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Assisted By 
Advisory and Contributing Editors 










William Southern, Jr., President State Historical Society of Mis- 
souri ; editor Jackson Examiner, Independence. 

F. C. Shoemaker, Assistant Secretary State Historical Society of Mis- 
souri, Columbia. 

Jonas Viles, Professor of American History, University of Missouri, 

John L. BoBards, lawyer, Hannibal. 

Mrs. Lily Herald Frost, editor The Leader, Vandalia. 

Edgar White, special writer, author, journalist, Macon. 

Samuel W. Ravenel, civil engineer; author '^Bavenel's Road Primer," 
Old Franklin, Howard county. 

G. C. Broadhead, former Sta.te Geologist; former member Missouri 
River Commission and Professor of Geology, University of Missouri, 

Rev. Dr. M. L. Gray, Chillicothe. 

Rev. Dr. T. P. Haley, Kansas City. 

Rev. Dr. John F. Cowan, Fulton. 

Rev. Dr. W. J. Patrick, Bowling Green. 

Rev. Dr. J. T. Tuohy, St. Louis. 

H. C. Scheetz, Palmyra. 

Miss Minnie Organ, principal High School ; former Assistant Libra^ 
rian State Historical Society of Missouri ; Salem. 

N. T. Gentry, lawyer, president Commercial Club, former Assistant 
Attorney-General ; Columbia. 

Ovid Bell, editor The Gazette, Fulton. 

Gkorge Robertson, lawyer, Mexico. 

Ben Eli Guthrie, lawyer, Macon. 

G. F. Rothwell, lawyer, Moberly. 

B. H. Winter, editor The Banner, Warrenton. 

Joe Burnett, editor The Record, New London. 

W. 0. L. Jewett, editor The Democrat; former member of the Mis- 
souri house of representatives; ex-president of the State Historical So- 
ciety of Missouri ; Shelbina. 

B. H. Bonfoey, lawyer, Unionville. 

L. P. Roberts, editor The Dem/)crat, Memphis. 

S. S. Ball, former member of the Missouri house of representatives ; 
editor The Oazette-Herald, Kahoka. 

I. Walter Basye, genealogist, special writer, Bowling Green. 

John S. Wallace, physician, Brunswick. 

R. S. Walton, member of the Missouri house of representatives, edi- 
tor The Herald, Armstrong. 

Winfred Melvin, member of the Missouri house of representatives; 
editor The Excelsior, Lancaster. 

J. C. Edwards, physician, 'Fallon. 

George A. Mahan, lawyer, Hannibal. 

* • • 



Arthur and E. C. Hilbert, lawyers, Canton. 
Mrs. A. X. Brown, editor The Sentinel, Edina. 
T. A. Dodge, editor The Standard, <MUan. 
Arthur L. Pratt, Judge of Probate, Linneus. 
T. V. Bodine, editor The Mercury, Paris. 
H. P. Childers, editor The Free Press, Troy. 
* E. E. Swain, editor The Express, Eirksville. 
Howard Ellis, editor The Leader, New Florence. 


This History of Northeast Missouri seeks to give in simple fashion 
the story of the beginnings, progress and present condition of the 
twenty-five counties in Missouri forming the northeast section of the 
state. In the preparation of the material for the historical volume, 
for which volume the editor is responsible, generous aid has been received 
from many men and wtmien acquainted with local history and inter- 
ested in its preservation. To them and, in particular, to the advisory 
and contributing editors, whose names appear on the following pages and 
in connection with their respective chapters, grateful acknowledgment 
is made. The name of Walter Williams, Jr., should be included in recog- 
nition of his unflagging zeal, painstaking industry and constant fidelity 
in the assembling of material for this work, to which he gave the last 
summer of his brief life on earth. It is in a special sense their history, 
the work of their hands. 

Other and uncancellable debt for aid and inspiration is acknowledged 
in the dedication. 


Columbia, Missouri, December 20, 1912. 




I The Land and the People 1 

II The Story op the Pioneer 13 

John L. BoBarda, Hannibal 

III The Part TV;oman Played 27 

Mre, LHy Heraid Frost, Vandalia 

IV In the Time of Civil War 46 

Floyd C, Shoemaker, Columbia 


Samuel W, Bavenel, BoonvUle 

VI Churches and Congregations 88 

The Bev. W. J. Patrick, Bowling Green; the Bev, J. T, Tuohy, Jonesburg; the Bev. 
T, P. Haley, Kansas City; H. C, Scheete, Palmyra; the Bev. M, L, Gray, Chilli- 
cothe; the Bev. John F, Cowan, Fulton. 

VII The Literature op the Land 128 

Edgar White, Maconr 

VIII The Story op the State 147 

Jonas VUes, Columbia 

IX Adair County 171 

E. E. Swain, KirksvUle 

X Audrain County 184 

George Bobertaon, Mexico 

XI Boone County 231 

North Todd Gentry, Columbia 

XII Callaway County 284 

Ovid Bell, Fulton 

XIII Chariton County 306 

John 8. Wallace, Brunswick 

XIV Clark County 334 

S. S. Ball, Kahoka 

XV Howard County 348 

B. S. Walton, Armstrong 

XVI Knox County 361 

Mrs. A. X. Brown, Edina 




XVII Lewis County 378 

Arthur and E. C. HUbert, Canton 

XVIII Lincoln County 394 

H, F. Childers, Troy 

XIX Linn County 406 

Arthur L. Pratt, Linneus 

XX Macon County 419 

Ben Eli Cruthrie, Macon 

XXI Marion County 443 

George A, Mahan, Hannibal 

XXII Monroe County 464 

Thomas V. Bodine, Paris 

XXIII Montgomery County 492 

Howard Ellis, New Florence 

XXIV Pike County 507 

7. Walter Basye, Bowling Green 

XXV Putnam County 523 

B. ff. Bonfoey, Uniofwille 

XXVI Ralls County 531 

Joe Burnett, New London 

XXVII Randolph County 537 

G, F. Sothwell, Moberly 

XXVIII St. Charles County 553 

/t C. Edwards, O 'Fallon, 

XXIX Schuyler County 592 

Winfred Melvin, Lancaster 

XXX Scotland. County 606 

L. P. Roberts, Memphis 

XXXI Shelby County 620 

W. 0, L, Jcwett, Shelbina 

XXXII Sullivan County 647 

T. A. Dodge, MUan 

XXXIII Warren County 659 

E. H, Winter, Warrenton 


Relief Map of the United States Showing Location of Missouri .... 2 

Daniel Boone 4 

Boon's Lick in a Case Car, First Automobile, 1912, at Terminus 

of Northeast Missouri's Most Famous Road 6 

Original Thomas Jefferson Monument, University Campus, Colum- 
bia 7 

Landing of Laclede on the Site of St. Louis 9 

Map of the Twenty-five Counties of Northeast Missouri 10 

Daniel Boone Cabin, St. Charles County 16 

A Missourian of the Early Day 17 

Map of Old Franklin 19 

The Site of Old Franklin 20 

RoBards' Mill, Hannibal 22 

At Boon's Lick, Howard County 24 

Synodical College for Women, Fulton 28 

William Woods College for Women, Fulton 30 

Hardin College for Women, Mexico 32 

Main Dormitory, Howard-Payne College for Women, Fayette .... 34 

Stephens College for Women, Columbia 36 

Read Hall, Dormitory for Women, University of Missouri 38 

Some Women Newspaper Writers in Northeast Missouri 44 

Edward Bates 51 

Sterling Price 54 

James S. Green 56 

George C. Bingham 59 

Where the Battle was Fought " 63 

The New Soldiers — Cadets at University of Missouri 66 

An Excursion Boat on the Mississippi 70 

A Missouri River Steamer 71 

On a Missouri Country Road 77 

On the Pike 80 

Ready to Make Roads in the Columbia Special District 82 

The Only Tunnel on the M. K. & T. Railroad— at Rocheport 85 

Dr. William Jewell 93 

Missouri Bible College, Columbia 106 

Enoch M. Marvin 118 

The Rev. W. P. Cochran, Pioneer Presbyterian 123 

Westminster College, Fulton 125 

Mark Twain 129 

Entrance to Mark Twain Cave 131 

Eugene Field 133 

Missouri Editors and Visitors at Journalism Week, University of 

Missouri 135 

One of Missouri's Oldest Newspapers 138 



Women Students in Journalism with Winifred Black 142 

Lovers' Leap 145 

James S. Rollins 156 

Governor Charles H. Hardin 165 

Proclamation Admitting Missouri to the Union 170 

State Normal School No. 1, Kirksville 179 

President Joseph Baldwin 180 

An Adair County Coal Mine 181 

An Audrain County Saddle Horse 190 

Rex McDonald 194 

A Haystacking Scene 207 

A View of the University of Missouri 253 

A View of Missouri University Campus, Showing Old Columns 255 

Switzler Hall 258 

Lathrop Hall, Dining Club for Students, University of Missouri . . . 260 

Academic Hall, University of Missouri 261 

Representative Northeast Missouri Landscapes, Views on Farm of 

Missouri Agricultural College 267 

Dairy Barn of Marshall Gordon, Columbia 274 

State Hospital for the Insane, No. 1, Pulton 296 

Missouri School for the Deaf, Fulton 298 

Afternoon in Harvesting Days 307 

Poultry Growing 314 

A Mississippi River Boat 335 

Arnold's Tavern, Howard County 351 

Science Hall, Central College, Fayette 356 

James Fresh's Mill 363 

A Cattle Feeding Scene .* 382 

A Mississippi River Scene 396 

At a Northeast Missouri Farm Home 408 

Coal Mine in Macon County 434 

Cotswold Sheep 446 

Jersey Herd 458 

A Northeast Missouri Farm Scene 466 

JeflE Bridgford 483 

The Van Bibber Tavern, Built in 1821 496 

Northeast Missouri Apiary 498 

A View at Stark Brothers Nursery 512 

A Putnam County Coal Mine 524 

Northeast Missouri Cattle 532 

Missouri Coal 549 

Linden wood College, St. Charles 558 

Where Daniel Boone Died 563 

House Where Legislature Met 565 

Mules Ready for Market 595 

Scotland County Poultry 618 

Old Mill at Wftlkersville 632 

Herd of Cattle 649 

Missouri 'Possum 662 

Central Wesleyan College, Warrenton 668 


Abbernathey, James R., 468, 472, 474 

Academy, Franklin, 5, 19 

Adair County— 1, 73, 80, 88, 104, 110; 
History of, 171; early settlements, 
171; organization, 172; growth, 172; 
officers, 172; in the CivU War, 173; 
battle of Kirksville, 175; religious 
progress, 176; schools, 178; news- 
papers, 180; farm interests, 181; coal 
mining, 181; railroads, 182; county 
towns, 183 

Adams, James G., 2011 

Adams, President John, 14 

Adcock, William M., 1127 

Admission to the union, 152 

Advisory and Contributing Editors, iii, iy 

Agee, Charles A., 900 

Agricultural College, 257 

Alderton, Ben, 844 

Alexander, A. M., 466, 470 

Alexander, William H., 1452 

AIford,R. Lee, 894 

Alford.Mrs. Thompson, 40 

Allen, Carl a, 747 

Allen, Guy P., 748 

Allen, Thomas M., 106 

AUen, William, 584 

Allsman, Andrew, 64, 457 

Anderson, Bill, 50, 65, 66, 220, 497, 544 

Anderson, Mrs. E., 686 

Anderson, Emmett C, 686 

Anderson, Thomas L., 388 

Anderson, William B., 1810 

Anti-Horse Thief Association, 346 

Antram, James W., 808 

Arbela, 613 

Armstrong, 357 

Armstrong, J. W., 1762 

Arnold, John P., 1404 

Arnold, John W., 1645 

Arnold, N. D., 1971 

Arnold, Robert, 1409 

Arnold, Taylor, 1408 

Arnold, Ulysses S. G., 706 

Asbury, Francis, 117 

Ashland, 236 

Atchison, D. R., 158 

Athens, Battle of, 344 

Atlanta, 434 

Audrain county— 1, 73, 80, 88, 102, 109; 
History of, 184; organization, 184; 
county seat, 186; Judge Edward's 
sketch, 187; first county affairs, 190; 

early court proceedings, 193; Rex Mc- 
Donald, 194; officers, 198; bar, 199; 
physicians, 201; pioneer times, 202; 
Mexican war, 209; press, 210; Civil 
war, 210; Spanish- American war, 223; 
Mexico, 223; Vandalia, 226; Martins- 
burg, 227; Farber, 228; Laddonia, 228 ; 
Rush Hill, 229; Benton City, 229; 
Thompson, 229; county's resources, 

Audrain, James H., 184 

Authors, list of, 144 

Automobile, first at Boon's Lick, 6 

Ayres, Ebenezer, 588 

Ayers, George F., 709 

Babcock, John, 441 

Babcock, John H., 1658 

Bagby, David, 1734 

Bagby, Robert M., 1830 

Bagby, Walter N., 1947 

Baker, Frank T., 997 

Baker, John R., 998 

Baker, Philip M., 991 

Balbridge, Hugh, 2090 

Baldwin, Pres. Joseph, 180 

Ball, David A., 1224 

Ball, Laura, 1339 

Ball, Sterling S., 334, 840 

Ballard, Henry C, 1077 

Ballinger, Oliver A., 1884 

Bankhead, Joseph E., 1527 

Bank of Louisiana, 1643 

Baptist churches and Baptists, 89 

Baptists, Eminent, 96 

Baring, 377 

Barnes, E. T., 1634 

Barnes, George W., 1883 

Barnes, Robert A., 117 

Bamett,Mrs. Sallie, 37 

Barrett, Brothers, 858 

Barrett, C. W., 858 

Barrett, Henry H., 858 

Barrow, James 0., 2057 

Barth, Isador, 1146 

Barth, Joseph, 1217 

Barth, Victor, 1145 

Bartlett, Freeborn E., 1427 

Bartlett School for Negroes, 331 

Barton, David, 4, 360 

Barton, Oswald S., 1993 

Bashaw, T. P., 466, 470 

Baskett, George V., 898 

Baskett, James Newton, 144 




Ba8kett,John S., 1916 
Baskett.N. M., 144 
Baskett, William R., 1856 
Bass, Lawrence D., 1472 
Bassen, Charles F., 2047 
Bassen, Joseph, 2019 
Bassett, Arthur, 490 
Bassett,S. S., 472 
Bassett, Samuel S., 1506 
Basye, I. Walter, 507, 1437 
Ba8ye,John Walter, 511 
Batchelor, James £., 1250 
Bates, Edward, 11, 51, 572 
Bates, Frederick, 4 
Bates, Onward, 566 
Beagles, John W., 1481 
Beasley's Academy, 250 
Beaven, Sterling P., 823 
Becknell, Captain Wm., 82, 156 
Bedford, Edwin W., 1754 
Beeby, Charles J., 888 
Bell, Charles E., 715 
Bellflower, 503 
Bell. John B., 1770 
Bell, John P., 1038 
Bell, Morris F., 1113 
Bell, Ovid, 283, 1690 
Bell, William T., 1558 
Benjamin, John F., 625 
Benning, Olaus P., 1103 
Benton City, 229 
Benton, Thomas Hart, 4, 157 
Berry, Charles H., 1079 
Berry, Clarence H., 1646 
Berry, Gaither, 1684 
Besgrove, Alfred, 1477 
Besgrove,G. H., 1804 
Bethel, 633 
Bethel College, 95 
Bevier, Col. R. S., 143 
Bible College, 250 
Biggs, Betsy, 28 
Biggs, David C, 1419 
Biggs, Edward, 886 
Biggs, Marion C, 1564 
Biggs, Marion 0., 698 
Biggs, William J., 441 
Big Spring, 493 
Bingham, George C, 11, 59 
Bingham, John W., 2003 
Bitter, Carl, 707 
Black, John H., 1286 
Black, Winifred, 142 
Blackman, Charles, 723 
Blackman, John R., 720 
Blackman, Theodore C, 721 
Blackwell, Benjamin F., 1190 
Blair, Frank P., 165 
Blakely,A. B., 1783 
Blakely & Markland, 1783 
Blanchette, Louis, 4. 553 
Bland, Richard P., 168 
Blanton, B. F., 472 
Bledsoe, John, 1711 
Blees Military Academy, 427 
Bloebaum, William F., 708 
Bloom ington, 436 
BlufTton. 503 
Bodine, R. N., 466, 470 
Bodine, Thomas V., 464, 1571 

Boggs, James E., 766 

Boland, Frederick, 1521 
Boland, William M., 771 

Bond, Wallace L., 2051 

Bondurant, William E. H., 942 

Boney, Arthur T., 1569 

Boney, James T., 1420 

Boney, Walter G., 1591 

Boney, William J., 1419 

Bonfoey, Beverly H., 1003 

Bonfoey, Beverly L., 1004 

Bonfoey, B. H., 523 

Bonne Femme Academy, 93, 273 

Bonne Femme Church, Little, 92 

Boone county — 1, 3, 5, 73, 80, 88, 103, 
107. organization of, 231; early towns. 
231; Smithton, 232; Columbia, 232; 
Rocheport, 233; Stonesport, 234; Per- 
* sia, 234; Nashville, 234; Petersburg, 
235; Burlington, 235; Boonsborough, 
235; Summerville, 235; Bourbonton, 
235; later towns, 236; Ashland, 236; 
Centralia, 236; Sturgeon, 236; other 
towns. 237; ancestry, 237; taverns, 
237; first funeral, 238; first courts, 
239; early stage drivers, 240; fair as- 
sociations, 241; high water, 242; fond- 
ness for celebrating, 242; July 4 at 
Smithton. 242; Whig meeting, 243; 
Centennial celebrations, 243 ; other cel- 
ebrations, 243; public meetings, 246; 
court houses. 247; liquor laws, 249; 
old settlers, 250; military school, 250; 
Beasley's Academy, 250; hospital, 250; 
Bible college, 250; commercial club, 
251; newspapers, 251; State Univer- 
sity, 252; Ira P. Nash, 262; roads, 
265; early wars, 269; Civil war, 270; 

' Thomas B. Gentry, 272; early schools, 
273; Christian College, 273; Stephens 
College, 274; Model farm, 274; rail- 
roads, 275; cemetery, 276; tales of an 
old timer, 276; James L. Stephens, 
278; Col. Wm.*F. Switzler, 280; Robt. 
L. Todd, 280; Boyle Gordon, 281; Moss 
Prewitt. 281; eminent citizens, 282 

Boone, Daniel, 4, 5, 11, 15, 16, 231, 561, 

Boone, Daniel M., 5 * 

Boone, Nathan, 5 

Boonesborough, 235 

Boon's Lick, 5, 6, 24, 73, 82 

Boon's Lick Country, 350 

Boon's Lick road, 5, 74, 76, 77, 78, 82, 83 

Botsford, Sheldon E., 1706 

Botts, F. John, 791 

Botts, William J., 967 

Botts, William W\, 1169 

Boulware, Theodrick, 293 

Boundary dispute, with Iowa, 9 

Bounds, Isaac L., 1039 

Bourbonton, 235 

Bourn, J. J., 748 

Bouvet, Maturin, 5, 84, 446 

Boving, Charles B., 752 

Bower, Gustavus M., 1844 

Bowles, John J., 2012 

Bowling Green, 521 

Box Ankle, 436 

Boyd, Hugh, 1659 



Boyd, John W., 1431 

Boyd, William S., 1344 

Brace, Penn, 1851 

Brace, Theodore, 214, 484 

Bradley, Dudley T., 1492 

Bradney, Louis Q., 1836 

Bradshaw, Burrel M., 825 

Bradsher, Alver J., 1603 

Brainerd, Epaphroditus, 980 

Brann, John T., 979 

BranBtetter, Adam G., 1328 

Brasfield, James L., 914 

Brasfield, Richard M., 689 

Brashear, 183 

Bridges, Alvah C, 1119 

Bridges & Bridges, 1119 

Bridges, James R., 1302 

Bridges, William, 1119 

Bridgford, Jefferson. 469, 482. 483 

Briggs, Josiah E., 1429 

Bright, Michael, 764 

Briscoe, Anne, 31 

Briscoe, John B., 1919 

Briscoe, Margaret, 1921 

Broadhead, James O.. 11 

Broadhead, Garland C, 1682 

Brockman, Jonathan C, 1766 

Brookfield, 410 

Brooks, Thomas A., 1354 

Brown, Mrs. Amelia X., 361, 1256 

Brown, B. Gratz, 165 

Brown, Edwin S., 1257 

Brown, John C, 1156 

Brown, John E., 1714 

Brown, J. W., 1555 

Browning, 411 

Bruere, Theodore C, 1503 

Bruere, Theodore C, Jr., 1505 

Brunswick, 318 

Bryson, William N., 730 

Buchanan, John H., 988 

Buchanan, Robert, 2029 

Buchanan William J., 788 

Bucklin, 411 

Buckner, A. H., 986 

Buckner, William F., 1397 

Buford, DelauB J., 1229 

Buford, George W., 1204 

Buford, W^ellington L., 1216 

Bumbarger, John V., 1006 

Burckhartt, George D., 1599 

Burckhartt, Judge George H., 428 

Burckhartt, Henry T., 1756 

Burgess, Judge G. D., 417 

Burlington, 235 

Burnett, Joe, 531 

Burnett, Joseph, 1149 

Burning of the University, 260 

Burns, A. D., 1780 

Burton, 357 

Burton, James M., 1808 

Bush,F. W., 2075 

Bush, John T., 1399 

Bush, Middleton S., 1132 

Bush, William B.. 1356 

Butler, J. H., 1752 

Cable, John G.. 2020 
Cadets University, 66 
Caldwell, Col. H. C, 487 
Caldwell, Edgar W\, 968 
Caldwell, Green V., 467 

Caldwell, Robert B., 847 

Callaway, Capt. James, 495 

Callaway County— 1, 5, 73, 81, 88, 103; 
History of, 284; Kingdom, 284; Cote 
Sans Dessein, 284; first permanent 
settlements, 285; organization, 286; 
courthouses, 288; ministers and 
churches, 289; pioneer life, 293; pop- 
ulation and politics, 294; some old 
towns, 294; in war times, 295; earliest 
newspaper, 295 ; State Hospital for the 
Insane, 297; Missouri School for the 
Deaf, 299; Westminster College, 300; 
Floral Hill College, 301; first railroad, 
301; Civil war, 302; Chicago & Alton 
railroad, 303; Synodical College, 304; 
William Woods College, 304; Callaway 
County today, 305 

Callaway, Flanders, 659, 666 

Callaway's fort, 675 

Camerer, Frank, 739 

Camp, Jackson, 58, 162 

Campbell, Alexander, 467 

Campbell, Robert A., 1268 

Campbell, Robert W., 694 

Campbell, William A., 583 

Campbell, William M., 584 

Canton, 390 

Capital, Old Missouri, 9, 16 

Carman, Isaac N., 2052 

Carpenter, David B., 1219 

Carpenter, William W., 1440 

Carroll, John B., 1385 

Carson, Hunter, V., 1991 

Carson, Kit, 11, 353 

Carstarphen, E. Thom., 1707 

Carter, John L., 1842 

Carter, Robert C, 818 

Carter, Thomas E., 986 

Casady, Julius L., 1279 

Catholic church, history of, 96 

Catlett, James W., 1666 

Cave,E. S., 998 

Cave, Mark Twain, 131 

Cave. Nick T., 1002 

Cecil, Rufus G., 878 

Cedar creek, 73 

Centennial celebrations, 243 

Center, 536 

Central College, 355 

Central Wesleyan College, 669 

Central Wesleyan Orphan Home, 671 

Centralia, 236 

Central ia massacre, 66, 175, 271 

Chamier, Arthur B., 1654 

Chandler, Abraham E., 1188 

Chariton County— 1, 73, 81, 88, 101, 110. 
History of, 306; Area, 306; first set- 
tlers, 307; Fort Orleans, 307; Old 
Chariton, 308; first circuit court, 312; 
pioneer life, 313; Muster days, 314; 
Monticello, 315; the Point, 316; 
Keytesville, 316; postoffices, 318; 
Brunswick, 318; commercial, industrial 
and agricultural, 321; Mexican war, 
322; California gold seekers, 322; high 
w^ater, 323; phvsical features, 324; 
Civil war, 324; Salisbury, 327; Trip- 
lett, 329; newspapers, 329; schools, 
330; county towns, 331; railroads, 

Chariton, Old, 308 



Chariton, river, 72 

Chatauqua Assembly, Meadville, 416 

Childers,H. F., 394 

Childers, W. H., 2091 

Chiles, Robert N., 1004 

Cholera, 545 

Chowning, James R., 1865 

Christian churches, history of, 105 

Christian College, 273 

Christian, W. D., 472 

Christian, Wallace D., 1837 

Churches, 16, 17, 42, 88, 176, 289, 345, 
^59, 364, 401, 425, 467, 470, 500, 521, 
529, 545, 597, 610, 615, 627, 655, 666 

Churches and Congregations, statistics 
of, 88 

Civil war, in time of, 46 

Clapp, John W., 1800 

Clarence, 632 

Clark, Boyle G., 1825 

Clark, Champ, 685 

Clark county— 1, 73, 82, 88, 98, 108; 
History of,* 334; topography, 334; early 
exploration, 335; first settlers, 336; 
Black Hawk war, 337; public lands, 
337; agricultural association, 337; or- 
ganization, 338; capitol, 338; debt, 
339; wealth, 341; elections, 342; pop- 
ulation, 342 ; slavery, 342 ; circuit court, 
342; politics, 343; Missouri-Iowa war, 
343; battle of Athens, 344; schools, 
345; churches, 345; press, 345; anti- 
horse thief association, 346; fraternal 
societies, 346; banks, 346; officers, 346; 
courts and lawyers, 347 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 14 

Clark, General John B., 543 

Clark, Governor William, 492 

Clark, J. Alva, 1819 

Clark, Major Christopher, 395 

Clark, William, 8, 151 

Clark's Fort, 396 

Clarksville, 521 

Clatterbuck, James H., 2048 

Clatterbuck, John W., 1948 

Clay, Marion L., 687 

Clay,0. C, 389 

Cleaver, John S., 1939 

Clemens, Samuel L., 11, 128, 465, 468, 

Clem8on,A. B., 1763 

Clemson, Mrs. N. J., 1764 

Clithero, John A., 1340 

Coatsville, 605 

Cochran, The Rev. W. P., 123, 471 

Cochran, William Jr., 1981 

Coil, Benjamin J., 1720 

College Mound, 432 

CoUer, Jordan, 1463 

Collet, James A., 1914 

Collier, Henry A., 839 

Columbia, 232 

Columbia College, 273 

Columbia Commercial Club, 251 

Columbia Female Academy, 273 

Communistic Colony, 633 

Concord, 295 

Conditions under French and ^Spanish, 

Conger, Clarence, 849 

Conley, Milton R., 789 

Conley, Sanford F., 753 

Conley, S. J., 1207 

Connelsville, 183 

Considine, Joe, 1662 

Constitution, Drake, 64 

Contributing Editors, Advisory and, — 

Conyers, Major Thomas W., 465 

Cook, Elder J. W., 143 

Coontz,John F., 802 

Coontz, Mrs. Lewis, 31 

Cooper, ColoAel Benjamin and Sarshall, 

1, 89 
Corduroy roads, 79, 83 
Cornell, Benjamin F., 830 
Correll, Richard R., 1569 
Cote Sans Dessein, 284 
Cottey, Louis F., 1960 
Cottey, William M., 1090 
Cottleville, 559 
Coulter, William D., 1566 
County organization, 8 
Cowan, The Rev, John F., 120 
Cowan, John F., 1494 
Cozad, Francis E., 787 
Crabb, Thomas P., 1566 
Craig, Amanda, 1957 
Craig, William C, 1485 
Craighead, David C, 963 
Cramer, Robert D., 993 
Crawford, 614 
Creech, Brevator J., 1693 
Crewdson, James W., 1090 
Crews, Robert N., 1126 
Crews, William E., 1186 
Crews, Zach, 1872 
Crigler, George C, 1728 
Crooks, Noah, 732 
Crow, Capt. Jim, 489 
Croy, Homer, 139 
Cruikshank, John J., 2028 
Crum, Matthias, 940 
Crumly, Asa C, 883 
Crump, Robert H., 1517 
Cuivre river, 72 
Culwell, Joseph H., 1341 
Curl, The Rev. John, 655 
Currie, Frank, 1421 
Curry, John W., 1505, 1668 
Curtright, Charles H., 1054 
Custer, Daniel M., 724 
Custer, J. C, 2042 

Dalton, 331 

Daniel, Charles G., 901 
Daniels, David P., 1321 
Danville, burning of, 497 
Danville College, 500 
Davenport, David R., 1880 
Davis, Arthur L., 1068 
Davis, Charles M., 754 
Davis, Joseph, 543 
Davis, N. V. W., 1601 
Davis, Judge Samuel, 133 
Davis, Thomas B., 714 
Davis, William N., 1636 
Davis, Winchester, 1739 
Deaf, Missouri School for, 299 
Dean, Henry Clay, 135 
Deaver, Ashley C., 1848 
DeCapito, Wm. Sl Son, 1766 
Deer Ridge, 391 



Defoe, Lutber M., 1457 
Delventhal, John W., 1162 
Demoney, William T., 1375 
Denneny, John, 1782 
Denneny, Joseph B., 1771 
Denny, iUez, 1574 
Denny, Mrs. Belle, 1942 
Denny, Clifton E., 1942 ' 
Denny, John A., Jr., 1789 
Denny, John A., Sr., 1784 
DeTienne, Frederick B., 831 
Dickerson, Hiel L., 1520 
Dickerson, Major Obadiah, 621 
Diemer, George W., 1966 
Dieterich, August H., 869 
Dillon, John J., 1212 
Dimmitt, Walter B., 626 
Dingle, James S., 2024 
Districts, Special road, 87 
Dockery, Governor A. M., 417 
Dod, Albert G., 1638 
Dodge, Thomas A., 2040 
Dodge, T. A., 647 
Dodson, I. B., 2096 
Doniphan, Gen. A. W., 26 
Donner, A. D., 1211 
Dooley, Alonzo G., 1866 
Dooley, James H., 1829 
Dorian, James C, 1240 
Dor8ey,G. B., 692 
Dorsey, R. Walker, 850 
Dougherty, James L., 1829 
Dowell, E. A., 387 
Dowell, Emmert A., 1696 
Dowell, James, 1633 
Downing, 604 

Downing, Thomas J., 1562 
Downing, William G., 615 
Doyle, Joseph, 631 
Drain, V. L., 631 
Drake, Dr. John S., 476 
Dryden, L. J., 680 
Duden, Gottfried, 6 
Dulany, G. W., 1989 
Dulany, William H., 26, 1985 
Dulaney, Daniel and William, 470 
Duncan, R. S. 143 
Dunl^in, Daniel, 4 
Dunn, J. L., 1467 
Durham, 392 
Dutzow, 675 
Dye, Frank P., 1304 
Dyer, David P., 2080 
Dyer,D. P., 137 
Dysart, Benjamin R., 429 
Dysart, Dr. Ben, 469 
Dysart, William P., 856 

Eastin, Rufus, 4, 582 

Eby, David H., 2032 

Economic and social progress, 154 

Edelen, Benedict H., 1036 

Edina, 374 

Editors, Advisory and contributing, iii, iv 

Editors, Missouri at Journalism week, 

Edmonston, James O., 749 
Education, of women, 35 
Edwards, Brice, 704 
Edwards family, the, 589 
Edwards, John C., 158 

Edwards, John C, 933 

Edwards, Dr. J. C, 553 

Edwards, Judge S. M., 187, 200 

Eidson, Dr.. A. J., 137, 139 

EUiot, WUlUm F., 1339 

Ellis, Howard, 492, 1475 

Ellis, James W., 1295 

Ellis, William B., 1722 

Ellison, Judge Andrew, 428 

Ellison, George W., 875 

Ellison, James, 388 

Elmer, 435 

Elsberry, 404 

Elsea, Benjamin, F., 1871 

Elsea, Felix, G., 1886 

Ely, Martin I., 1954 

Ely, William L., 1905 

Emancipation, 164 

Emmons, Benjamin, 565 

Emmons, James H., 995 

Emmons, St. Qair P., 1191 

Engle, John, 1811 

English settlers, 1, 7 

Ennis, Joseph, 626 

Enterprise, 411 

Episcopal, church, history of. 111 

Ernst, Frederick J., 1936 

Errett, Joseph J., 108 

Erwin, John L., 923 

Estes, Ambrose J., 1160 

Estes, Benjamin F., 1496 

Estes, Richard S., 1203 

Estes, Thomas J., 1535 

Estill, 355 

Estill, Richard G., 1989 

Estill, Wallace, 2008 

Ethel, 435 

Eubanks, Clarence F., 1982 

Ewing, 392 

Ewing,Miss Ella, 619 

Ewing, Joel, 1251 

Ewing, William H., 1695 

Ewing, W. H., 1025 

Fabius river, 72 
Faessler, Mrs. C, 1316 
Faessler, John, Jr., 1315 
Fagg, Judge T. J. C, 509 
Farber, 228 
Farm, Model, 274 
Farrell,J. Fletcher, 466 
Farrell,John J., 1927 
Farrell, William, 490 
Farrell, William M., 1854 
Farris, James A., 1861 
Fayette, 355 
Ferguson, John, 1749 
Field, Eugene, 11, 132 
Field, R. M., 134 
Fife, Leon F., 1777 
Fightmaster, William H., 917 
Finks, Joseph H., 1946 
First English settlements, 1, 7 
First railroad, 23 
Firth, Anna, 1660 
Firth, William,l 659 
Fisher, Mrs. J. E., 2060 
Fisher, Robert E., 1134 
Fitzgerrell, John S., 1567 
Flag, first Southern, 54 
Flagg, B. D., 2073 



Flangherty, James, 566 

Fleener, John, 1488 

Fleet, Jno. B., 1448 

Fletcher, Henry, 1932 

Flint, The Rev. Timothy, 6 

Floods, 242, 323 

Floral Hill College, 301 

Florida, town of, 465, 468 

Fogle, C. C, 1262 

Folk, Governor J. W., 169 

Foor, Fred E., 1177 

Ford, John, 889 

Fore, Charles P., 893 

Forest Green, 332 

Forquer, Isaac A., 1233 

Forrist, William 0., 992 

Fort Orleans, 307 

Fountain Grove, 411 

Fowler, C. R., 1254 

Fowler, Richard H., 1456 

Fox, Mrs. Cephas, 465 

Fox, Mrs. Susan, 33 

Frame, Clarence N., 770 

Francis, Governor David R., 168 

Frank, Joshua C, 1862 

Franklin, 5, 19, 20, 71, 78 

Franklin, Nelson A., 921 

Franklin, New, 355 

Franklin, Old, 352, 354 

Frazer, Mrs. Laura, 38 

French, Edwin L., 1265 

French, H. Pinckney, 1313 

French settlers, 3, 6, 7 

Fresh, James, 362 

Frick, John H., 1157 

Frier, S. W. T., 1094 

Frost, Frank N., 1312 

Frost, Mrs. Lily Herald, 27, 1312 

Fry, William W., 1170 

Fulton, 288 

Furr, C. C, 1761 

Galwith, Miss Settle, 1415 
Gamble, Hamilton R., 163 
Gant, Henry T., 1296 
Gansz, Philip, 1768 
Gantner, Joseph, F. &, Son, 2072 
Gardenhire, James 6., 51 
Garhart, Clarence W., 2070 
Garhart,Jay M., 1962 
Garner, John S., 1792 
Garrett, Clifford S., 1723 
Garrett, Joseph W., 1634 
Garth, Walter W., 1703 
Garth, W. W. Jr., 1704 
Garvin, Joseph L., 1445 
Garwood, John J., 1512 
Gatson, John S., 959 
Geery, David, 1912 
Gentle, Doke, 1990 
Gentry, Mrs. Ann, 259 
Gentry, Enoch N., 826 
Gentry, North T., 231, 779 
Gentry, Richard, 776 
Gentry, Thomas B., 272, 778 
Gentry, William R,, 781 
Gentry, V. B., 855 
Gerdeman's Store, 676 
German immigration, 6, 589 
Geyer, Henry S., 158 
Gibbons, Paul K., 1253 

Gibbs, 183 ' 

Gilbert, C. G., 1892 

Gilbert, Samuel, 531 

Gill, May T., 1713 

Gill, Samuel C, 1818 

Gill, Thomas F., 1815 

Gillam, John C, 1732 

Gillispie, Henry G., 983 

Gillispie, William W., 983 

Gillum,Mark M., 1560 

Gillum, Simeon N., 741 

Givens, Joseph W., 1455 

Glascock, Hiram, 22 

Glascock, Stephen, 464 

Glasgow, 355 

Glasgow, battle of, 67 

Glenn, Ed A., 1380 

Glenn, Hugh, 465, 466 

Glenwood, 604 

Glover, Col. John M., 57 

Glover, Peter G., 23 

Gold seekers, California, 24, 322, 364, 

Goodier, Robert H., 1664 
Goodman, Manoah S., 1460 
Goodman, Peter J., 1338 
Goodman, Richard H., 1660 
Goodman, William A., 1661 
Gordon, Boyle, 281 
Gordon, Carey H., 1140 
Gordon, John B., 1154 
Gordon, Julia L., 1141 
(Gordon, Marshall, 274, 1152 
Gordon. Turner S.. 845 
Gore, Dr. Abner E., 469 
Gore, Dr. D. C, 469 
Gorin, 611 

Goslin's Lane, Battle of, 270 
Government in territorial period, 150 
Graffert, John, 1326 
Graff ert, Thomas, 1306 
Graham, Amanda C, 1957 
Graham, Eli D., 976 
Graham, Robert E., 1956 
Grand river, 72 
Granger, 613 
Grant, Benjamin G., 1401 
Grant, Edward W., 1118 
Grant, Emmett J., 1260 
Grant, Samuel, 1258 
Grant, U. S., 55, 212, 487, 617, 641 
Grantsville, 411 
Graves, Charles H., 1995 
Graves, John T.. 1751 
Graves, Sea ton E., 1604 
Gray, Marcus L., 1373 
Gray, The Rev. M. L., 115 
Green City. 657 
Green, Duff, 311 
Green, James S., 11, 56, 386. 477 
Green, Col. Martin E„ 56, 57. 59, 68 
Greenlee Frank E., 953 
Greenley, Lee, 1237 
Greenley, Thomas W., 1083 
Greentop, 604 
Greggers, Peter D., 841 
Gregory, Elijah M.. 1080 
Gridley, Bert L., 867 
Grimes, Francis M., 1983 
Groves. Samuel C. 1482 
Guerrillas, 66 



Guffey, George H., 1081 
Guffey, James B., 833 
Guitar, David, 1249 
Guitor,Odoii, 47, 61, 62, 68 
Guitar, William H., 1249 
Gunnell, James A., 1231 
Guthrie, Ben E., 419, 1449 
Guthrie, B. F., 1980 
Guthrie, Sterling P., 928 

Hackmann, George E., 1159 

Haden, Robert W., 1590 

Hadley, Governor H. S., 169 

Haigler, Elihu F., 909 

Hairston, John R., 1758 

Hale, Robert G., 1000 

Haley, The Rev. T. P., 105 

Haley, Thomas P., 1767 

Hall, Uriel S., 1077 

Hall, Judge William A., 428 

Halleck, Gen. H. W., 58 

Hammett, James L., 2044 

Hammett,J. P., 1938 

Hamilton Brothers. 1478 

Hamilton, Ernest H., 2072 

Hamilton, George W., 142 

Hamilton, Jack, 1479 

Hamilton, James, 1479 

Hannaca, William L., 1773 

Hanni, Nicholas, 710 

Hannibal, 460 

Hardin, Charles H., 11, 53, 94, 165, 199, 

200, 299, 1215 
Hardin, Mrs. Charles H., 35, 93 
Hardin College, 32, 94, 225 
Hargis, J. F., 955 
Harris, Charles H., 805 
Harris, David H., 769 
Harris, James, 767 
Harris, John, 1545 
Harris, Thomas, 484 
Harris, T. A., 55, 56 
Harris-Trigg Coal Company, 1143 
Harris, William B., 1125 
Han* Aon, Albert G., 294 
Harrison, Crockett, 1549 
Harrison, John, 1299 
Harrison, John S., 1510 
Harrison, Samuel J., 2035 
Harrison, Samuel P., 1405 
Harrison, Tyre P., 1546 
Harrison, William P., 2034 
Harvey, George G., 1795 
Harvey, Ransom, 1442 
Hatch, William H., 2077 
Hawkins, James F., 2097 
Hawkins, Richard J., 1221 
Hawkins, Waldo P., 759 
Hawkins, William G., 758 
Hawkinson, W. 0., 1765 
Hay, Charles M., 1135 
Hayes, Charles H., 1041 
Hayes, Joseph A., 921 
Heald, Major Nathan, 581, 585 
Healy, Richard J., 916 
Helferstine, John A., 892 
Helm, Cyrus T., 2031 
Helm, John B., 2030 
Helm, Jobn C, 2031 
Hell's Kitchen, 648 
Hempstead, Edward, 582 

Henderson, Jasper, 1876 

Henderson, John B., 215 

Henderson, Lane B., 1465 

Hendrix, Bishop E. R., 115, 119 

Hendrix, Whitley G., 1615 

Hennepin, Louis, 4, 444 

Henry, C. P., 1974 

Henry, John L., 854 • 

Henry, Judge John W\, 428 

Henry, Marcellus W., 1072 

Henwood, Berryman, 1966 

Hereford, R. Graham, 1515 

Hermit, Montgomery County, 496 

Hickman, Capt. David H., 465 

Hicks, Anthony N., 1064 

Hicks, Lloyd H., 1187 

Hicks, Redding R., 1035 

Higbee, 550 

Higginbotham, Thomas J., 852 

High Hill, 503 

Hilbert, Arthur, 843 

Hilbert, Arthur and E. C, 378 

Hilbert, Emert C-, 843 

Hilbert & Hilbert, 843 

Hilbert, Walter M., 1181 

Hill, A. S., 1968 

Hill, Curtis, 87, 1870 

Hill, W. J., 2033 

Hills, Glen, 1697 

Hinman, John E., 1592 

Hinton, Edward W., 1062 

Hinton, James P., 2021 

Historical Society of Missouri, State, 46 

Historical Society, State, 232 

Hockaday, John A., 11 

Hockaday, Judge Irvine 0., 287 

Hockaday, Judge John A., 287 

Holland, Dr. Jacob, 647 

Holliday, 474 

Holliday, Joseph, 464 

Hollman, Henry H., 944 

Holman, Henry F., 1346 

Holman, William, 1600 

Holstein, 675 

Holt, Ed. S., 1998 

Honey war, 9 

Hospital No. 1, State, 297 

Hostetter, Emos F., 1619 

Hostetter, Jefferson D., 701 

Houf, Henry S., 1680 

Howard, B. F., 1775 

Howard county— 1, 5, 73, 82, 84, 88, 101, 
105; History of, 348; early settlers, 
349; Boon's Lick country, 350; Arn- 
old's tavern, 351; organization, 352; 
first county officers, 353; Kit Carson, 
353; Old Franklin, 354; county towns, 
355; bar, 357; press, 357; war, 358; 
county today, 359; schools, 359; 
churches, 359; politics, 360; eminent 
citizens, 360 

Howard, Governor Benjamin, 1 

Howard, Joseph, 1779 

Howard-Payne College, 34, 355 

Howat, John, 1529 

Howell, Frances, 586 

Howelman, Guss E., 1760 

Hoxsey, Thomas J., 1303 

Huckstep, John C, 795 

Hudson, Berry, 1964 

Hudson, James A., 1209 


Hudson, John R., 970 

Hudson, Thomas C, 1674 

Hughes, J. Romeo, 1742 

Hughes, Rupert, 134 

Hughes, William J., 1777 

Hukriede, T. W., 681 

Hulett, Thomas K., 1595 

Hull, Lewis C, 1292 

Hulse, Ben E., 1588 

Hume, John 0., 1791 

Hume, Reuben B., 1769 

Humphreys, 657 

Hunnewell, 632 

Hunolt, John M., 1281 

Hunt, Ezra, 680 

Hunt, Mrs. G. W., 143 

Hunt, Sanford C, 763 

Hunter, Gen. David, 58 

Huntsville, 543, 550 

Hurd, Thomas F., 1831 

Hurdland, 376 

Hurlbut, Gen. S. A., 55, 56, 57, 58 

Huston, Charles S., 1292 

Huston, John W., 725 

Hutton,J. E., 201 

Hutton, John R., 1200 

nasco, 536 

Immigration, early, 5; German, 6 

Indian Creek, 473 

Indians, 1, 31 

Ingels, Rosa R., 797 

Iowa, boundary dispute with, 9 

Iron, William A., 1887 

Irvine, Ernest A., 1308 

Irwin, Joseph F., 1043 

Irwin, T. H., 1969 

Jackson, Claiborne F., 11, 51, 53, 55 

Jackson, Hancock, 51, 464 

Jackson, J. B. W., 2078 

Jackson, Marshall L., 932 

Jackson, resolutions, 51, 158 

Jackson, William R. P., 1877 

Jacobs, William T., 697 

James, Alexander C, 1608 

Jameson, John, 294 

Jameson, Samuel, 1551 

Jarman, Edgar A., 945 

Jasper, Anthony A., 1633 

Jefferson Monument, 7, 243 

Jefferson, President Thomas, 8, 14, 15 

Jennings, Perry W., 881 

Jesse, Frank R., 1480 

Jesse, Henry R., 1156 

Jester, Alexander, 475 

Jewell, Dr. William, 93 

Jewett, William 0. L., 620, 1013 

Johnson, Francis M., 1167 

Johnson, James T., 950 

Johnson, Jeremiah R., 774 

Johnson, Joseph R., 877 

Johnson, John, 1266 

Johnson, John D., 810 

Johnson, Thomas H., 1078 

Johnson, Thomas I., 1218 

Johnson, William T., 1144 

Joliet, 4, 70 

Jonesburg, 477 

Jonesburg, 502 

Jones, Henry H., 999 

Jones, James B., 1676 
Jones, James X., 719 
Jones, Col, Jefferson F., 302 
Jones, Jesse B., 1730 
Jones, Lorenzo, 728 
Jones, Michael J., 1622 
Jones, Thomas H., 1084 
Jones, William B., 2023 
Jordan, James C, 1450 

Kansas troubles, 159 

Kaster, Nathan P., 1671 

Kaufman, Edward, 1653 

Keil, Dr. WiUiam, 633 

Keith, J. F., 828 

Keithly, Edwin W., 1921 

Kelly, F. L., 2038 

Kelly, Harrison L., 1325 

Kelly, Leonard W., 1593 

Keltner,.H. E., 1778 

Kemper, Simon P., 1147 

Kenepp, John A., 1794 

Kennan,Miss Carrie J., 1349 

Kennan, William H., 199, 1348 

Kennedy, Leonard D., 1624 

Kennen, Edward C, 1495 

Kern, Emanuel G., 1975 

Kerr, Prof. W. D., 299 

Keytesville, 316 

Kimbrell, Basil B., 1130 

King, Dr. Willis P., 142 

Kingdom of Callaway, 302 

Kirby, Albert L., 1747 

Kirk, Pres. John R., 179 

Kirksville, 183 

Kirksville, battle of, 61, 175 

Kissinger, James H., 1423 

Kline, Harold B., 815 

Knight, George P., 1168 

Knott, John A., 2107 

Knox City, 376 

Knox county— 1, 73, 83, 88, 98; his- 
tory of, 361; organization, 361; first 
settlers, 362; Fresh's mill, 363; mar- 
riages, 364; preachers, 364; goN fe- 
ver, 364; Civil war, 364; roads, 366; 
courts, 369; physicians, 370; dentists, 
371; newspapers, 371; banks, 372; 
schools, 373; mills, 374; county towns, 
374; the county as a whole, 377 

Knox, David, 496 

Koch, The Rev. H. A., 669 

Kohler, A. W., 2016 

Koontz, Elmer L., 1138 

Kouns, Major N. C, 297 

Kreige, Otto E., 1447 

Kunkel, Henry, 1700 

La Belle, 392 

Lackland, Henry C, 586 

Laclede, 412 

Laclede, landing of, 9 

Laddonia, 228 

LaFrance, Marcus P., 1715 

La Grange, 392 

La Grange College, 94, 393, 1442 

Lakenan, 633 

Lamb, Charles T., 1606 

Lamb, Fred, 2064 

Lamb, Gilbert, 2066 

Lamme, George, 1471 




LaMotte, W. 0., 1790 
Lancaster, 603 
Langtry, Hillary, 1133 
LaniuB, James A., 2026 
LaPlata, 434 
La Salle, 70 
Lathrop, John H., 11 
Lawyers, pioneer, 19 
Leavens, Milton £., 1123 
Lee, Charles H., 1755 
Legendre, John, 2055 
Lehmann, F. W., 207 
Lemen, Samuel P., 876 
Lemon, Edward C, 1314 
Lemon, Lon L., 1882 
Lentner, 633 
Leonard, Abiel, 11 
Lessley, Harvey B., 1797 
Lessley, William T., 1772 
Lewis county, 1, 73, 83, 89, 100, 108; 
history of, 378; first settlers, 378; 
pioneer public affairs, 380; early set- 
tlements, 383; Civil war, 383; since 
the war, 385; political history, 385; 
citizens in high office, 386; river and 
railroads, 387; bar, 388; county towns, 
Lewis and Clark expedition, 73, 557 
Lewis, Charles W., 1350 
Lewis College, 357 
Lewis, James A., 1346 
Lewis, Meriwether, 8, 151 
Lewis, Richard E., 1667 
Lewistown, 391 
Libby, Henry A., 1553 
Lilly, James, 1331 
Lilly, Joseph C.,. 1655 
Limerick, Arthur E., 1011 
Lincoln county— 1, 74, 83, 85, 89, 99, 108; 
history of, 394; physical features, 394; 
early settlements, 395; War of 1812, 
396; organization, 397; county court 
proceedings, 398; Slicker war, 400; 
Civil war, 400; educational, 401; 
churches, 401; raih-oads, 403; towns, 
404; political, 404 
Lincoln, President Abraham, 53 
Lindenwodd College, 126, 559 
Link, Forrest O., 1579 
Linn county— 1, 74, 83, 89, 101, 110; 
history of, 406; separate body politic, 
406; early courts, 406; pioneer set- 
tlers, 407; first resident of Linneus, 
408; first horse mill, 409; first court 
bouse, 409; second court houde, 410; 
two railroad divisions, 410; other 
towns, 411; representatives, 413; state 
senators, 414; other officers, 414; 
courts, 415; assemblies, 416; new 
courthouse, 416; men and events, 4^ 
Linneus, 412 

Linneus, first resident of, 408 
Linville, Charles B., 1248 
Literature of the Land, The, 128 
Living, cost of, 9 
Lloyd, Frisby L., 863 
Lloyd, James T., 387, 644 
Locke, Benjamin L., 1044 
Lockhart, J. M., 1513 
Logan, Harry K., 2015 
Long, James A., 1543 

Long, Louellen Z., 1065 

Long, William H., 879 

Louisiana, 521 

Louisiana Light & Power Company, 1099 

Louisiana Purchase, 8, 149 

Loutre Island, 493 

Love, Robertus, 141 

Lowell, James Richmond, 1389 

Lowry, Andrew H., 713 

Lynes, Samuel V., 985 

Lyon, Henry C, 952 

Lucas, J. B. C, 151 

Lucerne, 529 

MacFarlane, Alice O., 1046 
MacFarlane, George B., 199, 1045 
Machir, John, 851 
Mackey, Charles A., 1943 
Mackey, Irvin J., 1524 
Mackey, James C., 1530 
Mackey, Parson C, 1524 
Macon, 437 

Macon county— 1, 74, 84, 89, 102, 110; 
history of, 419; physical features, 
419; early settlements, 420; organiza- 
tion, 421; railroads, 421; pioneer life, 
422; quilting parties and log rollings, 
422; prairie fires, 425; peace and or- 
der, 425; religion, 425; education, 426; 
medical profession, 427; bench and 
bar, 428; politics and interstate war, 
429 ; towns and villages, 432 ; business 
and industry, 438; banks, 440; after 
the war, 441 

Macon execution, 64 

MacQueen, Lawrence I., 1291 

Madison, Brooks W. B., 1336 

Maffry, Chris R., Jr., 1785 

Magee, James W., 1275 

Magee, Samuel M., 1277 

Magruder, John N., 1849 

Mahan, George A., 132, 443, 1978 

Mairs, W. J., 2074 

Major, Elliott, 217, 484 

Major, Elliott W., 1787 

Major, James R., 1822 

Map, of Northeast ^Missouri, 10 

Mapes, Seth L., 1539 

Marceline, 411 

Marchand, Francis L., 387, 782 

Marchand, George W., 836 

Marchand, William K., 745 

Marion, College, 124 

Marion county — 1, 5, 74, 84, 89, 99, 108; 
history of, 443 ; under three flags, 443 ; 
Indians and French, 444; when set- 
tlement began, 445; the firsts, 450; 
organization, 450; road building, 451; 
officers in early days, 451; early court 
proceedings, 452; Black Hawk war, 
453; river navigation, 453; railroads, 
454; Civil war, 455; William Muldrow, 
457; county today, 458; Palmyra, the 
county seat, 459; Hannibal, 460 

Mark Twain, 11, 39, 128, 465, 468, 477 

Markland, A. P., 1783 

Markland, Levi P., 1786 

Markland, William L., 1790 

Marquette, 3, 4, 70 

Marshall, Hugh D., 918 

Marshall, Neal B., 906 



MarthaBville, 675 
Martin, Charlea £., 1556 
Martin, Noah, 946 
Martin, Walter A., 1813 
Martin, William H., 866 
Martinsburg, 227 
Marvin, Bishop E. M., 11, 118 
Mason, William J., 1351 
Masters, DeWitt, 2006 
Matchet, James F., 1840 
Matlick, Rachel, 1272 
Matson, Alfred P., 1410 
Matson, Enoch G., 1377 
Matson's Mill, 531 
Maughs, James E., 1117 
Maughs, Jesse L., 1635 
May, Robert A., 1232 
Mayhall, George E., 1610 
Mayhall, William F., 812 
Mayo, George A., 1598 
Maywood, 392 
Maxwell, John H. H., 1179 
Maxwell, Thomas B., 861 
McAfee, John, 53, 56 
McAlester, Andrew W., 1439 
McAllister, Frank W., 1888 
McBee, William, 1965 
McBride, Eben W., 468 
McBride, P. H., 193, 481 
McCall, Sparrel, 1120 
McCall, William K., 962 
McCall, W. K., 1702 
McCallister, Josephus, 2066 
McCallister, William A., 1123 
McCampbell, Robert S., 1994 
McCarroll, Edgar C, 972 
McClanahan, R. H., 2099 
McOintic, Robert S., 1924 
McCluer, Robert, 584 
McClure, Robert L., 1803 
McClurg, Joseph W., 165 
McColm, James K., 1176 
McComas, A. R., 1243 
McCullough, Harry, 1741 
McCully, Martha, 1706 
McCuUy, Samuel B., 1705 
McCune, Adniron Judson, 1383 
McCune College, 95 
McCune, Guy, 1317 
McCune, James G., 1318 
McCune, J. R. S., 764 
McCune, William G., 1316 
McDannold, Edgar, 1426 
McDannold, James A., 1692 
McDannold, William R., 1534 
McDearmon, James R., 23 
McDermott, James W., 1113 
McFadden, Mildred S., 144 
McFarland, Roy, 1895 
McGee College, 426 
McGee, Thomas A., 1498 
McGirk, Matthias, 504 
McGrew, C. E., 1981 
Mcllroy, John W., 1390 
McIlroy,W. S., 1382 
Mclntire, John W., 738 
McIntyre,D. H., 199, 213 
Mclntyre, Daniel H., 1209 
McKee, Edwin R., 1368 
McKendree, William, 117 
McKim, Horace W., 1166 

McKinley, John C, 926 

McKinley, Peter J., 1069 

McKittrick, 503 

McLoed, William H., 1626 

McMaster, Samuel H. K., 2058 

McNair, Alexander, 3, 11, 

McNally, Miles, 756 

McNally, Richard J., 756 

McNeil, General John, 39, 63, 64, 488 

McPike, Aaron, 902 

McRoberts, Hayden R., 885 

McRoberts,W. B., 688 

Mc Williams, Chester M., 1302 

McWilliams, John A., 1302 

Meadville, 412 

Megown, John £., 1585 

Megraw, William J., 1740 

Melvin, Winfred, 692, 1266 

Memphis, 609 

Mendon, 331 

Merchants, records of a pioneer, 516 

Merrill, Gen. Lewis, 216 

Merrill's horse, 59, 61 

Methodism and Methodists, history of 

Methodist leaders, 118 
Mexico, 186, 223 ' 

Meyer, J. Fred, Jr., 1973 
Meyer, John F., 1972 
Meyer, Julius, 1056 
Middle Grove, 464, 465 
Middleton, Benjamin R., 1100 
Middleton, Charles A., 733 
Middleton, James B., 1425 
Middleton, W. B., 1320 
Middletown, 502 
Milam, Joseph, 1597 
Milan, 650, 656 
Miller, Charles L., 922 
Miller, George C, 872 
Miller, George W., 907 
Miller, Isaac C, 1992 
Miller, Governor John, 4, 11, 517 
Miller, Joseph, 1273 
Miller, Julius C, 1593 
Miller, Philip, 2013 
Miller, Samuel A., 1015 
Millersburg, 295 
Million, Dr. John W., 143 
Million, John W., 699 
Millspaugh, Frank C, 868 
Mineola Springs, 503 
Minor, Fountain M., 1764 
Minter, Dr. Anthony, 627 
Mississippi river, 69 
Missouri Avenue, 78 
Missouri Intelligencer, 5 
Missouri river, 70 
Missouri since 1875, 168 
HJssouri, state of, area, 1 ; population, 1 ; 

first settlements, 1 
Mitchell, The Rev. Franc, 127 
Mitchell, John T., 1163 
Mitchell, Miss Pearle, 239 
Mitchell, T. Guy, 1834 
Moberly, 543, 550 
Moccasinville, 437 
Monroe City — battle of, 65, 486 
Monroe county — 1, 74, 84, 89, 98, 109; 

history of, 464; a modern Bourbon 

county, 464; the coming of settlement, 



464; politics, farming and lighting, 
465; in the empire of agriculture, 
466; on the church rolls, 467; by way 
of reminiscence, 467 ; in Paris and Jack- 
son townships, 469; churches and con- 
gregations, 470; schools and banks, 
471; the oldest newspaper, 472; Mon- 
roe township, 472; Indian creek, 473; 
Union and Marion townships, 474; 
South Fork townships, 476; Woodlawn 
and Clay townships, 476; Washington 
township, 477; Jefferson township and 
Mark Twain, 477; miscellaneous, 481; 
Civil war, 483; after the Civil war, 490 

Monroe Institute, 473 

Monroe, President James, 464 

Monsees, A. H., 1738 

Montgomery City, 502 

Montgomery county — 1, 6, 54, 74, 84, 89, 
100, 107; history of, 492; mother of 
Warren, 492; organization and settle- 
ments, 492; early settlements and 
-settlers, 493; township, 493; war 
with Indians, 493; killing of Captain 
Callaway, 495; pioneer families, 495; 
Mills, 496; Isaac Van Bibber, 496; 
hermit, 497; Anderson's raid, 497; 
soil 498; resources, 498; products 
and pursuits, 499; county seats and 
court houses, 499 ; scbools and churches, 
500; county towns, 502; Mineola 
Springs, 503; Pinnacles, 504; political, 
504; financial, 504; fairs and frater- 
nal orders, 505; celebrations, 505; old 
settlers' picnic, 505; newspapers, 505; 
roads and travelers, 506 

Montgomery, Theodore L., 874 

Monticello, 315, 389 

Moore, Aldridge O., 976 

Moore, Gilbert B., 1343 

Moore, J. K., 1669 

Moore's Mill, battle of, 61, 303 

Morgan, James G., 943 

Morgan, Thomas T., 1970 

Mormon troubles, 154 

Morris, Belle O., 1020 

Morris, George A., 1019 

Morris, John Bingle, 1020 

Morris, Leonidas R., 1996 

Morris, William H., 1063 

Morrison, Alfred W., 1743 

Morrison Observatory, 355 

Morsey, 677 

Mor8ey,Col. Frederick, 680 

Morsey, William L., 989 

Morsey, W. L., 681 

Mosby, George R., 1813 

Mosby, John J., 1812 

Moss, Benjamin G., 1907 

Moss, David H., 472 

Moss, Luella W. S., 2095 

Motley, James D., 1095 

Motley, Levi D., 1185 

Motley, Marion £., 896 

Mt. Pleasant College, 95, 546 

Mount Zion church, battle of, 58 

Mudd, James R., 1717 

Mudd, Joseph A., 60, 143 

Muldrow,John G., 211 

Muldrow, William, 23, 77, 454, 457 

Mulinex, C, W., 1143 

MuUenix, Charles W., 1297 
Mundy, Horace, 1704 
Murray, Frank E., 1099 
Murrell, F. Emmett, 1652 , 
Musick, John R., 141 
Mussetter, Willis A., 775 
Muster days, 314 
Myers, Porter D., 1665 
Myers, Roy T., 1025 

Nalley, Charles W. D., 1363 

Nalley, Thomas J., 1364 

Nalty, Walter V., 1502 

Nash, Ira P., 262 

Nashville, 234 

Naturalization, 18 

Naysmith, Fred H., 1332 

Naxera, Fred, 1250 

Neal, Milton T., 1128 

Neeper, Frederick W., 2037 

Nelson, Capt., 71 

Nelson, Eugene W., 2046 

Nelson, Captain John, 5 

Nelson, William L., 2046 

Neukomm, John J., 1122 

Newark, 376 

New Cambria, 439 

New Florence, 502 

Newland, B. F., 471 

New London, 536 

Newspapers, 5, 96, 101, 137, 138, 144, 
180, 210, 251, 295, 329, 345, 357, 371, 
453, 461, 472, 484, 505, 529, 535, 601, 
645, 657, 678 

Newspaper, First, 5 

Newspaper writers, women, 44 

Newtown, 657 

New Truxton, 677 

Nineveh, 183 

Noel, Jefferson T., 1863 

Noel, Richard B.. 1627 

Normal School, First District, 178 

Norris, Alfred G., 1642 

Norris,Fred, 1698 

North State highway, 80 

Northcutt, John E., 1324 

Northeast Missouri, map of, 10 

Norton, Richard H., 1464 

Nortoni, Judge A. D., 417 

Norvell, Robert B., 1814 

Novelty, 376 

Novinger, 183 

Nowell, W^illiam B., 807 

Nickles, Russell, 1327 

Oakwood, 536 

Ocean-to-ocean Highway, 77, 80 

Oglesby, Edwin B., 1561 

O'Hern, Joseph P., 2017 

Old Settlers' picnic, Montgomery county, 

Old Trails road, 77 
O'Reilly, Edward R., 723 
O'Reilly, Frank H., 1493 
O'Reilly, James J., 1283 
Organ, Minnie K., 1432 
Orr, Sample, 51 

Osteopathy, American School of, 179 
Orthwein, Armin F., 1557 
Overall, John H., 429 



Overall, Nelson L., 585 
Overton Run, Battle of, 303 

Page, Ben F., 2038 

Page, Robert J., 884 

Palmer, Walter P., 1139 

Palmyra, 459, 621 

Palmyra, Massacre, 64, 456 

Paris, 465, 469 

Parker, John H., 727 

Parker Memorial Hospital, 250 

Parks, Edgar A.. 1629 

Parks, Theron B., 2030 

Parks, (Mrs.) T. B., 2030 

Parrish, Edward E., 948 

Parrish,John E., 949 

Parsons, E. O., 801 

Parsons, Henry R., 798 

Parsons, William, 2069 

Patrick, Wiley J., Jr., 1073 

Patrick, The Rev. W. J., 89 

Patriot, Columbia, 35 

Patton, Francis W., 1458 

Patton, L. E., 1808 

Patton, Robert L., 1709 

Payne, John W.. 1892 

Payne. Pharis K., 880 

Pavne.R. J., 1892 

Pa vne, Robert W., 1750 

Payne, William, 1891 

Pearson, W. K, 1859 

Peeler, John A., 1860 

Peeler, William H., 1911 

Peers, Charles E., 680 

Pemberton, William J., 1793 

Pendleton, 676 

Penix, James J., 793 

Periodicals, Baptist. 96 

Pershing. General John J., 417 

Persia, 234 

Perry. 536 

Peterraan, Elias, 1376 

Petersburg, 235 

Pettibone, Rufus, 534 

Pettingill, Newland M., 1280 

Pettit, Alfred, 1224 

Pew, James W., 1105 

Phelan, The Rev. D. S., 98 

Phelps, John S., 165 

Phillips, Joseph J., 1212 

Pierce, Don, 1083 

Pike county, 1, 3, 8, 74, 85, 89, 100, 108; 
history of, 507; Garden of Eden, 507; 
older than its mother, 508; source.H of 
history, 509; beginnings, 509; not the 
home of Indians, 510; first white set- 
tler, 511; early settlers, 511; trouble 
with the Indians, 512; some pioneer 
settlements, 514; Revolutionary sol- 
diers, 515; records of a pioneer mer- 
chant, 516; court proceedingH, 518; 
court and school. 518; life and cus- 
toms, 519; churches, 521; laying out 
of towns, 521 

Pike. General Zebulon M., 8, 508 

Pike's Peak, 8 

Pile, John S.. 1108 

Pile. Oscar F., 1236 

Pile, Schuvler W.. 848 

Pile, Thomas M., 1235 

Pinckney, 499 

Pioneer life, 6, 7, 8, 13, 16, 30, 148, 202, 
293, 313, 349, 361, 380, 395, 407, 420, 
422. 508, 519, 525, 538, 539, 593, 620, 
622, 648. 661 

Pioneer women, 30 

Pitman, John, 566, 587 

Pitt, James D., 1581 

Pitts, 676 

Plains, William C, 1759 

Platte, Purchase, 154 

Platter, A. Edson, 978 

Poindexter. Col. J. A., 62 

Point, The, 316 

Political institutions, 17 

Politics, early, 153 

Pollard, Braxton, 486 

Pollard, Robert L., 822 

Pollock, Anna E. D., 1445 . 

Pollock, Ira O., 1518 

Pollock, Perry C, 1447 

Pollock, William, 1284 

Pollock, William L., 1820 

Pondfort, 559 

Pool, Charles O., 1625 

Pope, Gen. John., 55, 57, 58 

Population, growth of, 47 

Population, increase oif. 155 

Porter, Addison P., 1173 

Porter, Colonel Joseph, 59, 62, 63, 68. 
175, 366, 487 

Porter, E. S., 1977 

Porter, Edward W., 1173 

Porter, George T., 790 

Porter, J. B.. 1671 

Portland, 295 

Postmasters, pioneer, 20 

Post roads, 79 

Potts, WMllard, 929 

Powers, Theron B., 1710 

Powers vi lie, 530 

Pratt, Albert B., 897 

Pratt. Arthur L., 406, 1025 

Preachers, pioneer, 16, 17 

Presbyterians, History of, 120 

Preston, J. S., 1368 

Prewitt, Moss, 281, 282 

Prewitt, WiUiam C, 1532 

Price, Sterling, 11, 47, 53, 54, 55. 58, 68, 

Priest, Henrv J., 1401 

Pritchett, Claude P., 1616 

Pritchctt College, 355 

Proclamation Admitting Missouri to 
Union, 170 

Proctor, David M., 1894 

Proctor, James M., 1902 

Proctor, Thomas, 1873 

Prosser, Paul P., 2005 

Prough, Sherman L., 712 

Provines, John G., 297 

Pulis, Stephen A., 939 

Purdin, 412 

Purnell. Joseph B., 1150 

Putnam county, 1. 75, 86, 89, 104; his- 
tory of, 523; physical features, 523 
population, 523; first settlers, 523 
pioneer life, 525; organization, 525 
officers, 525; county court, 526; circuit 
court, 526; Civil war, 527; politico, 
528; railroads and schools. 529; 
churches, 529; towns, 529 



Putnam county militia, 528 
Putnamville, 526 

Quantrelle, 50, 65, 66 
Quarles, Dr. James A., 124 
QuarleSjJohn A., 478 
Queen City, 604 
Quilting parties, 423 
Quinn, Francis H., 1999 
Quinn, Malcolm G., 751 
Quinn, Pierre S., 1552 

Race degeneration, No., 21 

Ragland, WilUam T., 1909 

Raible, Joseph C, 1926 

Railroads, 23, 50, 84, 85, 159, 182, 275, 
301, 303, 332, 339, 367, 387, 410, 410, 
421, 433, 454, 481, 506, 527, 529, 535, 
547, 614, 631, 653 

Raine, Cyrus O., 834 

Raleigh, Richard J., 1223 

Raleigh, Thomas £., 1289 

Ralls county, 1, 5, 75, 84, 86, 89, 98, 108; 
history of, 531; first American settlers, 
531; Indian troubles, 531; organiza- 
tion, 532; Daniel Ralls, 533; first 
county and circuit courts, 533; first 
officers, 534; railroads, 535; topog- 
raphy, 535; resources, 535; schools, 
535; towns, 536; statistical, 536 

Ralls, Daniel, 532, 533 

Ramsey, Jonathan, 286, 294 

Randolph, 538 

Randolph county, 1, 75, 86, 90, 103,. 109; 
liistory of, 537; location and topog- 
raphy, 537; organization and ai'ea, 
537; first white men, 538; the firsts, 
539; during war times, 543; cholera, 
545 ; search for gold, 545 ; churches and 
schools, 545; finances and railroads, 
546; roads, 548; agriculture and min- 
ing, 549; cities and towns, 550 

Randolph, John, 15 

Ratliif, Louis, 1651 

Ravenel, Samuel W., 69, 1075 

Read Hall, 38 

Reading, James L., 1366 

Rebo,F. A S., 885 

Rebo, J. D., 890 

Redd, John T., 1371 

Redman, Rev. William W., 501 

Reeves, Charles W., 1802 

Reid, James H., 1206 

Rensselaer Academy, 126, 535 

Reor&;anization, Financial, 167 

Revolutionary soldiers, 515 

Rex McDonald, 194 

Reynolds, Thomas, 23 

Rhineland, 503 

Rice, Charles, 1799 

Rich, Mrs. M. A., 1354 

Rich, Samuel S., 1353 

Richard, Thomas, 1334 

Richards, Thomas C, 1469 

Ricketts, John T., 1347 

Riddick, Thomas F., 4 

Riddle, Charles F., 1498 

Ridgway, Walter, 1753 

Riggs, Turner S., 864 

Riley, Thomas, 1489 

Ringer, Rufus M., 1246 

Ritzenthaler, Joseph, 1941 
Riverside Scripture Institute, 96 
Riverways and roadways, 69 
Roadways, 76 
Roanoke, 357 
RoBards, A. S., 22, 24 
RoBards, John L., 13, 24, 1392 
RoBard's Mill, 22 
RoBards, William A., 23 
Bobbins, William O., 1093 
Roberts, B. L., 2039 
Roberts, John 0., 1521 
Roberts, L. P., 606 
Roberts, Lee P., 1005 
Robertson, Bishop C. F., 113 
Robertson, George, 184, 1027 
Robertson, J. B., 2010 
Robertson, J. W., 1910 
Robertson, William M., 1806 
Robertson, Dr. W. W., 127 
Robertson, The Rev. W. W., 300 
Robey, John D., 1898 
Robinson, Addison L., 1355 
Robinson, John, 1728 
Robinson, Matilda, 1728 
Robinson, William H., 865 
Robinson, Willis F., 1009 
Robnett, Pleasant H., 857 
Robnett, Thomas, 1486 
Robyn, Ernest, 915 
Rocheport, 233 
Roden, Thomas F., 1056 
Rodes, WiUiam R., 1172 
Rodgers, Capt. Charles B., 295 
Rodgers, Robert D., 1477 
Rodgers, Rueben B., 1010 
Roelirig, Emil, 681, 1197 
Rogers, Julius F., 1605 
Roland, Sevilla, lulow, 31 
Rollins Aid Fund, 256 
Rollins, C. B., 1174 
Rolhns, James S., 11, 156, 1174 
Roosevelt. Theodore, 169 
Ross, Charles A., 1290 
Ross, James K., 1805 
Rothville, 332 
Rothwell, Fountain, 1479 
Rothwell,G. F.., 537 
Rothwell, Gideon F., 1926 
Rothwell. Wade H., 1655 
Rouner, David A., 1030 
Rouse, Harry S., 825 
Rowland, Joshua T., 1698 
Rowland, William, 931 
Rowland, William P., 932 
Row lev, Robert R., 1097 
Rowley, William J., 695 
Roy, S. J., 2102 
Rubey, Web M., 441 
Rucker, Roy W., 2063 
Rucker, W'illiam H., 1202 
Rucker, William W., 2061 
Ruffin, Lemon H., 1387 
Rule, Edward B., 1092 
Rule, John W., 1244 
Rush Hill, 229 
Rutherford, Hay den L., 1602 
Rutherford, William T., 859 
Rutledge, 612 
Ryland, John F., 543 



Sacred Heart Convent, 559 

St. Catharine, 412 

St. Charles, 4, 5, 9, 16, 554 

St. Charles College, 559 

St. Charles county, 1, 54, 75, 86, 90, 97, 
107; history of, 553; the village of the 
hills, 553; the firsts, 555; the Indian 
tribes, 555; the province, 557; Lewis 
and Clark, 557; schools, 559; the old 
wind mill, 559; topography, 559; 
Daniel Boone, 561; the district, 564; 
the first legislators, 565; letter from 
Onward Bates, 566 ; beginning of Amer- 
ican colonization, 581; early court pro- 
ceedings, 582; great men in pioneer 
days, 583; pioneer citizens, 584; mili- 
tary record, 588; the Edwards family, 
589*; German immigration, 589; agri- 
culture and progress, 590 

St. Clair, W. S., 1323 

Ste. Genevieve, 1 

St. James Academy, 427 

St. John, Horace H. H., 1242 

St. John, Wilson E., 1227 

St. Louis, 4, 9 

Salisbury, 327 

Sallee, James H., 1241 

Salt river, 72 

Salt river road, 77 

Salt springs, 5, 75 

Sampson, F. A., 144, 146 

Sampson, Francis A., 792 

Sampson, John H., 1640 

Sampson, Thomas W., 1641 

Sampson, William A., 1641 

Sanders, Culvin F., 951 

Sanders, James L., 961 

Sanderson, Daniel T., 811 

Sanderson, John E., 1442 

Sanderson, J. E. & Company, 1444 

Sanderson, Lewis T., 1444 

Sanderson, Newman M., 1047 

Sanderson, Samuel M., 832 

Sanderson, Walter H., 1444 

Sand Hill, 606 

Sandison, James, 1362 

Santa Fe Trail, 78, 82 

Sapp, George B., 1200 

Sapp, Joseph W., 801 

Sapp, William H., ^200 

Sawyer, Tom, 38 

Schacklett, Jacob K., 1033 

Schaefer, Frederick, 1307 

Scheetz, Harry C, 111. 1686 

Schenck, David, Jr., 1514 

Schnelle, Benjamin F., 913 

Schofield, F. L., 389 

Schofield, Rufus B., 1146 

Schools, 20, 35, 43, 93, 114, 124, 178, 
225, 250, 273, 299, 320, 331, 345, 359, 
373, 393, 401, 426, 471, 500, 529, 535, 
545. 559, 599, 609, 615, 627, 654, 669 

Schools, provision for, 20 

Schriefer, Madam, 29 

Schriver, C. F., 2009 

Schurz, Carl, 165 

Schuyler county, 1, 75, 86. 90, 105, 110; 
history of, 592; before the white man, 
592; first settlements, 592; pioneer 
homes, 593; early customs, 594; the 
grinding of corn, 594; pioneer life, 595; 

organization, 596; first court proceed- 
ings, 596; census, 597; churches, 597; 
schools, 599; fairs, 600; jail, 600; 
press, 601; war, 601; court proceed- 
ings, 603; towns, 603; the county to- 
day, 605 
Scofield, Elias, 947 

Scotland county, 1, 76, 86, 90, 99, 108; 
history of, 606; territory and popula- 
tion, 606; organization — county seat, 
606; Memphis, 609; other county 
towns, 611; debt, 614; schools and 
churches, 615; Civil war, 616; agricul- 
ture, 617; old settlers, 618; fair, 618; 
tallest woman, 619; officers, 619 
Scott, Eugene, 1194 
Scott, James S., 1879 

Scott, John, 4 
Scott, William, 23 
Scovern, John, 441 

Scurlock, N. J., 140 

Sebree, 357 

Sedelmeier, Antone F., 757 

See, Jacob, 495 

Seitz, E. B., 1976 

Selby, William H., 1885 

Settle, W. D., 2101 

Settlements, before 1804, 147 

Settlements, extension of, 151 

Sever, Franklin P., 1288 

Sevier, Joseph D., 1798 

Shacklett, William F., 1070 

Shaffer, George B., 1264 

Shafroth, William, 1736 

Shannondale, 332 

Shannon, Easton A., 930 

Shannon, Richard M., 1329 

Sharts, Roy, 1034 

Shattuck, Allen B., 1333 

Shearman, John, 1896 

Shelbina, 632 

Shelby county, 1, 6, 76, 86, 90, 101. 109; 
history of, 620; location, 620; in pio- 
neer days, 620; early settlers. 621; 
pioneer life, 622; some of the pioneers, 
624; residents in 1835; population, 
625; schools and churches, 627; muni- 
cipalities, 629; early mills, 631; Com- 
munistic colony, 633; crimes, 634; 
political, 636; slavery, 638; Civil war, 
639; miscellaneous, 643; conclusion, 

Shelby, Gen. J. O., 59 

Shelbyville, 631 

Sheldon, Samuel, 786 

Shelton, Judge N. M., 428 

Shelton, Peachy G., 956 

Shelton, William A., Jr., 910 

Shepard, Austin H.. 1012 • 

Shepler, John X., 647 

Shibley, Brothers, 1046 

Shibley,John W., 1046 

Shibley, Lemuel. 1046 

Shields, Henry C, 1781 

Shoemaker, F. C, 46 

Shoemaker, Floyd C, 1453 

Sholtus, Bros., 1802 

Sholtus, Edward T., 1802 

Sholtus, John M., 1802 

Short, William D., 1228 

Sibley, George C, 11 



SiUiman, WilUam L., 1525 

Sims, James £., 1473 

Sims, James W., 1131 

Sims, Orris B., 1675 

Sinclair, James A., 1433 

Sipple, Eraitt M., 1900 

Sisson. William B., 1125 

Slavery, 14, 47, 48, 173, 206, 304, 342, 

386,^544, 595, 630, 638, 651 
Slicker War, 400 
Smelser, Joseph £., 1869 
Smiley, Samuel W., 1293 
Smith, Albert R., 2015 
Smith, Alfred D., 1115 
Smith, C. B., 1990 
Smith, Charles F., 1165 
Smith, Claude M., 1255 
Smith, Davids., 1418 
Smith, George G., 1734 
Smith, James Green, 300 
Smith, Robert L., 1416 
Smith, Gen. Thomas A., 232 
Smith, Thomas Berry, 144, 146 
Smith, Thomas J., 1672 
Smith, Willard, 1748 
Smith, William, 2007 
Smith, William A., 746 
Smithton, 232 
Snell, Ashy, 475 
Snelling, Robert W., 1215 
Social life, 17, 37 
Sosev, Frank H., 141, 457 
Southern, John N., 2050 
Spalding, Sterling P., 2096 
Spangler, Edward P., 682 
Spanish settlers, 3. 6 
Spaulding,R. M., 2103 
Speed, Matthias W., 1832 
Spelman, Dennis G., 834 
Spence, James H., 2042 
Spencer, Robert, 566 
Spilman, Dora S., 1231 
Spilman, J. T., 1230 
Spurling, Henry T., 1673 * 
Stage drivers, 240 
Stapleton, John E., 1744 
Stark Brothers Nursery, 512 
Stark, James O., 1238 
Stark. William P., 1951 
Starke, Newman P., 1701 
Starr, James H., 1642 
State Highway, 266 

State Historical Society of Missouri, 46 
State, The Story of the, 147 
Statler, Johnson L., 1222 
Statton, Frank F., 729 
Steeples, Benjamin, 1026 
Steele, George A., 761 
Steffenville, 391 
Stephens College, 36, 93, 274 
Stephens, Edwin W., 837 
Stephens, James L., 11, 94, 278, 838 
Stephens, James Leachman, 735 
Stephens, James T., 1656 
Sterrett, James G., 1719 
Stewart, Charles D., 1261 
Stewart, Charles L., 1572 
Stewart, Peter S., 681 
Stewart, Robt. M., 160 
Still, The Rev. Abraham, 597 

Still, Dr. A. T., 176, 179 

Stoddard Capt. Amos, 150 

Stone, Barton, 467 

Stone, Josiah W., 743 

Stone, Governor W. J., 168 

Stone, Walter K., 816 

Stonesport, 234 

Stoutsville, 480 

Strickler, F. W., 2055 

Strother, Prof. French, 476 

Strother, Harry M., 891 

Struble, George, 1278 

Struckert, Otto, 912 

Sturgeon, 236 

Sullivan county, 1, 76, 86, 90, 104, 111; 
history of 647; the first settlers, 647; 
first land entry, 648; food of the pio- 
neer, 648; first birth, 649; organiza- 
tion, 649; at the county seat, 650; 
Civil war, 651; railroads, 653; schools, 
654; churches, 655; towns, 656; the 
county as a whole, 657; close political 
contest, 657 

Summerville, 235 

Summers, John M., 1974 

Sumner, 331 

Sutton, Amos, 1322 

Sutton, Robert L., 1164 

Sutton, S. P., 1468 

Sutton, Thomas F., 1573 

Swain, E. E., 171 

Swearingen, J. A., 878 

Swett, Arthur M., 1501 

Switzler Hall, 258 

Switzler, Lewis M., 737 

Switzler, Col. Wm. F., 137, 280 

Synodical College, 126, 304, 1291 

Synodical College for Women, 28 

Talbot, C. B., 2004 

Talbot, John, 2004 

Tate, Benjamin, 1178 

Tate, John M., 1413 

Tatlow, Wm. J. M.. 2060 

Tatman, C. A., 1944 

Taverns, 237 

Taylor, Henry C, 1858 

Taylor, James M., 783 

Taylor, John D., 2088 

Taylor, Joseph W., 1601 

Taylor, William R., 1137 

Tedford, Fred H., 1785 

Teel, Ambrose W., 870 

Terrill, Arthur P., 1882 

Terrill, Robert G., 1580 

Tharp, J. P., 1968 

Thatcher, Becky, 38 

Thole, John H., 1570 

Thomas, D. Clark, 904 

Thompson, 229 

Thomp89n, Alfred B., 1668 

Thompson, B. F., 389 

Thompson, Green G., 1620 

Thompson, Jasper, 1737 

Thompson, Walter S.. 1787 

Thomson, Eliza E., 1276 

Thorn burg, George, 1767 

Thornburg, Thomas O., 1812 

Thrall's Prairie, 5 

Thurmond, Nicholas D., 1575 

Tincher, Judge Hugh. 974 
Tincher, James W., 974 



Tincher, John E., 1700 
Tindall, N. Cordell, 1741 
Tinsley, David A. S., 740 
Tinsley, Gabriel N., 716 
Tinsley, William H., 693 
Tippecanoe, 603 
Tipton, Charles W., 1949 
Tipton, Jabez B., 1928 
Todd, Judge David, 312 
Todd, Robert L., 280 
Todd, Roger N., 1372 
Toll roads, 265 
Tolson, Joseph, 1930 
Torbit, Nathaniel, 1199 
Torrance, Eli, 417 
Torrey, Lafayette, 907 
Treadway, John, 1691 
Treloar, 676 
Trigg, Thomas J., 1142 
Triplett, 329 
Troy, 404 
Truesdale, 676 
Tucker, Benjamin F., 820 
Tucker, Henry H., 735 
Tucker, John W., 1195 
Tucker, Samuel L., 2093 
Tucks, William A., 1067 
Tully, J. Douglass, 2053 
Tuohy, The Rev. J. T., 96, 98 
Turk, William, 142 
Turley, Edward D., 1933 
Turley, Laura T., 1935 
Turner, Charles C, 1490 
Turner, Matthew A., 1193 
Turner, Thomas, 276 
Tuttle, Bishop Daniel S., 114 

Unionville, 529 

United States, relief map of, 2 
University Military School, 250 
University, State, 21, 38, 252, 257, 260 

Valentine, Thomas B., 690 
Van Bibber, Isaac, 496 
Vandalia, 226 
Velie, Alexander, 2029 
Venable, Paul, 1196 
Viles, Jonas, 147, 2092 
Vince, Abraham, 1809 
Violette, E. M., 141 

Vote, for Governor 1861, 52; for presi- 
dent, 52 

Waddell, Phenicious S., 1367 
Wagner, David, 387 
Wakefield, John J., 1466 
Walden, James W., 1649 
Walker, Edwin F., 1149 
Walkersville, 632 
Walkup, John J., 1776 
Walkup, 0. E., 1945 
Wallace, David, 1583 
Wallace, George, W., 1145 
Wallace, Dr. John S., 306 • 

Wallace, John S., 1049 
Walters, Jacob 8., 1917 
Walton, R. S., 348 
Walton, Robert S., 1352 
War, Black Hawk, 25, 26, 172, 269, 295, 
337, 453, 465, 673 

War, Civil, 38, 46, 160, 173, 210, 257, 
270, 302, 324, 344, 358, 364, 3fi3, 400, 
430, 455, 466, 483, 497, 500, 527, 544, 
602, 616, 639, 651, 673, 682 

War, Kansas, 270 

War, Mexican, 26, 157, 209, 270, 295, 
322, 358, 543, 673 

War, -Missouri-Iowa, 343 

War, Mormon, 26, 269, 358 

War of 1812, 151, 396, 448, 469, 510, 531, 

War, Revolutionary, 14, 399, 515, 660^ 

War, Seminole, 1269 

War, Spanish-American, 223, 675 

Warford, Bennett B., 1796 

Warren county, 1, 6, 54, 76, 87, 90, 97; 
history of, 659; first white settlers, 
659; early homes, 661; organization, 
663; first circuit court, 665; churches, 
666; Central Wesleyan College, 669; 
Central Wesleyan Orphan Home, 671; 
war, 672; towns, 675; geographical 
and topographical, 677; press, 678; 
banks, 678; crime, 679; bar, 680; mis- 
cellaneous, 681 

Warrenton, 676 

Wars, Indian, 171, 188, 309, 444, 493, 
510, 512, 531, 532, 543, 555, 601 

Washburn, George S., 1824 

Washington, President George, 14, 15 

Wattenbarger, Jacob M., 1801 

Waters, Mrs. Ann, 42 

Waters, Edwin C, 1310 

Watkins, John H., 971 

Watthall, James W., 1500 

Watts, Hamp. B., 1727 

Watts, Sylvester, 1016 

Watson, J. Sam, 1116 

Watson, James T., 1611 

Watson, Thomas, 585 

Waugh, James H., 1827 

Waugh, (Mrs.) S. V., 1828 

Webb, John f>., 1057 

Webb, William A., 1022 

Weber, Henry, 1024 

Weeks, John H., 1406 

Welch, J. B., 1374 

Wells, Judge Carty, 680 

Wells, Charles P., 1109 

Wells, Robert W., 543 

W^ellsville, 502 

Wentworth, F. H., 726 

Werner, John H., 1007 

West, Joseph A., 1247 

Westcott, Lyman, 1234 

Westminster College, 45, 125, 300 

Wheat growers, pioneer, 22 

Whig meeting at Rocheport, 243 

White, Alonzo, 1958 

White, B. R., 1657 

Whitecotton, James H., 466, 470 

White, Edgar, 128, 1893 

White, R. M., 210, 981 

Whiteside, George W., 1052 

Whiteside, John A., 903 

Whittle, John E., 1462 

Widner. Henry H., 1088 

Wien, 332 

Wight, Family, 2082 

Wight, J. W., 2087 



Wight, J. W.*, Jr., 2088 
Wilcoxon, George H., 1725 
Wilfley, L. R., 490 
Wilkerson, George H., 965 
William Woods College, 30, .304 
Williams, Abraham J., 4 
Williamsburg, 295 
Williams, James, A., 2071 
WiUiams, John F., 429 
Williams, J. M., 1650 
Williams, J. T., 1059 
Williams, Walter, Jr., 647 
Williams, Zechariah, 784 
Williamson, Charles R., 1061 
Williamson, W. Luther, 1060 
Williamstown, 391 
Wilsey, P. I., 871 
Wilson, Frank L., 803 
Wilson, Guy N., 1196 
Wilson, H. L., 752 
Wilson, General Robert, 543 
Wilson, R. E., 2079 
Wilson, Thomas C, 1182 
Wilson, William S., 1239 
Wind mill, old St. Charles, 559 
Winter, E. H., 659 
W^inter, Edward H., 1545 
Wippermann, The Rev. F. H., 672 
Wisdom, Carroll H., 899 
Witt, John L., 1298 
Witty, Lee T., 958 
Woman, Part played by, 27 
Woman, tallest, 619 

Women, education of, 35; in Civil War 
times, 40; in pioneer homes, 41; in 
the church, 42; in the schools, 43; 
newspaper writers, 44 

Wood, The Rev. C. N., 141 

Wood, David P., 1086 

Wood, Ernest H., 1542 

Wood, William J., 772 

Woodsmall, James C, 977 

Woods, S. H., 1913 
' Woods Training barns, 467 

Woods, Dr. W. S., 466 

Woodson, J. B., 1484 

Woodson, Richard, 1484 

Woodward, John H., 1541 

Word, John M., 1098 

Worrell, R. D., 2100 

Worthington, William D., 1107 

Wright City, 676 

Wright, James H., 882 

Wright, J. Kelly, 1648 

Wright, Uriah S., 1745 

Wyatt, Anthony, 660 

Yancey, Stephen B., 2000 
Yates, Martin, 1361 
Yeager, Grover C, 1890 
Young, Rachel F., 1359 
Young, Samuel N., 1051 
Yowell, Daniel K., 1904 

Zimer, Elizabeth, 2003 
Zumwalt, Adam, 581 

History of Northeast Missouri 



Northeast Missouri comprises that part of the state of Missouri 
lying north of the Missouri river and east of the western boundary of 
Chariton county. In the territory thus embraced are the counties of 
Adair, Boone, St. Charles, Montgomery, Callaway, Marion, Audrain, 
Warren, Lincoln, Pike, Lewis, Clark, Knox, Sullivan, Macon, Chari- 
ton, Randolph, Howard, Monroe, Scotland, Ralls, Putnam, Schuyler, 
Linn and Shelby. It is not the oldest section of Missouri, as far as set- 
tlements by the white man make for age. That distinction belongs to 
southeast Missouri where is Ste. Genevieve, oldest of Missouri towns. 

FmsT English Settlements in Missoubi 

In Northeast Missouri, however, were the first permanent settle- 
ments of the English-speaking race in Missouri and the beginnings of 
its history antedate those of any other section of the state, excepting 
southeast Missouri. In area Northeast Missouri embraces 14,081 square 
miles. In all Missouri are 68,736 square miles. The population of all 
Missouri counties in the figures of the United States census of 1910 
was 3,293,335. Of these 4iBl,008 are in the twenty-five counties of 
Northeast Missouri. 

In the Boon's Lick country, in St. Charles county and in the Salt 
River country were the first settlements in Northeast Missouri. As 
all the west, the country now Northeast Missouri had been peopled 
with Indians, Sacs, Foxes, Kickapoos, Pottawattomies, Missouris, tribes 
that roamed the plains and slunk through the forest shades even after 
the coming of the white man. The pioneers often found the red men 
troublesome and, on occasion, murderous neighbors. The Indians in 
Missouri were less savage, perhaps, than those of the far west, but 
their presence was a source of constant irritation. When Cols. Ben- 
jamin and Sarshall Cooper in 1808 led a band of Kentuckians to make 
their homes in Howard county they were called back by Governor 
Benjamin Howard nearer the older settlements because he could give 
them no protection against possible Indian outbreaks. In 1810 they 
returned and Col. Sarshall Cooper, seated by his own fireside, met death 
at an Indian's hand. There were no Indian wars of consequence in 
Northeast Missouri. The uprising, in 1832, of Black Hawk and his 
band of Indians to the northward stirred up the residents of the out- 
lying settlements, but the uprising, by the victory of the whites at the 
battle of Bad Axe, was soon at an end. The Indian disturbances were 
largely local and soon, with the growth of the white population, ceased 
altogether. The Indian struggled for a few years against white occu- 



pation, struggled in barbarous fashion and unsuccessfully, and, then, 
moved on to the west and southwest. 

French and Spanish Settlers 

The earliest successors of the Indian in Northeast Missouri came 
from France or Spain. Three gates opened wide to the Missouri ter- 
ritory in the early days. The Spanish came by the lower water gate of 
the Mississippi river — the Great Water of the Indians — ^in search of 
gold; the French first by the upper water gate of the Mississippi led 
by Marquette 's noble missionary zeal and later by the lower water gate 
as well; through the mountain-gate from the eastward came the Vir- 
ginians, their children of Kentucky and, in later day, the Scotch-Irish 
of farther north. At yet later time came men and women from north 
and east and from beyond the sea, all seeking homes where there was 
blue sky. and elbow room and freedom. No one, save the earliest Span- 
iards or an occasional trapper of the fur trade day, came to Northeast 
Missouri to make a fortune in mine or forest and return; he came to 
make a home and abide in the home. Home-making, English-speaking 
folk settled Northeast Missouri, not gold-seeking adventurers. The 
Spanish are remembered by an occasional name of town or river and the 
French in the same wise or by some ancient family tree. 

The Real Founders 

The colonists from east of the Appalachians seeking homes were 
the real founders of the^ early state. They were of genuine pioneer 
stock. Some peoples will not bear transplanting ; even in the wilderness 
others are the architects of states. Of the latter were the earliest set- 
tlers in Northeast Missouri, hardy, dominant and daring. Missouri, 
easily first of all the states in potential resource, is the product of their 
handiwork, while every state from the Mississippi river to the Gk)lden 
Oate shows their skill in commonwealth construction. The name of 
Pike county, Missouri, has gone abroad in all the land. In struggles 
with savage beast and untamed man the pioneer Missourian showed 
persistent heroism and hardihood. They were his children who, in the 
strife between the states, enlisted to the number of beyond 100,000 
in the Union army and more than 50,000 in the Confederate service, 
keeping the state's quota full without draft or enforced enlistment, 
not merely in one but in both armies, a record unexampled among the 
states, north or south. They were church-going and school-encouraging. 
Within its boundaries are a majority of the colleges of the state. They 
had respect for law. No vigilance committee was needed to preserve 
order even in the most primitive community in Northeast Missouri. 
In the earliest Missouri constitution Missourians recognized the provi- 
dence of God, provided for the establishment of free schools, and planned 
for a state seminary of learning, now the State University in North- 
east Missouri. One interior county in Northeast Missouri, Boone, with 
population of a scant few hundred, in 1839, gave, by voluntary sub- 
scription, $117,900 for the founding of a college, a farmer who could 
neither read nor write heading the subscription list with $3,000, a 
gift, considering time and circumstance, more princely than that of 
any modem millionaire. 

The early residents of Northeast Missouri were not always from 
Virginia, the Carolinas, Kentucky or Tennessee. From the Middle and 
New England states also they came. It was a Fennsylvanian, Alexan- 
der McNair, who, settling with his brother in friendly boxing match 


who Bhoold inherit the old homestead and loaing the match, became 
the first goveroor of Miasouri. It was a South Carolinian, Daniel 
Dunklin, who was the father of the public school system of the state. 
From Connecticut came Kufua Easton, the new state's greatest law- 
yer. Tennessee gave Missouri one of her first United States senators, 
David Barton, and North Carolina the other, Thomas Hart Benton. 
Thomas F, Riddick, who gave to Missouri her public school lands, 
going horseback at his own expense from St. Louis to Washington to 
plead succraBfuUy therefor, John Scott, the first congressman, Frederi<^ 
Bates, the second governor, State Senator Abraham J. Williams, the 
one-legged cobbler from Columbia who succeeded Bates as governor, 
John Miller, who succeeded Williams and served seven years — the long- 
est term of any Missourian to hold the oGBce — these were of Virginia 
nativity. The dominant life, however, in early Northeast Missouri — 
in all Missouri — was Virginian and Kentuckian, tempered by the frontier 

PmsT Settles in Noetheast Missouri 
Louis Blanchette, sumamed Chasseur, the Hunter, a gay French 
sportsman, was probably the first settler in Northeast Missouri. He 
wandered from the hamlet of St Louis in 1769 and built a cabin from 
which grew "the village of the hills," afterward St. Charles. The eyes 
of the white man had seen the glories of the land In earlier years. 
More than a century before Marquette and Joliet, Jesuit missionaries 
and explorers, came down the Mississippi river and doubtless landed 
on its attractive western shore. In 1680, a Franciscan friar, Louis 
Hennepin, ascended the Mississippi river from the mouth of the Illi- 
nois, staying hia frail canoe for occasional converse with the Indians 
on the river banks. Trapper and hunter had, here and there, pene- 
trated the wilderness or rowed upon the streams, but there was no per- 
manent habitation. Following the lead of the adventuresome Blanch- 
ette, however, settlers began to enter the territory. 


BooKE AND Engush-Speakinq Settlebs 

Not until the closing years of the eighteenth century, however, did 
English-speaking settlers, chief among them Daniel Boone, America's 
most famous frontiersman, make their homes here. Others came with 
the birth of the new century and upon the close of the War of 1812 
immigration fairly poured into the new country. 

After St. Charles . there came the settlement of the Boon's Lick 
country and then the lands along the Missouri river between Boon's 
Lick and St. Charles. Two sons of Daniel Boone, Nathan and Daniel 
M., made salt at the *'lick" in Howard county and shipped it in hol- 
low logs down the Missouri river to St. Louis. Soon a settlement grew 
up nearby at Franklin on the river and the Boon's Lick country, name 
for all the region round about, came into existence, with Franklin, 
soon to be washed away by the muddy river, as its chief city. To 
Franklin came Nathaniel Patten and Benjamin Holliday, enterprising 
Missourians, and began the publication, April 23, 1819, of the Missouri 
Intelligencer and Boon's Lick Advertiser, the first newspaper west of 
St. Louis. In the same year the Independence, Capt. John Nelson com- 
manding, ascended the Missouri river and made landing at Franklin. 
"What think you, Mr. Reader," said the Albany (N. Y.) Ploughmim^ 
"of a newspaper at Boon's Lick in the wilds of Missouri, in 1819, 
where in 1809 there was not, we believe, a civilized being excepting the 
eccentric character who gave his name to the spot." Franklin became 
the metropolis of the Boon's Lick country. Onjy a single brick build- 
ing, once the Franklin Academy, now remains of all its early great- 
ness. In Callaway county the village of Cote Sans Dessein — 
the hill without design — ^had been estabUshed and in a few years was 
the center of a small settlement. In 1812, imder the protection of 
Capt. William Head's fort in Howard county, there was a settlement 
on Thrall 's Prairie in Boone county. 

Boon's Lick Road and Immigration 

The Boon's Lick road — from St. Charles westward — surveyed by 
the Boones \n 1815, brought many settlers. The Intelligencer, April 
23, 1819, in one of its brief references to local affairs, said: **The 
immigration to this territory, and particularly to this county, during 
the present season almost exceeds belief. Those who have arrived in 
this quarter are principally from Kentucky, Tennessee, etc. Immense 
numbers of wagons, carriages, carts, etc., with families, have for some 
time past been daily arriving. During the month of October it is 
stated that no less than 271 wagons and four-wheeled carriages and fifty- 
five two-wheeled carriages and carts passed near St. Charles, bound prob- 
ably for Boon 's Lick. It is calculated that the number of persons accom- 
panying these wagons, etc., could not be less than three thousand. It 
is stated in the St. Louis Inquirer of the 10th instant that about twenty 
wagons, etc., per week had passed through St. Charles for the last nine 
or ten weeks, with wealthy and respectable immigrants from various 
states. Their united numbers are supposed to amount to twelve thou- 
sand. The county of Howard, already respectable in numbers, will 
soon possess a vast population, and no section of our country presents 
a fairer prospect to the immigrant." 

Immigration turned toward the north from St. Louis, the gateway, 
as toward the west. Maturin Bouvet, a Frenchman, had found salt 
springs in Ralls county in 1792 and shortly afterward, obtaining a 
grant of land, had built a cabin and warehouse in Marion county. At 


the close of the War of 1812, EDglisb-epeaking settlers, "finding the 
Boon's Lick country crowded," moved on to the Salt River country 
in what is now Marion, Ralls, Shelby and other counties of that sec- 
tion and English civilization began. 

German Immigrants 

Shortly after the English occupancy a large number of German 
immigrants came, chiefly as a result of a book of travels written by a 
scholarly German, Gottfried Duden, who had visited St. Charles, War- 
ren and Montgomery counties in 1824. The large German population 
of St. Charles and its neighbor counties dates it^ beginnings to the 
year 1833 and to the result of Gottfried Duden 's illuminating volume. 

Thus came the early settlers to Missouri, the Spanish and French, 
then the English, the German and people of every nation and speech. 
It is a composite citizenship in every sense today. 

Pioneers of All Nationalities 

The life of the pioneer was one of hardship and loneliness but of 
romance. Only men of courage make successful pioneers. Such were 

Boon's Lice in a Case Cab, First •Automobile, 1912, at Terminus op 
Northeast Missouri's Most Famous Road 

the men who laid the foundations of Northeast Missouri. The pioneer 
was in peril of Indian attack. Beasts seized upon his cattle. He had 
few books and scarcely a newspaper. Schools were rare and the school 
term brief indeed. Manners were rough. But the pioneer was honest, 
brave, hospitable. He gave welcome to every decent stranger. He was 
industrious, sober, law-abiding. "An amiable and virtuous man,"*he 
is eaid to have been by the Rev. Timothy Flint, a New England visitor of 
1816. The Spanish and French had sought for rich mines, for fur 
trading and for adventure. The English immigrants looked for agri- 
culture and for homesteads. There was never dispute or qnarrel between 
the races. The few Spanish and the more numerous French mixed 
readily with the English, who soon far outnumbered the pioneers of 
different blood. 


The English-speaking pioneer differed from the French pioneer in 
life as well as in language. Id nothing was this difference more mani- 
fest than in the building of homes. The Frenchman settled always in 
villages aod his farm, if land held in common can be called a farm, 
came to the very edge of the village. His residence was in the village 
and he seldom tilled a farm so far away that he could not at night 
join in the amnsements of the village. The Englishman, on the con- 
trary, cleared a farm in the wilderness. He located as far from a vil- 
lage as the presence of the Indians would permit. He "never wished 

Original Thomas Jefferson Monument, Univebstty Campus, 

to live near enough to hear the bark of his neighbor's dog." With 
the French the village came first and then the farm. With the Eng- 
lish the farm came first and afterward the village. 

The house of the Englishman was constructed differently from 
that of his French neighbor. Both were log cabins, soinetimes of one 
room, sometimes of two, with a wide open way between. The French- 
nun put his logs on end and fastened horizontal seats to the walls. The 
Englishman, however, laid the logs for his house horizontally, notched 
them together at the ends and filled the spaces between with "chink- 


ing of mud and plaster/' Hospitality was the rule. The door of the 
pioneer home was made of boards, swung on wooden hinges. It was 
fastened within by a latch. From the latch a string was hung through 
an opening in the door. **The latchstring is always on the outside" 
indicated the open-hearted welcome. The cabins had windows with- 
out glass. A shutter or greased paper in a sash was used instead. A 
** Virginia rail fence" made an enclosure around the cabin. The chim- 
ney was partly of stone and a huge fireplace gave warmth. 

The food and clothing of the pioneer were products of the land. 
Bears, deer, turkey and small game were plentiful. Farm and garden 
furnished vegetables and from the com came his bread. Skins of wild 
animals were made into rough but substantial garments and the loom 
in the cabin furnished homespun clothing. He had little money and 
little use for money. His wants were few and he could supply them 
with moderate ease. When he would buy anything at the village he 
could give peltries in exchange. Barter was common. **Pins, needles 
and sheets of coarse writing paper were used as money." Spanish 
silver dollars were the coin mostly seen. These were cut info small 
pieces known as **bits" for change. The expressions, *'two bits" and 
**six bits," have not yet disappeared. Thus was the life of the pioneer. 

County op Pike and Missouri ** Pikers" 

Many Americans, in the early years of the nineteenth century, be- 
lieved that the republic of the United States would not extend beyond 
the Allegheny mountains. They thought the western country a wil- 
derness or desert unfit for human habitation. Others believed that the 
country would be divided into several nations, as they thought it impos- 
sible for so large a territory as that from the Atlantic ocean fo Louisi- 
ana to be successful under one government. It was claimed by many 
that the amount of money, $15,000,000, paid by the United States for 
Louisiana, was foo great. Surely, they said, the wild land west of the 
Mississippi was not worth this sum. To make answer to the criticisms 
and doubts the Lewis and Clark expedition was sent out by President 
Thomas Jefferson in 1804. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, offi- 
cers in the United States army, were at the head of the expedition 
which explored the Missouri river 1,200 miles and crossed to the Pacific 
ocean. This expedition and the later ones under the leadership of 
Lieutenant (afterwards General) Zebulon M. Pike were important 
and far-reaching in their effects upon Northeast Missouri. Pike's expe- 
ditions in 1805, 1806 and 1807, first to the sources of the Mississippi 
river and second to the sources of the Platte and Kansas rivers, turned 
attention to the Middle West of which Northeast Missouri was the 
frontier. Pike's Peak, in Colorado, and Pike county, in Missouri, are 
named for the explorer. For years many persons outside Missouri 
knew only one county in the state, the county of Pike in Northeast 
Missouri, and called all Missourians '"Pikers." 

Inttul County Organization 

Five counties were in Missouri territory in 1012, only one, St. 
Charles, in all Northeast Missouri. The western boundaiy of St. Charles 
county was the Pacific ocean and the northern border the Canada line. 
When the state came into the union in 1821 there were fifteen counties, 
of which ten, Boone, Callaway, Chariton, Clark, Howard, Lincoln, Mont- 
gomery, Pike, Ralls and St. Charles, were in Northeast Missouri. This 
shows the growth of the region. Macon county was organized in 1826 ; 


Randolph in 1829 ; Monroe in 1831 ; Lewis and Warren in 1833 ; Shelby 
in 1835 ; Andrain in 1836 ; Linn and Macon in 1837 ; Adair and Scot- 
land in 1841 ; Sullivan in 1844 ; Schuyler, Putnam and Knox in 1845. 
These organization dates show the process of the population. 

Boundary Dispute with Iowa 

In 1840 the houndary line between Northeast Missouri and the state 
of Iowa was finally settled. There had been difference of opinion 
between the officers in the two states as to the ownership of a strip of 
land about twenty miles wide. Instead of pursuing a sensible policy 
and seeking to settle the difference by law, each state undertook to 
enforce its authority on the disputed strip. Finally troops were called 
out by both states. It looked as if there would be war. The tract of 
land, mostly covered by forest, was noted for wild bees and the dis- 


pute was called "The Honey War." Seeing the folly of fighting, it was 
agreed by both aides to stop war preparations until the national gov- 
ernment could settle the boundary line. This was done and now in 
Northeast Missouri tbe counties of Clark, Scotland, Schuyler and Put- 
nam have their northern boundaries, the Missouri-Iowa state line, def- 
initely marked by iron posts, ten miles apart. 

St. Charles, Old Missouri Capital 

The capital of Missouri was, for a time, in Northeast Missouri, at 
St. Charles, where the building in which the first general assembly met 
yet stands. Moat of the members of the first Missouri legislature, in 
1820, as well as the governor and other high dignitaries, rode to St, 
Charles on horseback. The members boarded at private houses. Pork 
sold at 1% cents a [>ound ; venison hams, 25 cents each ; eggs, 5 cents 
a dozen ; honey, 5 cents a gallon ; and coffee, $1 a pound. Sugar waa 
not in the market and those who drank coffee sweetened it with honey. 
The legislators dressed in homespun clothes, buckskin leggins and hunt- 




ing shirts. Some wore rough shoes of their own manufacture, while 
others encased their feet in buckskin moccasins. Some had slouched 
hats, but the greater number wore caps made of the skins of wild- 
eats and raccoons. Governor McNair was the only man who had a fine 
cloth coat cut in the old ** pigeon-tail" style. He also wore a beaver 
hat and endeavored to carry himself with the dignity becoming a 
man holding the highest executive office in the state. 

General Development 

The growth and development of Northeast Missouri, the story of its 
progress, is told in the separate county histories. Written by high 
authorities, they make a real contribution to the history of the important 
territory. The life of the pioneer, the part played by women, the 
building of roadways to bind the population together, the waterways, 
the organization of churches, the literature, the dark days of the 
civil war, the history of the state as a whole — ^these are presented ade- 
quately and admirably in separate chapters and need not be considered 

Northeast Missouri is a section of many interests. Largely rural, 
it contains no city of more than 20,000 population. Its chief interest 
is agriculture, but manufacturing and mining are of much importance. 
It is a center of fine stock growing. Half the land is underlaid with 
coal. Diverse industries, an extended crop season and fertility of soil 
make, because of the skill, intelligence and energy of the people, a 
prosperous community. The Mississippi and Missouri river bottom lands 
are like the Nile valley for richness. The uplands are unexcelled for 
fruit. The prairies afford abundant harvests. Nor is there neglect of 
those things which make for the higher life of the citizenship. 

