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The University of Notre Dame, and St. 
Mary's Academy, aister institutions of learn- 
ing, situated in Clay township, St. Joseph 
county, were both founded by the Very Rev. 
Edward Sorin; the university, on the Lakes 
of Notre Dame, November 26, 1842, and the 
academy, on the banks of the St. Joseph river, 
a mile to the west, on April 24, 1855. 

We have frequently had occasion, in the 
preceding chapters, to refer to the lakes at 
Notre Dame and to the missionaries who 
visited the redmen at that point, at Fort St. 
Joseph's, down the river, at Bertrand, and at 
other missions in the Parkovash. Father 
Sorin and the others who aided him in laying 
the foundations of the university and the 
academy, alwaj^ looked upon this region bla 
predestined missionary ground. In 1879, 
when a great disaster visited the establish- 
ment which he had spent a lifetime in per- 
fecting, the following words of encourage- 
ment were written, recalling something of 
these old chronicles and traditions: 

**We are living on historic, nay, on holy 
ground. Not more than a mile from Notre 
Dame, now over two hundred years ago, the 
apostolic Marquette crossed Portage prairie 

Vol. II— 1. 

from the Kankakee, and embarked on the St. 
Joseph on that last sad voyage a little before 
his death. Near to this place La Salle wan- 
dered about the woods seeking to return to 
his companions on the St. Joseph river, on 
that night of which Parkman makes mention 
when the intrepid discoverer lost his way in 
the forest. 

'* After a time we have indications, more 
or less obscure, of the presence of the in- 
defatigable French missionaries. It is knowji 
that the venerable Allouez labored in this 
region, and even on the shores of these very 
lakes; and many missionaries of whom no 
record remains undoubtedly spent a part of 
their time on these grounds, by the winding 
St. Joseph and the crystal twin lakes, reclaim- 
ing the rude barbarians. Down the river a 
few miles, near the site of the old battle- 
ground, on a bluflf overlooking the valley and 
the river, stands a huge wooden cross marking 
the resting-place of one of those saintly men 
who gave up his life for the red man. The 
labor was not unblessed, and *St. Mary of 
the Lake«' (Ste. Marie des Lacs), the title 
given Notre Dame by the early missionaries, 
became the center of a Christian wilderness, 
extending over a large part of northern Iii-\ 
diana and southern Michigan. The baptismal 

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registers of those early churches are still pre- 
served at Notre Dame; and a mile southwest 
of here a memorial cross has been erected to 
commemorate the ancient burial ground of 
the Christian Indians. The bodies of two of 
the latest of those early evangelists, Father 
De Seille and Father Petit, now rest in the 
Church of Our Lady, of the Sacred Heart. 
Father De SeJUe died here alone at the altar 
of his log church, where he had dragged him- 
self to partake of the divine banquet ere his 
departure. The venerable Father Louis Ney- 
ron, still living here (1879), but then pastor 
at New Albany, on the Ohio river, was sent 
for to prepare Father De Seille for death, 
and started immediately, on horseback; but 
before he had traversed the length of the 
state, Father De Seille lay already three days 
dead. Father Petit died beyond the Missis- 
sippi, where he had followed his *dear In- 
dians,' on their removal from here by the 
government. His body was afterwards* 
brought back by Father Sorin and now rests 
beside that of Father De Seille, his prede- 
cessor, and also that of his successor. Father 
Francis Cointet, who, except Father Sorin 
himself, was the last of those Indian mis- 

*'It is little wonder, therefore, that when 
Father Stephen Theodore Badin, *the proto- 
priest of America,' first came amongst these 
Christian Indiang and found himself upon 
the banks of a river named after St. Joseph, 
and by the twin lakes of St. Mary and St. 
Joseph, he should have felt inspired to secure 
the beautiful and sacred spot *as the site or 
a future Catholic college,' as he expressed it. 

**It would seem, indeed, when we strive 
to gather up the scattered threads of our local 
history, that Notre Dame was pointed out 
from the beginning by the hand of God for 
great things, and it behooves us to guard 
well and foster the sacred inheritance which 
has been left to us. It has descended to us 
from the saints. From the November day, 
now nearly forty years ago, when Father 
Sorin first stood upon these grounds and 

looked upon the snow-covered landscape — an 
emblem of virginal purity, as it seemed to 
him — even to the present hour, there have 
never wanted earnest souls who have looked 
upon the ground as the consecrated abode 
of religion and learning." 

That the unheralded labors of those sim- 
ple and self -forgetting missionaries were re- 
warded by a blessed harvest, we may know 
from the fact that almost all the Indians of 
ijorthem Indiana became devoted believers in 
Christ, loving as their teachers and fathers, 
the faithful priests who spent their lives in 
the obscurity of the wilderness that they 
might bring Christianity and civilization to 
the children of the forests. 

In Nevin's *' Black Robes, or Sketches of 
Missions and Ministers in the Wilderness and 
on the Border," it is said that, *'The first 
attempt at the erection of a mission in 
southern Michigan, according to the testi- 
mony of the few of the tribe of the Potta- 
watomies still to be found on the spot was 
made, perhaps, as early as 1675. The suc- 
cessful achievement of the project was accom- 
plished in 1680. Father AUouez, in that year, 
attended by Dablon, after having coasted 
Lake Michigan from Green bay, entered the 
St. Joseph river, so called in honor of the 
patron saint of Canada, and making advance 
against its tide, proceeded, until some twenty- 
five miles (fifty by the river) from its mouth, 
he reached the locality now the seat of the 
inviting town of Niles. About half a mile 
up stream from the heart of the town — a nar- 
row belt of lowland lying between it and the 
river — rises a semi-circular bluflf, at the bas»* 
of which, and through the soil of the marshy 
level runs a brook which empties its slender 
contribution of supply into the St. Joseph. 
On this bluff, up till within twenty-five years 
since, if not now, the traces were plainly 
distinguLshable of a fortification, the cross 
planted, at the time of its construction, and 
still to be seen, in the rear of it, indicating 
by whom, and for what use it was built. " 
Here, conveniently established between an en- 

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canipment of Miamis on one side of the river, 
and three several settlements — one at Poka- 
gon, a second on the shores of what are now 
known as the Notre Dame lakes, and the 
third and principal one, close by the fort of 
the Pottawatomies on the other — Allouez built 
a chapel and near by a log oabin for his own 
accommodation. His labors were carried on 
successfully, and without the occurrence of 
any extraordinary event to invest them with 
special interest. After a faithful service of 
several years, he died in the summer of 
1689. His adies repose in the graveyard of 
the mission at Niles. The establishment was 
kept up, part of the time under the ministry 
of Chardon, *a man wonderful in the gift 
of tongues, speaking fluently nearly all of 
the Indian languages of the Northwest,' un- 
til 1759. In that year the French garrison 
at Fort St. Joseph's was attacked by a party 
of English soldiers, the engagement resulting, 
after a fierce contest, in the defeat of the 
French. The survivors of the garrison, in- 
cluding the priests, were carried away pris- 
oners to Quebec. The mission, thus violently 
dissolved, was not reorganized for nearly a 
hundred years. In 1829, Father Stephen T. 
Badin came to the vicinity, to revive the faith 
among the Pottawatomies, built a chapel on 
the little St. Mary's lake, near South Bend, 
bought a section of land, which, conveyed to 
the bishop of Vincennes, through him was 
dedicated in the interests of education to 
the church, and is now the seat of that nota- 
ble institution of learning, the university of 
Notre Dame." 

During the sad period from the destruction 
of the missions, in 1759, until the arrival of 
Father Badin, in 1829, although but an oc- 
casional missionary visited them, neverthe- 
less the poor Indians preserved the memory 
of their faithful Black Robes and their belief 
in the Christian religion. The chapels of 
logs and the various articles of the sacred 
service of the church were, in numerous 
places, guarded by the bereaved Christians, 
and often and often they made touching ap- 

peals for priests to instruct their children in 
the faith of their fathers. 

One of those earnest supplications has 
been preserved to us in the words of the 
great Pottawatomie chief, Pokagon, ancestor 
of the present chief, Simon Pokagon, whose 
eloquent speech at the World's Pair in Chi- 
cago in 1893 in vindication of his people at- 
tracted so wide attention. 

In 1829 Pokagon, at the head of a deputa- 
tion of Pottawatomies, visited Detroit, then 
the residence of the distinguished Father 
Gabriel Richard, vicar general of the bishop 
of Cincinnati. Father Richard had then 
been for thirty-five years a missionary at this 
point, having charge of the missions through- 
out Michigan and west to the Mississippi 
river. This remarkable man, who may be 
considered the apostle of Michigan, had won 
the love and respect not only of the Indian 
and French Catholics of this vast region, 
but was looked upon by all the people as a 
wise and patriotic citizen, the mainstay of 
civilization in the new territory, then recently 
acquired by the Union from Great Britain. 

Father Richard had been elected to con- 
gress in 1823, being perhaps the only Cath- 
olic priest that was ever thus honored by his 
fellow citizens. There he won the respect 
and esteem of his colleagues and of the other 
officials of the government. Henry Clay was 
his particular friend. After his service in 
congress he returned to his mission at De- 
troit^ where he continued his labors until his 
death, in 1832. 

Sec. 1. — ^Pokagon**. — Six miles north of 
South Bend is the site of the last of the 
Pottawatomie villages. It was the home for 
many years of old Chief Pokagon, and the 
birthplace of the present chief, Simon Poka- 
gon, who is now engaged in writing his fa- 
ther's biography. There is nothing about the 
spot to indicate that it was ever the place of 
human habitation. In a valley running back 
from St. Joseph river about a mile to the 

a. From "Maudlin," a correspondent of the In- 
dianapolis News. 

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west, at the head of a rippling, winding little 
brook, gurrounded by hills and on two » sides 
by heavy oak forests, it lies, a peaceful, pic- 
turesque little nook of farmland, rarely ever 
cultivated, and seldom visited except by the 
farmer's boy going to bring home the cows 
grazing, where a half a century ago the wig- 
wams stood, or the relic-hunter, who knows 
its history. It is hidden from the highway, 
and not a trace of the old town is left. How 
old it was no one now living can tell. The 
few log huts occupied by Pokagon and his 
followers with their families looked to the 
settlers who first saw them sixty-seven years 
ago as about ready to tumble down, and they 
had probably been built seventy-five or a hun- 
dred years before. Probably an Indian vil- 
lage had stood around the bubbling spring 
that formed the source of the little brook for 
many generations. The numerous relics of 
stone and copper found in the vicinity point 
to this. 

Pokagon was a pious Indian. On one of 
the hills overlooking the village was a log 
chapel where he and his followers wor- 
shiped, according to the rites of the Catho- 
lic church, taught them by their fathers. 
How long the chapel had been built is not 
known, but it may have been one of the 
missions established by Father Claude Al- 
louez more than two hundred. years ago, he 
being, the pioneer missionary of the region, 
whose ashes are reposing somewhere along 
the St. Joseph river. The exact spot of his 
burial is not knowji. In 1759 the English 
drove the French out of this region, and 
took possession, dise^olving all the missions. 
They were not re-established for nearly a 
hundred years afterward, but, although the 
Indians were deprived of the care and in- 
struction of the priests, they did not forget 
the forms of the church. In the latter part 
of the twenties, Pokagon made a pilgrimage 
'to Detroit to implore the church authorities 
there to send a **black robe'' (the Indian 
name for a priest) among his people. 

His speech to the vicar general of the 

bishop of Cincinnati, Father Gabriel Richard, 
on this occasion, is on record. It was an 
earnest and eflPeetive plea. **I implore you,*' 
he said, **to send us a black robe to instruct 
us in the Word of God. If you have no care 
for us old men, at least have pity on our 
poor children, who are growing up in ignor- 
ance and vice. We still preserve the man- 
ner of /prayer as taught our ancestors by the 
black robe who formerly resided at St. Jo- 
seph. Morning and evening, with my wife 
and children, we pray together before the 
crucifix in the chapel. Sunday we pray to- 
gether oftener. On Fridays we fast until 
evening, men, women and children, according 
to the traditions handed down to us by our 
fathers, for we ourselves have never seen a 
black robe. Listen to the prayers he taught 
them, and see if I have learned them 

Then the old chief fell on his knees and 
made the sign of the cross and repeated the 
prayers of the church with the Our Father, 
the Hail Mary, the creed and the ten com- 
mandments in the Pottawatomie tongue. The 
result of this plea was the sending to this re- 
gion of Father Stephen Theodore Badin, the 
first Catholic priest ordained in the United 
Stat^, who oanae here in 1829, and for sev- 
eral years had charge of all the missions in 
northern Indiana and southern Michigan. 
He established a mission two miles north of 
South Bend that eventually developed into 
Notre Dame University. He was the reli- 
gious instructor of Pokagon and his people 
during the remainder of their sojourn in 
the old village, and many of the earlier 
settlers heard Father Badin preach in the old 
log church on the hill. The church itself 
has long since disappeared, but its founda- 
tions are still visible. Down the valley near 
the river was the old Pokagon town burying 
ground, and the old cedar cross, with its 
horizontal arm gone, is still standing in a 
good state of preservation. It was there 
when the first white settlers came to this 

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Pokagon is represented by some historical 
writer's as the leader of a band of Potta- 
watomies in a battle with the Shawnees in 
the days before the whites, but this can be 
classed as fiction, as Pokagon was wholly 
averse to war, and his sole purpose was to 
keep his people from fighting. Again, he is 
said to have been at the massacre of Fort 
Dearborn as a peacemaker, and to have been 
the one who assisted Captain Heald and his 
wife to escape. This is not believed to have 
been true by some of the older settlers, who 
were intimately acquainted with him, as he 
was never heard to say any such thing, 
though he said he used all his efforts to keep 
the Pottawatomies in this region from being 
in the massacre; and went himself to per- 
suade Topinabee from taking part in the 
wars. Pokagon was, no doubt, at St. Joseph 
with Topinabee when the massacre occurred, 
and was one of those who assisted Captain 
Heald from St. Joseph on to Detroit and 

The most authentic records of the massacre 
give the credit of assisting him to escape to 
John Baptiste Chandonia, a nephew of To- 
pinabee, who died in South Bend in 1837, 
and was buried in the city cemetery, though 
his grave is now unmarked and unknown. 
Pokagon, after the treaty of 1833, the sign- 
ing of which almost broke his heart, as it 
scattered his people broadcast over the land 
and deprived him of the home of. his birth- 
place, remained at the old town for several 
years, and then went over into Cass county, 
Michigan, where he established another vil- 
lage, and built anoither church. He died a 
few years afterward and was buried under 
the church, which is located on the banks 
of a picturesque and charming little lake. 

Sec. 2. — Stephen Theodore Badin. — It 
seems fitting that these missions, destined to 
prepare the way for this great Catholic uni- 
versity, should have been revived by the re- 
nowned Stephen Theodore Badin. Father 
Badin was ordained at Baltimore May 23, 
1793, by Archbishop Carroll, being the first 

priest ord'ained within the United States. 
Notre Dame thus traces her spiritual lineage, 
through the proto-priest of America, to the 
first of American bishops and to the seat of 
the American primacy at Baltimore and the 
original Catholic colony of Maryland. Fa- 
ther Badin re-established the mission at St. 
Mary of the Lakes, Ste. Marie des Lacs, as 
it was called, building the little log chapel 
which Father Sorin found still on the spot 
onj his arrival. 

So pleased was Father Badin with the 
beauty of the location, undoubtedly also in- 
fluenced by a divine inspiration, that he pur- 
chased from the United States government 
the section of land containing the two little 
lakes of St. Mary and St. Joseph, intending, 
as he said, that this should be the site of a 
great university. The hand of Providence 
was in this. The work of the holy mission- 
aries, from the days when Marquette and La 
Salle moved upon the waters of the St. Joseph 
and over the portage from the Kankakee, 
was to be continued. Their labors were to 
be blessed, not only in the multitude of In- 
dian souls which they had led to God, but 
even more, in the untold multitudes who have 
since and shaU yet go hence to bless the 
world and to be themselves blessed forever 
with those saintly confessors in the presence 
of Him who is Himself the reward of those 
who toil single-hearted and unknown, but 
for His glory and the welfare of their 

Under Father Badin, and under his suc- 
cessor, Father Louis DeSeille, the tsraintly 
Belgian missionary, who succeeded him, about 
1832, and whose heroic death at the altar 
we have related, the missions flourished won- 
derfully; or, rather, they revived; for, as 
we have seen, this had been a Christian wil- 
derness a hundred and fifty years previous 
to this time, even from the days of AUouez.^ 

Sec. 3. — The Removal op the Indians. — 

a. See "The Removal of the Pottawatomies," by 
the Hon. Daniel McDonald, Chapter 2, Subdivision 
6, of this Hlstonr. 

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On the southern shores of Lake Michigan, 
and to the east and west, as late as 1835, 
multitudes of red men, many of them sav- 
ages only in name, who had accepted Chris- 
tianity, and the civilization which grows out 
of it, continued to dwell. But the govern- 
ment had determined that all the Indians, 
civilized and savage, should be gathered on 
a territory of their own, to the west of the 
Mississippi. By the end of 1836, some by 
treaty and others by force, had abandoned 
the hunting grounds so dear to them, and 
taken up their abode in the Indian territory. 

The Pottawatomies, however, still lingered 
in their ancient habitations. Many of them, 
as we have seen, were Christians: they were 
attached to the soil where they and their 
fathers had heard the glad tidings of salva- 
tion ; and they trembled at the prospect 
of a removal to a distant and strange land. 
But therr hopes were vain. In the spring 
838 came the order which to them was as 
a decree of banishment from all they held 
dearest in life — their home and their re- 
ligion. This last misery, however, was to be 
spared them. They had for their priest then 
Father Benjamin Mary Petit, the youthful 
successor of Father DeSeille; and he de- 
termined to accompany **his dear Indians*' 
to the far west. 

Father Petit was a young lawyer of 
Rennes, France, when, in 1835, at the age of 
twenty-four years, he felt himself called to 
a religious life, and sailed for America, 
where he placed himself under the charge of 
the Right Rev. Gubriel Brut6, the saintly 
. bishop of Vincennes. On the day of his or- 
dination, October 14, 1837, he wrote to his 
mother: **I am now a priest . . . My 
hand is now consecrated to God. . . . 
How my lips trembled this morning at my 
first mass. . . . Within two days I start 
hence all alone on a journey of three hun- 
dred miles — and yet not alone, for I shall 
journey in company with my God, whom I 
shall carry on my bosom day and night, and 
shall convey with me the instruments of the 

great sacrifice, halting from time to time in 
the depths of the forest, and converting the 
hut of some poor Catholic into the palace of 
the King of Glory. My heart is so light, so 
happy, so contented, that I am a wonder to 
myself. From mass to mass, to go forward 
even to heaven! You recollect that I often 
said that I was bom happy. I can say the 
same still. I had always desired a mission 
amongst the savages; there is but one such 
in Indiana, and it is I whom the Pottawato- 
mies will call their 'Father Black Robe.' " 
And well did this young priest deserve the 
appellation! It is thus he described his first 
visit to his beloved Indians :*» **I remained 
three weeks among them, and our time was 
spent as follows: At sunrise the first peal 
was rung; then might you see the savages 
moving along the paths of the forest and the 
borders of the lakes. When they were as- 
sembled the second peal was rung. The 
catechist then, in an animated manner, gave 
the substance of the sermon preached the 
evening before; a chapter of the catechism 
was read and morning prayers were recited. 
I then said mass, the congregation singing 
hymns the while ; after which I preached, my 
sermon being translated as I proceeded by 
a respectable French lady, seventy-two years 
old, who has devoted herself to the missions 
in the capacity of interpreter. The sermon 
was followed by an Our Father and a Hail 
Mary; after which the congregation sang a 
hymn to Our Lady and quietly dispersed. 
The next thing was confessions, which lasted 
till evening, and sometimes were resumed 
after supper. At sunset the natives again 
assembled for catechism, followed by an ex- 
hortation and evening prayers, which fin- 
ished with a hymn to Our Lady. I then gave 
them my benediction^ — the benediction of poor 
Benjamin! Many practice frequent com- 

a. This was at Twin Lakes, MarshaU County, 
a little south of Plymouth. See Mr. McDonald's 
speech, referred to in the preceding note, for a de- 
scription of the locality. It was at the time the 
chief mission to the Pottawatomies, and was their 
principal village. 

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munion. I baptized eighteen adults, and 
blessed nine marriages. ... I cannot 
tell you how attached they became to jne 
during my short stay amongst them. *We 
were orphans/ they said to me, *and, as it 
were, in darkness; but you came amongst us, 
and we live. You afe to us in the place of 
our father who is dead; we will do nothing 
without your advice.' *To whom shall we 
go when you have left us?' exclaimed an old 
man. * While you are with us, if we are in 
sorrow, we come to you and are comforted.' 
. . . Could you have witnessed how, with 
swelling hearts, they knelt down in silence 
around me to receive my benediction when I 
was departing, you would understand why, 
as I bade them farewell, I experienced the 
same feelings as when I left Rennes.; it 
seemed as though I were once more leaving 
my family." 

At the beginning of the year 1838, he 
again writes: **Here I am in the midst of 
my Indians. How I do love these children 
of mine, and what pleasure it is to me to 
find myself amongst them ! There are now 
from a thousand to twelve hundred Chris- 
tians. I was asleep on my mat the last day 
of the year, when toward midnight I was sud- 
denly awakened by a discharge of firearms. 
It does not take much time to get* up when 
one sleeps in one's clothes on a mat. I threw 
open my door, and in an instant my room 
was filled with Indians, men, women and 
children, who had come to wish me a happy 
new year. They knelt down around me to 
ask my blessing; and then, with countenances 
beaming with smiles, they every one shook 
hands with me. It was a real family f^te. 
I said a few words to them on the year which 
was past, and on that which had just comr 
menced; and then led them to the chapel, 
where we spent a short time in prayer. 
. . . I love them dearly. Could you see 
the little children, when I enter a cabin, 
crowding around me and climbing on my 
knees — ^the father and mother making the 
sign of the cross in pious recollection, and 

then coming, with a confiding smile on their 
faces, to shake hands with me — ^you could not 
but love them as I do. In the evening you 
might see them stooping over the fire and 
singing hymns or repeating the catechism. 
I begin to speak their language a little, and 
to understand what they say to me. I am 
really too happy; do not wish me anything 

In the spring he was able to take up his 
residence among his people. **I have a vast 
dwelling," he says, ** built of entire trees 
laid one upon another; in more than one 
place the light may be seen through the 
walk; my fire place is large enough to hold 
half a ton of coal; the floor is of planks, 
which, not being fastened together, shake un- 
der the feet like the keys of a piano under 
the fingers of the musician. At night I have 
a mat laid upon it; and with two blankets, 
one under, the other over me, I sleep as well 
as if I lay on the most luxurious bed in the 
world." But his journeys were still long 
and fatiguing; sometimes he had forty or 
sixty miles to go to visit the sick. ** Per- 
haps," says he, on one such occasion, with 
that simplicity so characteristic of his order, 
**you look upon missionaries as saints; but 
I must confess that during all that time I 
could scarcely say one prayer. When I had 
done hearing confessions, and had said my 
office, I fell asleep on my mat. However," 
he adds, **the Master to whom I have wholly 
devoted myself is pleased to accept the labor 
of each day as a continued sacrifice; and, 
when offered with proper motives, such labor 
is an unceasing prayer." 

But all this while a great grief lay heavy 
at his heart. His Indians were to be taken 
from him, as he thought, and the mission 
extirpated. From ** Pictures of Missionary 
Life," collected chiefly from the Annals of 
the Propagation of the Faith, and published 
at London, in 1858, by Barnes and Lambert, 
we condense the following account of this 
eviction; a narrative that reminds one of 

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the story of Ramooa by Mrs. Helen Hunt 

The government had given orders for the 
removal of the Pottawatomies, and seemed 
deaf to all entreaties. **I shall have to level 
the altar and the church to the ground/' 
writes the fervent apostle, ** and bury the 
cross which overshadows their tombs, to save 
it from profanation. And these Christian 
souls will pine away, deprived of those sacra- 
ments which they approached with so much 
fervor, and languishing under an unknown 
sky, where I, their father, shall be unable 
to follow them." Fain would he have com- 
forted himself with the hope of accompany- 
ing them on their way ; but the bishop, fear- 
ful of even appearing to countenance the 
cruel measures adopted by the civil power, 
withheld his consent. 

At last his worst fears were realized. 
Early in the autumn the government took 
possession of the house in which he lodged, 
and of the church in which the natives were 
assembled for prayer. Some would have re- 
sisted, but Father Petit exhorted them to 
submit. He said his last mass^ and then the 
church was stripped' and left desolate. Many 
fled to the woods, others crossed over into the 
Canadian territory; one band, the first that 
had embraced the faith, bought lands and 
accepted the law of the conqueror rather 
than be forced into exile. Once more the 
good priest gathered his flock together; it 
was on the morning of their departure: he 
wept as he addressed them, and his hearers 
wept too; they sang together for the last 
time, that hymn to the Virgin Mother which 
they loved so well ; but their voices faltered, 
and few were able to sing it to the end. So 
they parted, and, as all thought, forever in 
this world. 

A few days afterwards, the Indians, not- 
withstanding their peaceable dispositions, 
were made prisoners of war; they were as- 
sembled under pretext of holding a confer- 
ence, and, amidst a discharge of musketry, 
eight hundred of them were put under ar- 

rest. They now unanimously declared that 
they would not go without their priest. The 
government invited Father Petit to accom- 
pany them, but he could do nothing without 
his bishop's consent; and the order was 
given to march without further delay. The 
Indians were driven on at the point of the 
bayonet; many were sick; huddled together 
in transport wagons, numbers died of heat 
and thirst. It happened, however, that 
Bishop Brute was to consecrate a church in 
a neighboring mission on the 9th of Septem- 
ber; and on the 7th the Indians would be 
encamped within a mile of the place. Two 
days before, the bishop entered Father 
Petit 's room. **He lavished on me,*' says the 
latter, **all the consolation which a father 
could bestow upon a son; for myself I was 
as a man who stirs not under a weight that 
threatens to crush him.*' Together they set 
out for Logansport, and on their way learned 
of the sufferings of the poor Indians. The 
news was like a dagger in the heart of the 
young priest; but to his delight, the sainted 
Brute gave him permission to follow the emi- 
grants, on condition of returning as soon 
as he was summoned; and he hastened im- 
mediately to his post. No sooner did it get 
abroad that the priest was come than tiie 
whole camp was in motion ; the natives flocked 
out to meet him: the whites, drawn up in 
file, formed a lane for him to pass; they 
were astonished at the enthusiasm of affec- 
tion with which he was received, and the 
influence he exercised over these unmanage- 
able savages. **This man,*' exclaimed the 
officer in command, **has more power here 
than I have." On Sunday Father Petit said 
mass in the middle of the camp under an 
awning suspended from a lofty tree; in the 
afternoon came the bishop; the Indians 
knelt to receive his blessing as he passed to 
the tent; they then arranged themselves in 
order, and, some by heart, others from books, 
sang vespers in their native tongue. It was 
a sight never to be forgotten by those who 
witnessed it. 

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On the 16th the faithful pastor rejoined 
his flock. He found them moving onwards, 
enveloped in clouds of dust, and surrounded 
by the soldiers who hurried on their march. 
Behind came the wagons, in which were 
crowded together the sick, the women and 
the children. The scene, as described by Fa- 
ther Petit, was one of the most mournful 
description; the children, overcome by heat, 
were reduced to a wretched state of languor 
and exhaustion. Some new-born infants he 
baptized. ** Happy Christians," he exclaims, 
**who pass in peace from this land of exile 
to the mansions of bliss!" By this time 
General Tipton, the oflBcer in command, had 
begun to understand something of Father 
Petit 's worth, and- treated him with marked 
respect. The chiefs, who had hitherto been 
treated as prisoners of war^ were released 
at the priest's request, and took their place 
with the rest of the tribe. First went the 
flag of the United States, borne by a dragoon ; 
after which came the baggage; then the ve- 
hicle occupied by the native chiefs. Next 
followed the main body of the emigrants, 
men, women arid children, mounted on horses, 
marching in file after Indian fashion, while 
all along the flanks of the multitude might 
bo seen dragoons ind volunteers urging o/j 
unwilling stragglers, often with the most vio- 
lent words and gestures. The sick were ip 
their wagons, under an awning of canvas, 
which, however, far from protecting them 
from the stifling heat and dust, only de^ 
prived them of air; the interior was like an 
oven and many consequently died. Six miley 
fnMn Danville there was a halt for two days: 
and each morning Father Petit said mass in 
the midst of his people; he gave the viati- 
cum to the dying and baptized some. **When 
we quitted the spot,'' he says, **we left six 
graves under the shadow of the crogs." Or- 
der had been so thoroughly restored through 
the presence of the priest, that the troogs 
now retired, and Father Petit was left with 
the civil authorities to conduct the emigrants 
to their destination. 

We will not pursue the pathetic narrative 
over the vast prairies of Illinois and Iowa. 
Suffice it to say that the march of the In- 
dians was henceforth as a Christian pilgrim- 
age, except when they stopped for an hour 
to bury their dead. A day's journey from 
the Osage river, the place allotted for their 
settlement, sixty miles beyond the western 
line of Missouri, they met Father Hoeken, 
of the Society of Jesus, who had been ap- 
pointed to take charge of the Pottawatomies 
in their new home. Into his hands Father 
Petit resigned his charge, and turned back 
to retrace his way to his bishop. But natui'e 
was exhausted and his task being accom- 
plished the reaction set in from which he was 
not to recover. He had fever on the way 
out, but recovered suflScieritly to proceed with 
his charge. Now, however, he grew worse 
rapidly and could come no further than St. 
Louis. There, notwithstanding all that could 
be done for him, he departed to receive his 
reward. On the 10th day of February, 1839, 
**with a smile on his lips and his eyes on 
the crucifix," he went to **the Master to 
whom," as he himself had said, **I have 
wholly devoted myself"; to that Master who 
has said: ** Greater love than this no man 
hath, that a man lay down his life for his 
friends." He had died for his dear Christian 

We need not wonder, therefore, that Fa- 
ther Sorin, burning as he was with admira- 
tion for the heroic martyr missionary who 
was his immediate predecessor, should desire 
that the body of that young priest should be 
placed at rest beneath the noble church built 
on the spot made holy by his labors; or that 
Father Sorin should himself, in 1856, have 
gone to St. Louis and brought the sacred 
remains to Notre Dame and laid them be- 
side those of Father De Seille. Surely those 
two guardian spirits, with the numberless 
white souls led by them to Christ, will forever 
ask the same blessed Lord to continue his 
blessing upon the spot made by them and 
their predecessors, holy ground. 

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It was to this St. Joseph valley, to take 
up the work of Marquette, Allouez, Dablon, 
Chardon, Badin, DeSeille, Petit, and other 
less known missionaries, that Father Edward 
Sorin came. During his whole life in. this 
rejsrion he felt the very presence of these his 
sainted predecessors. It is enough to say 
that he and his brethren at Notre Dame and 
his spiritual daughters at St. Mary's have 
proved worthy followers of the holy men 
who had gone before. 


Sec. 1. — The Congregation of. the Holy 
Cross. — A few years before the founding of 
the university, there had been formed at the 
city of Mans, in France, a religious society, 
or order, named The Congregation of the 
Holy Cross. The congregation consisted, at 
first, of three societies. The Abb6 Moreau, 
a canon and distinguished preacher attached 
to the cathedral in Mans, had formed a so- 
ciety of priests to aid him in preaching re- 
treats to the people. A little earlier, a good 
priest, the Rev. James Francis Dujarie, one 
of the survivors of the French revolution, 
had formed a band of young men who en- 
gaged in the work of teaching. These last 
were united in a community, under the name 
of The Brothers of St. Joseph. Father 
Dujarie, growing old, requested the young 
and zealous Abbe Basil Anthony Moreau to 
take charge also of this religious band. Thus 
the two societies came to be under the direc- 
tion of the one head. In time the two com- 
munities were united under the name of The 
Congregation of the Holy Cross, retaining the 
original features of both communities, as 
preachers of the gospel and teachers of youth, 
and so they continue to this day. The Col- 
lege of the Holy Cross, founded by the Abb6 
Moreau at Mans, the original mother-house of 
the congregation, suggested the holy name 
by which the new order became known and 

a. The greater part of this chapter is taken 
from the Ck>lden Jubilee History of Notre Dame, 
compiled by the writer in 1895. 

by which it was recognized in the rules and 
constitutions approved by the Holy See. 

A little later, September 29, 1841, Father 
Moreau organized the Sisters of the Holy 
Cross. This society, however, although con- 
tinuing under the direction of Father Mo- 
reau, and in this country afterwards under 
that of Father Sorin, was never united to the 
Congregation of the Holy Cross. Yet the 
sisters are engaged in the same great work, 
the teaching of the young, to which labor they 
have added the care of the sick and dis- 
tressed, by serving in hospitals and otherwise. 

Father Sorin became one of the earliest 
members of the new congregation. But, even 
while he was yet a student in college, he had 
larger mission fields in mind than those pri- 
ginally contemplated by the founders of the 
new order. He had listened as a young stu- 
dent to the sainted Bishop Brut^, first bishop 
of Vincennes, when that holy man, while on 
a visit to France, made a strong appeal for 
helping hands to come to his aid in the la- 
borious and scattered missions of Indiana. 
The burning words of the aged Brute kindled 
the fervor of the youthful Sorin. The dis- 
tant missions of Indiana were never after- 
wards wholly absent from the mind of the 
ardent student, or the more recollected 
thoughts of the priest of the Holy Cross. 

Accordingly, when Bishop Hailandiere, the 
successor of Bishop Brute, made special ap- 
plication to Father Moreau for volunteers to 
the Indiana missions, Father Sorin at once 
offered himself for the work. With him vol- 
unteered four professed brothers and two 
novices. Among-st the professed brothers was 
Brother Vincent, the first who had joined 
the Brothers of St. Joseph when that society 
was originally formed. He lived long, an 
exemplary religious, and the patriarch of the 
order at Notre Dame. Years after, when 
bent and gray-bearded, he was taken on a 
pilgrimage by Father Sorin to the Eternal 
City, and there had the supreme happiness 
of an interview with Pius IX. On being in- 
troduced to the Pope as the patriarch of the 

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Congregation of the Holy Cross, the venerable 
Pontiflf would not suffer the equally aged 
but humble brother to fall at his feet, but 
took him into his arms and embraced him 
most tenderly. 

Another of those zealous volunteers was 
Brother Lawrence, who, for over thirty years, 
was destined to be the efficient head of the 
farm establishment and business affairs at 
Notre Dame. He was a most excellent busi- 
ness man, as well as a faithful religious. His 
death, in 1873, was regretted by the public 
at large, and was mourned by Father Sorin 
in one of the most touching circular letters 
ever issued by him to the community. 

A third of those heroic brothers was 
Brother Francis Xavier, who lived to the 
golden jubilee of the founding of Notre 
Dame, the last of the zealous band that 
crossed the Atlantic with* the original colony, 
and for many years the only living one of 
those who stood together on St. Mary's lake 
on that cold November evening in 1842, and 
took formal possession of Notre Dame du Lac. 
His was for years the only life that ran back 
even to the first day of the history of Notre 
Dame and of the Congregation of the Holy 

The little band of seven left the mother 
house at Mans, August 5, 1841; and on the 
8th of August they set sail from Havre, on 
the packet ship Iowa, **a lai^e vessel and 
a good sailer," as Father Sorin describes 

That the voyagers were poor in this world's 
goods, we may well know from the circum- 
stance that they came as steerage, ngt as 
cabin, passengers. In writing of this after- 
wards, Father Sorin said: **I came in 1841, 
with my six beloved brothers in the steer- 
age. We expended very little money. In 
1846, when I returned with seventeen de- 
voted members, in the steerage as before, and 
in the emigrant cars from New York, we 
again spent but little, and felt happy. 
Blessed are those who are imbued with the 
spirit of poverty!" 

On the 13th day of September, the good 
ship, with its precious freight, entered the 
bay of New York. In **The Chronicles of 
Notre Dame du Lac," we read the following 
account of this entry into the New World 
of the voyagers from their long sea journey : 

'*It would be hardly possible to describe 
the sentiments of joy of the pious band at 
sight of this strange land which they had 
come so far in search of, through so many 
dangers and fatigues. It was a little after 
sunset when Father Sorin set foot on land 
with a few of the passengers, the general 
landing being deferred till the next day. One 
of his first acts on this soil so much desired 
was to fall prostrate and embrace it, as a 
sign of adoption, and at the same time of 
profound gratitude to Qod for the blessings 
of the prosperous voyage. The arrival of 
the new missionaries could not have- taken 
place at .a more striking and propitious 
time. It was the eve of the Exaltation of 
the Holy Cross, so that Father Sorin was able 
to celebrate his first mass in America . on 
the day of the feast. This happy co- 
incidence was of a kind to make a deep im- 
pression on the heart of the young religious 
of the Holy Cross, who himself had placed 
all his confidence in the virtue of the holy 
cross, and who desired rather than feared 
to suffer for the love of Christ. He there- 
fore accepted the presage of the circumstance 
gladly, by which heaven seemed to tell him, 
as formerly it told the apostle, that in this 
land he would have to suffer. Long after- 
wards will he remember that it was in the 
name of the cross that he took possession, 
for himself and for his, of this soil of 
America. ' ' 

On the next day, September 14, 1841, he 
wrote to Father Moreau: 

** Beloved Father: — Let us bless God, let 
us bless his holy mother; we have arrived in 
New York full of life, health and joy! Our 
good brothers have not yet entered the city; 
they were obliged to pass last night in quar- 
antine. But our good God permitted me 

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to land yesterday evening, 13th of Septem- 
ber, the eve of the Exaltation of the Holy 
Cross. With what happiness, my Father, did 
I salute and emibraee this dear land of 
America, after which we have so ardently 
sighed. And what an increase of consolation 
to land on the eve of so beautiful a day! It 
is then in the name of the Holy Cross, of the 
Blessed Virgin, and St. Joseph, that we have 
taken possession of it. My God, what a 
happy coincidence! What joy for a poor 
priest of the Holy Cross, who must love noth- 
ing more in the world than the cross, to be 
able to say his first mass in America on the 
feast of the exaltation of that sacred symbol ! 
What a delicious day it is here; how beauti- 
ful is the American sky! Ah, yes, my 
Father, here is the portion of my inherit- 
ance; here will I dwell all the days of my 

Here we perceive the double source of 
Father Serin's success. Here was united the 
zeal of the saint with the fervor of the 
patriot, the devotion of Columbus with the 
unselfishness of Washington. From the 
moment that Father Sorin touched American 
soil, we behold in his soul the union, thor- 
oughly and completely, of the most uncompro- 
mising Catholicity with the most sturdy 
Americanism. To him America became his 
country; and next to his love of his God and 
his faith, was his unaffected love of the 
American people, the American character and 
American insTtitutions. 

As well said on the day of Father Serin's 
golden jubilee of the priesthood, in 1888, by 
his well-beloved friend, the great archbishop 
of St. Paul: **From the moment he landed 
on our ^shores he ceased to be a foreigner. 
At once he was an American, heart and soul, 
as one to the manor bom. The republic of 
the United States never protected a more 
loyal and more devoted citizen. He under- 
stood and appreciated our liberal institu- 
tions; there was in his heart no lingering 
fondness for old regimes, or worn-out 
legitimism. For him the government chosen 

by the people, as Leo XIII repeatedly 
teaches, was the legitimate government; and 
to his mind the people had well chosen, when 
they resolved to govern themselves. He 
understood and appreciated the qualities of 
mind and heart of the American people, and, 
becoming one of them, spoke to them and 
labored for them from their plane of thought 
and feeling; and he was understood and ap- 
preciated by them.*^ 

The venerable Bishop Duibois, the first 
bishop of New York, who had himself, thirty- 
three years previously, founded Mt. St. 
Mary's College, near Emmetsburg, in Catholic 
Maryland, was still living; and received with 
all affection the missionary band, destined 
by Providence to become the founders of a 
great university in the west. 

After a rest of three days, they proceeded 
on their journey to the still distant Vin- 
cennes. To save expense as on shipboard, 
they chose the more economical, though 
slower route, being twenty-five days on the 
road. From Albany to Buffalo they pro- 
ceeded by the Erie canal; thence across Lake 
Erie to Toledo; thence by wagon and canal 
to Fort Wayne, Logansport and Lafayette. 
Thence they took their final passage to their 
destination upon the Wabash; that noble 
river upon whose bosom, thirty years before, 
Tecumseh and his companions had moved in 
their fleet of canoes, when that great Indian 
made his famous visit to Governor Harrison 
at Vincennes. 

**At length,'' continue the chronicles, 
from which we have already quoted, ** about 
sunrise on the second Sunday of October, 
they beheld the tower of the new Cathedral 
of Vincennes. They were so filled with joy 
that they seemed to forget all their previoas 
fatigue and pains, and they blessed (Jod, 
who had at length granted them to see with 
their own eyes that city of which they had so 
often spoken during the last few months." 

Bishop Hailandi^re had several places in 
view for the location of the society. One of 
these was at Francisville on the Wabash, a 

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few miles from Vincennes. This did not seem 
suitable; and the next day after their ar- 
rival. Father Sorin, at the suggestion of the 
bishop, started with a priest of the diocese, 
Father -Delaune, to visit St. Peter's, a mis- 
sionary station in Daviess county, about 
twenty-seven miles east of Vincennes. **It 
was a place difficult of access," say the 
chronicles, **but in the midst of several 
Catholic parishes. It was one of the oldest 
missions of the diocese. Father Sorin arrived 
there Tuesday morning about nine o'clock. 
St. Peter's had a little frame church in good 
repair ; two little rooms had been added to it, 
one for the sacristy and one for the priest." 
Other small buildings were for a kitchen and 
for a school. It was evident that this was the 
place best fitted for the purposes of the priest 
and his brothers, and that here they could 
at least pass the winter; and so the location 
was selected, and the brothers came on from 

There were one hundred and sixty acres of 
good land at St. Peter's, and the little com- 
munity set to work to improve it and to 
establish themselves firmly as a religious 
house. The teacher of the school, a Mr. 
Rother, who had apparently been expecting 
them, was the first to join the new order. 
Others followed, and within a year eight 
members were added; and, in all, twelve re- 
ceived fh^ habit of the order at St. Peter's. 

Notwithstanding the difficulty experienced 
by them in learning the English language 
and their general ignorance of the ways of 
the country in which they found themselves, 
the newcomers set to work in earnest, win- 
ning the good will of their neighbors and 
prospering even more than they had antici- 
pated, so that before the end of their first 
year they had become quite attached to St. 
Peter's. Then they began to make prepara- 
tions for the building of a college, which they 
looked upon as necessary for the progress of 
the great work they had in view. To the 
surprise ,of the community, however, they 
found that the good bishop was unwilling 

that they should erect a college. His idea, 
apparently, was that a missionary station and 
primary schools should be the only estajb- 
lishments conducted by Father Sorin and his 
brothers. In great trouble of mind Father 
Sorin went to Vincennes to try to win the 
consent of the bishop to the cherished en- 
terprise. But the bishop was unyielding. 
There was already a Catholic college at Vin- 
cennes, and he considered this quite as many 
as could be supported in the vicinity. Un- 
doubtedly the bishop was right, considering 
the sparsely settled country, and particularly 
the small number and the little wealth of 
the Catholic population. Apparently Father 
Sorin himself was convinced; for when the 
bishop intimated that he held a section of 
land on the St. Joseph river, near Lake 
Michigan, which he was willing the com- 
munity should have and on which he agreed 
that they might build a college, provided they 
would accomplish that task within two years, 
it appears that Father Sorin at once took 
to the idea. • He returned, therefore, to St. 
Peter's, and laid the proposition before his 
brethren. For days the community wrestled 
with the grave question thus presented. They 
had become attached to St. Peter's; and the • 
idea of now breaking up after they had spent 
over a year in preparing this habitation in 
the wilderness seemed at first very distress- 
ful. But the longer they considered the mat- 
ter the more desirable seemed the project. 
The name of St. Joseph was a powerful at- 
traction. That they should receive a section 
of land to themselves on the banks of that 
blessed river, even though it was an uncleared 
forest; that they should be free, in that 
northern wilderness, to establish their beloved 
order in the valley of the St. Joseph, already 
blessed by the labors of sainted missionaries, 
seemed an indication of the will of heaven. 
The resolution was, therefore, taken that the 
offer of the bishop should be accepted, and 
that a part of the colony should depart at 
once and take possession of their new home. 
On November 15, 1842, just before their 

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departure, Father Sorin received a letter 
from Bishop Hailandiere, the following ex- 
tract from which will show hQW scanty were 
the means at the disposal of the good prelate 
and how tender was his solicitude for the 
success of the new mission : 

'*Dear Confrere :— Enclosed find the $310 
you ai^ed of me; also a letter of credit on 
Mr. Coquillard for the sum of $231,121/2. I 
believe it is what he still owes me. . . . 
Do not forget that the tax for this year on 
the land dn Lac (Notre Dame du Lac) has 
not been paid. 

**I offer you my wishes for your success. 
May the angels of God accompany you on 
your way ; and may Notre Dame dii Lac smile 
at your arrival and bless you ! Oh ! may the 
work you are going to begin make saints! 
May the merit of the fathers who, now nearly 
two ages ago, planted the cross which you 
will find there — may those of Badin, De Seille, 
Petit (our dear Benjamin) serve as a corner- 
stone for the edifice that your piety and zeal 
prompt you to build. ... My hopes are 
as great as my desires." 

Sec. 2. — At Notre Dame. — On November 
16, 1842, at the beginning of winter, seven of 
•the brothers set out with their superior for 
the St. Joseph. For many days they 
struggled on, over ice and snow through the 
interminable forest, some on horseback and 
some with the ox team, which hauled their 
modest store of supplies. **The air was 
piercing, but the little band moved forward 
straight towards the north.'' At length, on 
the 26th of November, they had the happiness 
of standing on the ice-bound shore of St. 
Mary's lake, and of looking out upon the 
scene of their new labors. 

The good bishop's solicitude still followed 
them, and he writes to Father Sorin : 

**My dear Confrere: — At last you are in 
South Bend. I think of you as very lonely, 
very busy and, perhaps, also a little 
frightened at your undertaking. But the 
Lord, I doubt not, will help you ; and, indeed, 
the past ought to be for you a guarantee for 

the future Your brothers at St. 

Peter's are well." 

In February, towards the end of winter, 
Brother Vincent came on with the remainder 
of the colony at St. Peter's, arriving on the 
Monday preceding Ash Wednesday. Severe 
as was the weather, it was easier to come 
then, while they could yet travel over the ' 
frozen swamps and streams, than if they 
should wait until the breaking up of spring, 
when the morasses would be nearly impassa- 

A few days after his arrival. Father Sorin 
wrote to Father Moreau and other friends in 
France an account of the changed situation 
of the little colony. From these letters we 
make some extracts, which will discover at 
once the privations and the aspirations of 
this heroic band of missionaries: 

'' *Man proposes, but God disposes,' says 
the pious old adage; and I never realized its 
truth so much as at the present moment. On 
arriving at St. Peter's, and especially on be- 
holding the warm reception extended to us — 
so many marks of kindness and affection 
shown us by everyone, not only Catholics, 
but all, without distinction — I believed that 
it was there (Jod willed that we should fix 
our abode, that that spot marked the portion 
of the vineyard in which we were to labor 
and die. With this conviction, which daily 
became more and more fixed and firm, we set 
actively to work, and soon we had everything 
ready to build at the approach of spring. In 
a word, we were, as they say, settled, as it 
seemed, at St. Peter's. Then, when we least 
dreamed of it, Providence permitted that an 
offer should be made to us of a section of 
excellent land in the county of St. Joseph, 
on the banks of the River St. Joseph, and 
not far from the City of St. Joseph, form- 
ing a delightful solitude — about twenty 
minutes' ride from South Bend — which soli- 
tude, from the lake which it encloses, bears 
the beautiful name of Our Lady of the Lake. 
Besides, it is the center of the Indian mission, 

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the mission of the Badins, the De Seilles and 
the Petits. 

'*Tell me, Father, could priests of Our 
Lady of the Holy Cross and brothers of St. 
Joseph refuse such an offer? However, I did 
not wish to precipitate matters. I took time 
to pray and to reflect. Finally, a council was 
held, and it was decided that we should ac- 
cept, gratefully, the generous offer of our 
worthy and beloved bishop, and that we 
should beg St. Peter to permit us to go to 
Our Lady — to the land of her holy spouse, 
our august patron. A few days afterwards I 
set out, with seven of our intrepid religious, 
thofee who could be most useful in arranging 
things for the reception, a few months later, 
of the rest of our household and of the de- 
sired colony from France. 

**We started on the 16th of November, and, 
indeed, it required no little courage to under- 
take the journey at such a season. I cannot 
but admire the sentiments with which it 
pleased God to animate our little band, who 
had more than one hundred miles to travel 
through the snow. The first day the cold was 
so intense that we could advance only about 
five miles. The weather did not moderate 
for a moment; each morning the wind seemed 
to us more piercing as we pushed forward on 
our journey due north. But God was with 
us. None of us suffered severely, and, at 
length, on the eleventh day after our de- 
parture, five of us arrived at South Bend, the 
three others being obliged to travel more 
slowly with the ox team transporting our 

**Our arrival had been expected and much 
desired. At South Bend we met the same 
cordial reception that greeted us, fifteen 
months before, at New York. A few hours 
afterwards we came to Notre Dame du Lac, 
where I write you these lines. Everything 
was frozen, and yet it all appeared so beauti- 
ful. The lake, particularly, with its mantle 
of «now, resplendent in its whiteness, was 
to us a symbol of the stainless purity of our 
august Lady, whose name it bears, and also of 

the purity of soul which should characterize 
the new inhabitants of these beautiful shores. 
Our lodgings appeared to us — bs indeed they 
are — ^but little different from those at St. 
Peter's. We made haste to inspect all the 
various sites on the banks of the lake which 
had been so highly praised. Yes, like little 
children, in spite of the cold, we went from 
one extremity to th6 other, perfectly • en- 
chanted with the marvelous beauties of our 
new abode. Oh ! may this new Eden be ever 
the home of innocence and virtue! There, 
I could willingly exclaim with the prophet: 
Dominus regit me . . . super aquam re- 
fectiones educavit me ! Once again in our life 
we felt then that Providence had been good 
to us, and we blessed God with all our hearts. 
**We found the house too small to accom- 
modate us for the night; and as the weather 
was becoming colder, we made all haste back 
to the first lodgings that had been prepared 
for us in the village. Next day it did not 
take us long to establish ourselves better at 
Notre Dame du Lac, for we had but little to 
arrange. The following day — the feast of St. 
Andrew the Apostle — I said my first mass at 
Notre Dame where Father Petit so often be- 
fore me had offered the Holy Sacrifice over 
the tomb of the saintly Father Du Seille, 
whose memory is still fresh and revered 
throughout the land, and who, visiting for 
the last time his various missions, announced 
to his congregation that they would see him 
no more in this world, though he was then 
still young, full of health and vigor, and 
who, a few days after his return, realizing 
that he was dying, and having no priest to 
assist him, dragged himself to the altar, ad- 
ministered the viaticum to himself, then de- 
scended the steps and died. His body, in 
accordance with, his own wish, was interred 
at the foot of the altar. I have already met 
here men of widely different views on re- 
ligion, but with all, without exception, the 
memory of this just man is held in benedic- 
tion. I cannot express how happy we are to 
possess the remains of this saintly mission- 

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ary! The death of Father De Seille was a 
great loss to the mission, especially on ac- 
count of the Indians, among whom he had 
done so much good. His place could be sup- 
plied only by Father Petit. I knew Father 
i^etit. the worthy apostle of the Indians, only 
through chance meetings when traveling. 
But now, as I possess all the books and writ- 
ings which he left to the mission — now, that 
every one around me is continually speaking 
of the good Father Petit, and that everything 
here, from the altar on which I oflfer the 
Holy Sacrifice to the very table on which I 
write these lines, reminds me of dear Father 
Petit, I intend to mate him my model, and 
if I cannot imitate him, I shall, at least, at 
a later date, tell you of what he has done. 

