrian double ea^le torn 
down. The Pope despatched his troops under Durando, with 
a considerable body of volunteers under Colonel Ferrari, to 
his northern frontier, for the avowed purpose of defence ; but 
Burando led them over the Po to join Charles Albert, when 
Pius, in alarm, asserted in an allocution, April 29th, that he 
had given his troops no such orders. Such, however, was the 
spirit inspired by the democratic movement in Austria, that 
the Pope's consent was extorted to make common cause with 
Charles Albert, but on condition that the latter Sovereign 
should join the Italian league, which, as we have said, he 
declined. The same spirit prevailed in Tuscany as at Bome, 
and hence also a small army of 7,000 men was despatched. 
In Modena the Duke was driven from his dominions. 

Before the French Bevolution broke out the King of Naples 
had already granted a Constitution to his subjects, February 
10th, 1848, while in the preceding January Sicily had separated 
from that country and declared its independence. Lord Minto, 
who had been sent into Italy in a semi-official capacity by the 
British Government, endeavoured in vain to reconcile the 
Sicilians and the Khig. The Jesuits were now driven from 
Naples ; the Austrian arms at the Embassy were torn down ; 
and, as the Elng could give him no satis&etion. Prince Felix 

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Schwarzenberg, the Austrian Ambassador, took his departure. 
Ferdinand 11. was at length compelled to sanction a fresh 
democratic Constitution, April 3rd, when Troja, the historian, 
became his Prime Minister. War was now declared against 
Austria, and General Pep^ sent to the North with 18,000 men ; 
but from jealousy of Charles Albert they were directed not to 
cross the Po. When the Neapolitan Chajnbers met. May 14(ih, 
they were not contented with the new Constitution, and a fresh 
insurrection broke out which threatened to oyertum the throne. 
Barricades were thrown up, and a sanguinary conflict ensued 
between the Swiss guards and the populace, whidii ended in 
the entire discomfiture of the insui^nts. Ferdinand, after 
causing the people to be disarmed, withdrew the concessions 
which he had made in April, but retained the Constitution of 
February. Prince Cariati was now appointed Minister. Pep^ 
was receJled, and directed to proceed to Sicily to restore order, 
but preferred to go to Venice with such of his troops as were 
inclined to foUow him. The Swiss TagscUsmng, or Diet, 
ordered the regiments which had fought for the King at 
Naples to be disbanded, as having acted contrary to the 
honour and interest of Switzerland. But these regiments 
refused to quit the King's service. 

Meanwhile in the North of Italy, Marshal Badetzki, having North Italy, 
been reinforced by Count Nugent with 13,000 men, repulsed 
an attack made by Charles Albert at St. Lucia, May 6th. On 
the 29th he defeated with great loss Laugier's Tuscan division 
at Curtatone ; but was, in turn, defeated the following day by 
Charles Albert at Gk>ito. The Emperor Ferdinand, who was 
at Innsbruck, now directed Badetzla to conclude an armistice, 
but the Marshal ventured to disobey these orders, and wrote 
to his master not to despond. Peschiera surrendered to the 
Piedmontese, May 30th. On the other hand, Badetzki took 
Vicenza, June 11th. The capture of Bivoli by Charles Albert, 
which lies on the road from Verona into South Tyrol, was of less 
importance than it might seem, as Badetzki's communication 
vnth Vienna was secured more to the east. Towards the end 
of July the Piedmontese- were defeated in several engage- 
ments, and the Austrians, having been largely reinfon^, 
began to advance. Charles Albert now soUcited a truce, 
wUch was refused. The British Q-overnment had attempted 
to mediate in favour of Charles Albert, and Lord Abercrombie, 
the English Ambassador at Turin, proceeded to the Austrian 

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camp to negotiate ; but Badetzki would hear of nothing till 
hd should have arrived at Milan. The Piedmontese retreated, 
or rather fled, to that town, without venturing to defend 
Cremona, and were defeated in a battle before the gates of 
the Lombard capital, August 5th, which was re-entered bj 
Badetzki on the following day. On the 9th he signed an 
armistice, bj which he secured Charles Albert!s Rentiers. 
That SoTereign, on his side, surrendered Peschiera, and with- 
drew his troops from Venice. Bje had been proclaimed King 
in that citj, July 4th, but at the news of his misfortunes the 
> people turned, and Manin again proclaimed the Bepublic. 
Qaribaldi, after delivering a last battle against the Austrians, 
fled into Switzerland. Thus all Lombardy was again sub- 
dued ; Badetzki proceeded to invest Venice on the knd side, 
and began the laborious siege of that city. 
Election of Meanwhile the German iN'ational Assembly assembled at 
MjjtoperiaJ ivankfurt to establish a " German Constitution " without any 
interference on the part of the Princes, chose Henry von 
Gagem for their President, May 18th. The majority were 
for restoring an Emperor, while only a minority desired a 
Bepublic. On the motion of Von Gagem, the Archduke 
John, as we have before intimated, was elected Beichsvenveser, 
or Imperial Vicar, June 29th, being thus constituted, as it 
were, a Pr»-Emperor, as the Vor-ptMiamwU had been a PrsB- 
parliament. The Archduke John entered Frankfurt in state, 
July 11th ; on the following day the Diet of the Confederation 
dosed its session, and handed over its power to the Imperial 
Vicar. Of aU the German Sovereigns, the King of Hanover 
alone protested against these proceedings. 
Biotsand The Constituent Assembly for Prussia was also opened at 
gL^SS^ Berlin, May 22nd, but like the Frankfurt Parliament, did 
nothing but talk. The expedition against Denmark had been 
underi^en to divert the people's attention from their own 
affairs. The Frankfurt mob, however, did not acquiesce in 
the proceedings of the Parliam^oit. A serious riot took place, 
August 18th, which was eventually put down by the military ; 
but two members of the Parliament, Prince Lichnowski and 
General Auerswald, were killed. Biots and democratic de- 
monstrations broke out at this time in many parts of Germany, 
but were suppressed without much difficulty. After the failure 
of the attempted insurrection at Frankfurt some of the boldest 
democratic leaders vanished to other places. Bobert Blum, 

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Frobel, and others betook themselves to Yienna, to fan the 
embers of sedition in that capital A ** Central Committee 
of Democratic Germany" published, October 3rd, a violent 
proclamation, repudiating and abusing the Frankfurt Parlia- 
ment, protesting against its existence, and summoning a 
'* General Democratic Congress," to meet at Berlin on the 
26th. The assembly actually met; but in the interval the 
coura^ of the talkers had oosed out, and the congress made 
but a sorry figure. 

The hopes of the German democrats were fixed upon Vienna, state of 
where alone the people had obtained the mastery, and were h^"**'^- 
supported by Kossuth with the whole strength of Hungary. 
The higher and richer class had quitted Vienna in the summer. 
A Committee of Safety and the Aula, or university, ruled side 
by side with the Ministry and Diet. The Austrian Constituent 
National Assembly, which had been opened by the Archduke 
John, July 22nd, shortly before he went to Frankfurt, had no 
influence at all with the people. The insurgent Viennese were 
directed by Kossuth. That leader had carried in the Hun- 
garian Diet the levy of 200,000 Honveds, or national troops, 
and the issue of forty-two million gulden in paper money. But 
the aspect of affairs began gradually to change. The Em- 
peror Ferdinand returned to Vienna after Eadetzki's success, 
August 12th, and the Ministry began to take some bolder 
steps. In order to appease the people work had been pro- 
vided for them by the Government ; but the wages were now 
reduced, and though the labourers revolted, they were put 
down by the municipal guard. The Government dissolved the 
Committee of Safety August 24th, which ventured not to 
resist. The Servians and Croats had taken up arms against 
the Hungarians in Ferdinand's cause ; though Kossutibi pre- 
tended to fight against them, as rebels, in the Emperor's 
name. At the beginning of September Kossuth sent a depu- 
tation of 150 Hungarian gentlemen to Vienna to invite the 
Emperor to Pesth, and to request him to order back the Hun- 
garian regiments from Italy to defend their country. Fer- 
dinand, of course, declined these proposals. 

The Archduke Stephen having laid down the office of Hun- Abdication 
garian Palatine and returned to Vienna, the Emperor ap- 2nd L/iSis. 
pointed Count Lemberg Governor of Hungary. But a party 
of Kossuth's scythemen murdered him on the bridge of Pesth, 
September 28th. No terms of course could any longer be kept. 

VI. H 

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Kossutli relied for support on a revolt which had long been 
preparing at Vienna, and wluch broke out October 6th. The 
Minister Latour was seized and murdered. The mob broke 
into the chamber of the National Assembly and caused an 
address to be drawn up to the Emperor, in which he was re- 
quired to recall all the measures which had been taken against 
Hungary and all the powers which had been given to Radetzki. 
The Government arsenal and that in the city were stormed and 
plundered. Next day Ferdinand fled from Schonbrunn to 
Olmiitz, where he found a defence in the loyalty of the people 
and the neighbourhood of Windischgratz and his army. That 
general proceeded with 30,000 men &om Bohemia to Vienna 
to form the siege of that city ; in which he was assisted by 
Jellachich, the Croat leader, with 35,000 men, and Auersperg 
with 15,000. These forces completely surrounded Vienna, 
which, after a week's siege, was taken by assault, October 31st. 
Some of the captured leaders of the insurrection were shot, 
among them Robert Blum. A revolution now ensued at Court. 
Prince Felix Schwarzenberg became Prime Minister, November 
24!th, and on December 2nd, 1848, the Emperor Ferdinand I. 
abdicated in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph. The mo- 
tive assigned for this step was, that a younger Sovereign was 
required to carry out the necessary reforms in the State.^ 
B«Mtion in The suppression of the insurrection at Vienna produced a 
reaction at Berlin. On November 4th the King empowered 
Count Brandenburg, an illegitimate son of Frederick William 
n., to form a new Ministry. On the 8th the so-called 
Constituent Assembly was ordered to transfer itself to the 
town of Brandenburg, and on the 10th General Wrangel 
entered Berlin with a numerous force, without encountering 
any resistance. At the news of these proceedings riots ensued 
in various parts of Germany, which were not, however, at- 
tended with any important results. The Constituent Assembly 
was opened at Brandenburg November 27th ; but in con- 
sequence of their tumultuous debates the King dissolved 
them, December 5th, and granted a Constitution by his 
own grace and favour. The legislature was to consist of two 
chambers, and writs were issu^ for elections in the ensuing 
In Austria, the first care of the new Emperor was the re- 

^ Bach, Die Wiener BevolwUm, 1848. 

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Chap.LXX.] the revolutions of 1848 





daction of Hungary. That commissioii was intrusted to Prince 
Windischgratz, who began the campaign in the middle of De- 
cember. Kossuth ral^ nearly the whole of Hungaiy, as 
President of a Committee of National Defence. The Hun- 
garian Diet did not recognize the abdication of Ferdinand, 
but still called him King of Hungary, and represented Francis 
Joseph to the troops as a usurper. The Hungarian army was 
comnianded by Gorgey, while Qeneral Bem led the insurgents 
in Transylvania. As the Austrians advanced the Hungarians 
retreated, with the view of drawing them into the interior of 
the country during the bad season. Kossuth abandoned Pesth 
on the approach of Windischgratz, carrying with him the 
crown of St. Stephen, and the Austrians entered Buda and 
Pesth without opposition, January 5th, 1849. Windischgratz 
defeated the Hungarians under Dembinski at Kapolna, Feb- 
ruary 28th ; while, on the other hand. General Bem gained 
several advantages over the Imperialists in Transylvania. 

The state of affairs in Hungary, and the circumstance of OTerthrow 
Eadetzki being still engaged in l3ie siege of Venice, encouraged ^ib^Jf^^ 
the King of ^urdinia to resume the war against Austria at the 
termination of the armistice, March 12th, 1849. Thus Austria 
would have to deal at once with the revolted Hungarians and 
Italians, and it was considered that the disturbances in Oter- 
many would lend a moral support to the movement. Charles 
Albert's army amounted to between 80,000 and 90,000 men, 
while that of Badetzki was not more than 60,000 or 70,000. 
But the best Piedmontese generals were adverse to the war, 
and the chief commands were, therefore, intrusted to Poles. 
Badetzki defeated Chrzanowski at Mortara, March 21st, and 
on the 28rd inflicted on him a still more terrible defeat at 
Novara. Never was overthrow more speedy or more complete. 
On the 24th of March Charles Albert resigned his crown in 
despair, and fled to Oporto, where he died a few months after. 
His son and successor, Victor Emanuel II., immediately be- 
sought Badetzki for a truce, which that general granted on 
very moderate terms. On the 28th of March Badetzki again 
entered Milan. Brescia, which had revolted, and persisted in 
defending itself, was captured by Count Haynau, a natural son 
of the Elector of Hesse; who, from the barbarous cruelty which 
he exercised on the inhabitants, obtained the name of the 
'' Hysena of Brescia." A definitive peace was concluded be- 
tween Austria and Sardinia, August 6th, by which everything 

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waa feplaeed cm tlie anoient footing. The SardiBtans \aA to 
pay seventy-fiye million francs for tbe costs of the war. 
WftriB The Hungarian insurgents under Gorge j were more sue* 

HmigMy. cessful.^ The Austrians were defeated in several battles, 
Komom was taken, and Vienna itself was threatened. Austria 
now accepted the aid of Bussia. This step on the part of the 
iimperor Nicholas was not altogether disinterested. Many 
Poles took part in the Hungarian war, and he apprehended 
lest the success of the rebels in that country should lead to a 
revolution in Poland. It had been decided by the new Aus- 
trian Government that Hungary should be deprived of its 
former Constitution, its separate Diet, and nationality. Kos- 
suth retorted by causing the Diet assembled at Debrecssin to 
depose the House of Habsburg-Lorraine from the throne of 
Hungary, and to establish a Provisional Bepublic. Windisch- 
gratz was superseded in the command of the Austriaii army 
by Baron Welden ; who, however, was compelled to retreat, 
and Gorgey took 3uda by storm, May 21st. But in the middle 
of June Prince Paskiewitsch entered Hungary at several 
points, with a Eussian army of 130,000 men and 500 guns. 
The Austrian army had also been reinforced, and the command 
again transferred to Haynau. The Hungarian army was 
estimated at 200,000 men, but was not equal to the combined 
armies of Austria and Eussia. 
OTerttrow We cannot enter into the details of the Hungarian war, 
Kos^. ^ which ended with the complete reduction of the Hungarians 
in the autumn of 1849. Thus Austria preserved that King- 
dom, but through foreign aid, and consequently with some 
sacrifice of independence. The division of the Hungarian 
army under Dembinski, with which was Kossuth, having been 
annihilated by Haynau, Kossuth, having first resigned his 
power into the hands of Gorgey, betook himself to the pro- 
tection of that general, August 11th. Goi^ey, who was no 
republican, loved him not ; and Kossuth, instead of fulfilling 
his promise to give up the Hungarian crown and jewels, fled 
with them to General Bem in Transylvai^ia. On the 12th of 
August Gorgey surrendered by capitulation with bis whole 
army of 28,000 men to the Eussian General Eudiger. Bem, 
having only 6,000 men, both he and !^ossuth now fled into 

^ L^ger, Histoire de rAtUriche-ffonarie ; Yranyi and Chassen, 
Hittoire Politique de la Involution de Mongrie en 1847-1849 ; Martin, 
Chterre de Hon^ en 1848 et 1849. 

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Ohaf. LXX.] the revolutions op 1848 101 

Turkej, where ihej found protection, in spite of the Russian 
and Austrian demands for their extradition. Kossuth, and 
several other fugitiyes, afterwards proceeded to England. The 
Hungariali diyisions now surrendered one after another. 
€^rgej obtained, through Russian mediation, permission to 
reside at Gratz ; but Haynau took a cruel revenge on oth^ 
leaders of the revolution. He condemned Batthjani to the 
gallows, and went half mad with rage on learning that the 
unfortunate count had been shot at Buda. He caused 
Prince Wroniski and tWo others to be hanged at Pesth, and 
the Generals Becsej, Aulich, Leiningen, with several more, at 
Atad ; some, by way of fcivour, he only ordered to be shot. 
The Em{>eror was obliged to rec»Jl him. This man was after- 
wards imprudent enough to come to England ; when the treat- 
ment which he received at the hands of some of Messrs. 
Barclay and Perkins', the brewers, men, was well deserved. 

Austria, after quelling the Lombard and Hungarian insur- The Roman 
rections, was at leisure to attend to the affairs of Central ^p"*»^- 
Italy. In Rome, since the spring of 1848, the Pope had been 
compelled to accept the temp<n*al and liberal ministry of 
Mamiani. After the success of the Austrians in Upper Italy 
Pio Nono ventured again to assert his pontifical authority. 
His principal adviser was Count ttossi, the French Ambas- 
sador, though an Italian by birth. Rossi subsequently became 
the Pope's Prime Minister, and endeavoured to restore things 
to their ancient footing ; but he was assassinated, November 
15th, when about to enter the newly-ox>ened National Assembly. 
Upon this, the people, aided by the papal troops, as weU as by 
the civic guards stormed Pius in the Quirinal, murdered his 
private secretary, Cardinal Palma, and extorted the dismissal 
of the Swiss guards and the appointment of a popular minis- 
try. The Pope, with the aid of Count Spaur, the Bavarian 
Ambassador, succeeded in escaping from the Quirinal, dis- 
guised as one of the count's livery servants, and betook him- 
self to Gaeta, whither he was followed by his ministers. The 
Roman Parliament having in vain required him to return, at 
length proceeded to establish a Provisional Government, or 
Junta of State, consisting of the triumvirate. Counts Corsini, 
Camerata, and Galetti (I>ecember 19th). The Pope protested 
against all their acts as illegal. At this time, Ganbaldi, who 
had taken service under the Roman Republic, entered Rome 
at the head of a large body of volunteers. In Tuscany, also. 

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the Q-rand Duke was compelled to accept a democratic minis- 
try, whicli aimed at establishing a Eepublic. Insurrections 
took place at Leghorn and Genoa in December. On Feb- 
ruary 5th, 1849, was opened at Eome a general Italian Con- 
stituent Assembly, with the view of establishing Italian unity 
under a republican form of government. In this Assembly 
Mazzini played the chief part, and after him. Prince Charles 
of Canino, a son of Lucien Bonaparte. But at the time of 
the Pope's flight Prince Louis Napoleon, afterwards the French 
President, had expressed his sympathy for the Church, and 
repudiated the proceedings of his cousin ; and General Cavaig- 
nac promised Pius that he would assist him. The Constituent 
Assembly began by deposing the Pope as a temporal prince, 
and proclaiming the Boman Bepublic, February 8th. The 
executive power of the new Bepublic was placed in the hands 
of the triumvirate, Mazzini, Armellini, and Saffi, who decreed 
the confiscation of aU Church property. In Florence also, 
the Grand Duke fled, Guerazzi proclaimed a Bepublic, and 
was named Dictator. 

After the overthrow of Charles Albert, however, a reaction 
commenced. The Austrians began to enter Central Italy; 
France and Spain also despatched troops to the Pope's aid; 
whilst Yictor Emanuel, the new King of Sardinia, sent an 
army to reduce the Bepublicans of Genoa. At Florence, a 
counter-revolution broke out, and Guerazzi was compelled 
to fly. 
i^eFrench In June, Parma, Bologna, and Ancona, were successively 
* ™®* occupied by the Austrians, who, however, at Bome, were antici- 
pated by the French. A division of 6,000 French troops under 
General Oudinot landed at Civit^ Yecchia, April 25th, and a 
few days later, a few thousand Spaniards landed at Terracina. 
The King of Naples also advanced against Bome. That the 
new French Bepublic should begin its career with coercing 
its fellow Bepublicans at Bome, showed how vast was the 
difference between the Bevolution of 1848 and that of 1792. 
Oudinot found a reception he had little anticipated. He 
experienced a signal defeat before the walls of Bome from 
Garibaldi's volunteers, April 30th ; upon which the King of 
Naples withdrew his troops. Oudinot now procured a truce 
in order to reinforce himself, while Lesseps, the French Am- 
bassador, endeavoured to cajole the Bomans. When these 
purposes were answered Lesseps was disavowed, and, in spite 

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Chap.LXX.] the EEVOLTJnONS OP 1848 103 

of Quribaldi's heroic defence, Oudinot captured Borne, Julj 
Srd. Gkkribaldi succeeded in escaping, and embarked near 
S. Marinello for Genoa. Mazzini sJso escaped. He had pre- 
viously been obliged to lay down his power in favour of a 
new triumvirate, consisting of Salicetti, Mariani, and Calan- 
dretti ; who concluded the capitulation with the French. The 
Spaniards did not venture to approach Borne. General Oudinot, 
after his entrance, established a government in the name of 
the Pope, and thus de facto put an end to the Boman Bepublic. 
Pius himself, however, not relishing the protection of French 
bayonets, remained at Gaeta ; nor would he consent to make 
such concessions as the French Government desired, in order 
to avert the unpopularity of the expedition among the liberal 
party in France. The Grand Duke of Tuscany returned to 
his capital July 29th. Venice, which had endured a siege 
since the summer of 1848, was not reduced by the Austrians 
till August 22nd, 1849, partly by bombardment, partly through 
the effects of famine. The Austrians were computed to have 
lost 20,000 men during the siege, principally by marsh fever. 
Manin, and forty of the most compromised of the Yenetian 
Bepublicans, were permitted to withdraw. 

Although Naples had been reduced, Sicily continued in a sicjiy in- 
state of rebellion. In July, 1848, the Sicilians, at the sugges- ^^*^^ 
tion, it is said, of Lord Minto, chose Duke Ferdinand of 
Genoa, brother of Victor Emanuel, for their King ; but that 
Prince declined to accept the proffered crown. Prince Filan- 
gieri, with a Neapolitan army, landed at Messina, and cap- 
tured that town after a sai^uinary struggle, September 7^. 
In the spring of 1849 Filangieri reduced Catania and Syra- 
cuse, and on April 28rd he entered Palermo, thus putting an 
end to the rebellion. 

We must now revert to the affairs of Germany, where the Germaiir. 
German Parliament had by a small majority elected the Xing 
of Prussia hereditary Emperor, March 28th, 1849 ; a dignity, 
however, which, after a month's hesitation, Frederick William 
IV. declined to accept. His timidity again overcame him. 
He was afraid of some of the other German Princes, though 
twenty-nine of them approved the offer ; and he also wanted 
resolution to wield the supreme power at a period of such 
disturbance. Thus vanished the hopes of the German patriots. 
After this step on the part of the Parliament Austria with- 
drew her representatives. The debates at Frankfurt were 

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104 MODEEN EUBOPE [Chap. liXX. 

aoeompaaied with disturbances in manj parts of Gelmanj. 
Biots first broke out at Dresden, Maj 3rd, where the Eing of 
Saxon J had dismissed the Eadical Chamber and established 
a strong ministr j. At first the people had the mastery. The 
Bojal Family fled in the night to Eonigstein, and a Proyisional 
Qoyemment was constituted under the triumvirate, Tschirner* 
Heubner, and Todt. By the aid of Prussian and other troops 
the rebellion, howerer, was put down. May 9th. An attempted 
insurrection at Leipsic also failed. Berlin was not again dis- 
turbed, but riots, attended with loss of life, occurred in many 

TheGerman of the smaller towns. On May 14th Frederick William IT. 

^^^^ directed all Prussian subjects to quit the Frankfurt Patlia- 
ment, and a similar order was issued a few days after by the 
Eing of Saxony. That assembly was also reduced, by the 
Toluntary desertion of other members, to little more than 100 
persons ; who, deeming themselves no longer secure in Frank- 
fuist, transferred their sittings to Stuttgart early in June. 
Here they d^>osed the Imperial Yicar, and appointed a new 
Begeticy, consisting of five members. But, as they began to 
call the people to arms, they were dispersed by the Wurtem- 
berg Government. The insurgents, under Mierolowski, held 
out for some time in the Palatinate and Baden ; but towards 
the end of June the Prussians compelled them to disperse and 
take refuge in Switzerland. The Swiss Confederate Council^ 
however, by a decree of July 16th, directed the ringleaders to 
quit that country. 

^Jn In the spring of 1849 the war had again broken out ill 

Hoistdnf Schleswig-Holstein. Denmark was dissatisfied with the ar- 
rangement by which, after the armistice of Malmd, the Duchies 
had been conjointly administered under the presidency of 
Count Beventlow; nor were England and Russia willing 
that Schleswig should be taken from the Danish Eing. 
Denmark denounced the armistice, April 26th. The cam- 
paign commenced with the loss, by the Danes, of two of their 
best ships at Eckenf drde ; while on land they were shortly 
after defeated at Eolding by General Bonin and the army 
of the Bund. Bonin, however, was in turn defeated by the 
Danes under General Bye at Fredericia, July 6th. England 
and Bussia now interfered, and dictated a fresh armistice of 
six months on the basis of the separation of Schleswig and 
Hdfftein, July lOtii. 

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WHILE great part of Europe was thus disturbed, the new 
French Sepublic was peacefully consolidating itself. 
The dubs were suppressed; part of the ga/rde mobile dis- 
missed ; Blanquiy Baspail, and other agitators were condemned 
by the Court of Assizes at Bonrges. In the spring of 1849 
lionis Napoleon conciliated the Church by despatching to 
Bome the expedition under General Oudinot a&eadj men- 
tioned, with the collateral view of establishing in Italy a 
Gonntc^rpoise to Austrian influence, and making the arms of 
France respected. 

The newly-elected Legislative Assembly met at Paris, May insarroc- 
28th. More than half the Chamber were new members, and g„^*^2ef 
many who had taken a leading part in the Bevolution were 
not returned. Among those excluded were Lamartine and 
Marrast. The Bed Eepublicans and Socialists were furious ; 
Ledru BoUin violently attacked the President's policy, nay, 
even sought to impeach hini. The ill success at first of Oudinot 
at Bome favoured an attempt to incite a general insurrection. 
The Bepublicans of the Opposition, called the Mountain, con- 
sisting of about 120 members, invited the National Guard to 
make a procession, though unarmed, to the Assembly, in order 
to remind it of its duties (June 13th). But the President 
had taken the necessary military precautions, and Changar- 
nier, at the head of the troops, dispersed the procession and 
destroyed the barricades which had been commenced. The 
insurgents were also driven from the Conservatory of Arts, 
where they had opened a sort of Convention, and named 
Ledru BolUn Dictator. Several of the ringleaders were appre- 
hended, while Ledru Bollin only saved himself by flight. The 
Paris insurrection was thus suppressed, as well as another 
which occurred the same day at Lyons ; the latter, however. 

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not without considerable bloodshed. After these events the 
republican journals were in part suppressed, and the remain- 
der subjected by a new law to more rigid control. 
Plans of In the summer of 1849 the President made several tours 

^uuNapo- -jj ^Yie provinces. His policy assumed more and more a con- 
servative tendency. Early in December he made some partial 
changes in the Ministry, and announced his intention to be 
firm ; such, he said, had been the wish of France in choosing 
him. Many former adherents of the Bourbons now joined 
him, as Thiers, Mol^, Broglie, Berryer, Montalembert, and 
others ; but only in the hope that a restoration of one of the 
Bourbon lines might be effected. Most of the projets de lai 
which the President submitted to the Assembly were directed 
against liberty ; such as higher securities for the journals, the 
leading articles of which were ordered to be signed, the limita- 
tion of the elective franchise, a severe law for the transporta- 
tion of political offenders, etc. The Chamber tamely submitted, 
and voted the President, though exceptionally for a year, a 
salary of 2,160,000 francs, instead of 600,000. Out of this 
supply he defrayed the expense of the military feasts, in which 
he was toasted as the '* Emperor." His plans were promoted 
by dread and hatred of Socialism, and his Government even 
became popular, because it insured tranquillity, with employ- 
ment and prosperity as its consequences. But the basis of 
his power was fixed chiefly in the provinces, which now for 
the first time possessed more influence than Paris. 

The Pretender, Henry V., Duke of Bordeaux, who in his 
exile used only the modest title of Comte de Chambord, visited 
Wiesbaden in August, 1850, where he was soon surrounded 
by the leading Legitimists of France. He was persuaded to 
publish a foolish manifesto. In the same month the ex-King, 
Louis Philippe, died at Claremont (August 26th). He left his 
family not altogether at unity. The Count of Paris, the 
claimant of the French throne, resided in Ghermany, at a dis- 
tance from his relatives. 
The qaes- Another change in the French Administration took place in 
w^on of January, 1851, the chief feature of which was the dismissal 
the consti- of General Changamier. It had been observed that in the 
tation. reviews of the preceding autumn, all the regiments had shouted 
'' Vive VEmpereur" except those commanded by Changamier. 
The Assembly, however, began to show symptoms of resist- 
ance. A vote was carried of non-confidence in the new 

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Chap.LXXI.] napoleon HI. AND ETJEOPE 107 

Ministry, which was again changed ; and in Febniarj a pro- 
posal for increasing the President's salary was rejected. But 
this opposition only stimulated Louis Napoleon in his pur- 
pose. Petitions came up from all parts of France demanding 
a revision of the Constitution or» in plain words, an Empire 
instead of a Bepublic ; but they were rejected by the Chamber. 
When the Chamber was reopened in November the President 
again demanded a revision of the Constitution, in order, as 
he intimated, to regulate legally what the French people 
would otherwise know how to obtain in another manner. He 
alluded to the support which he might expect from the clergy, 
the agricultural and manufacturing interests, and above all 
from the troops; and he hinted the influence of his name 
among the army, of which, according to the Constitution, he 
alone had the disposal. If the Assembly would not vote the 
revision of the Constitution, the people would, in 1852, when 
the term of his Presidency expired, express its new decision; 
that is, in other words, he would be proclaimed Emperor by 
universal sufErage. 

The struggle between the President and the Chambers con- Coup ^itat 
tinned throughout 1851, in which year the Ministry was re- j^r^,"*" 
peatedly changed. A Government project to modify the issi- 
electoral law of May 31st, 1850, and to restore universal suff- 
rage» having been rejected by the Assembly in November, and 
a measure having been brought forward for determining the 
responsibility of the Ministers and of the head of the State, 
Louis Napoleon resolved on a cotfp d*etat The soldiery were 
devoted to him, he had surrounded himself with able generals 
who favoured his cause, and he relied on the disunion which 
reigned among his opponents. M. de Thorigny, who refused 
to lend himself to the proposed coup SeiaJty was superseded as 
Minister of the Interior by M. de Momy, a speculator of 
doubtful repute. One of the chief agents in the plot was 
Major Fleury, a spendthrift and gamester of ruined fortunes 
and desperate character, to whom were assigned the more 
hazardous parts of the enterprise, and who stimulated and 
supplemented the sometimes faltering courage of Napoleon. 
Maupas, another coadj utor, was made Prefect of Police. M. de 
Persigny, an attached friend of Napoleon's, took no very active 
share in the plot. To secure the army. General St. Amaud, 
whose real name was Jacques Amaud Le Boy, who had no 
troublesome scruples, was sent for from Algeria, and made 

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108 MODEBN EU&OPfi [Chap.LXXI. 

Minister of War. The services of Gtenetal Ma^an, who com- 
manded the troops quartered in Paris, were also secured. On 
the night of Deceniber 1st, the President, in order to dirert 
attention, gave a grand party, during which the troops weire 
distributed in readiness for action, the Government presses 
were employed in printing placatds and proclamations, and 
arrests were quietly effected of all such generals, deputies^ and 
other persons whose opposition might prove troublesome. 
Among those arrested were Generals Oavaignac, Changamier, 
Lamorici^re, B^deau, and others ; Messrs. Thiers^ Boger du 
Nord, Victor Hugo, Eugene Sue, etc. The prisoners were 
carried, some to Vincennes, some to Ham, in the cage-like 
carriages used for the conveyance of persons sentenced to 
transportation. On the morning of December 2nd placards 
appeared upon the walls of Paris containing the following de- 
crees : " The National Assembly is dissolved, universal suffrage 
is re-established, the Elective Colleges are summoned to meet 
on the 14th of December, the first military division (Paris and 
the Department of the Seine) is placed in a state of siege, the 
Council of State is dissolved." These decrees were accompanied 
with an Address to the people, proposing a responsible chief, 
to be named for ten years, and other changes. If the people 
were discontented with the President's acts, they must choose 
another person ; but if they confided to him a great Inission, 
they must give him the means of fulfilling it. Another pro- 
clamation was addressed to the army, in which Louis Napoleon 
reminded them of the disdain with which they had been treated 
during the reign of Louis Philippe, that they had now an 
opportunity to recover their ancient consideration as the SlUe 
of the nation, that their history was identified with his own 
by a preceding community of glory and misfortunes. 
Massacre On the appearance of these proclamations, the Deputies, to 

Boui^rards. ^^® number of 252, among whom was Odillon Barrot, finding 
the Palais Bourbon, their usual place of meeting, occupied by 
troops, assembled at the Mayoralty of the 10th Arrondisse- 
ment, and resolved, on the motion of M. Berryer, to depose 
the President, and to give General Oudinot the command of 
the army. But they were all surrounded and taken into cus- 
tody by the Chasseurs de Yincennes. Some resistance was 
attempted on the morning of t>ecember 4th, atid a few baHi- 
cades were erected on the Boulevards, but not of the requisite 
strength ; and the troops, under Qeneral Magnan, easily over- 

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came all opposition. Yet there was a regular massacre, and 
hundreds of innocent persons, who were offering no resistance, 
were killed, while the troops lost onlj twenty-five men. Per- 
sons captured with arms in their hands were shot on the spot. 
Within a few weeks after, 26,500 persons, accused of belonging 
to secret societies, were transported, and several thousands 
more were imprisoned. The fear of anarchy induced the upper 
and middling classes to support Napoleon: the National 
Guard remained passive. 

The Eevolution was favourably received at Vienna, St. Kapoieon 
Petersburg, and Berlin. Napoleon surrounded himself with ^S?*** 
a consultative Commission, into which were admitted all the y^n. 
notabilities that were inclined to adhere to him. M. L^on 
Faucher alone refused to be nominated. Matters took the 
course which had been anticipated. Before the end of Decem- 
ber Napoleon was elected President for ten years by nearly 
seven and a half million votes, while only 640,737 were re- 
corded against him. He now released the adversaries whom 
he had imprisoned. General Cavaignac was allowed to return 
to Paris : Changamier, Lamoriciere, Victor Hugo, Thiers, and 
the rest were b^iished : but M. Thiers was shortly after per- 
mitted to return. Sioters taken in arms were transported eti 
masse to Cayenne. 

It now only remained to prepare the way for the grand final PoHcvof 
step — the assumption of Imperial power. Early in 1862 the ^*p*^"- 
gilt eagles of the first Napoleon were restored on the standards 
of the army ; the National Guard was dissolved and recon- 
stituted on a new system ; the trees of liberty and other Re- 
publican emblems were removed from the public places ; the 
name of Napoleon was substituted for that of the BepubUc in 
the prayers of the Church. On the 15th of January the new 
Constitution was promulgated, which, though it professed to 
confirm the principles of 1789, was a return to the system of 
the first Napoleon. The Executive power was vested in the 
President, who was to be advised with still decreasing authority 
by a State Council, a Senate of nobles, and a completely power- 
less Legislative Assembly, whose transactions, at the demand 
of five members, might be secret. Napoleon confiscated the 
greater part of the possessions of the House of Orleans, and 
ordered that the remainder of them should be sold by the 
family itself before the expiration of the year. De Morny, with 
his colleagues, Boucher, Pould, and Dupin, who did not 

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approve this measure, resigned ; but their places were soon 
supplied by other Ministers devoted to Napoleon, to whom he 
gave large salaries. At a grand review, held January 21st, 
he distributed among the soldiers medals which entitled the 
holders of them to one hundred francs yearly. The Univer- 
sities were reformed, the Professors deprived of the inde- 
pendence which they had enjoyed, and some of them, as 
Michelet and Edgar Quinet, were dismissed. The grateful 
Senate voted the President a civil list of twelve million francs, 
the titles of " Prince " and " Monseigneur," and the use of the 
Boyal Palaces. 

In the autumn the President again made a long tour in the 
south of France, and was everywhere saluted with cries of 
" Vive VEmperevr! " On re-entering Paris in state, October 
16th, whither many provincial persons had flocked, the same 
cry struck his ear, the emblems of the Empire everywhere met 
his eyes. Napoleon now alighted at the palace of the Tuileries, 
where he fixed his residence. He directed the Senate to debate 
the restoration of the Empire, which had been so significantly 
demanded during his tour in the provinces ; but it was to be 
sanctioned by the universal suffrage of the nation, by votes to 
be taken on November 21st and 22nd. On this occasion the 
votes recorded in his favour were 7,824,189, and those against 
him only 253,145. On December 2nd he was proclaimed 
Emperor, with the title of Napoleon III. Thus did he reck- 
lessly violate the solemn oath which he had sworn before Gk)d, 
and the plighted word of honour which he had given to the 
nation, in 1848, that he would uphold the indivisible Eepublic. 
And his inauguration as Emperor was blessed by the priests 
in the same cathedral in which he had uttered the oath to be 
faithful to the established Constitution. 

The Constitution of January, 1852, was confirmed with some 
modifications. The royal title was restored to Napoleon's 
uncle, Jer6me Bonaparte ; Generals St. Arnaud, Magnan, and 
Oastellane were created Marshals of the Empire. Mi foreign 
Courts were assured of the French Emperor's wish for peace, 
in token of which a reduction of 30,000 men was made in the 
army. England and most of the European Powers acknow- 
ledged Napoleon's title ; the three Northern Courts did the 
same, after a short hesitsttio]^, in January, 1853. On the 29th 
of that month Napoleon married Donna Eugenia Montijo, 
Countess of TA>a : on which occasion he granted an amnesty 

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Chap.LXXI.] napoleon HI. AND EXJEOPE 111 

for political offences, and pardoned upwards of 3,000 loyal 

Meanwhile, in Germany, where the influence of Austria was Biyairy of 
restored by the extinction of the revolution, matters were j^SS^*"^ 
gradually resuming their ancient course. The question of the 
German Constitution, however, still remained a cause of dis- 
union. Austria, backed by the influence of Russia, succeeded 
in re-establishing the Federal Constitution with the Frankfurt 
Diet, as arranged in 1815. But Prussia was not willing to 
relinquish her pretensions to take a more leading part in the 
affairs of Germany. On February 26th, 1860, Frederick 
William IV. took the oath to the new Prussian Constitution, 
granted by himself, as of divine right, in the preceding month. 
The Prussian Government now endeavoured, in opposition to 
Austria, to form a new Bund, or Confederation, of which 
Prussia was to be the presiding Power, and which was to con- 
sist of all the German States except the Austrian. With this 
view a German Parliament was convoked at Erfurt, March 
20th, which was attended by representatives from such States 
as approved the Prussian views. But distrust and apprehen- 
sion prevailed, and after a few sittings the New Parliament 
was indefinitely adjourned. The King of Wiirtemberg, on 
opening the Diet of his Kingdom, March 15th, 1850, expressed 
himself so strongly against the projects of the Court of Berlin, 
that diplomatic rek^tions were suspended between Wurtemberg 
and Prussia. Frederick William lY. made another attempt 
to form a separate les^ue by summoning a Congress at Berlin 
in May, which was attended by twenty-two German Princes, 
besides the representatives of Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck. 
At the same time, Austria had summoned the Diet of the 
Confederation to meet at Frankfurt, which was attended by 
representatives from all the States except Prussia and Olden- 
burg. Thus two rival congresses were sitting at the same 
time ; one at Berlin, to establish a new Confederation under 
Prussian influence ; and one at Frankfurt, to maintain the old 
one under the supremacy of Austria. The quarrel of the two 
leading German Powers was brought to an issue by some 
disturbances which occurred in Hesse-CasseL Hassenpflug, 
the Elector's Minister, treating the States with contempt, at- 
tempted to raise taxes without their consent. This arbitrary 

^ See Taxille Delord, Vie de Na^lem III. 

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of OlmUte. 


and uBoonstitutional act was opposed even hj persona in the 
employ of the Government, and the Elector in alarm fled to 
Frankfort. Even a deputation from the officers of the army 
proceeded to Frankfurt to protest against the illegal proceed- 
ings of Hassenpflug ; to whom the Elector replied : " If you 
will not obey, take off your coats." Hereupon, between two 
and three hundred officers resigned their commissions. The 
seat of the Electoral Goyemment was now established at 
Wilhelmsbad (September). The Diet at Frankfurt resolved 
to support the Elector against his subjects, and Austria, Ba- 
varia, and Wurtemberg prepared to interfere in his favour ; 
while Prussia took up the opposite side, and moved a large 
military force towards the Hessian frontier. A collision ap- 
peared inevitable, when hostilities were averted by Bussian 
interference and a change of ministry at Berlin. To put an 
end to these disputes, conferences were opened at Olmutz, and 
on November 27th was signed the Convention of Olmutz, by 
which Prussia virtually abandoned her ambitious projects, and 
subordinated herself to Austria. The Olmutz Convention was 
followed by conferences at Dresden towards the end of Decem- 
ber, which lasted till the middle of May, 1851. In these de- 
bates, Prussia, under Bussian influence, was induced to ac- 
knowledge the Frankfurt Diet, in short, to withdraw all her 
novel pretensions ; and thus the ancient state of things, after 
four years of revolution and disturbance, was re-established 
in the German Confederation. The Emperor of Austria now 
withdrewtheConstitution which he had granted to his subjects, 
the definitive abolition of which was proclaimed January 1st, 

Frederick William lY. of Prussia was at this time and till 
the end of his reign entirely guided by what was called the 
Kreust party, or Party of the Cross. The chiefs of it were the 
Queen, Manteuffel, General Oerlach, the counsellor Niebuhr, 
and at this time also Herr Bismarck Schonhausen. Its organ 
was the Kreuz Zeiiung, and its policy to draw closer the bonds 
of union between Austria and Prussia; to acquire the con- 
fidence of the smaller German Powers by moral influence ; to 
look up to Bussia as the protectress of monarchical principles ; 
and to oppose a tacit resistance to all impulses from the Western 
nations. Austria, on her side, kept herself as much aloof as 
possible from all commerce or interchange of ideas with the 
rest of Germany by a prohibitive system of customs dues, by 

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passports, a rigid oensorsbip of the Press, and other means of 
the like sort. In this policy she was encouraged by Bussia, 
and as that Power also predominated at Berlin, it may be said 
to have exercised at this period a sort of dictatorslup in 
Oermany. But among the more enlightened and enterprising 
Prussians a growing desire prevailed for the establishment of 
German unity under Prussian supremacy. Although now 
submitting to Austrian influence, Prussia was undoubtedly 
the more powerful State of the two. But to consolidate 
her power, much remained to be done. The straggling 
line of her dominions from the Baltic to the Bhine, flaked 
on all sides by independent States, was an element of 
weakness. Above all, she needed and coveted some good 
ports in order to become a naval Power. But the accom- 
plishment of these objects awaited the master-hand of a 
great statesman. 

The reign of Frederick William IV. may be said to have Prince of 
virtually ended in 1867. In July of that year he was seized ^^ ^' 
with a mahidy at first considered trifling ; but it was soon 
followed by congestion of the brain, and ended in mental 
weakness. Having no children, he transferred, in October, 
to his brother William, Prince of Prussia, the management 
of affairs ; who, in October of the f ollowiug year, was declared 
Begent by a royal ordinance. Both Manteuffel and Bismarck, 
hiti^erto subservient to Austria, now began to oppose that 
Power, and the personal sentiments of the Begent himself 
were thought to incline that way. A scheme was at this time 
formed of two separate unions — one of North Qermany, under 
Prussia, and another of the South, under Austria, which it 
was thought would do away with the rivalry and bickerings 
of those Powers. But the plan was distasteful to the minor 
States, as involving their su^ection to one of the leading 
Powers. In opposition to it, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Saxony, 
Hanover, Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt would have pre- 
ferred a union among themselves, thus forming a Qerman 
Triad ; and this scheme was advocated, but without result, by 
Yon der Pfordten and Yon Beust, the Bavarian and Saxon 

The affairs of Schleswig-Holstein had been again ^ the g'^'^^^* 
occasion of anxiety and disturbance. A definitive peace be- ti£i^ 
tween Denmark and the King of Prussia, in the name of the isgs. 
German Confederation, had been signed July 2nd, 1850, by 

VI. I 

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which the Duchies were relinquished to the Danes, but the 
rights of the German Bund in Holstein were maintained. The 
Duchies, however, renewed the war on their own account, but 
were finally reduced to submission to the King of Denmark 
bj the intervention of the German Oonfederation. In the 
negotiations which ensued Denmark engaged that she would 
do nothing towards the incorporation of Schleswig ; but at the 
same time it was maintained that the German Diet had no 
right to meddle with the affairs of that duchy. Nor was 
any such engagement mentioned in the subsequent Treaty of 
London, May 8th, 1852; and therefore the treaty was not 
conditional upon it, though no doubt it induced Austria and 
Prussia to sign. By this treaty, to which were parties Austria, 
France, England, Prussia, Bussia, and Sweden, all the do- 
minions then united under the sceptre of Denmark were to 
fall to Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg- 
Glucksburg, and his issue in the male line by his marriage 
with Louisa, Princess of Hesse. The principle of the integrity 
of the Danish monarchy was acknowledged by the contracting 
parties; but the rights of the German Confederation with 
regard to the Duchies of Holstein and Lauenbui^ were not to 
be affected by the treaty. The Duke of Augustenburg re- 
linquished, for a pecuniary satisfaction, his claim to Schleswig 
and Holstein. 

Although Schleswig was a sovereign duchy, whilst Holstein 
was subject to the German Confederation, they were neverthe- 
less united by having the same Constitution and a common 
Assembly. Prussian troops had occupied Holstein while the 
negotiations were going on, and to get rid of them the King 
of Denmark explained his views regarding a Constitution. 
The two great German Powers deemed his plans too liberal, 
and Frederick was invited to give separate Constitutions to 
the duchies. Thus the Constitutional union between Schles- 
wig and Holstein was to be dissolved at the instance of the 
Germans themselves. The new Constitution was not published 
till October, 1855. The four States constituting the Danish 
monarchy had a general Assembly, or Bigsraad, consisting of 
deputies from each. It soon, however, became evident that 
such a Constitution would not work, and there were constant 
bickerings, especially on the part of the Holsteiners. The 
consequences of such a state of things will appear in a sub- 
sequent chapter. 

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In Spain, after the ill-omened marriage of Isabella, the AflUnof 
Gk>yemment of the country seemed mainly to depend on her ^^'^ 
licentious amours. Weariness of Serrano and a new passion 
for Colonel Gkmdara led to the overthrow of Salamanca's 
Ministry, October 4th, 1846, and the establishment of Narvaez 
and the Moderados. Narraez compelled Isabella to obserre 
at least external decency, and persuaded her again to admit 
King Francisco to the palace. Espartero returned to Spain 
early in 1848 and reconciled himself with Narvaez, but retired 
to a country life. Narvaez and the Moderados were in power 
at the time of Louis Philippe's fall, and were on a good 
understanding with the Queen-mother Christina, who had 
returned to Spain. The French Eevolution of February 1848 
was followed in Spain, as in other countries, by disturbances. 
The Frogressistas, or ultra democratic party, attempted an 
insurrection, March 23rd, and again. May 6th, but they were 
put down by the energy of the ministers. A suspicio^ that 
the English Government was concerned in these movements 
produced a temporary misunderstanding between Spain and 
Great Britain. After the fall of Louis Philippe, Lord 
Pahnerston had instructed Sir H. Lytton Bulwer, the English 
Ambassador at Madrid, to advise the Spanish Government 
to adopt ** a legal and constitutional system." This interfer- 
ence was naturally resented by the Spaniards, and after some 
correspondence, passports were forwarded to Sir H. L. Bulwer, 
May 19th, on the alleged ground that he had been privy to 
some plots against the Government. This quarrel was followed 
by a suspension of diplomatic correspondence between the two 
countries, which was not renewed till August, 1850. A de- 
sultory guerilla warfare was also kept up throughout the year 
1848 in the north of Spain by General Cabrera, the leader of 
the Carlists. 

The continued success of Narvaez and the Moderados en- spaoiBh Ib- 
couraged Queen Christina to attempt the restoration of abso- »*™<»**<>"*- 
lutism. Narvaez was suddenly dismissed, October 18th, 1849, 
and General Cleonard appointed in his place ; a person, how- 
ever, so wholly insignificant and incompetent, that it soon 
became necessary to restore Narvaez. Other more secret 
intrigues against that minister were baffled ; but a piratical 
attempt by the Americans in 1850 to seize Cuba led to his 
downfall, by showing how necessary the friendship of England 
was to Spain. Narvaez was dismissed January 11th, 1851, to 

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the great grief of Isabella. Obiistina now ruled for some time 
with the new minister Bravo Mnrillo, but kept in the Oon- 
stitntional path; till Napoleon's eotep ^^Ud in December, 
1852, and Isabella's d^eliverj of a h^thy daughter, which 
seemed to secure the succession, encouraged her mother to 
adopt some reactionary measures. These, however, served 
only to unite the Mod^eradoz and Pragressigtaa ; it became 
necessary to recall Narvaes ; but in December, 1853, Christina 
dismissed and banished him. The Queen-mother's thoughts 
were now bent on nothing but plundering the State for the 
benefit of her illegitimate children. Her conduct produced 
two or three unsuccessful revolts ; but she was at length over- 
thrown, and sent into Portugal (July 20th, 1854). Espartero 
and the extreme ProgressietoB having now seized the reins of 
government, were in turn overthrown by an insurrection of 
the soldiery, conducted by CDonnell, July 16th, 1856. But 
O'Donnell's hold of power was but short. He was compelled 
to resign in October, when Christina and Narvaez once more 
took the helm. 
PortDgaL Portugal, under the reign of Donna Maria da Gloria, had 

also been agitated by two or three insurrections, which were, 
however, suppressed. Queen Maria died, in the prime of life, 
November 15th, 1853, and was succeeded by her son, Don 
Pedro Y. The new King being a minor, the Begency was 
assumed by his father, Ferdinand ; but after spending some 
time in travelling, Pedro took the government into his own 
hands in 1855. 

Meanwhile Bome continued to be occupied by the French, 
under the protection of whose bayonets Pius IX. returned to 
Bome in April, 1850, and almost seemed to enjoy his former 
power. Under French guardianship attention to political 
matters was superfluous, and the Pope's thoughts were di- 
verted to the more congenial affairs of the Church. He 
employed himself in propagating Mariolatry, and in 1854 he 
caused a great assembly of bishops to establish the doctrine 
of the Immaculate Conception: a doctrine accepted by the 
Council of Basle in 1439, but not hitherto confirmed by the 
Pope. Pius IX. celebrated its establishment by crowning 
the image of the Virgin with a splendid diadem, December 
8th, 1854. The smouldering discontent in many other parts 
of Italy produced during the next few years no events worth 
recording. The oppressions of the Neapolitan Government 

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caused the French and English Cabinets in 1856 to break off 
diplomatic relations with it. But the tyranny of the rulers of 
Italy was only preparing their own punishment. 

In France, the Emperor Napoleon III. went on consolidat- '^^^ 
ing his power. The first great political event of his reign was ^*^' 
the war which he waged, in conjunction with England, against 
Bussia.^ There was an ancient prophecy that in the year 
1853, when four centuries would have elapsed from the taking 
of Constantinople, the Turkish Empilre would be overthrown. 
The position of affairs appeared to the Bussian Emperor 
Nicholas a favourable one for attempting a long-cherished 
Muscovite project. The Turkish Empire seemed in a state of 
irretrievable prostration, and the Tsar proposed to the British 
Gk>vemment early in 1853 a partition of the " sick man's " 
spoils, by which Egypt, and, perhaps, Candia, was to fall to 
the share of England. The offer was, of course, rejected ; it 
was then made to France with the like result, and the two 
Western nations united to oppose the designs of Nicholas. 
The Tsar explained his views at this period in an interview 
with Sir C H. Seymour, the English Ambassador at St. 
Petersburg. Nicholas observed: "There are several things 
which I never will tolerate. I will not tolerate the permanent 
occupation of Constantinople by the Bussians ; and it shall 
never be held by the English, French, or any other great 
nation. Again, I will never permit any attempt at the re- 
construction of the Byzantine Empire, or such an extension of 
Greece as would render her a powerful state : still less will I 
permit the breaking up of Turkey into little republics, asylums 
for the Kossuths and Mazsinis, and other revolutionists of 
Europe. Bather than submit to any of these arrangements, 
I would go to war, and as long as I have a man or a musket 
I would carry it on." * Here the only reason which the Tsar 
alleges against a Creek state is, liiat it would be powerful ; 
that is, a bar to Muscovite ambition. 

Bussia seized the opportunity of a dispute respecting the Memwhi- 
use and guardianship of the Holy Places at Jerusalem and ^toi^ 
in Palestine to pick a quarrel with the Porte. Nicholas, as ^^*n- 
protector of the Creek Christians in the Holy City, complained 
that the Porte had, contrary to treaty, allowed undue privi- 

^ The best authority for this war is Kinglake, The Invasion of the 
^ See Alison's Europe since the FaU ofNa^^oieon, ilL 906. 

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leges to the Latin Cimstians, especially by granting them a 
key to the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem ; also one of 
the keys of each of tiie two doors of the Sacred Manger ; and 
farther permitting the French monks to place in the Sanc- 
tuary of the Nativity a silver star adorned with the French 
arms ; while France, on the other hand, as protector of the 
Latin Christians, maintained that all that had been done was 
only in conformity with ancient usage and agreement. Such 
were the pretexts sought for a sanguinary war. It was de- 
sired by Napoleon, and M. de Lavalette, the French Ambas- 
sador to the Porte, is said to have been the first to use threats. 
The Emperor Nicholas, after mustering the Bussian fleet with 
great ostentation at Sebastopol, as well as an army of 30,000 
men, despatched Prince Menschikoff on a special embassy to 
Constantinople, to demand the exclusive protection of all 
members of the Greek Church in Turkey, and the settlement 
of the question respecting the Holy Places, on terms which 
would have left the supremacy to the Greeks. Menschikoff 
purposely delivered his message with marks of the greatest 
contempt, appearing in full Divan in his great coat and boots 
(March 2nd, 1853). Lord Stratford de BedclifEe and M. De 
la Cour, the EngUsh and French Ambassadors, were unfortu- 
nately absent ; but they returned in April, and on their assur- 
ance of vigorous support, the Sultan rejected the Bussian 
demands. Lord Stratford, however, had succeeded in adjust- 
ing the question about the Holy Places, and the breach was 
caused by the Porte rejecting the Bussian demand for the 
protectorate of the Greek Church in Turkey. Menschikoff, 
after handing in an ultimatum which was disregarded, took 
his departure. May 21st, with the threat that he had come in 
his great coat, but would return in his uniform. 
Attitadeof l^e Sultan published in June a Firman, confirming the 
SmawT* Christians in his Empire in all their rights, and about the 
1868. ' same time the English and French fleets, under Admirals 
Dundas and Hamelin, anchored near the entrance of the 
Dardanelles. Early in July the Bussian army under Prince 
Gortschakov crossed the Pruth, and commenced a war which 
the Tsar wished to appear as a war of religion. The Bussians, 
divided into two corps of about 4^0,000 men each, commanded 
by Generals Dannenberg and Luders, exercised under this 
holy pretence all manner of plunder and violence in Moldavia 
and Wallachia, the hospodars of which principalities fled into 

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Austria. Meanwhile the Turkish army remained on the right 
bank of the Danube, and the Russians during the summer 
contented themselves with occupying the left. It was mani- 
festly the interest of Austria that Russia should not be allowed 
to increase her power south of the Danube ; yet she contented 
herself with joining Prussia in friendly representations to the 
Court of St. Petersburg, that both Powers would enter into no 
further engagements than to co-operate in endeavouring to 
maintain peace. France and England, indeed, the latter under 
the Government of Lord Aberdeen, with Mr. Gladstone as 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, had relieved Austria from the 
necessity of drawing the sword on her own behalf. The 
Court of Berlin displayed as usual a base servility to the 
Russian autocrat. Nicholas had an interview with the Aus- 
trian Emperor Francis Joseph, at Olmiitz, September 24th ; 
whence he proceeded to Berlin, on a visit to his brother-in- 
law, Frederick William lY. He wished to form with these 
Sovereigns a triple alliance against the Western Powers, but 
succeeded only in obtaining their neutrality ; and he engaged 
that his troops should not cross the Danube. 

A declaration of war by the Porte, October 4th, in case Action at 
the Russi&ns refused to evacuate the principalities,-' afforded nov.^8«8. 
Nicholas the wished-for opportunity to proclaim himself the 
party attacked. He did not, however, push the war with a 
vigour at all proportioned to his boastful threats. The first 
trml of strength was in favour of the Turks. Omar Pasha 
having sent 3,000 men over the Danube, this small corps 
intrenched itself at Olteniza and repulsed the attacks of 
7,000 Russians (November 4th, 1863). On the 27th of the 
same month France and England concluded a treaty with the 
Porte, promising their aid in case Russia would not agree to 
moderate conditions of peace. But an event which occurred 
a few days after entirely dissipated all such hopes. Admiral 
Nachimov, the Russian commander in the Black Sea, taking 
advantage of a fog, attacked and destroyed the Turkish fleet 
under Osman Pasha, while lying at Sinope, not, however, 
without considerable damage to his own vessels (November 
30th). As the English and French fleets had passed the 
Dardanelles in September, and were now at anchor in the 
Bosphorus, the act of Nachimov appeared a wilful defiance 
of the Maritime Powers. This event excited feelings of great Aoproaoh 
indignation in England ; and, as was natural, still more so at ^ ''^' 

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Constaatmople. It was now evident that the attempts of the 
Conference, which the four great neutral Powers, Austria, 
FrajLce, Great Britain, and Prussia, had assembled in the 
summer at Vienna, to maintJviTi peace, would be abortive; 
and, indeed, their proposals were rejected both by Russia 
and the Porte; by the latter, chiefly because of an article 
requiring a renewal of the ancient treaties between Turkey 
and Russia. The Emperor of the French addressed an auto- 
graph letter to the Emperor Nicholas, January 29th, 1854> to 
which, contrary to expectation, Nicholas replied at length, 
and though sophisticaUy, with politeness. It can hardly be 
doubted, however, that Napoleon desired a war, with a view 
to secure his throne by diverting the attention of the French 
from domestic affairs, and dazzling them with feats of arms. 
A close alliance with England, moreover, would add stability 
to his government, and give his usurpation a sort of sanction. 
In February, diplomatic relations were broken off between 
Russia and the Western Powers; the latter declared war 
against the Tsar, and concluded an offensive and defensive 
alliance with Turkey, March 12th. Austria contented her- 
self with placing a corps of observation on the Servian fron- 
tier ; while Prussia, though recognizing the injustice of the 
Russian proceedings, declined to oppose them. 
BiuNsdan Towards the dose of 1853, the Russians, under General 

Anrep, 50,000 strong, had attEbcked Kalafat, which forms a 
fortified tete de p<mt to Widdin, in the hope of penetrating 
into Servia; but they were repulsed, and suffered severe loss 
from the climate at that season. The Russians renewed the 
attempt, January 6th, 1854, but were again defeated at Citate ; 
after which they withdrew from this quarter, on account of 
the Austrian army of observation. The plan to make their 
way to Constantinople by an insurrection of the Slavs, Ser- 
vians, Bosnians, and Bulgarians, was thus frustrated. Some 
of the Greeks rose, but only to commit robbery and murder ; 
and the Court of Athens was too fearful of the Western 
Powers to venture on any movement 

Prince Paskiewitsch was now appointed Commander-in« 
Chief of the Russian army, and the attack was transferred 
from the right wing to the left. A division crossed the 
Danube near Silistru, another lower down, near the Pruth, 
and having formed a junction, advanced to attack Omar 
Pacha, who retired to Shumla (March, 1854). With a view 

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Ch^. LXXI.] napoleon in. and EUEOPE 121 

to draw him from this position, Paskiewitsch caused Silistria 
to be besieged. But Omar was too wary to fall into the trap ; 
all the Bussian assaults were repulsed, Paskiewitsch himself 
was wounded, and on June 21st he abandoned the si^e, re- 
crossed the Danube, and even the Pruth. The last step was 
taken in consequence of the attitude assumed by Austria and 
Prussia. Those two Powers had entered into an offensive 
and defensiye alliance, April 20th, by which they agreed to 
declare war against Russia if her troops should pass the 
Balkan, or if she should attempt to incorporate the princi- 
palities. An Austrian note, backed by Prussia, and ad^essed 
in June to the Cabinet of St. Petersburg, had required the 
eyacuation of Wallachia and Moldavia; and those princi- 
palities, by virtue of a convention with the Porte, were now 
occupied by the Austrians. 

Meanwhile France and England were beginning to take warintho 
part in the war. The allied fleets had attacked Odessa, April ^^^^ 
22nd, and burnt a number of ships and houses, but abstained 
from bombarding the town. The English army under Lord 
Bi^lan, under whom served the Duke of Cambridge and 
other officers of distinction, had landed at Gallipoli, April 5th, 
where they found a portion of the French army already dis- 
embarked. Hence the allies proceeded to Yarna, with the 
defflgn of penetrating into the Dobrudscha ; but the nature of 
the country and the fearful mortality among the troops, from 
the climate and cholera, caused the enterprise to be aban- 
doned. To penetrate into the heart of Bussia appeared im- 
possible, and it was therefore resolved to attempt the capture 
of SebastopoL The allied armies, in spite of their losses, still 
numbered about 50,000 men ; and embarking with about 6,000 
Turks, they landed without opposition near Eupatoria in the 
Crimea, September 14th, 1854. Nachimov, the victor of 
SiQope, though he had fifty-four Bussian ships at Sebastopol, 
ventured not to come out and attack the allied armament. 
The forces of Prince Menschikov, who commanded in the Bsttieof 
Crimea, were inferior to those of the allies ; but he had taken *** ^™*' 
up a position on the river Alma which he deemed impreg- 
nable, and in his overweening confidence he had invited a 
party of ladies from Sebastopol to come and behold the de- 
struction of the enemy. But the position was carried by the 
indomitable courage of the British, September 20th; not, 
however, without great loss, from having to assault the posi- 

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and Inker- 
man, 18M. 

Napier in 
the Baltic. 

tion in front ; while the Frenoh, under Marshal St. Arnand, 
who were to turn the enemy's IdEt wing» contributed but little 
to the success of the day. The allied loss amounted to 3,479 
men, of which nearly three-fifths belonged to the British, 
although their troops were not nearly so numerous as the 
French. The Eussian loss was estimated at about 8,000 

A necessary delay to bury the dead and provide for the 
sick and wounded deprived the allies of the opportunity to 
penetrate along with the enemy into Sebastopol. It was not 
judged practicable to take it by assault, though this might 
perhaps have been accomplished had it been immediately 
undertaken, and a siege in regular form became therefore 
necessary. Marshal St. Amaud was compelled by the state 
of his health to resign the command to General Canrobert 
soon after the battle of the Alma. He died in his passage to 
Constantinople. The English army now took up a position 
at the Bay of Balaclava, the French at that of E^miesch, and 
began to open trenches on the plateau on the south side of 
Sebastopol. The allies opened their fire on the town, October 
17th. Sebastopol was also bombarded by the fleets, which, 
however, suffered so (severely that they were compelled to 
desist. The Eussians attacked the English position at Bala- 
clava, October 25th, but were repulsed; a battle rendered 
memorable by the gallant but rash and fatal charge of the 
British cavalry, when, by some mistake in the delivery of 
orders, nearly two-thirds of the light brigade were uselessly 
sacrificed. This battle was soon followed by that of Inker- 
man, November 5th, when the Eussians, with very superior 
forces, and in the presence of the Grand Dukes Nicholas and 
Michael, again attacked the British position, and were once 
more repulsed with dreadful loss. The British were most 
gallantly supported by their French allies. During this cam- 
paign. Admiral Napier, with the British fleet, accompanied 
by a French squadron, proceeded into the Baltic, where, how- 
ever, little was effected. Cronstadt was found too strong to 
be attacked ; the Eussian fleet kept in port, and the British 
admiral was forced to content himself with capturing some 
merchant vessels, and burning timber and other stores. Some 
English ships also penetrated into the White Sea, blockaded 
Archangel, and destroyed the port of Kola. A detachment 
of French troops under General Baraguay d'Hilliers captured 

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BomarsTind in the Aland Isles, August 16th; after which 
exploit the allied fleet quitted the Baltic. 

Austria concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with Ausfcria and 
the two Western Powers, December 2nd, 1854, but lent them Sardinia. 
no assistance. Bussia pretended to enter into negotiations 
for a peace at Vienna, only with a view to gain time, and if 
possible to separate the allies. A more active allj than 
Austria, though without the same interest in the dispute, 
was the King of Sardinia ; who, in January, 1855, joined the 
Western Powers and sent an army of 15,000 men, under 
General La Marmora, into the Crimea. The allied armies 
had passed a most dreadful winter in their encampments. 
The British soldiers especially died by hundreds of cold, 
disease, and privation, while the clothing, stores, and medi- 
cines, which might have averted these calamities, were, through 
the almost incredible bungling and mismanagement of the 
commissariat department, lying unpacked at Balaclava. The 
just and violent indignation felt in England at this state of 
things produced the fall of the Aberdeen Ministry in February, 
1855. Lord Aberdeen was succeeded as Prime Minister by 
Lord Palmerston. 

The Bussians made an ineffectual attempt on Eupatoria, Death of 
February 16th. The sudden and unexpected ' death of the J'^^b^''^'" 
Emperor Nicholas, March 2nd, seemed to open a prospect 
for peace. His successor, Alexander XL, was more pacifically 
disposed than his father, and the conferences at Vienna were 
reopened. The recall of Prince Menschikov from the Crimea, 
who was succeeded by Prince Gortschakov, seemed also a 
concession to public opinion. The reduction of Sebastopol 
appeared, however, to the allies, and especially to Napoleon 
III., to be a necessary satisfaction for military honour. The 
bombardment of Sebastopol was, after a long preparation, 
reopened by the allies, April 6th, 1855 ; but the fire of the 
place still proved superior. A naval expedition, under Ad- 
mirals Lyons and Bruat, proceeded to the Sea of Azov, took 
Kertsch, Yenikale, Mariapol, Taganrog, and other places, and 
destroyed vast quantities of provisions and stores which served 
to supply Sebastopol. A grand assault delivered by the allies 
on that city, June 18th, was repulsed with great loss to the 
assailants. A change in the command of both the allied 
armies took place about this time. By the death of Lord f^ **' 
Banian, June 28th, General Simpson succeeded to the com- Bagian. 

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mand of the English force, while the French General Can- 
robert had resigned a little previously in favour of Pelissier. 
Austria this month virtuallj withdrew from an alliance which 
she had never materiallj assisted, and by discharging great 
part of her troops enabled Eussia to despatch to the Crimea 
several regiments which she had been obliged to keep in 
In the In the Baltic, Admiral Dimdas, who had been substituted 

^^^^^' for Napier, found himself unable to effect more than had been 
accomplished by his predecessor the year before. His opera- 
tions were confined to the burning of a few Eussian harbours 
and an ineffectual attempt to bombard Sveaborg. But under 
their reverses the allied Powers drew still closer the enbemte 
cordiaJe. Napoleon with his consort had visited London 
in the spring, and in August his visit was returned by Queen 
Victoria. A meeting of both the Sovereigns at the tomb of 
Napoleon the First seemed calculated to obUterate for ever 
any remains of national animosity. 
Capturo of The valour and perseverance of the allies were at length to 
sebastopoi. triumph over all difficulties. An attack on the iallied position 
by the Eussians from the Tschemaja was repulsed with great 
loss, August 16th, and on the following day a terrible bom- 
bardment of Sebastopol was begun. By September 8th, the 
fortifications had been reduced idmost to a heap of rubbish, 
and it was determined to assault the place. The French suc- 
ceeded in capturing the Malakov Tower, while the British 
penetrated into the Eedan, but were imable to hold it. The 
south side of Sebastopol was, however, no longer tenable after 
the capture of the Malakov ; and in the night Prince Gort- 
schakov evacuated it, passing over the arm of the sea which 
separates it from the north side by means of a bridge of boats. 
P^viously to their departure the Eussians sunk all their ships 
in the harbour with the exception of a steamer. The success 
of the allies was not, however, decisive. They made one or 
two ineffectual sorties against Qortschakoffs new position; 
and even had they succeeded in driving him thence, the Crimea 
still remained to be conquered. With the view of effecting 
that conquest, the fleets had undertaken a second expedition 
to the Sea of Azov, where they destroyed the small fortresses 
of Fanagoria and Taman, as well as another against Kinbum, 
to the north-west of the Crimea, which was captured after a 
short bombardment. But it was found impossible to take 

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Chjjp. TiXXL] napoleon HI. AND BUEOPE 12fi 

Perekop, and thus, by obtaining command of the Isthmus, 
compel GortschakoY to retreat. 

Daring this period a war had been also raging between the The 
Turks and Eussians in the Trans-Cancasian provinces, which ®' ^*"- 
our limits permit us not to describe. This year the remains 
of the Turkish army in this quarter were dispersed by the 
Russian general Muraviev. The English general Williams 
distinguished himself by the defence of Kars, repulsing re- 
peated assaults of the Eussians ; but famine at length com- 
pelled him to surrender the city, November 7th, 1855. 

The capture of Kars seemed a compensation to Eussian The Peace 
military honour for the loss of Sebastopol, and facilitated the il^^ 
opening of negotiations for a peace. Austria now intervened ; 
IVince Esterhazy was despatched to St. Petersburg, and on 
January 16th, 1856, signed with Count Nesselrode a protocol 
containing the bases of negotiation. These were: the abolition 
of the Eussian protectorate in the Danubian Principalities, 
the freedom of the Danube and its mouths, the neutraliza- 
tion of the Black Sea, which was to be open to the commerce of 
all nations, but closed to ships of war ; no military or naval 
arsenals to be maintained there ; the immunities of the Eayah, 
or Christian, subjects of the Porte to be preserved. In order to 
deprive Eussia of any pretence for interference with regard to 
this last point, the Porte accepted ten days later twenty-one 
propositions with regard to it made by the Western Powers 
and Austria, which included reforms of the tribunals, police, 
mode of taxation, etc. After the arrangement of these matters 
Conferences for a peace were opened at Paris, February 26th, 
when an armistice was agreed upon to last till March 31st. 
The Conference consisted of the representatives of Great 
Britain, Austria, France, Eussia, Sardinia, and Turkey. 
Prussia, having taken no part in the war, was at first excluded 
from the Congress, but by persevering importunity, obtained 
admission, March 11th. The definitive Peace of Pabis was 
signed on the conditions before mentioned, March 80th. 
Eussia engaged to restore Kars to the Porte, and the Allied 
Powers to evacuate Sebastopol and all their other conquests 
in the Crimea. The integrity of the Turkish Empire was 
guaranteed, and the Porte admitted to participate in the ad- 
vantages of European public law and concert. A Firman 
which the Porte had published in favour of the Christians was 
not to give other Powers a right to interfere in the internal 

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administration of Turkey. The Black Sea was neutralized, 
the Emperor of Russia and the Sultan agreed not to erect or 
maintain any military arsenal on its coasts, and to keep only 
such a number of ships of war in that sea» for the mainten- 
ance of the necessary police, as might be agreed on between 
the two Powers. The Danubian principaUties remained in 
the same state as before ; and the Porte engaged that they 
should have an independent administration, with liberty of 
worship, legislation, etc. The Danube was declared uncon- 
ditionally free, and a European Commission was appointed to 
superintend its navigation and police.^ The line of the Russian 
and Turkish frontier was left to be arranged by delegates of 
the contracting Powers, and was finally determined by another 
Treaty of Paris, concluded between those Powers June 19th, 
1857. The line in Bessarabia was laid down according to a 
topographical map prepared for the purpose. The islands 
forming the Delta of the Danube, including the Isle of Ser- 
pents, were now restored to the sovereignty of the Porte. 
Treaties A fortnight after the first Treaty of Paris, a short tripartite 

^^^* Treaty in three Articles was executed at Paris (April 15th) 
by Austria, France and Great Britain, guaranteeing the inde« 
pendence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire ; of which 
every infraction was to be considered a casus helli.^ 

To complete the account of these transactions must be added 
the Convention respecting the Danubian Principalities, signed 
at Paris by the six Christian Powers and the Porte, August 
19th, 1858, of which the following were the chief provisions : 
— ^Moldavia and Wallachia, as united principalities, remained 
under the suzerainty of the Sultan; Moldavia paying an 
annual tribute of 1,500,000 piastres, and Wallachia 2,500,000. 
The principalities were to enjoy a free and independent ad- 
ministration. Each was to be governed by a Hospodar, elected 
for life, and an elective Assembly, acting with the concurrence 
of a Central Commission common to both, sitting at Tockshany. 
Individual liberty was guaranteed, and Christians of every 
denomination were to enjoy equal political rights.' 

^ Treaty in Martens, Katw, Eecueil, Cont de Samwer, t. zv. 
p. 770 sqq. 

^ Martens, loe. cit, ; Monioanlt, La question d'OrierU, It TraiU de 
Paris et ses suites (1856-71). 

' Convention in Anntuiire des Deux M&ndes, vol. viii. App. p. 927. 

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THE period which elapsed between the close of the Crimean The period 
war and the establishment of the German Empire at the Jgjf ^^^" 
beginning of 1871, may be said to contain events of more im- 
portance as regards the European system than even its recon- 
struction by the Congress of Yienna. These events are, besides 
the new Empire just mentioned, and a few minor occurrences, 
the establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, the absorption of 
the Pope's temporal power, the realization of Prussian su- 
premacy, the decline of Austria, and the Franco-Qerman war. 
In the same period occurred two events of vast moment in the 
history of the world : the Indian revolt and the civil war in 
America, which threatened at one time to break up and 
divide the great Eepublic of the Western Hemisphere ; but 
these have no direct bearing on our peculiar subject, the 
European concert. The affairs of Italy first claim our atten- 
tion, from their priority in order of time.* 

The Austrian occupation of Lombardy and Venetia seemed J^J* 
still in the year 1858 to offer an insuperable bar to Italian 
unity and freedom. Whilst the possession of these provinces ^ 
severed Italy, it also enabled the Austrians to introduce their 

^ The principal works which may be consulted for the two following 
chapters are : Menzel, Geach, der neuesten Zeit, 1856-1860 ; Idem. Dte 
immtigsten Wdtbegebenheiten, 1860-1866; Idem. Der detUscke Krieg 
im Jahref 1866 ; Becker's Wdtgeschickte ; Arnd. Gesch, der Jahren, 
1866-1871 ; Riistow, Der itcUienische Krieg, 1859 ; Idem. Der Krieg 
von 1866 in DenUMand ; Idem. Der Krieg rnn die Bheingrenze ; 
Mazade, Vie de Cavour; Rendu, ritcUie de 1847 d 1865 ; D*Azeglio, 
Scritti Politici ; Vilbort, L^(Euvre de Bismark ; Auerbach, Da^ neue 
deutsehe Reich ; Tableau Historique de la Gtterre Franco-AUemande, 
Berlin, 1871 ; L'Annuaire des Deux Maudes; The Annual Register; 
Seignoboe, Histoire Politique de VEurape Contemporaine (1814-1896) ; 
Debidour, Histoire Diplomatique de VEurope, etc., etc. 

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forces into that country for the purpose of upholding its several 
governments ; all of which, with the exception of Sardinia, 
were more or less under their influence. The sovereigns of 
Parma, Modena, and Tuscany, were connected with the Austrian 
Imperial family, and leaned on it for support; whilst the 
Austrian Cabinet had also a powerful voice in the Neapolitan 
and Papal councils, and may thus be said to have dominated 
nearly all Italy. Without tne expulsion of the Austrians, the 
views of Italian patriots could not be realized, and without 
foreign help they could not be expelled. The attempt had 
been made in 1849, and ended in disastrous &ilure. 

Other necessary conditions for the freedom and unity of 
Italy were, that the Italians themselves should desire them, 
and be agreed as to the means for their attainment. Hence a 
difficulty almost as great as the presence of the Austrians. For 
though dissatisfaction at the existing state of things was a 
very prevalent feeling, opinions varied as to the remedy to be 
applied. The more ardent patriots desired republican institu- 
tions, but of these some would have been content with a con- 
federation of independent commonwealths, whilst others aimed 
Masiiiii. at an undivided Italian Bepublic. This last party, the most 
stirring and influential, was led by Mazzini and his sect, or 
society, called La Oiovine ItcUia, or Young Italy; which, 
though itsetf a secret society, had now pretty well superseded 
others of a like nature, as the Carbancm, The men who ad- 
hered to Mazzini were dazzled by ideas, which had the fault 
of being utterly impracticable. He was for reconstructing 
society from its foundations, something after the fashicm of 
Bousseau ; nay, he thought that art, science, philosophy, in 
short everything in the world required renovation. Nor were 
his views confined to Italy. They embraced all Europe, and 
in 1834 he had drawn up a scheme of La Oiovine Suropa, 
*' an apostolate of ideas," as he calls it, by which the whole 
continent was to be remodelled on the principles of liberty, 
equality, and fraternity ; but he allows that he expected no 
practical result.^ 
^ dbS^ A few men of wiser and more statesmanlike views saw that 
foUowwB. the only hope for Italy lay in the suppression of such con- 
spirators, who were not only abortive disturbers of the public 
peace at home, but also disposed European opinion against 

^ See Mazzini's Life and Writinffs, vol. liL p. 90 sqq. 

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Italian freedom: for these politidans saw that the emancipa- 
tion of Italy from a foreign yoke was simply impossible without 
help from abroad. This scmool, as was natural, had its origin 
in Piedmont, the only constitutional Italian State ; and pro- 
bably their plans for Italian unity were not unmixed with 
some desire for the aggrandizement of their native country. 
At the head of them must be placed Count Massimo d' Azeglio, 
and a few of his friends, as Balbo, Qioberti, and others. 
D'Azeglio's leading idea was, that no roTolutionary attempts 
could succeed but such as were conducted in open day.^ To 
the success of his plans the formation of a sound public 
opinion was necessary, and with this view he had undertaken 
in 1845 a journey through great part of Italy in order to 
ascertain the sentiments of the people ; when he discoTered 
that all persons of sense and respectability were disgusted with 
the absurdities of the followers of Mazzini, and desirous of a 
new path. His views were approved by 'King Charles Albert, 
who encouraged him to publish them. Such was the origin 
of his political writings. After the defeat and abdication of 
that sovereign in 1849 (9npra, p. 99), d'Azeglio became the 
Prime Minister of his son and successor, Victor Emanuel II., 
a post which he held till 1852, wh^a he was succeeded by 
Count Cavour. 

Without this change Italian independence and unity would ^^^^^ 
probably not have l«en achieved. With all his talent and M^^enr. 
good sense, d'Azeglio lacked the energy, perhaps also we may 
say the unscrupulous boldness, without which great revolu- 
tions cannot be effected. Of a generous temper, and devoted 
to Hterature and art, he was somewhat inactive and unprac- 
tical. Cavour, on the contrary, was evidently a man of action, 
and from the time of his taking office, he may be said to have 
held the fate of Italy in his hands. A main part of his 
policy was to obtain for it the good opinion of Europe. Hence 
his commercial treaties with France, England, Belgium, and 
Switzerland ; hence also the seemingly inexplicable part which 
he took in the Crimean war. It was, in fact, a well conddered 
blow at Austria. Sardinia appeared among the European 
Powers at the Congress of Paris in 1856, and her envoy sat 
side by side with the Austrian Minister* Count Buol ; before 
whose face he denounced the dangerous state of Italy through 
foreign occupation. 

^ Una coepiratione al chiaro sole.—/ miei Eicardi, t. ii. p. 406. 

VI. K 

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His Views. CaTOUT, though enterprising, was cautious, and awaited his 
opportunity. He appears to have early contemplated the 
establishment of a northern Ttalian kingdom by means of 
French intervention, and he prepared for future events by 
strengthening Alessandria, Oasale, and Yalenza, and by creat- 
ing a great naval arsenal at Spezia. With regard to home 
policy, he loudly denounced the revolutionists and republicans. 
A national opinion, fostered by the means to whi(^ we have 
adverted, was now beginning to prevail over the sects, and the 
" National Society," oi^a^anized by La Farina, served to recall 
many from Mazzinian affiliations. The last insurrectionary 
attempt of Mazzini, at Genoa, proved a miserable failure. 
With like views, Cavour conciliated Daniel Manin, the Vene- 
tian patriot. Manin repudiated as he did.the plots of con- 
spirators and the da^ers of assassins, and pressed Mazzini 
to retire from a scene where he was only an obstacle to Italian 
Tbeinfornai Cavour thought that he might securely reckon on the help 
«.o«i»,«^ of Napoleon III., the insurgent in Romagna in 1831 for 
Italian independence, when a detestable act seemed to shatter 
his hopes. As the iSrench Emperor and Empress were pro- 
ceeding to the opera on the 14th of Januanr, 1858, one 
Orsini, who after the Roman revolution had taken refuge in 
England, and hatched there his diabolical plot, discharged at 
the Imperial carriages a so-called ** infernal machine," con- 
sisting of a number of gun barrels, fired simiQtaneously by a 
train of powder. Fortunately neither the Emperor nor 
Empress was hit, but several of their suite, as well as by- 
standers, were killed or wounded. England was denounced 
at Paris as having hatched the conspiracy, and Count Walew- 
ski, the French Foreign Minister, addressed a remonstrance, 
couched in moderate terms, to the British Cabinet. It was of 
course an absurd suspicion that the English nation or govern- 
ment should abet assassination, but Uie French had some 
grounds for it In the preceding year three Italians had 
gone from London to Paris, with the design of taking the 
Emperor's life, but were arrested and convicted. M^zini 
was proved to have inspired this plot,^ and a member of the 
British Cabinet, Mr. Stausfeld, was his professed admirer 

^ Annuaire des Deux Mandes, t viiL p. 93. Mr. Stansfeld was in 
conseqaence obliged to resign. 

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Chap. LXXH.] THE imiON OF ITALY 181 

and correspondent. The threats of some French colonels 
occasioned in England the establishment of the Tolnnteers, 
and the whole affair a change of ministry, Lord Palmerston 
giving place to Lord Derby. By moderation on both sides, 
however, the ruptnre of the French and English alliance was 
averted, and the visit of Qaeen Victoria to the French Em- 
peror at Cherbourg, on the reopening of that port in August, 
1858, seemed to Asperse the clouds which had gathered on 
the political horizon* 

Strangely enough an event which threatened to upset all The 
Gavour's plans served eventually to forward them. That pJ^aBml. 
Minister having loudly denounced in the Sardinian parlia- 
ment the crime of political assassination, some confidential 
communications from Napoleon followed, and soon after a 
letter, inspired by him, containing the embryo scheme of an 
alliance between France and fiedmont. Cavour in con- 
sequence, ostensibly on a pleasure trip, procured an interview 
with Napoleon at Plombi^res, July 20th, 1858, where the 
terms of the projected alliance were arranged. They com- 
prised the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy by the French 
and Italian arms ; the erection of a Northern Italian kingdom 
of some eleven million souls in favour of Victor Emanuel, 
and in return the cession of Savoy and Nice to France. A 
marriage was also agreed ux>on between the Emperor's cousin. 
Napoleon, son of Kmg Jer6me, and Clotilda, daughter of the 
King of Sardinia. 

Napoleon, who had much of the conspirator in his nature, Napoleon's 
had formed this plot, for such it must be called, without the ^^^*^ 
knowledge of his ministers. There was no legitimate cause 
of quarrel betwe^i France and Austria. The pretext put 
f ortii was Austrian misgovemment in Italy ; Napoleon's real 
motive, it can hardly be doubted, was to add strength and 
lustre to his dynasty by the aggrandizement of France. 
Piedmont also had not for the moment any valid plea for 
a war with Austria. But her case was very difiierent from 
that of France. The occupation of Lombardy by the Austrians 
was a constant threat to her safety and independence, as well 
as the chief bar to Italian unity. 

Napoleon displayed his intentions on receiving the diplo- 
matic circle on January 1st, 1859, when he expressed his 
regret to M. Hubner, the Austrian Ambassador, that his 
reLfttions with his master, Francis Joseph, were not cordial. 

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Such an aimoimcement so suddenlj and openly made filled all 
Enrope with astonishment and alarm. Suspicion had how- 
erer prerailed in some quarters of an approaching rupture. 
In the preceding year. Piedmont had ostentatiously displayed 
her enmity towards Austria, and reports of French military 
preparations had been rife in diplomatic circles. Not only 
the Sardinian official press, but the Chambers also had 
a4;tacked the right of Austria to her Italian possessions, 
whilst she, on her side, had redoubled her military precautions, 
and renewed her ancient treaties with Italian States. Already 
before Napoleon's declaration, the Austrian troops, which had 
been largely reinforced, had taken up a threatening position 
on the iHcino. 

Victor Emanuel's speech on opening the Chambers at 
Turin, January 10th, 1859, taken in connection with Napo- 
leon's declaration, was calculated to remove any remaining 
doubt as to the true nature of the crisis. He exhorted the 
Parliament to meet coming events with resolution ; he bade 
them remark the credit which the country had acquired in 
the councils of Europe, but that such a situation was not 
without danger, for if on the one hand treaties were to 
be respected, on the other, they could not be insensible 
to the cries of anguish directed towards them from every 
part of Italy. The marriage of Prince Napoleon and Prin- 
cess Clotilda, January SOth, threw further light on the 
Views of Napoleon's views were set forth in a pamphlet published 

f^^^ early in February, entitled " Napolfon HI. et I'ltaUe ; " which , 
though written by M. de La Gu^ronniire, was well known to 
have been inspired by the Emperor. It insisted on the neces- 
sity of reorganizing Italy, freeing it from foreign domination, 
and reconstituling it on the base of a federative union. 
Treaties were spoken of with levity as no longer answering 
the needs of the time, and it was proposed to submit the 
whole question to the judgment of Europe — ^Napoleon's 
favourite resort in difficult emergencies, or when he wanted 
to act the first part with a show of moderation. His i^>eech, 
indeed, on opening the French Chambers, February 7th, 
seemed to breathe of peace. He affected astonishment at the 
uneasiness which had been shown ; reminded the Assembly of 
his declaration, L'Empire &esb la paix, and in mentioning 
Austria, adverted only to some difficulties about the Danubian 

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Principalities, as if they bad been the occasion of his New 
Year's declaration. When touching on the abnormal state of 
Italy, where order could be maintained only by foreign troops, 
he observed that it was not a sufiBident motiye for anticipating 
a war. And he concluded by solemnly declaring that lus first 
impulses, as well as his last judges, were Qod, his conscience, 
and posterity. 

But in spite of this declaration all Europe was convinced The 
that war was imminent. England especially took the alarm ^^^j^^m, 
and made some impotent attempts at mediation, which were i869. 
answered only with rebuffs both at Vienna and Turin. In 
March, Eussia suddenly proposed a Congress, and some 
negotiations on the subject ensued, when a hasty step on 
the part of Austria rendered war inevitable. She refused 
to admit Sardinia to the Congress, and required, as a con- 
dition of her own acceptance of it, that that power should 
immediately disarm ; and on the 23rd of April she sent to 
Turin an ultimatum to that effect, allowing only three days 
for a reply. 

Although Cavour ardently desired a war, his position was European 
embarrassing. He knew that Napoleon III.'s character was ^S^^. 
fickle ; that his policy had encountered great opposition in 
France, especially among the Church party; that Count 
Waiewski, the French Foreign Mioister, was not only opposed 
to a war, but even personally hostile to himself. On the 
other hand, the attitude of the rest of Europe was encourag- 
ing. Although no active help could be expected from Eng- 
land, her sympathy and mor^ support might be relied on. 
Bussia was then un&vourably disposed towards Austria, and 
on friendly terms with the Frendi Emperor, who had made 
advances to her after the Crimean war. The Prussian Begent, 
influenced by England and by the attitude of Eussia, perhaps 
also by ancient jealousy of Austria, had refused to interfere 
in the matter, and denied that it concerned the German Con- 
federation. The South German States, however, supported 
Austria, and ultimately, when war was no longer doubtful, 
the Prussian Minister at the Diet carried a resolution that 
the Confederate troops should be held in readiness, and orders 
to that effect were given for the Prussian contingent, but solely 
as a measure of precaution and defence. 

On receipt of the Austrian ultimatum, the Sardinian iBtogiiii^ 
government demanded from Napoleon III. an immediate ^es^ 

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succour of 50,000 men. A email body already assembled in 
the south of Prance was at once embarked for Genoa, while 
others took the road to Turin by the Col di Susa. The 
Austrians, who had in Italy about 200,000 men, under the 
command of Count Giulay, crossed the Ticino, April 29th, 
though it had been notified to them that France would r^;ard 
such a step as a declaration of war. By so doing they 
abrogated the treaties of 1815, and put themselves in the 
wrong with the public opinion of Europe. They occupied 
Vigevano, Novara, Vercelli, and two or three other towns 
wifiiout opposition, and with due diligence it would have 
been easy for them to seize Turin, an open town, and to crush 
the small, and as yet unsupported Piedmontese army. But 
though they had displayed so much precipitation in their 
diplomacy, their miHtary operations seemed struck with 
sudden paralysis. Giulay showed the greatest indecision, 
changed his plans every three days, advanced sometimes on 
the right, sometimes on the left, bank of the Po, seemed to 
stand on his defence rather than to take the offensive. Thus 
time was lost till May 10th, when the allies had assembled in 
^e Italian Cavour had made the most active preparations, and he 
^' accepted the help of the revolutionary party, except only the 
Mazzinians, whom he threatened to fire upon if they stirred. 
These irr^ular forces consisted of three regiments called 
Caceiaiari degli Alpi, or Eiflemen of the Alps, led by Gari- 
baldi. The Sardinian army, amounting to about 80,000 men, 
was commanded by the King, having at his side General La 
Marmora. Napoleon DI. took the command of the French 
army. Before starting to join it he published a proclamation 
denouncing the Austrian aggression, and declaring that Italy 
must be liberated as far as the Adriatic. He was visited at 
G^noa by Victor Emanuel, and next day. May 14th, he estab- 
lished his head-quarters at Alexandria. The !EVanco-Sardinian 
army now amounted to about 200,000 men. 
The Italian We Can give only the main outline of the campaign.^ On 
c^paign, ^^^ advance of the iJlies, Giulay retreated to Pavia. In 
order to ascertain the position of the enemy, he directed a 
reconnaissance in force on Carte^o, May 20th. The Austrians 

^ It is fully described by Riistow, Der Italienische Kriefff Zurich, 
laea With plans. 

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haTing been beaten in an aifoir at Gtoestrello, retired to 
Montebello, whence thej were expelled the same day, after 
an obstinate and bloody fight. Expecting to be attacked on 
the Po, Ginlay had weakened his force in the neighbourhood 
of Lago Maggiore ; and Garibaldi took adrante^e of that 
circumstance to seize Yarese, the Austrians retiring on Como, 
May 23rd. Four days after Como also was entered. The 
Piedmontese, under the King, crossed the Sesia, and attacked 
the Austrians at Palestro, at first with doubtful success, but, . 
being supported by a French Zouave regiment, completely 
defeated them. 

The attack in this quarter was intended to mask the ad- Battle of 
vance of the French. G-iulay continued his retreat to an J^"*** 
elbow formed by the junction of the Ticino with the Po. On 
the 1st of June G-eneral Niel entered Norara, after a slight 
engagement ; and on the 3rd the French began to cross the 
Ticino. On the 4th they gained the victory of Magenta, 
chiefly by a skilful manoeuvre of McMahon, which procured 
for him on the field a marshal's bftton, and the title of Duke 
of Magenta. In this battle the Austrians are said to have 
lost 20,000 men. Their haste in evacuating Milan, without 
carrying off or even spiking their guns, revealed to the in- 
habitants that their masters had received a disastrous defeat. 
The municipality, except the Podestii, who fled, formed them- 
selves into a temporary government, and sent a deputation 
to Victor Emanuel, to announce their annexation to Sardinia. 
On the 8th of June, that Sovereign, accompanied by the 
French Emperor, triumphantly entered the Lombard capital. 
Hence Nai>oleon addressed a proclamation to the Italiaiis in 
general, calling on them to take up arms for the liberation of 
their country. 

On the same day that the Emperor entered Milan, the Battle of 
French defeated the Austrians at Melegnano (anciently Ma- ^f'^^' 
rignano), who now crossed the Mincio, deeming their position 
impregnable through the so-called Quadrilateral, formed by 
the fortresses of Lonato, Peschiera, Mantua, and Yerona. 
Here they were joined by the Emperor Francis Joseph ; and, 
on the night of the 23rd of June, they recrossed the Mincio, 
to give battle to the allies. Both sides were unaware of the 
position of their opponents. The Battle of Solvsbino 
which ensued was a kind of haphazard affair, gained by sheer 
fighting (June 24th). All three Sovereigns were present at 

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Bevolt of 
the Italian 

this battle^ and displayed great personal ooun^. Earlj in 
the day the Piedmontese on the left wmg had experi^iced 
several repulses, but after the taking of Solferino by the 
Frenoh, drove the Austrians from positions which were be- 
come untenable. The loss on both sides, and especially the 
Austrian, was enormous. By the 1st of July the allies had 
effected the passage of the Mincio, and the Austrians retired 
into Yerona. 

And now when the French Emperor seemed to be on the 
point of completing his programme, when the hopes of the 
Italians were excited to the highest pitch, and when all 
Europe was wrapt in expectation, Napoleon suddenly stopped 
short in his victorious career. On July 7th he despatehed 
Qeneral Meury to the Austrian camp, with proposals for an 
armistice, and on the 11th, after an interview with the Aus- 
trian Emperor, the prelindnaries of a peace were signed at 

Napoleon's conduct has been variously accoimted for. His 
apologists allege his a^ — a little past fifty, the heat of the 
weather, the sight of so much carnage, and the loss of so 
many men. He is also said to have received news of the 
prol^ble intervention of Prussia ; but, though some Prussian 
corps had been marched towards the Bhine, they were not 
intended to take the offensive. Austria, apparently from 
latent suspicions, had declined Prussia's offer of an armed 
mediation, and called upon her for immediate action, for 
which Prussia was not inclined. What chiefly weighed with 
Napoleon were probably two circumstances, both of which 
might have been foreseen. One of these was the strength of 
the Quadrilateral, and the necessity for some tedious sieges. 
Anotiier was the enthusiasm displayed in the Italian duchies 
for annexation to Piedmont. This formed no part of Napo- 
leon's plan ; and lest the French should take alarm at some 
dictatorships which had been erected in the duchies by Victor 
Emanuel, he was careful to inform them in an official note in 
the " Moniteur," June 28rd, that they were only provisional 
and temporary. But here it will be necessary to cast a glance 
at the proceedings in these States. 

The news of approaching hostilities had agitated the Italian 
duchies. In Tuscany, the government of the Grand Duke, 
Le<^ld n., vras not oppressive; but he was bound to the 
Austrian court by kinship, as well as by treaties, which, to 

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the diaguBt of the Florentines, he was now called upon to fulfil. 
Leopold had just made a journey to Borne and Naples, under- 
taken, no doubt, with a view to concert measures of common 
safetj; and his retium was marked by a more rigorous 
Austrian policy. Many young men of the best Florentine 
families now set off for Kedmont, to offer their swords to 
Victor Emanuel ; and a meeting of the principal citissens ad* 
dressed a paper to the Qrand Buke, expressing a wish for the 
independence of the different Italian States, and their union 
in a Confederation. Finding himself no longer master of his 
actions, Leopold Quitted Florence for Vienna. A provisional 
government established in the Palasszo Vecchio now besought 
Victor Emanuel to appoint a governor of Tuscany, and Signer 
Buoncompagni, the Sardinian Minister at the Tuscan court, 
was ultimalel^r made Boyal Commissary. He formed a 
ministry of which Baron Bicasoli was one of the most dis* 
tinguished members — a man of austere and resolute character, 
but of moderate political views. In the revolution of 1848 he 
had supported the Grand Duke ; but» on his entering Florence, 
on his return from Gaeta^ with an Austrian escort, Bicasoli, 
in disgust, renounced his connection with the Court, and re- 
tired to his domain of Brolio, near Siena, where he watched 
with interest the progress of Piedmontese policy. The Tuscans 
formed an army of nearly 20,000 men; but before they could 
join the allies the Peace of Villafranca had been concluded. 

Duke Ferdinand V. of Modena was also connected with the Modena. 
Austrian imperial house. His government was despotic and 
tyrannical, especially at Carrara, where the Austriiui major, 
Widerkhem, enforced martial law* Some of the inhabitflmts 
had been put to death, hundreds condemned to imprisonment 
or the galleys. The movement in Tuscany excited an insur- 
rection in Massa and Carrara. The Duke fled to the fortress 
of Brescello, canying off with him a lao^ sum of money, the 
crown jewels, ana the most precious articles from the public 
museums and libraries. He also brought away eighty political 
convicts, and cast them into the dungeons of Meuitua. The 
Piedmontese government proclaimed tiiQ annexation of Massa 
and Carrara, May 20th ; and after the battle of Magenta Duke 
Francis retired into Austrian territory. The tricolor was now 
hoisted, Victor Emanuel 11. proclaimed, and the historian, 
Farini, appointed Piedmontese Commissary at Modena. 