Eminent Men 

The list of eminent men who have been residents of Northeast Mis- 
souri is a long one. In the county histories that follow, their names are 
recorded. Here may be mentioned, among the dead, James S. Rollins, 
the eloquent father of the University of Missouri, Bishop Enoch R. 
Marvin, James 0. Broadhead, James S. Green, Edward Bates, John 
Miller, George C. Sibley, Sterling Price, Claiborne F. Jackson, Charles 
H. Hardin, John A. Hockaday, George C. Bingham, Eugene Field, Mark 
Twain, Abiel Leonard, James L. Stephens, John H. Lathrop, Daniel 
Boone, Kit Carson, soldiers of war and soldiers of peace, educators, 

The spirit of its people is the spirit of progress, tempered by sane con- 
servatism. It rejects not the old because of its age nor refuses the new 
because it is not old. It is the spirit of a community conscious of its 
own secure position, somewhat too careless at times of the world 's opinion, 
hospitable, generous, brave. The dream of the greatest statesman is a 
nation of citizens dwelling in happy homes. In Northeast Missouri the 
dream finds realization. 

A Home History of A Home Land 

This is a home history, not a story of trumpet and drum, and is told 
by men who live among and know the people. The individual county 
histories and special chapters, gathered by, this editor to give compre- 
hensive and composite view of Northeast Missouri, have been written with 
fine discrimination and loving, sympathetic hand. They record the 


Missourian's good deeds and the rich romances of his life for the edifying 
of the generations that come after him. 

This is a home history of a home land. Long the western outpost of 
American civilization, its chief contribution to history is the homes it 
founded in the wilderness and sustained amid privation, stress and 
danger unto the abundant home life of today. The energy the old home 
of Northeast Missouri stored, the iron it put into the blood, the clear 
eyes and unclouded brain and the faith and love it has bequeathed enable 
the men and women of today to walk in straighter path and more safely. 
This home — in country or on city street — ^is the old Missouri's heritage to 
humanity. First of all and always the Missourian was a home builder. 
And with the perishing of the homes he builded and others like unto them, 
the republic — ^no matter its cities or its commerce, its courts or its 
governors — ^will be at an end. Upon the historic past we build the historic 
present. The New Missouri rests upon the Old Missouri. 

Let those in Northeast Missouri who know tell of the Old and of the 
New, a home history of a home land. 



By John L. BoBards, Hannibal 

For we have seen the land, and behold it is very good, a place where there 
is no want o^any thing thai; is in the earth. — Judges XT[II:9-10. 

I have travded all over the world, to find in the heart of Missouri, the most 
magnificent scenery the human eye has ever beheld — ^Bayard Taylor. 

We are all one man's sons. — <]tene6is XLII:!!. 

Ancestry of the Pioneer 

Who were the pioneers of Northeast Missouri, and who were eligible 
to that distinction! 

We a£Srm that the pioneers were not prehistoric men, nor men 
evoluted from protoplasm, nor men of spontaneous growth, but men living 
within the past century, who left lasting memorials of their potential 
existence; men of democratic S3nnpathies and high ideals of the true 
principles and purposes of constitutional government. 

Alfred the Great, King of England in the ninth century, incorporated 
the Ten Commandments into the law of the land. 

King James the First issued Letters Patent, dated April 10, 1606, to Sir 
Thomas Gates, and others, for the Colony of Virginia in North America : 
"In propagating the Christian religion to such people as yet live in 
darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge of the worship 
of God, and may in time bring the infidels and savages living in those 
parts to human civility, and to a settled and quiet government • • • 
shaU have and enjoy all liberties, franchises and immunities within as if 
abiding and bom within the realm of England," etc. 

It is thus manifest that one aim of the Virginia settlers was the 
extension in missionary spirit, of the Divine Redeemer's kingdom. 

In virtue of that kingly prerogative, the first permanent English 
settlement established at Jamestown, Virginia, on May 13, 1607, the 
world known Christian civilization of the United States. That leading 
event was of the utmost significance. The Church of England sent 
with that expedition of tiiree ships, a missionary preacher, the Bev. Robert 
Hunt, a Holy Bible, library, etc. A church edifice was soon built with 
materials for that purpose [Ripped from England and formally dedicated 
for the worship therein of the Christian religion. Other European 
inmiigrants mostly English, Welsh, Scotch, Irish, German, and French 
Huguenots of the best blood of Europe came and made homes in 
Virginia and in other colonies. They populated the eastern ocean belt 
of North America and formed the original thirteen colonies all subjects 
of Great Britain. The Virginia colony rapidly increased in population 
and elected, by popular vote in 1619, a legislature which made laws 
suitable for their new environment, and adopted, as far as applicable 



to the times and conditions, the common law of England to govern the 

The Beginnings op Slavery 

A Dutch merchant ship sold some negro slaves to the planters on the 
James river in 1619. 

The Plymouth pioneers of the Massachusetts colony of 1620 and 
others, built a ship in 1638, and exported and sold their enslaved Indians 
to the planters of the West India islands. They also built ships and 
engaged in the slave trade in importing negroes from Africa for market 
sale in Massachusetts and the various colonies, and prohibited in 1638 
the marriage of white persons with negroes; but the legislature of 
Massachusetts repealed that law in 1838. 

The Royal African Company composed of the nobility of England, 
also engaged largely in the slave trafSc at the same time. 

England persistently imposed many unjust and oppressite laws on 
the colonies ; transported colonists accused of crime across the ocean for 
trial ; incited insurrection ; prompted negroes, whom Virginia desired to 
exclude by law, to rise in arms against the colonists. 

The War op the Revolution 

In September, 1774, the battle of Point Pleasant, between Virginia 
troops of Gen. Andrew Lewis, and the army of Indian allies of the 
British under Cornstalk, the noted chief and warrior, was fiercely 
fought with heavy loss of many hundreds killed and wounded on both 
sides, resulting in a decisive victory of the Virginia army of patriots. 
That battle was in the history of Virginia, by John Esten Cooke, 
described, '*as the first bloodshed in the American revolution." John 
G. Saxe, the noted historian^ wrote, ** formal defiance came first from 

In June, 1775, Gen. George Washington, of Virginia, the richest man 
of all the colonies, was by John Adams, of Massachusetts, in the colonial 
congress, nominated commander in chief of the continental army of the 
united colonies, and unanimously elected. He voluntarily stipulated 
that he would not accept pay for his services. His first military strategy 
was to drive the British army under General Howe, ten thousand strong, 
from Boston, and save Massachusetts from British tyranny, a wonderful 
deliverance for New England. The Declaration of Independence on 
July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia, in the congress of the colonists, written by 
Thomas Jefferson, a Virginian, renounced all allegiance to the crown of 
Great Britain. 

Gen. George Rogers Clark of Virginia, in 1779, with troops and arms 
solely of that colony, conquered the immense Northwest Territory, com- 
prising now the five states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin, from the English army and its Indian allies under General 
Hamilton, who was captured and imprisoned at Williamsburg, the capital 
of Virginia. After eight years of varying success and disaster, with un- 
paralleled privation, struggle, and patriotic valor, under Divine provi- 
dence, victory perched forever upon the American flag of stars and 
stripes. The war triumphantly closed with the final defeat of the British 
army under Lord Cornwallis, by the allied armies of America and Prance 
under Gen. George Washington at Yorktown, Virginia, on October 19, 
1781. The treaty of peace was signed in Paris in 1783. 

The eight years of bloody war, begun for American independence in 
Virginia, were gloriously terminated by a decisive victory won by a native 
Virginia general, on the soil of the Old Dominion, the first colony and 


mother of states. Also, General Washington was the president of the 
convention who adopted, "in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-seven," the incomparable original Constitution of 
the United States, and who was the first president, and his own successor, 
without competition or compensation. 

The visits of Lief Erickson in 1001, and of other Northmen prior to 
that period, to the northern part of America, were valueless to the 
civilized world. It remained for Columbus, who was returned to Spain 
in chains, to discover in 1492, southward the grandest country ever trod 
by the foot of mortal man. Likewise the vicissitudes of the Spanish and 
French governments failed of large beneficial results. The opportunity 
for grand achievement arose for Thomas Jefferson, president of the 
United States, when that great Virginian acquired for his country, by 
purchase from the French empire, through the friendly statesmanship 
of Emperor Napoleon in 1803, the grand domain between the Mississippi 
river and the Pacific ocean. 

The State of Missouri derives her name from the tribe of Indians 
who lived at the mouth of the river now of that name. 

Imperial Missouri, organized by the United States as a territory, a 
century ago, in 1812, and admitted with a population of sixty thousand 
into the Union as a state in 1821, is conspicuous as the prominent central 
state on the map of North America. The northeast part has the follow- 
ing boundaries : The Des Moines river for sixty miles is part of its north 
boundary line, eastward. Its east boundary line has a full front of 
two hundred miles on the Mississippi river. Its southwest boundary has 
a front of two hundred miles on the Missouri river. The west boundary 
is the west line of Chariton county, extended north to Iowa. Both, by 
nature, are navigable rivers. Combined, those river fronts are twice the 
navigable length, from the sea to the falls, of the celebrated Rhine river 
of Gtermany. 

Boone and the First Settlers 

The most celebrated typical frontier hunter, soldier and surveyor of 
Virginia and Kentucky was Col. Daniel Boone. He removed to Northeast 
Missouri when it was a Spanish possession, and remained through the 
changes of government. He possessed remarkable force of character 
and some eccentricities. He led to Northeast Missouri an important 
movement of hundreds of immigrants from Virginia, Kentucky and the 
Carolinas, the children of the conquerors of the British army. 

That daring Boone band of pioneers, men, women and children, were 
the forlorn hope in the march of western Christian civilization. Multi- 
tudes followed that expedition as the years passed by. Some came on 
horseback, or in wagons, overland across the states of Indiana and 
Illinois, bringing what was necessair to begin pioneer life, others came 
in steamboats down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. John Randolph 
facetiously said, in congress, ''The Ohio river is frozen one half of the 
year, and dry the other half." Those pioneers of sterling characters, 
with their brave wives and hearty children, overcame the terrors of the 
wilderness, and resisted the drouth of the sun and the rigors of the 
winter. With strong arms and high purpose they cut and felled the 
big trees; and versed in woodcraft, stood by the trunk, and stepped 
from the direction of its fall, a secret they observed for their safety, 
instead of running out and being caught in its wide-spreading branches. 

The pioneer style of architecture was the log cabin, with clapboard 
roof and stone chimneys, smooth puncheon floors, solid sliding windows, 
wide oak doors on wooden hinges with latch string of warm hospitality — 
ever swinging outward. Rooms were built as the family needs multiplied. 


Better buildings and increased comforts were added as population and 
wealth enlarged. The soil was virgin, fertile and fruitful, game meat 
wag plentiful, but bread was hard to get. Com was planted but the 
growth was slow. Roasting ears were a jubilee and when the grain 
matured, then Johnny cake was a feast, and pone and hominy were 
staples. The truck patch was an indispensable part of the living and 
furnished the pumpkins, beans, etc. They generally slept with their feet 
to the fire, possibly to prevent, or happily to cure the rheumatism. It 
was a salutary habit, comfortable if not efficacious. 

Timber and prairie land abounded, land was cheap. On^ the 
cleared timber lands and bottom land were cultivated, a misapprehension 
was common respecting the productive quality of the prairie lands to 
respond to cultivation. 

Daniel Boone Cabin, St. Charles Countt 

The pioneers were of the highest type and purest blood of the white 
American Anglo-Saxnn race. They came with indomitable energy and 
fortitude, bringing their negroes, stock, guns and tools, for permanent 
occupation against the Indians and marauders. They penetrated the 
vast regions of prairie and forest to build homes, inheritances, achooU 
and churches for themselves and posterity. They were honest in princi- 
ples and sound in morals. An instance is recalled, illustrating the com- 
mon danger when the war whoop often disturbed the sleeping babe in 
the cradle. In the early settlement period in th&west part, forts were 
built for the general protection, while some plowed the fields, others 
stood guard with loaded guns to defend against Indian attack. The 
Indians lurked in the wilderness eager to murder, scalp, and bam. 

St. Charles was the first capital of the state, from 1820 to 1826, where 
the legislature assembled, and the supreme court held its terma. 

The Pionkeb Preachers 

As a distinct class, of the pioneer evangelists, the itinerant Methodist 
preachers led the van of the churches in extending Christian civiliza- 


tion. They were occasiooally on foot, but geuersUy on a good horse, 
vith leather saddle bags filled with Bibles, hymn books and tracts ; the 
Svangel of the Cross sowing the good seed of eternal life. Methodist 
camp meetings were attractive religious occasions. Large numbers 
assembled in groves with tents, booths, etc. Under the fervent preach- 
ing of the gospel, the praise of Ood in hymn and songs, prayers and 
penitential exclamations often religiously produced through the moving 
of the Holy Spirit on the hearts of the sinners, wonderful conversions, 
manifested occasionally by singular physical demonstrations. Some 
came for spiritual uplift, some to enjoy the feast of good things of which 
there was generous abundance, and some who came to mock remained to 
pray. Undoubtedly multitudes were genuinely converted by faith and 
repentance, transforming the wicked into the righteous, and manifesting 
the power of God unto salvation, to such as believed. Spiritual life was 
preached to be the best gift for this world, and the oiUy hope for the 
world to come. 


The Life Social 

The children of the pioneers developed minds and bodies suited to 
the times in which they lived. The girts adapted themselves to house- 
hold duties making home life comfortable and attractive. The boys 
were bold and energetic, skillful and familiar in the use of firearms, 
strong of muscle and fleet of foot. 

The social life of the pioneer younger set was not all one way, either 
of amusement or of Puritanic self-denial. The sons and daughters were 
healthy and robust. They would enter with animation and zest into 
the enjoyment of festive occasions, such as the singing schools, the going 
and coming; comhusking parties, quilting bees, the fruit parties, when 
the delicious strawberries, blackberries, plums, cherries, apples, peaches, 
abounded, with walnuts and pecans. The wedding and infare parties 
were very popular, where the clergyman always officiated. It was not 
considered in good form to have a justice of the peace perform the mar- 
riage ceremony. The dances were frequent, when the innocent fiddle 


made music that stirred the hearts and moved the feet to harmless har- 
monious measure, when the old tunes, and virtuous people, and the 
limited hours, quickened the pulse and afforded rational delight and 
merriment. The familiar tunes, money musk, leather breeches, Virginia 
reel, cotillion, etc., played chiefly on the violin, delighted all and toned 
the amusements in a pure atmosphere. 

The forests were a means of education and closely read with the 
various variety of trees, soil and vegetation. Shadow cast by the sun 
was a familiar method of telling the hours of the day. Game was plenti- 
ful, consisting of buffalo, bear, wolf, deer, squirrel, turkey, etc. The 
fox chase and deer drive afforded much pleasure to the hunters with 
their dogs, horses and guns. 

The population had rapidly increased, the danger lessened, and from 
territorial beginning, the people demanded state government. 

Political iNSTrrurioNS 

The United States judged it to be a wise and righteous principle, in 
harmony with natural law and the superiority of the people to restrict 
citizenship in the United States and territories exclusively to the white 

Therefore the following fundamental law was enacted as the estab- 
lished basis of citizenship in Missouri : 

Naturalization op Aliens. 

Abstract of Laws of the United States in relation to the naturalization of 

Section 1. Any alien bein^ a free white person, may be admitted to be a 
citizen of the United States, or any of them on the following conditions and not 
otherwise : 

Section 4. Any alien, being a free white person, and a minor under the age of 
twenty-one years, etc. 

Section 10. Any alien, being a free white person, who was a resident within 
the limits, etc. 

Section 11. Nothing in the foregoing section 10, contained shall be construed 
to exclude from citizenship, any free white person who living within the limits, etc. 
—Act of March 3, 1813. 

The Constitution of the United States (Amendment) : Article 5 — No person 
shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation — March 
4, 1789. 

The Constitution of Missouri of 1820 — expressly stipulated in Article 3, Sec- 
tion 10, that a qualified elector of all elective ofSces shall be a free white male 
citizen of the United States. 

Section 3. No person shall be a member of the house of representatives, who 
shall not be a free white male citizen of the United States. 

Section 5. No person shall be a senator, who shall not be a free white male 
citizen of the United States. 

Section 26. The General Assembly shall have no power to pass laws. 

(Ist) for the emancipation of slaves without the consent of the owners or with- 
out paying them, before such emancipation, the full equivalent for such slaves 

The General Assembly was vested with power to pass laws. 

(Ist) to prevent negroes and mulattoes from coming to, and settling in this 
state, under any pretext whatsoever. 

Section 2. To oblige the owners of slaves to treat them with humanity and 
to abstain from all injuries to them extending to life or limb. 

Section 27. In prosecutions for crime, slaves shall not be deprived of an 
impartial trial by jury, and a slave convicted of a capital offense shall suffer the 
same degree of punishment and no other, that would be inflicted on the free white 
person for a like offense: and courts of justice before whom slaves shall be tried, 
shall assign them counsel for their defense. 


Section 28. An^ petMn wbo sball deprive of life, or diamember a slave, shall 
Buffer Bucb punisbDieiit as would be inflicted for a like oeFenBe if it were committed 
OQ a free white peraoii. 

Article 13, DecUratLon of Rigbte. 

Section 7. That courts of justice ought to be open to every person, and eertain 
reinedy afforded for every injury to person, property or ebaraeter; and that right 
and justice ought to be administered without sale, denial or delay; and that no 
private property ought to be taken or applied to public use, without just com- 

The laws of a state set forth the manhood of its citizens. 

Map of the original town of Franklin, nov known aa Old Franklin, as it was 
laid off in 3S16 and made tfae County Seat of Howard County on June 17th, 1616. 
The town began to be washed away in about 1628 and in 1S44 was washed back to 
Vbe line marked "North Bank of Missouri River." It then had a population of 
about 2,500. It was the seat of an "Institute of Learning," the first brick build- 
ing in the Boon's I>ick country, now the only building left standing of the once 
prosperous town of Franklin. 

Pioneer Lawyers 

The lawyers many of whom were learned and skillful and wise in 
the law, were the leaders in public matters of importance. They tilled 
generally the official positions giving direction and emphasis to subjects 
of vital concern. The various supreme court reports contain lucid 
. expositions of the difficult phases of civil and criminal law creditable to 
the bench and bar of any state in the Union. 


The pioneer lawyers were very familiar with a few books of general 
principles adequate to the litigation of the times. They framed the 
laws and were usually men of intellectual strength and public spirit. 
They rode the circuit from county to county, with law books in their 
saddle bags for authority adapted to the legal problems involved in 
contested cases. Professional practice was not very remunerative for 
either lawyers or doctors, a bare living was the customary average. 

Their social life waa usually with the best society and that promi- 
nence encouraged many despondent practitionere. The law first affect- 
ing Northeast Missouri was the appointment of the officers of the 
federal government. Postmasters were occasionally appointed. 

It is told that an appointment of postmaster came to a villager, who 
at once swept the fioor and rearranged the chairs. In the evening a 

The woman is standiog at a point twelve feet north of the M. K. 4 T. B. 
R. Bridge across the Miggouri Kiver at Boonville; at what was in Old Franklin the 
Sontheast corner of the Public Square, at the intersection of Madison and St. 
Charles Streets, aa shown on the map. The Institute of LeamiuK was located 
on Lots II and 12, the Northeast comer of the town, and is now a farm bouse, to 
which the woman is pointing, to indicate the present condition of the former site of 

letter came by mail. Next morning the postmaster and horse were miss- 
ing, rumors were current, friends were anxious and his wife was almost 
distracted. A month later the postmaster returned on his jaded and 
hungry horse. "Hello, Tom, where have you beent" was a^ed. The 
postmaster replied, "The first letter came, and I went to see the presi- 
dent to learn what to do with it." 

Provision for Schools 

The education of the pioneer boys and girls was considered to be a 

cardinal duty. Provision was made by the state constitution of 1820. 

Article ft— Section 1: "Schools and the means of education shall be 


forever encouraged in this state; and the general assembly shall take 
measures to preserve from waste or damage such lands as have, or here- 
after may be granted by the United States for the use of schools within 
each township in this state, and shall apply the funds which may arise 
from such lands with strict conformity with the grant. One school or 
more shall be established in each township as soon as practicable and 
necessary, where the poor shall be taught gratis." Section two provided 
for the permanent fund for the permanent support of the university for 
the promotion of Uterature and of the arts and sciences, and effectual 
' means for the permanent security of the funds and endowment of such 

The State University was established in Columbia in 1839. The 
people of the state are very proud of that noble institution of learning 
In 1852, the state of Missouri enacted a law appropriating one-fourth of 
the revenue annually for the public schools, and organized a public 
school in every township. 

Article 13 — Section 7 : Stipulated among other matters, for honest 
protection to the owners of property, viz, *'No private property ought 
to be taken or applied to public use, without just compensation." 

The various churches had their denominational seminaries and col- 
leges through Northeast Missouri, so the cause of education and religion 
thrived wonderfully. 

* No Race Degeneration 

Excerpts from Missouri Statutes of 1845, chapter 115. Marriages, 
section 3— All marriages of white persons with negroes or mulattoes, 
are declared to be illegal and void. Section 4 — ^Provided for violations 
of the foregoing by persons solemnizing any such marriages and persons 
violating l£e above, penalty of fine and imprisonment. There was no 
race degeneration during the pioneer period. Additional to the peril 
to life and property from lurking savage^, the pioneer' had to contend 
against insurrection and the robbery by the dishonest Abolitionist. One 
authentic instance from the circuit court records of Marion county, of 
1841, exhibits how the guilty were detected, arrested, and punished. At 
Quincy, Illinois, the Mississippi river is about one mile wide to the bot- 
tom lands of Marion county, Missouri. Those low lands were overflowed 
annually, were uninhabited, and were not in cultivation. In 1841, 
George Thompson, a preacher and two others studying for the ministry, 
were living in Quincy and they formed a plot to ste^ the slaves of the 
Missouri farmers. They came over and secretly induced a number of 
slaves of farmers living near Palmyra to agree to run away with them on 
a certain night. The Abolitionists and the slaves met at the appointed 
time, and went to the river bank opposite Quincy where a white man 
with skiffs was waiting to take them over the river. At that juncture 
the Missouri farmers captured the Abolitionists and slaves. A faithful 
slave had divulged the plot. The Abolitionists were placed in jail in 
Palmyra. In due course of law they were indicted, convicted of the 
crime and sentenced to imprisonment in the Missouri penitentiary for 
a term of years. The pretended, fabricated justification for the crime 
« is herein given, in the words of the leader of the gang, who wrote a book 
exploiting his criminal conduct: ** Prison Life, by George Thompson, 
Oberlin, 1847. The Mission Institute being situated near the IGssis- 
sippi river, and just across the river from a slave state (Missouri) we 
coidd, as it were, hear the crack of the overseer's whip — ^the shrieks and 
groans of those who were suffering its cruel infiiction, their earnest cries 


for help, their sighs for deliverance, their importunate entreaties, as 
they rehearsed to us their tales of woe, reached our ears, and our hearts 
melted with pity, while the resolution was formed to respond to their 
call ; and if need be too, to risk our own liberty and lives to effect their 
rescue. ' ' 

Pioneer Wheat Ghowbbs 

The pioneers of Northeast Missouri can boa^t of the fertility of its 
soil and the enterprise of its citizens, because of the record success of 
the wheat harvested, and the flour manufactured in that desirable part 
of the state. In 1853, Hiram Glascock, a Ralls county pioneer from Vir- 
ginia, raised on his farm the superior white wheat, that was manufac- 
tured into superlatively choice flour, by a- pioneer miller, Capt. A, S. 

RoBards' Mill, Hannibal 

RoBarda, of Kentucky, at his mill in Hannibal. The flour was exhibited 
at the World's Fair of 1853 in New York, against the competition of 
all the nations. That Hannibal flour was awarded the highest premium 
for being the beat flour, over the competition of the world. The prestige 
thus fairly acquired for Hannibal flour, has been of incalculable flnancial 
beneflt to the wheat and flour interests of the great Mississippi valley 
since that date of 1853. 

The pioneers were men of energy and business tact in all the depart- 
ments of business commerce One instance will illustrate for all. The 
farmers of Northeast Missouri raised the hemp, the com, the wheat, the 
fat hogs, the choice beef cattle, the big mules, the finest tobacco. They 
were marketed in Hannibal from the different interior localities. The 


mills ground the wheat and exported the flour. The meat packers killed 
the hogs and exx)orted the various products. 

The steamboats being then in their glory for freight and passengers, 
received and discharged their cargoes at the wharves. The manufactur- 
ers made the rope, the cigars, the plug tobacco, and pressed the leaf 
tobacco into immense hogsheads of several tons weight, and all that class 
of business flourished and prospered.* Likewise at Hannibal were the 
boat yards, where steamboats were constructed, fluished and launched. 

In Honor op the Dead 

The state of Missouri adopted the wise and considerate policy of 
erecting at its capital, in Woodlawn cemetery, in Jefferson City, appro- 
priate memorials to distinguished state officials, whose merits and valued 
services entitled them to that distinction. Several are named of the 
many to indicate that the dead are not always forgotten: 

Peter Q. Glover, secretary of state of Missouri, born in Virginia, 
1792, died in Missouri, 1851. 

James R, McDearmon, auditor of the state of Missouri, bom in 
Virginia, 1805, died in Missouri, 1848. 

Thomas Reynolds, governor of Missouri, born in Kentucky in 1796, 
died in Missouri, 1844. 

William A. RoBards, attorney general of Missouri, bom in Kentucky, 
1817, died in Missouri, 1851. 

William Scott, judge of the supreme court of Missouri, born in Vir- 
ginia, 1804, died in Missouri, 1862. 


In reviewing the railroad enterprises as expressed in the 147 lines 
of operating railways of Missouri, the fact should be known that North- 
east Missouri boomed the first railway movement in Missouri in 1835. 

The following from the History of Marion County, deserves wider 
observation for the reasons therein set forth: 

**The first railroad ever surveyed and graded in Missouri was begun. 
Its initial point was Marion City, it was to run westwardly, through 
'Railroad street,' to the city of Philadelphia, with a branch to Palmyra 
and Ely City, and from thence to New York in Shelby county, and as soon 
as possible, to the western boundary of the state, and ultimately to the 
Pacific ocean.'' This was in the fall of 1835. 

At an early date when railroads, or when at that early date, "steam 
cars" as they were called, were hardly understood, when Nevada and 
California were not a part of the United States, Wm. Muldrow was wont 
to speak of the day that would come when a citizen of Marion county 
would step on a railroad car at Palmyra on Monday morning, and wash 
his face in the Pacific ocean on the following Saturday night. The fol- 
lowing is an extract from a letter written by Wm. Muldrow to Major 
Moses D. Bates, dated St. Charles, December 26, 1835. Speaking of 
Marion City, and a railroad across to the Missouri, Mr. Muldrow says: 
*'*Our plan is ultimately to strike the Pacific ocean, with the railroad, 
thereby tapping the East India trade, the most important to us of any 
in the world. This will make a reduction of three-fourths of the present 
route, and more than half of the expense wll be taken off. To complete 

* The finished product was shipped by steamboats to St. Louis and New 
Orleans for domestic and foreign purchasers to supply the various commercial 
demands. Hannibal was a port of entry. 


thifi may require twenty years, though I believe it will be completed 
before that time ; and all will admit, that our connection will be complete 
with New York before that time expires. And if this be admitted, I aah 
you to say what the size of our own city wiU be, and what tie value of 
our own lota, when we have this extent of garden land drawing their 
products continually to us, together with the trade and products of the 
Indies. Coupled with this, the fact that the great Mississippi makes one 
part of the crossroad, which passes through an extent of country, which, 
for length and fertility, is unparalleled by any on the globe. Now, sir, 
I again ask you, what may we not expect our own city to come tot The 
man who could not see our just claims to a rivalship with any of our 
western cities must be blind. ' '* 

That only some twenty miles of roadbed was actually built proved 
bow vain and visiooary are, apparently, some men of most splendid intel- 

At Boon's Lick, Howakd Cocnty 
Marshall Gordon (Btanding) and Judge John R. Haireton. 

lect and indomitable enei^, who are slow to concede that money builds 
railroads, and not balloon blaster. 

When the Pioneer Went West 
The California gold iever of 1849 led many enterprising men of the 
pioneers to travel across the vast plains in pursuit of gold on the Pacific 
slope. The Hannibal company of fifteen was thoroughly equipped and 
provisioned by Gapt. A, S. RoBards, who took his son, John L., and his 
horse, with him, and started on April 17, 1849. He had five covered 
wagons each drawn by five yoke of select oxen, a double spring wagon, 
drawn by two mules and his slave, Oreen. He established ^e Cross 
State California Trail, almost as straight as the bird files. Beginning on 
liie Mississippi river, thence passed through Florida, Mark Twain's 
birthplace, on Salt river, to Paris, Monroe county, thence to Huntsville, 
Randolph county, thence to Keytesville in Chariton county, thence to 
Brunswick on the Missouri r\ver, crossed Grand river, thence to Carroll- 
ton in Carroll county, thence to Richmond in Ray county, thence to 
Liberty in Clay county, thence to Platte City in Platte county, and 
crossed the Platte river, and went into camp for several days. Wm. 

* Historj of Marion Coantj, page 236. 


Hnbbardy of Marion county, with eight men and two wagons, joined our 
company there. 

The committee returned from St. Joseph and reported that the chol-" 
era was killing tens of thousands of gold seekers on the Salt Lake route. 
We concluded it was better to take the longer route, and get to California 
alive, than to try the northern route and be buried where the coyotes 
would feast on our dead bodies. The company crossed the Missouri 
river at Fort Leavenworth, thence southwest about twenty miles, and 
struck the Santa Fe trail. We met with Col. Congreve Jackson's com- 
pany from Howard county, of twenty men and five covered wagons, 
each drawn by four mules, and consolidated trains for mutual defense 
and convenience. Colonel Jackson was a hero with General Doniphan, 
in his celebrated victorious march and captures in Mexico, in the War 
of 1846, and had large frontier experience. He was appointed captain 
of the combination when together. Captain RoBards of the 2d division 
when separate. 

Near the Arkansas river several immense herds of buffalo were seen 
and chased and a number killed. Colonel Jackson rode his very fleet 
black mule, and took good care of John L., his special pet, whose horse 
was gentle, spirited and fast, who had his father's hair trigger ounce 
ball pistol belted to him, with which he shot several buffalo. They met 
with several roaming bands of Shawnee, Pawnee and Comanche 
Indians west of Tucson, Colonel Jackson passed through the Pemo 
Indian village several miles and camped. Captain RoBards' division 
halted before reaching the village, and formed corral for the night. A 
stranger with two horses rode up and asked to eat with us. A number of 
Indians recognized the stranger's pack horse, and told our interpreter, 
Pedro, that he was stolen by some Mexicans several months before. The 
stranger hotly refused to give up the horse. The chief came with several 
hundred armed warriors and surrounded our corral. They were angry 
and excited about the horse, and became very noisy and demonstrative. 
The crisis was urgent. Captain RoBards held up some trinkets, and said 
to the interpreter, tell the chief to take his choice. The pistol was in 
his face. The chief waved his men away, and accepted some of the beads 
and rings. The horse was taken away by the Indian owner. About ten 
o'clock our sentinel heard a rapid tramping of feet, as of horses running. 
Our company was aroused at once, when Colonel Jackson galloped in at 
the head of his men to our rescue. One of our men had slipped away 
when our lives appeared in jeopardy. He found Colonel Jackson's camp 
and told him of our danger. Forthwith through the night came Jackson 
and his men to our rescue. The danger had passed, but we had a joyful, 
hilarious time. We felt the prompt, fearless, friendly act was brave 
and noble, and we loved them for it. 

We passed en route through Los Angeles on Christmas day. The mule 
teams went into Mariposa mines only one day before the ox teams, ten 
months and four days from Hannibal. Not a man had died from disease 
on the trip, while tens of thousands of emigrants died of cholera on the 
Salt Lake route. In Sacramento City, in the fall of 1850, Captain RoBards 
voluntarily gave his slave Green, his liberty, the first slave set free 
in California. A band of Digger Indians had elected Green their cbief . 
His owner said. Green had been faithful in Kentucky, in Missouri, and 
for two thousand miles from Hannibal, Missouri, to Sacramento, and 
a chief of free men ought to be a free man. 

The Pioneer in War Time 

Our pioneer section of this state was troubled with war in various 
forms and against divers enemies. Black Hawk, the Indian insurgent, 


with his desperate braves was the object of a hurried call by the governor 
for several thousand militia. Black Hawk's famous defiance was, ''The 
white men do not scalp the head, but they do worse, they poison the 
heart." He and his band of bloodthirsty braves were exterminated by 
the military forces of Illinois. 

The Mormon war was almost a bloodless affair. But it manifested 
the spirit of Missourians to drive polygamy from the state even though it 
paraded in ministerial uniform. 

The Mexican war of 1846 was a brilliant historic reality. The pio- 
neers of Northeast Missouri furnished about two thousand soldiers under 
General Doniphan. The length of the march, the hardship of the cam- 
paign, conferred great renown upon them. For they defeated the enemy 
in every battle. The pioneer military spirit was splendidly illustrated 
in their matchless achievements. 

William H. Dulany, Pioneer 

A prominent ^nd wealthy citizen of Hannibal has the providential 
distinction of having lived more than ninety-four years, and all that 
period in the charming locality, Northeast Missouri. He is a native of 
the Louisiana Purchase territory, antedating the state of Missouri sev- 
eral years. William H. Dulany was bom in what is now Howard county, 
Missouri, on January 9, 1818. He has three sets of great grandchildren. 
He is in fine health, and will probably yet live a full century. He is a 
member of the Christian church, and enjoys the blessings of a long 
prosperous and useful life. 


By Mrs, Lily Herald Frost, Vandalia 

Whether preserved on Babylonian bricks, or painted on American 
bluffs, whether written by the stylus of Herodotus, or the typewriter 
of today, history is the record of the achievements of man, of his con- 
quest of the world. Since Deborah's wild war cry stung the Jews to 
victory, but few women have been instrumental in shaping the des- 
tinies of peoples or of nations. And yet she is the sub-structure of 
every world accomplishment. The toil of her hands, her sacrifices, 
her insight, the deep red depths of her heart and the clear-eyed vision 
of her intellect constitute the welding material that has given strength 
and permanency to every establishment of civilization, whether of the 
old world or of our own Northeast Missouri. 

Real History Around the Hearth 

The real history of a country is made around the hearthstone where 
women reign. The written page with its record of the deeds of men 
and the rise and fall of governments is only the result. 

The wanderlust is an ineradicable heritage. When the Aryans 
swept down out of Asia and flowed up into Europe, they set in motion 
vast currents that still move and sway. They developed instincts that 
still pervade the blood, and men. and women are ever traveling hither 
to new countries, to far horizons, to wide silences, ever going, ever 
travelijig, seeking the Land of the Heart's Desire. The same tang in 
the blood sent adventurous spirits across the great America, and shortly 
over a century ago the tide of life paused here on the edge of this won- 
derland, with silent mysteries brooding along the shores of its wide 
and shining river, which came from they knew not where and went 
on toward the sea, slowly moving, majestic. Into this land of mystery 
man came like King Arthur of old, to let in the light. Nor did he come 
alone. But hand in hand with his mate, the woman. And who shall 
say which was the stronger of the two? Back of them many days' 
journey they had left friends, home and comparative comfort. Here 
on the bosom of the mighty river their souls were charged with the awe 
of vast potentialities. Under a sky of brilliant blue, a slow-moving, 
molten-yellow stream moved sluggishly away between caressing low lying 
shores. Stretches of low lands, miles of crowned bluffs. Pleasant val- 
leys, the songs of birds, alluring, beckoning, but everywhere mystery, 
mystery! What Indians lie in wait under that dense foliage! What 
wild beasts lurk in those fair valleys! What pestilences hang along 
that sluggish stream! They were heroic, those pioneer women. What 
wonder their descendants walk like free women, with head erect, squared 
shoulders, meeting the issues of life with courage, with serene eyes. 



In the Silences of the Fobbsts 

"Thales remained motionless fonr years. He founded philosophy." 
Sncceediog the first valorous onalacght on the primitiveness of North- 
east Missouri, passed a long period of pioneer years, apparently con- 
secutive duplicates. The women spun and wove and cut — Clotho, Atro- 
pos, and Lychesis, weaving a. wonderful cloth of character, an even, 
beautifiil fabric for their daughters and granddaughters for inter- 
minable generations. While the good pioneer women brewed like sybils 
and wove like the Fates, great dynamic forces were silently at work 
and suddenly it seemed the light was shining. In less than three gen- 
erations life swung the limit, from pioneer days to the crest of civiliza- 
tion. The needle was relegated for the sewing machine, electric range 
and fireless cooker had supplanted the open fireplace, and instead of 
her woven, hand made dress, grandmother can now wear the most per- 

Stnodical College poe Women, Fui/fon 

feet of garments, turned out ready to wear by great industrial fac- 

Civilization is the hand of God working through human agencies. 
When the work has been accomplished and valley and plain are blos- 
soming like the rose the transformation seems a bit of alchemy, or a 
fairy tale, Man may claim the glory, but God planned, and also while 
Adam delved Eve span. 

Betsy Biaas 

When Betsy Biggs moved from Kentucky in 1817 with her husband, 
Wm. Biggs, she brought courage and character and a copy of Milton's 
Paradise Lost along with slaves and gold and furniture and a brood 


of incipient citizens. The book is a keynote. Her myriad descendants 
are lovers of learning, and that Betsy read the book is proven by her 
giving her son the name of the blind poet. The book, nearly 200 years 
old, was printed in Edinburgh in 1726 and is now the most valued pos- 
session of a granddaughter. And Betsy was a wonderful wife, for 
when she was to be baptized along in the late twenties, her husband 
rode horseback from Jefferson City, where as representative he was 
attending the legislature, to observe the rites. And Betsy was a lover 
of fine horses and on her eightieth birthday went riding, keeping up 
with the best of them. So strong was this love that it passed into the 
line of inheritance and wherever a drop of it prevails it means the pos- 
session of blooded animals and fine stock. Her women slaves were taught 
by her to weave and they were splendid weavers, their wool and linen 
being remarkable for their smoothness. When one of her sons was mar- 
ried he and also his bride were dressed in fine white linen from head 
to foot, even wearing moccasins of deer skin tanned to a gleaming white. 
It is related that one of the guests, a pioneer gallant, slipped while 
playing ball and had the misfortune to get his pants so stained with 
grass tiiat he disappeared in mortification from the company. Betsy 
Biggs was a woman of such strong character that among her descend- 
ants scattered over several counties of northeast Missouri, her name 
is still a household word. ''How strangely do things grow and die and 
do not die." 

Madame Schbiefer 

Only sixty years ago when plodding, ponderous oxen brought Madame 
Schriefer, a buxom German bride, through forests, over streams and 
by perilous ways to the broad prairie, her chief assets were courage 
and youth. Away from her one room log house, prairie grass, taller 
than herself, stretched as far as eye could reach, shimmering in the 
gleaming sun. Green flies buzzed all day and rattlesnakes were so 
numerous it was not safe to venture out without a stout stick. This 
precaution Mrs. Schriefer forgot one day when going a few yards away 
to the well, but when she stepped on a coiled sni&e her presence of 
mind did not desert her, and she quickly plumped her bucket over the 
writhing mass. There were no dubs and receptions in Mrs. Schriefer 's 
day and when her husband made his three days' journey to the mill, 
her chief diversion was climbing a ladder to the roof of her home, where 
she would sit and watch the deer go plunging through the tall grass. 

No Parsee guarded his altar fires more zealously than this indis- 
pensable article was guarded on this hearthstone. Matches were as 
rare as jeweled stickpins and one day when not a live coal could be 
found in the ashes, a member of the family rode several miles to pro- 
cure some from their nearest neighbor, on the return journey riding 
with extended arm that the rushing wind might fan the coals and keep 
them aUve. A spacious home now replaces the log cabin and from 
where Mrs. Schriefer watched the deer, now can be seen fallow fields 
rimmed with trim hedges, sleek, fat cattle grazing, winding railroads, 
and a breath of peace and opulence. 

As a mark of great favor she brings out her spinning wheel and 
shows you how she spun a stout woolen thread and a fine linen thread. 
''Life was not hard. No, it was fun. I could do it again," says this 
indomitable will that helped to make the prairie blossom as the rose. 

Here and there in Missouri are women who have seen King Arthur 
pass, slaying the beast, felling the forest and making broad pathways 
for the children of men. There are only left a few of these dear roses 


o£ yesterday, cliugiiig tenaciously to life, faded, fragrant, anachronisms 
among the gorgeous bloom and blossom of today. 

Unfortunate indeed is one who does not count among their acquaint- 
ance, one of those dear, sweet, white-haired women, in their eyes linger- 
ing shadows and depths and vision of things long swept out by the 
march of progress. When they say, "I remember," it has the folk lore 
quality of "Once upon a time." Their story is of those who have gone 
before in the wilderness. 

Each pioneer woman, living or dead, baa added her little molecule 
to the glory of the state. The story of each life is a sentence in its his- 
tory. They are the real uncrowned heroines of Northeast Missouri. 
And how pitifully few are left. How close tbey are to the brink of 
the river. Every day one slips over. Perhaps another decade will 
mark their complete passing. How strangely odd and lonely the world 
will seem then. 

The Pioneer Woman 

Every community has its few pioneer women. Their stories all 
vary and are yet all typical and can be duplicated in any other com- 

WiLi,iAM Woods College for Women, Fulton 

munity. Men and women are so absorbed in the mad rush of the day, 
commercial, industrial and social, that they do not realize that the 
last human documents of an historic period are yet open about them. 
That it is their rare and rich privilege to read if they will. The names 
and deeds of these women are never written in boo^. They have only 
been written in human lives. They have done nothing great, only lived 
and loved, and made a home and borne children, and lived life to the 
full of its circumstance, the while imconsciouBly fostering, developing, 
crystallizing the character of the men and women of their state. The 
historic atmosphere is elusive but their story should have a setting of 
the wildness' of a century ago. It should be told about a cavernous 
fireplace with the tea kettle hanging on the crane, and the blaze creep- 
ing up through the hickory logs and breaking into flickering, waver- 
ing shadows on walls of log and puncheon floor. In the gleam and 
glow the old wrinkled faces would turn magically back to the smooth 
bloom and beauty of youth. 


Cevilla Inlow Roland 

In 1829 civilization had not disturbed the lair of the panther or 
frightened away Indians, or bear or deer. Cevilla Inlow Roland, who 
was bom in that year, can still, despite the lapse of eighty-three years, 
remember vividly the screams and cries of ** painters*' that made the 
nights hideous and kept her shivering even in her warm featherbed. 

Around her pioneer log home lay primeval wildness, and once 
while fishing in a nearby stream a bear came stealthily padding on a 
log across the water, but was seen in time and the children fled in wild 
haste. The Indians, too, kept the hearts of the children in terror. 
They only committed occasional depredations, but this fact conveyed 
no feeling of safety to the children of pioneer days, and one day Cevilla 
was almost paralyzed with fright to see an Indian brave with feathers 
in his hair emerge from the woods and loom suddenly, before her. 
Though he only demanded a handshake, the courtesies of the high- 
way were ignored and she fled precipitately, followed by sounds that 
her imagination freely translated as challenging war whoops. This 
was in 1838 and the last Indian Cevilla ever saw. 

In 1843 when Cevilla was fourteen years old tragedy came into the 
pioneer home. The mother died. Also the old black mammy slave of 
the family. There were ten bodies to feed and ten bodies to clothe in 
that stricken household, and the work devolved solely on Cevilla, aged 
fourteen, and her sister, aged sixteen, and nobly they rose to the work. 

Prom early dawn to late candle light these two young heroines 
wrought miracles with their slender, marvel-working fingers. They 
carded the wool into rolls, spun it into thread, wove the cloth, made 
the garments worn by the father, the children and the cabin of little 
darkies. Sometimes there was a roll of jeans to spare and it was car- 
ried on horseback forty miles away to the town and exchanged for tea 
and coffee and many coveted things. There was not an article used 
in that home, sheets, table cloths, towels, but these two girls, fourteen 
and sixteen, had not made. 

A happy feature of this pioneer life was the over-Sunday visits of a 
certain pioneer swain, who arrived on Saturday evening and stayed 
until Sunday evening. He gave the ladies the latest news, how mother 
was checking the cotton she had in the loom, and they were keeping 
their sheep pens covered to keep out the wolves. And they roasted 
wild turkey in the fireplace and carefully turned the corn pone on its 
board taking on a golden brown before the mellow blaze. On the man- 
tel overhead ticked the clock bought from a journeyman peddler the 
year Cevilla was born and as the flames danced eyes sent fair speech- 
less messages. 

The same old clock ticks today in a dignified, deliberate way as befits 
its years. Underneath it sit the same swain and the same maid telling 
the story of that far-off day. **It was hard work," says Cevilla, **but 
we didn't know anything else." By the side of the clock in a hand- 
carved frame is a silhouette, ninety years old, of Cevilla 's mother, 
Anne Briscoe, bom in 1803, a Bourbon county, Kentucky belle, and 
a woman of great strength of character. How else could her daugh- 
ter, aged fourteen, have accomplished the work she did in that pioneer 

Mrs. Lewis Coontz 

Though one of the first settlements of Missouri was made along Salt 
river and Spencer creek, life there remained primitive for a long period. 
Even at this day a ride in certain communities is like dropping into 



the atmosphere of a century ago. Hills are wild and lonely. A brood- 
ing quiet prevails. Perhaps in going around a curve a tiny home is 
nestled by the side of a small patch of corn, as if it were the first tenta- 
tive pioneer essay at cultivation. 

In riding over the rocky bed of the shallow stream there are glimpses 
of overhanging low growth. A canoe of Indians can easily be pictured 
paddling toward you over the green and glassy water. Under the 
dense growth of hillsides a thousand feather helraeted braves could 
easily hide. There is no noise but the clear bird calls. On a hill etflied 
against the sky is a gaunt two-story log house, leaning, tottering. The 
setting sun sends shafts of light through its open windows. It is 
ghostly, a last lingering shadow. The historical atmosphere antedates 
the pioneer. It is tinged with medievalism. An automobile is an 
anachronism. It needs slow moving oxen. Even in 1833 when Mrs. 
Lewis Coontz came into this country with her father, life was pitifully 

This family built a one-room cabin of poles and prepared to chal- 
lenge the forest for a living. Wild turkeys were in abundance but they 
were elusive and wary. One expedient for catching them was for one 
to sprinkle corn on the earth floor of the cabin, meanwhile counterfeit- 
ing on a bone the cluck of a turkey, while two others held a blanket 
at the top of the door ready to drop when the cautious birds had ven- 
tured in. More often than not this ruse was unavailing. But a tur- 
key trap was maintained which w^as more successful in contributing 
to the family needs. 

Getting shoes in those days was not the simple matter of sitting in a 
leather chair while an obsequious clerk fits a rather fastidious foot and 
fancy. Instead there was waiting sometimes months until the shoe- 
maker of the section arrived and made the shoes for the family, the hide 
from the last cow killed having been dressed and tanned and waiting 
for his skill. If shoes wore out before his arrival there was nothing 
to do but go barefooted, without any reference to the zero tendency 
of the thermometer. This last was the condition of both the family and 
the weather when it became known that the turkey trap, a quarter 
of a mile away, held a bunch of coveted birds. Mrs. Coontz and the 
girls ran to the trap with all speed. Each grasped a bird, but on the 
return home they were compelled to frequently sit down and warm 
their feet in their woolen skirts before dashing on, on another lap of the 
.iourney. These stories seem like a fiction coined by the imagination, 
but those who have seen these things still live and tell the story. 

Mrs. Susan Pox 

Today in Northeast Missouri woman has every facility for learning 
that an overeducated age can offer, yet many of their grandmothers 
progressed no farther than the Rule of Three and learned that sitting 
on a split log seat. It is a rare privilege to meet one of these old ladies 
who, so to speak, were in at the birth of our great educational system. 
Mrs. Susan Fox, sitting bent with the w^eight of her eighty-six years, 
began her schooling in one of those log buildings that belong now only 
to history. She is a dear, quaint, but remarkably strong-minded old 
lady, with a very just doubt as to the spelling ability of the younger 
generations, given to phonetics and queer markings. 

She was seven years old in that far-away spring of 1833 when she 
started to the log cabin schoolhouse, just at the edge of a forest, pass- 
ing on the way with great fear and trembling, a bunch of wigwams, 
but gathering courage she stopped to see the Indians execute a dance, 

Vol. 1—8 


the braves making queer noises on queerer instruments, while the 
squaws circled in a slow, fantastic, aboriginal dance. "The school- 
house," says Mrs. Fox, "was built of logs, with an enormous 6replaee 
occupying one entire end. On one side a log was left out and this gave 
us the only light we had. The floor was just a rough puncheon one 
and the seats made of logs split in two. There we sat all day, our lit- 
tle feet dangling and our poor little backs nearly breaking." 

These little martyrs of learning possessed an incongruous collection of 
booKs. ilrs. Fox rejoiced in a "blue back" speller and the Life of Waah- 
ington, while next to her a little maid had to learn the mysterious proc- 
ess of reading from the cheerful source of Fox's Book of Martyrs, 
and another still used the Bible. Her father had decided ideas about 
learning and his daughter was sent to town where a select school was 
taught by a lady late from Philadelphia, who added philosophy to her 
curriculum as a touch of eastern culture. Her father also sent his 

M.*]N Dormitory, How.^rd-P.4tne College for Wojien. F.wette 

daughter to a dancing school but never penuitted her to attend dances. 
However, it was an accomplishment he said that every lady should 

While spinning and weaving were done in this home, it was for 
the use of the darkies, with the exception of Sannel which was made 
into petticoats, gathered at the waist and three yards around, top and 

In 1840 when Mrs. Fox was fourteen years old she made a visit to 
her grandfather in Kentucky and brought home with her a salmon- 
colored silk that she rejoiced in greatly. One day she wore it to church, 
accompanied by a young gallant, also her father, all on horseback. They 
stopped at the creek to let the horses drink, when Mrs. Fox's horse 
laid down in the cool water. The young man was so excited and fright- 
ened that he rode out and left her to her fate. Her father rescued her. 
not before, however, the salmoa-eolored silk was a total ruin, the water 
turning it to a bright purple. In those days the stork had not been 
dislodged from his supremacy and when the young people returned 
home a mischievous aunt asked the young man how he expected to take 


care of a wife and twelve children if he couldn't pull one girl out of 
the creek, a question that so abashed him that he did not call again 
for a month. 

In this pioneer household every child was given his own horse and 
saddle when it was ten years old, and the twelve members made a 
goodly procession when they started to church. 

Mrs. Fox's mother had one of the first cooking stoves brought to 
Northeast Missouri, but for many years it was simply an ornament. 
She was afraid the darkies would break it if they cooked on it. Mrs. 
Fox herself had the first sewing machine in her part of the country. 
Women would come for miles to see it, and men, sometimes driving 
stock, would stop and stay while she showed them the wonders of its 
sewing, meanwhile the hogs or cows straying far into the woods. 

Mrs. Fox sits now, rocking gently; on her finger, worn thin as her 
thread of life, is a gold ring worn one hundred and twenty-five years 
ago by her Kentucky grandmother and she shows with pride family 
silver hammered out a century ago by Kentucky silversmiths. Her 
eyes have witnessed marvelous changes. The town where she dabbled 
in philosophy and took her dancing lessons has grown from the small 
btinch of houses to a city counting many thousands of population. Log 
schoolhouses with their blue back spellers, and their simple games of 
*' Black ;Man'' and **Base'' have given way to stately stone-trimmed 
edifices where they babble German, wrestle with Greek, and take exer- 
cise in a gymnasium. 

Section by section the country has had wilderness and wolves, 
panther and deer, pushed into the primitive lying beyond. '*! have 
seen changes, strange changes,'' says ^Irs. Fox. *'I can remember 
when here, where I sit, it was considered as much as a man's life was 
worth to venture near it. Yet men were always pushing just a little 
further on and women went with them. They are the real heroines of 
this country.'' And the old lady sits, her eyes far back into the past, 
seeing things that you can never see, this country as it looked when 
she herself came and dwelt, making overtures to fortune and the future. 

Education op Women 

While along in the thirties and forties of eighteen hundred, the 
educational facilities were intensively primitive, in a few sporadic 
spots, of older settlement, the habits of Virginia clung and the chil- 
dren were taught by a governess. Later the girls went to a ** Female 
College," where the curriculum was sufiSciently formidable to satisfy 
modem requirements. 

Columbia even then had young and cherry-lipped maids who bab- 
bled Greek with the finished spontaneity of perfect acquirement. The 
Patriot, published in Columbia in 1841, in giving an account of the 
exercises of Bonne Femme College, says that Miss Mary Jenkins, after- 
wards the wife of Charles H. Hardin, governor of Missouri, read 
Cicero with ** Extraordinary ease, lucid diction, and inimitable taste," 
and *'read parts of the Greek Testament, named at haphazard by a 
gentleman in the audience, and went through the labyrinth of the 
Greek verb, not as by the aid of a borrowed clue, but as if nature had 
formed her another Ariadne." The latter quotation also gives an illus- 
trative flash of information on the educational acquirements of the edi- 
torial chair of the period. Or perhaps it was not the chair but a young 
tyro from the University sent out on assignment. The rosy-cheeked maid 
with a waterfall of curls, a cameo brooch at her throat, the billowy skirts 



of her little checked silk flowing over her sedately strapped ankles, evi- 
dently intoxicated him and Ariadnes and Cupids filled all the air. 

The meagemess of the early educational facilities was only a phase. 
It was a poverty, not of mind, not of purpose, but of resources. The 
adjustment was slow, but the strong arm was ever pushing back the 
primitive and the strong mind was ever appropriating, assimilating and 
improving, until today education is almost a fetich, an obsession, in 
Northeast Missouri. It is the freest thing we have. The mysteries of 
Greek are as open to the daughter of the day laborer as they are to the 
daughter of the capitalist. 

Mrs. Sallie Barnett 

There prevailed still in the fifties in many communities social life 
of great simplicity. Finger bowls and pink teas lay in the unfathomed 
future. The blood ran full and expression was free and untrammeled. 
The dictum of culture that language is used to conceal thought had 
not penetrated to the localities where log cabins and puncheon floors 
prevailed. Boys and girls enjoyed life robustly, and when there was 
a country dance its opportunities marked the high tide. 

It was a great time, says Mrs. Sallie Barnett, w^ho was born in the 
last year of the thirties. A star danced the night she was bom, and 
for once the horoscopic significance was true, for it is not the work of 
her pioneer home that lingers most vividly with this white-haired old 
lady, but the jjiemory of the country dances. *'It was none of your come 
at half past nine,'' she says, **and home at twelve. We began dancing 
at one o'clock and danced all afternoon, and all night and the next 
morning until noon.'' By one o'clock of an afternoon they came rid- 
ing in from country lane and forest road, brave boys, and buxom maids, 
many times the girls riding behind the boys. The flaming hickory blaze 
sent dancing lights over the smoothly worn floor, the old darkey tuned 
up his fiddle, and under its compelling music feet went flying in the 
mazes of the old time cotillion. At early dusk pound cake and cus- 
tard and fried pies were eaten with zest, and then the long white tal- 
low candles made by the women, were brought out and under their 
gentle radiance dancing and love making flowed along, interrupted 
only by the occasional disappearance of some of the laughing girls to 
make anew their toilets. 

The Social Life 

For three times aX least during the long dance girls changed their 
dresses, slipping away up the stairs and shortly emerging, fresh and 
stiffly starched and with smooth locks, for feminine vanity is the same 
yesterday, today and forever. Freshness and immaculateness were the 
chief points of glory in the matter of dress, for each w^as made alike, 
with tight waists and full skirt. In fact, there was only one pattern 
in the neighborhood and it passed from family to family, serving al^ke 
for the old and the young, the slim and her unfortunate sister. Any 
change in dress caused untold wonderment and once when two town 
girls appeared at a dance with their hair in curls and with ribbons, it 
caused an overpowering sensation. 

**We had none of your dreamy waltzing," says Mrs. Barnett; '*we 
danced and when it came to swing your partners, the boys fairly lifted 
us off our feet." And this same vigor was maintained until noon of the 
second day when they mounted horse and rode away to dream for weeks 
of swift glances and whispered word and the glory of the dance. Though 


the country swain of the fifties was generally in the proper bounds of 
conventional jeans and tow linen, a man who is now living and a wealthy 
citizen was seen by Mrs. Baniett wearing a gorgeous flowered calico 
coat, tow linen pants, and a pair of overshoes. 

While this primitiveness of social life prevailed in many localities 
during the fifties, in others life was the reflection of the best that was 
maintained in Virginia and Kentucky. lu many places fine country 
mansions had been built, large and spacious. 5Iany of them stand 
yet, their workmanship having a permanent quality. They were built 
in a day when houses were built on honor. About their old coloniiil 
simplicity stiil hangs that basic idea of stability and honor, as well 
AS a kind of story book stateliness telling of a day when men bowed 
with courtly irrace and even sometimes kissed a lady's hand. What 
flower faces have looked out those little panes, or waited by the little 
ladders of light framing the great hall door for a glimpse of Ihe com- 
ing swain. What gay figures have come trooping down tliose wide old 

Read Hau., Dormitory for Women, University op Missocki 

stairs in sprigged muslins, in flowered, flowing, silk, with black sandals 
strapping their white ankles, a cameo brooch at their throat and their 
faces framed in curls. When they stood in long lines facing BtniUng 
gallants and danced the Virginia reel with graceful sway and stately 
curtsies, it was different from the country dance only in its little ele- 
gancies and the air of culture, for the heart of a maid beats in unison 
with the heart of a man, the wide world over. 

"Becky Th.\tcher" 

Northeast Mis-wuri has the distinction of giving to literatui-e one 
of its most famous heroines. For here still lives Mrs. Laura Frazer, 
"Becky Thatcher," the heroine of Tom Sawyer, known wherever the 
English language is spoken. Though her head is crowned with the 
snows of many winters, there is yet a twinkle in the eyes rcminis<rent 
of the gay little coquette that -tossed a pansy over the fence to Itare- 
footed Toiu. Time has covered the fire with a veil of years, but there? 
still shines through the glory of an eternal charm, and it is small won- 
der that Bet-ky's initisl appearance, roguish, dimpling, cotjucttish. swept 


Tom's heart like a gale. She sits in her room today, flashing eyed but 

Though the author, Mark Twain, has been her life-long friend and 
she prizes beyond anything his photograph he gave her shortly before 
his death, and bearing this in his fine old fashioned chirography, *'To 
Laura Frazer, from her earliest sweetheart," Becky Thatcher is but an 
incident of Mrs. Frazer 's youth. 

She has been through fires that have only made wider spaces for a 
great soul. When the horrors of war convulsed her state, she too suf- 
fered and endured and triumphed. When the emancipation procla- 
mation freed the slaves it left a great mass of helpless women to 
whom the cooking of a meal was as great a mystery as the hie- 
roglyphs of an Egyptian monument. They knew nothing of cooking 
or of the management of a kitchen. But these finely bred gentlewomen 
of Missouri met the condition with the courage of the brave and the 
resourceful. **If a woolly-headed negro could learn to cook,'* said Mrs. 
Frazer, *'I knew I, with intelligence, added, could and surely would 
learn too." And this was the general attitude of that large number 
of women of Northeast Missouri who met the fortunes of war like good 
soldiers. Yet how trifling was this domestic disorganization to the 
tragedy of war with its harrowing suspense, its torture of soul and 

**It was a black time," says Mrs. Frazer. With her husband in 
hiding in another town, this wife and mother, only twenty-three, scarcely 
more than a girl, stayed in the home with her two little boys, her soul 
torn with the anguish of uncertainty. General McNeil was camped in 
her yard. It rained and he asked permission to bring his officers in 
her house. She gave it. They filled the house, cooking, eating and 
sleeping there. Her kitchen was full of strange negroes and she cooked 
for her family as she could. With the guileless craft of sweet and 
loving women she made a little dinner and asked General McNeil to 
dine with her and when he had broken her bread and was under the 
influence of dainty courtesies and the charm of his hostess, she plead 
with him to permit the return of her husband, upon the solemn assurance 
that while his sympathy was with the south, he was not actively 
arraigned against tha government, and that his services as a physician 
were needed. Her request was granted and her husband came home, 
but only saw his brave wife and his babies that night, for General 
McNeil, breaking camp next morning, had reconsidered over night 
and had taken Doctor Frazier with him a prisoner. 

Then began for Mrs. Frazer a period of waiting in which body and 
soul were so lacerated by emotion that life was a living death. She 
made continued, frantic, unavailing pleas for her husband's release. 
The days went by on leaden feet. Fields were laid waste and homes 
burned. Lone women were stupefied with terror. That her home was 
not burned was due to herself, General McNeil himself admitting that 
he was in that part of the country for that purpose, when her courtesy 
saved it. 

On an October morning in 1862 she went to Palmyra, only to again 
meet curt refusal. So great was her own distress that the crowds 
about the officers ' quarters, stern faced men, women crying, women 
praying, disheveled women, with hair streaming down their shoulders, 
made only a blurred picture in her mind. It was not until she reached 
Hannibal that she learned that General McNeil had ordered ten 
southern prisoners to be shot, because of the disappearance of one 
Allsman. Five had been selected from the prison in Palmyra and men 
were there even to take five from the Hannibal prison. And her bus- 


band was in that prison! She made appeals in every quarter that 
offered a bare possibility of hope. The only shadow of hope accorded 
her was the statement that a number of prisoners were to be transferred 
to St. Louis. It was an exhausted, tragic, heroic, little figure that 
asked for admission to the prison to see her husband. While waiting 
the provost marshal read a list of prisoners to be transferred to St. 
Louis. Doctor Frazer's name headed the list! Her alternating hope 
and despair burst into a prayer of thankfulness that amazed her hus- 
band, who was wholly unaware that his life had been hanging by so 
slender a thread. With the undaunted courage of women she followed 
him to St. Louis and traveled every avenue of appeal until at last Doctor 
Frazer went home with her a free man. 

Though half a century has passed away there is a tremor in ^Irs. 
Frazer 's voice as she gently turns the leaves in her Book of Years. In 
this spacious room high above the city, steals an awe and a holy quiet 
and abides. Through the window, a beautiful picture, the broad Mis- 
sissippi glistens and gleams and slips by the tree crowned bluffs. Tears 
are over the bright eyes of Becky, Becky Thatcher. **Life is a trag- 
edy!'' she says. But out of tragedies women weave their starry crowns 
of womanhood. From travail of soul and the discipline of life are 
evolved the sons and daughters that are the glory of the state. * * Becky 
Thatcher" is a beautiful gift of permanent charm to the world but a 
greater gift is a rare and beautiful womanhood radiating strength and 
virtue, and left as an inheritance to perpetuating descendants. 

Women in CmL War Time 

All over Northeast Missouri the story of ^Irs. Frazer can be dupli- 
cated. Gay, feminine women keep their lady feet in soft and beaten 
ways, until occasion arises with stern demand. The soldier on the 
firing line is not braver then than she. When word came to Mrs. Thomp- 
son Alford that her husband was at Vicksburg and wounded, dainty 
dependence dropped from her like a garment. She was all iron. 
Through the horror of Vicksburg, her husband, and wounded! What 
were the hundreds of miles of Federal blockade that separated them ? 
Love and money rendered impotent any barriers that men can build. 
She had both, ran the blockade and nursed her husband back to health. 
And when she had to return to her Missouri home, he procured an 
overcoat belonging to a soldier in the opposing army and going on 
board one of their transports put her in charge of the captain. **5ladam/ ' 
he said with a courtly bow, **I wish you a safe journey home.'' And 
he left her there on the deck of the boat. Both were dry-eyed and 
calm, and neither had the assurance that they would ever again see 
each other. But when a similar call came to her, again she went, and 
followed her husband all over the south. The tragedy of the weary 
months culminating in Altoona, Georgia, when Sherman went through 
to the sea. Captain Alford was in an upstairs room wounded and 
helpless. The flames were blazing up the stairway before the frantic 
appeals of the faithful wife brought help. 

For weeks after she tended him in a tiny cottage near Altoona, their 
sole fare being bacon and bread made from corn ground daily. They 
were permitted this luxury because of their host's expedient; when 
he heard of Sherman's coming he had ripped out the ceiling of his 
porch and hidden both bacon and corn under the roof, nailine it up 
again securely. When peace came to the WTecked country Mrs. Alford 
returned to her ^lissouri home with her husband where they found their 


once magnificent farm a barren waste, and their home in ashes. But 
what was that to a husband with such a wife ! 

Home Life in Pioneer Times 

These little stories of human interest are representative of phases 
of Missouri history, and show that, in whatever phase, women played 
well their part. **In books,'' says Carlyle, '*lies the soul of the whole 
past time; the articulate, audible voice of the Past when the body and 
the material substance of it, has altogether vanished like ^ dream.'' 
Vanished indeed like a dream are the conditions and the environments 
called to mind by these stories of a day that is past. Ere long the 
last human link will have been broken, and it wull be only through 
books that we can see the advancing of the sturdy pioneer, his broad 
axe whetted to carve out civilization, adventurous men witlif prophetic 
eye on the edge of the future with its full and fat years, and with them 
women, wives and daughters, building a foundation that their daughters 
and granddaughters might be as *' corner stones polished after the simili- 
tude of a palace. ' ' Through books only can we see the forest give way to 
fields of corn and vistas of prairie grass to fields of waving grain. Now 
we see only results. 

The little red schoolhouse occupies the site of the old log room. 
And they who sat on the old split log seats builded so well that now 
their granddaughters matriculate from one of the foremost universi- 
ties of the country, here in Northeast Missouri. Instead of a blue back 
speller and the Life of Washington every facility known to an age 
when education is apotheosized, is at the command of the poorest. '*My 
great-grandmother," said one, *' propped an old grammar in front of 
her while she wove cloth, and she spoke so pure an English that it put 
us to shame." Is it a wonder that her descendants are at the head 
of colleges and schools and the center of the educational life wherever 
they may be ? 

The pioneer housewife tended with zealous care the corn pone slowly 
baking on its board before the wide-throated fireplace, and when done 
placed it on the snowy square of cloth of her own weaving. Her grand- 
daughter takes her pan of biscuits, little flyaway puffs, from the oven 
of an electric range, and serves them on a machine-made doilie on a 
silver tray, but the fine instinct of looking well to the way of her 
household has come down true and unalloved. No more shines the 
blaze of the back log and the softer radiance of the candle while girls in 
calico gown, home-woven skirts and home-made shoes disport over 
smoothly-worn puncheon floors to the inspiring music of the old fiddle. 
Instead, stringed orchestras play, and gliding over the waxed expanse 
go fairy forms, silken hosed, satin slippered, with wild roses going 
a-maying over hair and filmy gown. Everything different except the 
coquetry. That is eternal. Women have gone along offering the apple 
to man, in one guise or another, ever siBce that little affair in the Gar- 
den of Eden. 

When the Baby Came 

The pioneer woman was happy with two or three little calico slips, 
the little flannels that she herself wove for her baby, and when the 
time came for her to go down in the dark valley, more often than not 
the doctor was forty miles away, and her only refuge was some good 
old woman, who many times had performed such offices. Indeed the 
pioneer mother was a good doctor, and knew all the qualities of medicinal 
herbs. It is related today by the eighty-four-year-old son of Mrs. Ann 


Waters, who was born in 1805 and died in 1905, that his mother looked 
on a doctor as a genuine disciple of Black Art, firmly believing that if 
she were to imbibe any of his potions it meant certain death. There was 
not much demand for a doctor in the pioneer day, however. Life ran 
quieter, less tense. It is in this swift, madly rushing present of 1913 
that the neurologist is coining gold. Then, a birth was a natural proc- 
ess of nature, like the opening of buds in spring. Now it is becoming 
an event that disturbs the whole trend of life. It means drawers full 
of lacy, perishable things, two or three doctors, trained nurses, long 
hours of lounging in blue ribboned lingerie, long periods of readjust- 
ment. The modern woman has not the physique of her pioneer for- 
bears. Invention and modem appliances have so reduced the labor of 
modem home life, that the body does not develop its full capacity. The 
heart* and mother love are the same though, and no more splendid 
mothers could l)e found in the world. 

Women ix the Church 

While all the presiding ministers in Northeast ^lissouri are men, a 
large proportion would not command their salaries if it were not for 
the activities of women. From the tip of the spire to the basement 
the trail of the women is over the church. The ministers are learned, 
erudite, and can thrill to tears, but it is the women who pay for the 
pulpit, buy the pipe organ, tack down the carpet, control the missionary 
exchequer and see that the coal bins are full. **What great work," 
was asked* a woman of intelligence and broad acquirements, **have the 
women of Northeast Missouri accomplished in religious work?" "Noth- 
ing,'' was the answer; ** nothing! she has been too busy paying the 
preacher and making missionary money." After all is it not practical 
religion that is the weightier argument? 

The woman of today is a composite of Mary and ^lartha. She 
breaks her alabaster box with one hand and serves sandwiches with the 
other. Missions and church socials were not thought of in pioneer 
days. Church was solely a place in which to worship God, a place of 
godly quiet, solemn observance, .firstlies and seventhlies. **You may 
say,*' said an upright old lady of eighty, wearing her years like a 
coronet, **that for more years than I can remember I never missed a 
Sunday service, and my husband and I rode four miles horseback, 
each carrying a child behind us and one in front of us. They sat 
between us during the service and neither talked or whispered. I car- 
ried cookies and a bottle of water in my reticule to give them. I do 
not like the way children run about in Sunday-school now, and neither 
do I like your godless music or your twenty-minute sermons,*' 

It is indeed a far cry from the ante-bellum church habits and 
methods to this day of progressiveness. The exponents of each have a 
very visible line of demarcation albeit each looks to the same ultimate 
point. Outward forms and mental attitudes are a product of the 
times, whether of old time sobriety, or modern broad interpretation. 
Though the solemn significance is often not felt in the atmosphere of 
some of our churches, who shall say that the white-gowned modish 
matron or maid who plays bridge on Saturday and sits under the jeweled 
light of stained glass windows on Sunday is less religious, less capable 
of sacrifice? 

As pretty a story as one can hear is that of the recent action of the 
women of a Fulton church, who had, by the usual methods of women's 
church organizations, raised the sum of $1,000 to be used in providing 
long-coveted improvements. But when old Westminster burned — 


Westminster! where their fathers and grandfathers and husbands had 
gone to school — and the old columns stood stark and naked and alone 
in the grove — these women did not hesitate. They sent their thousand 
dollars at once. **Take it/' they said, *'it will help in the rebuilding." 
And they probably did this beautiful act of sacrifice in a smiling, every- 
day way. There was no solemn, religious hour of rendering a religious 
service to the Lord. 

Religion is largely hid today under convention, or shall we say, that 
a broad, democratic interpretation of religion prevails, an everyday 
religion, capable indeed of its high and holy moments, but given mostly 
to doing deeds of week-day holiness, noiseless as the snow; There is 
no woman, however apparently given over to worldly ways, but has an 
inner chamber where the snake has never entered, and which keeps her 
soul true to the pole. 

Women in the Schools 

It is in school work that the women of Northeast jMissouri have 
rendered a service next to that of motherhood. It is probable that seven- 
eighths of the instructors in the educational world are women. Some of 
them are at the head of the most successful colleges and schools and 
A. M. degrees are commonplace possessions. However, how many ab- 
breviations she may be entitled to suffix to her name, the instances are 
rare when she has not been willing to substitute the simple prefix of 
Mrs. for the entire aggregation of the symbols of her learning, thus 
keeping inviolate the reputation of our women to be above all things 
truly feminine, truly women. • 

In college, in high school, in the grades, in the rural schools the^ 
women are doing a great work, not only in purely intellectual w^ork, but 
in that broader and deeper influence radiating from a womanhood of 
culture and high ideals. Not only do women predominate as instructors, 
but they are encroaching in other fields, there being no less than four- 
teen women county superintendents of public schools. The work that 
women are doing is a growth, a development, a result, harking ba(5k to 
the foundation laid by their pioneer grandmothers. 

The pioneer woman who looked after a large family, and a goodly 
number of slaves, with weaving and spinning, and cooking and sewing 
all proceeding under her able direction, was endowed generously with 
executive ability, and explains in great measure the women doctors, law- 
yers, editors, farmers, real estate dealers, women in public office that 
there are today. It is mental activity expressed in a different way, in 
alignment with the trend of the times. There are few vocations in which 
women are not creditably engaged. She fills many county offices with an 
efficiency not in any measure inferior to work done by men. At the 
present time there is a woman in Missouri running for the office of 
coroner, but this is probably an exposition more of nerve than of brains. 

It is impossible to tell what women have done for Northeast 
Missouri. The historical perspective is too short. They have come such 
a short way. It can not be said that they have come to this present estate 
along the primrose path of dalliance. Instead it has been over jagged 
stones, through primeval forests, over sunblistered plains, up from 
pioneer darkness to a sunlight of industrial plentitude, of broad culture, 
of almost opulent ease. The formulation of the modern has been on the 
strong, simple, sturdy lines of the pioneer and explains why the women 
walk as those who are free. Her broad-minded independence, her lack 
of snobbishness, her democracy, is a gift from a day when poverty was 


□of a stigma, but solely the condition of the times, as plentitude is the 
condition of the present. 

A Polyglot Composite 

The women of Northeast Missouri today are a polyglot composite. 
English, German, Scotch, Irish, have gone into the "melting pot." Also 
the brawn of the backwoodaman, the brain of the intellectual, the breed- 
ing of the aristocrat. The result is a woman nobly evolved, rich in honor, 
in love loyalty ; splendid mothers, women of wit and resource, of brains 
and ready adaptation to circumstances ; woman who can herself perform 
the work of her own household, and entertain high dignitaries with equal 
grace. She is a creature of merged heredities, culled from many countries. 
Many atavistic traits, sometime of manner, sometime of person, some- 
time racial, have given her a diversified quality, interesting to ethnolo- 

Some Women Newspaper Writers in Northeast Missouri 
From left to right — Miss Florence LaTurno, Miss Willielmina Long, Miss Frances 
Xiee. Miss I'annie R. Quinn, Mrs. S. E. Lee, Miss Mary Alice Hudson. Miss Mabel 
Couch. Miss Bertha Rcid, Miss Malvina Lind^iiy. Miss Sara Locknood. 

gists, and curious, bewildering, perplexing, charming and exciting the 
admiration of those privileged to luiow her. In the same family one 
daughter may with haughty grace and proud carriage surround herself 
with the atmosphere of an old wnrid court where an ancestor moved 
proudly among its courtiers, another has the housewifely instincts of her 
Plymouth forbears, while yet a third seornlng the ways of the protected, 
side by side with her lord treads joyously in the course of empires, to 
western ranch, or Canadian plains, or the gold fields of Alaska. 

As yet no high conspicuous deeds, no names of immortal luster have 
been produced in Northeast lliasouri. The average woman is educated, 
cultured, domestic, religious, a club woman, and vastly interested in the 
live issues of the day, in every problem of public interest that means the 
betterment of conditions, and the development of public benefits. Her 
methods may lack a certain virile (luaiity, hut her ultimate success ex- 
cuses this. In a certain county the young ladies are vitally interested in 
good roads, and have issued an edict that every gentleman to be eligible 


to a place on their calling list should possess a certificate of membership 
in an active good roads organization. What veteran diplomat could 
transcend the subtle craft of that? 

While energy has been expended in education, in literature, in jour- 
nalism, sculpture, politics, religion, missions, the lecture field, but few 
names have emerged from the crowd. Indeed the glory of Northeast 
IVIissouri is the splendid type of her average woman, who finds in wife- 
hood and motherhood the full tide of her acquirements and her natural 
endowments. A modern high priestess of the home, keeping safe and 
secure the sweet, sane, everydayness of life out of which grows the pos- 
sibility of all goodness and all greatness. Add to these basic virtues 
her full acceptance of Victor Hugo's apothegm that ** There is in the 
world no more important function than being charming,*' and it must 
be acknowledged that she has rendered the greatest possible service to 
her state. It may be said without fear of refutation that in its process 
of evolution, the fine type of womanhood generated in Virginia, and 
deflected to Kentucky, has been perfected here in Northeast Missouri. 



By Floyd C, Shoemaker, Columbia, 
Assistant Librarian of the State Historical Society of Missouri.* 

It is the purpose of this chapter to give a brief account of the Civil 
war in Northeast Missouri. The term Northeast Missouri will be taken 
to include all that part of this state which lies north of the Missouri 
river and east of the western boundary of Linn county. The shortness 
of this chapter will forbid a treatment of this subject by individual 
counties and will not permit of any detailed account of either campaigns 
or battles. Many engagements and executions which took place during 
the war and which are matters of common knowledge to the inhabitants 
of this section will be but slightly touched upon owing to the necessity 
of economizing space. It is to be regretted that so little accurate infor- 
mation relating to the Civil war in Northeast Missouri can be obtained 
today by the historian. For example, it would seem to be a small affair 
to ascertain the exact number of soldiera contributed by this section to 
the northern and southern armies, but as far as can be learned no accurate 
figures have yet been produced to settle this point. 

The Civil war has opened up a mine of material for the historian, 
biographer and novelist. To read the bare facts of that struggle will 
cause the last three score years to roll away and place one in the midst 
of civil strife. The states that furnish the longest, fiercest and most 
embittered account are the *' border states." Several things made the 
conflict more oppressive in these states than in the other commonwealths : 
First, their position, lying between the north and south, secured for 
them the battlefield; second, their population, more or less divided in 
sentiment during the war, made possible the most cruel and most pro- 
longed kind of warfare ; third, and closely related to the first fact, these 
states because of their importance became the '^bone of contention" for 
both north and south. 

All of these facts are peculiarly applicable to Missouri and the events 
of the four years, 1861-1865, in this state bear witness to the above state- 
ments. That portion of this state which is designated in this chapter as 
Northeast Missouri, is a perfect picture of conditions as they existed in 

* In this chapter it was thought advisable not to burden the reader with foot 
notes stating the page references of statements made. Although this will detract 
from the apparent value of the article as a work of historical research, it does not 
make it any the less accurate in fact. 

The material consulted in preparing the chapter was: — first, general works on 
Missouri history and coimty histories; second, treatises on the Civil war in Missouri; 
third, Missouri official publications, especially the reports of the adjutant -general, 
messages of the governors and reports of legislative committees; and fourth, United 
States census reports. 

It is a courtesy due the State Historical Society of Missouri, located in Colum- 
bia, to state that this chapter was prepared wholly from material forming part of 
that institution's great collection on Missouri history. 



many parts of this commonwealth during the Civil war. In some 
respects person and property were better off here than in other parts 
of Missouri, while in many ways both fared worse in this section than 
elsewhere. Northeast Missouri gave thousands of men to both sides, 
and most of her sons achieved honor, while some became leaders of the 
highest note on the field of war. If it were possible here, nothing would 
be more delightful and entertaining than compiling biographical sketches 
of men like Sterling Price, Odon Guitar, Generals Harris and Green, 
Colonel Porter and a score of others from this section. Northeast Mis- 
souri can well be proud of both the quantity and quality of the soldiers 
she sent to the front. 

Missouri a Border State 

Before considering the war proper in Northeast Missouri, it might 
be well to state by way of introduction a few general facts setting forth : 
First, the importance of Missouri as a ** border state," her position, 
population, and character of her people as regards color and nativity; 
second, the distribution of free and slave in Northeast Missouri; third, 
the general character of the war in this section ; and fourth, the political 
conditions leading up to the war. 

The importance of Missouri as a *' border state" was of the greatest 
significance. Her peculiar position alone would have made her a typical 
''bone of contention" for both the north and south. Nearly surrounded 
as she was on three sides by the free territory of Illinois, Iowa and 
Kansas, Missouri was eagerly sought for by the north and as anxiously 
desired by the south. As regards area, Missouri ranked ahead of all 
the states east of or bordering on the Mississippi except Minnesota ; while 
among the slave states she was excelled by Texas alone in this respect. 
Still more important was Missouri from the standpoint of population 
in 1860. 

Growth in Population, 1810-1860 

Missouri's almost phenomenal growth in population from 1810 to 
1860 can be partly appreciated from the following facts based on the 
appended table taken from the United States census report of 1860. 
According to this report of 1860, Missouri's population in 1810 was, 
whites, 17,227, free colored, 607, slaves, 3,011, total, 20,845; in 1820, 
about the time of Missouri's admission into the Union, Missouri ranked 
23d among the other states; in 1830, 21st; in 1840, 16th; in 1850, 13th; 
and in 1860, 8th in total population but 7th in white population. The 
following table will perhaps give some idea of the rapid growth of popu- 
lation in this state during a half century of growth. 

The rate of increase, by decades, previous to the Civil war, was as 
follows : 

Year White 

1810 17,227 

1820 55,988 

1830 114,795 

1840 323,888 

1850 592,004 

1860 1,063,489 

Free Col. 






















Year White Free Col. Slave Total Rank 


1820 225.007o •42.83 239.48% 289.43% 23 

1830 105.03% 63.97% 145.46% 110.94% 21 

1840 182.147o 176.62% 132.11%; 173.187o 16 

1850 82.787o 66.32% 50.10% 77.75% 13 

1860 79.64% 36.44% 31.47% 73.30% 8 

Total rate of increase from 1810 to 1860: whites, 6073.38%; free- 
colored, 488.477c ; slaves, 3717.03% ; total, 5570.48%. 

Among the fifteen slave states, including Delaware, Missouri ranked 
first in total white population and in total population was surpassed only 
by Virginia. But what is equally important to the war historian is the 
strength of a nation's war-population, i. e., the males between the ages 
of eighteen and forty-five years. In this respect Missouri easily led aU 
her sister southern states, having 232,781 white males between those ages, 
or more than Virginia — her nearest competitor — and Florida and Dela- 
ware combined. 

While Missouri ranked first in white population among slave states, 
she held only eleventh place as regards the number of slaves — the latter 
being 114,931 out of a total population of 1,182,012 or in other words only 
9% per cent of Missouri's total population in 1860 consisted of slaves. 

As to the character of Missouri's white population a very interesting 
fact or two is brought to light especially as regards nativity. In 1860 
only 160,541 persons or 13^ per cent of Missouri's population were of 
foreign birth — slightly over one-half of these being Germans, who had 
settled in St. Louis and the surrounding counties to the west and north, 
about one-fourth of the foreign bom were Irish, and the remaining one- 
fourth of various nationalities. Of the 906,540 white persons of native 
birth, i. e., born in the United States, over one-half were native Missou- 
rians and over three-fourths were of southern birth, i. e., born in a slave 
state — principally in IMlssouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. At 
this point it should be noted how this free and slave population of Mis- 
souri was distributed in the section under consideration. 

The total population of Northeast Missouri in 1860 was 309,232 as 
compared with 181,894 in 1850. This was a gain of 70 per cent as 
compared with the gain of 73.3 per cent all over the state during that 
decade. During the same period the white population of Northeast Mis- 
souri increased from 145,674 to 254,190 or 74^4 per cent as compared 
with the gain of 79.6 per cent over the state as a whole. The slave popu- 
lation of Northeast Missouri in 1850 was 35,843 and in 1860 had risen to 
46,021 or a gain of only 28 2/5 per cent as compared with the gain of 
Siy2 per cent over the state. From these figures obtained from the United 
States census reports of 1850 and 1860, it is clearly seen that although 
slavery was increasing absolutely in actual number of slaves, it was going 
backward relatively, i. e., as compared with increase of either the total 
or free population of Missouri. Nor is this all, for when one compares 
the ratio of the slave population to the total population in 1850 and then 
in 1860, the decline of slavery as an institution is quite apparent. In 
1850 the slaves constituted 12% per cent of Missouri's population, while 
in 1860 they constituted only 9% per cent ; in Northeast Missouri the per- 
centage in 1850 was 19%, while in 1860 it was only 14%. Notwithstand- 
ing the fact that this northeast section of Missouri had seen a decrease in 
the ratio of her slave population to her total population between 1850 
and 1860, she still contained about 41 per cent of the slaves in Missouri 

• Decrease. 




— a position she also occupied in 1860. Out of the sixteen counties in 
Missouri which in 1860 had each a slave population of over twenty- 
five hundred, nine of these were of this section and these nine held 
33,824 slaves or nearly 30 per cent of the total slave population of the 
state and 731^ per cent of the slave population of all Northeast Missouri. 
The nine counties that held such unique position were Boone, Callaway, 
Howard, Monroe, Pike, Chariton, Lincoln, Marion and Randolph. At 
this point it might be interesting as well as instructive to note ttie rela- 
tive position of the several counties in this section on this question of 
population. For this purpose the following table is given, which is taken 
from the United States census reports of 1850 and 1860. It will be 
necessary to refer to this table several times in the succeeding pages of 
this article. 

Northeast Missouri by Counties 

1850 Census 

W. F. C. 

Adair 2,283 8 

Audrain 3,048 1 

Boone 11,300 13 

CaUaway 9,895 25 

Chariton 5,685 51 

Clark 5,013 10 

Howard 9,039 40 

Knox 2,626 2 

Lewis 5,357 15 

Lincoln 7,389 5 

Linn 3,679 2 

Macon 6,262 

Marion 9,322 76 

Monroe . .• 8,461 32 

Montgomery 4,449 3 

Pike 10,299 35 

Putnam 1,617 

Ralls 4,775 8 

Randolph 7,262 21 

St. Charles 9,492 13 

Schuyler 3,230 2 

Scotland 3,631 

Shelby 3,744 11 

Sullivan 2,895 

Warren. 4,921 4 

Total 145,674 377 



. 51 




















































Total for Missouri. .592,004 2,618 87,422 682,044 

1860 Census 

W. P. C, 

Adair 8,436 9 

Audrain 6,909 

Boone 14,399 53 

Callaway 12,895 31 

Chariton 9,672 51 

Clark 11,216 13 

Vcl I— « 
















Howard 9,986 

Knox 8,436 

Lewis 10,983 

Lincoln 11.347 

Linn 8,509 

Macon 13,673 

Marion 15,732 

Monroe 11,722 

Montgomery 8,061 

Pike 14,302 

Putnam 9,176 

Ralls 6,788 

Randolph 8,777 

St. Charles 14,313 

Schuyler 6,658 

Scotland 8,742 

Shelby 6,565 

Sullivan 9,095 

Warren - 7,798 

Total 254,190 





























• 4,055 





























Total for Missouri. 1,063,509 3,572 114,931 1,182,012 

(Note:— W- White; F. C.-free colored; S slave.) 

Nature op the War in Northeast Missouri 

The general character of the war in Northeast Missouri was deter- 
mined by the nature of the country, transportation facilities, charac- 
ter of the population as regards both nativity and density, the number 
of Union troops, largely imported from Iowa and Illinois, and finally 
the needs of the Confederacy. As a result of these factors the Union 
and her forces strove to accomplish the following in the order enumer- 
ated: First, guard the Missouri river and prevent the southern men 
from the northern part of this state from crossing on their way to join 
the southern army; to guard and keep intact the two railroads of 
northern Missouri, i. e., the Hannibal and St. Joseph and the North 
Missouri (now the Wabash) as a means of transporting troops and 
provisions of war across and into the state; second, to prevent the 
enlisting and organizing of southern troops in this section; third, to 
occupy and thereby intimidate by means of Union troops the strong 
slave counties. The South and her leaders in this state held the fol- 
lowing objects in view and strove to bring about their realization : First, 
the enlistment of troops for Price and the Confederacy; second, the 
harassing of the Union troops in this section by striking sudden blows 
where least expected and capturing towns; third, and closely related to 
(2) the destruction of railroads, bridges and trains. The above state- 
ments hold true during 1861-1862, after that the warfare in this sec- 
tion degenerated into petty bushwhacking with such guerrilla fiends as 
Bill Anderson and Quantrell as leaders, who respected neither south- 
erners nor northerners. While the withdrawal of many of the Union 
troops made this kind of warfare possible, the forces of the North that 
remained did little besides trying to put down this robbing and mur- 
dering. Sometimes these bands by uniting made up a considerable 
force and engaged in open fight with the Federal troops as was the 
case at Fayette and near Centralia in 1864, but usually the bands were 


too small for altaoking a large foree and preyed upon isolated com- 
iTDinitieB and individuals. 

Political Conditions in 1860 

The year 1860 saw one of the most divided political contests in 
Missouri history. In the August election for governor there were four 
men in the field representing four ditferent factions : Pirst, the Douglas- 
Democratic candidate for governor was Claiborne F. Jackson — the 
aathor of the famous "Jackson Resolutions" of the later '40s; second, 
the Bell-Everett or Union candidate was Sample Orr; third, the Breck- 
enridge-Bemocratic candidate was Hancock Jackson; and fourth, the 
Republican candidate was James B. Gardenhire. The vote resulted in 
the election of Claiborne P. Jackson. This contest if it showed anything 
regarding the position Missouri took on the national questions of slavery 
in the territories and secession indicated clearly that she favored neither 
northern nor southern radicalism but was overwhelmingly conservative 

and woidd choose the middle ground. And in this respect the vote of 
Northeast Missouri was even more pronounced than the rest of the state, 
for while this section east between one-third and one-fourth of the state 
vote for Claiborne P. Jackson and Orr, sl^e gave Hancock Jackson only 
one-fifth of his total vote and Gardenhire a little over one-seventh of his. 
(Over one-half of Gardenhire 's vote in Northeast Missouri was east in the 
strong German county of St. Charles. ) 

When the November presidential election took place, Missouri still 
adhered to her attitude taken in August — for she alone of all the states 
cast her electoral vote for Douglas, the conservative Democratic candi- 
date. At the same time she cast nearly an eiiual individual vote for 
Bell, the Union candidate, and for Breckenridge and Lincoln but a little 
over one-fourth the total vote of the state. In this election Northeast 
Missouri gave Bell 1,604 more votes than she cast for Douglas, while on 
the other hand she gave Breckenridge over one-fourth of his total state 
vote and Lincoln not quite one-seventh of his total state vote. The 
following tahle indicates well the position taken by the individual counties 
on this important election. Thus it will be seen at a glance that the 


large slave counties in this section — the verj' ones that could reasonably 
be expected to have gone overwhelmingly for Breckenridge — either went 
for Bell or for Douglas. The only county in Northeast Missouri in 
which Breckenridge received more votes than any other candidate was 
the county of Sullivan, which in 1860 had only 102 slaves or about one- 
ninetieth of its population. Of the six great slave counties, each with a 
slave population of over 3,000, three cast typical ** landslide" votes for 
Bell and three for Bell and Douglas. Even Marion county, known as 
the ** South Carolina of Missouri," cast three times as many votes for Bell 
and also for Douglas as for Breckenridge — being excelled in the latter 
by both Sullivan and Clark, (the latter having only 455 slaves). 

Northeast Missouri like the remainder of the state was simply not 
radical but was essentially conservative, and on the whole vastly pre- 
ferred the Union in spite of the binding ties of blood and interest. 

Vote for Governor, First Monday in August, 1861 

Claiborne Sample Hancock James B. 

F. Jackson Orr , Jackson Gardenhire 

Adair 822 504 4 

Audrain 615 677 47 

Boone 1066 1522 68 

Callaway 1080 1321' 94 1 

Chariton 639 548 124 8 

Clark 807 769 74 103 

Howard 1099 743 28 1 

Knox 844 526 3 8 

Lewis 1018 • 848 101 

Lincoln 885 634 307 13 

Linn 796 668 7 19 

Macon 1424 484 115 

Marion 1409 1322 149 2 

Monroe 998 1059 117 1 

Montgomery 597 652 14 34 

Pike 1548 1388 50 3 

Putnam 728 350 118 8 

Ralls 616 647 9 1 

Randolph 828 852 183 

St. Charles 829 774 60 466 

Schuyler 500 298 124 4 

Shelby 621 576 95 91 

Scotland 792 493 19 108 

Sullivan 678 326 259 29 

Warren .' 630 287 32 18 

Total 21,869 18,262 2,201 918 

Total Vote in Missouri 74,446 66,583 11,415 6,135 

• Vote for President, in November, 1860 

Bell- Douglas Brecken- Lincoln 

Everett ridge 

Adair 293 616 339 185 

Audrian 580 289 206 1 

Boone 1671 578 652 12 

Callaway 1306 839 472 15 

Chariton 608 692 295 1 

Clark 752 542 497 277 







































• • • 


























Howard 920 

Knox 520 

Lewis 833 

Lincoln 725 

Linn 546 

^lacon 655 

Marion 1386 

Monroe 1086 

^Montgomery 658 

Pike 1300 

Putnam 369 

Ralls 585 

Randolph 821 

St. Charles 619 

Schuyler 267 

Shelby 702 

Scotland 436 

Sullivan 373 

Warren 307 

Total 18,318 

Total Vote in Missouri 58,373 

On December 31, 1860, the 21st General Assembly convened in Jeffer- 
son City — just ten days before South Carolina seceded by ordinance from 
the Union. As had been expected this legislature was composed of 
four political parties — ^three of which were nearly equal in strength and 
none in control. The senate, with a membership of thirty-three, held 
fifteen Breckenridge-Democrats ; ten Douglas-Democrats ; seven Bell- 
Everett Unionists; and one Republican; the house, with a membership 
of 132,. held forty-seven Breckenridge-Democrats; thirty-seven Bell- 
Everett Unionists; thirty-six Douglas-Democrats; and twelve Repub- 

John McAfee, an extreme pro-slavery Democrat of Shelby county, 
was elected speaker of the house. On January 4, 1861, Governor 
Claiborne F. Jackson of Howard county, although elected as a Douglas- 
Democrat, in his inaugOral address said that Missouri's destiny was with 
the slave-holding states and that she should stand for the South. On 
January 6, the Committee on Federal Relations was instructed to report 
a bill to **call a convention'' and on January 18th the bill calling a state 
convention passed. The tenth section of this bill was introduced by 
Charles H. Hardin, who was state senator from Boone and Callaway, and 
provided whereby the convention was not to sever relations with the Union 
except on a vote of the people of. Missouri. This convention was to deter- 
mine the relations to be taken between Missouri and the Union. 

The convention met February 28, 1861, and was composed of ninety- 
nine delegates. Ex-Govemor Sterling Price of Chariton county was 
elected president almost unanimously. It soon became apparent that the 
delegates were decidedly Union in sentiment and Sterling Price later 
resigned the office of president. Events in other parts of the country 
soon brought matters to a crisis. On April 15, 1861, President Lincoln 
issued a proclamation for seventy-five thousand troops and a request was 
sent to Governor Jackson for Missouri's pro rata of four regiments. 
Governor Jackson not only ignored this request but sent a very inde- 
pendently worded refusal. The course of Governor Jackson, Sterling 
Price, and others high in authority in this state greatly unsettled the 
people in their political faith. All hoped for a compromise. It was on 
May 10, 1861, that war first broke out in Missouri. On that day the attack 


was made on Camp Jackson and this state was at once plunged into all 
the horrors of a civil war. 

The War in Northeast Missouri {1861} 

Even before the attack on Fort Sumter in South Carolina and Camp 
Jackson in St. Louis, there had been many open exhibitions of northern 
and southern sentiment in Northeast Missouri. Naturally the first occa- 
sion that called forth these expressions of partisajiship was the state con- 
vention that was to meet in February to consider Missouri's relation to 
the North and South. During the spring of 1861 aU over this section 
not only were these meetings continued but troops were being raised and 
oi^anized by both sides. The first southern flag to be raised in North- 
east Missouri was at Emerson in northwest Marion county on March 16, 
1861, and just two weeks later the second southern flag was unfurled at 
Palmyra in the same county. 

The four counties of Lewis, Mariou, Monroe and Ralls did much to 
keep alive the war in Northeast Missouri. They were the center of south- 
ern sentiment and owing lai^ly to the topography of the couuto' aiid 
the character of the inhabitants they were the recruiting grounds for the 
South in that section. The South was more active and really accom- 
plished more here than elsewhere in that section and this in spite of the 
overwhelming Union force arrayed against them. To the forest recesses 
of the southern recruiting camps of these counties flocked the southern 
men of the surrounding counties and on collecting in a body would 
strike for the Missouri to join Price and the Confederacy. By the end 
of June, 1861, both northern and southern troops were being raised. In 
some of the large slave counties the enlistment of southern men proceeded 
at a more rapid pace, although the Union sentiment even there placed 
thousands of recruits in the northern ranks. Wherever the German 
element was strong as in St. Charles, Warren and Montgomery, one nat- 
urally finds many recruits for the North. It seems very shortly to have 
been the plan of the northern generals in Missouri to send large detach- 
ments of troops into those counties where the southern sentiment was 
or might become strong. This scheme prevented many southern sympa- 
thizers from ever obtaining an opportunity to enlist in tlie causi> of (he 


South. Some very noticeable examples of this policy are found in St. 
Charles, Fulton, Columbia, Fayette, Edina, Mexico, Hudson, (later known 
as Macon City), Hannibal, Keytesville, and elsewhere in Northeast 
Missouri. This plan of the Union generals in Missouri went hand in 
hand with the one of patrolling the Missouri in order to prevent any 
enlistments in Northeast Missouri for the South from reaching Price. 

Of equal importance in the eyes of the North was the protection of 
the two important railroads in this section — ^the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
and the North Missouri — as these enabled the Northern troops to keep in 
touch with each other and enabled reinforcements and supplies 
to be distributed quickly. These three plans were strictly adhered to 
and within less than two years had practically crushed the southern cause 
throughout the state. By cutting Missouri into two parts and by gar- 
risoning all important portions of the northern half including the rich 
slave district of Northeast Missouri, the organization of southern troops 
was made not only hazardous but many times impossible, in spite of the 
great ability of such men as Porter. Another point that helped spell 
success for the North in Northeast Missouri was the Union partisanship 
of the owners and controllers of the two railroads mentioned above. And 
it should be mentioned here that the personal interest at stake by these 
roads, especially the Hannibal and St. Joseph, did much to inform the 
Union generals of their (the Union) mistakes and again ameliorated 
conditions for the people along that line who were subject to over-zealous 
Federal commanders. 

On June 12, 1861, Governor Jackson issued his call to the people of 
Missouri to defend their state. This call for state guards under Major- 
General Sterling Price was eagerly responded to by many of the southern 
sympathizers in Northeast Missouri. 

As early as July, 1861, hostilities began in this section around Monroe 
City (July 14) and Palmyra, the Federal forces occupying both places. 
During this month Brigadier-Oeneral John Pope was assigned to the 
command of the Union forces in the north Missouri district. He at 
once issued orders whose purpose was to check secession, by requesting 
each section of that district to see that it protected all Union property 
therein. On July 29, 1861, Brigadier-General S. A. Hurlbut of the 
United States Army took up his headquarters at Macon City and pro- 
ceeded to distribute the Union forces with the view of protecting the 
property of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad from Quincy and Han- 
nibal to St. Joseph. Colonel U. S. Grant, later president of the United 
States, was stationed at Mexico; and Colonel L. F. Ross at Warrenton. 
If all the Union commanders who later came into Northeast Missouri had 
acted with the same business-like courtesy and consideration towards the 
inhabitants that Grant did on his short stay here, there would have been 
far less to write of the history of the Civil war in that section. 

The engagement at Monroe City deserves a passing comment. It was 
the only cannon battle that was fought in Monroe county. T. A. Harris, 
state representative from Monroe county, was given the rank of Brig- 
adier-General July 5, 1861, with five hundred recruited southern troops 
under him. By the 14th Harris had over one thousand men at Monroe 
City where an engagement took place with the Federal troops. After 
the battle Harris advised retreat and set out with his command, which 
had been augmented to between one thousand two hundred and one 
thousand five hundred. The first actual service of U. S. Grant in the 
Civil war was against Harris on the latter 's retreat from Hunnewell to 
Florida (Monroe county). Near Fulton, Harris was again engaged with 
some Union troops under Colonel McNeil in an affair known as the ** Ful- 
ton Races'' and the former's force was defeated and scattered. 


All during July the southern troops had been enlwting in and around 
Marion county. The Union official and soldiers acted so as to greatly 
incense the people in the places where they were stationed. Colonel 
Martin E. Green, brother of James S. Green of Lewie county, was the 
leader and organizer of the southern cause in Northeast Missouri during 
the summer of 1860. John McAfee and Marmaduke, of Shelby, T. A. 
Harris of Monroe, Colonel Martin E. Green and Colonel Porter, of Lewis, 
and Jlr, Anderson, representative of Marion county, did more for the 
South in 1861. and in fact throughout 1861-1862, than any others in 
that section — this, of course, does not include General Sterling Price, 
who was south of the river during the war. The recruiting quarters of 
Colonel Green were near Monticello in Lewis county. From here about 
the first of August, he moved north into Clark county and on August 
5th, was defeated in battle near the town of Athens (Clark county). 
This affair took place about twenty miles northwest of Keokuk. Colonel 
Green's force is estimated at between eight hundred and eighteen hun- 

dred, consisting mostly of cavalry and besides this having two cannons. 
The Union troops consisted of four hundred Home Guards of Clark 
county and two companies of United States Volunteers from Keokuk 
under Colonel David Moore of Clark county. Colonel Moore had no 
cannon. The tight lasted an hour and the southern forces were decidedly 

After this engagement Colonel Green retreated with his force to 
Lewis. Knox and Marion counties to reorganize. Here also gathered 
Captain Kneisley of Marion county with his battery made famous at the 
battle of Lexington. September 10-20, 1861; and Gen. Tom Harris, 
commander of the State Guards of that section. 

Before beginning the relation of the maneuvering by Coloned Green 
and Jiis forces vs. the Union troops, it might be well to relate several 
happenings that took place at and around Palmyra immediately after 
the battle of Athens. On August 8, 1861, some Confederate recruits 
marched into Palmyra and raided that town. Brigadier-General Stephen 
A. Hurlbut, who was then at Hannibal, on learning of this raid issued 
a "Requisition" on August 11 on Marion county whereby that county 
was made to support his army. It was directed against Palmyra and was 
very obnoxious to both southern and northern residents of the town. 


especially since they had had nothing to do with the raiding of their 
city. There were other annoying things just then that caused the Union 
generals much worry. Southern bushwhackers had made it a custom to 
fire on passing trains thereby endangering the lives of not only soldiers 
but . passengers as well. The actions taken by the Union commanders 
were, however, severely criticized by even such ardent northern men 
as J. T. K. Haywood, superintendent of the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad, who in his letters to John Wood Brooks of Boston, Massachu- 
setts, an official of the same line, relates (August, 1861) many things that 
are valuable in throwing light on conditions in northeast Missouri at 
that time. He said that a large majority of Monroe and Ralls and a 
majority of Marion and Shelby were for the South and secession; that 
the southerners had from one to two thousand men in camp ; and that 
they could bring two thousand troops in the field easily and were in fine 
communication with each other. Another act of General Hurlbut's that 
exasperated the people was his requesting them to find and deliver over 
to him all bushwhackers in their section. 

After the battle of Wilson's Creek in south Missouri, General Price 
determined to march north, striking the Missouri near Lexington. His 
object was largely to get recruits so he accordingly ordered General 
Harris and his State Guards to join him. All the State Guards in North- 
east Missouri set out for points along the Missouri river as Glasgow, 
Brunswick, and Arrow Rock. Colonel Green was at Marshall's Slill, 
six to eight miles from Palmyra, with one thousand two hundred men. 
General Hurlbut knew of Green's force and at once set out to capture it. 
Colonel Green moved south, being pursued by an equal force of Fed- 
erals — four hundred of the latter mounted. From Marshall's Mill, Green 
struck Philadelphia, New Market, and on September 2, crossed the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad near Monroe City, destroying the 
track. From Monroe City he passed near Paris and Florida, received 
reinforcements from both Ralls and Monroe, and then stopped to rest. 

Col. David Moore with a Northeast Missouri regiment and Col. 
Smith with the Sixteenth Illinois, just from Kirksville, left Palmyra on 
September 5 for Hunnewell in pursuit of Green. General Pope and 
Colonel John M. Glover also took the field reinforced with four hundred 
Illinois troops. Colonel U. G. Williams of the Third Iowa Infantry and 
some Linn county Home Guards arrived at Hannibal on August 31, 
and on being joined by three hundred Kansas troops set out for Shel- 
bina — ^having a force of 620. From there AVilliams set out for Paris 
in pursuit of Green, but on learning of the latter 's force retreated in 
haste back to Shelbina pursued by Green. The southern leader sur- 
rounded that place and on September 4th a battle took place. Williams 
owing to the defection of his Kansas troops was forced to take the train 
for Macon City. All of Williams' troops escaped, but Green captured 
all the camp supplies and then set out for Florida, prepared to march 
to the Missouri. 

On September 6, Generals Pope and Hurlbut were at Hunnewell. 
Pope telegraphed General Fremont at St. Louis of the necessity of 
immediate action or Green would escape. Fremont after it was too late 
sent a large force to help Pope and sent orders for him to **line the 
railroad from Hannibal to Hudson (Macon City)." Fremont planned 
the annihilation of Green and sent Major-General Sturgis and others 
to help surround that commander. 

During all this time Green had already crossed the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Railroad (see above), had received reinforcements from 
several counties, rested, won one battle, captured a town, and was pre- 
paring to set out on his march to join Price. On September 7, Green 


set out for Lexington — Fremont 's plans totally miscarrying. Brigadier- 
General Sturgis left for Hudson over the North Missouri Railroad and 
arrived in Mexico in time to have stopped Green and Harris on their 
march to Glasgow, but having no cavalry the Union general was helpless. 
Green and Harris marched southwest, crossed the North Missouri Rail- 
road, at Renick (seven miles south of Moberly) on the 9th, continued on 
through Randolph and Howard, reached Glasgow and captured the 
steamboat ^'Sunshine,'' crossed the Missouri river on the 12th and 
reached Lexington in safety. 

On September 8, Pope reached Green's former camp and then returned 
to Hunnewell. Oti the 10th he telegraphed Fremont that Green had 
gone into Chariton county. Thus ended the march of Green and Harris 
and the pursuit of them by Pope and Hurlbut. It was really the first 
campaign of the war in Northeast Missouri and it had proven an un- 
doubted Confederate success. With the exception of the engagements 
at Athens and Fulton the Confederates had accomplished what they 
had intended, i. e., organizing recruits and getting them safely across 
the Missouri to Price. It was a preliminary of the more brilliant and 
spectacular campaign of Porter in 18.62, though it is doubtful if in re- 
sults this was not the more successful of the two. 

Close op 1861 

On November 2, 1861, General David Hunter superseded Fremont 
in 'command of the Western Department and a few days later Major 
General Henry Wager Halleck superseded Hunter. Towards the end 
of November, General Price issued his proclamation **To the People of 
Central and Northern Missouri'* appealing for fifty thousand men. This 
proclamation was earnest in tone and big inducements were offered. 
Many southern sympathizers responded to this call. Price ordered the 
Confederates to burn the Hannibal and St. Josej)h Railroad bridges and 
to attack the Federals so that these new recruits could get through. Gen- 
eral John Pope was ordered to the west of Jefferson City to prevent the 
Confederates from crossing the ^lissouri on their way to join Price. Gen- 
eral B. M. Prentiss was appointed to the command of Northeast Missouri 
with headquarters at Palmyra. Many Union troops were stationed 
at Hannibal, Hudson and Palmyra — Glover's cavalry being at the latter 
place. Price said he expected at least six hundred men from each of the 
counties of St. Charles, Lincoln and Pike and five hundred apiece from 
Boone and Howard. According to Price's orders many bridges were 
burned in this section and for this the people of Confederate sympathies 
in Marion county alone were forced to pay $14,045 by order of the 
Federal commanders. On the burning of these bridges the Federal 
troops began pouring into this section in great numbers. Some of these 
bridge-burners were caught and eight found guilty at a court-martial 
trial held in Palmyra December 27, 1861, the sentence of death was 
commuted to imprisonment at Alton. 

The last engagement of the year was the fight at Mt. Zion church 
on December 28, 1861, in northern Boone county, where Colonel John 
M. Glover under General Prentiss, with nine hundred Union men de- 
feated Col. Caleb Dorsey with three hundred and fifty Confederates. 

From Camp Jackson in "May, to the fight at Mt. Zion church in De- 
cember, sixty skirmishes and battles were fought in Missouri. More 
than half of these were south of the Missouri and all the big affairs had 
taken place south of the river. The Confederates were unwilling to risk 
troops north of that stream so that all they did was to harass the Union 
troops in that section and push forward the enlisting of men for Price *a 


army. The Confederates had accomplished these two things but the 
Federal commanders were literally garrisoning practically all North- 
east Missouri and tightening the lines ao aa to make harder and harder 
the realization of southern enlisting. The Federals bad maintained the 
two railroads in a fair condition and were patrolling the Missouri with 
greater and greater diligence. 

The War in 1862 

During the winter of 1862 many Federal troops left Northeast Mis- 
souri. In March, 1862, northern Missouri was divided into three mili- 
tary districts. Early in the spring bushwhackers became very active ia 
this section and there was also witnessed quite a. Confederate uprising. 
The Union cavalry known as "Merrill's Horse" was stationed at Colum- 
bia from January to July, This cavalry fought in every part of this 
state from Scotland to Stoddard county. Also stationed at this place 

was Colonel Odon fJiiitar's force. Colonel John M. Glover who was 
appointed in March to take command of Northeast Missouri was super- 
seded in June by Colonel John JIcNeil at Palmyra. Colonel Glover's 
force scouted through Adair. Scotland, Clark, Lewis, Knox and Shelby 
counties during the spring and summer of 1862. 