** While on this subject you will permit me, 
dear Father, to express a feeling which leaves 
me no rest. It is simply this: Notre Dame 
du Lac has been given to us by the bishop 
only on condition that we build here a col- 
lege. As there is no other within five hun- 
dred males, this undertaking cannot fail of 
success, provided it receive assistance from 
our good friends in France. Soon it will be 
greatly developed, being evidently the most 
favorably located in the United States. This 
college will be one of the most powerful 
means of doing good in this country. And 
who knows but Grod has prepared for us here, 
as at St. Peter's, some good and devoted 
novices? Finally, dear Father, you may well 
believe that this branch of your family is 
destined to grow and extend itself under the 
protection of Our Lady of the Lake and St. 
Joseph. At least such is my firm conviction ; 
time will tell whether I am mistaken or 

To another he writes about the same time: 
**May God be blessed for the many consola- 
tions He has given me, in the midst of my 
new flocl^, at Notre Dame du Lac, where, be- 
fore I came, there had been no pastor except 
the missionary from Chicago, 86 miles from 
here. I have not yet seen my poor Indians; 
they have gone hunting, not being aware of 

our arrival Their return is fixed 

for th,e 6th of January, and then I shall 
undertake to give them a retreat with the 

aid of an interpreter I am 

tempted to complain, dear friend, that Our 
Lord sends me no other suffering except to 
see my dear children suffer around me, with- 
out usually the power to assist them. Lately, 
one of our good brothers had his foot frozen, 
and another one of his toes ; and I had just 
fifty cents, sufficient, perhaps, to permit me 
to show that I was not altogether insensible 
to their sufferings. But, as each one under- 
stands his mission, all are happy and con- 
tented. See herein what grace can do! We 
have at present but one bed, and they insist 
that I should take it. They themselves sleep 
on the floor, just as they did for three weeks 
at St. Peter's. To-morrow I shall give up 
my room to Brother Marie, to be used for his 
shop. Assuredly, we are far from complain- 
ing of the poverty of our lodgings. God 
knows that we think little of it, and if we 
have desired — as we do indeed desire — to 
build a large and more convenient house, it 
is solely that we may be able to accomfylish 
some of the immense good that we are called 
upon to do. Sometimes, when I think of the 
good that can be done throughout this coun- 
try had we a college conducted according to 
Catholic principles, my desire to erect such a 
building torments me and disturbs my rest ; 
but, at other times, when I consider that we 
have hardly the third part of the funds neces- 
sary for such an undertaking, I try to con- 
vince myself that God does not will it, or 
else that He has reserved for Himself to sup- 
ply, in His own good time, the means of 
building the college." 

This was surely the faith and resignation 
of the saints; the faith that would move 
mountains, and the resignation that could say. 
Thy will, not mine, be done! 

A few years later, in writing of those first 
impressions, Father Sorin said: ** Neverthe- 
less, this first arrival on the spot, now called 
by the blessed name of Notre Dame du Lac, 

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however severe upon human delicacy, made 
upon the newcomers an impression which 
time will never obliterate. Wearied though 
they were, and intensely cold as was the at- 
mosphere, they would not retire before con- 
templating again and again, and from every 
point around the lakes, the new scenery now 
before them. A deep and unspotted cover- 
ing of snow was then spread over land and 
water, and forcibly brought to their minds 
the spotless Virgin, who seemed already to 
have taken possession of these premises, and 
to claim the homage, not alone of the site 
itself, but also of every human soul that 
should ever breathe upon it. How readily 
and thankfully this auspicious thought was 
to be received by these poor missionaries." 

Sec. 3. — A Hard Winter. — The winter of 
1842-43 was one of the severest in our his- 
tory. On his arrival, on the afternoon of 
November 26, 1842, Father Sorin and his 
little band found the lakes already frozen 
over, while a mantle of snow covered the 
whole region, land and lake alike. It was 
beautiful, but of that severe beauty which 
chastens the heart and exalts the imagination, 
rather than that which pleases the fancy and 
intoxicates the senses. In an old record of 
cold winters in this country, which dates back 
to 1607, that winter when Notre Dame was 
founded is named sa one of the coldest. 
Snow was fifteen inches deep as far south as 

But there was work to be done. Since the 
death of Father Petit there had been no mis- 
sionary stationed here and the remnant of 
the Indians, about two hundred in niunber, 
with the scattered white Catholics, needed 
and received the first attention. On the re- 
turn of the Indians from their annual hunt, 
they were overjoyed to find another Black 
Robe ready to receive them and to give again 
to them and to their children the consola- 
tions of religion, to re-kindle in their hearts 
the faith of Marquette, of Allouez, of Badin, 
of De Seille, and of Petit; The distinguished 
Italian artist, Luigi Gregori, who long resided 

Vol. II— 2. 

at Notre Dame and of whose work here we 
shall have more to say farther on, has per- 
petuated in a beautiful painting the first 
meeting of the young priest with his forest 
children near the little log chapel beside St. 
Mary *s lake. 

Even to the present day, in this part of 
Indiana and in southern Michigan, descend- 
ants of those dusky Indians remain with us. 
Their parish here has been the neighboring 
one of St. Joseph's in what was formerly 
Lowell, but now a part of the city of South 
Bend. In this little church, persons whose 
heads are not yet silvered have often seen a 
living exemplification of that Universal 
Church, which knows neither race nor color, 
neither rich nor poor, neither lofty nor lowly, 
but only our common humanity as brethren 
in Christ. Even as it is related of Chief Jus- 
tice Taney, who was often seen at the com- 
munion table, kneeling, as it might chance, 
beside some poor colored Catholic of the con- 
gregation; so here, at the altar rail of St. 
Joseph's knelt as equals, as Christians, to 
receive the Bread of Life, whites, and In- 
dians, and negroes ; children of New . and 
Old England; of Virginia and France; of 
Ireland and Germany; of Italy and Belgium. 
There, at least, the poor Pottawatomie, Chip- 
pewa, or Miami, the meek Ethiopian, and the 
ruling Caucasian, found themselves as 
brothers in the one Mother Church. 

Next to the spiritual care of the com- 
munity and that of the surrounding region, 
it became necessary to prepare for the clear- 
ing up of the land and the erection of neces- 
sary buildings. Ten acres beside the lake 
had been cultivated for many years, but suc- 
cessive crops had exhausted the light soil. 
The remainder of the land was virgin forest, 
with the exception of eighty or ninety acres 
of prairie or marsh ground, the center of 
which was occupied by the two charming 
sheets of water. The beds of these lakes were 
about twenty-five feet deep. The banks con- 
tained an inexhaustible supply of marl, from 
which lime and cement of the best quality are 

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made. The soil of the upland, without be- 
ing rich, is suitable for the successful culti- 
vation of all grains, v^etables and fruits. 
It is a sand loam. 

The buildings already on the ground were 
the log cabin erected by Father Badin, 24x40 
feet, the ground floor of which answered as 
a room for the priest, and the story above 
for a chapel. In addition to this there had 
been added a few years previously a little 
frame building of two stories, somewhat more 
habitable, in which resided a half-breed In- 
dian with his family, who acted as interpreter 
when necessary. 

There were at that time around this poor 
little sanctuary, the only one in northern In- 
diana, as we learn from the ** Chronicles of 
Notre Dame,*' about twenty Catholic fami- 
lies scattered within a radius of six miles. 
A mile and a half to the south was South 
Bend, then a village of about one thousand 

This town was so named from its situation 
at the south bend of the St. Joseph river, a 
stream which rises in Michigan, flows to the 
southwest, and then returning to the north, 
again enters the state of Michigan and 
empties into Lake Michigan at old Fort 
Miamis, now the beautiful city of St. Joseph. 
Lake Michigan lies northwest of Notre Dame, 
and about thirty miles distant. 

The former boundary line between Indiana 
and Michigan, as originally indicated in the 
ordinance of 1787, was **an east and west 
line drawn through the southerly bend or 
extreme of Lake Michigan.'' This line runs 
several miles south of Notre Dame and conse- 
quently this territory, including the whole of 
the St. Joseph river, together with the city 
of South Bend and the other flourishing 
towns and cities upon the St. Joseph, was 
formerly within the limits of the present state 
of Michigan. Following the same line to the 
west and to the east, Chicago would be within 
the limits of the srtate of Wisconsin and 
Toledo within those of Michigan. After 
many disputes, amounting at one time to 

almost open war between Ohio and Michigan, 
the rich Upper Peninsula was given to Michi- 
gan, and the southern boundaries were fixed 
as we have them now, leaving Notre Dame 
about four miles south of the Michigan line. 

Above South Bend, on the river, were the 
St. Joseph Iron Works, a village of about one 
thousand inhabitants now the city of Misha- 
waka. The name of Iron Works was given to 
the place on account of the industry based 
upon the manufacture of iron from the bog 
or surface ore found near the town; and it 
was called Mishawaka from the great rapids 
in the river, which gave to the place its ex- 
cellent water power. Six miles below Notre 
Dame, also upon the river, and within the 
state of Michigan, was the village of Ber- 
trand, named from the noted French trader. 
It was formerly a flourishing place, being at 
the junction of the stage line to Chicago and 
the St. Joseph river, over both of which the 
commerce of this region was to a lai^e extent 
carried before the Michigan Central railroad 
was extended throup^^ \iles, and the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern through South 
Bend. But Bertrand, located half way be- 
tween those two towns, soon languished after 
their growth began, until now the town has 
about disappeared. 

The only Catholic church in any of these 
towns was the little brick one still standing 
on the site of Bertrand; but even on the 
arrival of Father Sorin the Catholics of all 
the surrounding country had become ac- 
customed to look upon St. Mary of the Lakes, 
or the Lake as it was generally called, as 
the center of Catholicity. Here accordingly 
they came, much to the edification of the new 
community, to make the retreat of the jubilee 
during that first winter. The cold was in- 
tense, yet the exercises were regularly at- 

For two years there had been only rare vis- 
its by a priest from Chicago. The Catholic 
religion was consequently very little known 
in all this part of the diocese. The few cere- 
monies that could be carried out, being nee- 

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essarily devoid of all solemnity, could have 
hardly any other effect in the eyes of the 
public than to give rise to injurious and sar- 
castic remarks against Catholicity. At Mish- 
awaka, as well as at South Bend and Niles, 
as soon as it was known that Father Sorin 
and his brothers intended to build a college 
and novitiate, there was much objection and 
even alarm manifested. The number of 
priests was exaggerated from one to twelve, 
and the seven brothers became *Hwenty monks 
out at the Lake.'* Moreover, it was added 
that the Pope of Rome had already sent 
Father Sorin ^0,000, and would soon send an 
additional $10,000 to make the even number. 
If there were not a possible element of dan- 
ger in this wild talk it must have seemed 
rather amusing to the poor priest and his 
shivering brothers, who made their hard beds 
on the bare floor where the bitter snows sifted 
in upon them through the chinks in the walls. 
There was indeed nothing very encouraging 
in this reception. From a human standpoint 
it might have appealed wise to retreat; but 
even though anticipating yet greater opposi- 
tion in the times to come, our pious cham- 
pions, who had already learned how to hope 
even against hope, cheered one another with 
the expectation of a future more meritorious 
and more glorious for their holy cause. They 
placed all their confidence in Heaven and let 
their neighbors talk, believing that even in 
this life the time would come when their 
works would vindicate them, that, too, in the 
eyes of those who now looked upon them 
with suspicion and distrust. 

Besides Niles, Bertrand, South Bend and 
Mishawaka, already mentioned, the priest 
from Notre Dame attended many missions or 
scattered families for a great distance around, 
including Goshen to the east, then containing 
two hundred inhabitants, Leesburg, still fur- 
ther east, Plymouth to the south, Berrien to 
the north, and, still further, old St. Joseph at 
the mouth of the river; also Constantine, Paw- 
paw, and other localities east and north, in- 
cluding Kalamazoo, then a place of twelve or 

fifteen hundred inhabitants. These were the 
missions which Father Sorin, and afterwards 
Father Francis Cointet, Father Alexis Grang- 
er and other priests from Notre Dame at- 
tended for many years. 

Sec. 4. — The First BuUiOiNQS. — The total 
amount of money to the credit of the young 
community on their arrival at Notre Dame, 
including money collected by the Bishop and 
still in his hands, and a small amount sent 
from Europe, was less than $1,500. With 
this, aided by their own labors and what help 
they might obtain from the people of the 
neighborhood, they made their plans for the 
college, church and novitiate, all of which 
seemed absolutely necessary, even for the pur- 
pose of making a beginning. 

The college must be done, in order to hold 
the land; and accordingly that was first con- 
sidered. The plan of this edifice had been 
prepared at St. Peter's before leaving their 
mission. It called for a brick building in, 
the shape of a double hammer, or letter H, 
40x160 ft., and four and a half stories high. 
The bishop's architect, who had made the 
plans, also made and sent in his bid for the 
work. As all had been done under the direc- 
tion of the bishop the bid was accepted with- 
out long deliberation. Sixty thousand feet 
of lumber, and two hundred and fifty thous- 
and brick and the necessary lime, were en- 
gaged for the following spring. 

While preparations were thus made to 
carry out the contract with the bishop it was 
felt that the most urgent present need was 
the building of a church large enough to re- 
ceive the people and the community itself, 
rdingly an appeal was made early in De- 
cember, 1842, to assist in putting up a log 
church of larger dimensions than the little 
one heretofore used. The people could not 
give money, but they gave their labor. 
Trees were cut down, and logs cut and 
hauled to a convenient place, higher up than 
the old chapel; and there a log church 20x46 
was erected. It to(A two hundred dollars 
out of the little treasury to finish this wood- 

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land temple, which was opened for divine 
service on St. Joseph's day, March 19, 1843. 
The remaining members of the community at 
St. Peter's, under the lead of Brother Vin- 
cent, had arrived before this, and materiaUy 
aided in the completion of the new church. 

Small as was this building, it was found 
necessary to devote it to still another use. A 
second story was carried through its entire 
length in order to provide a residence for the 
sisters who were expected from France dur- 
ing the following summer. The upper room 
in the old log cabin that had been used as a 
chapel by Father Badin and the other early 
missionaries, was now assigned as a dormi- 
tory for the brothers; while next to the new 
church was erected an addition for the 
priests. Thus before the end of the first win- 
ter sufficient room was made not only for 
the present colony, but also for the new colony 
that was expected during the next summer; 
and there was also provided a rude but suffi- 
cient church for the people who would at- 
tend from the surrounding country. The 
upper story of the new building, the church 
proper, was indeed modest enough ; a moder- 
ately tall man would touch the rafters above 
with his head. The sacred edifice served its 
purpose, however, and became as dear to the 
little community as if it were built of pol- 
ished marble. It was to them as that blessed 
upper chamber in Jerusalem. It was used as 
a church until 1848; and was accidentally 
burned to the groimd in 1856, notwithstand- 
ing the efforts of students, professors, broth- 
ers and priests, who wished to preserve it as 
a monument of the past. A substantial iron 
cross now marks the location of this primi- 
tive log church. 

The end of the winter was ardently desired 
that work might begin. Unfortunately, that 
year, as we have said, the winter was of a 
length and severity almost hitherto unheard 
of in the United States. For five continuous 
months the snow covered the ground ; during 
which time there was not an intermission of 
even one week in the intense cold. The con- 

sequence of this was greatly to interfere with 
the success of the enterprise, the whole coun- 
try being greatly impoverished. 

In addition, when the expense for brick, 
lumber and lime, together with the daily out- 
lay for the support of the community had 
been met, it was found that the treasury was 
exhausted. Besides this, the architect, un- 
mindful of his promises or unable to fulfill 
them, allowed the season for building the col- 
lege to pass by. In this state of affairs, the 
fear of not being able to do anything towards 
the college this year, and the consciousness of 
many other urgent needs, caused it to be de- 
termined to put up a brick building of some 
kind that might serve in part for the uses of 
a college, cmd also for a bakery. This build- 
ing so erected is the present square brick 
building at the edge of St. Mary's lake, known 
as the Farm House. It served its collegiate 
purposes for nearly a year, for here the first 
students were received and the first classes or- 
ganized. It may, therefore, although at first 
built to serve a temporary purpose, be called 
the original college building of Notre Dame. 
The first student was the same boy who led Fa- 
ther Sorin through the woods from South 
Bend to the lake, November 26, 1842. He after- 
wards became the wealthy wagon maker of 
South Bend, Alexis Coquillard the Younger. 
He was a distinguished and influential man 
in his day; but perhaps his greatest distinc- 
tion is that he was the first student of the 
university of Notre Dame. It need hardly be 
said that he always continued a fast friend 
of Father Sorin, and of his Alma Mater. 

The first public mention we find of the in- 
stitution is in the Metropolitan Catholic Al- 
manac for this year, 1843, where we read that 
a school for young men had lately been opened 
at **Southbend, near Washington, Ind., under 
the direction of Rev. E. Sorin." South Bend 
had not then, it seems, attained to the dignity 
of two capital letters to its name ; and the lo- 
cation of Notre Dame was so little known 
that it was placed near '* Washington, Ind." 
This last error undoubtedly came from con- 

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founding Notre Dame with St. Peter's, the 
first home of the Congregiation of the Holy 
Cross; St. Peter's having been located not 
far from Washington, the county seat of 
Daviess county. **Mishiwakie" is mentioned 
in the same abnanac as one of the missions 
attended by Father Sorin. The terms per 
quarter for students in the college, for tui- 
tion, board, washing and mending, are stated 
to be eighteen dollars. 

The expected colony sailed from France on 
June 6, 1843. It was under charge of the 
Rev. Father Francis Cointet (Quinty), des- 
tined to be known as one of the most illus- 
trious members of the Congregation of the 
Holy Cross. With Father Cointet Were Father 
Marivault, Father Gouesse, one brother and 
four sisters. They were a most welcome ad- 
dition to the young community. 

It is related that Father Cointet 's atten- 
tion was first directed to the Indian mission 
by accidenally hearing read the first letter 
written by Father Sorin from Notre Dame to 
his superiors in France. He and Father 
Sorin had been intimate friends at the semi- 
nary where they both studied, and now on 
hearing this apostolic letter his heart was 
fired with religious enthusiasm. He was a 
most valuable acquisition to the new establish- 
ment, being at the same time a most accom- 
plished scholar and a devoted priest ; and his 
time was almost equally divided between his 
classes and the missions of the surrounding 
country. Whether unfolding the beauties of 
Greek and Latin literature in the college, or 
enlightening the poor Indian in his wigwam 
or the railroad laborer in his cabin, Father 
Cointet was ever the ardent, active priest, 
devoting heart and soul and body to the best 
service of his fellow men. It is said, as an 
indication of the poverty and simplicity of 
those days, that Father Sorin and Father 
Cointet for a long time had but one hat and 
one pair of boots between them ; so that when 
Father Sorin was seen with the hat it was 
known that Father Cointet was in the col- 
lege; and when Father Cointet had the hat, 

starting for the missions, it was certain that 
Father Sorin was in his room. This good 
priest died of the cholera visitation at Notre 
Dame, in 1854; and his body rests beside those 
of his sainted predecessors, Father De Seille 
and Father Petit, under the Church of the 
Sacred Heart. 

Even before the arrival of Father Cointet 
with the new colony, as we have seen, the idea 
of beginning the second brick building or 
college proper had been abandoned for that 
year. Neither the time nor the resources 
seemed suflScient. But, quite unexpectedly, 
on August 24, the architect arrived from Vin- 
cennes with two workmen. The question of 
expediency was then earnestly debated. 
Everyone seemed anxious that the work 
should begin. Father Marivault offered to 
draw on his family in France for twelve hun- 
dred dollars due him. Mr. Samuel Byerley, 
then a merchant in South Bend, offered a 
credit for two thousand dollars on his store, 
besides a loan of five hundred dollars in 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Byerley deserve more 
than a casual mention in this history. Mr. 
Byerley had been a wealthy English ship mer- 
chant. His sailing vessels had traversed all 
the seas ; and he himself had pursued his call- 
ing in all the commercial nations of the globe, 
and was familiar with most of the languages 
of Europe. Mrs. Byerley was an Italian 
lady, a native of Trieste, and a most superior 
woman in all the walks of life. On Father 
Sorin 's arrival in New York, in 1841, Mr. 
and Mrs. Byerley resided in that city, and 
there they made the acquaintance of the ad- 
venturous missionaries, receiving them and en- 
tertaining them with the utmost joy. Mr. By- 
erley at that time had recently become a con- 
vert to the Catholic church, while Mrs. Byer- 
ley had always been a Catholic. By a happy 
coincidence Mr. and Mrs. Byerley now found 
themselves in the infant town of South Bend, 
and consequently close neighbors of the priest 
and brothers that two years before they had 
welcomed to the new world. Chiefly in conse- 

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quence of the change, about this time, of the 
commerce of the seas from sailing vessels to 
steamboats, Mr. Byerley had disposed of his 
business in the east, and brought the remains 
of his fortune to invest in this new country. 
They became the^ continued and life-long 
friends and assistants of the community of 
Notre Dame, and no names are treasured with 
more affection than theirs. 

Encouraged by such friends, the resolution 
was taken to go on with the college building ; 
but it was not until August 28, 1844, the feast 
of St. Augustine, that the cornerstone was 
laid. From that until December 20th, the 
work was pushed with vigor until the walls 
were up and the building under cover. The 
season favored them, November and Decem- 
ber being, as they often are, in this region, as 
balmy as May, a striking contrast with the 
year of their arrival. 

The next season the inside work was com- 
pleted, some of the rooms being occupied early 
in June, 1845. The building thus erected was 
the central part of the old college edifice ; and 
was four artories high, eighty feet long and 
thirty-six feet in width. It was the middle 
part, or handle, of the * * double hammer, ' ' that 
being as much of the architect's plan as they 
could then undertake, and even more than, 
strictly speaking, the poverty of the commun- 
ity could afford. The few students were then 
removed from the original building at the 
lake ; and in August following the closing ex- 
ercises of the first year's school took place. 

On January 15, 1844, a charter was granted 
to the university by the legislature of the 
state, empowering the institution to confer all 
the degrees in literature, science and the arts, 
as well as in the learned professions. This 
favor was due to the spontaneous kindness 
of the Hon. John Dougherty Defrees, then 
member of the legislature for St. Joseph 
county. Even before the waUs of the first 
college were up he had come to Father Sorin 
and suggested the charter by which the trus- 
tees of the new institution might be regularly 
and legally incorporated. It was a great and 

important privilege, and indeed necessary for 
the legal existence of the university. Thus 
the legal and actual existence of the uni- 
versity dates from the same year, 1844. Notre 
Dame was fairly on her feet. 

The joy of , the young community at the suc- 
cess of their undertaking may well be imag- 
ined. They had good reason to believe that 
their work was under the direct protection of 
heaven. The surrounding inhabitants, many 
of whom had at first looked upon them with 
unkindly eyes, had now begun to turn towards 
them with favor. Their heroic lives had won 
the sympathy and help of all good men. It 
was looked upon as a special providence that 
no accident had occurred to any one during 
all their building operations; while several 
times they seemed to have escaped miraculous- 
ly from accidental fires. The college was built 
to be heated by a furnace, but this proving 
unsatisfactory, resort was had to wood stoves 
which continued in use for many years until 
the introduction of heating by steam pipes in 

The utter dependence of those saintly 
founders upon the protection of heaven, and 
their simple and unquestioning faith, are il- 
lustrated by the circumstance that for years 
they were unwilling to place a lightning rod 
upon their buildings ; and, for the same cause, 
it was not until 1848 that they consented to 
take out any fire insurance, and then only for 
three thousand dollars. God would protect 
them, they said; and God and His Blessed 
Mother did protect them. 

It is, of course, clear that the building 
erected left the little community heavily in 
debt. Indeed, this remained the chronic con- 
dition of the institution for years. **0n sev- 
eral occasions,'' as said by Prof. Edwards in 
his interesting article on Father Sorin, writ- 
ten for the '* Catholic Family Annual'' for 
1895, ** Notre Dame was on the point of being 
sold for debt. One day the farm horses were 
taken out of the stables and sold by a cred- 
itor. Another time there was not a morsel 
of food in the house. The unexpected arrival 

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of a gift of money from a stranger prevented 
the students from going to bed supperless." 

But friends seemed to arise as often as 
troubles appeared. The trials of the feeble 
community were often great, but they were 
never greater than could be borne. Father 
Sorin was a multitude in himself, and seemed 
as if inspired to meet every emergency. He 
was then thirty years of age, having been 
bom at Ahull6, near Laval, France, February 
6, 1814. Those who knew him then, and for 
many years afterward, have difficulty in con- 
sidering him the same man as the venerable 
gray haired and gray bearded patriarch whom 
we have all known during the latter years of 
his life, and since he has been weighed down 
with the burdens and dignity of his high of- 
fice of superior general. In 1844, Father 
Sorin was not only youthful, but exceedingly 
quick, supple and animated in appearance. 
He was then a well-knit, tall, spare, young 
man, straight as one of his own Indian war- 
riors; with long black hair, trimmed with 
his own scissors, his face thin, dark and clean 
shaven, and with the dark piercing eyes 
which remained unchanged to the last. 

In the same year, 1844, was completed and 
blessed the well-beloved chapel of the No- 
vitiate, erected upon the pretty high wooded 
ground between the two lakes, known then 
and even yet as * * The Island. ' ' The two lakes 
were originally surveyed as one, and this spot 
of ground was at first a veritable island ; but 
in course of time the lake was lowered, and 
the waters receding from the central parts, 
left us the two crystal lakes as we have them 
at this day. It is a question whether this 
island or the wooded heights to the right and 
left, bordering each of the lakes, constitute 
the most picturesque locality about Notre 
Dame. But it is to the island that the prefer- 
ence is usually given, due in part no doubt 
to the holy memories that cluster around this 
sacred spot. 

In the month of November, 1843, while 
Father Sorin was making his retreat upon 
the island, he found the place admirably 

suited for a novitiate for the Brothers of the 
Holy Cross, and as there remained but one 
year more, according to the contract of dona- 
tion, to build the novitiate as well as the 
college, he did not think he was losing his 
time by spending his leisure hours in drawing 
up the plan of the novitiate as it was after- 
wards carried out. The cornerstone of the 
chapel embraced in this plan was^ blessed in 
May, 1844. The work on the university, how- 
ever, did not permit the continuance of that 
on the chapel before the month of November, 
but such was then the activity of the work- 
men that in seven and a half days the walls 
of the chapel wer^ up, and eight days more 
sufficed to build those of the novitiate. 

Both chapel and novitiate were blessed on 
the feast of the Immaculate Conception, De- 
cember 8, 1844. On the same day, the Arch 
Confraternity, the most ancient religious so- 
ciety at Notre Dame, was there solemnly 

From this time until 1848, when the new 
church was dedicated, this little sanctuary be- 
came the favorite spot of the whole communi- 
ty. There they assembled in times of 
distress or of rejoicing ; there were published 
the general prescriptions or regulations in re- 
gard to the common welfare ; there, each year, 
the retreat of the brothers was made, and 
even that of the priests. It was there, too, 
that the pious visitors to Notre ^Dame were 
in preference taken, and there the Bishops 
of Detroit, Milwaukee and Cincinnati cele- 
brated holy mass to the great edification of 
the community and also to their own great 
joy. During all this time it was the best 
thing there was in every respect in and about 
the institution. Mrs. Byerley had furnished 
the chapel with a magnificent carpet, and 
Brother Mary had ornamented it with all the 
resources of his art. It was indeed the con- 
stant object of the religious attention, or, let 
us say, of the entire affections of the com- 

Sec. 5. — Early College Years. — Begin- 
ning with September, 1844, the long course 

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of annual classes which have continued to this 
day may be said to have commenced. Father 
Sorin was not only local superior of the com- 
munity, but also president of the university, 
positions which he held without interruption 
until May, 1865. The first vice-president was 
the saintly and most venerated Father Alexis 
Granger, who had arrived from France dur- 
ing that year, and who had charge of the 
classes of philosophy and theology. Other 
members of this early faculty were Father 
Cointet, instructor in the ancient languages 
and literature ; Father Gouesse, under whom 
the musical department took form; Brother 
Gatien, professor of mathematics, who also 
had charge of the commercial department. 
Soon came the eloquent and polished Father 
St. Michael E. E. Shawe, the promoter of 
rhetoric and English literature and the 
founder of the literary societies at Notre 
Dame ; Gardner Jones, also a master of Eng- 
lish composition and an orator of rare power ; 
Denis O'Leary, an all around scholar, whose 
abilities were highly appreciated and of great 
value to the rising institution ; Brother Basil, 
Father Shortis, Professor Girac, Professor 
Bums and many other earnest and self-sacri- 
ficing scholars, who here devoted themselves 
with slight, or, in the case of the members 
of the community, with no compensation, but 
with the hope of aiding in building up here 
in the wilderness a home of science, art and 

It is with much gratification that we are 
abe to give here what is undoubtedly the first 
extended notice of commencement exer- 
cises at Notre Dame. It is from the pen of 
Mr. M. R. Keegan, who was for many years 
a prolific and earnest correspondent of eastern 
Catholic papers, particularly of the New 
York Freeman's Journal, for which he wrote 
many valuable articles over the signature of 
** Columbus.'* This report, simple as the ex- 
ercises which it commemorates, was written 
at Bertrand, Michigan, where Mr. Keegan 
then resided. It is dated August 7, 1845, 

and was published in the Philadelphia Cath- 
olic Herald of August 28, 1845: 

**I attended the public distribution of 
premiums to the students of the University 
of Notre Dame du Lac, which took place on 
the first of this month, and, being the first 
thing of the kind that ever took place in this 
section of the country, the numbers who at- 
tended the navel scene were large and respect- 
able. About 9 o'clock in the morning, the 
entire vicinity of the university was crowded 
with all kinds of traveling vehicles; while 
the different departments of the university 
and its vicinity were scrutinized and exam- 
ined according to each one's taste. The dif- 
ferent apartments of the university were 
closely examined by many strangers who had 
never before visited the institution; all ex- 
pressing themselves highly pleased with every- 
thing they saw, especially the clean, airy, and 
spacious dormitories of the pupils. Others 
ranged along the shores of the adjacent lakes ; 
while the Catholic portion, especially the la- 
dies, might be seen clustering around the 
chapel on the island dedicated to Our Lady 
of the Lake, and entering, as it were, by 
stealth (for its doors are not open to the 
public), to oflPer a hasty but earnest prayer 
for the conversion of sinners, of which the 
good Father Marivault was sure to remind 
them. But the greatest rush was to the hall 
occupied by the splendid museum lately pur- 
chased by the institution from Dr. Cavalli, of 
Detroit, who had been collecting it at great 
expense for many years. It is a splendid 
collection of beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, an- 
tiquities, etc., from the various parts of the 
globe. The rapid changes undergone by the 
features of many an unsophisticated child of 
the west, while scanning the big black bear, 
the gaudy and magnificent birds of paradise, 
the austere and imperative tribe of eagles, 
until he arrived at the inexplicable Chinese 
curiosities, exhibited the admiration and in- 
terest they felt in reviewing the valuable col- 

**A11 were deeply engaged, and apparently 

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forgetting what had brought them to the Lake, 
when the warlike sounds of the big drum of 
the South Bend band was heard booming 
through the woods. Shortly afterwards the 
band came into view, drawn by four horses, 
and accompanied by a number of ladies and 
gentlemen. On their arrival the music hall 
was thrown open, and was soon crowded to a 
complete jam. How many remained outside 
I cannot tell, as I made sure to be among the 
* ios. ' As soon as all that the apartment could 
contain were admitted, the students com- 
menced a play, which for the space of an 
hour kept the audience in a roar of laughter. 
After this the great work of the day, the 
distribution of premiums, commenced. This 
pleasing task was performed by the Rev. 
Father Shawe, of Vincennes, who appeared 
several times to be much interested while 
bestowing the coveted prize, and placing the 
crown of distinction on the brow of the de- 
lighted and victorious student. During the 
distribution many incidents occurred which 
drew forth the warm applause of the entire 
audience. Out of many I will relate one: 
Among those who received the greatest num- 
ber of crowns and premiums, was a little 
fellow named Haquin, about twelve years of 
age, from your good city of Philadelphia. His 
great success enlisted the entire audience in 
his behalf ; even Father Shawe himself could 
not conceal his admiration of the young and 
promising pupil. The boy's dress, though 
comfortable, still denoted that he was not 
amongst the favored children of fortune. 
Feeling a more than ordinary interest in the 
little fellow, I ascertained after all was over, 
that he is an orphan boy, and was brought 
to the University of Notre Dame du Lac from 
St. John's Orphan Asylum, Philadelphia. But 
here he stood, equal, aye, superior to the cher- 
ished sons of the rich and well-to-do, carry- 
ing away the marks of honor and distinction, 
which, if acquired by his wealthy competitors, 
would occupy such conspicuous places; but 
he, poor fellow, has no place for them but a 
small wooden box, where they will be unseen 

and uncared for by all save himself. But 
they will not be useless; far from it! They 
will cheer and encourage him to greater ef- 
forts, and remind him of the unceasing care 
and more than parental kindness which God 
has here provided for him in the place of his 
natural parents. I select this from many sim- 
ilar examples at this institution, as being cal- 
culated to give a better idea than the most 
general description, of the things being noise- 
lessly and silently done at the University of 
Notre Dame du Lac.*' 

The coming of the band from South Bend 
sounds somewhat strangely to those who have 
for forty years, at all commencements and 
on all public occasions, heard the well prac- 
ticed bands and orchestras by the trained 
students of the university. But this was the 
first commencement, and there was not yet 
time to organize that musical department 
which has always been so notable a feature of 
the educational facilities of Notre Dame. 

Another circumstance related by Mr. 
Keegan seems even still more incongruous 
with what we have known — the crowns of 
honor given to the successful students. 
Crowns seem most appropriate honors when 
bestowed upon young ladies in white on their 
commencement day ; but boys have not since, 
as we believe, received such honors. Even 
the premiums, as years have gone on and the 
university has developed, have by degrees 
been discontinued, except for the younger 
students. Medals and diplomas are the hon- 
ors which young men are taught to strive for ; 
even as soldiers who would distinguish them- 
selves for valor receive commissions of promo- 
tion and medals from their approving coun- 

One matter, however, the writer does refer 
to, which has been a characteristic of Notre 
Dame from that first commencement, even to 
the commencement, fifty years later in this 
year of grace, 1895. She makes no distinc- 
tion amongst her students, save only to honor 
the deserving. The poor and the rich are 
here on a perfect equality; and are dis- 

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tinguished only by their intellect and their 
virtue. Indeed their Alma Mater takes 
special delight in honoring the students of 
modest means who make use of their golden 
opportunity to cultivate their minds and their 
hearts, and thus lift themselves to the plane 
of a noble manhood. Here is a true republic 
of letters, where no one finds any royal road 
to learning; but where, oftener than other- 
wise, the poor boy passes his wealthier fel- 
lows, receives the smiles of his Alma Mater, 
and goes forth equipped to lead in the battles 
of life. 

This feature of college life, Father Sorin 
always encouraged. He was instinctively a 
believer in republican institutions, and w«s 
perfectly at home in these tendencies of the 
American character. Another cause led to 
the same result: Father Sorin had a great 
admiration for talent. He sought it every- 
where, and had a quick power to discern it 
wherever it was to be found. Hence, the 
bright student was always a favorite with 
him. To the clear minded, active and studious 
young man, he always found himself closely 
drawn, and such a one knew that in Father 
Sorin he had an appreciative friend, without 
regard to the question of wealth or social 
standing. Intellectual young men have there- 
fore always devotedly loved Notre Dame. 
They knew that here, at least, they were ap- 
preciated at their true worth.' 

We cannot resist giving in this place a 
glance at scenes and persons at Notre Dame 
du Lac, as they appeared to another eye wit- 
ness, a little later, in the year 1845-46. 
This gentleman describes himself as at that 
time **a wild urchin of fifteen,'* who then 
put in his first apeparance as a student at 
Notre Dame. 

Early in November, 1845, he left Detroit, 
then a city of thirteen thousand inhabitants, 
for South Bend, Indiana ; and after a weary 
day's ride over the miserable strap rail that 
covered the Michigan Central railroad tracks, 
reached its then terminus, at Marshall. A 
hundred and odd miles still remained to be 

traveled through the backwoods of southern 
Michigan and northern Indiana, which was 
accomplished within twenty-four hours, by 
hard driving over primitive roads. Along 
with other travelers, driven in a rude con^ 
veyance, he reached the coUege just as the 
bell rang out a merry peal, and the few stu- 
dents gave three cheers for the eclipse of the 
moon, which had just taken place, Wednes- 
day night, November 11, 1845. A moment 
later, all were in the college parlor, greeting 
the arrival of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Henni, then 
newly appointed, and since the venerable 
archbishop of Milwaukee, who, unknown to 
the lad, had been one of his fellow travelers. 
At that meeting, also, was present the vener- 
able Father Badin, founder of the Indian 
mission at Notre Dame, and former owner 
of the grounds, who was then for a time sta- 
tioned at the college. 

Our youthful student found the college con- 
sisting of a four-story building, 36x80, with- 
out any pretensions to architectural beauty. 
It was surmounted by a tower, upon which 
stood an iron cross 18 feet high. In the 
tower was a fine clock, on the dial of which 
he read the words, tempus fugit. The refec- 
tory was in care of Brother Patrick; it con- 
tained a reading stand and tables, with 
benches for the accommodation of thirty or 
forty boys. Next to it was the kitchen in 
charge, very appropriately, of a Mr. Coffee. 
The study room was furnished in the most 
primitive manner, with desks about twelve 
feet long, to which were attached seats with- 
out backs. Monks could not wish for more 
penitential stools. They were evidently mod- 
eled after those in use when comfort was a 
secondary consideration to those in quest of 

The yard in front of the college contained 
about half an acre, with here and there a 
fine oak, while thence on to South Bend was 
a dense forest. The old stage roads ran, one 
a few rods to the east of the college, and 
another, the most traveled (the present Niles 
road), to the west, at the foot of St. Mary's 

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lake. The front yard fence was flanked by 
two small one-story cottages, one occupied by 
Mr. Steber as a little furnishing store; the 
other by the good old porter, Brother Cypri- 
an, who was the shoemaker of the community. 
At the rear of the college, to the east, stood 
the Manual Labor establishment, having a 
tailor shop under care of Brother Augustus, 
and a printing office, under Brother Joseph. 
I remember well the good brother and his two 
apprentices, who were working hard, print- 
ing, in a most wretched manner, **Mrs. Her- 
bert and the Villagers.'' Still a little further 
back, stood the carpenter shop, a log building, 
under Brother William. To the east of it 
stood the blacksmith shop and the gardener's 

To the right of you, to the left of you, in 
front of you, and behind you, reigned the 
primeval forest. There were not thirty acres 
of clearance in the whole section of land be- 
longing to the college. Lakes St. Joseph and 
St. Mary were there, beautiful as now, but 
with direct water communication between 
them. On the island was being completed the 
Brothers' Novitiate, a plain, tastefully de- 
signed, but wretchedly constructed brick 
building. Father Weinzopflen, a worthy Ger- 
man priest, lived on the island, acting as 
master of novices and as confessor to the 
brothers and the students. I recollect him as 
a good, holy and zealous priest, one who was 
truly a martyr for his faith. Down by St. 
Mary's lake, near the present old barn, the 
first part of which was then building, stood 
the old log church, half of which was occu- 
pied by the Sisters of the Holy Cross, who 
were daily watching the completion of a small 
brick building near by, which early the next 
year became their mother-house at Notre 

The professors were Fathers Sorin, Grang- 
er, Cointet and Brother Gatien, assisted by 
Messrs. Dooner and Moses L'Etourneau, with 
old Brothers Francis and Stephen as prefects. 

Father Sorin, as I recollect him, was then 
a spare, dark-complexioned man, active as a 

deer, with an eye that searched you from top 
to bottom at a glance. He was an excellent 
singer, and occasionally would play a bar or 
two on the clarionet, whilst, to my positive 
knowledge and experience, he was a first-class 
shot at marbles. His faith knew no bounds; 
he fully believed that he could convert all the 
surrounding people, and really worked in 
season and out of season for that great end. 

Father Cointet was Father Sorin 's chief as- 
sistant. I remember him as a rosy-faced, en- 
ergetic, humble priest, a ripe scholar, and a 
devoted religious. I have seldom, if ever, met 
his equal in those qualities which should be 
the prominent characteristics of a missionary 
priest. Father Granger had arrived the May 
before I came, and all that I now remember 
of him is his sweet smile, and also that his 
stock of English comprised little more than 
**yes! yes," accompanied by a gentle nod. 
God bless him ! He has gained many to God 
by that meek **yes," and that sweet smile. 
Brother Gatien was a genius, an incomprehen- 
sible Frenchman! He was capable of doing 
anything and everything. He was at that 
early day the intellectual soul of the institu- 
tion. Peace to his ashes! Mr. Gouesse, soon 
after a worthy priest, was the musician of 
the house, and did his best to form, from very 
poor material, a band of music. Moses 
L'Etourneau, brother of Father L'Etourneau, 
was our prefect, a most diligent disciplina- 
rian; and, had his life been spared, would 
have been, beyond doubt, foremost in the 
ranks of his order today. Mr. Dooner taught 

The preaching was done for us by the first 
priest ordained in the United States, the ven- 
erable Father Stephen Theodore Badin, who 
also taught the Catholic students catechism 
twice a week. Father Badin never kept any 
rule save his own, and, hence, was not a little 
troublesome to the community. But he was 
venerated, as he always must be, as the first 
priest ordained by Archbishop Carroll, the 
primal Bishop of Baltimore, and organizer 
of the church in the United States ; venerated 

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as the apostle whose field of labors extended 
over Kentucky and a great part of the north- 
western territory; and specially here revered 
as one who had revived the missions of Al- 
louez, and whose singular prescience had led 
him to select this beautiful spot in the wilder- 
ness as the seat of a great Catholic university. 
This university it was his privilege to see 
founded; and he was even permitted to aid 
in advancing its early growth. Though very 
old when I knew him, Father Badin never 
missed his daily meditations and spiritual 
readings ; and well has his name gone down to 
posterity as a model missionary. He was bom 
at Orleans, France, in 1768, the year before 
Napoleon, and died at Cincinnati, April 19, 
1853. His life thus covered the greatest period 
in modem history ; and he was himself one of 
the historical characters of that period. 

As might well be understood, the list of 
students for several years continued to be a 
small one. In so new a country the wonder 
is that a college could be supported at aU. In 
fact, for a time, the students came from the 
east rather than from the west, from the older 
states rather than from the new ones, of which 
latter Indiana itself was one. 

The first catalogue, as near as can be deter- 
mined, was issued in 1848. This was prints 
in Detroit. From it we learn that in that year 
the commencement exercises took place on the 
fourth day of July. Among the premiums 
awarded on that occasion was one to Thomas 
Lafontaine, of Huntington, Indiana, son of 
the chief of the Miamis. Students are named 
as from the states of Indiana, Michigan, Mis- 
souri, New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

At the commencement, in 1849, five years 
after receiving her charter, Notre Dame grad- 
uated her first student, as Bachelor of Arts, in 
the person of Neal H. Gillespie. Mr. Gilles- 
pie, afterwards the accomplished Father Gil- 
lespie, continued his studies in Rome where he 
was ordained a priest in 1856, after which he 
entered the community of Notre Dame where 
he was appointed the fourth vice-president, 
succeeding Father Shortis, who had received 

an honorary degree with him in 1849. Father 
Gillespie became an ornament to the faculty 
of Notre Dame; his fine literary tastes made 
him the worthy successor of Father Shawe in 
fostering the studies of belles lettres, rhetoric 
and the English language and literature. 
Father Gillespie was closely connected with 
many of the most distinguished families of the 
republic, being a first cousin of James Gilles- 
pie Blaine, and also nearly related to the 
Ewings and Shermans of Ohio. When Father 
Sorin came to inaugurate the work of printing 
and publishing at Notre Dame, he leaned with 
great confidence on the talents of Father Gil- 
lespie. Notre Dame owes very much to her 
first graduate. 

In 1850, another catalogue, the second one, 
as it would seem, was printed in South Bend 
by **S. Colfax,'' as appears from the title 
page. Mr. Colfax afterwards became a dis- 
tinguished man of the nation. Congressman, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and 
Vice-President of the United States. Both 
before and after his great career, he was the 
fast friend of Father Sorin and of Notre 
Dame, counseling, encouraging and sympa- 
thizing with the struggling enterprise. Often 
and often, his clear cut, bright and crisp little 
speeches to the students, left an impression 
for good and fired with a noble ambition the 
generous young men that listened to him. In 
the prospectus printed in this catalogue by 
Mr. Colfax, dated January 1, 1850, we find 
mention made of the Philharmonic Society 
and the St. Aloysius Debating Society, associ- 
ations that long continued to gather into their 
folds the musical, literary and dramatic 
genius of the students of Notre Dame. Fifty- 
six students are shown in this catalogue, be- 
sides thirteen students in theology. Notre 
Dame was advancing. 

In 1844, at the same time that the college 
charter was obtained from the Legislature 
through the friendly offices of Mr. Defrees, 
that gentleman also obtained a charter for the 
Manual Labor School, in which boys are 
taught useful trades and at the same time re- 

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ceive a good English education. In con- 
nection with this school, and indeed as parts 
of it, were erected the various shops needed 
in the work of the community, carpenter, cabi- 
net, blacksmith, shoemaker, tailor, etc. Boys 
were also taught bricklaying, gardening and 
farming, until the hum of industry was heard 
on every side. 

We have seen in Mr. Keegan 's notice of the 
first commencement exercises that the visitors 
came through the woods from South Bend, 
and that the music band approaching from 
the town on that day was heard long before 
it could be seen coming through the forest. 
This condition was rapidly changed from year 
to year by the strong arms of the industrious 
Brothers of St. Joseph, until the trees, even 
to the roots, were removed, and the beautiful 
farm as we have it now was lifted to the sun- 
light. Only on the island and on the margin 
of the lakes were the native groves preserved, / 
while, as if to make up in some measure for 
the despoiling of nature, lines of maples, ever- 
greens and other ornamental trees, were plant- 
ed along the highways and through the beauti- 
ful parks and grounds about the university. 
The result is that nowhere perhaps in all the 
country is there a more lovely approach to 
noble buildings than through the finely shaded 
avenues and parks of Notre Dame. 

Indeed, as has been well said, the sense of 
the beautiful, inspired by the fair surround- 
ings, has had no little to do with the success of 
Notre Dame as an educational institution. 
Milton complains that Cambridge has no 
pleasant walks or soft shades, suited for the 
haunts of the muses, but the future poet who 
calls Notre Dame his Alma Mater will have 
no such complaint to make. A lovely land- 
scape stretches away on every side as far as 
the eye can reach, save where it is limited by 
the distant hills or forests. To the south, not 
two miles off, lies the now pleasant and pros- 
perous city of South Bend, one of the chief 
manufacturing centers of the country. The 
high-wooded banks of the St. Joseph, one mile 

to the west, are crowned with the picturesque 
buildings of St. Mary's Academy. 

Between the academy and the college is St. 
Mary's lake, while to the north, connected 
with it, is St. Joseph's. In the meadow be- 
tween the lakes rises the island, wooded to the 
north, and with a sunny vineyard and shade 
trees on the south. On this island is now situ- 
ated the professed house of the community, on 
the site of the former noviate, and, in front, 
the venerated chapel of Our Lady of the 
Angels, or the Portiuncula, modeled after the 
original of St. Francis in Italy. A continuous 
native grove embraces both lakes, with the 
meadow and island between. Nestled within 
this grove, on the banks of St. Mary's lake, is 
St. Aloysius' noviate, now the seminary, well- 
beloved of many a zealous priest who here be- 
came learned in the science of the saints. In 
the rear of this grove, but still on the banks 
of St. Mary's lake, is the sylvan cemetery of 
the community, where rest from their labors 
those who have toiled even to the close of day 
in the Master's vineyard. On the high north- 
em shore of St. Joseph's lake rises the present 
stately noviate, the- old missionary's home. 

Perhaps no more glorious spectacle could 
be witnessed than the solemn annual proces- 
sion through these grounds on the feast of 
Corpus Christi. As the reverend line of priests 
and people wind around St. Joseph's lake, 
chanting the sacred office of the church, it is a 
sight to give joy to the soul of the Christian, 
and* delight to the eye and the ear of the 
artist. Quite another scene is presented on 
Commencement Day, as hundreds gather on 
the banks of the same charming lake to view 
the spirited contests of the boat clubs over 
the waters. The regattas at Notre Dame at- 
tract multitudes of visitors. No college in the 
land has a finer sheet of water for boating and 
swimming in the summer, or for skating in 
the winter. 

But it is not only on the great days of the 
year, but at all times, that these scenes attract 
the willing steps of the art-loving and the re- 
ligious. Softer shades or more inviting walks. 

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especially than those bordering on St. Joseph's 
lake, neither poet nor hermit could desire. 
Nor is it only these retired groves and lake- 
lets that minister to the love of the fair and 
the good; even the daily recreation grounds, 
the college parks, the gardens and the outlying 
farm itself, are arranged and cultivated with 
an eye to the beautiful, as well as to the use- 
ful ; and it has become a current observation 
on the part of strangers that there are no finer 
grounds anywhere in the country than those 
of Notre Dame. 

The period of success which set in with the 
year 1845, continued uninterrupted for many 
years. The ground was cleared and beauti- 
fied. Needed buildings were erected. The 
members of the community grew in numbers 
and efficiency. The students increased and 
improved from year to year. The country 
around was prospering. South Bend, our 
near neighbor, passed from a village to a 
town. Across Lake Michigan, Chicago was de- 
veloping into a great city. 

In 1851, the Lake Shore, or, as it was then 
called, the Northern Indiana & Southern 
Michigan, railroad was completed to and 
through South Bend, and soon reached Chi- 
cago. This was a matter of immense interest 
to the growing university. Formerly all 
traffic was by the river from Lake Michigan, 
or by stage and wagon road. Now, however, 
passenger travel and the sending and bring- 
ing of produce was greatly eased and acceler- 
ated. Students, too, were enabled to come in 
more readily. One result of this improvement 
in our communications with the outside world 
was a large increase in students from the west, 
particularly from Chicago, from which place 
there had for a time been no students. 

Since that time other steam railroads have 
added to our facilities of communication with 
the outside world, until today there enter and 
depart from South Bend no less than five 
trunk lines — the Lake Shore, the Michigan 
Central, the Grand Trunk, the Vandalia, and 
the Indiana, Illinois & Iowa, otherwise known 
as the Three I 's, besides others of lesser note. 

In 1851 also, Notre Dame was given a post- 
office of her own, a favor due to the kind in- 
terposition of Henry Clay, the former friend 
of Father Gabriel Eiehard, then a member of 
the United States senate, and who had become 
one of the greatest of American statesmen. 
Notre Dame loves to cherish the memory of 
those who were friends to her in the hour of 

In 1853, so prosperous had become the uni- 
versity, and so great the need of more room, 
that the two wings originally designed, each 
forty by sixty feet, were added to the original 
central building. The ** double hammer,'* as 
Father Sorin had called the Vincennes archi- 
tect's plan, the plan first designed at old St. 
Peter's, was now completed; and it was felt 
that the buildings were sufficiently large and 
commodious to last for a generation. 

As if to check too exultant a feeling of suc- 
cess on the part of the industrious and indom- 
itable community the clouds were suffered to 
lower over their horizon, and a fearful inroad 
was made upon the health and even the lives 
of the inmates. The cholera, as stfCted by 
Father Gillespie, in the book of the ** silver 
jubilee" had ravaged parts of the United 
States, but the danger seemed already passed, 
when, in the summer of 1854, many of the 
community were attacked. Among the first 
taken away was Father Cointet. His health 
had been shaken by a residence in New Or- 
leans, where obedience had placed him at the 
head of an orphan asylum conducted by the 
Congregation of the Holy Cross. He had re- 
turned in the spring of 1854, and his attend- 
ance on the extensive missions around Notre 
Dame had improved his general health. Still 
he was not strong enough to resist the attack 
of the disease, and in the month of August he 
passed from his labors, regretted by all, but 
by none so much as by his close friend and old 
companion, the founder of Notre Dame. His 
loss, humanly sp^eaking, seemed irreparable; 
and, when added to the loss of Father Curley, 
a zealous young priest ordained the year be- 
fore, and of some twenty other members of 

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the community, seemed to threaten Notre 
Dame with utter destruction. 

The clouds were lowering truly. In Sep- 
tember when the students returned the pro- 
fessors were not yet recovered from the at- 
tack ; for though over twenty members of the 
community died, yet more, we might say all, 
had been taken down by the disease, and were 
still suflFering from its effects. The college 
had been a hospital for the sick — it had to be 
renovated from top to bottom ; the work usu- 
ally done in vacation time was all in the hands 
of the few who could manage to crawl around. 
It was indeed a severe trial to this heroic little 
band, even more trying than had been the 
poverty, cold, and exposure of their first win- 
ter at Notre Dame du Lac. 

