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Full text of "A history of Persia from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the year 1858"

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/ i ^) ■■ 




HARVARD 

■ 

COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




.v5" 




t uoBntcia OF the n'in'eteesth cenidby 
T]i£ ■am, I8S8. 



r or THE panctr.u. evexts that lbh to 

TIIE ESTABLISUUENT OF 



BOBEKT GRANT WATSON, 



^(A i ll Bi n ■ '« i l |i M^rw. *)H( Jl J^nvv. ^u^iif ■•'> /ut x' 



LONDON: 
saiTO. ELDBB ASD CO., 65, COBXIIILL. 
1800. • -- ' 



/f^/> 




HISTORY OF PEESIA 

TBE BBaXHHIXO OP TUB MXETEESTH OEKTUBY TO 
TBBTEAB 18SS. 



f 



rnx mxtfXL 
nunTj 



THE KAJAR DYNASTY. 



&OB£itT GRANT \^AIS0N. 

T ArtMUtt 10 mam xutwn'* uojtTow at rni oocrt or miiA. 






LON'DON: 
BMITB, XLDBB AXD CO.. 6S, COBNHILL. 
1800. • '-■:' 



/nt^ 



I i l-> > 




HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




/ 



CONTENTS. 



—o^ 



pAoa 



CIIAKrEK I. 

I XT ROD I' <:T I ox. 

PopulAtion of IVwia — Cultivatiul Poiiioii of tlic Countrj' very wnnll — 
Supply of Wator — Aiiiliciiil Im^riitioii — Tli« Kllmr/ MonitUiins — 
Attnchment of IVi'siuiis to tlu'ir Niilhv Country — IVrsiii iiilmhitiHl 
by Mciu uf ViirioiiH Kiuvm — Tim WniHloriii;^ Tril.Kw — The 'I'urkish 
inid the IVrKiiiii Ijiiii;;im«;(\s — 'JVo CIusscm of Petiph' in roi*8ia — 
Tlic IN'i^ians a I'ohust llaec — 'i'lie IVman Chai*iift» r — l'<stiniate 
% fornietl of it hy Kuro^wnaH — IVrsiau flovcninicnt — Clufks on the 
• 1 loyal Authonty — Court of the Shall — K«hicatiou in "Persia-— 
National iSelipon of the iViviann — Tlu^ IVrnian Anny — liUlNmrurM 
and Villa^'en* — MendieantH — Tnide and PnMlucu — Clinuitc — Pro- 
M|)octM of tlio Countiy ^ „ „ I 

ClIAia'KU II. 

The Sefavccnn Dynasty — Fall of Ispalian — ]Oxpulsion of A(r«:hanK fnau 
Puraia — Nadir Shah — Ori«:iu of tlie Air^^han Kin«4dom — Adel Shah 
— Ihraheom — Shnhnikh Mecr/a — llival Candidates for the I*ei*sian 
Tlm>ne — 'llio Cliief of the Kajars — Herat and Seistan added to 
tlio Allj^lian Kin^'doni — Kereeni Khan — A/.ad Khan — /ends and 
KajaiTt — /eki Khan — Api Mahtmied Kluin — llis KNca))o from 
Shceraz— Ali Murad-— .lalV-r, Chief of the /end — His S<»n J«utf ali 
Klnin » — «. JJ? 

ClIAlTKll III. 

Origin of tho Kajar Trilw— It.s thre»? lininehcH— Its settlements — 
Astrahad ]*ninch of Kajars — Upper and liower Kajai*s— Astra had 
— Uns4'ttled Condition of that Piiivinee — Ak-kahdi— llha;^'eH— 
Jlhci — Tehran— Its early Condition — Aiin Mahomed Khan— His 
lirothcrs— Cntcl Tivatment to which A}(a Mahuniedwas Kuhjected 
— KindnoiiH shown to him hy Keix'eni Khon — liiitfuli Khan-* 



4 



Ckwtir i4 Xm Ualwcanl—Iti^i tlmittonn— Uta Ddbdiim 
lW(-|.>i4><riltr}Uail~llvriMiruIUUh— SUipiurKcminH— ]>"Btli 
■4lMr,U k'Uu 

CIUITKU n*. 
r«T« Uhi Main iif IVnk Nnt) llie Cxim of fliiT^ln— 
l«<rit>*«rv i4 llw I In AJtiLn nt ilu- l.TiMint«ii»— L'ani|iiilsii ■>[ 
IVIr* IWttMt iM |)Ni!li»lNik-T-Uuunf lb.l>.«> iiikI KrL.'iul— 
tb«ilM*uCHMtHrilw('M|rin« ».•«— K«rif C»ui1iii.m .if Giiinili' 
— Mlpff*fc toutfiMTO iJ tlto GoitkIuiii— THlbi— RxpmUltun 
■f Am ^ hfcil li l Inlo 0«uiKM— PortiuH af Krinu— Aitiwxaliim 
•4 K hf — i> IVftjNr^lalb ar Sfa-hrnUi Uocm-MIaiftu (o 
1S«4* ftMB Um fnwrii llct«U>«-Mnnl«r of As* UdmmaJ— 
lib ClMWllf 



aiAiTKn V. 

« lit QwLn hham-H Kiiitf— la drli<»li«l • 



(MB I7 tk,. >tj.r.l|— 

«*-».;.■■ ■ '■: r: .,. T. . r. ,,, ,:,. V,,;, ,„i ; ,.,,1 ,|_ 

Tfc« K . ■ 1. .i.la— 

IIU ■. j.- 

]UV[li.«..riL.I»«>.-.t Kl.Hii-l-i«].»i»-l:v1i.'IU.>i>.><'Sii.kk..)nA:r 
K«U bihI )Iii)ii>mil Kiili Klinii»— ('Kiiip^ivn of titiir^'Lt — Fn-4i 
llrLrUi>« of M>l>«n.<l Kluin— IbWIIiou ..T iW Slwli'i. llruilitif- 
l>cfecliiin<ir Miih>*tN>I Vrlt Klinn aihl Siili-iuwu Klian — Clvinmcj 
.•r tht Shah— Ib^ult ..f Mak M.-.ru— lU-ral^l;cl>i-Ui<ai uf NoJir 
itrrrm — UukJuu Crnm IimIw — KlMinumui — Ijut ItvbcUinn of 
<(«lrfa KluH-llh Fall— Mi*i»ti iirCaiiUin Mnlrolnt-Kall nf 
IIhJi lUalH'.iit— Kaohaii-Kn-^Jt lt-l>i'lli.m <if iliu Hliali'* IlrxlHT 
-H«w "I U<--)int-FaU ..f Na.lir lln-r»i K 

CIIAITKU VI, 
AMifVlbw •4t'/>T<if Itnvyia in bv.Mir <•( Kmix-Mr i^T lliivin. )«■>— 
IVun- AU'\ai>I.T ■b'Ut.-.l hv (i. ■■.■nil l^/.r..ir-CHi>liir.' ••! U.-.^a 
— lUuIr .* tUrhwiwUttu— H.i-'«-<«n»ir nrtiti hrniu^o. aii.l l«ys 
Hir-.v III t;*!!**— NHrlH^mal AlUrL*— SUv.- >•( Krivaii niioil— 
F.TrBl* UN KaiibTK bmI Himlk'ni Knailii-ra ..f ISiWa — Ihjilwni, 
Nmnan4Ki-T. and S.'ii4Bii — Ltiiet ..T KHivtMvH^ i-nl.miu i>> lii^Mia 
— CaBi|aii:a la (■■•I IVinHMf—ltuMUn l».'«<-nl .ai CiUn— I'sp- 
larrU llnvilijr IVrMaw— AM.»iiii>it.N) .4 S<'.-w»i^i..lT— Ui>wuM 
U U. JiwU-ft— K>ll v* llmilir. u Kh<,l.vl Kl.an-Tuikol'cnwu 
Kn«lb^ K:>4aI-lM'M.iil i>r IIui-hii. A^il1...ril,v fnau llw Ca^H^RiuH 
li. M.-ahan Wir hrtwri'U l'i-i>lau* anil AUulMuit— Kii.WpMrn Tnioi 
!ia{Bi4rMiaMl (na>llMT«]|a>m<.f Mndb~Kniliawj: fivm I-IiikUuJ 
— Trtrty— II J M arn tnm hMa—Du*tU-t In IV-ni*N Amu in 
Kaa-'an WB.«-A.'a).|iuc.if Ijujumn— lV*oc<4Uali*UB. 1~1» -.. 1 



CONTENTS. Ml 



CHAITKU VII. 

FAUl 

Tho SrtiiH of IVtioli Ali Slmh— Tuhreez— lluhHlion of the Cliiofs of 
KIiomKHiiii — I>m>ik Klimi, Kami — IlaMi^ui Ali MttT/u — llvmi — 
TrilioH of IIr/an*h aiul l'\M'nM)y.koh— Tn^uly Ik-Iwii'Ii Kii;;laiul nml 
IVrsirt — Yiv.tl — Ciuel»n'H«— Thrir Tciih»Ich and CitHttuiiH — The Chief 
of tho Ai«MnK.siiiK— Coiiiliiitalioii of C^hiffn tirilenit, KhomHHiui and 
Central AsiiiapiiuHt l^ci'nia — IViteli Khali. r»anik/.ye — His Defeat 
hy Iliutftan Ali Moerxa — Ihmi Mahomed Klian — War lK*twoeii 
IVnaii and Turkey — Canii>ai;;nH of Ihi^hdad and of Turkish 
Armenia — Battle of Tnpnik-KUleh — MasKncrc of ChriHtiaus at 
Salinas — NcKtoriansof IVntia — American and French MisHionaries 
— Pcttco between TiuTccv and IVi'Hia — ^Invasion of KhornKKan by" 
tlio Klmii of Kliiva « 17m 

CIIAKrKll VIII. 

Va^^nin Temw of Treaty of Oulistnn— Distriet of Gokeheh ehiimed hy 
liUKHJa — It IM (MTUpied hy that I'owcr — Kxeiteniciit thron;^'ht>ut 
l*ei*«iji — War breaks cait — I'ersianM at lii*Ht Hia-.v'ssful — Tliey ad- 
vance ti> tlie m*i;;hl)ourhotKl of TilliM.andaix: defe.iUd at tlie /e/ani, 
and aptiu near(ienja — AvarieioUhueKH of tin* Shah — l>iviKion in 
hiH Coniiril — Ne<;otiattons An* Vmvv — The lIussiiiUM rlifcked on 
tlio Anixe.H — l;riv:in l>esie;;e«l — Sit'^^o niistd — AhhaHsuhad taken 
by Gencnil raski<*\viteli — Defeat of (iencral KarkoiVski hy IVrsian 
CoramanderH at Astcriek — Final Siej^o and Capture of Kiivan — 
Invasion of Axerbacejan by Ihiiice iVinstoif — Tabrccx falls into Ills 
Hands — llciicwed Ncgotiati(m8 — Treaty of Turkomanclioi «.... *i^)^ 

CIIAIIKU IX. 

iVovisions of tho Trinity of Turkoniain'hai-— Altenition of the Treaty 
lii*t\V(H*n Kn^'land and I*risia— (Jmrral Coufu«*inu in I'lMsiji— Su- 
pinencHH of (he Shah'.-t <ioveninient — M. (irehaioiIiiH'- Murder of 
tho Mi'UilH'rs of his Mission — Termr of tin- Slnih — Kmhussy to 
Petei'shui';' of IVluei' KosriNi— Severe Karllii|uakes in IN'isia— 
Cani]Nii«^'n of the iVown I'rinet; in Khornssaii — Fall of Ami'cmhad 
and of Kahushan — Assault on Senvkhs — ()n;4iu of the Air;4han 
War — Death o( Abbass M«'tiv.a — The Kaim-nuikam — hast 1 )ayKof 
Felteh Ali hlmh — lliu Chanictei' — Ihinal-plaee of tho iVrsiau 
Iviiimi *J'A'i 

CIIArTKU X. 

ThiVi^ ANpirantM to sovorei^^u I\i\ver — Mahomed Mc<'r/a niarehes from 
Tabroex to Tehmn— Submission of the /il-es-Sult4in — Mahomed 

Shah crowned at Tthinn — l^efeat of Hassan Ali Meer/.a h^^ir^ 

IIcmT Ikthuno — Capture uf tho Firman- Finna— A nlabe«l — 
(jeiieriinitvoU in KlioiiuMOii— Full of tho iCuim-makum — Haji 



I 



4 T>«tii^ii nf tlio IVtmioii G 

IHfUlkw tpOnti Ilcntl— Hiiiiian— IMnru Kuiiniii luul Yiir 

IbhMlKlM^— JiMMnaaf t>nit Maltotncd Kluu forJUnutiu^f 

tfwOjvMMMM-rfbdlk— (.Viollr oIUmImbukI Klutli— llin I'dlmv 

h^m llMrt— ItHnl bUlwBM> b lib CuDp— Tlia Slagu nf IIcMt 



aiAlTKIt XL 
matti* bT b^r llriliiniui- UiJ.-Mt ■ (tuvrniiiHIil tnmi 111" Kii>U <>' 

I '•1* «•■•>" Iti-bikHM U'lwwii M«uliiii>t aiiit IVmiiv— .VWiiiuw i>r 
It m^ III t\w K«>|~llriU>4i K>|nlili><ii lu IIm> IVndMi tluir— 
llHMw KImu— KImu»-« .tf [f til INilMm^ai— TtM> Hhah yb-bl* 
— UUbqE •/ tlw tlilrf irf tint AhubJiiiwIIJ* Kunuw hihI uiIw 
^Mit ('■lino— lliiii-iM^-nHf Ik'knn-lH'* |>i.t DiEir I'tiHiili.-* t. 
iMrtlt— AlUn </ Kunli-Jiiii— l'n-<ml<->l StiOii i<f Turi»>-iV'nuuit 
riM4hT— 4.'<wMiMi>ia KjijHtidtna lU- lu 1 IfllbilUliHi^-IVrMBiu' 
liw^' ii i ii ' « lU llawUiirTirbmiBDii— ajMNvn.- at K'tIwIh— 
llaiiM>*.»l ./ Ilu- A>«4-<Mknrk'li— Wnr h KliunwM.— 11w liali 
— )W,»fc «# UaliMunl HUli ^ a 



C'llAITKIt XII. 
n^Rhti^lUJl Un-raA):li»-i— KiyhI ISiiIh-kiiI Tfliniii— Ttio (jiuvn- 
^akrr l*n-Mil>iil »r lixt t'lmnrll— Mi-ri<Mtii Jiixiiiitx In Di>' I'mviiKvii 
— TW- Mulm^'llic Aiim-r-i-Niniiu— &(.->iMin'* "f IttC-nii ulopU-.) 
ky luM— 4'.i<iii<iiiiiiii>ii ■k-Hi«>t liiin— Miiliii)- t<r iIk) (lurriMiii •>( 
Trlmia— Hi'Liun' nl Ki4uir lif llu' Turku— AM^iHUiirjr iJ llu' 
IlrlBTim ill >ii-i,4<iii — IVnuii (Inilo- l.> llwt IV'Vili'i— I'ru- 
tfart»l t^Tf iif M<-»li.-a— lb.hmuii M.irM— l-riii--^ HiiIihii Miini<l 
f(r-r. lU Ki-if.- ..r »I.-.Ih*I— l-'-ni^ii liil.'rfiin.-i»rt> .■lbr<'<) for ll«i 
IWibniM •< KluiTBomii- IShtk;,-!-* iiT Uh) TnHuMiwtiH— Kur- 
R«4.-riifU«lH)d~IX«iliurilK'lteli>r M 



rilAITHIt Xlfl. 

It^^B i4 iLr l'..a>ir>m •■T ilx' 1U1>— &r<>>b< iiT ramltis oiii 4>i]>iiii1 
J^MiMrtHrHi. In r.nJ-— S.'Wiiiv "T /iiij.Mi— TU lull jxit l<i 
|lr«lh-TrM.1<->r l>i. K..)l.«rn— ll<1ii'l<-H C<M<li->l at >:il.>>l<— 
JIn-klr. llnK-tT.-riW 11.14— <'••!• ni).i-. if lli.<W.«H-ii—'IV>Til<l« 
Cm-Uh-.- KOiii«lU«,.>rKi»»iliri->»iiilTi>lf<'.-«— It.-HiilloorAtlKii- 
HMniibiM M iIh' AHmri NiniM— ti>vii|«ii<Hi iil A>Ji<ir4ilii l-f 
lUi-M-IV lW|>Uu IS.iiii.i-*— I'aJI M llw AiMrri-Nlmlii— 
lMn1^wnr» mi liU I'-hair— MnTfii Aitlw KUu— >«>->li A«'iii— 
laAbVm. I.n-n),-lil l>'U-ar>« ibr Klinh i;!!^!^ Uv Aumm-i-INUiUII 

— <-.«Jiui .4 ilH' Wib- .J- iIk ni-Ulub«.-r-i:)w Awm'- IkiOli— 
i* .UuuHMniiiuti , , 3 



CONTENTS. IX 



CHAirrER XIV. 

Conspimcy n^inst Life of the Shah — His Escape — l*eixcciition of 
Conspiratorfl — Ministers of State net as Executioners — Finnncss of 
Followers of the Bali — Jealousy of ]hin)i)can Interference at l*er- ^ 
sian Court — Alliance of the Shah sou^^lit by Itussia in is.'»;l — 
Temptinj( Olfer made t/) l*ei*sian Government — AlttrnnUivt) phiced 
l)flf<»ro the Slmh — His Alliance ih-elinoil hythe West4Tn ]N»\voi*h— » 

Nmitraliiy distasteiul to JN'isian (Jovmnnrnt — Anp^' PiscuHsinnM ' 

iM'twoen SiMh'-A/.rni and \\w Jhitish Minister — Mi-rr/a Hiish^-ni^ 
Arrent of iiisWifo — (*tHidnci of tlio Sedr-A/oni— DipitMiiatic Urla- 
tions HUHpendi*d Ii<>tW4*en lOn^Mand mu\ ]V'i*Hia — Mr. Mnrniy <piitH 
Teliran— JVrsian Kx|HHlilion n^'auiHt Ileiiit— War aj^iiinst IVrHin 
doclarotlat Calcutta « ..- ...» « lOT 

CHAITKU XV. 

Policy ,of the Stulr-Azem — End>assy of Eemikh Klian to Europe — 
Fall of Ilemt — IlulcM to be cibsorwd in cariyin;^ on I'ln^jHsh War 
npiiuhl lV'i*sia — Sin^^uhir Instance of iVrsiau lii-vity — War a^aunst 
Infidels pnxdaiincil at Teliran — The Sirkisikclii-l^aHlii — Occu])a- 
lion of Karrack by British Troi^ps — Cnpturo of Iloshii'o — Sunvnder 
of Bushiru — Sir J. Outnini — ExiNulition to Ituraxjan — Action at 
KhuHhal>— Itombarihaentof Mohiinira — Defeat of Persia ns — \'\\\m3- 
dition to Ah\^a/. — Itostoratiou of Peace — TenuM of Treaty of J*ari8 
— Sultan Ahmed Khan — Murder of IViuco Mahomed Yoosuf— 
Full of the Scdr-Arjm— Coucluaion ....... ..«.„M...M.......»...„...» -....^... 4!ifti 



■ >». >W - AboMB " rwrf - Al-oli«t" 



\t.fir'tiaim 



■ nWlMlnL" 



u.fi'' ■■- 



PREFACE 



-••»i 



It was suggested to me to continue the history of Persia 
from the period at which Sir J. Malcolm's work ends 
to the present time ; but it appeared to me to be 
desirable to include in this volume a resume of tho 
leading events which paved the way for the cstabhsh- 
ment of the Kajar djniasty. As, however, I can throw 
little or no new light upon the events of that period of 
Persian histor}% I have not devoted much space to it ; 
and refer the reader to the eloquent pages of Sir John 
Malcolm for fuller details. 

From the death of Aga Mahomed Khan to the pre- 
sent time — on hitcrval of about seventy years — the 
liistory of Persia has not, I beheve, been written (ex- 
cepting by Persian chroniclers) in any continuous foim, 
although the events of certain periods have been de- 
scribed with sufficient accuracy and fulness. 

With regard to some portions of the history of 
modem Persia, I have hod to trust to such informa- 
tion as was to be derived from Persian sources. The 
English reader may be disposed to look with mistrust on 
information coming from such authorities ; but in all that 
refers to what has talcen place in Persia in relation to 



•Dj Enropcao sMCt I Iiato availed mj^BclT of OTory 
f>pf>ortomtjr of tcHtiug tho uccnracy of IVi-Hiun state- 
iDcotii hj coini>aniig tliciii witli tlio occountd givou by' 
Eiun]icaQ aotlioriticB. 

With rc;;^! to the iaciicaii of tlio wnrs between 
lEtukii ud PcniA, I bftTO iirefcrrcd to trust to tho 
imputud Btatcmcuta of Earo[»ciin» who took iio itort 
to tbc ■tni;;gU-, bat wlio dorivod tboir jofonuntiou from 
lUuRMit olQocni aiiil Itib<riiun jtruioiici-ii on wuU us from 

Uw rottiUtu. I 

TlwM inrtiona of tim iinmUiTO wlnob rest Rolcly ou 
IVnua lUtflinonU, rufer to tbo iutcruul iilTiuni of tlio 
eooDtiy, and to Uio dtoliugH uf itx {,'ovcmiuciut with 
Um Affgliaiw, tlto OozbogH, nod Uto Tarkiiiumis. 

lining iiidlcototl in foot-notos tho autlioritica npnn 
n^tieh I have ducflj drawn, I nood not ennmorato tliom 
ben ; bot in aeknowlodging my obligolionB to tliose 
vritcn, And to otlMn wboso namofl I may baro omitted 
U> mention, I olio hcg to oxproM my tbanks to Mr. Glen, 
Britidi Vieo-Coiual at Tdirui, and to Mocrza Ibrobim, 
tor tbo OMiiataDeo tboy karo kiodly tllonled mo in pro- 
parinftliii woric 

H. 0. WATBOy. 



A HISTORY OF PERSIA, 



ClIAPTKU I. 

INTHODUCTION. 

• 

i*opulation of Pcrsiii — C'nltivatod Portion of tlio Country vcr}' Hinall — 
Supply of Wiilor— Artificial Irripition — The KUiuiv. Mouiitiiinx — 
AtttiRliinnit ot IVrKiiiiiH t4> t1u*ir Xutivc Country — IN'rxia inliiiliiUMl 
by Mt»n of Viirioun Xuci'H — Th« waiulorin^ Trii»oR — Tiw Turkish and 
tho PcrMiau J*ini;o^";i**>* — Two cImbsoh of People in Pcrxia — Tiio Per- 
KiauH a ntliUHt l\m*o — Tin* Pi'iNiiin (.liniiu'tcr— KKtiniato fornuMi of it 
by Kuro)H*auH— IVrsian (invrnnurnt' ChtM'kHon thr iSnynl Authority 
— (!ourt of tho Shiih — Kilunitiou in PtTsiu — National Hclit^ion of thv 
iVrNiiiuK — Tho Poi*Hiiin Army- J«iilNinrorK ami Villu)(orH — Mcn<li«MUitM 
— Tnitlu auil PhMluoo-Ciinnilo — PiHisjartn of tho Caintry. 

A iiiHToiiY of rernm uiidor tho Kiyar IViucos nitiy bo 
appropriiitt^Iy profiicc<l Ly an acrouiit of tho goiioral 
coiiditiou of that country and of its inhabitants during 
tlio reigns of the kings of that dynasty. Sucli an account, 
however, may be tlie more suitably condensed in this 
work, inasmuch as a full description of tho manners and 
the religion of tho people of Persia at tho beginning 
of this century has been already writtcai by an English 
author,* and as it may be said of tho customs of tho 

* Sir J. Malcolm. 

1 



1 A iitirroRr of itksu. ^H 

Rhmb's rabjneto, u it was of Uio Lavs of tlic Modcn anil 
Peniuis of old, tlmt Umy olu-r not.* 

Tbe ilominicMui of Uic Shalt are iuliabitotl hy a popn - 
Ulina wrinnJy m^p.aliJ ^^ f rom fiyn ti> ton m illioiiB of 
anitlt, Aa no cnwu is ensr taken in Pursia it^s ii'ni>o8- 
nblc to obtain conwet intunaiUii)!! un this iioint. Soein^ 
that Uio Mipcrficieit of tlir coiuitriF' ifi thrco tiniox nn arvtit 
•ff tliiU of Fnnrc, oven the liir:^or of tlio iihnvu fl^iros 
«(^wor1iI pxe a n-ry niinll nimitier (i( inhahitimts in proixir- 
tion to tiw extent of tjic huitl. |That au<-ti Hti»itM be Uiu 
atati* of Uiinpi cannot ha coim ii1ff<-iI .'n)r]>ming when one] 
reflcrta llutt the ciiltivubtc, uu'l rvcu tlio cDltiviiti*tI, [lO'tioti 
of tlie kiDf^lom ia bat n MOinll portion of tlte total arcaJi 
w TIm aalt doMui u « woatti whivh aapporta onlj tlio wjlT 
am and the ;;iLcrllc, aii<l in niMiy of tlio |>n)vincoti of 
Penu the extent of ealtivatcd gronnd is limited bjr tlio 
anpplr of votrr, no l aiid bei ng capoblo of prodncuig 
crop* except CTcb iareaJTca artificial irriiBytion. A Tery 
much greater extent of gronnd might be cultiTatcd if 
voter were fortlieoming for the purpose, and inncb of 
the Tegetatioa of the tablo-Und of Iron owes its existence 
to tlie water that has already been brooght to the gardens 
■nd fields by artificial ineaqg^ All that has, ap to the 
IMVoent time, been done in this respect has been done 
by the Fenians tlmnsolrni, and it is, tliercfore, needless 
to remaric tlut mnrli more might be done to socuro on 
aboudaut aapply of watc^*by bringing Eoropcan skill 



■ TW aJatinU* wHi <J ih* Cht-vnli.T (lianlia mnUlm latrh ■ ntrrrcL 
*HbIU«1 4nvn|-tiiiM uT Un ciMMm<k rrli|{kai. bihI j>r<alii>tiuu> of IVnM, llwi 
k U ^— w ty tA ralrr lab- ■ wuuUm rUHinillun «t tliem 1 •JwU in 
IUb timytmw mmiua MjravLf la Uie r>4 « T0T U gira tbe l-^li>b rawlrf ■ 



SUPPLY OF WATER. 8 

aud energy to bear on the solution of the problem. Water 
is procured in the district of Tehran by digp^ng a series of 
deep pits, and establisluiig an underground communica- 
tion from the higher to the lower. After a certain distance 
the water appears on the surface of the ground, and it 
runs hi an open channel to its destination. These 
water-courses are called ** kanats," and the whole plain 
• of Tehran is covered witli thcni. The earth taken up 
where the shafts are sunk forms little mounds at the 
mouths of tlie pits, and rows of these can be traced in all 
directions. Besides tlicse artificial streams there are 
many small natural rivulets which continually flow down 
from the slopes of the Elburz mountains, but which of 
themselves would be far from sufficient for siip^tlpng the 
wants of a large city. At the distance of twenty-four 
miles to tlio west of Tehran the river of Korij bursts 
through a mountain gorge into the plain, and a portion 
of its^ waters has been turned from its natural course 
and brought eastwards to the city by means of a canal. 
"Where this canal joins the river a large body of water 
flows into it from the latter, but ere the water has 
traversed its course of four-and-twenty miles its bulk has 
diminished to one-seventh part of the original volume. 
The porous soil it runs over absorbs the remaining six 
parts, with the exception of what escapes by evajioration. 
A more energetic race to whom water was as precious as 
it is to the inhabitants of Tehran would long ere this 
have constructed a covered Abater -tight aqueduct to 
replace the open canal, which would increase the supply 
of water sevenfold. There are other means which might 
be adapted for supplying the element that is wanted to 
turn so many square miles of desert into fertile fields 

1— « 



\ 



4 A tllATuRY Oy I'KIIKIA. 

•iwl ganlciin where, inricftil of tho tlioni, hIiouU comt 
u|> tlir Cr-tn-r, niiil iliNlciul of llio briar tlio iii^rtltvlroo. 
Tbi.' iD'u4 uliiioab iif U>rH.> is to coD»txuct Mlroiij; biirricra 
kt the Tuot of ■otiiD or t\w lower rovinoH of tlm Hlburz 
moDutuiiiK, tlio rliotii of whirh licH ten milcK to ttio 
aortli ol Ti^linui. Tlie wbnlc c)iain in covcroJ with 
MOV each jcta frout t<)[) to buttoDi, and from October 
tiU Apti] Uie vImiIc of the upi>or part fnr n hoiglit of 
IhoMMul* of fVft n'inuinH whitp. Id Api-il otiil May tbiH 
proeKMU «aow lacttH and flowB down throt^^h tho ravincx, 
hhI iiianilAlt<» tha [daia, wliicb at tliat neitsoii \h in no 
vuit of KQ ustni ftapi'Iy of tratcr. Dut wciv a scvivn nf 
tvMrroin eoustnurtrd, on tbo; vory cattily uiit;ht be, at 
the loot of Uk rueky mnncH, tho prccions fluid would bo 
MTi-d and would 1m> uvuiliiblo Tor ax*- in tlio Miick-oeiliii;^ 
mooths. 

Mraiw mijfht be lind rocounw to fur 8n|i|>Iyiag tlio 
difltiict of TohraD with water even on a larger scale tlinn 
wooM be yioldctl by the nduptiou of tlio [dan indicated 
oborp. Tho country to tlic nortli of tlio Ktbiirz niomt- 
tains liai>|teui> to ho on ahnndoiitly mipplied with Hlrriunii 
of Water aa Uu- phiiii to tho huoUi of tlint t;liain is 
tlmtitatu of Uicni. If tho oonrvo of one of thcMO rivcni 
cvahl be iliTcrtod towanh< tho aoutli a great boon would 
L« couii-rred mi one diatiiet and no loss inflicted on tlie 
oUmt, and it ia the ojunioQ of enginccm that, by cutting 
oat a new channel for one of Uieae atroams from a jwint 
■offideutly liigh, a riror might he tnmod, by tlio aid of 
■OHM ItuinplUug, into tho pUin of Tehrta. E%'cry drop 
of water tliat is brought anppliee tlte meaua of extending 
Uw calUvation, and thnt of attracting a greater full of 
rain. It ia obacrrcd that the yearly lall of rain in the 



TIIK KLIiURZ MOUNTAINS. /> 

plain of Toliraii greatly oxcooils that of fi)riaor times, 
wlicu tho amount of cultivation was much less. In the 
district to the north of the Elburz chain, where the 
whole face of the earth is covoreil with forests and 
jungle and crops, the amount of. rain which falls is 
excessive. If, tlierefore, the Pci'sian Government were 
to plant trees along the edges of all the watercourses in 
the plain of Tehran, and were to sow fir-cones along the 
pouthem slopes of the Elburz, which are moistened all 
the summer through by melting snow, it might be reason- 
ably anticipated that in a few years' time their labour 
would be rewarded by a greatly increased fall of rain 
each year. In the meantime the general aspect of tho 
country in which the modem Persians live may be best 
described as a \i\Ht desert, in which many fertile oases 
are scattered here and there ; but from this description 
must be excepted the district between the Elburz moun- 
tains and the Caspian Sea, as well as the fertile province 
of Azerbaeojan. The country, sucli as it is, and unin- 
viting as it seems to the eye of a stranger, is the o])ject 
of the admiration and the love of every true Pi^rsian. I 
do not moan to assert that love of country, as Europeans 
understand the term, is pre-eminently a Persian's quality. 
A Persian is perhaps prepared to do as little for his 
country as any man on earth, but while he holds his 
country's interests as of no moment whatsoever in com- 
parison with his own, ho yet thinks in his hoai*t that 
there is no land in the world at all comparable to the land 
of Iran. I believe most Persians who should bo sentenced 
to perpetual exile, and wanted that they would be liable 
to be condemned to death if again found upon their native 
soil, would, like Shimei, be unable to resist the tempta- 



«>»«^ 



6 A 1118T0KY OF PKR8U. 

tiou of viewiug ouco more what is us dear to tliein as 
Jerusalem was to the descendaut of Judah. 

By the way iu which Persians in other huids talk of 
their own country one would imagine that Persia was the 
most charming region of the whole world. Its climate, 
its water, its fruits, its houses, its gardens, its horses, 
the shooting it affords, its scenery, its women, are all the 
subjects of the most unquaUlied praise on the part of the 
Persian in Europe or in India. In the midst of the 
evidences of European splendour and luxury he boasts 
how superior in every respect is his native land, and 
while partaking in Em'opeon society and dissipation, he 
longs to drink once more at the fountainheod of the wine 
of Sheeraz, and to listen once more to the recitation of 
the odes of Ualiz. 

fP^rsia is peopled by men of various races. A ver}' 
groat proi)orlion of the population of Persia is composed 
of wand('ring tribes, that is of a largo number of famihes 
\ who pass a portion of the year in the hills. It is in this 
\ sense only that they can be considered wanderers. They 
linvoi'iably occui)y the same pasture-grounds one year 
I after another. Their chiefs are possessed of great 
lauthority over the tribesmen, and all dealings between 
the government and the tribes are earned on through 
tlie heads of these divisions. Tlirougli the chief the 
taxes, wliether in money or in kind, are paid, and 
' tlirough him tlie regiments which his tribe may furnish 
ore retruitcd. The oflice of chief is hereditary. The 
tents in whiih the IribcHmen dwell are for the most part 
composed of a light framework of the shape uf a bee- 
hive. This is covered wuth a coating of reeds, and 
I above it is placed a thick black-felt. It has bvxt o\\<^ 



TIIK WANDERING TRIBM. 7 

door, and uo window or chimney. Tbis is the Tnrko- 

inan tent, which is used by tho Sbahsovond and other 

Aribes, but tho Eelyats in central Persia make nse of 

/tents of auodher constnictioni with flat or slightly- . 

sloping roofjj/ 

Tho provincos noar tho Persian Gulf contain many 
Arabs and men of Arab extraction. Such are for tho 
most part tho inhabitants of Laristan, and of the country 
lying to tlio left of tho Shat-el-Arab and of the lower 
part of tlio Tigris. /Tlio Bakhtiari mountains, between 
the valley of the lower Tigris and the plain of Ispahan, 
are the dwelling-place of tribes of another race, and oi 
whom and their country very little is known. Tho 
mountains of Kurdistan give birth to a warlike people, 
who are attached to their own tribe*chiefs and who never 
go far from tho borders of Turkey and of Persia, some- 
times proclaiming themselves subjects to the Porte and 
sometimes owning allegiance to the Sh^iJ At the foot of 
one part of these mountains, on the l^ders of the lako 
of Uroomiah, there is a jilain on wliich dwell twenty- 
five thousand Chnstian families, who hold the tenets of 
Nestorius. At Ispahan, at Tehran, at Tabreez, and in 
other parts of Persia, there is a more or less considerable 
population of Armenians. At Hamadan, at Ispahan, at 
Tehran, at Meshed, at the town of Demavcnd, and 
elsewhere in Pei*sia, Jews are found in considerable 
numbers. Tho province of Gilan is inhabited by a race 
of men peculiar to itself, the descendants of the ancient 
Gelae. The people of Mazeuderan s|N!ak, as do tho 
Gileks, a dialect of their own. The province of Astra- 
bad is partly inhabited by Turkomans ; and in the districts 
claimed by Persia, which border on Affghanistan and 



\ 



8 A niSTORT OF PERSIA. 

Beloochiflton, the Affghan and Belooch dements arc 
prominent in the popalotion. At Kermun a few HindooH 
made, and at Yoxd thon^ are about two tbonnand familic8 
of the oriffinol liro-worHluppers of Iran. But the two 
imiiripal races to be mot with in Persia are the Turks 
and the Pemians or Mongols. The former are, as a 
gracral role, spread OTer the northern provinces; the 
latter over the southern. The Persians of Mongol 
extraction for Uie most part speak only tlie Persian 
language, while those of Turkisli race speak the Turkish 
lanffjiige in preference to the Persian. 

fTlie inliabitants of Persia may be divided into two 
elaasea — tliose who iiiliabit Uio towns and villages, and 
f\ those who dwell cxcluHivcly in tents. The fonnor cIush 
remain ^latiouary duriu;; tlir grcuUT part of tlio y<Mir, (lir 
ii«-1h r onlcrMoiily Iniviii;^' tlii^ t4)\viis for two jnoiitlisduriii;^ 
tilt* hUiniiirr houU, \vli(*n it in possible to ol)taiii cool ;iir in 
the IjIIIh or upprr ^roiUhln dose by. Tlio tribes who 
dwfU ill U'UiH move from pbicc to place with the Viir)iii^' 
•masons of the year. In the sprinjj time they drive their 
llockri and henU to their accustomed pasture-grounds, 
and if they have a right to the jnuituro of mountains 
which arc iujiccessible in spring they move up to their 
hummer quarU^rH as soon as the snow dis^ippears. 
Winter fnids them on the jdains prepared, in their 
hhick tiMits, to brave its utmost rigour. These Kelytit 
triU^M KTve each a mpurato chii'f. For the lOelyuts \ 
€»f Fan« there is a heretliUiry duef called the I'lelkhani, 1 
ia wliom they all owe allegiance ; from whom they 
receive the laws that rule their conduct ; and to 
whom they pay the revenue imposi'd upon thciuJ 
Thev (*outribotc a certain number of soldiers to the 



THE PERSIANS A ROBUST RACE. 9 

Shall 's army. Very little is known as to the numbers 
and the pecnliariticR of these nomads. T he Eclyat trib es 
of Turkisli descent have an Kelkhani appointed by the 
Sliah. Besides these tnbes there are wanderers who are 
lesis numerous and who occupy a less prominent position 
— the gipsies common to so many countries. 

The Persians of almost all the denominations I have 
mentioned form a healthy and robust population. Pro- 
bably the comparatively small amount of chronic or here- 
ditary diseases amongst the adult inhabitants may be 
principally owing to the fact that all children in Persia are, 
when very young, exposed to a mode of treatment which 
must tend to put an end to the weak and unliealthy 
amongst them, as eflbctually as if the Spartan law wtTo 
in existence by whifli all dcfonnod childron were ncit 
permitted to be brouglit up. The cUmate of the northern 
port of Persia is hi winter* (exceedingly severe, but with 
all its rigour little children ore dressed in an attire which 
leaves the stomach entirely unprotected. The mortality 
amongst children is, I suppose in consequence thereof, 
very great; and the infants who survive this rough 
treatment grow up for the most part to be healthy and 
vigorous. After they have passed the tender years of 
infancy and early childhood, their education and training 
ai*e not such as to impede tlie free dt^vclopment of thcnr 
youthful bodies. [Most of the Pcrsiuus go throuj^ some 
so rt of educati on, but^JUoJL.flieir_lcarning is not i>ushed 
to any greoijcngth may be gathered from tlie fact that 
reading the Pei'sian language fluently is still a rare 
accomplishment in Persia. The Per sians gjCQW.up both 
ignoxuntj^, supfiisUtjq^ believing for the most part in 
Mahomed^^and jAJi onjUSussoin; believing in the pre- 



10 A IIMTDltr OF PKKHIA. 

•lietian* of tlicir MtotliHu^'tm aii<I astruIot,'cj'K, in lucky 

boon mhI the otSI cj-c , and in tlio occult wucn cc wliicli 

dinvM iU nunc frum tlii- Mnp- IVrNiaiift arc, tm n 

gmenl rale, not *ifV).i.] of iiit*'lIigonfe ; but llicir clcv«-v- 

. MM it tuo often nltt«I to viuit of linnesty fui<l moral 

■ ractitiKjA. Ttic riiililrrn amonpit the Aiicknt PcrsinuH, 

P «• arc told, wen; l»n;*lit to ride, to »]K!nk the tiiitli, itii<l 

to ilm* Uie Ww. TIio cliW tiling iuiiircitacd on tlio souh 

nf Utcir ninvw-iilulivrH wuuKl tutem la bo Unit nliich 

waa tan;;lit to tlio cbil^lrcii of llio SjmrtiiiiH — iiuiucly, 

mmr to allow tlwiDKclTea to bo fomitl out in Icilinj; a 

iiWhftoA. Thin lemon tlicy ocrtniiily lake to liourt. 

> thuh h ig is more diflknlt tlian to coiirict a fcrHiiui of 

W Idiog all nnlrulli, and nolliing at tbc aaino time \cfni 

coauDon than to bear the plain fiicts of a case from the 

Upa of ao inhabitant of that conntr7. 

like their aDecatora,thc motlcni Pcmians are t;iu;;ht to 
ride. The; inako nite of liij^'li-peukcd rauldtcH, and wcdgo 
thdr Ibet into flat iron slimipii, and loan wall fonvnni, ao 
that when their liornrH full tliev not only eomc with ;^ut 
*u4eiieo to tlie gronnd, hut generally find tlioir A-ct 
entangled. Nererthrlcss, they rido coorageoasly at full 
ffieed orer Iho fery worat ground, and by Uie very brinks 
of the moat appalling procipicefi. They are nttor atrangers 
to the frar that comrs of idiyidcal nerxonmesM. When 
Ihdr coorags fiuU thrm, is it too often doea, the fact ia 
to ba attributed to moral eauwa. They are nkilled in 
lb* knark of throwing Uie jrrenl and cntclung it again 
witbovt «lic« having chccke<l tlieir speed ; and like the 
I^uthiaiM of Jure, theao with their buUota as tho«o with 
llwir arruwa, eau chetk tlic pumoit of their enumieii by 
'^K^ilrUbMBifllj tnmiog round in their iaddloa and aiming 



TIIK PERSIAN ClIAKACTKU. 11 

steadily aud firing, wliilc all the time they are galloping 
before the face of the foe. A skilled Persian horseman, 
too, can avoid the blow of a spear thrown after him by 
swinging himself over the saddle and suspending himself 
by his legs until the danger be past. 

The Persian character does not seem to have, for 
the most part, produced a favourable impression npon 
KuropeauH.* But oh tho chainu;ter of no nation in with- 
out its defects, so is thon^ no people whoso characi ;r con 
be said to be wholly bad. Many good qualities are to 
be found side by side with the crimes and vices that 
defile the land of Persia. Thejjoople in general are 
patient and easily, governed. The . poorer clos&fis are 
fr^S^WliLj^Bsgcctfial. The poor are not allowed by 
their rich countrymen to starve for want of food. 



* or thr many authors who liavo deKcrilHHl tlio nio<li'm Pt'ntiaiiH, I 
rthall only lioru t\\utU' from two — tlio lute Sir H. iNiUiti^^rr, iiimI tin? lat«* Sir 
.1. Miu'doiiahl. TIk* fomicr writrn: — '* Anion;; tlicniM'lvoH, with their ('(|UhIh. 
the IV'rHians iirc alViihlc and iwilito : to their HniHM'iorM. M'r^'ilo and oInh*- 
({uiouM ; and towarda tluar infcriorM hau;4hty and domineering;. All ruukii 
aro oqually uvarieiouK, Monlid. and dishonest, wIkmi they have an o|i|Hir- 
ttinity of iN'in;; ho : nor do they care for deteetion when they have oim*o 
rea]>ed the l»enetit of their superior ;;eniuM, as they term it. Falsehood 
they h)ok upon in all caKCH where it facilitateM their endn. mtt only juHtifi- 
ahle, but hi^bly commendahlo. and goo d faith. };enrroMity, and ^Tatitudc 
are alike unknown to them. * * * •fin hhort, to cIomc tluK outline of the 
I'crnian character, I shall add. without the fear of eonfulation, that from 
■nyo^vn obser\'ation, I feel inclined to look upon IVntia at the present day 
to be the very fountuinhead of every specicM of tyranny, cruelty, roeuu- 
11088, injuRtice, extortion, and infamy, that can dis^n!>iee or |HiUute human 
ftaturo, or have over be<>n found in any a^'e or natio n." | 

Sir .1. Mucdonald obNerv(*a: — ** The IVrsiana iire u remarkably handHomo 
race of men, brave, hospitable, patient in ailverMity, utfable to Ktrun^^eni, 
and highly polished in tlieir manners. They are f^cntle and in.sinuatin)^ in 
their addrcsM, and, ax companions, a;;reeable and entertaining ; but, in 
return, they are totally devoid of many cstimahle qualtties, and profoundly 
verHcd in all arts of dt^ceit i*nd hy]K)crisy. They are hau((hty to inf(*riorH, 
obaequiouH to HUperiorH, cruel, vindictive, troachorous, and avariciouH, 
without faith, fiiendBhip, gratitude, ur hono ur.'j 



IS . A IlIHTORY OP [-RICHU. ^1 

FWhen of bmiliiM, as a general rnio, make a tinitaMe 
I fnr all Uieir ofibpritig, whetlior born in lawful 
•M. or jU«ftit'iuat«. All cUshos own wtlUii(r alio- 
_io__tlicir_Jftwfel ■ovcroign, nod niCB -conduct 
thmarlvGL infMAn t-cif h uUnr wJt li tpud imliiro luiil 
viUi till- iiiiLwiinl TuniiB iif r(>fi|ieut. On Uio oiIkt 
IiumI, unr rnnnol livu «iiimi;,'Kt IVmrnuH witlioiit Iwcnm- 
ing ftware nf llin iilMcnco friim tlic-ir chnntctiir of niuii; 
of the qaalititi* Uiat luiiltD linniun lifo tnu»<t jili^nxiiut, 
mA of tin- pmwuce, in their nUiml, of imuiy of tlio 
bsUU Mid ricoi Uiat uv hclJ eUcvlicro in dii^ruro 
bnm«iil;r. j^Tthtro Iw on; bfuut; in tnitli, in liunesty 
ID doMlin^* between miin and man, in npriglilnrtia and 
bttieftmAvnen of rliameUir, in wedded luvc, in fiuiiily \ 
lifr and fiiinilv nfT-rtion. in n-iidiiiCH to muTirirp fi<rtn»o 
nr lifi*. if tH<ei<)Miiry, fur tliu tHiblir {,'ood, in t^drmiiei) 
tovanlN iitltcni iu iwintu rulatiii{{ to roU^iiin, in fair 
|tUj tcnranli) otlioiw, in gratitudo fur past kinducsa, in 
moiettj, in a eouuiftcut oudoaToor to provido for tlio 
wdl-baiog of jMMterity — aoeb beaatjr it would be vain 
lo cipcet to meet with in Pertu^ 

Two hundred and lifljr-three nionarcha have in lac- 
t twmaa moantnl tlie I'rraian tlm>uo,* and the tbcoiy of 
tbe Fmdan eimititntiun in to tlio eflort tliat tlio King Ih 
the atatf, and tiiat all nuii live fur tlio king. Tbc 
■Btlmitf of tlio Hliab, bowovor, in krjit in rlicck by tliu 
pneqHa of tito Koran ; bjr tlio conrta ctttabliidiod for 
Um adniiniidntioD of jiwtiooi acconling to the Slieira, *tr 
viiUm law ; and by Uioso in wbicb deciaiooa are given 



COURT OF THE SlIAII. lH 

according to the Urf» or customary law. All appoint- 
ments to offices throughout the kingdom are made by 
the Shah or by tliosc to whom he delegates his authority. 
ftho Khig of Persia is constiuitly attended by u 
set^ of gentI(*mou who are denoniinaUul iwinhkhidmdn^ or 
waiters in the prosoncc^ HMiey correspond in rank 
and title to the lords and g(*ntIonii*n in wailing at 
the courts of Kuropo^ Tln^y are not only contented, 
like them, to asstmie the denomination of household 
ser>'ants, but they perfonn the actual duties of domestic 
retainers. The Shali 's di shes at breakfas t an d at 
dinner are placed upon the tablecloth by men hold- 
ing a high position in the country, sonic of them 
being the sons of his ministers, and^othera l>ehig 
themselves governors of provinces. Tlie Sh ah^s kale aii^ 
or pipe# is lii:ld by a iioblrnian, when liis Majesty 
thinks prop(*r to siiKike; and when ho loaves the room 
the royal slipj>ers are placed before his feet by a man 
who may, perhaps, any day be chosen to represent tho 
majesty of Persia at a foreign court. Indeed, some of 
the favoured aides-de-camp and gentlemen-in-waiting 
would scarcely care to exchange their position, in which 
they bask continually in the sunshine of the royal 
presence, for a mission to a foreign court, which they 
would consider at best as a sort of honourable banish*^ 
inent. fTIiosc of the Shah's personal attendants wiio have 
been appointed to be governoi's of provinces seldom or 
never care to proceed to their resjiective governments. V 
They appoint de^mties to rule in their place, >\TiiIsr\ 
they continue to stand in the presence of the king, 
subject though they be to those little inconveniences 
thnt arise from the sudden ebullitions of temper t< 




I8T0IIT or PKKSIA. 



wliicii rvrti tlif tiiililrat of mm ucriuioiiul)}' ^'ivo way. 
tA y»i»ULkitlmrl wlm um; Ui iiiirortiiiiiiln oiiout;li t'l iU'OUho 
1 Uw P'jal HJi;;cr in a(]jiiil;^(l, without iii^[>cal, ou tlio Hpol 
I to tJir (•niiwliim-iit of till! iiiuitii)(u]o, wliicli, liowovcr, <-iiii 
I gfflcrellr 1m miK)ifIi»l l«y a UtUo Oilroit lirilcrj*. 

Tlin Icnos iif Hattcry with wltich a kiQ^''H rnrs uro iti 
IVru lMi»M<ft«il from iufuiK-y, iiiif;lit ho kujijiokcJ suffi- 
cient to (IcHtrnr iDQch of thf nri^al gouJncftH of m 
I'narv'a ilu|knMtjon. The txtntt of tlio Shah aie. in tli«ir 
fhililbnntl HirmaiiiliM] hytiu vKlahliHluneiitofcorciiiouiouit 
adoLUMPs atMl tJio li<-ir-nii]iim-»t u uhhmU)- iiiunnl at a 
Ttrj oiHjr »gt> to b« tho titnW ;^Y<!ruor of the i>nn(-ii»il 
|iffmiun3 i»( I'urMA. He yot-n to rcwili' at Tal)ri.-x. iii»l 
' is tlitiK ivmnvoil fmu) llie (•niurJitiUHhiji of hi.s iiiothi'r, 
wbo in {mibahlj t]ie only person in tlie world who 
carat koflUioiiUj- for hin best intorosta to correct him 
wlwD bo on;;ht to be comK:tc(l, and to check him when 
he oaeltt to be clicckcd. Ho rccoirca thaa an artificial 
education, and bjr hriag forced at so early ou itgo to 
lake a pmiuiiicut part in pnhlic ceremonials, he Itocomes 
protnatnirty a man, wlinn it wonld bo better for htm to 
be i4ill a buy. At thr nfi)> of fnortoeu nr fifU'rii he in 
narricd to a wifo, of whom, the chiuices iin\ ho shhiii 
grows tiroil. He then marries another, and tliou a 
tliird, and bis aiideroou goes on incrcaaiug. U[t to the 
p w eot time no i>rince royal of Persia has over hail 
Um good fvitnno to tmrel alirowl. Wore tlie king or 
the lwir-ap]wrcDt to do so, many of the arta of civilization 
might, to some cxtoot, no dunU, be introdneed into 
Fwaa on bis rvtam ; bnt the risk of finding liia throne 
tluvatened by otbem is at all timet too great to admit 
of the Shall rcnturiiig to Icatc Persia. 



PGltSIAN GOVEUNMGXT. 15 

Tlio Kill*; (if Pi»rsia choosos his wives not oxcluKively 
from iiinoH^'st the princesscH or the higlily-bom Iiulios of 
tlio land, but equally from amongst the wliolo of the 
(1aught(*r8 of hin Hiibjects. Any peasant, if she bo beauti- 
ful, may become the favourite wife of the Shall, and the 
-another of the heir-apparent. The son of the present King, 
who was first tlcsignateil to be liis successor, was bom of 
the (laughter of a peasant. The boy died, as did his only 
full brother, and in his jdace the son of a princess was 
named the King's heir. It is probably to the free mhnix- 
ture of sti*anger blood hi the royal family of Persia that the 
healthiness and the unusually great personal attractions of 
the princes and princesses are chiefly to be attributed. 
• • • • • 

The Persian Govennn(*nt, as I have smd, is formed 
upon the principle common to all independent Mussul- 
man nations, namely, that the head of the state is on 
/itbsolute Tving, who is exi>ected to rule according to the 
[ laws laid down in the book containhig the decisions of 
\ the successors of Mahomed. 

In all dubious cases the Koran forms the authority to 
which both sides ctm appeal, and the meaning and appli- 
cation of the Koran are expounded by the men of tlio 
law, who make it the business of their hves to prepare 
themselves for explaining the sacred texts, and to point 
out and apply the decisions of the fathers. This is the 
law of the country, and though the Shah has power over 
the law insomuch that in cases not coming within 
circumstances specified in the written or tmditionary 
Maliomedan code he may exercise his own discretion , 
yet as being a Mahomedan the Shah is under the some 
law as his subjects, ;md Mahomodauism has too much 



16 A lIIffTORT OP PERStA. 

fofM in Pusu la reuJcr it futtc for any kiug to inteirfere 
with tlio >Iw[>cnMtioii of law occonling to llic ]iriiiciplL'8 
kill down Tor titc obncrriutcc of tlio (liKct{iloa of Mulinmcd. 
But Ibe learned <loct»n aru unlv tliu cxjioundon of the luw, 
•od nunil; gi^o tlicir o|iiuioiiH upoii points referred to tlioni. 
Thcj limro no «iiUH»ritjr to ww their iironcpta put iiilo 
practice, or to iiiAl-l «u llirir dociKidus luitii,' ciin'icd unt. 
Tb« cnfurccnioDt uf Ihu- luv in tlio proviucu of tito Slinli, 
■ad of tltc utiuinti'n niid ;^)T(.'moni in outltoritjr luidorliim. 
^^ftbe MTcrrJ^ro in I'cnta hatt niiliiuit«d power U> 
namo liiit own Viteom, and oftonrurtln to dc;;niilQ llioiu 
wlicD it miiU hi» views to do bo.J Tlio nonoHt stutn uf 
lliiogt ID «11 M>])omcdau gorernniBDta U tliat there 
lAooU be A Omul Vixe«r ; bat this post luui rcuinJued 
rafaiU in PerKia for the laart sis ye&Tn, wnoo the iliHgnurr 
of tlw lkt« 8odr Axem, wlio is one of the Teiy few eastern 
Oroiid Viiocrs who have lost thoir place witlioot at the 
■uuo tinio loHUi;; tticir life.* The Primo Miuistor, 
wlicn nieh a fiiurlionory ousts, is the alter ego ot Uie 
Shall— llie soporiiitcnileut of ever; branch of tlio otlmi- 
nistration, and Uic referee on 0T017 dispntcd quextion. 
In the tUeueo of 11 Grand Mzcer, manj' of Uic fiuictiuns 
proper to •orh a |MMt devolve on tlie Shah himself. 
PTSen ore soTerot Vizecrs in offico, each at the head of a 
I department, bat although one of them is president of 
Um coaneil of ministers, tlicy do not, out of the council 
cluunbn> owe obedience to any one save to the Shall, to 
wbom such nutters ore at present rcfemHl oi naod ia 
fonner dajn to he settled by the Onuul Vizeer. flie , 
rre wdent of the Council jaJhe_3/(Mto/-W- Mmaidi—tiie) 

) fVKwt at tW fhpftb B«)ar. !■ 



PERSIAN GOVERNMENT. 17 

Secretary of State — who is Minister of Fiuance. The 
other Yizecrsy or secrctiirics, are the ^linister of the 
Interior, under wlioni arc nil the 2)rovinciaI governors ; tho 
Minister for Foreign Affairs; the Minister of Justice; 
the Minister of Pubhc Works ; tlie Master of tlie Mint ; 
tho Minister of War, wlio is also Cominander-in-Cliiof 
of the Anny ; and the Comptroller of tlio Trivy Pui'se aiul 
Private Secretaiy of the; King. ICach of the Vizcei"s hits 
a large number of si^cretaries and dorks under him, to 
attend to tiie duties of liis particular dopai-tment. 

The Persian Government cannot be said to be a very 
efficient or an energetic one. Great confusion prevails 
in almost every branch of the administration. fTTio 
Ministers retain their power during the Shah's pleasure, \ 
and it is beUeved that one of the chief objects of | 
securing office in Persia, next to that of gauiing the royal i 
favour, is to amass as much money as the direction / 
of a department is capable of affording/^ A lmost every * / 
thing in Poivia is a (lucstion of DioiTSy. The Vizeei*s 
have not only to pay for their posts on their first being . 
a2)pointed, but th(7 have uftonvards from time to time 
to pay for the privilege of continuhig in office. lu 
return, they, as a matter of course, think it right to 
^PPb' ^^^^ same rule to thidr subordinates and clients, 
and the result is that justice is a thing to be bought, 
rather than claimed as a right, and that a man who is 
rich enough to compound for his offences may do almost 
what he pleascsj 

All governors of provinces and of towns must pay 
for their appointments, which they hold not for any 
special period, but during the king's pleasure. They 
do not, OS a general rule, exercise the power of life 

2 



t 



ir_ua 

w (ar\ 



18 A UUTOUT UY VKnaX. ^H 

auJ •luUli crvuT tliiMO Uifjr ;;iivoni ; liiit lliix niitiwrity 
i» *k-lo;(Ktul lu Uic ratrrn of Uic rliiitf iiruviiicci) of tlic 
nu|i4nj lU A <lir>tAJicv fnuu tlir rui>itjil, vucli n» AxtfrbAtfjtui, 
KaiN uitl KlmnukMui, U w futiml Uut, an a Dili-, mcD 
Kuuiu ill ufltcD uiudi kiuncr tluui wuaU bo ni[)[KNM^, 
Mcingjlul ■li»iui wi»l dooa not follow inqumcJly, but 
dapntik cUtody od Uic atiiru'e or Uie nccowitiefl of Uic 
beail of Uio SUte. U ib uo QDmimuou tbm^ fur a tunu 
to nuniu five tir tvou ten jenn kt one i*oi4, miiI wIicd 
■a ofEdkl iHitMiuii;:!! qtiiu loic goAptmiUiCiit or offioo, it 
ia* M k genonil mlot uuly to f^i to uooUi-tf, for u a 
Vatiah wuikm nach | »Q»tf mm of liw Umo^hujlllQ' : 
aoiio jo ricli i- itfaU jib wl mi jt u otit to X'Hrcluuiu I 
hintarir wioUii-r ]it».t. Tbo anlhi<rity fif tbc ^ovcn 
tif »Ji^' jiruuiHf *>r ilUliict lU u dihttunf fri'lii tlic tiii'iul 
m m gnui, Uiot fvv uf tluiw midvr it cini to Mibjuct 
U«cbwc1tvs to tlio cfluctk of liis uigcr b; making rc{>rc(ieDt»> 
tiocw ftguwft htui »t Tclinui ; but when » uutdriontity 
Lwl governor is oauiod to a towii or JiiilricL, Uio people 
oecNMioiiallj kimI a jirvMcnt to tlio tilioli, vitli a roqucitt 
Uiat tlie drmlod mlcr luay be trauafcrrod to ouotlier ^loat. 

Tlicro ia uu iQidciu of uatioual adioobi iu IVtmu. 
All tJie town* ami viUiigoa arc provided with mt^laht, 
ur priurta, wlio give iuatnctMUi to duldren ; but tlio ^ 
tvnaa njiun wliidi Uw/ do ao an wnuiged bolwcou I 
tUe DUtoAvn aud tlio iianiita of tliOM they iuhtnict. 
BojB of all agut atteuil tlieao kIiooIji, wlicio Uwjr aro 
taa^ to read tlic Konu, to read tlie Poraiau wntiug, \ 
to add aud nioltiply figuna, to write, &e. Tbo idiool- \ 
tuaatur guiaulljr recfivva a preaent from a boj'a fatJtcr I 
*m tlie aou'a bciu^; ftble to jinmre that be oui read oiiy 



EDUCATION IX rEllSIA. 19 

])art of the Koran. Tho tonuH ni>oii which n youth 
is tiuiglit tho Hlciulor auiount of iuformation which the 
vilhi(;o inHtnictor ciui convey to him are very modcrato ; 
but, U(»twithstaiu1ing thiH, education in Btill ro far behind- 
hand in Persia, that a man who can read and writo 
prefixoH the word meaza to his name by way of an 
advertisement of his ac<|niremcnt8. Girls arc allowed 
to attend a mooUalCs class up to the age of seven years, 
after which their education is confided to tho care of 
a learned woman. Children of high rank are instructed 
in their father's house by pei^Kons hired for tho puq)oso. 
Girls ai*e taught to read, and to write, and to sew, and 
occasionally their education includes some iustniction in 
Persian umsic. But the range of their ideas is by no 
means wide, and a man more instructed than a Peraian 
generally is would not, probably, find their society very 
engaging. 

An excei)tion to the rule by which education in 
Persia is left to jmvate persons, is in the case of 
the college which has been established by the Govern- 
ment at Tehran. The pupils in tliat establishment arc 
maintained at the Shali's expense during tho course of 
their instruction. The college is placed under tho direc- 
tion of the Mhiister for Public Works, and amongst the 
professors there are seveitd Europeans. The French 
language is taught to tliose who wish to study it, and 
the English language is professed and ttiught by a 
Frenchman. Tho other branches of an ordinary country 
education in Europe are also more or less provided for. 

Of late years the Shall has been in the habit of 
sending a certain number of youtlis to Franco to be thero 
instructed in medicine and in the difl*crent other branches 

2— » 



90 A iiiK'i-imr or rKiwiA. ^^ 

nf nnliiuiry liiiniiiif;. Sun-ml t>f Uioxo liiivo coiiiu buck tn 
IVitU. bill i\tfy iiru liHikril '>ii with iiii vyo of ilistnittt liy 
llw nwjuriljr I'f Uicir Icnh iiinlnictcO country uioii, wliu tuko 
etn tu (]o nil iQ Uirir jtowcr t» intivtint Uium from liaviiif;^ 
Uio ot*|iuitoiiitj uf |i(ittiii^ iu ]>nu.'tico nn^i'thiii^ tlicy iimy 
have loainol, wii] Uicrt'ly llintwinf; othoi-s iutu IIr' sliiulo. 
WlMtluir any niAtcrint rt-MiIlB will il titno follow tliiH movo- 
ment no ■•no cuii lui ji't ])rotciii1 Ui liavo Rullu-iciit ^'roumU 
fur knowint;. 

Tlii^ uultuiiiil r>-ti;(ii>ii (if PorHiti in Mnliuim-iluiiixiii "t 
lite bbcouii Bcct. Tlw IVmuiM iiiaiuttun tlio jiialii>iin.lilu 
rigtit of Ali tu Uio iuintnliolo Biificuesioii to tlio tlm>uu 
ftOil tDAntlf c>r Mnliniiicil. The ministers of roli^'inii 
COJ07 gnat inflncnce Muoiigrt all classes of the people, 
and it majr bo obaenr«il, as being Ulnstratire of the respect 
tdt by Pcndaus for the Maliomcilaii religion, that, though 
tliej are notorioady ntitmthral, Uic; do not doro to tnko 
a hU) €kat]i if it bu wliinnuttoriMl by a MujuUnl, or liif{h 
{NricMt. IuiImmI, Ihowi fuiu'tioimricii ore vrry Itilh to 
adiuiuiNtcr ootlm, for fi-ur of cnUuigliu}; a tmu hoUovcr 
in falMolMNMl. Tlio iM-t-tiliar fcutaro witli rcpird U* tlio 
rdigiou of the I'orMiaus is the extreme vcucnitiou which 
tliej fcol for tlie luviuurj of Unsacin, tho mu of Ah. 
Tbat Imam does not Mcm to have done auytliing wliicli 
iBerit«d tbo bononra that are yearly luiid to bis shade. 
Ten aoeeeauTo rqirescntationa are dovotod to tho eshi- 
bttion of his ealTvnugN ami drnth, and oucli year, ou 
Ibe fir«t tUy of tlio month of Mobnrrcm, moat PorsiniiH 
apprar rUul in the louibro garments of mourning. 
Dnriug tluU mouth oarU quarter of a I'linuan town boM 
a tkaaln for this reliyioaa npiwontatiou, in wliieh Uio 



NATIONAL UKMOION OF TllK PKIUSIANS. 21 

iinpiiHHioiiecl biiholdorn sit iu long i*o\vh rcgariliu^^ tho 
]iorf()rumnco on tho Hlugo. Tho intorior cloconition of 
thcHo theatres is sometimes ver}' gorgeous. Eiich lakrah 
has 11 patron, wlio takes care, for tho sake of his owii 
reputation, tlnvt tho interior be suitably arranged. Tho 
one whose patron is tho Shah, is, as miglit bo sup[>osed, 
the most magnificent of all. His Majcmty assigns Ui 
tho merchants of Tehran the honourable task of decomt- 
ing the difToront portions of tlie royal lakrali, and tho 
merchants gladly respond, at their own cost, to tho 
invitation. 

His majesty and all tho court are present at the 
different representations, and no cost is spiu*ed for the 
dresses of the actors or the illumination, of the stage. 
So dear is this performance to the Persians tliat all 
classes contribute willingly of their wealtli or their 
labour to render it successful. The experienced nwollalut 
who arc employed as stage managers may bo seen hurry- 
ing through the town on their mules, going from ono 
iahruh to another t(» give tho benolit of their experic^nco. 
Singers lend thi*ir voices to swell tho mouniful cliant. 
Jiittle children are brought on the stage, and repeat their 
parts with suiin-ising correctness, and with much feeling. 
The owners of the finest armour lend their ghtteriug 
helmets and burnished coats of mail to deck tho warriors 
of Yczeed. Carpenters work for nothing in constructing 
the tiers of seats for the audience, and soldiers couk* 
forward gladly to represent the contending hosts on the 
Arabian plahi. If by any accident a man be killed 
during tho performance of the Tazeoah it is considered 
that his soul goes directly to the regions of eternal bliss, 
if anything go wrong during tho representation it is 






A IIISTOKr OP I'KIMtA. ^M 

! to bo a ni^ nf Uie itisploasnro of tlie A1mi;;]ity. 
Id thin jetr, IHM, a riolcut Ktonn took jilacc tliinDg tito 
hnlj Any>* at Trhnui. Ikfom tlio flcrce volaino of <liiKt 
■J)<1 wiixl ir-nt atifT tent Wrut dnwii, inflii-tiii;; iloalli iiiiil 
iiijniy nu tiin^ witliiii, uml ilvKtroyln;; u coniitloHH 
ann'tiut irf iin.iicrly. Sn tlira u ctiltimily iniint liavo 
fMllowml A ii|«wial fifTnii-p, atnl tlio prifwU (Ui>l Iinly im-u 
wcro uot liKi}; ui Gtuliu;: rnit tlio rciinott of tlii-i <]ittj)lny of 
dm «nU]i of licsTuo. Tliirro in niimn;,' the prioHtliaoil of 
Tclina s MooZ/aA wIiorp rriniirkiUilo ioHn ontitio liini 
lo bo niiitibcnvl nraont; tltr sqiih of tlinuiW. He van 
Um filToarito ilirino of Uio eaiiitiil, aatl Iiim lirctliri'u 
wrn Mifilrirntly jcnlnaH of liin nci|iiir<>iitontji atnl of 
kb pojiiitimtjr. Ho van ntlimltj>it to [itvacli in tltu nmU- 
roon», mill wiia mppoitnl to bo a inun oltogctlicr ituiuiicit- 
late. It fame to b« known, liowcrer, that, like tlto rigiiUy 
TirtDona Calo, he wan not inBensible to tlio cliaims of 
wiiif, v\t\ hiH enemies took caro that ho sbonld be ono flay 
poblidy iliitroTcnHl in a itate of dronkonnosa. Ho was 
brooght brforo tlic chief prioKt to roceivo a arntonce, 
which waa proportioned rather to the scandal that ha<1 
been ereatw) than to the rarity ot his offonce. He wb» 
condemned to a emel and dcgmtliog dentil ; a jicnalty 
which, liowi-Tcr, on tlie ore of tlio dnya nf tho fofltivnl, 
wan remittal by tlio Kliali, who is a lover of tho highest 
attribntc of kiupi. His MajOHty furtherinoro commanded 
the eloiincnt moollnk to preach on ono of tlie days of 
itukurrrm, wliich day waa followed by the occarrenee of 
the storm that swept away the royal Taxeali, and thos 
the other priests bad no difficnlty in divining the caose 
of the hnrricane. 

Ero the rojal teot had lallen, a laat effort was made 



XATioXAL nrj-jiJO!C or tiik persiaxs. 23 

br a saiut]v mas t>» urcrt ihc co2ii2n<; calamitr. This 
faxiutic, viio wai» villi:);: lo sLow his faith Iit ucctls, 
(lei'lur<:*<1 to tlie }«r<t.indt'rs that the tent cimU never 
fall wliich contain si mi Lojv a thin<; as hinwlf. He 
tlu-nforc »|»iiiTi^I lii-i lioixt* into tho miJst of the arena, 
from whence ho inviikcil ilic niercv of Uiiu on whom 
he ca!le<L I^iit all w.ts in vjiin. A fn>sh gole at that 
iiiKtii!)t hiirlc 1 tlie tent from itii base, ami bnried horse 
and rider undrr its folds. 

Many pious shtrah* disapprove of the holy subject 
of the death of Iliissehi bciii^ ii'pri's^Mited on the stage. 
In sr)mo parts of the Shah's dominions, no theatrical 
cxhibitioii takes pliure, hnl priests re:u1 in families the 
Hiiuw. mounifiil story durin;; the appointed days of 
Moltnrmn. J)urin<,^ these days the whole nation is 
moved to bysterical son'ow to a degree scarcely to bo 
cnjdited by those who have not witnessed it. Not only 
do women and cliildren, but b(*nrded and aged men, sob 
and cry as if their lu^arts would burst, when under the 
infhuMice of the actor's performance or of the preacher'a 
ehxputnco. Nor is it only when at tho tlieatrc or the 
mos<pie, or tho prayer-meeting, that Hussein's mournful 
story is present to their thoughts. They carry to their 
houses tho impression of tho preacher's words, and it 
is no uneonunon thing to meet in those days in tho 
stn^ots of tho city a band of young men chanting a dirge- 
like Hong, the burden of which is — '* Alas ! alas ! for 



^■tliUttiry force of Persia consists, in theory, 

nd thousand men, infantry, eavahy, and 

I gfeater proportion of this number being 



V^ A BlirrURT OP l-KIUtlA. 

"P^W iufiuiti^'. TIic ciivnlrr i» nearly nil irre- 
V"**, uhI in ill goiicnj only cullod ou for loi-iil flci'vicc 
^^•r titv ehU-U iif tlic |)artii-nliir iliuliirt wlicro it in 

tx"'<nl. T]m! KIiaIi'h iMuly-gniinl ronnistit of two wyfl- 
*WiU u( regular ravalrj-, «t about 800 men each. Ouo 
<i tliTM LodiMi of liorn«i»ou iiro culled •jliohims, or 
AriM, of till) Shall, uid aro conntidorcd to liold a very 
ImoumUa statiiin in society. Tlirrc Iiuh been lutrly 
niwd auotlicr iintiill tro(.[> of boily-pUiirdK kuowu by 
their weoiitn>iiiftntH of silver. Tlio iiTfgiiliur cavalry 
_^ am Tarioitaly habited, acronlint; to the custom of tliu 
^fenttntiy wltcnrc tliry are dmim. One small troop in Knr- 
^K^btaii u rUiI in mail and «-(mi)tl4-te lU-inoiir. Tliora oro 
^Hbmtt S,noi> artillmnion in tlio IVntian nrmy, and tliiH 
^^IfBtich of llti- wrrirr is by an innuiM b:idly cr^iiiiizcd. 
b ia tbcir artillery tliat givcH to the Persians tho advantage 
in tilctr eontoxtft with the Tnrkomaii tribes. 

TIw IVntian soldicrx nflonl cxceUeot matcriiil for an 

anoy, bnt the military riyHtom of the conntr}' \n snch ax 

ti* tirntruliiut tho fpnn} (jnalitint of the ])rivato KcntinclH. 

l\Tiaaii iHiidirn aru iiMtnmlly and individually Hullicit'ntly 

brat I', Tlii-y arc n-niorkubly lionly, |taticnt, and onduriu;;. 

j TWy rvqniri' ncarccly any bagyiifto, and can mon-h tliirty 

/ uilcK a day for nuuiy saccesuTO dnyK, while living on 

' votliioh' but trvad and onionit. They iiatiently oudnro 

aluKMrt any tiratincnt, lioworer hanl. Thrir jmy is alwa^'H 

kqit iu aimfH. generally for two or three yiiirv. ^Micn it 

M iMiin] tlic mm do not rocdvo it in full. The lieotonaut- 

cvlour) of a rctfimrnt exada a certain contribution from 

tlw cajitaiiui, who in torn demand a sum for tlicmselvoM 

bam tlie aoldit-ni, and m on. ■ Enlwlmcnt is comi>iibKtry, 

rwfa diatiirt mud each tribe being obli){od to faruiih ita 



TlIK PERSIAN ARMY. 2^*1 

quota of mon. A^'or this service there arc no vohmtcers, 
\UH the hardsliipH of a PerBian HoUlier'H life are too well ' 
known throu^^hout the country to huhico the peasants 
willingly to encounter thejyaj Each regiment is rccniitod 
from tlic district where it was raised, and the men serve 
not for any specified period, but until they are no longer 
capable of serving. In their old age they may obtam 
their discharge and find other occupation for tliemselves, 
or bo thrown on pul)lic charity. The Persian regi- 
ments are not generally iirovided with a surgeon, but the 
hospital arrangements of each coq)s are under the super* 
intendence of the commanding officer, and they are bad 
or not, according to his honesty or capacity. 

There is no commissariat department in the Shah's 
army, and all baggage is carried by asses. The troops 
are armed with percussion muskets, which are now 
supplied from the Persian arsenals. As the soldiers are 
generally without any ready uumoy, and get no rationsi 
^hey receive permission to work as laboureji^n the 
fiidds, or as modmnics. It is on the proceeds of such 
labour that a large portion of the army nuiinly sub- 
sists. The officers, excepting those in the higher 
grades, occupy a very modest i)osition in a Persian 
social point of \iow. An officer below the rank 
of major is not considered to bo a gentleman. .411 
grades in tlie army are filled up from favour or from 
bribery, and consequently there is much incapacity to be 
met with amongst the officer in command. As a 
general rule they have little or no knowledge of military 
affiiirs, and they have as little reliance on themselves as 
their men have confidence in them. They are not 
wanting individually in physical courage, but their moral 



^■18 A iirm-oitr of pbrsca. ^M ' 

^^tMkmilA$miitnVtrj> in tlio lioiir n{ Imttlo snj^bpietA 
■Ml tnMM ol wUefa tb7 w^ b* poMSMd. The 
ilMi Imm aok iitawtiMB MAeiart to indnea tiMm to 
fcM teft, «Bli^. te «Mr OMulqr's-Mk^ and Om 
Mi« ttwl Hw Mtk ban luiOur ikfll 
» trnmHj tak* to i^ bdbn » dfltor- 
I n i | i M iil. TU ftnfaa ngbnento an tnOned 
lAv At Bvq^aM MHHT t ttiaj an taaglit bjr a oDiubar 
«f farinaton af dUfanat Konpaaa aationa, bat theaa 
•Mm Ml M iMwaiil in Um Fanfan anny. Tlidr 
Vbmn aaa k » gnat naaaan tbrawn amy* owing to 
fta iMUk iririek invaib at gnatinff a iHula ret[imeDt 
hmm «f Aamm fa rix «r oi^ Diantha toeatber—a 
%mm nUdi ia aftaa aoaealad to a enpa on oooditiMi of 
ito nlitiqaiahtng iti eUiiui to airt'orB of pay. 



^^ TIm rontlitioiu to wliicli workiii*.' inni iu I'orHiu oru' 
■at^cetotl nry to m evrtuin (Ic^rroo in tlio (UfTcrrut ]>ro- 
vineM at tlio kingdom. I vlinU oiulcavonr to Htnto wlmt 
their lUc otUn u in tbo (liiitrict« near tbe city of Tclirau. 
TWg/alth, or labnnn-r, is roMly to undcrtako nlniOHt any 
dearriptioD of oecn|»atinii. Uo vorkH in tlio city as on 
aaaatant to a nufton, mixing lime or i-an^'iiig brickH, 
ar, if bo bo wanted, lio in e<iimlly rondy to give uid iu 
tba cnltiTatioD of pin1o»H or flcblH iu tlio couutry. 
Hia vofkiiiK boara are from Minriiio to iinnBot cacli 
day of tbo wock oxrc[tt Friday, wliicb in generally 
abaoVTcd aa a lUy of rcMt. About tcu oVIock bo baa- 
as faiterral of balf an Iionr for brpiikfiiat ; aud from 
MM to two oVlock ho rviAn again to toko fooil, to any 
Ua iwaycm, and iioiiu)tiiUL>x to ido<>p fr>r a littlo wbilo. 
SSm genrrally worka in a laxy matuutr, and nxioina to ba 



LABOURERS AND VILT^VOEKS. 27 

kept niuler tlio cyo of an overseer. Fo r^a Jay'n labo nr 

ho rccciYCs, in Tehran, a sum varying from Sjtf. to ll d.p 

according to tlio soiison of the year, and in the comitry 

ho generally receives rather moro than at Tehran. In 

the winter ho is often out of work, and in the spring- 

time his labour is cheaply bought; but as summer 

advances he is more in request, and in the autumn liis 

wages are at the high(>st point to which they reach. /t)f 

the sum which ho daily earns ho spends generally about 

one-half or three-fourths for his brealdiust and dinner 

and clothing, and he lays by the rest against the >vinter, 

when he will have nothing to do ; or else he sends it to 

/liis wife. The Persian labourer is, as a general rule, a 

I married man. If ho have to go forth from his nativo 

. village in search of work he usually leaves his wifo 

: behind him. If his wife have children she does not go 

' out to Komce, but if hIk; be unencnmbered she often 

i takes employment in the household of some gentleman. 

The wifo of a labouring man in Persia, although sho 

seldom docs any work in the fields, can assist her bus-- 

\ band to some extent in earning the breail of the family. 

She can undertake the making, or the mending, or tho 

washing, of clothes, and she can utilize her spare time in 

preparing cotton -twist and in various other ways. Her 

clothes, and those of her children, if she have any, aro 

tho reverse of costly ; her husband weara but one suit of 

garments in tho year ; and the house-rent they pay is 

light. The staple of a labouring man's food is broad, 

which commodity is usually sold at Teln*an at the rate of 

one man (or C] lbs.) for 8 shahis, or 4</. J)eef is cheap 

and abundant in winter, but it is not eaten at other seasons 

of the year. As a general rule Persian peasants oat 



I 



SH A UMTOBT or TKIISIA. 

iiiOKt Uircci or fimr liiiim o wDt-lt, if tli<*y niiDint iitTurd 
to rot of it cn-ry Haj. In Uio nntmnu U»\v milt 
iiinUiui for Uie wiiit<T coiiMunpUnn. '■niojr^tiijo)' n 
plrntilut >>n|>iil,V-iir/fiillc, fliiicM!, miilrif'O. Mntluii i'* 
UMiMll/ M'M al fmiii IwiiiH-iini to Uin.v))uui'i' t» tlio 
|maih].- llieo in Uiu iirtido uf foml tiiiwl in ilfiiiiitnl ; * 
Tvj^UUcii an dt(-ii|), niul of vuritmN Itiiiilii; niid fruil, 
incliiiling f^npcs, iimlbcmM. laoluns, luid wntrr-inoloiiit, 
IN in tlio Miintncr iiu<l atilMinu moiiUti* (!Xov<'<liii(;ljr 
abondwtt, *ii(l t4i Ixi liod iit the Inwettt imn^uml'lu itmcit. 
SlirriMcU luid it-o an witliin llic mRonii uf Uio )imin-Hl 
iwoplu, Mii'l, ulUif^rtlicr, ill iVH]t(H;t uf diet, tliu coinUtiod 
uf Uio WxMiriiiit uiBii it) runiu coii kur a fikvoimililv 
eotn]<nriM>u with tlint uf tliv {M-tiMtiit of iiiOMt nihor 

Much linit Itccii iMiitl uiiil writtoii rci^onliiig tho 
4>p|>rGwiion to wlitcli tin- country' pojttiliitiuu iu I'l-ntiii ore 
MiKjcctcd friitn tlioMi |»liu-c<l in aatliority over thorn, or 
from powerful iwrmiuigCH wlio may pua thmn{;li tlicir 
ilistrieta. Bat, wliatcvcr tuity \tc the cnse iu uUicr i>arts 
of tko eoantry, in the immodiktc nciglibourhood of the 
rapital the rural popoUtion are not subjected to mach 
liabitaal lyfanny. They pay their conlribiitionB towards 
Uie Mipport of tiio QoTenimciit, ami mijiply their iirujior* 
ftiou of Noldien fur tlio iruiy, and if aiiy uiio attempt to 
|iel cxaetioM iiimn thoiu tiwy caii iiiiiku ttifir voice 
brwnl liy tlioir IniullonlH, or, if nrciMMnry, hy tho KItali 
liitiuolf, who hiM roroiilty i<Mtahli>t|iod a wuy for roceivint; 



Ikr aaM •( Alm-i ilmliwlm. Tk* IVtMMi wonl far pitalu m Ibrt ■ 



LABOURERS AND VILLAGERS. 2i) 

pctitiouH (liroct from any one whoniHoovor. ffho oceu- 
KionK on wliich IVrsiiin vi Hugos suflor niotst arc when 
gov(»rnoi'H or princos piuss tlironfjli a disfrict on their way 
to tlioir poHtH, arcompanird hy a nunierous tniin of 
exacting followoix. A royal progress, too, is a soiirco of 
no small loss to tlie population of those partn of tlio 
eouutry through whi(!h the king passes. His ^lajcsty, 
it is true, pays liherally for all the provisions supplied to 
his numerous ti*avelling ostahlishment, but it is to bo 
feared that the money so given by the king never finds 

' its way into the pockets of thobo whom lie intends to bo 
its recipients^ The king is for over on tlu! move, and it 
occasionally happens that when he luniounces his inten- 
tion of honouring some particular province with a visit tlio 
inhabitants, so far from feeling elated, send his Majesty 
tt large present in money in cmler to induce him to 
spare them the intended honour. 

The Persian peasants* recreations are the yearly- 
recurring festivals, when work is wholly or partially 
suspended. These are the new-year, the gathering of 
the harvest, and the seasons appointed for observance by 
the religious authorities. Every village in Peraia is 
supplied witli a bath, which is a source of great enjoy- 
ment to the villagers. iVn ice-house is attached to 
each village. The houses occupied by the Persian 
peastuitry are suiliciently (*om fori able, and generally 
contain felts or carpi'ts, and such iu*(i('les of domestic 
furniture as are necessary for the use of a family. 

I Althougli slavei'y exists in Persia all field-labour is free, 

\ the slaves being only emploj'ed in domestic service. 

I Persian Mahomedan peasants are not even tied down to 
on$ jspi^t^ but can go from one Tillage to seek work, in 



A nwruiiY ov 1'Kii.sia. ^H 

■*) aiwonliiiji to Uwir owu ciiiiVonit'iiCL'. IWIi 
'rfl lwiiP^i howjaMTi- lnM »_]uilrnti, or ftiq<litl-ii>rd, atwhoin' 
"K! W n tU n |in r"'i'H "'•f* ill ciitcrtuiiKHl on tlio recur- 
""" *f tflft Jtv\f ^IMtf All I'erxiuui of any couso- 
qoinee Tff*'f'ftf" & lugo nimbcr of idlo retainers uWnt 
Umib. who eontnliato DoUiioft to iitt gmvral weoltli nf 

tlMCOODlrf. 

TIm c law of mpt|_vlip_ ubtuin tbuir doily UcilJ byi 
Uw dmritjr of oUit-n in uli*i> vorjr nniiicnmit in I'crHiu. 
TUrm uo no iHwr-kww or worlilintixi'M, mul, tluToforu, , 
til prirato rlituil)' in left Dio liuk i»f ntlicvinti tlir vviutU of/ 
I iuilihtiit. If Kiii'li n-livf wi-ru nuly i<xU-ii(l<-<l Ui tlitf 
*, tlic n(p)d, ttuti ttio inlinu, tlio calU ii^hju tti« 
chiritoMc woold bo eoinjvtiutivcljr Hligbl ; l)ut I bvlicTa 
liic fcTtaUr i>r.']"»rtiou *if the Wjigure of IVTHift U> bo i-onil 
pe«d of ftUcbtxluNl tuf^ii, wlin luck do mcaofi, oxcc-jit tboi 
wiQ, OMsnarj to oiutbb! tlioin to uuni tlicir own bread. J 

Tlie tratpmilT of dfrritln-' or ri-li;,'ioati RioiiUicants is 
•ftraul otrr tlio foiintry. Tbt'y uru for tlio nioHt [Mirt an 
i>iilorlMiiin}{ Mut of mm, wbo <<iijoy Uw phmI tliiii;^* of 
Uiu lifv, Mill who KiiiH-al for rlitirily, not to ntiy iiliyHiviil 
cUiiu to it, but to ttii-ir n:li},'iuii(t diameter iwluly. Tliuw 
naeloM ioomU.-n of wirioty arc of two cIowch, — tluwo who 
rawl« in tomiB und livu at tlicir tiuto iu tbo luidiit of 
tittir SuniliM, aiut those who muku a vow of ecUWy, 
aad wbo wander aboot tho coouU-y. The distiDgniibing 
Wlgn of the fint of tlicse two cUmsos arc the Jrrruh'i 
cap, tho peeotiarly Hliai>od axo cturictl over tliO shoQldiT, 
■imI tho watcr-cnp ttlunj; uvtT tlio anu. Thuro uro hun- 
UlttU of Ummo jovial bc^cp^nt ■catti.Tnl over I'tnun, aud 
luauy 0^ tluMo iu Tcliruu liiid thuir vuiiiloyuivut m 
Incntivo (hat thcjr an ouaUvd hj it (o live iu well- 



UKLIGIOUS MENDICANTS. ;)1 

appointed liouHcn, uiid to cat oi the fut of tlie laud. They 
liuvo a chief >Yho diK])oscH to a certain extent of their 
gainH, and who ansigus to eac;h derrish the post he is to 
occupy on the annual occasion when the house of each 
wealthy person in Tehran is besieged by a member of 
this brotherhood, who refuses to quit his position outside 
the door until he has received his contribution. The 
dervish pitches a small tent or covering for hunself in 
the strceti and makt^s a snuiU plot of ganlon benoiith it, 
and there ho nits from morning till night, and nearly all 
night througli, until he has received his money. When 
ho lias been suitably paid ho retires at once, and tliero is 
no fear of another taking liis pLice. But if the master 
of the house be indifferent to the inconvenience of 
having a spy constantly at his gate, whom there is no 
dislodging, the dirvish after a tunc has recourse to 
other measures than the mere display of patience. 
In the dead of night he bhiws his honi under tho 
windows of his victim, and tlie sound of this blast is 
considi^red ho peculiarly unlucky, that tho master of tho 
house is at once besot by all within it, and enlreaU^d 
no longer to defer giving his contribution. The dervish 
does not have recourse to this extreme moasure until 
he has allowed a suitable time to elapse. He probably 
thinks it his duty to earn his money by remaining at 
the gate for some days, and it is also a sign of import- 
ance to have a dervish at one*s door, and therefore the 
house-owner is in no hurry to remove him, so long as 
he abstains from using his horn. 

Tho dcrrishes who take a vow and romu about tho 
countr}' may be supposed to be inllucnced by motives 
of religion. They are often thinly clad, and if tliey 



ai A uwroRT or nuou. 

neam much in dnritir thej da aot seem to iuJnlgo in 
■■Bj toxnrii-t. Tkrir IicaiIs ud bore, %ad Hunt u^Hict 
■ltop;11i(!r nrh a» to upeu tUo liMJt* ut tbe dioriUblo. 

Itc^iilcN Ui:> ilcTTwItrK, Uicra an ttuatj firofvmiaiin] 
krcpuv in ■!! tl>o I'J^'ii* of IVfWu Id Xvlinu llicy 
had MO incTciuinl in ntiiiilM'ni, tlint iti Uic rciur liWii 
ftll Ufxus wrrc imiliibitMl from oHldiit; fxr cli^rit}' tii 
Uw ciu. Mmij of Ummo are real olgod* "f uu-rcy — 
Ute litit, Uh ituumcd, uid tlto bUixl — biit iuhiiv uf 
than dao an ■trotig nu'n who odIt jtut ou the 
afftaaaua of IjIuhIdcm id onW lo ilniw ilomi jHty. 
Bat ^Mi timj viuit iu tt'ol cIaIuis t]io,v j;oiicnill,v iiutko 
Bp for in the ijiiqacuee »u<l luadncM and pcntt-'vonuico 
«itli vhicli Ui<<jr luik for aluu. Thero u no hour of 
Ibe day, ud no dty of tbo ireek, that does not, aceord- 
iog to tticm, wom to afford a ipocoal reason why i>coplc 
•bould at tluit particular time ho chftritahlc. It voiild •com 
to ho Ih-U hy Uicni an U'inj; ahnotit beyond qncHtioii, that 
• iwiklinuit wlio JtuiuuidK itbnit ou tlto uiglit of Friday 
m vntttkxl tu rocdTc relief. A t>till more cogent rooiiou 
ia tbo reeunroKC of any fciiNt-dny, audi lut tliot of thu 
birth of Mahomed, or of All, or of HuKaciii. One in 
SMkcd far the aako of God, and lor tlic tuiko of tlio 
holy l*rophet, lur tlic iwkfl of tlto bletwod Aii, and of tlio 
luattyrcd luuuu, or fur tluU of tho revered Zcinnl- 
AboJcin, t» take pity uii tliv iKtor, and to relievo their 
neeeaatiua.* A littlo dattcry, too. is generally applied 
to tha paHMtn-hy. A donicatic aer^-ant i* called a 
khan ; a ayod is loudly nuuiwlod that ho is tlia 
ilwerodimt of tlie blcaaod PrDphet ; and a reMi>cetabIo 

^ Ifa t^wa^wi pam. thrx >ill aiimil i> iW uhw at HmM Khm, tlw 



TRADE WITU EUROPEAN NATIONS. 83 

Persiaa goctlomau is boldly aJdrosseil as a prince. 
The mendicants often sit in groups of twos or thrcesi 
and while the one makes an eloquent and touching 
appeal to the feelings of the passers-by^ the others 
omidiasize it by tlio wonls ** lllahi anucn I " — ** Oh, 
God I amen I" 

• • • • • 

Within the hist thirty yeax*8 an extensive and flourish-^ 
ing trade has sprung up between Persia and various 
European nations. Cotton, silkworms, silk, wool and 
other raw produce, are exported to England, France, and 
Russia, and in return Persia receives manufactured goods 
and ai'ticles of luxury from Europe. A s the inii)o rts 
exceed the exi)orts, Persia, ia_ each jeftr drained of a very 
considerable amount of gold or of silver to mfikq up the 
balw$p* The quantity, indeed, of precious metals which 
must have boon collected in Persia must have been very 
c(>nsid(!nible in order to have withstood for so long the 
drain which has been now going on for years. It is the 
opinion of some European merchants that money will 
soon become so scarce in Persia as to reduce the imports 
to the measure of the exports. Money bears in Persia 
a value beyond that which it has in almost any other 
country. The legal rate of interest is twelve per i^unt., 
but no money, as a general rule, can be obtained on 
such easy terms. Twenty-four \}ox cent., with ample 
security, is easily obtained for a loan, and sometimes as 
much as sixty per cent, a year is extorted by usurers in 
contributions of five per cent, a montli. Were the Persians 
given to taking tliought for the morrow, they could very 
easily either provide in their own countiy many articles, 
— such as sugar — which ai*e now imported from abroad ; 

8 



y ■ 




84 A HISTORY OF FERSIA. 

or, on the othor hand, thoy could, by making moans of 
commnnici^tion botwoon tho interior and the seaports, 
yaro tho way for an indofinito increase of tho exports 
irom tlieir country. But political economy is not as yet 
studied in Persia, and things go on year after year from 
bad to worse, the experience of tlie past leaving little 
room for hope of any ameUoration in the future. 

It may seem strange that there should be a very 
large consumption of wines and of spirits in a country 
the bulk of the people of which are Maliomedans. Such, 
however, is tlio case in Persia. Wines are valueil for 
their intoxicating qualities and not at all for their flavour, 
and tlierefore tho inferior wines of the country are more in 
demand than the costly produce of the grapes of Europe. 

Persia, on tlie whole, is an unusually healthy country, 
but there are certain diseases which are more prevalent 
amongst Persians than amongst many other nations. 
When one bears in mind the great elevation of the table- 
land of Persia, the numerous chains of mountains with 
which the country is intersected, and the consequent 
variation of temperature to which the people, living as 
ilicy do in a sunny land, are exposed, one learns without 
surprise that fpygy s prevail to a great extent amongst tho 
Persians. For another reason this comphiint prevails in 
tlie low-lyuig provinces of Persia, namely, because they 
are overrun with moisture and with vegetation, and tho 
hot sun produces mahiria. This could in a great measure 
bo remedied by draining. Consumption is rare amongst 
Persians, al though j t is not altogether unknown. I^^sen - 
tery ifl a £QmmonJjsQjise amongst them, and chol^m. 
and s mall'pox i iaye at intervals made great ravages in 
that_fifluutry. Diseascs^ofjhojojo are also exceedingly 



INFLUEXCC OP CLIMATE AXD HABITS. 85 

froqucut, the «jlaro ovorywhoro boiug very strong iu 
summer, and dust-storms boiug constantly encountered. 

^uring the last two thousand years, whoso history 
wq possess, Persia has been repeatedly overrun by foreign 
I conquerors, and the 8o<|uol of each conquest has been 
/the same, — namely, that the inlluonce of cUmate and of 
I luxurious Persian habits has relaxed the energies and 
the original virtues of the inviulers, and disposed them 
in turn to fall victims to another conquering ^leople^ No 
truth is more plainly written on the page oT miiversal 
history than that a foreign race loses its distinguishuig 
qualities unless continually reinforced by recruits from 
its native land. The last complete invasion of Persia 
occurred sufficiently long ago to admit of time having 
softened down the enthusiasm and the energy of the 
conquerors. The races who at present inhabit Persia 
have become habituated to tlie climate, and are as much 
the growth of the soil as are the castor-oil plant and 
the pomegranate. The dry, rai*efied climate of the high 
table-laud of Pei*3ia redeems its inhabitants from sluggish 
dulness of the imagination, but it does not redeem them 
fi'om the hstlessness produced by the Eastern sun. 

The inhabitants of Persia are contented with their 

/condition and detvd to all desire of progress, to which 

/indeed their religion is a sufficient bar. Under tliese 

circumataucea it is in vain to look for the dawn of a 

brighter day over the realms of Iran until a fresLdDDJiant 

Ibejntroduced into its population. A demand for foreign 
luxuries may be generated by the persevei*auce of foreign 
'; traders, and some barbarous practices may fall into 
I disuse through the inlluence of Em-opean missions, but 
neither the Persian people nor the Pei*sian Government 

3— a 



f 




A luirroMY or i*khsia. 



I 

if it) 



t llie emstyy requmlo for any real ]>rogresdT( 

tiio lutli of cirilizatiou. Tlio impalw I 

f to pnNlace Mich a tuavemoiit iu Fm-tdu, if U 1 

I flMT W |n«i. miict, u in Ujo oabo of Hiudusttui, 

I bj A noo of foreign cooquerors, oiul until 

I of time bring roood s IroftU BoUlomout of 

; p4io|tlci in Pcnio, tbot comitry most hu^J 

I in iu iHTcseut eoudiUou of Bomi-ataguoUoii. ^ 



( 87 ) 



OIIAPTEK n. 

Tlic Sc'frtvocnu D}Tift«ty — VaW of lK|Mi1irtii — KxpiilMioii of Arr;^'1mnA from 
iVrHin — Xftilir Slinli-— Orijjin of llio Afr^^lnin Kili'.Moiii — Ailol Shflli — 
lliniliccin — Sliiiliriikh Mci>r/ii — lUvnl i'liiuUdiitcH for the rcrsiaii 
Tlinuio — (Miirfof tli«! Kiijiii'K — Hrnit ntiil S<>iKtan fi<l«1«Ml lo tlio An«{Iitiii 
Kintriloin — Krrrnn Kliiin — A/h«1 Kliiiii — '/somU nml KiijarA — /uki 
Kliiiii — A;^i MiiIioiiumI Khoii — Him Kmc^uim) fn»m Slioonu — All Munul 
— Jiifcr, Chiuf of the Zoiid— IIIh Son Lutf'nli Kliaii. 

In order rif^^htly to understand the history of the accession 
to power of the princes of the Kajor dynasty in Persia, 
it is necessary to go back to tlio rovohition, which was 
brought about in that country by the Affghan invasion 
early in the eighteenth century, and by the subwcjuent 
successes and conquests of Nadir Shah. Never did a 
lino of kings rule with more full consent of tlu'ir sub- 
jects than did the Sefavecan Shahs of Persia.* Thoy 
were endowed as a house with every claim which could 
command the obedience and the reverence of the people. 
They followed tlie Moslem faith, and were of the national 
Sheeah sect. They were, moreover, sprung from a 
descendant of the lawgiver of Mecca ; and to the advan- 
tages belonging to a descent from the Pi'ophet, from a 
saint, and from kings, several of them added the attribnto 
of distinguislied personal merit. For the hundred years 

* *' L'niitorit4* dcH Sopliis «*Kt mimk liornofl ; ils mit druil dc vio utdo niort 
mir Wni ni^jotM. ot il ii'oKt point lU* HiinvcniinM ijni H4ii(>nt ni aliHolnnu^nt ct 
M pronipionient ol kmh."— ^Vmoiirf f/c /Vrw*. AinHlonluni, ll-M. 

Sef aliio in tlio ]itstorioul portion of Cuaudin'h Ptr*itt. 



' 9B A nisTonr of pebsu. ^^^ 

wLicli immftliaUJj i>rerc«lc(I Uic otitbrcolt of tlic utorm 
tliot cotlol in tlie (IcstroctioD of tliis royal liouso, Uie 
CreatfiHt tnuiqnillitjr Iiuil provmilcil tliroogliotit the rciUm 
of IVrtu. 

It mu inuW tlio tronk ntlminidtrntioQ of Siiiilillniuwiti, 
lliat Uio iiDllHirilj' of Uio ;;ovonmu'lit TirKt cciihciI ti» Iw 
teli Ht llic cxtniiiitii'a of lliu i-uijiiro, luitl Llint at tt'it(>ili 
Um AJ^tKH trilN> tlirow nlT Uio rrrMinii yoke. AfU-r u 
•tzifb, ill «]iic)i ftirimiP whm for wuio Uiuo ilivitltnl Mwixt 
U«e emoUaaiitji. Die AfC-^hmiii, amhr Mnlinioutl, invnilol 
tlie (lominioQa nf tli« Slinli, onJ l«Jil sic^ to liitj caintal, 
Iqidju. AflcT B protnctcO liloel^nilc, dnring whirJi tlio 

^j■lMbiUIltM luul to ciiJnrc crrry fi]>cficit of himlKliip aikI 
— Klllj g. Itir rily fril iiilfi the IiiuiiIh nf tlio iuvmlcnt, 
wboao mutuircli, Malimoml, uiiulo liimsclf uioittrr of tlio 
crown Mill tliti iiinmo of tlio ScfiLTocuiB. Dut Uiiu 
Wkriiko AIT^'liiui wiut not jtOKHCMMod of tho <|iinlitiMi iionit' 
mij la rNtiUiliitli luid iM'qicttmtu n foroi^i rnlo in I'ithIo. 
lliu nirc<>r of ferocity wiw broii(,'lit to t cliiwi hy tlio 
cotmpitmtttr'x iliiiqicr, iiihI tiiit rvliiUvc AilinUT, wlio nur- 
croilnl liim, prufitod ho little by tito viuniug tliftt bo iui<l 
•n of bin luUiun ircro driTcii ont of tlio coantry wiUiin 
MX ymrs femi tho ibtto of tlio conqncitt of Ifquliiui. 
TliiM rrlraflc mu brnn(;lit Blioot by tlio ciKT{{y lUid jicr- 
MTrnutco of Nwlir, wlio fmm bciiif; a iwtty ruhbor iu 
Kbenmwii bml riivii to runtiDiaitl tlio aniii(>« of IVntiii, 
•ud to ni>liin< on the tbruiio tlio bi-ir of tlio Sffiivoi'iiu 
Un^^. It wuH, bowtTrr, by niraiii of lb» miwH whicli 
tbo lunie of lliat funom mco carried witli it, tlist tbo 
nnkDOvn aublirr of KbornMUt vm ablo to effect Mich 
■ifdity (Ict-ili. All tliat bi' did w«a douo in tbo lumc of Uio 
ricJitftil bcir to Ibe tbroae ; ud btd Tthnu^ poMOMcd 



KADIR SUAU. 89 

oitlicr jndgiucnt or abilities, not all the Borviccs \rliicli 
Nadir had rendered to the State wonld have snfiSced to 
moke it safe for him to supplant tlie family >vhich wero 
considered, and are by many Persians still considered, to 
be the Af^as, or miLstors, of the country. Even i^'hcu 
Tuluuiisp, by his orYom iind inciipsicity, hiul {^ivon Nadir 
the opportunity of dcthronin;; him, the wary general did 
not yet venture liiniHoIf to tiilie the vacant scat. Tho 
infiuit son of the late king >vaM put up as a puppet, 
under the guardianship of the general, and he continued 
to be the titular Shah until such time as tho new victo- 
ries of Nadir had given that ambitious man a surer hold 
on the afiections of the army and on the fears of the 
naticm. Even then his characteristic caution was not 
lost siglit of. Insteiul of openly sei/ang the regal power, 
he prcfonvd the nninnor of ac<|uiring it by the consent of 
the di^puticH of the 2>t'opU*, whom he ansenibled on tho 
jdain of Moghan. 

There, hke Ciesar, lie wont tlirough the form of 
refuHiug a proirercd crown, wliicli he at last agreed to 
accept, as it were against his inclination, and solely for 
the pubUc good. Tliis sagacious politician msule it a 
rule, while usuq)ing 11 le j'OHHCHsions of monarchs who 
were unable to hold thorn, to ally his own fiunily with 
those whose descontand position comn)aiided the defer- 
eneo of men. His eldest son was married to the Hister 
of Shah Tahmasp. His secoiul son espoused tho 
daughter of the Emperor of l)(!lhi, with whose hand 
he obtained the sovereignty of all the provhiccs of that 
empire which lay to the west of the Indus. His nephew 
contracted an alliance with the daughter of the King of 
Bokhara, the descendant of Qengliis Ehon. 




I 

I 



JUSTORV or PEILSIA. 

Xftilir, in Iiia l.*u>t year*, Ini>I iwido tho pni<1onco fiy 
tlic pnwUVc nrwliii-Ii In- linil fi.nnil Iiiawny to tlic throno. 
Tnrntii;: on ]\U moitt fiullifii] frietiilit in <]iiick tiitccoiwion, 
he uwJo it iiniMUiHiliJfl Tor nny of Iiin mil>jcctK to Imvo tho 
«li;;lilfiKt siNrnriL}' fnr lilo noil pro^x'tiy, and from Kiirli 
« »Uto of tliiu;,'8 it foUowivl, lu n mattiir of cotino, tlmt, 
•MMincr or Inter, thmic vlio roan?il for Uioir own livi-i 
vcMi]il rill UiciimcItoh of nn iiilmoinn tyrant. Tlio lilow 
which llio L-mu^iiratont struck vnii approved of by nil 
the tulinn, fXccpUug tlio fnllnwuni of oi) .\fl';,'hiin cLii<r, 
aamftl Alunal Khnii, wlio coiiimnmloil lO.lMM) Ot>xlm^» 
•Dil AITgUniiN, aiitl who tlt'tcrmiiinl to arongo tlio dcntli 
of hill OiiintL Alimnl Kluui, hnwoTcr, via* nwr- 
nutelioil. u*1 lio roliinioil willi hiii foreo to KninLihar, 
where lii' foiitnliil n kin:;i1om itt Uin own. TIin ciin>iro 
of Venii* wu tlinn tilioni of nil tho eooqucsts of Nadir, 
uhI redncvd to tho limitu nf tlio uident roalm of thn 
SofiiTofUix, witluKit tho prorinco of AfTglianiKtnn. I 
dear that tlio tuirattna of tho ovonts which Inllowoil tlio 
death «if Nndir^Klutli, may Boiiiowhnt pcrplox thr roailor ; 
Imt io onlcr ttt onaUo blni to approciato tlio prcsont iitAto 
of tliingM in Fteina, it is Dooemuiry tliat ho should havo 
■otuo idr* of the diaos ont of which it was ovnlvctt. 

Nadir wa> tneeccdol hy bis nophow All, who took tbo 
nsmo of Adol Shah. Hie first act of this pnneo on 
acqniring power was to pat to doath tho whole actual 
and possiUs pmgony of his ancle, with the exception of 
one boy, named Shatimkh Mcenu, who was tlio son of 
the eldert son of Nadir, by Fatima, the danghtor of Sbah 
Hoiaein, and who was, tbcrrforo, at the same time, the 
heir of the SeCsveeans and of the eoncfQeror who bad sap- 
pUatcd them. Adol Sliab gave oat that tbi* lad, too, 



SIUnRUKII MKRRZA. 41 

WAS (lead : indited, his only object in sparing Slmhrnkli's 
life WAS that he might make him a nominal khig, in tho 
event of tho jioople demanding a mler spnmg from their 
fonner soveroigns. Adel Shall was detlironed by his 
brother IbiiUieom, who was, in torn, defeated by tho 
adherents of Shahmkh. This yonth tlion mounted the 
throne, and pnt to death the destroyer of his father 
and of all his house, save himself. 

It might have been predicted that Persia wonld 
now, nnder an flmiablo king, enjoy a reign of peace; 
but tliere was to be no iK)acc as yet for tho un- 
happy land. Besides tlio youtlifnl Shah, tliero remained 
Another dcKcendant of tlio Sefaveean kings, and one who 
had in liis veins none of the Suni bloml of Niulir. A 
sister of Shiih IlnsHoin had been married to tho cus- 
todian of tho shrine of Imam lleza at Meshed, and 
her son conceived that ho had a l)etter claim to tlio 
throne of Persia tlian had tho descendant of Shall 
Hussein's daughter. His creatures raised tlio cry tliat 
Nadir's grandson intended to renew tho efforts made by 
that conqueror for substituting in Persia the faith of tho 
Sunis for tho Sheeah doctrines which are so dear to 
the nation. By these means he collected a party witli 
which he was able to defeat tho army which the king led 
in person against him. Sluilirukli was taken prisoner and 
at once rendered incapable, as was supposed, of remount- 
ing the throne, by being deprived of his sight. ITis successor 
was very soon afterwards in turn defeated by Shahrukh's 
general, Yoosuf Ali, who first deprived the rebel of eye- 
sight, and tlien put him and his two sons to death. 

Yoosuf replaced tlie blind king on the throne, and 
2)roposed to act as regent, but he soon found himself 



4t A illSTonV OF l-EIt8[A. 

imilcr Uie nrccMly »f tru»tiu^ uticc inoro to flic clionccti 
of bfttU«. Mcor Alaiu Kbiui and Jafcr Kliiui, two cliiuh 
vlvn catDtnauilcNl ix-HjirGtivvJjr a corps of Arul'o aiid uuo of 
KanU, joiiin] U^^ji^tJier for tlio inir]>OM of yvortiiniing tlio 
uevlj-cousUtatcJ (;ovonimciit. Uu gaiuiug a victory, 
tiirj rausi;;Dcd tliu luug oiico more to pritton, niiil doprivcd 
Ibo rr;:ait of cyotij^liL Unt it wiut uot to lio i:x]>octcd 
tltat Uro two nctftnirtu cbicOt would lou^; culimio «u 
firuoiUy terms willi cscli otliur. A tii^rcc battlv wun foii^'lit 
Wtvccii tliota, Aud Uc«r AJum rcmaiiiotl iuat>l«r of tUo 
Sc)>], uhI cftuaol tlio ayet at liw ODcm; to bu torn from 
bu lioul. 

Tlio rai>r(»iic jjowit in i'vnia. In tbosti tiiiicK, v/Ucu 
ooco oUoincJ vm uiytliiu'; but Hccurti. Two cueiuics in 
oppoato Jirodiotu wore prcpuod each to contest witii 
Uoer Almn tlio ptuo ; to lotio wbich waa, at tbo some 
tune, to loM tlie lijrlit of daj. Ouo of tiioao two was 
Ahmed Sbah of A%bani8taii, vtio, alter having couqucrcd 
Hdatao, laid sicgo to Herat tuwardu tlio eldto of tlic year 
IT-IO. SlialimUi luut ticut Yooimf, bis gciicnilt to the 
relief of tbia pUco, aud it was vliilo absent on tliia cxpodi- 
tion that that chief had beard of bis manter's defeat. B7 
bis rotirrment, Herat fell into the bands of tbo AffghaoB, 
whoae king advanood from tliouce to try with Mcer Alum 
the (ortxue of battle. Tbo event of tbo contest was 
decided by a Isoee wbiob transfixed tbe breast of tbe 
Penan, and the Allgban king forthwith laid siege to 
Ueabcd, a pUce which was defended by a gairisou of 
newly 8,000 Shecalis. 

Doting this time tliera was ui tlio flckt m UaKon- 
deraD, at the head of a cousidorBblo force, auotbcr 
|««t«Ddcr t« power, whoso nano demands osiiectol notice. 



KERKEM KIIAX. 45 

ou good toions with cucli other all weut well; but 
at length All Merdau issued orders for the arrest of 
Eereem, oud on the some day he was himself assas- 
sinated by one of the many admirera of the young 
Zend chieftain. After tliis event Kereem assumed tlio 
solo direction of aiTaii's, and by his justice, modera- 
tion and activity, he soon acquired the confidence of 
the people. The harmless grandson of Nadir was now ' 
left undisturbed iu his principality, while the three 
rivals, Kereem, Azad, and Mahomed Hassan, proceeded 
to settle, by means of the sword, the question as to 
which of them was to be the sole master of Persia. A 
three-sided war tlion ensued, in the course of which 
each of the combatants in turn seemed at one time 
sure to be the final conqueror. Kereem, when he had 
aiTanged mattoi*s at Ispalnm, marched to the borders 
of Mazcuderan, where tlie governor of that province was 
ready to meet him. After a closely contested battle 
victory remained with Mahomed Hassim ; who, however, 
was unable to follow up tlie foe, as he had to return in 
order to encounter Azad. That leader had invaded 
Gilan, but, on the news reaching him of the victory 
which tlie governor of Mazenderan had gained, he 
thought it prudent to retrace his steps to Sultaneeah. 
Kereem re-united his shattered, forces at Tehran, and 
retired to Ispahan to prepari! for a second cauipaiga. 
Whon he again took tlio field, it was not to measuru 
hhuself once more with the Ivajar chief, but to put down 
the pretensions of Azad. That waiy Affghan, however, 
shut himself up in Kasveen, a position from which he 
was enabled to inflict much injury on the army of 
Kereem, while his own troops remained unharmed 



I 



■M A nwroDT or iisusia. h 

Mdod Oto wollit of tlio town. Karoom mtii-txl a WMomi 
tia» 1<) I«]>itlum, uiiil ill till] fiillowiii;! it]>riii^' ndvuiiutMl 
■puii to meet A/.111I. A [litoliiHl IxUtlo touk i>liu:o 
Wtwrtru tliviii, ill whirti tliu aimy of Kcrooiu viah Ac' 
teaXeii. Ho rctruutotl tii the ciiidtal, doiiuly pressed by 
Uu toe. Tbcoco lie eontiiiuotl Iuk way to Sbcoritz. 
bat Aiuul WW fttill npon Im tmcnti. Ho tlinti throw 
bimwlf npon tlio morcy uf tlio Amiw n( tlic (icriiiosotT, 
or hot coat]U7, aemr Uio I'cniaii Gnir, to whom tliu niiiiio 
dT tlio AOjjliiuiM wiiM lintcfitl, uitd wlio row tii 11 liuily to 
tDrn iii>uii AxAtl. Kt-rcnm, by their iiiil, oiicu iii»ro 
l«|«in-il bis lo*iMi>H lUiil mtviLUCt'il ou iHitiUiiui, whilo 
MoIwiiimmI ILuMui with Udy Uiitiimuiil iiioii wivt coiiiiii;^ 
fmm tlw o|v|>aKlt<i iliructiiM), n-oily t<) oiusoniittn* oitlur 
Uio ArWiiu, or tbd Z,;ii.l. Tho A(T;,'huii .lid not nwuit 
hta eoming, bnt rotiml to bis govonunciiit of Tobrcoz. 

Tbo Zouil issaod from IsiMiliiut, auJ was % soconil 
thno iloft^atud in a i>itclio(1 battle by Uio Kiijar. Kerocm 
tnok Ksfngo boliiiitl the wnlls of Shoonu, ood all tbo 
efluits of tlM ouomj to di>«lo«l;,'a liim from tlicru woro 
itioflbctiuU. MationitHl Hiwhiui Klioii iu tho foUowiu},' 
year taruul liis aUoiitioD tu Axcrbaotgon. Axad was uo 
loagor in a jMMitiiiii to (^iihmo him in tlw Hold, luid ho in 
torn boeamo nuutor of oToty placo of importance iu tho 
imrineo, while jVxaJ hod to sook astdstoneo in min — 
ftnt from tlio IWia nf Baghdad, and Uiou from his 
fonoar oociay, tho Cxiur of Guorxia. Noxt yoor tho 
eooqiMring Kajar rotamod to Shoorai, to make an ond 
of the only riral who now stood in hii way. It appcarod, 
indeed, that the stmi;^ between thorn was too nneqoal 
to last long. Ou tlie aide of tho Kiyar were eighty 
thniasiiil men, cowmaadod by a general who had twice 



ZENDS AND RAJARS. 47 

dcfoiikd tho Zoiul chiof on an o<|nal field. Korooin was 
Htill obli<{otl to liiko nholtor in Shc<u*ii/i, nnd to oniploy 
artilico in order to supply the place of tho forco in which 
ho vfiXH deficient. Nor wore his efforts in this rcK[)cct un- 
attended with success : seduced by his gold, many of the 
troops of the Eajar began to desert their banners. In 
tho meantime the neighbourhood of Sheeraz was laid 
waste, so as to destroy the source from wliich Mahomed 
Hassan drew his provisions ; by degrees liis army 
vanished, and he haul finally to reti*oat with rapidity to 
Ispahan with tho few men that remainetl to him. Fhiding 
his poHition there to be untenable, ho retreated still further 
to the country of his own tribe, while his rival advanced 
to Ispahan, where he received the submission of nearly 
all the chief cities of Persia. The ablest of Kereem's 
officers, Sheikh Ali, was sent in pursuit of the Kajar chief. 
The fidelity of the commander to whom that chiefUun had 
confided tho care of the pass leading into Mazenderan, 
was corrupted ; and, as no fui*thcr retreat was open to 
him, he found himself under the necessity of fighthig. 
The combat which ensued resulted in his complete 
defeat, although he presented to his followers an ex- 
ample of the most determined valour. Wliile attempting 
to effect his escape, he was recognized by tlie chief of 
tlie other branch of the Kajar tribe, who had deserted 
his cause, and who had a blood-feud with him, in pur- 
suance of which he now put him to death. 