The nuld and indulgent government of Parma, by the 

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Dacliess Louisa Maria of Bourbon, as Begent for her minor 
son, Buke Robert I., presents an agpreeable contrast to that of 
Modena. She desired to preserve a strict neutrality in the war, 
but such a course was impossible in a small State situated 
like Ptoma. Notwithstanding the comparatiyely popular 
government, the movement in Tuscany caused a corresponding 
one in Parma. Towards the end of April a provisional junta 
was formed, in the name of the King of ^rdinia, and the 
Begent proceeded with her son to Mantua. She was shortly 
afterwaKls recalled, but her restoration lasted little more than 
a month. Finding herself compelled either to take part in the 
war, or to violate her engagements with Austria, she retired 
into Switzerland, June 9th. The municipal government, after 
the evacuation of Piacenza by the Austrians, proclaimed 
annexation with Sardinia, when M. Pallieri was appointed 
Governor of the Duchy. The further history of these States, 
and of Bomagna, wiU be resumed after describing the Peace 


Peace of By the preliminaries the two Emperors engaged to promote 

hancib. c^ Italian Confederation, with the Pope as honorary president. 
Austria was to cede her possessions in Lombardy, except 
Mantua, Peschiera, and the territory east of the Mincio, to the 
Emperor of the French, who would transfer them to the King 
of ^surdinia. Yenetia, though still under the Austrian sceptre, 
was to form part of the new Confederation. The G-rand Duke 
of Tuscany and the Duke of Modena were to re-enter their 
dominions on giving a general amnesty. The two Emperors 
would demand from the Holy Father some indispensable re- 
forms.^ The preliminaries of Yillafranca were completed by 
the Treaties of Zurich, signed November 10th. The most 
notable difference is in the 19th Article of the Treaty of Peace 
between France and Austria, regarding the duchies.^ It is 
there stated that, as the boundaries of these States cannot be 
altered without the concurrence of the Powers who presided 
at their formation, the rights of the G-rand Duke of Tuscany, 
of the Duke of Modena, and the Duke of Parma (now men- 
tioned for the first time) are ea^essly reserved by the high 
contracting parties. This is a variation from the engagement 
that they should re-enter their States. 

^ Doeument in Annuatre des Deux Mondes, t. ix. App. p. 978. 
> Ihid. p. 994. 

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Zara and Venice threatened by French fleets, disturbances Cavoor 
in Hnngaiy, and the defeats and losses which she had suffered ^^^^^ 
in the war, seem to have been Austria's motives for making a 
peace whidi involved so considerable a sacrifice. Nevertheless, 
the campaign must be pronounced a failure on the part of 
Nax>oleon. He had not carried out his agreement with Oavour, 
and could not, therefore, claim the stipulated reward. The 
Lombards excepted, who had obtained their freedom, nobody 
was satisfied with tihe result. It excited great discontent in 
France ; and the address of the Emperor to the L^slature 
(July 19th) betrayed an xmeasy consciousness that he had but 
half performed the task which he had undertaken in the face 
of Europe. Oavour's disappointment was bitter indeed. An 
Italian confederation under Papal presidency, with Austria 
as a member of it, and retainu^ a footing in Italy, still left 
Francis Joseph master of the situation. When informed of 
the peace by victor Emanuel, Cavour's rage was ungovernable. 
He immedmtely resigned, and was succeeded by General La 
Marmora and Katazzi. 

The revolted duchies showed no inclination for the return Fanni, 
of their former masters. Of all the central provinces, Bomagna, orSmi^. 
which had also joined the revolt as soon as the Austrians had 
been compelled by defeats to withdraw their troops from 
Bologna and Ancona, most dreaded the restoration of its 
former government. The Papal administration was, indeed, 
about the worst of all those misgoverned States. Hundreds 
of persons had been condemned to fine or imprisonment for 
what were called erroneous political ideas, a liking for inno- 
vation, want of attachment to the government, etc. The dis- 
affection was almost universal, and shared by the highest 
class, including the Marquis Pepoli, grandson of Murat, and 
cousin of Nai>oleon III. An Assembly of an aristocratic 
caste, elected by universal suffrage, unanimously voted the 
abrogation of the 'rule of the Holy See, and annexation 
to Sardinia. But Victor Emanuel hesitated to accept the 
proffered dictatorship. Bomagna was in a different situation 
from the duchies, and the question of the Pope's temporal 
authority might involve many diplomatic complications. But 
the King sent d'Azeglio as Commissary Extraordinary, who 
organized a government. Soon after, Farini being offered 
by the Assembly the direction of a&irs, took the tiUe of 
Qovemor-general ; and,r on the 1st of January, I860, he united 

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the three govenunente which he held, vis., Bomagna, Modena, 
and Parma, to which last he had been appointed after the 
peace of Yillafranca, under the ancient title of iBmilia. The 
Pope compensated himself for the impotence of his temporal 
weapons by resorting to his spiritual ones, and the singular 
prerogative whidi he enjoys of consigning his enemies to 
everhutting perdition. He fulminated in open consistory a 
Bull of Excommunication against all the promoters, abettors, 
and adherents of the usurpation (March 30th), which would 
include the French Emperor as well as Victor Emanuel ; but 
nobody was named. The bull was placarded in Some; but it 
was necessary to post gendarmes to protect it. 
Toflcany With regard to Tuscany, Ferdinand, Leopold's son — ^who 

gj^i^^^ had fought with the Austrians at Solferino, and was now 
become sovereign by the abdication extorted from his father 
— proclaimed that he would adopt the national colours, uphold 
the Constitution, and rec<^^ze the popular rights. But the 
Tuscan municipalities voted the deposition of the House of 
Lorraine by a large majority. Buoncompagni was recalled in 
order that the proceedings of the people might appear entirely 
free, and on the 1st of August he handed over his authority 
to !l^casoli, President of the Ministry, who firmly repressed 
all insurrectionary attempts. A newly elected Assembly con- 
firmed the deposition of the dynasty, and unanimously voted 
annexation to Sardinia. A nulitary League was formed be- 
tween the central Italian States, including an agreement to 
prevent x>ontifical restoration in Bomagna. The army of the 
League was placed under the Piedmontese general Fanti, and 
Gkuibaldi contented himself with the command of the Tuscan 
Napoleon The tum events had taken was a source of much anxiety to 
p^p^® the Sardinian government, and of very grave embarrassment 
to Napoleon HI. He began to see that his idea of an Italian 
confederation under the Pope was simply impossible ; that even 
the temporal power of the Holy See, which he was pledged to 
maintain, was in danger. The provisional governments, also, 
established in the dudiies were of course oi^y temporary, and 
it became every day more necessary that something decisive 
should be done. To relieve himself from this difficulty he 
proposed a Congress of the Powers which had been parties to 
the Treaties of Vienna: the proposal was accepted, and it was 
agreed that theCongress should meet at Paris in January,1860. 

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Towards the end of the year Nax>oleon published a pamphlet 
entitled Le Fcupe et le Congres, which rendered the assembly 
impossible. It contained some verj absurd ideas. Borne was 
to be conyerted into a sort of large monastery under the Pope ; 
and though the citizens were to be without x>olitical interests 
or passions, each of them would be able to say, " Ciyis Bomanus 
sum ! " Pio None was urged to acquiesce in the independence 
of Bomagna, to make large political reforms in his remaining 
States, and to content himself with a nominal soyer^gnty at 
Borne. It was maintained yery truly, but hardly in accord- 
ance with the keying of French troops at Bome, that the 
less territory the Holy Father had to goyem the less would 
his spiritual authority be exposed to yicissitudes. This line 
of argument raised a storm throughout Europe, and put an 
end to the Congress. The French Emperor followed up his 
yiews in a letter to the Pope, December 31st, in which he was 
adyised to place the legations, which could be recoyered only 
by force, under the yicariate of Victor Emanuel, and Europe 
would then guarantee him in his other possessions. But such 
yiews suited not Pio None nor his adyiser. Cardinal Antonelli. 
About the same time, by replacing Walewski as Foreign 
Minister by Thouyenel, Napoleon proclaimed the end of all 
hostile diplomacy towards Italy. Indeed, between the signing 
of the preliminaries of Yillafranca and the execution of the 
Treaties of Zurich his yiews had already begun to wayer. In 
a letter to Victor Emanuel (October 20th) he had proposed 
seyeral yariations from the Villafranca programme, though 
the idea of restoring t^ soyereigns was preseryed in the main. 
In the same letter he still adhered to his scheme of a federa- 
tiye tinion under the Pope; from which also before the end 
of the year he began to yary. 

The ministry of La Marmora and Batazzi, which had become cayonr 
unpopular, seemed unequal to the importance of the crisis, ^^J* ^ 
and on the 20th of January, 1860, Oayour accepted a recall to iseo. 
power. The yacillation of Nax>oleon encouragdd him to at- 
tempt annexation of the central proyinces. Kapoleon now 
withdrew from the responsibility of the situation which he had 
himself created. He recalled the French army of occupation 
from Lombardy, and left Cayour to proceed at his own risk ; 
only stipulating that in case the annexation of the duchies to 
Piedmont should be effected, France was to receiye Sayoy and 
Nice as the price. A clear breach of the stipulations of Villa- 

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franca. There could be no doubt as to the wishes of the 
population of the central provinces, and to please Napoleon 
Cavour adopted his favourite method of a pUbiscite, It was 
held with a favourable result on the 11th of March, and a week 
afterwards Tuscany and ^Slmilia were declared, by a royal de- 
cree, annexed to Piedmont. Elections were then held through- 
out the newly-constituted State for the first ItalianParliament. 
This assembly confiimed the annexations, but not without 
violent though ineffectual opposition, led by Batazzi, to the 
cession of jNice and Savoy. By the cession of Nice, Gktribaldi's 
birth-place, Cavour incurred his implacable hatred. The 
English cabinet, with Lord Pahnerston at the head, made some 
abortive attempts to prevent the cession of Savoy and Nice to 
France. Even Austria refused to interfere, and, apparently 
from domestic difficulties, quietly acquiesced in the flagrant 
violation of treaties. 

Thus the French Emperor obtained his share of the Plom- 
bi^s programme by means which he had neither contem- 
plated, approved, nor promoted ; whilst Cavour saw indeed 
the Piedmontese kingdom enlarged beyond his expectations, 
but with the annoying circumstance that Napoleon had not 
fairly earned the ceded provinces. For the present, however, 
he was prepared to acquiesce in what had been done, and to 
leave the completion of his plans to some future opportunity, 
when an unexpected enterprise of Gktribaldi's — ^which, but for 
its success, would have been deemed one of the rashest and 
most foolish ever undertaken— opened out to him the prospect 
of a kingdom more extensive than he had ever dreamt of, even 
that of ^1 united Italy. 
Gkuft^di's The population of Sicily was dissatisfied with the govem- 
ezpedition. ment, and ripe for revolt. " On the 17th of Apnl, a Sicilian 
deputation had requested Victor Emanuel, then at Florence, 
to take possession of the island, which, under present circum- 
stances, he declined to do. But QuribEJdi saw before him a 
magnificent field of enterprise. With the help of Mazzini he 
collected at Oenoa a band of volunteers called the " Thousand,'' 
and on the night of the 5th of May he embarked them on board 
two steamers which he had forcibly seized. He landed at 
Marsala without opposition, though two Neapolitan frigates 
were cruising in the neighbourhood. As he marched towards 
Palermo his little force was increased by insurgents and by 
deserters from the Neapolitan army. After some skirmishes 

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jBkt Monreale and Oalatafimi, Palermo wa« entered almost with- 
out opposition, although there were more than 20,000 regular 
troops in the city and neighbourhood. The commandant 
signed a capitulation on board an English man-of-war. Gari- 
baldi's progress was now easy. The royal troops, though far 
outnumbenng his, retured into Messina, after making a last 
stand at Melazzo. 

Cavour was alarmed as well as surprised at Guribaldi's rapid Garib&idi 
success. The hatred which Garibaldi entertained for him, ^^^^^^' 
had prevented any concert between them ; but Cayour, though 
aware of the enterprise, did nothing to arrest it. He would 
have preferred a federal union between North and South Italy 
to annexation ; but when he saw that Gkribaldi would pretty 
certainly succeed, he directed Admiral Persano to help him 
with the Italian fleet. The state of the Neapolitan dominions 
promised an easy triumph. Francis 11., who had recently 
succeeded to the crown on the death of his father, Ferdinand 
n. (May 22nd, 1860), had contrived in two or tluree months 
to alienate the affection of his subjects by puerile reactionary 
attempts. Garibaldi^ crossing the Straits early in August, 
marched upon Naples without striking a blow. Frauds be- 
trayed helpless irresolution. Instead of opposing the invader, 
he tried conciliation by granting a constitution, offered to join 
Victor Emanuel against Austria, appealed to France and 
England for help, and on Garibaldi's approach retired to Capua 
with 50,000 men ! ^ 

It now became necessary for Cavour to take some decisive 
step. Garibaldi, elated by his wonderful success, seemed to 
consider himself Dictator of all Italy, a title which he had 
already assumed with regard to Sicily and Najdes. He talked 
openly of going to Bome and Venice; steps which would 
necessarily produce a collision with either France or Austria, 
perhaps with both. He wrote to Victor Emanuel demanding 
the dismissal of Cavour and Farini. Cavour knew that Gari- 
baldi did not share the views of Mazzini and the republicans, 
though he had many of them in his ranks, and that he sin- 
cerely desired Itauan unity under, the sceptre of Victor 
Emanuel. Cavour let him know that the King and his 
government confided in him, but at the same time resolved to 
take the movement out of his hands.^ To facilitate matters, 

^ See Mario, Garibaldi e i suoi Tempi, 

^ Cavour writesat this tinie: '^Ils'agitdeBaiiverl'Italiedes dangers, 

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The batUe 
of Castelfl- 

at Naples. 

King at 

lie is said to have tampered with and bribed several of 
Francis II/s officers and councillors, and even members of the 
Bojal family itself. 

Garibaldi's progress could be arrested only by force, for he 
was deaf to all considerations of policy. But to use force it 
would be necessary to violate international law, by marching 
an army through the Papal States. Fortunately, the Pope, or 
rather his counsellor, Antonelli, had afforded a pretext for 
such a step. Some dreamt of nothing less than reconquering 
Bomagna, and with that view had formed a legion of adven- 
turers of all nations, of whom the distinguished French general, 
Lamoriciire, an enthusiast for the Pope, accepted the com- 
mand, l^s force, which amounted to about 10,000 men, was 
a menace to Piedmont, threatening to crush the new Italian 
kingdom between itself and the Austrians posted on the Po. 
Antonelli having refused to dismiss it, Cavour seized the pre- 
text to despatch an army through the Marches to arrest 
Garibaldi's progress. Kapoleon had been previously consulted, 
who, as in the case of the annexations, left Cavour to act on 
his own responsibility. A large Piedmontese force, under 
Graierals Oiiddini and Fanti, defeated Lamoriciire, September 
18th, at Castelfidardo, near Ancona, into which city the 
French general retired; but as the Italian fleet, under Persano, 
began to bombard it, he was obliged to capitulate. 

Fortunately, Francis 11., by <Usputing Garibaldi's passage 
of the Yoltumo, October 1st, had arrested his march, and 
thus unwittingly aided Oavour's policy by giving the Italian 
army time to come up. Victor Emanuel had now joined 
Oialdini and accompanied his march. They fell in with 
Cktribaldi at Teano, when the King gave him his hand, with 
the laconic address, " Orasde " (I thank you). Their united 
forces now marched to Naples, which the King and the Dictator 
entered in the same carriage. Garibaldi had exchanged his 
characteristic red shirt for a uniform, but he declined the offer 
of a field^marshal's bliton. 

Garibaldi, disappointed and di^usted, retired soon after to 
Caprera. Before doing so, in his capacity of Neapolitan 
Dictator, he proclaimed Victor Emanuel "Ring of Italy." 
But it was deternuned that the Two Sicilies should choose 

des manvais Drincipes, et des fous ; '* that is, the Austrians, the Maz- 
^niaiiSy and the GaribaldiaBs. 

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Chaf.LXXIL] the union OP ITALY 



their own soTereign bj a plebiscUe ; and, due precautions being 
taken, Victor Emanuel was elected at the end of October. He 
declined, however, to assume that title till it should be con- 
ferred on him by a National Assembly. The first parliament 
of the now almost united Italy, assembled at Turin, proclaimed 
Victor Emanuel as its SoYereign,March 14th, 1861. Francis XL Fiandsn. 
had abready surrendered. He had retired with the remnant of ^^]^ 
his forces into Gkieta, where he was besieged by the Pied- 
montese army united with the Gbribaldians. The siege was 
protracted through the equivocal conduct of the French fleet, 
which seemed at first disposed to protect the town. This pro- 
ceeding, which has been asmbed to various motives on the 
part of Napoleon III., was probably caused by irresolution. 
It is certain that he disliked the annexation of the Two Sicilies 
to Piedmont, but he hesitated to strike a blow to prevent it. 
On the withdrawal of the French fleet, and consequent bom- 
bardment of the town by that of Persano, it capittdated, Feb- 
ruary 13th. It had made an heroic defence, during which the 
Neax>olitan Queen, Maria' of Bavaria, displayed remarkable 
courage. Fnmcis 11. and his consort then retired to Bome. 
Messina, the last place which held out for the Boyal cause, 
surrendered March 18th. 

Thus Cavour's policy had succeeded beyond his most Cavoiir'a 
sanguine expectations. Instead of a kingdom of 11,000,000 
souls, he had realized one of double that number. His 
success in North Italy was, indeed, of a veiy different kind 
from that in the South, but both showed the versatility of 
his talent. The kingdom of North Italy was the calculated 
result of a long chain of policy ; in the annexation of South 
Italy, his merit lies not in any preconcerted plan, but in his 
knowing how to use and direct the daring, but thoughtless, 
adventimr who had brought it about without his foreknow- 
ledge, and even perhaps, at first, against his will. The state 
of Europe favoured the operation, which was approved by 
some Powers and seriously opi>osed by none. They regarded 
the Neapolitan revolution as a fait accompli, the conduct of 
which was at all events better in the hands of a constitutional 
king than in those of republicans and anarchists. Napoleon, 
indeed, when appealed to by the Pope, made some show of 
displeasure, and for a time recalled his Ambassador from 
Turin ; an example which was followed by Bussia and Prussia. 
Austria, whose domestic troubles prevented her from inter*^ 

VI. L 

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State of 

The Pope's 



f ering, contented herself with protesting. The British Cabinet 
was not averse to the aggrandizement of Italy, and was satisfied 
witii Caronr's engagement not to attack Austria, and to make 
no more cessions to France. Francis Joseph could obtain no 
promise of aid either from Prussia or Bussia. The Italian 
cause was farourablj viewed in North Germany. On the 
accession of the Begent William to the Prussian throne on 
the death of his brother, January 2nd, 1861, Cavour sent 
General La Marmora to Berlin to represent that the interests 
of the two countries were identical — ^the establishment of 
national hegemony.^ But Bismarck had not yet appeared as 
protagonist on the political scene* and Prussian views on that 
point were not clearly defined. 

Cavour had achieved much, but a great deal still remained 
to be done. Italian unity was not complete while Yenetia 
and Bome held out; and their annexation promised to be a 
work of much greater difficulty than that of the other provinces. 
The Piedmontese rule remained to be consolidated in South 
Italy, where it was far from popular. When Victor Emanuel 
visited Sicily, his reception was the reverse of flattering. 
Great part of the Southern Italians were Garibalians or 
Mazzinians. On the Fete of the Nativity at Naples, the 
hamlnno^ or Infant Christ, was dressed in Garibaldian 
costume. Frequent risings took place in the provinces, 
which were encouraged by the ex-£ing Francis IE. at Bome, 
and by the priests, who sometimes led them. The French 
garrison at Bome also indirectly encouraged, or at all events 
countenanced, the half robber, half royalist bands, which dis- 
turbed the Neapolitan dominions. 

Of the Venetian and the Boman questions, the latter was 
by fax the more difficult one. The liberation of Venice con- 
cemed only one foreign Power, and had to be left alone for 
the time. The annexation of Bome touched the views and 
interests of all Catholic States, and involved the formidable 
opposition of the Church. The more ardent Ultramontanists 
maintained that the independence and sovereignty of the Pope 
were necessary to his spiritual security ; that he must be fiee 
not only at home from the domination of popular assemblies, 
but also abroad from the dictation of foreign Powers ; and 

^ On this point Oavonr remarked : " L'alliance de la Prnsse avecle 
Piedmont agrandi est ^rite dans le livre f atar de rhistoire. " Masade, 
Vie de Cavour, p. 4^. A remarkable prediction. 

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Chap.LXXH.] the union OP ITALY 147 

that for these ends the possession of sovereign temporal 
power was indispensable.^ The first of these postulates would 
make the Pope an absolute and irresponsible despot; the 
second is impossible. To make it feasible, the Pontiff should 
be the greatest of all military potentates, for so long as there 
is a greater he may be liable to dictation. And, as a matter 
of fact, he had not been able for many years to hold his own 
territories without the help of foreign bayonets. TheAustrians 
had held Somagna for him since 1848, and as soon as they 
evacuated it, the population threw off his yoke. At that 
moment he was maintained in his own episcopal city only by 
a French garrison. These evils were incurred through his 
temporal power ; without which his spiritual authority would 
have been greater and more respected. His temporal sov- 
ereignty was a political solecism in modem Europe, and 
utterly opposed to the princMes of modem society. The 
views stiU entertained by the Soman Court are shown in the 
Encyclical known as Quemta Cura, drawn up by the Jesuit 
Perrone, and with the annexed SylWms, or list of errors, 
published in December, 1864. Liberty of conscience and of 
worship are treated as hallucinations ; the independence of the 
civil power, the liberty of teaching and of the press, together 
with many other things which more enlightened nations regard 
as their dearest privileges are forbidden.^ 

Cavour's religious views were liberal, but free from that cavonr's 
morbid hatred of the Church which characterized most of the ^^^'^ 
revolutionists, ffia nuLTitn was Libera Chieaa in libero 8taio 
— a free Church in a free State, in accordance with which he 
held that the Pope's temporal power must fall. He suppressed 
some of the more useless monastic Orders, but he retained 
such as did good by teaching or by charitable acts, as the 
Sceurs de Cha/rUe and others. He had at first hoped to con- 
ciliate the Pope by friendly negotiations, which proved fruit- 
less. They were renewed, with the knowledge of the French 
Emperor, after the march of the Sardinian army through the 
Papal territories. Pio Nono was offered a large patrimony, 
absolute property in the Vatican and other pakces, the main- 
tenance of his sovereign rights, prerogatives, and inviolability, 
with freedom from State interference in the afi&iirs of the 

^ See La SowoeraineU Pantificale, par Monseigneur Dnpanlonp, 
Ev^ne d'Orl^ans, p. 90 sqq. 
3 See Zeller, Pie IX. et Victor JSmmanud, 

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His tasks. 

Death of 




148 MODEEir EUROPE [Chap. LXXH. 

Ohiirch. Antonelli affected for a while to listen, perhaps to 
get at the bottom of the Piedmontese plans, then suddenly 
broke off the negotiations.^ 

To effect the legislative and administratiye assimilation of 
so many very different provinces ; to reorganize the army of 
the new kingdom ; to fuse into a single budget those of six or 
seven States, while embarrassed at the outset by a deficit of 
500 million francs (20 millions sterling) ; to allay the disturb- 
ances caused by Garibaldians, Mazzinians, and Keapolitan 
Boyalists — such were the gigantic tasks to be undertidken in 
consolidating united Italy. It was necessary to dissolve 
Gkuibaldi's army, which was done as gently as possible. 
Some of the chidEs were made generals, while many of the 
officers accepted commissions in tixe national army. Garibaldi 
at Gaprera was furious. He overwhelmed Cavour and the 
moderate liberals with abuse as traitors, and demanded a 
national arming. Bicasoli in an eloquent speech in the 
Chamber denounced Gkiribaldi. Ghbribaldi appeared in the 
Chamber, April I8th, in his red shirt and American cloak, 
and amidst violent uproar accused Cavour of fomenting 
fratricidal war. But he failed to shake the firm and constant 
mind of the great Minister, who persisted in his resolution to 
dismiss the volunteers. The King brought about an interview 
between them at the palace, and tiiere was an apparent recon- 
ciliation. Cavour carried his point, and Garibaldi returned 
to Caprera. 

This contest with the popular, but unreflecting, hero, gave 
a fatal shock to Cavour's health, already undermined by the 
multiplicity of his cares and labours. On the night of May 
29th he was seized with a violent illness, and on the 6th of 
June he died. There will be few dissentient voices as to his 
merits. He was essentially the founder of the kingdom of 

Bicasoli, a declared enemy of the priests, now for a time 
became Prime Minister. Napoleon made him promise to 
undertake nothing against Bome, and French intrigues used 
the democratic Action, animated by Mazzini and led by 
Batazzi, to overthrow him. Batazzi then occupied his post. 
(Garibaldi, meanwhile ill at ease in his retirement, was plotting 
the seizure of Venice and Bome. He held a great democratic 

^ Mazade. Le Comte de Cavour, 
> See Stillman, The Union of Italy. 

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Oongress at G^noa, in March, 1862, and assembled Tolunteer 
corps at Bergamo and Brescia, with intent to inyade Yenetia, 
but Eatazzi caused the greater part of them to be disarmed. 
In the following June, Garibaldi, relying on the hatred of 
the Neapolitans and Sicilians for the Sardinian government, 
attempted another insurrection in that quarter, with the view 
of marching on Some. He landed in Sicily and passed orer 
to Calabria with some 1,200 men. But General Cialdini, who 
had been despatched with some troops to arrest his progress, 
caught him at Aspromonte. His men were dispersed, he 
himself wounded in the foot, and carried to Spezia. 

The repression of Garibaldi's attempt showed Victor 
Emanuel stro^ enough to maintain order, and on the 
strength of it he claimed to be put in possession of Bome, 
when he engaged to guarantee the Pope's spiritual headship. 
This demand offended Napoleon HI., and occasioned a change 
both in the French and Italian Ministry. At Paris, Thouvenel 
was replaced by Drouyn de THuys, who was more favourable 
to the Pope ; at Turin, Eatazzi was succeeded by Farini. It 
was the policy of Napoleon to keep Victor Emanuel weak in 
South Iteij, and so dependent on him. With the same view 
apparently, the French garrison at Bome continued to oonniye 
at secret armings in favour of Francis II., and during two 
years there were constant skirmishes in the mountains, 
attended not only with much bloodshed, but also with the 
most horrible atrocities. 

At length, in the autumn of 1864, a suspected new coalition 
among the northern Powers induced Napoleon to alter his 
views. The evacuation of Bome would, it was thought, con* 
ciliate England and sow dissensions among the new allies-^ 
Protestant Prussia, schismatic Bussia, and Catholic Austria. 
There was at that time some misunderstanding between the 
French and English Cabinets. England had given a flat 
refusal to Napoleon's proposal of a Congress in November, 
1863, while the enthusiastic reception of Ghuribaldi in England 
in the spring of 1864 had caused the Italian government 
much embarrassment. On the 15th of September of that 
year a definitive Convention was conduded between France 
and Italy on the sul^ect of Bome. Victor Emanuel under- 
took not to attack the Pope's dominions, and to protect th^n 
from all eoBtemobl assaults, while Napoleon on his side agreed 
to the gradual withdrawal of his troops from Bome, to be 





and Victor 




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Podtioii of 

of Ctonnan 

completed within two years. The formation of a papal army, 
recruited from various countries, sufficient to maintain the 
Pope's authority without menacing Italy, was allowed. As 
the French Emperor demanded some material guarantee, the 
removal of the Italian capital from Turin to Florence within 
six months was arranged by a protocol appended to the Con- 
vention.^ The news of the change of capital caused a riot at 
Turin, accompanied with considerable loss of life. To appease 
these disturbances the ministry was dismissed, and La 
Marmora, of Piedmontese origin, made President of the 
Council. The riots, however, were renewed in January, 1865 ; 
it is supposed at the instigation of Mazzini. There were cries 
of ''Ahasao il re,'* and on the 3rd of February Victor Emanuel 
left Turin for Florence. 

Italy was now gradually taking her place among the great 
European Powers. By the end of 1866 she had been recc^- 
nized by most of them. In the autumn of 1864 Austria herself 
had proposed to do so on the base of wH poseideiis, on the sole 
condition that she should not be attacked for a certain number 
of years. Thus, for the sake of her material interests, she 
was prepared to abandon not only her allies the Italian 
potentates, but even the Holy Father himself. But public 
opinion in Italy would not have allowed the formal abandon- 
ment of Venice. The internal unity of Italy was confirmed 
January 1st, 1866, when the new codes of law came into 
operation throughout the annexed provinces. The principal 
features of them were civil marriages — a blow at the clergy — 
and the equal division of property among children of both 
sexes — ^a blow at the aristocracy. In the foreign policy of 
the newly-created nation the first most remarkable features 
are her treaties with Prussia, first by joining the ZoUoerein 
towards the end of 1865, and on the 10th of April of the next 
year by that momentous alliance which was attended with 
such prodigious effects for both countries. But to explain 
these matters we must take a retrospect of German afEairs, 
which we have brought down in the preceding chapter to the 
establishment of the Prussian Regency in 1858. 

The internal troubles of Austria — one of the principal 
causes of the loss. of Lombardy — ^became after that event 
matter for serious consideration with the imperial Cabinet. 

Text of the Convention in Anntiaire, xiii. App. p. 958. 

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Financial affairs, chiefly introsted to Jews, were badly managed, 
and the debt continually increased. The army, administered 
by incompetent persons, daily deteriorated. The superior 
officers adopted a brutal tone towards their subalterns, called 
the *' Bussian manner," and these again used the cane un- 
sparingly on the men. An open contempt was displayed for 
religion, and pro&*nity became the tone of the Court. To 
these sources of weakness and decay were added open dis- 
content, and eyen rebellion, in some of the various provinces 
constituting the iU-cemented Austrian empire. 

These latter evils were the most pressing. To meet them New 
reforms were made in the various provincial Lcmdetctge, or coMtita- 
parliaments, and a new constitution was framed for the whole ^^^ 
empire, which was proclaimed Eebruaiy 26ib., 1861. The 
Emperor opened the new Beichgtag, or imperial parliament. 
May 1st. It consisted of an Upper and Lower House, the 
first named for life by the Emperor, while the second was 
composed of 343 delegates from the different provincial 
Landslage, Toleration was held out for Protestants, which 
pleased many of the Hungarians, but the Archbishops, who 
commonly obeyed in silence, ventured to express a hope that 
the Catholic character of the monarchy would not be destroyed ; 
and the Tyrolese, who are papists, refused to carry out the 
new r^ulations. 

It soon became evident that the new constitution would not Austria and 
work. The Hungarians and Croats refused to recognize it, ^'^'"^wt- 
and sent no delegates to the BeiehstoLg, Bohemia quietly 
enjoyed these quarrels, while the Magyars, under Beak's 
leadership, resolved to recover the national rights which they 
had lost by their rebellion in 1849 ; but, for fear of Russia, 
they offered only a passive resistance. Kossuth, indeed, in 
London, and Garibaldi in Italy, agitated for an insurrection 
in Yenetia and Dalmatia, to be followed by a rising in Hun- 
gary, but without effect. General Benedek, a Hungarian by 
bir&, was sent to conciliate his fellow-countrymen^ but neither 
his persuasions nor his threats had any result. Addresses 

J cured in demanding the constitution of 1848, and Francis 
oseph at length consented to the assembling of a Hungarian 
Parliament, which was opened April 2nd, 1861. 

The programme of the constitutional party was that Hun- 
gary was no Austrian province, but a substantive kingdom, 
having only a personal union with Austria ; that the abdicated 

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Emperor Ferdinand, now residing at Prague, their lawful 
king, was not justified in having transferred the crown of St. 
Stephen to his nephew without the consent of the Hungarian 
nation ; but if he would declare his abdication, and if Francis 
Joseph would submit to be crowned after the ancient fashion, 
no further resistance would be offered. The Emperor would 
not listen to these conditions. He dismissed the Assembly, 
sent large bodies of troops into Hungary, and collected the 
taxes by force. 
Prussia. Whilst Austria thus presented all the symptoms of decay, 

Prussia, her younger and more vigorous riyal, was preparing 
for the struggle for supremacy. Under the weak reign of 
Frederick WiUiam lY., and the administration of what was 
called the Kreuz party, she had considerably retrograded. 
The accession of the Prince of Prussia to the Begency threw 
somewhat more vigour into the counsels of the Berlin Cabinet. 
But some years were still to elapse during which Prussia sub- 
mitted, for the most part, to follow in the wake of Austria. 
The programme of the Begent and of the new Ministry under 
Prince Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen, a puisne prince of the 
royal house, was to discountenance all liberal revolutions, to 
respect Boman Catholic rights, but, at the same time, to 
cherish the evangelical union, to patronize learning and 
science, and, above all, to bestow especial care upon the army. 
Accession The accession of the Begent to the Prussian throne, by the 
of William ^^^j^ ^f j^ig brother, January 2nd, 1861, and the deaths in 
the same year of General Yon Glerlach and Privy Councillor 
Stahl, two of the leaders of the Kreuz pa>rty, did not at first 
cause much alteration in the policy of the Berlin Cabinet. 
William I. was deeply imbued with feudal notions, and the 
idea of sovereignty by the grace of G-od. Although of the 
seven preceding kings of his house, the first only, Frederick L, 
had been crowned, William celebrated his coronation with 
great pomp at Konigsberg, October 18th. Taking the crown 
from the iJtar, he placed it on his own head, and then on his 
queen's. In his address to the Parliament he observed: 
"The rulers of Prussia receive their crown from Gh)d; 
therein lies its holiness, which is unassailable." But he failed 
not to intimate that he would listen to their advice. This 
speech, taken in connection with some measures of the 
Cabinet, was regarded by the Liberals as reactionary, and 
threatening a return to absolutism. That party had a ma- 

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jority in the Parliament wUeh assembled in Janiiaij, 1862, 
and offered so violent an opposition that Prince HohenzoUem 
retired in farour of Prince Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. A new 
Parliament proved equally refractory. The FortschriM party, 
as it was called, or Party of Progn^ess, was, indeed, pleased 
with the recognition of Italy, and with the treaty between the 
ZoUverein and France, effected in March, 1862 ; but, in other 
respects, the parliamentary opposition was just as violent as 
before. The new Ministry was in turn compelled to retire, 
when the King named Herr Bismarck Schonhausen President 
of the Coun<nl, or Prime Minister, who from this moment 
may be said to have guided the destinies of Germany as 
Cavour had previously done those of Italy. 

To compare Bismarck with Cavour implies that their work Bimuuck 
was a good deal alike ; and, indeed, the state of Germany at ^SnSter. 
this time bore considerable resemblance to that of Italy. It 
presents the picture of a struggle for national unity achieved 
at last, as in Italy, by its chief military Power, under the 
guidance of a remarkable statesman. In both countries these 
Powers were ruled by patriotic and energetic sovereigns, 
soldiers by profession. But some differences must be observed. 
Germany had already a federative union, and was not made 
up, like Italy, of a number of wholly independent States. 
In Germany, again, the struggle was entirely national. There 
was no foreigner to be expelled, no need of foreign aid. But 
the most striking point of difference is that G-ermany con- 
tained two great military Powers, by whose rivalry, and the 
idtimate ascendancy of one of them, unity was effected. Be- 
sides these two Powers, there was a number of minor States, 
fearful of losing the prerogatives conferred upon them by the 
treaties of Vienna, and as they could not stand alone, for the 
most part satellites of Austria. But their safety chiefly lay 
in keeping both Austria and Prussia from becoming pre- 
dominant, and in fomenting the mutual hatred and jealousy 
of those Powers. Hence l^ese middle States were the chidE 
obstruction to German unity. At one time, as we have said, 
under the leadership of Yon Beust, the Saxon Minister, they 
entertained the idea of effecting a union among themselves, 
and thus forming a German Timd, which woidd have made 
confusion worse confounded. During the period under review^ 
therefore, the interest of German Ljstorv centres in the dis- 
putes between Austria and Prussia. These concerned, of 

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course, questions relating to the Confederation, such as the 
fortifying and garrisoning of federal fortresses, like Ulm and 
Rastadt, the goyemment of electoral Hesse, and questions of 
the like nature. 
TheNa- , The war in Italy and peace of Yillafranca had much in- 
ftwSded!**" fluence on German affairs. They not only widened the 
breach between Austria and Prussia — the former Power com- 
plaining that she had been shamefully abandoned — ^but also 
caused a great national moTement, by having displayed the 
impotence of the Confederation. One of their first effects 
was the foundation of the NcUionaherein, or National Asso- 
ciation, formed at Eisenach towards the end of July, 1859, 
by the radical HanoTerian, Baron Benigsen, and Herr Metz, 
of Darmstadt, and patronized by Duke Ernest II. of Saze- 
Coburg-Gk)tha. Its programme was to substitute for the 
Bimd the German Constitution of 1848 — a German Parlia- 
ment constituent and sovereign, and Germany united under 
the hegemony of Prussia, with Austria excluded. This asso- 
The^onn. ciatiou was soon after opposed by another, called the Befarm- 
^^^ ' ff&rein, founded in 1862 by what was called the Great German 
Party. The national interests were the watchword of both ; 
but the first was for Prussia, the second for Austria. Neither 
of them, however, did anything but talk. 
Biflmarck The history of the German Bund, as Professor Yon Sybel 

^^^ has remarked, is the history of a protracted malady, which 
began with its birth in 1815. By means of its Diet, a Con- 
gress of Princes, manipulated with consummate skill by Met- 
tomich, Austria and the reactionary party had triumphed 
for a long series of years, and even at Berlin. Bismarck 
himself, though a Prussian JtmA;er, had been, as we have said, 
a member of the Kreuz party, and an advocate of Austrian 
supremacy. His experience as Prussian envoy at the Diet, 
and subsequent ambassadorships to Paris and St. Peters- 
burg, altered and extended his views. He saw that Germany, 
to be strong, must be reconstructed, that Prussia alone was 
equal to the task, but not before she had been strengthened. 
Soon after his accession to power, he is said to have remarked 
that the questions which agitated the German Fatherland 
could not be decided by speeches and votes, but by blood and 
iron. With this view, assisted by Yon Roon, the Minister at 
War, he reformed and increased the army. Hence the Par- 
liamentary opposition to which we have iiUuded. The de- 

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The ZoU- 

mocrats hated nothing so much as a strong goyemment, and 
Bismarck was assailed with the most yirulent abuse. But he 
persisted in his plans, in which he was supported bj King 
William I., who declared in the Chamber that the reformation 
of the armj was his own work, that he was proud of it, and 
would carry it through. 

The ZoUverein, or Customs Union, formed by Prussia, 
enabled her to speak with authority. Austria was excluded 
from the treaty with France already mentioned, and to the 
minor. States she intimated that if they would not join it they 
must quit the ZoUverein. The demand of Ausisia for ad- 
mittance was supported by these States, who threatened to 
quit the ZoUverein in case of refusal. But Prussia persisted, 
well knowing that the benefits which they derived from it 
were greater than anything that Austria could offer to them. 
This of course inflamed the quarrel between the two great 
Powers. Austria now proposed to seyeral of the States a 
separate Parliament for general affairs, to sit side by side 
with the Diet. The proposal was supported by the four German 
Kings and several Ihinces. Bismarck now adopted a high tone. 
He declared that Prussia would not bow to a majority of the 
Diet, and was not bound to do so by the Federal Constitution. 
Austria was further incensed by a remark ascribed to Bis- 
marck, that she should remove her capital to Ofen ; which, 
indeed, would have been more central for her dominions. 

The unpopularity of the home government of Prussia seemed Unpopuiar- 
to offer an opportunity for attack. After some secret n^oti- ^i;Ssian 
ations, Austria invited the minor German Sovereigns to a Oo^em- 
Fiirgterdag at Frankfurt, August, 1863. William I. was kept ™*"*' 
in the dark till the last hour, and refused to attend. In this 
Assembly^ Austria proposed a new constitution, which, as it 
never came to anything, we need not detail. Its main features 
were, a sort of I>irectory of five Princes, with the Austrian 
Emperor as President, superior to the Bund ; a confederate 
tribunal,and a national parliament, but of a very circumscribed 
sort, in which Prussia was sure to be outvoted. This, it was 
thought, if carried into effect, woidd tie P^ssia's hands ; if she 
rejected it, she might be denounced as the enemy of German 
unity. Prussia steadily rejected the importunities of the 
minor Sovereigns to attend the meeting, and the project came 
to nothing. 

Austria^ now changed her front. Count Bechberg, her 

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Mimster, determined on (X)nciliatmg Prussia. Thisnnexpected 
xinion of the two Powers staggered the middle States, neutra- 
lized the power of the Diet, and paralyzed the patriotic associ- 
Troaty ations. But the Nationdiverein had alreadj abandoned the 
PraoSaaiid <^^^^ ^^ Prussia on account of the defensiye treaty which she 
BnsBia. had made with Russia (February 8th, 1863), on the breaking 
out of the Polish insurrection. The German democrats re- 
presented this treaty as an offensiye one, and the National' 
verein resolved to abandon its former €k>tha programme so 
long as Bismarck should be Minister. The Prussian Chamber 
displayed the most yiolent animosity towards the Ministry, 
and the historian, Yon Sybel, took a leading part in the attacks 
upon it. The President of the Assembly sometimes prevented 
the Ministers from speaking, who dedared that they would 
not again enter the House unless freedom of speech were 
guaranteed to them. And, supported by the King, they set 
at defiance the contumacious opposition of the Chamber. 
Polish The Polish Iksubbbction just adverted to broke out at 

^^'^. the beginning of 1863. Grave symptoms of discontent had 
manifested themselves in Poland a year or two before on the 
occasion of the police having interfered with an anniversary 
celebration of the Polish victory over the Russians at Grochow 
in 1831. Some lives were lost in the riot which ensued ; this 
rankled in the minds of the Poles ; a general mourning was 
adopted, even by the women, and other tokens of discontent 
were displayed. The insurrection came at a very inopportune 
moment for Russia. She was again looking after the " sick 
man's" property, and had been stirring up revolt in the 
Christian provinces of Turkey, which was to break out in 
1863, but did not take effect. Great quantities of arms had 
been sent into Moldavia, Wallachia, and Servia ; the. Herze- 
govina and Montenegro were in open insurrection ; and in 
Greece the revolution was preparing which hurled Otho from 
the throne.^ In these circumstancesan attempt was made to con- 
ciliate the Poles. For this purpose the Emperor Alexander sent 
his brother, the Grand Duke Constantino, to Warsaw, in June, 
1862. Constantino had been recalled from his travels in the 
preceding year on account of some disturbances in Russia, and 
particularly at St. Petersburg. He was bold and energetic, 

^ Febniary 16th, 1863. He was succeeded by George ol Denmark 
in October. 

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aad the partisan of a rigorous autocracy in Bussia ; but at the 
same time, by his travels in France and England, he had im- 
bibed many of the liberal ideas of the time, and a taste for 
progress. He was accompanied to Warsaw by the Marquis 
Widopolski, a native Pole, who was made chief of the Polish 
Council. Wielopolski entertained the impracticable idea of 
reconciling the Poles and Russians, and uniting them in the 
Panslavist interest. 

In Bussia itself much discontent existed, principally excited Emancipa- 
bytheemancipationof the serfs, begun in 1857. Alexander II. rSL^ 
has received great credit for his humanity in this measure, but ^s* 
it appears rather to have been dictated by policy, with a view 
to break the power of the nobles. The alliance of despotism 
with extreme democracy and the lowest classes of society is a 
fact that has been often illustrated in our own time. Alex- 
ander's principal design was to withdraw the serfs from the 
influence of their masters, the hoyars, and place them under 
his own. The measure caused great discontent among the 
nobles and educated classes, who now saw no barrier between 
the throne and themselves. There were demands for a Con- 
stitution and a Parliament, and the discontent was manifested 
by incendiarism in most of the great towns, including St. 
Petersburg. Nor was the condition of the serf improved. 
He was still attached to the soil and to his harden or com- 
munity, which spared him less than the landed proprietor had 
done. Similar measures, with the like views, were contem- 
plated for Poland. 

The state of that country under Russian despotism may be Riusian 
inferred from the fact that in the first half of the year 1862, £l^d! 
nearly 15,000 persons, or about one-fifth of the whole male 
population of Warsaw, had been thrown into the dungeons of 
that city. Count Andrew Zamoyski, selected to represent the 
national sentiments to the Tsar, was seized, carried to St. 
Petersburg, and thence into exile. Alexander 11. was for 
some time doubtful what course to pursue. There were two 
sets of counsellors. The old Russian, or Muscovite party, to 
which Prince Ghortschakov belonged, followed the traditional 
policy of the Emperor Nicholas, and was for mild and con- 
ciliatory measures, with certain reforms. On the other hand, 
the German, or " Young Bussia " party, invited by Prussia, 
was for using the greatest severity. Their counsels prevailed, 
and war to revolutionists became the order of the day. 

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tion in 

Heroism of 
the Poles. 

There can be no doubt that the Polish insurrection was 
purposely excited by Russia. The method adopted was an 
illegal conscription. Lists were made out of young men of the 
noble and burgher classes, the most troublesome to Russia, 
who were to be pressed into the army, while the peasants were 
left untouched. Thus one of two objects would be attained : 
either the disaffected woidd be rendered powerless, or, what 
was both more probable and more agreeable to Russian policy, 
a rebellion woidd ensue. 

The measure was executed in the most brutal manner. On 
the night of January 15th, 1863, Warsaw seemed to be sud- 
denly converted into a town taken by assault. The conscripts 
marked out by the police were seized in their beds ; where 
they could not be found, their kinsmen, old men and boys, 
were dragged in their stead to the citadel. A few days after, 
the Russian official journal announced, with a cynical irony, 
that the conscription had been peaceably effected ! Insult 
added to injury was too much for human nature to bear, and 
the insurrection sprung at once into life. Many marked for 
conscription had escaped into the country, and were soon 
joined by others from different quarters. Before the end of 
January the insurrection was regularly oi^nized with a cen- 
tral anonymous committee at Warsaw.^ 

In this disastrous stru^le the Poles displayed the greatest 
heroism. The spirit which animated them is illustrated by a 
combat at Wengrow. The Polish main body having been de- 
feated by a superior Russian force, a body of 200 youths, 
mostly nobles, to cover the retreat of their comrades, made a 
desperate charge up to the Russian guns, and were killed to a 
man. The warfare was of the gueriUa kind. It was at first 
endeavoured to give the insurgents a more regular organization, 
and with this view, Langiewicz, who had served under Gari- 
baldi, was made Dictator. He collected some 12,000 men, 
and established his head-quarters at Radom. But he was 
interfered with by the Polish Committee in London, and by 
their protege Microslawsky, who wanted the chief command, 
and thwarted all his plans. Langiewicz was defeated by the 
Russians, March Idth, and his army dispensed. He himself 
escaped into Gkdicia, and was favourably received by the 
Austrian authorities. 

^ See Marten, Pohgne et MtMcovie ; Araminski, Histoire de la revo- 
lution Pokmaiae. 

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Austria at fibrst ostensibly feiTOured the Poles. The Yienna intenren. 
and St. Petersburg Cabinets were at that time far from friendly. w«itm 
Austria suspected and feared the Eussian plots to excite re- Powers 
hellion in Turkey, which coidd not but be prejudicial to her 
interests. Bussia, the foremost advocate of passive and slav- 
ish obedience, scruples not, when it suits her plans, to foment 
rebellion among her neighbours. Bismarck had endeavoured 
to draw Austria on the side of Bussia. The treaty with Bussia 
before mentioned made the question a European one. It has 
not been published ; but the chief feature of it seems to have 
been to allow the Bussians to pursue the Poles into Prussian 
territory. When the Western Powers interfered, Bismarck at- 
tempted to disavow it ; but practically it was carried into effect. 
The French people sympatiiized with the Poles, but the Ger- 
mans, who were averse to them, stood like a wall between them 
and France. Napoleon III. was at that time well disposed 
towards the Tsar, and unwilling to compromise one of the first 
of Continental alliances. He observed in his speech on opening 
the Chambers in November, that Alexander IL had faithfully 
supported him during the war in Italy and the annexation of 
Savoy and Nice. France, therefore, did not proceed beyond 
diplomatic action, in which she was joined by England and 
Austria. Lord John Bussell drew up some pedantic notes in 
which he lectured Bussia on the treaties of 1815. Those 
treaties had indeed secured for Poland many rights which 
might now be sought in vain — religious freedom, liberty of 
the press, equality before the law, the sole use of the Polish 
tongue in public affairs, the filling of all posts, both civil and 
military, by Poles alone, a national representation of two 
Chambers, and several more. But of all these they had been 
deprived after the extinction of their rebellion in 1831, and 
to invoke them now was like calling spirits from the vasty 
deep. The Bussians, of course, only laughed in their sleeves, 
and more especially, perhaps, at the appeals which the notes 
contained to Bussian magnanimity and demency. Gortschakov 
made a semi-serious reply. Austria cared little for the Poles. 
Her chief anxiety was for her province of Qalicia, though 
probably she was not displeased with an opportunity to spite 
Bussia. Oortschakov's answer to her note was short and arj ; 
to France he replied with protestations of goodwill, inter- 
mingled with sarcastic remarks about the dangers of revolu- 
tionary principles. In June the three Powers followed up 

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thdr notes by a joint one, in which, on the sn^estion of the 
English Cabinet, the following six points were laid down as 
the basis of a pacification : — 1. A complete and general am- 
nesty. 2. National representation. 3. Public offices to be 
filled by Poles. 4. Perfect religious liberty. 5. The Polish 
language to be the official one. 6. A legal system of recruit- 
ing. A suspension of arms was also demanded, and a Con- 
gress of the five great Powers to settle the matter. Oorts- 
chakoY replied that the Tsar had already made concessions 
which were contemned by the Poles ; asserted that the centre 
of the insurrection was to be sought in the revolutionary com- 
mittees in London and Paris, and refused a suspension of 
arms. The suggestion of a conference was contemptuously 
met in the reply to Austria by a counter one for a conference 
of the three Powers which had diyided Poland ; thus intimat- 
ing that the Western Powers had no business to interfere. 
Russia came yictorious out of the diplomatic contest. She 
knew her own will, while the counsels of the three Powers 
were divided and irresolute. The French and English ambas- 
sadors at St Petersburg let f aU, indeed, some obscure threats 
and on the 3rd of August the three Powers renewed their re- 
presentations. But the season was now too far advanced for 
naval operations in the Baltic. Early next month GK>rts- 
chakov announced that the discussion was dosed. 
w»rin Meanwhile the war had proceeded with increased intensity. 

^ After the defeat of Langiewicz, the Central Committee gave 

up the idea of another Dictatorship, and guerilla wa^are 
was resumed, for which the numerous woods afforded great 
facilities. It was marked by extreme barbarity on the pfurt of 
the Russians. All Polish officers captured were shot or hanged. 
Towns and villages were burnt, their inhabitants massacred, 
prisoners put to death ; robbery and murder were the order of 
the day. Several Russian officers committed suicide rather than 
carry out their barbarous instructions, among them Colonel 
Korf, who declared that he could not reconcile his orders with 
his duties as an officer and man of honour. In the midst of these 
horrors, the Central Committee conducted its business with 
wonderful secrecy, under the very eyes of the Russian author- 
ities. It exercised all the functions of a regular government, 
raised taxes, granted passports, and ev^i passed sentences of 
death. Its commands were implicitly obeyed, though nobody 
knew whence they came. Once a treacherous workman be- 

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trayed to the Sussians the chamber in which the prodama- 
tions and other papers of the Committee were printed. The 
house was surrounded, the chamber searched ; only a large 
chest was found, and in it the corpse of the traitor I 

The insurrection had been propagated in Lithuania and the General 
Eusso-PoHsh provinces, but not in those belonging to Austria meSodSr* 
and Prussia, for fear of bringing those Powers into the field. 
The mission of General Muiaviey into Lithuania with dicta- 
torial power, was a sort of answer and defiance to the Western 
Powers. His methods were death or Siberia and confi^scation. 
Immediately after his arriyal he shot or hanged some of the 
chief landed proprietors of the province, as well as several 
priests and abb^s. He emancipated the Lithuanian peasants, 
incited them against their masters, whose lands he promised 
them. He is computed to have driven at least a quarter of a 
million Lithuanians into the Steppes of Orenburg. His fury 
was particularly directed against women and priests ; women, 
indeed, were the soul of the insurrection. The schismatical 
Church of Bussia has always displayed the utmost intolerance 
and hatred towards the Roman Catholics. The clergy were 
subjected to heavy contributions, and decimated by arrests. 
Within the year 183 priests were apprehended. Colonel 
Holler, Sussian commandant in Wilkomir, said in a circular, 
" I attribute all the disturbances in Poland to the inclination 
of the Bomish clergy for brigandage and rebellion, which is 
common to them with Pio IX. and his Cardinals.'' 

The Grand Duke Constantino, who had not acted with the Extinction 
expected vigour, quitted Warsaw in Aug^ust. General de Berg ^ ^^^^ 
now assumed dictatorial power, and imitated the example of 
Muraviev at Wilna. He discovered some members of the 
secret government, hanged five of them, and condemned six- 
teen others, including four ladies, to hard labour in the Siberian 
mines. Austria gave a death-blow to it, and at the same time 
reconciled herseU with Bussia, by proclaiming martial law in 
Galicia. One of the last brutalities of the Bussians was the 
destruction of Ibiany, in the government of Kowno, in May, 
1864, which had distinguished itself in the insurrection. The 
principal inhabitants were put to death, the rest were trans- -^ 
ported into remote provinces, and their lands distributed among 
Bcueolnik^, or old orthodox Bussians, the town was razed, its 
very name efEaced, and the new colony was called " Nicholas." 
iBy a decree of the Tsar, March 2nd, 1864, the lands of the 

VI. M 

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Polish nobles were given to the peasants, with only a nominal 
compensation. Polish officials who did not speak Russian 
were dismissed, and the Bnssian tongue was introduced into 
all schools, l^e children of the poor were forcibly baptized 
by Russian popes ; the rich had to pay for the prrrilege of 
Catholic baptism. The same policy was pursued in subsequent 
years. In July, 1869, the Polish university of Warsaw was 
converted into a Russian one, and all lectures were to be in 
that tongue. Shopkeepers and innkeepers were forbidden to 
answer an address in Polish ; the speaking of that language 
aloud in the streets was prohibited ; nay, fathers and mothers 
were forbidden to teach it to their children! A German 
author has truly remarked, that though some of the tyrants 
of antiquity turned whole populations out of their lands and 
homes, and sent them into strange lands, there is no instance 
of their having deprived them of the use of their mother 

1 Arnd, Gest^. der Jahre 1867-1871, B. L S. 352. 

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THE attention of Europe was diyerted from unhappy Poland 
by other scenes of injustice, though not of equal atrocity ^c^ 
— ^the Qerman war against Denmark, and mutilation of that 
kingdom. The Danish constitution of 1855 was a source of 
constant disputes with Germany, but we shall pass them over 
till the year 1868, when they were brought to a crisis. With 
the view of getting rid of Gt^rman interference, Holstein, a 
member of &e Gmnan Bimd, was declared, by a Danish 
ordinance of March 28rd, to be autonomous and only person* 
ally united with Denmark. This measure, it was stated in 
the preamble, was in accordance with the demands of the 
German Bwnd^ but not to be considered definitire. In &ct, 
however, the Germans wanted something more. They desired 
that Schleswig, as well as Holstein, should be autonomous, 
and that the two duchies should be united ; and they asserted 
that in thus separating their constitutions, it was the purpose 
of Denmark to annex Schleswig. Nor was this charge with- 
out some colour. In the preceding January the Danish States, 
or Bigsdag, had voted an address to the King that he should 
persist in his endeavours to draw Schleswig to Denmark, to 
which probably he was not disinclined. And the marriage of 
Alexandra, daughter of Christian of Glucksburg, who, by the 
Treaty of London, 1852, had been recognized as heir to the 
Danish throne, to the Prince of Wales (March 10th, 1863), 
may have encouraged the aspirations of the Danish court by 
the hopes of a strong alliance. 

In the following August Austria and Prussia demanded 
that the Danish constitution of 1855 should be abrogated; 
that the project of a new constitution should be submitted to 
an assemoly of the four Dtaiish States, viz., Denmark proper, 
Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg; and that all four as- 

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semblies should be on a footiiig of equalitj. A manifest 
injustice ; since Lauenburg, with its popidation of 50»000 souls, 
would thus become equal to Denmark. And they further 
demanded that the mixed Danish and German populations of 
Schleswig shoidd be put on the same footii^ as before 1848. 

Negotiations ensued which came to nothing. On the 1st 
October the Bund resolved on federal execution in Holstein, 
and Denmark was summoned to withdraw the March ordi- 
nance within a month. But Denmark was proceeding in a 
contrary direction. On the 18th of Norember the JEUgsrctad 
passed a law for a new Assembly, to consist of deputies from 
Denmark and Schleswig only, to the exclusion of Hblstein and 
Lauenburg. This certainly tended to the incorporation of 
Schleswig, but was not actually such, as both States were to 
preserve their particular constitutions. 
Death of The question entered into a new ph ase b y the death of the 

^^18^. ^^^ ^i^d incapable Sang Frederick Vii., November 15th, 
only two days after the passing of the new law. He was 
succeeded by ChristiaB IX., the Protocol King, as he was 
called, of the Treaty of London. But the duchies were 
claimed by Prince IVederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonder- 
burg-Augustenburg, a major in the Prussian army, though, 
as we have seen (mypra, p. 114), his father had renounced all 
claim to them, both for himself and children. But the I^ince 
maintained that he was not bound by this renunciation ; the 
Holsteiners recognized him, and the majoriiy of the German 
Bund supported him. Austria and Prussia, which had signed 
the London Protocol, could not openly join this movement, 
so they affected the part of mediators. But the Prussiioi 
Parliament addressed the king to disregard the Protocol and 
recognize Augustenburg, who was also supported by the 
NationcUveremt the Orose DevUcKUmd Beformvereiny and the 
FaHicuUmeU, as they were called, or opponents of unity, who 
wanted a Triads and would have been glad to see another 
State added. The more outspoken Germans confessed that 
they were moved by interested views, for the Danish do- 
minions contained some fine ports which they coveted. 

Christian IX. being summoned by the Btmd to withdraw 
the law of November 13th, requested time, as a constitutionAl 
sovereign, to assemble and consult the Danish Bigftaad; but 
this was unreasonably refused, and it was resolved to proceed 
to federal execution. Austria and Prussia, in a joint letter 

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to the Diet, December 6th, stated that thej could not violate 
the Treaty of London, " so long as they recognized its validity ; " 
iQid as that Treaty protected Schleswig, they recommended 
the Diet to confine themselves to execution in Holstein, while 
they would take the case of Schleswig into their own con- 
sideration. This unexpected agreement of the two great 
Powers excited much surprise, and at first sight, indeed, 
appears strange enough. But we have already seen that 
Austria, at this period governed by Count Bechberg, was bent 
on conciliating Prussia. She wanted also to watch over and 
control Prussia, and to prevent her from enjoying alone the 
fruits of victory. On the other hand, though Prussian interests 
coincided with those of Germany, the democrats in the 
Prussian PaarUament accused the government of returning to 
the -poiiej of Olmutz, and refused a grant for the war. 

By order of the Diet, at the instigation of Austria and Fedena 
Prussia, 12,000 Saxon and Hanoverian troops, forming the fn^^tein. 
army for federal execution, entered Holstein, December 23rd. 
This was a clear breach of the Treaty of London by the kings 
of Saxony and Hanover ; for those sovereigns, as well as the 
King of Wurtemberg, had acceded to the Treaty, though the 
G-erman Bumd had not. At the same time Austrian and 
Prussian troops were posted on the Danish frontier as a re- 
serve. The Danes evacuate d H olstein, by advice of the neutral 
Powers; Duke Frederick VllL, of Augustenburg, was pro- 
cMmed there, and joined the army of the Bund at Kiel. 
Prussia connived at this illegal proceeding, though Austria 
protested. Those Powers hwdi now rejected the Treaty of 
London, which they had recognized at the beginning of De- 
cember. On the 14th of January, 1864, they moved the Diet 
that Denmark should be required to suspend the November 
constitution within forty-eight hours, and that in case of re- 
fusal Schleswig should be occupied as a pledge. England 
and Bussia advised the revocation, but Christian IX. again 
pleaded that he must await the sanction of his Blgwaad. 
Hereupon it was proposed by the neutral Powers that a 
Protocol should be made in the names of France, Great Britain, 
Bussia, and Sweden, recording the intention of the Danish 
Gk)vemment to make the required concession ; but this was 
also refused by the German Powers, on the ground that if 
they should stop short after preparing to invade Schleswig, 
they would be exposed to disturbisknoe and revolution in Qer- 

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secret pro- 

rnanj. In short, thej were already resolyed to appropriate 
Schleswig. Bismarck, on being asked whether his Govern- 
ment stiU adhered to the Treaty of London, gave a yagae and 
equiyocating answer. The yiew in Berlin was that if Schleswig 
resisted it wonld lead to war, and that war pat an end to 
treaties. So that a strong Power may release herself from 
her engagements by making an unproyoked and unjustifiable 
aggression. For Bismarck himself had declared in the 
Prussian Chambers, in April, 1849, that the war then pro- 
secuted against Denmark was a highly unjust, friyolous, and 
disastrous one, to support an entirely groundless revolution.^ 
The affairs of Denmark had long engaged the attention 
of the British Cabinet. Lord John Bussell, then Foreign 
Minister, had protested, in 1860, against the interference of 
the G-ermans in Schleswig. Li January, 1862, he had ener- 
getically reproved the proceedings of Prussia, but in the 
summer of that year he accompanied the Queen to G-otha, the 
centre of the Q^rman Schleswig-Holstein agitation, where his 
opinions seem to haye imdergone a change. In the autumn 
he charged the Danish Gbvemment with neglecting their 
engagements as to Schleswig, and proposed to them a new 
constitution, which would haye tended to the dissolution of 
the monarchy. It is unnecessary to describe it, as Lord 
Pahnerston, then Prime Minister, pronounced it impractic- 
able. In the autumn of 1863, when matters threatened an 
open rupture. Lord Bussell, who seems again to haye changed 
his views, addressed notes to the Frankfurt Diet, intimating, 
in a haughty tone, that Great Britain could not remain an 
indifferent spectator of German pretensions. On the 28th of 
December the English Cabinet sent a copy of the Treaty of 
London to the Frankfurt Diet, and inyited the European 
Powers to a Congress, to discuss the Danish question. France 
at once declined. Only a little before England had rejected 
Napoleon's proposal for a Congress about Polish affairs. That 
refusal was no doubt a wise one, for the French Emperor 
proposed to open up the Treaties of 1815, and consequently 
the whole state of Europe, which would have caused endless 
debate and confusion. But the abrupt style of the reply, 

^ << . . . ein h6chst ungerechtes, frivoles nnd verderbliches Unter- 
nebmen, zur Unterstutzung einer ganz nnmotivirten Revolution. "— 
Bev. des Deux Mondes, Sept. 15, 1868, p. 380. See also Dicey, Tke 
SMeswig-Bohtem War; Rnstow, Der JJeutsehe-Daniaehe Krieg. 

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which the French characterized as brutal, had giyen as much 
offence as the refusal itself. The conduct of Fnuice, however, 
throughout this Danish business was very equivocal, and the 
kej of it must foe sought in some disclosures made foj Bismarck 
in 1870. Napoleon III. had formed the project of playing 
the same game with the Prussian Minister as he had done 
with Cavour, and of getting an accession of French territory 
by helping f^ussia in the same way. With this view a Secret 
Treskij between France and Prussia had been drawn up by 
Count Benedetti, the French Minister, which Bismarck neither 
accepted nor positively rejected.^ In fact, he played the 
political jilt, and led on Napoleon with false hopes till such a 
course no longer served his purposes. Thus Denmark, a little 
State of less than four million souls, was left alone face to 
foce with her gigantic adversaries; for Bussia, employed in 
stamping out &e embers of the Polish revolt, naturally had 
no compunction for her, nay, may have even felt a secret 
satisfaction that the acts of the G-ermans afforded some 
countenance to her own conduct towards Poland. 

Lord Bussell renewed his applications to France in January, 
1864s, and proposed material aid, and at the same time he 
addressed threatening notes to the minor German Powers. 
Drouyn de THuys, the French Minister at War, contented 
himself in reply with recommending '* benevolent " counsels 
at Vienna and Berlin. Yon Beust, the Saxon Minister, told 
Lord Bussell that no foreign Power had a right to interfere 
between the Bund and Holstein, one of its States. 

The two great Gterman Powers did not scruple to extend The Ger- 
their operations beyond Holstein. The Prussian army, under g^Jg^® 
General Wrangel, entered Schleswig, February 1st. By the we*. 
19th they had seized Kolding. To tbe remonstrances of the 
English Cabinet Bismarck replied, that this had been done 
without orders, but nevertheless the occupation would be 
continued. The Danes had extended and strengthened the 
celebrated rampart called the Dcmnevirke, which stretched 
forty English miles from the mouth of the Schlei to Fried- 
richstadt, having the town of Schleswig for its centre. Behind 
this fortification the Danish army, 50,000 or 60,000 strong, 
under De Meza, was posted. The Prussians, under Qablenz, 
having been repulsed in an assault, it was determined to 

^ See Bismarck's own accoont in the Tableau Historique de la Ouerre 
Franeo-Allemande, p. 385 sqq. 

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tarn the position. Their right wing, under Prince Frederick 
Charles, took Eckemforde, crossed the Schlei at Amis, and 
having thus gotten into De Meza's rear, he was forced to 
abandon the Dannefdrke^ with sixty guns, and retire bj 
Flensboi^ to Duppel. For this unavoidable act he was 
superseded bj General von Qerlach. Duppel, also a strong 
place, after a long and brave defence was taken bj assault, 
April 18th. Meanwhile the Austrians had occupied the 
northern parts of Schleswig, and Duke Fredmck was pro- 
claimed there as he had been in Holstein. 
Conference In cousequonce of the German victories a Conference of the 
li^^^^^' Great Powers had been summoned to meet at London, and 
was opened under the presidency of Lord John Bussell, April 
25th. Napoleon had insisted that the Btmd should be repre- 
sented, though it had been no party to the Treaty of London, 
and Yon Beust was appointed to represent it. A month's 
truce was obtained, May 12th. Prussia required that the 
duchies should be separated from Denmark, leaving open 
the question of a personal union. As the Danes woidd not 
consent, Prussia joined Austria and Saxony in demanding the 
duchies for Duke Frederick of Augustenburg. Lord Bussell 
now declared that, in order to satisfy Germany, it would be 
necessary to separate Holstein, Lauenbui^, and the southern 
part of Schleswig from Denmark, and he proposed a line from 
the Dcmnevvrke and the mouth of the Schlei, the rest of 
Denmark to be guaranteed by Europe. France assented, 
with the proviso that the inhabitants of Schleswig should 
choose their own sovereign by a pWyiscUet which was after- 
wards modified to a vote of the communities. Denmark 
accepted this line, but Austria and Prussia claimed a more 
northerly one, from Apenrade to Tondem, and on this point 
the Conference failed. Thus England tore up the Treaty of 
1852, and agreed to the dismemberment of Denmark. 

And now that the question was reduced to a strip of land 
containing some 125,000 or 130,000 souls, Lord Russell pro- 
posed to France that they should go to war to maintain the 
line he had laid down. Drouyn de THuys asked, very sensibly, 
whether, after suffering Denmark to be disintegrated, it would 
be worth while to go to war now for so trifling an object ; and 
he observed that ti^ough only a naval demonstration was pro- 
posed, such a course affected France and England very differ- 
ently, for the French frontier would be endac^red* v^iile 

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England would run no risk of the sort. Was Lord Bossell 
prepared to give France unlimited support ? He seemed to 
think that a threat would sufEice, but such a calculation might 
fail Before the deplorable result of the Polish business, the 
authority of the two Powers had not been lowered, but now 
words without blows would be fatal to their dignity.^ It 
must be allowed that this of itself was a sufi&cient and states- 
manlike answer to the English proposal ; but France, as we 
have already mentioned, had also other secret motives for the 
policy she adopted. 

Denmark had accepted a fortnight's prolongation of the Bngiand 
armistice, although she had the best of the naval war, on the ^"^S^. 
understanding that England would adhere to the line of de- 
marcation which she hi^ laid down. But Lord Bussell, after 
he had failed in his application to France, proposed to refer 
it to arbitration ! Bishop Monrad, President of the Lower 
House of the Danish Eiggrcuxd, said in his place : '* I cannot 
explain how this proposal was consistent with Earl Eussell's 
promise." ^ It is indeed very difficult of explanation, except 
as a means of escaping from an embarrassing position. 

The abortive Conference broke up June 25Ui, with a painful 
scene. Yon Quaade, the Danish Plenipotentiary, reproached 
the Ei^lish Ministers with abandoning Denmark after having 
encouraged her to resist. Lord Clarendon replied that England 
had promised nothing, which was no doubt literaDy true ; yet 
all her conduct had been such as to inspire the Danes with the 
expectation that she would help them. It is a sad chapter in 
England's history. War is a dreadful thing and to be avoided 
if possible ; even the doctrine of peace at any price is intel- 
ligible, if accepted with its consequences^^isolation, contempt, 
at last probably absorption by some more warlike Power. But 
to be determined on peace, and yet to attempt dictation, is as 
absurd as it is dangerous. Cobden, the consistent represent- 
ative of the Manchester school, applauded the policy of keeping 
aloof; but he complained that the want of sagacity of the 
Foreign Minister had exposed him to rebuffs and the country 
to humiliation. Apolo^sts of the Ministry allege that the 
inaction of England was in a large measure due to the fact * 
that English statesmen and public writers found, when they 
lo<Aed into the matter, that the Danes were substantially in 

^ Despatch of Ehrouyn de THuys, Anmuiire, t. xiii. App. ^9. 
^ Annual Register^ p. 233. 

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the wrong.^ If this be so, it inftkea the matter worse, for the 
Ministry must have been treating the subject some years 
without haying looked into it; and in this happy state of 
ignorance they, at the yery last moment, brought the country 
to the brink of a war about it ! Perhaps a better apology for 
them may be, that they seem to haye been embarrassed by the 
pacific policy of the Peelite section of the Cabinet, led by 
Gladstone. England, as a French writer obseryes, in spite of 
splendid budgets, was made bankrupt in reputation.* In the 
debates whidi ensued on the subject in Parliament, the 
Ministry were beaten in the Lords, and escaped in the 
Commons only by a majority of eighteen. We now return 
to the war. 
Peace of The allies oyerran Jutland, but refrained from crossing oyer 

i^J^ to Funen. Christian IX. was now compelled to sue for peace, 
and preliminaries were signed at Vienna, August 1st. Chris- 
tian, as rightful heir, ceded Holstein and Schleswig to Austria 
and Prussia, yet at the London Conference they demanded 
them for Duke Augustenbui^ ! Bayaria, Saxony, and Hesse- 
Darmstadt demanded that Schleswig should be incorporated 
with the German Confederation ; but the claims of the Bimd 
were contemptuously set aside. Austria and Prussia had used 
it as a stalking-horse, and permitted it to appear at the Lon- 
don Conference ; but when the booty was to be diyided the 
phantom disappeared. Bismarck instructed the Prussian 
Ambassador in London to express a hope that the British 
Gh>yemment would recognize the moderation and placability 
of the two German Powers, which had no wish to (Usmember 
the ancient and yenerable Danish monarchy, but merely to 
separate from it parts with which further union was impossible. 
Lord Bussell despatched a yery just and well-written remon- 
strance ; to which Bismarck gaye no heed. On the 1st of 
December Austria and Prussia, in a joint note, summoned the 
Bund to withdraw from countries which belonged to them by 
right of conquest; and the Hanoyerian and Saxon troops 
eyacuated Holstein. 
Pnuriaji Thus the one-headed and two-headed eagles had seized their 

prey, but they were soon to quarrel about the diyision of the 
spoil. At first they held joint possession, and in January, 
1865, they established in the town of Schleswig a Qoyemment 

^ Bryoe, Holy Roman Empire, p. 426, note (ed. 1876). 
^ Annuaire, t. xiii. p. 382. 

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in common for both dnchies. But such a state of things could 
of course only be provisory. Austria, having little or no in- 
terest in those distant countries, would willingly have traded 
on the situation to get an extension of territory at the expense 
of Bavaria, and overtures were made to Bismarck to that effect ; 
who, however, did not entertain them. He felt himself to be 
master of the situation. Austria feared to break with him. 
For, besides her internal troubles, she dreaded the resentment 
of Bussia about the Polish business ; the Venetian question 
threatened an alliancebetween Prussia and Italy, and thefriend- 
ship of France was ill»assured. Prussia now required to be put 
in possession of so much territory as would enable her to pro* 
tect the coast and harbours. But for this purpose, the military 
system of the duchies must be an integral part of that of 
Prussia. She must have a military road through Holstein, 
and the soldiery must take an oath to Ejng WiUmm I. The 
duchies were to be admitted into the ZoUverem, from which 
Austria was excluded. Bendsborg was indeed to be a federal 
fortress, garrisoned by Austrians and Prussians ; but, on the 
other hand, the important port of Kiel was to be exclusively 
Prussian. All this was virtually little less than annexation. 

Thus little account was taken of the people themselves in 
whose interests the conquest had been ostensibly made ; and 
not only the Schleswigers but the Holsteiners also, began to 
regret their former connection with Denmark. In December, 
1864, the inhabitants of Schleswig, in a fareweU address to 
Christian IX., expressed their sorrow at being separated from 
" the mild rule of the Danish Kings." ^ The Prussians do not 
appear to have mitigated the acerbity of their political pre- 
tensions by conciliatory manners. When they entered Jutland 
they had not only amerced it in a heavy contribution and the 
supply of necessaries for the army, but also demanded luxuries 
for the officers, as wine, cigars, tobacco, etc. A kind of secret 
government under the Duke of Augustenborg was formed at 
Kiel, which was protected by Austria and supported by the 
German democrat with money as well as noisy demonstrations* 
But in the midst of the hubbub, Prussia quietly took posses- 
sion of Kiel, March 24th, 1865. 

Austria had begun to perceive that she was being made a 

^ The old sonff of <* Schleswig-Holstein " was altered as follows : 
''Schleswig-Holstein stammyerwandt, 
Sehmeisst oie Prenssen ans dem Land. ** 

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Conyention cat's paw. The tinpopiilaiity of the Pmssian Gbyemnient 
Jl^f**®^* seemed to offer a favourable opportunity for resisting their 
pretensions. The Prussian Lower House opposed all Bis- 
marck's measures, refused to pay the costs of the Prussian 
victories, and assailed him with the coarsest personal abuse. 
A new Assemblj followed the same coursa Austria now 
supported in the Diet the Duke of Augustenburg ; whQe 
PxiiBsia brought forward the claims of the Duke of Oldenbuj^, 
and even revived some obsolete ones of her own. Bavaria* 
SazonjyiuidHesse-Darmstadt, moved theDiet that thequestion 
of a ruler should be decided by a general representative As- 
sembly of the duchies freely elected. But, well aware that the 
public feeling there was averse to Prussia, Bismarck declared 
that he would adhere to the Treaty of Vienna, and that, if the 
States were convoked, they must do homage to the Emperor 
of Austria and the King of Prussia. He perceived that Aus* 
tria must again be hoodwinked. The King of Prussia met 
the Emperor of Austria at Bad Gkbstein, and after some ne- 
gotiations the CoNVBKTioN OF Oastein was effected, August 
14th. It was nothing but a prolonged provisoriunu HoliS^ein 
was to be administered by Austria, Schleswig by Prussia, 
Lauenburg was made over to Prussia, she paying Austria 2^ 
millions Danish rix-dollars. But though the Lauenburgers 
had consented to the tranef er, it does not appear what right 
Austria had to sell them. The other articles were conformable 
to the Prussian demands already mentioned, except that Kiel 
was to be a federal port. The King of Prussia was invested 
with the sovereignty of Lauenburg at Batzeburg, September 
27th, on which occasion Bismarck was made a Count. 

This Convention has been justly styled the Austrian Olmutz. 
It is said to have had secret articles, by which Austria was to 
have a slice of Bavaria if she remained true to the Prussian 
alliance. The allies let the Diet know that all future negoti- 
ations about Schleswig-Holstein would be conducted without 
their participation. The Duke of Augustenburg entered into 
some mean negotiations witii the Prussian Gbvemment with 
the view of retaining his sovereignty. But Bismarck had ob- 
tained from the Prussian crown lawyers a decision that his 
right, if it had ever existed, was abrogated by the Peace of 
Vienna. Thus he had been by turns opposed, upheld, and 
deserted by Prussia, as it suited her views. Both the French 
and English Foreign Ministers denounced the Gastein Con- 

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yention in unmeasured terms, the former caUing it worthy of 
tlie darkest epochs of history. The Oonvention was a natural 
consequence of French and English policy. The National' 
verein also protested, and the Frankfurt Deputies branded the 
acts of Austria and Prussia as unworthy of civiliased nations. 
It was at Gkuitein, while professing friendship to Austria, that 
Bismarck began his negotiations with Italy. 

Austria was in a false position. She sought to drcumvent 
Prussia by making herseS populalr in the duchies. Qablenz, 
her goyemor in Holstein, was much more loyed than Man- 
teuffel, the Prussian goyemor of Schleswig. With the same 
yiew she encouraged the pretensions of Augustenburg ; though 
this was clearly contrary to the Treaty of Vienna and the 
Gonyention of Qastein, by which alone she had a footing in 
Holstein. And to prepare for the ineyitable struggle— for it 
was eyident that the present arrangements could not last — she 
began to set her own aSaits in order. 

The most material point was to conciliate the Hungarians. DiTioioii 
Francis Joseph went to Pesth in July, and as a pledge of his Aiutrian 
good intentions made some changes in the ministry. The Empire. 
unpopular imperial constitution was suspended by a decree of 
September 20th. At the reopening of the Beiehstag in Noyem- 
ber, 1864s, which had been intermitted during the Danish war, 
the Bohemians absented themselyes, as well as the Hungarians 
and Croats. The empire was now diyided into two portions 
east and west of the Leitha, Oount Mailath being set oyer the 
former, and Count Belcredi oyer the latter. But this plan 
gaye eyen less satisfaction than that which it superseded, and 
was opposed by all the proyinces except Tyrol. The Hun- 
garians addressed the Emperor for the restoration of their 
ancient constitution, with only a personal union ; demands 
which he would not then concede. To conciliate the Venetians, 
a g^ieral amnesty was granted, and exiles were permitted to 
return (January Ist, 1866). The Italians looked on these 
concessions as a sign of weakness, for war between Austria 
and Prussia was banning to appear ineyitable. 

It is hardly worth while to inquire which Power was the 
actual aggressor. Prussia appears to haye opened the diplo- 
matic correspondence which ended in war ; but Austria gaye 
the occasion for it. She had allowed a great popular meeting 
at Altona in fo.your of Augustenburg, which demanded the 
assembling of the Holstein Staies. Prussia regarded this as 

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a traitorous act, and Bismarck addressed a note to Yi^ma 
(January 26tli), in which he accused Austria of promoting 
demagogic anarchy and of being aggressive and revdlutionary ! 
Austria declared she would not be dictated to as to her govem- 
ment of Holstein. Bismarck had observed in the Diet in the 
preceding August that whoever had Schleswig must have 
Holstein also ; and he carried out his policy of annexation 
amidst the most violent opposition from the Lower Chamber, 
and in spite of the fears of the Eong and Court. So unpopular 
was he become with the democrats that an attempt was made 
on his life. 
Treaty Both Powers began to arm. In the middle of March Aus- 

pj!^||[2a and tna sent large bodies of Hungarians into Bohemia on the 
Italy, 1866. pretext of durtiurbances there, and in a circular called on the 
minor States to prepare themselves for war. Prussia, on her 
side, armed the Silesian fortresses, and sotmded the middle 
States whether they would be inclined to side with her. She 
found but few adherents among them. They were in fiivour 
of piMiiculari8mu8^ and dreaded her absorbing tendencies and 
warlike propensities. Bismarck must therefore look abroad 
for allies. In the preceding summer he had made a commer- 
cial treaty between the ZoUverein and Italv. While still 
negotiating with Austria he assured her, April 5th, that 
nothing was further from his intentions than an attack on 
Italy, aad on the 8th he signed an alliance with Victor Eman- 
uel ! General Govone had arrived in Berlin in the middle of 
March to arrange it. But it had been concocted long before. 
In opening the new Italian legislature, November 18th, 1865, 
the King had hinted at an approaching change, which would 
permit Italy to complete her destinies. Bismarck now began 
to show his hand more openly. On April 9th, only a day affcer 
signing the Italian treaty, Prussia demanded in the Frankfurt 
Diet a Parliament elected by universal suffrage to discuss 
federal reform. 

In May, Napoleon HE. renewed his secret negotiations with 
Prussia, proposing to help her with 300,000 men against Aus- 
tria, and to procure for her additional territories comprising 
from six to eight million souls, in return for certain cessions 
on the Bhine. But Bismarck, fortified by the Italian alliance, 
thought that he might attain his ends without the help of 
France. He seems now to have definitely dismissed Napoleon's 
suit, and to have told him, like another male jilt of antiquity, 

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" Hand liflec in f csdera veni.*' The bigtorj is somewhat obscure ; 
but the French Emperor seems now to have turned his atten- 
tions towards Austna, and to have made a secret treaty with 
that Power, which, among other things, included the cession 
of Venetia to Prance/ Thus baffled by Prussia, Napoleon 
resorted to his familiar scheme of proposing a Conference of 
all the Oreat Powers ; but Austria would not consent to any 
discussion of boundaries, and so the project came to nothing. 

More negotiations went on between Austria and Prussia, Binnarek 
containingwonderful insults on both sides: "Very instructive," ^^Saai 
says Bustow, "for populations that would learn something." Suf^e. 
Among these amenities was a circular of Bismarck's accusing 
Austria of provoking a war with a view to help her finances 
either by Prussian contributions or an honourable bankruptcy ! 
This circular was occasioned by Austria having pref ened in 
the Diet, June 1st, a string of accusations against Prussia ; 
declaring at the same time that she was ready to submit the 
decision of the Schleswig-Holstein question to that assembly, 
and stating that she had directed the Governor of Holstein to 
summon the States, that so the wishes of the people might be 
known. Bismarck denied the competence of the Diet, as at 
present constituted, to decide the question, and denounced 
Austria's appeal to it, and the assembling of the Holstein 
States, as breaches of the Oastein Convention. In an extra, 
ordinary sitting of the Diet, June 11th, Austria, on her side, 
denounced Prussia as having violated that Convention, and 
demanded that the Federal Army, with the exception of the 
Prussian contingent, should be mobilized within a fortnight. 
Before the Diet had resolved on a definitive answer, Bismarck 
proposed to the different German Gk>vemments a scheme of 
federal reform, of which the principal features were that 
AustriaandtheNetherlands should be excluded from theBund, 
and that the federal troops should be divided into a northern 
and a southern army, the first to be commanded by the King 
of Prussia, the second by the King of Bavaria. But the coup d& 
maUre was that the constitution of the new Bund was to be 

^ This does not appear to have been published ; but another, which 
Napoleon proposed to Austria in the f ollowinff year, has been revealed. 
The main feature of it is, that after Prussia snonld have been defeated 
by France and Austria, the former should have Saarbrtick. Saarloois, 
and Saarborg ; the latter, the Bonthem part of Silesia.— raitott Hia- 
torique, p. 494. 

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settled bjaParliajnent elected by uniyeimL suffrage! The Con- 
servative Minister who had lately denounced the milder pro- 
ceedings of Austria as democratic and anarchical, assumed the 
national cockade, adopted the programme of iJie NoHanaU 
verein, substituted for the vote of an Assembly of sovereign 
princes that of the populace, and proposed to make feudal 
William I., king by the grace of God, head of Germany, by 
the will c^ the people! Thus both Powers displayed the 
grossest inconsistencies. Bismarck, whilst advocating a de- 
mocratic Constitution for Germany, showed at Berlin his 
contempt for the Prussian people and for the Parliament, 
refused to allow in the duchies any other right but that of 
conquest, and forbade the convening of the Holstein States to 
settle their own government; whilst Austria, which had 
ignored ^e Blind, in the Treaties of Vienna and Gastein, now 
appealed to its decisions, and supported the pretensions of the 
I>uke of Aug^stenburg, which she had repudiated in those 
treaties as well as in tibat of London ! 

Meanwhilematters were coming to a practical issue, Gablenz, 
the Austrian Governor of Holst^, csJled an assembly of the 
States for June 11th, whilst ManteufEel, the Prussian Governor 
of Schleswig, was directed, if such an assembly were summoned, 
to enter Holstein with his troops, supported by the Prussian 
fleet. Manteuffel invaded Holstein, June 8th, and the Aus- 
trians, being too weak to resist, retired through Hamburg and 
Harbnrg into Hanover. Augustenburg fled, and Prussia then 
appointed Yon Scheel Plessen Governor of Schleswig-Hol- 
Prussia The definitive answer of the Diet to Austria's demand for 

the^d! mobilisation was given June 14ith, when there appeared to be 
nine votes for Austria and six for Prusna. Those for Prussia 
were the Netherlands, aU the free towns except Frankfurt, and 
the rest were minor duchies. Hereupon the Prussian envoy, 
after stating his case i^inst Austria, declared the Bwid dis- 
solved, and signifying Prussia's readiness to forma new Bund 
with States so inclined, left the Assembly. Such was the end 
of the Confederation of 1815. Next day the war broke out. 
Prussia sent her ultimatum to Saxony, Hanover, and Electoral 
Hesse« which had voted against her, giving them twelve hours 
to answer ; and as her proposals were not accepted^ war was 
declared. There was no formal declaration of war against 

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Austria liad regarded Prussia with contempt ; sucli also The 
was the feeling in France, and perhaps throughout Europe. ^^^"^ 
The Prussian army was looked upon as a mere Lomdwehr, or 
militia, totally unfit for ofFensive warfare. But Bismarck had 
long been preparing for the conflict. In spite of persistent 
parliamentary opposition, Prussia had a fund of thirty million 
thalers in specie to begin the war. Every other preparation 
had been carefully made. The service of the raUroads and 
telegraphs had l^een completely organized. The troops were 
armed with a new needle-gun, which enabled them to fire four 
or five times for the enemy's once. Accurate maps had been 
made of the future theatre of war, which were in possession of 
all the officers ; so that a Frenchman who accompanied the 
Prussian army describes them as manoeuvring on the enemy's 
territory as on a parade ground.^ The Prussian railways were 
more numerous and convenient than the Austrian. Add that 
the Prussian troops were concentrated, while the Austrians 
were scattered ; that thev consisted wholly of Germans ani- 
mated with patriotism, whilst the Austrian army was for the 
greater part composed of Poles, Hungarians, Italians, Bohe- 
mians, Croats, etc., many of whom served unwillingly. For 
the sake of security the various regiments had been intermixed, 
though none of the privates and few of the officers could 
understand one another. Nothing had been done to im- 
prove the army, which was on the old and obsolete footing, 
though the artillery was the finest in Europe. Austria, too, 
as Bismarck was well aware, was ill prepared, and embar- 
rassed by finAnnift.] and other difficulties. She had sent 
164,000 of her best troops to defend Venetia, and the Italians 
had declared war almost simultaneously with Prussia. 

A fortnight after mobilization had been ordered, Prussia The 
had 326,000 men under arms. Of the extraordinary campaign 5JSJf|*" 
which followed, the military reader will, of course, seek the 
details in the proper authorities ; ' we can here give only the 
general outlmes. Some 60,000 men, under Yon Falkenstein, 
were to act in Westphalia and the Bhenish provinces against 
the hostile States of the Confederation. The remainder of the 
troops, with 900 guns, under the command in chief of the 
King, was to be employed in Bohemia. It was in three divi- 

^ Vilbort, UCEuvre de Bismarck, p. 146. 
^ See especially RUstow, Der Krieg von 1806. 
VI. N 

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fidons : one, under the Prinoe BojaJ, was posted in Silesia ; 
the other two, under Prinoe Frederidi: Charles and General 
Herwarth, were to enter Bohemia through Saxony, and, 
marching eastwards, to form a junction with the Prince £oyaL 
The whole campaign was conducted by Yon Moltke. The 
Prussian problem was to insure the communication between 
their forces in the east and west, to circumscribe the two 
theatres of operations, and to prevent the Bavarians from 
forming a junction with the Austrians. The Austrian army, 
consisting, including the Saxons, of 240,000 men, under Field- 
Marshal Benedek, stretched from Cracow to Prague, through 
Prerau, Olmutz, and Pardubitz. 

Campaign We will first cast a glance at the operations in the west. 

of isee. Falkenstein seized Cassel and the Elector himself, who was 
carried to Stettin, June 24th, while the electoral army retired 
to Fulda. Hanover, with its territory, was next occupied ; 
blind King Qeorge, with his army of about 18,000 men, re- 
treating by way of Gotha and Eisenach, with a view to join the 
Bavarians. Falkenstein, reinforced by Manteuffel and his 
Prussians from Holstein^ after some manoeuvring and a bloody 
battle at Langensalza, surrounded the Hanoverians at Warza, 
June 29th, and obliged them to capitulate. ^Smg George was 
allowed to retire wluther he plea^dd except into his own do- 
minions ; his troops were disarmed and sent home. Thus the 
Prussian communications were established, and the coalition 

In the east the Prussians, under Herwarth, entered Saxony, 
June 16th, when the Saxon army evacuated that country and 
joined the Austrians in Bohemia. By the 20th all Saxony 
was in the hands of the Prussians, and Dresden occupied by 
a reserve brought from Berlin. Meanwhile Benedek had re- 
mained inactive. He expected that the main attack would be 
from Silesia, and that only a demonstration would be made 
from Saxony, so he fixed his head-quarters at Josefstadt, 
where he was within easy march of the Silesian frontier. 
This mistake was fatal. To arrest the Prussian march from 
Saxony he had posted Clam Gallas, with only about 60,000 
men, including the Saxons, at Munchengratz, who, thus 
isolated, was exposed to the main Prussian force. 

The Prince Boyal, having the difficult task of bearing the 
brunt of the Austrian attack on defiling thr6ugh the passes 
of Silesia, waited till the other two armies had entered 

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Bohemia. These were to march to the Iser, while the Silesian 
army followed the right bank of the Upper Elbe ; then, bj a 
converging march on Gitschin and Konigshof, the united 
force was to direct itself on Vienna, by Pardubitz and Brunn. 
The armies of Prince Frederick Charles and Herwarth entered 
Bohemia by Gabel and Beichenberg, both directing themselves 
on Munchengratz. After one or two fights, especially at 
Podol, where the Austrians were literally mowed down, the 
two armies formed a junction. Clam Gallas, threatened by 
a superior force, retired from Munchengratz towards G-itschen, 
but beii^ defeated in a hard fought battle, retreated to 

Benedek now saw his mistake, and resolved to recover the 
line of the Iser. But this design was arrested by the move- 
ments of the Prince Boyal, who, having discovered Benedek's 
plan, after a demonstration at Neisse, entered Bohemia in 
three oolums; the right by Landshut and Trautenau, the 
centre by Wunschelburg and Braunau, the left by Beinerz 
and Nachod. Benedek's danger now stared him in the face ; 
yet he did nothing effectual to check the Prussian advance, 
and contented himself with taking up a strong position at 

After some fierce battles, especially at Nachod, the Silesian Bat«te 
army forced the passes, and, advancing on Koniginhof, drove fgw?^^ 
the Austrians from it, Jime 29th. 0^ the same day Clam 
Gallas was compelled to evacuate Gitschin. In the evening 
the armies of the Prince Boyal and of Prince Frederick Charles 
formed a junction on the Upper Elbe. Herwarth also came 
up, and the three united armies formed a line of battle of 
three leagues, facing that part of the Elbe which runs from 
Josefstadt to Koniggratz. Benedek had concentrated his 
troops before the latter place. A great battle was now in- 
evitable. The King of Prussia had arrived, and fixed his 
head-quarters at Gitschin. On the 2nd of July was fought 
the Battle of Sadowa. The Austrians were completely 
defeated, and fled towards the Elbe ; the bridges sufficed not 
for their passage ; thousands were drowned, while the Prussian 
artillery, playing on them from the heights, destroyed thou* 
sands more. King William and Bismarck, as a kmdwehr 
cuirassier, personally took part in the battle. The Austrians 
lost 4,861 killed, 13,920 wounded, about 20,000 prisoners, 
7 colours, and 160 guns. The Prussian loss was not much 

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more than half that number. Benedek retreated, first to 
Olmutz, then to Ptessbnrg, followed bj the Prinoe Boyal. 
Gablenz's corps and the Austrian cavalrj retreated towards 
Vienna by Brim, pursued bj the other two Prussian armies.^ 

The Archduke Albert, the victor of Oustozza, had been 
hastily recalled from li^j to take command of all the Austrian 
forces, which he stationed on the left bank of the Danube. Bj 
the 18th of July the King of Prussia had advanced his head- 
quarters to Nikolsburg, within ten miles of Vienna ; so much 
had the Prussians achieved in twenty-five days after entering 
Bohemia. The French Emperor had offered his mediation, 
which was accepted on condition of an armistice, during which 
the preliminaries of a peace should be arranged. These were 
signed at Nikolsburg, July 26th, on the following bases: 
Austria was to leave the German Confederation, to rec(^^ze 
Prussia's acquisitions in the North, and the new constitution 
which she meant to propose for the Bund ; but she consented 
to no cessions, except Venetia, and required that Saxony, the 
only State that had given her any material aid, should be 
restored in her integrity. Prussia undertook that Italy 
should adhere to the peace, after she was put in possession of 
ThePnuh Meanwhile in the West, Falkenstein, after defeating the 
jI^^^ Bavarians and Hessians in several little battles, entered 
Frankfurt, July 16th, which Prince Alexander of Hesse had 
abandoned. Falkenstein took possession of this ancient city, 
as well as of Nassau and Upper Hesse, in the name of King 
William I. The Prussians had long owed the Frankfurters a 
grudge ; the rich bankers and merchants of the free city had 
been used to speak with contempt of the poverty-stricken 
squireens of the North. The Prussian exactions were terrible, 
and made in the most arrogant and brutal manner. They 
were repeated by Manteuffel, who succeeded Falkenstein at 
Frankfurt. The burgomaster is said to have committed 
suicide. ManteufEel continued the war, and defeated the 
Bavarians on the Tauber, July 25th. On the 27th Marien- 
berg was attacked, and the citadel blown up. The Prussians 
had also achieved other successes in this quarter, and before 
they heard of the armistice, were in possession of Darmstadt, 
and had entered Wurtemberg. 

* See Hozier, The Seven Weeh^ War; Fontane, Der deutsche Krieg 

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The definitiye Pbaob of Pbague, signed August 2drd, Peace of 
confirmed the preliminaries of Nikolsborg. Besides the xm^*' 
articles mentioned, the Emperor of Austria transferred to 
the King of Prussia his claims on Schleswig-Holstein, with 
the resenre that the inhabitants of North Schleswig were to 
be retransf erred to Denmark if thej expressed such a wish by 
a free yote. Prussia confirmed the existence of the Kingdom 
of Saxony, but it was to belong to the new Northern Bund, 
on conditions to be arranged by special treaty. The clause 
respecting the retransfer of the North-Schleswigers, as well 
as the imaginary division of Germany into two parts, north 
and south of the Main, appear to have been inserted in the 
preliminaries through the French mediation. But Bismarck 
ultimately evaded the execution of the retransfer, and in the 
negotiations with Denmark on the subject, maintained that 
he was not bound to her, as she had not signed the Treaty of 
Prague, but solely to Austria ! 

Bismarck had received the plenipotentiaries of the Middle 
States with great handewr at Nikolsburg. He would treat 
with them only separately. With Von Beust, the Saxon 
Minister, who was highly disagreeable to the Prussian Court, 
Bismarck would not treat at all, and he was obliged to resign. 
The Prussian treaty with Saxony left her little more than a 
geographical integrity and a nominal autonomy. Prussia was 
to iUrect her military organization ; the Saxon garrisons were 
to be of mixed troops, but that of Kdnigstein entirely Prussian. 
Saxon diplomacy at foreign courts was also to be placed under 
Prussian control. She, as well as Bavaria, Wurtemberg, 
Baden, and Hesse, had to pay heavy indemnities. Bavaria 
had also to cede districts near Orb in the Spessart and 
Kaulsdorf, and an enclave near Ziegenruck. Hesse-Darm- 
stadt ceded the landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg, with pieces 
of territory to complete Prussian communications with 
Wetzler. The districts of Hesse-Cassel, north of the Main, 
were to form part of the new northern Confederation. 

Ad interim treaties of alliance, offensivie and defensive, were New North* 
signed between Prussia and the States that were to form the •" *^*' 
new Northern Brmd, till its constitution should be definitely 
settled. A Congress for that purpose was opened at Berlin, 
December 15th, and the new federal P&>ct was signed, February 
8th, 1867. The subscribing States were, besides Prussia and 
Lauenburg, Saxony, MecMenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg* 

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Strelitz, Saxe-Weimar, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Saxe-Meiningen, 
Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Cobui^-Gotha, Anhalt, Schwarzburg- 
Eudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Waldeck, the two 
Beufis, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lubeck, Bremen, Hamburg, and 
Grand Ducal Hesse north of the Main; Luxembourg and 
limburg were left out. Saxony, the only State likely to offer 
opposition, was militarily occupied by Prussia, and King John 
came to see his new ally at Berlin. The States of the Con- 
federation retained their domestic autonomy ; but, for federal 
purposes, such as military organization and imposts, they were 
subject to the decision of the Diet, or Parliament. The legis- 
lative power was vested in that body, and a federal Council 
composed of representatives from the different States. The 
number of votes in the Council was forty-three, of which 
Prussia had seventeen, or more than a third. The King of 
Prussia, as President of the Council, had the executive power, 
and also commanded the army of the Bund, Bismarck was 
made its Chancellor. 