Another source of anxiety remained, 
though for years efforts had been made to re- 
move it. We refer to the marshy ground 
between the two lakelets, which, in the opinion 
of all, was the cause of much of the sickness. 
The property of the university did not then 
extend to the river ; and owing to a misunder- 
standing with the owner of the land between 
the lakes and the river, through which ran the 
outlet of the lakes, the low ground could not 
be drained. To these troubles we must add 
embarrassments in money matters, the erec- 
tion of new buildings having entailed a debt 
which might have been easily met in ordinary 
circumstances, but which now weighed heavily 
on the weakened commuilitv. But Father 
Sorin never lost his confidence in God, never 
for a moment doubted the protection of the 
Mother of the Redeemer, to whom he had on 
that first day of his arrival dedicated these 
grounds, the institution and the community 
of the Holy Cross. His confidence was repaid. 
The summer of 1854 was the dark hour before 
the dawn of a new and more flourishing era 
for Notre Dame. The man who had so long 
refused to sell the land between the lakes and 
the river, or to allow the water of the lakes 
to be lowered through the ravine entering the 
river, now come forward and offered to sell 
the land on even better terms than had been 

proposed to him. The land was bought and 
the lakes lowered, much to the improvement 
of the health and beauty of the establishment. 
Through that same ravine, and all the way 
from the university grounds to the river has 
been since constructed a trunk sewer; and 
since that time Notre Dame has been one of 
the healthiest, as it is one of the most beauti- 
ful places in the world. 

Another advantage obtained from this pur- 
chase, but not appreciated at the time, was the 
procurement of the beautiful high grounds on 
the banks of the St. Joseph where St. Mary's 
Academy has since been erected. Kind and 
liberal friends also came to the assistance of 
the chastened congregation, amongst them Mr. 
and Mrs. Phelan, of Lancaster, Ohio, whose 
names will always be held in grateful recol- 
lection as two of the most generous benefact- 
ors of Notre Dame. The dawn of a brighter 
day was indeed breaking. 

It was according to the original design of 
Father Sorin that a house for the Sisters of 
the Holy Cross should be established in con- 
nection with the university, and we have seen 
that such an establishment was actually be- 
gun. When, however, Father Sorin, in com- 
pliance with the requests of many parents, 
proposed to begin at Notre Dame an academy 
for the education of young ladies, the Bishop 
of Vincennes made strenuous objections ; prin- 
cipally for the reason that the Sisters of Prov- 
idence had an academy at Terre Haute, and 
that there would not be room for another in 
the diocese. Time has shown that this appre- 
hension was unfounded, however it might ap- 
pear at that day. There has been ample room 
for the development of both of the beautiful 
St. Mary's, that of the Woods and that at 
Notre Dame. 

However, yielding to the wish of his bishop, 
and having procured permission from the 
Bishop of Detroit, Father Sorin concluded to 
fix the new school at Bertrand in Michigan, 
six miles north of Notre Dame, where an 
academy building was completed in 1846. A 
little later Providence sent to Father Sorin a 

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pious and talented young lady, who was des- 
tined to be to the Sisters of the Holy Cross 
almost what he was himself to the congrega- 
tion of priests and brothers. Miss Eliza Maria 
Gillespie, sister of Father Gillespie, had left 
the gay life of Washington City, where she 
had reigned as a queen, in the family of her 
relative, Thomas Ewing, then Secretary of 
State under the elder President Harrison, and, 
determining to lead a religious life, was on 
her way to enter the novitiate of the Sisters 
of Mercy at Chicago; when she called to pay 
her farewell to her reverend brother at Notre 
Dame. Father Sorin became at once con- 
vinced that Miss Gillespie was designed by 
Providence to take charge of his young com- 
munity at Bertrand ; and she was also hc*rself 
finally convinced that this was the will of 
heaven. She was accordingly sent to France 
to make her novitiate, and in due time re- 
ceived the veil from the hands of Father Mo- 
reau, then Superior General of the Order of 
the Holy Cross. After which she returned, 
and under the name of Mother Angela, be- 
came superior of the infant community, 
which at once began to prosper under her 

In 1855 the objections of the ordinary of 
the diocese having been removed, the academy 
and mother house of the order was transferred 
to its present beautiful location on the high 
banks of the St. Joseph, one mile from Notre 
Dame. St. Mary's Academy has greatly pros- 
pered since then, many parents finding it con- 
venient to send their sons to Notre Dame, and, 
at the same time, their daughters to St. 
Mary's Academy. From St. Mary's, as well 
as from Notre Dame, other schools have gone 
out and been established in various towns and 
cities throughout the land, from Baltimore 
and Washington, even to the extreme west at 
Ogden and San Francisco. 

From the first there have been bells at Notre 
Dame, but it was not until 1856 that the 
famous chime of twenty-three bells arrived 
from France and were put up in the belfry 
of the church and attached to the musical 

cylinder, where they have since given forth 
the sweetest melodies of Christian music. In 
November of that year the bells were solemnly 
blessed in. the presence of a large concourse 
of people. Eloquent sermons were delivered 
on the occasion by Archbishop Purcell of Cin- 
cinnati and Bishop Henni of Milwaukee. 

From 1856 until the erection of the grand 
chimes in St. Joseph's Cathedral, Buffalo, 
New York, these chimes at Notre Dame, rang- 
ing in weight from 14 to 1,400 pounds, and 
rung by clock work, were the finest in Amer- 
ica. The ornamentation on the bells is very 
elaborate, and finely executed. No music in 
the world, as we believe, is more pleasing 
than on a sweet summer evening, after all the 
world is hushed to rest, to listen to the melo- 
dy of some holy song, as the Ave Maris 
Stella, borne from these bells and floating 
over the surface of the two beautiful lakes 
that rest almost beneath the walls of the 
church, the sound thence taken up in echoes 
by the forests fringing their borders, and car- 
ried for miles in waves of harmony. 

The position of the chimes in the new 
Church of the Sacred Heart is now over a 
hundred feet above the surface of the earth. 
Beneath it, in the same tower, swings the 
greatest, as it is the deepest, strongest and 
sweetest church bell in the United States, 
tuned to sound in harmony with, and as a part 
of the sweet chimes above. This glorious bell 
weighs 15,400 pounds, and its sonorous voice 
has been heard at a distance of twenty-five 
miles; yet its sound, even under the church 
tower, is most musical to the ear, sublime 
though it be as the artillery of heaven. 

In 1857 a great joy was afforded the zeal- 
ous children of the Congregation of the Holy 
Cross, whose constitution and rules then re- 
ceived the highest sanction of the church, 
being approved by His Holiness Pope Pius 
the IX, on the 13th of May in that year. 

On September 22, 1857, a distinct mark of 
the great advance of the church in the state 
was shown by the erection in that year of the 
northern part of Indiana into a separate dio- 

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cese; when the Rt. Rev. John Henry Luers 
was made first bishop of Fort Wayne. Soon 
after his consecration, the new bishop, to the 
great delight of Notre Dame and all its in- 
mates, paid his first visit to the University. 

Thus was the cup of joy full again to over- 
flowing. Yet Father Sorin and his co-workers 
looked forward to still greater things. The 
promise of a glorious future seemed to be 
present in everything that was undertaken. 

Sec. 6. — The War Period. — On the coming 
on of the war for the Union, the character of 
the growing community was put to a new test. 
With true religion and a correct system of 
education, goes also love of country. But the 
sons and daughters of the Holy Cross were 
equal to the test. 

Even on his first arrival in America, as we 
have already seen, Father Sorin was pene- 
trated with an admiration for American in- 
stitutions and an ardent love for the Ameri- 
can people. It became a part of his daily life. 
An American by adoption, he became one in 
mind and heart, insomuch that on his several 
visits to Europe, such was his known predi- 
lection for the American character and for 
American ideas, that in Paris and in Rome, 
even by the pope himself, he was distinctively 
styled THE American. , 

Father Sorin not only gave his best affec- 
tions to his adopted country, but instilled the 
same into the hearts of his associates. Hence 
we may say that Notre Dame never was a for- 
eign institution, but one in which every Amer- 
ican felt himself perfectly at home. In illus- 
tration of this, it may be noted that of his 
two reverend nephews who here joined the 
order, one, the elder, seeming to remain too 
much a Frenchman to suit the taste of his 
uncle, was, though otherwise an excellent 
priest, sent back to France. **My dear son,'' 
said he, ** France is for the French, America 
IS for Americans. I have engaged your pas- 
sage for Europe.'' He would not keep around 
him any one who did not share his predilec- 
tion for the American people ; that was a here- 
sy which he could not forgive. 
Vol. n— t. 

To the mind of Father Sorin the American 
character was best represented in Washing- 
ton, for whom he always manifested a great 
veneration. Washington's birthday has 
always been a gala day at Notre Dame, even 
at a time when it was neglected in other 
places ; and the name of Washington Hall will 
always remind us of that pleasant evening in 
February, now many years ago, when this fes- 
tive room was ^ named and appropriately 
dedicated by Father Sorin, and when it was 
adorned with the benevolent portrait of the 
Father of his Country. 

It is therefore no cause of surprise that 
Notre Dame and St. Mary's took so active a 
part in the war. There was perhaps not a 
battle field during the four years of that 
noble strife on which the blood of students of 
Notre Dame was not shed for the Union cause, 
which they felt to be also the cause of liberty, 
equal rights, and good government. 

Numberless sisters, with Father Sorin 's 
blessing, and led by Mother Angela herself, 
left the quiet shades of St. Mary's, and gave 
themselves to toilsome nights and days in the 
hospitals of the south and the west; and to 
this day many a veteran recalls with moist- 
ened eyes the presence of those angels of 
mercy who were to him in place of mother, 
wife or sister, and to whose gentle care he 
owes his life. 

From Notre Dame no less than seven priests 
went as chaplains in the army. Fathers Wil- 
liam Corby, Peter P. Cooney, Joseph C. Car- 
rier, Paul Gillen, James Dillon, Joseph Leve- 
que, and Father Bourget. Of these patriotic 
chaplains of the Holy Cross the last three 
from exposure contracted diseases which end- 
ed in death. 

Father Cooney, long venerable in years 
though enfeebled from his arduous service 
had in course of preparation during his later 
years, a work upon the history of the Catholic 
church in relation to the war for the Union, 
dealing in particular, as we understand, with 
his personal experience in the armies of Rose- 

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crans, the commander whom he loved and 
revered above all others. 

Father Carrier, known as a distinguished 
scientist, and for some time before his death a 
resident at St. Laurent College, near Mon- 
treal, delighted, both in writing and in con- 
versation, to recall his experience in the 
armies of Grant and Sherman. That Father 
Carrier's Americanism was of the intenser 
quality may be inferred from the following 
incident which he relates of a visit made by 
him, soon after the war, to Napoleon III, then 
in the splendor of his power. 

* * On my arrival at the entrance to the pal- 
ace,'' says Father Carrier, *'I was met by one 
of the guards who demanded to know my busi- 
ness. *I wish to see the Emperor/ said I. 
'Are you a soldier T asked the guard. * Great- 
er than that,' I responded. * Perhaps you are 
a lieutenant f * Greater than that,' said I. 
*Can it be that you are a general?' 'Greater 
than that ! ' said I, drawing myself up to my 
full height. 'Are you a prince?' questioned 
the guard. 'Greater than that,' I again re- 
plied. 'Surely you are not a king,' said the 
mystified guardian of the palace. *Ah! far 
greater than that,' I replied. 'Pray, then, 
who are youT asked the much puzzled man. 
Looking him in the face, I answered with all 
the dignity at my command, 'I am an Ameri- 
can citizen ! ' It is needless to say that I was 
soon piloted into the private apartments of 
his majesty ; and that later on, when I related 
the joke I bad played on the guard, the Em- 
peror enjoyed it quite as much as I did my- 

Father Corby with all his labors found time 
before his death to bring out hie graphic "Me- 
moirs of Chaplain Life," in which we may 
trace his own, and also Father Gillen's and 
Father James Dillon's heroic work of charity 
in the armies of the Potomac, under McClel- 
lan, Bumside, Hooker, Meade and Grant. 

One scene, at least, in Father Corby 's chap- 
lain life is historical, and will endure in the 
memory of men so long as the history of the 
Army of the Potomac is read. It is his sub- 

lime act of giving absolution to the soldiers 
going into battle on the field of Gettysburg. 
The circumstances are told to us as follows by 
General St. Clair MulhoUand, then a colonel 
in the famous Irish Brigade: "Now (as the 
Third Corps is being pressed back) help is 
called for and Hancock tells Caldwell to have 
his men ready. 'Fall in !' and the men run to 
their places. 'Take arms!' and the four bri- 
gades of Zook, Cross, Brook and Kelly are 
ready for the fray. There are yet a few min- 
utes to spare before starting and the time is 
occupied by one of the most impressive reli- 
gious ceremonies I have ever witnessed. The 
Irish Brigade, which had been formerly com- 
manded by General Thomas Francis Meagher 
and whose green flag was unfurled in every 
battle in which the Army of the Potomac was 
engaged, from the first Bull Run to Appo- 
mattox and which was now commanded by 
Colonel Patrick Kelly of the Eighty-eighth 
New York, formed si part of this division. 
The brigade stood in column of regiments, 
closed in mass. As a large majority of its 
members were Catholics, the Chaplain of the 
Brigade, the Rev. William Corby, proposed 
to give a general absolution to all the men 
before going into the fight. While this is cus- 
tomary in the armies of Catholic countries in 
Europe, it was perhaps the first time it was 
ever witnessed on this continent, unless, in- 
deed, the grim old warrior, Ponce de Leon, 
as he tramped through the everglades of Flori- 
da, in search of the Fountain of Youth, or 
De Soto, on his march to the Mississippi, in- 
dulged this act of devotion. Father Corby 
stood on a large rock in front of the brigade. 
Addressing the men, he explained what he 
was about to do, saying that each one could 
receive the benefit of the absolution by mak- 
ing a sincere act of contrition and firmly re- 
solving to embrace the first opportunity of 
confessing his sins, urging them to do their 
duty and reminding them of the high and 
sacred nature of their trust as soldiers, and 
the noble object for which they fought. . . . 
The brigade was standing at 'order, arms!' 

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As he closed his address, every man, Catholic 
and non-Catholic fell on his knees with his 
head bowed down. Then, stretching his right 
hand towards the brigade, Pather Corby pro- 
nounced the words of the absolution. 

**The scene was more than impressive; it 
was awe-inspiring. Near by stood a brilliant 
throng of officers who had gathered to witness 
this very unusual occurrence and while there 
was profound silence in the ranks of the Sec- 
ond Corps, yet over to the left, out by the 
peach orchard and Little Round Top, where 
Weed and Vincent and Hazlitt were dying, 
the roar of the battle rose and swelled and re- 
echoed through the woods making music more 
sublime than ever sounded through Cathedral 
aisle. The act seemed to be in harmony with 
the surroundings. I do not think that there 
was a man in the brigade who did riot oflfer up 
a heart-felt prayer. Por some it was their 
last; they knelt there in their grave clothes. 
In less than half an hour many of them were 
numbered with the dead of July 2. Who can 
doubt that their prayers were good? What 
was wanting in the eloquence of the priest 
to move them to repentance was supplied in 
the incidents of the fight. That heart would 
be incorrigible, indeed, which the scream of 
a Whitworth bolt, added to Pather Corby's 
touching appeal, would not move to contri- 
tion." • 

That great scene, Pather Corby on the rock, 
with his hand raised above the kneeling bri- 
gade, and in presence of General Hancock 
and the officers of the second corps, with un- 
covered heads, on the field of Gettysburg, has 
already attracted the attention of the artist. 
There is perhaps no battle scene of the war 
l)etter fitted for a painting in which the moral 
sublime' of the isoul is united with the heroic 
grandeur of liie battle field. In 1893, Pather 
Corby was ' decorated by the State of New 
York' with a medal of honor, as a ** Gettysburg 

Besides these chaplains Who went directly 
from Notre T^ame, many others who knew the 
university as their Ahna Mater, found their 

way to the tented fields of the South to alle- 
viate the spiritual and physical wants of the 
soldiers of the Republic. Among them none 
was more worthy, none more respected at 
Notre Dame than the Rev. Edmund B. Kil- 
roy, of Port Samia, (Canada. It was, indeed, 
an age of heroes. 

Military exercises had ^ways been encour- 
aged by Pather Sorin, in part for the excel- 
lent physical training and gentlemanly bear- 
ing and manner which they were calculated 
to impart to the young men. In the spring 
of 1859, William P. Lynch was a student at 
Notre Dame. He was a skillful tactician who 
had been trained to an enthusiastic love of 
military affairs under Colonel Elmer Ells- 
worth, of Zouave fame in Chicago, afterwards 
a martyr hero of the war. 

Captain Lynch, as he soon came to be called, 
learning of Pather Sorin 's partiality to mili- 
tary companies, soon had one formed among 
the students of the senior department. Prom 
their captain's memory of the picturesque 
zouave uniform, or perhaps from Pather Sor- 
in 's admiration of Wiashington and the sol- 
diers of the Revolution, or from both causes 
combined, the new company adopted the buff 
and blue uniform of the Revolutionary sol- 
diers, and took the name of the Continental 
Cadets. A company was also formed from 
the junior students, and these were called the 
Washington Cadets. The Continental Cadets 
excited a genuine interest in military affairs, 
not only at Notre Dame, but also in South 
Bend and the surrounding country. The mili- 
tary was an unaccustomed sight in those days, 
many persons never having seen a company 
drill or march in serried ranks before. Alas, 
the sight became common enough very soon. 
Almost every member of the Continental 
Cadets became a real soldier in the army, and 
none were braver men or truer patriots. Many 
of them became distinguished; many more 
took their place in the private ranks, content 
so that they did their duty well. They were 
of the unknown, unheralded heroes; whether 
sick, or woiuided, or dead, they were of the 

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mighty majority who finally restored the 
union. Captain Lynch himself became 
Colonel of the 58th Illinois infantry, and 
afterwards a Brigadier-General, commanding 
a division in the southwest, where he was 
fatally wounded, though he survived a few 
years. Robert W. Healy, a noble young man, 
also attained the rank of General, and was 
highly appreciated by General Grant for his 
great services. 

Notre Dame is honored in her loyal soldier 
students, who showed, even to the shedding of 
their blood, how deeply inculcated were the 
lessons of patriotism which they had received 
from their Alma Mater. 

One result of the war was the great influx 
of students from the border states. The num- 
ber had heretofore slowly but steadily in- 
creased, from one to one hundred or over. 
Father Sorin had often said that if he had 
two hundred students, he would feel that the 
future of the institution was assured. But 
with the coming on of the war the two hun- 
dred limit was soon reached and passed. 

On November 3, 1863, there was rejoicing 
at Notre Dame. In the evening every win- 
dow light in the old college was lit with its 
separate candle; there being neither gas nor 
electric light in those days. The enthusiastic 
youth, John R. Dinnen, and his numerous 
assistants placed, lit and guarded the candles. 
He is now the grave and Rev. Father Din- 
nen of Lafayette, Indiana. In Brother Peter's 
garden, in front, the whole community gath- 
ered, and, with Father Sorin in the lead, 
broke forth into the triumphant Magnificat. 
It was indeed a great day, for two hundred 
and thirty students had registered at Notre 

After that came three, four, and even five 
hundred students who pressed for admittance, 
until every inch of room was crowded and the 
halls were overflowing. Even Washington 
Hall was appropriated to college uses. It 
soon became apparent that the enlai^ed col- 
lege edifice of 1853, ample as it then seemed, 
was altogether inadequate for the present 

needs. Accordingly, in 1865, preparations 
were made to take down that building, and 
erect a larger and more modem structure. 

Much of the prosperity of the time was also 
undoubtedly due to the presence then at Notre 
Dame of a man of uncommon ability and 
force of character. Father Patrick Dillon, a 
young man of twenty-six, became vice-presi- 
dent of the university in 1858, and retained 
that office, with some interv€ils, until 1865. 
During the period while Father Patrick (as 
he was called, to distinguish him from his 
brother. Father James Dillon, afterwards a 
chaplain in the army) was vice-president; 
and during the year or more thereafter, when 
he was himself president, great work was 
done at Notre Dame. Father Patric* was a 
man of the greatest executive lability and of 
most excellent judgment; and Father Sorin 
was well content to leave the charge of affairs 
in the hands of so capable a lieutenant. It 
was the period when Notre Dame passed from 
the time of inexperience, and trial, and youth- 
ful hope, to the time of full maturity and 
vigor. Not only were students increased in 
number, and financial matters placed on a 
surer footing; but views for the conduct of 
the affairs of the institution were, in propor- 
tion, liberalized and enlarged, and the univer- 
sity better adapted to the needs of the coun- 

Father Patrick, greatly aided by Professor 
Lucius G. Tong, his able assistant, and who 
continued the work after his untimely death, 
enlarged and completed the development of 
the commercial course of the university. 
There was then an urgent demand manifested 
for educated young men in commercial pur- 
suits, and Notre Dame, in complying with this 
demand, soon began to send out these gradu- 
ates in large numbers. This development of 
the commercial course was of the utmost value 
to the university at that time ; and the super- 
ior character of the young men graduated did 
very much to make the institution known, and 
to bring in a high class of students also for 
the other collegiate courses. 

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Under Father Patrick, and for similar rea- 
sons, was first established and developed the 
scientific course of studies, as distinguished 
from the classical course. Before this 'time 
the sciences were taught in connection with 
the learned languages, and degrees were 
awarded only in the classical course. In addi- 
tion to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and 
Master of Arts, were now, therefore, given the 
degrees of Bachelor of Science and Master of 
Science. The first graduate to receive the 
degree of B. S. was Dr. John Cassidy, now 
the accomplished physician, of South Bend, 
who took his degree in 1865. 

In this connection also a beginning was 
made in the study of Medicine under the Rev. 
Father Louis Ne3nx)n, then a resident clergy- 
man, formerly pastor at New Albany, Indi- 
ana. Father Nejrron had been a skillful and 
learned physician before he became a priest. 
He was a surgeon in Napoleon's army, and 
participated in the Russian campaign, and 
also at Waterloo where he was captured by 
the British. 

But the greatest work done under the ad- 
ministration of Father Dillon, considering the 
wonderful executive ability and admirable 
business talent shown by him, was the erec- 
tion of the new college building in 1865. In 
June the old building was taken, down and by 
September the new one was ready for the 
students. There was a multitude of workmen 
during the summer, and the work done was a 
marvel, in excellence no less than in quantity ; 
yet everything moved like clock-work under 
direction of the master mind in charge. 

The building thus erected was 160 feet in 
length, 80 feet in width, and six stories high, 
surmounted by « colossal statue of Notre 
Dame. On tiie 31st of May, 1866, the new 
edifice was dedicated and the statue blessed 
by Archbishop Spalding, of Baltimore, as- 
sisted by five bishops and a great number of 
priests, and in the presence of the largest con- 
course of people ever gathered at Notre Dame. 

Soon after the dedication of the new Notre 
Dame, Father Dillon, as if his life work were 

done, retired from the presidency of the Uni- 
versity which he had so greatly honored, and 
going to France to attend a general Chapter 
of the Congregation, was afterwards promoted 
to the position of Assistant General. He re- 
mained in France for two years, after which 
he returned to America, filling for a short 
time the position of pastor of St. Patrick's 
Church in Chicago, where he died after a 
short illness, November 15, 1868. He was one 
of the great men of Notre Dame.. 

In May, 1865, Father Sorin carried into 
effect a design which he had long meditated, 
in beginning the publication of a periodical 
in honor of the Blessed Virgin, Mother of 
God. As with many of his other enterprises, 
so in this; numerous persons, even friends 
and sympathizers, shook their heads when he 
commenced the undertaking. The newspaper, 
or the magazine, they said, whichever it might 
be, would most surely be' a failure. But 
Father Sorin 's faith was boundless. It was of 
that kind which removes mountains. Bound- 
less also was his devotion to the Blessed 
Mother of God. To her special protection he 
implicitly believed were due all the great 
things that had hitherto been done in this 
place for the honor of God and the good of 
our fellow men. 

He therefore went ahead without a particle 
of misgiving as to the result of his venture. 
Yet his own labor, care and vigilance in the 
work were indefatigable. He was a firm be- 
liever in the maxim that God helps those that 
help themselves. It had never been his habit 
to fold his hands and leave his work to heaven. 
He worked himself, and God with him. It 
was a favorite saying of his that when God 
had great things to do he raised up men capa- 
ble of doing the work. 

The new journal was named the Ave Maria. 
The first two numbers were published in Chi- 
cago, Father Sorin sending Professor Paul 
Broder, a distinguished scholar then at the 
university, to superintend the work. At the 
end of that time a printing press with mater- 
ial was sent up here and Mr. Alfred Maurice 

Digitized by 




Talley, an experienced Chicago printer, put 
in charge. Father Sorin was himself at first, 
and for a long time, editor, aided by Mother 
Angela, of St. Mary's. 

The event has justified Father Sorin 's 
faith, devotion and indomitable toil. The 
**Ave Maria'* has become one of the great 
religious journals of the worid, circulating 
not only in this country, but in every comer 
of the globe wherever the English language 
is spoken by devout Catholics. The weekly 
circulation has long passed twenty thousand. 

In 1866, Father Gillespie returned from 
France where he had been for three years, 
and soon after became editor of the **Ave 
Marie," which place he continued to occupy 
until his lamented and untimely death in 
1874. Soon after Father Gillespie's death 
the conduct of the **Ave Maria" fell solely 
into the charge of the present efficient editor, 
the Bev. Daniel E. Hudson, under whom Our 
Lady's journal has become as highly literary 
and beautiful as it has always been devotion- 
al and religious. Father Hudson came to 
Notre Dame a New England youth, bathed in 
the culture and fine literary taste of Boston ; 
and he has given to the ''Ave Maria" the ele- 
gance and purity of diction of the old Atlan- 
tic Monthly. The **Ave Maria" has been in 
some respects, as great a work for the ad- 
vancement of the interests of religion and lit- 
erature, as has been the university itself. 

Sec. 7. — A Retrospect. — Success had thus 
crowned in a wonderful degree the work of 
the humble but earnest toilers. The seed 
sown in 1842 had. ripened into a most bounti- 
ful harvest in 1866. 

Such had Notre Dame become, with its at- 
tractive scenery, its cultivated acres, its pleas- 
ant grounds, its commodious buildings, its 
well-ordered course of studies and its con- 
scientious and kindly care for the morals, the 
health and the intellectual advancement of its 
numerous body of students. When and how 
had this been donet We have tried to tell. 
Not in one year, or from one cause, or by one 
man, but, under God, chiefly by one. It was 

under Providence, the quiet, steady growth of 
nearly one fourth a century, based at once 
upon the experience of the Christian ages, 
and upon the ready tact which could adapt 
that experience to the needs of a new and rap- 
idly developing country. To its accomplish- 
ment many minds of the first order, many 
self-sacrificing spirits, had devoted their best 
energies, from the time of small but hopeful 
beginnings, in 1842, to that of comparative 
vigor and maturity, in 1866. 

Soon after this time, in a poetical address to 
Father Sorin, congratulating him and his as- 
sociates upon the assured success of their 
labors, the following thoughts, in illustration 
of the origin, growth and prospects of the uni- 
versity, were indulged in. The lines were 
much admired by the late Prof. Joseph Aloy- 
sius Lyons, and chiefly for that reascm, and on 
account of their historical suggestions, they 
are here appended : 


As our Union sprang to life 
From riven Europe's flying bands. 

Strong wiUi the strife 
Of those old lands, 

And rich with culture of their years, 

In one short century 

A nation great and free, 
The best alone her peers: 

So this fair pile 

Which here the while 

Beneath religious smile 
Pale learning rears, 
By exile hands from many lands. 
In this sweet valley on the virgin earth. 
Her total time, from feeble birth 

And hopes and fears, 
To full-grown vigor, beautiful and grand. 
Her children's pride, the blessing of the land. 
Counts scarce one^f ourth a hundred years. 

Old England points, with noble pride. 
To fanes where science, art, reside. 
As well doth Spain and Germany, 
And lovely France and Italy, 
And many a land beside: 
These are the fruits of centuries, 
Of thought and toil and power's decrees; 
Nor ever ill their glorious fame betide. 

And in our favored clime, 

The sister states 
Of many a classic hall may boast, 

Whose open gates 
Receive the earnest youthful host. 
Aglow for learning's festivals: 
Free classic halls, 
As rich in fruit and promise, if less Itnown to time. 

Digitized by 




But generous bequests 

And state endowments nurtured these. 
As those by king's bequests 

Were formed, and by the rolling centuries. 
What shall be said 
If learning's fount be fed 
By neither ' grateful dew of years, 
Spring floods of wealth, nor aught power's channel 

But in the desert rise. 
Fed by the friendly skies, 
The meed of prayer and toil 
To cheer the arid soil, — 
The gift of faith, the pledge of love 
The sign of blessing from above, 
Kind Heaven's approving prize! 

O happy task, beloved of heaven, 
To thee and thy companions given, 
Prom that auspicious evening bright. 
When, clothed in robes of snow, baptismal 

This virgin forest burst upon thy raptured 
Then rose thy vow to heaven's Queen 
That she would bless the lovely scene 
And make its shades her dear retreat. 
Religion's home and learning's seat 

And since that hour 
The special power 
Of Mary, Queen, 
Is felt and , seen. 
In every shield from harm. 
In every added charm. 
That marks the pleasing progress made 
From forest glade to culture's classic 

From her sweet name, the land and lake. 
Well pleased, their lovely title take. 
Hers was the cot beside the pool. 
Where one small scholar came to school. 
And hers the present structure grand. 
Where hundreds crowd from all the land; 

Her praise so long the soft melodeon sung. 

And hers is from the mighty organ rung; 
Hers is the magic rhyme 
Of sweetly flowing chime; 
And hers the monster bell's sonorous sound sub- 

Where once the warrior cry 

Made horrid discord on the midnight sky, 
There songs of praise 
Meek voices raise. 

And Christian love is borne on high. 

Around thee stand 

A levite band 

Who issue forth to save the land. 

While 'neath thy care 

Blest maidens rear. 

In all sweet grace. 

The future matrons of the race. 

And from these halls 

Their country calls. 

Each rolling year, 

Her sons, to cheer 

Her heart again, 

And give the nation better men. 

And where all this appears 
Scarce more than one-score years 
Saw but primeval wilderness. 
The home of beasts, and men in savage dress. 
What means were thine. 
This gracious change divine. 
To bring o'er nature's rugged shrine, 
Blest Founder, venerable, wise, benign? 
Those, only those, 
The good man knows; 
Those, only those, ^ 
That God bestows. 
His blessings rest upon thy toil, 
His saints and angels guard the soil; 
And thy best cheer is Mary's smile. 
As borne on breezes free, 
By hills and plains, by land and sea. 
Her angel Ave floats the while, 
And beareth cuine and her sweet praise o'er many 
a mile. 

Long here shall science dwell. 
Long here shall heaven's praises swell. 
Still honored thou; for holy writings tell, 
God giveth more to those that use their talents 

When little time and less of gold 
Have wrought so much through faith and love, 

What may we trust when years have rolled. 
With added blessings from above? 

What hope the ardent toiler cheers, 

What mighty hopes the future bears! 

That future dawns, all lily, rose and balm; 
Arise, fair Mother, radiant and calm, 
'Tis thine, to intone the grand, triumphal psalm, 
'Tis thine, 'tis thine, to bear the glorious palm. 
And call the nation to adore the Lamb, 
Thine, only thine, beloved Notre Dame! 

Sec. 8. — The Development op the Univer- 
sity. — In August, 1866, Father William Cor- 
by became president of the university and 
Father Augustus Lemonnier vice-president. 
Both of the new officers had been companions 
and assistants of Father Dillon. Father Le- 
monnier was a nephew of Father Sorin and 
was first made prefect of discipline at Father 
Dillon's special request; while Father Corby, 
formerly also prefect of discipline, was vice- 
president and director of studies during the 
presidency of Father Dillon. 

If the presidency of Father Sorin was a 
period of faith, of struggle, and finally of tri- 
lunph ; and that of Father Dillon one of great 
business activity and material prosperity, the 
administration of Father Corby was the be- 
ginning of a time of earnest devotion to learn- 
ing, during which the standard of education 
at Notre Dame was substantially elevated. 

Digitized by 




During this period, also, the societies of the 
univensity, in which so much of its life cen- 
ters, showed a marked increase of activity. 
To Father Granger the religious societies owe 
everything. He was their founder, and not 
only at the time of which we speak, but even 
to the end of his blessed course, continued to 
infuse into them the spirit of his own holy 
life. The literary and dramatic societies were 
during the same period almost equally indebt- 
ed to Father Gillespie, Father Lemonnier, 
and Prof. Joseph A. Lyons. The latter was 
one of the noblest characters ever associated 
with Notre Dame. Though he continued to 
be a simple layman to the end of his life, no 
religious was ever more unselfishly devoted 
or more useful to his Alma Mater. 

Others who aided Father Corby in the 
building up of the university during his first 
presidency, and who greatly widened the in- 
fluence of Notre Dame throughout the coun- 
try, were Father Joseph C. Carrier, Father 
Thomas L. Vagnier, Father Michael B. Brown, 
Father Timothy Maher, Father Daniel J. 
SpiUard, Father John A. O'Connell, Father 
Edward Lilly, Father William Ruthman, 
Father Peter Lauth, Father Patrick Condon, 
Father John M. Toohey, Father John 
O'Keeflfe, Brothei^ Phillip, Brother Francis 
De Sales, Brother Basil, Brother Benjamin, 
Brother Edward, Brother Leopold, Brother 
Benoit, Brother Florentius, Brother Charles, 
Brother Alban, Brother Celestine, Brother 
Marcellinus, Brother Emmanuel, Brother 
Albert, Brother Paul, Professors William 
Ivers, Arthur J. Stace, Lucius G. Tong, Tim- 
othy E. Howard, Michael A. J. Baasen, 
Michael T. Corby, Edward A. McNally, 
Charles J. Lundy, William T. Johnson, and 
others whose names will recur to those 
familiar with college life during the later six- 
ties and earlier seventies. Silently and stead- 
ily those earnest and learned fathers, brothers 
and laymen built up the courses of study, 
and enlarged the departments of learning at 
Notre Dame, until from an obscure college it 

began to be recognized as a promising univer- 

As the foundations of Notre Dame were laid 
in 1842, the Silver Jubilee should properly 
have* been celebrated in 1867. The truth is, 
however, that the institution then scarcely 
felt itself suflSciently upon its feet to begin 
the celebration of its past career; and it was 
not until two years later that this jubilee was 
resolved upon. Accordingly the date of the 
charter, 1844, and not the date of the found- 
ing, was fixed upon as the point from which 
the silver period should be reckoned. 

Francis C. Bigelow, a graduate of 1862, 
and at the time a rising lawyer of Dayton, 
Ohio, but afterwards a valued member of the 
order of the Holy Cross, and so known to us 
as Father Bigelow, was the first to suggest the 
formation of a society of the Alumni of Notre 
Dame. This association was finally perfected 
on the 27th day of June, 1868 ; when a consti- 
tution and by-laws were drawn up, and the 
following oflScers selected : 

President, Rev. Neil H. Gillespie; 1st Vice- 
President, Francis C. Bigelow, Dayton, Ohio ; 
2d Vice-President, James B. Runnion, Chi- 
cago ; Treasurer, Prof. Joseph A. Lyons ; Sec- 
retary, Prof. Michael T. Corby; Orator, Rev. 
Edmund B. Balroy, Port Sarnia, Ontario; 
Alternate Orator, James O'Brien, Galena, 
Illinois; Poet, Prof. Timothy E. Howard; 
Alternate Poet, Prof. Arthur J. Stace. 

In April, 1869, the local Alumni Conunit- 
tee resolved that a Memorial of the Silver 
Jubilee, to be celebrated in June following, 
should be prepared. To Father Gillespie was 
assigned the task of preparing a History of 
Notre Dame for this Memorial. Father Brown 
was appointed to write brief biographies of 
the members of the Alumni or graduates of 
the classical and scientific courses, to be print- 
ed in the same volume. Prof. Stace was 
selected to prepare for the book sketches of 
the societies, classes and amusements of the in- 
stitution. Finally, to Prof. Lyons was as- 
signed the task of publishing the ambitious 
little venture. The result of these labors was 

Digitized by 




the book of tho Silver Jubilee, to which we 
have been no little indebted in the prepara- 
tion of the present undertaking. 

Alas, not one of those genial literary lights 
who brought out the Silver Jubilee is left to 
aid in celebrating this golden jubilee. May 
they look down with kindly sympathy and aid 
upon the labor of love in which their long- 
time friends and associates are engaged in 
preparing for that golden jubilee which they 
all hoped to see. 

It need hardy be said that the jubilee was 
observed in a fitting manner. There were three 
preliminary celebrations. These were in part 
in recognition of the honor bestowed on 
Father Sorin at the General Chapter of the 
Congregation, held under the presidency of 
Cardinal Bamabo, at Rome, during the sum- 
mer of 1868, when the venerable founder of 
Notre Dame was elevated to the office of Su- 
perior General of the Congregation of the 
Holy Cross, the first American to attain to 
such a dignity in a religious order of the 

The first of the preliminary celebrations 
was that of the patronal feast of Father Sorin, 
thereafter usually called Father General. 
This was on October 13, 1868, St. Ediward's 
Day, known during late years as Founder's 
Day. This was under the auspices of the 
Thespian and Philharmonic societies. It was 
ushered in by the ringing of bells, and the 
stirring music of the university comet band ; 
and consisted of a drama, orchestral music, 
addresses in prose and verse in mimy lan- 
guages and in songs prepared for the occa- 

The second was by the Silver Jubilee Club 
on the 27th of April, 1869, in the absence of 
Father Sorin who was at the time on a visit 
to France. It was a musical, allegorical and 
humorous entertainment, prepared chiefly by 
Prof. Stace, who was gifted with rare talent 
in this line. The Rev. Father Granger, suc- 
cessor to Father Sorin, as provincial of the 
congregation in the United States, presided 

on this occasion with that modest self-abnega- 
tion which was one of his characteristics. 

The third preliminary jubilee celebration 
was on the return of Father Sorin from 
France, May 22, 1869. The comet band, 
then in charge of the enthusiastic Prof. John 
O'Neill, leading a large concourse of the 
equally enthusiastic inmates of Notre Dame, 
met Father Sorin at the railway station in 
South Bend. It was a triumphal procession 
to the university. . How different from the 
occasion twenty-seven years before, when 
Father Sorin with his five brothers were 
piloted through the woods from the village 
to the lake, by that little boy who was after- 
wards the first student of Notre Dame ! Mid 
the ringing of the great bell and the sweet 
chiming of the small ones, the procession en- 
tered the church, where a solemn Te Deum 
was sung. In the evening Washington Hall 
was again the scene of congratulations and 
pleasant entertainment. On account of the 
peculiar splendor of the occasion, the staid 
faculty were represented on the platform, in 
an address by Prof. Tong, supported on either 
hand by Prof. Lyons and Prof. Ivors. Father 
Sorin 's acknowledgements, in response to all 
these demonstrations, were most felicitous. 

Two other celebrations of that jubilee year, 
that by Prof. Lyons' St. Cecilians in Decem- 
ber and that of Washington's birthday, under 
direction of Prof. Corby, while given at the 
times usual every year, were yet characterized 
by the spirit of the jubilee, and were of un- 
usual excellence. 

As if the students' delight could not find 
vent otherwise, the jubilee was not made alone 
in honor of Father Sorin, but special ad- 
dresses and other honors were provided for 
the local officers. The address to Rev. Father 
Granger, provincial, was by Mr. James Cun- 
nea, since a banker of Cleveland; that to 
Father Corby, president and local superior, 
was by Dennis A. Clarke, now Father Clarke, 
of Columbus, Ohio; that to Father Lemonnier, 
vice-president and director of studies, by 

Digitized by 




James A. O'Reilly, of Pittsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania; and that to Father Spillard, prefect 
of discipline, by William A. Walker. 

On June 22, solemn high mass was cele- 
brated by Father Sorin, assisted by Father 
Kilroy as deacon and Father Cooney as sub- 
deacon, and by Father Spillard as master of 
ceremonies. Reception to the alumni, ban- 
quet, songs composed for the occasion by 
Father Brown, with music by the veteran 
Prof. Girac, and sung by Prof. Corby, with 
speeches, addresses and dramas, followed in 

The sweet voice of Vincent Hackman, of St. 
Louis, then at its perfection, is remembered 
to this day. There was also a song by another 
youth, James F. Edwards, now the erudite 
scholar, Prof. Edwards, the librarian of the 
university, the creator of Bishops' Memorial 
Hall, and collector of the Catholic Archives 
of the United States. David J. Wile, after- 
wards a distinguished attomey-at-law, is also 
remembered for his brilliant addresses and 
his fine rendition of dramatic characters on 
those jubilee days, the preludes to the eminent 
place in after years assumed by him at the 

The attendance was very large, especially 
of the old students, and the old-time friends 
of Notre Dame. Those jubilee days showed 
how warm a place their Alma Mater had won 
in the hearts of those who knew her best, 
and how widespread was the influence which 
she already exerted. 

The literary instinct, as we have already 
intimated, was developed early at Notre 
Dame. This, too, was in great measure due 
to Father Sorin. Although he came to In- 
diana with but slight knowledge of the 
language of the country, yet his education 
was a superior one, and nature had endowed 
him with a fine taste in literature, and the 
arts. This taste he had highly cultivated, and 
he was always quick to appreciate and ready 
to praise excellence in speech and composition. 
Indeed he became himself the master of a 
forcible, exact, and even elegant English style. 

He was, therefore, fitted to distinguish the 
mastery of English composition at the begin- 
ning manifested by Father Shawe and Gard- 
ner Jones, and afterwards by Father Gillespie, 
and by his brilliant sister. Mother Angela. 
In addition, Father Sorin 's sympathies with 
American institutions naturally led him to 
desire that the graduates of the university 
should be proficient in the use of the language 
of the country, thus at once making them 
proud of their country and enabling them to 
become leaders in its service. 

Literature and oratory were accordingly 
cultivated at Notre Dame from the beginning. 
The dramatic societies and the debating clubs 
at first gave vent to this taste. The noble 
lines of Shakspeare, of Sheridan and of Gold- 
smith, resounded from the mimic stage ; while 
the eloquence of Edmund Burke, Patrick 
Henry, Daniel 'Connell and Daniel Webster 
furnished models for the youthful orators. 

In time, original efforts were made, and 
speeches, addresses and poems were heard in 
public at Notre Dame, which gave to the 
visitors but a slight indication of the laborious 
literary toils of the young aspirants for fame. 
Finally, in the literary and debating societies 
fuller and freer means of expression were de- 
manded. The weekly essays in the classes of 
grammar, rhetoric and English literature but 
whetted the appetite for a wider and more 
varied audience than that afforded by the 
class-room. The St. Aloysius Philodemic So- 
ciety, the St. Edward Literary Society and 
the St. Cecilia Philomathean Society were the 
chief nurseries of these embryo authors and 

The earliest formal publication containing 
selections from the writings of the students 
was the ** Progress," a manuscript paper. Its 
origin was due to John Collins, Francis C. 
Bigelow, Ben. B. Barron and John H. Flem- 
ing, and it was at first circulated amongst the 
more appreciative literary denizens of the 
university. An earlier manuscript paper 
called the ** Notre Dame Literary Gazette,'' 
through a prefect's misunderstanding, had 

Digitized by 




been summarily destroyed; and for this rea- 
son chiefly John Collins was inspired to bring 
out the paper permanently, and hence the 
bold name of ** Progress. ' So well was the 
** Progress" received, however, that the 
faculty appointed an evening every two weeks 
when the little paper was read in public in 
the senior study hall, where Brother Benoit 
presided with so much decorum. This was a 
great step in advance, and the reading was 
looked forward to as the finest treat imagin- 
able. The manuscript was written out in the 
elegant penmanship of John H. Fleming, 
Horatio Colvin, George P. B. Collins, Lucius 
6. Tong, Orville T. Chamberlain and others, 
and was read as easily as print. One copy 
only was printed, that was for the commence- 
ment of 1860, when it was read by James B. 
Runnion, one of its chief contributors, and 
who himself became afterwards noted as an 
editor and dramatic author. 

"When Pather Gillespie was sent to Prance 
in 1863, the ** Progress" soon languished, its 
place being fitfully taken by what Prof. Stace 
called **such surreptitious publications as the 
* Olympic Gazette,' the 'Weekly Bee' and 

In 1866 Pather Gillespie returned, and 
there is no doubt that his return awakened a 
distinct revival in literary studies. The 
**Ave Maria" had already been established, 
and a printing press was in operation at 
Notre Dame. The war, too, was over, and 
college life had settled down to thoughts of 
literature, arts and science. A great intellec- 
tual era had set in. The time was therefore 
ripe for a college paper. Pather Corby, the 
president, gave the project his hearty en- 
couragement, and Pather Lemonnier, the vice- 
president and director of studies, took an 
active part in its establishment. After some 
discussion the ** Scholastic Year" was fixed 
upon as the name of the new venture the idea 
being that the paper should be published only 
during the scholastic year, or from September 
till June each year. 

The plan of organization was that a select 

corps of students, under supervision of Pather 
Gillespie, should prepare the matter. Pather 
Gillespie being also the editor of the **Ave 
Maria," the plan worked as well, perhaps, as 
any that could be devised. The first number 
was issued September 7, 1867. It was in the 
beginning little more than a fly leaf of the 
**Ave Maria," to which it was attached. As 
stated in the salutatory, printed in the first 
number, it was intended chiefly, in addition 
to being a literary medium for the writings 
of students, **to give to parents frequent ac- 
counts of the institution in which they had 
placed their children." 

In March, 1868, the editorial supervision 
fell into the hands of Pather Lemonnier, as 
director of studies, and for many years the 
director of studies continued to be the nominal 
editor, selecting and classifying the matter 
furnished him by the students. The original 
idea, though, of an editorial corps of students, 
has always remained a constituent part of the 
plan of organization. Very early, however, 
contributions were offered and received from 
the whole body of the students, each one being 
encouraged and urged to write for the pages 
of the college paper. 

Beginning with August, 1868, the ** Scholas- 
tic Year" was published entirely separate 
from the **Ave Maria." The venture had 
proved a success, and henceforth the little 
paper was felt to be an essential part and 
parcel of the university. In 1869, the name 
was changed by Pather Gillespie to the 
** Notre Dame Scholastic." This name, in 
September, 1872, was modified by Pather 
Brown, then in charge, into the ** Scholastic, " 
simply. But three years later, in September, 
1875, the want of a local flavor in the name 
was perceived amongst the exchanges, and 
the former appellation of ** Notre Dame 
Scholastic," was restored. This has con- 
tinued to be the name ever since. 

Prom the beginning the editorial supervi- 
sion has been, successively, in the hands of 
Pathers N. H. Gillespie, A. Lemonnier, M. B. 
Brown, P. C. Bigelow, Bro. Stanislaus, James 

Digitized by 




Rogers, Thomas McNamara, John A. O'Con- 
nell, W. A. Maloney and James French and 
their successors, and to the guiding genius of 
those gentle spirits the very high rank which 
the paper has^ attained is in great measure 
due. While, however, the work was thus 
supervised, the splendid material which has 
for so many years filled the columns of this 
journal, has been almost exclusively furnished 
by the literary and scientific students of the 
university. It has been to them a great edu- 
cator, drawing out the modest talent that 
might not otherwise have manifested itself. 

As indicating the rank assigned to the 
** Scholastic" by its contemporaries, we take 
the following from the ** Portfolio, '* Wesleyan 
College, Hamilton, Ontario, for May, 1882, 
which, though foreign in nationality and op- 
posed in religion, could thus judge fairly of 
true merit : 

**0f the 'Notre Dame Scholastic,' what 
shall we sayt If there be one paper devoted 
to college literature that pursues the even 
tenor of its way, heedless alike of the smiles 
or frowns of its contemporaries, it surely 
must be the 'Scholastic' Published under a 
government differing in many particulars 
from our own, and the organ of a church col- 
lege opposed to us in many points, it cannot 
but give us great pleasure to find such patrio- 
tism and loyalty to principles, with such com- 
plete absence of bigotry as mark each issue 
of the 'Scholastic' . . . Would it not be 
well to inform ourselves better as to what the 
Roman Catholic church has done and is still 
doing for civilization, taking notice of papers 
evincing so high a degree of culture as the 
'Scholastic,' before we condemn the whole 
church as the supporters of ignorance and 
superstition? May the future of our friend 
be even brighter than the past, and its visits 
to us always afford as much satisfaction as at 

So excellent had become the literary quality 
of the "Scholastic" that a desire was mani- 
fested to select and publish in more perman- 
ent form the best articles appearing in prose 

and verse, together with calendars and other 
matters usually going with year books. 

The task of compilation was undertaken by 
Professor Lyons; and the first of the "Scho- 
lastic Annuals" was issued for the year 1876. 
And for every year thereafter, until his 
lamented death, in 1888, Professor Lyons 
issued the priceless annual. It forms a 
treasure of good things, and is beyond all 
value to those who knew Notre Dame during 
the thirteen years of its publication. 

This was but one of the many works pub- 
lished during his too-short life by Professor 
Lyons. He had a genius for young men, 
knew their needs and their aspirations, and 
had an uncommon knowledge of the means 
necessary to make them noble men. How 
many, many a young man learned from him 
to live uprightly, purely and grandly ! How 
attached were they to him in life, and how 
they mourned him in death! 

During the presidency of Father Dillon, as 
we have seen, a scientific course of studies was 
established, and students began to be gradu- 
ated in this course as well as in the classical. 
But it was not until the administration of 
Father Corby and that of Father Lemonnier 
that this course was firmly established. 

During the first quarter of a century of 
its existence, the curriculum of studies of the 
University of Notre Dame was that of an 
ordinary college, with a single faculty — ^that 
of arts. During this period the progress of 
Notre Dame, as an educational institution, 
while necessarily slow, was yet healthful. 
Year by year, her sole faculty increased in 
numbers and eflSciency, so that in 1867, and 
at the celebration of her silver jubilee, she 
could rightfully claim a high and most hcmor- 
able rank among American colleges, but noth- 
ing more. That year witnessed a great 
awakening and a generous effort towards 
higher destinies. The work of a real univer- 
sity was about to take form, not at once, but 
gradually ; the elements of success for the new 
departure were very diligently gathered to- 

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Able professors, both lay and cleric, were 
secured; the curriculum of studies was 
thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged and 
improved; the cabinet of physics was over- 
hauled, rearranged and much increased by 
the purchase of new instruments ; the library 
and the museum were considerably augmented 
and were catalogued and moved to better 

These important departments had hereto- 
fore, of necessity, remained almost stationary, 
rather through want of funds, however, than 
from inattention or indifference. In 1860 the 
library had barely contained two thousand 
volumes, and these chiefly in French and 
Latin, and of little use to students or profes- 
sors. The museum then consisted of a num- 
ber of stuffed animals and birds, with a small 
collection of eggs, chiefly purchased in 1856. 
Unfortunately, for want of space, these ob- 
jects of natural history were placed in an 
ill-lighted upper hall. One part of the collec- 
tion was of great value, both from a pecuniary 
and a scientific point of view ; that was the 
great hei^barium presented to the university 
in 1855, by the eminent French botanist, De 

Yet, when we consider her humble begin- 
nings, bordering on absolute destitution of 
almost everything needful for success, Notre 
Dame had made strenuous efforts, and not in 
vain, to reach the higher plane to which she 
was evidently destined under Divine Provi- 
dence. With the new buildings of 1865, 
much better accommodations were provided; 
and with these material improvements a 
strong impulse for a higher educational life 
was felt» and a well directed determination 
was manifested on the part of the college 
authorities to raise the standard and to ex- 
pand the circle of studies. These impulses 
and efforts soon led the way to a new era of 
university life and action. 

Of the army chaplains who went to the 
front during the war, for the Union, three, 
as we have seen. Father James Dillon, Father 
Leveque and Father Bourget, died as the 

result of their toils and exposure during the 
service ; two others, Father Cooney and Father 
Gillen, entered on the labors of the mission. 
The remaining two. Father Corby and Father 
Carrier, drawn by the original bent of their 
minds and hearts, returned to the congenial 
pursuits of literature, science and the arts. 