For nineteen years after this event Eereem Khan 
ruled with the title of Vekeel, or regent, over tlie whole 
of Persia, excepting the province of Khorassan. Ho 
made Sheeraz the seat of his government, and by means 
of his brotliers put down every attempt which was made 



49 A UISTORT or TKItillA. 



I 



liu unthurity. IIi« Irutlicr, Zcki Kliaii, 
1 Uio comptomoDt of Itis uwii ditiructur, Win;; iv!i 
I tad oiMiiikhu;; u Ki-rcciu vtoj* wiuitiug in tlint 
qiuJitj. Tlic nilo of Uto ;;ruiit Zuud diicf vsut just out! 
BuU, uhI bo if oo this wliuU, considuriuf^ hU olucutioii 
and the drfnuuluiccn aador wliicli he was jilaccJ, one of 
Iba OKMt rauItliiM cliAnirtcrtt lo 1>o met wilh in I'Li-himi 
UitoiT. llo iltiil lit Sliocmz, iu Uio mu- 177'.i, nt a 
Terr oilrmmtl n;^i. It in iiniWlilu Unit Korcum thuii^'ht 
that trom the t,'n»t tKniev* wUivlt ]io hiul rcntlercil to 
Um eoaatrj, and Irota hii nuccnuiug fiuilcnvonrH to 
Jntioo uitl to ciicoum^'o cuiumcac luul 
, Ibe MMectttioa to hiu nutliovity would witliout 
qoMtion to wcunHl to his cUset son — ^a youth who is 
■uiid to liurc HliflFcd tlio amiohte qtiaUlieH ixiHhosHod hy 
Kenem ItiiUMoir. Bat it wm to ho rogrcltod that tlio 
recent ■buold luivo iiiiulo no more dufiiiitiiro m-ttloiiiout 
liir eanyiii;; on Uiu admin istnition nf tlio country in nwo 
«f liii dciuiiw — ou cTout wliitdt, frum liU lulvuucod 11^,1), 
eooU not hmTu hceu oxpuctod to to Tcry loug dufcrrod. 
Konem left boLind him two brothon. The yoougor of 
tbcM, Zcki Khan, vUilo goromor of Ispahan, had been 
guilty of tlio folly and iugroUtado of rovoltiug against 
Lis diloat brother. Tho rorolt vas soou (jadlod, and 
Kofoom, not eootoutcd vith saruig his brother fruin tho 
Ul« which Ilia erimo dofcr\'od, liud corrictl clemency to 
Uw DUMtakvu lontttb of raiaiug Iiim to us high a iKntttiou 
as tho ODO ho had lurfbitcd. Tlie rosolt was that tliot 
nngnlcfal mau, oo the death of liii boncfactor, leiicd 
Ilia two MNta, and tuaii>cd the gororumout. Ho uoxt 
BUMacrod many of tlio chief iuhabilauta of Shccrai, 
inelinling a wimbor of offiecn who had takou poiwariou 



CUURLTY OF ZKKI KUAX. 49 

of tlio citadel for the son of Koroom, and who hod only 
surrondorod it to tlio usurper on the tK>lo(ua promise tliat 
tlieir lives would be spared. Zeki Khan, however, found 
that he would have to contend with two enemies before 
he could reign in peace. One of those was his elder 
brother, Sadek, whom he found means to put to flight ; 
the otlior was his cousin, AU Murad, against whom ho 
tulvanccd with an army. Ali Murad had been before- 
hand with him in levying the taxes due by the city of 
Yezdikhast; and when the inhabitiuits declined to pay 
their duties a second time, tlie tyrant was so infl:uned 
with rage that he ordered a number of the i^rincipal 
citizens to be thrown from the rock on which that city 
stands. These and other equally inhuman orders were 
the meims of bringing the tyrant's career to an abrupt 
close. His guards cut iiie ropes of his tent at night, 
and whilst lie was encumbered beneath the folds of the 
jMivilion, ihry despati'hed him witli their daggers. The 
son of Kereoni was now for a second time phused u^ion 
the seat of power, but he did not long enjoy it hi peace. 
He was soon doomed to experience the ingratitude of 
his other uncle, Sudek, whom he treated with favour, 
and who in return caused him to be arrested and placed 
in confinement. But AU Murad once more took up arms 
in his cause. After fighting for some time with viuried 
fortune, he pretended to the kingdom in his own name, 
for Sadek, by way of putting an end to one cause of the 
war, had deprived the sons of Eereem of their eyesight. 
Ali Murad after a time advanced on Sheeraz, and after 
a proti*acted siege obtained possession of the city, while 
Sadek took refuge in the citadel, which he was soon 
obliged to surrender, — an act of submission which was 

4 



00 A iiisTonv or rF.i»u. 



I 



I by liifl beinp deprived first of \m eymglit, and 
later, of hu life. IIU mrb luid jtrandaons, with one 
cscqitioD, kbarod Uia mudo futc. Tlio ouly one of the 
liuniljr wbo wwi i^uvd wns Jafer, the luUf-hrothcr nf 
All Mttrwl hy Lu inMln-r. Ho hnd diKapprnvod i>f Iuh 
fiUhrr'a MnI>itiowt dcK^pis, aud ho livod to till liia 
tlmme. 

Ill the time of Kcrw-m Uio povernment of I>mn^hftii 
liad bcoD rotilidnl to Hus»eiii KuU Khau, tlio KOcoud tton 
of Miihiiiunl IIuBhiin Khnii Kajar, whu hnd taken ndvan- 
Upe of ft fiivooniith: o])|>ortuiiity to rovolt. He wns 
dtjfostcd hy tho brother of Kcrecm, and forced to fir to 
tiM! TnriuHHim*!, \>y whom )to wah koIxoI and )>nt to 
dcalli. Ai thn dentil uf Krrcrm, Apii Mnhoinrd ICliiiii, 
the cidfnt of Uie iiiiiP whih of Muhoiucd lIiiriNau Khan 
KjtJMT, iDftila his cttcaiw from the city of Bhccnz, There 
h« bad been detuned u ft boatago. 

Tlio followiiig ix tho maiiDcr j» whic]i this CMftpc 
wu cffeetod. The uitlcr of Moliomcd Husson Klion, 
after the deatli of that chief, became tlie wife of Kcrccm 
Khao. This tad;, Kliadecjali Begum Khanom. was tho 
mirtreaa of the harem of tho Zend chief and was con- 
ac«ineuUjr in a ^raoition to bclricnd bcr ncpiicw, Aj^ 
Uabouit<d, witli whom idio was in tlio liohit i>f comiiimii- 
catiii); throapb bis \»tgfi, Soloininu Klion Kiyiur. Whiii 
her biinbaud vsm at tlio point of death* slio scut a 
uiMMh'u to her nqtbew that if he rcmainocl in Hlioonut 
be wiiold, afti-r tlio demise of KtTCcm, ho |>at to doutli 
by tha chiefs of the Zend. Aga Mahomod, apun loaniiug 
tliia, left Sbceraa on a hmitiog exeunion in the neigh- 
boortuiad. ^lien news was broogbt bim of the death 



ESCAFK OF AQA MAHOMED FROM SDEERAZ. 61 

of tlio regent ho retnrnccl nt snnsct to the Ispahan gate 
of Shecraz in order ' to learn the confiimation of the 
event, which he did from the officers of the guard. As 
he was entering the city ho allowed the falcon which 
was on his wrist to lly away as if by accident, and tliis 
gave him a i)rctext for gallojiing afk^r it to the npot 
where his favourite ntocd was in readiness. The gate 
was then closed and his flight was not suspected until 
the following day. Iletuming to the country of the 
tribe of which he was now tlie chief, his first enterprise 
was to expel his younger brother from Astrabad, and 
to seize the government of thnt province. Ho then 
raised a force of Kujars and of Turkomans suiTiciont 
to enable him to conquer the adjoining province of 
Mazendcran, nnd he further gained over the govenior 
of Gilan, so that the whole of the countiy between the 
Caspian Sea and the Elburz Mountains soon owned his 
authority alone. Ali Mui-ad, while laying siege to Sheeraz, 
sent a force of twenty thousand men against . Aga 
Mahomed, but this army was unable to force the pass 
in the Elburz which was defended by the Knjar's troops. 
After this success Aga Mahomed advanced from behind 
the mountains nnd obtained possession of the cities of 
Tehran and Kasvoen. On news of this reaching Ali 
Murad at Sheeraz he innnediat(^ly d(*spatched his son 
with a force of thirty thousand men in order tliat he 
might eftcct a junction with his otluT troops and comi)el 
Aga Mahomed to retire. Ali Murad himself at the same 
time removed to Ispahan, to which place he transferred 
the seat of government. Aga Maliomed, unable to make 
head against the large force sent against him, once more 
retired behind the mountains, wliile Sheikh Veis tlie 

4— a 



I 

I 



SS A iHSToitr or i'hiisia. ^H 

■00 of Ali Munwl attempted to forco an cntrivnce both 
into MiLZL-uiItinin outl into GUuii, l>ut was uiiKuccoH»fitl 
m boUi csM-s aiul naa coustroiucd to retire upon Teliraii 
tor tlic wijitcr. Ali Manbl in the mouitime Kiiccvedcd 
in pcnnijuling tli« ^Tcrnor ut (iilnn to dcacrt tlio cauno 
ti Ott Kajan, oail Aj^ Miihoiueil'fl next eSortn wcro 
Jfaw-lui to puuiidijiig lii« iinHlublu utllicrvut. Thi^ town 
of Biafat WIS taken \>j liim unl the {lovcrnoi'n jmliico 
radoccil to iu1j(m, Imt that r»iictinuitry luuiM>lf Und tinio 
In PKtajw bjr mm. In Uio fijllnwiiij; year * tlio tnf<\M of 
All Viinwl Ntii-fcoitoil ill iK'iivtmliii;; into MuKcmloran 
■ii4 m CKiniH'Uiii;; Aha Tilnhnmoil to Hlmt liiniw-lf up 
at Uio cttj of ArtnilituI, in wliidi lio huil coll(?L-t4.'<l Lis 
IceMorm. It K«mc4l u if he would be aoou niluccO to 
th« list «xtrcmitieB wliou a mddcn change of fortiuio 
ODCc men Kt him at liberty. A niDtioy occurred m tlio 
iuTidtDg umjr, and the aon of Ali Mnrad, in order to 
mte im life, retreated to Tehran, vhile hia diabnndcd 
troops act ont for luiMilian. Ali linrod left hia hou Sheikh 
Vcia Kluui at Tehran and marched villi ouotlicr oniiy to 
oTcituko and imniHli the iiworf^untii, nud to oncomitcr 
bia half broUier, Jnfer, vho lind rerultcd ; but tho 
aorerity of tliu wentlwr daring Uiia uuurch woa moro 
tliau ho could aiipiwrt, and he expired before tlic onii; 
mafhiiil iKinhau. Alter tliii crcut that vitjr once again 
beeanio tho acenc of Ui« wildcat anarchy. The Holdion 
wko had quitted tbeir ninka at Aatrabad ploudorcd tho 
capital at thoir diacrction, and tli« troopa vho had been 
tuwlor tlM immnliate command of AH Uorad found tliem- 
•elrca at hia dcatli vitbout a Icador. Tho g"Vomor of 
lapahan att£mi>tcd bj largeaaea to vio tbo rapport of 



JAFKU KUAN, ZEND. S3 

these mercenary and unpriucipled troops, but his schemes 
were disconcerted by the arrival of Jofer, the son of 
Sadek and the nephew of Kereem Khan. That chief 
was requested by the inhabitants of Ispahan to take upon 
himself the task of restoring order, and having done so 
he wrote to invite Sheikh Yeis, the son of Ali Mnrad, to 
come and to assume command in the place of his father. 
Ah Murad and Jafer had been half-brothers, and in full 
confidence in the good fiiith of the latter, the son of Ali 
Murad outstri2>pod his soldiers iiud came on almost alone 
to iHjnihiui. ])ut ou his alighting at the palace-gate ho 
wius Hoized by order of Jufcr and loaded with chains ; and, 
seeing that his fatlier had put Jafer's father and brother? 
to death, it seems unaccountable that Sheikh Yeis should 
have so far trusted Jafer. He paid for his temerity by 
the loss of his hbcrty and of his eyes. 

The pretenders to the vacant Persian throne were 
now reduced in number to two ; namely, Jafer Kliau of 
the Zend tribe, the nephew of Kereem, amd the per- 
severing Aga MahoiuiHl, the Kajar chief, who had so 
far repaired liis di8aHtei*H as to be able to penetrate witli a 
considerable force to Kasluui, from whence ho threatened 
Ispahan. JafiT sent against him an aiiny conmianded 
by one of his officers, and which included many of 
the troops that had abandoned their rnnks at Astrabad. 
These Kurds for the second time played into the hand 
of Aga Mahomed. They deserted their standards and 
retired towaixls their mountains, leaving their comrades 
unable to make head against the Kajar, who wiis thus 
enabled to march on without 02)position to Ispahan, 
from which city Jafer fled to Slieeraz. Aga Mahomed 
next turned his attention to bringing into subjection 



U A uisToar tv peeu 



I 

I 



I oouotrioH ialmbited 
■nd Lours. Harioj* ulfUuticd &umo ei wcs ovur UM | 
InbM, lio Ircfttul Uium with bucIi iwyet ^| 

miUc«I bia kuliliuni to bo (fiiilty of bu 
tuwiU Uiciu, Uiot tli€ rcvcii^'cfal fculinfpt of ^ | H 
iMDi'cni wtirc (1o('|iljr Htimxl, and u iiuw it v^P 

ruMNl to act H^iiiiiHl liiiu. "" II Mtldit-n <:(tiii]>iiMiii<' Uiia 
lonv «i-ru lUiiiiutUnl lijr tiiu wnm^'x uf uii'ii wlioso wivuK 
■uil ■liuij;litcrH liwl U.-UU tliu |trv^ of LIiuim] Uioy uuw 
otooj u;;Liiukt iu the field. Their ardour ciirncil ull 
Lefun it, uiil \ga iialtoiaed DliI iu •liaunli-r to Tvhnui, 
io which citj he iutroncliecl hiuaelf, ouJ from wliidi 
|ioiut iti* fature ojivratJaiu were direet^xi. Thia titru^,;le 
iu ono pMTt of IVnuu pire time to JafuT i<i ifcraib 
liM ■tramtli in MiioUier put of Uie eonatry. On heur- 
iug of Uio roat of the •eatj of the Kajur, the Zoutl 
chief (juittoil SLouru uhl ouco more took powuMsioQ of 
IminJuui, tlio gurriiHKi of wliivh i>husu, wlio hud huuii left 
by A;!B Mulioiood audur tho cuiiiimuid uf a tnutwurLhy 
parlittut, n.>tin>d to tho cittidul whoro thojr dufvudod 
tliotiuiclTc* with coorugo to tho last oxtrcmitius. Jufer 
wu tMSt euiihijreil iu endosTODriut; to reduce to lobjec- 
tioa his eooHU Lamill, who ruaod au aitaj in his 
interecbi in tlio Baklitiari mount4UDa. Thin force wu 
dcfc*tod by Jkfor, but IhouiI, with tlie aid of fnadi 
lerioK, eompclled his eoutiu to neck Mafotjr iu Oight, 
tlMMfdi bo wu biuuclf MOOD aftorwanU deserted. 

While the Zend tribes were tlioswasUntt their strength 
in l|;httug agmiust each otlicr, a coutnuy iMilioy was iuaa* 
guatod ou tlM side of tho Kajam, who had at ouo time 
baou arrayed uuder tho hostile bamiers of Aga Mahuiaod 
and of iwo of bis broUiors, bat who cousuutcil at buigth 



lutf'ali kuxs. 55 

to own oUegianco to the head of the family aloue. A^ 
MaLomed was thus enabled to advance with an over- 
whchning force to Ispahan, from which city Jafor once 
more fled to Sheeraz. When Aga Midiomed, after 
having passed some time in arranging the administration 
at the capital, iit length followed his enemy to Shcerax 
he found that place imprcgnahle ; and, failing in idl his 
attemiits to reduce it, ho roturne<l to Ispahan. Jafor in 
the following spring directed his clTorts to the acquisition 
of the city of Yezd. This object was not efifected, and 
during the months that it occupied his arms his enemy 
had time to estabUsh his authority over all the North of 
Persia. Jafer next sent his son, Lutf'ali, to subdue the 
Genpiseer, and that gallant youth after a siege of three 
months took the almost impregnable citadel of Lar, 
fi*om whence he passed into Kennan. At the same 
time Jafer himself was making a fnial effort to re- 
establish the Zend domination ovor tlio Northom part 
of Persia. Having taken Yexdikhast, Abaihi, and 
Koomeshah, he saw the way o^ien to Ispahan, which city 
was evacuated by the brother of Aga Maliomed. But 
Jafer only regained this capital to abandon it for the 
third time on account of a rmnour of the advance of a 
Kajar army, and on his return to Sheeraz he was 
assassinated in the month of January, 1780. The 
murderers of Jafor usurped the inheritance . of his son, 
and Lutf'ali was obliged to flee from his own airmy and 
to take refuge with the Arab chief of Abooshehr, a place 
which is better known under the abbreviated name of 
Bushire. There tliis young hero raised an army with 
which he speedily marched to Sheeraz, where, after 
having defeated the force sent against him, he ascended 




I 



X UtStOttr OF FRIUX. 

the Uiraoo of tiia TaUicr. A^ Maliom B warn viUi 

wfJl-gnniDilM) ri]i|>rcliciisioii tliL' pro^ss of K joanf 
aaUicr who wiui WloTCil b,Y his luUieroiitfi md who 
1ml tiiown liiinwU' to tw ko well fitted for ( 
The Kxjar ciiicf liatl becu tiivitcd bjr a ccrtoJB l 
of tlie jiiiucipol men of Sliocmz to lulvauM to that 
pUc« uu\ drire bis rival bom liis (,'uvcrniJMliL Ba 
■eeonliogljr left Telmii in tlio early port of the •amnwr 
toUowiog Ibe period in wbicb bad occurred tb0 iuOl of . 
Jater, at iIid Itnul of uti uuij of Ady tlionnoud men, bat 
tiad the Zend cbicf mu firiulv cetuLHahed in 
I be diti Doi take luiy active iiioiiMaroH againat tbat 
ety. Lslf 'nli, ImwoTi-r, fotuul liiuiKi-lf ntron;; onoogh to 
be abb* til atlork .Kgn Multuinvd in Uio Quid. The battlo 
wUA enased wmiU in aO probability liavo ciidod in tlio 
defaU of Uk) Kajnr bod nut a [lurtiuu of Luif'idi'H 
tn)0|)M rvUrutl toWHrdx tlioir iiotivo uioontuius boforo 
tbe root wa« complete. This auforeaoen condact, 
while it diajHrited tlie remaining Zend soldien, gave 
Aga Ualwmed tbe opportnnity of rallying tlio Kajont, 
who rreolaally oblignl Lutf 'aU to roUro with precipita- 
tion to Ubociai. Aga MoIiouuhI, after tbia action, re- 
nainftl for hx wcoIin before tbo eity, bnt, finding Uiat 
be waa uot able to produce any iuiprcsiiiou nj>ou il> 
he n-lnruod to Tehran fur tbe winter. 

Aa A|ia Uahomeil tboucofortb continaod tn be the 
naatcr of the north t^ Penia, and ta Teliroii waa fixed 
Bpon by liim oa tbe caitital of bia domiuionii, il in now 
time to girt! aomo accunut of the K^jar tribe which aop- 
pUed the dynaaty that took the place of the BefitTeeana ; 
of the city which waa wlocted to luperaede tbe ancient 
■etropolia of Penia ; and of Aga Mahomed Khan. 



( 57 ) 



CHAPTER m. 

Origin of the K«j«r Tribc^Iu thrve Bmnclien — lU wHtlonMrntii — AntnilNul 
Hrnnrh of Kt^Am— UpiMT mid Ijower KAJAra — AiltmlNid — ITnuottlod 
CoiicUtion of that Province! — Ak-knlrli— Hliit(^^ — Ulici — Tohrun— -Its 
onrly Condition — \}pi MHlioninl Klmn-^IIiN linttlirrH— Cnicl Tiwit- 
inrnt lo wliiidi A}^ Miilioiiii*<l m'HK Miiliit*rt(*d— KindiirMH hIiowii to liiin 
hy K(*i*(H>m Klitiii — hiitfiili Khun — i*m<'hy of Api Miih«ini(*d<»nfgi 
IiirNh(M*ni — IIIh l)t*fi*<Mi<iu frointh«> (Miii'f of UieZond — IXiciiuvo Ikitile 
— Sio}^) of Kcnniin-^lKiilh of Lnlf'aU Khun. 

If wo givo crodit to tho PorHian hintorian of the KiijarR 
wo iiiUHt Uoliovo that tlnit triho can traco itn origin iih fur 
back as to tho timo of Torek, tho 8on of Japhet, tho 8on 
of Noah. fBnt without referring to remote autiqnitji it 
is sr.fficient to stato that the tribe of Kajar has been 
known to exist for the last several hundred years. It is 
of Turkish origin, and w|is early divided into throe 
branches, the Suldoos, the Tengkoot, and the Jolayor. 
The SuldooH never came to Persia. Tlio Tongkoot 
branch, which only consisted of thirty or forty families, 
\ became incorporated with tho Moghul tribes. The 
Jolayor became settled in Iran and Tunui, and seem 
at first to have given their name to all the tri be, j 

A Kajar or Jolayor chief, called Sertak Nooyan, was, 
under the Moghuls, naib, or deputy-governor, of all the 
countr}' from the Oxus to Rliei. (He, himself, we are told, 
resided near the banks of the Goorgan Biver, and from 
tliis circumstimco dates the connection of the Kajar tribe 



\ 



«B A lUSTUItr Ut' VV^tt&L 

vHfa Uie provjnco nf AMtniViuI^ At Iiim tlo iiix K^^'^'ra- '' 
lucut wu iiiajo over tu Iuh boh Kujiir NiMiyim, wlio ipvia ; 
lua naiuo to Uio vliMo of liiit tribe ; uud IiIh u0'Ki>riug ' 
Lccuuo UlaMlriutu in IVndu, and in tliu nci;;liboiU'liouj 
of the OtAirgna. f A(l«r tlio dowiifiill of tlio (li'xcaidautil 
uf Gt'tigliiii Khun, tlie Kujon* uqIUhI witli a Turkoman 
cliicf cnlloJ Ilottsaa Beg, who took scn-ii-c witli the 
BdhMHB fllHte. Tlw nottMr «f 81^ laaad WH uf 
ttt Maim tribi^ «Ueh aiwiwihineii MBand to tlMm 
mmk ht»mn ^k^ the M%ft «C ilut lonniga. 
flhah XUHMip fc|wliiil « K^w on u onbMqrto Uw 
fliUhH Arts, ufao «aiNlBdad s tmlgr liotweeu tiia 

flft lh» Burin «MMh rf Uw j«tt oT Um Hqin 000, 
it In raomlKl Uint tlio proviucoii of KAiubagb, Gcuja, 
KLonano, Mcrre tnd Aittrabad, wcro rulod over by the 
two ({imt brnQcliM of tho KiyorB, called Zouudloo and 
KaToal oo. I TJKii r iufloouco^ Boo ma to liavo rondorod 
Shah ALh» M iwiiuowhiit *|>p rt!Ji«otaYp j. aii^iii ordor to 
luako U uwuciH)Wt^)io dmdctl tlivm iuto Uiroo brundiOH. 
Of Uwo, Mio wan Hff iit to Mon'c lUid Kliunuawii; lUiuthcr 
WW oKUUMbvd in Kiirubft{,'h ; luid tho tliinl wiw HutUotl 
■t Antnimi, «iid ou tlio UuikM of tho Uoorgou. lu 
U*aM oxpONod fitomtioUK tlio Kujun wmd Iwcumo gnutlj 
imIocoi] in itraagth, on Hccoaiil of their Ioshcs in the 
frootier wan with Lee^^ia, Tnriui, and TurkoniapgiJ 
The bfanch U the Ki^ar tribe which waa eetUod on 

EOooigaB and in the promeo of Aatrahad, became 
ilivided into two wetiuna, which, firom tho nhitive 
itiuo of tiwir iwatnro-trroiuiUs, leeoiTod tho diitin* 

• A-lLMVl A4>.ML 



THE KAJAU TUIIIB. 50 

f(uiHlun<i[ iiamoH of Ynkhari-biish, auil AHhagha-bash, or 
tlio up^icr KujurH, uml the lower Kujiirs. Another 
iiccount 8tato8 Ibivt tlio orif(iu of this JiHtiiictioQ arose 
from the circumstiiuco that at the fort of TLebarckabad, 
the upper part was assigned to one brancli, while the 
lower was given over to the other. The chief of tlie 
upper branch was considered to be the head of the whole 
division of the tribe until the time of Sliah Tahmasp, 
the son of Hussein ; but when Fetteli Ali Khan, who 
was the chief of the lower division, became one of the 

I two gonorals of tliat princoi his position gave him a pre- 
ponderating inlhionce in his tribe, of tlie whole of which 

1 he thou became the chief.* When he was put to deatli 
by Nadir, the influenco of that general \yas employed in 
favour of the cliief of the upper branch of the Kajars, 
whom he made governor of Astrabad, while the son of 
Fettch Ali Klian had to take refuge witli the Turkomans. 
It has been already stated tluit Maliomed Hassan Klian 
by their aid at one time obtained i>oHseHsion of the city 
of Astrabad, and tliat in his linid struggle with tho 
genoral of Keretau Khan lie was deserted by tlie chief 
oi the upper division of the Kajaix, and in his llight was 
recognized by tlie same person, and put to death. 

After this event his sons took refuge with the 
/Turkomans, but they yielded themselves later to Eereem 
Elian, who assigned Ehasveenf as a place of residence 
for the family. The two eldest sons, who were com- 

; plained of by the inhabitants of that city, were removed 

' to Shceraz. 

* To avoid coiiriiMioii I Himll, in tlio HiiccMioiliiig [mijuii, K^ioak of Uio 
AMtnilNul KiiJiirH an if tliuy foriiuMi ihu wholu trilio. 
t Kuuxttt-cn-Svftt. 



I 



CO A IIIHTOIIY OF 1-ElUUA. ^f 

Tliifl br»uclt or tlio Kujor tribe was settled near 
Aftrtbod. 1*Uat proviacfl lira along tlie aoatli-caatcm 
cxtnsnitj of tlic CAKjiian Sen. It is of tiiiiitetl cxtvut, 
bang in lengtli tiot more tlian a huiKlrcd miles, while 
iu brcultli Ttttiiai from four to fortj miles. It poshCHHcs 
gnai tutonl Ksunrcw, wliicli iiro for tliu mont part lofl 
ondnrkjiiMl. Atluctiid to tlio guvoniiueut uf Astrubiul 
Mie the tiouiwl Turkomiui tribt's of Yotuout and Guldtui, 
Uia l«ttcr of wliicli is bound tf) runtribiito one Iiolf uf 
titc rvYi-oQo. Onljr uuu town nuw vxlulu iu tlic inxivincc, 
Itol mimjr ruins utt«Rt its Hapcrior pros|>L-rit}' in tlic time 
of Niulir. Ak-ludcli, Gionr-kiilL-li IVrcz and ijbolirck 
•p]>rmr, frou) what remuins of tlioia, to liaro uacli greatly 
t-iuxftlinl til rin-tunfiTCHii' tbc jTcstnt cil,v of AHtntbml. 
Tbat pLieo is now in a stoto of dilapidation, and its walls 
uv in so minoiis a condition tliut parties of plundering 
ToikflQuuiB liATo oflcn pMKcd tliroDgli tlio gapK into tli« 
citj. Astnbad is about twclvo miles distant from tlio sou, 
is otnatcd on rimug groond, wliidi comninndii n vluw 
wer • lon-ljr ptuiu, and is biukcd by wowlcd liiUs luid 
stKnr<lad niontitniuat. No liiudscajM) cunld bo &irer 
tlum tliat iiiuiviit4xl hj tli« ueiglibourliood of Astrolmd ; 
bat no district boi over witocsscd a more constant sue- 
HBMJop of deods of blood and violence. Tlio Pcndau 
p— nts an at all timea liublo to bo callctl from their 
oot-of-Joor labour to takv jtart iu tlie defence of tlicir 
nUagnt, agaiuxt |iurtii.'s of rutlilvsa manmdvrs wlio live 
on »i>oil, and vliu cany avaj witli v^^xul iudifference citlior 
tbe inwlucv of IVraiau ricc-tioUii for tUcir maintcnauco, or 
tb« iiunatfls of tlio i»eaaauts' coltatfii to bo sold as sUvcs 
in tb* uarta of Kbiva and Bokbara. Under no circnui- 
■I inrra can a Fenian ever vnUin to go n n a nn ad from 



CONDITION OF ASTRADAD. CI 

oue village of the province of Astrabad to auotlier ; and 
even an escort is no sure protection, as the robbers come, 
for the most part, in numbers sufficient to enable them to 
combat any force which they arc likely to encounter. 

Ak-kaloli, near Astrabad, was the scat of govern- 
ment of Maliomcd Hassan Ivh:in, and from thence he 
gradually established his power over the whole region 
which Ues between the Elburz mountiins and the 
Caspian Sea. When the fortune of his son, Aga 
Mahomed Khan, had made him master not only of these 
provinces, but also of nil central Persia from the frontier 
of Ehorassan to the uttermost limits of Azorbnerjau, that 
chief was mindful of the events which had transpired in 
Pei*sia in his o>\ii time. He had seen his father again 
and again obliged to retreat to Astrabad and fall back 
upon the support of his own tiibe, and, on the death of 
Kereem Khan, he had seen the seemingly well-estabhslied 
power of the Zend princes succcBsfully disputed by himself. 
However firmly, therefore, the Kajar nile scomed under 
him to bo planted, experience did not warrant him in 
assuming tliat tliere would bo no further changes in tho 
line of tho rulei's of Persia. He or his successors might, 
like his father, have to retreat behind the Elburz, and 
trust to the assured fideUty of their clansmen. He did not, 
therefore, venture to establish his seat of government at 
a spot so far removed from the pasture-grounds of the 
Kajars, as was the ancient capital of Persia. Two hundred 
and fifty miles to the north of Ispahan, there was a town 
which, though before the time of Aga Mahomed it wivs 
comparatively a place of small account, yet possessed 
the advantage of lying at the foot of the Elburz moun- 
tains. The plain of which it was the chief city had in 



I 

I 



OS A nisTORY or nrnsiA. 

tarn 1>oiutU^1 nf tlic rpiy nnciciit U>wii of Rlinprf,* nnd nf 
tlw nodim Mnliomrdnn city of lUiit, wliirli in said to liavr^ 
cratainnl • [<r)|>iiliilioti of l.AOO.OOO smilx.r niiti tn Imvn 
bent, ttfUr JtiUiyl«ii, tlio liir[:«<t city tlio Knst ever «nw. 
Of lUiii;;nt nil tlint now rrmninii !» tlio name of Knj, and 
Dcw wIk-tv it Ktoml are the fortitiratinnn of a Greek t-oiii]), 
■a|*(Miard to limvo Wen coiixtmctod l>y Scltmcun. Of Jtliei 
«• nn ntill traco tlto nallit, wluoli cut-toHo an cuonnoRK 
ipaec ; Km] two toucnt, with riifM: i)iHerii>tiou8 engraved 
<a Uieir brklui, still nltreirt th« nttrntioii of tlie tmvollor. 
Tlie ««rli4^t montion of Trhnin J occurs in tlio 
«ritinp>$ of nii Orirtitu] author of t)io twi'lflli reiiturv. 
At that tiii)« Hn iiiltubilAiilH, like Trn^'loiljlra, hml llicir 
dwellitip-pliu'c* entirely nndrr c>^iind ; n stAtc of tliin;^ 
vliieh ronlioncd aotil tlic fifteenth centnry of tlic 
Cliriiliaii tn. Tlic people of Telinm of thoeo titnea 
an Mid to hsTc liTcd in a eontttant Rtate of insnrroction 
•gabat their aorereign, mtylaying thoN who passed by 
the ndgfabonrhood, and retiring to their caves when 
pomed. Tber« wore no meana of dislodging them 
fioB tbeir aabterranean rity. Tlio first European 
tmeUCT who vudteil Tcliran,|| describes it is being, in 



' Vi Mrrim tiwlidi m nuiii CmMi ttmuim mri. i|ai pM In Irm Mnln- 
Wr takiaa ■iKntU."— 1'u«i*>, cap. i. T. 14. VMuu 



t 4'it*aM>i Tfa.U.p.411. ; AWW wr TMMa. IVr Ubuim. 

I ~ Tabm* c rilta jnaiMlr. piu 4J Ciiiiriiik. ■• poro popnlaU, e pir 
fc*tiri~ pf iwr umIb rtraa drnlm 4i paMlWni Kknliai. ma uHbH 
M bviu J't^cM ■■vtB ; ■ ijoali. )irianpMMl>> aMlto a baud' bon. ft turn 
<|wa> riUa M ark raUU ■-■[. M MaBibaa a *ni4*r. prr Inlto 1 pwa 
iMBWi, fik tfnvKia Wtawt K inb 4i tltaM, a mpa Ji ptimnria : . . 
MamUfimU auad* •nOnOt UlU J> Halwi : M Maxima eh* la diiup 
TahrtM k riUa iM I'telaki.''— I M^yt Wi I>mBB muu V*iu. lluwa. 
•«li« ■( ISM. f. NH 



UISTOEY OF TKIIRAN. C3 

the year 1C18, a Rpocious town which contained few 
inhahitants, and wliich w^as chiefly devoted to gardcnB. 
From the chcnars which slioded nearly all the streets, 
he called it the city of plane-trees. In the time of the 
Sefavecan Shahs it was the chief city of a province, and 
it was at differcnt epochs honoured by being the place of 
a temporary residence of those kings. It did not lie 
along the routes frequented by the chief caravans, and 
its industry was purely agricultural. Shah Talimasp, 
the son of Hussein, took refuge with his harem at 
Tehran, during the AfTghan invasion. That prince there 
received an embassy from the Ottoman Porte. The 
city was besieged by the AfTghans, and was almost en- 
tirely destroyed by those ruthless hivaders ; but Tiihmasp, 
whom they wished to secure, was able to effect his 
escape. From this period onwards the name of Tehran* 
appears frequently in the aimals of Persia. Nadir Shah, 
on his return from India, ordered the priests of all the 
professions of faith of the peoples of his dominions, to 
meet him at Tehran,f in order that he might come to an 
understanding with his subjects regarding the adoption 
of a reasonable religion. It was at Tehran that tliat 
tyrant caused his son Reza to bo deprived of his eye- 
sight ; and the unfortunate prince was subsequently 
massacred in the same town, by order of his cousin, Adel 
Shah. It was to Tehran that Kereem Khan retreated with 
the remnant of his shattered forces after his first defeat by 
Maliomed Hassan Khan.t It was from Tehran that the 

* Chardin 8])oak8 of Tehran as being '* unc potite vilk du fniyn que 1cm 
ancienH gcographcs appcllont //i comUtMf, entro la Partliido, riiyrcaiiie ui 
la Sogdianc." 

t Voifoge en Per$e. Par Oliyikk. Vol. v. p. 41H. 

I Voyage en Peree. IHir Oliyikr. Vol. vi. p. 47. 



Gi A lllliTOItr OK )-i:i!HtA. ^H 

f^ocn) of All Mured attciu|itc(I to put duwu tlic revolt of 
Aga MiLtiiiuicd Kliiiii. Tliiit towu wiu tbcu, for tlio lirtit 
tine, Ukuil>>' Uio Kajiir cliicf, wliUt Lowevor, wm quickly 
driTCD ont of it. On n^uin obtaining ])086Cs»iou of it> 
be made it the buo of Uin futoru ujtc-rutioux, mid tiuiliug it 
eocnwuoiUjr aituutod for vomuiuiiiaitiiig nitb the coiitriU 
mmI WMtuni iliNtri*;!^ of rcnuii, wliilu ut tlio biuiic tliiio it 
wu witliiti a Kliort iliatiuico of tliti luibitutioii of tlic Kajur 
tnU.', \u'. Ji.-t«-ruiucil to uuiko it tli« cuiiitul of thu cciiuitiy ; 
k povitiou wliicb it liu ctlt kiucu coutiuDotl to liold. 

A Kn-ncli traveller, who riwitcd Tohran iji the reijfu 
of A;^ JlnliotDtil,* pvM a inicute dcBorijitiuu of tho 
■]ypeu-ance «hi<.'h tluit city th4;u jirescutcil. From 
the fact tiuit tho baz»rs and tlic moiu]uoa, us well as tlio 
booset of Uw people uid the palace of tlie king, were all 
new, it »i>peued that the place mast, at a previous j>criod. 
not loiig (Nutt, IiaTo booa almost completely doHtroyod hy 
tho A0}jluuia. A}{a Muliomod, having chosen Telinut lui 
bia ea{>ita], otccUmI in it, for the couvvuioueo of travellcn 
aud iiMnrliants, couiiuo<1ious curavansvnuH and pluceu for 
tranaacting boaiucflH, vliicli nuulo the former proviucitil 
town mio of the luuidm^mcHt citiua in I'onia, Tvhnut wub 
■orrMUMlcd hj a square widl of earth, and by a brood 
ditcb. The extent of the walls was about MVeD miles, 
bat only a null iiortion of the area therein inclosed 
was inhabited in the time of Aga Mahomed. Largo 
Tacont sjiacca and oxtiusive gonlcna oecnpiod a great 
part of the groond, and nearly a foorth of tlio city vaa 
davotod to the ark, or citadel, wliicb contained only tlu) 
palaco of the king. lu each of the four Cacos of the 
wiU then waa a gate, dclouded by a hu'go ronud tower, 

• U. UUTIU. 



MUTILATION OF AGA MAHOMED. G5 

thrco hundred yards in front of it, which towers wore 
mode to contain two or thrco pieces of cannon. But 
notwithstanding all the endeavours which Aga Mahomed 
made to people his new capital ; notwithstanding the aid 
which ho held out to the merchants and artisans who 
came to settle in it ; the population which it contained 
towards the end of his reign did not exceed lifteen 
thousand souls, including the household and troops of 
the king, who amounted to three thousand. 

Aga Mahomed Elian was the eldest of the nine sons 
of Mahomed Hassan Khan, Kajar, who lost his Ufe, as we 
have seen, by the hand of the chief of the rival branch of 
the Kajars. It has been stated that some time after 
his death his family came to Kasveen, a city which 
Ues ninety miles to the west of Tehran. At first only 
two of the sons were brought to Sheeraz ; but it appears 
that other members of the family afterwards followed 
them to tliat place, where, though they were detained 
as priK()nci*s at large, they were treated with tlie greatest 
kindness by the chief of the Zend. The second brother, 
Hussein, was aftiTwards entrusted with the government 
of Dnnigluin. He rebelled, and on being defeated by 
the brotlier of Kereem, who was sent to put down liis 
revolt, he lied to the Tm'komaus, and was put to death. 
He left two sons, the elder of whom, Fcttch Ali Khan, 
afterwards became king of Persia. This Hussein Khan 
was the only full brother of Aga Mahomed. Notwith- 
standhig his revolt, tlio Zend chief confenHul upon a 
yomiger member of Ukj family the govcninnent of Astra- 
bad ; but he continued to detain Aga Mahomed and two 
of his other brothers as hostages at Slieeraz. 

Aga Mahomed had in his early years fallen into the 

5 



CC A HISTORY OP PERSIA. 

bMDcUi of Afld Shah, tlie nephew and snceessor of Nadir, 
«(^iHt wliom the Kajor chief uiaiutoiued hiinBclf in revolt. 
Adel SluUi luid tlio cmelty to order Uiat the boy should he 
raloofMl to tlie condition of k^\ eunuch, and tliin atrocity 
tnnicd all tlie victhnV tlion«;htM to tlui pmxnit of hiH anihi- 
tioiiN viewH. He ttccouiiMUiietl hin fjithor, while mUU a boy, 
upon joiimeyH and in variouH canqMiit^nH, and wiim left 
hj hiui ui rluirjfe of tlie ini]N>rtant ^)vennn<»nt of Axer- 
baiH>jan. ^Micn by liin father'n death he bcHMinio the chief 
of hiN tribe, had ho Mcen any cliiuice of Huccecdin«;[, it in 
probable tliat ho would not liave laid aside his eflTorts to 
6iitabliiih the Huprcniocy of tlio Kajam ; but he had Uio 
mnwc to MH* tliat tlio ^lower of Kerceni Khan wiim Uw 
woll oHtabliHliiHl to mlniit of tlie Mlif^htont Iioik^ of Hn(*ceHM 
in Hurli an undertaking during the lifotimo (»f the Zond 
cliirf. IIi» mvordin;:ly linw liiniHclf up with bin l)n»thrrs, 
and rfH4ilYed Ui wait until ii more favourable oi^poi-tunity 
hbould pn-Hrnt itxi*lf of realiziiif^ bin dreainiH of unibition. 
Wbili' enjoyin;; the favour and kindness of Kere^'iu, he was 
Uh4*d t4> vrnt bis H]»ite a^^'aiust the triuniplmut Uk' of his 
houH4* by rutting, with a knife whieh be c(«icealed lM>neiith 
his robe, the rich eaqn'ts of the regent ; not relleeting that 
ho bol^ul that tboM* siiuie eaq>eti( would one day eome int^) 
hift own |Hw4hi•K^ion. At the death of Kenviu be nnulo bis 
ii*ca|M\ iilong with two of bis brotlu^rs, fn»iu Sbeeruz, ami 
rnisi'd the standard of revolt in the provinee (»f Ma/en- 
dernu. AfliT a i»rotnu-t4sl struggle, in wbieb ft»rtun(» at one 
time MOM with biin and at another against bim, be ihially 
Micect^bHl, us we have m'cn, in estaiblisbing bis authority 
OTcr the centre and the nortli of Persia, from the bonlcm 
of Kllo^as^an to the fnmtier of tlic Ott^^man empire. 
Aga Maliomed had still one rival to encounter, LutfaU, 



CUUELTY OF TUB KAJAR CIIIEP. 67 

tho grand-uopliow of Korccm Khan. No contraxst could bo 
greater than tluit which those two men afforded. Lutf ali 
was still a youth, but already he owed his power as much 
to the fame of his own ludiievements an to his doscont 
fwMn a race of rulers. lie was a model of manly luMUily, 
and was for the most part as just and (i^enerous as he 
was brave and enci'getic. Aga Mahomed was a man of 
mature years, and it was to the circumstance of his beiug 
the eldest son of his father that he was indebted for Ixung 
able to overcome the almost in8ui>crable obstacle pre- 
sented by the fact of his being cut off from the possibility 
of transmitting his power to tlio offspring of liis Ikxly. In 
l>erson ho was miserable to In^hold ; and though he must 
be admitted to have been possessed of personail courage 
and of extraordinary energy, yet tliose qualities were 
stained by his injustice and ingratitude, his vindictive- 
ness, his suspiciousness, his avariciousness and his 
cruelty. He owed his success in a great measure to tlie 
cooperation of two of his brothers, to whom he solemnly 
promised the governments of Ispahan and of Kasveen 
respectively; but when he had gained liis object he 
deprived one of the two of his eyesight and the other of 
his life. It is revolting to read all the atrocities that ai*e 
recorded of this monarch. One example will suffice 
to show the reader the extent to wliich tyiwmy and 
cnielty were carried in his reign. Tho French >M*itcr 
above referred to*^ mentions tliat ho was at Tc^hnm at the 
time of Aga Mahomed's return from Meshed, when tho 
king signalized his arrival by the following act of punish- 
ment: — ^At Meshed he had consigned a picture to the 
care of one of his officers, and on his reaching Tehran he 

* M. OUVIER. 



G8 A nfSTORT OP FERSTA. 

onlnrcil it to l)o rnipnrkiHl iind bronglit into Iuh prcftcncc. 
In tlic coniKo of itM tnuiN|N>rt ou a iniilo or caincl over 
mx hnndrctl milcHy tho rIohh of the fromo had bcou 
broken, and tlio painting; itself sligbtly damaged. For 
Uiis the eyefi of a deserting officer were torn from his 
bead, and, after having been dei)rived of all he possessed, 
be was expelled from Tehran.^ 

Wlien Aga Mahomed, after his first victory over his 
rival, hail reUred from before the walls of Sheeraz, 
Liiif 'ali conceive<1 tlie project of rendering himself master 
of Lq^dian by a diudiing movement which would take 
tliat city by surprise. He set ont from Sheonus towiirtiK 
tlie end of tlio month of November, at tho head of 
ten tlionsaud cavalry, nnencumbered by tents or bag- 
gage, or other provisions than a Hmall qniintity of rico 
which each soMier was onlercil to carr\' witli him. But 
tlie severity of the 8e;u>on rendered this bold cntcrjmsc 
iilK>rtiTe, and after having made hut two niiirohes tho 
fnrrc ri'tunied to Shemiz. At this time all the south of 
Persia, from the united streams of Euphrates and Tigris 
on thr wrst, to the oonlincs of Yezd and Kcnnan ou the 
CftM, m-knowle<l;;od the nuthoritvof Lutf'ali. During the 
following winter ho nnploml himself as well in niisiug an 
army for ojHnitions when the weather should ri-lent, as in 
putting in order the diirorcnt hnmohes of tho adminis- 
tration at Slnvraz, and in holding out encouragement to 

* " M<-)i«ti»<*t rlmt ilau** 1 uiMi;;e. « r<';«iir(l dr M-n mtmXvuph qui nviuciit 
\r ni«il»* ur •!«' liii <U'i>Uir«'. <l«- Uixr futri* (Mniir U* ^tutn*. rt nrmrhcr U« 
•iitrAiUc^ l\ AViiU in< iiM' pou«*M\ • 1 1 pinl dr qiu-li|ttt Mini* U ciitre eux. 
laimca* l«HN»n«' ju»yu a li-ur iii«'tlr«' \vn rnlr^ill*% audMir Uti r«»u. t*l Un 
^xtm^m-r dan* cci «-Ut. rnr«»re vmiii». n U ih lit *Un miiiimiix mniAAMirm." 

U vviitfo A OCII& dr •>• ftiyvta Mu»i\luiAus qm ctAk-ut •ecuW« d« Unnj «lu 
TUL~— V.>y«/r m Prn^, fmt Ou^ihUL C. v p. 1.16. 



LUIT'ALI KUAN— uaji ibrahebm. C9 

tliOBO who wisIichI to oxtoiiil tlioir commercial tmuHac- 
tioiis. In tlio followin<{ yciir, us Aga Mahomod did not 
again advanco against Shooraz, Lutf 'ali Kiian marched 
to Keiman, to compel the governor of that province to 
surrender tlio city to his authority. Declining to accept 
the advantageous compromise offered by that chiefs he 
laid siege to Kerman at the beginning of winter, but wa? 
unable, owing to the weather, to make any impression upon 
the place. In the following spring, Lutf 'ali IClian deter- 
mined to advanco upon Ispahtin, and rescue that city once 
)noro from Kajar domination. lie had not made more 
tluui a few marches from Shoc^raz when an event occurred 
which had the effect of deciding the destinies of Persia.* 
The person to whose aid both Lutf'ali IChan imd 
his father had been mauily indebted for the partiahty 
displayed towards them in misfortune by the citizens 
of Sheeraz was the Kelanter, or civil governor, of 
Fars, who was named Haji Ibi*ahcem. That magistrate 
— who was the descendant of a converted Jew — had 
been appointed to the high post he held by Jafer 
Khan ; tuid, influenced by gratitude, he had greatly con- 
tributed to placing Jafer*s son upon the throne. Lutf 'ali 
Khan selected Ilaji Ibrahoom to bo his mhiistcr, and at 
lirst he seemed disposed to place every confidence in 
him. In view of tlio services rendered by the Yizeer, it 
is not extraordinary that his master should have regarded 
him in the light of his most faithful subject; for it is 
obvious that had he entertained any views of seizing the 
government, he would have taken advantage of the oppor- 
tunity of his prince being r destitute and a wanderer. 
But it is dangerous in Persia for a subject to render too 

• A.D. 1701. 



70 A UHTORY OK IKItSIA. ^^ 

;,*rcat services to Ids Iciit^ : if Uio lutt«r bo ut all of a 
Muptdoaa diaiKwiUoti, evil tooguea aru not wautin^' to 
ninvpnaait tnea tlio gicuttwt oorvicoH; uuil suoh vaa 
Um oho uu tliis occikaioii. The lieiul of JiUer Kliau 
WM ibU to fiATO bccu uiutilati-J aAcT his osiiaiuiiuiitioa 
\ij a man wLcMto com Jufcr lia<l cuiiMit] to lie cat 08'. 
Tilts Duui, liuwuvcr, obtuiueJ a full [larJou from Lillf'iili, 
ou Uie iiitt'm-miou of Unji Ibrulituia, uiiil liu wiui olW* 
wanln iLi-lntiii] iu a littt of pt-ntuiiH who rt-ccivccl robos 
of buuuor frnui tbo |>riure. This latter circumsbuico so 
csre;^ tlio viJuv of Jaftr, tJut §hp sent for bcr son, uiJ 
Tioleotljr rrprwKbvd hiiu with the baseucss of his cotiJuct. 
Id I'erBU, it ta eonutlfjvd to bo » point of honour to 
■TCngf (lie blofxl of u rclutivu ; nud it muy h<- wi>]l 
imagiDed tlutt tbia reproicli from Ills mother atimg the 
yooog prisce to Uio quick. Scndiog at once for the ntftu 
lie luul ponlunod, ho demanded of him what pmiishineut 
a person bIioqM rocoivu wlio luul bcliaTod badly to his 
■oTcn'igu uid bcueliictor. The uuhappj niau u said to 
Imto n-pliod that such an one dvson'od to bo bornt oliro ; 
and Lotf'aU Khun, forgetful of bin princoly word, had 
the barbarity to order that this soatcnce should be forth- 
with oxocDtcd on him who had proQoancod it Tlus act 
cansed him the loss of his crown and his life. 

Umji Ibrahocm, who had obtained the man's pardon, 
afterwards told tlie EiigUsh historian of Persia,* that from 
that moment ho had lost all confidence in Latf 'ah Khan. 
Satisfied, by what followed, that his own existence was at 
Make, he took the raK>lnti<m of remoriog the crown from 
the licad 00 which ho had placed it. and making orcr 
Sbccroa to Aga Ualioiued Khan. For tbia end ho took 



DECISIVE BATTLE. 71 

his measures so well that, without any blood having been 
shed, Lntf *ali was driven to seek safety by fleeing from 
his own camp with a handful of men, and retreating 
to the shore of the Persian Gulf. There, by the aid of 
an Arab chief, he raised a small force with which he 
appeared before the walls of Shoeraz. The deeds of 
heroic daring ascribed in Persian story to Ilustem and 
tlie fabulous heroes of old wore now suq)a88e<l by the 
real achievements of Lutf 'ali IClian. Aga Moliomed sent 
a force under one of his generals to the support of Haji 
Ibralieem ; but Lutf 'ali, with his band of Arabs, attacked, 
and after a severe struggle put to flight, this numerous 
corps. The Kojor prince, on hearing of this defeat, sent 
another army against his rival, whose troops it outnum- 
bered in tlie proportion of ten to one. Lutf 'ali left his 
entrenchments on the approach of the enemy, and by his 
example so animated his men that they again gained a 
complete victory over the Kajars. 

Aga Mahomed now advanced in person at the head of 
his main body, which was so numerous that we are told 
the soldiers of Lutf ali were to it scarcely more than as 
one to a hundre<l. The Zend chief attacked and defeated 
the advanced guard of the enemy, and following up his 
advantage in the dead of night, he carried confusion and 
dismay into the camp of the Kajars. He had penetrated 
to the royal pavilion, where Aga Mahomed awaited him 
at the head of his guards, when he was assured that the 
Eajar prince had fled, and entreated not to permit his 
soldiers to plunder the treasure which his tents con- 
tained. Aga Mahomed awaited in calmness the ai)proach 
of dawn, when the muezzin, by calling the soldiers to 
prayer, assured them that theur king had never deserted 




kh paiL Thi ■mlt wnabmn vi Ot Anlw» wIm mn 
«Hflaj«d !■ plaadafiB^ warn of cooM ittMOfCMd by Um 
AvIigU. Md Idtf '■& KbM VM eanpoOed to wek mA^ 
Ib fight, «Udi «M floatiiiMd «iita bo mdwa tbe pn>- 
vfaes wi KanMu P— ifaig Item tbon Into KbonSna, 
* Im idMl ft tew «Uk idddi bo «H flwUod to HaSoai^ 
ootpi ami offihMt him, mmI to Uj uogo to Dutlgcid. 
Ob flw ointiii ol ft Kiyar ftnoj lio nuMod the noge, 
tmi, ftflor boving inilfthiBil ft dofM, oooo noro toiA 
wfcjte k ybnn— n Hh b^ ocplaifc wm, with tbo mU 
«f ftftwfcBowBis, to tftbo f nwB^Mnp of Kemuai. ' 

Tho eify of KoBftn, iHucb was tbo ^aee c/ nftago of 
Ibo hMt BftMnitii bingo on tbo Anb invMum ol Fwria, 
ii dtiifttrf on tbo oftotom oiOe of ft wide phin ohuat half 
» mitu frutu tlio fiiot iif wtuic lin;{htx, wliu-li, cmwiuKt 
hy tins roiuit uf lui micii-iit cumUu,* catlc«l t)w Kullu-i- 
DitklitiT, iM- Viri^a Forta'wt, cxtoud for a tilioii tlibtuuco 
«ert iir m vu\ff} uf liifjti aii<l rockj hills huuuding the 
plain oil thu uaitt. Ah swu frum thow lioightH Uiu town 
IweaniU tlio firlluwiii;; apiHiitnuico : It ix vncltMol by a 
meat) wall aiiJ dry ditch, butli rninona, aud mcatiariug iu 
cireomlrrcDcc ahoat two oud a luUT, or tlinw, miloH. Ou 
the vcHtcni itidtf Htoiiils the citadel, called Ba{,'h-i-Nazar, 
which (-outuiiiR Uio n-Hidvuro of Uio guvonior lUid a few in- 
Mgnificant hnlii, i >ii tlio ooMteiu Nido Uio citudvl liiut a ipiUy- 
waj aial Mvou tuwvm uu tlio vuIIm ; ou itM wuhUtu miIo a 
gattrvkj ojmiiuK iiitii tlto idiiiu ; uu itM HuiiUioru. fiuru tlioro 
are fire hmcnt, aud it iit Mirniiiiidcd h; a dry tUtch.t Tho 

■ Ur. AUmti* \mtn w> Iif < '•(•>• •/ MmiJW- I'fni-. 

t - U (h« Jitrh." myo Mr AU-li. ~ I (mmI Uirr« itnm OeUI-pMen 
V»A tmt braw Ii»tti1(rr. I hir U 1h« tnwr bnra « il thr inllMln ul Uie 
Kw« laAa ('•«B|ait«. Aa <4>l pia in a rai>n«- Mai* k.v Mar. wiUi ■ mwn 



SIEGE OF RERMAN. 73 

town poBsesscs a gateway ou each of its four sides. In 
point of population, Kenuan wa8 formerly the Beconil city 
in Pernia. Owing to the »ciu'city of timber, almont all 
tlie houses have arched roofs. The place and tlie sin:- 
rounding scenery Iiave a di'cary aspect, which is the 
eflect of the absence of tivos, the little cultivation, and 
the few villagers which the plahi iK)sscHses. The spivco 
between the present town and the Kala-i-Dokliter was 
either the sitii of a fornua* city, or a 2>ortion of one. 

The heights commiuid the place at a long range, and 
on these a Kajar army, led liy Aga Maliomed Ivhan in 
person, took up its ^xjsition, and set about the task of 
driving Lutf aU from his last stnaighold. The attack was 
opened on the west(U*n side ; but the gallant Zend iirince 
withstood, during a period of four montlis, all the efTorls 
which the gc^iius and experience of the Kajar chief could 
suggest for the purpose of couqKjlHng Kerman to suiTender. 
It is said that during this time two- thirds of tlie besieged 
troops and of the townspeople perished from want of food 
and water. But the brave Lutf'ali was destined once 
again to be the victim of treachery. The chief to whom 
he had confided the charge of the citadel opened its gate 
to give rnhnission to the Kajar troops, who poiured in 
over^vhclming force into the place, and deiiiMl all resist- 
anco. As the gates of the town were watched by bcnlies 
of men sufficiently numerous to prevent the passage of 
Lutf*ali, tlie hero threw a few planks over the ditch, 
which were removed as soon as he and tliree of his 
attendants had crossed it. Then, with his wonted im- 
petuosity, he burst through the lines of the enemy, 
and he succeeded in reaching the town of Bern, in 
the district of Nermansheer, on the borders of Beloo- 



I 



T4 A niSTOBT OF TKICSIA. ^ 

djutan. Tbo Iimtlivr of Uto cliicr ot Ncrniaaitliucr Uail 
Ufu witii LulfVIi in Kcnnni], imJ Ihrcu dnyn Unviiii* 
el»|wcil wiUtont iiu nppcarauca, Iha cliiuf bcraino cou- 
vhtcoil UiAt, it &liTC, be iiiiist bo in tbo bantlH of tlio 
Kojrm. In tbo bcf])o of being ablo to save bim,' bo 
bawl; (lotcnmnul to riobito tlio hvn of b<»<i>itality. 
Latf'nli wus minioil of bis danger, but bo van lolb to 
giTO cTodit to Ibe rqwni of iutentious on tbc jiart of bui 
buwt wbidi veto Ko much in coutrut witli tbo comraou 
pnuitco of tbo Kasl«m niiti^ms. Ilis fuw fullowers, 
fiodtng bim obtdiuute, cousnllotl Uicir onu safct; by 
Ukiu;; to fiijfLt ; iiiiil nlieu unnctl mvn cniuc to seize 
liim, ho wiui tuiablo, alone, ofli-ctoully to iiialto bead 
igiiniit Uirm, nutnitlmtiui J Lug a momuntaiy pauu' wLicb 
the inflacneo of bis prcscuco coosod. Ho bad gained tlio 
lack of bia Arab charger, vlum tho bh)W of a sobro 
brooglit tho noblo auiinol to tlio ground, and the rider 
fell wonnded into the bauds of his aauilants. 

In tho meantime, Aga Mahomed Klion, by tliovcngeaneo 
Thich ho waa wreaking on tho iuhahitants of Kermon, 
woa tcarliing oUior citiea the conaoqueucca of giving xhelter 
to hia focH. Ho iMmod onlom to dciuivo a}l tbo odalt 
niAkH of tboir hfe, ur of tlioir rycHight ; and tlie femaloa 
ami diihlron, to the number of twenty tbooiuuid, wore 
grouted aa ahivca to tho aoldicn. But when news 
leochcd tlio eouiinvror that Iiis oucmy had been captured, 
a sto)) waa jtot to tho alangbtcr ; which hnd been dictated 
oa much by policy aa by cmulty. The vengeance of the 
royal eoDDch waa now partly diverted from the citiiens 
of Kciiuan to he oooceutratod for the moment on hia 
e^itiva rival The auaurpaHod courage dlapUyed by 
-'ii ir • I ' - " a ' '~ 



DifiATII OF LUTF'AU KUAN. 75 

that ill-fated i>riuco» oud tho constancy with wliich ho hod 
Hupi)orted every rovorso of fortimo, might have been 
expected to inspire some gloom c' pity in tho breast of 
a soldier who had himself known adversity. But no trait 
of mercy was to be discovered in the conduct of the 
triumphant Kajar. The eyes of his wounded foe were 
torn from his head,* and the further treatment to which 
he was subjected was such as could only have been 
conceived in the mind of a brutal barbarian.f Aga 
Mahomed could not at first resolve to renounce the 
pleasure of knowing that his rival still lived in misery ; 
Lutf'ali was, therefore, sent to Tehnuiy where, after a 
time, he suffered, by the bowstring, that death which he 
had so often braved in battle. 

To commemorate tlie final downfall of tho Zend 
dynasty, Aga Maliomed Khan is said to have decided on 
forming a pyramid of skulls on the spot where Lutf 'ali 
Khan had been taken ; and for that purpose, (according 
to the authorities I follow,) he decapitated six hundred 
prisoners, and despatched their heads to Bem, by the 
hands of tliree hundred othci* prisonoi's; forcing each 
man to cai*ry the skulls of two of his former comrades. 
On arriving at Bem, tho tliree hundred survivors met 
the fate of the otlier six hundred. The pyramid said to 
have been thus composed still existed in the year 1810 ; 
affording to an English traveller | a horrid evidence of 

* ** It in Htatud tlint ^Vga Mahomod liimaclf put out tho eyes of liLiriTiJ.*' 
— ^1'ottinoeu'b Travels. 

f *• An old inau whom I met at Shocniuz, who had 8urvod under Lootf 
iVlee Khan in liis youth, infonned mo of tliU. lie had boon an cyo-witnciis 
of tho drciulfiU trcutniont to whicli liiri uiUiappy muHtor waa aubjucted." — 
liiNNiNu : Tico Yeiiri Trarfl in Pertin, 

X Tho late Sir Henry l*ultinj(or.— (With reforonco U> this horrid monu- 
muut, wluuU wua aocu by Sir U. i\>UiiisuA*» I huvo fuUuwod tho gouuraily 




A 1II8T0RY OF P£RSI 

tlio itC|>Ucab]o aiitl blfMltliiMy dinjioNiliou ot Uu flnw 
JC^wbtah. lttabe7otid^pw«aattMtUM«l^ofKM9Wii 
nsgnw wp for time mantlMi to the neemnt xmgw 
nd plnte at an a n^ t nrt ed wnj, whidt, and«r the 
MMtioa ti iti duab, oowmiHttd the mtwt mheird-or 
—awi dt iifc The vim and Auif^kn at ths dtiicui— 
■oaw «f Ibe laltar baing duUm of taaJar yaai-a m n 
piUetjcnqitiasa tothabnUUtjroTtba mUkn in tlwTOsr 
| W MM i of tMr hwhaaAi uni bibem, wlw wan after* 
vaida factted to nedn tham thoa dialMWODrod, or to 
dialnj thfltt with tlmr own handi on the i^ot All the 
fiHtilmliona jnd the ekgaat •troetora with irtiidi 
K«aian Iwl been baaatiilad I17 the Al^^waw doling 
ttwporiod of thdr poaaeidoo ef thia part of PMaia, we» 
nuted to tbo gromii], and the famous city that hod been 
the onporiom of wenltb, laxor; and magnificence, mw 
dooniod to lie dowilate for many yean, to expiHte tlie 
crime of luring aflimlcd a Lut aheltor to the heroic riral 
of Af:a Mdkumod Kliau. 

itwlTni wirKWil— Ihal iif tlif ■tuivriiK'nliiMinl Invpllpr mhI <>r t'ntm-r : Ixil 
I nkinr iImI Mr. Abbrfl. lu hi* S'tn m It* CHirt ■/ ."wnifArra /Vntx. 
idmhirh W l(u kluJI; ■Ibnnil Mu Ut li»li<' tun. Uwnn rimv <liHtUi< H)>m Urn 
n^fntmm «f llv Mtwy whirb «nrilMlr>i llie nrctln <>r ihi* |iiIUr «f «Iih)1>> 
la A|» UBkoMcd KluH. m 1m ruuUI Oud in nfUtoaMM iif thin Ula wIhii 
h* rhmiti Kt-mu. It la lu U pnMiuwd. lwira*ST, llwl INiUiiiHsr, wIm 
iravalU ta Omi tat a H r j M«rijr loftj ff«n eBiiior. had Bood grouBda br 
IW miift ha ^k».j 



( 77 ) 



CILVPTER IV. 

• 

ItolaliotiK In'Iwimmi tin* SIhiIim of IVniimiml thn iVwrw of rm nyiMr— IitCrr- 
f«*r<*iir(t of KiiHsiii ill Alfiiirs of tin* i'uiimHiiM-^rMiiiimi;;ii of IVt«*r Ui«* 
Cin-iil ill hii;;li<-Kiaii— Tii1(iii^ of Itiikoo mill IVHnmmI— Smllirni i*oiiMt 
of tlio ( a*«|iiiiii S<'u — Kiirly C*oiiililioii of (imrpii — Miii;4n'lm — InUi- 
Icniiuv of tilt! (ScHii^MiiiiM — Tillis — KxiNnlitioii of Api Miilioiiicd iuto 
firorpii — Kortn*MA of Krivaii — Aiiiicxiilioii of Kh«>niKKaii to IVma^- 
J)nit]i of Siinlinikli MtM'rxn — Mi;4t«ion to IVrHin fixmi the Frondi lie- 
public — Miinlcr uf Aga Mahuiiiud — IIU Cliaractor. 

No sooner did A^i Mahomed Khan find himself absolute 
master of the Persian empire than he set about tlie task 
of re-establishin^:^ the relations which had formerly sub- 
sisted between the Czars of Goor^pa and tlie Shalis of 
Persia, Wlicn the latter were sufficiently powerful, they 
had always oxactod tribute from the former : Abbass tho 
(iroat recoivod this contribution punctually during; tho 
whole of his roi<(n. It consistH of a certain nnmI>or of 
children of both sexes, wlio became household slaves.* 
Durin{? the long period that Persia was torn to pieces by 
domestic wars after tho death of Nadir, tlie sovereign of 
Geor^a was not called upon to acknowledge tho suze- 
rainty of any of the chiefs of his Maliomediin neighbours ; 
but, in the meantime, the countries lying between tho 
Caucasus and Persia were fast falling under the ascend- 
ancy of another government, whose grasp they found it 
impossible to shake ofif. As tho rise and s])read of the 
Russian power in Georgia has exercised a permanent 

* CiunuiN : Vuyngi m 7VrM. Vol. i. p. 3:18. 



78 A mflTORT OF FERSTA. 

bflimiM over the deslinict of Pnm, it mnj be nseftil 
hnt to tnee the eonnoctioii between the two eonntries . 
iW» ito ec»»>eneaneDt fTwM dier Bo»i» hid liny 
trinoiphed over Sweden tluit tlio anne of the Csar Petttf 
were, tor Uie fint time, tnmed Ai^ninst Pcr^a^J 
\ ^n tlie fity <tf Klinniiikhi, which, ni tluit time, formed 
|«rt of the Penden empire, a IfaifMiiin meramtile com- 
jmuj WM cflUliliidied nndor the proteetion of the Sliah.* 
The nei{;hhonring monntaineers snrpriMd and soeked the 
town, end eaniied a heaiFyloas to theee BnMdan mlgeetB.f 
Thin orrnrrcd dnrinfr the mcfse of Iqmlian bj the Aflghane, 
when Shah Unaum was powerieis to render jnstiee, and 
when Af ahmond, the bTader, waa in no hmnonr to attend 
to tlio rrclamationa of a aoTereifjn of whom ho had, pro- 
liiUily, nrvrr hotinl tlio muno. TahmaHp, tlic Kon of 
IlaKMiu, wImi wnH sent by his father to cnflctivonr to 
roiite an anny at KaKvcon, the native Hoat of tlie Sofa- 
Toeaufi» beeoQ^ht from thence the armed assistance of the 
Cxor of Unssia for ridding Persia of tlie AffKhaiis, The 
propoHal snited the views of Peter, whose capacious mind 
waa ahpoily occnpied with the scheme of making tlie 
Caspian Sea a Knssian lake, and of endeavouring to attract 
to that country the tran8i>ort of the commodities sent to 
Europe from Asia. He hail alrcoily caused soundings 
to be moile of the Caspian Sea, and charts to 1>e ilniwn 
np of itN coasts, niid in the moiitli of May, 1722, he set 
out in p« rson for tlio Sholi's dominions, acoomimniod by 
the KniprewH Catherine, They desceudetl the Volga to 
Astrakan, fn»m which place the Cxor movctl his army 

* iii0tniff 4r iimm»r mtms lUerrr te OntmJ, par Vui taibk. |i AID 
t ** Tn4» mil* nmrcluiuilii liiuwrs Avsivnt vir mmtm nu tv* m C'lirnwUiA. 
<i k €««i.HMTrr ii%»il I |«ni«%r mih' prrW lU 4«iMin,noo lU rwttbk* 4*ai)cuiL "<— 



EXPRDITION OP PETER THE GREAT. 79 

of 40,000 men southwards to Dagliostan, partly by land, 
but eluofly by sea. The chain of tlio Cancasos terminates 
to the e<istwaril at a place called Derbond, a word moan- 
ing a giito in a pass. It is so named becanse there 
cxisteil at that s^xit a natural oponing in which tliore 
was a gate in the famous wall which was built from 
sea to sra to prevent the ingress of the Scytliian horse- 
men. This Hoa-waHhetl fortress, which lies on tlie side 
of a beaiutiful hill tliat rises finom the sliore, might have 
been defended against all tlie power of the Czar; but 
the governor preferred, by a timely submission, to secure 
the pi*otection of so redoubtaible an enemy. Thus ended 
the fii*st Pomian campaign of Peter tlie Great, who 
returned in triimiph to Moscow. 

Mahmoud, the Affghan, feaiing lest Shaili Hussein 
should find i)i Peter a supporter capable of restoring 
the Shah's fallen power, endeavoured to induce tlie 
Ottoman Porte to declare \yni against Russia. In the 
last campaign in which the armies of these two nations 
had been pitted against each other, tlie advantage had 
remained with the troops of tlie Sultan. It was the 
campaign of the Pnith, in wliich the army of Peter 
had only been saved from utter destruction by the tact 
and coolness of Cathoriiio. Turkey, in turn witli Persia, 
claimed obcdionco and tinbute from tlie petty kings who 
nilod the countiy lying between the Caucasus and tlie 
dominions of the two great Mussulman powei's, and 
Malimoud strove to excite tlie jealousy of the Porte at 
the intorf(a*once of tlio Czar in tlio affairs of that region, 
— an interference wliich was justified by the expressed 
desire of Shall Hussein. The Turks saw the armies of 
already in Daghestan, and, naturally fearing lest 



80 A IIUrrORY OP I'ERSU. ^ 

Uicy kIiooM lulraiu-fl iulo Georj,-!!!, tlio Pfirtc (Ictormiiinl 
to iWkro wnr ntfniriNt llii^siA. l-'mni Uiis iWixa Uii- 
Tnriw wpt*, liowcrcr, diwrU-il hy tlio wlvice (if Uio 
UDlKUMuIiint iif (jcTTunny niiil of Fninre, Tlie euiperor 
(iM-Umt tlint if ItiiNKJn «rre attiwkcd Gunuany wonld 
iMnul Ikt,* uil Ui« Frencli ppprexcutfttive jwiiited ont 
UiftI it WW nnt for tlin iiiUrottft of Turkey to cQconra;;e 
a HKtTwtfnl ii'ItI Hitrli iw MiJunoild. 

Ill Um' iiirniitlini' tlic Ktiwiiiii nnny In DoKlicMtiin 
rro-ircl rriiift'iwmi*iib« nixl iio'iMmnl to mlvmioo to the 
Nintltwnnt. At tlu- iixtrcinity ortlir ptniuttnln of Abxlnu'oii, 
vliirli jnt« 'Hit fmin tlir «i-Htcni HJiorv of tlic Ciixiiiiin S<'ii, 
fteiidx tJiP fiirtn-Mt of Itiiilki ■•)'», or HaktMi, a jilacc coin* 
Wfttiil rhii-flvon Bit onitt of the t'Vi-rliiimiti;,' fwTH of unitlitlia 
in itfl Ticiuity, whk-b attracted tbo ndomtion of tlio firc- 
vnmliijijieri of old, and irluch are to tliis diiy eoustaiitly 
tended by a sneccmion of pricnts from India. Bukoo 
yicldeil to tlte Ibuwian RniicnU Matnfkin, and immediately 
after itM cNiitnro a treaty wiu t-ouctni1p<1 at St. Potcrv- 
iHirj* Itotwmi tlio Cmr IVIcr and the amluiAKodnr of 
Talinuutp (wlio actitl fitr liimM'lf, iw Ihh fiitlior IlnKKciu 
van a cnjitiTc), liy wliirli Uio fonnrr cnpi'^I to take up 
anna lor tlio mttnmtioQ of tlic ScfnTrcanK, on ronditinu 
nf tlie remnn to liim in i>crpctnity by tlio latt«r not 
only of Dorbenil and Bakoo, whicb were already in liia 
pOMacMtion, bat aho of tlie tbrco pnmneos of Gilan, 
Vaicnderan, and Astrabod. Tliiii treaty met vitli tfao 
^iproTal botli of Talimaap and tlie Ottoman Porte.f and 

■ llitl-irt 4r /.HM' Hw i'itm I* OrmiU. p. ftI4. 
t - 1^ o«i|niH(« ij* IVrrvl •ml ■*««■«€« <lr la IVno f4 ■!• Ik 
iwit«i» F>r k« milM^ ]TI3«t da IfuT—L* RmmitJamtTJmiMimimtt. 



TUB SOUTHERN COAST OF THE CASPIAN SEA. 81 

until after the death of Peter the southern coast of the 
Caspian Sea remaiucil nominally in tlie possession of 
Rnssia ; the native Khans continuing, howeveri to rule in ' 
their respective states. The Caspian provinces of Persia 
were restored to that power in the time of Noilir/ and they 
still remain a portion of tlie Persian empire ; hut the idea 
of Peter the Great of making the Caspian Sea a Russian 
lake has never been abandoned, and much has been done 
by Ids successors towards its reaHzation.f Nadir obtahiod 
tlie submission of tlie imler of Georgia, and he not only 
recovered the whole of the Persian possessions to the west 

^i*aii<lfl, II rniiHo <lc In ])orrKli«) dii rliiiiiit ot «lii (lefiiut do roiiniiiiiiiouUuiiM, 
4110 \cn victoircH uviiitiit cto proiiipIcK ct ]m*u iUm|iuU'h;m. AiiKsi m* boniu-t-il 
li jnt4!r (U^ii piniiiioiiH dniiK qn<*lqiu*8 pliiccK forU^H ; riulmiiUMtmtioti dii ]myK cut 
coiiMervco, Ica (litli^reiis KliaiiH reMti'iit 8(>iivenuiit «Iiiiih leiii*M 4*tiiU<. Sa 
Hollicitiulo cut Kculeiiicnt evcille€ pur la Kituatinii dt^ la (icorpc (pril vuut 
Roustrairc definitivcmnnt an jon^ Turc. . . . Sen Kiicccsseurs, jiiKtemeiit 
etfraycM ])ar la coiiHomination d'liotniucs qu'entrainait I'occuiMition, evacu- 
vrehi succc&sivenieut Icit pays cuiiqiUB." — Lu JfHMtie dant lAtie Mineure, 
p. 85. 

** La UiiHHio, par Ics traiten do Itechto ot do Gandja (17.'i*i ct 17:tr>), 
I't'tro'^ida tl'abord juMpi'ii Hakii. et oUMiiit** ko ri'tini dumuro la li^uu dii 
Tei*ck." — f,ti lium'u' ihitin PAitir MinrHrc, p. H(l. 

* ** A treaty to thin cH'cct wan luuiclitdod in tlio year 17:i5. MiiXDiidorau 
and AHlndtud had Ik^ou iilivudy i'cKt«>i*cd tti Pui^hia l»y a tixnity t'lHicludtHl at 
lloMlit." [The Tivaty of lloslit waa miwlo in tlic year 17;l*j.j — Ithickirnottt 
MutfitziNC. Vol. xxi. 

f ** Doiuiiior dtiiic la iiier Caspioiuio, c'cUiit ouvnr a la IUikhio Ic com- 
moi*co do toutcs hch cotes, et i-ctahlir, k Kon piiifit, ccttc niieionne route com- 
mercialo do I'liido, que noUH avouK vue cxph>ituo tour a tour par leii Grecs ot 
I08 Uoiuaiiis." — La liuMBic dant I'Anie Mineure, p. 8*i. 

** IX. Ap]n*ocher Ic plus pr6« possihle do CoiiKtantinojdo et don Indcu. 
Celui qui y re^iora Hera le vrai souvemin du moude. En consequence, 
Huscitor des guerres continuelles, tautot an Turc tantot a la Perso ; etahlir 
dcB chantiern Kur la nier Noire, s'eroparor pen a pou do cotto nier, aiuKi quo 
do la 13altique, co qui est un double i)ouit necetisaire a la reuH8it« du 
projct ; hater la decadence do la PerHo ; }>euetrer juMpiau golfe ]*ei*Niquo ; 
i^'tablir, ri c'cst poflidblo, par la Syrio, I'ancien commerce du Jicvant, rt 
avaiicer jutqu'aux Indes, qui wmt Tentropot du monde." — Extract from the 
document known as the Political Testament 0/ Peter the Oteat, Czar of 
Riieeia. 






I 



A ItlSiTOItY ov rmtsiA. 

of Uw Cwq'iun Sra, iiiclii<1in}; Dct-liontl luul Bukou, but 
be alio nmlritiKik nu cxjitHlitiiin u^niiiMt the LokkIiih of 
Dnftfamfam, uirl uulf »i>ine iiii|>n>i«u<>n on Dioht liiinl}' ami 
iDtnrtuUr iminiiUiiiei'rH. Wliilc the DOHteni portiou of 
tlie conntiy which lion (wtnLum tlio lofty raD;;u of thu 
CMMm«n Kiiil Uic mniiittniiiM of LnziHtiLU and KiiHt4>ni 
AnDOttM fWMK-tl, an w« Imvu ncfn, from tho poxwii- 
wm «f IVntin t<i thut of Uniwtit, And n-iut ii;;Hin nno- 
Tisnil lif the fiinuiT {Hm-L-r, tlio ccntnil ituil wohUtii 
ilu4n<^ of tJmt portion of Uic t^Udiu riouaiucd ntider 
Ute wvtiy of M^'cnl pi'ttj itrinccx, who owuod ultvj^ionco 
■t diffrrcut timi« to <iiii< or othrr of thi'ir powfirful 
urif^hlxHira. Tlic cntiutry est«ndiu;r from Uio ca«tom 
■iMrF of tlio Bhwk Sea to tho honlcnt of roniii OD tlie 
one huid, tod from Uie frontier of Tnrkej to the foot 
of tlie monntiiius of Circoiwia on Uie otlier, in one of 
Ute xerj fiurcnt portions of tlie o&rth. It coQtniiw tlio 
hmoHH rc«lina of Ea itnd tlie chuuiic FhaNiH, of which 
wo cu-Ijr raail in the vojrn;^ uf 

TIh- w,m.in\\ \Tff: •rl>i<-l< iti TrolniiK !»-<¥. 

Kin« llinmt^llM Kiixiin- >««■ Uir<'ii)l Hh' llmtTiiT (Irmv. 

It wiw tUvithtl into MToml priuripiilitiiti, thrco of tliti 
nvMt miiHidorabh' of which bore rcxjioctivrljr the nauion of 
Minf^f tin. Iincn'tiA itnd Gcor<pa. T)icm> coiintrieii were 
inlmbitcal by nees of people whow rare bcanty is 
proTrrbiol oTcr tlie world. Tlicir childrpii, who flnr okcs 
Imto Itccii brot^rht in lart;e Dombcm into Pcnda snd into 
Tarkc>y, hnrr, by tlicir iiitormaniiiRrs with tho people of 
tlioiw hukbi, boon tlie means of cluinjnnf; triboH, nt fiixt 
mnarkable for tlicir n^^liurm, into hjuulMomo and pleasing* 
kwkinf; pcojde ; and at tho proweut day the Oonrpians and 
MiuirrcliouM an to a great extont doing for the Roanan 



FORMER COXDITIOy OF GEORGIA. 83 

nation wliat tlicir ancostoi's did for tho foUowoi's of Alp- 
Alsran and of Tiniur. 

This faiir country and its fairer inliabitiints were for 
himdrods of years a prey to all the evils that spring from 
and follow a system of weak and barbarous govcnnnent.* 



• ** 



L<'H pMitiUIioiiiinoM flu piiVM otit ixmvojr nitr In vto ot Mttr Iom htvun 
(lu louiii HiijuU. \\h cmi iuut i'v qu'ilH Vi'iili'iil. JU 1«*M pnriiiiriit, M«»it AMiitno. 
Miit nifiiiil. IIm \oa vciidciit. oii ilw ni i'oiit iiiitiv cIkim*. C(iiiiiiii) il liMir 
I»liiit." — I'oifmff tin Chrntlirr Clmnliu, Vol. i. p. Ii2. 

" Qiiiiiid IcM M«!i;;iuMirM Mint tuix-iiii'iiicM ni ilillureiul, hi fon'O on cliHsidc : 
ccltii qui CNt lo pluM foit pi;{uu In riiiiMu. Vtiiri coiniiiciit ils k'v pn*niiuiit : 
iln foiidmit 11 miiin annve siir Iok lN>Htinux dv leur oniioiiii. Hur hcs vasMinx, 
Mur KC8 iimi8oii8, Hur Mcti terrcM. pillunt, lirriluiit, iilHittiuit tout ; ct cnfiii, 
loiw|u'il8 no Rtivont plun k quoi s'<*n prmdro. Hh HrnicluMit Ich vi^eii, Ich 
niiiriorH et 1cm nrhrrM uukkI ntilcM ; que ni leK ]iiu'tit>8 vionncnt it rc rencontrer 
dunint COM actcK dliostilitcH, Uh ho cundmttent d'unc ninniriv Hiui};liinte. Lc 
pluA foible et le pluM nmltniitt* no niiinquo janniiM do recourir an prince, qui 
RnuH cela ne prcndrait point connoiKManco do la quercllo." — hhm. Vol. L 
p. 174. 

*' I>a Min^vlie OHt ai^jounriiui fort ]xmi |MMiploe, ello n'a ]nu< plua do 
viu|;^ niillo lialiitnuH. II n'y a trente anx qu'ollo en avait quatro vin^^t niillc. 
JjU caUKo do cotlo diminution vicnt do hom j^MiorroM avec koh voisintt, ot do la 
quantilo do •(ouk do tout moxo. quo Ich p'utilKlionnnoM out venduM com 
dcrnii*i'i*H anniVn. Dopuin lon^^tiiiqin on a tiiij t4)UH Ioh huh, |Nir aeliat oil 
par titN!, dou/.o niilltt poi'HonnoH do Min^^rolio." — I thin . Vol. i. p. \Hi\. 

** (''i*Mt unt* olioHO qui n'<*Nt pun oii»vahIo que rinhunuinito doM Min^iv- 
HoUH, et eelto oruaute dennluroe qu'iU out toUM pour leurM eonqiiitriotoH, et 
quo «pU'l«|ueH uuH out jHuir leur piiqiro nan^. IIm nooluMvhent quo I'oeeaHiou 
do i«'eni|M»rter eoutro leunt vhmsuux, (Nuir nvoir quelquo pivlexto do lot 
vondro avec IcnrM fenunt;H ot leuiN enfann. I)k enlevent Ioh enfauH do lenra 
voisiuH ot on font la memo cIioko : ilw viiidtMit memo leurN pnqu'oH onfiiUH, 
lourH fcmnies vX leurs niert^H, et ecla non \t\\r proviK'ation^fUi motif do vcn- 
((canco. main uniquemont par rimpulniou de leur naturol deprav6. On m'a 
montro pluMiouni ^entilshouunon qui out etc doiuitiuvH juMpra ce |N>int. 
Un d cux vondit un jour dou/o ]inHreH . . Co ^('ntillionnue devini aniouroux 
d'nno demoiselle ; il renolut do rr|>ouH<T. quf»iqu'il eut dija uno fonnne. 
. . IjO }(ontillionuuo ne savoit (»u ])r('udi*o co qu'il avait promiH |Miur obtiMiir 
Ma maitroHM4\ et eo qui lui fiilluit ixun* la noeo, qu'en vendant di*H \jyi\y^. Sea 
NtyotH qui apprin^nt mm dc»M<>in. n'onfuirent ot emmeneront 1i«ui*h femmeH 
ot lourM cnfauH. Ucdnit an doHonpoir, il h aviwi do cctlo ]Ma'lidio tiait a fait 
outree. II invitn douzo ]nvtrcH li venir die/, lui diiv uno uichho HcdcnnoUe 
ot faire un Kacrifico. IjOh prtHron y alleront bonnement. IIh navoient 
ganlo do pcnner qu'on Iom voidut vcndro aux TurcH, no a'cUuit januuM rieu 
vu paroil on Mingrclio. IjO ((cutilhommo 1cm rc^ut biou, lount tit diro la 

c— « 



Rl 



A III8T0RT OF PRUSIA. 



Tiirro wiiK no Kociirity for life or for property, and no 
rliiN-k wuH plurcNl n]H)n conduct which wnH nt vnriance with 
t]i(* |ihiin<*st dirtiitcK of nOi^ion and of limnanity. Tlio 
]N>o|)lc of lh<; roiintry won* an dc^ficicnt in every pl<»aHin«j 
loonil ipialily, an tlu»y were ahundantly endoW(*<1 with 
pliysifiil cxcTHenccN. Tliey were barbarouH,* i;niorant, 



. l< tir l«i imnifiliT uii iNiMif. i*t li*** cii trniln i*ii>iiii(«*. QiimihI il Icm cut 
l4iii Cftit lutin'. il ]i •» lit |tn iiiln* imr m'm ;;i>iik. l*-^ lit I'lii'Iuiiiur, Irurn lit niMsr 
U !• b- H If vi«ii;.«f. ft 111 unit <»iii%'iiiilf il Um nii'im n mi vniH<(4*iiii Ttirc. t^ik il 
lr» vriNlit |Hiiii ih-n HMiiMrH «•! ilifi Imnlii* ; iimiM rr ijiiil «*ii tim ii« kUtUmiiit 
|w«iiirtin- |NMir |riii'r mi iiiiiitii'<«M' vt \nniT fiiin* mi iumv, n* tij^rv prit ku 
lifliNir ft ImIIn \t liiln* Nil lilrliii* \iiiMMilt1." — /r/riw. |i 1m |. 

" J^irw|ni* j«' |«i«M«i n AkHl/ikt*. oti diMNil r|iu* \vn TiirrN voiiliiifiit no 

larllrk- «-li |Mf-«««iHhi|| i|i> t'«-*i |»it«*i III vi y liirltn' llli Inh'Iim, IM* Mirlmllt |Mitllt 

4««irr mttyt-ii tl*- n'liK^diiT ni:x ;:iii'm*«niiiliiiiirlli'Ni|iii \tm ilriniiM'iit et Icm 

dt |a*n|»li'iil II«*Ih1i|i liMlit "— A/rM. |(. m:Iii. 

** 1^ - CiMf;/!! !•«• (Mil iiMliirflli Mil III In niii*«iii|i il'i H|iril : rmi m rmiil «li h 
■^ Urn •.i\iitio 1 1 ■>• i.Tiiiiil'* iiiiiilri" *>i Mil Itx clrxiiif iIhhh It « M-ii in •■<* i-f ilmm 

ii«iiit«. iiiiii* I •'fiii«-HtiMii iiu'iiii II III iiniiiif i'liiiii I'lii'i iiiii-iiiiiiii.it iriiviiiii 

t|th il. iiiiiii\.ii« I \i iii]>li •». lU ill \ii iiiii III III •» lu'iMifii'il'* 1 1 ln-<« \ii'H-ii\ lit 
Miiiit foil I" *. fii|M<ii«t. |i«iImIi«*. iiiiitii o, iii;;i-iil<*. Willi! rl'i- IN vnnt 

irT«'*« «uii ill li !• *• iliUi'* !• iir«* li.'iiiii H it lU iii' |iiin|iiiiiii iit jniniii» . . . ]«<'?* 
^ ii> «i«'v'''''^- i'>'tiiiiii !• «* .(iiiM •«. *> I iii\ Il lit it tl* mil III rlic/ I ii\ ill- In III It 
t«rliiVi* iltiiit il* foiil 'l«-<* I i>iiriili|ii« « I'i-i'«iiiiiii' tl I n • t*! •MMiiMli')i»«-. piiit'i - 
lUi* 111 roll tiiiiii I II I >t ^'licltlli rl till tlK' ililliiri»i-i' — /iAm* \'m| II |i II 

• ••}.!'.«'» ihi uoiiiiiii-l Miii;;ti-Ii-i) <ui|it mill <». p'l iin •» iji* n n uiniiii h 
rt ili riMiiplitiH ti«. 111:114 i|ii n-«>ti-. I* «> |>lii«i im i-lniiiTi •« fi iiiinr<« i]i la t«-rrf : 
Ii«rt« »ii|« rU «. |N rliili «. f«iiiilH««. rriit lli «•. iiii|iii«lii|ii( « 11 ii'v h |taiiiit iK- 
■!■• Imiii • !• ipi • II* «• III' ii'« ti< lit |M« III 11 iivn- ]»*iur M iiiin ili *> iiiii.iii<». |Miur 
|r« r«>n*i n * r • t |i»»iir l*-» |H*iilii- 

"l^* ilMtllllli •• Mill Ii>llll« • I <* lllllllVtllM « llllllllll ^ 111**1111 |>lll« lllll* ll H 

ff iHiiit « II II \ II i^iiiil ill iii.i-i;:iiili- II iiiP-i I III •••iiil Hi «i jKiiii . ii« •Mint 
|i*ii« t |i t >■• nil Inn III . il« 1 1 |ii*lii III lU I i> t> lit II i:r i iii|il>>i. !• iir )>|ii.«ir. • I 
!• nr Iniiiii* iir lU r«i|ilt nl iMi *' iim »iiti>ilti iixii iMiiim l< •« \<iN iin lU nut 
Ctit* lU I II M«iit loin « . ill I II lin Hi ll >ir I «>•• /i.Uiil. ^ii'iii J. .x-.i^^iii-il. 
V* ttitiifiri-, Il III* ii«>*iii{;«-. V t <^i * i- i|ii iN ■■}•]'• III III |i « Im r.i « III t:ii|i« I •> 
n4H-iil*iiiii;^ . I Miliilli It. Ill iii/i>iiiii . I iiii • «ii , I I •>! iiilMi<ti|i « Ml I «. ■Mill ill 4 
v«r1ii*. ('li Miii^'ii'lii- ].i*ii«> iiil'Xi 111 tl iiiitii <• il » iiii<« itiix iiil.i^ I III 
y |if«-lMl will* M-rii|Milt- «ii Inn MN ;.'*'. •'i liiitr ^:i iiiiii. In •mi nr ili ^.i fi liinn' 
i^*u «<'nt M^i'ir til iix fiiiiiii« M la tfi*. Ii « ijhii,«« . U mii nui* ili ^s tii» en 
r\m$mmt\i Ipiu 1 Inu'iii i-lit i« tl* ill iiiit.ilil il** t I'ln iiImih •« i|ii il >tUt. Irn 
rl li-« tii.in* Mint r«'*'i]tnM|u« tiiaiit r>rl i*i>iiiiii««li o l.i ih •'•ii« ll y • 
ru% tr« • l^'il tit' jn^'U^I*' i/<iHh«l III! Ii«>iiiiiii |*r* ml k.i fi iiiiii** aiir \r 
^\vr •nm icnUiit. U m ilrt>it tu U otiiUiiiti*hi •4 ]*Hwr iiii r*M.-huu, it 



DESCUUn:iOX OF MINGRELIA. 85 

8U2)crstitiouH» debaaclieil auil ilcbtisod, also iille and devoid 
of good faitli. 

Tlio country of Min<(i*oliai, tho ancient Colchis^ was in 
a great part covered witli wo(h1» which npreaid ho fast as to 
threaten to engi*o.s8 tlie whoU) faice. of the hind. Itiiin fell 
ahnoHt constantly, and in snnnner the hot sun acting on 
the moist eai*thy prochiced fevci*s and other diseases, wliich 
reduced the number of tlie population and cut short the 
duration of the hfe of man. In order to counteract, in 
some degree, tlie evil influence of such a chmate, the Min- 
gi'elians spent a great portion of their time in taldng open 
air exercise ; tlie nobles occupied themselves chiefly in 
lumting. There were no towns, nor anything similar, in 
the country, with the excerption of two villages on tlie 

(Vonlitiiiirt* il ii«t )»nMi<l iniMirHiiiri) v<'ii^t;iiiifv. IjcnM'liou m* iniiii<;t* onlrViix 
ivo'iH. Cc qui vhI Hiir|HViiiiiil, cmI «|Iio cutu* iiivcliiiiito nil lion ttoiiticiit qui) 
c'cht 1)ieu fiiit (rnvoir ]iIiisic*urM fcuiiiu'H ct pliisioum conculiiiicH. imrciMiu'tm 
cn}(ou(lro, iliHont-ilM, bcnumiip (rctifiuiM qu'tm vend nr^ont cuniptnut, ou 
qu'un celiiiii}^() ]H)U1' \vh ImttleH el ptiur Icm vivres. Cvhx n'est riou loutefuUi 
au prix rruii srntiiiiciit lout ii fait inliuniiiin qu'ilH out, quo c'rst clinritv do 
tuor loH euftiuB nouvcuux nt*8, quiiud on n'a pun Ic moynn ou In coninio<Uto 
de IcB nounir, <;t cvux qui Hont uuibiduM quiind on ue lc8 wiurait guurir."— 
Voyrnjf (in CherttVirr Chtinfiti. Vol. i. p. 170. 

•• hcH Min^^'ilinuM ct Icuni voiMtuB nont do tn'*« ({randH ivro^ioa."— 
Idem, p. 111). . 

** Com poupIcM fiont pan*HMCUX ct lAchog au-dolii do riunipiiHtion/*— > 
Ithm, Vol. i. p. liiO. 

** ]*ii*Kfpio t4MiH It«K Miu^jroliciiK, hoiuiiii'H cl fonnuoM, ni/'Uio Icm pliiN;;nindrt 
ot loM )diiM riclirH, n'out JiiuiiiiM qu'uui* olicniiM* ct qu'iui nilc\*on ii In fnU. 
CVIa lour duro nil iiioiiiM uu an. Poiidiint on (oiupM, IIm no Iom luvont quo 
troiK foil*."— /r/fw, p. 177. 

**Jo ni'iinvto uusNi loii^onipM u la priidiiro doM avantiip*M pIiyHiqiioM dos 
(«iW)(ionM <*t do lourn pniicoM. paivofju'il iiy a nuilhouroiiHoiiiont {nim nmmX 
clo^u M lairo do louiii avaiiUi^uH iulolUH:luolH." — /«r« I'eitjtiea tlu Cauauf, 
Var J. lionKNMTKiiT. 

** Sono anolio, a diro il voro, lo piu bcUo doiino di tutla TAMia ; Hono lo 
Giot^ano gipiutc^Ro di utatuni : liaunu quiuii tulto caiuflli norl o occhl pur 
nori, jn^ndi o iNdli: camnpoii hianoa, o coloritissinia, nioroisroiiio io crodo, 
il liquor di Hacco, oho a lorn o niolto fauiiliaro/'— Ttd^j^ lii Piktko dkuji 
Vaixk. Vul. ii. p. IC. Koiuiui cditiuu. 




■M eoMk. Tlie hoaaM, v^iidi vore built <ni pouts drireu 
into tlie gruoiMl, vere aeattcrcd in twon and threw all 
unr tlw inDciiMlit7, mi in caw of dvU mv or innuon 
fraoi witlwot, tlto paojde retiroil into <Hie or other of ten 
mmIIm, i^Mod in the mulat at a finest so dense that it 
oonU onl/ be penotratod by those vho poiHO»ed the dne 
and who wtn nnc^HMxl frmu within. 

OflCNigia ia fiimished bj natnre with ereiytliing that 
ean eoutribate to render a pi^nlaUoa proHperotu and 
'"^IW- ^^ eliuiatfl is diy uid T017 odd in winter, and 
if Car a put <tf tlie MuuniFr tlie licat ia oXL-cHtdvo, a rcftajte 
from it maj be toaoA in the neit{1ibonrinfC moimtaina. 
TIio ftrooud Itaa to bo artifidiiU.r waturoil ; but Uuh 
civmrnt w nbnutbiiiU; Hnpplied by tlio river Kiir, tlie 
t>lr(«iu wliii-b pave liiti uiiiiio to Cynitt, tlie conqmror of 
Tenia. Tlic enrtti when wiit^rcd prwluceH (^-uiu in abiin- 
iLwrc, And excrllcnt fniit of aliuoBt every kind. Cattle aud 
tpunc KlMiiiiid in tlie eonutry, lUid tlio river Knr nnd tlio 
C'iit«|iiiiii iU'A Nn|t|t]y IihIi »if fn-sli wntcr unci nf the ocoiui. 
Tiic viiieynnlit of Kliaklii-ti yirlil the iNwt winti of AKia, 
atHi at a itriitt m> niixb'mtc iw lit lirint; it witliiii llie n-iu'li 
of tlie iMNtn-Nt |K><)lilo. KiK'li A fuiuitiy nii;;1it will oxritc 
tlu' cupidity of ilit p<iwerful iiei;;libour«, and aee<in1iii;;ly 
we tiud it |NiMfiii;r under the prott-ctiuu of one of tlieue 
■flrr auotlier. Sliuli iHinail of I'enua couijiellcil tlio 
Cxar of (icoiyiA Ut pay liini tribute and to Hond hioi lios- 
tuf^CH. TliiH tnbiitti wiu continued to Iuh mtn, Tulimasp ; 
but aftiT liiit death, tlio OeorpouH tlirew off tlie PenuAD 
yuko : * wliit-h, however, wah mmhi attain re-CftabliHlied, 
and wiiM coutinuetl by AbUuw tlie (ircat, who uiarelicd to 
Tiflix, and M-iit the Cxitr of Gi-op^a a priitotier to Muxcu- 
• Cu*ui». V«L U. jk til. 



INTOLEUAXCE OP THE OEOKGIANS, 87 

(loran,* anil aftoni-anlH cauHccl him to bo put to death at 
Shccraz. When Abbass was uo more, the Qeorj^ians 
again attempted to throw off the Persian yoke ; but the 
general of Shah Sefi defeated them in several engage- 
ments, reduced the country to its former condition, and 
built the fortress of Gori to oveniwe Tiflis. 

That city, the capital of Georgia, Ues at the foot of a 
mountain, and is built at the present day, on both sides 
of the river Kur. Up to a late i)eriod, Tiilis was sur- 
rounded by strong and handsome walls, excepting on the 
side on wliich it was bounded by the stream. On the 
soutli it was commanded by a ltu*ge fort placed on the 
slope of a mountiiin, into which only Porsiiuis wore 
admitted. Tliis fort was erected in the year 157G,f at a 
time when Georgia was in the possession of the Turks, 
who in Uke manner built nearly all the fortresses which 
exist in the principality. The Persian authority was 
never so firmly established over this country as to enable 
that govonimout to act independently of the wishes of the 
Georgians. We read that, under the Persian domination, 
wine and the ilesh of the forbiddiai animal were openly 
sohl in the stn^ets, and that not a single moscpio was to 
be found in the city of Titlis. Within the walls of the 
fortress the con(iuoroi*s ventured to erect a small place 
of worship, where the Moslem might bow their heads 
towards the Keblah. The Georgians could not penetrate 
into the fort, and the mosque was therefore finished ; but 
when the muezzin dared to ascend the minaret and with 
a loud voice to summon all men to prayer, the indigna- 
tion of the Chnstians was roused, and from without tliey 
hurled such a shower of stones at tlie turret of tlio 

* CiiAtiDiN. Vol. ii. p. UU. t ^dim, p. 74. 




A lIlKTOnV OF I'l-:iI8U. * 
.,1 ■iiivljj.tj^ kttiUuUt titltt ^^ HUWUiUt to MVO luB sfk WW 

ioieai to 4aMn4f nd ha atnm^iiii nqmiiad tha Mune 
•UHiiiri, SwhtetaffdMiteleaf nli8ionsfeeUDg,it 
mi^ W ■^pBwJ tlMt no Oeacgjm vonld hftn vaatand 
lo •poatatiM bm Om Wlh oTUi Ubm. and 7«t ve in 
teUoo ImliyiUlilu antbotttgr* tlwt tb« gmUer put of 
tlM a«oi|MB mU% imfaNei ontwaidljr the HolMWMiba 



ThoioyrifcigyeftbeBiff»tiil«ni»«rteditideMent 
Am Xi^ BnU of I«nal.t oikI Mt on the thraoe 
of OoMsb floai te mib eantoiy of the Cluirti«i 
on, tt* ooaqoMOtB of the prineipeli^ wnpecting the 
oinao of Am nigiuiig hoow, lad merely leqniriiig 
taOale. Vador the Toib, the ^eee of Oeoigie were 
elloweil to maintyin tbo professiou of tbe Christian fuiUi, 
and the aame Uberty was at first accorded to tliem by 
their Peisiaii mutcn. Bnt on the death of a Georgian 
Cier. his two sons iliMpnted his succession, and nppcalod 
Cur aNUktauro or arhitntiou to tlio IViviiut Shuh. Tho 
demautl of tho ^oougur broUicr came tint to Ispoliau, 
eud he wu proiuised tlio iiihcritauco of hin father on the 
condition of hia becoming a Masenlmau. On these terms 

* Kir JiH* (.'HARDrs. lVnl]i»lrnliai7 otKinttCliai-lm II. taUra Dutch 

aw*. 

t riwm^wi w o. hy lUnwi IIj»tb*chkx. p. 111. 

~ In lbs jrar Sift <if iinr rra. tlir first aTlliF lU|[nit)ile hmily luntHlnl 
(Im llinwr. bmI hi* »w r o -»— f» tvtaiiKd Uw jpncniMPtil miUl 1X00, wlwu 
Onj rnlr<l II In llwuk.' — /A«i. 

~ TW IhinalMns vm ilnrendrd bum Abmlian liy ilir line of iMuk. 
TV SrM M lliw fiwll.T itbii n«M la AniM-nia van IjIiiihImI, iluruix tin 
nplTily h]r Sp1mr1»iiiH-iu»r (bw «l lij* |>n>4i<rilj *™ tin- rrlrlwali'it 
ll«lwnL vhH livrd in tlw rriiin iif VaUnvm: •ml. iii ciaM'<|iit-uran<'hU 
rmallnl rinar ■ml rwiiM.m wmm. cumiiIiIi^ Iqr UmI priiK* \>j tin litla u{ 
lU^ral ihr lUirnitMii All nnHhrn of lii* tiMiil.r fnn UiU liae wnv 
■wIrtrMlty kiwmn by tlir lillo at U«|trMiM»>."— //i«Mf)r ^ Armnin. Uy 
rNtlMrU.C 



TllEATY DETWEEK RUSSIA AND GEORGIA. 89 

he became governor of Georgia, and so long as that 
country remained nndor Persia, a prince of the royal 
house of the Bagratides who professed Maliomedanism 
was the viceroy, or vaU, of the Shah. The heir-apparent 
was kept as a hostage at Ispahan, and enjoyed the 
honourable post of governor of that city. TitUs under 
tlieso princes wais a handsome and populous town, where 
mercliants and strangers from many countries were at all 
times assembled. The Czar of Georgia made it his 
place of residence, and maintained a court suitable to 
his rank. 

The troubles that ensued upon the death of Nadir 
Shah liad afforded to the vali of Georgia the opportunity 
of freeing himself from the Persian yoke, and even of 
acquiring a portion of the territory of Persia. But the 
Czar Heraclius foresaw that this act on his part would 
draw down upon him a heavy retribution, when the 
diy should arrive that would see Persia again united 
under a single ruler ; accordingly, ho prepared himself 
against such an event by entering into a close alhance, 
offensive and defensive, with the Empress of Russia. In 
the year 1783, a treaty was signed by which the Georgian 
prince renounced all connection with Persia, and 
declared himself the vassal of tlie Empress Catlierine ; 
who in turn bound herself and her successors to protect 
Heraclius, the son of Timuras, and to guarantee the 
possession not only of all the actual dominions of tlie 
Georgian Czar, but also that of all tlie lands which 
might in future be acquired by him. 

When Lutf ali Khan, the gallant rival of Aga 
Mahomed, had perished, and when the Kajar chief had 
received tlie submission of the southern provinces of 




I 

I 



A inSTOIlY OP rKRSlA 

IVrxiii, Uh) Iionr liiul arrived when he wiw 
tlio rrlwllioQii Cxur of {icoi>ri)i. Iloforo »e 
tlint couutt^', III] Kiuiiiiiou(>il IIcrocliiiK to l 
dnl;, la piiy Uio iu-<-iiHtouiC(l tribute, mid M 
bill cuurt to ilo lioiiiiip>, anil take tlie natli 
TIm n]i>ljr of Hi-nu-tjiDi wum tliitt lio lu'kiiovx 
HUumia bat OtiUii'riiia tlio Sccoud iif IIukh 
MiUiDinoil vntM uiiwilliiif,' to give up tlio ri 
coniitni- oTcr (lurtrgia, luiil lie- wiui also nai 
Ujo L-iitTiiiu-liiucDt of IttiNHia. Ho ucoo: ^ 

K l»i);o {uTw, luiil iu tlic spriti;; uf 170S not tM 
Teltnui for Anloliocl, at t]io liciul of Hixty tlioniuind n* 
At AnlfbtK'l lu) tliviilcil liix furco iutii tluvn ntrjw. 
tif Uii'M* wwi ilcMiMili-licil li_T tJto iilniii of Mi>f;liiiii in tbo 
<Iim-tioii of ])ii};lu>Ht<iii, bi nxiu-t tlio roiinin^d oiUli of 
ridi'Iily fniiu tlm cliicb of tlint (iiiiirtor, uid to lovy tlio 
ftiTtnuii of trilinto. Tliiii force mot witli uo opjxniitiou, 
■ihI (ixocal«i] tlie aerviceff reqoired of it. Tli« second 
eorpfl marcbed apon Eriran, whicb place acknowladged 
tlie aotboritj of the Cur of Geoif^t and was defended 
hj fifteen thoasand Georgians nnder the couiniand of the 
Hon of Heraelins. The third ccopa was nudcr the im> 
inctliiito onion of Aga Klttboinod himself. With it ho 
luarulicd to iuidttrt«kc the sivgo of Kht-osluili, a lull fort 
lH*«r IImj AraxoH, in the pro\-iui-o uf Karabogb ; at which 
ptaru lie ui»t witli a stiildiom and tuiDXi>Oftcd rctdstanco. 
Kailinj; alike iu liia efliirta to rcxlure this struiigltold and 
to oocrnpt Um fidelitjr of tlie gorcnior, Ibmhoeni Khaleol 
Khan, ho contented himself with leaving a force to invest 
the fort, whilst he himMitf proceeded to join his second 
(vrps d'mrmee at Erivao. 

That citjr, which ia the e^Mtal of the province of 



FORTRESS OF ERIVAN. 01 

Anncnia» Htoiids iu an extensive and \voll-waterecl plain, 
at the distiuice of a few miles from the base of Mount 
Ararat. Its fortress, which was built by tlic Turks 
in the year 1582, was ui the old style of defence. 
It had tlureo walls of eau*th, or of day bricks, flanked 
by towera and strengthened by narrow ranijiarts. It 
overhung a deep and abrupt precipice, along which a 
river ran, and on the edge of which stood the palace of 
the governor of the province. In this stronghold only 
Persians were permitted to reside, the Armenians who 
worked or trafficked in it in the day-time being obUged 
to return at even to their liouscm in the city. The usual 
garriscui of this foi*t was two thoiisand men, and the city 
of Kriviin lay within the nuige of its guns. This phico 
had fallen inU) the hands of the rei*Hians in the year 
KiOl, and had been fortiiied by them. Nine yeai*s later it 
had successfully withstood a siege of four months from 
the Turks ; but that people afber^'ards held possession of 
it for a short period. They lost it in the reign of Shah 
Sefi, and again took it from the Persians during the 
troublous time that followed the downfall of the Sefaveean 
dynasty. It was regained to Persia by the arms of 
Nadir, and seized by Heraclius the Czar of Georgia, after 
the assassination of that conqueror. 

Aga Mahomed's ai'my was not furnished with a 
battering train, and he was therefore unable to make any 
impressiim upon Erivau. Under these circumstances he 
determined to disregard the rule of warfiU*e which forbids 
on invading general to leave a fortified place behind him. 
He left a portion of liis ai*my to blockade the capital of 
Armenia, and with his remaining forces he moixshed to 
Geuja, the modem Elisabetpol, at which town he o£foctod 



I 



09 A iiitrroitY OP nntAu 

a jttnrtliiii Willi liw fimt corjm d'aniu'r, v 
time ai-cuni]>lm)iiHl tlic ilaticx iutM;jii«<I to it in iii 

and DngiMMUn. TIio ngcil Czar of Gcoryin otlvui 
BDMl Lbt> Pcnuon iimiv with a force tiiot did not i 
in nDtuU-r n fuQiili [<art of tlic iiiviiding host. 
0««)r{jiiiiis frttight witli great valour, but Uioy wcrt 
cucooulercHl hy tlifl Purniaiia wjtli otjual Iiravury nud 
were fiiinlly coini)el]<>d to giv« way, Tlw! Czar tlicu 
rcttrolrd lu KluiklicU, to wh'wli pW^c lio wuh followed by 
tlw gn-uter [Hirtioii of tlio fitizrns of Tiflin. Tlio Kajar 
ktti^' tlicu fultrn-il lluit rity, wlicn) Iiih troojiti iiict with 
tiu niHPlwici?. Uf t)i« iiilialntHiita wlio had n-taaiiiod 
t<i awnit his npiir<>iii-h, (ho iulinii aud the iigod view 
miwxnrml, and llic yinith of liotli si-sos, to the nmolcr 
fif fillMn thouMUid, were taken ns rIatiw. TIio city ns 
gireu over to be |iilhi;{et1, the lioiues wero set fire to, aod 
the eitadpt vu demolishotl. After tbifi, tlio Pcreian army 
retired fntm the place, niul marched od Tclirou, taking 
lh« ronte of the TtUey of the Kor and tlio plain of 
Unglun. On the ncwH of tlie fall of Tiflis reaching 
Krivon, tiio governor of tliat plaro inimHidrnHl it to the 
Pi-miiiii romiutuider ; Imt the high-tipiritod governor of 
Sltonlwh ontbnoil to defy tlio power uf tlie Shah. On 
kii male Aga Maliomctl funnd Shomaklii, tlio chief city 
of the province of Slieervon, which ho contrihated to 
rain. This city had formerly been tlie capital of an 
indrpondent state, and an Enropean writer* has left aa a 
deaoiptitin of the liandsome appearance which it pro- 
■cntod in ita flomishing days. The attacka of the 
neiglihonring Leagbia, and tlie freqocnt rccnrrcnee of 
eartbqDAkca, did mocb to destroy Slmnwklti ; bot tlio 



8IKQE OF DRUr.KND, 03 

city coiitinnod to bo the chief town of a <:foveniuiont until 
the year 1800, when it w;is supphmtccl by Bakoo. Shu- 
makhi now presents to view the mclaucholy spectacle of 
an immense collection of ruined houses, amidst which a 
few of its former inhabitants continue to Unger. From 
here the Kajar king pursued his way to his capital, where 
he at length consented to undergo the ceremony of being 
publicly crowned as Shah of Persia at Tehran.* Accord- 
ing to the Persian historian, he had been crowned ten 
yeara boAu'e at Astrabad. 

In the meantime, the power with which the Czar of 
Georgia had chosen to ally himself, was taking measures 
to reassei-t his authority. Her:iclius had not failed to 
apprise the lUissiaii governor f of the adjoining province 
of the demand made of him by the Shah of Persia; but 
that functionary was not prepared to see Aga Mahomed's 
threats so soon followed by acts, nor to find him advance 
upon Tiilis while Sheeshah and Erivan still held out 
behind his army. When the Empress Catherine was 
made aware of what had taken place, she gave orders to 
the oincer in conunand of the troops on the frontier to 
attack the town of Dorbcnd, which 2)lace was accordingly 
invested. Before its walls the Russian army passed the 
winter of 1795-90, and in the spring of the latter year 
Count Valerian SoubofT crossed the Terek with reinforce- 
ments. This Kussian general, who had peiformed 
distinguished services under Potemkin at the siege of 
Bender, had now under his orders an army of thirty-five 
thousand men ; and after having made himself master of 
some Oi' the outworks of Derbend, ho summoned the 



• A.D. 17im: A.II. 1-410. 

t Scu Vtrwji'i'u i{f JiuMMtm in the I'UuL 




dty to KurrcnilrT, tlirrntonin;;. \{ it Nlmald nfbw to 4o 
m, U Um At pbM tr itoRB. Ihvinff bwome poi- 
— ■aafpBrtMJfttBwAntnwf MMdwdtoBdMO, 
vUtftiolilb^vilhfcwtiiaiMDiliiion od bowd, ailft- 
WUil itaalf « Ihs ndl nfaud of Sui. new LeDkonw. 
ft«a wIM fmWm H duMteaaa Um pcminoB oT OilaQ. 
Am alUtqiCi hmnvir, wUdi it' made to get poMOMion of 
Sudi. tlM pott of Badit, wn taeoomlaBy wOmtooi. 
After Om nnmfar of Baltoo, the Bdmoui ani^ rotired 
ftrthciMiMiii toflw higlilaiidi in the Tidnit^ oT Sba- 
I» Oe iMatli of October* Coont TeUrian 
of that atrf, firom vhieh lie 
I ft Ibm vf the nUey of tho Xnr* with ofden 
t» ooe^j Oe^fot and to adranee from therevpon llflia. 
Bat NfieiHit time had not olapeed to admit of thcso 
cnnmantU being canioti into execution, wlicn tho anay 
reenred tho nc«-s of tlie death of the Emi>roi», wltich 
vaa (ullowod 1); an order to retire. The Rassian general 
aeeordingly recoiled tho lulronced diviiiion of his army, 
and gsTo np all hif conqnonta, with the cxcejition of tho 
impmiant fortrcawM nf Balcoo oiid Dorhond. 