Prussia also sought to extend her influence over the southern 
States, and forced them into treaties with her by representing 
the probable demands of Prance, who had, indeed, shown her 
teeth. Secret offensive and defensive treaties were signed with 
Baden, Bavaria, and Wiirtemberg, for the reciprocal gaarantee 
of territories, and in case of war, Prussia was to have the 
command of their armies. They were also bound to her by 
the Zolherein} 
TheresnitB The results of the war for Prussia were the undivided hege- 
-' ""- '^ mony of North Germany, her supremacy throughout the nation 
by the overthrow of Austria and her exclusion from the Con- 
federation, the military command of South Germany, and the 
ground laid for future economical direction. The material 
advantages were the annexation of Schleswig-Holstein, Elect- 
oral Hesse, Nassau, Frankfurt, and some minor territories, 
increasing her population to 24,000,000, to which must be 
added, in a military point of view, 5,000,000 in the northern 
Bwnd, and about 9,000,000 in the southern States belonging 
to the Zolherein, Her territory was rendered more coherent 
and compact ; she had received 60,000,000 thalers in indem- 
nities, and she had obtained possession of military ports, 
which rendered maritime development possible. King William 

^ Malet, The overthrow of the Germanic Constitution by Prussia in 

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of the War 


gained some popularity bj soliciting from the Prussian Par- 
liament a Bill of Indemnity for the unconstitutional measures 
he had adopted, to insure his success and Prussia's aggrand- 

The first parliament under the new federal constitution was Miutary 
opened September 10th» 1867. Seven permanent committees tib?of the 
were appointed for the affairs of the Confederation, such as ^SSS^*^" 
war, finance, justice, etc. As regards military arrangements, ^^ 
every citizen from the age of seventeen to forty-two was sub- 
ject to serve in the army. This was divided into three bodies — 
the standing army, the Landwehr, and the Landsturm, The 
army is recruited by conscription, from which there is no ex- 
emption. Conscripts, and those voluntarily enlisted serve 
seven years in the standing army, viz., three with the colours 
and four in the reserve. They then pass into the Lomdwehr 
for five years, and afterwards into the Landsturm, till they 
attain the age of forty-two. In time of war the Landwehr 
may be called out for active service ; the Lwndsturm only in 
case of national danger. The total force was computed at 
300,000 for the standmg army, 450,000 for the Lcundwehr, and 
360,000 for the Lanc^urm. The armies of the southern 
States were estimated at 150,000 men in active service, and 
42,000 Lomdwehr. As the total force was under the command 
of the King of Prussia, and as the southern States were 
members of the ZoUverein, all Germany may be said to have 
been Frussicmized. 

Thus Napoleon III., baffled, if not deluded, saw by the The aSaSx 
sudden and unexpected success of Prussia, Germany recon- ^^^ISeo. 
structed against his will, as he had seen Italy before. When, 
after the rupture between Austria and Prussia, Napoleon III. 
changed his secret alliance with Prussia for one with Austria, 
his plan ^ was to look on till some decisive victories, which 
were expected to be on the side of Austria, should threaten 
the European equilibrium, when, at the proper moment, he 
would intervene, and recast the German Confederation. His 
"ideas" were to take Silesia from Prussia, and give it to 
Austria, in return for Venice, ceded to Italy. In compen- 
sation for Silesia and the Catholic provinces of the Ehine, 
which would, of course, become French, Prussia was to re- 
ceive large Protestant territories on the Elbe and Baltic, by 

^ As explained in his letter to M. Droaynde THays, June 11th, 
1866, cited by Klaezko, Bev. dea Deux Monies, Oct. 1, 1868, p. 528 sq. 

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whicli she woald become compact, aad a bulwark against 
Bossia. The combination, sajs Klaczko/ was profound and 
yast ; it bad only one fault, but that was a fatal one — it did 
not contemplate the possibility of a Prussian victory. It was 
to be achieved by moral force, without drawing sword. Had 
Napoleon placed 100,000 men on the Bhine, IVussia's scheme 
might have been modified, if not overthrown. But the 
Prussian victories did not allow time for reflection, and he 
had confidently relied on Austria being victorious. Baffled in 
his main scheme, Napoleon wanted at least to get something, 
however small ; and having, it is said, made some secret de- 
mands at Berlin, which were not attended to, he cast his eyes 
on Luxembourg. He was ready to buy it from the Eing of 
the Netherlands, who, on his side, was willing to sell, and 
get quit of the German Confederation. Austria, England, 
and Bussia intervened, and a treaty was signed at London, 
by which Luxembourg was neutralized. Thus ended an afiEair 
which at first threatened to disturb the peace of Europe. 

Napoleon had just experienced another mortification in the 
failure of his designs upon Mexico. France, England, and 
Spain had, in 1862, despatched a joint expedition to Mexico 
to obtain satisfaction for insults and injuries committed not 
only on their subjects, but even on diplomatic agents, by 
Juarez, President of the Mexican Bepublic. England and 
Spain soon withdrew after obtaining what they considered 
satisfactory amends. But Napoleon had formed the chime- 
rical project of establishing in those parts a nation of Latin 
race, as rivals of the Anglo-Americans, and continued the war. 
In 1864, Mexico, with the title of Emperor, was offered to, 
and accepted by the Austrian Archduke Maximilian, and a 
French army of 25,000 men was sent to support him, which 
took possession of the capital. But quarrels soon arose be- 
tween Maximilian and his protectors ; the Americans, quit of 
civil war, began to show hostility towards the new State; 
public opinion in France pronounced itself against this dis- 
tant, expensive, and ill-judged enterprise, and in 1866 Napo- 
leon recalled his troops.* 

Austria, taught wisdom by misfortune, granted to Hungary, 
in 1867, the constitutional independence she had so long de- 

1 Eev. des Denx Mondes, Oct. 1, 1868, p. 655. 

^ Lef^vre, Histarie de PinterventionfranQaige au Mexique. 

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manded. The recondliatioii appeared to be complete, and on 
the 8th of June Francis Joseph, after swearing to maintain 
the ancient Hungarian Constitution, was crowned in the 
cathedral of Buda with the crown of St. Stephen. At the 
same time a separate ministry was constituted for Hungary 
under the presidency of Count Andrassy. These measures, 
the work of Yon Beust, the ^devcmt Saxon Minister, who had 
succeeded to the place of Belcredi in the Austrian councils, 
were accompanied with reforms in the western, or Cis-leithan, 
provinces of the Empire, and with changes in the method of 
administration to suit the altered circumstances. 

In Italy as soon as the Prussian alliance was completed, Italian 
preparations were made for immediate war. The King, with Sm!*^^' 
La Marmora at his side, took the command in chief ; Quri- 
baldi was at the head of the irregular forces, which flocked to 
him in great numbers. Napoleon III. called upon the Italians 
to disarm, but did not press his objection, and contented him- 
self with declaring that Italy must take the consequences of 
her act. La Marmora felt secure. The Milanese was in a 
manner guaranteed by France, and by the Prussian Treaty 
both Powers had engaged not to make a separate peace. 
Hence Italy felt bound to decline the secret offer of Austria 
before the war broke out to cede Yenetia to her if she would 
renounce the Prussian alliance. 

Yictor Emanuel passed the Mincio, June 23rd, 1866. Cial- 
dini was to cross the Po, and operate in the rear of the 
quadrilateral; Garibaldi was to seize the Trentino, while 
Persano, with the fleet, threatened Yenice. Before these 
diyersions were effected. General Durando, with only five 
divisions, ventured a front attack, was easily defeated by the 
Archduke Albert at Custozza, June 24th, and compelled to 
recross the Mincio. Garibaldi had also been checked at 
Monte Suello, in Tyrol. But Austria, as before related, now 
recalled her army from Italy, and ceded Yenetia to Napoleon 
in. The Italians would willingly have done something to 
retrieve their military honour. After the withdrawal of the 
Archduke, the Austrians retired into the fortresses of the 
quadrilateral, when Cialdini overran Yenetia without meeting 
an enemy, and occupied Bovigo and Padua. Persano was 
defeated off Lissa by the Austrian admiral, Tegethof , with a 
much smaller fleet; for which Persano was deprived of his 
rank. The Italians now accepted the armistice arranged at 

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Nikolsburg. Oialdini was directed to retire behind the Ta^Ha- 
mento, and Garibaldi was obliged to OTacuate the Trentino. 
A clamonr was raised against tiie ministry, and La Marmora 
found it neoessary to resign. 
Peace be- After the Peace of Prague Marshal Lebceuf took possession 
triTwid'"" ^^ Venetia in the name of Napoleon III. The Peace op 
Italy, 1866. YzENNA between Italy and Austria was signed October 3rd. 
Austria restored the ancient iron crown of Lombardy ; Italy, 
at the dictation of France, abandoned the Trentino. According 
to the &iYOurite practice of the French Emperor, the Venetians 
were to decide by a plebiscite for annexation to Italy ; and the 
Italians had to endure the humiliation of withdrawing their 
troops lest they should influence the rotes. Annexation was 
Yoted almost unanimously, October 22nd. 
Prance and Eicasoli, who succeeded La Marmora, governed with modera- 
itaiy. ^^^^ -g-^ ^j^ ^^^ ^ rabid enemy of the Church, but he was 

for utilizing Church property and suppressing conyents. A 
law for that purpose excited a revolt in Sicily, chiefly led by 
the Benedictines, who possessed many rich convents in that 
island. The rising, however, was soon put down. Bicasoli 
was overthrown for having attempted to suppress public 
meetings, and was succeeded by the more violent Eatazzi. 
This minister carried out his predecessor's plans with respect 
to the Church. It was decided, July, 1867, that ecclesiastical 
property should be sold, and the produce administered by 
the State, the clergy receiving a fixed salary. The property 
of the Church in Italy was estimated at 2,000 million &ancs 
(about og80,000,000 sterling) ; out of the proceeds were to be 
compensated some 5,000 monks, distributed in 1,724 convents. 
Eatazzi indulged in some underhand attempts to get pos- 
session of Borne. Agreeably to the Convention of September 
15th, 1864, the French garrison had been withdrawn from 
Bome before the end of 1866 ; but their place had in some 
degree been supplied by what was called the Antibes Legion, 
which had been raised for the Pope's protection. This was 
virtually a violation of the Convention ; for the Legion was 
mostly composed of Frenchmen, who retained their position 
in the French army. They were, however, ill-content with 
the service and the climate, and desertion became frequent. 
General Dumont, a bigoted Papist, who had formed the Legion, 
was sent to Bome to restore order, when, putting on the French 
uniform, he made an harangue to the soldiers, interlarded 

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with abase of the Italian Qoyemment. Batazzi did not openly 
respond to the call of the Chambers to repulse foreign inter- 
vention at all risks, but he winked at the assembling of insur- 
rectionary committees, and did not sufficiently provide for the 
safety of the Pope. G-aribaldi appeared once more on the 
scene, organized a rising at Geneva, and had got as far as 
Arezzo on his way to Borne when Batazzi caused him to be 
arrested. He was sent to Alexandria, where the garrison 
gave him an ovation ; while at Florence the streets resounded 
with cries of " Death to Batazzi! " who was obliged to shut 
himself up in his house. Garibaldi was dismissed to Caprera. 
When the French Government remonstrated against his con- 
duct, he made many false and evasive replies. A few of 
the insurgents, among them Garibaldi's son Menotti, en- 
tered the Papal States, but were easily repulsed by the Pope's 

Some more indirect attempts of Batazzi against Bome, by Garibaldi's 
permitting Italian troops to cross the frontier in contravention ^1^^ ^ 
of the understanding with France, led to such serious remon- 
strancesfrom Napoleon that Batazzi was dismissed, and General 
Menabrea became Minister, with a Cabinet more agreeable 
to the Emperor. Meanwhile Garibaldi had again escaped, 
and Napoleon, advised of the anxiety of Pio Nono and Car- 
dinal Aiitonelli, ordered his fleet to proceed to Civitfk Yecchia. 
Garibaldi was favourably received in the places on his line of 
march ; the Papal colours were pulled down, and the Italian 
ones substituted. He defeated the Pontifical troops at Monte 
Botondo (October 25th), which commands Bome on the north; 
but before he could enter the city French troops had arrived 
from Civitfk Yecchia, who joined the Papal troops in pursuit 
of the now retreating Garibaldi, and inflicted on him a severe 
defeat at Montana. Garibaldi, on gaining Italian territory, 
surrendered himself to General I^cotti; and after a few 
weeks' detention, he was again dismissed to Caprera. 

The affair at Montana converted the cooling sympathies of 
the Italians for France into hatred. The French, indeed, 
evacuated Bome, but only retired to Civitk Yecchia, as if to 
secure a constant entrance. But the time was fast approaching 
when Bome, like a ripe pear, would f aU of itself into Yictor 
Emanuel's mouth. Italy was still full of disorder. There 
were many conspiracies and risings of Bed Bepublicans and 
clerical and Bourbon reactionaries. The state of the finances 

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necessitated increased taxation ; payment was in some cases 
resisted, and had to be enforced by the military. 
Bomeiiioor. Italian history presents nothing more of importance till 
S^iuay, the breaking out of the war between France and Prussia, 
1870. ' and the oyerthrow of Napoleon in 1870. Italy declared her 
neutrality, July 24th, and the Government, foreseeing that 
the war must have a decisive effect on the Boman question, 
concentrated troops on the Papal frontier. The French, having 
need of their troops at Civiti Veccbia, withdrew tbem in 
August ; and after their fatal defeat at Oravelotte, Victor 
Emanuel notified to Pio IX. that his army must enter the 
pontifical dominions to preserve order and protect the Pope 
himself a^^ainst revolutionists. The advance of the Italians, 
under General Gadona, was opposed only in a few skirmishes. 
When they arrived at Bome, the garrison was summoned. 
As the reply was not prompt, a few breaches were made in 
the walls, when the Pope ordered a surrender, and the Italians 
entered Bome, September 20th. The people voted annexation 
to Italy by a great majority, October 2nd. Pio IX. fulminated 
the major excommunication, but without naming the King. 
He had in vain applied to Austria and Spain. The latter 
country had just accepted a sovereign of his opponent's 
The Pope The destruction of the Pope's temporal rule passed almost 

^^^ unnoticed, overshadowed by the portentous struggle in Prance. 
A new parliament, including deputies from the Papal States, 
voted their incorporation with Italy, December 29th, and the 
removal of the seat of government to Bome was fixed for the 
following June. As if to compensate the Pope for the loss of 
his temporal power, a great addition was made about this 
time to his spiritual dignity. A General Oouncil, the last 
since that of Trent, voted the Pope's infallibility by a large 
majority, July 13th, 1870. The idea seems to have been 
suggested by some Jesuits. It had often been debated whether 
a Pope or a Oouncil were superior. To accept infallibility at 
the hands of a Oouncil seemed an acknowledgment of its 
superiority ; but to this it was replied, that it was not called 
te confer infallibility, but merely te declare it. The decree 
was opposed by many foreign bishops, some of them the most 
strenuous upholders of the temporal power, as Monseigneur 
Dupanloup, Bishop of Orleans, and the Austrian Dr. Ddl- 

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The war between France and Fmssia is connected with the ^^ ^^ 
affairs of Spain. The recent history of that country consists ^^^^ 
mostly of domestic dissensions, and those of an ignoble kind. 
There were, indeed, many parties, as the Pan-liberab, the 
Progresistas, the Democrats or Eepublicans, the Moderados, 
the Clerical party, etc. ; but all^ with the exception of the 
Eepublicans, who were few in number and without influence, 
disputed only about the choice of a sovereign or a minister. 
There were many sudden reyolutions, led by military men, 
but none for any great principle. Centuries of bigotry and 
clerical rule, the result of Phi^p II.'s policy and of the Inqui- 
sition, had extinguished all public opinion, eyery noble aspira- 
tion ; hence their endurance of Isabella 11., a woman who had 
failed to gain the respect of her subjects. 

But though Isabella was nominally soyereign, she did not 
reign; that was the function of her Prime Ministers, and 
hence a continual struggle for the post O'Donnell, Duke of 
Tetuan, of Irish descent, was the best of these mayors of the 
palace. Ostensibly of the Pan-liberal party, he made one of 
his own out of the rest. Arrived at power in 1854 through 
Espartero, whom he ousted, he was in turn driven out by 
Karvaez, but regained his post in 1858, and retained it till 
1863. His fall was occasioned by the withdrawal of Spain 
from the Mexican expedition, which displeased Napoleon III. 
He was succeeded for a short time by Mirafiores, and then by 
Narvaez, whose reactionary policy caused O'Donnell's recall 
in 1865. Isabella's favourite at this time was Marfori, a 
domestic of the palace, and she, like her mother, sent large 
sums abroad to support her numerous children. 

One of O'Donndl's first acts after returning to power was 
to recognize Italy, thus throwing over the queen's kinsmen, 
the sovereigns of Naples and Parma, and insulting the Pope. 
O'Donnell was not liked at Court, and having made himself 
unpopular by many executions after a foolish insurrection at 
Madrid, Narvaez again seized the helm in July, 1866. His 
policy was retrograde. By a coup d'etat, December 30th, he 
dissolved the Cortes, arrested 123 Members, and caused the 
President, Bosas, and thirty*five others to be transported. 

Narvaez died suddenly in April, 1868, and was succeeded senano 
by €K)nzales Bravo, also an Absolidist. O'Donnell had also §JSf°^* 
died suddenly at Biarritz, in November, 1867. Bravo trans- 
ported sevend military chiefs, including Marshal Serrano; 

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but be, as well as tbe Queen, were soon oyertbrown. In Sep- 
tember, 1868, Admiral Tapete bad prepared an insurrection 
at Cadiz, wbere be was joined by Prim. Tbeir programme 
was tbe sovereignty of tbe people. Serrano and otber banisbed 
generals contriyed to return, and proclaimed uniyersal suffrage 
as tbe panacea for Spain's ills. Beyolutionary juntas were 
establisbed in several towns ; tbat at Seville first demanded 
tbe fall of tbe reigning dynasty. Isabella, tben at St. Sebastian, 
dismissed Bravo, wbo fled to France, and appointed General 
Concba in bis place. But tbe Royalists were defeated by 
Serrano at tbe bridge of Alcolea, on tbe Quadalquiver, and a 
Provisional Gk>vemment was establisbed at Madrid, witb 
Serrano at its bead, and Prim Minister at War. Barcelona, 
Saragossa, and otber towns rose against tbe Queen, wbo fled 
to fVance. Napoleon III. lent ber tbe cbateau of Pan, but 
declared bimself neutral. A new constitution was promulgated 
in June, 1869, and Serrano was elected Begent. He expelled 
tbe Jesuits, dissolved many religious communities, and pro- 
claimed liberty of conscience ; but tbe Pope's Nuncio still 
remained at Madrid, witb a Spanisb stipend. 
-^Mkdeo I., Tbe problem was, to find a candidate for tbe tbrone ; for 
^ ^' Serrano and bis party bad no notion of a Bepublic. Don 

Carlos, tbe rigbtful beir, bad been defeated, in 1860, in an 
attempt to regain tbe crown, and compelled to renounce it by 
an oatb. In 1865 arose wbat was called tbe " Iberian " party, 
wbicb wisbed to unite tbe wbole Iberian peninsula under Dom 
Luis, King of Portugal ; but tbe Portuguese were averse to 
sucb a union, and Luis declined tbe offer. After tbe re- 
nunciation of Don Carlos, Don Jobn, bis younger brotber, bad 
claimed tbe crown ; and wben Isabella fled, be transferred bis 
pretensions to bis son, Don Carlos, Duke of Madrid, wbo was 
proclaimed by bis party as Cbarles VJLl. But be found few 
adberents. Tbe Duke of Montpensier, Isabella's brotber-in- 
law, proposed by some, was not approved of by tbe victorious 
generals. Espartero decbned tbe proffeied crown. It was 
tben offered to Prince Hobenzollem-Sigmaringen, and bis 
acceptance of it, tbougb afterwards witbdrawn, occasioned tbe 
fatal war between Fntnce and Prussia, under circumstances 
to be presently related. During tbat war Spain declared ber 
neutrality, and was one of tbe first Powers to recognize tbe 
Prencb Bepublic, by wbicb it was followed. At lengtb, in 
November, 1870, tbe Cortes elected tbe Duke of Aosta, second 

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son of Yictor Emanuel, who assumed the crown he had onoe 
refused, and with it the title of Amadeo I. 

The Franco-German war of 1870 was the result of Napoleon piMontent 
IIL's political situation. The erents of the year 1866 had *"***"~- 
occasioned great discontent in France. A strong opposition, 
led bj Thiers and Jules Favre, made damaging attacks upon 
the imperial government. It was charged with dangers in- 
curred abroad from the establishment of Italian unity and of 
the North German Confederation, which were attributed to 
Napoleon's undecided policy, and to the principle of substi- 
tuting nationalities for the ancient theory of the balance of 
power. Other grounds of complaint were the abortive media- 
tions in Poland and Denmark, and between Italy and the 
Pope ; the congresses so often proposed in ram ; the failure 
of the Mexican business, and of the designs upon Belgium 
and Luxembourg ; the meddling with Eastern policy, and the 
net of intrigues all over the world. Napoleon had become so 
despotic that for some time he had not allowed the debates to 
be published. The finances were in the greatest disorder, yet 
900 million francs had been spent in reconstructing and 
embellishing Paris. Personally the Emperor had lost much 
of his former energy, owing probably to his bad state of 
health. It was evident that personal rule could not last much 
longer, and that even a successful war, though it might check, 
could not avert its fall. 

The years 1867 and 1868, however, passed over without Napoleon's 
any very striking events. Napoleon perceived the necessity P«n»iexitie8. 
for some changes. The Ministers who could not before appear 
in the Chambers were henceforward authorized to take part 
sometimes in the debates (January, 1867). As if prescient of 
the approaching struggle, considerable reforms were made in 
the army. In Paris and the larger towns the elections of 1869 
were adverse to Imperialism. In July a new, bnt short-lived. 
Ministry was formed, on the principle of parliamentary re- 
sponsibility. The murder of Le Noir by Prince Peter Bona- 
parte added to the unpopularity of the Imperial Court. To 
disarm increasing opposition, a revised Constitution was 
sanctioned by a pUbiseUe, May 8th, and a clause in it enabled 
the Emperor to adopt that method to settle any disputed 
questions. But it was ominous that 50,000 soldiers had voted 
" No." A new Ministry was now appointed, with the exception 
of OUivier, who retained office. Count Dam was succeeded 

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by the Duke of G-ramont, a pliant courtier, and Miarshal Niel 
was replaced by the incapable Marshal Leboeuf . 
The Spanish Sensible of the change of public opinion, except among that 
Crown. ignorant multitude to whom he loved to appeal. Napoleon ELL 
felt the necessity for some brilliant deed to retrieve the droop- 
ing prestige of his dynasty ; and the acceptance of the Spamsh 
crown by a prince of the House of HohenzoUem ofEerea an 
opportunity to fix a quarrel on the Power which had principally 
overshadowed his own glory. Prince Leopold was no member 
of the Boyal Prussian house, though the offspring of a com- 
mon ancestor many centuries ago. He had been selected by 
General Prim for the Spanish crown, as possessing the reqxii- 
site qualifications of belonging to a princely family, of being a 
Boman Catholic, and of age. As a Prussian subject and 
distant kinsman, Prince Leopold had requested and obtained 
from King William I. permission to accept the proffered 
dignity ; but had withdrawn his acceptance when it was found 
to be opposed by the French Emperor. Napoleon III.'8 
grudge a^inst Prussia had been aggravated by the prompt 
and decided refusal of Bismarck in the spring of 1869 to help 
him in the acquisition of Luxembourg and Belgium, on hu 
allowing Prussia a free hand in G-ermany. It is said, indeed, 
that Napoleon himself was not desirous of war, and his prac- 
tices to obtain territory without incurring that risk, corroborate 
this opinion. But he was surrounded by persons who urged 
him on, the chief of whom were the Empress, the Duke of 
Oramont, and Marshal LebcBuf . The French Cabinet was ill 
informed as to the state of Germany. Their envoys had 
reported a general dislike of Prussia in the Southern States, 
and the probability of their supporting a French invasion. 
The Emperor had also been deceived about the condition of 
his own army, which LebcBuf had neglected, though he falsely 
represented its efficiency. 
France fixes The French Cabinet, not content with the withdrawal of 
awweJon Prince Hohenzollem-Sigmaringen, required King William L 
to pledge himself that he would never sanction his candidate- 
ship for the Spanish crown, if renewed; and the French 
Ambassador, Benedetti, rudely accosted the King with this 
demand on the public promenade at Ems. It was of course 
refused, for there was no alternative but humiliation. France 
declared war, July 19th, 1870. The new German Constitution 
was now brought to the test. The Northern Bund voted 

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120 million thalers (18 millions sterling) towards the expenses ; 
the Southern States, instead of the anticipated lukewarmness, 
or even hostilit j towards the North, annonnoed with alacritj 
their intention to take part in the war. A French aggression 
was indeed precisely the thing to inspire Q^rmanj with but 
one feeling, and to consolidate its unity. The Gtermans were 
divided into three armies. Two, composed of North Oermans,. 
consisted of 61,000 men under General Steinmetz, and 206,000 
men, including the Saxon corps, under Prince Frederick 
Charles. The South Gherman army, under the Prince Boyal, 
amounted to 180,000 men, mixed with Prussians; total 
447,000 men, with a reserve of 112,000. The whole was under 
the command*in*chief of the Sing of Prussia, assisted by 
Yon Moltke and Yon Boon. The King arrived at his head* 
quarters at Coblenz, August 2nd. All the European Powers 
had declared their neutrality. England alone had offered 
mediation, which was declined by both parties. 

The French were earlier in the field. Their army consisted CamMign 
of about 300,000 men, and was commanded by the Emperor ^'^^^' 
in person, with Marshal Lebceuf as chief of the staff. Eug6ue 
was made B^ent during the Emperor's absence. The French 
plan is said to have been to assemble 150,000 men at Metz, 
100,000 at Strassburg ; and after uniting the two armies* to 
cross the Bhine between Bastatt.and Germersheiin, and to in- 
vade Baden, while Oanrobert covered the French frontier with 
50,000 men. Had this plan been carried out before the Ger- 
mans assembled in force, the war might have taken a totally 
different turn ; but Napoleon lost a fortnight in unaccountable 
inaction. His delay has been variously accounted for. Some 
ascribe it to bodily and mental weakness ; others say that his 
army was not in a fit state to advance, and thai the commis* 
sariat broke down. However this may be, a defensive attitude^ 
so repulsive to French troops, demoralised the army. Napo> 
leon made a show of taking the offensive by a futile attack on 
Saarbruck, At^st 3rd, which the Germans did not mean to 
defend. Young Prince Napoleon was present with his father 
at what was called his *' baptism of fire." It was a mere 
piece of stage effect. On the following day the defeat of the 
French under McMahon at Weissemburg, by the Prince Boyal, 
initiated an almost uninterrupted series of German victories. 
McMahcm was 9igsAn completely defeated at Worth, August 
6th, where he was wounded. On the same day, the army 

VI. o 

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under Prince iPrederick Charles carried the heights of Spich<> 
eren. Both French wings being now compromised, they re. 
tired into Frendi territory in the direction of the Moselle.^ 

By the middle of August the Germans had got into Lorraine. 
Lun^rille, Nancy, and other towns surrendered to small de- 
tachments of carahy . The command of the French army was 
disorganized, Napoleon, still nominal chief, seemed paralyzed* 
LebcBuf retiied and was succeeded by Baaaine, who made Metz 
his centre of operations. HcMahon, who had retreated to 
Ch41ons, and Trochu, who had also a corps at that place, were 
to join him there ; but the pLin was frustrated by a manoeuTre 
of Yon Moltke. Napoleon and his son had retired first to 
Verdun, and then to Chalons ; whence, being coldly received 
by the troops there, he went to Courcelles, near Bemis. In a 
military view he was now become a cipher. At Paris de- 
mands had been made for his abdication, and he was probably 
afraid to go there; though it might hare been bett^ for his 
Battles of The Battle ot Orayblotts, August 18th, the bloodiest of 
Sod sediuD, the war, may be said to haye decided the campaign. The 
1870. * Prussians gained the victory chiefly by their artillery, Von 
Moltke having united eighty-four guns in one battery. But 
there was a loss of about 20,000 men on each side. Bazaine 
now thiew himself into Mets, where he was blockaded by the 
army of Prince Frederick Charles. Yon Moltke directed the 
army of the Crown Prince, with the Saxons, to march upon 
Paris. McMahon, who was at Beims with 100,000 men, should 
now have marched to I^iris, united all the French forces be- 
fore it, and given battle there ; but the Emperor directed him 
against his better judgment, to relieve Metz, and accompanied 
his march. Being overtaken by the enemy's advanced guard, 
several combats ensued, and especially one at Beaumont, near 
Sedan, August 80th, in which the French were defeated, and 
their passage through the Ardennes cut off. Next day they 
were surrounded in a sort of amphitheatre, the heights of 
which were occupied by the Clerman artillery. The German 

^ For a full aecountof it wei The Fmneo-Gemum War^ 1870-1871. 
Translated from the German o£Bicial aocount by Gapt. F. C. Clarke, 
R. A. With plans. London, 1874. See also TaJbleau Ristoriaue de 
la Ouerre Franco-Allemande, Berlin. 1871 ; Sorel, HisUnre Diplo- 
matique de la Gtterre Franco*Allemande. Meding, De Sadawa A 

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army numbered about 200,000 men ; McMahon's, diminisbed 
by the previous figbts, counted only about 112,000. On tbe 
first of September was fougbt tbe Battle of Sedan. Tbe 
Frencb made a brave resistance ; but a wound, wbich obliged 
McMabon to resign tbe command, was fatal to tbeir chances. 
Tbe German batteries closed in upon tbem, while their own 
bad been demolished. Whole regiments of French were 
made prisoners, or fled in confusion into Sedan; among 
these last was the Emperor, who bad been present at the 
battle. In the evening the Germans began to bombard the 
town. In a Council of War, all the French generals declared 
that resistance was useless. Napoleon wrote to the King of 
Prussia, surrendering himself a prisoner ; and on September 
2nd the town capitulated. The French soldiers were dis- 
armed and made prisoners, the officers dismissed on parole. 
Napoleon, after an interview with William I., was escorted to 
the palace of Wilhelmsbohe, near Cassel, assigned to him as 
a residence. 

The news of this disaster occasioned great uproar at Paris. FaU of the 
The Empress fled to England, and, on the 4th of September, ^''^o!"' 
the deputies, coerced by the National Guard and a mob, de- 
creed the fall of the imperial dynasty, and the establishment 
of a Republic. Gambetta, a young advocate, who had signal- 
ized himseK by a violent attack on the Emperor, now took the 
lead, and became Minister of tbe Interior, with Jules Favre as 
Foreign Minister. Tbe deputies of Paris constituted them- 
selves a Provisional Government ; and General Trochu, made 
governor of Paris by the Empress Regent, turned with fortune, 
and retained his post under the RepubUc. Thiers, who had 
no post in the Government, undertook a bootless mission to 
London, St Petersburg, Vienna, and Florence, to solicit help. 

After the fall of Se&n, Prince Frederick Charles blockaded Pftris 
Bazaine in Metz, while the rest of the German army resumed ^^^b^^* 
the march to Paris. That capital was invested September 19th, 
and, on October 5th, King William established his head-quar* 
ters at Versailles. Part of the French Government retii«d to 
Tours, whither also Gkimbetta proceeded, after escaping from 
Paris in a balloon. He organized the defence of France with 
indomitable energy and resolution, though, after the fall of 
Metz, the case was clearly hopeless. Marshal Bazaine was 
compelled to surrender that plaoe through want of provisions, 
October 27th, when 145,000 efficient soldiers, besides 30,000 

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men in hospital, became prisoners of war. There were now 
prisoners in Germany, after a war of three months, besides 
the Emperor, four French marshals, 140 general officers, 
10,000 officers of lower rank, and 340,000 solders. Marshals 
Lebceof , Canrobert, and Changamier were in Metz. 

The Germans had also been successful in other quarters. 
Strassburg had surrendered, September 28th, after a damaging 
bombardment. Dijon was several times won and lost. Gkkm- 
betta, by extraordinary efforts, had oi^;anized what was called 
the ** Axmj of the Loire," of some 150,000 men, under the 
command of Aurelle de Paladine. But tlds general was at last 
completely defeated at Beaune la Bolande, November 28th. 
The Tours Qoyemment accepted the services of Gkiiribaldi, who 
seems to have been actuated by the spirit of adventure rather 
than by any liking for the French. He collected a band of 
followers of all nations at Besan^on, but efEected little or 
DiBtraMiii Meanwhile the state of Paris was growing daily worse. To 
^'*' the miseries of the siege was added domestic sedition. The 

Oomnmne, headed by Flourens, seized Trochu, Favre, and 
Arago, the leading members of the Qovemment, but they 
were rescued by the National Guard. Among several fruitless 
sallies, one of the most important was that of November 30th, 
led by General Ducrot, when the French, issuing out in two 
columns, each of 30,0()0 men, overthrew the Wurtembergers 
and Saxons, and got possession of several villages on the 
Mame ; but the attack was not properly supported, and, on 
the 2nd of December, the French were driven back. Want 
was now growing into actual famine. By the end of October, 
butchers' meat had entirely failed, and resort was then had to 
the flesh of horses and asses. At the beginning of 1871 the 
famine was become almost unendurable. Sm^ portions of 
horseflesh, and of bread made of bran, were distributed. Many 
oi the poorer sort died of cold and hunger. The bombiurd- 
ment, though not causing much damage, kept the citizens in 
continual fear. Yet the Parisians, accustomed to all the lux- 
uries of life, bore their privations and dangers with wonderful 
fortitude. There was no talk of surrender. Men of the higher 
classes served on the ramparts as common soldiers, and en- 
couraged the rest by their example. 

A last sally with 100,000 men, in the direction of Versailles, 
made on the 19th of January, seemed at first to promise 

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success, but was ultimately repulsed with great loss. Troohu 
now resigned his govemoriship. At this time all the places in 
the east of France, except Belf ort, had capitulated ; in the 
west the Germans had penetrated to Bouen. The French 
GoTemment had retired to Bordeaux ; yet Gambetta persisted 
in a hopeless defence. The civilians, for want of militaiy 
knowledge, were more obstinate than the generals, and thus 
brought on their country many needless calamities. In the 
north, General Faidherbe, with an army of 120,000 men, first 
collected by General Bourbaki, was defeated by ManteufEel at 
Amiens, and again irretrievably by General von Goben at 
Beauvoir, January 18th. The Germans had taken Le Mans 
on the 12th, in spite of the able resistance of Chanzy, one of 
the most capable of the French Commanders,^ and the army 
of the Loire was no longer capable of resistance. 

Jules Favre went to Versailles, January 23rd, to negotiate a Pans 
capitulation, but rejected Bismarck's terms as too hard. The capitulates, 
bombardment was now redoubled, and as provisions sufficed 
not for a week, it was necessary to come to terms. Prelimi- 
. naries were arranged, January 26th, on the f ollowic^ principal 
conditions : — an armistice till February 19th ; the garrison of 
Paris, except 12,000 men to keep order, to be prisoners of war ; 
the Gkrman troops to occupy all the forts ; the blockade of 
Paris to continue, but the city to be revictualled when arms 
had been delivered up ; Paris to pay 200 million francs within 
a fortnight ; a constituent Assembly to meet at Bordeaux to 
settle terms of peace ; meanwhile tiie respective armies to re- 
main in statu qtto. The armistice applied also to the fleets, 
but at sea nothing worth relating had been done.^ 

Gambetta, despite the capitiiLation, proclaimed resistance Frankfurt 
to the last ; but Jules Favre was despatched to Bordeaux to *"**y» i®^^* 
put an end to his Dictatorship. The French army of the 
East of 80,000 men, being completely cut off and in miser- 
Able plight, took refuge in Switzerhmd at the beginning of 
•February, and delivered up their arms to the Swiss militia. 
The capitulation of Belfort on the 16th was the last act of 
the war. It had helroically endured a siege since November 
3rd, and the garrison was allowed to march out with military 
honours. A National Assembly at Bordeaux elected Thiers, 

* Villef ranche, Mistoire du GitUrctl Chanzy, 

* See Dacrot, La defense de Paris ; D'Heylli, Journal du Siige de 

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Russia re- 
the Treaty 


wlio had been returned by twenty electoral circles, President 
of the Bepablic. He and Jnles Favre, Foreign Minister, 
negotiated at Versailles the preliminaries of a definitive peace, 
which were signed February 26th. France was to cede Alsace 
(except Belfort), German Lorraine with Metz, Thionyille, and 
Longwy ; to pay an indemnity of 5,000 milHon francs (200 
millions sterling) ; the (^krman troops to remain in France 
till it was paid ; portions of Paris to be occupied by the Ger- 
mans till the National Assembly should ratify the prelimin- 
aries. Agreeably to this last condition, 40,000 German troops 
marched through the Barriire de TEtoile, March 1st, and 
bivouacked in the Champs Elys^s, but retired on the 3rd, 
the preliminaries having been accepted. The definitive Trbatt 
OF Fbanefubt was signed May 10. 

Thus was terminated, in less than half a year, one of the 
greatest wars on record. It annihilated for a time the mili- 
tary power of France and her influence in the affairs of 
Europe. Russia eagerly seized on the occasion. Towards 
the end of October Prince Gorfcchakov haughtily repudiated 
that clause in the Treaty of 1856 which prohibited Russia 
from having any fleets or arsenals in the Black Sea. Lord 
Granville protested, and Odo Bussell was sent to Versailles 
to inquire if Bussia acted with the approval of Prussia. Here- 
upon Bismarck proposed a Conference, which was held in 
lK>ndon early in 1871 ; but England stood alone, and suffered 
a somewhat ignominious defeat. 

The success of the German arms under the conduct of 
Prussia raised throughout Ckrmany an enthusiasm for that 
country, and a desire to revive a Gterman Empire by placing 
King William at its head. The King of Bavaria intimated 
early in December that he had obtained the consent of the 
other German Sovereigns and free towns to his proposal that 
the King of Prussia should take the title of German Em- 
peror. The Diet of the North German Confederation sanc- 
tioned this title, as well as a federal union with Baden, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Wurtemberg, and Bavaria. The new Empire was 
solemnly proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, 
January 18th, 1871 ; on which occasion Baron Moltke was 
made a Count, and Count Bismarck a Prince. It was no re- 
vival of the Holy Roman Empire, which, as Voltaire remarks, 
was neither holy nor Boman ; nor was the title of " Bang of 
the Germans " to be revived, which would have clashed with 

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the rights of the minor German kings. The new Empire was 
indeed little more than an adhesion of the States of Southern 
Germany to the Northern Confederation as a nucleus. 

Thus, in the period of little more than a decade, one large Geiman 
Empire rose upon the ruins of another, whilst the equilibrium ^ty!*^^ 
of the European system was materially altered by the estab- 
lishment of two powerful States in its very centre — ^the Italian 
Kingdom and the German Empire. If we compare the work 
of Cavour and Bismarck in founding these two States, Cavour's 
must be pronounced the more complete ; for Italian unity is 
perfect under one Sovereign, whilst that of Germany oonsists 
only in a confederation of yarious States bound together by 
treaties which may not always bear a stress without breaking. 
It must, however, be acknowledged that Bismarck's task was 
the more difficult one ; for Cavour was helped by the revo* 
iutaonaiy spirit of the populations annexed, through hatred 
of their governments, whilst no such symptoms showed th^Doi- 
selves in Germany, or, at all events, more rarely, and in a 
milder form. If we compare the characters of the two great 
statesmen we discover in both the same far-sighted views, 
equal skill in the choice of means and instruments, the same 
unwavering fortitude and perseverance, the like daring com- 
bined with prudence. 

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after the 

after 1871. 




THE Franoo-Pmsfld&n war was followed by six years of 
peace.^ The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed and ratified 
in May, 1871: it was not till April, 1877, that the Busso- 
Tarkish war began. But none the less did the war of 1870 
constitute an epoch in European History. Congresses no 
longer dictated terms to the combatants, and Holy Alliances 
were out of date. The growth of the rivalry of peoples, and 
of the feeling of nationality, had been forcibly illustrated by 
the Qerman seizure of Alsace and Lorraine, and by the Italian 
occupation of Bome. It remained to be still further exem- 
plified by the continued risings of the peoples of Bosnia, 
Herz^ovina and Servia against the Turks. 
J^<»^ For the moment, however, the characteristic of European 

u^hj^ ifi<n ;g^g^|y '^a.g j}^i Qf calm, taking advantage of which France 
set to work to pay off her debt to Germany, and to carry out 
necessary reforms. Barely has the vitality of France been 
more conspicuously illustrated than during the years imme- 
diately succeeding the Franco-Prussian war.^ The instal- 
ments of her debt to Germany were paid with ease, her soil 
was liberated from the foreigner, and she recovered from the 
wounds inflicted by the war no less than by the Communists 
in Paris, Lyons, St. Etienne, Limoges and Marseilles. In 

^ For the period covered by this chapter the following will be found 
usefnl : Seignobos, Histoire politique de V Europe Contemporaine (1814- 
1896) ; Fyffe, History of Modem Europe ; Le Faure, HisUnre de la guerre 
d'Orient ; Leroy-B€».ulieu, La France, la Bussie, et V Europe ; fiuach, 
Ovr Ckaneellor ; Klaczko, The Two Chancellors ; Gambetta, Diseours ; 
ffippeau, Histoire Diplomatique de la Troisidme Bepublique ; Forbes, 
Wtuiam of Germany ; Holland, The European Concert on the Eastern 
Question ; Bodley, France. 

* See Chandordy, La France et la suite de la guerre de 187(^71. 

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May, 1871, the QoYemment of Versailles wa49i obliged to 
capture Paris, and to overthrow the dominatioii of such men 
as Cluseret, Belescluze, and Paschal Grousset. BAving suc- 
cessfully crushed the revolutionists in Paris and other working 
centres, the National Assembly was able to turn its attention 
to the work of reorganization. A law passed on September 3, 
1871, declared that the Assembly was possessed of consti- 
tutional powers, and that the President of the Eepublic was 
responsible to it. Till May, 1873, Thiers remained at the The admin- 
head of affairs, carrying out rapidly and effectively the re- ^^^?'' ^' 
quired reforms.^ Before the end of 1872 the finances had 
been reconstituted, order had been restored, and, by a law 
passed on July 27, 1872, the task of improving the army had 
been taken in hand. All classes agreed in the necessity of 
military reorganization, which was completed by the law of 
March, 1875. During these years Thiers and the Assembly 
had by no means worked together harmoniously. Though 
tinited on the question of the necessity of paying the German 
indemnity as soon as possible, and of freeing France from its 
occupation by foreign troops, the President and the Assembly 
diff^ed with regard to the future Government of France. A 
large majority of the Assembly were reactionary and mon- 
ar<Mst, and opposed to the final establishment of a Bepublic. 
Though Thiers himself sympathised with constitutional mon- 
archy, he was convinced that a Boyalist restoration would 
lead to civil war, and that it would be possible to found a 
Conservative Bepublic. In his struggle against the reaction- 
aries, Thiers was aided by the fa^st that they were divided 
into three parties, (1) Legitimists, (2) Bonapartists, (3) 
Orleanists, while the greater number of the bye>elections 
showed that the country favoured Bepublican views. On 
November 13, 1872, Thiers, having arranged for the early 
payment of the indemnity, and having established a nationid 
army, sent to the Assembly a famous messa^, in which he 
declared that the Bepublic existed, as the legal Government 
of the country, that every Government should be Conserva- 
tive, and that no society could live under a Government of 
another kind. In spite of his services Thiers was bitterly The&Uof 
attacked by the Monarchists. Napoleon HE. died at Chisel- '"»*•». isrs. 

^ See Jules Simon, Le Gouvetnement de M, Thiers; Doniol, M, 
Thiers (1871-1873). 

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de Cham- 




hurst on January 9, 1878, and the supporters o£ his son. Prince 
Napoleon, were encouraged. A coalition of the three monarch- 
ical groups ably conducted the campaign against the President, 
idio was also attacked by the extreme Left under Ghtmbetta. 
The persecution of Ultramontanism in Germany made it 
popular in France, and on April 4, 1873, Buffet, a Monarchist 
and Clericalist, succeeded Grery as President of the Chamber. 

On May 24 Thiers was driven from office, and was suc- 
ceeded by Marshal MacMahon, who formed a ministry under 
the Due de Broglie. The GoTemment was essentially Bona- 
partist and Clerical, public offices were bestowed on supporters 
of the late dynasty, the Soman Catholic agitation was en- 
couraged, and several hostile journals were suppressed. 

Before, however, attempting to solve the constitutional pro- 
blem, an attempt was made to reorganize the monarchical 
parly by bringing about a fusion between the elder and 
younger branch of the Bourbons. The Comte de Chambord, 
the heir to Charles X., and the Comte de Paris, grandson of 
Louis Philippe, were respectively the legitimist and Qrleanist 
candidates. As the former had no children, it was settled 
that the Comte de Chambord should come first to the throne. 
Already on June 8, 1871, the Assembly had annulled the Act 
of 1832 and 1848, excluding the members of the Bourbon and 
Orleanist families from the throne. The way was thus cleared, 
the Government of MacMahon was practically pledged to a 
Bourbonist restoration, and a coup d^etat would probably have 
been carried out had the Comte de Chambord been amenable. 
But his refusal to adopt the tricolour flag rendered hopeless 
the Boyalist cause. 

Like the English Stuart Kings the Comte de Chambord 
believed in the Bight Divine, and resented all attempts to 
extract from him constitutional guarantees.^ These negotia- 
tions came to an end in October, and in November the Pro- 
visional Government, which on the day after the close of the war 
had been proclaimed at Bordeaux, came to an end. The Act 
of November 19, 1873, instituted the Septevmat, by which was 
assured to the President a period of office extending over seven 
years. During 1874 the attacks made by the French Catholic 
press on Germany led to rumours of a rupture between the 
two countries. The Kulturkampf laws, directed against the 
Prussian Catholics* were the cause of this outburst, axid the 

^ See Chesnelong, La Comipagne Monarchique cFOctohre, 1873. 

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Frencli ministry in order to avoid foreign complications was 
constrained to check the outspoken criticisms of the journals.^ 
Most of the jear, however, was occupied in discussions on 
the kind of government which should succeed the SeptenncU, 
The Broglie ministry fell in May, 1874, before a coalition of 
Bepublicans and Legitimists, the latter of whom had been 
alienated by the S^temuxt, General de Oissey became The cissey 
Premier, and und«* his leadership the Assembly, though un- ^'^^'^'y- 
able to restore the Monarchy, refused to agree to any proposals 
for a Constitution. A change, however, came over the views 
of the Monarchists, owing to the growth of a Bonapartist 
agitation in the interest of the young Prince Imperial. In 
Paris a central Committee of Propaganda was formed, a 
pWnseUe was demanded, and some electoral successes were 
obtained. The love of liberty and hatred of the Empire now 
proved stronger to many Monarchists than the desire for a 
Bourbon Bestoration. The right centre therefore, alarmed at 
the revival of the Napoleonic idea, changed its tactics, and at 
the end of 1874 was found zealously demanding a Constitu- 
tion. On February 25, 1876, was formally established the 
EepubHc. Two Acts passed on February 24 and February Constttu- 
25, together with one passed on July 16, form the Constitution 1^5.^ 
of 18/5, which though twice revised still exists. A Senate 
and a Chamber of Deputies, both elective, were given to France, 
and these bodies had the power of electing a new President 
at the end of his seven years' period of office, and of carrying 
out such changes as both Chambers had agreed upon. The 
President was appointed for a term of seven years and was 
re>»eligible. He could appoint and dismiss ministers, and with 
the consent of the Senate cotdd dissolve the Chamber. The 
Senate was elected for nine years, but one third of its members 
were to be renewed every three years, "by the vote of an 
electoral body in the chief town of each department, composed 
of Deputies, of members of the CounciUQeneral, and District 
CoTmcQs (Conseils d'Arrondissement) and Delegates from the 
Municipal Councils."^ The Deputies at the Assembly were 
elected by universal suffrage, and for four years, and both they 
and the Senators were paid 9,000 francs a year. The Parlia- 
mentary Bepublic thus set up has lasted till the present day. 

^ Hahn, Ge8ehi(^te des Kvltwrkamffes m Premssen, 
^ Lebon, Modem France, p. 360. 

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The Buffet 




d'etat, 1877. 

It did not, like the Constitution of 1791, represent abstract 
principles, for it sprang reluctantly from a National Assembly 
which rarely represented the views of the majority of French- 
men. It had found itself compelled to accept a Bepublic, 
while it distrusted the democracy. It professed to be an 
upholder of republican views, but its lioeralism was inter- 
mittent and more apparent than real Nevertheless in giving 
France a Constitution suitable to the exigencies of the moment 
the Assembly, which desired the restoration of the Monarchy, 
had deserved well of the nation. In spite, however, of its 
services after the war, and its success in founding a Bepublic, 
the National Assembly became more and more unpopular. 

On the resignation of the Cissey Cabinet, Buffet, a former 
Orleanist, on March 10, 1875, formed a Ministry composed 
mainly of those who had voted against the Acts by which the 
Constitution of February was established. The Acts of this 
ministry only increased the general distrust. In July, 1875, 
a higher Education Act was brought forward which gave 
special privileges to the Catholic Church, and in December a 
law on the Press still preserved a state for siege in Paris, 
Lyons, and Marseilles. An Assembly which unduly favoured 
the Church, and feared the people, was not likely to win the 
confidence of the country, and its dissolution on December 
31, 1875, was hailed with joy. 

The elections of 1876 gave a victory to the left, though the 
division of parties was such that for a long time a stable form 
of Government was impossible. The new Chamber consisted of 
368 Bepublicans of all shades of opinion, ninety Bonapartists, 
and eighty Boyalists. On the meeting of the Chamber, Buffet 
was succeeded by Duf aure, whose ministry included Wadding- 
ton, L^n Say, and Bicard. The republican sympathies of the 
new ministry made it specially obnoxious to the Senate, and 
out of harmony with the clerical and monarchical views of 
MacMahon. The whole of 1876 was spent in party quarrels, 
which continued after Jules Simon had succeeded Dvif aure as 
Premier in December. At last in May, 1877, ihe President 
carried out a coup d^itai, and replaced the Simon ministry by 
one under the Due de Broglie, who undertook to "make 
France step out," and to restore things to their position 
before the fall of Thiers. The new elections in October, 
however, brought to a clear issue the rival claims for a 
Democratic Bepublic and a clerical Monarchy. The results 

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gave no encouragement to the President and liis supporters, 
and a large Bepublican majoritj was returned. On the resig* 
nation of de Broglie in November, an anxious period was 
followed by the formation of a Ministry on December 14 by 
Dufaure. But the President and the Senate had lost all hold 
upon the country. The numerous press trials, and the pressure 
brought to bear upon the electors, had discredited the Admin« 
istration, and the Monarchists were regarded with distrust 
and resentment. The influence of- Gambetta was paramount, 
and in 1878 he made a triumphal tour denouncing the clericals 
as dangerous to the Bepublic. Till 1879 matters remained in 
this imeasy condition. The death, of Thiers in September, 
1877, removed the obvious republican leader, and MacMahon 
hoped that witih the approach of the Exhibition of 1878^ the 
circumstances attending the crisis of 1876 would be forgotten. 
In this hope he was destined to be disappointed. Though the 
great Exhibition in Paris was a brilUant success, the truce Resignation 
between parties was only temporary. The confidence of the ho^Msro*^ 
country in the Bepublic and in Gambetta was increasing, and 
when the elections to the Senate resulted in a Bepublican 
majority MacMahon hastened, at the beginning of 1879, to 
resign. He was succeeded by Jules Q-r^vy. Waddington influence of 
became Prime Minister, and Gambetta was elected Speaker ®*™^*^- 
or President of the Chamber. The Waddington Ministry, 
which included Freycinet with others belonging to the Left, 
addressed itself specially to four questions, amnesty, the 
prosecution of the Broglie Ministry of 1877, the removal of 
the Chambers from Versailles to Paris, and the secularization 
of education. In spite of much opposition a Bill granting 
amnesty for those who had not been condemned for offences 
against the common law was passed. A resolution was carried 
declaring that the Broglie ministry had betrayed the Bepublic ; 
it was decided in June that the Chambers should meet in 
Paris, and lastly a war against religion was entered upon. To 4^^^!|L 
reduce the power of the Jesuits over education, Jules Perry * *" 
brought in a Bill which was opposed by Jules Simon, but was 
carried in the Lower Chamber in June, 1879. At the close of 
the year Freycinet, one of Gkmbetta's chief supporters, suc- 
ceeded Waddington, and the laws against the Jesuits were 
carried out* The year 1880 proved an exciting one for France. 
The return of such communists as Blanqui and Bochef ort to 
political life testified to the strength of Badical feeling in 

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France and 

The League 
of tiie three 




France, while Oambetta wm regarded as the Emperor of the 
BepubUc. On August 9, 1880, he declared thai France must 
reclaim her lost provinces on the first favourable occasion* 
Though Jules Feny might succeed Freycinet in September, it 
was evident that for the moment Gambetta spoke for France, 
andwas the real dictatorof French policy. At length in October, 
1881, he became the head of a new ministry, and himself 
took charge of the department of foreign affairs. His attain- 
ment of the position of Premier was to a great extent due to 
his energy during the Franco^Prussian war, and to his open 
determination to regain for France Alsace and Lorraine, and to 
his firm Republican views. The death of the Prince Imperial, 
the young Loxiis Napoleon, in the Zulu war in South Africa, on 
June 1, 1881, had strengthened the Bepublic, and France under 
Gambetta seemed likely to regain her position in Europe. 

But the adventurous policy pursued in Tonquin, where 
France was attempting to found a vast colonial settlement, 
and her entanglements in Tunis, which she occupied in 1881, 
rendered her unable single-handed to enter upon a war with 
Germany. The growth of rebellion in Bussia, the alienation 
of England, Italy and Turkey over the Tunisian expedition, 
and ine skilful policy of Bismarck, all contributed to keep 
France more or less isolated in Europe till the fall of the Ger- 
man Chancellor and the formation of the alliance with Bussia. 

During these years France, though in some danger of a 
renewal of war with Ghormany in 1875, had managed to Hve 
at peace with her neighbours. Her raj»d recovery from the 
wounds inflicted in the late war, followed by the thorough re- 
organization of the army, had surprised Bismarck and alarmed 
many Prussians who fovoured an early resumption of hostili- 
ties. But for such a groundless war Europe was not prepared, 
and Bismarck wisely contented himself with str^igtbening 
the alliances of G^many, and consolidating her power. 
Already the German Emperor had made advances to the 
Court of St. Petersburg, while ihe fall, in 1871, of Count Beust, 
the Austrian Minister who advocated a cocJition against 
Prussia, implied the acceptance by the Emperor Francis Joseph 
of the friendship of the powerful German Empire. Beust 
was succeeded by Count Andrassy, an Hungarian Minister, 
who favoured the abandonment by Austria of the policy of 
interfering in German affairs.^ 

^ Beust, MhSunr€K 

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In the summer of 1872, the three Emperors met at Berlin, The objects 
and the Dreikaiserbund was formed. Its specified objects li^e. 
were to maintain the gtcUus quo in Europe, to cheek the prepress 
of revolutionarj, socialist, and uihilist movements, and to act 
in unison with r^ard to the Eastern question. King Humbert 
of Italy shortly afterwards paid a visit to Berlin, and as Eng- 
land held aloof from Continental Politics, the French Govern- 
ment oould find no allies. Bismarck's pdicy had succeeded, 
and France was isolated in Europe. Like Mettemich, Bis- 
marck stood forth as the Dictator of Europe. His triumphant 
position was due to the clearness with which he realized what 
were the true interests of Germany, and to the determination 
which enabled him to secure the objects of his policy. 

For four years the so-called league of the thi^ Emperors The Eastern 
continued in existence, and Germany remained safe from all ^«^<»^- 
danger of an attack on the part of France.^ This harmony of 
the Great European Monarchies was, however, destined to be 
interrupted by the revival of complications in the East of 
Europe, followed by the outbreak of war waged by Bussia 
against Turkey on behalf of the Christian peoples in the 
lEklkan Peninsula. In July, 1875, Herzegovina revolted 
against the Turks, and received support from Servia and 
Montenegro. Conflicts also simultaneously broke out in 
Bosnia between the Christians and Mohammedans, and 
thousands of refugees fled for safety to the Austrian frontier. 
Against the Turkish army of some 30,000, the Herzegovnian 
force of from 12,000 to 14,000 could not hold the field, but by 
means of a guerella warfare they harassed the Turks and pro- 
longed their resistance into the winter of 1875-1876. Such a 
state of things seriously embarrassed Austria, where Slav and 
Magyar were always ready to seize an opportunity of falling 
upon one another. Any danger to the maintenance of the The 
vtatuB quo in the countries immediately bordering upon Aus- ^teTSwi. 
tria was always a serious matter for the Government of Vienna. ^^* ^^ 
Count Andrassy therefore drew up, on behalf of the three 
Empires, a scheme of reforms, to be enforced upon Turkey for 
the benefit of the Insurgent iprovinces, and the " note " re- 
ceived the approval of England and France. In it five points 
were specially insisted upon : — ^the abolition of the fiEtrming of 

^ See H&hn, Fiirst BUmarek; Bosch, Our Ckancelior; Kahl, FiirH 

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Failure of 
ancT Austria 
to pacify 

Murder of 
the Ck>]i8ulB 
at Salonika 
May 6th, 

dum, May 
18th, 1876. 

the taxes* the establishment of religious liberty, the i4>plica- 
tion of the direct revenue of Bosnia and Herzegoyina for the 
benefit of those provinoes, the establishment of a Commission 
composed equally of Moslems and Christians to control the 
execution of the reforms, the amelioration of the industrial 
condition ^of the country population. The Porte accepted these 
propositions, published Imperial trades on February 13th and 
23rd, and thus for the moment escaped from the interference 
of the Great Powers. The Andrassy note ultimately failed 
in its object because it contained no provisions for the execu- 
tion of tibe proposed reforms under the supervision of the three 
Emperors. For years the Sultan had made promises, and it 
was impossible for the insurg^ats to believe that the Porte 
would, except under compulsion, carry out any of the assur- 
ances made in the two trades. They therefore refused to lay 
down their arms, and the Andrassy Note was destined to be- 
come mere waste paper. Through the spring of 1876, Eng- 
land and Austria endeavoured to bring about the pacification 
of the revolts, so as to avoid aU interference. Fresh insurrec- 
tions, however, broke out in the disaffected provinces in March 
and April, and the situation became more and more critical. 
Russia became uneasy at the failure of England and Austria, 
and Qortchakov, the Bussian Chancellor, arranged to meet 
Bismarck and Andrassy early in May, to discuss the position 
of affairs. 

In the meantime an event occurred at Salonika which in- 
creased the activity of the reform party and involved Turkey 
in complications with Germany and France. On the 6th of 
May, a Tui*kish mob murdered the Prussian and French Con- 
suls, while in Constantinople, and other places, there were 
threatening movements against the Europeans. 0^ May 18th, 
the representatives of Germany, Austria, and Bussia, who were 
in conference at Berlin, embodied their views in a Memoran- 
dum declaring that the reforms promised by the Porte were 
to be carried out, that an armistice of two months would be 
imposed on the combatants, and that a mixed Commission 
should at once begin its sittings. France and Italy accepted 
this Memorandum but England, fearful of extensive territorial 
changes, refused its adhesion and sent twelve ironclads to 
Besika Bay. This action, supported as it was by the presence 
of ships of war belonging to Ghermany, Italy, Bussia, Austria, 
and Greece, compelled the Porte to punish the authors of the 

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murder of the Oonsuls. It was found more difficult to satisfy 
the German demand of 300,000 francs for the widow of the 
murdered Consul. Turkish finance was in a chaotic condition, 
officials had received no pay for months, and all the time the 
most wasteful extravagance went on unchecked. In Constan- 
tinople the opposition to the G-ovemment rapidly increased, 
and on May 29th, the Sultan Abdul Aziz was deposed by Deposition 
Midhat Pasha and Hussein Avni, and a few days later was ^|^iy 
murdered. Murad Y. was raised to the throne, but the real 29th,' i876. 
power remained in the hands of Midhat Pasha, for Hussein 
Avni was murdered on June I5th. Midhat favoured the in- 
troduction of European methods, and opposed the growth of 
Bussian influence. The Bevolution was a practical victory of 
English over Russian diplomacy, and Sir Henry Elliot replaced 
Count Ignatiev as the confidential adviser of the Porte. But 
before Abdul Aziz had been deposed an insurrection in Bul- 
garia had been suppressed by a number of Bashi-Bazouks, 
commanded by Abdul Besim, the commander of the army in 
Boumelia and Bulgaria. It was said that notless than twelve 
thousand had been massacred, and at Batak the atrocities 
committed were of the most revolting character. The news 
of the Bulgarian massacres roused all Europe, and enormously 
strengthened the hands of the opponents of Turkey. 

To England the news of the massacres awoke people to the PoUcy of 
real nature of Turkish rule in the East. The tradition of England, 
fri^idship with the Sultan inherited from the Crimean War 
still existed in England. In November, 1875, England, by 
the purchase of shares, had obtained control over the Suez 
Canal, thus intimating her intention of securing her position 
in the Mediterranean. To force Turkey to carry out reforms, 
and to pacify the revolted provinces, had been the object of 
EngHsh policy, and on June 9, Disraeli, in the House of 
Commons, expressed himseK full of confidence with reference 
to the new era which Midhat Pasha had inaugurated in 
Turkey. But on June 26 the nation learnt the truth about 
the Bulgarian atrocities, and at once declared itseK strongly 
opposed to the continuance of Turkish rule over the Slavic 
and Christian races. The ministry, however, with Disraeli at 
its head, showed no realization of the strength of public 
opinion, or of the magnitude of the outrages in Bulgaria; 
and it was not till September that Elliot was instructed to 
demand from the Tur^sh G-ovemment measures of reparation 

VI. p 

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of War by 

Treaty of 
July 8, 1870. 

Defeat of 


tioe en- 
forced by 


and punishment, together with the appointment of an efficient 
Commissioner in Bulgaria. 

Meanwhile events having an important bearing on the future 
of Europe were taking place. On June 30, Fnnce Milan of 
Servia.) and on July 2, Prince Nicholas of Montenegro, declared 
war upon Turkey, and on July 8 the Tsar Alexander and the 
Emperor Francis Joseph, with their Chancellors, met at Beich- 
stadt in Bohemia. It seems to have been arranged that no 
armed intervention should take place for the present, and it 
was rumoured that the question of partitioning European 
Turkey had been under consideration. By a Treaty which 
was then signed Bussia agreed to the Austrian occupation of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina in the event of the liberation of 
Bulgaria by Muscovite arms. Thus supported by Germany 
and Austria, Bussia had secured freedom of action in the 
East, if the concert of Europe failed to force the Turks to 
carry out reforms. 

In tiieir war against Turkey the Servians, though led by 
the Bussian General Chemaiev, were defeated, though the 
Montenegrins were victorious both in the north and south 
Without, however, any assistance from Boumania, Greece or 
Bosnia, which was held in check by Turkish troops, it was 
evident that Servia had no chance of holding its own. On 
September 16, an armistice for ten days was concluded at the 
instance of the Great Powers, but on September 28, Cher- 
naiev, who had proclaimed Prince Milan King of Servia, took 
the offensive, but was driven back by a strong Turkish force. 
On October 31 Alezinatz was taken and destroyed by the 
Turks, and the overthrow of the Servians seemed assured. 
Help, however, was obtained from Bussia. On October 30 
Ignatiev, the Bussian Ambassador, presented an ultimatum 
to the Porte demanding the effective protection of the Chris- 
tians in Turkey, and the grant to Servia of an armistice for 
two months. The Sultan was no longer Murad Y., who had 
died and had been succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamed H 
(August 31), who was content to leave the Qovemment in the 
hands of his ministers. They at once accepted the Bussian 
ultimatum, and on October 31, a two months' truce with 
Servia was signed. In order to dispel the anxiety felt by the 
British Government at the attitude of Bussia, the Tsar Alex- 
ander explained his views on November 2 to Lord A. Loftus, 
the British Ambassador. He disclaimed all desire for terri- 

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toriaJ aggrandisement. He expressed an earnest wish for a 
complete accord between Great Britain and Bussia, but stated 
clearly that if the Forte refused to carry out the required 
reforms he would act alone. He assured Lord A. Loftus 
that he had no intention of occupying Constantinople, but 
that he was determined to improve the condition of the 
Christian population in Turkey. He ended by requesting 
that his assurances might be published in England. Lord Lord Derby 
Derby, the English Foreign Secretary, at once replied on SeSc^ 
November 8, proposing that a Conference of all the leading field. 
European Fo's^ers should be held at Constantinople on the 
basis of the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Lord Beacons* 
field, however, represented a more bellicose section of the 
Cabinet, and at the Lord Mayor's banquet on November 9, 
he declared that " if England enters into conflict in a righteous 
cause, her resources are inexhaustible." On the followiii^ day 
Alexander replied in a speech at Moscow, in which he repeated 
that if he could not obtain the consent of Europe he would 
act independently. Warlike preparations were, too, hurried 
on. Six army corps were formed, a Crimean army was organ- 
ized, and large reinforcements were ordered for the Caucasus. 
Military preparations were also made in Turkey, and on 
November 18 the English Cabinet declared that if Bussia 
occupied Bulgaria, England would occupy Qallipoli and 
Constantinople. While matters were in this critical con- TheCk>nfer. 
dition, the representatives of the Six Great Fowers assembled l^^^ei 
in Constantinople. Li a preliminary conference, lasting from November,* 
December 12 to December 21, the Fowers formulated their 
demands, the object of which was to preserve the Sovereignty 
and int^rity of the Ottoman Empire while securing the 
Christian population from Turkish violence. On December 
23 the formal Conference was opened under the presidency of 
the Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs, Savf et Fasha, who 
announced that the roar of cannon which interrupted the 
proceedings inaugurated the birth of a new era of prosperity 
in the Sultan's dominions. 

Pressed on all sides the Turks had determined to checkmate 
the G-reat Fowers by producing a liberal Constitution of their 
own. It was drawn up by November 21 , and when on December 
19 Midhat Fasha became Qrand Vizier, the Sultan's signature 
was obtained. On December 23 it was, as we have seen, promul- 
gated, but though full of beneficent provisions, the document 

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was worthlees. The Qreat Powers persisted in their demand 
for a Foreign Commission, and for a European control oyer the 
appointment of Goyemors, bnt on these points Sayfet Pasha 
The failure refased to yield. Finally, on January 18, a Great Council of 
fiSic^"' *^® Turkish Empire, summoned by Midhat, rejected the de- 
January, mands of the Conference. Lord Salisbury, the princi{>al 
^*^ English representatiye, had solemnly warned the Sultan what 

would be the results of his obstinacy, but to no purpose. The 
Conference came to an end, the enyoys left Constantinople, 
and on February 5, 1S77, Midhat Pasha, the one Turk in 
whom Europe had any confidence, was banished, and the 
direction of affairs fell into the hands of Edhem Pasha and 
Mahmoud Damad Pasha, both opponents of Eussia and re- 
The London form. On January 31, 1877, Gortchakoy, the Russian Chan- 
^^Su. <^Uor, despatched a circular to the Great Powers asking what 
they now intended to do. England suggested a yearns pro- 
bation, and on February 28, by her adyice, the Sultan signed 
a Treaty of peace with Senria. Early in March Ignatiey 
yisited Berlin, Paris, Vienna and London, where, with Schou- 
yaloy, the Russian Ambassador, he drew up a document known 
as the London Protocol, which the Six Powers signed on 
March 31. It called upon the Porte to carry out reforms, to 
place its army on a peace footing, and to make peace with 
Montenegro. On April 3 the Protocol was presented to Sayfet 
Pasha and was rejected by the Turkish Goyemment, which 
appealed to the Treaty of Paris, and refused to allow any 
outside interference with Montenegro. All hope of preserving 
peace between Russia and Turkey had now practically disap- 
peared, and on April 13 orders were issued for the mobili- 
zation of the whole Russian army; and the Grand Duke 
BuBsia de- Nicholas, brother of the Tsar, was giyen the command. On 
JSu iJ"* April 24 Russia formally declared war, and an army entered 
Roumania, with which State a Conyention had been made on 
April 16. At the same time a circular note was sent to the 
Powers by the Tsar, acquainting them with the fact that war 
had broken out between Russia and Turkey. The English 
Government, without allies, was forced to accept the ineyitable, 
Enffiand'8 Ai^d to adopt an attitude of neutrality. But Lord Derby, in 
attitude. answer to the Tsar^s circular, announced that the English 
Goyemment wotild obserye a strict neutralily so long as the 
Suez Canal was not interfered with, Constantinople not occu- 
pied, and the Dardanelles and Bosphorus 1^ untouched. 

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It was not till Jane 27 that the Bussian army crossed the 
Danube. During the preyious weeks Turkish gunboats had 
attempted to prevent the passage of the river, but though the 
Turkish fleet in the Black Sea proved of great value, the 
Danube flotilla was speedily destroyed by Bussian batteries, 
or reduced to inaction. The Bussian plan of campaign was 
to move the central part of the army along the river Jantra 
to the Balkans, while the right wing took Nicopolis, and the 
left wing attacked Bustchuk and engaged the Turkish forces 
in the east of Bulgaria. At the same time it was hoped that 
another Bussian army under Loris Melikov would occupy 
Armenia. The Bussians had, however, underrated the strength 
of their adversaries, and Muktar Fa^ia forced his opponents 
in Asia to retreat upon their own frontier. In Bulgaria the Bnsdan 
Bussians were more successful, and while the Grand Duke *'*<'<^*^*^*- 
Nicholas took in charge the reorganization of the civil adminis- 
tration of Bulgaria with his headquarters at Timova, General 
Gourko seized the Shipka Pass, crossed the Balkans, and, on 
July 15, was within two days' march of Adrianople. Simul- 
taneously, the Tsarewitch advanced against Bustchuk and a 
Turkish army, while General Krudener seized Nicopolis on 
July 16. 

These unchecked Bussian successes caused consternation in England 
Constantinople, and considerable anxiety in London. A change ^'^™'^* 
of Turkish ministers and generals was carried out, Mustapha 
Pasha being made Minister of War, and Mehemet Ali Pasha 
commander of the army of the Danube. At the same time, 
in order to safeguard British interests, Admiral Hornby, with 
thirteen ironclads, was sent to Besika Bay, and 3,000 men to 
Malta. But already a change had come over the position of 
affairs owing to the opportune appearance and skUful depo- 
sitions of Mehemet AH, of Osman Pasha, and of Suleiman 
Pasha. While Mehemet Ali occupied the Bussian left wing, 
Osman Pasha, the commander of Widdin, with 40,000 men, 
seized Plevna, an unfortified village standing at the junction 
of the roads between Sofia and Sistova, and Nicopolis and 
Lovatz. In a few days he had fortified it strongly, and was 
in a position to checkmate the Bussian plans. On July 20 The siege of 
General Kmdener attacked Plevna, but was repulsed, and on ^^.'^ 
July 80 a second attack failed and cost the Bussians 8,000 
men. Osman Pasha's forces now amounted to some 50,000 
men, and the intrenchments round Plevna had been made 

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welliiigli impregnable. Fortunately for the Bussians Osman 
did not adopt the offensive, or the Bnssian position in Bul- 
garia would have been in serious danger, for the advance of 
Suleiman Pasha against General Gk>urko had forced the Bus- 
sians to retreat from the country south of the Balkans, and 
to defend the Shipka Pass. Suleiman had been recalled from 
Montenegro, and sailing from Antivari on July 16, he landed 
at Dedeagh, and arrived at the scene of operations on July 31. 
After some preliminary successes Suleiman, neglecting to 
attack the Bussian rear, spent four weeks, from August 19 to 
September 17, in hurling his troops in a series of useless 
attacks against the southern entrance of the pass. Septem- 
ber 23 saw the last desperate attempt on the part of the 
Turks to dislodge the Bussians, after which Suleiman suc- 
ceeded Mehemet Ali as commander of the army of the Danube. 
His operations, like those of his predecessor, showed a want 
of generalship, and lacked energy and decision, due probably 
to the fact that he was bought by the Bussians. Too much 
time was wasted in fortifying positions, when the situation 
required active offensive movements. The result was that 
the Bussian left wing was not broken through, and time was 
given for Bussian reinforcements to arrive. 

Meanwhile the Tsar had obtained fresh troops from Bou- 
mania, and the army before Plevna was placed under the 
Boumanian Prince Charlea On September 11 the third battle 
of Plevna took place under the eyes of the Tsar. In spite of 
conspicuous bravery on the part of the Bussians and Bou- 
manians, and of the heroic efforts of Skobelov, the Turks re- 
mained victorious, the Bussian losses amounting to 12,000. 
Todleben, the defender of Sebastopol, was then called upon 
The fau of to Organize a regular siege of Plevna. For some three months 
^7w, Osman held out. Gradually the whole country, ferom the 
1877. ' Balkans to the Danube, fell into the hands of the Bussians, 
and it became impossible for supplies to enter the belea^ered 
village. In the second week of December, his food being ex- 
hausted, Osman made a desperate effort to break out, and 
having failed, he surrendered on December 10. The results 
of the Bussian success were at once seen. Three corps ad- 
vanced across the Balkans, Shipka was taken, and in the last 
encounter of the war on January 17, 1878, Gourko routed the 
army of Suleiman Pasha. Three days later the Bussians 
entered Adrianople, and detachments reached Bodosto on the 

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Sea of Marmora, and Oharln on the road to Constantinople. 
The Eussians had been equally successful in Armenia, and 
had retrieyed their early failures. In October, 1877, the 
Eussian armies, being strongly reinforced, drove back Mukh-' 
tar Pasha, who, in November, was obliged to take refuge in 
Erzeroum. On November 17 Qeneral Melikov took Ears by 
assault, and the victory of the Eussians was assured. In the 
west the Montenegrins had taken advantage of the absence of 
the Turkish troops to reduce Niksich, Antivari, and Dulcigno, 
and the revolt in Bosnia and Herzegovina still continued. 
Crete had risen demanding ujuon with Greece ; Thessaly and 
Epirus were in rebellion, and the Servians had again taken 
up arms. 

The only hope for the Ottoman Empire lay in peace. As 
early as December 12th, 1877, the Sultan had attempted to 
secure the mediation of the Great Powers, but had met with 
no success. At the end of the month he appealed to the 
Queen of England, who obtained from the Tsar an assurance 
that if the Sultan applied directly to him he was willing to 
treat of peace. On January 19th, 1878, Turkish plenipoten- 
tiaries arrived at Kasanlik, the head-quarters of the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, to ask for an armistice, but it was not till 
January 31st that their request was ^granted at Adrianople, 
and the preliminaries of peace signed. 

Meanwhile the attitude of England had become a serious 
factor in the situation, and it seemed that war with Eussia was 
by no means an improbable event. At the opening of Parlia- 
ment, on January 17th, the Queen's Speech contained the de- 
claration that "some expected occurrence may render it 
incumbent on me to adopt measures of precaution." It was 
clearly understood in St. Petersburg that a Eussian occupation 
of Constantinople would be the signal for the outbreak of 
hostilities with England. Admiral Hornby received orders at 
the end of January to sail through the Dsirdanelles to Con- 
stantinople, but upon Gortchakov's vigorous protest the order 
was withdrawn, and on February 13th, the Admiral with his 
ships anchored at the Prince's Islands about ten miles below 
the Turkish capital. The danger of war for some weeks was 
great, but gradually passed away, as negotiations continued 
between the Porte and Eussia. On March 3rd, 1878, the 
Treaty of San Stefano was signed by IgnatievandNelidov on 
behalf of Eussia, and by Server Pasha and SaduUah Bey on 

Hie Bos- 




Action of 

of San 


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beliaJf of Turkey. Serria, Montenegro, and Bomnaiua became 
independent; tibe two former States received considerable 
cessions of territory, while Eoumania gave Bessarabia to 
Bussia and was compensated by obtaining the lower Dobrudsba 
from Turkey Bulgaria, extending sou^wards to the iBgean 
Sea at the mouth of the Karassu, and with the Black Drina 
as its western boundary, was formed into an autonomous, 
tributary Principality, with a Prince chosen by the people and 
accepted by the Porte with the assent of the Great Powers. 

The Beforms laid before the Porte by the Constantinople 
Conference in 1876 were to be carried out in Bosnia and 
Herz^ovina, Crete was to receive the organization promised 
in 1868 by the organic law, and an analogous law was to be 
introduced into the r^naining Christian provinces, such as 
Epirus and Thessaly. In Armenia the Porte promised to de- 
fend the inhabitants from the Kurds and to carry out neces- 
sary local reforms. The war ind^nnity was fixed at fourteen 
hundred million roubles, but owing to Turkey's financial con- 
dition Ardahan, Kars, Batoum, Bayazid, and the territory be- 
tween the Bussian frontier and the Soghanly mountains was 
accepted in place of eleven hundred million roubles. The 
Bosphorus and the Dardanelles were to be open to the mer- 
chant ships of all nations in times of peace as well as of war. 
Opposition To the Treaty of San Stef ano both Austria and England 
Md aw* off^r©^ ^ firna opposition, and it was resolved that a Congress 
land toliie should meet at Berlin. But to the demand of Lord Derby 
Treaty. ^^^ every article of the Treaty should be laid before the Con- 
gress, Gortchakov offered a strenuous resistance. War again 
appeared to be imminent. While Austria prepared to occupy 
Danger of Bosnia and Andrassy obtained a vote of 60,000,000 gulden, 
^^' Lord Beaconsfield called out the Beserves, and summoned 

troops from India. Lord Derby, who opposed these drastic 
measures, did indeed resign, but his successor. Lord Salisbury, 
was in full accord with the views of the Premier. In a cir- 
cular of April Ist, 1878, the new Foreign Secretary had no 
difficulty in showing that the Treaty of San Stef ano was fatal 
to the interests of Europe no less than to those of Austria and 
England. Count Schouvalov was ordered to find out exactly 
what the English Government desired, and at the same time 
Austria explained her reasons for opposing the Treaty. Bis- 
marck was as anxious as Gortchakov for the preservation of 
peace, and on hearing Schouvalov's report of the wishes of the 

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Engliflh Cabinet, the Tsar decided to accept the British and ^^^ 
Austrian demands. On May 30th, a secret agreement was ""^^ 
made between Eussia and England, and on Jane 4th, Lord 
Beaconsfield signed a Conyention with the Sultan, engaging, 
if the Porte carried out necessary reforms, to aid in opposing 
all future aggression on the part of Bussia. Cyprus was handed 
over to Great Britain to be administered and occupied by her 
until Bussia should have restored her Armenian conquests. 

On June 13th, 1878, the Congress met at Berlin under the 
Presidency of Bismarck, Turkey and the six Great Powers 
sending their Prime Ministers or Foreign Ministers, and Eng- 
land being represented by Lord Beaconsfield and Lord 

Owing in great measure to the skill of Bismarck all difiicul- The Treaty 
ties were at length remoyed, and on July 13th, 1878, the ji^Jisri 
famous Treaty of Berlin was signed. Bulgaria was diyided 
into two proyinces, separated by the Balkans. The southern 
Proyince was called Eastern Boumelia, and though it re- 
mained Turkish it was ruled by a Christian Gk>yemor nomi- 
nated by the Porte with the assent of the Powers. North 
of the Balkans Bulgaria was an autonomous Principality 
bereft of the Dobrudscha and the northern part of Macedonia. 
Bosnia and Herzegoyina were handed oyer to Austria, and by 
occupying the Noyi-Bazar district that power placed herseK 
between Seryia and Monten^pro. Montenegro, Seryia, and 
Boimiania, were confirmed in their independence, though the 
cessions of territory arranged at San Stefano were sHghtly 
altered. Monten^ro obtained the sea-ports of Antiyari and 
Dulcigno, Seryia secured the district of old Seryia in the upper 
yalley of the Moraya, and Boumania, while forced to yield to 
Bussia the country between the Pruth and the northern mouth 
of the Danube, receiyed the Dobrudscha and the sea-port of 

In Asia the Tsar restored Bayazid,an important town through 
which passed European trade from Trebizond to Persia, and 
while retaining Kars and Batoum, promised that the latter 
should be erected into a free commercial port. Lastly, at 
the suggestion of France, the Sultan, who undertook to apply 
scrupidously in Crete the organic law of 1868, was recom- 
mended to cede the southern part of Thessaly and Epirus to 

By the Treaty of Berlin Bussia had acquired Bessarabia and 

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What the a portion of Armenia, England had secured Ojprus, Austria 
^n^^»d. Bosnia and Herzegoyina, and France a lien on Tonis. An 
important step had been taken towards the emancipation of 
the Christian peoples inhabiting the Balkan Peninsula from 
Turkish misrule. Europe now entered upon a period of armed 
peace, during which the Great Powers gradually turned their 
attention to commercial enterprise and colonial expansion. 

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DUEINQ- the twelve years succeeding the Treaty of Berlin charactei- 
Bismarck was the most powerful statesman and Berlin {^^**from 
the centre of politics in Europe.* England remained to a i878toi89i. 
great extent occupied with domestic legislation and with the 
Irish question, while Mr. Gladstone, whose influence was 
immense, cared little for foreign politics, and though com- 
pelled to intervene in Egypt, showed no sympathy for 
colonial expansion. During these years a reaction against 
the forward policy of Lord Beaconsfield was in progress, and 
though England was forced into wars in Afghanistan, Zulu- 
land, the Transvaal and Egypt, no anxiety was shown by the 
various Cabinets to extend the British dominion. Till 1891, 
when Europe first realized the possibility of a Franco-Bussian 
alliance, Fmnce remained isolated. The friendship with Eng- 
land, which had been a conspicuous tradition of English 
foreign policy since the days of Palmerston and Louis Phil- 
ippe, practically ended with the suppression of Arabi's insur- 
rection in Egypt in 1882. After that event the rivalry of 
England and France on the sea has become more and more 
pronounced. Similarly, Russia, during this period, gradually 
found herself isolated, and her alliance with France was forced 
upon her partly by financial reasons, partly in order to form 
a Dual in opposition to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Aus- 
tria, and Italy, by means of which Bismarck had preserved 
the peace of Europe. 

^ For the events narrated or alluded to in this chapter, consnlt : 
Seignobos, Histoire politique de r Europe contemporatne (1814-96); 
Milner, Enaland in Mgypt^ Leroy-Beanneu, La France^ la Et$8sie, et 
r Europe; Philippson, FrtedrichllL izlsKrorwrinzund Kaiser; Keltic, 
The Partition of Africa; Bosch, Our Chancellor; Headlam, Bisfnarck. 

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of Berlin. 

Policy of 

Alliance be- 
tween Ger- 
many and 

Italy and 
France in 

The Treaty of Berlin caused great indignation in Btussia. 
It had been expected in St. Petersburg that Germany would 
aid the Tsar to obtain ample compensation for the efforts 
which he had made to conquer the Turks. Instead of re- 
ceiying support from Qermanj, Eussia found that Austria, 
which had not fought at all, had secured a position equal to 
her own in the Balkan Peninsular. The Emperor Alexander 
n., furious at the impartiality shown by Bismarck during 
the Berlin Congress, declared that he had forgotten his en- 
gagements in 1870, while Gk>rtchakoy pronounced tiie Con- 
gress of Berlin to be the darkest page in his life. Russia had 
certainly aided Germany in 1870 by her neutral attitude, but 
Bismarck thought that his support of Russia's destruction of 
the Treaty of Paris of 1856 was an ample recognition of the 
services of the Tsar. Moreoyer it was of immense importance 
to Germany that Austria should be induced to forget Sadowa 
and turn her attention eastwards. In the face of the rivalry 
of Russia and Austria in the Balkan Peninsula, it was im* 
possible for the alliance of the three Emperors, concluded in 
1872, to continue, and though Bismarck hoped, by means of 
the personal friendship of the Emperor William with his 
nephew the Tsar Alexander to avert a war between Germany 
and Russia, he decided that an alliance with Austria was a 
necessary precaution. In August, 1879, he met Andrassy at 
Ghtstein, and on October 15 the Emperor William signed a 
Treaty with Austria which, for a time, was kept secret. The 
shadow of a war with Russia, possibly in alliance with France, 
hung over the Cabinets of Berlin and Vienna, and compelled 
them to seek for another ally. This they found in Italy. 
During the Congress of Berlin Lord Salisbury had apparently 
expressed his acquiescence in the establishment of French in- 
fluence in Tunis. Italy, however, had gained nothing at the 
Congress, and moreover was accustomed to look upon Tunis 
as offering an opportunity for Italian expansion in Africa. 
France being already dominant in Algeria, the supremacy of 
Italy in Tunis could not be entertained, and in 1880, taking 
advantage of a native rising, French troops entered Tunis, 
and the Bey signed the Treaty of Bardo (May 12), giving 
France the protectorate over the country. This Treaty roused 
the deepest indignation in Italy. Riots took place between 
French and Italian workmen, the Italian Ministry of Cairoli 
fell, and was succeeded by that of Depretis, with Mancini as 

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Foreign Minister. The friendship of France and Italy, so 
marked in the reign of Napoleon III., came to an end, and 
after yisits of King Humbert to Vienna (1881), and to Berlin 
(1882), Italy join^ the Alliance of Qermany and Austria in The Triple 
1883. Renewed in 1887, in 1891, and in 1896, the Triple ^^^* 
Alliance still remains a saf ^uard of the peace of Europe. At 
the time, however, of its establishment, the Triple Alliance was 
not brought into undue prominence, for Bismarck was anxious 
to keep on friendly terms with Russia. Skilful though this 
policy might be, the murder of Alexander 11. in 1881, and the 
accession of Alexander m., whose anti-Gkrman and strong 
Slav tendencies were well known, threatened its overthrow. 
Bismarck did indeed bring about a meeting of the three Em- 
perors at Skiemevice in September, 1884, where he made, 
with Alexander, a secret Treaty, in which Germany and Russia 
promised to preserve a benevolent neutrality if either should 
be attacked. It was only in 1896 that the existence of this 
Treaty was revealed to Europe. 

The danger to Germany from Russia in the years 1879-80- Oiowth of 
81, had been averted partly by the Alliance with Austria, SJSS™^ 
partly by Russian activity in Central Asia, partly by the 
development, to an alarming extent, of Nihilism. During 
the latter years of Alexander IL's life, Nihilism developed at 
an extraordinary rate, and after the close of the war with 
Turkey, Russia was bankrupt, disaffected and disorganized. 
Alexander had carried out great reforms, and the ideas of 
Western Europe had been introduced before the Russian 
nation was suf&ciently educated to receive them. The Govern- 
ment, which was an absolute autocracy as well as a compli- 
cated bureaucracy, was corrupt to the core, and reform was 
urgently needed. But the social revolutionary party aimed 
not at reform but at revolution. An extreme party was formed 
of Terrorists, who believed in adopting desperate measures to 
attain their ends, and in 1879 the secret organization known 
as Nihilism was fully prepared. During 1879 and 1880, 
attemps were made upon the life of Alexander, who, on March 
18, 1881, was cruelly murdered. His successor for a time Murder of 
attempted to check the introduction of Western ideas and n^^af' 
civilisation, lived in distant palaces surrounded by an army, 
and allowed Ignatiev to carry out a policy of severity. 

Though checked by England at the Treaty of Berlin, the 
Russian Government, under Alexander III., took advuitage 

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BuBsian in- of the gradual oessation of Nihilist plots, and turned its atten- 
^^[^jf tion to questions of foreign policy. Already Russian advance 
Stan, 1878-9. in Central Asia had caused uneasiness in England, but in 
May, 1876, Disraeli had stated in the House of Commons 
that Russia had a great mission in the East, and that Russian 
conquests in Asia furthered the cause of dvilization. In 
September, 1878, Russian intrigues in Cabul almost led to 
war with England. As it was, Shore Ali, the Ameer, appealed 
in December, 1878, to Russia for assistance. He failed in 
his object, and died in February, 1879, leaving his son Yakoob 
E[han as his successor. Yakoob acceded to the demands of 
the English, and receiyed Sir Louis Cavagnari as resident in 
The murder Cabul. In September Cavagnari and his escort were mur- 
^i^n^' dered, and Lord Roberts, with a large force, entered Cabul in 
Cabul, 1879. October, and set up another Ameer. But in April, 1880, a 
Liberal GoYomment came into office, and it was decided to 
abandon all idea of making a scientific frontier, and to with- 
draw all British forces from Afghanistan. The &mous march 
from Cabul to Candahar, followed by a victory over Ayoub 
Khan, who had defeated General Burrows, restored the pres- 
tige of the English arms, but had no effect in checking the 
The TeoS- Russian advance in Central Asia. In 1885 the Fenjdeh incid- 
ent ?m ^^*' occasioned by English difficulties in Egypt, again brought 
England and Russia to the the verge of war. Fortunately 
peace was preserved, and Russia, since 1885, has contented 
herself with advancing steadily across Asia towards the Pacific. 
The effects The success of the policy of Russia in Central Asia stands 
Ti^^yof o^t in startling contradistinction to the failure of the hopes 
B^^n that were formed in St. Petersburg at the opening of the 
Enro^ Russo-Turkish war for material gains in Eastern Europe. 
The Treaty of Berlin not only put an end to a sanguinary 
war and effected a territorial revolution in the Balkan Pen- 
insula, but it also created a new political situation fraught 
with unexpected consequences of vast import to Europe. 
England and Austria had apparently triumphed at Berlin. 
The latter secured the post of guardian of the Balkan Pen- 
insula, and England had checked the advance of Russia in the 
direction of Constantinople, and had set up Bulgaria as a 
buffer state between Turkey and Russia. Further, on July 
9th was published the secret conventions made by the British 
Qovemment with Turkey in accordance with which England 
acquired the right of occupying Cyprus as long as Russia 

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retained possession of Ears and Batoum. It was quite evid- 
ent that further developments would take place among the 
Balkan States, and that Bussia, though checked in Eiu'ope, 
would look for compensation elsewhere. 

The execution of the terms of the Treaty of Berlin was Boumania 
accompanied by various modifications. In February, 1880, ^"^^'f^^ 
England, France and Germany recognized the Independence 
of Boumania, and in 1881 she declared herself a kingdom 
imder King Charles I. of the Qerman House of Hohenzollem 
Sigmaringen. In 1882 Servia imitated the example of Bou- 
mania and found a king in Milan I. of the Servian family of 
Obrenovitch. Even greater changes took place in Bulgaria, 
whose first ruler, elected in 1879, was Prince Alexander of 
Battenberg, who, till 1881, presided over a democratic consti- 
tution which proved unworkable, while Aleko Pasha was 
appointed by the Sultan to govern Eastern Boumelia. The 
tendency towards the union of the two portions of Bulgaria Union of 
soon became irresistible, and on September 17th, 1885, a revo- siu^ilrias, 
lution broke out at PhilippopoUs, and the Union of Bulgaria 1886. 
with Eastern Boumelia tmder Alexander of Battenberg was 
proclaimed, and after some demur accepted by the Powers 
which signed the Treaty of Berlin. A wanton attack by 
Servia under King Milan was defeated at the battles of 
Slivnitza and Perot, and peace made at Bucharest on March 
8th, 1886. But the troubles of the new kingdom were by no 
means over. The Bussian Q-ovemment had always viewed 
with dislike the pr<^ess of the Bulgarian State, and her 
agents suddenly kidnapped Prince Alexander and carried him 
away in August, 1886. Shortly after his return he abdicated, 
and through the influence of tiie able minister Stamboulov 
was succeeded, on July 8th, 1887, by Prince Ferdinand of 
Saxe-Coburg, a grandson of Louis PhiUppe. Under Stambou- 
lov the struggle against Bussian influence continued till the 
murder of the Bulgarian minister in 1895 removed the chief 
opponent to Muscovite domination. Stoilov, the new head of Becondiia- 
the ministry, was friendly to the government of the Tsar, and ^Sai»^" 
Prince FercUnand decided to reconcile himself with Bussia. Bwuia. 
The Tsar consented to act as godfather of the infant Boris, ^^^' 
and Ferdinand allowed his son to be brought up in the faith 
of the Orthodox Church. Since that event the European 
Powers have practically recognized the government of Prince 

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MoBtoiiesro Difficulties had also arisen in other portions of Eastern 
andoreaoe. jjurope before the terms of the Treaty of Berlin could be 
carried out, and it was not till 1881 that Austria was in firm 
possession of Bosnia and that Montenegro had receiyed Dul- 
cigno, and Greece ThessaJy and part of Epiros. The war 
between Greece and Turkey in 1897 revealed to a surprised 
world the fact that the Porte is still a Power to be reckoned 
with. The overthrow of the Greek troops in a series of battles. 
The and the overwhelming superiority of the Turks has made it 

^m^ ^' evident that the Sultan is able to defend Constantin<^Ie irom 
the attacks of any enemy, while the establishment of a number 
of autonomous states has interposed an effective barrier to 
Bussian aggression. It was quite evident that in her Eastern 
policy Bussia could not hope to receive support from England, 
Germany, or Austria. The only possible ally was iVance. 
PoUcy of During the Eastern war of 1877 France had remained scrupu- 
^^2. lously neutral She had united with the other Great Powers in 
the Berlin Congress, where she had gained the acquiescence of 
Lord Salisbury and Prince Bismarck in her plans for occupy- 
ing Tunis.^ In 1877 Jules Gr^vy had succeeded MacMahon 
as President of the Bepublic, and Gambetta became President 
of the Chamber. Between 1879 and 1887, the period of 
Gravy's Presidency, there were no less than twelve ministries, 
the most famous of the Premiers being Freycinet (1879, 1882, 
1886) , Ferry (1880, 1883), and Gambetta (1881). During 
these years, when the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, 
and Italy had drawn an iron circle round France, an agitation 
was begun in favour of a Dictator who would be strong 
enough to place the country in an independent position. 
This irritation, so natural to a sensitive people like the French, 
The led to the ephemeral Boulangist agitation, to a policy of 

A^itlSaJ^! Colonial expansion^ and to an alliance with Bussia. General 
Boulanger did, indeed, succeed for about three years in taking 
advantage of the general discontent, and in exciting uneasiness 
in foreign countries by his ambiguous attitude. The Bou- 
langist movement revealed ** that Csdsarism was ever latent 
in the French nature."' A military adventurer, supported 
by the Beactionaries and the Socialists, Boulanger, who had 
been a member of the Goblet ministry which fell May 80th, 
1886, nearly succeeded in establishing a dictatorship. But 

^ Busch, Our Chancellor^ ii, 193. 
3 Bodley, France, ii. 364. 

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when threatened with the prospect of the overthrow of the 
Bepnblic the Gbvemment showed unexpected vigour. Bou- 
langer^ accused of conspiring against the safety of the State, 
fled, and all danger to the ]^public was over. 

Though unable to take an active part in European politics, French 
France, after the Treaty of Berlin, entered upon a course of ^^^ 
colonial adventures which occupied the attention, and for a 
time satisfied the aspirations of Frenchmen. It has been 
said that Bismarck foresaw "that France in Tunis woiQd 
mean a lasting quarrel with Italy, and probably an appetite 
for colonial expansion which would render friction with Eng- 
land inevitable." ^ At any rate, Jules Ferry had no difficulty 
in embarking France upon a career of colonial expansion which 
led to the banning of unfriendly relations with England. 

Between the years 1880 and 1885 expeditions were sent to 
Tunis, Tonquin, and Madagascar, while in 1884 the French 
Congo was founded and a l^ge extent of territory in Senegal 
was occupied. But this sudden development was for a time 
checked by the French reverse in 1885 at Langson in Indo- The dis- 
China. Jules Ferry was driven from office (April, 1886), u^l^^ 
M. de Braza, the feutnous French explorer, fell into disgrace, isss- 
and the momentary failure of the forward policy added to the 
many causes of discontent which rendered Boulangism possible, 
hostility to England popular, and a Bussian Alliance in- 

But before the disaster of Langson the French Government France in 
had blundered heavily in Egypt. The opening of the Suez **^*- 
Canal, built to a large extent with French capit^ in 1869, gave 
Great Britain a vit^ interest in Egypt, and in 1875 Lord 
Beaconsfield's purchase of a large number of shares in the 
Canal secured her influence in its management. A number 
of English and French had settled in Egypt, and the two 
governments had agreed to support Tewfik the Viceroy as 
long as he followed their advice. The interference of Europ^m 
Powers was, however, very unpopular to the Egyptian official 
class who regarded with jealousy the British and French 
officers employed by the Khedive. Accordingly, in 1882, 
Arabi Paaha, an Egyptian soldier, headed a national movement, mtorreo- 
threatened to depose Tewfik, and seized the fortifications which ^^^| ^^^ 
commanded the harbour of Alexandria. England, thereupon, 

^ ForMghlly Beviewt November, 1897, p. 788. 
VI. q 

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Fimiioe and inTited France and Italy to join her in oocupjing the ooimtry 
toS^JS* ^^ order to pnt down the revolntionary movements: France, 
En i2^ still hampered in Tonquin, refused, and Italy, " owing to a 
^ threat by France that her participation would be regarded as 

a Casus BeUi,** ^ also declined to assist. England was then 
left alone, and, probably to the surprise of Fiunce, undertook 
the heavy task of restoring order. A British fleet bombarded 
Alexandria, which was set on fire by the Egyptians, and much 
destruction of life and property took place. In September, 
Batae <rf 1882, a British army under Sir Garnet Wolseley proceeded to 
^i£~ 1882. Egypt, defeated Arabi at Tel-el-Kebir, and restored Tewfik. 
J^^ The results of the events of 1882 have heea considerable. 
The English occupation of Egypt has been prolonged and a 
protectorate practically established. The country has been 
admirably administered, completely reorganized, and saved 
from a relapse into semi -barbarism, while the Soudan has 
Treaty be- gradually been reconquered. France and Italy, profoundly 
f^^^ Mid annoyed at having lost so admirable a chance of directing 
Italy, 1886. European policy, made an i^eement in 1885, the object of 
which was to create a condominium of three in the Valley of 
the Nile, and to hamper the progress of the English conquest. 
Theooeapa- In consequence of this agreement an Italian colony was estab- 
Mttuowiah. liflhed at Massowrah. Disaster has, however, attended the 
attempt to carry through a rash and ill-considered scheme, and 
beyond embroiling the Italians with the Abyssinians, the 
treaty of March, 1886, between France and Italy, which was 
directed against the EngHsh occupation of Egypt, has had no 
harmful effects. 
BnffUah Disasters also attended the early efforts of the British to 

g^g^f* settle the affairs of Egypt. The appearance of the Mahdi, a 
Themhdi. rcHgious fanatic, in the Upper Valley of the Nile, was followed 
by the destruction of the Egyptian garrisons and the fall of 
Xhartoum. The English Cabinet determined to abandon the 
Soudan to its fate, and in January, 1888, Oeneral G-ordon, 
without any troops, was sent to bring away the i^yptian gar- 
risons and officials, while General Baker, with an insufficient 
Death of army, was despatched to Suakim. Gordon found himself com- 
gjf^"* pelled to defend Khartoum against the Mahdi, and when the 
Khartoum, English Cabinet very reluctantly decided to send an expedition 
^^^' to his rescue the decision was made too late. After several 

^ StiUman, Union ofltalp, 1815-1896. 