During this year took place the last great campaign of the Confed- 
eracy in Northeast Missouri — the campaign of Col. Jo Porter. In 
fact after the fail of 1862, the war in this section ended except for 
the depredations of such guerrillas as were a source of trouble to both 
northern and southern sympathizers. 

In the spring and summer of this year many ^lissouri Confederate 
officers in Arkansas and Mississippi obtained leave to enlist recruits in 
Missouri under the inducement that they were to have the command of 
all that they enlisted. Captain Jo O. Shelby thus became a colonel and 
raised a regiment in Saline and Lafayette. Others were Haj-s. Coffee, 
Thompson. Hughes, Coekrell. Boyd, Poindexter and Porter. After the 
battle of Pea Ridge. Colonel Porter, who had been selected by Price to 
find recruits in this section, reached home in April and he^an open work 
June 17. 

Colonel Joseph Chrisman Porter and Judge Martin E. Orei>n were 


both from Lewis county. Porter was a farmer living a little east of 
Newark in Knox county. In 1861 he was lieutenant colonel under Green 
and had seen service at Athens, Shelbina, Lexington and Pea Ridge. 
Through his efforts it has been estimated that over five thousand Con- 
federate soldiers were drawn from Northeast Missouri in a little over a 
half year.* His force was never large and in numbers, arms and disci- 
pline was far surpassed by the Union troops arrayed against him. All 
Northeast Missouri was covered by his agents who were stationed from 
one to five miles apart in all sections except in part of St. Charles and 
all of Lincoln and Warren counties. He rarely had over one thousand 
men with him and frequently his force was very small. His plan was 
to recruit men and get them across the Missouri as quickly as possible. 
He rarely drilled his men as there was little chance for it. His lines 
of communication or relays knew every inch of northern Missouri and he 
always had a guide. These things account for his wonderful success in 
spite of such overwhelming odds. 

It cannot be definitely stated when Porter began his recruiting. The 
first important intelligence of his whereabouts was June 17, on which 
date he was near New Market in north Marion county, where he cap- 
tured forty-three men. The news is said to have been spread among 
the people that ** Porter's coming" and this was suflScient to secure many 
enlistments. From New Market Porter moved north through western 
Marion, eastern Knox, and western Lewis counties. He recruited about 
two hundred and rested at Sulphur Springs in Knox county. From here 
he moved north, threatening Memphis, and gathered recruits in Scot- 
land and Schuyler counties. About four hundred and fifty Federal 
troops (state militia) under Colonel H. S. Lipscomb, followed and at 
Cherry Grove (northeast Schuyler) towards the end of June Porter was 
defeated. His loss was slight but he at once retreated to a place about 
ten miles west of Newark, being pursued by Lipscomb. Here Porter 
scattered his force, keeping only about seventy-five men, and with these 
as a nucleus went on recruiting. ' 

In July, Porter's brother captured Newark and then MonticellO fell. 
The Confederates had become masters of all the western part of Lewis 
county and were rapidly gaining recruits. The Federals at Canton, 
LaOrange, Palmyra and even at Hannibal trembled. Porter left New- 
ark, went north into Scotland, and on July 12, captured Memphis which 
had been occupied with Federal troops. Before this the forces of Colonel 
McNeil had started in pursuit of Porter, and on July 9, were at Newark. 
At Pierce's Mill on the south side of the Middle Fabius, Scotland county, 
Porter was discovered in ambush on July 18, by Major John Y. Clop- 
per with a part of ** Merrill's Horse." After three unsuccessful at- 
tempts made to dislodge him Clopper was reinforced by Major Rogers 
and their united force finally accomplished this after a desperate re- 
sistance by Porter. Porter was really victorious here but retreated 
south. The Federal loss was heavy, while the Confederates' loss was 
light. Porter in less than twenty-four hours after this aflPair was at 
Novelty, Knox county. This was quite a record march for within that 
time he had fought a battle and retreated sixty-five miles through a sec- 
tion that had been drenched with rain a week before. McNeil followed 
Porter to Newark and then returned to Palmyra acknowledging being 
baffled by the southern commander. It was at this time that McNeil is 
reported to have said of Porter : * * He runs like a deer, and doubles like 
a fox. ' ' 

♦ This is not the author 's estimate but taken from * * With Port-er in North 
Missouri" by Joseph A. Mudd. This work was of invaluable assistance in the 
preparation of tl'^j paper, especially the part relating to 1862. 


On July 20, Porter was at Whaley's Mill, six miles east of Newark, 
and from there he marched south past Warren (sixteen miles west of 
Palmyra) with two hundred men, crossed the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad near Monroe Station and rested in Monroe county. On July 22, 
Porter surprised and defeated a small force of Federal troops near 
Florida which were under Major H. C. Caldwell of the Third Iowa. 
From here Porter marched south and on the 23d crossed the North 
Missouri Railroad and entered Callaway county where his force was 
increased. He dashed to the heavy timber near Brown's Spring, ten 
miles north of Fulton. 

Colonel Odon Guitar left Jefferson City on July 27, with two hun- 
dred men and two pieces of artillery to attack Porter who was known 
to be heading for the river with his new recruits. On July 26, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel W. F. Shaffer of ** Merrill's Horse" left Columbia with one 
hundred men and taking Sturgeon joined Major Clopper with one hun- 
dred. ^Major Caldwell, with part of the Third Iowa and part of Colonel 
J. M. Glover's regiment, left Mexico and these two columns marched to 
Mt. Zion church. Not finding Porter th^y entered Callaway on the 28th, 
and at 2 P. M. heard Guitar's cannon four or five miles away at Moore's 
Mill. Guitar had found Porter first and these two able commanders 
were engaging in a doubtful battle when the Union reinforcements from 
Mt. Zion church gave the victory to Guitar. Porter lost many in both 
killed and wounded here and was very fortunate in not having his entire 
force captured. 

General Scofield, Brigadier-General of the Missouri Militia at St. 
Louis, at this time issued his order for all the militia of the state to fight 
Porter as though he were a guerrilla. Porter on hearing of this is reported 
to have said : ' ' I can raise one thousand men in Monroe and Marion coun- 
ties in twenty-four hours on this issue alone." (The same words are 
also attributed to this general on hearing of the ** Palmyra Massacre.") 

The defeat suffered by Porter at Moore's Mill, the desperate condi- 
tion of his force as regards lack of ammunition and also its general 
character of being composed of raw recruits, combined with the supe- 
rior Federal force under Guitar at that able general's command made it 
imperative for the Confederate commander to disband his recruits. Por- 
ter retreated with his scattered" forces to Florida, crossed the North 
Missouri Railroad near Mexico and on July 30, arrived near Paris with 
only four hundred men. It should be noticed that many of his former 
recruits found their way in scattered bands south of the river. On July 
31, Porter's force had risen to one thousand. His objective point was 
doubtless somewhere near Kirksville where he hoped to join forces with 
Captain J. A. Poindexter. Porter crossed the Hannibal and St. Joseph 
Railroad near Monroe Station and camped at New Market. From there 
he struck north by way of Philadelphia, gathering recruits along the way 
until he soon had one thousand five hundred men. Continuing in a 
general northward direction, he captured a small Federal force at 
Newark and on August 2d, was at Canton. During this time McNeil 
had attempted to locate Porter and crush him, but again the Federal 
commander had been outwitted. Porter had now two thousand two 
hundred men under him and marching on north threatened Memphis 
and then turned west towards Kirksville. 

General McNeil was now close on the heels of Porter and the latter 
realized he must fight. Porter chose the town of Kirksville for the 
battlefield. On August 6, Porter entered Kirksville and had barely 
placed his force when McNeil with the Ninth Missouri State Militia under 
Captain Leonard and part of ** Merrill's Horse" under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Shaffer began the attaxjk. Although Porter had chosen his own 


field of defense and outnumbered McNeil two to one, he was badly de- 
feated. This was largely due to the two facts that only eight hundred of 
Porter's two thousand two hundred to two thousand five hundred men 
were in action and again to McNeil's artillery virtually forcing Porter 
out of all his positions. Only six hundred of McNeil's men out of his 
force of one thousand came into action. The battle lasted only three 
hours and ended in a veritable rout of Porter's force. 

Porter lost 250 prisoners and over 125 in killed and wounded in this 
battle; the Federal loss was slight. This battle was more than a defeat 
even though in that respect it was far more fatal to the Confederacy 
in north Missouri than the battle of Moore's Mill, it was a deathblow 
from which not even Porter, with his great prestige in Northeast Mis- 
souri, ever recovered. Recruiting for the South in that section after 
August 6 was both a hazardous undertaking due to the presence of 
Federal troops but was even a greater task from a psychological point 
of view. It Was simply harder to persuade men to risk their fortunes 
with the South after the Kirksville rout. The execution by order of a 
Federal court-martial of seventeen of Porter's men captured in this 
battle for violating their parole has been variously condemned and 

After the battle Porter crossed the Chariton river at Clem's Mill, 
five miles west of Kirksville, and struck south towards Chariton county, 
planning to join Poindexter, who had between one thousand two hundred 
and one thousand five hundred men under him. Porter was closely pur- 
sued by McNeil and in western Macon county met the Federal force on 
August 8 and turned northeast. On the 9th the Federals fairly drove 
Porter into Adair county and east across the Chariton, where he am- 
bushed a small force of Federals at See's Ford. The lines were tighten- 
ing around Porter and it seemed a matter of only a few hours until all 
would be over. He was driven into southeast Adair and his men had 
deserted so rapidly that barely five hundred remained with him. He sent 
part of this force under Alvin Cobb to Monroe county and with the re- 
mainder went southeast through southern Knox near Novelty, from which 
place he curved to Whaley's Mill. On August 11, Porter virtually dis- 
banded his force in all directions. 

It will be necessary at this point to say a word about the other 
Confederate general in Northeast Missouri at this time, Col. J. A. 
Poindexter. This officer returned from Arkansas during the summer 
of 1862, and recruited between one thousand and one thousand five hun- 
dred men in Chariton, Randolph and Monroe. On August 8, General 
Guitar, who had been sick after the battle of Moore's Mill, landed at 
Glasgow with a considerable force determined to put an end to Poin- 
dexter 's raid in Randolph county. He overtook Poindexter at Comp- 
ton's Ferry on the Grand river in Carroll county on Monday night of 
August 11, and defeated the Confederate general with great slaughter. 
Poindexter fled north to Utica on the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad 
where he was driven back by General B. F. Loan. In retreating south he 
met Guitar on August 13, at Yellow Creek in Chariton county and his 
band broke up. Thus at two critical moments for the Confederacy in 
Northeast Missouri, General Guitar defeated and dispersed the forces of 
both Porter and Poindexter when these two generals were on the verge of 
complete success in their recruiting campaigns. These two Federal vic- 
tories with the great one at Kirksville sealed the fate of the Confederacy 
in this section. Colonel Guitar was in Columbia in August and issued an 
order of enlistment to which two thousand one hundred responded. He 
was later appointed commander of the Ninth Missouri military district 
comprising the counties of Boone, Randolph, Monroe, Audrain. Calla- 


way, Ralls, Pike, Montgomery, Warren and St. Charles. The district 
north was at this time under the command of General Lewis Merrill at 
Macon City, General McNeil being stationed at Palmyra. 

McNeil during this time had marched through BloomingtoQ, the old 
county seat of Macon county, Shelbyville, and from there to Hunnewell 
trying to find Porter. That Confederate general after disbanding his 
force except a very few who remained with him went to Florida to join 
Cobb, From Monroe county Porter went into Marion and by August 15 
was three miles northeast of Emerson with 150 men. From here he 
marched south again into Monroe and then into Shelby. On August 26, 
McNeil was at Paris with eight hundred men. The work of Porter at 
this time was in a way known by the Federals and Palmyra was alarmed 
as Lewis and Marion still held many Confederates. 

On September 12, Porter with four hundred men marched into Pal- 
myra, released about fifty Confederate prisoners and captured some 
arms all within two hours. From here he marched north to his camp on 

: Batti^ Was Fought 

the South Fabius and on the 13th was reinforced with 150 men from 
Lewis. Porter left his camp and marched in a northwesterly direction 
towards Newark, touching northeast Shelby. McNeil with his force 
was at Newark on September 14, and came upon Porter at Whaley's 
Mill where the Confederate general made his last stand in north Mis- 
souri. Porter was forced to retreat along the South Fabius and the 
chase becoming too hot Porter disbanded on reaching Shelby county. 
Porter himself went on into Shelby and JIcNeil to Palmyra. During 
the next six weeks according to Porter's biographer, Captain Joseph 
Mudd, that general got twelve hundred men through to the Confederate 
lines, which was the "last installment of the five thousand sent during 
the campaign." Porter crossed the Missouri in a skiif at Providence, 
Boone county, and with about one hundred men joined General Marma- 
doke in Arkansas. He organized a Missouri Confederate cavalry and 
was mortally wounded at Hartville, Missouri, on January 11, 1863. He 
died at Bates^'ille, Arkansas, on February 18, 186.1. 


This really marked the end of open warfare in Northeast Missouri 
as far as the South was concerned. There was fighting here after 
that time and considering the number engaged one of the bloodiest 
battles or ** massacres" in the whole history of the war took place after 
this, but there was no definite, planned campaign of offensive or de- 
fensive warfare on the part of the Confederacy. It is true there were 
several bands of Confederate recruits found their way south but they 
were small and scattered. The pseudo-Confederate bands that roved 
over north Missouri, especially the river counties, after this were, as 
has been said, as destructive of life and property of southerners as of 
northerners. They were guerrillas and bushwhackers in the lowest and 
worst sense of the words and more appropriately should be termed 
bands of murderers and robbers who respected no law and did homage 
to no cause save that of greed, lust, revenge and murder. 

The story of the war in Northeast Missouri during the fall of 1862 
will necessarily include the second and third great executions in that 
section — the ** Macon Execution'' and what has become known as the 
** Palmyra Massacre.'' The first execution of a body of men by order 
of a court-martial was that at Kirksville on August 7, 1862. The second 
at Macon City on Friday, September 25, 1862, was quite similar except 
that the char^ was the triple one of ** treason, perjury and murder." 
Ten Confederate prisoners among 144 held by General Merrill at Macon 
City were tried, condemned and executed. There has been some argu- 
ment advanced to explain this execution as in the case of the one at 
Kirksville, it being held that the charge was true and the trial fair. On 
the other hand there have been reasons put forward trying to show that 
the condemned were not guilty and the sentence should have been 
commuted. , 

The Palmyra execution or ** Massacre" took place at Palmyra on 
October 18, 1862, on Saturday. The same number were executed as dur- 
ing the month previous at Macon. The general in command was Gen- 
eral John H. McNeil and although he was responsible for the deed, the 
stigma of censure rests today on the head of McNeil's Provost-Marshal 
General, Colonel Strachan. Although many writers generally censure 
and condemn the bloodthirsty barbarism of McNeil, they all refrain 
from trying to offer any excuse whatever for the acts of Strachan, how- 
ever the act of McNeil is explained from the standpoint of whr. The 
bare outline of this execution seems to be as follows : 

During Porter's raid of Palmyra in September, 1862, the Confeder- 
ates carried away as prisoner a Union citizen of Marion county by the 
name of Andrew AUsman. This man had aided the Federal com- 
manders in pointing out those residents of southern sympathies and had 
thereby incurred the hatred of many southerners. Nothing being heard 
of him after his capture by Porter, McNeil issued an order on October 
8, threatening to execute ten of Porter's men in ten days if Allsman 
was not returned in safety within that time. The ten men were selected 
and as Allsman never appeared they were executed on October 18. (One 
of the ten first chosen having been excused or pardoned and another Con- 
federate being chosen.) The ten men were all from Northeast Missouri, 
some were old and others young. This was horrible enough but was 
followed by a licentious act on the part of Colonel Strachan that aroused 
the hatred of not only all southerners, but many people of northern 
sympathies. It is not the purpose here to go into the later exoneration 
of McNeil nor of Strachan 's subsequent record. Allsman seems to have 
been murdered, not by order of Porter, but, despite all the precautions 
that Porter could take under the circumstances, by certain ones who 
were determined to get Allsman out of the way. The whole affair from 


beginning to end was a horrible, deplorable occurrence of the war in 
this section. 

The year 1862 closed with the destruction of one hundred miles of 
the North Missouri Railroad. This is said to have been done by some 
of Price's soldiers who were returning about this time. This year 
marked the greatest and longest fought campaign in Northeast Missouri, 
which was ably led by both northern and southern generals. It saw the 
Confederacy in this section at her height and fall. From now on the 
Federals simply stationed garrisons in this section. The war of cam- 
paigns and big battles and skillful generals had passed to give place to 
robbery, murdering and guerrilla bushwhacking. 

The Wab in 1863 

The year 1863 marked the beginning of the slave exodus in Missouri. 
Many ran away, some were emancipated, and others enlisted in the 
Federal army. The slaves in this state thought that Lincoln's Emanci- 
pation Proclamation applied to Missouri and left in large numbers. 

In November, 1862, the regular fall election took plax;e but as all 
voters had to take the ** Gamble Oath" and the ** Iron-clad Oath" none 
but Union men could exercise the suffrage. 

During the fall of 1862 and winter of 1863, all able-bodied men be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and forty-five were forced to enroll in the 
** Enrolled Missouri Militia" by order of Governor Gamble. This plan 
was pursued throughout the rest of the war and was not entirely satisr 
factory in some sections. 

In February, 1863, the '* Provisional Militia of Missouri" was or- 
ganized. This organization demanded continual service and was a strong 
adjunct of the regular Union force in Northeast Missouri. The **E. M. 
M." was only an emergency militia and in some places it is reported 
that it could not be depended upon for service. 

In May, 1863, Merrill's Horse left this section and General Guitar 
was stationed at Palmyra. Some newspapers were suppressed by Union 
orders during the year, but in general everything was quiet except for 
spasmodic raids made by small bands of guerrillas. There were no bat- 
tles or campaigns or even engagements of any importance in Northeast 
Missouri during 1863, which closed as quietly as it had begun. 

1864 (Close of the War) 

As 1862 marked the close of virtual Confederate hostilities in North- 
east Missouri, so 1864 saw the end of all warfare in this section that 
can bear that name. There are three subjects that demand considera- 
tion during this last period and as they are comparatively unrelated, 
each will be considered separately. 

First among these was the guerrilla warfare waged by such men as 
Bill Anderson and Quant rell. Although these guerrillas professed to be 
in the service of the Confederacy, and it seemed as though Anderson 
actually was to a certain extent, they respected neither side but fought 
purely for the love of fighting, the hope of gain and revenge, and other 
similar motives. They were savage and merciless in their methods and 
were largely thieves and murderers. As has already been mentioned they 
were usually in small bands, but the union of several chiefs sometimes 
raised their force to four or five hundred as was the case at the * * Cen- 
tralia Massacre." Although relatively few in numbers they were dar- 
ing. They were skilled horsemen and rode the best of mounts; their 
weapons were of the latest patterns-each man carrying from one to 


six revolvers aloae; and lai^ely through friendg or intimidated in- 
formers knew the country and the position of the Union troops prac- 
tically all the time. 

The most important of all the aetivities of the guerrilla warfare dur- 
ing this year was "Bill Anderson's Raid." Although known by this 
name it was largely the work of many other guerrilla chieftains among 
whom Anderson stood high. Beaides the battles fought and towns cap- 
tured that are related below, it may give some idea of the deatruetiveness 
of this raid to know that the town of Danville was burned and the depots 
at New Florence, High Hill and Reniek destroyed. 

Bill Anderson with other guerrillas crossed the Missouri in July, 1864. 
He marched through Carroll, Chariton and Randolph plundering and 
murdering along the way. On July 27, his band captured Shelbina, 
sacking the stores and robbing the citizens. In September, Anderson 
sacked Huntsville and later went to Howard county where on the 20th, 

The New Soldieks — Cadets at UNivEKsrry op MISSOUBI 

in conjunction with Quantrell and others, having a force of 277, an 
attack was made on the Federal garrison at Fayette. The complete 
Federal guard here numbered about three hundred, but only fifty were 
inside the town when the attack was made. The guerrillas gained 
entrance into the town but were unable to capture the small Union 
guard who repulsed them with great loss. Anderson left Fayette in a 
few hours and on the 23d captured fourteen wagons loaded with Union 
supplies and some private property seven miles northeast of Rocheport 
in Boone county. Here he killed eleven Federal soldiers and three 
negroes. At this time Anderson had several hundred fine revolver shots 
under him as George Todd, David Pool, Holtclaw and John Thrailkill. 
On September 26, between three hundred and five hundred guerrillas 
under Anderson camped three miles from Centralia. Early on this 
day bands of these men came to Centralia and after looting the town, 
held up the stage coach from Columbia, stopped and partially destroyed 
a St. Louis passenger train and after robbing the passengers IdUed 
nearly all of the twenty-three Federal soldiers on boaid, and set fire to 
the depot and train. The bands then returned to their camp. In the 
afternoon Major Johnson arrived at Centralia with a force of between 
one hundred and fifty and one hundred and seventy-five men of the 


Thirty-ninth Regiment, Missouri Volunteers. Despite the advice of 
many, Johnson gave battle two miles out from the town and 139 of 
his men were killed and some four or five wounded. Anderson in this 
affair lost but two killed and three wounded. The muzzle-loading rifles 
of the Union soldiers who were on foot were no match against the three 
to six revolvers carried by each of Anderson 's men. It is stated that at 
the first shot by Anderson's men sixty-eight of Johnson's men were 

The Federals in that section kept up a close pursuit of Anderson 
after the affair at Centralia and on October 27 that leader was killed in 
Ray county. 

The question of Federal drafts came up during 1864 and 1865, and 
deserves some consideration. The Federal draft of 1864 was met in 
many counties of Northeast Missouri by the offering of bounties by the 
county courts. For example, Boone county offered $50 a head to re- 
cruits of that county in February, 1865; Schuyler county at a special 
term of court held August 30, 1864, offered $100 to married men of that 
county or to those having dependents and $50 to others. The latter 
county is reported to have appropriated $8,000, and to have actually 
paid out $6,120 for these bounties. The second Federal draft of April 
5, 1865, was nullified by the peace of April 9, 1865, which terminated 
the war here, although bushwhacking stiU continued until June of that 
year in some parts. 

The last subject for consideration in the war in Northeast Missouri 
is the battle of Glasgow. On Price's Raid of 1864 into Missouri, that 
general, while marching westward from Jefferson City, sent Generals 
Jo Shelby and John B. Clark on October 8, to capture Glasgow. Colonel 
Chester Harding in command of the Federal forces at Glasgow was 
fini^lly forced to surrender on October 15 to the Confederates who had 
brought a force of one thousand seven hundred men against him. The 
bombardment by Shelby and Clark was severe and fire broke out in the 
town. After capturing the place the Confederates almost immediately 
evacuated it 

Contributions to Both Sides 

This marks the close of the war in Northeast Missouri. Instead of 
remaining neutral as the majority of Missourians favored, they had con- 
tributed 109,111 soldiers to the Federal cause and between forty and 
fifty thousand to the southern armies, and found their state a battiefield 
for both sides part of the time and a camp for the North during the 
latter years of the war. All this was especially true in Northeast Mis- 
souri. She always had soldiers stationed among her counties, during 
1861 and 1862 there were armies of both the North and the South within 
this section, and from 1863 on to the close of the war she held the Union 
camps of troops and tried to protect herself against the inroads of the 

Northeast Missouri furnished thousands of men to both sides and 
for the South during 1861-1862 she was a veritable recruiting ground. It 
is strange, but nevertheless true, that many of her counties that con- 
tained comparatively few slaves were largely southern in sympathies; 
and counties with a large slave population were sometimes strong Union 
recruiting fields. The Union sentiment in Northeast Missouri did not 
depend on the small number of slave owners and slaves, nor did southern 
sympathizers increase as the slave population became larger as a rule. 

The Missourian of 1861 was still the independent pioneer of earlier 
days and formed his opinions and fought for his convictions regardless 
of neighbors, his own self-interest, and even blood-ties. One of the 


stanchest Union supporters in this state and a congressman during part 
of the war was James S. Rollins of Boone county. And the tax-lists of 
1860 which are today in the court-house of that county show that **The 
Father of the University of Missouri" had more money in slaves than 
any other slave-holder at that time in the county. On the other hand 
there were hundreds of men in Northeast Missouri and thousands in the 
state who fought in the southern armies through choice but who never 
owned a slave and died on the field of battle for their convictions. 

Northeast Missouri can be proud of her war record as regards the 
number of men she contributed and also from the generals she gave 
to both sides, one of her sons, General Sterling Price, being commander 
of the Confederate forces in this state, and another, Qeneral Odon 
Guitar, casting glory on the Union arms both north and south of the 
river. It is to be regretted that so much has been written about such 
petty leaders as Bill Anderson and others of his caliber while so Uttle 
has been printed about men of the high rank of Colonel Green and 
Colonel Porter. It is the hope of the historian that the day will soon 
come when the mere exciting and murderous tales will cease to find their 
way into books of so-called ** History" and that more time will be given 
to what may be a less spectacular but more enduring study of real men 
of war and campaigns. Missouri has already been more than burdened 
with the former ; she waits the future in expectation of the latter. 



By Samuel W, Ravenel, BoonvUle, civil engineer and architect, author 

of ^^RaveneVs Road Primer" 

Rivers are highways that move on, and bear us whither we wish to go. — 

A history of the riverways of Northeast Missouri would seem a trav- 
esty on truth — a parody on existing facts — if the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri rivers were not given such mention as their importance to this 
section of Missouri suggests and merits. 

Northeast Missouri, unlike any other section of the United States, 
except southeast Missouri, is bounded on two sides by two of the largest 
and most important navigable streams in the world, the Mississippi, 
lapping her eastern shores for approximately two hundred and fifty 
miles, furnishing water fronts and shipping facilities to seven of her 
counties, Clark, Lewis, Marion, Ralls, Pike, Lincoln and St. Charles; 
while the Missouri performs the same service along her southern shores 
for a like number of counties and equal mileage, touching St. Charles, 
Warren, Montgomery, Callaway, Boone, Howard and Chariton. 

The Mississippi River 

The Mississippi river forms the entire eastern border of Northeast 
Missouri and is the waterway to the Gulf of Mexico for her various 
tributaries that have their sources within the confines of the counties 
embraced in Northeast Missouri, or have their origin far beyond the 
state boundary line to the northward. 

The great ** Father of Waters" is therefore one of the great natural 
public utilities of this fortunate section of our great state, which 
derives most profitable and advantageous facilities and resources from 
its beneficial privileges and uses. This river should be mentioned here 
because it is the natural aqueduct or watershed to the sea for many of 
the smaller rivers to be hereafter mentioned as conducive to the com- 
mercial and agricultural benefits and interests of this section. 

The Indians called it **Missi Sepe,'* the accredited meaning of 
which, in their tongue, is ** Great River." The distance from its source, 
Lake Itasca, in northern Minnesota, to the Gulf of Mexico, is about 
two thousand nine hundred and sixty miles. It is navigable for about 
one thousand nine hundred and forty-four miles, and consequently 
entirely across the section of country to be considered in this chapter. 

As a brief matter of history attaching to it, it should be noted that 
its mouth was discovered in 1519 by Pineda; it was crossed near its 
mouth in 1528 by Cabeza de Vaca, but he supposed it was only an arm 
of the sea, and dismissed its further exploration under that belief. 

It was not until 1541 that DeSoto discovered its true character as 



a most wonderful and valuable inland stream ; and in 1542 the sur- 
vivors of his party, lead by Luis de Moscoso, descended the river to 
its mouth, or entrance into the Gulf of MeKico, 

In 1673 Fere Marquette and ^ouis Joliet discovered what is known 
as the upper Mississippi, which part most concerns this territory. In 
1682 La Salle explored it from the Illinois river to the gulf, but the 
source was not really discovered until 1832, by Schoolcraft. The French 
called it the River St. Louis. 

The two principal cities of Northeast Missouri along the west bank 
of this river are Hannibal in Marion county and Louisiana in Pike 
county, both prosperous and progressive towns. 

Like the Missouri river on the south, it is the main sewer, so to 
epeak, for the many drainage laterals and sub-laterals in the way of 
smaller rivers and creeks flowing through Northeast Missouri and seek- 
ing their natural outlets into this great inland stream, thence to the 

An Excursion Bi>.*t on the Mississipi-i 

gulf, the great basin receptacle for all our western waters, until, as it 
bids adieu to the fertile shores of this portion of our state, it receives 
the waters of its greatest and longest tributary, the Missouri river, 
which, flowing along the southern border of St. Charles county, empties 
into it about twenty miles above St. Louis. 

The Missouri Riveb 

The Missouri river, in reality the longer of the two streams, was 
first seen by white men — early French explorers — about July 1, 1673, 
when they were descending the Mississippi river, who called it "Pekita- 
noui," the name which appears on some of the earliest maps. It so 
impressed everyone with its muddy appearance that it was later called 
Missouri, from the Indian word for muddy water. 

The Missouri originates in southwest Montana by the uniting of 
the Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin rivers, known as the' "Three Porks 
of the Missouri," flowing northeastwardly through ^lontana into North 


Dakota, between Nebraska and Iowa, and between Kansas and Jlissouri 
until it reaches Kansas City, Missouri ; thenee eastwardly across the 
state, constantly bearing to the south, however, forming the southern 
boandary of Northeast Missouri until it runs athwart the clear, blue 
current of the Mississippi, emptying its turbulent torrent of muddy 
waters into that of the other great world-known waterway, rushing on 
to the gulf. 

The current of the Missouri is very swift at all times, owing to the 
fact that tbe waters have a grade, by actual measurement, of ten inches • 
to the mile, a very unusual fall, especially for so large a stream. 

Its length above its confluence with the Mississippi, or its mouth as 
it is commonly called, is about twenty-five hundred and forty-seven 
miles, but including the Jefferson branch of the three forks, ia given by 
the Mississippi and Missouri River Commission as twenty-nine hundred 
and forty-five miles, making its length to the gulf thirty-eight hundred 
and twenty-three miles, counting the distance by the Mississippi river 
from the mouth of the Missouri to the gulf. Undoubtedly, had the 
Missouri river been ascended first it would have been the main stream, 
from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico — the longest and 
grandest river in the world. 

A MiSSOUBI RiVEK Steajier 

This river was again explored in 1804 and 1805 by Lewis and Clark, 
and like the Mississippi, had been called by the French explorers, in 
honor of a ruler of France, the river St. Philip. 

Owing to the steep grade and resultant swift current, this river 
was for years considered unnavigable, supposing that no keel boat could 
ascend so swift a current. 

However, this question was settled by the enterprising spirit of 
progress and perseverance of George Sarpy, who sent Captain Labrosse 
to experiment on the difficult task. He was successful, and on May 
15, 1819, Captain Nelson, of Louisville, Kentucky, succeeded in navi- 
gating the stream and safely landed the Independence at Old Franklin, 
Howard county, a town of Northeast Missouri, then the largest and 
most prosperous commercial and educational center west of St. Louis, 
opening even at that early day the great advantages of river traffic to 
Northeast Missouri, extending entirely across its southern, as well as 
across its eastern border, as the Independence is said to have soon 
thereafter proceeded as far as the Grand river, the farthest west of the 
Northeast Missouri rivers to be considered in this chapter. 

In 1819 the government sent another expedition up this river to 
ascertain how far it was navigable and to establish a line of military 


posts. This expedition left St. Louis on June 1, 1819, in the Western 
Engineer for the mouth of the Yellowstone, with Col. Henry Adkin- 
son's command. 

Like the Mississippi river on the east, the Missouri river has fur- 
nished to the several southern counties of Northeast Missouri along its 
entire southern boundary line all the great advantages of a river traffic 
and trade, and has been of untold benefit and advantage in days past, 
when the palatial river steamboats did the passenger and freight traffic 
of the entire west, before the days of railroads, trolley lines, aeroplanes 
and automobiles. 

Smaller Streams 

The tributaries to these two great natural waterways all flow either 
eastwardly or southeastwardly into the Mississippi or into the Missouri 
river, thus affording this favored portion of Missouri all the natural 
advantages — ^and in a most marked degree— of river irrigation, sewer- 
age and drainage. 

While these tributaries, creeks and rivulets are not admissible under 
the government specifications as navigable streams, except the Grand and 
Chariton for very small craft, they serve a most valuable and profitable 
purpose in giving Northeast Missouri the reputation of being as well 
watered a country as any part of Missouri, which bears the distinction 
of being at least among the best watered states of this or any other 

These small rivers and creeks, while not navigable, are so distributed 
over this section of Missouri that they naturally form rich valleys many 
miles wide, with uniform surfaces carpeted in nature's verdant colors, 
with the various feed grasses or other graminaceous herbs indigenous 
to such conditions, making not only a picture pleasing to the eye, but 
affording forests, foliage and timber that produce prosperity and plenty 
for man and beast, and render it ideal for homes and domestic purposes, 
an abiding place for rich or poor alike. * 

This naturally presupposes a resultant fact — ^that this section is 
well supplied with babbling brooks and bold and bubbling springs of 
pure waters; or perhaps, of mineral waters, such as saline, sulphur, 
chalybeate, for springs are generally the sources of our smaller creeks 
and branches, seeking their way to nature's great aqueducts, thus, year 
after year, eroding and corroding the wrinkles and furrows on the face 
of Mother Earth, until we have our beautiful vales and valleys, dales, 
dingles and dells, all doing their part in creating and completing 
nature's beautiful landscape garden such as is found between the inlets, 
coves and creeks in northeast Missouri, as her smaller streams seek relief 
by emptying their overflowing freshets into the two great waterways 
that pass her doors on their ever-moving march to the sea. 

Of these smaller rivers the most important is Grand river, forming 
a part of the western boundary of Northeast Missouri and its principal 
branch or feeder, the Locust river, flowing south through parts of 
Putnam, Sullivan and Linn counties. Next in importance is the Chari- 
ton river, which, rising in Iowa, runs between Putnam and Schuyler 
and on south through Adair, Macon and Chariton counties, where it 
empties into the Missouri river, a few miles west of the Howard county 

Of those emptying into the Mississippi river the Salt river and its 
numerous feeders, the Cuivre and the Fabius and its several branches, 
are the principal and deserve special mention. 

However, for the purposes of this chapter it is best to mention the 


streams by counties as they each serve their allotted end in carrying out 
nature's purpose. 

Adair county is served by the Chariton and its feeders, Blackbird, 
Shuteye, Spring, Billy, Hog and Walnut creeks on the west and Hazel, 
Rye, Big and Sugar creeks on the east, flowing into the Missouri river. 
East of the divide the South Fabius, Cottonwood, Floyd, Steer, Timber, 
Bear and Bee creeks and Salt river empty into the Mississippi river. 

Audrain's principal water-course is Salt river, whose tributaries in 
the county are Reese 'a fork. Long branch, South creek, Young's creek, 
Beaver Dam, Littleby and Lick creeks in the western part of the county. 
In the eastern part we find the west fork of Cuivre river and Hickory 
and Sandy creeks. There are a few flowing springs but none large 
enough to furnish water power for commercial purposes. 

Boone county is well watered by Cedar creek, the east boundary 
line between that county and Callaway, emptying into the Missouri and 
Petite Bonne Femme, Roche Perche, Hinkson, Rocky Fork, Silver Fork, 
Graves' fork from the northeast and Lick and Sugar creeks and the 
Moniteau, forming a portion of the western border, all emptying into 
the Missouri river near Rocheport. 

Callaway is also watered by the Cedar creek and its feeders in the 
western slope, while the Auxvasse and its branches do a like service 
on the east, as they find their way to the Missouri. 

Chariton's principal stream is the river of the same name. The 
Chariton creek, and the east and middle forks of Chariton river drain 
its eastern portion, while the Grand river and its tributaries, Elk, Tur- 
key, Yellow and Little Yellow creeks, perform a similar service on the 
west, forming rich and fertile bottom lands as a beneficial result. In 
recent years, the Chariton river, a very treacherous stream, on account 
of its very tortuous windings, has been straightened and shortened to 
but a fraction of its original length to the great benefit of those owning 
property along its banks. 

In June, 1804, when Lewis and Clark ascended the Missouri river, 
the Big and Little Chariton had separate mouths, but the changing 
erosions and accretions of the river finally united them about a mile 

Clark county is drained entirely into the Mississippi by the Des 
Moines, Little Fox and Sinking creek, Wyaconda, Honey and other 
smaller creeks wending their ways through its borders. 

Howard countv is bounded on its entire southern and about half of 
its western border by the Missouri river, draining its whole area by 
receiving the waters of Moniteau, Bonne Femme, Salt and Sulphur 
creeks and their tributary branches, which flow southwardly from the 
northern portion of the county entirely across it. These are all small 
streams, but afford ample drainage, but no power supply. Besides the 
many fresh water springs there are a number of salt springs in this 
county, the most famous of which is the historic Boon's Lick Springs 
near Boonsboro, from which quite a salt-making industry was carried on 
by the sons of Daniel Boone in 1807. 

Knox county is well watered and drained by the Fabius river and 
its tributaries. This river is supposed to be named after Fabius Maxi- 
mus and flows southeastwardly into the Mississippi river. 

Lewis county fronts on the Mississippi river for twenty-five miles 
enjoying not only the benefits of its navigation but the gain of many 
acres of very rich and productive bottom lands. The tributaries of 
the North and Middle Fabius and Wyaconda that fiow through and 
water this county are the Sugar, Grassy, Bridge and Troublesome creei» 
and their numerous smaller feeders, flowing northwest and southeast. 


Lincoln county also fronts on the Mississippi river for its entire 
eastern border. The principal streams of this county are the North 
Cuivre and West Cuivre, with their numerous tributaries, Bob's, Bry- 
ant's, Hurricane, Sugar, Sulphur, Lead, Turkey and Big creeks, which 
furnish an abundant water supply and drainage for its entire area. 
The Cuivre is the boundary between Lincoln and St. Charles counties, 
and is navigable for small craft as far as Big creek, but only for a por- 
tion of the year. 

Linn county's alternate prairie and timber plopes are well served 
with numerous streams, all furnishing ample drainage and some afford- 
ing excellent water power. The principal streams are the Yellow and 
East Yellow, Long Branch, Turkey, Muddy, Locust and Parson 's creeks, 
all flowing southwardly, seeking their way to the Grand river, thence to 
the Missouri. Some of these creeks are said to have a fall of six feet 
to the mile, and by a system of dams furnish ample water power for 
ordinary mill purposes. 

Macon county is on the summit between the Mississippi and Missouri 
rivers, the divide running north and south across the county. West of 
the divide the Chariton river is the principal stream, its tributaries 
being East and Middle Porks, with their branches, Walnut, Turkey, 
Brush, Puzzle and Paint creeks, all finally reaching the Missouri river, 
but east of the divide the Middle Pork and its feeders, Narrows, Winn 
and Hooker creeks, empty into the Mississippi river. In the extreme 
eastern part are Bear and Ten Mile cre.eks, and in the extreme northern 
part Muscle Pork and its small branches. 

Marion county fronts for its entire east side on the Mississippi river. 
It is especially well provided with waterways, as well as with pure 
water, chalybeate and sulphur springs. The principal feeders of the 
Mississippi running through this county are the North and South Pabius, 
Troublesome, Saline and Grassy creeks. North and South rivers and 
many smaller streams. 

Monroe county's principal stream is Salt river, its chief feeders 
running through this county being Middle fork. South fork. Elk fork, 
Lost branch, Reese's creek, Plat and Crawford's creeks, some of them 
affording ample water power for flouring mills, etc. 

Montgomery county borders on the Missouri river for about twelve 
miles, but is watered and drained principally by the Loutre river and 
its large tributary feeders. Clear Pork, Prairie Pork and Quick and Mur- 
dock creeks, and Dry Pork flowing eastwardly and South Bear and 
Whippoorwill creeks southwardly into Loutre river. The northern 
portion of this county is drained by Coon creek, a branch of West Cuivre; 
White Oak, Elkhorn, Walker and Brush creeks and West Cuivre do a 
like service for the northeastern, and North, Bear and Pride's creeks 
for the eastern part. This county has a number of salt springs in the 
vicinity of the Loutre river, besides other mineral springs, but has a 
special local reputation for the medicinal waters of Mineola Springs, a 
group of three mineral springs situated on the old Boon's Lick road. 

Pike county is another county blest with a Mississippi river frontage 
for its entire eastern border. Salt river also runs through the northern 
part of it, doing ample and extensive drainage and water service, with 
its tributaries, Spencer, Peno, Sugar, Haw and Grassy creeks; Big, 
Gwinn, Little Ramsay, Calumet, Noix and Buflfalo creeks flow east 'nto 
the Mississippi ; while Sulphur Pork, North Pork, Indian Pork and West 
Pork drain the southwest part and empty into the Cuivre river. Numer- 
ous salt and mineral springs are also found in this county, principal 
among which are Buffalo Springs near Louisiana and Elk Lick near 


Putnam county is drained bv the North and South Blackbird, Shoal, 
Brush, Wildcat and Kinney creeks and smaller streams, all being tribu- 
taries and sub-tributaries to the Chariton river. In the western part 
are Medicine creek and East and West Locust creeks. Some of these 
streams are capable of affording good water power by a systematic plan 
of dams, though they are but little utilized at present, 

Ralls county has but a few miles of Mississippi river frontage, only 
about twelve or fifteen miles, but is especially well served by the Salt 
river and its branches, running from west to east, principal among which 
are Lick and Spencer creeks. Besides many springs of pure water, 
there are numerous and valuable salt springs in this county, the prin- 
cipal being Freemore, Burnett, Ely, Briggs, Fikes and Trabue licks 
and the Saverton springs. 

Randolph county is a part of the grand divide between the two 
great rivers that are the east and west boundary lines of this quarter- 
section of our state and is consequently drained to both the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers. The east fork of the Chariton and its branches 
drain the eastern and northeastern portions into the Missouri, while 
about one fourth of the county on the east side is drained by the 
feeders to the Mississippi and its tributaries. The principal creeks in 
the county are the Moniteau and Perche, Dark, Muncas, Silver, Sweet 
Springs, Middle Fork of Chariton, Walnut and Sugar creeks. 

St'. Charles county is doubly water-blessed in being the only county 
in Northeast Missouri whose shores are washed on two sides by the 
waters of the two greatest rivers of America, the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri. The county is intersected in the northwest by the Big, Indian, 
Camp and McCoy creeks, which flow into the Cuivre river, thence to 
the Mississippi. These are the only streams worthy of mention empty- 
ing into the Mississippi, the others all finding their final outlets into 
the Missouri river to the southward. The Femme Osage creek, while 
rising in Warren county, traverses this county, running nearly due 
east and emptying into the Missouri near Hamburg. The other creeks 
that tend to draining and watering this county are the Dardenne and 
Peruque. St. Charles county, besides these creeks above mentioned, 
possesses another water feature worthy of mention, in the Marias Croche 
lake, whose appearance has been likened to an *' immense mirror set 
in emerald." It is located near the two mounds, Les Mamelles, which 
are parts of the bluflfs of the Missouri river, which project a mile into 
the prairie at a point six miles from the Mississippi and about two and 
a half miles from St. Charles. Of the scene presented by this lake and 
the two mounds a cjergyman is quoted as saying, **I have never before 
seen anything that gave me a proper conception of the Promised Land," 
and Rev, Timothy Flint, in his "Ten years' residence in the Mississippi 
Valley" says, "Here is presented an imposing view of the courses of 
the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, with the bluffs and towering cliffs, 
their ancient meandering banks, the Mariag Croche lake, the mouth of 
the Illinois river and the vast prairie dotted here and there with farm 

Schuyler county has as its principal waterway the Chariton river, 
which is its western boundary line, and the "Grand Divide" cuts 
through the western part of the county. The Chariton drains its west- 
em part into the Missouri river, its principal feeders being Lick, Elm 
and Lost creeks. In the south and center of this county are the head- 
waters of Salt river, and in the east and northeast the same may be said 
of the North Fabius, Bridge creek, Fabius and South Fork of Middle 
Pabius, forming very rich and fertile divides or plateaus between them, 
in addition to the resultant productive valleys. 


Scotland county is well drained by the Little Pox, North and South 
Wyaconda, Bear, Baker, Foreman, North Fabius, Indian, Tobin and 
Middle Fabius creeks and the South Fork of Middle Fabius, all draining 
southeast as the entire county slopes that way, towards the Mississippi 

Shelby county is especially well watered and for that feature of 
nature's bestowal is dependent upon the South Fabius, Tiger Fork, and 
North river in the northeast portion; Black creek and North Fork of 
Salt river, in the central, and Ten Mile, Crawford and other creeks in 
the southeast. These streams all flow southeast into the tributaries of 
the Mississippi river. 

Sullivan county is traversed from north to south by East Medicine 
creek, the West Fork, East Fork, Little East Fork and Main Fork of 
Locust creek, which empties into the Missouri river in the edge of Chari- 
ton county. It is also traversed southwestwardly by Muddy, Yellow and 
Spring creeks, which are said to afford ample water power, if properly 
treated for that commercial purpose. Most of the creeks of this county 
find their outlets by way of the Locust, but a few smaller creeks drain the 
northeast portion into the Chariton, all 'finally feeding the great Mis- 
souri river. 

Warren county sheds about one fourth of its waters into the Missis- 
sippi and the other three fourths into the Missouri, b^ing on the main 
dividing ridge between the two rivers. The Missouri river washes its 
entire south border, which accounts for three fourths of its territory 
draining into that river. The principal streams of the southern slope 
are Bear, Lost, Little Lost, Charrette and Tuque creeks. Those serving 
the eastern watershed to the Mississippi are Peruque, Big, Indian and 
Camp creeks. There are numerous mineral springs of more than ordi- 
nary capacity in the county. 


A road is the means of internal communication between points in any coun- 
try; a place where one may ride or drive; it is an open way appropriated for public 
passage and travel for wagons or other vehicles, and is necessary to the good of 
every community. — Ravenel's Road Primer. 

We will begin with the old roads — the roads of the pioneers and 
their early descendants — ^with the ** trails, '* **post roads,'* ** state roads," 
as they were termed in those early days — and develop them as well as 
is possible to the cross-state highways of today. 

It is self evident that the government recognized roads of whatever 
material, as essentials, and that Northeast Missouri was of as national 
importance as any other part of Missouri in the very earliest periods 
of the nineteenth century from the recognition given it by the United 
States postoflSce department, as evidenced by the partial list of post 
and stage roads enumerated below. 

The Boon's Lick Road 

The Boon 's Lick road is one of the oldest roads in Missouri and the 
unquestioned oldest in Northeast Missouri. It runs from St. Charles 
to the Boon's Lick Springs in Howard county, about nine miles west- 
wardly beyond the present town of New Franklin and was first used 
by Nathaniel and Daniel M., the sons of Daniel Boone, the old pioneer 
hunter and trapper, and Messrs. Goforth, Baldridge and Manly, for the 
purpose of reaching the Boon's Lick Springs, where they manufactured 
salt and shipped to St. Louis, in 1806-7. This road was made a post 


road by the United States government in 1821 and soon after was legal- 
ized as a state road by the Missouri legislature, its eastern end being 
known as the St. Charles road. This road has now become a part of the 
Ocean- to- Ocean Highway, being the connecting link between the "Cum- 
berland Road" or "National Pike" from St. Louis, via St. Charles, te 
New Franklin, in Howard county, thence by the Jlissouri avenue to tbe 
Missouri river, at the site of the extinct town of Old Franklin, opposite 
Boonville, thus connecting this old road with the other old trails por- 
tion of the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway, the Santa Pe trail through Missouri. 

The Boon's Lick road is an important feature of the roadways of 
Northeast Missouri from the fact that it traverses the following counties, 
passing through some of its principal commercial and educational cen- 
ters: St. Charles, Warren, Montgomery, Callaway, Boone and Howard. 

The Boon's Lick road was regularly surveyed and established by 
Nathan Boone, as a commissioner, in 1815 and is undoubtedly the most 
historic and widely known road to be treated in this work. 

The Salt River Road 

The Salt River road, however, follows closely in its chronological 
record, being ordered laid out in 1823, from St. Charles to the mouth of 
the Pes Moines river. It traverses Northeast Missouri in a direction 

On a Mis.=ol'ri Country Road 

practically at right angles to the Boon's Lick road, which follows the 
Missouri river, for it seems to have followed the direction of the Missis- 
sippi, leaving it at St. Charles and passing through St. Peters, Troy, 
Eolia, Louisiana, Hannibal and Palmyra and on to the northward, cross- 
ing the counties of St. Charles, Lincoln, Pike, Ralls, Marion, Lewis and 
part of Clark. 

Among other "old trails" roads in Northeast Missouri is the Hanni- 
bal and St. Joseph rohd, which is said to have been laid out by William 
Muldrow, the original of Mark Twain's "Col. Mulberry Sellers," and 
which is now practically the line of the Hannibal and St. Joe railroad. 

Wetmore's Gazetteer also refers to a road prior to 1837 from Colum- 
bia to Liberty, thence to Fort Leavenworth, which passed through the 
following Northeast Missouri towns: Sexton's, Payette, Glasgow, Chari- 
ton, Keytesville and Grand River, making over seventy miles of it 
within its confines. 

There was also a road from Marion City to Franklin and Boonville, 
running by Palmyra, Clinton, on the South river. Main Salt river, Paris, 
Mulligan's store. Payette, New Pranklin, to the Missouri river "and 
across the Missouri river to Boonville." making a total distance of one 
hundred and sixteen miles. 


There were also in 1836 post routes from Hannibal, by Florida, Paris 
and Huntsville, to Fayette, and from McMurty's in Callaway county, 
Thomas Harrison's, on the Grand Prairie, to Huntsville; from Bowl- 
ing Green, by Bondurant's and Cove Springs to Florida; from Monti- 
cello, in Lewis county westwardly to Sandy Hill. 

As in other states, there was a toll-road day in road construction 
and maintenance in Missouri, and some of these old roads still exist in 
Lincoln, Boone and Pike, and possibly other counties, but are not of suf- 
ficient length and importance to be treated, except as they may affect 
individual counties. 

Missouri Avenue 

^lissouri avenue, above referred to, is in a class by itself in Missouri 
roads, and for that reason will be given especial notice, and also as 
being a two-mile link in the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway, connecting the 
two most famous and oldest ** trails" of pioneer days, the Boon's Lick 
road and the Sante Pe trail. 

Years ago, about 1787, the state of New York authorized the rais- 
ing of revenue for road purposes in a general way by lottery, but only 
once in this state was that done by legislative enactment and that was 
for the Missouri avenue, one hundred and twenty feet wide, connect- 
ing the two Northeast Missouri towns of New and Old Franklin, in 
Howard county. 

While this road is only eighty years old, it is one of the most his- 
toric roads in the United States, known since 1833, when it was made 
a legal entity by the legislature as Missouri avenue, but even better 
known now as the famous ** Lottery road." 

As early as 1833 it was a self-evident fact that Old Franklin was a 
doomed town, the erosions of the Missouri river, on the north bank of 
which it was laid out in 1816, having then for years made daily encroach- 
ments upon its water front, until in 1828 but few houses remained. 

On January 16, 1833, an act of the legislature was approved incor- 
porating the town of the present New Franklin, now practically the 
west terminus of the Boon's Lick road. Among the powers conferred 
upon the board of trustees was authority **to raise by lottery a sum 
of money not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars, for the construction of 
a railroad from the bank of the Missouri river to the town of New 
Franklin aforesaid; to provide for the construction and completion of 
said road, and the application of said fund to that specific object; to fix 
by ordinance the tolls that shall be paid for the use of said road, after 
the same shall have been constructed and finished, or for the transpor- 
tation of goods, wares and merchandise upon said road, and collect the 
same; to procure by contract the land upon which such road is to be 
constructed, and to keep the said road in repair." 

On February 8, 1839, an act of the legislature was approved annul- 
ing the act of 1833, changing the railroad to a macadamized road and 
taking from the trustees the power to raise the money by lottery, a^d 
conferring the power on the governor in these words: **The governor 
may by proclamation authorize the board of trustees to raise by lottery 
such amount as may be necessary to complete the road." On Febru- 
ary 24, 1853 another act was approved repealing the authority to con- 
struct a macadam road and conferring the power to build a plank road. 
On December 5, 1855, still another act was approved conferring author- 
ity on the trustees to construct a plank road, instead of a railroad or 
a macadam road, as originally provided in the acts of 1833 and 1839. 

Missouri avenue is still, however, a wide and straight earth road and 
this record of the acts of the legislature only shows that it was estab- 


lished by law as a connecting link between a point on the Boon's Lick 
road and Old Franklin, the acknowledged beginning of the Santa Fe 
trail, and is now a part gf the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway running through 
Northeast Missouri. 

Other State Roads 

Besides post roads or military roads, as they were sometimes called, 
surveyed by the war department of the national government, there was 
a period when state roads were surveyed, whether built in fact or in 
the engineer's note book. 

Among this class of roads, in 1840 a state road was surveyed under 
the direction of three commissioners, from St. Charles to Mexico, the 
actual survey being made by F. W. Rowland, passing through Truxton 
and Middletown to Mexico, in Audrain county. Another state road 
ran from Old Franklin, north to Fayette, thence northwardly through 
Chariton county. 

Between 1848 and 1856 there were plank roads built in Boone, Pike, 
Ralls, Howard and Marion counties, but they were soon worn out and 
abandoned, or were turned into gravel or toll roads. In about the same 
period, ** corduroy'* roads were tried, but naturally proved a **make 
shift" for a road and w^ere only less of a permanent road than the 
plank road. 

The principal post and stage roads in Northeast Missouri with any 
claims to antiquity, may be enumerated, with approximate dates, as 
follows : 

In 1819, St. Louis to St. Charles; in 1821 and later, St. Louis, via 
St. Charles to Franklin, Howard county, one hundred and fifty-four 
miles ; via Arrow Rock to Fort Osage ; Franklin to Boonville ; Alton to 
Louisiana, Pike county; St. Charles, via Clark's Fort, Stout's Fort and 
Clarksburg to Louisiana; St. Louis to *'the county seat of Lincoln 
county," which is now Troy; St. Charles to Fulton and Columbia; Col- 
umbia to Boonville; and via Thrall's to Fayette. 

In 1833, St. Charles via Nay lor 's store. Hickory Grove, Lewiston 
and Jones' Tanyard to Fulton, ninety-five miles; Fayette, by Chariton, 
Grand Pass, Petite Osage Bluffs, Tabo, and on to Lexington and Inde- 
pendence; St. Charles to Dardenne, Femme Osage, Marthasville, Pinck- 
ney, Loutre* Island to Middleton, fifty-three miles. St. Charles via 
Wellsburg, Eagle Creek, Troy, Auburn, Buffalo Eiiob, Bowling Green, 
New London, Hannibal, Hydesburg to Palmyra, one hundred miles. 
Prom Auburn, by Waverly, ClarksviUe, Louisiana to Bowling Green, 
fifty miles. From New London, Florida, Monroe Court House, Middle- 
grove, Huntsville, Mt. Airy to Fayette, one hundred miles; Chariton, 
by Keytesville, Richmond and Liberty to Independence, one hundred 
miles; Palmyra, La Grange, Canton to Des Moines river, forty-nine 
miles; Bowling Green to Shamrock, "Whetstone and Fulton, seventy 
miles; Troy, Pendleton, Pinckney, New Port to Union, fifty miles; 
Wellsville, Monroe, McQueen's to ClarksviUe, forty miles. 

These were all mail routes both ways, the mail being contracted 
to be delivered from once to three times a week. In time they all became 
well traveled roads and are largely the lines of roadways sought to be 
improved through the state at this time. Their width was from forty 
to sixty feet, usually the former. This agitation of the road question 
took up much of the time of our legislature and continued until the 
advent of the railroads in the thirties, when it ceased and was largely 
turned over to the county courts, there to slumber, with little practical 
or scientific progress until the revived agitation of the last few years, 
which has attracted nation-wide attention. 


In the Counties 

Adair county has always made liberal appropriations for iU earth 
roads, their permanent improvement and maintenance, having inaugu- 
rated that move as early as 1903, and these being generously supple- 
mented by private subscriptions, the county has been foremost in afford- 
ing ample provision in the matter of transportation for its people and 
traffic for the products of the field and farm. 

Audrain county has boasted one of the leading advantages offered 
by any county in its transportation facilities, and justly so, even to its 
efforts of today. 

Mexico, its county seat, around which her interests center and from 
which her roads radiate, is on the north Missouri Cross-State Highway 
and her people are alive to the great advantages of the good roads 
agitation. This cross-state highway is identical with the Central Cross 

On the Pike 

State Highway, or "Old Trails Route" of the Ocean-to-Oeean Highway 
from St. Louis until it reaches New Florence, in Montgomery county. At 
this point it bears to the northward and goes through Montgomery, 
Wellsville, Martinsburg, Mexico, two miles north of Centralia, Sturgeon, 
Clark, Moberly, Huntsville, Salisbury, Keytesville and Brunswick, 
where it leaves northeast Missouri, continuing on by Carrollton, Rich- 
mond, Excelsior Springs and Liberty to Kansas City. At Renick this 
road has a diverging branch by way of Higbee to Glasgow, where it 
crosses the Missouri river. 

While there are no "old trails," so to speak, in this county, there 
are really old roads that we feel deserve mention, having been established 
by special acts of the legislature in our earlier history : The old Hanni- 
bal and Mexico ; the old Louisiana and Mexico ; the old Mexico and Dan- 
ville, and probably others of less importance, all tending, however, to 
interlace the county with a net work of good earth roads. 

This county has also largely adopted the eight mile-square road 
district plan, from which it will reap immeasurable benefit. 

Boone county is on the Oeean-to-Ocean Highway — the Old Trails 
Road — and that has naturally created a great interest in road matters, 
resulting already in a $120,000 bond issue for rock roads, $100,000 for 
the Columbia district and $20,000 for the Harg district. 


The roads of the county are mostly earth roads at this time, but are 
as well maintained as any roads of that character and in this climate, 
which is unfortunately anti-good roads on account of the frequent 
freezing and thawing. As early as 1853 a plank road was built from the 
Missouri river landing at Providence to Columbia, where carriages met 
the students for the University, showing that the road improvement 
spirit prevailed there over half a century ago. 

However, there are now six gravel roads leading out of Columbia, 
the pride of the county and the state. 

One runs west from Columbia to Rocheport, fourteen miles; one 
southeast to Ashland, fifteen miles; one east to the county line, ten 
miles; one northwest to Hinton, nine miles; one north to Oakland 
church, six miles; and one northeastwardly six miles. Besides these 
two others are contemplated and surveyed and will be built ere this 
volume is at all dust-worn, one for a distance of five miles southwest 
and the other northeast for a distance of four and one-half miles. 

Callaway county is also on the Ocean-to-Ocean Highway and the ''Old 
Trails Road ' ' across the central part of the state and has paid particular 
attention to the formation of special road districts, having formed and 
bonded such a district around Fulton, its county seat for $105,000 for 
rock roads. The Boon's Lick road passes through Williamsburg, Cal- 
wood, Fulton and Millersburg in this county. There is "also a road that 
crosses the county north and south from North Jefferson, by way of 
Pulton, on to the northward through Mexico, following the general 
direction of the Chicago & Alton railroad. 

Chariton county shows the interest of her people in the good roads 
move that is attracting the attention of all progressive sections through- 
out the United States by having spent more on her roads in the twelve 
months of 1911 than they had spent in the twelve years prior to this. 

The oldest road probably in this county is a road that was located 
shortly after Old Chariton was laid out in 1817 and ran to Keytesville 
and was known as the ** Keytesville road," Keytesville, the county seat, 
being laid out in 1832. This road crossed the east fork of the Chariton 
river and the IMuscle fork three miles from Keytesville, is now graded 
and is still kept in fine repair. From Keytesville it crosses the Palmer 
creek and continues to Brunswick. 

Another old road runs from Keytesville to Salisbury, thence in a 
northeastwardly direction crossing the Middle fork at Switz's mill, 
thence to Roanoke and on through Randolph county. 

Another main road runs into Chariton county from Huntsville, Ran- 
dolph county. This road was graded and put in good condition in 1905 
and is kept in that condition all the year, as near as weather conditions 
will permit'. The bridges are kept well painted and the culverts are 
constantly looked after. A grader, scraper and dragging system is well 
maintained in the county and her roads are made attractive to the 
traveler and tourist. 

Another old road that had its objective point in this county was a 
road surveyed in 1823 and the early part of 1824 by Major A. S. Lang- 
ham, for the three commissioners, William Haines, Col. N. S. Burkhartt 
and James Logan. It started at the iron banks on the Mississippi river 
and ran through Benton, Cape Qirardeau, Jackson and Jefferson City 
to Columbia and on to Fayette and Chariton on the Missouri river, a 
distance of three hundred miles. 

Chariton is also crossed by the northern Cross-State Highway, which 
enters it near Clifton Hill, from Randolph county, and crosses the 
county from east to west, passing through Salisbury, Keytesville, Dalton 
and Brunswick, on thence to Kansas City. 

Vol. 1— c 


Clark county is the terminus o£ the Salt river road from St. Charles 
to the Des Moines river located in 1823 and elsewhere mentioned, but 
has no other old "trail" or road about whieh any information has been 
obtainable, other than those of local importance. The most prominent 
among those is the old "Alexandria and Bloomfield wagon road," or 
"main divide." This road started at the mouth of the Des Moines 
river, at Alexandria, and continued northwest through Bloomfield and 
on to Des Moines. Prior to the coming of the railroads it was used 
as a freight road and stockmen drove their cattle and hogs over it to 
the Mississippi river for shipment to St. Louis. It was also used as a 
mail and express route in an early day. 

Howard county being the terminus of the Boon's Lick road and the 
beginning of the Santa Fe trail, and the location of the entire length 
of Missonrl avenue, all three being fully described in the preface 
of the portion of the chapter given up to roadways, is probably pos- 
sessed of more historic road interest than any county in Northeast Mis- 

Ready TO Make Roads in Columbia Spehal District 

The three historic roads above referred to will be dismissed with 
only this reference, further than to say that the Boon 's Lick road enters 
the county as it crosses the Moniteau creek at Rocheport and runs 
throu^ the north edge of the present town of New Franklin and on 
west by way of Clark's chapel to the Boon's Lick Springs a few miles 
east of the Missouri river near Arrow Rock, where in all likelihood a 
branch of the Santa Pe trail crossed the river as a short route to the 
main "trail" running by that town, for freighters from the northern 
parts of Northeast Missouri. 

This was doubtless the crossing used by Capt. William Becknell, 
with "pack horses" in one of his Indian trading trips, in 1821, the year 
before the actual "first expedition" over the Santa Pe trail, from Old 
Pranklin started, that being given by the most authentic records and 
historians as 1822, such as Western Annals, Wetmore's Oazetteer, 
Campbell's Gazetteer and Johnson's Encyclopedia on the authority of 
Ex-Govemor Donaciano Vigil, of New Mexico, who said, "In 1822 the 
first train of merchandise from the United States was brought into 
Fernandez de Taos by the five Robidoux brothers." 


Prom a point on the Boon's Lick road, **tlie old trails route/' about 
eight miles east of New Pranklin, the Central Cross-State Highway con- 
tinues on by way of Payette to Glasgow, where it crosses the Missouri 
river into Saline county and on thence to Kansas City. 

At New Pranklin another road, known as the **01d State Road," 
goes north to Payette and thence on across the county in a northerly 
direction on the divide between the Bonne Pemrae and Salt fork of 
Bonne Pemme to Huntsville in Randolph county. 

In 1852, during the ** plank road" period of Missouri road history, 
Major Robert Walker, the engineer of the Old North Missouri railroad, 
located and built what is still known as the ''Plank Road" from Olasgow 
to Huntsville, in all likelihood to accommodate the great tobacco busi- 
ness of Glasgow in those days, serving northeast Missouri to the Iowa 
line. The road was first brought to an established grade, on which 
three and a half-inch thick white oak planks were laid. 

It attracted a great deal of travel, but like all other plank or ''cor- 
duroy roads" proved a distinct failure; the planks absorbing the mois- 
ture of the earth, on which crude foundation they were laid, soon 
assumed the most fantastic shapes from the twisting and warping 
of the various planks in divers directions, curves and cups. This road 
was built by Irish laborers, brought there for the purpose, but also proved 
a financial failure. 

The old "St. Louis stage line road" also passed through this county, 
leaving it at Glasgow and extending northwest to the Platte Purchase. 
It was one of the various Santa Pe trails used by the "forty-niners" 
seeking the gold fields of California from and after the year 1849. 

Knox county, keeping up with the progress of the times in the inter- 
ests of good roads, even as early as 1903 had a well-established system 
of earth roads, successfully and systematically maintained by dragging. 

As in other counties, the roads of Knox radiate from Edina, its 
county seat, reaching in the northeast, Mill Port, Colony and Porest 
Springs; in the northwest. Baring, Greensburg and Hazel Springs; in 
the southeast. Hedge City, Plevna and Newark, and in the southwest. 
Locust Hill, Novelty and on into Macon county. 

Lewis county has made a signal success in maintaining her earth 
roads by dragging, which is given much attention. It also has ten miles 
of pike roads out of Canton, its principal Mississippi river port, making 
easy access to such places as Monticello and other important or rail- 
road points in the different parts of the county. 

Lincoln county is one of the most progressive good roads counties, 
and as early as 1903 had twenty-three miles of turnpike roads and 
today it has nearly eighty miles of rock roads and "toll roads," either 
built or being built. 

This system of roads embraces : Elsberry to New Hope, five miles of 
first-class gravel toll roads; Silex, east, to Auburn, six miles of gravel 
toll road; Silex, west to Corso, eleven miles of gravel toll road; Silex, 
westwardly, to Olney, eleven miles of gravel toll road; Milford, south 
four and a half miles of free gravel road; Troy, north, to Hines, five 
miles of gravel toll road; Troy to Moscow, five miles of free gravel 
road; Hines to Pike county line, fourteen miles of gravel toll road; 
Auburn to New Hope, six miles of gravel road and from Elsberry to 
Smith Mill in Pike county, eight miles of gravel road. 

Many other good graded roads radiate in each direction from Troy, 
but this enumeration shows the splendid road spirit and condition of 
the county. 

Linn county is cut across its southern portion by the old Hannibal 
and St. Joseph Highway, elsewhere referred to. It enters the county 



near Bucklin, at the intersection of the Santa Fe railroad and the H. & 
St. J. railroad and passes almost due west through St. Catharine, Brook- 
field, Laclede on the B. & K. C. Railroad, MeadviUe and on through 

The other principal roads of the county radiate from and around 
Linneus. The county takes such care of its roads that it has two hun- 
dred or more steel bridges to accommodate the travel across its numer- 
ous streams. Its earth roads are constantly dragged, showing its up-to- 
date progress. 

Macon county is crossed east and west a little south of its middle 
axis by the old Hannibal and St. Joseph Highway, elsewhere detailed. 
The cross-state road enters the county a few miles east of Anabel and 
passes through Macon City, Bevier, Callao and New Cambria, leaving 
the county a few miles east of Bucklin, in Linn county. This gives 
the county a good nucleus for road inspiration and road development 
which its people have been ready to take advantage of by building 
feeders to this well traveled old road to other parts of the county. The 
county employs a county highway engineer and is well abreast of the 
times on road matters. 

Marion county, while the starting point of the old Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Highway is within her limits, enjoys its benefits over only 
a few miles of her territory, the old road leaving the county only a few 
miles southwest of Hannibal, where it enters Balls county. 

As early as 1903 Marion county reported over one hundred miles 
of gravel roads and has been a most progressive county in that respect, 
extending her improved roads rapidly and in all directions. 

What is known as the ** Indian road,*' from a supposition that the 
Indians had built this trail, is one of the oldest pack-horse trails in the 
state, having been cut out and located by a Frenchman, Mathurin 
Bouvet, in about 1795. He had a concession that year to a tract of 
land on which was a lick, which he called Le Bastion, to reach which 
he made this trail. A quarter of a century later the old ''trail" was 
found and used by the settlers, who thought it an Indian path. It was 
afterwards known as the Bay Mill road, being used to reach a grist 
mill, a little north of Clear creek, in 1823. 

The first road in the county, north of Salt river, was the earth road 
from New London, Ralls county, to Hannibal, located shortly after 1818, 
when the sectionalizing surveys were made by the government engi- 
neers. This also followed an old Indian trail and has been much 
improved in the gradients in late years. 

In 1836 the Palmyra and Marion City Turnpike Company was 
incorporated by the legislature, amendments being made to the char- 
ter by each session of that body until 1844-45, and the road having a 
similar experience to that of Missouri avenue, in Howard county. 

This county is today alive on the road question and pushes road 

Monroe county has the old Hannibal and St. Joseph Highway for 
only a few miles across its northeast corner, entering the county at 
Monroe City and leaving it at Hunnewell, Shelby county. With this 
exception, Monroe has no other old trail or cross-state highway within 
her borders and is therefore dependent on her own initiative and ener- 
gies for such progress as they have made in road development and 

Montgomery county is one of the counties through which the Boon's 
Lick road passes, entering it near Jonesburg, thence through High HUl, 
New Florence, Danville and Mineola Springs, a few miles bejrond 
which it enters Callaway county. 


At New Florence the Northern Cross State Highway is detoared from 
the Boon's Lick road, moning northwestwardly through Montgomery 
City and "Wellsville, thence on into Audrain county, Middletown is 
another road center in this county, being connected on the southwest 
with the Northern Cross State Highway at Wellsville and to the south- 
east with the gravel roads of Lincoln county at Olney, This gives the 
county most promising good roads prospects. 

Pike county has heen such a progreBsive good roads county that her 
people have lived beyond their generation, having a system of "Turn- 
pikes" inaugurated and built nearly fifty years ago. They established 
a fixed toll-rate of one cent per mile per single team and one and a 
half cents per mile per double team, the elaborate and well-planned 
system connecting all important towns. 

The Only Tunnel on the M. K. & T. at Rochepobt 

This county also had its expensive "plank road" experience. The 
original road from Louisiana, its principal river^front town, to Bow- 
ling Green, its county seat, was a plank road, eleven miles long. But, 
to quote a good authority, "when the ends of the hoards commenced 
to curl up, they put gravel on the ends. Then when the boards rotted 
out, they were taken up and it became a gravel road." 

As a companion to the plank road, the same authority refers to a 
road in the edge of Lincoln county, connecting with the Pike county 
roads, located and laid out by a competent civil engineer by the name 
of Little, over fifty years ago, from Prairieville in the edge of Pike to 
Eolia in Lincoln county, — "It was laid out like a railroad dump — high 
and dry— and it was not too wide. It was well drained and the top 
waa built of rock. • • • This road today, without any care since 
that time, is a very good road, and with but little work can be brou^t 
back to its original condition. This shows the great advantage of 
building a road right to begin with." 

The road from Louisiana to Frankford was built of gravel between 
forty and fifty years ago. The creeks in this county are especially 


well bridged over their roadways, only four now being needed to com- 
plete the county's bridge problem and they are contracted for and will 
be completed by the end of 1913. Concrete floors, another feature of 
permanency, are being put in as fast as the plank floors wear out. 

Putnam countjf reported about two thousand miles of dirt roads, * 
improved and being improved, and her roadmen are alive to the road 
issue, even though no old trail or cross-state highway reaches them, 
the country being hilly, making road building expensive. The neigh- 
borhood roads radiate around Unionville, its principal town, and are 
kept in as good condition as circumstances permit. 

Ralls county has along its northern border the old Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Highway, which enters it a few miles after leaving Hanni- 
bal, and passes through Rensselaer, Huntington and Hazard, beyond 
which it runs into Monroe county at Monroe City. Ralls also has an 
old rock road running from New London toward Hannibal, that was 
built as a toll road ne/irly fifty years ago, but the toll was taken oflE 
and the road is now a free road, but naturally not kept in as good 

Randolph county is well served by the Northern Cross State High- 
way which enters at its extreme southeast corner and goes entirely 
across the county in a northwesterly direction, passing through Clark, 
Renick, Moberly, Huntsville, Randolph Springs and Clifton Hill, and 
on across Chariton county. Another important old road runs north 
and south through it. It is what was Imown as the ** Plank Road" 
from Glasgow to Huntsville, which continues on by way of Moberly 
across the county into Macon county, and from the same point on to 
the south as far as Old Franklin, which in 1823 was the nearest store 
or trading point for these people, a distance of over fifty miles, until 
later they traded at Fayette. 

St. Charles county is the starting point of the Boon's Lick road, 
which passes through Cottleville, Dardenne, Wentzville and Foristell, 
into Warren county. 

It is also the initial point of the Salt River road, northwestwardly, 
which, following the direction of the Mississippi river, passes through St. 
Peters, Josephville, Enon and Flintville into Lincoln county. 

This county has also about two hundred miles of pike roads, besides 
nearly seven hundred miles of good dirt roads. 

Schuyler county, like Putnam and other northern border counties, 
has no old trails nor cross-state highways, although the people are 
well provided with an interlacing network of earth roads and have 
imbibed the good roads spirit of road-progress. 

Scotland county is another northern border county that is not in 
the line of either historic old trails nor cross-state highways, of greater 
commercial import, but must depend upon the road spirit of its peo- 
ple for such development and improvement as they get. 

Shelby county is cut across its southern part by the old Hannibal 
and St. Joseph Highway, which enters it at Hunnewell, running due 
west through Lakenan and northwardly to Shelbina; from there it 
runs northwestwardly through Lentner and Clarence into Macon county. 

While Shelby is a network of the ordinary earth roads it has no 
further claims for the antiquity of its roadways. 

Sullivan county has neither an old historic trail nor a cross-state 
highway, but is alive to the interests of its commercial purposes for 
roads — and good roads. The county is well cared for with neighbor- 
hood roads, all leading to or from the direction of Milan, its county 
center, and county seat, as well; so there, it can be said, as it is said 
of Rome, — all roads lead to Milan. 


Warren county is cut entirely across its northern portion by the 
old Boon's Lick road. The **01d Trails'* route enters it near Foristell, 
St. Charles county, and runs through Wright City, Pitts and War- 
renton on out of the county near Jonesburg, Montgomery county. This 
county has shown its road energy by forming special road districts along 
this road, which takes in all three of these last named towns. 

Specul Road Districts 

As an evidence of the spirit of progress in road interests in north- 
east Missouri, in many of these counties special eight-mile-square road 
districts or special benefit assessment road districts have been formed 
and are still being organized along these '*01d Trails," and cross- 
state highways, with a view to finally bonding them for permanent and 
uniform grading and rocking. 

It is not too much to say that this increased and beneficial road 
agitation is largely due to the endeavors of our State Board of Agri- 
culture, under which the State Highway Department operates, and in 
particular to our State Highway Engineer, Curtis Hill, whose position 
is never so important, nor business so pressing, but that he has the 
time, prompted by the disposition, to courteously answer inquiries and 
render assistance to the most humble citizen or go miles out of his way 
to help and encourage them in forming road districts, and in passing 
professional judgment on highway and engineering problems, always 
arising to puzzle the layman or inexperienced road builder. Mr. Hill 
is most generously possessed of the three-fold power, of professional 
ability, indomitable energy and genuine courtesy, which he dispenses 
freely and liberally in the belief that a public office is a public trust 
and that the public official is the servant of the people and should serve 
all alike. 



The religions denominations having the largest membership in North- 
east Missouri are the Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Christian, Presbyter- 
ian and Episcopalian. The history of these six denominations is pre- 
sented in special chapters by recognized authorities whose names were 
suggested for this work by leading churchmen of their respective re- 
ligious bodies. In addition, other denominations are represented in 
Northeast Missouri in smaller numbers and the local history of the 
churches and congregations of these denominations is given in the county 

* The communicants or members for certain selected denominations in each 
county of Northeast Missouri, as reported in the latest (1906) United States cen- 
sus of statistics of religious bodies, with the population for 1910, may be thus 
summarized : 

Adair — ^Population, 21,728; all denominations, 7,400; Protestant bodies, 5,538; 
Baptists, 597; Free Baptists, 154; Primitive Baptists, 91; Church of Christ Scientist, 
17; Disciples of Christ, 1,572; Methodist Episcopal, 1,376; Methodist Episcopal 
South, 507; African Methodists, 52; Presbyterian IT. S. A., 285; Cumberland Pres- 
byterian, 373; Episcopal, 70; United Brethren in Christ, 313; other Protestant 
bodies, 130; Boman Catholic, 1,862. 

Audrain — Population, 21,160; All denominations, 10.254; Protestant bodies, 
8,459; Baptists, 2,326; Primitive Baptists, 75; Scientists, 23; Disciples, 2,210; 
Gferman Evangelical, 53; Lutheran, 25; Methodists, 631; Southern Methodists, 
1,532; African Methodist, 196; Cumberland, 589; Presbyterian U. S. (Southern), 
635; Episcopal, 75; other Protestants, 89; Catholic, 1,795. 

Boone — ^Population, 28,642; all denominations, 12,948; Protestant, 12,529; 
Baptists, 4,119; Free Baptists, 17; Primitive Baptist, 477; Disciples, 3,688; Churches 
of Christ, 650; German Evangelical, 106; Methodist Episcopal, 285; Southern Meth- 
odist, 2,062; African Methodist, 337; Cumberland, 75; Southern Presbyterian, 
388; Episcopal, 95; other Protestants, 230; Catholic, 419. 

CaUaway — ^Population, 25,984; aU denominations, 11,552;. Protestant, 11,081; 
Baptist, 3,344; Primitive Baptist, 81; Disciples, 3,284; Evangelical, 95; Methodist 
Episcopal, 218; Southern Methodist, 2,577; African Methodist, 102; Cumberland, 
22; Southern Presbyterian, 1,255; Episcopal, 41; United Brethren of Christ, 62; 
CathoHc, 471. 

Chariton — Population, 26,826; aU denominations, 9,970; Protestant, 7,008; Bap- 
tist, 2,195; Disciples, 1,923; Lutheran, 436; Methodist Episcopal, 625; Southern 
Methodist, 1,404; African Methodist, 297; Cumberland, 363; Southern Presbyterian, 
160; Episcopal, 6; United Brethren, 90; other Protestants, 109; Catholic, 2,362. 

Clark — ^Population, 15,383; all denominations, 5,486; Protestant, 4,855; Bap- 
tist, 1326; Free Baptist, 20; Congregationalists, 110; Disciples, 954; Evangelical, 
422; Methodist Episcopal, 747; Methodist Protestant, 359; Southern Methodist, 
425; African Methodist, 31; Cumberland, 161; Southern Presbyterian, 175; other 
Protestants, 125; Catholic, 631. 

Howard — Population, 18,337; all denominations, 8,234; Protestant, 7,540; Bap- 
tist, 1,901; Disciples, 2,477; Evangelical, 75; Methodist Episcopal, 590; Southern 
Methodist, 1879; African Methodist, 257; Presbyterian U. S. A., 60; Cumberland, 
167; Episcopal, 24; other Protestants, 110; Catholic, 694. 

Knox— Population, 13,479; all denominations, 7,834; Protestant, 3,555; Bap- 
tist, 898; Primitive Baptist, 29; Disciples, 1,030; Methodist Episcopal, 741; 
Southern Methodist, 544; African Methodist, 15; Presbyterian U. S. A., 93; Cum- 
berland, 47; United Brethren, 25; other Protestant, 133; Catholic, 4,279. 



Baptist Churches and Baptists 
By the Rev, Wiley J. Patrick, D. D., Bowling Oreen 

Baptists entered this territory in the closing years of the eighteenth 
century and conformed to the Spanish rule, except in matters religious. 
In 1808 John Snethen, Sr., of New Jersey, and his wife, who was a South 
Carolinian Baptist, settled in what is now Montgomery county. Soon 
public services were established. In 1810 the number of Baptists had 
been so much increased north of the river that a church was organized. 
This was under the ministry of Elder Joseph Baker, one of the immi- 
grants. He became pastor. Duncan's Baptist History says that in 1810 
of those who came into Boon's Lick country several of the number were 
Baptists who came for the purpose of planting the gospel in those wild 
regions. Among these Baptists were Col. Benjamin Cooper, Captains 
Sarshall and Braxton Cooper and Elders William Thorp and David Mc- 
Lain. In 1812 on the 8th of April, Elders Thorp and McLain held a 
meeting in a log cabin in which school was kept, situated only a short 
distance from Franklin, Howard county, and organized the first Bap- 
tist church in the ** Upper Country," **Mt. Pleasant." 

Ramsey Creek church. Pike county, was organized in 1816 and had 
as its first pastor Elder Stephen Ruddell. December 20, 1817, Mt. Zion 

Lewis — ^Population, 16,724; aU denominations, 8,967; Protestant, 7,076; Bap- 
tist, 3,072; Disciples, 1,463; Evangelical, 51; Lutheran, 274; Methodist Episcopal, 
315; Southern Methodist, 1,528; African Methodist, 47; Presbyterian U. S. A., 
125; Southern Presbyterian, 16; Episcopal, 40; Catholic, 1,891. 

Lincoln — ^Population, 18,352; aU denominations, 9,045; Protestant, 7,034; Bap- 
tist, 1,965; Primitive Baptist, 37; Disciples, 1,661; Evangelical, 416; Methodist 
Episcopal, 720; Southern Methodist, 1,623; African Methodist, 65; Cumberland, 
322; Southern Presbyterian, 150; other Protestants, 75; Catholic, 2,011. 

Linn — ^Population, 25,503; aU denominations, 9,003; Protestant, 8,020; Bap- 
tist, 1,842; Primitive Baptist, 105; Congregationalist, 150; Disciples, 1,562; Church 
of Christ, 366; Methodist Episcopal, 1,745; Southern Methodist, 1,011; African 
Methodist, 21; Presbyterian U. S. A., 441; Cumberland, 133; Episcopal, 139; 
United Brethren, 253; other Protestants, 252; Catholic, 983. 

Macon — ^Population, 33,018; all denominations, 12,085; Protestant, 10,029; 
Baptist, 3,023; Primitive Baptist, 252; Congregationalist, 341; Disciples, 1,985; 
Lutheran, 116; Methodist Episcopal, 706; Southern Methodist, 1,124; African 
Methodist, 215; Presbyterian U. S. A., 288; Cumberland, 1,306; Episcopal, 108; 
United Brethren. 53; Other Protestants, 512; Catholic, 1,827; Latter Day Saints 
(reorganized), 229. 

Marion — Population, 26,331; all denominations, 13,585; Protestant, 10,121; 
Baptist, 3,233; Primitive Baptist, 15; Congregationalist, 181; Disciples, 1,950; 
Lutheran, 1,088; Methodist Episcopal, 500; Southern Methodist, 1,541; African 
Methodist, 410; Presbyterian U. 8. A., 537; Cumberland, 40; Southern Presby- 
terian, 166; Episcopal, 262; other Protestants, 198; Catholic, 3,462. 

Monroe — Population, 19,716; all denominations, 10,731; Protestant, 8,574; 
Baptist, 2,462; Primitive Baptist, 106; Disciples, 3,195; Southern Methodist, 1,700; 
African Methodist, 83; Cumberland, 335; Southern Presbyterian, 590; Episcopal, 
103; Catholic, 2,165. 

Montgomery — ^Population, 16,571; all denominations, 6,770; Protestant, 5,520; 
Baptist, 1,292; Primitive Baptist, 50; Disciples, 849; Evangelical, 109; Lutheran, 
122; Methodist Episcopal, 746; Southern Methodist, 1,438; African Methodist, 
25; Cumberland, 626; Southern Presbyterian, 177; Episcopal, 13; other Protestants, 
73; Catholic, 1,250. 

Pike— Population, 25,744; all denominations, 9,829; Protestant, 9,169; Bap- 
tist, 3,377; Primitive Baptist, 22; Disciples, 1,657; Methodist Episcopal, 752; 
Southern Methodist, 894; African Methodist, 398; Presbyterian U. S. A., 58; Cum- 
berland, 1,833; Southern Presbyterian, 16; Episcopal, 132; other Protestants, 50; 
Catholic, 660. 

Putnam— Population, 16,688; all denominations, 3,735; Protestant, 3,630; Bap- 
tist, 651; Free Baptist, 124; Primitive Baptist, 18; Disciples, 974; Church of 
Christ, 442; Methodist Episcopal, 610; Methodist Protestant, 200; Presbyterian 
U. 8. A., 76; United Brethren, 243; other Protestants, 292; Catholic, 105. 

Ralls— Population, 12,287; all denominations, 6,192; Protestant, 4,578; Bap- 


church, Howard county, was organized. Three ministers were in the 
membership, Elders David McLain, Golden Williams and Edward 
Turner. Elder James E. Welch, on May 31, 1818, organized Salem 
church in what is now Callaway county. Bethel church, now called 
Walnut Grove, Boone county, was organized June 28, 1817. The first 
permanent pastor was Elder William Thorp. 

In what is now Marion county August 5, 1821, Elders David Biggs 
and Frank Worson organized Bear Creek church. The first pastor was 
Elder Leroy Jackson. Churches were now rapidly multiplied. Several 
of these churches lived for some years unassociated with any other eccle- 
siastical body. 

The first association body in Northeast Missouri was the Mt. Pleasant 
Association, which was formed July 25, 1818, in Mt. Pleasant church, 
Howard county. William Thorp was moderator, George Stapleton, 
clerk. Elder Luke Williams preached the introductory sermon. 

Cuivre Association was formed in 1822 of eight churches situated 
in "St. Charles, Warren and Lincoln counties. Salt River Association 
was formed August 29, 1823, at Peno church. Pike county. The sermon 
was preached by Elder Jeremiah Taylor. Elder Davis Biggs was elected 
moderator, William Carson, clerk. 

Salem Association was formed at Cedar Creek church, Callaway 

tist, 1,069; Primitive Baptist, 37; Disciples, 2,375; Methodist Episcopal, 94; South- 
ern Methodist, 457; African Methodist, 41; Cumberland, 95; Southern Presbyterian, 
225; other Protestants, 185; Catholic, 614. 

Randolph — Population, 24,442; aU denominations, 12,607; Protestant, 10,264; 
Baptist, 3,117; Disciples, 2,531; Church of Christ, 93; Lutheran, 53; Methodist 
Episcopal, 372; Southern Methodist, 2,482; African Methodist, 255; Presbyterian 
U. S. A., 220; Cumberland, 1,036; Episcopal, 65; other Protestants, 40; Catholic, 
2,134; Latter Day Saints, 209. 

St. Charles — Population, 24,474; aU denominations, 15,391; Protestant, 6,454; 
Baptist, 287; Disciples, 125; Evangelical, 1,923; Lutheran, 2,319; Methodist Epis- 
copal, 234; Southern Methodist, 801; African Methodist, 225; Presbyterian U. S. 
A., 110; Southern Presbyterian, 361; Episcopal, 69; Catholic, 8,937. 

Schuyler — ^Population, 10,840; aU denominations, 2,932; Protestant, 2,899; 
Baptist, 507; Free Baptists, 139; Disciples, 1,195; Church of Christ, 30; Methodist 
Episcopal, 505; Southern Methodist, 160; Cumberland, 133; other Protestants, 230; 
Catholic, 33. 

Scotland— Population, 13,232; all denominations, 4,810; Protestant, 4,782; Bap- 
tist, 887; Disciples, 1,365; Church of Christ, 50; Methodist Episcopal, 908; Meth- 
odist Protestant, 139; Southern Methodist, 445; African Methodist, 10; Cumber- 
land, 509; Southern Presbyterian, 230; United Brethren, 176; other Protestant, 
63; Catholic, 28. 

Shelby— Population, 16,167; aU denominations, 7,378; Protestant, 6,730; Bap- 
tist, 1,802; Primitive Baptist, 41; Disciples, 1,554; Lutheran, 81; Methodist Epis- 
copal, 554; Southern Methodist, 2,047; African Methodist, 69; Presbyterian U» S. A., 
139; Cumberland, 68; Southern Presb3rterian, 72; Episcopal, 4; other Protestant, 
319; CathoHc, 648. 

Sullivan — Population, 
tist, 883; Primitive Baptist, 

Episcopal, 1,036; Methodist, , ___, , __ , 

Methodist, 10; Presbyterian U. S. A., 227; United Brethren, 8; other Protestant, 
405; CathoUc, 249. 

Warren — ^Population, 9,919; aU denominations, 3,451; Protestant, 2,762; Bap- 
tist, 163; Primitive Baptist, 34; Disciples, 60; German Evangelical, 1,507; Meth- 
odist Episcopal, 574; Southern Methodist, 383; African Methodist, 33; Southern 
Presbyterian, 8; Catholic, 689. 

The total membership of these denominations in the entire state was: Missouri 
population (1900), 3,106,665; all denominations, 1,199,239; Protestant, 802,116; 
Baptist, 198,459; Free Baptist, 5,525; Primitive Baptist, 4,040; Scientist, 2,644; 
Congre^tionalist, 11,446; Disciples, 159,050; Church of Christ, 7,087; German 
Evangelical, 32,715; Lutheran, 41,185; Methodist Episcopal, 80,334; Methodist 
Protestant, 4,712; Southern Methodist, 112,068; African Methodist, 15,063; Pres- 
byterian U. S. A., 25,991; Cumberland, 28,637; Southern Presbyterian, 14,713; 
Episcopal, 13,328; United Brethren, 3,321; other Protestants, 33,160; Catholie, 
382,642; Latter Day Saints, 7,880. 


county, October 20, 1827. Dr. David Doyle was moderator and Dr. 
William Jewell, clerk. Callaway and Boone counties constituted most 
of the field of this body. 

Bethel Association was formed October 17, 1834, at Bethel church, 
Marion county. Elder Christie Gentry was moderator, William Carson, 

Wyaconda Association was organized at Wyaconda church, Lewis 
county, in October, 1844. 

Little Bonne Femme Association was constituted at Providence 
church, Callaway county, November 16-18, 1839. Overton Harris was 
moderator; Alia B. Snethen, clerk. 

North Union Association was organized at Fabius church, Schuyler 
county, in October, 1843. Elder A. T. Hite was active in forming the 

Macon Association was formed at the house of Deacon William Grif- 
fin, Macon county, the fourth Saturday in November, 1843. Elder Eu- 
phrates Stringer was a leading force in the movement. 

Bear Creek Association was constituted at Zion church, Montgomery 
county, the 18th of May, 1854. 

North Central Association was organized at Union vi lie, Putnam 
county, September 1, 1865. 

North &lissouri Association began life at Fabius church, Schuyler 
county, September 4, 1868./ The officers were : C. Daughters, moderator ; 
J. M. Epperson, clerk. 

Linn County Association was constituted at Linneus, November 2, 
1872. At the first annual session Elder A. F. Martin preached the ser- 
mon and was moderator. L. E. Martin was clerk; J. M. Cornett, treas- 

Pleasant Grove Association was oi^anized September 21, 1877, at 
Pleasant Grove church, Scotland county. Elder J. W. Kettle was mod- 
erator; Theodore Williams, clerk. 

Mt. Salem Association was organized October 19, 1878, at Mt. Salem 
church, Knox county. The moderator was C. L. Harris; clerk, J. A. 
Garnett; treasurer, N. S. Nay lor. 

Mt. Zion Association was formed October 5, 1880, at Mt. Zion church, 
Howard county. Dr. W. Pope Yeaman preached the sermon and was 
chosen moderator; B. F. Jackson^ clerk. 

Audrain Association became a body October 15, 1884, in Mexico. 
Elder James Reid preached the sermon. Gk)vemor C. H. Hardin was 
moderator; Joel Guthrie, clerk. 

The second Cuivre Association was organized at Corner Stone church, 
Lincoln county, September 18, 1891. Elder P. W. Halley preached the 
opening sermon. D. T. Killam was moderator ; F. L. Dawson, clerk. 

The Monroe Association was organized at Salem chftrch, Monroe 
county, October 4, 1905. Elder R. T. Colburn preached the introduc- 
tory sermon and Elder W. B. Craig the doctrinal sermon. W. L. Craw- 
ford was moderator ; H. H. Utterback, clerk, and John A. Gex, treasurer. 

In Northeast Missouri there are 39,128 members of Baptist churches, 
384 churches, 226 ministers, and church property, including pastors' 
residences, valued at approximately $950,000. This does not include 
school property or church endowments. The amount of the latter is 

The Baptist position of church independence and co-ordination in the 
ministry calls for intelligence in office-bearers and in the entire member- 
ship of the churches. The young churches in a new country were a 
thousand miles from a school where their young men could be satisfac- 
torily prepared for the ministry, and out of easy reach of advanced 


education for secular life. The want must be met. The genius of the 
denomination demanded it. The deeper sense of the ministers and mem- 
bers felt it. They acted. Bonne Femme church, Boone county, was the 
first actor. Inasmuch as this was an original advance step, I will give 
the church record. It may be observed that the first date is only four 
months after the date of the reception of Missouri into the luiion of 

Copy op the REcoRfis op Little Bonne Femme Chubch 

** December the first Saturday, 1821. 

* * The Baptist church of Christ at Little Bonne Femme met according 
to appointment and after prayer to God for His blessing proceeded to 
business as follows: first, Brother Luke Williams chosen moderator to 
serve us today ; 2d, Brother Anderson Woods chosen clerk protem today ; 
3d, On motion agreed to appoint brother Mason Moss to ascertain of Col. 
James McClelland on what terms the church can get the land this meeting- 
house stands on and how much and report next meeting. 

** Signed by order of the church, 

** Anderson Woods, P. T." 

*' January the first Saturday, 1822. 

**The Baptist church of Christ at Little Bonne Femme met according 
to appointment and after prayer to God for His blessing proceeded to 
business as follows: first. Brother Anderson Woods chosen moderator 
for the present day. Second, The reference from last meeting taken up 
authorizing Brother Moss to see Col. McClelland to ascertain from him 
whether the church could get the ground on which this meeting-house 
stands and how much. And Bro. Moss reported that Col. McClelland 
was willing to donate to the church from one to five acres of land. 

"Third, on motion agreed to appoint three of the brethren of this 
church (to wit) Mason Moss, Thomas S. Tuttle and Anderson Woods who 
together with Col. McClelland are requested to lay ofif and mark out such 
bounds as they think will be to the mutual interest of all parties and to 
obtain from Col. McClelland a sufficient title for the land so designated 
and marked out, and those brethren to make report to next meeting. 
The title to be for the benefit of the church and a school with an under- 
standing that if the church should dissolve the title of said land to remain 
in Col. McClelland and the church nor no person under them to have the 
power to dispose of said land for the purpose of speculation. 

Signed by order of the church, 

Lazarus Wilcox, Clk.'* 

'*Feby. the first Saturday, 1822. 

**The Baptist church of Christ at Little Bonne Femme met according 
to appointment and after prayer to God for His blessing proceeded to 
business as follows : 

** First, Brother Anderson Woods chosen moderator for the present 

** Second, The reference from last meeting taken up appointing 
Brethren Mason Moss, Thomas S. Tuttle, and Anderson Woods who to- 
gether with Col. McClelland were requested to lay oflf and mark out 
such bounds as Col. McClelland and they should think was necessary for 
the 'use of this church and a school and the brethren before-mentioned 
presented a title bond from Col. McClelland made to Mason Moss, 
Thomas S. Tuttle and Anderson Woods and their successors in office for 


the use and benefit of this church and a school and the said title bond and 
all proceedmgs relative thereto was received and ratified by the church. 

"Third, On motion to appoint Brethren Mason Moss, Thomas S. 
Tuttle and Anderson Woods Trustees for this church in whom this 
Tittle of the land donated by Col. McClelland for the use of the church 
is to remain until others are appointed in their place. 

"Signed by order of the church, 

"Lazarus Wilcox, Cllt." 

In this Bonne Femme Academy many were educated, some of whom 
have become eminent. The Patriot, of Columbia, October, 1841, says 
of exercises in tiiia school: "The Greek languaf^e, which unfortunately 
is not rendered as prominent in most of our Western colleges as its in- 
trinsic merits deserve, was on this occasion splendidly sustained by J. J, 
Harvey of Saline and Miss Mary B. Jenkins." This young lady be- 
came the wife of C. H. Hardin, subsequently the governor of Missouri. 

Dr. Wiluam Jewell 

Stephens College, Columbia 

The Rev. G. W. Hatcher has kindly furnished the following account 
of this institution : 

In 1869 the General Association of Missouri Baptists met in Colum- 
bia. In thEft meeting a committee "On State Female College" was ap- 
pointed to report one year hence. In 1870 that body met in St, Louis 
with the Second Baptist church and the committee, composed of E. S. 
Dulin, S. C. Major, R. H. Smith and W. R. Eothwell, reported favoring 
the establishment of a Baptist college for women. 

This report was adopted and steps were taken then and there to 
locate the school. Three points of location were made : Columbia, Lexing- 
ton and Jennings Station. The vote resulted in the choice of Columbia. 
There was in Columbia at that time what was known as "Baptist Female 
College at Columbia." The trustees of this college ofiEered to transfer 
to a board of curators, to be held in trust for the general aaaociation, all 


the property of this college, with all its rights and possessions. The 
offer was accepted and the ** Baptist Female College at Columbia" then 
and there was made by the General Association of Missoari Baptists 
the Baptist State Female College. 

Upon the location of the State Female College at Columbia, Hon. 
James L. Stephens donated to its endowment the sum of $20,000, the 
largest sum that had ever been given by one person, up to that time, 
to the cause of Christian education west of the Mississippi river. On 
account of this magnificent gift the charter of the institution was so 
amended that the name was changed to Stephens Female College, which 
name it still bears and ever will bear. 

One of its largest donors, aside from Hon. James L. Stephens, was 
R. E. Sappington, who during his life gave to it $10,500 and made pro- 
vision in his will whereby some $5,000 or $6,000 more will be realized. 
Many more, who might be mentioned, believing that the Baptists of Mis- 
souri would **make good" and make Stephens College all that they 
pledged to do for it, have invested money, prayers and tears in it. With 
a plant easily worth $250,000, equipped with dormitories for 120 girls, 
with the best gymnasium in the West, with a musical conservatory un- 
equalled in Missouri, with a location that cannot be suarpassed, right in 
the heart of the educational center of the state, Stephens College will 
take its place among the stroifgest female colleges in the West. 

LaGrange College, LaGrange 

The Wyaconda Baptist Association, in 1856, voted to establish within 
its bounds a male and female seminary of the highest order. March 
12, 1859, the state legislature granted a charter to the institution as the 
'* LaGrange Male and Female College." The school was well patronized 
and in a flourishing condition when its doors were closed on account of 
the Civil war. At the close of the war people of all parts rallied to the 
support of the college and the Rev. J. F. Cook, of Kentucky, was called 
to the presidency. After thirty years of efficient service, President Cook 
resigned in 1896, and was succeeded by Dr. Jere T. Muir, an honored 
alumnus of the college, whose superior ability as an educator was 
evinced by many improvements in the course of instruction during his 
administration. Dr. Muir resigned in 1905 and was succeeded in the 
presidency by Dr. John W. Crouch, also an alumnus of the college. 
During his administration the work of the academy was made complete, 
the scope of the college work broadened, the endowment was materially 
increased, and the equipment of the building greatly improved. He 
resigned in the spring of 1910 and was succeeded by Acting President 
Charles A. Deppe, of the science department, and upon his resignation 
from the college in February, 1911, he was succeeded by Prof. C. P. 
Marks, principal of the acaidemy. In June, 1911, the Rev. Ransom 
Harvey, D. D., who had been connected with the school seven years as 
professor of theology and philosophy, was elected president. In the 
summer of 1911 an endowment campaign was inaugurated and, under 
the wise and successful leadership of the Rev. J. D. Scott, $50,000 has 
been secured. A portion of this amount has been designated by the 
donors for the building of a dormitory for girls. 

Hardin College^ Mexico 

The formal organization of Hardin College occurred in Mexico June 
10, 1873. The board of directors consisted of Lewis Hord, Charles H. 
Hardin, James Callaway, E. J. Gibbs, Samuel A. Craddoek, J. M. 


Gordon, T. B. Hitt, James Carroll, William Harper, Thomas Smith, 
William H. Woodward, J. D. Murphy and Joel Guthrie. Governor Har- 
din's gifts to the institution amounted to $70,000. Citizens of Mexico 
and its vicinity gave the grounds and buildings. The first of September 
was set for opening the school. The articles of association provide that 
the endowment ** shall be kept at interest or invested in stocks as con- 
tinuously as possible; and on the third Tuesday in June in every year 
forty per cent of the gross earnings of rents arising from any real estate 
herein conveyed and also of the interest, profit and other proceeds aris- 
ing from any part of the endowment fund being at interest or invested 
in stocks shall be added to and become a part and parcel of the perman- 
ent endowment fund of said college until such endowment fund shall 
amount to one-half million dollars." 

Prof. A. W. Terrill, Mrs. H. T. Baird and Prof. A. K. Yancey filled 
the presidency of the college, each of whom has passed beyond earth-life. 
Dr. J. W. Million is now president and under his administration the 
institution has grown in capacity, range and standard of work and in 
favor with the people. 

Mt. Pleasant College, Huntsville 

The best service that I can do in this case is to quote from Elder S. 
Y. Pitts' history, **The Mt. Pleasant Association." He says: 

'*In 1853 the citizens of Randolph county, impressed with the need 
# of an institution of learning and wishing to secure to themselves its 
benefits, determined to erect suitable buildings at a cost of not less than 
$10,000. Acting on the advice of Hon. William A. Hall to put the insti- 
tution under the care and patronage of Mt. Pleasant Association, a letter 
stating the above proposal signed by William A. Hall, H. Austin and 
P. P. Roby, in behalf of the citizens and accepted by the Association and 
the institution took the name of the association. Under this arrange- 
ment the money was secured and the buildings erected. In 1872 Macon 
Association agreed by resolution to co-operate with Mt. Pleasant Asso- 
ciation in building up Mt. Pleasant College. Mt. Pleasant College dur- 
ing her twenty-six years of existence had been presided over by Rev. 
William Thompson, LL. D., one year ; Rev. W. R. Rothwell, D.D., twelve 
years ; Rev. J. W. Terrill, seven years ; Rev. M. J. Breaker, three years ; 
A. S. Worrell, D. D., two years ; Rev. J. B. Weber, one year. The college 
was burned to ashes July 15, 1882, and on August 16 following, the 
courthouse in Huntsville shared the same fate.'' 

Bethel College, Palmyra 

This institution had a brief but useful career. In 1853 Elder John 
T. Williams taught a graded school, male and female. In response to a 
proposition submitted by Elder Nathan Ayres, chairman of the board 
of trustees, the Baptist Male and Female Seminary at Palmyra was 
adopted in 1855 and made the school of the Bethel Association. Elder 
Williams continued for a while at the head of the school. Prof. H. Ellis, 
Elder R. M. Rhodes and Dr. S. A. Taft and others labored eflSciently for 
the public and denominational good. About a score of years was the 
period of Bethel's career. 

McCune College, Louisiana 

In 1857 Elder John T. Williams established a seminary in Louisiana. 
In 1869 it was incorporated. The first board consisted of N. McDannold, 
S. B. Ayres, William Major, Addison Tinsley, A. M. Tinsley, M. M. 


Modisett, Hugh Allen. Elder J. D. Biggs followed Dr. Williams in the 
presidency and Prof. W. B. MePike was the associate professor and suc- 
ceeded him as head of the institution. In 1881 the school was reorgan- 
ized as McCune College, named for A. J. McCune, who had been active 
in the affairs of the institution. Dr. H. T. Morton, Professor Beeson, 
Prof. T. J. Musgrove, Prof. E. W. Dow and Prof. Greenwell followed in 
the order mentioned. It had a career of thirty-eight years. 

Bai^ist Periodicals 

The Missouri Baptist Journal was started at Palmyra, January 8, 
1866, Elders J. H. Luther and R. M. Rhodes, editors and proprietors. 
In 1868 it was moved to St. Louis and consolidated with The Record and 
took the name of The Central Baptist. 

The Baptist Battle Flag, a weekly, was started by Elder D. B. Ray 
at LaGrange, June 1, 1875. The Flag and the Baptist Herald of Leb- 
anon, Missouri, were consolidated in June, 1877, retaining the name 
the Baptist Battle Flag, and issued from St. Louis. The paper had 
enthusiastic supporters and a varied career. 

Eminent Baptists 

Among the many distinguished Baptists, ministers and laymen, of 
Northeast Missouri, may be mentioned: the Rev. David Doyle, Eli E. 
Bass, the Rev. James Smith, Professor Joseph Flood, Col. John Ralls, 
David H. Hickman, Dr. J. T. Muir, William N. Biggs, E. W. Stephens, 
the Rev. S. Y. Pitts, the Rev. James M. Lillard, the Rev. Dr. W. Pope 
Teaman, Governor Charles H. Hardin, Elder Noah Flood, Elder William 
Hurley, Elder Jeremiah Vardeman, the Rev. Dr. J. C. Maple, the Rev. 
Dr, R. S. Duncan, Braxton Pollard, and the Rev. Dr. W. H. Burnham. 

Riverside Scripture Institute 

After three years of unorganized teaching, the Riverside Scripture 
Institute was organized at Ramsey Creek church. Pike county, August 
30, 1894. Elder James Reid was made president. Elder William Calla- 
way, secretary. The institute seeks to preserve and cultivate the student 
habit, to bring the best results to busy men and women who can spare 
only short intervals of time from active work to qualify themselves for 
increased eflSciency. The officers of 1912 are : Dr. J. T. Muir, president ; 
R. E. McGuire, secretary; Abe C. Jones, chairman of the executive 

In closing, I beg to say that men as worthy and deeds as noble as 
those mentioned must be omitted because of the limitations of time and 

The Catholic Church 

By the Rev, J. T. Tuohy, LL. D,, S.T,D,, Jonesburg 

The advent of the Catholic church to Missouri dates long before the 
settlement of the Louisiana territory. The first French missionaries had 
reached the pioneer settlements as early as 1764. In fact Father Mar- 
quette, the Jesuit missionary, had sailed down the Mississippi and passed 
the present site of St. Louis a century before. When Laclede had estab- 
lished his settlement in St. Louis, two priests came with him. The first 
Catholic church was built in 1770. The church was organized into a dio- 
cese by the decree of Rome in 1827 and the first cathedral built in 1834, 
just thirteen years after the state was admitted into the Union. 


From St. Louis as a center the Catholic church soon began to spread 
to various points, especially to points in what is now Northeast Mis- 
souri. St. Charles county is the pioneer county of this section in this 
respect. As early as 1792 the French missionary had reached that point. 

The first church edifice, a neat, substantial stone structure, was built 
and dedicated at St. Charles by the Venerable Bishop Joseph Rosati, 
the first bishop of St. Louis, in 1829. The Jesuit Fathers had come there 
the year previous. It was the writer's privilege to have made his first 
communion and to have worshipped in this first church. 

Between the years 1822 and 1826 the same fathers had established 
parishes and built churches at Portage des Sioux and Dardenne. The 
Sisters of the Sacred Heart from France had also established a school at 
St. Charles, but were obliged to discontinue it for want of support in 
1819. When the first church was opened the Venerable Mother Sophie 
Barat re-established her community and soon a large convent was built 
adjoining the stone church. This convent is still extant. At this time 
the parish was very poor, however, numbering 107 struggling French 
settlers. Nevertheless, from St. Charles as a center the Catholic church 
soon spread all along both the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and to 
various interior points of the western section of Northeast Missouri. 

The late Most Rev. Peter Richard Kenrick succeeded Bishop Rosati 
as Bishop of St. Louis, Dec. 1, 1841. Organization was effected by 
Bishop Kenrick 's coming to St. Louis and from that time one may take 
up each of the counties of Northeast Missouri in historical order as the 
Catholic church was established within their borders. 

St. Charles County 

In addition to the already mentioned parishes established in this 
county, Dardenne had its resident priest in 1859 and a year later the 
parish of Wellsburg and Dog Prairie was established under the direc- 
tion of the famous pioneer missionary. Father Edward Hamill, later the 
founder of the rich Irish settlement in Saline county, now called Shackel- 
ford. St. Peter's was established soon after and under the pastorate of 
the well remembered Father Stautinger the present Gothic structure was 
dedicated. 'Fallon was the next to build a permanent structure. 
Under the distinguished Father Brockhagen, editor and physician, as 
pastor for nearly a third of a century, 'Fallon has flourished. 

Father Jasper, a specialist in scientific agriculture and political 
economy, has succeeded the late Father Brockhagen. A fine new church 
is now the program of the parish. Shortly after 1870, the nuns of the 
Order of the Most Precious Blood came to 'Fallon, having been ex- 
pelled from Prussia under the Bismarck Falk Laws, since repealed, and 
established a large convent. This has since become the Order's No- 
vitiate, Normal Institute and Mother-house for the numerous Sisters 
who teach in many parish schools of St. Louis and the state. At St. 
Paul's a large and still growing congregation Jias been established since 
Father Hamill 's day and is now in charge of Father E. J. Kern. Flint- 
hill has a flourishing congregation under Father Aug. J. Von Brunn. 
Josephsville and Wentzville also have good congregations under Fathers 
A. Becker and J. H. Krechther, respectively. 