Ajia MalKimnl Klian had r0'B8iicrte<1 tlio right of 
Pcnoa to claim tribnte ftoro the Czar of Ge<irgia, and 
tlicre tww remained bat ooe portion of the fiucicut Idng- 
dntn of tho SrfaTccons, with tlio exception of Aflgluui- 
ii4an, which diil not bclonf; to bin itomiuiunH, Sluilimkli 
SlMVUt tlie 14hi<l irnuidiuin of Sluili Hofwt^in nnd nf 
NatUr. Kineu lie l»d lioon itlncod by Ahmcti Slmh tho 
Snlnxyp (in Uw tlinuio of tlio ]trinriiHility of KlKinuwan, 
bail Uvii allnw4td by tlio vnrionii prottaidcm to tlio 
Ifnmiininit uf INtma to rcniAiii in tlie qniet pnmeiMion 
of tliii oDO Muall ]Xirtion of tlio domiuiona of bia 



ANNEXATIOIJ OF KII0RA8SAN. 05 

gramlfatlicrs. Mahomed Hiinsan tlic Kajar» Az^ad the 
Afl]i;hau, and Kereem tlie Zend had all fon^^ht \^ith 
each otlicr, but had never interfered with the foni-th 
ruler of Persia. Nor had the blind prince been dis- 
turbed during the seven years of war in which Aj^i 
Mahomed Khan disputed with the Zend princes for the 
nnuitery in Persia, His hour, however, was now come, 
and without having received from him the smallest 
offence, Aga Mahomed marched against him, on the 
pretence of wishing to make tlie pilgrimage to Meshed. 
So eager was the Kajar Shah to com})lete the reinte- 
gration of Peraia that he would not post2X)ne his 
Khorassan expedition even to enable him to oppose the 
advance of the Russian anny on the westeni shore of 
the Caspian Sea. At the very time that Count Valerian 
Soul)off' was crossing tlic Terek, Aga Mahomed set out 
from Tehran for Astrabad, where he remained for some 
time before marching on Meshed, being employed in 
inflicting a signal punishment on the Turkomans. Prince 
Shahrukh was not in a conditicm to resist the invader 
of his dominions, and ho therefore advised his sons to 
consult their own safety, while he himself came out two 
stages to meet the Kajar king, bringing with him rich 
presents by which he hoi>cd to appease him. The Kajar 
Shah limited himself at fii*st to requiring that his army 
should be furnished vdth all that it needed in money and 
in provisions ; but on arriving at Meshed, ho demanded 
to be at once put in possession of the seals of state as 
well as of the royal treasure, and h(^ rcMpiired that 
prayers should be offered up in his name in tlie mosques. 
Meshed, the capital of Khorassan, is chiefly famous 
for containing the mosqne of Imam Keza, which is visited 



I 



DO A [UKTORY OP 

1*7 mnre tlian fifty tliousatiJ iiil^'riSH h the COQIM of 
Mak }Mf , Md froB &• nrcmiM of lAkb MSbk Imndnd 
fmaam m M itQy. T1» ^ludni^^ of tbk nomp» 
b alwak «M Iwirwi m1 i^ puM i^|aai^* ud is 
fswl vifli ]|i|B fhytanei, iMviog in tlte eentn a 
WmUU UbA, wMeh m bnflt 1? Nadir Bhah. and 
iriridi fa offNtod «ttli ipild and nfaod onr tiw roMrroir 
■f fta wfag far ■hhrtJoM. A fangs of akorai extouda 
iMirf flBM rfdM fit ttifa qMdraiigla at aome ton fbet 
faattMgfMHid. AvaltofeoaMdanUolMid^MiinMnds 
ttaaani, havbgcaeadiddaagigautieardnnijflomed 
afcoTC tiw flifanet «ith bfaw Iflw and vith inaeripticRu in 
vUtaaadffold. Omtiwwntcmanhmqriaai^to cage 
fcr Um nuModn, ami noMdo of H fa a my Ug)i luinarot, 
llio licanty i>f whicJi nuiiiot 1*0 oxAKKonittil. Tho cai>itiil 
M oxqniHitclj enn'itl, and tlio itliaft below it, Sir uUmt 
twFutj Aft, in etirentl witli u*t\i\ ; lut ih ii li;,'lit ])illiir of 
alniot lialf Uitit lici;;ht hImivu it. TtuH {MiKiiiii (if Uiu 
moaqne was bmlt )>y Sliuti Abl>aHg. In tlio cciitro of 
the eaatem side of the qandraiigle. two lar^je doors 
admit tbo pilffrinu into tlio inner mooquo, wliicli con- 
taina tbe marble tomb of Imam Beia, BOrronndcd by a 
■liver and ffoldon roiling. Beyond Uiese two doors, are 
two umaller ones cucraitted witli jeweU of tiront volno. 
The iuitor moMijno iit eapablo of cnDtaioiiif,' tliroo thou- 
and iientons, aiul over it rises a df>mo ontircl; covered 
with f^•U, with two minarots at tlie sides, likewise gildod 
all ovor. Doyond tlio goldou domo is a smaller one of 
farif^ bine, wliicli marks tlie bepnning of another 
moaqne, ttie qoadranjfle of which is larger than thai of 

■ Jmn^ ^ • IHf^mtUt Thtti Ymn' HtMemtt U Ptnim, in4 



TOUTURB IXnJCrrED ON 81IA1IRUKIL 97 

Shah AbbosH. At tho oastom sido of this ouclosuro 
rises an immonsc blue dome, havuig iu front two lofty 
minarets covered with blue tiles of Koshan. 

The genenil stiite of lawleHsuess luid niisgovemmont 
throughout the province of Khonissan mode tlio invasion 
of Aga Mahomed at this time a pilblic boon. 

Sholinikh was willing to do everything that Aga 
Mahomed required of him, excepting to funiish tho 
money wanted, and to give up tho jewels of his family. 
But to obtain tho possession of these was one of the 
chief objects of the Kajar king's invasion of Khorassan, 
and he was not the man to hesitate as to the employ- 
ment of any means wliich seemed likely to bring about 
tliis end. Aga Mahomed felt convinced tliat the blind 
prince must be in possession of tlie greater part of tho 
jewels which Niulir Sliali hiul brought with him from 
Dellii, and the robbery of tliat conqueror was now to bo 
visited upon his desc^endants to the second and third 
generation. Shahrukh was seized by the ferashes of 
the Eajar kmg, and received the punishment of tlie 
bastinado ; but this not proving sufficient to overcome his 
love of his treasure, hot irons were appUed to different 
parts of his person. Yieldmg at length by degrees, 
under the influence of a burning fever, he discovered his 
largest ruby to his torturer, who at once ordered the 
jewels to be packed up for transmission to Tehran. The 
Eajar Shah had received the submission of the whole 
of Khorossan, and taking with him the blind and aged 
prince, as well as a number of otlier hostages, he set out 
on his return to Tehran, having left in Meshed a 
garrison of twelve thousand men. On the way, death 
relieved the still suffering Shahrukh from the fear of 

7 



98 A niSTOBY OF PEKSl 

foitlier iotliipiUes at tbe bands of 
spoiler. 

Od lii^ arrival at TeliruD in SG[it«ml)cr, 1706, Aga 
^Jalioiuud (lismuMeil liiit tn><ip» Uj their hoiucs fur tlia 
winter, rcqnirint; llicui t*> rcaiwc'iublo under Iuh Itauufn* 
in tlie spring of tliu fttlliiwiii},' ycur. Darin}; liis Getirgiiiu 
nuiiiiiu(,'ii U>o KiijiU' Sliiili liiul ]iut U> <li<al)i uU tliu 
ItiiiaiiimH wliiMU ho liiul tiikeu in Tillii* ; uiid lie hiul },'iroii 
onlrm fur imixiiig I Uiat tiiUiou who wt'rii to bo futiud 
at l-liut-'lti, SuK-c4i J luid Dcrbciid. Tliu re»iilt wut 

Uuil twculy-HcvfU FN wcro M'lit lootlcd witli in>ii cliutuii 
tn Telimti. Tho tinit iniiiiHlimoiit iuflictcHl ou thew men 
After t]if>ir arnvnl at tlio cnpital -Koa to f.)rcu Uicm to put 
oot Utc t'j-o* of forty Pcr»iiiu» who hud bccu coudomaoJ 
to be bliixlol fur uut juiuin^ llic iirin.v. Thi^y wirt' then 
■offered to mmdor abont the tovii, living on snch charity 
■s they coold obtain from the few Armenian inhabitants 
of the town. A week ofUsr his retain from KhurosBan, 
Aga Mahomod rented npon tlieso belplctta sailoni tlio 
i«f>o witli wliicb he liad boon inspired by the 8Qc<»»Mut of 
Connt Valerian Sonboff. Tliey von all seized and 
itnuiglod.* Wo arc told by the French tnivcUer who 
waa at Tehran at the time of tliis oxocntion, that he 
expremed to Hqi Ibrahoem, tlie prime miaiitter of Aga 
Halxauftd, bis sorpriao that the Shall fthonld limit liis 
reprisals m tlio RoswauH to thin act, and iilioiild delay to 
march in person to rex>air the disaMtcrs of the war. The 
leidy was that thero waa no hnny in tho matter ; that 
order* had boen issned not to nndortako anything of 
importance daring the winter ; and that on tho return of 
qaing a few months woold soffico to chastise tbe Mnsco* 

T^rvtAif. MMw. TaLiLp.UL 



FRENCH mSSIOX TO PERSIA. 99 

vites for their audacity. This speech was a boastfal 
evasion ; the tmth being that the Kajar Shah conld not 
afiford to keep on a war footing, during the winter, an army 
amounting to nearly 70,000 men. Apart from this, his 
troops were in no condition to repalse those of Russia ; 
had they come to close quarters, the Persians would 
have been compelled to give way before the veteran con- 
querors of Bender and of Ismail. 

The above-mentioned traveller • was charged with a 
mission from the French llepnblic to the minister of Aga 
Mahomed. The object of tliis mission appears to have 
been twofold : in the firat place, to ascertain whether or 
not a profitable interchange of commodities could be 
estabUshed between France and Persia; and, in the 
second place, to endeavour to unite tlie Persians ^itli 
the Ottoman Porte in a combination against Russia. 
Satisfactory replies were given on both points by the 
prime minister, but the difficulties which lay in the way 
of the establishment of a h*ade between Persia and 
France appeared to be too great to be overcome. Two 
treaties had at an anterior period been concluded between 
the two countries ; but it did not seem worth while to the 
French negotiator to propose to renew them, nor to 
obtam protection as fonncrly for French estabUshments 
at Ispalian and Sheeraz and on the shores of the Persian 
Gulf. The troubles tlurough which Persia had passed 
had been of too long duration, and were too freshly 
imprinted on men's minds, to waiTant the assumption 
that European merchants, or their trade, could meet witli 
efficient protection in so unsettled a country. With 



* M. Oliyier. 

7—1 



riOO A niKToav ov rr.itsiA. 



^^BMpiot to l!ic Rocfintl oltjcct of the tuisMon — that of 

^^B|feAtafoiirii>f[ bi ntiitu Vvma with Ttirkcy ti;;ainHt UuHtiia 

^^ — l!io rendftii uiiiiii'tcr UHtciiod to ami iiyrcod mLh tlio 

kr^mcntjt a{ tbo Krcuclimnn, and prnmiHotl mi tlio part 

of }iiH roiutUT tluit on luibAsmulor shduld bo noiit to 

ICunKtaiitinnplo. 
Asn MalmtDMl Kluut h&A now nwHitabliahcd oriet 
t)iniai;bout his dominions ; tlio roads voro sccnro for 
travrllon anil for canivaua; Uio taxo» were paid witli 
R^^hiritj ; ftnd hnsta^ wero ready tn nnawer fur tliQ 
cniitiiiiiiuirc of Uie dUtimt chicfn in tlu-Jr duty to Uio 
•(•nTcign. Oat nodor iliis npparcQt calm, n feeling of 
^^ ftiw-ootciit wait spn-iidin;; at the idou of being },'(ivcmcd, 
^B aud ofi-n innde (<) tremble, by one whono pbjxiciJ cDmli- 
tion oaglit, MM^mUug to Uio castoaiH of I'eniia, to liaro 
•xetndod liim from the tlirono. ThcHo feelings wore only 
luUorU, but tlicy might not Imvo lod to miy practical rcHnlt 
luUl it not been fur the tynmnical folly of Aga Muhomod 
|iim«Alf, Uuwunod by all the Iciwons which the history of 
his coontiy afforded, that tlic ^wticneo oven of the PcraaD 
|teoplo luul a liiiut, and Uint when men wore kept in 
tenor of tlioir lircs they took Uio remedy into their own 
IuumU, tlio infstoatod monarch went on in his career of 
cnioUy aiid tymuny nntil it wita bron|;ht to a close by the 
daggrr of Uio nutliiight lutHiuwin, 

lu Uiu tyrum of 171'7, A^'a Holiomod qnitttHl Tolirou 
for tJu lavt Uino, anil lod his army towards tlio AnixoH. 
yflum wiUiiu a torn milos of Uut river ko louniod that Uio 
governor of Uiu fortress of Shoosliah, iu Uio jiroviuoo of 
Karabagh, bad been compelled by the inhabitants to 
•bandon lus post, and that he liod only to toko poasos* 
rioa of Uio plaoo. Witli this ol^joet tn viow ho Itiuriod 



MURDER OF AGA MAHOMED. 101 

on in light morcliiug order to the river's side. The 
stream was deep and rapid, luid the boats couhl contain 
only a few men at a time. The king had given the 
order that his army should pass the Araxes. The soldiers 
who should brave the cuiTent's force ran a great risk of 
being drowned ; but a watery grave was less terrible in 
their eyes than to have to face the wroth of their ruthless 
monarch : they did not hesitate a moment, and a suffi- 
cient number gained the further bank to enable Aga 
Mahomed to take possession of tlie fortress of Sheeshah. 
Here his eortlily career was destined to end. For a 
shght offence he condemned two of his domestic servants 
to death, but as it was tlie night of Friday,* he consented 
that they should bo spared until next morning. One of 
these was his personal attendant, and we are told that 
this man was pennitted to perform his usual duties while 
he was under sentence of death. At midnight this 
servant, whose name was Sadck,f entered the monarch's 
tent, accompanied by the other servant who was to have 
suffered with him next morning, as well as by another 
man, imd the three put an end to the life of the king. 

Wo are told by the Persian historian^ that Aga 
Mahomed's last words were uttered in reproach to his 
murderers for having killed liim under such circumHtances 
that not a soldier of his army could escape from the enemy. 
The murderers then Heized the crown jewels, and handed 
them over to Sadek Khan Sliekuld, one of the generals 
of tlie army, who afforded the assassins protection. 

Aga Maliomed, at the time of his death, was fifly- 



^ Tho Ma1ioiuo(Iiiu holy-day of tlio woek. 

t Tlio twii iic»oiii[»Uuot» wuru niimud Khodadad oud AbbiiM. 

I lUuxul-ob'Sora. 




I 



A IllliTOHV OV TKlUtl 



lu-Trii jean of one, iau\, vomiting; 1 i uu 

Koncin Kliiui, wliicli occuito<1 in 11 Ito I 
ovr-T » grt-jit piUrt or tlio wliolo of I'c i ] 

cit^htMD yvam mid ten inoutlix. 

In rvviciriug tliu mouarch'ti Ufo ind clionictcr, Uno 
oUowaoce muHt bo modo for tlie circumHtiuicea uu<lcr 
wUkb he wan pb i eliunu-tcr of tlio pcoplo 

he liiul io ilwU wi liorcililiiry rhicftnin of 

one of tliu ihomI i ivln, luul tli« fii'Ht 

object of hiH cxii la. tioQ of tbo K^jai'H. 

IIiM nnriiott uid tlmii^wi, iiiijirc-snioiiH were ull 

■MMtciiitol witli but 1 of tba riviU tribo of '/.cml, mid 
M litUu wcru HOC I fi!<:liiii,'M oltlili^rutcd by all Uii: kiuiU 
new wbicli Itr aiui biH futbcr's fmiiilj lioil receive! from 
Kenem Kliau that, when be bod fiouUy pbuitod bis 
looi QpoD Uio nocks of liis beroditory onomies, bo caosod 
Um ntiDMUK of Kcrcom to bo oxliumcd and plnccd nndor 
tho portal of biH ])atace nt Tolinui, ho tbut bo migiit bate 
Um NutiHloction of treading n|K>ii Uioiu every Umo bo 
]nhm(m1 it. WiUi llicluml of York, bo woiibl bnro Ukod 
to HO bin Hword Hboil par^ilo toon for oil tbut wisbod tbo 
downfall of bin bomto. Nadir Sliiili liod put biK gniud- 
£iUtcr to death; aud Nadir's uopbow, Adel Sbuli, liad 
iadietod tlie moat cmol injury npou biuuolf. Tbe last 
oflonee woold, in tbe minds of most |>eniona, be likely to 
nukle tbe kugmt ; bat if we can form an opinion fixtm 
the fiKt that Aga Moliomed canoed tbe bones of Nadir 
to be broo^t to Tebran and bud boside tlie ranains of 
Kanom Kban, while tboso of Adel Shalt were permitted 
to not iu poaeo in tlie boljr city of Uosbed, it would 
^^pear that be hatod tbo memory of tbo great enemy of 
Ua btnily more than that of the person who had iire- 



CIIAUACl^Ul OF AGA MAIIOMKD. 103 

parably injure<l liiiUKclf. His whole life wiuj dovotcd to 
ouo liU-en^'roHMin^ object — the CHtahlislimeut of liin family 
upou the tlirouo of Pei-sia. To that ouo end everything 
else was made subordluate. 

Perliaps the greatest piece of self-denial that could 
have been required of such an one as Aga Maliomed 
was to abstain from avenging the blood of his father, 
who was put to death by the cliief of the rival branch 
of the Kajars ; but ho hud the wisdom to see that a 
house divided against itself cannot stand, and, in order 
to secure the cordial support of the whole united tribe, 
ho freely forgave the rival family, and throughout 
his reign continued to employ many of its members 
in some of tlie highest offices in the kingdom. This 
pnident conduct was productive of tlie best rcsiUts ; 
the example set by Aga Maliomed in tliis respect has 
been followed by his succcHsors, and, at the present day,*^ 
the army of the King of Persia is commanded by the chief 
of the upper bmnch of the Kajar tribe. Aga Mahomed 
Khan found Poi*sia in a state of anarchy, and he saw that 
it was only by a strong hand that order could be restored 
to his country. The first Kajar king was inordinately 
avaricious, but money was with him only as means to an 
end. The eagerness which he exhibited to become pos- 
sessed of all the jewels that had formerly belonged to the 
crown can be well understood, as their possession by liis 
heir would be likely to tend to the consoUdation of 
his power. The activity and perseverance displayed by 
this extraordinary man throughout his long career merit 
a meed of praise, and the proof of his foresight and 
wisdom is to be found in the fact that the kingdom which 



Im hidM mm to hii hrfr liat tfwr Am maintehwl ito 
faiyitj mte Ki^jar pnnMi; niih flie noapiioii of 
•iMM Ml]|yiBf p w fiiifl i B nUdi ]»t« bMi conqiieml hj 
BMriif md a anaD idind ia fho CSM|ib& Sott idueh 
Ilia idlfli inlo 11m WNnoMkMsi of flio miho tMWcstm 

AgaMalio«ieJKhoiihid»iiliaobi<paiiidolKiw,o^ 
OM M bfofhori fho bmio iAo lofottocl Mffomi Koroom 
KImwi Old wao doiii bv iho Tmkouuuui witti wlioin ho 
took loAigo* TImI teothor^o Uood wio ovngod Igr Ago 
lUioiiiod i& Uo aa u Hw IiU flii •^^^•^ thooo triboo! •^mI tho 
Mood indi of thooo tfmoo botwoen Ki^on oad Toiko- 
aom hftfo gOM on imiU^p^yfaig to iho ptotent dagr : o 
Bsnioa onqj io aoir hi tho fiold to ondootoiir to poniih 
oad oobdoo thooo liftietoiy Mi^iboiifo. Ago Mohomod'o 
natoral heir was tlio oldest son of his next brother, and 
accordingly Fettoh Ali Klian was early designated to bo 
his uncle's suoocsHor. He was employed by bim to com- 
maud armies, and aftorwanis to mle over the provinces 
of Fan, Kobgbiluyeb, Laristani YojmI, and Korman. 

Aga Maliomcil feiireil lest, after his deutli, bis 
nephew's authority might be disputed by bis half- 
brotlicr, Jafer KuU Klian, whose bravery and exiKrienco 
gave him great weight in the tribe. The means be 
adopted to remove all approbonsion on this occomit, 
were as follows: — He sent bis motlier to induce bis 
brotlier to come to Tehran on his way to Ispahan, of 
which city ho had promised to appoint him governor. 
Ho further swore on the Koran that he would not detain 
him longer than one night at Tehran. Having by these 
means got tlie object of bis fears within his power, he 
posted assassins to wayUy bim next morning as he was 
on the pomt of leavmg Tehran for Ispahan. By this 



ACCESSION TO POWER OF FETTEII AU. 105 

atrocious proceeding he violated tlie dearest ties of 
kindred, of faith, and of hospitality ; and yet his purpose 
would have been equally well attained by a less flagrant 
crime, since Jafer Kuli, had he been only detained in 
confinement, could not have troubled the future repose 
of the luugdom. As it was, Aga Mahomed was enabled 
to keep the oath tliivt ho luul sworn, by sending his 
brother's coqmo out of the city on the day of his death. 

Before setting out from Tehran for the last time, 
Aga Maliomed had instructed Meerza Maliomed Elian, 
the governor, in the case of anything hap}>eniug to the 
sovereign, not to open the gates of the city to any one 
excepting Fetteli AU Khan. The dilTorent chiefs of the 
dispersed army made their way by various routes to the 
capital, and encamped on the plain of Doulab to the eiist« 
ward of tlio city. Tiie governor, assisted by the vizeer, 
Meei*za Mahomed Sheti, acted strictly iu accordiuico 
with tlie instruclions of the late king, turning a deaf 
ear to all the entn^atics of the pretenders to ])ower, and 
placing a strong guard at all tlie assailable points of the 
city until the arrival of Fettoh Ali Ivhan. That prince 
had been engaged in looking on at a representiition of 
tlio martyrdom of Hussein, Avhcn the news of his uncle's 
death reached him. After the cust(>mai*y delay of three 
days, which were devoted to lamentation for the late 
Shah, and to taking precautions for the safety of the 
south of Persia, he set out for Tehran. On the twelfth 
day ho reached Kinarigu*d, twenty-four miles from the 
capital, where he was met by his younger brother, and 
by the Itimad-ed-Dowleh, Haji Ibraheem Khan, who had 
not yet been permitted to enter Tehran. From thence 
he sent an angry remonstrance to Ali Kuli Khan, the 



IM A mmstmr <hp rmtuu 

tf I ithM rf flb hto Bbtk, who haa wniainaa at Kmrntk ; 
tai Im Untliif fljgwilfilMiil lui owb Inotlior to pmiidi 
fMT Ui MBiMMfli» md to hriaig bim to the rajal 



Tki jM^f kfaif tiMi art cot for lui aq^talt and on 
tta vagr 1m waa »al hf hia ambitaona unde, whoaa 
aAaNala liai dpanad at Kaavean, and who had no 
aManMrfiiB M to thimr hhnaalf i^on tiie loj^ 
Wo aM told ly tha Fenian Uatotiaa ihat» bafim 86^ 
Mt on Ua iMt anaditioiL AnlCahomod Khan had aent 
ftr hia hdrt and had gifon hfan oartaui hialnietioDa» 
iMA wifgUL gnido Ua oondnet m tho eront of hk 
aaddanl^ baiaif eaOad i^on to aaainno tho raina of powar • 
Om of tbaaa diaifaa waa that hi tho caaa ct AH KqK 
Khan*a dii^tmg the throne with his nephew, and the 
hUter orercoming him, he should beware of listening to 
the intereeosion of the qaoen-mothor in his favour ; and 
aeeoffdingly we read that the first act of tho young king 
after hia orriral at Tehran, was to refuse the petition of 
the aged soltana for mercy to the prince, and to cause 
the eyes of his uncle to be put out, and liis person to be 
eouwyod to BoUbrooiih. After this, on the 4th of the 
month of 8efr, 1212, Fetteh AU Shah ascended the 
throne of Pendo, 



TOUTURB IXnJCTED ON SIIAIIRUKII. 97 

Shah AbbosH. At tho eastern side of this euelosuro 
rises tiu immense blue dome, having in front two lofty 
minarets covered mth blue tiles of Kashan. 

The general state of hiwlessnesH luid misgovemment 
throughout the jirovince of Khorussan nuule tlio invasion 
of Aga Mahomed at this time a pilblic boon. 

Shahrukh was willing to do everytlnng that Aga 
Mahomed required of him, excopthig to furnish tho 
money wanted, and to give up tho jewels of his family. 
But to obtain tho possessicm of these was one of the 
chief objects of the Kajar king's invasion of Khorassan, 
and he was not tlie man to hesitate as to the employ- 
ment of any means which seemed likely to i)ring about 
tliis end. Aga Maliomed felt convinced that the blind 
prince must be in possession of the greater part of tho 
jewels which Niulir Shall hiul brought with him from 
Delhi, and the robbery of that conqueror was now to bo 
visited upon his descendants to tho second and third 
generation. Shahrukli was seized by the ferashes of 
the Eajar king, and received the punishment of tlie 
bastinado ; but this not proving sufficient to overcome his 
love of his treasure, hot irons were appUed to different 
parts of his person. Yielding at length by degrees, 
under the influence of a burning fever, he discovered his 
largest ruby to his torturer, who at once ordered the 
jewels to be packed up for transmission to Tehran. The 
Eajar Shah had received the submission of the whole 
of Khorassan, and taking with him the blind and aged 
prince, as well as a number of other hostages, he set out 
on his return to Tehran, having left in Meshed a 
garrison of twelve tliousand men. On the way, death 
relieved the still suffering Shalirukh from the fear of 

7 




foitlier Indignities at the bonds of I ffw 

sptulcr. 

Oo liis airiTol itt Telimn in Soptcmbiir, 171 
Molioaiul dixuiiit)M;<l tiiti trutipx to Uicir Iiouica for 
viutrr, rvijiiiriut; them ti> ivoMiciahto under hw biuiuc 
iu Uk' Kiiriiit; of tJio fultmvini^ yciir. During liitt Gour^iiui 
ranijNii;^! tlio Kujur Shuh linil t)ut to deuth iill tlio 
ItoKniniiM wImhu he- litul tiik(rD iu TilliM ; and lio hiul (,'ivL<ii 
onk-nt fiT iwixui^ ull of tliat itiiliou wliu were to \m found 
at Kiizc-lli, Hid<i«]), IlnkiH) luul Derbetid. The n^Hiilt wuh 
that tircuty-wTiTi miilont were will Inotled wiUi iron cbiiiut 
to Tehran. The firet jinuiiiUnieiit inHJeUid on thcHC men 
afti-r tlu-ir iirriviil ut Uic c»iiiliil wuo to f )rc«3 tlicm tu put 
out tho Dj-ui of Liiiy Pciuuiui who hiul hiuui 4M>uduiuuu(l 
to be blindod for not joining the army. The; woro then 
■afferad to mnder aboat the town, living on such charity 
as tbej eonld obtab from the few Armenian inliabitanta 
of tbo town. A week after bin retom from KhurosBon, 
Aga MalKimed Tcnted npon tlieso bolplcHs wulont tlio 
lagD with wliicb be had boon inspirod by the succcwios of 
Count Valerian Sonboff. Tliey were all seized and 
strangled,* Wo are tuld by the French traveller who 
was at Tehrao at tbe time of tliis oxocation, that ho 
expresKd to Haji Ibrahoom, tlie prime minister of Aga 
Mabomrd, bis snTpriso that tbe Shalt should limit bis 
mpriaals m tlie Rtusiaus to this act, and shoobl delay to 
march in person to re|iair the disasters of tbo war. The 
PB|dy was that there waa no hnrry in tbo matter ; that 
flfdcn bad boon issoed not to ondertako anything of 
impolanoe daring tlie winter ; and that on tbo return of 
qnng a few months would sofBce to chastise the Uasco* 



FRENCH ^nSSIOX TO PERSIA. 09 

vites for their audacity. This speech was a boastfal 
evasion ; the tmth being that the Kajar Shah could not 
afiford to keep on a war footing, during the winter, an army 
amounting to nearly 70,000 men. Apart from tliis, his 
troops were in no condition to repulse those of Russia ; 
had they come to close quarters, the Persians would 
have been compelled to give way before tlie veteran con- 
querors of Bender and of Ismail. 

The above-mentioned traveller • was charged with a 
mission from the French llepublic to the minister of Aga 
Mahomed. The object of tliis mission appears to have 
been twofold : in the firat place, to ascertain whether or 
not a profitable interchange of commodities could be 
estabUshed between France and Persia; and, in the 
second place, to endeavour to unite the Persians ^itli 
the Ottoman Porte in a combination against Russia. 
Satisfactory replies were given on both points by the 
prime minister, but tlie difficulties which lay in the way 
of tlie establishment of a h*ade between Pei*sia and 
France appeared to be too great to be overcome. Two 
treaties had at an anterior period been concluded between 
the two countries ; but it did not seem worth while to the 
French negotiator to propose to renew them, nor to 
obtam protection as formerly for French establishments 
at Ispalian and Sheeraz and on the shores of the Persian 
Gulf. The troubles tlu*ough which Persia had passed 
had been of too long duration, and were too freshly 
imprinted on men's minds, to warrant the assumption 
that European merchants, or tlieir trade, could meet witli 
efficient protection in so unsettled a country. With 



^ M. Oliyier. 

7—1 




HISTORY or PERSIA. 

rntpcct to tlic ncrnnd olijoct of tlio miKHioQ— tliat of 
cnJciiTnnriiij' !<• niiiU) rt'miii with Turkey ii;,'ain(*t llnssia 
— Uifl Pcnnoii minintor liHtciiiiJ to (uul ftf,'rocd vdlh tlio 
uvumuitii rif Uiu Froiic'liman, and prr>mis(Hl nii the pnrt 
of liin mixKUT Utiit an lunbawuulor sliould bo Bcut to 
CooHtiuttinnplo. 

As* MaiiotacA Kliiui hod now ro-cntablishcd order 
ilmianhont liia dnminidns ; Uic roodH vtCTO Bcctiro for 
trKvcllcrH anil for caravaiitt; tlio taxoH were jmiil with 
rcfrnlaritf ; uid linstflgrM wero rcnily In ruiBWcr fur tliO 
' contiuiinncc of the diHtnnt cbicfH in tboir duty to tbe 
■oTovign. Bat umlrr this apparent calm, a feeling of 
diM-ontcnt wm Him-wlin'; at tJio idea of being govomed, 
ftud cT.-n inmlc to tremble, Ijy one wbnw pljysiciil nmili* 
tion ought, itcctmliug tti tlio dutonix of Portia, to have 
exelaih>d lutn from tho tlirono. TIicko foclingit were only 
nataiml, but tlicy miglit not liavo led to niiy practical rcKDlt 
lad it not been for tbo tynmnicnl folly of Agn Miibomcd 
hinuelf. Unwarned by all tlie Ictwons which tbo bistoiy of 
his country afforded, tlut Uic i>aticnee ovon of the Pcrnon 
peapb liod a limit, and tliat when men woro kept in 
torror of tlioir live* thoy took tlio rcmody into their own 
hands, tlio JnCttnatod monarch went on in his corcor of 
rroclty atul tynuiny niiti) it was brongltt to a close by the 
diiepT of the niidiiitilit aHMniwin. 

lu Uiu qiriug of 17U7, Aga Unlioroo*! qnitt^Hl Tolimu 
liir tbo but time, and lod hii army towards tlio AnucoH. 
Wusn witliiu a few milM of tliot river bo louniod that tlio 
govetnor of tliu fortras of ShoosliaJi, in tlio proTinoo of 
Korobagh, hod boon compelled by the inhabitants to 
sbaadon his post, and that ho liad only to toko poseoo- 
■ioii of the phioo. With thw olttoot in tmw ho bnrriod 



MUUDER OF AGA MAHOMED. 101 

on in light marchiug order to the river's side. Tlie 
stream was deep and rapid, luid the boats couhl contain 
only a few men at a time. The lung had given the 
order that his army should pass the Araxes. The soldiers 
who should brave the current's force ran a great risk of 
being drowned ; but a watery grave was less temblo in 
their eyes than to have to face the wrath of their ruthless 
monarch : they did not hesitate a moment, and a suffi- 
cient nxunber gained the further bank to enable Aga 
Mahomed to take possession of tlie fortress of Shecshah. 
Here his eartlily career was destined to end. For a 
slight oflTence he condemned two of his domestic servants 
to death, but as it was the night of Friday,* he consented 
that they should bo spared until next morning. One of 
these was his i)ers(>ual attendant, and wo are told that 
Uiis man was permitted to perform his usual duties while 
he was under sentence of deatli. At midnight this 
servant, whose name was Sadck, f entered the monarch's 
tent, accompanied by the other servant who was to have 
8u£fered with him next morning, as well as by another 
man, and the three put an end to the life of the king. 

We are told by the Persian historian^ that Aga 
Mahomed's hvst words were uttered in reproach to liis 
murderers for having killed him undor sucli circumstances 
that not a soldier of his army could escape from the enemy. 
The murderers then seized the crown jewels, and handed 
thorn over to Siulek Khan Shokulu, one of the generals 
of the army, who lUTorded the assassins protection. 

Aga Mahomed, at the time of his death, was fifly- 



^ Tho Mnlioiucdiiu holy-iUiy of tlio wihjIc. 
t Tlio iwu licooinplicoti wuru niimuU Khodadiul oud AbbiiM. 
'ul-eH'Sefii. 



102 A HISTORY OP PKHHIA. 

Ki*Ti*n yoiUTN of H^Oi aiidi co!intiii{( from tlio doatli of 
Kcn*om Kliau, wliicli occarrod in 1770, lie had rolod 
over a grout port or tiio wliolo of Poniu for a period of 
oigiiteen yean and ion months. 

In rovicwiug tlik monarch's life and charoctijry duo 
allowanco most bo mado for the circumstances under 
which he was placed, and for the character of the people 
ho ha4l to deal witli. lie waM the hcre<1itary chieftain of 
one of tlie most |»owerful tribes of PerHia, and tlie first 
object of iiis existence was the exaltation of tiie Kajars. 
Ilis rarUcst and his strongest impressions were all 
aswiciatcfl witli iiatrcd of tlie rival tribe of Zend, and 
so httle were such feelings obliterated by all tlie khid- 
iiess wliicli lio and his futlier's family hud received from 
Kercem Klmii that, wliru he had liually planted )iis 
foi>t uiM>n the necks of his hercditar}' enemies, ho caused 
tlie reiuaiiiK of Kerrem to be exhumed and placed under 
tlie i>ortal (»f his palace at Tehran, so that he mi;;ht have 
the H.iti^fa«'tioii of treadiii;; upon them every time he 
p2isH4'd it. With Uichard of York, he would have liked 
to see his sword shed purple tears for all that wished the 
downfall of his house. Natlir Shah had put his <;raud- 
fathiT t4> death ; and Nadir's nei^hew, Add Shah, had 
intlicted the most cruel injur}' upon himself. The last 
offenee would, in the minds of most i)ersoU8, be likely to 
rankle the lon;;est ; but if we con fonn lui opinion from 
the fact that Aga Mahomed caused the bones of Nadir 
to be brou;^'ht to Tehran and laid beside the remains of 
Kereem Khan, while thosi* of Adel Shah were permitted 
t4» rest in i>eace in the holy city of Meshed, it would 
api>eur that he hated the memor}' of the preat enemy of 
liis family more than that of the person who had vii^- 



CIIAUACl^KU OF AGA MAIIOMKD. 103 

panvbly injured liiniHcIf. Ilin whole lifo wiis dovotod to 
Olio ali-en^^roKMin^' object — tlio CHtablisIimout of liin family 
upou tlio throiio of Poraia. To that one end everything 
else was made subordiiiate. 

Perhaps the greatest piece of self-denial that could 
have been required of such an one as Aga Mahomed 
was to abstain from avenging the blood of his father, 
who was put to death by the chief of the rival branch 
of the Xajars ; but ho had the wisdom to see that a 
house divided against itself cannot stand, and, in order 
to secure the cordial suppoii of the whole united tribe, 
ho freely forgave the rival family, and throughout 
his reign continued to employ many of its members 
in some of tlie highest offices in the kingdom. This 
pnident conduct was productive of tlie best results ; 
the example set by Aga Maliomed in tliis respect has 
been followed by his snccesHors, and, at tlie present day, * 
the army of the King of Pei'sia is commanded by the chief 
of the upper branch of the Kajar tribe. Aga Mahomed 
Khan found Pcixia in a state of anarchy, and he saw that 
it was only by a strong hand that order could bo restored 
to his country. The first Kajar lung was inordinately 
avaricious, but money was with him only as moans to an 
end. The eagerness which he exhibited to become pos- 
sessed of all the jewels that had formerly belonged to the 
crown can be well understood, as their possession by his 
heir would be likely to tend to the consolidation of 
liis power. The activity and perseverance displayed by 
this extraordinary man throughout his long career merit 
a meed of praise, and the proof of his foresight and 
wisdom is to be found in the fact that the kingdom which 



A mSTORY OF PKi;SIA. 

he hutd«xl oTer to 3iiii l«ir has crer taace maiiitnined its 
iatcpilT uD'Ier Ki^ar prince» ; \Titlt the exception of 
mxaa oatljiiig prorincofl which have been coiKjiiorod ly 
noMiia, mid a luiiall iiilutul in tho CaBjtiim Sou, which 
Liu fallen into tliu potwotuiiou of Uic wimo power. 

A;,'a MaliiiuiQil Khiut hiul, iu» liiib liocn naid ul)ovo, only 
ouo fiill brotlicr, tho tumo wiin rcvoltiul ii;,'aiu»t luTCom 
KliAQ (UmI wu nUiii hy tho Tnrkoniiuiti ^\illi whom he 
took rcftigc. That l>rothGr'ii hloud won avcn^'cd hy A^a 
Moli'iinivl iu hi8 oxpcJitiou a^piiust thosv triU'H ; aiitl Uio 
blood foiuls of thoHe tiinoK hetwocn Kajnra mid Titrko- 
muut liftYti gpiio on niiiltiplj-in^ to the prc^uut day : a 
Puntiaii unuy in now in tho I'u-ld to oiidoavour to puiiidli 
and subdue thuM refractory ucighboura. A^ Mahomed's 
n»tm-al heir was tlic cI.lcKt gon of hi« Hcxt brother, and 
kceohUnf^lj Fottoh Ali Klian was oarly deuguoted to bo 
bis nnclu'i Miooomor. IIo was omphiyod liy him to com- 
iDMitil imiitcM, mul lUtorwunlH to rnlo over ttio provmcoi 
of K«ni, Koli^liilnyoh, LoriMtou, YohI, iuuI Konuau. 

A{i» MrIioidchI foiurod loMt, uflor his death, liis 
nephew's aatlioritj might bo diupntod by bin half- 
brotlicr, Jttcx Kali Klian, whoso braTory and ex|>crioDCO 
g>TO him groat woight iu tlio tribo. Tho means ho 
wloiitod to roraoTO all aitprchoiision on this nucomit, 
were as follows: — Ho scut his mother to iuduco his 
brotlicr to cfHue to Tehran on his way to Ispahan, of 
whieh city ho bad promised to appoint him gororaor. 
He foitbor twore on tho Konm that he would not dotaio 
Um k>nger than one night at Tehran. Having by these 
I got tlie object of hin ibozs within bis power, ho 
I to waylay him next morning as ho was 
on Uu point of leaving Tehran for Ispahan. By this 



CONSPIRACY AGAINST FETTKII ALL 115 

Mahomed Homo cfTort wouM 1k) maile by the chiefs of tlio 
tribes of Zeml to recover their pai'amoimt iuflneuce iu 
Persia ; aud therefore it is not sni*|msin«i[ to read of the 
attom})t ma<lo by Mahomed Klian to dispute the peaco- 
aUe accession to power of Fettc*h Ali Shah : but that 
luoimrch hiul also to encounter rivalry from far different 
quarters, 

Saulek Khan, Shekakf, with Jafe^ Kuli Khan, the 
Beglerbegi of Azerbaoejon, and Mahomed KuH Khan, the 
governor of Uroomceah, formed a conspiracy agahist tho 
king, and appeared in the fiehl at the head of twenty 
thousand men. Suleiman Khan, Kajar, was despatched 
against them with twelve thousand men, nnd he was fol- 
lowed by tho king in person. Suleiman Khnn, however, 
contrived to sow dissension in the councils of the con- 
spirators. Maliomed Kuli Khan went to Uroomeeali, and 
Jafer Kuli t<> Klioi, wliile Sudek Klian came to throw him- 
s(»lf at the king's fc(»t at his camp of Nekpch, wliere ho 
maile over to his majesty tlie last of the crowu jewels, 
which he had detained, and where he once more obtained 
the royal pardon. Mahomed Kuli Khan sent liis Georgijin 
page to the Pasha of Baghdad, and denninded assistiince, 
which the Pjislia positively refused to give him. Ho then 
attempted to cscaiH) from Uroomeeah, but, finding him- 
self intercepted, he retunuul to that place and shut him- 
self up in the citadel, where ho remained a prisoner until 
Uie Shah's anival, when he was taken to Telnan and 
put to death. 

At this time tho Shah received tho submission of the 
chiefs of Genja, Derbend, aud Koobeh, and also that 
of Goorgeen Khan, son of the late Czar of Georgia, 
who addressed a ^KBtition stating that his father Ileroclius, 

8— :e 



v' 



Ui . * A BMKttT OP nOHUU 

Mumg^ tnm hk jmn ht sugbi htsn known be^i 

liii li6« TMj iMiliA to nbel aflM^ 

nt 1m1 iwflived die 4m lowaid of 1^ 

d|gr ffikgiBd nil Uvonty tlaooiMMi of its hiliaUtMitft pat 

to teiii or nuido ifairai* Tbo potitkm wm% tm tomj 

thai ittbom^ tlio fitlier hid been o etone, yet the son 

histoiyaiii thetmKtioiis of the Se&?eean8| hOi Ooorn^een, 
ewMhlsw iT Oooii^ii b^Niging to the pottmsor of the 
«mm of Fenio, and lunmelf m one of the offieon of tlie 
iihoht niMfer irlioin lie lioU his |^v<inimcnt, muI whom 
eideni ho WW iw^ to obey, bi reidy Oooigeon reootrocl 
ft loyal innan oiqntsmro of the king's satisfiietion.4' 
Tlio lobd ooospinitiHr, Jafer Knli Khan» fled fW>m Khoi 
at tlio aiiiirooch of Uio Sliaii, and took rofago witli tho 
PasIiA of Bjaseed; and his majcftty the king, kaviug thus 
lestored onler in Azerbaeejon, rotnmecl to Teluroii. 

Mahomed Klian, tho Zeud chief » who had fled from 
Inpaluin to tlie Bakhtiaii monutains, tlicro fonnd tiie 
mcann of once more raising tlie standanl of rebellion 
againtit Fcttoh Ali Hliali. The KnrdiHli trilicR of Bajelan» 
Booninah» and Ncilnox, elected bim their chief, and ho 
wan J4iuie<1 by a numlK*r of InuulitH. Tho Shah iniinod 
fmlem tii tho goTcniors of Maluyer, Noliavend, liCKiriKtiin 
and Bnmjir«1» to ai't in concert ngaiuKt him. AfttT 
nrveral engogcmontH, Maliomocl Khun was once more 
obliged to take refngo in tho monntaius, where ho rained 
another force, witli whidi ho attemptod to snrpriiM) tho 
camp of Mahomed Veil Khan, the Shah's general, who 
srat agaiunt him with 12,000 men. Being again 

t A.1I. l<i:i: AJ>. 17(Ni. 



IIEUKLLION OF HUSSEIX KULI KUAN. 117 

defeated, he attempted to reach Bussora, near >Yhich phvco 
he >vas ma<le a prisoner aud bluided. 

The list of rcbelHons against the authority of tlio 
young Shah was not yet made up, 'J'he next person he 
had to contend against was no other than his own brother, 
Hussein KuU Khan, whom ho had appointed to be 
governor of the province of Fars. It is hard to conceive 
what couhl have induced the young prince to forget his 
duty to his sovereign juid his brother, for, wliilst lio saw 
tlio king obliged to contend in so many quarters with 
envious rivals, wo are assur<*d by the lVi*sian historian* 
tliat the governor of Sheeraz passed his lime in peace and 
in the enjoyment of unbounded luxury. His garments 
were said to bo of cloth of gold ; his board was furnished 
with all that Oriental magniiicence could devise; his 
stable contained the finest steeds that tho breeds of Nejd 
and Aneysa could produce ; and the loveliest women of 
Sheeraz beguiled, with dance and song, the tedium of his 
harem houi*s. His manner of living was repoi*ted to the 
king, and as his majesty probably did not think that 
such a governor was very likely to consolidate Kajar 
influence in the south of Persia, ho relieved him of a 
portion of his charge, and appointed an experienced 
general to be chief of the province of Looristan Jind of 
tho troops of Fai*s. Upon this the prince sent for some 
couns(»llorH, and put to them the (juesticni whether or 
not they would advise him to attempt to secure for 
himself the sovereign power. Three of these had tho 
honesty to show him the folly and wickedness of such an 
attempt; but their candour was ruinous to themselves, for 
they were instantly deprived of sight. The prince thou 

* liC/a Kidi Khun. 



118 



A HISTORY OP PERSIA. 



iDarclicd to Ispahan, where he gave out that he was going 
to wait Q^ion the Sliah ; hoping by tins talc to induce 
tlie nobles of tlio province to go with him in his train. 

Information of tiiese procecdingK reached the royal 
canip as the Sinih was on the (loint of setting out from 
Khoi in tlie direction of Slicervan and Daghesbvn ; tlie 
news caused a change of route to be a<lopted, and the 
king returned to Tehran. On his way lie was met by 
tlic bUndiMl prisoner, Mahomed Khim of Zend, whom the 
Khali ordc^nnl to 1h) liunded over to some soldiers of a 
trflic which liml suflored much at tlie hands of Mahomed's 
fiUlier. Contrary, however, to the savage Persian usage 
of rigorously exacting the rights of retaliation, these men 
thought the blind man unworthy of l>cing despatched by 
their d;iggi'n<, and they tlieivforc set him at liberty. We 
arc told that b# b<';;;:cd bis way to Bussora, dispLiyiiig in 
bis person the bancfnl results of lilasted aiu]»ition. Tho 
young Sbiib must liave been utterly at a loss wliom to 
trust. On bis way to Teliran b(» rcceiv(Ml intelligonce 
of the defection of two of the ;^enerals in whom be bad 
till tlu'ii repos4*d the utmost coiiliJcnce. One of these 
was Maboined Vdi Kban, who bad put down tbo n^bellion 
of Mahomed KIimu, Zend, and who now «'spoused tin* 
cans4* of tlu» Sbab's rebel brother. The other was the 
chief, SuUiman Klian, whom tlic king bad left in cliarge 
of the government of Azcrbiunjan. This Suleiman Khan, 
who was the Sbab's first cousin, despatched bis force in 
llie dinrtion of Tehran, with the intention of first 
aHoming the two brothers to li;^'ht and afterwards attack- 
ing th«' vi4tor. Tlie two brothers drew near to t»acb 
other in the ]»lain of Taraghan, and by the intluriice (»f 
till ir mother an interview wa>i brought about between 



CLEMKXCY OP PBTTEII ALT SIIAII. 110 

them, at wliicli tlie prince Hct forth that the rovonuos of 
the province of Fanj wore insnfficicnt for hin expenditnro, 
and demanded to be appomted governor of Kernian also. 
The Shah did not refuse this request, and the prince on 
returning to his camp mode the further stipulation that 
lie should be invested with the govoramont of the whole 
of Imk, and in addition that he should share the royal 
dignity with his brother. To these extravagant demands 
no answer was returned, and the prince proco(*ded to 
draw UP his forces in order of battle. The Shah, while 
l)reparing to oppose his brother, sent repeated messages 
exhorting him to return to his duty. Those, however, 
were disregarded, and the two hosts met face to face. But 
there was one privileged peraon whose influence was at 
the last moment sufficient to prevent the bloodshed that 
had been about to ensue. This was the mother of the 
two youths, who rushed between the opposing ranks, and 
with teal's and cries forbade the soldiers to b(» partici- 
patoi'H in this unnatural strife. The prince by this time 
had had leisure to perccivo that his forces were not 
sufficient to enable him to contend successfully with 
the army of the Shah, and he therefore sent to imi)lore 
the royal clemency. This was granted upon the solo 
condition that the traitor, Mahomed Yeli Khan, should 
be given over for the purpose of being put to death ; a 
stipulation to which the prince acceded. 

Suleiman Khan, who hiul been awaiting on the 

borders of Ay*erbaeejan the news of the result of the 

expected engagement between the Shah and the prince, 

was completely disconcerted at the turn events huA taken, 

tid, being in fear for his own life, he came on to Tehran 

Qd took sanctuary in the royal stable. From thence ho 



120 A IlfSTORT OF PERSIA. 

mxoto a potition, in which ho Ktiitcd that he had been the 
victim of cin'uniMtiui(!CH, and tho Shah was goncroiiH 
ciiim«;li not only t(i forgive him hin act of troaHOU, but 
fiirtluT to n^Uiro him to tlio diffiiity ho had forfeited. 
lie further dinpLiyed liin royal clemency by appointing 
liiH hmtlier to U) tlie governor of Ktishan, luid by Hparing 
tlic lifo of the traitor, Mahomed VeH Khan. 

Tlio Aflf^haiis at this time took advantage of tlie 
iroublcH in PerMia to inviule the province of Kerman from 
ilic direction of Seintan, but tliey were expelled from it by 
IlnflM^in Kuli Klian. 

Another of the aspirants who disputed vith Fetteh 
Ali tlio {lOHHcmion of the crown of Persia was Ishak 
M4*cnui, the groat-;;nuidson of tliat Ismail, the pre- 
t4*nd(d drhrcmliuit of \]w Sofavooiins, in wlioso nunio 
l\4T«M*m U'luiii liml ori;;iiiaIly fon;(lit. ]lo wiis, lioNvov(»r, 
i^uitkly oNrrroHH*, and liin Mihsrijiunt trciiluK'nt uflordod 
a furtltrr iiihtuiice (»f tlx* ^^ciktouh di.s|)()Hiti(>n of Fctti'h 
Ali Siiaili. 

Previously to this, Prince Mjihoine*!, tho brother of 
Zfmaii Shah of Cahnl, and tlu* grandson of tho founder 
of the AlVj^'lian kin^^^ban, had takon rolngc in Persia. 
He* now wrolo to ask for help in rorovrrin;;: tho govcni- 
mnit (»r Herat, wliirli provinco lie ofirivd to hold under 
tin* onhrH of the Sluih, wliom he iurtju'r offered to m^n'o 
in e\l4ndin;( his doiuiiii(»n in the direetion of Turkestan. 
The Shall iu-eordiii;;Iy pivo him the tnu^ps ho required, 
and with tiuir aid he Hueecedod in establishing himself 
ut llrral. 

Tin* Sliah's arms were also victorious in anotlier 
quartir. win re Pirsia hud In'on invaded by a force col- 
Iretid hy that Jafer Kuli Khan who hiul taken refuge 



ALL TIE REBELLIONS PUT DOWN. 121 

with the Pasha of Byazeod, and whom tlio Shah forgave 
and appointed governor of Khoi. The king nhowod hia 
gratitude to Heaven for thcHo BUCccttKOH hy repairing the 
golden donum of Kcrhehi and Kazeniain, and hy fnrniHh- 
ing a d(M)r of tlie Hame metal for the monqne of Fatima 
at Koom. 

The Shall had now put down the relx^Hions of Sadck 
Khan ; that of IiIh own brother ; that of hin couHin ; 
that of one of his gcneralH ; those of a chief of the Zend, 
and that of a pretended descendant of the Scfaveeons. 
It remained for him now to crush yet another pretender 
to sovereign power. This was Nadir Mccrza, the son of 
Shahrukh, and the givat-gi*:indHon of Nmlir Sliah. That 
prince, on the ocnision of the visit of Aga Alahonied to 
KliorasHun, had taken refuge with the AlVghanH, and on 
tlie d(uith of llie ih*Ht Kajar Shall he hud returned to 
Khorassan, and assianblcd troo])s abcuit his person. 
Fetteh Ali sent to warn liim of the conseipiences of his 
conduct, and, misdoubting tlie effect of his remonstrance, 
l)repared to proceed to Khorassan with an army sufficient 
to enable him to enforce obedience to his wislies. On 
his way to Meshed lie took by storm the town of Nisha- 
foor, the governor of which place shut its gates against 
him. lie also took the town of Turbat, whose chief 
refused to atUMid at the royiU camp. On the army 
reaching Meshed, the Sheiks, the Syeds, and the Ulema, 
sent to implore the king to respect the sanctity of the 
town, and of the^ shrine of Imam lleza. The discon- 
tented prince tendered his submission, received the 
Bhoh's pardon, and gave his daughter in marriage to a 
Kajar general ; by which alliance the feud between the 
two princely houses was put an end to. 



C^MHai 



122 A III8T0RY OF PFJtSTA. 

Tlie Shah tlion mode haste to return to Tehran, and 
on the way there occurred an incident which shows that 
he was not unwortiiy of the exalted post which he 
had l>een calle<l on to fill. In the vast desert between 
Bantam and Hhahrood, comprising a di:4tance of nearly 
sixty miles, the different divisions of the royal army were 
obliged to mari'li in small parties, on account of the 
Hcardty of water. On arriving at his encampment of 
the day, the king found to his great distress that the 
Imlies of his harem,, who had preco4lcd him, luul lost 
their way. Tinnl as ho was after his day's journey 
niider tlie Persian sun, the monarch, taking with 
him five thousand horsemen, set out to search for 
them in the desert. But his search was unavailing, 
and the hot sun caused 80 much distress amongst his 
trooiw, that the sohliers were forced to assuage their 
thirst by drinking the last of the wiit^T which tliey lisul 
broudit with tlieni in their bottles. Thev continued 
their march, lUul their sufTrrings increased. One small 
j»iece of ice only remained, which was reserved to cool 
the lips of the Slnili ; but the soven^ign showid liiinsilf 
on tins occasion to be ea[>ubl(» of lieroic self-drnial. Like 
the Macedonian coiH|uen)r, in the desert of (Jedrosia, 
he decliiK'd to drink wbilst bis warriors wero still parched 
with tliirsj. With bis dagger be broke the little lump 
of ice into fragments, and with bis own hand be placed 
tln'm one by (me in the moutb and on the tiiuples 
of a voutliful cliicf wlio bad fainted, and wbo, bv these 
means, was sutlicicntlv revived to Ik; able t<i continue tbe 
ride witb bis c(»n)radcs towards tbe encampment ; where 
they bad tbe satisfuctiou of finding that tbe loilies of the 
harem had already arrived. 



( 



KXVOY FUOM TIIK GOVKUXOU OF nOMUAV. 128 

Shortly after the return of Fctteh AH Shah from 
Meshod, ho was hiformed of the comiug of an envoy who 
had already opened diplomatic communication between 
the British authorities in India, and the court of Persia. 
This envoy was named Mehdi Ali Khan, and he had 
been deputed to Tehran by the Governor of Bombay. 
The object of his mission was to endeavour to pcrsiuulo 
the Shah to attack AlTghanistan, and thereby relieve, 
for the time being, the minds of the European rulers of 
India from the ai)prehonsion under which they hibourod 
lest India should be invmled by Zeman Shah. The 
envoy entered upon his task with a mind free from the 
restraint of a too scrupulous adhesion to truth. He 
took care to inform the chief minister of the court of 
Persia that the EngUsh authorities in India were not at 
all afraid of the Shah of Affghanistan, but that, on the 
contrary, they rather wished him to put into executiim 
his repeated threat of invasion, in order that they might 
show how easily he could be defeated. The envoy tells 
us that, in his con*espondenee with the Persian Govern- 
ment, he artfully avoided ph'^lging the name of the 
II(niourabl(! East India Company, but that he repre- 
sented unoiTicially the ravages of the AfTghans at liahore, 
and mentioned that thousands of the Sheeah inhabitants 
of that quarter had iled from their cruelty, and had found 
an asylum in the East India Company's dominions; and 
he added that, if the King of Persia possessed the ability 
to check the career of such a prince as Zeman Shah, he 
would be semng God and man by doing so. He further 
endeavoured to hnny the advance upon Affghanistan of 
Prince Mahmoud and Prince Ferooz-shah, two brothers 
of the monarch of Cabul, who were at that time refugees 




mtlmg tltt aU of Fetteh AS agiliul Uuir i«Uin. 
KaUi All Khai mmm to lum bean I17 no nuuu UA- 
wnd is iaeaniBK mpooabili^. Ho had bem ontraiM 
faj tiw Oorcmor of BombiT with • lottor to tho King of 
Penia, Iqr iriudi 1m vaa empowend to eondnds anj 
i Iw ni|^ diooie to enter into. B«t bod 
■ of time endentiab readied ttio qres of the 
Bhab's abiaterB, tbegr vooU bam led them to bdiore 
tbat the En^idi aathmiliea were willing to ponhaee 
their aid agafnet the Ai ^|i.«i« Hehdi Ali Khan found 
tbe Sbab aafidentl^ diepoaed to attadt the AJf^hana 
iriUMOt the indoeeaient ot an En^idi eobeidx, and he 
tbanlace determined to a mnuea a the lettw bj vhidi ho 
vaa aeeredited, and to anbetitoto in ite place another 
dncnmciit, {tnrimrtiiig to come from tlio Govcnior uf 
IkHiiliR;, ill wliirb tliiit officer uffcrod to the Sliiili Ium 
cmidolviiL-c oil tlio tIfiuUi i>r]ii8 niiclc, iiml Iiih coiij*nitiilA- 
tions ou liifl necotwioii to tlio tliroiic. Tlio ittiiviou of 
tliiit ruvnjr met witli full micccw, nutl lie rcturnoil towtmix 
Ilindoitttin, cxiilliog in Uio iwitnnuica ho hiul rcroivitl 
rcifuiliii^ Uie kuig'ii Bcliemon ot con<inoat in A%liani- 
fitiui. Mid iu tlio orders that bad been issaed for scixing 
tlie [wntonit of any Freiiclimcn vlio might Tenture to 
ahow tlicmnolTet in Prrsia. 

Zemau Sliuli about thin i>crio<l eniiHed liiii Tizoor to 
irml Ml officer to Ili^i Ibniliocm, Uie prime minister 
of IVmtii, vitli a rcqiiOHt thnt Fcttoli AU ironld mtikc 
oTrr to AfTt^liuiiHtMi tho provinro of KhonuMn. tiiich 
a Mitu;it4ion conbl not fiiil to dmw out nn oxjilouatiou 
frou Uio kiit^' as to Ibc poHi-jr ho iutoudetl to pontile. 
Ho iuHtnictnl bis minister to reply tbnt it vaa bis 
intention to restore tho aoatb>«astem limits of Pemia 



rUNISIIMKNT OF 8AD£K KIIAX. 125 

to tlic coudition in wliich they had cxisteil iu the time 
of the Sefavocau Shahs : that is, he proposed to over- 
run, oud to retain possession of, Hei*at, Mer>'e, Balkli, 
Cabul, Candoliur, Thibet, Kashgor and Seistan. Nor 
was tliis meant to be on idle tlireat ; for orders were at 
once given for the royal forces to assemble at Tehran. 
These orders were punctually obeyed by all the tribes, 
with the exception of that of the former rebel Sadck 
Khan Shekaki. That chief seems never to have fully 
relinquished the dream of obtaining the supreme power 
in Persia, and ho held bock until the army should 
have quitted Tehran. One of his followers conveyed 
to the Shah the intelligence tliat it was the chief's 
intention then to proclaim himself king. The royal 
clemency had been idretuly stretched to the utmost limit 
in favour of tliis general, wlio was strongly suspected of 
having instigated the murder of Aga Mahomed Khan, 
and wlio had undoubtedly afforded protection to tlio 
actual assassins; and the long-pent-up flood of ven- 
geance was now to bo poured forth on the head of tlie 
infatuated rebel. He was sent for to the presence of the 
king, and was condemned to be' bricked up in a room at 
Tehran, and there left to staiTO to death.* 

Fettch Ali Shah proceeded to Sebzewar and Nisha- 
poor, where his anny was engaged for some time in Uio 



* lliu riMim in wliich tiiis Roiitunco wiim rumcd into execution In ii<iw a 
jMirtiim of tlio Iiouho provitUMl for ono of tlio mvivlanes to liio Jtrilinh 
Jji'galioii lit 'JV'iiniii. An oM mTViint wlio Iuih ]iii;((«iiMl iilNiiit (liu |itviiiiM*M 
for tlio butt Hixty years. infoniiiMl uw tliatoii iho liflh ilay uftcr Siidck Klmii 
liiul Ikjuii whIIimI ill, ho wiim found t4) liiivu piilhxl up thu conient of (he ll(M)rin)( 
of Uio nNiin in Win iIoH|Niir. 

Thu Shali'ri miMon for aflo)>tin>( (hiM cruel mo«lo of puni8hincut was a 
MiiperMtitiouH dreiul of hrcakin^^ an oiitli wliich ho hud formerly iiuulo, never 
to Hhcd tiio blood of Sudek Kliuu. 




Usk of iiutiiHliiti;; titr in>*iir;,><'iit gDreraon of thoM filAera. 
VU* k ¥linr— Ml ttw Ung neeircd an ambiMidor, 
him vilk iiniiiiih, ftm Zoniai Sl»h, «lra nqoeited 
Uh, m Ob iNOt flf Ui BWitor, to vBtDm to Telinm ; tlito 
Ffltteh AH i«iwd to ao, w tiw eonattkn that tlN FrincM 
MilwiHMi Hi4 JfmoM dMNdd 1M MMma Uek in 
AM^imaMam in » naDiiar BoiUble to tlMir mak. 

Im tbo MetttiMB TuioM wwm indDcod tbe Englkh 
■■lliuiiliw b Ibfia to daqMteh to the Court of Vemm 
» mWsb of ft awn in^NMiBg chaneter than that iHueh 
haa bam artrwtod to Xdidi AU Khan. The neeeaR 
«ydh had aW—daJ tbe negotiatioiia of that cmvoy ia 
Ua a n deaw m to ptevaU upon the Shah to attadt 
ttie Athene, had not been known at Calentta vhm tlio 
Karl nf Monihij^toii wlcrtod Caiitaiii Mali-nhn fur tlic 
jmqHMti o( prDnHNliii^ tii tliii Court nf Tolinui. No 
Eiif^i diplinnaUHt bad notil tbu tiiuv b(H;ii riujiloytnl 
in PfeTHu mncc the reign of Chorloii tlie Secoud.* Cap- 
tain Malcolm waa dialled to moke Komfl airongemcut 
fm* reli«Ting India from tbe aunaal alarm occaHioncd b; 
the UirMtcned invaHion of Zcman Sliali ; to coontcroct 
Auj pnwiblc dcHij^iiH which tlic Frracb untiou might 
ratcrlain vitli royiinl to Prntiii; and to ruJcttvoor to 

• " 1,'i-nrtnr iL' la niM|>i|piio KraD(i4a> arunt iii »ri-t qu'nii aw»i ih- 
Vi n*iqai((nii> AdkI'iIm'. qHi fUtit k lii|i>hali, lU'viJl biiiihI iiiiHr himIIi-iwv. i>l 
i|a1l aVBtt ir biMitM xi^ M^aKr Mvnii-iMiil k-i iittiii-lnii. jHKir U 
pi4ivaan- Mr M. . . il ntii<hiftUit ()iir U- riniil He b> imihmi FniiKnaM' 
Hail 4'B<r<rir la y rti J a^ti Mr taata* In ualkDu rhntiniinn,'— Chiudih. 
V.i iii p. lw>. 

~ l/affnit Aa|:l>4a iDmIi tpi'ayBnt mir Irlli* dn rni (VAii|dH«n« ■ 
■Midn. . . ane IcUn da nrf dnall aDrr dwaal crila d'uH napa <ta aiar- 

rt«*u--/*». 

Ut. Ka.n>. itImi ha- orrrUAi^ Ibi* Mfa-tna. *f11 r%nm- im far fnmrt- 
il in Ma l^fr mf Hit Jmhm t/nlaJm tlMl mi >>gtUi •avuT 
« dir iriipi uf Qmbm hUiubrtli. 



CAPTAIN MALCOLM'S MISSION TO THE SIIAII. 127 

iVHtoro to Hoiuewliat of its former prosperity u tnule 
wliicli liad been in a groat dc^Tco lost. Tlio mission 
hiudod lit Uusliiro on the fii*st of the month of Februivry 
of the year 1800, but it was not until the month of 
November of the same ycai* that it reached the presence 
of the SholL As a prehmhiary measure tlie envoy dis- 
tributed presents to the various Persian officers ^vith 
whom he was thrown in contact on the route from 
Busliire to Toluran, and on arrinng at that city he laid 
at the feet of the king a costly offering of watches, anns, 
mirrors and jewels. 

Two montlis later a commercial treaty and a political 
treaty were concluded between the envoy from India and 
the prime minister of Persia, the observance of wliich was 
made ])indhig on all Peixians by a lirmau from tlu! Shah. 
This firmiui contuined ord(^rs to the rulers, oflieers, and 
writers of the polls, sea-coasts, and islands of the 
provinces of Fai*s and Klmzistan, to take means to 
expel and extirpate any persons of the French nation 
who should attempt to pass tliese forts or boundaries, 
or desire to establish themselves cm these shores or 
frontier. By the commercial' treaty it was stipulated 
that English and Indian tradei*s and merchunts should 
he permitted to settle, free from tivxes, in any Pt^rsiau 
seaport, and should be protected in the exercise of their 
commerce in the Shah's donunions. The English were 
likewise to be at liberty to build and to sell houses in 
any Persian port or city, and English iron, lead, steel, 
and broad-cloth wei'c to be admitted into Persia free from 
duty, wliile tlie existing imjK>8ts on other goods were not 
to be increased. By the political treaty the Shah engaged 
to make no peace witli liis Affghan neighbour excepting 



UB A HBfVomr or RMU. 

i9«i fli» MdKiiM fliaft ilMi littir slioiild igiM lo 
iwoneo iD dnigiMi of itttfHng Hub Aii|d(Kliidttii 
powMiMJoM. On Hkm oilier koidi tte trwlgr boond tho 
Knglhili idflwritifli tft ftnmifh irariflw rtftrw to the fflt^h 
k tti Of enl of Im mn|iiety being atteoked bj the Fkeneh 
or bgr the Ai^ieii mtioiu After thb the Britiih oQtoj 
rotmicwl lo Jjniit^ losfing behincl hin in Fteidsy m wo 
ore oeemod bgr the Iceman hiatoriiint o weU-cetiiUieliod 
mpittotiuii lur imaroon eomie and jnHtk«i and kaowkulgo 
oftheworid* 

Hborlljr aftor thin period there oocnrrod in Punaii ono 
of tlioee oxanqdea of tlie oxordao of doiqpotie [lower, wliieh 
ahow at the aame timo tlie atrength and tho woakneea 
of an Qrieotal monarolqr* The Itimad-od^Dowleh, Higi 
Ibrahoenit tlie prime miniater of Peniat had acquired 
sach a degree of iufloonoe tbroogboat the country as 
gare liia enoinies' atatementa the appearance of reason- 
ablenesB, when they whispered to the Shah that it was 
the intention of liis minister to depose him. There is 
no ground fur beUcTiug that Haji Ibralieem actually did 
harliour any Hodi donign, but in joMtico to the character 
of Fcttch Ah Sliah it must be remembered that he had 
been again and again betrayed by those in whom he 
Itad placoil the utmost confidence, and from whom 
he had least reason to expect the conduct of which tliey 
had been guilty. He liad shown clemency in so many 
instances that he cannot be sus|>ccted of having wished 
to shod needlessly the blood of one who had performed 
signal services to his family. A tradition is current in 
Pomia, tliat Aga Maliomed Klum clmrgcd liis heir not to 
allow tho grey head of lliyi Ilirahoom, who had betrayal 
hia first mastcri to go down in peace to the grave ; but 



FALL OF HAJI IBRAII£EM. 129 

for such a Htatcinont I can find no anthorily. When, 
Iiowover, Haji Ibrahoom ^vaH accused to tlio king of 
harbouring tbo dcHign of displacing his master from the 
throne, it must have weighed heavily against him in the 
mind of Fetteli Ali that ho had once shown himself to 
be sufficiently powerful to displace a Zend prince from 
his government, and to substitute a Kajar in his stead. 
Uis treason to Luif*ali Khan was now to bo avenged by 
the licir of Aga Mahomed. Dut Kuji Ibraheeni was too 
powerful to bo ojK)nly attacked. Nearly tlie hidf of PerHia 
was governed by his sous or other rehitives, who would 
at liis command have at once raised tlio standard of 
revolt against tlie Sliah. An order was therefore issued 
that, on a given day, the prime minister and all his 
kindred should be seized or put to death. Two of liis 
youngest children were brought from Sheeraz to Tehran, 
to share the fate which had overtaken tlie other members 
of their family. Of these one was a handsome and 
spirited boy, and when his hfe was interceded for, the 
stipulation was nuule that ho should be reduced to the 
condition of an ounucli : the other child was considered to 
be BO little promising that his lifd was conceded witliout its 
being thought nccessaiy to take the sume precaution as in 
tlie case of his brother. He lived to perpetuate the race of 
the king-maker of Pei*sia ; and is at the present hour the 
guai*dian of the shrine of Imam lieza, at Meshed. 

Fetteh Ali Sluih detcnuiued to send a mission to 
India, in return for that which had recently visited his 
court. Haji lUialeel Klian was selected as his envoy ; 
but this nobleman was unfortunately killed at Bombay, 
in a scuiUe between his servants and the guards who 
were ap][>ointed to attend huu. This event, which caused 



tli A BBBNMnr Of FHHUU 




in bdifttiMiMi to hare been lookid 
iqM k BMrift M w idoidfloi liUdi had happened in fhe 
uenwii of tidpfk TImi ilept token by tlte Oofwn- 
of IdAi to andGO wtoit wprnJUmwrn pneiAito to 
Ami ii^ of Ami ieeen^a ewiy, bjoto than ■■tidtoa Ami 
Shaht «i» to adtt to haw ofaeema thai the Enii^ 1^ 
al Mberijf to Ufl at mmyet hia ambaamidofa aa thqr 
a^l^ iMKia a adnd to diapoae c< pforided thqr ahonld 
ahnqfa pi^ ai Hbetalfy aa thqr had done on the preseni 
eeceeion^ Mahomed NoM Khan waa eelected to proeeed 
to BBninrtan^ to the loon of the doooaiod noMeiiiiii i 

The tanieane of lebelBon ivhich hadi aa we hata 
eeent awqpl offiar Bersto after the downM of the SefiKT^^ 
dyeeljrt bad not yel eipended all ito Ibiee. Besfc* 
lees epiritB wore etUl striving to npeot the auUiority of 
the Shah, and tliejr gatlicrod ronnd Uio king's bn)Uiori 
whom they propoeod to set np as Uie koad of tlicir con- 
spiraey* That prinee had been, as I have said, appointed 
fP>Temor of Kashan, a city not more than 130 miles 
distant from the capital. Kashan is sitnatod on the 
skirts of a great desert, on the high-road between the 
northern and southern prorincos of Persia. It lies about 
six miles away fitmi a range of mountains, bounding tlie 
level coontiy on the south, and it stands on a plain, 
which is jn some parts extremely fbrtile, while in others 
it is stony and perfectly sterile. The walls of Kashan 
are stated to bo about throe*and-a-half miles in circumfor- 
euoe, and they are, now at least, in a ruined state. The 
hur|;e area within them is but imperfectly occupied, and 
ruins meet the eye at every turn. All the houses have 
arched roofe, rafters being objectionable on account of 
the ravages of the white ant; and the habitations ara 



CITY OF KASnAX. 131 

nsually situated mnoh bolow tho lovol of tlio strdots. The 
2>opnIation may probably amount to 80,000 mmls. The 
btizaarn of Kanhau an) oxtcMiHivcs ami thoir princip:d 
Htroot M woll-built, lofty, and closed in with a domod 
roofing ; bnt tlic HliopH, thou«f]i numoronH, arc moan in 
appconuico. Indood, Kiwhan in moro a manufacturing 
than a commercial town. Its fabrics of silks, volvotS| 
printed cottons, copper utensils, &c. hare long boon 
known, and tho present prosperity of the place depends 
upon them. The climate, notwithstanding the excessive 
heat of summer, is said to be extremely salubrious.* 
Those who can afford at Uiat season to quit their occu- 
pations retire to the neighbouring hills, and those wlio 
remain in the city take refuge m the underground cellars. 
The city was in a great measure destroyed by an earth- 
quake in the reign of Kereem Khan. The men of Kashan 
have the disgraceful reputation of being more effeminate 
and cowardly than those of any other town of Persia. 
On tliis account troops ore very seldom raised from 
amongst them.f In tlie midst of such a population, the 
king's brother may have been thought to be but little 
likely to renew his attempt to establish himself on tho 
Persian throne. The prince, however, did not trust to 
the men of Kashan for success in his ambitious under- 
taking. Furnished with a forged royal order, appointing 



• Mr. 11. E. AW>ott'« Xotra. 

t Tliu following circumritiuicu, wlitr.h, I am iur<>i*iiiiul, luttiiully liapiMiiud, 
illiiMlniloM Ihn provorliial oowarilino nf tlu* KaMhit. us i\w tiicii ttf Kiiitlmn 
nro callttil : A Iniiulrod riMTiiiU frnm that city wm^ liroiiglit to 'i\*lii*aii, but 
tliuy tlioro ^vu tiij^itM of Hiich itica|>acity for lailitai'y Horvicc tliat it wan 
dcci(l«Ml to twiuX Qwm Iwirk to their iiativo placo, and thoro to ftiHlNind thoin. 
On recrivitif< tho onlcr to return, tliis comixmy dciaanded Uiat a Mergoant't 
IMurty nhould ha ttuiit with them to KaidiAn for the purpfiso of protecting 
thorn from Tiolence by t)io way. 

9— a 



13-2 A iiiBTonr or 

, Ml MMOMi tlw aartkoittj wUeh wm matlo orar to bbt 
I7 A» fcoMT fovHMr. E|]r Umm mMuw ha nude him- 
idf MMte of iltt PiotIimU trnwaiy, nd flxtaeted mndi 
■OB^ ftoB U» dtJMM. He tlien ilmt np bii tnemn 
k tt» ftitttwa of lipeteii, and pRweaded to the Bdditlui 
■entaia^ to mimnon Ibtn to niaa an armj. 

Vhn tta nport of tbaae prooaedingi reaobad 
Tobraa, tlw Shall tooh *--*'^*' atopa for emhing thia 
BBT ithalltai. Liwbif hia aoa al the ea|ital, the kmg 
fiaaaaM to Iqiahaa, trnTeUni^ ahaoat iDeeaaantijy, and 
r**— *'^ tha mandi of 3S0 nilea hi the exeeedmc^ 
riHft^aeaof ftwr daja. Then he detached one of hia 
r the pwpoae of Tedndiig Ii^tahan, whfle ha 
' aet oat in pniBoit of hia brotlier. It woold 
a^tear that Bocb promjit meastiTea lind not hccn ontici* 
pated bj the prince; U« tlie Sliali, on raacliiug Gol- 
paeegau, rceciTod tlio iutoUigenco tliat his lirotber was 
making for KcrmanMhnli, with the pnrpoM of reaching 
tlw Torkiiili dominions. Upon tltia tlio king dcupotclied 
one of luH gononUit, vitli onlem to procAcd to Kormoii- 
Mliah bjr ffircoil marchrH, and to Uiniw hiinxolf l>ctwcon 
tlto frontier aud tlio fiiltovcni of Uio princo. Thin movo- 
uout, wliirli was pMniptljr cxccnttnl, liad tlio dmirtid 
cflcct of dnring the rebel into snbmissiiMi. He fled to 
the MUctnaij of Koom, where, opoo the Slioli's arriral, 
he placed a drawn sword upon his neck in token of 
repentance, and once more receiTed the royal forgivenesa. 
Thia was Ids last attempt at rtbellion ; and ho soon after- 
wards died ill rrtirrmcnt, m the ridnitj of Tehraa. 

After Qtf snpprcwsion of this rcrolt of his brother, tlio 
Rliali aaev mtve tnmcd hia attoution to tlio afiaiia of 



SIEGK OF MESIIKD. 133 

• 

KlioraHsan/ Niulir Meorza, the hou of Shalirukli, liud 
hecu left iu tlio govemiiieut of that proviuco, and lio had 
Hcut his brother AbbasH to Telirau, to bo a hostage for his 
good behaviour. The Shall was disclosed to treat tlie^ 
princettwith lenity, on account of Uieir iUustrioutt descent; 
but a petition wliicli was addressed to liim by the chief- 
tains of Khorassan, imploring his protection against 
Nadir Meoi*za, obliged liim to interfere. He accordingly 
despatched liis son-in-kw to Meshed, at the head of twelve 
hundred horsemen, and he liimself prepared to follow 
>vitli a more considerable force. On arriving at Meshodi 
he at once closely blockaded tlie city, but he was pre- 
vented by religious scruples from permitting liis artillery- 
men to open fire upon Uie holy place. This state of 
things continued during a whole month, at tlie end of 
which |K'riod tlie people of Meshed were reduced to a 
state of considerable sufiferiug. They would have yielded 
the place to the Shall, had not tlie gates and the citadel 
been occupied by the troops of Nadir Meia*za. Under 
these circumstances Uie chief priest of Meshed was 
deputed to wait upon the king, and to intorccHle for his 
fellow-citizens. The Syod canie to the royal camp, and 
won from the Shah a declaration that ho wisluMl no evil 
to the cili/iOiis of Meshed, and was only desirous of 
securing the person of Nadir Meei*za. It was aiiunged 
that the Shah was to retire from before the city, while tlie 
cliief priest, on the part of his fellow-citizens, engaged 
that tlie prince should be seized and brought to tlie 
presence of Uie king. Orders were accordingly given to 
raise the blockade, and the royal forces returned to 
Damghan, from which town they marched to Mazeiideran. 

• AA), 1H02. 




IIISTOBT OF PERSIA. 



Tbtiwin of Om mamun flf tiw Faniaiii at the 
Hcnd dfy oT XflilMk bf tiw WdnU AnU.* nodled the 
Jang to Tdmgk. Tbe 8Ui at tat pfopoMd to nunb 
with his nmf to mag* tbit mBbm j nttti^i D ^ bok 
roAodbg on Hnt gnm tepott of iaradbg the Saltw'ii 
ihmfaiioiM, be oouUnted hfaaeelf with dMpotdung « 
i^iedMl rnnj to tbe Vmibi of BegbdMl, «fao pnosieed to 
exUmiiMto the iriwle nelioii of Wehab. The Sbah'i 
piwioe WM thea idled lor ei iatnlNul, to pot down 
tlte iuenmiaae of tbe Tarimnan tribee of the Attrock 
and Iho Oootgn dwtrieto. Theee be eompletd/ defcatod, 
allerwbkli esfdoitherebiniedtoTebnn. LitbisTeart 
alae the Al^ianB of Seirian hivaded the prorinoe of 
Kermati from Brm and Nennatisbeer. 

Id tlio mcaatimo, one of tlio kiiij''B ofBcon luul 
lecD It'ft lictons Uio wnlls of Mealicd, with a coriw of 
obwrrnti(iu. Tliia {jciicnU, Hcoiiig Umt Niulir Mocnsa 
VM iiui (Iclivcrcd ovur to biiu w luul bccii iiU]ialat()d, 
riilK.-<l iiimn tlio Sliali tu ftiniiiili him with niinforccmentK 

* For Ui amMM uf Uh- t-ruHU IImI Inl In llw alUrk <>ti KirlwU Uj tliu 
Wahalii-. m lNil)(rB<rfl'a J-uttf m I'mtrtil iini K-mirni AmIhi*. Vol. ii. 
pp. 41. *1 

** A tuwtio of ObilaM «ffirrrd lilnxrlf tt iba work m U»iil. He nrdTnl 
MiilaMr iDBlrwIinaii hi 1'i-hnM. wbiMirr hr junmrjnl Ia Mraliiil tlm-,vn. 
lb* uiibMltr Mrrrs nf HhJTa'm drmtlnM. Iltrrr Hp pmmml ■ writlm 
fanbn fc« all |iai< mi fatBrc wm. wm) • lillr-ikiil ilulj lOKitnl umI Hitkil, 
mmmti^ IiIm thr pb-mal Jirn </ [ivailtHr, pbixtkl Iv rid llx- ntrth nf iIm> 
Nr|4nm lTT«U*rAM44.'Aarnt. . . . Hf rnw rfaT Innh hi-< ■Unl in tit* 
nuiu at r^nimg iwiyrr iiMNnlialrly la^biMJ 'AliilYl''AMm, vi-ut thni«irh 
lb* IrM Iwn ifk>'ai iiT UbiMillr dptiitbw. imI. al Ihr ll<inl. whiln Ibn 
HallaM nf Nrjnl ««■ hnvrj !■ pnnXKlr MbtnUiiin. )il"'4H hia •JMrf 
KlvwaiMa tbmKpr 1h hi* biidjr. . . . TlHWaVrSU luJi iiIbbt, im Wan My 

taAmMM- («m1>I ■opplj ■• ■l"t'- «l><Mt I""* or 1'*mi. . . . 'AliJ-AIUh 
■arHwd wiribiranJ aicUiuK HniiHl IlmiPrN at Kftlvkh. tb« pwln nt^fnil 
■fU-balrrd. lien (ba iwpHw>iilr "T 1U> ai 
On III** »aa i*ianw nl . an) a pr n il w wi 
haMtaal* >pr » anl dw Mmm af 'Ab4-ri-'A 



SACRILEGIOUS ACTS OF NADIR MEERZA. 135 

to renew the blockaJe of the city. One of the king's 
sons accordingly marched to his aid, and pressed the 
men of Meshed to open their gates to the king's Uou- 
tenant. But Nadir Mccrza was dotormiued to hohl out 
80 long as he might have a chance of being able to resist 
the Shah's authority. Familiarity with the shrine of 
Imam lioza seems to have removed from liis mind tho 
superstitious dread with whicli even the most hardened 
Persians would contemplate an act of sacrilege agaiinst 
so holy a mosque. In order to enable him to defray the 
expense of maintaining troops for the defence of tlie 
walls, he boldly proceeded to the sacred precincts where 
the priests chanted the song of praise of the Imam whoso 
ashes were there entombed. Entering the Holy of 
Holies at the head of a band of men as unscrupulous 
as himself, he hewed away the silver bars that kept 
off tlie crowd of devotees from pressing on the 
tomb of the Imam. The dome of the mosque itself, 
before which, as it ghttcrs in the Eastern sun, diousands 
of pilgrims from the utmost parts of Asia bow their 
heads in silent awe, — the dome itself was sti*ipped of its 
golden splendours to supply the demands of the lawless 
soldiery. After the commission of an act so entirely in 
defiance of public feeling. Nadir seems to have become 
utterly reckless. The infuriated crowd rushed upon the 
band of dcspoliatoi*s, and, by superior numbers, forced 
them to desist fi*om further aggression on the holy places. 
Nadir attriI)utod this resistance to his authority 
to the promptings of the venerable Syed Mohdi, the 
priest who a few weeks before had been the means of 
delivering his fellow-citizens from the blockade that had 
been established by Fetteh AU Shah. This descendant 



a9D a BmOST Or fsMIA* 

■ 

0f ilMi kvgbw €f lleen wn MvvDty jmm of age»rad 
vas, from Mf mnailnUe piefy, moM&ni In bt the 
fNMMMl tiiiit in Penbi. To tibk miii'o Imnioo iho nrth- 
le«i pffiiiea fbieed his waj at dawn on llio moning 
mmrfmBng tbo day of Ua attadi on fha ahfine. Nol 
fiadiqg Urn in Ma ootar ehambofa, ilio inlrador waa nol 
to bo dotored hj ilio imporiona ooaloni of tho Eaat» 
vUdi fofUda abangoia to poMtrato into tlio i^partmonta 
of tlao woman. Than tlia Sjod waa foond knoeUng on 
Ma caipalv in ilio aofc of addraaaing tho ^ipointed moraing 
prater to tho Deity. But nekhor hia obaraoter nor hb 
oeeopation waa aaciod in tho cijoa of Nadir, who with 
Ma battlo^aia howad tho mpi man to tho groond. A 
ganoral ontimrit of honor waa exdtod bj thia act, and 
tlie peoplo wiUi ono acconl opcnod tlio city gates to 
ailmit the troops of tho Shah. Nudir Meerza made his 
escape tlirough the pnblic drain, but he was closely 
porsQcd, and was taken at the distance of four parasangs 
from Meshed. Cliains were placed on his arms and legs, 
and he was eonrcyed in that condition to Tehran, and 
brought to the presence of the Shah. PabUc opinion 
demanded that he should receire the utmost punishment 
wliioh it was in the king's power to give, and the sum- 
maiy way in which tliis punishment was inflictod was in 
accordance with Persian custom. Wlien asked wliat 
excuse he hail to ofler for liaving slain the saint of God, 
he could only deny having committed tlie act attributed to 
him. Upon this the Shah ordered that his tongue should 
be torn from his head, and that his hands should be cut 
off. A red-hot wire waa then drawn across the culprit's 
ejea, and those who had abetted him in his sacrilegious 
arts received the imniahmcnt of death. It ia illustrative 



TRIUMPHANT SUCCESS OF THE SHAH. 137 

of the i)ccnliar tenacity with which Poridans follow np 
blood-feiuls, that the historian of the Kajars remarks with 
complacency that by this affair Uie Shah avenged the 
fate of hiH great-grandfather, Fettch Ali Khan, who had 
been put to death by Nadir Shah. 

Fetteh Ali Shall was now at the zenith of his power 
and glory. He had put down all the internal insurrec- 
tions that had disturbed his reign, and he had done 
much to maintain the integrity of tlie ancient kingdom 
of Persia. From the shores of the sea of Oman and 
tlie bord(;rR of Belooc-liiHtan, the wide extent of Iran 
to the waters of the Caspian obeyed his undivided sway. 
The young Czar of Georgia, tliough he hml since yieUlod 
to Ilussia, litul fomiaiUy acknowledged him as his rightful 
paramount lord, and he had been encouraged by a. 
powerful foreign government to extend his empire in the 
direction of Affghanistan. The monarchs of Persia haul 
adopted the proud title of Shah-in-Shah, or king of kings, 
from the circumstance of their having claimed allegiance 
from four Valis, the hereditary rulers of Affghanistan, 
Georgia, Kurdistan, and Arabistan. Of these four sub- 
ordinate Shahs, one — that of Affghanistan, as we have 
seen — liad for ever tlurown off the Persian yoke. The 
territories of tlie Vali of Ai*abistan had been iucoq)orated 
with the country of Persia proper ; but as the Shah still 
claimed allegiance from the remaining two subject-kings, 
he might still lay claim to the title of Shah-in- Shall. He 
was surrounded by a family of sons, one of the most 
promising of whom had been named crown -prince * and 



* '* Ablimw M(H«r7.a was not Uio Mcni roii of Frttch Ali Shah. He lind 
beon fielorted to be the proupcctivo heir to Uio throtit* by Af^ MAhomod 
Kliiin. His eldtnr brother, whcu n luero child, wiui ankod by hie grand- 



I write oC WM eon^oted bj an Eo^idi airfhor^ M 
MMNDtliiiff to Httb Ian tluui §ix w*ffl<^w«> itfltiiitt* Sii 
owim jevnels of Pteiift fai tht powMwiw of Fettih Alt 
hwo ben oitisiiatod m being of aoto intriMio nlm 
thftn thoto of OUT ocmtoiBiMtifv wiiioo of flbilitoiiiloin 1 
But ft darik doiid wm gothiiring in tlio iiovtli» wbieh 
wKMi wmtmktni tUo fiir piogpoet^ audi wbkdi in dno 
tamo poQiod ftnHi iti tiolMeo otcr tlio UngSom of 
Poran. Tlie 0¥«Bli of tUo poriod abaU bo roootdoi in 
n Mpumto ehi|4ar4 



piiljrMitoAMlk'' TIm aM«w InA MMtr Mil kin Ml Ittb, wi il 

■nnt ■fM NH nWH09 Of A dOWB. 

* Air J. Maloolm. 

t The ■Htkar cif Alintrtks Itetirmi fmm Umnmtm make* a aUtctneiii — 
Um ineurrprtiiMiii oC wliir K bm pmportiniuitfl to the confiilciice with wliich ii 
la Ailvaiieed — to the efliBH tluit the BMidern Shiih of PemiA, like the thrine 
oC the thnw kiii|{s «t l^i|;tie, in immMOMkNl by tinael, |Hiwm« mihI CUmo 
Jrwflnr. Tliin wrll-iiilnnn«*«l Matlnir fnrthrr trilii bin rMilom tlmi tlui Hliuh 
i« halliH Irr UaMtiii, mjnlrU h^ Kmnee, mwI not in*»tnl with «iTer dYtlity 
by Kntflmid. 

* 't*hr Itilbvwitiif ili*Mrri|*<ifiiifi, hy two iiioih*ni tnivrll«*rm idv<* im aoiiM 
i4r« M thr ( MrtiteJ i^ilctiiiitiir oT whirh the C*min of Kctteh AH Hhult wim, 
vm fri4iri« o iv i M A m itt tlic* nrttiir :— 

"* Thr lirM rennnoiij nf ttie fe«4iviil oC N«hvmix wim Ihr intnMlurtinii of 
the iHTviirtitJi fnun the ilifthrent )iroviiie<*ii. TImU frrmi Ihrinm llnnMrin AH 
Mrvnui. l^irrriMir of Hhinu, caine lim. The mimter of llie eereiimaiui 
valhrU lift. hMrinif vith Mm the fumlMetor of the pnsinit aimI an •ItcMUnU 
who. whrn the Mime mmI title* of the donor had been |ymrlaimed. mul 
•kiMi froM a paper the lb« of the ajtiebBS. llie prvaeni Irum IViaee Ho«etn 
All Mi<mta frm » ii< t*«l of a very bm^ train of lar|{e tm^m pbwnl on rof*ira 
hmdm «« whb*h wrrv ahawb^ alnflii of all aortM. penrlii. Ire. ; tlim, nuiny 
tmya Ulled wtih a«|far nnd aweviMvmta ; aller that many Molea hulen with 
frnk. kit. The next prearnt wna fnmi MaltoMed All Khan, prince of 
lfama«lan« the ehle«tlMim of the kinffa anna, hnt who hail been «leprived by 
bia ftuhrr of thr >nori«awiiai, brranao llie tieur)(ian alave who boffv him was 
of an rfttrarthm b*iM mdile than tliat of tlie mi4hrra of i1n« y«Kiii|^r priiicv'a. 
Ilia prrwnt arrof^ed with the ehararter whieh bi aaaifpied to him : it eon- 
iif piitida aanl apvara, a auing uf ana hamlnni camala ami aa man/ 



Sl'LKNDOUR OF THE SIIAIl'S COURT. 130 

inulrfi. After iliin riimc the profviit from the Prince of Yezd, nnotber of Ui« 
kitif^'H Kotii*, wliir.lt coiiMiHUxl of HhnwiH and tltc Milken HtiitrH, tlie nmniifiieture 
uf liiN own town. Tlifii followed tliat of tlio Trinco of MeiiliiHl ; uud, laid of 
all. and moKt valuable, wan that fn>ni llajtH) Mahomed Homein Khan, 
Ameen-ood'Dowlah. It connHted of fifty mules, oaeh canying a load oC 
one thousand tiunauM." — Mouikub TnttrU in IWthi. 

** The royal pnx-ewiioii made its ap)K*arance. Kir^t, Uic elder aona of 
the kinf( cntcrfHl. at the Hide on which we atood, Abhaim Meerxa taking tlio 
left of tlu! whole, which brou);lit hiui to tlie right of llie throne. Ilia 
brotlM»n« followed, till tin*}' m?arly cIowmI u|w>n iw. Piri'ctly oppoHitc to 
tliiM «^ldrr rank of priiiccH, all gnmni to nunihiMNl, their y(»iingi*r hrotliera 
arniuj^'ed thciiiM4>lvrM on ihe oili«>r mde i»f the tntiiNverHu waiter. Tlioy wero 
nil Nii)H>rhly liahitc<l, in the riclieMt hrocado vcMtN and MhawI'ginlKii, firom 
the foldri of wliieh glitlenMl the jewelh><t liiltM of their daggerM. lr<acli wore 
a ndic of gtdd Mtiilf. lined and deeply collaretl witli the mottt delicate aablea, 
falling a little WIow the Hhoulder, and reaching t«i the C4ilf of Uioir leg. 
Around their black eapn they alao had wtmnd tlio fineat hIuiwIm. Kvory 
one of tlieni. from the ehh^Mt to the youngcMt, wore bniceleta of Uio luuvi 
brilliant rubicH and enienibU, junt alnive the bend of the cIIniw. 

** At Home diKtjine«>, near the front (»f Uic ]m]ace. appearod antitlier rangn 
of highly ix*ven>d pernonngeM — mollahK, aMtrologeni. and other Hagea of tliia 
land of the Kant, clotlunl in their more tmnibre gannenta of religion and 
philoHophy. Thero waa no noise, no bustle of any kind ; every person 
Htunding quietly in Ium place, awaiting tlic arrival of tlio monarch. At last, 
the andden di««chargo of the Kwiveln fnan the camel corps without, ixith Uio 
elang of tmmpotM, and I know not what congregation of uproarious sounds 
iM'sidcM, announced that liin Majohty Inul entered the gate of the citad4d. 
Hut the moHt exlnuu'dinary part of {\w clamour waa the apfmlling nairof 
two hngeelfphanlK, tniiiied to the expn*Ha purtN»Ho of giving tliia noteof tha 
«>M|NS'ial ninvenienlH of the great kin;j. 

** He enlci*i>d the sahNMi fmni the b'fl. and mlvnnced Ut the front of it, 
with an air and hte)> whieli beIongi*d eptinfly to a Novt^reign. I never liefoni 
hiul behelil anything like Hueli perfect nuijexty; and he neated IdmNidfiHA 
Ih'h thiiuie with the name indeNeribable, unalfecteil dignity. Ilail there been 
any aRMnm]>tion in IiIm manner. I could not have Intu ko inipreased. I 
ahould then have seen a man, though a king, tlieatricully acting Ida state : 
here I beheld a gi'cat sovereign, feeling himaidf as auch, and he looked tha 
majcHty he felt. 

** He waM one bla/.o of jewela, which literiilly dazzled tlie higlit on first 
looking at him; but tli«* di^tails of bin drcsM were theMe: — A b)fky tiam of 
three elevations was on his head, which shape appears to have lieen long 
peculiar to tlie crown of tlio great king. It was entirely coinpoaed of 
thickly-set diamonds, pearU, mbieM, and emerablH, ho eXfpiiHitely «li;«p«med 
as to form a mixtun* of the mont iNMiutiful coIoui'h in the brilliant light 
rellecled from its Hurface. Stsvenil black fealliei'M, like the lieiiin plume, 
w.'n^ int<*niiixed with the reHph'iident aign*ltei4 of this truly ini|M*rial 
diadem, wlione bending |ioints wero finiHlied with p«Mir*fonutMl iN*arlH (»f an 
ioimoiAsa uUq, The vusluru woa uf gold tissuui uumly oovorud with a 



140 A BancNir or nmu. 



€■ |Nifll^ fMBMli^ UM 1M||H4 ftn Im VMMt I Mil !■■ MNM • WllMM» 

williliMVMl. Bl fcr ifliwii iw> iwttrii^e •bbM wwiI tlii htmd 

•*MH^ mn mmwm ■■« mv inm% wniiw wr^itiviv MR wiiihv» mm^ 

^^^^^^^^^^W ^^^^B^p ^Ww^f ^^P I^^^^^V ^^^^B» (PPi^p PP PI^B P^^W* ^^^Wl^» l^^^Vv W^W^P^^d PW^^^W ^W ^^^^^^P ^W^B 

UM IMMP8 4p9iWi| RMS MMh MMMMIW MNIIVa WP nMMMIi iM MN'IpfllPNl 
fli MPMIf Mini Ml fnWl* ThP jPHViiMI mum OM llMf f1||ll» MPM WMI MlwM 

•*• MMMlirfM af NiM* mm! IImI Ml tlw lplt * tlw pm oT IWit-* 

piMMl. mmI PMfvlml villi ite»k,Mi4 cMli pf linlii. Ml w^ tlMUiiir«il 
Ib dM IpUm pC liip iMMinr. Up IpMk MiMwiili J W ft iuMi cmMmu 
in ft MrtPMfli pf Mpyripk TIm PMiioftp ftMrtMoftl Im iridpii lltli Wfts 

|p PMM Ift iMftl»ftiMl PMMPflpdl %& IWV twillpdl PolMftftft pCvililft 

fftinliftf, ftwl loplGtaif-giMi^ wliMi lalttr 
wMi fiB PtlwTf pnwMMrtn. gJimMim ftftil ijKllMiftg 

OT mW^w^ fHflit ilVHPi mn vHWPim IWH PP mW imsi* T PPPP PI WPWT^BVWPVWi 

•imI pllNiffM pmilpfaiinK fiiHp*fmtor, wvra pmMKMl nlNMt IIms ppprtmeni. 

** Wliili* Ui«* Kfvpl kin^t wim aitiiniiieliittic liiN tlimiir, Uiu wlmlc tiMnevMy 
ftntitiftiiH hiiprintf lUrir IhhmIii In Uh* lOfMiiMl, till lie lipil Ukcn Uiu pUirp. A 
4nMl MilitMw Umii vumhsiI. Um wlitiltf |miienUiij( p tipnit mp^iiiAoviii pim1« 
i ii i' t 'i L pp^fpl N|tpi«niiK)i* : tlio MlilliMiip InHuk my prufmiiid Ptutiii;< mi ypii( 
ft PiPiPiMirMr, tliNt IIm* iili|{ht4*«4 niNllttiK nC the* tnwn wpn liuprd, pimI Um 
piiftt'iit trirklintf iif Uim wnlor rnnn iIm* fiHtuUiiin iiilo Uio opiuUm. 

** III iht* ■ikl'4 of Uiiit tmltfipu f4illiiPMP, whili* m\\ eyvn were fixed im ilio 
Wifiiit nkfrrt hi*lnre Umm. whicli mU, inilecd. p« nuliiitil Ptiil iiiirooYpklo pp 
Um iMP)(i«af MUIirp« ilnelf, p mhI iif viillfjr uC wunU, Uintiiii^ pt «hiii iiiiitolm) 
IfMM Ike ftniNlliit tif ilio ftptllplHi pimI plarulll|^*n^ luMib; mc* HtMrt, pii«1 iiiU*r- 
fWffU^ my putr. Tkki pimnife vnitory wpn p kinil M berpMir riiitmcnUimi 
p| iW icnpii kiiifi'p titlpp, tkppiBkNiM, pitd Kkirkiiiii pctp« with pii p|i|>m|Mrkap 
fmmegytie *m kki coMrpifR, lilwnililj. pml rxlenikpl |k)wer. W'Ucn UiIp wpp 
pMii4, pII h«*p«l« Plill bmriiis tii iImi KmuMl. pimI iIw pir ImmI ei*ppp4 lu 
tUppIp with Um> MMitiiM. Umtp wpm p |piipp* frpr plmut luilf p hummIp, pimI 
llira bU wmirMy w^Jka, TIm rlir<*i wpp vYvn Mmv PtPillitiK tluui IIm 
iNirMliiM ^>rtk a^ Uip MutkUiP : for UiIp wpm likp p r*Heo hvm Uie 
pu «li<«tp, pH ktilkMr, pftil« ftl ikp MftM UaiP, po poMilmtiiml/ IumL**— 
Mr IL Kkp iNnasftp r#wirW«, 



( 141 ) 



CH.VPTER VI. 

Abdimtioii of Cxnr of rKNir^in in favour of Kmprror of Riihuia. IhOO— 
l'riiio«; AU^xhiuKt d('ft*iit«*<l liy (}riu*rul I<axc*niir— Ciiptiin) of Ovi\j» 
— HHttlo 4»f Ki4*liinmdy.oru — SociM*ciini»ir mitU IVnimnHaml lii}ii Sicgn 
to Krivan — Nortumnl AttRckM — Sic^o of Krimn raiiicd — Kvcntu on 
KuHtcni niid Soutlivni Fnmiioni of PumiA — Hokliani, Nomiannliccr 
und Si'iHtfiii — ('liiof of KiimlNi^h HuhmitM t4i Uiuwia — Cfiin|Niifni in that 
rn»vinc<' — HiiKKian DcHTcnton nilnii — (*nptiircof Oeonrin liy IVrHinna 
— AHMiiHMitiiitioii of S*oH(H!iiiioir— MiHttiiiii of M. Jniiboil — Fiili of 
Ibralicoiii Kluil(»«!l Kliiui — Tiirko-IVi-Miiin Frontier — KMtiil>lir«1imcnt of 
UiiHHifin iinthority fn»ni tlio CiiiimNUM. io Mo^lmn— Wiir Uriwoen 
I'dxiuits niul AiV^lmtiH — KiiiliiiMiicrt from Nitpol«s»ii and from tlio 
Tiil)NNirM of Siiidli — KinlHiMKy from Kn^Iniid — Tix'iity — MiKwion firmu 
Iiidtii— l)iHiiMt(*r Ut IN'rHiiui AnitM in Uufwiiin War — Capiur* •of 
Lunkonin — IVuco of GuliHtiin, lMi;i. 

It has been mentioned in a previous chapter that 
Goorgeon, or George, M*ho had succeeded his father 
Ilerachns as Czar of Georgia, had written to Fetteh All 
Sliah making liis submission to that monarch, and tlmt 
Fetteh AH had accepted this act of allegiance on the part 
of the IlN'rian prince. Tlio war wliicli liad licen waged 
hctwoou lliiHHia and PcrHia hi tlie cause of tlie C/iar 
IIcriu*HuH HCcniH not until long after>vards to have boon 
conchidcd hy a formal treaty of p<^a(!e. At the doatli of 
Callionno and of Aga Mahonuul, lioHlililioH on hotli sides 
ceased. The cnprico or policy of the Emperor Paul 
caused a check to be placed for a time on the aggressive 
movements of the great northern power, and Fetteh All 
Shah, as we have seen, was fully occupied in putting 



14S A lumoET or rsiinA. 

imm tiio Tiurioiw pmlondeni to tiio KnyauiAn erowii. 
The tniilitioiMl iwlicj, liowoYeri which luul boon inangn- 
Mtod liyPoter the Oreat, noon prevailed orer that paiienig 
freak of the oooentrie eon of Catherine. Bnnnan agency 
waa allowed to nae ita mfloenee over Uio feeble mind of 
the laat ocenpant of the throne of the Bagratidesi and 
the reaolt waa that, b j an initniment dated the 28th of 
S^tembor of the year 1800, the Csar Oooige Xm. of 
Georgia, in hia own name and in the namea of hia 
aaeccaaora, renooneed hia crown in fiiTonr of Uio Kmiioror 
of BoaHiiU Tlua act, wo are told, draw dnwn ni^on him 
the liatrod and euraoH of tlie nobloa of hia conutiy.* 
nia i|Qeon waa aahamcd of tlio pnaillanimity which had 
indacod her timid liusbaiul to yield compliance to the 
inaidiooa dcmandii of tiio agents of Bassia, and wlien 
it waa wished to arrest her person in order that she might 
be conreyed to Moscow, the indignant princess drew lier 
dagger and wounded tiie Rassion oflSccr who had 
attempted to seize her. Prince Alexander, the yoauger 
brotlier of George, was not disiH>sed to see Uie crown 
thna pass from his fatiier's family witiiont making an 
effort to sccoro it for himself. He used liis ntmost en- 
deaTours to raise a gc^nerol rovolntion ; bat t)io chiefs of 
the country saw the hoiNdessucss of attempting to Uurow 



* Thr fi»ll«Hriii); is mu eitract from tbr proeUmntkm nf Uie Kmpcnir 
Mnmmlrf U* Um» Grorpati Mtimi iif thr (Uio nf Srptetnli^ l*i, iwil :— 
**€• mnX pu po«rMnrultr» new forv^ii. cv n'l-it pas Urntii dm vuvs d'inlcK't. 
•• ^mr clrnilre U-« limiut d'un cmiiirc dvja u rantc, quo nous arr«>|i(uiia 
b CMdcAH 4« lr6iM> d«* Cft^ctrinr : k* ■■•ntainrnt ile mAre diiniit'. I'litiniiMir, 
riMBHUiile. tndi mntm tmi imiKMc la ilaniir men de im ]«# naiuet aus cria 
4t •B«Siniii€a partia de tuCjw arta, da d«lounwr da foa ttflaa Wa maux qui 
«a«a aflinnit rt d Introdaira m Omiria vn ipm w rmnmmi tarU eapabia 
d'adaiaipliar k Jwlkc avca ^ita. da |fiiU|C«r k via al laa Iimnm da 
«l 4'alaiidn aw IM r^SM« <!• U W.- 



RUSSIAN DEFEAT OF THE GEOHGIANS. 143 

oiT tho RuRsian yoko, nnlosR tlioy conld obt^iin tho anned 
support citlior of Persia or of Turkey. Alexander oc- 
conlingly tried to enlist both of those powers in liis 
fiivour; but the Turkish Government was occupied m 
watching tlio progress of NapoleoUi and Fetteli Ali was 
not at that time disposed ' to draw down upon himself 
the antagonism of his powerful northern neighbour. 
Alexander was, howeveri hospitably received by the chief 
of the Avars and by the Khan of Karabaghi both of 
whom agreed to join him in an attempt to expel the 
RuHsianfl from Georgia. But tlioso schemes be4*amo 
known at Tiflis in time to admit of measures being 
concoiied to thwai*t them ; and General Lazeroff, by the 
aid of his superior artillery, gained on tlio banks of the 
Lora a decisive Aictory over the hardy followers of the 
Georgian prince. The Russian commander of tlie troops 
in the Caucasus attacked the town of Genja, the modem 
EUsabetpol, and the severity with which he treated the 
inliabitonts was meant to be a warning of what those had 
to expect who should presume to withstand the power 
of tlie Czar. From Genja, General Seoseeanoff advanced 
to Erivan, being led on by a promise of the governor 
of that fortress that he would yield it to the Russian 
commander. 

The court of Persia was with reason alarmed at 
these proceedings, and the crown-prince was instructed 
to take the field and to march on Erivan, while the Shah 
himself, in order to be near to the scene of operations, 
encamped upon the plain of Oojan. The crown-prince 
sent one of his officers, Mehdi EuU Khan, with six 
thousand horsemen, to the Turkish frontier for the 
purpose of bringing back some wandering tribes of the 



/ 




limfaM of Erfvwt iriiom Um gonmor of thai pkM bad 
panMM to «n)M Um bora«. 

A» Udt clhf WM wlaiaiag, »ftar hawiig wieeeMlUly 
■MoiqlfaM tht at^eaiQf hk ai^editMii, ho Mddanlr 
fnal Uwdf aanftrntea by ilw tnwpi of Ocoanl 
fimmmtM, lOifanMwweiBBoeoBditioiitoviairtuKl 
lb* iMkfj ti Um BohIui amj, taoA ba tberebn 
ovsiM HI «neontaf . Bjr nsgiiiy ntiriitg bjr Rltoniatfl 
•qM^MNH ba oonmd tba Buumh of tiw triboa; tboa 
MM Um dfafto of ttw aaamj to ovartaba bim : and waa 
aaUad to Mbi gooa Ua jnuetioa vttb tbo ftnaa of Ow 
enmrn-f^mtt, Omtni BaaaaaaDoff tban adruieed to 
tba ■i%blMHiriiimil of tba oaMntad iiumaat«>7 of 
KtdwiiaJiBim, tba naidoiee of tba Patiunb of tbe 
Anneniui chnrch, when ho eDoounterod Uio Peniui 
army roadj to oiipoae him. Ahban Meerza, tlio crown- 
I'rineo, draw np liu forccM iu Uirco (livittioiui, of tbo 
rontral ouo of which ]io totik comnuuul iu porwu, being 
sUondoi] in tlto bnUlo which followed h; tlio sou of the 
(IcptMod Cxtr of Ocorf^o. The conflict loHtcd fi»r three 
daja, aiHl the Pendoui tsMit tliot thoagli the; ttnlTurcd 
much frrMD tbe Itti>nan gona, tliej were not defeated. 
Ocucral SooaeoauMfr then marchoJ to Erivon, the gorer- 
nor of which town now rcfnitod to fulfil the compact into 
wbieb ho had enterod. Thia penouoge was consistent 
in wishiug throoghoat to be on the side of the strougost^ 
hot when he saw tliat the Itostiian troo]>8 coold not 
driTo tbe Pcnians before them, liis ostimate of the strougUi 
of the inTadcrs at once wont down, and he sent his 
raufidcutial agent to the prince's camp, offering to retain 
to bia dntj to tbo Shah, provided bo woro oasorod of 
{•idoo. Having bnio satisfied on thia prant, ba iufonaed 



DATTLK OF £TCUmADZ££K. 145 

the Russian officer who hod been scut to treat with him 
for the cession of Erivau, tliat he had nothmg furtlier to 
say to his master. General Seeseeanoff was exasperated 
at this breach of faith, and he determined to execute 
a sudden movement which might have the effect of 
establishing Russian prestige. The Persian army had 
followed him to the neighbourhood! of Erivau, and on the 
morning of the sixth of Rebbi-CM-Sani| 1219,* he surprised 
the Shah's forces in their ciunp. The Persians were 
unable to make head against the impetuous attack of the 
discipUned Russian infantry, and they fled in confusion, 
notwithstanding all the efforts of the prince to stop them. 
The Russian general then besieged Erivan and oi)cned 
a fresh negotiaticm witli Mahomed Klian, the governor. 
The Persian prince collected the remnants of his army 
at Derek, forty miles from the field of battle, where he 
resolved to await tlie instructions of the Shah. Reinforce* 
ments were at once sent to liini, and the king prejiared 
to follow in i)crson. On reaching the river Amxes, the 
Sliah, foremost of all, forced his horse into the current, 
and tlic brave example of their monarch inspired all 
ranks to follow his example^. On reaching Naklitchivau 
the king conceived it to be a good omen that he was 
met by an ofliccr bearing the heads of several Russians, 
which, according to the barbarous custom of the Persians, 
had been severed from the bodies of some soldiers who 
had fallen in a night attack on the invader's camp. The 
Shah on joining the crown-prince became convinced 
that his irregular troops could not successfully encounter 
disciplined infantry in the open field, and he therefore 
gave orders for a night attack upon the Russians in their 

• A.l>. 1»U4. 

10 



Ii6 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

entreDched podtiou. According to tiie Persiou occomits 
Uiit moTemout was oxccated by soTon Porsiau divisions, 
who inflictod conRidemblo loss npon tiio oneniy. Tlio 
same okmIo of attack was in turn adopto^l by GoncitU 
Socsceanoff, but an intimation of his intondod movomont 
was couTcyed to tlio Porsian camp by tlio prince's spies. 
The Sbah upon this withdrew his forces to a neighbouring 
hill, on which his gnns were placed in snch a position 
as might enable them to ponr a murderous fire on the 
camp beneatli, so soon as the enemy should have entered 
it. Bat Uie Kossians ui tliis night march lost tlieir way, 
and only arrived at their destination in time to discover 
by daylight the advantageous position in which the 
PenianH were posted. An euga;;omcnt took place 
Iwtwecu them which ciulod in both i)artirH returning; 
to thoir foniier camps. General Sceseeaiioir in tlio 
meantime made but little progress in his operations 
against Erivan, and ho began to be severely pressed by 
tlie want of stores and of ammunition. An expedition 
which he sent out for the pui-pose of conducting into his 
camp a convoy of provisions of wur from Tiflis, was 
opposed by the Shall and forced to return to before Erivan. 
All the roa^ls leading to that place were strictly watched 
by the Persians, and the failure of an att4>nipt to bring 
a Hocond convoy from Titlis into his cunip forced the 
UusHian commander to niiso the siege and to depart by 
night from In^foro the city. His hurried retreat was 
fiiUowcd by the correH{M»nding mlvuncu of tlic Pei'sian 
cavalry, who were able to inllict considerable annoyance 
U|Niu his Hhatt4*re<l divisions. Thus the Shah was for a 
lima agiiin master of the province of Erivan. Before 
proceeding to recapitulate tlio subsetpicnt events of this 



EVKNT8 ON TUB FRONTIERS OF PERSIA. 147 

war, it is necessary to glance for a moment at the 
state of things at other portions of the extensive Persian 
frontier. 

Tlie career of Nrnlir Sha)i had cansed a general dis* 
turhaiice of lumluiarks thronghout central Asia, and one 
of the events which followed his death was the occurrence 
of a change in the reigning dynasty of Bokhara. The 
son of the Ameer Daniel, the Ameer Massoom, commonly 
known by the name of Beg-i-Jan, not only consoUdated 
hb power over the Oozbegs, bat was enabled by liis 
powerful cavalry to overrun the province of Ehorassani 
and to possess himself of the town of Merve. This 
prince at his deatli loft two sons, the elder of whom took 
up arms against his brother, who was tlius forced to take 
refuge with the Kiug of Persia. The Shah received liim 
in the most cordial manner, adopted him as his stepson, 
and instructed the governor of Ehorassan to endeavour 
to give effect to tlie views of the exiled prince with refe- 
rence to his being able to obtain the mastery over his 
brother. 

At the close of the reign of Ahmed Shah, the first 
king of Affghauiston, a cliief of the tribe of Gliilzye who 
feared the supremacy of the AbdaUis, had, by the permis- 
sion of Kercem Khan, possessed himself of the district of 
Nermansheer in Bcloochistan, in tlie government of 
wliich he had been succeeded by his sou. Fetteh Ali 
Shali at a later period ordered the governor of Kermau 
to extend his authority over the neighbouring AfTghans, 
whose chief on hearing of this proceeded to the Persian 
court and obtained from the king counter-orders to the 
governor of Eerman, and an investiture to the govern* 
ment of both Nermansheer and Seistan; tliis chiefs 

10— a 



_:_. -.rp-s;; 



148 A UI8T0UY OF PERSIA. 

kowcvor, whoM nanio won Miihoinoil Kliaii, ou returuiug 
to liiM homo throw off his allogiaiico to tho Shall, and 
accordingly a PerHian army iiivadod tho dintrict of Nor- 
nianshoory and aftor having driven tho Affghans from it, 
the governor of Korman annexed it to tho province over 
which lie mled. 