Father Corby was now president of the uni- 
versity, and Father Joseph C. Carrier was a 
member of the faculty and of the Council of 
Administration. Both, with their ardent na- 
tures, cultured minds and wide experience, 
were enthusiastic for the future of education 
at Notre Dame. As preliminary to the im- 
provements contemplated. Father Carrier was, 
in the spring of 1866, sent to France on busi- 
ness for the university and for the Congrega- 
tion of the Holy Cross. He was commissioned 
to procure, amongst other things, books for 
the library, instruments for the cabinet of 
physics, chemicals for the laboratory, and ob- 
jects of natural history for the museum. Dur- 
ing the seven months of his stay in Paris, 
Father Carrier was not a day idle in the gay 
capital, but was constantly engaged in the 
furtherance of the interests entrusted to his 
care. That his mission was successful may be 
known from the fact that more than twenty 
large boxes were forwarded from Paris to 
Notre Dame, containing a multitude of ob- 
jects, mainly for use in the university and in 
the Church of the Sacred Heart. Among the 
objects so sent may be mentioned the fine six- 
inch telescope, a gift from Napoleon III; a 
collection of two hundred volumes presented 
by the French government; and numerous 
church ornaments and sacred vessels, pre- 
sented by the emperor, the empress and the 
prince imperial. 

On his return to Notre Dame, Father Car- 
rier was entrusted with the task of putting 
the scientific course of studies upon a satis- 
factory basis. This was an important step 
towards realizing the idea of a university, and 
henceforth that idea was never lost sight of, 
until finally it has attained its present de- 

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Father Carrier was at first librarian, cura- 
tor of the museum and professor of physics 
and chemistry. He devoted the autumn of 
1866 and the early part of the next year to 
re-arranging, systematizing and classifying 
the now greatly enlarged library, museum 
and laboratory. A little observatory was 
erected, and the large telescope found a place 
imder its revolving dome. At the beginning 
of the second session of 1866-7, a class of 
botany was organized, the starting of the class 
being attended with much enthusiasm. A 
corps of four or five competent professors 
was secured, and the course was fully under 
way in September, 1867, the general direction 
of the classes being for several years under 
Father Carrier. The several branches of the 
physical and natural sciences, physics, chem- 
istry, zoology, botany, mineralogy, geology, 
physiology, and comparative anatomy, were 
taught with success. 

After a year or two Father John A. Zahm, 
since the distinguished scientist and author, 
whose ** Sound and Music" and other works 
have attracted world-wide attention, was as- 
sistant director and able professor in the 
course. Other professors were Fathers 
Thomas L. Vagnier, Alexander M. Kirsch, 
Louis Nfeyron, Professors Stace, Baasen, Ivers, 
Howard and others. 

In order to enhance the efficiency of the 
scientific course of studies, and to foster a 
more intimate bond of fellowship amongst its 
professors and students, there was established, 
in the spring of 1868, the United Scientific 
Association, at whose meetings valuable pa- 
pers were read by both teachers and pupils. 

The little botanical garden, to the west of 
the old church, laid out by Father Carrier in 
the spring of 1867, will be remembered by 
many. The larger garden laid out by him 
with great labor and success, at a later date, 
in 1872, at the east end at St. Joseph's lake, 
was at the time perhaps the most complete 
botanical garden in the country. Here the 
student of plants and flowers read nature 
more perfectly than in any book, especially 

when the genial and devoted master. Father 
Carrier, was present to translate for his pu- 
pils dame nature's obscurer language. 

In the early seventies, a thorough course of 
civil engineering was established, and also a 
partial course in medicine. The departments 
thus organized, together with the older de- 
partments of literature and the arts, and the 
later ones of applied electricity, of biology 
and mechanical engineering, have continued 
to prosper ta this day, and the scholars there 
formed have everjrwhere reflected the highest 
credit on their Alma Mater. 

Father Carrier, after presiding for some 
time over educational institutions in Texas 
and at Cincinnati, has now for many years 
foimd himself at St. Laurent college, near 
Montreal, where he retired in part on account 
of ill health resulting from his military ser- 
vice, and where he continues as at Notre 
Dame, the devotee of scientific pursuits. For 
Notre Dame, he did indeed a great work, the 
fruits of which we have long been reaping. 

In 1868, under the presidency of Father 
Corby also, the board of trustees took the 
first steps towards organizing a law school at 
Notre Dame. In January, 1869, the law de- 
partment was formally established, and on 
February 1, of that year, classes were opened. 
The classes in law were at first under direc- 
tion of Professor Colovin, a progressive and 
active young lawyer, brother of Father Colo- 
vin, afterwards president of the university. 
Other teachers, either solely or in part in 
charge of the law classes for several years 
thereafter, were Professor Peter Foote, an 
attomey-at-law from Chicago; Francis C. 
Bigelow, from Dayton, Ohio, afterwards 
Father Bigelow; the Hon. Lucius G. Tong, 
already named as connected with Father 
Patrick Dillon in establishing the commercial 
department of the university, and others. 

The following further history of the law 
department of Notre Dame, with some* intro- 
ductory' matter, is taken from a New York 
law journal :^ 

a. Intercollegiate Law Journal, New York, June 
and July, 1892. 

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The University of Notre Dame is situated 
about a mile north of the corporate limits of 
South Bend, Indiana, a city of 27,000 in- 
habitants. It is owned and conducted by a 
famous religious community of the Catholic 
church, known as the Congregation of the 
Holy Cross. It was established in 1842, and 
chartered in 1844. While Catholic students 
are in the majority, yet students of all reli- 
gious denominations attend. However, re- 
ligion is never made the subject of controver- 
sy, and there is absolutely no friction on 
account of it. Freedom of opinion in that 
regard is respected and Secured in all cases. 

The building comprising the university pro- 
per, and its several departments, are among 
•the stateliest and most attractive in the West. 
The chief ones are ranged in the form of a 
parallelogram or square. They are the uni- 
versity proper, the conservatory of music, 
exhibition hall, department of mechanical en- 
gineering, observatory, U. S. post oflSce, li- 
brary department of law, and the church. 
Back of them are the manual labor and agri- 
cultural schools, a large printing oflSce and 
bindery, a seminary or ecclesiastical school, a 
novitiate and normal school, and an infirmary 
or hospital, together with bath-houses, gym- 
nasiums, etc. 

The grounds are very extensive and com- 
prise at least one thousand acres. Just north, 
and in the rear of the main building, is one 
of the most attractive little lakes, in the state. 
It is about a mile in circumference, and the 
receding shores rise to a considerable length, 
and,Are crowned with a heavy growth of tim- 
ber. The lake is made available for boating 
in the summer and skating in the winter. Be- 
sides, the St. Joseph river, skirting the uni- 
versity grounds, is less than a mile distant. 
The outlying grounds, comprising about five 
hundred acres, are under cultivation. In ad- 
dition to the land around the university the 
corporation owns, in the adjoining township, 
a farm of three thousand acres. This is used 
for agricultural and grazing purposes. 

The students board, lodge, and have their 
school year homes at the university. As the 
law students enter into the general current 
of collegiate life it is thought advisable to 
give these preliminary facts before dealing 
especially with the law department. 

This was founded in 1869 by the Very Rev. 
William Corby, then president of the uni- 
versity. However, after the fire of 1879, 
which destroyed all the old buildings, the 

number of law students greatly decreased. 
In fact, it had fallen to a discouraging mini- 
mum in 1883, when the Eev. Thos. E. Walsh, 
who then was and still is president of the uni- 
versity, determined to reorganize this depart- 
ment. To that end he secured the services of 
a former student of the university who was 
actively engaged in the practice of law in 
Chicago. The name of this gentleman was 
William Hoynes, LL.D. Of him, when about 
to leave that city, newspapers published per- 
sonal notices highly complimentary, — the fol- 
lowing from the Chicago Evening Journal 
serving as an example: **Mr. William 
Hoynes, one of the very ablest young men of 
the Chicago bar, has just accepted the pro- 
fessor's chair in the law department of Notre 
Dame University. The university authorities 
are to be congratulated on their selection. 
Mr. Hoynes as a speaker, writer, thinker, and 
lawyer, has no superior of his own age in the 

As a boy. Col. Hoynes learned the printing 
trade in the office of the La Crosse (Wis.) 
Republican. In 1862, while still a mere boy, 
he enlisted in the 20th Wisconsin Volunteers, 
and went to the front. He was very severely, 
and it was feared fatally, wounded at the 
battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. .But his won- 
derful vitality and constitutional vigor en- 
abled him to rally and return from the gather- 
ing shadows of the dark valley. He was 
wounded again later in the war, his command 
being then in Mississippi. After the war he 
returned to the printing trade, and worked 
at the *'case" until 1868. He then entered 
the University of Notre Dame as a student. 
In 1872 he received the honors of graduation. 
Afterwards he was called to New Brunswick, 
N. J., to take charge editorially of the Daily 
Times. His services as editor were very suc- 
cessful and highly valued, but his desire to 
perfect himself in the law was so great that 
he resigned his position with that object in 
view, and returned to the West in the fall of 
1874. However, before getting fairly into 
practice, he again did editorial work on lead- 
ing newspapers in Chicago, Denver and 
Peoria. In the city last named he edited the 
Daily Transcript. While engaged in editorial 
work he was wont to give his spare time to 
reading law, and as opportunity offered he 
tried cases in court. In 1876 he recefived the 
degree of Master of Arts from the University 
of Notre Dame, and some time prior thereto 
he was made an LL.B. by the Univerisity' df 

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Michigan. He was first admitted to the bar 
in Michigan. Afterwards he was admitted to 
practice before the United States Supreme 
Ck)urt and also the Supreme Court of Illinois. 

In 1881, Col. Hoynes dropped journalism 
altogether and turned his attention exclu- 
sively to the law. Prom the very firsrt ho met 
with success, and had a lucrative practice 
when called to take the chair of law at Notre 
Dame. Thereafter the number of students 
steadily increased. It now averages about 
thirty-five. A library comprising the stand- 
ard text-books and reports was purchased. 
This was placed in the moot court and lecture 
room so as to be accessible to the students at 
all reasonable hours. The course of study 
was extended to three years for those attend- 
ing two classes a day, and two years for those 
taking three and participating regularly in 
the moot court work, to which Wednesday and 
Saturday evenings, or about four hours a 
week, are given. The methods of instruction 
adopted may be called, for the sake of brevity, 
the eclectic system. 

It aims to combine the best features of the 
distinctive courses of other law schools, to- 
gether with such additional and original 
means of imparting legal knowledge as to the 
dean may seem proper. Two lectures are de- 
livered daily, copious notes of the same being 
taken by the students. These are advised to 
read during the day the most important cases 
cited in the notes. Whatever appears from 
time to time to be specially difficult to re- 
member is written on the blackboard, in addi- 
tion to being stated in the lecture, and stu- 
dents may at their leisure study and copy it 
into their note-books. Instructive illustra- 
tions, or actual cases briefly stated, are given 
in explanation and support of such principles 
as seem at all obscure to learners. The lec- 
tures are changed year by year, even the 
latest cases being cited when they seem to 
be well considered and likely to stand the 
test of arguments for a rehearing. Text- 
books on the subjects treated by the lectures 
are read collaterally by the students. The 
notes and text-boote are thus found to be 
reciprocally aidful, and the principles stated 
in them are as firmly fixed in the mind as 
may reasonably be expected in the case of be- 
ginners. Moreover, Kent's Commentaries, 
and some of the revised editions of Blackstone 
are read. Written examinations, comprising 
on an average about five questions for each 
day, are given to the students at the **quiz'' 

class, which meets every afternoon. Atten- 
tion is thus drawn to the most difficult points, 
and distinctions to be noted in each branch 
of the law, and the questions and answers 
bearing upon the same are written out and 
handed to the dean the following week. He 
examines them, or has them examined, mark- 
ing mistakes of all kinds, whether in law, 
orthography, the meaning of words or other- 
wise, and the papers are then returned to the 
writers. Moreover, oral examinations are heia 
daily at ' * quiz. ' ' Much attention, too, is given 
to the study and analysis of leading cases. 
A strong case, is, as it were, taken apart, 
and put together, and considered in all its 
elements and relations. What the rule would 
be if this element or that element were want- 
ing, etc., is pointed out, and the reason for 
the doctrine governing it as a harmonioud 
whole stated. This exercise is made very in- 
teresting, instructive and profitable, and gives 
the student remarkable facility in unraveling 
the intricacies of hypothetical cases, and stat- 
ing how they should be decided under the 
law. Fortimately, the class is not so large as 
to prevent this kind of work, and moot court 
practice from being carried on successfully. 
Referring more particularly to moot court 
work, it may here be stated that to it much 
time, thought and research are given. We 
have the regular moot court, a court of chan- 
cery, and a justice's court. One of the most 
advanced students in the post-graduate 
course is chosen justice of the latter court. 
Assisting him are a clerk and constable. Col. 
Hoynes, or Professor Hubbard presides as 
chancellor in the court of chancery, and judge 
of the moot court. The court of chancery 
has its clerk, master, bailiff, reporter, etc., 
while attached to the moot court are a clerk, 
prosecuting attorney and reporter, as well as 
the sheriff and coroner. Statements of facts 
involving disputed questions of law are given 
by the dean from time to time to the senior 
students who select jimiors as assistants. 
Pleadings are filed and issue is joined in 
praetically the same manner as in cases of 
g^iuine proceedings in court. In like manner 
too, juries are impaneled, witnesses examined, 
arguments made, and instructions given to 
the jury. And with like formality the ver- 
diet is returned and a motion made for a 
new trial. This is argued in from three dajrs 
to a week afterwards, and granted or over- 
ruled. Then follow the steps incident to an 
appeal. Most of the cases involve points of 

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law exclosivelyy and are heard and passed 
upon by the court without the intervention 
of a jury. Moot court work is deemed a 
highly important feature of the system of 
instruction pursued at Notre Dame. 

AU law students entitled to the standing 
of juniors in any of the collegiate courses are 
given rooms in Sorin Hall without extra 
charge, and those pursuing the post graduate 
course are supplied with rooms in the same 
building without reference to the test pre- 
scribed for under graduates. 

The post graduate course is for one year. 
Those following it attend lectures on the 
Roman or civil law, comparative jurispru- 
dence, history, and philosophy of law, rise 
and development of institutions, parliament- 
ary law, etc. Much attention is also given to 
the preparation of pleadings, moot court 
trials, miscellaneous work of a law office, etc. 
By way of showing the thoroughness of the 
work tiius done, it may be stated that the 
graduates, in many instances, open offices and 
put out their ** shingles" very, soon after 
leaving here. This is especially true of those 
who begin practice in the newer states. Pre- 
liminary work in a law office is often found 
impracticable in such cases. 

All classes in the collegiate courses are open 
to the law students without extra charge. In 
fact, they are required to take some of these 
classes, as logic and history, in order to pass 
an examination before graduation. - It is op- 
tional with them to take elective studies, or, 
should they desire to become candidates for 
a degree, the regular studies of any course 
they may select. 

The cost of tuition, board, lodging, washing, 
mending, etc., is $300 a year. The scholastic 
week begins the first week of September and 
closes the last week of June. At least ten 
or twelve hours a day are given to class work 
and study in all the departments. I know 
of no institution anywhere in the West in 
which students do harder or better work. A 
mile distant from town they enjoy immunity 
from the distractions incident to town life 
and the claims of society upon their attention 
and time. They may work, with reasonable 
intermission for meals and recreation, from 
six o'clock in the morning until half -past nine 
at night. 

Col. Hoynes is dean of the law faculty. 
He is assisted by ,the Hon. Lucius Hubbard 
of South Bend, one of the ablest and most 
widely known lawyers in Indiana. Congress- 

man Abraham Lincoln Brick, of the same 
place, delivers lectures on criminal law and 
criminal pleadings. 

The Hon. John Gibbons, L. L. Mills, Dr. 
Harold N. Moyer, of Chicago, and William 
P. Breen of Port Wayne, are also named in 
the catalogue, and counted upon for occa- 
sional lectures. Col. Hoynes is still actively 
engaged in the practice of the profession, but 
he is obliged to limit himself to cases of more 
than ordinary moment, and to the Chicago 
courts. His work at Notre Dame is extra- 
ordinary — ^probably without precedent or 
parallel anywhere. It is not at all unusual 
for him to lecture and give instructions in 
the class-room three or four hours a day, 
besides preparing statements of facts, hearing 
and deciding most moot court cases, etc Ab 
a recognition of his literary work and 
thorough acquaintance of the law in all its 
branches, he received in 1887 the degree of 
LL.D. from the University of Notre Dame. 

CoL Hojrnes is too busy to bestow much 
attention upon politics, although he was the 
Republican candidate for congress in this (13) 
district in 1888, and succeeded in reducing 
the Demooratic majority given. for his com- 
petitor in 1884 about 1900. Tte district has 
been heavily Democratic for several y^ears, but 
he came so near carrying it that he was be- 
lieved to be elected for a whole week, and 
his name was at the time published in the 
newspapers as among the elected. It is 
generally conceded that he would have been 
successful had he worked less strenuously for 
Harrison and Hovey, and more particularly 
for himself. But it would not be natural, if 
even possible, for him to do so. Selfishness 
would indeed be an incongruous element in 
a nature so cordial, kindly and sympathetic. 

At the close of the first presidency of 
Father Corby, in the summer of 1872, there 
convened at Notre Dame an assembly which, 
from its unique character, merits special re- 
mark. Then and there, for the first time 
since the discovery of Columbus, a general 
chapter of a religious order was held in the 
New World. At this chapter, by virtue of 
his office as superior general of the Congrega- 
tion of the Holy Cross, Father Sorin presided. 
The venerable religious had now become patri- 
archal in appearance, and quite unlike the 
black-hairedy dark-faced, lithe-bodied young 

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priest who stood upon the banks of the frozen 
lake and looked out over the snowy landscape 
in 1842. The snows were now transferred to 
his noble brow and to his flowing beard, both 
worthy to adorn a prophet's head. Only the 
dark eye of genius, only the strong mental 
grasp, the immortal youthful hope, and the 
childlike faith, marked him as the same cour- 
ageous and far-seeing priest that had planted 
the cross in the wilderness, and beside the 
cross built up this dwelling place of religion, 
art and science. On returning from the third 
plenary council of Baltimore, Father Sorin 
had said of Archbishop Spalding, who pre- 
sided there: **He is not only the head of 
the church in America by virtue of his oflSce, 

Founder of the University of Notre Dame. 

but also by virtue of his intellect and his 
noble presence." So on this occasion it might 
be said of Father Sorin himself : He presided 
not only by reason of his office, but also by 
right of intellectual supremacy and patri- 
archal bearing. 

At this chapter were present delegates, not 
only from the United States and the Dominion 
of Canada, but also from France, Algiers, the 
East Indies, and even from Rome itself, 
where these meetings are usually held. In 
this instance Rome had given special permis- 
sion to hold the chapter at Notre Dame, as 
a peculiar mark of favor to the United States, 
and as a compliment to Father Sorin, the 
only American general of a religious order. 

It was at the general chapter of 1872 that 
the gifted and well-beloved Father Augustin 

Lemonnier was selected as president and lo- 
cal superior of Notre Dame. It would seem 
that the presidency of Father Lemonnier came 
to add grace and beauty to what was already 
so laboriously and substantially constructed. 
There is hardly a science or an. art in which 
he was not well versed ; and, as Johnson said 
of Goldsmith, there was nothing which he 
touched that he did not beautify. Under him 
all the sciences and the arts flourisned as 
never before; and Notre Dame became in- 
deed a university. 

One of the most signal benefits which 
Father Lemonnier conferred upon the uni- 
versity was the establishment of a students' 
circulating library, known after his death as 
the Lemonnier Library, and now, under the 
efficient charge of his bebved friend, Pro- 
fessor Edwards, grown into the fine college 
library which is so great a credit to the uni- 

The period of Father Lemonnier 's presi- 
dency was but two years, and yet to many 
of us that short span seems like a golden age, 
all was so beautiful, so harmonious. What 
a pleasant picture arises in the mind at the 
sound of his name! Even the word was 
musical, and thus emblematic of the beautiful 
character which it represented. What a 
gracious presence, what kindness, what ease, 
what exquisite taste, what goodness! In him 
met most perfectly the priest, the scholar, and 
the gentleman. But he was even more than 
this: he was an artist in the broadest sense 
of the term, having a true appreciation of 
music, poetry, landscape gardening, and gen- 
eral scenic efifect. Molding nature with the 
hand of art, he would have made Notre Dame 
as charming as the Pincian gardens. He 
was, besides, a most genial companion, pos- 
sessed of a delicate and ready wit and a 
never-failing fund of good humor. 

His active life, from his ordination to his 
death, was completely identified with Notre 
Dame. First appointed prefect of discipline 
at the special instance of Father Dillon, and 
then vice-president by Father Corby, he had 

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filled every position up to that of president 
and superior, in which he died. 

His many-sided sympathies not only ex- 
plain his popularity with all classes of people, 
but may also account for his dramatic taste, 
especially his admiration for Shakespeare; 
for, like Cardinal Wiseman, he loved and ap- 
preciated the great bard, and himself pos- 
sessed no little share of dramatic genius. It 
was, however, towards the pastoral drama that 
his taste was drawn, and ** Twelfth Night, *' 
or **As You Like It," gave him far more 
pleasure than **Lear" or ** Macbeth." Inno- 
cence, gentleness, and purity had a wonderful 
attraction for his soul. 

To this wide sympathy with others we may 
also ascribe his marvellous success as presi- 
dent. For him the term university was a 
word of marked significance. He would have 
all departments of study in a prosperous con- 
dition, the sciences, the arts, the languages, 
the professions. He would have the various 
societies active and harmonious. He would 
have oflScers and professors working together 
with one mind. He would have the students 
contented and rapidly advancing in all knowl- 
edge. He would have the surroundings as 
comfortable and beautiful as they were good 
and useful. Finally, he would have all sancti- 
fied by a pervading spirit of Christian piety 
and virtue. To say that, at least in a large 
measure, he succeeded in all this, is to name 
him what he was indeed, a model president. 

Father Lemonnier and Father Gillespie, 
each of whom had done so much for litera- 
ture and art at Notre Dame, died within a 
few days of one another, the first October 29, 
and the last November 12, 1874. A like co- 
incidence had marked the deaths of the two 
Father Dillons, Father Patrick dying Novem- 
ber 15, and Father James December 17, 1868. 
All four bright men, and dying in the bloom 
of early manhood. 

During the last sickness and at the death 
of Father Lemonnier, Father Patrick J. Colo- 
vin was vice-president and director of studies ; 
and after Father Lemonnier 's death remained 

as acting president until his selection as presi- 
dent, which office he held until 1877. 

Father Colovin was a ripe scholar, and a 
man of fine presence. Under his presidency 
the work so well commenced under Father 
Corby and Father Lemonnier was carried on 
with success. Father Colovin was devoted to 
solid learning, and there is no doubt that the 
standard of the higher studies was sensibly 
raised during his administration. Notre Dame 
moved ahead steadily on the road of perma- 
nent prosperity. Father Colovin 's occasional 
addresses were models of finished oratory. 

During this time the Centennial Exposition 
and World's Fair was held in Philadelphia; 
and the university became widely known from 
the beautiful altar and other objects of re- 
ligious art then seen at the exposition, and 
which now adorn the Church of the Sacred 

The month of December, 1875, was noted 
for the thrilling uncertainty that for weeks 
hung over the Atlantic steamer Amerique, 
upon which Father Sorin had taken passage 
for France. He left Notre Dame on the 
evening of November 7th, and did not arrive 
at Queenstown until December 18th of that 
year. The long silence caused alarm for his 
safety and there was good reason for the fear, 
as the great vessel was disabled at sea. It 
was the most perilous of the nearly fifty 
passages made across the ocean by Father 
Sorin during his life. On his safe return to 
Notre Dame, May 21, 1876, all was welcome 
and thanksgiving. 

February 26, 1876, a patriotic number of 
the ** Scholastic '* was issued containing quite 
a historical account of matters and things 
connected with Notre Dame. From this very 
interesting number we have freely drawn in 
preparing the preceding pages. The edition 
was prepared in accordance with a request 
from the Indiana State Board of Education, 
made to all publications in the State, with a 
view to furnish statistical and historical in- 
formation, in connection with the celebration 

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of the one hundredth anniversary of the 
Declaration of Independence. 

Prom the very beginning great attention 
has been given at Notre Dame to manly sports 
and to outdoor and indoor amusements. 
Pather Sorin himself in the early days joined 
in the recreations of his young friends, never 
so happy as when throwing aside his cares 
he mingled in their merry sports. In the 
good old game of marbles he was, as we have 
seen, an especial expert, as in the early spring 
days many a boy learned to his cost. 

One day of the week, formerly Wednesday, 
but of late years Thursday, was devoted 
exclusively to physical exercises. In the early 
years, students took prodigious delight in long 
excursions on foot, scouring the fields and 
woods far and wide. Over sandy roads and 
through swampy prairies they went in merry 
troops, with a good brother, priest or profes- 
sor in attendance. A favorite mode of pass- 
ing the day was to start out immediately after 
breakfast, carrying the main part of the din- 
ner in baskets and trusting to the neighboring 
farmers for butter, eggs and milk. At other 
times they would give notice a week in ad- 
vance, and then swoop down on some quiet 
farmhouse, and there demolish chickens, hot 
pies and other dainty edibles, which, besides 
being somewhat more toothsome than the col- 
lege commons, tasted fifty per cent better 
from the fact that they had to be paid for. 

Again, still longer excursions were taken, 
in ** carry-alls" and other hired vehicles. 
This was particularly true in winter, when 
many famous sleighrides were taken. 

At a still earlier day, when several of the 
students were the sons of civilized Indian 
chiefs or other distinguished braves among 
the remnants of the tribes yet left in northern 
Indiana and southern Michigan, even finer 
sport was found in the weekly excursions. 
Bears, wolves, deer, turkey, 'coons, opossums, 
catamounts and prairie-hens were found in 
the pathless woods and prairies; while the 
lakes and streams were covered with wild 
geese and other aquatic game. 

On one of these occasions it is related that 
the boys found a bear in a bee tree, trying 
to rob the honey. The Indian boys soon 
smoked out the bear, and then made short 
work of him, much to the amazement of their 
white companions. They managed also to get 
the honey which the unfortunate bear had 
been after. 

With the Indians and the bears, such ex- 
citing excursions came to an end; but the 
charms of weekly tramps continue even to 
this day. They are, howeter, of necessity, 
now confined to the grounds of the university, 
and chiefly by the margins of the charming 
lakes. In winter time, also, these lakes fur- 
nish exhilarating skating; while, in summer, 
St. Joseph's lake, evening after evening, is 
alive with the merry swimmers. In summer, 
too, the same St. Joseph's sparkles with the 
merry boatmen's practice over the silvery 

Back in the sixties regularly organized 
boating clubs were first established; and, year 
by year, the exercises and rivalries of the dif- 
ferent crews became of greater and greater 
interest, both to inmates of the University and 
to visitors. No conmiencement exercises are 
now considered complete without the regattas; 
to witness which, hundreds of people gather 
along the shores of the lake, all intent upon 
the success of their respective friends and 
eager to wear the colors of the champions. 

The earliest record we have of a race is of 
that which took place in 1870, when the 
** Santa Maria" won the cup. In after years, 
we read of victories for the **Pinta," the 
** Minnehaha," the ** Hiawatha," and many 
others. The boats used upon the lakes are 
equal to the best in the country. 

In 1877, Pather Colovin and Pather Corby 
changed places, Pather Colovin taking charge 
of the Watertown, Wisconsin, parish, which 
Pather Corby had conducted with signal abil- 
ity for five years, and Pather Corby again 
becoming president of Notre Dame, with 
Pather Thomas E. Wabh as vice-president 
and director of studies. 

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One of the first cares of the new adminis- 
traticm was to extend and improve the facili- 
ties for manly exercises for the students. Im- 
proved walks were laid out for use in wet 
weather. The noble avenue leading from the 
college, lined with wide-spreading maples, was 
brought to an even grade for a mile and a 
half south, into the city limits, and then finely 
graveled, making the approach to the build- 
ings one of the finest to be found anywhere. 

Prom the first, the students of Notre Dame 
had been separated into divisions, according 
to €ige. Those over sixteen were called seniors ; 
those between twelve and sixteen, juniors; and 
those under twelve, minims. The seniors have 
since been called also Brownsons, in honor 
of the great philosopher; and the juniors, 
Carrolls, in honor of the first archbishop of 
Baltimore. A further division has recently 
been made, according to which those pursuing 
the higher courses of study are called Sorins, 
in honor of the founder of the university. 

Each of the original three divisions has a 
separate study room, a separate dining room, 
a separate dormitory, and a separate recrea- 
tion hall and play-ground. The Sorins, how- 
ever, use the refectory and the recreation halls 
and yards of the seniors, or Brownsons. 

After the introduction of the noble game 
of baseball the grounds were found too con- 
fined, and a large campus was set aside for 
each division, some twenty-five or thirty acres 
being now devoted to this purpose, giving 
ample room for extended walks and for all 
the manly sports, including, alas, the redoubt- 
able game of football. It must be said, how- 
ever, that this last game has not been played 
at Notre Dame with the barbarous accom- 
paniments found in too many schools and col- 
leges. As in everything else, so in her games, 
Notre Dame seeks to present the best. The 
strong limbs, ruddy complexions and general 
good health of her students give evidence that 
her efforts in this matter have not been with- 
out success. 

For cold, wet and stormy weather, all ra- 

tional indoor amusements are provided. In 
addition to these are the libraries, reading 
rooms, societies, musical and dramatic enter- 
tainments, with frequent lectures, readings, 
concerts, etc. A feature of all these amuse- 
ments and entertainments, and even of the 
manly sports, is that care is taken that they 
serve the purposes of a higher education, 
whether physical, mental or moral. Man's 
three-fold nature is everywhere and in every- 
thing recognized, and in the education 
given, body, mind and soul are always kept 
in view. That the physical man should grow 
in strength, grace and beauty; his intellect, 
in knowledge and wisdom; and his heart, in 
virtue, are deemed essential towards attain- 
ing a complete education. 

That the facilities for entertainments of a 
high order have greatly improved at Notre 
Dame is very clear to those who can remem- 
ber back even to the war period. Then even 
the dining rooms were insufScient to accom- 
modate guests at commencement, or at society 
reunions. Many a time in the olden day, the 
annual banquets were taken under the shades 
of the forest trees where the rustic tables 
were set up in long lines, and fortunate was 
he whose chair did not stand in the fierce 
glare of the sun in June. But, with all their 
drawbacks, it must be confessed that these 
woodland feasts had something of the charm 
which the banished duke found in the forest 
at Arden. 

On one or two occasions, if not oftener, a 
more convenient location was found, and the 
long line of tables was laid beneath the grape 
arbor, thick with the rich leaves of early 

With Father Sorin and the other devoted 
priests and brothers thus watching over and 
ministering to their friends feasting under 
the blue vault and with the winds of heaven 
playing about them, one would sometimes 
think of those other feasts, taken also in the 
open air, where the people were seated upon 
the ground, '*for there was much grass in the 

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place/' and where the blessed Master broke 
the five barley loaves and divided the two 
fishes among the multitude. 

So, too, in those days, for want of room 
under any roof, the oonmaencement exercises 
were often held in the open air. Well is it 
remembered when that noble man, Father 
Patrick Dillon, in 1859, had the fine play of 
Addison's *'Cato," and in 1860 Cardinal 
Wiseman's ** Hidden Gtem," enacted under 
the locust trees, which then grew in long lines 
of thick shade, just east of the present Church 
of the Sacred Heart, and between that and 
Brother Peter's garden. With canvas awn- 
ings and plank platform set up several feet 
from the ground, the plays were enacted with 
perhaps as great success and with as much 
hearty applause as ever greeted the most ac- 
complished experts on the boards of Wash- 
ington Hall. 

But all this is changed, as by the magic of 
Aladdin's lamp. Magnificent dining rooms 
may accommodate the largest gathering of 
guests; and Washington Hall has as ample 
a stage platform and as spacious and well 
seated an auditorium, and gallery, as any 
audience could desire. From much privation 
and suffering, by great zeal, labor and devo- 
tion, have these things been brought about. 
Let those who enjoy the present blessings not 
forget through how much self-denial, and for 
what a great price they have been purchased. 

Sec. 9. — The Fire. — The new life inaug- 
urated with the building of the college of 
1865, and which grew broader and stronger 
as the years advanced, received an added im- 
petus under the second administration of 
Father Corby, aided as he was now b}' the 
scholarly Father Walsh as director of studies. 
Father Zahm had taken charge <rf the scien- 
tific department on the retirement of Father 
Carrier; and well did he bear out the bril- 
liant promise made by his early career. The 
scientific department became an honor to the 
university. The other departments continued 
to flourish in like manner, and Notre Dame 

appeared to have taken her place permanently 
as one of the great seats of learning. 

Suddenly, without a single note of warn- 
ing, the labors of many gifted and holy lives 
seemed about to ,be reduced to nothingness. 
On Wednesday, the 23rd day of April, 1879, 
the university, with priceless treasures; was 
burned to the ground. With it, so intense 
and destructive was the fire, nearly every 
other building in immediate connection with 
the institution, perished. The most notable 
exceptions were the beautiful but unfinished 
church of the Sacred Heart, and the old frame 
printing oflSce in which the **Ave Maria" 
and the ** Scholastic" were published. 

In the next issue of the latter paper, April 
' 26, 1879, the sad event was described as fol- 

**0n fire, in flames, in ashes! Such is the 
history of Our Lady's College for a few short 
hours, beginning at about eleven o'clock on 
Wednesday morning, April 23, 1879. The 
tale of alarm, of hurried help, of almost super- 
human but vain labor in extinguishing the 
raging flames, and finally of saving whatever 
of value that could be snatched from the fire, 
has all been graphically told by the daily 
press for the past few days, and we have 
hardly the heart to go over the dreadful story. 
But our friends have a right to hear from us 
through our own little paper, and so they 
shall, for, thank God, our printing office is one 
of the precious things spared by the devouring 

**The origin of the fire is simply impossible 
to ascertain. Workmen had been engaged on 
the roof until ten o'clock, and on coming down 
had locked the door opening from the dome. 
Whether some smouldering ember was left be- 
hind them by the workmen, whether the hot 
sun inflamed the dry timber dust on the roof, 
or a spark from the chimney of the steam- 
house set fire to it, remains a matter of con- 
jecture. The one thing certain is, that the ac- 
cident could neither have been foreseen nor 

**The fire was first seen from tne Minims' 

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yard. The flames were on the roof, near the 
east side of the dome; and the Minims' shrill 
cry of 'College on fire!' was soon echoed on 
every side by brother, priest, student and 
professor. A very little water at first would 
have been sufficient to save the building ; but 
before water could be carried to the top of 
the sixth story, the pitch roof was already 
blazing, and nothing less than a deluge from 
the city stand-pipe could have subdued those 
fierce flames. 

** Still, with a hope that was almost without 
foundation, an unthinking confidence that the 
beloved edifice could not thus perish before 
their eyes, long lines of men and boys were 
formed all the way up the stairways, from 
story to story, up to the roof, and water was 
thus sent up from hand to hand. At the 
same time, water was forced up the pipes by 
steam, and the great tanks on the upper 
stories were rapidly emptied by crowds of 
workers. But they contended with an enemy 
that could not be subdued. Those in the long 
water lines, too, became over-anxious to rush, 
each with his own little water supply, to the 
fire. Mr. Bonney, the photographer from the 
city, Professor Ivers, and numerous others, 
tried in vain to preserve the lines. As soon 
as the supports of the dome were burned 
away, and the massive statue fell upon the 
roof, carrying the flames into the dry mansard 
wood work, even the most hopeful gave way, 
and water was brought only to protect those 
who were saving the libraries, museums, and 
furniture of the various departments. 

*'Most heroically was this labor of saving 
performed. A stripling student seemed to be 
endowed with the courage of a hero and the 
strength of a giant. Especially did the gen- 
erous and kindly-hearted students rush into 
their old class-rooms and the private rooms 
of Very Rev. Father Corby, Father Walsh, 
Father Kelly, and their prefects and profes- 
sors, breaking open the doors when necessary, 
and carrying away to places of safety what- 
ever had become dear to them by ties of asso- 
ciation and fond recollection. Many a priest 

and professor who forgot all about his own 
private affairs in laboring for the general 
safety, can now hardly refrain from tears 
when he finds that all his little articles of 
value, books, pictures, costly instruments, pri- 
vate papers of priceless value, and even heavy 
desks and book cases, have been securely, and 
it would even seem, lovingly, carried to places 
of safety by the warm-hearted students. They 
loved Notre Dame as their second home, but 
never loved her as when the cruel flames were 
snatching her from their eyes forever. 

**But while all this was going on, help was 
pourinsr in from all sides. All the neighbors, 
for miles around, were bringing water or try- 
ing to save some articles. As soon as the 
fire was discovered, telegram after telegram 
was sent to the city, imploring help, and ask- 
ing for the fire-engine. As soon as the fij-emen 
could gather from their shops, and put the 
engine in working order, it was carried out. 
Mayor Tong, Councilman Nevius, Superin- 
tendent Abbott, Chief Brusie, Assistant Hull, 
and numerous firemen and citizens, receive 
our warmest expressions of gratitude. South 
Bend displayed a most grateful sympathy in 
our affliction, which will be remembered so 
long as Notre Dame and her sister city flour- 
ish side by side, in mutual help and good 
will towards one another. The engine had 
not been used before for two years, had but 
recently been repaired, and it was not known 
at first whether it would work. But it per- 
formed admirable service ; and could it have 
been here in the beginning, or even an hour 
sooner, it would have saved the college. Had 
it been here half-an-hour earlier, it would have 
saved the infirmary building, the St. Francis 
Home and the Music Hall. But it did great 
good as it was; for, by checking the flames 
and dashing water on the adjacent buildings, 
it saved the kitchen, the steam house, the 
printing office, and also, perhaps, the presby- 
tery, the church, and other buildings in the 
rear. Had the flames once entered the 
kitchen, and so extended to the western build- 

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ings, it is hardly probable that anything 
would now be standing at Notre Dame. 

*'It seems a special providence that there 
was so little wind stirring to carry the flames, 
and that what air there was, was from the 
southwest, and so took the fire from the 
precious Church of the Sacred Heart. It was 
also a blessed thing that the fire came not 
in the night, or in the winter. Early as it 
was in the year, the day was as warm as in 
June, so that even the feeble and the sick 
did not suffer from exposure. The hand of 
Qod was, besides, present in saving everyone 
from death, or even severe accident. Two of 
the students, P. J. Dougherty and Plorian 
Devoto, staying too long on the roof, were 
intercepted by the flames, and had to jump 
from one floor to another, resulting in slight 
injury to the former. Mr. Klingel, a mer- 
chant of the city, carrying out furniture, 
barely escaped a falling wall, and was for 
some time prostrated by the heat. Senator 
Leeper, gathering an armful of valuable books 
from a flaming pile, barely escaped a burning 
cornice falling from above. A Sister, hasten- 
ing out a rear door of the college, passed 
under the porch just as it fell in. These 
were perhaps the narrowest escapes. The 
coolness displayed by the Sisters, in entering 
the buildings and carrying away valuables, 
is beyond all praise. Had they been per- 
mitted to enter the college at first, they would 
have saved every movable article uninjured, 
as they did in the infirmary, carrying every- 
thing out carefully and putting it in a place 
of safety. Pity such coolness and good judg- 
ment was not shown by all. Unfortunately, 
numbers of over-zealous persons, instead of 
taking what they could and carrying it out 
of the building, tossed ever)rthing out of the 
windows, breaking whatever could be broken, 
and only piling other things up below, for 
the fire to fall upon the heap and destroy it. 
The most valuable books, some of them pre- 
cious tomes, hundreds of years old, were thus 
burned on the ground outside. 

*'0n looking about after the fires were 

brought under subjection, we find the great 
college utterly destroyed, a burned fragment 
of wall standing here and there. The in- 
firmary building, containing, besides, the gen- 
eral office and the students' office, is burned 
entirely out, though the blackened walls are 
still standing. The music hall, with the 
juniors' play room, is entirely consumed — ^the 
south wall fallen in. All the students' trunks, 
which were kept in this building, were saved ; 
the pianos, however, except one, were lost. 
The Minims' Hall is, of course, utta-ly gone. 
The church, the presbytery, science hall (the 
rear of the old church, then used by Father 
Zahm for that purpose), the kitchen, the 
steam-house, and the printing office are left, 
as is also Wacdiington Hall. 

**This destruction was accomplished in 
about three hours. Soon after, at three o 'clock, 
Father Corby called a meeting of his wisest 
assistants and advisers about him, and it was 
here determined that nothing could be done 
but bring the college year to an abrupt close. 
It was not without a pang of sorrow that this 
conclusion was arrived at, but, on looking 
around them, the council saw that this course 
was inevitable. An hour later the students 
were assembled in the church, the only build- 
ing where they could be received, . and the 
decision was communicated to them by Very 
Rev. President Corby. To all, it was a sor- 
rowful intelligence. Almost to a man, they 
protested their willingness to remain and en- 
dure all the inconveniences to which they 
knew they must be subjected. It was only 
when the Very Reverend President had shown 
the utter impossibility of any accommodations, 
and when he promised them that a new col- 
lege, more excellent than the one burned down 
that day, would be ready to receive them on 
the first Tuesday of September, that they 
could bring themselves to bid adieu to Notre 
Dame. Another meeting was held at two 
o'clock Thursday afternoon, at which degrees 
were conferred in the collegiate, law and med- 
ical classes. On Friday morning, at eight 
o'clock, the commercial faculty met for a like 

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purpose. On Monday, at eight o'clock, a gen- 
eral council will be held to shape the future 
action of the university. 

** Visitors are flocking to the ruins from 
every side; all, without exception, bearing 
words of condolence, which are most sincerely 
appreciated. Mr. Bonney has taken several 
photographic views of the scene of destruc- 
tion. Even the greatest calamity has its hu- 
morous features. Mr. Bonney has tried for 
years to get a photograph of the aged Father 
Neyron, who was a surgeon with Napoleon at 
Waterloo; but Father Neyron always laugh- 
ingly refused. Yesterday Mr. Bonney got his 
eye upon the good-natured veteran when 
taking a view of the ruins, and soon shouted 
his success, which was the first intimation 
Father Neyron had of what had been done. 
Prof. Stace being asked if he had saved any- 
thing, pointed in silence, with a comical smile, 
to the shirt he had on him. 

** Wednesday night was a time of toil and 
trouble. The secretary, by order of Very 
Rev. President Corby, telegraphed to the 
parents of all the students, while the latter 
were gathered into Washington Hall, where 
they slept upon the ticks and bed clothes 
that had been saved. The fire engine had been 
taken back to the city in the evening, but the 
wind veering towards the south in the night, 
threatened a new fire in the kitchen, and the 
engine was hastily sent for. No further dam- 
age was done, however. 

**The fire, as might be anticipated, created 
intense interost among the thousand of friends 
of Notre Dame in Chicago and throughout 
the country. An account of the disaster ap- 
peared at three o'clock in the * Evening Jour- 
nal' of Wednesday. An associated press dis- 
patch was sent to all the papers in the United 
States entitled to receive it. Thursday morn- 
ing's Chicago 'Times' gave over a column of 
specials, the 'Tribune' and 'Inter Ocean' 
nearly as many. Long specials wero also sent 
by request to the New York 'Herald,' Cin- 
cinnati 'Enquirer,' Indianapolis 'Journal' 
and other papers, showing how widespread is 

the interest taken in Notre Dame's disaster. 

"The Chicago 'Tribune' says editorially: 
'Gteneral rogret and sympathy will be felt for 
the destruction by fire of the University of 
Notre Dame, at South Bend, Ind. The insti- 
tution has held a high position among the 
educational institutions of America, and its 
loss is a genuine catastrophe, but one, we are 
glad to say, which will be promptly ropaired. 
The loss sustained is estimated at $200,000, 
and the insurance about $45,000; but there 
will be no lack of funds to make up the dif- 
ference, and enable the prompt rebuilding of 
the university. Notre Dame will be herself 
again within a few months. ' Such sentiments 
of sympathy, and those which we hero re- 
ceived from the press and citizens of our own 
city, are most grateful at an hour like this. 

"Yes, Notre Dame will be herself again in 
a few months, with Ood's help ; and with the 
untiring toil of her children, and the aid of 
her generous friends who have never failed 
her in her hour of need. If there ever was 
a time when assistance was needed, it is now. 
Notre Dame has so grown into the life of the 
country that it cannot but live and flourish, 
notwithstanding the fire. Like a vigorous tree 
which has been burned to the ground, the life 
is yet strong in the heart beneath, and a new 
growth will spring from the ashes more beau- 
tiful and more glorious than ever. A new 
building better suited to its purposes, and 
equally substantial, elegant and commodious, 
will be immediately erected, well out front 
of the old site, giving more room and separa- 
tion from surrounding structures. This build- 
ing will be ready before the first of Septem- 

"Now, will our friends help us? Will those 
who have drawn from the fountains of Notre 
Dame for the past twenty-five, thirty, thirty- 
five years, now show how well they love the 
mother who has done so much for them 1 Will 
those who love the young, and who desire to 
see them brought up in the fear and love of 
Ood, help us in the great work we have to 
do this summer? Will those who seize every 

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opportunity to do that which is most pleasing 
to Almighty God, see in this disaster a call 
to them for help? Will the friends of Very 
Rev. Father Sorin, who has not even yet, per- 
haps, at the hour at which we write, heard 
of the destruction of this labor of his life — 
for he left last Monday morning, in the bright- 
est spirits, for Europe — will those who have 
seen him build up this institution in the wil- 
derness, now come to aid him and his chil- 
dren in its restoration? We have the utmost 
confidence in the goodness of God, and believe 
that with His help, our own hard wonk, and 
the aid of our friends, we shall have as fine 
a college building, full of students, next Sep- 
tember, as that which we lost on this terrible 
23rd of April.'' 

Words of sympathy and offers of assist- 
ance poured in on every side. The people of 
Notre Dame did not know before that the in- 
stitution had so endeared itself to the im- 
mediate community, and indeed to multitudes 
in the country at large. 

On the very evening when the article above 
was printed in the ** Scholastic," a public 
meeting was held in the city of South Bend, 
in which the people, without regard to creed, 
gave warmest expression of sorrow for the 
loss sustained by Notre Dame. 

A^ this meeting Judge T. 6. Turner read 
with much feeling the following beautiful 
lines, written by Thomas A. Daily, a former 
graduate and professor of the university, but 
then editor of the ** Daily HeraW of South 
Bend. The poem has been much admired. 
It is said to have been written only on the 
day of its delivery, a burst of poetic fervor 
by the young poet, who felt his genius stirred 
by his warm sympathy with his Alma Mater : 

A cloudless sky, a sultry day; 

A wealth of sunshine in the air. 

Young spring was blooming soft and fair. 
And o*er the Earth held sovereign sway. 

A morning bathed in dewey tears, 

Upon the gently swelling hiHs 

Where nature once again fulfills 
The promise of consistent years. 

A cry, a brief electric flash,— 

A burst of awful fear leaped out; 
A moment of suspense and doubt — 

Ere thousands from the city dash. 

And to the college force their way; 

For "fire! fire!" was the cry. 

Fair Notre Dame was doomed to lie 
Prone in the dust, for naught can stay. 

The fiendish progress of the flames. 
That roll above her stately dome — 
O'er sacred relic, ancient tome — 

The treasured love of deathless names. 

O Qod, it was a thrilling sight. 

Where rolled the fierce fiames to the sky. 
And great, brave men stood helpless by; 

Crushed 'neath the monster's withering blight 

The sculptured Virgin mutely blessed 

The lurid tongues that scorched her brow. 
As holy martyrs erst did bow 

Beneath the torture's final test. 

The crash of walls, the hissing stream. 
Commingled flames and blistering heat. 
Wrought out a picture all replete 

With mad destruction's lurid gleam. 

Can nothing quell this demon's power? 

Can naught appease his fiery wrath? 

Can strength of man impede his path. 
Or stay the fiames that madly lower? 

No arm was potent there to save; 

From tower and dome the fiames rolled down. 
While noble firemen from the town 

Fought bravely as becomes the brave. 

Sorin, thy life work lies a glow 

Of crumbled clay and shapeless dross. 
Thy brethren of the Holy Cross 

Behold their labor worthless grow. 

Doomed, doomed, O beauteous Notre Dame! 

Thy massive walls are crushed and low; 

Thy stricken children here bestow 
Their tears to consecrate thy fame. 

The stranger turns heartsick to see 
That holocaust's destructive might; 
Thy friends are gathered here tonight 

In sympathy and love for thee. 

1^0 ! crushed to thy foundatton stone; 
From out those ruins comes a voice 
That bids thee rise, in grief rejoice, — 

In woe thou weepest not alone. 

We feel thy loss, we saw thy birth; 

Thy classic halls once more shall rise; 

Thy dome again shall pierce the skies, 
The grandest monument of earth. 

O hospitable Notre Dame! 

Thy walls that never turned away 

Unfed the poor — appeal to-day 
To Christian hearts of every name. 

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Gold cannot buy all thou hast lost! 

It can do much — we promise more; 

We pledge thee freely of our store 
And sympathy of priceless cost. 

Thy children who are filling now 

In every land the ranks of trade, 
Will reach to thee their proffered aid 

And laurels weave around thy brow. 

Thy deeds of love have made thee great; 
Have won thee friends in distant lands, 
Who'll reach, to thy distress, full hands. 

And bounteous gifts from every state. 

Arise! O peerless Notre Dame! 

Forth from the gloom of thy despond, 
To meet the coming years beyond, 

And dedicate anew thy aim. 

Thy fame is ours; our strength we give; 

Sorin, thy Patriarch, shall not 

Gk> to his grave and be forgot; 
His name through ages yet shall live. 

To realize what Notre Dame had become, 
and how ^eat was the loss suffered by the 
fire, we reproduce, with a few minor modi- 
fications, from the ** Catholic Review '* of May 
3, 1879, the following picture of what he 
saw two days before the catastrophe, by the 
accomplished and lamented editor of that 
journal, Patrick V. Hickey: 

*' * Under God, it is all the work of one 
man, with no help but a sublime and un- 
bounded confidence in the Mother of dod, 
who in every trial, and under every affliction, 
has sustained him. Sometimes human aid 
would seem promised to him; he would re- 
ceive the assistance, or the hope of the as- 
sistance, of some brilliant and strong man, 
and almost at once death or some other cause 
would withdraw this support, and leave him 
nothing but his mainstay, faith in our Blessed 
Mother. Her work in the success of this 
institution is of marvelous record. 

** 'Forty years ago, when Father Greneral 
and his companions succeeded the saintly old 
missionaries who on these camping grounds 
of the red men had evangelized the poor In- 
dians, Father Sorin and his assistant priest 
were so poor as to have but one hat between 
them, so that when one was seen abroad it 
was known that the other must be at home.' 

**The speaker was the Rev. Daniel E. Hud- 

son, editor of the *Ave Maria,' who on last 
Monday afternoon was of three that kindly 
undertook to make the visit of a passing trav- 
eler from New York full of pleasant mem- 
ories of Notre Dame. We were standing on 
the roof of the university building, under the 
statue of Our Lady. We had reached it by 
noble corridors and spacious staircases, 
through magnificent halls, which contained, 
in books, in manuscripts, in pictures, in sci- 
entific and artistic collections, treasures which 
no money could replace. We were looking 
out over the beautiful plains of Indiana, that 
American Lombardy which recalls the lines of 

Beneath is spread, like a green sea, 
The waveless plains of Lombardy, 

Bounded by the vaporous air, 
Islanded by cities fair. 

**Far as the eye could reach, the work of 
Christian civilization could be traced; flour- 
ishing cities and villages, the iron roads which 
knit together east and west, factories and 
farms, everything that denotes a prosperous 
and happy people; but, in all, nothing more 
striking, nothing more beautiful, nothing 
more suggestive, than this Catholic city of 
Notre Dame; for it is not less than a city 
from whose center we surveyed this marvel- 
ous growth, the source of whose prosperity 
and strength Father Hudson summed up in 
the sentences we have quoted. 

** Notre Dame, St. Joseph county, Indiana, 
brought to our own time and to our very 
doors, a chapter of the history of the church 
in its most glorious age. If any reader had 
never heard it before, the lecture of Arch- 
bishop Vaughan which we published a week 
or two since must have familiarized all the 
readers of the * Catholic Review' with the 
growth of great cities of Europe around the 
monastery of the Catholic monk and the ca- 
thedral of the Catholic bishop. Spending the 
first night of their foundation under the trees 
of a pathless and unknown forest, the middle- 
age founder often saw before his death, and 
his children surely saw, the mustard-seed de- 

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veloped, as the gospel promised, into a mighty 
tree which filled all the earth. 