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battles an advanced column arrired at the Waters of the Upper 

Nile in Jannarj, 1885, only to find that Khartoum had fallen, and 

that Gk>rdon had been killed. The Soudan was then abandoned, 

and it was decided that the British should hold Wadi Haifa 

and Suakim. From Cairo the work of reorganization went Befomsin 

steadily on, and reforms were carried out in the army, the ^«ypt. 

finances, and the administration of justice. Never has Egypt 

been so well governed, or her material resources so carefully 

developed as during the period from the revolt of Arabi to the 

present day. 

In deseiting England at Alexandria France made a grievous The effect 
error, and the Freycinet Ministry was dismissed (August, French 
1882) for its shortsighted policy, in not knowing how to pre- JJ^^®'* 
serve French influence in the Valley of the Nile. England 
was left to watch over the destinies of Egypt, and France em- 
barked upon a policy of Colonial rivalry with her in all parts 
of the world. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that the isolation of France, Franco- 
her hostility to England, and her internal troubles, should have SiaSce, 
inclined her to enter upon friendly relations with Russia. The i8»i- 
French love personal rule, and viewed with approbation the 
long period of intimate relations between France and Russia, 
during which President Camot, who succeeded Gr^vy on De- 
cember 8rd, 1887, treated with an autocratic sovereign like 
Alexander III. Prance adopted and supported the views of 
Russia on the Bulgarian Question, and in 1889 and 1891 the 
French public subscribed willingly when Russia was anxious to 
raise loans. In 1891 the visit of the French fleet to Cronstadt, 
followed by the visit of a Russian fleet to France in 1893, pro- 
claimed to the world that a Franco-Russian Alliance confronted 
the Triple League of Germany, Austria, and Italy. In 1895 
M. Hanotaux in th^ Chamber alluded to the alliance of France 
and Russia ; in 1896 Nicholas 11. and the Tsarina visited 
Paris, and in 1897 President Felix Faure paid a return visit 
to St. Petersburg. Though France has so far gained little 
ostensible advanta^ the close connection of the two countries 
has been amply demonstrated in the history of the Far East 
during the last few years. 

Before, however, the Cronstadt festivities had taken place FaU of 
Bismarck had fallen. ST*"*' 

For some thirty years Bismarck's influence had been pre- 
dominant in Prussia ; after the Franco-German war his as- 

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cendencj in Europe' had graduallj become firmly established. 
The alliance of the Three Emperors kept France isolated in 
Europe, and in 1878 and the following years he had faTOured 
a French occupation of Tunis. His policy was justified by 
success. The Tunisian expedition inyolyed France in compli- 
cations with Italy and Turkey, while England's practical 
annexation of Egypt has never been forgiven by the French 
Government. His ability and foresight were equally well 
attested in the stormy period following the Treaty of Berlin. 
Russia was naturally furious at the treatment which she had 
received, and endeavoured to secure a formal alliance with 
France.^ But Bismarck rightly felt that in alliance with 
Austria he was strong enough to stand against the combined 
forces of France and Bussia. And on this occasion fortune 
favoured him. France became involved in difficulties in 
Tunis and Tonquin, while Bussia was paralyzed by internal 
HiB peace disturbances due to the spread of Nihilism. Once the Triple 
^^^* Alliance was made he did all in his power to conciliate Russia, 

and the continuance of peace among the Great Powers was 
largely due to his influence. In 1888 the Emperor William I. 
died, and after a reign of three months Frederick m., so well 
known in the Franco-Prussian war as the Crown Prince, also 
died. He was succeeded by the able and masterful William n., 
whose vigorous policy has proved most beneficial to Germany. 
It was wellnigh impossible for two such strong characters as 
the Emperor and his Chancellor to continue to work together, 
and the faU of the latter was by no means a surprise. Bis- 
marck had taken a leading part in forming modem Germany; 
his legacy to Europe was an '' armed peace " which has lasted 
from the Congress of Berlin to the present day. 

^ Mtiller : Political History in JRecmt Times (Trans.). 

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THE year of BismarcFs fall saw the Franco-Russian character. 
Alliance inaugurated, and the isolation of France, to ^5d!'** 
effect which he hs^ devoted so much labour, finally ended, isai-iwo. 
But the fears of Bismarck have now no reason for their exist- 
ence.* The Dual, no less than the Triple Alliance, makes for 
peace. France has for the time acquiesced in the loss of 
Alsace and Lorraine, and is straining eyery nerve to secure 
colonial possessions ; while Russia has recognized the futility 
of attempting to drive the Turks out of Constantinople, and 
is busy in extending her empire to the shores of the Pacific. 
The Great Powers no longer aim at acquisitions in Europe ; 
the object of each is to develop, as &»r as possible, a colonial 
Empire. The failure, however, of Turkey to carry out its 
promised reforms, and its war with Greece, checked for a time 
the general tendency towards world empires, and forced the 
Powers of Europe into temporary union in order to establish 
peace in the East of Europe. 

The years 1891-1900 have indeed witnessed a general up- Theqaes. 
heaval in Eastern Europe, where the Christian populations xurkey. 
resented the continual refusal of the Porte to grant reforms, 
and were deeply moved by the massacres in Armenia. Taking 
advantage of the widespread dissatisfaction at the conduct of 
the Porte, Greece plunged into a war which had the result of 

^ For an account of the contemporary events in this chapter see 
MUner, England in Egypt ; Whates, TAe Thvrd ScUiabtin/ Atiminis- 
tration; Daudet, Histotre cUplomatique de V Alliance Franco-Buase 
(1873-1893); Curzon, Problems of the Far East; The Times History of 
the War in South Africa ; The Statesman! s Year-Book ; Stevens, The 
Fall of Khartoum ; Bryce, Impressions in South Africa. 

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Colonial ex- 
the Great 



of Arme- 
nians in the 
and in Con- 

freeing Crete from Turkish misrule. Simultaneouslj with 
the existence of an unsatisfactory state of things in the East of 
Europe, which has now become chronic, the commercial and 
colonial expansion of Bussia, Germany, England and France 
went on apace ; while America, in consequence of her war with 
Spain over Cuba, suddenly appeared as one of the great Powers 
of the world. This almost unanimous desire on the part of 
so many nations to share in the unoccupied portions of the 
fflobe has naturally led to considerable friction, and often 
brought the Powers to the verge of war. But so far peace has 
been preserved among the leading States, and, by a continu- 
ance of mutual forbearance, it is to be hoped tha,t no great 
war will break out. 

During the years succeeding the foil of Bismark the peace of 
Europe has only been broken in the East. Terrible massacres 
of Armenians took place in 1894 and 1895, and a wave of 
horror passed over the whole civilized world. Both Lord 
Bosebery and Lord Salisbury, on his accession to office in 
1895, were resolved to force Abdul Hamid the Sultan to accept 
the advice of the European Powers and to carry out the long 
promised reforms. Lord Eimberley had brought about the 
Concert of the Six Powers, the immediate object of which 
was to compel the Porte to execute Article XLI. of the Treaty 
of BerHn, viz., " to carry into effect, without delay, the im- 
provements and reforms required by local wants in the pro- 
vinces inhabited by the Armenians.'' The difficulties before 
the Ambassadors of the Powers were immense. They had to 
obtain from the Porte guarantees for the execution of the 
reforms, and they had to remain united. Unfortunately 
cordial union was impossible. England alone was anxious for 
drastic measures, Germany and Austria were lukewarm, Bussia 
and France were opposed to bringing force to bear on Abdul 
Hamid. With infinite difficulty Lord Salisbury obtained from 
the Porte an Imperial Irad^, ordering the execution of a list 
of reforms which had the approval of the Powers. But 
though no one expected a loyal execution of his promises, few 
anticipated that further massacres would take place in 1896. 
Thousands of Armenians were slaughtered in the provinces, 
and in August a general massacre of Armenians in Constan- 
tinople illustrated the real weakness of the Concert. 

What, however, the great Powers feared to do was done by 
Crete. In that island the Christians held their own a^fainst 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

Ohap. lxxvi.] the new pboblems 


the Turks, though the latter succeeded in 1895 in suppressing 
temporarily the rising. It was, however, obvious that Turkey, 
if allowed, could stamp out the resistance of the Christians 
by force of numbers. Lord Salisbury, though hampered in 
Armenia, saw an opportunity of chedang the Turks in Crete, 
and through his endeavours the Forte agreed to a Convention 
in 1896. But disorders immediately followed, and a new 
situation was created when Colonel Yassos, aide-de-camp to 
the King of Greece, and with the aid of Prince G-eorge, landed 
in Crete with 1,500 men and some artillery, in February, 1897. 
The Cretans had already demanded union with Greece, and it 
was clear that the Greek Government was anxious to brinff 
this about. War between Greece and Turkey at once followed, 
while the Concert of the Powers declared for the autonomy of 
Crete under Turkish suzerainty, and an international fleet 
was sent to watch the island. In the war the Turks, under 
Edhem Pasha, were almost consistently victorious, and after 
the first battle, on April 17, the main Turkish army advanced 
into the Plain of Thessaly. After a succession of disasters, 
the Crown Prince, on May 20, obtained a fifteen days' truce. 
The Ministry of Delyannis fell, Balli, the head of the new 
Government, agreed to withdraw all Greek troops from Crete, 
and after some delay promised to accept autonomy for the 
island. The Concert of Powers thereupon took charge of Greek 
interests, and mediated a peace with Turkey. No increase of 
territoiy was allowed to the Porte, which had to content itself 
with a large money indemnity. On November 23, 1897, peace 
was signed at Constantinople, and Great Britain, Bussia, and 
France, took upon themselves to arrange for the payment of 
the indemnity. The question of Crete sml remained. The pro- 
posal of Bussia that Prince George of Greece should be ap- 
pointed Gt>vemor of the island, was followed first by a deadlock, 
and, early in 1898, by the withdrawal of Germany and Austria 
from the Concert. In September an attack of the Turks 
upon British troops led to energetic measures by Admiral 
Noel, who was supported by the English Government^ and 
Lord Salisbury dedared that England was prepared, if neces- 
sary, to act alone. All Turkish troops were to be at once re- 
moved from Crete. France, Bussia, and Italy agreed, and the 
respective admirals of the four Powers insisted on the deporta- 
tion of the Turks, while the candidature of Prince George was 
revived. On December 31, 1898, he landed in Crete as Gh>v- 

in Crete, 


outbreak of 
war be- 
Greece and 

Victories of 
the TarkB. 

Greece and 
Not. 1807. 

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George Got- 
Crete, Dec. 

of Germany 
and Turkey. 

against Tor- 

The Parti- 
tion of 

The Ck>nfer- 
Berlin, 1886. 

ana: Ger- 
many in 

emor, and took over the administration. The firmness of 
Lord Salisbury had Restored England's prestige, which the 
Armenian " afi^r " had dimmed, and the possibility of good 
emanating from a Concert of Powers was vindicated. The 
Grseco-Turkish war, moreover, had illustrated the growing 
friendship of Germany with the Porte. German officers had, 
by their advice, done much to ensure the reorganisation of 
the Turkish army after the Treaty of Berlin, and the results 
of their advice were patent in the whole conduct of the war. 
In any future uprising against the Porte, the interest taken 
by Germany in its welfare will be a powerful factor in the 
development of events. The episodes of the years 1894-1898 
showed, too, that Russia is determined not to allow Armenia 
to become a second Bulgaria. Throughout those years Russia 
manifested an anxiety with regard to the future of Asia 
Minor, which portends a Muscovite expansion in that direc- 
tion. Batoum is no longer a free port, the Black Sea is a 
Russian lake, and the steady advance of the Tsar's influence 
in Asia Minor seems assured. 

While these events were proceeding in the East of Europe, 
Germany, Prance, England and Italy, were endeavoxiring to 
strengthen their hold upon parts of Africa. In Uganda, on 
the Gold Coast, in Nigeria, in South West and South Africa, 
great activity has prevailed, and the contending interests of 
the Great Powers have often brought them to the verge of 
conflict. In 1884 Germany had occupied Angra Pequena, on 
the South- West coast of Africa; and from that time German 
colonization advanced. In the same year a Conference of all the 
leading Powers, including America, met at Berlin (November 
16, 1884— February 26, 1885). The Conference decided that 
occupation of territory must be effective. It required the 
suppression of the slave trade and slavery ; it established a 
free-trade zone, and it placed the Congo Free State under the 
sovereignty of Leopold IE. of Belgium. From that time rapid 
progress has been made towards a partition of Africa, and 
the Brussels Conference (November 18, 1889— July 2, 1890) 
took further steps to regulate the sale of intoxicating liquors 
and firearms to the natives, and to suppress the slave trade. 

With Germany England had no serious causes of complaint. 
Bismarck had found that encouragement of colonial expan- 
sion occupied the attention of England and France, and was 
popular with a certain section of politicians in Berlin. Before 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


his fall Germany had made considerable progress in East 
Africa. In 1889 an Imperial Commissioner was placed over 
the Q-erman territory, which extended from the river Wami 
to Cape Delgado. In 1890 (July 1) an Anglo-German agree- 
ment was made, by which England gave up her possession of 
Heligoland, and received the Protectorate over Zanzibar and 
Pemba. The spheres of influence of England and Germany 
in East and South- West Africa were also settled, and though 
France refused to recognize the agreement so far as it defined 
the British sphere of influence in the country from the lakes 
to Wady Ha&a, the arrangement has not been disturbed. 

The task of delimitation in a country like Africa must The Niger 
necessarily be difficult, and it was especially so in West Africa, ^«»**®n- 
where the French asserted claims to the hinterland at variance 
with treaties, and of a character likely to interfere with the 
policy of the English Government of allowing ''trade to 
pursue its unchecked and unhindered courses upon the Niger, 
the Nile, and the Zambesi." In 1897 the invasion by the 
French of British territory rendered it necessary to come to 
some clear understanding, and an Anglo-French Convention 
signed in June, 1898, but not ratified till 1899, settled the 
boundaries of the British possessions. 

The task of making a satisfactory arrangement with regard The NUe 
to the Upper Nile and Central Soudan proved a less easy task, ^•^^y- 
and there seems little doubt that the French proposed to 
establish a line of forts across the Nile Valley, so as to bar 
the advance of the English southwards. In view of some 
such action on the part of France, the British Government in 
1895 had clearly defined its policy. " The British sphere of 
influence," said Sir Edward Grey, the Tinder Secretarv of 
State for Foreign Affairs, on March 28th, 1895, " covered the 
whole of the Nile Waterway." In 1896 the reconquest of 
the Soudan was begun, simultaneously with a great disaster 
to the Italians at the battle of Adowa. Italy had in 1888 The Italians 
founded the Protectorate of Erythrea on the coast of the Bed IdSw^ ** 
Sea, and during 1895 had attempted to extend the area of the !«». 
settlement. Jxl attacking Menelik, King of Abyssinia, at 
Adowa, the Italians suffered a severe defeat, and !l^assala was 
threatened by the Dervishes. The advance of the British and The Britiah 
Egyptian forces under Sir Herbert Kitchener saved Kassala JJ^*™*** 
and was accompanied by the defeat of the Dervishes at Ferkeh ^***^ 
and the occupation of Dongola. In 1898 a general advance 

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Policy in 

The War 
of Bnidand 
and Orange 
Free State, 

was made ; yictories were won at Atbaia and Omdurman, and 
Eltartoam reooyered. Witli tlie death of the Khalifa in an 
engagement at Kordofan, the reconquest of the Soudan was 
accomplished. But before that event England and France 
had been brought to the verge of war.. 

The battle of Omdurman and the recovery of Khartoum 
had been preceded by the arrival of a French force under 
Major Marchand at Fashoda on the White Nile. The English 
Declaration of 1895 and the colonial policy of France were 
thus brought into diametrical opposition. Lord Salisbury 
was resolved not to recognize " a title to possession on behalf 
of France or Abyssinia to any portion of the Nile Valley." 
M. Delcass^, the French Foreign Minister, and Sir E. Monson 
negotiated in Paris, and the French Ambassador, Baron de 
Courcel, had interviews with Lord Salisbury in London. The 
situation became serious, though the French claims were 
absolutely untenable. On November 4th the French Govern- 
ment decided to withdraw Major Marchand's expedition, and 
the danger of war passed away. 

The Eastern Soudan and a large portion of Central Africa 
have now been opened to civilisation, the Dervish power has 
been destroyed, and the excellence of the British administra- 
tion has been fully vindicated. A great step, too, has been 
taken in uniting by means of the telegraph and the railway 
Cape Town and Cairo. The consummation of this aim has, 
however, been somewhat retarded by the war between England 
and the Transvaal and the Orange Free State Bepublics. 
Ever since the Convention of Pretoria in 1881, following the 
British defeat of Majuba HiU, the Boers have aimed at com- 
plete independence. By that convention, supplemented by 
the London convention of 1884, the Transvaal was given 
autonomy for internal purposes, but was never given inde- 
pendence. A firm determination on the part of the Transvaal 
Government to shake off British suzerainty led to continual 
quarrels with England, while the Jameson raid and its failure 
in 1895-6, intensified the feeling of opposition to outside con- 
trol. In the confident expectation of direct or indirect assist- 
ance from one or more European countries, the Transvaal and 
Orange Free State Bepublics united, sent England an ulti- 
matum, and war began in October, 1899. The corrupt Hol- 
lander Government of Pretoria fell before the advance of 
Lord Boberts, the Boer armies have been broken up, and in 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


spite of the continuance of ^erilla warfare the British sover- 
eignty over both the Sepublics is assured, and the union of 
South Africa will shortly be an accomplished fact. 

The close of the year 1895 had not only witnessed the TheOniana 
Jameson Baid, it also found England engaged in a dispute with ^^^^^^ 
America over a question of the Guiana-Venezuela boundary, laes. 
On December 18th, England awoke to find that America had 
threatened her with war. The question was a complicated 
one, but no action on the part of the English Gbvemment 
warranted such messages to Congress and such despatches as 
were drawn up by President Cleyeland, and Bichard Olney, 
the State Secretary. For a time a deadlock ensued, and it was 
not till a panic had taken place in WaU Street that reason 
asserted itself with the American public, which hitherto had 
not understood the facts of the case, nor appreciated the posi- 
tion into which their country had been placed. After much 
discussion a solution of the boundary question was reached. 
By the Treaty of Washington, in February, 1897, a Tribunal 
was appointed which met at Paris, and made its award in 
October, 1899, thus satisfactorily settling the rival claims of 
Great Britain and Venezuela. During the dispute Mr. Olney 
had tried to base his case upon a misinterpretation of the Mon- 
roe doctrine. That doctrine, adopted by President Monroe in 
1828 from George Canning, simply amounted to a declaration 
that any extension of the possessions of the European Powers 
on the American Continent would be dangerous to the safety 
of the United States. It was in no way applicable to the 
Guiana- Venezuela boundary question, for no European Power 
was endeavouring to extend its possessions on the American 

The American Government, however, was fully justified in The Cuban 
protesting againt the Spanish misrule in Cuba. Ever since ^sf^^^'^' 
the century opened the Cuban people have had a deep interest 
for the Americans. The fertility of the island has excited their 
envy, its misgovemment their pity, while its situation com- 
manding the Caribbean Sea rendered its eventual control bv 
the United States Government a necessity. In 1867 a rebel- 
lion broke out in Cuba, and in 1877, President Grant's inter- 
vention led to Spanish concessions. In 1894, a fresh rebellion 
led to cruelties on the part of the Spaniards, and roused 
public opinion in America. 

On February 15th, 1898, however, an event occurred which 

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The Maine 



conquest of 

The import- 
ance of the 
War in 

The War 
China and 
Japan, 18M- 

forced the Americans to take action. On that day, the battle- 
slup Maine, which lay in Havana harbour to safeguard 
American interests, was blown up and sunk with 253 of her 
crew. The American nation was deeply stirred, and on April 
19th, Congress resolved that it was the duty of the United 
States to demand the retirement of Spain from Ouba, and 
that the President was authorised to compel Spain's with- 
drawal. It further declared that the United States would 
leave the government and control of the island to its people. 
In the war which followed one American fleet, under Admiral 
Dewey, attacked Manila, in the Philippines, while Admirals 
Sampson and Schley fir£^ blockaded and then destroyed the 
Spanish fleet under Admiral Cervera, off Santiago harbour 
(July 3rd). Meanwhile, 16,000 men, under General Shafter, 
landed in Cuba, and after hard fighting took Santiago (July 
17th). On August 17th, Manila was taken, and shortly after- 
wards peace was signed. Spain lost Cuba and all her other 
West Indian Islan<£i, as well as the Philippines. It is not un- 
likely that, just as after her losses in the Spanish Succession 
Wars, Spain's position may be improved. Ouba was a con- 
stant source of expense, and a continual source of drain in 
men and money. 

However this may be, the war marks an important epoch in 
the history of America. Hitherto she had steadily held aloof 
from European politics, and had taken no share in disputes 
between the Great Powers. Having no foreign policy she had 
no necessity for a fleet, and her army was only kept up for 
employment against the Indians. With the close of her war 
with Spain, America found herself in a new position. Her 
possession of the Philippines has brought her into close 
relations political and commercial with the European Powers, 
which have been so steadily dividing the unclaimed portions 
of the earth's surface. It has become necessary for America 
to build a fleet powerful enough to defend her interests, it will 
become no less necessary to set on foot a large and serviceable 
army. Like England, Germany, France, and Bussia, America 
is now interested in the balance of power in the Pacific, and, 
in the year 1900, when the European legations in Pekin were 
attacked by the Boxers, President McEinley fully recognized 
her responsibilities. 

Ever since the victory of Japan in her war with China in 
the winter of 1894-1896, the Far Eastern Question had rapidly 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 

Ohap. lxxvi.] the new pboblems 


assumed great importance. By the Treaty of Shimonoseki, 
April 1st, 1895, Japan secured the Liao-tong Peninsula, the 
idand of Formosa, and the Pescadores Archipelago, besides a 
large sum of money. 

Bussia, however, was strongly opposed to the expansion of 
Japan on the mainland, and with G^ermany and France, com- 
pelled her to evacuate Port Arthur and the laao-tung Penin- 
sula. From the close of the war events have marched rapidly. 
Bussia has occupied Port Arthur and Germany has seized 
Eiao Chow Bay, and in order to safeguard British interests, 
Lord Salisbury has leased Wei-hai-Wei, for so long as Port 
Arthur shall remain in Bussian hands. Germany, satisfied 
that England's main object was to maintain the balance of 
power in the Gulf of Pechili and not to menace German rights 
in the Province of Shantung, has, together with America, sup- 
ported the policy of the " open door." During 1897 and 1898 
there was danger of a war breaking out between Bussia on the 
one hand, and England and Japan on the other. But, thanks 
to the firmness and sagacity of Sir Claude Macdonald, our 
Envoy in Pekin, and to Lord Salisbury's determination to 
preserve British interests, an agreement was signed with 
Bussia, on April 28th, 1899, which practically recognized the 
policy of Free Trade. In the struggle England had the ap- 
proval, though not the active support of America, which is 
vitally interested in the maintenance of the policy of the 
" open door." At the suggestion of Mr. Hay, the State Secre- 
tary, all the great Powers pledged themselves to maintain free- 
dom of trade. But this unanimity between the Powerscoincided 
with a revival of anti-foreign feeling in China, roused by the 
gradual partition of the coast, and stirred up by the Dowager- 
Empress, who carried out a cottp ^Stai in 1898, and became 
paramount in Pekin. 

In 1900 this hostility to Europeans produced a widespread 
rising in China against foreigners, and the Legations in Pekin 
were besieged by the Boxer Societies, aided by Imperial 
troops. AIL the nations interested at once united, Pekm was 
occupied, the legations were rescued, and the Dowager-Empress 
with the Emperor fled. After many difficulties order was 
restored in China, the foreign armies were withdrawn, and 
the Chinese Government was reinstated under stringent con- 

Whatever may be the future of the Chinese Dynasty, the 

to Japan. 



Kiao Chow. 





Attacks on 
the Lega- 
tion by the 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


of China. 

and Free 

The Treaty 
of Berlin, 

Peace Con- 
grees of the 

events in Ohina since 1895 have shown that freedom of com- 
merce will be maintained in the far East. Each nation is now 
supremely anxious for commercial concessions and trade ad- 
vantages. But the majority of them are none the less pre- 
pared with regard to deeding with such a country of such a vast 
extent as Ohina to sink their individual ambitions and unite 
in preserving the " open door." 

In this work the new position taken up by America will be 
of incalculable importance. Her commerce with the far East 
is extensive, her interests in that region are immense. The 
possession of the Philippines gives her an admirable station 
for watching over her commerce, and it is quite dear that any 
Power wishing to disturb the present arrangements for en- 
suring freedom of trade in Ohina will have to count upon the 
opposition of America. 

From what has been already said it will be apparent that 
with the Treaty of Berlin in 1878 the European world entered 
upon a new period. Though on the surface it might appear 
that the antagonism of G-ermany and France still continued to 
be centred round Alsace and Lorraine, and though the Triple 
Alliance of 1883 was answered by the Dual Alliance of 1891, 
as a matter of fact a revolution was quietly taking place in all 
the chancelleries of Europe. Bismarck occupies a transitional 
position. The main portion of his career was devoted to the 
reconstitution of Germany, but during his later years he re- 
cognized the growing strength of the colonial and commercial 
movements. Before he fell Germany had stepped out to 
compete with other nations for a full share of the trade of the 

In view then of general consensus among the Great Powers 
that the expansion of their commerce and the development 
of their . colonies need not be accompanied by intemedine 
struggles, it is not surprising that, on the initiation of the 
Tsar Nicholas IE., the successor of Alexander HE. (1894), a 
Oongress met at the Hague on May 18, 1899, to consider 
the best means of reducing existing armaments and substi- 
tuting arbitration for war. England had already, in the case 
of the Alabama Olaims, consented to have the claims of the 
United States decided by arbitration. Though the experiment 
was not satisfactory, England had persevered in its belief in 
the advanta^s of arbitration, and had used that method for 
settling the Guiana-Yenezuelan boundary dispute. 

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Still, it was somewhat a surprise that the Tsar should take Nicholas 
the lead in inyiting representatives of the leading States to ^' 
meet at the Hague to consider the best means of bringing 
wars to an end. America, China, Japan, Siam, Persia, and 
Mexico, together with the great European Powers sent repre- 
sentatiyes, and the Conference has undoubtedly done a great 
work in bringing home to nations the advantages of arbitration 
over war. The fact that Great Britain was compelled to go 
to war with the Ihitch Bepublics in South Africa, and that 
hostilities broke out in Chma, in 1900, need not be regarded 
as in anj way invalidating the usefulness of the Congress of 
the Hague. Bebellious dependencies and backward nations 
are sure, from time to time, to compel a resort to forcible 
measures, which seems one of the only means to advance civi- 
lization. But the chief European States which have been 
built up by steady efforts lasting over centuries, and who have 
advanced &om childhood to manhood will, it is hoped, hesitate 
in the future before embarking on a great war. 

A new century, therefore, opens with hopes of peace, which Problems 
may justify the expectations of those who were present at the xxth^Jen- 
Conference of the Hague. It also opens with many new pro- t^^- 
blems for future generations. Europe remains divided between 
those nations which form the Triple Alliance and those which 
form the Dual Alliance; Germany, Austria, and Italy are 
united, and opposed to them stand Bussia and France. But 
the desire for world empire has caused the main attention of 
the nations to be concentrated outside Europe. The Gt?bco- 
Turkish war has brought prominently forward the importance 
of Asia Minor and Palestine ; the re-conquest of the Soudan 
has revealed the possibilities to England of a wide dominion 
in the region of the Nile, the opening up of West Africa is of 
immense importance to England, France and Germany. The 
effects of the war in South Africa have yet to be seen, but 
one result has been to unite England and her colonies in a 
union the strength of which will be enormous, and the im- 
portance of which cannot be overrated. 

The effects of the Cuban war upon America cannot as yet Nw 
be fully estimated. All that is certain is that America fias S^ertoL^ 
entered upon a new period of her career, and that her entry 
into the politics of the world may profoundly affect the future 
development and relations of the Teutonic and Slavic races. 
But apparently the key of the relations of the European nations 

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to each other and also to America is to be found in the Pacific 
Rise of Ocean and in China. In the East a new nation has appeared, 
JftpAn. ^^^ Japan has already shown a determination to have a voice 
in any settlement of the Balance of Power in the Gulf of 
Pechili. During the eighteenth century the rise of Prussia 
and Bussia startled Western Europe; during the last ten 
years of the nineteenth century America and Japan have taken 
their position alongside the older Powers. 
The prind- On the importance of preserving the peace of the world all 
pal Bnien. ^Yiq principal States are agreed. Francis Joseph, the Emperor 
of Austria, has the most^JQ&cult task. He rules over Germans, 
Czechs, Magyars, Slavs, and many other nationalities ; it is 
only his influence and the fears of foreign invasion that 
keeps the Austro-Hungarian kingdom united. The Emperor 
William II. of Germany has an influence second to that of no 
other ruler in Europe. To reconcile his subjects to an enorm- 
ous expenditure on the army has always been his most difficult 
task. He has encouraged commerce and colonization, and 
has acted firmly and wisely during the progress of the Chinese 
difficulty. Like Francis Joseph and Nicholas U. of Bussia, 
with whom he is on terms of friendship, he remains devoted 
to the preservation of peace. Under President Loubet, France 
has continued the peace policy adopted in 1871 ; she has indeed 
occupied Tunis and Madagascar by force of arms, but though 
a conflict with England over the Fashoda question seemed at 
one time possible, she wisely decided not to enter upon a great 
war in a bad cause. Lord Salisbury remains the most ex- 
perienced foreign politician in the world, and it is felt that 
his influence wiU always be used to preserve harmony among 
the Great Powers. 
Deaths In January, 1901, Queen Victoria died after a reign un- 

vic%ri2^d ®^^™pl6d in importance in English History, and in September, 
Ptesideiit 1901, President McKinley was assassinated. Their successors, 
BgKiniey, King Edward VII. and President Boosevelt, however, have 
continued to follow carefully the lines of policy already indi- 
cated in the later years of the nineteenth century. 


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Since Dr. Dyer revised his history an enormous amount of 
historical literature has appeared. I have therefore made a 
short list of useful histories and biographies, and have in- 
cluded the most important of the latest contributions to 
our knowledge of the European States and of America. 

A. H. 


Gibbon : The DecHne and Fall of the Eoman Empire (latest 
edition, by Professor Bury). 1896-1900. 

Lavisse et Bakbattd : Histoire G^n^rale de IV^ Si^cle k nos 
jours. 1893-1900. 

Hbeben, TJkebt, Gibsebbeoht, and Lavpbbcht : Geschichte 
des Europaischen Staaten. 1829-1901. 

Wbbeb: AUgemeine Weltgeschichte. 1882-1900. 

Periods of European History, edited by A. Hassall. 1893- 

Sbignobos: EEistoire Politique de TEurope Oontemporaine. 

DiBiDOTTB: Histoire Diplomatique de TEurope Oontem- 
poraine. 1891. 


Bbyce : The Holy Boman Empire. 1873. 

Dboysen : Preussische Politik. 1855-1886. 

Gaslylb : History of Frederick the Great. 1859. 

Janssen : Deutsches Yolk. 1900. 

Ulmann : Kaiser Maximilian I. 1884-1891. 

Banke : Deutsche Gteschichte im Zeitalter der Beformation 

(translated). 184.5-1847. 
Abmstbong: The Emperor Charles Y. 1902. 

VI. B 

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Th. Jttstb : Charles Quint et Marguerite d'Autriche. 1861. 

Baumoabtbn: KarlV. 1889. 

KOstlin: Luther. 1882. 

Bitter: Qegenreformation. 1889. 

Ward : The History of the Counter Beformation. 1888. 

Ebdmanksd5bvbs : Deutsche Geschichte, 1648-1740. 1888- 

Tuttlb: History of Prussia under Frederick the Great. 

Philippson: Qeschichte des Preussischen Staats-Wesens. 

Latissb : La Jeunesse du Grand FrM^rio. 1891. 
Bbo€^lib : Frederic U. et Maria Theresa, 1883 ; and Frederic 

II. et Louis XV. 1886. 
Bakkb : (Esterreich und Preussen, 1748-1763, 1876; and Die 

Deutschen Machte und der Furstenbund. 1871-1872. 
Sbblbt : Life of Stein. 1878. 
Heigbl: Deutsche Gteschichte seit 1786, 1899; and K5nig 

Ludwig n. yon Bayem. 1872. 
Tbbitschkb: Deutsche Geschichte im 19^ Jahrhundert. 

Stbel : Die Begrundung des Deutschen Beichs. 1889. 
BxTLLE : Geschichte der neuesten Zeit. 1876. 
Jansbn und Saitweb : Schleswig-Holstein Befreiung. 1897, 
Hbadlam: Bismarck. 1899. 
Mth:.LBB: Kaiser Wilhelm. 1877. 

Philippsoit : Friedrich m. als Kronprinz und Kaiser. 1898. 
LowB : William 11. 1895. 
BuscH : Our Chancellor. 1884. 


Coxb: Historjr of the House of Austria. 1807. 

Li£oBB : Autnche-Hongrie (translated). 1879. 

DiBBAUBB: Gteschichte der Schweizerischen Eidgenossen- 

schaft. 1887. 
Palaokt: Geschichte Ton Bohmen. 1836-1867. 
HxTBTBB : Geschichte Kaiser Ferdinand 11. 1850-1862. 
Ft^BSTBB : Wallenstein als Feldherr und Landesforst. 1834. 
GivDBLY : Geschichte des dreissigjahrigen Krieges. 1885. 
Walbwski : Leopold I. 1857-1861. 
Kbonbs : (Esterreichische Geschichte. 1891. 

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Abneth : Prinz Eugen Ton SaYojen, 1869 ; aoid QeBchichte 

Maria Theresias. 1863-1879. 
Bboolie : Marie Th^rfese Imperatrice. 1888. 
Bright : Maria Theresa, and Joseph U. 1897. 
Paganbl : Histoire de Joseph II. 1843. 
Abnbth : Joseph 11. and Leopold lY. von Toscana. 1872^. 
Bebb : Joseph n., Leopold II., und Kaunitz. 1873. 
ScHOLL : Congr^s de Yienne. 1816-1818. 
Baxis db Flassan : Histoire du Oongr^s de Yienne. 1829. 
Mazade: Mettemich. 1889. 

AssELiNE : Histoire de TAutriche depuis Maria-Th^rise. 1879. 
AuEBBACH : Les Baces et NationaUt^s en Autriche-Hongrie. 

Stiles : Austria in 1848, 1849. 1852. 
Beust: Memoirs. 1887. 
BoTTBLiEB : La Boheme Contemporaine. 1897. 
Matlekoyits: Konigreich Ungarns. 1900. 

Mabtin: Histoire de France. 1878. 
KiBK : HistoiT of Charles the Bold. 1863-1868. 
Gasqttet : Precis des Institutions Politiques et Sociales de 

TAncienne France. 1885. 
Banks : Franzosische G^schichte (translated). 1854. 
Chebbibb: Charles YIII. 1868. 
TiLLET : The French Eenaissance. 1885. 
Dyeb: Life of Calvin. 1850. 
Abkstbong : French Wars of Beligion. 1892. 
WiLLEBT : Henry of Navarre. 1893. 
Dayila : Histoire des Guerres Civiles en France. 1644. 
BEanotaitz : Histoire du Cardinal de Bichelieu. 1893. 
D' Ayenel : Bichelieu et la Monarchic Absolue. 1884. 
Lodge : Bichelieu. 1898. 
Fagniez : Le pJre Joseph et Bichelieu. 1894. 
VoiiTAIbe : Sifecle de Louis XIY. 1847. 
D'AuMALE : Histoire des Princes de Cond^ pendant le XYI™* 

et XYH"^* Sifecles. 1863-1896. 
Chebttel : Histoire de France pendant la Minorite de 

Louis XIY., 1879-1880; and Histoire de France sous le 

Minist^re de Mazarin. 1882. 
Hassall : Louis XIY. 1895 ; and The French People. 1902. 
St. Cybes : F&elon. 1901. 

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BoirssET : Histoire de LouYois. 1862-1863. 

MiONET : N^gociationB relatives k la succession d'Espagne 

sous Louis XIV. 1842. 
LBFisYSE-PoNTALis : Jean de Witt, Grand Pensionaire de 

HoUande (translated). 1885. 
CLiMBKT: Histoire de la Yie et de rAdministration de 

Colbert. 1846. 
Battdbillast : Philippe V. et la cour de France. 1890-1901. 
WiBSBNEB : Le Begent, Tabb^ Dubois et les Anglais. 1893. 
JoBBZ : France sous Louis XY. 1873. 
Eooqttain: L'esprit revolutionnaire avant la revolution. 1878. 
Bboglib : Fr^d^ric 11. et Louis XY., 1885 ; and Maurice de 

Saze et d'Argenson. 1891. 
Waddington: Louis XY. et le renversement des Alliances 

(1754-1756), 1896 ; and La guerre de Sept Ans, Les DebMs. 

Taine: L'Ancien E^gime. 1876. 

De Bboo : La France sous Tancien regime. 1887-1889. 

Ghebest : La Chute de Tancien regime. 1884-1886. 

MoBSE Stephens : The French Bevolution. 1886. 

SoBBL : L'Europe et la Bevolution fran9aise. 1885-1894. 

Obos : Le Comite de Salut Public. 1893. 

BocHETEBiE : Marie Antoinette. 1890. 

MoBLET: Essays on Yoltaire, Diderot, Eousseau, Turgot, 

Condorcet, Eobespierre. 1872-1895. 
FouBNiEB : Napoleon I. 1892. 
Lanfbey : Histoire de Napoleon I. 1867-1875. 
Yandal : Napoleon et Alexandre. 1891-1896. 
Sloanb : Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. 1897. 
YiEL Castel : Histoire de la Bestauration. 1860-1877. 
Hillebband : Gteschichte Frankreichs. 1877-1879. 
Datjdet : Louis XYIII. et le Due Decazes. 1899. 
Blanchabd Jebbold : Life of Napoleon III. 1874-1882. 
Ollivibb : L*Empire liberal. 1895. 
Dickinson : Bevolution and reaction in Modem France. 1892. 

Lafttente : Historia Gteneral de Espana. 1850-1862. 
Pbesoott : Ferdinand and Isabella. 1838. 
Abmstbong : History of Charles Y. 1902. 
Hume : Spain, 1898 ; and Philip II. 1897 ; and The Spanish 
People. 1901. 

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FoBNBBON : Philip II. 1882. 

Philippson : Heinrich IV. and Philip IH. 1870-1876. 
Legbelle : Louis XIY. et TEspagne. 1892. 
Pasnell : The Spanish War of Succession. 1888. 
Baudbillabt : Philippe V. et la Cour de France. 1889. 
Abkstbong : Elizabeth Famese. 1892. 
OoxE : The Bourbons in Spain. 1816. 
Addison : Charles III. of Spain. 1900. 
Baumoabten : Gteschichte Spaniens seit 1789. 1861. 
Napieb : History of the Peninsular War. 1878. 


SiSMONDi: Histoire des B^publiques italiennes du Moyen 

Age. 1826.1833. 
Gbegobovitjs : History of the City of Eome. 1896-1902. 
Bbown : Venice, an Historical Sketch. 1893. 
EwABT : Cosimo de' Medici. 1899. 
Abmstbono : Lorenzo de' Medici. 1896. 
Symonds : The Eenaissanee in Italy. 1880-1882. 
Pebbbns : Histoire de Florence. 1888-1890. 
Cbeighton : History of the Papacy. 1882-1894. 
Pastob : History of the Popes during the Eef ormation. 1891. 
Eanke : History of the Popes. 1842. 
Philippson : Contre-R^volution Eeligieuse. 1884. 
Wabd: The Counter Eeformation. 1888. 
Mallbson : Studies from Genoese history. 1875. 
VoN Ebumont : Naples under Spanish dominion. 1854. 
Dabu : Histoire de la E^publique de Venise. 1864. 
MicHAUD : Louis XIV. et Innocent XI. 1882-1883. 
Sobel : L'Europe et la E^volution fran9aise. 1885. 
Fbanchetti : StoriA d'ltalia dal 1789 al 1799. 1881. 
De Castbo : Storia d'ltalia dal 1799 al 1814. 1881. 
Stillman : The Union of Italy. 1898. 
Bolton King : History of Italian Unity. 1899. 


Eambattd : Histoire de la Eussie (translated). 1900. 

MoBFiLL: Eussia. 1890. 

VoLTAiBB: Histoire de I'Empire de Eussie sous Pierre le 

Grand. 1769. 
Waliszbwski : Peter the Great. 1897. 
NisBET Bain : The Pupils of Peter the Great. 1897. 

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Vandal : Napoleon et Alexandre. 1891-1896. 

Si^auB : L'Histoire de I'Exp^dition en Bussie. 1852. 

Bebkhabdy : Gesciiiclite Busslands, 1815-1830. 

KiNOLAKB : The History of the Crimean War. 1863-1887. 

Lowe : Alexander III. 1895. 

Beattlieu : The Empire of the Tsars. 1893. 


Blok : History of the People of the Netherlands. 1898. 

Juste : Histoire de Belgique. 1895. 

MoTLET : The Bise of the Dutch Bepublic 1866 ; and The 

United Netherlands, 1869 ; and Bameveldt. 1874. 
FB]6DisiCQ : De Nederlanden onder Keizer Karel Y. 1885, etc. 
Jttste : Histoire de la B^volution des Pays-Bas sous Philippe 

II. 1860-1863. 
Putnam: William the Silent. 1895. 
Habeison : William the Silent. 1897. 
Lefbybe-Pontalis : John de Witt. 1885. 
De Witt: Une Invasion Prussienne en Hollande en 1787. 

Geblache : Histoire da royaome des Pays-Bas, depuis 1814» 

jusqu'en 1880. 1842. 
Juste : La Bevolution Beige de 1830. 1872. 
White : The Belgic Bevolution. 1835. 


Mabtebts : Historia de Portugal. 1880. 

MoBSE Stephens : Portugal 1891. 

Whitewat : Portuguese Power in India. 1899. 

Smith : Memoirs of the Marquis of Pombal, 1871 ; and Me- 
moirs of the Duke of Saldanha. 1880. 

B0L1.AEBT : The Wars of Succession in Spain and Portugal. 


Hammeb : Histoire de TEmpire Ottoman. 1835-1843. 

FiNiiAY : History of the Byzantine Empire. 1854 

ZiNKEisEN : Osmanisches Beich. 1840-1863. 

Poole : Turkey. 1888. 

Cbeasy : History of the Ottoman Turks. 1854. 

Bakes : History of Servia. 1847. 

FoBOABE : Histoire des causes de la guerre d'Orient. 1854. 

Hamley : The War in the Crimea. 1891. 

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Bambbbc^ : G^Bchichte der Orientalische Fmge. 1892. 
Stilliian : The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-7-8. 1874. 
La^tblbtb: The Balkan Peninsula. 1887. 
BosBN : Oeschichte der Turkei. 1858. 


AliiBN : Histoire de Danemark. 1878. 

Boybsbn: Norway. 1900. 

Gablson and Gbijbb: Oeschichte Schwedens (translated). 

!Flbtchbb: Oustavus Adolphus. 1890. 
Bain : Queen Christina. 1890. 
Nisbbt Bain: Charles XII., 1895; and Gustavus IIL and 

his Contemporaries. 1894. 
Gbffboy : Oustave lH., et la Cour de France. 1867. 


MoBFiLL: Poland. 1893. 

Bakbaud: BistoiredelaBussie. 1900. 

Salyandy : Histoire de Pologne aYant et sous le Boi Jean 

Sobieski. 1829. 
Waliszbwsei: Marjsienka. 1898. 
Smitt : Suworoff und Polens TJntergang. 1858. 
Day : The Russian GoYernment in Poland. With a narratiYC 

of the Polish Insurrection of 1863. 1867. 


PiNLAY : History of Greece. 1856. 

OiCAN : The Byzantine Empire. 1892. 

Mbndblssohn: GeschichteGriechenlandsseit]458. 1870-1874. 

FiNLAY : History of the Greek Revolution. 1861. 

Alison Phillips : The War of Greek Independence. 1897. 


DiEBATTBB: Geschichto der Schweizerischen Eidgenossen- 

schaft. 1887. 
Dandlccbb : History of Switzerland. 1899. 
RooBT : Gen^YC au temps de Calvin. 1867. 
Article, Switzerland, in Encydopflsdia Britannica. 1887. 

WiNsoB: History of America ; and Columbus. 1885-1889. 

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FisKE : Virginia and the Critical Period of Amerioui 
History. 1888. 

Colt Ttleb : The Literary History of the American Revolu- 
tion. 1897. 

EoBBTON : A Short History of British Colonial Policy. 1897. 

Gbbbn : William Pitt. 1901. 

Pabkkan : Pioneers of Prance in the New World ; and Mont- 
calm and Wolfe. 1865-1885. 

Stbphbns : War between the States. 1868. 

Shebman: Recollections. 1895. 

Rhodes : History of the United States from the Compromise 
of 1850. 1850-1899. 

Andrews : History of the United States. 1895. 


Prokesch-Osten : Mehmed Ali. 1877. 
Milker : England in Egypt. 1892. 

Bond : Handy-Book for verifying Dates. 1875. 
Hassall: Handbook of European History chronologicallj 

arranged, 476-1871. 1897. 
GoooH : Annals of Politics and Culture. 1901. 
Morse Stephens : Modem European History. 1899. 


Langlois: Manuel de Bibliographie Historique. 1901. 
Adams : Manual of Historical Literature. 1888. 


George: Chronological Tables. 1886. 
Grote: Stammtafeln. 1877. 
Almanach de Gotha. Annuaire. 


SoRBL : Recueil des instructions donnas aux Ambassadeurs 
et Ministres de France, depuis les trait^s de Westphalie 
jusqu' k la Revolution fran9aise. 1884-1901. 

KooH AND Soh5ll : Histoire des Tndt^s entre les Puissances 
deTEurope. 1817-1818. 

Martens : Recueil de Trait^s, etc. 1817-1842. 

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ABASSID, House of, transfer 
of Caliphate to Race of 0th- 
man, i. 6. 

Abd-el-Kader, Arab leader, vi. 65. 

Abdallahel-Zagal, i. 201. 

Abdul Aziz, Sultan of Turkey: 
Deposition and murder, vi. 209. 

Abdul Earned I., Sultan of Tur- 
key, iv. 386, 415. 

Abdul Earned II., Sultan of Tur- 
key, vi, 210. 

Abdul Medjid, Sultan of Turkey, 
vi. 63. 

Abdul Resim: Bulgarian massa- 
cres, vi. 209. 

Abercrombie, General Sir Ralph, 
V. 300, 326. 

Abercrombie, Lord, English Am- 
bassador, vi. 95. 

Aberdeen, Lord : Envoy to Chft- 
tillon Peace Confess, v. 514 ; 
Prime Minister, vi. 119 ; retire- 
ment, 123. 

Absberg, Eans Thomas von, ii. 

Abu Abdallah, Moorish king, i. 

Aociajuoli, Franco, i. 84. 

Acdajuoli, Souse of: Rulers in 
Athens, i. 83. 

Achmet I., Sultan of Turkey, iiL 

Achmet III., Sultan of Turkey, 
iv. 152, 240. 

Achmet Aga, Turkish General, 
V. 475. 

Achmet Mahomet, Grand Vizier 
of Turkey, iv. 4. 

Achmet Pasha,Govemor of Egypt, 

ii. 71. 
Acton, Sir Joseph, Neapolitan 

Minister, v. 182, 284. 
Adair, English Envoy to Solland, 

vi. 50. 
Addington, Senry, Prime Minis- 
ter of England, v. 327, 343, 356. 
Adlercreuz, General : Conspiracy 

against Gustavus IV., v. 422. 
Adolphus Frederick, King of 

Sweden: Accession, iv. 320; 

peace with Prussia, 349 ; death, 

Adomo, Antonietto, Doge of 

Genoa, i. 442 ; ii. 40. 
Adomo, Bamabo, ii. 247. 
Adomo, Jerome, i. 441. 
Adomo, Prosper, Doge of Grenoa, 

i. 117. 
Adrets, Baron des, ii. 340. 
Adrian VI., Pope: Election to 

Pontificate, i. 440; unpopularity, 

446 ; death, 460 {see cUso Boyens, 

iEmilia, annexation to Piedmont, 

vi. 142. 
Aerschot, Duke of, iii. 5; Stad- 

holder of Flanders, 10. 
Ai&e, Monseigneur, Archbishop 

of Paris, vi. 81. 
Afghanistan : Russian intrigues, 

English prestige, etc., vi. 222. 
Africa : Spanish conquests, i. 305, 

306; Portuguese explorations, 

324, 325 ; ^ench Protectorate 

in Tunis, vi. 220; French 

Colonial enterprise, 225 ; parti- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



tion, 232; English colonization, 
232, 233; Fashoda incident, 234. 

Aga Hassan, Commandant of 
Algiers, ii. 150. 

Aga of the Janissaries : Appoint- 
ment, L 10; memher of the 
Divan, la 

Aggraviados, Spanish insurgents, 
vi. 16. 

Aide-tot, French Revolutionary 
Society, vi. 35. 

Aiguillon, Due d*, iv. i28, 439, 

Ailhr, Peter d*, Cardinal-Bishop 
of Cambray, i. 391. 

Aix-la-Chapelle : Peace Congress 
(1748), iv. 303 ; oongressof allied 
sovereigns (1818), vi. 7. 

Akindahi, unjpaid cavalry of Turk- 
ish army, i. 8. 

Alaeddin, C^rand Vizier of Turkey, 
i. 5, 11. 

Alava, Spanish ambassador, U. 

Albany, Duke of, L 364, 442, 467. 

Alberoni,Cardinal, Spanish minis- 
ter, iv. 160, 202, 209, 212, 214, 

Alb^, Archduke of Austria : 
Crovemor of the Netherlands, 
iiL 78, 79; marriage with In- 
fanta Isabella, 139; Austrian 
Family Compact, 153. 

Albert, Archduke of Austria : 
Austrian command-in-chief, vi 
180; Austrian command in Italy, 

Albert, Cardinal, CrOvemor of 
Portugal, ii. 472. 

Albert III., Duke of Bavaria, ii. 
254; iii. 103. 

Albert, Duke of Saxe-Teschen, 
Grovemor of Austrian Nether- 
lands, iv. 401, 424. 

Albert, Duke of (Albertine) Sax- 
ony, i. 154, 177, 178, 208. 

Albcurt II. — Emperor, King of Bo- 
hemia and Hungary, i. 17, 32, 
36 ; union of Bavaria, 26. 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales : 
Marriage with Alexandra of 
Denmark, vL 163. 

Albert the Prodigal : Austrian in- 
surrection, death, i. 96, 97. 

Albion, Don Juan de, i. 222. 

Albizzi, House of, Florentine 
rulers, i 50. 

Albret, Charlotte d': Marriage 
with CsBsar Borgia, L 245. 

Albret, Jeanne d' : Marriage with 
Antony of Bourbon, ii. 161, 231; 
Huguenot leader in France, 316 ; 
return to B^am, 333; Roman 
Catholic worship prohibited by, 
345; La RocheUe, 359; death, 

Albret, John d' : Marriage with 
Catharine of Navarre, i. 318; 
death, 369. 

Albret, Sire d', i. 176, 177, 178, 

Albuquerque, Alfonso, founder of 
Portuguese power in India, L 

Albuquerque, Matthias, iiL 342. 

A loAniarafi^Bsa&Yi military order, 
i. 66. 

Aldobrandini, Cardinal Ippolito: 
Election to Pontificate, iii. 64 
{»ee also Clement VIII.). 

Aleander, Papal Legate, i. 414» 

Aleandro, Cardinal, iL 145. 

Alen^n, Duke of, i. 469 ; u. 4. 

Alen9on, Duke of, ii. 456, 460, 
461 {see Anjou, Francois, Duke 

Aleneon, John II., Duke of, L 

Alessandrino, Cardinal, ii. 393. 

Alexander I., Tsar of Russia: 
Accession, v. 323; interview 
with Frederick William III. at 
Memel, 335; at Berlin, 374; 
Bartenstein Convention, 403; 
ioterview with Napoleon L at 
Tilsit, 404 ; renewal of Frendi 
Alliance,447 ; ^evances against 
Napoleon I. , 473, 474 ; command 
of Russian army, 501 ; arrival 
in Paris, 515; Holy Alliance, 
vi. 8; death, 30. 

Alexander II., Tsar of Russia: 
Accession, vi. 123 ; emaneipati<m 

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of serfs, 157 ; Dreikaiserbund, 
207 ; murder, 221. 

Alexander III., Tsar of Russia, 
vi. 221. 

Alexander VI., P^ : Election to 
Pontificate, i. 187 ; disr^ard of 
French claims on Naples, 215 ; 
negotiations with Turkey, 220 ; 
treaty with Charles VIII., 221 ; 
treaty with Venice, Milan, Grer- 
many and Spain, 225; Savon- 
arola, 234 ; crimes, repentance, 
etc., 235; alliance with Lonis 
XII., 244 ; extension of indulg- 
ences to the dead, 253; grant 
of Columbus's discoveries to 
Spain and Portugal, 333 ; death, 

Alexander VIII., Pope: Election 
to Pontificate, iv. 56; death, 62. 

Alexander, Tsarewitch : Russian 
command, vi. 213. 

Alexander Leopold, Palatine of 
Hungary, iv. 424. 

Alexander of Bulgaria^ kid- 
napping by Russia, abdication, 

Alexandra, Grand-duchessof Rus- 
sia : Marriage with Frederick, 
Landcrave of Hesse, vL 84. 

Alexanaraof Denmark : Marriage 
with Albert Edward, Prince of 
Wales, vi 163. 

Alexiowitsch, Ivan, Tsar of Mus- 
covy, iv. 12. 

Alexis Romanoff, Tsar of Russia : 
Accession, policy, etc., iii, 395 ; 
war with Poland, 397; war 
with Sweden, 406 ; death, iv. 122. 

Alexis, son of Peter the Great, iv. 
235 ; death, 236. 

Alfonso II., King of Naples, i. 
214 ; abdication and death, 223. 

Alfonso v.. King of Aragon (and 
I. of Naples), L 57, 64, 105, 

Alfonso v., King of Portugal, L 
189 ; marriage with his niece, 
196; death, 197. 

Alfonso VI., King of Portugal: 
Accession, iii. 422 ; abdication 
and death, 425. 

Alfonso X., Kins of Castile : Es- 
tablishment of Papal power in 
Spain, i. 394. 

Alfonso, Prinoe of Portugal, L 197. 

Algiers: French bombardment, 
iv. 35; English expedition 
against, vi. 24; capitulation to 
French, 36 ; French occupation, 
system of BasueiaSy 65. 

Ali, Pasha of Jannina, vi 28. 

Ali. Sandjak of Buda, ii 271. 

Alioaud: Attempt on Louis 
Philippe's life, vi 58. 

Alidosio, Francesco, Cardinal of 
Pavia, i. 303. 

Allemonde, Dutch commander, 
iv. 130. 

Allen, Dr. William, u. 474 ; Car- 
dinal, iii. 32, 106. 

Alop^us, M. , Russian ambassador, 
V. 366, 420. 

Alquier, M., French ambassador, 
V. 430, 478. 

Alsace : Acquisition by Charles the 
Bold, i 140; French Campaign, 
ii 266 ; annexation by France, 
iii. 298, 453 ; evacuation by Im- 
perialists, 456; Chafiibres de 
lUuniony adjudication, iv. 31. 

Alsace-Lorraine, cession to Ger- 
many, vi. 198. 

Altringer, Gren., Imperialist com- 
mand, iii. 287. 

Alva, Duke of, Spanish General, 
i 319, 320. 

Alva, Fernando, Alvarez, Duke 
of: Vicar-General of Itiftly, ii 
284; invasion of Papal terri- 
tories, 294; civil ana military 
command in Netherlands, 423 ; 
Regent and Governor-General, 
426; recall, 439; Portuguese 
expedition, 471. 

Alvarez : Defence of Grerona, v. 468. 

Alviano, Venetian commander, 
i 281, 287, 288, 348, 359. 

Alvinzi, General : Austrian com- 
mand, V. 193, 196. 

Am Ende, General, v. 461. 

Amadeo I. , King of Spain : Elec- 
tion by Cortes, vi. 190. 

Amadens VIII., Duke of Savoy : 

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Election to Pontificate, i. 392 
{see also Felix V., Pope). 

Amarante, General, vi. 17. 

Ambassadors : Derivation of 
term, i. 337 note; Florentine 
Ambassadors, 338; Legates and 
Nuncios, 339 ; presents to, 339 
and note, 

Amboise: Conspiracy of, ii. 

Amboise, Bussy d', i. 469. 

Amboise, Cardmal d', i 249, 256, 
258, 259, 283 ; death, 294. 

Amboise, Charles d', i 249. 

Amboise, Chaumont d', Grovemor 
of Champagne, i. 161, 165, 287 ; 
Viceroy of Milan, 296; death, 

Amboise, Greorge d'. Archbishop 
of Rouen, i. 242. 

Amboise, Jacques d'. Rector of 
University of Paris, iii. 71. 

America : Discovery, i. 203, 334 ; 
origin of name, 334 note; dis- 
covery of South America, i. 
336; Dutch colonization and 
progress, iv. 185 ; English 
colonization and progress, 186 ; 
French colonization, 189 ; Eng- 
lish successes, 193 ; Anglo- 
French hostilities, 302, 307, 
342 ; Revolt of English Colonies 
and Declaration of Independ- 
ence, 441, 442, 443 ; revolution 
in Spanish America, vi. 10; 
appearance as a Great Power, 
VI. 230 ; Trade and Commerce, 
231 ; importance of America in 
the politics of the world, 240 
{see also United States). 

Amiens Peace Congress, v. 328. 

Amsdorf, Nicholaus von, i. 416. 

Amurath I., Sidtan of Turkey, i. 

Amurath II., Sultan of Turkey : 
Turkish progress, i. 17 ; Hun- 
garian wars, 18 ; conclusion of 
peace, 20 ; death, 22. 

Amuratii III., Sultan of Turkey : 
Truce with Maximilian Ii., 
ii. 448 ; assistance ofifered to 
Henry IV., iii. 57 ; accession, 

89 ; war against Empire, 92 ; 

death, 94. 
Amurath IV., Sidtan of Turkey : 

Accession, iii 212; death, 

Amyot, Jacques, ii. 259. 
Anabaptists: Origin of Sect, ii 

51, 124. 
Anastro, iii. 19. 
Andelot, d'. Huguenot leader, ii. 

298, 301, 302, 316, 342, 344. 
Andrades, Spanish Captain, L 

Andrassy, Count: President of 

Hungarian Ministry, vi. 185; 

"Note" to Turkey, 207; 

Austro-German Alliance, 220. 
Andr^ossi, Gen., French am- 
bassador, V. 345. 
Angoul6me, Count Francis of : 

Marriage with Claude of 

France, i. 351 {see also Francis 

I., King of Frakce). 
Angoul^me, Due d*, v. 617 ; vi 

Angoul6me, Duchesse d', v. 518, 

627 ; vi. 7. 
Angremont, d', Master of Lan- 
guages to Marie Antoinette, v. 

Anhalt, Prince of, i. 296. 
Anhalt, Prince Christian of: 

Protestant Union, iii. 157 ; 

Thirty Years' War, 302. 
Anilleros, Spanish Revolutionary 

Party, vi. 12. 
Anjou : Union with France, i, 

Anjou, Francois de Valois, Duke 

of : Assumption of title, ii. 

462 ; Netherlands Protectorate 

offered to, iii 8, 9, 15, 18 ; Duke 

of Brabant, 19 ; retirement 

from Netherlands, 21 ; death, 

Anjou, Henry, Duke of {see 

Henry III., Kins of France). 
Anjou, House of: Claims to 

Isaples, i. 57. 
Anjou, Ren^ d' : Literary tastes, 

etc., i. 60. 
AnkarstrOm : Assassination of 

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GustavOB III. of Sweden, v. 

Anna Ivanowna, Tsarina of 
Rnssia: Election, iv. 238; 
death, 250, 262. 

Anna Petrowna of Russia : Mar- 
riage with Dnke of Holstein, 
iv. 237. 

Anna, Princess of Mecklenbnrg : 
Regency of Russia, iv. 263. 

Annalea Hcclesiastici of Baron- 
ins, i. 340. 

Anne, Queen of England : Acces- 
sion and policy, iv. 83 ; death, 

Anne of Austria, Queen of 
France: Marriage with Louis 
XIII., iii. 169, 173; conspiracy 
against Richelieu, 245; Re- 
gency, 327 ; concessions to 
Parliament, 357 ; death, 432. 

Anne of Bohemia : Marriage with 
Richard II. of England, i. 390. 

Annebaut, Admiral d^ ii 155, 
167, 160, 175, 266. 

Annese, Grennaro, iii. 346. 

Anrep, General : Russian com- 
mand, vi. 120. 

Anselme, General : French com- 
mand, V. 99. 

Anson, Commodore, iv. 248, 302, 

Antonelli, Cardinal, vi 141, 144, 
148, 187. 

Antonio, Dom, King of Portugal : 
Election, iL 471 ; death, 475. 

Antony, King of Saxony : Acces- 
sion, vi. 64. 

Antony of Bourbon, Duke of 
Venddme and King of Navarre, 
L 469; ii. 4, 156, 157, 231, 314, 
324, 325, 326 ; marriage with 
Jeanne d'Albret, 161 ; Lieu- 
tenant - Grcneral of France, 
326; recantation, 333; death, 

Aosta, Due d': Sardinian com- 
mand in Italy, v. 216. 

Apafy, Michael, Voyvode of Tran- 
sylvania, iv. 4. 

Apraxin, Marshal, iv. 326, 327. 

Aquileia, Patriarch of, L 184. 

Arabi Pasha : Egyptian insurrec- 
tion, vL 225. 

Aragon: Territorial acquisitions 
and Creation of Kingdom, L 
63; constitution and govern- 
ment, 65; privilege of union, 
66; union with Castile, 197; 
inquisition, 198; constitution 
destroyed, iii. 40. 

Aramon, Baron d*, ii 258. 

Aranda, Comte d', Spanish min- 
ister, iv. 459; v. 74, 110, 184. 

Aranjo, Portuguese ambassador, 
V. 272. 

Arbuthnot, Sir C, English am- 
bassador, V. 418. 

Arcimboldi, Milanese Doctor of 
Laws, i 403. 

Areizaga, Spanish commander, 

Aremberg:, Count of, Spanish 

leader, ii 429. 
Arenberg, Duke of, iv. 417. 
Argenson, Marquis d', iv. 296; 

V. 7, 13. 
Argenteau, d', v. 216. 
Argentine Republic, constitution, 

V. 11 note, 
Argaelles, ^ardian of Isabella 

n. of Spam, vi 72. 
Ariosto, Italian poet, i 309, 

Armagnac, Count of: Ligiie du 

Bien Public, i 130. 
Armed NeutraUty (1780), iv. 448, 

450; (1800), V. 317. 
Armenia: Massacres of Chris- 
tians, vi. 229, 230. 
Armfeldt, Swedish commander, 

iv. 161. 
Annies : Institution of standing 

armies, i 343; augmentation 

in European countries, vi. 3. 
Anmnicms, iii. 182, 183. 
Arminius, iii 181. 
Amaud, Antony, iv. 198. 
Amim, Greneral, command of 

Saxon Army, iii 288. 
Amim, Henry von, Prussian 

Foreign Minister, vi. 88. 
Amonconrt, General d* : Austrian 

oonunand, v. 172. 

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Arqnes, Duke of Joyeuae, ete., ii. 
m, 476. 

AtrabiaU, Florentine Party, L 

Arran, Regent, ii 250, 251. 

ArrH cTUnion, iii. 355. 

Arsaldi, Ck>lonel, vi. 21. 

Arthur, Prince of Wales : Karri- 
aj^ with Catharine of Aragon, 

Artillery, use of, L 342. 

Artois, Comte d* : Interview with 
Leopold II. at Mantni^ ▼. 61 ; 
expedition of English and Emi- 
grants, 204 ; Lieutenant-General 
of France, 518. 

Asfeld, Marshal d', iv. 231. 

Asiento, monopoly of SlayeTrade, 
iv. 106, 112, 191, 245, 247, 304. 

Asia : Russian advance in Central 
Asia, vi 222, 232. 

Asaignats, French Paper Cur- 
rency, V. 64, 208. 

Assis, Francois de : Marriage 
with Isabella II. of Spain, vi 

Asturias, Prince of, title of heir 
apparent of Castile, i 234 note. 

Athens, rulers of, i 83. 

Atmeidan^ Turkish place of As- 
sembly, i 14. 

Aubigny, Robert Stuart, Lord of, 
i 226, 247, 253, 256, 274, 358. 

Auckland, Lord, English Minister 
at the Hague, v. 108. 

Auersburg, Gerinan Minister, iii 

Auersperg, Prince, v. 374. 

Auerswald, General, vi. 06. 

Augereau, Greneral : French com- 
mand in Italy, v. 215 ; Envoy 
to Bonaparte, 249; command 
of Rhine and Meuse armies, 
253 ; command of Army in the 
South, 348; Marshal <rf the 
Empire, 352. 

Augsburg: Diets of (1500), i 277 ; 
(1510), 295 ; (1518), 407 ; (1530), 
ii. 93, 97; (1547), 238; (1560), 
253,256; (1555), 286; religious 
peace of Augsburg, 287 ; league 
of, iv. 46. I 

Au^pstenburg, Duke of : Schles- 
wig-Holstem claim, etc, vi 89, 
114, 164. 

Augustus, Elector of Saxony, ii 

Augustus XL, King of Poland: 
Coronation, iv. 15; government 
of Livonia, 121 ; deposition, 
138; treaties, 127, 138, 141, 150, 
156 ; re-establishment, 158 ; 
death, 224. 

Augustus III., King of Poland: 
recognition by Third Treaty of 
Vienna, iv. 233 ; equivocal 
policy, 260; Austrian succession 
claims, 263 ; death, 364. 

Aulic Council, powers of, iii 157 

Aumale, Charles, Duke of, ii. 
248; iii 49. 

Aumale, Henry, Duke of, vi 

Aumont, Marshal d', conunander 
in Chanipagne, iii 55. 

Austria : House of Habeburg, i 
31 ; hereditary transmission of 
Romano-Germanic crown, 32; 
Hoker's insurrection, 96; re- 
union of Austrian lands, 97; 
invasion by Matthias Corvinus, 
207; re-conquest, 210; here- 
ditary possession, 386, 387; 
Franco- Austrian rivi^, 434; 
Reformation— opposition to 
Lutheranism, ii 54; struggle 
for supremacy between France 
and Austria, 179 ; Catholic re- 
section, iii. 86 ; act of confedera- 
tion, 153; oo-operation with 
Russia against Turkey, iv. 242; 
partition proposed, 259; in- 
vasion by French, Bavarians 
and Poles, 263; peace with 
Prussia, 269; effects of Austrian 
Succession War, 305; treaties 
with France, 314 ; secret treatv 
with Turke^r, 380; Russo- 
Austrian family alliance, 402 ; 
third partition of Poland, v. 
174 ; campai^ against French, 
190; defensive alliance with 
Great Britain, 201 ; negotiatioiis 

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with French Republic, 202; 
French campaign, 239 ; annexa- 
tions, 245; negotiations with 
Napoleon, 247, 252 ; oondnsion 
of war with France, 256 ; con- 
vention with Grison LcMigne, 
291 ; treaty of subsidies with 
Great Britain, 312; Russo- 
Austrian Alliance, 358; French 
invasion, occupation of Vienna, 
373 ; territorial losses, 380, 459 ; 
continental system, 416, 458; 
military preparations, Land- 
wehr^ 451 ; declaration of war 
against France, 452 ; policy of 
ter^versation, 498; peace of 
Paris, 519; Italian acquisitions, 
523, 524; neglect oi domestic 
adndnistration, vi. 22; exclu- 
sion of Jesuits, 23 ; incorpora- 
tion of Cracow, 84 ; peace with 
Sardinia, 99 ; Prussian rivalry 
in Crermany, 111 ; abolition A 
New Constitution, 112; (mer- 
man policy, 112; neutrality in 
Turkish war, 119; alliance 
with Prussia, 121 ; cession of 
Italian possessions, 138; in- 
ternal troubles, reforms, 150; 
demand for admission to ZoU- 
verein, 155; Fiirstentag at 
Franldurt, 155 ; martial law in 
Galicia, 161 ; joint possession 
with Prussia of Schleswig-Hol- 
stein, 170, 175; army, unpre- 
paredness for war, 177 ; recall 
of troops from Italy, 185; 
" Andrassy Note," 207 ; oppo- 
sition to Treaty of San Stef ano, 
216; alliance with Germany, 
220; acquisition of Bosnia, 
224 {see cUso Reformation). 

Austria, new house of, iv. 295. 

Autos da j^4, L 198 ; abolition in 
Spain, vi. 10. 

Avalos, Ferdinand de, Spanish 
leader, i. 423, 437. 

Avaux, Count of, French Minis- 
ter, ilL 335, 336; iv. 51, 52. 

Avignon : Papal Court removed 
to, i. 389 ; union with France, 

Ayala, Balthazar, Spanish writer, 

IV. 180. 
Azab, Turkish Infantry Militia, 

i. 8. 
Azara, Chevalier, iv. 394 ; v. 223, 

Azeglio, Count Massimo d\ Prime 

Muiister of Sardinia, vi. 128, 

129, 139. 
Azevedo, Don Antonio Aranjo 

de, V. 258. 
Azof : Acquisition by Russia, iv. 

16, 17, 244. 
Azores: Discovery of, i. 324; sub- 
jection by Spain, ii 475. 

Baboeuf, Francois Noel, v. 234. 

Bacciocchi, Eliza: Principality of 
Piombino bestowed upon, v. 
363; Grand Duchess of Tus- 
cany, 463. 

Bacciocchi, Felix, v. 315. 

Bacher, Monsieur, French Charge 
d' Affaires at Ratisbon, v. 389. 

Bacon, Roger, i. 327, d&Tnote. 

Badebeben, founder of Tugend- 
bund, V. 460. 

Baden, Elector of: Assumption of 
title of Grand Duke, v. 380. 

Baden, Margrave Leopold Will- 
iam: Imperial command in 
Hungary, iv. 5. 

Baden, Pnnce Louis of : Imperial 
command, iv. 86. 

Badoero, Venetian Ambassador in 
France, i. 452. 

BagUone, Gian Paolo, of Perugia, 
i. 282, 296, 310, 430. 

Baglione, Malatesta, Florentiiie 
commander, ii. 83. 

Bagration, Prince : Russian com- 
mand, V. 372, 475, 485 ; death, 

Bahama Islands, discovery of, L 

Bailly, Leader of Tiers-Etat, v. 
33 ; President of National As- 
sembly and Mayor of Paris, 39; 
resignation of Mayoralty of 
Pam, 71. 

Baird, General Sir David : Com- 
mand of English reinforcements 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



in Eg^t, y. 326 ; English com- 
mand in Spain, 460. 

Bajazet I., Saltan of Turkey : Es- 
tablishment of Turkish colony 
at Constantinople, i 4; title of 
Saltan first assumed by, 11. 

Bajazet III., Saltan of Turkey: 
Negotiations with Papal See, i. 
220, 221 ; peace maintained 
with the Venetians, 263; re- 
daction of Caramania, 374, 
375; death, 375. 

Baker, General: English expe- 
dition to Suakim, yi. 226. 

Balagny, (xovemor of Cambray, 
iii. 78. 

Balance of Power in Europe: 
Growth of international policy 
and law, i. 3 ; Henry VlIL— 
change of policy, ii. 5 ; origin 
and progress, iv. 175, 176 ; rival- 
ry of France and Austria, 176 ; 
rivalry of France and En^and, 
178 ; political results of Seven 
Years' War, 356, 357 ; German 
and Italian unity, vi. 199 ; effect 
of Triple Alliance on France 
and Russia, 219. 

BalbuB, Hieronymus, Hungarian 
ambassador to Diet of Worms, 
i. 449. 

Ballasteros, General, Spanish 
command, v. 472; vi. 11. 

Baltadschi, Mohammed, Grand 
Vizier of Turkey, iv. 153. 

Baltic Sea: Neutrality for pur- 
poses of commerce, iv. 336. 

BsQue, Cardinal, i. 140. 

Bambridge, Christopher, Car- 
dinal-Archbishop of York, i. 
307, 352. 

Bandini, Bernardo : Assassination 
of Julian de Medici, i. 115. 

Baner, Swedish General, Thirty 
Years* War, iii 277, 295, 301, 
305, 307, 308, 311, 320, 321. 

Barbarians : Invasion of Europe, 
downfall of Roman Empire, 
i. 1. 

Barbaroux, v. 97. 

Barberini, Cardinal, Papal Legate 
to Paris, iii. 242, 243. 

Barberini, Cardinal Maffeo: Elec- 
tion to Pontificate, iii. 236 («ee 
alw Urban VIII.). 

Barb^sieux, Admiral, iL 41. 

Barbo, Pietro : Election to Pon- 
tificate, i. 102 (see dUo 
Paul II.). 

Barcelona: Trade progress, etc., 
ii. 194. 

Barcelona, House of, i. 63. 

Bar6re de Vieuzac, v. 103, 122; 
resignation, 186; trial and 
transportation, 187, 188. 

Bamabites, clerical order, ii. 

Bamave, Antoine, member of 
National Assembly, v. 63. 

Bameveldt, Jan van Olden, advo- 
cate of Holland, uL 140, 143, 
144 ; quarrel with Prince Maur- 
ice, 182; illegal arrest, 183; 
execution, 184. 

Barras, Paul : Marseilles atroci- 
ties, V. 139 ; attack on Hotel 
de Ville, 156 ; General of the 
National Convention troops, 
206 ; director, 207, 219. 

Barri, Comtesse du, iv. 427, 439, 

Barri, Godefroi de, Sieur de la 
Renaudie, ii. 317. 

Barrot, Odillon, vi. 39, 76 ; French 
minister of Justice, 82. 

Bartenstein, minister to Maria 
Theresa, iv. 260. 

Barth^emy, Monsieur, French 
ambassador in Switzerland, v. 
212 ; election as Director, 247. 

Basle : French attack on, L 
35, 392 ; peace conferences, v. 

Bassano, Duke of, French Foreign 
Minister, v. 482. 

BassevUle, French Secretary of 
Legation at Rome, v. 104. 

Bassompierre, Marshal, iii 231, 

Batavia : Colonization by Dutch, 
trade, etc., iv. 184. 

BatavvnRepublic: Establishment 
in Holland, v. 196 ; Dependence 
upon France, 256; ''One and 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Indivisible Batavian Republic, " 

Bathory, Cardinal Andrew, iii 

Bathorv, Sigismund : Abdication 
and death, iiL 96. 

Bathory, Stephen, Voyvode of 
Transylvania, i. 105. 

Bathory, Stephen, Vojrvode of 
Transylvania, election, ii. 448; 
election to Crown of Poland, 
448, 460 ; marriage with Anne 
Jagellon, 460; death, iii. 88. 

Bathyani, General : Austrian 
command, iv. 291. 

Batthyani, Count, Hungarian 
Prime Minister, vi. 93, 101. 

Battles : Aasund, iiL 215 ; Abens- 
berg, V. 453; Aboukir (1798), 
V. 277 ; (1801), 326 ; Adowa, vi 
233 ; Agnadello, I 287 ; Albeck, 
V. 371 ; Albuera, 471 ; Alcan- 
tara, iL 472; Alcolea, vi. 190; 
Aljubarrota, L 67 ; Alma, vL 
121 ; Almanza, iv. 98 ; Almon- 
acid, V. 468; Altenhoven, v. 
114 ; Amberg, 228 ; Amiens, vi 
197; Antwerp, ii 420; Arcis- 
Bur-Aube, v. 515 ; Arcole, 231 ; 
Arlon, 191 ; Arques, iii. 56 ; 
Atbara, vi 234; AuerstHdt, 
V. 397 and note; Austerlitz, 
377 ; Balaclava, vi 122 ; Bally- 
namuch, v. 278 ; Bamet, i 146; 
Bassano, V. 231 ; Bassignano, iv. 
296 ; Batyne, v. 475 ; Bautzen, 
502; Baylen, 445; Bea/nhf 
Head, iv. 54 ; Beaumont, vl 
194 ; Beaune la Rolande, 196 ; 
Beauvoir, 197; Bega, iv. 14; 
Belchite, v. 468 ; Belling, 414 ; 
Beresina, 492 ; Bergen (1759), 
iv. 335; (1795), v. 210; (1799), 
300; Biberach (1796), 229; 
(1800), 311 ; Bitonto, iv. 231 ; 
Bitschin, iii 88 ; BUneau, iii 
364; Blenheim, iv. 90; Bo- 
chetta, i 117; Borghetto, v. 
221: Borodino, 488, 489; 
Bosworth, i 172; Boyne, iv. 
54; Brandywine, 444; Briln- 
kirka, iii 215; Bresku, iv. 


328 ; Brienne, v. 514 ; Brotfeld, 
i 105; Brunkebjerg, iii. 213; 
Brunswick, ii. 276; Budweis, 
iii. 191 ; Bunker's Hill, iv. 442; 
Burkersdorf, iv. 350; Caldiero, 
V. 373; Camperdown, 259; 
Campillo de Arenas, vi. 15; 
Campo Santo, iv. 285; Cann- 
stadt, V. 225; Canopus, 326; 
Cape Finisterre, 363 ; Cape St. 
Vincent, 259; Caravaggio, i 
55 ; Carpi, iv. 82 ; Carthagena, 
332; Cassano (1705), iv. 94; 
(1799), V. 294; Castelfidardo, 
vi 144; Castiglione, v. 230; 
Cateau Cambr^is, 191 ; Cerig- 
nola, i. 256 ; Cerisole, ii 164 ; 
Cesena, vi 59; Champaubert, 
V. 514; Chatillon-sur-S^vres, 
136 ; Chemnitz, iii. 311 ; Chiari, 
iv. 82 ; Chios, 378 ; ChoUet, v. 
136; Choczim (1673), iv. 8; 
(1739), 243; Citate, vi 120; 
Clissow, 136; Calcinato, iv.97; 
Copenhagen, v. 322 ; Corbach, 
iv. 336 ; Corunna, v. 450 ; Cos- 
sova, i 21; Coutras, iii. 43; 
Crefeld, iv. 331 ; Cremona, vi. 
96; Curtatone, 95; Custozza, 
185 ; Czaslau, iii. 191 ; (1742), 
iv. 269; Damietta, v. 324; De- 
nain, iv. 110; Dennewitz, v. 
506; Dettingen, iv. 282; Do- 
minica, 456 ; Dormans, ii. 461 ; 
Dresden, v. 506; Dreux, ii. 341, 
842 ; Dunes, iii. 378 ; Diirren- 
stein, v. 372 ; Ebelsberg, 453 ; 
Eckmuhl, 453; Eilenburg, iii. 
306 ; Elo^, V. 514 ; Emmen- 
dingen, ^; Engen, 311 : Ent- 
holm, iv. 25; Enzheim, iii 456 
Erraster, iv. 144 ; Espinosa, vi 
449; Esquiios, i 428; Esslin 
gen, V. 226 ; Estrenoz, iii 424 
Eylau, V. 402; Famars, 126 
Fehrbellin, iv. 23; Ferkeh, vi, 
233; Finisterre, iv. 302 ; Fleur 
us (1622), iii 207; (1690), iv. 58 
(1794), V. 192 ; Flodden, i. 348 
Fokchany, iv. 415 ; Fontenoy, 
295; Fomovo, i 229; Fossano, 
▼. 309; Foulques de ViUaret, 

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i. 84; Fraaenbnmnen, v. 268; 
Franenstadt, iv, 142; Frederieia, 
Ti.l04; Frederick8hamm,iy.414; 
Freiburg, 350; Friedberg, 361; 
(1796), V. 228 ; Friedland, 404 ; 
Friedlingen, iv. 86; Fnentes 
d'Onoro, v. 470; Fanen, iii 
222; Gamonal, t. 449; Gavi- 
nana, ii 84 ; Geisberg, v. 144 ; 
Gemauerthof, iv. 145; Grem- 
blours, iii. 7 ; Genestrello, vi. 
135 ; Genola, t. 309 ; Goito, vL 
95; Golnmbo, iii 403; Goiy- 
min, V. 402; Gran, iv. 10; 
Granson, i. 158, 159; Granville, 
V. 136; Gravelotte, vi. 188; 
(1870), 194; Groda, v. 418; 
Gross Beeren, v. 505; Gross 
Gorschen, 502; Gross-Jft^rs- 
dorf, iv. 326; Grozka, 243; 
Grunbere , 347 ; Guenez, v. 449 ; 
Gnildford, iv. 455; Guin^gate 
(1478), i. 166 ; (1513), i. 349 ; 
Guntersdorf, v. 374;|Giinzbnrg, 
371 ; Halmstadt, iv. 25 ; Hanan, 
V. 508; Handschnheim, 210; 
Hasselt, vi. 49; Hafitenbeck, 
iv. 324 ; Heliopolis, v. 325 ; 
Helsingborgj iii. 222; He^li- 
gerlee, ii. 429; Hochkirch, iv. 
333; Hochst, iii 207; H6ch- 
stadt, iv. 88 ; (1800), v. 311 ; 
Hohenfriedberg, iv. 293; Ho- 
henlinden, v. 313 ; Holktbriinn 
(1805), 374 ; (1809), 457 ; Hond- 
schoote, 141 ; Hoogstraden, ii. 
155 ; Hnmmelshof, iv. 144 ; 
Inkerman, vi 122 ; Innsbruck, 
V. 453 ; Isly, vi. 65 ; Ismail, 
iv. 415 ; Ivrea, iii. 326 ; Ivry, 
iii. 57 ; Jankowitz, 332 ; Jamac, 
ii 360; Jassy, iii. 209; Je- 
mappes, v. 99; Jemsum, ii. 
432 ; Jena, v. 397 ; Kaiafat, vi. 
120 ; Kaleb Medina, 63 ; Ka- 
lisch, iv. 43 ; Kapolna, vi 99 ; 
Kappel, i. 422 ; ii 101 ; Kas- 
trikum, V. 300; Katzbach, 506; 
Kempen, iii. 323 ; Keresztes, 
95 ; Eesseldorf , iv. 294 ; Kehl, 
V. 241 5 Ki5ge, iv. 26 ; Kirch- 
heim, v. 225 ; Klausenburg, iv. 

3; Kloster Canip, 337; Kold- 
ing, vi. 104; Kolin, iv. 326; 
Konieh, vi 62 ; KtSniginbol, vi 
179 ; Konigshofen, ii 63 ; Kor- 
nach, V. 228; KrasnoY, 487; 
Kulm, 506 ; Kunersdorf , iv. 335 ; 
La Corona, v. 232; La F^re 
Champenoise, 515 ; La Hogue, 
iv. 69 ; La MolineUa, i 111 
La Pietra, v. 231 ; La Trem 
blaye, 136; Landrecies, 191; 
Landshut, 453 ; Langensalza, 
vi. 178; Lanscrona, iv. 26 
Laon, V. 515 ; Lauffen, ii 126 
Lawfeld, iv. 302 ; Le Mans, v. 
136; Leipsic (1631), iii 276 
(1641), 323; (1813), v. 607 
LemnoB, 419 ; Lens, iii 349 
Lepanto, ii. 373; Leuthen, iv. 
328; Lexington, 442; Lia- 
khovo, V. 491; Lie^tz, iii 296 
Liesna, iv. 147 ; Ligny, v. 630 
Lipan, i 36; Lissa, vi. 186 
Llorens, iii 341 ; Loano, v. 211 
Lobositz, iv. 319 ; Lonato, v. 
230 ; Lowestoft, iii. 429; Ludg 
nano, ii. 283 ; Lunden, iv. 26 : 
Lutter, iii. 258; Luttemberg, 
iv. 332 ; Liitzen (1632), iii 283 1 
(1813), V. 602; Maciejowice, 
173 ; Madonna dell* Olmo, iv, 
285; Magenta, vi. 135; M 
nano, v. 293; Maida, 3 
Mainz, 711 ; Malo-Jaroslavetz, 
490 ; MsJplaquet, iv. 102 
Mal^, V. 225; Marcfafeld, 466 
Marengo, 310; Maria Zell, 372 
Marignano, i 360; Marsaglia, 
iv. 61 ; Martinesti, 415 ; Mat- 
chin, 425; Medellin, v. 467; 
Medina del Rio Seco, 446 ; Me- 
legnano, vi 136 ; Memminffen, 
V. 311 ; Mentana, vi. 187; Mil- 
lesimo, v. 217 ; Minden, iv. 336 ; 
Mingokheim, iii. 206 ; Mdckem, 
V. 601, 507 ; Mohkcs (1626), ii 
74, 76 ; (1686), iv. 11 ; Mohelev, 
V. 487 ; Mollwitz, iv. 257 ; Mon- 
oontour, ii 361 ; Mondovi, v. 
217; Mons, iii. 462; Montage 
Noire, v. 199 ; Monte Botondo, 
vi 187; MontebeUo (1800), v. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



310; (1859), vi. 135; Monte- 
notte, V. 216 ; Montereaa, 514 ; 
Montlh^ry, L 132 ; Montmiral, 
v. 514 ; Mook Heath, ii. 441 ; 
Morat, L 159 ; Morgarten, 33 ; 
Mdrgel, ▼. 454; Mortara, vi. 
99 ; Moskirch, v. 311 ; Moucron, 
191; Muhlberg, ii 218; Na- 
chod, vL 179; N&fels, i 34; 
Nanci, 160; Narva, iv. 132; 
Navarino, vi 26, 33 ; Navas de 
Tolosa, L 200 ; Neerwinden 
(1603), iv. 60 ; (1793), v. 115 ; 
Nepi, V. 288 ; Neresheim, 227 ; 
Neuburg, 311 ; Neueneck, 268; 
Nenmarkt (1796), 228 ; (1797), 
240 ; NUe, 277 ; Nidb, vi 63 ; 
NoUendorf , V. 506; Nordlingen, 
iiL 296 ; North Foreland, 430 ; 
Noir, V. 296 ; Ocaiia, 468 ; Olte- 
niza, vi. 119 ; Omdurman, 234 ; 
Orthez, v. 517 ; Ostrach, 292; 
Ostrowno, 487 ; Ondenarde, iv. 
100; Palermo, iii 458; Palestro, 
vi 135 ; ParkBuiy, iv. 5 ; Pavia, 
i 467 ; Perot, vi. 223 ; Peter- 
wardein, iv. 211 ; Petronell, 8 ; 
Petten, v. 300; Pf affendorf , iv. 
337 ; Pfullendorf, v. 311 ; Pia- 
oenza, iv. 297 ; Piave, v. 455 ; 
Pinkie, ii. 251 ; Pirmasens, v. 
143; Plevna, vi 213, 214; Pa- 
dol, 179; Polotsk, v. 488, 492; 
Pont-a-chin, 192 ; Prague (1620), 
iii. 202; (1757), iv. 325; Pnf. 
tava, iv. 148; Pultusk (1703), 
137 ; (1806) v. 402 ; Pyramids, 
277 ; Quatre Bras, 530; Quebec, 
iv. 342; Raab, v. 455; Ramil- 
lies, iv. 97; Baslawice, v. 170; 
Bathenow, iv. 23 ; Ratisbon, v. 
453; Raucoux, iv. 299; Ra- 
venna, i 311 ; Reichenb^g, iv. 
325 ; Rheinfelden, iii. 309 ; Ri- 
voli (1796), V. 231 ; (1797), 232 ; 
Rocroi, iii 328 ; Rome, vi 102; 
Rossbach, iv. 328 ; Rostock, 26; 
Rothenthurm, v. 269; Rover- 
edo, v. 230; Rnmersheim, iv. 
103; Rnstchuk, v. 475 ; Rymen- 
ants, iii 8; Saalfeld, v. 396; 
Sacile, 455 ; Sadowa, vi 179 ; 

St. Anion du Cormier, i 175 ; 
StDizier.v. 515; St.Gotthardt, 
iv. 6 ; St. Luda, vi. 95 ; St. 
Qnentin, ii. 297, 298 ; St. Valeri, 
429; Salahieh, v. 277; Sala- 
manca, 472; Salankemen, iv. 
14 ; San Fabriano, i 108 ; San 
Giorgio, v. 231 ; San Giuliano, 
295; Sangershausen, iv. 332; 
Santa Cruz, ii. 475; Samo, i 
107; Savenay, v. 137; Savig- 
liano, 309 ; Schardiag, iv. 87 ; 
ScheUenbei^, 90; Schindelazi, 
V. 269 ; ScMeitz, 396 ; Schlien- 
gen, 229 ; Schweidnitz, iii 323 ; 
Sedan, vi 195; Segovia, i 423; 
Seminara, 256 ; Sempctch, 34 ; 
Senef , iii 457 ; Sievershausen, 
ii 275 ; Simbach, iv. 280 ; Si- 
nope, vi. 119; Sinzheim, iii 
456; Sissek, 92; Sittard, ii 
158; Slivnitza, vi 223 ; Sobota, 
iii. 399; Sochaczen, v. 174; 
Sohr, iv. 293 ; Solebay , iii. 452 ; 
Solferino, vi 135 ; Somo-Sierra, 
T. 449 ; Spirebach, iv. 88 ; Battle 
of Spurs, i 349; Stadth)hn, 
iii. 254; Staffiurda, iv. 58; 
Stantz, V. 269 ; Stockach, 292 ; 
Szezekodny, 172 ; Talavera, 
467; Tartaritza, 475; Tarvis, 
239; Tauber, vi 180; Teinin- 
gen, V. 228; Tel-el-Kebir, vi 
226; Tewkesbury, i 146; Tilsit, 
iv. 27; Tirlemont, v.ll5; (1830), 
vi. 60; Tokay, ii. 77; Tolen- 
tino, V. 528 ; Torgau, iv. 337 ; 
Toro, i 196 ; Tourcoi^n, v. 192; 
Trafalgar, 380 ; Trebbia, 295 ; 
Trecaae^ i 347; Troia, 108; 
Tudela, v. 449 ; Tnrckheim, iii 
456 ; Turin, iv. 97 ; Turnhout 
(1597), iii 81; (1831), vi 49; 
Uckerath, v. 225 ; Upsala, iii 
215 ; Valleggio, v. 520; Valmy, 
94 ; Valvassonne, 239 ; Varna, 
i 21 ; Vamitza, iv. 155 ; Vasaff, 
i 19 ; Vesoul, 165 ; Villa de la 
Navarras, vi 71 ; Villa Viciosa, 
(1665), iii. 425; (1710), iv. 105; 
Villalar, i. 425; Vimeira, v. 
446; Vittoria (1813), 504; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



(1814), 511; Wa^ram, 456^ 
Warka, iii. 403 j Waterloo, v, 
590; Wattignies, 142; Wavre 
590; Weissemburg, vi 193 
WeUinghausen, iv. 347; Wen 
grow, vi. 158 ; Werdt, v. 144 
Wirtingen, 371 ; Wertzlar, 225 
Widsjd, iii 228 ; Wimpfen, 
206; Wittstock, 306; Wolf en 
bilttel, 322; Worth, vi 103 
Yenikale, iv. 425 ; Zehdenick, 
V. 398 ; Zenta, iv. 15 ; Znaym, 
V. 457 ; Zorndorf, iv. 333 ; ZtQ 
lichau, 335; Zurich, v. 297 
ZoBmarshansen, iii 348. 

Bauer, Creneral von, iv. 356. 

Bavaria: Partition of, i. 26; war 
of Bavarian succession, 265, 
278; reaction in favour of 
Roman Catholic Church, iii. 
86 ; dissolution, iv. 93 ; alliance 
with France and Spain, 261; 
expulsion of Austrians and 
Hungarians, 270 ; War of Suc- 
cession, 389, 390 ; com{>en8ation 
cessions, v. 337 ; Austrian inva- 
sions, 368, 453; accession to 
Fifth Coalition, 506. 

Bavaria, Philip of, ii 80, 86. 

Bayanne, Cardinal, Papal pleni- 
potentiary, V. 430. 

Bayard, Chevalier, i 255, 291, 
300, 301, 310, 358, 360, 429, 

Bazaine, General: French com- 
mand, vi. 194, 195. 

Beaconsfield, Lord : Turkish 
question, vi 209, 211 ; conven- 
tion with Sultan, 217 ; Enciish 
representative at Berlin Con- 
gress, 217; reaction in England 
against Forward Policy, 219. 

B^am: Union of B^am and Lower 
Navarre to France, vi. 199. 

Beatoun, Cardinal David, Scot- 
tish Primate, ii 250. 

Beatrix of Naples: Marriage 
with Matthias Corvinus, i 

Beatrix of Portugal, Donna, i 

Beauhamab, Alexander : French 

command on the Moselle, v. 

Beauhamais, Prince Eugene, 
Viceroy of Italy, v. 383 ; com- 
mand in chief of French armies, 
452, 455, 456 ; French command 
against Russia, 486 ; command 
of remnant of Grand Amty, 
retreat from Posen to Leipsic, 
500; French command in Italy, 
510; Italian affairs, 520; evacua- 
tion of Italy, 521. 

Beauhamais, Josephine: Marriage 
with Napoleon Bonaparte, v. 
215; dissolution of marriage, 

BeauhamaiB, M. de, French 
ambassador at Madrid, v. 433. 

Beaujeu, Anne de, i 168, 173 ; 
resignation of Regency, 179; 
treaty with Germany, 177. 

Beaujeu, Peter de Bourbon, Lord 
of, i 170, 179. 

Beaulieu, General : Austrian 
command, v. 141, 215, 218, 219, 
221; recall, 224. 

Beaumarchais, Baron de, iv. 443. 

Beaumont, Christophe de, Arch- 
bishop of Paris, ^1. 

Beauram, M. de, i 457 ; Imperial 
Envoy, 464. 

Beaurepaire, Commandant of 
Verdun, v. 94. 

Beauvilliers, Duke of, iv. 75. 

Bedford, Duke of. Regency of 
France, i 69 ; death, 73. 

Belgium : French campaigns, iii 
303; French invasion and re- 
verses, V. 76 ; French successes, 
99, 194; Declaration of Inde- 
pendence (1789), iv. 417; (1820), 
vi47; government by Congress, 
iv. 418 ; submission to Leopold 
II. , iv. 423 ; union with Holland, 
V. 520, 525 ; effect of French 
Revolution of 1830, vi. 45, 
46; riots, vi. 46; European 
recognition of independence, 

Belgrade: Siege, i 18; surrender 
to Turks, massacre of Hun- 
garians, 449. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Bollard, French Envoyto Holland, 
vi. 60. 

Bellarmine, iii. 17. 

Bellasis, Sir H., English com- 
mander, iv. 87. 

Bellav, Cardinal du, ii 163, 

BeUay, Martin de, ii. 29, 30. 

Belle^arde, Count, conmiand of 
coiJition army in Tyrol, v. 291 ; 
Anstrian command, 452, 520, 

Belle-Isle, Count, iv. 230, 258, 

Belliard, General, French com- 
mandant of Cairo, v. 326. 

Belvedere, Comte de, v. 449. 

Bern, General, Transylvanian 
command, vi. 99, 100. 

Bembo, Pietro, secretary to Leo 
X., i. 345, 354. 

Bendek, Field-Marshal, Austrian 
commander-in-chief, vi 178, 

Bender, Field-Marshal, Austrian 
command, iv. 423; v. 210. 

Benedetti, Count, French minis- 
ter, vi. 167, 192. 

Benedict XIII., Pope: European 
war averted by mediation, iv. 

Benedictines, i. 397. 

Beni^in, Baron, vi. 154. 

Bennigsen, General, Russian 
Commander-in-Chief in Ger- 
many, V. 402. 