Wabben County 

As early as 1852 Marthasville in this county was regularly visited 
from Washington where the Franciscan Fathers are now, but the Jesuit 
Fathers then were established just south across the Missouri river. Dut- 

\*ol. 1—7 


zow was about the next place to have a church in 1868. Later Peers 
Has been established. Father John J. Head, well known missionary of 
Northeast Missouri, built many churches in adjoining counties, and in 
1882 built the commodious brick church at Truesdale. Father Head 
was enabled to effect this fine work by the legacy left for the purpose by 
Mrs. Ann Gallery, an old settler of Warren county. The Rev. J. T. 
Tuohy, LL.D., is at present in charge of this mission. 

Monroe County 

By the year 1852 large settlements of Kentucky immigrants had been 
established in this county. For their accommodation a parish was or- 
ganized and a church built and dedicated at Indian creek or ''Swenky," 
as it was familiarly termed. The late Rev. Joseph Tolton, the first Cath- 
olic colored priest in the United States, was a native of this parish. The 
present fine new church structure was built by the Rev. John Lyons now 
of St. Pius parish, St. Louis. 

About fifteen years ago many of the parishioners, retiring from the 
farms, moved into the new town just then established, Monroe City, 
which has since become the chief town of the county, as well as its Catho- 
lic center. Today Monroe City has a fine new church. The well known 
Father John Ryan is now in charge. 

Ralls County 

This county as early as 1852 had become the home of many settlers 
who had emigrated from Kentucky. A parish was organized and a 
church built for them at St. Paul's. Father Andrew Mcl3ride was the 
pioneer pastor. New London, however, has since become the chief Cath- 
olic center of the county. Father E. A. Casey, now of St. Louis, did 
some work here a few years ago. The new church was dedicated re- 
cently under the pastorate of the Rev. Daniel Donovan. 

Clark County 

It was in 1852 at North Santa Fe, as it then was called, that the first 
Catholic congregation was organized in this county. It was under the 
pioneer missionary. Father Dennis Byrne. By 1859 St. Mary's, now 
known as St. Patrick's, had been established. Father Eugene Coyle, 
for the past twenty years rector of the old Cathedral in St. Louis, served 
ten years as pastor at St. Patrick's. The parish is now in charge of 
Father Daniel Donovan, recently of Ralls county. Kahoka has also 
grown to be a flourishing congregation. 

Knox County 

The year 1852 marks the announcement to the outer world of Ediua, 
the county seat, as a Catholic parish. The Rev. D. S. Phelan, the vet- 
eran editor of the Western Watchman, now of St. Louis, was its pastor 
forty-five years ago, and founded and edited the Missaun Watchnan 
from there. The pastorate, however, of the later Father John Fitz- 
gerald, who was assisted by his brother, marks the red letter days of the 
parish. Then was built and financed the large stone edifice and also 
the Sisters of Loretto from Kentucky came to the parish and estab- 
lished their large convent. Father Fitzgerald died about 1899 towards 
his seventieth year. He was succeeded by Father Christopher Byrne, 
now of the Church Progress staflE, St. Louis. Under Father Byrne the 


former school was taken down and the new and larger one built. The 
present permanent rector is the Rev. Richard Healy, formerly of Macon 
City and St. Louis. 

Baring, on the Santa Fe Railroad, has developed into an important 
parish within the past ten years. Under charge of the enterprising 
pastor, the Rev. James J. 'Reilly, first class church improvements have 
been made. 

Scotland County 

As early as 1852 the congregation of Mudd Settlement was on the 
diocesan roll as a mission regularly attended by the priests of the diocese. 
The Settlement is today flourishing as of yore and is attended from 

Memphis, the county seat, has more recently been placed on the roll 
of places attended by priests. 

Lincoln County 

Milwood had become a well known Catholic center by the year 1852. 
The pastorate of the late Father J. Clarey was the longest, as he died 
past his eightieth year. A new church has been built under the present 
administrator, the Rev. P. F. Quigley. A parish school had been estab- 
lished just previous to the latter 's coming by the late Rev. Stephen Car- 
roll. It is under the charge of the Sisters of St. Dominic from the Mon- 
astery of Hunt's Point, New York. Father Quigley, present adminis- 
trator, has been assigned Father Carr to aid him in his declining years. 

Troy, the county seat, has come up within the last fifteen years. 
Under the present rector, the accomplished litterateur and musician, the 
Rev. L. A. Schlathoelter, fine improvements have been created. We say 
it advisedly ** created,'* not made, because it is diflScult to see how so 
few with but ordinary conditions can do so much and so handsomely. 
Old Monroe, with its parish school has a flourishing organization. Els- 
berry has seen the beginning of work and is regularly attended from 
Louisiana. Mashek is a settlement of Catholic Bohemians regularly at- 
tended from Troy. 

Marion County 

Not before 1859 had a Catholic congregation been established in the 
county at Hannibal. The advent of the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, 
and the location of its shops at this point soon brought the element that 
makes for a Catholic parish. Almost coincidently with this influx of 
settlers the Parish of the Immaculate Conception, B. V. M., was formed. 
The Rev. P. J. Cronin, afterwards the distinguished editor of The Cath- 
olic Union and Times, Buffalo, New York, was for a few years in the 
late '60s in charge. Shortly after came the pioneer missionary, the late 
Rev. Dennis Kennedy, whose pastorate was redolent of good work which 
yet continues and which covered about twenty-five years. The large con- 
vent and parish school of the Sisters of St. Joseph from Carondelet, St. 
Louis, was also established during this pastorate. Father Kennedy died 
full of works and days in the early '908. He was succeeded by the 
scholarly, accomplished musician and pulpit orator, the Rev. M. J. 
McLaughlin, who lived all too short a period of years, dying in 1903. The 
Rev. Daniel Sullivan, formerly rector at Monroe City, succeeded to the 
Hannibal parish, which is now a parish of over twelve hundred people. 

Palmyra, in this county, has also become a Catholic settlement and is 
regularly attended by a priest and has its parish school. 


Lewis County 

By 1859 the Catholic church organization had become known to its 
communicants in Lewis county. These had settled near LaGrange and 
they were occasionally attended by priests from St. Mary's, Clark county. 
But not before ten years later, or 1869, had they the regular services of a 

Canton has, however, meanwhile grown to be the chief Catholic cen- 
ter of the county. 

Pike County 

The organization of a Catholic congregation in this county dates from 
1859, when the first was established at Louisiana. It was not until the 
pastorate of the devoted if rather strenuous Father P. J. Gleason that 
anything in the way of solid, substantial, lasting improvement was made. 
Father Gleason built the present brick church. The Chicago & Alton 
Railroad had its terminus at Louisiana and then began extending fur- 
ther westward. During this time Father Gleason, availing himself of 
the increase in the parish and proverbial generosity of railroaders, made 
his improvements. He afterwards was promoted to St. Louis, where he 
founded the present Holy Name Parish. Father Daniel Gleason is the 
present rector. 

There is also another congregation, established now for some years, 
in the vicinity of Bowling Green, the county seat, St. Clements. There 
is a parish school in connection with the parish. Also the mission of 
New Hartford in this county is attended from St. Clements. 

Montgomery County 

From an early date the Jesuit Fathers from St. Charles visited and 
held services at various points in the county. Father P. M. O'Neill 
seems to have been the first priest who was located in Montgomery City, 
where he built a church and rectory. 

Father Michael J. McCabe, now of St. Michael's, St. Louis, followed 
soon after Father O'Neill and was pastor at Montgomery City about 
forty-five years ago. Father John J. Head, now of Annunciation parish, 
St. Louis, followed shortly after Father McCabe, Father J. Daly coming 
in between for but a short period. Father Head's pastorate, which lasted 
more than ten years, has ever since justly merited him the cognomen 
of the ''Apostle of Northeast Missouri." He built the fine new church 
at Montgomery City, and, like another St. Kevin as pastor of the ''seven 
churches," his record was a church a year for as many years in the 
places he attended. The churches of Wellsville and Jonesburg — im- 
proved and enlarged, Truesdale, Wentzville, were all built during his 
time. At Jonesburg he received from the late Bernard Pratt, a former 
mayor of St. Louis (1859), a farm of 229 acres, for the support of the 
priest or the building of a new church in their option, and which the 
parish still possesses. In turn at the different missions Father Head 
conducted daily services, and on Sunday double services, going by hand- 
car from station to station. On the week days at each place mass was 
said, the attendants, appointments and paraphernalia of each of them, 
said a competent eye-witness, would make one feel that he was in some 
convent chapel rather than a mission country church. Father Head, 
hale and light-hearted, yet lives, capable of much service. All of the 
places formerly attended from Montgomery City have become separate 
congregations with their own pastors. In the county there are two of 


these, one at Jonesburg, the Rev. J, T. Tuohy, LL. D., pastor, the other 
Wellsville, the Rev. D. J. Hurly, pastor. 

Starkenburg, near Rhineland station of the Mis^uri, Kansas & Texas 
Railroad, has become a most interesting Catholic center. It is the loca- 
tion of the celebrated shrine dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
under the title of ** Mother of Sorrows." There is a fine stone church 
edifice here, large parish schools and the new grand shrine. Every year 
thousands are attracted thither, many coming from as far as St. Louis. 
A paper Die PUger, in the interests of the Shrine, is published by 
the pastor, the Rev. Qeorge W. Hoehn, the present rector and founder 
of this interesting work. 

Howard County 

While scattered settlements had been occasionally visited by priests 
in this county it was not until 1867 that we find that Glasgow w^as an- 
nounced as the first parish. The permanent church structure and parish 
school were established by the late Father Joseph Pauk, founder of St. 
Engelbert's Parish, St. Louis. Father John H. Waeltermann has been 
pastor for the past ten years. At present he is engaged in building a 
fine $50,000 church, soon to be dedicated. 

New Franklin, on the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad, has, since 
the railroad has been built, come on the church map and is the center 
of considerable Catholic work. Father P. J. Ward, the present pastor, 
also attends Fayette, the county seat. 

Shelby County 

In 1869 Shelbina, the county seat, became the first Catholic parish in 
this county and the late Rev. D. Macken the first pastor. Rev. Father 
M. J. Collins, the present rector, built the present fine church. There 
are flourishing Catholic congregations regularly attended in Hunnewell, 
Lakenan and Clarence. 

Linn County 

Previous to the excision of this county from the archdiocese of St. 
Louis, as provided at the Second Plenary Council of Baltimore in 1866, 
various places containing Catholic settlers had been occasionally visited 
by priests. It was, however, only after the erection of the St. Joseph 
diocese and the annexation of this county thereto that we find any regu- 
lar organization attempted. Accordingly, in 1866, we find for the first 
time the announcement of a parish, Brookfield. During the pastorate 
of the present rector, the Rev. Walter Tormey, M. R., which covers 
nearly half the age of the parish, a fiourishing organization has been 
maintained. The Rev. D. A. Feely is associated with the pastor in all 
the work. 

Marceline has come on the map somewhat later and is the seat of a 
fiourishing parish under charge of the Rev. P. J. Cullen. 

Chariton County 

The first mention one finds of any Catholics being regularly attended 
at any place in this county is the year 1869, when Brunswick was regu- 
larly visited from CarroUton. It soon came under the charge of the 
Franciscan Fathers. 

Later the Franciscan Fathers organized the parish of Wien from 


Chillicothe, and it has become a large congregation, chiefly Grerman, 
with a large parish school. 

Salisbury, however, is the most important parish in Chariton county. 
In the '80s it was but a mission attended from Glasgow. Finally it be- 
came part of the late Father J. Hennes' charge. The Rev. J. F. Lubeley, 
present permanent rector of Holy Trinity church, St. Louis, succeeded 
to Salisbury about 1903. Under his pastorate of about five years the 
present fine stone structure was built, fully equipped, paid for and dedi- 
cated. Salisbury has likewise a parish school. The present rector is 
the Rev. F. J. Ernst. 

Aholt, a settlement with its parish school, has a resident priest. 

Macon County 

Until 1871 the Catholics of this county had no priest permanently 
stationed among them. The late R«v. P. B. Cahill came up from Moberly, 
where he had been a short time assisting Father F. McKenna, and begun 
the real work. The first structure, a brick one, with the rectory, two 
rooms in the rear adjoining, was built on the site presented to Father 
Cahill. Father Cahill, somewhat broken in health, retired about 1898 
and as he had sufficient personal means returned to his native Tipperary, 
where he died in 1904. The most recent successor is the Rev. Richard J. 
Healy, now permanent rector of Edina, Knox county. Under his pas- 
torate the greatest work since the parish was established has been accom- 
plished, the building of a splendid new church. 

Audrain County 

Not until 1871 was there a priest to regularly attend any place in 
this county. It was just the year before that the well known and sturdy 
pioneer, the Rev. Francis McKenna — '* Father McKinny" of the old 
people — ^had come up from New Madrid in the Southeast to Northeast 
Missouri and started to organize a congregation at Mexico, the county 
seat. He soon, however, went farther west as he sensed a far more 
important opening about thirty-eight miles farther west and north. 
He had at the time for his assistant, the Rev. C. F. O'Leary. Accord- 
ingly he early turned over the organizing, as well as the new parish, 
to him. Thus Father ^Leary became the first pastor of Mexico. Father 
O'Leary also organized the mission at Martinsburg, fourteen miles east. 
He established the parish at Fulton, and built its first church. He vis- 
ited Columbia, held services in the court-house, later organized the parish 
and turned the further work there over to his assistant, the late Rev. 
William T. Stack. 

At the close of about seven years of strenuous missionary work, Father 
O'Leary was succeeded at Mexico by the late Rev. E. J. Dempsey, a son 
of Shelby county. Father Dempsey 's. pastorate covered a period of 
about twenty years. During the first years of his time in Mexico he 
had for assistant, the Rev. J. T. Tuohy, who attended the missions estab- 
lished by Father O'Leary, Martinsburg, Fulton, Centralia, Columbia, 
and also Sturgeon. He later gave up these missions and they were 
transferred to Moberly 

Father Dempsey was succeeded by the present energetic and popular 
rector, the Rev. H. J. Dillon. Vandalia was organized and regularly 
attended, also Laddonnia. At the former there is now a resident priest. 
Father Dillon also built a fine church structure for the congregation at 
Fulton. Father Dillon enjoys the distinction of being Dean of the 
Northeast Missouri Conference, an honor conferred by the vote of his 


fellow priests, eleven in the district. The conferences are held at his 

Martinshurg finally became a separate parish under the Rev. Joseph 
Haar its first rector, who still continues in charge. 

Randolph County 

Father Francis McKenna in 1876 began his ministrations in Moberly, 
then a new railroad town. His long years of fruitful work in Moberly 
and surrounding mission stations is part of the church history. He 
early opened a parish school under charge of the Sisters of Loretto. 
He built a church edifice, St. John's, which at once became a center of 
large influence. Father McKenna retired in 1885 and died in 1888. 
Father John Ryan succeeded him in a successful pastorate of twenty 
years. Father P. J. Carney followed and in a short time succeeded in- 
building a magnificent new church of brick and stone costing $75,000. 
Moberly, together with other places in twenty of the counties of North- 
east Missouri was by decree of the Holy See in 1911, annexed to the 
Diocese of St. Joseph, Missouri. 

Callaway County 

Priests have visited this county from time to time at the various 
points which contained Catholic settlers. At the old settlement of Cath- 
olics in the southeastern point of the county known as Hancock Prairie 
services have been held and a mission chapel built from an early date. 
This congregation is still extant and is at present attended from Starken- 
burg, Montgomery county. 

At Fulton, the county seat, the first effort to organize a regular par- 
ish took place about 1874. Father Russell, who later made his head- 
quarters with Father O'Leary, was the first to visit Fulton regularly. 
He did not long remain, however. Father O'Leary then took up the 
work. He soon had the little congregation organized. Work was begun 
on a permanent church, and finally the little brick church was dedicated 
under the title St. Peter's. This was about 1876. During Father 
Dempsey's pastorate at Mexico, Fulton was attended by his assistant, 
the Rev. J. T. Tuohy, LL. D., and also by the latter when Father Mc- 
Kenna took charge of the missions. The Rev. J. J. Dillon next took 
charge of Fulton, attending it from Mexico. During his charge the 
present new church was built. About two years ago Fulton was made 
a separate parish and the Rev. Joseph Gilfillan appointed the first 
pastor. He was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph S. Himer in 1911. Aux- 
vasse, Guthrie and McCreedie, on the Chicago & Alton Railroad branch, 
have a few small Catholic Settlements. These are looked aft^r by the 
Rev. J. J. Dillon, of Mexico. 

Boone County 

The comparatively few Catholics in small, scattered settlements here 
and there in the county had for years received only few and far-between 
visits from priests. From the establishment of the church at Mont- 
gomery City, however, the records give Columbia as '* attended occa- 
sionally" therefrom. At the county courthouse Catholic services were 
held a time or two. But not until after the building of the branch 
line of the Wabash Railroad, then the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern 
Railroad, south from Centralia was there any systematic effort made 
in the way of a church organization. The church building was largely 
the result of the persistent zeal and activity of Mrs. James Clapp. Later 


the work was helped by Miss Cornelia McAfee, now Sister Mary Augus- 
tine, of Louisville, Kentucky, a devoted daughter of the church. Colum- 
bia was first attended as a mission station from Montgomery City, but 
in 1881 was assigned a resident priest, the Rev. John N. Kern. His suc- 
cessors were the Rev. G. A. Watson, the distinguished and scholarly 
Rev. P. F. O'Reilly, now retired at Elfin Dale, Greene county, the Rev. 
C. E. Byrne, the Rev. Arthur O'Reilly, now of Catawissa, Missouri, the 
Rev. William E. Randall, the Rev. Dr. J. B. Pleuss, and the pres- 
ent, much respected rector, the Rev, Thomas J. Lloyd, who is doing much 
excellent organization work. Father Lloyd has secured the Sisters of 
St. Joseph to open a parish school. 

Sturgeon is likewise an old Catholic center in this county. It has 
had the honor of being attended at one time by the Right Rev. Bishop 
Hogan, now the nestor of American hierarchy, then pastor of Chilli- 
cothe. He left a record of a visit and some baptisms on the occasion of 
a visit in 1869. It was Bishop Hogan 's custom at the time to visit 
the various railroad camps along the line of the new railroads and the 
stations near by. The writer has seen the record which he left, and been 
the guest of the family which he visited on the occasion of his call at 
Sturgeon. The present church at Sturgeon was built in the early 70s 
under the pastorate of the Rev. M. J. McCabe, now of St. Michaers, 
St. Louis. It is now attended from Columbia. Centralia is also at- 
tended from Columbia, mass being said there the third Sunday of each 

Adair County 

The Catholic settlements in this county were few and far between. 
They were occasionally attended from Edina. The Rev. John Ryan 
came to St. Mary's Parish in Adair county as resident priest about 1876. 
He had been previously assistant priest to the famous Father James 
Henry, that Lord Chesterfield of the clergy, the late pastor of St. Laur- 
ence 'Toole parish, St. Louis. Father Ryan remained in charge of 
Adair until his transfer to St. Bridget's, St. Louis, in 1889. He was 
succeeded by the present rector, the Rev. John O'Shea, who had ex- 
changed j)lace8 with Father Ryan. Kirksville, the county seat, was 
erected into a parish about 1903, when the Rev. A. Gass, S. T. D., was 
sent from St. Louis to become its first pastor. Under Doctor Gass a 
mission church was built and a rectory. Doctor Gass was succeeded 
by the present rector, the Rev. Alexander L. Mercer, a son of the * * Old 
Bay State" and, like Doctor Gass, an alumnus of the American College, 
Rome. Father Mercer had been assistant at St. Cronin's parish, St. 
Louis, the previous ten years. He attends the mission of LaPlata from 

Novinger, another Catholic settlement, and Connelsville have been 
organized within the past few years; both are attended from Milan, 
Sullivan county. 

Sullivan County 

The principal Catholic center in this county is at Milan, the county 
seat. Its history is hardly twenty years old. It is in charge of a resi- 
dent priest, the Rev. John J. Jermain. Green City is also attended from 
Milan, and also three other places in the adjoining county of Putnam. 

Putnam County 

Unionville, the county seat, has been a Catholic settlement and vis- 
ited regularly by a priest since 1876. It has a mission church but not a 
resident priest. It is, however, regularly attended from Milan. 


There are Catholic settlers at Howland and Mendota, which are sta- 
tions also attended from Milan. 

Schuyler County 

The principal Catholic congregation in this county is that known 
as Miidd's Settlement in about the center of the county towards the 
Iowa state line. Its establishment dates back at least half a century. 
It has been visited at intervals by many of the well known missionaries 
of Northeast Missouri. While it has had for years a substantial church 
structure, it has never had a resident priest. It is now attended from 

Downing, on the Santa Fe Railroad, has come up as a Catholic settle- 
ment since the building of the railroad. It is also attended from Kahoka. 

General Summary 

Outside of St. Charles county, the history of the Catholic church in 
the twenty-five counties of Northeast Missouri is little more than sev- 
enty-five years old. Not a congregation was organized or a priest regu- 
larly stationed in that entire section at that time. Sixty-four priests 
are today regularly stationed and resident in this section. There are 
seventy-one churches, twenty stations preparing to organize congrega^ 
tions and build churches, twenty-nine parish schools, having an attend- 
ance of 3,206 children. The Catholic population is about 25,000. All 
except the eight southern counties adjoining the Missouri river were, 
by decree of the Holy See, last year annexed to the Diocese of St. Joseph, 
Missouri, having been taken from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of 
St. Louis. This, it is considered, will concentrate more direct attention 
upon these northern counties by the church officials and should stimulate 
rapid religious development. 

Bibliography: Catholic Encyclopedia; Catholic History of the United States, 
by John Gilmary Shea, LL.D. ; Reminiscences of a Missionary Priest, by the Rt. R«v. 
John J. Hogan, D. B., Bishop of Kans=as City; Centenary and Annals of St. Charles 
Borromeo's Parish, St. Charles, Mo., by the Rev. James Conway, S. J. ; Historical 
Sketch of the Church in Montgomery County, by the Rev. Paul Grops; Official Catholic 
Directory, 1849, 1850. 1851, 1852, etc., etc., to 1911. 

The Christian Churches 

By the Rev. T, P. Haley, D, D., Kansas City 

The eastern counties were populated to a considerable degree before 
the Missouri territory was admitted *as a state into the Union. With 
this early population were many families who were members of the 
Christian churches in the states from which they came. With them also 
came a number of able ministers of the gospel, who settled among them 
and soon began tp preach in dwelling houses, in groves and in the few 
country school houses that had been erected. Among these were such 
men as Thomas M. Allen, of Boone county, Joel H. Haden, of Howard 
county, and Joseph Creath, of Marion county, with others of less power 
as public speakers. These men soon began to organize churches and the 
people gathered by them began to erect meeting houses and where this 
was impossible obtained permission to preach and organize churches in 
school houses. 

Perhaps the earliest churches were planted in Howard county. In 
this county resided Joel H. Haden, a commanding figure more than six 
feet in height, weighing not less than two hundred and fifty pounds apd 


finely proportioned. He had a line voice and was a fluent and powerfal 
speaker. He was a man of liberal education, though not a classical 
scholar, nor a graduate of any college. The common people heard him 
gladly and understood him and under his ministry many were converted 
and gathered into congregations. After a time Dr. Winthrop H. Hop- 
kins also settled in Fayette and began the practice of medicine. He, 
too, was a fine looking man of commanding personality. He soon aban- 
doned bis profession and gave himself to the ministry and under his 
able preaching great numbers were brought into the churches and many 
congregations were organized. Joel Prewitt, father of Robert Prewitt 
and Dr. Theodore Prewitt, a farmer-preacher, was possessed of liberal 
means and preached without salary and for the most part without any 
compensation. Hampton L. Boone and his brother, W. C. Boone, and 
many traveling evangelists also aided in establishing churches through- 

MissouBi Bible College, Columbia . 

out the county. Prof. John W. McGarvey, who became a distinguished 
preacher and president of the Bible College at Lexington, Kentucky, 
was ordained to the ministry in Fayette. Alexander Proctor, another 
distinguished preacher, was for a number of years the preacher at Glas- 
gow. Noah W. Miller, a graduate of Bethany College, taught school 
and preached at Roanoke and at other points in the county. Elder 
T. M. Allen, of Boone county, held many meetings at Fayette, Glasgow 
and at other points in the county and aided greatly in building up 
churches in the county. This accomplished and eloquent preacher trav- 
eled and preached extensively in Howard and adjoining counties and 
prepared the way for the organization "of many churches. Under his 
ministry Hampton L. Boone, a prominent Methodist minister, came into 
the Christian church and served the church in Fayette and preached 
throughout the county. W. C. Boone, afterwards a banker, became a 
member of the Fayette church and a local preacher who did much to 
build up the churches in the county. In Fayette Dr. J. W. McGarvey 
was ordained to the ministry and became a distinguished preacher and 
educator. He was for many years president of the Bible College of 


Kentucky University, now Transylvania. Alexander Proctor was the 
first pastor of the church in Glasgow. 

The ministers who were most prominent in the organization of the 
early churches in Boone county were Thomas W. McBride, William 
Roberts, Richard Carr, Richard T. Roberts, Joel H. Haden, Thomas M. 
Allen and Marcus P. Wills. Hon. Jesse Boulton gives, as a curiosity, 
the following copy of a church record verbatim: 

June 6, 1824. We the undersigned subscribers, being called upon to examine 
into the faith and ability of brethren living on and near Bear creek (north of Colum- 
bia) desiring to be constituted, find them, in our opinion, sound in the faith and 
possessing the abilities of keeping in order the house of God. We have therefore 
pronounced them a church of Jesus Christ under no other discipline or ritual of faith 
and practice, but the Old and New Testaments, professing at the same time to 
have charity enough as a church to let each other judge of the doctrines contained 
in the Scriptures for ourselves. Given under our hands, who are elders and have 
constituted the undersigned names. 

Thomas McBride, 
William Roberts, 
JoHK M. Thomas. 

The early preachers in BcTone county were Thomas M. Allen, Marcus 
P. Wills and Richard Carr. The churches at Red Top in the northern 
part of the county, Friendship, Bear Creek and Columbia were the first 
churches formed in the county. The church at Columbia was organized 
in the year 1832 and about four years afterwards Elder T. M. Allen be- 
came its pastor. 

The same men who preached and organized churches in Howard and 
Boone counties were prominent in establishing the early churches in 
CallaM'ay county. In addition to these men may be mentioned Marcus P. 
Wills and Absalom Rice. For many years the churches in Fulton, at 
Stephens Store and New Bloomfield were the prominent churches. At 
New Bloomfield a debate between the Baptist and Christian churches 
was held by Prof. R. S. Thomas, of the Baptist church, and the Rev. 
D. P. Henderson, of the Christian church, many years ago. 

The first ministers of the church who preached and organized churches 
in Montgomery were Elders Sandy E. Jones, Timothy Ford, J. J. Ewell, 
Dr. Hatchett, Jacob Coons, and T. M. Allen of Boone county, and still 
later Dr. W. H. Hopson, whose father resided in Fulton. Still later 
Elder D. M. Grandfield, who after his return from Bethany College 
w^here he graduated, located in Middletown, where he taught school and 
preached, extending his labors throughout the county and the surround- 
ing territory. Near this town also was born the Rev. A. B. Jones, who 
afterwards was pastor at Fulton and subsequently resided in Liberty, in 
Clay county, where he taught in a woman's college and preached for the 
church and in the surrounding country. The churches at Montgomery 
City and at Middletown have been maintained through all the years and 
many of the most prominent citizens of the county have been members. 
The following churches were reported by the corresponding secretary: 
Danville, Jonesburg, Middletown, Montgomery City, New Florence, Price 
Branch, Two Mile, Wellsville. 

St. Charles county has not been a successful field for the Christian 
church. While parts of the county have been visited by the ministers 
in that part of the state, only one church has been reported, Foristell. 
The failure to plant churches in this county is attributed to the fact that 
at an early day the foreign population, especially the Germans, occupied 
the field. It is not intended to intimate that the people are not a relig- 
ious and church-going people, but only that they are for the most part 
members of the Catholic, Lutheran, and other churches, better known in 
the countries from which their fathers came. 


Elders Allen, Jones, Coons, Ford, Grandfield and others have preached 
and established churches in Lincoln county. In the latest reports the 
following churches are reported: Corinth, Elmgrove, Elsberry, Hawk- 
point, Linn Knoll, Louisville, Liberty, Troy, Moscow Mills, Olney. 

Nearly all the ministers who resided in the eastern part of the state 
held meetings or served as regular pastors in Ralls county. Joseph J. 
Errett, S. E. Jones, Timothy Ford, Jacob Coons, D. M. Grandfield and, 
in later years, J. B. Corwine and E. V. Rice. Elder T. M. Allen, who 
traveled so extensively over the county, also held meetings. The follow- 
ing churches are reported : Ariel, Bethel, Center, Hays Creek, Hunting- 
ton, Liberty, Lick Creek, New London, Newport, Ocean Wave, Perry, 
Pleasant Grove, Prairie View, Renssalear, Salt River, Spaling. At 
New London J. B. Corwine resided and preached for many years and in 
the meantime evangelized for many years. A school for young men and 
young women was maintained at this point. Prof essoins Christian and 
Laughlin were the principal teachers. 

Joseph J. Errett lived and labored long in Pike county and was the 
patriarch of all the many ministers who lived and labored in the county. 
J. D. Dawson and son, William, who afterwards became an Episcopal 
clergyman, lived at Louisiana and served the churches in that region. 
E. B. Cake, T. A. Abbott, Jacob Hugley, Eugene M. Lampton, William 
Meloan, E. V. Rice and, in later years, E. M. Richmond served as pas- 
tors of churches and on occasion held protracted meetings. The following 
churches are reported : Ashbum, Ashley, Bowling Green, New Harmony, 
Clarksville, Eolia, Frankford, Spencersburg, Louisiana, Paynesfville, 

The early preachers in Marion county were Elders Jacob Creath, 
Dr. David T. Morton, T. M. Allen, Esom Ballinger, L. B. Wilkes, James 
A. Meng, Dr. W. H. Hopson, and others. From an early day the church 
of Palmyra was prominent. It established and maintained a female 
school. Dr. Hopson was the first president of the school. He was suc- 
ceeded by L. B. Wilkes, who subsequently became president of Christian 
College at Columbia. In later years E. C. Browning and others served 
as pastor. The Hannibal church had the services of L. B. Wilkes and 
Henry H. Haley, C. B. Edgar, J. H. Hardin, S. D. Dutcher, Levi Mar- 
shall. The following churches were reported : Antioch, Emerson, Hanni- 
bal, Hester, Palmyra, Philadelphia, Mt. Zion, Warren, Woodland, Han- 
nibal 2d. In the fifties a debate between Dr. W. H. Hopson and Rev. 
W. G. Caples, of the Methodist Church South, was held in Hannibal and 
created widespread interest in that part of the state. Several state con- 
ventions of the churches have been held at Hannibal. 

The early ministers of Lewis county were Jacob Creath, Esom 
Ballinger, John Shanks, John C. Risk, and later the ministers connected 
with Christian University at Canton, Missouri. During all the years 
preachers in the faculty of Christian University and student preachers 
have preached in the county and in the surrounding counties. The 
following churches are reported: Antioch, Buena Vista, Bunker Hill, 
Canton, Cool Springs, LaBelle, LaGrange, Lewistown, Midway, ilonti- 
cello, Newman Chapel, Prairie View, Sugar Creek, Williamstown, Mt. 
Zion, Turpins, Tolona. 

Being just north of Lewis county, Clark county has had the services 
of the same preachers from the faculty and students of Christian Uni- 
versity, with much the same results. The following named churches 
have been organized and maintained ministers and kept up regular 
services: Alexandria, Carmel, Fairmount, Elm, Kahoka, Louray, Peak- 
ville, Shiloh, Star, Winchester. 

In Scotland county the following churches are reported: Antioch, 


Bible Grove, Concord, Lawn Ridge, Prairie View, Granger, Gorie, Plum 
College, Memphis, Rutledge, Salem, and Union. These churches have 
been organized by the ministers and students of Christian University. 

The ministers who labored in Audrain county in an early day were 
Elder T. M. Allen, Dr. W. Hopson and Dr. John A. Brooks. Many meet- 
ings were held in the county by traveling evangelists and the following 
churches are reported : Farber, Laddonia, Liberty, Friendship, Martins- 
burg, ^lexico, Macedonia, Midway, New Hope, Rising Sun, Rock Hill, 
Rush Hill, Salt River, Unity, Vandalia. The church in Mexico is one 
of the largest and most influential in the state. 

Thomas McBride, Thomas M. Allen, Jacob Creath and Henry Thomas 
were the first preachers in Monroe county. Other ministers have been 
J. W. Mountjoy, William Featherston, Eugene Lampton, John A. 
Brooks, T. W. Pinkerton, S. McDaniel, Jacob Hugley. The present 
pastor of the Paris church is F. W. Allen. A third church building, 
spacious and comfortable, has recently been erected. Before the war 
James Campbell, Asa N. Grant and others conducted a school under the 
auspices of the churches in the county, in which many of the young 
women of the county were educated. The following churches are re- 
ported: Ash, Antioch, Fairview, Holliday, Granville, Mt. Carmel, Madi- 
son, Mountjoy, Middle Grove, Monroe City, Oak Ridge, Pleasant Grove, 
Paris, Santa Fe, Union, Woodlawn. In Paris J. C. Fox was one of the 
prominent members. He was liberal and hospitable. His house was 
ever the home of the weary and travel-worn preacher. He was a liberal 
patron of the Orphan School of Missouri. At his death he left a liberal 
sum to the church at Shelbina and to other charities. Judge Howell, 
Dr. Gore, the Alexanders, the McBrides, the Crutchers, Judge Race, 
James Abbernathy, the first editor of the Paris Mercury, Mason and 
Bean, so long its editors and publishers, the Bodines, the Moss family, 
the Barretts, Giddings, Vaughns, Eubanks, Beckners, Caldwells, Congers, 
Bridgefords, Davis — these all contributed to the prosperity and success 
of the churches throughout Monroe county. 

Elders Jacob Creath, Frederick Shoot, Henry Thomas, William Feath- 
erston, Wood, and other evangelists have labored in Shelby county and 
many of the Monroe county pastors have held meetings in the county. 
Shelbina has been for many years the most prominent church in the 
county and many ministers from other counties of the state have held 
meetings there. A new church building has recently been erected. 
Shelbyville also has a new church building. The following churches are 
reported : Clarence, Concord, Hagers Grove, Hunnewell, Lakenan, Lent- 
ner, Leonard, Shelbina, Shelbyville, Oakdale, Pleasant Grove, Union, 
Berea, Union Chapel, Walkerville. 

The first preachers in Randolph county were Allen Wri^t, William 
White, William Reed, Isaac Foster, Thomas Thompson. Afterwards 
came Martin Sidener, Henry Thomas, Alfred Wilson, T. M. Allen, P. 
Donan, Jacob Creath, Alexander Proctor, Noah M. Miller, Thomas P. 
Haley, Henry H. Haley, William M. Featherston, Eugepe Lampton, 
Allen Knight, W. H. Robinson, and still later, B. F. Wilson, James A. 
Berry, William Anderson, Elder Hollis, John McCann. Dr. James 
Shannon, Dr. W. H. Hopson, D. P. Henderson and Samuel S. Church 
also held meetings in the county. Many prominent citizens were mem- 
bers of the churches from the beginning — W. I. Rutherford, Capt. T. B. 
Reed, Capt. John J. Allen, Rowland T. Proctor, Ben J. Haley, Abe Mc- 
Kiimey, May M. Burton, Capt. Thomas P. Coates, Alexander Hall, N. B. 
Coates, and Irving Guy, with many others equally worthy and equally 
useful. The first meeting houses were the school houses and after these 
the log meeting houses. The first of these was Antioch, midway between 


Paris and Huntsville. In these weekly meetings were held and preach- 
ing one Sunday in the month. The following churches are reported: 
Antioch, Cairo, Clark, Clifton Hill, Fairview, Higbee, Huntsville, Lib- 
erty, McMuUen, Moberly (2), New Hope, New Providence, Renick, 
Salem, Yates. Moberly has a large church building and a large member- 

The first preachers in Macon county were 0. P. Davis, Jeremiah 
Prather, Allen Wright, and William Fox. Later B. G. Barrow, P. K. 
Dibble and James U. Wright were preachers in the county and still 
later Elder Mayhew, E. M. Richmond, D. P. Henderson and Jacob 
Creath held meetings in the county in the fifties. The first church was 
organized in Bloomington, the first county seat, and here as early as 
1849 a district was held, at which provision was made for sending out 
ministers to hold meetings and gather into churches the scattered mem- 
bers in that part of the state. After varied fortunes the Macon church 
has recently built a commodious, modern church building and under the 
ministry of Elder Munyan is becoming a large and influential congre- 
gation. The following churches are reported: Antioch, Bethel, Bevier, 
Chariton Grove, Concord, Hopewell, Macon City, LaPlata, New Har- 
mony, Callao, Plainview, Union, Union Grove, Freedom, Mt. Zion, Fair- 
view, Atlanta, College Mound. 

J. C. Davis, O. P. Davis, George E. Bow, Elder HoUis Simpson, Eli 
D. Browden, Sherman Kirk, Davis Errett, Elder Wiskizer, H. A. North- 
cutt, G. H. Laughlin, Dr. Browden, Elder Willis and others labored in 
Adair county and organized churches. Preachers residing in adjoining 
counties have held protracted meetings and organized churches in Adair 
county. The following churches reported: Kirksville, Illinois Bend, 
Pierceville, Sublett. 

Lancaster church in Schuyler county was organized as early as 1827 
and has kept a record through all the years since, even during the years 
of the Civil war. The following named preachers are reported : Isaac 
Foster, William Hadley, Hosea Northcutt, James W. Wright, E. H. 
Lawson, Josiah Davis. The following churches are reported: Antioch, 
Bridge Creek, Coflfey, Darby, Downing, Fairview, Glenwood, Green Top, 
Lancaster, Queen City, Pleasant Grove. 

The oldest church in Chariton county is Chariton, near KeytesviUe, 
founded by William Burton, of Howard county. It has since either ceased 
to be or its remains were absorbed some years ago by the church in 
KeytesviUe. Brunswick church was next in order. Joel H. Haden, of 
Howard county, a warm personal friend of Dr. Edwin Price, of Bruns- 
wick, father of R. B. Price, Sr., banker at Columbia, on a visit to the 
doctor, preached in Brunswick and practically formed the church. After- 
ward Allen Wright, then of Chariton, visited and preached at that church. 
Afterward came Joel H. Haden, of Howard, and Doctor Hopson, the 
state evangelist, and the church was founded. The writer was their first 
pastor and continued from 1854 to 1857. Since that time, except during 
a few years, including the years of the Civil war, the church has main- 
tained its existence and supported pastors. In the year 1855 a debate 
was held there by two of the most prominent ministers in the state, W. 6. 
Caples, of the Methodist church, and Moses E. Lard, of the Christian 

The first church in Linn county was founded at Linneus. Its early 
members consisted of such families as Col. John Ware, formerly of Boone 
county, the Prewitts, Colonel Holland, Mr. Burlington, Thomas Browne, 
and Editor William Penlington, Doctor Ralph and others of like prom- 
inence. Churches have sprung up all over the county, at Salt Creek, 


Cunningham, Rothville, Keytesville and other places. Brookfield and 
other churches have prospered and maintain pastors. 

JVIilan was the first church in Sullivan county and has been followed 
by other churches, still existing. There are many churches in the county 
that maintain pastors and the churches are increasing. 

This sketch of the Christian churches in Northeast Missouri will pre- 
sent to the reader some idea of the great work which has been done by 
the churches in that part of the state. 

The Episcopal Church 

By H. C. Scheetz, Palmyra 

The Protestant Episcopal Church of America was introduced in North- 
east Missouri in the latter part of 1838 by Bishop Jackson Kemper, who 
was the 'first missionary bishop west of the Mississippi river. He was 
ordained by Bishop William White, the first presiding bishop of the 
American church. 

This strong young bishop had for his field Missouri, part of Illinois, 
Iowa and Wisconsin. He also visited Mississippi and Louisiana several 
times and in 1840 steps were taken to organize Missouri into a diocese. 
Much was to be done and laborers few. The first state convention was 
held at Christ church, St. Louis, in November, 1840, being five years after 
the Bishop 's arrival in Missouri. Seven clergymen were present — Hedges, 
Mead, Minard, Paine, Peake, Smith and S. Crane. This was the mother 
parish of the state and was set apart to be the bishop's church when 
he first arrived in St. Louis in 1835 (and it is yet the bishop's church, 
being now called Christ Church Cathedral). For the following five 
years the bishop was seldom in St. Louis, for his large field of labor kept 
him away. At this first convention in 1840 St. Louis was represented by 
delegates from Christ church and from St. Paul's church of St. Louis; 
also delegates from Jefferson City, Boonville, St. Charles, Hannibal and 
Palmyra, which were called the Twin Parishes, and were under the Rev. 
Thomas E. Paine, who had been appointed to attend to the services in 
these two places, the Rev. M. Hedges having been called to another church. 
At Palmyra a small frame church was built, which had eight members. 
Hannibal had ten members. The delegates from Hannibal and Palmyra 
were Dr. H. Peake, J. B. Lambert, P. L. Ayres and P. W. Southack. 

In 1843 the fourth convention met in Grace church, Jefferson City, 
September 25, but immediately adjourned to meet at Christ church, St. 
Louis, on September 27, at which place a full delegation was present. 
Bishop Kemper advised the election of a Bishop for Missouri. He also 
submitted a petition to the next general convention, praying the board to 
appoint a ** Chief Shepherd" for Missouri; whereupon at the general 
convention in 1844 he nominated the Rev. C. S. Hawks, who was rector 
of Christ church, St. Louis, to be Bishop of Missouri ; which was done in 
November, 1844. In May, 1845, Bishop Hawks took charge as the first 
Bishop of Missouri and on June 20 of that year Hannibal organized as 
Trinity church. This was the first organized Episcopal church in North- 
east Missouri. The first vestry elected for Trinity church at Hannibal 
were H. Peake, T. J. Ayers, C. D. Bourne, R. Lamar, Judge Samuel Har- 
rison, M. McDonald and John McDowell. In the summer of 1845 Bishop 
Kemper made his last visit to Hannibal and Palmyra, at which time he 
baptized and confirmed many persons. 

On May 13, 1846, the seventh convention met in Christ church, St. 
Louis, and this was the first convention to meet in the month of May. 
The Rev. Mr. Hedges preached the sermon and Bishop Hawks made an 


instructive address, in which he said he visited Hannibal and Palmyra 
in April, preached two days at each of these places and advised them to 
build churches and parsonages. These two towns received $300 from the 
missionary board that year. Hannibal, having filed articles as Trinity 
parish, was admitted May 16, 1846, with the Rev. George Sill in charge. 
Mr. Sill reported that about one hundred attended preaching, but there 
were only twenty church members. He reported that he preached in 
Palmyra in the morning and in Hannibal in the evening ; that it was his 
second year in charge and that he had baptized only six in Palmyra and 
had ten communicants. Those baptized were Maria May Scheetz and a 
servant, William and Sarah McClintic, John and Eugene Swift, Ellen 
Cook and Theodore Valiant, all children. The communicants were: 
Charles Swift and wile, Dr. McClintic and wife, H. Cook and wife, F. B. 
Scheetz and wife, John Valiant and wife. 

In May, 1847, the eighth convention met at Grace church, Jefferson 
City. Mr. Sill, in charge of Hannibal anl Palmyra, Doctor McDowell, of 
Hannibal, and Doctor Peake were elected delegates to the next general 
convention in 1848. 

In 1848 the ninth convention met in Christ church, Boonville. The 
Rev. Mr. Sill received a call to Christ church, Holly Springs, Mississippi, 
and arrangements were begun to plant Kemper College about half a mile 
from the town of Palmyra on a fifty acre tract of land. Bishop Hawks 
met the committee and the Rev. W. B. Corbyn, D. D., who had accepted 
a call as rector in St. Paul's church, Palmyra, was now appointed by the 
Bishop and the standing committee to take charge of both church and 
school at Palmyra. The Rev. Mr. Corbyn was a highly educated man and 
of a very determined character. He soon had a large school of boys from 
many parts of Missouri, 

No convention was held in 1849, the year of pestilence. In Hanni- 
bal and St. Louis and all other river towns the scourge was dreadful, 
some churches losing nearly all their members. 

In May, 1851, the eleventh convention met in Lexington. The Rev. 
George P. Comings, missionary of Hannibal, reports the following inter- 
esting official act: The Rev. Dr. W. B. Corbyn, of Palmyra, had shown 
much interest in holding services at Hannibal and had married, during 
the month previous, a Hannibal lady, Miss McDonald, one of his par- 
ishioners, the Rev. C. P. Comings officiating. 

The twelfth convention was held in May, 1852, at St. Mary's church, 

In 1853 the thirteenth convention met in May at Christ church, St. 
Louis. The Bishop in his address tells of there being an increase in con- 
firmations in the church at Hannibal, that church having secured the 
services of the Rev. J. Adderly, of Illinois, at $250 a year. But $100 more 
was to be added by the Bishop from the missionary fund. 

The fourteenth convention was held in St. John's church, St. Louis, 
in May, 1854. The Rev. Mr. Adderly resigned at Hannibal, having been 
called to Grace church, Jefferson City. The delegates to this convention 
from Hannibal were Doctor McDowell and Mr. Calhoun. 

In 1855 the fifteenth convention met in Christ church, Boonville, 
in May. The Rev. Charles Purviance, a young minister, was elected for 
Hannibal, but within a month or so resigned. The delegates from Hanni- 
bal were F. A. Calhoun, Col. Dick Drain and F. W. Southack. Bishop 
Hawks told of his visits to Palmyra and Hannibal and stated that there 
were now about nine hundred cpmmunicants in the state, about one-fourth 
of whom were negroes; that many families had brought their servants 
with them to Missouri from Virginia, ]Maryland and Kentucky, and all 


were baptized when children; and that he was pleased to see that the 
colored servants were coming into the churches. 

On May 25, 1857, the seventeenth convention was held in St. Paul's 
College at Palmyra. Doctor Corbyn resigned as rector of St. Paul's at 
Palmyra, and the Rev. S. Y. McMasters was elected to take his place. 
The Bishop visited Mr. Scheetz' little church, St. Jude's, on the prairie 
near where Monroe City now is, and confirmed ten and ordained P. B. 
Scheetz as deacon and missioner. 

The eighteenth convention met in May, 1858, at Grace church, Jef- 
ferson City. The Bishop reported the laying of the corner stone of 
Trinity church, Hannibal, the rector, the Rev. Mr. Dunn, assisting, the 
new church to cost $6,000. 

In May, 1861, Trinity church, Hannibal, entertained the twenty-first 
convention. The Bishop's address had this theme: **Let each one of us 
pray night and day that the agony of brotherly strife may be ended, that 
men may beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into prun- 
ing hooks, and not learn war any more." The Rev. Dr. Corbyn was 
appointed by the Bishop and the standing committee to take charge of 
St. Paul's church and St. Paul's College again, which he accepted and 
held for ten years, or until 1871. 

The twenty-third convention was held in Grace church, Kirkwood, in 
May, 1863. The Bishop's address tells of the horrors of the Civil war 
and states that he is opposed to this convention or the general convention 
passing any resolutions of censure upon our Southern brethren. 

The twenty-fourth convention met in May, 1864, in Christ church, St. 
Louis. Many of the churches were closed, this being the hardest year of 
the Civil war. The not unexpected disaster was noted, the sale of St. 
Paul's college and church property for debt. But the school property 
was bought by friends for the Rev. W. B. Corbyn to continue his school. 
The Rev. George Scheetz bought the church property and ten acres of 
land and deeded it all to the Bishop for the church. The Rev. George 
Scheetz was the father of Rev. P. B. Scheetz. He was rector of old St. 
Mark church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1825 to 1855, and had 
removed to Palmyra, Missouri, in 1860, with his two married daughters, 
Mrs. Mendenhall and Mrs. G. C. Jones, who bought property and who 
felt a great interest in the church there. In 1867 they all removed to 
Monroe City, when St. Jude's church had been moved to that town from 
the Scheetz farm near by. P. B. Scheetz was ordained a deacon by Bishop 
Hawks in 1857 and was later ordained as priest by Bishop Vail. He 
built up a good membership for St. Jude's church at Monroe City, where 
a stone church was erected. The remains of all these families now rest 
in one large plot of St. Jude's cemetery in Monroe City, Missouri. 

The twenty-eighth convention met in May, 1868, at Kirkwood. Bishop 
Hawks died this year. The Rev. Mr. Dunn, who so long had served at 
Hannibal, had resigned only a short time previously. He had served 
faithfully at Hannibal for the past eleven years. He left one monument 
that will last forever — ^a splendid stone church, without one cent of debt, 
mostly subscribed by his good friends in the east. 

The thirty-second convention was held in May, 1872, in St. George's 
church, St. Louis, Bishop C. P. Robertson presiding. The delegates from 
Hannibal were Major Hunt and H. E. Towns, J. ^. Hamilton, principal 
of the school, was made deacon. At this meeting the state of Missouri 
was divided into six districts, the northeast district to be known as the 
Hannibal district, and each district was to have a dean. The Rev. 
P. B. Scheetz, of St. Jude's church, Monroe City, was appointed dean by 
the Bishop and member of the standing committee. 

The thirty-fourth convention was held in May, 1874, in Christ church, 

Vol. !--»» 


St. Louis. At the end of this year the Rev. J. G. Armstrong, who had 
built up the work so much in Hannibal during the past four years, 
resigned. He was succeeded by the Rev. Samuel Ringgold, of Tennessee. 
The Rev. F. B. Scheetz, of Monroe City, was appointed temporarily to 
take charge of St. Paul 's church and school at Palmyra, as Doctor Wain- 
wright had resigned at Palmyra and had taken charge of a school for 
girls, called Wolfe Hall, in Denver, Colorado. With the assistance of 
his daughter, Miss Katherine, he conducted the school for three years, 
or until 1877, when Doctor Wainright was recalled to the presidency of 
St. Paul's College and as rector of St. Paul's church, which positions he 
held for twenty years thereafter, or until 1898, when he died. 

The thirty-fifth convention was held in May, 1875, in Trinity church, 
St. Louis. Reports from Mexico and Moberly, new parishes organized, 
and from Louisiana and Clarkesville missions, were heard. The Rev. 
F. B. Scheetz, who had charge of the school and church at Palmyra, 
resigned, because his own parish at Monroe City and several missions at 
Shelbina, Macon, Kirksville and Canton, which he visited one Sunday 
in each month, were being neglected. The Rev. J. A. Wainwright was 
then re-elected president of the school. 

The thirty-eighth convention met in May, 1878. St. Paul's chapel, the 
old college ground at Palmyra being so far from town, it was deemed 
advisable to build a new church on the corner of Olive and Lane streets, 
a lot having been secured for $300, paid for by the ladies' aid society, 
Palmyra, and deeded to the Bishop of the Diocese of Missouri and his suc- 
cessors in oflSce forever, dated May 11, 1877. The new vestry was com- 
posed of Hon. Edward McCabe, Dr. G. T. Giles, John Best and J. C. Doo- 
little. Colonel McCabe still lives in his old mansion on Main street, 
where he and his wife first settled about 1852. They raised a family of 
seven, now all members of the church and living in many different states. 
Mrs. McCabe died July 20, 1912, at the age of eighty-seven years. 

The thirty-ninth convention met in Christ church, St. Louis, in May, 
1879. Trinity church at Hannibal reported the election of the Rev. 
Abiel Leonard as rector. 

From 1840 to 1880, a period of forty years, the total number of con- 
firmations in the state was eight thousand, six hundred and fifty. It was 
in November, 1880, that the Rev. George K. Dunlop, of Kirkwood, was 
consecrated Bishop, being the first consecration of an Episcopal Bishop 
west of the Mississippi river. 

The forty-second convention met in the Church of Holy Communion, 
St. Louis, in May, 1882. The Rer. F. B. Scheetz accepted a call to Kirk- 
wood, as rector, leaving his old church at Monroe City, which he organ- 
ized as a mission station on his farm in 1855, and which was moved 
to Monroe City, Missouri, and rebuilt of stone in 1866. 

The forty-fifth convention met in May, 1885, in Christ church, St. 
Louis. The Bishop reported several new churches in the diocese, also 
St. James Academy and St. Agnes Hall for Girls at Macon City now 
open. This was the last convention over which Bishop Robertson pre- 
sided. He died within the year, having had scarcely a day's illness in the 
fifteen years he had been with us. The committee reported that in the 
state are fifty-six churches, four schools, one hospital, one orphans' home 
and eleven parsonages and the estimated value of church propertv in 
the state is $1,000,000. 

The forty-seventh convention met May 24, 1886, in St. Louis. Daniel 
S. Tuttle, missionary bishop of Utah and Wyoming, was elected Bishop. 

The forty-eighth convention met in St. John's church, St. Louis, in 
May, 1887, and was presided over by Bishop Tuttle. The Rev. John 
Davis, D. D., was duly elected rector of Trinity church, Hannibal, the 


past year and was editing a parish monthly for his church people. The 
paper was called The Trinity Bell. The Rev. Ethelbert Talbot, of 
St. James church, Macon, was duly elected Bishop of Wyoming and 
Idaho. In this year the Rev. W. A. Hatch accepted a call to take charge 
of St. Jude's church, Monroe City, and for sixteen years served this par- 
ish well. In 1902 he was called to Holy Innocents, St. Louis, where he 
still has charge. 

The fifty-second convention met in Christ church cathredral, St. 
Louis, in May, 1892. The Bishop reported the death of the Rev. C. S. 
Hedges at New Orleans at the age of eighty-four years. He was the first 
rector of Palmyra and Hannibal churches, in 1840, and a member of the 
first convention ever held in Missouri. St. James Academy at Macon 
was discontinued as a church school, expenses being greater than the 
resources. Good work had been accomplished by this school for the 
church in Northeast Missouri. Colonel Blees, with the board of trustees 
at Macon, however, arranged to continue the school. 

The fifty-sixth convention met in Christ church cathredral, May 20, 
1896. The Bishop reported every parish and mission station in Northeast 
Missouri supplied with ministers, except Kirksville. The four missions, 
at Macon, Monroe, Mexico and Moberly, showed the best reports ever 

The fifty-seventh convention was held in Christ church, St. Louis, in 
May, 1897, Bishop Tuttle presiding. The Rev. W. W. Mizner, of St. 
Louis, who had spent several years as a deacon at Palmyra and had done 
much to revive interest and to secure membership for the church, was jiow 
ordered by the Bishop to be priest and to take charge of St. Stephen's 
mission, St. Louis. The Rev. S. H. Green was elected rector of Grace 
church, Kirkwood, and the Rev. F. B. Scheetz, who had been rector for 
the previous fifteen years, was chosen rector emeritus for Kirkwood. 
He had in the early days of the church done much missionary work in 
different parts of Northeast Missouri. 

The fifty-eighth convention met in Christ church cathredral, St. Louis, 
in May, 1898. The Bishop said: *'In 1886 you elected me your Bishop 
and only ten clergymen remain in this state out of the thirty-seven that 
were here then and only one remains who attended the convention of 
1886 and that is the Rev. F. B. Scheetz, of Kirkwood.'' 

The seventy-third convention was held in St. Peter's church, St. 
Louis, in May, 1912. The Bishop Coadjutor, F. F. Johnson, D. D., 
elected during the past year, administered the holy communion and 
Bishop Tuttle read his annual address. 

Methodism and Methodists 

*By the Rev. Marcus L. Gray, D. D., Chillicothe^ 

Bishop E. R. Hendrix in **A Hundred Years of Methodism in Mis- 
souri, ' ' writes : 

Just a century ago Nashville, Tennessee, and St. Louis, Missouri, 
were in the same district and William McKendree was presiding elder. 
It was the Cumberland district in the Western conference. The Western 

* This department of matter contributed includes * * A Hundred Years of Metho- 
dism in Missouri," by Bishop £. B. Hendrix, and sketches of some Methodist people 
closely identified with Northeast Missouri. The writer has drawn largely from **The 
Centennial Tolume of Missouri Methodism," the copyright to which he holds, and 
permission for the use of the same is hereby given for this History of Northeast 
Missouri. Much more could be added, but I have exceeded the space allotted already, 
in all probability. — Contributing Editor. 


conference embraced what are now the states of Mississippi, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, to say nothing of 
Arkansas and Missouri, which were taken in that year. There were in it 
five districts, some embracing more than one state. Strong men belonged 
to the Western conference, which never had a western boundary except 
the Day of Judgment. The General conference w^as content with 
simply naming the eastern, southern and northern boundaries, so as 
not to interfere with other conference lines, and gave the Western con- 
ference all west to the setting sun and everything beyond it, if the 
^itinerant wanted to go there. The Western conference was a name 
never absent from the annals of Methodism for a long period at a time 
and even when it disappeared at the last session of our General confer- 
ence the name still survived by request in the ** Western district." 
Among the honored names on the roll in 1806, when John Travis was 
appointed to the Missouri circuit, were those of William McKendree, 
James Axley, Jesse Walker, Peter Cartwright and Learner Blackman. 

After a year's work in the territory of Missouri, so recently acquired 
as part of the famous Louisiana purchase, John Travis reported in the 
fall of 1807 at the Western conference, which met at Chillicothe, Ohio, 
that he had organized two cirpuits, one north of the Missouri river, which 
he called the Missouri circuit, and one south, that he called the Meramec 
circuit, and that, together, they numbered one hundred and six mem- 
bers. Travis ever had a warm place in his heart for this, his first work, 
for he had just been admitted on trial when appointed to it. He returned 
from his remote appointment in the Mississippi district the next year 
to attend a camp meeting near St. Louis, in company with William 
McKendree and Jesse Walker, who walked forty-five miles to reach 
here. That was a notable company of preachers at the first camp meet- 
ing held in Missouri, and where they witnessed forty conversions. Mc- 
Kendree had been an officer in the Revolutionary war and was present 
at the surrender of Cornwallis, and as the first native-born American 
bishop, was to become its Chief Justice Marshall as well, the expounder 
of its constitution. Jesse Walker, who succeeded Travis as preacher 
in charge of the Missouri circuit, was the Daniel Boone of Methodism, 
of \yhom it was said, *'He was never lost and never complained,*' de- 
lighting to go where no white man had gone before him, a hero who, in 
the midst of the dense Romanist conditions of the Spanish and French 
population, was to pray St. Louis Methodism into existence nearly four-, 
teen years after Travis began his work in the country. It was the 
privilege of Jesse Walker also to plant Methodism in Chicago. John 
Travis was a fearless man of vigorous mind who, after nine years of 
itinerant service, married and located, practicing medicine in Kentucky 
until some fourteen years before his death, when he became totally 
blind, still doing service as a local preacher and thrilling all in public 
and private with the story of his itinerant life. 

Not until 1814 was the ** Missouri district" formed, with 804 mem- 
bers, and two years later the General conference in Baltimore created 
the ** Missouri conference," bounded on the north by the Ohio confer- 
ence, on the east by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, on the south by the 
Arkansas river, and on the west by nothing. In 1819 the first substan- 
tial and finished Methodist church ever erected in Miasouri was built 
in Cape Girardeau county, two miles from Jackson ; and here was held 
the first session of the Missouri conference that was ever held within 
the present limits of the state. Bishop George presiding. 

When Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821, it had a population 
of 66,518, of whom 10,222 were slaves. The Methodists numbered 1.543. 
It was not until 1836 that the Missouri conference was confined to the 


limits of the state. The first General conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, divided the state into two conferences, so that the 
name '* Missouri conference'* was given to all that part of the state 
north of the Missouri river, as today. In the Methodist family there 
are now nearly 200,000 Missouri Methodists. 

One of the principal agents in the planting of Methodism in Mis- 
souri, William McKendree, in whose district the whole territory of 
Missouri was placed at the session of the Western conference, in 1806, 
lived to preside over some four sessions of the Missouri conference, the 
last as late as 1824, eight years after the death of Asbury. Bishop 
Asbury, with a rare sagacity in selecting leaders, had sent McKendree 
in 1801 across the mountains from his native Virginia to be presiding 
elder of the Kentucky district and to have a sort of general superintend- 
ence of the large Western conference. Always in the van and on the 
firing line, McKendree was chosen again by Asbury, in 1806, to preside 
over the new district, which was to embrace all the inhabited part of 
the Louisiana purchase, it being attached to the Cumberland district, 
which included much of middle Tennessee and some of Illinois. Mc- 
Kendree was a man of genius, to whom the conquest of the Mississippi 
vsMey for Christ is largely due, and the numerous ** McKendree ' ' 
churches and cliapels, reaching from Missouri to the Atlantic seaboard, 
are the monuments of his labors in many states that were only territories 
in his day. 

But what shall we say of Francis Asbury, who, like Moses, looked, 
over into the promised land, so recently accpired from France and 
Spain, but himself never entered it. His heart was ever with his 
** beloved McKendree** as he fondly called him. At the session of the 
Western conference, where he presided in 1806, and appointed the first 
preacher to the Missouri circuit, his journal records with zeal for the 
frontier w^ork in these simple words: **The brethren were in want, so 
I parted with my watch, my coat, and my shirt.** We naturally ask 
what did he have left out of his $64 a year salary. Who can question that 
his heart went with his gift? *' Silver and gold I have none,** well might 
this apostle say, "but such as I have give I unto thee.** We claim 
Asbury, too, as among the founders of Methodism on this side of the 
Mississippi. **In diligent activity no apostle, no missionary, no war- 
rior, ever surpassed him. He rivalled Melancthon and Luther in bold- 
ness. He combined the enthusiasm of Xavier, with the far-reaching 
foresight and keen discrimination of Wesley.*' His mantle fell upon 
McKendree, who survived him nearly tw^enty years, but their names are 
inseparable, as was their work. '*My fathers, my fathers, the chariots of 
Israel and the horsesmen thereof!** 

Honored names are they of minister and laymen who, during the 
past hundred years, have been connected with Methodism in Missouri. 
Some have become bishops of the church and educators and editors, 
and some have been governors and United States senators and members 
of congress. Others without public office have been the foremost citizens 
of their counties, always interested in every good word and work. Large 
gifts have come to our Methodism from those not of our communion 
in the belief that we would wisely administer them. The largest is a 
bequest by the late Robert A. Barnes of St. Louis, who married Miss 
Louise De Mun, a daughter of a leading Roman Catholic family, who was 
in hearty sympathy with him in his purpose to found a great hospital 
under Methodist auspices. For this there has already been purchased 
the finest site in St. Louis, having. a frontage of some 1,200 feet on 
For^t Park, and it is, the intention of the trustees to retain not less 


than $1,000,000 of the bequest sa an endowment after completing and 
equipping the best hospital of its kind in the land. 

SIethodist Leaders 

The sketches of twenty-five Methodists, ministers and laymen, repre- 
seuting the church in Northeast Missouri had been selected for publi- 
cation in this chapter. The limitations of space compel the omission 
of sketches of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Henry Pritchett, Prof. Richard 
Thompson Bond, David Kyle Pitman, the Rev. Moses Upshard Payne, 
Thomas Shaekleford, the Rev, Dr. William F. McMurry, Prof. T. Berry 
Smith, the Rev. William B, Wheeler, the Rev. Jesae Andrew Wailes, the 
Rev. Solomon Harman Milam, William Omar Gray, Arthur Ferdinand 
Davis, the Rev. Charles Bemand Duncan, the Rev. Howard Lorenzo 
Davis, the Rev. Wesley W. McMurry. Judge Lloyd H. Herrfng, the 

Rev. Dr. J. P. Nolan, the Rev. Dr. 0. E. Brown, Thomas E. Thompson, 
William McMurray, John J. Hewitt and Prince Dimmitt. Sketches are 
appended, however, of the two great bishops of the Methodist church, 
Enoch M. Marvin and Eugene R. Hendrix, whom Northeast Missouri 
has given to the world. 

Bishop Enoch M.\ther Marvin 

Enoeb Mather Marvin was born in Warren county, Missouri, June 
12, 1823. Catherine Mather was the mother of his grandfather, Enoch 
Marvin. Both families were of English descent, Reinold Marvin, who 
came to America about 1637 from Essex county, was baptized in St. 
Mary's church, Great Bently Parish, England, June 7, 1593. This old 
church was built in 1089 by Alberic de Vere, a favorite of William the 
Conqueror, and founder of the family long enjoying the title of Earl 
of Oxford. At first a private chapel, it came at last by suceessive as- 
signments under the patronage of the Bishops of St. Albans. Here 


many of our ancestors worshiped and their bones rest about its conse- 
crated walls. 

Amid the rude surroundings of a Missouri farm near a century ago 
Enoch Mather Marvin was reared. His parents were lovers of learning 
and he early evinced a longing for books. Awake to nature, too, every 
voice of earth or sky struck a responsive chord in his sensitive soul. In 
person tall and angular, long of neck and limb, leaning forward as he 
walked; large feet, slender white hands, pale face, rather high cheek 
bones, eye between hazel and gray, slightly drooping eyelids, black hair, 
high forehead, voice full and deep, yet mellow- 

His mental grasp was quick, strong, comprehensive; the organizing 
and executive faculties were not wanting. Both the analytic and syn- 
thetic seemed to be the natural mode of his mind's working and his 
contemplative disposition carried him into the highest regions of human 

At times his preaching became rapturous and was laden with a 
strange, magnetic influence that cannot be described and a pathos whose 
power was irresistible; yet all the while one felt that his thoughts had 
been guided by a sober judgment and his emotions had not borne him 
beyond the limits of self-control. His imaginative powers he kept under 
strict surveillance and in his most enthusiastic moods was economical 
with language. Betrayed into no wild flights of fluent fancy, he packed 
his thoughts into the fewest words and every sentence became a glowing 

In the social circle his rich humor often gave forth ''flashes of merri- 
ment that were wont to set the table on a roar.*' Too sincere to be 
adroit, he yet, in his dealing with men, avoided many difficulties by a 
tact that was bom of love. 

For family and friends he would have given his life; to an enemy 
generous, yet prompt to condemn what he thought unjust and, while 
sensitive to a wrong, he was above retaliation. 

Unselfishly and humbly, yet faithfully and fearlessly he sought to 
do his life work. His love for God and men was the heart-throb of his 
being and the flame of his zeal consumed his life. Stricken with pneu- 
monia at his home in St. Louis, he sank gently into his last sleep about 
4 o'clock on Monday morning, November 26, 1877. 

Perhaps the greatest work of his useful life was what he did for 
Central College, Fayette, Missouri. 

Bishop Eugene Russell Hendrix 

Bishop Eugene Russell Hendrix was born in Fayette, Missouri, May 
17, 1847. He was born and reared in a Methodist home, both parents, 
Adam Hendrix and Isabel J. Hendrix, being members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. He was converted during a great revival 
held in Fayette, Missouri, March 14, 1859, and joined the church the 
same date under the ministry of the Rev. S. W. Cope. He was the first 
penitent in the great revival held at Fayette that spring; he had been 
under conviction since the previous spring, but supposed he was too 
young to ask for the prayers of the church; his mother knelt by him 
as he gave his heart to God. His religious life was deeply quickened 
when he felt called to preach the Gospel and his life as a student for 
forty-five years has led him ever nearer to God. He was licensed to 
preach in Middletown, Connecticut, when a student at the Wesleyan 
University from 1864 to 1867 the Rev. J. J. Pegg being the preacher in 
charge. He was recommended for admission on trial by the Quarterly 
conference at Leavenworth, Kansas, where he was serving as a supply 


in the summer of 1869, and was received into the Missouri conference 
in 1869, the Rev. W. M. Rush, D. D., presiding elder, and Bishop Geo. 
F. Pierce, presiding. He was ordained deacon by Bishop Pierce in his 
room at Chillicothe, Missouri, in 1869, the Bishop being unable to preach 
or attend the public services on that day ; was ordained elder by Bishop 
H. N. McTyeire in September, 1870, at Leavenworth, Kansajs. The 
appointments filled are: Leavenworth, Kansas, 1869-1870; Macon, Mis- 
souri, 1870-1872 ; Francis street, St. Joseph, Missouri, 1872-1876, Mis- 
sionary tour around the world, 1876-1877 ; Glasgow, Missouri, 1877-1878. 
President of Central College from 1878 to 1886. Elected and ordained 
Bishop in 1886. Several hundred persons were received into the church 
under his ministry while pastor from 1869 to 1878 and he has ordained 
more than one thousand deacons and elders. He attended Central Col- 
lege until it was suspended during the Civil war, then the Wesleyan 
University at Middletown, Connecticut, where he was graduated in 1867 ; 
he attended also the Union Theological Seminary, New York, gradiiat- 
ing from there in 1869. He was married to Miss Anne E. Scarritt, June 
20, 1872, and his children are: Mrs, Evangeline I. Waring, Mrs. Mary 
M. Simpson, Nathan Scarritt Hendrix and Helen C. Hendrix. He 
considers the founding of the Korean Mission as being possibly the most 
important event in his life. 

Presbyterians and Presbyterianism 

By the Rev. John F, Cowan, D. D,, Fulton 

The first preaching of the gospel of Christ by Presbyterians in Mis- 
souri was in the year 1814, in the town of St. Louis, nearly a century 
ago. The Rev. S. J. Mills and the Rev. Daniel Smith, Bible agents 
from the East, visited the little city, sold Bibles and preached as they 
had opportunity. 

The first organized body of Presbyterians in Missouri was the Church 
of Bellevue in Washington county. This church was organized by the 
Rev. Salmon Giddings on the 3d of August, 1816. There were thirty 

The second church organized was also by Mr. Giddings. The organ- 
ization took place on October 6, 1816. It had sixteen members. This 
was in St. Louis county and it was given the name of Bonhomme. 

The third church organized in Missouri was in the city of St. Louis 
on November 15, 1817. It had nine members and the organizer was the 
Rev. Salmon Giddings. 

The fourth church, also organized by Mr. Giddings, bore the name of 
Union Church of Richwoods. It was organized in Washington county 
on April 17, 1818, and was composed of seven members. 

The fifth church was called the First Church of St. Charles and was 
organized on August 29, 1818, by the Rev. Salmon Giddings and the 
Rev. John Matthews. The organization of this church marks the date 
and act of Presbyterianism entering Northeast Missouri. 

The beginning of Presbyterian church courts in Missouri was on 
this wise. The Presbytery of West Tennessee petitioned the Synod 
of Tennesse, meeting in Nashville October 4, 1817, that a new presby- 
tery to be called the Presbytery of Missouri be erected and that it hold 
its first meeting in St. Louis the third Thursday of November follow- 
ing; that the Revs. Thomas Donnell, John Matthews, Salmon Giddings 
and Timothy Flint be its initial members; and that the dividing line 
between the Presl)ytery of West Tennessee and the Presbytery of Mis- 
souri be tlie ^Mississippi river. When this set time came Donnell and 


Oiddings were present, with Ruling Elder John Cunningham from 
Bonhomme Church, but Matthews and Flint, remote and busy at their 
work, had not even so much as heard that there was to be a Presbytery 
of Missouri. So the time was postponed to the third Thursday of 
December and word was sent to these absent brethren. Mr. Donnell 
had ridden eighty miles to attend the meeting and was, no doubt, greatly 
disappointed, but four weeks later he was back again. He and my 
father were neighbors, only seventy-five miles apart, and helped each 
other on communion occasions and protracted meetings, unterrified by 
rain or mud and swam boldly the swollen, bridgeless streams that op- 
posed their progress. Brother Matthews was present, with Mr. Giddings 
and Elder Stephen Hempstead of St. Louis church, and then and there 
the Presbytery of Missouri was constituted and organized Presbyterian- 
ism inade its entrance < into Missouri. 

The presbytery as thus constituted embraced territorially not only 
the whole of Missouri but also the western half of the state of Illinois. 
The presbytery, as appears from the records, was a constituent part of 
the Synod of Indiana and later of the Synod of Illinois. As a matter of 
fact, the Presbytery of Missouri grew for a time eastward and not 
westward. Its meetings not unfrequently were held in Illinois and at 
least twelve churches in Illinois were on its roll, having been organized 
by its ministers. In 1828 the Synod of Illinois was erected by the 
General Assembly, the Presbytery of Missouri being a constituent part 
of it. 

In 1831 the Presbyter}' of Missouri was erected into a synod and 
divided into three presbyteries — the Presbytery of St. Louis, embrac- 
ing all the state south of the Missouri river; the Presbytery of St. 
Charles, embracing all the state north of said river to the Iowa line and 
all east of the eastern boundary of Callaway county and a line running 
from it north to the Iowa line ; and the Presbytery of Missouri, embrac- 
ing all west of the eastern line of Callaway county and north of the 
Missouri river. 

By agreement at the first meeting of the little presbytery, November, 
1817, it was agreed that the Rev. Mr. Giddings should spend half his 
time at Bonhomme, Florissant and Bellfontaine during the winter and 
the other half in St. Louis. The Rev. Thomas Donnell agreed to spend 
his time in Bellevue and Mine a Burton. The Rev. John Matthews was 
to spend half his time at Buffalo in Pike, where his home was, and the 
other half in the neighboring settlements. 

A church was organized in Pike county in 1818. As it is not on any 
list kept in the records of this little presbytery, it is evidence that it was 
organized by the Cumberlands. It was still in their keeping until their 
union, in 1907, with the Presbyterian church, U. S. A. Its name is 

In April, 1819, while the little presbytery was meeting at the house 
of the Rev. ]\Ir. Matthews in Pike county, they were joined by the Rev. 
David Tennv and the Rev. Charles S. Robinson, missionaries sent out 
from Philadelphia. Things that are cheering and those that are dis- 
couraging are close together in this life. At this presbytery the Rev. 
Mr. Flint asked for his letter of dismission to Illinois and it was given. 

The Rev. C. S. Robinson was asked to take charge of the church at 
St. Charles and the surrounding country. He soon organized the Dar- 
denne church, which has been a shining light ever since, save in a very 
few dark days, as shown by the records. The writer would like to blot 
out the records of all church trials. The next move of the little presby- 
tery was down into Washington county to Richwoods church and to 


worry through a disagreeable trial in which a woman was accused and 

It will be noticed that for several years no other churches were 
organized in north Missouri, but the records show that these men were 
at work over in Illinois. The church of Auburn in Pike county was 
organized in 1822. The Rev. Jesse Townsend, from the Presbytery 
of Geneva in New York, joined the presbytery in 1824. John A. 
Ball was, at his request, taken under the care of the presbytery as 
a licentiate. This man was a Virginian, an educated lawyer. He had 
commanded a Virginia regiment in the War of 1812 and was always 
called Colonel. In 1815 he had settled in the Bonhomme neighborhood 
and was at one time a representative in the state legislature. Mr. Ball 
was licensed and ordained as an evangelist. He organized the church 
at Salem on Big river and also took part in the organization of the 
church at Troy in Lincoln county. He was stated supply in several 
churches and was a good and useful man. He died near Buffalo in 
Pike county, April 12, 1849. At the same meeting of the presbytery in 
which Mr. Ball was made licentiate, William S. Lacy, a licentiate from 
Virginia, was received and ordained. He took charge of the Dardenne 
church and was a useful man. He was the father of the Rev. Beverly 
Tucker Lacy, D. D., who came to St. Louis to become pastor of one of its 
churches and afterward was for several years synodical evangelist and 
still later was pastor of the Mexico church and later of California church. 

In 1828 the church of Ashley, in Pike county, was organized. Cyrus 
L. Watson offered himself as a candidate for the gospel ministry. His 
first examination was in English grammar, arithmetic and Latin. The 
subjects assigned him for study were: Thesis, on the Being of God, 
geography, rhetoric, church history, natural philosophy and evidences 
of Christianity. He was later dismissed to Illinois. The criticism made 
on the presbytery's book at synod was that it contained **bad orthog- 
raphy'' and then the critic wrote the word **corry8pondingly" (cor- 

In 1828 the Rev. Salmon Oiddings died and later in the year the 
Rev. Charles S. Robinson died. The presbytery ordered crepe to be 
worn on the arm for one month. With Oiddings and Robinson dead, 
with HolUster and Flint and Birch over in Illinois, with Ball and Don- 
nell and Tenny in south Missouri, matters began to look discouraging. But 
just then new and splendid workers began to come in. W. P. Cochran, 
a licentiate of the Presbytery of Huntington, was received and ordained 
as an evangelist. He was a man of great energy, who did a vast amount 
of evangelistic work, organized many churches and lived long after his 
early fellow-workers had passed away. The Rev. Thomas P. Durfee 
also was a man who was not afraid to work. In this year came also 
licentiate William S. Potts, who was installed as pastor in St. Louis and 
later was made president of Marion College. 

In Northeast Missouri the churches belonging to the Synod of Mis- 
souri, U. S., number fifty-two. In this same part of the state the churches 
belonging to the Synod of Missouri, U. S. A., number 118, that church 
having gathered into its fold the churches of the former New School 
and the churches of the former Cumberland body. These churches shall 
be given with no distinction, except as to the date of organization, and 
the name of the county in which they are situated. 

In 1829 the working force of ministers was increased by the arrival 
of the Rev. R. L. McAfee from Kentucky, of the Rev. David Nelson from 
Tennessee, of the Rev. Benjamin F. Hoxie from New England, of the 
Rev. Alfred Wright, the Rev. Cyrus Nichols and the Rev. George Wood 
from the East. 


June 1, 1828, the Rev. Thomas P. Durfee organized Auxvaase church 
in Callaway county. He was its pastor for three years. 

In June, 1828, the Rev. W. P. Cochran organized Fayette church in 
Howard county. Because there was no one to look after it, it soon died. 
In Fehruary, 1843, the Rev. W. W. Robertson and the Rev. R. L. McAfee 
visited the town, preached and reorganized the church. The church 
■was put under the care of the Rev. David Coulter, who gave it half of 

The Rev. W, P. Cochran, Pioneer Presbyterian 

his time and the other half he gave to Rocheport. There was no growth, 
but 8 loss of members, and the Rev. Mr. Coulter was compelled to go 
elsewhere for support. The church was then put under the care of the 
Rev. C. D. Simpson, who preached to it once a month for a while. Again 
the church died. Four times after this the presbytery appointed a com- 
mittee to reorganize the church, if the way was clear. It was always 
reported that the way was not clear and so it remains to this day. 


Between the years 1830 and 1840 quite a number of able and distin- 
guished ministers entered Northeast Missouri. In Callaway and Boone 
counties were R. L. McAfee, Thomas Durfee, Benjamin F. Hoxie, J. L. 
Yantis, F. R. Gray, Luther H. Van Doren, R. G. Barrett, Joseph Ander- 
son, Hiram Chamberlain, Job F. Halsey, Allen G. Gallaher, Thomas 
Lafen, Charles W. McPheeters, James Gallaher, Ezra S. Ely, Harvey H. 
Hays, John H. Agnew, Charles W. Nassau, F. B. McElroy and J. M. C. 
Inskeep. The Rev. J. J. Marks was supplying Hannibal church and a 
number of the professors in Marion College were applying nearby 

Presbyterians have ever boasted of their zeal for education. So the 
handful of men in the sparsely populated country felt they must have 
a college or university. They procured a charter for Marion College 
from the Missouri legislature of 1831-1832. A five thousand acre tract 
of land in Marion county, not far from Palmyra, was secured through 
the zeal and generosity of Colonel Muldrow, temporary buildings were 
erected and agents sent for students and money. The Rev. Hiram 
Chamberlain was one of the agents. The college faculty was as follows : 
The Rev. William S. Potts, president ; the Rev. Job F. Halsey, professor 
of mental and moral philosophy ; the Rev. Sam C. McConnell, M. D., 
professor of natural philosophy and mathematics; John Roche, profes- 
sor of Latin and Greek ; Samuel Barschell, professor of German, French 
and Hebrew ; Allen Gallaher, principal of the preparatory school. The 
theological faculty was as follows: The Rev. Job F. Halsey, professor 
of pastoral theology; the Rev. James Gallaher, professor of didactic 
theology and sacred eloquence; the Rev. Ezra Styles Ely, D. D., pro- 
fessor of polemic theology and biblical literature and sacred criticism; 
the Rev. Charles W. Nassau, assistant professor of Oriental languages. 

As Dr. James A. Quarles has written: **This enterprise had con- 
nected with it some of the grandest men who ever trod the soil of Mis- 
souri and labored for the salvation of souls — Nelson, Potts, Ely and 
Gallaher. '\ 

The tottering foundation on which this magnificent superstructure 
was reared soon gave way and let it fall into utter ruin, but not until 
some men had been educated who did great good in Missouri and else- 

It may be doubted whether this great educational failure was due 
entirely to financial causes, for just at this time there occurred a widely 
felt ecclesiastical earthquake that shook the Presbyterian church apart. 
This was the division caused by the New and Old School differences. 
Northeast Missouri held to the Old School. 

The great war of the states, w^hich began in 1861 and lasted three 
years, had the effect of bringing the Old side and the New side to see 
eye to eye as they read the Old Confession of Faith and they became 
one again in 1869. 

But the assembly of 1866 had ordered that, if any synod or presby- 
tery admitted to a seat any minister or elder who had signed a paper 
called Declaration and Testimony (which set forth the spirituality of 
the church) before such minister or elder had appeared at the bar of the 
assembly and had been tried, such synod or presbytery was dissolved — 
ipso facto. 

The Synod of Missouri, meeting in Boonville, October, 1866, refused 
by a strong majority to carry out the order of the assembly. The ad- 
herents of the assembly could not therefore carry off the records as they 
had been told to do and were obliged to walk out themselves. That left 
the Synod of Missouri independent, which position it held until the 
year 1874, when by vote of presbyteries it decided unanimously to 


unite wilt the Southern church. Not a minister nor a church in North- 
east ^lissouri, so far as known to the writer, objected to this union. The 
Cumberland Presbyterian ministers were early in Northeast Missouri. 
The Church of Antioeh in Pike county, organized in 1818, was the 
first of these churches. Missouri is one of the states in which their work 
had been abundantly rewarded. Only two other states, Tennessee and 
Texas, show a more abundant ingathering of souls. In the territory of 
Northeast Missouri they counted at the time of their union with the 
Presbyterian, U. S. A., 102 churches and 6,469 members; while the Pres- 
byterian, U. S, A., counted but thirty-three churches and 2,683 members. 
The Cumberland church has not failed in the matter of Christian edu- 
cation. For a good many years they maintained McGee College, but 
when Misst>uri Valley College was put forward as the college of the 
synod, they did not hesitate to transfer their work and their gifts to the 
school in which the better education could he given and better fitted for 
the greatest degree of usefulness. It would be easy -to mention many 

Wbsthinsteb College, Fuuion 

men in the Cumberland church who, in education, oratory, influence and 
piety, are the equals of any to be found in the other churches, but we are 
not here to praise the living and the work which has been done by 
those who have passed on is their adequate praise and is left to be 
spoken by those who knew them personally or who knew those who knew 

Prior to 1850 there had been a few schools organized for classical 
and advanced education. One of these was in Marion county in the 
neighborhood of the Big Creek church. From this school came many 
fine students to enter Westminster as soon as it was chartered and 
manned with a faculty. Another school was the Pulton College, started 
in 1849, at the head of which was Prof. William H. Van Doren. When 
synod located Westminster at Fulton, largely through the influence 
and energy of the Rev. W. W. Robertson, pastor of the Fulton church, 
this Fulton College, with Prof. Van Doren, was merged into it. West- 
minster was chartered by the legislature of 1853 and sent out its first 
graduate, the Rev. James G. Smith, a Baptist preacher. Up to the 
present time, 1912, it has sent forth four hundred graduates, among 


whom are many ministers, lawyers, doctors and teachers. It survived 
the war of the states and when, in 1909, its main building was burned 
it erected, as soon as possible, Westminster Hall, a fine science hall, a 
commodious dormitory, and an elegant president's mansion. It has a 
beautiful campus, which together with Priest Field, the grounds for 
athletics, amount to thirty-six acres. The endowment is $222,149.77. 

The list of the presidents of Westminster College is as follows: Dr. 
Samuel Spahr Laws, 1855-1861 ; John Montgomery, D. D., 1864 ; Nathan 
L. Rice, D.D., 1868-1874; M. M. Fisher, D. D. (Acting) 1867-1868; 
1874-1877 ; C. C. Hersman, D. D., 1881-1887 ; W. H. Marquess, D. D., 
1888-1894; E. C. Gordon, D. D., 1894-1898; John H. McCracken, Ph.D., 
1899-1903; John J. Rice, LL.D. (Acting) 1898-1899, 1903-1904; David 
R. Kerr, Ph. D,, D. D., 1904-1911 ; Charles B. Boving, D. D., 1911. 

During the administration of Dr. McCracken the Synod of Missouri, 
U. S., offered a joint interest in and control of the college of the Synod 
of Missouri, U. S. A., which was accepted. Each synod elects twelve 
trustees. The student body numbers this year, 1912-13, one hundred and 

The Synodical College for young ladies was located in Fulton by 
the Synod of Missouri, meeting in Cape Girardeau October 10, 1871. 
The college secured its charter and the board of trustees named by the 
synod was made a corporate body in December, 1871. The Rev. W. W. 
Robertson was the man by whose influence and zeal the college was 
located in Fulton. He had managed a college for girls in Fulton for 
ten years and his zeal for this work had never flagged. He was the 
president of the board as long as he lived and his zeal has descended to 
his grandson, W. Frank Russell, who has managed the local and financial 
interests of the college for a number of years. Daniel M. Tucker 
gave a special piece of ground, nearly four acres, as the site of the col- 
lege and the citizens of Fulton and CaUaway county gave the money 
for the building, which was completed in the summer of 1873. The 
presidents of the college have been : T. Oscar Rogers, 1873-1874 ; the Rev. 
W. W. Hill, D. D., 1874-1875; the Rev. B. H. Charles, D. D., 1878-1889: 
the Rev. H. C. Evans, D.D., 1889-1894; the Rev. J. W. Primrose, D.D., 
1894-1896 ; the Rev. T. Peyton Walton, 1896-1901 ; the Rev. J. M! Spen- 
cer, 1901-1906; the Rev. Colin A. McPheeters, 1906-1909; Miss Marv 
Allison, 1909-1912; Prof. L. J. McQueen, 1912. 

At Rensselaer, in Marion county, is a school under the care of the 
Rev. J. E. Travis, which gives to boys and girls the educational work 
which fits them for entering college. The Rev. Mr. Travis, a Presby- 
terian minister and pastor of Big Creek church, has been, with a com- 
petent corps of teachers, carrying on this academic and preparatory 
work for several years. His school is one that is recognized by the 
Synod of Missouri as one of its valued educational helps. Mr. Travis 
not only teaches and trains the youth in that immediate neighborhood, 
but canvasses Northeast Missouri for boys and girls and is prepared to 
take care of them in his students' boarding house. 

Lindenwood College for young ladies is located in St. Charles, but 
can hardly be reckoned a Northeast ^lissouri school. It is under the 
care of the St. Louis Presbytery and its scholars are largely from St. 
Louis, south Missouri, and Illinois. It has recently erected a $40,000 
dormitory, which enables it to care for one hundred boarding pupils. 
Arrangements are being made for other improvements. The local 
attendance of seven or eight girls is scarcely appreciable. Dr. Oeorge P. 
Ayi'es is a Northeast Missouri man and a son of Westminster. He makes 
a successful president and all Presbyterians will rejoice in his success 


and in the imraeuse good he is doing in sending out so many educated 
Presbyterian Christian girls. 

Before this history is brought to a close, there is one feature of the 
planting and growing of Presbyterianism, often lost sight of, that de- 
serves to be spoken of, and that is the work of the men who cultivate 
the small fields in the country. It is from such fields that, later on, 
much of the best material in the churches of the cities and larger towns 
has drifted. This was the kind of work which filled up the evening of 
the life of Dr. W. W. Robertson, a work that gave him delight, organ- 
izing churchjBs such as Ebenezer in Callaway, Laddonia and Vandalia 
in Audrain, caring for them almost free of cost to them and like a 
grandfather spoiling the children by failing to develop in them the 
thought that they were able to take care of themselves. • 

And if I may for one time go over the line that separates the dead 
workmen from the living workers, I will mention the Rev. Franc Mit- 
chell, who for years fed the weak churches of Callaway county, with 
one break in his life when synod made him one of its evangelists, then 
falling back into the same sort of work in Chariton county, feeding its 
half dozen weak churches with the gospel of God's grace. This is the 
sort of men, not rare, that silently, like corals of the sea, create the foun- 
dation work on which, later on, other men rear strong and mighty 



By Edgar White, Macon 

The section represented in this history has produced some writers 
who are known wherever books and papers are printed. It has produced 
many who have enjoyed a state and national reputation. The average 
Missourian is an impressionist. If he can't write a story he can tell 
one. The art seems his by birthright. Samuel L. Clemens (**Mark 
Twain'') found his real mission when he began to put on paper stories 
told him by IVfissourians. The New York Sun once said of him that when 
**The Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was printed, his standing as 
a writer of humor was assured. The ** running gears" for the yarn were 
related by Judge John A. Quarles, Clemens' uncle, to the village folk at 
Florida, Missouri, and many years afterwards, while in the far west, 
*'Mark Twain" put the flesh and blood and sinew on, and a ripple of 
laughter ran 'round the world. While in other lands, amid a new people. 
Clemens saw% as perhaps he never did here, the possibilities of Missouri 
character for fascinating fiction. 

Northeast ]Missouri writers have given to the public history, fiction, 
humor, poetry, and technical work that will stand the most critical anal- 
ysis. In the great white-topped ox wagon of the pioneer was always a 
Bible and oftentimes a history of the American Revolution and Shakes- 
peare and Scott. Later his children read the lives of American and Eng- 
lish statesmen, promptly selecting their ideals, and being able to give their 
reasons therefor. Many a log cabin contained quite an extensive library. 
While the state was making history the germs were sown that ripened 
into the substantial literature of yesterday and today. 

The splendid, far-reaching valleys of northeastern Missouri, the 
majestic river that ripples against its eastern shores, the towering hills, 
the fertile prairies, the alert, active characters one sees everywhere — 
all these are like a beckoning hand, inviting narration. The impulse is 
irresistible. It is like placing before the artist a beautiful form to repro- 
duce on his canvas. 

That the writers of northeastern Missouri feave risen to the situation 
is attested by the large list of books they have written. If the section 
is not known from, ocean to ocean it is not the fault of the men who 
wielded the pen. They have covered the ground, and they have done it 
with an earnestness and a lovalty that are as touching as the subject is 

Mark Twain and His Works 

To the little hill village of Florida, in eastern Monroe county, belongs 
the distinction of being the birthplace of Mark Twain. Ncvember 30, 
1835, was the date of the future humorist's entrance into the world. 
John ^larshall Clemens, the father, was a native of Virginia. lie 



was of a roving disposition, moving from one locality to another, 
Hlnays in search of a place where he could grow up with the 
boom. Having tried various settlements in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see, he moved to Florida in 1833. became a merchant and justice of 
the peace. In 1839 he moved to Hannibal, where he lived, until his 
death, March 24, 1847. Mark Twain went to school at Hannibal, and 
afterwards learned to set type in the office of the Journal, a paper pub- 
lished by his older brother, Orion. Printers who worked in the ofiBce 
with Mark Twain are quite certain they never discovered any outcrop- 
pings of the genius which was to develop later, unless miscbievousness 
was an indication. Orion did the editorial work, and until he had be- 
come broken down in health by writing too late at night, it is said 
has compositions were excellent. The old printers who remember Mark 
Twain as a companion of the ease say they do not recall his having written 
anything for the paper. In those days, Mark Twain's ambition — like that 
of nearly every other normal boy in Hannibal^was to go on the river. 

Mare Twain 

Literature never appealed to any of them as a man's work. To be really 
great, one must be either a pilot or a pirate. Letters were at the foot of 
the professions. 

At the age of twenty Mark Twain took passage in the "Paul Jones" 
for New Orleans. He had read somewhere that a party oi^nized to 
explore the headwaters of the Amazon river had failed to complete its 
purpose satisfactorily, and he set out with thirty dollars in his pocket 
to finish the job. At New Orleans he learned the next ship for the Ama- 
zon river would not sail for short of ten or twelve years, and that even 
if it sailed in the morning he didn 't have money enough left to pay his 
passage out of sight of New Orleans. So he prevailed on Horace Biiby, 
pilot of the Paul Jones, to teach him the river for $500. to be paid out 
of his first wages. 

In time, under Mr. Bixby's skillful tutorage, Mark Twain became a 
first class pilot, and, during the years of his after life, he always referred 


to that accomplishment with peculiar pride. The men of the river he 
never forgot. His fame as a writer was well established before **Life 
on the Mississippi," was published in 1883, but that work greatly ^en- 
hanced his reputation. It is said that the Emperor of Germany once 
told Mark Twain that he regarded that as his best book. 

Mark Twain admits in his fascinating river story that he stole his 
pseudonym from Colonel Isaiah Sellers, whom he refers to as **that real 
and only genuine son of antiquity." Colonel Sellers was an experienced 
riverman. Whenever there was any controversy among the pilots and 
Colonel Sellers would happen along he would always settle it. He was 
the high court on river disputes. He knew so much more about the craft 
than the other pilots did that they became jealous of him. The old 
gentleman, while not of a literary turn, yet was fond of jotting down 
brief paragraphs containing general information about the river, and 
handing them to the New Orleans Picayune. These he signed **Mark 
Twain," a term used by the leadsman indicating ** twelve feet." 

Colonel Sellers would prove all his points by referring to conditions 
before the other pilots were born, and they had no way to answer him. 

It chanced one day that the Colonel printed a paragraph in the 
Picayune which seemed to lay him open to ridicule. Young Clemens 
took advantage of the opportunity and tried out his first attempt at humor 
on the ancient mariner. He showed what he had written to several of 
the pilots, who grabbed it and rushed to the New Orleaans True Delta 
with it. 

Clemens said that he afterwards regretted it very much because *'it 
sent a pang deep into a good man's heart." There was no malice in 
it, but irresistible humor, and it made all the rivermen laugh. From 
that day henceforth Colonel Sellers did the young pilot the honor to 
profoundly detest him. He never sent another paragraph to the news- 
paper and never again signed his name *^Mark Twain" to anything. 
When Clemens heard of the old man 's death he was on the Pacific Coast 
engaged in newspaper work, and as he needed a nom de guerre, he con- 
fiscated the one which had been used by Colonel Sellers. Feeling him- 
self bound to maintain the reputation so long held by the original owner 
of the name, Mark Twain wrote : * * I have done my very best to make it 
remain what it was in his hands — a sign, symbol and warrant that what- 
ever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified 
truth. ' ' 

Mark Twain left the river in 1861, when his brother. Orion, was 
appointed Territorial Secretary of Nevada. Orion, who always took a 
fatherly interest in Sam, took him along with him. The trip overland 
to the far west and the wonderful experiences there Mark Twain told 
in his first book, * * Roughing It. ' ' At one time he and a mining friend, 
Calvin Higbie, struck a blind lead and were millionaires for ten days. 
According to the law those locating a new claim had to do some active 
development work within that time. Both Higbie and Clemens under- 
stood the importance of this, but it happened that Clemens was called 
away to attend a sick friend and that Higbie had gone into the mountains 
on very urgent business. Neither knew of the other's mission and each 
left word for the other to be sure and do the work required by the law 
before the ten days were up. They returned to their mine just in time 
to find a new company relocating it. 

While in the depths of the blues over his loss of a fortune, Clemens 
was tendered a position as city editor on the Daily Territorial Enterprise. 
That fixed his career and from the hour he entered the sanctum of that 
live western newspaper his pen was never idle. Some of his earlier work, 
and Clemens frankly confesses it, was rather wild and woolly ; he wrote 


nil sorts of yarns, without much regard to their foundation, but he was 
always interesting and the people loved to read his work. Prom Nevada 
he drifted to San Francisco, became very hard up again, and was created 
special ambassador to write up the Sandwich Islands for the Sacramenlo 
Union. His work on the Islands began to show the real mental status of 
the man. While humorous in the main, there waa a. great deal of solid 
information given. The beautiful descriptive sketches be sent his paper 
could only have been produced by a literary genius. The reception 
accorded them by the public caused the production of "Roughing It." 

"Innocents Abroad" followed. This was a narration of a voyage 
made by Mark Twain and a ship-load of American sightseers to Europe 
and portions of Asia and Northern Africa. That time the humorist trav- 
eled as a plain citizen. None of the great men of Germany, Prance, 

'Entr\.\ce tu JIabk Twai.v Cave 

Great Britain or elsewhere thrust through the crowd to shake his hand. 
But after the quaint and humorous "Innocents Abroad" was published, 
and one or two other works of equal originality and merit, the crowned 
heads of the old countries were eager to extend the welcoming hand to 
the distinguished American when he touched their shores. 

"Tom Sawyer," "Huckleberry Finn," "Gilded Age," "The Prince 
and the Pauper," "Life on the Mississippi," "A Tramp Abroad," etc., 
all became successful books, and were read with pleasure everywhere. 

In 1884 Clemens established the publishing house of C. L. Webster 
& Co., in New York. The failure of the firm, after it had published 
General Grant's Personal Jlemoirs, and paid over $250,000 to "his widow, 
involved Mr. Clemens in beayj' losses; but by 1900 he had paid off all 
obligations by the proceeds of his books and lectures. 

The Missouri -Geueral Assembly of 1911-12 appropriated $10,000 for 
a statue of Mark Twain to be erected at Hannibal. 


The Clemens home on Hill street, Hannibal, was built by John Mar- 
shall Clemens in 1844. It was purchased by Mr. and Mrs. George A. 
Mahan and dedicated to the city of Hannibal, May 7, 1912. The dedi- 
catory exercises occurred May 15. A large crowd of citizens and people 
from abroad attended. The presentation address was made by Mr. 
Mahan. Mayor Charles T. Hays accepted on the part of the city. Other 
addresses were made by Walter Williams, Dean of the School of Jour- 
nalism of the University of Missouri, and the Rev. Ben-Ezra Styles Ely, 
Jr., D. D. 

The old house has been repaired and strengthened, though every out- 
ward feature has been faithfully retained. It is used as a sort of Mark 
Twain Memorial House, and contains many interesting relics and sou- 
venirs of the dead writer. On a bronze tablet is the bust of Mark 
Twain, and underneath it these words: **Mark Twain's life teaches that 
poverty is an incentive rather than a bar ; that any boy, however humble 
his birth and surroundings, may by honesty and industry accomplish 
great things. — George A. Mahan.'' 

There are some who think that when Mark Twain exiled himself from 
Missouri, he lost his love and veneration for the state of his birth. Those 
who knew him best, however, will never believe this. He visited Han- 
nibal several times after his place had been fixed among the literati, and 
on each occasion showed the warmest affection for his old friends and his 
native state. If any greater proof were needed, the record stands in his 
own words, as he lay upon a sick bed, near the close of his life, when 
engaged upon his autobiography. While the shadows crept about him 
he looked through the gloom and sketched a picture of the old state as 
he had seen it in his boyhood days, and for tenderness and beauty no 
writing he ever did surpassed it. It showed where his heart was, and 
the unexpected depth of his feeling. 

Mark Twain died at Redding, Connecticut, April 21, 1910. 

Eugene Field 

Eugene Field, who was born in St. Louis, September 2, 1850, enjoyed 
an advantage which Mark Twain did not — that of a good university edu- 
cation. This gave a smoothness and sureness of touch to his work that 
caused it to excel Mark Twain's earlier efforts. While attending the 
Missouri University Mr. Field wrote a poem which he styled ** Sketches 
from College Life, by Timothy Timberlake." It was descriptive of a 
college prank — the capture and painting of the college president 's horse, 
''Bucephalus." Although several words were misspelled and but little 
attention paid to commas, one of Field's college chums, the late Lysander 
A. Thompson of Macon, begged the author for the manuscript, frankly 
telling Field that he knew one day he would be a famous writer and poet, 
and that he wanted as a souvenir what he understood to be Mr. Field 's 
first real eflfort at poetry. The manuscript is still preserved by a rela- 
tive of Mr. Thompson's. It has been submitted to several who were 
closely associated with Field in newspaper work, and they unhesitatingly 
pronounce it a genuine Field manuscript. Of course its main value is 
the fact, as asserted, that it was Mr. Field's first venture of the sort. 
It was highly appreciated by the college boys, and even members of the 
faculty forgot the stern call of discipline to smile at the young poet's 
good-natured and clever rhymes. 

Leaving college, Field threw his whole heart into his chosen life work. 
At the outset of his career he was employed by newspapers at St. Louis. 
St. Joseph and Kansas City. From the start his newspaper work was 
distinctive. Turning up sensations against men in public life never 


appealed to him. He would satirize them, but it was in sucli a way that 
he made friends of the men at whom his shafts were directed. While 
Jefferson City correspoudent for a St. Louis newspaper. Field wrote a 
poem about Judge Samuel Davis iif MarRhall, a thing bo cleverly done, 
and withal so kindly and good-natured that while the whole state laughed 
at it, Davis enjoyed it as much as anybody. Davis waa the young legis- 
lator from Saline eminty. Rats had been particularly bad out his way, 
and he introduced a bill authorizing county courts to pay a bounty on 
rat scalps, if they desired. This was grist for Field's mill, uu<l he utilized 
it well. Judge Davis, the victim, said he regarded the poem dedicated to 
him as one of the finest things Field ever wrote. 

Field left Kansas City to enter the service of the Denver Tribune. 
There he originated a column of humorous paragraphs which he called 
■'The Tribune Primer." Papers everywhere instantly started copying 
from this column, and in a short time the Tribune was the best known 
paper in the country. 

FrOra Denver, Field went to Chicago, where he took a contract with 
The News to furnish daily a column of solid agate paragraphs, which he 
headed ' ' Sharps and Flats. ' ' -These enjoyed the same popularity that was 
accorded "The Tribune Primer." 

While residing in Missouri, Field attended all the gatherings of the 
State Press Association. Of an intensely social disposition, he was the 
life and soul of such occasions. And never did he suffer a meeting to 
go by without creating some laughable feature not on the programme. 

Field was a lover of childhood. When attending a press association, 
if he happened to run across some youngsters on the street, he wouldn't 
hesitate to leave the editors to mix with the small chaps and show them 
new games. 

This poem, written by Field after the death of his little boy, shows 
the heart of the man who is loved by all the little folks of Missouri and 
known as"The Children's Poet." 

"The little toy dog is covered with dust 

But sturdy and staunch he stands. 

And the little toy soldier is red with rust, 


And his musket moulds in his hands. 
Time was when the little toy dog was new 
And the soldier was passing fair ; 
That was the time when our little Boy Blue, 
Kissed them and put them there.'* 

Between times, while engaged on newspaper work. Field wrote the 
following books, which are yet enjoying great popularity: **Love Songs 
of Childhood ;'* ''A Little Book of Western Verse :'^ ^'A Second Book 
of Verse;'' ''The Holy Cross, and Other Tales;" ''The Love Affairs of a 
Bibliomaniac." With his brother, Roswell Martin Field, the poet made 
some good translations from Horace, — "Echoes from Sabine Farm." 

Mr. Field died in Chicago, November 4, 1895. 

Rupert Hughes 

Perhaps among the living writers ])orn in Northeast Missouri, the one 
best known by the public of today is Rupert Hughes, now residing at 
Bedford Hills, New York. Mr. Hughes was born at Lancaster, Schuyler 
county, January 31, 1872. He is a son of Judge and Mrs. Felix Turner 
Hughes. For many years Judge Hughes was president of the Keokuk 
and Western Railroad. He is now engaged in the practice of law, and 
resides at Keokuk, Iowa. 

Rupert Hughes was educated in the public schools of Keokuk, which 
he attended from 1880 to 1886, inclusive, then went to St. Charles 
College, the Western Reserve Academy and Western Reserve University, 
graduating in 1892, taking A. B. degree. Then he spent a year in grad- 
uate studies at Yale University, finishing with the degree of A. M. His 
first newspaper experience was that of a reporter for the New York Jour- 
nal, a position he successfully filled for six months. But literary work 
was more to his liking, and he accepted a position as editor of Storiettes, 
then became assistant editor of Godey's Magazine and also of Current 
Literature. From 1898 to 1901 he was assistant editor of *'The Cri- 
terion," a de luxe publication demanding the highest standard of literary 

During all this time Mr. Hughes contributed extensively of fiction, 
verse, essays and criticisms to the leading magazines. From May. 1001, 
to November, 1902, he was in London with the Encyclopedia Brittanica 
Company, and from the latter date to May, 1905, in New York with the 
same concern as chief assistant editor of "The Historian's History of 
the World." 

In January, 1897, Mr. Hughes joined the Seventh Regiment. Dur- 
ing this country's war with Spain he was acting captain in the 114th 
Regiment. He 'resigned from the army in 1910. 

But few writers have been as industrious with their pens as Mr. 
Hughes. He has written an astonishing number of high-class stories 
and popular plays for a man of his years, and is still keeping up the 
tremendous output. Following are some of his books: '^Amorii'an (Com- 
posers," *'The Musical Guide," **The Love Affairs of Great Musicians," 
** Songs by Americans," **Gyges' Ring," ''The Wliirlwind," '*The 
Real New York," ''Zal," and ''The Gift Wife." 

Among Mr. Hughes's dramatic works are these: "The Bathing Girl," 
"The Wooden Wedding," "In the Midst of Life," (in collaboration 
with Dr. Holbrook Curtis ^ : "Tommy Rot," "Alexander tlu» Great." 
(in collaboration with Collin Kemper;) "The Triangle," "All for a 
Girl," "The Transformation," (played for five months by Florence 
Roberts, then for two years under the name of "Two Women," by 


Mrs. Leslie Carter;) "Excuse Me." This last play ran successfully 
during two hundred and fifty performances in New York, and met 
with the same encouragement when presented by three companies tour- 
ing the United States. Next year (1913) two companies will travel 
this country with it. Arrangements have been made for the produc- 
tion of "Excuse Me" in France, Germany, England, Italy, Russia, Den- 
mark, Norway and Sweden. 

Mr. Hughes yet finds time to write short and serial atories for the 
Saturday Evening Post, Holland's Magazine and many other standard 
publications of the United States. 

\V.\1.TER WlU.l.iMS 

Walter 'Williams, dean of the School of Journalism of the University 
of Missouri, is the author of "Some Saints and Some Sinners in the Holy 
Land" (1902) ; "How the Cap'n Saved the Day" (1901) ; "The State 

Missouri Editors and Visitors at Journalism Week, University of 

of Missouri" (1904) ; "History of Missouri" (1908); "Missouri Since 
the Civil War" (1909) ; "From Missouri to the Isle of Mull" (1909) ; 
with John Temple Graves and Clark Howell, of "Eloquent Sons of the 
South" (1909) ; with Frank L. Martin, of "The Practice of Journalism" 

Henry Clay Dean 

Henry Clay Dean, lecturer, lawyer and writer, was bora in Virginia, 
in the year 1822; moved to Iowa in 1850, and to Missouri some ten years 
later, locating on a farm in northwest Putnam county. After the 
war between the states, his home was referred to as "Rebel Cove," its 
owner being a staneh adlierent of the southern cause. Previous to the 
war Jlr. Dean had been chaplain of the United States Senate for a time. 

Soon after coming west Mr. Dean became a national character. He 
was regarded as a matchless platform speaker, and unsurpassed as a 


pleader at the bar. The argument closing the ease is where Mr. Dean's 
talents shone brightest. He rarely examined witnesses himself, prefer- 
ring to leave that part of the work to his associate counsel, but his mar- 
velous memory enabled him to retain and use with efiEect the evidence in- 

With a wonderful library at command in his country home, Mr. Dean 
read aud wrote constantly. His writing was like his platform speeches 
— ^brilliant, forceful and abounding in beautiful metaphor. He was also 
a past master in withering sarcasm. No one who heard him speak 
ever forgot the magnetic Henry Clay Dean. Mr. Dean published a 
strong work entitled **The Crimes of the Civil War." This attracted a 
great deal of interest at the time of its issuance. When Mr. Dean died 
he left ready for the press the manuscript for a book, of which the fol- 
lowing was the title page : 

The Voice of the People in the Federal Government 

Being an inquiry into the abolition of the abuse of executive patronaj^e and 
the election of all the chief officers of the federal government by the direct vote of 
the people whom they serve. 

By Henry Clay Dean. 

Liberty will be ruined by providing any kind of substitute for popular election — 
Necker. In one volume. 

This exhaustive work was intended for the political guidance of the 
public over twenty years ago, but Mr. Dean happened to have his 
hands full of legal business and lecture engagements at the time he 
finished the manuscript, and he neglected to publish it. Those who have 
read the writing say that now a vast majority of the American public, 
irrespective of party, endorse Mr. Dean 's position in this last important 
literary work of his life, but at the time of its writing many prominent 
Democratic friends advised him not to publish it, as it was twenty years 
too soon to dare enunciate such views. At the same time they admitted 
the teaching was sound, and that it would eventually be a controlling 
issue in this country. It was characteristic of Mr. Dean to think ahead 
of his time. Some of the things for which he was criticised for advocat- 
ing on the platform, are today regarded as results of practical states- 

A great many of Mr. Dean's speeches on murder trials or on political 
questions were reported and printed in pamphlet form. These were 
given to anybody for the asking. The money feature of his work never 
interested him. He might have coined his splendid talent into dollars 
and died wealthy, but he seemed to be impressed with a higher idea ; that 
he was called upon to elevate the people, and to enable them to use their 
suffrage more intelligently. His big library in his country home waa 
his pride. It was stocked with a double tier of books extending nearly 
to the ceiling, on all sides, save where the windows were. While they 
were apparently jumbled together in an unsystematic mass, Hr, Dean 
was never at a loss to pick out instantly any volume he wanted. 