*'0n the prairies of Indiana, this Ameri- 
can age has seen repeated the work of me- 
diaeval Europe, by a congregation of priests 
almost the most modem in the church — ^whose 
growth, however, has been such in America 
that we retain here their chief, the only case, 
we believe, where the superior general of a 
great religious order resides at this side of 
the Atlantic. Prom a few poor French priests, 
there has sprung an order, whose dead on 
the field of honor are already not few, and 
who besides have been able to enrich Ohio, 
Kentucky, Texas, Wisconsin, Canada and re- 
moter regions with learned teachers, zealous 
mi£»ionaries, and practical business men, 
whose work in making good citizens and de- 
voted lovers of our American institutions. 
Catholics and Protestants, the highest no less 
than the humblest in the United States, thor- 
oughly appreciate. In this single establish- 
ment, the original two (Father Sorin and 
Father Cointet), of whom one survives, have 
been multiplied to thirty fathers, twelve schol- 
astics, one hundTcd and forty-one professed 
lay brothers, sixty novices, and twelve 

**We cannot, in the space at our command, 
picture for our readers even the material 
beauties which can be seen from this vantage 
point on the roof of Notre Dame. Here is 
the Church of Our Lady, enriched with pic- 
tures, with costly frescoes, with shrines and 
relics of the saints, with an altar whose priv- 
ileges are greater, we are told, than that of 
any other altar, save one, in the entire world. 
A volume would be required to tell the beau- 
ties of this shrine. Its chime of bells waft 
music over prairies; and for miles its great 
bell, the largest in America, is heard distinct 
and beautiful. 

** There is the school of manual art, where 
the young gentlemen who are to be the legis- 
lators of young communities can learn useful 
blacksmithing and carpentry. There are mu- 
sic and science halls, homes for the aged, an 

infirmary, the printing oflSce of the *Ave 
Maria,' with its devoted brothers and its mild, 
studious editor. Then a great boiler-house, 
kitchen and all the other buildings called for 
by nearly four hundred students and pro- 

**Two lakes, surrounded by shady walks, 
afford opportunity of recreation and exercise, 
and divide the novitiate and scholasticate 
from the university. A week to see them, and 
a volume to describe them, would be needed 
to tell all the material glories of Notre Dame. 
What it has accomplished in the spiritual 
world, if told before the judgment day, must 
be recounted by other hands. Enough it Is 
to know that in the atmosphere of Notre 
Dame there were peace, fervor, discipline, 
and piety, so that even the transient visitor 
could not fail to see its happiness. There was 
hope, too, for on this Monday morning, when 
Father Sorin bade farewell to his boys, on 
his thirty-sixth transatlantic journey, he en- 
gaged them all in a canvass to double their 
number next year. 

** Whoever leaves Notre Dame hopes to see 
it again. Was it any wonder that we should 
promise to see it again when June added to 
it the only glory it wanted on this day, 
anticipating summer in its favor? Was it 
any wonder that, hurrying along the noisy 
highways of commerce, we looked back with 
affectionate interest to this pleasant lakeside! 
What then was our sorrow barely two days 
later, to read in the railroad cars this ap- 
palling record of ruin, blotting out and dark- 
ening one of the brightest spots in all 

**The telegram must have arrested at the 
steamer's side the venerable Father Gteneral 
Sorin and brought him back unexpectedly to 
the scene of the disaster. His hair is whiter 
to-day than it was forty years ago, when he 
undertook to build up for the first time Notre 
Dame, and his beard is that of the patriarch ; 
but his bright eye is as bright to-day as it 
was then, and though he might have prayed 
that this great affliction should be spared him. 

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he will take up his cross once more, *with a 
sublime and unlimited confidence in Our 
Lady/ and long before another May comes 
around, there will rise from the ashes, build- 
ings stronger, fairer, nobler, than even those 
which last week passed away in a breath of 

Mr. Hickey's prophecy was literally ful- 
filled. Before another May came around 
there rose from the ashes even a stronger, 
fairer, nobler Notre Dame than that which 
had passed away in the fiames of that April 
day. Nay, more, Father Corby's inspired 
promise to the students that the new building 
would be ready for them on the opening of 
classes in September was verified as the Sep- 
tember days appeared. It was indeed fortu- 
nate that Father Corby was then at the head 
of the university. He had with him the ex- 
perience of 1865, when, as Father Patrick's 
assistant, he aided in erecting, inside of the 
summer vacation, the superb edifice which 
had just fallen a victim to the fiames. He 
felt that the feat could be repeated; and 
under direction of Father Sorin, and with 
the heroic and unselfish aid of the devoted 
fathers and brothers of the Holy Cross, and 
the noble generosity of all the friends of 
Notre Dame, the great work was done. 

So well indeed was it done, and so mag- 
nificent was the response from the friends 
of the university all over the country, that it 
even appeared to some that the fire came as 
a blessing to prove how loyal to one another, 
and how brave in great deeds, were the com- 
munity of the Holy Cross, and also to prove 
how warm was the place which the old insti- 
tution had secured in the hearts of the peo- 
ple. It is worth very much suffering to learn 
how well one is loved by Qod and by his 
fellow men. 

It was at first feared that the disaster 
might cause a fatal shock to the venerable 
Father Sorin, now in his sixty-sixth year. 
Accordingly a telegram was sent to friends 
near Montreal, where he was visiting on his 
way to Europe, asking that the news should 

be kept from him until a messenger might 
reach him. This was done, and he first 
learned the sad news from the messenger, 
with whom he at once returned to Notre 
Dame. Those who listened to him on his 
return, when he spoke to the assembled com- 
munity from the altar of the Church of the 
Sacred Heart, will never forget the holy 
heroism of his words and appearance. Far 
from yielding to the pressure of the calamity, 
his soul seemed to rise superior to all the af- 
fliction that had fallen upon him and upon 
the community. It was as if an inspired 
prophet of old stood before us; and every 
priest and brother went out of the sacred 
edifice strengthened as if with the absolute 
assurance of help from heaven. In God and 
his Blessed Mother he had trusted from the 
beginning, and they would not fail him and 
his stricken community in their hour of need. 
Father Sorin for the time seemed to have 
recovered his youth again. Uninterrupted 
activity, and a vigilance that seized upon 
every source of aid, returned to him as they 
had been with him when he laid the old 
foundations in the days of his youth. But 
the long years of his labors were not in vain. 
He had, chief of all, gathered about him that 
brave community of priests and brothers who 
now took upon their willing shoulders every 
ta^. He had, besides, so conducted the uni- 
versity as to win the love and good will of 
the American people, regardless of religious 
belief. The community were therefore 
united, active and enthused in their great 
work; and the public offered all sympathy, 
accommodation and substantial assistance. 
The consequence was that much nobler plans 
were prepared for the new buildings. Here, 
too, the experience of the past was of great 
value; the new structures were much better 
adapted to the needs and conveniences of a 
university. The new Notre Dame was indeed 
in every respect superior to the old; and 
although the institution was exceedingly 
prosperous, as we have seen, from 1865 to 
1879, yet so much has the superiority been 

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since the latter date that the friends of Notre 
Dame begin to look upon the past fifteen 
yeara as the only period during which she 
has taken rank as a true university. 

In 1884, Professor Arthur Joseph Stace, 
the genial, accomplished poet and essayist, 
aiiterwards, by appointment of the President, 
a scientific expert at the Paris Exposition 
of 1889, and who himself, from 1860 until 
his untimely death, in 1890, did so much for 
literature, science and art at Notre Dame, 
v;rote for ** Donahue's Magazine'' a graphic 
description of the new Notre Dame. The 
university had then fully recovered from the 
destructive fire of 1879; Father Sorin, Fa- 
ther Granger and Father Walsh were still 
with us. It was, indeed, a golden age in 
the history of Alm« Mater. So perfect a pic- 
ture is Professor Stace 's article of what the 
university had become that, at the risk of 
some repetition, we give it entire; setting 
it over against the picture of the former 
Notre Dame, before given from the brilliant 
pen of Mr. Hickey: 

**0n the northern verge of Indiana, within 
five miles of the Michigan line, and just on 
edge of that narrow water-shed which slopes 
towards the Great Lakes, is situated an in- 
stitution of learning which is, year by year, 
becoming better known, not only throughout 
the states called distinctively * western,' but 
also in the cultured east and chivalrous south, 
and in the adjacent lands of Mexico and Can- 
ada ; young men from all quarters thronging 
here for instruction. This is the University 
of Notre Dame. 

** Three successive edifices have already 
borne this title. The first, small but pictur- 
esque, was thought to be unsound in its foun- 
dations, and when a great influx of students 
came, instead of receiving additions, was 
pulled down to make room for a larger build- 
ing. After the work of destruction had been 
effected, it was discovered when too late 
that the maligned foundation had been per- 
fectly reliable. The second college was a 
roomy, square-built, faetory-like structure, 

with a mansard roof, and it took fire one 
warm day in April, during the prevalence of 
a southwest gale, here the most violent of all 
the sons of ^olus, coldest of all in winter, 
hottest of all in summer, and a dry, healthy 
wind at every season. Urged by the gale, a 
column of flame and smoke rose in the air to 
the height of a thousand feet, where it formed 
a complete arch, bending over with its freight 
of light combustibles, and set fire to a forest 
a mile distant on the northeast, which con- 
tinued to bum for several days after. Not 
only the main building was destroyed on this 
occasion, but also the infirmary, the music 
hall and several minor structures to the lee- 

**A calamity such as this, only partially 
covered by insurance, would have dismayed 
hearts less stout than those at Notre Dame, 
into which it rather seemed to infu^ a new 
life. The venerable founder of the institu- 
tion, Edward Sorin, whose years might have 
fitly invited him to that repose which a life 
of energy and usefulness had earned, sprang 
at once into renewed vigor, and surprised his 
friends by his activity and self-devotion. 
The work of rebuilding was at once begun. 
The disaster only served to show how wide- 
spread throughout America was the venera- 
tion in which this young Alma Mater was 
already held. Substantial sympathy was ex- 
pressed in the most effective shape, and 
friendship appeared in unexpected forms and 
localities. A plan furnished by Edbrooke 
(since architect of the United States treas- 
ury) was selected from among thirty others, 
and the present structure rose rapidly from 
the ashes. By September enough of it was 
completed to accommodate satisfactorily the 
returning throng of students, whose increased 
numbers showed a generous confidence in 
Notre Dame, in her hour of adversity. 

**The present edifice is in the neogothic 
style, and consists of a center with two ample 
wings, the center being crowned with a dome, 
and having a front extensdon, giving the plan 
the general figure of the letter T, which is 

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the shape taken by the halls, forming the 
avenues of internal communication through 
the various stories of the building, except thj,t 
where the stem of the T joins the oross-bar, 
there is an open rotunda extending through 
all the stories, with galleries at each, up to 
the dome itself. On entering the main doors, 
the visitor finds himself surrounded by fres- 
coes illustrating the life of Columbus, the 
work of Luigi Gregori, an Italian artist, who 
has been occupied for many years past in 
decorating the interiors of various buildings 
here. In the vestibule the life-size, full- 
length figures of Columbus and Queen Isa- 
bella, from authentic portraits, appear on the 
right and left — a fitting introduction to the 
grand historic series which is to follow, and 
which begins in the hall itself, with Columbus 
beg^ng his bread at the door of the mon- 
astery, whose truly noble inmates first rec- 
ognize his worth, and brought his project be- 
fore the notice of the queen. Opposite we 
see the departure of the caravels on their 
adventurous ;journey, with Columbus kneeling 
to receive the blessing of the friendly monk 
to whom he owed so much. Next to this is, 
perhaps, the most striking picture of the 
series, though one of the smallest, represent; 
ing the mutiny at sea, in which the crew are 
threatening the life of the great discoverer. 
The violence of the mutineers is made to con- 
trast admirably with the calm confidence of 
Columbus. Opposite, land has been discov- 
ered, and the ring leaders of the mob are 
on their knees suing for pardon. Next a 
broad space is devoted to the scene at the 
landing, where the hero is planting the cross 
on the shore, surrounded by enthusiastic com- 
rades and awe-stricken Indians. On the 
other side of the hall is the largest- picture of 
all, showing Columbus on his triumphant re- 
turn, presenting the aborigines and produc- 
tions of the new world to Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella, enthroned under a canopy erected in 
the open air, and surrounded by numerous 
court officials, and an apparently unlimited 
throng of spectators. After this transitory 

scene of splendor we see another proof of 
fortune's inconstancy: Columbus in chains, 
the victim of successful treachery, while two 
Indians, amazed at the perfidy of the white 
man, appear to be his only friends. Last 
scene of all we have his death, receiving the 
blessings of religion, his chains hanging by 
his bedside above the chart of his discoveries. 
With these last two paintings on either hand, 
we find ourselves at the rotunda, on whose 
paveinent of tiles we may stand and gaze 
upwards two hundred feet into the concavity 
of the dome, soon to be decorated with ap- 
propriate designs by the same talented artist. 
[Since Professor Stace wrote this article the 
inner surface of the dome has been so dec- 
orated by the hand of Qregori. The paintings 
were completed and the dome opened with 
appropriate services May 29, 1890. Bishop 
Keane was present, and a masterly oration 
was delivered by the Hon. William J. Ona- 
han, of Chicago. The figures are allegorical 
— Religion, Philosophy, Poetry, Law, Sci- 

**0n the righit-hand side, on entering the 
hall through which we have passed, is the 
suite of apartments occupied by President 
Walsh. In his reception room are to be 
found several gems of art, among others, a 
crucifixion, undoubtedly the work of Van- 
dyke, and a Titian, the subject being the 
daughter of Herodias, with the head of John 
the Baptist. On the left-hand side of the hall 
is the public parlor, often literally crowded, 
spacious as it is, with visitors on exhibition 
nights and during commencement week. The 
room is decorated with portraits, chiefly those 
of former presidents of the university. Op- 
posite to the end of the hall, across the ro- 
tunda, is the students' office, where they pro- 
cure their stationery and books, and may com- 
municate by telephone or telegraph with dis- 
tant friends. During business hours, this 
room is seldom without its throng. From the 
rotunda to the east and west extend the halls 
to the study-rooms, with recitation rooms on 
either side, airy and spacious, well-lighted 

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and warmed, as are all the buildings, by 
steam-heating apparatus. In the story above 
are more recitation rooms, private rooms oc- 
cupied by teachers and others, two large dorm- 
itories over the study-rooms, and two finely 
decorated apartmenia in which the Columbian 
and Cecilian societies respectively hold their 
meetings. The Columbian room is painted in 
fresco, with full-length portraits of the bene- 
factors of the university, a category which 
includes characters as incongruous as those 
of Henry Clay and the late Emperor of the 
French, making a picturesque ensemble. On 
this floor there is also a museum of Indian 
relics and other curiosities. In the third 
story, the greater part of the front extension 
is occupied by a spacious hall, devoted to the 
purpose of a college library. Here, besides 
the usual formidable array of classics and 
works of reference, may be found some curi- 
ous old volumes, dated from the century in 
whicl^ printing was invented, illuminated 
with initial letters painted by hand after the 
printing was finished. Quaint modern re- 
productions of mediaeval work will also inter- 
est the aesthete. On this floor and the next 
above are also numerous private rooms -and 
dormitories, a distinguishing feature of the 
upper floor being the school of drawing ; for 
the art of drawing makes a prominent figure 
in the curriculum of the scientific course. We 
may now ascend to the roof, if you have any 
desire to obtain an extensive view. If your 
nerves are steady, we may even scale the 
dome itself, and the proepect is worth the 
climb. Northward lie the green hills of Michi- 
gan, with the St. Joseph river winding in a 
deep valley among them. The position of the 
city of Niles may be made out by the white 
houses of its suburbs gleaming through the 
surrounding shade trees. The greater part of 
the town lies hid in the valley of the river. 
Eastward, stretch extensive woods, above 
which the smoke of the foundries of Elkhart 
may be seen rising. Southward, the view is ^ 
more limited, a high range of bluffs beyond 
the river cutting it off, and causing the river 

itself to make that remarkable deflection from 
which South Bend takes its name. The tips 
of the spires of Mishawaka may be discovered 
by one who knows just where to look for 
them, rising above the woods a little east of 
south. On the bluffs above, is a station 
erected by the lake coast survey. West of 
south lies South Bend, mapped out beneath 
the eye of the spectator, and still further west 
stretch the Kankakee marshes, for so many 
years the paradise of the fowler. But the 
prairie chickens and ducks, that used to 
abound there, have been thinned out by the 
ruthlessness of hunters; and the process of 
drainage and fencing has robbed the region 
of its original charm. Northwest, the eye 
roves over the rolls of Portage Prairie — ^the 
old * portage' of the Pottawatomie Indians, 
over which, by conveying their canoes from 
the waters of the St. Joseph to those of the 
Kankakee, they connected the navigation of 
the great lakes with that of the Mississippi. 
**From these views of the distant horizon 
let us turn our eyes to what is going on more 
immediately beneath us. On the lake to the 
north we may witness the boat crews training 
for the coming regatta. The lake itself is a 
l^eautiful blue sheet of water, surrounded by 
groves, and forms a most attractive feature 
in the college grounds. There is another lake 
to the westward, not so large, and surrounded 
by beds of marl, which make it, perhaps, 
more interesting to the geologist, though less 
attractive to the lover of scenery. Southwest, 
on the broad campus, a game of baseball, if 
it is *rec' day, may be in progress, and 
from your elevated position you may com- 
mand a view of all the details of that at- 
tractive pastime. To the south, an avenue 
of maples -shades the thoroughfare to South 
Bend, two miles distant; and Notre Dame 
post office is visible on the skirts of a pine 
grove. Southwest are the manual labor 
schools, conducted by the same religious eom- 
munity which directs the exercises of the col- 
lie itself. Here are tailor shops, shoemaker 
shops, carpenter and blacksmith shops, and 

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an extensive farm with its well-appointed 
bams and stables. Still nearer to the south- 
west we see the church, and this is worthy 
of inspection from within. In the west, a 
mile away, on the banks of the river, is St. 
Mary's Academy, an institution for the edu- 
cation of young ladies, which the tourist will 
find well deserving of a separte visit. 

"But it is the intellectual aspect, rather 
than the material — ^the mental landscape, so 
to speak — ^which will interest the visitor to 
the university as a university; and here he 
will find classic taste and scientific research — 
not the mere memorizing of the contents of 
learned tomes, but an active participation in 
the pursuits and aims of true study. The 
production of the plays of Sophocles, with 
all their appropriate accessories on the stage, 
by the Greek students of this university, and 
still more the intelligent interest, which large 
audiences have unmistakably manifested in 
the representation, sufficiently attest the pro- 
ficiency attained here in a living language, 
which, however its claims to notice may have 
been lately questioned by the superficial and 
soulless utilitarian, is not only among the 
most perfect and beautiful that the world has 
ever known, but is especially dear to Chris- 
tians, as being the language of the gospel. 
Moreover, the fact of Greek being a living 
language is vividly presented to the mind of 
the student by the exchange of the produc- 
tions of the *Ave Maria' press with those of 
modem Greece, which arrive by every mail 
from the Orient. It is needless to speak of 
the perfection attained in the Latin language 
in an institution conducted by fathers of the 
Catholic church, among whom that classic 
ton^e has never been allowed to die. The 
poetry in hexameter and the difficult Hora- 
tian measure which from time to time appear 
in the i)eriodicals here published, bear wit- 
ness that Notre Dame forms no exception to 
the rule in this respect. Of the periodicals 
alluded to, the *Ave Maria' is the most ex- 
tensively circulated Catholic religious paper 
in the United States. It has been now estab- 

Vol. II— f 

lished for nearly a quarter of a century, and 
shows no signs of *a decline and fall.' On 
the contrary, each year finds it still more 
widely disseminated, so that it reaches many 
thousands of hearths and homes, where its 
pages are the delight of the family circle, 
and the antidote to the pernicious literature 
with which our land is rife. The * Notre 
Dame Scholastic, ' issued from the same print- 
ing house, takes a high rank among college 
papers, as contemporaries acknowledge, and 
enables the youth destined for the vocation of 
the journalist — an occupation whose standing 
in the social sphere is daily receiving a 
higher recognition^ — to fit himself for the ex- 
ercise of his chosen profession. Other vol- 
umes, from time to time, emanate from the 
same source; the Antigone of Sophocles, in 
Greek and English, has here been published; 
the * Household Library of Catholic Poets,' 
*Life of Joseph Haydn,' * Crowned with 
Stars' and other works, have found their cir- 
cle of readers. The dramas suitable for per- 
formance of schools and colleges are of merit 
practically recognized by their frequent rep- 
resentation in the institutions for which they 
have been designed; and their number is 
daily increasing. 

**Nor is science neglected. The flora and 
fauna of the fertile St. Joseph valley give 
increasing occupation to the naturalist, the 
fruits of whose labors are preserved in the 
herbarium and museum. The geology of the 
Great Lake basin and the multifarious min- 
eral specimens to be found in the neighbor- 
hood, open other interesting fields of science, 
which have been duly tilled, and the philo- 
sophical apparatus appears to have gathered 
no rust or dust from neglect. The courses 
of law and civil engineering are in active 
operation, and that of medicine might be 
equally flourishing, were it not that the in- 
vincible repugnance which a dissecting room 
excites in the minds of those who have no 
vocation to the healing art, has hitherto mili- 
tated against its establishment at Notre 
Dame. A preparatory course, in which hu- 

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man and comparative anatomy are tauglit by 
the aid of carefully prepared skeletons, has 
long been conducted under the care of an emi- 
nent and experienced practitioner. A commer- 
cial school here has always borne a good repu- 
tation among business men, so that its grad- 
uates find no difficulty in obtaining employ- 
ment, which is probably the best test of its 

** The Catholic religion is professed by the 
teachers and ofl&cers of the establishment, but 
non-Catholics have always availed themselves, 
in large numbers, of the educational advan- 
tages here offered. The Blessed Mother, who 
gives her name to the university, smiles a 
welcome to all from her exalted position on 
the dome, and although no undue efforts are 
made to proselytize, yet the truths of the 
most ancient form of Christianity sink deep 
into many an ingenuous heart. The sense of 
honor is sedulously cultivated by the oflScers 
of the institution, as a ground of moral re- 
straint and self-command on which all may 
meet on a common footing. The venerahle 
founder of the house, himself a model of the 
punctilious courtesy which characterized the 
anden regime, has always deemed it his duty 
to cultivate the manners, no less than the 
morals, of those to whom he stands in loco 
parentis;, and although he has long ago re- 
signed the presidency into younger hands, 
his gentle influence is still felt, refining and 
elevating wherever it extends; his presence 
inspires an affectionate reverence, and the 
memory of his teachings will long survive his 
earthly career. Hence the absence of rude- 
ness has always been a marked feature at 
Notre Dame. The disgraceful practice of 
* hazing* is absolutely unknown. The new- 
comer finds himself surrounded at once by 
kindly faces and hearts, disposed to believe 
everything good of him, unless his own deeds 
force them reluctantly into the opposite con- 
viction. The students are divided into de- 
partments, not according to the course of 
study each pursues, but according to the more 
natural distinction of age, each department 

having its own campus and gymnasium, its 
own study-halls, recreation rooms, and dor- 
mitories. In the recitation rooms, however, 
distinctions of age are leveled, and merit 
alone gives the pupil his standing. The prac- 
tice of going to and from recitations and 
other college exercises in silence and ranks, 
has always prevailed, and contributes much 
to the reign of order. In the classical and 
scientific courses, the highest proficiency is 
required to obtain the academic degrees ; the 
mere fact of a student having attended class 
regularly does not entitle him to a diploma; 
the examination to be passed is something 
more than a mere formality, and the unpleas- 
ant process, known to college men as 'pluck- 
ing,' takes place quite often enough to in- 
spire a salutary awe. The removal of dis- 
tracting influences, has also been found to 
have most beneficial results in promotincr 
attention to solid work. 

**But now let us descend from the roof of 
the ccrflege, and view the interior of the 
church, as already suggested. Exteriorly, at 
least in its present state, the building is not 
specially attractive. [Since Professor Stace 
wrote, the towers and spires of the Church of 
the Sacred Heart have been completed; and 
much of the exterior want of attraction here 
alluded to has been removed.] Within, how- 
ever, it is a gem. We enter the front porch 
beneath the massive tower, ^containing a fine 
chime of twenty-three bells, the largest of 
which, weighing seven tons and a half and 
measuring seven feet, holds a distinguished 
place among the bells of the United States. 
Stained glass admits all the light that enters 
the sacred edifice; gorgeous dyes of crim- 
son, scarlet, blue and amber revealing the 
figures of those apostles,, martyrs and vir- 
gins whom Christianity reverences as its 
heroes. One large window displaj^ the de- 
scent of the Holy Ghost upon the apostles 
in the form of fiery tongues. The figures 
are mediaeval, such as we expect in stained 
glass, but without that restraint of artistic 
freedom which the mediaeval style in feeble 

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hands imposes. Scarcely dimmed by the 
bright colors in the windows, are the frescoes 
and other paintings which cover the walls 
of the interior — representing four years' 
work of the same talented artist [Gregori], 
who is now painting the interior of the col- 
,l^e; for the church happily escaped the 
great conflagration of 1879. These paintings 
represent the pathetic and inspiring scenes 
attending the birth and passion of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Here, we see the * Blessed 
among women' receiving the angelic message; 
there she greets her cousin Elizabeth; anon 
the cave of Bethlehem with the adoring shep- 
herds is opened to our view; farther on, the 
three wise men of the East present their gifts 
of gold, frankincense and myrrh; and again 
the Holy Family fly into Egypt from the 
wrath of Herod — the series coming to a con- 
clusion with that memorable scene in the tem- 
ple, when the child was found among the 
doctors of the law, hearing them and asking 
them qu^ions. 

**The scenes of the passion are detailed 
even more minutely. First we see Pilate 
washing his hands, having impiously pro- 
nounced the condemnation; then the cross 
is laid upon the shoulders of the Victim, and 
the occasions upon which He is said to have 
fallen beneath its weight, furnished three 
other subjects. His meeting with His Blessed 
Mother is the most affecting of the series. 
She comes, attended by Mary Magdalen and 
the beloved disciple John, and even the brutal 
soldiers make way for her approach, as, with 
blanched face and bloodless lips, she imprints 
the last kiss on the divine features. In an- 
other painting Simon of Cyrene is compelled 
to share the burden, and in yet another the 
women of Jerusalem oflfer their unavailing 
tears. The driving of the nails is depicted 
in colors that appall, although we cannot but 
feel how much more terrible was the real 
scene. The death on the cross, the descent 
therefrom, and the entombment, close the 
series, and in these subjects Gregori has had 
to emulate the greatest masters of the art. 

By the contemplation of paintings such as 
these the gospel truths' are brought home to 
the humblest intelligence, and impress the 
hardest heart, where written page or spoken 
homily would fail. 

**To descant upon the other ornaments of 
the church — ^the costly altar, bedecked and 
surmounted with offerings of the richest and 
rarest, the painted ceiling whence angels 
smile amid the stars of a serene sky, the 
moldings and pillars, the tones of the mighty 
organ — would exceed the limits assigned to 
this sketch. Suffice it to say that Notre Dame 
is one of the few places in the United States 
where the majestic ceremonial of the Catholic 
church, interesting from its historic associa- 
tions, even to those whose devotion is not 
thereby attracted, can be completely per- 
formed in all its splendor. Those who have 
witnessed the procession of Corpus Christi, 
as it winds around the lake, with all the rich 
colors doubled by reflection in the placid 
waters, with the song of hirdB mingling with 
melodly of hymns, will bear us out in this 

"Building is still in progress, and the num- 
ber of students attending seems to keep pace 
with the increase of accommodations. An 
edifice, now nearly finished, to the south of 
the Music hall, will be devoted especially to 
the use of the scientific department. The 
laboratory, now in a temporary building, will 
here be the principal feature. Museums of 
mineralogy and natural hii^ory will occupy 
other galleries, and a large hall will be de- 
voted to lectures — not only the special lectures 
of the scientific course, but popular lectures 
on science, such as the commercial students 
may attend with advantage. 

[Science hall has been since completed and 
supplied with instruments, appliances and 
specimens, which make it one of the finest 
schools in the country for the teaching of the 
physical and natural sciences. The building 
itself is a beautiful specimen of Greek archi- 
tecture. To the south of Science Hall is 
Mechanics' Hall, where the mechanic arts are 

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practically applied under the direction of 
competent instructors. Still further south is 
a neat astronomical observatory. This series 
of buildings has been erected chiefly under 
supervision of Father John A. Zahm, so well 
known for his achievements in science and 
his various learned writings, and who but this 
year (1895) was honored by the propaganda 
at Rome with the degree of doctor of phil- 
osophy. Father Zahm is ably assisted by the 
Rev. Alexander M. Kirsch, Professor McCue, 
Professor O'Dea, Rev. James Burns, Rev. 
Joseph Kirsch and others.] 

**The description of the various buildings 
to be found here, devoted to special objects, 
would fatigue the reader, though of interest 
to the observer. A visit to the institution 
will develop matters for thought upon which 
we have not even touched, and the visitor may 
be sure of a warm welcome from the good 
fathers who direct the establishment, and 
whose hospitality has become proverbial. 
During the summer vacation, especially, 
many resort hither to enjoy the pure air, 
limpid spring water, and the rural scenery. 
It is accessible by three [now five] railways — 
the Lake Shore, the Grand Trunk, the Michi- 
gan Central [since also the Vandalia and the 
Three I's]. The best time to see the place 
in all its beauty is in the spring or early 
summer. At the commencement exercises in 
June, there is always a large crowd of vis- 
itors ; but we would advise such of our read- 
ers as have an eye for the picturesque to 
choose a time when there is less to distract 
the mind from the contemplation of nature, 
say at that brief but blissful season charac- 
terized by the flowering of the lilac; when 
the cooing of the wild dove is heard at the 
dawn of day, and the plaintive note of the 
whip-poor-will at its decline, ere yet the song 
birds have lapsed into their summer silence. 
Then is the time to see Notre Dame in per- 

The fine descriptions of the landscape as 
seen from the roofs of the old and the new 
Notre Dame, given in the preceding pages 

from the pens of Mr. Hickey and Professor 

Stace, make it pleasant to add a third and 

reverse picture — a poet's view of Notre Dame, 

as seen at St. Mary's from the heights above 

the banks of the St. Joseph river, a mile to 

the west:* 

The purple air» the misty hills; 

The meadows, green with hidden rills; 

The grove, that screens from curious gaze 

Its sacred, meditative ways; 

The lake beyond, its placid eye 

Blue as the arch of vernal sky; 

The dome, and diapel spires, that claim 

Our Lady's favor, with her name; 

How, like a thought of peace, the whole 

Takes calm possession of the soul! 

In Professor Stace 's article are described 
the many fine paintings of Luigi Gregori, 
both in the halls and dome of the university 
and in the Church of the Sacred Heart. The 
daily contemplation of these fine paintings, 
of the beautiful stained glass windows, the 
choice works of art in and around church and 
college, with the glorious music of the. organ 
and the bells, and not forgetting that beau- 
teous landscape of which Professor Stace also 
speaks, constitutes in itself an ennobling edu- 
cation. No one can view and listen to those 
beautiful things day after day without hav- 
ing his mind and his soul lifted to the con- 
templation of the beautiful and the good. 

Previous to the^ coming of Gregori the most 
eminent artist at Notre Dame had been the 
elder ProfesBor Acfcerman, who was espe- 
cially skilled as a draughtsman, as those 
know full well who remember the classic 
architectural drawing that adorned the refec- 
tory of the old college building of 1853-65, 
particularly the noble front of St. Peter's 
at Rome. His work is also to be seen on the 
walls of the present refectories. Another of 
the old artists was Professor Lewis, who was 
possessed of a delicate taste, as he was of a 
congenial and kindly nature. Professor 
Francis Xavier Ackerman is their worthy 

Art suffered a loss in the early and tragic 
death of Mr. Wood, a young student and the 
most promising of Gregori 's pupils. Many 

a. By Bliza Allen Starr. 

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of his portraits and landscapes are treasured 
at Notre Dame, and show what he might 
have become had his life been spared. May 
we not hope that the daily presence before 
the eyes of the bright youths of Notre Dame 
of so many fine works of art will inspire 
some choice spirits to produce paintings that 
may not suffer by comparison even with those 
of Gregori. 

In the kindred art of music Notre Dame 
has always excelled. Indeed, the musical de- 

Sec. 10. — The PREsroENCY of the Rev. 
Thomas E. Walsh. — To preserve some unity 
of subject in this history, we have anticipated 
part of the events that occurred during the 
presidency of the Rev. Thomas E. Walsh, 
whose term of office began in 1881. Father 
W-alsh has been vice-president and director 
of studies during the last presidency of 
Father Corby, from 1877 to 1881. He was 
barely past the age of twenty-eight when he 
became president, but he was even then a ripe 


partment has ever been one of the most dis- 
tinguished of the university. The veterans 
of this department were Professor Girac and 
Brother Basil, the former gone to take part 
in the melodies of heaven, the latter still 
with us to make more holy and beautiful the 
world in which he yet lives. Father Lilly, 
himself a child of a family of musicians, was 
most precocious, playing upon the piano when 
his little arms could scarcely reach over the 
keys. In more recent times Professor Paul, 
and numerous other musicians, continued the 
harmonious line. 

scholar and a man of mature mind. He took 
charge of the university when its material 
wiants had been fairly well supplied. The 
disaster of 1879 had been, in large measure, 
repaired, and looking upon the new Notre 
Dame, we might even then well believe that 
the apparent calamity was a blessing in dis- 
guise. Father Walsh seemed to believe that 
his special mission was to lift the courses of 
studies to a higher plane and extend them 
to a wider scope, than any to which they had 
hitherto attained. Himself a finished scholar 
and a man of superior natural endowments, 

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he felt within him the promptings to make 
Notre Dame equal to the greatest universi- 
ties of the land. Father Walsh's own char- 
acter was one of great evenness, roundness 
and fullness, and accordingly he strove to 
advance all the interests of the university, 
without sacrificing any one interest to an- 
other. While it may be that his own tastes 
in literature and oratory were predonunant, 
yet his mind was so broad, his sympathies so 
wide, and his judgment so correct, that evevy 
department seemed to receive his equal at- 
tention and care. 

During Father Walsh's presidency, the ex- 
treme wings or additions, originally designed 
for the new college building, were built, and 
the refectories and study halls were accord- 
ingly enlarged, greatly adding to the facili- 
ties of the university. 

In the year 1882, St. Bdtward's Hall, for 
the use of the Minim department, was 
erected. The minims consist of young stu- 
dents^ under twelve years of age. These 
youths have always been tenderly cared for 
at Notre Dame. They are under the special 
charge of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, and 
have a course of studies, and a daily life 
suited especially to their tender years. Ever 
since the erection of St. Edfward's Hall, they 
have had all the facilities that could be de- 
sired for their training and instruction. St. 
Edward's park, in front of the hall, is per- 
haps the most beautiful little garden and 
pleasure ground anywhere to be seen about 
Notre Dame. It is a gem of pleasant walks 
and beds of plants and flowers, and always 
attracts the admiration of visitors at Notre 
Dame. The minims were always favorites of 
Father Sorin. He styled them his ** Princes," 
and whether at Notre Dame, upon the sea, 
at Paris or at Rome, he never ceased to re- 
member them. From their ranks has come 
many a bright student of the university. 

On June 20, 1883, the comer stone of Sci- 
ence Hall was laid by the Right Rev. John 
A. Watterson, bishop of Columbus. This 
building was constructed as a necessary part 

of the plan in developing the scientific course 
of the university. It is considered by many, 
in the severe simplicity of its Greek archi- 
tecture, to be the most beautiful of all the 
college buildings. The comer stone itself was 
an object of particular interest from the cir- 
cumstance that it was a mineral curiosity, 
being a beautiful conglomerate, containing 
lucid and colored quartz pebbles, and pro- 
cured in northern Michigan. It was donated 
for the purpose by Dr. John Cassidy, the 
first graduate of the scientific course. 

Under Father Walsh's presidency were 
also erected Mechanics' Hall, or Institute of 
Technology, and the astronomical observatory. 

From Bishop Watterson 's address at the 
laying of the comer stone of 'Science Hall, 
we take the following, which indicates the 
relations of the sciences to other studies as 
understood at Notre Dame: 

**We lay it (the comer stone) in the 
shadow of yonder church, and here the stu- 
dents of Notre Dame can have the opportuni- 
ties and means of perfecting themselves in 
those physical studies, which, instead of be- 
ing opposed to religion, are auxiliaries to it, 
because they introduce us to the studies by 
which we attain our destiny. The course of 
an education in a Catholic university is in- 
tended to make intellectual and moral men, 
all the branches conspiring to this noble aim. 
The ancient classics of Greece and Rome tell 
the student of the necessity of a revelation, 
and history teaches of the doings of Almighty 
Gk>d with man, proclaims God's goodness and 
mercy and the necessity of his church. Nat- 
ural philosophy places us in the very vestibule 
of theology; moral philosophy tells us of 
our relations with our fellow men and our 
duties in the various walks of life. Here- 
tofore the natural sciences have been taught 
in this university, but now they are to be 
taught with greater application than ever. 
Here they are to receive diligent attention, 
for they tell us of the goodness and great- 
ness of God, and teach us that everything 
should lead us to Gk>d. Some men do not 

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recognize God in science, because they do not 
see the natural sciences as God intended. He 
wishes nature to lead us to him, and if sci- 
ences are properly studied they will do their 
own towards bringing us to our future 

The dimensions of the principal buildings 
of the university, thus completed under di- 
rection of Father Walsh, may well be given 
here, with some details of their uses and 

The main building is three hundred and 
twenty feet front by one hundred and fifty- 
five feet in depth. The material of which 
this, as well as all the other buildings, is 
constructed, is cream-colored, sometimes 
called Milwaukee brick. The dome of the 
main building is gilt, with pure gold leaf, 
and is surmounted by a massive statue of 
the Blessed Virgin, which is ** crowned with 
stars'' of electric light, a most beautiful sight 
of a summer's evening. Father Sorin had 
resolved that this crown should circle the 
brow of his Blessed Lady, even before mod- 
em science had yet succeeded in dividing the 
electric fluid for this purpose. It is not the 
only time when the ardent founder's genius 
seemed, as it were, to leap over present dif- 
ficulties and to anticipate success where 
others could see only disappointment. The 
star-crowned statue on the dome rises two 
hundred and seven feet above the earth. 

The Music Hall, or Academy of Music, as 
it is also called, which contains besides music 
rooms and recreation halls, also the fine ex- 
hibition room, known erstwhile as "Washing- 
ton Hall, is one hundred feet front by one 
hundT«i and seventy feet deep, and a little 
over one hundred feet in height. 

On the evening of June 20, 1882, the ex- 
hibition hall, as rebuilt after the fire, was 
formally opened to the public. It was de- 
scribed on that occasion as one of the most 
attractive rooms to give a public entertain- 
ment in to be seen anywhere. It is octagonal 
in form, and the acoustic properties are un- 
usually good. Three electric lamps make a 

noonday radiance in every part of the audi- 
torium, stage and galleiy. The gallery, which 
is reserved for the students of the university, 
has a seating capacity of 500, and the body 
of the hall, the tiers of seats in which are 
arranged in horse-shoe shape, and slope down 
from the rear to the stage, will accommodate 
about 700 people. The stage is ample and 
commodious in its appointments. 

It was mentioned as something of an an- 
achronism that the hall should have been 
** opened with a play of Sophocles by electric 
light." The play was the Oedipus Tyrannus, 
and was produced by the Hellenists in the 
original Greek, under direction of Father 
Stoflfel, the professor of the Greek language 
and literature in the university, in the pres- 
ence of a large and intellectual audience. 
The ** South Bend Times" had this to say 
of the occasion: ** Distinguished people from 
all sections of the country, both clergy and 
laity, greeted the Hellenists, and the applause 
that was given testified the appreciation of 
the audience. This is the first time that a 
Greek play ever was produced west of the 
Alleghanies. The costumes were designed by 
Signer Gregori, the renowned artist. The 
miisic was composed expressly for the occa- 
sion by Mr. Nobles, one of the professors of 
music. The entertainment commenced at 
eight o'clock, and occupied an hour and a 
half in its presentation. During this time, 
not one word of English was spoken (the 
play being in Greek), but the audience was 
so interested that not the least impatience 
was shown. The singing was the finest ever 
heard at Notre Dame, particularly the duets 
and the grand chorus." The production of 
this Greek play at Notre Dame attracted 
wide attention. 

The dimensions of Sorin Hall are one hun- 
dred and forty-four feet front by one hun- 
dred and twelve feet in depth. This is the 
residence of such students of the advanced 
classes as have previously given entire satis- 
faction as to industry and deportment. They 
are accorded the privilege of having private 

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rooms, and this without additional cost. 
This innovation in the traditionary system 
of government in Catholic colleges, although 
at first viewed somewhat unfavorably by the 
ultra-conservative, has stood the test of ex- 
perience, and the resulting benefits have more 
than justified the hopes formed when the 
experiment was hazarded. In Sorin Hall, too, 
are the law lecture room, court rooms, law 
library, etc. 

On the first floor of the Music Hall are the 
recreation and reading rooms of the students 
of Brownson Hall and Carroll Hall. These 
rooms are supplied with newspapers, period- 
icals, games of all kinds, including billiard 
tables. The dressing rooms of the bicycle club 
and of the athletic association are also on this 

Science Hall is divided into two depart- 
ments, and is supplied with all the agencies 
requisite to facilitate the acquisition of a 
complete knowledge of the sciences. The lab- 
oratories, lecture rooms, museums, biological 
department, engine rooms, etc., are admirably 
arranged for the convenience of students. 
This hall is fully equipped with all the neces- 
sary chemicals, preparations, specimens, 
charts, tools, instruments, and the innumer- 
able accessories of a great school of science. 

Mechanics' Hall, the Institute of Technol- 
ogy, is a large and commodious building, de- 
voted to the use of the students of civil, me- 
chanical and electrical engineering. It is fully 
equipped with all the appliances for wood 
and metal working, and is supplied with the 
most approved forms of forges and cupolas 
for blacksmithing and foundry work. The 
rooms for mechanical drawings, and the lab- 
oratories for special experimental work in 
mechanical engineering were especially de- 
signed for the purpose for which they are 
used, and are complete in all their appoint- 

The astronomical observatory consists of a 
main part, with a revolving dome, an east 
wing or transit room, in which is mounted 
the transit instrument, and a north wing or 

computing room, which contains the smaller 
instruments and the works of reference for 
the use of observers. 

East of Music Hall, for the accommodation 
of students desiring to take physical exercise 
when the weather is unfavorable for out-door 
sports, stands the students' play-hall, one 
hundred and sixty feet in length by forty- 
five feet in width and two stories high. In 
addition, there is fitted up, on the second 
floor of the Institute of Technology, a thor- 
oughly equipped gymnasium. 

The infirmary, for the comfort and care 
of those who may become sick, is a building 
two hundred feet long by forty-five feet wide 
and three stories high, situated to the east 
and rear of the main building. A regular 
physician is in daily attendance, while the 
Sisters of the Holy Cross minister also to the 
wants of the sick. 

It would take too much space, nor is it 
necessary, to notice in detail the various 
other buildings which form a part of the uni- 
versity. So numerous and extensive are they, 
that if brought together they would cover 
eight or ten acres of ground. As they stand, 
they give to the visitor the idea of a pretty 
rural town. 

The buildings more immediately connected 
with the university are arranged so as to 
form a harmonious front. The main build- 
ing, with its noble dome, occupies the cen- 
tral space; to the right front is the Church 
of the Sacred Heart, and to the right front 
of the church is Sorin Hall ; to the left front 
of the main building stands Music Hall, to 
the left front of Music Hall is Science Hall, 
and to the left front of that is the Institute 
of Technology, and to the front of that the 
astronomical observatory. All these build- 
ings, therefore, present a united grand fixmt 
to the south, extending to the east and west 
with a combined width of nearly one thousand 
feet. Within this space, in the embrace as it 
were of these noble edifices, is enclosed a 
beautiful courtyard, a garden of green and 
shade and pleasant walks. It is all most beau- 

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■.■: "7 

li.. J 

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tiful; fully justifying the oft repeated ex- 
clamation, ** Beauteous Notre Dame." 

As indicating the impressions made by 
Notre Dame during the administration of Fa- 
ther Walsh upon a wide-traveled and culti- 
vated gentleman, but one who had no sym- 
pathy with the religion through the practice 
of which all these things came, we give the 
following from the New York ** Christian 
Advocate," of March 5, 1891, an organ of 
the Methodist church, by its editor, the Rev. 
J. M. Buckley, D.D.: 

**The ride from Chicago to South Bend 
took three or four hours. Here Schuyler 
Colfax lived for many years ; here his widow 
and family reside, and his memory is hon- 
ored by men of all parties and creeds. That 
evening, through the kindness of my host, I 
met at dinner many of the most distinguished 
citizens, including the gentlemen of the press, 
clergy of diflferent denominations, merchants 
and manufacturers, and Rev. Father Walsh, 
president of the University of Notre Dame, 
the famous Catholic institution of the west, 
established by the order of the Holy Cross — 
an order of priests and brothers devoted pri- 
marily to teaching. Receiving a courteous 
invitation from the president to visit the in- 
stitution the next day, and finding that Mr. 
Studebaker would be able to accompany me, 
I accepted it, and Father Wialsh expressed 
a hope that we would come to dinner and 
sit with the boys, as he expressed it, at 
* Commons. ' 

**The approach to the university is grand; 
the golden dome being visible for many miles, 
glistening in the sunlight like the dome of 
the Greek churches in Moscow. The build- 
ings are numerous and imposing. The walls 
of the reception room are covered by por- 
traits of the former presidents of the insti- 
tution and other dignitaries. 

**It was an interesting spectacle to see the 
boys at dinner. There are five hundred stu- 
dents, a very vigorous class physically and in 
excellent discipline. I was interested in Fa- 
ther Walsh, before knowing that I should 

meet him, by a standing advertisement in 
the South Bend papers, running thus: 

** *I hereby give notice that I will prose- 
cute to the utmost extent of the law, regard- 
less of cost, all persons guilty of selling or 
giving liquor to the students of this institu- 
tion, or furnishing it to them in any way. 
'* 'Thomas E. WAiiSH, President.' 

**The institution was founded in 1842 by 
Father Sorin. The founder is still living, sev- 
enty-eight years of age, and is general of the 
order of the Holy Cross throughout the 
world. He is patriarchal in appearance, 
wearing a long white beard and mustache, 
having a dispensation from the pope allow- 
ing it. To him I was introduced ; he blended 
with the dignity of his office the fine manner 
of a cultivated Frenchman. The order of tiie 
Holy Cross consists of priests and lay broth- 
ers, generally, though not exclusively, de- 
voted to teaching. The church is one of the 
most magnificent in this country, being capa- 
ble of seating one thousand two hundred. 
The stained glass is beautiful, of a high or- 
der, brought from Buroi)e. The altar, which 
stood for three hundred years in Rome, was 
purchased and imported in a complete state 
for this church. I do not think there is 
anything superior to it, excepting the cathe- 
dral in New York. All the buildings are 
large, light and airy. . . . 

**In the university is a manual training 
school, where machinery and many other 
manufactured articles are made. This insti- 
tution does not possess one dollar of endow- 
ment, but it is supi>orted by the amount paid 
in by tuition and board, which is about three 
hundred dollars per year. .Everything about 
it is very pleasant and wholesome. The in- 
firmary is the best and neatest I have seen. 

** Perhaps some one may say: Here is an- 
other example of the ingratiating effect upon 
the most decided Protestants of the skillful 
courtesies of Roman Catholics. Not at all; 
they were simply gentlemen; they recog- 
nized my Protestantism; I report simply 
what I saw. If there had been anything to 

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criticise it would have been criticised, as 
anyone knows by my letters from abroad. 
Protestants are acbnitted to the institution, 
but in all cases are required to remain at 
the services, of which rule they make no 
secret. It is a Catholic institution to train 
Catholic young men, and the spirit of the 
institution cannot be relaxed. Their con- 
sistency in this matter I admire." 

The allusion in the Rev. Mr. Buckley's 
letter to Father "Walsh's care for the preser- 
vation of the students from the evils of in- 
toxication, brings to mind the constant care 
of Father "Walsh for the moral welfare of 
the young men of Notre Dame. It can 
hardly be said that his solicitude in this re- 
gard was less than his care for their intel- 
lectual well being. Indeed, as said before, 
the aim of the educators of this institution 
has always been to secure the harmonious 
development of the physical, moral and in- 
tellectual nature of th(»e committed to their 
training. Only by such harmonious develop- 
ment of the whole nature of man, can the 
best educational results be attained. The 
total abstinence societies at Notre Dame have 
always been most sedulously cherished; and 
this was particularly the case under Father 
Walsh, who was himself a strict abstainer 
from all intoxicating beverages. 

So well known and admired were his labors 
in this field, that Archbishop Ireland, Presi- 
dent Cleary, and other leading men of the 
Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America 
determined to recognize the excellent work 
done in this line by convening the sixteenth 
annual convention of the Union at Notre 
Dame. Accordingly the convention was held 
at the university on August 4 and 5, 1886, 
at which were present delegates representing 
a membership of 50,000 in all parts of the 
land. The meeting was one of the most suc- 
cessful ever held by the organization. One 
pleasant result of this convention was that 
numerous leading men, lay and cleric, espe- 
cially from the extreme eastern states, came 
to see and to know Notre Dame for the first 

time; and praises of what they saw were 
echoed in hundreds of places where thereto- 
fore the great university of the west had been 
but a name. 

Here it may not be inappropriate to note 
that Notre Dame has during her history been 
visited by a multitude of distinguished per- 
sons, who came to see the beauty of the place, 
and to honor those who had in so remarkable 
a manner built up an institution of learning 
and religion in what, within a single life- 
time, had been an unbroken wilderness. 

Besides priests innumerable, and reverend 
bishops and archbishops from all parts of the 
Union, from Canada, Mexico, Europe and 
Australia, including the beloved Cardinal 
Gibbons; besides governors. United States 
senators and congressmen from our own state ; 
many eminent persons have been pleased to 
turn aside on their journeys through the 
land, or even to come on purpose from dis- 
tant points to see what has been done in this 
chosen spot. 

During the war the family of Greneral Wil- 
liam Tecumseh Sherman for a long time re- 
sided with us; and here the distinguished 
soldier delighted to come to visit his beloved 
and to pass pleasant days with them in the 
quiet of these classic shades. Here was in- 
terred the body of the general's eldest sou, 
Willy Sherman; and here long lived hLs 
second son Thomas, now the eloquent Jesuit 

To Notre Dame, in 1875, came the Papal 
Ablegate, Mgr. Roncetti, and in 1886, the 
Ablegate, Mgr. Straniero. In 1893, the 
Apostolic Delegate, Archbishop SatoUi, came 
to see Notre Dame and its venerable founder. 

Others that have taken pleasure in viewing 
these grounds and halls of learning, were 
Chief Justice Chase, in 1871; James G. 
Blaine, and Thomas A. Hendricks, in 1884; 
Carl Schurz, in 1859 ; the historian John Gil- 
mary Shea; the delegates to the Pan-Ameri- 
can Congress, in 1889; the orator Daniel 
Dougherty, in 1891; and many others whose 
names might be given. 

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How close in touch with public affairs and 
public men, and how warm in sympathy with 
the best interests of the nation, has always 
been the spirit of Notre Dame, may be il- 
lustrated by a letter written in the name of 
the university, as far back almost as the 
founding of the institution, by the eloquent 
professor, Gardner Jones, whose literary ser- 
vices to Notre Dame have many times been 
referred to in these pages. The letter was 
addressed to Henry Clay, to whose kindly 
and active interest the university was more 
than once indebted. The letter is as fol- 

''University of Notre Dame du Lac, 
(Near South Bend, Ind.,) 

March 14, 1850. 

** Honorable Sir: — The president ^and 
faculty of this Catholic institution, all un- 
known to you as they are, cannot resist the 
impulse created by the recent reading of your 
compromise speech in the college refectory, 
to address you a brief letter of thanks for 
their share in that rich treat. Professing a 
creed widely different from your own, and 
which is generally, though falsely, supposed 
to be an ti- American, and hostile to civil lib- 
erty, they yet partake with you in those just, 
wise and moderate views which you advance 
in the noble document referred to, and in all 
that patriotic and trembling solicitude for the 
continuance and perpetuity of this glorious 
Union, whieh you so laudably manifest. It 
would be dissimulation in those who address 
you to aflSrm aught else than that they seek 
the edification and glory of the kingdom of 
their Master Christ, before all other earthly 
considerations; but besides this reigning aim 
and desire, they know no greater love and 
affection than that they bear towards the con- 
stitution and federal government of these 
states. With the integrity, stability and un- 
checked progress of this land of religious 
liberty, they see identified the highest interests 
of the church of Jesus Christ, and the highest 
hopes of humanity; and, greatly as they ven- 
erate your exalted patriotism, evinced not 

only now in this painful crisis, but also 
through a long and illustrious life of unselfish 
and unrequited devotion to your country, 
they will not yield to you in the alarm they 
feel in view of the dangers now threatening 
the Union, or in earnest and continual sup- 
plication to the God of Nations, that he will 
be pleased, for his church's sake, to avert 
from us those imminent perils which now 
menace us. 