In Uie year racceoduig that which had been signalised 
by tho Shah's campaign at tlio base of Mount Ararat, 
Uio royal camp was pitched upon tho plain of Sultmiceali, 
and the cnmii-priuco was ordorcMl to jiui-kuo tho war in 
ilio provuico of KiU'alNigh. Ibralieoni Klialocl Khun, tho 
diicf of Sheosliali, who has been nieutioncd in a i^rovious 
dimpteri hail voluntarily given in his HubnuKsion to 
lloiiiiiay and had sent his griuidson to Goneral Soesoeanoff 
as a hostage. Upon tho approach of tho crown-prince 
he besought Russian aid to enable him successfully to 
defend hunself ; three Inmdred soldiers were accordingly 
bent to assist irregular cavalry in the defence of tho 
bridge of Khuda-Afercen on the Araxcs, by \Yliich the 
prince would approach Karabagh. The Persians, however, 
miule go<Kl their pussugo, and tho forces of Ibnilieeni 
Khan wore compelled to retire with loss. Upon this tho 
crown-prhice lulvanced towards the fortress of Sheesliah, 
and tho governor of that ])Iaeo once more pressed upon 
Gcncnil Seesoeunoir the urgent ucaX in which he stood 
uf ashihtance. Strong reinforcements were accordingly 
sent to him from Tiilis, but they were encountered by 
the troo|)s of IVinco Abbass Meerza ; these were forced 
to entrench themselves in a cemetery, and, according to 
the IVnuan account, after six days' incessant lighting tlio 
Bossian troops retreated, and tlieir cimip and camp- 
oqtti|Higo fell into tho hands of tho piinco. At the samo 



RUSSIAN DKSCKXT OX GILAX. 149 

timo the iniixirtant city of Krivun wiih takon jioBficRMion 
of in tlio iiinno of tlio SIuili. At the opciiin;;; of the 
campaign Molidi Kuli Khan, whoso snccoHnful cavohry 
man(cuvro before the forces of General Beeseeanoff has 
been already mentioned, had l)eon sent on by tho king to 
Erivan witli instructions to ascertain tho real mtoutious 
of the governor of tliat place, Mahomed Khan. It would 
seem that that chief had once more listened to the 
overtures of tho agents of llussiai and Mohdi Khan 
accordingly dolcnninod that he should bo supermMliHl. Ho 
entcrod tho forlross witli sonioof his fidloworH, and, under 
tlio jirotcxt of preparing tho place against a fresh siogo 
by the lluHsians, ho was enabled to introduce all his 
troops without having aroused tho suspicions of tho 
governor. Upon an appointed signal being given, his 
soldiers manned the walls and took possession of tho 
gates, and Mahomed Klian, when it was too late, dis- 
covered that Erivan was no longer his to betray. 

About this timo the llussian commander-in-chief 
conceived the idea of making a descent upon tho coast 
of Gilan, and from there thr^atcniing the Pei*Hian capital ; 
but he had not fully taken into account all tho ditlicultics 
that lay in tho way of such an undertaldng. The liussian 
ships hmded at EnzoUi, a small seaport which connnands 
the entrance to tho lake or lagoon of the same name. Of 
that place tho soldiers possessed theniKolves, and from 
there their commander prepared to advance on llesht, 
the chief town of the province of Gihin. The lako of 
EuzelU is about twelve miles in breadth, and for a part 
of that distance it is so shallow that only small boats can 
pass over it, and tliese must bo carefully steered in order 
te (void being stopped by tlie mud which is continually 




kfafdipodUdt7UwiiwofFMr>Butt. TooRMilM 
kgoon k Um lUpt WM thiH l^oi^iU, and ft KifidMa 
Bmher of bMla teaU not bt pneand to tuanj tlw 

■oUJon, the itotM wd tho gBM to the mftinliiid. The 
ff i MJ i i wwMBMwhr, tfamlbfi, d<it«iniiinita to tumh Ui 
tfoopi nmnd the border of the Uu; but the manhy 
KiDond iriiielt Mnmaiide It wm oo homy tluU U vh with 
the (tnetoot diflea^ thet goal eoald be dnmited ovor it. 
A thick famk oee^ the mrfue of the oomti; botweea 
Baadli and the ofaW <% of OOaa. Hid in tUe fanei the 
Oiloka ven eomealed ready at the aoitaUe noownt to 
epM a ire wpoa the ioTBdan. It voold be ahooak 
iMpewftle toiDBfiiie a norediiBeaU andertaUng fiira 
general than in the fiwe of an enemy to tnumport an 
army villi stom ancl ortilleiy orer tho muddy and 
manilty tliickets tliat lie berore tlie town of Beslit ; and 
aeennlinfjiy it ii not to Iw vondcrod at that wlion Uio 
nilolu o|miicd firo frrmi tlu-ir unlinHli Uio RnMUiuiB ■lioold 
liavo Loon tlirown into coiifiiKion from which thoy fimnd 
tlH'y enalil not oxtricato UiomxolTcs. Tho onlor woe 
gircn to retreat on Knxclli, and tho oxpeditioD there took 
■hip, IcaTing behind, if we may rely on the Persian 
acmnntfl, eome gnne and storoB of war. 

The Ronian commander-in-chief in Oeorf^ia marched 
ont of GonJB an<l took np his position on the banks of 
the iiTcr Tatar. Tlie Shall instmcted tlio crown-i>rinee 
to endeaTonr to make himself master of Oonja, and, in 
order to ofcnpj General Seesceanoff, Ismail Khan was 
aent to make a dircniou in front of Uio stream, on which 
that officer had taken Dp liis pontion. Ho thonco die* 
lod({od lite UnmiiAn general, and tlio prince then obtainoil 
1 of Oenja, the inhabitants of wliich city wore 



A8SASSIXATI0X OP GENERAL SEESEEANOFF. 151 

removod to Tabrocz. General Scoseeonoff subsequently 
marched on Sheeshah, which fortress was made over to 
him by Ibraheem Khaleel Khan. From there he proceeded 
to Gcnja. The governors of Koobeh and Derbend» and 
of BakoOi and the chief of the Lesghis, having sent to 
ask assistanco from tlie Shah, a Persian force was sent to 
their aid. The IluHsian nqnadron had steoroti from 
Enxclli to Uukoo, wlioro it wan attacked by the guns 
of the govoniori whereupon tlie liuHHians landed lieforo 
the fortress and inilicted.severe damage by their artillery. 
The governor, however, was reinforced by an army from 
the Lesghi mountains and from Derbend, and the liussian 
commander was compelled to re-embark and steer for the 
coast of Taleesh. General Soeseeanoff marched to attack 
the chief of Shecrvan, who professed to yield to his wishes. 
The liussian commander-in-chief then proceeded to 
13akoo, to which place the squadron retume<l from 
TalcoHh. The crown*pnnco in the moantimo thrcMitenod 
the KuHHiau general witli an attiwk on liiH rear, from tlio 
direction of Ardabeel ; and SeoseeanofT, fearing lest he 
should be hemmed in, proceeded to open a negotiation 
with the chief of Bakoo for the surrender of that fortress. 
That chief resolved to meet the Governor-General of tlie 
Caucasus with an act of treachery as flagrant as that to 
the commission of which he was invited. Pretending to 
listen to his arguments, he sent to the Muscovite camp 
to inform the General that he wished to have a personal 
interview witli his Excellency for the purpose of settling 
the precise terms ui)on which Bakoo was to be given up. 
Sceseeano£f fell into the snare which the unscrupulous 
Persian had thus prepared, and whilst he was occupied in 
conversing with the Klian beneath the walls of Bakoo, 



A wtnom <xf imuu 



Im WM bitil bj mmhIm lAd at com psl an wd to lib 

nU«M. Whflil the mbIMoii MMi^Miit iq^ the 

lofii of te cmiMnaiMlar itfil fe^^necl in tlie Buriin Mmp* 

it iraa ittadMd nd iNfokM iqp Igr tlM Foni^ 

tlM wfMiliwi tvUfllt Itgriii tlM haibow €oea moro put 

Mttoaoa, 

Wa ham tliaa aaon tlia laApaning of bimStj inter- 
eooaa at haatila opentioDa batmen Penriai midar Fetteh 
AH aMht and Eigiand and BnawL Wa ham neit to 
laaoid a fhriher hiteidiangi of |MMMe(bl lahi^^ 
fliat U^c and Knnea. Wa ara hifbnned that in the year 
af tha HiiKim lilO,* an Aimenian mettihant^ who came 
to TehiM IWiai Baf|hdad« prafeaaed to be the bearer of er^ 
dontijilii firmn tlio Oovonimont of tho £miH)ror NaiK>loon. 
But no Olio at Toliran coold dociplior tlio Fronck charoo- 
ten in wlikh the letters were traced, and consoqaontly 
the Koi-diHant envoy had to snbmit to tho neglect from 
which his appearance and following were not sufficient to 
rescue him. No donbt, bowerer, conld be felt as to the 
authentic natnre of the mission of the next French enroy, 
whose coming was annonnce<1 to tho court of Persia. 
But this euToy, who had been sent from Paris, in conse- 
quence of a wish expressed on the Shali's part to tlie 
French ambassador at Constantinople tliat ho might 
rereiiro the sn]v|Kirt of Fniuee,f wns arrested near tlio 
Persian frontier, by Uie agents of tlio Piisha of Byaseed,^ 
and was conducted to that town, where he was for eight 
montlis confined in a dry subterranean cistern. The 
Fssha of Byacced died at Uio end of tliat time, and tho 
of the Tictory of Austerlita, which penetrated mto 






FALL OF IBRAHEEM KHALEEL KHAN. 158 

the heart of Turkey, was likely to give increaseil security 
to the agents of France ; and when the crown-prince of 
PorKia demanded the release of M. Jaubcrt, ho was per- 
mitted to continue liis journey. He arrived at Tehran in 
the montli of May, 180(>, and after a short stay, returned 
to Europe, in the company of a Persian ambassador 
accredited to the Emperor Napoleon. This ambassador 
proceeded to Tilsit, where he concluded a treaty, wliich 
was ratified by the Emperor at Finkenstein, in May, 
1807.« t 

It has been stated that the chief of Korabagh, tlie 
same Ibraheem Khalcel Khan who hml so hmg withstood 
tlie power of Aga Mahomed, had voluntarily admitted 
the Uussiuns to the fortress of ShecHhali. But on mature 
reflection that aged chief came to tlie conclusion that it 
was not the duty of a faithful Mussulman to assist in 
establishing the power of an infidel government over a 
population of true beUevers. The reproaches of his con- 
science were quickened by the messages he received from 
his sister, who was the wife of Fetteh Ali Shah, and 
from his son, who was in that monarch's camp. The 
result was, that he determined to destroy the Russian 
garrison of Sheeshali, and to hand over that stronghold 
to the Persian authorities. 

On this resolution being communicated to the king, 
the cro^oi-prince was ordered to march to Karabagh, so 
that he might be at hand to support Ibraheem Khaleel 
Khan. The prince accordingly set out for Karabagh, 
and despatched in advance the son of the Khan of that 
province ; but on reaching the bridge of Khuda Afereen 



* BiJkCKwooD B Etiinburgh Mwjazwe, vol. xxi., Ib27. 
t Pfogrui i^ Rmtia in th$ £aii. 




M fh* ImM, bit mgSnMMVM mdhjiht Md£an^ 
tta MB of IbnbeMD, niMM dowacMt <yw MJ laoannftU 
ttwfc^ iMfimnH flMtftdlarcf UMpaopbhadUIai. 
nwhi— Kten ted, tt ivpMmd. quitted tlie fectows 
«tt two thoannd foIloinn,ud pcooMded to r eui^ 
ter Miki diitnA froa it, irith tlM intaotion (tf ainitiiig 
tiw Hiinl ef hb Mia. Ammffi tiKwe to vliom bo had 
■nMBMiiiiliit tbt plot iMA had bean eoneertod, mi 
hk giMihiw; and tUe jnotb. who beted bb tniele, 
bfltnjed tbe whole iflbeaie to the ICi^ in eommtud <tf 
the BMriaa gwrioaii. Thet <Aocn> wee equal to tlie 
oritieel wttmtim fa whidt be now ttmnA binwelf pUmd. 
Tbhngwitb Unthe gnuidiian of the Kban, be jmeeoded 
In the doeil of iu({bt with tiiroo liniidrod mon to tlio 
camp of Ibraboom, and in tbe coiifaseil aSny wliicti 
followed, tliat chief and tlur^-oue of his family or eer- 
Tante were pnt to doath. Tbe RaBsian commauder tlien 
^ipointod one of the mmu of tho doccucd Khan to be 
i;oTeninr of Kaiabngli, and ahnt hiinnolf up in Sliooshah 
in cxpeetatiou of roccivuig roiufoixoDioutti fmm Tiltis. 
Tlie«s were pnnnptl; sent into Karabagli, and the; were 
eneoontered by tbo forcei of the crown -prince at a spot 
called Kbanalicon, where, after an obstiuute atmggle, 
eo eceei attended tbe arms of Fenda ; tho Rnssian aoidiers 
being obliged to retreat in coufosion. The Persian irre- 
gakr tnopa were then spread over difiierent parts of tbe 
eoontrf of Georgia, for the pnipose of laying it waste, and 
tbe Fenian eonunander returned towards Uie Araxes. A 
ibmo bad beon despatcbod to bring the tribes of Karabogb 
over to Fersia, and aa one of these was ararae to the 
aorement, it sent to ask Boieian aid to enable it to 
witbateod the Feniao tioopa. A r^fiuunt wee tioaixd,* 



AFFAIRS OS THE TURKO-PRRSIAN FRONTIER. 165 

ingly sent to its aid, and tbo Persian detachment was 
defeated. Iteiuforcemcnts were, however, despatched to 
his countrjmcn by the prince, and the result was, that 
the Russian commander, after having strengthened the 
garrison of Shecshah, retreated to Tiflis. The prince 
then marched into the province of Shcervan, for tlie 
purpose of punishing the disaffected governor of that 
district, and having carried out tins object he returned 
to Tabrcez. The Khan of Dcrbend hod in the mean* 
time given in his adhesion to the Russian cause. 

In the same year tho PorKiau nnns wc^ro omi)loycd in 
onotlicr quarter, lictwoon Urooniooah and KormanHluiIi 
lies tho frontier district of Shehr-i-/.oor, which was 
governed by a Pasha named Abdur Ralimim. This Pasha, 
being oppressed by tlie governor-general of Baghdad, 
took refuge with the Shah of Persia, who at once agreed 
to afford him his protection. Through his influence ho 
was restored to his government,- and at the same time tho 
Shah's oldest son, Mahomed Ali Meerza, was appointofl 
viceroy along the Turkish frontier. After this the Paslia 
of Baghdad once more treated Abdur Raliman in such 
a manner as obliged him a second time to seek refuge in 
Persia. His quarrel was espoused by the prince, and 
Suleiman Pasha, the son-in-law of the governor-general 
of Baghdad, advanced to oppose him with thirty thou- 
sand men. In the action which ensued, tlie Turks were 
defeated, and they were followed by the Persians to tho 
neighbourhood of Mosul. Their commander, who had 
been made prisoner, was sent to Tehran in chains, and 
on his being released the Shah appointed Abdur Rahman 
to be governor of Shehr-i-zoor. 

Jt would, I fear, weary the reader, were I to state in 



U?lf f "_ ' ■ ' ^- 



150 A niSTORT OF FRUSTA. 

detail tlio THrioufl operations which oiulcd in tho posses- 
sion being secnrod to Rassia of the provinces of Dorbend, 
Bakoo, Sheervan, Slieki, Genjai Toleesh, and Moghan. 
The Nortliem Povori as her arms obtained a mastery in 
Europe, was enabled gradnally to bring her vast resources 
to bear njion Uie field of operations in Asia. A want of 
Tigonr and consiMteut action was to l>e observed in tho 
oprrutions of Uie Persian Oovemment, while, on tho otiier 
hand, no means were spared by tlie agents of Russia to 
work npon the passions and tlie self-interest of the 
unprincipled Khans who governed the people of the 
coontry which was the scene of the war. According to 
the Persian statements, some of the Khans remained tme 
to tlie Shall, bnt were obliged to quit their governments 
on account of their people linviug declared for the Czur. 
Others were won over by Russian gold, and Russian 
blandishinents. One gave in his adhesion to the Eiuporor 
on condition that his loeal enemy should be put to death ; 
and the result hi ever}* cose wus the saiine. The hardy 
warriors of tlie North gnulually established their autho- 
rity over the outlying provinces of Persia. 

In tlio year of the Hejim 1222,* a short but bloo<ly 
war took place l>etwixt the Persians and the Affghans. It 
anise with reference to tho frontier fortress of Ghorian 
in the territory of Herat. When the Affgluin prince 
Feenniz Meer/a had been a suppliant refugee in Persia, 
tlie Shall, as has been written, luul instructed the gover- 
nor of Khorossan to support his cause. Ghorian was 
taken, and it remained in the hands of the Persians. 
The deputy-governor, however, agreed to give it over to 
the AiTghans, and IVinco Feerooz, with an utter forget- 

• A.1). IHOA. 



WAR DBT\V££N TERSIANS AND AFFQIIANS. 157 

fulness of Ills obligations to the Sbab, scut troops to 
attack Ghoriau, w*bere a battle was fought, which ended 
in the signal defeat of the AiTghanSi whose commander 
was slain in the golden howdali from which he viewed 
tlie battle. The governor of Khorassan now advanced 
to the gates of Herat, and Piince Feerooz was forced to 
pay a sum of money for tribute of the last two years, 
and to agree to pay such tribute in future with regularity. 
He fuilher gtvve his son as a hostage for his faith, and 
deUvered up to the Persians the deputy-governor of 
Ghorian. 

About this time the Governor-General of the Caucasus 
who had been appointed to succeed the ill-fated Seeseea- 
noff, sent an envoy to the Persian court, to propose that 
peace should be concluded on the basis tliat Karabagh, 
Shecrvan, and Sheki, should be made over to the Czar. 
He received a reply * to the ciTect that no peace could be * 
concluded which should not provide for the restoration 
to the Shah of all the provinces that had formerly been 
the property of Persia. 

The Shall of Persia ha(| demanded the assistance of 
the British Govciiiment of India in the war which he 
was prosecuting with his Nortliem neighbour ; but in the 
earUer stage of that war, England was in alliance with 
Russia, and therefore did not afford the aid which Persia 
required. In the meantime tlie geographical position of 
Persia made the alliance of the king of that country an 
object of importance to the enemies of England. From 
t\Yo very different Powers tlie Shah nearly at the same 
time received an ostentatious embassy. The first was 
from the Talpoors of Siiidh, who already had become 



* Persian Uiitory, 



158 A III8T0BT OF FBBiOA. 

alArmofl at Uio encroaching policy of tlio BriUh Govern* 
ment in the East, and who claimed tlie Shah's alliance 
and protection against the English. The otlior embassy 
was (him tlie Emperor Napoleon. Ooneral Qardainio 
arriTed at Toluran, accompanied by seventy ofBcers. He 
brought with him the treaty with Persia that had been 
ratified by tlie Emperor, and the Sludi saw no other 
means of being able to recover his lost provinces than by 
entering uito an alliimce oflbnsive and defensive with 
France. The officers of General Gardanne wore accord- 
ingly employed to drill the rorsian soldiers upon tlio 
model of Earo^iean infiuitry and arliller}'uicn. It was 
tlie ho]K) of the Sliah. in which he was encouraged by 
tlie French ambassador, that in any treaty of poaco 
which lui^'ht bo made between Niipoleou mul tlio 
Emi)cror of UaHsia, it would bo stipulated that the 
hiiter should restore to Persia the proiuces of Georgia 
and Karabagh. An envoy from the Governor-General 
of tlie Caucasus was sent to Tehran with proposals 
for peace, and the opinion of General Gardanne was 
consultf^d as to tlie answer that should bo sent to the 
ItuMMian GoVitnior. The Shah would not, by ('(uling his 
proviuceM, {urriio the hop4» o( rcicoverijig tlicni by an 
Kuro|>ean treaty ; but Geiieml (jardaniio UMod bin iu* 
llucnco t4) prevent both Hides from engoi^iug in fnrthi*r 
hoMtile oiKTatitins in tlio nu*antimo. He assured the 
UusHiaii authorities, that should they abstain from advun* 
cing towanls the Persian frontier, no move would be 
made by the Shah ; and on Uio other hand, he engaged 
to the Perbian monarch that he should suffer no loss 
from his tem|K>rary inaction. Such was tho state of 
things when the news reached Tehran thai a tc^^Vj sA 



IHENCU EMBASSY TO THE SUAII. 159 

peace had beou concluded between the Emperors at 
Tilsit, in which no provision whatsoever was made for 
the cession to the Shah of tlie provinces of Georgia and 
Earaba^h. 

But though the most pressing demand of Persia was 
tluis set aside by France, the Emperor Napoleon had 
still an object in securing tlie alliance of the Persian 
Oovomment. In case of his tliinking fit to attempt tlio 
invasion of India, it muut be by way of Persia that such 
invasion would have to be efTocted ; and in sight of tho 
posnibility of such an attempt being mmle, the Indian 
Govennnent determined to put forth all its influence to 
dislodge the cmbaHny of France from tlie Shah's court. 
General Malcolm was despatched to the Pernian Gulf in 
the year 1808 ; but on being re(iuoste<l to addrcHs himself 
to the princc-govunior of Fars, and not to advance nearer 
to the capital, he at once returned to India to receive 
instructions from tlie Governor-General as to the measures 
which it would be necessary to adopt for the purpose of 
compelling the Persian Government to adhere to its 
treaty engagements. At the same time that General 
Malcolm luul I)een sent to Persia from tlio Government 
of India, an anibiiHsiulor hiul boon doHpalched to tliat 
country direct £i*oui the court of St. James's ; and whilst 
pi*eparations were in train for tho occupation of the 
island of Karrack, in the Persian Gulf, by an English 
force from India, the ambassador of England proceeded 
to Bushire, and thence to the Persian capital, where ho 
drew up a treaty with the Shah's Government, by which 
Persia renounced her alliance with France. Indeed, Sir 
Harford Jones stipulated that General Gardanne should 
receive his passports as tho condition upon which alone 



100 A inRORT OP nBBIA. 

1m wonU eoDflont to adfinee to Tohnm. In the Anglo- 
Fsnum tiMtj it was agieecl that Oroit Britain ahould 
p^f an annnal vobakfy to the Shah fur the ezpenaos of 
the war he was waging with Buna, whilat EnghmJ 
dMHild be at war with that Power. Thin enbakfy was to 
be fiimisliod ttom the Indian troasniy, and Uie Ooromor- 
Oenend of India lesolved to send an entoy nndor his 
own immediate onlors» who might make the nocessaiy 
disbnnomonts to the Persian Oovemmont. At this time 
theie existed a regrettabb'jealoaqr and want of eommon 
aetion between the embassy sent to Persia from EngUmd 
and die British antiiorities in India. Bir Uaribnl Junes 
was aeensod of baring need to the l\nisus huignage 
caleoktcd to lower iu tiioir estimation tiio dignity of the 
Oorenimont of ludia ; and, in rotam, that OoTomment 
did its best to lower the estimation in which tko King's 
ambassador was hold at the Persian court, by dishonour- 
ing tiio bills which lie drew on Calcutta. 

Guuuriil Malcolm, who hail been disapiK>iutod at the 
sotting asidu of his scliomo for soixuig tho itdoiid of 
Karrack, was oqiuilly ready to rotum to Pomia iu a more 
peaceful guise.* At tho hood of a mission wliick, wo 
are Uilil, tho GoYenior-Gouoral of India roailily a;(rtHMl to 
rouder more imiKwing Uian tiio embassy that, under the 
conduct of Kir Harford Jones, rqtresented tiio crouii of 
Engbuid, (ieuoral Msdcolm landed ouce more at Bosliire, f 
from which ]K>iut ho made a progress through the country 
sndi as was calculated to lesTo a ])onnaneut impression 
on the minds of tho ]mk)]>1o of tiie wealth and hborality 
of tiie rulers of India. Tho exact rchitiou in which tho 
Anglo-Indian ^losmTsiftions stootl witii rcH|)cct to the Britisli 



KMUA8SY FROM KNOLANI). IGl 

crowu was not cosily nmlorstooil by tho Porsiiin Govom- 
mcnt. Thoy saw the two euvoys striving against each 
otlier for influonce, as if, so far from belonging to the 
same country, they had been tlio representatives of two 
hostile Governments; but a solution of Uiis pusssling 
enigma, which seemed omhiently satisfactory, soon sug- 
gested itself to the Persian mind. General Malcolm was 
the more oi)en-handod of the two envoys, and as he was 
known to be tlie representative of the Government of a 
commercial company, they inferred that ho of course 
received a 2>er-centage upon all the money which lio 
spent during his uiission, and that therefore it was for 
his own interoKt that he should disburse as much money 
as he might find the Persians willing to accept. 

In addition to the direct objects of this mission from 
India, there were other ends which it was meant to Hccure. 
The want of accurate information relative to the countries 
beyond India on the North-west had long been severely 
felt by the Govcnimcnt of that country ; and it was tho 
more neceHsary to obtain this information at a time when 
Uie invasion of India by an European enemy was supposed 
to be a probable event. Several entcri)rising young 
officers wore for this puii)oso attached to the staff of 
General Malcolm; and to the exertions of Pottinger, 
Christie, Macdonald-Kinneir, Monteith, and others of 
their number, Europe was indebted for the greater part 
of tlie reliable statistics regarding the countries situated 
between the Black Sea and the Indus which were known 
for the next quarter of a centm'y. 

Li the meantime hostile operations between Persia 
and Russia had been resumed. The general command- 
ing-i^-chief the anny of the Caucasus had advanced to 

11 



163 A IIISTOBT or PSR8IA. 

EriTan, to which city ho laid siege, while he sent forward 
a separate force to occnpy the crown-prince of Persia in 
the direction of Klioi. The prince, on his port, sent 
reinforcements to Eriran, and prepared to advance to 
tlie Araxes. Ho encountered a Rawian force at Naklit- 
chiTan, which, heing unable to make any Huflicient im- 
prcmion u^Km las battalions, retreated towanls Mount 
Ararat and pressed the siege of Erivan. The fidehty of 
the govcmor of that place was tried by the agents of 
Russia, but as he still held out, orders were given for a 
night assault on the city. Of tliis intention tlie Persians 
received timely wamuig, and their soldiers were instructed 
to maintain a dead silence until tlie moment when the 
Muscovite troops should attempt to scale tlie battlements 
of tlie fortress. At that moment a simultaneous dis- 
charge from tlic uiUKkcts and matchlocks of the Persiuu 
iufautry tlirow the nuiks of the assailiiiits into confusion, 
and, after haviu;; undor;;ouc a heavy loss, the Russian 
(general withdrew his forces to their camp. After this 
he only remained before the city sufticiently long to 
admit of prepanitious being maile for his retreat ; when 
he marcluNl upon Geiija, being annoyed by the way 
by the light troops of the Persians who followed in his 
wake. 

The Persian king and the crown-priuce were most 
anxious to obt4un the aid of General Malcolm and of his 
officers in the prosecution of this war. His mlvice to 
them was to avoid attackuig the Russians in line or in 
their strong iH)sts, but to keep their newly-niised in- 
fantr}' and ill-e4|ui]>ped artiller}* in reserve ; and to limit 
the employment of these to tlie defence of forts and 
diilicult pabses, whilst they pushed foni*ard eveiy horse- 



IkllSSIOK TO LONDON. 1G3 

man the couutrj could foruisli to distress and harass the 
euemy. General Malcolm would not consent to accom- 
pany the Persian army into tlie field, unless ho should 
be instructed to do so by the English ambassador : but 
tills was a stop which was not, under the circumsUwces, 
tliought by his Kxcellency to bo lulvisablc. Two Knglish 
officers wore, however, placed at Uie crown-prince's 
disjiosal ; and General Malcolm returned towards India, 
after having received the Order of the Lion and Sun, 
which was instituted in his honour. 

In return for tiie embassy from King George III. the 
Shah sent Haji Meerza Abul Hassan Ehan, the nephew 
of the late prime minister, on a mission to London, with 
tiie especial object of clearly ascertaining who was to 
pay the subsidy which he was entitled by treaty to receive 
from England.* 

About this time the Wahabi Arabs attacked the island 
of Bahrein, on the Arabian coast of tiie Persian Gulf — 
an island to the sovereignty over which Persia advanced 
pretensions.f The Imam of Muscat informed the prince- 
governor of Fars of his inability to make head against 
the Wahabis ; and Sadek Klian, who commanded in Fars, 
was instructed to undei-take an expedition for the purpose 
of punishing them : a service which he accomplished in 
a manner which satisfied the Persian Government, but 
which does not seem to have been followed by any 
permanent results. 

In the meantime the Georgian war continued to rage. 
The Shah's eldest sou was instructed to take 20,000 



* It is thiR Pcmion envoy whoM miaaioii has hoaii so amusingly 
described in IJt{je€ liaba in EnglaHd, 
t S^ Paloiutk's Arabia, 

11—2 



164 A nUTOET OP FERBU. 

BMi with htniy and to cndMtoor to penetrate to Tiflis. 
He had to eonlent hunael^ howeYer, with nmging the 
eoontiy op to the Ookebeh Lake, whenoe he retnmed to 
Eiivaa. The erown-prinee ahN> ailvanood to the neigh- 
bouhood of Geiya, wliieh pkoo the Anneniana roaident 
in it praniaed to deliTer iq) to him. Of thia ]^t the 
Boaaian eommander obtained intelligence, and he pnt 
the Anneniana in ehama, on which the prince maiehed 
back in the direction of Tabreea. The Bnsaian ccmi- 
niani1er«in4hief afterwaida adtancod to a apot called 
H^|i•Ka^^ wlieio an engagement took place between hia 
fineoa and thoae of tlio Peniau prince. On another 
oecaakm a Boaaian battalion waa, we are told» cq^tnrodi 
and woB aeiit with ita colonra to Tehran. 

The year 1812 woa marked iu tlio ouuals of Fcraia 
by a aignol diaaatcr which occnrrod to tbo army of the 
crown-prince. Of tlio cvcnta of the short campaign 
waged in the antmnn of tliis year, wo possess a virid 
account from Uie pen of one who tcK>k part in them.* 
Sir Gore Ouselcy, who was now the English ambassador 
at Uie court of Persia, had j«>inod the prince's camp near 
tlie Anixes, in the lu)i>o of btuiig able to act as uuMliotor 
between Ids 1103*01 Iliglincss and tlio lluHHiau com- 
misaiouer. A llnssion general-officer was sent to the 
Persian camp to pro^ioso the apiK>iiitmcnt of deputies on 
both aides, who should meet on tlie banks of the Araxes. 
This arrangement was agreed to, but it failed to produce 
any aatisfoctory results. The Russian deputies would 
cede notliuig, and the Pendous would not accept on 
airangcmcut based on the actual atate of poasession of 

• Dr. Ohimn-«. 9m AppMdift %» Hf$ ^ Hir AAa Umimim. kj J* 
W.lUfS. VoLU. 



PERSIAN CAMP SURPRISED BY THE RUSSIANS. 1C5 

territory. In the weauwhile a report had readied 
Tabreez to tlio effect that a peace had been bronght 
about between England and Unssia, and, as tliis report 
wiiu in some dejjroo confirmed by a letter from a Unssian ' 
oificer in the CuKpian, Sir Gore Ouseloy ordered the 
English officers with the Shah's army not to take any 
fnrthcr part in the miHtary operations against Rnssia. 
He furtlier informed tlie Rnssion commissioner of his 
having issued this instruction. On the entreaty, how- 
ever, of the crown-prince and his ministers, the English 
ambassador pcnnitted two of the Britisli oflicers, with 
thirteen sergeants, to remain in tlie Persian camp. 
These officers received no specific orders as to how they 
were to conduct themselves, but they thought that they 
were bound in honour not to refuse to fight for the prince 
under whom they were serving. The Persian army 
marched to the Araxcs, to a place called Ooslandooz, 
where tliey encamped with their front to the river, 
having a small tributary stream on their right. There 
tliey remained for ten days in a state of undisturbed 
quietness, and of blind, incautious security. But from 
this dream they were rudely aroused on the forenoon of 
tiie 31st of October, by a sudden attack of the Itussians.* 
No one in tlie Persian ciunp had in the sliglitcst degree 
anticipated their approach, and before the troops could 
be drawn up to oppose them tliey had advanced through 
a clear, open plain to within a few hundred yards of the 
Persians, and were in possession of a Uttle hill in their 
rear, which commanded every part of their camp. The 
prince had intended to go but hunting, and as the 

* Tho lluMiiin foroo coimiMtcd of U.aoo niou, wiUi six piocMvi of MrtUloiy. 
The PoTiiiiuii wore very much more uumeroun. 



iboi 



IOC ▲ IimOBT Of FBSStA. 

Eng^kh oflloer in crnnmaiMl of the Ftauan u&lerj^ had 
hoen onlorod to attend him, the gima nanowly eaeq^ 
fitm fidling into the lianda of ihe enemy. IJie oUier 
En^iah oflleert had dnwn vp hia infimtiji aa well aa 
hnny and eenlWon woidd admit of, between the Perrian 
eamp and the hiU of wliieh the Bnadana liad gamed poa* 
aaarion, being detennined there to oppoee their entrance 
into the camp. Tlioy opened fire upon liim fifom abote 
with one gnn, and throe hondrod men advanced npon 
litm in akirmifdiing order. Tlicn foUowoi] a acno 
illutaitifo of tlifl eliiblialinem of the Oriontal rhnractor. 
lYliibt tlio KniHialt officer waa proparing t» chargo tlio 
enemy, an onler n^adied him firom the prince to retreat 
armaa the anmll atream to the right of tho cnnip ; and 
when Cnptoiu Chriatie acnt a aergcant to represent the 
ini{in)priotv of retiring, and tho ncccHHity of annihilating 
tlio atuall number of niou opiwiHod to him» tho jmuco com- 
pk'tcly lofit hia tc^m^icr, abuMed tlio nation of the ofliccr 
who WON cxiMNiing liiH lifo in liiH aervicOi hiniKelf gallo^KMl 
to Ute iMiklierK, and, Heizing their colonrH, ordertMl tliom to 
run away. Two compaiiicH n*nniin(^1 with Captain ChriA- 
tioy and with tliow> ho followed the retreating troopH, earry- 
ing witit hhn aomo wonndod ofliccrs. Tho artillery alao 
waa convoyed acn»8M the atream, where it waa rendered 
inriToctivc from tho want of ammnnition. Tho Peniian 
campi and ovcrviliing it contained, fcll a prey to tho 
Rmwiana, and tlio crown-prince collected hia acattorod 
Ufoopa, and took up a inwition within sliot of tho ouomy, 
ati«1 divided from him by the abovo-montionetl atream 
and by nix hundrcil yonla of jungle. Lieutenant Luid- 
aay, at the homl of twenty o( hin men and one of the 



PKPKAT OF THE PERSIAK FORCE. 167 

prince's gliolams, mado a gallant dash into the camp, 
and each man succeeded in carrying off six rounds of 
ammunition. In the new position the Persian right was 
under a hill, which it was uitended to strengthen, a task 
which was the more easy as there already existed a ditch 
and several holes round it. Their front faced tkeur 
former camp, and their left extended along the little 
stream. With two companies Captain Cliristie drove 
the RusHians out of the intervening jungle, and Lieu* 
tenant Lindsay, witli two guns, Hilcnced an equal nnmher 
of ItuBsian fiohl-pieccs which were (>])poHcd to him. 
Such was tlio Htato of things when darkuoHS came on. 
It was roprcKcnted to the crown-prince hy the Knglinh 
oi&cors, that as the ammunition of the infiuitry was 
nearly exliausted, he had not the moans of renewing the 
fight, and Uiat, as the RuKsians would certainly attack 
him if he kIiouUI remain where lie was, it was ahnolntely 
necessary that he Khould retreat. His lloyal IlighnesH, 
however, would not act upon tlie suggOHtion thus 
])rolTer('d to him, and passed the night in asking the 
advice of every one ahout him. lie consulted all witluu 
his rca<*h, hut he would bo guided by no one, and as ho 
himself, his minister, his meerzas, and his secretaries, all 
issued orders, his camp presented a picture of inconceiv- 
able confusion. Soldiers, gunners, horsemen, miUes, 
horses, imd camels, crowded tlie httle hill within the 
ditch, round which there was only room for two hundred 
men, and which was unfortunately nearly full of houses 
with tliatclied roofs. The prince finally ordered that two 
guns should be taken to the top of this hillock, from 
which it was impossible tluit they could be used with any 
odvaptago. Even tlie ordinary precaution of iK)sting 



l€S A iiiarroET or nutsiA. 



pickets in the direetion of tlie enemy was neglected by 
tlie iniiitQated Persian eonunanderi and it was only at 
lialf-past Ibnr o'clock on tLe morning of tlio 1st of 
Kovombor, tliot Cuiitain CSliriHtio rooeivod jionuiHsion to 
take his men to any iKwiUon he miglit tliiuk projMr, 
wlulst Tiioiitoiiaiit Liudmy was i)cremptorily onlored Ut 
bring liis giiiis to Uio base of tlio hill-fort, into the ditch 
and the liolos ronnd which cloTOn of tliirtoon guns soon 
fclL At that Teiy hour tlie Rnssion troops were in Uio 
Persian camp, and, meeting with no resistance, they 
carried all befiire them. The Persians on tlie hill, in 
their senseless eonfosion, fired upon their comrades 
below, and the returning fire from the Bnssion artillery 
kindkd the thatched roofs of tlie fort. The flames at once 
Kprcod, ttiid tlircc hundrcil men wcro coiiHinncd by fire. 
Caploin CliriHlio was shot Ihrtiugli tlio ucck, uiul oh lio wiis 
hcuIchI licIplcHs on the gnmiul, wo iii*u told, llio KuKbiuii 
cdrnmaiicliT * ordered two luou to odvuuco and put him to 
dcatii. The prince's army was totally annihilated, all his 
gnns were loHt, luid ho liiuisolf retreated to Tubrcez. 

After this defeat a year clupHcd, and the opposing 
forces still remained in arms, reoily to rcsnuio hostile 
oiwrations. We may well believe that at that memor- 
able e|K)ch Russia had too much to attend to in Euroiie 
to oilinit of her following up Oilcquately tlie advantage 
slie hml gained in her struggle with Persia. Kevertlie- 
less, triiHl as slie was by the invasion of Nai>oleon, slie 
found means to prosecute her advance along the shore 
of tlio Caspian. Lankoron f was now the object of her 

• KucUrrirO^. 

I I .Auk I •ran is • flottri»liiii|r town \jiuu <>u Um camt brtwem IUiLmi 
•tt4 tlir fnintirr U Vtnm. Lmmkomm anas in the IVnuii Uiosm tkt 



PEACE OF OULLSTAK. 169 

attack, and of that town she gained possession after an 
obstinate straggle, in which the Persians state their own 
loHH to have been five thousand men.* On the otlier 
haud| the lUissiau arms sustained a check on the Araxes, 
and the Sliah advanced once more to Oojau, wliero ho 
formed a camp for tlie pur^)OHe of attempting to drive 
the lluHsiauH backwards. Dut news of a rise of the 
Turkomans induced his majesty to adopt more peaceful 
counsels, and not to gratify the crown-prince in his wish 
to be allowed an opportunity of wiping off tlie disgrace 
of the preceding year. By the request of the Russian 
Governor-General of Georgia, Sir Gore Ouselcy used his 
good offices with the Persian Government for bringing 
about a peace, and accordingly commissioners were sent 
for tliat purpose to a place called Gulistan, in the 
provuiee of Karabugh. On the 12th of October, 1813| a 
treaty of peace was there concluded between General 
lltischefT and Abbass Meei*za, by which Persia ceded to 
Uussia the provinces of Georgia, Derbend, Bakoo, 
Sheervan, Sheki, Gonja, Karabagh, Moghan, and part of 
Taleesh,f and by which she agreed thenceforth to main- 
tain no navy in the Caspian Sea, while Russia, on her 
part, became bound to aid the crown-prince at the proper 
time in securing his accession to the Persian throne. 

* Lankoran wan takc^n by asaault by General KoUarefl^ky, on Jaauaiy 1 
(Rumian) lbl8. 

f Pcrrtia fiirtlior by Uuh treaty ceded whatever ri((hta filie may haro 
poMeised over Mingrelia and other partii of the Caucasua. 



170 A HI8T0BT OF PSB8IA. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Hm Smi« nf FfUrh AH 8h«h— Tiibrccx->R«>lioninii of i)m) C1ii«>r« of 
Kk*»nifi«aiii~lMiNk Klmii. KMini — IIammiii AU Mrrnui — limit — TrilKr* 
<if ll<*juiirli ami KtiiTmi/koli— Trcttty InIu-ih*!! Kii;;1niid hikI iNTMiii— 
Yi*ytl— 4 •iM*lirr4— Tlirir Trni)»1f>ii mul CiiMiiniiM — Tlio Cliiff of \\te 
AMi^ann— <*4iiiiliiniitii>ii of i'liirfM of Ifcmt. Kh<»nif»<tiii nml (Viilnil 
A«iii ii;;iiiiijii iVmifi— Kcttrli KIinii. Unnik/yo— Hi** ilornU hy Hhmkiii 
All Mi-t'nui— IKmI MiilH»inf«l Klmii — Wiir In«Iwim'Ii l*i'i>i»i mul Tiirki*y 
— 4*i«Mi»»Mls»tiM of llii;;liiliiil iiiiil of Tiirki*«li AniK'iiiu — Hiitlli' of Topmk- 
Killi li — Mii»«mrro of Clirii^liiiiiH nt Siliims — NrHtoriiiiiM of iVi-Hia— 
AnM-rirnti nihI Fn*itrli Mi<>Moiiui-ioi« — iNarc Im'Iwihjii Turkey aiul 
iVnoA — lii\iiMOQ of KhoriiMain l>v the Klmii of Kliiva. 

It 1)08 been SAiil tliat the Shah vhm led to conclude a 
peace with Russia as news had reached him that his 
dominions were threatened from another quarter. 
Indred, such was the condition of CcntnJ and Western 
Asia at this time that the Kin«; of Pci-sia was forced to 
maintain an rfTectivi* army ready to ojierato at an hour's 
waminj; upon any point of his extcnhivc frontiers. Tlio 
Sliah hiul four ;(rown-up and warlike sons upon whose 
aid he chiefly relied for the ;^nirdiauship of the difTorent 
pronnces of his empire. Of these four the eldest was 
Maliomed AH Meerza, to whom was assi<jned the *:[oveni- 
rocnt of Konnanshah and the defrnco of the Southern 
portitm of the Turko-Persian fnmtier. This prince had 
bocu set aside in farour of his next brother, Abbass 
Meerza, who had been sclectod to bo Vdi Ahcd^ or heir- 



THE SONS OF THE SHAH. 171 

apparent, to the Persian throne. The kiw of succession 
to tlio crown of Persia is not the same as that which 
regulates the inheritance of tlie royal and princely 
fiunilies of Turkey anil Egypt. Of thorn the oldest male 
is chosen to be Uie reignuig prince, but in Pei'sia the 
selection of the heir-apparent depends upon the free-will 
of the sovereign on the thrano. Muhomed Ah Meerssa, 
however, by no means acquiesced in the choice which his 
father lind made. On one occasion the Shall ordered 
that at the public recopticm which ho was to hold on 
the followiug day no one of the princes excepting 
Abbass ^loor/ia was to appear before him wearing a 
Kword. The morrow came, and with it cmue tlto princes 
to attend upon tlieir sovoroign. All, save Mahomed Ali 
Meerza, appeai'cd unarmed, but that Shalizadeh wore his 
sword as usual, and when he was asked by the Shah 
why he had not obeyed his command he rephed that 
there was only one way of making him obey it, and that 
way was to take his sword from him by force. He 
further announced his readiness to fight with his brother 
Abbass then and there, and to abide by tlie event of the 
duel. After so open a display of discontent on the part 
of one who had a better right than Abbtvss Meensa 
to be selected to bo the Shah's heir, it seems strange 
that Mahomed Ali Meerza should have been employed 
at the head of an armed force in the field ; but while 
Abbass Meerza was being driven before the Russians his 
elder brother was once more ovemmning the frontier pro- 
vince of Turkey ; humbhng the Pasha of Baghdad, and 
reestablishing the governor of Shehr-i-zoor in his office. 
The second of the Shah's four elder sons was, as 
has. been said, Abbass Meerzai the crown-prince, who 



» _ l^ 



172 A HISTORY or PKB8IA. 

was entrnHtcd with tlio goYcniinent of Azcrbaoojau, tho 
ricliosi proviuco of Pcndai aiid witli the defouce of the 
Bosso-PcrBiiiiii and of tlie northom part of the Tnrko- 
Pcnian, frontier. Azerbacojon is the most important 
INx>Tiucc of PeniiA. Bounded as it is on one side by 
Torkej and on another by Russia, its i)08itiou admirably 
fits it for commercial iutcrcourue with foreign nations, 
and lienco Tabrecx is the principal emporium of Persian 
trade. Tlic climate of Axcrbacijan is lieulthy and 
braring, its soil is fertile, and its inhabitiuits are hardy, 
•cUto, and industrious. From tliis province tlio Persian 
army is supplied with tlie best recruits it receives. It is 
not easy to state with accuracy what may be tlio numbers 
of tlie ]N>puhition of tlie province, as no ccusus of the 
people liuM cvor been tokon ; but, according to the 
opiiiiun of intclli;;(*nt Porhiuiis, * Tubrccx contains 
2(K),(HH) houIh, while rroomccah, Khoi, Mara;:Iia, Ah:ir, 
and Ardcbi;cl, each claim from 2(),()(X) in]ial)itantH and 
uiiwurdh. The principal productiouK of A/.rrbaivjan arc 
wheat, burlc»y, rice, fniit«, butter, wax, tobacco, wool, 
cotton and ;^'ums. Iron and copper abound in the hills 
of Karudagh, and coal is found in tho vichiity of 
Tiibreez. Water is, however, so scarce that in summer 
the owner c»f a garden does not gnidge to pay a 8um 
c^juol to twi*lvo i>ounds sterling for the use of a stream 
for twenty-four hours. The suburbs of Tabreez are 
very exteiiMive, occupying a space of about sixteen miles 
in circumference. The city numbers tliirty-two caravan- 
HcnuH, occupi(Ml by merchants, contivining more than a 
thouMUid counting-houses, and a proi>ortionato number 



* 8m Itcpoit oa Um ii»4k oi 4\xcrUte>ii, bj Mr. W. Dicsmui. (or n*iu. 



TIIK CHIEFS OF KII0RA8SAN REDKL. 178 

of Btoro-rooms. BoHidos tlioHo tkoro oro tliirty-sovon 
caravauBoraiH for tho special accommoclatiou of mulotoors 
and tlicir oiiimals. 

To the third of the Shah's elder sons, Hassan Ali 
Meerza, was assigned the thurd of the four most impor* 
tant provuices of Pci-sia, tjhceraz ; and to tho fourth , 
Malionied Veli Meei*za» was given the almost equally 
importiuit govcnnncnt of KliorasHan. It was in that 
quai'tcr that tlie next danger threatened tho safety of tho 
kingdom. The Turkomans of tho ncighhourhood of 
Astrahad were roused to wiu: hy a man called Ilaji 
YooHuf, a native of Centnd iVsia, who had heen outlawed 
hy the King of Bedekhshan. These marauders» howovoTi 
in a fight which ensued with the Shah's forces, wero 
discouraged hy the loss of their leader ; and as they could 
not restora him to Ufe, thoy thought that the next best 
thing to do w*as to cut off hin head, in order to secure to 
thomselvoH tho reward which liad heen ofltu'od for it by 
tlie Khig of BodekhHhan. A more serious rebellion, which 
occuiTcd at the same time, was that of the chiefs of 
ICliorassan, who took the opportunity of Abbass Meerza's 
defeat to rise against Prince Mahomed Veil. They 
possessed themselves of Meshed, and whilst they con- 
tinued to act in concert the prince was unable to oppose 
any obstacle to their proceedings; but the son of the 
deceased Syed Mohdi opportunely espoused the cause of 
tlie Shal), and by adroitly sowing the seeds of jealousy in 
the minds of the chiefs, he caused the temporary breaking 
up of this foimidablo combination. The chiefs dispersed 
to their respective strongholds, and the prince resumed 
the goveiiiment of Moshed. 

Ill the meantime the ruler of Bokliorai who hod been 



174 A niflTORT OF FKB8IA. 

mTitcd by the insnrgonts to nndcrtako the mvosion of 
Penda, aclranced towards Khorassan, where ho fouud tlio 
Shah's aathority to bo ahrcady re<i8tablishod. Ho hod 
eommittod hiinsolf very opeuly to hoBtiUtioH ngaiiiHt tlio 
Kmg of Poniia, bnt Orientiil ^lotcntates, judjpng of tho 
conduct of others by what, under similar circumstanccH, 
they would do tliemsolvos, look with a lenient eye upon 
any infirinjjement of neighbourly duties which may be 
likely to be attended witli successful results ; and Fctteh 
Ali listened witii complacency to the explanations offered 
by tlie enToy of the Ameer of Bokhara, who declared that 
his master ha<l been l>eguiled by the protestations of the 
rebellious cliieb of Khorassan. The Shall then sent a 
force to Meshed, which defeated the troops of the 
rcboUious chiefs, who were thus forced to rotum to 
tlicir duty. About the same lime tho Turkomans 
again rcisc in arms against the Shah, l>oing headed by 
Muliomcd Zoman Ivlian, one of the chiefs of tho U]»pcr 
branch of tho Kajar tribe. This loader and liis son were 
ma<le prisoners, and the Turkomsm tribes, as is their 
custom afler a def(*at, rc*tircd into the dreary recesses 
of the des4»rls of the Attreck. Tlie Khan of Khiva, or 
Khorassjui, li:ul Uilvunced towards the Pernian frontier 
at Astnibiul to llie support of tho cliiefs of Khorassan, 
but he unexi>cctcdly found himself opposiul hy a lVi*si;in 
force HUiKTior in strength to hi:i own. Of this superiority 
its conuuander was fully aware ; and when the territieil 
Oi7.b(*g iHitentato sent an envoy to depreeato the ven- 
geance of the Knjar chief, the lattiT comprHed the Oozbeg 
diplomatist to ]>ass tho night in tlie undignified occupa- 
tion of playing on tlie harp for tlio dolectaition of the 
Poniau generals. This insult naturally fired with wrath 



I8AAK KHAN, KARAI. 175 

tlio mind of the Klian of Ehorosm, but his forces vrere 
insufficiont to enable him to avenge it, and ho sus- 
tained a severe defeat from the troops of the Shah. 

But the results of tlie rebelUon of the chiefs of Klioras- 
san did not end with tlie discomfiture of theur ally. The 
most i)owerful of tlicse chiefs was Isaak Khan, Kami, a 
man who luul raised himself fi'oni the lowest rank of lifo 
to tlie position which he now occupied. In his youth he 
had held the office of mace-bearer to the chief of Kara 
Tartar, and had been entrusted by his master with a con- 
siderable sum of money, to be expended in building a 
caravanserai, which he converted into a fort,* where he 
afforded shelter to all the discontented individuals of the 
tribe to which he was attached. In the troubled condi* 
tion to which tlie country was reduced he had, by the 
exercise of courage and prudence, contrived to consoli- 
date his rising power, and had in time attained to the 
foremost place amongst tlie proud leaders of the mailed 
horsemen of Khorassan. His possessions extended on 
the north of the gates of Meshed for the distance of a 
hundred miles, whilst tliey stretched as far to tlie south 
in the direction of Khaf. His revenue was considerable. 
His force included six thousand men. Whilst tliis extra- 
ordinary man never failed in his efforts to conciliate the 
good opinion of his superiors, he was dreaded and hated 
by his equals, and greatly beloved by his subjects, who, 
under his watchful sway, lived fi'ee from all oppression. 
This chief added to the character of a jietty ruler tliat 
of a merchant prince, and under his sagacious sway, 
Turbat, his place of residence, rose from the condition 
of a village to that of a considerable city, where his 

* JJiitorg qf Persia, by Sir J. Maloqui. 



170 A III8T0RT OP P6BSIA. 

boqiitality was daily oxtonded to aovoral hundred guests. 
Iinak Khan liad ffivon in his adhesion to the sovereignty 
of Aga Mahomed, and liod been treated with great con- 
lidenco and diiitinction by that poUtie monarch, whose 
example in tiiis reapect was followed by Fettch Ali Shall. 
But laaak Khan seems to have viewed with jKirsonal 
dislike tiie Kajar Prince Mahomed Veli Mecrza, who had 
been appointe<l to mle over KhoroHsan, and again and 
agiun he attempted to obtain from the Sluih the recall of his 
son. TliCHO intrignoa were not unknown to the Ycli of 
KhonuuMUi ; hut Isook Klian continuiul as umial to att<md 
tlic IcvtH^H of Uie prince, and to obey liis auUiority. Tlie 
Slialixmloh, fearing lest at lost he should lone his govern- 
ment owing to the hostile inlluence of the Kami chief, 
determined upon taking a step at which the boldest 
might have hesitated. No man in Persia possessed more 
hiflueuce tlian Isaak Khan, and no man was so hkely 
to be mitiscd as he whose unbounded hospitality had 
been cxi>crieuce<1 by hundreds of thousands of the* subjects 
of Uie Shah. But fear for his own position drove the 
prince to doM}>eration, and on a certain day when the 
chiefs were asHcnibled at his luvre Isuak Khan and his 
H4»n were wicceH*«ively seized and strangled in his prrsence. 
Such on act, oh might have been predicted, called down 
on the prince a storm of indignation, which it w;is 
difficult to appease. The other chiefs, each fearing 
for hunsolf, tied each to his strongluild, and the king 
was com])ellcd by the general clamour to recall the 
governor of Khorasson. But it was said that in this 
act Mahomed VeU was only carrying out tlio policy 
prescribed to him by his father, who, like Tarquin, 
wua of opinion that his sou's course would be more 



HASSAN ALT MEEllZA. 177 

Qurostraincd in a garden from which tho tallest poppies 
should have been removed. Maliomed Veli survived 
tho throats of vengeanee which his act called fortli^ and 
fifty years later he descended to liis grave mourned as 
the honoured elder of tho Kajar race. 

The government of Meshed was next conferred by 
the Shah upon another of his sous, Hassan Ali Meerzai 
a prince of a warlike dis][K)sition, and well calculated 
to reduce to submission the turbulent nobles of Kliorassan. 
As they declined to ap}>ear at his court, ho nnvrchod 
against them at the heiul of his troops, and ho brought 
them one after another to acknowledge his authority. 
But one Ilezaroh * chief still held out in his stronghold 
of Mahmoodabad, and tho prince, who was preparing 
to march upon Herat, determined to reduce tliis fortress 
by the way. As his soldiers defiled before its walls, a 
rash matchlockman fired a shot on tho Persian troops, 
and this unfortunate measure determined their com* 
mander to adopt the severest measures against the 
Hezareh hold. It was assaulted in due form; one 
hundred and twenty of its defenders fell in the assault, 
and three hundred and fifty of their comnulos were, 
made prisoners. Their commander, however, escaped 
on horseback, although for twenty miles he was pursued 
by the prince in person. Disappointed in the hope of 
taking him, the Persian Shahzadeh turned his vengeance 
upon his prisoners, some of whom he caused to be nailed 
to the ground. The prince, it has been said, was at 

* Tho Hu/4inili, a tribe aud doHCondaiiU of Mo^s, and of Tiihiii^jis 
Kban. Most of them ore totally destitute of bcanU. They are partly 
Suniiocfi and partly Shcahs. . . . Thoy aru cruel, trcadieroua, iiihoepitable, 
and vile robbers and murderen.— J/w ioiiary Labourt, by the Itev. Josjuu 
WoLrr. 

12 



178 A mnoRT or friwa. 

fhif tune praeeediiig to HmL The goremor of that 
tify had foOM tiflM provioady tnTsded the dietriet of 
Ohockuiy and to naiat thia meaanre the goreraor 
if Khoaaaaan waa now in anna againat Feerooa-ed-Deen 
]bam» the prinee of Hent. The fiite of Mahmoodabad 
ilraek tenor into the heart of Feerooa-ed-Deen, and 
he aent an enfoj to the Fteaian prinoo, offering to give 
ap Ohoiian, and prajing him to apiuo Ilorat Tlie 
|«ineo aeeoptod tlie fort of Ohorion, bnt contiunod hia 
aHunnli townida Ilemt 

VnhMy no dty in tlie worid haa ao frequently wit- 
aeand the honora of a aiege aa haa Herat within tlie last 
hsndred jeaia. It liea in a yalliqr aorronnded by lofty 
aonntaina, and eontignona to the northern ridge which 
aepantea the torritory of Herat from tlio country of 
Bactria or Dokliara. Tho valloy extends for at least 
thirty milcM from the cost to weHti and is about fiftoon 
miloa in brcodtli, l>ehig watored by a river which rises in 
the monntaina, and runs tlirough the centre of the vole. 
The Talloy ia highly cultivated, its whole extout being 
covered with villages and gardens.* The city spreads over 
an area of four square miles, and is fortified by a lofty mud 
wall with towers, and a wot ditch ; having on tho northern 
side the citadel elevated above the wall. This is a small 
square castle, with towers at tho angles built of burnt 
bricks, and encompaased by a wet ditch, over which is a 
drawbridge. Beyond this tlioro is on outor wall witli a 
diy ditch, and tlie city has two gates on Uio northern 
aide, and one in ouch of tho tlireo other directions. From 
each gato a baaaar extonds to the market-place, the 
prindiNil one bcuig vaulted in its wholo length. In 



SIEGE OF HERAT. 179 

market days tlieso bazaars arc so crowdo;! as almost to 
bo impassable ; on either side of them are spacions serais, 
where the merchants have their places of business. The 
city is abundantly supplied with water, each serai having 
its own cistern independently of those on cither side of 
the bazaars. In the early part of the nineteenth ceutnry 
the city of Hci*at was believed to contain a hundred 
thouHiind inhabitants : AiTji^'hanH, Mofifhuls, Hindoos, and 
JowM. It is the clii(«f cniimrium of the tnylo Ix^twoon 
Ilindostan, Kashmccr, Cabul, Candaliar, Bokhara, Mervo, 
KhoniHsan, Yczd, and Kennau. In addition to the 
advantages which it derives from this active trade, and 
the transit dues arising therefrom, Herat gains much 
wealth from the manufactures which are carried on by 
its citizens ; but after all it is to its situation as the key 
to AfTghanistan that it owes its chief importance. Prince 
Hassan Ali Moer/a advanced from Ohoriau to Herat, and 
began to besiege the city in due fonn.* The watching 
of each of its gates was assigned to his difTorent loaders, 
and Ismail Khan, his best general, began to work his way 
up to the city ditch by regular approaches. These . 
preparations terrified Feerooz-ed-Deen into absolute sub- 
mission, and on paying a fine of fifty thousand tomans 
he was permitted to continue to be governor of the city 
on condition that the khotbeh, or public prayers for the 
king, should be read in the mosques for the Shah, and 
that the coinage should thenceforth be in his name. 

After concluding this successful arrangement, ILvssan 
AU Mcerza next turned his attention to the pursuit of 
the fugitive governor of Ghorian, who, with two other 
Khorassan chiefs, had found a place of refuge in the 

* A.ll. W6'i : AJ>. 1S17. 

12—2 



180 A HISTORY OF FERSIA. 

couDtiy of tbe tribe of Feerooz Koh. One of these chiefs 
WHS the mortal onomy of Ibrahecm Khoii, the heiul of a 
hrasch of tiio {loworful tribe of Ilozareh ; aiid acconliu^^ly 
Ibrabccm, without waiting; for the arrival of the priuco's 
anny, determiued to attack the tribe of Feerooz Koh. He 
did BOy and being defeated had to take refuge in the 
camp of Ismail Klian, who had advanced in command of 
tlie leading corps of the Persian army. The country 
throQgh which that army had now to make its way» is 
described as presenting the greatest difficulties to the 
progress of troops, and especially to tliat of artillery. For 
eleven days, day after day^ the prince had to lead his 
men over rocky mountain gorges, and, in order to en- 
courage them to exertion by his example, he marched 
on fiX)t, and lent his personal aid in drii<(ging the guns 
over some of the most inaccessible pasKos. The SinLir 
Ibmail Khan had in the meantime apparently reduced 
the fugitive chiefs to the necessity of submitting at dis- 
cretion to the authority of the prince. They agreed to 
BurrendiT themselves after the delay of two days, if, 
during that time, they should be unable to eiTcct some- 
thing for their own dolivcnuice. The delay which 
they wishe^l was granted to them, but their only 
ohject in asking it was to give time to their IVorooz 
Kohi idlics to come up to their assistance. At the 
i ud of the forty-eight hours no signs of the coming of 
the chiefs were discernible, and Ismad Khan accordingly 
«'rdered his brother to advance to the destruction of the 
]»eut-up mountaineers. This officer succeeded in mas- 
tering the outlying trooi)s oppo6o<l to him, and his soldiers 
having ofTcHrted this service, thought their work was over, 
and committed the mistake which has so often proved 



DEFEAT OF THE PERSIAN TROOPS. 181 

fatal to on Oriental anny, that of prematurely plandoring 
the camp of the euoiny. Boouccad Khan, one of the 
fugitive KlioroHHan chiefs, Haw from his i>oHitiou on tho 
mouutaiu the luiHtako committed by tho Porsiau troops, and 
without losing a moment, ho led his remaining followers 
tlirough a gorge into the camp where the plunderers 
wore at work. The result was thehr complete overthrow, 
and Ismail Khan, who advanced to their support, was 
unable to resist the impetuosity of the triimiphant troops 
from the mountam. His followers fell back in disorder, 
but tlieir gallant chief would have preferred death to the 
dishonour of defeat. He threw his sheep-skin hat to the 
ground to show those around him that he was detennined 
to die on the spot ; but this sign of resolution was in- 
sufficient to turn the tide of victory, and Ismail was 
forced to mount a horse and to follow his men, in tlie 
hope of being able to rally them. The news of his 
defeat was as a thunderbolt to the prince, but the latter 
resolved to present a bold front to this crushing mis- 
fortune. He caused his artillery to fire a salute, for the 
purpose of inspiriting Ids men, and advanced to receive 
and protect tlie fugitive troops of the Sirdar. The 
general himself was that day nowhere to be found ; but 
in the middle of the night, directed by the glare of the 
camp-fires, he found his way to the prince. It was tlien 
confessed between them that as they were so far from 
their base of operations, they did not possess tlie means 
of prosecuting the mountain war at that time, and 
accordingly their remaining troops retraced their steps 

to Meshed. 

• • • • • 

In the year 1814, Mr. Henry Ellis was sent from 



182 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

England on a misiuou to Persia, for tLo purposo of 
modifying tho treaty then in force between those two 
countries. Mr. Ellis accordingly, in conjunction with 
Mr. Moricr, tiien British Mhiistor at the court of PerBia, 
agreed with tlio Shah's government us to the conclusion 
of an amended treaty, by one of the articles of which it 
WON stipulated that the subsidy of 200,000/. a year that 
Enghuid liiul engaged to fumish to Persia, in tho event 
of her being attickiHl by any European power which 
might rrjcrt the motliatory oiTices of Great Britain, should 
not be payable in the case of Periiia beginning a war 
u]K>n eitlH*r o( her Eurojiean neighlK>urs, or invading the 
territory of either of tliem in tlie first instance. But a 
short iH'riod was destined to elapse ere tho exact obhga- 
tion of Great Britain in this mutter was to form a subject 
of prolonged and earnest discussion. In return for the 
advuiitage conferred by this article, Persia, on her side, 
engaged to obstruet the advance of the armies of any 
European i»ower seekhig to pass through her territory for 
the purpose of invmlhig India.'/ From this time forth the 
Perbian court was destined to become the place of resi- 
denee of ministei*H ]>leni}M)tentiaiy from the sovereigns of 
Knghmd jmd of Uushia ; and as Pentia wiis thus assumed 
to 1m* a civilized power, she was obliged thenceforth to 
conform herself in some re8i)ectM to the practices of 
civiliziHl nations. The mere residence of foreign minis- 
ters at his capital of itself greatly tended to increase the 
stability of the thnme of tlie Shall, whil8t it conferretl a 
greater dignity ui>on his court than it was in his power 
to purchase with all his treasure. But a semi-barbarous 
government was not all at once to be brought to observe 
tho customs that ore tho fruit of many centuries of civv^ 



EUROPEAN RELATIONS OF PERSIA. 183 

lization; and on xnoro tlian ouo occasion it has bcea 
found necessary to threaten the Ministers of the Shall 
with the withdrawal of all intercourse with them, in the 
event of the repetition of certain outbreaks of needless 
cruelty. On the whole, however, the intercourse between 
Persia and European nations has been highly beneficial 
to that country. From it she has learned some lessons 
OS to the iiecoHsity of upright deaUug and a fiiithful 
obserA'ance of treaty engagements. From it she has 
learned to respect the opinion of the civiUzed world, and 
to abstain from barbarous acts, for fear of ciUling down 
upon herself the ridicule and indignation of the European 
press ; and from it has arisen and grtulually extended a 
trade by which the subjects of the Shah are supplied to 
u greater extent each year with the produce of European 
enter][)rise and industry. 

At the time of the conclusion of the treaty of OuUstan, 
the Persian Government had been led to indulge the 
hope that, through the good offices of England, the Czar 
might be induced to restore to the Shah some portion of 
the territory which was by that treaty ceded to llussia. 
The same ambassador who had previously visited England 
was accordingly sent to St. Petersburg with instructions 
to spare no efifort to induce the Emperor's Government 
to accede to the wishes of the Shah. But in respect of 
winning back one square foot of territory from the iron 
grasp of llussia, the efforts of tlie Persian ambassador 
were utterly futile, and all the result they produced was 
an idle promise that General Alexander Ycrmeloff, the 
newly appointed Governor-General of Georgia and am- 
bassador to Persia, would discuss the matter upon his 
arrival at Tehran. General Yermeloff in due time came 



) 



I 



A HISTORY OF l*Kast\. 




to For^ at Uio Iicnti or n splendid rolldwi 
the beuer or presents o( a, value calculated to i 
upon Ui« mind of tlie Slialt a just idea cf the | 
of Itoasia. At a court conipotiGd of panou at <NM* 
ao TAiD Hid to Tcnol lu) tlioso wbo oomw e n ii l 
Shall, then) wim every rcasou to 8«p{«)ee that OeilM 
YcmioIofT would obtain a fiivouraI>lc uDamr to all Ua 
dctiuuiiU. Poniii liod felt tlio power of Ua matter, aad 
■iio now «nw Iuh roJIcctcd Din-;iii licence. She had latelj 
licvn opi>i>M»l to Liui it) nniiH ; hIio wnl now iBvtteA to 
boeonio liift ally. Tlio C/iir's rcprcsoutatne vfabed Um 
SIiilIi to ii};n.'0 to joiu biiu io lui offcnHTe engagMBflttt 
uttHUUNt Uio Saltan ; bat tlio Kin^; of Pania had aboady 
felt wbat it wiu« to liiivo liit) iutorcsts ovwiookod hjr hk 
EaroiUMtu aJlivtf lU tho Ham at ooucJuJing pooeei and 
ho wiielj <1ocIinc<l to pnivuko tho oomity of tlio Snblimo 
IVnte. Oonoml YonuololT next damaiidoJ iwrmitHUon 
fiir Uk) iwiwitfo of a lluiuiijui army thronf*!! tho proviuooa 
of Artnilmil and Klionutwm, on itii way to attack tlto 
Khanato of Khira ; bnt lio was told that as tho treaty of 
Oalistan containod no clome jiuti^'ing nick a dooiand, 
tho porminnon eonld not be gnutod. Tho ambttHsador 
then mxaontal tbo unction of the Shah for tho residence 
<tf a Riunau commereiol agent at Resht in Oilan ; hat 
eompliance vith tliiii reqaott waa categorically refused. 
A similar answor was giTon to tho Itosuan pro]ioaal to 
aopply olBccn for tho pnrposo of disdpUuing tlto army of 
the Slioli. On his siilo, Oonoml Yonuoloff wan equally 
ftnn. IIo would not eoiuwut to tlto rcatoration of a 
lio^ Acro of tlio tomtuiy which had boon won from 
Fenia by tho force of his master's aims ; and thos the 
I of hia ombasqr vas brought to a close eqnally 



THE CITY OF YEZD. 185 

unsatisfactory to either party. But not the less hospitable 
for this was the treatment which the Czar's representa- 
tive experienced at the Persian court. The utmost 
refinements of the ornate, compUmentary style of Persian 
composition were called into use for the purpose of 
expressing the regard felt by his Eajar Maijesty for his 
Northern neighbour, and for the Lieutenant of the Can* 
casus ; and the presents mode to the ambassador on his 
departure were in keeping with those of which he had 
been the bearer from the Czar. 

Having granted an audience of leave to his i>owerful 
visitor, tlie Shah was at liberty to turn his attention to 
tlie punishment of those who had committed a serious 
infringement of order which occurred in the province of 
Yezd. That city stands in a plain, or broad valley, 
which is continuous with tliat of Naeon, nearly equi- 
distant from parallel ranges of mountains on the northern 
and soutliem sides, and bounded by a sundy desert on 
the western and eastern directions. On the southern 
side the plain for some miles has been partially laid under 
cultivation. The city is enclosed by a ditch and double 
wall, with numerous detached towers around it,* all in 
tolerable repair, and its circumference is about two and 
a half miles, the area within being crowded with houses 
and gardens. At the eastern side, within the walls, 
stands the citadel, an irregular s<|uure of about four 
hundred paces in diameter, possessing a ditch, a double 
wall and towers, and devoted to tlie puri)OHe of sheltering 
tlie soldiera of the garrison. The city is surrounded by 
numerous habitations and gardens, the circuinforenco of 
which may be about five miles. The bazaars of Yezd 

* " Not€4 OH Uut Cities nf AfUtkerH Penift,** by K. K. Auuott. 



18G A HISTORY OF FKR8IA. 

eontain About a thousand Bhops, and oro arched ovor in 
the mnial Pcmian ntyh. Tho town poi»cflH08 thirty-four 
eaimTanaonusv in fonrtecn of which tho morchautH and 
trailon truniuict tlicir affoirH, Tho only pnblic building 
dtwonriug of uotico which tliin city couloiuH in tlio McHJid- 
i-Joma, a inosquo» tho constmction of wliich in attributed 
to Amcor Cludcuiiik, an ofTicor in tlio army of Tiniar. 
Itii lofty fii^*ado and minarotH, though tlicy oro now m a 
minona atato, form an im^KNung object, and huvo been 
highly omamentod. There are also in the city about 
thirty other mosques and elcTcn medrcssehs, or coUegeSi 
tm students of dirinity ; Yesd b denominated in oflBdal 
papers the Dor-el Ibddrh, or seat of devotion. The city 
ami tlie surrounding suburbs are divided into twenty- 
four wanls, and owing to the great depth ut wliich tlio 
water that suppUcs tho town is found, the houses ore 
coustmcteil very for below tiie level of tho streets, some- 
times being sunk as much os twenty or twenty-live feet. 
The {lopulation liiis been CHtimated * as being about forty 
tliouHoud miuIm, fomiiug for the most part an huluHlrious 
body ; many persons being engaged in the manufacture 
of silks, cotton, &i*., whilHt others devote their time to 
viuricius brandies o( tnule. In addition to the ^laho- 
modon |Mipulation of Ye£4l, that city contains some Hindoo 
merchants, some Je^-s, and a considerable numl>er of 
Guebres; but the people of the last-mentioned sect, 
owing Ui the (»ppressiou from which they have suffered, 
arc year by year withdrawing themselves, as tliey find 
opiK>rtmiities, from tlie rule of tlie Shah, and hastening 
to join their more prosperous co-religiouiMts in India. 
Tho climate of Yezd is considered to be very salubrious, 

• hf Ut. A»mnr. 



CLIMATE AND PRODUCTS OF YKZD. 187 

and is extremely dry ; occasionally, however, on epidemic 
makes its appearance, and at one blow does the work 
which in other places is scattered over years. In 1840 
the cholera wuh fatal to between Hoven and eight tliou* 
sand of tlio uihabitantH. This city Hurrondered to Uio 
A%han8| who, on entering it, set on foot a general 
maHHocre of the people ; tlie bodies of the victims wore 
interred in long hues of vaults on the margin of the 
ditch, and after tlie lapse of a hundred and twenty years, 
these vaults were opened, and it was observed by an 
English traveller* tliat the clothes in which the bodies 
had been buried still clung undecayed round the skeletons, 
affording a proof of the extreme dryness of the cUmate 
and the soil. The districts of Yezd are small and thinly 
populated, owing to the encroachments of the desert and 
the scarcity of water. The soil of tlie finest district of 
the i)roviuce — tliat of Ardekan — is said to yield from 
thirty to sixtyfold of grain in return for high culti- 
vation. Wheat and barley are the staple crops; and 
fruits of numerous descriptions, including nectarines, 
grapes and cherries, dates, melons and pomegranates 
of exquisite quality, are produced in the gardens. The 
plain of Bafk possesses lai'go groves of palm-trees. 
Here, as in every part of Persia, tlie mineral productions 
of the country have excited Uttle or no attention. The 
only mine now worked is one of lead at Zerekan, tho 
daily produce of which is said to amount to between 
seven and thirteen hundred pounds' weight, tlie smallest 
of which measures is valued at Yezd at about ten tomans, 
or rather less than five pounds sterlmg. The deserts 
surrounding Yezd afford shelter and subsistence to wild 

* Mr. K. E. Adoott. 



188 A HnroRT or febsia. 

boin, aatelopas tod hsrai, and to jackals, wolves and 
Ibxea, ivild sheep, wfld goats and wild assos; and in 
the hiUi are fimnd the time kinds of pnrtridgo known 
in Fania-^the rojal partridge, tlio ordiiiury bird of Uiat 
name, and the smaller kind, called tceboo. The homp- 
backed oxen of the eoontiy, which are small, hand- 
aome, and high-bred, are nsed as beasts of bnrden, and 
am guided bj a halter passed through their nostrils. 

This prorince from its situation is particularly 
exposed to danger and annoyance from tlie inroads of 
plundering Belooches and Bakhtiaris. The former travel 
immenao distances across the desert, being carried by 
anudl, swift camela, on each of which two riders sit, 
phood back to back on a double saddle. The camels 
moTc eiUier at an cosy but rapid amble or at a trot, 
which pace they keep up for a sarprising length of time, 
and if they obtain a fair start, they are not easily over- 
taken by horsemen. When their riders are obliged to 
halt and fight, they draw up the camels in the form 
of a ring or of a square, and, making tlicm lie down, 
cndeuvour to keep ott tlieir cnoniios from passing tliis 
living ramiHUi. A prolonged defence under tlioso rircum- 
stances cauncs but little cnibiirroHsment to the lk*looches, 
as they have all tliey require with them, and con, in 
case of necessity, provide themselves at once with food 
and water by slaughtering one of their camels. They 
are a hardy race, and so destitute in many instances 
of worldly substance that they do not hesitate Uy under- 
take, for the sake of plunder, a journey of thirty or 
forty days across the sandy desert. They are reputed 
to be more ferocious and more cruel tlian tlie Bakhtiari, 
being addicted to the custom of killuig those whom 



THE GUEDRES. 189 

they have plundered ; whereas the Bakhtiari rarely add 
murder to robberyi unless in the case of resistance being 
ofTored. The Bolooches assault their victims with match- 
locks and swords, and they defend themselves witli 
shields of asses' skin. I have given this minute descrip- 
tion of Yezdi partly because it may tend to afford the 
reader some idea of the conditions of Ufe in Persia, 
where the state of things in one province moro or less 
resembles that of another province ; and partly becanso 
Yezd claims notice as being the last spot in Persia 
where the descendants of the fire-worshippers'^ who so 
long ruled the empire have found a resting-place, on tho 
condition of cultivating the earth for their alien masters. 
The number of tho Guebres in and around Yezd 
is reduced to about eight hundred families. They 
possess two fire temples in the town of Yezd, and one 
in each of the eight villages occupied by them in its 
vicinity. These consist of arched apartments open to 
the weather, and paved with small stones. These are 
the houses of prayer, and in a dark room adjoining 
each is preserved the sacred fire buried beneath a heap 
of ashes on a raised piece of brickwork or on a regularly- 
constructed altar of stone. The Guobre priests are of 
two degrees — the Moohidt or chief priest, and the Destear, 
or inferior clergy. The Moobid, before going to meals, 
recites a prayer, when he places before him fire, holy 
water, and the Ham, a knotted plant found in the 
desert. To his care is confided the Zendavesta and 
the Dessateer, or book of prophecies; whilst the sacred 



* In Beveml piurts of this work, the Guebres, or Pamii, are called firt* 
woraluppors, becauae Uiey are generally known to BIngliah readers bj that 




100 A mvroRT or fersll 

five is vatdiad onor bj attendants called Heerhod. 
Four fiwts in eaeh month an oidained to be observed 
bj tlio Onsfaras, bat at all other times they are at 
liberty to eat flesh. The flesh of all birds is hwfal 
tooi ba them, exeepting that of the cocL That bird, 
and the dog, are regarded by them as preventatiTes 
against the qiproaeh of evil spirits, and on this account 
the presenoe of a dog is gonomlly sccnred at a Onobro 
death-bed. Like the Mahomedan, the Gnebre is enjoined 
to piaj flfe times eaeh day — at dawn, at snnriso, at noon, 
near sonsot, sad after it; at which periods two orisons are 
recited — the one a short, the otlier a lengthy prayer. 
The Onebies of Ftesia tnm to the son daring tlioir 
defotioos, hot thqr do not regard that laminoxy as a 
deity. Tlicy look npon it as an emblem of the Creator , 
calling it the light of God. Tlioy connidor the four 
elements as Hocrotl and not to bo defiled nnuceoHHarily. 
Tlie Onrbrvs of Yeaul wear a socrod pnllo, a thick 
nanrow riblmi, coni[Nmo<l of sovcnty-two tlirciulK of the 
wool of slicop or g«»iit, which is bound on nt the ago of 
fonrtcen, a ceremony which is celebrated with rejoicing. 
The lower orders of this pcoi)lC| of the male sex, are 
distingnislied by their costume of dull yellow, a short 
vest or petticoati and a striixHl turban. The Guobrcs 
have two places of pilgrimage in the vicinity of Ye7.d — 
Anaitk, in Pecshkoh, and Zoijo, near Aylula. They 
believe tliat at tliese pLices two daughters of Yozdiginli 
the last of tlie Kayanion kings, were miroculouMly tniUH- 
hUod when pursUinl by their enemioii — tlio rocks having 
opened to receive them. Sheep* and oxen are there 
oflerod np in sacrifice. It is touching to witness the 



CIIIGP OF THE ISMAILITES MURDERED. 191 

reverence paid by the fire-worshiiipcrs, so-called, of Yezd 
to the memory of the lost monarch of their ancient faith, 
and to that of Iiis immediate descendants. They have 
adopted the date of the death of Yezdigird as an epoch 
from which to count their periods of time. They now, 
as did their ancestors of old, date the commencement of 
their solar year from the 21st of March, when the sun 
enters the sign of Aries. Their months are of thirty 
days, and the five extra days of each year are distin- 
guished by each day having its distinct name. They 
have no division of time corresponding to a week. Fivo 
days of each month are sacred, and the months are for 
the most part called after the names of angels. The 
Guebres of our day do not bury their dead, but it has 
been observed that this custom would seem to have been 
departed from in ancient times in the case of their 
sovereigns, whoso tombs, hewn in the rocks, arc foimd 
at Naklmh-i-UuHtcm and at rcrsepolis. The places at 
which the bodies of the deiul arc hiid out to bo decom- 
posed by the action of the atmosphere are simply walled 
enclosures, without roof or covering, on the summit of 
mountains or rocks. The Guebres no longer make use 
amongst each other of the language handed down to 
them by tlieir ancestors. Their children learn the 
Persian tongue alone, and a knowledge of the Zend is 
confined to tlie priesthood. 

• • • • • 

In the city of Yezd there dwelt, in the earlier i)art of 
the reign of Fettoh Ali Shah, the chief of a sect of 
Maliomedans who hold that the lawful succession to the 
Imam Jaffer belonged to his son Ismail, and who are 
therefore denominated Ismailites. These sectaries wore 



IDS A nmoRT or Persia. 

ilofoCod to their chief, who was on this account a man of 
gKtt influence throoghoot Pcnia. Some of his sonrants 
hating qnamlled witii some shopkeepers of the city» tlie 
latter imnnecl them to their master's lionse. The afiray 
soon ineroasoil in dimensions^ and the shopkooiHurSi being 
headed by one MooUa Hassan, succeeded in overpower- 
ing tlie Ismi^Iites, whose diief tlicy put to doatli. The 
news of tliis etent was received with the greatest concern 
by the Shah, who dreaded lest he should bo held respon- 
sible by the dangerous sect of Ismadites for tlio death of 
thdr sacred chief. Accordingly tlio ringleader of the 
distorbanoe was sent for to Tehran, and was flogged and 
otherwise severely punished in Uie Shah's presence. 
The actual perpetrators of the assaBsination of Shah 
Ilalilullah, who boasted descent from him from whom 
the assaHMins are named, had met their death by the 
hands of hiH followers, and Fettch Ali adopted his son 
Aga Khan, Malialuti, and added a considerable property 
to tlie estates which the boy had inherited from his 
father. 

In tlie 8ame year* the port of Maliooya on the coast 
of tlie Pcniian Onlf was added to the dominions of tlie 
Shah, having l>eeii taken by Mahomed Zeki Klian. 

In tlic earlier portion of the following year the atten* 
lion of Uie Sliali's govemnieiit was a;(iuu engrosMed by 
the api»oarance of a most formidable combination of 
the powers of Herat, Central Asia, and Khorassan. 
Fcerooz-eil-Deen Meersa, the IViuec of Herat, had no 
sooner agreed to hold liis principality under the King 
of Pemia than he began to shrink from the conse- 
quences of having ofiended his brotlier, tlie Shah of 



FKTTKU KUAN, BARUKZYfi. 103 

Cabnl. He accordingly sent to demand from him the 
assistance of a miUtary force, for the purpose of enabling 
him to withstand the pretensions of the governor of 
Ehorassan. Tliis demand on his part was mot at Cabul, 
with instant ac(]uiescence. That kingdom was then 
nominally niled over by Mahmood Shah, but virtually 
by his able Yizeer, Fetteh Khan, Barukzye, who sub- 
sequently became more widely known from his having 
paved the way to the rise to power of his cele- 
brated brother, Dost Mahomed Khan. Fetteh Klian 
had placed most of his numerous brothers at the head 
of the different provinces of Affghauistan, and he was 
glad of an opportunity of displacing the Sedozye ruler of 
Herat. Accordingly ho marched to that stronghold with 
a miUtary force, with which ho -encamped before the walls 
of the city, but ho carefully declined to enter Herat 
imtil he had made himself sure of the cooperation of its 
leading men in the scheme which he desired to carry out. 
Havhig prepared liis way, he entered the city for the 
ostensible puri)ose of bidding adieu to Feerooz-ed-Deen 
Meerza before setting out for Ghorian ; and he made 
prisoners of the prince and his family, sent them imder 
an escort to Cabul, and put the Yizeer of Herat to 
death. Ho Hum despatchcHl his brother Keondil, com- 
monly called Kohendil, Khan, with orders to possess 
himself of the fortress of Ghorian, and he wrote to each 
of the chiefs of Khorassan, inviting him to join in a 
combination for throwing off the supremacy of the Shah 
of Persia in Herat, Ghorian, and the dependencies of 
Meshed. He furtlier engaged in his interests the Khan 
of Khiva, and tlie cliiefs of the two powerful tribes of 
Fecrooz Eohi and Hezareh, the last of whom, Ibraheem 

13 



IM A uurroKT or psbsia. 

Klian, had htelj been tiie illy of tiio goramor of 
UMbad. Ammgit the Khoraiiuui ehieb who joined hu 
■tudtfd WH Um nirnTiiiff hod of luok Khan, Kani. 

Tho gureruof of Uciibod luHt uo timo hi nuking 
Uie Shah'i niuiiten aware of the extent of the danger 
whioh throatonad the Fwaian power in the East, and 
in their torn the Bhah'a muiiatera hwt no time in eany- 
ing into eibet aoeh meamrea aa leemed to them to be 
bent fitted tar meeting the omergene;. Meena Abdol 
Wahab Klian, tlie Moiitemed-ed-Dowloh, wai in the fini 
pfawo NOttt to KhoraiMian with iuatrucUuua to aporo uo 
efloft to win back to tlio intoroata of the Sliah aoue 
• amongat the warlilto chioftaioii of that eooutiy. In tho 
next place, each troops as were at hand and eoold be 
Kpared were pushed forn'ord to Meshed, and the Shnh 
{nvpared to follow them in person after tlie celobration of 
the annnal festival of tho Nowrooz. At the same time the 
king cudeaToored to add security to the foreign relations 
of his eoonti; by sending an lUnbaHSador to ttie SabUme 
Porte, from whence thn itame cuto; was to proceed to 
the eonrUi of Vienna and Paris, on his way to England, 
which was his final doHtinaUon. On tho orririd at 
iloslicd of tho roiuforconicutM from Tehran, Prince 
Ihuaan Ali Mocrxa found himself in a condition to take 
the ticU at the head of a body of 10,000 men. Uo was, 
lioworer, at a loss as to tlio direction to wliich bo ought 
to tnni his anus. Tho Khan of Khiva had odvauccil with 
a powerful force to Bcrokhs, and the prince could not 
bat be certain that if he should lead hia tioopa agaioit 
him, Fetteh Khan, who, with 40,000 men, waa on the 
border of Klionusan, would advance to tho city of 
Uashod. Under these eircnuutaneoa, ha detetainod to 



DEFEAT OF FErTEU KUAN UY HASSAN ALL 195 

attack the iioarost cucinyi luid uccoixliu;;ly he morchod 
towards Ghoriaii, oiid soou found himself iu tho presence 
of Uio army of Fetteh Khun, whicli was oncamiied at ii 
place culled KohKcvceah, a short ditfUuico on tlio Herat 
side of tlio Tcrsian frontier. The resolation displayed 
by the prince seems to have produced sonie effect on 
Fetteh Khan, who probably was not aware of the inferior 
number of the army of his adversary. He sent to inform 
his IlighncHs that he had no wish to fight with him, and 
tlmt U|X)n the condition that Ghorian should be loft iu 
tlio jiosHeHHion of tlio Shah of Cabiil, and that his two 
allies, Maliomed Khan Karai, and Ihrahcem Khiui, 
should bo secured in their roHpective rights over Turbat 
and Bakhcrs, he would engage not to undertake any 
hostilities against the King of Persia. To this overture 
tiie governor of Meshed returned a taunting reply, and 
both sides thereupon prepared for battle. The advan- 
tage in point of numbers was greatly in favour of the 
AffghanSy but tho Persian troops were more accustomed 
to unity of action than were the motley elements of 
which tho army of Fetteh Khan was composed. Never- 
tlielesSi tlio Persian soldiers could scarcely bear up 
against tho weight of numbers, and tho Semnan rogi- 
nieut was already taking to ilight, when its colonel, 
Zulfikhor Khan, dismounted from his charger, which 
he deliberately hamstrung, declaring to his clansmen 
tliat if they sliould abandon the field of battle tliey would 
loavo tlioir chief in tlie hands of tlie enemy. Fetteh 
Khan's immediate followers seem to have fought bravely ; 
but he was unable to exercise authority over some of his 
ollioBy who stood aloof during the battle, in order that 
they might be the better able to plunder the Persian 

13- • 



190 A IIISTOKT OF PKOSU. 

ounp K> snon m tlie %litmg slioold bo onr. A ballot, 
wliicb struck Fotteh Kbou iu tbe moath, decided tho 
treut of tbe day, and tbe field was left in the hands of 
the PeisiaaB. 

One of the Khorawon chieis, who bad espoused 
tbe cause of the Aflgbons, was nuBtaken for tho priuce- 
governor of Kboraasan bj the Mo£temcd-ed-DowIehr 
one of tho mmisters of tlio Sliab, who thu» fell into bia 
jiower. Snch nil event might Hcvm at first sight to bo 
a Miii-ci'sH for Futteli Klitui ; in reality it proved to bo 
tho rvvcne. Under no circiimstauait need ooe dcHi)uir 
of being able to corrupt the fidelity of a Persian ; and 
tbe Moi-tcmcd-ed-Dow)eb, who was aware of tbe character 
of thi>Ho he had to dciil with, took advantage of tho 
op[>ortunity of Bu^gestiog to his captor that he should 
go over to the side of tho priuce. His words were not 
wofiU'd fui tlie n-'bcllioua ctiiof, who autliorizetl him to 
uiiikc terms for bin return to duty. The govoruor of 
Kiioriuitiiiii ovcoriliii^fly agreed to uaine tlio chief to a 
Hulxinliiiute govonimciit undrr liimsulf, and tho Sbuh's 
iuiiiii>U-r wus ttciit with all huuour to tlie Persian camp, 
while liih lute captor mode haute to join iu tbo fipoiliug of 
tlic now fii^'itive Afr<;tiaiis. The King of Persia received 
the ui.'WH of tliis decisive buttle wlicn he was on his way 
from Tclinm to Mehlied, and be fuUowvd up his advan- 
tage by liCBi<><;ing and taking tlio fort of Bern, whose 
;;i>VL-nior lind rcWUcd. Here on ambuKudur met him from 
MiJimuutl Sliidi iif Ciibul, disiivowiiig tbo proceedings of 
hik Vizcer, tV-ttoh Kliiin, and deprecating tbo anger of 
Fettcb All Shall. Tho king, iu reply, required that 
Fettch Kliou should he made over to him in chains, or 
ibot ho sbonld bo blinded by Ualiniood, fajliiifr » Kld\ 



DOST MAIIOMKD— WAll WITH TURKEY. 107 

concoRsion ho throatcncil to invado Aflghauistan. In the 
meantime a force was sent to cncoanter the Khan of 
Khiva. That potentate did not wait to receive it, but 
retreated to tlie regions whence he liad come. The con- 
dition imposed by tlie King of Persia was at once 
accepted by the Shall of Cabiil, and tlie unfortunate 
Fetteh Khan was blinded and afterwards barbarously 
murdered. But his death was s^K^edily avenged by his 
broUier, Dost Mahomed ; and tlie next envoy from 
AfTghanistan to Persia was sent by Kamran Meorza to 
implore the protection of the king, and to announce 
that, save the fortresses of Herat and Candahar, no- 
thing of Affghanistan remained to liim or to his father, 
Malimood Shah. 

In the year of the Hegira 123G,* hostilities broke out 
at the extremity of Persia most distant from the scene of 
tlie militaiy operations in which the Shah's army had 
last taken part. A dispute arose between tlie frontier 
Persian and Turkish authorities— between the Prince- 
Oovemor of Axerbaeejan and the Seraskier of Krzcroum — 
on account of two wandering tribes claimed by the former 
as Persian subjects, and to which tlie latter afforded his 
protection. The Seraskier was recalled, but his successor 
showed himself to be even more unfriendly towards the 
Persians, imprisoning an agent sent by the governor of 
l^abieez to remonstrate on the subject of some grievances. 
After tliis insult Uie Shali's Government became con- 
vinced that friendly relations were no longer possible 
between the frontier auUioritios, and Abbass Meorza was 
accordingly instructed to hivade the Turkish dominions. 
His troops crossed the border, a nd possessed themselves 



108 A mSTORT OF PERSIA. 

of Uio fortified places of Toprak-Killch and Ak Serai. 
Tlioy were opposed by a force Hcnt from Erzeronm ; but 
tliis WOK inAnfficiont to withRtaiid tliom, aud thoy overran 
till) Itonler dintrictHy and took |>oKHOHHion of Abshckri 
Diailnon, MoolbM^inl, Bitloos, MoohIi, Ikhlot, Adelaco- 
JAwaSi and KbaiidooHli. 

On tbo other band the TnrkiHh Govmnnent prepared 
to counterbalance tbene advantii^^CM by invading, from 
Dagbdail, tlio frontier government of Shebr-i-zoor. 
Tlio force sent by tlie Paslia for this purpose was opposed 
by the prince-governor of Eermanshah, who defeated 
the Ottoman array, and followed up his victory by 
advancing to the outskirts of Baghdad. The Pasha 
powosHcd no further means of stopping his progress, 
and wlion ho )md ahnost arrived at the giitoH of llic City 
of llio ("uliphH, )ii) wtiH implored to nparo Uio pluco wliich 
now Jay ut bin merry. Tliin ai)poal to tlio niod<M-utiou of 
a PrrHiiui grnoml would probuhlyhavo Wn of Uttlo avail, 
liud not tli(« prinro found hiniHoIf to I>e strickm with a 
mortal diHcase which would have prevented him from 
ox'^rciHiug a control over his anny. lie accordingly 
Bpirod Biighdjul, aud prepared to rc»tum by the shortest 
route to KiTmanshah. Ho had cross^ul the vast plain 
which lios lK*twcen the Tigris and the mountains of 
KurdiMan ; but when he had rrachod the middle of Uio 
imi>osing pass by which the U])|N'r country of Persia in 
that direction is approache<1, his ailments increased to 
such a degree as to prevent his further progress. A 
messenger was despatched to Baghdad, to summon to 
his assiHtance an European physician ; but lie was 
alreaily beyond the aid of medical science, and as he 
felt himself to be d\ing, he was careful to send to tlieir 



CAMPAIONH OF DAGHDAD AND ARMKXIA. 100 

native mountAius the Looristan and Bakhtiari chiefs iu 
liitf camp, knowing that thoy wouKI in all probability 
raise diHturbances after his deceaso. At a lonely spot in 
the piiHH of Kerrindi marked by the remnant of an 
ancinit ardi, died the eldest son of Fottoh AH Siiah, at 
ihv early a;;o of thirty-seven, and his removal from tbo 
HGcMie probably savod his country, at a later period, from 
a renewal of the horrors of civil war, to wliich, in the 
precedinj; century, she hiul for so Ion*; a time l>oen given 
over. Wlicn the news of this occurrence reached 
Tehran, it was, according to Persian custom, at first 
concealed from the king. Grachially his ministers and 
nobles assumed the garmonts of mourning, and it was 
not until after the lai)se of a week that the news of his 
son's demise was revealed to .the Shah from the lips of 
his youngest diild. 

In the meantime, the war continued to rage upon the 
frontier of Asserbaeejan. The Porte appointed a new 
Keraskier to Krzeroum, and under him were throe 
Pasluis, each of whom took the field at the heiul of a 
H0|)arute force. Of these, one undertook the siege of 
Toprak-Killeh, while the other two marched towards the 
Persian frontier, with the intention of invading Azer- 
luiecjan. A Persian officer starting from Krivan en- 
connterod a Turkish force, which he defeated, taking its 
commander, and a thousand men, prisoners. These 
wore sent to tlio Crown-Prince of Persia at Khoi, and 
OS ho was anxious for a termination of the hostiUties 
that were being carried on, he despatched them all free 
from ransom to the Pasha of Erzeroum, with an expres- 
sion of his desire to see peace re-established. But tlie 
Sersskier, in Persian phrase, imagined tliat he could 



900 A HnmiRT or roiisiA. 

diiceni the imaga of Tictoiy in the mirror of his 
conidoiuneei, and he toxned a deaf ear to the anggee- 
tioo of the Frinoe. Dnring this time» Toprak-Killoh held 
not, and Abbaaa Meena marched from Khoi irith the 
hofie of being aUe to roUere that fort. In passing 
through Oie Armenian district of Kara-Koesia, he was 
met by a procession of the priests of that persnanon, 
beaded by th«r aiehbishop, who implored his Hi^^ess's 
ptotectioup and cmiseerated his sword. Orders had been 
given to tlie commanden of the Persian detachments on 
the frontier to hasten to join the Prince's standard. No 
troqis in the world, it may safely be sssertedi sre capable 
of so much ccmtinned endurance of &tigae as sre the 
▼eteran noldicrs of Persia. On this occasion sereral 
regiments marched towanls tlieir destination for many 
days togctlier at tlio rote of thirty miles a day.* Very 
few men, liowerer, hod joined the Persian commander 
ere he found himself within sight of Toprak-Killeh, and 
of tho Turkish army. 

On the Pashas' bccomiug aware of his inferiority in 
)K>iut of numbers, they resolved at once to attack him, 
but he WttM able to stand his ground until seven thousand 
of IiiH troops, of whose approach he was aware, had 
jimir<1 him. Still his forces were much inferior to those 
to whom he was opposed, but tlio system of divided 
command wliich had been adopted by tlie Osmanlis, now 
served to neutralise their superiority in numbers. The 



* Thr muler mmy rompare the diiUiM^e— hm tlAtcd to Imv« bom 
ipUifd in MM*h A tUM b/ IVnua ■nkUriw— with Um Mcoant Klmi bgr 
XmMffUon vi tlM» mrtbw oC Um srajr oC Cjnw. S^ Xkhothov's EspM* 
$im»fCpfm$.hntik i.. ehapirr U.. t% puwu^ ibS^ajv: ui4flbiplcrT^ 
SO pOTMWipi ia Udayt. I faniM«e#f»abl»UiiTSHymnk,<r »t 
•nb«ltSi}M^ 



DEFEAT OF THE TURKS. 201 

struggle which ensued was long and bloodji but wo can 
scarcely give our credit to the Persian historian/ who 
asserts that fifty thousand Turks were left dead upon the 
field of battle. The corps of one of the Pashas suffered 
severelyi and its commander's flight decided tlie day in 
favour of the Persians. The siege of Toprak-Killeh was 
immediately raised, and the three Ottoman camps, witli 
all that they coutahied, fell into the hands of the crown- 
prince. So Uttle prepared were the Turks for the flight 
to which they had betaken themselves, that many 
jewelled coffee-cups were found in their tents, which had 
only been half-emptied. After this victory tlie crown- 
prince once more offered terms of peace to the Seroskier 
of Erzeroum, but tliat Pasha nobly repUed that, so long 
as the Persian general should maintain a threatening 
attitude upon Turkish soil, to talk of peace was im* 
possible. Abbass Meerza accordingly withdrew his army 
to within the Persian frontier, and the Seraskier was 
empowered by the Porte to conclude a treaty with the 
plenipotentiaries nominated by the Shall. But during 
the time that the war still raged, great confusion prevailed 
along the length of the Turko-Persian frontier. In the 
direction of Baghdad the disputed province of Shelir-i- 
zoor became once again the theatre of military opera- 
tions, and with a view, at the same time, to put down his 
opponents in this quarter, and to secure for himself a 
snJBScient escort during a pilgrimage which he wished to 
make to the shrines of Hussein and of Ali, the Shah 
gathered around his standard a militaxy force, at the head 
of which he marched to Hamadan. On the one hand, 
however, the Turks were defeated near the border by the 

" ^^ri^ 1^— ^i^»g — _»j— ■■ I __■■■-■■ ^MM ■■■■■■111 , ■__i_ I M. ^^m—M — ^— ^— ^-^.^^^^^^ 

* IViza Kali Klian. 



902 A imrTORT OF FEK8IA. 

MD of tbo lato gOTornor of Kormonshoh ; and on tlio 
oUieTy the king's troops had to be dispersed on account of 
the rsTages which the cholera was making amongst them. 
That disease appeared this year for the first time in 
Persiat and is said to liare carried away one hundred 
thousand victims, but this number must be set down as 
a mero guess, since no mortuary statistics are kept in 
Die Khali's dominions. 

At aiiothrr part the frontier was disturbed by an 
inrofiil mmlo by the Kurds of the nuiuutoiiiH upoii Uie 
peaceful Christians of the dintrict of SuhnaH, six tliouKiind 
of whom arc said to have been on thiH o<*caMi()u put to 
death. In tliis portion of the kingdom of rorsia, there 
is a Nestorian population of about thirty thousand per- 
sons, five thousand of wliom dwell in the niountainH, and 
twenty-five thousand in the plain of rroomceah, gaining 
their livelihood almost excluHively by the cultivation of 
tlie soil. Their laiuUonlH supply them with grain Heeds, 
and when the liarvent is reiiiHul two-tliinls of it are 
retaininl by the own(T, while the reroainiii*; third iH nuulo 
over to the r}'ot. But under various pretexts a connider- 
able iK)rtion of tlie cultivator's substance is cxtorte<l from 
him by the rapacious landowner, who is sufiicicntly 
powerful in the support of his mountain border clansmen, 
and sufliciently far rcmovinl from the neat of government 
at Tehran, to treat with indiflcrencc the orders which are 
sent from time to time by the Shah for the just and 
equitable treatment of liis Christian subjects. It must 
be adde<l that the arbitrary exactions levied on the 
Nestorians are not dictated by prejudice against their 
religion, but are in a great measure the same aM those 
practised upon Mahomedan cultivators at a distance 



NRSTORIAN CIIRISTIAXS OF PERSIA. 203 

from tho capitii), and whore the lamlownor can fall back 
upon his tribesmen for support in case of resistauco. 
Two bodies of foreign missionaries, American and French 
respectively, have for many years past devoted their 
painstaking endeavours to the improvement of this 
portion of*the Christian population of Persia. Tho 
system followed by the American missionaries is to 
afford the best sccuhir education which tlicy have it in 
thoir p)wor to bostow upon tho pupils who attiuid their 
Kchools, and to instruct tho NoHtoriauH in tho tonots of 
that sect of Christiiuiity to which they profess to belong. 
No pros(4ytisni of any kind is attempted by tliose nuHsiou- 
arios. The French priests at Salmas direct thoir hiI)our8 
towards tho extension amongst tho sectaries of Persia of 
the faith of Rome. Tho education which many children 
of both sexes are year after year receiving in these chari- 
table ostablishmonts would bo much moro higlily appre- 
ciated if tliero wore moro moans open to Christian ryots 
of honcHty and capacity for securing to thomHolvos ad- 
vancement hi tho different walks of life ; but in a country 
where fair-dealing between man and man is scarcely 
believed in, and where Christianity is a despised religion, 
tho earnest labours of many devoted men during long 
years have not as yet produced any appreciable effect 
upon the general material condition of the Christians of 
Persia. 

The attack on Salmas which I have mentioned was 
repulsed after a time by an armed force sent from 
Tabreez, and tranquillity was for tlio timo re-established 
along tho Turko-Pei'sian frontier. Tho Pasha of Bagh- 
dad soon again gave trouble, but was obliged to pay a 
fine to tlie Shah, and to engage not to levy any toll upon 



204 A imroBT or rEBsiA. 

the Penun pilgrimB who might paas tlirongh tho limits 
€if Uie territory snbjoct to his jaritKUotion, on thoir way 
to Kerbek and Nejjof. Ono of tho articlon of tho treaty 
faranglit to Tehran by the Tm*kifih envoy for ratification 
«m dimpiiroTcd of by tho Sluili, and tliin canHo<1 a dehiy 
in the nltimato vonelnwon of poniu), but Mth piurticm 
finally agnTil to Uio toniiH ii[ion which tho iKUitililiea 
between tliem Hlioidd bo brought to a cIoho, and eiicli 
power retained tiie territorial poaaeswonB which had 
bdongcd to it at tlie commencement of tlio war.* 

Shortly after this eront Uie Klian of Khiva died, and 
his son signalized his accession to tlie mnsnud by 
invading Kborassan. But the prince-governor coUectod 
several squadrons of tlio fSunous horsemen of tliat pro- 
vince, — clod in mail wrought by tho desccudantH of tho 
sword-iiiukom of DiuiuiscUHi who were ciirricMl into cap- 
tivity by Tiuiufy — proceod(*4l to attack tho forinidiiblo 
liost of Oosbcgs and Turkomans ndvaucuig ugaiiiHt him, 
and after a severe struggle drovo Uio young Khan of 
Khiva luirk into tlie dcHcrts whence ho hod issued. As 
a warning against such attempts for tho future, tlie 
|irince then caused a pyramid to bo erected of two 
Uiousaiid sknlhi of the Turkomans tliat had been slain 
in the action. 



* Trmiy III KnMMiun. Iwifrvrn INemia miU I'ttrk^— A.1>. Juljr it. 
IMS: All. ZUkMkli lu. 1«9S. 



( 205 ) 



ciiArrKU viir. 

Vi4(!i<» tvnnn of Treaty of (tuliMtnii — 1>iHiririor(t«>k(?li«0i elAitncd by liimmii 
— It i« orctipiM l»y tluit INmvr — Kxritcnirtit tliroti;;1ioiit Pcndn — War 
hnmks out — i*cntiau)t at firMt MiicccHHfiil — 'ilwy mlvunco to tlie neigh- 
)»«)urli<xNl of l^idiH, Aiiil II rt* i1cf«'iit4*il nt llic Ziv.iim iiml again near 
Ooiijii — AvaririouKtioHfiof the Sliah — PiviKinn in liin Council — Ncgota- 
atioUH for i'nice — Tlio liunsiaus oliccked on tlio Aruxea— EriYon 
lM»sii*gi»il — Siogc miKTil — AlilmHualiad titkcn by Orncral IVutkiewiti;b— 
1>f*ft>at of ffonrml Kiirkofrnki by IVntian CnnimandcrH at AMtrrirk 
— Kinul Sivgo and Capture of Krivan — InvaHion f»f Axttrbtimgan bj , 
I*riiif*c} AriHtoflT — Tabii^x fullN. into bia l(au«l}i — Kunowwl Nego- 
tiation»4 — Trwily of 1'urkoiiianrbai. 

FuoM tho pcruKul of tlio priH;0(1i]i{; cliaptor it will have 
boon Hooii thiit ho unttollKul wiih the coiuliliou of PcrHia 
ill tho roij{u of Fotloli Ali Shall, that tksiu'ct^ly a Biuglo 
year blapscd withont tho occurrencOi iu ouo dircctiou or 
another, of somo outbreak iii tho kiugJom or ou the 
frontiers, which called for tho luiued iutorfereiice of tho 
kuig'H n^proHontatives. Such wau tho uonnal state of 
tliiugH, hut as those outbreaks for tho most part boou 
subsided, and left Persia in the same condition in which 
they had found her, they were not looked upon by thu 
Shah's government as being very serious cahmiities. 
If tliey had their darker aspect, they had also a brighter 
side on which they might be viewed. If they excited 
discontent amongst the people of tho districts ravaged 
by tho insurgents or invaders, they in turn afforded to 
an unpaid army tho opportunity of enriching itself by 



900 A 1I18T0HY OF PERSIA. 

plunder. There had been but one war in which Persia, 
since tlie accesfdon of tlic Kajars, hod been obliged to 
cede any territory, and the Shall was therefore only 
carefol to avoid giving occasion for another struggle mill 
tlie powcrfol neighbour whose might he had so sorely 
felt. But notwitlistanding this sincere deshro on the 
part of Fetteh Ali, perverse circumstances once more led 
to a serious and threatening misunderstanding between 
his Oovenunent and tliat of Russia. The treaty of 
Gulistan was not worded with sufficient accuracy as 
regarded some portions of the line of frontier which was 
tlienceforth to separate the rcsi>ectivo posHcssions of 
Bossia and of Persia ; and although many years had 
elapsed since its ratification, no definite arrangonicnt had 
been concluded for tlie settlement of tlic points hi dispute. 
When at length commissioners were nominated, and 
when they met on the ground under disimtc, matters did 
not seem to have advanced at all towards a satisfactory 
settlement, for fresh discuKKions were created as the 
commissioners became perHonally acquainted with the 
locahUes they visited. The Bussiau agents, conscious of 
the power by which- they were backed, determined to 
ailhere to that view of tlie treaty of (hilistan which 
api>ean*d to tlicm to 1h> niont in lU'cordiiiico with the 
inti*rests of their master, while the IVrnian com- 
missioners, who j>erhaps knew more of the real memiing 
of tlie disputed article of the treaty, refuHinl to give up 
any portion of the territory, which, according to their 
view, belonged to the Shall. There were throo small 
portions of land which formed the chief subject of 
discussion, the principal one of which was the dibtrict of 
Ookcheli, which of right belonged to the Shah, und 



Tiilis 



llil l.ll twi. 




iila 



llifl, Ihiwl'Vlt, llio provisid 
tlio IiiiB»*iim ch<ir>j.\ il'it/air. 
hy General Ycniicloll' iit 1 
tfiipijjoincut dniwu ui) by tl. 
city WHS not i-atitictl by t. 
obtiiiii tlio royiit couiwiit to tl 
il'a/airex, who by the Kiug'u 
tbo Crown-Priucc, visited i 
Bummcr of 182i>, and ou 
mcutioned end pro\iug luisui 
Georgia occupied with a m 
Gokdich. 

This step is said* to lia 
I'crsia that llussia was deteri 
KutUvmcnt of tlic frontier ({ 
ar^nnu'iit tliat nii-fht nnikd 
KtrmiciM wi"""'- " 




\ 



906 A UnSTORY OF FER8IA. 

one eaiuo. Tko people bod had time to breathe since 
the brt war between the two notions, and anger at the 
loss of so many rich prorinccs could not but rankle in 
the minds of the vain inhabitants of Iran. But what 
chiefly excited their hatred against their Northern neigh- 
bours, was the story tliat reached them of the contemp- 
toous manner in wliich tlie Muscovites treated tlie 
Mahomedans who were subject to their sway. Indeed 
many of tlie inhabitants of the Moslem districts of 
Transcaucasia, and many also from amongst the 
Christians of tliat country, Imd made secret overtures of 
mssistance to the Shah, in tlie event of his one day 
necking to re-conquer tlie provinces wliich had been reft 
from hiH empire. The occupation of Gokchch l)y Russia 
at once blew into a flame the embers of religious frenzy 
which were alre;uly alive tlironghout Persia. The 
priests, taking the load in the movement, proclaimed 
liloud, from the pulpits of the niosqucH, the n(Tesbity of 
chustiKiu;; Uie iiifuh*lH who had diu'cd to lower their 
religion ; and so great was the pressure brought to boar 
upon the Shah, that he found himsolf under the ucces8ity 
of engaging to go to war with Russia, unless she should 
agree to the evacuation of Gokcheli. The crown •prince, 
untaught by past exi>erience, was anxious to measure 
himself once more in the field against the Ilussiau com- 
mandors; and there were only two men, it seemed, in the 
whole kingdom, who supi>orted the Shah in his wish to 
avoid a war, if a war might yet be avoided. These were 
his Minister for Foreign Aflairs, who, having fillod the 
jiost of ambassador to Russia, was aotpiointed with the 
vast resources of that i>ower, and the Mo<jtomed-ed- 
Dowloh, of whose capacity the Shall had had abundant 



PRINCE MBNCIIIKOFF THE RUSSIAN ENVOY. 209 

proof. The chief religious authority in Persia, too, tlio 
high prioHt of Ispahan, seems to have retained some 
shght remnant of prudence, after tliat qnaUty was no 
longer discemihie in the conduct and language of his 
professional brethren. He sent a confidential messenger 
to the king, to inquire wliether or not it were the royal 
wish that the people should be excited to war, and 
following closely after his agent to Tehran, he there had 
an interview with the Shah. But the reUgious excitement 
had now attained to such a pitch, that it was useless 
to try to arrest its development, and Fetteh Ali had to 
allow himself to be carried along by the current. He 
started for his summer camp at Sultaneea. 

At this time news reached Persia of the death of 
the Czar Alexander and the accession to empire of his 
brother Nicholas ; this intelligence was quickly followed 
by the aimoimcement that Prince Menchikoff was on his 
way to tlie couii of Tehran. The llussian envoy was 
received witli distinction, the Shah entertaining tlie hope 
that through his means the points in dispute between 
Persia and Kussia, as to their frontier, might be satis- 
factorily arranged. But scarcely had the negotiations 
opened, when a long train of priests from the capital, 
headed by the Imam-i-Juma of Ispahan, arrived at the 
royal camp. Prince Menchikoff had no power to con- 
sent to the evacuation of the district of Gokchchi and 
the Shah was therefore forced to break up the con- 
ferences and to give the prince his passports. He was, 
however, up the last, treated with the utmost distinction, 
and the king strove by the richness of the presents 
which he bestowed on this occasion, to lessen the 
chagrin which the Hussion envoy might be expected to 

14 



k 



910 A iinrroRT or fersia. 

feel on reeeiving bis dismiflsiil from the Kajar court.* 
The whole people of Penda Boemed to bo united in the 
ilolenuination to outor ujion a roligious war, and tho 
king'i last iieniploB wore romoYod on bis receiving 
btinution of the tliroat tliot if be should still doclino 
to lead his people to battloi bis subjects would find 
another leader for tbemselYos. The nation was indeed 
roused to action as it noTor bad been roused sinco the 
period when its energies had been directed by Nadir. 
From tlio Bakhtiari mountains and from the bilbi of 
Looristan ; from the vales of Khorossan and the pbiins 
of Irak ; troops in thousands came to join tlie standard 
of the crown -prince, to whom was assigned the task of 
conducting the war, whidi was now begun without re- 
course licing bod to tlie preliminary ceremony of a 
fomiol declaration. 

The first blow struck in tliis war was {^ivcu by the 
hcrcditiiiy chief of Talccsh, who, with tho olijoct of 
rescuing his wife from tho bonds of tho lluRsian autho- 
rities, attacked a detachment on its march to Laiikoran. 



* It U iiili*mitiii|{ to rinn|Miro tho mAiiiicr in wliich Kiini|iciiii amtiiiM- 
Miloni ill mrnk'ni liin«*H iirc n*ri*ivo(l at the iVrhinn court with tho tn*Al- 
nirnt th«*3r ntci with in thr time of thi^ S<*fiiTerfiii Shahii. Thf foUimin;; 
ritnM*t fnim ChunliuH Trtuflt «lc*«cribe« tlio rvcii>tiun uf a Uuhmjui enTny 
■t I«|«ihNn <vtil. iii. |i. 1*7). 