Upon one occasion a young man requested Mr. Dean to advise him 
regarding the books he should read as an initial education in the law. 

**Take the Bible first," said Mr. Dean. **You will find lots of sound 
law in it, and the most perfect rules of justice that obtain anywhere. 
Then take a thorough course in Latin from my good friend, Professor 
Jake Hill, for he knows Latin as few men do. Next read up on Camp- 
bell's Philosophy of Rhetoric. Then dive into Gibbon's History of Rome. 
Follow that with Hume's History of England, Macaulay's history of 
the same country, and Green's History of the English People. This 
done and well done, you will be qualified to begin the study of lawT* 


Those who enjoyed the pleasure of listening to Mr. Dean speak would 
never doubt that he had fully followed his own prescription as to 

^Ir. Dean was tall, straight and soldierly-looking. Shortly before 
his death he was sitting out on his porch with his friend and physician, 
Dr. A. J. Eidson. Mr. Dean had been quietly interrogating the doctor 
about his symptoms, and at last had forced from him the reluctant ad- 
mission that the hour of his death was so close that it could almost be 
fixed. Then the orator of ** Rebel Cove" said calmly: 

*'Do you see that large elm down there in the grove, doctor ?'* indicat- 
ing with his hand. **I've watched it grow from a tiny sprout. It has 
stood the assault of hailstorms, of hurricanes and of lightning, and now 
it reaches up above all the rest, strong, sturdy, unafraid, like my life 
has been. That tree, doctor, is to be my headstone. You will see to it ? ' ' 

Mr. Dean died at his home February 6, 1887. 

William F. Switzler. 

Colonel William F. Switzler (1819-1906) of Columbia, was the author 
of the following works: ** Commerce of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers," 
*' History of Statistics and Their Value," 'illustrated History of Mis- 
souri," ''Wool and the Manufacturers of Wool" and "The History of 
Boone County." The latter, although very complete, was sold at a 
modest figure and enjoyed a wide circulation in the county it described. 

During his latter years Colonel Switzler devoted the greater part 
of his time to the preparation of a work entitled: "A History of the 
Missouri University." His eagerness to complete this seemed to add 
the necessary years to his life. It was intended to crown his long and 
able toil with the pen, and is said to be a thoroughly accurate and com- 
plete history of Missouri's great educational institution. The work 
has not yet been published. 

Another ambition of Colonel Switzler 's, one which was partly car- 
ried out, was to publish a volume on "Eminent Missourians. " Seven- 
teen of these sketches by his pen have been printed in the Globe-Demo- 
crat, He afterwards sent them to his friend, M. C. Tracy, of Macon, who 
is now engaged in the completion of the work. 

One of the noticeable faculties of Colonel Switzler was his almost 
marvelous memory. Especially did this appear when any matter con- 
cerning Missouri was under discussion. He could tell you not only the 
name of every county in the state, but why it was so named, when it 
was organized and its important features. It has been said of him that 
he was so well acquainted with men and events that he could sit at his 
desk, without a reference book about him, and write a first-class history 
of IMissouri entirely from memory. 

Lexington, Kentucky, was the birthplace of Colonel Switzler. When 
he came to ^lissouri he was in his seventh year, locating in Howard 
county. In 1841 he removed to Columbia, where he practiced law, and 
then became editor of the Columbia Patriot. The Columbia Statesman 
was established by Colonel Switzler in 1843, and in August of that year 
he was married to Mary Jane Royal, a niece of General Sterling Price. 

Colonel Switzler published the Columbia Statesman forty-six years. 
In 1866 and 1868 he was nominated on the Democratic ticket for Con- 
gress. Notwithstanding the general disfranchisement of his friends, 
he defeated his opponents, George W. Anderson and D. P. Dyer, but was 
refused a certificate of election each time. 

In 1885, Colonel Switzler temporarily abandoned newspaper work 
and writing to accept the position of chief of the bureau of statistics 




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Jlf^Iu^{^OURI Wfl[I« 

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One of Missouri's Oldest Newspapers 


tendered him by President Cleveland. Retiring from that oflSce, Colonel 
S\dtzler returned to the work that was always closest to his heart, 
writing stories of Missouri and its people, and occasionally lecturing 
on those subjects. He died at Columbia, May 24, 1906, in his eighty- 
eighth year. 

Homer Croy 

Homer Croy is a tall, goo(J-natured youth who is making his literary 
way in the metropolis of the nation, and Northeast Missouri claims him, 
for it was while attending the State University at Columbia that his 
pen began to write things that sparkled. Soon after leaving the Uni- 
versity, Mr. Croy diligently besieged the goddess of fame, and though 
for some time she turned coyly from his knocking, he was so hopeful 
and persistent that at last she threw her arms around him, and set 
him on a pedestal before he was twenty-eight. While attending the Uni- 
versity Mr. Croy was a regular contributor to a number of high-class 
magazines and humorous publications. Going from Missouri to New 
York, he had hard traveling for a year or so. He frankly admits there 
were times when it took all his diplomacy to convince his landlady and 
tailor that destiny had a good place picked out for him if they would 
only be patient like he was. So he kept pegging away, never losing 
confidence in himself. He established friendly relations with all the big 
magazine editors, and never let them forget that it was his business to 
produce grist for their mill. Then he founded the Magazine Maker, and 
in six months made it an invaluable friend and aid both to editors and 
writers everywhere. Having successfully established his magazine, and 
demonstrated that he couldn't be stopped, Mr. Croy was recently ten- 
dered a good position in the editorial department of Judge and Leslie's, 
which he accepted, and is climbing right along. 

Mr. Croy is a graduate of 1907. Within five years he has ascended 
the rounds from newspaper reporter to magazine editor, and has a right 
to feel pretty well satisfied with himself, for a man yet under thirty. 

Andrew J. Eidson 

Dr. Andrew J. Eidson (1837-1903) referred to as the friend and phy- 
sician of Henry Clay Dean, long resided in Schuyler county. He has 
to his credit many poems of more than average merit, and these appeared 
from time to time in the press. One of his poems that attracted pretty 
general attention is entitled: **No Children's Graves in China." It 
was inspired by the story of a missionary from China, printed in the 
Central Baptist, of St. Louis. It described the pagan practice of throw- 
ing dead children to the fishes. 

The poem was used extensively as an inspirational battle-song for 
increased missionary effort in the Celestial Empire. It follows: 

No children ^s graves in China, 

The missionaries say; 
In cruel haste and silence 

They put those buds away; 
No tombstones mark their resting, 

To keep their memory sweet; 
Their graves unknown, are trodden 

Bv many careless feet. 

No children 's graves in China, 

That land of heathen gloom ; 
They deem not that their spirits 

Will live beyond the tomb. 
No little coffin holds them, 


Like to a downy nest. 
No spotless shroud enfolds them, 
Low in their quiet rest. 

No children's graves in China 

No parents ever weep; 
No toy or little relic, 

The thoughtless mothers keep. 
No mourners e'er assemble. 

Around the early dead, 
And flowers of careful planting 

Ne'er mark their lowly bed. 

No children's graves in China 

With sad and lovely ties, 
To make the living humble. 

And point them to the skies; 
No musings pure and holy, 

Of them when day is done; 
Be faithful, missionary, 

Your work is just begun. 

Dr. Eidson's name occupies an honored place in a work called *^The 
Poets of America,'' printed by the American Publishers' Association, 
of Chicago in 1890. 


Perhaps the strongest poetical genius that ever resided in Northeast 
Missouri was Nelse J. Scurlock, whose death November 14, 1903, was 
like a tragedy. His body was found on the highway near Glenwood one 
frosty morning, but a few days after Mr. Scurlock had written a touch- 
ing production that was somewhat prophetic, and which he entitled: 
**The Living and the Dead." 

There are some very eminent men of letters who have denominated 
Mr. Scurlock the real poet laureate of Missouri, and they say they 
are perfectly willing to stand on the volume printed after his death by 
his friends and admirer, the Rev. Chas. N. Wood. 

Mr. Scurlock was a country lad. He never went to college, but he 
enjoyed the benefits of a classical education by going to a district 
school teacher who had been an instructor in a first-class college. Pro- 
fessor Joseph Barbee taught the classics in the original^ and from 
him young Scurlock received the inspiration which gave his work a 
dignity and power approached by few other pdets. 

Scurlock 's **Ode to Edgar Allen Poe'' was so rich in expression 
and so well constructed that it would have appealed to Poe himself. 
'* Right Here in Old Missouri/' covers all those essential features of 
the state's pride that were omitted by the officially adopted Missouri 
song. *'Fishin' 'Long Old Ellum Crick," breathes the homely philoso- 
phy of the real backwoodsman of Missouri, and rings as true to nature 
as the trees of the forest and the wide rolling meadow. ** October in 
Missouri," **The Gates of Life," *^The Isle of Peace," and **The En- 
chanted Garden" are among the other poems illustrating the splendid 
education and the harmony of this rustic poet, who only contributed 
for country newspapers, with never a thought of receiving a cent for 
his work. 

** Living and Dead," next to the last of Mr. Scurlock 's poems, ap- 
pears in the final part of the handsome volume of the poet 's work, pub- 
lished after his death : 


Living and Dead 

Hope for the living, fruition, the dead — 

After the Fexton's work, why all the rosea f 

One down the way of the cactus must tread, 
Ever and ever the other reposes. 

Smiles for the living, aye, smiles like the dew, 
For the dead, sorrow, serene and uplifting; 

These rest from trials, where old things are new, 
Those on the mad current darkly are drifting. 

Tears for the living, tears, deep from the heart, 

Memories holy for all the departed; 
Death is a Gilead balm for each smart, 

Life is a school for the hosts broken-hearted. 

Nothing but good of the living be said — 

Rome was barbarian, wrong in her praises; 

Eulogy reaches not out to the dead, 

Fair speech is help to those lost in care's mazes. 

Peace for the living, peace like the May morn, 

Flags waving welcome, unvexed by war's thunder, 

Peace like the dead's, until nations unborn 

O 'er the great crime of their ancestors wonder. 

Mr. Scurlock was born near Glenwood, Schuyler county, February 
14, 1859. 

Other Meritorious Wrffers 

** Wayside Musings" is a volume of very meritorious verfee by the 
Rev. Charles Newton Wood, the gentleman who compiled and published 
the poems of Mr. Scurlock. At the time of the publication of '* Way- 
side Musings*' Mr. Wood was pastor of the Methodist church at La 

Bobertus Love, now of New York, resided in Pike county, Missouri, 
** during seven years of his formative period,'* as he expresses it, and 
there gathered the inspiration for a cheering volume he calls ** Poems 
All the Way from Pike." **In Extenuation," Mr. Love says: ** Being 
a 'Piker' himself, the author of * Poems All the Way From Pike' feels 
that he possesses license both poetic and proprietary to draw upon the 
celebrated ballad (Joe Bowers) for the title of his book." Among the 
extensive list of poems in Mr. Love's work are these: **A Pike County 
Christmas Tree," ** Joe Bowers' Brother Ike," '^Back in Old Mizzoury," 
•'The Old Blue Spelling Book," **The Boy Who Has No Santa Claus" 
and "Eugene Field." Before going to New York, Mr. Love was engaged 
in newspaper work in St. Louis. His most successful feat while in that 
employment was being the first staff correspondent to cover the Galveston 

** Robert Devoy," by Frank H. Sosey, of Palmyra, is a fascinating 
story having for its climax the military execution of ten men at that 
town, October 18, 1862. Besides the story, there is much historical in- 
formation setting at rest some of the controversies that grew out of one of 
the saddest events of war-time. 

The late John R. Musick, of Kirksville, was an industrious writer, 
He has to his record twenty-three books in the State Historical Society 
of Missouri, of which sixteen are histories. Among his best read novels 
are ''Calamity Row" and ''Brother Against Brother." Mr. Musick 
was one of the many heroes who labored assiduously to save life and re- 
lieve suffering on the occasion of the disastrous cyclone at Kirksville, 
April 27, 1899. He died not long after that event. 

Other Adair county writers and their books follow: 

E. M. Violette, "A History of the First District Normal School," 
"A History of Adair County," "Early Settlements in Missouri." 


Mrs. Belle Travers MeCahan, "The Precious Child," "Stories by 
Americaii Authors." 

lira. Martha Prewitt Doueghy, "The Feast of Skeletons," poetry, 
Mrs. Doneghy has also contributed to the magaziues. 

Dr. Andrew T. Still, founder of Osteopathy, "Autobiography," 

Mrs. Ora Bell Goben, contributor to magazines. 

The Rev. J. S. Boyd, "The Story of Jonah, The Truant Prophet." 

Dr. Horace H. H. St. John of Ediua, Knox county, is a song writer 
whose work has been printed and pronounced of a high order by critics, 

George W. Hamilton, of Fulton, Callaway county, has written 
several good books. The best known of them are "The Lantern Man" 
and "Wilson's Way." 

Elizabeth Fielder, of Pike county, is the author of "The White 
Canoe," a book which has attracted considerable attention among liter- 
ary people. She wrote under the pseudonym of "Elizabeth Monekton," 
and is now a contributor to the magazines. 

"Love vs. Law" is the title of a novel dealing with the question of 
women's suffrage. It is by Mary Anderson Matthews, of Macon, and has 

Women Students in Journalism with Winifred Black 
From left to right— Top row— Miss Cuiinle R. Quinn, Miss Etiin McComiick, Misi 

Mary (!. Paxtoii, Mjbb Florence LaTurno. 

Bottom row— Miss Heloise B, Kennedv, Mibb 

man, Mrs. C. A. Bonlils (Winifred Black), Miss 

run through two editions. Before her marriage to Otho F. Mattbews, 
the author was city attorney of Palmyra, a position which she capably 
filled. Mrs. Matthews does considerable sketch writing, and is "associate 
counsel" for her husband, who is a well-known lawyer. 

William Turk, of Macon, an invalid nearly all his life, wrote the 
"Completion of Coleridge's Cbristabel. " An eminent critic of poetry, 
residing at Boston, said this of Mr. Turk's bold attempt: 

"Christabel's completion at the hands of this young western author 
has lost none of the dignity and grace that Coleridge himself might 
have imparted to it." 

Mr, Turk was just twenty when he finished the work which brought 
that commendation from Boston. He wrote a great many plays, several 
of them tragedies, which he submitted to Mansfield and other high 
priests of the drama. All spoke well of the young man's work, and 
some of the plays were being prepared for presentation, but on June 14, 
1903, the young author died, right at the threshold, seemingly, of his 
fame. He was just twenty-seven. 

The late Dr. Willis P. King, was at one time resident of Maeon 


county, Missouri, and while traveling on horseback over the muddy 
country roads, performing the arduous duties of a rural practitioner, 
aecjuired the material for an interesting volume which he published 
later, and called '* Stories of a Country Doctor." Dr. King produced 
another work, ''Perjury for Pay,'' which attracted a great deal of 

** Forty-five Years in the Ministry'' is a story of the circuit riding 
days of Elder J. W. Cook, a Baptist minister of Elmer, Macon county. 

'*The Historj' of the First and Second Missouri Confederate 
Brigades," and **From Wakarusa to Appomatox" is the title of a 
rather large volume by Colonel R. S. Bevier, who lived at Bloomington, 
the old county seat of Macon, up to the war between the states. The 
work is largely personal reminiscences, and yet there is much valuable 
information between the covers of Colonel Bevier 's highly entertaining 
book. Colonel Bevier took from Macon county a Confederate battalion, 
which joined General Sterling Price, at Nevada, Missouri. 

''The Phoebe Cary of the West" is the graceful title that was 
bestowed upon Mrs. G. W. Hunt, a poetical waiter, by Colonel W. F. 
Switzler. Mrs. Hunt lived in Randolph county. She was a regular 
contributor to Godey's Lady's Book and the old St. Louis Eepuhlican, 
and occasionally to the Columbia Statesman. In 1876 Mrs. Hunt pub- 
lished a small volume containing some of her best work. Among her 
most popular poems w^ere: "The Skj'lark," '*The Evening Hour," 
*'Over and Over Again," "A Temperance Battle Cry," "My Happy 
School Days." Governor George Hunt, of Arizona, is a son of Mrs. 
Hunt, who died at Huntsville, November 3, 1883. 

John W. trillion, president of Hardin College, Mexico, has produced 
a valuable work entitled "State Aid to Railways in Missouri," which 
appeared as one of the studies by the Department of Political Economy 
in the University of Chicago in 1897, and which has been favorably 
reviewed by leading journals. The Chicago Post devoted a column of 
interesting discussion to Mr. Million's book and its purpose. Among 
other things the Post said : "We are glad to find, in the economic studies 
of the University of Chicago, a volume giving useful information regard- 
ing state activity in connection with railroads. The book is entitled 
'State Aid to Railways in Missouri,* but it is not limited to the experi- 
ence of Missouri alone." 

"With Porter in North ^Missouri" is an interesting narrative of the 
war of the sixties, by Joseph A. Mudd, a native of Lincoln county, 
^lissouri, but now^ residing at Hyattsville, Maryland. The book describes 
the battle of Kirksville, the retreat of Porter and his stand in Macon 
county, where he stopped the Federals, and made a successful evacua- 
tion of the district, with his recruits. The work is of considerable 
historical importance, and is well-written by a brave soldier and able 
historian. The book was published in 1909. Following the war, Mr. 
Mudd was for some time editor of the Troy, Missouri, Dispatch. 

Montgomery county has produced some interesting literary people. 
Their names and w^orks follow: R. S. Duncan, "History of the Baptists 
of Missouri," and a personal memoir. 

Mrs. C. K. Reifsnider is an extensive and capable contributor to the 

magazines. ft>-»/r» ^^ 

Robert Rose and Wm. S. Brti^ wrote a humorous and entertaining 
book dealing with "Pioneer Days in North Missouri." 

Judge Robert W. Jones, "Money Is Power." 

Francis Skinner, a 49er, described his experience in a book entitled : 
**The Route to California, and the Medical Treatment that was Admin- 
istered to the Travelers Thereon." 

Elder James Bradley, "The Confederate Mail Carrier." 


Mildred S. McPaden developed good literary ability while attending 
Central Wesleyan College at Warrenton; afterwards taught music and 
then went to St. Louis where she became a member of the Chaperofie 
editorial staflF, and later one of the editors of the Sterling Magazine, 
which was said to be the handsomest and most attractively edited publi- 
cation ever produced in the metropolis. 

Here is a verse from Mrs. McFaden's **Song of July/' published in 
the Sterling: 

My trio of beautiful sisters 

Have filled the whole world with their song, 
Tho ' scarcely I hope to be welcome, 

I promise to tarry not long. 
I sing not of beauty and loving — 

The heart of a soldier have I; 
The deaf 'ning boom of a cannon 

Is sweeter to me than a sigh! 

**A Little Book of Missouri Verse," comprising ** Choice Selections 
from Missouri Verse-Writers," collected and edited by J. S. Snoddy, 
of Woodson Institute, Richmond, Missouri, includes work by the follow- 
ing who now live, or have lived in Northeast Missouri : 

Nathaniel M. Baskett, editor of the Moberly Monitor; M. W. Prewitt 
Doneghy, Eugene Field, Willis P. King, Mildred S. McPaden, Thomas 
Berry Smith, Adelaide E. Vroom, Mrs. Anna M. Weems, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Ustick McKinney, Horace A. Hutchison, Mrs. Lillian Kelly, wife of 
George B. Kelly, founder of the Moberly Monitor; Grace Hewitt Sharp. 

In 1884 N. M. Baskett published a volume of verse entitled, ** Visions 
of Fancy." He edited the St. Louis Medical Almanac in 1889-90; was 
state senator from the Ninth Missouri district, 1892-1896. As editor 
of the Moberly Monitor he has given that paper a distinction for his 
graceful writing and clearness of thought. 

Thomas Berry Smith published in 1880 a chart, ' * Circle of the Mater- 
ial Sciences," and in 1890 a text book entitled: ** Study in Nature and 
Language Lessons." His verses have appeared from time to time in 
state and national publications. Since 1886 he has been professor of 
chemistry and physics at Central College, Fayette. 

List op Northeast Missouri Authors 

The following list of Northeast Missouri authors and their work is 
taken from **A Catalogue of Publications by Missouri Authors"; com- 
piled by F. A. Sampson, secretary State Historical Society of Missouri : 

J. W. Barrett — *' History and Transactions of the Editors' and Pub- 
lishers' Association of Missouri." Canton, 1876. 

James Newton Baskett— ''As the Light Led." New York, 1900; **At 
You- Airs House, a Missouri Nature Story," New York, 1898; ''Story 
of the Birds," New York, 1897; "Story of the Fishes," New York, 1899; 
"Sweetbrier and Thistledown," Boston and Chicago, 1902. 

Mrs. Julia ^I. Bennett— "Beauty's Secrets," "Ladies' Toilet Com- 
panion," Hannibal, 1880. 

Chess Birch — "Reminiscences of the Musical Evangelist," Hannibal, 

J. B. Briney— "Form of Baptism," St. Louis, 1892; "The Relation 
of Baptism to the Remission of Alien Sins," Moberly, AIo., 1902. 

Carl Crow— "The Columbia Herald Year-Book," Columbia, 1904. 

George W, Dameron — '* Early Recollections and Biographical 
Sketches of Prominent Citizens of Pioneer Days," Huntsville, Missouri, 

Henry Clay Dean — "Crimes of the Civil War," and "Curse of the 
Funding System," Baltimore. 1868. (See sketch of life.) 


The Rev. R. S. Duncan — "History of Suaday-Sehools, " Memphis, 
MiBsouri, 1876; "History of the Baptists in ilissouri," St. Louis, 1882. 

W. W. Elwang, papers: "An Address to the Students of the State 
University," September 14, 1902; "The Negroes of Columbia, Missouri," 
a study of the race problem, Columbia, 1904. 

Forrest G. Ferris — "iloberly Libraries and Literary Societies," 
Moberly, 1904. 

Elizabeth Davis Fielder (Elizabeth Monckton) — "The Wbite Canoe 
and Other Legends of the Ojibways," New York, 1904, 

C. 0. Godfrey— "Treatise on the Bituminous Coats of the West," 
St. Louis, 1872. (Mr, Godfrey was one of the early coal operators of 
Macon county, being associated with Thomas E. Wardell^Ed.) 

John D. Hacker — "The Church of Christ, Viewed in the Midst 
of Rival Elements," Columbia, 1897. 

Lovers' Leap 

Wilfred R. HoUister and Harry Norman— "Five Famous Missour- 
lans — Mark Twain, Richard P. Bland, Champ Clark, James M. Green- 
wood and Joseph 0. Shelby," Kansas City, 1900. 

Richard H. Jesse and Edward A. Allen — "Missouri Literature," 
Columbia, 1901. 

Maximillian G. Kern— "Rural Taste in Western Town and Country 
Districts." Columbia, 1884. 

W. H. Martin— "Reminiscences of My Home," Moberly, 1902. 

Alex. Mudd — "Reasons Why I Am a Christian and Not a Romanist," 
Montgomery City, 1902. 

John R. Muaick— "Banker of Bedford," and many other works. 
(See sketch.) 

Dowler B. Newberry — Masonic papers, "Science of Symbolism," 
Hannibal, 1896, "Ancient and Modern Masonry," Hannibal; "Look to 
the East!" Hannibal, 1895; "The Mystic Art Divine," Hannibal, 1894, 

Frederick B. Newberry — "The Voice of Christianity," Hannibal, 


Philemon Pemeiit — '* Probation After Death/' Moberly, Missouri, 

S. Y. Pitts — **Mt. Pleasant Association; Historic — ^Biographic," 
Salisbury, Missouri, 1895. 

J. J. Porter — ** Restricted Communion,'' Columbia, 1900. 

The Rev. J. H. Pritchett and Elder John S. Sweeney — ^** Religious 
Discussion at Clarksville, Missouri," St. Louis, 1869. 

Perry S. Rader — ** Civil Government of the State of Missouri," 
Columbia, 1897; ''School History of the State of Missouri," Brunswick, 
Missouri, 1891. Also issued with Thummel's and Rader 's Civil Govern- 
ment, Columbia, 1897. 

W. K. Roberts — ''Divinity and Man; a Doctrinal Hypothesis upon 
the Structural Order of the Universe, th© Career and Destiny of the 
Soul and the Moral Obligations of Life," Mexico, Mo., 1895. 

WiU A. Roth well— "Moberly Art Souvenir," Moberly, Mo., 1896. 

F. A. Sampsdn, Secretary of State Historical Society of Missouri — 
papers: ''Natural History of Pettis County, Missouri," 1882; ** Notes 
on the Distribution of Shells. Article III," Kansas City, 1883; *' Bulle- 
tin of Sedalia Natural History Society," Sedalia, 1885; "The Shells of 
Pettis County, Missouri," Sedalia, 1885; "Pettis County and Sedalia, 
Missouri," Sedalia, 1886; "Notes on the Subcarboniferous Series at 
Sedalia, Missouri," New York, 1888; "History and Publications of the 
Missouri Horticultural Society," Jefferson City, 1891; "MoUusca of 
Arkansas," Little Rock, Ark., 1893; "A Bibliography of the Geology 
of Missouri," Jefferson City, 1890; "A Bibliography of Missouri 
Authors," Sedalia, 1901; "A Bibliography of the Official Publications 
of Missouri," New York, 1904. 

Dr. John Sappington — ''Theory and Treatment of Fevers," Arrow 
Rock, Missouri, 1844. 

The Rev. Louis F. Schlathoelter — "Hypnotism Explained," Moberlv, 
Missouri, 1898. 

D. W. Shackleford — "Missouri Criminal Code," indexed and 
annotated, Columbia, 1895. 

The Rev. George W. Sharp— "Faithful God; as Shown in Sketch 
of Life of the Rev. James E. Sharp," 1896. Author resides in Kirks- 

Dr. A. T. Still — "Autobiography, with a History of the Discovery 
and Development of the Science of Osteopathy," Kirksville, Missouri, 
1897; "Philosophy of Osteopathy," Kirksville, Missouri, 1899. 

Wm. F. Switzler — "Report of the Internal Commerce of the United 
States," Washington, 1888; "Illustrated History of Missouri," St. 
Louis, 1879. (See sketch.) 

The Rev. H. E. Truex — "Baptists in Missouri; an Account of the 
Organization of the Denomination in the State," Columbia, 1904. 

The Rev. Dr. Pope Yeaman — "History of the Missouri Baptist 
Association," Columbia, 1899. 

G. M. Dewey — "Railway Spine," Keytesville. 

Eugene Field and Roswell M. Field — "Echoes from the Sabine 
Farm," New^ York, 1895. (See sketch of Eugene Field and his works.) 

Mary E. Reiter— "Pure Gold," Moberly, Missouri, 1896. 

W. H. Porter — "Seven Original Poems by an Old Blind Man," Han- 
nibal, 1887. 

T. Berry Smith — (Poems) "Two Weddings," Fayette, Missouri. 
1902; "The Pigeon, A Study in American Literature," Favette, 
Missouri, 1903. 

George E. Trescott— "Chirps; Odd Rhymes at Odd Times," Troy, 



By Jonas Viles, Professor of American History, 
University of Missouri, Columbia 

Although Missouri has shared with the surrounding states the great 
advantages of soil and climate common to the great valley and also borne 
her part in the history of western development, certain influences have 
given her history a number of distinctive features. She has unusual 
variety of surface and natural resources, leading to a diversification of 
industries. Her geographical position in reference to the Ohio, the 
Missouri and the Mississippi, great natural highways, have made her a 
sort of cross-roads for the commerce of the middle west and brought 
about within her borders the meeting and mingling of streams of migra- 
tion from the north, the south, and abroad. And the early introduction 
of negro slavery made her like Kentucky and Tennessee, a western slave 
state, with an allegiance divided between the west and south, a division 
for years profoundly affecting her history. , 

Settlements Before 1804 

De Soto, the Spaniard, may have reached what is now the state of 
Missouri ; Joliet and Marquette and LaSalle, the French discoverers and 
explorers of the Mississippi, certainly floated past her shores, but her 
history began in 1699 and 1700 when French missionaries, peasants and 
fur traders from Canada began their settlements at Kaskaskia and the 
neighboring villages. Soon afterward these fur traders explored the 
lower Missouri, while other adventurers opened up the lead mines on 
the Meramec and the St. Francois. At the crossing to the lead country 
grew up about 1735 the first permanent settlement in Missouri, the town 
of Ste. Genevieve. Thirty years later the Missouri river fur trade led 
to the founding of the second settlement at St. Louis, by Pierre Laclede 
Liguest, of the firm of Maxent, Laclede and Company, merchants of 
New Orleans, who held a license for the fur trade on the Missouri. After 
a winter at Fort Chartres, west of the Mississippi, Laclede fixed his trad- 
ing post at St. Louis in February, 1764. 

When the great struggle for the control of the Mississippi valley 
ended in the defeat of France and her surrender of the valley, the eastern 
part to Great Britain and the western to Spain, and when an English 
garrison in 1765 took possession of Fort Chartres, hundreds of the 
French in the thriving villages around Kaskaskia moved over to Ste. 
Genevieve and St. Louis. With this sudden increase in population they 
became thriving villages of over five hundred inhabitants, the largest 
settlements above New Orleans. Population then increased more slowly 
but gradually new centres were established : St. Charles for the conven- 
ience of the Missouri river traders and trappers ; Cape Girardeau, origin- 



ally an Indian trading post ; and New Madrid just below the mouth of 
the Ohio. 

After 1796 there came another wave of immigration, this time of 
Americans from Kentucky and Tennessee, attracted by the free land and 
low taxes. These Americans avoided the French villages and settled on 
detached farms, especially in the present county of Cape Girardeau and 
around Fredericktown, Farmington and Potosi. Among them was 
Daniel Boone, who, in 1799 moved from Kentucky to the frontier of 
settlement in the present St. Charles county. When the American flag 
was raised over Missouri in 1804, at least six thousand of the total 
population of ten thousand was American. The villages, however, re- 
mained distinctively French and as yet dominated the whole province. 

Conditions Under French and Spanish 

After the Spanish took formal possession of the western half of tlie 
Mississippi valley, that portion north of the Arkansas river w^as known 
as Upper Louisiana and was ruled by a succession of Spanish lieutenant- 
governors at St. Louis. These governors, however, identified themselves 
with the province which remained French in all but political alle- 
giance. The Spanish lieutenant-governor was an absolute ruler except 
for orders from New Orleans and rare appeals to the courts there. He 
controlled the troops and militia, acted as chief judge under a code 
which did not recognize trial by jury, and established local laws and 
regulations quite unrestrained by any popular assembly. The French 
language was still used in the courts and of course in every-day life. 
Spanish law and French law differed only in detail. Very few Spanish 
came up the river. In fact, the transfer of Spain brought no real break 
in the continuity of the history of the province. 

Notwithstanding this primitive and paternal form of government, 
the people were happy and content. The Americans on their farms were 
interfered with very little, their religion was connived with if not offic- 
ially tolerated ; in fact they lived very much as their brothers across the 
Mississippi, in Kentucky and in Tennessee. There was practically no 
taxation, land was given for nominal fees, and the governors in practice 
were lenient and tolerant. The forms of trial were simple, judg- 
ment cheap and expeditious and justice reasonably certain. The lack 
of any political life was no doubt an ob&tacle to future development, but 
does not seem to have worked any tangible hardship or aroused dissatis- 
faction. On the contrary, after the transfer to the United Stiites many of 
the Americans looked back with regret to the simplicity of the Spanish 

The French have always been a social people and so in Upper Louis- 
iana seldom settled outside the villages. Here the home lots stretched 
along one or two streets, each lot with its log house, barns and out- 
buildings, vegetable garden and orchard. The farms were located all 
together in one great common field, where each inhabitant owned certain 
strips or plots. There were few distinctions of rank or wealth. The 
richer men w^ere the merchants, the wholesale dealers or middlemen, 
who sent the products of the colony to New Orleans or Montreal and 
distributed among the people the manufactured goods they received in 
return. The younger men spent much of their time with the professional 
trappers on the Missouri or Mississippi, or in the lead districts on the 
Meramec and St. Francois, in any case keeping their homes in the 
villages. Here life was simple, happy and uneventful ; the village balls 
and numerous church festivals furnished the recreations; crime was 


almost unknown and the people led a gentle, kindly and unenterprising 

The settlements, English and American, were a mere island in the 
\nlderne8s, hundreds of miles from the outside world. As the Spanish 
and French alike kept on good terms with the Indians, there was little 
striking or interesting in the narrative history. Only at rare intervals 
were these frontier communities touched by the stirring events of the 
outside world. At frequent intervals a flotilla of picturesque flat-bot- 
tomed barges carried down the Mississippi to New Orleans the fur and 
lead, salt from the numerous saline springs and the surplus wheat, com 
and beef. In the long and tedious return voyage against the current the 
boats were laden with the few articles of luxury required by the colonists, 
such as sugar and spices, and manufactured articles of all descriptions. 
The artisans were few and incompetent, so that practically all the imple- 
ments, except the rudest, were imported. Even the spinning wheel was 
a rarity in the homes of the French, and butter a special luxury. The 
Kentuckians were a more enterprising and ingenious people, but their 
influence on their easy-going neighbors was slight. The merchants, 
however, were energetic and successful. Much to the disgust of the 
English, they succeeded in diverting from Montreal much of the fur 
trade of the Mississippi valley. 

The Louisiana Purchase 

Meanwhile certain changes were going on in the eastern country and 
in Europe which in their outcome were to end this isolation, swamp the 
old comfortable French society and substitute the energetic, nervous, 
western, American type. The result was probably inevitable when just 
at the beginning of the Revolutionary war, Sevier and Robertson and 
Boone and their companions crossed the Allegheny barrier and began 
the settlements in Tennessee and Kentucky, but it was precipitated by 
the problem of the control of the Mississippi river. The free navigation 
of this great highway was a matter of life and death to the rapidly 
increasing American settlements on the western w^aters, for before the 
day of pikes and railroads the river formed the only outlet for their 
bulky agricultural products. Unless their corn and w^heat and pork and 
beef could be floated down the Ohio and the Mississippi to New Orleans 
and there loaded on the sea-going ships, they could not reach a market 
at all or hope for more than a bare subsistence. Spain, however, very 
rightly feared the extension of American settlement, seeing clearly that 
it would not stop at the ^Mississippi but eventually over-run and conquer 
the western half of the valley as well. Accordingly she steadfastly re- 
fused to open the Mississippi at New Orleans and intrigued, often with 
fair prospect of success, to separate the pioneers of Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee from their allegiance to the United States and create a western 
confederation under Spanish protection. During the Revolutionary 
war and for nearly fifteen years after it, the United States tried in vain 
to secure some concession from Spain, but in the end fear of an American 
alliance with Great Britain and a joint attack on Louisiana forced her 
to yield. In 1795 Spain granted the free navigation of the Mississippi 
to the Americans. Migration to Tennessee, Kentucky and Ohio increased 
at once, and the Americans soon crossed the Mississippi into Missouri. 

Five years later the whole Mississippi question reappeared in a far 
more serious form. After the confusion and anarchy of the French 
revolution, Napoleon had restored a strong government in France and 
made her the strongest power on the continent. Turning then to the 
restoration of the French colonial empire, which France had never alto- 


gether lost sight of since its loss forty years before, in 1800 he forced 
and cajoled the King of Spain to give back Louisiana to France. This 
substitution of a powerful and ambitious power for decrepit and bank- 
rupt Spain was a serious menace to the United States and to the west 
in particular. President Jefferson at once began negotiations for the 
purchase of New Orleans or at least, a suf&cient guarantee of the opening 
of the Mississippi. When in 1802 the officials at New Orleans closed the 
Mississippi anew, the west was in a turmoil. Jefferson sent Monroe to 
France to hasten the negotiations and even contemplated an alliance 
with Great Britain. But Napoleon had already tired of his colonial 
schemes, in the face of the negro revolt in Hayti and approaching war 
in Europe. He startled the American ministers by proposing to sell 
them not west Florida or New Orleans, but Louisiana, the western half 
of the Mississippi valley. After some haggling as to price, the Ameri- 
cans agreed to accept the territory for $15,000,000. Thus at one stroke 
the area of the United States was doubled, the whole of the great central 
valley secured and the Mississippi question settled forever. Incidentally 
the purchase marked the beginning of the really vital part of Missouri 

Government in the Territorial Period 

As far as Upper Louisiana was concerned, the retrocession to France 
had been without effect. Napoleon had never taken formal possession 
nor had any French official reached St. Louis. Accordingly when 
Captain Amos Stoddard, of the United States army, came up the river 
early in 1804, he held a commission from France, took formal possession 
in her name and then as representative of the United States raised the 
American flag. President Jefferson and congress were in complete 
ignorance as to conditions and proceeded very cautiously in framing 
a government in the new country. Stoddard simply succeeded to the 
powers of the Spanish lieutenant-governor and continued the old order 
of things until October. Congress also refused to confirm all Spanish 
land grants made since 1800. The first regular form of government was 
hardly more liberal ; all of the purchase north of the thirty-third parallel 
was created the district of Louisiana and attached to the territory of 
Indiana. The people were very much dissatisfied, sent a formal 
protest to Washington and in 1805 congress organized the same district 
as the separate Territory of Louisiana. 

Under this act of 1805 Louisiana was a territory of the lowest class, 
with a government consisting of a governor and three judges, all ap- 
pointed by the president. When the census of 1810 showed a popula- 
tion of over twenty thousand, the territory (in 1812) was granted a 
legislature, the lower house elected by the people, and the upper house 
or council appointed by the president, and a delegate to congress. At the 
same time the name was changed to Missouri, to avoid confusion with the 
recently admitted state of Louisiana. Four years later the council was 
made elective and shortly afterward the agitation for statehood began. 
The American law and judicial procedure early supplanted the 'Spanish. 
In local government the original five Spanish districts of St. Louis, St. 
Charles, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid were retained 
until 1812, when they became the first counties. In the next year the 
Potosi settlements were organized as Washington county and as popula- 
tion increased, more counties were created until there were twenty-five 
at the date of admission. 

All of the territorial governors were men identified with the west. 
As a district, Louisiana was under the governor of Indiana territory. 
William Henry Harrison, later president of the United States. The 


first governor of the territory of Louisiana was James Wilkinson of 
Kentucky, afterward so deeply involved in the plans of Aaron Burr. 
Alone among the territorial governors Wilkinson was thoroughly 
unpopular. His successor was Meriwether Lewis, joint commander of 
the famous Lewis and Clark expedition, and his, in turn, Benjamin 
Howard, of Kentucky. The last and best known was William Clark, 
brother of George Rogers Clark and earlier Lewis' companion to the 
Pacific. Clark was especially successful in dealing with the Indians, 
whose confidence he won by his fair dealing. Other men of note of this 
earlier period were Frederick Bates, secretary of the territory ; J. B. C. 
Lucas, judge and land commissioner, and Hempstead, Easton and Scott, 
delegates to Congress. 

Extension op Settlement, 1804 to 1820 

While the transfer to the United States stimulated the movement of 
population from Kentucky and Tennessee, the great influx of settlers 
did not come until after the War of 1812. Until 1815, the newcomers 
for the most part filled up the sections already opened up under the 
Spanish, with some adventurous pioneers on the Mississippi north of 
St. Louis and more in the Boon's Lick country on the Missouri, in the 
present counties of Howard and Cooper. The growth of these frontier 
settlements was stopped and the pioneers subjected to much hardship 
by the Indian raids during the War of 1812, but after peace was pro- 
claimed the newer settlements increased with startling rapidity. Of the 
sixty-six thousand settlers in 1820 nearly one-half were to be found in 
the Boon's Lick section or along the upper Mississippi above St. liouis; 
all but a few hundred of these had come since 1815. The control of the 
territory was rapidly shifting from the older sections to these purely 
American districts. 

In the old French towns of New Madrid, St. Charles and particularly 
of Ste. Genevieve, the old French society, language and customs still sur- 
vived. In St. Louis the seat of government and the commercial oppor- 
tunities brought many Americans, but as late as 1820 French was heard 
as often as English on the streets and advertisements were commonly 
printed in both languages. The most prominent merchants were French 
and Spanish, like the Chouteaus and Manuel Lisa, who were able to 
adjust themselves to new conditions and take advantage of the rise in 
land values and the increase in trade. Even here the old, comfortable, 
unenterprising atmosphere was giving way to western energy and 
bustle ; with its two newspapers, its fire engine, Protestant churches, and 
steamboats, St. Louis was becoming essentially western. Her merchants 
were already reaching out for the fur trade of the upper Missouri as far 
as the Yellowstone and trying, as yet unsuccessfully, to establish an over- 
land commerce with Santa Fe and the far Southwest. The expeditions 
of Lewis and Clark up the Missouri and down the Columbia to the 
Pacific and of Pike into the Southwest were great stimulants to this 
expansion. More important for the general development of the territory 
as a whole was the coming of the steamboats just before 1820. There- 
after the Mississippi was a highway into the country as well as out of it. 

In spite of the increased importance of the fur trade and of lead 
mining, agriculture was necessarily the most important industry. In 
the southeastern part of the territory the pioneer farmers pushed out 
into the Ozark border with their cabins and cleared land in the creek 
bottoms and the range pastures for the stock on the ridges. In the 
Boon's Lick country many of the settlers were men of means who brought 
with them their slaves and furniture, so that typical pioneer conditions 


soon disappeared. As in the earlier period few Americans settled in 
towns. Old Franklin, since washed away, opposite the present city of 
Boonville, was the center of trade for the Boon s Lick country and a 
thriving town of over a thousand people, but the other new towns were 
mere hamlets clustering around the county court bouses. While the 
brawling, bullying type of frontiersman w^ith his brutal fights and feuds 
was by no means unknown, especially on the rivers, the establishment 
of several newspapers outside of St. Louis, a growing interest in educa- 
tion and academies and the rapid growth of the Protestant churches, 
beginning with the Bethel (Baptist) church in Cape Girardeau county 
in 1806, were much better evidences of the real character of the people. 

Missouri Admitted to the Union 

When in 1818, the territorial legislature of ^[issouri petitioned con- 
gress for admission to the Union, Missouri in area, in population and in 
development was abundantly qualified for statehood. The unexpected 
and long drawn struggle between North and South, the first great sec- 
tional contest in our history, over slavery in the new state, can not be con- 
sidered here in any detail. This struggle revealed the divergence of the 
sections from their earlier common condemnation of slavery, a divergence 
due primarily to the unprofitableness of slavery in the North and the 
extension of the cotton culture through the invention of the cotton gin, 
and the subsequent demand for slave labor in the South. The storm 
broke when Missouri applied for admission because she was the first 
territory in which the existence of slavery could be an open question, 
and because the decision in her case involved the whole Louisiana pur- 
chase north of the state of Louisiana. The advantage to the South of 
admitting Missouri as a slave state was not primarily the opening of the 
state to immigration from the South, but rather the addition of two 
slave-state senators to the United States senate. Already the North had 
so far outstripped her in population that the former elected a majority 
of the members of the house ; if tlie South was to retain an equal voice 
in the government it must be through an e(iuality of the states from the 
two sections and eciual voice in the senate. The debates ran through two 
sessions of congress and aroused a popular excitement dangerous to the 
Union. The house with its northern majority insisted on a restriction 
on Missouri's admission providing for gradual emancipation, which the 
more conservative senate refused to accept. The North argued that 
slavery was economically and socially a bad thing and ought to be rigidly 
restricted that it might die out, while the South insisted that the pro- 
posed restriction was unconstitutional and that the evils of slavery might 
be mitigated by spreading it over a wide territory. In the end, the first 
Missouri Compromise was effected; Missouri was permitted to draw up 
her state constitution without any limitations as to slavery, but slavery 
was to be forever prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of her 
southern boundary. At the same time Maine was admitted as a free 
state. The following year the whole question was reopened when the 
house refused to approve of Missouri's constitution because it forebade 
the immigration of free negroes and mulattoes, who, it was alleged, were 
citizens in some states and so guaranteed equal rights by the Federal 
constitution. After another contest which threatened the very existence 
of the Union, a second compromise was effected by Henry Clay, by which 
the Missouri legislature pledged itself not to violate the Federal consti- 
tution in reference to the rights of citizens, and Missouri became a state 
in the Union in 1821. 

Meanwhile, excitement ran high in Missouri, not so much because 


the people were enthusiastically in favor of slavery as because they 
bitterly resented this attempt in congress to dictate to them about what 
they considered their own affairs. Indeed, until the attempted restric- 
tion in congress, there was a quite outspoken anti-slavery sentiment in 
St. Charles and Jefferson and Washington counties, but after the issue 
was raised in congress all united in opposition to congressional dictation, 
and the convention which drew up the first state constitution in the 
summer of 1820 did not contain a single anti-slavery delegate. This 
constitution, naturally modelled in many ways on those of Virginia and 
Kentucky, was a conservative and adequate frame of government, serv- 
ing the state with numerous amendments until 1865. 

As soon as the convention had adopted the constitution the first state 
elections were held, a governor and assembly chosen and a representa- 
tive to congress. Soon afterward the governor was inaugurated, made 
his appointments to office, the assembly met and elected two United 
States senators and the state government was thus fully organized — all 
before the second Missouri Compromise at Washington and the formal 
admission of Missouri to the Union. The Missourians had little patience 
with this second attempt to dictate the action of the state, but passed the 
resolution required and President Monroe on August 10, 1821, proclaimed 
^lissouri a state in the Union. 

Early Politics and Pioneer Politicians 

In national politics, this was the so-called era of good feeling. With 
only one national political party, the old Republican, politics consisted 
of personal contests between the rival leaders. This was particularly 
true in a frontier community like Missouri, where a man's personal 
ability and popularity counted for more than party organization. 

In the first election for governor, Alexander McNair, a moderate 
and popular man, defeated William Clark, the territorial governor; John 
Scott, the territorial delegate, was chosen ^lissouri's first representative 
and David Barton, president of the constitutional convention, was elected 
by the assembly as United States senator, both with little opposition. 
After a bitter contest, Thomas Hart Benton received a bare majority 
for the second senatorship over several candidates, the most prominent 
of whom was Judge Lucas. Benton was a newcomer to Missouri and had 
already mdde many bitter personal enemies, but his championship of 
western interests and the support of Barton gave him the victory. 

Benton was very soon involved in a personal quarrel with Barton, but 
political parties do not appear at all clearly until about 1830. The 
beginnings of the later division may be seen in the presidential election 
of 1824, when Missouri supported Henry Clay in the popular election. 
When no candidate received a majority and the election was thrown 
into the national house of representatives, Scott, with the advice of Bar 
ton, cast Missouri's vote for John Quincy Adams, while Benton came out 
strongly for Jackson. In the next four years the people of the state 
rallied to Benton and Jackson, who carried every county in 1828. Dur- 
ing Jackson 's first term Benton was a leader at the attack on the United 
States bank and one of the leaders in organizing the national Democratic 
party. That party 's victory in the state and nation in 1832, seated Ben- 
ton in control of the politics of the state for the next fifteen years. 
While Jackson's attack on the bank was popular in Missouri, it would 
seem that Jackson's personification of western ideals and Benton's ag- 
gressive personality counted even more toward entrenching the Demo- 
cratic party in Missouri. The opposition, or Whig party, developed 
more slowly late in the thirties, but was badly beaten in every election. 


As a more conservative party interested in the material development of 
the country, its strength was naturally greatest in St. Louis and the 
prosperous slave holding districts along the Mississippi and the Mis- 
souri. But until 1844 the Democrats, united under the rigorous disci- 
pline of Benton, carried the state in local and national elections. 

The limitations of space forbid even a mention of all the leaders of 
public opinion in this formative period in Missouri's history. The terri- 
torial secretary, Frederick Bates, succeeded McNair, but died in office. 
John Miller was elected to fill out the term and elected for the full four 
years in 1828. Then followed in turn Daniel Dunklin, Lilbum W. 
Boggs, and Thomas Reynolds. Miller and his successors were all Jack- 
son men or Democrats; Miller was born in Virginia, all the others in 
Kentucky. Barton and Benton were re-elected to the United States 
senate in 1824 and 1826 respectively, but in 1830 Benton succeeded in 
bringing about the defeat of Barton, his only formidable rival in Missouri. 
Alexander Buckner, Barton's successor, died in office, and was followed 
by Dr. Lewis F. Linn, perhaps the best-loved man, by political friends 
and foes alike, in all this early period. At least three-quarters of 
the men elected to important ofBce were natives of Kentucky; indeed 
Jacksonian democracy and Kentucky origin might almost be given as 
qualifications for office. 

Economic and Social Progress, 1820 to 1845 

By far the most important aspect of Missouri history in this period 
between 1820 and 1845 was the contest with the \nlderne8s, the exten- 
sion of settlement, development and extension of trade, and the more 
important social growth. Of the many interesting incidents in the nar- 
rative history, only a few can be noted. Through the generosity of 
congress Missouri's boundaries (in 1837) were extended on the north- 
west to the Missouri river, to include the so-called Platte Purchase. 
This technical violation of the Missouri Compromise attracted no atten- 
tion from the country at large, but the attempt to establish the northern 
boundary of the new grant led to a long drawn-out dispute with the 
territory and state of Iowa, settled finaUy by the Supreme Court of 
the United States by a line dividing the disputed area. The Mormon 
settlements in the western part of the state occasioned a more serious 
disturbance. Settling first at Independence in 1831, they increased so 
rapidly that the other settlers, alarmed lest they gain control of the 
county, drove them across the river to Clay county. Here also they 
soon became unpopular and with their own consent were removed to 
the unsettled country to the north, where a separate county, CaldweU, 
was organized for them. When their leader, Joseph Smith, joined 
them here he began Mormon settlement outside of Caldwell on the Grand 
river and the Missouri, organized an armed force and declared that 
his people were to inherit the earth and more particularly western Mis- 
souri. The people of the surrounding counties were up in arms, prop- 
erty was destroyed and blood was shed, until finally the Mormons at- 
tacked a company of local militia and Governor Boggs ordered out the 
state troops. The Mormons were surrounded in their Caldwell settle- 
ments and after some fighting surrendered their leaders and agreed to 
leave the state. None of the leaders were punished and few of the rank 
and file were able to save any of their property. The IMissourian 
throughout showed a characteristic impatience of legal formalities and 
determination to solve the problem by the most direct and expeditious 
methods. While the Mormons could secure no protection from the law 
and in many eases were simply plundered, they were undesirable citi- 


zens and their expulsion, apart from the methods employed, was an 
advantage to the state. 

Meanwhile population was inereasiag at a rate remarkable even in 
the West. From 1820 to 1830 the increase was more than twofold; 
from 1830 to 1840, well on toward threefold; the total population 
grew from a little over 65,000 in 1820 to at least half a million in 1845. 
In 1810 Missouri ranked twenty-third among the states and territories ; 
in 1840, sixteenth. The streams of settlement were along the Missis- 
sippi above the Missouri, along both sides of the Missouri from the center 
of the state westward, and around the borders of the Ozarks to the south- 
west. North of the river, by 1845, all of the counties of today except 
Worth had been organized and the country opened up, although the 
counties along the Iowa line were as yet thinly populated. The most 
backward sections were the whole Ozark region and the western border 
south of Jackson county. The newer counties organized since 1845 
are to be found in these areas. The new settlers were still for the most 
part from the border states to the eastward, and the population of the 
state was still on the whole homogeneous. The negro slaves still com- 
prised about one-sixth of the total population and until 1840 were in- 
creasing about as rapidly as the whites. They were not distributed 
evenly over the state but were to be found in greatest numbers in the 
older counties along the two great rivers. 

The older sections of the state had now passed out of the pioneer 
stage of development, the log cabins were disappearing, and the class 
of substantial farmers with cleared farms, comfortable homes, and con- 
siderable means had appeared. With the increase of wealth and free- 
dom from the hardships of the frontier came a growing interest in edu- 
cation and philanthropy. In the thirties the endowed academies, fore- 
runners of the modern high schools, were organized all through the older 
portions of the state, and the assembly passed laws, ineffective it is true, 
for the establishment of a public school system. In 1839 the state 
made use of the liberal land grants of the national government and 
organized a State University, located the following year after a spirited 
contest between the counties at Columbia in Boone county. In this same 
decade the building of a state penitentiary at Jefferson City on the most 
approved eastern models, and the beginning of appropriations for the 
defective and unfortunate showed the intelligent interest in the prob- 
lems of reform and practical philanthropy. 

The development of the state brought to the front new economic 
problems. As yet it is true Missouri was almost exclusively a commu- 
nity of farmers. St. Louis even as late as 1840 was a town of less than 
20,000, while few others exceeded one thousand. Those smaller towns 
were county seats or more commonly river towTis, for the rivers were as 
yet the only important highways of trade. Many of them sank into 
decay or even disappeared after the coming of the railroads but others, 
like Boonville and Lexington, have survived and prospered. After Old 
Franklin was washed away by the Missouri, Independence and West- 
port Landing, the beginning of Kansas City, were the most important, 
towns on the Missouri, and Hannibal on the Mississippi. But if the 
rivers did furnish an outlet for surplus agricultural products the dif- 
ficulties of getting the crops to the rivers and to market was the most 
pressing problem of the Missourians and the westerners. The neigh- 
boring states in the boom times of the thirties borrowed enormous sums 
to build canals and roads; Missouri did not embark on any such ambi- 
tious program, but some improvement was secured by the building of 
many miles of toll roads by private capital. The success of the first 
eastern railroads attracted much favorable attention and the assembly 


granted cliarters for the construction of several in Missouri, but lack of 
capital and the panic of 1837 postponed actual railroad building until 
after 1850. 

Lack of an adet^uate and satisfactory currency and of banking facil- 
ities for borrowing money was another grievance of the West at this 
time. The common remedy was the reckless chartering of state banks 
and the issuance of immense (|uantities of paper money of less than 
doubtful value. Here too Missouri showed a healthy conservatism and 
only after long hesitation chartered one bank in 1837, the state sub- 
scribing to half the capital and retaining a strict supervision over it. 
However, Missouri was necessarily involved in the crash which followed 
this nation-wide over development, inflation of the currency and ficti- 
tious increase in values. The panic of 1837 did not lead to repudiation 
of the state debts or destruction of the state credit, but it bore very 
hardly on the people, who did not regain their prosperity for some years. 

The most interesting and dramatic expansion of Missouri enterprise 

was toward the far west and the southwest. In the fur trade up the 
Missouri the most important figure was William II. Ashley, first lieu- 
tenant governor of ^lissouri, and for years one of her leading men. 
After a disastrous encounter with Indians on his first venture in 1822, 
he prospered exceedingly and retired leu years later with a comfortable 
fortune. His tratlers and agents explored the whole southern water- 
shed of the upper Missouri, the Great Salt Lake District, opened up the 
famous South Pass through the Rockies and blazed the way for the later 
Oresron trail and Great Salt Lake trail to California. After 1830 the 
wealthy merchants of St. Louis developed the fur trade on a regular 
business basis, and made it one of the foundations of the city's pros- 
perity. Before 1845 the settlers were following the traders and Mis- 
sourians were opening up the Willamette valley in Oregon. 

The commerce of the prairies overland to Santa Fe began in 1821 
when William Becknell with a few companions made a successful 
trading expedition from Old Franklin to Sante Fe. In 1825 the United 
States surveyed the Santa Fe trail and made treaties with the Indians. 
Until the coming of the railroads this trade gave employment to hun- 
dreds of wagons every year and was an important stimulus to Miasouri'a 


Beginnino op a New Period in State History 

The forties mark a dividing line in the history of the state. The 
coming of the railroads, the settlement of California and the growth of 
transcontinental trade, the marvelous growth of St. Louis, tenfold in 
the twenty yeara after 1840 until it ranked seventh among the cities 
of the whole country, all mark a new era in the economic development 
of the state. The population went on increasing arlmost as fast as ever, 
but several new elements were appearing. The Germans came to Her- 
mann as early as 1837, and after 1848, came to St. Louis and the neigh- 
boring counties in large numbers; the Irish also after 1850 were an 
important element in the city of St. Louis. The northern stream of 
settlement from New England and New York and Ohio finally reached 
Missouri, so that altogether the old homogeneity of the population dis- 
appeared. And between 1850 and 1860 the slave population was increas- 
ing only one-third as fast as the white. In politics the growing sectional 
divergence was casting its shadow over Missouri and the Democratic 
party was for a time rent in twain by the desperate struggle to eliminate 

The sectional differences first attained first rate importance after the 
annexation of Texas and the Mexican war, both of which were heartily 
approved of by Missourians, with their characteristic western eagerness 
for expansion and more cheap land and their special interest due to the 
Santa Fe trade and the emigration of many of their young men to 
Texas. As soon as the ^lexican war began several hundred volunteers 
went down the Mississippi to New Orleans ; a little later a regiment of 
mounted IMissourians under Doniphan started from Fort Leavenworth 
over the Santa Fe trail. This expedition, under the command of Gen- 
eral Kearney with some three hundred regulars, captured Santa Fe 
without resistance. Doniphan with less than a thousand men continued 
to El Paso and Chihuahua in northern Mexico. After resting his troops 
here for a couple of months he led his little force in safety to Taylor's 
army at the mouth of the Rio Grande, whence they returned to 
Missouri by water. Meanwhile a second regiment under Sterling Price 
was putting down a serious uprising at Santa Fe (reinforced later by 
a third regiment). All told Missouri furnished at least five thousand 
troops and conquered New Mexico for the Union, 

The Fall op Thomas Hart Benton 

The fruits of the ^ilexican war, California and New Mexico, raised the 
slavery and sectional issues in national politics in a new and most dan- 
gerous form; the same issues were the occasion in Missouri for attack 
on Benton. This opposition to Benton had been smoldering for ten 
years and was in part personal and in part political. Benton's own 
positive and domineering personality made him a difficult man to work 
with and created an ever growing number of personal enemies. Then 
he was no politician in. the ordinary sense of the word. Soon after 
his first election he practically moved to Washington, returning to St. 
Louis for a visit every summer and making an occasional triumphant 
progress through the state. He never showed any keen interest in the 
patronage and absolutely refused to consult or placate the local leaders. 
As a result the younger men in the Democratic party came to look upon 
Benton as a positive obstacle to their political advancement. Benton 
built his influence on his direct appeals to the people of the state, through 
his speeches and newspaper articles. As long as Jackson dominated the 


party and Benton was Jackson's trusted friend and spokesman in the 
senate, Benton was impregnable; but after 1840 he steadily lost ground. 
The national Democratic party came more and more under the influence 
of the younger southern leaders, whose unionism Benton regarded with 
suspicion. As he grew older he was less and less willing to submit to 
party discipline and in the late forties quarrelled openly with the ad- 
ministration and Calhoun tried to read him out of the party. Benton 
also refused to bow to public opinion in Missouri, and offended very 
many by his insistence on hard money and his opposition to the imme- 
diate annexation of Texas. When after the Mexican war he insisted 
that California be admitted at once as a free state, quite irrespective of 
the extension of slavery into Utah and New Mexico, his enemies made 
their attack. 

As early as 1844, when Benton was to come up for re-election, there 
was a paper money, anti-Benton state ticket in the field, but John C. 
Edwards, the Hard Money, pro-Benton candidate was elected governor. 
The opposition to Benton does not seem to have figured in the state cam- 
paign in 1848, when Austin A. King was chosen governor. But when 
Benton's fifth term as United States senator drew toward its close, His 
enemies closed in for a fight to a finish. Their method was very adroit. 
They succeeded in 1849 in passing through the assembly the famous 
Jackson resolutions which endorsed the southern contentions as to the 
power of congress over slavery in the territories, pledged Missouri to 
stand by the South whatever came, and instructed Missouri's senators 
to vote accordingly. These resolutions were no more radical than those 
passed in several other states and indeed were probably regarded by the 
majority of those voting for them as merely an earnest protest against 
northern anti-slavery and abolitionist agitation. But Benton, as his 
enemies hoped, took them as a challenge. He indignantly refused to be 
bound by the resolutions because, as he insisted, they savored of disunion 
and did not represent the will of Missouri, and made a dramatic appeal 
from the legislature to the people. 

The result in the election of 1850 was a legislature divided between 
the Whigs and the two Democratic factions, no one having a majority. 
After a long deadlock enough anti-Benton Democrats voted for the Whig 
candidate Henry S. Geyerto elect him United States Senator, and Ben- 
ton's long service was over. He, however, refused to admit defeat. He 
took no part in the campaign electing Sterling Price as governor in 1852, 
but was himself in that year returned to Washington as representative 
from the St. Louis district. Two years later the term of senator D. R. 
Atchison, one of Benton's most determined enemies, expired, and Benton 
entered the race against him. Again the assembly showed no majority, 
but this time no compromise was possible and no senator was chosen. 
In 1856, Benton made his last stand ; he ran for governor, but was beaten 
by the regular Democratic candidate, Trusten Polk, and for senator, 
also unsuccessfully. Polk and James S. Green, both anti-Benton Demo- 
crats, were chosen. 

Although Benton was sixty-five years of age when the Jackson reso- 
lutions were passed, he fought with all his old-time courage and violence, 
twice stumping the state from end to end. In spite of his undoubted 
faults of extreme egotism, violence and demand for absolute power, 
he is the greatest Missourian. His unfiinching courage, his patriotic 
devotion to the Union and his services to the West make him a national 
figure of commanding importance. His defeat was due in no small 
measure to his stanch adherence to his Jacksonian Democracy when his 
own party had drifted away from it. 


The Kansas Troubles 

Meanwhile Missouri politics were still further confused and the state 
thrown into a turmoil by the Kansas troubles. When in 1854 Stephen 
A. Douglas in his Kansas-Nebraska bill repealed the Missouri Compro- 
mise and provided for the organization of Kansas and Nebraska terri- 
tories where the people themselves should decide as to slavery, he re- 
opened the whole slavery question in a form of peculiar interest to 
Missourians. They assumed, as did the whole countr>% that the under- 
standing was that Kansas was to be slave and Nebraska free ; moreover, 
they saw that if Kansas were to be free and Missouri thus surrounded 
on three sides by free territory, slavery, already a declining institution 
in Missouri, would be doomed. Accordingly when anti-slavery settlers 
backed up by anti-slavery societies began to pour into Kansas and soon 
set up a separate government looking toward the immediate admission 
of Kansas as a free state, the people of western Missouri were up in 
arms. They felt that their interests were too closely involved to permit 
them to sit idly by while the free-soilers, contrary to the intent of the 
law, as they understood it, were getting control of Kansas. At first the 
^lissourians contented themselves with crossing over at election time, 
outvoting the Kansas free-soilers and returning home, but after actual 
civil war broke out in Kansas the Missourians took an active part in the 
fighting and captured Lawrence, the free-soil headquarters. While this 
interference in Kansas was quite outside the law and many Missourians 
were guilty of unnecessary violence, it must be remembered that they 
felt they were justified by the intent of the law and their own interests, 
and that these invasions of Kansas had the approval of such men as ex- 
Senator Atchison and General Doniphan. In the end the steady stream 
of free-soil immigrants decided the issue in Kansas in their favor, 
and before the war Missouri was repaid for her interference by raids 
of adventurers from Kansas along her southwestern border and still 
more heavily during the war when Kansas volunteer regiments served 
in ^lissouri. 

The Coming of the Railroads 

In spite of this confusion in politics the development of the state was 
going steadily on. The population from 1850 to 1860 increased over 
three-fourths to nearly twelve hundred thousand ; in rank ]\Iissouri rose 
from the thirteenth to the eighth state in the Union. The river trade 
was at its height and St. Louis had become the largest city in the middle 
west. Independence and St. Joseph were growing rapjdly under the 
stimulus of the rapid growth of California and Oregon and the trans- 
continental traffic. The proportion of slaves to total population had 
fallen to less than one-tenth ; slavery was holding its own in only about 
twenty-five of the river counties. Over a seventh of the whites were 
foreign bom, nearly a seventh were natives of northern states, and for 
the first time a majority were native born ^lissourians. The state was 
rapidly becoming a cosmopolitan western community, although the sen- 
timental attachment to the South was still very strong. The absence of 
any staple crop and therefore of the plantation system was fatal to the 
development of slave labor. 

The most important advance in the decade was the coming of the 
railroads. The lack of capital was overcome in two ways ; by very lib- 
eral land grants by the national government and, after long hesitation, 
by the direct aid of the state. In 1851 the legislature began to issue 
bonds, which the railroads could sell in return for mortgages to the 
state. On the fourth of July the first spade full of earth was 


turned for the Pacific road and late in 1852 the first locomotive west 
of the iMississippi was placed on the rails at St. Louis. Railroad build- 
ing proved unexpectedly expensive, work went on very slowly, and even 
before the war most of the roads were in diflBculty. Altogether the state 
before 1860 issued between twenty-three and twenty-four millions of 
bonds for the railroads and already several of them were unable to pay 
their interest. Only one, the Hannibal and St. Joseph (now the Burl- 
ington) was in successful operation across the state; the Pacific (now 
the Missouri Pacific) had reached Sedalia, the North Missouri (the pres- 
ent Wabash), Macon, and the Southwest Branch (now the Frisco), Rolla. 

The Civn. War Cloud 

As the national election of 1860 approached the national parties were 
hopelessly disorganized; the Whig party had succumbed to the rising 
sectional hostility, the Democrats, in reality just as hopelessly divided, 
were to come to an open rupture in the approaching campaign, while 
in the North a new sectional party, the Republican, was growing very 
rapidly. In Missouri the new elements in the population and the bitter- 
ness from the Benton fight were additional local complications. Even 
in the special election of 1857 the regular anti-Benton Democratic can- 
didate for governor, Robert M. Stewart, defeated James S. Rollins, an 
old line conservative Whig, by less than four hundred votes. In the 
state election of 1860 the Democratic candidate for governor, Claiborne 
F. Jackson, was forced to come out for Douglas, the northern Demo- 
cratic candidate for president ; the Breckenridge or southern Democrats 
ran a separate ticket; Frank P. Blair organized the Republican party 
in and around St. Louis ; the Conservative Whig or Constitutional Union 
men nominated Semple Orr. The contest was between the first and the 
last, with Jackson the successful candidate. In the presidential cam- 
paign much the same lines were drawn, and the more conservative Demo- 
crat Douglas defeated the ultra-conservative Bell by a few more than 
two hundred votes. In all this confusion one fact at least was clear; 
the great majority of the Missourians opposed the radicals, north and 
south, and stood for conservatism and compromise on the sectional ques- 

North or South? 

The secession of South Carolina from the Union in December, 1861, 
forced an extremely difficult decision on the people of Missouri. Their 
traditions and^ sentimental attachment were still for the most part 
southern; the Benton fight had forced the leaders of the dominant 
Democratic party into a support of the southern interests. On the other 
hand the material interests of the state were predominatingly western ; 
it seemed illogical to secede to protect slavery, a decaying institution and 
plainly doomed if Missouri were surrounded on three sides by foreign 
free territory, and Benton, like Clay in Kentucky, had left an invaluable 
heritage of devotion to the Union. Missouri's decision was of extreme 
importance to North and South alike. Having within her boundaries 
the control of the ^lissouri and the transcontinental routes, the center 
of trade of the northwest, and the largest number of white men of fight- 
ing age of any slave state, her adherence was indispensable to the South 
and invaluable to the North. 

The theatre of war in this fight for Missouri was threefold; the 
governor and assembly at Jefferson City, the convention elected to de- 
cide on secession, and the United States arsenal at St. Louis. Governor 
Jackson, although nominally a Douglas Democrat, was a strong southern 


. sympathizer and believed that Missouri should prepare to leave the 
Union in case all attempts at compromise failed and the Union was 
dissolved. His plans demanded for their success legislation putting the 
state on a war footing and the seizure of the United States arsenal to 
arm state troops. The assembly was hopelessly divided, "with' the 
Breckenridge or southern Democrats the most numerous, but outnum- 
bered by the combined votes of the more conservative^ Douglas and Bell 
members. The assembly in January by a large majority authorized th<i 
election of a convention to pass on secession, with the proviso that any 
ordinance of secession should be submitted to a popular vote. It then 
adjourned to await the decision of the people. 

They decided against immediate secession by a majority of over 
eighty thousand, with not a single delegate elected in favor of immedi- 
ate withdrawal from the Union. The factions in the convention reflect 
very accurately the opinion of the people. Less than a third of the 
delegates might fairly be classed as southern sympatiiizers, i. e., they 
believed if attempts at compromise failed Missouri ought to declare 
herself for the South. Another much smaller group declared that Mis- 
souri must remain in the Union under all circumstances. The majority 
of the convention were the conditional Union men, who admitted that 
the contingency might arise under which Missouri ought to secede, but 
for the most part refused to discuss or define that contingency and bent 
all their eflforte in support of some or any compromise that would pre- 
serve the Union. Sterling Price, president of the convention, Hamilton 
B. Gamble, drafter of its resolutions, and John B. Henderson, leader on 
the floor, were all conditional Union men. The repeated attempts of the 
southerners to pledge Missouri to secession in case of the failure of 
compromise or of civil war were all voted down and the convention con- 
tented itself with a declaration that there was no immediate reason 
for Missouri's secession, that she besought both North and South to re- 
unite, and that she would support any compromise that would preserve 
the Union, The convention then adjourned to await the outcome of the 
national crisis. 

The decision of the convention paralyzed the activities of the gov- 
ernor until the firing on Port Sumter and the opening of the Civil 
war. He then indignantly refused to obey the call of Lincoln for troops 
to ''coerce" the South and thus regained much of his lost ground. But 
although thousands of conditional Union men now rallied to an uncon- 
ditional support of the South, the majority in Missouri as in Kentucky 
leaned toward a poUcy of neutrality. The border states were to stand 
by the old Union, take no part in this unholy contest and to present a 
barrier to actual fighting. Impossible as this policy was in the long 
run it appealed strongly to the people and the assembly still refused 
to pass the laws the governor desired. 

Pederal Government Participates in State Affairs 

Missouri, however, unlike Kentucky, was not allowed to make her de- 
cision without interference. Prank P. Blair and the radical Union 
men secured Lincoln's reluctant consent that the Pederal government 
take a part in the fight for Missouri. Blair realized as well as Gov- 
ernor Jackson the importance of the St. Louis arsenal. The United 
States army officers there were men of southern sympathies, long resi- 
dent in St. Louis and Blair feared they would offer no effective resist- 
ance to an attack by the state troops. He accordingly organized an 
effective fighting force on the basis of the marching clubs of the presi- 
dential campaign. These clubs, composed mainly but not exclusively of 

Vol. I— 1 1 


Germans, met regularly for military drill and needed only arms to be a « 
formidable force. During these same months of late winter and early 
spring, Blair was persistently urging the authorities at Washington to 
place a more trustworthy officer in command of the arsenal. Lincoln 
finally appointed Captain Nathaniel Lyon, a more aggressive Union 
man than even Blair himself. When Governor Jackson refused to fur- 
nish Missouri's quota of troops after Fort Sumter, Blair offered his 
military clubs as a substitute. They were mustered into the United 
States service and armed from the arsenal. In this contest also the gov- 
ernor was defeated. He did not give up his plans, however. In May 
he ordered the militia to assemble for a week of drill. One detachment 
went into camp just outside of St. Louis. While this encampment was 
strictly according to state law, there seems little doubt that the militia 
were to be used as a rallying point for armed resistance to Lyon and 
Blair, inasmuch as guns and munitions of war obtained from the Con- 
federate authorities at New Orleans were smuggled into the camp. At 
any rate Blair and Lyon regarded the force as threatening an attack 
on the United States and promptly surrounded the camp with their 
troops and compelled the militia to surrender. On the return march to 
the city the United States troops were hooted at and stoned, and fired on 
the crowd, killing or injuring some twenty-five, including women and 

For a few days it seemed as if Blair and Lyon had accomplished all 
that Governor Jackson had been trying in vain to bring about. This 
open attack on the militia of the state and most exaggerated reports of 
the atrocities of the German volunteers sent a flame of indignation 
through the state. The assembly at a single session passed the laws 
putting the state on a war footing and giving the governor dictatorial 
powers. Thousands rushed to enlist in the new state militia, as much 
perhaps to defend the autonomy of the state as from any desire for 
secession. After a few days when the truth about the unfortunate inci- 
dents at St. Louis were better known, excitement decreased and the old 
desire for neutrality reasserted itself. Jackson and Sterling Price, now 
commander of the state forces, either to gain time or from a sincere 
desire to avoid bloodshed, made the so-called Price-Harney agreement 
with General Harney, commanding at St. Louis, by which Harney agreed 
that the state government should not be interfered with in local affairs. 
But at Washington this was regarded as tantamount to a recognition of 
neutrality, Harney was removed and Lyon at last put in supreme com- 
mand and given a free hand. He absolutely refused to agree to any 
limitations on the power of his government to recruit troops or carry on 
war in Missouri, Jackson and Price were as unyielding in their demands 
for such neutrality, Lyon moved his troops on Jefferson City and war 

Evidently it is very difficult to describe with any certainty the real 
wishes of the Missourians, for they were not permitted to make a free 
choice. It may very well be that with opinions so evenly balanced if 
Governor Jaclson and the state government, supported by constantly 
growing armed forces at Camp Jackson and throughout the state, had 
finally come out for secession, that the majority of the people would 
have acquiesced and Missouri would have seceded. If this be true, 
Lyon's attack on Camp Jackson was not only justifiable, from the Union 
point of view, but necessary. On the other hand, it is more prob- 
able that the people would have resented this attempt to force the state 
out of the Union in defiance of the still existing convention, and as in 
Kentucky, where Lincoln refused to interfere, have changed their senti- 
ment of neutrality to a moderate Unionism. Out of the confusion of 


evidence perhaps only one safe opinion emerges, that whichever way the 
constituted authorities decided, a very large element would have refused 
to submit and so a local civil war was inevitable. 

Civil War in Missouri 

The state guards were undrilled and very poorly armed and except 
for a skirmish at Boonville were unable to oppose Lyon. Jackson and 
Price retreated into the extreme southwestern comer of the state gather- 
ing recruits on their way. Hither Lyon followed them, after occupy- 
ing the river towns on the Missouri and thus cutting off the northern 
part of the state. Price induced McCuUoch with a weU armed Confed- 
erate force to come to his aid from Arkansas and together they de- 
feated Lyon at the battle of Wilson's creek near Springfield, one of 
the most sanguinary battles of the war, in which Lyon lost his life. 
Price then marched northward to the Missouri, captured Lexington 
but was soon forced to retreat. Early in 1862 he was di:iven from the 
state and the Confederate army in Arkansas defeated and scattered at 
the battle in the Boston mountains in Arkansas. In 1864 Price re- 
turned to Missouri, entering the state from the southeast, threatening 
St, Louis and marching rapidly westward before the fast gathering 
Federal forces. The people did not rise in his support as he hoped and 
expected, he was forced to retreat rapidly to Arkansas and his raid 
accomplished nothing beyond the destruction of railroads and. public 
property. Except for the opening campaign of Wilson's creek, the 
fighting in Missouri had little influence on the war in general. 

Meanwhile, especially in the first two years of the war, the state was 
convulsed with an internal civil war, where neighbor fought against 
neighbor and brother against brother. Armed bands in various parts 
of the state destroyed railroads and public property, cut off detach- 
ments of Federal troops and destroyed the property of Union sympa- 
thizers. Some of these bands were men who were trying to fight their 
way south, others, while irregular, were bona fide southern sympathizers 
but too many of them were simply outlaws fighting under the southern 
flag for plunder or to satisfy private grudges. The western border suf- 
fered severely from Kansas maurauders of much the same type though 
nominally Unionist, and indeed the officers and men of the Kansas and 
Iowa regiments were too willing to regard Missouri as a disloyal and 
conquered state. To put down this guerrilla warfare the Federal com- 
manders put much of the state under martial law, and dealt with spe- 
cial outbreaks with extreme severity, such as the Palmyra massacre and 
Order Number Eleven. In 1861 and 1862, it almost seemed as if the 
Federal authorities were deliberately making it difficult for any mod- 
erate Missourian to support the Union. 

Governor Gamble and the Provisional Government 

The flight of Governor Jackson and the assembly from Jeffeinson 
City before Lyon's advance left the state without any organized gov- 
ernment. While Lyon was driving Price down to Arkansas the con- 
vention reassembled, declared the seats of the governor and assembly 
vacant and appointed Hamilton R. Gamble provisional governor. The 
Union men of the state now had a regular government to recognize and 
support. The situation was still further simplified when late in 1861 a 
fragment of the old assembly assembled at Neosho and passed an ordi- 
nance of secession. Price now accepted a Confederate commission, his 
men either entered the Confederate army or returned home, and Mis> 


soori sent representatives to the Confederate congress. With an empty 
treasury, disorganized local government, a large part of the population 
in active resistance, and the northern half of the state garrisoned by a 
distrustful Federal government, Gamble faced a task of extreme diffi- 
culty. The convention authorized a loan, and imposed an oath of loyalty 
on all officeholders. Gamble won Lincoln's confidence and succeeded in 
substituting loyal Missouri militia supported from Washington for the 
Federal garrisons, and gradually restored confidence and order over 
most of the state. Missouri's debt to this patient and conservative gov- 
ernor is hard to overestimate. 

The convention did not dissolve itself until 1863. In 1862 law and 
order had so far been restored that a new assembly was elected, but no 
election for governor was held untU 1864. The convention imposed a 
new qualification for voting in this 1862 election, an oath of allegiance 
and that the voter had not been in arms against the Union. At this same 
session the convention laid on the table Lincoln's favorite plan of eman- 
cipation with compensation. By this time the convention was lagging 
behind public opinion, but consented at its last meeting in 1863 to a plan 
of very gradual emancipation. 

Emancipation and the Drake Constitution 

Meanwhile slavery was dead in all but name; it was impossible to 
recover nmaway slaves. In the election of 1862 the emancipationists 
were in a large majority but not agreed as to the method. Two new 
parties soon appeared, the conservatives supporting Governor Gamble 
in his moderate policy believing in gradual emancipation, and the radi- 
cals, who denounced Gamble as at least lukewarm in his Unionism, de- 
manded stringent test oaths and immediate and unconditional emanci- 
pation. Although Lincoln steadily refused to interfere in their favor, 
the radicals were the better organized and more aggressive, with a more 
definite platform, the increasing bitterness as the war dragged on aided 
them, so that in 1864 they secured control of the assembly and elected 
their candidate, Thomas C. Fletcher, governor. At the same election a 
new and radical convention was elected which in January, 1865, passed 
an ordinance of immediate emancipation. Slavery, already dead to all 
intents and purposes, was thus legally destroyed by state action shortly 
before the thirteenth amendment to the national constitution destroyed 
it in the whole nation. 

This convention of 1865, commonly called the '/Drake Convention'* 
from its leading spirit, Charles D, Drake, drew up a new constitution. 
The most important changes were the immediate abolition of slaveiy 
and the drastic qualifications for voting. In place of the oath of loyalty 
and of abstention from open armed resistance to the Union, imposed by 
the previous convention, a voter was now forced to take the ** Iron-dad 
oath," that he had not shown sympathy with the South by word or deed 
in any of a carefully defined list of ways. The obvious intent, and actual 
result, in most counties, of this requirement, enforced by registrars of 
voters with plenary power to reject oaths even when tendered, was^ to 
throw the control of the state into the hands of the aggressive Union 
men and disfranchise thousands of moderates who had refused to take 
part in the war. The extension of this oath to ministers, teachers and 
lawyers, seems absolutely indefensible, could not be enforced in practice 
and was soon declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme 
Court. Apart from the provisions reflecting the recent conflict, the 
constitution was an able and progressive frame of government, particu- 
larly in its very liberal provisions for education. Although the iron-dad 


oath was imposed on all voters ou the ratiBeation of the constitntion, 
it waa adopted by a ver? small majority and would have failed«but for 
the soldier vote. 

Period of Reobqanization (1865-1875) 

The period from 1865 to 1872, is a time of reorganization and transi- 
tion in political parties when party names were confusing and hard to 
define. Immediately after ^e war, Frank P. Blair, John S. Phelps and 
other former Democrats and aggressive Union men revived the Demo- 
cratio party on the platform of loyalty to the Union, opposition to the 
iroD-clad oath in Missouri and the radical reconstruction policy of con- 

GovERNOR Charles H. Habdin 

gress in the South. Blair was candidate for vice-president on the 
natiooal Democratic ticket in 1868, but the oath rendered the party help- 
less in Missouri. Meanwhile the radicals or Republicans as they most 
be ctdled at least by 1867, were far from united. The liberal faction, 
led by Carl Scharz and B. Gratz Brown, were ea^r for a general am- 
nesty and the repeal of the oath in return for negro suffrage, while the 
more radical wing accepted negro suffrage but insisted that it was un- 
safe and unwise to repeal the oath. The common support of negro 
suffrage held these two discordant elements together and secured the 
election of Governor Joseph W. McClurg in 1868, but when the fif- 
teenth amendment to the national constitution gave the right to vote 
to the negro, the two factions split on the retention of the iron-clad 


oath. In 1870 they nominated separate state tickets, the liberals nomi- 
nating B. Gratz Brown, the radicals Governor McClurg. Public opinion 
had been steadily becoming more liberal, the characteristic conservatism 
of the people was reasserting itself, the carpet bag government and negro 
domination in the South was very unpopular in the state and serious 
charges had been brought against the honesty of the radical legislature 
in Missouri. The Democrats made no separate nomination and sup- 
ported Brown, who was elected. At the same time an overwhelming 
majority of the people voted to remove the iron-clad oath from the 

The same general influences that defeated the radicals in Missouri 
were weakening the national Republican party throughout the North. 
To organize this opposition, the liberal Republicans in Missouri pro- 
posed in 1872 a national convention at Cincinnati and the nomination of 
a national ticket. The invitation met a hearty response and the na- 
tional liberal Republican party was organized. The platform called for 
home rule in the South, reform all along the line and especially in the 
civil service and the tariff. But the convention very unwisely nomi- 
nated Horace Greeley, a disgruntled Republican, not at all representative 
of the party principles. Greeley carried Missouri, but was hopelessly 
beaten in the country, despite the relufetant support of the Democrats. 
In the state election the local liberal Republicans and Democrats made 
a formal alliance, dividing the state ticket between them. The Demo- 
crats received the governorship and after a long struggle between the 
discordant elements nominated Silas Woodson, a conservative moderate 
Union man, who had taken little part in the war. He was elected and 
the conservatives gained full control of the state government. 

After 1872 the liberal Republicans disappeared as a separate party, 
the majority of them joining the Democrats, thus making the party 
still more complex. The repeal of the test oaths in 1870 brought back 
the ex-Coofederates into politics, so that radical Unionists like Blair, 
men who had risen high in the Confederate army like Cockerell, 
conservative Whigs like Rollins and liberal Republican advocates of 
negro suffrage were all fighting under the same banner. The result was 
that for some years old antagonisms kept the more positive leaders in 
the background. In 1874 the Democrats nominated for governor and 
elected another conservative who had not taken an active part in the war, 
Charles H. Hardin. After long discussions the people at this election 
by a slight majority decided in favor of a new constitutional convention, 
which in 1875 drew the present frame of government of the state. It is 
chiefly remarkable for its ultra-conservatism and stringent limitations on 
the powers of the government state and local. In spite of frequent 
amendments, it is today quite inadequate for the new conditions. 

The United States senators during this period show clearly the kalei- 
doscopic changes in politics. Waldo P. Johnson, supposedly a mod- 
erate, succeeded Green in 1861, but both Polk and Johnson were ex- 
pelled from the United States senate for disloyalty. To succeed them 
the assembly elected B. Gratz Brown, a former Republican, and John 
B. Henderson a former Democrat, but both at that time uncompromising 
Unionists. Brown was succeeded in 1867 by Charles D. Drake, author 
of the iron-clad oath and Radical Republican, while two years later 
Henderson was supplanted by Carl Schurz. On the resignation of 
Drake, Prank P. Blair, in 1871, was chosen to complete the term, but 
in 1873 the Democrats found it impossible to agree on any positive 
candidate and finally selected a relatively obscure conservative, Louis 
V. Bogy. When Schurz 's term expired in 1875, however, the Democrats 
had to a great degree forgotten their former differences and elected 


Francis M. Cockrell, ex-brigadier-general in the Confederate army. 
Cockrell served continuously until the Republicans secured control of 
the assembly in 1904. 

While these changes and realignments were going on in politics the 
state was recovering from the losses incurred during the war. In spite 
of the abolition of slavery, the depredations of the guerrillas and the 
damage to the railroads the destruction of wealth was not very great. 
But local government broke down, taxes could not be collected, schools 
were closed and business almost at a standstill during the first year of 
the war. After Price was driven from the state, and Governor Gamble 
restored order and secured the withdrawal of most of the Federal 
troops, conditions north of the river became fairly normal except for 
the guerrillas. Even after the war was over these were a disturbing 
factor, now attacking banks and railroad trains instead of Union sym- 
pathizers and private enemies. Perhaps the most serious loss to the 
state during the war was in population. With the actual loss of life 
and the very large emigration of ex-Confederates to Colorado, Oregon 
and Montana, the population was probably no larger in 1865 than in 
1860. In the next seven years, however, there was a large immigration, 
particularly to the cities and from the old northwest into the cheap land 
in the southwestern part of the state. 

Financial Reorganization 

The finances of the state were one of the hardest of the problems of 
the period. Except for the Hannibal and ,St. Joseph, the railroads were 
quite unable to pay interest on the state bonds loaned to them, which, 
principal and accumulated interest, amounted to nearly thirty-two 
million dollars in 1865. Extraordinary war expenses brought the total 
debt up to about thirty-six million. The railroads had suffered severely 
during the war, were in deplorable physical condition, and quite unable 
to borrow money or pay the thirty-two million they owed the state. The 
state foreclosed its mortgages and was forced either to run them itself 
or to sell them. The latter alternative was chosen but the state realized 
only about six millions on the sales. Ugly stories of corruption, probably 
founded on fact, figured prominently in Missouri politics for years 
afterward. As the sales contained provisions for the completion and 
extension of the railroads the state really received more than the pur- 
chase price. 

In spite of this unfortunate experience the people eagerly welcomed 
new projects and aided them very liberally through city and county 
bond issues. Some of these projects were legitimate and resulted in 
new lines of great value, particularly the lines connecting Kansas City 
and St. Joseph with Chicago, but the larger number were fraudulent. 
The promoters, with or without the connivance of dishonest officials, 
secured the bonds, sold them to innocent third parties and never built 
the roads. To this day some of the poorer counties have been unable to 
redeem these railroad bonds. 

By heavy taxation, selling the railroads, holding back the school 
fund and using the large Federal grants made to reimburse the state 
for war expenditures, the radicals were able by 1869 to reduce the debt 
about one-third. When the conservative elements secured control in 
1870 and 1872 they cut down expenditures and steadily reduced the re- 
mainder. This was a period of expansion and inflation in business the 
country over, new settlers were coming to Missouri by the thousand and 
the state on the whole had more than regained the losses of the war 
when the national panic of 1873 brought widespread distress. The debts. 


state and local, became a serious burden, taxes were hard to pay and 
prosperity did not revive much before 1880. 

In spite of the confusion in politics and the feverish speculation and 
consequent collapse in business, the state was steadily advancing in the 
decade before 1875. Both the new constitutions provided for liberal ap- 
propriations for the schools, and the conservatives restored the school 
fund. The state made its first appropriation for the State University, 
and improved it by the addition of professional schools of agriculture, 
law, medicine and engineering. To supply the demand for trained teach- 
ers, a normal department was added to the University and three separate 
normal schools were established. Population was docking to the cities ; 
Hannibal and St. Joseph doubled in population, Kansas City grew from 
a little town of five thousand in 1860 to a bustling western city of over 
thirty thousand ten years later and was becoming the headquarters 
for trade to the west and southwest. St. Louis in 1870 was the largest 
city in the West and the third in the Union. The completion of the Eads 
bridge across the Mississippi in 1874 gave St. Louis for the first time un- 
interrupted rail communication with the East. But the confusion of the 
war and the rapid building of the railroads was ruining the river traffic, 
and Chicago with her better railroads and lake trade was already dis- 
puting St. Louis' supremacy. 

Missouri Since 1875 

Missouri politics for thirty years after 1875 seem monotonous and 
uneventful. Year after year the Democrats carried the state in national 
and state elections. The nominal issues were those of the reconstruc- 
tion times; the Democrats insisted on economy and conservatism and 
denounced the carpet bag regime in the South, the iron-clad oath, the 
sale of the railroads and the heavy debt in Missouri. As the party be- 
came better united, the more positive leaders came to the front. Gov- 
ernor John S. Phelps had served in congress from 1844 to 1862, had 
commanded a regiment in the Union army and had aided Blair in the 
re-organization of the Democratic party. He was succeeded by another 
Union Democrat, T. T. Critenden and he in turn by a Confederate 
brigadier-general, John S. Marmaduke. With Marmaduke the older line 
ends and" the later governors are younger men who took no part in the 
great sectional struggle. 

After the panic of 1873, the reconstruction issues although nominally 
dominant in politics, were really subordinate in the minds of the people 
to the newer economic and social problems. Times were hard and the 
westerners believed, rightly or wrongly, that their troubles were due 
to the excessive rates and discriminations of the railroads and to a cur- 
rency which enabled the East to exploit the West. In Missouri the de- 
mand that the government remedy these evils did not lead to any con- 
siderable third party movement, but the assembly made some attempt 
to regulate the railroads through a railroad commission. The demand 
for the free coinage of silver was generally endorsed and found one of 
its earliest and ablest champions at Washington in Richard P. Bland. 
In the eighties the revival of prosperity temporarily obscured this eco- 
nomic and social unrest and the Democrats maintained their unity. 
Governors D. R. Francis, a successful business man and efficient mayor of 
St. Louis, and W. J. Stone, a former member of congress received sub- 
stantial majorities. Francis was later a member of Cleveland's cab- 
inet and Stone has represented Missouri in the United States senate since 
1903 ; both are today among the most prominent men in the state. Until 
1903 the Democrats reelected to the United States senate Cockerell and 


Vest, first chosen in 1879, two senators who worthily continued the 
traditions of Benton, Henderson and Schurz. 

When the panic of 1893 brought the economic issues to the front once 
more, the old party cries lost their magic. The Missourians joined the 
new People's or Populist party by the thousand and in the off year of 
1894 in coalition with the Republicans elected a Republican superintend- 
ent of schools. Before the next national election, however, the radical 
or Populist wing had captured the national Democratic party. Its can- 
didate W. J. Bryan swept Missouri by tremendous majorities in both 
1896 and 1900, carrying with him the Democratic candidates for gov- 
ernor, L. V. Stephens and A. M. Dockery. 

Then came the first substantial Republican victory since 1868. The 
national Democratic candidate for president, Parker, was an easterner 
and a conservative, unacceptable to the radical element in the West, while 
the Republican candidate Theodore Roosevelt, apart from the currency 
issue, which renewed prosperity was driving into the background, repre- 
sented many of the reforms which the radicals desired. At the same 
time there was a revolt in the Democratic party against the older leaders 
under J. W. Folk, who secured the nomination on the issue of reform. 
The election resulted in the success of Roosevelt and Folk and the Re- 
publican candidates for the other state offices. The Republicans secured 
also a majority in the assembly and sent William Warner to the United 
States senate to succeed Cockrell. Four years later the split in the 
Democratic party still continued, Taft carried the state by a small ma- 
jority over Bryan, H. S. Hadley, the Republican candidate, was selected 
governor, but the Democrats captured the other state offices and a small 
majority in the assembly, which they held in 1912. The truth is that 
the older allegiance to party name and party machinery has broken 
down, the people more and more are voting intelligently on men and 
issues, and Missouri today is a doubtful state. 

After 1872 Missouri entered a new stage in her economic develop- 
ment. The good government land was all taken up and immigrants 
from the East went farther west in their search for cheap land. From 
1870 to 1890 the increase in population in the ten year period was about 
one-fourth, from 1890 to 1900 it fell to one-sixth and in the next decade 
was very small. After 1880 the increase was to be found chiefly in the 
cities. As far as an agricultural population was concerned, the state had 
reached the limit of rapid growth. The future development of the state 
must be along the lines of manufacturing and varied industries, although 
scientific farming is already checking the decline of agriculture. The 
manufacturing interests have grown steadily since the war. St. Louis 
ranks high in the boot and shoe and tobacco industries, while Kansas City 
and St. Joseph are among the most important meat packing centers in the 
country. The rapid development of the southwest is today of great 
advantage to these cities, which as in the days of the old Santa Fe Trail 
control the trade routes. In the extreme southwestern part of the state 
the zinc and lead mines, all developed since the war, have produced a 
group of prosperous and growing cities unknown in 1870; Springfield 
also has shared in their prosperity. While the great majority of Mis- 
sourians are still farmers, the state has passed definitely out of the ex- 
clusively agricultural stage in her history. 



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Proclamation Admitting irissouBi to the Union — Facsimile 
PROM THE Original 



By E. E. Swain, KirksvUle* 

Early Settlements 

Excepting those on the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, Adair was 
one of the first counties of Northeast Missouri to be settled. 

The first party of whites came in 1828, from Howard county. The 
men who composed this band of settlers, according to tradition, were 
James Myers, Isaac Gross, Stephen Gross, Nathan Richardson, Reuben 
Myrtle and Jacob Qupp. All except Gupp are supposed to have been 
married. They located on the east side of the Chariton river about six 
miles west of the present site of Kirksville. They built three cabins, 
from which the settlement became known as **The Cabins.'' This set- 
tlement was broken up the next year by what is known as the *'Big 
Neck War.'' Some Indians came down from Iowa, bent on making 
trouble. The little band, after having had some hogs killed by the in- 
vaders, sent to Randolph county for aid. Twenty-six men came to help 
the settlers rid themselves of the Indians. A battle .was fought in which 
three white men, John Myers, James Winn and Powell Owenby, were 
killed. The Indians were well-armed and it is thought that the attempt 
of the whites to make them give up their arms brought on the fight. 

After the contest the Indians withdrew to Iowa. The whites thought 
it best to retire to Randolph county, although by this time troops from 
several other counties and two hundred United States troops from St. 
liouis had arrived on the scene to protect them. 

According to tradition the settlement of ''The Cabins" was restored 
in 1830. John Cain, Andrew Bozarth, Isaac Parton and possibly others 
came to the settlement about that time. It is said that John Cain bought 
the claims of the Myers family to the land around the settlement, for a 
pair of shoe leathers. Between 1830 and 1840, settlements were made in 
all parts of the county. 

Persons who are known to have settled in Adair county before 1841, 
besides those already mentioned, are : Frank Adkins, James A. Adkins, 
Hiram Bozarth, Washington Conner, Lewis Earhart, Samuel Eaton, Ben- 
jamin Ely, K. S. Filts, Jack Floyd, Nathaniel Floyd, William A. Floyd, 
Jesse Gilstrap, James H. Ginnings, William Hurley, Isaac Hargis, 
Charles Hatfield, William Horton, Samuel Hay, David James, William 
B. Jones, Jesse Jones, John Lesley, A. H. Linder, John Morrow, John 
Murphy, John Myers, Jr., Robert Myers, Fray el Myers, Robert Miller, 

• In the preparation of the sketch of Adair county the contribiitinfj editor wishes 
to acknowledge an extensive use of the * * History of Adair County " by E. M. Violette, 
professor of history at the State Normal School No. 1, at Kirksville. 



Canada Owenby, William Parcells, Hartin Parton, Thomas Parton, 
Josiah Rogers, Hiram Reed, John Shibley, David E. Stone, Edward 
Stewart, Coleman Stewart, John Stewart, Andrew Thompson and Jesse 
Walker. Many women and children also came into the county during 
that time. 

There were no troubles with the Indians after 1845. In 1832, the 
year of the Black Hawk war, a fort known as Port Madison, was built 
in the northern part of what is now Polk township, to furnish protection 
against the Indians. After about 1835, the red men did not offer vio- 
lence to any of the whites, but contented themselves with killing their 
hogs and other stock. 


The county was organized in 1841, being taken from the territory at- 
tached to Macon county. The territory to the north of the new county 
was attached to it for purposes of government. This was erected into 
Schuyler county in 1843, but was not completely severed from Adair 
county until 1845. Putnam county, which was organized in 1843, was 
attached to Adair county until 1845. 

It is probable that there were less than one thousand people in Adair 
county when it was organized. The early settlers came from other coun- 
ties of Missouri to the southward, especially from Howard and other 
counties bordering on the Missouri river. Some came also from Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Ohio and Illinois. The life of the pioneer was hard, 
just as it was elsewhere. Farming was done under difficulties. Farms 
in the timbered region had to be cleared first and this meant much hard 
work. Because of the scarcity of oxen and plows, persons living near 
each other would often join and do the plowing on their farms together, 
taking them one at a time. 

Grain was ground at first by hand-mills which the pioneers brought 
with them. Horse and water mills soon came into use and a steam mill 
was built about 1850 by a German colony near Nineveh. A tan yard was 
established in 1837 by Washington Conner. 

The trading posts for the earliest settlers were Hannibal, Quincy 
and Huntsville, the two first named on the Mississippi river, to the east- 
ward, and the last named to the southward in Randolph county. Mail 
was carried across the county at first on horseback and later in stage 

The County's Growth 

Adair county has grown both steadily and substantially. The census 
reports show its population as follows: 1850, 2,342; 1860, 8,531; 1870, 
11,448; 1880, 15,190; 1890, 17,417; 1900, 21,728; 1910, 22,700. 

The county was one of the seven in Northeast Missouri that showed 
an increase in population between 1900 and 1910. An increase in the 
wealth of the county accompanied the gain in population. From $49,946 
in 1845, the assessed valuation of property grew to $3,176,789 in 1880, 
and $5,8^,078 in 1910. The actual valuation is, of course, several times 
the assessed property valuation. 

When the county was organized in 1845 it was composed of five town- 
ships: Morrow, Benton, Liberty^ Pettis and Wilson. Five additional 
townships have since been formed : Nineveh, Polk, Clay, Salt River and 

County Officers 

The first county oflScers were appointed in 1841 and held office until 
the election of 1842. Samuel Easton, Joseph Ringo and John Morrow 


were the first judges of 'the county court; Isaac Eby was the first sheriff, 
and David James was the first clerk of the county and circuit courts. 
Until 1872, when the office of county collector was established, the sheriff 
went around the county and collected the taxes. 

The other first county officers were : James A. Clark, circuit judge ; 
B. F. Stringf ellow, circuit attorney ; Thoret Rose, assessor ; W. C. War- 
rener, treasurer. The office of coroner was created in 1846 and David 
Smith was the first incumbent. Grant Corbin was the first recorder, be- 
ing chosen after the office was created in 1898. The first county collector 
was A. J. Ejiight, chosen in 1873, and the first county superintendent 
was Robert Mercer, chosen in 1867. Guy Chandler, chosen in 1869, 
was the first public administrator, and J. D. Stephens, chosen in. 1879, 
was the first probate judge. 

The present county officers are: Aaron P. Hopson, presiding judge 
of the county court; Jacob H. Shoop, judge of the county court from 
the first district ; Seymour J. Reed, judge of the county court from the 
second district; U. S. G. Keller, probate judge; Ed Rorabaugh, clerk 
of the circuit court ; John T. Waddill, clerk of the county court ; Grove 
Lowrance, recorder of deeds; Glenn C. Weatherby, prosecuting attor- 
ney; George F. Williams, sheriff; Ulysses G. Downing, collector; 
W. S. PoUey, assessor; H. C. Worman, treasurer; Foster R. Easley, 
coroner; George E. McDowell, public administrator; Tyler Paine, sur- 
veyor; L. B. Sipple, superintendent of public schools. 

The first court house of Adair county was a temporary, one-story 
brick structure, which cost about $1,000. It was built in 1843. A 
second building was erected between 1853 and 1855. This cost about 
$2,350, and was used until it was destroyed by fire in 1865. More than 
thirty years passed before Adair county had another court house. 
Four propositions were submitted before a fifth effort was successful. 
In 1897, at a special election, $50,000 in bonds was voted for a court 
house and jail. The vote was 1,933 for and 650 against the proposition. 
The building was completed in 1899. 

The county had contracted bonded indebtedness for other purposes 
than building the courthouse. The First District State Normal School 
was secured for Kirksville by issuing $78,000 in bonds. This issue was 
authorized in 1871. In the following year $75,000 was issued for the 
Q. M. & P. Railroad. This amount was to be granted to the road as 
soon as it was built to Kirksville. Benton township voted $40,000 and 
Salt River township $6,000 for the same railroad. In 1906, $17,000 in 
bonds was voted to build a county jail. 

In the Civil War 

Adair county took an active part in the Civil war. Slavery had 
never been an extensive institution here, there being only fifty-one 
slaves in the county in 1850 and eighty-six in 1860. Many of the 
early settlers had come from Kentucky or were of Southern descent and 
there was much sympathy with the South, but when the issue became 
clearly drawn between North and South, Adair county sided with the 
North. Even many of the Southern sympathizers were unable to agree 
with the doctrine of secession, so the only thing they could do when the 
Southern states began to secede was to oppose their action. 

The first expression of the county's attitude was probably at the 
election of delegates to the state convention called by Governor Jack- 
son to consider the question of secession. This election was held on Feb- 
ruary 18, 1861, with two tickets in the field — one an unconditional 
Union ticket and the other a conditional Union ticket. The candidates 


on the first ticket, Frederick Rowland, of Marion county, Joseph M. 
Irwin, of Shelby county and John D. Foster, of Adair county, were 
elected by a decisive majority, carrying both Adair county and the dis- 
trict as a whole. 

Several war mass meetings were held in Kirksville during the spring 
of 1861. W. T. Davis and Tom Brannon addressed those made up of 
Southern sympathizers. Meetings of Northern sympathizers were also 
held and it is said that at one large Union meeting, held on May 27, 
much enthusiasm was aroused by the sight of an aged man named Fos- 
ter, the father of Adair county's delegate to the state convention, carry- 
ing an American flag. Mr. Foster was a heavy slave owner. 

Confederate troops were recruited from this county during May and 
June, 1861. W. T. Davis and E. M. C. Morelock, editor of the Kirfa^ 
ville Democrat, a weekly newspaper, are thought to have been the leaders 
of the movement. In August, of the same year a part of the Third 
Iowa Regiment came to KirksvUle and put a stop to this work. It is 
said that not less than three hundred men joined the Confederate 
army while enlistments were being made and that many others slipped 
out of the county later and joined the Confederates. 

In some of the counties of the state. Union S3nnpathizers were per- 
mitted to kill Southerners against whom they had an old grudge and go 
anpunished. This was not true in Adair, however. On July 4, 1861, a 
Union man named Ward, stabbed and killed a Southern man named 
Sumter. As he had a bad reputation previously, while Sumter had been 
quiet and inoffensive, Ward was put in jail and a few nights later he was 
taken out and hanged. No investigation of the lynching was made. 

Adair county furnished at least four hundred and seventeen men to 
the Northern armies. This number, which is one hundred and sixty 
more than was called for, is the number which has been credited to the 
county. It does not include those men who enlisted outside the county 
or those who enlisted in 1865. 

Companies of Home Guards were organized in Adair county in 1861, 
some of which remained in the service only three months. There were 
at least three companies which disbanded after ninety days and there 
were many others organized during the war, which were in the service 
for several years. Some of these troops were organized into Com- 
panies A and B, of the Twenty-second Infantry, Missouri Volunteers. 
The work of recruiting men for these two Adair county companies and 
of getting them into service was facilitated by the arrival in KirksviUe 
in July of some detachments of the Third Iowa Infantry, already spoken 
of, and the Sixteenth Illinois Infantry. These troops helped not only 
in recruiting Federal soldiers, but also in running down Confederate 
recruits and recruiting officers. 

The first military event of the war in Adair county occurred on 
August 19, 1861, a few miles northeast of Kirksville, between a squad 
of twelve men from the two Adair county companies and a squad of 
Confederate recruits under Captain Robert Hagar, of Monroe county. 
The Union men were scouting around, trying to find a Colonel Green, 
who was a successful Confederate recruiting officer. When at dinner at 
the house of a Union man, the Union troops were attacked and Corporal 
Hervey Dix, of Company D, Third Iowa Infantry, their leader, was 
killed in the fight that ensued. The appearance of Confederate rein- 
forcements under Captain W. S. Richardson, of Lewis county, compelled 
the squad of Federals to flee as best they could. 

Some of the Union soldiers from Adair county saw service in the 
South. In the Twenty-seventh Infantry, Missouri Volunteers, there 
were companies, C and D, which were made up largely of men from 


Adair county. This regiment was first sent to RoUa, Missouri, then or- 
dered to Vicksburg, where it participated in the capture of that place. 
It was also in Sherman's march from Corinth to Chattanooga, and took 
part in the fights at Tuscumbia, Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge. 
Later it took part in the siege of Atlanta and the march to the sea, 
assisting in the taking of Savannah. It was also in the engagement 
aigainst General Joe Johnston at Bentonville, North Carolina, and was 
mustered out of service June 13, 1865. 

Adair county troops in the Thirty-ninth Infantry of Missouri Vol- 
unteers were in the famous Centralia Massacre. Company A, under 
Captain James A. Smith, and Company B, under Joseph R. Good, 
were made up largely of men from Adair county. The companies of 
the regiment were recruited in August, 1864, and in September, of the 
same year, were put on the trail of bushwhackers in Northeast Missouri. 
During the movements, Major A. V. E. Johnson started from Paris 
with parts of Companies A, E and H, and followed the trail of Bill 
Anderson, the famous guerrilla, until he found him at Centralia on 
September 27th. Coming into Centralia with only about one hundred 
and seventy-five men. Major Johnson, against the advice of citizens of 
Centralia, decided to attack Anderson, who had stationed himself in the 
timber near the city. Anderson had the advantage of position and 
superior troops as well as of numbers. Johnson had to leave fifty of 
his men to take care of the horses and wagons, while Anderson had 
more than three hundred men ready to fight. Company A was almost 
wiped out in the struggle that took place. Few of Anderson's men were 
killed or wounded. According to Lieutenant Colonel Kutzner's report, 
one hundred and twenty-two Federal troops, including Major Johnson, 
were killed — all within a few minutes. 

The Battle op Kibksville 

Of Adair's part in the Civil war, probably the most important 
part remains to be told — the battle of Kirksville. Although relatively 
unimportant as a battle, it was the only engagement of any size that 
took place in the county. 

Joseph C. Porter, a lieutenant colonel in the Confederate army, was 
enlisting troops in Northeast Missouri. He was trying to gather as 
large an araay as possible and move it to Arkansas, where it could join 
the forces that were gathering there. The Federals decided to attack 
the Southern troops and crush them before they became too well organ- 
ized. Colonel McNeil, of St. Louis, with twelve hundred and fifty men, 
largely directed the attack. 

From a camp in Lewis county. Porter started southward, keeping 
constantly on the move to escape attack and to increase the number of 
his enlistments. He was reinforced when he reached Callaway county, 
so that he had in all two hundred and sixty men. Porter then turned 
northward again, sending detachments to Paris and Canton to capture 
these places. A courier from Captain Tice Cain brought him the in- 
formation that Cain and his Schuyler county men had entered Kirks- 
ville and had taken it. This news caused Porter and his men to join 
The combined force under Porter now numbered about two thousand. 
Cain at Kirksville, near which place they might bring on an engagement. 
Of this number only about five hundred were well armed, while five 
hundred were fairly armed and one thousand were not armed at all. 
The large number of unarmed men is accounted for by the fact that 
Porter was gathering up recruits rapidly, many of whom had no arms 


of their own and could not get any until they reached the main Confed- 
erate army in Arkansas. 

On reaching Kirksville, Porter warned the people to get out of town. 
Some of his troops barricaded themselves in houses and drew up his 
main line of defense behind a rail fence. Kirksville was then a small 
village, having a population of less than eight hundred. 

McNeil's forces arrived at the edge of Kirksville about 10 o'clock 
on the morning of August 6th. After ascertaining the position of the 
enemy at the loss of several of his men, McNeil attacked Porter. After 
a hot fight in which Porter's men were driven out of a cornfield by a 
battery of five guns and the public square was taken after a struggle, 
Porter was driven out of the town. McNeil's troops were too fatigued 
to offer pursuit very long, so most of Porter's army escaped, although 
they lost some supplies. The loss on both sides is unknown. The num- 
ber of Union men killed has been given as fiv6 by one authority and as 
twenty-eight by another. Of Porter's twp thousand men, only about 
five hundred were able to take part in the battle. The number of Con- 
federates killed is variously estimated all the way from thirty-five to 
one hundred and fifty; the wounded from seventy-five to four hundred; 
and the captured from fifty to two hundred and fifty. McNeil's force 
is said to have consisted of about one thousand men, of which number 
probably more than half took part in the fight. 

The Confederate wounded were in a frightful condition after the 
battle. Finally, John L. Porter, then deputy circuit clerk and recorder 
of Adair county, a Southern sympathizer as well as a friend of McNeil, 
succeeded in getting a Federal surgeon to attend to the wounded. The 
Federal wounded were cared for east of Kirksville until they could be 
brought into the city. If the citizens had not acted on the advice of 
the Confederate leaders and left the town, many would have been killed. 
As it was, one woman, Mrs. Elizabeth Coots, was mortally wounded. 