** While you are assailed by the violent and 
insane of both sections of the Union, we 
thought it might be agreeable to you to know 
that in a secluded religious house, whose in- 
mates have their citizenship and conversation 
in heaven, who commune more with the 
mighty past than the present, and whose in- 
visible companions are the noble army of 
saints, your kindling oratory has warmed and 
cheered many a heart inflexible and altogether 

**In behalf of the president and faculty, I 
have the honor to be, with great considera- 
tion, your obedient servant, 

Gardner Jones. 

**Hon. Henry Clay, Washington, D. C' 

As a further indication of the wide sym- 
pathy of Notre Dame for intellectual and 
moral excellence wherever found, it is pleas- 
ant here to note the establishment during 
Father Walsh's presidency of the unique cus- 
tom of conferring, on each recurring Laetare 
Sunday, a medal upon some American Cath- 
olic distinguished in literature, science, or 
art. It is needless to say that this is an 
adaptation to the domain of secular knowl- 
edge of what papal custom has from time im- 
memorial made famous in the sphere of reli- 
orion. The golden rose of Laetare Sunday be- 
stowed by the pope upon some Catholic re- 
nowned for services in the cause of religion 
has always been esteemed by the recipient as 
one of the highest of earthly favors, and has 
gained from the world at large the most 
marked applause. The university of Notre 
Dame has in like manner won great honor 
by the selection as the recipients of this medal 

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of Americans, men €Lnd women, who by their 
talents and virtues have added lustre to the 
American Catholic name. Such recognition, 
too, has in many cases been peculiarly fitting 
from the circumstances that the recipients, 
from their modesty and retirement of life, 
have been content to lafior on in doing good, 
thinking little of any honor or appreciation 
that might be bestowed upon their labors, pro- 
vided only they were conscious to themselves 
of performing the duty that God set before 
them. While such persons never look for 
honors, it is nevertheless pleasant to all who 
appreciate talent aai devotion to dirty, to see 
these single hearted. men and women of genius 
selected for deserved if unexpected recogni- 
tion. The good done by the giving of the 
Notre I>ame Laetare medal is not simply in 
the honor done to the worthy, but in the emu- 
lation aroused in youthful genius, and in the 
respect inspired in the minds of all good peo- 
ple for unobtrusive merit. Honors thus worth- 
ily bestowed* upon talent and virtue tend to 
make us all better by inspiring in us a love 
and respect for what is good and great. 

The bestowal of the medal is usually in- 
trusted to some distinguished representative 
of the university, and it is given with such 
appropriate ceremony, and in the presence of 
such dignitaries as may add emphasis to the 
honor intended. 

The custom was inaugurated in 1883, the 
medal for that year being given to the accom- 
plished historian, John Gilmary Shea, after 
Orestes A. Brownson, undoubtedly the most 
distinguished American Catholic layman who 
has given his genius to the services of the 
church. That the Laetare medal was first 
given to so eminent a man has added lustre to 
the gift, upon whomsoever it may at any time 
be hereafter bestowed. In 1884 the medal was 
given to Mr. Patrick J. Keely, the eminent 
church architect ; in 1886, to Miss Eliza Alleii 
Starr, the sweet poet and writer on religious 
art; in 1886, to General John Newton, the 
soldier, scientist and engineer; in 1887, to one 
whose modesty would not suffer him to accept. 

and whose name cannot therefore be given ; in 
1888, to Patrick V. Hickey, the great Catholic 
editor; in 1889, to Anna Hanson Dorsey, the 
author; in 1890, to William J. Onahan, the 
publicist and organizer of great Catholic 
movements; in 1891, to Daniel Dougherty, the 
orator; in 1892, to Henry F. Brownson, the 
editor and biographer of his distinguished 
father, Orestes A. Brownson ; in 1893, to Pat- 
rick Donahue, the veteran publisher; in 1894, 
to Augustin Daly, the theatrical manager; in 
1895 to General William Stark Rosecrans; in 

1896, to Mrs. Anna T. Sadlier, the writer ; in 

1897, to Thomas Adldis Emmet, the eminent 
physician and patriot; in 1898, to Timothy 
Edward Howard, legislator and jurist; in 

1899, to Mary Gwendolin Caldwell, a benefac- 
tor of the Catholic University of America ; in 

1900, to John A. Creighton, the philanthrop- 
ist; in 1901, to Bourke Cockran, the orator 
and statesman; in 1902, to Dr. John B. 
Murphy, the noted surgeon; in 1903, to 
Charles J. Bonaparte, the statesman ; in 1904, 
to Richard C. Kerens, the politician ; in 1905, 
to Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, the great mer- 
chant; in 1906, to Francis J. Quinlan, emi- 
nent in many respects; in 1907, to Katherine 
Eleanor Conway, editor and poet. 

This is a noble list of names, taken from 
almost every walk of life; and does equal 
honor to the donors and to the recipients. 
May the list continue from year to year, the 
honor still accumulating with the past line of 
glory in those who receive, and the increasing 
glory of the University that bestows, the gold- 
en medal of Laetare Sunday. 

In harmony with the honor which Notre 
Dame has endeavored to confer on Catholic 
laymen and women by the bestowal of the 
Laetare medal, may be here noted the transfer 
to her sacred precincts of the body of the 
great Dr. Brownson, without question the 
most eminent man, outside the reverend 
clergy, that has yet been produced by the 
American church. 

On June 17, 1886, the body of Dr. Brown- 
son was brought from Mt. Elliott cemetery in 

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Detroit, in charge of his son, Major Henry A. 
Bpownson, and was solemnly interred beneath 
the Church of the Sacred Heart at Notre 
Dame. At the conclusion of the solemn mass 
of requiem, the venerable Father Sorin as- 
cended the altar and si)oke for a short time, 
alluding to his long and intimate friendship 
with the distinguished dead, telling how dur- 
ing life the lamented Christian hero had often 
expressed his desire to end his days at Notre 
Dame, and how it was now their melancholy 
pleasure to receive his precious remains, to 
be placed beside other Christian heroes who 
had labored like him, though in other spheres 
of activity. 

The body of the great philosopher rests be- 
side those of the sainted missionaries. Fathers 
De Seille, Petit aad Cointet; a tablet with a 
suitable inscription marking the place of his 
honored rest. May we indulge in the hope 
that some day the remains of the venerable 
AUouez, may also rest beneath the Church of 
the Sacred Heart at Notre Dame? Not more 
worthy of honor are those who sleep in West- 
minster Abbey, than are those Christian 
heroes, the founders and supporters of the 
early American church. 

The tendency to honor the distinguished 
dead, to mark with monuments their resting 
places, and to gather relics which may remind 
us of their noble lives, is natural to superior 
minds, and serves to give to the living some- 
thing of the greatness that attaches to the dead 
themselves. By honoring them, we partake in 
the honor which is given them. These me- 
morials are an especial incentive to generous 
minded youths, who are by the presence of 
these memorials stirred to emulation of the 
great dead. 

The following extracts from the facile pen 
of P. V. Hickey, the late accomplished editor 
of the ** Catholic Review,'' gives us a graphic 
picture of sudi a memorial collection at Notre 

**A national Pantheon has been the dream 
of many visionary Americans. A much more 
practical, praiseworthy, and Christian idea is 

that of the university of Notre Dame, In- 
diana, which has established a truly historic 
and suggestive monument to our illustrious 
dead in its 'Memorial Hall of our Bishops.' 
Not many are aware that there exists at Notre 
Dame a unique collection that commends it- 
self to the interest of all who love and vene- 
rate the good men who have ruled our Amer- 
ican dioceses. While a boy at college. Profes- 
sor James F. Edwards conceived the happy 
idea of erecting a national monument to our 
prelates in the form of a Bishops' Memorial 
Hall. He immediately went to work, and after 
years of persistent search, he has brought to- 
gether a large and valuable collection of life- 
size paintings, crayons, engravings, photo- 
graphs, rare old daguerrotypes, miniatures on 
ivory, busts and casts of all the bishops and 
archbishops who have held dioceses within the 
present limits of the United States. These 
have been placed in a large cruciform gallery^ 
one hundred and fifty-five feet in length, one 
hundred and twenty at the arms, and a uni- 
form width of sixteen feet. 

** Besides the portraits, there is also an ex- 
tensive collection of autograph letters and 
original documents written by the prelates; 
hound books, pamphlets and pastorals pub- 
lished by them; manuscripts relating to their 
histories, and printed volumes containing 
their biographies. In large, glass-covered 
cabinets are displayed wonderful collections 
of mitres, croziers, episcopal rings, gold 
chains, pectoral crosses, and other articles 
used by our bishops, archbishops and cardi- 

* * This is the first attempt ever made in any 
country to illustrate a nation's whole episco- 
pacy by a monument of this description. 
Many persons gave willingly of their treasures 
to assist in building this monument to our 
loved bishops. They deprived themselves of 
the pleasure of having relics at home in order 
to secure their greater safety in this collection, 
and at the same time to increase their value 
by making them parts of a systematic series. 
The hundreds of tourists and others who visit 

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Notre Dame yearly have their attention drawn 
by this Memorial Hall to the great work done 
by the American hierarchy, and a desire is ex- 
cited to know more of the life and work of 
the truly apostolic men who planted and fos- 
tered the faith in our midst. 

**It is the great desire of the originator of 
the Bishops' Memorial Hall to make it as com- 
plete and as national as possible. Anyone 
who may have in his possession souvenirs of 
our deceased prelates in the form of articles 
illustrating their pontifical dignity, works 
published by them, and documents or old let- 
ters in tlieir handwriting, can render a valu- 
able service to the history of the church by 
depositing them in the Bishops' Memorial 
Hall, where they will be religiously guarded 
for posterity. Attached to the Bishops' Me- 
morial Hall is a large ecclesiastical museum 
containing souvenirs of missionary priests, 
Catholic laymen and articles illustrating the 
different religious orders." 

Of even greater importance, from a his- 
torical point of view at least, is the collection 
of precious manuscripts made and yearly 
added to by Professor Edwards in connection 
with the Bishops' Memorial Hall. 

The hierarchy in general realize the vast- 
ness of the collector's labor and its importance 
to history. Among the documents in this col- 
lection may be seen the names of popes, cardi- 
nals, archbishops, bishops, priests, generals, 
lawyers, doctors, nuns and others; documents 
from the Propaganda, American College at 
Rome, and from the most eminent of the 
clergy of the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
Cuba. Some of the documents date back two 
or three centuries, but the greater number 
have reference to the early history of the 
United States, and the missions in Indiana, 
Michigan, Illinois, Texas, Kentucky, Oregon, 
Colorado and other Western states during the 
past fifty or sixty years. 

The collection has as yet not been fully clas- 
sified and is consequently not accessible for 
historical studies, except for inquiry in cer- 
tain specialties. Of the historical value of 

even what has been already collected we may 
judge by the following letter addressed to the 
collector by the late eminent historian, John 
Gilmary Shea : 

**My Dear Professor: Your wonderfully 
kind loan has arrived safely and is a deluge 
of historical material, a perfect mine of facts, 
estimates and judgment. Many of these let- 
ters have been in several hands, and how little 
they have made of them! There are some 
where every line is a volume to one who un- 
derstands. De Courcy had some of them, 
Bishop Bailey had them for years. Archbishop 
Hughes also had them. I recognize by Bishop 
Bailey's endorsements some of the Brute 
papers so long in his hands, and part of which 
perished by fire. 

**You possess in what you have gathered 
more material for a real history of the church 
in this country during the present century 
than was ever dreamt of. Your own zeal and 
labor as a collector, guided by intelligent love 
of church and country, has been rewarded by 
great results. Yet I hope that it is only a 
beginning. I recognize more thoroughly now 
what you have done, and properly supported, 
may still do. You have created a new line, 
and your zeal has saved much from decay and 

The old college library, then consisting of 
about twenty thousand books, was, of course, 
almost completely destroyed by the fire of 
1879. These books had been, to a great ex- 
tent, works of reference, and many of them in 
the French and Latin languages. In 1873, 
Father Lemonnier, then president of the uni- 
versity, conceived the plan of forming a cir- 
culating library for the special use of the 
students, and containing works of more gen- 
eral interest and use in the daily work of the 
university. This was in reality the founda- 
tion of the present great library. In 1874, 
Professor Edwards, at the request of Father 
Lemonnier, took charge of this library, and 
has ever since been its zealous and efikient di- 
rector. On the death of Father Lemonnier his 
name, at the request of the students, was 

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given to the library, and this it hai since re- 
tained. In its earlier days a specialty was 
made of the English classics, and before the 
fire an unusually complete collection of these 
had been made. By 1879 the library had in- 
creased to ten thousand volumes, which, with 
the old library, were nearly all consumed by 
the great fire. In some respects, the loss was 
irreparable; for, besides many rare books, a 
number of autograph letters and ancient 
manuscripts were lost. But with the same 
energy and zeal that made possible the erec- 
tion of the new Notre Dame over the ashes of 
the old within three months, the librarian, 
aided by the faculty and friends of the uni- 
versity, at once set about repairing the loss; 
and the Lemonnier Library of today stands a 
splendid evidence of their success. 

In 1882, all the books in the old college 
library that had been saved from the fire were 
incorporated in the Lemonnier Library; and, 
a few years later, through the efforts of 
Father Walsh, a permanent annuity was se- 
cured from the board of trustees and placed 
at the -disposal of the librarian for the pur- 
chase of books. With the impetus thus given, 
the library has developed with gratifying 

The library at present occupies the whole 
of the third floor of the front projection of 
the main building. The room is a magnificent 
gothic apartment, one hundred and thirty by 
fifty feet, and exceedingly well lighted. The 
arrangement of the shelving is such that every 
book is in reach of the visitor without the use 
of a ladder. The cases are built against the 
wall, and the upper tiers are mad^ accessible 
by a gallery around the entire hall. At pres- 
ent the library contains about fifty thousand 
volumes. The Latin classics number over six 
hundred. The department of philosophy con- 
tains the complete works of St. Thomas Aqui- 
nas and many of the writings of the Fathers 
of the Church in the original Latin. In this 
department there are about five thousand vol- 
umes. The department of biography contains 
six hundred volumes; English and American 

Vol. n— 6. 

poetry, seven hundred volumes; essays and 
treatises, including the complete works of St. 
Augustine, five hundred volumes; historical 
works, between three thousand and four thou- 
sand volumes, embraeing all the standard his- 
tories and also a number of supplemental 
works on historical subjects. There are up- 
wards of three thousand bound magazines and 
one thousand volumes of bound newspapers, 
with thousands of pamphlets and magazines 
yet unbound; one thousand volumes on gen- 
eral and American literature; two thousand 
books of a religious character; large collec- 
tions of scientific works, English classics, 
selected modern novels; all the standard 
cyclopedias and reference books. In the 
French language are about ten thousand vol- 
umes, and large numbers in German, Italian 
and Spanish. Numerous curiosities interest 
the visitor and scholar, among them many old 
books, including a translation of the Bible into 
German, of which there were twenty editions, 
the one here having been printed seven 
months before the birth of Martin Luther. In 
the care and growth of this great library gen- 
erous praise is due to the librarian, who has 
well executed the trust confided to him by 
Father Lemonnier; as well as to Father 
Walsh and the governing council of the uni- 
versity who have shown their enlightened ap- 
preciation of the value of a great library to 
the university. 

We have noted several times in these papers 
the active interest taken at Notre Dame from 
the beginning in the study of the English 
language and literat;Qre. The university was 
fortunate in its early days in having as its 
professor of English literature the eloquent 
and erudite Father St. Michael E. E. Shawe, 
an alumnus of St. Mary's, Oscott, England. 
He was of an old English Catholic family, had 
been a brilliant soldier under Wellington, and 
then becoming a heroic priest, came to In- 
diana at the call of the saintly Bishop Brute, 
where he built St. Michael's church at Madi- 
son, and afterwards engaged in the Indian 
missions, before he became connected with the 

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University of Notre Dame. Here his memory 
is preserved with enthusiasm as one who gave 
to the university its first tendency towards 
that high literary excellence to which it has 

Succeeding Father Shawe came Professor 
Gardner Jones, a journalist' and an orator of 
much power. In his hands the ponderous 
lectures of Blair became to his students fasci- 
nating as fairy tales to children. His influ- 
ence upon the students as a patriot was scarce- 
ly less than that exerted by him as a m'aster 
of the English language and literature. The 
glory of the American Union and the excel- 
lence of our free institutions were themes 
upon which Professor Jones never tired. He 
was a man after Father Sorin's heart, a fine 
type of the American literary enthusiast, an 
inspirer of those who love the English lan- 
guage and literature. 

These men were the founders. After them, 
and perhaps more practical than either^ 
though not more earnest and devoted, came 
Father Gillespie, Professor Stace and others, 
of whom we have already written. Later came 
Charles Warren Stoddard, the master of pure, 
unaffected, fascinating English prose. Father 
Walsh was himself the master of a beautiful 
and forcible English style. These men, with 
Father Bigelow, Father Brown, and especially 
Father O 'Council and Father Hudson, gave 
to Notre Dame the daily habit of a pure, noble 
literary style, the perfection of which was seen 
in each successive number of the ** Scholastic" 
and the **Ave Maria." 

In 1887, the faculty of Notre Dame recog- 
nizing the fact that the exclusive study of 
the ancient languages and of pure science is 
not in itself sufficient for a liberal education, 
determined to institute a course which should 
provide for a more than ordinarily thorough 
acquaintance with the English language and 
with English and American literature. The 
course, like those in science and the classics, 
extends over a period of four years ; and those 
who have completed the required studies re- 
ceive the degree of Bachelor of Letters. A 

high standard is kept up throughout the 
course in all the English branches; and the 
degree will be conferred on no one who, be- 
sides giving evidence of proficiency in the 
classics and in science, does not also show his 
ability to apply the principles of composition, 
and also give evidence of an acquaintance with 
the writings of the best authors in English 
and American literature. 

The preparatory studies for this course are 
the same as those introductory to the classical 
course, except that Latin or Greek may be 
replaced by one of the modem languages. 
From the beginning of the course special at- 
tention is given to essay writing^ each essay 
being read and criticised in its author's pres- 
ence. Facilities for a training in journalism 
are afforded in the columns of the ** Schol- 
astic," every student being required, after the 
first year, to contribute to the college paper at 
least two articles each session. Besides requir- 
ing a familiarity with the masterpieces of 
English and American authors, the students 
are encouraged to take special courses of read- 
ing, having access at all times to the English 
and American classics in the Leraonnier 
Library. The graduation thesis, finally, must 
show, besides the graces of style, a scholarly 
treatment of the theme selected. 

The crown to the good work of the Ui^iver- 
sity in this regard, and one of the chief of the 
great services rendered by Father Walsh, was 
the engagement, in 1888, of the distinguished 
poet and brilliant writer of prose, Maurice 
Francis Egan, as professor of English Liter- 
ature. In connection with this happy selec- 
tion it was said at the time by the ** Baltimore 
Catholic Mirror*': 

**The university of Notre Dame is one of 
the most, if not indeed the most, progressive 
Catholic educational institution in America. 
Its growth within the last decade has been 
marvelous. Not only in respect to the number 
of scholars upon its rolls is this true, but 
chiefly in the means adopted to meet the re- 
quirements arising from this increase. The 
high standard of studies in each department 

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of the university has been steadfastly main- 
tained, and the tendency is to raise it still 
higher by the introduction of the newest fea- 
tures of the best educational systems of the 
world. Thoroughness in each course is aimed 
at, and to achieve this, approved methods are 
tried and new names added to its already bril- 
liant galaxy of educators. 

**The latest acquisition which the faculty 
has had is Mr. Maurice Francis Egan of the 
New York * Freeman's Journal,' who becomes 
professor of English literature and belles- 
lettres — a position which has been specially 
created for him. Too much cannot be said 
in praise of the honest effort which this move 
on the part of the Notre Dame managers indi- 
cates, to secure careful teaching in this branch 
of polite learning. It is needless here to en- 
large upon the many qualifications which Mr. 
Egan brings to the position. To those who are 
familiar with the best Catholic literature of 
today, Mr. Egan's name is a household word. 
His productions in prose and verse rank with 
the highest; and some of his poems have 
elicited the highest encomiums from the best 
minds of the English-speaking world. In ad- 
dition to his character as a well-read and ac- 
complished worker in this field, Mr. Egan has 
acquired a wide reputation in the world of 
lexers for the intelligence, discrimination, and 
rare analytic power evinced in his critical 

**His cAreful work in this department, which 
has found its way to the reading public 
through the leading magazines and in a vol- 
ume recently issued, has attracted the most fa- 
vorable attention. Of Mr. Egan's work on the 
'Freeman's Journal' it is scarcely necessary 
to speak. The prestige which James A. Mc- 
Master's honest and fearless course won for 
the paper, and the distinctive character which 
his strong individuality impressed upon it, 
have been admirably sustained by Mr. Egan, 
who was for many years associated with the 
brave old champion of Catholic faith and 
Catholic thought. The university's gain is 
Catholic journalism's loss. Notre Dame is to 

be congratulated upon its efforts to provide 
for the careful teaching of so important a 
branch as English literature, and it is to be 
especially felicitated upon securing the serv- 
ices of one so admirably equipped for the posi- 
tion upon which Mr. Egan will enter at the 
beginning of the scholastic year." 

The promise indulged in when Professor 
Egan was appointed has been more than ful- 
filled. The literary character of Notre Dame 
has been wonderfully elevated. Some of the 
brightest young writers in the land have 
added luster to the student rolls of the uni- 
versity. This is shown not only in the pages 
of the ** Scholastic," which has taken the first 
place amongst the college journals of Amer- 
ica, but also in various journals and magazines 
in the country to which our students have 
become contributors. With Professor Egan, 
the literary course has become a complete suc- 
cess; and not only are the young men who go 
forth from these halls learned in the arts and 
sciences, but they are so trained in the easy, 
graceful and forceful expression of thought 
that they are able ^ to communicate their learn- 
ing to others. 

Subsequently Professor Egan became at- 
tached to the Catholic University, at Wash- 
ington, D. C, where he maintained his high 
reputation. He became a close literary friend 
of President Roosevelt, who in 1907 appointed 
him minister to Copenhagen. 

Sec. 11. — JuBHuBES. — The year 1888 is mem- 
orable in the history of Notre Dame, by reason 
of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary 
of ordination to the holy priesthood of her 
venerable founder. Father Sorin was bom, 
as we have already noted, on February 6, 
1814 ; his first mass was said on June 9, 1838 ; 
his founding of Notre Dame dates from No- 
vember 26, 1842 ; he became Provincial of the 
Congregation of the Holy Cross in America 
on August 15, 1865 ; and was elected Superior- 
General of the Congregation July 22, 1868. 
Now, after holding his last high oflSce for 
twenty years, he attained that honor so sel- 
dom reached by the hard-working priest, the 

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celebration of the Golden Jubilee of his priest- 

An added, saddening recollection is pre- 
served of this honor, as it was destined to be 
the last public manifestation in his veneration 
during his life. It was fondly hoped that he 
should live until 1894, when he might unite in 
the Golden Jubilee of the charter date of the 
university. Some, however, of the wiser ones 
were anxious that the Golden Jubilee of the 
university should be reckoned from the date 
of its founding, and be therefore celebrated 
in 1892, fearing that the glorious life of the 
founder might not be prolonged beyond that 
date. Their presentiments were well founded ; 
he died, as we shall see, in 1893, and this Gold- 
en Jubilee of his priesthood was the last for 
him. Perhaps it was better so. Great as was 
the founder, the priest was greater; and it 
was as a priest that he shone for the last time 
upon the vision of the world where he had 
served his God and his fellow men so well. 

The first celebration was private, in the 
presence only of his beloved children of the 
Holy Cross and of the Faculty and students 
of the university, on the 26th and 27th days 
of May, 1888. On the evening of the 26th 
there was an appropriate entertainment in 
Washington Hall, consisting of music, poems 
and addresses, prepared expressly for the oc- 
casion. At the close of this entertainment, 
Father Sorin did what was unusual with him 
— ascended the stage to address the assembled 
priests, brothers and students, instead of re- 
turning his thanks from his place in the 
audience, as he had been accustomed. His 
happy response was taken down at the time; 
and, both on account of its sweet, religious 
felicity, and also by reason of the pathetic 
circumstance that it proved to be his last ex- 
tended public utterance, we give it here entire. 
The aged patriarch, venerable in aspect as in 
years, spoke to his children as follows : 

**In the light of divine faith a Golden 
Sacerdotal Jubilee, or the fiftieth anniversary 
of the ordination of a priest to the sacred 
office of minister of the Most High, to which 

nothing on earth can compare in real eleva- 
tion, is assuredly worthy of due commemora- 
tion, not alone on the part of one who was 
raised to such an unparalleled dignity, but 
also and likewise among those of his friends 
who can properly appreciate the signal bless- 
ing commemorated in this telling anniversary. 
Were it only to remind him of the eighteen 
thousand holy masses offered for the living 
and the dead, since the day he was first al- 
lowed to stand before the altar of the living 
God, what an inspiring cause of unbounded 
joy and gratitude to heaven this fact alone 
would reveal to faithful souls! 

**In the sacred ministry, few, comparative- 
ly, are spared full fifty years to discharge 
the sublime function for which every priest 
is ordained. Far from being the rule, it is, I 
may say, a rare exception. Indeed I consider 
it for myself a most special blessing, for which 
I feel the more grateful, as it is evidently gra- 
tuitous and unmerited. 

**But my joy is increased beyond expres- 
sion, when I see how heartily you share in it 
yourselves. Your filial congratulations never 
penetrated my inmost soul as they do this 
evening. Were it any way possible, they 
would undoubtedly and sensibly increase my 
esteem and my love for such a noble family, 
whose every feeling seems so deeply permeated 
with a perfect appreciation of the heavenly 
blessing we now contemplate. 

**It is true, you are not the first to manifest 
the delight of your hearts on the occasion of a 
Sacerdotal Golden Jubilee. This very year, 
1888, has witnessed, all over the globe, on the 
occasion of the great Jubilee of our Holy 
Father, Leo XIII, a universal acclamation of 
loving accents, never known or heard of be- 
fore. But, eclipsing, as it does, all the mani- 
festations of the past, this marvelous event 
does not, in the least, weaken or impair the 
merit of your own exhibition of happiness 
and delight on this commemoration — however 
insignificant, comparatively, may be the poor 
individual just now the object of your atten- 
tion. You join with me in thanking God for 

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the uncommon and gratuitous gift of fifty 
years he has mercifully deigned to keep me, 
unworthy as I am, in his sacred ministry. In- 
deed I am glad to see my ever increasing debt 
of gratitude divided among so many gener- 
ous souls. What a relief to my heart ! I was 
not ordained a priest for my personal benefit 
alone, but also for the good of many others. 
I really delight in seeing the same so beaiiti- 
fuUy acknowledged here by so many intelli- 
gent and happy countenances, beaming with 
the best aspirations for future usefulness. 

**But what intensifies still more my grati- 
tude to Grod for my elevation to the sacred 
priesthood is the selection by God himself of 
the rich field where I was to labor; oh, how 
often it has filled my soul with joy! It is 
not for me to state here the unspeakable con- 
solations which awaited me in this new world, 
which I loved so dearly long before I landed 
upon its happy shores ; and, above all, on this 
glorious domain of the Queen of Heaven. You 
have yourselves expressed them in terms, for 
which I would try to thank you from my 
heart, were it not for the delicacy one feels 
naturally, when he sees himself the direct 
object, or target, of undeserved praises. Allow 
me then to declare here honestly that I claim 
but a very small fraction of the merits you 
assign me, but justly return it all to the 
Blessed Virgin herself, and to the devotedness 
of my modest and faithful co-laborers in the 
field already promising such an abundant 
harvest for the advance of science and the sal- 
vation of immortal souls.'* 

In the evening, after supper, a gift of horses 
and carriage was made to Father Sorin in the 
name of the students, past and present, and of 
the Faculty of the university. The speech of 
presentation, a most felicitous one, was made 
by Professor John Gillespie Ewing. An elec- 
tric illumination of the buildings and errounds 

The next day, the 27th of May, was Sunday, 
and Father Sorin himself celebrated solemn 
high mass, an eloquent sermon being preached 
by Very Eev. Father Corby. The day was 

farther commemorated by the laying of the 
cornerstone of Sorin Hall, since become one 
of the most interesting and useful of the col- 
legiate edifices. (This fine hall was completed 
during that season, and was thrown open for 
use on New Year's day, 1889.) A public ban- 
quet at which Father Sorin presided, fol- 
lowed in the senior refectory, at which appro- 
priate responses to toasts were made by 
Father Zahm (acting president of the univer- 
sity, in the absence of Father Walsh, then in 
Europe), Professor Hoynes and Mr. Brown- 
son, of the class of 1888. In the afternoon the 
rival boat crews contended for honors upon 
the beautiful St. Joseph's lake. Afterwards 
there was a competitive drill between com- 
panies A and B, Hoynes' Light Guards, the 
excellent military organizations formed in the 
junior and senior departments by Colonel 
Hoynes. Thus closed the first, or private, 
festival of the Sacerdotal Golden Jubilee of 
Father Sorin. 

Far surpassing all celebrations hitherto at 
Notre Dame, was the public celebration of the 
Golden Jubilee of Father Sorin 's priesthood 
on August 15, 1888; The weather was perfect ; 
the attendance of cardinal, archbishops, bish- 
ops, clergy and other friends of the venerable 
founder was unprecedented ; the religious ser- 
vices were the most august ever witnessed in 
the Church of the Sacred Heart ; and the ser- 
mon of Archbishop Ireland was a glorious 
fepitome of Father Serin's life work, the build- 
ing the university and the establishment of 
the church in this part of the west, with the 
consequent wide influence for good all over 
the land. 

The most striking souvenir of the day was a 
photograph of Father Sorin and Cardinal 
Gibbons with the archbishops and bishops in 
attendance, taken out in front of the college, 
the main college building and the Church of 
the Sacred Heart forming a framework or 
background for the picture. Thos3 appearing 
in the picture are: Father Sorin: Cardinal 
Gibbons; Archbishops Ireland, of St. Paul, 
and Elder, of Cincinnati; Bishops Dwenger, 

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of Fort Wayne; Gilmour, of Cleveland; Wat- 
terson, of Columbus; Keane, of Richmond; 
Spalding, of Peoria ; Ryan, of Alton ; Ryan, 
of Buffalo; Burke, of Cheyenne; Richter, of 
Graad Rapids; Jansen, of Belleville; and 
Phelan, of Pittsbui^. 

Speaking of the gifts received by Father 
Sorin on this solemn Jubilee teast, the Catho- 
lic ** Telegraph" of Cincinnati beautifully 
said : * * But richest of all the gifts is that which 
Father Sorin has himself given to religion — 
his own life. And this gift, like the grain of 
mustard, has grown, flourished, and sent forth 
leaf, bud, blossom, and fruit, until Notre 
Dame today is among the fairest of all 
the beautiful gardens planted in the 
wilderness of America. It is to men 
like Father Sorin that the United States 
owes her prosperity — ^men who have toiled, 
suffered, sacrificed all for religion and' the 
education of youth; silently but surely 
they do their work, asking no reward but the 
salvation of souls, and the approval of their 
Divine Master. Self is left out entirely, and 
in its place Jesus, and He crucified, reigns. To 
pl€mt the cross, to instruct the ignorant, to 
preach the gospel to the poor, these have been 
the objects of such men as Father Sorin, in 
this country; and it is due to them that the 
forests have been cut down to make place for 
the grains and fruits ; for city, town, and vil- 
lage ; for the church and schools ; for the arts 
and manufactures. Everywhere the cross was 
planted, and from it were reflected rich bless- 
ings on those who settled under its shadow, 
and looked up to it morning, noon and even- 
ing. We wish Father Sorin many years of 
usefulness in the beautiful temple he has 
built. The priests who have labored with him 
and the students who have had the benefit of 
his counsel and example will speak of him in 
tones of love and veneration to those who shall 
come after them. Thus the good he has done 
will live after him, and serve to fructify other 
wildernesses. May Gtod reward him and all of 
the pioneers of the west — ^those who sleep, and 
those who still work and weep." 

A picturesque description of what was seen 
at Notre Dame the evening of the 14th, and 
the day of the 15th of August, was written by 
Miss Mary J. Onahan, of Chicago, and is here 

** There have been many red-letter days in 
the history of Notre Dame, but none more 
memorable than the Golden Jubilee of the 
priest who founded and still directs it. A 
great day, truly! South Bend, as well as 
Notre Dame, was in its gala dress ; no cottage 
so small that it might not let fly its flag, and 
words of welcome in more than one language 
greeted the guests who came from all parts to 
congratulate the hero of the day. 

**The stately avenue lined with trees that 
leads to the college had become a sort of Ap- 
pian way ; triumphal arches in the papal and 
national colors stretched over the roadway; 
lanterns and streamers swayed in the breeze, 
while above all shone the gilded dome of the 
university like a miniature St. Peter's, 
crowned by the figure of the Madonna, radi- 
ant in the sunshine. 

**The train bearing Cardinal Gibbons was 
several hours late, so that he did not arrive 
until eight o'clock in the evening; but the de- 
lay was in one respect an advantage. The 
night was beautiful, the great electric lights 
encircling the figure of Our Lady on the dome 
seemed like a rosary of stars in the sky; the 
myriad lanterns swinging among the trees, 
the expectant throng on the porches and the 
grounds, the sound of distant music, all 
formed a picture which had about it, to the 
imaginative, something of the gleam of fairy- 
land. There were false alarms, of course — 
first it was Archbishop Ireland, of St. Paul — 
again it was the genial Bishop Gilmour, of 
Cleveland, who seemed to enjoy the mistake of 
being taken for the cardinal, but who was evi- 
dently welcome for his own sake, too, judging 
from the round of applause given him. But 
at last it was he. The lights came nearer; it 
was the escort of his Eminence. 

** Along the great avenue of trees they 
came; now they had passed under the last 

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arch, the air was soft with the dear old Irish 
melodies. First was the band, then the 
Ancient Order of Hiberians, then the Polish 
Lancers, reminding one of the knights of old 
returning from the Crusades. All this we saw 
as the procession wound out from the avenue, 
around the green lawn up to the broad steps 
of the college. Everybody was watching for 
the Cardinal. A delicate, gentle-faced prelate 
came up the steps, of mediiun height, but 
seeming smaller, clad all in black, save for the 
odd, flat little scarlet cap, which we saw as he 
bowed to the people. It was Cardinal Gibbons. 
He looked very kind and humble, pleased 
at the affection shown him, but evidently 
fatigued from his journey. His face lighted 
up as he saw the many bishops awaiting him ; 
he embraced Archbishop Ireland warmly and 
the others who were near him. Then came a 
Latin address of welcome, read by Father 
Walsh, the President of the University. The 
Cardinal listened attentively, and at its con- 
clusion bowed his thanks and disappeared to 
his room. Everything was over for the night. 
**In the morning of the feast day bright 
and early, Bishop Dwenger began the long 
ceremony of consecrating the church. From 
five until eight the consecration went on with 
closed doors. At nine o'clock the church was 
opened, and the people thronged to assist at 
the Mass said by the Very Eev. Father Sorin, 
to the hearing of which the Holy Father had 
attached a special indulgence. The venerable 
priest seemed all unconscious of the signs of 
festivity and rejoicing. At ten o'clock 
every one went back for the solemn celebra- 
tion of the day. The beautiful gothic church 
was a blaze of color and light, streaming out 
from the high bronze altar and the rich 
stained glass of the windows, from the faces 
of the angels and the prophets and the saints 
that thronged the walls. Flowers everywhere, 
their many hues scarce richer than the tints 
of Oregon's palette; votive lamps swinging 
before the Tabernacle, one of solid gold stud- 
ded with gems, the great gold crown, the gift 
of the Empress Eugenie, the cross presented 

by Napoleon III. It was almost too distract- 
ing, this church with its twelve altars ; archi- 
tecture vying with sculptor, the painter scarce 
outdoing the goldsmith. Meanwhile the cere- 
mony was beginning. 

**In the sanctuary were the Cardinal, clad 
in all his princely robes. Archbishops Elder 
and Ireland, Bishops Gilmour, Keane, Watter- 
son, Spalding, Dwenger, Jansen, Burke, Ryan 
of Buffalo, Phelan, Richter, and Ryan of Al- 
ton. Opposite the Cardinal sat Father Sorin. 
In the chapel back of the main altar were 600 
sisters, on the sides the brothers and guests, 
and in the body of the church the societies and 
congregation. Outside the altar rail were 
ranged the Polish Lancers with drawn swords, 
as a sort of military guard, their scarlet uni- 
form and nodding shakos giving a dash of 
color to the whole which enraptures the 
painter, but passes beyond the penman. 

**The music was Haydn's Third Mass, Mr. 
Rohner at the organ, assisted by the choir 
from the Jesuit Church of Chicago, and the 
sweet-voiced soprano, Mrs. Maguire. The Car- 
dinal pontificated, and after the gospel. Arch- 
bishop Ireland ascended the pulpit to deliver 
the sermon. 

**At the conclusion of the sermon the car- 
dinal descended from his throne, and the 
organ sounded the solemn tones of the Credo, 
At the elevation the Polish Lancers presented 
arms. The High Mass over, there was a great 
banquet which was served without wine. The 
toasts were: * Our Holy Father, ' responded to 
by Bishop Dwenper; *The Hierarchy of the 
United States,' by Archbishop Elder; and 
*The Founder of Notre Dame,' by Bishop Gil- 
mour. In the afternoon the entire University 
building was solemnly blessed by Bishop Wat- 
terson. At five o'clock Bishop Spalding de- 
livered a speech from the porch of the college, 
in his usual eloquent manner. He spoke of 
the beauties of Notre Dame ; it was- a place 
where poets could dream, where philosophers 
could hold high discourse. He spoke of its 
work, which lay not in brick and mortar; in 
colleges, however stately; in churches, how- 

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ever beautiful; but in the young souls that 
had been nurtured within its walls. This 
was the work — ^the highest work of man — to 
educate to perfection. To make the perfect 
man, perfect physically, intellectually and 
morally, this was the dream of the greatest in 
the* world from the days of Attica, when 
Christianity was but a promise, to the present, 
when it had become so great a power for the 
elevation and enlightenment of man. *Gk)d 
was beauty as well as truth ; man was like him 
by his intellect as well as by his conscience. 
Add the influence ot Christianity to the old 
love of knowledge of the Greeks, then we shall 
have perfect education.' The Bishop was at- 
tentively listened to, and often applauded, as 
the position afforded more freedom than could 
be taken in a church. The reverend clergy 
evidently enjoyed his sallies of wit, especially 
when alluding to the disposition to hero wor- 
ship among the young, he said that to a boy 
even a tinsel hero was to be revered; 'put a 
bit of purple on a man, he is a hero,' said he, 
this with a gleam of saturnine humor. The 
theologj" and the wit were especially appre- 

**At the conclusion of Bishop Spalding's 
remarks, the Cardinal said a few words rela- 
tive to the subject of the day. His manners 
were simple and dignified, his voice clear, 
though not loud. Father Sorin had been com- 
pared to Moses, he said ; but God had favored 
him more than the prophet of old, for to 
Moses, it had been given only to look over into 
the promised land, but the modem Moses had 
passed within its bounds. The respect and 
love shown the Cardinal by the people was 
very touching. The Cardinal then gave the 
people his blessing, after which was solemn 
benediction in the church. 

"In the evening the college and all the 
buildings of the university were illuminated 
by electricity, the Chinese lanterns were light- 
ed in the trees, and a grand display of fire- 
works took place. With this Father Sorin 's 
jubilee was over." 

After the celebration of his golden jubilee, 

Father Sorin continued quietly to attend to 
his great cares as General of the order. In 
May, 1891, he went again to Europe, accom- 
panied by Father Zahm. This proved to be 
his last journey over the wide Atlantic whose 
waves had borne him for so many times upon 
their bosom. He had visited on those occa- 
sions chiefly Paris and Rome, in the work for 
the community. But he had also visited Bel- 
gium and other places where business called, 
going even more than once a year when occa- 
sion required. On his later journeys he had 
been accompanied, as on his last, by Father 
Zahm, for whom he had a particular affection. 
The most notable of these journeys was that 
made by him to the Holy Land, where he 
reverently followed the steps of Our Lord in 
His passion. He had also visited Lourdes and 
other shrines of Our Lady, towards whom his 
devotion was so tender. 

In 1892, he took a short trip to the Atlantic 
seacoast, his health having failed sensibly. 
He was however, able to return in time to pre- 
side at the General Chapter of the Congrega- 
tion of the Holy Cross which opened at Notre 
Dame on August 15, 1892. Fatigue from at- 
tendance at the meetings of the Chapter again 
brought him down, and he was seriously un- 
well for some days, after which he rallied and 
enjoyed comparatively good health. 

On the 27th of November, 1892, there was 
another jubilee celebration at Notre Dame, at 
which Father Sorin was able to be present. It 
was the fiftieth anniversary of the founding 
of Notre Dame, fifty years from the day when 
Father Sorin and his Brothers first looked 
upon snow-covered St. Mary's Lake, Novem- 
ber 26th, 1842. An eloquent and feeling ad- 
dress was made to the venerable founder on 
the part of the students by Mr. M. A. Quin- 
lan, after which Father Sorin 's long-time 
friend, Mr. William J. Onahan, of Chicago, 
offered his felicitations on the memorable day. 

Father Sorin, though feeble, was able to re- 
ply in a most interesting manner, recalling 
vividly the first days and the marvelous 
growth of Notre Dame; and closed, as ever 

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was his wont, by returning aJl the honor to 
God, to His most holy Mother and to his co- 
laborers. It was indeed an affecting occasion. 
We are sorry that the most feeling and pa- 
thetic address has not been preserved. 

Solemn High Mass was celebrated by the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Biordan, of San Fran- 
cisco, a former and well beloved student of 
Notre Dame. The sermon on the occasion was 
delivered by that eloquent priest, the Rev. 
Timothy 'Sullivan, of Cummings, Illinois, a 
former student and professor at Notre Dame. 
No one knows better the history of the early 
days of Notre Dame than Father Sullivan, 
and his discourse on this occasion was not only 
an eloquent sermon, but a mine of historical 
value, and also a brilliant defense of a true 
Christian education, as illustrated in the his- 
tory of the University and its founder. 

On February 6, 1893, Father Sorin entered 
upon his eightieth year, but without having 
fully regained his health. On the 6th day of 
June he was able to receive the Apostolic dele- 
gate, Archbishop SatoUi, who on that day hon- 
ored Notre Dame with his presence, on his 
way from the Columbian Fair, at Chicago. 

It was indeed a touching sight to witness 
the meeting of these two men, each eminent, 
each crowned with well-won honors, each of 
originally keen mind; but one old in years 
and feeble health, the other in the full rich 
bloom of his manly vigor. One standing high 
in the immediate favor of a power older and 
mightier than any dynasty ; the other working 
in a land remote from the common Master — 
has been the spirit and guiding genius in the 
founding of an institution which is an honor 
to himself and to the age in which he lives. 

But the shades of evening were gathering 
fast about the venerable patriarch, darker, 
alas, for his beloved Notre Dame than for him. 
For two or three years the health of Father 
Thomas E. Walsh, the brilliant and successful 
president of the University, had been giving 
alarm to the friends of the institution. A 
visit to France seemed to restore him to his 
old-time vigor for a time ; but it was but for a 

time. In the spring of 1893 he took a trip to 
Texas, partly on business for the order, of 
which he was also Assistant General, and part- 
ly for his health. He returned no better; and 
those who saw Father Walsh at the commence- 
ment in June knew that the days of the be- 
loved president were niunbered. Patient as a 
sage and pleasant as a child, he himself re- 
marked quietly to his friends that it was his 
last commencement. After the close of the 
session he went to Wisconsin for change, and 
possible relief. Both came to him; but they 
were brought by the blessed Angel of Death. 

Father Walsh died on July 17th. On the 
26th of the same month died Father Alexis 
Granger, the life-long companion of Father 
Sorin, vice-president of the University at its 
founding, when Father Sorin was first presi- 
dent, and for all his life here the saintly pre- 
fect of religion, the guide of souls to thous- 

The shades were indeed darkening about 
the Founder of Notre Dame. The brilliant 
young president, in whom so many hopes were 
centered, the aged saint, his life-long com- 
panion, passed away together, in the good 
providence of God. 

Quietly, submissive to Almighty God, as had 
been his habit all his life. Father Sorin bore 
the great losses to Notre Dame suffered in the 
deaths of Father Granger and Father Walsh. 
Father Granger's death was- to be expected. 
But the saintly founder was likewise resigned 
to Heaven 's will in taking also the noble young 
life of Father Walsh. He might well, indeed, 
feel that even the young priest had filled out 
a glorious life. Though but forty years of age 
at his death, Father Walsh in his twelve 
years' presidency had made Notre Dame a 
grand institution of learning; and Father 
Sorin doubtless believed that though young in 
years Father Walsh had rounded out a great 
full life's work in that brief period. 

Father Sorin grew feeble as the weeks went 
on, until the last day of October, that month 
in which St. Edward's feast had been so often 
celebrated in his honor, when he gently passed 

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to that blessed world for which his whole life 
had been a preparation, and where so many of 
his children had passed before him. It was a 
blessed death. 

The funeral of Father Sorin was conducted 
with all the solemnity and reverence due to 
him. Notre Dame spared nothing that love 
could suggest to do honor to her founder. 
Mass was celebrated by Bishop Rademacher, 
of Fort Wayne, and the funeral sermon was 
preached by the Most Rev. Archbishop Elder, 
of Cincinnati. The interest manifested in his 
death, as might well be expected, was wide- 
spread. Telegrams and letters of condolence 
came to Father Provincial Corfcy, and other 
members of the Congregation, from France 
and Rome; while kindly notices from the 
Catholic and secular press were numberless. 

We give one of these taken from the Chi- 
cago ** Herald'': 

**A wonderful and romantic career was 
that of Father Sorin, founder of Notre Dame 
University, who died Tuesday last, almost 
under the shadow of the University, and on 
the scene of noble and successful endeavor for 
humanity. He was nearly eighty years of age. 
In 1841, when only twenty-seven years old, 
he came from France to this country, filled 
with a young man's uncalculating zeal, and 
established a mission among the Indians of 
Indiana. . . . Having been admonished 
to establish schools wherever opportunity of- 
fered, he set out upon his mission and arrived 
in November, 1842, on the borders of the sheet 
of water known as St. Mary's Lake, near the 
site of the present city of South Bend. 

**The spot at which he halted was absolute 
waste, the only building in sight being a small 
log hut. His earthly belongings at the time 
consisted of only five dollars in money; but 
his trust in the beneficence of God was un- 
bounded, and he had absolute confidence in 
his own energy and resolution. He took pos- 
session of the hut, setting apart one-haLf of it 
to be used as a chapel, and reserving the other 
part as a dwelling place for himself and his 
companions. On these meagre foundations he 

began to build a college, and two years later 
he secured a charter for a university from 
the State of Indiana. From that moment the 
University of Notre Dame grew and flourished 
under his intelligent guidance and watchful 
care until it became what it is today, the larg- 
est and most important Roman Catholic edu- 
cational institution in the United States. 

* * Thus more than fifty years of his life were 
devoted by Father Sorin to the upbuilding of 
this institution. Its success is due to his faith, 
labor, enthusiasm and perseverance. The 
thousands of men whom it has sent into the 
world equipped for the battle of life drew 
their inspiration from him and from the in- 
fluences with which he surrounded them. He 
&aw his work and knew that it was good. His 
great undertaking having been successfully 
accomplished, death came to him like a wel- 
come, refreshing sleep. He needs no tablet 
of mai^ble to commemorate his virtues and 
achievements. The University of Notre Dame 
is his monument, and, while its influence sur- 
vives, his name will not be forgotten among 

Father Sorin 's body is at rest between those 
of Father Granger and Father WalA, in the 
little community cemetery. A simple iron 
cross, with his name and date of death, marks 
his grave. 

On the deatii of Father Sorin, the Very 
Rev. William Coiiby continued as Provincial 
of the Congregation of the Holy Cross in the 
United States, a position which he held to the 
end of his life. The poor Detroit boy, strug- 
gling for an education, tie young priest him- 
self zealous for the education of youth, the 
brave chaplain of the armies of the Potomac, 
the veteran priest of the Holv Cross, who with 
Father Louis L'Etourneau, Father Timothy 
Maher, Brother Francis Xavier and Brother 
Augustus, for a few years longer, connected 
the present generation with those heroic men 
who founded this university in the wilderness. 
Of these, Father L'Etourneau and Father 
Maher yet remain. 

In accordance with the expressed wish of 

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Father Walsh, the Rev. Andrew Morrissey 
was named to succeed him in the presidency 
of the university. No appointment could have 
been a greater pleasure to the inmates and 
friends of Notre Dame. Father Morrissey had 
been at Notre Dame since the twelfth year of 
his age, and was thoroughly imbued with the 
spirit of its venerable founder, no less than 
with that of Father Walsh, his enlightened 
and most able predecessor ; and he brought to 
the discharge of the duties of his high office 
the resources of a rarely gifted mind, com- 
bined with an intense devotedness and zeal in 
the cause of education. For a niunber of years 
during the presidency of Father Walsh, 
Father Morrissey had been director of studies 
in the university; and so became thoroughly 
familiar with the spirit and needs of the insti- 
tution. To his natural endowments and excel- 
lent training as a scholar and teacher. Father 
Morrissey added what are so essential to the 
president of a university, those social and 
sympathetic qualities, and that urbane pres- 
ence, which draw to him the love and good 
will of all persons with whom he comes in 
contact. His powers ^l8 an orator have long 
distinguished him in the pulpit and on the 
platform. Father Walsh indeed completed 
his own noble presidency by naming so fit a 

Father Morrissey was the seventh president 
of Notre Dame. He served for twelve years, 
— as long a time as Father Walsh had been 
president. He was then succeeded by the Rev. 
John Cavanaugh, who is still president. This 
list of educators is as follows : 

PREsmBNTS OP Notre Dame. 

Father Edward Sorin, Founder, from 1842 
to 1865. 

Father Patrick Dillon, from 1865 to 1866. 

Father William Corby, from 1866 to 1872. 
^ Father Augustus Lemonnier, from 1872 to 

Father Patrick J. Colovin, from 1874 to 

Father William Corby, again, from 1877 
to 1881. 

Father Thomas E. Wafeh, from 1881 to 

Father Andrew Morrissey, from 1893 to 

Father John Cavanaugh, from 1905 to 

Under Father Morrissey *s administration 
and that of his successor. Father John Cavar 
naugh, the completion of the work laid out 
by their predecessors has gone forward. 
Washington Hall has been beautifully fres- 
coed, according to the original design. Meas- 
ures have been taken to revise and still fur- 
ther improve the course of studies. The corps 
of teachers has been kept up to the high stand- 
and that prevailed during Faither Walsh's ad- 
ministration. The friends of Notre Dame, 
everywhere, are gratified to find that the 
noble work here inaugurated shows no sign of 
weakening; but, on the contrary, in every- 
thing are shown signs of advancement towards 
the highest goal of excellence. The determina- 
tion was never stronger to keep Our Lady's 
College in the place to which she has attained, 
in the van of the higher educational institu- 
tions of the land. 

In the autumn of 1894 the Very Bev. Gil- 
bert Francais, chosen Superior-General of the 
Congregation of the Holy Cross to succeed 
Father Sorin, came to visit this most noted 
estaiblishment under his charge; and here he 
resided up to the time of the golden jubilee. 
The Very Reverend Father Superior-General 
was for a long time before his elevation to his 
present dignity Superior of the CoU^e at 
NeuUy, hear Paris, and under his care that 
institution became one of the most noted seats 
of learning in France. It was a gratification 
to all at Notre Dame that so learned and ac- 
complished an educator had been placed at the 
head of the congregation where he would be 
able to do so much to still further advance 
the good of their Alma Mater. On the sup- 
pression of Christian institutions by the 
French government, the College at NeuUy was 
closed, and the Superior General removed 
to Notre Dame, which again became the 
mother house of the Congregation of the Holy 

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Cross, as it had been daring Father Sorin's 

In the summer of 1894, Notre Dame was 
honored by the presence of the First Ameri- 
can Eueharistic Congress within our walls. To 
be selected as the place where so great a work 
as that of the Eueharistic Congress was inau- 
gurated is indeed a mark of God's blessing. 
Not since the assembling of the Third Plenary 
Council at Baltimore has there anywhere 
assembled so numerous- and distinguished a 
body of Catholic priests and prelates. 