" C'llni ih* MtHicoTiif piinit nn qnnrt-iVhntim fipn''«. 11 rnlmilii mrnio 
fiHv. aiitftH) Hiir Ion rhovmix «lu nii {mr rintniiluc'tcrur th*n •unlmH^iuhMim : 
. . . l/intnHliii*tcnir mit luitl k trrrr « crnt ^iiii|iiiiiit4« pun ilii |mlfii«i. vi ilit k 
I amlisH^tfiihMir «lo •l«*firrtMlrr aiiwii do ehoviil. Jr no loiiii m Io M«w«^Tilo 
■vail I'lc inlunutf ifiM rani l iii i «wi<U*ur I^w|iu n'avait iK*M-rhilu do rln'Tiil (|tio 
liranoiMip |»liii pnu'lM de rcnIixV, im ipio |Hir f^rmndrur ct puiir rhoiinrnr «U 
■■la MMiire il voului fmmcr ct allcr plut iTiint. tant y a qn'il lit rmistance. 
tt doBAaut f talons a «on clicval il Ir fit aTanccr tmia oa qiiatra paa 
■ultfTB loppoaition dea Talcta d« pied da lintrodactmr. qui avait mit la 
Maia a la hrida da ion ehaval pour U reteair. On ramto aloni tout ii bit 
. . . La roi DO lav dit [a«x ambaaiadaon] point «m pamU. «t no Ua 



WAR ^VITII RUSSIA. 211 

Being thus committed so seriously with the Muscovite 
governmcftit, the Khan lost no time in rousing the people 
of tho province to take up arms against the infidels, and 
at the same time he sent to ask the support of tho Shah 
hi an undertaking, tho sole ohjoct of which, ho declared, 
was to restore Taleesh to the Persian crown. A coq)s of 
ten thousand men was accordingly sent to his aid, with 
which body ho was enabled to lay siege to the llussiim 
station of Lankoran. That place was abandoned, and 
the garrison took refuge in tlie ailjacent island of Sari, 
tlms leaving the whole of the mainland of Taleesh in the 
hands of the Persians.^ A division of the Shah's troops, 
commanded by one of his sons, hastened in tho mean- 
time to cross the Araxes, and the crown-prince lost no 
time in bringing up tho reinforcements under his orders. 
Tho Bussians were found to be altogether unprepared 
for so sudden a beginning of war, and at lii*Ht tho 
impetuous Persians carried all before them. The dis- 
puted districts of Gokcheh, Balaklu, and Guni were 
taken possession of in the name of the Shah, and 
Abbass Meerza made ready to advance on the important 
fortress of Sheeshah in Karabagh. He did not, howeveri 
march upon this place so rapidly as not to allow the 
Russian officer who commanded there to have sufficient 
time to call in some detachments from tho neighbour- 
hood, and to put himself in a posture of defence. 

It may hero be remarked as stmngo that the 
Governor-General of the Caucasus should havo taken 
no more effectual measures to guard against being sur- 
prised by the Persians at a time when the envoy of 
Russia was refusing to accede to the Shah's peremptory 

* AJ[>. 1630. 

14— i 



212 A niBTORT OF TERSIA. 

demand for the evacnation of the territory of Gokcheh. 
The language used by the representative of Russia 
should hare been based upon a firmer state of prepara- 
tion to resist the force of Persia. Taken as they were 
by surprise, tlie Hussion officers, with tlie exception 
of the colonel commanding at Sheeshah,* had no choice 
but to quit tlicir posts and fall bock upon places of 
safety. A Persian division marching into Karabagh 
nndor tlio command of the Shairs son, IsmaYl Moorxa, 
rn(*f>init<»r(*(1 at Klunixorukh a UuKHitiii dc^Uielunrnt which 
m*a« making its way towiinlH ShcoHliali. Thn wouthcr 
waH cxtn*mcly hot, and the ItusHJans wore parcIuHl with 
Uiirnty imd to tliese circumstances their colonel after- 
wanls attributed the fact of Iuh regiment surrendering 
to the Persians. Four hundred soldiers were killed or 
wounded, and the rest of the battalion, as well as two 
guns, fell into the power of the prince, who Hcnt his 
prisoners to the Shah's camp. There half of the private 
ftoIiIi(>rH thus taken soon enlisted themselves in the 
Persian sen'ice. AfU»r this, the Russian general who 
commandinl the district bordering on Erivan, retired to 
liori, a strong pcmition on the Tabcda river, from which 
IIoHhan Khan, the brother of tlie hcrcditarv Sirdar of 
Krivan, found it iini>OKKiblo to disloilgo him. The 
Persian tnK>ps, however, were for the prrsent unopposed 
in the ojicn field, and they carried terror and destruction 
up to the Russian outiN>sts — tlie Sirdar peuetrathig in 
one raid to the immediate vieiiiity of Titlis. The 
Russian officer in command at Genja, having marched 
across country to the assistance of the general com- 
manding at Lori, the Mahoincdans of Genja rose upon, 

CiiUmcl lUtti. 



DEFEAT OF THE RUSSIANS. 213 

and mossocroily the garrison tbat bad been left in tbe 
place, and at tbe same time exterminated the Armenian 
inhabitants of the town. They then sent to entreat 
Abbass Meerza to advance to their support, and tlie prince 
responded to this appeal by despatching his eldest son, 
together with Ameer Khan, chief of the upper branch 
of the Kajar tribe, to the assistance of the men of Genja. 
His Highness at the same time sent forward the hereditary 
chief of the place, but ho hiuiHclf reuiaiucd before the 
forlresH of ShocHhiih. The rising throughout the whole 
of the provinces iuluibitcd by Malionicdaus continued to 
sproml. The hereditary chiefs of Sheerwan, of Sheki, and 
of Bakoo returned to their respective governments from 
their places of exile, and were soon employed actively in 
cooperating witli the officer in- command of the Shali's 
troops in Taleesh ; whilst at the same time the wild 
mountaineers of Daghestan did not lose the opportunity 
of adding to the confusion prevailing by descending to 
the plains, and plundering Uussians and Persians with 
utter impartiality. In the course of three weeks, Russia 
had lost for the time nearly all the territory that had 
been ceded to her by the treaty of Qulistan. Sheerwani 
Sheki, TalecHli, and Genja were evacuated, and the few 
remaining UuHsians to the east of Tiflis were forced to 
seek shelter in the foils of Bakoo, Derbend, imd Kooba. 
The only advanced post which the troops of the Governor- 
General now held was the fortress of Slieeshah, which 
continued to defy the power of Abbass Meerza.* The 
prince remained before that place for six weeks, the 
effect which his guns produced upon the walls being 
concealed from him by canvas stretched behind them. 

* 25oi)Uimbur, IS20. 



214 A UI8T0RT OP PERSIA. 

In the moantimo a largo forco was being coucontrated 
at Tiflitf ; and the foremost Russian division, conHistiiig of 
OyOOO men of all arms, was pushed forward to Shumkar, 
a vilLigo in the Ticinity of Gonja. The young priucoi 
Mahomed Meerza,* who now commanded in that place, 
moved out at tlio head of about 10,000 men to engage 
tlie advancing Russians. A battle was fought on the 
banks of the Zczam, a small stream of which tlie con- 
tending armies occupied tlio opiK>8ite sides. The Russian 
force, alniut a tliird of which was cavalry, was drawn up 
in one line, its left resting on the stream, and tlie whole 
of tlio cavalry being placed on the right, and separated 
by the guns from tlie infantry. Ilalf of tlie rorsian force 
coiisiHtod of cavalry, which was placed behind tlio Uuo in 
which tlie infiuitry was drawn up. The Pcrnian horse 
niovi'd to the flank, with the intention of attacking the 
KuHsiaii cavalry ; but it was kept in check, and soon 
forcifl to retire, by the well-directed fire of the Russian 
artillery. Upon this tlie cavalry advanced and pursued 
tlie Persians along the whole Hue of their iufiuitr}' and to 
Uie rear of that Ixnly. General MadadofT, the Russian 
conimonder, upon tliis ordered his iiifautry to advance, 
which had the eflTect of enclosing the Persians l>etwcen 
two fires. They thereupon broke and retired in confusion, 
leaving their field-pieces in tlie hands of the enemy. Of 
tlio two Persian coniinanders, Ameer Khan was shot by 
a Cossack when in the iu*t of endeavouring to rally his 
troops ; and Midionied Meerza, the future king of Persia, 
hod actually fallen into the hands o( the Cossacks, when 
he was rescued by a Shalihovend chief, who carried him 
off behind him on his horse. This was the turning-point 



DKFKAT OP THE PEliSIANS ON THE ZRZAM. 215 

of tlio war. From that day tlie llussiaus began to roll 
bock tho tido of victory ui)ou their foen. Gcuerol Moda- 
doff now rocovored Gonja without a struggle, and con- 
nected the town and citadel with a strong lino of 
commmiication. Fresh reinforcements were ordered up 
from Tiflis, and tho command of the army in tho field 
was conferred upon General Paskievitch, who advanced 
to a position some miles to the south of Genja, where he 
determined to await tho approach of Abbass Mcerza. 

The crown-prince hostoned to repair tho dimiKter 
which had hapi)ened to his son, and on tho 2(}th of 
September the hostile armies mot each other. Tho force 
commanded by the prince now numbered about 80,000 
meUi and the siege of Shceshoh was carried on by 
another division. It cannot be doubted that it was a 
mistake on the part of the Persian commander-in-chief 
to risk a general engagement with the llusnian troops. 
The latter would have been far more readily overcome 
had tho Persians contented themselves with laying waste 
tlio country over which extended the route of the enemy. 
As it was, every advantage was voluntarily given by tho 
prince to the Russian commander, who was allowed to 
choose his own fighting ground ; and when the Persian 
troops came within a short distance of the enemy they were 
kept under arms during the succeeding night, in order to 
avoid the risk of a surprise. On the following morning 
tho prince loft his camp at an early hour, and, after a 
march of about ten milofi, found the enemy drawn up in 
squares on tho level plain to the east of the fort and 
suburb of Gonja, which covered their rear. The Hussion 
army consisted of about 10,000 or 12,000 infantry, a 
regiment of dragoons, about 2,000 Cossacks, 8,000 



210 A HIOTORT OF FKBSIA. 

imgnltf troops of the Caneaflniii and twenty pieces of 
csonon. The eataliy wero placed on the flanks and 
tlio artilloiy in tlie centra. To oppose tliis force the 
iHtfsdiui oouiuiauider had nudor his orders abont 30,000 
nuni, of which IftyOOO wero iufiintry, and tlie ranioiudcr 
imgnhur cafaby, willi some artillerymen. Ue liad also 
twouty4wo light field-piecos, directed by an En{;lisliman 
m liis sorvico. The iufiintry regiments were drawn np 
m one long line, haying fourteen gmis to their right and 
eight to tlieir left, while the cavalry covered tlie flanks 
and rear. Tlie battle commenced by a cannonade from 
both sides ; the Bossian artillery being so ill-served that 
the shot for the most part went over the heads of the 
Persians, doing Uttle or no execution ; while tlio fire of 
some of the I'cniiim guns was ho well diroctoti lUi to 
comiK*l one of tlio ItuHHiau diviHions to retire and iibaudou 
its ciuiiiou. Two battiilions, comi)OHcd of tlie men of 
Kanu1ii;;h, charged tlio retiring square, and liiul tlio 
iTmuiiiiiig IVmian iufiintry nuulo a eorrospouding move- 
ment in mlvaiice at tliat critic*ul moment, it is probable 
that victory would have crowned their eflbrt. The great 
body of the troo^m, however, remiiiuotl stationary ; and 
the two Kanulugh biittaliouH, Wing unable to maintain 
their |Nmition without MUpport, fell biu*k in confuHion. 

It is said that at tliis juncture Prince AbbiiHS Aleenui 
Wtt» Ml ill-advised as to send a mesHiige to liis sons to 
withdraw themselves from the thick of tlic fight. The 
messenger either misunderstood the order which he was to 
convey, or he was himself miHunderstood in the midst of 
tlie noim; snd confusion of the battle. The result was that 
tlie young princes conceived the notion that tlieir father 
wished thrm to withdraw the troops under theur com- 



TUE PERSIANS DEFEATED AT GENJA. 217 

monily and accordingly the line gavo way and a general 
rout onsned. The regiments of infantry, composed of 
men from Irak, broke without having fired a shot, and 
retired in the utmost confusion. The loss of tlio Persians 
u})on this occasion would have been greater had not Uioir 
retreat been covered by some artillery, which, assisted 
by tlio prince's guards, kept tlie pursuers in check. One 
battalion of Itussian Uglit infantry, together with the 
dragoons and tlie irregular horse, followed the Persians 
for about eight miles ; but tlie pursuers were not able to 
effect much injury. Abbass Mcerza endeavoured in vain 
to rally his broken army, and remained witli his guns 
till the last shot had been fired. He then withdrew 
towards Ooslandooz, accompanied by a small body of 
infimtry and neiu'ly 6,000 horsemen. The remainder 
of tlio anny diH][)ersed in various directions, and made for 
the banks of the Araxos. At tlie beguining of the action 
the KuHsian cavalry hiul been charged by the Persian 
horse, and driven back amongst the treoH and ruined 
suburbs of Geuja ; but this partial success was rendered 
unavailing by the defeat of the infantry, and the horse- 
men followed their retreating comrades. The actual loss 
of the Persians on this day did not exceed 1,500 men, 
but tlie survivors were dispirited, and all organization 
was for the time being gone. Only one piece of ai'tillery 
was captured by the Uussians, and its loss was owing to 
three of the horses attached to it having been killed. 

But disastrous as wa§ this day to Persia, it might 
have proved an useful one to that country, had her 
rulers been possessed of sufficient wisdom and energy 
to profit by the lessons it taught. The Persian army 
had at one time been on the point of driving the 



S18 A HUTORT or FEIU8IA. 

enemy from the field, end the temporary bqccosb was 
to be ettribnted to tho disdpliood courage of two regi- 
ments from Karadagh, and to the fire of the prince's 
ertilleiy. These battalions, as well as the artillerymen, 
had been trained by competent and zealous foreign 
instmetois, and had the whole army been equally well 
drilled, there can be no doubt that the fate which befell 
the Persians would that day hate befallen their enemies. 
CooU tlie Khoh hate convinced himself of tlio fiict tliat 
in his hardy and obedient subjects he possessed the 
material for an army caimblo at any time of defending 
Ilia dominions against invaders, provided tliot his troops 
aliould be properly drilled, the lesson would have been 
dieaidy paid for by the disaster of Oenja; but the 
rulers of Persia have not grown wiser by tlio experience 
of the post, and to this day the Shali's army is only 
liolf-drillcd, and is in reality loss effective, cither for the 
purposes of defence or of offence, tlian if it were not 
drilled after tlie fashion of European armies at all. 

At Gcnja tlie command of tlie Persian troops was 
sliared by the crown-prince with the Ascf-cd-Dowleli — a 
proud nobleman who occupied the i>ost of prime minister 
to tlie Shuh. The Asef-cd-Dowlch quitted the field at 
the first alarm of danger, and, accompanied by a slender 
retinue of well-mounted horHi*men, pressed his flight 
with such unwearied diligence Unit he reached the 
Araxes, a distance of a hundred and fifty milcH from 
Genja, on tlie night of tlie day after Uie action. On the 
following evening the crown-prince rejoined him, when 
mutual recriminations took place between tliem. Each 
accused tlie other of being tlie author of the catastrophe 
which had occurred, and they parted in hostiUty, each 



DIVISIONS IK THE PERSIAN CAMP. 219 

taking the route towards the camp of the Shah. The 
roads were now covered with fugitives proceeding to 
their homes, and many of those who were intercepted 
and brought into the royal camp, were found not to 
have tasted food for several days. After the battle of 
Oenja, tlie Russian general lost no time in sending on 
reinforcements to the garrison of Sheeshali, the siege 
of which place was now discontinued. The Shah on 
his part proceeded to Tabreez, and took immediate stops 
for the assembUng of a fresh army, the. command of 
which was to be entrustcul to the luckless crown -prince. 
Abbiiss Meerza was not deficient in courage, but he had 
not tlie quahties required by the leader of an army, and 
his self-possession invariably deserted him in the hour of ^ 
battle. The prince, too, was on such bad terms with 
more than one of his brothers, that, even at the present 
critical juncture, they refused to serve under him. It 
was found necessary to give to Ismail Meerza a separate 
command; and Abdullah Meerza, the governor of Zinjan, 
in bringing up his contingent, stipulated with the Shall 
that he should not be called upon to act under the 
orders of his brotlier, tlie cro\vn-prince. The Zinjan 
troops were accordingly sent to the Erivan frontier, to 
cooperate with those of the Sirdar of that city. 

It had been the Shah's policy throughout his reign 
to humble the hereditary nobles of the country, and now 
at each chief city of the kingdom one of the numerous 
members of the royal family presided. With the 
exception of some of the piinces and the Sirdar of 
Erivan and his brother, the Shah now possessed no 
general capable of handling troops in the field. The 
ablest soldier in Persia was undoubtedly Hassan AH 



220 A IIISTORT OF FERSIA. 

Mecrza, the governor-general of Kliorassan. That 
prince oflTered bis services in the prosecution of the 
wsr against Russia; but it was considered by tlie 
government tliat at snch a crisis it would be unsafe to 
remove the check which his presence in Khorassan 
imposed npon the turbulent chiefe of tliat province. 
8ome of tlie Kliorassan squadrons ot cavalry were, how- 
evor, directed to march to Azcrbaeejan ; and tlic prince 
of Kormansliah received onlors to bring up tlie whole 
diqxMable force of his province and a body ot horsemen 
finom Looristan, making together a coqis of twelve 
tliousand men. The ruling weakness of Fctteh Ali 
Shah was an extreme nnwilUngness to part with money. 
This avariciousncss increased with his years, and it was 
licculiarly disagreeable to him to bo forced now by cir- 
cnmstances to diKbtirse to his army one year's pay in 
advance, bcHides having to expend the sum of fifty thou- 
sand tomans in refunuHliing the arnenal at Tabreez. 

On the lluKhian Hide, Genenil SewadznniidzoiT quitted 
his pohition at Lori, ond marched by the route of Guniri 
npon the fortress of Erivan ; but he was bo much harassed 
by tlie troopH of Hassan Khan, that, after having ap- 
proached to within a short distance of the city, he was 
forced to retire with the loss of four hundred men and 
a portion of his bajrgage. The Russian force thus 
discomfited was coiii]>osed of alM>ut five thousand men, 
and was Hc*arcely inferior in point of numlH'rs to that 
nndcr the Kirdor of Krivan. But an occasional display 
of activity and braver}' on the port of some of the Shah's 
troops was not suiBci(*iit to counteract the influence of 
the discipUncd organization of the Russian anny. 
Through the most shameful malversation on the part 



TUE FEBSIAK COUNCIL DIVIDED. 221 

of some Persian officials at Tabreez, the arsenal at 
Uiat place was quite unfit to supply the troops with 
the most necessary articles for carrying on a campaign. 
Not more than two thousand shot were to be found, and 
of these the half were cither too large or too small for 
the caUbres of the gims for which they had been cast ; 
and the whole city of Tabreez could not supply lead 
for musket bullets, nor even paper for the construction 
of cai-tridgcs. The Shah declared that he was tired of 
diill, and ho threatened to gather a body of a hundred 
tliousand horsemen, and to ovemm and lay waste tho 
Caucasian provinces of llussia. But at the same time 
that he uttered this threat he was inwardly pining for 
the return of peace, and his ministers were instructed 
to discuss with each other, and with the representative * 
of tlio Govcniment of India, the terms upon which on 
end might honourably bo put to the war. 

The council of the king was divided into two factions, 
one of which was in favour of a continuance of war, whilo 
tlie other voted for concessions and ][)e;vce. To the first 
party belonged the Ascf-cd-Dowleh, who was the most 
powerful nobleman in the kingdom, and allied to the 
Shah by marriage, and he was seconded in his policy 
by the Eoim-Makam, a vizeer of great capacity. To 
the opposite party belonged the minister for foreign 
affairs, and the Moctemcd-ed-Dowloh, who were backed 
by the personal influence of tho Shah,* and by that of 
his confidential Georgian eunuch. It was at length 
determined to send an envoy to Tiflis witli instructions 
to endeavour to pave tho way for the restoration of 
peace, and he was the bearer of letters from the Shah's 
minister to Count Nesselrode, expressive of the regret 



223 A iinroBT or feriua. 

witli which thoj wonld Tiew a continaaneo of tho war. 
This eufojt howercr, eonlil not at first procood ftirthor 
than TahrocXy in eonaoqueneo of tho Ticinity of a Roa- 
nan Ibrco to that city. Tho QoTonlo^Qeuoral of the 
Caocaaua had boon reinforced by tho arriYal of ton 
thooaand men at Tiflia, while the diriaion of AHtrakan 
came np to Kooba and Derbondi and compelled the 
Bhah'a troopa in tliat direction to retire. It Bcems then 
to hare occnrred to Oeneral Yermcloff to make imme* 
diate nae of the additional force of wliich he was now 
maater, and accordingly two Ilnssian divisions moted 
into the enemy's conntiy in the heart of winter. One 
of these bodies of men, consisting of infantry, cavaby, 
and artillery, crossed tlie Araxes at a jmint from which 
it might haTe mardicd ciUier on Ardabeel or on Tabrccz. 
Both of thcfie cities were nndcfondcd, the Persian troops 
baring been dismissed to tlioir homcH for the winter. 

Notwithstanding this circumHtancc, it would have 
been an act of rashness on the part of tho Russian 
officer who commanded the invaders to have attacked 
Tabrcex with so slender a force as that whicli he hod 
under his orders, but it woh o|Mm to him to march 
npon the city of Aniabeel. Indcetl it is difficult to con- 
ceive what objiH*t other than tlie ho|>e of capturing this 
city conld have induced the Rusxiiui military authorities 
to cxiK>He thoir troops to the dangers and privations of a 
winter campaign in a country so trying as that bordering 
on tlie river Araxes. The posseshion of Aniabeel by the 
Russians would have been a standing threat both to 
Tabreez and to Tehran, whiUt from that commanding 
position the Russian leaders would have exercised a para- 
mount influence over the warlike tribea of the vaat plains 



NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE. 223 

of Moglion. But these considerations seom to have 
exerciHed no influence on the conduct of tlio Russian 
commander of the force wliicli now invaded Persia ; for, 
after having exposed his men to all the trials of a winter 
march through a hilly country destitute of roods and 
covered with snow, ho retired as ho had come, and 
allowed the Persians to recover from the consternation 
into which his approach had plunged them. The only 
fruit of his expedition was tlie seizure of some stores of 
wheat and rice, tlio property of Abbass Meerza. After 
the retreat of this predatory expedition, tlie Persian 
envoy found his opportunity of proceeding to Tiflis, and 
as a peace-offering, he took with him some hundred of 
Russian prisoners whom the Shah released without 
ransom. But at Tiflis he learned little which it would 
give satisfaction to the Shah to hear. The Russian 
authorities gave it to be understood that in order * to 
secure peace, Persia must be prepared to reUnqnish tlie 
possession of tlie provinces of Erivan and Nakhtchivan, 
which lay between her former frontier and the Araxes, 
and further to defray the charges of the war. The envoy 
was then peimitted to return to Tabreez with the assu- 
rance that the reply of Count Ncsselrode to the letters 
from tlie Persian ministers, would be forwarded to 
Telmm. That reply, when received, was found to bo 
couched in haughty terms, which showed that Russia 
did not as yet share the wishes of the Shah for tlie resto- 
ration of peace. 

The Persian monarch at this juncture,* which was 
one of the greatest importance as regarded the future 
destiny of his kingdom, did not act in such a manner 

• AJ>. 1687. 



221 A niSTORT OF PKHSIA. 

as to show Ilia sabjeets that ho was worthy of bomg 
the absoluto director of tho policy of Ponda. He 
wished for peace, but so groat was his pride, that it had 
required all the efforts of tlie representative of the Indian 
OoTcniment to induce him to consent to tlie mission of 
an enroy to Ilflis ; wliile, on tlie otlier liand, he could 
not be persuaded to dovoto a sufficient iK>rtion of his 
ample truamiro for tlio pur|)OH0 of ocpiipping un army in 
such a nijuinrr as tu onublo his win to carry on tlio war 
witli cflc'ct. His jiarHiinoiiioiui diHiKiMilion luiuh) it hiur«lor 
for him to iwrt with his gold than to see hin armies 
yanqniHlicNly and his territory hiTatlod by tlio enemy. 
TIio following aiiocdoto gives proof of tho extent to which 
tho uiipiinccly vice of avarice had by this time gained 
possession of tho mind of tlie Shall. Some boxes con- 
taiuiiig mirrors luid lamps had boon left in tho royal 
camp by l^nce Meuchikoflf, and Fettoh Ali caused them 
to bo seixcil on the iliiusy pretence that tho Uniwiau 
envoy hiul intimated tliat they were intended to bo given 
as a present to tlie Persian moimrch. It was feared by 
Uic iH*aco party of his court, that if this act of siM)liation 
should Im) repeated to the RuKsinu uutlioritioH it would 
be Hkoly to nuso a iiersoual feeling against the Shah, 
and S4> to retanl the coiicluMiun (»f i>eace« liut the king 
fiercely refused t4> reUnquish his prey, and at length 
Abbasii Moer/a had to purchase tho mirrors and lamps 
from hiri father in order that they might be restored to 
IViuce Menchikoff. In tho same spirit tho Shah insisted 
on throwmg tho cx{K>uso.and burden of tho war upon tlie 
single province of Aserbaecjan, tho revenues of which 
belonged to tlio crown-prince. 

With the spring of the year 1U27, both sides pro- 



TIIK UUSSfANS CIIKCKRD OK THE AKAXES. 225 

pored to rcsomo hostilities) and tlio rcgularly-driUed 
rogiments of Abbnss Mccrza were employed in garrison- 
ing the forts, and protecting the posses along the lino 
of the Aroxes, — a duty w*hich might hove been equally 
well performed by irregular Pension troops, hod the Shah 
ploced such at the disposal of the prince. So short- 
sighted a line of conduct is altogether inexcusable on 
the part of tlie Pernian king, who was at thot moment 
mostor of an uvoihiblo force of eighty tlipuHond men, 
exclusive of the contingents of Fars, Konnon, and Azer- 
boeejan. On the 25th of April, the Uussian division, 
comnninded by Prince Kewodxemi/iofT, broke up from 
its camp at Lori, and marched to the Armenian eon- 
vent of Etchmiodzeen, twelve miles distant from Erivon, 
and from tliere reconnoitred the fortress of Sirdorabad ; 
in perfoiming which service it encountered opposition 
from the Persians, and met with some loss. In 
Konulogh, the Russian division under General Mmlodoff 
approached the Araxes near the bridge of Khodo- 
Afcreen. On the morning of the 4th of May, the 
engineer endeavoured to construct a floating bridge 
of rafts, but they were prevented from doing so by the 
Pcraians, who kept up a very h(»avy fire of musketry 
from behind the rocks tliot at that point stretch almost 
to the water's edge. Many of thd Musc^ovite soldiers 
engaged in the work were killed, and some were forced 
to seek safety in the river, in the rapid currents of whicli, 
however, they only found a watery grave. Two Persian 
field-pieces, which hod been brought up during the 
preceding night, now opened fire on the llussiau camp 
near the stream, and the whole corj)s then retired with 
precipitation, leaving some tents on the ground, as well 

15 



226 A nisToiiT OF rsBinA. 



M tho timber with which they had intended to conBtroct 
the iBft and repair the bridge. The troops who thoa 
retreated, are said to hate numbered ten thonsand men, 
while tlie Pendana were kwa nnmcrooa. The rcanlt of 
this action was to be attriboted to the nature of the 
ground where it took pkeo, in wliicdi the Russian artil* 
lery was of no service whatever. The position of 
Etchroiudxeen was well calculated as a base for further 
operations. From Tiflis tlie Russian general had brought 
with him Archbishop Narses, to act as patriarch of the 
Armenian diurch, and under such auspices it was easy 
to obtain tlie good wishes and active cooperation of tlie 
Christian inhabitants of that portion of Armenia. To 
the strongly-walled vilUge of Etchmiadscen the Russian 
eommuudcr bron*^lit up from liori Htoros of all kinds, 
which were doiKwitotI in tho ample rooms of the uiouaH- 
t4*ry. At UuM juncture (iciioral YonnaloiT, who htal 
amin;,'('d the plan of a Humnicr cunipai<;u, was suddenly 
recalled from his government, in which he was suc- 
cecilcd by (icneral PaKkic witch. The latter officer now 
t4>ok the field in poryum, to command a diKponablo force 
of about twenty thouMiud men. The object of the llus- 
hian Govcmor-Gcnoral was to obtain pobHcssion of the 
imjiortant city and fortress of Erivan. It was attempted 
on the part of a lUiHsian agent, to win over tlie Hirdor 
IIosKan Khan ; but that chief and his aged brother 
remained true to the interests of the Shah. 

On the (ith of May the hiego of Erivan was com- 
menced, and two days later the investment of tliat place 
was complete, llonsan Khan attempted to annoy the 
besiegers from without, but his horsemen were driven off, 
and the city continued for several weeks to be belesguered. 



SIEGE OF ERITAN RAISED. 227 

On the morning of the 8tli of Juno, a Russian column^ 
consisting of two tliousond infantry, and an cqnol nnmbor 
of cavalry, with six pieces of artillery, crossed tlie Araxes, 
near wliich stream the gnns and infantry were posted, 
whilst the cavohry advanced to attack Hassan Khan, who, 
with a simibir number of irregular horseman, and two 
regiments of infantry, had taken up his position on the 
slope of a hill, called Koh-i-2oor. Some Polish lancers 
charged the Persians, and broke through their ranks; 
but Hassan Klian, taking the supporting Cossacks in 
flank, drove them before him, and forced them to make 
the circuit of the plain in order to rejoin then: reserve. 
An officer of the Affshar horse, fancying that he recog- 
nized in the colonel of one of the regiments of Cossacks 
the same person who in a previous affair had slain liis 
brother, was fired with an ungovernable ioMivo to perform 
what to a Persian is the sacred duty of avenging a rela- 
tive's blood. Singling out his adversary, ho followed him 
throughout the circuitous pui*suit, and having cut him 
down between two Russian guns, succeeded in effecting 
his own escape. In the meantime the siege of Erivan 
was still prosecuted. On the arrival before that place 
of General Paskiewitch on or about the 25th of June, 
the garrison was called upon to sun'ender, with the offer 
of being allowed to retire with the honours of war. But 
Hassan Ehan replied that it would ill become him to 
close his long life by an act of treachery to his Icing, and 
the Russian approaches were thereupon pushed onwards 
near to tlie city. New batteries poured for four or five 
successive days a hea^7 but fruitless fire into the place, and 
not a single man suffered from its effects. At length, on 
the 1st of July, after the investment of the fortress had 

15— « 



S38 A 1II8T0RT OF PERSIA. 

kstcd for eight weeks, the Imperial army broke up from 
before Erivan, and Oenend Paskiowitch, leaving that 
stronghold behmd him, marched on Naklitcliivan, after 
having sent his sick and wounded men to the Monastery of 
Etelimiodzeen. Thus for the third time the troops of the 
Csar failed in theur efforts to take the fortress of Erivan. 
On the 12th of July the Russian moveable force, con- 
sisting of 18,000 men and tliirty pieces of ordnance, 
marched from Nakhtchivan to Abbassabad, a fortress 
on the northern bank of the Araxos, a little lower on 
the stream. This place was held by 3,000 men and was 
well supplied witli provisions. Abbassabad had been 
fortified by a French engineer and was capable of 
presenting considerable obstacles to the besieging army. 
But treachery lurked within its battlements, over wliich 
the Russian eagles were destined soon to wave their 
wings. The cliicf of the tribe of Kaugerloo had been 
won over to the cause of the Russians, and he only 
awaited a fitting opportunity for delivering up the place 
into their hands. On the night of tlie 14tli of July an 
attempt wns made to carry Abbassabad by escalade, but 
the OMKuilants were repulsed with heavy loss. The fort 
was then cl(>S4*ly invoHto>l by the Russiiuis, who were in 
turn watched by the troops of Abbass Mcer/^ ; by tliuse 
of ILiMKAU Khan ; and by those of the Ascf-cd-Dowlch ; 
the luHt-mentioned person being put to flight in an affair 
which took place on the Itith of July. On that occasion 
Hassan Klian crossed the Araxes with his cavalry and 
attarke<l the Russian outposts, but he was driven back 
by the infiuitry and pursued by the cavalry and by a 
number of foot-soldiers who were conveyed over the 
stream at the backs of their mounted comrades, each 



ABBA8SABAD TAKEN BY PASKIEWITCU. 220 

horso carryiug two mon. Tho Persian guns oi)enc<l on 
this body so soon as it bad formed on tbo right bonk of 
tlie Araxes. The Russians thereupon, finding the ford 
impassable, threw ropes from one bank to the other 
higher up the stream, in order to prevent their men from 
being swept away by the current, and by these means 
they transported three thousand infantry to the right 
bank. Hassan Khan was unable to interrupt this move- 
ment, and as his men and their horses wore cxliausted 
with fatigue, he sent a message to Abbass Meerza 
requesting that the Asef-ed-Dowleh might be ordered to 
attack with his cavalry the half-formed battalions of the 
enemy. This suggestion was not complied withi but 
oil the other hand the Russians turned their guns upon 
tho Persian horse, as tlicy stood crowded together in 
a ravine, and drove them in confusion from tho field. 
The troops under the immediate command of the crown- 
prince were withdrawn in good order, and those of 
Hassan Klian held tlieir ground, whilst the Russians 
recroHsed to the left bank of tho Araxes. But the flight 
of the troops of the Ascf-ed-Dowloh afforded to tho base 
chief of the tribe of Kongerloo the opportunity which he 
waited for, of delivering up Abbassaboil to the foe. The 
garrison for the most part made terms with General 
Paskiewitch, with the exception of a regiment of Bakhliari 
that crossed to the right of the stream before the fall of 
tlie foi*t. But no sufficient attempt was made to follow 
up this success, and the Russian commander-in-chief, 
after having left a suitable force in Abbassabad, retired 
by Nakhtchivan to the frontier with the uitention of 
allowing to his troops some time for repose. It may 
have been necessary for General Paskiewitch to spare his 



230 A msioRT or fersia. 

anny, but by so doing he lost a precious opportunity 
of foDowing up the advantage he had gained at Abbassa- 
bad. Had he crossed the river and marched towards 
Khoiy where the Shah was then encamped, he would 
have thrown his majesty into the utmost stata of conster- 
nation, and might hate wrung from his fears an advau- 
tagoous peace. 

The l^nco Abbass Mconsa was now most desirous 
tliat a tonn should bo put to tlio war, and ho acconl- 
ingly sent a confidential agent to Tiflis who was charged 
with a letter from the representative of the Indian 
Government to the Russian commander-in-cliief on the 
subject of a negotiation for peace. In consequence 
of this step, M. Grubaiodoff, a gcutlomon whoso subse- 
quent melancholy fate mode his name to bo remembered, 
wii8 deputed by General Paskie witch to the Persian 
camp for the purpose of ofTering the following conditions 
of !iccomnio<lation : namely, that there should be an 
armistice for five weeks ; that Persia should cede to the 
Em|>eror in perpetuity all tlic countries now belonging 
to her to tlie soutli of the AmxcM ; and that the Slmh 
should pay the sum of 700,000 tomans in compensation 
for the cxpouKcs of the war and the ravages connnitted 
by the Persian troops. The prince would not accede to 
these terms, and, as General Paskiewiteh would not 
grant an armistice on any other basis, the negotiations 
were broken off, and Abbass Mccrza, with the Sirdar 
Hassan Khan, marched towards Abcnin, whilst the other 
Persiiui commanders were so placed as best to pnitect the 
extensive frontier from Karabti^^h to Taleesli. The prince 
and the sirdar now determined to attack the monastery 
of Etchmiadzcen ; but in the neighbourhood of that placo 



DEFEAT OK A RUSSIAN FORCE. 231 

they encountered a Russian force wliich had been brought 
up from Aberan by Oencral Earkoffski on his hearing a 
cannonade in the direction of the three churches. The 
Persians here numbered about five thousand infantry, 
and as many cavahy, with twenty-eight guns, while the 
Russians had the same number of mfantry, but only one 
thousand cavalry and twelve gmis. At evening, General 
KarkoflfHki an*ivcd at Asterick, a village about six miles 
disUuit from Etchmiadzoen, and having rested there for 
the night, he resumed his march on the following morn- 
ing. At a short distance from the village ho passed a 
division of the Persian army, which was posted on some 
heights near the road, and a Uttlo further on he came 
abreast of a second column, under the command of the 
Sirdar of Erivan. Here the action commenced ivith a 
fire from the Persian artillery, so destructive that the 
Russians could not proceed, but were forced to endeavour 
to fall back upon Astcrick. Their retreat was inter- 
cepted by the advance of a division led by Prince Abbass 
Meerza, and from that moment the battle became general 
throughout the line. The repeated charges of the 
Persian infantry, who, anxious to wipe off the disgrace of 
(Icnja, advanced in excellent order and with great intre- 
pidity on the Russian squares, succeeded in throwing the 
latter into disorder. The fire of the prince's guns had 
the cficct of preventing the Russian soldiers from re- 
forming, and changed the well-organized battalions into 
a tumultuous throng. The Muscovite general was borne 
away from the field wounded ; his brother, a lieutenant- 
colonel, was killed ; and most of the oflicers of the 
division received wounds or death, after having made 
brave but fruitless efforts to rally their men. Some of 



IMh 



232 A UISTOBY or I'KRSIA. 

them fell alive into the liauds of the Fersiausi and these 
geutlomen, while estimating the loss on their side at 
nearly three thousand men, affirmed thati had tlieur 
o|ii>onenlH evinced more moderation and loss barbarity 
in the moment of victoiy, not one of the Russians would 
have escaped. The eagerness of the Forsians to cut off 
the heads of their slain or wounded enemies gave time 
for many hard-pressed men to efTcct their oscaiK) ; and 
many who had thrown aside tlieir arms with Uie mtention 
of surrendering, took courage on viewing the fate of their 
comrades, and fought with desperation tlieir way towards 
the friendly walls of Ktchmiadzeen. It is but just to the 
memory of Abbass Meerza to state that he did his best 
to discourage amongst his soldiers the practice of de- 
capitating tlieir slain enemies : lio gave no reward for 
Uie hetuU which were brought to him after the battle of 
Ahterick, but the sum of eleven lomiuis for each living 
pnMoner. About one thounaud of the rersiaus wore 
killed or wounded in this action, in which it was fairly 
proved thiit the battaliou:i of Azerbaeejan, which had 
been disciplined by a Major Uart and other English 
officers, were a match in the open field for nearly a 
similar nunibiT of Rutwion iufantr}'. 

Abbass Meerza, however, sensible that unless he 
should be supi>orted by the whole power of Persia, he 
would not be able long to cope with the resources of 
llusiiia, addressed to his fatlier a note setting forth tlie 
nnvanii»lied truth, on the receipt of which the Shall 
fell into bo ungovernable a fit of rage, that he sentenced 
the Vizcer who delivered the note, to pay a fine of six 
hundred tomaiis, and could not be approached for hours 
afterwards. On coming to his senses, after having 



GArrUllE OF ERIVAK UY PA8KIKWITCU. 233 

consigned hin son a hundred times to perdition, tlie king 
determined to send his Yizeer of Foreign Afftiirs to 
London, to press the British ministers to use their 
influence with Itussia for tlio rcostablisliment of an 
lionourablo i)eace; but the mission of the Yizeer was 
jiostponed, pending the reply to some communications 
which hod been ahroady addressed to his Britannic 
MajcHty's Ministers. General Paskiewitch, in the mean- 
time, relieved the garrison of Etchmiadzeen, and the 
Persian commander retired to the south of the Araxes. 

Towards the close of the September, the fort of Sur- 
darabad, near Mount Ararat, was deserted by its giurrison, 
and foil into the hands of the Bussians, and as Oeneral 
PaHkiewitch was strengthened by the arrival of five 
thousiuid fresh troops, as woU as by that of a siege-traiuy 
ho now once more undertook the siege of Erivau. By 
the fall of AbboHsabad and Sirdarabad, Erivan was now 
iHolatcd, and it was the only post wanting to secure to 
the BusHians the possession of the portion of Persia 
which lay to the south of the river Araxes. Up to this 
point of he campaign, the Bussian commanders had owed 
their successes more to the supineness of the Shah and 
to the discoufent of some of his subjects, than to any 
mihtary talen. or any remarkable energy displayed by 
themselves, but for the treachery of the garrisons of 
the above-mentioned two fortresses, it is probable that 
the campaign of 1827 would have left the belligerents in 
the same position relatively to each other in which it 
had found them at its opening. But fortune favoured 
General Paskiewitch, and the utterly infatuated conduct 
of the Shah rendered it only needful for the Imperial 
officers to come and see and conquer. When the heats 



SM A anroRT of FKBaiA. 

of rammer had rabsidedt Fetteh Ali Shah retired to 
Tdinn, liATing poeitifoly refoiiod to dole out any more 
money far the pnrposo of enabling bis son to carry on 
tho war. The reBonrees of Tabreex were now exliauHtcdy 
and the prineei therefore, with much rolQctauce dia- 
miaaed the greater part of hia troopa to their komea for 
the winter, thna leating the capital of Ascrbaeejan un- 
defended. Of thia atate of thinga Ghmeral Paakiewitch 
waa eariy made aware through the Armeniana who 
eonoaponded wiUi Arehbiahop Nanea, and a corpa of 
hia army waa accordingly pualicd forward to Morond on 
the Boath of the Araxea, a town forty milea distant from 
Tabreoa. Tho gloomy aspect of affairs seems at length 
to haTO broken tlie firmnoaa of Hassan Klian, for we 
read that only eight days after tho opening of the 
trenches before his city for the lost time by tlie Hussions, 
the hero of a hundred fights surrendered himself, and 
hu brotlier's fortretts, to Ocncral Poskiewitch, who thus 
earned tlie title of Coimt of EriTon. 

A greater cidamity was in resenre to punish the 
ararico and supinenoss of the Sliah. Scnmblo when too 
late of tlio terrible conscqucnccH tliat were likely to follow 
tlie dismissal of his forces for tlio winter, tlie croun-princo 
maile many fruitless attcmptH to rensnemble liis soldiers, 
and was on his way from Kli<»i to Tabreez with the few 
trooi»s remaining to him, when, at Uie distance of one 
day's march from the place, he learned to his horror 
that ita gatea had been thrown open to Prince Aristoff, 
who with a force of S,000 men had advanced from 
Marend. The dismay of tlie prince on receiving this 
intcUigence may be more eaaily conceived than describeil. 
wivea and children had been left in Tabrcei, and 



FALL OF TABREEZ. 235 

tbat city contained his palace, his artillery, and his 
military stores. He dismounted from his horse, and at 
once entreated Sir John Macdonald, the British envoys 
to send one of his officers to arrange for an interview 
between his Boyal Highness and Genci-al Paskiewitch. 
At the same time, as he was seated disconsolate under 
the shade of a willow-tree, he implored the envoy to 
lend him «3,000 tomans, to defray his current expenses. 
The British officer forthwith ordered that the sum spe- 
cificd should be lianded over to the prince. But the 
Russian commander was not so courteous towards tho 
royal personage in distress. Probably possessed by a 
feehng of secret satisfaction at being able to humble 
so exalted a personage, General Paskiewitch declined 
for the present the interview profTored by his Boyal 
Highness. The prince had no resource but to brook 
tliis insult, and he retreated with the Sirdar Hussein 
IChan to Salmas, to await the pleasure of tlie con- 
queror. 

The immediate cause of the fall of Tabreez may be 
stated to have been the disaffection of the chiefs of 
Marend, whose father had been put to death by Abbass 
Meerza, for having in the previous year deserted his j)ost 
at the fortress of Geuja. These young men, intent on 
revenge, were made aware of tho discontent with wliich 
the people of the city endured the rule of the Asef-ed- 
Dowleh ; and they accordingly assured Prince Aristoff 
that he would meet with no opposition in marching on 
the capital of Azerbaeejan. Nevertheless, tlie Asef-ed- 
Dowleh discharged with his own hand some shots pointed 
on the advancing Russian columns, and thus caused 
Prince Aristoff to suspect the truthfulness of the chiefs 



286 ▲ UI8T0RT OF rEBSU. 

of Marcnd. But at the close of that day the high-priest 
of Tobreez, backed bj many of the chief citizens, took 
the keys of the city from the gute-keepors, whom the 
party tlircw down from the top of the city wall. They 
then proceeded to the Russian camp, and invited the 
general to take possession of the place. On the receipt 
of this intclUgence, General Paskiowitch brought up the 
bulk of his army, and on his arrival he omitted no means 
of soothing the inhabitants of Tabrccx. 

The standard of revolt was now raised by several of 
the discontented chiefs of Azcrbaeejan, who, deprived by 
the poUcy of the Shah of mnch of tlicir hereditary in- 
flnence, tlionght to regain it under the sway of the Czar. 
Amongst tliese were the lords of Maragha, who liberated 
tlie Russian prisoners confided to their core, and profTcred 
their own allegiance to tlie Emperor. Another insurgent 
was Jchangecr Khan, chief of the great tribe of Shekaki, 
and the son of the celebrated Sodck Khan, who had dis- 
putcil the posftCHHon of the Persian throne with Fetteh Ali 
Shall, and who had perished so miserably at Tehran. This 
chieftain was now appointed to be governor of Ardubeol, 
in the name and on the behalf of the Emperor of Russia. 
Two of the best regiments in the Shah's service belonged 
to the tribe of Shekaki, and at the word of their chief 
tliey at once dispersed, and carried to their homes their 
arms and accoutrements. In short, the parsimonious- 
ness and neglect of the Shah haul brought about a state 
of tilings when his empire was fast crumbling to pieces ; 
and, to crown all, the Russian commander-in-chief declared 
his hitention of marching on Tehran, unless his demands 
should be instantly complied with. There existed indeed 
bnt one obstacle, namely, tlie pass of the Kaflankoh, to 



NROOTUTIOKS WITU RUSSIA. 237 

the advance of a force from Tabrecz to Tehran ; bat to 
have pushed forward the small body of troops at his 
disposal * 400 miles farther from his base of operations, 
woald have been a proceeding of so hazardous a natare, 
that notliing bat the assurance of his being unopposed 
by tlio Persians could have justified it in the eyes of 
European tacticians. But in the same way the advance 
by Prince Aristoff on Tabreez — a city of 200,000 warlike 
inhabitants — with only 4,000 men, may be characterized 
as rash. Rashness is sometimes the most prudent 
course in war with irresolute Oriental enemies ; and it 
is probable that had Qencral Paskiewitch carried into 
execution his threat of marching on into the interior of 
tlie country, he would have obtained possession of the 
Persian capital. 

The demands of the Russian plenipotentiaries at the 
conferences which now took place between them and 
Abboss Meerza at Dehroghan were that, in addition 
to Erivan and Nakhtchivon, the district of Makoo, on 
the south of tlie Araxes, and the province of Taleesh, 
should bo given up to the Czar, together with the 
enormous sum of fifteen crores of tomans, or nearly 
4,000,000/. sterling. The negotiations weire protracted 
from the middle of November, 1827, until the end of 
the month of February of tlie following year, owing to 
the almost insuperable reluctance of the Shah to part 
with a portion of the treasure which it had been the 
task of a long reign to amass. Judging of European 
faith by his experience of tlie absence of truthfulness in 
the Pei*Bian character, Fetteh Ali Shah did not scruple 

* Tho IluMiiiaii forco at thin timo in Tabroos amounted to 16,000 
infantry and oavaliy with fifty gum. 



238 A UMTORT or PBRflU. 

to expren his apprehensions lest Oeneral Pasklewitcli 
should accept the Persian gold and then expend it in the 
prosecution of the war. It was fortonate that there yet 
remained one person to whose word the Shall expressed 
himself willing to tmsL Tliis was Six John Macdonald, 
tlie British oiitoy ; and Fetteh Ali positively refased to 
pay any portion of the sum asked by Russia unless tlie 
English representative would guarantee that General 
FssUewitch would fulfil the oonditaons of the contraet. 
This pledge, at the request of the Russian general, was 
readily given by Sir John Macdonald, and the negotia- 
tions were accordingly proceeded with. But it required 
the utmost pressure to bduce the sgcd Sluih to agree to 
tlie sum to which the Russian pleniiK>tcutiaries consented 
to reduce tlioir domnnd, and it was to tlie personal uiflu- 
ence exrrtcHt over liis niujosty by Mr. McNeill, of the 
British Miwtion, tliat tlie conclusion of peace was in a 
great nicaHure to be ascribed. A treaty was at length 
agreed to on tlie 2lKt of Febmur}-, 1828, by the pleni- 
potentiaries assembled at Turkomoncliai, a village a few 
miles to tlie west of tlie pass of Kaflonkoli. Tlio Shah's 
consent had not been given too soon, for the rebellious 
cliieis of Azerbaeojan had oficred to the Russian general 
the assistance of 15,000 horsemen in the march to 
Tehran ; and his Excellency, tired of delay and mis- 
trustful of the honesty of the Shah, was preparing to 
move on the capital. 



( 239 ) 



CHAPTER EC. 

ProTiiiionii of tho Treaty of Tnrkonmncliai— Altoratioii of the Trettj 
botween Kngland and Pcnda — General Confusion in Pernia — Supina- 
noNn of the Shairn GoTomfnciit — M. GrolMiiodofr— Murder of the 
Meml>rr8 of his Mission — ^Terror of tho Shah — Kmbassjr to Petersburg 
of l^rinco Kosrof>^So vero Enrthau akos in Persia — Conipoij^n of the 
Crown -Prince in Khorassan— Fall of Aroocrabad and of Khabooshan — 
Aswiitlt on 8<*m*khH — Origin of the Aflfghan War — Dcatli of Abbaas 
Mccrza— Thu Knim-Makam — Iiost Days of Fottoh All Shah— Uis 
Character— Durial-placo of tho Pcraian Kingi. 

As tho proviHious coutaiuod. in tho troaty of pooce 
coucluilcd between tho plenipotontiaries of llnHsia and 
Persia respectively, at Turkonianchai, now form the 
basin of the intercourse between Persia and tho nations of 
Europe, it is desirable to examine this troaty with some 
care. By the fourth article tho following lino of frontier 
is laid down as that which was thenceforward to separate 
tho territories of Ilussia and of Persia. From tho frontier 
of the Ottoman dominions nearest in a straight line to 
the summit of the lesser Ararat a lino was to be drawn 
from that mountain to the sourco of tho lower Karasou, 
which runs from Uio southern slope of tho lesser Ararat, 
and it was to follow its course as far as to its junction 
with tho iVraxes opposite to Chooroor. Having reached 
that point, the hue was to follow tho bed of tho i\j:axes 
to the fortress of Abbassabad, round the outer works of 
which a Une of three versts was to be traced, and all the 
ground enclosed in this lino was to belong to Bussia. 



I 



340 A HI8T0RT or PEB8IA. 

« 

From tiie placo where the eastern extremity of this line 
shonltl have rejoined the Araxes the frontier was to 
eontiune to follow the bed of tliat river as far as to the 
ford of Ycdiboolaky from which the Persian territory was 
to extend along the Araxes for tlie distance of twenty-one 
Tersts. From there the frontier was to Ue on the right j)f 
the plain of Moghan to the river Bolgaron, to twenty one 
versts below the conflnence of the Adina-bazar, and the 
Lava Kamysche. From there the line was to follow the 
left bank to the junction of these two streams, and to 
stretch along the riglit bank of Uie eastern Adina-bazar 
to its source, and thence to the summit of tlie hciglits of 
Jikoir, so that all the waters that flowed towards the 
Caspian should belong to Russia, whilst those that flowed 
in tlie other direction should belong to Persia. As the 
watenthed of the mountains marked the limit of tlie 
dominions of the two states, it was a^o^eed that all the 
nortliem slope should belong to Russia, whilst all the 
southern slope should belong to Persia. From the crest 
of tlie lieights of Jikoir, tlie line of frontier was to extend 
to the Kummit of Karakonia, the mountain ^which sepa- 
rates Tulecnh from the district of Arclia. Here also the 
crest of the moniitaiu was to mark the divinion an far as 
to the Kourcc of tlie river of Astcra, which wus to com- 
plete the line of demarcation. By tlie sixth article of 
tlie treaty the Shah of Persia engaged to pay to Russia 
OS an iihlcmuity a sum of twenty millions of roubles, or 
five millions of tomans. By the seventh article Abbass 
Meerza was designated as tlie heir to the Persian monarchy, . 
and Russia agreed to recognize him as Shah from tlie 
dote of his accession to the tlirone. By the eighth article 
the Russians were secured in tlie right of freely navigating 



TREATY OF TURKOMANCUAI. 241 

tho "Caspian sea and landing on its coasts. As to vessels 
of war, as those of Bussia had from of yoro enjoyed the 
exclusive privilege of traversing the waters of the Caspian, 
tlie same privilege was to be continued to them. By tlie 
tentli article it was stipulated that Russia should possess 
the right to name consuls or commercial agents wherever 
tlie demands of commerce should require them, and that 
each of these consuls was not to have a suite of more 
than ten persons. By the thirteentli article of the treaty 
it was agreed that all tlie prisoners of war made on either 
side, as well as the subjects of either })owor in captivity, 
should be Ubcratcd within the term of four months. The 
two governments reserved to tliemsolves the right of at 
luiy time claiming prisoners of war or subjects of either 
l>ower respectively, who might, from some accidental 
reason, not be restored within the si)ecified time. By 
tlie fifteenth article the Shah granted an amnesty to the 
chiefs of Azcrbaeejan, who were given the term of one 
year to remove to the Russian dominions, without any 
hindrance, should they decide upon doing so. By the 
second article of a protocol to the same treaty, it was 
regulated that three crores, or a million and a half, of 
toiniuiH should be paid by Pei*8ia in the couf-so of the 
iirst eight days succeeding the conclusion of the treaty, 
and tliat two crores of tomans should bo paid iiftcen days 
later ; tliree crores by the 13tli of April of that year, and 
tliat the two crores which should remain still due to 
Russia, should be liquidated by tlie 13th of January of 
the year 1830. By the third article of the same protocol 
it was determined tliat in the case in which the sums due 
by Persia should not be paid to Russia on or before the 
15tli of August of 1828, tlie whole province of Azcrbaeejan 

IG 



A UISTORT OF PEB8IA. 

■honid for ever be Bcparated from the kiiigclom of Persia, 
and either added to the Rassian dominiona, or erected 
into a separate Khanate. Khoi was to remain in the pos- 
seaaion of the Rnsaians after they should hare quitted the 
rest of Azerbaeejan, as a material guarantee for the pay- 
ment of tlie portion still to be paid of the indenmitj. 

By another protocol it was agreed between tlie con- 
tractuig imrties tliat so soon as tlio rendan Minister 
slionld receive notice of tlio nrrival at Tidis of a lUissian 
ambasHiulory he should make choice of an individual of 
a rank corrcsiionding to that of the lunbassador, and 
send him to meet tlie euToy at tlie frontier, and act as 
his MchmapdaVf becoming responsible for his safety in 
his journey to tlie court, and also being responsible for 
the rendering of all the honours duo to liis rank. By 
the same protocol it was arranged tliat tlie ambassador 
was to be received at each station by an islikball, or 
dcputution, composed of the chief man of the place ; 
of the dignitaries, and a suitable suite. In the case of 
the niubassador passing through a city of which one of 
the Sliuh's sons should lie governor, his vizccr was to be 
hcut to meet tlio envoy. On the day following that of 
liis arrival at the cn]>ital, the Shah's Minintcrs wore to 
c»ll on the ambassador, who on the next dav was to 
have an audience of the Shall. In the cane of the 
arrival of a minister plenipotentiary, or of a charge 
d'affaires, tlie simie ceremonial was to be observed, with 
the exception that the Shah's chief Minister was not to 
pay the first visit. 

By the commercial treaty of Turkomaiichai, conclude<l 
on the Banie date, it was fixed that Uussiim traders 
should eiijoy ui Persia all the privileges accorded to tl^e 



TllBATY OF TUllKOMANCUAL 243 

subjects of the most favoured nation. Goods passing 
from one country to the other were to be subjected to 
one sole duty of five per cent.,* levied at the frontier. 
Russian subjects were to have the right to acquire en 
touU proprUtc habitable houses and magazines into which 
the employes of the Persian government should not have 
the right of penetrating by force, except by the sanction 
of the lluHsian Minister or Consul. The rcpresentativos 
of Itussia, with the gentlemen attached to tliom, and 
the consuls of the same nation, were to have the privilege 
of being allowed to import, free from duty, all kinds of 
articles which should be intended solely for their own 
use, and Persians employed by the Russian officials were 
to enjoy Russian protection in the same manner as 
Russian subjects. The settlement of all disputes between 
Russian subjects in Persia was to be entirely confided to 
the Minister or Consul of his Imperial Majesty; the 
treatment of them to be according to tlio laws .of Russia. 
Disputes between subjects of the two governments were 
to be settled by the two courts of religious law and of 
equity, but a Russian employe was to bo present during 
the hearing of each case. 

Such were the provisions of the Treaty df Turko- 
mauchai, concluded between General Paskie witch and 
Monsieur Obrescoff on the part of Russia, and Prince 
Abbass Meerza on that of Persia, and signed in the 
presence of the Asef-cd-Dowleh and the Persian Minister 
for Foreign Aflfairs. The chief difficulty in canying the 
provisions of this treaty into effect lay in the extreme 
unwiUinguoss of tlie Shah to part with his treasure. 
His Majesty consented to give six croros of tomans, 

* Ciiiq pour ot'iiL 

10—2 



A IllSTORT OP P£IUnA. 

and Uio British envoj on tbe part of bis Govom- 
ment consented to give 200|000 tomans, with the pro- 
Tision tliat on tiie one hand the Persian territory should 
bo at once abandoned, and that on the other the 
third and fourth articles of the then existing definitive 
tineaty with Engbmd should be expunged from that 
document, and the stipulations therein contained be 
thenceforward deemed null and void. The llussian 
general at length agroed to evacuate the province of 
Axerlmecjttu, with the exception of Klioi, on the receipt 
of six and a half croros of tomans, or 3,250,000/., and 
the 50,000 tomans wanted to complete tliis sum were 
supplied by l^co Abbass Mcerza. 

/The Persian Government held that tlie original occu- 
pation by Uussiu of the district of Gokchch constituted an 
act of oggrcHsion, and tliat, tliercforo, Persia was entitled 
to receive from (Sroat Dritain a HubHidy for the whole 
I>eriod of tlie war. This cLiim, however, was not mliuittcil 
by the RngliHli (•ovornmont, who lu.'ld tliat Pornia by 
hiva^ling KnsHia had boon the real aggresHor in the war. 
It is beyond (|UeMtion tliat KusHia, in occupying the dis* 
trict of (i(»kclieli, had no thoughts of making war ujHin 
Persia, and there can I>e no doubt also that no war 
would have occumnl but for tlio religious outcry which 
was raihi^l in the Shall 's dominions. The decimon, 
therefore, of the British Government was in conformity 
with juHtice ; but at the same time they saw the delicacy 
of tlie situation in which tlicy would have been placed 
luul lluKsia in reality commenced the war, as in such 
a ca»o, they would have been in the ]K>Mitiou of supplying 
Persia witli a subttidy for tlie purpose of carr}'iiig on war 
with a Power in friendly alliance with Eughind. It was 



FU1':SU TROUBLES. 245 

a signal Bcmco on the part of Sir Jolin Macdonald to 
extricate his Qovemment from such aai obligation, and 
the necessities of Persia made the receipt of 200|000 
tomans of peculiar value to her at that crisis. But for 
the payment of that sum, General Paskiewitch would 
have continued to hold Azerbaecjan. 

In the meantime troubles arose in several parts of 

^ersia. The Turkomans, as might have been anticipated, 
^rose in rebellion. The people of Yczd drove the Shah's son, 
their governor, fi*om that city, and took possession of his 
eiTccts. The inhabitaints of Ispahan refused the payment 
of tlio revenue due by them, and the great province of 
Kerman presented a scene of open revolt ; to crush which 
the Prince Hassan Aii Mccrza was now sent at the head 
of an army. The crown-prince at this time intended to 
proceed in the autumn of the same year upon an embassy 
to IluHsia ; and in the month of May he visitc'd Tehran, 
to consult personally with the Shah, over whom ho 
regained all that inlluenco which had been donnant for 
a time in consociuence of the events of the late war. 

[.'ho king now conferred upon him the governments of 
tvcrmanshah and Ilamadan, in addition to that of Azer- 
baecjan, which he had up to this time held, and ho 
triumphed over his late colleague Allah-yar Khan, the 
Asef-ed-Dowloh, who was dismissed from the post of 
prime minister and publicly dogimled by receiving the 
punishment of tlie bastinado. It was the Shah's com- 
mand tliat the prince should superintend the infliction of 
tliis chastisement, and it is illustrative of the anger with 
which the recollection of tlie ex-Yizeer's pusillanimity 
filled him, that the prince inflicted with his own hand 
several blows on the feet of the prostrate man. 



S40 A HIBTORT OF FEB8IA. 

The eoart of Ftoria was now occupied in 8pecQlatin«; 
on the probable resolte of tlie war between Russia and 
Torkqr* The Shah was besought by both sides to take 
a part in the contest. There was little fear of his again 
proToldng tlie anger of Russia, but his son desured that 
in tlie erent of the downfall of the Ottoman empire, tlie 
frontier of Persia might be extended to Erseronm and 
to the Tigris. It was determined to remain neutral for 
tlie present, but to be prepared to take adfantage of any 
orents that might occur. In the meantune the Shah, 
whose thoughts dwelt on the advantages he miglit gain 
by the downfall of tlie Sultan, was on the point of 
iirafciting the most valnable of his own provinces. By 
tlie treaty of Turkomanchai it was sUpnhited tliat in the 
CTcnt of the third instalment of the pccuniaiy indemnity 
due by Persia not being paid to tlie Russian agents by 
tlio 27tli (if August of the year 1828, the whole of 
A/4*rbsicojan should for ever be separated from Persia. 
Notwithbtandiug this clause, the Shah's govcmment, 
with a recklessness entirely chamcteristic of Persians, 
took no thought up to the last moment as to tlie manner 
in wliic'h the reqnircd money was to be raised ; indeed, 
tlie Vizeer of Azerbaeojan was unaware of the obligation 
into which the Shah luul entered, until tlic specific<l 
imwage of the treaty was bn>ught to his notice by Sir 
John Macdonold. At the eleventh hour tlic required 
sum was gotliered together — the British envoy becom- 
ing security for tlie payment of 100,000 tomans — and 
the district of Khoi was evacuated by the Russian 
troops. 

In another direction the aspect of affairs was such as 
to Icoil the Shah to tlie reflection that it became him to 



MISSION FROM THE CZAR OF RUSSIA. 247 

attond to tlie conservation of the dominions he already 
possessed, ratlier than to seek to extend tliem on tlie 
ruins of the empire of the Sultan. The sons of Hassan 
Ali Meerza, who were left in charge of Khorassan, 
apjieared in arms against each other, and this was the 
signal for several of tlie turbulent chiefs, — amongst them 
those of Boojnoord, Koochan, Kelat, and Turbat, — all 
inveterate enemies of the Kajars, — to raise the standard 
of revolt. One of these entered the city of Meshed in 
August 1828, and got possession of tlie citadel and of 
the person of the governor. The venerable Sirdar, 
formerly of Erivan, a warrior of ninety years of age, 
was despatched to Ehorassan ; but his military talents 
had not the effect of reducing the unruly chiefs to 
order. * 

Persia was still in a troubled and disordered condition 
when an event occurred which might have furnished a 
pretext for the forcible dismemberment of tlie monarchy 
and the overthrow of the Kajar dynasty. Monsieur 
Grebaiodoff, a Russian gentleman related by marriage to 
the count of Erivan, had been selected as envoy extra- 
ordinary and minister plenipotentiary from the Czar to 
the court of Persia. Ho arrived at Tabrcez in the 
month of October, 1828, and there leaving Madame 
Grebaiodoff and a part of his splendid suite, ho proceeded 
to Tehran, with the purpose of presenting his letters of 
credence to the Shah, and of shortly returning to Azer* 
baeejan. The imperial mission was received with the 
utmost distinction by the king, who commanded his 
nobles to do their best in order to render the stay of 
the strangers at the Persian capital as agreeable as it 
might be made. The Order of the Lion and Sun was 



248 A IlfSTORT OF PRRSIA. 

conferrocl on tlio gentlemen of the embassy; and the 
limited rosoorces of Tehran were employed to the utmost 
extent in onler to increase the good-lmmoor of the 
representative of tlie Czar. 

Tliat represeutatiye was a gentleman of an honour- 
able and npright disposition, and he was folly determined 
to uphold the dignity of» and to exact the rights due to, 
his imperial master. He was, pcrhai)s, of too nnbending 
a character to have qimlified lum for being a suitable 
ropresentative to such a court as tliat of Persia ; but if 
Uiis were a fault witli which he might have boon charged, 
ho paid a hoa^7 i>eualty for his firmncHs. It is said that 
the fact of bin Cossacks being often seen in a Kiaito of 
intoxication in tlie streets of Tehran, raised a feeling of 
disgust agaiust tlio Russians in the minds of the people 
of the Persian capital, and tliat this was increased by the 
refusal of the Minister to grant redress in the case of 
some complaints against the conduct of his followers 
which were brought to his notiec. But any discontent 
which may have existed was not j>ei*untteil to display 
itself openly ; and the Minister had obtained from the 
Khali hiri audience of leave, and was on the point of 
Slotting out on his return to Tabree/.» when Yakoob Khan, 
the H(*coiit\ chief eunuch of the royiil liureni, came to the 
house of the ImiH^rial Mission, and claimed protection, 
on the plea of his Wing a native of Krivmi. By the 
tnnty of Turkomauchai, he had the right to return to 
his native place within a si>cciiied i)erioil, which h;ul not 
then expired ; but M. Grebaiodoflf usetl all the arguments 
that occurriHl to him for the puriHise of i)ersutuling him 
to relinquish his intention of returning to his native 
phice, i>ointing out that he had been long estrangeil 



DKMAKDS OF M. GRBBAlODOFF. 249 

from tho liabitn in wliich ho had boon bronglit up» and 
that ho would find hunsolf in an altorod position should 
ho return. But the eunuch^ fired with spite against hb 
recent masters, insisted on the enjoyment of the privilege 
to which tho treaty entitled him, and he at . lengtli 
obtained sliolter in tlie Russian Mission. This most 
unfortunate occurrence placed the Imperial Legation in 
direct opposition to the household of the Shahi and 
caused much ill-feeling ; but it was of small importance 
compared to anotlicr event to which it led. 

The shelter aflbrdod to Yakoob Khan induced tho 
Sliah's Ministers to press certain claims on the llussiau 
rcprescnbitivo, and tlie annoytuicos to which he was sub- 
jected roused his haughty spirit to desire to enforce Uio 
claims which he, on tlie part of his own Oovemment, 
was legally entitled to advance. Two days after the 
flight of the eimuch from the Shah*s harem apartments, 
M. Grebaiodoff advanced a demand that two Armenian 
women from the ceded provinces, and who were now 
Mahomedans and inmates of the house of the Asef-ed- 
Dowlch, should be delivered up to the Russian Mission. 
An attempt was at firat made by the Persian Govern* 
uicnt to eviule Uiis requisition ; but on its being pressed^ 
Allah-yar Khan was ordered to give up the women, 
who were accordingly taken to the house occupied by 
M. Grebaiodoff, and committed to the care of the eunuch 
Yakoob Klian. The Asef-ed-Dowleh had all along been 
tlio inveterate foe of the Russians, and it is probable 
that he did his utmost to fan the flame which now 
burst fortli. It is probable also that the knowlodgo 
possessed by M. Grebaiodoff of the sentiments of Allali- 
yar Klian had led him to press a request so humbling to 



2S0 A nisTORT or fbosia. 

tlie prido of that nobloman as the demand for the delivery 
of two of the ladies of his harem. The case was referred 
by the ronsed populace to the decision of the priests ; 
and the chief migtehed gave a fctwahf or statement 
of his opinion, that it was lawful to rescue from the 
hands of infidels two women professing the faith of 
Mahomed, and who belonged to the household of a true 
beUever. 

On being informed of the risin<; tumult, the Shah 
direetod tlie Minister for Foreign AiTuirs to entreat the 
envoy to cuter into some amui<;ement which might 
have tlie efibct of calming tlie excited populace. M. Gre- 
baiodoff agreed to do so on the following day ; but Uiis 
delay proved fatal to himself, and was the cause of an 
indelible disgrace befalling the people of the capital of 
Persia. Between eight and nine o'clock on the morning 
of the lltli of February, 1829, the boziuvrs of Teliraii 
were clo8c<l, and the inhabitants flocked in wild confusion 
toward tlie renidonce of the lluMHian envoy, with tlie 
inUiition of taking tlie law into their own luindH, ro- 
looMing the disputed wonioii, and seizing tlio eunuch 
Yakoob. No sooner had the crowd succeeded in forcing 
its way into the court of the house of the Russian Lega- 
tion tlian the envoy's stem resolution at length gave 
way, and he ordered tliat the ladies should be restoreil 
to tlieir lonl. But a contest euHuing between some of 
his followers and the foremost of tlie crowd, who were 
drugging the eunuch towanls them, a fatal shot was 
firc«l, by which a citizen of Tehran was killed. Ilis Inxly 
was forth wi til conveyed to the neighlK)uring inosiiue, and 
tliero tlie bigoted priests proclaimed the disgrace tliat 
would follow the omission of exacting blood for the blood 



MURDER OF THE RUSSIAN MISSION. 2S1 

that hod been spilt. The euvoy mode every effort to 
appetise the infuriated mob, so long as peaceful measures 
seemed likely to be attended with success : he even caused 
his treasure to be thrown amongst the crowd ; but this 
only quickened the desire for plunder, and when the 
eunuch Yakoob was torn to pieces, the Cossacks of the 
envoy's guard wore ordered to fire upon the murderous 
rabble. The resistance offered by M. Orebaiodoff and 
tlie members of his mis>uon prevented the rci*sians from 
entering the room they occupied ; but with ill-timed 
iugenuity it occurred to tlie assailants to remove a por- 
tion of the roof of tlie apartment, and by throwing down 
sticks and stones and clods of earth from above, tliey 
forced the Russian gentlemen to seek safety in the court- 
yard, whore they were soon overi)owei*ed, and despatched 
by the daggers of the infuriated throng. All that the 
house contained was then carried off, and on one of 
the i>opulace crying out that the horses of the Russian 
Mission were in tlio stable of the British Legation, a 
simultimeous rush was directed towards the Kiiglish 
palace. The gates withstood the efforts tliat were made 
to burst tliom open ; but the cupidity of the mob was 
not thus to be thwarted, and an entrance to the stable- 
yard was effected from the adjoining house, the wall of 
which was scaled. It is remarkable that any traces of 
moderation should at that moment have been discernible 
in the conduct of the Persian rioters ; but they drew a 
fine distinction between what in their opinion was, and 
what was not, their lawful prey. Whilst they possessed 
themselves of all the horses and all the horse-clothing 
belonging to the Russian Mission, tliey inflicted not the 
slightest injury upon a single article of British property. 



262 A mSTORT OF rERSIA. 

Ilaring pnt to death a Ocorj^on groom and two Cossacks, 
tbcy led oat the lionesi aud, dcpartiug to their homes, 
Uic tnmiilt Boddonljr subsided. 

On the first news of this ontbreak rcacluiig liim, 
the S]itth instantly ordered the governor of Tehran and 
tlio commander of the forces to do their utmost to quell 
it ; but it appeared that the authority of these princes 
was utterly set at defiance, since, after having received 
])cnonal insults, they retired to tlio ciUulel, the gates 
of wliich were shut under the apprehension lest the 
rising sliould extend itself even to tlie precincts of 
the abode of the Shall. The king overwhelmed with 
shame and dismay upon learning what had taken place, 
hastened to protect the person of M. Malzoff, the first 
secretary to the Russian MiHsion, and the only survivor 
of the party. 

Tliat gmtlemon had been lodged with the Persian in 
charge of the Mission, in a house, or rather a suite of 
rooms, adjoining the scone where the catastrophe occurred. 
From his wiudows, according to his owu stutouient, ho 
saw tlie crowd pour into the court of the MhiiKtor's house, 
and the gathering at once beciune so dense as to deprive 
him of tlie means of proceeding to join his comrades. 
Seeing the extn^mitics to which the ninltitudc rcHortetl, 
he retired with his serMiuts to im up}K*r room, where 
he might more easily defend hiniHclf if attacked, and 
there he distributed the sum of two hundred ducats 
amonght the Mahomedau guards attached to hhn. These 
men and his servants now ranged tliemselves in front of 
the room where he had taken refuge, and told some 
inquiring Persians that the apartment was oixnipied only 
by Mahomedans. The number of Russian subjects 



DISMAY OF THE SHAH AKD THE CROWN-PRINCE. 253 

massocrod is stotod to have boon thirty-fivo, inolading 
M. GrcbaiodofT, M. Adelnng his socoud socrotary, tlio 
physician of the mission, tlio Persian socretaryi a Goer* 
«;ian priiico attacliod to the mission, an olficor in the 
lUissiau sorvico, eleven Cossac^ks, an Enropean servant, 
and several Armenians and Goorjjians. The body of tho 
murdered envoy was handed over to the care of the 
Armenian cloi'gy, and it was subsequently transported to 
Tidis. The fate of tliis talented gentleman was the more 
melancholy from the reflection that but a few months 
before he had wedded a Georgian princess of remarkable 
beauty, who was thus early doomed to bemoan his 
untimely death. M. Grebaiodoff was a poet of consider- 
able celebrity, and his works are still perused widely 
throughout the Czar's dominions. It may have been to 
this circumstance that he owed, as he is said to have 
done, the dislike of his Imperial master, who looked upon 
the pursuit of Uteraturo as being a mere waste of time, 
and unworthy of a soldier or a statesman. 

Nothing could exceed the dismay into which the in- 
telligence of this deplorable occurrence threw the crown- 
prince, Abbass Meerza, who was at the time at Tabreez. 
In tho middle of the night a servant of the harem was 
despatched for the British envoy, to whom the prince, 
after mimy exclamations expressive of despair, declared 
tliat a deed had been done at Tehran, the stain of which 
all the waters of the Euphrates could not ciTace. The 
prince could find a grain of consolation only in the fact tliat 
the Mchmandar attached to the late Russian Minister 
had been severely wounded in his defence, whilst several 
of his Persian guards had been killed in the act of 
attempting to resist the rabble. The Shah and his 



S64 A HI8T0BT OF FER8IA. 

gOTcrnmont spared no effort to eonvmce tlio Czar of thoir 
entire innoeoiieo of the dightost participation in tlio 
recent occurrences which had terminated so fatally at 
Tehran. M. Mahsoff was able to testify to the same 
purport, and the British envoy was entreated to request 
the Minister of his OoTemment at tlie court of Russia to 
add his assurances to those of the persons mentioned. 
In addition to thiSt it was determined to send an ambas- 
sador charged with foil powers to offer any reparation 
that might be demanded by the Czar. But tliis embassy 
was looked upon as a sendee of the greatest danger. 
The Persians bcUered that the Cziur would very probably 
exact life for life, and none of them at first care<l to act 
the part of Curtius on tlie occasion. At length Kosroo 
Mcerza» a son of the crown-prince, was solcctod for filling 
the post of the Shali's representative, and ho accordingly 
proceedetl to Petersburg. The demands of the Czar 
were regulated by the exigencies of the situation in 
which Russia was then placo<l, rather than by tlie enor- 
mity of tlie crime which had l>cen committed at Tehran. 
The imperial armies had suKtaine<l reverses on tlie 
Danul>e, and it was feared that Persia,* if pushed too 



* M Kitiiloii MtnltM^ Hi |Nt^v 10 i of l»ii /{HtMtr linMM C A»if Mimrnrt: " Jai* 
mtlrtimiH «lii DionH'iit ii'i«^t;n»vrifiit i*ii«*«in' \H\r iiii«> lU'innn lit* |»rvri|>itcc ilii 
nHKiiil ilr ltii«>ia«t n 'JVbrix : rtMmil mix iti«iiiuii(i<>ii« dcM Aiii:Iinx, il nvnil 
qiiittr Ml*!! \nMt* nmwn v\\ MVtiir i1m;ii 1 tmlni " It «iimi1«1 Im* hmhv in iu*(*«»nUii«*t* 
with UeXm if br hii«l muil lliyl. ** rirMin^' to hU «>«rii fvuni. M AtiilHiun.i r 
had qaitt^l hu» piwt** 11m miim author pM^ uti to KtJitc that on tho rc<*4*ii>t 
of Um nowii by AbhaM Maana of Uia d^fmi of tha Turks by tba UoMiaua 
at AkhaJtjkikb, the* IVraian prince aMUiiutl a niorr hniuble toii<« towanU 
Omrral l^a»kiewiteh. '* II fit rv|«n<lrr Ic bruit qu'iin ra« oik lr>« inlripic* 
dit i^e^ irvxt* attu*tK*raioiit qihi c<illiaion. il rhrrt-bi nut air«« lr» aifna nsfu|(u 
vt pnfi4*<>ti«>u aiipn^ tlu ^>n«*nil -vu-cbrf liuiMt.* Tout mi e«»ur prit m ■h'U« 
trmpA \r <b<nil k rocra«i(^n dr TaaMiiMiiat *U T«-b«'ran. Otto ibinou«4rmUoii 
fill b««nii'»t MiiTio d'mia drmardic pUa »iin»ili<vtive aitmro. Ail Ytia b a chi , 
laa doa omilklrtta d'Abbaaa Uirwk, Tim a TilUa ; U atpriiM. as mm da aoa 



1 



EMBASSY TO ST. FETERSDURO. 255 

far, might unite her force to that of Turkey, for the pur- 
pose of driving back tlie troops of the North from the 
plains of Armenia and the borders of tlie Euxme. The 
Emi)eror, therefore, was prepared to accept Uie assurance 
of the Shah's representative that the Persian government 
had been neither actively nor passively in anyway con- 
cerned in the late lamentable occurrence at Tehran, 
which, his Iloyal Highness said, they looked upon with 
the utmost regret and horror. 

The Shah*8 ambassador had been well chosen. At 

iimiln). li*H n>;^lN ipio liii uvniciit fitit upnMiviT l«w in«*fiiiit<*lU^i*nceii mir- 
vriiiH!* I'lilru loM (loiix piiyM, ]in>t4*stii dit <luvoiniu*iit «lfl rii«*riti«tr ]>r^Hi)ni|>Uf 
(lit initio, ct HO <lil cliiirp!' ilc nTuoillir do 1h iNiitoho ilu Oniiti) IVutkovitrli 
l«>ii cotiMi'ilM do f«mi vx]>eri(;iico dntm la Hitunttnti difUotlo oii il hu InmYmii.** 
Tito fnllu\viii)( in ,tlio reply of Uio Count of Erivati : — ** Voiro Altosae dm 
deiunitdo, roininoni olio doit apr danii Ins circonsUiiiccii difHcilot qu'a 
atucnoos pour cllo la nipturo dim rulationM nmtcalcs avoo la Pome ? . . . 
Lo trvs poiMMiit Schakh, votrc p<'rc, vtMit coninieiiccr la guerre. Suppoaoiia 
qu oliuiiuiaiit h noa ordroH, et ocdaiit anx iutrij^ica do voa fn'*ret, vona com- 
luciioiox loii opcratiouB ; vuum tio nuiHCiiibhtrc^x daiia lo royaumo que aoixanta 
millc combattans au plua. Noa proniiroH litiutmphea ti out |Nmr defeuao, 
il oat vrai, quo loa troupca qui ocoiipcnt Ioh fortoretaoa. Voua pourrox, done, 
pviit'tror daiia lo imya ouvurt; voua |N)urrez le ravager, mala voua nm 
preudrcz paa loa plaoca fortes. 

" Do in«m coto. ... jo me porto par Baiazeth ot Khoi anr Trbrix. . . 
J(i fttia la conqiiuto do co pityrt, |M)ur no pluN jiiiiiiiiM voua hi rviidrc. Tout 
u!tiN)ir do tnoiitor un jour Mur lo troiio i\v votnt fti*rv m^m d«*N>lt»rH jiordu |Nmr 
vouM. 11 no m iMiaM^m ]mH un an *\\w. Li dynaMtio doa Kai\jan'N aura coaaA 
du ru^niur. Co qui a (M1 lioii diiiiM lu d«)mi(iro (;ii«Tro atura liuu oticoro a 
proHciii. No coiiiptox id Hiir loa proinrsMrM don Aii^^laiH, ni aiir 1«>k natioriioua 
doN Tiirra. . . . In^n Aii;jIi(iM no vouk dcf«*ndn)nt ]wh', \v\\r politiqiio ti'A ni 
viio quo loa inloriyia d«i loura jMrnacHidonK daim \vh IndcM. Noun iN»uvoiirt, 
on Aaio, ciuiquonr lui r«»yaiitn«s rt iK^raonno no aVn iiKiiiiotora. Kn Kunqn) 
clinqiio pouco do U^n-ain pout di inner lieu a dca ^orroa aan^lantoa: la 
Turquio oat uoccaaiiiro a re(]uilil>ro Europooii ; tuaia loa puiHaaucoa de 
rKiiropo no repird<;iit paa qui gouvonio la Porao. Votro iiidoi>uiidanco 
politiquo oat on ire noa mains. ... 11 uVmI qu'iin moyou d'olTacor lo 
floiivonir do lattetitat qu'ollc doploro, coat de MolUcitor lo pardon do noire 
ffnuxd monurriuo, pour la iwrfido iraliiaon de la populace de Tohorau. 
Vouii pnuvox aitoiiidro oe but en rn'odroaaant un de voa fir^roa, ou un do voa 
lila. a Titlit, d'ou jo I'oxiivdierai eit ainbaaaade a 8t. l\jtor8bourg. Jeprauda 
aur moi da fair* agrt*cr ettte d^marolie a noire aouvortin. 



250 A IIISTOBT OF PERSIA. 

the audience which Eosroo Meerza obtained of Nicholas, 
the Persian presented the handle of his scimitar to the 
Czar, and declared himself willing to give his life for 
the life which had been taken from the Czar's represen- 
tative in Persia. The Emperor was contented with a 
more moderate reparation ; namely, that the persons 
mainly concerned in tlie murder of tlie members of the 
Mission should be punished ; that the priest who had 
given tlie fehcah, or order for taking the iVrmonian 
women from the bouse of M. Grcbaiodoff, should be 
exiled; and that the plundered property should be 
restored. Compliance with tlicso demands was iviulily 
promised, and Kosroo Meerza returned to his country 
after lianng obtained from the Czar the relinquishment 
of his claim for one of the two crorcs of tomiuis, which, 
uudor tlie terms of the treaty of Turkomanclmi, wore 
still due by Persia to Russia. By this act the Km}>eror 
wi[K,Hl away a stain which till then had adhered to the 
good faith of a Uussian oflircr. At the time of the con- 
ferences which prccetlcil tlie signing of the treaty of 
Turkomanrhai, General Paskicwitch hod requested the 
British envoy to toll the king that in tlie event of the 
due luid regular payment by Persia of the aiiiouut of tlie 
iudriiiuity oi»ing U) Bnssia, he would t^ike it u[>ou him- 
self to make the Shah a present of 100,000 tomans. 
But so great liml bi^en the need of ready monoy on 
account of the Turkisli war, that the i>erfornianco of this 
promiso was evoiled by tlie Uussiiui agents. However, 
the Czar now mode ample amends for any shortcomings 
on the part of the Governor-General of Georgia, since he 
relinquished his claim for C00,00() tomans.^ At the 



BEOONCILIATION OF RUSSIA AND PERSIA. 257 

some time, it mast be borne in mind that Rassia had 
ah'eady received from Persia about two millions of pounds 
sterling — a sum which exceeded the losses and expenses 
that her subjects and her government had incurred 
during the Persian war. Prince Dolgorouki was now 
sent as Minister to Persia, and on his declaring himself 
in the name of the Emperor to be satisfied with what 
had been done by the Shall in atonement for the mas* 
Sucre of the members of the Im^>crial Mission, the troops 
in garrison at Tabreez were paraded in tlie presence of 
the Minister and of tlie Crown-Prince, when a royal salute 
of twenty-one gims from the artillery, and a jtu At jmt 
from the infantry, announced the reconciUation of the 
two governments. 

The year' 1830 was marked in Persia by the occur* 
rouce of a series of shocks of earthquake. In the month 
of April the town of Demavcnd suffered severely ; not less 
than five Innidrcd pernons are said to have been buried 
under the ruins of the houses which were overthrown. 
The towns of Scmuan and Damghan, and the villages in 
their neighbourhood, likewise sustained great injury; and 
in all seventy towns and >illages ore said to have been 
partially destroyed. The Shall at this time undertook a 
journey to Ispahan and the south of Persia, and the 
crown-prince was entrusted with the government of 
Khoi-assan, in addition to those he already held. He 
was summoned from Azcrbacejan to Tehran with a view 
to his being sent tlicncc to the eastwards for tlie purpose 
of arranging the affairs of his new province. On his 
arrival at the capital, however, it was deemed expedient 
that he should proceed in tlie first instance to Yezd, at 
which place the habitual energy of Hassan Ah Meensa 

17 



\ 



258 A niSTORT OF PERSIA. 

had not been attended with the result of a restoration of 
pnblic tranqnillity. Abbass Meersa proceeded thither, and 
the chief people of the town came out to meet him, and 
t4>ndered the dechiration of their snbmission to his will. 
His brother npon this proceeded with liis troops to 
Kerman, to which place he was followed by the crown- 
prince. The latter had received instructions to send 
Hassan AU to the presence of the Shall, and a regiment 
of infantij was ordered to accompany his Highness, 
nominally as an escort, but in reaUty to prevent his 
evading tlie orders of his sovereign — so jealous is des- 
potism, and so forgetful of past services, provided that 
at the present time one's evil star be in the ascendant ! 
The crown-prince was welcomed by the citizens of Ker- 
man, and after having estabUslied some sort of govern- 
ment and pnblic confidence in that place, he retnmed to 
Ispalian, to wliich city the Shah hml again repaired, ami 
whore Iuh Majcnty insucd onion* to the prince to proceed 
forthwith to KhorosKan, and to do his best to reduce the 
rcfracton* cliicfn of that pro\ince to obotlionce. On his 
way to Meslicd, the prince succeeded in taking two forts 
which wore held by robel chiefs. 

The young Kosroo Moorza had led his father's army 
from K( rman across the doscrt to Toon and Tnbbaz — an 
undertaking which was attondi^ with grout dif&culty, and 
the successful acconii>Iishmcnt of which bears testimony 
to tlie patient endurance of the troops, and to the capa- 
city of tlieir youthful general. Tlie Persian army on this 
occasion had to carry with it for long distances even a 
snpply of water. The instructions given to Abbass 
Meerxa wore to rcostabhsh the Shah's authority up to 
the river Oxus, which had been fixed by Nadir as the 



SUCCESSES OF KOSROO KEERZA. 259 

boondary of Persia. With this view his Highness wrote 
to the Khan of Khiva, or Khoresm, demanding that he 
should renounce all pretension to that portion of territory 
which was claimed by tlie Shah. The envoy, however, 
who was the bearer of Uiis note, conld proceed no further 
than Kelat, where he was detained by illness. In the 
meantime prince Kosroo Mecrza undertook the siege of 
the fortress of Tursheez, by the reduction of which an 
effective blow was struck at the powerful combination of 
the Khorassan leaders, who now sought to moke terms 
with the representative of the Shall. 

The most powerful of the chiefs of Khorassan was the 
Eelkliani of the Kurdish tribes of that province. Seeing 
that the prince liad boon able to win over some of the 
more considerable of the other -chieftains, this Khan 
entered upon a negotiation for becoming reconciled to 
the governor; but failing to come to terms the latter 
marched to the fortress of Ameorabad, which belonged to 
the former, and took it by assault. On this occasion the 
commandant of the prince's artillery was killed, and this 
occurrence served to add to the fury with which the Per- 
sian soldiers were inspired. Launching themselves upon 
the unhappy inhabitants of the fort, they slew all whom 
they encountered, notwithstanding the orders of the 
prince to cease from slaughtering. The carnage was 
only at lengtli put a stop to by Abbass Mocrza entering 
the place and purchasing from his infuriated soldiers the 
Uves of the surviving inhabitants for the sum of twenty 
thousand tomans. The Khan of Khiva had advanced by 
this time to Serrekhs, and Mahomed Meerza was de- 
tached with a force to encounter him— but the news of 
the Mi of Ameerabad had the effect of frightening the 

17- 



260 A BISTORT OF PERSIA. 

• 

Khifan niler, and he retreated without haybg risked the 
rcsnlt of an action with the Persians. Bnt the Eelkhani 
ttill held ontt uid Abbass Meorza advanced to besiege his 
last stronghold, the fort of Kliabooshan. The forces of 
tlie Eelkliani and of the prince were nearly equal, each 
army consisting of twelve thousand men ; but Abbass 
Mecrxa had tlio superiority in artillery, and the Eelkhani 
was discouraged by the retreat of his ally, the Khan of 
Khiva. The ruler of Herat, too, who had promised to 
assint liim, had, on seeing the turn Uiat aiTuirs had taken, 
sent his Vixeer to the prince's camp to announce liis 
synipatliy witli the cause of the 8huh. For all this, the 
Eelkliani would not surrender his fort, and the Persians 
accordingly prepared to assault the place. A mine was 
laid under the outer ditch, which, on being sprung, opened 
tlic way for the advance of the assailants up to tlie foot 
of the wall ; and tlieir courage was animated by the 
arrival, at that juncture, of the son of the Asef-ed-Dowleh, 
— the afterwards well-known Salar, — who had been 
scut by the Shall as the bearer of a number of royal 
khilatif or robcM of honour, conferred by his Majesty on 
tliosc who had distinguished tliemselves at tlio taking of 
AmeonibiuL 

It iM the cUHtoni in Persia for Uioho who are honoured 
by lM*iug maile the recipients of royal khiluis to show 
rcsi>oct to the Shah by making an iniiklaU^ or formal 
reception, to tlie robe of honour. Notwithstanding the 
critical position in which the Salar, on his arrival at 
Kliabooshan, found tlie besiegers of that place, the 
custom of going to meet the Shah's khilau could not be 
departed from, and accordingly Abbass Meerxa caused 
the assault to be iK>sti)oued in order that he and his 



THE EELKIIAXI OF THE KURDS. 2G1 

officers might take part in the istikbalL But this cere- 
mony was not regarded witli equal reverence by the 
Eelkliani, who, to the intense mortification of the prince, 
mdcly disturbed tlie slowly-winding procession by the 
discharge of a gun on the rampart of the fort. Even 
after tins affront terms of accommodation were still 
offered to the Eelkhani, and on theur being declined, the 
order was given to assault Khabooshan simultaneously on 
each of its four sides. But now the Eelkhani come to 
the concluHicm that ho had done enough for honour, and 
ho accordhigly sont a messenger to the prince to intimato 
liis willingness to agree to terms of arrangement. In 
reply he was told that lie must surrender at discretion, or 
take the consequences of not doing so. Ho came to the 
Persian camp and was received with distinction by the 
prince. His Boyal Highness entered Khabooshan, and 
permitted to himself the relaxation of going to the Eel- 
khani's bath, on coming out of which he was received by 
the son of that chieftain, who, in tlie name of his mother, 
presented him with an offering of ten cashmere shawls, 
and as many of the finest horses that were to be found in 
the tents of the tribe. The prince embraced the oppor- 
tunity of cxorciHing the power which success in anns had 
given him, without callhig upon the tribesmen to change 
the allegiance which they had till now owned to the 
family of their chief. The Eelkhani was deposed ; but 
his son, Sum Khan, who was the bearer of the offering, 
was then named Eelkhani in place of his sire. The 
fortifications of Khabooshan were destroyed, and the 
Persian army received orders to march to Ak-derbend, 
to which place the prince proceeded after having visited 
Meshed. 



SC2 A iiitrroRY of pkraia. 

Tlio objoct to which ho now taraod his attontion was 
tho reduction of tlio city of Serrekhs.^ That place is con- 
sidered by the Persians to be one of the four chief cities 
of Khomssan. From its sitaation in the desert between 
Meshed and Menre, its possession is a matter of necessity 
to an inTader approaching from either side with the pur- 
JKMM of possessing himself of one or other of the above- 
mentioned citieSi and Prince Abbass Meerza conld not 
have reasserted tlie power of Persia to regain tho lino of 
tho Oxiis as her frontier witliout havuig first possossed 
liimsitlf of 8cm*klis. Tliat city is Kiiid to have dorivcil 
its name from Horrokhs, the sou of Qooderx, a chief of 
Turan. It was hold by the Saloor tribe of Turkomans, 
and its pofwesRion had been successively disputed by Uic 
Khau of Khiva and by the Amcor of Bokliivra, rutfpcc- 
lively. The Saloors are called after the title of Tuli 
Khan, ! the son of Genghis, and they form one of tlie 
moist i>owcrful divinions of the Turkomans. They are 
not aAliIictcd to the practice of making excuTHioiis into 
Pcrnia for the purpose of plundering, but tliey were 
accuHctl by Abbass Mccrza of being in tho hubit of 
supplying arms to other tribes, to be used against the 
peai-eful subjects of the Shah. In return for those arms, 
or for other commodities, they received many Persian 
priHoners, whom they detained as slaves, or sold to the 
inhabitants of Khiva and Bokhara. At this juncture 



• A l>. lH.1i. 

* ** Tlir Hnivhi of Ztnpfi wii* rmiipiiard t4 fivo 1iun<ln'«l wivrt ainI 
rfmrubiiH^ . AitU o( liiii ituin«*n»ii« prtiicrny. four NOta, illuiilnuu« by tlictr 
iNith Anil MM*nt. rirrriMHl umlvr ilivir fatbrr Uie pritirip*! oAioc« oi prttCD 
aihI wnr. Tott«lii wa« hi* icrrnt liUHl«aMifi. /agsUi hi* }MAfi9, Oclmi liU 
MinUt«r. Ana UH bis K«»tna. ^7*« Ikt^tm^ nmd >WI ^ cAtf id 



6ISQB OF TUB CITY OF SKUEBKUS. 203 

thcro woro throo thoosaud captivo Sliooahs withiu the 
city of SorrokliB. 

Abboss Meerza appeared before that fortified place, 
and summoned it to surrender. In reply, Adina Khan, 
one of the chief of Uie Saloor tribe, proceeded to the camp 
of the prince, taking with him the wives and childien of 
a number of Turkomans who had previously been sent 
as hostages to Persia. The chief of the Saloors agreed 
to liberate the Persian captives on receiving back tho 
hostages, and his projiosals were ouiphaHizod by tho tears 
and onlreaticH of the womoix and children. But tlioso ' 
failed to muku aixy improMHiou on tho prince, who in- 
foniiod tlie chief that tlio hostages were not in Ins 
camp, and who went so far as to detain Adina Khan 
and tlioso he had brought with - liim ; the Persian com- 
mander being of opinion that men-stealers, such as the 
Turkomans, were not entitled to the benefit of the 
usages estabUshod for war between civilized nations. 
The Persian artillery opened fire on the city, and the 
Turkomans thereupon had recourse to tho expedient 
of placing their Sheeah captives — men, women and 
children — in such a position as that they should be 
exposed to the full effects of the fire of the besiegers. 
This device caused the prince to suspend for a time tho 
cannonade from his artillery. But he was roused to 
fresh measures against the Turkomans by the perusal of 
a petition which he received from his father's captive 
subjects, imploring Ixim to rescue them from a captivity 
in wliich tliey were constantly exposed to hear tho 
Sheeah faith blasphemed, and to see tlxeir wives violated. 
Adina Khan was sent uxto the city as the bearer of tho 
prince's ultimatum ; which was, that the place sliould bo 



dKi 



304 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

snrrendered to hinii HDconditionally, within one hour» or 
tliat it slioold feel the effects of his jiower. The hour 
eUpeedy and tlie prince gate his troops the order to 
asaaolt Serrckhs, and to execute a Katl-i-am^ or general 
maiw a cr o upon its stnbbom inhabitants. The onset did 
not terrify tlie brsTo tribesmen of Saloor, who met the 
asiailants with the Snni war-ciyt ^^La AUah-il-AUah ; " 
hot the Turkomans were overcome, their chief was slain, 
and no quarter was asked by the vanquished, or offered 
by tlie victors. For the space of one hour the carnage 
raged, but at the end of tliat time the hunger after 
plunder prevailed over the thirst for blood, and the 
soldiers left off slaughtering in order that they might 
secure the six>il with as little delay as might be possible. 
The riches found in Serrckhs are said to have exceeded 
all eouiputation, and the troops were permitted to retain 
for tliemm^lves whati^ver foil into their hands. Four 
hundred and fifty slave-dealers were given over to the 
lilK*rat4d hlaves, by whom they were torn in pieces, and 
after the walls of Serrekhs had been levelled with the 
ground, the prince tumcil back towards Meshed. His 
successis had iunpired such teiTor tlirougliout Central 
Asia, that it is said Turanian mothers could hush 
their children by pronouncing the dreaded name of 
AbboMS. 

TIh' last recusant chieftain of KhorosMUi — the ruler 
of tlie Kara tribe — now submitted to tlie representative 
of the Shall. He was deprived of his govenunent, and 
detained in custody along with tlie former Eelkhani. The 
dixlared intention with which tlic crown-prince had set 
out from Ispalian, of reasserting by force the right of Uie 
Sliah to all tl:o country lying between Khorassan and the 



8U0C£S8fiS OF FRINGE ABDA88 MERRZA. 2G5 

Oxas, had not been carried into execution: not eren 
as for as to Mervo had the arms of Abbass penetrated ; 
but yet he was now in some sort enabled to carry oat 
the instmctions he hod received from the Shah. Fire 
thousand prisoners of tlie tribe of Saloor still remained 
in his camp, and for tlicir ransom the Klian of Khiva 
offered to pay tlio sum of fifty thousand tomans. Abbass 
Meerza consented to liberate them only upon the 
condition that he should receive, besides the ransom- 
money, a paper wherein it was stipulated that Persian 
merchants proceeding to Central Asia should be con- 
ducted as far as to the Oxus by guards of the Saloor 
tribe, who should be rcsponfiible for their safety ; that 
that tribe should undertake to prevent the Turkomans 
of the tribes of Tekeli and Soroock from making incur- 
sions into Khorossan ; that if they could not in all in- 
stances eflectually prevent tlicse incursions, they should 
at any rate give timely notice to tlie nearest Persian 
authorities to take measures for their own defence ; that 
they sliould agree never to receive or have any dealings 
with slave-dealers of any country ; and finally, that they 
should consent to furnish tribute and horsemen to the 
Shah at stated intervals. These conditions were accepted 
by the Turkomans, who probably had no intention at all 
of adhering to them ; but the document in which they 
were embodied remained in tlie hands of the prince, 
and the honour of tlie Persian government was vindi- 
cated. 
I After this, Prince Abbass Meerza, elated by the 
success which had attended his arms in Klioraiissan, 
turned his attention to the scheme of conquering a 
portion of Affghanistan. Yar Mahomed Ehan, the 



266 A HI8T0RT OF PEBSU. 

Vixeer of Prince Kamnn of Herat^ waB then in the 
Peniin eamp, and Abban Meena deaured hun to inform 
hit master that the Bhah^ being now not engaged in 
RoBsian wan^ was at leisure to assert by force of arms 
the daims of the Kings of Persia to dominion over 
Affghanistan. This deckration on the part of the 
Persian crown-prince was the beginning of a series of 
events which greatly contributed to bring about the 
sobsequont Aflghan war. Prince Kamran was required 
to acknowledge the authority of the Shah, and to pay 
tribute to him as a vassal, or else to bo prepared to foel 
the effects of his power. The rulor of Herat cudea- 
▼ourcd by means of a soft answer to turn away the 
IHriuco's wrath, but tliis did not have the cflect of in- 
ducing bin IIi<;hnesB to forego the rosolutiou ho hod 
takcu of marching ajwu Herat. His bon, Mahomed 
Meerza, was at his request appointed VaU of Khorassau, 
so that the crown-prince might be at hberty to devote 
his rxclusive attention to tlie great scheme of conquering 
Aflghanistau. He wrote to tlie Shah, requesting large 
reinforcements for the realization of his brilliant plans ; 
but the king, while approving of the resolution to add 
Herat to hin dominions, and while sending the required 
forces to Kliorassau, directed tliat they should be led by 
Maliomed Meerza, and that tlie crown -prince should 
return to Telirau. He doubtless felt that his own days 
were numbered, and was therefore unwilling to risk the 
occurrence of the confuidon which he knew would ensue 
in Pentia in tlie event of his dying while the heir- 
apparent should be (ar away in Affghanistan. 

The croun-prince returned to Tehran, bringing with 
him the fallen chiefs of Khorassau. He also brought 



REVfiXGE OF MAHOMED VELI MEERZA. 267 

with him Abdul Bezak Khan of Yezd, who had risen in 
rebellion against the Shah during the occupation of 
Azerbacejan by the Russians, and who had forced the 
governor of Yczd, Maliomed VeU Meerza, to make his 
escape from tliat place. This Khan hod also insulted 
and ill-used tlie family of tlie prince, and had expelled 
tlxe members of his harem from Yezd. Abbass Meerza 
had promised to intercede with the Shah for the pardon 
of these prisoners of n\nk; but Abdul Bezak Klian so 
much dreaded the effects of the revenge of Mahomed 
Veli Mcorza, that, ore reaching Tehran, ho twice 
attempted to commit suicide, — in the first iustauce by 
taking a large quantity of opium, and afterwards by 
inflicting upon himsolf a wound with his dagger. In 
this state he was brought before the Shall, and having 
been, along with the other two captives, severely repri- 
manded, he was made over to tlie custody of Mahomed 
Veli Meerza, ^vith the distinct understanding that, though 
he was to be disgraced, his life would not be taken, and 
that he was to receive no bodily injury. What follows is 
illustrative of the barbarism which still Ungers in the 
Persian character. The prince was beset by the women 
of his family who had been ill-treatod by Abdul llozak, 
and, no longer able to restrain his desire for the blood of 
his foe, he entered the apartment where the Khan was 
being attended by doctors, who were endeavouring to 
bandage the wound which his own hand had inflicted on 
his person. These were ordered to retire, and Maliomed 
Veli nearly severed the Khan's head from liis body with 
one blow of his sabre. Upon this the women of his 
family rushed into the apartment, and after having 
mangled the body, caused it to be thrown out into 



908 A inSTORT OF PERSIA. 

the fltreot. I nowhere read tliot tliis shocking act 
drew down npon the peri>etrator any censnre from tlie 
Shah. 

AbbasB Mcerza was now bent upon retummg to Kho- 
rawan, bnt the state of his health was snch as to alarm 
the king, and the prince was earnestly entreated by his 
friends to act npon the advice of liis medical advisers, 
and to repair to some place where he might hope to 
enjoy tlie repose which he so much required. He replied 
that the neeessities of Ids jiosition were snch as to put it 
oat of his power to retire from affairs for a time, as 
the report would hi tliat cose got abrotul that he was 
dangeronnly ill, and would have a prejudicial effect on 
his interestn. Ho accordingly, much agiiinst the wish of 
tlie Shall, Hct out once again for KhoruHsun, and ho huw 
liis father's fuce no more. Kfforts were at this time 
mtuh on the part of the Russiiui Govcmnient to bring 
tlie crown-prince to throw hiuiHclf into the hands of 
Uiat i>owor. His HighncsM's fickle and wavering mind 
was swayc^il to and fni iM'twron tlic Hclicnics of ruling by 
tlie favour of the CV«ur, or of owing his crown to his own 
efforts, and to the aid of hoiuo English ofliC<*rM who wore 
now sent from India for the puri)OHe of drilling and 
conimanding his trooi>s. Ho cIioko the nobler port, and 
declined to bocoiiie tlie slave of the power whone legions 
he hail so often faced in battle. 

His HighnoHs proceciled towards Meshed, and on the 
way he had the misfortune to hear of the death of his 
Knglisli physician, Dr. Conniek, who hml atteiidotl him 
during a |H*ri(Ml of twenty-Uiroe years, and wiio, by bin 
pro(i*iiiuoiial skill and his intimate a4*4uaintanco with the 
prince's constitution, might perliayt \uxn^ W^u n\\^ \sis:a^% 



DEATH OF PRINCE ABDA88 MEERZA. 200 

of Buving bis lifo. After his arrival at Meshed his HI* 
D088 rapidly increased, and he became aware that his end 
was approocliiug. lie now devoted his few remaining 
honrs to tlie services of religion. Twice each day he 
proceeded on foot to the shrine of Inuun Beza, and when 
his last hour was come he turned his face to Mecca, and, 
worn out by war and woes, calmly yielded np the ghost 
He had, amongst one hundred and fifty-nine children, 
been ever the favourite of his father, and though he was 
fickle and easily worked upon and passionate, he was, 
notwithstanding, tlic noblest of the Kajar race. Abboss 
Mccnsa hiul attained the age of forty-six years, when his 
ashes woi'o consigned to the sacred earth beneath the 
shrine of Imam lleza.^ 

The dillicult Uuik had now to be performed of 
announcing to the Shah the intelligence of his son's 
demise. At all times to be the bearer of ill news is a 
duty most repugnant to the feelings of a Persian, but 
on tliis occasion the news to be convoyed were of so 
peculiarly niournful a nature, that it was feared the Shah 
in the first outburst of his grief would order the bearer 
of the evil tidings to be put to death. During two whole 
days no one could be persuaded to undertake the task, 
and at tlie end of tliat time tlie king's two youngest 
sons were together sent to lisp to their aged fatlier the 
tale of the demise of the heir to his throne. 

The outrageous grief of the Sliah was not occasioned 
solely by the loss for ever of his beloved son's society. 
Some time before tliis the king, it is said, had com* 
manded the royal astrologer to cast his horoscope, so 
that he might gain some knowledge of tlie fate Umt 



S70 A BnfTOET OP PERSIA. 

awaited him. The astrologer, in the performance of this 
delicate daty, was, perhaps, guided by his conmion sense 
more than by any conjunction of the stars. In all 
probability the crown -prince would survive his father, 
and therefore he would not be put to shame before the 
latter by tlie answer which he deUverod. It was that 
the prince's dcatli would precede by about a year that of 
the king. He could have little calculated on tlio literal 
iblfilmcnt of his prophecy. 

Before tlie deatli of the hcir*apparent, his son 
Mahomed Meerza had advanced upon Gliorian, in the 
territory of Herat, and having found that place obsti- 
nately defended, had left it in his rear and proceeded to 
attack tlie capital of Prince Komran. The inhabitants 
of Horat dcAmdcd themselves with the courage and 
Ktcadiness which they have manifested during each of 
tlie numerous sieges of tliat fortress. On one occasion 
tlioy sallied out from tlie place and defeated one of the 
divisions of the Pcniiaii army; but Mahomed Meerza 
was asKisted by the talent and experience of Monsieur 
Beroffsky, a Polish officer who had come to Persia ^itli 
the design of inducing that power to league with Turkey 
against Russia at the time of tlio Polish insurrection. 
The siege of Herat would probably ere long have been 
conducted to a termination favourable to the Persians, 
but it was brought to a sudden close in consequence of 
the death of the crown-prince. The ruler of Herat 
agreed to pay tribute to the Shah, and Moliomed Meerza 
returned to Meshed, and proceeded to Tehran, where he 
was pronounced the heir-apparent to the tlirone, and 
appointed to be governor of Tabreez. The removal of 
the crown-prince from the scene gave fresh ho^ Ia 



FRINGE MAHOMED MEERZA. 371 

those who hod inteuded to dispute with him the acces- 
don to the regal dignity, and, from the feeble health of 
the king, men were prepared soon to witness the miseries 
of civil war. 

Prince Mahomed Meerza, now the acknowledged heir 
to the Persian tlxrone, returned to Tabrcez to undertake 
the government so long hold by his father. This prince 
was at tliis time twenty-eight years of age, but, young as 
he was, he was already enfeebled in constitution, and he 
paid the penalty of his devotion to tlie pleasures of the 
table by having to submit to frequently-rocurring attacks 
of gout. The province of Azerbaeejan had suffered 
greatly from the excessive peculation of his brothers, two 

of whom, Jehangccr and Kosroo, were now sent to well- 

* 

merited confinement in the fortress of Ardabeel. Of these 
two young men their own motlier is said to have declared 
tliat it was impossible to tell which was tlie worst ; and 
we are therefore not surprised to road that Kosroo 
Meerza, who liad been ambassador to the court of Russia, 
was afterwards condemned to be deprived of sight. But 
though Mahomed Meerza was the nominal governor of 
Azerbaeejan, the real authority over tliat province lay at 
this time in the hands of Meerza Abdul Kassim, the 
Kaim-Makam, who had long filled the important office of 
vizeor to Abbass Meerza, and who was subsequently 
called to the still higher post of Grand Vizeor of Persia. 
This nobleman stood unrivalled for talent in the estima- 
tion of his countrymen. He was an able financier, and 
was well acquainted with the condition of every province 
in the kingdom, and was moreover versed in the relations 
between Persia and the foreign States ; but the quality 
in the possession of which he was chiefly pre-eminent, 



272 A HISTORY or PER8U. 



the power of deeeiying others — a power which it 
woaU seem was in no way lessened by the circumstance 
that his fidscnoss was widely known. He made it a 
principle never to refuse a request made of himi and by 
these easy means he contrived to scud away petitioners 
contented, for the time being. Tlie Kaim*Makam esti* 
mated otlicrs by what lie knew of his own character. He 
would trust no one, and as he insisted on himself trans* 
acting all affairs of importance, tlie business confided to 
him remained always in arrears, and the iKK>ple of Azer- 
haeejan were left to vent in grumbling the discontent 
engendered by tlio miserable system of government under 
which tliey wore condemned to hve. 

Tlie aged Shah had for some time past been in indif- 
ferent health, and his demise was thought to be not far 
distant. Tnder these circumstances his son, HaKsau Ali 
Meerza, tlio Firman-Firma, or govemor-gcnei*al, of the 
province of Fars, who had made up his miud to be kiug after 
his father should die, thought it would be wasting mouey 
to pay in the arrears which he owed to the royal ti*casury. 
In onler to com|>el him to do so, Fetteh Ali, whose ruling 
pasniou of avarice wiis as predcmiinnnt as ever, deter- 
mineil U)>on undertaking another journey to the Kouth of 
Persiii. His niureh would also, he ho|MHl, have tlio eflix*t 
of putting down the rumours of bis death which liud been 
circulated for some time past, uud which were the cause 
of much lawless disorder in the pr4>viuces at a distance 
from tlie capital. The Baklitiuri mountaineers had even 
gone to tlie length of inflicting a i>oignant blow on the 
Shah by seizing on a portion of the royal treasure which 
was being conveyed to Tehran from Ispalian. A large 
(urcc, said to have amounicA to \\\\t\.^ >W^iKDkWv)»T^ 



DEFALCATION OF HASSAN AU MKERZA. 273 

and foot, was assembled for the purpose of accompanyiiig 
the Shah. In the autumn his Majesty quitted Tehran, 
and at Koom went to iu8i>ect the gorgeous sepulchre 
which he was destined soon to fill. At Kashau he re- 
mained for eight doys in the delightful palace of Fecn, and 
thence proceeded to Ispahan. The monarch, whoso life 
had been si>ent in travelling from place to place, had now 
made his last journey. He was met near the city by tlie 
whole population of Ispahan, and a gorgeous carpeting 
of cashmere shawls was spread on the ground to bo 
pressed by the feet of the king as he entered the palaco 
of Sadotabiul. Six days later the Firman-Firma arrived 
from Shecraz, but hi place of the G00,000 tomans ^ 
wliich were due from the revenue of Fars, the prince 
brought with him only 13,000 tomans. This was too 
trying for the Shah's patience, and after having vented 
his anger in abuse of his son, he ordered him to be con- 
fined until the remaining arrears should be collected by 
the commissioners whom he appointed to that duty. 
The Grand Vizeer was ordered to proceed to Fars with 
ten thousand men, and there to employ the severest 
measures for coercing the inhabitants into a settlement 
of the claims against them. The Firman-Firma, having 
been thus temporarily superseded, was pennitted to 
return to the south. 

After this the Shah held a pubUc salam, or levce, at 
which he desired the governors and vizeers present to 
dismiss from their minds the vain idea tliat he was too 
old to be able to enforce the payment of what was 
due to him. Three days later, his Majesty suffered 
from a shght attack of fever, which increased to an 

* A\k>uI ^V)Q,QV)\)t «tot^\^* 



274 A nksTour of pbrsu. 

•Uurming extent in the conrse of the two following days, 
bat np to the last hoar of hie life the Shah continued to 
faransaet the bnsineRs of tlie state. On the day before 
his death he hold the usual loTee, and gave his prime 
minister his audience of Icayo. On the next day— the 
third of his illncss« — he sent his eunuchs with messages 
to the different oflBcers of the gOTemment whom he could 
not see personally ; as his foTer obliged him to remain in 
his harem aiuurtments, where he was nursed by his 
liiTourite wife, tlie Tiy-ed-Dowlelii a lady whom his will 
had raised from the condition of a dancing-gurl to Uiat of 
Uio ruling sultana of the royal family. When on this 
day, the 23rd of October, 1834,^ Uio hour of evening 
prayer arrived, the king endeavoured to perform his 
accu8tome<l devotions ; hut his streugtli was exhausted, 
and all that remained for him was to ask that his feet 
might be placed in the direction of Mecca. As tlio sul- 
tana liiuitciicd to i»erform the dying request of her lord, 
the Bliidi fell lifeless ut her side, having expired without 
a groau or a sigh. 

Fetteh Ali hotl attained to the age of sixty-eight, and 
ho hud ruloil over Persia for thirty*seven years. His 
character may bo described in a few words. ^Vhcre 
money was not in question he was pronounced by com- 
)»clcnt authority to be the most sensible man in his 
dominions ; but his violent lust after gold obscured his 
common sense, and caused him to sacrifice some of the 
most important prorinccs of his kingdom, rather than 
supply the means necessary for their defence. Through- 
out his whole reign tliis passion was prcdommant, and 
fur its more complete gratification he was ready to put 



DKATII AND CHARACTER OF FETTEU AU. 276 

asido the Buggostions of dignity and tlie promptings of 
gratitude. ThuB we read tliat when his Britannic Ma- 
jesty's Government decided upon handing oyer to the 
authorities in India the management of the relations 
between Great Britain and tlie Persian conrt, the Shah 
consented to the change onder tlie belief that the envoy 
from India would lay before him an offering upon the 
same costly scale as that which Sir John Malcolm had 
brought from the shores of Hindostan. But the Goyem- 
ment of Fort William no longer felt the necessity of 
paying a very heavy price for the good-will of tlio Shah 
and his ministers, and accordingly their envoy was in* 
structed to limit his offering to tlie sum of fifty thousand 
ru|)ecs. The anxiety of Fettoh Ali on this point was so 
great tliat ho directed those who had access to tlie envoy 
on his way towards Tehran, to endeavour to extract from 
him some information regarding the amount of the pre- 
sent which ho intended to lay before the kmg. These 
endeavours were not attended with success, and the envoy 
arrived at the court without having given any hint as to 
his intentions. Upon this the Shah scut two of his 
ministers to wait upon the envoy with the express pur- 
pose of aHking liim how much money he intondctl to offer 
to the king ; and when these vizeers had ascertained that 
the offering was to bo fifty tliousand rupees, they did not 
scruple to affirm in the name of their master tliat the 
Shah, by being offered so small a sum, would consider 
himself to have been almost deceived, since in accepting 
the proposal made to him to receive an envoy from the 
subordinate Government of India, he had of course taken 
it for granted tliat the offering to be made to him would 
be on the same scale as that of the former envoy from 



S76 A HISTORY OF FKBSIA. 