On the day of the battle, fifteen Confederates, who had been cap- 
tured in the fight, were executed because of alleged violation of their 
paroles. They were: William Bates, R. M. Galbreath, Lewis Rollins, 
William Wilson, Columbus Harris, Reuben Thomas (or Thompson), 
Thomas Webb and Reuben Gbreen, of Monroe county; James Chnstian, 
David Wood and Bennett Hayden, of Shelby county; William Bailee 
and Hamilton Brannon, of Marion county; and John Kent, of Adair 
county. On the second day after the battle Colonel Frisby H. McCol- 
lough, a successful Confederate recruiting officer, was also executed. 

The importance of the battle of Kirksville has never been recognized 
by some. The Union officers congratulated themselves because they 
were rid of a dangerous enemy. Porter was never able to recover fully 
from the defeat he met with at Kirksville. He kept up his recruiting, 
but was less successful. What he might have done had he won the battle 
instead of losing it, is problematical. It was an important part of the 
desperate effort made by the Confederates to force Missouri out of Vie 

The Reuoious Progress 

The earliest religious denominations in Adair county were the Baptists 
and Methodists. It is impossible to tell which came first. The first 
preacher who is known to have preached in the county was the Rev. 
Abram Still, father of Dr. A. T. Still, who came to Macon county in 
1836. He frequently preached in what is now Adair county until he 
left for Kansas in the forties. He is said to have delivered the first 
sermon ever preached in Kirksville. 

Religious services were held at first at very irregular intervals. 


Then circuit riders began to have regular appointments. It was some 
time until services were held every Sunday, however. The lack of 
regular services was often made up for by having camp meetings at 
which religious meetings were conducted for several days. The first 
camp meeting in the county is said to have been one held by the Rev. 
James Dysart and the Rev. Robert Mitchell at Lesley's Ford on the 
Chariton river, some time in the forties. 

Church buildings, when any were erected, were simple, inexpensive 
frame structures. The Civil war brought about peculiar conditions in 
the churches of the county. In an eflEort to get on their feet again, they 
permitted doctrinal differences to get the better of them and denomi- 
national strife became bitter. Nearly every sermon was doctrinal and 
any stranger could tell to what denomination the preacher belonged by 
listening to him a few minutes. Religious debates began to be held. 
They seem to have been most frequent and most thoroughly enjoyed in 
1878. Probably the most interesting debate was one held between Dr. 
Jacob Ditzler, a noted Methodist preacher, and Professor Jamison, a 
Liberalist residing in Kirksville at the time. The four propositions dis- 
cussed by the debaters were: (1) The Old and New Testaments are 
the inspired revelation of God to man. Ditzler upheld the affirmative. 
(2) The Bible is merely a human production, abounds in contradictions 
and conflicts with success. Jamison upheld the affirmative. (3) In- 
fidelity and materialism tend to immorality and to the injury of society. 
Ditzler upheld the affirmative. (4) The Christian religion and the 
Bible tend to immorality and the injury of society. Jamison upheld 
the affirmative. 

Argumentative addresses of all kinds were frequent. Spiritualism 
and astronomical subjects were among those discussed. President Bald- 
win, of the State Normal School was one of those who spoke in oppo- 
sition to spiritualism. The debates were not only between the orthodox 
and the heterodox, but were sometimes between those who were strictly 
orthodox. Baptism and predestination were favorite subjects for these 

The denominations now represented in the county include the Meth- 
odists, the United Brethren, the Presbyterians, the Missionary Baptists, 
the Free WiU Baptists, the Christians, the Catholics and the Episco- 
palians. The Methodist Episcopal church has congregations at Kirks- 
ville, where they have a fine church building; Brashear, Novinger, Con- 
nelsville, Sabbath Home, Bethel, Cater Memorial and Bullion. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has churches in the county, also. 
The church at Kirksville has a large brick building. There are also 
congregations at Brashear, Trinity, Gibbs and Curtis, in Clay township. 

The United Brethren have congregations at Brashear, Gibbs, Prairie 
View, Green Grove, Prairie Bend and one six miles northeast of Kirks- 
ville. This denomination has split into two branches. Some of the con- 
gregations in Adair county belong to the branch known as th^ Liberals, 
some to the branch known as the Radicals. There are churches at 
each of the places named above ; at Gibbs there are two. 

The Baptists have always been strong in Adair county. The oldest 
Baptist organization in the county is the Bear Creek church, which was 
organized in 1840 by the Rev. Talbot Hight. The denomination also 
has churches at Kirksville, Novinger, Millard, three in the country in 
Clay township, Wilsontown, and one in Walnut township called Morris 
church. The congregation at Kirksville expended $12,000 in rebuild- 
ing their church building in 1910, after it had been badly damaged by 

, There are four Free Will Baptist congregations in the county — ^at 
Jewell, Connelsville, Bethel and Sublett. 

Vol. 1—1 2 


The Christian church has congregations at Kirksville, Brashear, 
Gibbs, Illinois Bend and Star. 

The Cumberland Presbyterians were a denomination of some 
strength in Adair county when they united with the Presbyterians in 
1906. The Cumberlands had a good church building in Kirksville, 
which is now used for the united congregations. There is also a Pres- 
byterian congregation at Millard. The Cumberland churches at Mul- 
berry and Mount Moriah became Presbyterian churches at the time of 
the union. 

There is an Episcopal church at Kirksville and there are Catholic 
churches at Adair, Kirksville and Novinger. The Catholic church at 
Adair is very strong. The Lutherans, Universalists, Swedenborgians 
Spiritualists, Holiness church and Salvation Army have had congrega- 
tions in the county at diflPerent times. 

Schools in the County 

The schools in Adair county in early days were, like those elsewhere, 
not up to the standards of today. In 1855 there were only six school 
buildings in the county. There were six teachers, all men, who received 
an average salary of $13.00 a month. Out of one thousand and thirty- 
seven children of school age only one hundred and sixty-eight were 
enrolled in these schools. 

Interest in schools soon began to increase, however. By 1857 the 
number of school houses had increased to twenty-six and the number of 
teachers to thirty-eight, five of whom were women. The percentage of 
enrollment had also increased, for out of an enumeration of 2,913, 1,152 
were enrolled in the schools. 

The Civil war caused practically all the schools of the county to sus- 
pend or at least continue irregularly. The condition at the close of the 
war was as good as could be expected. Out of an enumeration of 
13,937, 2,574 were attending school. There were seventy-one teachers, 
of which thirty-seven were women. The decrease in the proportion of 
men teaching in the schools is noticeable in Adair county as elsewhere. 

Efforts made throughout the state from 1865 to 1875 to unify the 
school system brought good results in Adair county. By 1872 there 
were seventy-four school districts in the county. At the present time 
there are eighty districts. Each district, with the exception of five, 
has a board of directors composed of three members elected for three 
years, one member retiring every year. Kirksville, Novinger, Brashear, 
Connelsville and Wilmathsville have boards of six ipembers, two retir- 
ing every year. 

The size of the districts varies. In the western part of the county 
they are three miles square, as a rule, but in the eastern part they are 
of several diflPerent sizes. There has been little tendency toward district 
consolidation, although there is need for it in several instances. 

The schools of the county cost about $50,000 a year, of which the 
state pays about $10,000. The average teacher's salary is about $42.50. 

At Kirksville there are three public schools, occupying substantial 
brick buildings. There is also a good high school, which is accredited 
by the University of Missouri. Good schools are also found at Novinger, 
Brashear, Gibbs and Connelsville as well as in country districts. 

The First District State Normal School of Missouri is located in 
Adair county, at Kirksville. It was established by act of the legislature 
in 1870, which created two normal school districts in the state, and 
made provision for the location of a state normal school in each. The 
first normal school was located at Kirksville, while the second district 


normal school was located at Warrensbui^. The citlzeuB of Adair 
county had voted bonds not to exceed $100,000 in all for the location of 
the first district school at Kirksville. Livingston county offered $60,000 
to have it located at Cliillicothe. The proposition made by Adair county 
was accepted unaniniouBly by the board of regents appointed by the 
legislature after the people of the county had voted in favor of it, 629 
to 189. The actual expenditure by Adair county was $76,000. 

The buildings occupied by the North Missouri Normal School were 
taken over by the state normal and President Baldwin, who had 
founded the first named school in 1867, became president of the new 
institution. A new building, to cost $51,400, was begun. It developed 
after the contract had been let that this amount did not call for a com- 
pleted building, but only for the enclosure, so the legislature appropriated 
$50,000 to complete the structure. 

The school has had four presidents besides its first one. President 

- State Normal School, No. 1, Kirksville 

Joseph Baldwin. John R. Kirk is the present president. The school 
has had for several years an enrollment of considerably more than one 
thousand each year. For the year ending August 31, 1911, the enroll- 
ment was 1,405. 

Besides the public educational institutions, Kirksville also has a 
Bcbool which attracts students from all over the United States — the 
American School of Osteopathy. It was founded by Dr. A. T. Still, 
founder of the science of osteopathy. When Doctor Still made his 
discoveries, he was living at Baldwin, Kansas, the home of Baker Uni- 
versity, a Methodist institution which he and his relatives had helped 
materially to get started several years before. When he asked the 
privilege of explaining his new-found science in the school, he was flatly 
refused. Finding Kansas an unwelcome field he came to Missouri in 
1875 and settled at Kirksville. Doctor Still and his sons made slow 
progress in spreading the discovery, but after some years of hard work, 
success came to them. By 1891 patients began to come to Doctor Still 


from all parts of the country. Sometimes he would have from one 
hundred t« 125 in a week. In May, 1892, Doctor Still incorporated the 
American School of Osteopathy. The school has grown from homble 
beginnings to an institution of much influence. The enrollment haa 
increased rapidly and in 1910 there were 153 in the graduating claas, 
making a total of 2,997 graduates of the school. The science of oste- 
opathy haa been legalized in Miseouri and has also been given recognition 
by law in forty-one other states and territories, and one province in 

Prom 1897 to 1900 there was a second school of osteopathy in Kirks- 
ville — ^tbe Columbian School, This was founded by Dr. M. L. Ward. 
The school went out of existence after many diSiculti^ 

President Joseph Baldwin 

History of the Newspai'Ebs 

The first newspaper published in Adair county was the KirksviUfl 
Enterprise, established about 1856. L. F. Walden is said to have been 
its first editor and publisher. 

The newspapers and periodicals published in the county et the pres- 
ent time are : The Democrat, the Journal, the Graphic, the Tan Ouard 
and the Daily Express, the first four weekly and the last named daily, 
the Normal School Index, a weekly, and the Journal of Osteopathy and 
Atlas Bulletin, monthlies, all published at Kirksville; the Free Press, 
published at Novinger ; and the News, published at Brasbear. The last 
two mentioned newspapers are weeklies. 


The county has been Republican most of the time since the Civil war, 
although nominees of that party have been defeated several times. Dur- 
ing the life of the Greenback party in Missouri the Republicans were 
beaten by a fusion of Greenbackera and Democrats. At the present 
time the county court is Democratic for the second time since the war. 
All but one of the other county officers are Republican, however, 

Fabm Interests 

The chief industry of the county is, aud always has been, that of 
farming. The county ranks third in the state in the number of tons of 
coal mined, but its agricultural interests exceed even its mining inter- 
ests. The comity has a corn acreage of about sixty-three thousand. 
The acreage of hay and forage is even greater than this. Some oats and 
a little wheat are grown. 

An Adaib County Coal Mine 

- The county also ranks well in live stock. Cattle, sheep and hogs are 
' found in large numbers. The live stock of the county is estimated 
to be worth about $3,000,000. Much poultry is also raised. 

The largest manufacturing establishment in the county is the fac- 
tory of the Friedman-Shelby Shoe Company, whose home office ia at 
St. Lonis. This factory was built in EorkariUe in 1908, after the 
citizens had given the company $60,000 in cash, a free site for the boild- 
ing and had promised free water for five years. The factory employs 
three hundred people and the weekly pay-roll is about $2,500. The 
daily output of shoes is twelve hundred pairs. 

Coal MiNiNa 

The county began to be important in the mining of coal about 1900. 
Coal had been mined since 1688, but the county did not rank among the 
leading counties in the state until 1900. Since 1902 it has produced 
from five hundred thousand to seven hundred and ten thonsand tons 
of coal a year. In 1905 it ranked second among the counties in the 
state in the number of tous mined. Since that year it has ruiked 


third. The coal fields are for the most part in the western and north- 
western parts of the county. There are at least three veins of coal depos- 
its. The first one is found in the hills in and around Stahl and seems 
to be confined to that part of the county altogether. The second vein 
extends rather generally throughout the coal fields of the county and is 
found at a depth varying from fifty to seventy-five feet. The third vein 
underlies the second at a depth of about one hundred and fifty feet and 
has been found at Stahl, Connelsville, Novinger and perhaps elsewhere. 
The veins vary in thickness from twenty-four to forty-four inches. 
There are in the county now shaft, slope and drift mines in operation. 
The first mining machinery in the county was installed at Stahl in 1907. 

The coal industry of the county has gi^en rise to several towns, as 
well as increased the size of others. Stahl, Novinger and Connelsville 
owe their existence to the fact that under and around them lie great beds 
of coal which have been operated to a great extent. Novinger, espe- 
cially, has benefited by the coal industry. While ten or twelve years 
ago it was a little village of about a dozen houses, it is now a town of 
two thousand population and has just begun its growth. 

The first coal company to do business in the county that repre- 
sented much capital was the Pennsylvania Coal Company. This 
company purchased, in 1837, the mines at Stahl and Danforth and oper- 
ated them both. The company's name has since been changed to the 
Stahl Coal Company. There are now four large mining companies at 
Novinger, — ^the Kansas City Midland Company, the Manufacturers' 
Coke and Coal Company, the Great Northern Fuel Company and the 
Rombauer Coal Company. 


Four railroads pass through Adair county. They are the Iowa & St. 
Louis, the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City, the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe and the Wabash. 

The first to be built was the Wabash, which was known at first as the 
North Missouri Railroad. It was built from St. Louis through Adair 
county and northward to the Missouri-Iowa state line by December, 
1868. There was a great celebration when the road was completed as 
far as Kirksville on July 4th. On July 18, 1868, an excursion train 
was run over the new road from Macon to Kirksville. This was the 
first time a railroad train had ever been seen in Adair county. It 
stopped at each station along the route while the band played. Two 
hours were required to make the trip. The name of the railroad was 
changed, in 1872, to the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern. It was 
taken over by the Wabash company in 1889. 

The Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City Railroad was built through 
the eastern half of the county to Kirksville in 1872. The road was 
later built on to the westward. The Burlington has acquired this rail- 
road and it is now known as the **0. K." or Quincy route. It runs 
from Quincy to Kansas City and Omaha. 

There are two railroads, the Santa Fe and the Iowa & St. Louis, 
that do not pass through Kirksville. The Santa Fe was built through 
the county in 1888. The only important station on the Santa Fe in 
Adair county is Gibbs. The Iowa & St. Louis Railroad was built 
through the county in the last ten years. It runs from Sedan, Iowa, 
to Elmer, Macon county, Missouri. The road is now o^^Tied by the 
Burlington system. It was originally built to open up rich coal mines. 
Yarrow, Youngstown, Novinger, Connelsville and Hiberton are all on 
the route of this road through Adair county. 


There are ten banks in the county. Four of the banks are in Kirks- 
ville. There are two at Brashear and Novinger and one at Connelsville 
and Gibbs. The first bank organized in the county was the Kirksville 
branch of the Bank of St. Louis, which was opened for business in 
November, 1859. The second bank, the Kirksville Savings Bank, was 
established in 1873. All the other banks have been founded since 1890. 
There has never been a bank failure in the county. 

County Towns 

The largest town in Adair county is Kirksville, the county seat. 
According to the 1910 census, it had a population of 6,347. It was laid 
out in 1841, at which time Jesse Kirk, David E. Sloan and possibly 
others were living in the vicinity. It was incorporated in 1857. 

The city was visited by a cyclone on April 27, 1899, in which twenty- 
eight people were killed. Much damage was done to property. Some 
little damage has been done from time to time by water. 

Kirksville has been without open saloons for the last five years. At 
an election held in June, 1912, the city voted against the sale of liquor 
for four years more. 

Brashear, in the eastern part of the county, on the Quincy, Omaha 
& Kansas City Railroad, was laid out in 1872. It had a population of 
458 in 1910. 

Nineveh was founded by German communists who came from Bethel, 
Shelby county, Missouri. Their leader was Dr. William Keil. The 
colony was dissolved soon after the death of Dr. Keil in 1877. The com- 
munity still exists, however. Most of its members have joined other 

Connelsville, incorporated in 1904, has a population of 652. Coal 
mining is the chief industry in this vicinity. 

Novinger, founded by and named for John C. Novinger, who lived 
in the neighborhood, is the junction point of the Iowa & St. Louis and 
Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City Railroads. It has a population of about 
two thousand and is a coal mining center. 

Gibbs, in the southeastern part of the county, on the Santa Fe 
Railroad, has a population of about 250. It is a grain and stock ship- 
ping center for farmers in three counties. 

Stahl, a coal mining town on the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas City Rail- 
road; Shibley's Point, three miles northeast of Stahl; Adair, a Catholic 
community; Wilmathsville, in the northeast part of the county; Sub- 
lett, a shipping point on the Wabash; and Millard, also a shipping 
point on the Wabash, are unincorporated villages. 

Other communities in the county are Danforth, Youngstown, Nind, 
Yarrow and Wilsontown. Danforth is on the Quincy, Omaha & Kansas 
City and Youngstown and Yarrow on the lowar & St. Louis Railroad. 

By George Robertson, Mexico** 

Audrain county was the forty-seventh county organized in the state 
of Missouri. It was originally a portion of St Charles county. Its 
area consists of about 440,000 acres. It is bounded on the north by 
Monroe and Ralls, on the east by Pike and Montgomery, on the south 
by Montgomery, Callaway and Boone and on the west by Boone and 
Randolph' counties. It lies on the divide between the Missouri and 
Mississippi rivers. Some of the streams heading in the county flow into 
one river and some into the other. 

As the territory of St. Charles county was sub-divided into other 
counties by the territorial legislature, and the general assembly of the 
state after the adoption of the constitution of 1820, an unorganized 
piece of territory surrounded by other counties was left within the 
boundaries of no organized county. When Montgomery county was 
organized December 14, 1818, the unorganized territory west of it was 
attached to that county for military and civil purposes. Callaway, 
Boone and Ralls counties were created, however, in 1820, and for civil 
and military purposes, parts of what is now Audrain county were 
attached to them, and when Monroe county was organized January 6, 
1831, a portion of the unorganized territory south was attached. This 
accounts for the fact that some of the early conveyances and records of 
Audrain county are found in the counties adjoining. 

The legislature of 1830 discovering the fact of the unorganized ter- 
ritory, since composing Audrain county, two bills were introduced into 
the house constructing that territory into a county. One proposed 
to name it Union county, the other **Ioway" county. The bill giving 
it the name of Union county passed the house and, on being taken up in 
the senate, was so amended as to give it the name of Audrain county, 
in honor of the senator from the Eighth district, composed of Lincoln 
and St. Charles counties, James H. Audrain, who had died during the 
session.* . 

* Senate Journal, 1830. 

** It is not claimed that this sketch of Audrain county is in all things accurate, 
neither that it is sufficiently complete to arise to the dignity of a history of the county. 
There are many matters within the scope of the real history of the people of the 
county not even touched upon. So far as it goes, the writer has sought the most 
reliable sources extant. On questions of conflict, he has attempted to reconcile former 
statements as far as possible, and in making a choice has adopted the one which seems 
most reliable. 

The authorities of Audrain county and the city of Mexico have not been at all 
particular in preserving the public records, and when it comes to the early records of 



The bill was signed by the governor, John Miller, and became a 
law, January 12, 1831. The bill provided that **So soon as there shall 
be inhabitants in said territory sufficient to entitle said designated county 
to a representative, by the then existing law of the land, the same shall 
be organized and entitled to all the rights and privileges of other coun- 
ties in the state. '* The bill further provided that parts of the county 
should remain attached to Callaway, Monroe and Ralls counties, for civil 
and military purposes as theretofore until such organization should 
take place. 

So far as the legislature is concerned, the territory thus constructed 
into Audrain county, was left to itself until it had acquired a sufficient 
number of inhabitants to entitle it to a representative. Then the legis- 
lature of 1836 passed an jblqI authorizing the organization of the county. 
An act was approved December 17, 1836, appointing Cornelius Edwards 
of Monroe county, William Martin of Callaway county and Robert 
Schooling of Boone county, commissioners, for the purpose of selecting 
the seat of justice for the county, and vesting in them all necessary 
power for the organization of the county, and providing that they 
should meet on the first Monday of June, 1837, at the house of Edward 
Jennings, in **New Mexico," for the purpose of selecting and locating 
the permanent seat of justice of the county. The act further provided 
that the courts, both county and circuit, should be held at the house of 
the said Edward Jennings in *'New Mexico."* Subsequently the act 
was amended changing the date of the meeting to the first Monday of 
'SiBTch, 1837. 

The boundaries of the county as originally laid off by the legislature, 
so remained until 1842, when the legislature passed an act further defin- 
ing the boundaries of Monroe and Audrain counties, and a strip of 
territory one mile wide, in all thirty-one square miles was taken from the 

the countj, there is almost an inextricable confusion, besides much omission, as well 
as a failure to preserve records of many matters of importance. 

Neither the county nor the city of Mexico has ever had the offices of a historical 
society, the services of which are absolutely essential to the preservation of the deeds 
of the people. A society of this kind would find in this county abundant work to 
perform, and before it is too late succeed in reducing to a permanent record, many 
things wliich now appear to be in a mistful state. 

Becourse has been had to a short sketch of Audrain county written by the late 
Saml. M. Edwards in 1877, to Bryan and Roses 's ** Pioneer Families of Missouri,'' 
about the same date, and to a history of Audrain county published in 1884 by 
National Historical Company of St. Louis. The latter is quite voluminous and in 
many things inaccurate and incomplete, with much confusion, but nevertheless exceed- 
ingly valuable to the writer of a ^etch of this kind. 

In referring to pioneer times, great reliance has been placed upon statements 
made by Messrs. R. A. Calhoun, A. G. Turner, Rufus S. Pearson and John W. Beatty. 
In matters relating to the Civil war, in addition to the letter from Col. Brace, pub- 
lished in this sketch, consultations from time to time have been had with James H. 
Bailee, E. D. Graham and as well John W. Beatty, all of whom lived in Mexico 
throughout that period, also Dr. Wm. W. Macfarlane, one of the active participants 
therein, in affairs around Mexico. In matters of doubt reference as far as pos- 
sible has been had to the ** Official Records, War of the Rebellion," besides other, 
historical matter including a letter from Capt. Geo. W. Bryson. 

Acknowledgment is made to John B. Graham, county clerk; Eppa F. Elliott, 
circuit clerk; A. H. Whitney, recorder of deeds, for many courtesies, and Mr. J. F. 
Llewellyn, for access to his valuable library, besides many other persons, too numerous 
to mention, who have shown their interest in a history of the county, by aiding the 
writer in many ways. 

It is hoped that before a great while some person with sufficient time and 
patience, together with the suitable qualifications, will prepare as nearly as possible, 
an accurate and complete history of the people of Audrain county. The material 
is abundant and the people owe it to themselves to have a permanent record made of 
their participation in the affairs of the great state of Missouri. 

* Laws of Missouri, 1836, page 45. 


southern part of Monroe and added to Audrain county. As at that 
time defined, the boundaries of Audrain county have ever since remained. 

There is no stream in the county rising to the dignity of a river. 
Loutre creek, rising in the southeastern part of the county forms one 
of the sources of Loutre river, running into the Missouri river. Cedar 
creek, forming the boundary between Callaway and Boone counties, 
and running into the Missouri river, rises in th(5 western part of the 
county. Cuivre creek, rising in the eastern part of the county is one 
of the sources of Cuivre river, running into the Mississippi. Salt river 
is formed by Beaver Dam and Davis or North Pork of Salt river, both 
heading in the county. Also Long Branch and Young's creek, branches 
of Salt river, head in the county. Littleby creek, another stream which 
is a branch of Salt river, heads in the county. 

Loutre, Cuivre and Salt creeks derive their names from the rivers 
which they help to form. Beaver Dam, which is the south fork of 
Salt river, gets its name from the fact that in the early days, it had a 
dam across it generally believed to have been made by beavers. Young's 
creek derives its name from an early settler, Benjamin Young, who 
located on it in 1821. Young was a native of North Carolina, living 
for a time in Kentucky and Howard county, Missouri, before coming to 
the territory afterwards within Audrain. Fish Branch gets its name 
from the many fish that were found in it in the early days.* In time of 
high water of Salt river, into which it runs, and owing to the slight fall 
of the bed of Fish Branch, the fish coming up the stream would be 
retained for a longer time in that branch than any other stream, and 
made it a bountiful fishing place for the early settlers. 

The County Seat 

On April 23, 1836, Robert C. Mansfield and James H. Smith, having 
entered the land upon which the original town of Mexico was located, 
filed a plat of the town at Paris, the county seat of Monroe county, and 
gave the town the name of Mexico, in recognition of the excitement at 
that time in this state over the growing controversy between Mexico and 
the United States concerning the independence of Texas. These pro- 
prietors thought that the note of the name would bring popularity to 
the town.t There is no warrant for ever having called the town New 
Mexico except through the mistake of the legislature in naming the 
commissioners, yet in the records of both the county and circuit courts 
for two terms, the place is designated as New Mexico. These records 
further state that the commissioners to locate the county seat met, and 
the first courts were held at the house of Edward Jennings. The com- 
missioners met as directed by the legislature and located the county 
seat of the county at Mexico, in consideration of the donation of certain 
lots and blocks to the county, and they further required an additional 
donation which has ever since been known as the donated or county 
addition to the town. These donations were accepted by the county 
and block twenty-five of the original town was set aside for the court 
house square. The author of this sketch has made as thorough investi- 
gation as it is possible to make, of where the house of Edward Jennings 
was located. The fact is that Edward Jennings never owned a house 
in or near Mexico, but after the laying off of the town and prior to the 
act of the legislature above referred to, James E. Fenton had purchased 
from the proprietors of the town, lots six and seven of block twelve and 

* Probably named by Merideth Meyers who settled on the creek in 1841. 
t William Mansfield, son of Robert C, living near Mexico. 


had located on lot six where the book store of James E. Sallee is now 
located, a grocery and general store and this business was conducted 
by the firm of Jennings & Fenton. This was the Edward Jennings 
named in the act of the legislature. Prom Rufus S. Pearson now living 
in Mexico, and at that time a boy ten years of age, living with his 
father on a farm adjoining the northern limits of the town, it is learned 
that the house where this store was maintained is the first house ever 
built within the original limits of the town plat, and from a suit begun 
by Gross & Robbins at the July term, 1837, at Mexico, against Jen- 
nings & Penton, it is learned that as early as June 22, 1837, Jennings 
had ceased to be a resident of Audrain county. Prom the conduct of 
Jennings as disclosed in a bill of exceptions now on file in that case, it is 
not surprising that Jennings had claimed the ownership of the house 
where he and Penton were doing business, and had succeeded in getting 
the legislature to designate the house as his, when as a matter of fact, 
it belonged to Penton. After the troubles out of which this law suit 
arose, there is no further account of Jennings in and around Mexico. 

Owing to the fact that people generally cherish the places where 
beginnings take place, the author of this sketch has taken special pains 
to locate the place where the commissioners met and where the first courts 
of Audrain county w^ere held, and after accepting the statements of 
IVEr. Pearson as above stated and examination of the early records so 
far as they go, the conclusion is irresistible that this place was on lot 
six of block twelve of the original town of Mexico and the further 
conclusion is that the house designated as that of Edward Jennings was 
the house of James E. Penton on that lot. This particularity has been 
gone into for the reason that a former historical sketch of Audrain 
county has stated that the house of Edward Jennings was at a different 
place in the town. 

Judge Edwards' Sketch 

A part of the history of Audrain county by the late Judge S. M. 
Edwards, written in 1877, for an atlas of the county, is adopted as being 
correct in the main with the exception of the location of the house of 
Edward Jennings, and the account of Robert Littleby, from whose 
name Littleby creek takes its name. Bryan and Rose in their account 
of Audrain county in ** Pioneer Pamilies of Missouri,'' 1876, give 
Littleby 's settlement there as early as 1816, and say that he removed 
west in 1822, instead of his death there as stated by Edwards. Littleby 
was a trapper and hunter and sold his furs and pelts in St. Charles. 

The excerpt from Judge Edwards' sketch follows: **Very little is 
known of this section prior to 1828. Of the thrilling events in her past 
but a single one comes down to us through the memoj'y of the old settler ; 
and this occurred as late as 1822. It is related that the Indians, who 
then held possession of all the country from the Boonslick settlement, 
north, had made a raid on the whites at Loutre Island, and robbed them 
of stock which they could not well afford to lose, and a force of some 
thirty men was at once sent in pursuit. They followed the trail for 
several days, until they found they were getting too far in the enemy's 
country when they gave up the chase and started to return and when 
night came on they pitched camp on the head-waters of a small stream 
and in the open prairie at a point near the present residence of Mrs. 
Margaret Potts.* After partaking of their rude repast, weary and worn 
from travel they lay down in the tall grass to sleep, a sleep few ever 

* Now owned by James A. Surber. 


awoke from. The savages, having spied their movements, fell upon 
them in the night, and killed many as they lay asleep in their blankets. 
Two only escaped from the camp, and one of these was the late John 
Gibson, of Callaway county, from whom my informant got the story. 
These were closely pursued by the Indians, and the last Gibson saw 
of his companion was when they were nearing the timber on the head- 
waters of Loutre creek, probably somewhere in the neighborhood of the 
site of the village of Martinsburg. 

** Gibson was three days getting back to the settlement, and during 
this time his only food was a hawk which had had a wing broken. 
Gibson alone returned to tell the sad story to the wives and mothers on 
the island. The whites got together a sufiScient force and came back 
and buried the dead, but the coyotes and the wolves no doubt unearthed 
the bodies, for afterward when the county came to be settled, a large 
pile of human skulls and other bones were found here,* and from this 
the stream is called Skull Lick. 

**Many human teeth, in a fine state of preservation, recently taken 
from the spot, are now in the possession of Dr. J. W. Luckie, dentist, 
in the city of Mexico. 

**The territory which forms Audrain county up to 1837 was known 
as **Salt River Region," and not even Hades with all its horrors was 
more uninviting to the timid female than a home within its borders. 

**Up to 1828 there was not a human habitation within its limits. 
Its primeval stillness was broken only by the hideous howl of the wolf, 
or the hair-raising whoop of the Sac or the Pottowattomie. 

**In the fall of that year a large hunting party of these genteel 
thieves came in and camped on Beaver Dam, near the place afterward 
improved by Roland Mclntyre, and as far as we can learn, this was 
the last of 'Poor Lo' in this vicinity; at least in force sufficient to 
arouse any feeling of fear. The smoke from the settlers' cabins from 
this time began to go up, and scenting danger, as the war horse does 
the battle, ye savage bent his tall form toward the setting sun, which 
remote point it is much regretted he did not reach. 

**The first settlement attempted on the borders of the county was 
about 1829, by one Littleby, a misanthropic old Englishman. He built 
a cabin on the stream that now bears his name at a point where Colonel 
R. W. Sinclair now lives. He had nothing but his horse, dog and gun — 
and his horse and dog shared his cabin with him. Here afterward he 
was found dead, torn and mutilated, and the presumption was that 
the wolves killed him. 

*'In 1830, Joseph McDonald moved in and settled on the farm now 
owned by Garland Sims, and about the same time one Wainscot came 
and settled what is now known as the Clem Smith place, but soon after 
sold to John Martin; 

**In that same year came William Levaugh, John Bamett, Caleb 
Williams, Black Isam, Fiddler Isam and John Eolgore and Richard 
Willingham. Levaugh sjettled what is now known as the Powell place — 
owned at present by M. Y. Duncan.^ Willingham took a claim on the 
place known as the Kirtley farm.^ This he sold in 1831 to Reuben Pulis. 

**John Kilgore settled on the north side of Davis' Fork, on the farm 
known as the Mcllhany farm. It was on this place early in the year 
1831, that the first white child was born in the county. This was our 

* In a deer lick. 

1 North end of Jefferson street, Mexico, Missouri. 

2 Western part of Mexico, Missouri. 


fellow-citizen, Prank Kilgore,^ who, perhaps, has the best claim to that 
much-coveted title, *'The oldest inhabitant." 

**Next after these came Roland Mclntire, Thomas Barnett, Richard 
Pierson, Charles Mclntire, Roland and Joseph Watts, William and 
Richard Byrns — a Mrs. Throgmoten, Judge James Jackson, John A. 
Pearson,* Judge James Harrison, Joel Haynes and James E. Fenton. 
Later came Judge J. B. Morris, William and Jerry West, Wm. White, 
Robert C. Mansfield and the ubiquitous Smith — this one was Jas. H. 

"In 1834 there was not exceeding thirty families in the entire limits 
of the county. Settlements were ten and fifteen miles apart, but this 
great distance did not cool their friendship or blight their hospitality. 
With the inseparable and trusty old flint-lock rifle, a man, regarding 
it as a solemn duty, as real pleasure, would go ten and fifteen miles to 
aid his neighbor to rear the rude cabin, or garner the crop, and at the 
conclusion of their labor they would enjoy a wholesome, if not elegant 
repast of corn bread and fried venison, with rye coffee, but sugar was 
wholly unknown. 

* ' The young folks would then devote the night to dancing and court- 
ing, while the older and more staid would engage in card-playing — 
and so high a regard was at that time held for the game, that no con- 
viction could be had under the indictments of the courts. It is said 
that on a certain occasion the learned counsel in defending showed to 
the entire satisfaction of the court that poker was a game of science, 
and not of chance. Of course the acquittal that followed upon this 
defense must be attributed to the respect the game inspired, and not 
the mental obfuscation of that high dignitary, the Judge. On another 
occasion one of these cases had been submitted to the jury, and it had 
retired to a hazel thicket, where the Savings' bank now stands, to make 
a verdict, the defendant's counsel went out and argued it into an 
acquittal. Rude and uncivilized as these men appear to us today it is 
doubtful if their kind acts of real neighborship would be appreciated 
now. The selfishness, the wild desire to amass wealth, the freezing 
formalities of this age of refinement were then unknown. 

**At this time on account of a pestiferous fly, known as the *Qreen 
Head,' whose bite was very tormenting to beasts — travel in the summer 
season by day was impossible — and in consequence travel was almost 
entirely in the night; as a result we acquired from our neighbors in 
the surrounding counties, the name of *Salt River Tigers.' This was 
no doubt from the prowling disposition of this animal, rather than its 
vicious habits." 

Outside of the Fenton house the first improvement in the town was 
by John B. Morris, afterward county judge, who built a log house on 
lot 4, block 21, where he kept a store and tavern for many years and 
where was kept the first post office in the county. 

Edwards continued : * * Soon- after R. C. Mansfield built the house on 
the opposite comer known as the Old Scott place, and on the southeast 
corner-lot of the same block of the Green Tree tavern,*^ one Ramsey built 
a double log house. 

**At an early day in the history of the town a race-course was 
established. This was a half-mile track, on Promenade street, from 
where the Hardin house stands east, to about where Captain J. M. 
Ctordon lives.® These races occurred with great regularity every Satur- 
day evening, and on them anything from a quart of whiskey to a town 

8 Now deceaped. 

* Father of Rufus S. Pearson above referred to. 
B Morris ' house. 

• From Washington street east to what is now Louden street. 


lot was lost and won; and the fist fights which invariably ensued were 
presided over by some skilled scientist with the same gravity and 
decorum that was given to the race itself. 

"It is not to be supposed that the rollickers had things entirely their 
own way. There was even then many Christian men and women 
amongst them. The Jletbodists bad a church organization with Rev. 
Robert Younger as their pastor. At this time they bad no church 
building but held regular services at the house of John Martin. The 
Baptists also had an organization, and about the year 1835, a church 
building was erected on the present site of Hopwell.^ This was built 
mainly through the efforts of William Jesse, a minister of that denomina- 
tion, of great natural power, and of pure character. This was the first 
church erected in the county. In 1838, the Methodists built the brick 
church yet standing on the comer of Promenade and Jefferson streets 

An Audr.*in County Saddle Horse 

in Mexico,^ and it was not until this church was built that the race- 
course moved its hilarious doings from Promenade street to a more 
respectful distance." 

The First County Apf.«rs 

The first county court was composed of James Harrison, James E. 
Fenton and Hezekiah J. M. Doan, all appointed by the governor as 
county judges. 

James Jackson had been appointed sheriff by the governor but 
declined to qualify. 

The court met on the 6th day of February, 1837, as the record has 
it, at the house of Edward Jennings, Doan not being present. Being 
without a sheriff, William Levaugh was appointed elisor. Joel Haynes 

3 Two tnilea irest of Mexico on tbe Coluniliia roail. 
* Where the vHy ball now at&nda. 


was appointed clerk and gave bond in the sum of $5,000, with John 
B. Morris, George W. Turley and James Jackson as sureties. Court 
adjourned on the 6th until the morning of the 7th day of February 
when Doan appeared, produced his commission and was sworn in, and 
the first oflBcial act of the county court was an order granting to James 
E. Fenton, one of its members, license for selling and retailing spiritu- 
ous liquors and groceries, at his house, for a period of six months. That 
order at this time will be of some interest. 

It is as follows : * * On the motion of James E. Fenton, leave is granted 
him for selling and retailing spirituous liquors and groceries at his 
house in the town of New Mexico, in this county, for six months from 
the 17th day of December, 1836, upon his paying a tax of $5; also a 
tax of one-eighth per cent on every $150." 

It would seem from this order that Fenton had been in the same 
business before his license and that it was dated back **to cover acci- 
dents. '^ The house where the grocery was kept is the same place where 
Jennings and Fenton had been doing business and where the court at 
the time was sitting. 

James Harrison was appointed president of the court and then 
the court proceeded to divide the county into six townships * and ordered 
elections for constables and justices of the peace of the same. Before 
the adjournment of the term, another license to sell and retail spirituous 
liquors was granted George W. Turley, for a period of six months, to 
date from the 4th day of February 1837, upon paying a license of $5, 
and a tax of one-eighth per cent on every $300. It is learned that Turley 
then located his business on the northeast corner of the public square, 
at the place now known as Harper's Comer, where he kept a general mer- 
chandise store and sold whisky. Within the next year or so Fenton built 
a house on the northeast corner of block 7, where he kept a tavern and 
bar. A tavern was kept there many years and it is the place where 
Samuel Dingle was killed by a man named Hall in 1841. It is the same 
place where William Kemper's saloon is now kept. Ackley Day was ap- 
pointed commissioner for the purpose of laying off and selling lots 
belonging to the county of Audrain and which had been donated by the 
proprietors of the town of Mexico. 

John A. Henderson was appointed county treasurer. George W. 
Turley and James E. Fenton were appointed commissioners to super- 
intend the Wilding of a temporary court house on the northeast comer 
of lot 6, block 8, to be a **good white oak hewed logs, one story high, 
ten feet between floor and * sealing,' thirty-six feet long, and eighteen 
feet wide, with a partition of logs through it, making one room twenty- 
two feet long, two outside doors and one middle door, good walnut 
batton doors. Four, fifteen light windows, good square joint floor of 
plank, the * sealing' to be lathed and plastered with one coat of plaster- 
ing, cracks chinked and seamed with lime and sand, with a good roof of 
shingles. One good chimney of brick, one 'plane' chimney piece and 
wash board all around said house." The commissioners were authorized 
to let the contract for the building **by crying and knocking off the same 
to the *loest' bidder." 

The court then proceeded to the establishment of roads. The first 
road established was to commence at the west end of Love street and run 
west to intersect the road from Columbia to Paris; then another from 
the east end of Promenade street in the direction of Danville; then 

• Salt River township named for the stream heading: within it, Loutre the same, 
Cuivre the same, Prairie from the fact that it was mainly composed of prairie lands, 
Wilson for David Wilson, an early settler of that township, and Saling for a man 
of whom we have no account. 


another from the public square in the direction of the town of Pulton ; 
then another to intersect the road from Paris to Fulton ; thence a road 
in the direction of Columbia. From term to term the courts then, 
within the next year or two, established roads and appointed commis- 
sioners to lay them off in the direction of Hannibal, Louisiana, Paris, 
Florida, HuntsviUe, St. Charles, Millersburg and Concord. Afterward 
by special acts of the legislature, as will be seen by reference to the 
session acts in the 40 's and 50 's, these roads were all adopted by the state, 
made state roads and commissioners appointed to complete them in the 
direction of the several places mentioned. To this day, until the prairies 
are reached, in all directions from Mexico, these roads remain with slight 
changes as originally laid out. They ran as the **crow flies," and as 
the surface of the ground would permit, directly to the points of desti- 
nation. Until the prairies began to be occupied in the 70 's and 80 's, 
these roads continued as originally established. In order to accommodate 
the farms, the county court began to change these roads on to section 
lines and quarter section lines, until now on the prairies generally, all 
roads run in a direct north and south or east and west direction. This 
change has practically increased the lengtn of the road between points 
about twenty per cent of the original distance. 

John Willingham was appointed sheriff and collector and on a settle- 
ment made with him on the 5th day of February, 1838, it was found that 
the amount of taxes collected by him for the year 1837 was $45.92. He 
was credited with $16.7§, for delinquent taxes for that year. 

The court for the year 1838, levied taxes for state purposes amount- 
ing to $113.70 11/12, and for county purposes $227.51 10/11. 

It has been stated on good authority that Willingham on one occasion 
loaned the entire amount of the revenue in his hands to one of his 
neighbors, under the following conditions: Willingham was on his way 
to Jefferson City to pay the money into the state treasury. On his way 
there he met Charles Mclntire on his way to a neighbor's to buy some 
cattle and wishing to get them on the best terms possible, Mclntire 
desired to pay cash. Mclntire had learned of Willingham — ^that he was 
taking the money to the capital and immediately entered into negotia- 
tions for a loan. The sheriff loaned to Mclntire all of the money, 
returned home and in due course of time Mclntire returned the revenue 
to the sheriff, who then went to Jefferson City and turned it into the 
state treasury. 

At the August election in 1838, James E. Fenton, Jonah B, Hatton 
and George W. Cardwell were elected county judges. James Jackson 
was prevailed upon to become a candidate for, and was elected to the 
legislature.* His first official act was to vote for Benton for United 
States senator. Jackson was reelected again in 1840 and subsequentlj' 
served four consecutive terms as judge of the county court. In 1840, 
James E. Fenton and Qeorg^ W. Cardwell were again elected judges 
of the county court. 

The judges of that court were more intimately connected with the 
development of the county than any other body of public men. Some 
of the men performing the most conspicuous services on that bench prior 
to 1885, besides participating largely in other affairs of the county, are 
as follows: 

* Jackson later in life became a minister of the Missionary Baptist church. By 
some it has been claimed the reason he declined office as sheriff was because^ as at 
that time the Constitution prohibited a clerfi^yman from holding office, he preferred 
the ministry to the sheriff's office but it is definitely learned from his nephew, A. O. 
Turner, that Jackson never entered the ministry until after he was through office 
holding. That provision was omitted from the Constitutions of 1865 and 1875. 



William H. Lee, three terms, 1842 to 1848; Robert Calhoun and 
Joel Hajmes, two terras each, 1844 to 1848; John A. Pearson, six terms, 
1848 to 1860; John B. Morris, five terms; Increase Adams, four terms; 
T. J. Marshall, one term; Andrew J. Douglass, four terms; E. L. Grigsby, 
two terms; R. C. Carter, two terms; John P. Clark, one term; B. P. 
Ritchie appointed in place of W. D. Summer, disqualified under the 
test oath, then elected twice; E. P. Cunningham, B. H. Wilder and 
William Mason. 

The court house provided for was soon built and ready for occupa- 
tion. It not only served as a court house, but for all public meetings, 
religious worship, etc., for some years. 

When the second court house was built on the public square, the 
county sold the lot and for many years it was the place of Charlie 
Weinand's bakery, he using in part the same log building. About 
twenty years ago the log building was removed and a brick building 
replaced it. 

A second court house of brick costing $1,600 was commenced in 
November, 1838, and finished in 1839. The sale of lots donated to the 
county had yielded a suflScient amount to build this court house. It 
is here noted that James E. Fenton was still one of the county judges. 
Notwithstanding his duty to represent the county as one of the con- 
tracting parties, for the building of this structure, he had the contract 
for the brick work in the construction of the building. There are 
several entries during the time that Fenton was county judge which 
very clearly indicate the loose methods of doing public business in 
those days. At that time the county court had jurisdiction of all probate 
matters. Fenton not only granted himself a license to keep a grocery 
and also to keep a tavern, but in numerous cases was administrator and 
guardian in his own court, had the contract for furnishing the supplies 
to the court house, and on February 5, 1839, when he was granted a 
license to keep a tavern and was charged a license of $10 a year, the 
next entry of the court was to allow him $22 for services as judge of 
the county court. According to the records, he took upon himself the 
duty in vacation, of appointing three justices of the peace and a con- 
stable for Salt River township. He qualified them to hold office until 
the next general election without the consent of the other judges or ever 
having submitted the matter to the court. He acquired considerable 
property in the town, but became indebted to various persons and lost 
all of his property under executions and in the latter part of the 40 's 
removed to Oregon. Matters growing out of his transactions bobbed 
up in litigation in various ways in this county as late as 1880. 

Early Court Proceedings 

The first term of the circuit court began March 13, 1837, and for 
the sake of the regularity of the record, to have it comply with the 
act of 1836, that record shows the opening of the court '*at the house 
of Edward Jennings, in the town of New Mexico.'* But the fact is, the 
court was held at the same place as the county court, in the house of 
James E. Fenton, located on one of the lots of the town of Mexico. 

Priestly H. McBride, of Columbia, then, afterwards of Paris, and 
also later a member of the supreme court presided. The sole business of 
the day was to record McBride 's commission as judge of the Fourth 
judicial circuit, and that of John Heard, circuit attorney. 

There were two cases on the docket for the 14th : State of Missouri 
against Richard Bryant, under indictment for larceny and also State 
against Samuel Mounts, under indictment for the same. The original 


papers of these eases cannot be found but as the witnesses were mainly 
from Monroe county, it is inferred that these men had been previously 
indicted by a Monroe county grand jury, for offences in the territory 
of Audrain, but within the jurisdiction of the Monroe county circuit 
court. At a subsequent term of the court, the case against Samuel 
Mounts was dismissed and a verdict of not guilty rendered in the case 
against Bryant. 

On the next day, the commissioners appointed by the act of the 
legislature for fixing and locating a permanent seat of justice made 
their report, which was received, examined and approved by the court 
and ordered certified to the elerk of the eonnty court. This report 
cannot be found. 

Rex McDoNALn 

The July term of the same year began July 10th and again for the 
flake of regularity of the record, court was opened "at the house of 
Edward Jennings in the town of New Mexico." The first official act 
of the court was to adjourn it from that place to the court house which 
had been completed. The following grand jury was called : Thomas Kil- 
gore, foreman, William Wood, Efi Smith, William C. West, Adam Clark, 
James McDonald, John Peery, Deloney Willingham, John Wood, John 
H. Kilgore, Rowland Mclntyre, James Davis, John B. Kilgore, John W. 
Bamett, Joseph Brown and Harrison Norvel. After consultation, the 
grand jury returned into court reporting that they had nothing before 
them and were discharged. 

The following lawyers from other counties, there being no local 
members of the bar at that time, were enrolled—John Heard, James 


R. Abernathy, Sinclair Kirtley, William H. Russell, Henry Cave, Phil- 
lip Williams, W. K. Vanarsdall and Thomas Miller. 

Two eases were tried at this term, one an appeal case from a justice 
court, of William Bybee against James H. Smith, before the following 
jury— -James Sims, William L. Williams, Thomas M. Joplin, Richard 
Byrns, Benjamin B. Wilkerson and James Pearson, in which a verdict 
was rendered for the plaintiff in the sum of $22.21 2/3. The case of 
State against Bryant, which is above noted, in which there was a verdict 
of acquittal, was tried before the following jury — Johnson Kilgore, 
James M. Hicks, George W. Cardwell, Isham C. Kilgore, Thomas M. 
Barnett, George L. Smith, Jacob Houpt, Hezekiah J. M. Doan, Robert 
C. Mansfield, Henry B. Gill, George W. Turley, and Benjamin B. Wil- 

The two cases of Gross and Robbins against Jennings and Fenton, 
one an appeal case from a justice court and the other on a note, were 
continued to the next November term. 

At the next November term, in the cases against Jennings & Fen- 
ton, both of which were tried, the court sitting as a jury, found that 
as to the suit upon the note, Jennings had signed the firm name of 
Jennings & Fenton to a note for an old debt that Jennings owed 
before coming to Mexico and before the partnership between Jennings 
and Fenton, and that as to the suit for the merchandise purchased, 
and money loaned, that Jennings had appropriated that to his own use 
and it had neve^ gone into the partnership. 

At this term two additional attorneys were enrolled, John H. Stone 
and John Jamison. At this term several cases were called and disposed 

At the next March term, 1838, the grand jury was discharged with- 
out finding any indictments, but Grandison F. Williams and Caleb 
Williams were both put under bond to keep the peace toward all citizens, 
particularly toward Thomas T. Stone, until the next term of the court. 
The civil eases had increased to ten in number. Court lasted only two 

At the July term, 1838, eleven cases were disposed of. 

At the November term, 1838, James R. Abernathy produced Jiis com- 
mission as circuit attorney of the fourth judicial circuit. There were 
nineteen civil cases on the docket. Eight indictments were returned 
for assault and battery, seven for playing poker, two for keeping gaming 
houses. All of the men indicted for playing poker were prominent in 
the community, some of whom had been former grand jurors, and 
reported there was nothing before them. 

At the March term the indictments for playing poker were quashed 
and in the assault and battery cases the defendants were acquitted by 

At the July term, 1839, the poker players were again indicted, some 
of whom pleaded guilty, one or two of whom stood trial and were con- 
victed by juries. The business of the court at this time had greatly 
increased. The civil cases were mainly for debt, the criminal prosecu- 
tions for assault and battery, gaming at cards, and occasionally for 
selling whiskey without license. An occasional suit for slander, for 
damages for assault and battery, appeared but were generally dismissed 
at the plaintiff's costs. Damage suits at that time did not appear to be 
very popular. No divorce case appeared on the docket from the begin- 
ning of the couft until April 29, 1847, when Elizabeth Gass was granted 
a divorce from David Gass. 

Up to and including the year 1843, the following additional names 
had been enrolled as attorneys— W. P. Howell, July 9, 1838, John D. S. 


Dry den, November 13, 1838, Preston B. Reed, March 11, 1839, G. H. 
Burckhartt, April 4, 1843, J. F. Jones, October 2, 1843, John B. Dun- 
can, 1843, and Charles H. Hardin, 1843. 

The first murder case in the county was that of State of Missouri 
against Milroy Powell, for killing George Eubanks with a hoe. The 
altercation in which Eubanks was killed took place on the first day of 
July, 1840, on a farm just north of Mexico. Eubanks died on the sixth 
day of July, thereafter. Powell was indicted for murder in the first 
degree and was tried by the following jury — William M. Jones,. John 
W. Truett, Joseph Smith, Thomas Larkin, William Hayse, James Mc- 
Cormack, Joseph Surber, Robert Todd, Thomas R. Musick, William Sox, 
Parish Garner and William Doolin. The court gave instructions for 
murder in both the first and second degrees and for manslaughter in 
the third and fourth degrees. The defence was self-defence and that 
Eubanks died as the result of the mismanagement of his physicians and 
nurses. The jury returned a verdict of manslaughter in the fourth 
degree and fined him the sum of $325. He was sent to Monroe county 
for imprisonment but was released before the expiration of his sentence. 

A notable criminal case is the case of State of Missouri against 
James N. Rodman, for the murder of John W. Ricketts, on the third 
dav of March, 1857. Ricketts and Rodman were brothers-in-law, the 
wife of Ricketts being Rodman's sister. It was claimed that Rodman 
shot Ricketts from ambush. Rodman had two trials, one a mistrial, 
then a change of venue to Pike county, in which he was cleared. After 
the trial Rodman left the country. His father had spent a great deal 
of money in making a defence for him. A great number of homicides 
occurred during the war, growing out of the then unsettled conditions, 
for which no criminal prosecutions were ever begun. After the Civil 
war, society was in an unsettled state and a number of homicides were 
committed, some of which went to trial, some of which did not. 

The next case which created a great deal of excitement was that of 
State against Joseph Kribs, for killing William O. Creason, in Monroe 
county, July 20, 1874. Creason was a one-armed ex-Confederate soldier 
and the feeling in Monroe county ran very high against the prisoner, 
and a change of venue was granted to Audrain county. After a hard 
contest, a jury at the June term, 1875, found him guilty of murder in 
the second degree and the court assessed his punishment at twenty years 
in the penitentiary. Sentiment was very much divided in this case on 
account of the prominence of Cl*eason, and the verdict of the jury and 
sentence were not considered favorable to the Creason side of the issue. 
The attorneys for Kribs were so well satisfied with the verdict that no 
appeal was taken. 

The next murder case of interest was that of State of Missouri against 
Frederick D. (Monk) Branstetter, for killing Jefferson D. Lowry, at 
Vandalia, in December, 1876. The trial took place at Mexico in January, 
1877. Branstetter belonged to a large influential family, his 
father being a Baptist minister. He was defended by W. O. Forrest 
and the firm of Macfarlane & Trimble. Forrest was chief counsel 
and a veteran of criminal cases. By that time matters after the Civil war 
had begun to take on a more law abiding hue. Forrest had been the 
leading criminal lawyer of this section of the state since 1868, and after 
hearing his client's side of the story, concluded that an acquittal would 
be an easy matter. The prosecuting attorney was John ^I. Gordon, 
who was assisted by Armstead Alexander, a very able lawyer of Paris. 
Missouri. Forrest had the reputation of not looking very carefully 
after financial matters and it was (juite often that his clients got the 
better of him on arrangement of fees. However, in this case he under- 


took to be unusually careful and made an agreement with his client, 
before going to trial at the January term, 1877, that Branstetter should 
give a note for the fee secured by a chattel mortgage on the growing 
crop of the coming year, to be grown on a farm which Branstetter had 
rented. Forrest's dismay may be imagined when the jury returned a 
verdict for murder in the second degree and fixed the punishment at 
eighty-three years confinement in the penitentiary. Branstetter was 
about thirty years of age and the court in the exercise of its mercy 
reduced the verdict to sixty years. 

The father of Branstetter was in the court room when the announce- 
ment of the verdict was made and he, completely overcome, sank to the 
floor bewailing aloud his son's misfortune and the family disgrace. 
Amid much excitement of the spectators. Judge Forrest, with a voice 
heard above everything, exclaimed — ** Father Branstetter, be not over- 
come nor discouraged at this verdict, this is just the entering wedge, 
the law suit has just begun." 

Branstetter failing to get a new trial, appealed the case to thfe 
supreme court, the decision of which is reported in the 65th Missouri 
Report. That court ordered a new trial and a change of venue was 
granted to another county, where the case finally resulted in the dis- 
charge of the prisoner. 

In 1878, J. McD. Trimble was elected prosecuting attorney of the 
county. He served two terms and during that time prosecuted eleven 
defendants for murder. One of them was the case of State against 
Stephen J. Moore, for killing his brother-in-law, Albert Gentry, on the 
15th of June, 1878. He was convicted of murder in the first degree, 
the court granted a new trial and a change of venue was granted to 
Pike county, the case going into the hands of new prosecutors, for at 
that time the law did not require a prosecuting attorney to follow 
cases out of his county. Moore was acquitted. 

Among the other criminal cases during Trimble's term, was that of 
Walker Kilgore, charged with the murder of S. D. Willinghara. Kilgore 
was ably defended. He was convicted of murder in the first degree and 
was executed by Sheriff Harrison Olasscock, March 6, 1880. 

Another important case was that of State of Missouri against Joe 
Hicks, Nathan Faucett, Jake Muldrow, all three colored, and Emma 
Prilly, white, for the murder of Octive Inlow, on the 30th of September, 
1879. In a joint trial, April, 1880, Hicks was found not guilty, Muldrow 
and Faucett guilty of murder in the first degree and the jury failed to 
agree as to the woman. The two defendants convicted were duly exe- 
cuted. After the trial, on a promise to leave town, never to return, 
Emma Prilly was discharged. Shortly after this she returned to Mexico, 
voluntarily entered a plea of guilty of murder in the second degree and 
served twelve years in the penitentiary. 

Another case creating a great deal of excitement in the county was 
that against William and Leslie Hartley, charged with the murder of 
Mastin Wiley, in January, 1879. They were both convicted of murder 
in the second degree, Leslie Hartley getting a sentence of ten years 
and William Hartley for sixty years. There were some extenuating cir- 
cumstances in the case of Leslie Hartley and after two or three years 
confinement, he was pardoned by the governor and returned to Mexico 
and made a good useful citizen, until his death a few years ago. William 
Hartley served for a good long time and was finally pardoned. 

The only legal executions ever taking place in the county are those 
above referred to. There never was a lynching within the county and 
the foregoing murder cases are not all, hut are the notable ones within 
the county. Taking the county as a whole, from its early history down 


to the present time, it may be said to be of more than above the average 
as to the law abiding character of its inhabitants . 

• County Officers 

The names of judges who have served in the Audrain county circuit 
court from date of organization, 1837, to the present time, are as 
follows : P. H. McBride, afterward supreme judge, Boone county, March 
13, 1837, to March 31, 1841 ; John D. Leland, afterward supreme judge, 
Howard county, March 31, 1841 to October 25, 1848 ; William A. Hall, 
Randolph county, October 25, 1848, to April 30, 1856 ; John T. Redd, 
Monroe county, April 30, 1856, to April 28, 1862 ; Gilchrist Porter, Pike 
county, April 28, 1862, to October 17, 1862 ; John I. Campbell, Marion 
county, October 17, 1865, to April 16, 1866 ; William P. Harrison, Marion 
county, April 16, 1866, to March 4, 1872 ; Gilchrist Porter, Pike county, 
March 4, 1872, to January 24, 1881; Elijah Robinson, Pike county, 
January 24, 1881, to January 1, 1887; Elliott M. Hughes, Montgomery 
county, January 1, 1887, to July 1, 1903; Robert D. Rodgers, Audrain 
county, vice Hughes, deceased, July 7, 1903, to August 19, 1903, ap- 
pointed by Governor Dockery; Houston W. Johnson, Montgomery 
county, vice Rodgers, resigned, August 19, 1903, to January 16, 1905, 
appointed by Governor Dockery; James D. Barnett, Montgomery county, 
present incumbent, since January 16, 1905. 

Joel Haynes was the first circuit clerk of the county and some of 
those holding that office subsequently, were John B. Morris, John P. 
Clark, Silas Wilson, James Carroll, Ben C. Johnson, three terms, John 
J. Steele, P. M. Morris, and Captain James C. Buckner. 

In 1872 the legislature passed an act giving to Audrain county a 
probate court, thereby transferring to that court all probate business 
from the county court. 

June 1, 1872, George B. Macfarlane was by Governor Brown ap- 
pointed judge, and at the November election the same year, he was 
elected and held office until the 15th of January 1875, when he resigned 
and Samuel M. Edwards was by Governor Hardin appointed his succes- 
sor. This office he held by election until January 1, 1903, when he 
voluntarily retired and William W. Botts, the present incumbent became 
his successor. 

In 1840 James Harrison was the Whig candidate and James Jackson 
the Democratic candidate for the legislature. Harrison obtained the 
certificate of election but his seat was successfully contested by Jackson. 
Abraham B. Tinsley was at that election chosen sheriff. In 1842, James 
Harrison, the Whig candidate defeated James Jackson, for the legis- 
lature. John B. Morris was elected clerk of both the circuit and county 
courts. In 1844, Robert Calhoun, Whig, defeated Richard R. Lee, Demo- 
crat, for the legislature. In 1846, Abraham B. Tinsley, Democrat, was 
elected to the legislature over James Harrison, Whig. In 1850, Bazel 
Offutt, Whig, defeated Tinsley, Democrat, for the legislature. In 1854, 
John R. Crosswhite, Democrat, was elected to the legislature, over Thomas 
J. Hardin, Whig. In 1856, Thomas J. Hardin, Native American candi- 
date, defeated A. B. Tinsley, Democrat, by one majority. Tinsley 
contested the seat and Hardin resigned. In an election to fill the 
vacancy, Hardin beat Tinsley two votes. Prior to the Civil war, the 
parties were about equally divided in the county, sometimes the Whigs, 
sometimes the Democrats were successful. In 1858, Mortimer Mcllhany 
defeated A. B. Tinsley, Democrat, for the legislature. Mcllhany was 
again elected in 1860. In both races he ran against a regular Democrat. 


Mcllhany attended the legislature, voted for secession, was also at the 
Neosho special sitting of the legislature called by Governor Jackson and 
there voted for sepession. Charles H. Hardin, who was the senator 
from the senatorial district in which Audrain was situated, attended the 
last named sitting of the legislature and voted against secession. Mcll- 
hany was sent as a representative of Missouri to the Confederate congress. 
In the county election of 1860, John B. Morris, W. D. Sumner and 
John P. Clark were elected judges of the county court, Alexander Carter, 
sheriff, and M. Y. Duncan, county clerk. W. D. Sumner, the sheriff and 
the county clerk were ousted under the test oath. B. P. Ritchie was 
appointed the successor of Sumner. George 0. Yeiser, a lawyer and 
deputy provost-marshal, was appointed in place of Duncan, John W. 
Gamble, sheriff in place of Carter. 

The Bar 

The business of the courts was carried on by the non-resident attor- 
neys, following the circuit, as was the fashion then until 1851, when 
Samuel A. Craddock from Kentucky, established an ofBce in Mexico. 
He was followed by Samuel M. Edwards from Virginia, M. Y. Duncan, 
formerly from Callaway county, and Charles C. Ricketts from Virginia. 
Then in the later 50 's by John M. Gordon from Boone county, Mortimer 
Mcllhany and John T. Brooks from Kentucky. During the Civil war 
and for some years thereafter the bar was made up of the following 
additional attorneys — John D. and George B. Macfarlane, brothers, 
L. M. Conklin, H. W. Smart, George 0. Yeiser, Charles H. Hardin, 1861 ; 
Milton F. Simmons, Ira Hall, Thomas H. Musick, Henry C. Daniel and 
J. E. Hut ton. William J. Howell and Theodore Brace of Paris, after 
the Civil war carried professional cards in The Weekly Missouri Ledger, 
Charles H. Hardin carried a card in which he appended to his name — 
*' Under the constitution of the United States." All of the local law- 
yers of that period, outside of George B. Macfarlane and Hardin engaged 
as well in insurance and real estate business. Conklin was also an agent 
for a nursery. Hardin spent a part of his time improving a farm north 
of Mexico. 

Then came William H. Kennan, William 0. Forrest, Daniel H. 
Mclntyre, J. McD. Trimble, Colby T. Quisenberry and W. B. Mclntire, 
then later C. G. and J. W. Daniel and L. C. Sweaver, then in 1876, 
W. W. Fry, Orlando Hitt, T. B. Buckner, George Robertson, David 
T. Gentry and J. G. Trimble. It was not until Forrest, Kennan, Mcln- 
tyre, Geo. B. Macfarlane and Trimble had established practices that the 
foreign attorneys disappeared in charge of the main litigation of the 
courts of the county. 

D. H. Mclntyre held the office of prosecuting attorney, state senator, 
was twice a member of the house of representatives from the county and 
in 1880 was elected attorney general. 

William H. Kennan represented the county one term in the legis- 
lature, was a successful financier and retired from the practice several 
years before his death. 

John M. Gordon was three times prosecuting attorney of the county, 
was a fair lawyer of his time, died very poor and left no family. 

Geo. B. Macfarlane became supreme judge in 1891 and held the 
office until his death, February 12, 1898. 

M. Y. Duncan never aimed to devote his entire time to the practice. 
He was more or less of a publicist, and became reasonably well oflE for 
his time. 


Ricketts was a bachelor, never engaged actively in the trial of cases 
but associated himself with William J. Howell of Paris in that regard. 
He acquired considerable real estate before his death. 

John D. Macfarlane died about 1870. 

Craddock' succeeded fairly well in local practice, and like the other 
Mexico lawyers of that time, dealt more or less in real estate. He raised 
a family of two sons and three daughters and was especially devoted to 
the care and education of his daughters. 

Edwards for a great many years presided as probate judge as before 
stated and his widow resides in Mexico. 

Hardin after the Civil war was again elected state senator, was 
elected governor in 1874, never attempted to return to the practice after 
that, but spent the remainder of his life as president of the Mexico 
Southern bank and supporting Hardin College of which he was the 

Mcllhany after the Civil war served two terms in the legislature in 
one of which he was speaker of the house. After that he retired from 
the practice, engaged in trading in real estate and about 1880 removed 
to the state of Texas where he died some years ago. 

Conklin, Smart and Yeiser flourished more or less out of the condi- 
tions arising during and after the Civil war, and in the later 60 's all 
left here. 

Simmons turned his attention to the newspaper business and after- 
wards removed westward and engaged in the real estate business. 

Hall along in the 80 's removed from Mexico to Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia, and there it is said became quite successful as a practitioner. 

About the same time of Hall's leaving Mexico, Musick removed to 
Hartville, Wright county, there engaged in the practice and died there 
a few years ago. 

L. C. Sweaver was a conveyancer and was the first to engage in mak- 
ing complete abstracts of title. He left Mexico about 1880. 

Brooks with his profession of law, was also a minister of the Chris- 
tian church and the editor for a number of years of the Missouri Ledger. 
He died about 1877. 

Forrest died at his home in Mexico, March 7, 1890. In a resolution 
adopted by the bar of the county at his death, it said of him in part : 
**He was a lawyer of great ability and learning; earnest and elo(|uent 
in behalf of the interests of his clients; genial, courteous, true and 
accommodating to his brother lawyers and kind and generous to a fault 
in social relations." 

Henry C. Daniel, about 1870, removed to Cass county where he 
engaged in the practice. 

C. G. Daniel removed to Yandalia, where he became interested in 
financial matters and for a great number of years has given his attention 
to banking in which he has been very successful. 

J. W. Daniel has for a number of years been engaged in a success- 
ful insurance and real estate business at the latter place. 

Buckner held the oflBce of prosecuting attorney, in his second terra 
resigned and removed to Kansas City where he has since been engaged 
in the practice. 

Robertson was his successor by appointment of Governor Marmaduke 
and has since been engaged in the practice at Mexico. 

Hitt removed to Colorado in 1887, where he served as prosecuting 
attorney of Los Animas county and acquired considerable distinction 
as a lawyer. He returned to Audrain county in 1896, again engaged in 
the practice of law at Mexico and died in November, 1908. 

Trimble removed to Kansas City in 1887, and there has been engaged 


in the practice ever since. He acquired a reputation of being one of the 
ablest lawyers in the West and after removing to Kansas City soon took 
rank at the head of the bar in that city. 

Fry is still engaged in the practice at Mexico. In addition to his 
successes as a lawyer he has acquired considerable property and for a 
number of years has been president of the Mexico Savings bank. 

W. B. Mclntire was quite successful in trading in real estate and 
never aimed to devote his time wholly to the practice. He has a son 
in Mexico in business and his widow lives in St. Louis. 

Quisenberry came to the county from Kentucky in 1866, a very 
wealthy farmer. He engaged in farming and stock raising here for a 
number of years, was a candidate for state auditor on the Granger's 
ticket which opposed the Democrats in 1874. Being defeated and losing 
his property, he turned his attention to the law but never with any 
considerable success. About 1880, he removed to Trinidad, Colorado, 
where he died about 1890. He was a man of fine personal character. 

J. E. Hutton after some effort at practice, turned his attention to 
newspaper work. He became the editor and proprietor of the Intelli- 
gencer, In 1884, he was elected to congress and served two terms. He 
died soon after retiring from congress. His widow resides in Mexico. 

Gentry after engaging in practice for a few years took up life insur- 
ance as a business. J. G. Trimble was twice prosecuting attorney. He 
now practices law in Kansas City. 

As to the present bar, the writer will leave it to the future historian, 
but will add by way of comment that taking it as a whole, they are 
maintaining the high standard set them by their predecessors. The 
real estate and insurance business is no longer followed in connection 
with the duties of the regular profession. 


The first doctors practicing in Audrain county were Mathew Walton 
and G. W. Penny. When the county seat was located, they were at or 
near Mexico. Soon after Mexico was laid off, Dr. Edward Ratliff, a 
native of Maine, and a graduate of Bowdoin College of that state, located 
on a farm three or four miles northeast of Mexico and engaged in 
practice. He afterwards removed to Mexico and from there to Santa 
Fe, Missouri, where he continued to practice for many years. About the 
same time came Dr. W. H. Lee, afterward county judge. 

In 1854, Dr. R. W. Bourn came to Mexico from Kentucky and at 
that time found Drs. Lazarus N. Hunter, Nathaniel Allison and W. H. 
Lee located there. Later came Chas. H. Hughes, then S. N. Russell, a 
native of Maine also, a graduate of Bowdoin College. About the time 
Russell located here, were Drs. T. P. Rothwell, Wesley Humphrey, C. 
B. Fetter, J. W. Lanius, John S. Potts, and R. Arnold, the first homeo- 

Located in the county on Littleby was Dr. Joshua H. Crawford, 
Edward Duncan on Long Branch, who practiced in northern Audrain 
and southern Monroe. In 1875 from Concord also came Dr. Wm. W. 
Macfarlane. Soon after that Dr. W. R. Rodes from Santa Fe, who 
while living here was made superintendent of the Fulton Insane Asylum. 
Then came Dr. T. J. Baskett, from Callaway county. 

In 1872, there was organized an Audrain county Medical Society, 
and the following made up the oflBcers and the membership: W. H. 
Lee, president; J. H. Crawford, vice-president; A. M. Vandeventer, 
treasurer; Wm. W. Macfarlane, secretary. The members were — John 
Bryan, on Young's creek; J. W. Lanius, C. B. Fetter, T. P. Rothwell, S. 


N. Russell, Wesley Humphrey. By 1884 the membership was made up 
of the following additional doctors — ^W. L. Reed, S. M. Dodson, Piekney 
French, F. M. Moore, W. R. Rodes, T. J. Baskett, W. V. Walker, Thos. 
S. Murdock, A. M. Patterson, R. W. Bourn, N. Allison, W. R. Blanken- 
ship, W. H. Vandeventer, Samuel Welch, J..H. Terrill, J. B. SchoU, 
M. M. Scott, M. E. Crawford, J, J. Halley, John McDermon. 

All of the above named are now dead with the exception of Drs. 
Rodes, still practicing in Mexico, Macfarlane located at Auxvasse, 
R. W. Bourn, living in Mexico, but long since retired from practice, 
Blankenship removed, M. E. Crawford, removed, M. M. Scott, removed, 
J. B. SchoU, removed to Eureka Springs, Halley, in Fort Collins, Colo- 
rado, Hughes, located in St. Louis, a prominent alienist there and Pink- 
.ney French, in St. Louis. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to give the later-day members 
of the medical profession of the county. But one will be mentioned, 
Dr. Edwin S. Cave, who began practice in Mexico in 1884 and after 
attaining prominence in his profession, died at Mexico, July 10, 1910. 

Of these named a number enjoyed more than a local practice, and 
gained considerable distinction in the profession, notably Russell, 
Hughes, Bryan, French, Rodes and Macfarlane. 

Pioneer Times 

The early settlers of Audrain county were principally from Ken- 
tucky, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina. The first settlements 
were made in the timber and on the water courses. The dwellings were 
always small cabins in the timber on account of convenience for build- 
ing material and fuel and near the water courses on account of water. 
Game was abundant. They devoted themselves mainly to hunting, 
trapping and fishing. This was not done merely as a pastime or a 
pleasure but of necessity. By common consent of the settlers, the skins 
of the fur-bearing animals were a legal tender. The first houses were 
built on Beaver Dam, Salt river, Loutre, Cuivre, Young's creek and 
Littleby. They aimed to group themselves together as much as pos- 
sible in neighborhoods, but owing to the distance of the streams apart, 
these settlements were far apart and separated by broad prairies. Nat- 
urally these early settlers took to the timber along the streams because 
they had all come from states where there were no prairies. 

For the first ten years after the creation of the county by the leg- 
islature in 1830, the early settlers so far as is ascertainable, and in 
addition to those named in this sketch as taking a part in the first 
organization of the county, and the town of Mexico, and settling in 
the county, are as follows: Franklin Armstead, 1833; John Bybee, 
1833 ; Thos. Bradley, a soldier of the War of 1812, 1838 ; Neil Blue, 
also a soldier of 1812, 1831; Richard Brynes, 1832; Edward Beatty, 
1837 ; John and Thomas Bamett, 1831 ; Joseph Crockett, 1840 ; Robert 
Calhoun, 1840; William M. Clark, 1839; Peter and Silas Cawthom, 
1835; Carter and James Cauthorn, 1835; John Charlton, 1830; Wil- 
liam Cardwell, 1837; Thomas Crouch, 183 — . He settled on Cuivre. 
Nimrod, Reuben, John and Frank Canterberry settled on Littleby in 
1836 ; Hezekiah J. M. Doan, on Salt river, 1831 ; Edward H. Douglass, 
1837 ; Calvin M. McCarty, 1838 ; Carter and John G. Dingle, 1839 ; John 
Wilson, 1834. He settled on Young's creek near where the Paris road 
crosses that stream and was the father-in-law of James Berry, John 
Vance and John Price soon after coming into the county. David 
Eubank, 1837 ; Elias EUer, 1838 ; Edward Faucett, 1835 ; Josiah Fuget, 
1836; Ausey H. Fike, 183—; Josiah and Thomas Qantt, 1835. They 


settled in what is now known as the Gantt postoffice neighborhood. 
Jacob Heppler, 183 — . He settled on Salt river about six miles north 
of Mexico; Elisha Hall, 1836; Thomas Hook, 1833; Asap Hubbard, 
1830. Hubbard settled in the northeastern part of the county and was 
the father of the late Thomas Hubbard, a man of more than ordinary 
ability. John C. Martin, in 1830. He was the father-in-law of the 
late Henry Williams, elected to the legislature in Audrain county, in 
1870. Mr. Williams was a merchant in Mexico for many years and 
became one of the wealthy men of the county, but it is said when 
he married he was so poor he could not pay the minister, but gave him 
an old spinning wheel for his trouble. Drury and Beverly Mayes, in 
1832; Marion Pate, 1832; Louis Musick, 1839; William, John and 
Reuben Pulis, as early as 1836; Thomas Peery, 183 — . John A. and 
Joseph Pearson, about 1835, settled on what afterwards became part of 
the City of Mexico. Thomas Powell settled north of Mexico about 
one mile on Salt river, in 183 — , James Reed, 1834, John Reynolds, 

1832, Russell, father of Frank Russell, after whom Russeirs 

Pord is named, on Salt river about ten miles north of Mexico, 1835 and 
Joseph D. Spencer, about 1839 settled on Salt river about one mile north 
of what is now Rising Sun church. Henry Shock settled in the now 
Gantt postoffice neighborhood in 1831, Abraham B. Tinsley, 1837, Wil- 
liam Talley, 1839, and George Talley in 1831, John Wayne, in 1827, 
settled about six miles southeast of Mexico. Caleb Williams settled in 
the county in 1830 and died in 1832. It is said his funeral was the first 
ever preached in the county and that the preacher was a Methodist 
circuit rider, the Rev. Robert A. Younger, who performed the first 
marriage ceremony in the county, February 2, 1837. Younger lived in 
Boone county. 

It has been stated that the Rev. R. A. Y'^ounger was the father of Cole 
Younger and his brothers, the notorious bandits. Albert G. Turner, 
bom in 1837, whose father, John Turner settled at the head of Salt 
River southwest of Mexico in 1835, knew the Rev. Younger in his later 
days and knows that the statement as to his being the father of the 
jl ounfifer bovs is a mistake 

Rowland Wats, 1833, William Woods, 1837, Jeremiah J. West, 
brother of William C. West, 1837 and Timothy Barney settled on 
Cuivre in 1835. Shorten Blankenship settled east of Mexico about 
eight miles in 1837. William Crosswhite settled in Saling township in 
1839. In the same township, EUerton B. Mallory settled in 1837. Pey- 
ton Mahan lived in Saling township when it was first organized. The 
election for township officers was held at his house in 1837, and the 
number of votes cast was ten. In February, 1838, there lived in Loutre 
township, and who were appointed judge of the township election, 
William McCormack, and Andrew P. Hays. At the same election iu 
Salt River township, the judges of the election were Thomas Kilgore, 
George L. Smith, and John C. Martin. At the election in Wilson town- 
ship, Thomas Stricklin was one of the judges. Jesse Perkins and Miller 
Barnes also lived in Saling township at that time. William M. Jesse 
settled southeast of Mexico in 1883. He was one of the founders of Hope- 
well church, John Y^ounger in 1837. This was a different family than 
the Y'^oung after whom Young's Creek was named. Barnett McDonald, 
1838, WilUam White, 1836, David Martin, 1836, James Harrison, 1837, 
Jackson Thomas, 1838, Thomas Boyd, 1830. 

Matthew Scott, Mrs. Jane Gregg and Louis Day in 1832 established 
for their children and those in the neighborhood, the first school in 
the county. The house was built on the northeast comer of section 
35, township 50, range 9. Archibald Gregg was the first teacher. One 


day at noon he took his gun, which he always had at the school house, 
w^ent into fhe woods and brought in a dead wild cat, to the curiosity of 
his pupils. \ 

There were doubtless others settled in the county within the decade 
here mentioned, but at this late date, their names are not obtainable. 
There were thirty-three voters in Cuivre township in 1840. 

On February 2, 1837, the Rev. Mr. Younger performed a marriage 
ceremony for Samuel Riggs and Nancy Dollins. June 22, 1837, Michael 
Perkins, J. P., performed a marriage ceremony between Jesse Robards, 
and Parthenia Smith. On the 19th of September, 1837, Benjamin Can- 
terberry, J. P., performed a marriage ceremony between Joseph A. 
Peery and Harriett Talley. December 21, 1837, J. B. Hatton, J. P., 
solemnized the rites of matrimony between John Pearson and Mary 
Barson. February 8, 1838, Lycurgus L. Ramsey and Jane Fenton were 
married by the Rev. Robert C. Mansfield. Ramsey became one of the prin- 
cipal merchants of the town afterward. April 16, 1838, Greensberry 
Johnson, J. P., performed a marriage ceremony in Prairie township 
between Jesse C. Clarkson and Mary Ann Dicken. 

The first deed placed of record was dated February, 1837, wherein 
William Wood conveyed to John B. Morris, the northeast quarter of 
the southwest quarter of section 36, township 51, range 9, of Audrain 
county. However this was not the first conveyance made in the county, 
for prior to that time deeds were sent to Monroe and some other counties 
for record and others withheld from record till the county was organ- 

According to the United States census for 1840, the population of 
the county was, 1,949. This growth chiefly took place after the organiza- 
tion of the county in February, 1837. 

The county court of Audrain county was authorized by the legisla- 
ture by an act approved January 25, 1837, with the counties of Pike, 
Ralls, Monroe, and Shelby, **to subscribe and take so much stock in 'The 
Salt River Navigation Company,' as they may think proper for the use 
and benefit of the county. ' ' ^ 

The Salt River Navigation Company was one of the projects of John 
M. Clemens of Florida, Monroe county, the father of Samuel L. Clem- 
ens (Mark Twain). By this act Clemens and his associates were given 
authority to open and deepen the bed of Salt river from the junction of 
the Three Forks of Salt river near Florida, to its mouth on the ^lissis- 
sippi river, to erect dams, locks, culverts, bridges, etc., so as to render the 
stream navigable for steamboats and other crafts. The same legislature 
gave Clemens and associates also authority to incorporate and build the 
Florida and Paris railroad ^ thereby completing a line for transportation 
from Paris, Monroe county, to the Mississippi river. It does not seem 
that Audrain county ever availed itself of its privilege of taking stock 
in the Navigation Company. This is as near as Audrain county has 
ever been able to come in establishing any connection with Mark Twain. 
These wildly conceived projects of John M. Clemens were doubtless in 
the mind of the son when fashioi^ing the character of Colonel Mulberry 
Sellers in the ** Gilded Age." 

The buffalo, like the Indian, had disappeared from this county prior 
to the early settlements. The country surrounding Audrain county 
being largely timber, was settled years before this county, hence the 
Indian and buffalo had gone westward of the civilization of these 
other counties. At the time of the Clark and Lewis Expedition, the 
line between the Sacs and Foxes ran through the county north and 

1 Laws of Missouri, 1836-7, 229. 

2 Id. 237. 


south, most probably about a mile east of what is now Mexico. Even to 
this day, arrow and spear heads are found on the banks of Beaver Dam 
in the flint rock vicinities just east of Mexico. 

The last elk killed in the county was in 1837. The deer, however, 
remained in abundance until late in the '50s and the last wild turkey 
killed in the county was about 1875. The prairie chicken disappeared 
soon after the turkey was gone. It was not only supposed by these 
early settlers, but on account of the green head flies, it was impossible 
to live upon the prairies. So bad were these flies in the day time, that 
the plowing in the summer was largely done in the night time. One of 
the draw-backs to the settlement of the prairie country too, was the want 
of water. All the water at that time was such as accumulated in the 
streams. Audrain county never had any streams or natural wells 
Again until the Graduation Act, so called, of 1854, they had not the 
money to enter land from the government at $1.25 per acre, and it was 
not until that Act reduced the price to 12^^ cents an acre that the 
prairie lands began to be taken up. By 1850 the population had in- 
creased to 3,506 over 400 of whom were slaves. 

The early settler of Audrain county lived in the same fashion as did 
the early settlers of other places. They produced all of their own food 
and their own clothing, and very few of them produced anything to 
sell. One of these early settlers, being asked what they did for money, 
said **Why, we didn't need it. Taxes amounted to nothing, or very 
little, we had our own sheep and our own flax fields, and from the wool 
and flax we manufactured all our own clothing and bed clothing. We 
raised our own com for meal. We raised and killed our own pork and 
cured our own bacon. We managed to get leather from the tanners 
and the neighborhood cobbler made it into boots and shoes." Later 
on, cattle and hogs were raised for the market. Before the advent of the 
railroad, the cattle were driven to St. Louis to market. The hogs were 
butchered at home and turned into bacon, but later driven to Hannibal 
where 'there was a pork packing establishment. The only markets 
were at St. Louis and Hannibal and Louisiana and all of these were 
reached by wagon. 

Teaming in the late '40s and through the '50s, until the North Mis- 
souri Railroad reached Mexico in 1858, was a very flourishing business. 
All supplies coming into the county until that time came over the prai- 
ries in wagons from Louisiana and Hannibal to Mexico. When the 
Mississippi was frozen over so boats could not get to these towns, goods 
were hauled from St. Louis. Two noted teamsters of that time were 
John and Samuel Dingle. 

R. A. Calhoun, now living in Mexico, a boy eight years of age in 
1844, when his father, the Whig candidate, defeated Richard R. Lee, 
Democrat, for the legislature, says that on that day there were many 
fights over the election without any special ill-feeling, and what there 
was disappeared when the election was over. He also says that both 
sides had an open barrel of whiskey, to which their adherents went for 
free drinks. Up until shortly prior to the Civil war fighting and drink- 
ing were as much a part of the election d^y performance as voting. 

Albert Oass, now living near Mexico, says that when he was a boy, 
he always went to the election for the amusement of seeing the fights. 
When this sondition began to disappear, the present hackneyed expres- 
sion of some newspapers that the election '^passed off quietly," had 
more significance than it has now. 

These early settlers of the county as a rule raised large families. 
Picking out a few names from them at random, Franklin Armstead had 
nine children, Neil Blue ten, Richard Byrnes eight, John Barnett 
twelve, Elias Eller nine, William M. Jesse sixteen, three of whom died 


in childhood. The others lived to maturity and three of them, like 
their father, were Baptist ministers. Asap Hubbard had four children, 
but that was an unusually small family. Asap's father had twelve. 
John Kilgore married twice and had eighteen children. John Bybee 
had six wives and twenty-six children, but he seems to be rather an ex- 
ception both as to wives and children. 

Chills and fever, especially in the fall of the year, were the prevail- 
ing sickness of the people, and this condition continued until about 
1880, when the prairies had been largely subdued and the stagnant 
water drained off. People then thought that ague was produced by the 
condition of the atmosphere arising from the rank vegetation and pools. 
They called it malaria, but they are ready now to agree with the medical 
profession, which has discovered that this disease was produced by the 
bite of the mosquito which was bred in the stagnant water and pools 
of the county. 

In 1860 the number of inhabitants had increased to 8,075, 1,166 of 
whom were slaves. Yet a slave trader in the community was not ac- 
counted a respectable person and to sell a slave to be sent south was 
considered inhumane. Many are the acts of these people showing their 
kindness to their slaves, and that really at heart they were abolitionists 
themselves. Edward Beatty in his will, dated May 24, 1847, disposed 
of certain of his property to his children, on condition that **If Aaron, 
the black man, is still living, the property then falling back to my 
children must not be divided until they make some permanent arrange- 
ment between themselves for the support of said negro man Aaron, 
allowing him to make choice which one of the children he will live 

Some years before the Civil war, John P. Clark owned a likely btight 
negro man named George. A southern slave trader took a fancy to 
George and wanted to buy him to take south. He made several offers 
for George but each #was refused until finally the sum of $3,000 was 
offered, a very large sum for a slave. Clark^ being pressed for money, 
finally consented to the offer on condition that George was to decide. 
The matter being submitted to George, he conferred with his master 
and the conclusion w^as that George would not be sold. George did 
remain until Lincoln's proclamation of freedom, when he volunteered 
into the Federal army, made a good soldier and after the war returned 
to Mexico where he is now living. 

Instances of this kind are entitled to a permanent record in the 
history of slavery. Slavery was more of a condition than a choice 
of the slave holder. It was an institution coming to him from former 
generations and there can be no doubt that the Civil war only has- 
tened what would have been finally peaceably reached. 

By this time the families along the streams had begun to extend 
their farms into the prairies and occasionally a farm house would be 
found with the entire farm on the prairie. 

The North Missouri Railroad was completed to Mexico in 1858 and 
extended northward to Hudson City, now Macon, by 1860. The 
county court in 1853 subscribed $50,000 to the capital stock of that 
railroad on condition that it would be located on what was called *'The 
Ridge Route," and thus touch Mexico, the county seat. At the time 
this subscription was made people thought this to be an enormous 
indebtedness, but by the time the road was completed to Mexico in June, 
1858, the entire amount had been paid without oppression or even 

By 1860 the county was beginning to be accounted one of the 
progressive agriculture counties of Northeast Missouri, and James S. 
Rollins, comparing it with the older county of Boone, referred to it 


as '"Little Sis." Cattle raising became one of the chief enterprises of 
the people. The prairie constituted probably three-fourths of the 
county and on it grew a very luxuriant grass commonly called "blue 
stem." It grew from one to five feet high and furnished very rich 
grazing. The cattle were herded on these prairies and it was not an 
act of trespass for them to go on to the imenclosed lands of others for 
the purpose of grazing. The courts held that the Common Law of 
England, requiring persons to fence their stock in, never applied to 
Missouri, but on the other hand it was the law regardless of the owner- 
ship of the prairies, that they were the common range and the common 
property for the purpose of grazing by stock collected in herds or run- 
ning at large. The owner of a herd of cattle or sheep would go early 
in the spring and stake out what part of this common range he pro- 
posed to appropriate to the use of his herd the coming year. This 
often brought about conflict and more than one homicide has been 
recorded in the county, as a result of these conflicts. 

P. W. Lehmann, lately Solicitor General of the United States, when 
a boy herded sheep in the county, and the following from him is a fair 
expression of the conditions of the time he speaks: "I went to Audrain 

A Haystaceing Scene 

county in the summer of 1867 in the employ of a Mr. McCausland, who 
was moving from Pennsylvania to Missouri. My work was to assist in 
the care of a flock of about a thousand sheep. We stayed in Audrain 
county until the fall of that year, so long as the pasturage was good, 
and then drove our flock to a place in Cooper county, near Arrow Rock, 
where we remained for most of the winter. Our stay in Audrain county 
was on a prairie, a few miles east of Mexico. The country was sparsely 
populated. Here and there was an occasional farm which was fenced 
in. We had what in ray memory seems to be an almost Umitless range 
for the sheep and had it free I think, and without asking for leave or 
license of anybody. I was a boy of fourteen at the time, it was my 
first view of a prairie, and I was greatly impressed with its immen- 
sity. I recall that the summer was one of drought and that the wells 
quite generally failed in their supply of water. We watered the sheep 
at a creek near by, and the same creek was the resource of the neigh- 
boring farmers for water for their stock and for household purposes. I 
have a vague "recollection that I boarded for a time with a family 
named Field.' and later with a family recently come from Michigan 
whose name I have entirely forgotten. Some tobacco and a consider- 
able amount of sorghum,^ was grown in the neighborhood." 

As the prairies began to be encroached upon for the purpose of 
establishing farms this condition produced great hardship because it 

1 John H. Fielii, Sr., four miles east of Meiico. 

I New Orleans molasses was quoted in the Missouri Ledger at $1.10 per gallon 
in 1867. 


cost as much or more to fence a farm to protect the crops from the 
stock running at large, as it did to pay for the farm. 

The growth of the county as well as other parts of this state, was 
retarded on account of this condition, which caused many people from 
the east to pass over the state and locate in Kansas and Nebraska, where 
the early legislatures had provided against this condition by a suitable 
stock law. The general assembly of this state by an enactment in 
1883, provided a law submitting it to the voters of any county at an 
election to be held for that purpose, as to whether they would adopt or 
reject the law requiring all animals to be kept up or fenced in. Soon 
after this act, the matter being submitted in Audrain county, was 

While there are no definite statistics upon the point, it is safe to say 
that by the later '80s all of the prairie and open lands of the county 
had been either put under fence or brought under subjection in such a 
way that every owner had control of his own lands, and from that 
time on, herding was no longer engaged in. 

Prom the early settlement of the county until about 1855, the county 
grew quite slowly, but the Graduation Act before mentioned had the 
tendency to invite immigration. Then the agitation of railroads and 
the completion of the North Missouri Railroad in 1858 was another 
impetus to settlement, especially along that line. Then after the Civil 
war from 1865 to 1870, there was quite an immigration into the 
county from the east. The population of the county in 1870 was 
12,370. There are many families in the county who came into the 
state shortly after the Civil war from Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and other 
northern states east of the Mississippi. Another addition to the county 
was brought about by a number of families from Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennessee leaving their homes which had been destroyed in the 
Civil war. A dozen or more families living in the county now came into 
the county from those causes from Virginia. As a result of this. Audrain 
county has an unusually mixed population. It is a fair example of what 
is often said of Missouri, that it is neither north nor south, east nor west, 
but is a national blend. 

- In murder cases frequently in the past, from one hundred to two 
hundred men have been summoned from all over the county, from 
which to procure juries and almost invariably on those occasions in 
asking the usual questions about birth, former citizenship, etc., etc.,^ 
men would be found on the panel from nearly every state in the 
Union, especially east of the Mississippi river. It is recalled that on 
one such occasion every state east of the Mississippi, with the exception 
of Rhode Island, together with Iowa, Arkansas, Kansas and Nebraska 
was represented on thc/panel, but before the call was completed the 
missing Rhode Islander turned up. On such occasions also would turn 
up an Englishman, Scotchman, German, Irishman and often immigrants 
from other countries of Europe. The population by 1880 had increased 
to 19,732, in 1890, it was 22,074 and in 1900, 21,160 and in 1910, 21,687. 

The Louisiana & Missouri River Railroad was completed to Mexico 
in 1872. The county had issued bonds to the amount of $300,000 to aid 
the construction of this road. That bond issue was made by the court 
elected in 1866,composed of Increase Adams, John B. Morris and B. H. 
Wilder. There was never any serious question of the legality of the 
subscription. The last bond was paid in 1881. This road now forms 
part of the Chicago & Alton Railroad. That road was extended from 
Mexico to Kansas City in 1878. The Burlington System entered the 
county in 1905. 

After the building of the North Missouri Railroad and the immigra- 
tion into the state, after the Civil war, the next period of rapid growth 


came in the late 70s to 1880 and continued until the early part of the 
next decade. The prairie lands were settled rapidly. For the first 
two or three years of the '80s they doubled and trebled in value. In the 
western part of the county the immigration was largely from the 
older counties, mainly from Boone, Callaway, and Monroe. On the 
prairies along the Chicago & Alton, the settlers came mainly from Illi- 
nois and along the line of what is now the Wabash, especially around 
Martinsburg, came a great many Oermans. The prices of land settled 
down, depending on location, character and improvement from twenty 
to fifty dollars per acre. Then there was no marked change, but the 
improvement was gradual until about 1902, when there came a great 
rush for Missouri lands from the eastern and northern states. Begin- 
ning with that time up to the present, lands have steadily increased in 
value until they have doubled and trebled and in many instances 

The early settlers depended upon the streams for water and as 
they were compelled to move back from these, it having been found out 
that the earth would hold water like a jug, people depended upon ponds 
for stock water and cisterns for family use. Later on it was discovered 
that by boring, water could be found anywhere on the prairies and now 
almost every farm has its deep well and wind mill. 

In this limited sketch it is impossible to give a full ILst of all the 
officers of the county but they have been generally men of high charac- 
ter, from the beginning down to the present time. Mismanagement 
of county affairs are scarce and not more than one or two defaults have 
ever occurred. In the earlier days, when nominations were made by 
the convention system, the parties, through the leaders, put up for 
election only their ablest and best men. 

Audrain county has always maintained the county unit system, tak- 
ing the idea from Virginia and Kentucky, thereby bringing into the 
county seat a concentration of the strongest elements of the county. At 
one time in the 70 's, when B. L. Locke was county clerk, B. R. Cau- 
thorn, collector, S. M. Edwards, probate judge, James Carroll, circuit 
clerk, and John J. Steele or Harrison Glasscock,* sheriff, they composed 
a collection of men in the courthouse that would have done credit to 
any state capital. 

Audrain county has contributed a fair share of the public men of 
the state. Charles H. Hardin, governor; D. H. Mclntyre, attorney 
general; George B. Macfarlane, supreme judge; Sam B. Cook, secretary 
of state; A. H. Buckner and J. E. Hutton, congress; Col. Green Clay, 
M. R. K. Riggs, state senate ; Hardin and Mclntyre also state senators ; 
John W. Gamble, constitutional convention of 1865; Lebius R. Wifley, 
attorney general of the Philippine Islands and the first judge of the 
extra territorial United States court in China; and Howard A. Gass, 
state superintendent of public instruction. 

Mexican War 

Audrain county was most too young to participate, . excepting 
remotely, in the Mexican war. It contributed only one volunteer to 
Company H, First Regiment, Missouri Volunteers, made up in Calla- 
way county, and joining Doniphan's Regiment. That wa^ Alexander 
Reed. Temple Wayne also went into the war from this county, but 
not into that company. Members of that company, after the war liv- 
ing in this county were Thomas Jamison, Thomas Harrison, Charles 
A. (Aus) Rodgers, Paul H. Duly, John M. Kelso, William H. North- 

• Glasscock, October 18, 1877, captured James Berry, the Union Pacific train 

Vol. I— 1 4 


cutt, John M. Robards, Thomas Picklin and William French. The 
latter died at the age of 87 years on July 17, 1912, being the last sur- 
vivor of that company. 

Other soldiers of the Mexican war living in the county, but not in 
that company or regiment, were James Shell, Richard T. Throckmor- 
tin, John Ellis, Elijah Bennett and David Hiner. These men all lived 
long and honorable lives and were the leading men of their neigh- 

The Press 

The first newspaper published in the county was the Weekly Ledger, 
which was established at Mexico in the summer of 1855, by John B. 
Williams. Mr. Williams who was well known as a newspaper man in 
central Missouri, conducted the paper until 1856, when he sold it to 
William D. H. Hunter who continued its publication until January, 
1862, when fire destroyed the oflBce. In January, 1863, a paper called 
the Audrain County Beacon was established by Captain Amos Ladd and 
O. A. A. Gardner. John T. Brooks took an interest with Ladd and 
Ladd & Brooks published it as the Weekly Missouri Ledger. Later Brooks 
took over Ladd's interest and continued the publication till in March, 
1872, Colonel J. E. Hutton purchased the paper and re-christened it 
the Intelligencer. In 1879 Colonel Hutton began publishing a daily 
edition of the paper. In 1885 the paper was purchased by Samuel B. 
Cook, who, in 1898, accepted C. M. Baskett as partner, and in 1900 
Cook sold his interest to Baskett, who published it for a short while, 
and from him it was taken over by a corporation of which F. A. Morris 
is the president, the editor being Rufus Jackson. In October, 1865, 
W. W. Davenport established the Messenger and soon afterward sold 
it to M. P. Simmons, who conducted it until September, 1874, when it 
was purchased by J. Lynn Ladd, who changed its politics from Repub- 
lican to Democratic re-christening it the Ledger, and in 1876 sold it to 
R. M. White. ^Ir. White began publishing the Daily Ledger in 1886. 
Both weekly and daily issue of that paper are now published by R. M. 
White & Son, L. M. White. 

In 1859, the Audrain County Banner was started by William H. 
Martin, but existed only a few months. A paper called the Signal 
was established in 1858 by William A. Thompson, who ran it for 
about two years and then sold it to Joseph A. Armstead, who, after 
publishing it for about a year, discontinued it. In October, 1868, 
the Agriculturist was started by W. 6. Church, and lived one year. 
John Beal began publishing the ^lexico Message, November, 1899. The 
State Leader, a prohibition paper, was published here for a while al)out 
1900, by Charles E. Stokes, then and now the Prohibition candidate 
for governor. He removed it to Kansas City. In October, 1868, the 
Audrain Expositor was started by Ira Hall, J. D. Macfarlane and 
Milton P. Simmons, and existed about a year. The Mexico Ihiion 
was established in 1878 by Harry Day, and in 1879 was acquired by 
C. A. Keeton, who changed its name to the Audrain County Press, 
which, after an existence of a few years, ceased publication. At dif- 
ferent times journalistic ventures were put forth, flourished for a 
while, and died a natural death. 

The Civil War 

As noted above the old parties were prior to the Civil war about 
equally divided in the county. In 1860 all three of the Democratic 
tickets as well as the Republican were represented in the campaign. 


The Bell and Everett voters and the Douglass voters maintained flags 
on a pole in the courthouse yard throughout that campaign. In that 
election Lincoln received one vote in the county. As above noted 
Audrain's representative was a secessionist and its representative in 
the state senate was a Union man. Early in the spring of 1861 when 
the lines between union and secession were beginning to be drawn, 
the people of the county were about equally divided, there being, how- 
ever, a strong secession sentiment in and around Mexico. The divided 
sentiment is well illustrated by an effort which was made to raise a 
secession flag in Mexico that spring. William 0. Johnson, Green 
Bishop, James and Robert Carter and Joe Inlow were the leaders 
of the participants on the part of the secessionists. On the other hand, 
were George W. Fentem, Samuel Fentem, Henry Estes and W. II. 
White, the leaders of the opposition. It was undertaken to put the 
flag on the Bell and Everett pole of the fall campaign still standing. 
This resulted in a general fight in which no one was killed but several 
badly hurt. The secessionists were compelled to retire without 6ver 
getting the flag on the pole and the secession flag never floated in 

From the time of the Camp Jackson affair at St. Louis in May 
it was the determination of the Federal forces to hold the Missouri 
river through the entire state. General Lyon, after that affair, promptly 
seized Jefferson City, and the contention was over the possession of 
the river west of there, culminating in battles at Boonville and Lex- 
ington. It was also the determination of the Federal forces to keep 
up a complete line of communication along the line of the North ^lis- 
souri Railroad to Macon City and from there east on the Hannibal & 
St. Joe to Hannibal. From the central position of Mexico it was 
regarded as the military key to all Northeastern Missouri and was 
occupied by the Union troops early in the war and held by them to 
the end of the conflict. 

The first troops stationed at Mexico were in June or July, 1861. 
A portion of the Second and Eighth Missouri Regiments, in all about 
six hundred men were under the command of Colonel Morgan L. Smith 
and Lieutenant Colonel G. A..Schaefer. Prior to the arrival of these 
troops efforts were made in various parts of the county toward raising 
companies of the State Guard, under the call of Governor Jackson, 
for 50,000 men to defend the state against invasion. While they were 
called State Guards, they in reality afterwards became the bulk of 
Price's army. 

John G. Muldrow, a strong secessionist, got a crowd of men and 
l)oys together, which he called the ** Audrain Rangers," but never per- 
fected an organization of them. W^hen the first train load of these 
soldiers riding on flat cars, were approaching Mexico from the east, 
he took his men a mile or so east of Mexico and just east of the Salt 
river bridge, hid in the corn and brush and fired on the Union soldiers, 
killing some and wounding a number of them. There is no account of 
this affair in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, but it 
must have occurred in the last half of July. Immediately after this 
affair, Muldrow 's crowd dissolved, some hiding in the brush and some go- 
ing to their homes and remaining hidden for a number of days. It was 
the first start of real disorder which was constant throughout the 
remainder of the war. This regiment of Union soldiers was mostly 
composed of undisciplined Germans and they seemed to have the idea 
that the war was a personal matter between them and the individual 
secessionists as they came into contact with them. Muldrow was a 
brother-in-law of John P. Clark, who was a very strong Union man 
and it was doubtless through his efforts that Muldrow was never held 


accountable for this affair. John Q. Muldrow being mistaken for the 
real Muldrow, was by the soldiers, on being met by them, shot down 
and killed, and by a company of these soldiers passing through the 
town about the same time, two other citizens, William Lockridge and 
Garland Surber, were killed. 

When Col. U. S. Grant came to Mexico, John G. Muldrow came in 
from hiding and at the house of John P. Clark surrendered to Grant, 
took the oath of loyalty and remained loyal from then on. 

When General Pope was placed in command of north Missouri he 
located his headquarters at Mexico, where he remained from the 29th 
of July until the 7th of August. On the day that General Pope estab- 
lished headquarters here, he assigned Col. U. S. Grant, Twenty-first 
Illinois Volunteers to command at Mexico, with a territory from 
Montgromery City on the south to include Centralia on the north.* 
Colonel Grant remained here until August 7th and it was while here 
that his name was sent into the senate for promotion to brigadier 
general. On August 6th Colonel Grant was ordered to St. Louis, and 
from there to Iron ton, Missouri.^ While it is true that Grant's name 
was sent into the senate to be made brigadier general while at Mexico, 
he did not receive his commission until he had arrived at Ironton. 
» The first order addressed him as brigadier general was at that place 
August 8th and the next day, reporting to General Fremont, he says — 
*'I arrived here yesterday and assumed command in pursuance of 
directions from Major General John C. Fremont.'' 

In Ironton in commemoration of Grant's promotion from colonel 
to brigadier general, there has been erected a statue of him in Emer- 
son Park, where he stood when he received his commission. General 
Grant in his Personal Memoirs does not state the date of his arrival 
in Mexico. He mentions being here in charge of a sub-district embrac- 
ing the troops in the immediate vicinity and composed of three regi- 
ments and a section of artillery. Here he spent some time restoring 
order among the people, disciplining the soldiers, ** drilling his regi- 
ment and studying Hardee's Tactics." He says, **We were encamped 
just outside of town on the common, among scattering suburban houses 
with enclosed gardens." He further says that ** owing to a want of 
proper discipline of the other regiments, it became necessary to take 
steps to prevent marauding and the appropriation of property for 
their own' or government use, by the soldiers, but that soon the peo- 
ple were no longer molested or made afraid." He adds, **I received 
the most marked courtesy from the citizens of Mexico as long as I 
remained there." An account of his stay in Mexico is found in Per- 
sonal ^lemoirs. Vol. 1, pages 251-253. 

On account of Grant's after prominence in the Civil war, his loca- 
tion in Mexico at the very beginning of his career has always been 
regarded with great interest by the people here. There has been 
some controversy as to the location of his headquarters. It has been 
claimed that he had his headquarters in a house on the lot which has 
been purchased by the government for the postoflSce building. Some 
day, the people of Mexico, or some patriotic society may want to mark 
the spot where he was located. While persons are living who know 
where that spot is, it should be settled. His regiment was camped on 
what is now the western part of Mexico, mainly on what composes 
lilorris' addition, north of the railroad. Under the tactics at that time 
the colonel of a regiment was required to keep his tent with his men. 
His tent was located on the west side of Depot street, on the east end of 

1 Official Records, War of the Rebellion, Series I, Vol. Til, p. 415. 

2 Ibid. 


block No. 9, of that addition, and his men were encamped in every 
direction from him except east. At that time there was more vacant 
space on the north side of the railroad than now, for it was before 
the building of the Chicago & Alton Railroad along there. In sup- 
port of this statement reference is made to ** History of Audrain County, 
1884" information furnished by John Saunders, now deceased, at that 
time postmaster at Mexico and a citizen of ^Mexico throughout the 
entire war. Of those living now who were on the ground and at his 
headquarters during the time he was located here, are James H. Sal- 
lee, E. D. Graham, John W. Beatty, Elmer Cunningham and George 
Clark (colored), all of whom were there under such circumstances 
that they cannot be mistaken about the place of location. 

Major W. M. Stone of the Third Iowa Volunteers, commanded the 
post at Mexico in January, 1862.* Upon the authority of Mr. Sallee, 
the statement is here made that it was he who occupied the building 
on the postofBce lot. 

In June, 1861, James O'Bannon raised a company of men, not in 
^lexico, but in the vicinity around Mexico and undertook to join the 
Confederates at Boonville, but before reaching there the battle had 
taken place and it being impossible for them to get across the river 
they returned home and the company disbanded. Several members 
of that company afterward in one way or another got to Price's army. 
Among them were Louis and George Simpson, Richard Lee and Joseph 
W. Luckie. 

The t^nion forces were not of sufficient numbers in that time to 
spread all over and take charge of Northeast Missouri, hence in Audrain, 
Monroe. Boone, Marion and Callaway, remote from the county seats, 
where Federal posts had been established, there was a great deal of 
recruiting going on for the Confederates. 

D. H. Mclntyre, at that time a student at Westminster College, 
raised a company in Callaway county, composed largely of Audrain 
county men, 

Alvin Cobb, a one-armed man, raised a company of bush whackers 
which during the early part of the war he kept in the north part of 
Callaway county and south of Martinsburg in Audrain county. Lieu- 
tenant Jaeger of St. Louis, a German, was in command of a company 
of Union soldiers around Wellsville. Some time in August, 1861, with 
a few men on either side there was a little fight near the town of 
ilartinsburg in which Lieutenant Jaeger was wounded. Benjamin 
T. Sharp, a citizen of Wellsville, was riding in a buggy with Lieuten- 
ant Jaeger and was also wounded. He and Jaeger were both followed 
into the town of Martinsburg and taken prisoners. Cobb took them 
with him and within about four miles of Martinsburg on Hickory 
creek in Audrain, killed both of them. The killing of Sharp was due 
more to a personal matter between him and Cobb, than to sectional 
strife. The excitement of the time furnished Cobb an excuse for the 
murder, Jaeger being with Sharp, had to suflfer with him. By way 
of retaliation for the murder of Sharp, a company of German troops 
marched on Danville and without as much as a drum-head court mar- 
tial, lined up and shot four citizens, all of whom were southern sym- 

The next day after the murder of these men the Federal soldiers 
destroyed Cobb's dwelling. He had a force of about one dozen men 
together, stayed in the brush, bush-whacked, plundered and robbed, 
and was with his force at the battle of Moore's Mill, in Callaway county, 
on the Confederate side. He finally got to Price's army and in a per- 

• Official Becords, War of the Rebellion, Series II, Vol. I. 


sonal interview with General Price, was told that he must cease his 
^erilla warfare and take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate 
states if he desired to have his company mustered into the Confed- 
erate service, but civilized warfare not being suited to his tastes and 
from inability to carry on his bush-whacking further, he, in the early 
part of the war, went west into the state of Oregon, where he died 
many years ago. Shortly after this, three young men, not in arms, 
Robert and James Rodgers and one Hawkins were killed by the Fed- 
eral soldiers west of Mexico. 

John Murray raised a company in Audrain county which became 
a member of Colonel Brace's regiment. The first officers were, cap- 
tain, John Murray; first lieutenant, James B. Davis; second lieuten- 
ant, Henry Gillispie. Murray afterward became major of the regi- 
ment and was succeeded as captain by George W. Edmonston. W. J. 
Botts now living in Mexico, upon the reorganization of the regiment, 
after the battle of Lexington became its ordnance master. 

As this company has the most complete record of any raised in 
Audrain county for warfare, the writer of this sketch addressed 
Colonel Brace, for twenty years a judge of the supreme court of Mis- 
souri, after the war, and a man nearly eighty years of age now, a let- 
ter of inquiry concerning it, to which was received the following 
answer, and it is here inserted as the best account extant of Captain 
Murray's company: 

Pabis, Mo. Aug. 6, 1912. 