It is needless to say that, notwithstanding 
the year 1893 was a year of sorrow with us, . 
yet Notre Dame could not fail to take the 
keenest interest in an exhibition so dear to the 
Catholic heart as the four hundreth anniver- 
sary of the discovery of our country by the 
great navigator. The fine Columbian paint- 
ings on the walls of the main entrance to the 
university, which have been already described, 
sufficiently attesflt this interest. 

The Notre D«me exhibit at the Colum- 
bian Exposition was enclosed in four de- 
partments centrally located in the Manu- 
factures and Liberal Arts Building. The 
first booth was twenty feet square and con- 
tained Gregori's life-size, full length por- 
trait of the founder of the university, to- 
gether with specimens of the work of the 
pupils of Gregori and of Prof. Ackerman. 
Here also were shown a map of the grounds 
and buildings of the university, made by the 
pupils of Professor McCue 's surveying classes ; 
several specimens of mechanical engineerii^ 
work ill wood and iron; blue tints from the 
Institute of Technology; one hundred and 
twenty views of Notre Dame taken by Father 
Kirsdi's class in photography; a complete set, 
twenty-five volumes, of the ** Scholastic,'' 
illustrating the literary work of the students ; 
copies of various books written and published 
at Notre Dame ; objects of historical interest ; 
photographs and paintings, including an 
excellent portrait of the lamented Father 

In the second booth, also twenty feet square, 

was a small but rich selection from the pre- 
cious historical treasury of Bishops' Memorial 
Hall. Among these treasures were many rare 
old Bibles published in the German language 
long before the birth of Luther. 

In the third booth were several autograph 
letters and other precious manuscripts from 
the Catholic American Archives collected by 
Professor Edwards. 

In the fourth booth were numerous precious 
articles, mementos of early bishops and other 
distinguished historical characters, and vari- 
ous other articles of interest, shown in glass 
cases, including precious books, intended to 
represent the libraries and museums at Notre 

A history almost as full as that of the uni- 
versity itself might be written of the various 
churches erected at Notre Dame, culminating 
in the present beautiful edifice. As we have 
seen, Father Sorin found here the small 
** upper room" of the little log house built on 
the banks of St. Mary's Lake by the poor 
Indians for the use of their revered Black 
Robe, the proto-priest, the Rev. Stephen T. 
Badin, in 1830. In 1842-3, Father Sorin 
erected that other log structure, a little higher 
up from the lake, in whose upper chamber the 
inmates and the Catholics of the mission long 
continued to worship. The precious relic, 
alas, perished by fire in 1852. Before this, in 
1848, the first brick church was erected, east 
of the lake, and just in the rear of the pres- 
ent church, or rather upon ground now occu- 
pied by the rear of the present church. This 
church of 1848 was at first a little oblong 
building. In time additions were made to it, 
including wooden towers, in which was placed 
the exquisite chime of bells that still make 
music for Notre Dame. When the first great 
organ was obtained, an extension was made to 
the rear of the old church to receive it. The 
church so completed served until the erection 
of the present edifice. 

The foundations of the present Church of 
the Sacred Heart were begun by Father Sorin 
on the 8th duy of December, 1868, the day on 

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which the Vatican Council was opened by 
Pius IX. It was also the twenty-fourth anni- 
versary of the blessing of the well beloved 
"Chai)el of the Novitiate/' erected upon the 
"Island'* in 1844, and so long the center of 
the reUgioufl devotion of the poor little com- 
munity. It was on the same day, December 8, 
1844, that the Arch Confraternity was 
solemnly established in the same chapel, the 
most blessed society ever established at Notre 

Slowly, from 1868 until Father Sorin's 
Jubilee, in 1888, the Church of the Sacred 
Heart went on to completion, year by year, 
until its solemn consecration, when it appeared 
to the world as perhaps the most beautiful 
church in America. We need not here again 
describe it. That has been already done in 
these pages, in the article by Professpr Stace, 
and in others. 

We must, however, make room for a touch- 
ing oontrasrt made by Father Sorin between 
the former times and the present, written by 
him at a time when he was considering the 
question as to when the' new church should be 
dedicated : 

**What a consolation will it not be to see 
the dedication of a temple in honor of our 
Blessed Mother on a spot where we well 
remember having seen with our own eyes the 
wigwams and the fires of the Pottawatomies I 

** Truly a change has taken place; we con- 
fess it the more readily, as we claim no praise 
but return all glory to God, to whose hand 
this transformation is due. Neither should 
we be surprised if we only reflected on the 
saintly memories whose extraordinary virtues 
embalmed the very air of Notre Dame when 
the Congregation of the Holy Cross took pos- 
session of her lovely domain. Here is a little 
galaxy of names not often met with in any 
place not celebrated: The venerable proto- 
priest of America, Father Badin, the saintly 
De Seille, the heroic Benjamin Petit, suc- 
ceeded one another here. Here they were 
visited from Bardstown and Vincennes by the 
immortal bishops Flaget and Brut6; here they 

prayed together, as they now continue to do 
in heaven, for blessings on a spot they so 
dearly loved. Scarcely, then, we say, is it a 
wonder to find it blessed. Saintly souls, men 
of God, have passed and lived here, and the 
precious remains of two of them speak yet in 
our midst the eloquent language of the purest 
zeal and most unbounded charity that ever 
prompted and adorned the heart of the Apos- 
tles of Chrisf 

The rear end of the old church, that part 
formerly containing the first great organ, was 
suffered to stand for several years, and was 
enclosed and used by Father Zahm as the first 
science hall, characteristic of the reverend 
scientist himself, who has shown us how 
closely related are science and religion, both 
the work of God himself. 

In time, however, the whole of the old 
church, the scene of so many sacred rites of 
religion, so many pious recollections, so many 
prayers for better life, was all taken down, to 
make larger room for the new church. It was 
with some sadness that the older inmates of 
Notre Dame saw this ancient landmark, this 
place of sacred memories, removed. To them, 
at least, the old had something which the new 
could not supply. Memory of the rugged past 
was to them even more sweet than the joy of 
the splendid present. 

The golden jubilee of Notre Dame should, 
in the regular order of things, have taken 
place on November 26, 1892, fifty years after 
the day that the Very Rev. Edward Sorin and 
his intrepid brethren first stood upon the 
shores of St. Mary's lake. On that day, or 
rather for convenience, on the next day, which 
was Sunday, there was a simple commemora- 
tion of the day by Father Sorin and his 
friends; but his condition was so feeble that 
there was no attempt at a public demonstra- 
tion. After Father Serin's death, in 1893, 
there was a movement to have the jubilee 
celebrated in 1894, on the anniversary of the 
charter and the actual opening of the institu- 
tion, in 1844. The jubilee was not actually 
celebrated until the summer of 1895. For 

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this occasion the History of the Golden Jubi- 
lee was prepared, from which we have taken 
the greater part of the foregoing facts in rela- 
tion to the university. During the twelve 
years that have since passed th^ institution 
has gone on, ** prospering and to prosper.'' 
Perhaps the chief feature which distinguishes 
these years from the period immediately pre- 
ceding is the attention that has been given to 
athletics and to public debates. In both, 
Notre Dame has admirably held her own with 
other collegiate institutions in Indiana and the 
neighboring states. 

m. ST. Mary's academy. 

Sec. 1. — Three Reljoious Societies. — On 
April 24th, 1855, the cornerstone of the first 
building for St. Mary's Academy was blessed 
by the Very Rev. Edward Sorin. In the year 
1905, in commemoration of this event, there 
was published *'A Story of Fifty Years,'' 
being a golden jubilee history of St. Mary's 
Academy and of the Congregation of the Sis- 
ters of the Holy Cross. To the pages of that 
interesting ** Story of Fifty Years," we are 
indebted for the greater part of this sketch. 

Soon after the close of the Napoleonic era 
there was a marked revival of religious zeal 
in France. One result of this revival was the 
organization of various confraternities and 
societies for the promotion of religious instruc- 
tion among the people. Three of such com- 
munities have become of special interest to the 
people of St. Joseph county. About the year 
1820, a few young men desiring to devote their 
lives to the education of youth began to seek 
the guidance of the Rev. James Francis Du- 
jari6, pastor of a church at Ruill6 in the dio- 
cese of Maus, or Le Mans, as it is sometimes 
called. This society, after many vicissitudes 
of fortune, was finally formed into a commun- 
ity known as the Brothers of St. Joseph- 
Father Dujari^ is further known as' the 
founder of the Sisters of Providence, whose 
principal house in this country is at St. 
Mary's of the Woods, near Terre Haute. On 
August 31, 1835, by reason of his age and 

feeble health, Father Dujari6 surrendered nis 
charge of the Brothers of St. Joseph into the 
hands of the bishop of Mans, with the request 
that the Bev. Basil Anthony Moreau be sub- 
stituted in his place, which was done. During 
the preceding year Father Moreau, with the 
approval of the bishop, had gathered around 
him a company of young priests, to aid in the 
preaching of missions to the people. In 1832, 
the zealous superior had received a gift of 
property at a place called Holy Cross, not far 
from the city of Mans. To this place he now 
took his two societies, which were there 
formed into one, called, from the name of the 
place, **The Association of Holy Cross" and 
there, in 1836, was laid the foundation of 
their first institution, the college of Holy 
Cross. Up to this time neither priests nor 
brothers had taken upon themselves any but 
temporary obligations ; but, in the same year, 
1836, one of the brothers. Brother Andre, 
took upon himself the perpetual vows of a 
religious. In 1840, on the morning of August 
15, Father Moreau took the vows, and in the 
afternoon of the same' day four other priests, 
one of whom was the Bev. Edward Sorin, 
joined him in the solemn and perpetual obli- 
gations. The Congregation of Holy Cross, con- 
sisting of the united societies of priests and 
brothers, was thus established on a permanent 

Soon afterwards, Father Moreau and his 
priests and brothers saw the need of a com- 
munity of sisters to aid them in their work; 
and on September 29, 1841, the first members 
of the Sisters of Holy Cross were received. 
To Father Moreau it now seemed, that his 
religious family of priests, brothers, and 
sisters was formed on the model of the holy 
family of Nazareth, Jesus, Mary and Joseph. 
The priests and brothers were ultimately 
united into a single congregation; but the 
sisters, although associated in the work of the 
priests and brothers, have remained a distinct 
society. The name at first given to each of 

o. The Brothers of Holy Cross, by the Rev. 
James J. Trahey. 

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the societies, as we have seen, was the Fathers, 
Brothj&rs and Sisters of Holy Cross, — after 
Holy Cross, the name of the place where the 
first house was located, near Mans. Insensi- 
bly, in the beginning, and afterwards in a 
positive and formal manner, the words **the 
Holy Cross'* were smbstituted for **Holy 
Cross." Holy Cross was simply a place, the 
town where the societies originated ; the Holy 
Cross was the sacred instrument of redemp- 
tion. In America, particularly, where the ob- 
scure hamlet of Holy Cross was quite un- 
known, and where the work of the zealous 
fathers, brothers and sisters was so well 
known and so greatly admired, the need of 
the broader and more expressive term became 
evident. Indeed it was through the action of 
Father Sorin himself that the words **the 
Holy Cross" took the place of **Holy Cross," 
simply. It is of course true that the little 
town of Holy Cross itself (Ste. Croix, in 
French), like many other towns of the same 
name, and in many languages, all over the 
world, received its name from that of the same 
holy symbol ; nevertheless these great religious 
congregations, which originally came out of 
the little town of Holy Cross, are now known 
by the more sacred name of the Holy Cross. 

Sec. 2. — The Sisters at Notre Dame, Mish- 
AWAKA AND Bertrand. — After the priests 
and brothers had been established on the 
banks of St. Mary's lake, at Notre Dame, as 
related in sections two, three and four of 
the second subdivision of this chapter, the 
need of the sisters became more apparent from 
day to day. As stated in section four of that 
subdivision, the first building, erected in the 
winter of 1842-3, was a log church, the upper 
story of which was prepared for the sisters, 
who were expected from France the next 
summer. Four sisters left France on June 
6, 1843, and on their arrival found their home 
in this ** upper room." They at once took 
charge of the sacristy, clothes-room, laundry, 
and dairy. They soon gave to the raw sur- 
roundings an 'air of order and comparative 

comfort, — the blessed influence of woman the 
Vol. n— 7. 

world over. In November a second colony 
arrived; so that the close of the year 1843 
found the Sisters of the Holy Cross well 
established in their backwoods home on the 
banks of St. Mary's lake. 

Father Sorin soon made preparations to 
establish a permanent house for the sisters 
at Notre Dame, where they might receive 
young ladies who might desire to join the 
order and lead a religious life. The Bishop 
of Vincennes, however, opposed the project. 
The Sisters of Providence, founded by the 
Rev. James Francis Dujari^, were now estab- 
lished at St. Mary 's of the Woods, near Terre 
Haute, and the bishop was of opinion that 
one congregation of women was enough for 
the diocese. Father Sorin 's vision was broad- 
er, and he was confident that there was ample 
room for both communities. But he submitted 
to his bishop and gave up for the present the 
idea of establishing a novitiate at Notre Dame 
for the sisters. Among the missions commit- 
ted to the care of the congregation of the 
Holy Cross was that at Bertrand, only six 
miles from Notrfe Dame, but within the state 
of Michigan, and consequently within the dio- 
cese of Detroit. At Bertrand, therefore, he 
made up his mind that he would establish 
the academy and convent. Through the kind- 
ly aid of Archbishop Purcell of Cincinnati, 
a kindness never forgotten at Notre Dame or 
St. Mary's, he finally obtained the needed 
permission of the Bishop of Detroit. On July 
16, 1844, five sisters took up their abode at 
Bertrand, in a house secured for them by 
Joseph Bertrand, after whom the town was 
named. Many devout young ladies now 
joined St. Mary 's at Bertrand. It was a time 
of hardship for those devoted sisters, but also 
a time of joy ; for they were there permitted 
to do the work for which they believed they 
were intended by heaven. In an early chron- 
icle describing this first mother house of the 
Sisters of the Holy Cross, are the simple 
words: **In front of the house there were 
wild roses and sweetbriar." The writer of 
'*A Story of Fifty Years" finds these wild 

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roses and sweetbriar to have been emblemat- 
ical of the joys and sufferings of the strug- 
gling community. They were comforted by 
the weekly visits of Father Sorin, who always 
managed to find time to visit and encourage 
them. The night of November 7, 1847, itf re- 
membered as the occasion when the little vil- 
lage church was broken into, and the sacred 
vessels of the altar carried away by the rob- 
bers. A statue brought from Prance in 1845, 
and still preserved at St. Mary's, is one of 
the precious relics of those old days. The 
story is also told that a little log chapel built 
by theproto-priest, Pather Badin, was moved 
from its place and attached to the convent 
building and used for religious exercises. By 
permission of Bishop Lefevre of Detroit, this 
venerable building was made the chapel of 
the convent. With the growth of the com- 
munity advanced also the school, or academy, 
established at Bertrand. By the year 1850, 
the roll of pupils showed fifty boarders, and 
it was deemed opportune to issue a prospectus 
setting forth the advantages of St. Mary's 
Academy at Bertrand as a desirable school 
for the education of young ladies. The pros- 
pectus states, amongst other things, that a 
daily line of stages from Niles to South Bend 
renders the academy easy of access from all 
parts of the country. In those days, to come 
from Chicago, one had to take a boat across 
the lake to St. Joseph, and travel from there 
to Bertrand by stage. But the stage by land 
and the boat by lake and river were, in truth, 
the easiest means of access to any place " in 
those days. In 1851 the academy received a 
charter from the state of Michigan. 

After the Right Rev. Maurice de St. Palais 
became bishop of Vincennes, January 14, 
1849, there was hope that 'the convent and 
academy might be located nearer to Notre 
Dame, as had been the original design of 
Pather Sorin. The sisters did, indeed, con- 
tinue to conduct domestic affairs at **the 
lake,'' while also caring for their primary and 
industrial school, their convent and academy, 
at Bertrand, and their Indian school across 

the river, at Pokagon's village, and Pather 
Sorin, or some one in his place, did continue 
to come down from Notre Dame, week after 
week, to serve as chaplain for the little com- 
munity. But it was realized that there was 
in this too great a waste of time and labor. 
An attempt was made to establish a house 
at Mishawaka, a town nearer than Bertrand 
to Notre Dame, but although a building was 
erected and a school opened at Mishawaka, the 
location does not seem to have been a desirable 
one. Yet the sisters had many warm friends 
in Mishawaka, and in the reminiscences of 
Mrs. Van Pelt will be found pleasant refer- 
ences to this establishment in Mishawaka.** 

It would seem that yet another trial, some 
greater suffering, were needed, before the des- 
tined locality could be secured. In the sum- 
mer of 1854, as related in a preceding part 
of this chapter,^ the cholera visited the young 
communities and snatched away many of those 
who were so sorely needed. One cause, no 
doubt, of this sickness, was the obstruction 
of the drainage of the lakes to the river. The 
owner of the lands to the west, reaching to 
the river and covering the outlet from the 
lakes, had all along refused either to sell the 
lands or to allow the improvement of the 
drainage. Now, however, his heart seems to 
have been touched, and the community pur- 
chased the lands all the way to the river at a 
very reasonable price. Here was the oppor- 
tunity long sought; the waters of the lakes 
were lowered, and the health of the com- 
munity assured. But an unlooked for treas- 
ure was found also. A reverend father^ 
pointed out that the high grounds over the 
river were admirably suited for the buildings 
and grounds of St. Mary's Academy. All 
seemed in good time. The former opposition 
to the change had long since ceased. The 
severe trials at Bertrand were to be but mem- 
ories of trials that were past; pleasant 
memories, indeed, like those of which Virgil 

a. See Chap. 10, Reminiscences by Mrs. Marion 
B. Van Pelt. 

b. See Sub. 2, Sec. 5, of this chapter. 

c. The Rev. Alexis Granger. 

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speaks, because they were of sufferings he- 
roically borne. 

While the community was yet at Bertrand, 
they received a young lady postulant who 
was destined to take so important a part in 
the future of the congregation as to be re- 
garded as the founder of the new St. Mary's. 
Early in 1853, Mis& Eliza Gillespie, first 
cousin of James Gillespie Blaine, and nearly 
related also to the Ewing and Sherman fami- 
lies of Ohio, called at Notre Dame with her 
mother, on a visit to her brother, Neal H. 
Gillespie, afterwards Father Gillespie, who 
was then a student. • Miss Gillespie was on her 
way to Chicago to join the Sisters of Mercy. 
At Father Sorin's invitation, she spent a few 
days at the convent in Bertrand, where she 
was so much drawn to the heroic life there 
led by the sisters that she felt herself called 
to be a Sispter of the Holy Gross, and so signi- 
fied her intention. She was accordingly re- 
ceived into the congregation as Sister Mary 
of St. Angela, and sent to France to make 
her novitiate. On her return, in February, 
1854, she was placed in charge of the school 
at Bertrand. Under the name of Mother 
Angela she became -a great religious of the 
Sisters of the Holy Cross. 

In May, 1855, the frame buildings at Mish- 
awaka were removed to the new site of the 
convent and academy, on the banks of the St. 
Joseph, and at the close of the school year 
at Bertrand the same course was taken with 
the buildings at that point. All the forces 
of the young congregation were then gathered 
on the banks of the St. Joseph, and on August 
15, 1855, Mother Angela was given charge of 
the new St. Mary's. 

Sec. 3. — ^The Story of Bertrand. — With 
the withdrawal of St. Mary's convent and 
academy, the last hope of Bertrand passed 
away. It seems therefore fitting, in this place, 
to say a word, as if by way of farewell, to 
the good old town, which, though not within 
our borders, had yet so many historical as- 
sociations with the county of St. Joseph. 

The following is the su'bstance of a histori- 

cal sketch, published a few years ago, on the 
occasion of the death of the last prominent 
survivor of the once ambitious and prosper- 
ous town :* 

**The death of 'Squire Higbee, the oldest 
resident of old Bertrand town and perhaps 
the oldest postmaster in the United States, 
has served to direct attention to the deserted 
village. The inhabitants of this once thriving 
French town have long since been dust, many 
of its streets have been given to the plow, 
houses have yielded to the corroding tooth of 
time or been hauled to other sites. In the 
weather-beaten houses that shelter the few 
simple people we see today the panorama of 
an earlier civilization. A tumbling church, 
guarded on all sides by many graves, an an- 
cient hostelry, the wing of an old convent, the 
tottering houses, — that is all that remains of 
what was once the scene of life and human 
activity. The following well vouched-f or facts 
were related by the oldest inhabitant of the 
village, Mr. Higbee, and set forth in brief the 
history of old Bertrajnd. 

* * In 1812 Joseph Bertrand established a trad- 
ing post on the site of the village which took 
his name. With true French thrift, Bertrand 
traded everything to the Indians which sav- 
age tastes could covet and received from them 
in turn the commodities of which they had a 
surfeit. He also acquired real estate. His 
first coup d' etat was, however, to take a Pot- 
tawatomie woman for a wife. Mrs. Bertrand, 
so far as can be ascertained, was an exem- 
plary woman, but, although she became a con- 
vert to the religion of the black robes, she 
always wore her native dress in order, it is 
said, to retain more securely her rights as an 
heiress of the soil. 

**The St. Joseph river was not always the 
law-abiding and conservative stream which we 
are wont to consider it, for Mr. Higbee has 
declared, on the word of Joseph Bertrand 
himself, that the original house of the trader 

a. From F. D. C, In the Gassopolis Democrat, 
Michigan; as republished, February 8, 1902, In 
the South Bend Times. 

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stood in what is now the channel. This house 
was made of logs, brought from the old mis- 
sion church at Fort St. Joseph's, ^ short dis- 
tance below. This church was the only build- 
ing to escape injury at the time of the de- 
struction of the fort by the Spaniards in 
1781. Bertrand afterwards lived at the foot 
of Main street, the busiest spot in town. A 
large tavern for the needs of the steamboat- 
ing public also adorned the bank and seems 
to have been a creditable and somewhat re- 
nowned hostelry. When the town went into 
innocuous desuetude, an attempt was made to 
remove the tavern to Berrien Springs. It was 
started down the stream in sections and the 
major part arrived in safety. This tavern 
at Berrien Springs became known as the 
Oronoka hotel. 

**At last the time came when the relentless 
power of the Anglo-Saxon said to each red 
dweller of the Pare aux Vaches, *Go west, 
young man. ' According to the terms of the 
treaty supplementary to the Chicago treaty 
of 1833, the Michigan Pottawatomies ex- 
changed their lands in the lower peninsula 
for broad Kansas acres and left for their new 
home. And then began Bertrand 's boom. 
The Bertrand association was organized with 
Daniel Guernsey in charge and a town lot 
was given to every citizen who agreed to im- 
prove it. Nine hundred acres of land were 
laid out with wide streets intersecting each 
other at regular intervals. In 1836 town lots 
in desirable localities brought $200. Shoppers 
from Niles went on horseback to buy their 
supplies at the well-stocked shops of the smart 
French town. People came up the river and 
down the river for the same purpose. The 
streets swarmed with Indians, traders, cour- 
eurs des bois, with a considerable sprinkling 
of citizens who spoke United States, the ver- 
nacular of what was then the frontier. 

** Business blocks arose on every hand. 
There were nearly as many of what Ameri- 
cans called ^stores' as there are in Niles to- 
day. Other taverns sprang up. Mr. Iligbee 
gave a grand ball to his guests in the upper 

room of the house which the family still oc- 
cupies, and paid a negro cook from South 
,Bend eleven dollars to superintend the ban- 
queting annex. The belles of the vicinity had 
no lack of the finery wherewith to convey 
dismay to each others' hearts and capture 
those of the sturdy young settlers with whom 
they danced the Virginia reel or money musk, 
for there were seven or eight stores in Ber- 
trand where dry goods were the principal sta- 

* * Bertrand was the mecca of many on pleas- 
ure bent, and the tavern, which is today the 
chief building in sight, was the scene of much 
revelry. Wedding parties from South Bend 
found it at a convenient distance, and Mrs. 
Egbert, of South Bend, is fond of relating 
that she went to Bertrand on her bridal tour. 
Schuyler Colfax accompanied the party. 

**But amid all the bustle attendant upon 
the formation and management of the grow- 
ing town, the needs of the soul were not for- 
gotten, and almost coincident with the first 
symptoms of prosperity, a log church arose 
in the forest, dedicated to the good Saint 
Joseph, whose name has ever, within the mem- 
ory of white men, had so large a share in the 
nomenclature of this region. In 1830, Father 
Badin, the famous missionary, took charge of 
this with other missions in Michigan and In- 

*'In 1832, Father Louis de Seille left Bel- 
gium and a high civilization to become a mis- 
sionary in the new world. He was young, 
gifted, and endowed with the lofty enthusiasm 
which made the priest a conspicuous figure in 
the development of New Prance. Indiana, 
Michigan and Illinois comprised his spiritual 
domain, and the five Pottawatomie villages 
near the Pare aux Vaches were the subject of 
his special care. After the death of Father de 
Seille the people of Bertrand were under the 
spiritual charge of Father Benjamin Petit, 
until the arrival of Father Sorin and his band 
of consecrated associates in 1842. 

**In 1836 the brick church, now quietly 
dropping to pieces amid the graves, succeeded 

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the humble log building. Its erection was 
largely a labor of love. From the clay banks 
near by came the material for the outside 
walls. The woodwork was hewn and wrought 
after the solid and enduring fashion of the 
period. The style of architecture can scarcely 
be given a name, but there was a shadow of 
a gothic spirit lurking somewhere in the mind 
of the designer, and the windows, six below 
and four in the belfry, have pointed arches. 
The bell tower was the foundation upon which 
a spire, surmoimted by a cross, was some day 
to rest. But, alas ! the downfall of Bertrand 
began too soon. There was never a spire, 
except in imagination. There was a bell, how- 
ever, the gift of Father Sorin, which now 
reposes, safe from rust and vandalism, in the 
museum at Notre Dame. In due time the in- 
terior received gifts for its adorning, Mrs. 
Gen. Sherman furnishing the altar candle- 
sticks and various other articles essential in 
the church ofl5ces. The inscriptions upon the 
stations of the cross were in the French 
language, placed upon the waUs when that 
was the vernacular of the region. 

**The first trustees of St. Joseph's parish 
were Joseph Bertrand, Jr., Benjamin Ber- 
trand and Edward Anthony. The first re- 
corded baptism took place May 13, 1843. 
Priests from Notre Dame attended to the par- 
ish duties from the year 1842. In July, 1844, 
the sisters were first established in the town, 
occupying a house secured for them by Mr. 
Bertrand. Their chapel was blessed in June, 
1849, and in January, 1851, the academy was 

**The experiences of the Sisters of the Holy 
Cross at Bertrand were varied. The com- 
munity was poor and frugality the rule. It 
is said that Father Sorin and Father Cointet 
had but one hat between them, and so never 
walked out together. All that survives of 
St. Mary's convent and academy is one yellow 
brick wing, now a dwelling. The larger 
wooden buildings long ago crossed the Indiana 
line and after serving as temporary quarters 

at the new St. Mary's yielded to the 'tooth 
of time and refuse of oblivion.' " 

Sec. 4. — ^At the New St. Mary's. — Twen- 
ty-five sisters removed from Bertrand to St. 
Mary's when the new site was first occupied, 
in August, 1855. While at Bertrand, not- 
withstanding the need of sisters at the mother 
house, to carry on the work there and at 
Pokagon, Notre Dame and Mishawaka, there 
was yet found means to lay the foundations 
of many other establishments. Of these the 
only ones that have survived are the schools 
at South Bend (Lowell), Laporte and Michi- 
gan City. How few and weak as compared 
with the academies, schools and hospitals since 
established throughout so many states of the 
Union! Coming into Indiana, a new charter 
was necessary, and this was at once procured 
from the legislature through the kind oflSces 
of the Hon. Thomas S. Stanfield, who re- 
mained until his death the steadfast friend 
of Notre Dame and St. Mary's. 

In 1859 the beautiful house of Loreto, con- 
structed after measurements and plans 
brought from Italy by Father Gillespie, was 
built near the edge of the fine bluff rising 
over the river in the rear of the convent and 
academy. The institution had so far pros- 
pered by the year 1862, that in that year the 
first brick building was constructed, long 
known as the main building. In 1865 the hall 
was built, and during the ten years then com- 
pleted the groimds had already taken upon 
them that beauty and grace that have ever 
since characterized fair St. Mary's. During 
the same period the commimity more than 
doubled in numbers. 

It was during this period also, in the year 
1857, that Notre Dame and St. Mary's were 
made happy by a visit from the Very Rev. 
Basil Anthony Moreau, founder and superior 
general of the Congregation of the Holy Cross. 
The impressions made upon his mind by the 
beauty of St. Mary's are disclosed in the 
following extract from a letter written by 
him on shipboard, while on his return to 
France : 

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**The benedictions of heaven/' says Father 
Moreau, **are too abundant not to acknowl- 
edge the protection of the august Patroness 
of the society of the Sisters, and to honor 
whom the good superior of the academy at 
St. Mary's [Mother Angela] prepared a beau- 
tiful ceremony, the remembrance of which will 
never leave me. It was on the evening of 
September the eighth that I was witness to 
a majestic procession composed of all the 
religious and the stu.dents, each bearing a wax 
candle like a starry light; numerous arches 
ornamented wit'h taste and glittering with 
lights spanned our way, and at the end of 
a long avenue, on a little mound overhung 
by a tall tree, an altar had been erected and 
decorated to receive the statue of the Blessed 
Virgin, which was carried in state by the 
white-veiled young girls. While the proces- 
sion moved through the dusk, hymns were 
chanted. Prom this station we went along 
a path lighted by tapers to a beautiful island, 
which was blessed and consecrated to the im- 
maculate Virgin." 

What processions and sacred pageants be- 
came in later years at St. Mary's, we see in 
these lines from the pen of the sweet poet, 
Eliza Allen Starr: 

**And the processions at St. Mary's — those 
marking the Rogation days. Corpus Christi, 
the feast of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart — 
so unique in their beauty, so unrivalled in 
their picturesque surroundings ! Whatever 
might be their grandeur at Notre Dame, there 
was a tranquillity peculiar to St. Mary's, as 
the procession on Rogation days passed under 
the old blossoming boughs of ^he orchard, on 
its way to the shrine of Our Lady of Peace, 
in the freshness of the spring mornings; or, 
for Corpus Christi, or Our Lady of the Sacred 
Heart, just at the close of the day, when the 
candles in the hands of the sisters and pupils 
made a line of blessed light along the wind- 
ing banks of the St. Joseph river, pausing 
at Our Lady of Mount Carmel ; her arbor 
overhanging the edge of the wooded bank, 
and the *coo' of the mourning doves nested 

among the firs coming like touches of pathos 
in the songs of praise; then, to turn into 
the garden walks to Trinity Arbor, overrun 
with the blossoming trumpet-vines, their flow- 
ers darting out like tongues of flame! No 
pupil at St. Mary's can ever forget those pro- 
cessions, and no sister will ever forget how 
faithfully the beautiful ceremonial was al- 
ways observed and forwarded by the beloved 
founder of Notre Dame and St. Mary's. In 
this way an aesthetic education, in its most 
exalted sense, has been given to every one 
so happy as to linger among those delightful 
groves and shaded ways." 

Indeed, in. all lines of the training given' 
at St. Mary's in the early days, is seen a fore- 
cast of the years to come. Mother Angela 
was, in a sense, ahead of her time in matters 
pertaining to the education of young women, 
and long before the days of ** higher educa- 
tion," she had outlined a plan of studies for 
St. Mary's teaching body that had as an end 
the highest and best in mental and moral 
training. To the first ten years must we 
trace also the beginning of the reputation for 
excellence in the art of music which St. 
Mary's enjoys. Even in the Bertrand days 
this gift of music was manifest, and drew 
to the institution numerous pupils who in 
turn made the musical department famous. 
The records of those early days are most in- 
teresting also to those who see in the past 
the promise of today, and, viewed in such a 
light, there is a significance in reports of 
commencement exercises, when, in drama- 
form, arranged especially for the occasion, 
Fabiola, Marie Antoinette and Blanche of 
Castile won laurels for the fair portrayers of 
those historical characters. 

So were the foundations of St. Mary's wise- 
ly laid, under the wise, kindly and firm guid- 
ance of Mother Angela, aided as she was at 
all times by the counsels of Father Sorin. 
The plans having been perfected and the sys- 
tem adopted, it was but a matter of growth 
and development until the congregation and 
the academy became what we know them to- 

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day. It is not too much to say that St. Mary's 
is the flower and glory of all the institutions 
in the west for the education of young women. 
Here the practical and substantial in educa- 
tion is most happily combined with all that 
is fair and lovely, and the maiden goes forth 
from these blessed halls, these delightful sur- 
roundings, trained in body and mind and 
soul, a perfect woman as God designed her 
to be. 

Sec. 5. — In the War fob the Union. — A 
distinguishing feature of the character and 
policy of Notre Dame and St. Mary's was a 
disposition at all times to adapt their con- 
duct to their surroundings and to the needs 
of the times. We have seen, in the history 
of Notre Dame, how strong was the patriotic 
impulse in Father Sorin. America was his 
country, and in the training of the student 
of the university the lessons of patriotism 
were as unceasingly inculcated as were those 
of science, literature and the arts. At St. 
Mary's the love of country was equally warm, 
as indeed it must be when we consider how 
close were the ties that bound Mother Angela 
to many of the families that were devoting 
their talents and even their lives to the cause 
of the Union. But the love of country was 
more than what could arise from ties of blood 
or mere human interest of any kind. It was 
a great principle. In every well ordered hu- 
man soul, in every institution that aims to 
develop all that is best in human thought and 
conduct, there must be deeply implanted the 
love of Qod and the love of country. Re- 
ligion and patriotism must form the ground- 
work of character in every well educated citi- 
zen, whether man or woman. 

Accordingly, in the first year of the war, 
to the sentiment of pity for the suffering, to 
the charity that inflamed the heart in con- 
sidering' the hapless condition of the 
wounded, sick and dying soldiers, was also 
added the fervor of patriotism for the coun- 
try that was passing through such an awful 
period of trial and danger. And when, at 
the suggestion of Gteneral Lew Wallace, Gov- 

ernor Oliver P. Morton requested the aid of 
Sisters of the Holy Cross in the southern 
hospitals, the timid at once became brave and 
went forth, led by Mother Angela, to take 
their places in the military hospitals at Wash- 
ington, Memphis, Paducah, Louisville, Cairo 
and Mound City, as well as on the hospital 
boats that bore the suffering soldiers from the 
fields of strife to where they might receive 
medical attention and ttte care which they 
needed. The first band arrived at Cairo on 
October 24, 1861, where they were presented 
to Grant, before proceeding to take charge 
of the hospital at Paducah. From this date 
until the close of the war, the war records 
show that nearly fourscore Sisters of the Holy 
Cross devoted themselves as army nurses to 
the care of the stricken soldiers. The Grand 
Army of the Republic has recently remem- 
bered with bronze medals the little band of 
survivors of those heroic nurses. In the 
peaceful campus before the doors of St. 
Mary's Academy are placed several broken 
cannon captured from the Confederates and 
presented to Mother Angela in memory of the 
services of the sisters. It was her intention 
to have this broken metal cast into a statue 
to be dedicated to Our Lady of Peace. Her 
death came before the beautiful idea could 
be carried into execution ; but the fragments 
of those old guns remain as reminders at the 
same time of the dreadful civil war and of 
the heroism of the good women, the angels 
in human form, who strove to assuage some 
of its horrors. 

Sec. 6. — Days op Peace and Growth. — 
The formative period, the time of struggle 
and suffering, closely followed as it was by 
the war period, has been succeeded by days 
of peace, growth and development. Until her 
death in 1887, Mother Angela continued to 
take part in this happy progress, as also did 
Father Sorin until his death six years later. 
In the providence of God, the institution 
to which they had given so much of their 
lives was secure in its establishment and in 

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the carrying out of the d-esigns of its blessed 

In 1869 the Sisters of the Holy Cross in 
America were recognized at Home as a dis- 
tinct order, with St. Mary's as the mother 
house. Father Sorin continued for a time as 
the general superior; but finally the congre- 
gation was placed under care of the bishop 
of the diocese. 

The number of sisters has grown to about 
one thousand, who have charge of educational 
and charitable institutions in many parts of 
the United States, all subject to the mother 
house at St. Mary's. Fifteen of these insti- 
tutions are in Indiana; included with them 
are two complete modem hospitals, one at 
South Bend and one at Anderson. There 
are six houses in Illinois, among them St- 
Angela's Academy at Morris. Mount Carmel 
Hospital, at Columbus, Ohio, is under charge 
of the sisters. In the east, there are several 
schools at Baltimore, an orphsm asylum at 

Washington, two academies and several 
schools in Washington, and one academy at 
Alexandria; three schools in Pennsylvania; 
one in New York, two schools in Texas, one 
in Iowa, eight institutions in Utah, including 
an academy and a hospital in Salt Lake City 
and an academy in Ogden, all of the highest 
standards ; an academy, school and a hospital 
in Idaho, and three schools in Cidifomia. 

The mother house, at St. Mary's, has de- 
veloped in a wonderful manner, and now 
embraces not only the convent and academy, 
but also a higher or collegiate department, in 
which a full college course is pursued, such 
as is followed only in the highest educational 
institutions for women. 

The buildings are all located on the fine 
bluflf overlooking the beautiful St. Joseph. 
They comprise the chapel, the collegiate hall, 
the academy, the conservatory of music, the 
gymnasium and the infirmary. 

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In one form or another, there has been in 
St. Joseph county a persistent movement 
against the liquor traffic, ever since the or- 
ganization of the county. On the first day 
of January, 1832, the first temperance so- 
ciety was organized in South Bend. Horatio 
Chapin was president of this society. In 
1834 a similar society was organized in Mish- 
awaka. In the same year there was much 
feeling caused in Mishawaka by the estab- 
lidmient of a saloon just outside the cor- 
poration limits, by one Nichols. 

In the early forties this opposition to the 
liquor traffic took the form of what was called 
the Washingtonian) Movement. This move- 
ment at one time had a considerable follow- 
ing, many persons throughout the county 
signing the pledge. The Washingtonians 
were particularly active in South Bend and 
Mishawaka. Among the leaders were : Thom- 
as P. and William P. Bulla, John Brownfield, 
Schuyler Colfax, Johnson Horrell, James 
Davis and S. P. Hart. A Mr. Littlejohn, a 
somewhat eccentric character of the day, did 
very much to keep up the agitation. 

Later, the Sons of Temperance were or- 
ganized and made quite a stir in the com- 
munity, and they also secured many total 
abstinence pledges. 

At a still later day Mrs. Emma P. MoUoy 
led a very aggressive temperance movement. 
She was an exceedingly earnest and eloquent 
pleader in the cause, and many a^ormer 
heavy drinker took the little blue ribbon from 

her hands and proudly wore it as the emblem 
of a renewed life. 

It was about the year 1872 that the Cru- 
sade Movement first set in, and in time spread 
like wildfire over the whole country. Messrs. 
Hughes and Ward were among the most ac- 
tive and successful of the Crusaders. 

In the early eighties the Prohibition party 
movement was started, and has continued, 
with varying interest, to the present day. 
Notwithstanding the fact that the party has 
never been able to elect a candidate, except 
in a few cases with the aid of one of the 
great political parties ; yet a Prohibition tick- 
et has been put forward in every campaign, 
and the interest has never abated. In this 
respect the party has frequently been com- 
pared to the Abolition party, and the Prohi- 
bitionists have used the illustration in con- 
tending that the people would yet rally to 
their standard, as they did in the end to that 
of the abolitionists. Among those who took 
part in the early prohibition movement were: 
Charles L. Murray, Mason N. Walworth, 
Elisha Sumption, John C. Birdsell, Almond 
Bugbee, and, later, Noah Shupert, Orlando 
Wheelock, William D. Bulla, Abraham Himt- 
singer, P. C. and P. J. Perkins, Thomas C. 
Barnes, William H. Shontz, Benjamin P. 
West, D. W. Reynolds, William Maurer, Isaac 
N. Scoffem, Burton R. Thomas, Charles P. 
Holler and others. Mr. Birdsell was elected 
water works trustee for the city of South 
Bend in 1885, And served for three years. 
His election resulted from his own eminent 


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fitness for the office, and from his endorse- 
ment by the Democratic party. Mr. Holler 
is perhaps more widely known than any other 
present member of the party, for the reason 
that he is an eloquent advocate of its princi- 
ples and has received many of its nomina- 
tions for political office. He has been a candi- 
date on the Prohibition state ticket for clerk 
of the supreme court . and attorney general, 
and is frequently spoken of as the probable 
candidate of the party for vice-president of 
the United States in 1908. 

Not the least of the sources from which a 
strong temperance sentiment has grown dur- 
ing the last years is the following notice in 
the daily press of South Bend, coming from 
the president of the University of Notre 
Dame, and first issued by the distinguished 
Thomas E. Walsh: **I will prosecute to the 
utmost extent of the law all persons guilty 
of selling or giving liquor to the students of 
this institution." The force of this notice 
was seen in the fact that the president of the 
university did prosecute, and it soon became 
apparent that the notice was no idle threat. 
Father Walsh was a man who did things, not 
one who simply threatened to do them. 

The organization of the Woman's Christian 
Temperance Union followed as a result of the 
Crusade Movement of 1873. Some of the 
leaders of the W. C. T. U. were: Mrs. F. 
R. Tutt, Mrs. Z. M. Doolittle, Mrs. Christian 
Foote, Mrs. Z. M. Johnson, Mrs. Martha Al- 
ward, Mrs. Mary E. Giddings, Mrs. Lydia A. 
Chord, Mrs. Eliza Murdock, Mrs. Mary John- 
son, Mrs. Julia E. Work, Mrs. Helen Simkins, 
Mrs. Lucy Towle, Mrs. Sarah Gaylor, Mrs. 
H. L. Rowell. Members of later prominence 
are : Mrs. Mary Andrews, Mrs. Ellen Baxter, 
Mrs. Mary P. Bugbee, Mrs. A. W. Lee, Mrs. 
John C. Paxon, Mrs. S. P. Barker and others. 
Mrs. Bugbee gave the beautiful fountain in 

Leeper Park, to be cared for by the W. C 
T. U. of St. Joseph county, in memory of 
her husband, Almond Bugbee, who was an 
honorary member of the society. 

Those now prominently identified with the 
work of the W. C. T. U. are : Mrs. Christian 
Fassnacht, Mrs. Alfaratta Cotton, Mrs. F. L. 
Axtell, Mrs. Kathryn Wert Holler and Mrs. 
Ethel Baer. Mrs. Holler has filled almost 
every position in the local organization, and 
has for many years been state superintendent 
of the department of Sabbath observance and 
also associate national superintendent of the 
same department. There are now in the 
county six unions, with a total membership 
of something over one hundred. Some of the 
visible results of the work of the union are 
the founding of the Children's Orphans' 
Home, at Mishawaka, in 1882, of which men- 
tion has already been made in connection 
with that institution ; the passage of the cur- 
few ordinance by the common eoimcil of the 
city of South Bend; the aid given for many 
years to the Hadley School for Girls, at 
Indianapolis; and also the furnishing of a 
room at the Temperance Hospital in Chicago. 

In the early part of the year 1901 the Pro- 
hibition Alliance was organized in South 
Bend, as an auxiliary to the naticmal Prohibi- 
tion, party. This alliance has held meetings 
regularly every two weeks since that time. 

The work of the Anti-Saloon League has 
been very effective in this county. This or- 
ganization is a so-called federation of 
churches, but is in fact a general movement 
on the part of the people at large, under 
the leadership of a state executive committee 
known as the State Anti-Saloon League, with 
headquarters at Indianapolis. This state 
league is itself auxiliary to the national 
league of the same name. 

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St. Joseph county had the military spirit 
from the beginning. Indeed the first settlers 
oame in with their arms in readiness, as if 
prepared to meet in deadly conflict with the 
wild denizens of the woods and the prairi* s, 
whether man or beast. As we have se^oi, 
there were numerous settlers in the coa'xty 
before the Indian title to the soil, in our 
distinct treaties, was finally extinguished and 
it was still later before the last of the fotta- 
watomies left for their new homes beyo> d the 
Mississippi. The soldierly instinct was im- 
planted in the heart of the emigrant, or he 
would not have left his safer home in the 
south and the east, or in some foreign land, 
to come into the far off wilderness; and the 
same spirit was nurtured in his breast in his 
daily life after coming here. Even to go out 
to clear a spot of ground to plant his first 
crop, it was necessary to leave wife and chil- 
dren in the little log house where he must 
be prepared to run to their protection at the 
first indication of danger. Yet, as for genu- 
ine war, there never was any in St. Joseph 
county, or anywhere near it. The clash of 
arms never resounded in any part of the St. 
Joseph country since that winter day, in 
1781, when the Spaniards from St. Louis took 
and destroyed old Fort St. Joseph's. 


Sec. 1. — St. Joseph County Troops and 
Forts. — However, in the year 1832, our 
brave ancestors believed for a time that they 
were to have a real Indian uprising. Chief 

Black Hawk and his red hordes from the 
northwest were to come upon the frontier set- 
tlements and spare neither man, woman nor 
child. And the fear was real, however 
unfounded it may appear today. The re- 
ports of impending destruction crowded upon 
one another with the coming of every hunter 
and traveler from the west. Even the gov- 
ernors of the states became alarmed and hur- 
riedly called out the militia. Abraham Lin- 
coln in this way became a captain, and cap- 
tains and colonels survived the threatened war 
in every town and hamlet throughout the 
northwest. In St. Joseph county we have 
traditions handed down of no less than three 
forts, or stockades, conaitructed, or rather be- 
gun, in different parts of the county. One 
of those fortifications was under way near 
the site of our present stand pipe ; there was 
another undertaken near Mount Pleasant, on 
Portage Prairie; and a third near Hamilton, 
on Terre Coupee Prairie. Black Hawk was 
to rush down upon us from the west ; but we 
were to be ready for him, with one fort after 
another. The forts, so far as constructed, 
were made of split logs standing close to- 
gether, on^ end sunk in the ground and the 
other extending far enough above so that the 
top would be far higher than the head of 
any Indian who might try to look over, and 
thus perhaps spy out the weakness of the 
defense, or maybe leap over and scalp the 
men, women and children who should be gath- 
ered inside. Besides the forts and their gar- 
risons, there was a full regiment organized 


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for the defense of the settlements. Lathrop 
Mmor Taylor* was chosen colonel, and Col. 
Taylor he remained to the end of his days. 
Francis R. Tutt was made lieutenant colonel, 
and Dr. Hardman, major. 

While the fear of the people can readily be 
accounted for, and was indeed natural enough 
under the circumstances; yet never was a 
scare story woven out of more slender cob- 
webs. The white man, as usual, was the 
aggressor. Black Hawk and his people were 
located on the Wisconsin side of the Missis- 
sippi, where they had planted their little corn 
fields, in the spring of 1832. It was their 
own home, where their children had been born 
and where their ancestors were buried. They 
did not wish to leave the land which was so 
dear to them; and so when they received 
orders to cross to the west side of the river, 
they refused, and continued to cultivate their 
patches 'of com ground. Like our own white 
settlers in the valley of the St. Joseph and 
the Kankakee, the Indians under Black Hawk 
took up their arms and built their forts to 
protect their homes. Drake, in his history 
of the North American Indians, tells us the 
story of the Black Hawk war in a very few 
words :* 

Whites attempted to drive Indians across 
the Mississippi. Black Hawk and his bands 
refused to give up their villages and com 
grounds. May 14, 1832, a force under Black 
Hawk was attacked on Sycamore Creek, near 
Rock River, Wisconsin. The whites were 
defeated, and the great Black Hawk war was 
on. The war continued until August 27, 
when the Indians having been beaten Black 
Hawk' was made prisoner. It was the affair 
at Sycamore Creek that catised alarm all over 
the western country. 

gee. 2. — Thomas S. Stanpielj)'s Reminis- 
cences. — The story of the Black Hawk scare 
in St. Joseph county, half humorous, half 
serious, was never better told than by Judge 
Stanfield; nor was there any one better able 
than he to tell the story, from personal knowl- 

a. Drake's Indians of North America, Chapter 9. 

edge of the circumstances. Thomas Stilwell 
Stanfield, like the Defrees family, was of Ten- 
nessee and Virginia ancestry ; and, like them, 
too, he came to us from Ohio, where he was 
born, in Logan county, October 17, 1816. He 
moved ^4th his family to the St. Joseph coun- 
try in the fall of 1830. During the next April 
they attempted a settlement on Harris prairie ; 
but not having means sufficient to enter 
eighty acres of land, they were compelled, in 
June, 1831, to come on to South Bend, where 
Thomas S. Stanfield was destined to become 
one of the most eminent of our citizens, and 
where he continued to reside until his death, 
September 12, 1885. The St. Joseph county 
Black Hawk story, as told by Judge Stanfield, 
is as follows:* 

The great event in this locality in 1832, was 
the Black Hawk war. One morning John De- 
frees came into our house and told us that the 
Indians had broken out into open hostility 
against the frontier people way beyond us. 
This was the first we had heard of it. It was 
not long, however, before fugitives from the 
west came dashing through pell-mell, as if 
they expected every instant to hear the dread 
war-whoop of Black Hawk behind them. 
Many of them were so frightened they hardly 
took time to take up their women and children 
before starting, and went sailing through 
South Bend without stopping to inform us of 
our danger. Others had come so far and fast 
they were compelled to stop and feed and rest 
their horses, and while so employed embraced 
the opportunity to circulate the most frightful 
stories of savage brutality perpetrated by 
Black Hawk and his followers upon the unof- 
fending and unprotected inhabitants just 
beyond where the fugritives came from. The 
continuance of this flight and its increase in 
volume, together with the enlarged area of 
Indian hostilities, and the apprehension that 
the Pottawatomies, who then more than 
equalled the white population of this county, 
might be in sympathy with the warring tribes 
under Black Hawk, began to alarm a great 
many people in our locality, especially people 
not familiar with frontier life. 

Different localities immediately organized, 
drilled military companies, and built forts for 

a. Taken from Chapman's History of St. Joseph 
County, 1880, p. 449. 

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their protection. The people on Portage 
Prairie and vicinity were among the first to 
built a block house. It was situated on old 
Daniel Miller's farm. It was understood 
here, in South Bend, to be occupied by va mili- 
tary force, and was regarded as an advance 
guard that would have to be overcome before 
the enemy would reach us. It was understood 
there was a night picket guard kept up around 
the block house, so that we need not appre- 
hend a night surprise from the enemy. Many 
people reposed in confident slumbers, believ- 
ing that the lives of themselves and little ones 
were protected by the watchful diligence of 
the night guard. On one occasion when the 
excitement was up to the highest pitch, the 
guard was set at proper distance and duly 
cautioned as to their responsibilities, and what 
their country expected of them. Among the 
rest was an old fellow who had lived on the 
frontier all his life, and knew about what 
reliance was to be placed in such rumors ; and 
having no fear of the Indians, and believing 
the whole thing so far as there being any dan- 
ger to the people of this part of the country 
a childish fear of the Indians, with such feel- 
ings he took his station as a watchman for the 
night. After the night began to wear away 
he got sleepy, and entertaining the opinion he 
did of the whole performance, it was an easy 
matter to give way to his drowsy feelings ; so 
he stood his gun up against a tree, and quietly 
laid himself down and went to sleep, and was 
soon oblivious to all danger from the toma- 
hawk and scalping-knife of the redskins. At 
the proper time an officer in charge of the 
picket-guard passed around to see that all 
were in the strict discharge of their duty, 
when to his great astonishment and great dis- 
gust he found this man not only asleep on 
his post, but actually snoring away as uncon- 
scious of danger as if Black Hawk and his 
followers were in a similar condition in the 
bottom of Lake Michigan. This was a fearful 
breach of military law, a reckless disregard 
of human life,- a capital offense. Such a wil- 
ful disregard of duty could not be overlooked. 
It must be punished, or all military subordina- 
tion would be at an end. Without enforcing 
strict -military discipline no efficient defense 
could be expected, and all would be Inevitably 
test With aU these thoughts flitting through 
the mind of the officer, he indignantly and in 
no gentle manner aroused the unconscious 
sleeper into a realizing sense of the enormity 
of his crime, and in an unceremonious manner 

marched him off to the guard-house, duly ad- 
monishing him of his impending fate. It is 
easier to imagine than to describe what must 
have been the feelings of this poor, thought- 
less soldier while waiting in the guard-house 
to hear his doom announced. 