CalcQtta. The result of this barefkced proceeding was 
exactly what the Shah wished — since Uie enroy was 
bullied into exceeding the amonnt which his government 
had asaigued as that which might be offered to the Shah. 
With the exception of the one glaring vice of avarice, 
Fettoh Ali's character did not exhibit many very objec* 
tionable traits, and on the whole it will bear a favoor- 
able camimrison with that of the genoraUty of Oriental 
monarelis. That he was not without the qnoUtios 
reqaiaite for a Persian King, is proved by tlie fact of 
his having been able to put down the nomerons com- 
petitom who diapnted with him the possession of the 
throne, and by his having been able to maintain himself 
upon that throne for thirty-seven years; but he was 
indcbtod for liis sncccsBOH more to the procautiona taken 
by hia miclo tlian to any merits of ln» otiii. Hin talents 
were ratlier of a kind Huitod to an Oricutiil HtatcHmou 
than to a soldier. There is no reason to doubt tliot he 
posscsfiod in his youth a sufficient share of courage, but 
after he hml firmly secured possession of the throne, ho 
did not care to expose his person too much to the 
chances of battle ; and in his later years, by deserting 
Uie army opi)osed to the Russians, near the Araxes, he 
laid himself open to the charge ciUier of inexcusable 
apathy towanls the national cause, or of an uuwortlty 
deaire to place liimself beyond the reach of tlie iucon- 
veuiencea attending a residence in a camp before the 
enemy. But if Fetteh Ali was not without faults, he 
was also gifted with several good quaUties. His affection 
for his children was excessive, and there is something 
tooching in the constancy with which he clung to Abbaas 
If eerxa, even at a time when tbal ^^^ "^^^ ^^ ^wna^^ 



CtTY OF ROOM. 277 

or llie Tictim, of great autioiial JjaaBtorfl. FoUeli AU 
woa attnclicd to the Maliomedao religion, but ho was by ' 
110 mcana a fanatic, nor did lie cviucc any diulikc to the 
society of those wlio wero not of Islam. Ho was unro- , 
inittiiig in ]m attention to the di&char<;o of tho business ' 
of tlio Btato, and if iu rciidiiig the hintory of liiit reigu 
we finil Bomo itctK of linrbarity r(>cor<1t>d, vo niiixt mako 
dno allowance for him on account of the cliaractcr and 
cniKtoms of his BTibjects ; the unsettled natnro of tho 
timos on which he was cast, and the necGesity of making 
himself feared by those who would have wished to ascend 
his throne. The Shah's body was conveyed from Ispa* 
him to the tomb which he hod caused to be prcparod st ' 
Koom. 

Koora is a city which was built in tho year of tho 
H^'ira 208,* and which lien about oif^hly miles to tlio 
Hontli of Tehran, on tlie road from that place to Inpahiui. 
It at one time t possessed a coni>i<lcrablo popnlatioii, but 
it owes, in modern times, its celebrity to the mosque of 
Fatima, which makes it a favourite place of burial. In 
one of tlie finest of the gardens adjacent to tho city was 
iha maasolenm of Kustem Khan, a prince of tlie royal 
house of Geor'.'iiL, wliu had embraced tho tenets of the 
Mahomedan religion in order to obtain tho viceroyalty of 
Itis native country. Iu tho time of tho Scfavccans, Koom 
boosted of haudsomc quays along citiier side of its river, 
a well-built bridge across it, and largo baisaars for the 
transaction of commerce, both wholesale and retail ; also 
of commodious caravanserais and beautiful mosques. It 
was, however, subsequently ahnost completely destroyed 

* MAOiMNttJi-lviNNKiu'it Ofyni/ihual Mtmair nf tJu ffriian Empirt. 
t Sm duaiHii't TfA, W. iL 



iJUGSiii 



378 A nmoRT op persta. 

by the Affghans in 1722, and only a portion of it has 
been since reboilt 

It owes, as has been said, its celebrity to the posses* 
. don of the mosqne and sanctuary erected to tlie memory 
of Fatimai tlie daughter of Imam Itesa, and which for 
ccntmies past has been tlio burial-place of the Kings of 
Persia* Attached to this sacred edifice are four courts, 
and the dome of the building, which is of gold, bears 
witness to tlie piety of Fetteh Ah Shah. The tomb of 
tlie Holy Virgin of Koom is protected from the defile- 
ment of the Tulgar by a railing of massire silrer, crowned 
at tlie comers by balls of gold. In ai^oining chapels lie 
tlie aslies of sereral of the Persian monarchs : amongst 
tlicm tliofle of two of the Sofavecans ; Sofi the first, 
aiid Abbass tlie second. Nothing can exceed the 
l)oanty of tlienc places of burial. The flooring is of 
tablets of i>ori)hyry painted in gold and in blue, and 
the Taulted roofs arc equally rich and picturesque. The 
tomb of Sefi is composed of irory, ebony, camphor- 
wood, alocH and other sweet-smelling timber worked 
together in mosaic, and fastened by ligatures of fine 
gold. The chaix^ls of the more recent royal i^ersonngcs 
wliorio aHlicH rcpoHc at Koom arc attended by a sen'ice of 
pricxts, who by day and night n^ail from the Koran and 
pmy for the houU of Uiohc whone tombs they gtianl. 
To one of thcMo cha|K'U, and to the reverend caro of 
the prieats of Koom, were consigned the mortal remains 
of Fetteh Ali Shall, in the full hope and confidence 
tliat when the last trump should sound and the dead 
sliould rine to life, the monarch would be found to be 
under the all-arailing protection of the Holy Vir^ 
Falima. 



( 270 ) 



CILU>TEU X. 

Three AfipimiiU to SoTcrcij;!! Pim-cr—Miihuiiiod Moona nurdwM fnm 
Tttbri'cx U> Toliruii— SiihiiiUaaDii «»r the Zil-i*«-Siilt«ii — ^MiUaoiued Sbah 
crowned at Tolinui — Defuut of IIuhhaii iUi Muvrxa lij Sir Ilciiiy 
Ik'thuiitf— Captura o( tliu rinauii-Finaa — iVnUibovl— G«ner«l 
ill KItpsiHiiii — FhII of the KHiiii-MHkiiiii — lligi Mecrxii Aglinmi— 
AtnhitiouH Defugiin of tlio IVminn (iovcrainoni — ExpotUtion mffKknA 
llurut — SviHtHii — I'riiico Kniunui iiiul Yur MalioiiMNl Khan— IUmmm 
of DoMt MiihoiiitMl Khun for (liMlruHtin^ th« (}ovi*niuioiit of Itulia— 
Cnu'Uyof Mahomed Hhah— Iliii fHihiru boloni Iluimi— Itiml iuHiumew 
in liin C'Ainp-^TJto Siv;^ of llurut nuKod. 

• 

The (loath of tho agod ShiUi was tho Bignol for wliieh 
two prctcudcrn to tho throne Imd loug waited. Those 
were Hassan Ali Mocrza, tho Fimnin-Firma, or governor- 
general of Fars, and tho Zil-os-Sultan,^ the governor 
of Teliran. Both of those princes hod to a certain 
extent tlie advantage over Moliomcd Meerza, the rightfol 
heir to the Persian tlironc. Tlio Firmau-Firma at tho 
time of the deatli of Fcttoh Ali, was suiHciently near to 
Ispolion to bo able to reach that city, and take i)08Nes- 
ttion of the jewels and treasure which the late king hod 
brought witli him, before the royal stores had been to 
any considerable degree diminished ; while tho Zil-cs* 
Sultan, on his part, from his position at the capita!, 
hod the opportunity of acquiring even a larger quantity 
of money and valuables than that which fell to the lot 

* Tho JSU'tg'SiilutH, or Shadow of tho Sultan, wan 90 oaUod irom hii 
reimurkaUo runuuibhuico to liia fulhor, Tottuh Ali Shah. 



2280 A UISTORT 07 PRR8IA. 

of liin liroilicr. Eiicli imiico Icmt no Uiiie iu proclaiming 
liiniKclf king, and iu organixing a military force sufficient 
to give effect to Ilia pretcnaious. But in tlio mcantimoy 
otlicfK were taking effectire mcasuroa for carrying into 
execution tlie will of the dead Shah, who had designated 
hia grandfion Maliomed Meensa to be his successor. The 
rciiresentative of Russia offered to seat him on tlie 
tlirone by a Russian mihtary force; but the effective 
measures adopted by Sir John Campbell, the British 
enToy, who was at tliat time at Tabrocx, rendered it 
tmnocesKtiry for the young Shall to have recourse to tlio 
aid tlniH proffered by his ^Kiwerful neighbour. 

MahonuHl Meorza was at tliis time completely under 
the Kurvcillnnce of his niiniHter, tlio Kaini-Makam, and 
that VizeiT was ho jealous of any ono gaining influence 
over hiM mnnter, that he took every pn^caution to prevent 
all but hiv own creaturcH from approacliing the person of 
the vonthfnl Shah. Yet the Kaim-Makain did not 
exhibit at tliin critical juncture the qualiticH that mark a 
vigilant and able stateHniun. Instead of using every 
]K>HHihle effort to hanten the prepuratiouM for the king's 
niarch to the capital, he nrgetl puerile objections to the 
plaiiH KuggeKted by the BritiKh envoy for facilitating the 
royal advance to Tehran. Ho alleg(Ml the want of niili- 
tar}' Htores an a reason for delaying bin nnintor s depar* 
ture, and when the English representative had hiniHcIf 
furnished money f<»r their purchase, the Yi7.eer declared 
that he hud not the means of procuring horses to drag 
the artillery witli which the Shah must be accompanied. 
But all the apathy of the Kaim-Makam was iuMufficient 
to damp the energ}' of Sir John CamplK^ll, who advanced 
more money on account of the 8Ua\\| t)a\\ \\\)D2ai(^^ ^>i>^^ 



rmtKi; aspikakts to the thhome. 281 1 

tlio nnicua] novoml Uicos onch Any in nrdor to (.•iicourogo j 
oiiil stimulate the worlancu. Fcttcli Ali Sliiili lia^ 1 
expired on tlio iiivH of October iit iHpuhan. News of the J 
event wus uflicinlly coinmuiiiciit(i<l to tlic British rcpro* I 
sentative at Tiibrocz on tlio 7th of Novcmlicr, and oa | 
the lOtli nf that month, by moans of unremitted exertion, I 
Sir Henry Linduay Bcthunc •Kan enabled to march from I 
Tabrecz on Meeaueli in command of tlio troops, upon J 
wliosc aid tlio Shalt relied for overcoming the formidablo | 
competitors for sovereign power. On the 1 iJtli of | 
November, 1831, the Khali and lii^ court loft Tahrcrst, j 
without Imviug previously miule any arrangement for 3 
tho rIoHpatcli to Tclinm of either uioQ or stores. Tlia 
Kaim-Miilcuni know that tliL-wo mutters ivcro being looked 
to by tho KngUtih represcntntive, and ho had not sufli- 
ciont respect cither for himself, or for tho govcrumcttt 
of his master, to feel at all troubled by the incongruity 
of throwing upon a foreign minister tlio bunlcQ of 
providing for tho Bueccssfiil progress of tho king. On 
tho 2-ltli of November, the Pcr.siiui troojts under tho 
command of the ICngliHli oflieers who had been lent to 
tlio Shall, arrived at the place of rendezvous. 

' ColoQol Buthuno was now at tho liead of a considcr- 
ftblo force which posHCssed twenty- f(inr gnns, and when 
ho hod taken up a position iit Zeiijnn, half-way betwecu 
Tabteez and Tehran, he was made aware of tlie approach 
of some of tho adlierents of the Zil-cs- Sultan. But tbo 
Shadow of tlie Sultan was already fast declining. His 
fdlowers no sooner were informed of the strength of the 
Idiig'B army, and of the fact that his ISIajcsty was accom- 
naniod by tho representatives of llussia and of Kugland, 
than they hastoucd, one after anotlier, to sovuro their 



282 A HISTORY OP raoHiA. 

own pardon by deserting from their colours and coming 
to the roysl camp. At Easreen the last semblance of 
opposition on the part of the Zil-es-Snltan disappeared, 
by the submission of his general, Imamverdi Meorsa, and 
his whole army. On the 21st of December the Shah 
reached Tehrant and the troops of Sir H. Bcthnne took 
possession, in his Migesty's name, of the city, the pabce 
and treasury. The astrologers fixed upon tlie 2nd of 
January, 1885, as being tlie first day which had a for- 
tonate hour for the entrance of the Shah into his capital. 
On that day he quitted the palace outside the walls 
where he had taken up his temporary abode, and 
entered the ark, or citadel. On the Slst of the same 
month, it being tlio feast of Bairom, Mahomed Shah was 
crowned King of Persia, and amongst those who assisted 
at the ceremony was his uncle, tlie Zil-es-Sultau. 

But a more dangerous competitor was still at large, 
and the British envoy pressed upon the Shali's Minister 
the ncccHbiiy of loKing no time in despatching an army 
to encounter tliat of the Finnan-Finna. Such, however, 
was the listlcssness of the Kaim-Makam, and so great was 
his reluctance to furnish money for the puqK)He of making 
an advance to tlie soldiers, tliat it was not until tlie Srd 
of February that Sir U. Botliune was enabled to march 
towanls Is^mhan. llis force consisted of three battahons 
of regular infantry, ^itli a small number of horse and 
sixteen guns. He was to receive on aiblitiou to his 
strength on tlie way, and reinforcements were sent after 
him under the command of the Mo^'temetl-ed-Dowleh. 
In the meantime the reins of government were held 
tightly in the hands of the Kaim-Makam, who exercised 
over his master an imperious aothority, similar to that 



8IK II. URTIIUNfi DEFEATS TUB PRETENDER. 283 

which Cardinal Mazorin wielded OTor the mind of Louis 
the Foorteenth. The Shah at this time, it was aTened» 
scarcely ventured to give an order to his personal 
attendants without having provioosly obtained the con- 
sent of his Qrond Yizcer. Sir Henry Bcthune marched 
to within eighty miles of Ispalian, when he learned that 
the troops of the Firman-Firma were approacldng from 
the other direction with tlie intention of taking posses- 
sion of the city. Ho dctcnnuicd upon tliis to bo before- 
hand mth the pretender, and he accordingly executed a 
forced march which only Persian troops could accom- 
pUsh ; traversing the eighty miles that lay between him 
and Ispahan in the space of little more than thirty 
hours.^ Ispalian had been the scene of the greatest 
disorder, the lootis, or vagabonds, of the place having 
been encouraged in their lawlessness by the Sheikh-el- 
Islam, and by the Vizccr of the deceased king, who had 
espoused the cause of the Firman-Firma. The arrival 
of Sir Henry Bethune was the signal for the restoration 
of order. Ho had not been a week at Ispahan when 
intelligence reached him of the approach of the governor- 
general of Fars, whoso aimy was commanded by his 
brother, Hassan AU Moerza, tho Shuja-es-Sultaneh. 
On .receiving tliis information. Colonel Bethune put a 
portion of his army again in motion. He took with 
him only two regiments of infantiy, some troops of 
cavalry, and twenty guns. In all, his force did not 
amount to four thousand men, and ho was to bo opposed 
to the ablest leader in Pei*sia. The Shuja-os-Sultaneh 
endeavoured to turn his opponent's flank by taking a less- 
frequented road through the hills, by which Ispahan 



284 A nnroRT op peraia. 

Gonld hare boon reached ; bat information of this ma- 
DomTre was speedily conveyed to the English officer, 
who tliercnpon made a flank march, which brought him 
fiiee to face with the enemy at a place near Knmeesha. 

Tlio Hhi\ja-e8-Rultaneh arranged his army in six 
diTifdonH, of which two were to guard tlio baggage, 
while tlic rcmauiing four wore to engage the troops of the 
Shall. He posted his infantry behind tlie minc^l walls 
of a deserted Tillage, from which position they might aim 
at Uieir opponents without being tliemselves exjioeed. 
But tlie advantage which Sir Henry Bcthune possessed 
in artillery was sufficient to counteract the favourable 
disposition of tlie troops of Fars, and a dischiirge of 
round shot brought the mnd walls down over the hcatis 
of those I)ehiud them, and killed forty or fifty men. 
The remaining soldiers who had been posted in this 
position attemptctl to make their eBcajto, but were all 
overtaken and made prisoners. This decided tlie event 
of the contest. The horsemen of tlic prince did not 
even attempt to make a stand, and the Shnja-es-Sultaneh 
fled, taking with him ten tliousand tomans, but leaving 
his camp, giuis and baggage in the hands of the victors. 
After tliis engagement, Sir Henr}* Bethune pushed on at 
once to Sheoraz, the affairs of which city he found to bo 
in tlie greatoHt confusion. The Eelkhani of the nomad 
tribes of Fars having been affronted and pillaged by 
the Finnan- Finua, determined to seize tlie hour of his 
Higlmohs'H niihfortune for avenging his wrongs, and at 
tlie same time i>erforming a marked service to Maho- 
med Shall. ' He accoi*diiig]y, on tlie approach of the 
king's army, i>ossessed himself of tlie aveu\xc% V^ui!C\\i<^\.^ 
and from the dlj of Sheerai, and iVixu Y^^'f^^^^ ^^ 



THE CITY OF ARDABKEL. S85 

escape of the Firman-Firma, and his brother, the Shqa- 
es-Sultaneh. These princes were forthwith sent oniler 
an escort to Tehran, from which place, after the Shiga- 
es:Saltaneh hod been deprived of sight, they were 
dospatche<1 as state prisoners to the fortress of ArdobeoL 
Ardabeol, the state prison of Persia, stands on a 
well-watcrod plain on the Northern extremity of the 
high table-land of Iran. The population of tlie city wu 
formerly considerable, bat the plague and cholera hare 
reduced it so much that it now contains but three thou- 
sand families. On tlie southern side of the place is 
situated the fortress — a small work, about two hundred 
yards square, erected by Abbass Moerza. The inhabi- 
tants of Ardabocl reckon their city to be, save throe, tlie 
most ancient town in Persia;, and the truth tliat the 
table-land of Iran was once covered with water has 
given rise here to tlie fable that King Solomon, by the 
aid of tlie two dcecst Ard and Boel, opened a passage 
through the mountains, by which tlie waters that covered 
the earth were drained o£f into the Caspian Sea. The 
town of Ard and Beel is famous as being the place of 
sepulture of Sheikli Sefi, the renowned progenitor of 
the Sefaveean kings. Here also was buried Shah 
Ismail, the first monarch of tliat dynasty. Their tombs, 
and the buildings in which they are enclosed, are orna- 
mented mtii gold, silver and inlaid-work, and the 
chapel of tlie Sheikli has its walls lined with velvet, 
which now liangs in tatters. In the apartment devoted 
to prayer tliere is a carpet bearing the date 04G of the 
Hejira, woven into the pattern. The Ubrary is said to 
contain a considerable number of old volumes ; but the 
value of the coUecUon \a \>e&ie;H^ \a Vlvc^ been somewhat 



S86 A IIIBTORr OF PERSIA. 

loMcned by tbo visit of tho Rassians to Ardabecl in tho 
reigu of Fcttch Ali Shall. lu auotbor part of the same 
•tnictnro tkoro is a magnificent liall omamentod with 
lacquered work of asnre, where is kept a large collection 
of china Tases that were made use of for holding the 
daily anpply of rice — said to have been 89COO ponnda — 
granted for the sustenance of tliose who came to pay 
thehr devotions at the tomb of Shah Ismail. The valae 
of the religions endowments of this shrine is said to 
have formerly amounted to the large sum of two crores 
of tomans,^ but of all this wealth notliing now remains 
to tho few attendants of tho tomb furtlier than a yearly 
allowance of some hundreds of maunds of grain. The 
government long ago confiscated the landed property, 
and under the Kajar kings contributions are no longer 
made towards tho support of the shrine of the ancestor 
of tho Sofuvcean Shahs.f 

Tho Firraan-Firma died while on tlio way to his 
prison; but many of Fettch Ali Shah's descendants — 
amongst them tlie Zil-es-SuItan and tlie son of the late 
Mahomed AU Mcerza of Kcrmanshali — were doomed to 
pass their rcmainiug dnyn at Ardabeel, and there to 
reflect on tho disadvautagc^s of having been bom in the 
pur|>le. No more blood was spilt on this occasion ; nor, 
witli the exception of the Shuja-es-Sultaneh, was any one 
deprived of eyesight. Order was now reestablished over 
the greater portion of Persia, but, as might have been 
expected, tlie province of Kliorassan was agitated tlirough- 
oot its length and breadth. Save Meslied, Kishapoor 
and Subsewar, not a place reniainetl to tlie Shall. The 

* A oenimxy »go mtch a Mm rrprvtent^U nboiki Qtt% ittUikf^ i>wfVVft\> 
f Nmrrmiuv ^s Jpfntf, bj k. &. AjMMn« ¥ds\. 



REESTABUSUllBKT OF ORDER. 387 

pcoplo of Uio other towns expelled tbe troops in garrison 
in tliom, and refused to pay any fiuiher taxes. The 
Eliaus of Boojuoord and Deregez, and other Ehorassan 
chiefs, set up tlie standard of rebellion, and the g0Tem<»r 
hod no sooner proceeded in one direction to put down 
revolt, than news reached him of fresh reTolt in another 
quarter. Prince Earoman was the full and the faToorite 
brotlior of Mahomed Shah, and he exerted himself to the 
utmost to secure tlie safety of Ehorassan. His laboors 
were at length followed by the return of the torbulent 
chiefs to their duty. 

The confusion and vexation cauHod by the obstinate 
poruisteuce of tlie Kaim-Makam to trust to no one, but to 
carry on every branch of the administration himself, were 
tolerated for a sliort time. The spring of tlie year 1835 
wore away without any serious occurrence. In the south 
of Persia a disturbance was put down ; and Prince Baluram, 
the governor of Eermanshah, succeeded in pacifying the 
troubled districts of Looristan and Arabistan, being aided 
by a young English officer, then as afterwards remarkable 
for energy and talent — Lieutenant Henry Rawlinson. 
But the murmurs of the people at length forced them- 
selves on the notice of the Shah, and determiued that 
monarch to take some step for securing the safety of his 
throne and the well-being of his people. In Persia tliere 
is but one step from splendour to disgrace. A minister, 
when his services are no longer wanted, may not fall 
back upon a dignified repose. He must at all hazards 
retain his post, or moke up his mind to be ruined. The 
Shall, when he was reluctantly forced into action, fol- 
lowed the custom of the country by ordering that his 
prime minister, the Eaim-Makam, should bo seized : an 



S88 A HISTORY OF PRlittlA. 

act whieb was qaickly followcil by the arrort of bis sons. 
Ko ttunolt SQcccedod tliis step, bat, on tbo eoutrory, 
it prodaood muTersal sotisfoction. Tbo king bimsclf 
attended to tbe administration of jnstiee and tbe cbief 
diroetion of pubUc affairs. In tbe course of tbe few days 
wbicb unmodiatoly followed the disgrace of tlio Kaim- 
Makam, numorons accusations wore, as might have boon 
expoctod, ailvaiicod against tbo fallen man, and tbe Shah 
could not fuil to bo couTinccMl of the comiplncHM of bis 
former mbiiHtor, luid tlio duficioncicM of bis lubnuiistm* 
tion. Tbo result was tliat onlors wore given tliat tbo 
ex-minister slioiUd bo strangled in bis prison — a sentence 
wbicb was carried into execution on tbe night of tbo 
SGtb of June, 1835. 

But tbe Sluih now found tliat it was not so easy 
to conHtnict a govommont as it bad been to break 
one doHii. At this time tlio pbiguc and tlio cholera 
wore nifciiig iu the capiliil, and amongst thosi^ who fell 
victiiiiH to Olio or other pL*stik*iice were iniiuy of the 
meiiil)orM of the court. The AMef-04l-l)o\vluh| the 
maternal uncle of the king, had been H))iK)iuted to 
tlie govoniment of KhoraHHaii ; but ho was uuxioUH to 
recover bis old inmt of prime minister, uiid, on hoar- 
ing of tbe fall of the Kaim-Mukani, be mine without 
liemiission, and in tlio greatest liaste, from Meshed to 
Tehran. The choice of tlio king, however, fell ui>on 
Haji Mcerza Aghassi, a native of En van, who had 
in tbe course of bis early travels in Arabia acquired 
so much knowledge that on bis return to Tabrcex be 
liad been appointed tutor to two of Uie sons of Abbass 
Meerza. Amongst other accompbsbmeuts be boasted 
of poesessing tbe art of predicting future events, and 



t'OKKir.N TIIADE OP PRRSI.V. 2'W'J 

in tliu lifetime of Fcttcli Ali SJvnIi he coiiQdontl/ 1 
asKtirod MiiIion)c<l Alocr/a tliut lio sbriitM ono tiny bd 1 
kin*; of IVntin. Our oj>tnioa of lux ilisi-criiiuciit i»,l 
Iiowover, somewhat lowered hy our being told* tU:it ha I 
I'rivately made the name promiao to others of the sons of I 
AbbiwH, NO tliat the clmncos ini-^ht bo multiplied of his 
beiii^ ttblu ill lifter ymu'H to oliiim the credit of Imviiij 
predicted so iiHi>ortiiut ii fuct. Iliyi Moonwi Affhiwsi, 
liiiwovor leiimwl lio miiy iiivve beoii in Amliiiui loni, wiui i 
not a ininiHtor rKlcnliiUid tn Icml IViitia iit ii piitli nf pro-' 
(frcMw. lie wiia BUHpicioiiH of tlio duHi;;i]»i of foroi^^a 
ijovorumonli*, luid wa« entirely i^'iioniut of tlio principle J 
/whicli at that timo wcro roco^^ui^od by Eiiropo as tluwe^ 
which should bo regiinlcil us axioms in political economy. 
By the Treaty of Tnrlvoniaiicliai it was alipulated that 
1 Ituseia slionid have tho right of pliiring consuls in Pernia 
\whorevor the demands of trade might roijiiiro tlioir pro* 
Hcnco. It was not stated who were to bo judges of thu 
nHiniroinontH of trado, mid Fettcih Ali Sliali had to tlio 
kuit penttstod that no oohsiiIh wvw nupiired. On the 
oUlor liiuid, tho Hiiecessive represojitalives of Uiissia at 
UlO rorsian court hud doinandcil ilie royal permission for 
tlio CMtabtislunent and recognition of a couhuI at lU^slit, 
tlio eliiof city of Giliin. This pcrniisNion was withheld, 
Imt a compromiso was effected by one of the members of 
the Bassion Legation being annually deputed to Kesht to 
remdo there during the four months when the silk-trade 
draoaQded the presence of a government agent. 

Towards the close of the reign of Fctteh Ali Shall, 
the sttention of tho British Govciiimcnt was directed 
to the subject of the foreign trade of Persia. A British 

* Hoi.Meb'k Sh-irtmf the Ciupidn. 



1 

1 



290 A HISTORY OF FERfilA. 

consul^ had pointed out that, proTided the Penian 
monarch shonld throw no nnneeesaary obstacles in 
the way of the new scheme, a commercial intercourse 
between Enf^land and Persia, most profitable for both 
countricH, might bo easily establisheil. The project was 
tliat Enfrlinh goods slionld be introdncod into Persia by 
way of Turkey ; but before attempting to carry it into 
execution it wan neccsHary to bo secure of some gua- 
rantee from the Pomian goTemmeut, agaiunt tlio futuro 
im)ioHition of arbitnury exactions or provonliro roHtric* 
tionii. Wlicn Uie government of Asorbaeojan had been 
hchl by Abbass Meersa, that enlightened man had readily 
issued tlie necessary ordern for the security of British 
trade ; but orders not depending on the rights of treaty 
were liable at any time to be recalled, and after the death 
of AbbasH it became more than ercr dofurablo tliat a 
*! commercial treaty aliould be entered into between Great 
, Britain and Perhia. But the Shnh's government could 
not see that a trade which at that time annually drained 
tlieir cotUitr}' of a considerable amount of gold, could 
j>OHHil>ly Ik) profitablo to Pcntia, and it connequently 
turned a deaf eiur to the pro^ioaahi of Sir John Campbell 
for the conduHion of a treaty. That envoy whm of 
opinion tliat an agent deriving Iuh power directly from 
tlie Crown, would have more influence at Uio Court of 
tlio Shah than ho hiniHclf iH>Biie8tfed an Uio roprcHenta* 
tivo (if the EaHt India Conipimy. Advantage wan accord- 
ingly taken of the acceMidon to tlio tlirone of Maliomed 
to change Uie direction of the Britiah Miitiiion at 
Tehran. Mr. Ellis was sent to Persia an hin Britannic 
Migeaty'tt ambassador charged to congratuhite tlie Shah 



MR. ELLI8, THE ORITISH AMBASSADOR. 291 

on his accession, and authorized to retipon negotiations 
for the conclusion of a commercial treaty. But still the 
prime minister of Persia objected to the establishment 
of English consuls in the Shah*s dominions, and urged 
the British ambassador not to press the matter until 
such tiuio OH the Shall might feel himself suiBciontly 
lM)worful to defy the anger with which the Bnssian 
Oovcmniont would bo filled, by a concession which could 
not fail to Im) to a certain extent injurious to the interests 
of lluHNian traders. The iHsriod during wliich the matter 
was to rcHt unsettled was, as Mr. Ellis observed, indeed 
indefinite. * 

At tlie period when the first mission had been sent 
from India to the Persian court, the Britisli authorities 
in tlie East were under considerable apprehension lest 
the sovereign of the Aflghans should iuviule Huidostan ; 
and the British envoy was accordingly instructed to en* 
dcavour to induce the Shah to march upon Afighaiiistan. 
But a change had in the course of time taken place in 
the policy of Groat Britahi with reference to the dealings 
of the Persians towards the Afl*ghans, and tlie English 
Minister at the Persian court was instructed to use aU his 
influence for tlie piir2>08e of restraining the Shall from 
the prosecution of any scheme for the coiitpiest of AIT- 
ghanistan. The successes of Abbass Meerza in his last 
campaigns had filled the Poraians with an exalted idea of 
their own Buporiority in anus over otlicr Oriental nations, 
and tlie Shah, who was himself an experienced soldier, 
had no sooner put into order the internal affairs of his 
kingdom, than he prepared to march towards Ehorassan, 
at the head of a numerous army destined for the reduc- 

* Pobliiihad deniMtehei of Sir H. EUk. ^ 

19-« 



T-fk-wS 



202 A BISTORT OF PERSIA. 

tioD of Herat, and the conquest of a considerable portion 
of Aff^'lianistan. The protcnidons of tlio Persian goTcm- 
ment to soTcroignty in that direction wore at tliis time, 
somewhat arbitrarily, stated by tlie Shah's prime minister 
to extend oyer tliat portion of the country which lay be- 
tween tlie Iranian frontier and the fortress of Ohisni. 
The successes of the late Prince Abbass Mecrza had alone 
been tlie cause of these antiquated pretensions being now 
adranced. The claim to dominion over Affghanistan had 
been renounced by Persia in the first treaty with the 
GoTcmment of India, inasmuch as the Afghans were 
acknowledged to be an independent power ; and as the 
whole of Affghanistan had belonged to the dominions of 
tlie Sefavcean princes, it was evident tliat tlie Kajar 
SluUis, as tlie successors of those princes, 'could only in 
reason claim the whole of tlie country in question if Uicy 
laid chiim to any portion of it. According to the opinion 
of those who have made the principles of international 
law their peculiar study, so long a time had elapsed since 
the country of the Affghans had passed from the power 
of the Persian kings, tliat Mahomed Shah had no suffi- 
cient claim, l>ascd upon the law of nations, to any portion 
of Affghanistan, in as far as such claim was founded on 
tlie extent of the dominions of former Persian kings. 
If such a pretonsion had been admitted to be ajust one, 
tlie Shah might with equal fairness have claimed his 
right to estabUsh by force of arms his dominion over the 
territory l}nng between the Kurdish mountains and tlie 
Tigris ; or, if tliero were to be no fixed period of limita- 
tion, he might have kid claim to what Persia had once 
possessed in Asia Minor. 

But the Shah had now other and mors valid grounds 



TIIK SIIAII DBTERMIKES TO ATTACK HERAT. '293 

for andcrtiiking a war against the Prince of Herat, Uesides 
thoHo founded u|X)n the conqnestH of a bygone dynasty. 
Of the throe engagements which Prince Kaniran had 
contracted during the h&st years of the lifotime of 
Fetteh Ali Shall, he had fulfilled not one. He had 
not razed tlie fort of Ghorian, neither had he despiitched 
to their homes certain Persian families who wore to be 
released from captivity ; nor had he paid to the king of 
Persia tlie sum stipulated for as the amount of tribute. 
The Shah was therefore fully justified in determining to 
compel him by force of arms to fulfil his engagements. 
There was also another reason for the advance of the 
King of Persia upon Herat. On the borders of Aff- 
ghauistan, and lying between that country and Porsiai 
extends the proviuco of Scistan. Soistau had been 
added to the Affghtui kingdom by Ahmed Shah, the 
founder of the Sedozye dynasty. During the lifetime of 
tliat monarch it continued to appertain to Cabul, but in 
tlie troubled times wliich followed his death, when his 
successors had difficulty in consolidating their power, the 
chiefs of Scistan succeeded in estabUsliing the indepen- 
dence of their province. The Persian government during 
the reign of the first Kajar Shah, and the early years of 
his successor, had enough to occupy its attention without 
, going into the question of itd right to dominion over 
Seistan. But as the dynasty became established, its 
ambition gradually became enlarged, and by tlie time of 
the accession of Mahomed Meerza to the throne, Scistan 
had come to be considered at Tehran as an integral por- 
tion of the dominions of the Shah ; although up to that 
time, the Persian monarch could boast no more immediate 
control over the Soiat&aU than was implied by a rival 



804 A HISTORY OP PRRSIA. 

diunuuit to Uio eliiofUiosliip intoldn;; tho king's asiiis- 
taneoy on tlio coudilion of his prominiug to ickuowlcdgo 
Uio king's right to sovereignty ovor tlio province. Bnt 
hi tlio eonmo of tho year in which Mahonie<1 Shah was 
crowned, Yor Mahomed Khan, the Viseer of Kamron, 
snccoodod in estahUsliing eitlier his own or his master's 
antliority in Seistan, and ho tlierohy fnmislied another 
pretext for tlio hostilities which tho Pcnuan monarch now 
dutermiiioil to undertake against tlie Prince of Uenit. 
I At this time tlie British government was, hy the 
treaty then in existence witli Persia, not entitled to intitr- 
fere in tlie international affairs of the two countries with 
each otlier : it was, in fact, bound not to interfere lietweon 
tiiem. It was tlie interest of llussia at this juncture to 
encourage the designs entertained by tlie Shall against 
the tranquillity of Aflgliauistan, inasmuch as if Herat, or 
any poiiion of tliat country, should become a portion of 
tlio dominions of the King of Persia, the Czar would, by 
tlio treaty of Tnrkomonchai, become entitled to place 
coiiHuU there for tho proto(*tion of Kussiiui trade. Out- 
wanl s}inbols, and the conscieutiouHly-rendorcd services 
of a few well-clioMon agents, can (*flect much on peoples 
so inii»retfsiblo as those of the countries of the Ea^t ; lUid 
in view of this fact, the Government of his Britannic 
Mujenty did wisely in opposing itself to the exiKnlition 
which the Shall announced ; the evident or avowed pur* 
pose of which was the conquest of Herat or tho subjuga- 
tion of Aflglianibton. While the question was still under 
disfcnshion, and while the Shall hod not yet sot out from 
Tehran, IVince Kamron thought proper to add fuel to the 
flame which had been already kindloil, by putting soma 
Pcrtiuns in his dominions to dcak\iiaxi^\>^ dxvTvsi^ ^>^w^ 



rOUCV OF D03T MAHOMED KUAN. 205 

of tlio samo riwooiit of liis city; l>iit, in jiwUi^o t<i tbs 
chiwiictor or tlia priiiue, it umst iiot Lpo omittcil to bo 
btiito'l tliiit tlioKo inoitsnrcs wuro iii uU proba)>ility uiiilor- 
taitua for tlio soko uf Bulf-prosoiTntiou. A conspiracy 
a^'aiiist Priuco Eamriu was kuovrn to oxiat iu llcrati , 
wbicli bod ori(,'inRto(l wilii tho I'eraian inbabiUmts of 
tbut ploco, miuiy of whom had a^'rcod to rebel against 
liiiii wboiiovcr tbo nniiy of Mabomotl Sbah Hlioubl ni<i>oar 
bofuro Uiu city. Witli rufurtinco to biH duuktratiuu of 
wiir, tbo 8b»b ubHorvctl at a public IuVl'C, tbat Hinco UiB 
Ku<,diiili Ouvuniiuuat tlioii^lit itself justifictl in foUowiiijf ; 
uj) tbo iutcrcutii of catili iii<li>it1ual morcUaiit, bo was , 
Buroly witbio tbo limits of bia ri^bta in taking mousuruii 
to pruvciit Ills snlijcctn fnnu being ciirriml into ciiptivity 
or driTon from thoir liomos by tbo Turkomans. 

At tbia timo Dost Mabomed Kban of Cabul was 
endeavouring to establish bis unccrtaiu powor by making 
Buitablo foreign alliances. His ilcthroucd rival, Sliob 
Sbaja-ul-MuIk, was a peii^siouer in tbo British dominions 
in India, iiud ho was cudeavouriiig to enlist tho Indian 
Cbvoruniuut iu a scheme for the recovery of bis kingdom. 
His proposals were not accepted, but ho at lougtli con- 
trived to obtuiu au iidvaueo of tlie ponsiou which bo was 
receiving. If tliis iudulgcuce bo cousidcrcd together 
with tbo fact tbat the ludiuu Goverumeut was well aware 
of tbe purpose to wbicb the mouoy so lulvouccJ would 
bo applied, and that it took no steps to prevent its 
pensioner iroiu preparing a warlike expedition against 
Dost Mahomed ; tbe latter chief will not be judged 
to Imve been without grounds for believing tbat tbe 
Britisb Government of India was hostile to his interests. 
He consequently detormiucd to seek tbe allianco of 



20G A HISTORY OF PEIWIA. 

Persia, with tlio donblo Tiew of patting a limit to tko 
Shali's plans of conquest in Affghanistan, and of securing 
his aid in fntore struggles with Shiya-ul-Mulk. Haji 
Hussein Ali Klian was emi)owered by the Barukzje 
Sirdar to negotiate a treaty of offensive and defensive 
alliance between him and Mahomed Shahy on the 
eouditious tliat a jtiiut attack should bo made on the 
territoricm of Prince Kamruu, and that in the event of 
success, a {lartition of conquests sliould take place, by 
which Ilfrat, and the districts lying to tlie west of tlio 
river of Fcrrali, sliould belong to Poniia, and the country 
on the eastern side of tliat river, with Sebzewar, to Dost 
Mahomed. Tlie Affghan nobleman found reason to 
doubt whether the conclusion of such a treaty would 
really be of advantage to liis master, and he seems to 
have been suiHirscded in his capacity of Affghan ploni* 
|H)tentiar}% by the arrival at Tehran of Azeez Klian ; who 
hail Inhmi Hont thither by the chiefs of Koudaliar, brothers 
of Dobt Moliouicd, luul ^lio ogrtHxl with the Persian 
Goveriniii'iit on the t4*rms of a league ugaiiist Prince 
Kaninui,— the Sliali iu*kiiowledging tlio inde|>endenco of 
the Ikrukzye Sirdars. 

In the tfumnicr of the year 18«30, Mahomed Shah 
put his urmy in motion towards the oast. Ilin Majesty's 
o|K*rationH were in the lirst instance din^ctod against the 
Turkomans, and they were ntit distinguished by any 
remark.ible result. Prince Foridoon wan drt4u:hed with 
a diviHinn of tlio army to attjwk the ftirtilied town of 
Korakillali, which place lie found on his arrival to have 
been evacaate«1 by the tribes in whoso |)ossossiou it had 
been. They li(u\ rctiretl to the mountain fastness of 
Sooknok, from which the Persian general now endea- 



Tilli SlUJI ADVANCES AGAINST ilEBAT. 207 

Tourc<1 in vain to dislodgo thcoi. TIio Oozboga of Elu^'a 
coUoctod Uieir forces, ami oiwued communicatiou with 
the Allghima of Herat, for the puqiose of ommging 
lufiuiuroii iu concert witli tlio Turkomaus for tiicir 
mutual (lefcuce. The Sliali lingered for many weeks iu 
tlie vicinity of Astrabad, and tlie dearth of food iu his 
cautp bocaiiio ho ^a-cut tliat tho lioldiers plundered dvoq 
the ^irovitiionti doMLiiicd for the use of tlio king. Tho 
TurkuiUiUis wuro in tho mcautimo over on thu vrutch to 
cut otr Persian HlnL<,'glors, and tlicir light bon^cmou kept 
iilivo a pcr^ietual olurui in the Perijiaii camp from dusk 
till dayb^Iit. The want of success which attended tho 
operations of the Shah on tho bonks of tlic G-oorgou, 
could not fail to raise the spirits of the AfTgbaus of 
Herat ; wlioso final reply to bis Persian Majesty was 
that tlicy were ready to make him a present, but that 
they would give no hostages for their future good be- 
bavioitr, and that if the kitig were not contented with 
this answer, be was at lilierty to advance to the attack of 
Ilorat. lint inuuperahle obstacles pruKcnted tltomsolvoa 
to tho fulfilment at this tiniu of tho intentions wliicb tho 
81iab had so often avowed, and towards the end of tho 
year bo was forced to return discouteutod to Tehran. 

Di tho following year the Shall onco more set out to 
tho oostward. Ho mustered his anuy at IJobUm, where 
it WOB found to consist of about 8,000 etiective infautry 
aud 1,500 cavalry. Four battahons and tbii-ty guns bud 
boou sent on in lulvaaco to Sub/i:war, Tlio govcnimont 
of Ilurat, on huuring of tho king's approach, left no 
UOOUH unused for preparing for the defence of that city. 
TUo whole of tiio provisions to ho found iu the country 
were removod into tlio fortresses, aud the forage wbicli 



208 A IIIflTORT OF rXRSIA. 

could not be carried away was barat. Even Uie grass 
on tlio plains was sot firo tO| and all the villages witliin 
twdve miles of Herat were destroyed ; tlie iulmlatiuits 
being removed to tlie fortrosseSi or to places at a distance. 
Ten thousand diosen horsemen were ordered to keep the 
field, and the remaining troops were directed to garrison 
the city and the neighbouring strong places* The 
season of the year, it being tlie early ^mrt of wiuteri was 
most anfavonruble for militaiy operations in a region where 
tlie winter is so rigorous as it is in northern Afighanistan. 
The trooiw of the Shah suffered greatly in their progress 
through Khorassan, and tlie king huuself was unable to 
walk even from liis tout to his carriage. Still he did 
not depart from tlie intention with wliich he had set out, 
and he hiiUHclf proceeded with tlie main bo<1y of his 
army to Ilemt, wliilo one of tlio divisious was told off 
for the duty of bcsiogiug Ghorian, and auoUier was sent 
agaiiJHt tlio Turkomans imd Hczurehs. 

The preparations for the defence of Herat were 
supcrinteudcd by Yar Maliomed Khan, the Yizeer ; Prince 
Kamran being too much given over to intoxication to 
be able to direct the business of his government. The 
ambitious Vizecr was at tliis time {mving tlie way for 
his own advancement to the supreme power on one pre- 
text or anotlier, and he d]si>08ed of tlie greater number 
of chiofH who were Ukely to op|K>se his ]>retcusionM. 
By such measures, and his tyrannous conduct towards 
the {KHipIo, a spirit of discontent wtis raised within the 
city, the Sheeoli iH>rtion of the inhabitants of which were 
fully diHiK>sed to welcome the rersian king. The con- 
dition of the fortifications of Herat was not sucli« at iUisk 
time, as to have prevented £uxo\^aii Vxoc^y^ Irac^ Va^i^Si^q^ 



SIBOE OP IIEBAT. 

tlio pinco l)y Oiisault ; Lut tlio ooergctio Vizoor contnTod 1 
to put Ilm-ut ill giioli n stiito as to oniiUo it tu prcsont [ 
coiiaijoral>lo obstiicIoH t<) ii I'craiim force. TIio nimiiiui 
wfts piitcliwl lip «iul tlio ditch iIl-hiwhocI ; iiiul iia ou tlio , 
ocoiHiou of Uiu pruviouri hic^^u of tho pliu:u by tlio sou of 
AbbiisH Mooraii, tlio officor in comiiianJ of the Pemm 
ai'tiUery bud booii bribu.1 not to Tiro shot or HbcU into tU« 
cilade], it Wiia hopod tbut the Biimo exemption might bo 
oiico more pui'chtiscil. Al Ibis tiino tliuro lurivoil at tlia 
cily of Ilorat a yoiiiig English officer of artillery, and J 
yivc Mnbomoil Khati hiul sufficient sagacity to [icrcoive ] 
nt once tlio ininaoiiHo bcnclit wbicU might bo ilorivcd by] 
lii-s matilcr from tho xomccs of Limitcmmt Etilrod' 
Pottinycr. That oflicer Imd travcUcil throiiKb Affgliiuii- 
BtuD ill tbo (liHguiKo of lui Uiirutal comLuiuo ; and wbou ho 
mudo it known to tho Vi/.ccr that ho WMi an Englishman, 
the latter from that moment sought tu cugago him in 
tlio tosk of dcfi'iiding the city. It would weary tlio 
reodor were I to follow minulcly the events of tbe todiona 
Bioge which now ciitiucd. It was carriod ou, ou the sido 
of the Persians, with a disregard to the usages of civilized 
warfare ; for which tliey may havo imagined they were to 
be held excusable, inasmuch as the men of Herat had 
formerly professed obedience to the Shah, and were now 
in arms against him. But most of the atrocities now 
committed were truicabto, in tho first iuHtauco, to the 
ongovoruablo ])roniptings of hunger. AVlieii men camo 
to report to tho Persian authorities that tlie [irovisious 
vbieh llicy bad brought to tbe Sboli's camp for sale hod 
been seized and i-etained by the soldiers, all tbo coinpou- 
latiun that awaited them was to bo rudely abused, and 
afterwonU turned out of tho eamp. 



900 A 11I8T0RT OF 1*ER8IA. 

On tlio 2nn1 of Novombor, ia37, Maliomod Sliah 
Hrrivcd witliiu a milo of Iloiuti autl a HkiruuHli ousiicd 
liotwocn tlio irrc);nlfur hornomcu of boUi hicIcs. Ouo 
prisoucr voM brongkt bcforo tiio Shall, who, in order 
to show tho tpirit in which ho intended to carry on 
tlio war, ordered him to be bayoneted before the royal 
tent. On tlie following day a trench was conunenced to 
bo dug round the Persian camp. The Shall in i>erson 
superintended the opening oiierations of tlie siege, and 
conUnned during the subsequent days to watch the pro- 
gress of events from a small tent on a hillock. Sixteen 
miles distant from Herat was a village inlmbited by 
Sliceah Syeds, who of aU men might have been expected 
to liave least to fear from the soldiers of a Sheeah 
monarch. A party of rcrMians arrivctl at this village 
in quest of provisions, and the chief man of tlie place 
came out and uiformctl the Persian officer who was in 
cominaL'd, that all that the village contained of pro- 
visions whm at his diH|>oMal, and would be brought to his 
camp, pn»vii1c<l he would agree to rcstraiu his men from 
entering the plaice. Tho commander assented to the 
amuigcinent, but tho soldiers were not to be baulketl of 
tlie op|Nirtniiity of plundering, and they paid no attention 
to the restriction which was put Ui)on their entering the 
village. Their commander uix)n this re<|uestod the Syeds 
to terrify his troops by firing ui)on them from tlie village 
wall. They did so, and eight Persians fell ; whereupon 
tlie survivors assaulted the place, and, having stormed 
it, revenged tlie death of tlieir comrades by that of thirty 
ot tlie holy men: tliey also committed every kind of 
atrocity. 

In the journal of one who was at tliis period in tho 



TURKOMAX PRISONRKS PUT TO DBATIt. 

royiJ camp Iwfom llonit,* I reml, iindcr <luto of tlio 7& 1 
of Pccoiulior : " Tlio Slinli M-iit for tIin>o Tiirkonmn I 
IiriNoiicrH, nnd hIho for an AITkIiaii, Miiliomoil Aiiooi ] 
Klmii, wlio liiul boL'U Uxkon, tiiul ordunxl tliotu tu l>o pat- 1 
to tloatb, 115 mi not ptciiKia^ to (iod. TIiik o)-i1cr i 
executed in his iirescuco. Tlio Shall goes daily to his j 
plitro of obRoiTation, and employs himself in reatliog the 1 
Konui." TJlo piissnsfl I htivo fpiotcJ uffonls a niolan- 
choly picture of 80ctanaii fiuiiiticiam, and of the bur- ] 
bariticfl to which uii Oiioiitiil monarch mant be luxiis- I 
tomuil. In iiu entry of the snnio joiimiU fur the 0th of i 
Dcccnibor, I read that Iho Persia]) KolJiem were rediicod I 
to such extrciiiitioB tliat they went about offeriag the 1 
locIiB of tbcir niiislvcf s for sale. For the i)re\-ioiis twenty- 
five days no provisions bad been issned. On tho night 
of tlie 12th of December, a note was tlirowu over the 
valls by a Shocab, stating that those of that sect within 
tbe city wcro powerless to effect a diversion in favour of 
tliose without, and begging tliat tho Shah would lose no 
time in ordering an assault, as there was nothing to be 
feared from tlio AfTghans. On tho following day a 
Persian officer licld a i>arlcy with Home nicu on tlio city 
vollsi and having been invited to enter tho town and ftoo 
Yor Mahomed Khan, be obtained the king's permission 
to do BO. Ho was ordered to remind tlio Vizcer of Herat 
that his brother, who hod yielded tlio fortress of Gborion, 
bed experienced no ill-treatment in tlie Persian camp, 
and ho was told to work upon tlic Vizeer's fears by dwell* 
ing on tho insecurity of bis position under a drunkard 
like Prince Komrou, who might at any moment, in a fit 
of lenaeless fury, isaxxe orders for bis execution. The 



802 III8T0UT OF PRnSIA. 

oiBcer acconlbgly entered Herat, and delivered his 
message to the Vizeer ; but his Highness stated in reply 
that he had once, in the time of Abbass Meerza, pro* 
ceeded to a Persian camp, and hod boon seized and 
imprisoned, and that therefore he would not trust again 
to Pendan good faith, nor place himself in tlio i)ower of 
the Sliali; but ho desired the Persian to inform his 
master tliat sliould he witlidraw Ids trooi>s to Moshed, 
a present, as largo as tlie men of Herat could afford to 
make it, would be sent to him to Uiut placo, and that ho 
might satisfy himself as to tlic capabilities of the Heratis 
in tliis rcs|)ect by sending accountants into Uie city to 
examine the lists of revenue. The Vizeer of Herat took 
advantage of tlie same opportunity to offer to supply 
provifiions to General Samson, the commander of tho 
Russian regiment in Uie Shall 's service, who had afforded 
him kindness when he had been a prisoner in the camp 
of Abbass Meerza. 

During this dreary winter tho Shali's army was only 
kept alive by means of conthiually sending out largo 
parties of soldiers to plunder the surrounduig country far 
and wide. The atrocities which were tlien connnitted 
were such as to excite the commiseration even of many 
of tlie hardened Perbians who had accompanied the king 
to Herat. Tho fate of tho men of tho villages who 
remained to watch over their wives and projierty was 
usually to Ik! ruthlchsly slain, while that of tlie women 
of all ages was to 1)0 viohited. Kven Utile children were 
not secure from deatli and blows. I reml that they were 
generally sent out with copies of tlie Koran in tlieir little 
hands, as being tlie messengers best fitted to awakoa 
feeliifgf of humanity in the Vntanhs ot >>x^ %\B^si:m£s^s&^ 



ATROcrrjEs GOMurrrED by persux soldiers. 803 

solJiora. But Uieso men wore tkon beyond being 
influenced by an appeal to motives of religion or of 
humanity. They used to strike the children or to kill 
tliem, and the women whom they loft in possession of 
life were stripped of all tlieir clothes, even of articles so 
insignificant that a Jew would not have purchased them 
for the smallest copper coin. The Persian who is my 
authority* for this statement exclaims : *' If I were about 
to die of hunger, I would not again accompany one of 
•those plundering parties, to witness such enormities/' 
lie adds, in a burst of honest indignation : ** May the 
fathers of these Serbaz bum in hell I " On tlie 28th of 
December two hundred naked and starving wretches, all 
of them claiming descent from the lawgiver of Mecca, 
came to the Shah's camp from the villages of Ghorat, to 
implore help from the king; but his religious Majesty 
passed them without having deigned to acknowledge 
their presence by the slightest notice. On the 29th of 
the same month one of the bastions of Herat fell into 
the hands of the Persians, the troops who won it having 
been conducted by a deserter from Prince Kamran ; but 
the AfTghons were roused to suitable measures of defence, 
and retook the bastion from the Persians. 

The siege lingered on month after month, the pride 
of the Shall preventing him from giving up the enter|)ri8o 
he had undertaken, and the besieged being animated by 
the |)erReveriuice of the energetic Vizeer, and by the 
skilful eiTorttf of Lieutonaut Eldrcd Pottiuger. In the 
spring of the year 1888, Mr. McNeill, the English 
Minister at the Persian court, arrived in the camp of the 
besiegers, and endeavoured to persuade the king to 

« AiuB An KuAif. 



804 A inSTORT OF PER8U. 

renounce the plans which he had fonned of taking 
Herat. He was listened to by his Persian Majesty with 
attention, and dnring the sncceeding few days those of 
tlie Persians who were anxious to return to their homes 
indulged the hope tliat their king would act according to 
the arguments put before him by the English reprcsenta- 
tire. But a few days later came General Count Simo- 
nich, the euToy extraordinary of Russia, who gave the 
Shall advice in a sense entirely opposite to Uiat of 
Mr. McNeill. Count Simonich succeeded in inducing 
the Shah to continue the siege, and went so far as to 
advance money to his Majesty, and to place at his 
disposal the services of his aide-de-camp. Captain 
Blarauberg, who now undertook the direction of the 
operalious against Herat. 

JuMt before tlio arrival of Count Siroouich, Mr. 
McNeill had, by Uie wish of the contending parties, 
entered tlie town of Herat, to endeavour, if jyoKsible, 
to conclude a negotiation. The Sliah had consider- 
ably modified the terms he Imd hitlierto insisted on, 
for he no longer demanded that a Persian garrison 
should occupy Herat, or that he sliould appropriate 
tlie revenues of tliat state ; but he required that 
Kamran should renonnce the title of Shah, and that 
Yar Maliomed Khan should come to wait* upon him 
in bin camp. On the night on which Mr. McNeill 
entered llcmt, prci>aration8 bad Ikhmi miule by the 
Persian army for a gi'nerul aHHault ; but a truce of some 
hours' duration was agreed to by botli sides, for the pur- 
pose of giving time to the British diplomatist to bring 
the negotiation to a close. The Persian prime minister 
assured Mr. McNeill, as he was about to leave the camp. 



INFLUEXCR OF ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN ENVOYS. 806 

that he was at liberty to act for the Shah's goTemment 
with as foil powers of discretion as he would be inTested 
with in a matter directly concerning the British Crown. 
The night was already (ai advanced, and everything was 
in readiness for the assanlt, as the Minister crossed the 
trenches. He found the Affghans fall of courage and 
confidence, and his astonishment was excited by con* 
templating the strength and extent of the fortifications 
of the city, which hod been constructed since the com- 
mencement of the siege, and which seemed to Mr. 
McNeill to be capable of being defended successfoUy 
against better troops than those of Persia. The English 
diplomatist passed the remainder of the night in conver- 
sation with Yar Mahomed Khan, whom he pronounced 
to bo one of the most remarkable men of liis age and 
country, and with whom ho arranged the terms of a 
treaty by which all the Shali's demands were conceded, 
excepting tliat for the inde|)endence of Herat. On the 
following morning, that of tlie 20th of April, ISSS, Mr. 
McNeill returned to the camp ; Count Simonich also 
arrived before Herat, and the treaty was therefore 
rejected by the Persian king. 

The Shah, for some days after tlie arrival of Coont 
Simonich, was elated with the hope of a speedy conquest ; 
but the besieged still opposed a successful resistance to all 
the efforts of the besiegers, and after the lapse of abont 
a fortnight the spirits of the Shuh imd his muiistor had 
so fur sunk tliat the latter once more called upon Mr. 
McNeill to mediate between the contending princes. The 
draft of the treaty which had been fonnerly rejected was 
now accepted, with the stipulation tliat Mr. McNeill, on 
the part of the British Government, should guarantoe its 

20 



800 A DISTORT OF rRRSIA. 

obMnrmnoo by Princo Kammn. Tlioro now iicomod to bo 
iioUiin(( left Uiat eonld rotonl tlio conclumon of pcaco, 
fiurtlior tiian that tlio Enf^liMb MiuiHtor Hlionld again 
ontor Herat and obtain tlie ratification of tlio treaty by 
Prince Kamran. Bnt UiiH step tlie Periiian OoTomment 
on rarions pretences evaded sanctioning. 

The fickle and tortaons cbaracter of Persian policy 
was never more fully exemplified tlian on this occasion. 
A reverse in tlie operations of tlie siege threw tlie Sliah 
and his Minister into dcsiiair, and induced tliem to have 
iccourso to tlie assistance of Mr. McNeill; a slight 
gleam of success renewed tlieir confidence in Count 
Simonich. Tlie Persian government required tlie British 
Minister to engage that, in the event of Prince Kamran 
refusing to ratify tlie treaty, he would no longer consent 
to conduct negotiations for Herat; and the Persian 
Minister at tlie some time promise<l that on Mr. McNeill's 
writing a note to this effect, a man would immediately 
be sent to conduct him to tlie city. To tliis proposal 
Mr. McNeill assented, on tlie condition that tlie Shah 
should ploflgo himself not to rcnmiu before Herat for 
more tlmn five diiys after tlie conclusion of the treaty, 
and to quit tlio territories of Princo Kamran within ten 
days tliercafter. No imswcr was at first n^tunicil to tliis 
note, and no man was sent to conduct Mr. McNeill to 
Herat. On his pressing for a reply to his note, he was 
informed by tlie Persian Minister that it was necessary 
that some of tlie other civil and mihtary officers of the 
Shah should first be consulted ; tliough the promise was 
at tlie same time renewed by his Excellency of sending a 
man to conduct her Miyesty's Minister to Herat. This 
guide was to make his appearance at the tAnU ^1 >i&i4 



TORTUOUS POLICY OF rRRSIA. 807 

KngliBh miRBion on the evening of the succeeding day ; 
hnt the pn>niifie mode by Ilnji Meerza AghoRai was not 
fulfilled, and when Mr. McNeill asked for an explana- 
tion, he was informed tliat tlie Shall required to be 
indemnified for the Iobhcs he had suBtained, or at least 
that he should receive a sum of money to distribute 
amongst his troops, who had suffered great privations. 
Mr. McNeill remonstrated against this attempt to annex 
new conditions to a treaty which had been already 
agreed to, not only by tlie Persian prime minister but 
by the Shall hiniHolf, and the formal conclusion of which 
had been prevented only by the impediments opposed to 
it by the PerKian government, in violation of tlio written 
promises of tlie prime minister. On the following 
morning Mr. McNeill received a note from Haji Meerza 
Aghassi, which stated, in reply to his remonstrance, that 
the treaty could not be considered as binding on Persia, 
because the Affghans still continued to fire and to make 
sorties; declaring that the losses of Persia in this 
campaign had amounted to five or six crores of tomans ;^ 
expresHing his conviction that tlie Brilish Government 
could not desire to see l^ersia exposed to so great a loss ; 
and concluding by what he said was mentioned merely 
in jest, viz. that as Mr. McNeill was reported to have 
given a large sum of money to the Yizcer of Herat when 
he had visited that place, it was hard that he should have 
given nothing to tlie writer. It was evidently hopeless 
to continue negotiations between two princes, the 
minister of one of whom could so easily repudiate his 
own written agreements. The cause of the sudden 
change in the views of the Shah was the anival of a 

* Ono and a quartor or one and a half million of pounds vtorling. 



806 A liUnORT OF PBB8IA. 

messcDgor from Eandaluur, with letters from Kohendil 
Khan, the brother of Doet Mahomed, containing the 
promise of aid from that quarter. The bearer of the 
letters assnred the Shah, too, that he had nothing to 
fear from tlio direction of Cabal. 

A fow days btor Mr. McNeill soaglit a prifato andiouce 
of tlio king, and roprosoutod tlio imprudence of the 
lino of conduct ho was adopting, inasmuch as it tondod 
to alienate from liim tlio sympathy and friendship of (ireat 
Dritaiu. SovonU causes of complaint against the rersiim 
Govcmmout had arisen out of the difforonco of opinion 
between it and the British Government res|)ecUng 
the advisability of the siege of Herat. The numerous 
embassies which had successively been sent from England 
or from India to the Persian court ; the costly presents 
which luul Ik^cu lavishoil uiNin Folteh AU Shah and liis 
Ministi*rB ; and the stipulations which had boon agreed 
to with rcsp<M:t to furnishing Persia with money and 
arms in the event of tlie occurrence of certain contin- 
gencies: all those had combined to establish in the 
mind of Moliomed Shah, and in that of liis Minister, the 
idea that Great Britain placed a very high value on the 
friendship of Persia ; and that rather than break tlie 
alliance between the two States, and so drive Persia into 
the arms of Russia, England would suffer almost any 
amount of neglect and indignity. The Shah and his 
Minister mwn found tliat tliey had been mistaken in 
Uieir OKtimate of tlie long-suffering of England. As 
subHidics were at tliis time no lunger paid to Persia by 
the representative of the Governments of England and 
of India, there was a disposition on the part of the 
Shah's Government to make ibak i«^nMSi\ji&^^ \m^\^ 



UK. H'NEILL APPEALS TO THE SIIAH. 809 

loss of inflncnce, and, by means of petty annoyauccs and 
vexations delays, to try whether it could not extort from 
him the price of more honourable treatment. It was 
prepared to push this system to tlie utmost point short 
of a rupture, and it was convinced that if it should go 
too for, a miHRion to England and a few words of expla- 
nation and apology would satinfy the Government of her 
Majesty, which could not afford to diKpcnso with the 
aUianco of Persia. In addition to tlieso promptingH 
of avarice, it niUHt bo remembered, in expk nation of the 
line of conduct adopted at this time by the PorHiau 
government, that tlio Shah's ruling posHion was a 
desire for military renown, and, connected with this wish, 
a determination to extend his territories, especially in the 
direction of AfTghanistan. Thpse views were encouraged 
by lluHsia and oppoHcd by England, and this circumstance 
could not fail to raise in the Shah's mind the ho|)o of 
deriving greater advantage from the cordial cooperation 
of Russia, than from intimate relations with England. 
Such being the spirit which at this time animated the 
Persian court, we are not surprised to read that it 
showed itself in several acts which it was impossible for 
the British Minister to pass over without obtaining 
redress. The safety of tlio officiating British resident 
at Bushire was insolently threatened by the governor of 
that place ; and a courier of the English mission was 
stopped, seized and ill-treated in the neighbourhood of 
Meshed, and then forced to return to tlio camp of tlio y i 
Shah. In addition to these things, tlie conclusion of a 
commercial treaty with England, to which the Shah's 
Government was pledged, was evaded on frivolous pre. 
tonces. Mr. McNeill obtained from the Shah the admio- 



810 ▲ HI8T0RT OF FEBSU. 

lioD that eTon if he were to succeed in taking Herat, he 
would bo unable to hold it, and that in that case it was 
his intention to give it to Kohoudil Khan of Kandahar. 
The convoraation terminated bj the Shah's agreeing to 
fblfil the terms of tlie treaty drawn up bj Mr. McNeill, 
provided that he could find a suitable pretext for raising 
the siege of Herat. He accordingly requested Mr. 
McNeill to address to him a letter threatening him with 
the anger of the British Oovemment in case he should 
persist in his operations against the beleaguered city. 

In the formal representation which Mr. McNeill then 
addressed to the king, he embodied a statement of the 
other grounds on account of which his Oovemment had 
to complaui of Ponda, in addition to tlio invostineut of 
the city of Prince Kamran. But in the course of two or 
three days, and after Mr. McNeill had been granted 
another private audience of his Persian Majesty, that 
Minister received a letter from tlie Persian foreign office, 
from which it appeared that the Shah had no longer any 
intention of avaihug himself of the pretext which he had 
soU|;ht from Mr. McNeill for raiHing tlie siege of Herat. 
It was also sufficiently apparent from this letter that the 
object of the Persian government was to obtain a large 
sum of money as tlie price of abandoning Uie enterprise 
against the city, or rather, tliat the Shah had been 
diverted from his previous intention to accommodate 
alters with Herat and to agree to Mr. McNeill's 
iemaiidB, by tlie hopes held out to him by his advisers 
of their being able to extort from the English Minister a 
large i)ecuniary rocompence for complying with those 
demands. Mr. McNeill, however, distinctly assured the 
Persian Ministers thai the Uo]^ ot laWx^AX^^\&^^^'^^s5asc& 



MR. M'KEILL QUITS TUE CX)URT. 811 

him by sacli means was futile. Ten days elapsedi and 
no farther commmiication took place between the British 
legation and the Persian court ; but on the 30th of May, 
Mr. McNeill had again a private audience of the Shah, 
and pointed out to his Majesty the discrepancy between 
the language held by his Ministers and that held by 
himself. Two days later the British envoy received 
from the Persian Government a despatch, with the con- 
tents of which he may well have been surprised, since, 
while it made some show of concession on other points, 
it treated as an. invasion of the Shali's independent 
sovereign rights the terms Mr. McNeill had employed, in 
accordance with the king's own request, with regard to 
the offensive light in which tlie siege of Herat was looked 
upon by her Majesty's Government. 

The treatment to which the British Minister had 
been subjected had now brought to an end the amoont 
of patience which the calmest of men could be expected 
to display, and Mr. McNeill accordingly reluctantly 
arrived at the determination of quitting the court of the 
Persian king. The Shah had failed to redeem one of 
the many promises he had made to comply with all or a 
part of the demands which had been submitted to him, 
and had evaded every attempt wliich Mr. McNeill had 
made to procm'e adequate redress for the detention and 
ill-treatment of his messengers. The conduct of the 
Persian government with regard to the proposed treaty 
with Prince Kamran, which it had at first accepted, and 
which it afterwards decUncd to conclude, and the use 
which had been made of Mr. McNeill's compUance with 
the Shah's request that he would furnish liim with a 
suitable pretext for quittmg the enterprise in which he 



^^^. '^'=^■1^ .r 



812 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

w«8 ODgagod — tbeao oonsideratioDS, conpled with the 
|>onoTonuiee of tho Pornim goTominent m its resolutiou 
to provent anj of its servantSy excepting the prime 
minifiter and tlie deputy minister for foreign aflkirs, from 
holding snj intercourse with the British Missiouy deter- 
mined Mr. McNeill to demand leave to depart from the 
camp, and to proceed to the frontier of Turkey. 

The Shah still peraeYored in his policy of Yacillation. 
Ho was unwilling to see the Englinh Minister depart from 
his court, and he therefore made a pretence of disbe- 
Uering a £ict so notorious as was the ill-treatment to 
which Mr. McNeill's messenger had been subjected. 
Mr. McNeill was asked to provo tho correctness of the 
statements ho hod advanced ; but tluN ho could only do 
by Persian evidence, which it was of courHC vain to 
expect to obtain in a cose where tlio Sliali and Ium 
prime minister were amongst tlie delinquents. Mr. 
McNeill left tlie royal camp on tho 7th of Juno for 
Moslicd and Teliran. At Sliolirood he received des- 
jMitclicM from Kngliuid iuMtnicting him to place before 
the Sluih tlie exprcMsiou of Uie Htrongcst dinappruval of 
lior MiijcHty's Uoveniment of the line of conduct his 
MajcMty wiis puTMuing towards llenit ; and ho acconl- 
ingly sent Colonel Stoddart back to the royal camp wiUi 
instructions to dehver to the Shah a verbal message to 
the effect, that tlie enterprise in which his Majesty was 
engaged was looked upon by the Queen's Ministers as 
being undertaken in a spirit of hostihty towards British 
India, and as being totally incom|>atible with Uio spirit 
and intention of the alliance which had been estabhshed 
between Great Britam and Persia^ CoV^t^^ "^Va^^m^ 
was /iirt/ier directed to lay UksJl \:ba qs^ 



REPUL8B OF THR PERSIANS FROM nERAT. 818 

wonld look npon the occupation by Persia of Herat, or 
anj portion of Affghanistau, in the light of a hostile 
demonstration against England ; and he was to refer to 
the fact tliat tlio Shall most be already aware that a 
British naval armament of five ships-of-war had arriTod 
in the Persian Gulf and taken possession of the island 
of Karrack. 

Soon after the departure of the British Minister from 
the royal camp the troops of the Shah, after six days' 
incessant battering, were led to the assault of Herat,* 
and repulsed with considerable loss ; the number of killed 
and wounded being said to have amounted to about 
eighteen hundred men. The loss of the higher officers 
was great in proportion to the total number of men 
killed ; but the person whoso death was most severely felt 
was the Shah's Polish officer, Monsieur Pcroffski, who 
held the rank of major-general. Amongst the wounded 
was General Samson, the colonel of the Russian battalion 
in the service of the Shall. The Persian troops are said 
to have iissauUed with gallantry, and to have planted 
their standards throe succetisive times on the breach ; 
but they wore unable to maintain tlieir position. 
The Aflghans attacked them sword in hand with irre- 
sistible energy, and drove thorn witli great slaughter 
across the ditch. It is said that of the killed and 
' wounded in the Persian ranks three-fourths received 
sabre- wounds. Tliis assault was the great event of the 
siege of Herat. It had been planned by Count 
Simonich, and that circumstance is said to have afforded 
to the Shall and his Minister some consolation for the 
want of success which had attended it : so fickle and so 

* Ou Uio43niof Juno. 



814 A rnaroRT of fbrsia. 

jealooB was the Peniaii court I The BassiBn enToy- 
extnu)rdmai7 had, throughout the campaign in Afighani- 
•tan, taken npon himself to act in accordance rather with 
what he beliered or knew to be the wishes of the Imperial 
Cabinet, than in accordance with the written instructions 
which he had receired from Count Nessehrode. In reply 
to the remonstrances which the ropresentatiTe of the 
British OoTcmment was instructed to address at St. 
Petersburg, ho was offered permission to peruse the 
original drafts of all the despatches which had been 
addressed to Count Simonich for his guidance as to his 
conduct with reference to the Shah's expedition against 
Herat ; and, out of deference to Great Britain, Count 
Simonich was recalled, on the plea that ho had exceeded 
his instructions. 

On the 11th of August Colonel Stoddart arrived at 
tlie royal camp before Herat, and on the following day 
he found his Persian Majesty at length disposed to listen 
to reasonable proi)osals for a cessation of hostilities. 
Wlicn Colonel Stoddart had come to a pause in his 
address, the king interrupted him witli the words—" The 
(act is, if I don't leave Herat there will be war. Is not 
tliat it ?" Tlio Englisli officer replied—'' It is war. All 
depends on your Majesty's answer ; and may God pre- 
serve your Majesty ! " Wheren|>on the Sliah stated that 
tliis dcchuratiou was all he wonted ; tlmt lie hod asked 
Mr. McNeill for it, who had declined to make such a 
declaration. Two days hUer Colonel Stoddart was sum- 
moned to the royal presence, when tlie king said — ** We 
consent to the whole of the demands of the British 
Government. Wo will not go to war. Were it not fat 
the sake of its friendship we i^^ Ti^V x^Nnx^ ^3^sc^ 



BRITISH DEMANDS ACCEDED TO. 816 

before Herat. Had we known that oar coming here 
might risk the loss of its friendship, we certainly would 
not have come at all." The Shah's words were this time 
followed by corresponding deeds. A letter was addressed 
from the Persian foreign office to Mr. McNeill, coached 
in terms similar to those which had been nsed by the 
Shah to C!olouel Stoddart, and his Majesty ordered pre- 
parations to bo made for the breaking up of the camp 
and the return to Persia. Colonel Stoddart offered his 
own services on the part of the British Minister as medi- 
ator between the Shah and Prince Kamran, but he firmly 
declared that the British Government would not consent 
to admit of any other foreign mediation between the 
contending parties. The counsels of Count Simonich 
had now in turn lost thou: weight with the Persian king ; 
and it is said that Monsieur Goutte, the interpreter of 
the Russian Mission, who had been sent into Herat for 
the purpose of inducing the Yizeer to permit the departure 
from that place of a Prussian subject, was uncourteoasly 
desired to depart from the city fortliwith. The Prussian 
subject was, however, sent over, after a few days, to the 
Persian camp. 

The Shah scorns from this time to tlio conclusion 
of the siege to have acted with good faith, though 
still with some vacillation of purpose. Ho at first 
agreed to accept Colonel Stoddart's mediation for the 
conclusion of a treaty with the Aflghan prince, and 
lie desired his under-sccrotury for foreign aflairs to ac- 
quaint that gentleman that ho would not permit the 
interference of llussia in the conclusion of an arrange- 
ment with Herat. The preparations for the departure of 
the king were continued ; but it was necessary to wait for 



81G A mSTORT OF PBR8IA. 

Homo time before a RnfBcieut nnmber of tnnlert eoald be 
eoUeeted. Connt Biroonich took mlvantogo of tliifi delay 
to send a letter into tlie ritj ofluring to interfere between 
Uie Khnli nncl Prince Kauiran ; but the pmclent Vixeer of 
Herat retumcd no answer to tlie proposal of tlie llossian 
Mtnifiter. Bj tins time mmonrs had reached the phice of 
the preparations on the part of the Ooremment of India 
for a military expedition, undertaken with the Tiew of 
restoring the Sedozye Shah Shnja to power. The news 
greatly depressed the Bamkzye allies of tlie Shah, who 
had come to his camp from Kandahar; and, as might 
hare been anticipated, tlie same intelligence cansod a 
corrosiK>nding rise in the spirits of tlie Sedoxye defenders 
of Herat. Seeing an approaching termination to the 
siege which they Inul ho galliiiitly HiiHtaiiied, the AfTgluiu 
mleni were no longer willing to accede to the terms 
of the treaty which hail I)een rejected by tlic rersian 
king; and this information was communicated by his 
Majesty to Colonel Stoddart on the 10th of August. His 
MujcHty wished Colonel Stoddart to state whether the 
BritiKli Government desired him to depart from before 
Herat without having mtu\c any arrangement with Prince 
Kamran. The Rnglisli officer volunteered, if autliorized 
to do so by Die Shall, to enter tlie city and endeavour to 
bring tlie ruler of that place to conclude the treaty which 
had been drafted by Mr. McNeill ; but the Shah finally 
determined to break up his camp and to retire from 
before Herat, without having concluded any arrangement 
with Prince Kamran. The latter ruler wiis now reap- 
ing tlie fruits of the long course of dissoluteness and 
debauchery in wliich ho liad indulged while ho had 
eotmstod the management of his state to Yar Mahomed 



TUE 8IIAI1 INVITES KR. MCNEILL TO RETURN. 817 

Khan. That sagacious Vizoor had gainod great gloiy 
Crom tho HUccoBsful dcfcuco of Herat, and his master 
was tortured hy tlio fear lest after tlio raitting of Uio 
siege tlie Vixeer nhould dethrone him. He accordingly 
resolved not to lose tho only opjiortunity which was open 
to him of getting rid of ho dangerous a suhjoct ; and with 
this view he addressed a secret note to his brother-in* 
law, in which he expressed his wish that Mahomed Shah 
would reUeve him of the presence of his Vizeer. The 
note was seen by Colonel Stoddart : it bore the prirate 
seal of Prince Kamran, and with reference to it Mahomed 
Bhali observed to the English officer — ** Without Yar 
Maliomed Kliun, Kamran would be nothing : he is mad 
to be afraid of liim/' 

On the 2/>th of August .a lettor was addressed to 
Mr. McNeill on the part of tho Shall, requesting tliat 
he would come back to the Persian court ; and at tho 
same time his Majesty forwarded a royal rescript to that 
gentleman, assuring him of the favourable reception with 
wliich he would be met on his return to the royal 
presence. 

The Shah's army was detained before Herat by want 
of baggage animals until the 8th of September, and at 
tlie last moment one more attempt was made to extort 
from tho royal family of the Scdozye prince some mark 
of homage to the Persian king. At midniglit, or shortly 
after, on the Gth of September, Colonel Stoddart was 
roused from his sleep by the noise of some footsteps 
approaching his tent. A man entered in disguise, and 
in that still hour he communicated to the English officor 
that he was Sheer Mahomed Khan, the Afighan Sirdar, 
and that he had been sent by the Persian prime miniffter 




818 A HIBTORT OF FER8IA. 

cxpromly for tlio pniposo of cntlcATonring to indnco 
Colonel Stoildart to pcnraade tlio motlicr and tlio son of 
Kamnui to come and make tlicir obcisfinco to tlio Sbab, 
after which tlicy might retnm to the city. A convorso* 
tion which lasted for two honrs, failed to persuade 
Colonel Stoddart to accede to the proposal of tlie prime 
mmister of Persia. So tliat Vizeer and bis master bad at 
length— after a oicgo which had lasted for upwards of 
nine moutlis — to make np tlieir minds to turn towards 
Tehran, witli the bitter reflection that all the Shah's power 
had been nnable to carry into effect a single one of the 
objects to secure wliicb that siege hod been undertaken. 
Tlie fortress of Ilorat was much stronger than it bad 
OTcr been lieforc, and its inhabitants had now a character 
for bravery and endurance to support, which might be 
expected to make the reduction of their city at any 
future time by a Persian army a still more difficult 
undertaking tlian it had hitlierto been. Prince Kamran 
had not fiimished a single slialii of tribute ; ncitlier hod 
he returned any captive subjects of the Kajar king ; nor 
boil ho ongiigccl to restrain in any way the Turkomans, 
who wt'rc thus at liberty to carry on their mnninding 
cxiM*di(ions into KhorawMin, and for the sole of whoso 
Shoeiili HhiTCH the marts of ITonit were o][>ou. The Shall, 
with further mortification, had to reflect that tlio ][)eople8 
of Central Asia had witnessed how Uttle good he hod 
derived from tlie friendship ho had sought to establish 
with tlie Autocrat of the North. They had seen the 
fortress of Prince Kamran baflle all tlio efforts of a 
Russian engiueer (so called) to take it, and they had been 
the witnesses of the utter failure of an assault ^\i\^N^s^ 
baio plannod \y a Bossian majot^gouenl. 



OOLOKKL STODDART'S FlEMirESB REWARDED. 810 

Tlio Persian anny marched from the camp before 
Herat ou the 9th of September of the jear 1838, and 
on the morning of that daj Colonel Stoddart, before 
setting out on his ill-fiited jonmey to Bokhara, had 
the satisfaction to be able to report to Mr. McNeill: 
''The Shah has moonted his horse 'Ameerij/ and 
is gone." 



890 A HKRORT or FRB8U. 



CHAPTER XI. 

DwMmlt of her nritaiwie Miyetty's GoTerament from the King of PenSar— 
Knwive Amiwera of Hi^i Aleena AghaMi — SutpeiuMoii of DiplonuUie 
Relatimiji brtween En^sad aud iVnua — AdTAiice of Runift in the 
Eert— nrittiih Eipfditkni to the Prrnen Gulf— Hafwein Khaa^ 
KinancM of Lord IHUmentoii—The Sliah yielde— Riidag of the Chief 
of tiie Awmwini Hie Suceeee mad sabeequeiit Failure — Bunpoor — 
The IWkioehrit |»Qt their Fkimli<*ii to Death — Aflaira of Kardiatan — 
Unacttled 8ute of Tarlw — l^naan Frontier — CoinmiMiion appointed 
tor it* IMimitation — IVmiana* SufTeringNat tlic Ilandiiof Turkoniana — 
MaimariT at Kmrbcla — lUnialiment of the Aief-ed-Dowleh — War in 
KhoraMan— The liab— l>eath of Mahomed Shah. 

The Shall Iiad promised, nnconditionallj, to Colonel 
Rtoddort at Herat, as has been stated in the preceding 
chapter, to fulfil the whole of the demands of the Dritish 
OoYemment. These demands were, that tlie Persian 
monarch shonld co4iso to occupy any portion of Affghan- 
istan, and that he should, further, afford re|Hiration for 
the riolence which had been offered to the courier of the 
Uritisli Legation. 

With regard to the first |>oint, the siege of Herat had 
been indeed abandoned in consequence of the tlireatened 
hostility of tlio English Government ; but, on the other 
liand, tlie Shall still relAlned posHosKion of tlie fortress of 
Ohorian, which he had taken from Prince Kamran, and 
bii troops still continued to occupy Fcrrali, Sobzowar, 
and Khurukh ; all of which places formed part of Affghan- 
isUo. With regard to the secoiid point — ^reparation, 



OUTRAGE ON AN ENGLISU COUaiBE. 821 

namely, for an insolt offered to a courier — ^the measures 
adopted by the Persian king did not satisfy the demands 
of the British Government. The outrage for which re- 
dress was now required had been of a nature so gross, 
that, had it been passed over without reparation having 
been exacted, the safety and efficiency of those employed 
by the English Mission in Persia would thereafter have 
been seriously compromised, and a stain would have re- 
mained on the honour of the Oovemment which should 
have permitted one of its servants to be so maltreated. 

The circumstances under which the outrage had 
been committed were tliese : — A courier had been sent 
by Mr. McNeill to Meshed, in 1887, to be in readi- 
' noss to bring back a letter in which the British Minister 
I was to be authorized by tlie government of Herat to 
! conclude an amicable adjustment of its differences with 
i Persia, and of which permission ho was to avail himself in 
; case the difficulties encountered by the Shah in the pro- 
secution of the onterprise on which ho wus at that time 
bent should be such as to induce him to accept of foreign 
mediation. The courier was to await at Meshed a com- 
munication from Fettoh Mahomed Khan, an envoy from 
Herat, who was returning from Persia. But for some 
reason — probably because he feared lest the road from 
Herat to Meshed would be unsafe for an Afighan mes- 
tfenger— Fetteh Mahomed Klian induced the courier to 
proceed with him to Herat, where he was detained for 
some weeks. He finally left the place as the bearer of 
letters from Yar Mahomed Khan and Lieutenant Eldrod 
Pottinger to the address of Mr. McNeill. When within 
/ about three stages of Meshed, and after he had ahready 
passed the Persian axmj ^«a m^^\ii% Vs^^^ ^<»»l^ 



L 



:^r: 



822 A UmOBY OF PEB8U. 

tlio conrior, All Mahomod Bog, was recognized by M. 
Beroflbki ; who, on learning that bo was returning from 
Herat, refiortcd tbo circnmstanco on bis arrival in tbo 
Bbob's camp. Ilorsomon were tbeu dospatcbod in pnr- 
Boit of tbo Engliflb courier, and tbey were instructed to 
bring bim back forcibly to tbo camp of tbe Sbab. He 
was stripped of a portion of bis dotbes, tbe borses wbicb 
be was bringing witb bim were seised, and be bim- 
self was dragged to tbe camp and tbcre placed in custody. 
Ho succeeded, bowerer, in making bis way to tbe tent 
of Colonel Stoddart, and was by tbat officer conducted to 
tlie prime minister, wbo, after be bad been informed tbat 
tbe courier was in tbo service of tbo Britisb Mission, 
ordered bim to be again placed in custody ; wliilo Hiiji 
Khan, an officer holding tlie rank of brigadier in the 
service of tlie Shall, not only used very offensive language 
towards Colonel Stoddart, in tbe presence of the Persian 
prime minister, but, after the courier bad been released 
by direction of bis Excellency, seized him once more in 
tlie midst of the camp; stripped him in order that he 
might search for any letter there might be about bis 
person ; took from liim what letters he found ; and usotl 
towards liim violent threats and op])robrious language. 
In a country where many of the usages of tiw feudal 
system are still in force, a pointed insult offered to a 
dependant is looked uinm in tbo same light as if it liod 
been offered to liis muster. Therefore, in addition to 
being an infraction of tlie law of nations, the treatment 
to which Mr. McNeill's courier had been subjected, was 
an open and public affront given in the face of the Shah 
and his whole camp to the EngUsh Ministet ^^oi&k \«^ >^^ 
jQorenuDent ot which he waa iba t«vt«i«DXa)ix^« ''^C>Btfs 



Ma. M'KKILL DEMANDS RfiDRKSS. 828 

Mr. McNeill dcmiiuded apology oud roparatiou for tko 
treatment received by liiH mesHeiiger, the Slmh and his 
Minister, as liim been already stated, had eudcavoarod 
to excuse themHelves from affording it by denying the 
accnracy of Mr. McNeill's statements, and calling upon 
liim to prove them. They finally sought to compromise 
matters by dismissing Haji Khan for other conduct, while 
denying that the British Government had any just cause 
of complaint against him. The written ajiology which 
Mr. McNeill demanded from the prime minister for his 
share in tlie transaction was categorically refused. 

Under theso circumstiuices it was clearly impossible 
for Mr. McNeill to ri^sumo diplomatic relations with Uie 
Persian court until such time as tlie promise made 
by the Shah to Colonel Stoddurt at Herat, of granting 
all the demimds of tlie British Government, should be 
carried into execution. Mr. McNeill did not return to 
Teluron, but he awaited in the direction of tlie frontier 
the result of a remonstrance which he directed his Secre- 
tary of Legation to make to the Shah's Ministers against 
the non-fulfilment of the royal promise. Colonel Sheil 
joined tlie Shah's camp on the way from Meshed to 
Teliran, and he continued with it until its arrival at the 
capital, on the 0th of November. He, however, found 
the Shah in no humour to make further conccsHioiuf to 
the British Government. His Majesty indulged ill-will 
against tliat Government for having thwoi'ted his scheme 
of adding Herat to his dominions, and ho determined to 
withhold the satisfaction demanded by Mr. McNeill, and 
yet not wholly to break with tliat Minister until he should 
have learnt the result of a complaint against tlie conduct 
of the British Government, which he had caused to be 

21—2 



S24 A niirroftT or prbsia. 

kid before the cabioflt of the Snblime Porte. Mr. 
McNeill, bowever, on tlie expiiy of tlie time he gave 
the Pcmian gorenuncnt for coming to a deciBion, broke 
off diplomatic rekUoiu with that guTemment ; and, luv- 
ing cvdered the English officen who hod been lent to 
the Shah to proceed towards Baghdad on their way to 
India, he retired to Er«rooni witli the members of his 
Uisaion. 

FrcTional; to tliis, Hnimcin Khan bail been Hont hj 
the Htuili on a miwtiou to Engloud, with the view of 
indndng her MajoKty'a Minitttcm to rcviill Mr. McNi'ill 
from Persia. In the mcmoraudnm witli which he was 
fomiKhed for presentation to the English Miuistera, and 
eoiiicH i>r which were Hont to Franco, Itnutia and Turkey, 
the Sliali entered into ou exposition of the wrungH which, 
be conceived, hod been inflicted on him by Mr. McNeill 
and by tlio Government be represented. It commenced 
by Htoling, wliat whk without donbt tnio, that the King of 
Persia had receivcfl great provocation from the jteopic of 
Herat, and hiul l>ocu i)erfei-tly jiiHtillod in goiiiK to war 
apiiUHt tliem. Mr. Mi-Neill liad never qiieKtioiiod the 
Sbah'M ri^ht to |miiiHli the i>eople of Hcnit, and to oLtiiiri 
Hccnrity from them for their fiilnro gootl U'lntvioiir ; bat 
ho had drawn a dintinction between obtaining jrwt saliB- 
faction from Priuee Kamrau and annexing Herat to Per- 
sia. Tlie king protested in tlie memorandnm, that if by 
Ilia conduct be had opened to Rnuiia tlie road to Cabul, 
it was with no snch intention that he had nudertaken tlie 
expedition to AflglianiMtan ; tho object of which was to 
rescue Pcrsiau suhjects from slavery. Mr. McNeill wait 
aecnaed of having incited the people of Herat to continne 
their delenco, and of having beatowed oo them aj^^ht 



TUK SHAIl'S CHARGES AGAINST MR. M'NEILL. 825 

thousand toinanSi — a statement which was at rariance 
with truth. Ho was furtiier accused of having sent 
couriers to Kandahar, Cabul, Seistan» the Hezarehs, and 
Meimaneh, inntiug the rulers of tliose pkces or tribes to 
come to attack and plunder the camp of the Sliah. This 
statement, too, was utterly groundless. He was further 
accused of having done his best to produce a scarcity in 
the Persian camp, and of having persuaded tlie conduc- 
tors of caravans whom he met on his way to Meshed not 
to advance towards Herat, as tliey would infallibly be 
plundered, and have to Hubmit to see tlioir cuttle Hoized. 
This assertion was so entirely the reverse of correct that 
Mr. McNeill had, contrary to the wish of the commandant 
of the Persian escort wliich had accompanied him, in- 
sisted that that escort should bo employed in conducting 
a caravan back to tlie camp. The memorandum con- 
cluded with a solemn declaration tliat the expedition 
against Herat hud been undertaken without any hostile 
intention towards England. The king felt sure tliat the 
Kiiglish nation would not sanction the oppression to 
which he had been subjected. If otherwise, he must seek 
shelter under the sluulow of a groat mountaiin. 

The threat contaiined in the hist words of the preced- 
ing sentence was followed by a corresponding act. A 
few weeks later the Shah caused a letter to bo addressed 
to Count Nesselrode, in which ho inteously complained of 
the restraint put upon him by the British Government. 
" I beg your Excellency," tlie letter said, ** to examine 
impartially if ever in this world greater tyranny and 
oppression than this were practised ; that a powerful 
monarch, who never broke a treaty, should be prevented 
from obtaining his objects when on the point of success, 



836 A nrnroRT of fersta. 

after IiaTing encountered so mnch toil and expense in 
fobdoing a refractory prorince of his own dominions, 
tiie people of which hare been incessant in slanghtering» 
plnndcring and carrying into slavery the inlialntants of 
Khorassan and Seistan ; who never observed a treaty, and 
who have been in Uie habit of selling the people of these 
two provinces in Khiva and Bokliara/' Tlio Persian 
Minister went on to say tliat liin government had fall 
hope and expectation that Rossia wonld relieve her 
neighbonr from the harden of so obvious a tyranny, 
which hiKl been exercised towards her on the plea of 
her friondMhip for Russia* In conclusion, the Persian 
government expressed its wilUnguess to act in tlio matter 
accordinfi: to tho arbitration of Count NosHclrodc. 

Tlie UuHHian Mitiistor being thus mitiMried of tho mik- 
misHion of the Persian government, and being unwilling 
to sec Karmek in the liands of the English, instructed tlic 
representative of the Czar in London to endeavour to 
induce hor Majesty's Government to resume its amicable 
relations with Persia. On the whole, indeed, tlie Emperor 
hoA cause to be contente<l with the asi>ect of affairs in 
Central Asia. Great Britain had gainotl for Uio present 
hrr point of preventing Persia from taking posHcssion of 
Honit ; but, on the other hand, she hod loHt all her in* 
llnonce in PorMia. She had shown herself in tho light 
so odiouH to the Persiiui Sheoahs — that of the well- 
winhcr of Affghan Sunis. If Russia or her ally had not 
done all she wishe<l to have seen accomplished, she had 
yet the satisfaction of being able to reflect that immense 
strides hail, in the course of a few years, been made by 
Uie Cxar towards the realization of the projects of Peter 
the Great, and which have been kept m view by his sue* 



EXTENSION OF RUSSIAN ENCROACnifENTS. 827 

cessors with snch nndeviating constancy. In less than 
forty years tlio Russian eagles had advanced from the 
gates of the Caucasus to the banks of the Araxes» and 
from the embouchure of tlie Terek to that of the Astcra. 
This was to the west of the Caspian ; but to the east- 
ward of tliat sea their progress, though less prominent, 
had been no less constant and miccessful. The lino of 
Orenburg and of the Lake of Aral afiorded to the Russian 
generals an admirable base of operations, from which 
tliey could advance with equal facility by the Oxns or 
tlio Jaxartes in their operations against the Oozbeg States. 
Those States, histcad of drawing togetlior in a league 
against the gigantic and insidious Northern Power wliich 
was gradually advancing to devour tliem, were wanting 
their Htrongth in fighting with each other. Russia had» 
indeed, in Uio preceding year sustained a considerable 
check ; but her Government, far from being discouraged 
by the disaster, only endeavoured to turn to account the 
experience so dearly purchased in the deserts of Khiva. 

A talented Russian agent was now at work in Central 
Asia : one from whose past successes his countrymen were 
justified in expecting much. M. Witkewitscli was a native 
of Lithuania, who, on account of a college squabble, had 
been sent into banishment to a military colony in the 
Ural, where ho remained many years, and acquired a high 
character among the Cossacks for gallantry, enterprise 
and intelligence. While residing in the government of 
Orenburg ho gained a thorough knowledge of the Persian 
and Turkish languages, and otherwise prepared himself 
for travelling in disguise amongst Maliomedans, he having 
from an early period been destined by the government 
for service in Central Asia. He was first directed to 



838 A HISTORr OP FBRSIA. 

make the journey to Bokhara in company with a cararan 
of merchants, and when an oflScer was wanted to proceed 
to Cabol, Captain Witkewitach was selected for the duty. 
There he ont-manoDUTrod the Britiah enroy, Alexander 
Bumest at the conrt of Dost Mahomed Khan, and, 
hating rejoined Connt Simouich at Herat, was despatched 
by his Excellency to Kandahar, from which place he was 
to proceed once more to Central Asia. 

Daring the absence of the British Mission from 
Teliraa. the spirit erinced by the Slmh towards the* 
English nation was reflected by sereral additional in- 
salts committed by liis subjects ; for which, as a matter 
of coarse, the Minister at the head of the Foreign 
Office demanded apology and redress. The British 
Residency at Basliire was rcmored to the Island of 
Karrack, wliich was protected by a squadron under the 
command of Sir Frederick Maitlond. 

Li tlie meantime IIusHcin Kliun procooilcd on his 
way to Loudon to urge his complaints against Mr. 
McNeill ; being in nowim^ deterred by the wammgs he 
receifcd at ConHtnntinoplc and at Vienna, that he would 
not be ro€*(>gni2CHl at the Court of 8t. James's as a diplo- 
matic agent. With regard to the rotiiu object of his 
mission, he received at Vienna, by order of Lord Palmer- 
ston, the discouraging assurance that in the demand for 
tlie recnll of Mr. McNeill, her Majesty's Government 
only saw an additional proof, if any were wanted, Umt 
that Minister had faithfully and ably i^erformed his 
daty t4) wards his sovereign and country.* Nor were 
tlie eflcirls of the Sholi's ambassador to CHtablish com- 
munic'ation witli England by means of a neutral power 

INOrfklMdl ■urTii|OBilMii rJiUMig lo IVtma. 1S41. 



DKMANDS OF TUB BRITISU QOTERNMBKT. 8S9 

attended with any more soccess. Prince Mettemieh 
transmitted to London a memorandnm from Hnssein 
Khan, together with the offer of his Highnees's senriees 
as a channel of communication. The offer was so tu 
taken advantage of by Lord Pahnerston, that the Prince 
was requested to be so good as to return the memo* 
randum to Hussein Khan. 

From Vienna Hussein Khan proceeded to Pftris, where 
he apphed to Marshal Soult for a passport to enable him 
to visit England as a private individual. He at length 
succeeded in being admitted to an interview with the 
English Minister for Foreign Affairs. The conference 
broke up with the understanding that Lord Palmerston 
should embody in a memorandnm the principal points 
required of Persia, which memorandum Hussein Khan * 
was to transmit to his government. The demands of the 
British Government were nine in number. A written 
apology woH required for what had happened with regard 
to the British messenger. A firman must Ix) published 
in Persia assuring protection to all persons employed in 
the British Mission. Ghorian, and the other places in 
Affghanistan still held by the Shah, must be restored to 
the Affghans. A written apology must be given for the 
illegal seizure at Teliran of the house of a British officer. 
All persons who had been concerned in the outrage on 
the broker of the British Residency at Bushire must be 
punished. The governor of tliat port, who had affronted 
Sir F. Maitland, must be removed from his office, and 
the reason of his removal stated publicly by the Persian 
Government. The claims of a British subject on account 
of some iron-works at Karadagh must be liquidated. 
The sums due to the officers of the British detach* 



880 A nnrroRT of fbrbia. 



meot lately Mnring in Penia moat be paid ; and, lastiy, 
the signatare of a commercial treaty between Great 
Britain and Persia mnst accompuiy the re^abliah- 
mcnt of diplomatic relationii between Uie two States. 

These demands were made in London on the 11th of 
Jnly, IKIO ; but it was long before Uie Persian OoTom- 
ment conU be jiersoaded to comply with tliem all. 
Little by little Uiat goreniment yielded to the demands 
of Lord Pulmerston, and it pcrtiuacionsly contested 
almost every point in question. Bnt at length the 
desire to see Persian soil free from Englisli occupation, 
and to own once more tlie island of Karrack, overcame 
the reluctance of tlie Sliah and his Minister to do what 
was rcHinircd of tliem. The point to which tlicy were 
most loUi to consent was Uiat Ohorian sliould be evacu- 
ated ; but at length tlie order was given that it should bo 
delivered over to the officers of l^uce Kamrau, or, as he 
called himself, Shall Kamran. A further pretext for 
dehiy in tliis matter was furnished by the retirement at 
tliis time of the Britisli mission under Major D'Arcy 
Todd from the court of Herat. But again the order 
was issued at Tehran to tlie governor of Khorassan to 
make over the fortress of Ghorian, and this command 
was corrietl into execution on the Olst of March, 1841.* 
Tliis event was very contrary to tlie views and interests of 
Yar Midioinetl Khiui, who was now in opposition to tlie 
Britinh Government ; since it oflunled to his adherents 
and to tlic wild tribes whose horm^men wore his chief 
hope, an unequivocal proof Uiat England and Persia had 



* Th« rvaraalkm oC Gborian was wiUMMod ^ Um Uie l>oelor 
iIm w<unaUo pli/Btciaa Ip Um UriCiah MiMtif m l^tnia. who «m ilcptttoi 
br Ikk ten iM 1^ Sir Jokm McKitiU. 



TIIR nRlTISU DEMANDS OOMrLIKD WITH. 831 

arranged their differences, and that, therefore, he had 
*not]ung to expect from Persia. 

The Persian Government had now performed the 
ossentiid conditions upon which the Government of her 
Majesty hail consented to rerstahlish diplomatic inter- 
course hctwcon tliu two Slates ; a mission was accord- 
ingly despatched from London under the direction of 
Sir Jolui McNeill, which arrived at Tehran on the 
lltli of October, 1811, and which was most cordially 
received by Mahomed Sluih. Not so flattering was the 
reception of Hussein Klian, who, on his return from 
Europe, had to expiate his want of success in Western 
diplomacy by submitting to a severe application of the 
hastimulo. 

Shortly after the return of Mnhomed Shah to Tcliran * 
from his Affghanistan campaign, he found his right to 
sovereignty disputed by a rival of a diffenmt order from 
that of tliose with whom ho had had ere this to contend 
for the peaceful possession of his throne. The sect of 
the Ismailitcs has been lUready mentioned in a previous 
chapter. Agha IClian,* the son of Shah KhaliluUah, who 
had been put to death at Yczd, and who had himself 
been taken under the protection of Fetteh Ali Shah, 
thought that the time had now come when he might 
assort witli lulvantage the religious character of which he 
was the inheritor. There is no reason for believing 



* ThtN |N*rM>iiii;;o ImikciI Iijh rlnim to Imtv^ cotiMidoriMl ii Kpiritiiol rulor 
upon Uio (lid of liiN Mnn <lcMr«*iiflt!<l fniin tho IumI chiof of tliu AtiKHMiunH of 
J^untia, wlio in i>opulurly known by tlio dcHigiiutiou of " tliu Old Man of Uio 
Mountain." llin coaIIo in ntiU to bo neon in iU ruinud condition in the 
Rlburz mountains near Cusvccn. — For an account of Uie iKnuulitfla, 
«oe Marco 1H>lo's TraptU and Giudom's DeeHne omU Fall of tk* Romam 



882 A nurroRT op febisia. 

that ho especially Hcloctod tbo momeut of the Shak'0 
rotium from aa ansnccesftfol campaign for attempting to 
set up his own dominion in opposition to tliat of the king; 
for his pretensions wore to spiritual autliority more than 
to tcmjioral, and in tlie East, religions entlmsiasts have 
generally been guided in their api>eab to men more by 
the fancied promptings of some invisible power than by 
the suggestions of common sense. Agha Khan had for 
some time dwelt in the region of Mahalat, near Hama- 
dan ; and, fearful lest the movement of a portion of the 
Shah's troops which marched to that quarter should be 
directed against him, he recommended his followers 
to di^rsc, and took Uie opportunity of sending his 
family to pcrfonu tlie pilgriuiiigo to Kerbola. Being 
then unincumbered, lie cruised by bypaths tlie couutr}* 
lying between the plain of Uamadan and the remote 
dties of Yezd and Kerman. At Kennau he produced 
forged letters by which he was ap}>oiuted governor of 
that place : a position which he was soon called upon 
to maintain by force of arms, for the real governor 
returned from Ispaliau, and hastened to meet tlie usurper 
iu Uie field. Numbers of tlic sect of Ismail had by 
tliis time flocked round tlicir Iciulcr ; who, nevertheless, 
decUned to abide Uie issue of a contest with Uio troops 
of tlie Shah, and decamped during the night preced- 
ing the day on which tlie liatilo was to have been 
fboght. Agha Khan betook himself to tlie fortress of 
Lar, and, on being cliaseil tliciice by tlie troops sent in 
pursuit of him, he found a n fii;;e during the heats of the 
eoming smnmer in tlie mountains of that district. 

In the spring of the next year the diicf of the 
Ismallitcs once more appoarod in the Held* lie had eon* 



RKOELLION OF AQUA KIIAK. 883 

trivocl not only to raUo a numorous force, but also to 
procure Borno artillery. On hcariug of Lis movement, the 
governor of Kermon lost no time in despatcliing troops 
to confront liim ; but while doing so he committed the 
error which Ikvh ho frequently jiroved fatal in operations 
of greater magnitude than that of which I now write — 
the oft-rcpeuted error of the AuUc Council. He divided 
liis force into three parts, and thus gave to the rebel the 
opportimity of defeating each detachment in detail. The 
first was under the command of the governor's brother, 
who had under his orders tlie troops of Bem and Ner- 
manslieer. Amongst tlieso there were many who secretly 
held the tenets of Ismail; the result was, tliat in the 
action which ensued, they wont over in a body to Aglia 
Ivlion, and their leader, Isfondiar, was killed. After this 
success, tlie IsmaiUte cliief advanced to meet the second 
detachment, which ho defeated without difficulty. On 
his way to Kerman ho encountered the third body of 
troops tliat had been sent against him, whom he easily 
dispersed, taking their commander prisoner. Elated 
with his success, he then wrote to the nobles of Eerman, 
ordering tliem to seize their governor; but the high 
tone which he now adopted was not any further sup* 
l)orted by corresponding acts. The governor of Kerman, 
taking with him a chosen body of troops, nmrched in 
person to encomitor the rebel; Agha Khan, reflecting 
that in case of defeat ho could expect no mercy from 
the man whoso brother his followers had slain, did not 
choose to risk an action, but sought safety in flight, 
leaving his followers and his camp at the mercy of 
his adversary. He fled to Nermonsheer and was hotly 
pursued ; but he succeeded in making his way to Boloo* 



834 A UUfTOBT OK FBB8IA. 

ehittoiit from whenco he passed to the south. He did 
not Mgiin attempt, by means of his spiritoal anthority, 
to win for himself an earthly crown, but tomed his 
attention to the safer employment of horse-racing in 
Western India. 

The chief of Bnnpoor in Beloochistan had taken 
advantage of the rising of Aglia Khan to make hostile 
incorsions into the province of Kerman. Over all the 
ancient country of Oedrosia the modem Shahs lay claim 
to possess a vagne right of dominion. The whole of 
the vast tract comprehended between the latitudes 
S4'' Sa and 30^ 4a north, and longitudes BSP 5C' and 
67^ dOf east, m addition to two provinces stretching far 
to the east and west, was bestowed by Nadir Shah, in 
the year 1739, on Nasser Klian, who at the same 
time received the title of Begler-Bcg of Beloochistan.* 
Founding its pretensions on tlie conquests of Nadir, 
tlie Persian Government considers itself to have a 
setgneurial right over this country, in spite of the cir- 
cumstaiico tliat for a hundred years that right has been 
in no way recognized by tlie chiefs of the tribes of 
Beloocliistan. In the first years of the reign of 
Mahomed Sliali, this country included the region 
of Kohistaii, in which lies tlie town of Bunpoor. 
Uabeebullali Khan, the commandant of the Shah's 
artillery, who had been sent to the assistance of the 
governor of Kerman in his struggle witli Agha Khan, 
was now directed to undertake the task of punishing the 
ehief of Bun)H>or. He accordingly marched against tliat 
place, which was yielded up to him. But on one of his 
•oidiem attempting to carry off a Bclooch woman, the 

• Trmmlt im HitigiHiigM. Igr UmL lisraf IVrrii 



5' 



! I 



8AN0UIKAUY GONFUOT WITH UKLOOCllKS. 33£ 

\\\ fury of Uio excitoblo tribesmen was aroused, and oftoi 

ij' having put Uicir wires and dangliten to that deatl] 

:r whicli, like Virginias, they thought wa&s better than 

'{ dislionour, they fell upon the troops of HabeebulUb 

ij Khan, to whom they hod formerly surrendered. A 

;* sanguinary conflict now ensued ; the Belooches hating 

'I nothing left for which they cared to live, and the Per- 

' <ii sians being encouraged by their chief to kill and not 

to spare. After a time the carnage ceased, and so great 

was the effect which the account of it produced upon the 

Shall, that ho sent orders for the immediate liberation oi 

j ' the surviving captives of Buupoor. 

About the beginning of the month of June of the 
year 1842, an occurrence took place on the westena 
frontier of Persia, which was. nearly being tlie cause of a 
\ ; war between that Power and Turkey. In the preceding 
year Mohmoud Pasha, tlie governor of Suleimonieh, had 
been obliged to take refuge in Persia. He had repaired 
I to Tehran, and there Bucceeded in obtaining a reoom- 

j { moudation from the Shali's govommciit to the Porto that 
|i : his successor, Ahmed, should be dismissed, and tliat he 
should be reinstated in his former post. Alimed was 
il ' accordingly removed, but Mahmoud was not restored to 
' ' power. A second request was, however, made in his 
favour, and he proceeded to the frontier government oi 
- Senna, tliere to await its result. He was not restored to 

; his former position, in which a relative of Ahmed Pasha 
was placed. Upon this the Yoli and the Vizeer of Ardehm 
advanced witli Mahmoud towards tlie Turkish frontier at 
the head of a considerable force, and Abdullah, the 
brother of Ahmed Pasha, assembled a force to oppose 
them. An officer of the Yali's army was detached by a 



i 
« 1 



886 A HinORT OP PEBSIA. 

dreaitoQs route to take possesBion of a defile in the rear 
of AbdoIkh'B camp, and at the same time Mahmood 
marched towards Snleimanieh. Information respecting 
the latter move was conveyed to Abdullah Pasha, in the 
expectation that, on hearing of it, he would at once return 
to Suloimanioh, and so be surprised in the defile by the 
troops detached by the Vali. Abdullah, however, ren* 
derod this calculation futile by advancing to attack the 
Yali's own camp. By so doing he was obliged to invade 
the Persian territory ; but he was forced to take this step 
by the seizure of the pass within the Turkish territory by 
the troops of Ardelan. He was successful in his attack 
oo the Yali, and the Yiseer of Kurdistan hastened to 
misrepresent the matter to the Persian government, in 
the hope that it might be committed to hostilities against 
the Porte before his own share of culpability in the 
aflair should be ascertained. Tlie Shah, on reading the ' 
reports sent to him from Ardelan, was so highly incensed 
that he at once gave orders for the assembling of a 
number of troops at Hamadon, with which it was his 
intention to march to the Ottoman frontier. He also 
ordered tliut all Persian merchants should fortliwith quit 
the dominions of the Sultan. 

There was, indeed, at tliis time a long list of griovaucen, 
on accomit of which Turkey and Persia comploiuod each 
of the otlier State. A brother of the Shall hod made 
a wanton incursion into the district of Byazecil and 
plundered several villages. In that same district a large 
and valuable Persian caravan hod been des|>oilcd by the 
Kurds. At the close of the year ISdo, Khan Mahmoud, 
a Kurdish chief, dwelling near the Lake of Van, had 
ravaged the districts of Katoor and KhoL About the 



I 



n 



,'■ i 



t 



DIFFERENX*ES DCTWEEX PERSIA AND TORKET. 887 

same time the Mcor of RaYandooz had attacked and 
plmidered the district of MergaTcr in the momitaina of 
Uroomecali. During the absence of the Shah at Herat, 
the thriving commercial town of Mohamera, sitnatoil near 
j I BuHHom in the district of Chab in Khnzistan, hail boon 
I attacked by tlio Tnrkish troops and completely destroyed. 
j It is iiHScrted that this aggression took place at the 
instigation of tlie Pasha of Baghdad, who was anxioos 
to get rid of a commercial rival to Bussora, it having 
!l I been discovered that the trade of the latter port was 
! ! ! rapidly passing over to Mohamera. Persia hod also to 
{ j complain that some of her Kunlish tribes had been 
I unfairly abstracted from her territory by tlie Pasha of 
i Byazecd. She also claimed pecuniary compensation 
j for the permission she had some years since granted to 
1 I the Turkish tribes of Suleimanieh to pasture their flocks 
on Pcrsiim soil during tlio months of summer. Turkey, 
on the otiicr hand, complained of the retention by Persia 
of the district of tlie brid<;e of Zohub on the frontier of 



i 'I 

i 



i" . I 



'i 



I 



, i I 111 iiiiu iiittbriub ui uw uriii^ 

I j j the province of Kermansliah. To determine the frontier 

4 i i I line between the two countries, a mixed commission was 

J ! 



■ 
' i 

,'3 



11 



1 



li 



appointed, and the commissioners wore to be guided 
j in the adjustment of their differences by the opinion of 
a lluKHiim officer who was to accompany Uiem over the 
lino of frontier. To tliis commission a British member 
was afterwards added ; but so complicated were tiie 
I questions to be solved, or so great tlie labour of surveying 
and mapping, that more than twenty years have been 
insufficient to bring the work to an end. The repre- 
sentatives of England and of Russia at the SubUme 
Porte and at Tehran used all their influence to prevent 
a war at this time between the two great Moslem powers ; 

22 



888 A HI8T0RT or FEBHIA. 

and tliroQgk their exertions the troops which had been 
assembled near either frontier, and which for some time 
were held back like greyhounds in the leash, were at 
length withdrawn into the interior, tearing the commis- 
sioners to do their work. 

At Uiis time the usual state of petty hostilities between 
the Persians of the prorince of Astrabad and the Yemoot 
Turkomans of tiie Ooorgan desert was Taried by the 
despatch of a large force sent by the Shah to compel 
payment of tribute by the tribes, and to obtain the 
restoration of bUtcs. The result of the expedition was 
tliat of all similar ones. The Turkomans gare way, and 
were pursued, and consented to pay tribute and to restore 
slares ; but when Uie Persian battalions liad begun their 
retrograde movement, tiie tribesmen once more issued 
from tlicir deserts, and recommenced their intern of 
marauding. So incenseil was the Shall at the injury 
done to him in carrying off his subjects into captivity, 
that he determined upon undertaking a military expedition 
against the Khan of Khiva, whose capital was one of 
the chief markets for Persian captives. In order, if 
possible, to avert renewed war in Central Asia, the 
English chorgc-d'affaires at Tehran hod offered to send 
a member of tiie mission to Khiva, at tiie same time 
Uiat an envoy proceeded thither on the part of tiie 
Sliah. This mission * had not been attended witii 
success, the Khan of Khiva refusing to promise any- 
tiling furtiier than Uiat he would exchange soue of the 
Persian captives for an etjual number of such Turkoman 
captives as might be in tiie hands of tiie Persians. A 
Khivan envoy was, however, subsequeiitiy sent to Tehran, 



«j 



PERSIAN BLAVES AMONGST THE TURKOMANS. 889 

and tlio threatened hostilitios were averted. The Klum 
of Kliiva 8oon afterwards died, and his succosHor deckred 
his intention of signalizing his accession to the post of 
cup-bearer to the Saltan* by the hboration of fifteen 
hundred Persian captives. But I do not find that these 
captives were actually set free. Indeed, except in the 
case of such as were the immediate property of the 
Khan, it was not easy to give eficct to any measnre 
such as the Shah wished to be carried out ; for the 
Persian slaves had been purchased by persons who would 
by no means consent to give up their proporty unless 
upon receiving their value in money. Many of these 
Sheeah slaves were perinilt<*d to work out their own 
redemption, but upon obbiining it they were not at 
Uberty to quit the territory. of Khiva. t This cruel 

* That tliiH lillu in ^qvuii Ui, or iiMMuiufd liy, thu Kliiiii uf Khiva, I karik 
from M. Vamiikiiy'h run'iitly piihlisluMl Trmrh in Crntrttl Jthi. 

t What l*urHiiiii nla very uinoii^^t tlio TurkoiimiM iit, may bo boit 
h;anit from one w)io haH hiiiiHi>lf wilucMHcd iL ** I wait astotitHhotl to fiiid 
liow many of my f(>no\v-tnivoll(*rM — tlio |K)on*iit of the poor — ^iii apittt of Um 
tiohlo hoMpitality of w)iicli tlu*y hiul bucti partakoni, wero already wouy of 
tlio TitrkoiuiiiiH ; for it would, thoy Haid. U) iiiiiMNiMible for uioii lutTiiig 
the IvuHt RtMitimrnt of humanity to 1m) eyo-^iitiieKHOK any lonp*r of tho 
cruel treatment to wluch thu wretched l*enuau Klavea had to submit. .... 
'Dio com|>aHAion evincetl by my fullow-travcllerB, and thu imprecAiioni 
they UHed apiinnt the Karaktrlii for their inhumanity, convey tlio leut 
imprusnion of thu sulTeringH to which tlie ]wov captivus aru oxjioitod. Lei 
UM only picture to ourMelvcH the fet^liii;^ of a IVrMiau who in MuqiriMnl by a 
ni^ht attack, hurried away from his family, and hn)U*;ht hither a priMincr, 
and ofu*n wounded, lie litui to uxelmn^ liiH druMM for old Turkoniun rapi, 
lliat only Hcantily rover purtM of hin lM>dy, and iH h«*avily hnleii with cliaiiw 
tliat pill luM ankh^, ami iM'cnsion him f^reat and unccaAin^ Imin orory 
Nt4!p he takcri. He in furei*<l upon the pooreHt diet to linp*r tliu firMida\*a 
— often weekM — of liiH cuptivily. That he nmy nmke no attempt at lUglii. 
he haa alHO at nif^ht a kara-lm«rra (iron nni*) attacheil to hia neck and 
fuNtencid Ui a \h% wi that tliu rattle iNstrayM ewu the 8li;;ht4>Mt movumonta. 
No other termination to IiIh NUlfennpt than the payment of a nuiaotu by 

his friendd To thu rattle of the chainit I could never haliituato mj 

cam. It ia hoard in thu tunt of uvury Turkoman who liaa any prutendoii 
to roapoctability or poaitiuti.** — Tnivtli in CctHful Atia : Vamiikhv. 