Bentinck, Lord William : Sicilian 
Revolution, v. 463, 464; Murat 
and Italian affairs, 520, 521. 

Bentivoglio, John, i. 282. 

Benzene, Concino, i. 288. 

Beresford, Lord, Field-Marshal 
of Portuguese troo])s, v. 467 ; 
English command in France, 
517 ; Portugal — member of 
Recency and Commander-in- 
Chief of army, vi. 17. 

Berg, Greneral de, dictatorial 
power at Warsaw, vi. 161. 

Bergh, Count van den, ii 437. 

Berghe, Count van den, Nether- 
lands command, iii 298. 

Berkel, Van, Pensionary of Am- 
sterdam, iv. 397. 

Berkeley, Admiral, v. 469. 

Berliohingen, Gdtz von, ii. 62, 63, 

Berlin : Napoleon's entry, v. 398; 
constituent assembly for Prus- 
sia, vi 96 ; general Democratic 
Congress, 97; reaction after 
disturbances, 98; Congress, 
111 ; new northern Bundt 181 ; 
Dreikaiserbundf 207 ; confer- 
ence, 208; Congress of the 
Powers, 217; centre of Euro- 
pean politics, vi 219; African 
colonization conference, 232. 

Berlin Decree, v. 409. 

Bermudez, Zea, Spanish minister, 
vi 16, 66. 

Bern: Extraordinaiy Assembly of 
Notables, central government 
proclaimed, v. 339. 

B^madotte: v. 239; French am- 
bassador to Vienna, 274 ; com- 
mand of army of observation on 
the Rhine, 290; Minister of War, 
dismissal, 305; Marshal of the 
Empire, 352; command of army 
of Hanover, 365; principality 
of Ponte Corso, 386; French 
occupation of Nuremberg, 393 ; 
command of Spaniards and 
Danes in Sweden, 420; com- 
mand of Saxon army in Ger- 
many, 452; election as Crown 
Prince of Sweden, 477 ; conduct 
of Swedish affairs, 479; scheme 
to overthrow Na{>oleon, 499; 
command of allies in Branden- 
burg, 505; accession to Swedish 
throne, vi. 25 {see cUso Charles 
XIV. of Sweden), 

Bemaldez, ii. 192. 

Bemis, Abb^, iv. 314. 

Bemis, Cardinal, French am- 
bassador at Rome, iv. 438. 

Bemstorff, Count Andreas, Dan- 
ish minister, iv. 320, 410, 413, 

Bemstorff, Count Christian, Dan- 
ish Foreign Minister, v. 177, 
318, 319, §21. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


Berri, Doehesse de, vi 57. 

Berri, Charles Duke of : Ligue du 
Bim Public^ i 131, 192 ; Peaee 
of Ancenis, 138; Champaftiie 
and Brie bestowed on, 189; 
Dnke of Gnienne, 141 ; death, 

Bern, Charles Ferdinand d' Artois, 
Dnke of, assassination, vi. 7. 

Benrer, M.,yi 64. 

Berthier, Marshal : Command of 
army in Italy, v. 260; expedi- 
tion to Rome, 263; chief of 
staff, 308 ; Marshal of the Em- 
pire, 352; PrincipaUty of Neuf- 
chfttel, 386 ; execution of Palm, 

Bertram, General, French Envoy, 
y. 403. 

Bertrandi, Bishop of Comminges, 

B^mlle, Siexir de, iii. 247. 

Berwick, Dnke of, iv. 60 note, 91, 
93, 95, 111, 214, 230, 231. 

Beseler, vi. 89. 

Besme, assassin of Admiral 
Coli^i, ii. 390. 

Bessarabia, cession to Russia, vi. 
216, 217. 

Bessarion, Cardinal, papal legate, 
L 96, 100. 

Beesi^res, General: Marshal of 
the Empire, v. 352; French 
command in Spain, 445, 449, 

Bestnscheff, Russian Chancellor, 
iv. 327, 359. 

Bethlem, Gabor, Voyvode of 
Transylvania, iii. 196, 208, 209, 

B^thune, M. de, French Envoy, 
iii. 231, 237. 

B^thune, Maximilien de {see 
Sully, Due de). 

Beuningen, Van, Dutch minister, 
iii 414, 438. 

BeumonviUe, M., French War 
Minister, v. 115. 

Beust, Friedrich von, v. 113, 168, 
181, 206. 

Beutels, William, ii. 197. 

Bevemingk, Van, iii 373» 

B^ierheffs: Foreign ambassadois, 
L 13 ; governors of EjcUets, 14. 

Beza, Huguenot reformer, ii 
330, 335, 338, 378; iii 43, 136. 

Bianca of Milan : Marriage with 
Francis Sf orza, i 53. 

Bianchi, upholders of p^ralar 
form of government, L 228. 

Bianchi, (%neral : Austrian com- 
mand in Italy, v. 528. 

Bibbiena, Cardinal i. 345, 367. 

Bidoulx, Pr^ean de, i. 348. 

Bibliotli^eca Laurentiana, i. 109. 

'^igi, partisans of the Medici, L 

Birago, ii 360, 378; iii. 117. 

Biron, Armand de Gontaut, Due 
de, iii. 53, 56. 

Biron, Armand Louis de Grontaut, 
Due de, V. 130. 

Biron, Charles de Gontaut, Due 
de : Conspiracy against Henry 
IV., iii 135 ; execution, 137. 

Biron, Duke of Courland, iv. 243, 
263,359,364; v. 175. 

Bischofswerder, General, v. 257. 

Bis^lia,Dukeof : Marriage with 
Lucretia Borgia, i 250; murder 
of, 250, 251. 

Bisegnano, Princes of, i 186. 

Bismarck,Prince:Chief of Prussian 
Kreuz party, vi. 112; Prime 
Minister, 153; comparison with 
Cavour, 153,199; Prussian occu- 
pation of Schleswig, 167; Count- 
ship, 172; annexation of Hol- 
stem, 174 ; allianoe with Victor 
Emanuel, 174; Universal Suf- 
frage, 175 ; peace negotiations, 
181; Northern Bund, 192; title 
of Prince, 198 ; policy of con- 
solidation by alliance, 206; 
"Dictator of Europe," 207; 
president of Berlin Congress, 
217 ; statesmanship and power 
in Europe, 219 ; Austro-German 
alliance, 220; fall, 228. 

Blainville, French ambassador- 
extraordinary, iii. 240. 

Blake, Admiral, iii. 372. 

Blake, €reneral : Spanish com- 
mand, V. 448, 449, 46& 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Blakeney, General, iv. 315. 

Blanc, Louis: SociaUam scheme, vL 
75; ''Minister of Progress," 

Blanea, Florida, Spanish minister, 
iv. 446, 447, 451; y. 184, 

Blanche of Navarre, i. 193. 

BianeS'Batius, ii 479. 

Bleiswyck, Van, Grand Pension- 
ary of Holland, iv. 397. 

Blois: Triple Alliance, L 265; 
EtatS'GStUraux, iii. 47. 

Bllicher, Greneral : Surrender to 
the French, v. 399; withdrawal 
from Swedish army, 415 ; Pros- 
sian command, 502, 514; Qnatre 
Bras, Ligny and Waterloo, 530. 

Blom, Robert, vi. 98. 

Boabdil : capture, i. 201. 

Boccaccio, ambassador, i. 338. 

Bocskai, Stephen, Voyvode of 
Transylvania, iii 96. 

Bodenstein, Professor, Leipsic 
Disputation, i 411. 

Bodiskov, Admiral, v. 421. 

Boetie, Etienne de la, ii 248. 

Bohemia: Catholic and Hussite 
parties, i 36 ; Re^ncy during 
minority of Ladislaus Post- 
humus, 40; lapsed fief, claim of 
Emperor Frederick III., 95; 
invasion, 204 ; '' Perpetual 
Peace" with Hungary, 207; 
propagation of Widil's doc- 
trines, 390; Hussite doctrines 
and Standard of Faith, 390, 391 ; 
Calixtines and Utntquists, 
tenets adopted by Prague Uni- 
versity, 391 ; state of , under Louis 
II., ii. 70, 71 ; Smalkaldic war, 
816, 225 ; conversion into here- 
ditary monarchy, 346; Reforma- 
tion m, i. 391 ; ii. 446 ; iiL 155, 
204; Royal Charter of Rodolph, 
ii. 155, 184; revolution, 189; 
religious dispute, 190; Thirty 
Years' War, 201 ; emigration of 
Protestants, 204; electoral pre- 
rogatives of kings, iv. 17 note. 

Boisot, Louis, ii. 440, 443. 

Boissy, Arthur Gouffier de, i. 354. 

Boleyn^ Anne: career, ii 21 noie; 
marriage and coronation. 111. 

Bolinsbroke, Lord : French Club 
of the Entre-8oli v. 16. 

Bolivar, Simon, vi 10, 11 and note. 

Bolivia, Republic of, establish- 
ment, vi. II note. 

Bologna: capture by TrivuMo, 
i 303 ; coronation of Charles V. , 
ii. 86 ; council, 236, 252. 

Bombs, first use of, at Wachter- 
donck, iii. 36. 

Bompart, Admiral, v. 278. 

Bonaparte Family: Empire of 
France heredituy in, v. 352; 
exclusion from tmrone, vi. 5. 

Bonaparte, Caroline : Marriage 
with Murat, v. 386. 

Bonaparte, Charlotte, v. 434. 

Bonaparte, Jerdme, Prince, v. 
400, 405; King of Westphalia, 
423 ; French command against 
Russia, 486 ; abandonment of 
kingdom, 509; governor of the 
InwUides, vi. 82; royal title 
restored, 110. 

Bonaparte, Joseph, Prince: Pleni- 
potentiary, v. 314; Envoy at 
Amiens, 328 ; ConeordcUoi 1802, 
332 note; Grand Elector, 352; 
French command in Italy, 384 ; 
King of Two Sicilies, 384 ; King 
of Spain, 442, 445, 467 ; retire- 
ment into France, £11 ; com- 
mand of National Guard, 513; 
ambassador to Rome, 26SL 

Bonaparte, Louis, Prince: Con- 
stable of France, V. 352; King 
of Holland, 386; Spanish crown 
offered to, 437 ; abdication, 465. 

Bonaparte, Lucien, Prince : Presi- 
dent of Council of Five Hun- 
dred, V. 306 ; Envoy to Madrid, 
316 ; Porti^ offered to, 433. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon {see Napo- 
leon L, II., IIL). 

Bonaparte, Napoleon Jerdme : 
Member of National Assembly, 
vi. 81 ; marriage with Clothilde 
of Sardinia, 131, 132. 

Bonaparte, Napoleon Louis Je- 
rdme, vi. 59. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


Bonanarte, Pauline : Marriage 
wim Prince Borghese, v. 

Bonaparte, Peter, Member of 
National Assembly, vi. 81. 

Boniface VIII., Pope : height of 
Papal power, i. 388. 

Bonin, General, vi. 104. 

Bonner, Bishop, English am- 
bassador at Rome, ii. 112. 

Bonneval, Connt,Pashaof Bosnia, 
It. 241. 

Bonnier, French plenipotentiary, 
V. 258, 270, 280; murder, 

Bonnivet, Admiral, i. 434, 457, 
460, 462, 468. 

Bonrepauz, ambassador to Eng- 
land, iv. 52. 

Bora, Catharine of, marriage with 
Martin Luther, ii. 65. 

Bordeaux: Parliament, i. 126; 
Gabelle riots, u. 247 ; National 
Assembly, vi. 197. 

Bordeaux, Duke of: Proclama- 
tion as Henry V., vi. 42; mani- 
festo, 106. 

Borffhese, Cardinal Camillo : 
Election to Pontificate iii. 148 
{seecUso Paul V.). 

Borghese, Priince : Marriage with 
Pauline Bonaparte, v. ^. 

Borgia, Alfonso: Election to 
Pontificate as Calixtus III., i. 
106; founder of greatness of 
the Borgia Family, 106 (see 
also Calixtus III.). 

Borgia, Csesar : Hostage, escape, 
i. 222; unfrocking, 235 ; mar- 
riage with Charlotte d'Albret, 
245 ; Duke of Valentiuois, 245; 
conquests, 250; murder of 
Duke of Biseglia, 250 ; French 
expedition to Naples, 253; 
treachery and successes, 257; 
imprisonment, 261. 

Borgia, Francis, Duke of Gandia, 
L 235 ; iii. 106. 

Borgia, Lucretia: Marriages, i. 
189, 250, 251. 

Borgia, Rodriso, Cardinal: Elec- 
tion to Pontificate, i. 106, 187, 

188 {see also Alexander VI., 

Borromeo, Cardinal Charles, ii 

Boscawen, Admiral, iv. 309. 

Bosnia: Conquest by Mahomet 
II., i. 97; conflicts between 
Christians and Mohammedans, 
vi. 207 ; acquisition by Austria, 

Bossu, Count, iL 440. 

Botero, Giovanni, iii. 124. 

Botta, Count, Austrian ambassa- 
dor, iv. 263. 

Boufflers, Marshal, iv. 66, 86, 87, 

Bouill^, Marquis de, iv. 455. 

Bouillon, Duke of, iii. 148. 

Boulanger, General, commandant 
of National Guard, v. 120 ; at- 
tempt to establish Dictatorship, 
vi 224. 

Bourbaki, General, vi. 197. 

Bourbon Family: Venddme and 
Montpensier branches, ii. 231 ; 
descent, iiL 52 note, 

Bourbon, Charles, Cardinal of. 
Proclamation as Charles X., 
iii. 54 ; death, 58. 

Bourbon, Charles, Comte de 
Montpensier and Constable of 
France, i 355 ; governor of the 
Milanese, 363, 367 ; marriage 
with Suzanne de Bourbon, 453, 
454; alienation from Francis I., 
454 ; negotiations with Charles 
V. and Henry VIII., 456; confis- 
cation of lands, 460; Lieutenant- 
€reneral of the Emperor in Italy, 
462; invasion of France, 464; 
visit to Spain, ii. 11 ; Imperial 
command in Italy, 23 ; death, 

Bourbon, Charlotte of : Marria^je 
with William of Orange, iL 

Bourbon, Duke of, Prime Minister 
of France, iv. 216. 

Bourbon, Gilbert of, Comte de 
Montpensier, L 226, 231. 

Bourbon, Louis de, Duke of 
Parma, v. 220, 314, 315. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Bourbon, Louis de Venddme, 
Cardinal, governor of Paris, ii. 
335, 478, 480. 

Bourbon, Louisa Maria, Duchess 
of Bourbon, vi. 138. 

Bourbon, Suzanne de: Marriage 
with Charles of Bourbon, L 4^, 
454 ; death, 455. 

Bourges: Establishment of Uni- 
versity, i. 126 ; National Coun- 
cil, Pragmatic Sanction, 393. 

Bourienne, Secretary to Napo- 
leon, V. 304. 

Bourmont, General, French War 
Minister, vi. 35; Marshal of 
France, 36 ; command of Mig- 
uelite forces, 70. 

Boumonville, Duke of, Imperial 
commander, iv. 22. 

Boumonville, General, French 
commander, v. 98. 

Bousquet, General : Swedish com- 
mand, iv. 276. 

Bouti^res, General, ii 164. 

Bovadilla, Don Francisco de, i. 

Bo^ens, Adrian, i. 368, 369, 372 ; 
Regency of Castile, 384, 423, 
425; election to Pontificate, 
440 {see also Adrian VI., 

Boyl, Father, i. 333, 334. 

Boznak, Aga, v. 475. 

Brandenburg, Albert, Arch- 
bishop-Elector of Mainz, i. 381, 
403, 405; ii 65, 66, 67, 68, 
165, 275. 

Brandenburg, Albert Achilles, 
Elector, i. 154. 

Brandenburg, Casimir of, L 382. 

Brandenburg, Count, vi. 98. 

Brandenburg Electorate, i. 25; 
Nuremberg agreement with 
Saxony, 26; Constituent As- 
sembly, vi. 98. 

Brandenburg, George of, ii. 75. 

Brandenburg, Joachim, Elector, 
1419; 1168,97,104,152. 

Brandenburg, John Sigismund, 
Elector, iu. 187. 

Brandenburg-Anspach, Joachim 
Ernest, A&grave, iii 157. 

Brandon, Charles, Duke of Suf- 
folk, i. 355, 457, 458. 

Brandt, Sebastian, i. 398. 

Braschi, Cardinal: Election to 
Pontificate, v. 183 (see also 
Pius VI., Pope). 

Bravo, Gonzales, Prime Minister 
of Spain, vi 139. 

Braza, M. de, French explorer, 
vi. 226. 

Brazil : Portuguese dominion, ii 
190 ; united Kingdom of Portu- 
gal, Brazil and the Algarves, 
vi. 16, 17 ; constitution as Em- 
pire, 18 ; revolution, 69. 

Breda : Congresa, ii. 443 ; capture 
by Prince Maurice, iii 37; 
peace conference, iv. 300. 

Brederode, Count Henry, ii. 415. 

Brederode, Francis von, i 178. 

Breteuil, Baron, French am- 
bassador, iv. 381. 

Breuil, Peter du, Calvinist preach- 
er, ii. 170. 

Braves, Savary de, French dip- 
lomatist, iii. 133. 

Brez6, Louis de. Grand Seneschal 
of Normandy, i 460. 

Bri^onnet, Bishop and Cardinal, 
i 214, 221, 227, 232. 

Bridport, Admiral, v. 203. 

Brienne, Governor of Picardy, 
ii 4. 

Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse, 
iv. 463, 466. 

Brion, Chabot de, French Ad- 
miral, ii. 121. 

Brissac, Duke of, v. 92. 

Brisaac, Marshal de. Governor of 
Piedmont, ii 257, 284; com- 
mandant at Rouen, 342. 

Brissot, V. 65, 97. 

Bristol, Bishop of, English plem- 
potentiary, iv. 107. 

Bristol, Lord, English ambassa- 
dor at Madrid, iv. 345. 

Brittany: Succession, oath of 
Breton States, i. 173 ; treaties, 
176 ; French invasion, 179 ; an- 
nexation by France, 351. 

Brittany, Anne of : Flight to Re- 
don, i 176; mamage with 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


Maximilian, 177 ; annnlment — 
marriage with Charles VIIL, 
180 ; marriage with Louis XII., 
245; Triple Alliance of Blois, 
265; death, 351. 

Brittany, Duke of : Feudal ser- 
▼ioe, Droits rigcUims^ etc., L 
126, 127. 

Britto, Don Gregorio, iii. 347. 

Brody, Baron, Austrian com- 
mandant of Gattaro, t. 390. 

Broglie, Due de : Prime Minister 
of France, vi. 202, 204. 

Broglie, Marshal, iv. 231, 332, 
3&, 347. 

Brown, Marshal, iv. 326. 

Brueys, Admiral, v. 274, 277. 

BrtLU, Count, iv. 260, 294, 318. 

Bmn, Antoine, iii. 34^. 

Brune, Marshal: French com- 
mands, V. 267, 300, 313, 352, 
415 ; vi 6. 

Brunswick, Charles, Duke of, vi 

Brunswick, Charles William, 
Duke of, Commander-in-Chief 
of AUies, V. 80, 83, 94, 95, 
144, 190, 395 ; death, 397. 

Brunswick, Christian, Duke of, 
iii. 207, 254, 255 ; death, 258. 

Brunswick, Eric, Duke of, ii. 

Brunswick, Ferdinand, Duke of, 
iv. 317, 329, 330, 331, 335, 347, 

Brunswick, Francis of, iv. 333. 

Brunswick, Frederick, Duke of, 
death, v. 530. 

Brunswick, Henry, Duke of, ii 

Brunswick, Henry, the younger, 
of, ii. 254. 

Brunswick, Louis Ernest of, 
Field-Marshal of Holland, iv. 

Brunswick-Bevem, Prince of, iv. 

Brussels: Riots, vi. 46; National 
Congress, 48 : Africa Coloniza- 
tion Conference, 232. 

Brussels, Union of, iii 4 ; dissolu- 
tion, 10. 

Brzotowski, Marshal, iv. 371. 

Buhenherg, Hadrian of, i 159. 

Bubna, Count, vi 21. 

Buccaneers, iv. 190. 

Bucharest Congress, v. 475. 

Bucholtz, Count, Prussian minis- 
ter, V. 161. 

Buckhurst, Lord, iii 29. 

Buddngham, Duke of, iii. 240^ 
241, 249 ; assassination, 251. 

Bucquoi, Count, Walloon General, 
iii 191. 

Buda: University founded by 
Matthias Corvinus, i 209 ; cap- 
ture by Sol^man, ii 152. 

Buffet, President of French 
Chamber, vi 202; premier of 
France, 204. 

Bugeaud, General : French occu- 
pation of Algiers, vi 65 ; dis- 
nussal, 76 ; acknowledgment ai 
Provisional Government, 79; 
command of French Army, 

Bulgaria: Insurrection against 
Turkey, vi 209 ; reorganiza- 
tion of Civil Administration, 
213 ; autonomous tributary 
principality, 216, 217 ; recon- 
ciliation with Russia, 223; 
union under Alexander of 
Battenberg, 223. 

BUlow, Greneral: Prussian com- 
mand, V. 505. 

Bnlwer, Sir H. Lytton, English 
ambassador at Madrid, 115. 

BuncUchuhf Peasant Rising, ii. 

Buoncompagni, Cardinal: Elec- 
tion to Pontificate, ii 383 {see 
also Gregorjr XIII., Pope). 

Buoncompagni, Si&iMM-, Royal 
Commissary of Tuscany, vi 

Buren, Count, Imperial Greneral, 
i 443, 458; ii 130, 212; iii 5. 

Burgoyne, General, iv. 353^ 442, 

Buigundy : Civil War in France, 
i 68; powers and extent, 70; 
Treaty of Arras, 71 ; prosperity 
of Belgian Provinces, 71, 72; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


discontent under Charles the 
Bold, 136 ; military foreee, 148, 
157, 158, 340; French troops 
in, 149; union with France, 
161 ; invasion, 350 ; reconstitu- 
tion of Burgondian Circle; ii. 

Borrard, Sir Harry, v. 446. 

Bnrton, Edward, English am- 
bassador, iii. 91. 

Bute, Lord, iv. 343, 347, 353. 

Buxhovden, General : Bussian 
command in Germany, v. 367 ; 
in Finland, 420. 

Buzot : Project of Departmental 
Guard, v. 97. 

Byng, Admiral, iv. 100, 213, 315. 

^ron. Admiral, iv. 446, 448. 

Byron, Lord : Greek insurrection, 
vi. 30. 

Byzantine Empire {see Turkey). 

Caballero, Spanish Minister of 

Justice, V. 434. 
Cabot, Sebastian, discovery of 

Labrador and Hudson's Bay, i. 

Cabral, Alvarez, Portuguese dis- 
coverer, i 336. 
Cabrera, Gen., Carlist Leader, vi. 

70, 115, 
Cabul: En^ish Resident in — 

murder of Sir L. Cavagnari, vL 

Cadi, judicial officer, i. 15. 
CadicLskers: military judges in 

Roumelia and Anatolia, i. 13, 

Cadiz : Capture hy the English, 

iii. 80 ; insurrection, vi. 190. 
Cadore, Duke of, secretary of the 

Regency, v. 495. 
Cadoudal, George : Conspiracy 

against Napoleon I., v. 349. 
Caillard, M., French minister at 

Berlin, v. 226. 
Cairo': Conspiracy against the 

French— massacre, etc., v. 302; 

French Capitulation, 326; rail- 
way and telegraph to Cape 

Town, vi. 234. 

Cairoli, Prime Bifinister of ItflJy, 

Cajetan, Cardinal, L 408. 

Calabria, Duke of, i. 117 ; 184. 

Calatagirona, Fra Buonaventura, 
iii 82. 

Calatrawi, Military Order of 
Spain, i. 66. 

Calatrava, Spanish Prime Minis- 
ter, vi 71. 

Calder, Sir Robert, v. 363. 

Calderaarii: Sicilian secret so- 
ciety, vi 19. 

Calenberg, Eric, Duke of, ii. 

Calixtines, Bohemian moderate 
Reformers — tenets adopted by 
Univend^ of Prague, i. 391. 

Calixtus III. : Alfonso Borgia, L 
106 ; death of, i. 107. 

Cahnar Union, iii 212, 213, 214, 

Calonne, French minister, iv. 462. 

Calvin, John, ii. 128, 182, 354. 

Calvinism, European character of, 
ii. 182 ; growtn of, iii 100. 

Camarilla — ^Spanish Government 
Party, vi. 10. 

Cambait^r^ : Revolutionary Tri- 
bunal, V. 113; Second Consul, 
308 ; Arch-Chancellor, 352 ; 
First Counsellor of the Re- 
gency, 495; Minister of Jus- 
tice, 528. 

Cambon, v. 131. 

Cambrai Congress, iv. 217. 

CamimrdSi insurrection, iv. 93. 

Campanelia, Thomas, Friar, iii 

Campbell, CoL, English com- 
mander, iv. 446. 

Campbell, Commodore, v. 529. 

Campeggio, Cardinal, Papal Le- 
gate, u. 43, 58, 60, 93, 145. 

Camphausen, Prussian Prime 
Mmister, vi 88. 

Campobasso, Count, i 158, 160. 

Campochiaro, Duke of, v. 285. 

Canada : Discovery and coloniza- 
tion by the French, ii 190, 191 ; 
occupation by the Englisii, iv. 

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Canaiy Islands: Disooveiy by 
Spain, L 323. 

Candia: Restoration to Turkey, 
vi. 63. 

Canisios, Peter, ii 347 ; iii 103. 

Canning, Geoige, Foreign Secre^ 
tary— Bartenstein Convention, 
y. 403; reply to French pro- 
posals lor peace, 448 ; English 
Prime Minister, vL 16, 30. 

Canning, Sir Stratford, English 
ambassador at Constantinople, 
vi. 64. 

Canosa, Prince of, Sicilian Minis- 
ter of Police, vi 19. 

Canrobert, Gen. : French com- 
mand in Crimea, vi. 122 ; resig- 
nation, 124; French frontier 
command, 193. 

Cantemir, Demetrius, Hospodar 
of Moldavia, iv. 153. 

Cape of Grood Hope, i. 325 ; re- 
storation to Holland, v. 344; 
redaction by English, v. 386 

Cape Town : Railway and tele- 
graph to Cairo, vi 234. 

Cape Verde : Discovery of, i 324. 

Capestrano, Giovanni de, career 
of, i 90, 93. 

Canillari, Cardinal: Election to 
Pontificate, vi 58 {see cUso 

Capodistrias, Count, Russian 
Secretary, member of Heteraifie, 
vi. 29; Russian Envoy to 
Troppau, 20; election as Pre- 
sident of Greece, 33. 

Capponi, Pietro, i. 219. 

Cammccini, religious order, ii 

Capudan P€uka, Hi^h Admiral, 
member of Divan, i. 13. 

Caracciole, Marquis, v. 299. 

Caracciole, Papal Legate, i. 414. 

Carafia, Cardinal, ii 203, 321, 322, 

Caraffift, Gianpietro, ii. 185 ; elec- 
tion to Pontificate, 285 {see 
also F&xdlY.). 

Caraman, IVench envoy to Trop- 
pau, vi 20. 

Caraaoosa, Gen., vi. 19. 
Carbonari, secret society, vi 8, 

19, 21. 
Cardona, Don Raymond de, i 

307, 309, 315, 346, 347, 348, 356, 

359, 361. 
Carew, Sir Peter, ii 279. 
Cariati, Prince, Prime Minister 

of Naples, vi. 95. 
Carletti, Count, Tuscan Envoy to 

Paris, V. 199. 
Carlists, Spanish Par^, parti- 
sans of Don Carlos, vi 67. 
Carlos, Don, History of, i. 191, 

192, 193. 
Carlos, Don (son of Philip II. of 

Spain) : birth, ii 278 ; story oi, 

Carlos, Don (son of Philip V.), 

King of the Two Sicilies, iv. 

Carlos, Don, Duke of Madrid: 

Struggle for Spanish Crown, vi 

70. 71 ; flight, 72. 
Carlsbad Reiolutions, vi. 24. 
Carnot, President: New system 

of warfare, v. 140 note ; director, 

207 ; proscription — escape, 251 ; 

opposition to re-estabhshment 

of monarchical principles, 351 ; 

Minister of Interior, 528 ; 

President, vi 227. 
Caroline, Queen of Naples and 

Sicilies, v. 383, 384, 385. 
Caroline Matilda, of England : 

Marriage with Christian XII. 

of Denmark, iv. 410. 
Caroline Ordinance, ii. 104. 
Carpi, Cardinal di, ii. 161. 
Carrier : Revolutionary Tribunal, 

V. 113 ; Nantes Noyades, 140 ; 

execution, 187. 
Carteret, Lord, iv. 280, 293. 
Cartier, Jacques, French ex- 
plorer, ii 190. 
Carvajal, Don Joseph de, iv. 338. 
Casimir (son of Casimir lY. of 

Poland), chums to Hungary, 

invasion, eto., i. 206. 
Casimir IV . of Poland, i 25, 204 ; 

death, 211. 
Cassono, Duke of, v. 299. 

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Oastagna, Cardinal : Election to 
Pontificate, iii 60 {see also 
Urban VII.). 

Castanos, Cren. : Spanish com- 
mand in Peninsular War, v. 

Castel Rodrigo, Marquis of, Go- 
vernor of Spanish Netherlands, 
iii 434. 

Castellane, Gen., Marshal of the 
Empire, vi. 110. 

Casti^one, Cardinal : Election 
to Pontificate, vi 55 {see also 
Pius VIII.). 

Castile : Constitution and Govern- 
ment, L 64; Portuguese in- 
vasion, 196; union with 
Araj^n, 197. 

Castilfon, French ambassador, ii. 

Castlereagh, Lord, Secretary at 
War, V. 414, 482, 513, 623. 

Catalonia: Union with Aragon, 
i. 63; Constitution and inde- 
pendent government, 65; re- 
volt, iii. 314; union with 
France, 319; reunion to 
Spanish Crown, 368. 

Catharine I., Tsarina of Russia, 
iv. 220, 237. 

Catharine II., Tsarina: Acces- 
sion, iv. 350; character, 359; 
proclamation, as sole Emj^ress^ 
360; government, administra- 
tive reforms, etc., 362 ; Turk 
ish and Polish Questions, 379 
visit to Cherson, 404 ; acquisi 
tions in Poland, v. 168 ; policy, 
176; death, 235. 

Catharine of Ara^n : Marriage 
with Arthur, Prmce of Wales, 
i. 234, 270; marriage with 
Henry VIII., 270; divorce, ii. 
39, 41, 112. 

Catharine of Braganca : Marriage 
with Charles II., iii 424. 

Cathcart, Lord : English com- 
mand in Crermany, v. 375; 
Commander-in-Chief in Den- 
mark, 412 ; ambassador at St. 
Petersburg, 503 ; Envoy to 
Ch&tillon Peace Congress, 514. 

Cathelineau : La Vendue insur- 
rection, V. 113. 

Catholic League : Formal or^ni- 
zation, ii. 463; real ori^, 
463 note; revival, 477; meeting 
of leaders at Joinville, 479; 
publication of manifesto, 481; 
counsels at Nanci, iii. 44 ; edict 
of union, 46 ; army annihilated 
at Ivry, 58; reaction aeainst, 
67; submission of Sorbonne, 
70 ; end of, at Treaty of Folem- 
bray, 73. 

Catholic League of Germany, 
organization, iii. 158; schism 
and dissensions in, 187, 188; 
treaty with Protestant Union, 

Catholic League of €rermany 
(second), iii. 379. 

Catinat, Gen., iv. 57, 61, 82, 86. 

Caumont, Duke of Epemon, etc., 
ii. 460. 

Cava^nari, Sir L., first EngUsh 
resident in Cabul, murder, vi. 

Cavaignac, Gen., v. 463; vi. 79, 

Cavalry, importance of cavalry in 
sixteenth century, i. 340. 

Cavour, Count, Irime Minister 
of Sardinia, vi. 129; policy, 
129; interview with Napoleon 
III. at Plombi^res, 131; war 
with Austria, 134; resigna- 
tion, 139; return to power, 141; 
success of Italian policy, 145; 
Prussia and Italy, identity of 
interests, 146 and note; con- 
solidation of united Italy, diffi- 
culties, 148; death, 148; com- 
parison of workwithBismarck's, 

Cazalis, v. 42. 

Cellamare, Spanish ambassador 
in Paris, iv. 214. 

Cerdagtae: Cession to Spain, i 
181, 193, 195; revolt of inhabi- 
tants 194. 

Ceri, Renzo da, i. 464, 467 ; ii 30, 

Cervantes, ii. 373. 

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Cervera, Admiral, vL 2M. 

Cervini, Cardinal Maroello: Elec- 
tion to Pontificate as Maroellos 
n., death, iL 286. 

Cesarini, Julian, L 20, 21. 

Centa: Conqnest and colonization 
by Portugal, L 67. 

CevaUos, Don Pedro, Spanish 
Foreign Minister, v. 438. 

Ceylon: Portngaese Bettlement, 
i. 337 ; cession to Great Britain, 
T. 328. 

Chabot, Philip, L 464. 

Chair Bey, Governor of Egypt, i. 

Chalcooondyles : Institntion of 
Janissaries, i. 6 noU, 

Chalil Patrona, Albanian Janis- 
sary, iv. 239, 240. 

Chambord, Comte de, vi 202. 

Champagny, French Foreign 
Minister, ▼. 448. 

Championnet : French command 
in Italy, v. 287, 288. 

Chancellor, Richard, iii 127. 

Changamier, €ren. : French com- 
mand in Algiers, vi 79 ; com- 
mand of National Guard, 82; 
dismissal, 106. 

Chantonay, Perrenot de, Spanish 
minister in France, ii. 333. 

Chanzy, Gen. : French command, 
vi. 197. 

Charette, Anastase, v. 113, 203, 

Charlemagne, Roman Emperor, 
title, i. 23. 

Charles, Archdoke (brother of 
Leopold II. ), command-in-chief 
of Austrian armv, v. 211 $ com- 
mand-in-chief of the lurmies on 
the Rhine, Sambre and Mouse, 
225, 228 ; generalissimo of Aus- 
trian forces, 239 ; command of 
coalition armyin Germany, 291, 
297 ; removalfrom command in 
Germany, 311; Austrian com- 
mand in Italy, 367 ; Austrian 
military preparations, establish- 
ment of LandwehTj 451 ; cam- 
paign in Germany, 452, 453, 

Charles, Duke of Buigundy and 
Count of Charolais : Character, 
etc, i. 22; accession, 136 ; mar- 
riage with Marwet of York, 
137; reception of French embassy 
at St. Omar, 144; recognition of 
Henry IV. of Lancaster as Kins 
of England, 145; invasion of 
France, 146; charge of High 
Treason, 146 ; truce with France, 
147, 148, 149 ; preparations for 
war, 148; << Charles theTmi- 
ble,'' 149 ; purchase of G«lder- 
land and Zutphen, 151 ; change 
of fNolicy, 151 ; revival of Lothar- 
ingian kingdom, 152 ; si^e of 
Nenss, 153; peace with Ger- 
many, 154; league with Edward 
IV., 155; war with Lorraine, 
156 : expedition against Swiss 
confederates, 157 ; death, 160. 

Charles V., Emperor: Gover- 
nor of the Netherlands, i 
356; election, 382; coronation 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, 385; visit 
to England, 442; administra- 
tion in Spain, popularly, 444, 
445 ; negotiations with Frands 
I. , ii 10 ; marriage with Isabella 
of Portugal, 20; capture of 
Clement VIL, conduct and 
policjr of Charles, 33, 34; Diet 
of Spires prohibited by, 58, 59; 
visit to Italy to receive imperial 
crown, 82; pacification, 85; 
coronation at Bologna, 86; 
meeting with Clement VIL, 
109; African expeditions, 118, 
154; invasion of France, 122; 
retreat from Marseilles, 123; 

J'oumey through France, 142 ; 
jutheran alliances, 148; con- 
clusion of peace with Zapolya, 
151 ; war with Francis 1., re- 
sources, supplies voted by 
Cortes, etc, 157 ; alliance with 
Henry VIIL, 158; visit to Italy, 
159; treaties and alliances m 
preparation for extirpation of 
Lutheranism, 206 ; Imperial 
Ban issued against Elector of 
Saxony and Luidgraveof Hesse, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



211 ; enmitv to Paal IIL, pub- 
lication of the Interim, 240, 241; 
government reforms, reconstitu- 
tion of Borgondian Circle, etc., 
243; support of Council of 
Trent, 259; flight from Inns- 
bruck, 264 ; interview with Sir 
Ricluurd Moryson, 273 note; ab- 
dication, 288 ; retirement at 
Juste, death, 304, 305; character 
and policy, 306 ; court held by, 

Charles YI.^ Emperor : Spanish 
succession claim, iv. 70; pro- 
clamation as King of Spain 
by Allies, 89, 95; landing in 
Portugal, 91; coronation at 
Frankfurt, 106; treaties of 
Rastadt and Baden, 114; 
Spanish Netherlands ceded to, 
115; treaty of alliance with 
Venice, 211 ; Pra^atic Sanc- 
tion, 218 ; occupation of Milan- 
ese, 222 ; death, 248. 

Charles YIL, Emperor: Aus- 
trian succession claim, iv. 249 ; 
election, 267 ; return to Munich, 
290; death, 291. 

Charles I., King of England: Mar- 
riage with Henrietta Maria of 
France, iii 234, 238 ; execution, 

Charles II., K^og of England: 
Restoration, iiL 423 ; marriage 
with Catharine of Bragan^a, 
424 ; war with H<^and, 428 ; 
alliance with Holland, 460; 
secret treaty with Louis XIV., 

Charles VII., King of France: 
Coronation at Poitiers, L 69 ; 
progress of military and mercan- 
tOe affairs, 76 ; quarrel with 
Dauphin, 121 ; Dauphin^ united 
to France, 123; ill policy in 
regard to sovereignty of Genoa, 
123; loss of Genoa, 124 ; death, 

Charles VIII., King of France : 
Regency of Anne of Beaujeu, i. 
169; marriage with Anne of Brit- 
tany, 180; treaty with Ger- 

many, 177; governmentassumed 
by, 179 ; Ludovico Sforza's in- 
vitation to claim Naples, 189; 
Eling of Jerusalem, Greek Em- 
peror, etc, visionary schemes, 
214; conquest of Naples, 214; 
treaty with Alexander, 221; 
death, 242. 

Charles IX., King of France: 
Accession, Queen-mother's Re- 
gency, ii 325, 326; personal 
reign, 344; tour of France, 
354; marriage with Elizabeth 
of Germany, 379, 380 ; vacillat- 
ing policy, 382; Massacre ol 
St. Bartholomew, acknowledg- 
ment of responsibility, 450; 
character and court, 379, 457 ; 
death, 457. 

Charles X., King of France: 
Accession, vL 25; Ordinances 
of St. Cloud, 37 ; abdication, 
41; retirement to England, 42; 
residence at Priu^e, 57. 

Charles I., King of Spain: Acees* 
sion, i. 368 ; entry into Spain, 
unpopularity, etc., 373, 374; 
Santa Junta remonstrances, 

Charles II., of Spain: Attain- 
ment of majority, iv. 68 ; mar- 
riage with Muia Louisa of 
Orleans, 68 ; marriage with 
Mary Anne of Neubur^, 69; 
description by Louis XIV., 71 
note; will in favour of Philip, 
Duke of Anjou, 74; deai^^ 

Charles III. of Spain : Accession, 
iv. 340; changeof policy in Spun, 

Charles IV. ci Spain : Accession, 
V. 110; Russian declaration of 
war against Spain, 298 ; declara- 
tion of war against Portugal, 
316; attempt^ flight, abdica- 
tion, V. 436 ; resumption of the 
Crown, 439 ; Treaty of Bayonne, 
440; death, vi 24. 

Charles IX., King of Sweden: 
"Ruling Hereditary Prince," 
iii 225 ; assumption of title of 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



king, etc. , 226 ; coronation, 227 $ 
death, 227. 

Charles X. , Bongof Sweden: Acces- 
sion, iii. 391 ; warlike schemes, 
392; Polish successes, 398; 
tmoe with Russia, 417 ; death, 

Charles XL, King of Sweden: 
Minority, revolution, etc., iv. 
21 ; marriage with Ulrica £leo- 
nora of Denmark, 25 ; absolute 
monarchy, establishment, 29; 
administoitive reforms, 30 ; 
death, 120, 122. 

Charles XII., Bang of Sweden: 
Accession, iv. 1»); majority, 
128 ; alliance with Dutch and 
English, 130 ; war against Rus- 
sia and Poland, 134, 135 ; in- 
vaflion of Russia, 146 ; imprison- 
ment in Turkey, 155 ; return to 
Grermany, 156 ; war with Prus- 
sia, 156 ; death, 160 ; projected 
conquest of Norway, 161. 

Charles XIII., King of Sweden : 
Accession, v. 422 ; accession to 
continental system, 423; de- 
claration of war a^inst Great 
Britain, 477; Swedish Pomer- 
ania and RUgen, ceded to Den- 
mark, V. 510. 

Charles XIV., King of Sweden: 
Accession, vi 25 ; death, 90. 

Charles, Albert, Elector of Ba- 
varia (see Charles YII., Em- 
peror of Grermany). 

Charles, Albert, King of Sardinia, 
Prince of Carignano, vi. 21 ; 
accession to throne of Sardinia, 
60; policy. Liberal measures, 
etc., 91 ; seizure of MUan, war 
with Austria, 92, 93 ; campaign 
in North Italy, 95 ; resignation 
of crown, flignt, 99. 

Charles Emmanuel I., Duke of 
Savoy, iii 135, 136, 137; death, 

Charles Enmianuel III., King of 
Sardinia, iv. 228. 

Charles Emmanuel IV., King of 
Sardinia: Accession, v. 218; 
French treatment of, 270 ; act 

of abdication, 287 ; Napoleon's 
neglect to indemnify, abdica- 
tion, 341. 

Charles Felix, King of Sardinia: 
Accession, vi 21 ; death, 60. 

Charles Frederick, Duke of Hol- 
stein-Grottorp, iv. 161. 

Charles Peter Uhic, Duke of Hol- 
stein-Grottorp, heir-presumptive 
of Russian throne, iv. 277. 

Charles Theodore, Elector Pala- 
tine : Bavarian succession ques- 
tion, iv. 390, 391, 392 ; suppres- 
sion of Order of JlliMminati, v. 

Charlotte, Queen of Portugal, vi 

Chartres, Due de {see Orleans, 
Duke of). 

Chass^, General : Dutchcommand, 
vi. 49. 

Chasseneuz, President of Parlia- 
ment of Provence, ii 173. 

Chasteler, Marquis von, v. 453. 

Chftteaubriand, French Minister 
of War, vi 14, 36. 

ChAtel, Jean, iii 71. 

Chatham, Earl of: Command of 
English expedition to Wid- 
cheren, v. 4o2. 

CMtillon : Peace Congress, v. 
513. *^ 

Chauvelin, Marquis de, French 
ambassador in London, ▼. 104, 
108, 232. 

Chaves, Marquis de, Portuguese 
Leader of ServUeSy vi. 68. 

Chemises Boitges, v. 152. 

Chemaie V, Greneral : Servian com- 
mand, vi. 210. 

Cheyney, Sir Thomas, ambassador 
to Paris, ii. 20. 

Chiaramonte, Cardinal : Election 
to Pontificate, v. 315 {see also 

Chiaus Bcuhi, Turkish Imperial 
Marshal, i 12; Turkish Home 
Minister, 14. 

Chieregato, Papal Legate, ii 

Chi^vres, Marquis de, i 368, 372. 

Chigi, Fabio, Papal Nuncio, me- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



diator to Catholic Powers at 
Mlinster, iii. 336. 

Chili, subjugation, ii. 190. 

Chimai, Prince of, i. 178. 

China: War with Japan, vi. 236 ; 
anti - forei^ rising — Chinese 
coup'd'4tcJ, vi. 237. 

Chlewinski, General, v. 173. 

Chlopicki, Genera], vi. 62. 

Chmelnicki, Cossack leader, iii. 
396 397. 

Choiseul, Duke of, iv. 334, 336, 
342, 346, 373, 377, 427. 

ChotianSf Breton adventurers, v. 

Christian II., Elector of Saxony, 
Cleves-Jlilich-Berg succession, 
iii. 160. 

Christian I., King of Denmark, 
Norway and Sweden, iii. 213 ; 
death, 214. 

Christian II., King of Denmark : 
Accession, iii. 214; European 
alliances, 214; conquest and 
subjection of Sweden, 216, 216; 
unpopularity, 218 ; expulsion 
from Denmark, 218, 219; King 
of Norway, proclamation—per- 
petual imprisonment in Den- 
mark, 220; death, 220. 

Christian III., King of Denmark: 
Treaty with Francis I., iL 156; 
alliance with Francis I. re- 
nounced, 163 ; election to throne 
of Denmark as Christian III., 
iii. 221 ; death, 222. 

Christian IV., King of Denmark: 
Accession, iii. 224; minority- 
circumscribed powers, etc., ^ ; 
declaration of war against Swe- 
den, 227; Military Chief of 
Circle of Lower Saxony, 264 ; 
Thirty Years' War— interven- 
tion in Germany, 264, 266, 267, 

Christian v.. King of Denmark : 
Accession, iv. 24 ; alliance with 
Frederick William of Branden- 
burg, 24, 26, 26 ; death, 30 ; dis- 
pute with Frederick, Duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp, 121 ; death, 

Christian VII., King of Denmark: 
Accession, iv.410;marriagewith 
Caroline Matilda of England, 
410; accession to Armed Neu- 
trality, V. 321 ; death, 177, 476. 

Christian y III., Kins of Denmark: 
Accession, vi. 84 ; law of female 
succession extended to whole 
Dominions, 84; death, 86. 

Christian IX.. King of Denmark, 
accession, vi. 164. 

Christina, Archduchess of Austria, 
government of Austrian Nether- 
lands, iv. 401, 424. 

Christina, Queen-Regent of Spain: 
Carlist rebellion, vi 67 ; reac- 
tionary policy, 71 ; retirement 
to Italy, 72; return to Spain, 
73; conduct of, 116, 116; return 
to power, 116. 

Christina, Queen of Sweden : Min- 
ority, iii. 329; accession, 332; 
character, 389; abdication, 391; 
conversion to Roman Catholic- 
ism, 391 note, 

Christina of Denmark, marriage 
■with Francesco Maria Sf orza of 
Milan, ii. 86. 

Christina of France, marriage 
with Prince of Piedmont, iii. 

Christinas, Spanish Party, vi. 67. 

Christopher, King of Denmark, 
election, iii. 213. 

Chrzanowski, General, command 
in Piedmont, vi. 99. 

Church, General: Commandant 
at Palermo, vi. 20; affairs in 
Greece, 32. 

Cialdini, General, Italian com- 
mand, vi 144, 149, 186. 

Cibb, Cardinal Gian Battista, 
succession to the Pontificate, L 
184 {see also Innocent VIII.). 

Cib6, Franceschetto, i. 186. 

Cib5, Giulio, Marquis of Massa 
Carrara, ii. 247. 

Cibb, Innocenzo, i 346. 

Cilly, Barbara of, i. 36, 37. 

Cilly, Count, revolt against Em- 
peror Frederick III., i. 88, 89, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Cin<} Mars, conspiracy against 
Richdien, arrest and execution, 
iii. 323, 324. 

Cinque Ports, iL 199. 

Circle of the Empire, ii. 400. 

Cisalpine Republic lEstablishment 

union of Mantua 
with, 254; compulsory treaty 
with France, 271 ; Napoleon s 
proclamation at Milan, 909; 
name changed to ** Italian Re- 
public," m, 

Cissey, Creneral de, Premier of 
France, vi. 203, 204. 

Ciudad Rodrigo: Capture by 
French, v. 470 ; capture by Eng- 
lish, 471. 

Clairfait, Count: Austrian com- 
mand, iv. 415; V. 126, 191, 192, 
193, 210. 

Clarence, Duke of, i. 143, 144, 

Clarke, General, v. 236. 

Claude of France : Marriage with 
Count Francis of Angoul6me, 
i. 351; death, 465. 

Claude of Orange, marriage with 
Henry of Nassau, 371. 

Claude, Duke of Guise, Comte 
d'Aumale, etc., ii. 4, 156 ; 
founder of the greatness of the 
Guises, ii. 230. 

Clavi^re, French Minister of Fi- 
nance, V. 74, 77, 87. 

Cl^menges, Nicholas of. Rector of 
Paris University, i. 391. 

Clement, Archbishop of Cologne, 
iv. 51. 

CUment, Jacques, Dominican 
Friar, iii. 52. 

Clement VII., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, i. 461 ; vacillating 
policy, ii. 15; attack on, by 
feudatories — truce, 23; cap- 
ture by Imperial army, 32, 33, 
34; annulling Henry VIII. *s 
marriage with Catharine of 
Aragon, 41 ; pacification of 
Italy, 85; death, 115; cha- 
racter, 115. 

Clement VIII. , Pope: Election 
to Pontificate, iii. 64 ; career 

previous to election, 64; Henry 
IV. reconciled to, 72; death, 

Clement XI. : Election to Pon- 
tificate, iv. 82; recognition of 
Charles III. as "Kins of Spain, 
103; UnigenittisBvixipnhmhed, 

Clement XII., Maria Theresa's 
Austrian claim, 262. 

Clement XIIL, death, 437. 

Clement XIV. : Election to Pon- 
tificate, iv. 437 ; death, 438 ; v. 

Clementine League {see Holy 

Cleonurd, General, vi 115. 

Clermont, Count, French com- 
mand, iv. 330. 

Cleveland, President: Guiana- 
Venezuela Boundary question, 

Cleves, Philip of, i. 178, 247. 

Cleves • Jlilich - Berg succession 
question, iii. 158, 159, 160. 

Clichy, Club of, v. 248. 

Clinton, Sir H., iv., 444, 448. 

Clootz, Baron, v. 147. 

Clugni, M. de, iv. 441. 

Coach, Matthias Corvinus, in- 
ventor of, i. 209, note. 

Cobenzl, Count Louis, Austrian 
envoy to Napoleon, v. 254, 261, 
270 ; Russian alliance, 281 ; 
Austrian plenipotentiary, 314, 

Cobenzl, Count Philip, Austrian 
ambassador in Paris, v. 355. 

Coburg, Prince: Imperial com- 
mand, iv. 406, 415 ; v. 125, 140, 
191, 192. 

Coburg, Prince Ferdinand of, 
marriage with Maria, Queen of 
Portu|^> vi 70. 

Cochin, discovery of, i 336. 

CocqueviUe, Huguenot Captain, 
ii. 428. 

Cochrane, Lord, vi. 32. 

Code Napoleon, v. 362. 

Codrin{;ton, Admiral, vi 33; 
English fleet in the Scheldt, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Coeiir, Jacques, ii. 198. 

Coenvres, Marquis of, iii 237. 

Cognac, League of {see Holy 

Cohom, Dutch engineer, iv. 59. 

Coi^j, Marshal, iv. 232, 286. 

Ooitnier, Jacques, L 168. 

Colbert, iv. 38, 170. 

Coleone, Bartholomew, L 110. 

Coligni, Admiral Gaspard de, ii. 
291 ; Governor of Picardy, 297 ; 
Huguenot leader, 316, 336, 342; 
marriage with Jacqueline d'En- 
tremont and return to court, 
381 ; death, 389. 

Collard, Royer, vi 7, 26. 

Colli, General : Command of Papal 
Army, v. 237, 270. 

Colloredo, Count, iv. 291. 

CoUoredo, Count Franz, v. 335. 

Cologne : Diet, i. 277 note ; Con- 
gresses (1579), iiL 11 ; (1673), 

Colofipe, Prince Ernest, Arch- 
bishop of, iii. 87. 

Colonization, Progress of, iv. 182, 
183; rivalry of England and 
France, 307 ; colonial expan- 
sion of European Powers, vi. 

Colonna, Cardinal Otho di, elec- 
tion by Council of Constance, i. 
392 {see also Martin V.). 

Colonna, Cardinal Pompeo, L 461 ; 
attack on Clement YII., iL 

Colonna, Fabrizzio, L 312, 313. 

Colonna, Marcantonio, i. 225, 297, 

Colonna, Prosper, i 357, 437, 439, 
441, 460, 462. 

Columbia, Republic of, Venezuela 
and Granada, erection as, vi. 
11 rwte, 

Columbus,Christopher : Discovery 
of America, reception at Span- 
ish court, i. 203 ; maritime ex- 
plorations, 328, 329 ; last voy- 
sj^e, 335; death, 336; inscrip- 
tion on tomb, 336 note, 

Colver, Count, Dutch Resident at 
Constantinople, iv. 211. 

Comines, Philip de. Chronicler of 

France, i. 1^, 149, 170. 
Comiti de SHreU GSnircUe, v. 

CkmiU du Salut Public, v. 117 ; 
organization on re-election, 128 ; 
supremacy of, 132. 
Commendone, Chamberlain to 

Julius IIL, ii 277. 
Commune, v. 85. 

Communeros, Spanish Revolu- 
tionary Party, vi. 12. 
Communism, spread in France, 

vL 75. 
Comp(ictata of Prague, Religious 
privileges secured to Hussites, 
L 36, 37, 204. 
Compagnacci, Libertines, i. 237. 
Company of Distant Countries, 
Dutch commercial association, 
iii. 129. 
Compass, invention of, L 322. 
Complement of the Peace of 

Westphalia, iii. 379. 
'< Compromise, The," ii. 415. 
Concini, Marshal d*Ancre, iii. 166, 

172, 175, 176, 177. 
Concordats : France and Leo X., 
L 362, 363 ; Roman Concordat, 
394 ; Concordat of Vienna, 394 ; 
Spain and Sixtus IV., 394. 
Concordten-Formel, iii. 159. 
Cond^, Princes of : 
Henry I. of Bourbon : Conver- 
sion to Roman Catholicism, 
ii. 451 ; escape into Ger- 
many, 456; lieutenant of the 
Due d'Alenfon, 460 ; com- 
mand of German troops, 461 ; 
Peace of Monsieur, 462; 
death, iii. 50. 
Henry II. of Bourbon, iii. 161, 
169; plots and arrest, 174, 
Louis I. of Bourbon, ii 315, 
316 ; discovery of plots against 
Guise family, 319 ; Guise 
plots, 324, 325 ; preparations 
for Civil War, 335; treaty 
with En^and, 338, 339 ; pri- 
soner at I)reux, 3^; 
nation, 360. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Cond^, Princes of {continued); 
Louis II., Due d'Enghien, iii. 
328, 339, 340, 341 ; Viceroy of 
Catialonia, 347; blockade of 
Paris, 358 ; arrest, 359 ; re- 
storation to dignities and 
charges, 361 ; alienation from 
Court, 362 ; jzeneralissimo, 
365; Franco - Sijanish War, 
369, 378 ; reconciliation with 
France, 387 ; command in 
Holland, 447 ; command in 
Alsace, 457. 
Louis Joseph, command of 
emigrants, vi. 81. 
Condoroet, iv. 465 ; v. 65. 
Confalionieri, vi. 22. 
Confederation of the Rhine, v. 
387 ; alliance with Napoleon 
L, 388; accession of Saxony, 
402 ; suppression of Teutonic 
Order, 458 ; dissolution procla- 
mation, 497; treaties of Princes 
with Allies, 509 ; dissolution, 
Declaration by Prussian Envoy, 
vi. 176. 
Confessio Tetrapolitana, ii. 95, 100. 
Confession, auricular, i. 388. 
Confession of Augsburg, ii. 94, 

CongreacUio de Propaganda Fide, 
Estaolishment by Gregory XV . , 
iii. 110. 
Consalvi, Cardinal, v. 332 note. 
Consistory, Koman, Assembly of 

Cardinals, i. 43. 
Constance : Councils (1415), L 32, 
74, 389 ; Diet (1507), 278 ; op- 
position to Interim— Imperial 
^n, ii 244 ; cai)ture of, 245. 
Constant, Benjamin, journalist, 

vi. 35. 
Constantine, French conquest, 

vi. 61. 
Constantine, Grand Duke of Rus- 
sia : Russian command v. 485 ; 
Governor of Poland, vi. 30, 31 ; 
emissary to Warsaw, 156 ; 
death, 63. 
Constantine PalaBologus, Em- 
peror at Constantinople, i. 4. 
Constantinople : Capture by the 

Turks, i. 4; trade in Italian 
hands, 16; establishment as 
Capital of Turkey, 81 ; siege of 
— use of artillery, 342^ growth 
of English influence, hi. 90, 91, 
92; revolution, iv. 12; v. 418; 
European Conference, vi. 211 ; 
massacre of Armenians, 230. 

" Constitution of the Year VIII. ," 
V. 307. 

Consubstantiation, doctrine of, 
i. 422. 

Contades, French command, iv. 

Contarini, Cardinal, Papal Nun- 
cio, ii. 89, 147. 

Contarini, Venetian Senator, me- 
diator to Catholic Powers at 
Miinster, iii. 337. 

Conti, Prince of: Generalissimo 
of Paris, iii. 358 ; arrest, 359 ; 
liberation and restoration to 
dimities and charges, 361. 

Continental System, v. 408 ; Na- 
poleon's Decrees against En^ 
lish commerce, 409, 410; Fi- 
nancial Report, 411 7wte\ ac 
cession of Austria, 416 ; Sweden, 
423 ; Pius VIII. 's accession to, 
428 ; French conc^uest of Por- 
tugal, 428 ; Russian modifica- 
tions, 474 ; English War with 
United States of America, 

Convention of the Pardo, iv. 

Conmntv^ of Leipsic, iii 273. 

Coote, (general, v. 279. 

Corday, Charlotte, murder of 
Murat, V. 126. 

Cordeliers, French Republican 
Club, 66. 

Cordova, Alfonso de, ii. 188. 

Cordova, Gonsalvo de, i. 202, 231, 
232, 252, 254, 266, 261, 262, 
264, 271, 273, 274, 275, 313, 

Cordova, Gonzales de, Spanish 
command, iii. 306. 

Comaro, Greorge, i. 287. 

Comwallis, Lord : English com- 
mand, iv. 448; Vork Town 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



capitulation, 456 ; Viceroy of 
Ireland, v. 278 ; English Envoy 
at Amiens, 328, 357. 

Corsica : Annexation by France, 
iv* 428; insurrection, v. 127} 
200; General Assembler— an- 
nexation to Great Britain, v. 
200; French re-conquest of, 

Cortes, National Assembly of Cas- 
tile, i. 64 ; National Assembly 
of Ara^on, 65. 

Cortes, Herman, ii. 189. 

Corvee, compulsory task work of 
French peasants, v. 7. 

Corvinus, John, L 208. 

Corvinus, Ladislaus: Count 
Cilly's plots against, i. 93 ; exe- 
cution by order of Ladislaus 
Postumus, 94. 

Corvinus, Matthias, King of Hun- 
gary: Count Cilly's plots a- 
gainst, i. 93 ; King of HTungary, 
coronation, 95; war against 
Turks, 95 ; marriage with Cuni- 
gund Podiebrad, 96 ; marriage 
with Beatrice of Naples, 103,207 ; 
war a^inst George Podiebrad, 
104; Bohemia, coronation by 
Pai>al Legate, 205; successes 
against Wladislaus and Freder- 
ick III. of Grermany, 206; 
war against Frederick III., 
207, 208 ; Hungarian Palatine- 
power and dignity settled by 
Diet, 208; death, 209; en- 
couragement of literature and 
art, 95, 209. 

Cossacks, iii. 200 Tiote ; organiza- 
tion, 395, 396 ; Saporogue Cos- 
sacks, iv. 148. 

Coss^, Marshal de, €U)vemor of 
Picardy, ii. 429; arrest, 456; 
dismissal from custody, 461 ; 
Commandant of Paris, [iii. 

Coste, Cardinal, Archbishop of 
Turin, v. 217. 

Cotton, Admiral Sir Charles, v. 

Cotton, P^re, iii. 148. 

Coulaincourt, Duke of Vioenza, 

French Foreign Minister, v. 
508, 528. 

Council of Tumults or Council of 
Blood, organization, ii. 425. 

Counter-Reformation, iii. 101. 

Cour, Monsieur de la, French am« 
bassador to Porte, vi. 118. 

Courcel, Baron de, French am- 
bassador in London, Fashoda 
incident, vi. 234. 

Courland, Dukes of, as colonizers, 
iv. 190. 

Coulton, V. 131. 

Cracow, Republic of: Recognition 
of Independence, v. 526; in- 
corporation with Austria, vi. 

Cranach, Louis, i. 412. 

Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, ii. 110, 111. 

Craon, Lieutenant in Franche- 
Comt^, i. 165. 

Crawford, General, v. 471. 

Cr^qui, Marshal, French com- 
mander, iii 458 ; iv. 36. 

Crete, Turkish attack on, iii. 
334; French faction, v. 188; 
rising against Turks — alliance 
with Greece, vi. 231. 

Crfevecoeur, French general, i. 

Crillon, Due de, iv. 455, 466. 

Crimea : Russian subjection and 
annexation, iv. 24, 386, 403. 

Crimean War, vi. 117. 

Croissi, Colbert de, French am- 
bassador, iii. 440 ; iv. 29. 

Cromwell, Oliver, Lord Protector, 
iii. 368 ; alliance with Mazarin, 
369 ; foreign policy, 373 ; com- 
mercial treaties, ^4; treaty 
with Sweden, 398. 

Cromwell, Thomas, ii. 138, 139. 

Cronstadt, visit of French fleet, 
vi. 227. 

Croy, Duke Charles Eugene of, 
iv. 131. 

Croy, William de. Archbishop of 
Toledo, i. 374, 

Crusades, i. 2, 19, 20» 86. 

Crosadee against the Turks, diffi- 
culties in equipping, L 91, 98. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Gnba,di8C0very of , i. 332; conquest 
by Velasquez, 336; American 
attempted seizure, vi. 115; 

isn-American War, 235, 23o. 

Cueillettef tax on citizens of 
Ghent — forced repeal, i. 137. 

Cuesta, General, Spanish com- 
mand, V. 467. 

Culmbach, Albert, Margrave of, 
ii. 216. 

Cumberland, Buke of, iv. 295, 
323, 324, 329. 

Cusa, Nicholas of. Scholastic 
Theologian, i. 392, 398. 

Custine, General: French com- 
mand, y. 96; Commander-in- 
Chief, 126; arrest and guillo- 
tine, 130. 

Ciistrin, Margrave John of, ii. 

Cyprus, conquest by Turks, ii. 
371 ; British occupation, vi. 

Cyzlaas, Pensionary of Dordrecht, 
iv. 397. 

Czamecki, Stephen, iii. 399, 403, 
413, 417. 

Czartoriskis, uncles of King 
Stanislaus Augustus, adminis- 
tration of Poised, iv. 370. 

Czartoryski, Prince George 
Adam, v. 600 ; vi. 52. 

Czemischeff, General, iv. 350. 

Daendels, General, Dutch com- 
mand, V. 300. 

Daine, Greneral, Belgian com- 
mand, vi. 49. 

Dalberg, Duke of, French en- 
voy to Congress of Vienna, v. 

Dalrymple, Sir Hew, v. 446. 

Damad Ali Pasha, Grand Vizier 
of Turkey, iv. 210. 

Damas, Count Roger de, Nea- 
politan command, v. 287, 315, 

Damiens, assassin, iv. 322. 
Dammartin, Constable, i. 146. 
Dampierre, General, French com- 
mand, V. 116, 125, 126. 

Damremont, General, vi. 61. 

Damville, Marshal, ii. 456 ; Gover- 
nor of Languedoc, 458 ; Peace 
of Monsieur, 462; Huguenot 
successes, 465; reunion with 
Huguenots, iii. 41 {see also 

Dannenberg, General, Russian 
command in Moldavia, vi. 118. 

Danton: Montagne insurrection, 
V. 82 ; Minister of Justice, 87 ; 
September massacres, 93; re- 
volutionaiy tribunal, 113; at- 
tempt at reconciliation with 
Gironde, 119 ; arrest, trial and 
execution, 147, 148. 

Dantonists, arrest, trial and 
execution, v. 147. 

Dantzic, iv. 421; v. 168, 403; 
independence restored, 406 ; an- 
nexation by Napoleon, 485. 

Darien, Isthmus of, discovery, 
i. 336. 

Darm^s, attempt on Louis 
Philippe's life, vi 64. 

Darmstadt, Prince of, iv. 94. 

Daru, Count, vi. 191. 

Das Minas, General, Portuguese 
conunand, iv. 96, 98. 

Dashkoff, Princess, iv. 360. 

Daubenton, Jesuit, iv. 203. 

Daun, General, Imperial com- 
mand, iv. 103, 325, 335, 337. 

Dauphin^: Government by the 
Dauphin, i. 78, 121 ; final union 
with France, 123; exemption 
from Game Laws, 127. 

Davesnes, General, v. 142. 

Davila, Admiral, iii. 144. 

Davila, Sancho, ii. 440. 

Davoust, Marshal: Marshal of 
the Empire, v. 352; French 
command in Germany, 397, 
452; rule in North Germany, 
478 ; French conmiand acnainst 
Russia, 487 ; defence of Ham- 
burg, 509; disbandmentof army, 
vi. 4. 

Day of Barricades, iii. 45. 

Deane, Silas, iv. 443. 

Debry, Jean, French plenipoten- 
tiary, vi 280, 293. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Decamiaachs, Spanish Revolu- 
tionaary Party, vi. 12. 

Decazes, French Chief of Police 
and Minister of Interior, vi. 7. 

Declaration of American Indepen- 
dence, iv. 442. 

Declaration of Richmond, iii. 26. 

Defenders, Irish Revolutionary 
Party, v. 278. 

Defterdars, Treasurers in the 
Divan, i. 13. 

Dehmas, v. 239. 

Delacroix, French Foreign Min- 
ister, V. 234. 

Delaporte, Intendant of Civil 
List, V. 89. 

Delcass^, M., French Foreign 
Minister, Fashoda incident, vi. 

Demhinski, General, Hungarian 
command, vi. 99, 100. 

Demhrowski, General, Polish 
command, v. 173, 174. 

Denisoff, General : Russian com- 
mand, V. 172. 

Denmark : Reformation in, iii. 
219, 222 ; interregnum, 221 ; 
Swedish invasion, 331 ; state 
of, 392, 408 ; Treaties with Hol- 
land, 430 ; Constitutional Revo- 
lution, iv. 18, 19, 20; Crown 
rendered hereditary, 19; Kotige- 
LoVt 20, 21 ; war with Sweden, 
24 ; consolidation and pros- 
perity, 271 ; Baltic Sea neutral- 
ity, 336 ; Schleswig-Holstein 
united to, 410 ; reforms and 
innovations, 411 ; revolution, 
412; armistice, 413; Armed 
Neutrality, 452, 321 ; pros- 
perity under Prince Royal 
Frederick, v. 177 ; defensive 
alliance with Sweden, 319; 
war with England, 321 ; St. 
Petershur^ Convention, 324 ; 
impossihihty of neutral policy, 
411 and note ; rejection of Eng- 
lish offer of help, 412; fleet 
captured hy English, 412 ; 
English Declaration of War, 
413 ; Colonial losses, 413 ; war 
with Sweden, 420; armistice, 

509; Schleswig-Holstein Ques- 
tion, vi. 90, 163 ; isolation, 167 ; 
dismemherment, 168. 

Depretis, Italian Prime Minister, 
A 220. 

Derby, Lord, English Prime Min- 
ister, vi. 131 ; "[nirkish Question, 
211; English neutrality, 212; 
resignation, 216. 

Derfetden, General, Russian 
command, v. 174. 

Desaix, General, v. 260, 304, 310, 

Des^ze: Counsel for Defence of 
Louis XVI., V. 101. 

Desmond, Earl of, ii. 473. 

Desmoulins, Camille, revolution- 
ist, V. 36, 146. 

Dessau, Prince Leopold of, Prus- 
sian infantry training, iv. 252. 

Dessolles, General, Chief Minis- 
ter of Louis XVIIL, vi. 7. 

Dewey, Admiral, vi. 236. 

Deza, Don Pedro de, ii. 366. 

Diane de Poitiers, i. 460 ; ii. 229, 

Diaz, Bartolomeo, Portuguese 
explorer, i. 325. 

Dichterbund, G5ttingeu Band of 
Poets, V. 179. 

Didelot, M., French Minister at 
Copenhagen, v. 411 note, 

Diderot, "Encyclopedic" pro- 
jected by, V. 20. 

Diebitsch, General : Russian com- 
mand in Turkey, vi 34; in 
Poland, 52 ; death, 53. 

Diesbach, John von, Swiss com- 
mander, i. 469. 

Diez, Prussian minister at Con- 
stantinople, iv. 416. 

Dinant, destruction andmassacre, 
i. 135. 

Dinteville, Fran9ois de, Bishop 
of Auxerre, ii. 105. 

Diplomacy, Growth of Forms 
and Usages, iv. 177. 

Dirkzoon, Admiral, ii. 440. 

Disraeli, English policy in 
Turkey, vi. 209, 

Divan, Ottoman Council, Con- 
stitution, etc., i. 13, 14. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Djezzar Pasha, v. 903. 
Dobradsha, Turkish cession to 

Roomania, vi. 216, 217. 
Doctrinaires, French Party, vL 7> 

Does, John van der. Lord of Nord- 

wyck, ii. 441, 442. 
Dohna, Count, command of 

Grermon troops, iiL 43. 
Dohna, M., Swedish Envoy, iii. 

Dolet, Stephen, ii 174. 
Dolgorouki, Prince, Russian En- 
voy to Napoleon, v. 377. 
Dollmger, Dr., vi 188. 
Domimcan Inquisition, L 197 note. 
Dominicans, Order of Friar 

Preachers, i. 388. 
Dombrowski, General, Polish 

patriot, V. 401. 
DonauwOrth, religious disturb- 
ances. Ban of the Empire, iii. 

Doria, A ndrea, L 464 ; iL 24, 40, 

41, 45, 108, 130, 153, 162, 235, 

257, 275, 367, 423. 
Doria, Filippino, ii. 40. 
Dorothea of Denmark, marriage 

with Albert of Brandenburg, li. 

Dorset, Marquis of, English 

commander, i. 319, 320. 
Dosa, leader of Peasant War in 

Hun^u^, L 376. 
Dotzy, Urwui, Bishop of Erlau, i. 

Douai, establishment of English 

Catholic College, ii. 474. 
Dou^, Merlin de, Director, v. 

Draaonncides, iv. 41, 42. 

DraKe, Mr., English minister at 
Venice, v. 242. 

Drake, Sir Francis, iii. 34, 35. 

Dreikaiserbund, vi. 207. 

Dresden: Congress of European 
Princes and Sovereigns, v. 484 ; 
French evacuation, 507 ; capitu- 
lation, 609 ; riots, vi. 104. 

Drouet, French postmaster, con- 
against Directory, v. 

Drummond, Mr., English am- 
bassador, V. 321. 

Dubois, Abb^, iv. 206 ; Cellamare 
Conspiracy, 214 ; death, 216. 

Duckworth, Admiral, v. 279, 322, 
349, 381, 418. 

Duces, Roger, Consul, v. 306; 
dismissal, 30S. 

Ducrot, General, vi. 196. 

Dudley, Lord Guildford, execu- 
tion, ii. 279. 

Duelling in France, iiL 122. 

Dufaure, Premier of France, vi 

Dufour, Swiss Radical leader, vi. 

Dueommier, General, v. 138, 198. 

Duhesme, General, v. 429. 

Dumont, General, vi. 186, 

Dumouriez, General, iv. 374 ; v. 
74, 90, 94, 95, 99, 108, 114, 116. 

Duncan, Admiral, v. 201, 259. 

Duncan, General, v. 196. 

Dundas, Admiral, vi 118, 124. 

Dunewald, General, iv. 11. 

Dunkirk : Investment by English, 
iii. 378 ; re-purchase by Louis 
XIV., 428. 

Dunois, Count, i 172, 173, 177. 

Dupanloup, Monseigneur, Bishop 
of Orleans, vi. 188. 

Duphot, General, French am- 
bassador to Rome, v. 263. 

Dupleix, General, iv. 192. 

Dupont, General, v. 445. 

Duport, iv. 465. 

Duprat, Antony : First President 
of Parliament of Paris, i. 355 ; 
Chancellorship, 355 ; Papal 
policy, 361, 3o2 ; Conference of 
Calais, 432 ; discontent caused 
by administration, ii 4 ; treat- 
ment of Andrea Doria, 41 ; 
treatment of Allies of France, 

Duquesne, General, French com- 
mander, iii 458. 

Durafido, General: Papal com- 
mand, vi. 94; Italian com- 
mand, 185. 

Duranton, French Minister of 
Justice, v. 74, 77. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Doras, General, iv. 67. 

Durer, Albert, i. 412. 

Duroc, Grand Marshal, French 
Envoy to Berlin, v. 3d6. 

Dusturt Ekrem^ title of Turkish 
Grand Vizier, i 12. 

Dutch Colonies : English aggres- 
sions in, uL 429. 

Dutch East India Company, esta- 
blishment, iii. 130. 

Dutch Republic {see Netherlands 
and Holland). 

DuvaJ, Henri, Count of Dam- 
pierre, iiL 191. 

East India Company, iii. 128 ; iv. 

Eastern Question, iv. 387 ; vi 

Eberhard, first Duke of Wurtem- 
berg, L 385. 

Eck, Dr. John, i. 406, 411, 413 ; 
ii. 54, 95, 147. 

Eden, Sir Morton, English Am- 
bassador at Vienna, v. 235. 

Edhem Pasha, vi 212, 231. 

Edicts : Worms, i. 419 ; ii. 58, 69, 
87, 97 ; Edict of January, 332 ; 
Amboise, 344 ; Longjumeau, 
359 ; union, iii. 46 ; Nantes, 74 ; 
restitution, 264. 

Edward IV., King of England: 
Imprisonment, i. 143; dethrone- 
ment — asylum in Burgundy, 
145; recovery of Crown, 146: 
league with Charles the Bold, 
155 ; invasion of France, 155. 

Edward VI., King of Enghmd: 
death, ii. 277. 

Effingham, Lord Howard of, iii. 
35, 80. 

Eglantine, Fabre d', v. 147. 

Egmont, Count of, ii. 298, 302, 
408, 409, 412 ; arrest, 425 ; in- 
dictment and execution, 430, 

Egmont, Jan van, i 178. 

Egremont, Earl of, iv. 347. 

Egypt: Mamaluke Dynasties, L 
375 note\ Napoleon^s Plan of 
Conquest, v. 262, 273, 274; 
French invasion and occupa- 

tion, 276» 302, 324, 325; Eng- 
lish evacuation, 344 ; insurrec- 
tion of Arabi Pasha, vi. 225 ; 
English occupation : reforms 
and reorganization, 226, 227 ; 
success of English jK>licy, 234. 

Einsiedel, Saxon minister, vi 54. 

Eisenach : Establishment of Na- 
tianalverein, vi. 154. 

Eisenberff, General, v. 144. 

Eisenstecken, Tyrolese leader, v. 

JEjaletj union of Sandjaks, L 14. 

Elba, union with France, v. 

Eleanor of Germany, marriage 
with Francis I., ii 49. 

Electoral Union of the Rhine, 
formation, i, 383. 

Electors, Grerman electors, L 27. 

Elio, General, Spanish Royal 
command, vi 13. 

Elizabeth^ Queen of England: 
Treaty' with French Huffue- 
note, ii. 338, 339, 360; plots 
against, 374, 375, 376 ; refusal 
of Dutch sovereignty, 444 ; aid 
to Netherlanders, iii 6, 7 ; de- 
claration of Richmond, 26 ; 
Guise plot aeainst, 33; al- 
liance with Henry IV., 79 ; 
death, 142. 

Elizabeth, Queen of Hunf;ary, 
flight to Vienna, death, i. 19, 

Elizabeth, Queen of Spain, death, 
ii 363. 

Elizabeth Famese, Queen of 
Spain, marriage, iv. 203. 

Elizabeth Petrowna, Tsarina of 
Russia, iv. 263 ; accession, 276 ; 
treaty with Maria Theresa, 
321 ; death, 348. 

Elizabeth of France: Marriage 
with Philip II. of Spain, ii. 304, 
310, 313 ; Isabel de la Paz, 321 
and note, 

Elizabeth of France, marriage 
with the Prince of the Asturias, 
iii 170, 173. 

Elizabeth, Princess of France, 
execution, v. 149. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



£li2abeth of Gennany, marriage 
with Charles IX., ii. 379, 380. 

Elliot, General, iv. 456. 

EUiot, Sir Gilbert, v. 139. 

Elliott, Sir Henry, confidential 
adviser of the Porte, vi. 209. 

Elphinstone, Admiral, v. 236. 

Elwas Mahommed, Grand Vizier, 
iv. 16. 

Emanuel, King of Portugal: 
Marriage with Isabellaof Spain, 
i. 234 ; discovery of East Indies, 

Embassies, origin in Italian 
wars, L 337. 

Emir Pasha, Grand Vizier, iv. 

Emperor, Roman: Title and 
powers, i. 23 ; conditions of 
election, 24. 

Empeer, Jacob, i. 311. 

En^en : 
Count of, ii 162, 164 ; murder 

of, 226,227. 
Louis IL, Due d' {see Cond^). 
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, 
Due d*, plot in favour of, 
V. 349 ; murder, 350. 

England : Union of Houses of York 
and Lancaster, L 79; Roman 
Catholic Church, 389 note; 
failure of negotiations with 
Charles V., ii. 6, 7; Papal 
jurisdiction abrogated by Par- 
liament, 113, 114; Act of Suc- 
cession, 114; Oxford Union, 
184 ; trade and commerce, 198, 
199 ; Reformation, 250 ; re- 
ligious persecutions, 280 ; re- 
establishment of Roman Catho- 
lic Church, 280; immigration 
of Netherlanders, 422 ; pro- 
scription of worship and educa- 
tion, 474; Spanish Armada, 
iii. 34 ; grant of Turkish 
commercial privileges, 91, 92 ; 
persecution of Jesuits, 106; 
repeal of statutes prohibiting 
exportation of coin and bullion, 
125 ; treaty with France. 126 ; 
Russia Company established, 
127 ; Persian trade, 127 ; East 

India Company, 128 ; Common- 
wealth, 368 ; Navigation Act, 
371 ; war with Spain, 375 ; 
treaties with France, 376, 377 ; 
war with Holland, 372, 37 \ 
428, 431, 447 ; peace, 455 ; rise 
of colonial interests, iv. 67 ; 
Methuen Treaty, 89; Union 
with Scotland, 100; treaties 
with Holland, 103, 400, 460; 
negotiations with Louis XIV., 
105; treaty with Spain, 112; 
dismissal of Tory Ministry, 
116; establishment of Royal 
Society, 169 ; East Iiviia Com- 
pany, 184; increase of trade, 
191 ; constitutional monarchy, 
result of Reformation, 195; 
commercial treaty with Spain, 
204; Triple Alliance, 208; 
Quadruple Alliance, 213 ; trea- 
ties with France and Spain, 
222 ; war with Spain, 247 ; 
alliances with Russia renewed, 
277 ; effects of Austrian Suc- 
cession War, 305 ; treaties with 
Prussia, 319, 329 ; French pro- 
ject of invasion, 336 ; negotia- 
tions with France, 343; treaties 
with Holland and Prussia, 400; 
French and Spanish declaration 
of war, 445, 446 ; rupture with 
Holland, 453 ; Rocldn^ham 
Administration, 455 ; Coaution 
Ministry, 460 ; neutrality to- 
wards France, v. 104; revolu- 
tionary clubs, 106 ; preparations 
for war with France, 107 ; 
treaties with foreign powers, 
109, 201 ; campai^ against 
French, 190; negotiations, 212, 
257 ; ContinentcJ System, 260 ; 
Secret Commercial Treaty with 
United States, 271 ; Treaty of 
Constantinople, 284; treaties 
with Bavaria, etc., 311 ; Armed 
Neutrality against, 317 ; Con- 
vention with Russia: New 
Maritime Code, 323, 324 ; pro- 
hibition of English trade in 
Holland, Spain and Italy, 342; 
war ¥dth France, 344, 345 ; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Frenchproject of invasion, 348; 
colonial successes, 349 ; war 
with Spain, 357 ; treaty with 
Sweden, 359 ; alliance with Rus- 
sia, 360 ; war with Prussia, 382; 
sovereignty of the sea gained 
at Trafalgar, 381 ; Bartenstein 
Convention, 403; blockade of 
French ports, 408 ; Berlin 
Decree, 409 ; seizure of Danish 
fleet, 412 ; war with Denmark, 
413 ; new ministry, 414 ; 
Treaty of Subsidies with Swe- 
den, 414 ; European coalition 
against, 416 ; treaty with Tur- 
key, 419 ; Recognition of Fer- 
dinand VII. of Spain, 451; 
alliance with Sweden, 480; 
Russian ports opened to Eng- 
lish commerce, 480; restora- 
tion of Danish colonies, Peace 
of Paris, 519; maritime acquisi- 
tions, 526 ; increase of wealth 
vi. 4 ; accession to principles of 
European Pentarchy, 7 ; sup- 
port of Progresistas in Spain, 
71 ; Crimean War, 118, 121 
treaty with Turkey, 119 
abandonment of Denmark, 169 , 
refusal to adhere to Berlin 
memorandum, 208 ; Turkish 
policy ; effect of Bulgarian 
massacres, 209 ; neutrality, 
conditions, 212; opposition to 
Treaty of San Stefano, 216; 
secret agreement with Russia, 
217 ; Penjdeh incident, 222 ; 
Anglo-French convention, 233 ; 
Guiana- Venezuela Boundary 
Question, 235 ; Anglo-Russian 
commercial agreement, 237 ; 
South African War, 234; effect 
on Union of England with her 
Colonies, 239. 

Enguera, Juan de, i. 268. 

Ennemoser, Tyrolese leader, v. 

EnqtiStes, suppression of, iv. 322. 

Enragis, French Ultra-Demo- 
crats, V. 145. 

Ensenada, Marquis de la, iv. 338. 

Entragues, Mademoiselle d*, 

Marquise de Vemeuil, iii 

Entraigues, French Commandant 
at P&a, i. 233. 

Entraigues, Comte d*, Royalist 
conspiracy, v. 251. 

Epemon, Duke of, iii. 74. 

Epr^mesnil, D', iv. 465. 

Erasmus, i. 398, 399, 411, 415, 
421 ; ii. 188. 

Erfurt : Interview of Napoleon I. 
and Alexander I. , v. 447 ; Ger- 
man Parliament convoked at, 
vi. 111. 

Eric of Pomerania, accession in 
Scandinavia, iii. 213. 

Eric XIV., King of Sweden : Ac- 
cession, iii. y23 ; imprisonment 
and murder, 224. 

Ernest, Archduke of Austria: 
Governor of Netherlands, iii. 
39 ; administration in Austria, 
85 ; death, 78. 

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cum- 
berland, accession in Hanover, 
vi. 83. 

Ernest Augustus, Duke of Han- 
over, erection of Hanover into 
Electorate, iv. 17. 

Ernest II. of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 
Nationcdverein, vi. 154. 

Eroles, Baron d', vi. 12. 

Esco'iquiz, Don Juan, v. 432, 438, 

Escorial, erection, ii. 298, 299. 

Escovedo, Secretary to John of 
Austria, iii. 39. 

Espana, General, vi. 16. 

Espartero, General: Spanish com- 
mand, vi. 71; Prime Minister 
and Regent of Spain, 72 ; flight 
to England, 72 ; return to Spain, 
115, 116. 

Espenan, Governor of Leucate, 
ui. 315. 

Esp^s, Spanish ambassador, ii.375. 

Essen, General, Swedish com- 
mand, V. 414. 

Essex, Earl of, English com- 
mander, iii. 80. 

Estaing, D', French commander, 
iv. 445, 446, 448. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




Alfonso I., d', Duke of Ferrara, 

i. 251, 288, 294, 295, 296, 297, 

900, 304, 311, 313, 314, 315, 

345, 430, 437, 440, 447 ; ii. 85. 

Caesar d', iiL 134. 

Ercole I. d', Duke of Ferrara, 

i 183. 
Ercole II. d', Duke of Ferrara : 
Marriage with Ren^e of 
Frauce, L 353 ; ii. 39. 
Ferdinand d*, Archduke, v. 

Fran9ois d*. Archduke : Acqui- 
sition of Modena, v. 524. 
Ippolito d*, Cardinal of Ferrara, 
u. 330, 333. 

Esterhazy, Prince,^ustriaii com- 
mand, v. 81. 

Esterhazy, Prince, Austrian En- 
voy to St. Petersburg, vi. 125. 

Estrades, Marshal d', iii. 368, 458. 

Estr^s, Gabrielle d', iii. 66; 
death, 134. 

Estr^es, Marshal d', iv. 323, 324. 

Etampes, Duchesse d' (Anne de 
Pisseleu), ii. 19, 230. 

Etats GSrUraux : Plessis - lez - 
Tours, L 274; Tours (1468), 
137; (1484), 170; Orleans, IL 
326, 327 ; Pontoise, 329 ; Blois 
(1576), 464; (1588), iiL 47; 
Paris, 170 ; Versailles (1789), v. 
27 ; constitution of Tiers-Etat 
80 National Assembly, v. 32. ' 

Etruria, French invasion, v. 428. 

Eugene, Prince, of Soissons- 
Savoy : Imperial command, iv. 
15, 58, 61, 82, 85, 88, 90, 97, 
100, 106, 109, 114, 211, 231. 

Eugenie, Empress of France : 
Beeency, vi. 193 ; flight to Eng- 
land, 195. 

Eugenius IV., Pope : Turkish 
war, i. 19 ; grant of Portuguese 
discoveries, 324 ; suspension 
and deposition, 392. 

Eupen, V an, Secretary of Belgian 
Con^ss, iv. 418. 

Eure, Dupont de F, resignation, 
vi. 56. 

Europe : United Europe, result of 

Christendom^ i. 2 ; parallel be- 
tween Modem European and 
Early Grecian History, 3; es- 
tablishment of Ottoman Power, 
4, 5 and note^ 16 ; political 
state in 1598, iii. 99 ; compari- 
son of capitals, 124; intellectual 
activity, iv. 166; pacification, 
vi. 7. 
European System : Want of com- 
bined pohtical action, ii. 472; 
Theocratic Monarchy plan 
versus Christian Rej^ublic 
scheme, iii. 137, 138; nse of 
Denmark and Scandinavia, 
212 ; effacement of England as 
a factor in, 337; new era in 
policy and public law, 353; 
Kussia as a European Power, 
421 ; England, counterpoise of 
France after downiall of 
Stuarts, iv. 67; results of Spanish 
Succession War, 115; enect of 
Pultava on positions of Sweden 
and Russia, 149; balance of 
power : state of England 
at accession of William III., 
175 ; growth of importance of 
Northern Powers, 177 ; Russia 
as a European Power, 226; 
effect of MoUwitz, 258; parti- 
tion of Poland, 382, 383; ex- 
tinction of hereditarv rivalry 
between Austria ana France, 
309 ; political results of Seven 
Years* War, 366; change in 
political aspect, v. 160 ; effects 
of revolution, 256; territorial 
reaxrangement at Congress of 
Vienna, 523 ; union and inde- 

rmdence of cognate races, vi 
; Pentarchy, supreme power 
on overthrow of Napoleon, 8; 
temporal sovereignty of Pope : 
political solecism, 147; recog- 
nition of Italy as European 
Power, 150 ; military power of 
France, 198 ; German and 
Italian Unity, 199 ; effects of 
Treaty of Berlin, 222. 
ExaZtaaos, Spanish Radical 
Party, vi. 13. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Eyzinger, Hungarian revolt, i. 

Faber, Peter, ii. 186. 
Fachinetti, Cardinal : Election to 
Pontificate, iii. 64 {see alao In- 
nocent IX. Pope). 
Fagel, M., Greffier of States- 
General, V. 193. 
Faidherbe, General, vi^l97. 
Falkenskiold, Danisn Com- 
mander-in-Chief, iv. 410. 
Falkenstein, Von, Prussian com- 
mand, vi. 177, 178, 180. 
Family Convention, iv. 223. 
Fanti, General, vi. 140, 144. 
Far Eastern Question, iv. 387 ; vi. 

Far^, Count du, French am- 
bassador, iiL 243. 
Farinelli, Spanish favourite, iv. 

338 ; dismissal, 342. 
Farini, Commissary at Modena, 
vL 137; Governor-General of 
Emilia, 139 ; Prime Minister of 
Italy, 149. 
Alessandro, ii. 211 ; election to 
Pontificate, 115 {see also Paul 
Alexander, Buke of Parma, ii. 
373, 414, 480 ; iii. 7 ; Governor 
of the Netherlands, 9 ; siege 
of Antwerp, 24; Duke of 
Parma, 27 ; fleet blockaded 
by Dutch, 35; campaign in 
ifetherlands, 37 ; relief of 
Paris, 37, 69, 63 ; death, 39. 
Antonio, Duke of Parma : 

death, iv. 222. 
Elizabeth, Queen of Spain, iv. 

Julia, 236. 

Orado, Duke of Castro, ii. 277. 
Ottavio, Duke of Parma, ii 177, 

240, 262, 257. 
Pier Luigi, Duke of Parma, ii. 
177 ; assassination, 239. 
Faure, President, visit to Russia, 

vi. 227. 
Faust-rechtf i. 277. 
Favras, Marquis de, v. 66. 

Favrat, De, Prussian commander, 
T. 174. 

Favre, Jules : Opposition to 
policy of Napoleon III., vi. 
191 ; French Foreign Minister, 
vi. 196, 197. 

Faypoult, French Minister at 
Genoa, v. 246. 

Felix v.. Pope : Election by 
Council of Basle, i. 392; re- 
nunciation of tiara, 393. 

F^nelon, Archbishop of Cambrai, 
iv. 200. 

F^nelon, La Mothe, French am- 
bassador, ii 377 ; 385, 399. 

Feodor III., Tsar of Russia, 
death, iv. 122. 

Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, 
Imperial command, iii. 295. 

Ferdinand, Cardinal, Infant, Go- 
vernor of the Netherlands, iii 
301 ; death, 319. 

Ferdinand V., Duke of Modena : 
Austrian policy, vi. 137 ; re- 
turn, amnesty, 138. 

Ferdinand I. , Emperor of Austria : 
Accession, vi. 83; coronation 
as King of Lombardy and 
Venice, 90 ; abdication, 98. 

Ferdinand I., Emperor: Governor 
of Austria, i. 386 ; Diet of Spires, 
ii. 69 ; marriage with Anne of 
Bohemia, 70 ; King of Bohemia, 
76 ; King of Hungary, 78 ; 
King of the Romans, 81, 100 ; 
admmistration in Germany, 100; 
peace with Solyman, 109 ; Tur- 
Irish expedition, 150; conclu- 
sion of peace with John Za- 
polya, 151, 163; treaty with 
Maurice of Saxony, 213, 264 ; 
Smalkaldic War, 225 ; treaty 
with Philip, 255; accession, 289, 
290; Roman Emperor Elect. 
291 ; death, advantages of po- 
licy, etc., 351. 

Ferdinand II., Emperor, iii. 153 ; 
bifi^try and intolerance, 156; 
King of Bohemia, 189 ; claims 
on Austria and the Empire. 189; 
accession, 192, 193, 194 ; Th' 
Years' War, 201, 253, 264, ! 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


207, 301 ; Bohemia: renewal of 
allegiance^ 203; Wallenstein's 
murder, 204; death, 306. 

Ferdinand III., Emperor: Elec- 
tion, iii. 306 ; isolation, 342 ; 
death, 380. 

Ferdinand III., Grand Duke of 
Tuscanjr : Becognition of French 
Republic, V. 183 ; declaration 
for the Allies, 183 ; treaty with 
France, 199 ; compensation ces- 
sions to, 337 ; acquisition of 
Tuscany, 524. 

Ferdinand I., King of Aragon, 
accession, L 63, 64. 

Ferdinandl. , King of Cafitile, i. 61. 

Ferdinand V. of Castile and II. 
of Aragon : Marriage with Isa- 
bella of Castile, i. 191, 194; 
joint sovereignty, 196 ; acces- 
sion in Aragon, 197; partition 
treaty with Louis XII. , 252 ; ad- 
ministrative reforms in Naples, 
263; administrator of Castile, 
267, 304 ; interview with Louis 
XIL, 274; League of Cambray, 
282 ; investiture of Naples, 294 ; 
Holy League, 306 ; Navarrese 
succession, 318; alliance with 
Henry VIII. and Maximilian, 
364 ; death, 364; character and 
pMolicy, 365 ; Voltaire's descrip- 
tion of, 365 note. 

Ferdinand I., King of Naples : 
Election, i. 106 ; recognition by 
Pius 11. , 107; excommunication, 
185; death, 214; encourage- 
ment of art and literature, 

Ferdinand II., King of Naples : 
Accession, L 223; entry into 
Naples, 231 ; marriage and 
death, 232. 

Ferdinand VI., King of Spain : 
Accession, iv. 298 ; death, 338 ; 
character and policy, 338, 340. 

Ferdinand VII., King of Spain : 
Application to Napoleon for 
support, V. 433 ; arrest, 434 ; 
accession, 436 ; arrival at Ba- 
yonne : French treachery, 438 ; 
abdication, 440 ; return to Ma- 

drid, 512 ; Peace of Paris, 520 ; 
attempt to restore anden re- 
gime, vi. 9; Constitution of 
1812, 11 ; failure of caup-cP^taty 
13 ; confinement in Cadiz and 
Seville, 14, 15 ; marria^, 66 ; 
publication of Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion, death, 66. 

Ferdinand I., King of Two Sici- 
lies : Minority, iv. 341 ; acces- 
sion, V. 181 ; neutrality, 222 ; 
367; Second Coalition against 
France, 284 ; acquisition of 
Duchy of Benevento, 285 ; treaty 
with Austria, 285; alUances, 
286 ; Third Coalition, 383 ; re- 
tirement to Sicily, 384 ; return 
to Naples, 529 ; restoration of 
Papal influence, vL 18; Trop- 
pau Confess, 20 ; death, 60. 

Ferdinand II., King of Two Sici- 
lies : Accession, vl 60 ; Consti- 
tution granted by, 92 ; 95 ; 
death, 143. 

Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Ba- 
varia, iii. 382. 

Feria, Duke of, Spanish ambas- 
sador to Paris, iii. 65. 

Fermo, Ludovico Freducci of, i 

Fermor, Creneral, Russian com- 
mand, iv. 332. 

Ferrant, General, Commandant 
of Maubeuge, v. 142. 

Ferrante, Don, arrest, i. 254. 

Ferrara, Council of, i. 392. 

Ferrara, Duchy of, seizure by 
Clement VIII., iii. 134. 

Ferrari, Col., vL 94. 

Ferrari, Zaccaria, iL 185. 

Ferretti, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, vi. 91 (see also 
Pius IX.). 

Ferrucci, Francesco, Florentine 
commander, ii. 83. 

Ferry, Jules, vi. 205; Premier, 

Fersen, General, v. 173, 174. 

Fesch, Cardinal, v. 388. 

Fetwa, influence of Muft€s de- 
cision, i 15. 

Feudalism, German barons, repre- 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



aentatives of, 28 ; absence of, 
in Poland, i 38. 

Feuqui^res, Marquis of, French 
ambassador-extraordinary, iii. 

Ficquelmont, Count, Austrian 
Prime Minister, vi. 93. 

Fieschi, attempt on Louis Phi- 
lippe's life, VI. 67. 

Fiesco, Gian Luigi, Count of La- 
vagna, ii. 234, 235, 247. 

Fifth Coalition, v. 503. 

Fiffueroa, Suarez de, Governor of 
Milan, ii. 284. 

Filangieri, Prince, vi. 103. 

Finck, General, Prussian com- 
mand, iv. 336. 

Finnland : Loss of, by Sweden, 
iv. 278; Russian invasion, v. 
420; Russian successes, 432; 
cession to Russia, 423, 526. 

Fire-ships, use of, at siege of 
Antwerp, iii. 25. 

Firearms, introduction of, L 341. 

Firmans^ commands of the Sul- 
tan, i. 11. 

Fisheries: Herring fishing in- 
dustry, i. 433; li. 197; dis- 
covery of Spitzbergen whale 
fishery, iii. \^, 

Fitzgerald, James, iL 473. 

Fitz-James, Duke of, vi 36. 

Flagellants, Order of Fanatics, 

Flanders : 
" Grand Privilege," i. 162 ; de- 
putation to ]x>uis XL, 163 ; 
campaigns in, 164, 177; ill 
302, 303, 341, 377 ; iv. 64. 
Regency of Maximilian, L 166, 
173, 174, 178 ; insurrections, 
178 ; trade and commerce, ii. 

Fleming, Saxon Minister at Vi- 
enna, iv. 316. 

Fleuriot, Lc»cot, Mayor of Paris, 
V. 147. 

Fleury, Cardinal, French Minis- 
ter, iv. 220, 264, death, 279. 

Fleury, Major, vi. 107, 136. 

Florence, Capital of United 
Italy, vi. 160. 

Florentine Republic: Constitu- 
tion : Medici leaders, L 49, 50 ; 
Guelf party in power, 50; re- 
volution, 51 ; progress in art 
and culture under Cosmo de' 
Medici, 109 ; league with Ven- 
ice and Milan, 114 ; enmity of 
Medici and Pazzi, 114, 115 ; 
league against, 117 ; support of 
the Duke of Ferrara, 183 ; na- 
tional bankruptcy, 186 ; expul- 
sion of the Medici, 217 ; ii. 33 ; 
entry of Charles VIIL, 218; 
new form of government, 226 ; 
parties and partisans, 228 ; 
Dominicans and Franciscans, 
238 ; war with Pisa, 249 ; ad- 
ministration of Pietro Soderini, 
315 ; despoticgovemmentunder 
Lorenzo de' Medici, 317 ; limits 
of Papal power, 394, 396 ; capit- 
ulation, ii. 83, 84 ; Biepublic pro- 
claimed, vi. 102. 