When Lee surrendered, I determined to forget all about the Civil war, and have 
succeeded pretty well. It remains with me only vaguely in memory, and the only 
record extant of my regiment is such slight mention as may bo found in the official 
reports preserved and published by the Federal government, and the newspapers of 
the day. The only record I have is my commission as colonel of *The Third .Regi- 
ment of Cavalry of the Second Military District,' dated September 23, 1861, signed 
by C. F. Jackson, commander in Chief of the Missouri State Guards, B. F. Massey, 
secretary of state and Warwick Hough adjutant general Missouri State Guards, with 
seal of the state, and recorded Vol. one, page 54, adjutant general's office. The inci- 
dents which led up to the organi2ation of the regiment are briedy as follows: After 
our return from the Boonville raceSf where I with quite a number of young men from 
Monroe first heard the report of a cannon in actual warfare, we commenced and 
66nsummated the organization of a company under the state law of which I was 
elected captain, and we commenced trying to make soldiers of ourselves by daily drill. 
After some scouting and skirmishing I went into camp at the site of Higgenbotham *s 
old mill on Elk Fork where we were soon after joined by a company from Audrain 
of which Murray was captain, Davis, first lieutenant and Gillispie, second lieutenant. 
This must have been about the first of August, 1861. Soon after we were joined by 
a company from Ralls and one from Pike, and we organised a battallion, of which I 
was elected lieutenant colonel and Murray major. At this time the Federal forces 
occupying the line of the Hannibal & St. Joe Railroad were thence from time to time 
making inroads upon the adjoining territory. Cols. Green and Porter of the State 
Guards were operating north of the railroad and I with my force south of it, and 
General Price was in southwest Missouri, on the move towards the Missouri river. 
Green and Porter crossed the railroad on the move to join Price's forces and joined 
me in Monroe county; after a skirmish at Shelbina we went into camp for a short 
time east of Florida where the * Salt River Tigers ' Captain Grisby joined my battalion 
and soon after another company was added to my battallion, but I cannot recall the 
name of its captain. I think it came from Montgomery county. Colonel Green and 
I determined to join General Price's forces south of the Missouri river while Colonel 
Porter determined to remain in northeast Missouri. I cannot give the date of our 
starting but we croFsed the Missouri river and reached Lexington and joined Price's 
forces, in the seige and battle followed, where we first met and came under the com- 
mand of the brigadier general of our district who was Gen. Tom Harris. 

The position of our brigade was on the river below the Anderson house, from 
which we rolled up the hill the Hemp bales which enabled us to use our shot guns 
and rifles with some advantage in bringing about the surrender of Mulligan 's forces. 
After the surrender my battalion then consisting of six companies was entitled to a 
regimental organiiation and accordingly the regiment was organized as *Tho Third 
Missouri Cavalry of the Second Military District.' I was elected lieutenant colonel 
and Murray of the Audrain Company major, and thereafter we were absorbed in 
Price 's army and operated therein until after the battle of Pea Ridge. By that time 


the tenxiB of enllBtment of my men (being for only six months) had expired, and the 
men had been discharged, some entering the Confederate Service others returning to 
their homes, and this ended the brief and inglorious existence of Brace's Begiment. 

Yours truly, 

Theodore Brace. 

After the battle of Lexington, Major Murray returned to Audrain 
county to recruit, was not successful, and in company with Joseph 
Lakenan, he and Lakenan were drowned in crossing the Missouri river * 
in an attempt to rejoin Price. 

Grant was succeeded at Mexico by General S. D. Sturgis. Stur- 
gis had under his control about four thousand men. He arrived at 
Mexico on the 9th of September, 1861, and was ordered to Lexington 
the 13th. He left a small force in charge of the post at Mexico. 

Along in July desperate efforts were made by the Confederates 
and citizens who were secessionists, to destroy the North Missouri 
Railroad, so as to break up the line of communications established 
by the Union forces. They succeeded in practically destroying the 
railroad from Wellsville to within a short distance of Mexico, destroy- 
ing the bridge west of Mexico on the 27th day of July. In the destruc- 
tion of this bridge, a number of citizens of Mexico were engaged. 
They acted under a commission from General Price, who sent men 
along the line of the North Missouri Railroad for that purpose, com- 
missioned to destroy the railroad, with authority to procure assistance 
from the citizens. A great many citizens of Audrain county were 
arrested for their participation in this matter, but none were ever 
tried for it by court-martial although a great number were sent to 
St. Louis and Alton as prisoners on account of it. 

John B. Henderson of Pike county, prominent before the war as 
a Democrat, and distinguished as a lawyer, raised a regiment of militia 
for the Union side. Colonel Jefferson P. Jones, equally prominent 
as a lawyer, in Callaway county, raised a regiment under the call of 
Governor Jackson for troops to prevent invasion of the state. These 
two distinguished men being well acquainted and having probably 
met as antagonists often in court, concluded to effect a compromise 
and so far as they and their sections were concerned, bring about a 
fightless, bloodless war. In August, 1861, they met at Benton City 
about six miles east of Mexico and signed a paper providing that the 
Union forces should after that date, keep out of Callaway county and 
the Missouri defence or Confederate forces should after that date keep 
out of Pike county. It is needless to say that when this compromise 
was brought to the attention of the Federal authorities, it was promptly 
repudiated. Colonel Jones* force soon surrendered and disbanded. 
He was taken prisoner by the Federal forces and put under bond for 
good behavior during the remainder of the war. He was tried by 
court marshal, but not found guilty of violation of any of the Articles 
of War. 

Colonel Henderson continued in charge of his command but changed 
his views as to warfare. He became brigadier general and was placed 
in charge of a section of the country in north Missouri. He was located 
at Mexico in the early part of January, 1862, and on January 9th 
reports having captured forty prisoners, ten of whom he took in bat- 
tle. They were held by the Federal authorities for bridge burning. 

After Henderson came Major H. C. Caldwell, t Third Iowa Cavalry. 
He and different detachments of his men were located at Mexico for 
some time. 

• Some Bay Murray was crossing the Mississippi aiming to go down the river on 
the Illinois side. 

t Afterward United States District Judge in Arkansas and Judge Eighth Cir- 
cuit United States Court retired, residence Los Angeles, Calif. 


Another attempt to organize a company for the Confederate forces 
was made by William 0: Johnson, in the northern part of Audrain 
county, in the early winter of 1861. On the 24th of December, a 
company of Colonel John W. Burge's Sharp Shooters, then called, 
afterward the Thirteenth Missouri Infantry, was on its way from Pal- 
myra to Sturgeon and in order to avoid the timber and thus escape 
chances of ambush, they detoured south through Audrain county over 
the prairie and stopped to rest in a barn known as McClintock's barn, 
situated on the northeast cornei: of section 16, township 52, range 9. 
This presented a splendid opportunity to the mind of Captain John- 
son, for a battle or surrender. His company was mostly undisciplined 
farmers of the neighborhood. He approached the barn from the east 
and when within a short distance of it, halted, lined up his men, to 
give the Federals an opportunity to surrender. . They filed out of the 
barn, formed a line of battle, swung around in front of Johnson's 
company, to use the language of Johnson, **like a gate,'' and when all 
this military precision was observed, before any one had time to fire, 
his men broke. The Federal company fired a volley or two after them, 
probably not aiming to hit anybody, and continued on their way to 
Sturgeon, arriving there the next day in time for the battle at Mount 
Zion, in Boone county. This resulted in the dissolution of Captain 
Johnson's company. 

In the battle of Mount Zion, on the Union side, Captain John D. 
Macfarlane of Mexico distinguished himself in action and was men- 
tioned in the report of the battle, for meritorious services. Later 
on account of his splendid services in the Ninth Missouri Cavalry, his 
brother, Wm. W. Macfarlane, a Confederate soldier, who had been 
taken prisoner at the battle of Moore's ^lill, and ordered shot without 
a judgment of court martial, had his sentence commuted to imprison- 
ment at Alton, Illinois. 

In September, 1862, General Lewis Merrill was commanding the 
Northeast Missouri Division and was located at Macon. There were 
three ^Macfarlane brothers, George B., a lawyer. Captain John D., above 
mentioned, also a lawyer; and Wm. W. ^Macfarlane, a physician. The 
Macfarlane family was prominent in Callaway and Audrain counties. 
During a part of the war and after the war they lived in Mexico, hence 
an order like that issued by General Merrill on September 2, 1862, 
from his headquarters at Macon, would produce unusual excitement in 
Audrain county. On that date General Merrill addressed an order to 
Major Caldwell, located at Mexico, to dispose of the following prison- 
ers, as follows: First, John Gastemee, to be shot to death, the 5th of 
September, between the hours of 10 A. M. and 3 P. M., at Mexico, 
Missouri. Second. W. W. Macfarlane, to be shot to death on Friday, 
the 5th of September, between the hours of 10 A. M. and 3 P. 1^1., at 
Mexico, Missouri. Third, Solomon Donaldson, to be shot to death on 
Friday, the 5th of September, between the hours of 10 A. M. and 3 
P. 'M. at Mexico, Missouri. There was no attempt made to carr\' out 
the order as to Gastemee and Donaldson, but what final disposition 
was made of them there is no account. As to Macfarlane, he was 
ordered to be taken to the execution ground and an order read to 
him as follows : * * In consideration of the noble stand taken for the right 
by your brother, Captain Macfarlane, of the Ninth Missouri State 
Militia, the commanding general is pleased to order that your life be 
spared and your sentence commuted to confinement during the war."* 
Amidst great excitement of the people of IVIexico and a large crowd 
which had gathered there that day to w^itness the execution of Dr. 

• Official Records, War of the Bebellion, Series II, Vol. IV, p. 480. 


Macf arlane, as well as three others, he was led to the execution grounds, 
where all necessary preparations for his execution had been made. 
Standing in his place, the order was read to him, whereupon he was 
returned to the prison house and removed to prison in St. Louis, where 
he remained for some time, thence to Alton, where he remained until 
December 30, 1862, when he was paroled by Col. J. O. Broadhead, 
provost marshal at St. Louis. 

By another order. Major Elliott Major of Monroe county was ordered 
to be shot at Mexico at the same time as Macfarlane. Major had been 
in the Confederate service, taken prisoner and discharged upon tak- 
ing the oath of allegiance and not to again bear arms against the 
United States. He had violated his oath and had again taken up arms 
for the southern cause, having been given a commission as Major in 
General Joe C. Porter's command. Upon being taken prisoner Ihe 
second time, this order was made. Major had participated in the bat- 
tle at Kirksville under Porter and afterward at Chariton river. He 
had surrendered under promise of being treated as a prisoner of war. 

In the minds of the people of Audrain and Monroe counties, there 
has always been a romance connected with the release of Major. He 
had a sweetheart living at Paris, Missouri, the daughter of a Union 
man. Lieutenant Cravin Hartman of the Third Iowa Cavalry, located 
at Mexico and part of the time at Paris, was attempting to pay his 
addresses to the sister of Major's sweetheart. Hartman was a fine- 
looking young fellow but considerable of a swash-buckler and in order 
1o ingratiate himself into the good graces of this young lady, pre- 
tended at least to be interested in the release of Major. John W. 
Beatty now living in Mexico accompanied Hartman to Monroe county 
to secure the influence of Union men there to petition General Mer- 
rill to prevent the execution. Just how far Hartman 's influence went 
is not known, or if it be real or pretended, may never be known. Hart- 
man turned out to be a man of neither veracity nor integrity. He 
committed many depredations in this section of the state, under the 
guise of warfare.* 

It is more probable that the kind-heartedness and soldierly con- 
duct of Major Caldwell had more to do with the saving of Major's life, 
as well as the others from Monroe county, who were ordered shot, than 
that of any other person. In a letter of September 6, 1912, to the 
author of this sketch, Judge Caldwell says: *'The day after I received 
this order, the mothers, sisters and friends of these men, appeared 
at my headquarters in Mexico to entreat for their lives — the day fixed 
by the orders for their execution was only four days off. The dele- 
gation was headed by Mr. Marion Biggs, of Monroe county, one of 
the kindest and most tender-hearted men I ever knew. He was so 
highly esteemed by both sides in the war, that neither side molested 
him; and he devoted himself to the task of interceding for the relief 
of his neighbors (whether rebels or Federals, he made no distinction) 
who were so unfortunate as to fall into the hands of the enemy and 
likely to become victims to the rigors and passions of a civil war. 

**As soon as the delegation entered my headquarters and before 
Mr. Biggs or any other member of it had spoken a word, I said, *Mr. 
Biggs, you don't have to tell me what you or your friends have come 
here for. You want to save the lives of these men who are under 
sentence of death, which I am ordered by my superior officers to carry 
into efl^ect. I have not the power to cancel General Merrill's orders 
however much I might desire to do so, but I can tell you who can can- 
cel these orders and how you can save the lives of these men. ' At that 

• ** With Porter in North Missouri," pp. 130-133.— Mudd. 


remark a female voice m the crowd cried out in great anguish, * Oh, for 
God's sake, tell, tell, tell us quick.' And I replied, * Hasten to the 
railroad station and catch the morning train to St. Louis and as soon 
as you get there, go to the headquarters of General Curtis and tell 
him what you have come here to tell me. He is one of the most humane 
and tender-hearted men you ever saw and when you have told your 
story, he will at once revoke General Merrill's orders, and send me 
an order to that effect. Have him send his order to me by telegraph 
and give you a duplicate to fetch to me, so that if the wires are cut 
and the order by telegraph does not reach me, you will be sure to get 
here with the one intrusted to you. Now go quickly and catcli your 
train.' * Major Caldwell is right,' said Biggs, *we must act on his 
advice, come let's go.' And they hastened to the station, caught the 
train, got to St. Louis and by eleven o'clock the next day. I had 
received an order from General Curtis revoking the orders to shoot 
the men, and directing me to send them to St. Louis."* 

Major was sent to prison at Alton, where he remained for some 
time and was regularly exchanged, reentered the Confederate arm\% 
and after the close of the war removed to California, where while city 
marshal of a town in that state, died. 

Major Caldwell was in charge of the post at Mexico through the 
summer and fall of 1862. During the time here, he with his command, 
fought Porter at Florida, July 22d; Santa Fe, called by the Federals, 
but by the Confederates, called Botts' Bluflf, July 24th; and Moore's 
Mill with Colonel Guitar's regiment, July 28th. After the battle 
at Botts' Bluff, Caldwell pushed Porter south in Audrain county, north 
of the Callaway line on the north fork of Salt River, where Porter's men 
rested for a day or two before the engagement at Moore's Mill. Major 
Caldwell has always been well and favorably remembered by the people 
of Audrain county. 

After the battle of Lexington, Silas L. Hickerson, a member of 
Murray's command, returned to Audrain county with a commission 
as a captain, for the purpose of recruiting a company. He was never 
able to get back to Price's army, but with his company, joined Porter 
and remained in Audrain and surrounding counties. He was in the 
battles of Florida, and Santa Fe, and was looked upon by both sides 
as a guerilla. 

Another man of Audrain county, with a company, was Young 
Purcell. Before the war he was a farmer on Littleby. With his band 
he was part of the time with Porter, and at other times out carrying 
on the usual work of a bush-whacker on his own account. On August 
13, 1862, he and another, with a company of two hundred men, entered 
Columbia and liberated the Confederate prisoners there in jail, one 
of whom was Wm. R. Jackson, son of Judge James Jackson, of pioneer 
days of the county. 

After the battle of Moore's Mill, Porter's command divided up into 
small detachments, some going to their homes, some to their rendez- 
vous but the main body was removed to the northern part of the state. 

After the battle at Kirksville, Porter's command again divided 
into small detachments, some surrendering under Lieutenant Todd at 
^lexico and some going south with Captain R. K. Phillips, among 
whom were Joe Inlow and Sam Murray, both of Audrain county. 

The* Confederate forces were never at any time able during the 
war to enter Mexico. After the battle at Moore's Mill the last of July, 
1862, Col. Odon Guitar, with the Ninth Missouri moved into Mexico 
and in doing so cut off a Confederate force from entering Mexico and 

• Official RecordB, War of the Rebellion, Series IT, Vol. IV, pp. 604. 657. 


which was coming in that direction from Concord. Guitar was here 
a short whfle and afterward was promoted to brigadier general and 
placed in charge of the northern district of Missouri. 

A great deal of recruiting took place in various parts of the county 
and a great deal of bush-whacking was done. Small numbers of men 
would get together, stay under cover and at the first opportunity, 
make an effort to get south of the Missouri river to join Price's army. 
Sometimes they succeeded, sometimes they did not. The number of 
men going into the Confederate service from Audrain county was 
probably about four hundred. 

When the Third Iowa Cavalry was removed from here, it was suc- 
ceeded by a company of militia under Captain John McRoberts, then 
he was followed by Colonel Smart and the Third Missouri State Militia, 
Cavalry. Smart's regiment was located here until January, 1863, when 
he was succeeded by the return of McRoberts' Company. McRoberts 
in turn in May, 1863, was succeeded by Col. Joseph B. Douglass and 
Douglass remained in Mexico and the vicinity until the close of the 
war. Douglass was in charge of a district. 

In August, 1864, a company of Home Guards was organized in 
Mexico, for the purpose of helping to defend the town from the vari- 
ous guerilla bands operating throughout the county. John M. Gor- 
don was captain ; W. D. H. Hunter, first lieutenant ; and F. M. Shryock, 
second lieutenant. There are many living in Mexico and its vicinity 
now who were members of Captain Gordon's company. It was their 
duty to keep the town picketed and to keep guards at the blockhouses 
at the railroad bridges on either side of the town. 

In 1864 when Price made his raid north, there was again a fresh 
outbreak of activity in Audrain county, as well as all over Northeast 
Missouri. Three hundred Confederates crossed the river near Glas- 
gow and got as far northeast as Paris, where they compelled Captain 
William E. Fawkes with a company of seventy militia, to surrender. 
This was October, 1864. 

The excitement at this time caused Captain Gordon to take extra 
precautions to guard the town. On this occasion or some similar one, 
the town was picketed for fear of an attack from the Confederates. 
In those days it was not always just exactly safe to be too free about 
expressing one's sentiments in the presence of strangers, and until it 
was known which side the stranger belonged to, cautious men were 
careful, and it becoming known that the stranger was a Federal or 
Confederate, it was not unusual to express great sympathy for his 
cause, especially if he was serving either. At the time referred to, 
Jim Carroll and John Jeffries were sent out to picket the road com- 
ing in from toward Centralia. They were stationed at suitable dis- 
tances apart along the road, with Carroll the farther out. They were 
instructed that if they heard gun shots in their direction, they were 
to give the alarm by firing their guns and immediately retreat into the 
to^n to give further alarm. Carroll while handling his gun, allowed 
it to go off accidentally. Jeffries hearing this, immediately fired his 
gun and started to run for the town. Carroll, becoming panic-stricken, 
struck out at his best lick to town and in his excitement ran against 
Jeffries, knocking him down and falling on him. Jeffries mistaking 
Carroll for a large part of the rebel forces, concluded that he had been 
taken prisoner and without looking to see who had him, began to pro- 
fess adherence to the rebel cause, swearing that he was as good a rebel 
as anybody and **for goodness sake to let him go the way of a good 
rebel." By this time Carroll had recovered sufficiently to recognize his 
friend Jeffries, and said to him, ''John, don't make a fool of yourself. 


I'm no rebel, it's nobody but Jim.'* When Jeflfries discovered that it 
was Carroll, and looking round to see that no one else was there, and 
to make sure they were alone, said, ** Being as it is you Jim, and there 
is nobody here but you and me, we'll just stick to our principles." 

Qreat excitement was created in Mexico and its vicinity when it was 
known that the notorious Bill Anderson was in an adjoining county 
and headed toward Audrain, shortly before the Centralia Massacre. 
A little after the middle of September, 1864, Anderson made an attack 
on the post at Fayette and was driven off. He then went through 
Randolph county to Paris and finding the federal forces there too 
strong for him, turned to the southward, coming in the direction of 
^lexico, until he reached a point where the Mexico and Paris road 
crosses Long Branch. Instead of continuing on his way toward Mex- 
ico, he turned southwestward and crossed the western part of Audrain 
county to Centralia. He was followed from Paris by Major John- 
son with about one hundred and seventy-five men and the next day 
the fight at Centralia occurred. Shortly before this Captain George 
W. Bryson, a regular Confederate soldier of the Missouri troops, who 
had been in the siege of Vicksburg, was transferred to the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi Department, then commanded by General Kirby E. Smith, 
made his appearance in this section on a recruiting expedition. In 
April, 1864, General Smith made a detail of ten men, of his best and 
most daring scouts to go to north Missouri to recruit men for the ser- 
vice. Pursued by Federals from the south side, these men got across 
the river just below Jefferson City. After traveling about twenty 
miles northward in Callaway county, they separated, each going to his 
former home. Bryson went to the home of John Barnes south of 
Centralia and there recruited four men. Near Centralia Bryson ran 
across a company of Federals guarding a wagon load of ammunition 
and guns, being taken from Centralia to Columbia. Bryson, with his 
men, opened fire on the Federals, and though Major Evans in charge 
of the troop, had a full company, they ran, abandoning their charge. 
Bryson captured 75 guns and 10,000 rounds of ammunition and soon 
raised a company of sixty-two men. He soon afterward captured a 
train of Federal horses at Centralia. He then started on a scout to 
capture Mexico. While north of Mexico about ten miles one morn- 
ing, he divided his men into small bunches in order to breakfast at 
different houses. One of these houses was that of Peyton Botts. The 
lieutenant, who had ordered breakfast at the Botts' home, failed to 
leave a guard there to look out for Federals. While Mrs. Botts was 
preparing a breakfast, a Federal troop came along and seeing that unus- 
ual preparations were being made for breakfast, compelled Mrs. Botts 
by threats of killing her husband, to tell that the breakfast was for a 
band of rebels. The Federals concealed themselves and when Bryson 
with ten men returned to the house to eat breakfast, they were fired 
upon at close range by the Federals, killing one horse and wounding 
Bryson. Bryson fell back into the woods and rallied his men, but 
when he got back to Botts' house, they were all gone, carrying with 
them as a prisoner the man whose horse they had killed. 

This fight occurred the day before the Bill Anderson fight at Cen- 
tralia, and for that reason in the minds of some, Bryson has been 
connected with Anderson in the guerilla warfare of North Missouri. 
Bryson was never connected with Bill Anderson though Britton in 
his '*The Civil War on the Border," puts Bryson down as a guerilla, 
and classes him with Anderson, Todd and others. He was a r^rular 
Confederate soldier and at the time of these occurrences was recruit- 
ing. Captain Bryson was taken care of by Logan Mundy and John 


Ellis of that neighborhood, until he recovered from his wounds. He 
was kept in the timber near their houses. Bryson was attended by 
Dr. W. R. Rodes, then of Santa Fe, now residing in Mexico. While 
Hryson was still unable for service, the first lieutenant of the com- 
pany, under Bryson 's instructions, joined General Price near Boon- 
\dlle. ' By the time Bryson was able to travel, seventy-five men had 
come to him and he started to the southern army and after a long and 
tiresome march, rejoined Kirby Smith, with whom he remained until 
the surrender. Captain Bryson returned to Missouri after the war 
and married the daughter of Logan Mundy, with whom he became 
acquainted while being nursed for his wounds. He now lives in Gaines- 
ville, Texas, and is treasurer of Cooke county. 

In addition to those already mentioned, the non-combatants killed 
by the Federals in and around Mexico during the Civil war, was 
Gabriel Turner, a citizen of Boone county, being in Mexico along the 
latter part of the war, was fallen upon by a number of soldiers and 
killed. Then the Barnett boys, two inoflfensive young fellows, attend- 
ing to their own affairs at their home about two miles from Mexico, 
on the Florida road were also killed by the Federal Militia. The Fed- 
* erals by virtue of military power had a means by which they could 
hold the other side responsible for murders and depredations, but 
there was no way to hold responsible the Federal soldiers, or militia- 
men, who were guilty of killing southern sympathizers, so that mat- 
ters of that kind went uninvestigated, unpunished and passed into a 
mere memory. 

At the beginning of the war General Pope, by his Order No. 3, 
undertook to make all citizens, regardless of political belief, stand 
responsible for the destruction of the North Missouri Railroad.^ This 
was a policy he undertook to pursue throughout Northeast Missouri. 
Every man living within five miles of the railroad, he undertook to 
hold responsible for anything done toward destroying it. This and 
other things done by him, instead of restoring order and creating con- 
fidence in the Federal authorities, had the opposite effect, and the 
consequence was that so long as that policy was pursued, there was a 
general state of disorder, not only in this, but in all the surrounding 
counties of Northeast Missouri.^ 

Later in the war a coiAmittee of seven was appointed for each 
county, whose duty it was to assess the various counties of Northeast 
Missouri, their share of $300,000 with which to compensate for depre- 
dations done by all forces unfriendly to the Union cause. On Jan- 
uary 15, 1863, there was assessed by the Federal authorities against 
Audrain county as its part, $21,000, which was levied against the 
southern sympathizers of the county, and which they were compelled 
to pay. In many instances, people perfectly innocent of any wrong, 
and who had taken, and were living under the oath of loyalty, were 
compelled to suffer for the acts of irresponsible outlaws. 

Shortly before the close of the war, there was a fellow by the name 
of Nath Williams with a band in the southeastern part of the county, 
engaged in bush-whacking Union men and robbing men of both sides. 
A Federal soldier named James Davis returned to his home in that 
neighborhood, and Williams with his band, took Davis out and murdered 
him. This was unknown to and contrary to the desires of the citizens of 
the neighborhood, but notwithstanding that the Federal authorities 
caused Henry and James H. Shock, Thomas R. and Josiah Gantt and 

J Seriea III, Vol. I, Official Records, War of the RebeUion, pp. 417-424. 
2'* The Civil War on the Border. ' '—Brit ton, Vol. I, pp. 144-146. 




William Bagland, to be arrested and held in prison as a ransom for 
Davis, not knowing that he had been killed, and when that was ascer- 
tained, these men were compelled to raise a considerable amount of 
money to pay the Federal authorities, as a recompense for the loss of 

the soldier. 

^^ • 

The number of men going into the Federal service from Audrain 
county was probably about five or six hundred. The secession senti- 
ment probably prevailed in the north and south parts of the county, 
but in Cuivre township, it was almost unanimously Union, from the 
beginning, of the war until the end. Before the Civil war there had 
settled in that township a considerable number of French and a great 
many Pennsylvania Germans, and these men were strong adherents 
to the Union, and being generally men of strong character they domi- 
nated the sentiment in that end of the county. It has been said that 
eight out of every ten men of military age in Cuivre township were 
in the Union army. There were parts of three companies of militia 
made up in Cuivre, those of Captain Geo. M. Boss, Abraham Kempinsky, 
and Captain Lewis Musick. Another company, that of Captain M. E. 
Swift, was made up in the western part of the county while McRoberts 
company came more from the central part. 

In this sketch, the Federal volunteer soldier and the militiaman is 
referred to as either Federal or Union. There was a vast difference 
in the conduct of the regular soldier from that of the militiaman. In 
many instances, the militia were as disorderly and unlawful as were 
the guerillas. 

It is not attempted to give a full list of the murders and depreda- 
tions committed by the militiamen in the county during the Civil war 
Numbers of southern sympathizers and sometimes Union men were 
killed and mistreated of which no account has ever been taken. 

The civil administration during the war was but a reflex of the 
military. In 1862 strong Union men were elected to all of the offices 
in the county. In 1864, armed 'soldiers guarded the polls while the 
voting took place and of course this resulted in the carrying out of the 
will of the military power. W. D. H. Hunter was elected to the leg- 
islature, where he opposes the adoption of the constitution of 1865 
on account of the test oath and the disfranchisement provisions. In 
1866, notwithstanding all of the ex-Confederates and southern sym- 
pathizers were precluded from voting, the Democrats were successful 
in electing a set of officers, all of whom had been Union men. In 1868 
Jolm D. Macfarlano, a Liberal Republican, was elected to the legisla- 
ture, over W. T. Cook, Radical. Cook contested and Macfarlane re- 
signed, and at another election M. F. Simmons, Liberal, was elected over 
R. M. Sturgeon, Radical. It was not until 1870 that the whole people 
had a voice in the elections. In that year the Democrats elected a good 
class of officers, all former Union men, among whom was William H, 
White, sheriff, who in 1861 had opposed the raising of the secession flag 
in Mexico. In 1872, Captain Daniel H. Mclntyre was elected prosecut- 
ing attorney. He was the first ex-Confederate elected to an office in 
the county after the close of the Civil war. Since that time, there has 
been scarcely an election but some ex-Confederate soldier has been 
elected to a place in the court house. 

On May 7, 1868, the county court, composed of John B. Morris. 
Increase Adams and T. J. Marshall, ordered an appropriation of $50,000 
for the building of the third court house. 

E. P. Cunningham, who in 1840 was one of the contractors to 
build the State University, was selected as commissioner. The con- 
tract was let for the building at $40,900. Including everything, the 


house was built and accepted by the county court August 4, 1869, at 
a total cost of $42,807.76. At that time county courts had power 
without submitting the matter to the vote of the people, to create a 
county debt. The court house was built by a direct levy made by the 
court and by an issue of some short term bonds. It was one of the best 
buildings in the state at that time and except for lack of room since 
the increase of county business, it is one of the best court houses in 
this section of the state. It has been remodeled inside and is well 
preserved outside. 

Spanish-American War 

Audrain county contributed to the Spanish-American war in 1898 
one company, Company L, Fifth Missouri Volunteers, officered by Her- 
bert E. Black, captain; William C. Egan, first lieutenant; Hamilton 
B". McKinley, second lieutenant. The company was mustered in in 
April, 1898, went to Chickamauga Park in May and remained in camp 
until September when it was ordered to Kansas City, where it was 
mustered out. 


So intimately connected with the history of Audrain county, is that 
of Mexico, that necessarily a considerable portion of its history is 
woven into that of the county. It was first incorporated by special 
act of the legislature, approved March 5, 1855. By that act it was- 
styled **The Town of Mexico," and the corporate limits confined to 
the original town and the county addition, as accepted by the commis- 
sioners when the county seat was located. The corporate powers were 
vested in a board of trustees, consisting of seven members chosen by 
the qualified voters. This board was authorized to select a chairman 
and also a town clerk, and the county court had power to appoint for 
the town, a justice of the peace, who should have the same power as 
other justices of the peace in Salt river township. This board also 
had power to appoint an assessor, collector, treasurer, constable and 
any other officers as might be necessary. Of course this board had 
power to enact ordinances for the government of the town. The act 
provided for the election of the board of trustees on the first Monday 
in April, 1855, but the organization of the town under that act, was 
neglected and as a consequence the town was not organized until the 
legislature passed an amending act providing for the election of the 
board of trustees, on the first Monday in January, 1856. This act also 
provided that the trustees hold their offices for a period of one year, 
and for the election of trustees thereafter. 

At the election held for that purpose R. W. Bourn, Jacob Coons, 
John II. Slaughter, S. A. Craddock, A. Cauthorn, M. Y. Duncan and 
S. Scott were elected a board of trustees and subscribed to support the 
constitution of the United States and of the State of Missouri, and to 
faith fuUv demean themselves in office as trustees of the town of Mexico, 
on January 27, 1856, before Charles R. Ward, justice of the peace. 
R. W, Bourn, now living in Mexico, was elected chairman of the board. 
The first set of ordinances was adopted March 3, 1856. 

The first chapter devoted itself to the office of assessor, his duties 
and the assessment of property for taxation. The second chapter pre- 
scribed the license for confectioners and the third was devoted to the 
regulation of persons exposed to or having smallpox. The fourth pro- 
vided for a town constable and provided his duties. Chapter V pre- 
scribed ten different misdemeanors, one of which prescribed a punish- 
ment *'of ten stripes on the bare back, to be laid on well by the con- 


stable instanter" against a slave for getting drunk- within the limits 
of the town. 

Section 52, Chapter VI, on nuisances, regulated the use of fire- 
places, chimneys, stoves and flues. Chapter VII provided a license 
for peddlers, especially clock peddlers. The remainder of the ordi- 
nances were such as towns of that size would usually have at that time. 

In 1855, John P. Clark, and in 1856 John P. Beatty, L. N. Hunter, 
John A. Pearson and S. W. Davis laid oflf additions to the town which 
were outside of the corporate limitis. 

The legislature, by an act approved February 17, 1857, granted 
the town a new charter, extending the corporate limits from the center 
of the court house square one-half mile in each direction, and changing 
the name to *'The City of Mexico." The permanent officers by this 
last act were mayor, city council, clerk, recorder, marshal, assessor, 
treasurer, city attorney and street commissioner. The first mayor under 
the second charter was Israel Lander. 

The town remained under that charter until 1872, when it was 
amended by an act of the legislature, giving the city some additional 
powers and extending the corporate limits one-fourth of a mile to the 
east, west and south. 

The city remained under that charter until March 27, 1874, when 
an act was approved repealing the former charters and enacting an 
entirely new charter for the city. There was very little change in the 
charter of 1874 from that of 1857 and its amendments. The corporate 
limits remained the same. 


The city remained under that charter until March 4, 1892, when 
by a vote, the third-class charter was adopted. By an ordinance approved 
March 24, 1890, the corporate limits were extended so as to include 
one mile south of the court house square, three-fourths of a mile north 
and remained three-fourths of a mile east and west. There being some 
dissatisfaction about this ordinance, the matter of extending the cor- 
porate limits as above stated was submitted to a vote of the people, 
and the limits were extended at an election for that purpose, the 21st 
day of March, 1892, by a vote of 259 for the extension and 31 against. 
In the meantime numerous additions have been made to the city, until 
now there is scarcely any land left within the corporate limits that 
has not been laid off into lots and blocks. 

The inhabitants of Mexico in 1860 were about 1.500 or 2,000; in 
1870, about 3,000 ; in 1880, 3,835 ; 1890, 4 J89 ; 1900, 5,099, and in 1910, 

Of the first merchants in Mexico very little is known excepting that 
the first mercantile business was that established by Jennings & Fenton, 
prior to the location of the county seat. They were succeeded by James 
E. Fenton, who sold dry goods, groceries and intoxicants under a license. 
Then George W. Turley kept a tavern in which he had license to sell 
intoxicants. Then Lycurgus L. Ramsey, Robert C. Mansfield and James 
H. Smith established first what would now be known as a grocery store. 
Then came John B. Morris and W. H. White and George F, Muldrow. 
Thomas Stone was the first cabinet maker in the town. Reuben Pulis, 
Ilarrv Norvell and David Cad were the first blacksmiths. James L. 
Stephens was one of the early merchants. The first gunsmiths were 
John and Did Welkins. Charles R. Ward in 1845 established a black- 
smith shop and auger factory here. 

The county court reserved two lots, No. 6 and No. 7 in block No. 6 
for a seminary, lot No. 8 in block No. 21 was reserved for a school house 
and the block in the northwest corner of the donated addition was 
reserved for a cemetery. The first grave was that of William Card- 
well, brother of the county judge. 


Numerous were the merchants of that time, but it would be uninter- 
esting to give an account of all those engaging in business. 

The first bank established in the town was the private bank of 
A. R. Ringo, in 1861, J. E. Dearing was the cashier. Ringo's bank, 
as it was called, continued in business until about the year 1867, when 
a corporation was formed called the Mexico National Savings Bank, 
with a capital stock of $100,000, but the word national was soon stricken 
out and that bank has been known as the Mexico Savings Bank ever 
since. The first president was A. R. Ringo, J. E. Dearing was the 
first cashier, S. M. Locke, today cashier of that bank was assistant 
cashier. Dearing at his death was succeeded by John M. Marmaduke, 
who remained there something like thirty years. The first directors 
were A. R. Ringo, C. T. Quisenberry, R. W. Bourn, James E. Ross and 
William Stuart. 

The Mexico Southern Bank was organized in 1867 by Charles H. 
Hardin, William M. Sims, William Harper, James Callaway, and Joseph 
W. Carson. Hardin was made president, and Carson cashier. In 1878 
Carson resigned and was succeeded by Hiram A. Ricketts, cashier, and 
Redmond Callaway, assistant cashier. The capital stock of the original 
organization was $100,000. In 1888 the bank was reorganized, the 
capital stock being increased to $150,000. 

In 1870 the Farmers and Traders Bank was organized with Henry 
Williams as president and R. R. Arnold as cashier. This bank was 
soon succeeded by another. The Mexico Exchange Bank, and in 1882, 
it was converted into a national bank with a capital stock of $50,000, 
now the First National Bank of Mexico. R. W. Tureman was the first 
president and R. R. Arnold the first cashier. The board of directors, 
in addition to the president and cashier were Edward Rines, B. B. 
Tureman and Jos. M. Coons. 

In 1903 North Missouri Trust Company was organized with a sub- 
scribed capital of $150,000, one half paid up. W. W. Pollock was 
made president and James C. Mundy, secretary. The first directors 
were Wm. Pollock, W. W. Pollock, D. H. Mclntyre, S. P. Emmons, 
R. M. White, George Robertson, George A. Ross and R. J. Lawder. 

Prior to the Civil war the schools of the town were mainly private 
schools. There is no record extant of the public schools back of 1870. 
Soon after the Civil war, the public school system of the town was 
developed and school after school added, a high school created, until 
the public school system of Mexico became equal to that of any town 
of its size in the state. In 1858 an effort was made to establish a school 
exclusively for girls on the grounds afterwards occupied by Hardin 
College. Five thousand dollars was donated by William Kirtley, John 
P. Beatty, J. M. Gordon, M. Y. Duncan, John P. Clark, C. P. Wade, 
S. W. Davis and R. W. Sinclair and a frame building was erected. 

School was begun and conducted very successfully by Professors 
Skelton and William P. Hurt, until the Civil war closed its doors. This 
school laid the foundation for a girls' school in Mexico. In May, 1873, 
Gov. Charles H. Hardin purchased these grounds and with a dona- 
tion by him of $40,000 established Hardin College. The corner stone 
for Hardin College was laid July 23, 1874, with much ceremony in 
which participated all of the Masonic orders, the Odd Fellows and 
all other societies in Mexico. The first -faculty of the school was com- 
posed of W. A. Terrill, president, with the following: V. C. Vaughan, 
Mrs. Rebecca Terrill, Miss Viccie A. Sears, Miss Jeannie G. Morrison, 
Miss Eliza Marshall and Mrs. R. W. Harrisi School opened in the fall 
of 1874 with ninety students. The first class graduated was in June, 
1876, and was composed of the following: Ella Forrest, Ella Hitt, 

''d. 1— IB 


Laura Clark, Ada Marshall, Mattie Craddock, all of Mexico; Nellie 
Boulware of Pulton, and Nannie Garrard of Centralia. From that day 
to this a little less than one thousand young ladies have gone forth 
from the different departments of Hardin College with their certificates 
of graduation. 

In 1879 President Terrill was succeeded by Mrs. H. T. Baird, she 
by A. K. Yancy in 1885, and Yancy by the present president, J. W. 
Million, in 1897. Each adding to the work of the other has made 
Hardin College one of the best young ladies schools in the West. 

In about 1873 Howard M. Hamill established a school for boya 
on Jackson street, in the brick house now the residence of R. R. Arnold. 
It continued three years and ranked high in its class. He was assisted 
by Howard A. Gass mentioned ante. Hamill was an ex-Confederate 
soldier from Alabama and now resides in Nashville, Tennessee, where 
he is engaged in church work. 

In 1891 Colonel A. F. Fleet, from the Missouri University established 
the Missouri Military Academy, with an able corps of assistants. It 
became one of the leading military schools of the West. Unfortunately 
it was destroyed by fire in October, 1896, whereupon Colonel Fleet 
removed to Culver, Indiana, having charge of Culver Military Academy 
until his death. 

In 1901, aided by the citizens of Mexico, A. K. Yancy and W. D. 
Fonville established a military school under the name of the tii*st 
school of that kind at Mexico. It continued to flourish under these 
gentlemen until Mr. Yancy 's death a few years ago, and being con- 
tinued under W. D. Fonville until 1911, when it was taken charge of 
by Col. W. A. Kohr, formerly of St. Charles Military Academy. 

In 1879 William Pollock established the Mexico City Mills which 
have for a number of years been known as the William Pollock Milling 
& Elevator Company. It is one of the largest enterprises of this kind 
ever established in northern Missouri, and was the first mill to create 
a local market for grain in this section of the state. 

Mexico and vicinity produces a fine quality of fire clay and several 
efforts have been made to establish fire brick works at this place, the 
most successful of which is the Mexico Brick & Fire Clay Company, 
employing a capital of more than $100,000, with a payroll of $2,000 
a week and an annual output of something over $200,000 under the 
management of A. P. Green. 

In 1906 Morris Brothers of St. Louis established at Mexico a shoe 
factory with a capital of $50,000. It has a weekly payroll of $2,000. 
It was lately transferred by them to the Freidman-Shelby Shoe Com- 
pany of St. Louis, and is conducted under the management of William 

Another thing in which Mexico is famous is its saddle horse indus- 
try. As early as 1867 C. T. Quisenberry located at Mexico, introduced 
into the county from Kentucky, the horse known as Missouri Clay. A 
famous line of stallions since that time has been Royal Gold Dust, 
brought here by Joseph Stanhope, Black Squirrel by L. B. Morris, 
Artist by Robert Edmonston, Artist Rose by Joseph A. Potts and 
finally, Rex McDonald, a native of the county stands at the head of 
the list of saddle stallions of the world. 



One of the flourishing towns of Audrain county is Vandalia, located 
on the Chicago & Alton Railroad in the northeastern part of the county. 
Its business is contributed to largely by Ralls and Pike counties. The 


town was laid off iii 1870 by Aaron McPike and Judge Harmon Cald- 
well, the plat being filed in the recorder's office the 2d of July, 1871. 
The first three houses erected in the town were by Aaron McPike and 
were constructed of lumber hauled from Louisiana, a distance of thirty- 
six miles. It is surrounded by a good agricultural country. The town 
grew rapidly and within ten years it had a steam flouring mill, two 
grain elevators, and soon had two newspapers, one of these, the Van- 
dalia Leader was established in 1875 by J. Linn Ladd. He was suc- 
ceeded in the control of it by R. W. Barrow, he by White & Simpson, 
they by "White & Emmons, they by Emmons, he by Thomas R. Dodge 
& Son, then the paper went into the hands of CuUen Brothers, then 
transferred to W. W. Botts, by him to Prank N. Frost and upon Mr. 
Frost's death, he was succeeded by his widow, who has made it one 
of the brightest newspapers in the state. There was another paper 
there of short life called the Argus. For some time there has been 
another newspaper there, the Vandalia Maily published by F. B. Wilson. 

The banking interests of a towTi always indicate its commercial 
activity. Soon after the founding of the town, Mayes & Burkhart 
established a private bank there with $10,000 capital and in Decem- 
ber, 1882, their banking interests were taken over by C. G. Daniel, who 
continued to operate a private bank there until 1889, when the Daniel's 
Bank was organized into the Vandalia Banking Association, by Mr. 
Daniel, Aaron McPike, J. C. Parrish, W. S. Boyd, J. H. Wright, M. R. 
K. Biggs and George W. Calvert, with a capital stock of $50,000. 
Mr. McPike was the first president and C. G. Daniel cashier. Mr. 
Daniel is at present the president of the bank and has been for a num- 
ber of years, and Will C. Daniel, his son, cashier. The Farmers & Mer- 
chants Bank of Vandalia was organized in 1897, by Fred Reid and 
Harvey Coons with a capital stock of $25,000. The first president was 
J. R. Bondurant; J. T. Williams, vice-president; W. L. Wright, sec- 
retary. The present oflBcers are as follows: J. P. Alford, president; 
J. T. Williams, vice-president; Edward Lemon, cashier. 

The third bank is the Commercial Bank of Vandalia, organized 
October 11, 1907, with a capital stock of $30,000. S. A. Waters at 
first and now president; C. E. Blaine, vice-president; F. B. DeTienne, 

Besides being in the midst of a good agricultural country, there are 
two coal mines operated there, one tiling factory, the Missouri Glass 
Company of St. Louis, operates a factory there engaged in manu- 
facturing fire clay products. 

The population of Vandalia in 1890 was 979; in 1900, 1,168; and 
in 1910, 1,595. Its high school is one of the best in the state. 


This town was laid off in June, 1857, under the name of Hudson 
City by Wm. R. Martin. The name was given it in honor of the presi- 
dent of the North Missouri Railroad. What is now Macon City was 
organized about the same time and given the same name. Mr. Martin 
yielded to the name taken by the latter town and by an act of the leg- 
islature passed in 1857, the name was changed to Martinsburg, in 
honor of its founder. It has always been an important shipping point 
for live stock on the railroad. The town cut considerable figure dur- 
ing the Civil war. When the war came on, the notorious Alvin Cobb 
living just south of town organized a company of bushwhackers with 
which he terrorized that whole part of the country. After the killing 
of Captain Jaeger and Mr. Sharp related in another part of this 


sketch, his house was burned to the ground by the Federal troops and 
he driven away from there. When General Scofield succeeded Gen- 
eral Pope in north Missouri, he for a short while had his headquarters 

The town has had for several years a newspaper, the Martinsburg 

April 1, 1893, The Martinsburg Bank was organized with a capi- 
tal stock of $10,000; Stephen Bertels, president; Edward P. French, 
vice president; and Robert L. Morris, cashier. The directors were 
Stephen Bertels, Edward P. French, Robert L. Morris, J. C. Blain, 
Joseph Fenneward, J. H. Scott and N. M. Friedman. H. P. French 
is now cashier. Mr. Bertels continues as president. 

It has no manufacturing interests, but has a coal mine. 

In 1890, the population was 276; in 1900, 345; and in 1910, 436. 
It is incorporated under the village act. 


Farber is on the Chicago & Alton Railroad five miles west* of Van- 
dalia and was laid off in 1872 by Silas W. Farber. It has a coal mine. 
For a number of years there has been published ther^ a newspaper 
called the Farber Forum, by C. A. Davault. 

The Farber Bank was organized in 1891 with a capital stock of 
$10,000. The first officers were Lyman Osterhout, president; A. E. 
Jenkins, cashier; and the following directors: Lyman Osterhout, J. 
W. Smith, N. H. Sutton, J. W. Northcutt, G. B. KeUy, A. M. Hunt- 
ley, and George W. Chase. The president at this time is M. R. K. 
Biggs; J. D. Sutton, cashier. 

The population of Farber in 1890 was 272; in 1900, 247; and in 
1910, 305. 


Laddonia was laid off in 1871 by Amos Ladd and J. J. Haden and 
given its name in honor of one of its founders, Mr. Ladd. 

Upon the iJuilding of the railroad through there, it became at once 
an important shipping point for live stock and grain. At the time 
of its location, it was surrounded by an unoccupied prairie and the 
first business established there was that of a lumber business by D. P. 
Moore and E. C. Kennen. 

Soon thereafter William W. H. Jackson established the Laddonia 
Enterprise which lived two or three years. Then in 1884, the Lad- 
donia Herald was established by J. N. Cross and John BeaL Soon 
they were succeeded by John and Grant Beal and they were succeeded 
by Grant Beal and he by C. E. Mayhall, who is now its editor and 


The town has two banks. David P. Moore and E. C. Kennen 
established a private bank there in March, 1884, with a capital stock 
of $10,000. This was sold in 1892 and The Bank of Laddonia was 
organized by B. L. Locke, E. R. Locke, S. M. Locke, C. A. Wilder, R. 
M. Pearson, and George E, Ferris. The first president was B. L. 
Locke and E. R. Locke, cashier. 

In 1895 The Farmers Bank of Laddonia with a capital stock of 
$20,000 was organized by John W. Stephens, president; B. C. Tor- 
bert, vice president; W. H. Logan, cashier; with the following direc- 
tors: Dr. A. F. Brown, Adrian Hagaman, J. W. Ohearen, W. U. Coil 
and W. H. Logan. John W. Stephens has continued its president and 


W. H. Logan, cashier. The present capital stock is $15,000 with a 
surplus of $10,000. 

The population in 1890 was 520; in 1900, 619; and in 1910, 614. 

Rush Hill 

Rush Hill, a station on the Chicago & Alton iBailroad, five miles 
west of Laddonia and ten miles east of Mexico, was laid off by Wil- 
liam Preston Hill and Gustav Reusch in 1881 and given the name of 
Rush Hill. In 1890 it had a population of 210 ; in 1900, 181 ; and in 
1910, 168. 

The Bank of Rush Hill with a capital stock of $10,000 was organized 
February 6, 1905, with W. E. Comett, president; Frank Erdel, vice 
president; Charles L. Stewart, secretary; J. W. Rogers, cashier; with 
the following additional directors: H. L. Smith, B. C. Torbert, and 
Qaither Berry. Charles L. Stewart is now president and E. A. Feutz, 

Benton City 

Benton City is an incorporated village on the Wabash six miles 
east of Mexico. When the North Missouri Railroad was first built 
a station was located there under the name of Jeflftown, in honor of 
Jeflferson F. Jones, who lived a short distance south of there in Cal- 
laway county and who had been instrumental in the building of that 
railroad. A plat of the town was made by James S. Rollins in 1881. 
In 1890 there was a population of 109; in 1900, 116; and in 1910, 
233. It is an important shipping point for both grain and live stock, 
and maintains an elevator. 

Citizens ' Bank was organized there the 3d of March, 1906, with a 
capital stock of $10,000, with J. J. F. Johnson, president; and C. A. 
James, cashier. 


Thompson is a station on the Chicago & Alton and Wabash Rail- 
roads, six miles west of Mexico. It has never been incorporated but 
about one hundred people are living there. It is an important ship- 
ping point for both live stock and grain and maintains one blacksmith 
shop and two general stores. It has a postoflSce from which several 
rural routes emanate into the western part of the county. 

Other villages are Worcester, fifteen miles northeast of Mexico on 
the Hannibal dirt road, and Molino, nine miles north of Mexico, the 
terminus of the Mexico, Santa Fe & Perry Traction Company Elec- 
tric line starting at Mexico. 

The County's Resources 

Audrain county with the exception of some manufacturing inter- 
ests noted before, is almost purely devoted to farming and stock rais- 
ing, cattle, horses, mules, sheep and swine. The farms range in size 
from 3 acres to 1,000 acres and over. The largest number of farms 
range in acreage from 100 to 174 acres. The land area is approxi- 
mately 438,400 acres and of this 426,550 acres are devoted to farm- 
ing. 97 A % 0^ the total land of the county is farm land and the aver- 
age size of the farm is 156 acres. The average part of each farm actu- 
ally improved is 143^^ acres. 


The value of the farm property in 1900 was $14,096,544.00 and 
in 1910, $33,575,009.00, showing an increase in ten years of 138^%. 
The average value per acre in 1900 was $22.40 and in 1910, $55.93. 

The total value of the cattle in 1910 was $1,059,586.00, of horses 
$1,705,915.00, and of mules $826,088.00, of swine $588,463, and of sheep 
$147,636.00, besides $74,000.00 worth of other live stock. The poultry 
in 1910 was of the value of $210,634.00, giving the county a total value 
in domestic animals of $4,401,633.00. 

The total com crop for the year 1909 in bushels was 4,441,194, 
oats 1,700,292, wheat 211,780, and in hay, timothy alone 21,507 tons. 

The total of all surplus commodities of the county for the year 
1909, including live stock, poultry, all farm products directly and 
indirectly, including coal, clay, stone and clay products were 

There are ninety-nine school districts, including the high schools of 
Mexico, Vandalia, Laddonia and Martinsburg, and the children of school 
age for the year 1912 were 5,829. 

By North Todd Gentry, Colu7nbia 
Organization op County 

No history of Boone county* would be considered authentic, unless 
in the opening paragraph it is stated that Boone county was named for 
Col. Daniel Boone (name usually spelled Boon), the famous Kentucky 
hunter and pioneer Missourian. While it is generally believed that 
Boone was never in the county that bears his name, still the early set- 
tlers of Missouri had the greatest admiration for him and for his deeds 
of bravery. It is a fact worth mentioning that the death of Daniel Boone 
occurred in St. Charles county, Missouri, on September 26, 1820, and the 
legislative enactment that subdivided Howard county (often called ''the 
mother of counties") and created Boone county was passed by the ter- 
ritorial legislature in October, 1820, and approved by the governor oh 
November 16, 1820, just a few weeks following the death of Daniel Boone. 
A son of Daniel Boone was then a member of the legislature from Mont- 
gomery county and all the members wore crape on their arms for the 
remainder of the session. It was natural, therefore, that this county 
should be named in honor of the man they loved and whose death they 
all regretted. 

As far as known, the first house built in Boone county was built by 
John and William Berry. The land oflSce records at BoonviUe and the 
United States government plat book in the recorder's office of Boone 
county show that the first land ever patented by anyone was near the 
present village of Woodlandville, formerly a part of the Model Farm 
but still earlier known as ** Thrall's Prairie," named in honor of Au- 
gustus Thrall. But the certified copy of the government book of entries, 
now belonging to the Bayless Abstract Company, shows that the first 
land entered in this county was by Elijah Foster, July 2, 1818. This 
land is located one mile south of Rock Bridge. The patent to it was 
not issued till September 8, 1821. Durrett Hubbard was the patentee. 

Early Towns 

The early towns of Boone county were Smithton, Columbia, Stones- 
port, Rocheport, Persia and Nashville,* all of which, except CJolumbia 
and Rocheport, have long ceased to exist. 

* Much of the history of Northeast Missouri is common to several or all of 
the counties. Hence the sketches of Boone, St. Charles, Chariton and other older 
counties should be read for any apparent omissions in the several county histories. 
Duplication is thus prevented and a comprehensive history given of the entire 




Smithton, named for Gen. Thomas A. Smith, register of the United 
States land oflSce at Franklin, was the first county seat of Boone county. 
It was situated where Smithton addition to Columbia is now located — 
about one mile west and a little north of the present courthouse- Twenty 
families lived in Smithton, and the first terms of circuit court and county 
court were there held. Several stores did a flourishing business. In the 
Missouri Intelligencer, a newspaper published at Franklin, in Howard 
county, on file at the State Historical Society, the following notice 


The Trustees of Smithton wish immediately to contract for building a double 
hewed-log house, shingle roof and stone chimneys, one story and a half high, in that 
town. Timber and stone are very convenient. 

They will also contract for digging and walling a well. The improvements to 
be finished by the first of November next, when payment will be made. Apply to 
the subscribers, 

Taylor Bebrt, 
BiCHABD Gentry, 
David Todd, 

July 23, 1819. 

But the inability to get water in that locality doomed Smithton, and 
caused the citizens to move the town to the east and build on the banks 
of Flat branch and the other streams flowing into it on the east side; 
this town they called Columbia. The transfer occurred in 1821. 


The citizens of Columbia have ever been proud of the fact that it 
was named for America's discoverer; and some of her enthusiastic 
citizens still say that Columbus should be proud of his namesake. As 
soon as Boone county was organized, the legislature appointed five com- 
missioners to locate the seat of justice, receive donations and procure 
a site for a courthouse and jail. The report of said commissioners, as 
printed in the Missouri hitellige^icer of April 14, 1821, is as follows: 


The commissioners of Boon county have located the permanent seat of justice 
in said county , near the centre upon the lands adjoining Smithton, and have laid 
off the above town. This town site is located in a neighborhood of first rate lands, 
and intersected by the most public roads in the state leading to St. Louis, and from 
the "Upper Missouri to the expected seat of government, and in every respect is cal- 
culated to meet the expectation of the public and its friends. 

The commissioners propose to sell lots therein on the third Monday in May, 
being county court day; and on the first Monday in August, being circuit court day, 
at the town of Smithton, and will adjourn to the town site, on which days they 
expect the sales will be entirely closed. 

L. Bass, 
John Gray, 
David Jackson, 
Absalom Hicks, 
Jefferson Fulcher, 


April 14, 1821. 

The first trustees of Columbia, in an advertisement printed in the 
Intelligencer May 21, 1821, informed the public that persons who had 
purchased lots in Smithton could exchange the same for lots in Columbia, 
on the first Monday in August, 1821. The lots in the original town 


of Columbia were 1421^ feet from north to south, and eighty feet from 
east and west; there were some eleven-acre lots, and some forty-acre 
lots. All the streets were sixty-six feet wide, except Broadway and 
Fourth street, which were laid out one hundred feet each, they being 
supposed to be the principal streets of the town. Market square was 
located one block west and one block south of the present Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas station, but it has since been divided into lots and is 
now occupied by residences. 

After selling all the lots they could, it became necessary to divide the 
remaining lots among the trustees, who owned them ; so a different num- 
ber was written on different pieces of paper, the pieces put in a hat, 
one man was blindfolded and a drawing was had. If number six, for 
example, was drawn for Mr. A., a deed was thereupon executed to him, 
conveying him lot six in the original town, also eleven-acre lot six in 
Columbia; and so on, till all of the lots were disposed of. Columbia 
has been the county seat ever since 1821; and there have been built 
in Columbia three courthouses, in 1824, in 1846, and in 1909. 

The first brick residence built in Columbia was built by Charles 
Hardin, and may be seen on the south side of Locust, between Fourth 
and Fifth streets; it is said on good authority that this was the first 
brick dwelling built in Missouri, west of St. Charles. Charles Hardin, 
and his wife, Mrs. Hannah Hardin, occupied this house many years; 
they were the parents of Governor Charles H. Hardin, Missouri's twenty- 
third governor. Charles Hardin was the first postmaster in Columbia. 

From the little village that Columbia was for many years, she has 
grown till today there are ten thousand people living in Columbia, 
twenty miles of paved streets and sixty-eight miles of granitoid side- 
walks. Located in Columbia are the following: University of Missouri, 
Agricultural College, Christian College, Stephens College, Missouri 
Bible College, University Military Academy, five ward and two high 
schools, Catholic school, Stephens Publishing House, Hamilton-Brown 
shoe factory, flouring mills, ice and packing house, brick plant, laundries, 
three planing mills, five banks and one trust company, one monthly, 
three daily and three weekly papers, the government model road, State 
Historical Society, Wabash and Missouri, Kansas & Texas railroads, 
municipal water and light plant, Parker Memorial Hospital, and Bap- 
tist, Catholic, Christian, Christian Science, Episcopal, Holiness, Metho- 
dist and Presbyterian churches. 


On September 2, 1825, a notice appeared in the Missouri Intelligencer 
advertising the lots in Rocheport for sale. Among other things, it was 
stated that the roads leading in all directions would be good, Avith only 
a little work on them, and that the views from the town were more 
beautiful than anywhere on the river between its mouth and Fort Osage. 
Rocheport soon became an important shipping point. All of the goods 
for Columbia and western Boone county were shipped through Roche- 
port for many years. Then, as now, Rocheport drew considerable busi- 
ness from Howard, Cooper and Moniteau counties. It was incorporated 
in 1843, and its corporate limits extended by act of the legislature in 

Rocheport was one of the towns in the central part of the state 
that wanted the state capitol when it was removed from St. Charles 
in 1826. It is said that had Rocheport had the support of the representa- 
tives from Boone county, the capitol would have been located in Roche- 
port. The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad was built through Roche- 


port in 1892-93, and Rocheport has lost that distinctive river transporta- 
tion feature which she once had; but Rocheport 's merchants, banks, 
newspapers and traders have kept up the business record of this well- 
known hamlet. 

The Columbia and Rocheport turnpike, fifteen miles in length, con- 
nects Rocheport with Columbia, and passes through one of the best 
parts of Boone county. For many years after steamboating was aban- 
doned, the Rocheport hack, driven by William Ridgway, was Rocheport 's 
principal method of transportation. This turnpike now forms a part 
of the Old Trails Road, Missouri's first cross-state highway. 

A number of distinguished men have come from Rocheport, CoL Jno. 
F. Philips, afterward judge of United States court. Dr. A. W. McAlester, 
dean of medical department of university. Judge E. W. Hinton, dean 
of law department of university, Capt. F. F. C. Triplett and J. de W, 
Robinson, two well-known Boone county lawyers, and Dr. Wm. S. Woods, 
of Kansas City, S. C. Hunt, of Columbia, and Jno. T. Mitchell, of Cen- 
tralia, well-known bankers of those cities. 


In 1836, the town of Stonesport was laid out by Josiah Ramsey and 
Washington Ramsey, and named for Asa Stone, an extensive land owner 
in that neighborhood; the town was located on the Missouri river, one 
and a half miles west of Claysville. Stonesport was quite a shipping 
point, and continued to be a town till the high water of 1844, when a 
sand bar was formed in front of it, and boats were unable to land there. 
The next year it was abandoned and a convenient landing nearby was 
selected ; and, at that time, Henry Clay was the idol of Boone countians, 
most of whom were Whigs, so the new town was named Claysville. 

There are few graves of Revolutionary soldiers in Boone county; 
but in the old cemetery at Stonesport, Captain William Ramsey, an 
officer in Washington's army, is buried. Captain Ramsey was the father 
of the founders of Stonesport, to- wit : Josiah Ramsey and Qeorge Wash- 
ington Ramsey. H. H. Rice, now a citizen of Hartsburg, says that he 
knew Captain Ramsey very well, and often talked with him about Gen- 
eral Washington. 


On April 1, 1820, the Missouri Intelligencer contained an advertise- 
ment, signed by O. Babbitt, J. Teffts, E. Stanley and N. Patten, Jr., 
offering the lots of Persia for sale on July 4, 1820. Persia was described 
as being on the main road leading from Franklin to St. Charles, about 
twenty-eight miles from Franklin close to Roche Perche creek, and near 
the center of the contemplated county. It was stated that the waters 
of that creek were sufficient to supply mills of any description, and that 
there were plenty of springs nearby. It was also stated that it was the 
intention of the proprietors soon to erect saw and grist mills near the 
town, and a wagon bridge across the creek, and that a brewery, distillery 
and carding machine would soon be constructed there. But Persia never 
became the rival of Columbia that it was expected she would be; and 
now not a vestige of it remains. 


In 1819, Ira P. Nash laid out a town on the bank of the Missouri 
river, two miles below the present town of Providence, near the mouth 
of Little Bonne Ferame creek, which town he named for himself. Jfash 


was a surveyor and was employed by the Spanish government to locate 
certain claims, one of which he located in Boone county, and Nashville 
was laid out on said claim. A notice appeared in the Missouri Intelli' 
gencer of December 18, 1819, advertising the sale of the lots of Nash- 
ville, on Saturday, January 1, 1820, by which it appears that Peter 
Bass, J. M. White and others were interested with Nash. In 1825, Nash 
brought suit in the Boone circuit court for the partition of the remain- 
ing lots in Nashville, and the division of the proceeds of the sales. 
Nashville continued to be a town of some importance till 1844, the year 
of the high water, when all of it was washed into the Missouri river, 
except two or thr^e houses which stood till 1865, when they were washed 


In 1836, Petersburg was laid out in Bourbon township, near Silver's 
Fork, five miles south of Sturgeon; but all evidence of that town has 
long since passed away. It contained at least one noted person. Miss 
Mary Cunningham, who married Gen. John A. Logan, United States 
senator from Illinois, and Republican nominee for vice-president in 
1884. Mrs. Logan has always been loyal to Boone county, and to her 
numerous relatives, the Fountains and Tuckers many of whom still 
reside here. She wrote an interesting letter, which was read on July 
4, 1890, the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the laying of the 
comer stone of the university. 


In 1856, Col. Thad Hickman laid out Burlington, which was located 
on the Missouri river, two miles to the west of the present town of 
Hartsburg, or Hart City. Burlington soon had one hundred people and 
proved to be a great shipping point, especially for tobacco, which then 
was one of the main products of the southern part of Cedar township. 
But in 1887 it was washed away by the Missouri river, and now the site 
of the town is in the middle part of that treacherous stream. For som^ 
reason, no plat of either Burlington or Petersburg was ever filed or 


Like other counties in the central portion of our state, Boone county 
had a town named for Daniel Boone. It was platted and laid out ift Jan- 
uary, 1836. The record says that **Mr. John Wood is both resident and 
proprietor of this town." It was also stated that the town was located 
on the road leading from Columbia to St. Charles, at the crossing of 
Cedar creek. Boonsborough, though popularly named, long ago ceased 
to exist. 


In January, 1848, Eusibiis Hubbard and David Jacob platted a town 
on the east side of the Range line road, half way between the present 
towns of Deer Park and Englewood, which they called Summerville. 
But this was only a town on paper. 


In March, 1849, the town of Bourbonton was laid out by Wm. H. 
Harris and Wm. F. Cartwill. This town was situated two miles west of 
the present city of Sturgeon, and was popularly called Buena Vista. 


But Bourbonton was abandoned and its houses were moved to Sturgeon 
after the building of the North Missouri Railroad. 

Later Towns 


In comparatively recent years, the other towns of Boone county were 
founded. Perhaps one reason no town was built in the northern portion 
of the county In early times was that the prairie land was not considered 
valuable ; and very little of it was entered prior to 1850. 


The history of the town of Ashland dates back to 1853. The Nichols, 
the Martins, the Christians and the Burnams were among its promoters, 
but the town was not incorporated till 1877. Two banks, three churches, 
one hotel, a ward and high school, several stores, two livery stables and 
a number of modern dwellings are now located in Ashland. The Ash- 
land mill is one of the oldest and best known flouring mills in this 
part of the state ; and the Ashland Bugle exerts a great influence, politi- 
cally and otherwise, in Boone county. The Columbia and Ashland 
gravel road, fifteen miles long, furnishes fine travel for the hack 
and automobile lines to Columbia, and also for the transportation of 
the large amount of farm produce, live stock and poultry from that 
part of the county. Another hack line connects Ashland with the M., 
K. & T. Railroad at Hartsburg. Ashland has a population of four hun- 
dred, and is the largest town in Cedar township. 


The ** Queen City of the Prairies," so called, was laid out in 1857 
by Col. Middletown 6. Singletgn and James S. Rollins, both of whom 
owned a great deal of what was then called the ** Grand prairie." In 
1859, the North Missouri Railroad was constructed along the northern 
border of Boone county, and Centralia came into permanent existence. 
It derived its name from the fact that it was centrally located near the 
center of a vast prairie between Mexico and Huntsville, and between 
Columbia and Paris. The Columbia branch of the Wabash connects 
Centralia with Columbia, and has had much to do with cementing the 
business relations between these two towns. Centralia now has a popula- 
tion of 2,100, seven churches, good schools, four banks, numerous stores, 
two garages, a city hall, livery stables and shops, two hotels, several large 
poultry houses, and is one of the greatest mule and corn markets in the 
state. The Centralia fair is a great annual event, and attracts people 
from many parts of the state. Two weekly newspapers are printed 
here, the Fireside Guard and the Courier; and Centralia boasts of some 
of the best business houses and most beautiful homes in the county. 


This city was laid out in 1856 on the line of the North Missouri 
Railroad, and was named for Isaac H. Sturgeon, of St. Louis, an official 
of that road. The plat made by the town company, composed of J. D. 
Patton, J. E. Hicks and Arch Wayne, and on file in the recorder's 
office of this county, shows that it was the intention to make Sturgeon 
the county seat of the new county which it was desired to form and which 
they intended to call Rollins county. In 1860, the Sturgeon court of 
common pleas was established in this town and it was given jurisdiction 


in civil cases over parts of four counties, viz. : Boone, Audrain, Howard 
and Randolph. A suitable courthouse was erected for said court, 
and the same serves Sturgeon as a town hall. The present population of 
the city is eight hundred; three banks, one good hotel, various lodges, 
public schools, five churches, may be found here. The Sturgeon Leader 
is a leader in everything that goes to help this little city, as well as Bour- 
bon township, of which it is so important a part. Sturgeon also has a 
good fair association, which gives liberal premiums and furnishes good 
exhibits, and a first class brass band, which gives frequent concerts in the 
band stand, which is situated on the main street. 

Other Toytns 

Owing to the brevity of space, mention can only be made of Harts- 
burg, named for Luther D. Hart ; Huntsdale, named for W. B. Hunt ; 
Hallsville, named for John W. Hall; Harrisburg, named for John W. 
Harris; McBaine, named for Turner McBaine; Spencer, or Wilton, 
named for Gilpin Spencer; and Midway, which is said to be midway 
between the east and west boundaries of Missouri. 

Where They Came From 

Most of the early inhabitants of this county came from Kentucky, 
and many of them came from Virginia. Captain William Madden and 
John Tount, of Cedar township, came from Tennessee; as did Mont- 
gomery P. Lientz, of Missouri township, and Dr. George B. Wilcox, of 
Rocheport, who was Boone county's first physician. William D. Hen- 
derson, of the Midway neighborhood, was bom in Illinois in 1817, while 
his parents, John Henderson and wife, were traveling from Kentucky to 
Boone county. The Rev. Berryman Wren, Boone county's first Baptist 
preacher, came from North Carolina in 1816; and Walter R. Lenoir 
(father of Dr. Walter T., Dr. Wm. B. and Slater E. Lenoir, all of Colum- 
bia township), came from the same state. Stephen Bedford and B. F. 
Robinson, both of Missouri township, and John Corlew, of Perche town- 
ship, came from South Carolina in 1817. Mrs. Louis Hume, of Cedar 
township, came from Maryland in 1819; and Gilpin Spencer and Wil- 
liam Douglass (father of Gen. Joseph B. Douglass) came from the same 
state in the early times. John Slack, a justice of the peace of Perche 
township, and John Coonce, an extensive farmer of Cedar township, 
came from Pennsylvania in 1818. Captain Ugenus Baldwin, of the * * Tar- 
repin" neighborhood, came from Indiana in 1833. Oliver Parker, one 
of Columbia's early merchants and the grandfather of James H. and 
Moss P. Parker, came from Vermont in 1819. The Sapp brothers came 
from Delaware, and Commodore P. Hultz came from New York, as did 
Robert G. Lyell, of Missouri township, in 1819. 


The hotels of early times were known as *' taverns," and they were 
the center of attraction, both social and political. The early taverns 
of Columbia were kept by Ira Wall, James McKnight and Richard 
Gentry, and afterwards by Mrs. Richard Gentry. On top of each tavern 
was a bell, about one-third the size of an ordinary church bell, which was 
always rung at meal time. What would now be called the hotel oflBce was 
then termed the **bar room" and liquor was then served to guests. In 
the bar room was a large fireplace and around that open fire every 
evening would be gathered the landlord, his family and guests. The light 


from the flame of the Yule log was suflBcient to illumine the bar room and 
perhaps other rooms, but when any additional light was needed a tallow 
candle, or tallow dip, was used. Here the old lawyers, who *'rode the 
circuit," would tell their interesting stories of court proceedings in other 
counties, here the politicians would meet their friends and plan politi- 
cal campaigns and here the pioneer preachers would call together the 
members of their respective churches, and plan for the erection of a house 
of worship, as well as a war against the sins of that day. But, as most of 
the early inhabitants of this county were from Kentucky, perhaps the 
** lodger at the tavern'' who attracted the most attention was the owner of 
a premium race horse. In language that no one else may imitate, he told 
of how his ** little bay mare fairly flew" at a neighboring race track, and 
distanced all her opponents ; and, as she came in on the last quarter, how 
she ran faster and faster, as the people cheered, tossed their hats into the 
air, etc., etc., until the persons in the bar room thought they had seen 
the race and heard the jubilant multitude. 

As all of the travel was then on horseback or in wagons, a large stable 
was conducted in connection with each tavern. This was not a livery 
stable, but it was simply kept for the accommodation of travelers ' horses. 
An advertisement of a tavern in those days was not considered complete 
without mentioning the fact that a good stable could be found close by, 
where horses would be well cared for. 

The bar room was usually adjoining the dining room and the two 
could easily be thrown together. On frequent occasions this was the 
social center of the community, for here our good people danced the min- 
uet and Virginia reel, and afterwards were disciplined for it in their 
respective religious denominations. The music on such occasions of 
frivolity was furnished by two negroes, experts in the use of the fiddle 
and banjo, who needed no bandmaster to wield the baton, for they marked 
time as they called the figures with a footfall heavy enough to give an 
emphatic accent. In many of the kitchens in those days could be found 
one or two darkey musicians, who expected to be called on whenever the 
** white folks" felt like dancing. The dances at the tavern often lasted 
till the '^ small hours" and doubtless such gatherings as these inspired 
some native poet to write : 

The boys delight 
To dance all night, 
Till broad daylight, 
And go home with the gals in the morning. 

Col. W. B. Royall was one of the early tavern keepers of Columbia. 
His tavern was situated on the north side of Broadway, between Sixth 
and Seventh streets. Coming from Virginia and being a Latin scholar. 
he deemed it appropriate to advertise his tavern in that language, so had 
painted on a sign-board and placed over his front door the words, *^ Sem- 
per peratus." Buck Lamp ton, who was the auctioneer of Columbia and 
the town wit, said that those words were appropriate for an eating house, 
as they meant ** Sweet milk and potatoes." 

First Funeral 

We are indebted to R. B. Price, one of the best posted men on Boone 
county history, for the following, which he said «yas told him by William 
Keith, who lived on a farm on the Sexton road near Perche creek, which 
farm is now owned by Tilf ord H. Murray. A young man had moved with 
his parents to Boone county and died shortly after reaching here. His 
parents lived on the Keith farm,. This was before the days of saw mills 


in this county and before any undertakers had moved here. So Mr. 
Keith and Joel McQuitty cut down a walnut tree and split the log half 
in two. Then with their axes they made a sort of trough out of each half 
log. The body of the young man was placed in one trough and the other 
was placed over the top of him.* The two were then fastened together and 
the young man buried on the Keith farm, where his grave may still be 
seen. This was the first funeral and burial in Boone county. 

First Courts 

Fortunately nearly all of our county records have been preserved, 
although they were kept for many years in buildings that were not fire- 
proof. The early records were all written with a goose quill and each 
scribe usually trimmed his own quill. Most of these records are free from 
blots and were written in a remarkably good hand, although all of them 
are on unlined paper. The first term of the courts of record was held 
at Smithton. 

At the first term of the circuit court David Todd produced a com- 
mission from Alexander McNair, Missouri's first governor, which 
appointed him judge of the first judicial district of Missouri. He had 
previously served as territorial judge, having been appointed by Presi- 
dent James Monroe, in 1817. Judge Todd's circuit was the largest in 
Missouri and consisted of the counties of Howard, Boone, Cole, Cooper, 
Saline. Chariton, Clay, Ray and Lillard (now Lafayette). These coun- 
ties then embraced all that part of Missouri w^est of the present east line 
of Boone county and north from the Osage river to the Iowa line, not 
including the Platte purchase. As provided by statute, the Boone cir- 
cuit court was opened on the first Monday in April (April 2) 1821, and, 
there being no courthouse in Smithton and no building large enough in 
which to hold court, court was held under the spreading boughs of a 
sugar tree. Hamilton R. Gamble (afterwards judge of the supreme 
court and later governor of Missouri) produced his commission as circuit 
attorney and Overton Harris produced his commission as sheriff. And 
here, in this primitive style, justice had an honored birth in Boone 

The first term of county court antedated that of the first term of 
circuit court, and was held on Monday, February 19, 1821, at Smithton. 
Lazarus Wilcox, Anderson Woods and Peter Wright were the first judges 
of that court, and on that day the first official act of that court was to 
appoint Warren Woodson county clerk, which office he held continuously 
till 1860 ; and he afterwards was county clerk in 1867 and 1868. 

As clerk of the county court, Warren Woodson was also probate 
judge, and discharged the duties pertaining to that office for many years. 
The first probate matter attended to was the granting of letters of admin- 
istration to James Turley, as administrator of the estate of Daniel Tur- 
ley, deceased, on May 21, 1821. In 1872, the general assembly separated 
the probate business from the county clerk and county court, and created 
the office of judge of probate court. Judge James A. Henderson was 
first appointed probate judge by the governor, and served till the next 
election, when «fohn Hinton was elected probate judge, and served for 
nineteen years. He was succeeded by Judges W. W. Garth, Lewis M. 
Switzler and John F. Murry. 

As far as our records show, the first civil case ever tried before a jus- 
tice of the peace in this county was the case of Henry Elliott & Son 
against Robert Hinkson, which was a suit for $31.50 on a judgment ren- 
dered by a justice of the peace of Ste. Genevieve county. This suit was 
filed on January 22, 1821, and John Slack (the grandfather of Miss 


Pearle Mitchell) was the justice. Mr. Slack then lived on a farm abont 
three miles southwest of the present postoffice of Hinton, and on a stream 
known as ''Slack's branch." The Slack cemetery is located on the old 
Slack farm. The summons commanded the constable to notify the 
defendant to appear before the justice at the dwelling house of said jus- 
tice in Smithton township. It might be added just here that Smithton 
township consisted of the present township known as Columbia, and two 
miles off of the east part of the present township of Missouri, and four sec- 
tions in the southeast corner of the present township of Perche. The 
words of ** Roche Persia township" were first written in this summons, 
and then a line was drawn through them, and the words '* Smithton 
township" added. In this summons, the words ** Territory of Missouri" 
were first written, and then the word ** Territory" erased, and the word 
''State" was interlined. The justice also forgot that Boone county was 
no longer a part of Howard, for he wrote ** County of Howard," and then 
scratched Howard and wrote Boone. Robert Hinkson was the man for 
whom Hinkson creek was named. He lived on a farm east of Columbia, 
near that stream. At the trial of this case before the magistrate, Hink- 
son lost ; but he was successful on appeal to the circuit court. 

Early Stage Drivers 

Few persons are now living who can remember the primitive meth- 
ods of carrying Uncle Sam's mail in Boone county, and especially dur- 
ing the thirty years that Mrs. Ann Gentry was postmistress in Columbia. 
Columbia was on the state road, which extended from St. Louis, through 
St. Charles and on to Independence, crossing the Missouri river at Arfow 
Rock, which was said to be the narrowest point on the river. «At intervals 
along said road, there were ''stage stands," which were places where a 
new driver and fresh horses could be obtained, when needed, and hotel 
accommodations furnished a few people. About half a mile west of 
Perche creek, on the present Columbia and Rocheport gravel road, was 
the home of Ishmael Yanhom. His place was a stage stand. A similar 
place was located on the farm of Dr. Geo. R. Jacobs, eight miles east 
of Columbia, on the St. Charles state road. This state road, which was 
hardly worthy of being called a road, was traveled at irregular intervals 
by the old-fashioned stage coach, which was sometimes drawn by four 
horses but usually driEiwn by six. The mail and a few passengers accom- 
panied the driver on his long, lonely and ofttimes dangerous journey. 
Frequently the wheels of the stage would get so deep in the mud that 
driver and passengers must needs work long and patiently. The under- 
standing with all passengers was that they must assist the driver when- 
ever called on. The stage driver was a great man in his day — ^great in his 
own estimation and great in the estimation of the small boys, both white 
and black. Even the grown-up boys admired the stage driver so much 
that they had diflSculty in trying to decide whether they wanted their 
boys to become preachers or stage drivers. Ordinarily, Columbia had 
mail twice a week, unless the swollen streams or bad roads delayed the 
travel. It several times happened that three weeks or more passed with- 
out any mail coming to Columbia and then two or three wagon loads 
would arrive at once, and sometimes at the inconvenient hour of eleven 
o'clock at night. 

The arrival of the stage in Columbia was an important event, far 
surpassing the arrival of a train of cars at the present time. When the 
stage reached the hill on Broadway just north of Stephens College, 
which was then the eastern limits of Columbia, the driver would take out 
his little brass horn, blow a sort of tune, crack his whip and drive his 


horses full speed down Broadway to the posto£See. All at once he would 
apply the brakes, pull his horses back on their haunches, toss his lines out 
to one of the many persons there assembled, pitch the mail bags out and 
walk into the bar room and take a drink. Even in that early day, the 
stage driver, like the modern politician and so-called reformer, realized 
the value of blowing his own horn. After sufficiently quenching his 
thirst, the driver- would return to the street and was then ready to talk 
business, religion, politics or anything else. He knew the news of the 
neighboring towns along the road, and he always had in stock a lot of 
interesting stories regarding his trip, many of which were thrilling and 
amusing. His experiences in crossing the unbridged streams, his efforts 
to guide his ** coach and four" through the muddy, narrow passes, along 
the rocky cliffs, and up the steep hills were not only interesting to boys 
and adults alike, but had they been written and preserved, would have 
been entertaining to us. To say that the stage driver of that day, with 
his commanding figure and still more commanding voice, his long whip, 
his hands full of lines, driving his prancing steeds, was the '^ Admired 
of all admirers," is but putting it mildly. 

The stage driver, after stopping in town, would pitch his reins out 
to others, and then he would leave the stage. This was true for the stage 
driver never fed, nor hitched up nor unhitched his horses. That work 
he left for the stable men ; neither did he grease the wheels nor repair 
the stage while he was in town, leaving that duty for others. The stage 
driver considered himself far above such menial work; he was a stage 
driver, he was a letter-carrier, he was a gentleman. 

Pair Associations 

Col. Wm. P. Switzler is authority for saying that agricultural fairs 
in Missouri had their origin in Boone county, the first one being held 
in Columbia, on ground just east of Stephens College campus, in Octo- 
ber, 1835. No amphitheatre, no floral hall, no band stand, no high fence 
were to be seen on the grounds, and not even a brass band on that occa- 
sion, but a silver cup was given to each owner of prize cattle, horses, 
sheep, hogs and mules. 

Boone county has had three other fair grounds in Columbia, one on 
the Pyfer, or Hubbard place, on the south side of Broadway and east 
of William street; one where Pair Qrounds Addition is now located, 
and one on the David H. Hickman or Mrs. Sarah Young ground, situ- 
ated at the north end of Pifth street. 

But prior to any of these, Columbia had a race track and paid due 
attention to horse racing, which may be explained by the fact that the 
early inhabitants mostly came from the blue grass regions of Kentucky. 
This race track, said by some to have been constructed in 1825, was on 
ground south of the original town of Columbia. It began at the corner 
of Hitt and Rollins streets, extended north through the present site 
of Read Hall, thence west passing to the north of Lowry HaU and going 
along where the **01d University Columns'' now stand. It then turned 
to the south and passed in front of Lathrop Hall, and on to the present 
Rollins Athletic Field, thence to the east to the judges' stand, which was 
seventy-five or a hundred feet north of the Rothwell gymnasium. The 
writer can remember, when a small boy, of seeing the ruins of this old 
race track, an embankment across a little ravine in the back campus' of 
the university, and a cut in the hill on the old Gentry place to the south 
of Conley avenue. 

Pair Grounds Addition was used for many years for the county fair, 
but in 1890 the ground was purchased by Jas. A. Kimbrou'gh, Ben M. 

Vol. 1—16 


Anderson and F. W. Smith. These gentlemen used it for camp meeting 
purposes for two or three years, under the auspices of the M. E. church 
South, and the annual gatherings were called the ** Columbia Summer 

High Water 

In June, 1844, the Missouri river was higher than ever before or since, 
the waters extending from bluff to bluff. Much damage was done to 
growing crops and fences, and one young man, John Collier, of this 
county, was drowned. During this time, Nashville was under water, and 
most of it was >vashed away. John Parker and other merchants moved 
their stocks of goods, and later built Providence, where they opened up 
their business. 

luyJune, 1903, the Missouri river again overflowed its banks, and 
again its waters extended from bluff to bluff. While the water was not 
as high as in 1844, still much more damage resulted, owing to the fact 
that there were more buildings, fences and crops in the river bottom, and 
these were washed away. The Wabash, Chicago & Alton, M., K. & T. and 
Missouri Pacific railroads stopped running their trains entirely, as many 
of their stations and much of their track was under water. Many people 
moved out of their houses just in time to see the houses lifted off their 
foundations, and go floating down the stream. While there was great 
destruction of property, there was fortunately no loss of life during this 

In September, 1905, the Missouri river again got out of its banks, 
and again crops and fences were washed away, and train service crippled 
on various roads; and the same thing occurred in June, 1908, to some 

Fondness for Celebrating 

The people of Boone county have ever been fond of celebrations and 
public displays. In fact, the announcement of such an event has always 
brought throngs to the place of celebration. Especially were they fond 
of celebrating the Fourth of July. On such occasion, military proces- 
sions would be formed and marched, patriotic speeches would be deliv- 
ered, the Declaration of Independence be read and the day made noisy 
by the firing of cannon, guns, torpedoes and firecrackers. The night 
would be illuminated by Roman candles, sky rockets, pin wheels and 
colored fire. It is to be hoped that our patriotism will always lead us 
to join in celebrating important events and in showing our sympathy 
for a cause that we believe to be a proper one. 

July Fourth at Smithton 

July 4, 1820, was celebrated in appropriate style in Smithton. Such 
toasts as United States of America, George Washington, Thomas JeflPer- 
son, James Madison, James Monroe and Henry Clay were responded to. 
Reuben Cave spoke on *'Col. Daniel Boon, the Pioneer of the West — 
may his last days be his happiest, and may his posterity prosper." 
Thomas Duly, afterwards one of the first trustees of Columbia, responded 
to the toast, '*the Hon. David Todd, the enlightened judge and accom- 
plished politician ; may the citizens of Howard county ever* appreciate his 
worth.'' Judge Todd was afterwards the Whig nominee for governor 
of Missouri, and the Whigs of Boone and Howard counties supported 
him and were constantly sounding his praises. 


Whig Meeting at Rocheport 

The largest political gathering ever held in Boone county, and one of 
the largest ever held in any town in Missouri, was the Whig meeting at 
Rocheport in June, 1840. Harrison and Tyler were the Whig candidates 
for president and vice president, and Van Buren and Johnson were the 
Democratic candidates. The meeting at Rocheport lasted three days, and 
addresses were delivered by Fletcher Webster (a son of Daniel Webster), 
Gen. Alexander W. Doniphan, Gen. Geo. C. Bingham, Judge Abiel 
Leonard, Judge David Todd, Maj. Jas. S. Rollins and others. Many 
counties in Missouri sent delegates to this meeting, some of them travel- 
ing for miles and miles on horseback. Three steamboat loads of jubilant 
Whigs came from St. Louis, bringing with them several cannon, plenty of 
flags and pictures of Harrison, and perhaps other things that were then 
considered necessary for such a celebration. The Whigs of Boone and 
Howard counties had constructed a log cabin, with a live coon chained to 
it and a barrel of cider just inside of the door. As delegations would 
arrive, they were invited to enter the log cabin and take a drink of 
hard cider, using a gourd for a drinking cup. At night the delegates 
paraded the streets and roads in the vicinity of Rocheport, carrying ban- 
ners with the words, ''Tippecanoe and Tyler too,'' and a float with a log 
cabin on it, each delegate wearing a coon-skin cap. It was at first said, 
by way of ridicule, that General Harrison was born and raised in a log 
cabin and that he wore a coon-skin cap, but soon such statements created 
sentiment in his favor, hence the log cabin and coon-skin cap became the 
party emblems. Between six and ten thousand people attended this meet- 
ing. They camped on the hill to the east of Rocheport, and they created 
a sentiment for '*01d Tippecanoe" that was lasting. 

Among the visitors who attended this Rocheport meeting was Miss 
Mary Todd, a niece of Judge David Todd, who a few years later married 
Abraham Lincoln. 


Centennial Cei.ebration.s of the Fourth 

The Fourth of July, 1876, was observed by celebrations in two places 
in Boone county. The people of Columbia celebrated at the university, 
it being commencement day and the day on which President S. S. Laws 
was inaugurated. One hundred students of the military department 
dressed in costumes similar to that worn by the Continental soldiers, 
paraded on the campus and around Columbia. At the close of the exer- 
cises in the university chapel, the artillerymen fired the cannon one 
hundred times. 

At Ashland, on the same day, one hundred citizens, dressed in the 
costumes worn a century before, represented the members of the Conti- 
nental Congress. Speeches were made in favor of the adoption of the 
Declaration of Independence, the motion was put by the speaker and the 
vote was unanimous. Then the impersonators of John Hancock and 
others signed the paper, amid cheers from the audience, and the ringing 
of an imitation of the Liberty bell. 

Jefferson's Monument on the Fourth 

On July 4, 1883, a celebration was given in the chapel of the old 
university, and on the university campus, under the auspices of Christian 
College and Stephens College. The Declaration of Independence was read 
by Col. Wra. F. Switzler, and appropriate addresses delivered by Maj. 
Jas. S. Rollins, President S. S. Laws, of the university, President T. W. 


Barrett, of Stephens College, President W. A. Oldham, of Christian Col- 
lege, Col. B. C. More and Judge Chas. E. Peers, of Warren county. Pa- 
triotic music was furnished by Mrs. E. C. More and Mrs. L. E. Thompson. 
A telegram was received from Prof. A. P. Pleet, of the university, who 
was then visiting in Virginia, that he had secured the old Jefferson tomb- 
stone from the members of the Jefferson family and that he had shipped 
it on that day to Columbia. This telegram was read by President 
Laws, amid applause; and thus another Pourth of July was added to 
the history of Thomas Jefferson. The Jefferson monument soon reached 
Columbia, and has been on the university campus ever since, an inspira- 
tion to the young men of the largest state that was formed out of the 
Louisiana purchase, which might well be termed the Jefferson purchase. 
On the evening of the Pourth of July, a committee in charge of the 
fireworks had erected a platform some eight feet high, and intended 
using it as a place to send up the fireworks. Unfortunately some one 
dropped fire into the package, and all of the sky rockets were discharged 
at once. They shot in every direction, but fortunately just over the 
heads of the frightened crowd. Marcellus Dimmitt, a druggist, was on 
the platform at the time, and in the excitement jumped off, injuring his 
foot and ankle, and causing him to go on crutches for a long time. 

A. O. U. W. Celebration 

The next celebration of the ''Illustrious Pourth" occurred in Cen- 
tralia on July 4, 1884, under the auspices of the Select Knights of A. O. 
U. W. The Declaration of Independence was read by Prof. L. J. Hall, 
whose ability as a reader has since been appreciated by the Missouri legis- 
lature of 1911, and by the United States congress under the leadership of 
Speaker Champ Clark. Owen T. Rouse, of Randolph county, delivered 
an address, and thirty-eight little girls, dressed in national colors, rode 
. in the procession, representing the thirty-eight states that then consti- 
tuted the Union. One of the cannon on the university campus was bor- 
rowed and taken to Centralia, where the Centralia Light Guards fired 
the national salute, under the command of Capt. J. W. Kneisley, then 
representative from Boone county. By mistake of some one, the cannon 
was prematurely discharged and two men, D. W. Conger and John 
Pinks, were killed. 

Cleveland Celebration in 1884 

Some days were necessary to determine the result of the election 
between Cleveland and Blaine in 1884, but when it was definitely set- 
tled that Cleveland and Hendricks had been elected, the Democrats of 
Boone county had a monster celebration in Columbia the Monday fol- 
lowing. Large delegations from every township, every town and almost 
every neighborhood in the county attended, all carrying flags and many 
of them carrying tin horns, which were used at every turn. Many ladies 
rode on horseback and in wagons and carriages in this procession, some 
of them dressed in red, white and blue costumes. At night, a torch-light 
procession paraded the streets of Columbia, headed by a brass band, and 
local orators sounded the praises of Grover Cleveland, and predicted that 
the much needed reforms were now at hand. The university students 
joined in the celebration, and it is hardly necessary to say that they had a 
good time, and, by their stunts, added to the enjoyment of the occasion. 
The crowd, although unusually large, was a well-behaved one, and no acci- 
dents resulted from this overflow of Democratic patriotism. 


Democratic Jubilee at Rocheport 

In 1884, one week following the Democratic meeting at Columbia 
there was held a Cleveland Democratic celebration at Rocheport, which 
was also noted for its size, harmony and good feeling, crowds being pres- 
ent from Boone, Howard, Cooper and Moniteau counties. Col. Wm. F. 
Switzler and E. W. Stephens, who were rival editors and had previously 
belonged to two warring factions, shook hands, buried the hatchet and 
promised ever afterwards to be political friends. Jno. M. Samuel, a very 
successful Democratic office-holder of this county, in making a speech, 
said that the old radical party had seen the handwriting on the wall, 
and that the words, "Mene, Mene, Tekel, Vpharshi," had forever sealed 
its doom. As soon as his speech was finished, he was taken to task by 
a certain politician from Columbia, who said that those were the words 
on the cross on Calvary. The two men agreed to leave it to a certain ' 
preacher, the Rev. J. McBarron, to decide. After he was asked the mean- 
ing of those words, Mr. Barron said : ** Well, it is difficult to give a literal 
translation of those words, but the substance is that the Lord is tired of 
a man where he is, and sends him out in the woods to eat grass like an 


The Fourth at Rocheport 

July 4, 1895, was celebrated by the good people of Rocheport ; and, 
in addition to a baseball game, the usual amount of noise from firecrack- 
ers, a picnic dinner and a balloon ascension, the people were entertained 
by oratory. State Treasurer Lon V. Stephens made a speech, and was 
introduced by Editor Willard J. McQuitty, of the Rocheport Commer- 
cial, as the **next governor of Missouri." His words proved prophetic, 
for Mr. Stephens was elected governor the next year. Col. Wm. F. Switz- 
ler made a speech on ** Betsy Ross and the Flag." 

Another Centralia Celebration 

On July 4, 1902, Centralia ** remembered the Fourth," and her people 
showed their patriotism in various ways, a free dinner, patriotic decora- 
tions and public speaking. J. Kelly Pool presided, and speeches were 
delivered by A. M. Dockery, then governor of Missouri, Col. Wm. F. 
Switzler and Senator Chas. J. Walker. 

Sane Fourth of July Celebration 

The first **sane Fourth of July celebration" occurred in Columbia, 
under the auspices of the Columbia Commercial Club, and the exercises 
' were held on the university campus, July 4, 1912, just twenty-nine years 
after the accident to Mr. Dimmitt. As advertised, no cannon, no fire- 
crackers, no fireworks nor explosives of any kind were used. Prof. John 
R. Scott, of the university, read the Declaration of Independence to the 
large crowd on the campus ; and Mrs. Luella W. St. Clair-Moss, of Chris- 
tian College, delivered an address on **True Patriotism." A number of 
boys and girls sang patriotic songs, and danced around the May pole, 
using red, white and blue ribbons. These exercises were in charge of 
Misses Frances L. Denny and Julia Sampson. Different business men in 
Columbia offered prizes to the boys and girls, who would best represent 
colonial and revolutionary characters; and the young people appeared, 
dressed in proper costumes. After the crowd had been entertained by 
looking at the different contestants, the judges announced that they had 
awarded the prizes as follows: Oeorge Washington, Benton Banta; 


Thomas Jeflferson, Harold Greene; Daniel Boone, Norman Trenholme; 
Paul Revere, William Taylor; Powhatan, Harold Meyer; Gk>ddess of 
Liberty, first prize, Sarah Steenbergen, second prize, Emma Davis; 
Martha Washington, Aletha Pemberton; Dolly Madison, Marion Babb; 
Pocahontas, first prize, Catherine Tandy, second prize, Aldeah Wise; 
Priscilla, first prize, Mary Gentry, second prize, Mary Banks; Molly 
Pitcher, Marion Stephenson; Betsy Ross, Rosemary Belcher. It is 
needless to say that no accident resulted from such a satisfactory cele- 
bration of our Nation's birthday. 

Public Meetings 

For many years the Boone county courthouse was the place for hold- 
ing public meetings of various kinds. Not only have the various courts 
been there held, but railroad meetings, gravel road meetings, water works 
meetings, fair association meetings, farmers alliance and grange meet- 
ings, local option meetings, anti-local option meetings, old settlers reun- 
ions and political meetings of nearly every character. In order to 
secure the relocation of the university in Boone county, after the fire 
of 1892, the citizens of this county held a meeting there and raised the 
sum of fifty thousand dollars, which was paid to the State of Missouri. 

On February 8, 1866, David H. Hickman and James L. Stephens pre- 
sented a petition to the county court which was the longest petition ever 
filed in any proceeding in this county. It contained a double column 
of signatures, and the petition, when spread out on the floor, extended 
across the courthouse from east to west. It was a petition, asking the 
county court to appropriate money with which to build a railroad from 
Columbia to Centralia, and also to appropriate money with which to con- 
struct a gravel road from Columbia to Claysville by way of Ashland, 
another gravel road from Columbia to Rocheport, and a third gravel road 
from Columbia to Cedar creek, the Callaway line. A crowd of anxious 
citizens had assembled in the courtroom, and for once in the history of 
this county, proceedings in court were greeted with applause. The court 
on that day decided to appropriate two hundred thousand dollars to be 
used in paying for the Columbia branch to connect with the North Mis- 
souri Railroad (now the Wabash) at Centralia, and also decided to appro- 
priate one hundred and fifty thousand dollars to be used in paying for 
the three gravel roads above mentioned. Bonds of this county were then 
issued for those sums, and every dollar has long since been paid. 

On May 20, 1871, another meeting was held in the county courtroom 
and another petition presented to that court, asking it to appropriate 
eight thousand dollars to aid in the construction of the Columbia and 
Blackfoot gravel road. The court made the order; and that road also 
stands as a monument to the wisdom of our fathers and our grandfath- 

In 1899, another meeting was held in the courthouse and the sum of 
twenty thousand dollars was raised and donated for the construction of 
the Missouri Midland Railroad, a road eight miles in length, now the 
Columbia branch of the M., K. & T. system. 

In 1906, still another meeting was there held, and the sum of sixty 
thousand dollars was raised, by the sale of town lots, and the money 
donated to the Hamilton-Brown Shoe Company in consideration of the 
location of a shoe factory in Columbia. 

Memorial Meetings 

On four occasions our people have been called together, and. in the 
old courthouse, without regard to political ties, have given expression 


to their sorrow over the death of our national officials. Presidents Lin- 
coln, Garfield and McKinley, and Vice-Presidents Hendricks and Hobart. 
Similar meetings have been held on occasions when some of the prominent 
citizens of our county have died, John H. Lathrop, Warren Woodson, 
John W. Harris, James Harris, John M. Samuel, James S. Rollins, John 
Hinton, Robert L. Todd, James L. Stephens, B. McAlester, W. Pope Yea- 
man, Wm. P. Switzler, Odon Guitar and others. And there, the law- 
yers have always met after the death of a brother lawyer, and, laying 
aside whatever differences they formerly entertained, have taken appro- 
priate action regarding the loss of one with whom they labored. And 
there, the lawyers have also prepared memorials and adopted resolutions 
regarding the deaths of Judge David Todd, Judge Wm. A. Hall, Judge 
Geo. H. Burckhartt and Judge Jno. A. Hockaday. 

Flag Poles 

In 1876 the Democrats of Boone county, and especially of Columbia 
township, erected a flag pole, dedicated to Tilden and Hendricks; in 
1880, they erected one to Hancock and English ; in 1884, they erected one 
to Cleveland and Hendricks ; in 1888, they erected one to Cleveland and 
Thurman; and in 1892, they erected one to Cleveland and Stevenson. 
These flag poles were placed in front of the old courthouse, a few feet 
south of the curbing. Of course a flag was fastened to the top of the pole, 
and usually the names of the candidates for president and vice presi- 
dent were painted on it in large letters. A large crowd, a brass band and 
local orators would be on hand on the day when a pole was raised and the 
pole would be allowed to remain till about two months after the election. 

Perhaps the largest one of these poles was the one erected in 1892 ; 
it was one hundred feet tall and twelve inches across at the lower end, 
and cut from a sycamore tree that grew on the river near McBaine. 
When Walnut street was paved with brick in 1906, it became necessary 
to do a little grading in front of the courthouse, and the butt ends of 
these flag poles were found, silent witnesses of the political glory of the 

The First Courthouse 

In 1824 the county court let the contract for building the first court- 
house in Boone county, in pursuance of the following, which was pub- 
lished in the Missouri Irvtelligencer : 

Public Notice. 

The commisBionera of Boon county will, on the first day of the next term of 
the circuit court of said county, at the town of Columbia, on the second Monday 
in June next, let to the lowest bidder, the building of the hull of a court house, forty 
feet square, and two stories high, to be covered with good shingles. Payment — 
part cash, and the balance cash notes. They will also sell, at the same time and 
place, about forty lots in said town, at six and twelve months' credit. 

Particulars made known on the day of the letting of the house and sale of lots. 

John Gray, 
Lawrence Bass, 


AbsaLom Hicks,. 
David Jackson, 
May 1, 1824. Commissioners of Boon county. 

This courthouse was a two-story brick, and the floors of both circ^iit 
and county courtrooms were of brick. The prisoner occupied what was 
called the prisoner's dock, and was seated across the room from and oppo- 
site the witness chair, presumably in order that he might *' confront his 


accusers." At the first term of circuit court held in this building. Judge 
David Todd presided, and Roger North Todd was clerk, and James 
Barnes was sheriff. This building stood where the present (1909) court- 
house stands, and north of the ground for many years thereafter occu- 
pied by the Columbia Baptist church. 

The Courthouse op 1846 

Shortly after the location of the State University in Boone county, the 
people of this county began agitating the question of a new courthouse. 
In December, 1845, the contracts for such a building were let, and the 
work was begun in 1846. Larkin Richardson did the stone work, Henry 
Kenne the brick work, B. McAlester the wood work. Roily Asberry the 
plastering, and Dr. William Jewell was superintendent. This building 
was a two-story brick structure and consisted of a circuit courtroom, 
grand and petit jury-rooms on the second floor, and county courtroom, 
sheriflE's ofl&ce, collector's oflBce and ladies' waiting-room on the first floor. 
Having some sentiment, our people erected the university building at the 
south end of Eighth street, and the courthouse at the north end of that 
street. The center door of the courthouse was due north of the center 
door of the university, and the two were just one-half mile apart. The 
courthouse, as erected, had a cupola, but no clock in it. So in 1859, Jas. 
L. Stephens undertook to raise the money to buy a suitable clock, but he 
made a failure of it. He thereupon contributed that sum himself, and 
bought the town clock, and the people of Columbia and Boone county had 
the benefit of that timepiece for just one-half a century. 

The first term of circuit court held in this building was presided over 
by Judge John D. Leland, of Howard county. Robert L. Todd was clerk, 
and T. C. Maupin was sheriff. The courthouse was erected partly on the 
public square and partly on Eighth street, and the same served the people 
of Boone county from 1847 till 1909. So many famous cases were here 
tried, so many noted lawyers and judges were here in attendance, and so 
many national, political and local orators here made themselves heard 
that the old courthouse became one of the historic landmarks of Mis- 
souri. During the time this building stood. Judges John D. Leland, Wm. 
A. Hall, Geo. H. Burckhartt, John A. Hockaday and A. H. Waller were 
the regular judges of the Boone circuit court ; and Judges Jas. D. Bar- 
nett, Wm. N. Evans, Nat M. Shelton, 'N. M. Bradley, Samuel Davis, R. S. 
Ryors and A. D. Bumes were called in from other circuits ; and Alexander 
Martin, W. A. Martin, Charles Martin, Lewis M. Switzler, E. W. Hinton 
and N. T. Gentry, at different times, acted as special judge. Not only 
was this building used for county and political purposes, but religious 
services, memorial services, patriotic celebrations, and theatrical and 
musical entertainments were here given. Perhaps the most noted patri- 
otic celebration was given on February 22, 1876, when a number of our 
people dressed in ** Ye olden style'* took part in what was termed ** Recep- 
tion to General and Mrs. Washington." 

In 1872, the county court erected a two-story brick building to the 
west of the ieourthouse, which was used by the circuit clerk, recorder of 
deeds, county clerk, probate judge, prosecuting attorney and public ad- 
ministrator. Both of these buildings stood until June, 1909, when they 
were torn away, to prevent obstructing the view of the new courthouse. 

The old courthouse was sold at auction, and purchased by J. K. 
Fyfer and Sidney Calvert, who, in behalf of J. Th. Fyfer, deceased* 
presented to Boone county the stone slab that was built in the wall over 
the door, and the same is now a part of the wall at the entrance of the 



new courthouse. On the slab is inscribed the following, **0h, Justice, 
when expelled from other habitations, make this thy dwelling place!" 
On Saturday, June 19, 1909, two nights before the dedication of the 
new courthouse, the lawyers held a farewell meeting in the old court- 
house, which was attended by a goodly number of people, and was the last 
meeting ever held in that historic building. C. B. Sebastian spoke oh the 
courthouse before the war. Judge Lewis M. Switzler spoke on the court- 
house during the war, and N. T. Gentry spoke on the courthouse since 
the war. The old courthouse bell, so familiar to the people of Columbia 
and Boone county for so many years, was rung that night and heard for 
the last time. On the day of the dedication of the new courthouse, the 
workmen began tearing down the old courthouse. And now the four col- 
umns, which formerly supported the front portico of the courthouse, 
alone remain, mute witnesses of the glory of a building, of beautiful de- 
sign, that served our people long and well. 

The New Courthouse 

After three unsuccessful elections, the people of Boone county held 
a fourth election on September 30, 1905, and decided to build a new court- 
house. It was erected on the public square in Columbia, some two hun- 
dred feet northwest of the old clerk's office building, which stood just 
west of the old courthouse. The new courthouse was built Vy J. A. 
McCarter, contractor, under the direction of J. H. Felt & Co., architects, 
at a cost of one hundred and nine thousand dollars. The new courthouse 
was dedicated on the first day of the June term (Monday, June 21st) 
of the circuit court, 1909. Court was opened by Judge N. D. Thurmond, 
who presided ; James B. Boggs was clerk, Wilson Hall was sheriff, and 
G. B. Sapp deputy sheriff. After the formal opening of court on that 
day, an adjournment was had till that afternoon, when Judge Lewis 
M. Switzler presided, and Rev. W. S. St. Clair acted as chaplain. A 
poem was then read by Miss Julia Turner, now Mrs. Dennis Craighead, 
and speeches were delivered by E. W. Stephens, Prank G. Harris, Will- 
iam Hirth, Judge Jno. S. Bedford, Judge Wm. F. Roberts and Dr. 
A. W. McAlester. Music on that occasion was furnished by the Sturgeon 
brass band. 

Liquor Laws 

In 1875, the legislature passed what was called the '* Three Mile law,'* 
which prohibited the sale in quantities of less than one gallon of intoxi- 
cating liquors within three miles of the State University. This law was 
in force until 1885, when it was declared unconstitutional. Columbia 
and the rest of Boone county were then governed by what was termed the 
** Downing High License law" till June, 1888, when the local option law 
was adopted in Columbia. On the same day, the rest of the county voted 
against the local option law. In 1892, Columbia and the rest of the 
county voted **wet" and saloons were operated in Columbia till April, 
1907, when the legislature passed what was termed the **Pemberton 
Five Mile law," which prohibited the granting of saloon license in 
any city where an educational institution was located, which then had 
an enrollment of fifteen hundred or more students. This law was de- 
clared unconstitutional by the supreme court in February, 1908. A few 
days later, Columbia and Boone county held elections, and both adopted 
the local option law; and four years later, June, 1912, the same were 
readopted in both city and county. 


Old Settlers 

Beginning in 1897, an annual meeting of the Old Settlers of Boone 
county has been held, usually on August 10, Missouri Day. Any man or 
woman, who has lived in this county for forty years, or who is sixty years 
old (fr over, is eligible to membership. On the occasion of their annual 
reunion, addresses are delivered, a dinner served and reminiscenced 
indulged in. The Old Settlers have been addressed at different times by 
Gen. Odon Guitar, Col. Wm. P. Switzler, E. W. Stephens, Dean Walter 
Williams, Frank G. Harris, J. L. Stephens, Judge Jas. B. Gantt, Champ 
Clark, Wm. H. Kennan, Chas. M. Hay and others. 

There is a similar organization for Bourbon township, which holds 
its annual meeting on the first day of the Sturgeon fair. 

Military School 

In 1897, Col. J. B. Welch started a school for boys, which is called the 
University Military School, and which has been successfully conducted 
ever since. Colonel Welch limits the number of scholars to thirty, and 
maintains the strictest military discipline. The school building, a hand- 
some brick structure, is situated south of Stewart road and just to the 
west of the M., K. & T. track. 

Beasley's Academy 

About the same time that Colonel Welch started his school. Prof. Geo. 
H. Beasley opened a school for young men and young women, with a 
boarding department, which was called Beasley 's Academy, or the Uni- 
versity Academy. Later on it was known as Beasley 's Business College, 
but it has recently been discontinued. Mr. Beasley erected a three-story 
brick building for this school, at the southeast corner of Tenth and 
Cherry streets, which was the site of the Moss Prewitt residence. 

Parker Memorial Hospital 

Wm. L. Parker, for many years a farmer of this county, died in 
Columbia in 1904, but prior to his death, gave fifteen thousand dollars 
for a hospital. The state then appropriated sufficient money to build 
and equip the hospital, and Adolphus Buseh, of St. Louis, donated five 
thousand dollars to the institution. This building was erected on the 
west part of the university campus, which was not a part of the original 
campus, but a piece of ground purchased from Wm. J. Babb; and the 
hospital was named for Mr. Parker. 

Laying Corner Stone op Bible College 

On Sunday, August 8, 1904, the corner stone of the Mission Bible 
College was laid, in the presence of a large number of people. Dr. W. T. 
Moore, president of the college, presided, and addresses were delivered 
by Dean W. J. Lhamon, Rev. M. L. Thomas, of the Baptist church, Dr. 
Chas. A. EUwood, of the university, and N. T. Gentry, representing the 
Presbyterian church. The building is situated on corner of Ninth and 
Lowry streets in Columbia, and was named Lowry Hall, in honor of B. 
F. Lowry, of Boone county, who donated fifteen thousand dollars to the 


Columbia Commercial Club 

The Columbia Commercial Club was organized in 1906. Wm. T. 
Anderson, William Hirth, J. A. Hudson, S. F. Conley and Judge V. H. 
Roberts were largely responsible for the starting of this organization and 
much credit is due to them for its existence as well as its service. A 
weekly luncheon on Thursday is served by the club and its members meet 
and discuss matters of importance to the city, its health and beauty. 
An annual banquet is given on the last Friday in February, at which 
Bpeechea are made by one or more persons from a distance and several 
home men. The organization is considered one of the best civic organi- 
zations that Columbia has ever had; and it is believed that it has had 
much to do with the recent advancement of Columbia, as well as its 
increase in population. 