22— t 



840 A HISTORY or FBU8IA. 

restriction, howeTcr, was, after a time, remoTed, and I 
read of a body of sereral tkoosand Persians preparing 
to return to their native land. 

The beginning of the year 1848 was signalised by an 
oecorrenee, which was, of all things that could have 
happened, the most likely to bring to an abrupt ter- 
mination the negotiations that were being carried on 
between Persia and Turkey, and to rouse to instant 
action tlie warlike tendencies of the Sluih. The Paslia of 
Coglidad tliought proper to march witli a military force 
against the holy city of Kerbela in Arabia. A breach 
of forty yards' length was made in the walls, and tlie 
phice was carried by storm. The fighting went on in 
the streets for some hours, until the tomb of Abboss 
was taken, and eight hundred persons, who had sought 
refuge within it, massacred. All resistance then ceased, 
and the Turkish soldiers, furious at the opposition they 
had encountered, lost for the time all regard to dis- 
cii>liue, and massacred every one tlicy met, without dis- 
tinction of sex or age. The loss of life was estimated 
by Uio survivors at from fifteen to oi;(hteen tliousiuul 
souls ; but tliis ciUcululion was probalJy very greatly iii 
exag^Tratiou of the truth. Tlie motive for this attack 
was the (act that for many years Kerbela hod, for 
])ractical puqH>scs, almost entirely rejected the autliority 
of the Paslia of Baghdad. A large number of outlaws 
had sought safety in the neighbourhood of the Shrines, 
and hod usurped authority over the district ; the Pasha of 
Baghdad was therefore justified in enforcing his power 
over the unruly city. It is assorted that he gave warning 
to the Persuuis within it to retire before the assault ; 
if this were so, and they n^glactod his adricsi they 



MASSACRE OP PERSIANS AT RERDELA. 8-11 

oxposod thomsolTOB to Uio horrors wliich tlieir obodos 
DOW witnossod. Ono princess was severely wonndodt 
and hundreds of the Shah's subjects shored the fiite that 
befell so many tlionsands of the inhabitants of the town. 
The news of this event travelled to Teliran with- 
out the explanation of the causes that had brought 
it about; and the messenger arrived at that city at 
the time when the people were engaged in the cele- 
bration by a reUgious ceremony of the martyrdom of 
Hussein. Had the contents of tlie des^iatches which 
reached tlie Government been at once divulged, tliere is 
little doubt tliat tlie people, already in a state of high 
excitement, would have been goaded to frenzy by the 
eloquence of their priests. But the Shah's Minister 
wisely kept the news that had. reached him secret, until 
the expiration of the ten days of mourning. When at 
length the inhabitants of Tehran learned that the city 
containing the tomb of their favourite saint was in the 
hands of those whose swords had been stained witli 
the blood of so many of tlieir fcdlow-countrymen, they 
demandcil vengeance from the Sliah and his Minister. 
The latter knew tlmt to ar<(ne with men under tlie influ- 
ence of fury would be a waste of time, and ho accord- 
ingly at once acceded to their demand. Troops were 
ordered to prepare for marching, and immense stores 
were called for. Couriers were sent about in every 
direction, and one would have imagined that the Shah's 
government really intended to avenge on the inhabitants 
of Baghdad tlie wrongs of the citizens of Kerbela. 
But all this time Haji Mccrza Aghassi had no thoughts 
whatever of commouciug hostilities. He was naturally 
a humane maiii and \ie \i^ %/^\i ^\i^\i\^ ^1 ^:^\sL^aigning 



842 A UISTORT OF PERSIA. 

dnritig the nege of Herat to make him resolve to 
stocly war no more. The result of his conduct on this 
occasion was exactly what he liaci foreseen. The people 
not being irritated bj contradiction, and witnestdng the 
seeming tool of tlie miniHtcr, had gradually subsided 
into calmnosM, and the aflfair paHHo<1 over on the Turkinh 
Government expressing regret and giving assurances of 
itH roadincHs to make suitable atonement for what the 
Persians had suffered in the massacre at Kcrbela. 

The power of Haji Meerza Aghassi was now thoroughly 
cstabUshcd : tlie king looked upon him with a feeling 
little sliort of veneration ; and it was well that there was 
at hand so merciful a minister to temper the stem decrees 
of so cruel a prince. Haji Meerza Aghassi feared tlie 
inflnoncc of no rival, and as long as Maliomed Shall 
continued to reign, his former preceptor continued to 
admiuistor jtiHtice in his naiiic. The Haji even went so 
far ui his c<»iiduct towardH his master as freely to sliow 
his anger when he felt displeased with the Shall. On 
one rN'caKion the king resiHteil the minister's demand for 
the dismiHsal of four persons of the royal household who 
were obnoxious to him. Fourteen days were allowed to 
piiMM by the latter without his going to pay his UHual daily 
duty to liis Hovoreign ; and at the end of that time it 
wiiM not the Ilaji who jieldiMl, but the Shah. The Yixeer 
hiul retired Ui one of his country-ncats, and thitlior the 
Shall repaired ; but Uie Hiyi had disn^garJetl alike the 
duties of liospitaUty and the a'siHMrt duo to royalty, and 
the king found no one to welcome him at the house 
which he honoured by his presence. Tlie minister, on 
hearing of tlie royal approach, had retit^ U^ ^s^O^^x 
resideuee which he posMited, %xi^ ^^^ "62^2^ x«ai»)Sk'^ 



THE VIZERR HAJI MEERZA AOIIASSI. 848 

his guest for an entire week wiUiont having been waited 
upon by his host. During all this time, while the Haji's 
ill-temper lasted, there was a total cessation of the boai- 
ness of tlie central government of the country. 

It has been mentioned that the Shah*s maternal 
uncle, the Aiiof-ed-Dowlch, hiul been appointed at the 
beginning of the king's roigu to be governor of Kho* 
rusHau. IIo hiul retained this im^xirtant i>ost ever sinee, 
but he had never ceased to hanker after the higher office 
which he had held in the time of Fetteh AU Shah. His 
jealousy of Haji Meensa Aghassi sometimes broke out in 
words and acts, and was sometimes smothered until a 
more fitting occasion should occur for its display. But 
the influence of the Minister over his former pupil 
was paramount, and all the efforts of the Asef-ed- 
Dowleh to sliake it were attended with as little result 
as the beating of waves against a rock : the Asef- 
ed-Dowloh could not shake the Minister, but by his 
efforts to do so he broke himself. There dro two great 
offices in the Shali's gift which must be held by two 
persons residing in the city of Meshed. Of these two 
persons erne acts as a check on the other. The governor 
of Khorusstm is kept within bounds by the vicinity of an 
individual of character and influence who is in no way 
under his orders, and the custodian of tlie shrine of 
Imam lleza is bound to regard the opinion of ho powerful 
a personage as the Vali of Khorasson. The Asef-ed- 
Dowloh succeeded in uniting in his family these two 
important posts. He represented to the Shall that he 
was old, and that he wished to consult his interests 
beyond the grave by devoting his few remaining days 
to the task of guarding the holy places at Meshed. He 



844 A HISTORY OF FERSIA. 

was Aceordiiigly mado custodian of tlio mosqno, and his 
80119 tko eclobiutod Salor, was a|)|)oiutcd to bo tko gOTcr* 
nor of KhonuwoD. Bat tho Asef-od-Dowloh Lad uo 
sooner got rid of a troublcsomo s^iy in the iHurson of 
tlio former custodian than another thorn in his flesh 
appeared to Tex him. This was one Mahomed Hassan 
Kliau, a chief of Nardeen, who by means of making pre- 
sents at Tehran contriyed, without tlie Asef-od-Dowloh's 
knowledge, to be named governor of his native district. 
Nardeen Ues between Meslied and Astrabad, and is snb- 
joct to tlie government of Khorassiui. It lies along the 
Turkoman frontier, and its new ruler showed his gra- 
titude to his imtrons at Telinm by moldng himself a 
scourge to the hrruditiu7 enemies of the PoniiaiiH. This 
was loo much for the patience of the AHof-ed-Dowlcli, 
and a ImmI^ of horsemen was, by his instigation, sent 
against tlie chief of Nardeen with orders to put him to 
death. These orders were faithfully executed ; but Alloh- 
yar Khan was called upon to account for the deed that 
hod been done. As a matter of coarse he protested tliat 
he hail not been accessary to the death of Mahomed 
Hassan Khan ; but he was nevertheless ordered to repair 
to Tcliran. This he dccUned to do, on the ground that 
he could not leave the slirine of Imam Iteza without a 
custodian : a pretext of which he was deprived by tho 
immediate apimintment of another person to fill tliat 
holy oflice. lie then slowly and reluctantly approached 
tho capital of the Shah, having previously written to his 
Majesty to jtoint out how utterly unfitted tho prime 
mmister Imd shown himself for the task of ruling Penda. 
At Tehran tlie sentence of exile awaited him. He was 
ordered to make tlie pilgrimage to Mecca, and to reside 



DISGRACE OF ALLAH-TAB KUAN. 843 

for Lis rcmaiuing days at Kcrbdo, iu coso the joomcj 
tLroogh tho sauds of ^Vnbia skonlJ uot bo cnoogh to 
qncndi Uio vpaA of life which animated his agod bodj. 
Thus patiscd from the scene tho fonuer prime minister of 
Iran, and vho was by birth and position the most noUe 
of the nobles of tho liuid. 

It was not intended to take awaj tlie government of 
Khorassau from tlie family of the Asef-ed-Dowleh ; but as 
his son, tlie Solar, was suspected of entertaining the design 
of making himself iudcpendeiit, his elder brother was 
sent down from Teliroii to BuperKcde him in the govern- 
mout. Tho Solar, however, wos of o more comnuuiduig 
spirit tliaii his brother, luid instcod of being put down by 
him he brought him over to hiH own views. Tho son of 
Alhdi-yor Khou wos now Huflleionlly powerful to bo an * 
object of seiious olonu to the Pernioii court. In oddi- 
tion to tho wealth ond weighty hilhienco of his own 
house, his cause derived support from o formidid)le 
combination of the chiefs of the Turkomans and of 
Khorasson. Prince Ilamza Mcerzo, one of the brothers 
of the Shah, was invested with the chief power in the 
eastern province of Persia, and was enjoined to proceed 
with an army to put down the audacious rebel. The 
Salar was at this time encamped on the plain of 
Maiyanmoi with o force of twenty-live thoustmd covidry. 

• 

lYince Hamza Mcerzo might well hesitate to encounter 
liim ; but, as is not unusual with Persians, he attempted 
to conceal his weakness under a boastful pretence of 
clemency. He sent a messenger to his op^ionent, 
advising him to reflect well while there was still o choice 
open to him. '' You are the first of your race," the 
message went on, ''who hove aspired to sovereignty. 



Si6 A BISTORT or nSRSIA. 

We liaTo rolod and you haTo obeyed. What new thing 
U this, that the senrant should rise against his master 
and the sUiTe against his lord f " The mention of the 
word ''sUye" stong to the quick the proad Salar, who, 
replied to the prince's communication by a defiance 
to mortal combat; adding a Persian Terse to this 
effect:* 

** WbiU VM my lUe to me, 
Kitiet Uimiffh I be fWUr 
IpliUajiMMBiitMtbo?** 

On receiving this reply the prince adyanccd towards 
tlie camp of tlie rebehi ; but as he did so, the forces 
opposed to him began to disperse, and their leader found 
himself compelled to consult his safety by retreating to 
Boojnoord. Thither he was followed by Hamza Meerza, 
and the Solar and the chief of Boojnoord were forced to 
iall back upon the Turkomans. It was the intention of 
Prince Hamza to pursue them, but he was recalled to 
Meshed by the news of a rising at that place. The 
governor whom ho had left at Boojnoord contrived to 
make himself so disagreeable to the people that they 
opened communication with their former chief, Jafer 
Kuli Khan, who, witli the Salar, returned from the 
Turkoman desert, and once more took {>os8ession of 
Boojnoord. Twelve thousand men Hocked to their 
• standards, and the prince had to hasten from Meshed 
to oppose them. They retired on his approach and 
fall back on their Turkoman allies ; but this time they 
were pursued to the deserts bordering the Attrek river. 
The chief of Boojnoord, after a number of adventures, 
■aceeeded in making his way to Herat, where he was 



* ** llAfttM 4r ajM AJC <cimU|^m, Im mtUr \mMLmm kiuuutt UdNkgc*." 



INSUUR^Xn*ION AXD DEFEAT OF THE 8ALAR. 847 

detained for somo time in captivity by Yor Mahomed 
Klian. The Salor found his way to Sorrekhs, and, foiling 
in with a body of several thousand Turkoman horBO, he 
doubled upon the prmce, who was pursuing him, and 
attempted by means of a forced march to gain the city of 
Meslied. By the orders of Homza Meerza a body of 
cavahry was sent to oppose him; but the Solar was 
victorious in the fight which ensue<l, and he continued 
his way to Meshed. lie was not, however, in a condi- 
tion to ftice the artillery which tlie prince now brought 
up against hiiu, and ho was once more driven to seek 
safety in ilight, and shelter amongst the Turkomans of 
the desert. 

At tliis time there occurs tlie first mention in the 
Persian records of a man. whose name is destined to* 
hold an enduring place in Persian history.* The East, 
so proUfic in originators of creeds, hod produced a fanatic 
who was able to obtain spiritual authority over the minds 
of hundreds of thousands of his coimtrymcu. Syed AU 
Mahomed, though boasting descent from the lawgiver 
of Mecca, was the son of a grocer of Sheeroz. Being 
of a rehgious disposition, he was sent in his youth to 
Kerbela, where he sat at the feet of a celebrated doctor 
of the Mahomedon law. From Kerl)ela he proceeded 
to Bushire, and at the latter place he endeavoured by 



* DHliiKm, tliougli At prvHODt a proKcriltod religion in IVmia, it far firom 
boing extinct, or even dcclininpf. and t)ie liub may yet coniont with Mahomed 
tlie privilu|<o o( being regarded an t)io real prophet of the faitliful. Babiam 
in itM infancy uiim the cauRo of a groHter MenHution tlmn tliat even which 
was pnMhtced by tlie teaching of Jcmuh, if we niny jndgo from the aeoount 
of Josephut of the fimt dayM of ChriHtianity. Far from foreiiceiiig Uie 
future spread of that religion, the Jewish historian cont«*ntH himself with 
obaerving^*' And tlie trib« of Cliristianf , lo named from him (ChriH), m 
not extinct at this day.** 



818 A HI8T0RT or FERSIA. 

tlio practico of cortaiu aostoiitieB to acquire the repatation 
of peculiar piety. One of his singular proceedings at 
this period was to expose himself haroheaded to the 
rajs of Uie burning summer sun, in order tliat men 
might see tliat his power extended even over the orb 
tlmt had been the object of tlie Toneration of the Persians 
of old. It is said, howorer-^-aiid any one who has visited 
Bunliire in sununer will readily believe the stiitonicnt — 
that tlie sun's influence had the effect of rendering his 
brain disordered. He now gave out that as Ali had 
been tlie gale by which men had entered the city of 
the prophets' knowledge, even so he was the gate tlirough 
which men might attain to the knowledge of the twelfth 
Imam. It was in accordance with tliis doctrine that 
he received the distinguisliing appellation of Bab, or 
gate ; from which his followcni were styled Bubis. His 
proteiiKions rose in proportion to tlie crcduUty of tliose 
who pLicctl faith in his mission from above. We are 
not informed in what manner he reconciled his new 
stiitcments witli preceding dcclarutious, with which Uicy 
were not consistent; but we may infer that after each 
new revelation he told his disciples that it had been 
necessary to prepare tliem for it by Uie preceding one. 
Not coutente<1 with tlie character of the forerunner of 
the twelfth Imam, he presently gave out tliat he was 
no oilier than tlie long-looked-for Mehdi himself; and 
finding that the higher his pretensions rose the more his 
followers increofied in numbers and in seal, he next gave 
out that tlie holy prophet of Medina had revisited the 
oartli, and appeared in his |>erBon. His impiely lastly 
riwched tlie bhisphemous height of his declaring that 
he was an incarnation of the eternal Ood. 



8YKD ALI MAHOMED, THE DAD. 849 

The success which had attended the preaching of the 
Bab a{ Bushire mduccd that personage to attempt the 
dangerous experiment of endeavouring to bring over to 
his doctrines the inhabitants of his native pUice. He 
assumed tlio pretension of being able to work miracles; 
.but the only two said to have been performed by him of 
wliicli I can obtiun any reconi were certainly of the most 
simple description. One was his foollianly attempt to 
brave the jiower of the rays of the sun on the idioro of 
the Persian Gulf ; the other was the assertion of being 
able to write faster tlian merely mortal fingers could ply 
the pen. But if his actual i)erformances would scarcely 
have entitled him to whatever credit may be due to 
a clever deceiver of men's senses, his deficiencies were 
fully made up for by the power of imagination and* 
of beUef possessed by his followers. These spread his 
fame far and wide throughout Persia, and liis naib, or 
vicegerent, was sent to Shcoraz to pave the way for the 
approach of the Bab himself. But the naib was unfor- 
tunate enough to have to deal with a hardened unbeliever 
in Hussein Elian, who after his return from England 
had been appointed governor-general of tlie province 
of Fars. By his orders tlie naib was seized and basti- 
nadoed, and, in order to prevent him from going from 
house to house, the governor ordered that tlie tendons 
of his legs should be severed. But this ungracious re- 
ception of his forerunner did not deter the Bfib from 
carrying into execution his project of visiting Sheoraz. 
On his arrival tliere he was sent for by the governor, 
with whom he had a private interview. In order that he 
might the better prove the secret thoughts of the Bab, 
the governor ^to\Atid^ to be half disposed to believe in 



8S0 A inirroRT or pbmfa. 

Ills miiwion. He doclared that a fow dayii boforo, tlio 
Bab hail appeared to him in a dream, and while 
reproaching him with his treatment of the naYb had 
decUrod tliat he considered it beneath his dignity to 
pnnisli Iiim for tlie same. The Bab, it appears, had 
unlimited belief in the powers of crednlity of thoee 
whom he encountered ; it nerer occurred to him to 
suppose tliat Hussein Khan was not sincere in what 
he said, and he therefore determined to complete his 
.eonversiou by affording him a proof of his superhuman 
power. ** You haTc correctly stated what I said to you," 
he repUcd ; ** but it was not in a dream tliat I appeared : 
I was present to you in tlio IxMly." Upon this Hussein 
Khan dechirctl himself to I>e couyinced of the heavenly 
miMsiou of tlio Bub. This was a great occesMion to the 
ranks of Uie faitliful, and the powerful neophyte was forth- 
witli promised tliat he should one day sit on the throne 
of Stamboul. It was a satisfactory prospect for the 
future; but in the meantime Hussein Khan suggested 
tliat the Bub should come with liim and confront the 
assemble^ moollalui and nlemali of Sheeras. It would 
not liave accorded witli the Bab's pretensions had he 
docline<l to acce<1e to this proiHisiil; and ho faced the 
priests and diN'tors c»f the MiiIiouhhIuu law with iiU Uie 
more confidenee that he beliovc«l liiiuself t4> bo secure of 
the supiK>rt of tlie strong arm of the governor of Fars. 
He boldly declared to the astoniHhed assembly that the 
mission of Mahomed, wliich liad served its purpoHo, was 
now at an end, and that he had come down from heaven 
to dwell amongst mon for tlie puqK>so of inaugurating a 
new tmhr of things. The doctors gave him an attentive 
hearing, and as some parts o( \ua <)i!uKo^t%^ ^m^st^ ^«^* 



SPREAD OF DAfilSM. 851 

fused, they rctiucstod, uot nnreasonablj, that ho would 
foniisli thorn with a writton statomont of that which thej 
woro required to beliove. The Bub made no objection to 
this request ; but when the statement came to be read it 
was found to bo written in some other hmgnago than the 
Arabic or Persiim. Ui>on this the assembled priesto 
declared that the fanatic was mad, and in conformity 
with this opinion, they decreed that, instead of the 
sentence of death wliich the Btlb deserved to have 
passed upon him for having declared that he was Ood, 
he should receive the punishment of Uie bastinado, and 
be confined for Ufe. The execution of tlie first part of 
this sentence is said to have had the eficct of causing 
the Bab to acknowledge tliat he had been guilty cf 
egregious folly; but it produced little or no effect on * 
the spread of his fame and of his doctrine. 

Many of the principal priests of Persia became secret 
converts to Babism, and, while tlie Bub languished in 
prison at Sheeraz, and afterwards at Ispahan and at 
Chereck in Azerbaeejan, his naib, who had contrived to 
escape, was successfully engaged in preaching his religion 
at Yezd. So numerous in a short time were the 
followers of the Bab that a decree was issued by the 
chief religious autliorities in Persia, making it a capital 
crime for any one to profoHH the tiniets of the fulne 
prophet of Sheeraz. Some of the followers of the Bub, 
full of new-born zeal, tliought that they were doing a 
service acceptable to the Almighty by assassinating some 
of tlie chief priests who had issued decrees condemnatory 
of Babism ; and, on the other hand, the priesthood 
autliorized a persecution of the followers of the Bub. . 
In this way t\\e {^\vu\si^ tca<\ mtAtests of a largo body of 



8ff2 A nisTORr or persu. 

moil were ontiroly ongngccl in Huh religions qneiitioni and 
Uk) bloo<l of tlioHo who wore nuurtyrH for tho foitk cou« 
tribnUxl greatly to tlie Bpread of the tenets of Bilbism ; 
since tlie fact that men were fonnd willing to lay down 
life for the cause, convinced waverers that it must rest 
on the everlasting foundation of truth. 

Tlie reader of this volume will probably before reach- 
ing this page have nuule to himself the observation that 
the liistory of modem Persia is for the most {lart a mere 
roconl of deeds of violence and blood. Such deods, it 
may lie observctl, occupy a krgo spiure in tlie amiuls of 
every iiationi but it is paiufid for a writer to find so littlo 
else worthy of being roconlod in tlie history of the modem 
occuimutM of II country which so early and for so long 
a i>criod filled a conspicuous place in the world. But 
tliongh fully aware of tlie monotonous nature of the task 
I Imve undertaken, I can find little or nothing in the 
pages of tlie Persian chronicler, or in tlie volumes and 
diHSumeutM upon which I luive drawn, that wciuld either 
iutcreitt or iimtmct tlio Euroi>can reader. I have tlicre- 
ibro coiiniiod myself to the relation of such facts as 
sociikhI to me to sliow tlie spirit of tlie times of whicli 
I have written, and to have hail more or less influence 
in shaping the dentinies of tlie nation mied over by 
tlie princes of the Kiyar dynasty. I am now drawing 
near to tlie end of the reign of the tliird Kajar king, 
and having recounted the wars and massacres of tliat 
roigu, it remains to me to describe the more peaceful 
events wliich marked it. The greatest of these would 
ba considered by philanthropists to be a decree of the 
Shah strictly forbidding the apylicaViviu lA VjoicVqx^ V^ 
aigr of his tabjeeU. It in ucA to \y^ v^YS^Mfi^^ ^^^ 



FROGRKSS OF CIVIMZATIOX. S&S 

over, tliiit tliis (Uvn-o niis Hiiflicicut to put a »U>i>, oaee 
for itll, to II j)ni('tii;o wi coi);;t>iiiiil ti> tho luibitH of iwUjr 
t^ivcnioni placed lu irasitiuuH where tlicy were iii(lc]>ou- 
dent ill a grciit niciuiuro of the ccntial nDttuoities. Some 
goTcniom ntill coiitiuiiDct to torture at tlicir pleattnro, Irnt 
ono of tliem liariu;; been broii(;Iit to jastico tliruujjh tlie 
reprottcntatioDB of the BritiKli MiiiiHtcr, tho proctico came 
grnduiilly to ho hiokcd ujwu an uasnfo, nud Uiub a, greater 
regard to the hiws of humanity came to lie obscn'ed. 

Another ntcp in the path of civilizntiou vtut tho pro- 
liihition of iniiM>rliug into PorHia Afrieiin hIutch ahrng 
tho Hetil>iiiu\l of thi> rm-Mitii tinlf uiid by the hiirbonr 
of Mohiuiicni. ThiH iiifUKoro wuh tho numlt of tlu) 
roiitiimoUK clfortH of her ]Jrituiii)ic Miijcoty's Govoru* 
laout. A tliird invent of thin n^i^i which it in u pluiunro'™ 
to record, is the coiiehmioii of a treaty of commerce 
between Persia and England. Negotiations were long in 
progress for making n similar treiity between Persia and 
Fnuicc. FollMwing tho rxiimple of her Majosty'H Govoni- 
iiiont, tlidt of Iviiig TjoniH Philip]>u hud soiit out to Penia 
n congratulatory cinhiuMy u^ioii tho SIiuIi'h nccuKxion to 
tho throne ; the oinbasHador being permitted to cuter iuto 
arrangements for Uio conelniuon of a conimcreiol treaty. 
No results followed tliis measure, and tho embassy ol>* 
tiiincd pcrmlHsion to return to France ; its cliief, and tho 
Marquis de Lavalctto, Ins sccrctuiy, being mode Kliaus 
of Persia. A few yaara later the Count do Sartiges 
renewed the negotintionx wliich luul lieeii began by Lis 
prodoccssor. But those wcro not attended by tho wiuhed- 
for result, and bis Excellency had to content bimHolf 
witli confining Uio practical work of his mission to tlto 
protection of luti co-¥<)\\^o&\%\A\\i'V^'ncia.. 



864 A mSTORT OF PERSIA. 

During tlie administration of Haji Meena Agliassi 
aomo attention was paid to the development of the 
internal resoarcea of the dominions of the Shah. The 
cnltiTation of the mulberry- tree, to supply food for the 
silkworm, was anxiously watched over in the province of 
Kcrman ; and, amongst otiier projects, the prime minister 
entertained, and endeavoured to carry into execution, that 
of diverting into the pUun of Tehran the bruad river of 
Kerij, with a view to procure an abundant supply of 
wat( r for the wants of the city. On tlie whole, the 
minister of Mahomed Shah showed liimself, during the 
tliirteen years of his administration, to be a man not 
altogether unqualified for the duty of ruling over an 
Oriental nation. He was not deaf to the claims of expe- 
diency, of justice and of mercy, and if his merits scarcely 
deserved the high opinion which he entertained of his 
own i>erf(>nnances and liis own capacity, he is at least 
entitled to the cnnlit of Imving meant well to his country 
and his sovereign. That sovereign was now about to 
close a career tlie years of which had been evil as Uioy 
hail been few. In tlie autumn of 1848 he was overtaken 
by a combiimtion of maladies which it was feared would 
speedily bring him to tlie grave. Gout and eryBiiK3las 
liad togetlier effected the ruin of his constitution, and on 
the evening of the 4tli of September, 1818, his Majesty, 
being tlieu in his fortieth year, expired at tlie palace of ' 
Maliomediah in Shimran, without having at the last 
suffered |Nun. That palace, as well as the once splendid 
abode of the Yixeer hard by, has long since been stripped ! 
of its treasures ; in accordance with the Persian prejudice, 
which makes a son object to dwelling in tlie house in > 
which his father has died. The marUU buJJbdk ^a^ W^ 



SUCCESSION OF XASSfiR-£D-D££y. 855 

that were built for the use of Sultanas are now the 
refuge of the jackal aud the owl. But at the epoch of 
the death of Maliomed Shah the palace of Mahomediah 
contained two ladies of princely rank, in the relative 
condition of whom a wonderful alteration was effected . 
by tlie demise of the king. During tlie lifetime of his 
Majesty his alToctions had been centred, and his con* 
fidonce bestowed, on one alone of the many fiiir women 
who formed the royal household. But that princess was 
; not the mother of the heir-apparent, and she had now the 
mortification of being forced to yield the place of dignity 
i and influence to her rival, the new queen-mother. 

Nasser-ed-deen Meerza, the heir-apparent of Persia, 

was absent at the seat of his government in Aaser- 

, baeejon at the time of the death of his fotlier. It 

was of Uie utmost importance, for the estabUshment 

, of a feoUug of public security, tliat the young Shah 

should bo brought to the capital without any unnecessary 

I delay. The llusHiun Minister, in conjunction with the y 

; English charge d'affaires, hod determined to send members ^"^ 

^ of their resi)ective Missions to Tabrcez so soon as they 

; Hhould receive intelligence of the demise of the king. 

But certain persons, whose interest it was to 2)rolong 

J! the state of lawlessness which commonly prevails imme- 

(j (liately after the death of a Persian monai'ch, had, before 

Jj the demise of the Shah, begun to assemble in threaten* 

:| mg bands on the roads between the palace and the 

-i city, with the view of stopping the messengers who 

;! should be sent to announce to the hundred and thirty 

provinces or governments of Persia that tlie monarch of 

the laud was no more. Under these circumstances, Colonel 

Forrant, who was then in charge of the EngUsh MissioUi 

23—8 



■*' 



860 A UISTORr oy FEB8|1. 

determinod to HCt apou the medical information he hod 
received to the effect that the king ooold not powibly 
survive for many hours; and by thus anticipating the 
c?vcnt he enabled bin mcMicngor to arrive at Tabroex long 
before any otiier courier could rciich that town. The 
crown-prince was tliua enabled to make timely prepara- 
tionn for his march to tlie capital, and the miachiovous 
deaigUH of these intriguers were frustrated. 

The diaracter of the deceased Shah must have been 
apparent to those who have perused the preceding pages, 
lie was just in his intentions and pure in his private 
life : no indulgence in any vice is laid to his cluirge. 
On the otlicr hand, he was bigoted and cruel ; but for 
his bigotry he was indebted to his early education, and 
for his cruelty, the bodily pain under wliich for so many 
years he suffered, and which soured his temper, may be 
admitted as some palliation. The custom prevalent in 
Persia during his reign, by which the monarch was not 
only the judge of criminals but the witness of the 
execution of capital punishments, could not but deaden 
the royal heart to sentiments of compassion. On the • 
whole, Mahomed Shah's memory is entitled to the respect 
accorded to that of a man who, in the face of obstacles 
and iniirmities, has consistently persevered in what he 
believed to be the path of duty. His obsequies were 
performed with the pomp and splendour usually observed 
at the burial of a Persian king, and his body was placed 



by the side of that of Fetteh Ah Shah in the mosque 
ol Koom. 



^ 



C 357 ) 



CIUPTlili XII. 

niglit of tti«ii Ht-cr/a A;!liit*d— lUvul I<iirli» M T«hmn— Tlia Qi 
Miillior IViotlilKitt iif Uu) t!<iiiimll— S. TiiiiiB Jtlangi Ui 
TWSjjjt — TIk- .V)nncr'i■^iUk^l— UmwiiniirDr R*fom 
— OitiiUnntliM nipdiul Iiim— Mntitiy ot IliB GArriMO ij Tnhnui — 
Siiiiiini of KiiUur bjr tlw Turin— AaniuilHiMiy nt tliu Ilut<i>NiliDH in ' 
Hciatiin— IVrnati Cbiiiwi In tlinl I'rovinoo— I'nitmotnil Kiitt" itt Mtnltnl 
— IliiJiraiMiMra-nM — Priueo thiltoii Mtinit iireMM Um Stv^-o iif Haaliod ' 

— l'aMi,'n Ilit-T^IWIKK' ntteti] fiif tlio I'lioiflpriti.iii o! KiKiniwuiii— 
Ituvii;,'!.'* of tliu Tnrl[oiiiiin< — SiiriMnilor i)( Mrilind— Dmilli iif tlia 

SnUr. 

SoiiETiiiNo of that feeling of satisfiiction witli wliicli ona 
listeua in a warm room to the roar of thunder nud the 
pelting of rain without, ought to he experienced bj the 
reader dwelling in a settled country while perusing on 
account of the condition of affairs in au unsettled coautrjf 
after the death of its ruler. 

Mahomed Shall liad scarcely breathed bis last when 
a largo body of hiu most influential courtiers hastened 
ut night through tlie lanes and gardens of.Tajrccsh to 
the encampmeut of the British Legation. To them it 
was OS tbe shadow of a great rock in a weary land, under 
which tlicy sought refuge till the calamities which tUoy 
dreaded should be past. These courtiers hiul formed 
themselves into a council, with the puq)ose of corryiog 
ou the administration until the arrival of the Sliah. 
■\VhilBt tliey made the strongest profoBsious of ttllegiance 
to their new sovereign, they one and all declared that 



^r\ 



S68 A insTORT or prmia. 

tiioy wonU no longer submit to tlio authority of Haji 
lifccrza AghasAii whom they were prepared to resist by 
force. Tliey were informed by the English charge 
d'affaires that he would act, in the emergency which had 
arificn, in concert with the Russian representatiTO ; and 
on the following day, they took part with him in a con- 
sultation with Prince Dolgorouky. A paper was sealed 
by most of the influential persons of the court, by which 
they gave in their allegiance to the young Shah ; but in 
it they stipulated that Haji Meenut Aghassi should 
withdraw himself from public affairs until tiie commands 
of his soTeroigu should be rocoiTod with reference to the 
formation of tiie now goremment : tiioy ako required 
that the Hnji sliould disperse the armed force with 
which he lia<1 surrounded his person. In onler to 
prerent loss of life. Prince Dolgorouky and Colonel 
Farrant agreed to request the minister of the kte Shall 
to remain qnietiy at his rilhige, and to abstain from 
interfering in public affairs. To tiie latter proposal he 
at once agreed ; but on tiie morning of the day after 
the council had been held, he suddenly made liis appear- 
ance in the citailel of Tehran, where ho surrounded him- 
self with twelve hundred followers, and slintting the 
gates, he cut off all communication with tiie city. He 
did not, however, remain tiiere long, but, after waiidoriug 
for a time about tiie plain of Tehran, took sanctuar}* in 
the Hliriiie of Khali AImIuI Azccm ; to which he was pursued 
by some Shalixevend horsemen. 

In the meantime much disonler ensued in the 
capital ; tiie popular fury Wing vented on tiie retainers 
and elients of the Minister. The rtmils in the vicinity 
of Tehran bocanio impassable ; but U\e cVix^l >^«:ff^ 



HEOF.SCT OP THE QUBEV-»OTIIKn. SSO 

exerted himttelf to rostoro onlor, luid aAcr a ttino lib 
ctVurta woro attended with siiccoss. The goTcmiiltMlt 
in tlio mcantimo oiwmnod tlio form of au oUgunrhy. 
Evcrj- member of the coimcU issued onlcrs as ha thought 
proi)er, and each uspired to fill the poet of prime. 
mini.stflr ho won as the Shah should arrive at ttie 
capital. But the president of tlie council was tho queen- 
nioUicr, who, under verj- difficult circumstances, shoved 
herself to be possossod of judgment aiul of ability — 
(]ualitios not often to bo met with in Oriental huUcs. 
There were two principal particit at this time in I'orsia : 
one of tliose wna called tho Azorbaeejaii party, tho other 
wiiH that of tho Ascf-cd-Dowloh. Tho qucon-motlior 
wan readily persuaded tliat it woulJ bo imt>olitic to ex- 
clu<lo tho members of tho latter from all participation in 
[>ower, and her Highness accordingly invited its chiefs 
to attend the council, and to take part in the delibera- 
tions on public affairs. Hor Highness received visits 
from the foreign missions, and while she thanked thorn 
in the name of her son for the support Uie; hod given 
to liis cause, she expressed hor readiness to bo ^idod 
by their friendly advice. To tlio party of tho Asof-ed- 
Dowleli bclougod one of tho most inllucntial noblcmou 
of P('rsia, Me<Tzii Agha Khan. Ho had fonnerly filled 
tho post of Miniutor of War, but at the inKtigatiou of Haji 
Mecrza Aghusiti ho had been banished from Tehran, after 
having been beaten and lined. He now made his ap])car- 
ance at one of the gates of tho city, and requested the 
English chai*g<j d'affaires to procure liiin i>ermissioD to 
enter it. The queon-mutliur was glad to wolcomo buck 
tiio banished nnui, and his reception by tho [woplu as 
bo pasbod tltrough tho bazars on his way to tho pulaue, 



^^ 



J 

800 A HISTORT OF PBRSIA. \ 

showed either how popnhur he was, or how mneh tlie • 
Azerbocejan party, of which he waa the opponenti waa 
disliked by the popnkce. 

It was not at Tehran alone Uiat the annonneement of 
Uie SlmirH dcatli had been tlio nigmd for diaordor. Tlie 
rvNubi in all diroctiouB became iufoBted with robbcni, who 
effectnally proTented all conunnnication witli tlie capital. 
Tho inliabitants of several towns availed tiiomselvoM of 
this fiivonrable opportnnity for pnttiuj; to deatli tlieir 
tyrannical governors. IsiHihan, in common with Ker- 
man, Slieenu and other cities, beciune the scene of 
lawless outrage. An affray took place between the 
garrison and some of the citizens, which ended in the 
mnrdcr of one of the principal assistants of the governor 
of Ispalian. Tlie peq>etrators of this act, wliich was 
committed in the most public manner in tlie mosqnc, 
and uiidiT the eyes of the chief priest, continued at 
largo, in defiance of tlie civil authorities. The Imam-i- 
Jnma * made at first no effort to apjiease tlie tumult, but 
when his aid was called in, he lent his assistance to the 
governor ; who, having been reinforced by tlie arrival of 
some troops, attacked tlie rel>elK, and, after having met 
with much resistance, drove them from tlie town. 

The city of Yesd was also Uirown into a state of re- 
licllioii and confusion by the annonncemout of tlie death 
of Maliomoil Sliali. The governor, who possessed great 
firmness, but who was very unpopular, found himself 
besieged by a |K>rtion of tlie inhabitants heade<l by some 
notorious disturbers of tlio pace. Aflor having at- 
tempted in vain to defend his jilace of residence, he was 
forced to retire to tlie citadel, where he and his few 



niSING ,VT TEZD. 3 

Attendants fonnd themselves to bo aliunst destitute of 
pro\iaioB8. By tJio ftid of four pieces of onlnimce, 
liowevcr, thc^ contrived not onl^v to liold oat for somo 
iliiya, but ftlBO striously to annoy tlie towii8]>eopIe. At 
length Imn^'Cr compelled thcni to negotiate, and it was 
agrccil tluU tlicy Klioiild rccoivo proviiiiouB and bcants of l 
burden to onablo thcni to quit tlic pltu-p. Bnt thow 
liiul no Hotmor bccni jtrcHluccd and lulmittcd into tiia 
eitiulcl, than the govcninr elosod the gntc, and reru»e<1 
tu abide by tlio conditiouK Ut which lit) had iigrvctl. Tlio 
{.■amclH and auRcti were uliuij-litcrcd to ncn'o the ganixoR i 
for food, and the followers of the governor began to 
congratulate thcmgelvea on the superior ability they bod \ 
sliown in oiitw-ittin<; the townsmai. It appeared, how- 
ever, tliat both parties were suitably matched in point of 
bad faith, and tlic dcfendcrH of tlio citadel found that 
they were premature iu tliiiiking that all the mlvaiitago had 
been thoii-H in Uie lato transaction ; it watt ascertained 
that the broad they had received had been poisouod. 
They endeavoured to punish this attempt on their Uvea 
by renewing Uio fire upon the town, wliicli the citizens, 
Iwing without artillery, were unable to return. After these 
mutual diKcoverieH of each other's trencher}', it t^eais 
strange that they should have again had recourse to 
negotiation ; but n{) amount of experience of tho bad 
faith of his coiuitrynica has tho effect of inducing 
A Persian to resolvo not to trust to Persians for tlia 
future. The explanation of tliis singular, but incon- 
testublc, fact is to bo found in tho circumstance that 
vanity iti even more strongly developed iu tho Persian 
character than is deccitfnhioss. Each Persian thinks 
tJiat ho of all nieu is euflicioutly clover to bo ablo to 



A/-V 



802 A HISTORT OP FERSIA. 

ilecipher the eliaraetery and to diyine tko secret inten- 
tioniiy of those witli whom he has to deal; and ao- 
conlinffly ho is ever rotidyi in hpito of lus provions 
oxiM^rirnco, to boliuTO in tlio proniiNOHi pn>tostations 
and oatliH of liis conntrymcn. The f{ovomor of Yoxd 
ronewod liis oveiinros to tlie townsjiooploy and as his 
arguments continne<1 to be seconded by tlie fire of liis 
artillerj, he found a ready disjiosiUon on Uie part of the 
dtisens to yield to his wish of being allowed to retire 
rnimolcated. Bnt at tliis point of tlie negotiation some 
troops arrived to his snccoor, and enabled him to leave 
the citailel and apjiear oi)enly in tlio town. A few of tlie 
rebels were tliou secnrodi bnt it was not until after the 
laiwe of simio time that their lemler was captured and 
put to dcatlu 

The condition of the highways in tlie province of 
Yexd was now such Ks to cause tlie grcatcnt ombamiss- 
ment to tlie trading community. In tlie npnce of about 
two monUis no less tlian fifteen hundred beasts of 
burden, with their loads, were carried off, or detained 
on tlioir way to or from tlie provincial capital. It was 
no wonder that tlie merchants begun to lose courage, and 
to talk loudly of deserting a country whore tlieir pro^x^y 
was HO slightly protecteil. 

The city of Kasveen hail boon for fonrtoon years tlic 
jmson of Syf-el-Mulk Mecrxa, a son of that Zil-cs-Sultau 
who hail dis|>uted tlie tlurone witli Maliomcnl Shah. The 
Amoenuuloh now suddenly appeared at the distance of 
thirty-six miles from Tduran, at the heail of a body of 
horsemen. He addressed a circular to the cliiefs of the 
wandering tribes in that vicinity, requesting tliom to 
join his standard, and to aid him iu Yt^x^ss&i^E!ka^ ^^ ^^* 



Illr 



KERELUON OF THE SALAB. 80 

cofwion to power of Xosser^-decii Sliah. Bat Qa Bol 
oxpltiit of thifi iNkltry protcudor to rof^ power was to roi 
ft viinrittr of Uio ItuMiau Mifudon of tlio mim of thro 
tlioiituuxl livo linnilrod ilnrAtR. IliM foivoR wore mm 
uft<>rwimlH niativl, luul lui liituwlf miulo iiritwmor hj rnim 
liorn'moii of tlio ARiiluur trilw, who loonght hinii tiei 
with eonlK, to Tolinui. 

]}nt tho moHt fbnuiiliiblo opimnont whom the yotmi 
Shall hnd to put down wan, an might have been expected 
tho gnlhuit Mon of Allah-yar Khan. Some of liu £)1 
Inwoni hnvinf; taken sonctnory in tlio gront laoeqno o 
MtMhtxl, tho HOTvantH of tlio tpivonior of Klioroaaan 
iu;tuat(!d hy ii))]inu1ont zoiU, ilcMirod to Ara^ Uiom tm 
from thd lioly prixrinetH, or to tUny thom ovur tho tranl 
of tho Hiiint. Such nncrilogionH bilking ahorkod thi 
fi'olin;,'H of tlio pricMtH unci pilgriinH, and tiitj cnlhA m 
tho iicoplo to rwaist ju wiving from iuRnlt the shriiio o 
tho blcKKcd Imam, Tho a])iKsal wns not witlumt effect 
and tho tK!(>]>lo of Meshed droTO tho impions Boldien 
from tlio mosqnc, and wore from tliat hour deroted U. 
the C11U80 of tlic Solar. On tlio receipt of tlio news of tht 
Shah'H death, thnt chief Iml no tirao in taking poinosaoii 
of Uio city of MuHhotl, and ho furcoil tlio govoruor t(i 
t)iko rufitj^'o ill the cittidol. 

Diiriii;; tliu iiitcn'at wliicli chi|)Ho<l hetwcoii tlio dimtli 
of Mahoiiieil Shall and hia kciii'h arrival at tho capital, 
tlin city of Tuliniii wiw a acoiio of iiitrignos and coauto^ 
iiitrigiicH whicli wcro jiluniicd in i[iiick HUcccHHiou. Ko 
effort wiiH si)arcd hy tho ambitionn mid tho unworthy to 
Qudormiuo those in whom it aeemod likely that tlie ^ah 
Would place coniidciu-e. A pricHt named Nasmllah wai 
now tbo cldci ot U\(i foQTliuMiau ]iarty, and as he also 



864 A UI8T0RT OF PRRftlA. 

poMCflsed to a certain extent the confidence of the fol- 

lowen of the A8cf-ed-I>owleh» it was thought by many 

that he was the person best fitted to fill the post of 

, premier, or Sodr- Asem. Bat the Shah had ahready made 

, choice of a Grand Yixeer. On the 20th of October, 1848» 

his Majesty made liis public entry into his capital, and at 

midni(];ht of the same day he was crowned King of Persia. 

. Nasser-ed-deent the eldest son of the late Maliomed 

i Shall, and of Mahd-Aulia, the daughter of Cassim Khan, 

i Kajar, was at this time sixteen years of ago. Ho was not 

remarkable for any prematuro dovelopmout of nicntiil gifts, 

but lie was possessed of sagacity suiBcient to enable hun 

to discern in a man who accomimnied him from Tabrces, 

tlie qualities tliat were wanted m a PcrHian Minister. 

Mccrza Toki Khan, who was at this time appointed 
to be Uic Ameer-i-Nizam, or commander-in-chief of 
the Persian army, owed lus elevation entirely to his 
talents and his serrices. He was a man altogether 
of a diflcrcnt nature from that of his countrymen in 
general. Bclisarius did not tower over the degenerate 
Ilomans of his day more than did the Ameer-i-Nizam 
over his contemporaries, the successors of the adversaries 
of ** tlie last of tlie Roman generals." The race of 
modem Persians cannot be said to be altogether eficte, 
since so recently it has been able to produce a man such 
as was tlie Ameor-i-Nizam. Feraghan, near Sultanatabad 
ill Irak, had the honour to give birth to him who i)erliai)s 
alone of all the Oriental statesmen and governors whose 
names apjioar in the history of modem Persia, would have 
satisfied tlie scmtiuy of a Diogenes, and was fully entitlod. 
to be considered that '* noblest work ot OvAC' «si V^xiw"^ 
mail* The htim at Maersa Told owtL^(a»^ % \i\ffi^^' 



Tin AMEEa-I-KIUU. 805 

station ill lif..', aud from tlie \x»t of cook was promoteil 
to tliat of oteward in Uie booseliold of the Kaim-Makiai, 
tlie first minuiter of Maliomed Shah. The son at an 
early age eiitcrcd tlio serrice of tho Pareian oommandar- 
in-cliief, and accompaniod that officer to St. Pctorsbnrg 
with the Mimion on which PriDCO Kosroo was sent i^ter 
the mnrder of M. Grebalodoff. On his retnni to Persia 
after tliis his solo vinit to Europe, the serrant of the. 
commander-in-chief was promoted in the social scale, 
and from liciiig a menial retainer he hocomo a Hoena, 
or writer. He was sulwoqnoiiU; namcil to tlio xuak of 
Khan, and on tlic deatli of his patron ho hocomo '^^loor 
of tlio army of AKorbaccjiui. In conaoqncnco of the 
illness of thft Miiahrer-ed-Dowleh, wlto had been named 
PcrsiDO plcniix>tcntiary at tlic conferoncca of Eizcronm 
for tho Hottlcmciit of tlio points in dispute botwecn Fenia 
and Ttirkcy, Mocrza Teki Khan vaa scut to represent his 
government; and we uro told that he was beyond all 
comparison tho most interesting personage amongst the 
comminsionera of Turkey, Fcrsia, Russia and Great 
Britain, who were then assembled at Erzcroam.* Dnring 
his residence in that city Mecrza Teki Khan had an 
opportunity of witnesBing the results of the introduction 
of tho Tanzimat in the dominions of the Sultan. On 
his return to Tcliran he was duvjctcd to accomiHuiy the 
crown -prince to Tabrcez when his Royal Highness was 
named governor-general of Azerbaccjan, aud thus a 
conBiderable slutro in the actual government of tho chief 
province of Persia fell into bis bands. From Tabreea 
he proceeded to Tehran in tbo train of the new Sliab, 
and on the way he was ofierod by his Majesty the post 



8CG A HISTORY OF FRRSIA. 

of Prime Biimster of Persia. It is said — I know not 
whether correctly or otherwise — that Meerza Teki had 
from his yoathfol years confidently asserted that if he 
should live to middle agC| he felt sore he would rise to be 
the prime minister of his native land ; but he was some- 
what disturbed by the rocolloction tliat each of the two 
preceding Kajar Shaiis had put to death his first chief 
Viseor, and^ therefore, when the i^ost was offered to 
hun, he sought to reconcile ambition with pradcuce by 
declining the title of Sedr-Asem, which is usually con- 
ferred on a prime mmistery and by taking in its stead 
the humbler designation of Ameer-i-Nizam. 

On assuming charge of the administration of the 
government of Persia, the new minister found every 
deiNirtment in the utmost confusion. Bat ho was not a 
man to be damitcd by difficulties, and he courageously 
set liimMclf to reform every branch of tlie public service, 
and to aliolish many abuses, such as tlic putting up of 
guvemmonts for sale. He took measures for nt once 
im|Hruving the condition of the army; for relieving 
the peasantry firom the oppressions under which they 
laboured ; and for changing the whole financial system of 
the country. It was remarked at tlie commencement of 
the Ameer's ministry that too much reliance was not to be 
placed on his promises, since, after all, he was a Persian. 
But the Viseer in every thing acted up to lus expressed 
mtentt<ms, and if all liis measures were not followed by 
mooess, their fiulure must be attributed to the little 
assistance and eo^jieration he received from othei*s, 
rather than to any want of sagacity or energy on the 
pari of the minister. His word was not rea/liA?} \^<;^^2j;^^ 
but when it had ouee boon ^vea, Vm^>idV t^Si^iAa^i^ ^k^^ 



UKQZ or UEStlED. 307 

be ploeed npon it. It vas no easy task that now 
lay Loforo tlio Amoor. The province of EJiunissaa 
wa» ill amis ngaiiist the Shah, ami liail Ute niooAiire^ 
ailojitcd l)y tlio ucw goTcmmenl bec-n uusiiccoseful, 
ftuarchy ami confiisiou would have fallowed. It was 
opoiily pruilicttiil at thi^ time that tlio ilaytt of the Knjar I 
(Ijnuisty wuuUl vorj- mum ho ()Vcr, ami tliiit rcmia would 
bo hri)l«'n iij) iuU> a iiiuuhtir of petty titatOK. Furtnuately 
these siiiisttir auticipalioiis wore not fulfillod ; men'B 
miuds were greatly calmed by the removal to Kcrbcla of 
Haji Mcerza A^haHsi, uwiii;^ to whose avarice, ccpoLisiu 
011(1 misgoTeruuieat, it was alleged, the geueral disorder , 
had arisen. 

Tho insuiToction in Khorassau waa not easily pnt 
down. I'riiici! Hauiiia, havhig with him ia tho citadd 
only tlinio thousand infiuitry of jVzerhaccjon, could not 
take any activo luca-sin'oa aj:;aiust the Saliir, who was at 
the hoad of fifteen thoa»aud nten, and whoso foreo was 
daily increased by the arnval of dotachiuciits from all 
parts of Khoraasiuu All tho chiefs of that ])roviuco, 
with one or two exceptions, espoused the cause of tlio 
insurgents, imd the fueling of the people towards tlio 
brave and conrteons Salar is dfscribed as having 
amounted alnmat to worship. On tho other hand, Yar 
Maliomed Khan of Herat came at this time to Meshed 
to the relief of the priuco-govcruor, with two thousand 
Aifghan hoi-aemon and a liu'go supply of provisions. 
The motive — if any motive need be iLscribed to him save 
the innate Oriental desire to take part in a disturbance — 
tho allogod motive for tliis movement on the part of the 
ruler of Horat, was thQ promiso held out to him by tho 
governor of Khorassau of twenty pieces of artillery oud a 



^V\ 



808 A IIISTOBT OP PEnSIA. 

lai)^ nnmlior of maHkoto, which woro to be givon to him, 
togi^thor with two plucm on tlio Anoiitior of Klioraiwan, ou 
tlio cotitlition that he dionkl affoni aHiOHtiuiec towards 
imtUntt dowu tlie inmirroction at MoMhed. After some 
Afihtiiv^ tlie joint foreon of Herat and of Prince Hamxa 
found that tliey were able to make but little progreiw, and 
negotiations were therefore set on foot with a Tiew to the 
cessation of hostilities. Jafer Kuli Klian of Boojnoord, 
who till now had been detained in custody by the ruler of 
Herat, was sent to the Salar on tlie part of the leaders 
opposed to him. But that chief was tlie worst enroy tliat 
could hare been Hclectcd, for he waH now burning to a%'cngo, 
on the i^erHou and troops of Yar Maliomed Klian, tlie long 
impriMonment to which he had so inhospitably been sub* 
jected, and having joined his friend tlio Salar, he refused 
to return to the hostile camp. The attention of the AfTghan 
chief was now directed to the moTcments of a catalxy force 
which was sent to dcTastate the border of the territory of 
Herat. The prince-goremor of Khorossan was then 
obliged to eracuate the citadel of Meshed, and to retire 
towards tlie Afllghan frontier. 

The Aineer-i-Ni/juu had in tlie meantime sent a 
boily of aliout six thousiuid infiuitry from Tehran to the 
asNiHtance of tlie gorenior of KhoroKHiui. IViiice Sultan 
Munul, who was in command of tliis force, laid sioge to 
the town of Sebxewar, which place was dofondc<l by the 
youtliful son of tlie Salar ; but Sc^bxewar held out, and 
the siege was soon raised. Prince Sultan Murad, care* 
less of leaTing a fortified phice behind him, then went on 
towards Knchan, plundering by the way sereral Tillages, 
in which lie found an ample supply of proriiiious fot Vsi% 
troops. 8oiiMehi«bofcoDsi(lQraJdau\Q^a^\^ 



DimCVLTlGS ESNXmiiTEBED BY TUE AUEEK. 3G9 

umI UutNi};li tlicir fntuulx lie raulcux'oiin-d to cuter into 
u urui^ciucDt witti tlie ]iuo|tU' u{ M^eiUinl. Hu bmtlicr, 
I*iiiMX' lUiuxa, Van in tlie mtnuiUiiH'! eucimiiicd nithin 
twiity-fimr mile* at UcnO. Xlio Hmha's put; luul lixA 
tins awutuuee uf m-iuo lUlit^ wltuttv »i(l iui;:lit Jiuvo ttinicd 
tiw ixralv uf rictoi^. Tbo chicla of MttKriuU-nu] had 
beeu ilrireD into oppoutiou, and bltuost iuto rc-bvUion, 
a^inst tiu! Skab's govemmeQt by tlie Texutious jwlic; 
of Huji Mecrza Affbassi ; bat on tbe giun»itt'« uf the 
English reprtstfulalivc at the Pcmua court that their 
peiKuiiol Hifet; aboold be grant4»l to tlictu, at their owu 
n;>liu>st uud hy tho desire of Uio Shall, Uicj ut tmce 
n.-[>uirL'<l to court, when tliejr ntaivnl a & 
welcome. 

\Mule KiionL'--aii btill contiimi'd in rebcllimi, the 
prtK-ess of luuciitinitiou in other ysirtii of Peruia wua 
{band to be atleuded ut cvei^" stuge by dil£ouUii'H that 
wore almost iusunuouiitablc. Tlic Amccr-i-Nizam wiis 
so thoronghly aware of the dui>licity and venality of 
almost iill tho rerBiaii courtici's, that he for a timo 
could not fix U}>ou a man who might with safety be 
employed in the ta»k of co<'i>eraling wUi him in re- 
uicdyui^ ubuHCK, mid estublit^hiug il mysteni of c<]iiitublc 
goTeniment. liut tlie ^Viuoer liiui^telf wan as hiWrioua 
K8 ho was oous4^'ientioiiM : he worked day after day 
and week after week, lato and curly, at tlic uoblcNt 
task that can fall to the tot of man ; nor was he dis- 
cooraged or dislicurtened by the diffifultiea wlueh lio 
had to snrmoQDt, and the intrigues he hod to thwart. 
He enjoyed the unbounded confidence of the Shuh, 
withoat which he could not have effected anything ; but 
he had cot been fortunate cnongh to be able to secore 
24 



I 
I 



870 A lilflTORY OF FKBaiA. 

tlio ccHiporation of tko \Hsnon who, next to biinsolf, 
pomcttscd the greatest influence orer the mind of the 
youthfol king. In a country where every one, from the 
Shall downwariU, looks on his noi|(hbour with sospicion, 
there is bat one person in whom the sovereign feels that 
he is sore, nmlor all drcomstances, to find a tme adviser 
and a sincere friend. The )>osition and influence of the 
QuiH^n-mothor so entirely duiNUid on tlio life and pros- 
lN?rity of the Hhali, tiiat her cumiselH are ever listonod 
to by liiui witlumt suspicion or hniiatitmco. One can 
only s|NH;ubite as to the motives which induced the 
Qnoon-nioUier to witlihold her c<»n(idenco from tlie 
AnuHtr-i-Nixjun. 8he nuiy have tiroadud the eflbct uinm 
tlio Holfish cliiofs of Persia of tlie measures of reform 
which the Minister luul iniulo up his mind to introdiUH). 
She may have been brvmKht to believe tlwt the hero- 
ditiuy nobles o( the land would never be inducetl to re- 
ceive tlie law frtim a mim of humble extraction, and that 
her son's tlinme would in consequence be endauKered 
Or, her Iliglmess's conduct may have ori^ated in 
some less worthy motive : such as jealousy of the influ- 
ence which liad been acquired by the Ameer over the 
muid of Uie king. But fcir whatever reason, the Queen- 
miither tlurew tlie weight of her influence into the sciile 
of the opiNisiiiou, and aflonled her countenance to the 
host of iiidiiential and discontented i>ersous whose 
unlawful gains were curtailed in consequence of the 
measures of tlie new Minister. At first, however, these 
intrigues produced no impression upon the mind of the 
Shah ; and had his Migcsty been allowed to follow the 
dictates of his own will, tlie Ameer would probably ere 
now havot fiir a time, couvertod V wiIub^ Icq^ixl >^ ^^soS^s&^ss^ 



TU£ AM££a'8 ADMIXISTRATIOX. 871 

in which Hercolos fbuud tho Augoou Btablos into that 
in which he loft thorn. 

Bat it in not to be supposed that the Ameer alone 
eoaU have pormanently changed tlie characteristics of a 
whole nation, or could have overcome the combined 
influences of climatoi of custom, and of religion. He 
might luive offected mucli during liis own lifetime ; but 
it is higldy improbable that another man could have 
boon found to carry on the Shah's government on tho 
oulightened principles adopted by the Ameer ; and, there- 
ftiru, Persia would hi any case have sunk into tlio 
Aliathetic condition of idl the surviving Maliomedan 
tttatiw which are not hiUuenced from without. 

Tho Ameer's system of government was that whicli 
ox|)erionce has proved to be the most beneficial for an* 
Oriental nation — an enlightened deHpotisin. He inado 
no pretence of wishuig to educate the people, or of con- 
sulting their incUnations. He professed to endeavour to 
secure their material well-being, and to restrain their 
evil propensities. But the Minister aimed at far more 
than this; and had his measures been permanently 
efifocted, their adoption would have indicated notliing 
less tlian a radical change in Persian morality and 
Persiim maimers. The first idea which the wonl Persia 
suggests in the mind of a scholar is tlio llowery imd 
overloaded style which for two thousand yeai*s has cha- 
racterized tho comi>ositions of the poets and historians 
of the land of the fire-worshippers. The Ameer-i-Nizam 
resolved to suppress the meaningless and disgusting 
phraseology which is suited only to slaves and parasites, 
and he pubUshed a decree forbidding the use in petitions 
iuid o/Scial documents addressed to himself of more than 

24— i 



872 A HUITORY OF PERSIA. 

ono 8i)ocifioil titlo — that of *'Jonab'' or ^^ ExeelleDcy." 
A ponon of less rank wai in like nuuiner to be addreated 
by one leaser title. People were astonished to hear of a 
Vizcor who rejected the incense of flatteiy ; bnt they 
obeyed Iiim commands, and probably few regretted the 
high-8oanding bat meaningless expressions to which 
their ears had been so long accnstomed. 

Pondan immorality and diidionefity are nnliappily 
proverbial, and the Ameer-i*Nisam did not hesitate to 
grapple with these most deeply-ingrained vices of his 
fellow-countrymen. The pubUc baths of Tehran had been 
allowed to become the scenea of open debauchery ; and 
the Minister lost no time in punishing those who made 
their profit by these practices, which he now put down. 

Of all tlie traits which go to make up the Persian 
character, that which, next to exceHsivo vanity, is most 
strongly devcloi>ed, is a constant desire to acquire unlaw* 
ful gains. The word ** mudahil," for which there is no 
exact English term, has, for Persian ears, a charm which 
few Kun>i)eans can comprehend. ** Mudahil" signifies 
all that one can acquire by receiving bribes, by swindling 
and extortion, and by all other irregular means. It is 
*^ mudahil " and not salaiy which every Persian official is 
anxious to secure. A salaiy reguhirly paid affords uo 
scojie for the display of the talents in which Per- 
sians most excel — for dissimulating and overreaching, 
opprossing and cringing — and, therefore, a post which 
has only a good salaiy attached to it, and which affords 
no good opportunities of making ** mudahil," is looked 
upon by Persians as being but a poor possession. The 
Ameer-i*Nisam, himself altogetUex tX^n^ >MSfi^^ Nscic^^ 
istohid to tappnm fh/t miie-«{midL wjiteo^ ^ '^^^ 



nNAKCIAL DISORDER. 878 

sole bribeiy which he saw aroimd him. By degrees he 
effected mach in tlie way of patting a stop to corruption ; 
bat Ids next task proved to be too much eren for his 
energy and unlimited power. The sectarian spirit in 
Persia is kept aUve mainly by tlie annual oxiiibition on 
the stage of the sufferings and the martyrdom of the 
Imam Hussein ; and during the month of Moherrem the 
whole populations of the cities of Northern Persia are 
worked up into a state bordering upon frenzy ; notwith- 
standing that the chief Moslem autliorities hold tliat 
those exliibitions are contrary to the duty of the followers 
of Mahomed. The Amoor-i-Nizam endeavoured to take 
advantage of the weight of rehgious authority to do 
away with a custom so productive of fanaticism as 
is the Persian Tazooah. The Shoeahs of Irak and 
Azorbaeejan were, however, too much attached to the 
yearly-recurring cxliibition to submit to its suppression, 
and the Ameer was forced unwillingly to permit its 
continuance. 

Soon after the arrival of the Shall at his capital, a 
royal commission was appointed to exaniiuo into tho 
state of the finances of the kingdom, and to draw up for 
the king's information a statement of the revenues and 
of the expenditure of the country. At this time tlie 
latter far oxcoodod the former. It appeal's tliat one 
mode of courting popularity practised by the minister 
liaji Meerza Aghassi had bocn, soldom or never 
directly to refuse compliance with a petition for tho 
grant of a donation or a pension. He had not made 
direct payments, excepting to his own tribesmen, as a 
general rule; but he had been in the habit of issuing 
ffovemment orders on the different provincial authorities. 



874 A HISTORT OF FERSIA. 

It in said tiiot he had norer meant that Uiese orders 
riionld be attended to, and tliat he had giren the pro- 
Tincial goTemom to nnderstand so. The result was that 
tlH^y seldom or nerer had been attended to; but the 
odium of tlie non-pajment had fallen on the governors, 
while the credit of UberaUty had remained with tlie Haji. 
Tlie consequence of this truly Oriental system of can* 
vassing for popularity was, that the Ameer-i-Niasam now 
found upon his hands an enormous amount of gorem- 
ment liabiUties. He had the altematire of meeting them 
or of damaging tlie credit of the Shall by rejecting bonds 
issued by a minister of state. Most Persians would hare 
attempted to erade choosing between these altematires 
by baring recourse to some ingenious subterfuge ; and 
it is to the credit of the Ameer that he preferred boldly 
to face the difficulty. Probably no financier erer found 
himself to be placed in a more embarrassed position 
than that of Meersa Teki Khan in the beginning of the 
year 1849. Since the accession of the Shah no money 
had been paid into the royal treanury, and on the otlier 
hand the expenditure was necessarily heavy. The army 
in the field in Khorassan depended for its existence en- 
tirely upon the central goremmcnt, and tliat government 
was in tlie unfortunate position of lacking the credit 
which could only result from confidence in its ntability. 
]iut in addition to the financial diflicultios to be over- 
come, tliere was the embarrassment to be dreaded from 
affronting and impoverishing so many powerful and un- 
principled men. Colonels there were who had been 
drawmg pay and receiving clothing for regiments which 
actually did not exist. Tlie royal body*guard, during the 
reign of Fetteh All Shah, had consisted of an efficient 



UPRIGIITKESS OF TOE AMEER. 375 

regiment of six hundred horsemen. Daring the reign of 
that monarch's grandson it had been increased, upon 
palmer, to four tlionsand men, bat reduced, at muster, 
to three Imndred. Nor was the state of things in tlie 
civil department at all out of keeping with that of tlie 
military department. Many persons were in the receipt 
of large pensions which had been granted by Haji Meerza 
Aghassi witliout the slightest reference to any service 
rendered by them ; and as many of these stipendiaries 
were priests and men of influence, the task of compelling 
them to relinquish their prey was all the more difficult of 
accompUslmient. Nevertheless, the Ameer had the firm- 
ness to cut down the expenditure of the government, and 
to reduce or discontinue the pensions that had been 
granted to so many idle princes and priests. The most' 
extraordinaiy, and even unaccountable, part of his con* 
duct in the eyes of the Persians, was that he was utterly 
inaccessible to bribery. This being the case, the money 
which he refused to accept was employed for the purpose 
of upsetting him. The Shah had shown himself to be 
possessed of sufficient firmness to resist the attempts 
that had been made to induce him to dismiss from office 
the Ameer-i-Nizam ; and his Majesty had even insisted 
on giving to his Minister, in opposition to the wishes of 
his mother and all his relations, the hand of his only 
.sister. The discontented noblemen, therefore, despair- 
ing of being able to move the Shah, resorted to other 
means for obtaining the dismissal of the Ameer. 

There were at that time in the citadel of Tehran 
about two thousand five hundred soldiers of regiments 
belonging to Azerbaeejan, and these men were bribed to 
mutiny, and to demand the life of the prime minister. 



J 



37C A IIIKTOET Of FEUIA. 

On the llUi of \breh, 1840, the ntiiatau id Hn^ gs- 
rinon (if tlic citailtil oi Tdinn itbatd to Bas to 
comiiuuiik of their officcn, and proeeeded to iht 
of the Amecr-i-Nizam, in front of which thcj Wi^n <• 
vociferate loudly, and to demand their ancio of psr. 
Tliey were, ho werer, peiioaded to letsa to their t|MiTiii, 
on the promise thai their alleged gii et iiMj ea voaU he 
inquired into on the following 
if proved to be rcaL On the nest daj the tiuofa 
nuule their apiiranuiee nnanncil; hot they w«r 
frontinl hy the )K!nional attindanta of the MimHUft 
fired ii|iciu tlio clamotona mob. Upcm tLia the 
jieruted trooiw reinmed to their bamcka for their 
ami a«^n cauio forth in a body, vowin:; vesi^eaacc 
against the Ameer. The Pcnian ¥int<tfr had imtw 
nx'oumo to tlie friendly interierenec of. the Fi«^^^ 
cluu^v d'ufliurcs at Tehran. That officer had ffjrmtaij 
lM*en employed in the eommand of Pcndan tnopa, aad 
he was Untened to by the mntincen ; bat his e&Mts woe 
insufficient tf> quell the tnmolt. The forvxis soldieT^ 
wen* mittiiimons in tlii-ir ilraiand that the Ameer ahrjcld 
bo dismiMKNl or put to deatli ; and mX a word was nr/w 
said as to tlieir arrears of pay. The Shah had ik4 the 
means of putting; down this mutiny, at the ootael, by 
foree, and it seemed likely that he would be oompeDad 
to submit to the dangerous eoorse of allowing htmseif to 
be dictated to by an armed throng. The Minister in 
this dilemma voluntaersd to retire from offiee ; he left 
tlio citadel forthwith, and look up Ua ahode in the 
of Meena AfltuL Khan, whoee acnieea to llm 
on tliia oecaaion woo Cor him the 
Hliah and of the 




MILITAUY UEVOLT. 877 

The cotintonauco of one of the principal koroclitaiy 
noblemon of Pensw won, at Uuh conjanctare, of tho 
greatest volne to Uio plebeian brother-in-law of tho 
Shall ; but tlie government was laid nnder still greater 
obUgations to the Imam-i-Jomai the high priest of 
Tehran. That functionaiy possessed the greatest in- 
fluence OTer the citizens, who, at his command, shut the 
shops in the bazaars, closed the caravanserais, and armed 
tliomHclves for tho pnr^ioso of resisting tho mntinons 
soldiery. Tho excited townsmen, bai'kod as tlioy were 
by tlie approval of tho Shah and his Minister, by tho 
exhortations and blesHings of Uio Imam-i-Junia, iwd by 
tlio full moral supiN)rt of tho foreign legiiticms, woro 
more tlian a match for the tiunultuous crowd of soldiers 
witliout their officers. Tho victory was rendered no 
longer doubtful by tho return of one of the regiments 
to its duty ; an appeal having been mode to the men 
not to disgrace the English officers by whom tbey 
had been drilled. Tho danger to tlie govemmont thus 
passed over, and tlie Amcor-i-Nizam quietly retnmed to 
the discharge of the duties of his office. 

About this time the cause of tho rebels in Khorasson 
received a severe blow by the desertion of Jafer Knli 
Klian, the lord of Boojnoord. That chief quarrelled with 
the Salor, and he thereupon took advantage of the offer 
of tlie Shah's pardon, which had been guaranteed to him 
by the Ameer on the condition that he should return to 
his duty. On his arrival at Tehran his reception was in 
accordance with the assurances which had been held out 
to him. 

The fort of Sebzewar was now surrendered to the 
troops of the Shall, but tlic atrocities wliich tliey com* 



878 A miSTORT Of PBRSIA. 

initted iu that town wont fiur towanU chocking any incli- 
nation which Uio people of Moahod may hare outertainod 
to imitato tlio example of those of Sebsewar. 

It was at this time that the Turkish goTomment took 
advantage of the confusion tliat reigned throughout 
Persia to seise the frontier district of Kotoor, in direct 
contrarcntion of the engagements which had been con- 
cluded between Persia and tlie SubUme Porte at Erse- 
roum. In spito of all remonstrances, Turkey has per- 
sisted in retaining Kotoor. 

Wliilo tlie fate of Khorassan was still doubtful, neither 
tlie autliority of the Shall nor tlie iKMdtion of his Minister 
could be said to be secure. It was long before the gover- 
nor of Is|)alian could put down the insurrection that had 
been raiHod in tliat city ; and at the same time the chief 
of Bnni>oor, in Boloochistan, took advantage of tlio oppor- 
tunity of revolting. A military force was assembled at 
lloodliar for the pur^Mxie of being sent against him ; but 
it was determined to try, in Uie first instance, tlie effect 
of negotiation witli tlie hisnrgcnt chief. This mo<le of 
settling Uie difference having failed, tlie troops took pos- 
session of Buniioor. The town of Bunpoor is distant 
from lloodbar about two hundred and forty miles, nearly 
two-tliirds of the road between tliem being an unin- 
habited tract of desert. It was at this time proposed to 
the Shah's government, by the IMnce of Kerman, to 
invaile tlie province of Seistan, on the pica of putting a 
stop to tlie raids of the Belooches witliin tlie territory of 
Yesd and Kerman. Some of tlie chiefs of Seistan had 
lately sent to ask the assistance of tlie prince in support of 
tiieir claims to supremacy in tlieir native province. The 
Belooches in Seistan were gradually acquiring the ascea- 



PEItSIAN CLAIM TO SEI8TAX. 870 

dancy over tlio races who had l>ocn longer sottlod in tliat 

eonntry, and who wore much divided amongst themsclvos. 

Tbo Kayonian tribe of Soistanis, who boasted of being 

descended from tlie oldest dynasty of Persian kings, was 

long the mling race in that province ; but this tribe was 

driren from Jelalabad by some others who united them* 

selres togeUier against it. The chief of one of these 

tribes (not aBcIooch one), called Sirbendi, now exercised 

most influence in Seistan ; but on his death his son was 

unable to preserve Ids high position, and, in order to be 

able to put down his uncles, he reluctantly had recourse 

to asking the aid of the Persian governor of Kerman. 

One of his uncles also applied to the same person for aid ; 

and the Prince of Kerman thought that the conjuncture 

was a favourable one for practically asserting the vague 

claims of his master to the possession of the province of 

Seistan. The route by which a Persian army from 

Kerman could reach Seistan would be that by Tehrood, 

Bern, Koorook and Terij, and tlience by places not marked 

in the maps of that region, along a distance of alnrnt 

four hundred and fifty miles in all ; the greater part of 

which is a desert tract having wells at intervals. A march 

over such a region, and in the face of active Belooches 

who would seize the passes, would not be likely to be 

attended with success, while it would certainly entail 

unusual hardships and difficulties. It may have been the 

dread of these, or it may have been the fact that the 

Ameer-i-Nizam had already more than sufficient to 

occupy the resources of the government, that induced 

the Shah's Ministers to reject the proposal of the Prince 

of Kerman to invade the province of Seistan. 

The siege of Meshed continued, daring a period of 



880 A HI8T0RY OF FERHIA. 

eighteen mouths, to keep aUre in the minds of the people 
of Persia a feeling of disqniotnde or of hope, according 
as thoy were well or ill^dispotied towards the government 
estalilislied at Teliran. There were at this time ahsont 
from tlie kingdom, in banishment, two men who had been 
the most jiowerful, as well as jierhaps the ablest, states- 
men of Persia. One of the two was tlio Shah's undo, 
Bahman Meerata, who had boon impUcatcd in the pro- 
ceedings of the Asef-ed-Dowleh at Meshed. It was 
behoved tliat Uie latter liad offered to liim the crown of 
PcrHia, and the discovery of tliis conspiracy had led to 
I^co lialmian being deprivotl of his government of 
Axerbaoojan, and to his being forced to retire to Georgia, 
where he remauied under Russian protection. The otlier 
exiled Pcmian statesman was the AHcf-ed-Dowloli, the 
nncle of the late Mahomed Shah. The Amoer-i-Nizam 
was urged to recall both of these illustrious exiles ; but 
witli regard to tlie case of Bahman Meerza, he observed 
that, should tlie prince be i)crmitted to return to his 
country, his wealth, influence and popularity would 
quickly secure for him his former govemmout of Azor- 
boocjaii, which he would be likely to constitute an inde- 
lirud<*nt province. With n*gartl to the ciim) of the Asof* 
ed-Dowleh, Uie Minister observcil tliat to grunt iHsnuission 
for his return to Persia whilst his son continued in ojk^u 
rob(*llion, would be to make it ap|)car that the Shah was 
unable to i>ut down insurrection by force of anus, and 
that he was constrained to make terms with tlio insur- 
gents. Prince Sultan Murad was instructed to strain 
every nerve, in order to bring to a conclusion the siege 
of Meslied. A messenger sent by the Ameer to that city 
with condliatufy letters and messages to the chief men 



FOREIGN INFLUENCE IN PERSIA. 881 

of the place, totally failed in secoring the object of his 
mission. The propositions which he had been instnictod 
to name were at once n^'octedi and the priests of Meshed 
oven urged the advisability of putting him to death. 
The Salar, however, not only protected him from vio- 
lence, but treated him in the kindest manner, and scut 
liim back to Tehran as the bearer of a proposal that a 
son of Fctteh Ali Bliah should be named governor of 
Khorassan, and that the Salar should be his visseer ; tlie 
Azerbaeejan troops being withdrawn. These terms were 
rejected by the Ameor-i-Nizam. ^^ 

Before this periml it had been customary in Persia to V 
concede an unusual degree of deference to tlie opiniomi * 
and wishes of tlie foreign rc])resentatives accredited to 
tlie Pei*sian court ; the influence of either the Englisli ot 
the llussian Mission being in the ascendant for tlio time, 
according as the inclinaticms of tlie Shah or of his mini- 
ster of the day leaned towards England or towards Russia. 
To such an extent was this interference in tlie internal 
affairs of Persia allowed to be carried, that foreign repro- 
sentatives were sometimes requested to take under their 
protection individual subjects of the Shah. Thus at the 
time of the departure of the young king from Tabrces 
for Teliran, the English consul was asked to protect tlio 
Anneniims resident in that place. The Anieer-i*Nizam did 
not fail to i)erccivc that it was unbecoming that a govern- 
ment should not regulate the affairs of its own subjects, 
and he accordingly determined for the future to set 
liimself against foreign interference in matters tliat only 
concerned Persia. Every impartial person must admit 
that the right of granting protection to subjects of 
the Shah, which was assumed by foreign ministers, 



882 ▲ nisTORT or 

thontfh it had boon luuictionccl to a certain oxtoni by tho 
ooDfloot of Uie Pondan govemmentv was coutruiy to tho 
principles of international Uw/ But when the Amecr-i* 
Nixam showed symptoma of an mtontion to pot a atop 
to tlio aboae which had arisen in this respect, the foroigu 
ministers at the Persian conrt would by no means consent 
to relinqnish a cnstom, the observance of which gave 
them so much influence over the Viseers and sabjocts 
of Uio Sliah. The foreign ministers then resident at 
Tehran were too intent on establishing tho influence of 
tlioir rcMiiective governments in Persia, to be able to 
symiiatliixe fully with tlie Ameer-i*Niaiun in his eudeu* 
tours to erect liis country into a iKiwerful luul firmly- 
estHblishwI monardiy upon the basis of law and justice. 
It was proposed to employ the good offices of the Russian 
and English representatives at Tehran for the pur}x>8e 
of bringing about a satisfactory compromise between 
the government and the rebels of Khorassan. But the 



* ** TKo KoMcf of an MMliAiMuifir outfiit Ut bo Mifo fruin nil ollirH(^^ Imum 
iumW Uir |wrtinibur pniCrction oC Uio Iaw iif niiU«ifiN. . . . ])ut the immiiiiity 
Mial frrraltm of the mmhmmtiAm'* hnwe in mUMUliM niilj in fiimnr itf tlio 
mimt^er mmI kk bcMarhnU, m U ovkUmt fnim Uio very nnuMMm u|ion wliich 
it '» cnmiMltHl. C«n In* tAke ll•lv»lltl^^^ of tlic |»riviU*}:c in imlor tn convert 
Kin Umm into an aiirltim t<i aSitnl iiK<*IU*r nnH prtitiHiiim to tin* cnrmi<*« of 
the phncr? . . . H«c*h |W«iemUaK» wintkl Im ctmtmry tit all tltc «luti«Mi 
•if an aml wu wail o r. to tlio apirit hy wliirb 1m* tvan^ii to In* aniuiatr<l. ami to 
tba lawftU pvrpnara finr whirk ho baa hem tkAndtted into tlie cotintnr. Tliit 
ia wluU nohoily will prvMuna to donj. lint I wiU proeaml Canhor. aod laj 
il ioim aa a eeftain tinth, tlHU a aoTiTri*:n in iii>t olili;,*v<l t4> tolrmtc an 
alMM* an prrniriona to ki« atatc ami an ilHriiiirntal to wvnrty. . . . Tlin«. it 
Mnoifi to tho Bovarpiicn to dacMa. oa oreaaaoo. h«iw Ur tha rickt of aaylunt, 
frydi an amliaaiilitr ckiaM aa belonfpng to hia hoo«<*. ia to ba raapccto«l : 
*an4 if tha qnratian rrlalra to an oSirndar whoaa arma or |mniiihin«*nt ia of 
$cnmi ini|Hi^UMa Id iIm Suia, tho priaea ia not to U withhrlU by tba cmni* 
tid et m tkm of a pfivilcni wkkh waa nover itmnlnl U^ tUa dctrimcut or niin 
of StatflL— 7W iAUt rf XiUmmg. bjr M. da Vattiil. i:aitMMi of ln$A, 
■Bu ava*ni 



PROGliESS OF 8I£0E OF MESilED. 383 

Amoor, whilnt ockuowleclgiug how much tho Sluili hiid 
owed to foreign ossiatoucoy was of opmiou that foreign 
intorvontion in tlio ofifairtt of PorHia had boon stretched 
to the utmost Umits which were compatible with the 
dignity of tlie government, and he therefore would not 
avail himself of tliis mode of bringing the rebellion to 
an end. He is even reported to have said that it would 
be better for Persia that tlie inhabitants of Meshed 
should be brought bock to their duty through tlie loss of 
twenty tliousand men, than tliat that city should be won 
for tlie Sliah through foreign interference. 

The siege of Meshed went on with variable fortune : 
at one time tlie army met with a severe check in at- 
tempting to carry one of the gates of the place ; at another 
time the besiegers had the advantage in a combat with 
the troops of the besieged, whose sortie they repulsed. 
In the meantime the Turkomans, being left unopposed, 
gathered a rich harvest of spoil tliroughout Khorassan ; 
not a caravan could pass to or from Herat in safety, and 
the Khorassan villages for and near were plundered by 
these ruthless marauders. At the close of tlie year 1849 
a fresh detachment of troops from Tehran ai'rived before 
Meshed ; but its commander, instead of joining the force 
of Prince Sultan Murad, thought proper to pitch his 
tents at a distance from those of the rest of the besieging 
army. This mistake was at once perceived and taken 
advantage of by the Salar, who saUied in force from the 
city and inflicted great loss on the newly-arrived detach- 
ment ; and then returned to within the walls. In con- 
sequence of the retreat of the Salar, the leader of the 
detachment, with the vanity never absent from a Persian, 
claimed to have gained a victory. Up to this time the 



884 A UI8T0RT OF PERSIA. 

city had not boon completely iuTCvtod, one gate having 
remained open through which provisions were introduced 
under the safe conduct of the Turkomans. The besieged 
furtlier derived some encouragement from the arrival of a 
brotlier of the Salar, who passed along the whole length 
of Penda in the disguise of a pilgrim, carrying with him 
a considerable sum of money. But at length the Shah's 
troops obtained possession of some redoubts, which gave 
them so commanding a position, that the citizens of 
Mesliod, fearing the result of a general assault for which 
tlie preparations were in progress, entered into negotia- 
tions with IMnce Sultan Murod. These negotiations 
terminated in the surrender, first of tlio citadel, and hitor 
of tlie enture city. The Salar took refuge in Uie mosque 
of Imam Rexa; from which, however, he was forcibly 
ex|)cllod. lie was then seized by the soldiers of the 
Shekaki regiment, and tlie inhabitants of Meshed wore 
liermitted to ransom their city from plunder by the 
promise to \vxy a fine of one hundred Uiousund tomans. 
The forbearance and disci]>line displayed on tliis occasion 
by tlie Persian troojw reflect the highest credit on their 
commander, IVince Sultan Murod; but tlie glory he 
ociiuired by the capture of Meshed is somewhat stained 
by the suspicion which attaches to him of ha\ing put the 
Salar to torture, for the purpose of compelling that chief 
to reveal the amount and the locaUty of his treasure. 
Tlie Salar was then justly condemned to expiate the 
crime of having rebelled against his sovereign by being 
deprived of life; tlie iustnuneut by wliich death was 
inflicted ni^on him being tlie bowstring of Eastern story, 
and a similar sentence was pronounced ui>on one of his 
liroUien, who bod been his companion in arms. 



( 885 ) 



CHAPTER Xm. 



lUtJn g of UwJ' ^H^^'* 1 >( tf ^'^ Hah—Mcido of c arrYing ont Capital Pnny 
men u in Por>da — Soixuro of Zinjan — Tlio Hilb put to ]>oaUi — ^Teti«U 
of 7iIiiFi»Uowoni — Ilopclcm Contcmt nt Zinjan — Uocklem Dravmy of 
tlio BiibiH — Co uragQ of the Wonicp — Terribl e Crueltiet — Exhibitio n 
of FatftticiHTO at Tabreox — HmmltH of AdnuniiitrHtio n of Uio Ainccr'i' 
KixAm — Omiptition of AMhoradoh by llnmia — ^llioTiiiiipian IVuvincciH— 
Fall of tlio Ainocr-i-NixAin — Intorft^nnico on bis Iklialf— Moerxa Aglut 
Klian, Sedr-Axom — Intfucneee broii((Iit to boar on tlie Hhab aipdtuil 
tlie Amoor-i-Nixam — (>>n<liict of tho Wife of the cx-Minister-^Tha 
Amoer'e Death— llomombraucc of bis Aduiuiiiitration. 

It was hopod tliat the capturo of MchIiciI would oiilior 
in a period of coliunosis imd security, during which the 
Ameer-i*Nizaiu might have loiHuro to }>crfoct tlie ByBtom 
of geuoral reforui which he had introduced into Persia. 
But uo sooner had order been estabhslied in one 
direction than revolt and diAorder appeared in another 
quarter. At Yezd, the followers of the Bub assembled 
in such numbers in the spring of the year ISSO, as to 
compel the governor of that city to take refuge in the 
citadel ; to which they tlien laid siege. But the priests 
of Yezd, conscious that the spread of Babism would be 
tlie signal for tlie downfall of their own poweri lent to 
tlie governor all the weiglit of their iulhience. In the 
nimie of Maliomed, the messenger of God, they sum- 
moned the townspeople to attack the infidels, and they 
collected a torco by which the Bubis were overthrown. 

25 



880 A HI8T0RT or PERSIA. 

The scalotn of the now religion Uien betook themseWes 
to the a4j^ii^8 proTince of Kennan. 

The followers of the Bub looked njion the Ameer-i- 
Nisam, by whoee orJers tlieir diief was kept iu prison, 
as an enemy to Uie faith, whom it was lawful, and 
oTen proper, to slay. A conspiracy was accordingly 
organized for the purpose of takmg the life of the 
Minister ; but the plot was discoTered ere it was ripe for 
execution, and the conspirators were seized. Seven of 
them were condemned to suffer death, and the occasion 
of their execution was taken advantage of for intro- 
ducing the custom of conducting capital punislmiouts 
openly at Tehran. Previously to this time it had been 
usual to cause condemned criminals to be strangled before 
the Shah. On one occasion, when the representative 
of Russia at the Persian court was waiting to be sum- 
moned to tlie presence of the king, he was alarmed by 
hearing loud cries in his immediate neighbourhood in the 
palace garden, and as he was proceeding to the audience 
chamber, he encountered a number of executioners 
dragging along the still-palpitating bodies of some men 
who had been strangled. The prince was shocked 
beyond measure, and he was, with reason, offended at 
the indignity which ha4l been offered to him iu his 
being summoned to the royal presence at suidi a niomout ; 
he, therefore, expressed in strong terms to tlio Sliah and 
to his Minister, his opinitin as to the barbarousuess of 
the usage by which executions were conducted before 
the eyes of the sovereign. The Ameer-i-Nizam fully 
concurred in the opinion of the Russian Minister on this 
subject, and he accordingly at once determined to put a 
stop to the practice complained of. It was feared, how* 



BABIST REBELUOK AT ZIXJAX. 887 

GveTi that a commotion mi^fht bo excitccl by the Quosaal 
spoctodo of men boiug publicly cxecutod at Tehran ; but 
on the occAsion of pntting tiie Bubi couHpiratorB to death, 
no rach commotion took place. Some doubts existed in 
the minds of tlio people as to whether the alleged inten- 
tions of the conspirators had been ioUy proved against 
them, or whether it was right to punish for a mere inten- 
tion as if for a crime that had actually been committed ; 
but it could not be denied that the sentence of death upon 
these Bubi backsUders from the Moslem faith was in 
accordance with Mahomedan law. Each of them was 
offered his life xk\>on the simple condition of reciting the 
formula of the Moslem creed, but none of them consented 
to purchase pardon on such terms. 

Anotlier example was now added to those with which 
the history of the world abounds, of the utter inefficacy 
of persecution for the suppression of reUgious doctrines. 
The chief priest of Zinjan had embraced the tenets of 
the Bub| and under his guidance the Babis of that 
place took possession of a portion of the town. On 
the news of this revolt reaching Tehran, measures were 
at once adopted by the government for suppressing the 
insurrection ; and it is illustrative of the success which 
was already beginning to attend tlio Ameer's system for 
the amelioration of the army, that within five hours from 
the receipt at the capit^il of intelligence of the revolt, 
troops were already marching from Tolinui u})ou Zinjan. 
The Persian soldiers, much, no doubt, to their own sur- 
prise, saw themselves for the first time properly clothed 
and cared for, and received with regularity their pay and 
their rations. Persian soldiers are beyond comparison 
tlie most bardj, enduring and patient troops in the world, 

25—1 



888 A UI8T0BT OF r£B8IA. 

ami had tho adminiflinition of Uie Amcor-i-Nizom boon 
probngod, the King of Penda would liavo been the master 
of an army of one hundred tlionsand men, regohurly 
drilled and accoutred. The Minister had announced 
his intention of maintaining such a force ; and he was 
not likdy to diauge his mindi or to neglect any precau- 
tion to ensure the efficiency of the army upon which 
depended the stability of tlie Kajar throne. 

Tlie insurrection at Zuijan took place in the moutli 
of Iklay, 18C0| and tlie Bilbis long contiijucd to defend 
tlienuii*lves in tliat city against tlie troops of the king, 
with all the fiery seal which is characteristic of tlie 
proselytes to a new religion. Zinjan is the capital of 
tlie district of Ilamsoli, and it Ues on the direct rood 
from Tabrees to Tehran. Whilst the siege was in 
progress, the founder of the new creed was taken from 
his prison in Aserbaecjan, and, after having been examined 
as to his roUgious belief, was condemned to doatli by the 
authorities of Tabreex for liaYuig renounced tlie faitli of 
Ldam. A circumstance tliat arose out of this soiiteuce 
had nearly been the cause of setting tlie Bub high above 
the temporal i^owors c»f Iran. A comi>any of soldiors 
was drawn up m Uie great square of Tabret'X, and before 
it was a hapless man whose arms wore tied together: 
that man was the Bab, and he was to be shot to deatli. 
On their captain giving the word to fire, the soldiers 
discharged a volley, the smoke from which threw a 
veil over the scene. When the smoke liad been dis- 
pelled, great was the astonishment of the soldiers and 
of the lookers-on to find that the person of the Bob had 
altogether disapiHUurod. There could now be no doubt, 
fhaj thought, of his having ascended to the heaven. 



KXFXIUTIOK OF THR DAD. 880 

wliicli, wlion ho was on oortlii ho had Raid was his 
homo. 

Nothing was wanted but tliis apparent miracle to 
establish Bribism on a sure foundation, liut it happenedy 
most unfortunately for the prospects of the creed of the 
BrJ>» that its orij^inator (who had boon unscathed by the 
bullets which had cut 'the ropes around him) had taken 
tlie wrong direction wliilo endeavouring to effect his escape 
when concealed by tlie smoke of the volley of muskotry. 
Had he gained the bazar he would have lioen safe ; but 
he chanced to rush into the giuvrd-room, from which 
place he was taken back to the square and shot. His 
death did not diminish the faith of his followers in his 
mission ; for, according to the doctrines which they had 
learned from him, he could not really die : the form 
which his spirit animated might be altered, but his soul 
must still exist. It was, as he taught, undoubtedly true 
that his mortal body could not be aimihilated but most 
be resolved into other forms of life ; yet not the less were 
liis followers shocked to see that body tlirowa into the 
ditch of Tabrooz, by the orders of the brutal govomori 
to be a prey to the dogs imd the jackals. 

Tlie main tenet of Bubism is utter indifTorence to, 
and disbelief in tlie existence of, good and evil. But 
notliing could be less in accordance with this theory tlian 
was the practice of the followers of the Bab. Far from 
looking on the course of events, and the changes and 
chances of tliis mortal Ufe, with the calm eyes of uncon- 
cerned si)ectator8, they attempted to impose tlieir 
opinions upon others by force. The earth, they said, had 
been given to them for a possession, and it was, theroforOi 
lawful for them to appropriate to themselves the goods 



800 A HISTORY OF PERSIA, 

of onbelioTera. Tkoy assorted that tlio time bad como 
when Mahomedanism most (all, and that to them had 
been assigned the task of bringing about the decree 
of fate. In their opinion the restrictions imposed npon 
men by the Koran were too heavy to be borne. Accord* 
ing to their creed all men were alike ; none were imporOi 
since all human beings, with all other created objects, 
whether animate or inanimate, formed so many portions 
of one all-ponrading and OTerlastiug Ood. It was pro- 
bably when in possession of this idea, that the Bilb had 
startled his disciples by the sudden announcement that 
lie was Ood. The followers of the Bub were to have all 
tlieir iKMHossious, including their women, in common : 
marriage being one of the puerile observances of Uio 
Maliomcdan code which it was now time to abolish. The 
Bubis admitted of no lierc<litary claims to high rank ; 
nor did tliey see tlio ncccHKity of any fonuid election of 
rulers or totichers : tliey iulmitto<l only such sui>criority 
iMi was confonriMl by the fon;o of intellect, and tliut force, 
they held, would make itself felt without the mlventitious 
aid of human laws. Uell was no h»ugor a source of 
terror to men who had been enlightened by tlie teaching 
of tlie Bfib. Their master had exphune<l to them that 
tlicre was to be no hereafter beyond this enduring world ; 
he had laughed to scorn aUke the Moslem prophet's 
description of the terror-striking bridge of Al-Sirath and 
of the bhick-eyed virgins who repose on green cushions 
and bcautifbl carpets, hidden from public view in the 
liavili4>ns of |uinMliso. This terrestrial globe was to be 
evcrhisling, and men need not fear what jKyople fidsoly 
term death, since in truth they could not die. 

Tlicso o^nnions explain the reckless bravery with 



I 



DEPEXCR OF ZIKJAX BY THE BABI9. 891 

which tho Bilbis of Zinjan continood to maintain a 
hopeless contest against the troops of the Shuh. They 
were driven into the south-eastern comer of the town, 
where they erected barricades, loop-holed the walls, and 
defended themselves with much skill. Their numbers 
were by degrees reduced by casualties, but their spirit 
could not be quenched : their women are as deserving 
of bemg praised for their braveiy as are the maids of 
Saragossa. To the existence of heroines at Zinjan, at 
least, no doubt attaches : at Zinjan the maidens shod 
no '' ill-timed tears " for tho fall of their lovers, but they 
took their share in tlio fearful task of defending their 
desperate position, and they wore not backward in 
hurUng the missile which was to be their love's avenger. 
Three hundred fanatics continued to defy the artillery 
and the troops of the Shah. By night and day tho loop- 
holes were watched by sharp-Hhooters, who hastened on 
every occasion to take advantage of the slightest indis- 
cretion on tho part of the bcHicgern. Two guns wore 
coustnictod from bars of iron to reply to the fire of thoso 
without, and the fact that these were damaged by every 
discharge in no way damped the energy of the defenders. 
The invitations to surrender which were held out by tlie 
Persian commander were treated by the Babis with deri- 
sion, and they put to death on the spot a well-meaning 
but rash individual who proposed to act as mediator 
between tlie contending adversaries. Terrible was the 
lot of tho Pernians who fell into the hands of tlie Bubis : 
wo are told that tlioy were shod as horses, suHpendo<l 
from beams by one arm, or burnt to deatli. Tho priest 
who headed the defence seemed to expect a successful 
termination to the conflict, since he assigned to one of 



802 A mSTORT OF PRR8U. 

Ilia people, as a reward for brarerji no lofls a prize than 
the goremmeot of the land of Egypt, and to others the 
poMoasion of snch and aoch yiUages and towns. The 
8ie{(0 continued to bo prosocntod tlironghout tlic summer 
of tlie year 1850. The scene of oi)oration8 was Timted in 
tlie month of October by Sir Henry Bethune, who had come 
to die in Uie coontiy where he had acquired his glory, and he 
expressed his opinion that the reduction of the defended 
portion of Zinjan ought not to occupy ordinary troops for 
a longer period than three hours. But it was not until tlie 
last days of the year that the siege was brought to a conclu- 
sion. MooUah Ifaliomed Ali, the leader of the defenders, 
receiTed a wound from the effects of which he died, and 
this eyent so dispirited the sunriTors that they had no 
longer any care to resist the attacks of the assailants. 
The position occupied by the Btlbis was at length carried, 
and all who sunriyed of the defenders — men, women, 
and children — were ruthlessly butchered by the Per- 
sian troops, who now dispUyed as much ferocity as they 
had shown pusillanimity during tlie siege. 

Wliilst the disciples and followers of the Bab were 
cndeaTouring to undermine the faith of Islam, the priests 
of that religion were not blind to the expediency of doing 
something towards maintaining their hold orer the minds 
of tlie Persian people. But the Ameer^i*Nixam was 
equally areme to tolerating the ^read of Bubism and 
to encourage the Maliomedan priests in tlieir ambitious 
Tiews. He was the more anxious to weaken the 
influence of tlie Moslem doctors, masmuch as he saw 
that no thorough reform could be carried out in Persia 
so long as the people retained their superstitious diead 
of incurring the displeasure of a band of selfish and 



rUETENDED MAHOMEDAN MIRACLES. 893 

narrow-minded moollohs. He fonnd mnch difficulty 
in bending to liis will the privileged and rapacious 
Maliomedan doctors; but ho did not recoil from the 
labour of subduing tlicm. The priests of Tabrecz, about 
tliis time, resolved to show the world who believed in 
miracles that such manifestations of a direct interference 
with the ordinary course of nature were not exhibited 
solely through the medium of the person of the Bub. 
They determined to try the effect of one in connection 
with a Moslem place of worship. A cow on the way to 
the slaughter-house twice took sanctuary in a mosque 
and was twice expelled ; a tliird attempt to deprive the 
animal of the privilege of taking sanctuary was punished 
by the patron saint of the mosque, for the driver of the 
cow fell down dead. Such was the story that was 
noised abroad, and as it was received with credit, other 
miracles were attributed to the influence of the spirit 
who guarded the some holy place ; blind men were said 
to have hod their sight restored, and sick men to have 
been healed of their maladies. Much religious enthu- 
siasm was accordingly excited, and, in honour of the 
distinction wliich had thus been conferred upon Tabreez, 
the city was illuminated. The mosque where tlie cow- 
herd had fallen dead was pronounced to be a sanctuary, 
wliich must tlicnceforword bo on no account violated, and 
it was publicly announced that it was lawful to slay any 
persons who might be discovered gambling or intoxicated 
in its neighbourhood. But the priests of Tabreez found 
tliat, although the people of that city were as credulous 
and fiEmatical as could be wished, there was a ruler in 
Persia who was possessed both of common sense and of 
firmness, and who would not permit the establishment of 



804 A niSTORT OF rRR8TA. 

priesUy domiiutiion over the populace of Uie most con* 
tidcrablo city id the kingdom. The Ameer-i-Nizom sent 
to that city an Affahar chief, who had the courage and 
the adroitneaa to teiao and carry off the Sheikh-ol-Islam. 
This blow at priestly inflaence having been dc- 
liTcrcd, the Minister next abolislicd tlie priyilego whicli 
had np to Uiis time been accorded to the Imam-i-Joma 
of Teliran, of affording sanctuary in his mosque to all 
who sought it. It was the conHistont policy of tlie 
Amocr*i-Nisam to uphold the supremo authority of the 
Sliali, and to check all encroachments upon it, from 
what quarter socTor they might bo directed. From liis 
ondcaTour to carry out this policy he ncTor swerved, 
notwitluitanding all the ill-will which, by so doing, ho 
excited agamst himself. The measures of tlio enlightened 
Minister were now beginning to be followed by some 
satisfactory and visible results. The system of taxa- 
tion tluroughout the country was remodeUcd on a more 
equitable basis than had formerly existed. The various 
provincial treasuries were pronounced to be at length in 
a satisfactory condition. Trade between tlic different 
chief cities and provinces of the kingdom, as well as 
between Persia and her Russian, Turkish, Arab, Affghan, 
Indian, Ooxbeg, and Turkoman neighbonm, was being 
carried on with confidence, under the protection of a just 
and energetic government ; and the Ameer-i-Nizam grati* 
fied the inhabitants of Tehran, and more especially the 
mercantile classes at the capital, by erecting a handsomer 
range of basars than any other city in the world can boast 
of possessing. The caravanserai which bears his name 
vies in beauty and in commodionsness witli tlie finest struc- 
tures of Asia, and it was the intention of the Minister to 



TUB CASPIAN 8RA. 805 

ondertoke scTcrul otber works for tho embeUiBlunont and 
GonTenicace of tho city uid ueiglibonrhood of TohraD. 

It is illuBtrative of tlie soundneas of tlie Amoer's 
jndgmcnt that, alUioiigli no man conld liavo been mors 
onxioQB than lio was to maintain tho dignity and inde- 
pcndouco of liis master, bo profcrrod to give way, even 
when ho felt that ho was in Uio right, ruthcr tlion risk 
tho effoets of a qnarrol with his powerful noitbem 
Qoigbboiu*. ])y tlio trouty of OnliHtan, Porsin bod 
rononucod tho nght of maiiitoining sliips of war on tlio 
Caspian ; and about Uio year 183G tlie Shah's gorom- 
mont liotl appUul to tlio Czar for naval assistance agoiniit 
tho refractory Turkomans who infost tlie Bontli-eastoni 
sboros of tliut SCO. Following tliiu application tbcro had 
been made, wbou too late, a request tliat the Itosuau 
naval commander might be placed imder the ordors of 
tho governor of Antrabad, or that, foiling this, tho naval 
aid might be withheld. Tho Shah hod subseqaently 
intimated to tlio Russian envoy that as bo bad withonfc 
assistance boon enabled to captore the island of Cboikcn, 
tho prcsonco of the Kussian vcssoU was no longer 
necessary. But the idea of tho odvontago of maintain- 
ing the police of the sea on the sontbem and easteni 
shores of tho Ca)i[tian had not boon rolio^nishod it 
St. FetorBburg, and in 1843 a Bmmmi ■jnadion ■ 
appeared off Astrabad, and commcDcod tlio aalutoiy 
operation of patting a Bt<^ to predatory expeditions 
of the Turkoman pirates. the eostvord of a 

tongue of land whidi jnta a mba Penian coast 
of tho bay of Aatnbad than ^^^H^^ eoUed j 
Asboradob, and of tUs Uk 
hud takou pouewi %r 




890 A mSTORT OP VBaStA. 

it a DRTol statiou. Tliie measnre lud alurmcit tlio 
Poniui GoTemmeDt, who anticipated greater danger 
from the establialunent of the Russians on an island so 
near to tlie Persian mainland, tlion they did &om anjr 
amount of Torkoman depredation. Every species of 
remonstrance had been had recourse to in order to induce 
the splf'invitcd and anwekome gnests of Persia to take 
tlieir dcportare ; hat these protests and remonstrances 
Iiad not been followed by any indication on the part of 
the Itnssian authorities to comply with the demand now 
made of Uicm. The Persian ministers liad at one time 
been told in reply that tlio occnpation of the isliuid hod 
been a necessary consequence of the Shall 's request for 
Bassian naval aid ; at anotlier time, tlicy hod been 
rcprooclied with ingratitude and folly in not appreciating 
the Taluo of tlio asKixtuuco gnitnitoutily given by Itussia 
in putting a stop to Turkonuiu piracy and devastation. 
That Uie preHcnco of Russian slii])B in the soatlicm waters 
of tlio Cnspian soa is highly bt^ucficial to the iiitoreHUt of 
liiuuaiiity, cannot be qiicKtionud ; but, on tlio other hauil, 
tiio tenure by wliich Rnssia holds tlio island of Ashoradvh 
ia aa illegal aa are the proceediDt,ii of tlio pirates which 
■ba canw tlim to ehoek. Regardless of public oiiiuion, 
■od of Fwdaa ^ipeala to right and to international law, 
Um BariMt Bov look apon Aslioradeli as being as much 
^~ a portina of the Cur's dominions as Bakoo or Derbeud, 
and on tJiis ialoml all the buildings wliich are neces- 
i y for tbo parau it aecommodation of a considerable 
^^HHifan bwD ant Tba poMcsaion of Ashorudoh is 

^^^^^^Bfldd lo in iiit«nsta, for other reasons 

^^^^^^^l^^br niUU* station for the shi^M 

^^^^^Hfa| •• poUoa of the sea. Ftom. 



ATTACK ON ASUOR.U)EII. 897 

Ashoradoh steam-vessels ply along the Persian coast, 
conveying the produce of the three fertile provinces of 
Astrabad, Mazenderan, and Gilon, to the markets of 
Georgia, and in return bringing Russian wares to supply 
the requirements of the merchants of Persia. The fact, 
too, of a Russian force being always present at the 
south-eastern comer of the Caspian sea, gives to that 
power great political influence throughout the neigh- 
bouring provinces of the states of Central Asia. 

In the year 1851 the island of Aslioradeh was pro- 
tocted by five Russian vessels of war, each carrying from 
four to eight guns ; but notwithstanding tlie presence of 
this force, tlie island was surprised by the Turkomans, who 
killed or carried off all the Russians they found upon it. 
The officers in the ships .escaped the fate that overtook 
tlio men on shore, but it is said tliat one or two ladies 
were carried off to the desert of the Attreck. The time 
that hod been chosen for delivering this humiliating blow 
WHS Eostor-ovo, when the Turkomans believed tliey 
should find the Russian sailors in a state of intoxication. 
It was thought necessary for the re-establishment of 
Russian prestige on the shores of the Caspian, to give 
out that tlie Turkomans alone had not been able to 
over-run Ashoradeh, but that they had been abetted by 
the Persians ; and on this account the Russian represen- 
tative at Tehran demanded the dismissal from office of 
the Shah's brother, the governor of Mazenderan. The 
Ameer-i-Nizam at first refused to agree to the disgrace 
of a man whom he know to have had nothing whatever to 
do with the affair at Ashoradeh ; but ratlier than risk the 
consequences of a rupture of peaceful relations with Russia, 
he bowed his pride, and yielded to the demand. 



i 



808 A niBTORT OP PERSIA. 

It was in eonaequence * of his having bod to make a 
eoneefluon to one foreign mieaon, that the Ameer-i- 
Nisam now thought proper to make another conceaaion, 
which np to this tame he had rofased to grant, to the 
reqaeat of another miaaion. An engagement waa entered 
into, bj whidi the right of aearching for abivea in native 
veaaola in tlio Peraian Onlf waa grante<l to Britiah 
veaaola of war, and the permiaaion waa accorded of remov- 
ing any alavea who might be ao fonnd, to the Britiah 
ahipa. Thia blow to the akve^traffic waa one of the kat 
notable meaanrea of the Ameer'a adminiatration. 

The enemiea of the Ameer had never abandoned their 
efforta to ahake the Shah'a confidence in hia Miniater, and 
it is matter of anrpriae that a boy ahonld have for ao long 
a time been able to reaiat the oft*repeated aolicitationa of 
hia mother and oUiera for Uie diamiaaal of a plebeian 
Vixecr. Waniinga againat the clever and ambitioua 
Miniatcr were conatantly poured into Uie royal ear ; the 
Ameer'a virtnoa and ancceaaoa were roproacntcd aa Crimea, 
and it waa inainnated that it waa tlie Miniatcr'a intention 
to grasp the aoeptre. The Ameer-i-Nisam had greatly 
improved tlie condition of tlie Peraian army, and the 
Shah was told that the soldiers were so devoted to their 
commander, tliat they would reailily second liim in 
carrying out tlie ambitious designs imputed to liim. 
Tlie king's fears wore at lengtli aroused, and as there 
wore no meana of checking the Ameer'a power aave by 
dismissing him from office, his dismissal was determined 
oo. So persuaded had the Shah become of the evil 
intentions of the Minister, that he did not venture to 



* Oliti9m^fLi^mdMmmmimPm9iB.hfLa^Bmn. 



DEFOSrnOK OF THE AMEER. 899 

depose him until he found himself in a position to defend 
his person against any treasonable attack. On the night 
of the 18th of November, 1851, the king summoned 
four hundred of tlie royal body-guard to the palace, and 
thus fortified, he sent to inform tlie Ameer tliat ho was 
to bo no longer prime minister of Persia, and tliat his 
functions were thenceforward to bo limited to tho 
command of the army. But no accusation could have 
less foundation in truth than that which imputed dis- 
loyalty to the Ameer-i-Nizam ; he bowed in silence to 
the decree of his sovereign, and awaited in his palace the 
coming of the events which time would bring forth. 

Meerza Agha Klian,* the Itimad-ed-Dowleh, who has 
been before mentioned in these pages, was now raised to 
the dignity of Sedr-Azem, or prime minister. The idea, 
not unnaturally, occurred to him that ho could never 
be secure m tliat i>ost so long as his predecessor should 
bo ahvo ; as, sooner or later, tlie Shah and all his subjects 
would see tho immense difference between the Ameer and 
his rival. Indeed the king was already aware that the 
commander of his ti'oops was his loyal subject, since he 
had not attempted to avail himself of the affection of the 
soldiers for liis person, for the purpose of creating any 
disturbance of tlie new administration. Tho now 
minister was in close league witli her Highness tlio 
Queen-mother, and it was dotorminod by tliom that tho 
Amecr-i-Nizam should forthwith be removed from tho 
capital ; for so long as he should remain tliere, there was 
no chance of the king being persuaded to consent to tlie 



* Aglm Khan was not orif^inaUy this luiniKtor's namo, but was rather 
tho appellation by wliich he was known, first in his fiuniljr cirele, and aitor- 
wards by the public. 



400 A lUHTORY OF PEKHIA. 

dcatli of a man who liad so faithfolly Bervod kirn, and to 
wliom ko was no mock attacked. At tkia time tko king 
addrosflcd two lottora to tko AmecTi in ono of wkick ko 
stated that altkoogk it kad been tkongkt advisable to 
dismiss kim from office, yet ke migkt be sore tkat tko 
royal keart bled for kim. Bnt it was koped by tke 
Scdr-Asem tkat separation migkt kare tke effect of 
eooUng tke Skak's affection for kis brotkcr-in-law ; 
accordingly tke Ameer was offered tke ckoioe of tke 
government of Fars, of tkat of Ispakan, or tkat of 
Koom. It is to be regretted tliat ke did not accept tko 
offer now made to kim. Ilad ko rotirod for a skort timo 
from tke capital, ke migkt kavo lived to return to it as 
minister; bnt ko knew too well tlie cluiracter of kis 
follow-coontrymon not to fear tkat kis life would bo in 
danger so soon as ke skould be separated from tke Shak. 
Under tke working of tkis apprckension, tke Ameer 
declined tke offers made to kim ; but, tkrougk tke influ- 
ence of tke Britisk Minister, it was at lengtk arranged 
tkat ke skould be appointed governor of Kaskou. 

Suck was tke condition of afiGairs wken tke unfor- 
tunate interference of Prince Dolgorouky produced a 
sudden ckange in tke temi)or of Uie Skali. Tkut 
Minister, altliougk ko liad found tke Amccr to be tlie 
uncompromising opponent of Russian aggressive move- 
ments, kad yet found kim ever trutkful, just and reason- 
able. He was tkereforo sorry to see kim replaced by 
Meena Agka Ekan, wko kad enjoyed Englisk pro- 
tection ; and wko, it was to be presumed, would favour 
Englisk ratker tkan Russian influence at tke Persian 
court. Tke prince feared lest tke life of tke Ameer 
should be taken, and ke knew tkat if kis lib were spared, 



TIIK AMKKR DKSKUTBO. 401 

ho would, sooiior or later, bo rcplacoJ iu oflicc. Tlio 
Hurcst way of securing that object appoorod to bo to 
take the Ameer under llunsiau protection. Had the 
Ameer sought tlio privilege of asylum in tho house of 
tlie Itussian Legation, the Shuh would have been justified, 
accorduig to international law, in taking him forcibly 
thence ; much more was he justified in altogether dis* 
avowing tlie ill-judged act of Prince Dolgorouky in send* 
ing tlie members of his mission, and his Cossack guard, 
to the Ameer's house, and declaring that the Aniocr was 
under tlie protection of Kussia. No monarch could bo 
expected to submit to so iiiKnlting a proceeding ; and tlio 
Shall was told by his new MiiiiHtur, that unless ho slionld 
assort his royal right to authority over his subject, tho 
people of Persia would no longer hnik ui)on him im being 
an independent king, but as being the obedient vassal 
of Russia. This taunt stung the Shah to the quick, 
and he requested Prince Dolgorouky to withdraw the 
members of his mission forthwith from the houso wliich 
sheltered his mother and sister. At tlie same timo be 
declared his intention of sending the servants of the 
royal household to seize the person of the Ameer, in 
cose the prince should refuse. The members of tlie 
lluHsion Legation were accordingly witlidrawn, and as 
the British Minister also withdrew from all interference 
iu the afiair, the Ameer was left to be dealt with as 
the ofiended Shall might think proper. The king's 
feelings of anger were skilfully fanned by the enemies 
of tlie fallen Yizeer, and under their influence the Shah 
degraded him from the post of Ameer-i-Nizam, and 
ordered him to retire in disgrace to Eashan, under 
the surveillance of an escort of troops; the officer in 

2G 



402 A III8T0BT OP PRRSIA. 

command of which was to bo rcsponsiblo for his safe- 
keeping. Bat eren this downfall did not satisfy the wishes 
of tlie TindictiTe enemies of Moerza Teki Klian. The 
Sliah was reminded that no other government could bo 
secure in Persia, so long as the fallen minister should 
Hto, and he was told that if he rained the security of his 
tlironci lie must consent to give the order for the death 
of the ox-Amcor. Still, the Shah could not bo brought 
to consent to the capital punishment of an hmocent man, 
and the fallen Yizcer was permitted to live for two months 
in retirement with his wife, amidst the cyi)roMseH and 
fountains that surround Uie splendid palace of Fcen. 