Florida: Exploration, 1.336; sale 
to America by Spain, vi. 11. 

Florida, Marquis Mata, vi. 12. 

Flourens, Paris Communey vi 

Foix: Andrew of, Lord of 
Lesparre, i. 428. 

Foix, Anne de, marriage with 
Wladislaus of Hungary, i. 366. 

Foix, Gaston de, i. 193, 302, 309, 
310; death, 313. 

Foix,Grermainede: Marriage with 
Ferdinand the Catholic, i. 269 ; 
claims to succession in Navarre, 

Foix, Thomas of, Marshal of 
Lescun, L 432. 

Fokchany Congress, iv. 382. 

Fontaine oleau : Assembly of 
Notables (1560), ii 318 ; (1626), 
iii. 242. 

Fontenelle, French writer, v. 16. 

Fonseca, Antonio de, i 222, 223, 

Ford, Admiral, v. 200. 

Fo^acz, Count, Commandant of 
Neuhftusel, iv. 6. 

Foscarini, ProvetUtare of Verona, 
V. 22L 

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Fonch^: Lyons atrocities, v. 139; 
Chief of Police in Paris, 305, 

Fonlon, Minister, execution, v. 

Fonqn^, General, Prussian com- 
mand, iv. 337. 

Fouquier, Tinville, v. 132. 

Foumier, leader of September 
Massacres, v. 92. 

Fourqnenx, Ck>ntroller, iv. 463. 

Fox, English ambassador at 
Orvieto, ii 42. 

Fox, Charles James, iv. 466; v. 
381 ; death, 381. 

Foy, General, vi. 26. 

France: Armagnacs and Bur^n- 
dians, i 68 ; expulsion of Eng- 
lish, 68, 73; regency of the 
Duke of Bedford, 69 ; state of 
France after civil wars, 74; 
mercantile and military i>ro- 
gress, 75 ; contest between king 
and feudal nobility, 76, 77; 
army, organization, etc., 76, 
309, 310, 356, 358, note; Pra- 
auerie: want of centralization, 
78 ; consolidation of the mon- 
archy, 79; establishment of 
posts, 131 ; civil war under 
Louis XI., 131; constitution, 
134; aggrandisement, 169; Eng- 
lish invasions, 180, 181, 348,443, 
457; annexation of Brittany, 
351 ; alliance with England, 
352; influence of women in 
politics, 355, 436 ; Concordat of 
1516, 362, 363; Pragmatic Sanc- 
tion of Bourg|es, .^ ; Austrian 
and French rivalry, 434 ; refor- 
mation, ii. 4, 5, 315 ; trade and 
commerce, 43, 198; termination 
of Italian wars, 48 ; army, 116; 
invasion by Charles V., 122; 
English invasion, 165; religious 
persecutions, 128, 135, 171,227, 
252, 334 ; anarchy and malad- 
ministration, 174, 458 ; Austro- 
French struggle for supremacy, 
179 ; state of prairties, 231, 316, 
480 ; Calvinistic tendencies of 
reformation, 311 ; attempted es- 

tablishment of Inquisition, 312, 
318 ; Guise designs — Protestant 
petition, 319; Poise^ Confer- 
ence, 330, 331 ; Edict of January , 
332 ; wars of religion, 337, 357, 
450, 456, 458; war against 
England, 344; organization of 
marine, 381 ; vacillating policy, 
382 ; colonization schemes, 381, 
382; St. Bartholomew Mas- 
sacres, 388, 390, 391 ; dtizen 
class support of Reformation, 
451 ; royal edict, 455 ; scheme 
of Republic for Guienne, and 
Langnedoc, 456 ; Prise cTarmes 
du nutrdi ffras, 457 ; royal suc- 
cession. Catholic League, etc. 
462, 463 ; decrease of Protes 
tantism, 478; Edict of Nemours, 
481 ; wars of religion, iii. 42, 
232, 358, 363 ; Council of Union, 
60; pretenders to the crown, 
65 ; Edict of Nantes, 74 ; Span 
ish invasion, 78 ; reforms amon^ 
religious oiders, 101 ; opposi- 
tion to Jesuits, 104; GaiBcan 
Church, statistics, 105; internal 
communication, etc., 119; want 
of centralization, 120, 121; 
nobmty, 121, 122, 174, 199; 
DttchS-pairie created, 121 ; trade 
and commerce, 118, 126 ; colon- 
ization, 130; Marquisate of 
Saluzzo, dispute, 134; recap- 
ture of Valtellina, 237 ; Riche- 
lieu's reforms, 246 ; English in- 
vasion, 248 ; fall of La Rochelle, 
251 ; extinction of Huguenots as 
a political party, 270 ; Mantuan 
Succession Question, 270; an- 
nexation of Alsace and Lor- 
raine, 297, 441 ; Spanish Nether- 
lands partition project, 299; 
war against Spain, 301, 368, 
434 ; Imperialist invasion, 304; 
treaty with Catalonia, 315, 
conspiracy of Cinq-Mars, 323; 
alliance with Sweden, 335: 
Thirty Years' War, 339; German 
cessions, 350 ; leading European 
Power, 353; anarchy and revolt, 
359, ^2; persecution of the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Vaudois; treaties with England, 
376, 377 ; Rhenish League, 383 ; 
war agamst England, 430 ; war 
against Holland, 447 ; coalition 
against, 453 ; Chambres Boyales 
de Biunion, iv. 31 ; revocation 
of Edict of Nantes, 41 ; English 
declaration of war, 54; condi- 
tion of, after wars of Louis 
XIV., 61 ; declaration of war 
against Grand Alliance, 84; 
distress in, 101 ; deaths of Dau- 
phin and Duke of Burgundy, 
108 ; -treaties with foreign pow- 
ers, 111, 159, 222, 261, 314, 345; 
a^e of Louis XIV., 166 ; estab- 
lishment of academies, 169; 
nationality and strength, 174 ; 
French East India Co., 185; 
regency of Duke of Orleans, 
204; financial condition, 205; 
foreign policy, 206 ; Triple Alli- 
ance, 208; Quadruple Alliance, 
213 ; war against Spain, 214 ; 
attacks on reli^ous freedom, 
216; guarantee of German Prag- 
matic Sanction, 233; invasion 
of Austria, 265 ; anarchy, 279 ; 
campaign in Flanders, 295, 299; 
effects of Austrian Succession 
War, 306 ; Parliaments of Paris 
and provinces, 322, 429, 440, 
464; decline of pjolitical influ- 
ence, 427 ; annexation of Corsica, 
428; Triumvirate Government, 
439 ; financial reforms, 441 ; war 
with England, 445; Compte 
Benduy 461 ; revolution, 465, 
467; Etais Gin^aux, assump* 
tion of title of National Assem- 
bly, 467 ; nature and causes of 
French Revolution, v. 3, 27; 
misery in agricultural districts, 
etc. , 6, 7, 9 ; army, 6 note, 6, 35, 
495, 512 ; trade and commerce, 
8 ; Bourgeoisie, taxation, eccle- 
siastical system, etc., 8, 9, 11 ; 
royal prerogative, 9; govern- 
ment centralization, omce of 
IMmdants, 12 ; Physiocmcy or 
Government of Nature, 13; 
economists, 14 ; the new philo- 


sophy, 15 ; growth of Atheism, 
16, 19 ; literary censorship, 24 ; 
prophecies of Kevolution, 25, 26 
note ; degradation of monarchy, 
26; effect of American revolt, 
27 ; National Assembly of 1789, 
28, 33, and note, 34, 35, 45, 46, 
64, 68 ; sovereignty of the mob, 
etc. , 28, 37 ; national representa- 
tives, 29; comparison with 
English revolution, 29; effects 
of the revolution, 30 ; National 
Guard, creation, 37, 188; cap- 
ture of the Bastille, 38 ; emigra- 
tion of nobles, 40; provincial 
massacres, 41 ; Constituent As- 
sembly, 42, 70 ; Jacobin Club, 
50, 187 ; club of 1789, 62 ; finan- 
cial scheme, 63; abolition of 
tithes, 54 ; abolition of Parlia- 
ments, 56 ; civil constitution of 
clergy, 58 ; foreign intervention, 
59 ; act of the constitution, 68; 
Republican party, 65 ; Cluhdes 
FeuillantSy 65, 66 ; massacre of 
the Champ de Mars, 66; atti- 
tude of European courts, 66; 
acquisition of Avignon and 
Venaissin, 69 ; self-denyfai^ or- 
dinance, 70 ; National Legisla- 
tive Assembly, 71, 76, 82, 84, 
87, 88 ; decree against emigra- 
tion, 72; Girondist ministry, 
74; war against Austria, 75; 
Feuillants and CHrondists, 76 ; 
insurrection of 20 June, 1792, 
77; Federal Volunteer camp at 
Soissons, 80 ; Montcbgns insur- 
rection, 82; attack on Tnileries, 
86; National Convention, 88- 
96, 97, 99, 104, 108, 110, 116, 
117, 119, 123, 149, 188, 208; 
Commune, 88, 119, 147, 186; 
Prussian invasion, 90 ; perma- 
nent guillotine, 89 ; Septcnnber 
massacres, 91 ; Prussian retreat, 
95; imprisonment of royal 
family, 100; murder of Louis 
XVI, : European opinion, 104 ; 
La Vendue insurrections, 112, 
136,203; revolutionary tribunal, 
113, 130, 132, 160, 189; Comite 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


du ScUut Public and ComiU de 
SHreU G6MraU, 117, 128, 146, 
147, 148, 150 ; Girondist major- 
ity in the provinces, 120 ; Cen- 
tral Club, 121; downfall of 
Gironde, 123; Constitution of 
1793 (An I.), 125; Spanish in- 
vasion, 127 ; Reign of Terror, 
131, 158 ; Loides Suspects, 132 ; 
execution of CrirondistSy 133; 
Republican calendar, 134; wor- 
ship of reason, 135 ; atrocities 
and massacres, 139; Spanish 
successes, 144, 198; Bepiiblican 
factions, 145, 146 ; Farti Ther- 
michrient 186; counter-revolu- 
tion, 187, 189; rising of 21st 
Prairial, 188 ; campaign aeainst 
Allies, 190; invasion of Holland, 
195 ; peace with Prussia, 197, 
226 ; Piedmont campaign, 199; 
disorganization in government, 
200; attempts toisoiate Austria, 
201 ; peace with Spain, 202, 233; 
rising in Brittany, 203 ; new 
constitution, 205 ; foreign affairs, 
209 ; colonial losses, 210 ; mili- 
tary tendency of Directory, 212, 
214; Directory, 234, 250, 255, 
256, 289, 290, 295, 305; reac- 
tionary movements, 248 ; Press 
censorship, 261 ; results of first 
Continental war, 255 ; war with 
Austria, 256; acquisition of 
Austrian Netherlands, 256 ; dis- 
pute with United States, 271 ; 
with Austria, 274; failure of 
English attacks, 279; second 
European coalition, 284, 290, 
309 ; annexation of Piedmont, 
287 ; changes in ministry, 295 ; 
establishment of Consular Gov- 
ernment, 306; *< Constitution of 
the year VIIL,'' 307 ; Napoleon 
as first Consul, 308 ; armed neu- 
trality, 317 ; treaty with Russia, 
324; peace with Turkey, 326; 
revolution of 16 Therm%(Ur, 331 ; 
establishment of Court of Cas- 
sation, 331: institution of 
L^on of Honour, 331 ; oon- 
scnption, 332; restoration of 

church, 332; return of emi- 
grants, 333; educational re- 
forms, 333; defensive alliance 
with Switzerland, 340; war 
with England, 344 ; ditemis of 
Verdun, 345; Enipire declared, 
351 ; Marshals of^the Empire, 
352 ; Russian ultimatum, 354 ; 
abolition of Tribunate, 385; 
Peace of Tilsit, 405; secret 
articles, 407; Continental sys- 
tem, 408 ; absolute supremacv 
of Napoleon, 4S^ ; relations witn 
Spain, 423, 426 ; Austrian mani- 
festo, 451 ; war with Russia, 
485 ; invasion of Allies, 513, 517 ; 
resignation of crown by Napo- 
leon, 516; evacuation by Alhes, 
518; new constitution under 
Louis XVIII., 518 ; Napoleon's 
return, 527; Champ de Mai, 
528 ; Provisional Executive 
Commission, 531 ; Chamber of 
Deputies, election, vi. 4 ; allied 
armies in France, 4; adoption 
of principles of European Fent- 
archy, 7; re-establishment of 
Jesuits, 2Q; dissolution of Na- 
tional Guard, 26; Press Law 
Reforms, 26; <^dinanoes of 
July, 37 ; Press censorship, 37, 
106; Orleans ministry^ 41; 
declaration of Louis Philippe, 
44; Republican demonstrations, 
56; laws of September, 57; 
census riots, 64 ; policy of En- 
tente Cardiale, 65; disturbances, 
74 ; revolution of 1848 : escape 
of royal family, 77; Second 
Republic, 79; National Assem- 
bly , 80 ; revision of constitution, 
106 ; coup cPetat, 108 ; Empire 
re-established under Ni^[M>leon 
IIL, 110; Crimean War, 118, 
121 ; treaty with Turkey, 119 ; 
annexation of Nice and Savoy, 
142; secret treaty with Brufisia, 
167; growth of anti-imperial- 
ist feeling, 191; armyrdorms, 
191, 201 ; war against Pnusia, 
192 ; fall of Second Emmre, es- 
tablishment of Republfe, 196; 

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reforms and reorganizatdon, 200; 
monarchical party, 202; Sep- 
UnmU institnted, 202; Parlia- 
mentary Republic, 203; un- 
popularity of National Assem- 
bly, 204; isolation in Europe, 
206; Tunis protectorate, 220; 
Boulanger agitation, 224 ; colon- 
ial expansion policy, 225; treaty 
with Italy, 226; Franco-Russian 
alliance, 227; Anglo-French 
(colonial) Ck>nyention, 233. 

Franche-Comt^ : Ravages by 
French troops, i. 149 ; union 
with France, 162 ; French ex- 
pedition, 165 ; iii. 433 ; restora- 
tion to Spain, 437; final ac- 
quisition by France, 456; Be- 
Sanson Chambre de lUunion 
Adjudication, iv. 32. 

Francia, Dictator of Paraguay, 
vi. 11 note, 

Francis, Dauphin, death^ iL 122. 

Francis XL, Duke of Bnttany, i. 
127, 128; Liaue du Bien Fullie, 
130 ; quarrel with Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 135; truce with Louis 
XL, 149; death, 175. 

FrandsV. , Duke of Modena, vi. 58. 

Francis L, Emperor: Duke of 
Lorraine, iv. 230; Austrian 
command, 242; marriage with 
Maria Theresa, 248; election to 
imperial throne, 295; death and 
character, 388. 

Francis II., Emperor: Acces- 
fflon, iv. 424; Austrian succes- 
sion, V. 74; coronation, 79; 
meeting with King of Prussia, 
81 ; secret military convention, 
261 ; indemnification of German 
Princes, 334, 337; hereditary 
Emperor of Austria, 355 ; Third 
Coalition, 363; bivouac of Saro- 
schutz, 378; resienatioB of im- 
perial crown ana government, 
390; Ck>ntinental System, 458; 
alliancewith Napoleon I., 481 ; 
death, vi 83. 

Francis I.. King of France: 
Count 01 Angcraldme, i. 268; 
marriagewith Claude of France, 

274; accession, 354; Italian 
campaigns, 355, 356, 357, 465; 
ii 40, 41 ; treaties and allianoes 
with foreign powers, i 356; 
361, 363, 379 ; li. 72, 102, 106, 
109, 110, 130, 161, 226 ; order 
of knighthood, i. 360 ; Camp of 
the Cloth of Gold, 385 ; rivaby 
with Charles V., 426; excom- 
munication, 434; defeat and 
captivity, 469, 470; ii. 8, 9 ; 
return to France, 13 ; treaty of 
Madrid, 14, 15, 18, 19; challenge 
and refusal to fight, 46; re- 
nimciation of Italian claims, 47 ; 
marriage with Eleanor of Aus- 
tria, 49; marriageof Henry of Or- 
leans and Catharine de' Medid, 
111 ; negotiations with German 
Princes, 1 16 ; invasion of Savoy, 
120; admission to League of 
Smalkald, 127; persecution of 
Protestants, 128, 135; change 
of policy, 135 ; murder of am- 
bassadors in Italy, 154; war 
with Charles V., 155; persecu- 
tion of Vaudois, 172; mvasion 
of England, 175; death and 
character, 228. 

Francis II. , Kin^ of France: 
Marriage with Mary Stuart, 
Queen of Scots, ii 301; acces- 
sion, 314; death, 325. 

Frands I., King of Naples: 
Grovemment, vi. 19 ; death, 60. 

Francis II. , Kingof Naples: Acces- 
sion, vi. 143:; loss of kingdom, 

Francis Joseph I. Emperor of 
Austria: Accession, vL 98; 
Convention of Gastein, 172; 
coronation at Buda, 184 ; Drei- 
kaiserhund, 207 ; alliance with 
Germany, 220; difficulties of 
governing Austro-Hungarian 
Kingdom, 240. 

Frandscans, Friars Minor, i. 388. 

Franco-German War, vi. 192. 

'* Franco-GaUia," ii. 456. 

Fransepani, Gregory, iL 152. 

Franxenbei^) Carainal, Areh- 
Inshop of Mechlin, iv. 417, 418. 

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fVankfurt : Diet, iii 88 ; erection 
into Grand Duchy, v. 466; 
Declaration of Frankfurt, 508 ; 
riots, vi. 96. 

Franklin, Dr., American Envoy 
to France, iv. 444. 

Frategchi, political followers of 
Savonarola, i. 228. 

Frederick VIII., Duke of Aueus- 
tenburjj^ : Proclamation in Hoi- 
stein VI. 165; proclamation in 
Schleswig, 168. 

Frederick III., Elector of Bran- 
denburg {gee Frederick I., King 
of Prussia). 

Frederick II., Elector Palatine, 
ii. 206. 

Frederick III., Elector Palatine, 
German Calvinist leader, ii. 
348 446. 

Frederick IV., Elector Palatine: 
Protestant Union leader, iii. 
157 ; death, 168. 

Frederick V., Elector Palatine: 
Marriage with Elizabeth of 
England, iii. 187 ; crown of 
BohemU, 195, 196; "Winter 
King," 198; unpopularity^, 199; 
Ban of the Empire issued 
affainst, 203 ; death, 287. 

Frederick III. , Elector of Saxony, 
i 296, 382 ; protection of Luther, 
405, 407, 412; Golden Rose, 
Papal gift, 409 ; death, ii. 64. 

Frederick III., £mi»eror : Corona- 
tion and reign, i. 32; revolt, 
88; Kingof Hungary. 96 ; Treves 
interview with Cnarles the 
Bold, 152; war against Bur- 
gundy, 154; alliances, 157, 206 ; 
expeoition against Flanders, 
177 ; Podiebrad's expedition 
against, 204; pilgrimage to 
Rome, 205; death, 211 ; Motto, 
212 note, 

Frederick III., German Em- 
peror, accession and death, vi. 

Frederick, King of Bohemia {see 
Frederick V.,^lector Palatine). 

Frederick I., King of Denmark, 
death, iii. 221. 

Frederick II., King of Denmark, 
death, iii. 224. 

Frederick III., Kingof Denmark: 
War a^inst Sweden, iii 408, 
410 ; privileges tocitizenclasses, 
iv. 19; deatii, 24. 

Frederick IV., King of Denmark: 
Accession, iv. 30, 122 ; alliance 
with Augustus II. of Poland, 
150 ; invasion of Sweden, 151 ; 
treaty with Sweden, 162. 

Frederick V., King of Denmark, 
death, iv. 410. 

Frederick VI., King of Denmark, 
candidate for Swedish throne, 
V. 476; cession of Norway to 
Sweden, 509; death, vi 84. 

Frederick VII. , King of Denmark: 
Accession, vi. 85 ; death, 164. 

Frederick II., King of Naples: 
Accession, i 232 ; expulsion of 
the French, 232; negotiations 
with Louis XII. , 251 ; surrender, 
253 ; exile and death, 253, 254. 

Frederick I., Kin^ of Prussia: 
Grand Alliance, iv. 56, 57; title 
of King of Prussia, 81 ; defensive 
treaties, 151 ; death. 111 ; 152. 

Frederick IL, King of Prussia: 
Accession, iv. 250; invasion and 
conquest of Silesia, 254; Con- 
vention of Klein-Schnellendorf, 
266 ; breach of faith to Maria 
Theresa, 266, 267 ; invasion and 
evacuation of Moravia, 268; 
defensive alliance with England 
and Holland, 270; Second Sile- 
sian War, 288; poliey during 
Austrian Succession War, 305, 
306 ; treaty of neutrality, 313 ; 
league against, 317, 319 ; truce 
with Russia, 349 ; Seven Years' 
War, 356; interviews with 
Joseph II., 378 ; Bavarian Suc- 
cession Question, 389; death, 
397; conquests and administra- 
tive achievements, 398. 

Frederick I., Kin^ of Sweden 
(Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel) 
Swedish command, iv. 161 
crown transferred to, 163 
death, 320. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Frederick, Prince Royal of Prus- 
sia, vi 178, 179, 193. 

Frederick Augustus I., Elector of 
Saxony, King of Poland : Polish 
claims, iv. 224, 227. 

Frederick Augustus II., Elector 
and first King of Saxony : Neu- 
trality, V. 398 ; sovereignty, 
402 ; death, vL 54. 

Frederick Charles, Prince: Prus- 
sian command, vi. 178 ; Saxon 
command, 193, 194, 195. 

Frederick William, Elector of 
Brandenburg : Accession, iii. 
322; character and policy, 
400; treaties and alliances, 
401, 402, 444, 452 ; iv. 24^ 25, 26, 
Sovereign-Duke of Prussia, 
iii. 410; S^ircdish invasion of 
Brandenburg, iv. 22 ; privileges 
to French Huguenot emigrants, 
43 ; death, 56. 

Frederick William I., King of 
Prussia (Elector of Braimen- 
burg) : Accession, iv. Ill, 152 ; 
alliance with England and 
France, 219 ; death, 250 ; char- 
acter and government, 250, 251. 

Frederick William II., King of 
Prussia : Accession, iv. §di9 ; 
declaration of Pilnitz, v. 68 ; 
meeting with Francis II., 81 ; 
abandonment of allies, 143 ; 
acquisition of South Prussia, 
168; treachery to allies, 194 
and note ; peace with France, 
197 ; mediation, 201 ; secret 
treaty with France, 226; 
death, 257. 

Frederick WUliam III., King of 
Prussia: Accession, v. 257 ; 
neutrality, 281, 366; Memel 
interview, 335 ; Thurd Coalition, 
361, 374, 375; vacillating 
policy, 381 ; treaty witn 
France, 382; flight, 400; Bar- 
tenstein Convention, 403; Tilsit 
interview, 405 ; alliance with 
Napoleon, 481 ; alliance with 
Russia, 497 ; arrival in Paris, 
515 ; death, vi. 83. 

Frederick William IV., King of 

Prussia : Accession, vL 83 ; 
policy of yield, 88 ; constitu- 
tion granted by, 98; title of 
" Hereditary Emperor " de- 
clined by, 103; Prussian policy, 
112; transfer of government 
to Prince William, 113. 

Freethinkers, English school of, 
iv. 201. 

Fregoso, French ambassador, 
ii. 154. 

Fregoso, Battista, i. 117, 247. 

Fregoso, Caesar, ii. 40. 

Fregoso, Gian, Doge of Genoa, 
i. 317, 347. 

Fregoso, Octavian, Doge of 
Genoa, i. 357, 432, 442. 

Fregoso, Pietro, Doge of Genoa, 
i. 123. 

Freiherm, German Barons, i 28. 

Freitag, Marshal, v. 141. 

French East India Company, 
iv. 185. 

Frere, Mr., English minister at 
Madrid, v. 356, 450. 

Freron: Marseilles atrocities, 
V. 139, 156. 

Freycinet, Prime Minister of 
fiance, vi. 205, 224. 

Friant, General, v. 478. 

Friesland, East, annexation by 
Prussia, iv. 295. 

Frimont, General, vi. 21, 59. 

Fritsch, Baron von, iv. 354. 

Froben, printer of Basle, iii. 107. 

Frobisher, Martin, iii. 34. 

Fronde: Domestic sedition in 
France, iii. 354 ; oiigin of 
name, 354 note ; New Fronde^ 
360 ; Union of Old and New 
Fronde, 361, 366. 

Frunsberg, George, i. 302, 386, 
417, 429, 441, 467 ; u. 15, 25, 
28, 62. 

Fuerosy ancient Spanish customs, 
vi 72. 

Fuggers, German bankers and mer- 
chants, ii. 73, 100 note ; 403, 404. 

Fiirstenberg, Cardinal William 
von, iii. &5 ; iv. 48. 

Fiirstenberg, Count, i. 457, 459 ; 
iL 152. 

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Filrstenberg, Prince, iv. 291. 
FiirstmbufM, League of German 
Princee, iv. 991. 

Oabelle, salt tax, ii. 174, 247; 
V. 11. 

Gablenz, General : Prussian com- 
mand in Schleswig, vi. 167; 
Austrian governor of Holstein, 
173, 176. 

Gaeta, Thomas of, i 395. 

Gaetano, Papal Legate to France, 
iii 64. 

Gage, General, iv. 442. 

G&gem, Henry von. President of 
German Isational Assembly, 
vi. 96. 

Gaees, Spanish General, iv. 296. 

Galata (or Pera) Genoese suburb 
of Constantino]^le, i. 16. 

Galiotto, James, i. 158. 

Galitzin, Prince, iv. 143, 376. 

Gallas, Clam, Austrian command, 
vi. 178, 179. 

Gallas, Greneral : Imperial com- 
mander, iii. 295 ; generalissimo, 

Galloway, Lord, v. 412 note, 

Galway, Lord, English comman- 
der, IV. 96, 98. 

Gama, Vasco da, discovery of 
East Indies, i. 325. 

Gambetta, French Minister of 
Interior, vi. 195; organization 
of army of the Loire, 196 ; Pre- 
sident of Chamber, 205, 224 ; 
head of ministry and foreign 
affairs, 206, 224. 

Gambier, Admiral, commander 
of English fleet, v. 412. 

Gandia, John, Duke of, 1. 188. 

Ganganelli, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, iv. 437 {see also 
Clement XIV.). 

Gantheaume, General, v. 326. 

Garat, M. French Envoy to 
Naples, V. 285. 

Gardie, General La, iii. 228. 

Gardie, Count Magnus de la, 
iv. 29. 

Grardiner, English ambassador 
at Orvieto, iL 42. 

Garibaldi : Enrolment of Volun- 
teers in Italy, vL 94; flight 
into Switzerland, 96 ; escape 
to Genoa, 103; command of 
irregular forces, riflemen of the 
Al^ 134; command of Tuscan 
divisionof Military League, 140 ; 
cession of Nice to France, 142 ; 
conquest of Sicily, 142; disso- 
lution of army : Congreee at 
€renoa, 148 ; enthusiastic re- 
ception in England, 149 ; com- 
mand of irregular Italian forces, 
185; attempt on Rome—arrest, 
187; French volunteer com- 
mand, 196. 

Gates, American General, iv. 444, 

Gatinara, ii. 83 ; representative 
of Charles V. at Conference of 
Calais, L 432; Chancellor, ii 92; 

Gaudin, Emile, v. 306 ; French 
Minister of Finance, 308. 

Gauthier, General, French com- 
mand in Tuscany, v. 293. 

€relderland : Purchase by Charles 
the Bold, i. 151 ; acquisition 
by Archduke Philip, 265. 

Gelderland, Duke of, L 164, 179, 
356,370; ii. 47, 138. 

Gendre, General, vi. 51. 

Geneva, union with France, 
V. 269. 

Genga, Cardinal della, election to 
Pontificate, vi 25 {see also 

Genlis, capture and execution of, 
ii. 435, 436. 

Genoa: Factories at Constanti- 
nople, i 16 ; decline of policy 
and commerce in fifteenth cen- 
tury, 48, 49 ; peace with Tur- 
key, 87 ; annihilation of 
commerce during Turkish 
hostilities, 105 ; submission to 
Charles VII. of France, 106; 
Duke of Milan, governor of, 
109 ; insurrections, 274; v. 246; 
expulsion of French, i. 317, 
124 ; ii. 45 ; capture by Im- 
perialists, L 442 ; blockade. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



ii. 24, 40 ; iv. 37 ; trade- 
banking, etc., iL 194 ; Friesoo 
Conspiracy, 235, 236; capture 
and loss by Anstrians, iv. 298 ; 
conversion into Ligarian Re- 
public, V. 246 ; incorporation 
with France, 362; re-establish- 
ment of Constitution of 1797, 
Lord Bentinck's proclamation, 
521 ; democratic congiess held 
by Garibaldi, vL 149. 

Gentili, Alberico, iv. 180. 

G^oiffeux, Colonel, Spanish Royal 
commander, vi. 13. 

George, Duke of Saxony, i. 411; 
ii. 53, 63, 68, 146. 

Greorge I., King of England (and 
Elector of Hanover) : Imperial 
command, iv. 100; accession, 
116 ; sJliances with Holland and 
Germany, 207 ; alliances with 
France and Prussia, 219 ; death, 

George II., King of England (and 
Elector of Hanover): Acces- 
sion, iv. 221 ; treaty of neutral- 
ity, 264; defensive alliance with 
Prussia and Holland, 270 ; 
Anglo-German campaign, 281 ; 
death, 338. 

George III., Kine of England, 
(and Elector of Hanover) : Ac- 
cession, iv. 343; speech with 
regard to hostile measures 
against France, v. 107; Osna- 
briick, ceded to, 338; death, 
vi. 24. 

George IV. , King of England (and 
Elector of Hanover) : Acces- 
sion, vi. 24 ; death, 43. 

George, Prince of Greece, Grov- 
emor of Crete, vi. 232. 

George Ragotski II., Voyvode of 
Transylvania, iv. 3. 

George William, Elector of Brand- 
enburg, death, iii. 322. 

Gerard, Balthazar, accession of 
William of Oranee, iii. 23. 

Gerard, Marshal: Municipal Com- 
mission appointment, vi. 39; 
French War Minister, 39 ; com- 
mand in Belgium, 50. 

Gerlach, General: Kretus party 
chief, vi. 112 ; death, 152. 

Gerlach, General von, Danish 
command, vi. 168. 

Germany : Title of Roman Em- 
peror, i 22 ; temporal princes, 
25, 26; spiritual principalities) 
qnialifications ana privileges of 
electors, 27; Hanseatic League, 
29; States Diets, power and 
privileges, 30 ; House of Habs- 
burg, 31 ; administrative re- 
forms, 276, 277, 278; system 
of taxation, 279 ; Lcmzknechte, 
341 ; Council of Regency, 386 ; 
Imperial Chamber reform, 386 ; 
stateof Roman Catholic Church, 
281, 392, 393, 416; Leipsic dis- 
putation and other controver- 
sies, 411, 412 ; Reformation, 416 ; 
Diet of Spires, ii. 19 ; Reforma- 
tion, Lutheranism, "Protest- 
ants," etc., 19, 34, 50, 63, 67, 58, 
59, 64, 65, 67, 79, 89, 94, 98, 100, 
102, 126, 147, 164, 179, 206, 244, 
287,348,446,479; High German 
dialect established by Luther as 
literary language, 53 ; Lea^e of 
Landau, 54, 55 ; termination of 
feudal violence, 56, 57 ; Peasant 
War, 61 ; restoration of Roman 
Catholicism in Hish Germany, 
66 ; abolition of Catholic wor- 
ship by princes and Imperial 
cities, o7 ; confession at Augs- 
burg, 94, 98; Confessio Tetra- 
politaruiy 95, 100; League of 
Bmalkald, 99,~127; Religious 
Peace of Nuremberg, 102, 103 ; 
Caroline ordinance — modifica- 
tion of ci-iminal law, 104, 105 ; 
jurisdiction in ecclesiastical mat- 
ters taken from Imperial Cham- 
ber, 127 ; trade and commerce 
in North Germany — monopolies, 
etc. , 196 ; French invasion under 
Henry II. , 265 ; effects of reign 
of Charles v., 291; Imperial m- 
dependence of the Apostolic See 
finally established, 345 ; right 
of primogeniture, iii. 85 ; innu- 
ence of Jesuits, 103; Protestant 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Union and Catholic Lea^e, 187 ; 
Edict of Bestitution, 264; effects 
of the Thirty Years* War, 307, 
308; defeats and losses, 338; 
Peace of Westphalia— General 
Amnesty, 349; constitution of 
Empire, 350 ; renewal of Religi- 
ous Peace, 350 ; state of, after 
Peace of Westphalia, 379; 
French influence, 379, 380; in- 
terregnum, 382; Palatinate rav- 
aged by French troops, 456; 
Spanish Succession War, iv. 86, 
87, 90, 91, 93, 102, 104, 106, 115; 
interregnum, 106; Swedish re- 
verses, 151 ; effects of Thirty 
Years' War, 171 ; decline of Im- 
perial authority, 172; Diets — ^loss 
of importance, 173; non-encour- 
agement of German literature, 
173; Quadruple Alliance, 213; 
Imperial election, 267 ; Armed 
Neutrality, 453; literature— 
classical modes discarded, spirit 
of liberty, v. 178; Order of i^t«- 
minati established, 179 ; cam- 
paigns in, 225, 311, 452, 500, 
501 ; princes of the Empire, sus- 
pension of arms, 226; treachery 
of Prussia, 227 ; indemnification 
of princes, secularization of ec- 
clesiastical property, 280, 335, 
336, 337, 338 ; trade and com- 
merce — blockade of Elbe and 
Weser by English, 347; Con- 
federation of the Rhine, 387, 
388,389; "mediatized" princes, 
389 ; radical changes in federa- 
tive constitution, 524 ; students' 
demonstration at Wartburg, vi. 
23; Carlsbad resolutions, 24; 
effect of French Revolution 
(1830), 54; (1848), 84, 85, 86; 
Vor^parlemente, 86, 89; effect 
of Prussian policy, 88, 89 ; par- 
liament dismissed, 104 ; federal 
constitution of 1815 restored, 
111 ; establishment of National- 
vereiny 153 ; Heformverein, 154 ; 
Schleswig-Holstein Question, 
163; establishment of German 
Empire under William L, 198; 

Franco-German War, 192-198; 
persecution of Ultramontaiiism, 
KtUturkamp/\AW»y202 ; iM>Iicy 
of consolidation, 206 ; amance 
with Austria, 220 ; secret treaty 
with Russia, 221 ; peace policy 
of Bisuiarck, 228 ; colonization 
in Africa, 232; occupation oi 
Kiao-Chow, 237. 

Grermi^y, French ambaseador to 
the Forte, iiL 91. 

Gerson, John, French ecclesiastic, 
i. 391. 

Gertruydenburg Conference* iv. 

Ghesali Bey, Governor of Syria* L 

Ghent : CueilUtte, forced re]>eal, 
i. 137; insurrection against 
Maximilian, 174; revolt and 
downfall, ii 141, 143; pad- 
fication— Netherlajids Greneral 
Congress, 445 ; insurrection, iiL 
10; government reformed and 
re-established by William of 
Orange, 13. 

Ghenucci, Girolamo, Bishop of 
Ascoli, i. 407. 

Gherai, (Dhabaz, Khan of Tartary, 
iv. 405. 

Gherai, Krim, Khan of Tartary, 
iv. 376. 

Gherai, Sahim, Khan of Tartary, 
iv. 403. 

Ghevara, Don Giovanni di. Count 
of Potenza, i. 254. 

Ghislieri, Michele, Cardinal of 
Alessandria : Election to Ponti- 
ficate, ii 355 {see also Pius V.). 

Giambelli, Mantuan engineer, iiL 

Giberto, Papal Envoy, i466. 

Gibraltar, capture oy English, 
iv. 92. 

Gid, Marshal de, i. 257. 

Ginetti, Cardinal, Papal Legate, 
iii. 335. 

Ginkell, General, Irish com- 
mand, iv. 54. 

Gioja, Flavio, L 322. 

Giovio, Paolo, historian, iL 31. 

Giron, Don Pedro de, L 425. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



GirondiBts or Brissotins, v. 05. 

Giudioe, Cardinal del, Spanish 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, iv. 

Giulay, Count : Austrian Envoy 
to Napoleon I., v. 372, 377; 
command in Italy, vi. 134. 

Giustiniani, Antonio, i. 289. 

Giustiniani, Paolo, ii. 185. 

Gladstone, Mr., Chancellor of 
Exchequer, vi. 119. 

Glimes, Admiral, ii. 440. 

Goa, Portuguese settlement, i. 

G5ben, General von, Prussian 
command in France, vi. 197. 

Godoy, Don Emanuel, v. 110; 
Duke of Alcudia— supreme di- 
rection of affairs in Spain, 184 ; 
" Prince of Peace,**^ 203 and 
note ; dismissal, 272 ; plots 
against Ferdinand, Prince of 
ABturias, 433 ; arrest of Ferdi- 
nand, 434 ; French invasion of 
Spain, 435 ; arrival at Bayonne, 

Groethe, Johann Wolfgang, Ger- 
man poet, views on French 
revolution, v. 179. 

Goignies, De, Netherlands com- 
mander, iii. 7. 

Goislard, iv. 465. 

Golden Bull: Electors, claims 
and quaMcations, i. 28 ; fun- 
damental law of Holy Roman 
Empire, L 340. 

GomarisU, iii. 182. 

Gomarus— Dutch divine, iii. 182. 

Gondi, Cardinal, French Envoy, 
iii. 65. 

Grondomar, Spanish ambassador, 
iii. 205. 

Gonsalvi, Cardinal, Papal Envoy 
to Congress of Vienna, v. 523. 

Gonzaga, Don Ferrante, iL 122, 
177, 239 ; Governor of MiLanese, 
247, 252, 257. 

Gonzaga, Ferdinand, ii. 84. 

CU>nzaga, Frederick, Marquis of 
Mantua, i. 437. 

CU>nzaga, Maria, Mantuan suc- 
oessiony iii. 269. 

Gonzaga, Vincenzo, Duke of 
Mantua and Marquis of Mont* 
ferrat, death, iii 269. 

Gordon, General, death of, and 
fall of Khartoum, vL 226. 

G5rgey, General, Hungarian 
command, vi. 99, 100. 

Gortschakov, Prince : Command- 
in-Chief of Russian army 
in Turkey, vi. 118 ; Crimean 
command, 123 ; Russian mea- 
sures in Poland, 169 ; Treaty of 
1856, Russian repudiation of 
Black Sea Clause, 198 ; accept- 
ance of British demands, 216. 

Gdrtz, Baron, Prussian minister 
at the Hague, iv. 158, 159, 161, 
397, 399. 

Gorzke, General, iv. 26. 

Gottingen, Dickterhund, v. 179. 

Gourko, General, Russian com- 
mand in Bulgaria, vL 213. 

Govone, General, Italian ambas- 
sador to Berlin, vi. 174. 

Grower, Lord, English ambassador 
to Paris, V. 104. 

Graham, General: Defence of 
Cadiz, V. 469 ; siege of St. Se- 
bastian, 512. 

Gramont, Duke of, iv. 281 ; vi. 

Gramont, Marshal, French diplo- 
matist, iii. 380. 

Granada, war against Moors in 
Granada, i. 199, 200, 201, 202. 

Granada, New, ii. 190. 

Grand Alliance, iv. 56 ; renewal, 
64; triumvirate of the coali- 
tion, 81 ; dissolution, 113. 

" Grand Privilege," charter 
mnted to Hollanders and 
ZeaJanders, L 162. 

Grand Vizier, titles, i 12. 

Granvelle, Antony de. Bishop of 
Arras, ii 256, 301 ; iii. 13. 

Granvelle, Perrenot de, Imperial 
Chancellor, ii. 83, 147, 306. 

Granville, Lord, protest against 
action of Russia, vi. 198. 

Grasse, Comte de, iv. 455. 

Gratiani, Caspar, Voyvode of 
Moldavia, 111.209,210. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Gratien, General, y. 493. 

Gravaminat complaints against 
Apostolic See, i. 295. 

Gravel, French Envoy, iiL 456. 

Graves, De, French War Minister, 
V. 74. 

Gravina, Admiral, Spanish com- 
mand, V. 363. 

Great Mollas, jadges, i. 15. 

Greece : ParaJlel between Modem 
Enropean and Early Grecian 
History, i. 3 ; war with Turkey, 
vi. 224, 231 ; independence of 
Turkey, 28 ; insurrections — ^new 
constitution, 29 ; recognition of 
indei^endence by Russia, 31 ; 
erection as kingdom, 33. 

Green, General, American com- 
mand, iv. 455 ; v. 357. 

Gr^goire, Abb^, v. 97. 

Gregorian Calendar, iii. 30. 

Gregory XI., Pope, return to 
Rome, i. 389. 

Gregory XIII., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, iL 383 ; plots against 
Elizabeth of England, 473; 
Catholic League, 480 ; death, iii. 

Gregory XIV., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, iii. 60; assistance 
to leaguers, 61 ; death, 64. 

Gregory XV., Pope: Election to 
Pontificate, iii. 231 ; death, 236. 

Gregory XVI., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, vi. 58 ; death, 91. 

Greiffenklau, Richaid von. Arch- 
bishop and Elector of Treves, 
ii. 55. 

Gremonville, French ambassador, 
iii. 442. 

Grenville, Mr. Thomas, English 
Envoy to Vienna, v. 193. 

Grenville, Lord : Alien BiU, v. 
107 ; negotiations with France, 
234, 284 ; Prime Minister, 381 ; 
retirement, 414 ; Foreign Secre- 
tary, 425. 

Gr^vy, Jules : President of French 
Chamber, vi. 202 ; President of 
the Republic, 205, 224. 

Grey, Lady Jane, execution, ii. 

Grey, Sir Edward, Under Secre- 
tly for Foreign Affiiirs, v. 

Grijalva, Juan de, ii 189. 

Grimaldi, Spanish minister, iv. 

Grisons League, iii. 230, 231, 236. 

Gritti, Aloysio, ii. 72, 150, 151. 

Gritti, Andrea, i. 287, 290; ii 

Grodno, massacre of Russians, v. 

Groenevelt, Arnold de. Command- 
ant of Sluys, iiL 29. 

Groot, Van, Dutch ambassador, 
iii 446. 

Groote, Pier de, i. 370. 

Grosswardein, Bishop of, i 209. 

Grotius, Hugo, iii. 182, 183, 184, 
309; iv. 180. 

Groudowitsch, General, Russian 
command, v. 419. 

Guadeloupe, cession to Sweden, 
V. 499. ^ 

Guastalla, Caesar, Duke of, iiL 

Guasto, Marquis del, L 470 ; il 
22, 23, 40, 122, 154, 162, 164. 

Gudowitsch, General, iv. 425. 

Gu^briant, Marshal, iiL 320, 321, 
322, 323, 328, 329. 

Guelfs and Ghibelins, i. 52, 53. 

Guerazzi, Dictator in Florence, 
vi. 102. 

Gu^ronni^re, M. de la, vi. 132. 

Crtterre des Amoureux, ii. 467. 

Guerre duBien Public, L 131, 132, 
133, 134. 

Guerrero, Don Pedro, Archbishop 
of Granada, iL 365. 

Gueux de la Mer, iL 433, 440. 

Gueitx Sauvagesy ii. 427. 

Guicdardini, Commissary-Gene- 
ral of Papal troops, L 432, 

Guienne : Expulsion of English, 
L 73, 74 ; investment of Duke 
of Bern, 141 ; annexation, 148 ; 
occupation, 175. 

Guinea, discovery of, L 324. 

Guiot of Provins, i. 323. 

Guise family, iL 230, 475. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Antony, Dnke of Lorraine, 

ii. 4. 
Charles, Cardinal and Arch- 
t biahop of Rheims, ii. 290. 

Charles, Duke of, iiL 62. 
Count of Guise, L 434, 459. 
Francis, Duke of, and Count of 
i Aumale, ii. 230, 273 ; desi^ 

on Naples, 292; Italian in- 
r vasion, 295 ; Lieutenant- 

General of France, 299, 317, 
341 ; capture of Calais, 300 ; 
Flanders campaign, 302 ; 
, command of French army, 

314 ; triumvirate, 328 ; mur- 
der, 342. 
Henry I., Duke of: Marriage 
with Catharine of Cleves, li. 
379; Catholic League, 459, 
463, 477 ; French command, 
461 ; iu. 42 ; supreme power 
in Paris, 45, 46; assassina- 
tion, 48. 
Henry II., Duke of, preten- 
sions to Naples, iii., 344, 345. 
Ren6 of, Marquis d'ElbcBuf, ii. 
Guizot, M., journalist, vi. 35; 
leader of Doctrinaires^ 36 ; Min- 
ister of Public Instruction, 58 ; 
French ambassador to London, 
62; Foreign Minister, 64; re- 
actionary policy, 75 ; dismissal, 
Guldberjg, Danish Cabinet Secre- 
tary, w. 412, 413. 
Gunpowder : Invention, L 2 ; 
Moorish use of, 200 ; use of, in 
mining, 342. 
Guns, first mention of, i. 341. 
Gurk, Cardinal of, i. 348. 
Gusman, Dona Louisa de : Re- 
gency, iii. 422. 
Gustavus I., King of Sweden 
League with Francis I., ii. 155 
SwMish insurrection, iii. 216 
Regency, 218; election, 218 
consoliaation of power, 219, 
war against LUbeckers, 221, 
222 ; death. 222. 
Gustavus Adolphus IL, King of 

Sweden : Accession, iii 227 ; 
character, 227, 228; Danish 
war, 228 ; Russian war, 228 ; 
marriage with Mary Eleanor 
of Brandenburg, 229; Polish 
War, 229 : Thirty Years* War, 
265, 266, 267, 269, 273 ; death, 
285 ; character, 286. 

Gustavus Adolphus III. , King of 
Sweden : Accession : Act of 
Security, iv. 407 ; overthrow of 
constitution, 407, 408 ; alliance 
with Russia, v. 177 ; assassi- 
nation, 74, 178. 

Gustavus Adolphus IV., King of 
Sweden : Accession and minor- 
ity, V. 178 ; Armed Neutrality, 
320 ; remonstrance against 
French violation of German 
territory, 354; alliance with 
Alexander I., 359; recall of 
troops, 375 ; war against Prus- 
sia, 383 ; Bartenstein Conven- 
tion, 414; arrest of Russian am- 
bassador, 420 ; abdication, 422. 

Guyon, Madame, iv. 200. 

Guzman, Don Caspar de. Count 
of Olivarez, iii. 231. 

Guzman, Don Martin, ii. 290. 

Gyllenborg, Swedish ambassador, 
IV. 159,272. 

Habardanacz, ii. 102. 

Habsbur^, House of : Hereditary 
possession of Imperial crown, 
1. 31 ; growth of power and in- 
fluence, iv. 176; Hungarian 
succession— -TreatyofPresburg, 
i 211 ; death of last male heir, 
iv. 248. 

Habsburg, Rudolf of, conquests, 
Germanic crown, i. 31. 

Habsburg, Lorraine, House of j 
iv. 295. 

Haddock, Admiral, iv. 270. 

Hagenbach, Peter von, i. 167. 

Haffue : First Convention of the 
Hague, iii. 418; Peace Con- 
gress, vi. 238. 

Hailes, Mr., EngUsh minister at 
Copenhagen, v. 318. 

Hakluyt, Richard, iv. 186. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Haller, French commiBsioiier. 
V. 264. 

Hamburg : Admission of Rus- 
sians — expulsion of French 
garrison, 601 ; recovery of, by 
French and Danes, 503. 

Hamelin, Admiral, French fleet 
at entrance of Dardanelles, 
vi. 118. 

Hamilton, Regent of Scotland, 
iL 174. 

Hamilton, Lady, v. 286. 

Hamilton, Sir W., English min- 
ister at Naples, v. 182, 286. 

Hammerlein, i 398. 

Hammond, Mr. , English Envoy to 
Berlin, v. 227. 

Hancock. John, President of 
American Congress, iv. 442. 

Hanover, Alliance of, iv. 219. 

Hanover: Electorate, erection as, 
iv. 17; * * Correspondent Princes" 
League, 18 ; Prussian occupa- 
tion, V. 381, 382; vi. 178; 
French occupation, v. 346 ; 
Suklingen Convention, 346 ; re- 
storation to England by Napo- 
leon : Prussian declaration of 
war, 393, 395 ; annexation by 
Westphalia, 466; title of 
Elector changed to King, 525 ; 
succession of El-nest Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland, vi. 83. 

Hansa League, North German 
Commercial League, ii. 196. 

Hanseatic League : Alliance of 
Imperial cities, i. 29 ; trea- 
ties with Louis XI. 150; de- 
cline of, iii. 128 ; ravages on 
Danish coast, 218 ; French 
demandforloan, V. 271 ; union 
with France, 466. 

Harbum, William, English am- 
bassador to Porte, iii. 90. 

Harcourt, Comted', French Envoy 
to Spain, iv. 71, 106. 

Hardenberg, Count, Prussian 
minister, v. 180, 201, 357, 365, 
481 ; vi 20. 

Hardy, Admiral, iv. 447. 

Hardy, General, v. 278. 

Haro, Count of, i. 425. 

Harrach, Count, Grerman Envoy 
to Spain, iv. 71, 80. 

Harrington, Earl of, iv. 293. 

Harsch, Greneral, iv. 337. 

Haspin^er, Capuchin monk, 
Tyrolese leader, v. 453. 

Hassan, Turkish Grovernor of 
Bosnia, iii. 92. 

Hasselaer, Kenau, ii. 438. 

Hassenpflug, Hesse Cassel min- 
ister, vi 111. 

Hattisherifs, Sultan's Imperial 
Rescrijpts, i 1. 

Hatzfeld, Imperial command, 
ui 321, 332. 

Hatzfeldt, Prince, Prussian Envoy 
to Paris, V. 496. 

Haugwitz, Count, V. 171, 180, 194; 
negotiations with France, 197 ; 
Prussian treachery to Grermany, 
227; Prussian policy of neu- 
trality, 281 ; Prussian Envoy 
to Napoleon, 375, 381, 382. 

Hauranne, Jean Duvergier de, 
iv. 197. 

Hawke, Admiial Sir E., 302, 309, 

Hawkesbury, Lord, Foreign Secre^ 
tary, v. 327, 34a. 

Haynau, Count, "Hy«na of 
Brescia," vi 99 ; Austrian 
command in Hungary, 100. 

Hayraddin Barbarossa, piracies, 
ii. 116, 117, 118, 130, 131, 150, 
161, 162, 165. 

Hayti : Discovery of, i 332; 
French expedition, vi. 61. 

Hubert, Jacques, v. 120, 121, 133, 

H^bertistes, French Ultra-demo- 
crats, V. 129, 145; extenooina- 
tion, of, 146, 147. 

Heemskerk, Admiral, iii. 144. 

Heideck, Hans von, command 
of Wurtemberg forces, ii 209. 

Heiden, Admiral, vi. 33. 

Heilbron, union of, iii. 287. 

Heinsius, Daniel, Grand Pension- 
ary of Holland, iv. 84. 

Held, Imperial Chancellor, ii. 

H^lian, French Envoy, i 295. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Heligoland, cession to Gennany, 
vi. 233. 

Hell, Rudolf, i. 430. 

Helvetic Republic, Switzerland 
proclaimed as, v. 288. 

Henri, Jacques, Mayor of La 
Roehelle, ii. 452. 

Henrietta Maria of France, mar- 
riage inth Charles, Prince of 
Wales, in. 234, 238. 

Henriot Francis, Revolutionist, 
V. 121, 123, 147, 166. 

Henriquez, Pedro, Count of 
Fuentes, iii. 77, 78, 79. 

Henry, Cardinal, King of Portu- 
gal, ii. 471. 

Henry IV., King of Castile : Suc- 
cession, i 68 ; deposition, 190 ; 
Joanna, daughter, affianoed to 
Duke of Guienne, 194 ; death, 

Henry IV., King of England 
heresy made capital offence, i 

Henry V., King of England 
French crown acquisition, i. 68 
death of, 69. 

Henry VI., King of England 
Coronation at Paris, i. 70 ; re 
storation to the throne, 145 
death, 146. 

Henry VII., King of England . 
Accession, i. 171, 172 ; Arcnduke 
Philip, detention in England, 
270 ; maritime discoveries dur 
ing reign, 337 ; English army 
sent to assistance ox Brittany, 
176; Expedition against France, 
180, 181. 

Henry VIIl., King of England 
Marriage with Catharine of 
Aragpn, L 270 ; accession, 293 ; 
treaties and alliances with 
foreign powers, 293, 352, 353, 
364, 379 ; ii. 109, 110, 168, 226 ; 
Holv L^ue, i 306 ; title of 
** Most Qiristian " conferred 
on, by Julius II., 321 ; war 
with France, 348, 349, 442. 
443; Camp of the Cloth of 
Gold, 386 ; <' Defender of the 
Faith, 434; Mediation between 

Francis I. and Charles V., 
429; change of policy: balance 
of power in Europe, ii. 5 ; 
negotiations with France, 7 ; 
renewals of French claims, 6 ; 
renunciation of French claims, 
37, 38; divorce from Catha- 
rine of Aragon, 110, 112, 114, 
116; marriage with Anne 
Boleyn, ii. Ill ; matrimonisd 
projects after execution of 
Anne Boleyn, 136 ; marriage 
with Anne of Cleves, 138, 139 ; 
defence of England against ex- 
pected attack b^ Francis I., 138 ; 
change of policy in regard to 
Scotland, 158; invasion of 
France, 165 ; death, 226. 

Henry II., King of France: 
Marriage with Catharine de' 
Medici, ii. Ill ; accession, 
228 ; council, 229 ; coronation, 
232 ; conspiracies in Italy 
against Charles V., 247; war 
with England, 261 ; .Ajiglo- 
French alliance against Charles 
v., 256;, opposition to Julius 
III. and iDouncil of Trent, 269 ; 
negotiations with Lutheran 
Princes, 259 ; treaty with 
Maurice of Saxony, 260 ; Italian 
campaign, 267; invasion of 
Naples, 274, 275 ; Netherlands 
invasion, 281 ; treaty with 
Paul IV., 293; religious per- 
secutions, 311 ; death, 314. 

Henry III., King of France: 
lieutenant-General, 359 ; elecr 
tion to Polish crown, 464 ; ac- 
cession, 467, 458; character, 457, 
468; coronation at Rheims, 
458 ; marriage with Louise of 
Lorraine, 458 ; deposition by 
thePoles, 460 ; Catholic League, 
464; court and extravagance, 
466 ; conspiracies against, 
iii. 44 ; truce with Huguenots : 
excommunication, 61 ; assas- 
sination, 52. 

Hennr IV., King of France: 
i. ^ ; marriage with Mar- 
garet of Valois, Duchess of 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Alenpon, ii 21 ; Hngaenot 
chief, 361 ; King of Navarre, 
380; marriage with Margaiet 
of Valois, 380, 385 ; conversion 
to Roman Catholicism, 451 ; 
escape from French Court, 461 ; 
Peace of Monsieur, 462 ; Hu- 
guenot successes, 465 ; help 
n-om England and German 
Princes : Declarations, iii, 41 ; 
Protector of the Evangelical 
Churdi, 60 ; accession, 53 ; 
character, 55; Elizabeth of 
England, money and men sent 
in aid of, 56 ; re-conversion to 
Roman Catholicism : abjura- 
tion at St. Denis, 68 ; corona- 
tion at Chartres, 69; attempted 
assassination of, 71 ; recon- 
ciliation with the Pope, 72; 
alliance with Elizabeth, 79; 
Governors of Provinces : want 
of centralization in France, 
120, 121 ; foreign policy, 133, 
147 ; divorce from Margaj^t of 
Valois, 134; marriage with 
Mary de' Medici, 134, 137 ; con- 
spiracy against, 136 ; Savoy 
campaign : conditions of peace, 
136 ; Cmstian Republic scneme, 
137, 138 ; Italy, scheme for de- 
struction of Spanish domina- 
tion, 149 ; Gennan Protestant 
Princes appeal for help, 160; 
treaty witn Protestant Union, 
161 ; Thirty Years* War, 163 ; 
assassination, 164; character, 

Henry "the Navigator," mari- 
time discoveries, i. 323, 324. 

Henry the Pious, Duke of Alber- 
tine Saxony, iL 146, 147. 

Herbert, Lord, L 348. 

Herbois, Collot d', v. 131 ; Lyons 
atrocities, 139 ; attempted as- 
sassination, 152; resignation, 
186; trial and transportation, 
187, 188. 

Hermandad : Organization of, in 
Valencia, L 384 ; Valencia in- 
surrections, 426. 

Herring fisheries: French and 

Netherlands vessels engaged in, 
433 ; Amsterdam, ii 197. 

Herwarth, General, Prussian 
command, vi. 178, 179. 

Herzegovina, revolt against 
Turks, vi 207. 

Hesse : Frederick, Landgrave of 
Hesse : Marriage with Grand 
Duchess Alexander of Russia, 
84 ; Hermann, Landgrave of 
Hesse, i 153 ; Philip, Landgrave 
of Hesse, 419 ; ii 67, 68, ^, 87, 
90, 91, 96, 100, 104, 126, 127, 
149, 159, 207, 209, 210, 221, 222, 
223, 224, 254, 261, 262, 272. 

Hesse, Philippsthal, Ftince of, 
V. 384. 

JETe^eratoe, Greek secret societies, 
vi. 29. 

Hidalgos, nobles of Spain, iii 

Hildburghausen, Imperial com- 
mand, iv. 327. 

Hill, General, si^ge of Pamp- 
lona, V. 512. 

Hiller, General, Aufitrian com- 
mand, V. 453, 510. 

HUliers, General Baraguay d', 
V. 240; French conunand in 
Baltic, vi 122. 

Hobart, Lord, War. Minister, 

Hoche, General, v. 144, 204,236; 
support of the triumvirs, 248. 

Hodfipson, General, iv. 344. 

Hocks, Flemish ariJstocratie party, 
i 167 and note. 

Hofer, Andreas, Tyrolese leader, 
V. 453 ; execution, 459. 

Hohenlohe, Count, Lientenant- 
General to Maurice of Nassau, 
iii 24 ; Thirty Years' War, 20^ 

Hohenlohe, Prince : Austrian 
command, v. 81 ; invasion of 
Saxony, 395; Prussian com- 
mand, 397 ; surrender to Mv- 
rat at Prrazlau, 399. 

Hohenlohe • higelfingen. Prince, 
Prussian Prime Minister* vi 153. 

Hohenzollem, House of, L 25. 

Hohenzollern • Sigmarinffen, 
Prince, Prussian Prime Min- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


ister, vi. 152, 163 ; Spanish 
crown offered to— withdrawal 
of acceptance, 190, 192. 

Holbach, German Baron, £n- 
cvdopsedistB, v. 20. 

Holbein, Hans, L 398. 

HoldemesB, Earl of, iv. 343. 

Hoik, Baron, Danish minister, 
iv. 410. 

Holland ; Union of Utrecht, iii. II ; 
rennndation of allegiance to 
Philip II. of Spain, 15 ; Act of 
Abjuration, 16; Holland and 
Zealand : Sovereignty offered 
to William of Oranee, 17 ; ac- 
cepted, 22; groww of trade 
and commerce, 128, 129; 
colonization, 129, 130; pro- 
sperity — ^navy, etc,, 140 ; close 
of War of Independence, 147; 

Sowers and constitution of 
tates-General, 182, 183 ; (?om- 
arists and ArminianSt 182, 183 ; 
treaties and alliances, 299, 342, 
346, 430, 445 ; iv. 103, 112, 113, 
207, 222, 270, 396, 400, 460; 
V. 196; recognition of United 
Provinces as nree and sovereign 
States by Spain, iii. 346 ; hos- 
tility to English Commonwealth 
government, 370; revolution: 
tadholdership left vacant, 371; 
war with England, 372, 373; 
war with Portugal, 423 ; con- 
dition of army and navy, 446 ; 
war with England, 428 ; war 
against England and France, 
447 ; demands of France and 
England, 448, 451 ; revolution 
in, 450 ; evacuation by French, 
454; Peace with England, 455 ; 
Dutch East India trade, iv. 188; 
Triple Alliance, 208 ; Quad- 
ruple Alliance, 213 ; state of, 
300 ; decline in trade and com- 
merce, 301 ; Scheldt navuA- 
tion^isputes with Joseph II., 
395 ^ puty dissensions, 396; 
revolution : influence of 
France, 397 ; Prussian invasion : 
Restoration of Stadholder, 
William, v. 399 ; Armed Neu- 

trality, 453; rupture with 
England, 453 ; campaign 
against France, v. 190, 195; 
I&volution, 196 ; abolition of 
Stadholderate: establishment of 
Batavian Republic, 196; Eng- 
lish descent in, 299; ^ure, 
300 ; new constitution in imi- 
tation of French consulate, 341 ; 
arrest of English subjects by 
order of Napoleon, 345 ; recon- 
stitution as kingdom under 
Louis Bonaparte, 386; distress 
in, 464 ; French occupation, 
465; union with France by 
Senatus-eansulte, 466 ; rising 
against French; Proclamation 
of King William I., 509; an- 
nexation of Belmum, 520,525, 

Holmes, Admirm Sir Robert, 
iii. 447. 

Holstein: Erection into Duchy, 
213; federal execution: breach 
of Treaty of London, vL 165. 

Holstein, Frederick, Duke of. 
King of Denmark, iii 218. 

Holstem-Gottorp : 
Adolphus Frederick of, election 

to Swedish throne, iv. 278. 
Christian Albert, Dukeof , iv. 24. 
Frederick, Duke of, iv. 121. 
Charles Frederick, '?Duke of, iv. 

Charles Peter Ulric, Duke of, 
iv. 277. 

Holy League (1511), L 306; (1526), 
ii. 18. 

Holy League and Holy War 
against Turks, iv. 10, 16, 17. 

Holy League of Nuremberg, 
ii. 146. 

Holy Roman Empire, dissolution, 
V. 387, 390. 

Holzer, Wol^;ang, Austrianinsur- 
rection, seizure of Vienna, i. 96. 

Hompesch, Baron, Grand Master 
of Slights of Malta, v. 276. 

Honorius IIL, Pope, L 388. 

Hont, De, Bmsseu merchant, iv. 

Howoeds^ Hungarian National 
troops, vi. 97. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Hood, Admiral, v. 137, 138, 139, 

Hoogstraaten, Dominican, i 406. 

Hoogstraten, Count, il 428. 

Horn, Admiral, iv. 26, 27. 

Horn, Count, ii. 408, 410 ; arrest, 
426 ; indictment and execution, 
480, 431. 

Horn, Count Arred, iv. 272. 

Horn, Field Marshal, Grovemor 
of Livonia, iv. 26. 

Hornby, Admiral, vi. 213, 216. 

Hotse, Austrian General, v. 291, 

Houehard, Greneral: French com- 
mand on the Rhine, v. 127 ; 
command of French army in 
the north, 141. 

Houtman, Cornelius, iii. 129. 

Howe, Admiral Lord, iv. 332, 
446, 466 ; V. 200. 

Howe, General, iv. 442, 444. 

Howardj Lord Thomas, iii. 81. 

Howard, Sir Edward, English 
admiral, i. 348. 

Howick, Lord, Foreign Minister, 
V. 394. 

Hiibner, Monsieur, Austrian am- 
bassador to Paris, vi 131. 

Hudson's Bay, discovery of, 
i. 337. 

Huescar, Due de, iv. 339. 

Huguenots, derivation of name, 
ii. 316 ; position at the time of 
Edict of Nantes, iii. 106 j revo- 
cation of Edict of Nantes, iv. 41; 
emigration, 43. 

Hugonet, Chancellor to Mary of 
Burgundy, i. 162, 163. 

Humann, Monsieur, French 
Finance Minister, vi. 64. 

Humbercourt, Sir d', i. 368, 162, 

Humbert, General, French expe- 
dition to Ireland, v. 278. 

Humi^res, Baron d'. Governor of 
Pironne, ii. 462. 

Humi^s, Marshal d'. iv. 36; 

. ' French commandin theNetiker- 
lands, 67. 

Huneary: Albert IL recognized 
as King, i. 36 ; office of Pala- 

tine, 37 ; weakness of consti- 
tution under Albert, iL 37, 38 ; 
regency of John ol Honyad, 
40 ; claimants to the throne on 
the death of Ladislans Post- 
umus, 94, 96; coronation (A 
Matthias Corvinus, 95 ; ** Per- 
petual Peace'* with Bohemia 
and Poland, 207 ; Hungarian 
Palatine, power sjid dignity 
settled by law, 208 ; Hahsbuig 
succession : Treaty of Presburg, 
211 ; cavalry employed in war- 
fare, numbers, 342; poverty 
and barbarism of country, 376; 
state of, under Louis II., ii. 70, 
71, 72 ; Turkish invasions, i. 89, 
100, 448, 449 ; ii. 70, 73, 74, 75, 
79, 106, 107, 161, 162, 153, 270, 
271, 369; war in, ii 346; 
Turkish-Hungarian War, iii. 89, 
92; Act .of Confederation, 153; 
treaty between Rodolph II. 
and Archduke Matthias, 154; 
Tekeli*s revolt, iv. 7 ; recovery 
hy Austria, 11 ; ancient con- 
stitution abolished, 12 : insur- 
rection, 88, 92; unpopularity 
of Joseph XL's admmistrative 
measures, 394 ; effect of French 
Revolution, vi. 66 ; Magyar 
language: Kossuth's influence, 
etc. , 84 ; effect of French Revo- 
lution, 87 ; reduction by Aus- 
tria, 99 ; demands of constitu- 
tional party, 161, 162 ; suspen- 
sion of Imperial constitution, 
173 ; constitutional indepen- 
dence granted to, 184. 

Hunyad, Count of, John Cor- 
vinus, i. 208, 

Hunyad, House of, i. 18. 

Hunyad, John of: Founder of 
House of Hunyad, i. 18 ; cam- 
paigns against the Turks, Vasay 
victory, 18, 19; crusade, 20; 
Captam-general of Hungary, 
21 ; appomtment to Regency, 
21, 40; successes against 
Turks, 89 ; siege of Belgrade, 
rout of Turkish army, 92 ; death 
at 8emlin, 92. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Hiu»» John, Bohemian reformer, 
L 36 ; Reformation : scriptures, 
standard of faith, 390, 391; 
death by burning, 391. 

Hussars, origin of name, i. 97 note. 

Hussein Avni, vL 209. 

Hussein Bey, Dey, vL 36. 

Hussein Pasha, vi. 62. 

Hutchinson, GeneraJ, English 
command in Egypt, v. 326. 

Hutten, Ubich von, L 378, 399, 
412,414,418; ii. 67. 

Huxdiles, Marshal d', French 
plenipotentiary, iv. 107. 

Hyder Ally of Mysore, iv. 446. 

Hyndford, Lord, English ambas- 
sador at Vienna, iv. 260. 

Ibrahim, Grand Vizier of Turkey, 

vi. 32, 62, 63. 
Ibrahim Bey, Mamaluke leader, 

V. 277. 

Ibrahim, Pasha of Buda, iv. 8. 

Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of 
Turkey, ii 71, 80, 103, 130, 150, 
151 ; iu. 94, 95. 

Ibrahim, Sultan of Turkey : Ac- 
cession, ill 333, 334; deposition 
and death, 334. 

Igelstrdm, General, Russian am- 
bassador, V. 169, 170, 171. 

Ignatiev, Count, Russian ambass- 
ador, vL 209, 210, 212, 215. 

Imbize, noble of Ghent, iii. 10. 

Imola, Count of, i. 183, 184. 

India : Portuguese settlement at 
Goa, i. 336 ; restoration of Pon- 
dicherry to French East India 
Company, iv. 66; English acqui- 
dtionsand growth of power, 185; 
French conquests, 19^; English 
conquests, 193; Anglo-French 
hostilities, 302, 446 ; v. 145. 

Infantado, Duke of, v. 432, 438 ; 
vi. 14, 16. 

Innocent VIII. , Pope : Character 
and policy, 184, 185; death, 187. 

Innocent IX., Pope, election and 
death, iii 64. 

Innocent X., Pope: Election, iii 
341 ; Bull an .filing treaties of 
Westphalia, 352. 

VI. 3 

Innocent XI., Pope: Gallican 
Church dispute, iv. 43; Cologne 
Electorate Question, 48, 49; 
quarrel with Louis XIV., 50; 
excommunication of Parliament 
of Paris, 51 ; death, 56. 
Innocent XII., Pope, election to 
Pontificate, iv. 62. 

Inquisition : Establishment at 
Rome, ii 187 ; Neanolitan re- 
volt against, 236 ; Portuguese 
Inquisition, 469; extermination 
of TiUtheranism in Spain, iii. 

Interim, ii. 240, 241, 242, 245, 246. 

International Policy and Law: 
Growth of system, i 3 ; effect 
of Italian wars, 337 ; Francis I. 
and the Turkish Alliance, ii. 
163 ; maritime law, 200, 201 ; 
growth and progress, iv. 178; 
murder of Frendi plenipoten- 
tiaries, V. 293 ; D6temis ae Ver- 
dun, 345; French invasion of 
Empire, 346; murder of Due 
d'Enghien, 350; Sweden: ar- 
rest of ambassador, 420. 

Invincible Armada, iii. 35. 

Ionian Isles Republic, v. 328. 

Ireland: Papal plots against 
Elizabeth, u. 473; support of 
James II., iv. 54 ; pacincation 
of Limerick, 54 ; Fi*ench expedi- 
tion, V. 236. 

Isabella, Clara Eugenia, Infanta 
of Si>ain : Netherlands oath of 
allegiance, iii. 84; marriage 
with Archduke Albert, 139; 
death, 299. 

Isabella, Donna, Regency of Por- 
tugal, vi 68. 

Isabella of Aragon, marriage 
with the Duke of Milan, i 188. 

Isabella of Portugal: Marriage 
with Charles V., ii. 20 ; death, 

Isabella of Spain, marriage with 
Emanuel of Portugal, i 234. 

Isabella I., Queen of Spain, i 190; 
marriage with Ferdinand of Ara- 
gon, 191,494; succession, 195, 
196; death, 265; character, 266. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



IiabeUAlI.,Qiie6nolSpaiii: Oftth 
to the Constitiitioii, vL 73; 
regency of Queen Christina, 66, 

Iikander Pasha, Governor of Silis- 
tria,m. 209. 

Ismail Pasha, iv. 13. 

Ismail Shah, i. 448. 

Ismailhoff, iv. 361. 

Isnard, Prendent of National As- 
sembly, V. 120. 

IstnritK, Francisco Xavier de, 
Prime Minister of Spain, vi 73. 

Italian Republics, i. 45. 

Italian ware, international law a 
result of, L 337. 

ItalT: French invasion; openuiff 
of modem history, i. 4 ; Turkish 
invasions, 103, 119; leagues of 
North and South Italy, 114; 
French and German campaigns 
in Northern Italy, i 295, 357, 
366, 367 ; unpopularity of French 
rule, i 435 ; Reformation, ii. 39 ; 
iii 107 note ; French invasions, 
ii 40, 282, 283, 295 ; pacification, 
85 ; decline, 202 ; conspiracies 
affainst Charles v., 247; Inqui- 
sition, iL 187, 236, 322 ; Henry 
IV.'s designs against Spain, iii. 
149; Mantuan Succession Ques- 
tion, 269, 270, 271 ; French cam- 
paign, 303; Spanish Succession 
War,iv. 85,86,91,94,97,99,114; 
French and Spanish campaign 
against Imperials, 230, 231 ; 
Austrian campaign, 290 ; Mar- 
ouis d'Argenson's scheme, 296 ; 
orainage of Pontine Marshes, 
V. 183 ; French campaigns, 211, 
216, 222, 455, 528, 529; dis- 
turbances in Papal dominions, 
263, 287; crown offered to Napo- 
leon, 362; union of Papal States 
to French Empire, 462; Con- 
vention of Mantua, 521 ; secret 
societies, vi. 19; Austrian in- 
terference and domination, 21, 
127, 185; disturbances, 58; Na- 
tional Congress at Bologna, 69 ; 
discontent caused * by Papal 
misgovemment, 139; military 

league of Central Italian States, 
140 ; union of Italy, European 
views, 145, 146; consdidation 
of United ItflJy, 148; removal of 
capital from Turin to Florence, 
150; new codes of law, 150; 
treaties with Prussia, 160 ; de- 
claration of neutrality, 188; 
Spanish recognition of United 
Italy, 189; French domination 
in Tunis, 220; Triple Alliance, 
221 ; treaty with Franoe, 226 ; 
establishment of colony at Mas- 
sowrah, 226. 

Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico, vL 
II note. 

Ivan y I. , Tsar of Russia, murder, 
iv. 363. 

Ivanovitch, Basil, Grand Duke of 
Muscovy, L 366. 

Jackson, Sir F., English Envoy to 
Copenhagen, v. 412. 

Jacobin Club : Origin of, v. 50; 
maintenance of monarchy ad- 
vocated 1^, 65. 

Jagellon, Efouse of, i. 38. 

Jamaica, discovery of, L 334. 

James I., King of England: 
Policy, iii. 142 ; marriage with 
Anne of Denmark, 2(3 noie; 
death, 238. 

James II. , King of England: 
Flight, iv. 53; defeat at Boyne, 
54; death, 80. 

James IV., King of Scotland: 
Assistance to Franoe, L 348; 
death, 348. 

James V., King of Scotlaiid: 
Marriage with Madeleine of 
France, ii 129 ; death, 158. 

James HL, Pretender, iv. lOOl 

Jameson Raid, vL 234, 285. 

Janissaries : Turkishinf antiy, i 6, 
8; Aga, 10, 13; decline and ex- 
tinction, 10, 11 ; revolt, iiL 210; 
iv. 239; extermination, vi. 31. 

Jansenists, religious sect, iv. 116, 
117, 197, 321. 

Janssen, Cornelius, iv. 197. 

Japan: WarwithChina, vi. 236; 
rise, 240. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Jaaberton, Mme. de, wife of 
Luden Bonapaji^, v. 43i. 

Jaur^^, iii. 19. 

Jeannin, French ambassador, iii. 

Jellalich, General, v. 292. 

Jenkinson, Anthony, iii. 127. 

Jenungham, Sir Richard, English 
ambassador, i. 456. 

Jerome of Prague: Propagation 
of Wyclif's doctrines, L 390; 
death, 391. 

Jervis, Admiral Sir John {see St 
Vincent, Lord). 

Jesuits: Institution of order, ii 
147, 186, 186, 187 ; establish- 
ment in France, 357 ; mission- 
aries in Portugal, 468 ; in Eng- 
land, 474; doctrine of sever- 
eigntv of the peo^e, iii. 17 ; 
banishment from France and 
recall, 72, 148; banishment 
from Transylvania, 89 ; pro- 
gress, influence, and powers, 
102, 109; banishment from Con- 
stantinople, 109 ; missionaiy 
labours, 109 ; banishment from 
Venice, 149; treatment in Swe- 
den,225 ; expulsion from France, 
iv. 431 ; from Portugal, 432, 
433 ; European proceedings 
against, 434 ; Bull issu^ 
against, 438; reappearance in 
France as "P^res de la Foi/* 
V. 351 ; re-establishment in 
Spain, vi 10 ; in France, 26 ; 
exclusion from Austria, 23 ; ex- 

Sulsion from Naples, 94 ; from 
pain 190; French laws against, 

Jeunesse claries v. 186. 

Jews: Spanish Inquisition, i. 
197, 198 ; expulsion from Por- 
tugal, 234; Koman toleration, 
396 ; position in Turkey, iii. 132. 

Joan of Arc, i. 70. 

Joanna of Portugal, i. 189. 

Joanna of Spain, marriage with 
Archduke Philip, L 234. 

John of Austria, Don, ii. 366, 367, 
373, 376 ; Netherlands Govern- 
ment, iii 3, 6 ; death, 8. 

John of Austria, Dtm, Governor 
of Netherlands, iii 377; ban- 
ishment and recall, iv. 68; 
death, 69. 

J6bxk, Archduke : Austrian com- 
mands, V. 313, 367, 452 ; Beiehs- 
venoeser of G^man Confedera- 
tion, vi. 90, 96. 

John, Don, Prince of Braril, re- 
gency in Portugal, v. 185, 425, 

John II. » Duke of Bourbon, Liffue 
du Bien PubHeA. 130. 

John, Duke of Calabria, L 106, 
107, 108, 123, 130. 

John III., Duke of Cleves, ii. 

John, Elector of Saxony, ii. 64, 
67, 68, 69, 79, 87, 97, 100, 

John II., King of Aragon, i. 64, 
191, 192, 193, 197. 

John II., King of Castile : Acces- 
sion and reign, L 61 ; death, 

John, King of Denmark, Sweden, 
and Norway, iii. 214. 

John I., King of Poland, i. 211. 

John I., ICing of Portugal, suc- 
cession, L 67. 

John II., King of Portugal, ma* 
ritime exploration, i ^. 

John III., King of Portugal, 
commercial prosperity, ii. 4^. 

John IV., King of Portugal: 
Accession, iii. 317; allianoee, 
318 ; establishment, 342 ; death, 

John v.. King of Portugal : Ac- 
cession, iv. 110 noie\ death, 

John VI., King of Portugal : Ac- 
cession, vi. 16; return from 
Brazil, 17 ; death. 68. 

John III., King of Sweden : Elec- 
tion, iii. 224 ; death, 225. 

John XXIII., Pope, deposition, 
i. 392. 

John, Prince of Astnrias, mar- 
riage with Margaret of Austria, 
i. 234. 

John of Leyden, Anabaptist fa- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



natdeuun at Miinster, iL 124, 
125, 126. 

John Casimir, Count Palatine, ii 
400,461, 462; iii. 8, 12,88. 

John Gasimir, King of Poland: 
jhrotest against accession of 
Charles X. of Sweden, iiL 303 ; 
lareaty with Denmark, 408. 

John Frederick II., Duke of 
Saze-Gotha, ii 447. 

John Frederick, Elector of Sax- 
ony, ii. 112, 127, 169, 163, 207, 
209, 210, 213, 214, 215, 216, 218, 
224, 242, 243, 272, 276. 

John George, Elector of Saxony, 
iii. 160. 

John Pakeologos II., i. 17. 

John Sigismnnd, King-elect of 
Hungary, ii. 448. 

John Sobieski, King of Poland : 
Election, iv. 8; alliance with 
Germany, 8, 9 ; relief of Vienna, 
9 ; death, 14. 

John WiUi&m, Duke of Cleves, 
iii. 15a 

Johnstone, Commodore, iv. 454. 

Joinville, Prince de: French 
command in Africa, vi. 65 ; re- 
tirement to England, 79. 

Jonas, Justice, i. 416. 

Jonian, Camille, v. 248. 

Joseph, Archduke, election to 
he Palatine of Hungary, v. 

Joseph I., Emperor : King of 
Hungary, iv. 12 ; King of the 
Romans, 70; Imperial com- 
mand, 86; accession, 92 ; death, 

Josejph II., Emperor: Marria^^ 
with Prmcess of Parma, iv. 
341 ; interview with Frederick, 
ii. 378; accession, 388; char- 
acter, 388; Bavarian Succes- 
sion Question, 389; succession 
in Austrian dominions, 392; 
church reforms, 392; visit to 
Rome, 394; visit to Holland 
and Austrian Netherlands, 394; 
Scheldt navigation disputes, 
395 ; insurrection in Austrian 
Netherlands, 401 ; visit to St. 

Petersburg, 402 ; visit to Cher- 
son, 404 ; war against Turkey, 
406; death, 416; character and 
views, 418. 

Joseph I., King of Portu^: 
mmority, iv. 361 ; plot against, 

Joseph Clement, Prince of Ba- 
varia, Archbii^op of Cologne, 

Joseph Ferdinand, Electoral 
Pnnce of Bavaria : Spanish suc- 
cession claim, iv. 69; death, 73. 

Joubert, General, v. 240, 296, 296. 

Jourdan, Marshal : French com- 
mands, V. 141, 142, 192, 195, 
210, 211, 214, 226, 290, 292, 
467, 468, 611 ; Marshal of the 
Empire, 362. 

Joyeuse Ewtrie, iv. 401, 417, 423. 

Juarez, Benito, President of Mexi- 
can Republic, vi 184. 

Jnel, Admiral, iv. 26, 26. 

Juliana, Dowager-Queen of Den- 
mark, iv. 411. 

JUlich : Si^ge and Capitulation, 
iii. 168 ; government, 186. 

Julius II. , Pope : Election to Pon- 
tificate, i. 259; extension of 
temporal dominion, 261 ; hos- 
tilily to Venetians, 264, 316; 
League of Cambray, 282, 283 ; 
expulsion of forei^ers,292, 293 ; 
alfiance with Swiss, 294; war 
against Duke of Ferrara, 297 ; 
loss of Bologna, 303; council, 
304, 314; Holy Leafi^ue, 306; 
death, 320; establishment of 
Papal power, 320, 321. 

Julius III., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, ii. 263 ; death, 284. 

Junisbey, interpreter to the Porte, 
u. 150, 151. 

Junot, General, v. 427, 428, 446. 

Junta, union of Castilian cities, 
i. 374. 

Jurissich, Nicholas, ii. 106. 

Jus Devolutionis^ iii. 427* 

Justices SeianeuricUes, Feudal 
Courts of Justice, v. 7. 

Kabbeljauweny Flemish De- 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



moi^atic Party, i. 167 and 

Kaden, Michael, ii 89. 

Kaisenberg, Geiler von, L 398. 

Kaiser, origin of title, L 24. 

KaiserlicheS'Gerichtf i. 277. 

Kamenskoi, Field-Marshal: Rus- 
sian Commander-in-Chief in 
Germany, v. 402 ; in Finnland, 

Kamenskoi II., v. 475. 

Kammerriehterf President of Ger- 
man Supreme Tribunal, L 

Kantakuzenus, Michael, iii. 132. 

KanunamS, book of laws, L 11. 

Kau£fnngen, Kunz of, i. 25. 

Kaunitz, Prince : Character and 
career, iv. 310; Austrian am- 
bassaaor in Paris, 310; parti- 
tion of Prussia, 313 ; partition 
of Poland, iv. 380; n^otiations 
with Turkey, 386; ecclesias- 
tical reforms, 393; destruction 
of Barrier fortresses, 395 ; 
French poli^, v. 75. 

Kayserlingk, Count, Russian am- 
bassador, iv. 364, 369. 

Keats, Commodore, v. 412, 445. 

Keene, Sir Benjamin, British 
minister at Madrid, iv. 247, 

Keith, Admiral, v. 310, 319, 325, 

Keith, Marshal, iv. 232, 318, 333. 

Kellermann, Marshal, v. 90, 352. 

Kemeni, Peter, Voyvodeof Tran- 
sylvania, iv. 4. 

Keppel, Commodore, iv. 344. 

Kersaint, v. 97. 

Khevenhiller, Count, German 
ambassador, iii. 202. 

Khevenhiller, General, iv. 267. 

Kiaja Bey, deputy of Grand Vi- 
zier, i 14. 

Kiao-Chow, seizure by Germany, 

Kiel, Prussian occupation, vL 

Kilmaine, General, French Com- 
mander-in-Chief, V. 127. 

Kimberley, Lord, concert of Six 

Powers, Turkish reforms, vi. 

Kinis, Paul, Count of Temesvar, 
i. 105, 206, 207. 

Kitchener, Sir Herbert, recon- 
quest of Soudan, vL 233. 

EJausenburg, Diet at, iii. 93. 

Kl^ber, General, v. 195, 225; 
French command in Syria, 303; 
in Egypt, 304, 324; resump- 
tion of hostilities, 325; assassina- 
tion, 325. 

Klenaa, v. 210. 

Klesel, Cardinal, iii. 186, 188, 189. 

Klingspor, General : Command 
of Swedes and Finns, v. 421 ; 
conspiracy, 422. 

Klopstock, Friedrich, German 
epic poet, v. 179. 

Kloster Zevem, alliance of 
Francis I. with Protestant 
Princes, ii. 102. 

Klupfell, M. de, Russian media- 
tor, V. 337. 

Knights Templars, i. 66. 

Knights of St. John, L 17, 66, 
451 ; ii. 87. 

Knipperdolling, Bemhard, ii. 124, 
1^, 126. 

Knobelsdorf, General, Prussian 
Envoy, v. 395. 

Knutson, Charles, election to 
Crown of Norway and Sweden, 
iii. 213. 

Kollontay, Polish patriot, v. 160. 

Konge-Lov, royal law of Den- 
mark, iv. 21. 

Kdnigsberg, French occupation, 

K5nigseck, Field-Marshal, iv. 
270, 295, 325. 

Kdnigsmark, General, iii 348, 
349 ; iv. 10. 

K5prili, Mahomet, Grand Vizier 
or Turkey, iv. 3, 4. 

KSprili, Mustapha, Grand Vizier 
or Turkey, iv. 14. 

Koran, Ottoman polity, text- 
book of religion and justice, i. 

Korsakov, General, Russian com- 
mand, V. 296. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Koacinsko, General, Polish patriot, 
V. 160, 170, 171, 172, mnote, 

Kolokotroni, General, vi. 29, 

Kolowrat, Count : Austrian com- 
mand, v. 452 ; Prime Minister 
of Austria, vi. 93. 

Korf, Colonel, vi. 180. 

Kossuth, Hungarian statesman, 
vi. 84 ; revolutionary measures, 
87 ; Finance Minister, 93 ; levy 
of troops, etc., 97 ; President of 
National Defence Committee, 
99; flight, 100, 101. 

Kotzebue, Augustus von, murder, 
vi. 24. 

Kfasinsky, Count, iv. 373. 

Kray, Marshal, v. 293, 311. 

Kreckwitz, Imperial ambassador 
to Porte, iii. 92. 

Krell, Chancellor of Saxony, iii. 

Krudener, General, vi. 213. 

Krudner, Baroness, vi. 8. 

Krumpe, Otte, iii. 216. 

Krusemark, General, Prussian 
ambassador, v. 496. 

Kurakin, Prince, Russian minis- 
ter, iv. 168; V. 482. 

Kutusov, General, iv. 426; v. 
367, 476; command-in -chief of 
Russian armv, 488; dissolution 
of Rhenish Confederation, 497 ; 
death, 601. 

Laborde, General, v. 446. 

Labourdonnais, General, iv. 192. 

Labourdonnaye, M., French Min- 
ister of Interior, vL 36. 

Labrador, discovery of, i. 337. 

Labrador, Don, Spanish Envoy 
to Congress of Vienna, v. 

La Bruy^re^ agricultural popula- 
tion of France, v. 7. 

La Ch^tardie,Frenchambassador, 
iv. 276. 

Lacoste, French Minister of Ma- 
rine, V. 74, 77. 

Laoour, Commandant of Strass- 
burg, V. 143. 

, Count, iv. 232, 241 ; v. 

Ladislaus, Posthumus: Claim to 
throne of Hunf;ary, i 18; 
guardianship durmg minority, 
21, 39; majority, 40; corona- 
tion at Prague, 89 ; flight, 91 ; 
death, 94. 

La Farina, organization of 
Italian " National Society," 
vi. 130. 

La Fayette, French commander, 

Lafayette, Marquis de, iv. 444, 
466, 463, 465 ; v. 76 ; command 
of National Guard, v. 39; vL 
38, 39 ; retirement, v. 71 ; letter 
to Legislative Assembly, 77, 78; 
scheme to unite provinces 
against Paris, 89; oismissal, 
VI. 66; President of Parisian 
CarboTuxriy 8 ; revolutionary 
propaganda, 35, 36. 

Laferronaye, French Envoy to 
Troppau, vi. 20 

La Feuillade, General, iv. 97. 

Lafitte, President of Chamber of 
Deputies, vi. 44, 66. 

La For^t, French Envoy, ii. 130, 

Laforest, M., French minister, 
V. 337, 365, 392no««. 

La Galigai', Mar^hale d'Ancre, 
iii. 178. 

La Garde, Baron de, ii 276. 

Laharpe, Colonel, v. 266. 

Laibach,*congress, vi. 7, 9, 20. 

Lainezj James, General of the 
Jesuits, ii. 330. 

Lake, Admiral, iv. 94. 

Lala Mohammed, Grand Vizier, 
iii. 96. 

Lalaing, Greorge de, Count of 
Renneberg, iii. 13. 

Lallemand, French ambassador, 

La Marck, leader of the €rt$eux de 
la Mer, il 433. 

La Marmora, General, vi. 123, 
134 ; PrimeMinister of Sardinia, 
139, 141 i President of Council, 
160; Envoy to Prussia, 146; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Italian command, 185; Prime 

Minister of Italy, 186. 
Lamar(]^iie, General, yi 56. 
Lamartme, provisional goyem> 

jnent, vi. 77, 78. 
Lambaile, Princesse de, v. 92. 
La Meill^raye, Greneral, iii. 339, 

Lamoi^non, retirement, iv. 466. 
Lamonci^re, General, vi. 77> 144. 
Lampugnano, assassin, L 113. 
Landais, Pierre, i. 170, 171, 172. 
Laridfnede, i. 212, 277. 
Landi, Count Agostino, ii. 239. 
Landwehr^ Austrian militia, v. 

Lang, Matthew, Bishop of Gurk, 

Langara, Admiral, iv. 448. 
Langermann, Danish minister, 

Langeron, General, iv. 356. 
Langey, M. de, ii. 116. 
Langey, M. Du Bellay, Governor 

^rfTurin, ii. 154, 157, 164, 173. 
Ltmghals, Peter de. Mayor of 

Bruges, i. 174. 
Langiewicz, vi. 158. 
Lannes, Marshal: French com- 
mand in Italy, v. 310 ; Marshal 

of the Empire, 352; entr^ of 

F^nch into Vienna, 373 ; siege 

of Saragossa, 466 ; death, 456. 
La Noue, Huguenot leader, ii. 

435, 452, 456 ; iii. 10. 
Lannoy, Viceroy of Naples, i. 

447, 452, 462 464, 465, 467, 

469 ; il 9, 17, 18, 25, 27, 29, 32, 

Lanusca, Don Juan de, Viceroy 

of Aragon, i. 426. 
LamknedUe, German infantry, i. 

LaPalisse, Marshal de Chabannes, 

i. 287, 291, 313, 314, 320, 358, 

444, 469. 
La iUveill^re-Lepaux, director, 

V. 207; chief of the Theophilan- 

thropists, 264. 
Larochejaquelin, Henri de, v. 

La Rochelle: Commercial privi- 





l^ges, L 150 ;^ headquarters of 
Huguenots, ii. 378 ; Huguenot 
revolt, iii. 232, 238; si^ge and 
surrender, 250. 

La Sague, treachery to Cond^, 
ii. 319. 

Lascsry, Hieronjmus, Hungarian 
ambassador, u. 105, 151, 152. 

Lateran Greneral Council : dissolu- 
tion, i. 363 ; definition of doc- 
trine of transubstantiation, 
388 ; definition of soul, 396. 

Latour, Austrian minister, 

Latour, Greneral, v. 225. 

Latour-Maubourg, member 
National Assembly, v. 63. 

Launay, Governor de, v. 38. 

La Tremoille, Louis de, L 
175, 243, 262, 346, 347, 
458, 469. 

Lautrec, Marshal, i. 358, 
366, 428, 431, 432, 435, 
441,459; ii. 4, 40, 4L 

Lavalette, aide-de-camp to Na- 
poleon, V. 249; Envoy to Ali 
Pasha, 283; Director-General 
of the Posts, vi. 6; ambassador 
to the Porte, 118. 

Lavardin, Marquis of, French 
ambassiador, iv. 50. 

Lavater, murder, v. 297. 

La Vend^ Insurrection, v. 112. 

La Vieuville, iii 233. 

Law, John, Mississippi Company 
scheme, etc., iv. 205. 

League of Cambray, i 265, 276, 

League of Poor Conrad, peasant 
rising, ii. 61. 

League of Home, i. 453. 

Lebeau, General, vi 71. 

Leboeuf, Marshal, vi 186, 192, 

Le Brun, French Foreign Minister, 
V. 87 ; Third ConsiU, 308. 

LecarUer, French conmiissioner, 
V. 268. 

Lechelle, command in La Ven* 
d^, V. 136. 

Leclerc, General, v. 316, 334. 

Lecourbe, General, v. 311. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



iv. 217, 427. 

Lecdnski, Stanislaus, King of Po- 
land {see Stanislaus Leezmski). 

Lee, Dr., American Envoy to 
France, iv. 444. 

Lee, General, iv. 353, 44a 

Leeds.Dokeof , Foreign Secretary, 
iv. 425. 

Lefebvre, General: — Marshal of 
the Empire, v. 352; Duke of 
Dantzig, 403; French command 
in Spain, 449, 469 ; in Germany, 

Lehrbach, Count, v. 240 

Lehwald, CreneraJ, iv. 327. 

Leicester, Earl of, €k>vemor and 
Captain-General of Netherluids 
United Provinces, iii. 27; un- 
ilarity, 28; departure, 28, 

Leipsic : University, i. 391 ; dis- 
putation, 411 ; Interim, ii. 245 ; 
capture oy Allies, v. 608 ; at- 
tempted insurrection, vL 104. 

Le Jay, Jesuit theologian, ilL 

Lemaistre, Antony, iv. 198. 

Lemanic Republic :— Pays de 
Vaud, independence, v. 267. 

Lemberg, Count, Governor of 
Hungary, vi. 97. 

Le Noir, murder, vi. 191. 

Lentulus, General, iv. 257. 

Leo X. : Election to Pontificate, 
i. 344 ; character, 344, 345, 438, 
439 ; policy, 351, 352, 354, 430, 
438, 439; treaty with Swiss 
Confederate States, 354; alli- 
ance with Francis I., 361 ; plot 
against, 362; support of Sforza, 
364; crusade against infidels, 
377, 378 ; extravagant expend- 
iture, 403; indulgences, 409; 
Exurge Damine Bull against 
Luther, 413, 415; partition 
of Milan, 430, 431 ; secret 
treaty with Charles V. , 431 ; ex> 
communication of Francis I., 
434; death, 438. 

Leo XI. f Pope, election to Pon- 
tificate, iii 148. 

Leo XIL, Pope: Election to Pon- 
tificate, vi. 25 ; death, 56. 

Leon, Ponce de, i 336. 

Leopold L, Emperor: Election 
and Imperial capitulation, iii 
382 ; Polish war, 408 ; scheme 
for partition of Spain, 441, 
442; alliance with Frederick 
William of Brandenburg, 452; 
Turkish invasion of Hungary, 
iv. 6; denunciation of Louis 
XIV., 56; Spanish SucoessioD 
Question, 69, 92; death, 92. 

Leopold II., Emperor: Marriage 
with Infanta of Spain, iv. 388; 
accession to sovereignty of 
Austria, Hunsary and Bohemia, 
419 ; politicfQ situation, 420 ; 
coronation, 424 ; interview with 
Comte d'Artois, v. 61 ; De- 
claration of Pilnitz, 68 ; Treaty 
of Berlin, 73 ; death, iv. 424; v. 

Leopold II., Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany : Popular reforms, vi. 91 ; 
Austrian policy, 136; abdica- 
. tion, 140. 

Leopold I. , King of Belgium : Ac- 
eeptance by Belgian Congress, 
vi 49 ; marriage with Louisa of 
France, 50. 

Leopold of Styria, Archduke, iiL 
153, 161, 185. 

Leopold Iffuatius, Kin^ of Hun- 
gary and Bohemia, iii. 380. 

Leopold William, Archduke : Im- 
command, iii. 321, 3^ 

Lerma, Duke of, iii. 139, 180. 
Lescun, Sire de, i. 138, 149, 469. 
Lesdigui^res, Duke of, French 

Protestant commander, iiL 64, 

74, 179, 232, 238, 246. 
Lessart, De, French Foreign 

Minister, v. 72, 74, 92. 
Lesseps, French ambassador at 

Rome, vi. 102. 
Lesser Molkts, judges, i. 15. 
L'Estocq, iv. 359. 
Le Tellier, Chancellor, iv. 41, 116, 

Letoumeur, director, v. 207. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Lettres de Cachet, v. 9. 

Lenchtenberg, Prince Augustus 
von : Betrothal with Maria da 
Gloria of Portugal, vi 69 ; mar- 
riage, 70. 

Leunclavius, Institution of Jan- 
issaries, L 6 note. 

Leyden University, ii. 443. 

Leyva, Antonio ae, L 312, 466 ; 
ii. 17, 18, 22, 23, 46, 86, 119, 

L'Hdpital, Michel de. Chancellor 
of France, ii. 317, 325, 327, 332, 
336, 344, 353, 357, 359. 

L*Huillier, Procureur-GhUrdl 
Syndic, v. 122. 

Lhuys, Drouyn de, French 
Foreign Minister, vi. 82, 149. 

Lichnowski, Prince, vi. 96. 

Lichtenstein, Prince, iv. 297, 406. 

Li^ge: Power of Duke of Bur- 
gundy, i. 135, 139; revolt, vi 47. 

Liege, Bishop of, i 179. 

Ligni, Count of, L 247. 

Ligue du Bien Public, L 130, 148. 

Ligurian Republic : Or^n, v. 
246 ; incorporation with France, 

Limi^res, confessor of Louis XV., 
iv. 216. 