Ira T. G. Stone, E. B. Cauthorn and Turner S. Gordon have served 
as secretaries of the club. 


No county has more cause for being proud of the newspapers printed 
in it than has Boone county, for its papers are of a high order, and very 
properly exert great influence. Beginning with the Columbia Patriot, 
a Whig journal, which had James S. Rollins and Thomas Miller for its 
editors in 1835, the newspapers of Boone county have been known far 
and wide. The Patriot was succeeded by the Statesman in 1843, which 
was edited by Col. Wra. F. Switzler for forty-two years, and afterwards 
by Irvin Switzler, Will G. Barrett, L. H. Rice, H. T. Burckhartt, Will- 
iam Hirth, H. S. Jacks and Omar D. Gray. Then in 1871, Edwin W. 
Stephens began the publication of the Columbia Herald, and continued 
till he was succeeded by Walter Williams ; later M. H. Pemberton, L. H. 
Rice and E. R. Childers were the editors. The third paper to be printed 
in Columbia was the Sentinel, edited by Wallace J. Davis, now of Bowl- 
ing Green ; the name of this paper was changed to Columbian, and after- 
wards its editor (Will G. Barrett) consolidated it with the Statesman. 
E. M. Watson, in 1901, was the first to conduct for any length of time 
a daily paper in Boone county, which was the Columbia Daily Tribune, 
and it is still being successfully managed and edited by him. The Colum- 
bia Daily Times, under the management of C. C. Howard, is a friendly 
rival of the Tribune, The University Missourian, a daily, is published 
during the university school year by the students of the School of Jour- 
nalism. In 1868 Adam Rodemeyer began publishing the Centralia Fire- 
side Guard, and was its editor till his death ; and his sons have published 
it since then. J. Kelly Pool, whose name is so familiar in Missouri, 
started the Centralia Courier, now published by himself and son, Roscoe. 

The only newspaper edited by a colored man in this county is the 
Professional World, a weekly, with Rufus L. Logan for its editor. 

Some of our journalists have become leading men of the county and 
state, and have been called to fill high positions. Colonel Switzler was 
appointed chief of the bureau of statistics, by President Cleveland; 
Mr. Stephens was appointed a member of the state capitol commission ; 
Mr. Williams is dean of the School of Journalism and has been president 
of the National Press Association; Mr. Gray has been president of the 
Missouri Press Association; Mr. Pool was chief clerk of the house of 
representatives of the forty-sixth general assembly, and is now secretary 
of the capitol commission; and Mr. Hirth is president of the State 
Federation of Commercial Clubs. 


Location op University 

It is generally understood that the contest for the location of the 
State University began in 1839, after the passage of the legislative enact- 
ment providing for it, but in reality the people of Columbia and Boone 
county began working for its location on April 7, 1821. On that day, 
the commissioners for the location of the seat of justice filed their report 
that Columbia had been selected as such seat, that fifty acres of land 
and two public squares of ground had been donated for the purpose of 
the erection of county and town buildings; also the donation of ten 
acres of land for the erection of bridges across Roche Perche, Moniteau, 
Hinkson and Cedar creeks, along the St. Charles road; ''also ten acres 
conditional if the State University be established therein." This ten- 
acre tract was located on the south side of Broadway and just west of 
the Columbian cemetery, and was marked on the original plat of the town 
of Columbia as ** Seminary land." A part of the ground was many 
years afterwards purchased by the Columbia school district, and the 
West ward school building erected thereon. 

But even before that early day, the members of the constitutional 
convention from Howard county, on July 19, 1820, introduced and had 
adopted as a part of Missouri 's first constitution two sections, as follows : 

''Article VI. Of Education. Section 1. Schools and the means 
of education shall forever be encouraged in this state ; and the general 
assembly shall take measures to preserve from waste or damage such 
lands as have been, or hereafter may be granted by the United States 
for the use of schools within each township in this state, and shall apply 
the funds which may arise from such lands in strict conformity to the 
object of the grant; one school or more shall be established in each 
township as soon as practicable and necessary, where the poor shall be 
taught gratis." 

"Section 2. The general assembly shall take measures for the 
improvement of such lands as have been, or hereafter may be granted 
by the United States to this state for the support of a seminary of learn- 
ing; and the funds accruing from such lands by rent or lease, or in any 
other manner, or which may be obtained from any other source for the 
purposes aforesaid, shall be and remain a permanent fund to support 
a university for the promotion of literature, and of the arts and sciences ; 
and it shall be *the duty of the general assembly, as soon as may be, to 
provide effectual. means for the improvement of such lands, and for the 
improvement and permanent security of the funds and endowments of 
such institution." 

Contest for University 

During the session of the Missouri legislature in 1838-39, Maj. 
James S. Rollins introduced and had passed an act entitled "An Act to 
Select a Site for the State University," which was signed and approved 
by Gov. Lilburn W. Boggs on February 8, 1839 (see Session Acts of 
Missouri, 1839, pages 184, 185, 186 and 187). Briefly stated, this act 
provided for the appointment of five commissioners, whose duty it should 
be to locate a site for the Missouri State University, the location to be 
at the county seat of one of the following named counties : Cole, Cooper, 
Howard, Boone, Callaway or Saline. These commissioners were directed 
to receive bids from the counties named, and to locate the university in 
the county wftich should make the highest bid. The bids were required 
to be received on or before June 1, 1839, and the commissioners required 
to meet on that day at Jefferson City. As we all know, Boone county was 
the highest bidder, and the handsome sum of $117,900 was subscribed 



by this county, every dollar of which was paid. At that time, this county 
had a population of 13,361, but three thousand of that number were 
slaves. The amount thus subscribed and paid was sufficient to have 
consumed the entire revenues of the county for the next twenty-four 
years. Missouri was then less than eighteen years old, and the taxable 
wealth of Boone county was small and her resources limited. Yet these 
pioneer advocates of higher education determined that they would make 
their* county seat the location of the State University, and they worked 
to that end day and night. Never were people more thoroughly aroused. 
Meetings were held throughout the county — in churches, in schoolhouses, 
on muster grounds and beneath the shades of arching oaks. Major 
Rollins, to whom much of the credit has been justly given, was ably 
assisted by Dr. William Jewell, Dr. Anthony W. Rollins, Dr. Wm. H. 
Duncan, Jno. B. Gordon, A. W. Turner, Warren Woodson and others, 
many of whom have descendants still living in this county. The largest 
subscriptions were for $3,000 each, and were made by Jefferson Garth, 
Eli E. Bass and Edward Camplin. Mr. Camplin could neither read nor 
write, and said that he often felt the need of education. 

Although Boone county had so large a sum subscribed, Major Rol- 
lins was in Jefferson City on the day that the bids were opened, was there 
for the purpose of raising Boone county's bid, if it became necessary. 
When it was learned that Boone's bid was nearly $22,000 ahead of that 
of any other county, IMajor Rollins hastened from Jefferson City to 
Columbia on horseback, bringing the good news with him, which was 
received with more delight and more enthusiasm than the news of any 
state appropriation ever made afterwards by the general assembly. 

Laying Corner Stone op University 

By far the greatest event in the history of Boone county was the 
laying of the comer stone of the main building of the State University, 
which occurred on July 4, 1840. This was not a local or state event, 
but rather a national event, as this was the first occasion of its kind west 
of the Mississippi. After the long contest to secure the university, the 
people of Boone county were ready to show their appreciation of it by 
making this occasion an imposing one, and they did. The university 
building .was erected on two eleven-acre lots (numbers 9 and 27), which 
were presented to it by John B. Gordon, who was a member of the legisla- 
ture from Boone county, and who aided Maj. James S. Rollins so mate- 
rially in securing the passage of the bill establishing the State University 
in 1839. 

Judge David Todd was chairman of the day, and Capt. David M. 
Hickman was grand marshal; his assistants were Jacob S. Johnston, 
Gen. John Ellis and Maj. Nathaniel W. Wilson. A long procession of 
horsetaien, headed by a brass band, and numerous men carrying flags 
assembled in front of the courthouse, and marched over to the university 
lot, as it was then called. There, the Rev. Robert L. McAfee, a pioneer 
Presbyterian minister, acted as chaplain; and addresses w^re delivered 
by Hon. James L. Minor, secretary of state; Maj. James S. Rollins, 
John B. Gordon and A. W. Turner. Every store, shop and dwelling 
in Columbia was decorated with flags and bunting, and few persons 
then living in Boone county failed to attend. A barbecued dinner, froe, 
of course, was one of the features ; this dinner was served on the campus 
just north of the present building now known as **Switzler Hall.'* 

The Old Building 

No architect of today could design a more beautiful building, and no 
contractor of today could construct a better building than did the archi- 


View of Mis^orRi Uxiversitt Campits, Showing Old Coltimns 


tect and contractor of the university building of 1840. The contractor 
and his mechanics did not have any of the modern machinery for erecting 
buildings, but resorted to the old-fashioned methods. A tripod was made 
of sycamore poles and one rope and one pulley used to raise the three- 
foot blocks of native limestone that formed the old columns. Twenty 
oxen were attached to the other end of the rope ; and as the oxen walked 
out toward town, slowly but surely the University of Missouri was 
erected. So well was the work of that day done, that the walls of the old 
building had to be blown down with dynamite after the fire in 1892; 
while most of the walls of the additions of 1885 tumbled down the night 
of the fire. 

For nearly seventy-five years, the old columns, around which cluster 
memories so many and so pleasant, have stood amid storm and fire ; and 
it is to be hoped that they will continue to stand and be the pivot, around 
which the students will march, play and give their stunts, year after 

Rollins Aid Fund 

The first person to give any money to the university after it was 
started was Dr. Anthony W. Rollins (father of Maj. James S. Rollins), 
and he gave ten thousand dollars, by his will, which was probated in 1845. 
The will provided that the county court of Boone county shall hold this 
sum in trust, and that the interest on it shall be used to aid worthy 
youths of Boone county in obtaining an education at the university. 
Some years ago, the county court resigned as trustee, and I. 0. Hockaday 
was appointed and acted until his death in 1907 ; and the Boone County 
Trust Company was then appointed. This fund now amounts to about 
$51,000, and has been of assistance to hundreds of young men and 
young women. 

Maj. James S. Rollins expressed the intention of establishing six schol- 
arships in the university, but on account of his poor health, failed to 
make provision for that in his will. But after his death (which occurred 
on January 9, 1888) his children remembered what was their father's 
wish, and gave $6,000 to the univei'sity, and the same has been used for 
that purpose ever since, and is known as Rollins Scholarships. 

In 1882, Major Rollins gave to the university the college bell which 
has always been on top of the building known as Science hall, now known 
as Switzler Hall. On this bell is appropriately inscribed the following: 

**Ring out the old, ring in the new. 
Ring out the false, ring in the true.*' 

The Campus — University's Poverty 

For many years, the front campus of the university was kept just as 
nature kept it, a beautiful blue grass lawn, with stately elm, ash, walnut, 
hickory, sugar maple, and cotton wood trees growing on it. About 1871, 
a pond was dug in front of the main building, and it was surrounded 
with flowers, flags and bushes; it was named **Lake St. Mary" in honor 
of President Read's daughter. Three or four skiffs were on the pond, 
and furnished entertainment for the students in pleasant weather, and 
the ice on the pond furnished entertainment in. winter time. This lake 
performed another service, it was a repository for the old cannon every 
Hallowe 'en night. 

The back campus was used by President Read and President Laws as 
a pasture for their horses, cows, calves and colts. And in 1866, so Samuel 
H. Baker says, the back campus was rented to Judge Warren Woodson, 


and he had the whole of it planted in corn. Another Columbia gentle- 
man said that in 1844, he got permission from the president to keep his 
calf in the front campus, which then had a good fence around it, and 
every day he visited the front entrance on Eighth street, and fed his calf 
a pan of meal. 

The poverty of the university is well illustrated by the fact that Doc- 
tor Lathrop, who was president of the university from 1840 until 1849, 
and then again from 1865 till his death in 1866, donated to the univer- 
sity a part of his salary. 

The poverty of the university is further illustrated by this circum- 
stance, which was told by Prof. Joseph Ficklin, head of the mathematical 
and astronomical departments for many years. When Professor Fick- 
lin first came to the university in 1865, he found one of the shutters on 
the observatory had a broken hinge and there was no money in the 
university treasury to pay for a new one. So he got a Columbia black- 
smith to mend the hinge and paid him by allowing him to look through 
the telescope at the moon. 

During the Civil Wab 

In the year 1862 the Federal forces topk possession of .the university 
building, and occupied it for some months; the south campus was used 
for their horses. 

The room on the third floor of the main building was used. as a prison 
for the confinement of captured Confederates; and, at one time some ten 
or twelve prisoners were confined there, and among the number a former 
member of the Athenaean society. He remembered the situation of the 
rooms and his old society hall just below him, and he procured a knife 
from his mother, who visited him. Then he succeeded in cutting a hole 
in the floor and through the ceiling in the old Athenaean hall, swung 
himself down into it and passed through into the gallery of the old chapel. 
There, he swung down to the first floor and then out of the window to the 
ground, and escaped with his fellow prisoners. After this Gen. Lewis 
Merrill, the commandant of the post, took possession of that society hall 
for his headquarters, and used it as such for some time. 

For some months during the Civil war, the university was closed, 
the only time that its exercises have been suspended. 

President's House Burned 

In November, 1865, the president's house on the university campus 
was burned. The fire probably was the result of a defective flue. The 
legislature, after much hesitation, appropriated ten thousand dollars to 
rebuild this house — the first money the state ever appropriated for the 
university. After the fire, President Lathrop and family moved to the 
frame building which stood near the north line of the campus, known as 
the Model School, and afterwards as the School of English. Here Presi- 
dent Lathrop lived until his death. 

Agricultural College 

In February, 1870, the general assembly passed an act establishing 
the Missouri Agricultural CoUege, and locating it in Columbia, in con- 
nection with the university. Much of the credit for this legislation is 
due to the active work of James S. Rollins, then state senator, and Col. 
F. T. Russell, then representative from Boone county. The act was 

passed, on condition that Boone county would purchase and pay for a 
Vol. n— IT 


suitable farm for the college. Accordiogly, meetings of citizens were 
held, and Boone county appropriated eighty thousand dollars, sud 
Columbia appropriated ten thousand dollars, which money was used to 
purchase a farm of 640 acres situated south and southeaet of Columbia. 
President Wm. W. Hudson having begun the erection of a large dwell- 
ing on a piece of land on the east side of the Columbia and Ashland 
gravel road, and died before finishing it, that property wos purchased by 
the state, and the building completed and called the "Hudson Miinsion." 
This building was destroyed by fire several years ago, and a handsome 
stone farmhouse has been erected in its place, and is now used by the 
dean of the college. 



Pictures of Governor McClurg and all the members of the gi.'neral 
assembly that established the Agricultural College were procured, framed 
and placed in the university library. 

Corner Stone op Scientific Bitildikq 

The building known as the Scientific building was for many j-ears 
devoted to the chemistry department on the first floor, the agricul- 
tural and geological departments on the second floor, and the mathe- 
matical department on the third floor. It was afterwards called the 
Agricultural building, and is now used by the School of Journalism, and 
called Switzler Hall, in honor of Colonel Switzler, the life-long friend 
of the university and an active journalist for so many years. 

The comer stone, of this building was laid on commencement day, 


June 28, 1871, the ceremonies being in charge of the Masons of Colum- 
bia. Governor B. Gratz Brown and Mayor Barrett, of St. Louis, made 
the speeches of the occasion, and the usual amount of bunting and flags 
were in evidence. Governor Brown spoke of the value of a school of 
agriculture to the farmers of Missouri, and predicted that some day its 
value would be felt and appreciated. As was customary, the ladies of 
Columbia served dinner on the campus, and each lady tried to outdo 
her neighbor in the number of cakes, pies and other good thincrs 

Dedication op University Additions 

June, 1885, was a great month in the history of the Missouri Univer- 
sity, as the new wings,, or additions to the main building, were dedicated, 
Dr. S. S. Laws presiding. Dr. W. Pope Yeaman, Missouri's greatest 
pulpit orator, delivered the baccalaureate address ; Judge A. W. TerriU, 
of Texas, a graduate of the class of 1846, delivered the address to the 
literary societies; Stephen B, Elkins, afterwards secretary of war and 
United States senator from West Virginia, delivered the address to the 
alumni; and Senator Geo. G, Vest delivered an address on commence- 
ment day, on Thomas Jefferson, at which time the marble tablet from 
the Jefferson monument was unveiled. Secretary of State Thos. F. Bay- 
ard and Commissioner of Agriculture Norman J. Colman accompanied 
Senator Vest to Columbia, and also spoke in the new chapel. Among the 
distinguished guests present on that day were Governor John S. Marma- 
duke, Mayor David R. Francis, and Congressmen Wm. J. Stone and 
John T. Heard. The keys of the building were delivered by Governor 
Marmaduke to Major Jas. S. Rollins, president of the board of curators, 
and by him accepted in a most eloquent speech, perhaps the last public 
address delivered by him. During that commencement, a bronze bust 
of Major Rollins was presented by Col. John F. Williams, in behalf of 
the alumni, and placed in the new library, where it remained till the 
university fire of 1892. Among the academic graduates of that year 
were Wm. A. Rothwell, of Moberly, Thomas L. Rubey, of Lebanon, and 
Prof. W. S. Dearmont, of Cape Girardeau. The Missouri Press Associa- 
tion held its annual session in Columbia at that time, and many of the 
leading newspaper men of our state were in attendance. The Columbia 
Herald, always an enterprising journal, printed a mammoth edition the 
week following, giving full accounts of the occasion, which was a credit 
to the editor of that paper, E. W. Stephens, and to every one connected 
with it. 

Celebration op Fiftieth Anniversary 

On July 4, 1890, the semi-centennial of the laying of the corner stone 
of the university was celebrated in Columbia. It was the intention to 
have Maj. Nathaniel W. Wilson, Gen. John Ellis and Jacob S. Johnston, 
who acted as marshals on July 4, 1840, to act a« honorary marshals ; but 
the death of Major Wilson the week before, prevented carrying out of 
the original plan. The other gentlemen named were present, and occu- 
pied seats on the rostrum. The ceremonies were of the most interesting 
and imposing character. The town and university were profusely deco- 
rated with bunting and other appropriate insignia ; a long procession of 
citizens on horseback, headed by the governor, secretary of state, treas- 
urer and attorney-general, and the surviving donors of 1839, paraded 
our streets and marched over to the university campus, amid the firing 
of cannons and the playing of three brass bands. To some extent, the 
procession resembled the one that marched in Columbia just fifty years 


before. A magnificent barbecued dinner was aerved on the campus by 
the ladies of Columbia to the many friends of the university from Boone 
county and from a distance ; and that night the sky was made luminoos 
by an elaborate display of fireworks. 

Robert L. Todd, a member of the first graduating class, the class of 
1843, acted as chairman of the day, Jas. C. Gillespy was grand marshal ; 
and Gov. David R. Francis, acting president M. II. Fisher, Col. Wm. P. 
Switzler, Leonidas M. Lawson, Gardiner Lathrop, Judge B. M. Dilley 
and Judge John Kinton, the last three being members of the board of 
curators, entertained the crowd with speeches fitting for the occasion. 
Gen. Odon Guitar delivered the eulogy upon the men who subscribed to 
the raising of $117,900 in 1839; and he performed that duty, as usual, 
in a handsome manner. All of the subscribers to that fund who were 
still alive were given seats of honor on the piatforra, and many inter- 
esting incidents were told by them. Levi James, who was a drummer 
in the procession of 1840, was present at this celebration and rode in a 
carriage. Edward D. Henry exhibited at that time a trowel, which he 

Lathrop Hall, Dining Club for Students, University op Missoubi 

used in doing the brick work on the building in 1840; and Dr. Wm. 
H. Duncan, a pioneer Columbia physician, presented the university a 
large pocketbook, which had contained, at different times, every dollar 
that was used to pay for the first university building, he being treasurer 
of the university for some years after its organization. 

The annual meet of the League of American Wheelmen was held in 
Columbia on this day, and was attended by a number of men, and they 
entertained the large crowd at the Columbia fair grounds in the after- 

Burning op the UNivERsrrr 

Saturday, January 9, 1892 (just four years after the death of Major 
Jas. S. Rollins) will be an occasion that will never be forgotten by the 
people of Boone county, as the main building of the State University was 
hurned that night. At about 7 :30 preparations were being made for the 
annual exhibition of the Athenaean society in the university chapel, and 
as usual on such occasions, many people were on their way to the chapel. 
Some few had assembled in the chapel, including Prof. P. Pannell and 


the members of the uoiveraity brass band. The falling of the large 
chandelier on the rostrum, the flashing of the electric lights and the dark- 
ness following was the first intimation of danger. It was soon discov- 
ered that the electric wires, that had been laid in 1885 between the floor 
of the library and the ceiling of the chapel, had set fire to the building 
near the northeast corner. A strong wind from the northeast swept the 
flames through the building, which was anything but fireproof ; and soon 
all hope of extinguishing the fire was abandoned. Much of tJie class 
room and laboratory apparatus, all of contents of the library and many 
valuable books, pictures, documents and relies of the university were 
destroyed. The students, members of the faculty and citizens of Colum- 
bia worked heroically, trying to save the building, but their efforts 
were in vain. 

At once, there was talk of the students leaving for home, but Dr. 
R. H. Jesse, who was president from 1891 till 1908, the right man in the 
right place, called a meeting of students and citizens for Sunday morn- 
ing at 9 :30 at the Haden opera bouse. All churches and Sunday aehools 

ACADEHtc Hall, Univebsitt op Missouri 

gave up their services to this meeting, which lasted till noon. After stir- 
ring talks from Dr. Jesse and other members of the faculty, citizens and 
students, a vote was taken and every student agreed to remain. Invita- 
tions were received from the various religious denominations of Colum- 
bia, offering the use of their churches, from the county court, offering 
the use of the courthouse, and from the owners of some vacant store 
rooms. The teachers and classes had rooms and hours assigned to them, 
and on Monday morning every class was conducted the same as if nothing 
had happened. 

It is a fact worthy of mention that the first entertainment ever held in 
the university chapel at night was an exhibition of the Athenaean society, 
and the old building burned on the night of an exhibition of the same 

A special session of the Missouri General Assembly created consider- 
able uneasiness in Boone county, as an effort was made by Sedalia, 
Clinton and other enterprising towns to have the university removed. 
But with the aid of Governor Francis and other friends of the univer- 


sity and especially after Boone county raised fifty thousand dollars and 
gaye to the state, the university was re-located in Columbia. The legis- 
lature made appropriation at that session for re-building the university, 
and, as has often been expressed, **the new university rose phoenix-like 
from the ruins." So the burning of the university building, which so 
many feared would be the destruction of the university itself, proved 
to be a blessing in disguise. The old columns, which stood in front of 
the portico of the old building, are now appropriately called "The con- 
necting link between the old and the new university." 

Manual Training Building Burned 

There have been three fires on the university campus— only three in 
seventy-three years. In March, 1911, the Manual Training Building 
caught fire at midnight, from some cause unknown, and was almost 
destroyed. The valuable machinery, drawings and material in it were 
burned. A part of the building has been repaired and is now used. 

The University op Today 

Under the admirable administrations of former President R. H. Jesse 
and President A. Ross Hill, the university has grown to an enrollment 
of more than three thousand students, and every department is well 

Ira p. Nash 

One of the most eccentric men in Boone county was Ira P. Nash, who 
was living here in 1819, but who came here as early as 1804. Nash, 
when his deposition was taken in Columbia in February, 1844, in a suit 
involving the title to certain lands near Nashville, tells us of the services 
he rendered A. Soulard, surveyor general of Spain, and how he located 
certain land claims in 1804, in Boone county, near what he termed 
' * River Petit Bon Femme. ' ' In speaking of the country near the mouth 
of that stream, Nash says, ** Thinking I could not find a more beautiful 
spot 'of land in all creation, I determined to locate one claim there." 
Nash was raised in Virginia, moved to Tennessee and thence to Missouri. 
He was well educated, a graduate of the University of Virginia, was 
a surveyor and a physician, but did not possess the good will of his 
neighbors. He planted the first apple orchard in Boone county, was a 
farmer, a live stock dealer, the owner of a fine stallion and also inter- 
ested in a steamboat. In his will, which is of record in Boone county 
and is a quaint document, he tells us that he was born in Fauquier 
county, Virginia. His will begins as follows: **That it is appointed 
for all men once to die is a maxim well established, and can be brought 
home to the breast of every thinking human, not only with mere convic- 
tion, but with the most powerful demonstration, to prove which you men 
of say sixty-five or seventy years look around, enquire, enquire largely 
for the men of your present age at your earliest recollection, nay those 
that were just quitting the muster roll, or if you chose those in the prime 
of life, say thirty years, where are they, gone, irrecoverably gone, dead 
nearly ninety-nine in a hundred of them, and will soon all be dead, for 
it is appointed for all men once to die. Socrates could not hear of a 
place where men did not die. When a man has arrived to mature age and 
by his industry, care and frugality has accumulated enough of this 
world's goods to be worth distribution, that he has an inalienable right 
to dispose of it as may best suit his desire is a doctrine which I have ever 
supported and which right I hold most sacred. I shall therefore proceed 


to declare in what manner I desire my little property to be distributed 
amongst those who may think they have some legal right to it or a share 
of it, though they never aided in the collecting of it and when I have no 
more use for it and may possibly leave them behind me. It is my desire 
that John McDow, having married my eldest daughter Alpha Morgan, 
shall have sixteen gallons and one-half of good proof whiskey. ' ' 

In another place in his w411, Nash made a bequest to one son named 
Man L., and then a bequest to his other son named L. Man. Later on, 
Nash gave 240 acres of land in Morgan county, Missouri, to the county 
court of that couirty for the erection of a seminary of learning and its 
support. This land he says he entered from the United States govern- 
ment, under the name of **H. Sanari," which is Ira Nash spelled back- 
wards. The records of the land oflSce at Washington, D. C, show that 
this land described in Nash's will was entered under the name of H. 
Sanari, in February, 1837, and October, 1836. 

Nash had considerable trouble with his first wife, Nancy, and she 
committed suicide in 1829, by hanging herself in the kitchen, probably 
the first suicide in the county. He also had trouble with his second wife 
who sued him for divorce but the case was dismissed. 

One of the indignities which the second Mrs. Nash charged her hus- 
band with was that he took a slave belonging to her, a negro named Sam, 
and hired him to a man in Alississippi, and then reported to her that 
Sam ran off to Canada, whereas Sam had been sold and Nash had col- 
lected the money. One of the indignities that Nash charged his wife 
with was that she sold cider belonging to him, collected the money and 
failed to account to him for the same. The suit of Nash vs. Nash was one 
of the first divorce suits in Boone county, and it was a complicated one. 
Nash acting as his own attorney in this case, took a change of venue from 
Boone county, on account of the prejudice of the people against him. 
Then an agreement was entered into between him and his wife and the 
divorce suit dismissed ; but another divorce suit was soon brought by the 
wife in Boone county. 

Harrison Acton, Green B. Acton and Jno. L. Ballenger, all of whom 
lived near Nashville, told this story of Dr. Nash, and many others 
have vouched for its truth; in fact, it was universally believed by the 
older citizens of Cedar township. Nash was in his orchard one day, shoot- 
ing at a bird in his cherry tree, when one of the shot from his gun struck 
a small boy in the face. The boy was helping himself to cherries in one of 
Nash 's trees, and it was believed that Nash, who was then an old man, did 
not see him. The boy -was barely hurt, but the neighbors, who were ready 
to get after Nash for other reasons, became greatly incensed against him, 
and organized a small band for the purpose of killing him when night 
came on. Nash beard of it and made all necessary arrangements for 
entertaining his uninvited visitors. He got a sack of wool, placed it in 
his bed, put a long handle in his hatchet, blew out the light and climbed 
into the loft of his house, where he waited till the crowd came. Each 
man that came in made a cut at the sack of wool, which he supposed was 
the slumbering form of Nash, and the next morning, Harrison Acton 
said that he counted eleven stabs in that sack. Meanwhile Nash was in 
the loft, swinging his hatchet back and forth, cutting and bruising the 
faces and heads of his would-be assailants. The men who composed the 
mob, all of whom were partly under the influence of liquor, decided that 
they were fighting themselves, and finally did get to fighting each other. 
As each man came to the conclusion that he had been whipped, he left 
the house and sought refuge at the near-by grocery, where he told his 
experience to his companions. As they were all convinced that Nash 
was dead, they agreed with each other that they would dress their 


wounds, patch up their bruised heads and come out of their houses the 
next morning as usual. They agreed to tell the same tale when the 
sheriff and coroner would come the next day, and bound themselves with 
a solemn oath to stand by each other. Instead of said county officials 
coming to the house the next day, Ira P. Nash came out of the house, and 
he was the only man in the neighborhood whose head was not wounded. 
Dr. Nash filed complaint before Warren Woodson, J. P., and had four 
men arrested on the charge of breaking into his dwelling with intent to 
beat, wound and kill him ; but the case was dismissed. Then one of the 
men, Henry Peninger, brought suit against Nash for damages, on account 
of malicious prosecution, but that case was afterwards dismissed. In the 
petition, the date of the breaking into Nash's house is given as August 
6, 1842. It is said that Nash never spent a night in his house after that, 
and never sat down during meal time after that, but always remained 
standing, expecting further trouble from the same neighbors who com- 
posed the mob. Nash was a small man physically, had long hair and wore 
ear rings. 

Three of the men who entered Nash's house were not satisfied with 
the result of their night's work, so they made another effort to get him. 
They knew that Nash would walk along a certain road, or path, from 
his house one night, so they armed themselves with guns just after dark, 
and climbed a tree near by. Nash heard of their intentions, as he heard 
of nearly everything going on, and went to work to check-mate them. He 
had a bull dog that had been trained to pull a Utile wagon, and he fas- 
tened a bucket in that wagon, filled the bucket with tar, and set fire to the 
tar. The bull dog had already discovered the presence of strangers in 
the front pasture, and was barking and tugging at his chain. So when 
Nash hitched his dog to the wagon and turned him loose, the dog ran 
straight to the tree in which the three men had climbed ; and the burn- 
ing tar soon set fire to the tree. It is hardly necessary to say that the 
three sentinels, like Zacheus of old, made haste and came down. Nash 
was close by with his gun, and the burning tar and burning tree fur- 
nished light where the three men were, and Nash had no trouble in 
seeing them, while he was safe in the darkness. He fired twice at the 
men, wounding one of them, though not seriously. 

Warren A. Smith says that he remembers Dr. Nash, as he took dinner 
with Capt. William Smith, father of Warren A. and Fielding W. Smith, 
about one year before the death of Nash. In 1844, Mr. Smith says, his 
father was a candidate for representative, and attended a barbecue near 
Nashville. Dr. Nash saw him and called him out into the woods and 
said, * * You are going to get nearly every vote in this neighborhood, and 
I hope you will be elected. But don't tell anybody that I am for you, for 
if these grand rascals find that out, they will all vote against you." 

Mr. Smith further said that Nash disliked Jack Parker, a neighbor, 
and waited for an opportunity to **get even." One winter day, he saw 
some negro men cutting ice on the creek and asked them if they were cut- 
ting it for Mr. Parker. When he learned that the wagon and team be- 
longed to Parker, Nash borrowed the ax and broke all of the spokes out 
of the wagon wheels. The negroes reported to their master what Nash 
had done, and Parker sued for damages. When the trial came off, Parker 
learned that his witnesses were all slaves, and could not testify ; hence he 
was compelled to dismiss his suit. 

At the February term 1831, the grand jury of Boone county indicted 
Dr. Nash for sending a letter, challenging Gilpin S. Tuttle to fight a duel. 
The wording of the letter was very adroit, but the intention of the writer 
was clear. The indictment was signed by R. W. Wells, attorney general, 
certified by Mason Moss, foreman of the grand jury, and the trial oc- 


curred before Judge David Todd, in Columbia. It resulted in the con- 
viction of Nash and his being fined one hundred dollars, the only man 
ever convicted of that offense in this county. The letter is as follows : 


I have always been fond of the chase, and of gunning. I have experienced great 
satisfaction in the chase, in the countries of West Florida and New Mexico, and in 
the states of Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Louisiana, North Carolina, S. Caro- 
lina, Missouri and Tennessee, — in the extreme eastern part of the latter, I took my 
first chase when quite a boy. Now, Sir, the object of this communication is to let 
you know that there is not anything could be more greatful to my feelings than to 
take a short hunt with you, in some place not exposed to Indians depredations, and 
as my first chase was in the East of Tennessee, I propose to take this (perhaps my 
last^ chase in the extream West of that state, say in the Mississippi bottom opposite 
New Madrid. I propose the hunting camp to be located some where near the Mis- 
sissippi river (nigh to where the eye of Leonard flashed on Major Berry) and then 
and there the preliminary arrangements will be made for the hunt, by * * * say 
our camp keepers — and they will, no doubt, give you liberty to execute your threat of 
12th of June last, on me — and if you stick close to the chase, I insure that we will 
have something of better colar, if not so strong scented, as that with which you 
plastered my letter 10th of last June. 

To Capt. Gilpin S. Tuttle, Yours &c., 

Nashville, Mo. I. P. Nash. 

P. 8. Sir — I most seriously invite you to this hunt — you may object to the 
season, but 'tis the best time to save meat and skins, and the climate is more mild 
at New Madrid than here. I have frequently observed that men by being camp- 
mates (each doing his duty) would become great friends, and agreeable associates. 
Therefore this measure is absolutely necessary three days after this is delivered, I 
shaU call at Nashville for an answer for this invintation, believing most confidently 
that you wiU perfectly understand this prelude at the first glance. There is an em- 
bargo (and something worse) on those who execute certain instruments of writing 
in Missouri, which criminal words I have, and will avoid. But there is no law (that 
I know of) which prohibits hunting parties. 


I. P. Nash. 

The will of Nash, ahove referred to, is dated September 28, 1844, and 
it was admitted to probate on November 11, 1844, so the death of Nash 
must have occurred between those two dates. Nash requested that he be 
buried on the highest bluff on the Missouri river, so that he could look 
down on his former neighbors, whom he hated intensely, and he also 
requested that he be buried in a standing position. The last part of his 
request was not complied with, but his grave, constructed like an Indian 
mound, ten or twelve feet high, surrounded by cedar trees which Nash 
planted himself, may be seen on top of one of the highest bluffs in this 
county, near the site of the town that bore his name. Persons who take 
the trouble to climb to the top of that bluff and see the muddy waters of 
the Missouri, the beautiful valleys and picturesque hills of that part of 
Boone county will agree with Dr. Nash when he said that that was one 
of the most beautiftil spots in all creation. 

Judge James C. Gillespy now owns the Nash farm, and the place 
where Nash is buried. It is situated on Spanish Grant No. 1726, and it 
is the only Spanish grant in Boone county. The land office records show 
that this grant contains 810 arpens. 

Toll Roads 

Under the provisions of chapter 64 of the Revised Statutes of Mis- 
souri, 1865, the* people along several roads leading into Columbia, as- 
sisted by some patriotic men in Columbia, began to organize toll roads, 
shortly after the Civil war. Geo. C. Pratt, afterwards railroad commis- 
sioner of Missouri, made the surveys, and superintended most of the work. 

N. T. Mitchell, Jas. H. Waugh, Robt. L. Todd, John H. Sampson, F. 
T. Russell, John Hinton and others organized the Columbia and Roche- 


port Turnpike Company, which operated a gravel road between the two 
towns named till 1912. Then, the east part of the road was sold to the 
Columbia Special Road District, and the rest of the gravel road was 
abandoned by the company. 

Joel H. Haden, Philip Prather, Monroe Bateman, Eli Mars and others 
formed the Columbia and Blackfoot Turnpike Company, and constructed 
a gravel road from Columbia to a point near Hinton. This road is still 
in operation. 

P. H. Robnett, David Gordon, M. R. Arnold, R. R. Vivion and others 
formed themselves into the Columbia and Cedar Creek Turnpike Com- 
pany, and built a gravel road from Columbia to the Callaway line. This 
company abandoned its franchise in 1903, but the gravel road still re- 

John Machir, Boyle Gordon, 'Michael Fisher, Thos. H. Hickman and 
others were >the charter members of the Columbia and Jefferson City 
Gravel Road Company, afterwards the Columbia and Ashland Gravel 
Road Company. This company still operates a gravel road as far south 
as Ashland, the part from Ashland to Claysville having been aban- 
doned some years ago. 

Long before the construction of any of these toll roads (in 1853), a 
plank road was built from Columbia to Providence ; Providence was then 
the great shipping point for Boone county. A company composed of 
Warren Woodson, Jas. S. Rollins, Moss Prewitt, D. B. Cunningham, 
John Parker and others subscribed the money and built it. The plank 
road cost thirty thousand dollars, but it proved to be a failure, for it 
was soon worn out, and was never rebuilt. 

Another gravel road, the one from Columbia northeast toward Shaw, 
or the Twin churches, was built in 1904, partly by private subscription, 
and partly with money donated by the county. . It has never been a toll 

The Providence road and the Cedar Creek gravel road are now partly 
in the Columbia Special Road District ; and such parts are kept in good 
repair by the efficient commissioners of that district. 

State Roads 

Prior to the time of our turnpike roads, the legislature of Missouri, 
on motion of the representative from Boone county, passed an act estab- 
lishing a state road, leading from the town of Columbia to the town of 
Williamsburg, in Callaway county, by way of David Gordon's, Thomas 
Arnold's and Thomas Grant's. It was made the duty of the county 
court to keep this road open and in good repair. 

Two other state roads established in Boone county in February, 1857, 
by legislative enactment were one from Fayette to Sturgeon, and the 
other from Providence to the mouth of Cedar creek, opposite Jefferson 
City. A similar provision was in this act, in regard to the duty of the 
county court to work the road. 

The Cross-State Highway 

In the summer of 1911, the State Board of Agriculture decided that, 
in the interests of good roads, it would be well to have a cross-state high- 
way established. Immediately different routes wer5 suggested, the 
northern route, the central route and the southern route, and a spirited 
contest resulted. The Columbia Commercial Club took the lead ; and E. 
W. Stephens, Walter Williams, J. A. Hudson, S. C. Hunt, T. S. Gordon, 
Jas. W. Schwabe and N. T. Gentry started automobiles, and vis- 




ited every county and every town along the central route, which was 
practically the line of the Boon's Lick road and the Santa Pe trail. 
Meetings were held at Marshall, Glasgow, Fayette, Rocheport, Columbia, 
Millersburg, Stephens Store, Fulton, Williamsburg, Mineola, New Flor- 
ence, High Hill, Jonesburg, Warrenton and St. Charles; and the peo- 
ple of those localities were thoroughly aroused. 

After driving in automobiles over the proposed routes, and being en- 
tertained at Columbia and other cities and towns through the country, 
the State Board of Agriculture held a public meeting in the opera house 
in Jefferson City on August 2, 1911, at which the governor presided, and 
arguments were then presented in behalf of the various lines of road. 
George Robertson, of Mexico, and John F. Morton, of Richmond, spoke 
in behalf of the northern route ; Sam B. Cook, of Jefferson City, and J. 
H. Bothwell, of Sedalia, spoke in behalf of the southern route; and U. 
S. Hall, of Glasgow, and Walter Williams, of Columbia, spoke in behalf 
of the central route. About two hundred of Boone county's road boosters 
and the Hartsburg brass band accompanied the representatives of the 
Columbia Commercial Club to this meeting on a special train ; and they, 
in company with similar delegations from Callaway, Montgomery, St. 
Charles, Howard, Saline and Lafayette counties, all wearing badges, 
paraded the streets of Jefferson City, carrying banners, marked Boon's 
Lick road, Santa Fe trail, Nature's road, Historical route, etc., etc. Some 
sixteen hundred delegates were in attendance, and the meeting resembled 
a state political convention. 

A committee on resolutions, consisting of Frank W. Buffum. from 
Pike, Newlan Conkling, from Carroll, James W. Gill from Montgomery, 
John R. Hairston, from Howard, David H. Harris, from Callaway, N. T. 
Gentry, from Boone, A. H. Bolte, from Franklin, J. W. Hunter, from 
Moniteau, and M. V. Carroll, from Pettis, recommended the permanent 
improvement of the roads all over the state, the enactment of laws for the 
encouragement of road building, and the use of convicts to work on our 
public highways. The resolutions were unanimously adopted by the con- 

So much improvement was made on the roads and so much interest 
was shown by the people along the central route, that the State Board 
of Agriculture, at its next meeting, August 17, 1911, unanimously de- 
cided in favor of the central route as the state highway of Missouri. 

Following this decision, a celebration was held in Columbia, at which 
time R. B. Price, riding a prancing gray horse, represented Governor 
Alexander McNair, T. C. Scruggs represented Uncle Sam, aud Wm. E. 
Bradford represented Daniel Boone, carrying a rifle and accompanied by 
his faithful dog. All of the steam whistles in town were sounded, all of 
the church and school bells were rung, and a long procession paraded up 
and down Broadway, carrying shovels, picks and axes, followed by J, A. 
Hudson, seated on a road grader, and driving six three-year-old mules. 

Accordingly, October 28, 1911, the state highway, oflScially termed 
the **01d Trails Road" was dedicated. The dedication ceremonies were 
held in the University Auditorium in Columbia, and were attended by 
Governor Hadley, Mayor F. H. Kreisman of St. Louis, Mayor D. A. 
Brown of Kansas City, Congressmen Borland, Hamlin and Shackleford, 
State Highway Engineer Curtis Hill, the State Board of Agriculture and 
others interested in good roads from all parts of the state. The Colum- 
bia chapter of the D. A. R. gave a splendid dinner, which was served by 
them in Lathrop hall ; and the occasion was one long to be remembered 
in Boone county. E. W. Stephens, president of Columbia Commercial 
Club, was toastmaster. 


Columbia Special Road District 

During this time, the people of Columbia and the surrounding coun- 
try formed themselves into a special road district, under the provisions 
of Ajrticle VI of Chapter 102 of Revised Statutes of IMissouri 1909, and 
the name ''Columbia Special Road District" was given to the district. 
J. A. Hudson, S. P. Conley and John L. Dodd were appointed commis- 
sioners by the county court, and they at once called a special election to 
vote on a proposition to issue one hundred thousand dollars in bonds, for 
the purpose of improving the roads within said eight-mile district. An- 
other contest was then had in Columbia on the subject of good roads; 
and again the Commercial Club, headed by E. W. Stephens, took an 
active part. After holding meetings in the Airdome in Columbia, and at 
the various school houses and churches in the road district, the voters 
decided in favor of issuing the bonds. The Columbia brass band stood on 
the courthouse square on the day of election and played patriotic airs, 
and representatives of the D. A. R. met the voters and pinned on each 
a badge, bearing the words, "I am for good roads.'' It is not surprising 
that the result was about fourteen to one in favor of the bond issue. This 
election was held on September 8, 1911, and for its unanimity surpassed 
any election ever held in the city or county. 

Similar road districts have since been formed to the east of Columbia, 
known as the Harg district, and one to the southeast, known as the Deer 
Park district. 

Early Wars 

Black Hawk Indian War — Much has been written, and still more 
might be written, about the volunteers from Boone county, in the various 
wars our country has been unfortunate enough to engage in. Beginning 
in 1832, with the Black Hawk Indian war, we find Boone county furnish- 
ing soldiers, and we learn of their marches to Clark and Lewis counties, 
and over into the state of Iowa. By being at the right place on time, 
they prevented Black Hawk from coming to Missouri, with his band of 

Seminole Indian War — In 1837, Boone county furnished a large num- 
ber of soldiers, who, under the leadership of Col. Richard Gentry, Capt. 
John Ellis and Capt. Thomas D. Grant, inarched to Florida and took part 
in the battle of the Kjssemee and Okeechobee. By their successful fight- 
ing, the Indians were driven from Florida and compelled to go west, 
where by treaty they had agreed to go. The ladies of Columbia made and 
presented to this regiment a silk flag, on which was the following : 

Gird, gird for the conflict. 
Our banner wave high. 
For our country we'll live. 
For our country we'U die. 

The presentation of this flag was in front of Gentry's tavern, which 
then stood at the northeast comer of Ninth and Broadway, where the 
J. H. Haden building now stands. This flag is still in existence. 

Mormon War — ^Almost as soon as Boone county's soldiers returned 
from Florida, which was early in 1838, the Mormon war broke out. 
Again, Boone county soldiers were found ready and willing to do service 
for their country, and two regiments were raised for that war. Col. John 
Ellis, Col. Joel Hem and Maj. Stewart B. Hatton were in command, and 
did service in Missouri and Illinois; but the Mormon war was soon at 
an end. 


Mexican War — Strange as it may seem to us today, the young men 
and boys of Boone county were eager to leave home and join Doniphan, 
Kearney, Price and others and cross the plains to engage in the Mexi- 
can war. But strange though it is, many of them did, and they won for 
themselves honors that are equal to those worn by any of our military 
heroes. The march across the plains under the leadership of Oen. John 
Ellis and Capt. John Hinton, through an enemy's country, without sup- 
plies, and the victories they won were simply marvelous. Then, too, most 
of them were beardless boys; but General Doniphan said they marched 
and fought like old regulars. Again, the ladies of Columbia showed their 
appreciation of Boone county soldiers by presenting to this company a 
silk flag with the words ** Boone Guards" printed on it. On their return, 
the people of Boone and Howard counties gave a dinner in Rocheport in 
honor of these heroes. 

Kansas War — After many public meetings and a great deal of discus- 
sion, on the subject of whether Kansas should be a free state or a slave 
state, troops were raised and marched to ** Bleeding Kansas," as it was 
called, and they engaged in the Kansas war. Lewis Robinson and Samuel 

A. Young, both of Boone county, were the leaders in this military under- 
taking. These men accompained the troops from Howard county, and 
took part in the famous battle of Ossawatomie. 

The Civil War 

Boone County Men — Fortunately few battles of any importance were 
fought in Boone county during the Civil war, although Boone county fur- 
nished such leaders on the Union side as Gen. Odon Guitar, Gen. Jos. 

B. Douglass, Col. Jno. P. Philips, Col. F. T. Russell, Maj. Frank D. 
Evans, Maj. Lewis P. Miller, 6apt. Henry N. Cook, Capt. Samuel A. 
Garth, Capt. James A. Adams, Capt. Tyre G. Harris, Lieut. Marshall H. 
Harris and Lieut. Carey H. Gordon; and on the Southern side such 
leaders as Gen. William Y. Slack, Col. Eli Hodge, CoL J. J. Searcy, 
Col. Harvey McKinney, Col. M. G. Singleton, Capt. Jno. H. H. Maxwell, 
Capt. C. V. Bicknell, Capt. M. G. Corlew, Capt. Wm. F. Roberts, Capt. 
Jas. H. Lowry and others. 

Columbia — A skirmish between the Federal forces under Gen. Lewis 
Merrill and some Southern soldiers occurred on Broadway in Columbia, 
but few persons were injured. The Federals were encamped in and 
around the university, and the Southern men suddenly rode into town, 
taking the Federals by surprise, and taking possession of Broadway, the 
courthouse and county jail. In the jail were confined some Southern 
prisoners, who were released and taken away by the soldiers; and some 
eighty Federal horses were also captured. Soon the Federals organized 
themselves, galloped down Ninth street to Broadway, keeping up a con- 
stant fire, and followed the fleeing Southerners to a point beyond Mores 
station. General Merrill was very indignant because he thought some citi- 
zens of Columbia had reported conditions in town to the Southern sol- 
diers ; and he threatened to bum the town, but some Union sympathizers 
persuaded him that such action would be wrong and would result in no 

Goslin's Lane — The battle of Goslin's lane occurred near Woodland- 
ville, in this county, and resulted in a victory for the men in command of 
Thomas Todd and George Todd, and their capturing a large number of 
wagons of provisions and supplies from the Federal soldiers. Other bat- 
tles were known as the battle of Hallsville, the battle of Mt. Zion church, 
the battle of Perche creek, the battle of Dripping Springs and the battle 
of Cedar creek. 


Centralia — By far the most serious engagement in Boone county dur- 
ing the war was the Centralia massacre, which occurred in September, 
1864. Bill Anderson, the guerrilla leader, was camped with about three 
hundred and fifty or four hundred of his men at a point a few miles 
southeast of Centralia, near the M. G. Singleton farm. There was no rail- 
road from Centralia to Columbia then, Imt a stage made one round trip 
each day, being driven by Joseph Kelley, a son of the former jailer of 
Boone county, and a brother of Miss Roxy Kelley, of Columbia. Maj. 
Jas. S. Rollins, Jas. H. Waugh, Jno. M. Samuel, Boyle Gordon, Lafayette 
Hume, and perhaps others, were passengers in the stage on that day, on 
their way to attend a political convention at Mexico. Major Rollins was 
then a member of congress and Mr. Waugh was then sheriff of this 
county. Anderson's men attacked the stage, and at the point of a pistol 
required each man to hand over his pocket-book, watch and other valua- 
bles. The valise which Major Rollins was carrying contained a white shirt 
with his name written in indelible ink across the lower part of the 
bosom. Ab the guerrilla could not read, he was unable to identify Major 
Rollins; and, as Major Rollins insisted that his name was Johnson and 
that he was a Methodist preacher and wanted a clean shirt to wear the 
next Sunday, he was allowed to go and take his shirt with him. .Mr. 
Waugh had a somewhat similar experience, for he had a number of 
papers in his pocket, which had his name and official character written 
on them ; but, as he insisted that his name was Smith and that the papers 
he had were simply copies of his grandfather's will, the guerrilla allowed 
him to go, and take the tell-tale papers with him. 

A barrel of whiskey was discovered on the depot platform, and the 
guerrillas broke open the head and helped themselves. They were begin- 
ning to feel the effects of it, when the train on the North Missouri rail- 
road came in from the east. As soon as the engineer saw the guerrillas 
in town, he at first tried to run through Centralia without stopping; but 
the guerrillas fired on the train, threw some ties and pieces of lumber on 
the track and compelled him to stop. On the train were twenty-four 
Federal soldiers, who were going home on a furlough, and these were 
at once taken in charge by the guerrillas, and, under the direction of Bill 
Anderson, their clothing was taken off, and they were marched to one of 
the streets of the town. After taking one of their number, who was an 
officer, to their camp for the purpose of exchange, the remaining sol- 
diers were shot and killed, while standing in Une. The guerrillas, after 
robbing the mail, Ifaggage and express car and assaulting and robbing 
many of the passengers and citizens of Centralia, and burning the train 
and the station, returned to their camp, taking with them some of the 
whiskey, which they gave to their companions. 

Maj. A. V. E. Johnson was at that time in command of the Federal 
forces at Mexico, and, hearing of the outrage in Centralia, he at once 
came with some of his men to that town. He was cautioned not to at- 
tempt to attack Anderson, as Johnson's men were new in service; and 
he was specially warned that Anderson was past master in the art of 
strategy. But Johnson, feeling that it was his duty to resent this insult 
to his country and his flag, marched to the place where Anderson's men 
were encamped. As he approached the little hill, he discovered Ander- 
son's men on top of the hill and apparently ready for an attack. An- 
derson ordered his men to dismount, which they did ; and Johnson, being 
surprised and fearing some trick was about to be played on him, ordered 
his men to dismount, which they did, sending their horses some feet to 
the rear. In a moment Anderson's men leaped into their saddles, their 
horses started down the hill at full speed, and every man began firing at 
the Federals and at the same time yelling at the top of his voice. Before 


Johnson's men could either mount or take in the situation, they and 
their horses were in the worst of confusion, and were completely routed, 
123 out of 130 of them being killed. Major Johnson fell at the first fire, 
and no one near him survived. Major Johnson and many of his com- 
mand are buried in the National Cemetery at Jefferson City, where a 
suitable monument to their memory was erected. 

One of Johnson's soldiers who survived said that he made his escape 
by running forward and passing between two of Anderson's men, un- 
observed. He ran on to a meadow and hid behind a haystack, pulling 
up hay at the bottom and crawling under. He remained there till late 
that night, when he crawled away, passing over the dead bodies of his 
comrades and often putting his hands and knees in their blood. 

Hearing of the slaughter of Major Johnson's command, Gen. Joseph 
B. Douglass, then stationed at Columbia, started out in pursuit of Ander- 
son's men. Coming close enough, two small cannon were used by Gen. 
Douglass, which had a telling effect on the guerrillas, and caused them to 
leave Boone county, after sustaining serious loss. 

Columbia Tiger Company 

After hearing of the great destruction wrought by Bill Anderson 
and his men in other parts of the county, especially in and near Cen- 
tralia, the citizens of Columbia, irrespective of their war feelings, joined 
a company for the protection of Columbia, its schools and churches. 
This organization had the bold and somewhat vicious name of *' Columbia 
Tiger Company, ' ' and the members of this company were the first tigers 
who ever called Columbia their headquarters. James S. Rollins was 
elected captain, A. J. Harbinson and John F. Baker, lieutenants, and 
Lewis M. Switzler, sergeant. A blockhouse, made of logs, was erected at 
the intersection of Broadway and Eighth streets, suitable portholes 
made in the four sides and suitable military supplies placed therein. This 
blockhouse was built just over a well, which had previously been dug 
at the crossing of those streets, and thus plenty of water could be fur- 
nished the soldiers. The courthouse and Baptist church were used as 
sleeping quarters for the soldiers and both buildings were barricaded, 
and had portholes. They were surrounded by a ditch, which was intended 
to keep the ''Bushwhackers" from setting fire to a load of hay and 
running it up to the courthouse, and thereby bum the courthouse. 
Of course, sentinels were on every road leading from Columbia, and a 
watchman was on top of the courthouse day and night. By reason of 
the determination of the men composing this company. Bill Anderson 
and his cohorts never came to Columbia. 

Carried Money to St. Louis 

Thomas B. Gentry, who was a merchant in Columbia and well 
acquainted with its early history, told the following experience that he 
had during the Civil war: 

**The express companies refused to accept of money for transporta- 
tion, after one or two robberies, and, as Bill Anderson's men were 
threatening to come to Columbia, and had visited every other town in the 
county, the banks were afraid to keep much currency on hand. As I 
was going to St. Louis to buy goods, my friends at the Exchange National 
Bank asked me to take twenty thousand dollars to St. Louis for them, 
and deposit it with a bank in the city. I did so, riding on the stage from 
Columbia to Centralia, and on the North Missouri Railroad from Gen* 
tralia to St. Charles, with no protection, except a pistol that I carried. 


The weather was very cold, and it was necessary for me to walk across 
the Missouri river on the ice, which I did, carrying my valuable package. 
On the St. Louis county side, I boarded a train, which got me into St. 
Louis after dark. The first hotel at which I stopped was crowded,* and 
some gamblers ttiade so much noise in an adjoining room that I could not 
sleep. So I got up and left that hotel and walked around a few blocks 
to the Laclede, where I registered and took the package of money with me 
to my room. That night a burglar tried to gain an entrance to my room, 
over the transom, but I heard him and frightened him away. I do not 
suppose that he had any idea how much money was in my room, or he 
probably would not have been so easily frightened. The next morning I 
went to the bank and gave the package to the proper person, and for 
once in my life was glad to get rid of money.'' 

Early Schools 

Bonne Femme Academy — One of the first schools in central Mis- 
souri was the Bonne Femme Academy, a school for young men, which 
was established in 1829 ; it was situated near what is now known as Bonne 
Femme church, on the Columbia and Ashland gravel road. Rev. Robert 
S. Thomas, afterwards professor of English in the university, was one of 
the early teachers ; and the school was so well advertised that young men 
from other states were in attendance. Prof. Gteorge C. Pratt also taught 
there. In an advertisement in the Missouri Intelligencer, it was stated 
that this school was located in a healthy and highly moral neighborhood, 
and that board could be obtained at reasonable prices in respectable 

Columbia College — In 1831, the Columbia College was organized, and 
Dr. A. W. Rollins, Richard Gentry, Warren Woodson, James W. Moss, 
John B. Gordon and Judge David Todd were the first trustees ; this was 
also a school for young men. From this school, the State University origi- 
nated, and it may also be added that the first session of the university 
was held in the Columbia College, which was a brick building situated 
just west of Parker Memorial hospital, on South Sixth street, and after- 
wards known as the residence of Rev. R. F. Babb. 

Columbia Female Academy — ^In 1833, the Columbia Female Academy 
was started, the first school exclusively for women west of the Mississippi 
river. The first trustees of this school were Dr. William Jewell, Dr. Will- 
iam Provines, Stephen R. Bedford, Roger North Todd and Austin A, 
King ; and the first act done by them was to secure Miss Lucy Ann Wales, 
of Massachusetts, to take charge of said school. Miss Wales proved to be 
one of the distinguished educators of the state. The first session of that 
school was held in the old Presbyterian church ; but later a brick building 
was erected and used by the school for many years. This building was 
afterwards used as a residence, then as the Cottage hotel, still later as the 
Gordon hotel, and now it is rented to the university and used by the 
home economics department; it is situated at the southwest comer of 
Cherry and Tenth streets. * 

Christian College 

In 1851, the legislature of Missouri passed an act incorporating Chris- 
tian College; and James Shannon, W. W. Hudson, Thomas M. Allen, 
Thomas D. Grant and others were the incorporators. John Augustus 
Williams, of Kentucky, was elected the first president ; and he was suc- 
ceeded by L. B. Wilkes, J. K. Rogers, Geo. S. Bryant, W. A. Oldham, 
Frank P. St. Clair, Mrs. Luella W. St. Clair, Mrs. W. T. Moore and Mrs. 
St. Clair, now Mrs. Woodson Moss. 

Vol. II.— 18. 


In 1911, ChriBtian College celebrated its sixtieth anniversary, and a 
large number of graduates and former students attended; among them 
being two graduates of the class of 1854, Mrs. Jennie Robards Rogers, of 
Kansas City, and Mrs. Elizabeth Cooper Pollard, of Fayetteville, 

The college campus, which is a beautiful lawn, has on it buildings 
erected by friends and dedicated to the memory of Robert H, Stockton, 
J. S. Dorsey and J, K. Rogers. 

Stephens College 

In 1856, the Baptists of Boone county oi^anized a school for young 
ladies, which was named "Columbia Baptist Female College." Among 
those who were active in its organization and liberal contributors were 
James L. Stephens, Warren Woodson, John M. Robinson, Judge James 
Harris, Moss Prewitt, David H. Hickman, Noah Flood and ^bert T. 

Dairt B&itN OF Marshall Qobdon, Columbia. 

Prewitt. The presidents of this school have been W, R. Rothwell, X. X. 
Buckner, J. T. Williams, J. H. Hollis, E. S. Dulin, R. P. Rider, T. W. 
Barrett, Sam Frank Taylor, W. B. Peeler, H. N. Quisenberry, G. W. 
Hatcher and John M. Wocd. 

In 1870, James L. Stephens donated twenty thousand dollars to the 
college, and ita name was changed to ' ' Stephens College, ' ' by which name 
it is still known. Later on, he gave ten thousand dollars more to the 

The Kate Quinn studio was erected by the liberality of M, G, Quinn, 
of Columbia ; and the Sappington Chapel by the liberality of R. E. Sap- 
pington, of near Ashland. 

The Model Farm 

In 1870, the State Board of Agriculture offered a prize of one hun- 
dred dollars to the man whose farm was kept in the best condition. After 


a lively contest, the prize was awarded to Jno. W. Harris, who owned a 
farm of fifteen hundred acres situated northwest of Columbia and eight 
miles south of Harrisburg, a town which was named for him. Mr. Harris 
was indeed a model farmer, and many stories are told of the care with 
which he kept fences and buildings in repair, and scrupulously cut the 
weeds from his fields and pastures. He represented Boone county in the 
legislature, was a son of the first sheriff of Boone county and the father 
of Virgil M. Harris, a well known St. Louis lawyer, and Jno. W. Harris, 
a banker, now living in Kansas. 


Of course the construction in 1858 of the North Missouri Railroad 
(now the Wabash) was a great event in Boone county's history, as that 
was one of the early railroads of Missouri. The people of the central 
part of Boone county were anxious to have that road built through Co- 
lumbia; but the slavery question was uppermost in the minds of our 
people at that time. IVIany persons in adjoining counties feared that if 
such a railroad should be constructed, the slaves would be more inclined 
to run away, and could more easily make their escape to Canada. So 
Howard and Callaway counties declined to aid this road, and it was 
built to the north of them, and consequently to the north of Columbia. 
But the people of Boone county, although said road simply passed 
through its northern part, made liberal contributions to it. 

In 1857, a charter was obtained to build the Columbia and Jefferson 
City railroad ; but no work was done on it till 1866, and it was not com- 
pleted until 1867. It was built from Centralia to Columbia, and was 
afterwards leased for a long term by the Wabash, and is known as the 
Columbia branch. The building of this road is due largely to the fore- 
sight and liberality of David H. Hickman, James L. Stephens, W. W. 
Tucker, Jefferson Garth and others; and it was appropriate that the 
only two stations that were originally on the road were named Hickman 
and Stephens. Hickman was one mile southeast from Hallsville, and it 
was later abandoned, and the station built just to the east of Hallsville. 

In 1869, the Louisiana and Missouri River railroad was laid out, 
surveyed and much of the grading done through Rocky Fork and Perche 
townships; and the abutments for a number of bridges were con- 
structed ; it extended from Mexico, through Hallsville and Harrisburg, to 
Fayette and on northwest. A large sum of money was spent in the 
enterprise, and a debt was incurred by said townships, which it took 
several years to discharge. The road had much work done on it through 
Howard county, and it bid fair to be in operation i& a short time. But 
there was a delay in Saline county, and this delay occurred at the wrong 
time, the time when the money was about to be procured by the sale of 
the railroad bonds. When the brokers heard that there was going to be 
trouble to finish the road, they declined to buy the bonds, and the road 
building was abandoned. 

The Chicago & Alton Railroad was the next road to be built in this 
county, and it was finished in 1878. Centralia is the only Boone county 
town through which this road runs but it is only about two miles north 
of Sturgeon. Since 1904 its track has been used by the C. & A. trains, 
and also by Burlington trains. 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad was built through the south- 
em and southwestern parts of this county in 1892 and 1893. It enters 
Boone county at Rocheport and practically follows the Missouri river till 
it crosses the line into Callaway county. From Rocheport east are the 
towns of Huntsdale, McBaine, Providence, Rutland, Wilton, Hartsburg 


and Claysville. At McBaine, a branch of this road, eight miles long, con- 
nects with Columbia. This branch was at first known as the Jlissouri 
Midland Railroad, was built in 1899, and was for a year operated inde- 
pendently of the M., K. & T. 

Columbia Cemetery 

One of the most beautiful and historic places of our county is the 
Columbia Cemetery, which was located in 1820, at the same time that the 
town of Columbia was laid off. Six of the original lots of this town, each 
lot eighty by one hundred and forty-two and a half feet, constituted the 
original cemetery ; and for many years our people used that ground for 
burial purposes, without having the same laid off into private lots. Three 
times have the grounds been enlarged ; and today there are thirty acres 
within its enclosure. 

On February 23, 1853, the general assembly of Missouri passed an 
act incorporating the Columbia Cemetery Association and by that act 
Jefferson Garth, James R. Boyce, Moss Prewitt, William P. Switzler, 
Richard C. Branham, Henry H. Ready and James S.'RoUins were named 
as the first board of trustees. It is a fact worthy of mention that all of 
the members of the first board of trustees, and all of the members of all 
succeeding boards who are dead, sleep in this ground thus set apart by 
them, with one single exception. Richard C. Branham, a Columbia mer- 
chant, was drowned in the Gulf of Mexico while trying to escape from a 
burning vessel, and his body never could be recovered. 

Old citizens have told us that the first person buried in this cemetery 
was Dr. James Wilcox. If that is true, it is unfortunate that there is no 
monument to mark his grave, and no record of when he died nor where 
he is buried. The first person buried there according to the record on 
monuments, was Robert Barr, who died in 1821, shortly after moving 
here from Lexington, Ky. 

Among those interred in this cemetery are three presidents of the 
State University, two presidents of Stephens College, two presidents of 
Christian College, one acting governor of Missouri, one consul general, 
one congressman, two judges of the supreme court, one circuit judge, 
three state senators, twenty-three ministers of the gospel, fourteen uni- 
versity professors, legislators, county and city ofScials, physicians, law- 
yers, farmers, bankers, merchants, mechanics, miners, manufacturers and 
persons of all vocations. 

Henry Crumbaugh and B. McAlester said that for many years there 
was no hearse in Columbia, and that the pallbearers carried the casket 
all the way over to this cemetery, and then did the work of filling the 

Tales of an Old Timer 

Thomas Turner is a farmer residing six miles east of Columbia. 
Though ninety years old, he is possessed of a good memory, and enjoys 
talking over old times. He told the following about his father's family 
and early conditions in the county: **My father's name was Thomas 
Turner, and he came to Boone county from Madison county, Kentucky, 
in 1828 ; he drove a carriage for one of our neighbors, who was moving 
here. He purchased land and entered land east of Columbia, and re- 
turned to Kentucky. The next year, he moved to this county, bringing 
with him my mother and ten children ; another child was born to them 
after moving to Missouri. I remember the trip very well ; we came in 
three wagons, one of them being drawn by oxen, and the other two by 
horses. We crossed the Ohio river at Louisville and the Mississippi 


river at St. Louis, using a horse ferry at both places; we were twentynsix 
days in making the trip. When night would overtake us, we would 
stretch a tent, and some of us would sleep in the tent, and some of us in 
the wagons. We continued to use them to sleep in till my father could 
built a two-room log cabin, each room about eighteen feet square. We 
used that log cabin till 1833, when my father burned two kilns of brick, 
cut the timbers and sawed the planks for the brick house that I am now 
living in. My father lived here till 1836, when he died, and I have lived 
here ever since, with the exception of one year. 

**When we first came here, we could hear wild animals at night, the 
howling of wolves and the screaming of panthers, and we often heard 
and saw wild hogs in the woods. The wolves were so bad that they used 
to kill our pigs at night, and we kept traps set for them. One of my 
brothers went with me one day to water our horses in a nearby creek, 
when we saw a gray wolf and four little ones on the side of a bluflf. We 
called all of our dogs and all of our neighbors' dogs; but that she wolf 
whipped all the dogs in the country. But when we got our guns and 
went there, the wolf saw us coming, and ran to the woods; and we took 
a hoe and pulled the little wolves out of the hole in the rocks, and killed 
them. Then we set a trap at that hole, hoping to catch the old wolf, 
but she was too smart to go into it. 

* * I have often seen deer in Boone county, and have killed them many 
times. One day, about 1830, I was plowing with one of my brothers, 
and thirty-two deer came into the field, and stopped within two hundred 
yards of us. We stopped the oxen, and brother ran to the gap in the 
fence where he had left the gun ; and as soon as he got it, the deers seemed 
to understand, and all ran away before he could get close enough to shoot. 
These deer interfered so much with our corn, by tramping it and eating 
it, that we tried in various ways to get rid of them. They jumped our 
fence at the same place every time, so we set sharp stakes inside of our 
field, extending out of the ground about a foot or two, and inclined them 
toward the fence. Several times we saw blood on the points of these 
stakes, and often we saw that the animals had fallen on the stakes and 
bent them over or puUed them out of the ground. Once we found a dead 
deer on one of them. The deer moved their jumping place, and we had 
to move our sharp stakes to that place. 

"There were a few bears in the county at that time, but only a few. 
One bear in our neighborhood used to climb a tree, a bee tree, at night, 
gnaw a hole in the tree and eat honey; he hid in the caves during the 
day time. He tried stealing honey once during the day, and the bees got 
on him so thick and stung him so severely, that he seemed to lose his 
sense, and came running down the road, making as much noise as a cy- 
clone. My father got his gun and shot the bear twice, but he ran a mile 
before he finally dropped. 

' * I did not see the stars fall in 1832, as I was asleep, but I heard the 
family talk about it the next morning. Some of our neighbors were 
frightened almost to death, and an old negro preacher thought judgment 
day had come, so he ran and jumped into a well and his master had 
trouble in pulling him out. 

**The first year after coming to Missouri, my father bought a cow 
and calf for four dollars and a half, and a real good cow for seven dol- 
lars. Out of his first crop, he sold two hundred bushels of wheat for one 
hundred dollars, and haided the wheat six miles ; and he sold eight hun- 
dred bushels of oats for one hundred dollars, and hauled that six miles. 
My father raised a good deal of tobacco, which he had me to haul to 
Nashville and ship it to St. Louis. I often went to Nashville, and was 
there at the time of the high water in 1844, and helped some of the mer- 


chants move their stocks. We had to walk in water up to our waists, 
but most of the goods were saved. I knew Ira P. Nash, and often saw 
him at Nashville ; he had the largest orchard in the county, and he did 
not allow anybody to go in and get his apples. 

* ^ It was customary once a year to get a shoemaker to visit our farm, 
and he would make shoes and boots for all of the men, women, boys and 
girls on the place, white as well as black. Nearly all of our clothing was 
made on the place, and mother made it ; in fact, we raised some cotton 
each year for our own use. We had no ice houses, so we put our milk 
and butter in buckets, and hung the buckets in a well; and, as we did 
not have any cellar, we buried our apples and potatoes before cold 

**When I attended school in this county, it was in a log schoolhouse 
and was what was called a subscription school; that is each patron paid 
the tuition of his own children. The price was one dollar per month for 
each child, and I reckon it was worth that much to pay the teacher for us- 
ing the hazel switches. The schoolhouse was two miles from my father's 
home, and the road was simply a passway through the woods. 

**My father was clerk of the Bonne Femme Baptist church, and we 
attended that church till I heard Alexander Campbell preach near Colum- 
bia, in a schoolhouse. Then I joined the Christian church, which has 
many times been called in honor of Mr. Campbell. Just before my 
father was forty-five years old, I went with him to Bonne Femme church 
to muster, and Col. James McClelland was the commanding oflScer. My 
father told me that he would not have to attend again, as the law did 
not require a man under eighteen or over forty-five to attend. (See Re- 
vised Statutes of Missouri, 1825, page 533.) My father died at the age 
of fifty-three, and his eleven children lived to marry, and all raised 

**In 1849, I went to California, and stayed just one year mining 
gold; but did not make much money. While there, I saw William 
Broaddus, a young man who went with me from this neighborhood, run 
onto a grizzly bear in the mountains, and the bear killed him before 
we could reach him. I returned by way of Nicaragua, and our sailing 
vessel got into a calm on the Pacific ocean, and for forty days we could 
not go anywhere. We almost ran out of water, and the captain allowed 
us one pint a drfy for seven days. Then a storm came up, and we were 
driven on our way. When I got home, I came to the conclusion that 
Boone county was the best place on earth, so I have lived here ever 

**None of our family ever took part in any war, except my brother 
James, who was a private in the Black Hawk Indian war, and went 
with the Boone county soldiers. . I saw the Boone county company that 
formed the First Regiment of Missouri Volunteers that took part in the 
Seminole Indian war. They were marching from Columbia to Millers- 
burg, on their way to Florida, and I met them near where Harg is now 

**I am the only one of my father's children now living, but many 
of his grandchildren and great-grandchildren are living in Boone and 
Callaway. They are named Turner, Hamilton, Quinn, Hendrick, Car- 
lisle, McKimpson, Evans and Stewart." 

James L. Stephens 

One of the most successful merchants Boone county ever had was 
James L. Stephens, who died in 1902, at the age of eighty-seven. Mr. 
Stephens was a very generous man, and made numerous gifts to good 



causes. He gave five hundred dollars to found the Stephens Medal, a 
prize in oratory at the university, and thirty thousand dollars to endow 
Stephens College, at Columbia. 

Mr. Stephenfi^ was a most resourceful man, and undertook something 
that was new in Boone county, and which seemed almost impossible, a 
cash store in 1843. He announced that he would sell exclusively for 
cash, and that he could and would therefore sell cheaper than he other- 
wise could. It is said that Mrs. Eli E. Bass, the wife of the richest man 
in the county, came to his store and made purchases amounting to about 
one hundred dollars, for which she paid. Then she saw a little cup, 
which was worth twenty cents, and she asked Mr. Stephens to charge 
that to her, but he told her he would have to decline, as he never sold 
to anyone on credit. This incident was told all over the county, and 
brought Mr. Stephens a great deal of business. 

Mr. Stephens understood legitimate advertising better than any 
other man; and, among other things, concluded he would advertise his 
business in the bucket line. At that time, ordinary wooden buckets sold 
for fifty cents each ; so Mr. Stephens bought a large quantity of them, 
more than had ever been brought to Columbia before. By purchasing so 
many, he got them at a reduced price. Then he began selling these 
buckets at twenty-five cents, which was a few cents less than they cost 
him. As quick as a flash the news went over the country that Mr. 
Stephens was selling buckets at just one-half the price asked by his com- 
petitors. So people came to his store for twenty-five miles around to 
buy buckets; and incidentally bought other articles. At that early 
day, Mr. Stephens understood people well enough to know that they 
wanted bargains, and would go where they could be obtained. 

Mr. Stephens would buy goods in St. Louis and New York, and they 
would be shipped to him by boat up the Missouri to Providence. At one 
time, a boat loaded with his goods ran on a snag and sunk before it 
reached Providence. After Mr. Stephens settled with his insurance 
companies for this loss, he concluded he would have the boat raised 
and bring the goods ashore. He did so, and this was the first lot of dam- 
aged goods offered for sale in the county. He got a large quantity of 
dry goods and any number of ladies' hats, all of which he spread out on 
the bank of the river and all were soon dried. Of course, the news of 
this went like wildfire, and Mr. Stephens announced that he would sell 
these goods at one-third price, and the hats for ten cents each. It is 
said that he did not have half enough hats to supply the demand at his 
store the next week, and the ten-cent hats were seen the following Sun- 
day in churches all over the county. 

Mr. Stephens was the first merchant to accept of farm produce in 
payment for merchandise. Not only did he buy bacon, lard, butter and 
the like, but he purchased coon skins, hickory nuts and even calves and 
mule colts. On his farm just northeast of the old town limits, Mr. 
Stephens fed any number of cattle, mules and hogs, which he had ob- 
tained in exchange for goods. The result was that Mr. Stephens, who 
also operated a similar store in Mexico and Fulton, was soon recognized 
as one of Missouri's greatest merchants. 

Mr. Stephens was the first man to lay oflE an addition to Columbia; 
this was done shortly after the Columbia branch railroad was built 
through the northern part of his farm. He laid off three additions, 
known as Stephens' First, Second and Third additions; but for a long 
time that part of Columbia was known as **Jim Town." 

The Stephens' Cash Store was situated at the southeast comer of 
Broadway and Eighth streets, where C. B. Miller's three-story building 
now stands. In 1850, it was blown up by the accidental explosion of 


two kegs of gTinpowder; the goods were scattered and badly damaged, 
and the building was a total wreck. A young man was sitting on the 
counter and smoking a cigar, when a spark from it fell onto one of the 
kegs of gunpowder which had a broken head, and in a moment the 
building was in ruins, several persons injured and two persons killed. 
But from the ruins, Stephens' store rose and its distinguished proprietor 
continued to succeed. 

Geo. W. Smith, of Columbia, says that Mr. Stephens was the first 
merchant in the county to quit the practice of keeping whiskey for the 
use of his customers. 

Col. Wm. F. Switzleb 

No man was better known in Boone county, and no man did more un- 
selfish work for Boone county than Col. Wm. P. Switzler, who died in 
1906, at the advanced age of eighty-seven. Colonel Switzler was editor of 
the Statesman for many years, and conducted a paper on a high plane. 
He took particular pains that each item be strictly correct, and few in- 
deed were the errors in that paper, during his editorship. So careful 
was he in all that he printed that when the county court once had 
trouble ascertaining at what term of court a certain order had been made 
some one visited Colonel Switzler 's office and procured a copy of the 
Statesman, which showed the term at which that order was said to have 
been made; the court declined to look any further, saying that paper, 
during the administration of Colonel Switzler, was always correct. 

Colonel Switzler 's name was being considered by President Cleve- 
land in 1885 for the position of chief of the bureau of statistics, to which 
position he was afterwards appointed, and friends of Colonel Switzler 
urged the president to appoint him. It was jokingly told to the presi- 
dent that Colonel Switzler was a natural statistician, that he could take 
a half bushel of shelled corn, give each grain a name and a number, and 
then recognize the grain ever afterwards and call it by its name and 

As a historian. Colonel Switzler was ever accurate ; and many articles 
did he write for publication, which were simply for the purpose of cor- 
recting mistakes which other writers had made. A suit was tried in the 
Boone circuit court in 1901 and the object sought was to set aside a deed 
on the ground that the grantor, an old man, was then said to be of un- 
sound mind. It so happened that Colonel Switzler was a witness in the 
case, and remained in the courtroom during the arguments of counsel. 
The plaintiffs' attorneys insisted that the deed should be set aside be- 
cause the grantor must have been of unsound mind, he then being 
seventy-five years old. Counsel for the defendants argued that his ad- 
vanced age was no proof of unsoundness of mind ; that Colonel Switzler 
had a good mind and memory, yet he was a very old man, in fact no one 
knew just how old he was, as he was the only survivor of those who 
sailed up the Mississippi river with DeSoto. Colonel Switzler spoke up 
and said, ^'That is a mistake, sir, DeSoto did not sail up the Mississippi; 
he simply sailed across the Mississippi." Prom that time on, Colonel 
Switzler was jokingly called '* DeSoto." 

Robert L. Todd 

Robert L. Todd, who lived in Boone county from 1822 till 1898, and 
was circuit clerk and recorder for twenty-one years, and cashier of the 
Exchange National Bank of Columbia for thirty-one years, told this story 
of his boyhood days : 


"It was customary for the small boys, in the summer time, to wear a 
single garment, and that garment was made of tow linen. But my 
mother thought that I was too good to dress that way, so I was denied 
the great privilege of wearing a shirt alone. As a result, the other boys 
used to make all manner of fun of me, saying that nobody but a girl 
would wear pants. One afternoon when I was with the boys, all of us 
hunting blackberries, they began teasing me again. So, in order to con- 
vince them that I could dress as they did, I took off my trousers and hung 
them on a blackberry bush. Now my shirt was not made to be worn by 
itself, and I soon found out that the blackberry patch was not the place 
to begin wearing such a costume. But I was determined, and worked on 
till my bucket was filled with large ripe berries, and I carried them home 
to my mother. Without stopping to commend my industry, she excitedly 
exclaimed, 'Bob, where on earth are your pants?' and when she learned 
that I had forgotten and left them hanging on a blackberry bush, she 
gave me such a paddling with her slipper that I really wished I was a 

Mr. Todd Talks op Smoking 

Mr. Todd was a great smoker and some of his friends thought that he 
smoked to excess ; but he insisted that if tobacco was poison, it was a slow 
poison. One day, a Baptist friend asked him how long he had been smok- 
ing and Mr. Todd told him that he had been smoking for over fifty years. 
The Baptist gentleman was interested in foreign missions; and he re- 
marked that these cigars cost Mr. Todd so much a day, which would 
amount to so much a year, which would amount to a large sum in fifty 
year, and that if he had not spent that sum on tobacco, he could have 
made a handsome donation to foreign missions. Mr. Todd took his cigar 
out of his mouth, blew a cloud of smoke across the room and said, **Well, 
sir, you don't smoke, have not smoked for the past fifty years; now how 
much have you given to foreign missions?" 

Boyle Gordon 

Judge Boyle Gordon, one of Boone county's best lawyers, was repre- 
sentative of the county in the legislature in 1865, and professor of law 
in the university from 1872 till 1882. During August, 1864, General 
Sterling Price was coming north to Missouri and reached as far as Jeffer- 
son City, and numerous bands of bushwhackers were in different parts of 
the county, so the banks and express companies declined to receive any 
money on deposit. Judge Gordon represented various Philadelphia 
wholesale houses and collected five thousand dollars from persons in Co- 
lumbia, which he intended remitting to his clients. Owing to the refusal 
of the banks and express companies to receive money Judge Gordon was 
compelled to keep this sum and carry it around for about a month. He 
took it to his home, just east of Columbia, and every night slept out in 
the woods with his valuable package. Mr. Gordon was one of the hap- 
piest of men when he was able to send this money to Philadelphia, and 
perhaps his clients were as pleased at receiving it. 

Moss Prewitt 

The first bank ever started in Boone county was the banking hguse 
of Prewitt & Price. Mr. Prewitt was a hatter and a merchant, came from 
Kentucky to Franklin in early times, then to Columbia in 1821. He 
began by taking care of money for his customers in his store. His store 
was situated in a brick house on Broadway, one door east of the present 


Boone County National Bank. At first, he would take a man's money 
and place it in an envelope, and write the owner's name on it, and put it 
in his safe. He never had any vault. Then, he concluded that he would 
put the money in his safe, and write down on an account book the 
amount, and thus he began banking; this was in 1857. In 1867, this 
bank received its charter, which was the first national bank established 
west of the Mississippi river. In 1871, the bank acquired the name of 
Boone County National Bank, by which name it is still known. 

While Mr. Prewitt was conducting his store, about 1830, there was 
a narrow passageway between his store and the building just west of 
it (now the bank), and a back door of Prewitt 's store opened into this 
passage. Although nearly all of the bears had been killed in the county, 
a few still remained, especially out north of Columbia. One day a num- 
ber of men discovered a black bear near Bear creek, and with guns 
and dogs started a chase. The bear would fight the dogs, then run, and 
a new supply of dogs would be called to the rescue. Finally the frightened 
animal ran into town, down Eighth street, and turned into the alley just 
north of the bank. Mr. Prewitt, hearing the terrible noise, stepped out 
of his side door to see what it was, when the bear turned into this pas- 
sage, knocked him down, and bear and dogs all ran over him. The bear 
ran across Broadway, and to the southeast, and was killed on what 
is now the Marshall Gordon farm. While Mr. Prewitt lived in Franklin, 
he had a brother, who was not a success in business. As Mr. Prewitt 
was leaving for Columbia, the brother decided to go to Texas; and Mr. 
Prewitt fitted him out and gave him some money. He did not hear 
from the brother, and did not know that he had married till he heard of 
the brother's death. On his deathbed, this brother told his wife of the 
kindness and liberality of Moss Prewitt, and, as he had no children, he 
gave his wife all of his property, and asked her to give the same to Moss 
Prewitt at her death. When she died, Mr. Prewitt heard of their where- 
abouts for the first time, and learned that she had willed him a league 
of land, four miles square, which Mr: Prewitt afterwards sold for twenty- 
five dollars an acre. 

Mr. Prewitt, who died in 1871, was the father of a large family. One 
of his daughters married R. B. Price, who, although now eighty years old, 
claims to be the youngest man in Columbia. 

Citizens op Boone County 

Boone county has always been the home of useful and distinguished 
men, men of state as well as national fame. James S. RoUins, lawyer, 
editor, congressman, senator, legislator and friend of education, stands 
at the head of the list. Wm. F. Switzler, editor, historian, and chief of 
the bureau of statistics, was one of the men who had much to do with 
making Boone county. W. Pope Yeaman, minister and orator, E. C. 
More, consul general to Mexico, Beverly T. Galloway, the plant expert, 
St. Clair McKelway, editor of .the Brooklyn Eagle, James L. Stephens, 
state senator, merchant and philanthropist, Edwin W. Stephens, editor, 
publisher and public servant. Moss Prewitt, R. B. Price, Jas. H. Waugh. 
Robt. L. Todd, Jno. S. Clarkson, Jno. T. M. Johnston, Wm. S. Woods, 
H. H. Banks and Jno. T. Mitchell, bankers and financiers, Jonathan 
Kirkbride, Oliver Parker, R. H. Clinkscales, J. S. Moss, J. S. Dorsey, 
Victor Barth, B. Loeb, C. C. Newman, J. L. Matthews, C. B. Miller, S. 
H. Baker, W. B. Nowell, J. W. Strawn, B. F. Dimmitt, L. Grossman, 
Hulen & Hulett, Jas. M. Proctor, M. H. Harris & Son, John Parker, 
Bass & Johnston and John Wiseman, active and successful merchants, 
John A. Stewart, farmer, real estate dealer and city beautifier, 


and Attorney General Wm. A. Robards, Sinclair Kirtley, Judge P. H. 
McBride, Boyle • Gordon, Gen. Odon Guitar and Col. Squire Turner, 
lawyers of state-wide reputation, one and all have added to Boone 
county's fame. In the live stock business, Boone county farmers have 
been in the front rank, with A. H. Shepard as a breeder of Holsteins, 
I. C. Huntington as a breeder of Galloways, F. W. Smith as a breeder 
of Herefords, and R. W. Dorsey, Parker Brothers, Hickman Brothers, 
and Joseph Estes, Sr., as breeders of Shorthorns, Wm. H. Bass, A. E. 
Limerick, D. K. Crocket, and F. S. Sappington as breeders of jacks, 
Doctor McAlester, Doctor Keith, M. D. Brown and 0. J. Moores as 
breeders of horses, J. H. Sampson & Sons as breeders of sheep, Geo. E. 
Thomson, Allen Park and Wm. E. Bradford as breeders of hogs, J. M. 
Stone, J. E. Bedford, W. H. Cochran and Miss Lizzie Hodge as breeders 
of poultry, and Dr. W. P. Dysart, Jno. S. Chandler, W. L. Greene, 
Jas. T. Gibbs, R. L. Keene & Sons, Tilford Murray and Abram Ellis 
as mule feeders. 

These persons and such successful farmers as Jno. W. Harris, W. R. 
Wilhite, W. B. Hunt, Col. Eli E. Bass, Dr. H. M. Clarkson, A. J. Estes, 
Marshall Gordon, the Robnets, the Brights, the Bradfords, the Denhams, 
the Glenns and the Tuckers, with their Boone county products, have 
many times ** topped the market.'* And D. A. Robnett's apples, Nathan 
King's butter and T. C. Mclntyre's vinegar each enjoys a national 
reputation. Mention should also be made that Boone county has reason 
to be proud of the teachers, mechanics, manufacturers and skilled 
laborers in all lines of work, who have added so materially to the wealth 
and prosperity of our county. 

It is to be hoped that in days to come Boone county, around whose 
memory clusters so much interesting history, will furnish even more and 
better citizens and even more and better farm and manufactured prod- 
ucts than she has in days gone by. 



By Ovid BeU, Fulton 

**The Kingdom" 

The Kingdom of Callaway, as Callaway county has been called since 
the Civil war, boasts of the patriotism and moral and mental fibre of its 
citizens. Whenever duty has called — ^whether to war, or statecraft, or 
hard and earnest labor — the men and women of Callaway have responded 
willingly and gladly. The first settlers came principally from Virginia 
and Kentucky, descendants of the band who 

Barely hating ease, 
Yet rode with Spotswood 'round the land, 
And Baleigh 'round the seas. 

Their sons and daughters have inherited the land they settled, and 
though born with the pioneer instinct, have remained in the county of 
their birth and given its citizenship stability and worth. The manners, 
customs and traditions of the pioneers have been handed down through 
succeeding generations, and though there have been several periods of 
extensive immigration into the county from other sections, life in the 
county remains true to the kindly, helpful, neighborly ways of the 
fathers from the Old Dominion and the Blue Grass State. 

Cote Sans Dessein 

The first settlement of white men in the county was at Cote Sans 
Dessein, where in 1808 a few French traders established a village and 
built a fort. The historian Rose, who was not always accurate, says 
the settlement was founded before 1800, but cites nothing to prove 
his statement, while Henry M. Brackenridge, who visited it in 1811, 
says the village was about three years old at the time of his visit.* The 

* Brackenridge says : ' ' The Cote Sans Dessein is a beautiful place, situated on 
the northeast side of the river, and in sight of the Osage. It will in time become a 
considerable village. The beauty and fertility of the surrounding country cannot 
be surpassed. It is here we met with the first appearance of prairie in Missouri, 
but it is handsomely mixed with woodland. This wooded country on the northeast 
extends at least thirty miles, as far up as this place, and not less than fifteen on 
the other side. The name is given to the place from the circumstance of a single 
detached hiU filled with limestone, standing on the bank of the river, about 600 yards 
long, and very narrow. The village has been established about three years; there 
are thirteen French families and two or three Indians. They have handsome fields 
in the prairies, but the greater part of their time is spent in hunting. From their 
eager inquiries after merchandise, I perceived we were already remote from the 
settlements.*'— Journal of Friday, April 12, 1811. ('* Views of Louisiana,'' p. 209.) 

Switzler, in his "History of Missouri" (p. 175), said: "Goto Sans Dessein was 
once a viUage of considerable importance, contained a small block house, and during 
the War of 1812 was the scene of some hard-fought battles with the Indians, in 
which were exhibited many instances of woman's bravery and determination." 

The name Cote Sans Dessein means "hill without design." 



history of the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-06) does not speak of 
Cote Sans Dessein, presumably because it did not exist at that time, while 
the Rev. John Mason Peck, positively fixes the date as 1808.* 

Grants of land in the county were made as early as 1800, however, 
for in that year Baptiste Duchoquette, of the city of St. Louis, obtained 
a grant of four thousand arpens from Spain, the cession being known 
even now as Survey No. 1837. Cote Sans Dessein was built on the land 
granted to Duchoquette. 

Cote Sans Dessein has ceased to exist, even the postof&ce having been 
discontinued. The hill on which it was located remains, but the river 
has encroached on the surrounding ground and washed away the old 
graveyard, while all of the buildings that stood in the original settle- 
ment have rotted down. The name has been given to the township in 
which the settlement was located, and in that way it will be preserved. 

Cote Sans Dessein was the first site chosen for the state capital by 
the commissioners appointed by the general assembly to select a place 
for the permanent seat qt government. The statute appointing the com- 
missioners required that the capital should be located within forty miles 
of the mouth of the Osage river, and also provided that the commission- 
ers should hold their first meeting at Cote Sans Dessein on the first 
Monday in May, 1821. The records of the meeting of the commissioners 
have been destroyed and the fact cannot be ascertained, but it is be- 
lieved that they selected Cote Sans Dessein for the capital at that meet- 
ing. It is known that after Cote Sans Dessein had been selected a 
question concerning the title to the land was raised, and that then Jef- 
ferson City was chosen. An act of the third general assembly required 
the commissioners to meet a second time at Cote Sans Dessein on Septem- 
ber 15, 1821, to complete their work, and this second meeting probably 
was held after the question of title came up. 

Daniel Boone is credited with having crossed Callaway county in 
1808 in company with Captain Clemson, who was on his way to establish 
Fort Osage. An oak tree still stands on Nine Mile Prairie on which 
is inscribed, **D. B., 1808,'* and local tradition says that the letters 
and figures were carved by Boone. Seven years after that time Col. 
Nathan Boone, a son of Daniel Boone, surveyed the Boon's Lick trail 
from St. Charles to Old. Franklin, directly across Callaway county ; 
and the following y6ar Colonel Boone, with Joseph Evans, began a sur- 
vey of the county, which was completed in 1817. 

The First Permanent Settlements 

Uncertainty exists concerning who was the first permanent American 
settler. Campbell (** Gazetteer of Missouri," p. 94) and Rose (** Pioneer 
Families of Missouri," p. 265) accord the distinction to the Rev. John 
Ham, a Methodist minister, and Jonathan Crow, who built bark cabins 
on Auxvasse creek, about ten miles southeast of Fulton, in the fall of 
1815. In a brief sketch of James and John Estens (probably Estes), 
Rose (p. 328) says they came to Callaway county in 1815 and also were 
the first American settlers, while in still another sketch (p. 384) he says 
Asa Williams, of Cote Sans Dessein, settled here in the spring of 1815, 

•The "History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition'' (McClurg's reprint, vol. 
ly p. 10) tells of the explorers camping at the mouth of the Osage river on the night 
of June 1, 1804, and spending the next day in the vicinity **for the purpose of 
making celestial observations." Describing the mouth of the river, the history says: 
"At a fi^ort distance from it is a high, commanding position, whence we enjoyed a 
delightful prospect of the country." The "high, commanding position" undoubtedly 
was the site of the future Cote Sans Dessein. On the return trip the party spent the 
night of September 19, 1806, at the mouth of the Osage. 


which, if true, probably would make him the first American settler. 
Ham's Prairie was named for Ham, and Crow's Fork creek for Crow. 
During the next few months a few other American settlers came to the 
county, and by the fall of 1817* a number of families were established 
in the district which now comprises Callaway county. 

Capt. Patrick Ewing, of Virginia, who later was the second sheriff 
of Callaway county, built the first residence in the county outside the 
village of Cote Sans Dessein in January, 1816. It was located a short 
distance northwest of the present town of Mokane. Aaron Watson lo- 
cated on the Boon's Lick trail in the spring of 1816 and about the same 
time James Van Bibber, of Kentucky,! settled on Auxvasse creek, near 
the present Cross-state Highway crossing. Immigration into the county 
was heavy during the next two or three years, and by the time the state 
was admitted into the Union, the county was quit^ generally settled. 

John S. Ferguson, of Kentucky, who settled near Cote Sans Dessein 
in the fall of 1817, is credited with having built the first mill in the 
county in the spring of 1818. Previous to that time meal and flour were 
obtained in St. Charles county, or ground by the settlers by hand. Henry 
May, who located on May's Prairie, southwest of Fulton, in the fall of 
1818, soon afterward built another mill and also established 'a race track. 
John Phillips, who settled on Crow's Fork creek, east and south of 
Fulton, in 1817, built a still house and made whiskey a short time 
after coming to the county. Benjamin and James Goodrich, who settled 
on Auxvasse creek, near the present Berry ford bridge, in 1817, built 
both a horse mill and distillery. 

Organization op County 

Even before Missouri became a state, Callaway county was organized 
out of territory that had previously belonged to Montgomery county. 

• Campbell 's ' ' Gazetteer of Missouri," p. 95, says: * * The settlers prior to 1817, 
as far as can be ascertained, were, in and near Cote Sans Dessein, Jean Baptiste, 
Francois, Joseph and Louis Boi, Joseph Bivard, Joseph Tibeau, Baptist« Graza, 
Francois Tyon, Baptiste and Louis Denoya, [Francis] IJrno [Emo], Louis LabraSi 
Louis Yincennes, Nicholas Foy and Louis Laptant, French Catholics; Patrick Ewing, 
Asa Williams, Thomas Smith, . Jonathan Bamsey« Major Jesse and George Evans. 
Further north were John Ham, Jonathan Crow, Bev. Willian! Coats, Thomas Kitch- 
ing, William Pratt, Joseph Callaway, John Ward, Aaron Watson, Felix Brown and 
John French." 

Instead of living north of Cote Sans Dessein, however, the Americans lived north* 
east — some near the present town of Mokane, and more on Coats' Prairie. 

Jonathan Bamsey, mentioned above, was a member of the convention of 1820 
which framed the first constitution of Missouri, being one of the two representatives 
from Montgomery county, of which Callaway was then a part. He was the first 
representative of the county in the general assembly and served in that capacity 
until 1827. His daughter, Jane, was the wife of Bobert Ewing and the mother of 
Henry Clay Ewing, attorney-general of Missouri from 1873 to 1875. 

t It is possible that Minerva, daughter of James Van Bibber, and Elizabeth 
Hays (the latter a granddaughter of Daniel Boone), was the first American chUd 
born in Callaway county. Efforts made by the writer to learn of some one who was 
born earlier have failed. She was the wife of William J. Davis, of Coats' Prairie. 
Campbell's Gazetteer (p. 9Sl) says,: "She is the oldest living woman born in Calla- 
way county. She is (August, 1874) fifty-six years and six months old." According 
to these figures, she was bom in February, 1818. Mr. Huron Burt, of Nine Mile 
Prairie, now 84 years old, thinks that probably she was the first American child 
born in the county. Mr. Burt lives on the farm on which he was bom and is the 
best informed man living on pioneer days in Callaway county. His mother was a 
daughter of Isaac Van Bibber and a great-granddaughter of Daniel Boone. His 
father, George W. Burt, came to Missouri from Ohio in 1821, and, with his brother, 
John Burt, built the first water mill in this part of the state in Montgomery county. 
They later built the first water mill in Callaway county for Neal Calbreafh on 
Auxvasse creek, near the Mexico road crossing. 


It is one of the three counties that can claim the distinction of being the 
twenty-third organized in the state, for Callaway, Gasconade and Saline 
each came into existence on November 25, 1820. The county was named 
for Capt. James Callaway, who was killed by Indians on March 7, 1815, 
while crossing Loutre creek, just above the mouth of Prairie Pork, sev- 
eral miles below Mineola Springs, Montgomery county, where, a year 
later, Isaac Van Bibber erected his famous tavern. 

The first officials of the county were appointed by Alexander McNair, 
first governor of Missouri. Judge Irvine 0. Hockaday,* founder of a 
distinguished Missouri family, came from Winchester, Kentucky, to be- 
come clerk of the circuit and county courts and to act as treasurer, and 
Wynkoop Warner, of Nine Mile Prairie township, was sheriflf and acting 
collector. The county court was composed of Benjamin Young, t Steplien 
C. Dorris and Israel B. Grant, t Robert Criswell was appointed assessor 
by the county court, and David Sterigere was recommended by the court 
to Governor McNair for appointment as surveyor, and later was commis- 
sioned by the governor. 

The first session of the circuit court was held on Pebruary 5, 1821, at 
the tavern of Henry Brite, at the northwest comer of Ham's Prairie, 
about one-half mile northwest of the present village of that name. Rufus 
Pettibone, of St, Charles, afterwards a member of the state supreme court, 
presided, holding his commission from Governor McNair. The grand 
jury called for that term of court was the first to meet in the county and 
was composed of James Van Bibber, Samuel Miller, James Guthridge, 
Patrick Ewing, Thomas Hornbuckle, Robert Craghead, Robert Criswell, 
Josiah Ramsey, Jr., Richard Humphreys, James Henderson, John Nevins, 
Arthur Neal, Robert Read, William Goats, James Langley, William H. 
Dunnica, John Gibson, William Hall, John Evins [Evans], Thomas Smith 
and Wharton Moore. Mr. Moore was foreman. The jury reported to 
the court that there was no business to come before it and was discharged. 

A week later, on Pebruary 12, 1821, the county court met at the 
same place. Much of the business of the first session of the court con- 
cerned highways, as it does today, and has throughout the county 's his- 
tory. One of the first acts of the court was the division of the county 
into two townships, the one east of Auxvasse creek being called Auxvasse, 

* Judge I. O. Hockaday was the father of Judge John Augustus Hockaday, of 
Fulton, who was attorney-general of Missouri from 1875 to 1877, and judge of the 
circuit court of Callaway, Boone, Randolph and Howard counties from 1890 until 
his death on November 20, 1903. Judge John A. Hockaday was born on Hockaday 
Hill^ just south of Fulton, on May 6, 1837. He was city attorney of Fulton in 1865, 
and in 1866 was elected a member of the state senate, but was not allowed to serve 
because he was not of constitutional age. He was graduated from Westminster Col- 
lege in 1856 and was the first person to obtain the degree of bachelor of science from 
the college. His widow and only child, Augustus Hockaday, live in Fulton. 

t After serving on the county court nearly a year, Judge Young resigned and 
Samuel T. Moore, who lived on Ham 's Prairie, and was founder of one branch of the 
Moore family in Callaway county, was appointed to take his place. Judge Young 
was elected a member of the state senate in 1822 and continued in that office until 
the session of 1834. He also was a member of the state constitutional convention 
of 1845. 

t Judge Grant was murdered by two negroes on December 29, 1835, and they 
were legally executed. The murder was the first in the county. One of the negroes 
belonged to Judge Grant and the other to Col. William Cowherd, grandfather of 
William S. Cowherd, of Kansas City, former mayor of that city and former repre- 
sentative in congress from the Jackson county district. William S. Cowherd says 
the Grant negro confessed the crime and implicated the Cowherd negro, and that 
when the Grant negro heard the tolling of the bell which announced the execution 
of the Cowherd negro, he broke down and confessed that the Cowherd negro was 
innocent. ' ' My grandfather felt so outraged at the resulf of that trial, ' * Mr. Cow- 
herd says, *'that he left Callaway and came to Jackson about 1837." 


and the one west, Cote Sans Dessein. When the court met in May, 1821, 
Rouiid Prairie, Elizabeth (now Fulton), and Nine Mile Prairie town- 
ships were created. Cedar township was formed in 1824 and Bourbon 
in 1825. Liberty township came into existence in 1838, while the other 
townships of the county are comparatively modem in their origin. 

The election of August 5, 1822, was the first held in the county after 
its organization. Judge John B. C. Lucas, .father of the man whom 
Thomas H. Benton killed in a duel, carried the county for representative 
in congress, securing 146 votes, to 96 cast for John Scott, of Ste. Gene- 
vieve, who had been territorial delegate to congress and who was elected 
representative, and thirty-three for Alexander Stewart.* Jonathan 
Ramsey was elected representative in the general assembly; Wynkoop 
WaAier, sheriff, and Samuel T. Guthrie, coroner. 

The meeting place of the first courts was designated in the statute 
which created the county (**Laws of a Public and General Nature of 
the District of Louisiana," etc., vol. I, p. 679). The same statute ap- 
pointed commissionerst to locate the county seat and they subsequently 
selected a site near Brite's tavern and named it Elizabeth,^ in honor of 
Brite's wife. Elizabeth remained the county seat until 1825, when, by 
authority of the general assembly, the permanent seat of government 
was moved to Fulton, where it has since been located. During the years 
that Elizabeth was the county seat Brite's tavern was used for a court- 

The County Courthouses 
The original town of Pultonll comprised fifty acres of land bought 

* The figures on the congressional election are taken from the Missouri InieUi- 
gencer, published at FrankUn, Howard county, October 8, 1822. The files of this 
newspaper are owned by the State Historical Society of Missouri, Columbia. 

tThe commission was composed of Henry Brite, William McLaughlin, Samuel 
Miller, Josiah fiamsey, Jr., and Enoch Fruit. They reported on their work on the 
8th of March, 1821, aU but Fruit and Bamsey favoring Elizabeth. Fruit dissented 
on the ground that the site was not in the center of the county, while Ramsey did 
not sign either report. Evidently Fruit was in harmony with the sentiment of a 
majority of the citizens of the county, for in 1824 a majority petitioned the general 
assembly to change the location of the county seat. 

t Elizabeth was located in section 9, township 46, range 9, on 100 acres of 
ground donated by Benjamin Young, one of the members of the first county court, 
and Thomas Smith. The town was platted, lots were sold, and at least a jail built. 
The jail was burned shortly after it was erected. The records of the county do not 
give the exact location of the site of the proposed town. When the county seat was 
movefl to Fulton, the owners of lots in Elizabeth were given the privilege of buying 
lots in Fulton to take the place of those bought in Elizabeth (''Laws of a Public 
and General Nature of the State of Missouri, 18041836," vol. II, p. 10), while the 
ground on which Elizabeth was located reverted back to Young and Smith. 

A tradition says — ^and the writer thinks it is probably true — that the Brite 
tavern was located on the farm now owned by C. F. Shiffler (1912), just east of 
Elizabeth. The Shi£9er house is built of logs and as it stands has two stories, though 
it is said that the original house was one story high, and as it was built constituted 
the Brite- tavern. 

Brite 's tavern also contained a store which was owned by Collier & Company, 
of St. Charles, and was managed by John Yates, founder of the Yates family in 
Callaway county. Mr. Yates became a partner in the store soon after it was opened, 
and in 1825 moved it to Fulton, then buying out the interest of his partners. He 
built the first house on the site of the original town of Fulton at the southwest 
corner of the courthouse square. The store at Elizabeth was the second in the count}*, 
the first being located at Cote Sans Dessein and owned by Daniel Colgan, Jr. Mr. 
Yates died in 1853. Dr. Martin Yates, a Fulton physician, is his youngest son. 

f The site of Fulton was selected by James Moss and James McClelland, of 
Boone county, and James Talbot, of Montgomery county, who were appointed com- 
missioners for that purpo&e by the general assembly. They located the town July 
29, 1825, and named it Volney, after the French infidel. The county court on the 
first day of August, following, changed the name to Fulton, in honor of Bobert 


from George Nichols* for $50. The town was platted by Henry May, 
Ezra B. Sitton and Hans Patton, who were appointed by the general 
assembly as a commission to erect a courthouse and jail. The original 
town lay between Sixth and First streets, north and south, and Bluflf 
and Nichols streets, east and west. 

A brick courthouse was built in Fulton in 1827-28 by S. J. Ferguson 
at a cost of $l,297,t and remained in use until 1856, when it was super- 
ceded by the present courthouse building. The structure was thirty-six 
feet square, two stories high, and had brick floors on the ground floor, 
making what was considered the finest courthouse west of the Mississippi 
river at that time. When the first courthouse was torn down, Daniel 
M. Tucker, who was then and for many years afterward a merchant in 
Fulton, bought the building for $400 and used the brick in erecting his 
dwelling, which stood at the head of Court street until 1911, the year 
after his death. The present courthouse was erected by Alfred I. Moore 
at a cost of $17,850. 

Ministers and Churches 

The first minister to settle in the county was the Rev. John Ham, 
who came in 1815. He was a Methodist, though two of his brothers were 
ministers of the Baptist church. Next to come, probably, was the Rev. 
William Coats,* a Primitive Baptist, for whom Coats' Prairie was 

Fulton, inventor of the steamboat. Bobert Dunlap, wbo lived northeast of the town 
and was the founder of the Dunlap family in Callaway county, is credited with hav- 
ing proposed the name Fulton. When Mr. Nichols sold the land on which the town 
was located, he had not perfected his title from the government, and was required 
by the commissioners to give a bond of $5,000 that he would make a deed when he 
secured title. The document is stiU on file in the office of the recorder of deeds of 
Callaway county. The original town contained 147 lots, many of which sold for 
*$1 apiece. The highest price paid was $56, and the proceeds from the sale of lots 
amounted altogether to $1,946.18%. The first lots were sold September 5, 1825. 

Edward •G. Berry, who died in 1905 at the age of 97 years, carried a chain for 
the surveyor who laid ofE the town of Fulton. Mr. Berry was a son of Bichard Berry, 
of Kentucky, who signed the bond of Thomas Lincoln when he was married to 
Nancy HaiJcs, mother of Abraham Lincoln. Bichard Berry moved to Callaway 
county in 1823 and settled on Garden Prairie, southeast of Fulton. His son, Capt. 
Bobert M. Berry, a veteran of the Mexican and Civil wars, now in his ninety-fifth 
year, lives at Williamsburg, this county. 

* Mr. Nichols was a native of Loudon county, Virginia, and the founder of the 
Nichols family in Callaway county. He entered the land on which the original town 
of Fulton was built in December, 1824, and, contrary to most statements concerning 
the transaction, sold the ground on which the town was located. The first house 
erected within the present confines of Fulton, though not the first in the original 
town, was the log structure he built in West Fourth street, near the corner of Jeffer- 
son, which stood until about 1886. The writer remembers seeing it in 1885. It is 
said that Mr. Nichols had to send ten miles to get men to help him ''raise" the 
house. Mr. Nichols was the grandfather of James Irvine Nichols, who, with Judge 
Nicholas D. Thurmond, and Dr. John Jay Bice, of the faculty of Westminster Col- 
lege, established the Fulton Gazette in 1877. 

t The story has been told that most of the money used in building the first court- 
house was obtained from the forfeited bond of Hiram Bryant, who was convicted 
in 1823 on a charge of horse stealing. The records of the circuit court show that 
after his conviction Bryant gave bond himself for $500, and his brother, William 
Bryant, also gave an additional bond for the same amount. The records show that 
judgment on the bonds was entered against both, but do not show that the judgment 
was ever satisfied. The records of the county court and of the commissioners who 
erected the courthouse also are silent on the subject, so, if the story is true, the 
records are not complete. 

After the removal of the seat of government from Elizabeth to Fulton and 
before the completion of the courthouse, the courts of the county met at the house 
of Joseph T. Sitton, who is supposed to have been a tavern-keeper. 

t R. 8. Duncan in his ''History of the Baptists in Missouri'* (p. 160) says: 
'*Ab a member of the 'pioneer brigade' of Baptist emigrants to the far west, Will- 

\ol. 1—19 


named, and who settled here in 1817. Campbell (p. 98a) says that the 
Rev. James E. Welch and the Rev. John M. Peck, both Baptists, preached 
in the county during the years 1817-18-19. The Rev. John Scripps • a 
Methodist circuit-rider, held services in the county in the summer or 
fall of 1818 and probably was the first minister of his denomination to 
visit Callaway county in a clerical capacity. "Of the pioneer Chris- 
tians," says Campbell (p. 98a), ''perhaps Rev. David Kirkpatrick 
preached the first Presbyterian sermon ever delivered in the county 

A Catholic mission which was established at Cote Sans Dessein in 
1816 1 was the first religious organization in Callaway county. Probably 
before the mission was established the village was visited by the Rev. 
Fr.' Joseph Dunand, a Cistercian priest who was stationed at St. Charles 
from 1809 to 1815, for all of the inhabitants of the village were French 

iam Coats weU deserves a place in this cliapter. He had been a' member of the 
Baptist denomination nearly twenty years when he came to Missouri, and a few years 
after this event in his life he became a Baptist minister. • « * The first Baptist 
church in CiUlaway county was formed at his home by Bev. James E. Welch, in June 
[Mayjy 1818. There was no pastor to pay them the usual 'monthly visits,' and the 
little flock was greatly encouraged by the influence of Brethren Goats and Smith, 
who kept up prayer meetings regularly in the community."