It was the fiite of Prince Dolgorouky to be the in- 
strument of furUicr misfortune to the man whom ho so 
sincerely wislied to befriend. He was deeply chagrined 
at the results which had followed his attempt to take the 
ex-minister under Russian protection, and when tlie time 
approached for the arrival of a reply to the reports 
regarding the occurrence which he had addressed to St. 
Petersburg, he openly boasted that in the course of a 
few days he should receive instructions wliich would put 
an end to all uncertainty as to the fate of Mcerza Teki 
Khan. All uncertainty as to his fate was, indeed, put 
an end to, even liefore tlie period assigned by tlie priiico. 
The Ameer's enemies did not fail to report the rash 
boast to tlie Shah, and his Majesty, in order to avoid the 
consequences of a refusal to tlie demand which he antici- 
pated from Russia, of giving a guarantee for the Ameer's 
life, dutonuinod to anticipate the arrival of the exiiectod 
courier, and at once to cause tlie Ameer to bo put to 
doatli. lint even this measure could not bo executed 
bj Pennaiis without roooorse being had to dissimulation. 






FATE OP THE AMEER. 408 

^ Tho Slioh's only sistor, tho wife of Moerza Teki Khau, 
was devotettly attached to lier husband, and no one had 
! the heart to tear him from her arms. No princess 
{ educated in a Christian court and accustomed to the con- 
I templation of the brightest example of conjugal virtues 
that tlie history of the world has recorded, could havo 
shown more tenderness and devotion than did the sister 
of the Shall of Persia towards her unfortunate husband. 
Every day his guards took the precaution of summoning 
him from his room, in order that Uiey might make sure 
tliot ho hod not escaped ; and when he went outside to 
show himself, his wife was, at first, in the habit of accom- 
ponying him. Seeing, however, that this ceremony was 
a mere matter of form, she ceased to go forth with him, 
and contented herself with the precaution of tasting of 
every dish that was set before him. But a man was 
found who volunteered to put the Ameer to death without 
tho princess being made aware of what was going to take 
place. One Haji Ali Khan, a clover and wortliloss adven- 
turer, had been admitted into the Shah's service by the 
Ameer, and had boon made chief of his ferashes ; a post 
of some importance. In order to show his zeal in the 
service of his new master, tlie Ferosh-Boshi now volun- 
teered to be the executioner of his benefactor. When he 
appeared at Kashan, tho retainers of the ex-minister 
were filled with joy ; for they behoved that one who had 
owed his advancement in life to their lord had been 
chosen to be the bearer of good news. They wero 
(loomed to a cruel disappointment. On the 9th of 
January, 1852, tho ex-minister was called fortli, as usual, 
by his guards, and on his appearing alone was seized, 
gagged, and dragged to an adjoining house, where he was 

26— B 



404 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

cast on the floor, stripped aad tied. The Teins in both 
his arms and hui legs were tlion opened, and he was 
allowed to linger for several hours in mortal agony. He 
bore his cmel fate with a resignation which was in keep- 
ing with tlio conidstent greatness of his life. The 
yontlifnl princess, his wife, being aUinned at tlie absence 
of her Imnbond, was told by Hiyi AU Khan that he had 
gone to the bath, in order to be prepared to pnt on a robe 
of honoor which tlie Shah had sent to him by his hands. 
When she awoke from her delusion, the heart of her 
husband had for ever ceased to beat. 

Thus perished, by the hands of Persians, tlie man 
. who had done so much to regenerate Persia : the only 
man who possessed at the same time the abiUty, the 
I patriotism, tlie energy and the integrity required to 
' enable a Persian Minister to conduct the vesacl of State 
^ in safety past the shoab and rocks wliich lay in her 
course. Those who, with a hving imperial author, 
see in every remarkable man, such as Cesar, Charle- 
magne, or Napoleon, a special instrument in the hands 
of Providence for tracing out to peoples the path they 
ought to follow, must be at a loss to account for tlie 
design of Providence in raising up Meerza Teki Klian, 
and permitting his fall, ere he had accomplislied in a few 
years tlie labour of centuries and stamped with the seal 
of his genius a new era for his country. Hod he hvod 
to accomplish what it was his intention to do, he would 
no doubt have been ranked with the men who are held 
by some people to have been specially raised up by Ood 
for a particuhur mission. But his premature death, 
before he had lived long enough permanently to benefit 
foUow-men, must prevent us from having recourse to 



CUARACTI'Ul OF THE AMEBK. 405 

this theory for accounting for the appearance, in these 
latter years in Persia, of a man so remarkable as Moersa 
Teki Klian. His career seems rather to be illostrative of 
tlio tmth of tlio projyosition so much insisted on by the 
antlior of the Jfisionj of Citilization m England : * namely, 
that a people makes its own government, and tliat no 
government can force progress if the people be unsound. 
The Ameer's measures were distasteful to so many per* 
sons, tliat the Shah was compelled to listen to the ciy 
of discontent ; consequently, the upright ruler fell, and 
a Yizeer was named in his place whose character was 
more in accordance with that of the persons he had to 
govern, and who permitted those he employed to imitate 
his own example of extorting bribes. What the Ameer 
had mlh so much difficulty effected was now at once 
undone. The soldiers were no longer paid, until after 
years of entreaty ; peculation became once more rampant 
in every department of the administration ; priestly influ- 
ence again acquired undue ascendancy ; and Persian titles 
were heaped upon the great with even more prodigality 
than ever. 

The shocking fate of Meerza Teki Khan excited, how- 
ever, the greatest horror throughout Europe, and the 
Shah and his new Minister had to listen to the indignant 
protests and remonstrances called forth from foreign 
governments by the sentence which had been executed 
at Kashan. Then followed the hour of remorse. When 
too late the Persian king, as well as many of his subjects, 
became sensible of the irreparable loss their country had 
sustained. It is said that the king, in his grief, re- 

* See DucKLi*t Hiitor^ qf CieUiz^Uion in England, pp. 116 and 146-160, 



400 



A IlISTORT OF PERSIA. 



■olTod to obfiorvo oftck onniTorsaiy of tko Ameor's dcatli 
as a day of fasting and bomiliotion ; and tho two infant 
danghtera of the great Minister were betrothed to two 
sons qI the Shah. 

Each jear Uiat has ekpscd since the death of Meerxa 
Teki Khan has grodnally added to his fame» by showing 
how Tain is the expectation of finding another Yizoor 
capable of completing tlie work of reformation in Persia 
which was begun by Iiim. The sliort period of hia 
silminiHtratiou in now looked back upon as baring been 
Uio golden era of modem Penda ; and the traveller from 
the went, as he pursues hia tedious way across the phuns 
of Iraki or tlirough the lonely pauses of tho Elburx, 
if he converse with his muleteers as to the condition of 
the country, is sure to be told that eveiything now goes 
badly, but that things were otherwise in the time of the 
Ameer4-Nisam. 



i 

CI 



( 407 ) 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Gmnpimry fif^itiNt Lifo of tlio Slmh — lIUi Kumpo— lNinifi]iroeni<if ConHpini* 
iiini — MiiUMhTN of SUit4> iu*t un Kx<H*uti«iiit*ni — FiniiiicHM of fuHowum 
of Ihu liuln— %li*HlouNy of J'4uni|MMii iiiU*rfon*iinu nt IVthirii i'-ourt — 
Alliiiiin* of lliu Shah MMi^hl hy Uintrtiu hi 1h;i:| — 'iVtnpiiiiK offer uinilo 
to IVntiiiii (nivrniiiu'iit — Alt«*niiitivti plHoi^il lN*fon» tho Shah — lliu 
Allmii«*o il«Tliii«Ml by the W«*i(U)ni jSiwcrn — Ni'iitmlity «U}«tttHlrftil to 
JVTKiiiii <hivi*niiiiriit — Aunty I HMMiKhioim Uttwrni S«««lr-A]uuu atul 
the MritiKh MiiitMU*r — M«vr/.ii lhiHhi«iii — Arn*Mt of hU Wifo — C«milui;i 
of tho H(Mlr*Ay.«*iii— l>i|iloiiitithi lli*UitioiiN iiiiN|H*ittliHl ln^twiHJii I'hi^ljtiid 
niid I'vi-Hiii — Mr. Miirmy (jiiiu Tchmii — IVrMiiui Kx^HNUtioii N^iiHi 
Ucnii — War ngiiuiMt i'umitt dcchinxl at Calcutta. 

The disciples of tlio Bfib had boon littlo heard of during 
the eighteen months tliat followed the conclusion of the 
siege of Zinjan. It was in the summer of the year 1852 
that they next forced themselves upon public notice. A 
conspiracy against tlie lifo of the Shah was hatched at 
TehraUi under the auspices of two priests of distinction, 
and of Sulcimim Khan, whoHo father had been master 
of the horso to Abbass Mcor/a. Men holding tlio 
Bub doctrines wore in the habit of congregating, to tlio 
number of about forty, in the house of the abovo- 
niuned Khan, where their plans were concerted and 
where arms of every description were collected. On the 
15th of August, the Shah, who was then residing in the 
neighbourhood of Tehran, at tlie Niavcran Palace, hod 
mounted his horse, and was proceeding towards the 
Elburz on a hunting excursion, when four men pre* 



I 



408 A HISTORY OF PKUHIA. 

■cntod tkcmsdvos on his paUi. It is tlio cnstom for tho 
rcrHioii king to ride alouo» oU tlio attondantB iK'ing Romc 
(liKtunco in front of, or I)ohind, his MiijcHty ; and it is a 
common thing for t]io Slioli to bo addressed by tliose of 
liis subjects who have a grievanco to be rigktedi and who 
are allowed by custom to approach the sovereign and 
hand to liira written pai)er8 containing their petitions. 
Consequently it was not thought Ktninge when one of tho 
four men who appeared on this day on tlie king's patli, 
nppniarliod the horse on which his Majesty was riding, 
SH if for the puq»0He of handhig a pa]Ksr to tlio Shall. 
The Bilbiy as ho drew near tlie royal person, attempted 
to grasp the king's girdle, and when he found himself 
repulsed, ho drew a pistol from witliin his dress and fired 
it at tlie Shall. His Miyesty, however, had the presence 
of mind to throw himself to the opi)osite side of his 
horse, and the contents of tlie pistol inflicted no other 
injury l>eyond a slight wound in tlie thigh. So hitout 
was the assassin on eflbcting his object, that, reganlless 
of the presence of tlie Shah's followers, who now came 
up to the rescue, he drew from its sheath a fonnidaUo 
dagger, with which ho assailed tlie Shah and those who 
defended him ; nor did he cease his eflbrts until he was 
himself slain. Two of his confederates were captured, 
one of them having been severely wounded ; the fourth 
Bilbi contrived to effect his escape by jumping down 
a welL This occurrence was at once made known to the 
dwellers in Shimrnn, and the rei)ort got abroad that the 
king had been kille<I. Without waiting to hear tliis news 
confirmed, tlie people in tlie royal camp liegan to disperse, 
and there was a general rusli towards Tehran. Tlie 
•bops of the eity were immediately shut, and every one 



TIIK IIAIll CONSnRACr. 400 

strove to lay in a snpply of brood, as a provision against 
the Htoruiy fnturo. On the following day, liowovor, 
men's minds were reassured by the discbarj^o of a salnto 
of one hundred and ten guns, to announce tlie safety of the 
king. The priests and the persons of influence amongst 
the |>eople were invited to proceed to the royal camp ; and 
Tehran was illuminated during several nights. 

The Biibi conspiracy having been discoveredi ton of 
the conspirators were at the first put to death; some 
of thou undor circumHtances of Uio greatest cruelty. 
LighUul nuidles were inserted into the bodies of two 
or throe of these men, and the victims, after having 
been allowed to Unger for some time, were hewn in two 
by a hatchet. The requirements of the Ux taiionii 
were satisfied by the steward of the Shah, acting as bis 
representative, blowing out the brains of one of the 
conHpiratoi*s. Amongst those who suffered death was a 
young woman, the daughter of a celebrated teacher of 
tlie law, and who was considered by tlie Babis to be a 
prophctcHH ; on this account she hail been for years 
dctiiiucMl a prisoner at Tehran. But ten victims wore 
not enough to calm the fears of tlie advisers of the 
Shah, and a short reign of terror followed ; no ono being 
secure against suspicion, or being denounced as a fol- 
lower of the Bab. If any one at this time imagined that 
the Shah's Ministers had any considerable amount of 
regard for tlieir own dignity in the eyes of the world, 
the scene wliich now presented itself was well calculated 
to dispel the illusion. The prime minister, far from 
imitating the example set by Cicero in his . orationa 
against Catiline in taking to himself all the glory of 
having suppressed a dangerous conspiracy, was foarfol 



i 



410 A uisToar of Persia. 

of drawing down upon himself and bis family tlio 
vcnf^canco of tlio followcrH of tho Bilb ; and, in order 
tliat oUicm mi^bt bo implicated in tlieso execntions, bo 
bit upon tbe dovico of assigning a criminal to each 
department of tlio Stato ; tbo several ministers of tbe 
Sliali being tlins com|>olled to ivct as exocutionors, Tbe 
minister for foreign afTauTH, Uio niinister of finance, tbo 
son of tlie primo minister, tbe adjutant- general of tbo 
army, and tlio master of tbe mint, eacb fired tbo first 
sliot, or mado tbo first cut witb a sabre, at tbe culprits 
assigned to tbeir sereral departments, respectively. Tbo 
artillery, tbe infantry, tbe camel-artillery, and tbe cavalry 
each bad a victim assigned to them.* But the result of 
all this slaughter was, as might have been expected, to 
create a feeling of sympathy for tbe Babis ; whoso crime 
was lost sight of in tbe punishment which bad overtaken 
them. They met tbeir fato witb tbo utmost finunesM, 
and none of tliem cared to accept tlio life wliich was 
offered to them on tbe simplo condition of reciting 
the Moslem creed. While tbe lighted candles wore 
burning tbe flesh of one follower of tbe Bab, be was 
urged by tlie chief magistrate of Tehran to curse tbe 
BAb and live. He would not renounce tbe Bab ; but 
be cursed tlie magistrate who tempted him to do so, be 
cursed tbe Sliab, and even cursed tbe prophet Mahomed, 
his spirit rising superior to the agony of his tor- 
ture 



* ** KTrn lUr Sbuh'ii admimlilr Kreiirh plijioruiu. Hie Ul« Umcnlrd 
l>r. Clnqiirt, wm invited to lUiow liiii ktjrmlty hj loUuwiiitf the nuuafiW of 
the nt^ ot the eimrt 1I« exciMcd Uiauiclf. anil plrAMUiU/ add thmi hm 
killed too man/ tnen profa— innally to pcimit him to iacrmM llMir niunber 
by nnjr Tolnnlnfj konicide oa bis part."— O /i i y w ^ Ltf^ mmd Mmm m^n 
im PtnkL By ImAj Smkiu ^ ttl. 



TUB 8EDR-AZRM. 411 

It is now time to refer to on important and interest- 
ing epoch in the history of modem Persia, and to show 
tlie position which slie occupied with reference to the 
great European Powers immediately before the war 
between the nations of the West and Russia. It will 
enable the reader to understand more easily tlie motives 
in which originated the poUcy pursued by the Shahi if 
I s])()w what was at this tune the actual position in 
which the Persian prime minister found himself placed. 
He had on two occasions in former years been indebted 
for safety or protection to the good offices of the British 
Legation : he had, in fact, been at one time looked upon 
as being a British protoge. At that period the influence of 
the foreign missions, and their mterference in the internal 
affairs of Persia, had not been regarded by the Shah's 
government vdth much alarm ; but a rapid change had 
taken place in Persian opinion in tliis respect, and there 
was nothing now so unfashionable at tlie court as to be 
connected in any way with a foreign representative. 
The claims of gratitude have not much weight wiUi 
Persians, and, even if the Scdr-Azem had been well 
disposed towards those to whose influence he had owed 
so much, he could not but see that if he would retain 
his post, he must at any rate make the Shah and the 
courtiers understand that he had given up all intimacy 
with the English Minister. In order the more effectually 
to avert the damaging supposition that he favoured 
British influence at the Persian court, he took care to 
speak slightingly of the English government and its 
representative at Tehran ; and was always ready to raise 
difficulties and objections in the way of anything pro- 
posed by the latter. But notwithstanding his clever- 



412 A UISTORT OF FERSIA. 

D088 and liis powers of intrigning and dissimulating, 
the Persian Minister did not find himself placed on a 
bed of roses. At one time he even spoke of resigning 
the high office which he held ; but if ho ever seriously 
entertained the intenticm of doing so, he probably feared 
that it was not oiien to him to resign office only, but 
Uiat he must make np his mind to part at the same time 
with office and with life. Under tliese circumstances his 
tortnoQs mind suggested to him the singular idea of 
doing something which would induce either the Russian 
or tlie English Minister to demand his dismissal from 
office ; hoping tliat tlins he might be allowed to retire into 
{irivate life witliout being exposed to any further danger. 
But the iK>ssession of office, if he ever was seriously indif- 
ferent to it, reacquired in his eyes a cluuin which he 
could not resolve to dispel, and he accordingly talked 
no more of resigning his post. Tliat post now derived 
ailditional importance, from the fact tliat the alliance of 
Persia was courted by one of the powers whose quarrel 
engrossed the attention of the civilized world. 

Late in tlie autumn of the year 1853, General Bebitoff 
arrived at Nakhtchivan to take command of the Russian 
army destined to act against the Turkish forces in 
tlie PasluUic of Erxcroum ; and a messenger was dcs- 
patched by him to Tehran, who was to communicaUs 
Uirough the Russian Minister, certain propositions from 
Uie Russian government to the Shah. A private niter* 
view with liis Mi^esty was demanded by Prince Dol- 
gorouky on the occasion of the arrival of the messenger at 
Tehran. To this interview none of the Shah's subjects 
were admitted, lest the purport of Uie propositions should 
timnspiro : no Yiseer was there to echo the s t a t em ent s 



RUSSIAN PROPOSALS TO THE SUAH. 413 

of tho king, and no eaves-droppbg page listened behind 
tbe cashmere curtains of tlie throne-room whilst the 
Russian Mmistor, through his dragoman, maile known 
tho wishes of his imperial master. So far tlio secret was 
kept secure, and not even to his Grand Yizcer did tho 
Shall at first communicate what had transpired. But to 
tho eye of jealous suspicion there are facts which explain 
themselves, and which do not need to be expressed in 
words. The Turkish ambassador was too well informed 
of the state of affairs at the court to which he was 
accredited, not to be oble to draw his own conclusions 
from the arrivid of a special Kussian officer, and fmm 
the precautions which had been taken to exclude tlio 
Porsiau Minister from tlie audience given by tho Shall to 
the stranger. His Excellency, therefore, resolved' to 
assume a thrcatciiiug demeanour, and he made known 
at once to the Shah his determination to quit Tehran 
forthwith, imless he should receive satisfactory assurances 
regarding the course which the Persian government 
intended to pursue in the conjuncture which had come 
about. In consequence of this sudden resolve on the 
part of the Turkish ambassador, the king was constrained 
to send for his prime minister, and to reveal to him tho 
nature of the proposals tliat had been made by the 
representative of tlio Czar. 

These proposals were tliat Persia should cooperate 
with Russia in the war to be woged against Turkey. 
A strong military demonstration must be made on the 
frontier of Azerbaeejan, to threaten Byazeed and 
Erzeroum ; and another on the frontier of Eermanshah, 
to threaten Baghdad and tbe holy cities. In the event 
of its being necessary that Persia should dechure war 



414 A II18T0RT OF FRRSIA. 

opiiufit Torkoy, tlio Sholi'B forces voro to invade Uio 
(Htomiin dominions at both poiutft. Thoy wore to 
soixo Kotoor, and ondoavour to occupy the city of the 
Colipliii ; and when peace shoold bo restored in Enrope, 
the SubUme Porte should be compelled either to leave 
in the hands of tlie Shah all tlie territory he might have 
token, or to ransom it by tlie payment of a suitable sum. 
Further than tliis, the Shah was to be released from the 
pecuniary obligations he was under to Russia, for the 
balance of the money due under the Treaty of Turko- 
moncliai, in tlie event of his going to war ; and in tlie 
event of his not being called on actually to declare war, 
all the cost of his miUtary preparations was to be deducted 
from his debt, llussia was also to furnish warlike stores 
and money, in tlie event of tlie duration of the war being 
protracted. These were tempting propositions for a 
Tcrsion king to listen to. Should he agree to them he 
would l>e admitted to play a part in tlie great drama in 
which tlie chief moiiarchs of Christendom and tlie Sultan 
wore the octors. lie would be gratified by the con- 
sciousness of his being the first Persian prince of modem 
times who should have been able to emancipate himself 
from tlie second-rate position of a ruler whose s|)liere 
of action was confined to Asia. Furthermore, he would 
escape for ever from the degrading i>ecuniaiy obligations 
under which he was held by Uussia. He would wrest 
from the unrighteous grasp of Turkey tlie strong stra- 
tegical position of Kotoor ; and he would endear himself 
to his subjects, and his memory to tlicir diildrcn, by 
odiling to his dominions tlie holy cities Uiat contain Uie 
shrines of Ali and of Hussein. Such were the prosi>octs 
to which the Shah now colled tlie attention of his prime 



DILKMMA OF TIIR PERSIAN QOVERKMKNT. 415 

minintcr, oiicl it dovolvod ou tliat fanctiouary to point 
out the lUtoniativo liuo of conduct that lay open to his 
master. 

Tliero was another way, the Vizeor Haicl, by which 
the Shah might be admitted to take his place amongst 
the princes and rulers whose decisions swayed tlie affairs 
of the great world. If it was open to him to act with 
Russia against the allies, so might it be open to him 
to cooperate with tlie aUies against Russia. His weight 
would be equally felt in either scale of tlie balanco. 
If England and France sliould take up arms for Turkey, 
tlie allies would be as three to one, and it would be 
prudent for Persia to join the stronger side. She might by 
declaring war against Russia break up for ever the Treaty 
of Turkomanchai, and win back her severed provinces. 
By reuniting them to Persia, the Shah would endear 
himself to his people, and his memory to tlieir children, 
as surely as ho could by adding to his dominions the 
holy cities of the iVrabian desert. The Shall was at tliis 
time a youth, and the words of his minister seemed to 
him those of the wisdom of age. He therefore fell in with 
his reasoning so far as to determine to proceed no longer 
in tlie course indicated to him by Prince Dolgorouky. 
Altliough orders had been issued for assembling a force 
of forty thousand men in Azerbaeejan, to be commanded 
by the Sirdar Azeez Klian, and a force of fifteen thou- 
sand men in Kermanshah, to be commanded by the chief 
of the royal body guard, it was determined to watch for 
the prosent tlie courao of events, and not to conclude the 
treaty with Russia to which the Shall had given his consent. 

The Russian representative could not fail to draw 
from this change of pui*pose the conclusion that the 



41G A UI8T0RT OF PERSIA. 

Sodr-Axem had employed bis inflaence to divert the 
Shah from his first intention. The prince was the more 
irritated on account of this change, inasmuch as he had 
already rci)ortod to the Imi)erial Government the fall 
concarronce of the Shall in tlio views of the Csar. His 
government mnst therefore l)o counting to a certain extent 
on tlie assistance to bo rendered by Persia in tlie ojiera- 
tions about to be undertaken against Asia-Miuor. Under 
the influence of strong feelings of disappohitment, I'riuce 
Dolgorouky, at several interviews with the Sedr-iVzem, 
endeavoured to persuade his Highness to enter into the 
views of Rusfiia« These interviews, like tliat between 
Charles the Twelfth and the grand vizeer Baltazzi 
Mahomed on the Pruth, after the escape of Peter, 
afforded a picture of fiery and demonstrative earnest- 
ness on the one hand, and of imperturbable calmness 
on the otlier. The prince took occasion, at one interview, 
to reproach the Vixeer for the evil counsel which he liad 
given to his master, and warned him to beware of tlio 
coiiHequences of refusing to ratify tlie treaty to wliich tlie 
Shall had signified his assent. In his eagemess, tlie 
prince rose from his seat and approached tlie Vizeer, 
flourisliing his cane in tlie air to give emphasis to his 
arguments and words, and it unluckily liapi)ened tliat 
the cane came down somewhat heavily on tlic Vizeor's 
leg. Hut this occurrence hail not the eficct of lietniyiiig 
the Persian Minister into a fit of anger, or of making him 
forgetful of his own dignity in tlie presence of othors ; 
he contented himself with taking tlie cane with which 
he had been struck, and throwing it to the furtlier end of 
the room ; and after having done so, he requested tlmt he 
might be left alone. Soon after this occurrence, Frinet 



VAaLLATION OF TUB 8IIAU. 417 

Dolgoronky was recollod bom bis post; and as the 
Sedr-Azem gave out that he had procured the minister's 
recall, his triumph was complete. In his future dealings 
with foreign roproscntativcs he allowed it to be seen how 
much his awe of them had abated. 

As time wore on, news ciuno from the West of active 
preparations for war, and the Shah was once .more 
tomptc<1 to rovcrt to his first intention of casting in his 
lot with Russia. He did not at first avow to tho Sodr- 
Azcm liis change of plan, and it was not until he had 
committed himself to a s}X)cific course of action that he 
informed tlie minister of what he had done. The Sedr- 
Azom, however, still remaiuctl firm to tlio opinion he had 
formerly expressed, and he had again influence sufficient 
to induce tlie Shah to rq)udiate his engagement. But 
tlio king was naturally desirous that tliis vacillation in his 
IxAky sliould not at tliat time transpire, and he feared 
lost tho pride of the Scdr-^Vzem should hiduce him to 
boast to foreign rc})rosentatives of liis having had influ- 
ence enough to bring the Shah round again to liis way 
of thinking. Accordingly when the Sedr-Azem received 
a visit from a foreign representative, tlie Shah's ferash- 
bashi — the executioner of the Aniecr-i-Nizam — was 
ordered to pass by the door of tlie Vizeer's room, and 
to Ktiiticm himself so as to be within hearing of all that 
miglit be said. This HigniAcant hint was not tlurown 
away u2)ou the Sodr-Azcm, who gatlicrod from it tlmt ho 
might 2)OB8il)Iy go too far in witlistiuiding the wishes of 
his master ; and lie did not again fall into such an error. 

It would appear that some rumours had reached 
England to the effect that the Shah of Persia had given 
indications of being inclined to ally himself with Russia 

27 



418 A HISTORY OF PEBSIA. 

in the war that was being waged, and the leading EngUah 
joonud took advantage of the appointment of a new 
Kngliiih minister to tlie Persian court to give out that 
the said minister was going to Persia for the purpose of 
bringing tlie Shall to his knees. Tlio passage in The 
Timm newspaper to which I have alluded was of course 
transhited and communicated to tlie Shah, and it is only 
natural to suppose tliat from the moment he read it he 
determined to preserve an attitude of firmness and inde- 
pendence in his deaUngs witli the English envoy. 

Mcanwliile the ofiers which Persia had made to 
join the aUics agamst Russia hail been declined; the 
allies being sensible that tliey would be unable to protect 
Persia against the vengeance of Itussia in the end, 
tliinking it unfair to encourage a weak |K)wer to incur 
groat risks without a reasonable hope of reaping any 
ailvantages. Their counsel to Persia was tliat she should 
rraiain neutral during the struggle ; but this counsel 
little suited tlie temjier of the excitable court of Uie 
Riiali — a court which is not given to looking far into 
the future, and which is not too scrupulous as to the 
merits of tlie cause for wliicli it may begin a war. The 
Persian king now no longer found ui his minister a check 
niioii his warlike incliiiationK. Several causes set^m to 
have coiitribut<Ml to bring about a chiuige m Uio sonti- 
ments of the Keilr-Azcm. lYobubly the most iK)tent of 
Uicse was a conviction that it was not safe for him to 
thwart tlio wishes of the Uussian party at the Persian 
court ; and he seems to have l>een completely brought 
over to Uie views of that party, by some angry discussions 
between himself and the English Minister on matters 
ot trifling importance. 



MEEfiZA IIASUEM KIIAX. 419 

Before the arrival at Teliran of the Hon. Charles 
A. Murray, who was the now representative in P^«ia 
of her Majesty's Government, some correspondence 
had taken place hctween the prime Minister and the 
Knglisli charge d'affaires regarding a meerza, or Persian 
Avriteri who ha<1 heen employed in the Mission, and who 
was much disliked by the Sedr-Azem. The Persian 
Yizeer had not sought to conceal the antipathy which he 
felt towards Hashcm Khan, and he had expressed a wish 
that tliis man might not be continued in his i>06ition in 
the Mission, in virtue of which ho was the medium of 
communication between tlie Persian Government and tlie 
British Minister. The meerza in question belonged to 
one of the principal branches of the tribe of Noor ; of 
nuolher branch of which tril>o tlio Sedr-Azem w*as tlio 
chief. He had at one i>eriod been in the Persian service, 
but had for a long time past been unemployed ; when iu 
1854 he was named Persian secretary to the English 
Mission at Tehran. The Persian Minister now asserted 
tliat Hashem Klian had never obtained a formal discharj^e 
from tlic Shah's service, and that he was consequently 
not eligible for cm2)lo}inent imder a foreign mission; 
the English cliargt'; d'affaires was therefore requested 
not to prims the quosti(»u of his em2)h>ymont. Tho jioiut 
of his removal from tho post of Persian Kccretiuy to * 
the Mission was yielded; not in consequcaice of tho 
truth of the aHSCilion that he had not obtained a discharge 
from the Shah's seiTicc, but because it was manifestly 
contrary to tlie public interests that English business 
should be daily transacted through a subordinate who 
was avowedly disUked by the Pei-sian prime minister. 
When the Sedr-Azem had at first requested that Hashem 

27—1 



420 A mSTORT OF PERSIA. 

Khan might be remorod from tlio poet of Persian 
eeerotaiy to the Englieh Mission, he had himself sug- 
gested, in the eonrse of a conversation on the subject, 
that the mecrza should be sent to Sheeraz to fill the post 
of agent to the English mission at that phee. To this 
post Hasliem Klian was therefore appointed, in spite of 
tlie Sedr-Axem's subsequent assertion that, as ho had 
nerer obtained a formal written discharge from the 
Sliairs sendee, he was incapable of holding any appoint* 
mcnt under a foreign goTcmment. 

Uix)n inquiries instituted by the Britisli MiuiHtcr, it 
appeared tliat it was not the custom for the Shali's 
senrants to obtain a written discharge on^heir quitting the 
royal service, and the Sedr-Azem liimself admitted that 
Hashcm Khan, on being refused an increase of pay, had 
been told Uiat he might go to where he pleased. ^Vhen, 
however, in the autumn of 1855 the meerza was about 
to procectl to fill his post, the Peniian prime minister 
miexpecte<lly announced to the £n«;lish cnTc»y that the 
Persian government would not i)ermit Iloshcm Khan 
to hold any appointment mider the British Mission ; and 
lie furtlier intimated, in tonus too plain to be misunder- 
fAnoAt that if Hoshem Klion should attempt to quit Tehran, 
on his way to Kheeraz, he would be seized and detained. 
Mr. Murray could not submit to tliis interference in a 
matter tliat concerned only the goTcmment of which he 
was tlie representative, and he therefore repUed that 
sliould the Persian ministers cause Ilaslicm Khan to be 
arrested, tliey must ex|)ect tlie same consequences as 
would follow tlie seizure of any servant or employu of 
Ids mission. Upon tliis the Sedr-Azem gave orders fur 
the antst of the wile of Meena Haabem» and he would 



THE 8KDR-AZRM'8 DISPUTE WITH MR. MURRAY. 421 

not allow hor to be rcstorod to her hnsband ; notwitli- 
Btanding that the chief mujteheds, or jadges, of Tehran 
issaed a decree pronoonciug it illegal to detain the wife 
of the meerza in captivity, or to divorce her without the 
consent of her husband. The Shah himself had no 
power to withstand the decree of the mujteheds ; yet in 
the face of their decision, the Sedr-Azem continued to 
detain the wife of Hashem Khan, alleging that, as she 
was tlie sister of the Shah's wife, she was amenable to a 
certain extent to the domestic authority of the Shah. 

Mr. Murray insisted that, in accordance with 
treaty engagements, tlie wife of Uie British employe, 
Hashem Khan, should be forthwith liberated; and he 
gave the Persian government a specified time for arriving 
at a decision, under the* alternative of a suspension of 
diplomatic intercourse. During the period allowed to 
the Persian government for the purpose of coming to a 
decision, Mr. Murray was asked whether the matter 
could not be arranged in some otlier way than by 
Hashem Khan's being actually sent to Sheeroz to be 
agent to the British Mission at that place ; he replied 
that he was ready to discharge that person from the 
English service upon the condition tliat his wife should 
be at once liberated, and that the meerza should receive a 
pension or employment a Uttle more lucrative than the one 
he would forfeit, and, moreover, that his safety should be 
guaranteed. A fair opportunity was thus afforded to the 
Persian government of bringing this trivial quarrel to an 
end, had they sincerely wished to remain on good terms 
with tlie English government. But from the conduct of the 
Sodr-Azem in objecting to allow Hashem Khan to hold a 
post for which he had been the first person to suggest him ; 



483 A nisTORT or fbrbia. 

in afterwards seising his wife and arbitrarily detaining 
her, for the sole purpose of affironting Mr. Morray ; and 
now from his refusing to take advantage of an offer by 
which Hashcm Klian's connection with the British 
Mission would hare been for erer terminated— one is 
almost forced to l)olioTe that tlio conduct of the Sedr* 
Ajscm was dictated by a dosiro to bring about a tem- 
porary rupture of diplomatic relations between tlie 
Englisli and Persian goTommonts. 

After a sliort delay had been asked and concededi for 
the purpose of taking into consideration Mr. Murray's 
proposal, the Persian goremment refused to agree to it. 
The Sedr-Axem had been taught to beUeve tliat Enghmd 
hail at tliis time enough upon her hands, and that it was 
certain slie would not go to war with Persia ; there was, 
therefore, he thought, no great danger in breaking off 
friendly intercourse witli the British Ooveniment. It may 
Imve been, and it probably was, the Sodr-Azcm's first 
intention to follow up the rupture by overtures of joining 
Itussia ; but as tlie year 1855 wore on, tliere seemed less 
and less temptation for Persia to do so. The Sedr-Asem, 
however, thought that he saw a goo<l opportunity for 
seizing Herat, whilst Great Britain should still be engaged 
in war. Mr. Murray was induced to accord a further delay 
to tlie Shuh's Ministers for tlie puq>ose of tlicir coming 
to a decision ; the Turkish charge d'afiairos volunteering 
to use his influence to bring the Shah's government to a 
sense of just deaUng. A still further delay was granted 
at the request of the representative of France ; who, from 
the mtimate alliance of his country with England, was 
to be informed of tlie progress of the quarrel. 

The Sadr^Asem now showed himself to be utterly 



rOUCY OF TUB SEDR-AZBM. 423 

oascrapaloas as to the means he had reoonrse to in order 
to tlirow suspicion on the moUyos by which Mr. Murray 
was actuated in demanding the liberation of the wife of 
Hashcm Khan. Ho stated openly that both that gentle- 
man and his predecessor in charge of the English Mis- 
sion » had retained the meerza in the British service 
simply on account of his wife. By means of this 
utterly-unfounded shmdor ho hoi>od to excite public feel- 
ing against Mr. Murray. Nor was he altogether unsuc- 
cessful. Nothing is more easy than to invent and pro- 
pagate stories affecting the character of others, wliich 
those against wliom they are directed may find it almost 
impossible effectually to refute; and as there seemed, 
to i)ersons unacquainted with tlie utter disregard of 
most Persians to truthi to be a certain amount of pro- 
babiUty in the stories set on foot by tho Sodr-Asem, 
these stories obtained credence in some quarters ; those 
who believed them being incUned to attach blame, not 
so much to any supposed breach of morality, as to the 
imprudence of intriguing with a lady who was so nearly 
related to the Shall. This was exactly the view of the 
matter which the Sedr-Azem wished to be taken ; and he 
felt sure that, if he could only gain for tlxis story a certain 
amount of beUef amongst the British public, Mr. Murray 
would not be supported by his Government. As to the 
indignity which tho propagation of this falsehood brought 
upon a nobleman of the Sedr-Azem's own tribe, as well 
as indirectly on the Sedr-Azem's sovereign, it was a con- 
sideration that in no way troubled his Highness. 

During the time granted by Mr. Murray for the 
deUberations of the Persian government as to their deci- 
sion, the prime minister thought proper to send to that 



4S4 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

geDtleman a highly offenuTe letter, in which he insinuated 
that thoold the British iSag be stmok, the Sedr-Azem 
would be oompellad to make eertom revelations. His 
Highness most hate known Uttle, indeed, of the Englisli 
character, if he really fancied that this threat would 
deter Mr. Murray from carrying into execution the mea* 
sure to which he had pledged himself. The British flag 
was lowered at the expiration of the last delay granted 
by the English Minister, and when the Sedr-Azcm after 
this sent two messengers— one of them of princely rank 
—to the British Legation, to inquire whcUicr there were 
no means of arranging the difference tliat had arisen, 
his messengers were told that, as preliminary measures to 
any arrangement for an accommodation of the dispute, 
Uie wife of Haslicm Khan must be restored to her hus- 
band, and the Sedr-Azem must come to the British 
Mission-house to withdraw his offensive letter, and 
apologise for having written it. 

M. Bourri*e, the French minister at the Persian court, 
professing to view with great solicitude the progress of a 
negotiation, the unsuccessful result of which might have 
tlie effect of driving Persia to take luirt witli Russia 
against Turkey, besought Mr. Murray to allow him to 
make one more effort to ni*oucile him with the Penuim 
govc*mment ; and as he feared tlmt tlie Se<lr-Axem might 
refuse to come to the house of the British Legation for the 
purpose of making an a|K>logy for tlie offensive letter, he 
entreated Mr. Murray, for the sake of the alliance between 
France and England, to bo contented with a written 
wiUidrawal of the letter and with the restoration of the 
imprisoned lady. Mr. Murray could not refuse his per* 
mission to the French Minister to make the attempt, and 



MR. MURRAY QUITS TEIIRAK. 425 

on the following day M. Bonrree accordingly brought to 
the English Minister a letter of retractation and apology 
from the Sedr-Azem for the offensive despatch he had 
written ; bnt instead of the lady being restored to her has- 
band, it was proposed tliat she should be transferred to 
the house of her mother-in-law. To the latter point 
Mr. Murray could not consent, and the mediation of the 
French Minister in the matter was, therefore, at an end. 
But after this, and before the English Minister had com- 
pleted his preparations for quitting Tehran, the Sedr- 
Azem seemed at one time to meditate giving way : he 
announced his intention of coming in person to the 
hotel of the Englisli Mission. But, before proceeding to 
put tliis proposal into execution, he once more put him- 
self into communication with M. Bourroe. His High- 
ncss's mtention of proceeding to caU upon Mr. Murray 
was, however, abandoned ; and on the 6th of December, 
1855, the members of the British Mission quitted Tehran, 
and entered on their long journey towards the Turkish 
frontier. 

After this the Sedr-Azem awaited with anxiety the 
reports of his agents in Europe as to the light in which 
his conduct was there viewed ; and as week after woek, 
and montli after month, passed by without his receiving 
from her Majesty's Govemmeut a peremptory demand 
for apology and reparation, his higlmess began to beliove 
that the proceedings of the English Minister would bo 
disavowed. A personal triumph of this kind would have 
been so gratifying to his vanity, that it would have been 
more than sufficient to cause him to renounce any policy 
to which he may have leaned of breaking with the allies 
and making war against Turkey. In his recklessness 



430 A iinrroRY or pbrsia. 

and oxnltaUon ho tlionght tliat, andor snoh cirenmstances, 
lio might oflbrd to gratify Uio uotioual wish for tho pos* 
•ession of Herat 

In tho month of Jonnary, 1853, an agreement had 
been eouclnded hotwoon tho British minister at Toluran 
and tho primo miniiitor of Pomia, hy which tho Sholi's 
goTommont had ongagod not to sond troops to Ilcrati 
nnlcMS troojiB from tlio duroetion of Cahuli or KaiulaliJir, 
or oUier foreign country alionld invatio that principality. 
In direct contrarention of this amuigcnnout, tlio Sedr- 
Axom now instmcted tlie Prince of Klionuwan to march 
npon Herat ; thereby affording to Groat Britain an un* 
qoestionablo comum hdli. 

Tho expedition to Herat was undertaken partly in 
order to gratify the national Persian desire for the pes* 
session of that place, and partly in the hope tliat success 
in tho direction of AfTghanistan would afford Pernia 
a«1vaiitagos by the sacrifice of which roi^anition might 
aftcrwanls 1k) made to tlio Knglinh Govonuuent. Ilonit, 
after tlio death of Yar MahomcNl Khun, hiul fiiHon 
mider tlio sway of Uiat ruler's son, Kyd Muhomc«l ; * but 
tlio new goTornor iiossessed none of tho striking abiUty 
which had characterised his fatlicr, and his subjects 
had soon become disgusted with a ruler only remarkable 
for his cruelty and Ins excessive debauchery. Some of 
them liad accordingly taken advantage of the absence of 
8yd Mahomed from Herat, upon an exi>edition against 
tlio tribe of llezaroh, to enter iuto negotiations witli 
l^rinco Mahomoil Yoosuf, the nephew and heir of Shah 
Kamran, and who was tlien a refugee at Mosliod. Tho 

• Tltlii MAA • MiM U tflvim ftii Kyikl Malit«M«U in Mr. Kath* //iVi«/f 
y M# Htjmg MW, Iml it k man eomeiJ/ wriliMi Sjril. yr CU. Malmiwi 



WAR DBCLARED AT CALCUTTA. 427 

rosalt of tlieso negotiations was that Prince Maliomod 
Yoosaf had procooded to Herat, and obtained posses- 
sion of that fortress. Syd IliLihomed had been after- 
wards seised and imprisoned, and, in confonnity with the 
barbarous Moslem hiw respecting vengeimco for blood, 
the nephew of Kumnm had avenged his death by slaying 
tlie son of Yar Maliomed. 

Early hi the year 18«'>(], Prince Saltan Mnnul marched 
from Meshed at the hcml of an army, with which he 
commenced the sioge of Herat. The Persian troo^m took 
the fort of Qhorian, and subsequently made Maliomed 
Yoosuf a prisoner. Ho was scut to Tehran, where he 
afterwards met with a melancholy fate. But the defence of 
Herat was continued by Isa Klian, the deputy-governor, 
who opposed with the greatest bravery all the assaults of 
the besiegers. Daring the progress of tlie operations 
each party attempted to bUnd and deceive the other — the 
Persian giving assurances of grace and protection, whilst 
besieging tlio town and devastating the country around 
it; and the AlFghan boasUng his h)yalty imd ol)odience to 
Uie Shah, whilst openly and heroically opposing the 
advance of the Porsiiui army. 

But while the Sedr-Azem was allowed to pursue his 
reckless course, and while the progress of tlie si^e of 
Herat occupied the attention of the Shah and his sub- 
jects, preparations were being made in India for an expe- 
dition to Bushire, for the purpose of showing Persia that 
she could not with impunity depart from her treaty engage- 
ments with Kngland ; and in Uie proclamation which was 
issued at Calcutta, on the 1st of November, 18fiG, tlie 
cause of the war that was to be waged was deckirod to 
be the Persian hostile expedition against Herat. 



428 A UI8T0RT OF PEB8IA. 



CHAPTER XV. 

IVUry of the Scilr-Aiecin^Kmbiuiiiy of Fomikh Kluui to Europo^Fall of 
lleimt^KiiIra to be olwerrcd in carrying on Kni;iiidi War againii 
iVnta-— Singular Instance of IVrtian Levitj^-War apunit Infidela 
proelainca at Tehran—The 8irkiiukc)iJ-IUahi--Occttpation of Karrack 
hy Ilritiah Troupe — Capture of llciUiiro— Surrender of Dualiire— 
Sir J. Outram — Expedition to llun^jan — Acticm at Khuiiliab — 
Ikmbardmcnt of Moliamra— Defeat of IVsmtana— Expedition to Abwax 
— llmtoratifm of iNnuw— Tenna of Troatj of Ihurni— Saltan Ahmed 
Kliaii— Murder of IVinet Malioinod Yuoeuf— Fall of the SedrAxem— 
Cuneluidga. 

I iiAVK ondoavourod to sliow tkut tlio rnptnro of fricnclly 
rcIatioDii between Groat Britain and Pernia, arose, in- 
directly in the first instance, ont of tlie unsettled state of 
the political atmosphere of Europe, and from tlie desire 
of tlie Persian OoTemment to be permitted to play some 
part in the drama wliich tlien occupied the stage of the 
world. The Sedr-Azem was probably incapable of pur- 
suing a consistent Une of policy throughout the negotia- 
tions that preceded the war. It is considered statesman- 
like in Persia to conceal one's real intentions up to the 
last moment ; to endeavour to take advantage of eveiy 
opening for finessing, and of every pretext for gaining 
time. We are almost, as I have said, driven to believe 
that the Sedr-Azem had of fixed purpose, for some 
reason best known to himself, adopted a line of conduct 
towards the British representative which would drive 
that representative into the alternative of striking his 



OBJECTS OF TUB PERtOAK MINISTER. 429 

flag rather than of sobmitting to it ; and our belief in 
this intention on the part of Meerza Agha Khan, is not 
shaken by the knowlod^ that ho wiUidrow his imper« 
tiuent letter when ur^'od to do so by M. lk)nrrco. Ho 
would have been altogether unlike most PerHians, had ho 
been capable of taking up a diHtinct line of conduct, and 
consistently adhering to it from first to last. It is evident 
tliat lie wavered from side to side, and was guided in his 
conduct and in his demands, by the advice of those 
whom he consulted. But if when his Highness began 
to annoy and insult Mr. Murray, he had any intention of 
following up the rupture of diplomatic relations with 
England, by declaring war against England's ally, the 
Sublime Porto, the events tliat had occurred in Europe 
had caused him to renounce any such intention ; for tlie 
utmost use which he now proposed to make of tlio 
interval of non-diplomatic intercourse with England, 
was to gain Herat for the Shall. The peace of Paris 
somewhat disconceiied his calculations. There had not 
been wanting Europeans at Tehran to assure him that 
Great Britain could not afford the men or the means 
necessary for making war against Persia, so long as she 
should continue to be involved in the Crimean struggle ; 
but now that that war was over, the Persian Minister 
could not but tremble as he reflected what might be the 
consequences of the quan*cl he had brought about. 

The present state of things had its advantages. The 
Sedr-Azem had eflectually cleared himself of the sus- 
picion that he was actuated in his conduct by a sense 
of gratitude towards the English for having formerly 
protected him. The Sedr-Azem, too, felt more secure 
than ever in his post, whilst the attention of the Shah 



I 



480 A III8T0RT OF FEKSIA. 



occupied by the siego of Herat ; and the Miuister, 
moreoTCTt felt tliat Hkoald tliere be war wiUi England, 
hb Borrices would become indiHpenBablo during its con- 
tinnance. But war was the worst tliat could come of 
Ui6 quarrel, and anything short of war could scarcely 
fiul to turn to the adfantage of tlie Sedr-Asem. In case 
ICr. Murray's conduct should be disowned by his GoTem- 
mcuty tlie Persian prime minister felt that tlie greatest 
credit would redound to himself, for having witlistood 
the pretcuMions of a Frankish minister, and driven him 
in Immiliation from his post. In onlor the more widely 
to circulate tlie stories which the Vi/i^cr luul put into 
circulation regarding Mr. Murray, Femikh Khan had 
boon sent on an embassy to Constantinople and to 
l^iria, at which places he was to endeavour to put him- 
■elf in communication * with the Englisli ambassadors, 
and to try and mako tliem believe the Sedr-Azem's 
version of Uie origin of the quarrel at Tehran. Ferrukh 
Klian had akio received full powers for the conclusion of 
on arrangement of the points in difference between Uie 
Persian Goveniment and that of the (jueeu. Lord 
Btrutford du llctldiffe, however, dcnmnde<1, as one of tlie 
jioints to be conceded preliminary to the rcrstabliKh- 
meiit of friendly relations between the two governments, 
tliat tlie Kedr-Azem sliould be diKinisHed from office; 
and rather than accede to this demand, the ambassador 
pleni|K)tentiary of Persia had resolved to continue his 
journey to Paris, in the ho|)e of obtaining easier terms 
through tlie mediation of the Court of 'Franco. The 
8odr*Axi*m was, however, well aware that tliere was 
no chance of tlie English Government consenting to 
resume diplomatio intercourse with Persia so long as the 



FALL OF HERAT. 481 

troops of tliat power shoald occapy the territory of 
Herat. His iuteution, therefore, was to retire from 
Affghonistau after Herat shoald have been taken and 
pUced in the hands of a ruler who wonld of his own 
acconl ackuowled<;o himself to be a subject of the Shah, 
and who would strike coin in his Persian Majesty's name. 
But to effect this it was necessary in the first place to 
take Herat, and Uiis the Persian troops under Prince 
Sultan Murad sliowcd themselves to be unable to do. 

• 

The prime minister could not afford to lose time, and he 
therefore despatclKHl to the Persiim camp before Herat, 
M. J3iihler, who had been an officer in the French 
engineers, and who was now in tlie sonrice of tlie Sluili. 
The famous Affghan fortress was not, as on a former 
occasion, defended by an Eldrcd Pottinger, and' it 
accordingly fell before the regular approaches set on 
foot by an European scientific officer. 

But by the time Hernt had fallen, it was too late for 
the Sedr-Azem to avoid the consequences of the rash 
course he had determined to pursue. Orders had been 
issued in India for despatching a hostile expedition to 
the shores of the Persian Gulf, and tlio Enghsh GoTom- 
mont had now the peculiar task to perform of directing 
a war against a power which it had hitlierto been tlie 
policy of England to sustain, and the stability of which, 
notwithstanding the conduct of its Minister, was still an 
object of concern to the Ministers of the Queen. It was 
no easy matter to make war on Persia without incurring 
the risk of bringing Persia altogether to destruction. The 
tribes of the southern portion of the Shall 's dominions, 
and those of the coast of the Persian Gulf, would have 
been only too happy to throw off all allegiance to the 



482 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

Sliahy had they been in Uie least degree encouraged to 
do 80 by the English commanders ; and had they gone 
OTer to the enemy, a general rismg in Persia would haTO 
been the ineritable consequence. The Itussian authori- 
ties in Georgiat also, might have consulted the tranquillity 
of tlieir frontier by occupying Uio province of Aserbaecjan ; 
a position which would have given Ilusaia the command 
of Asia Mmor. The war against Persia, therefore, had to 
be conductcil on tlie principle of doing only as much 
mischief to tlie enemy as might suffice to induce him to 
make ponce ui)on tlie terms required of him. It is sin- 
guhurly illustrative of Persian levity, tlrnt before tlio 
British force appeared in tlie Poniiau Gulf, the original 
cause of quarrel between the Sedr-Azem and Mr. Murray 
had altogether ceased to exist. Meerza Hashcm Khan 
had voluntarily renounced his employment under the 
English Government, and all claim to any protection to 
which it miglit entitle him; whereui>on ho was forth- 
with received into favour by the Scilr-Axcm, and by tlie 
Shall. His wife, the Ilelou (»f the wur, was restored to 
luiii, and all the impubitioiis which lnul been cast U]Nin 
her character were declared by the Persiim Minister him- 
self to liave been calumnies invented to serve a purpose. 
A suitable salary was conferred upon liim, and the lady 
who had been so maUgned, once more took her place 
amongst the honourable women of the laud. 

Tlie question of Herat was therefore now tlie main 
point at issue between the governments of Great Dritoin 
aiul Persia. The capture of tliat fortress, which had 
withstood for so long a time all the power of Mahomed 
Khali, had filled tlio young kiug with pride and grati- 
fication ; but this fbding of satisfiiction was somowhat 



MODES OF ATTACKING PERSIA. 433 

Alloycil by tlio reflection that ho was iudebtod for it, as 
he had boon for so many previons military successes, to 
the energy and skill of his near relative, Saltan Morad 
Meerza. That prince, however, was allowed to remam 
in the government of Herat, and Isa Khan, who had 
so long defended the fortress, was treacherously put to 
death by him, after having been assured of pardon and 
of favour. 

The problem now to be solved by the British Govern- 
ment of India was how to expel the Persian troops from 
Ilenit. Dost Mahomed Khan of Cabul was i)erfectly 
ready to cooperate with the English authorities, and a 
division of British troops might have been sent through 
Affghanistan. The Khan of Ivlielat was equally dis- 
posed to permit the passage of British soldiers through 
his dominions; and had the courso been adopted of 
invadmg Persia from India, the Government possessed 
in General John Jacob, the renowned commander of 
the Sindh Ilorso, an oiBeor than whom no one was 
better qualified for carrying out the project. Another 
course which lay open to the Government of India 
was to loud troops at Bender- Abbass, by the permis- 
sion of the Imam of Muskat, and thence to march to 
Yezd. This route presents no difficulties, with tlie 
exception of one rocky pass, and is doily traversed by 
strings of caravans ; the pass between Tarem and 
Ghuneh, however, would make it necessary that artillery 
should be taken to pieces before being transported over 
it. But although there would be no difliculty for an 
invading force to overcome in reacliing Yezd, the military 
position of such a force so for from its base of opera- 
tions would bo a very precarious ouO| and the routes 

28 



484 A niOTORT OF PERSIA. 

tlionee to Kliorassnn and Herat lie over dreary wastes of 
dcfiert. Between Yezd and Herat there are thirty stages, 
and it was theref4>ro not Uumght that an Euglisli army 
eoold penetrate to Herat by this route. 

On a provions occaHion, the indoi)endonce of Herat 
bad been secural by the (M?cnpution by a DritiHb force of 
an inbind hi t)ie Persian Oulf, and as the Se^hr-A'/em 
tliought it likely Uiat the siune course would be adopted 
on tliis occasion by tlie Indian Government, he gave 
orders for strengthening the defences of the southern 
provinces of Persia. His nephew, the Shuja-el-Mulk, 
who commanded Uie troops in Fars, was directed to move 
down to Uie lower country, so that ho might coiiperate 
with the governor of Bushire ; and to the prince of 
Araliistan, who was considorcul to be one of the best ofli- 
oorM in Persia, was committe<l the tusk of providing for 
tlie defence of the lino of the Karoon river. A jehml, or 
rch'gious war against infidoki, was proclainioil at Tehran ; 
bnt this measnre altogether faiknl to create any excite* 
mcnt/ There was no entlmsiasm wliatsoever amongst 
the Persians on the subject of tlie war, and the general 
impression tliat it would only be productive of disasters 



* ** I\tHUnt hi clcrnitTR ^lUTn* «|ii«* Ui ntliiiul <li* lymdn-A fit n Ia lVr«*. 
It )^Hlv«-nl«*lal«•tlt do Tvlicniii. |Mmr mt^aiM uIit mi« r<inrt'H, «l(Hiiirt I'onln' ilo 
|in t*lii*r \m pM'trt* naitili* clmm UniIi-« I«ii iiiiH>4|ii«'f« ili* I « iii|«iA*. i*«'tto 
n^Htlnlitifi |»n'*«-iilA rt*tl«» )iiii1iriilMrili« t|ii«* liiU'if pn*iiii«-n* i ii \iiit il'uii 
«\nm'iii«-ii rMllM>lit|iH). II y ml. nvniil (|ii vWv fiit uilii|»ii%«. W Ui»riii«MiHi« 
U'n \*\n» mrii'U«i*fi. nn«iii*iir« iNtitiinc* irrlut U n-)iiiiiMiiiM'iit «li' dmu-s 
liiir* f<>rr«*4. . . . |«*^ pniMN nmrrlmiMU i'tiii«*til ini*f*oiit«'iil«, leu cIk'Ia 
iMiliuiit'tf tniUTiiH*iit U itMijrrii im'|>riMl4r. QimiiC « U )ii»|iiiUce. . . . 
l'iiiiiN«tir«* tk* r<* i|ul alUit avtiir li«-«i U Ui^^m riiiii|tl«u*iuout iaiiilk'n iitr. . . 
A S«*liTnu. no pfiit crtiin vn iui4iiiit t\n« U pi*|«uliirr alUtt ai'iiiuMnHr H 
•a HM-tiTtf eu MiArvbf, bmh mm frn* ^mr aitiM|U(*r left Aiii;Um. Umt %m 
rimtniirr pimr \e% akltfr." — Tfm$ Am$gm Jtif,fmr U Cvmii A. tk (M%mtttm, 
pf. 3101 -SV). 



nRITISII EXPKDmOX TO THE PERSIAN GULP. 485 

an<l dis^^racc to Persia, seems soon to have eome homo to 
the Sc(lr-Azem himself. Ho now took occasion to snper- 
socio his nephew in the command of the fiohl-forco, hy the 
chief of tho royal hoiIy-<;iianl with whom ho was not on 
friendly tonns, and whom ho hoped to seo dis<;racod in 
the too-prohahlo case of his hein;; defoatiHl. Tho 
Sirkisikc'lii-liaHlii * was tho chief of the ni>i)er brswch of 
the Kajar tribe, and he was a man of suQiciont conse- 
qnence to bear all the blame of tlie disasters wliich 
every one expected. The selection of such an officer to 
the command in the field was ])rndently made ; but the 
far-sighted views of the Sedr-Azem were frustrated by 
the slow movements of the Sirkisikchi-Bashi, Before 
his Excellency's anival at the head-quarters of tho army 
in the south of Persia, tho disasters that had been fore- 
seen had tdrcmly taken place. 

On tho 4th of December, IB/iO, tho island of Karrack 
in the Persian Gulf was occupied by British troops, and 
preparations were innnediatcly made for landing a forco 
near Bushire. The disombai'kation at llalilla Bay occu- 
pied the gi'eater part of three days and two nights, and 
no serious opposition was olfercd by the Persians ; throe 
or four hundred men who appeared in the vicinity of tho 
bay being scattered by the fire from the English gun- 
boats. Tho Persians had taken up on intrenched 
position near Bushire, connnanding tho wells from 
which the i)lace is su})i)licd with water; but on tho 
British line being fonncd, this position was abandoned. 
On the 0th of December the Persians were dislodged 
from the old Dutch fort of lleshire. A short but fierce 
struggle took place on tliis occasion, and four English 

* Tills ofilcer wod Appointed priiuo laiiiistor of I'cma, MhtcIi 21, 1S06. 

28— « 



48G A BISTORT or rERSIA. 

ofliccn, with a ranall umnbor of Don-commisiuoned 
officers and prirato loldicn, wcro killoclt or died sotno 
lioam later of Uio woamlii Uiey received. Brigadier 
Stopfoni, fif tlio (VlUi repmeut, waii nliot dowii from liin 
liomo wliili) taming; rmiud Ui inquire why liia n*ginicnt 
hail halted ; it liad l)eon momentarily Htop)H)i1 to bo 
drcNHed in IhiOt and tlien tlio meny aeeing tlicir com- 
mander dciwn, miiluHl forwanl to Uio attack. Lieateimnt« 
Colonel Malot, of the Snl ])onil»ay liight CaTalry, hiul 
proTented one of liiN tr«io{>erK from luiyonc^ting a woundinl 
TerMian ; but liin humanity coat him liia life, for he wan 
idiot HO mion an liia back was turned, by the rersiau 
lying on tlie ground. 

Tlie .lefeat of the Khali's troo|Mi on tliis occanion 
romplet(*ly dam|>ed the ardour of tlie garrison of Bnsliirc. 
That place was expoHcd, on the morning of the 10th of 
Decemlier, to the fire of the guns of the British 8lii|>s 
under the command of Sir Henry Leeke, and it did not 
offer any prolonged resistance.* Tlie governor, togetlicr 
with the officer commanding the troop, came out of the 
town on tlie day suceeeiling tliiit of the struggle at 
Iteshire, and gave up tlieir swords to }fajor-(ieneral 
Stalker, who commanded tlie invading army. Finy-nino 
guns, togetlier with a large quantity of ammuuiti(m and 
warlike stores, were also surrendered, and the portion of 
the garrison that hail not escaped, grounded arms in 
front of Uie Britisli line. The Persian common soldiers 
were on the following day escorted by the British cavahry 
tor some distance into tlie interior and Uien set free ; the 



* Hir lUnry J^i^}u pf>nr««c«t«nl to India mtUrr i\tt ra|ii«rt nf niiBliirr. aimI 
on hU mar atUckctl. at liii^^ili. a Uryv dvUrlimcttt vt iVraian tmofa. 
vkkk Im (unml to rdit^ (Kan tW akun. 



8111 JAMES OUTRAM TAKES THE COMMAND. 487 

8Ui)orior ofiiccri) boiug convoyocl as prisonors to India. 
Genci'ol Sbilker thou proircodocl to outrouck biiusolf in a 
ciunp outsiilo Uusliiro ; where ho was to romain inactive 
until the iirriviil of rohiforconiontH. 

On tiio 27lh of January, IH.*!?, Licmtonant-Ocnoral 
Sir JanioM Outnun arrivinl, luul aHttumoil cominanil of the 
exiKxIitionary forco. Much was cxiH)ctod from his well- 
known oner^^y and ability ; nor wuro mirh expoctations 
loft unfullillud. On ruiu'hin^ BuMhirci Goncnd Outnun 
was infonnod that a bir^o rorsiiui forco, said to unmbor 
nioix) than ci;;ht thousand men, hiul taken up lui hi- 
trenched position at tiu) town of Buraxjan, forty-six niilos 
distimt. It wiui intended that this forco should form tlio 
nucleus of a large army, to bo employed in attempting to* 
drive tho Dritish troops ' from Uushiro. On tho 8Ist of 
January, the first brigade of tho second division of the 
invading ai*my arrived from India, and by tho 2nd of 
February tho soldiers had landed and reached tho camp. 
General Outram thereupon resolved to strike a blow 
with tho object of compelling tho l^ersian commander 
to evacuate Durazjan. On tho evening of tlio 3rd of 
February, tiie main body of the Dritish forco marchod 
fi'om Uushire, diking with it neither tents nor extra 
liigif^igo of any kind, and each man carrying liis great 
coat, his blanket, and two days' cooked provisions ; tko 
commissariat being furnished with three days' provisions 
in addition. Tho protection of tho to^\'n and camp of 
Bushiro was provided for by a detachment of troops 
being left under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Shepherd, who had also under his orders a party of 
seamen taken from all tho sliips in the harbour. Tho 
troops composing tho division that now marchod into 



488 A IIISl'ORY OF PKKSIA. 

t)io interior mulcr tlio iicrsonAl command of Sir Jomos 
Ontram, were her Majesty's C4tli oud 78th regiments, 
and tlie 2nd EuroiMmn regiment of the Bombay army, 
nnmbering between tliem, two tlionsand and two hundred 
Englislimon ; tlie 4tli, 30th, and 2Gth regiments of tlio 
Bombay army, and a Belooch battalion, numbering two 
Uiousand men, including one hundred and eighteen 
sapiiers ; the 3rd regiment Bombay Light Cavalr}-, and 
the re^ment of Pcwna Horse, consisting together of 
four hnndn*d and nineteen men ; and the thinl troop 
of Ikimbuy llorso Artillery, and the Snl and 5th light 
field-batteries. The number of guns in all was eighteen. 
After i>erforming in forty-one hours a march of forty-six 
miles, being all the time exposed to great cold and to 
deluging rain, the force reached the enemy's intrenched 
positicm on tlie aflomoou of the 6th of February. The 
iutrenchments were found to huve been abandoned ; the 
IVrniiuis luiving on the prc(*etling night evacuatiul tlu*ir 
ounp witli HO gn»at precipitation, that tliero was no time 
to romoTo the tents, the camp equipage, and tlie ordnance 
stores. The s|K>ih4 of the camp were being carried off 
by tlie i>eople of tlio neighbouring villages when the 
BriUsli forte arrived. Some of tlic horsemen of the 
Eelkhaui of Fars were still in sight, and between tliem 
and the Britisli cavalry a little skirmishing took place ; 
but the IVriiians eventually miule off. 

Th<* IVrnian couiiuaiidcr having withdmwn his men, 
Griicnil Oiitnim did n4»t think it ]irudcnt to f4illow him 
np the wry strong |iawH*N that lie U-yond Buraxjaii. 
Arronliiigly, after having (H'ciipitil that pliu*e for two da}s 
and d(*Mtroy(*«l the nuigii>un4*M of tin* Pci>ians, wliich woro 
lound to contain 40,000 |)ounds of jiowder, with siaall- 



ACTIOX AT KlIUSUAll. 489 

arm ammnnition oud a lar<;o qnoutity of shot and skcll, 
he commcuccd the march bock towards Bushiro. Tho 
retm-uing army carried with it large stores of flomr, rice 
and grahi, wliich liad been collected by tlie Persians. The 
march towards the shore commenced on the night of the 
7th of February, and at midnight an attack was made 
upon tlie rear-guard by the Eelkhani's horse, while 
detachments of Persians tlireatencd the lino of march 
on every side. Under tlicse circumstances the troops 
>voro ordered to hiilt, imd wore drawn up so as to protect 
the baggage, and to present a front to the Persian irro- 
gular cavalry, from what direction soever it might attack. 
Four of the Persian guns oi)ened a heavy lire upon the 
column ; but the British troops were ordered to lie down 
under arms till daybreak, and tlie sliot passed over their 
heads without doing any harm. It appears that tho 
Persian leaders hod recovered from the ahvrm into which 
they had boon tlu*own by tlio news of tlie approach of 
General Outram, and hod even resolved to attack him in 
his camp on tho night of the 7tli, when the noise caused 
by the explosion of their o\m magazines announced to 
them liis departure. They had then hastened to overtake 
him, and had tried to excite a panic amongst his troops. 
When day broke on the 8th of February, the Persian 
force, numbering nearly seven thousand men, was dis- 
covered to be drawn up in order of battle to the north- 
eiust of the English position. The British cavalry 
and ailillory were at once moved for>viu*d to the attack, 
supported by two-tliirds of tho infantry in two lines; 
tho remainder of the mfmitry being loft to protect tho 
baggage. The lire of -the artillery did great execution, 
and seemed completely to disconcert the Persians. The 



440 A mSTORT OF PERSIA. 

two rcjpmonU of Indian cavalry vied with each oUier in 
gatiicrinf; lanrob on tliis field. Tlio P(X>na Honto suc- 
ceeded in captnrinj^ Uie Rtondard of the IvomIi;^ regiment 
of ScTlMiXy luid t)io 3nl Jiomhay Li^tkt Cavalry i>erf(»rmod 
a still more brilliant feat of arms. Tlio 2nd Tubroez 
regiment of Pemian infantry was drawn up in the usual 
rcrsiun looso fommtioUy when it was ckargod by tlio 
Britisli regiment above named, lleferriug to this exploit, 
it was stated afterwards, by General Jacob, who had 
not been present on the field of Kliuslmb, that *'a 
regiUar Persian battalion — perfectly well drilled, armed, 
accontrctl, &c., after tlie best European model, com|>osed 
of splendid men, who stood perfectly firm, bold, and con- 
fident in tlieir array — was ridden over and utterly de- 
stroyed by Major John Forbes and one troop only of tho 
3rd regimc*nt of Bombay Light Cavolr)*." * Tho Pcniian 
regiment was also stated to have been drawn up in a 
regularly formed square. But such a description of tlie 
fumiation of the Persian regiment in questicm is Ukely 
to mislead tlie reader, and to induce the erroneous behof 
that cavalry can break a perfectly-formed square of regular 
infantry. Had tlio formation of the regiment which was 
diarged on Uiis occasion by tlie 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry, 
been such as is understood in England by tlie term ** a 
l»crfectly-formed siiuare," Major Forbes, who was tho 
leader of tlie cliargo, would never have |K)rmittcd his men 
to rush to destruction in attempting wliat was im|)ossiblo 
for them to do. But still, the array of tho Persians was 

9 A« tlM> aiTiiiint U^f ipvni «^ tlic ttrtimi At KIiiimImI* aiiMrwIua diHen 
§Mm |ireviiNi«lj publiflluHl iUAU*mfnU n-ptf^ltutf ii. the AUtinc licir* to 
cJwrfTtf llmt Im tli'Hvt'U liiit iiiii»niMti«»u fn«a liU l»nillirr uIGctm vIh* verc 
prewfit mi tlml Mt\, and (mm iiSWrM with wU^nn )i« amrfU at the cIom id 
lh«lVnHUicmp«ltliiiiioatlMauirorbir J. OmUma. 



CAVALRY CHARGE. 441 

snfficiontly regular to roudcr tlio exploit porformod by the 
cavalry, a sabjcct of just pride to tbomselvos auil to their 
comrades. Major Forbes brought liis men up at the 
charge, luid seeing (it is to be presumed) that the Persians 
were not very close together in tlieir formationi tlie idea 
occurred to lum that his horsemen might force then* way 
through the gaps in tlicir nuiks. He, accordingly, 
instead of turning his men aside or bringing them to a 
halt, boldly led them up to the bayonets of the Persians. 
The momentum of the cavalry was so great that the lino 
of the enemy scarcely stopjKHl the horsemen for au 
instant ; although their gallant commander paid for liis 
decision by sufTeiing a severe wound. The cavalry 
having once passed through them, the Persians could no 
longer o£fcr any effectual resistance, and many of the 
regiment fell under the sabres of the Indians. One of 
the junior ofEcers of the cavahy squadi'ons had now the 
opportunity of displaying a thoughtfulness for those 
around him, which was suitably acknowledged by tlie gilt 
of the Victoria Cross, and which showed qualities that 
could not be purchased by cross or honour. The adjutant 
of the regiment. Lieutenant Moore, had been, with his 
commanding officer, foremost in the charge ; his horse was 
impaled on the Persian bayonets, and the rider had been 
thrown to the ground. It was tlien that liis perilous 
ponition was perceived by Lieutenant Alalcolmsrm, who, 
amidst tlie clash of anus and the roar of battle, had self- 
possession sufficient to enable lilm to divine at once the 
only means by wliich liis brother officer could be saved. 
Wheeling his Arab charger round to tlie spot where 
Lieutenant Moore was defending himself from the bayo- 
nets that were levelled at his breast, he extricated his 



442 A UISTORY OF PKltSlA. • 

ri^lit f(K)t from Uio Hiirrnp, whidi ho then toKl Licntcnaut 
Moore tii grunp. lfiiviii<; aKMurccI himm'lf that the other 
liiul done HO9 lie appHetl tlio Hpur to liin liorne, which 
leapiii{( fonA'anlM boro both tlio officcni boyoiul the reach 
of preHMiiig chiii{;cr. 

On Uio cavah7 and ortillery was tlirowu nearly all 
tlio bunlen of Uik day ; for some delay oecurretl in order- 
in;; Uio ailriuico of tho infantry re^mentB, in con8o<|nenco 
of tlio general commanding liaving bc*en Htnuncil by u 
fall from liia horuo. Ah Sir JamoH Outnini whm thna 
nnalile to gin'de tho progn*HH of the battle, tho ttudc of 
giving directions fell n|M)n General Stalker, tlic fMH;ond 
in c<»miuand, and n|»on Colonel (now Sir PIdwanI) Ln- 
gtrd, tlie chief of tlio staff. It Uiuh hapiK'ned that tho 
infantry portion of tlic army scarcely came into action 
at all, the enemy being in full retreat before ten o'clock 
iu tlio forciiiK>ii. Two Persian guns were captunnl, and 
a third would have fidlen into the hands of the EiigUsh, 
had tlnise who attenipt(Ml to take it adopted tlie ex|M)* 
dii*ut of firing at the horHCS liamessiHl to it inste:ul of at 
the giinnerM ; but as fant as one man was shot down 
aiioUier in<>untc«l in his pliu*o, luid ho tlie gun was saved. 
Great aNt4iniH]iuic*nt was creati'il in the iiiindM of the 
rersiaii troops cm this day by the niarvelloiis celerity 
of tlio movements of the Knglish artillery ; and they 
wcro also greatly sur|)rised by tho nnexiiected effect 
of the now rilk^s, which had been juurtly intnMliice«l into 
tho Knglish army, and some of which were trii*d on the 
field of KhuHliab. A group of four IVnuan lionM*meu 
remained looking at tho Imttle at what tliey considered 
to bo a safo diHtanoo from the scene (»f o|H*rutious ; an 
ofliccr of tho 2ud Bombay £uro|ieaa llcgiment, wishing 



EXPEDITION TO MOIIAIIKA. 443 

to hIiow thorn their (langcr, took au Eufiold riflo from a 
Bcr^cMUit, iiikI mljiiKtiii^ it to 9(X) yimlH, fired it at tho 
group of ]i()i*bomeiu Quo of tho four men fell from his 
liorno to tlio {^ouiul, and tho other tluDO put spurs to 
tlicir steodH and gallo^Hxl off tho field. 

Tho Pernian guu-ammuuitioii fell into tho hands of 
the English troops, and seven hundred Irauis wore 
found dead ni>on tho field of hattle. Tho proportion of 
wounded could not ho ascertained, as the small number 
of Oeneral Outnuu*s cavalry prevented a pursuit, and 
gave tho Persians tlio opi)ortunity of carrj'ing off their 
diHuhlod men. Miuiy of tho Shah's troops, in ondoa- 
vouring to provide as effectually as possible for their 
imUvidual safety, left their arms ui)on tho field. No 
British or Indian soldiohi fell into tho hands of tlio Per- 
sians, and tho latter wero prevented from decapitating 
tlio dead, as is their custom. After tho termination of the 
action, the English troops bivouacked for the day close 
to tho ground whero the battle hiul been fought, and at 
night they accomplished a march of twenty miles towards 
Unshiro ; over a country rendered nearly impassablo by 
tho continuous heavy rains. After a rest of six hours, 
tlio greater portion of the infantiy continued thoir march 
to Dushire ; which place th«)y reached before midnight ou 
tho Oth of February. Tho cavalry and aiiillory arrived 
at tlie camp on the following morning. The loss ou tho 
sido of the British in the action at Khushab consisted of 
sixteen men killed and sixty-two wouuiled. 

It hiul been tlio intenti(m of Sir Jimies Outram to 
send a forco against the Persiiui fort of Mohamra ou the 
Karoou river, immediately afler his return fi*om Burozjau ; 
but, owing to tho non-aiiival of reinforcements which had 



414 A HISTORY OF TERfAA. 

been expoctcd from India, in consequence of the tern- 
pestnoos weather in the Persian Gulf, it was not until 
the 18th of March that the general could set out from 
Boshire. The interval was marked by the occurrence of 
two events which throw a gloom over tlio spirits of the 
British troops. The first division of the force was under 
tlie command of General Stalker, under whom it hacl 
taken Busliirc. That officer's health had been affected 
by long exposure to tlio climate of India, and a sense 
of tlie responsibility that now devolved ni)on him weighed 
heavily upon his mind. Ue had been relieved of all poli- 
tical rcsiMiuHibility by tlie arrival of Sir James Outram ; 
but on tlie departure of that officer for Mohamra, he 
would find himself once more for a time in tlie indepen- 
dent command at Bushiro. He wrote a note to General 
Outram with the object of cndcavouriug to dissuade him 
from commanding tlie expedition to Mohamra in i)onk)u, 
but his Excellency's resolution in tliis respect remaiiicil 
niiHliaken. What now caused Geiicnil SUdker most 
diHi]uietiide was the fact, that, although the hot weather 
was rapidly approaching, huts had not yet been erected 
for the protection of his men. On tlie morning of the 
14th of March the idea seems to have occurred to liiin 
of seeking refuge from re8iK>usibility by committing sui- 
cide ; but it is probable tliat he had no fixed intention of 
immediately putting an end to his life, since ho inscribed 
his name on tlie list of ^lersons who were on that day to 
lUne at the staff mess, and had also invited an officer to 
be his guest. lie told his servant to bring out his pistols, 
auJ before breakfasting he reiiuested his aide-de-camp 
to load them, in order tliat he might wear them ; imme- 
diatdy alter breakfast, whilst he was alone in his tent, 



TIIE KAROON RIVBR. 445 

Lc put ouc of the pistols to Lis bead, and firing it made 
an end of his life. 

As if this occurrence \rere not sufficiently deplorable, 
it was followed tbree days later by anotlier of a similar 
nature. Commodore EtlierHcy, who had succeeded Sir 
Henry Locke in the command of the fleet, felt every day 
more and more his unfitness for the i)ost he held. Ho 
frequently suflcred from seyero nervous attacks, and ex* 
pressed in his diary his conviction tliat ho should ** make 
a mess" of the projected naval attack on Mohannra. The 
day after that on whicli General Stalker's death occurred, 
ho sought relief by taking opium ; but the dose he took 
was too large for the puri)080 of soothing him, and it 
excited him so much that on the next day he was 
reduced to imitating the melancholy example that had 
been set by Goneral Stalker. 

The position of tlie point at which Sir J. Outram 
uitended to attack the Persians, rendered it necessary 
tliat the preliniiuory oi)eralion8 should bo perfonned by 
the naval portion of tlie expeditionary force, llolmmra 
is said to have owed its origin to Alexander tlie Great, 
who, to avoid the necessity of sailing do\Mi to the Persian 
Gulf by the ancient channel of the Karoon, caused the 
canal to be dug through which that stream now flows 
into the Tigris.* The town was originally colled Alex- 
andria, and baring been destroyed by on overflow of the 
river, it was rebuilt by Antiochus and called Antiochia. 
It was a second time overflooded, and on being restored 
was called Charax. The records concerning the position 
of this city give it a peculiar interest, as showing an 
instance of an oceanic delta gaining with almost unprc- 

• TravfU and lU'tctiivha in ChihlfU and 6*Mjri#iMff, by \V. K. Luncii. 



440 A niSTORT OF PERSU. 

cedcntcd imindity upon tlio sea/ Tlio original site of 
Cliiumx was bcliorctl by Pliny to bo only two tlioasand 
imcvH cliKtaiit from tlio slioro, bnt, in cons«s|nenco of tlio 
rapiil arcnniuliition of nin<l from the pt*iit rivery Clianix 
cniuo in tlio murHo of time to stiinil fifty miles from the 
Nftt-idioro. '' If wo tako tlio tnmble of comparin;; the 
liinioriral acconntM of the early (irci^ki liiUhi, aiitl Ma- 
hometan authors/' sn^-s a moilem gc*ok)^Kt,f ** tlto 
inrrcaso of land at tlie delta of the Tigris and Euphrates 
may be distinctly traced. Since the conunenccmcnt of 
our era tlioro lias been an increment at tlie extraordinary 
rate of a milo in about seventy years, which far excectis 
tlio grviwtli of any existing delta." 

It has 1mm*!! said that the town of Mohamra, in con* 
iiCf|iirii<*o <if the injury which its c*NtahliHhment as a fnu) 
)Mirt liiul done to tlio Inuloof IhiKMim, hiul Imhmi wantonly 
atlarkoil by the Turks. Jly tlio tn^aty of l'ir/.eroniu it 
luid lHH*n niiidu over to the IVrsiiuis, by whom it was 
stn>ii;;ly fortified in onler that it might Ik; secure agaiiiHt 
anotlicr attack. Since the ru])ture of diplomatic relations 
lM*twoen Great Britain and rersia, the fortifications of 
Mohamra hail liecn still further strengthened. Batteries, 
having caseinatiHl embnisures, lia<1 lieen erei*tcd at the 
nortli4*m and soiithem poiutM of the lianks of the Kan»on 
Slid the SliutM*l-Anib»| where tlu* two rivi^rs joiii. 
TIk*w% with other earthwurkM armed with heavy iinlnanas 
comniaiidetl the entire passage of the latter river; and 
tliey were so judiciously pbccil* and so scientifically 
ionnetl, as to sweep tlie whole stream to tlie full 

t Mr. UiiTr«. 

: TIm wiitcd wumm of Um Tigria ana LapUimtos i» cmUcU Uw Shut- 



THE SIIUT-EL-ARAB. 447 

extent of tho range of the gnus up and clo\vn tlie river 
anil acroHB to the opposite shore. Incloeil, cvcrjlliing 
that scionce could 8n{j«;ost apiwarod to Inive l>oon efTcctcul 
by tlio l\»rsiuns in ordiT to prcvi»nt any liostilo vchhoI 
from piiHshi<; up tho river to a point above Moluunra.^ 
In mUition to th(*Ho ])r(H*anli(»nK, their poMlion hiul 
natnnil iMlvanta(;os ; ninco llie iNinkn of tlie rivorH for 
many niilcH wore covered witli proves of pahn-trees, wliich 
aiTorded the best ])os8ible shelter for marksmen, and tho 
opinmite shore of the Shut-el-iVrab» bein;; Turkish tern* 
tory, was not available for the erection of counter- 
battc^ries.f General Outram resolved to attaick the 
enemies' batteries with his armed steamers and Bh)op8 
of war, and ho soon as the l\*rsian fire slumld Inive slack- 
ened, to piLHs mjiidly up the Karoon in small steaniers 
t(>wiii«( boat^, and then to land tho force two niiloH up 
tho rivor i»n the norUiern bank ; from which point ho 
could a<l Vance to attack tho Pemans in their intrenched 
position. 

The Persian army at Mohamra consisted of nearly 
thirteen thousand men, iinder the personal command of 
Frinco Khanlar. It consisted for tlie most part of 
Arabs, Bakhtiaris, and Belooehis, and was furnished 
with a HuitabUi proportion of artillery. The British forco 
consisted of live thousand nion, and was strtMi^^thened by 



f 1 am liapjiy to Ui> Mv U* nronl an iiislaii«*o of c<>iirt(*Hy on ilio jmrt 
of a INn'siaii nlliciM* at Mnliaiiira. Mr. Murray. ii('rfiin]uini«'<l by Dr. lHc*k- 
Koii. ])liysiriuii to liis inissinii. wished ti> prix'ced from iSuHsoni to iiiiKhiro, 
nder the capture of the latter town l>y tlio ]>ritisli, niul it Intuuio neceiLsiiiy 
for liim t4) run tlic pnuntlet of tho forlH at tho moutli of the Kuroun rivor. 
Tho I'orftian aitilK>rynion were at their posts, hut when tlieir cimunRncler 
Ban* that tlie Jlinjh l/wdtay bore the Ihig of the llritish Minitftor, it ii- 
allowcd to pass oloso under tlio batteries without u shot being fired. 



448 A HISTORY OF PERSIA. 

twdro pieces of artillery. Tliis (livision was com}X)scd 
of detachments of lier Majesty's 14th Li$[ht Dragoons, 
and of tlio Sindh Ilonio ; of the C4tli and 78tli Itegiinents, 
commanded hy Brigailier-Gcneral Havelock; of the 
23rd and 2nth Regiments of the Dombay Native Army, 
and of a light battalion, composed of companies of 
different regiments ; and of Uie Sappers and Miners and 
Uie 8rd troop of Uio Bombay Horse Artillery and tlie 
2nd light field-battery. Tliese troops were supported 
by fonr armed Bteamcrs and two nloops of war. 

(hi tlio 21th of Marcli the steanicrs, having the 
traiiH[w>rt8 in tow, moved np the river Shnt-cl-Anib to 
witliin tlireo miles of the mouth of tlie Karoou ; but 
OS some of the larger veoselH Btmck on shoals, and did 
not reach the place of rendezvous until after darkness 
hod set in, tlie attack, wliich had been fixed to take place 
at once, was necessarily defi*rrcd until the following day. 
Dnring tlio night, a reconnaissance was made in a boat, 
for tlic purpose of ascertaining the nature of the soil of 
on island to the west of, and immediately op])OKite to, the 
IVrsian Imttery on the nortlu^m side of the mouth of the 
Karoon ; where it was ^isliod to erect a mortar battery. 
TIio soil of tlie ishind was, however, f«iund to consist of 
tliick nmd, and in consequence of this discover}*, (irnonil 
Outrani determined to place the mortars u[>on a raft. It 
was necessaiy to allow some time for tlio construction 
of this raft, and tlie attack on Mobomra was in con- 
sequence deferred for another day. On the 2«*>th the 
raft was forme<1, under the superintendence of Captain 
Uennie of the Indian Navy, and havmg been armed with 
two 8-inch and two C]-incli mortars, to bo worked by a 
party of artillerymen under the command of Captain 



ATTACK ON MOHAMRA. 449 

Moi^an, it was towed by the small river steamer Comet 
up the stream, and moored in a jiosition close to Hie 
above-mcnti(med island. This imiK)rtiuit operation was 
effected during the night without its having attracted the 
attention of the Persians, who entertained the full con- 
fidence that no vessel could pass up the river before their 
batteries. During the same day the horses and guns of 
the artillery, a portion of tlie cavalry, and the infantry, 
were trans-sliii)i)ed into boats and small steauners, to be 
in readiness for landing on the following morning. 

At break of day on the 2Gth of March, tlio four 
mortars on the raft opened their fire on both the northern 
and the soutliem Persian batteries. The range of the 
5^ -inch mortars proved to be short, but the 8-inch shells 
were very efficient, bm*Qting immediately over and inside 
the enemy's works ; whilst from tlie low position of the 
raft, but few of the Persian guns could be brought to bear 
upon the mortars. At seven o'clock the several vessels 
of war moved up into the positions which had been 
assigned to them by Commodore Young, who liad suc- 
ceeded Commodore Ethorsoy in the command of tlie 
flcot. The Scmiramut having the Clice in tow, and being 
followed by tlie Ajdaha, entered the western channel in 
suppoi*t of tlio mortar battery; the Veroze^ tlie Asuaye^ 
the Victoria f and the Falhland^ remaining in roHorve until 
the fire of tlic two Persian forts should be lessened. This 
was soon effected ; on which the vessels that had been hold 
in reserve entered tlie eastern channel of tlie river. The 
Feroze now opened her fire on the southern Persian fort 
at less than point-blank range, as she passed by it to 
take up her position o2)po8ite to the nortliem fort. The 
division of ships in the western channel was then brought 

20 



4S0 A UI8T0BT OF PERSIA. 

to join in close attack on the two forts. So effective was 
now the fire from the ships, that in less than three 
quarters of an hoar from its commencement, the Persian 
batteries were so far silenced as to be only able to reply 
from tliree or four guns. At a quarter before eight 
o'clock, tlio Feroze^ which bore the pennant of Commo- 
dore Young, hoisted the rendcxrous flag at the mast- 
licad, as a signal for the troop-sliips to advance ; which 
tlioy did in ;;oo<l onler, although when tlioy {MiHscd tlie 
batteries their fire had not yet ceased. Between ume 
and Um o'clock heavy explosions occurred in different 
parts of tlie PerHiun fortifications, and after the batteries 
had ceased firing from artillery, a fire of musketry 
was maintained with great perseverance, until storming 
parties from tlie Semtramis^ C/ir^, Kicloria, and FalUandt 
landed on shore, and drove before them the last of the 
enemy, taking possession of their works and guns. 

The loss sustained by tlie British fleet at Mohamra 
was very small, owing to tlie precaution wliich liad been 
taken of constructing on each vessel a breastwork of 
trusses of hay : only five men were killed, and eighteen 
wounded. Amongst the troops not a single casualty took 
phice ; altliough tliey hail to run the gauntlet of both tlie 
artillery and the musketry fire, by wliich some of tlie 
Indian servants on board were killetl. By one o'clock 
tlie troops had landed above tlie Persian battexy on tlie 
northern bank of the Karoon, when they formed and 
advanced witliout delay tlirough the date-groves, and 
across the plam that ky between them and tlie in- 
trenched camp of the Persians. Tlie latter did not wait 
for the approach of the EngUsh, but fled precipitately, 
after having exploded their laigest magaaine. They left 



PEttSIAK PUNI8IIMKXT FOR DISASTER. 451 

behind thorn their tents and baggage, their public and 
private stores, several magazines of anununition, and 
sixteen guns. Only one troop of the Sindh Horse had 
by this time been enabled to land, and with it Captain 
Malcolm Green was ordered to follow the enemy for some 
distance. That officer came upon the roar-guard retreat- 
ing in good order, but his numerical weakness in horse- 
men prevented his making any impression upon it. 

The loss of the Persians was estimated at two hun- 
dred men ; and seventeen of their guns fell into the 
hands of the British, besides large stores of provisions. 
The Persian artillery and the troops in the batteries had 
acted as well as they could have been expected to behave : 
they had served their guns well, and had not shrunk 
from exposure and labour. But the disaster of tins day 
demanded a public punishment to be inflicted upon some 
of those who had composed the army of Khuzistau. 
Accordingly, some montlis later, the Khelij regiment was 
brought to the Shah's camp near Tehran, to bo publicly 
disgraced. Its colonel, however, had mode such good 
use of the time he had been in command of it, that he 
was enabled to save his commission and his person, by 
paying a handsome bribe to the prime minister. The 
other officers, less fortunate, had rings passed through 
their noses, and were thus dragged along the ranks by 
cords ; they were then severely beaten, and thrown into 
prison. The major of another regiment, an Armenian 
called Asslan, received two thousand blows from the basti- 
nado ; though it is said that his men hod fought well at 
Mohamra in defence of tlie batteries, whore their colonel, 
Aga Jan Khan, was killed. But if the punishment now 
inflicted did not fall upon the right persons, the example 

29— « 



452 A HISTORY OF FERfiU. 

Willi tho Bame ; and tho Porsian MiuUtor probably cored 
littlo what bocamc of a commanding officer who could not 
afford to porcliaao exemption from a beating. If any one 
more tlnm auotlier deserved diHgnico and poniiduueut for 
Uiis disaHter to tlie Penian anutt at Moliamra, it was tbo 
IViuco Khanbur, wlio bad been eutroHtod witli tlie 
command of tlio army of Kbuzistan, and who fled on tbo 
landing of tho British troops, without even waiting to be 
defeated. But hb Royal Highness could afford to pay 
for the exhibition of pusillanimity, and the sum of eight 
thousand pounds sterling produced upon the Sedr-Azem 
such an impression, that instead of reproaches and 
disgrace, Prince Khanlar received from the Shah a sword 
and a dress of honour 1 

Tiie Persian army retreated from &[obamra to tlio 
t4iwii of Aliwox, wliich is distant by idKiut a liundrcd 
uiiles fnnn the mouth of tlie Koruon river. Kir James 
Ontram determined to send a small force by water to 
tills pkce, for tlie purpose of observing tlie iNMulion of 
tho enemy and of destroying, if possible, tlio stores soiil 
to liave been collected there. On the 29tli of March a 
flotilla, consisting of tliree small river steamers and three 
gun-boats, was despatched up the Karoon under tlie 
command of Captain Bennio. On iKMird tlie vessels 
were tliree hundred soldiers of tlie (>*ltli and 78th 
regiments, under the orders of Captain Hunt of tho 
78th Uigblanders ; and Captain Kemboil, the English 
Political Agent in Turkish Arabia, was directed to 
accompany the expedition in his civil capacity. The 
town of Aliwas, which is said to occupy the site of the 
ancient Aginis, was found to be in ruins, and not to be 
sunounded by defences of any kind, beyond a portion 



EXPRDITION TO AHWAZ. 453 

of on old stone wall. CIoso to Aliwaz is a natorol 
iMirrior of sandstone, which stretches across the river and 
renders im^>osHible tlio ascent of vessels drawing more 
tlion a very few feet of water : indee<1 tlio strou<;tli of 
the current makes the ascent of any boats a matter of 
diflicnlty. The Koroon is at tliis }>oint from ninety to one 
hundred and forty yards in width, while the banks of the 
river are so high and the water under tliem so deep tliat 
vessels can Ue close to tlie side. It is the more necessary 
to describe the condition of the Karoon river somewhat 
minutely, since Sir James Outram has been censured for 
raslmcss in permitting a small flotilla to ascend to a 
I>oint so far away from the main army, with the possi- 
bility of its being attacked by tlie Persian batteries at any 
tuni of the stream. It would seem, however, tlmt oven 
hiul the IVrsian commander endeavoured to interc'-opt tlio 
return of the DritiHh vessels, he would have been unable 
to interfere witli their free progresH, since they would 
have been favoured by the rapidity of the current and by 
tlie height of the river banks.* As the flotilla approached 
Ahwaz the Persian army was discovered occupying a ridgo 
to the left, a few hundred yards distant from the Karoon, 
and situated in a projecting angle, round which tlie river 
winds. The steamers were brought to anchor at about 
a mile and a half below tlie Persian position, and some 
horsemen, whose curiosity prompted them to approach 
the ships, were warned by a rifle-shot to keep at a 
distance. It was determined by the officer in command 
of the expedition to carry the town of Ahwaz, which the 



* Captain Sdby, of the Indian Navy, who had sunreyed the Karoon 
rivor, was in command of ono of the ships of t)ie expedition, and aeted aa 
guido. 



454 A unrroRT of rERSiA. 

Penuuis liad on the provions day abandoned ; and on Uio 
foronoon of tlio lat of April tlio troops landed on Uio 
right bank ; * tlioj advanced in skirmifdiing order, tliercby 
giving tlio appearance of tlieir being more nnmcrooM tliaii 
in reality they were. Two gon-boats at the same time 
took np positions within shell-range of tlie Pendans, and 
opened fire njion tlieir camp. The Persian gons did not 
reply to tlie fire, but a few shots were discharged by their 
marksmen which did not take efiect. By noon the 
British detachment was in posHCHnion of Ahwax, and to 
tlie left of tlie stream the Persiiui unny t*oiild now be dis- 
tingnished in full retreat. It retired iu tolerable order, 
being covered by tlie Bakhtiari horse. A British party was 
npon tliis sent across to the op^iosite bank of tlie Karoon, 
to set fire to the magazines that liad been abandoned by 
the Persians ; but the plundering Aral« were already at 
work in tlie deserted camp. The expedition then pro- 
ceeded down tlie stream to Mohamra, bringing on board 
the ships such of the Persian stores found at Ahwas 
as liad not been destroyed. 

So far tlie oiierations of Sir James Outnun had 
been completely successful. Busliiro and Mohamra had 
liecn taken and occupied, and the Persian forces had been 
defeated at Kliushab and driven from Ahwax. But 
had the war continued, it would Imve been diflicult to 
determine a line of o|)eratioiiM to be followed witli a 
probability of its being attended witli advantage to the 
Britisli Government. General Jacob, who was second in 
eommsnd of tlio expeditionary force, and whose valuable 
services and great achievements on tlie nortliem frontier 

* Tlkr tnmp* ImmM on Uif> Iff'i ksiik. pffti|vriy •|««luii|^ M Um Kmms ; 
kM to iIm ri|^l oTUm pmtMm oeai|«ril l»j Um Uritiali vwck. 



GENERAL JOHN JACOB'S VIEWS. 455 

of British India mado liis counsel valuablci was of 
opinion Umt since Persia bod boon invaded from tho sea 
in force, and since the Britisli trooi)s luid obtaiuod pos- 
session uf Mobamra, and virtnally of the whole of the 
Karoon river, it would be on error to abandon that dis- 
trict, and to restore it to Persia.* He held that the 
EngUsh force should retain the province of Klinaristan ; 
which, under British rule, could scarcely fiiil to be 
restored to its former prosperity. That province is 
divided from Uie rest of Persia by ranges of mountains 
which form a complete natural barrier, and it is in- 
liabited by tribes luid i)eople of the Arab race. It is 
traversed by rivers navigable from liill to sea, and 
adjoining tho valley of tlie Euphrates, it completely 
commands the outlet of that river to the ocean. 
General Jacob farther recommended that the port of 
Busliirc and tlie island of Earrack should bo incor- 
porated with the dominions of tlie Queen.* Had the 
island of Karrack alone been retained permanently in 
the hands of tlie EngUsh Government of India, its 
possession would have given to tliat Government a 
position in tho Gulf of Persia which would have rendered 
future breaches of treaty at Telirau unUkely of occur- 
rence ; and the retention of Karrack would not havo 
entailed much cost, since the island would have been 
guarded by the British squadron stationed in Uio Persian 
Gulf, whilst it would have been governed by tlio officer who 



* View* and Opinion t of Geneml J. Jaeoit, G,U. Edited by Captain 
Lkwin Pki.i.y. 

t In oiiuiiiomtinf; ilio adviintji^nH tliai wuro likely to accruo to Kii((land 
from tho rf*tt*iiii«»n of tho valloy of thu Kanxm, OcnonU Jacob ouiiUod to 
lioiiit out tlio increaiio wliich hritiiili iufluciioe in Turkey wotdd gaiu by tho 
establiftlimeut of a British province lo near to the dominiona of tha Sultan. 



4/!0 A lllftTOar OF PKIMIA. 

roprcHcntH tho Intlian Oovommont iit Uio courtn of the 
Arab cIiicfH of Uio gulf, and who rcAiiles at BuNhirc. But 
wliatoYor miglit have been tlie decision of her Majesty's 
Government witli regard to the retention or otiierwise of 
the territory conquered from Persia, had tliat decision 
been mainly influenced by considerations affecting only 
tho future, the course actually adopted was based chiefly 
upon tho urgent domandH of tho moment. Tiio expo* 
dition to Persia had not Imk^u IooIunI ui>on with favour 
by tho Englisli Parliament, or by the Knglish press, 
and th(*reforo a peace luul been c<mcludc<1 at Paris beforo 
Molmmra htul bcH)n taken. The expotlition to Ahwax 
formed tlio concluding act of the war. 

Fi?rrukh Khan, the Persian ambassaclor to the court 

of France, had concluded a treaty in the name of his 

mastcir, whidi had been signed on the part of England 

by Lonl Cowley at Paris on tlio 4th of March, 18ii7. 

Intimation of this event was given to Sir James Outram 

at Mohamra, by despatclieM which reacht*d iiim on the 

4th of April, and the ratilications of the Treaty were 

exchanged at Baghdad in the following month. By this 

treaty it was agretNl that the forces of her Majesty the 

Queen sliould evacuate the Persian territory, subject to 

certain conditions being fulfilled. The principal one of 

these was tliat the Shall of Persia should take imme<liate 

measures for withdrawing from the territory, and city, of 

Herat, and from every other part of Affghanistan, tho 

Persian trooi>s and autlioritios tlien stiitioned tlicrcin ; 

such withdrawal to be eflfoeted within tlirce months from 

tlio date of the exchange of tlio ratifications of this 

tn*aty. His Majesty tho Shah further agreed to relin* 

qnisb all claims to sovereignty over the territory and city 



TU>UTV OP PKACK. 4C7 

of llonit, nnd tlie countrioH of AfTglianirttaiiy and ucvor 
to demand from the chiefs of Herat, or of tho countries 
of Affghanistan, any marks of obedience, such as tbo 
coinage, or tlie ** Kliotbeh/ *' or tribute. 

His Persian Majesty further engaged to abstain there- 
after from all interference with the internal affairs of 
Affghanistan. He promised to recognize the indepen- 
dence of Honit, and of the wliole of Affgliauistant and 
never to attempt to interfere with tlie iudepeudenco of 
those states. 

In case of diflferences arising between the government 
of Persia and the countries of Herat and Affghanistan » 
the Persian Government engaged to refer them for adjust- 
ment to the friendly offices of the British Oovemnaent, 
and not to take up arms unless tliose friendly offices 
shonld fail of effect. 

The British Government, on their part, engaged at 
nil times to exei*t tluur influence with the states of Aff- 
ghanistan, to prevent any cause of umbrage being given 
by them, or by any of them, to the Persian Govern- 
ment ; the British Government engaging, if appealed to 
by tho Persian Government in the event of difficulties 
arising, to use their best endeavours to compose such 
differences in a manner just and honourable to Persia. 

In the case of any violation of the Persian frontier 
by any of the Affghan states, the Persian Government 
had tho right, if duo satisfaction were not given, to 
tmdortako military operations for the repression and 
punishment of the aggressors ; but it was to bo dis- 
tinctly understood that any military force of the Shah 

* ** Kholbch" ruforM to tliu public aiiuouiicoiuoui of dcx^euUcuoo ou the 
Shub, by pruyiiig for liitn iii tlie moiquos. 



458 A IIISTORr OF rERfflA. 

which might crom tho border for snch pnrpoBO, was to 
retire witliin liis owii tonitory as soon as tlie object 
shonlcl be occomplishedi and that the oxercino of this 
right was not to bo made a pretext by Persia for the 
permanent occupation, or tlie annexation, of any town 
or jiortion of tho Aflghan Htates. 

In ros^ioct to tlie CMtubliMhmont and recognition of 
consnls, and tlie restrictions of trade, each of tlie con- 
tracting parties was to be in tlie dominions of the other 
on the footing of the most favoured nation. 

On the ratifications of this treaty being exchanged, 
the British Mission was to return to Tehran, where it 
was to be received with certain specified apologies and 
ceremonies. The Kodr-Axem was to write, in tlie Shali's 
name, a letter to Mr. Murray, expressing his regret at 
having uttered and given currency to tlie offeuKive im- 
putations uix>n the honour of her Majesty's Minister, and 
requesting leave to witlidraw his oflbnsive letter to tliat 
geiitl(*man ; and two letters were sent from tlie rersiau 
minister for foreign af&iirs, one of which contaiiied a 
rescriiit frf>m the Shah respecting the imputation u|)on 
Mr. Murray. 

Anotlier stipulation of the treaty was, tliat the agree- 
ment enteretl into b<*twe<«n Great Britain and PerHia in 
tho year IHiil, for the suppression cf tlie Khive-tradc in 
the PerMian Gulf, sliould continue in force for ten years 
from the month of August 18C2. 

Such were tlie principal terms of the treaty agreed 
to at Paris between tlie pleui{K>tentiarics of Enghmd and 
of Persia. Great Britain had not wished to gain anything 
by the war, and accordingly she was willing to grant 
]>eace upon the conditions that the independence of Aff* 



TIIE TREATY RATIFIED. 469 

ghiinistAn shonlcl bo soeurcd, and that snitablo apology 
riionld bo mado for tbo affronts wliich had boon offered 
to tlio roprcsontativo of tho Qneon at tho Pcnuon court. 
The terms demanded from Persia wore so light that they 
might have boon secured at a loss cost tlian that in- 
volvcd iu tho captnro of Unshire and of Mohamra. It 
is probable tliat tho seizaro and retention of tlio island 
of Kiirracky and tho blockaile of Bnshiro would have 
had the effect of producing the evacuation of Herat by 
tlie troops of the Shah, and of bringing the Persian court 
to apologize for its conduct previously to the suspension 
of diplomatic relations at Tehran. As it was, the cap* 
tore of Mohamra and the defeat of the Shah's troops at 
Khnshab had no effect whatever on the negotiations for 
[)oiico at Paris ; for it was immediately after the capturo 
[)f BuKliire that tlio Sodr-Azem had sent instructions to 
Kcmikh Khan to conclude peace ui>on any terms what- 
u>ovcr. The snccoss which had attended the British 
imiR at Khnshab on tlio 8th of February was not known 
it Paris on tlio 4tli of March, and it was not until long 
iftor peace had been made that Mohamra fell. Tho 
Scdr-Azem, on listening to the paragraphs of tlio treaty, 
vhicli a socrotary had bronght from Paris, exclaimed, 
vhou ho came to a pause, ^' Is Uiat all ?" and on boing 
old that tlioro was nothing more, he utterod a fervent 
' Alhamdulillah ! "—Praise bo to Ood !— for he had fully 
expected tliat one of tlie clauses insisted on by England 
i*ould contain a demand for his own dismissal from 
>fi5c6. 

But, although Persia lay at the mercy of Great 
Britain, and would have been obliged to accept any terms 
offered to her, it very soon became a cause of sincere 



400 A IIISTORT OP rSRSIA. 

nntiBiaction to Iior Majesty's Oovcroment, tlmt notliing 
had boon allowod to retard the conchision of peace. No 
Hoonor had tlic nitiiicationfl of the treaty been exchanged 
at Da^hdail, tluui news reached Kir Jiunes Outnun at 
tliat city, of the outbreak of tlie mntiuies in India. Ue 
harried back to Busliire, and ere his arrival at tliat pkce, 
Gonerol Havclock liod already put t«> sea witli Uie two 
fomouH re;(imcntM* tliat so soon afterwards stemmed tlio 
title of relkJlion in nengiil. The second ]k>mlMiy Knro- 
pc^on Ilogimcnt liod also departed for India ; whcns in tlie 
Western IVcsidcncy, its presence was as much nxpiired as 
was Uiat of the otlier two English battalions furtlier east. 
The 3rd Bombay Light Caralry was also released from 
service in Persia, and witli the Mth Light Dragoons and 
a body of the Bombay Artillery, which hod okto formed 
l^ortions of tlie Persian force, it took a prominent \nurt in 
the subsequent war in India. Every loyal officer and 
man was urgently required in Hindoston, and hod tlio 
Persian war continued, India would have been deprived 
of tlie services, when slie most wanted them, of Sir James 
Outnun, Sir Henry Ilavelock, Sir Gooi^ Le-Groiid 
Jacob, Sir Edward Lugord, and others. But for tlio 
timely arrival of Britisli troops from the shore of the 
Persian Gulf, the mutineers must liave been allowod to 
keep the field for a time almost unopposed ; and it is im- 
posnible to assign any limits to tlie pn^portions which the 
mutiny might in snch case have assumed. 

General Jacob remoincHl at Busliire in command of a 
native Indian force, witli which he was to hold tliat place 
until Persia should have fulfilled tlie conditions imposed 
upon her by the Treaty of Paris. It has been said that 

* TIm Uih tmd imk wfiifU. 



PATE OF MAHOMED T006UF. 461 

one of Uieso couditionii was, tliat Herat should tiience- 
fortli bo iudcpondent. It was to bo govomod thoroaftcr 
by an Affgkan l^rineoy and tbo selection of tho now 
governor became an object of importauco to tiio Porsiou 
court. Uy the 8th article of the Treaty of Poace, tho 
Persian goTenimeut had engaged to set at liberty without 
ransom, immediately after the exchange of the ratifica- 
tions of the Treaty, all prisoners taken during tho opera- 
tions of tho Persian troo^M in AfTgluuiistan. Amongst 
UioHo prisoners was Maliomed Yoosaf, the nephow and 
heir of tlio late Prince Kamran of Herat. Prince Mahomod 
YooKof had defended Herat against tlie troops of tho Shall, 
and liad been sent as a prisoner to Teliran in the spring 
of the year I80G. There ho had been brought into the 
Shah's presence with a rope round his neck, and after 
havuig been reproached with his so-called rebellious 
conduct, had been pardoned by the king and set froo 
within the walls of the capital. But it was not the inten- 
tion of tho Persian government to permit the independent 
Sedozye prince to return to his priucipaUty, and they took 
advantage of a warning regarding the contents of tho 
coming treaty to make away witli Mahomod Yoosuf 
whilst he should still be in the power of the Shah. 

On tho lOtli of April, 1857, a courier arrived at 
Tehran from Paris, bearing despatches in which Ferrukh 
Khan informed his government of the terms of the treaty 
which he was about to conclude ; and as the signed agree- 
ment would follow in the course of a few days, the Sedr- 
Azom had no time to lose in deciding on the fate of 
Mahomed Yoosuf. His Highness was aware that that 
Afifghan prince would feel that, should he recover his 
power, he would owe its possession to the measures taken 



4C2 A IIISTORT OF PERSIA. 

by tlie Engliifth OoTernmentv and bo, tberefore, determined 
to place upon tlio tbrone of Herat, a ruler wbo would owe 
bii} advancement to tbe good-will of tbe Persian govern- 
meut. Ue found a man suited to tbis purpose in tbe 
perHou of Sultan Abmod Klian, a Baruksye, and wbo 
wan tlie nepbew and Hon-iu-law of Dost Mabomod Kban. 
Tbe tenuH u|Nin wliicb Sultuu Alimed Kluin was to receive 
ilie aid of Penuau influence and Persian gold, to enaMe 
bini to ctftiibliMb liimHclf at Herat, were tlieiie :-»He was, 
of liiH (iwu accord, to atrike coin in tlio luune of tlie Sbali, 
and to cauiie tbe ** Kbotbeb," or prayer for Uie Suseraiu, 
to be read for tbe Pensian king in tbe moHquea of Herat. 
Tims, altliougb Penuan troops sbould no longer remain 
on Aflgban soil, and tbougb by Treaty tbe Sbab sbould 
renounce all pretensions to sovereignty over Herat, bis 
coin would still be tlie current coin of tbat principality, 
and every Affgban wbo should attend at tbe mosques, 
would know tbat bis immediate ruler acknowledged tbe 
Sbali of Persia to be bis Suserain. In tbe powerlessness 
of Sultan Abmed Kban, if not in bis good-iaitb, tbe Sedr- 
Asem saw a guarantee for tbe fulfilment of bis part of 
tlie stipubtion. Sultan Abmed accordingly lost no time 
in burrying eastwards, in order tbat be migbt receive 
poss^ision of Herat firom Prince Sultan Murad. In bis 
anxiety to communicate personally with tbat general 
be forgot tbe circumhluiice tbat tbe prince was as yet 
iguonuit of tlio tonus of tbe agreement tlutt bad been 
concluded at Tebrun ; and be akio overlooked tlie fact 
tliat tlie Persian commander and liis soldiers bad at 
last tasted a mucb longed-for fruit, .wbicb, like tbat 
found by tbe Lotus-eaters, made tbem forgot the way 
to tbcir bomes. Hastening to tbe tent of the Persian 



SULTAN AIIMfiD KUAN. 4G3 

coinmonderi the Barukzye Sirdar was informed by the 
guards that his Royal Highness was asleep ; and when 
he poshed them aside, and they still barred his way, 
he wounded one of tliem with his dogger. The noise 
of the scuffle awoke the prince, who, on learning 
what Iiiul token place, gave orders tliot the AfTghau 
intruder, whose coming he hiul httlo looked for, Hhonld 
be Hcverely bostinadoed. But notwitlistonding thin unto- 
ward commencement of sovereignty, Sultim Ahmed Khou 
I)er8i;vcro<l in tlio course to which he hiul pledged huusolf ; 
nor did he ever seek to evade the terms upon wliich ho 
lukd agreed to hold Herat. Coin was strack in the Shah's 
name, and the customary proyer was read for his Persian 
Majesty in the mos([nes of the city, in the same manner 
as would hove been done hod the Persian troops hold tho 
priucipohty ; and Sultan Alimcd Khou continued volun- 
tarily to acknowledge liimself to be the vassal of the Shah 
until the day came when he died at his post, as his capital 
was about to foil into the hands of the foe against whom 
ho hod so long and so bravely defended it. 

More terrible was the death, and less brilliant the 
career of the Sedozye claimant to the throne of Herat. 
On the 11th of April, 1857, the day succeeding that of 
the arrival at Tehran of the copy of the proposed treaty 
of Paris, Mahomed Yoosnf was seized, and the Sedr^ 
Azem took odvontoge of o blood* feud to put on end to 
tho dongerous rivohry of this Aflghon prince to tlie now 
governor of llorot. Shall Konirau hod been put to death 
by his Vizoor Yiir Moliouiod Khun, and Moliomed Yoosufi 
tho nephew of Kamran, had, in accordance with AfTglum 
usage and Moslem low, avenged his death by slaying Syd 
Mahomed, tho son of Yor Mahomed Khan. Tho relo^ 



4C4 A UI8T0RT OF PKBHIA. 

• 

tivcM of Syd MtUiumcd wero» in torui ready to kill 
Maliomcd YooHuf ; bnt tlioy eoukl uot rcutoro to do bo 
HO long OH tliiit priiico idionld i>o living under tlio SIiuirH 
pn>tc*ction at Triinui. Thuy wero now, Iiowctct, urged 
to dennuid tlie bloutl of tlicir feudal foe, uud tlio liaploHH 
YooHuf waH drugged to a mound in front of tlio Kuiir-i- 
Kajar |mlaco, and there clunihily hocked to pieccn by tlie 
siibrcH of tlie relatirefl of Syd Malioiued. On the IStli 
of April tlio signed treaty won received from roriii, and 
wuH at once accepted by the Shah's government and 
ratified by liis Majesty. 

Peace hail not been restored one hour too soon for 
tlie intercHtM of Persia. Tabreex, the diief city of tlie 
kiiigdoin, had lately been in o|)en insurrection; tlie 
soutliem provinces were agitated and luindyxed by the 
presence of a British iorce ; and in Khorossan tlio Turko- 
niuiiH were ovemuiniiig wlude districts and conyiug tlie 
inhabitants into aiptivity. It was tlie study of the Sinlr* 
Axem to conceal tliis state of tilings from the knowledge 
of tlie Shall, and to cause his Majesty to believe tluit 
his numerous subjects were blessed with prosperity and 
contentment. But even tlie absolute |Niwcr of a (irand 
Vixccr is unable at all times to exclude tlie disaintentod 
or the honest from tlio hearing of tlie sovereign, and so 
many murmurs reached tlio ears of tlie king tliot Iiis 
Majesty at length determined to dismiss his Minister 
from oifico, and to assume in his own person the chief 
direction of the administration of his countiy. 

That his Migesty's unceasing efforts have since then 
been directed solely towards securing the well-being of 
all cksses of his subjects, and towards accomplishing the 
difBcolt task of providing £br the furtherance of justice 



CONCLUSUON. 4G5 

throughout liis wido dominionSi it would bo unfair to dony. 
It will bo tho lot of 8omo faturo writor to toll tlio English 
HtudonlH of Onoutiil ntory that another namo has boon 
lulded to tlio lint of oxcoptional Eastoni monarchs ; but 
it is not my uitontion to attempt to traco tho ccnirso of 
Persian history tlirough tho years Uiat have elapsed siuco 
tlie downfall of the late Sodr-iVzem. 

In conclusion, I sliall only state that if the picture 
presented in these pages of the condition of Persia bo 
not an inspiritmg onoi it is at least drawn with im- 
partiaUty. It would have been a gratifying task to toll 
of a prospect of the coming triumph of civilization 
throughout Central Asiai but had I ventm*ed to hold 
out so delusive a hope to tlio reader, I should, have 
been guilty of paltethig witli that truth which ought 
to bo as jealously watched over by tlio historian as was 
tho Ark of God by the Jewish priest of old. 



TUB END. 



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