Lincoln, General, iv. 448. 

Linois, Admiral, v. 357. 

Lionne, Marquis de, French am- 
bassador, iii. 380. 

Lippe-Schaumburg, Count of, iv. 

Lipsius, Danish minister, iii 337. 

Liptau, Duke of, i. 208. 

Lisbon, earthquake, iv. 351. 

Listen, Mr., British minister at 
the Hague, v. 345. 

Livin^ton, Mr., American minis- 
ter m Paris, v. 347. 

Livry, Hermit of, ii. 6. 

Loaysa, Garcia de, Cardinal- 
Bishop of Osma, ii 92, 102. 

Lobkowitz, German minister, iii 
442; iv. 296. 

Lodron, General, i 465. 

Lofoe, Peace Congress, iv. 160. 

Loftus, Lord A., English ambas- 
sador to Russia, vi. 210. 

Loi des SvLspecU, v. 132. 

Loignac, Captain of Gascon Guard 

Lollards, rise of, in England, i. 

London : Conference, vi. 48 ; 
European Conference, 168; Con- 
ference of 1871, 198. 

London Protocol, vi 212. 

Longjumeau, Edict of, ii. 359. 

Longueville, Duke of, i 287, 320, 

LonguevOle, Duke of, commander 
in Picardy, iii. 55, 361. 

Loredano, Leonardo, i 290. 

Loredano, Luigi, i 99, 101, 104. 

L*OmUe, Bordeaux revival of 
Fronde, iii 367. 

Lorraiae : Incorporation with 
Bu^undy, i 155, 156 ; recovery 
of Duchy by Ren4 II., 160; 
French annexation, iii 297, 298, 
441 ; iv. 234. 

Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, 
negotiations with Paul IV., 
ii. 292 ; administration of In- 
terior and Finances, 299,314 ; 
conference at Marcoing, 301 ; 
Edict of July, 328, 329 ; death, 
Charles IV., Duke of, iii. 278. 
Charles V., Duke of, iii. 462; 

iv. 9, 10, 11, 67, 58, 67 note. 
Francis of Guise, ii. 281. 
Leopold, Duke of, iv. 66, 
Louis, Cardinal of, ii. 230. 
Prince Charles of, iv. 286, 325, 

Ren6 II., i 156, 160, 179. 

Loubet, President, French Peace 
Policy, vi. 240. 

Loudon, General, iv. 337 and 
note*, 347, 406, 415. 

Louis, Archduke, v. 453. 

Louis, Dauphin of France, Span- 
ish succession daim, iv. 69. 

Louis v.. Elector Palatine, i 

Louis I. , King of Bavaria, abdi- 
cation, vi &. 

Louis XL, King of France : Ac- 

Digitized by V3OOQ IC 



cession, i 108, 124 ; character, 
122 ; treatment of nobility, 125, 
126 ; measures against Duke of 
Brittany, 128; treaties and 
alliances, 128, 138, 147, 148, 
149, 155, 157, 165, 166, 193; 
Ligue du Bien FubliCy 130, 131, 
132, 133, 134; marriage with 
Charlotte of Savoy, 134 note; 
support of Warwick, 144; ''Rot 
Couard,'* 147; annexation of 
Gnienne, 148 ; personal leader- 
ship of troops, 149 ; encourage- 
ment of commerce, 149, 150, 
169 ; military forces, 157 ; ac- 
quisition of Burgundy and 
Franche-Comt4, 162 ; review of 
troops, 166 ; death, 168 ; founder 
of monarchical absolutism, 168 ; 
unpopularity, 169. 

Louis XIL, King of France: 
Dauphin, i. 170, 171, 175, 177, 
179, 224, 228, 229, 230; acces- 
sion, 242 ; domestic government, 
243 ; divorce, 243, 244 ; alliances 
and treaties, 244, 252, 319, 346, 
352; marriage with Anne of 
Brittany, 245 ; designs on Italy, 
245 ; " Father of his People," 
274 ; interview with Ferdinand 
the Catholic, 274 ; Lord Para- 
mount of West Flanders, 276 ; 
League of Cambrav, 282, 283 ; 
recovery and loss of Milan, 346, 
347 ; reconciliation with Leo X. , 
350; marriage with Mary of 
England, 353; death, 353; 
foreign jjolicy, 353. 

Louis JlIII., King of France : Re- 
gency of Mary de' Medici, iii, 
166 ; marriage with Anne of 
Austria, 169, 173; majority, 
172 ; reconciliation with Mary 
de' Medici, 180 ; Mantuan Suc- 
cession Question, 270, 271 ; war 
with Spain, 301 ; death, 327 ; 
character, 327. 

Louis XIV., King of France: 
Majority, iii. SS2; marriage 
with Maria Theresa, 386, 387 ; 
character and ambitions, 425 ; 
foreign policy, 427 ; treaties 

and alliances, 428 ; iv. 34, 112 ; 
manifesto to European Powers, 
iii. 432 ; plan for destruction of 
Dutch Republic, 438 ; French 
oocu|^tion of' Lorrune, 441 ; 
relations with Germanv, 441, 
442, 443 ; campaigns in Holland, 
447, 448, 449; evacuation of 
Holland, 454; interrention in 
German afiiBiirs, iv. 18 ; ambi- 
tious schemes, 33; marriage 
with Madame de Maintenon, 
39; revocation of Edict of 
Nantes, 41 ; dispute with Leo 
XI. , 43 ; hostility of Protestant 
powers, 44 ; war with the Em- 
fdre, 47, 48 ; quarrel with In- 
nocent XI. , 50 ; European oppo- 
sition, 55 ; war against Holland, 
55 ; European coaliMon, 56, 82, 
84 ; war with Grand Alliance, 
56, 84 ; support of James II. , 59, 
80, 83 ; peace negotiations, 62, 
98, 101, 105; political dis- 
honesty, 117 ; retrospect of 
reign, 118 ; death, 118 ; art and 
literature, 168 ; ministers, 169 ; 
power of France, 178. 

Louis XV., King of France : be- 
trothal^ to Inianta, iv. 216; 
majority, 216 ; marriage with 
Mary Leczinski, 217 ; war with 
Germany, 229; with England 
and Maria Theresa, 286 ; Da- 
miens* attempted assassination, 
322; domestic maladministra- 
tion, 439 ; death, 440. 

Louis XVI., King of France: 
Marriage with Marie Antoi- 
nette, IV. 388; accession, 440; 
dispute with Parliament, 464, 
465 ; despotism, v. 3 ; causes 
of downfall, 27 ; comparison 
with Charles I. of England, 
30 ; concessions to National As- 
sembly, 33; military prepara- 
tions, 36 ; reconciliation with 
Assembly and people, 40 ; march 
to Paris, 46, 50 ; foreign inter- 
vention, 59 ; flight to Varennes, 
62; return to Paris, 63; at- 
titude of European courts, 66 ; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Act of the Constitntion, 68; 
war against Austria, 75; dis- 
missal of Girondist ministers, 
76; negotiations with Coalition, 
79 ; imprisonment in the temple, 
88 ; trial before National Con- 
vention, V. 99, 101, 103 ; execu- 
tion, 104. 

Louis XVII., King of France, 
death, v. 202. 

Louis XVIIL, King of France: 
Title assumed by Count of 
Provence, v. 214 ; support of 
Paul I., Tsar of Russia ; banish- 
ment from Russia, 317 ; retire- 
ment to Grodno, 355 ; restora- 
tion, 518 ; charter, 522 ; flight, 
527 ; return, 531 ; domestic 
policy, vi. 5, 6 ; death, character, 

Louis II. , King of Hungary, i. 376, 
377; ii. 70; death, 74. 

Louis Napoleon, Prince Imperial, 
death, vi. 206. 

Louis Philippe, King of France : 
Character and political aims, 
vi. 25; Lieutenant-General of 
France, 40 ; election as " King 
of the French," 44, 45 ; policy, 
45, 55, 56, 65 ; European recog- 
nition, 48 ; attempted assassina- 
tion, 67; visit to Queen Victoria, 
65; support of Moderados in 
Spain, 71 ; abdication, 77 ; 
fliffht, 78 ; death, 106. 

Louise of Savov, Duchess of 
Angouldme and Anjou, i. 355 ; 
regency, 357, 428 ; suit against 
C&ELrles of Bourbon, 455 ; second 
regency, 465 ; ii. 4 ; death, 

Louisbourg, capture by English, 

Louisiana, sale to United States 
by Spain, v. 347. 

Loul^, Marquis, Portuguese 
Chamberlain, vi. 17. 

Loustalot, revolutionist, v. 36. 

Louvain University, Confession 
of Faith, ii 169, 170. 

Louvet, accusation of Robes- 
pierre, V. 97. 

Louvois, French Minister of War, 
iii. 447 ; iv. 40, 51, 58. 

Low Countries {see Netherlands, 
Holland, Bel^um). 

Lowe, Sir Hudson, v. 463. 

Lowendahl, Count, iv. 300. 

Lawenhaupt, General, iv. 145, 

L5wenstein, Count, Governor of 
Bavaria, iv. 91. 

Lowenwolde, Russian Minister, 
iv. 224. 

Loyola, Ignatius : Institution of 
Society of Jesuits, i. 428 ; ii. 
147, 186, 186, 187. 

Ltibeck : Design against Den- 
mark, iii. 221 ; capture by the 
French, v. 399, 503. 

Lublin, Diet, iv. 137, 146. 

Lubomirski, General, iv. 141. 

Lubowicski, Vice-President of 
Poland, vi. 51. 

Lucchesini, Marquis, Prussian 
minister, iv. 422; v. 161, 257, 

Luckner, General, v. 75. 

Luders, General, vi. 118. 

Ludovico il Moro, i. 184 ; 215, 216, 

Ludovisio, Cai'dinal, election to 
Pontificate, iii. 231 {see also 
Gregory XV.). 

Luis, Prince of Asturias, iv. 216. 

Luis, King of Portu^, refusal 
of Spantth erown, vi. 190. 

Luno, Alvaro de, Constable of 
Castile, i. 62. 

Luther, Martin: Education and 
progress, i. 400 ; visit to Rome, 
401 ; denunciation of indul- 
gences, 404 ; WittenbergTheses, 
405 ; Leo X and Martin Luther, 
405, 410 ; flight from Augsburg, 
408; Bull against, 413, 415; 
marriage of priests and sacra- 
ments of the Church, 414 ; Diet 
of Worms, Imperial judgment, 
387, 416, 417, 418, 419 ; denun- 
ciation of Zwingli, 422 ; doctrine 
of consubstantiation, 422; re- 
treat at Wartburg, ii. 50 ; New 
Testament translation, 50, 52 ; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



return to Wittenbexg, 02 ; sepa- 
ration from Rome, 69 : mamace, 
85; conference with|Zwin^, 
91 ; articles of Smalkald, 127 ; 
death, 178 ; character, etc., 180, 

Lutheranism, growth of, iii 99, 

Ltltssen, Conrad von. Imperial am- 
bassador, iii 336. 

Luxembourg : the county of, iv. 
36 ; neutralization of, vi 184. 

Luxembourg, Duke of, French 
commander, iiL 458; iv. 58, 

Luynes, Albert Charles, Sieur de, 
iu. 176, 178, 179, 199, 232. 

Lynar, Count, iv. 263, 324. 

Ljrons : Terreur Blanche, v. 189 ; 
insurrection, vL 105. 

Maanen, Von, Belgian minister, 
vi. 46. 

Macchiavelli : Ambassador, i 338; 
ii 202, 203. 

Machiavellianism, growth of in 
Italy, ii 202. 

Macdonald, General: French com- 
mand in Italy, v. 288, 294; 
against Russia, 485, 505. 

Macdonald, Sir Ch&ude, English 
Envoy in Pekin, vi 237. 

Mach, General, v. 191, 285, 287, 
288, 367, 371. 

MacKinley, President, assassina- 
tion, vi. 240. 

McMahon, Marshal: Duke of 
Magenta and Marshal of Em- 
pire, vi. 135 ; French command, 
193, 194, 202 ; coup-d 'Hat, 204; 
resignation, 205. 

Madagascar, French expedition, 

Madalinski, Polish genersd, v. 

170, 174. 
Maddeine de la Tour, marriage 

with LoremEO de Medici, i. 

Madeira, discovery of, L 324. 
Madras, capture of, by the French, 

iv. 302. 
Madrid: Seat of government, L 

369 ; permanent establiflliment 
as Spanish cafatal, iL 321 ; 
entry of Allies, iv. 96 ; revolu- 
tion, V. 434, 435, 436, 437 ; in- 
surrection to prevent departure 
of Princes, 440; Napoleon's 
entry, 449; French surrender, 
472; Wellington's entry, 472; 
riots, vi 12 ; entry of French, 14. 

Madrucci, Cardinal of Trent, ii 

Magallon, French consul at Cairo, 
V. 273. 

Magdeburg: Admission to League 
of Torgau, ii 69 ; opposition to 
Interim, 244; war against, 255; 
surrender to French, v. 399. 

Magellan, Fernando, Portuguese 
explorer, ii 189. 

Magnan, General, command of 
Paris troops, vi. 108, 110. 

Magnus, Albertus, i 397 note, 

Mahdi, English difficulties in 
Egypt, vi 226. 

Mahjnoud I., Sult.^ of Turkey, 
iv. 240; prcMgress of Turkey 
under, 374 ; £ath, 374. 

Mahmoud II., Sultan of Turkey, 
vi 27 ; Hattischerif for reform 
of Janissaries—extermination, 
vi. 31 ; Mehemet All's designs 
on Syria, 62 ; death, 63. 

Mahmoud Daxnad Pasha, vi 212. 

Mahomet IL, Ai Fatth: Politi- 
cal administration, i 11 ; sys- 
tem of government, 84, 85 ; ac- 
cession, 22 ; capture of Con- 
stantinople, establishment as 
capital, 81 ; territorial acquisi- 
tions in Europe, 81, 89, 97, 98, 
99 ; creation of navy, 84 ; con- 
quest of Morea, 101 ; expedi- 
tion against Ferdinand of Na- 
ples, 118 ; death, 119. 

Mahomet III., Sultan of Turkey: 
accession, iii. 94; Hungarian 
war, 94; death, 95. 

Mahomet IV., Sultan of Turkey : 
accession, iii 335; iv. 3; depo- 
sition and imprisonment^ 13. 

Mahommed All Pasha, Turkish 
command, v. 418. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Maillebois, Marshal, iv. 264, 270, 

Maine, onion with France, i. 

Maine, Charles of ,death, i. 166. 

"Maine," American battleship, 
blowing npin Havana Harbour, 

Maintenon, Mme. de, maniage 
with Lonis XIY., iv, 39. 

Mainz, Diet of, i. 394 ; capitula- 
tion, V. 261. 

Mainz, Archbishop Albert of, L 

Maison, General, French com- 
mand in Morea, vi. 26, 34 

BiaJstre, Count de, vi 19. 

Maitland, Captain, Napoleon's 
surrender to, v. 532. 

Malacca, Portuguese settlement, 

Malachowski, Polish patriot, v. 

Malaga: Surrender of, L 201; 
siege of— use of gunpowder for 
mining, i 342. 

Malai^da, Gabriel, iv. 432. 

Mfidoolm, Admiral, English fleet 
on Dutch coast, vi. 50. 

Maldonato, Jesuit, ii 451. 

Malesherbes, Lamoignon de, 
counsel for defence of Louis 
XVI., V. 101. 

Malet, General, v. 493. 

Malleville, French Home Office 
minister, vi 82. 

Mallo, De, v. 273. 

Malmesbury, Lord, v, 194; En- 
glish plenipotentiary to France, 
234, 257, 268. 

Malta : Knights of St. John, set- 
tlement, i 452; Charles Y.'s 
gift to Knights of St. John, ii. 
. 87 ; siege by the Turks, 367; 
French conquest, v. 276 ; sur- 
render to English, 312 ; restor- 
ation to Knights of St. John, 
V. ^S ; occupation bv Russia, 
— ^English Cabinet objections, 
V. 345 no^6. 

Mamalukes, origin of name, i 
375 note. 

Manche, Letoumeur de la, v. 

Mancini, Mary, iii 385. 

Mandni, M., Italian Foreign 
Minister, vi 22a 

Mandat, murder of, v. 85. 

Mandelot, governor of Lyons, ii 

Manfredi, Astorre, Lord of Fa- 
enza, i 261. 

Maniani, Roman Prime Minister, 
vi 101. 

Manila, conquest by America, 

Manin, Daniel, Venetian patriot, 
vi. 130. 

Mannheim, capture by Ney, v. 

Mansfeld, Albert of, ii. 68. 

Mansfeld, Charles of, ii. 415. 

Mansfeld, Count Peter Ernest 
of: Command of troops in 
Netherlands, iii. 27; admin- 
istration, 39 ; Netherlands 
government, 77 ; command of 
Imperial troops in Hun- 
, 94 ; Thirty Years' War, 

Mansfeld, Gebhard of, ii 68. 

Manstein, Colonel, v. 171, 194. 

Manteuffel, General : Kreuz party 
chief, vi 112; Prussian gover- 
nor of Schleswig, 173, 176; 
command, 178, Iw. 

Mantua: Council of (1459), i 
98; Congress of — railure to 
effect peace, 301 ; (1512), 316 ; 
union with Cisalpine Republic, 

Mantua, Marquis of, i 262, 274, 

Manuel, Don Juan, i 271. 

Manuel, Frocwreur de la Com- 
mune, V. 71. 

Mapes, Walter, i. 398. 

Marais, French pjuty, v. 96. 

Maranon, Trappist monk, gue- 
rilla leader, vi. 12. 

Marat : Writhigs and journalism, 
V. 53; September massacres, 
93; trial, 118; murder by 
Charlotte Corday, 125. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Maraviglia, Fieneh ambaasador, 
ii. 119. 

Marboifl, Fiench agent at Phil« 
addphia, iv. 457. 

MarboiB, Barb^, President of the 
Ancients, v. 248. 

Marburg, conference between 
Lnther and Zwingli, ii 91. 

Maroellns II., Pope, election to 
Pontificate, death, ii 285. 

Mait^md, Major, Fashoda in* 
cident, vi. 234. 

Marche, OUvierde la, i. 132. 

Marck, Eberhard de la, i. 179. 

Marck, Bobert de la, Duke of 
Bonillon, i. 179,347. 428, 429. 

Mardeifeld, General, Swedish 
commander, iv. 143. 

Marfori, yi 189^ 

Margaret, Qoeen Dowager of 
Scotland, i. 364. 

Margaret, Qneen of Navarre, 
death, ii. 252. 

Margaret of Anjon, Queen of 
England : Wars of the Roses, 
i 124; reconciliati<m with 
Warwick, 144 ; defeat at Tew- 
kesbury, 146 ; release— Peace of 
Pequigny, 166, 161. 

Margaret of Austria, L 168 ; mar- 
riage, 181, 234; Crovemess of 
the Netibierlands, 276 ; Charles, 
Archduke, instructed by, 368 ; 
League of Cambray , 288 ; death, 
iL 100. 

Margaret of Austria, marriage 
with miilip III. of Spain, iu. 

Margaret of Parma : Governess of 
ti&e Netherlands, iL 405; change 
of policy, 419 ; resignation, 426. 

Margaret of France, marriage 
with Duke of Savoy, iL 304, 
310, 313. 
Margaret of ValoiB, Duchess of 
Alen^on. ii. 10 ; marriage with 
Henry of Navarre, 21, 380, 385; 
divorce from Henry IV., iii. 
Maria of PortueeJ, Dofia, iL 414. 
Maria, Queen of Portugal : Mar- 
riages, vL 70 ; death, 116. 

Maria da Gloria, Queen of Por- 
tugal, vi. 68; retirement to 
Branl—betrothal, 69. 

Maria of Bavaria, Queen of Na- 
ples, vi. 146. 

Maria Louisa, Archduchess of 
Austaia : Marriage with Napo- 
leon, V. 464; regent, 495; re- 
tirement from Paris with her 
son, 515 ; return to Austria, 
518 ; acquisition of Parma, Pia- 
cenza, and Guastalla, 524 ; ex- 
pulsion from Parma, vL 58. 

Maria Louisa, Infanta of Spain, 
marriage with Le<^ld, Grand 
Duke of Tuscany, iv. 388. 

Maria Louisa, Queen Dowaser of 
Etruria, resignation of re- 
gency, V. 428. 

Maria Louisa of Orleans, mar- 
rii^ with Charles II. of Spain 
— death, iv. 68. 

Maria Theresa of Austria : Mar- 
riage with Francis of Lorraine, 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, iv. 
248; assumption of imperial 
government, 248 ; opposition to, 
249, 250 ; coalition against, 261, 
262 ; alliance with England and 
Holland, 262 ; forlorn oonditieii 
of, 264; appeal to Hungarian 
Diet, 265 ; fortunes of Italian 
campaigns, 270; English sym- 
pathy, 270, 280 ; coronation at 
Prague, 281 ; secret treaty with 
Elizabeth of Russia, 321 ; Ba- 
varian Succession Question,389 ; 
character, 392 ; death, 392. 

Maria Theresa of Spain : Mar- 
riage with Louis XiV., iiL 386; 
387 ; death, iv. 39. 

Maria Theresa Order, founded, iv. 

Mariana, Spanish Jesuit, iiL 17. 

Marie Antoinette of Austria: 
Marriage with the Daophin 
of France, iv. 388; diamond 
necklace a^ir, 460; trial and 
execution, v. 132, 133. 
Marienburg: Conventions-League 
of Cities, L 25; Diet, iv. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Marillac, Charles de. Archbishop 
of Vienne, ii. 293. 

Maritime disooveries, i. 322 ; dr- 
cuiunavigation of the globe, ii. 
189 ; review of, iv. 182. 

Maritime law, ii. 200, 201; iv. 

Markoff, Russian ambassador, v. 

Markov, General, Russian com- 
mander, V. 475. 

Marlborough, John Churchill, 
Duke of, iii. 456; iv. 83, 86, 87, 
90, 93, 98, 100, 106 ; dismissal 
from command, 107 ; Captain 
General and Master of Ordin 
ances, 116. 

Marmont, General, French com 
mands, v. 365, 455 ; vi 38. 

Marmontel, revolution — influ 
ence of towns, v. 28. 

Mamix, Philip de. Lord of Ste, 
Aldegonde, u. 415, 434, 440; iii 
11, 16, 24. 

Marone, Papal Nuncio, ii. 147. 

Maroto, Carlist commander, vL 

Marsegli, Count, institution of 
Janissaries, i 6 note. 

MarseUlaiset v. 80. 

Marsin, Marshal, iv. 88. 

Marti^ac, Vioomte de, Prime 
Mimster of France, vi, 26; dis- 
missal, 35. 

Martin V., Pope, election by 
Council of Constance, i 392. 

Martinuzri, Bishop of Grosswar- 
dein, ii 152, 270. 

Mary, Princess of England, mar* 
riage with William III. of 
Grange, iii 459. 

Mary, L Queen of England : Ac- 
cession, ii 277 ; marriage with 
Philip, Prince of Spain, 278, 
279, 280; declaration of war 
against France, 297. 

Mary, Queen of Hunffary: Gover- 
ness of the Netherlanas, ii 100, 
101 ; abdication of regency, 288. 

Mary Anne of Neubur^, mar- 
riage with Charles II. of Spain, 
iv. 69. 

Mary Eleanor, Queen Dowager of 
Sweden, iii. 330. 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots: 
Marrii^e with Francis, Dam* 
phin of France, ii 301 ; execu- 
tion, iii 32. 

Mary of Burgundy, i 161 ; mar- 
riage with Maximilian of Ger- 
many, 164; truce with Louis 
XI., 165; death, 166. 

Mary of Guise, regency of Scot- 
land, ii 250, 251. 

Masaniello, iii. 343. 

Massacre of St. Bartholomew, ii 
388; question of premeditation, 
391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 
398 and note, 

Mass^na, General, v. 145, 211, 215, 
239, 290, 297, 309, 352, 373, 384, 
452, 457, 470. 

Maasillon, Bishop of Clermont* 
Ferrand, v, 7. 

Matrikel, i 279. 

Matthias, Emperor : Nomination 
as Governor of NetherUuids 
by Catholic aristocrats, iii 
6; resignation of Netherlands 
(governorship, 15; administra- 
tion in Hungary, 89 ; command 
of Imperial troops in Hungary, 
93; Austrian Family Compact, 
153 ; invasion of Moravia, 153, 
154; election to crown of Bo- 
hemia, 186; marriage with Anne 
of Tyrol, 186 ; election as Em- 
peror, 186 ; death, 192. 

Matthias of Janow, Canon of 
Pra^e Cathedral, forerunner 
of Huss, i 390. 

Matthieu, P^re, *' Courier of the 
League," ii 480. 

Matthys (or Mathiasen), Jan, ii. 
124, 125. 

Maupas, M., Prefect of Police, vi. 

Maupeou, Chancellor of France, 

iv. 428, 439, 440. 
Maurepas Count de, iv. 246, 440, 

Maurevert, assassin, ii. 456. 
Maurice, Duke, and Elector of 

Saxony, ii. 165, 170, 206, 207, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 


21S, 2U, 216, 221, 222, 233, 241, 
245, 249, 254, 259, 260, 262, 271, 
272, 275, 276. 
Maiinoe, Prince of Nassau: Stad- 
holder of Holland, Zealand, and 
Utrecht,^ iii 24; supreme au- 
thority in Netherlands during 
aheenoe of Leicester, 29 ; Com- 
mander-in-Chief of tiie Nether- 
lands, 30; Netherlands milituy 
successes, 37, 38, 39, 81 ; gover- 
nor of Grelderland and Overyssel, 
38; Flanders expedition, 140; 

Jnarrel with Olden Bameveldt, 
82; synod at Dort, 183; death, 

Maury, Abb^, v. 42. 

MavTOoordato, Greek phanariot 
and revolutionary leader, vi 

Maximilian, Archduke of Aus- 
tria: Invasion of, and imprison- 
ment in Poland, iii. 88, 89; Aus- 
trian Family Compact, 153. 

Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, 

■ Emperor of Mexico, vi. 184. 

Maximilian I., Duke and Elector 
of Bavaria: Bigotry and in- 
tolerance, iii. 156; Donauw5rth, 
conversion into Catholic provin- 
cial town, 156; Catholic League 
of Germany, 158, 188 ; Thirty 
Years* War, 201 ; Upper Palati- 
nate and Electoral dignity trans- 
ferred to, 208, 261; imperial 
command, 279; neutrality, 342; 
disre^rd of treaty of Ulm, 348. 

MaximBian I., Emperor: Mar- 
riage with Mary <yt Burgundy, 
L 164; re^ncy, 166, 167; 
violation or Treaty of Arras, 
173; coronation at Aix-la- 
Chapelle,173; Flemish disturb- 
ances, repressive measures, 173 ; 
imprisonment at Bruges, 174; 
marriage with Anne of Brit- 
tany, 177 ; annulment of mar- 
ria^, 180 ; recc^ition as r^;ent 
in Flanders, 178 ; accession to 
imperial throne, 189, 213 ; mar- 
riage with Bianca of Milan, 189, 
213; league against France, 225; 

regency of the Netherlands, 276; 
Italian expedition, 281 ; * 'Roman 
Emperor ^lect," 281; League of 
Cambray, 283 ; siege of Padua, 
290, 291; Holy L^eue, 306; 
alliance with Henry vIII. and 
Ferdinand the Catholic, 364; 
Hungarian succession, 366 ; 
generalissimo of crusade against 
infidels, 378 ; death, 379 ; char- 
acter and poli^, 380, 381. 

Maximilian II. ,Em]^eror: Govern- 
ment of Spain durm^ absence of 
Philip, ii. 249; election as £ang 
of the Romans, 345; Bohemia- 
coronation as heir and successor 
to Ferdinand, 346; accession, 
351 ; truce with Turkey, 371 ; 
mecUation on behalf of the 
Netherlands, 427, 443, 444; 
treaty with John Sigismund, 
448; death, 446, 448; iii 85. 

Maximilian I., Kms of Bavaria, 
accession to FifUi Coalition, 
V. 506. 

Maximilian II., King of Bavaria, 
accession, vi. 89. 

Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of 
Bavaria: Imperial command, iv. 
57, 58; aUy of France, 85 ; Ban 
of Empire issued against, 93. 

Maximilian Joseph, Elector and 
King of Bavaria : Accession to 
Bavarian Electorate, iv. 291; 
vacillating policy, v. 368 ; treaty 
with Napoleon, 370; assump- 
tion of sovereignty, 379; deatn, 
iv. 389. 

Mayenne, Duke of, ii. 461 ; com- 
mand of French army, iiL 42, 
50 ; truce with Henry IV., 72. 

Mazarin, Cardinal, iii. 271 ; suc- 
cessor to Richelieu in the minis- 
try, 327 ; Italian policy, 341 ; 
domestic policy, 354; financial 
measures, taxation, etc., 354, 
355; character— discontent of 
nobles, 356 ; retirement, 361 ; 
invitation to return, 363; re- 
tirement, 365; return to power, 
influence over Louis XI v., etc. , 
367 ; alliance with Cromwell, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



369 ; Grerman policy-— intrigues 
for the Empire, 380; supremacy 
of France secured by, 388; 
death, 388. 
Mazarin, Cardinal Michael, Gov- 
ernor of Catalonia, iii. 347. 
Mazeppa, Ivan, Hetman of Cos- 
sacks, iv. 147. 
Mazzini, Giuseppe: Progress of 
doctrines in Italy, vi. 75 ; Gio- 
vane Italia— Beeret league, 91, 
102; escape from Rome, 103; 
undivided Italian Republic 
scheme, 128, 142. 
Mecklenburg, Henry, Duke of, 

ii. 68. 
Medici, House of : i. 49. 
Alessandro de*. Governor of 
Florence, i. 462; ii. 43, 84, 
118, 133. 
Alexander, Cardinal, Papal 
Legate in France, iii. 82 ; elec- 
tion to Pontificate, 148 {see 
also Leo XL). 
Catharine de'. Queen of France : 
Coronation, ii. 252 ; regency, 
265, 325, 457 ; Guise f amUy, 
usurpation of power, 314 ; 
n^otiations with Huguenots, 
343; policy, 353, 383; royal 
tour, 354 ; death, iii. 49. 
Cosmo de*, Grand Duke of 
Tuscany : Revolution in Flor- 
ence, L 51 ; encouragement of 
literature and art, 109 ; war 
in Italy, 282, 283 ; union of 
Siena and Florence, 296 and 
note ; death, 109. 
Francesco de', Grand Duke of 

Tuscany, ii. 448. 
Giovanni, Cardinal de', i. 188, 

430, 439 ; u. 24, 26. 
Giulio, Cardinal de', ruler of 
Florence, i. 379 ; election to 
Pontificate, 461 {see cdso 
Clement VIL). 
Ippolito, Cardinal de', i. 462; 

u. 43, 118. 
John, Cardinal de', L 185, 309, 
312, 314, 317, 396 ; election to 
Pontificate, 344 {see oho Leo 


John Gaston de', Grand Duke 
of Tuscany, iv. 223. 

Julian de', i. 115. 

Julian de', i. 316, 317 ; marriage, 
357 ; cc»nmand of army, 358. 

Julius de'. Archbishop of Flor- 
ence, i. 345. 

Lorenzo I., the Magnificent : 
Character and statesmanship, 
i 111 ; '< Conspiracy of the 
Pazzi," 115; attempted assas- 
sination, 116; lee^e with 
Naples, 118 ; government and 
policy, 185, 186 ; progress of 
art and literature, 187 ; death, 
187; alleged confession, 218 
and note. 

Lorenzo II. : Florentine Go- 
vernment, i. 317 ; marriage, 
379; death, 379. 

Maddalena de', i. 185. 

Mary de'. Queen of France : 
Coronation, iii. 163 ; regency, 
163, 165 ; Spanish policy, 168 ; 
banishment, 178 ; escape from 
Blois, 179; reconciliation with 
Louis XIII., 180 ; death, 313. 

Peter L,i. 110, 111. 

Peter II., i. 187, 215, 216, 217, 
Medicino, Gian Angelo, election 

to Pontificate, ii. 322, 323 {see 

Medidno, John James, Marquis of 

Marignano, IL 282, 283,284, 323. 
Medina Cell, Duke of, ii 436. 
Medina-Sidonia, Duke of, i. 201 ; 

iii. 80. 
Meerfeld, Creneral, French Envoy 

to Emperor Francis I., v. 507. 
Meersch, Van der, *< General of 

the Patriots," iv. 417. 
Mehemet Ali, vi. 32, 62, f 

Turki<(h command, 213. 
Melanchthon, Philip, German re 

former, i 409, 412; ii 51, 94, 

147, 245. 
Melas, General, command of Aus 

trian army in Italy, v. 291 

Melikov, Loris, Russian com 

mand, vi 213« 

Digitiz-ed by V^OOQIC 



Mello, Don Francisco de, iiL 

Manager, French Envoy to 
London, iv. 106, 107. 

Mendicant orders, establishment 
of, i. 388. 

Mendoza, Don Bernardino de, ii. 

Mendoza, Don Diego de, ii 274. 

Mendoza, Don Pedro Gonzales 
de, i. 266. 

Mendoza, Grand Cardinal, i. 202. 

Mendoza, Marquis of Goadalete, 
iii. 140. 

Menebraca, General, Prime Min- 
ister of Italy, vi. 187. 

Menot, Michel, i. 398. 

Menotti, Chief of Modenese 
Police, vi. 58. 

Menou, French command-in-chief 
in Egypt, v. 325. 

Menschikoflf, Prince, Russian 
general, iv. 142, 143, 144, 148, 
152, 237, 238 ; banishment and 
death, 238. 

Menschikoff, Prince, Special Am- 
bassador to Porte, vi 118 ; 
Crimean command, 121 ; recall, 

Merci, General, Imperial com- 
mand, iii 339. 

Mercoenr, Duke of, Governor of 
Brittany, iii. 61, 74. 

Merino, guerilla leader, vi. 14. 

Mesnund, French command in 
Pays de Vaud, v. 266. 

Messeria, Envoy to Paris from 
England, v. 327. 

Meszoroz, General, v. 229. 

Meteren, Flemish historian, iii 

Methuen, Paul, English minister 
at Lisbon, iv. 89. 

Jdettemich, Count, Imperial En- 
voy at Rastadt, v. 293, 504; 
Holy Alliance, vi. 13, 20 ; con- 
gress at Carlsbad, 24. 

Metz, Herr, vi. 154. 

Mexico: Conauest by Spain, ii 
189 ; Republic— league with 
Columbia, vi. 11 note; French 
intervention, 184. 

Meza, De, Danish command, vi. 

M^zi^res, De, i 350. 

Miaules, Admiral, burning of 
Greek fleet, vi. 34. 

Michel Angelo Buonarroti, i. 303, 
321 ; ii. 83, 84. 

Michael Romanoff: Election as 
Tsar of Russia, iii. 228 ; death, 

Michael, King of Poland, iv. 8. 

Michaud, French General, v. 195. 

Micheli, Venetian ambassador, iii 

Michelson, General, Russian com- 
mand in Moldavia, v. 417. 

Micheroux, Greneral, Neapolitan 
command, v. 287. 

Microslawsky, vi. 158. 

Midhat Pasha, vi. 209; Grand 
Vizier, 211. 

Mierolowski, Greneral, vi 104. 

Mi^el, Dom, vi. 17, 18 ; usurpa- 
tion of Portuguese throne, 69 ; 
residence in Rome, 70. 

Milan : Establishment of Visconti 
as Dukes of Milan, i 52 ; suc- 
cession claims, 54 ; establish- 
ment of republic, 55 ; league 
with Florence and Venice, 114 ; 
revolutions, 117, 248; conquest 
by Louis XII., 247 ; recovery 
and loss, 346, 347 ; capitulation, 
351 ; claims of Francis I., 355, 
356; recovery by the French, 
360 ; Austrian mvasion, 367 ; 
designs and negotiations of Leo 
X., 431 ; loss of, by the French, 
438, 441 ; evacuation by Duke 
of Milan, ii 23 ; occupation by 
Germany, iv. 2S^ ; surrender to 
the French, v. 219; Cisalpine 
Republic, 309 ; Austrian evacua- 
tion, vi. 92, 135. 

Milan, Capitulate of, i 117. 

Milan Decree, v. 410. 

Milan, Dukes of {see Sforza and 

Military orders of Spain, i 66. 

Militz, 1.390. 

Miltitz, Carl von, Papal Envoy to 
Wittenbeig, i 409; Lichten- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



berg interview with Lather, 

Mina, gaerilla leader: Spanish 
insurrection, vi. 11, 12 ; defence 
of Catalonia, 14 ; command of 
Ckristinos, 67 ; Governor of 
Barcelona, 71. 

MinaA, Las, iv. 299. 

Minorca : Union with Aragon, L 
63 ; English capture, v. ^9. 

Minto, Lonl, vi. 94. 

Minucci, General, iv. 268. 

Miollis, General, French com- 
mand — occupation of Rome, v. 

Mir CapOlo, Bishop of Almeria, 
Grand Inquisitor of Spain, vi. 9, 

Mirabeau, Comte de, member of 
Tiers-Etaty iv. 464; career, v. 
43 ; connection and schemes 
with the court, 56 ; death, 59. 

Mirabeau, Marquis of, economist, 
advocate of free trade, etc., 
v. 14. 

Mirabel, Marquis of, Spanish am- 
bassador in Paris, iii. 243. 

Miraflores, Prime Minister of 
Spain, vi. 189. 

Miranda, General, v. 114, vi. 10. 

Mirandola,Pico della, i. 399 ; iL 88. 

Mirowitseh, iv. 363. 

Mischani, Mahomet, i. 220. 

Mississippi Company, Law's 
scheme, iv. 205. 

Mitchell, Admiral, English com- 
mand on the Vlie, v. 300. 

Modena : Revolutionary move- 
ment, vi 94; revolt against 
Austrian government, 137. 

Modena, Duke of: Purchase of 
Armistice from French, v. 220 ; 
Breisgau and Ortenau: com- 

pensation cession, 337. 

Moderados^ Spanish constitu- 
tional party, vi. 13, 67. 

Mol^, Count, President of the 
Council, vL 55, 58. 

Moleville, Bertrand de, French 
Minister of Marine, v. 74. 

Molitemo, Prinoe, v. 299. 

Molitor, General, v. 390. 

MollaSf judges, L 15. 
Mollendorf, Marshal, v. 171, 190, 

191, 194, 195 ; death, 397, 398. 
Moller, Colonel, Russian com- 
mandant in Wilkomir, vi. 161. 
Moltke, Count von : Conduct of 

Prussian campaign, vi. 178 ; 

title of Count conferred on, 

Molucca Islands, Portuguese 

settlement, i. 337. 
Moncada, Hugo de, L 464 ; ii. 24 ; 

death, 40. 
Moncey, Marshal, v. 199, 203; 

French command in Italy, 310 ; 

Marshal of the Empire, 352; 

French command m Spain, 

Mondejar, Marc^uis of. Viceroy 

of Gr&nada, ii. 366. 
Mondoucet, French Envoy to 

Netherlands, ii. 436. 
Monge, French Minister of 

Marine, v. 87, 106. 
Monrad, Bishop, President of 

Lower House of Danish Rigs- 

raad, vi. 169. 
Monroe doctrine, vi. 235. 
** Monsieur," title given to 

French King's eldest brother, 

iL 462 note. 
Monson, Sir Edward, English 

ambassador in Paris, Fasnoda 

incident, vL 234. 
MontcLgney French Ultra-Demo- 
crats, V. 82, 96. 
Montague, Sir Wortley, English 

Envoy at Constantinople, iv. 

Montauban, Chancellor of Brit- 
tany, i. 177. 
Montbel, vL 36. 

Montcalm, Marquis de, iv. 342. 
Monte Corona, religious order, 

ii. 185. 
Monte, Cardinal Del: Election 

to Pontificate, ii. 253 {see also 

Julius IIL). 
Monte, Cardinal Del, ii. 321, 

Montebelloj Duke of, French 

Prime Minister, vi. 62. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Montecuculi, General, ii. 123; 
iu. 417, 453, 457 ; iv. d. 

Montefeltro, Count Frederick of, 
i. 110 ; league with Sixtus IV., 
and Ferdinand of Naples, 114. 

Montemar, Duke of, iv. 230. 

Montenegro : Declaration of war 
against Turkey, vi. 210 ; inde- 
pendence, 216, 217 ; acquisi- 
tions under Treaty of Berlin, 

Montesquieu, Charles de, influ- 
ence of writings, v. 17. 

Montesquiou, General, French 
command, v. 75, 98. 

Montholon, Count, vi. 64. 

Montigny, Baron, execution, ii. 

Montijo, Donna £ugenia, Count- 
ess of T^ba, marriage with 
Napoleon III., vi. 110. 

Montluc, Blaise de, General, ii. 
164. 283, 302, 340. 

Montluc, Jean de. Bishop of 
Valence, ii. 162, 327, 454. 

Montmorenci, Charlotte of, iii. 

Montmorenci, Constable of 
France, ii. 128, 134, 135, 142, 
144, 229, 248, 298, 303, 310, 314, 
327,328,342; death, 358. 

Montmorenci, Marshal Anne de, 
i. 47a; ii. 3, 456, 461. 

Montmorin, iv. 399, 462 ; v. 92. 

Montpensier, Due de, marriage 
witn Maria Louisa, Princess of 
Bpain, vi. 74. 

Montpensier, Mdlle. de : Marri- 
age with Gaston, Duke of 
Anjou, iii. 244, 245; *<La 
Grande Mademoiselle," 364. 

Montpezat, Governor of Lan- 
guedoc, ii. 156. 

Moore, Captain, v. 356. 

Moore, Sir John : English com- 
mand in Sweden, v. 21 ; Portu- 
guese Koyal family, assistance 
for flight, etc., 4S7 ; English 
command in Portugal, 446. 

Moors of Granada, i. 199, 200, 
201, 202 ; insurrection, forcible 
conversion to Christianity, 267 ; 

use of artillery in war with 
Spain, 342; persecution of, 
under Charles I., 445. 

Moravian Brethren, reUgionssect, 
iv. 196. 

Morbihan, Company of, iii. 246. 

Mordaunt, Charles, Earl of Peter- 
borough, iv. 94, 96, 98. 

Morea: Conquest by Mahomet II., 
L 101 ; conquest by the Vene- 
tians, iv. 16 ; conquest by the 
Turks, 210. 

Moreau, General, French com- 
mander, V. 194, 195, 214, 224, 
251, 293, 294, 295, 296, 309, 
313, 349, 353, 500 ; death, 500, 

Morelli, Lieutenant, Neapolitan 
insurrection, vi. 19. 

Morelly, Physiocrat writer, v. 14. 

Morgenstem, Swiss duba with 
points of iron, i 341. 

Morigia, Giacomo Antonio, il 

Morillo, General, vL 11, 12, 14, 15. 

Moriscoes, Moors converted to 
Christianity, i. 267. 

Mornv, M. de, French Minister 
of Interior, vi. 107. 

Morocco, anarchy and disturb- 
ances in, ii. 469, 470. 

Morone, Jerome, L 431, 438 ; ii. 
16, 18, 25. 

Morone, Papal Legate, L 349. 

Morosini, Italian commander, 
iv. 10. 

Morpeth, Lord, English ambas- 
sador to Berlin, v. 394. 

Mortemar, Due de. Prime Minis- 
ter of France, vi. 39. 

Mortier, General, v. 346, 352, 
400, 414. 

Morton, Dr. Nicholas, ii. 375. 

MortoUj Regent of Seotland, iL 

Morvilliers, Jean de, Bishop of 
Orleans, ii. 360. 

Morvilliers, Pierre de, i. 129, 130, 

Moscow, destruction of, v. 489. 

Moslem Dominion in Spain, end 
of, L 202. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Motte, Pardieu de la, iiL 8, 10. 

Monlart, Matthew, Bishop of 
Arras, iiL 8, 9. 

Moulins, Assembly of Notables, 

Moanier, Jean Joseph, Tennis 
Court Oath, v. 33. 

Moydel, Swedish general, iv. 145. 

Muffetishf jndidal officers, i. 15. 

Mufti, head of spiritnaJ and 
temporal law, i. 15. 

Mtihlhansen, tinion to France, v. 

Miiktar Pasha, Turkish com- 
mand, vi. 213. 

Muley Aben Hassan, Moorish 
King, i. 200, 201. 

Muley Mahommed, Sultan of 
Morocco, ii. 469. 

Mulgrave, Lord, Foreign Secre- 
tary, V. 359. 

Mtlller, General, French com- 
mand, V. 297. 

MiinchengrHtz, Congress of Nor- 
thern Powers, vi. 70. 

Munich, Duke Albert II. of, 
i. 212. 

Munn, Mr. Thomas, iii. 125. 

Mlinnich, Field-Marshal, Russian 
command, iv. 241, 243, 244, 263, 
276, 369, 361. 

Mufioz, Duke of Rianzarez, vi. 
72, 73. 

Munroe, Mr., American Minister 
in Paris, v. 347. 

Miinster : Spiritual Republic, 
ii. 124, 125 ; Peace Congress, 
iii. 336. 

Munzer, Thomas, ii. 51, 53, 63, 64. 

Murad Bey, Mamaluke leader, 
V. 277 ; Pnnce of Said or Upper 
Egypt ; submission to French, 

Murad V., Sultan of Turkey, 
accession, vi. 209. 

Murat, Marshal : v. 306 ; French 
command in Italy, 315; Mar- 
shal of the Empire, 352 ; Vienna, 
entry of French, 373; Grand 
Duke of Berg— marriage with 
Caroline Bonaparte, 386 ; suc- 
cesses, 398 ; Commander-in- 

Chief of French in Spain, 435 ; 
revolution at Madrid, 436, 437, 
440 ; Lieutenant-General of 
Spain, 441 ; King of Naples by 
Constitutional Statute, 442 ; 
preparations for conquest of 
Sicily, 463; retreat of the 
French to Posen — desertion, 
500 ; command of French 
cavalry, 504 ; negotiations with 
Austria and England, 504; 
declaration of war with Na|>o- 
leon, 511 ; treaty with Austria, 
511 ; Naples retained by, 524 ; 
renewal of warfare in Italy — 
failure and flight, 528, 529; 
execution, vi 19. 

Muraviev» (xeneral : Russian com- 
mand in Trans-Caucasian pro- 
vinces, vi. 125; mission into 
Lithuania, 161. 

Murray, Geneml, iv. 455. 

Murray, Sir John, v. 611. 

Murillo, Bravo, Spanish Prime 
Minister, vi. 116. 

Muskets, pistols or muskets first 
made at Nuremberg, i. 342. 

Mustapha I., Sultan of Turkey : 
Accession and re-imprisonment, 
iii. 209 ; second Sultanship and 
deposition, 211. 

Mustapha II., Sultan of Turkey, 
iv. 14. 

Mustapha III. , Sultan and Caliph 
of Turkey : Accession, iv. 374 ; 
war against Russia, 375; 
death, 386. 

Mustapha IV., Sultan of Turkey, 
V. 419; insurrection against: 
dethronement, vi. 26. 

Mustapha, son of Solyman, 
death, ii. 371. 

Mustapha Bairactar, Ptusha of 
Rustchuk, vi. 26. 

Mustapha, Kara, Grand Vizier of 
Turkey, iv. 7. 

Mustapha Moldawanschi All 
Pasha, Grand Vizier, iv. 376. 

Mustapha Pasha, Turkish War 
Minister, vi. 213. 

Mustapha, Reis-Eflendi, secre* 
tary at Vienna, iv. 492. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Muteferrika, Sultan's Body-guax d, 
i 8. 

Nachimov, Admiral, Russian 
command in Black Sea, vL 119. 

Najara, DukQ^of, i. 267, 425, 

Nantes, Edict of, iii. 74 ; revoca- 
tion, iv. 41. 

Napier, Admiral, vi. 63, 122. 

Naples : Claims of Houses of 
Anjou and Aragon, i. 57 ; revo- 
lutions, 58; French invasions, 
d89, 214, 224, 225, 275 ; iv. 231 ; 
v. 348, 384 ; France and Spain, 
Partition Treaty disputes, i. 
254, 255; French evacuation, 
256; conquest completed by 
Gonsalvo de Cordova, i. 263; 
revolt against Inquisition, ii. 
236; insurrections and revolu- 
tions, iii. 343 ; v. 299, 385 ; vi. 
19, 20, 94; Spanish restoration, 
iii. 345 ; conquest by Allies, iv. 
231 ; administrative reforms, v. 
181 ; Parthenopean Republic, 
288, 289 ; reconquest by Nea- 
politans, 299; restoration to 
Allies, 529; Spanish Constitu- 
tion of 1812, vi. 19 ; Garibaldi's 
invasion, 143. 

Napoleon I. : Captain of artillery 
at Toulon, v. 138; second in 
command of National Conven- 
tion troops, V. 206, 207 and 
note ; chief of Bureau Topo- 
grapkique, 207 ; second in 
command of Army of Interior, 
207; command in Italy, 214, 
215, 216, 217, 224, 230, 236, 247 ; 
meurriage with Josephine Beau- 
hamais, 215; peace proposals, 
240, 252 ; secret offer of help to 
Triumvirs, 249; invasion of 
England scheme, 259, 260, 262 ; 
plenipotentiary at Rastadt, 260 ; 
Egyptian expedition,. 274, 277, 
301, 302 ; Syrian campaign, 303 ; 
First Consul, 306 : powers and 
salary, 307 ; dismissal of Siey^s 
and Ducos, 308; command in 
Italy, 309 ; attempted assassina- 
tion, 313; Concordat with Pius, 

VII., 316; PresidentofCisalpine 
Republic, 328 ; re-election for 
life, 330 ; measures for consoli- 
dating power, 331 ; domestic 
legislation and reforms, 333; 
forei^ policy, 334; Act of 
Mediation in Switzerland, 340 ; 
annexation of Parma and Pied- 
mont, 341 ; projected invasion 
of England, 348; Emperor: 
Election, 351 ; coronation- 
hereditary nature of Imperial 
dignity, 353; King of Italy, 
362; convention with Marquis 
de San Gallo, 367; personal 
command of French army in 
Germany, 369 ; abolition of 
Tribunate, 385; mediator of 
Helvetic Republic, 387 ; pro- 
tector of Confederation of the 
Rhine, 388, 389; position in 
Europe in 1806, 391 ; entry into 
Berlin, 398 ; Polish Insurrec- 
tion, 401 ; Tilsit interview with 
Alexander I., 404 ; Continental 
System, 407 ; domination at 
Peace of Tilsit, 408; Berlin 
Decree, 409 ; Milan Decree, 410 ; 
supremacy in France, 423; 
schemes against Spain and 
Portugal, 424, 425; relations 
with Pius VII., 429; annexation 
of Papal States, 431 ; French 
invasion of Spain, 436 ; Treaty 
of Bayonne, 440 ; alliance with 
Russia, 447 ; personal command 
in Spain, 449; dissolution of 
marriage, 464; marriage with 
Archduchess Maria Louisa of 
Austria^ 464; troops, 469; 
height of power, 472 ; schemes 
agamst Russia, 473, 474 ; alli- 
ances with Prussia and Austria, 
481 ; command in Russia, 483, 
484, 486; arrival at Moscow, 
489; retreat, 490; return to 
Paris, 493; re^ncy, 495; 
resumption of milituy com- 
mand, 501 ; treaty with Den- 
mark, 504; deposition, 515; 
abdication, 516 ; retirement to 
Elba, 517 ; escape and return to 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Paris, 526, 527; defeat at 
Waterloo, 530 ; second abdica- 
tion, 531 ; banishment and 
death, 532 ; transfer of remains 
to Paris, vi. 64. 

Napoleon II. (Ducde Reichstadt), 
VI. 57. 

Napoleon III. : Strassburg con- 
spiracy, vi. 58, 60 ; attempt to 
g:ain French crown, 64; elec- 
tion as Deputy for Paris, 81 ; 
return to Paris, 82 ; President 
of Second French Republic, 82 ; 
conservative policy, 106 ; elec- 
tion for ten years, 109; Emperor, 
110 ; recognition by European 
powers, 110 ; marriage, 110 ; 
Crimean War, 118, 121, 126; 
visit to England, 124; at- 
tempted assassination, 130 ; 
intOTview with Cavour, 131 ; 
command of French armv in 
Italy, 134; failure to keep 
agreement with Cavour, 139; 
"Le Pape et le Congrfes" 
pamphlet, 141 ; recall of army 
trom Lombardy, 141 ; Italian 
policy, 149 ; Schleswig-Holstein 
Question, 166,167; negotiations 
with Prussia and Austria, 174, 
175 ; French intervention in 
Mexico, 184; designs on Lux- 
embourg, 184; anti-Imperialist 
feeling caused by undecided 
policy, 191 ; candidature for 
Spanish crown, 192; command- 
in-chief, 193 ; surrender to 
King of Prussia, 195 ; death at 
ChiBlehurst, 201, 202. 

Narbonne, Comte de, French 
Minister of War, v. 74, 484. 

Narvaez, Carlist commander, vi. 
71, 72; Duke of Valencia, 
73; Prime Minister of Spain, 
115; recall, 116; Coup cTitat, 

Naselli, Greneral, Viceroy of 
Sicily, vi. 20. 

Nassau, Count of, Imperial com- 
mander, i. 178, 180, 429. 

Nassau, Count of, Grerman pleni- 
potentiary, iii. 338. 

Nassau : 
Frederick Henry, Prince of, iii. 

143, 253. 
Henry, Prince of Nassau, 

marriage, L 371. 
Louis, Count of, ii. 415, 428, 

432, 441. 
Maurice, Prince, command of 

Dutch troops, iv. 282. 
Ren^, Prince of Orange, ii. 155. 

Natiomdverein, German National 
Association, vi 153, 173, 176. 

Navailles, Duke of, French com- 
mander, iv. 7. 

Navarre : Succession Question, i. 
191, 192, 193, 197, 318 ; incor- 
poration with Castile, 320; 
French invasion, 426, 427, 428. 

Navarro, Pedro, i. 256, 305, 306, 
309, 312, 313, 342, 356, 358 ; ii. 
24, 41. 

Navigation: Progress, effect on 
commerce, L 322; maritime 
law, 200, 201. 

Navigation Act, iii. 371. 

Necker, Director of French Royal 
Treasury, iv. 441 ; financial re- 
forms, 461 ; resignation, 462 ; 
recall, 466; royal address to 
National Assembly, v. 32 ; dis- 
missal, 36 ; recall, 40 ; financial 
schemes, 53 ; retirement, 58. 

Necker, Oliver, i. 170. 

Negropont, Tiurkish mastery in, 

Neipperg, Count, Imperial mili- 
tanr command, iv. 243, 256, 257. 

Nelidov, vi. 215. 

Nelson, Lord : Siege of Calvi, v. 
200; English supremacy in 
Mediterranean, 277; capitula- 
tion of Naples, 299 ; command 
of fleet for Denmark, 321 ; 
blockade of Toulon and Genoa, 
357 ; Trafalgar victory, 380. 

Nemours, Duke of, i. 255, 256. 

Nemours, Duke of: Marriage 
with Princess Victoria of 
Coburg, vi. 61 ; regent, 76, 

Nepomuk, John, Bohemian Na- 
tional Hero, iii. 205. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Nesselrode, Count, Russian En- 
voy, vL 20, 126. 

Netherlands : French incursions, 
i. 149 ; Council of Regency, 276 ; 
government of Mary, Queen 
of Hungary, 100, 101 ; French 
campaigns, ii 190, 155, 281, 
297, 296, 299; taxation ques- 
tion, 141 ; trade and commerce, 
196, 197, 402 ; iii. 129 ; inc^uisi- 
tion and religious persecutions, 
ii. 253, 402, 403 ; abdication of 
Charles V., 288 ; state of Pro- 
vinces, 400 ; States-General, 
401 ; supreme tribunal, 401 ; 
prosperity in the sixteenth 
century, 401 ; Reformation : 
Lutherans, Anabaptists, Cal- 
vinists, etc., 193, 402, 411, 412, 
422; protest against Spanish 
troops, 404, 405 ; erection of 
new oishoprics, 406 ; League of 
Nobles, 407 ; rise of Gaeux, 416 ; 
progress of missionaries, 417 ; 
anti-Catholic movement, 419; 
civil war, 420-446 ; emigration 
of Protestants, 422; re-estab- 
lishment of Spanish authority, 
422 ; reign of terror under Alva, 
427 ; finance system, 432 ; re- 
volt of northern towns and 
provinces, 434 ; William of 
Orange, Stadtholder, 434 ; 
patriotic successes, 434, 435; 
supplication of William and 
the Dutch States, 439 ; State 
Council measures, 444 ; ** Span- 
ish Fury," 445 ; government of 
Don John of Austria, iii. 3; 
Union of Utrecht, 11 ; separa- 
tion of Walloon Provinces, 12 ; 
division, 12; Duke of Anjou's 
action, 20 ; Spanish successes 
under Famese, 21; campaign 
of 1589, 37 ; election of Prince 
Maurice as Governor of Gelder- 
land and Overyssel, 38 ; admin- 
istration of Count Mansfeld, 
77 ; Seven United Provinces, 
establishment, 77; war, 81, 144; 
abdication of Philip IL, 83; 
peace negotiations, 144 ; French 

and Dutch designs on Spanish 
Netherlands, 299, 427 ; French 
invasion, 431, 433; iv. 35; 
Spanish Succession War, 87, 93, 
97, 100, 102, 104, 106, 110, 115; 
cession of Spanish Neth^landB 
to Charles VI. , 1 15 ; destruetion 
of barrier fortresses, 395 ; insoi* 
rections in Austrian Nether- 
lands, 401, 417 ; Act of Union of 
the Belgian United Provinces, 
418 ; submission of Austrian 
Netherlands to Leopold II., 
423; allies, campaign against 
France, v. 190 {see aZao Hol- 
land and Belgium). 

Neufchftteau, Francois de, di- 
rector, V. 252. 

Neuhaus, Adam von, ii 75. 

Neustedt : Erection of bidiopric, 
i. 205 ; ca|>itulation, 208. 

Nevers, Louis Gonzaga, Due de, 
iii. 69, 269. 

Ney, Marshal, v. 292; French 
command in Switzerland, 340; 
Marshal of the Empire, 362; 
command in Spain, 449, 467; 
hero of Moscow retreat, 494; 
French command, 506 ; battle 
of Quatre Bras, 530 ; execuldon, 
vi. 6. 

Neyen, John, iii. 144. 

Nice, cession to France, vi. 142. 

Nicholas, Grand Duke of Russia, 
Commander-in-Chief, vL 212. 

Nicholas V., Pope, i. 86. 

Nicholas I., Tsar of Russia: Ac- 
cession, vi. 30 ; policy, 31 ; war 
againsb Turkey, 34, 118 ; crown 
oi Poland, 51 ; interference in 
Hungary, 100 ; death, 123. 

Nicholas XL, Tsar of Russia: 
Visit to Paris, vi. 227 ; Hague 
Peace Congress, 238. 

Niebuhr, Prussian Kreuz party 
chief, vL 112. 

Niel, Marshal, vi. 135, 192. 

Niellon, General, vi. 49. 

Niethard, iii. 445. 

Nimeguen Congress, iii 458. 

Nishandshi B<Mhi, secretary, L 
12, 13. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Noailles, Cardinal de, Archbishop 
of Paris, iv. 199, 200. 

Noailles, French ambassador, ii. 

Noailles, Marshal, iv. 58, 61, 63, 
281, 286, 444 ; v. 75. 

Noel, Admiral, vi. 231. 

Noot, Van der, "Agent of the 
Brabanters," iv. 417 ; Prime 
Minister of Belgium, 418. 

Norfolk, Duke ot, English am- 
bassador, ii. 113, 158, 165. 

Normandy: Evacuation by the 
English, i. 73; re-annexation 
by Louis XL, 135; invasion, 
149 ; levy of troop, ii. 3. 

Norris, Sir John, iii. 7. 

North German Confederation, vi. 

North, Lord, iv. 466. 

Northern Bund of 1867, v. 181, 
182, 183. 

Northumberland, Earl of, ii. 375. 

Norway: Danish invasion, v. 
421 ; cession to Sweden, 509. 

Notables, Assembly of : Fontaine- 
bleau (1660), ii. 318; (1625), 
iii. 242 ; St. Germain, ii. 332 ; 
Moulins, 356 ; Versailles, iv. 

Novosiltzof, M., Russian ambas- 
sador, V. 359. 

Nugent, Count, vi. 95. 

Nuremberg: Saxony and Bran- 
denburg Agreement, i. 26 ; Diet 
(1522), li. 57; (1523 and 1524), 
68; conversion into fortified 
Cfiunp, iii. 280. 

Nuza,Don Juan de la, iii. 40. 

Obreskoff, Russian resident in 
Turkey, iv. 376. 

Ochs, Peter, Oherzunftmeiater oi 
Basle, V. 266. 

Odard, Piedmontese lUtirateitr, 
iv. 360. 

ODonnell, Count of Abisbal, 
vL 14. 

0*Donnell, Greneral, Duke of 
Tetuan : Spanish command 
against Carusts, vi. 72 ; Vice- 
roy of Austrian Italy, 92 ; re- | 

signation, 116 ; Prime Minister 

of Spain, 189. 
Odysseus, Greek leader, vi. 30. 
O'Hara, General, v. 137, 139. 
Old League of High Germany, 

1. o4, 1«7* 

Olgiato, Girolamo, assassin, L 

Olivarez, Spanish Minister, iii 

Oliver, President, French Minis- 
ter and Envoy, ii. 163. 

Olivier, Chancellor, ii. 317. 

Olmiitz : Conference, vi. 112 ; 
interview between Nicholas I. 
and Francis Joseph, 119. 

Olney, Richard, United Statfes 
secretary vi. 236. 

Omar Pasha, Turkish command, 
vi. 119. 

Ompteda, Baron d*, Hanoverian 
ambassador, v. 382. 

Oflate, Count of, iii. 345. 

Opitz, Joshua, iii. 86. 

Opp^de, Baron Meinier d', ii. 

Orange Free State, joint de- 
claration of war against Eng- 
land with Transvaal, vi. 234. 

Omage, House of, Netherlands 
Stadtholdership, iv. 400. 

Orange, Princes of : 
Jomi, Governor of Burgundy, 

i. 161, 165, 176. 
Philibert, Commander-in-Chief 
of Imperial army, ii. 32, 41, 
William V., Hereditary Stadt- 
holder, v. 196. 

Orators, ambassadors, i. 338. 

Orchan, organization of Otto- 
man Empire, i. 6. 

" Order of the Hammer," Spanish 
order, vi. 12. 

Orijlamme, last appearance in 
battle, i. 131. 

Orleans : Etats-G^n^raux, IL 326, 
327 ; Edict of Orleans, 327. 

Orleans, Dukes of : 
Charles, ii. 166, 176. 
Ferdinand Philippe LouIbi 
death, vi. 66. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Orleans, Dukes of : 
Gaston, Lieutenant-General of 
France, marrii^, iii. 244; 
Duke of Orleans, 245 ; second 
marriage, 298; lieutenant- 
general, 305. 
Louis {see Louis XII., King of 

Louis PhUippe Joseph, iv. 445 ; 
revolutionist, v. 35, 36 ; loss 
of popularity, 60 ; Deputy in 
National Convention, 96 ; 
"Philippe Egalit^," 103; 
execution, 123. 
Philippe I. : Marriage, iii. 424 ; 
regency, 204 ; death, 216. 
Orloff, Alexis, iv. 361, 377. 
Orlotr, Gregory, iv. 360, 361, 402. 
Ormond, Duke of, iv. 86, 107, 109. 
Omano, Marshal d', iii. 244. 
Orsini, assassin, vi 130. 
Orsini, Cardinal, v. 183. 
Orsini, Papal Le^te, ii. 451. 
Orsini, Princess, iv. 79, 200. 
Orval, M. de, i. 469. 
Osbom, Admiral, iv. 332. 
Oscar I. King of Sweden, vi. 90. 
Osman I. {or Othman), founder 

of Ottoman Empire, i 5. 

Osman II. Sultan of Turkey : 

Accession, iii. 209 ; invasion of 

Poland, 209, 210; deposition 

and death, 211. 

Osman III., Sultan of Turkey: 

Accession, iv. 374 ; death, 374. 

Osman Pasha, Turkish command, 

vi. 213. 
Osnabrtick, Peace Congress, iii 

Ossat, D', French ambassador, iii. 

Ossat, Cardinal d', ii. 394. 
Ossuna, Marquis d*, Spanish am- 
bassador, iv. 346. 
Ostermann, Baron, Russian Vice- 
chancellor, iv. 238, 276. 
Ostermann, General, Knssian 

command, v. 606. 
Osuna, Duke of, Viceroy of 

Naples, iii 180. 
Otho of Bavaria, King of Greece, 

Ott, General, Austrian com- 
mand, V. 310. 

Otte, M., charge d'affaires at 
Berlin, v. 327, 368. 

Ottoboni, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, iv. 56 {see also 
Alexander VIIL). 

Ottoman Empire {see Turkey). 

Oubril D', Russian minister in 
Paris, V. 354, 390. 

Oudinot, General, French com- 
mands, V. 462, 505 ; vi. 102. 

Ouschakoff, Admiral, iv. 425. 

Oxenstiem, Axel, Chancellor of 
Sweden, iii. 228, 275, 277, 286, 
300, 329, 330. 

Oxenstiem, Benedict, Chancellor 
of Sweden, iv. 29. 

Oxford, Earl of, English pleni- 
potentiary, iL 168. 

Pace, English Envo^, i. 464. 
Pache, French Minister at War, 

V. 106 ; Mayor of Paris, 118. 
Pacheco, Don Juan, Marquis of 

ViUena, i. 189, 190. 
Pacheco, Dofia Maria de, i. 425, 

Facte de Famine, SociSU Malimt, 

iv. 440 ; V. 12, 26. 
Padilla, Don Juan de, i. 423, 424, 

Fadishah, chief temporal title of 

Sultan, i. 11. 
Paget, Sir Arthur, English am- 

l^sador at Constantinople, t. 

Pagliano, Duke of, ii. 323. 
Pahlen, Count, Russian Foreign 

Minister, v. 323. 
Paine, Thomas, iv. 442. 
Palacky, Bohemian historian, vi. 

Paladine, General Aurelle de, vl 

Palseologus, Andrew, L 83. 
Palseologpns, Constantine, Em- 
peror, i 81. 
PaUeologus, Demetrius, L 83. 
Palseologns, Manuel, L 83. 
Pabeologns, Michael, L 16. 
PaUeologos, Thomas, L 83. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Palafox, General: Defence of 
Saragossa, v. 445 ; command of 
army in Ara^on, 449. 

Palatinate : Wittelsbach rulers in 
Rhenish Palatinate, i 26; Spi- 
nola's ravages, iiL 202; transfer 
of Upper Palatinate to Maxi- 
milian of Bavaria, 208 ; Peace 
of Westphalia, 349 ; devastation 
by mandate of Louis XIV., iv. 

Palermo : Insurrections, iii. 343 ; 
vi. 20, 92 ; capitulation, vi. 20. 

Palfy, Nicholas, Imperial com- 
mand, iiL 95. 

Pallieri, M., Governor of Parma, 
vi. 138. 

Palm, bookseller of Nuremberg, 
V. 391. 

Palma, Cardinal, vi. 101. 

Palmella, Count, Portuguese 
Envoy, v. 523. 

Palmerston, Lord, Foreign Sec- 
retary: Polish affairs, vi. 53; 
Spanish affairs, 115; Prime 
Minister, 123 ; retirement, 131. 

Pamphili, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, iii. 341 {see cUso 
Innocent X.). 

Panin, Count, Russian minister, 
iv. 360, 365, 403, 451, 452. 

Paoli Pascal, Generalissimo of 
Corsica, v. 127, 200. 

Papacy : Organization and rise 
of, i. 2; decline of temporal 
power, ii. 188; Interim, 246; 
delay in election of Pope after 
death of Pius VI., v. 315. 

Pappenheim, Count, Hereditary 
Imperial Marshal, i 417. 

Pappenheim, General, iii. 267. 

Pans : Surrender by English, i. 
73 ; measures of defence, ii. 3 ; 
Day of Barricades, iii. 45 ; mur- 
der of Henry of Guise, 49 ; sieges 
(1589), 51, 52; (1590), 58; (1870), 
vL 195, 196, 197 ; Spanish garri- 
son, iii. 61 ; surrender to Henry 
IV., 70; enlargement and im- 
provement, 124 ; Etats-G&iU- 
rauxy 170 ; excommunication of 
Parliament of Paris, iv. 51 ; 

Colonial Boundaries Confer- 
ence, 308 ; Family Compact of 
France and Spain, 345; state 
of revolutionary Paris, v. 36;, 
creation of National Guard, 37, 
39; municipal reforms, 55; flight 
of royal family to Assembly, 85, 
86; Moderantisme, etc., 112 j 
Revolutionary Council General, 
121 ; arrest of Girondists, 123 ; 
insurrection of 13 VencUmiaire, 
204, 206; condition of, 209; 
advance of Allies : capitulation, 
515, 531 ; July Ordinances, 
riots, vi. 37, 38; National 
Guard, 38, 109 ; institution of 
Municipal Commission, 39; for- 
tification, 64; riots, 75, 76; 
massacre of Municipal Guards, 
76 ; National Assembly, 80 ; 
Ateliers NationatiXf 81 ; insur 
rection, 105; Legislative As- 
sembly, 105 ; coup (Pitat, 108 ; 
Peace Conference, 125; Con- 
gress of Powers on Italian Ques- 
tions, 140; growth of anti-Im- 
perialism, 191 ; Commune, 196 ; 
work of reorganization, 201 ;; 
Exhibition, 205. 

*« Paris Matins," ii. 389. 

Parker, Admiral Sir Hyde, iv^ 
454 ; V. 321, 322, 323. 

Parlement Maupeou, iv. 430. 

Parma, Duchy of: Origin, ii. 
177 ; French annexation, v. 341 ;. 
union with Sardinia, vi. 138. 

Parque, Duke del, v. 468. 

Parthenopean Republic, v. 289. 

Pascal, Blaise, iv. 198. 

Pashalic, Union of Ejalets, i. 15. 

Paskiewitsch, General, Russian 
commands, vi. 34, 53, 100, 120. 

Pasquier, Baron, vi. 45. 

Passano, John Joachim, French 
Envoy, ii. 7. 

Passerini, Cardinal, i. 462. 

Passy, French Finance Minister, 
vi. 82. 

Patifio, iv. 229. 

Patkul, John Rheinhold, iv. 30, 
120, 141, 143. 

Patriarchate, L 81. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Patuzzi, General, vi. 69, 

Paul II., Pope : Election, i. 102 ; 
terms ofpeace, 111; death, 112. 

Paul III. , rope : Election, iL 1 15 ; 
Council of Trent, 160; reforms, 
187 ; Interim, 240 ; death, 252. 

Paul IV. , Pope : Election, ii. 286 ; 
ambition, etc., 285 note; alli- 
ance with France, 286 ; Spanish 
invasion, 294, 296; banbnment 
of Del Monte and Caraffa : re- 
forms, 322 ; death, 322. 

Paul V. , Pope : Election, iiL 148 
character and policy, 148, 149 
Interdict against Venice, 149 
death, 231. 

Paul I., Tsar of Russia: Acces- 
sion, v. 176 ; liberation of Polish 
j^isoners, 176; French policy, 
279 ; Grand Master of St. John, 
282 ; war aeainst Spain, 298 ; 
withdrawal from Second Coali- 
tion, 300; Armed Neutrality, 
317 ; embargo laid on British 
ships, 320; death, 322; char- 
acter and policy, 32S, 

Paulin, French Envoy, ii. 161, 
162, 173. 

Pavanes, Jacques, ii. 6. 

Payne, Peter, Wiclifite refugee, 
i. 390. 

Pays (T Election, v. 10. 

Pays cTEtats, v. 10. 

Pazzi, Francesco, i. 114, 116, 116. 

Pecheros, agricultural and trad- 
ing class in Spain, iii 112. 

Pedro, Don, Regent of Brazil, vi. 
17; Emperor, 18; departure, 
69; return to Spain, 70; death, 

Pedro II., Emperor of Brazil, 
accession, vi. 69. 

Pedro II. , King of Portugal: 
Regency, iii 425; Spanish Suc- 
cession Claim, iv. 75; accession 
to Grand Alliance, 89. 

Pedro v.. King of Portugal, 
minority, vi. 116. 

Pelissier, General, vi. 124. 

Pellev^, Cardinal de, ii. 464. 

Pellew, Admiral, v. 521 ; vi 24. 

Pellico, Silvioy vL 22. 

Peloponnesus : Division into 
Greek sovereignties, i. 16 ; re- 
volt, 82 ; conquest, 82, 83. 

Peninsular War, v. 444. 

Pep^, General, Commandant of 
Naples, vi. 19, 95. 

Pera (or Galata), Genoese suburb 
of Constantinople, i. 16. 

Perceval, Mr., Chancellor of Ex- 
chequer, V. 414. 

Peregrini, Pietro, L 323. 

Pereira, Nuno Alvares, Constable 
of Portugal, i. 67. 

Pereny, Peter, ii. 152. 

Peretti, Felix: Career, iiL 30; 
election to Pontificate, 31 {see 
also Sixtus v.). 

Perez, Don Antonio, iiL 13, 39, 40. 

P^rier, Casimir, vL 37 ; Frendi 
Finance Minister, 39, 45 ; Prime 
Minister, 56. 

P^rignon, Marshal, v. 362. 

Perpetual Edict, iii. 4. 

Perron Du, French ambassador, 
iii. 73. 

Persano, Admiral, vi. 143, 185. 

Persia : English trade with, iiL 
127 ; Russian invasion, iv. 235, 
239 ; V. 176. 

Persigny, M. de, vi. 107. 

Peru, conquest of, ii. 190. 

Pescara, Marquis of, L 312, 437, 
441, 460, 462, 464, 467 ; iL 9, 
16, 18. 

Pescia, Fra Domenico da, L 236, 
237, 238, 239, 240. 

Peter I., Tsar of Russia: As- 
sumption of government, iv. 16 
note ; conspiracy against, 123 ; 
marriage, 123; personal reign, 
124;* treaties with Augustus 
IL of Poland, 127, 141, 150; 
war with Sweden, 131, 144, 
146 ; marriage with Catharine, 
163; conquest of Livonia and 
Carelia, 152; policy towards 
Allies, 158 ; " Emperor of all the 
Russias," 164; Peace of Ny- 
stadt, 163; Persian expeditions, 
235 ; death, character, 235. 

Peter II. , Tsar of Russia : Minor- 
ity, iv. 237 ; death, 238. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Peter III., Tsar of Bussia: Ac- 
cession iv. 349 ; deposition and 
murder, 350, 360; character, 
administration, etc., 358. 

Potion, member of National As- 
sembly, V. 63 ; Mayor of Paris, 
71 ; demand for aodication of 
Louis XVI., 84. 

Petrarca, Francesco, ambassador, 

Petrasch, General, v. 297. 

Petri, Lawrence and Olaos, Swed- 
ish reformers, iii. 219. 

Petrucci, Cardinal Alfonso, i. 362. 

Peymann, General, Commandant 
of Conenhagen, v. 412. 

Pezzo, Michael, Fra Diavolo, v. 

Pfahlbiirger, Burgesses of the 
Pale, i. 30. 

Pfeiffer, monk of Beiffenstein, iL 

Pfordten, Von der. Bavarian 
minister, vi. 113. 

Phanariots, Greek nobles, i. 81. 

Philip the Bold, Duke of Bur- 
gundy : First Duke of the House 
of Valois, i. 70. 

Philip (the Good), Duke of Bur- 
gundy: Marriage with Isabel 
of Portugal, i. 72; offer to 
mediate between Charles VII. 
and the Dauphin, 121 ; Ligue 
du Bien Pubiic, 130; death, 136. 

Philip I. , King of Spain : Marriage 
with Joanna of Spain, i. 234 ; 
administration of Neapolitan 
provinces, 255 ; Gelderlajid and 
Zutphen, 265 ; ii. 138 ; regency 
of Castile, i. 267 ; death, 272. 

Philip II. , King of Spain : Investi- 
ture of Milan, ii. 144 ; betrothal 
to Mary of Portugal, 157 ; visit 
to Netherlands, 248, 249 ; mar- 
riage with Mary of England, 
278, 279, 280 ; English policy, 
280; accession, 288 ; character, 
289; war between France and 
England, 297; marrii^e with 
MsSemoiselle Elizabeth, 304, 
310, 313, 321; policy, 316; 
French civil wars, 360; ex- 

pedition against pirates, 367;; 
plots against Elizabeth of Eng- 
land, 376, 377 ; unpopularity in 
Netherlands, 403; edicts and 
inquisition, 413 ; marriage with 
Anne of Germany, 447 ; con- 
quest of Portugal, 468, 472;. 
Salc^de Conspiracy, 475 ; in- 
trigues with Huguenots, 476;. 
Catholic League revival, 478, 
479, 480 ; campaign in Nether- 
lands, iii. 27 ; preparations for 
conc^uest of Eneland, 32, 34 'r 
Invincible Armada, 35 ; designs 
on France, 57; abdication of 
Netherlands sovereignty, 83^ 
bankruptcy and commercial dis- 
asters, 84 ; death, 84. 

Philip III., King of Spain : Ac- 
cession, iii. 139 ; marriage with 
Margaret of Austria, 139; 
death, 231. 

Philip IV., King of Spain: Ac- 
cession, iii. 231 ; Portuguese 
and Italian difficulties, 342, 

Philip v.. King of Spain : Acces- 
sion, iv. 76, 77 ; marriage with 
Louisa Gabrielle of Savoy, 79 ? 
Cortes acknowledgment of 
Prince of Asturias, 102 ; claim 
to French crown renounced, 
109; marriage with Elizabeth 
Famese, 203 ; abdication, 216 ; 
bigotry and intolerance, 216; 
resumption of crown, 216 ; pro- 
gress of literature and art, 297; 
death, 297. 

Philip William, Duke of Neabnrg, 
Count Palatine, iv. 46. 

PhUipists or Crypio-CaMnists, 
iii. 159. 

Philippi, Field-Marshal, iv. 243. 

Philippines, acquisition by United 
States, vi. 236. 

Piacenza, Duke of, Lieutenant' 
General of Holland, v. 465. 

Piagnimi, namegiventoi^n»^e«eAtV 
i. 228, 237. 

Piccolomini, iEneas Sylvius, min- 
ister, i. 86, 89, 392, 398 {see also 
Pius IL). 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Picoolomini, Francesco, election 
to Pontificate, i. 259 {see also 
Pius III.). 

Piccolomini, General, Imperial 
command, iii. 321, 323, 329 ; iv. 

Pichegm, Greneral, v. 194, 195, 
210, 248, 250, 349. 

Pico, Gian Francesco, i. 299, 

Piedmont: French invasion, iL 
120, 121, 123; annexation b^ 
France, v. 341 ; revolution, vi. 

Pietists^ reliji^ious sect, iv. 195. 

Pignatelli, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, iv. 62 {see also In- 
nocent XII.^. 

Pignatelli, Pnnce, Vicar-General 
of Naples, v. 288. 

Pieot, Admiral, iv. 456. 

Pilnitz, Declaration of, v. 68. 

Pinneberg Mediation Conference, 
iv. 122. 

Pinzon, Francisco, i. 331. 

Pinzon, Martin, i. 331. 

Pinzon, Vicente, i. 326, 331. 

Piper, Count, Counsellor to 
Charles XII. of Sweden, iv. 
129, 143. 

Pisa : Independence, i. 233 ; war 
Against Florence, 249, 285, 286 ; 
General Council, 304, 307, 345, 
346, 350, 351, 389. 

Pitigliano, Count of, i 287, 290, 

Pitt, William, iv. 328, 332, 346, 

Pitt, William : National Conven- 
tion, declaration against, V. 129; 
subcadies to Austria, 212 ; ne- 
gotiations with France, 234; 
resignation, 327 ; Moniteur ar- 
ticle on, 342 note; return to 
power, 356; Third Coalition 
\ organization, 359 ; death, 381. 

Piua II., Pope: Election to Pon- 
tificate, i. 98 ; crusade against 
Turks, 100 ; death, 101, 109. 

Pins III., Pope, election and 
death, i. 259. 

Pius IV., Pope : Election to Pon- 

tificate, iL 322, 323 ; recognition 
of Ferdinand as Emperor, 345 ; 
death, 355. 

Pius v.. Pope: Election to Pon- 
tificate, ii. 355 ; character, 355, 
356; French civil wars, 360; 
Holy League against Turks, 
372 ; plots against Elizabeth of 
England, 374, 375, 376, 377; 
death, 383. 

Pius VI., Pope : Election to Pon- 
tificate, iv. 393 ; v. 183 ; vifdt 
to Vienna, iv. 393 ; Bull against 
civil constitution of French 
clergy, v. 59 ; negotiations with 
Napoleon, 223; French inva- 
sion, 236; recognition of Cis- 
alpine Republic, 263; deposi- 
tion, 264. 

Pius VII., Pope : Election to Pon- 
tificate, V. 315 ; concordat with 
Napoleon, 316, 332 ; coronation 
of Napoleon, 353 ; Continental 
System, 428 ; claim of investi- 
ture on Neapolitan crown, 429 ; 
excommunication brief against 
Napoleon, 431; Bull Quum 
Memoranda^ 463; restoration 
of States of the Church, 512, 
524 ; vi. 18 ; triumphal entry to 
Rome, V. 521 ; death, vL 25, 

Pius VIII., Pope: Election to 
Pontificate, vi 55 ; death, 68. 

Pius IX., Pope : Election to Pon- 
tificate, vi. 91; popular reforms, 
91 ; new constitution, 94 ; de- 
position as temporal prince, 
102 ; return to Rome, 116 ; pro- 
pagation of Mariolatry: doc- 
trine of Immaculate Conception, 
116; Bull of Excommunication, 
140; infallibility, declaration 
by General Council, 188 ; loss 
of temTOral power, 188. 

Pizarro, Francisco, ii. 190. 

Platoff, General, Cossack com- 
mander, iv. 415. 

Pl^lo, Count, French ambassa- 
dor, iv. 228. 

Plessis, origin of name, i. 167 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Plessis, Armand Jean da {see 

Plessis, Besan^on du, French 
Envoy, iii. 315. 

Plessis, Mornay du, ii, 477. 

Plessis - lez - Tours, Etats • G4n6- 
raiAXy i. 274. 

Podiebrad, George: Defeat of 
Albert II., i. 37; regency in 
Bohemia, 40; death of Ladis- 
laus, 94 ; Kin^of Bohemia, 95, 
204 ; Bull of Deposition, 204 ; 
death, 206. 

Poissy Religious Conference, ii. 

Poland: Piast and Jagellon Dyn- 
asties, i. 38 ; elective succession, 
38 ; " Perpetual Peace " with 
Hungary, 207 ; cavalry in war- 
fare, 342; secularization of 
Teutonic Order territory, ii 65 ; 
Reformation, 453 ; interreg- 
num, 454 ; iv. 138 ; foreign in- 
vasions, iii. 209, 210, 212, 398, 
406; V. 166,171, 172, 173; vi. 
53; constitution and eovem- 
ment, iii. 393 ; projected parti- 
tions, 403, 404 ; iv. 378, 382 ; 
V. 168, 174 ; persecution of Pro- 
testants, iii. 409 ; claimants to 
crown, iv. 14, 15, 138, 226; 
treaties and alliances, 133; v. 
162; Polish Succession War, 
iv. 224 ; double election, 227 ; 
Anarchy, 364, 367; religious 
dissensions, 369 ; confedera- 
tions, 371 ; insurrection, 373 ; 
new constitution, 384, 385; 
Russian power in, v. 160; 
council of war, 161 ; constitu- 
tion of 1791, 163 ; Russiai^ d% 
signs, 164 ; revision of cone^u- 
tion, 169; insurrections, 170, 
401; vi. 51, 156; National Coun- 
cil, V. 171 ; re-establishment as 
kin^om, 486 ; religious perse- 
cutions, vi 53 ; Russian despot- 
ism, 157. 

Pole, Cardinal Reginald, ii 137, 
278 280 281. 

Pole, Richard de la, Duke of Suf- 
folk, i 469. 

Polignac, Abb^ de, French Pleni- 
potentiary, iv. 107. 

Poli^ac, Prince Jules de, French 
Pnme Minister, vi. 35; dis- 
missal, 39. 

Politian, i 187. 

Political economy, origin of: 
Campanella and Serra, iii. 115, 

PolUiques, French party, ii. 382; 

Poltrot, assassin, ii. 342, 343. 

Polverel, French Commissioner, 
V. 145. 

Pombal, Marquis of, iv. 351, 431. 

Pompadour, Madame de, iv. 310, 
311, 314, 427. 

Pomperant, Sieur de, i 458, 

Poniatowski, Count {see Stanis- 
laus Poniatowski). 

Poniatowski, Joseph, Polish Com- 
mander-in-Chief, V. 166, 174, 

Pontoise, Etats-G^rUrauXy ii. 329. 

Popes {see their names), 

Popham, Sir Home, v. 279. 

Port Arthur, Russian occupation, 
vi 237. 

Port Royal, iv. 197, 199. 

Porte, origin of term, i 12. 

Portland, Duke of, iv. 460; v. 

Portland, Earl of, iv. 66, 72. 

Portocarrero, Cardinal, Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, iv. 72, 74, 

Portugal: Establishment as king- 
dom, i 67 ; maritime discoveries 
and conquests, 323; ii. 189, 
190 ; trade and commerce, 191, 
194 ; iv. 89 ; affairs of, ii 468 ; 
conquest by Hiilip II. of Spain, 
468, 472; claimants to crown, 
471 ; English campaign, iii. 36 ; 
influence of Jesuits, 107 ; re- 
volution, 316; regency, 422; 
colonial wars, 422, 423 ; treaties 
and alliances, 423; iv. 113; v. 
184, 258, 259; 298 ; recognition 
of independence, iii. 436 ; Span- 
ish BuoceBsion, iv. 89, HI, 113; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



expulsion of Jesuits, 432, 433 ; 
reforms of Marquis of Pombal, 
351, 352; Armed Neutrality, 
453 ; French and Spanish wars, 
353 ; V. 316, 425, 427, 467 ; pro- 
jected partition of Portugal, 
426; conquest hy the French, 
428 ; flight of royal family, 428 ; 
risinjg against the French, 446 ; 
abolition of new constitution, 
vi 17 ; revolution, 17 ; succes- 
sion question, 68. 

Posorovski, General, v. 475. 

Potemkin, Prince Gregory, iv. 
402, 403, 404, 426. 

Potocki, Felix, V. 167. 

Potocki, Ignatius, Polish patriot, 
V. 160. 

Potocki, Stanislaus, Polish pat- 
riot, V. 160 ; vi. 51. 

Potocki, Theodore, Primate of 
Poland, iv. 227. 

Potter, De, Belgian political 
writer, vi. 46, 47. 

Ponssielgue, French secretary, v. 
274, 325. 

Poyet, President of Parliament of 
Paris, ii. 120. 

Praczeck of Lippa, regency in 
Bohemia, i. 40. 

Pradt, de. Bishop of Mechlin, v. 

Prague: University founded, i. 
391 ; Congress, v. 504. 

Proffuerie, contest in France be- 
tween King and feudal no- 
bility, L 78. 

Pragmatic Sanctions (1438), L 
362, 363, 393; (1525) ii 4 ; (1713) 
iv. 218. 

Pressburg, Hungarian States As- 
sembly, iv. 11. 

Prieras, Sylvester, Dominican, i. 

Prim, General, vi. 190, 192. 

Printing : Influence on Reforma- 
tion, L 2, 3 ; progress, ii. 105. 

Pritchard, Mr., English mission- 
ary at Tahiti, vi 65. 

Prinli, Girolamo, Venetian am- 
bassador, iiL 237. 

Privilege of Union, L 66. 

Procurators, i. 338. 
ProgreHstaSy Spanish party, vl 

67, 74. 
Prokop, the Great and the little, 

Hussite leaders, L 36. 
PronundamentoSi protests a- 

ceedings, vi. 72. 

Propo^an^, Jacobin Clubabroad, 
V. 51. 

Propositions of Pistoia, iv. 419. 

Prossnitz, John of, Bishop of 
Grosswardein, i. 210. 

Protestant League, iii 379. 

Protestant Umon, iiL 156, 157, 
187, 200, 205. 

Protestantism: Recognition in 
France, ii. 332 ; growth, iii 99; 
predominance in Gennany, v. 

Protestants, iL 79, 89, 253 ; v. 
38, 40, 41. 

Provence : Union with France, I 
166; persecution of Vaudois, iL 

Provence,* Count of, title of 
Louis XVIIL, V. 214. 

Provera, General, v. 263. 

Prussia: Erection of Duchy, ii. 
65; Lutheranism established, 
65 ; Swedish invasion, iii. 402; 
iv. 26; dignity of Sovereign- 
Duke, iii. 406, 409; kinsdom, 
iv. 82, 111 ; treaties and alli- 
ances, iv. 159, 269, 329, 319, 
366, 400, 403, 416 ; v. 162, 167, 
174, 190 and naU, 197; 226, 357, 
519; vi. 121, 156, 167, 174; ad 
ministration and growth, iv. 
172; army, 252; vE 154, 177; 
resist of Austrian SuocesaioD 
War, 305 ; Armed NeutnJity, 
453 ; V. 321 ; campaign against 
French, 190; withdrawal ^ 
troops to Poland, 195 ; compen- 
sation cessions, 337 ; refusal to 
join Third Coalition, 361 ; hn- 
miliation, 381 ; war with Eng- 
land, 382; renewal of dif^omfttic 
relations with England, 394; 
ultimatum to France, 395 ; fall 
of, 398 ; reduction of fortresses 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



by the French, 399; ruin of, 
406; renunciations at Tilsit, 
405; second-rate power, 408; 
abandonment of Sweden, 415 ; 
Tugendbundt 460 ; desertion of 
France, 496; war against 
France, 497 ; Russian advance, 
501 ; ac(][uisition of Poeen, 525 ; 
predominance in Germany, 525; 
revolutionary riots, vi. 87 ; Aus- 
trian rivalry in Gr«rmany, 111 ; 
influence ot Kreuz party, 112; 
neutrality, 119; ZoUveretfn^ 155; 
Nationcuverein, 156; Schleswiff- 
Holstein, 170, 175; wardeclarea, 
176 ; Seven Weeks' War, 182 ; 
French declaration of war, 192. 

Pucci, Lorenzo, L 345. 

Puerto Rico, discovery of, i 336. 

Puertocarrero, General, iii. 82. 

Pugachev, Russian pretender, iv. 

Puglia, Francesco di, Franciscan 
friar, L 236, 237, 238. 

Pnisaye, Marquis de, v. 203. 

Pulawski, Polish Confederate 
leader, iv. 382. 

Putnam, American commander, 
iv. 442. 

Puyravaux, Andry de, vL 38. 

Quaade, Von, Danish plenipoten- 
tiary, vi. 169. 

Quadruple Alliances (1718), iv. 
213; (1834). vL 70. 

Quasdanowicn, General, v. 210, 

Quebec, French colony, iii. 131. 

Queluz, Duke of, vi 69. 

(^uerouaille, Mademoiselle de, 
Duchess of Portsmouth, ui. 440. 

Quesnay, founder of Physiocrat 
Sect, V. 13. 

Quesne, Du, iv. 332. 

Quesnel, Father, Head of the 
Jansenists,^ iv. 117, 199. 
'€ti8t$, religious sect, iv. 200. 
oga, Colonel, vL 11. 
p, subjugation, ii. 190. 

Radetzki, Marshal, military com- 
mand in Austria, vi. 92, 95, 99. 


Radom, Confederation of, iv. 371. 

Radzejowski, Jerome, Vice-Chan- 
cellor of Poland, iii. 394. 

Radziejowski, Cardinal, Primate 
of Poland, iv. 121, 135, 136, IdS, 
139, 140. 

Radzivil, Prince, Polish reformer, 
ii. 453. 

RadziviU, Grand General of Lithu- 
ania, iii 394. 

RadziviU, Prince, vi. 52. 

RadziviU, Prince Charles, iv. 371. 

Raglan, Lord, English command 
in Crimea, vi. 121 ; death, 123. 

Ragotsky, Francis, iv. 88 ; Hun- 
garian insurrection, 92. 

Ragotsky, Joseph, Prince of Tran- 
sylvania, iv. 242. 

Ragotsky, George I., Voyvode of 
Transylvania, iii. 335. 

Ragotsky, George II., Prince of 
Transylvania, treaty with 
Charles X. of Sweden, iii. 407 ; 
capitulation, 409. 

Rainer, Archduke, Viceroy of 
MUan, vi. 22; Viceroy of 
Austrian Italy, 92. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, iii. 80, 81. 

RaUi, Greek minister, vi. 231. 

Ramirez, Francisco, use of gun- 
powder for mining, L 3^ 

Ramiro, Don, first King of Ara- 
gon, L 63. 

Ramus (or La Ram^), French 
phUosopher, death, ii. 390. 

Rantzau, Danish War Minister, 

RanviUe, Guemon de, French 
minister, vi. 39. 

Rapinet, French commissioner, 
V. 269. 

Rastadt, Congress of, v. 280, 293. 

Rasumo£&ki, Russian minister at 
Stockholm, iv. 409. 

Ratazzi, Sardinian minister, vi. 
139, 141 ; Prime Minister of 
Italy, 148, 186. 

Ratisbon : Catholic Assembly 
(1524), u. 67; Diets held at 
(1632), 104, 147; iii. 204; (1630), 
267; (1640), 336; (1641), 321; 
(1664). 379; (1663), iv. 6; (1689), 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



66; (1702), 85; (1801), v. 334; 
(1806), 389; Conference, ii 204 ; 
capture of, by Elector of Ba- 
varia, iv. 87. 

Ranmer, General von, Prassian 
commander, v. 168. 

Ranschenberger, Commandant of 
Jiilich, iii. 168. 

Ravage, Father, Confessor to 
Kins of Spain, iv. 338. 

Ravaillac, Fran9ois, assassin of 
Henry IV., iii. 164 ; execution, 

Ravenstein, French Governor of 
Genoa, i. 274. 

Raynevai, Monsieur, French 
Envoy to the Hague, iv. 397. 

R^aux, Taboureau de, iv. 441. 

Recamier, Madame, v. 187. 

''Recess," collection of resolu- 
tions passed by a Diet, i 449 

Rechberg, Count, Bavarian minis- 
ter. Congress at Carlsbad, vi. 
24, 156, 165. 

Redcliffe, Lord Stratford de, 
English ambassador to Porte, 
vi. 118. 

Reding, Aloys, Swiss commander, 
V. 269, 339 ; arrest and imprison- 
ment, 340. 

Redschid Pasha, Grand Vizier of 
Turkey, vi. 32, 62. 

Reformation : European unity 
weakened by, L 3 ; Wiclif and 
the LoUards, 390 ; doctrines and 
Standard of Faith of John Huss, 
390, 391 ; influence of printing, 
398 ; pre-Reformation reform- 
ers, 398; revival of classical 
leaminjg, 398 ; union of Roman 
Catholic princes and prelates 
in opposition to, ii 60; political 
character, 67, 309 ; importance 
of Turkish wars, 92 ; Counter- 
Reformation, 145; Treaty of 
Crespy, 167 ; question of In- 
<lul^nees, 180, 181 ; doctrine 
of justification by faitii, 181 ; 
Hallam on the Reformation, 
181, 182 note ; political effects, 
183; iv. 171; Teutonic reaction, 

ii 184; Council of Trent, 233; 
Peace of Passau, 268 ; doctrine 
of the sovereignty of the people, 
iii 16 ; progress of, in Europe, 
99; European results, iv. 165; 
monarchical power increased by, 
in certain countries, 193, 194. 

Beformverein, Grerman National 
Reform Union, vi 164. 

Reichler, Dominican, ii. 60. 

Beiehs-Kammer-Gerichty i 277. 

BeichS'Regiment, i 278. 

Reichstadt, meeting of Alexander 
II. and Francis Joseph L, vi 

BeiS'Effendi, Minister for Foreign 
Affaus, i 14. 

Renault, C^ile, v. 152. 

Rendsboig, Convention of, iv. 2i 

Ren^, Princess of France, mar- 
riage with Ercole II., Duke of 
Ferrara, i 353 ; ii 39. 

Bentes Perpittielles, origin of, i 
443 no^. 

Repnin, Prince, iv. 303, 369; 
despotism in Poland — Russian 
Constitution, 371 ; Russian com- 
mand, 415, 425 ; V. 280 ; alliance 
with Austria, 281. 

Requesens, Don Louis de, ii. 373; 
Governor of the Netherlands, 
440; death, 444. 

Retz, Cardinal, iii. 356, 360; 
arrest and banishment, 366. 

Reuchlin, author of ''De Verbo 
mirifico," i. 399. 

Reventlow, Count, vi 89, 104. 

Rewbel, member of Frendi Direc- 
tory, V. 207. 

Reyneval, M. de, French ambassa- 
dor to Portugal, V. 426. 

Reynier, General, v. 384. 

Rhenish Lands, acquisition by 
Charles the Bold, i 151. 

Rhenish League, iii 379, 383; 
dissolution, 444. 

Rhenskidld, General, iv. 148. 

Rhine, formation of Electoral 
Union of , i. 883 ; cession of left 
bank to France, v. 270. 

Rhodes, conquest by Solyman I., 
i 450, 451. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Riario, Jerome, Count of Imolo, L 
112; Captain-General of Papal 
and Venetian League, 118. 

Riario, Raphael, i. 362. 

Ribagorza, Count of, i. 273. 

Ribeuro, Pinto, iii. 317. 

RicardoB, Don, Spanish command, 
V. 127. 

Ricasoli, Baron, vi 137, 140; 
Prime Minister of Italy, 148. 

Rieci, Jesuit missionary, iii. 110. 

Rioci, Scipio, Bishop of Pistoia, 
iv. 419. 

Richard II. : Marriage with Anne 
of Bohemia, i. 390 ; Reformation 
hindered by weakness of, 390. 

Richelieu, Armand du Plessis, 
Cardinal : Etats-G&nhuux, iii. 
170 ; career, 171 ; advancement 
of, 173 ; return to power, 230 ; 
cardinal's hat, 232 ; return to 
power, 232, 233 ; Prime Minis- 
ter, official appointment, 233 
note ; foreign policy, 233, 234, 
236, 236, 2^, 238, 239, 240, 241, 
242, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 
270, 271, 272; 278; 297-301; 
309, 312-315; 323-325; con- 
spiracy against, 244; marine, 
navigation and commerce — re- 
forms, 246 ; treaty with Spain, 
247 ; siege of La Rochelle, 250 ; 
generalissimo of French Army 
ui Italy, 270; death, 326; char- 
acter and policy, 326; literature 
encouraged by, iv. 168 ; effect 
of policy on nobility and middle 
classes in France, v. 4 ; views 
tiJcen of policy, 5. 

Richelieu, Duke of, chief min- 
ister of Louis XVIIL, vi. 6; 
resignation of Premiership, 7; 
return to power, 8. 

Richelieu, Marshal, iv. 315, 323, 
324, 326, 330, 331. 

Richepanse, French General, v. 

Ricotti, General, vi. 187. 

Ridolfi, Florentine merchant, ii. 

Rieux, Marshal de, i 175, 176, 

Riego, Colonel, Spanish insur- 
rection, vi. 11 ; election as Pre- 
sident of Cortes, 13. 

Rigny, Admiral de, vi. 33. 

Rio, Del, ii. 425. 

Rincon, French Envoy at Con- 
stantinople, ii. 154. 

Ripperdd, Baron, iv. 217. 

Rittberg, Count Kaunitz, Aus- 
trian minister, iv. 304. 

Riva, Andrew, i. 288. 

Rivers, Earl, i. 143. 

Roberjot, French plenipotentiary, 
V. 280 ; murder, 293. 

Roberts, Lord : Cabul to Canda- 
har march, etc., vi. 222 ; ad- 
vance to Pretoria, 234. 

Robespierre, Maximilien : In- 
fluence in Assembly, v. 43; 
Self-denying Ordinance, 70 ; 
Montague Insurrection, 82 ; 
member of the Oommunef 87 ; 
September Massacres, 93 ; trial 
of Louis XVI., 100; employ- 
ment of SanS'CtdotteSy 119; over- 
throw of Gironde organized by, 
120 ; member of ComiU du SaZut 
Public^ 128; President of Na- 
tional Convention, 130 ; Loides 
Suspects, 132 ; worship of rea- 
son, 136 ; defeat of H^hertistes 
and Dantonists, 146, 147, 148 ; 
existence of Supreme Being es- 
tablished by Decree of Conven- 
tion, 149 ; " Law of 22nd Prai- 
rial" 150 ; conspiracy against, 
alleged, 152; arrest, 155; plot 
to assassinate, 154 ; death and 
chai-acter, 157. 

Rochanibeau, Marshal, iv. 455; 
V. 75, 349. 

Rochefoucauld, Cardinal, iii. 233. 

Rochefoucauld, Due de la, iv. 

Rochford, Lord, English Ambas- 
sador at Madrid, iv. 427. 

Rockingham, Marquis of, iv. 455. 

Rodney, Admiral, iv. 447, 448, 

Rodolph II., Emperor : Kin|? of 
the Romans, ii. 449 ; accession, 
449; iii. 85; mediation in the 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Netherlands, 4> 11 ; character, 
152; Anstriaii Familjr Compact, 
Act of Confederation, 153; 
discontent in Bohemia and 
Moravia, 153 ; Majestdts-Brief, 
155; Cleves-Julich-Bei^ succes- 
sion, 160; administration, 184, 
185; resignation of Bohemian 
crown, 186 ; death, 186. 

Rodriguez, Simon, iL 468. 

Roe, Sir Thomas, English Envoy 
at the Porte, iiL 109. 

Rohan, Cardinal de, French Am- 
bassador at Vienna, iv. 385; 

Roland, French Minister of In- 
terior, V, 74, 77, 87. 

Roland, Madame : Influence with 
the Girondists, v. 74; execu- 
tion, 133. 

Roland of France, death, i. 231. 

Rollin, Ledru, vi. 105. 

Romana, Marquis de la, Spanish 
command, v. 415, 420, 445. 

Romagna, extent of, L 41. 

Roman Catholic Church : Auricu- 
lar confession, i. 388 ; doctrine 
of transubstantiaticm, 388; dis- 
pensing power of Pope— nullity 
of marriages, 388 note; Pope 
and antipopes«-lo8s of influence 
—need for reform, 389, 395; 
state of German Church, 392; 
doctrine of Purgatory, 401 ; In- 
dulgences, 401, 402, 403 ; Mar- 
tin Luther — citation to appear 
at Rome, 407 ; union of Roman 
Catholic princes and prelates, 
ii. 60 ; Articles of Lou vain, 169, 
170; oratory of Divine Love, 
etc., 185; reform of city of 
Rome and Papal Court — Pa^l 
Bull, 187; reform in the Cuna, 
iii. 101 ; Counter-Reformation 
in favour of, 101. 

Bmnan Curia^ Papal Court, L 42. 

Roman Empire, downfaU of, on 
invasion of Europe by Bar- 
barians, i. 1. 

Roman Emperor, title of German 
ruler, i. ^. 

Romania, Napoli di, vi. 29. 

Romanoffl House of, founded by 
Michael Romanoff, iiL 328. 

Romanoff, Sophia, designs on the 
crown, i. 25. 

Romanzoff, General, Russian 
commander, iv. 376, 386. 

Rome: Legates and Nuncios, i. 
339 ; storming of, by imperial 
troops under Charles de Bour- 
bon, iL 30; decline of, 189; 
Republic proclaimed, v. 263; 
vi. 102; entry of French troops, 
V. 264, 288, 430; vL 102; pil- 
lage and destruction of pro- 
perty, V. 265; evacuation by 
French, 287; ca^tulation to 
Coalition Army, 299 ; declara- 
tion as free and imperial citj 
by Napoleon, 462 ; new consti- 
tution eranted b^ Pius IX., vi. 
94 ; Itauan Constituent Assem- 
bly, 102; Antibes Legion, 186; 
annexation to Italy, vi. 188. 

Romero, Don Julian, iL 437, 440. 

Romorantin, Edict of, iL 318. 

Rondinelli, Fra Giuliano, i. 237. 

Rooke, Admiral, iv. 61, 86, 92, 
130. . 

Roon, Von, Prussian War Min- 
ister, vL 154; Franco-German 
War, 193. 

Rosa, Martinez de la, Spanish 
Foreign Minister, vL 12, 66. 

Rosas, President of Cortes of 
Spain, vL 189. 

Roseh, Burgomaster of Ziirich, L 

Rosenblut, Hans, L 398. 

Rosenheim, Marshal, v. 384. 

Rosiers, Snreau de, apostate Cal* 
vinist minister, ii. 451. 

Ross, Bishop of, iL 376. 

Rossem, Martin, ii. 155, 158. 

Rossi, Count, French ambassador 
to Rome, vi. 101. 

Rossignol, command of French 
army in La Vendue, v. 130. 

Rostoptchin, Count, burning of 
Moscow, V. 489. 

Eota JRomana, Papal Court of 
Appeal, L 44. 

Rottmann, ii. 125, 126. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Kouill^, French Minister of 
Marine^ iv. d08, 313. 

Ronmania: Acquisition of Dob- 
radsha, vi. 216, 217 ; independ- 
ence, 216, 217 ; kingdom under 
Charles I., 223. 

Roumantsov, Count, Russian 
Foreign Minister, v. 448. 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, influ- 
ence and works, v. 20. 

Rousillon : Acquisition by Count 
of Foix, i. 127 ; cession to Spain, 
181, 193, 105; revolt of inhabit- 
ants, 194. 

Rovere, Francesco della. Election 
to Pontificate, i. 113 {see also 

Rovere, Francis Maria della, i. 

Rovere, Julian Cardinal della, i. 
112, 188, 219, 233, 258 ; election 
to Pontificate, 259. 

Rovere, Leonard della, L 112 {see 
a/«o Julius II.). 

Rovere, Peter, Cardinal, Patriarch 
and Archbishop, i. 112; death, 

Ruccellai, Bernardo, L 316. 

Rudiger, General : Russian com- 
mand in Poland, vi. 53 ; in 
Hungary, 100. 

Ruffin, French Envoy to Constan- 
tinople, V. 283. 

Ruffo, Cardinal, v. 299; Neapo- 
litan Envoy to Napoleon, 384. 

Rulhifere, General, French War 
Minister, vi. 82. 

Rumbold, Sir George, English 
minister at Hamburg, v. 350. 

Russell, Admiral, iv. 59. 

Russell, Lord John, Foreign Sec- 
retary: Protestsu^inst Russian 
measures in Pofimd, vi. 159; 
Schleswig-Holstein Question, 
166,167; Conference of London, 

Russell, Odo, English Envoy to 
Prussia, vi. 198. 

Russell, Sir John, 1.465. 

Russia: War with Turkey, ii. 
374; iv. 241, 424; v. 418, 474; 
vi 212 ; Revolution— Polish 

Jesuits, iii. 103; trade and com- 
merce, 127; V. 411, 474, 480; 
vi. 237 ; contest for the Throne, 
iii. 228 ; progress under Alexis 
Romanoff, 395; conquest of 
Azov, iv. 16, 244 ; treaties and 
alliances, 133, 277, 366, 402, 
415 ; V. 167, 279, 282, 298, 323, 
357, 358, 360, 479, 480; vi. 156, 
227; Swedish invasion, iv. 146; 
introduction into European Sys- 
tem, 159, 226 ; regency during 
minority of Peter IL, 237, 238 ; 
Muscovite revolutions, 238; re- 
storation of Persian conquests, 
239 ; revolution, 275 ; effects of 
Austrian Succession War, 305 ; 
Baltic Sea Neutrality, 336 ; re- 
volution at St. Petersburg, 360, 
361 ; Greek rising encouraged 
by, 377 ; Tartar Provinces, gov- 
ernment, 404 ; Armed Neutral- 
ly, 450, 451 ; Third Partition 
of Poland, v. 174; declaration 
of war against Spain, 298; pro- 
mise of assistance to Prussia, 
395 ; Peace of Tilsit, 405 ; Secret 
Articles of Tilsit, 407 ; Army- 
Frontier Guards established, 
474; Franco-Russian War, 485; 
French advance under Napo- 
leon, 486, 487 ; Peace of Paris, 
519 ; territorial acquisitions, 
525, 526; war with Sweden, 
419 ; invasion of Finland, 420 ; 
chan^ of policy on accession 
of Nicholas I., 31 ; diplomatic 
relations with Western Powers 
broken off, 120; emancipation of 
serf 8— discontent among nobles, 
157 ; repudiation of Black Sea 
clause in treaty, 198 ; armistice 
between Serviaand Turkey, 210 ; 
acquisition of Bessarabia, vi. 
216, 217 ; secret agreement with 
England, 217 ; secret treaty 
with Germany, 221 ; growth of 
Nihilism, 221 ; effects of Treaty 
of Berlin on Eastern Europe, 
222; Penjdeh incident, 22^; 
occupation of Port Arthur, 237. 
Russia Company, iii. 127, 128. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Rutowski, iv. 318. 

Ruvigni, French ambassador^ iii. 

Ruyter, De, iii. 446, 452, 458. 
Rye, General, vi. 104. 
Ryhove, Ghent nobles, iii. 10. 
Ryswick, Congress of the Allies, 

to consider peace with France, 

iv. 65. 

Saavedra, Don Francisco, v. 272. 

Sachs, Hans, Meistersdnger of 
Niiremberg, i. 412. 

Sackville, Lord Greorge, iv. 335. 

Sadoleto, Jacopo, secretary to Leo 
X. , i. 345; Bishop of Carpentras, 

SadriAalat title of Grand Vizier, 
i. 12. 

Sadullah Bey, vi. 215. 

Saez, Victor, Confessor of Fer- 
dinand VII. of Spain, vi. 15. 

Safvet Pasha, Turkish Foreign 
Minister, vi. 211. 

Sakibi Develet, title of Grand 
Vizier, i. 12. 

SahibiMiihr, title of Grand Vizier, 
i. 12. 

Said All, command of Turkish 
fleet, V. 419. 

Saim, Turkish cavalry, military 
tenures, i. 7. 

St. Andr^, Marshal de, ii. 303, 
310, 328, 342. 

St. Arnaud, General, French War 
Minister, vi. 107 ; Marshal of 
the Empire, 110 ; French com- 
mand in Crimea, 122. 

St. Bartholomew Massacres, ii. 
388; question of premeditation, 
391, 398 and note, 

St. Cyr, General Carra, v. 501. 

St. Cyr, Greneral€k>uvion: French 
comnwnd in Italy, v. 348 ; in 
Spain, 449, 466 ; in Russia, 488 ; 
bd.ton of Marshal, 488; capitu- 
lation of Dresden, 509. 

St. Dominic of Castile, founder of 

. Dominican Order, i. 388. 

St. Domingo : Reduction by the 
French, v. 334; surrender to 
the English, 349. 

St. Francis of Assisi, founder of 
Franciscan Order, i 388. 

St. Germain, Assembly of Not- 
ables, ii. 332. 

St Goard, French ambassador, ii. 
394, 399, 464. 

St. Huruge, Marquis de, revolu- 
tionist, V. 36. 

St. lago. Military Order of Spain, 

St. Joim, Knights of: Turkish 
progress impeded by, i 17 ; set- 
tlement in Malta, 451 ; Charles 
V.'sgiftto, ii87. 

St. Julien, Count, A;astrian 
Envoy, v. 312. 

St. Just : Trial of Louis XVI. , v. 
100 ; suspension of Constitu- 
tion, 132; proceedings in Strass- 
burg, 143; Terrorists, 145 note; 
attack on Comiti da ScUtU 
Public, 154. 

St. Marino, Republic of, y. 238. 

St. Petersburg : Foundation, iv. 
145 ; Congress, v. 323. 

St. Petersburg Convention, v. 

St. Pierre, Abb^ de, eighteenth 
century writer, v. 16. 

St. Pol, Fran9ois de Bourbon- 
Venddme, Comte de, i. 463, 470; 
ii. 46. 

St. Pol, Louis, Comte de. Con- 
stable of France, i. 155, 156. 

St. Priest, Count, French ambassa- 
dor, V. 273. 

St. Vallier, Jean de, L 460. 

St. Vincent, Lord, v. 200, 233, 
259, 272. 

Salamanca, Concord of, i. 269,271. 

SalcMe Conspiracy, iL 475. 

Salerno, Prince of, i. 185. 

Sales, St. Francois de, iii. 102. 

Salicetti, Corsican deputy, v. 138, 

Saligni, Count, iv. 5. 

Salisbury, Lord : Constantinople 
Conference, vL 212 ; Foreign 
Secretary, 216; Berlin Congress, 
217; Turkish Question, 230, 
231 ; Fashoda incident, 234. 

Salm, Nicholas of, ii 80. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Salmeron, Jesait theologian, iii 

Salmon, Spanish minister, vi. 

Salms, Von, Rhinegrave, iv. 399. 
Salonika, murder of Prussian and 

French consuls, vL 208. 
Saluzzo, Marquis of, i. 262, 467 ; 

iL 19, 24, 41, 122. 
Salviati, Archbishop, i. 116. 
Salviati, Papal Nuncio, ii. 392. 
Salvius, Jonn Adler, Swedish 

minister, iiL 335, 336. 
Sambuca, Marquis, Neapolitan 

minister, y. 1S2. 
Sampson, Admiral, vL 236. 
Sampson, Dr., English ambassa- 
dor, i. 456. 
Samson, Bemardin, Franciscan, 

i. 421. 
San Gallo, Marquis, Sardinian 

minister, v. 241, 284, 367. 
San Juan, Count, v. 449. 
San Miguel, Spanish Foreign 

Minister, vi. 14. 
San Nicandro, Prince of, v. 181. 
San Severino, Galeazzo di, i 247, 

Bandjaky district in Turkish pro- 
vincial administration, i. 14. 
Sandomierz Confederation, iv. 

136, 137, 150. 
Sanfedisti, Italian secret society, 

VI. 19. 
Sanga, Papal Envoy, ii 24. 
SanS'CuloUes, v. 96, 100. 
Santa Colonna, Count of, Viceroy 

of Catalonia, iii. 314. 
Santa Croce, Marquis of, iii. 

Santa Hermandad, establishment 

of Order, i. 197. 
Santa Junta, League of Castilian 

Cities, L 423. 
Santerre, Commandant-General 

of National Guard, v. 85. 
Santhonax, French commissioner, 

V. 146. 
Saragossa, Alfonso, Archbishop 

of, i, 369. 
Sardinia: Spanish conquest, iv. 

209^; peace with Austria, vi. 

99; Crimean War, 123; alli- 
ance with France, 131 ; Austrian 
tUtitnatum, 133. 

Sarpi, Fra Paolo, iii 149. 

Sami, Bandinello de*, i. 362. 

Saumarez, Admiral, v. 421. 

Sauvage, Chancellor of Spain, L 

Sauvigny, Berthier de, v. 41. 

Savary, General, v. 377, 438. 

Savem, Roman noble, i. 225. 

Savonarola, Girolamo: Rise and 
character, L 217 ; political ser- 
mons, 227, 234; interdict 
threatened against Florentines, 
236 ; " Conclusions," 236, 237 ; 
torture, recantation, 239; de- 
nunciation of clerical vices, 
240, 395 ; execution, 240. 

Savoy : French invasions, ii. 120, 
121 ; iii. 136 ; treaty with Spain, 
iv. 113 ; cession to France, vi. 

Savoy, House of : 
Bastard of Savoy, i. 470. 
Bona, Regent oi Milan, L 113, 

Charles III., Duke of, i. 443; 

u. 120,162; death, 277. 
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of, 
ii. 277, 282; Regent of Nether- 
lands, 288; 297, 303; mar- 
riage, 304, 310, 313 ; Vaudois 
success against, 324, 
Filiberta, marriage with Julian 

de' Medici, i. 357. 
Ren^ of, i. 441. 

Saxe, Marshal, iv. 286, 295, 299, 

Saxe-CobuTff : 
Ferdinand, Prince of Bulgaria, 

Josias, Prince of, imperial 
conmiand, v. 114. 

Saxe-Teschen, Duke of, imperial 
command, v. 81 ; 99. 

Saxony : House of Wettin, rulers, 
i. 26; Nuremberg agreement 
with Brandenburg, 26; parti- 
tion, ii. 276 ; Reformation, iii. 
159 ; Prussian invasion, iv. 317; 
alliance with Prussia, v. 395; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



neutrality, 398; Prussian oc- 

cnpation, vi. 178. 
Scanderbeg, Albanian chieftain, 

i. 102. 
Schamhorst, General, death, v. 

Sdiartlin, Sebastian, ii. 108, 209. 
Schauenburg, Greneral, v. 267, 

Schaumburff : 

Adolf Off, Archbishop of Cologne, 
ii. 215. 

Silvester von, i. 412. 
Scheel Plessen, von, Governor of 

Schleswig-Holstein, vi. 176. 
Schenck, Colonel, iii. 36. 
Schepper, Cornelius Duplicius, ii. 

Scheremetov, General, iv. 144, 
145, 146, 152. 

Sch^rer, General, French com- 
mand, V. 194, 211, 214, 291, 

Schill, Major, v. 461. 

Schiller, German poet, views on 
French Revolution, v. 179. 

Schimmelpenninck, M., Dutch 
'Envoy at Amiens, v. 328; Grand 
Pensionary of Holland, 341. 

Schinner, Matthew, Cardinal and 
Bishop of Sion, L 293, 302, 

Schleswig : Danish invasion, iv. 
129; succession question, vi. 
85; Prussian occupation, 167; 
Austrian occuj>ation, 168. 

Schleswig-Holstein: Erection into 
Duchy, vi 89; war, 104; settle- 
ment of affairs, 113, 114; con- 
stitution, 114; claim of Fred- 
erick of Augustenburg, 164; 
joint possession by Austria and 
Prussia, 170; admission to 
Zollverein, 171 ; annexation by 
Pmssia, 181, 182. 

Schleswig - Holstein - Augusten - 
bni:g. Christian Augustus, 
Crown Prince <rf Sweden, v. 

Schley, Admiral, vL 236. 

Schlick, Count, iii. 101 ; iv. 87. 

Schlippenbaeh, General, iv. 144. 

Scholastic Philosophy, i. 397. 
Schomberg, French Envoy, ii 

Schomberg, Marshal, iii. 249, 347, 

458 * iv. 54. 
Sch5nfelsi William of, i. 25. 
Scfaonhausen, Herr Bismarck {see 

Bismarck, Prince). 
Schouvalov, Russian ambassador, 

vi. 212, 216. 
Schr($der, General, iv. 417. 
Schuhmacher, Peter, Oerman 

jurist, iv. 21, 24. 
Schulenberg, Baron, iv. 211, 

Schurf,Jerome, Wittenberg jurist, 

i 416. 
Schwarzenberg, Prince, v. 368, 

454, 486, 504» 514, 522; vi 94, 

Schwaven, Peter von, i 416. 
Schwedt Convention, iv. 152. 
Schwendi, Lazarus, li. 255. 
Schwerin, Field-Marshal, iv. 256, 

Sciaroa, Calabrian brigand, v. 

Scotland : Catholic and Protest- 
ant differences, ii. 250 ; French 
alliance, 251 ; Reformation, 
315, 318; evacuation by the 
French, 318; Covenanteor dis- 
turbances, iii. 312 ; union witii 
England, iv. 100. 

Seadeddin, Turkish historian, iii 

Sebastian of Portugal: African 
expeditions, ii 469, 470 ; death* 
470, 471. 

Sebastiani, Colonel : Mission to 
Egypt, V. 342 ; Envoy to Con- 
stantinople, 417. 

S^helles, H^rault de, v. 123. 

Seckendorf, Count von, iv. 242, 
270, 280, 291. 

Secus, Baron, vi. 46. 

Sefi Dynasty of Persia, iv. 235. 

Sega, rapal Nuncio, ii. 473. 

S^gur, Count, iv. 268, 291, 406, 

Seidlitz, General, iv. 333. 

Seld, Vice-ChanceUor, ii 289. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



6elim L, Sultan of Tnrk^ : Con- 
quests, i. 375 ; death, ^9. 

Sefim II., Sultan of Turkey : Ac- 
cession, ii. 371 ; death, 374 ; iii. 

Belim III., Sultan of Turkey: 
Accession, iv. 415 ; Russo-Turk- 
ish alliance, v. 282 ; anti-Rus- 
sian policy, 417 ; unpopular re- 
forms, deposition, 419. 

Semblan^ay, French Finance 
Minister, i 436. 

Septennat, vi. 202. 

Sepulveda, Colonel, vi 17. 

Serd-art Eshem, title of Grand 
Vizier, L 13. 

Serra, Aiitonio, iii 116. 

Serrano, Marshal, Regent of 
Spain, vi 190. 

Serrurier, General, v. 294, 352. 

Servfiud, French War Minister, v. 
76, 77, 87. 

Server Pasha, vi. 215. 

Servetns, Michael, ii 311. 

Servia: Conquest by Mahomet 
II., i 97 ; war agamst Turkey, 
vi. 210; independence, 216, 
217 ; kingdom, 223. 

ServHes, Spanish party, vi. 12, 

Setschin, Arehbishopof Novgorod, 
iv. 360. 

Seven Ionian Isles 'Republic, v. 

Seven Years* War: Origin, iv. 
309 ; political results, 356. 

Seymour, Sir G. H., English am- 
oassador at St. Petersburg, vi. 

Sfondrati, Cardinal, election to 
Pontificate, iii 60 {see aiso Gre- 
gory XIV.). 

Ascanio, Cardinal, i 188, 189, 

221, 249, 258. 
Francesco, Duke of Milan: 
Marriage, i 53; services to 
Milanese Republic, 55, 106, 
108; entry into Milan, 56; 
dominion over Genoa, 109; 
alliance with Louis XI. 128 ; 
evacuation of Milan, 465. 

Francesco Maria: Plots in fa* 
vour of, i 364; reinstate- 
ment, 216 ; Morone's conspir- 
acy, 18, 43; blockade in 
Milan, 23; marriage with 
Christina of Denmark, 85; 
death, 119. 
Galeazzo Maria: Duke of Milan, 

i 110; death, 113. 
Gian GaJeazzo, Duke of Milan: 
Minority, i 113; majority, 
118; support of Duke of 
Ferrara, 183 ; marriage with 
Isabella of Aiagon, 188 ; with 
Lucretia Borgia, 189 ; death, 
Ludovico, Duke of Milan: 
Policy, i 188; conspiracy 
against Charles VIII., 224, 
fw; alliance with Venice, 
Papacy, Germain^, and Spain, 
225; treachery ofmercenaries, 
248 ; imi>nsonment, 249, 
353 ; administration, 249 ; 
death, 249. 
Maximilian, Duke of Milan, i. 
314, 347; abdication, 360, 
Shafter, General, vi. 236. 
Sheikh-ul-Islamy head of spiritual 

and temporal law, i 15. 
Shelbume, Lord, iv. 455. 
Shore Ali, Ameer of Afghanistan^ 

Shovel, Sir Cloudesley, iv. 95, 

Shrewsbunr, Earl of, i 348. 
SiametSy Turkish provincial ad- 
ministrations, i 14. 
Siawusch Pasha, Grand Vizier of 

Turkey, iv. 12, 13. 
Sicily: Independent kingdom, i. 
63; union with Aragon, 63; 
revolution, iii 457; sovereignty 
of House of Savoy, iv. 112; 
subjection by Allies, 231 ; re- 
volution, V. 463, 464; vi. 19, 
20; declaration of independ- 
ence, vi. 94; rebellion termi- 
nated, 103 ; conquest by Gari- 
baldi 142; elecfion of Victor 
Emanuel, 145 ; revolt, 186. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Sickingen, Franz von, i 382, 412, 
418, 419, 429 ; ii. 54, 55, 56, 67. 

Sidney, Sir Philip, Governor of 
Flashing, iii 27 ; death, 28. 

Sieges: Acre(1832),vi.62; (1840), 
63; Adrianople, 34, 214; Alex- 
andria (1801), V. 326; (1807), 
418 ; Alkmaar, ii 439 ; Almeida, 
V. 470; Amiens, iii. 82; Ancona 
(1799), V. 298; (1860), vi 144; 
Antibes, iv. 299; Antwerp 
(1584), ii. 480; (1585), iii. 24; 
(1832), vi. 60 ; Archangel, 122 ; 
Arras, iii. 369 ; Athens, iv. 12 ; 
Badajos, v. 471; Barcelona, 
(1651), iii. 368 ; (1697), iv. 65 ; 
Bayonne (1814), v. 512, 517; 
Be&ort,vi.l97; Belgrade (1739), 
iv.243; (1788), 406; (1789), 415; 
Bergen-op-Zoom, iii. 36; Bilbao, 
vi. 71 ; Bordeaux, iii. 360 ; 
Boston, iv. 442; Boulogne ( 1544), 
ii. 165; (1545), 176; Bourges, 
340; Breda, iii. 252; Brei- 
sach, 309; Bremen, ii. 220; 
Breslau, iv. 328; Bri^, iii. 323; 
Brihne^, iv. 104 ; Briinn, iii. 
335 ; Brussels, iv. 100 ; Brzesc, 
iii. 407; Buda (1530), u. 81, 
102; (1684), iv. 10, 11; Cadiz 
(1810), V. 469; (1812), 472; 
(1823), vi. 15; Calais, ii. 300; 
Calvi (Corsica), v. 200; Cam- 
bray (1581), iii 18 ; (1595), 78 ; 
Candia, iv. 7 ; Capua, v. 288 ; 
Casale, iii. 271 ; Caudebec, 63; 
Charleroi, v. 192; Chivasso, iii. 
326 ; Ciudad Rodrigo, v. 470 ; 
Civitella,ii.295; Colbeig(1758), 
iv. 333 ; (1761), 347 ; (1807), v. 
414 ; Coni, iv. 285 ; Constanti- 
nople (1453), i 81 ; (1807), v. 
418; Copenhagen (1535), iii. 
222; (1685), 416; (1807), v. 
412; Corunna, v. 450; Cracow 
(1586), iii. 88 ; (1794), v. 172 ; 
(1831), vi. 53; Clistrin, iv. 
333; Dantzig (1734), iv. 228; 
(1793), V. 168 ; Diedenhofen, iii. 
328 ; D6le, 433 ; Dresden (1745), 
iv. 294; (1760), 337; Dubitza, 
iv. 406; Dunkirk (1652), iii. 

368; 1793), v. 140; Duppel, vi. 
168 ; (Diiren, ii 160 ; Shren- 
breitstein, v. 290; Brian, iL 
271, 272 ; Florence, 83 ; Flush- 
ing, V. 462; Frankenthal, iii 
206, 208 ; Fredericksode, 411 ; 
Fredericksshamm, iv. 409 ; 
Frederikshald, 161 ; Fuent- 
arabia, 214; Gaeta (1806), v. 
384; (1861), vL 145; Galera, 
ii. 367; Genoa (1747), iv. 299; 
(1814), V. 521; Gerona, 468; 
Gibraltar (1705), iv. 94; (1727), 
220; (1778), 447; (1782), 456; 
Glogau, iii. 323; Gotha, ii. 447; 
G<5ttingen,iii.258; Gran (1543), 
iL 153 ; (1594), iii. 93 ; Grave 
and Venloo, iii 27 ; Gravelines, 
337; Greifswald, iv. 26; Gaines, 
ii. 300 ; Guns, 108 ; Haarlem, 
438 ; Harburg, iv. 330 ; Havre, 
ii 344; Heidelberg (1622), iii 
208; (1634), 301; Herzogen- 
busch (Bois le Due), 298 ; His- 
din, ii. 277; Hoxter, iii 255; 
Hulst, 81 ; Ingolstadt, iv. 90 ; 
Julich, iii. 168 ; Kars, vi 125 ; 
Kell, V. 229; Khartoum, vi 
226; Kinbum,iv. 405; Kronen- 
berg, iii 416; Kufstein, ▼. 454; 
La F^re, iii 79 ; Landau (1702), 
iv. 86 ; (1704), 91 ; (1793), v. 
144; Landrecies, 191 ; Laon,iii 
70 ; La Rochelle (1573), u. 451, 
452, 453 ; (1628), iii. 250; Leip- 
sic (1641), iii 323 ; (1758), iv. 
334 ; Le Mans, vi 197 ; Le 
Quesnoy, v. 141 ; Lerida (1644), 
iii 340, 341; (1646), 347; (1707), 
iv. 99; Leyden, ii 441, 442, 
443; LiUe (1666), iii. 433; (1708), 
iv, 100; Longwy, v. 90; Louis- 
bourg, iv. 342; Louvain, vi 50; 
Luxembouig, iv. 36 ; Lyons, v. 
137, 138 ; A&estricht (1579), iii 
11, 12; (1748), iv. 303; (1793), 
V. 114; Magdeburg (1550), ii 
259 ; (1631), ui. 273, 274 ; Mainz 
(1792), V. 98; (1793), 126, 127; 
(1794), 195; Malta (1565), ii 
367; (1798), v. 276; (1800), 312; 
Mannheim (1622), iii 208; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



(1795), V. 210, 211 ; (1799), 297; 
Mantua (1629), ui. 270; (1702), 
iv. 86 ; (1796), v. 221, 229, 230, 
231,232; (1799), 294; MaroeiUes, 
ii. 123; Messina (1848), vi. 102; 
(1861), 145; Metz (1552), ii. 273; 
(1870), vi. 194, 196; Middelbnrg, 
ii. 440 ; Minden, iv. 331 ; Misso- 
longhi, vi. 32; Monheur, iii. 
232 ; Mons (1572), ii 434, 435 ; 
(1678), iii. 462; (1691), iv. 68; 
(1709), 102; Montauban (1621), 
iu.232; (1629), 270; Montreuil, 
ii. 165; Moozon, iii. 360; Miin- 
den, 268; Monster, ii 126; 
Morviedro, v. 471 ; Namur, iv. 
59 ; Narva, 131 ; Navarino, vi. 
32 ; NenhaUsel, iv. 6 ; Nice, ii 
162; Nieuport, iii 140; Nord- 
lineen, 340; Olmtitz, iv. 332; 
Orteans, ii 341 ; Ostend, iii 
141, 143; Otchakov, iv. 406; 
Pamplona, v. 612; Paris (1589), 
iu. 51, 52; (1590), 58; (1593), 
70; (1870), vi 195, 196, 197; 
P^ronne, ii 123; Perpignan 
(1542), 156, 167 ; (1793), v. 127 ; 
Persano, vi 145 ; Peschiera, v. 
294; Philippsbnrg (1687), iv. 
61 ; (1734), 231 ; (1799), v. 297; 
Pilsen, iii 191 ; Pinerolo, 271 ; 
Pizzighettone,v. 294; Pleskow, 
iii. 229 ; Plevna, vi 213, 214 ; 
Pondicherry, iv. 446; PrM^ie 
(1742), 270; (1744), 289; Pul- 
tava, 148; Batisbon, iii. 296; 
Benty, ii. 282 ; Rheinf elden, iii. 
309; Riga (1621), 229; (1700), 
iv. 128; (1713), 152; Rosetta, 
v. 418; Rothweil, iii. 329; 
Rouen, 63 ; St. DLder, ii 165 ; 
St. John d'Acre, v. 303; St. 
Martin, iii. 249 ; St. Omer, 319; 
St. Philip, iv. 465; St. Qaentin, 
ii 298, 299; St. Sebastian, v. 
512: Salamanca, 472; Salas, 
iii. 313, 314 ; Saragossa (1808), 
V. 445; (1809), 446; Sebastopol, 
vi 121, 122, 123, 124; ScMian, 
195; Siena (1564), ii 283; 
Silistria, vi. 121; Sluys, iii 
29; Smolensko, 397; Strabnnd 

(1628), 261, 262; (1711), iv. 161; 
(1757), 327; (1807), v. 414, 415; 
Stettin (1677), iv. 26; (1712), 
151; Stockholm, ill 217; Svea- 
borg, V. 421 ; Szigeth, ii. 369 ; 
Tarnu^ona, v. 471 ; T^rouenne, 
ii 277 ; Thorn (1658), iii 417 ; 
(1703), iv. 137 ; Tonning, 129 ; 
Tortosa, v. 471; Toulon (1707), 
iv. 100; (1793), v. 138; Tou- 
louse, 517 ; Toumay (1681), iii 
18; (1745), iv. 295; Treves, iii. 
340 ; Ulm, v. 371 ; Valencia, 
471 ; Valenciennes (1566), ii. 
420; (1793), v. 127; Valenzia, 
iv. 65 ; Varna, vi. 34 ; Venice, 
96; (1848), 103; Verdun, v. 94; 
Veypr^m, iii 93; Vienna (1629), 
ii. 79; (1619), iii. 197, 198; 
(1683), iv. 8; (1848), vi 98; 
Wachterdonck, iii. 36; War- 
saw (1666), 404 ; (1794), v. 172 ; 
(1831), vi 53 ; Wesel (1614) iii. 
188; (1760), iv. 337; Weimar 
(1676), 25; (1716), 157; York 
Town, 455; Ypres, v. 192; 
Zutphen, iii. 28 ; Zutphen and 
Deventer, 38. 

Siey^, Abb^, iv. 467 ; v. 33, 168, 
207, 281, 305, 306, 307, 308. 

Siffismund, Emperor, visit to 
England, i 23. 

Sigismund I., King of Poknd, i. 
366; ii. 66, 72. 

Sigismund II., King of Poland, ii. 

Siosmund III., King of Poland : 
Election, iii 88, 225 ; Turkish 
invasion, 21Q; attempts tosecure 
Swedish crown, 225. 

Sigismund of Tyrol, i 140. 

Signatura Graticsy Papal Ck>urt, 

Sitpiatura Justiciie, Papal Court, 

Silesia: Prussian conquest, iv. 

254, 268 ; second Silesian war, 

Silvestro, Fra, i 237, 239, 240. 
Silveyra, Don Lobo de, PortU' 

guese £nvoy, v. 523. 
Simiane, Paolo, ii. 162. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Simon, Jules, Premier of France, 
vi. 204, 205. 

Simonetta, Ciecoo, i. 118, 118. 

Simpson, General, vi. 123. 

Sinan Pasha, Grand Vizier, iii. 

Sinclair, Major Malcolm, Swedish 
Envoy, iv. 274. 

Siniavin, Admiral, v. 419, 428, 

Sion, Cardinal of, L 357, 359, 360, 
437, 441. 

Siropolo, Greek physician, iv. 376. 

" Sixteen,'' origm of, in Paris, ii. 

Sixtus IV., Pope: Electicm to 
Pontificate, L 112; league with 
Naples, etc., 114; plot against 
the Medici, 116; league with 
Venice, 1 18 ; league witii Milan, 
etc., 119 ; intrigues with Vene- 
tians, 183; Spanish Inquisition, 
198 ; death, 184. 

Sixtus v.. Pope: Election to 
Pontificate, iu. 31 ; treaty with 
Philip II., 32; excommunication 
of Henry of Navarre and Gond^, 
42; death, 60. 

Skelton, English ambassador, iv. 

Skiemevice, meeting of Em- 
perors, vi. 221. 

Skobelov, General, vi. 214. 

Slulu Derbend, i. 20. 

Sraalkald, League of, ii. 99, 136, 

Smalkaldic War, ii 209, 211, 214, 
215, 216, 218, 219, 220, 221, 268, 

Smith, Commodore Sir Sidney, v. 
139, 303, 325, 357, 427. 

SogUU Malissety iv. 439. 

Soderini, John Victor, Juriscon- 
sult, i. 316. 

Soderini, Paoloantonio, Floren- 
tine counsellor, i. 226. 

Soderini, Pietro, Florentine Ad- 
ministration, i. 315. 

Sokolli, Mahomet, Grand Vizier, 
iii 89, 90. 

Solis, Juan Diaz de, i. 336. 

Soltikoff, General, iv. 335. 

Solyman, Grand Vizier of Turkey, 
iv. 12. 

Solyman L, Sultan of Turkey: 
Accession, i. 447; European 
policy, 448; invasion of Hun- 
gary, ii. 70, 73, 74, 75, 79, 106, 
107, 108, 109, 151, 152, 153, 270, 
271, 369; truoe with Sigismund 
I. and alliance with Francis I., 
72 ; invasion of Italy, 130, 131; 
character, 370 ; death, 370. 

Solyman II., Sultan of Turkey, 
accession, iv. 13. 

Sombieuil, De, v. 204. 

Somerset, Duke of. Protector^ ii. 

Scnderhund, Swiss League, vi 86. 

Sonoy, Deputy Stadholaer, ii. 437. 

Sorel, Agn^s^ i. 75. 

Soto, Dominico, iv. 179. 

Soubise, Prince de, iii. 238, 239, 
247 ; iv. 323, 326, 327, 330, 331. 

Souboff, General, Russian com- 
mand, V. 173. 

Soudan : Abandonment by 
English, vi. 227; reconquest, 

Soult, Marshal: Frenchcommand 
in Switzerland, V. 297 ; Marshal 
of the Empire, 352; command 
in Portugal, 467; defence of 
Toulouse, 517; Minister at 
War, vi. 66; Prime Minister, 

South African War, vi. 234. 

South Sea Company, iv. 191. 

SouvT^, M. de, ui 176. 

SpaMs, Turkish cavalry, i. 7. 

Spain: Division into independent 
sovereignties, i 60; treaties, 
181, 225, 254; historjr of Don 
Carlos, 191 ; Catalan insurrec- 
tion, 193; Inquisition in Castile, 
197; United Kingdom, 202,903; 
royal marriages, 234; oonquasts 
in Africa, 306, 306; acoeasion 
of Charies I., 368; league of 
leadiiigcities,374; Papal power, 
394 ; Inquisition, 410, 413 ; for- 
mation of Santa Junta, 4S3; 
taxation grievances, loas of 
power by Cartes, ii 140; Sch<das- 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



tic Philosophy, 188 ; conquest 
of Mexico, 189; ephemeral 
proeperity, 193, 194 ; trade and 
commerce, 191, 192, 193, 194; 
abdication of Charles L, 288; 
religiooB persecutions, 320 ; re- 
formation, Autos da fi, etc., 
320, 321 ; iii. 107, 108 ; revolt 
and subjugation of Moriscoes, 
ii. 366 ; position in Europe, iii. 
99 ; opposition to Jesuits, 106 ; 
zenith of prosperity, 110 ; fiscal 
r^ttlations. 111 ; decline of 
trade and commerce. 111, 112, 
113, 117 ; foreign monopolies, 
revenue and system of taxation, 
114; decrease in population, 
116; expulsion of Moriscoes, 
150,151; treaties and alliances, 
169, 342, 346, 434, 445; occupa- 
tion of Valtellina, 230, 231; 
Mantuan Succession Question, 
269, 270, 271 ; war with France, 
301, 340, 368, 384, 434; disturb- 
ances, 313; fleet destroyed, 319; 
position at Peace of Westphalia, 
354 ; war with England, 375 ; 
regency of Queen-Mother Maria 
Anna, 428 ; fVench campaigns, 
iv. 57, 58, 59, 61, 63, 214 ; Suc- 
cession Question, 69 ; Partition 
Treaties, 71, 72 ; European re- 
cognition of Philip v., 78, 79; 
destruction of fleet by Allies, 
87; Spanish Succession War, 
87, 94, 95, 98, 101, 104, 106, 
113; treaties and alliances, 112, 
113, 204, 215, 222, 261, 345; 
maladministration, etc., 174; 
Alberoni's reforms, 203; con- 
quest of Sardinia, 209 ; Conven- 
tion of the Pardo, 246; war 
with England, 247, 348, 446; 
effects of Austrian Succession 
War, 305 ; policy during Seven 
Years' War, 339; change of 
policy, 342; expulsion of Jesuits, 
435; treaties, v. 233, 324, 426, 
451 ; Russian declaration of 
war, 298; purchase of Tuscany 
for Louis de Bourbon, 314 ; war 
with England, 357; relations 

with France, 423, 424; French 
invasion, 435, 466, 469, 471; 
insurrections against French, 
442, 443, 444 ; supreme central 
Junta, 448; struggle between 
King and Cortes, vi. 9 ; banish- 
ment of Joseph Bonaparte's 
adherents, 10; revolution in 
Spanish America, 10; sale of 
Florida to United States, 11 ; 
struggle with colonies, 11 
note; i*evolutionary parties, 12; 
Holy Alliance interterence, 13 ; 
French invasion, 14 ; '* Army of 
the Faith," 15 ; apostolic Junta, 
16 ; Estatuto Meal, 67 ; Carlist 
rebellion, 67 ; cholera visitation, 
67 ; Constitution of 1812, 71 ; 
effect of French Revolution of 
1848,115; domestic dissensions, 
189; Constitntionof 1869, 190; 
Spanish-American War, 1^5, 

Spalatin, George, Court preacher 

in -Saxony, i. 406, 417. 
Spaur, Count, Bavarian ambassa- 
dor, vi 101. 
Spechbacher, Tyrolese leader, v. 

Spencer, Earl, English Envoy to 

Vienna, v. 193. 
Spencer, General, v. 446. 
Spencer, Sir B., v. 471. 
Spener, Philip Jacob, iv. 195. 
Spina, Cardinal, v. 332 noU, 
Spinola, General Ambrose, iii. 

142, 143, 144, 202, 252, 270, 

Spinola, Paolo, ii. 247. 
Spinosa, Cardinal, Vice-Grand 

Inquisitor, ii. 365. 
Spires, Diets held at (1526), ii. 

25, 69, 87; (1529), 87, 88, 89; 

(1544), 162. 
Spiridoff, Admiral, iv. 377. 
Stadion, Count, v. 377, 451. 
St&el, Baron de, Swedish Envoy, 

V. 199. 
St&el, Madame de, v. 8, 72, 187. 
Staffler, Colonel of Swiss mercen- 

aries, L 367. 
Stahl, Privy Councillor, vL 152. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Stahremberg, Count, iv. 4, 8, 9, 
101, 314. 

Stair, Earl of, English and €rerman 
command, iv. 280, 281. 

Stamboulov, Bulgarian minister, 

Stamp Act of 1765, iv. 441. 

Stanhope, General, iv. 101. 

Stanhope, Lord, English ambassa- 
dor, IV. 219. 

Stanislaus Lesczinski, King of 
Poland : Election, iv. 138, 227 ; 
coronation, 140 ; retirement, 
156 ; abdication, 232, 284. 

Stanislaus Poniatowski, Kins of 
Poland, iv. 152, 154, 364; elec- 
tion, 366; subserviency to 
Russia, V. 160 ; Confederation 
of Targowitz, 167 ; Act of Ab- 
dication, 175. 

Stanley, Sir William, Governor 
of Deventer, iii. 28. 

Stein, Baron von, Prussian minis- 
ter, V. 460, 496. 

Steinmetz, Greneral, German com- 
mand, vi. 193. 

Stenbock, General, iv. 151. 

Stephen, Archduke, Hungarian 
Palatine, vi. 97. 

Sternberg, Ungem, iv. 326. 

Stewart, Sir Charles, English 
Envoy, vi. 20. 

Stii-ling Castle, use of bombards 
in siege, i. 342. 

Stofflet, La Vendue insurrection, 
V. 113, 203, 204. 

Stoilov, Bulgarian minister, vi. 

Stolberg, Count, German poet, v. 

Stolberg, Prince, iv. 354. 

Stopford, Admiral, vi 63. 

Storch, Klaus, ii. 51, 53. 

Stormont, Lord, British ambassa- 
dor, iv. 445. 

Stourdza, M., Russian Envoy, vi. 

Strafford, Earl of, English pleni- 
potentiary, iv. 107. 

Strahan, Sir Richard, v. 279, 381, 

Strassburg : Capture by French, 

iv. 82; revolutionary commis- 
sion, V. 143, 144. 

Straubing, John of, ruler of 
Lower Bavaria, i 26. 

Strozzi, Philip, ii. 475. 

Strozzi, Pietro, Marshal of France, 
ii 283, 300, 302. 

Struensee, influence and power in 
Denmark, iv. 410, 411 ; fall and 
execution, 412. 

Stuart, General, v. 385. 

Stuart, Hon. Charles, v. 279. 

Stuart, House of, Act of Abjura- 
tion excluding from English 
throne, iv. 83. 

Stuart, Sir Charles, English am- 
bassador, V. 503. 

Stuart, Sir John, v. 463. 

Stukely, Thomas, ii. 473. 

Sture,Sten: Swedish claimant to 
the throne, iii 213; regency 
and death, 214. 

Sture Sten, the younger, regent 
of Sweden, iii 214; death, 215. 

Sture, Swante, regency of Swe- 
den, death, iii 214. 

Styrum, Count, imperial com- 
mand, iv. 87. 

Suabian League, i 212, 386 ; ii. 57, 
61, 62, 65, 128. 

Suarez, Spanish Jesuit, iii 17, 

Suarez, Francis, Jesuit of Gran- 
ada, iv. 179. 

Sublime Porte, Turkish seat of 
government, i 12, 14. 

Suchet, Marshal: French com- 
mand in Italy, v. 309, 468; 
bd.ton of marshal, 471 ; Duke of 
Albufera, 471 note; command 
in Spain, 511. 

Sudermania, Charles, Duke of, 
regency of Sweden, v. 178. 

Suez Canal : Endish control, vi 
209 ; opening, 225. 

Suffolk, Duke of, ii. 279. 

Suffolk, Earl of, i 269, 270. 

Suf&en, Bailli de, iv. 454. 

Suleiman Pasha, vi 214. 

Sully, Duke of : Financial system, 
iii 120, 123; Christian Republic 
scheme, 137, 138; retirement, 167. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Sultan, title, powers and pre- 
rogatives, i. 11. 

Snresne Conference, iii. 66. 

Surrey, Earl of, i. 348, 443 ; exe- 
cution, ii. 226. 

Sutton, Sir Robert, English medi- 
ator, iv. 212. 

Snvaroff, General, iv. 382, 405, 
415, 424. 

Suvorov, General, v. 173, 174, 281, 
291, 295. 

Sweden : Ck)nquest by Christian 
IL, iii. 215, 216; reformation, 
219; conversion into hereditary 
monarchy, 222 ; Civil War, 224 ; 
Council of Regency, 266 ; min- 
ority of Queen Christina, 330 ; 
war with Denmark, 331 , 410 ; re- 
newed alliancewith France,335, 
444 ; German cessions, 351 ; re- 
volution and counter-revolution, 
iv. 21; treaties with foreign 
powers, iv. 21, 28, 273, 274, 408, 
415; war with Brandenburg, 
22; war with Denmark, 24, 
151 ; absolute monarchv, 29, 
414 ; army regulations, 30 ; war 
with Russia, 131, 275, 409; 
Second Grand Alliance against, 
150 ; revolution, 161, 407 ; con- 
stitution restored to ancient 
oligarchy, 162; foreign policy, 
162 ; HaU and Nightcaps, 273 ; 
Baltic Sea neutrality, 336; 
Armed Neutrality, 452 ; treaties 
and alliances, v. 319, 414, 415, 
479, 480; St. Peteraburff Con- 
vention, 324 ; blockade of Prus- 
sian ports, 383; war with Russia, 
419 ; Danish declaration of war, 
420 ; election of Crown Prince, 
476; tariff of Trianon, 478; 
coalition against Napoleon, 499; 
Norway united to, 510. 

Switzerland : Form of govern- 
ment, divisions, etc., i. 33; Con- 
federation of Forest Cantons, 34; 
merc^iaries, 35; Burgundian 
invasion, 157, 158 ; peace with 
Burgundy, 166; alliance of mer- 
cenaries with Julius II., 294; 
organization of infantry, 341 ; 

treaty with Leo X. , 354 ; treaty 
with Francis I., 363; reforma- 
tion, 420, 422; ii. 180, 182; mer- 
cenaries in Austro-French wars, 
i. 437 ; independence recognized 
by Peace ofWestphalia, iii. 352; 
adoption of French revolution- 
ary principles, v. 265 ; Helvetic 
Republic, 265, 268; revolt of 
Forest Cantons, 269; Union- 
ists and Federalists, 339; Act 
of Mediation, 340; neutrality, 
513 ; Sonderhund^ vi. 86. 

Sybel, Von, historian, vi. 156. 

Syria, restoration to Turkey, vi. 

Szilagyi, Governorship of Bis- 
tritz, i. 95. 

Tachmas, Kouli Khan, Shah of 
Persia, iv. 239. 

Tagsatzung, v. 267. 

Taillagafim, ii. 479 ; iii 47. 

Tallard, French general, iv. 90. 

Talleyrand-P^rigord, Bishop of 
Autun, iv. 465 ; v. 59 ; French 
Foreign Minister, 255, 262 ; in- 
terference in Switzerland, 266 ; 
loan demanded from United 
States, 271 ; dismissal, 295 ; re- 
instatement, 308; privileges 
granted to, by Pius VIL, 332; 
note to Lord Hawkesbury, 346 ; 
Russian interference, 354; Peace 
of Pressburg, 379 ; treaty forced 
on Prussia— humiliating terms, 
382 ; principality of Benevento, 
386; confeaeration of German 
States scheme, 388; negotiaticm 
with Prussia, 400; Denmark's 
attitude, 411 note; Foreign Min- 
ister under Louis XVIIL, 519 ; 
French Envoy to Congress of 
Vienna, 523 ; chief minister to 
Louis XVIIL, vi. 4. 

Tallien, Madame, v. 187, 

Tallion, pro-consul at Bordeaux, 
V. 139. 

Tanucci, Bernardo, iv. 231 ; Nea^ 
poHtan policy and reforms, v. 
181 ; foreign policy— dismissal, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Tapete, Admiral, vi. 190. 

Tarascon, Terreur Blanche, v. 189. 

Tavannes, Gaspard de, iL 360, 

Tchenderelli, Kara Chalil, estab- 
lishment of Janissaries, i. 6. 

Tegethof, Austrian admiral, vi. 

Tekeli, Count Emmerich : Hun- 
garian revolt, iv. 7 ; imprison- 
ment at Adrianople — liberation, 
etc., 11; VoyvcJie of Transyl- 
vania, 14; banishment and 
death, 16. 

Temple, Sir William, British 
Resident at Brussels, iiL 435. 

Termes, Marshal Paul de, Gover- 
nor of Calais, ii. 302. 

Terra-firma, subjugation, ii. 190. 

Terrai, Abbd, iv. 439, 440. 

Terreur Blanche, counter-revolu- 
tion in the provinces, v. 189* 

Tess^, Marshal, iv. 94, 100. 

Tetzel, John, Dominican friar, i. 
404, 406, 409; death, 410. 

Teutonic Order, knights of, L 25; 
ii. 65. 

Tewfik, Viceroy of Egypt, vL 225. 

Thamasp, Shah of Persia, iL 71 ; 
iv. 235. 

Theatines, Recular priests, ii. 185. 

Thebes, annexation by Mahomet 
II., i. 84. 

Theobald, Baron of Geroldseck, i. 

Theot, Catherine, v. 153. 

Theresa, St., iiL 102. 

Thessalonica, conquest of, by 
Amurath II. , L 17. 

Thiene, Gaetono de, ii. 185. 

Thiers, M., journalist, vL 35 ; 
President of Council, and Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
58 ; French Prime Minister, 62; 
76; opposition to policy of 
Napoleon III., 191 ; mission to 
European Courts, 195 ; admini- 
stration, 201; fall of, 202; 
death, 205. 

Thiersch, vi. 35. 

Third European Coalition, v. 359, 

Thirty Years' War : iii. 155, 15^ 
157, 158, 159, 160; 253-263; 
264-269; 272-309; 310-312; 320- 
323 ; 328-333 ; 334-353, iv. 165 ; 
negotiations for general peace 
— congresses in Westphalia, iiL 
328; 335-353. 

Thor^, Montmorenci de, iL 461. 

Thorigny, Monsieur de. Minister 
of Interior— retirement, vL 107. 

Thorn, peace of, iL 65. 

Thorwenel, French Foreign Minis- 
ter, vL 141 ; dismissal, 149. 

Thuffut, Baron, Austrian Envoy 
to Prussia, iv. 390 ; v. 172, 180, 
191, 235 ; Austrian peace with 
France— treachery to Great 
Britain, 241 ; cession of left 
bank of Rhine to France, 270 ; 
recall, 281 ; treaty of Austria 
with Sicilies, 285; retirement, 

Thum, Count Henry of, iii. 190, 
191, 192. 

Tiecke, General, Belgian com- 
mander, vi. 49. 

Tiepolo, Venetian ambassador, 
ill 100. 

Tier8'Etat,ul 170; effect of revo- 
lution on Tiers-Etat as landed 
proprietors, v. 4 note. 

Tilly, Count, iii. 158, 201, 208, 
255, 258, 262, 267, 274, 275, 279. 

Timarli, Turkish cavalry — ^mili- 
tary tenures, L 7. 

Timars, nrovincial administration 
in TurJdsh dominions, L 14. 

Tinville, Fouquier, execution, v. 

Todleben, defender of SebastopoL 

Toisan cFOr, Ordtar of, L 72. 

Toledo, Francis, Grovemor of 
Siena, iL 284. 

Toledo, Frederick de, ii. 437. 

Toledo, Pedro de. Viceroy of 
Naples, a. 236, 274. 

Tolly, Barclay de : Kussian com- 
mand, v. 485; resumption of 
command in chief, 503. 

Tolna, diet of, L 376. 

Tomory, Archbishop, ii 74. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Tone, Wolf, v. 278. 

Tonqoin : French policy, vi 206 ; 

French expedition, 225. 
Topographical Maps, first use of. 

Tord, French chancellor, iv. 75, 

Torgan, League of, ii. 68, 69. 

Torquemada, Spanish High In- 
quisitor, L 203; iii 110. 

Torrington, Earl of, English 
commander, iv. 54. 

Torstenson, Swedish commander, 
iiL 905, 322, 323, 329, 330, 331, 
833, 335, 339. 

Toulouse, exemption from taxes, 
i. 127. 

Tour-du-Pin, Mademoiselle de la, 
iv. 60. 

Toumon, Cardinal, ii 128, 227. 

Tonrville, Admiral, iv. 59, 61. 

Tours: Etais-Gin^atix, i. 137, 
170; Assembly of Notables, 145 ; 
National Ecclesiastical Council, 

Toussaint FOuverture, y. 333, 

Torghud (or Draghut), Turkish 
corsair, ii 258, 267. 

Tracy, de, French Naval Minister, 
vi. 82. 

Trade and Commerce : Maritime 
discoveries fatal to Mediter- 
ranean ccmimerce, i. 337 ; 
herring fishing industry, 438; 
European mercantile system, 
iv. 181 ; effect of maritime dis- 
coveries and colonization, 183 
{see (Uso names qf emmiries and 

TransuDstantiation, doctrine of, 
Lateran General Coundl estab- 
lishing, i. 388. 

Transvaal, declaration of war 
against England, vi. 284. 

Tnmsylvania: Cession to Rodolph 
n., iii. 96; Voyvodes of, 196; 
Turkish interference and in- 
vasion, iv. 3^ incorporation with 
Hungary; vi. 98. 

Trapam, Francis, Count of, vi. 

uuneary; vi. 93. 
'rajpam, Francis, 

Trastamara, House of, i 61, 195, 

Traun, Field-Marshal, Rhine 
campaign, iv. 286. 

Trautmannsdorf, Count, govern- 
ment of Austrian Netherlands, 
iv. 401, 417. 

Trautson, Sixt von, Austrian 
commander, i. 282. 

Treaties : Abo, iv. 278 ; Adrian- 
ople (1829), vi. 34 ; (1878), 215 ; 
AggerhnyiB, iii. 220; Ainali 
Karak, iv. 403 and note ; Aix- 
la-Chapelle (1668), iii. 436; 
(1748), iv. 804; Akerman, vi 
32; Alessandria, v. 310; Alt- 
mark, iii. 229 ; Altranstftdt, iv. 
143; Amiens, v. 328; Amster- 
dam, iv. 159; Andrusoff, Hi. 
421; An^rs (1551), H. 256; 
(1598), iii. 74; Aranjuez, iv. 
296 ; Augsburg (Keligious 
Peace), ii. 287 ; Austerlitz, v. 
378 ; Badajoz, 316 ; Barcelona, 
ii. 48, 81. 85 ; Bardo, vi 220 ; 
Barrier Treaty (1713), iv. 110; 
(1715), 115; Baxtenstein Con- 
vention, v. 403, 414 ; B&rwalde, 
iii. 273; Basle (Prussia and 
France), v. 197; (France and 
Spain), 208 ; Bavonne, v. 440 ; 
Belgrade, iv. 2i3; Bergen-op- 
Zoom, iii 146 ; Bergerac (1577), 
ii. 466; (1580), 468; Berlin 
(1742), iv. 269; (1788), 400; 
(1792), V. 73; (1878) vi. 217; 
Bomy, ii 130, 181 ; Breda, iii 
431 ; Brescia, v. 222 : Breslau 
(1742), iv. 209, 280; (1818) v. 
497 ; BrOmsebro (1541), iii 222 ; 
(1645), 382 ; Bucharest (1812), v. 
475 ; vi 27 ; (1886), 228 ; Cadan, 
ii 126; Cambray ("La Paix 
des Dames"), 47, 81 ; Campo 
Fo^io, V. 241, 254 ; Carlowitz, 
iv. 10, 16; Castiglione, v. 813; 
Cftteau-Cambr^sS, ii 803, 304; 
Chambord, ii 260, 261 ; Chau- 
mont, V. 514; Cherasoo (1631), 
iu. 271 ; (1796), v. 218; Peace 
of Christendom, Iii. 170; Cintra 
Convention, v. 446 ; Cdre Con- 


A A 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



vention. 291; Gompi^gne, iiL 
234; Concordat, v. 316, 332; 
ConBtantinople (1784), iv. 404; 
(1790), 416 ; (1798), v. 283. 284 ; 
(1897), vi 231; Ck>penhagen 
(1660),i.iii. 420 ; (1709), iv. 151 ; 
(1767), 324; (1794), v. 319; 
Crespy, iL 167 ; Treaty of the 
Oown, iv. 81 ; Dobran, 24 ; 
Dover, iii. 439 ; Dresden (1699), 
iv. 122; (1709), 150; (1745), 
294, 295: Drottingholm, 415; 
V. 177; £1 Arisch, SSS; Escurial, 
230, 246; Evoramonte, vL 70; 
Family Alliance, iv. 402; 
Family Compact, 345; Florence, 
V. 315; Folembray, iii. 73; 
Foligno, V. 315; Fontainebleau 
(1743), iv. 283; (1762), 353; 
(1785), 396; (1807), v. 413, 426; 
Frankfnrt (1744), iv, 288; 
{1871), vL 198, 200; FriedrichB- 
hamm, v. 423 ; Fiissen, iv. 291; 
Gastein (1865); vi. 172; (1879), 
220; Pacification of Ghent, ii. 
446 ; Gorcum. 138 ; Grand Alli- 
ance (1690), IV. 56; (1701), 82; 
Grodno, v. 169 ; Hague (1613), 
iii. 187; (1669), 424; (1678), 
453, 454, 456; (1678), 460; 
(1690), iv. 57; (1748), 302; 
(1794), V. 190 ; HaU, iiL 161 ; 
Hamburg, iv. 350; Hampton 
Court, iL 338, 339; Hanover 
(1726), iv. 219; (1741), 262; 
Herrenhausen, 219 ; Hohen- 
linden, v. 312 ; Holy Alliance, 
vi 8; Hnbertsburg, iv. 353; 
Jaesy, 425 ; J5nkopmg, v. 423 ; 
Kainardji, iv. 386 ; Kardis, UL 
420; Kiel, v. 413; (1814), 509, 
510; Klein-Schnellendorf, iv. 
266 ; Kloster Zevem (1532), ii. 
102; (1757), iv. 324; Labrian, 
iii. 406 ; Leipeic, iv. 291 ; Paci- 
fication of Limerick, 54 ; Jab- 
bon, iii. 436; London (1793), 
V. 109, 110 ; (1814), 620 ; (1827), 
vi. 33 ; (1840), 63 ; (1852), 114 ; 
LoOy iv. 400; Loudun, iii 
173 ; LOwenwolde's Treaty, 
iv. 224 ; Liibeck, iiL 262 ; 

Lnnden, iv. 28; Lnneville, v. 
314 ; Madrid (1621), iiL 231 ; 
(1721), iv. 215; (1750), 304; 
(1801), V. 314, 316 ; Mainz, 109 ; 
Malmd, vL 90; Mantua Con- 
vention, V. 521 ; Marienborg, 
iii. 403 ; Memel, v. 394 note ; 
Methuen, iv. 89 ; MiUn (1706), 
97 ; (1797), v. 242 ; (1798), 271 ; 
Mon^on (1537), iL 131 ; (1626), 
iiL 243 ; <* Monsieur,'* iL 461 ; 
Montebello, v. 246; Mont- 
pellier, iiL 232; Moscow, iv. 
277 ; Munich, iiL 197 ; Mlin- 
ster, 346 ; Naples, v. 286 ; Ne- 
mours Edict, 11. 481 ; Ndrae, iL 
467; Nikolsbuiv (1622), iiL 
208 ; (1866), vL m, 186 ; Nime- 
guen, iii. ^1 ; Nuremburg, ii. 
102, 103; Nymphenburg, iv. 
261; NystaJid, 163; OUvia, iiL 
419 ; OUoki, v. 422; Orebro, v. 
480; Paris (1526), iiL 242; 
(1657), 377; (1727), iv. 220; 
(1763), 354; (1786), 459; (1796), 
V. 222, 224; (1798), 269; (1801), 
324; (1802), 326, 336; (1803), 
348; (1805), 367; (1806) 388, 
390; (1807), 430; (1812), 481; 
(1814), 519; (1815), vL 4, 5; 
(1856), 126; (1857), 126; (1858), 
126; Parsdorf, v. 311; Parti- 
tion Treaty (1698), iv. 71; 
(1700), 72, 76, 77, 78. 79 ; (1772), 
382 ; Paasarowitz, 212 ; Passon, 
iL 268; Plessis-l^-Tours, iiL 
15 ; Poischwitz (or Pleistwitz), 
V. 503; Poitiers, iL 466 noie; 
Potsdam Convention, v. 374; 
Prague (1595), iii. 93; (1635), 
301 ; (1866), vL 181 ; Pre88biu& 
V. 379; Capitulation of the 
Pruth, iv. 154; Pyrenees, iiL 
386; Quadruple AlBanoe (1718), 
iv. 218 ; (1834), vL 70 ; iUiny, 
iL 155; Radstadt and Baden, 
iv. 114; Radsbon, iv. 37; 
Beichenbach Convention(1790), 
iv. 422; (1813), v. 503; Reich- 
stadt, vL 210; Bied, v. 506; 
Roskild, iiL 414 ; BueU, 358 ; 
Byswick, iv. 65 ; St Grermain, 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



ii. 9S2; St. Germain-en-Laye, 
iv. 28 ; St. ndefonso (1796)» v. 
232; (1800), 314; St. Peters- 
burg (1762), iv. 349; (1764), 
366; (1772), 381; (1794), v. 
201 ; (1795), 174 ; (1798), 284, 
286; (1799), 298, 299; (1801), 
324; (1805), 360; (1812), 480; 
Ste. Menehould, iii 170; St. 
Stefano, vi 215; Schiarino- 
Bizzino, v. 521 ; Schlatkow, 
414 ; Schleswig-Holstein, vi. 
113; Schbnbnum (Convention, 
V. 379; Schwedt (Convention, iv, 
152 ; Secret Treaty between the 
Empire and Spain, iv. 219 ; 
Seville, iv. 222; Shimonoseki, 
vi 237 ; Sistova, iv, 422 ; Sit- 
vatorok, iii 97 ; Slobosia, v. 
419 ; Stettin, iii. 225 ; Steyer, 
V. 313; Stockholm (1672), iii 
444 ; (1720), iv. 162; (1808), v. 
420 ; (1813), 499 ; Stolbova, iii 
229; Stuttgardt, v. 369; Sohlin- 
gen Convention, 346; Sz&ny, 
ui 334; Teschen, iv. 391; 
Thorn, ii. 65; Tilsit, v. 405; 
Toledo, ii 133; Tolentino, v. 
237; Taplitz, 504; Trachen- 
bnrg, 504 ; Travendahl, iv. 130, 
131; Treviso, v. 314; Triple 
Alliance (1668), iii. 435 ; (1717), 
iv. 208 ; (1788), 400 ; Troyes, ii 
363; Tnrin (1738), iv. 229; 
(1814), V. 522; Uim (1620), iii 
200; (1647), 342; Unkiar 
Skelessi, vi 63; Utrecht, iv. 
113; Valenziana, v. 199; Vas* 
var, iv. 6 ; Tmce of VatiseUes, 
ii. 291; Vergara, vi. 72; Ver- 
sailles (1756), iv. 314; (1727), 
321, 322; (1783), 458; Vervins, 
ui 83 ; Vic, 278 ; Vienna (1608), 
442; (1725), iv. 218; (1731), 
223; (1738), 232; (1798), v. 285; 
(1809), 457; (1815), 526; (1864), 
vi 170; (1866), 186; Villa- 
franca, 138 ; Vossem, iii 453 ; 
Warsaw (1705), iv. 140; (1716), 
157; (1745), 290; (1746). 312; 
(1790), V. 162 ; WeLsan, iii. 409 ; 
Weiben, 275 ; Werela, iv. 415 ; 

Westminster (1674), iii. 455; 
(1716), iv. 207 ; (1742), 269, 270 ; 
Westphalia, iii 349 ; (Comple- 
ment of the Peace of West- 
phalia, 379; Westphalia, iv. 
165 ; WiUstadt, iu. 168 ; Wilna, 
406 ; Worms, iv. 283 ; Xanten, 
iii. 189; Zell, iv. 27; Znaym, 
V. 454 ; Zurich, vi. 138, 

Treilhard, jFrenoh plenipoten- 
tiarjr, v. 258, 280. 

Tr^moille, Louis de la, i 257. 

Trent, Council of: ii 169, 176, 
177, 204, 232 ; transference to 
Bologna, 236 ; Charles V.'s pro- 
test, 240; re-opening under 
Julius III., 253, 254 ; re-assem- 
bly, 258; dispersion, 265; re- 
assembly, 346, 347, 348; last 
sitting, 350; canons of, 350; 
Catholics and Protestants, line 
of demarcation, iii. 100. 

Trinidad: Discovery of, i 334; 
cession to Great Britain, Hi. 
328; English conquest of, v. 

Triple Alliance (1668), iu. 435; 
(1717), iv. 208. 

Tristan TErmite, Provost, i 167. 

Triumvirate, alliance of Guise, 
Montmorenci, and St. Andr^, 
u. 328. 

Trivulno, Antonio, Papal Le- 
^te, ii 173. 

Gian Giacope, i 224, 231, 
233, 247, 249, 287, 296, 300, 
301, 302, 303, 346, 347, 358, 
Theodoro, Grovemor of Genoa 
in name of Francis I., ii 

Trochn, General, Governor of 
Paris, vi 195, 197. 

Troja, Prime Minister of Naples, 

Troile, Gustaf, Archbishop of 
Upsala, iii 213, 215, 219, 221, 

Tromp, Admiral van: Dutch 
commander, iii 372, 373 ; Ad- 
miral of Denmark, iv. 25. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Tronohet, oonnsel for defence of 
LouuXVL, V. 101. 

Troppau Conffreas, vi. 20. 

Trabetskoi, Prince, Governor of 
Novgorod, iv. 131 ; vi. 31. 

GeUiard, Archbishop and 

Elector of Cologne, ill. 87. 
George, ii. 67, 62, 89 

Truguet, Admiral, French am- 
bassador to Madrid, v. 272. 

Tsar oi Rnasia, title first assumed 
by Ivan IV., iii. 228 note. 

Titjrmdbund, Prussian League of 
Virtue, V. 460. 

Tuahra, engraving on Sultan's 
seal, i. 12. 

Tunis, capture of, by Charles V., 
ii. 118 ; French expedition, vi. 

Tnnstall, Enfflish Envoy to the 
Netherlan£, ii. 6. 

Turenne, Marshal : iii. 339, 340, 
341, 348, 368, 363, 364, 365, 
369, 378, 447, 462, 466; death, 

Tumt, iv. 440, 441 ; V. 14. 

Turm, capital removed from, 

Turkey : Capture of Constanti- 
nople, i. 1> 4 ; establishment of 
Ottoman power in Eurcqw, 4 ; 
Osman, or Othman, founder of 
Ottoman Empire, 5; army or- 
ganization, janissaries, 6, 7, 8, 
6, 10 ; civil and religious insti- 
tutions, 11, 12, 14 : education 
and administration of justice, 
16 ; creation of navy, 84 ; pro- 
ffr«»s and advance into Emt^, 
89; crusade against Turks, 283; 
treaty with Venice, 264 ; ad- 
vance of power into Europe, iL 
79 ; Russia and Turkey, 374 ; 
extent of Turkish dominion in 
1607, iii 97, 98 ; oppression of 
Christians, 131, 132 ; reyival id 

?ower, iv. 4 ; war with Venice, 
, 12, 210; support of Hun- 
£^an insurgents, 8; revolu- 
tion, 239; war with Persia, 
240; war with Russia, 241, 

876^ 406, 424 ; project of Greek 
Revolution against Turkey, 
377 ; secret treaty with Aus- 
tria, 380; Prussian alliance, 
416; Russo-Turkish alliance, v. 
282; peace with France, 326; 
Russo-Turkish War, 418, 474; 
treaty with England, 419 ; 
armistice of Slobosia, 419 ; dis- 
organization of amr^, vi. 27 ; 
Russian designs, 117; Russo- 
Turkish war, 118, 119 ; Bertin 
Memorandum, 208 ; London 
Protocid rejection, 212; war 
with Greece, 224, 231 ; Ar- 
menian massacres, 229, 2afk 

Tuscany : Administration of 
Grand Duke Leopold, iv. 419 ; 
French occupation, v. 428 ; de- 
cree bestowing on Eliza Baoci- 
occhi, 463 ; revolutionary 
movement, vi 94; democratie 
ministoy, 101; Austrian policy, 
provisional government, 137 
annexation to Sardinia, 140 
annexation to Piedmont, 142 , 
return of Grand Duke to MUan, 

Tyrawley, Lord, Governor of 
Minorca, iv. 316, 363. 

Tyroowitz, Confederacy ol, iii 

Ukraine, history of, iii 395. 
Ulema, order of men learned in 

Law and Religion, i. 15. 
Ulin, eamtulatioB of, v. 371. 
Ulrica, Eleanora, of Sweden, iv. 

162; death, 276. 
Ulrich, Duke of Wiirtembeigy ii 

61, 126, 136, 214, 886. 
Unam Sanctum, eonstitation of 

Boniface VIII., i 388. 
Unigenihts, Bull against Jan- 

senists, iv. 117, 199. 
Union of Brussels, iii. 6. 
United Irishmen, revolutionary 

association, v. 278. 
United States of Ameorica: 

Dedarationof IndependeiMe, iv. 

442, 443 ; formal recognition of 

independence, by France, 444; 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



French treaty with, 444 ; trade 
and oommeroe, secret treaty 
with England, v. 271 ; dis- 
pute with France, 271 ; pur- 
chase of Louisiana from the 
French, 347; purchase of 
Florida, vL 11 ; Guiana- Vene- 
zuela Boundary Question- 
Treaty of Washington, 235; 
Spanish -American War, 235, 
236; nayy, 236 {see aUo 

Urban VII., Pope, election and 
death, iii. 60. 

Urban VIII., Pope : Election to 
Pontificate, 236 ; character, 
236 ; death, 341. 

Urbino, Duchy of, incorporation 
with States of the Cnurch, i. 

Urbino, Duke of : Papal army 
commanded by, i. 117, 297, 
300, 308, 309, 315, 440, 447, 
460; ii 22, 23. 32. 

Utraguists (see CcUixtmes), 

Utrecht : Union of, iii. 10, 11 ; 
Peace Conference, iv. 107. 

Utschakov, Admiral, command 
of Russian Fleet, v. 294, 298. 

Uzeda, Duke of, iii. 180, 231. 

Vadier, trial and transportation, 
V. 187, 188. 

Vagleia, monk of Monreale, vi. 

Valais, annexation to France, 
V. 466. 

Valdes, Fernando, Archbishop of 
Seville and Chief Inquisitor of 
Spain, iL 320. 

Valdez, Spanish command a- 
^Bunst Carlists, vi 67, 68. 

Valencia: Union with Aragon, 
i 63; insurrections — Herman- 
dad, 406. 

Valentinois, Duke of {see Borgia, 

Valenzuelo, Don Fernando de, 
uL 445; Spanish Prime Min- 
ister, banisnment, iv. 68. 

Valetta, establishment as capital 
of Malta, ii 368. 

Valette, Jean Parisot de la, ii 

Valla, Laurentius, L 398. 

Valie, Fantino della, i. 204. 

Valois, House of Burgundy, Dukes 
of, i 70; direct line extin- 
gpaished, i. 242; ii. 465; ex- 
tinction, iii 52; descent, iii 
52 note, 

Valparaiso, Count, iv. 339. 

Vandanmie, Greneral : Rhenish 
Confederation, v. 400; French 
command in Germany, 452, 506. 

Vandenberg, Adrian, iii. 37. 

Vandenesse, French commander, 
i 463. 

Vansittart, Mr., Spedal Envoy 
to Copenhagen, v. 322. 

Varaubon, Marquis of, iii. 37. 

Varennes, Billand : September 
massacres, v. 73 ; resignation, 
186; trial and transportation, 
187, 188. 

Vargas, Juan de, ii 425. 

Vasconcellos, Michael, iii 316. 

Vassos, Colonel, command of 
Greek troops agauist Turkey 
in Crete, vi 231. 

Vassy, Ma^usacre of ii 334. 

Vauban: French engineer, iii 
447, 453 ; fortification of Strass- 
burg, iv. 33. 

Vaubois, General, v. 223. 

Vaud, Pays de, independence 
proclaimed, v. 267. 

Vaudemont, Count of, death, ii. 

Vaudois, Persecution of, ii. 172 ; 
iv. 42. 

Vedel, General, French com- 
mand in Spain, v. 445. 

Vega, Garcilaso de la, ii 123. 

Vehnigericht, secret tribunal of 
Westphalia, i 29. 

Vektli Muthiak, title of Grand 
Vizier, i 12. 

Velasco, Don Fernando de, Con- 
stable of Castile, ii. 140 ; iii 
72 ; command of Dutch troops ; 
Thirty Years* War, 202. 

Velasquez, Diego, i. 336. 

Velez, Marquis de los, iii, 318. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



VenaisfliB, tmioii with France, 

VendOme : 
Antony, Duke of {see Antony 

of Bonrbon). 
Louis JoBeph, French com- 
mand in Spain, iv. 05, 85, 

Venegas, Greneral, v. 468. 

Venice and Venetian Kepnblic : 
Constantinople factories, i. 16 ; 
Tnrldsh advance into Europe, 
17, 99, 100, 103, 264; jnriadio- 
tion in Greek islands, 17 ; 
power and extent of Venetian 
Repablic in fifteenth oentory, 
45, 46 ; power of Doge, constitu- 
tion, 47; chief maritime and 
commercial state of Enrope, 
47 ; treaties and alliances, 86, 
87, 104, 114, 118, 183, 184, 225, 
264, 306, 375, 376; loss of 
Morea, 101 ; Italy arrajred 
against, 184; nentraHly with 
re^rd to Charles VIII.'s 
claims on Naples, 215; war 
with Maximilian, 281 ; situa- 
tion after battle of Agnadello, 
289 ; reconciliation with Julius 
II., 292 ; successes against the 
Germans, 297 ; decline of, 371» 
372 ; trade and commerce, de- 
cline of, 371, 372; independence 
of Papal power, 394 ; truce with 
the Porte, ii. 139 ; trade, bank- 
ing, etc., 194, 195 ; progress of 
pnnting, 195; conclusion of 
peace with Turkey, 374 ; con- 
gratulations to Henry IV. on 
accession, iii. 56 ; fiscal regula- 
tions. Papal authority disputed 
by, 149 ; plot against, 181 ; 
Turkish war in Crete, 334; 
war with Turkey, iv. 7, 12, 16, 
210; alliancewitn Charles VI., 
211 ; neutrality with regard to 
France, etc., v. 183 ; dismissal 
of Count of Provence from 
Verona required by France, 
214; Bonaparte's policy to* 
wards, 221 ; insurrection and 
massacre of French soldiery. 

242; French party in, 242; 
French occupation, 244; re- 
volutionary government, 245; 
fall of, 245 ; cession b^ Aus- 
tria to Napoleon III., vL 185; 
French occupation, 186; an- 
nexation to Italy voted by 
pUbucite, 186. 

Vere, Colonel, English comman- 
der at Rheinberg, iii. 37, 38. 

Vere, Sir Francis, iii. 140, 141. 

Vere, Sir Horace, iii. 208. 

Vergennes, Count, French min- 
ister, iv. 375, 399, 440, 443, 
445, 457, 462. 

Vergerie, Paoal Nuncio, iL 145. 

Vergniaud : President of National 
Legislative Assembly, v. 87; 
orator of Gironde, 102, 103, 

Vermiglio, Peter, reformer, ii 

Vernon, Admiral, iv. 247. 

Verona Congress, vi. 7, 9, 13. 

Veronese Vwpers, v. 242. 

Verrazano, Florentine explorer, 
ii. 190. 

Versailles, Assembly of Notables, 
iv. 462. 

Vestri Actsam, title of Grand 
Virier, i. 12. 

Vespucci, Guidantonio, Floren- 
tine counsellor, 226. 

Vespugi, Amerigo, 334. 

Vesc, Etienne de, i. 214, 226. 

Vicini, Italian ambassador, vL 

Victor, General, French com- 
mand, V. 295, 467. 

Victoria, Francis de, iv. 179. 

Victoria, Queen : Visit to Napo- 
leon III., vi. 124 ; death, 240. 

Victor Amadous I., Ihike (A 
Savoy, iii. 271 ; death, 325. 

Victor Amadous II., Duke of 
Savoy and King of Sardinia: 
persecution of VaudcHs Protes- 
tants, iv. 42 ; Grand Alliance, 
57 ; treachery to Allies-^treaty 
with Louis XIV., 64, 112; 
generalissimo of France and 
Spain in Italy, 79 ; accession to 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



Grand Alliance, 89; King of 
Sfiu-dinia, 215 ; abdication, 229. 

Victor Amadous III. : Peace ei 
Cherasco, v. 218 ; death, 218. 

Victor Emanael I., King of Sar- 
dinia : Retention of Piedmont 
and Savoy, acquisition of 
Genoa, v. 524 ; abdication, vi 

Victor Emanuel II., King of Sar- 
dinia : Accession, vi 99 ; Italian 
Treaty ; speech to chambers at 
Turin, 132 ; command of Sar- 
dinian army, 134; march on 
Naples, 144; King of Italy; 
proclamation of Garibaldi, 144 ; 
King of Sicily, 145; Convention 
with Napoleon III. , 149 ; Italian 
campaign, 185; annexation of 
Rome, 188. 

Vienna: Erection of Bishopric, 
L 205; capitulation, 208 ; Hun- 
fi;arian garrison, capitulation to 
Maximilian, 210 ; si^ by the 
Turks, ii. 79; bombardment 
of, iii 193; siege, by Turks, 
iv. 8, 9 ; entry of the French, 
V. 373 ; capitulation to Napo- 
leon, 454 ; Ck>ngress of Vienna, 
5^ ; Austrian constituent Na- 
tional Assembly, vi. 97 ; Con- 
ference of Neutral Powers, 120 ; 
peace conference, 123. 

Vilain, Adrian de, i. 174. 

Vilalva, Spanish general, i. 369. 

Villa Franca, Prince of, vi 20. 

ViUadarias, Marquis of, Spanish 
command, iv. 87, 94. 

VOlaflor, Count, Portuguese Lib- 
eral leader, vi 68. 

Villiuret Joyeuse, French general, 
V. 200.. 

Villarias, Marquis, iv. 338. 

Vilh&rs, Marshal, iv. 86, 87,193, 

VillMe, M. : Prime Minister to 
Louis XVIII. , vi 8; resigna- 
tion, 26. 

Villena, Marquis of, i 267. 

Villeneuve, Admiral, v. 363. 

Villeneuve, French resident in 
Turkey, iv. 241. 

Villeroi, Marshal, French com- 
mand in Netherlands, iv. 63, 
82, 85, 87, 97. 

Villers, Philip de V lie- Adam, i 

Villetard, Secretary of Legation 
at Venice, v. 243. 

Vilna, massacre of Russian gar- 
rison, v. 171. 

Vins, General de, v. 199; Aus- 
trian command, 211. 

Vinnesa, Canon, vi. 12. 

Visconti, Carlo, assassination of 
Duke of Milan ; death, i 113. 

Visconti, House of, i 52, 54. 

Vissegrad, capture by Turks, ii 

Vitelli, Giulio, Bishop, i 313. 

Vitelli, Spanish officer, ii 377. 

Vivaldi, Marquis, v. 263. 

Vizier, Grand: Functions and 
powers, i 11 ; Cupola, ap- 
>intment of assistant Viziers, 

Volkerschktchi, battle of Leipsic, 

Voltaire : Greek revolution jwo- 

ject. iv. 376; influence and 

works, V. 17 ; popularitj^ of , 20. 
Vorstins, Papal Nuncio, ii. 145, 


Waddington, Prime Minister of 
France, vi 205. 

Wadi Haifa, English occupation, 

Waitz, Baron de, project of con- 
federation of German States, v. 

Waldeck, Prince, imperial com- 
mand, iv. 57, 58. 

Waldegrave, Lord, iv. 222. 

Waldhiiuser, Conrad, i 390. 

Walewski, Count, French Foreign 
Minister, vi. 130, 138, 141. 

Wall, Don Ricardo, Spanish am- 
baasador, iv. 339. 

Wallachia, conquest by Mahomet 
IL, i 97, 99. 

Wallenstein, Albert of: Early 
career, iii.- 192 ; character and 
appearance, 256; method of 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



raising army, 256, 257; cam- 
paigns, 257, 25ft; ambitions 
schemes, 260 ; Prince of Sagan, 
261 ; dismissal, 268; lesunption 
ofoommand,279,280: establish- 
ment of camp near Nuremberg, 
282; negotiations, 288; oifioers' 
protest M^nst resignation, 280 ; 
dismissal, 290; assassination, 

Wallis, Count, imperial com- 
mand, iv. 243. 

Walmoden, General, v. 195, 196, 
346' vL 21. 

Walpole, Sir Robert, iv. 246, 279, 

War of Three Henries, iii. 41, 51. 
Warfare: Modem warfare, i. 
340; cavcUeadeSf firearms, etc., 
341 ; Eastern Europe, military 
point of view, 342 ; institution 
of standing armies, 343; Gar- 
not's new system, v. 140 iwte ; 
armed neutrality, disregard of 
law of nations, 318. 

Warren, Sir John Borlase, v. 

Wars of the Roses, i. 124. 

Warsaw : Diet, iv. 138; massacre 
of Russians, 171 ; a<M}U]sition 
by Russia, 525 ; conscription in, 
VI. 158 ; conversion of Polish 
into Russian University, 162. 

Wartensleben, General, v. 225. 

Warwick, Earl of: Negotiations 
with Louis XI., i. 142; sup- 
pression of insurreotion in 
Scotland, 143 ; escapeto France, 
144 ; reconciliation with Edward 
IV., 144 ; restoration of Henry 
VI., 146 ; death, 146. 

Warwick, Earl of, u. 251, 344. 

Washington, George, Comman- 
der-in-Chief of .^erican Colo- 
nies, iv. 442, 443, 444, 455. 

Wassiltschikoff, Alexander, iv. 

Wattenwyl, Jacob of, L 350. 

Wavrin, John, i 143. 

Wawrzecki, Polish oomnumder- 
in-chief, v. 174. 

Wedell, General, iv. 335. 

Wei-hai-wei, lease by England, 
vi 237. 

Weishaupt, Adam, establish- 
ment 01 Order of Ilittminatiy v. 

Wdss, Colonel, v. 267. 

Welden, Baron, Austrian com- 
mand, vi. 100. 

WeUes, Sir Robert, i. 144. 

Wellington, Duke of (Sir Arthur 
Wellesley) : expedition to Den- 
mark, V. 412; command in 
Portugal, 446, 467; Viscount 
Wellington of Talavera, 468; 
Torres Vedras Lines Defence, 
470; generalissimo of Spanish 
armies, 472; Envoy to Vienna 
C(mgress,523; batfie of Water- 
loo, 530; Louis XVIIL, Minis- 
ters, vi. 4 ; conmiand of Allied 
Armies of Occupation in France, 
5 ; Envoy to Verona Congress, 

Wentworth, General, iv. 248. 

Wentworth, Lord, Commandant 
of Calais, ii. 300. 

Werf , Adrian von der, ii. 442. 

Wesel, John of, pre-Reformaiion 
reformer, i. 399. 

West Indies: Discovery, L 331; 
English conquests, v. 145, 357. 

Westokoreland, Earl of, ii. 375. 

Westphalia: VehmffeHcht, secret 
tribunal, i. 29 ; congresses, ixL 
336; treaties, 349; iv. 165; 
kin^om, v. 405, 406. 

Wettin, House of, rulers in 
Saxony, L 25. 

Wettin, Albert of, founder d 
Saxon Albertine line, i. 26. 

Wettin, Ernest of, founder of 
Sason Ernestine line, i. 25. 

Weyer, Van der, vL 46. 

WMte. General, v. 200. 

Whiteboys, Irish revolutionary 
party, v. 278. 

Wnitworth, Lord, English Envoy, 
V. 319, 343, 344, 345. 

Whitworth, Sur Charles, v. 279. 

Wickham, Mr., EnglicA minister, 
V. 212, 266. 

Widif, John, L 88 

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Wied, Hennaim of, Archbishop 
of Cologne, iL 215. 

Wielond, views on French Be- 
▼olution, y. 179. 

Wielopolski, Marquis, vi. 157. 

William I., Duke of Bavaria, i. 
386; ii. 76, 206, 210. 

William II., Duke of Bavaria, iii. 

William, Duke of Brunswick, vi. 

William, Duke of Brunswick- 
Oels V. 461. 

William, Duke of Cleves, u. 138, 
148, 155, 150, 160. 

William, Duke of Jiilich, iii. 4. 

William I. (King of Prussia), 
Emperor of Germany : B^^t, 
vi 113; accession, 146, 152; 
Convention of Gastein, 172; 
aovereignty of Lauenburg, 172 ; 
command-m-chief in Bohemia, 
177, 179 ; Northern Bund, 182 ; 
Spanish Question, 192; com- 
mand-in-chief of Grerman Army, 
193 ; invasion of France, head- 
quarters at Versailles, 195 ; title 
of Em^or adopted by, 196; 
Dreika%8erbund, 207; alliance 
with Austria, 220 ; death, 228. 

William II. , Emperorof Germany: 
accession, vi. 228 ; influence and 
Toolicy, 240. 

William III., King of England 
(Prince of Orange): Captain- 
Cro&eral of Dutch Bepubhc, iii 
446 ; Stadhold^, etc, for life, 
450, 454 ; marriage with Mary 
of EnfflaQd, 459; hatred of 
Louis AlY., iv. 44, 45 ; League 
of Augsburg, 46; landing in 
England; acceptance of crown, 
53 ; Spanish Succession Ques 
tion, 71, 72; death, 83. 

William IV., King of Inland 
Accession, vi 43 ; death, 83. 

William L, King of the Nether 
lands: Sovereign Pnnoe, v. 
509; Kii^, 525; Belgian re 
volt, vi. 45, 49. 

WUliam I. , Stadholder of Nether 
lands (Prince of Orange), ii 

289, 404, 408, 409; departure, 
421, 422 ; preparations for re- 
volt, 428 ; manifesto, 428 ; con- 
version to Calvinism, 439; 
marriage with Charlotte of 
Bourbon, 444 ; Perpetual Edict, 
iii 4 ; popularity and influ- 
ence, 5, 6; proscription, 13; 
Jji)ologie, 14; sovereignty of 
Holland and Zealand, 17 ; at- 
tempted murder, 19 ; marrit^e 
with Louise T^ligni, 23 ; char- 
acter and achievements, 24 ; 
assassination, ii. 479 ; iii. 22, 23. 

William II., Stadholder of Hol- 
land : Poli<rv^ in favour of 
Stuarts, iii 370 ; death, 371. 

William IV. (of Nassau-Dietz), 
Stadholder of Holland, iv. 301. 

WiUiam V., Stadholder of Hol- 
land, iv. 396, 399. 

William IL of Hesse, vi. 54. 

Williams, General, defence of 
Kara, vi. 125. 

Willot, General, v. 260. 

Willoughby de Broke, Lord, i. 

Willoughby, Lord, iii. 30. 

Willoughby, Sir Hugh, iii. 127. 

Wilmington, Lord, iv. 280. 

Wilson, Sir Bobert, vi. 15. 

Wimpina, Counter-Theses, i.,406. 

Winchester, Bishop of, English 
plenipotentiaiy, li 168. 

Windischgrfttz, Jmnce, vi 93, 98, 

Wingfield, English Envoy, ii 6. 

Winangerode, General, v. 615. 

Wireker, Nu;el, i 398. 

Witt, De, Grand Pensionary of 
HoUand, iii 373, 434, 446, 

Wittelsbach, House of, i 26 ; iv. 

Wittelsbach, Bobert of, i 153. 

Wittenberg Theses, i 405. 

Wittgenstein, General, v. 485, 
501, 502 ; vi. 34. 

Wladislaus, King of Hungary and 
Bohemia : Bohemiansucoession, 
i 204; coronation at Fnunie, 
206 ; election in Hungary, f 10 ; 

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marriAge with Anne de Foix, 
366 ; death, 376. 

WkdialaoB VI. (or III.), King of 
Hungary and Poland: Amu- 
rath's embassy, L 17 ; King of 
Hungary, 18, 38; cmsade, 19, 
20; accession, 39; death, 20, 

Wladislaos VII., King of Poland, 
accession, iii 30S. 

Wolfe, General, iv. 342. 

WolfenbUttel, Henry the youn- 
ger, Duke of, ii, 68. 

Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt, iL 

Wolfgane of Neuburg, iiL 186, 

Wolmar. M., German plenipo- 
tentiary, iii 338. 

Wolsey, Cardinal: Bishop of 
Lincoln and Toumay, i 352 ; 
Archbishop of York, 2S2; sup- 
port of Francesco Maria Sforza, 
364; alliance of England and 
Spain, 364; Cardinal's Hat, 
364 ; negotiations with Frauds 
I. , ^9 ; support of Charles V. , 
385, 429; Conference of Calais, 
432, 433; treachery, 435 ; Papal 
legate d latere, 461 ; candidate 
for tiara, 461 ; English change 
of policy, ii 5, 20 ; Embassy to 
France, 38 ; application to 
Clement VII. for annulment 
of Henry VIIL's marriage, 41; 
fall of, 44; character, states- 
manship and death, 44. 

Wolsey, Sir Garnet, ^Dglish 
command in Egypt, vL 226. 

Woodville, Elizabeth, L 142, 143. 

Woodville, Lord, i. 175. 

Woodville, Sir John, i. 143. 

Worcester, Bishop of, Ambassa- 
dor to Spain, ii. 22. 

Worms: Diets held at (1495), i 
277; (1521),385, 410,415; (1545), 
ii 170 ; disputation of Papists 
and Lutherans, 147. 

Woronzoff, Elizabeth, iv. 359. 

Wotton, Sir Henry, i 338. 

Wrangel, Charles Augustus, Swe- 
dish Field-Marshal, iii. 332, 

335, 342, 348, 349, 398, 410, 

411, 415 ; iv. 23. 
Wrangel, General, Prussian com- 
mand, vi. 90, 98, 167. 
Wrede, General, v. 506. 
Wroniski, Prince, vL 101. 
Wurmser, General, iv. 391; v. 

142, 190, 210, 229. 
Wurtemberg : Creation as Duchy, 

i. 27, 385 ; Peasant Risii^, 386 ; 

settlement as ArrUre Fief of 

the Empire, ii 126. 

Christopher of , ii. 126. 

Duke of, L 350, 385, 386. 

Elector of, sovereignty, v. 379. 

Prince of, v. 225. 
Wyat, Sir Thomas, ii 279. 

Xavier, Francis, ii. 186, 468. 
Xavier, Jesuit missionary, iii 

109, 110. 
Xavier de Saxe, Prince, iv. 336. 
Ximenes, iii. 110. 
Ximenes, Cardinal, L 199, 272, 

274, 305, 368, 369, 372, 373, 403. 
Ximenes de Cesneros, Frauds, 


Yakoob Khan, Ameer of Afghan- 
istan, vi. 222. 

Yorck, Greneral, v. 496. 

York, Frederick, Duke of, Eng- 
lish command, v. 126, 140, 191, 
195, 300, 304. 

York, James, Duke of : Conver- 
sion to Roman Catholicism, iii. 
440, marriage, 465. 

York, Roland, Commandant of 
Zutphen Fort, iii 28. 

Ypsilanti, Alexander, v. 29. 

Yrles, Canto d'. Commandant of 
Mantua, v. 232. 

Ysabeau, Pro -Consul at Bord- 
eaux, V. 139. 

Yussuf , Grand Vizier of Turkey, 
iv. 406, 425. 

Yussuf Pasha, v. 419, 475. 

Zamoisky, Grand Chanoellor of 

Poland, iii 88. 
Zamora, Bishop of, i. 426. 

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Zamoyski, Count Andrew, vi 157. 

Zapolya, General, i. 206. 

Zapolya, Geor^, ii. 35, 74. 

Zapolya, House of, 1. 376. 

Zapolya, John, i. 376 ; ii. 75, 79, 
102, 151, 152. 

Zapolya, Stephen, L 210. 

Zastrow, General, Prussian En- 
voy, V. 400. 

Zayas, Spanish commander, vi. 

Zeebergen, Pensionary of Haar- 
lem, IV. 397. 

Zinzendorf, Count, iv. Ill, 196. 

Ziska, John, i. 37. 

Zizim of Turkey, i. 220. 

Zollem, GenersJ, i 465. 

Zollverein, Customs Union, vi 54, 
150, 155, 171, 174. 

Zouboflf, Count, v. 176. 

Zrinyi, Count, iv. 4. 

Zucdbi, Greneial, vi. 59. 

Zumulacarragui, Carlist leader, 
vi. 67, 70. 

Zuniga, Diego Lopez, ii. 188, 

Zurich: Union with Swiss Con- 
federacy, i. 35; Reformation, 
421 ; massacre of refugee Rus- 
sians, V. 297. 

Zutphen, purchase by Charles 
the Bold, i. 151. 

Zutphen, Henry of, ii. 60. 

Zweibriicken, IXdke of, iii 169. 

Zwickau Prophets, ii. 51, 53, 

ZwingU, Ukich, i. 420, 421, 422 ; 
ii. 91, 101, 180. 


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