When the officers assembled in the block 
house in the morning, his case was reported 
in all its naked deformity. They all felt it 
was a grievous thing to inflict the extreme 
penalty of the law, but duty was their impera- 
tive master, and they were not the men to 
shirk duty. So with one voice it was declared 
that the delinquent should be shot. It was 
a painful duty, but it must be done. Before 
this resolution could be carried out, it occur- 
red to some of them that it was unlawful to 
put a man to death without a trial — that there 
must be a judgment or sentence pronounced 
by a competent court, or the taking off would 
be murder. Then they were all in a quandary. 
Who were to compose such a court? How 
was it to be organized? Did it have a jury! 
Were they to be selected from soldiers or citi- 
zens? Was the criminal entitled to be pres- 
ent by himself and counsel? Was the trial 
to be public or secret? All these questions 
were discussed. They searched the revised 
statutes and consulted an ex-justice of the 
peace, but no light was thrown on the vexed 
question. It had never been revealed to them 
that there was such a thing as a written mili- 
tary code, and they were all left in the dark 
and perplexed as to what they should do, and 
in that condition of mind concluded it would 
be best to let the poor culprit go than to run 
the risk of putting a man to death without 
due process of law. So the victim was per- 
mitted to enjoy a whole hide for many years 
afterwards, and to die a natural death. I 
will not swear this story is all true, but it 
is in substance as it was reported at the time ; 
and as it took place so long ago, I do not 
believe it can be disproved, and therefore I 
have recorded it as veritable history. My own 
personal observations were more strictly con- 
fined to South Bend and its immediate neigh- 
borhood. It could hardly be expected that one 
could note and remember all the military 
operations in a distant field like that around 
the block house on Portage Prairie, and recall 
them after the lapse of forty-nine years. 

Colonel Hiram Dayton was quite a noted 
man of that period. He lived where Adam S. 
Baker now resides.® He was not only willing 
a. On South Michigan Street 

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to sacrifice all his wife's relations upon the 
altar of his country, but was willing to sacri- 
fice himself. In our present peril he volun- 
teered to lead a company against the enemy. 
He beat up for volunteers, and the fighting 
men soon flocked to his standard. A company 
was immediately organized. The captain 
drilled his men until he was satisfied with 
their proficiency, and then dismissed them 
with his compliments to meet again at one 
minute -s call. Hence they were called minute 
men. Allow me to whisper in your ear that 
I was one of that Spartan band. Still the 
people were not satisfied that all had been 
done for their protection that ought to be 
done. No one doubted the courage or skill 
of Captain Dayton and his company ; but not 
long could such a short wall of flesh stand 
against the concentrated forces of the enemy 
under Black Hawk. It was a question of 
too much importance to be postponed or 
trifled with. A large majority insisted on 
building a fort. They said other exposed 
places were protecting themselves in this way, 
and we must also. So it was agreed on all 
hands that a fort should be built. At first 
there was some difficulty about its location. 
But after consulting the best military experi- 
ence it was concluded to occupy that triangu- 
lar piece of ground bounded by Jefferson 
street on the south, St. Joseph on the west and 
Pearl* on the northeast. Some objected to 
this location because they said the Indians 
might conceal themselves in the brush un- 
der the hill just above where Mues- 
sel's old brewery now stands,^ and slip up at 
night and cut off the picket-guard; but their 
criticisms were disregarded, and we went on 
with the construction of the fort in good 
earnest on the location described. The ground 
was to be enclosed by a wall of timbers made 
of split logs or puncheons, to be set in the 
ground three feet deep and rising above nine 
or ten feet. This wall was to be pierced at 
proper places with port-holes to fire from. I 
cannot for the life of me recall the name of 
the military engineer who designed the fort. 
I have no recollection of seeing Captain Day- 
ton there. It was before Lathrop M. Taylor 
had been elevated to the colonelcy of the 
seventy-ninth regiment, or Francis R. Tutt to 
the lieutenant colonelcy of the same ; nor had 
Dr. Hardman yet become major of that regi- 

a. Now Vistula Avenue. 

h. The bluff over the waterworks, where the 
stand pipe is erected. 

ment. Indeed it is very doubtful whether 
that regiment had been organized; and it is 
certain that neither Taylor, Tutt nor Hard- 
man had then risen above the rank of pri- 
vate; so that there is no certainty that the 
plan of the fort sprang from the fertile brain 
of any of them. It is feared that the name 
of the designer of this fort will forever be 
lost to the history of South Bend. 

The people of the town went to work earn- 
estly to build the fort, according to the plans 
and specifications. The excitement was then 
up to fever heat. The county was full of the 
wildest and most improbable stories of Indian 
atrocities, and yet a great many people would 
believe them and insist that the Pottawato- 
mies were secretly hostile and only waiting a 
favorable opportunity tx) break out into open 
warfare. As an illustration of the feeling 
then existing, I remember while we were at 
work on the fort, a Pottawatomie came saun- 
tering along by us, looking through the cracks 
between the puncheons, arid as soon as it was 
noticed, it was earnestly asserted by many 
that he was a spy, and ought to be arrested 
and shot at once. One man was particularly 
fierce on the subject. After a while the work 
on the fort began to lag. People were coming 
to their senses and regarded the danger as 
much farther off than at first supposed, and, 
besides, the United States government was 
now earnestly engaged in suppressing Black 
Hawk and his hostile tribes. Still there was 
a lurking fear in the minds of some, and it 
was thought best to send out a party of our 
own people to make a reconnoissance sixty or 
seventy miles west. These men went out on 
the expedition. I think it was made up of 
Jonathan A. Liston, Elisha Egbert and Dr. 
Stoddard ; but I am not certain as to the per- 
sons, though I saw them on their horses as 
they started off. 

After several days' absence they returned 
and reported to the people in front of John- 
son 's tavern.* Among other things they said 
they had been sixty or seventy miles west and 
had made diligent inquiries as to the where- 
abouts of Black Hawk and his warriors, and 
they felt perfectly sure there was not a hos- 
tile Indian within one hundred and fifty 
miles of us, and that no apprehension need 
be felt of any danger from the Pottawatomies ; 
that the chief, Pokagon. was undoubtedly 

a. Peter Johnson's tavern, the Michigan, after- 
wards the American, at the southwest corner of 
Washington and Michigan Streets. 

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friendly, and as evidence of it he kept the 
American flag flying over his cabin, and that 
if any of Yns tribes were unfriendly they 
would remain neutral. At the announcement 
of this word neutral Joe Hanby, an erratic 
kind of a Pennsylvania Dutchman cried out, 
"Tam old Neutral; he is mit Black Hawk 
now!" The fears of the people were well 
quieted by this time, and they raised a great 
laugh at Joe's blimder. This was the end of 
the Black Hawk excitement in this part of the 
country; but there was a little breeze sprung 
up in South Bend a short time afterward 
growing out of it. The governor of this state 
had called out a battalion of three hundred 
cavalry, and started them under command of 
Col. Rupel to the front. They never got 
nearer than one hundred miles of the place 
where their services were needed, and while 
they were dallying around between Lafayette 
and Chicago,. John Defrees,** without expect- 
ing them to return by way of South Bend, 
had the temerity to say in his paper, *'That 
it was not to he expected that this holiday 
battalion would ever be found within a hun- 
dred miles of a hostile Indian,*' and other 
hostile things not very complimentary to their 
bravery or eflSciency.* In a short time after- 
ward these fellows lit down on us suddenly 
as if they had dropped out of the sky. They 
were going to make minee-meat of John De- 
frees right off. I saw a company overhaul 
and surround him as he was passing along 
the street. Judging from the threatening 
language and manner of his captors, I 
expected to see him depart life in about three 
seconds; but some of the prominent oflScers 
rushed in and kept the furious ones at bay. 
Notwithstanding his perilous situation, Mr. 
Defreea stood up manfully before them and 
insisted upon his right as an editor of a news- 
paper to criticise the conduct of this bat- 
talion.*^ But the men swore if they were not 
permitted to lynch him, his press and type 
should go into the river. The printing office 
was in the second story of a hewed-log house, 
accessible only by an outside stairway. A 

a. John Dougherty Defrees, editor of the St 
Joseph Beacon, and Indiana and Michigan Intelli- 
gencer. He was bom in Tennessee, of French- 
Irish ancestry. 

ft. For the criticism of the troops, see The 
Beacon for June 27, 1832. 

c. For some correspondence between Mr. 
Defrees and the officers of the regiment, and the 
editor's indignant account of the outrage, see The 
Beacon for July 4, 1832. 

Vol. II — 8. 

squad started for it, but in the meantime 
Captain Anthony Defrees had collected 
around him, in the printing office,** five or six 
men all well armed. As soon as one of the' 
squad put his foot on the stairway, the cap- 
tain warned him that if he came any further 
it would be at the peril of his life; then he 
would back out, and another would come as if 
he intended to go right up, but as soon as he 
saw five or six guns leveled at him, he would 
suddenly conclude that it would not be a 
healthy undertaking and would back out. 
The squad would leave and another would 
come more determined and threatening than 
thedr predecessors, but as soon as the old 
captain^ and his men would level their guns 
on them, their courage would ooze out and 
they would retire in good order. And so they 
kept coming and going for three or four 
hours. They had swords and pistols, but no 
guns, and they knew some one would get hurt 
before they could get Captain Defrees and 
his men out of that hewed-log house and con- 
sidering discretion the better part of valor, 
marched off without exterminating John D. 
Defrees or his printing office, and were always 
afterw€irds recognized and known as **the 
bloody three hundred." 

This closes the history of our connection 
with the Black Hawk war. The unrequited 
services of that valiant corps under Captain 
Dayton is but another instance of the ingrati- 
tude of a republic. 


There were no white inhabitants in this 
territory during the periods of our first two 
wars, the Revolutionary war and the war of 
1812, both with Great Britain. Two soldiers 
of the Revolutiop, however, lived here for 
some time, and their bodies now repose in the 
old City Cemetery; they were Peter Roof, 
senior, and Isaac Ross. Several soldiers of 
the war "of 1812, likewise resided in the county 
many of them amongst our prominent early 
settlers. Some of these honored soldiers were : 
Thomas J. Allen, John B. Ohandonai, Daniel 

a. The "hewed-log house" in which The Beacon 
was then pubUshed was on the southwest corner 
of St. Joseph street and Pearl street, now Vistula 

ft. Captain Anthony Defrees was an uncle of 
John D. and Joseph H. Defrees, and it was on 
his invitation that they had come from Piqua, 
Ohio, to South Bend. 

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Cottrell, Ransom Curtis, Theophilus Case, 
Archibald Defrees, Christopher W. Emerick, 
Daniel Heck, Christopher Lenz, Artemus 
Johnson, Peter Johnson, John Mack, Senior, 
Jesse K. Platz, Jehu Meredith, Peter Roof, 
Junior, Clayboume Smith and John Sample. 
John B. Chandonai (the name was locally pro- 
nounced, sometimes spelled, *'Shadney''), was 
a half-breed Indian, and was a trusted scout 
employed by Generals Lewis Cass and William 
Henry Harrison. He was distinguished for 
his courage and his shrewdness and quickness 
of understanding. Alexis Coquillard, as we 
have already seen, was also engaged in the 
service of General Harrison's army, although 
he was not an enlisted soldier, being indeed 
but a boy at the time of the war of 1812.^ 

St. Joseph county was scarcely better, if 
as well, represented in the Mexican war. The 
majority of the inliabitants were Whigs ; and 
there were besides many influential citizens 
of abolition proclivities. The Mexican war 
was therefore not looked upon with any great 
degree of enthusiasm. There were a few brave 
soldiers from the county, however, among 
them: Henry J. Blowney, John H. Fisher, 
George F. Frank, Hugh L. Hinds, Edwin T. 
Lucado, John Owen, John Pendl, Moses Pel- 
tier, John B. Raymond, Albert Steinbeck, 
William S. Saunders, Eugene N. B. Sweet- 
land and Frank X. Vilare. Several of these 
were afterwards found in the ranks of the 
Union army, the most distinguished of them 
being Henry J. Blowney, who attained the 
rank of major in the Civil war. Major 
Blowney likewise had a distinction of quite 
another kind. He was a sign painter, and an 
artist in his line; and among the men for a 
time in his employment was the Hoosier Poet, 
James Wliitcomb Riley. The poet has often 
spoken with tenderest recollections of Major 
Blowney and of his other friends while he 
was a resident of South Bend. 


Sec. 1. — Enlistments. — On April 12, 1861, 
a. See CJhap. 4, sub. 4, sec. 1. 

Fort Sumter was fired upon. On April 14, 
1861, the news came that Major Anderson and 
the garrison were compelled to surrender the 
fort. On April 15, 1861, President Abraham 
Lincoln issued his call for seventy-five thou- 
sand .men for the defence of the Union, to 
serve for three months unless sooner dis- 
charged. On the same day, April 15. 1861, 
Governor Oliver P. Morton sent to the presi- 
dent the following dispatch: **0n behalf of 
the state of Indiana, I tender to you, for the 
defence of the nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the government, ten thousan 1 

On Monday evening, April 15, 1861, a meet- 
ing was held in the old court house in South 
Bend. Party was forgotten. Democrats ant! 
Republicans stood shoulder to shoulder in the 
packed court room. Dr. John A. Henricks 
was made president ; Ariel E. Drapier, of the 
Forum, and Judge John D. Robertson, vice 
presidents, and E. E. Ames, E. R. Pamum 
and William H. Drapier, secretaries. Michael 
Boynes played the national airs, which they 
were so soon to play in the field at the heads 
of regiments. Speeches were made by Dr. 
Henricks, Schuyler Colfax, Ariel E. Drapier, 
William Miller, William G. George, Andrew 
Anderson, William F. Lynch and others. Cap- 
tain Lynch was then a professor at Notre 
Dame, where for one or two years previous he 
had been at the head of a crack college mili- 
tary company, the Continental Cadets, uni- 
formed in the buff and blue of the army of 
the Revolution, and drilled in the tactics of 
Ellsworth's Zouaves. None of those present 
at that meeting, except Captain Lynch him- 
self, had any practical knowledge of military 
affairs; they had never even seen a military 
company, except the Continentals on some 
holiday as they had marched through the 
streets of the town, or, perhaps, on their way 
to the railway station to visit Goshen or La- 
porte. The speech of Captain Lynch was full 
of a fiery patriotism that carried the audience 
with his enthusiasm. The brilliant officer soon 
after returned to his home in Illinois, where 

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he raised the Fifty-eighth Illinois volunteer 
infantry. He became a distinguished soldier, 
attaining to the rank of brigadier general, and 
for a time commanded a division, when he was 
disabled by a gunshot wound, from the effects 
of which he ultimately died. Nothing in his 
brilliant career did him more credit than the 
eloquent speech he made in that patriotic 
meeting in our old court house, on April 15, 

On the same evening a like meeting was 
held at Mishawaka, at which George Milbum 
presided. Speeches were made by Mr. Mil- 
burn and by Messrs Niles, Merrifield, Cowles, 
Hurlbut, Butterworth, Thomas, Fuller, Jud- 
son and Minzie. Another meeting was held in 
South Bend on Friday evening, April 19, 
1861, a committee was appointed to collect 
subscriptions to aid in forming arid equipping 
volunteer companies and to provide for the 
families of volunteers. The committee was as 
follows: Greene Township, Jackson Greene, 
Daniel Greene, Thomas L. HoUoway; Clay, 
Thomas P. Bulla, G. E. Benton and Jacob 
Eaton; German, John F. Ullery, Reuben 
Dunn and A. J. Hatfield; Olive, Jeremiah H. 
Service, Thomas J. Garoutte and John Rey- 
noldls; Warren, J. E. Mikesell, (Joble Brown 
and William Cram; Liberty, George H. Lor- 
ing, C. W. N. Stevens and Samuel Loring; 
Union, John Jackson, John Moon and C. J. 
Turner; Center, Edwin Pickett, David R. 
Leeper and John Rush. A disbursing commit- 
tee, to take charge of the contributions, was 
also appointed, consisting of Isaac Ford, Elias 
V. Clark, Joseph H. Massey, Samuel L. Cott- 
rell, John T. Lindsey, John W. Chess and 
Caspar Rochstroh. In harmony with these 
arrangements was the organization of a 
Volunteer Aid Association, effected on the oc- 
casion of the first meeting, to equip the com- 
pany that was to be formed, and to support 
the families of the volunteers. Thus was the 
spirit of organization and systematic prep- 
aration for the great conflict manifested. It 
was the instinctive principle of American self- 
government, always present in the hearts and 

minds of the people, ready to be called forth 
when the occasion required. 

The first military company to be organized 
for service in St. Joseph county took its de- 
parture from South Bend on Friday, April 
19, 1861, four days after the president's call, 
being the first from northern Indiana. The 
company left the Lake Shore depot for In- 
dianapolis in the presence of a multitude of 
neighbors and relatives, many of them moth- 
ers, wives, sisters and sweethearts. Such 
scenes, alas ! were to become frequent enough 
in a very short time ; and friends and relatives 
were to bid adieu to dear ones, not for ''three 
months unless sooner discharged, ' ' as in this 
case, but for ** three years or during the war.'' 
These St. Joseph county volunteers became 
Company I of the Ninth regiment, Indiana 
infantry volunteers, three months' men. The 
Ninth regiment was mustered into the serv- 
ice at Indianapolis, April 25, 1861, under 
Colonel Robert H. Milroy. It was the first 
regiment to leave the state, departing for 
West Virginia May 29, 1861, and arriving 
at Grafton on the first of June. The regiment 
was attached to a column under Col. Kelley, 
sent to surprise the enemy encamped at Phil- 
ippi, on June 3, 1861. It was afterwards as- 
signed to General Morris's brigade, and took 
part in many marches and skirmishes and in 
engagements at Laurel HiU and Carrick's 
Ford. The regiment returned home in July 
and was discharged at Indianapolis on the 
termination of the period of enlistment. 

The company which thus went out from St. 
Joseph county and returned is chiefly noted 
for the heroic death of one of its members, 
John Auten, who was killed in a scouting ex- 
pedition on the afternoon of July 10, 1861, 
being the first man killed from St. Joseph 
county. He was in the 22nd year of his age. 
He was not detailed, but volunteered of his 
own accord, on the scouting party, which was 
taken from another company. He was much 
beloved by his comrades and by those who 
knew him as a worthy farmer's boy, and so 
his body was sent home for burial. The fn- 

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neral was held on August 2, 1861, in the very- 
court room where he had enlisted three 
months before. Not less than five thousand 
people attended the services and followed th« 
young soldier's body to its last resting place 
in the city cemetery. He was our first martyr, 
and his name is proudly borne by his surviv- 
ing comrades of the oldest grand army post 
in the state, Auten Post No. 8, Department of 
Indiana, G. A. R. 

The original muster roll of our first com- 
pany, Co. I, Ninth Indiana, three months' 
men, is as follows: 

Andrew Anderson, Captain. 

Henry Lorlng, First Lieutenant. 

Henry .J. Blowney, Second Lieutenant 

Edward P. Chapin, Sergeant 

James Doolittle, Sergeant 

Isaac M. Pettit Sergeant 

John Q. Wheeler, Sergeant 

Willis H. PetUt Corporal. 

George W. Hollingshead, Corporal. 

James H. M. Jenkins, Corporal. 

Nathan Kreighbaum, Corporal. 

Henry L. Badger, Musician. 

Charles S. Morrow, Musician. 


Andrew Adams 
Andrew J. Ames 
James Anderson 
John Auten 
John A. Beglen 
William Bowes 
William Bresee 
Henry Brezee 
Alexis Brown 
Miles Bunker 
John Carl 
Jay S. Carpenter 
MarUn V. B. Casad 
Frank W. Childs 
WUliam Cushan 
Amos Dayhuff ' 
Jacob Dealman 
Charles A. Dewey 
John W. Duffleld 
Horace B. Fitch 
Absalom Qibson 
William B. Qillman 
Peter Qlassman 
Charles Hadley 
Riley Helsted 
Edwin Ham 
Philip Haupris 
Uriah Huber 
Grin C. Hunter 
Charles G. Kelley 
Andrew Korp 
George W. Lind 

Warren Martin 
Sanford B. Matthews 
Joseph F. McCarthy 
William M. Merrifleld 
David B. Miller 
Jesse Miller 
William H. H. Miller 
Jofin C. Myers 
George F. Niles 
John Nogle 
Seth B. Parks 
Lorenzo Pierson 
Louis 0. Peterman 
Charles W. Price 
Andrew L. Replogle 
Amos Reynolds 
James Sandilands 
Daniel L. Shank 
Samuel Shepley 
Francis M. Sherman 
Peter D. Shoup 
Josiah F. Smyser 
Calvin R. Stillson 
James H. Sweet 
George C. Sweeney 
William L. TarbeU 
John Taylor 
George Utter 
Alfred B. Wade 
William M. Whitten 
Martin J. Whitman 
Robert Young 

taken to reorganize the company for three 
years' service. By that time it had become 
apparent that enlistment in the army was to 
be for no holiday excursion ; the war was on 
in dead earnest. While the enemy had learned 
that one **Reb'* could not whip five ** Tanks," 
we also had reached the conclusion that one 
**Yank" was no match for two *'Rebs '' It 
was American against American, and the Grod 
of battles alone could know what was to be the 

The following was the muster roll for the 
new Co. I, enlisted for ** three years or during 
the war'*: 

James Houghton, Captain. 

Isaac M. Pettit, First Lieutenant 

William Merrifleld, Second Lieutenant. 

James Nutt, Orderly Sergeant 

Seth B. Parks, Sergeant 

Frank W. Childs, Sergeant 

Lewis A. Holliday, Sergeant 

William H. Criswell, Sergeant 

James G. Oliver, Corporal. 

Francis M. Sherman, Corporal. 

Jesse Miller, Corporal. 

Sylvester Pettit, Corporal. 

Robert F. Boyd, Corporal. 

Sherman B. Stebbins, Corporal. 

William L. Sherman, Corporal. 

John Mailer, CorporaL 

George L Badger, Musician. 

Isaac Hooper, Musician. 

William Calwell, Wagoner. 


As soon as Co. I, Ninth reojiment, three 
months' service, was mustered out, steps were 

Benjamin Anderson 
WiUiam F. Avery 
Hanson Beck 
Christopher Bliss 
William Bowney 
Thomas Brown 
Norman V. Brower 
Henry H. Buck 
Ellis Clark 
James Clemments 
Isaiah Copper 
Peter Cottrell 
Clark B. Crook 
Amos Dayhuff 
Darius Dawley 
Jonas C. Dressier 
Norman E. Ellsworth 
William W. Giles 
Francis M. Gillman 
William B. Gillman 
Sylvester Gordon 
Enunett Ham 
Charles E. Hardy 
William E. Harrington 
William Heckerthom 
David G. Heiss 
Samuel Heiss 
John N. Holliday 

Riley Halsted 
Grin C. Hunter 
Phineas B. Jennings 
John P. Knowlton 
Henry M. Kuney 
Charles Leschoier 
Frederick Leschoier 
James T. Marsh 
John A. Metzger 
Solomon Michael 
Melville Mosher 
Eli O. Newman 
John H. Nodurfth 
David L. Norwood 
Leveme Packard 
Horace Parks 
William PetUt 
Henry Perry 
Selah Pickett 
Joseph Pickett 
Charles B. Pidge 
Warren C. Pitman 
Moses Powers 
Charles O. Pressey 
Samuel H. J. Reid 
Stephen Reed 
Joseph Rogers 
Wallace W. Roper 

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Henry Swintz 
Leonard H. Taber 
Daniel B. Ungry 
August Vanoverback 
Frank Wlllard 
Joseph S. Wood 
John Worle 

George W. Rosebaugb 
Harrison Shearer 
Ira Sherman 
Thomas Slain 
Dayid Slough 
Levi P. €lnure 
Peter Stemburgh 
Almon Stuart 

Frank M. Andrews John A. Long 

Henry Baugh Isaac M. Long 

Benjamin Bonney Amos Reynolds 

Taylor Orampton Jacob Slaughter 

EMwin Ham Winfleld S. Taber 

Henry O. Kreimer Niles Taber 

Josiah F. Dressier, Substitute. 

The Ninth infantry was mustered at La- 
porte, September 5, 1861. On December 12, 
1863, at Whiteside, Tennessee, the members re- 
enlisted as veterans. The regiment was final- 
ly mustered out in Texas, in September, 1865, 
having served for four years and during the 
war. The following promotions in Co. I were 
made during the term of service: Isaac M. 
Pettit, from first lieutenant to captain ; James 
Nutt, from orderly sergeant to first lieutenant, 
then to captain; William H. Criswell, from 
sergeant to second lieutenaat, then to first lieu- 
tenant; Seth B. Parks, from sergeant to sec- 
ond lieutenant; and Frank W. Childs, from 
sergeant to second lieutenant. The company 
lost three officers killed in battle and one who 
died of wounds received in battle; likewise 
three privates killed in battle and fifteen who 
died of wounds or from disease. The regiment 
was in the following engagements. Green 
Brier, West Virginia, October 3, 1861 ; Alle- 
gheny, December 13, 1861 ; Shiloh, Tennessee, 
April 7, 1862 ; also in the battles of PerryviUe, 
Danville and Wild Cat Mountain; Murfrees- 
boro, December 31, 1862, and January 1, 1863 ; 
Chiekamauga, September 19 and 20, 1863; 
Lookout Mountain, November 24, 1863; Mis- 
sionary Ridge, November 25, 1863; in the 
numerous battles of the Atlanta campaign 
and in the pursuit of Hood's army, including 
the engagements at Columbia and Franklin ; 
Nashville, December 15, 1864 ; closing its serv- 
ice in Louisiana and Texas. During the 
service the regiment was under the command 
of Colonel Robert H. Milroy. 
St. Joseph county had one company, Co. B, 

in the Fifteenth infantry, which, like the 

Ninth, was also recruited for three years. 

Those who enlisted from the county were as 

follows : 

John E. George, Adjutant 

Edwin Nicar, Adjutant. 

Alexander Fowler, Captain. ■'^ 

John H. (Gardner, Lieutenant 

Joseph Haller, Sergeant 

John Owens, Sergeant 

William H. Weed, Sergeant 

William A. Pegg, Sergeant ' 

Edwin Tumock, Corporal. 

Samuel F. Curtis, Corporal. 

Scott Whitman, Corporal 

Noyes Miliken, Corporal. 

Henry H. Metcalf, Corporal. 

Barclay Klmhle, Corporal. 

Patrick Halligan, Corporal. 

Edwin Pursell, Corporal. 

Henry Johnson, Musician. 

John C. Curtis, Musician. 

George Crakes, Wagoner. 


William S. Anderson 
John F. Baker 
Nelson C. Baker 
Frederick Barnhart 
Frederick Bedker 
Alexander Bertram 
Victor Bertram 
Charles Brick 
Luther Briggs 
George Bucher 
Patrick Burke 
Pierce T. Clarke 
Peter A. Clogher 
Bernard Castelle 
Lemuel Oox 
Henry Cooper 
Nathan Dayhuff 
Frank Degraf 
Francis Devoy 
William EJ. Doyle 
Walter L. Finch 
Cornelius Fuller 
James M. Gardner 
John Garraghty 
Daniel A. Goodin 
Thomas Guy 
John M. Hague 
Thomas Ham 
James M. Hamilton 
Edmund Harris 
John Hargis 
Martin V. Harris 
Michael Hennessey 
James Higgins 
William Hight 
WiUiam Hill 
Oliver H Hildebrand 
William A. Holland 
James H. Hoover 
Harrison Huston 
Edwin Huntsinger 

Alfred A. Keck 
Charles M. Knapp «. 
Michael Lendenherger 
Robert L. Logan 
Sheffield Lucia 
Abijah Macy 
Michael McDonald 
Benjamin F. Markel 
Horace Martin 
Jacob Martin 
William T. Melvln 
Ludwig Miller 
James Norman 
William H. H. Ogle 
John Parks 
Abel R. Peck 
Charles B. Pegg 
Edward Perrault 
Thomas V. Pierce 
William V. Replogle 
Evi Rockwell 
Gilbert Rhoads 
Salathiel Ruley 
Joseph Schutt 
Henry Shearer 
Ferdinand Smith 
John Swaney 
James Sweeney 
Jacob Telford 
lirancis L Tlnsley 
Adolphus Trueblood 
Hamarchs Trueblood 
William Trueblood 
John Fo Tutt 
Robert E. Tutt 
John Van Nest 
James Van Riper 
William C. Vamey 
William Watklns 
George White 
John B. Zimmerman 

Digitized by 




Joseph M. Clark Henry W. Martindale 

Anthony Corcoran Erastus Munger 

John Hague Daniel C. Schenck 

MelTln G. Huey William H. Thomas 

The Fifteenth infantry was originally mus- 
tered at Lafayette, in May, 1861, in the three 
months* service. On the reorganization for 
three years, it was mustered at the same place 
on June 14, 1861, with Greorge D. Wagner as 
colonel. Company B lost six men in killed 
and twelve from wounds or disease. Captain 
Fowler was promoted to major and after- 
wards to colonel of the Ninety-ninth regiment. 
John E. George was promoted from lieutenant 
to captain. Edwin Nicar was promoted from 
sergeant to second lieutenant and then to first 
lieutenant of Company A. Joseph Haller was 
promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant 
and then to first lieutenant. Edwin Turnock 
was promoted from corporal to second lieuten- 
ant and then to captain. 

The regiment arrived in West Virginia in 
time to take part in the battle of Rich Moun- 
tain, July 11, 1861. It participated in the 
battle of Green Brier, October 3, 1861. In 
November, 1861, the regiment was sent to re- 
port to General Buell at Louisville. It was 
with Buell's army in the second day's battle 
at Shiloh. The regiment was at Stone's River 
under Rosecrans and took part in the engage- 
ment at Tullahoma and afterwards in the 
battle of Missionary Ridge, where it lost two 
hundred and two out of three hundred and 
thirty-four engaged. It afterwards went to 
the relief of Burnside at Knoxville. A part 
of the regiment was mustered out at Indian- 
apolis, June 14, 1864; another part being re- 
enlisted veterans and recruits, was attached 
to the Seventeenth Indiana mounted infantry, 
and discharged with that organization, Au- 
gust 8, 1865. 

The Twenty-ninth infantry went out under 
Colonel John F. Miller of South Bend, who 
afterwards became a distinguished general, 
and after the war a United States Senator. 
Enlistments in several companies of this regi- 

ment took place from St. Joseph county as 
follows : 

John F. Miller, Colonel. 

Henry J. Blowney, Major. 

James B. McCurdy, Quartermaster. 

Joseph C. Reed, Chaplain. 

Louis Humphreys, Surgeon. 

John M. Stover, Assistant Surgeon. 

Jacoh R. Brown, Assistant Surgeon. 

Frank A. Hardman, Captain. 

John C. Myers, Lieutenant. 

Henry K Hain, Lieutenant 


Alfred A. Butler 
Ayers Crouch 

David W. Croch 
Hiram A. Hall 

Isaac B. Goodrich, Sergeant 

Timothy Paige, Sergeant 
OWvin R. Stillson, Sergeant 
John Taylor, Sergeant 
Owen M. Eddy, Sergeant 
Levi H. Sipes, Corporal. 
Daniel L. Shanks, Corporal. 
Alden Whitney, Corporal. 
John Glass, Corporal. 
Charles W. Schenck, Corporal. 
Zachariah Allcock, Corporal. 
Robert Shields, Corporal. 
Charles W. Grofl, Corporal. 
Homer C. Eller, Musician. 
George J. Epps, Musician. 
William Lash, Wagoner. 
John W. Anderson Eli Mangus 

William H. Augustine Simon Manuel 
Antony Aubert Henry Mapes 

Israel Baker Samuel S. Matlock 

Franklin O. Bentley David B. Miller 

Samuel Bowers iiolomon C. Miller 

Caspar Bowers Daniel R. Morehouse 

Joseph A. Boquet Warren Munday 

Ashbel M. Brown Henry F. Parks 

Louis Brewer John Pofl 

William H. Brewer William Pratt 

Joseph N. Burdick George W. Quigley 

Joseph Burke Turpen Rentfrow 

Joseph Candle George W. Rizor 

Solomon W. Christy Elam Rice 

John W. Duffleld Chrincyance I. Schenck 

William H. Dodd Bernhard Slgel 

Asa Earls Adam W. Shearer 

David M. Frame William M. Shultz 

James M. Gillen Abraham S. Schultz 

Rowen Hagerty Henry C. Sheddrick 

Fritz Hardy Jeremiah D. Snyder 

Jacob Hardy Frederick Steiner 

Daniel Judie Andrew Swinti 

John W. Kiner Edward Tipton 

Augustus Lario John J. Traub 

Augustus A. Lario Albion A. Williams 

Augustus Lioneous Henry S. Williams 

Solomon Mangus Daniel E. Whiteman 

Ellas Mangus William Wood 

Peter Mangus Nathan York 

Peter Brewer William Black 

James M. Blyler Virgil Reynolds 

Digitized by 





John W. Vanderhoof, Sergeant 

Henry A. Adle, Sergeant 

Aaron H. Miller, Oorporal. 

Alfred R. Abbott Musician. 


Samuel Tener 
B. Wolverton 

James Abbott 
Francis Cunningham 
Jacob Dougherty 
Jaoob M. Donaldson 
Wheeler Gould 
Philip HlckB 

CO. H.- 
John Ault 
Chas. D. Allen 
Andrew Adams 
Chas. Buckley 
John Becraft 
Jefferson Oonover 
Wm. Delaney 
Frederick Flagel 
George Francis 
Ezra Green 
John Green 
Alexander Goodrich 
Parkinson F. George 
Edward Harding 
Henry Holwell 
Asa Jones 
David Keller 
Nelson Laughton 
Lewis Laughton 
Oscar P. Lef evre 

Joseph J. Haskins 
Henry Lapp 
Amos H. Roberts 
John E. Usher 
Seth Vader 
John A. Ocker 


Isaac Lenegar 
Ellas Miller 
Owen McLean 
Alonzo Musson 
Jas. P. Mareen 
Jacob W. Miller 

A. M. McDonald 

B. F. Muttesbaugh 
Chas. W. Price 
Daniel Porter 
David M. Rennoe 
Josiah F. Smyzer 
Daniel Swygert 
Wm. J. Streable 
Louis Senior 
George Surdam 
Martin Thornton 
Quigley Thomas 
Anthony Willis 
David F. Willard 

Philip Ducomb, Sergeant. 
John R. Moon, Sergeant 

E. Henderson, Sergeant 
Daniel T. Welch, Sergeant. 

Jos. A. Bunch, Corporal. 
Jas. M. Ducomb, Corporal. 

John Sample, Corporal. 
Andrew Mountz, Corporal. 

Jacob Wynn, Corporal. 
R. J. Henderson, Corporal. 
Chas. J. Swezey, Corporal. 

Henry Perry, Musician. 

Aurelius Decamp, Musicfan. 

Abner Leonard, Wagoner. 


Luke Aldrich 
Lorenzo Annis 
Wm. Annis 
Simon Bailey 
John L. Bunch 
William B. Bumsides 
Tobias Cole 
William Cline 
Wilson C. Cotton 
John Donahue 
John M. Elder 
Jasper Fogus 
John Hildebrand 
Hehry C. Hathaway 
Jesse Hathaway 
John W. Hart 
D. Henderson 
Paris Henderson 

E. Hildebrand 
John Hughes 
Simon S. Huyler 
William Jackson 
Philip Kirkendall 
Nelson King 
John A. Lamb 
Fred Mangus 
John Mangus 
Morgan McGuire 
Eli Mountz 
Zebadiah Oliver 
Charles Ream 
BenJ. F. Seybold 
Francis M. Smith 
BenJ. F. Steiner 
Henry Tener 
Philip Tener 

John Wood 
John C. Wynn 


Levi Roberts 
Samuel J. Rose 
Benj. Ritter 
Henry Steiner 
Rezin Watkins 
Samuel T. Whiteman 
Delos Wood 
John Willey 

Harrison Beal 
Jas. B. Henry 
Hiram E. Jackson 
Henry B. Jay 
Henry Murphy 
Daniel Miller 
John Ott 
Thomas Parker 

Of the foregoing, five were killed in battle, 
one wa*s drowned in the Tennessee river, four 
died at Andersonville, and twenty-eight died 
of wounds or disease. Among the dead was 
Captain Frank A. Hardman, an exceedingly 
brilliant young man, a son of Dr. Hardman, 
so often mentioned in this history. John J. 
Traub was promoted from the ranks to sec- 
ond lieutenant; Robert Shields from corporal 
to second lieutenant and then to first lieuten- 
ant ; Alden Whitney, from corporal to second 
lieutenant; Calvin R. Stillson, from sergeant 
to second lieutenant; Henry E. Hain, from 
second lieutenant to first lieutenant; John 
Taylor, from sergeant to first lieutenant and 
then to captain. 

The Twenty-ninth infantry was mustered 
into service at Laporte, August 27, 1861. On 
October 9, 1861, it joined Rousseau's com- 
mand, in Kentucky. It took part in the 
movement against Bowling Green, in Febru- 
ary, 1862. In March, 1862, it moved with 
McCook's division from Nashville to the Ten- 
nessee river and took part in the second day 's 
battle at Shiloh, April 7, 1862. It was pres- 
ent at the siege of Corinth; was with Rose- 
crans at Murfreesboro and was engaged at 
Stone's River, December 31, 1862, and Janu- 
ary 1, 1863, losing in that battle many men 
and officers. It was with Roseerans on the 
march to Chattanooga, by way of TuUahoma, 
and lost heavily in the great battle of Chicka- 
mauga. The regiment veteranized at Bridge- 
port, Alabama, January 1, 1864. After re- 
turning from veteran furlough, the regiment 
w<as at Chattanooga, Decatur, Alabama, again 
at Chattanooga. In May, 1865, it was in a 
skirmish at Dalton, Georgia ; then marched to 

Digitized by 




Marietta, Georgia, where it was stationed until 
October, 1865, when it was mustered out. 

The Forty-eighth infantry comes, perhaps, 
as near to the hearts of the people of St. 
Joseph county as does any other single regi- 
ment, for the reason that, as in the case of the 
Twenty-ninth, the colonel commanding was a 
St. Joseph county man, but still more, no 
doubt, because so large a proportion of all tha 
officers and men were from the county. No 
less than three full companies, B, E and P, 
besides members of other companies, were 
from St. Joseph county, and their record, to- 
gether with that of their gallant commander, 
Colonel Norman Eddy, was of so brilliant a 
character as to enshrine their name and fame 
in the hearts of all the people. The roster 
of the companies is as follows: 

Norman Eddy, Colonel. 

Edward P. Stanfleld, Adjutant. 

Levi J. Ham, Surgeon. 

Sylvester Laning, Surgeon. 

W. W. Butterworth, Asst Surgeon. 


Abner J. Dean, Captain. 


William H. Sutphin, Captain. 

Asa Knott, Lieutenant 

George H. Loring, Lieutenant. 

E. Volney Bingham, Sergeant Major. 

Thomas J. Collins, Sergeant. 

Albert D. Jaquith, Sergeant 

Abraham Rhone, Sergeant 

Jacob Augustine, Sergeant 

John C. Coulter, Sergeant 

James Nelson, Corporal. 

Henry S. Nickals, Corporal. 

Thos. H. Asbshire, Corporal. 

John Clark. 

Enoch F. Buckels. 

Clark McBride, Corporal. 

Daniel Ruddlck, Corporal. 

Wm. S. Saunders, Musician. 

Ozias W. Wells, Musician. 

William Whitmore, Wagoner. 


Jerome Adams 

William Baxter 
Thomas Biddle 
William Barre 
Joseph Bowen 
Isaiah Bowers 
Abner Bowen 
Benj. F. Brown 
Leonard Behee 
Silas Cushman 
Joseph Carr 
Levi Cathrell 
Sylvanus Clay 

Philip Crites 
Isaac Classen 
Jonathan Cripe 
William W. Caslet 
Martin Duwit 
John E. Dunham 
Andrew J. Edward? 
Jos. W. Fowler 
John Finch 
Amos Fuller 
Lewis Fl'ame 
Nely Frame 
Wm. H. Felkner 

David Frazer 
£klward Qillen 
William Gordon 
Harvey Ganoung 
Amos Heston 
John Herchelrode 
John Harriman 
Peter J. Howe 
John Horn 
Jesse Hunt 
Samuel Hiley 
George Hall 
John Hay 
Joel James 
John L. Jones 
Levi Kelly 
John Kline 
Mathias Kolb 
Henry Kizar 
Henry Kullner 
Cornelius B. Liba 
Jos. S. Liggett 
Michael Loy 
Miles H. Miller 
Maynard Moyer 
William McCullom 
Alonzo Moore 
Lewis Mongo 

George Monroe 
James McCormlck 
James M. Nihart 
Samuel Pearson 
David Reddick 
John B. Rays 
Jacob Ritter 
Benj. H. Ross 
Jos. M. Ross 
Benjamin Sheak 
Josiah Saeger 
John Sously 
Chas. Shepherd 
Edward Sheelmadine 
Paul Straub 
Jonathan Swathwood 
John C. Tashur 
Michael Valentine 
Michael Wheeler 
George Wyckoff 
Worthy Wyckenn 
Jas. E. Whitman 
Christ. Webster 
Wm. H. Wells 
Peter Wheeler 
Michael WooUett 
John Wiggins 
James Ziegler 


Henry N. Biddle 
Simon Z. Bossier 
Luther Bradley 
Geo. W. Brookney 
Sylvester Blackman 
Franklin Bruner 
Reuben L. Brower 
Thos. C. Busby 
B. W. Casteller 
Archibald Caldwell 
Jno. Clelland 
Samuel B. Collins 
James Custer 
David R. Cripe 
Jas. H. Donaldson 
Simeon Decamp 
Martin Dewitt 
Chas. D. Davis 
Alex. Ehnberlin 
J. H. Emberlin 
Wm. Edgington 
Reuben Elkins 
H. Eaglebarger 
Wm. Fifer 
John Fabim 
Moses Fisher 
John W. Gaddis 
Philip Klickinger 
Hobert Little 
Logan A. Layne 

Taylor Lobdell 
George S. Morris 
Eli W. Miner 
John Marolet 
Hart E. Pierson 
Albert Perry 
Leonard Z. Preston 
Wm. H. Power 
John Perrln 
Noah Replogle 
John M. Reaves 
William H. Rupe 
John Ranstead 
Riley Reaves 
George Roland 
Ephraim Ramsby 
Wm. W.,Russel 
Geo. W. Rldenour 
Daniel Stuck 
Silas L. Slater 
John Schwartz 
John D. Shafer 
Francis W. Scranton 
Franklin J. Saltsglver 
Thos. Sallenberger 
Adolphus W. Whorwell 
Jacob Weaver 
James Winebreuer 
Ekioch R. Wiess 


Thomas B. Roberts, Captfdn. 
David F. Spain, Lieutenant 
George W. Hart, Lieutenant 
William B. Spain, Sergeant 

Chas. G. Kelley, Sergeant. 
Daniel B. Stiner, Sergeant 

Wm. H. Miller, Sergeant. 

Edwin F. Pidge, Sergeant 

Digitized by 




John A. M. LaPierre, Corporal. 

John E. Alexander, Corporal. 

Thos. Simonton, Corporal. 

John Johnson, Corporal. 

Silas Jones^ Corporal. 

Wm. Lfc Tarbell, Corporal. 

Samuel M. Shepley, Corporal. 

John Martin, Corporal. 

Chas. T. Johnson, Musician. 

Israel Hogue, Musician. 

Bphraim O. Tmeblood, Wagoner. 


Hugh Pickerell 
Alexander J. Prebble 
Hector Phillips 
John Potts 
A. M. Robinson 
^Thomas Rawson 
Daniel H. Slocum 

Chas. W. Saunders 
John W. Thompson 
Wm. H. Thompson 
John W. Wheeler 
Ira A. Wilson 
Jas. B. Whitlow 
Francis M. York 

Samuel Amick 
Jos. Archambeault 
Buzeb Barnard 
Charles Bertrand 
Edward Becknell 
Ananias Becknell 
William Black ' 
Andrew J. Blyler 
John Blyler 
A. F. Bonebrake 
EMward J. Bresette 
Henry Britton 
Jesse Brown 
Henry Burn 
Robert B. Copen 
Samuel Casaday 
Wilson Catey 
Theo T. Chandonia 
Samuel Cottrell 
John Lr. Cottrell 
August Ooquillard 
G. W. Coquillard 
Eidward Cum 
Franklin Darr 
G. W. E. Doughty 
John Drake 
Wm. Dudley 
James Ellis 
BenJ. Frederick 
John J. Fritzer 
Nicholas Fritzer 
William Gephart 
William Gibson 
Ezra Gokey 
Henry Grindle 
John Hann 
James Haight 
Alpheus Haney 
Robert Hunter 
Martin Junnel 
Josiah D. Kollar 

Levi M. Bowles Samuel M. Hench 

James Barton Harty N. Hand 

Edward Beckwell A. Kilpatrick 

Rolla Butler Wm. P. Lockhart 

Reuben Brunson William R. Lee 

Alvin G. Campbell LJsle L. Levi 

Cyrus Carr Lemuel Morse 

Wm. Cousins Daniel Marts 

George Dennison James Morrill 

Wm. T. Dunlap John McGraw 

John D. Dugan Wm. McGinnis 

R. B. Douglass Chas. H. Miller 

John I. Eason Alexander Newhouse 

Amos Forwood Cyrus dinger 

Simon W. Fox George S. Phelps 

Reuben Kitung 
Alexander M. Kimble 
Fred T. Kemble 
Elisha Kerns 
Chas. LaMountain 
Ebenezei- Lorimer 
John Lorimer 
James Leech 
Benjamin Myers 
Jos. Matthews 
Thomas Matlock 
Perry McDonald 
Moses Miller 
John Neddo 
George Omea 
Henry Peffley 
Ellas Palmer 
Geo. W. Peterman 
Leander C. Pray 
Peter Rana 
E. P. Rakestraw 
Jasper N. Rockhill 
Joseph W. Replogle 
Wm. F. Rawell 
Jacob Sipes 
Obadiah B. Slusser 
Oliver E. Slusser 
John Shelmadine 
George Sharp 
Frederick Stiner 
Peter S. Stombaugh 
John J. Stockman 
John J. Stock 
Francis D. Tuttle 
John Weiss 
John White 
Levi Wilkinson 
George Watkins 
Jacob Warner 
Charles Zauger 


Barnett Byrkit, Captain. 

William A. Judkins, Lieutenant 

Crawford McDonald, Lieutenant 

Newton Bingham, Sergeant 

Edwin Ham, Sergeant 

William Caldwell, Sergeant 

Amos R, Evans, Sergeant 

Adelbert Crampton, Sergeant. 

Alfred Curtis, Corporal. 
John L. Robinson, Corporal. 
Charles Mason, Corporal. 
Jacob Keifer, Corporal. 
Michael Andrews, Corporal. 
John Sandals, Corporal. 
Thomas Crakes, Corporal. 
James Anderson, Corporal. 
George E. Perry, Musician. 
Barney Uline, Musician. 
Joseph Myers, Wagoner. 
John Albert Thomas Kirkwood 

Pratt Alger John Kling 

George Allison Henry Lahman 

Lewis Andrews Ovid W. Lampert 

Lewis Babbit Wm F. Leslie 

Constantine Belter Jos. A. Livenwood 

Matthew Bowker James Lees 

Nathan Boyce John G. Lyttle 

Wm. H. Chapin Casper Mine 

John Cline Joel Metcalf 

Henry Cook Jos. D. McAchren 

Josiah Coghill Edward S. McOarry 

Albert Corn Edmond Michael 

William Cushan John Michael 

Isaac N..Deppen Ephraim Moore 

Chas. A. Dewey David Motls 

John Doolittle David Myers 

Holden A. Doolittle Henry Layers 

Geo. W. Doolittle Micajah Owens 

James Elder Philip Poorbaugh 

William Finch Samuel Porter 

Horace B. Fitch David Riffle 

Geo. A. Garrison George C. Ritchardt 

Wesley Christ Willard Rockwell 

Andrew Gonyer Jas. Albert Roper 

Alexander Grant Chas. E. Ruple 

Jacob Crop Charles Sebring 

Charles Hadley Stephen F. Sheldon 

Thomas Hall Patrick Shields 

George Hann Albert Shirley 

George Haskell Ernst Schoulder 

Elam W. Heiss Madison R. Smith 

Daniel B. Heiss David Sweitzer 

William Heiner Anderson C. Underwood 

Wm. C. Hopkins Henry H. Underwood 

Hiram H. Hopkins Burton Vamey 

John Hurley James Watkins 

Wm. B. Hurley John Wilhelm 

Wm. Hutchinson Madnel Wisel 

Thomas Johnson Jonas Williams 

John A. Kerns Thomas Wilson 

Digitized by 




Samuel Arnold 
Jas. M. Briggs 
Solomon Baker 
Geo. Bamtrager 
Horace H. Buck 
A. H. Carpenter 
David CarithuB 
William Gashaw 
Abram Gary 
Emanuel Deehyne 
John D. Eagle 
Warren Puller 
Andrew J. Frank 
Chas. G. Gallagher 
Franklin Grise 
John M. Guise 
Henry Goldsberry 
Lewis R. Haswell 
William Holloway, 
Wm. H. Judkins 
John Kelly 
Albert H. Kassins 
P. O. Leavitt, Jr. 


A. W. Lcunport 
Frank Milstead 
Henry Pellett 
John R. Parrott 
Isaac R. Personett 
Levi Robbins 
Joseph W. Reed 
Benjamin Sheak 
BenJ. D. Squires 
Nelson G. Smith 
John W. Smith 
Henry Smith 
John M. Snyder 
Henry Stevens 
Edwin Sauers 
Philip Sedinger 
J. Q. A. Sherman 
Charles Simms 
Moses J. Sheldon 
Ephraim Shirley 
Frank Tupper 
J. R. Wedgeworth 
Wm. H. Wilson 


Newton Bingham, Captain. 


Henry Milburn, Captain. 

The Forty-eighth was mustered at Goshen, 
December 6, 1861, <and left for Fort Donelson. 
February 1, 1862, where it arrived on the 
day after the surrender, and then moved to 
Paducah and in May went up the Tennessee 
to engage in the siege of Corinth. It was 
then engaged in the army of Rosecrans 
against Price, taking part in the battle of 
luka, September 19, 1862, where it lost one 
hundred and sixteen men, killed and wounded, 
out of four hundred and twenty engaged. 
The regiment was also in the second battle of 
Corinth, under Rosecrans, October 3 and 4, 
losing twenty-six, killed and wounded. In 
January, 1863, after numerous marches, the 
Forty-eighth was at Memphis, where it was 
assigned to the first brigade, seventh division, 
of the Seventeenith Army Corps. It was 
next with Grant, in the rear of Vicksburg, 
where it took part in the engagements at 
Forty Hills, Raymond, Jackson, Champion 
Hills and in the assault on Vicksburg, May 22, 

1863, where the regiment lost thirty-eight, 
killed and wounded. After the surrender, the 
Forty-eighth returned to Memphis and 
marched across the country to Chattanooga, 
and then to Iluntsville, where, in Januar\% 

1864, the regiment re-enlisted as a veteran 

organization. After the veteran furlough, the 
Forty-eighth returned to iiuntsville and then 
joined the first brigade, third division. Fif- 
teenth Army Corps, marching with Sherman's 
army from Atlanta to Savannah, thence 
through the Carolinas to Washington. The 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville July 
15, 1865. The Forty-eighth lost in battle dur- 
ing its four years' service two hundred and 
thirteen men, killed and wounded. 

The following promotions took place : Thos. 
J. Collins, from sergeant to first lieutenant, 
then to captain; Jacob Augustine, from ser- 
geant to first lieutenant, then to captain ; Al- 
bert D. Jaquith, from sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant; Enoch F. Buckels from corporal to 
second lieutenant; Da\dd F. Spain, from first 
lieutenant to captain; George W. Hart, from 
second lieutenant to first lieutenant, then to 
captain; William B. Spain, from sergeant to 
second lieutenant, then to first lieutenant; 
William H. Miller, from sergeant to second 
lieutenant, then to captain; Oliver E. Slusser, 
from private to second lieutenant ; John A. M. 
Lapierre, from corporal to first lieutenant and 
adjutant; Charles T. Chandonai, from first 
lieutenant to captain; (Jeorge W. Coquillard, 
from private to first lieutenant ; Bamett Byr- 
kett, from captain to major, then to lieutenant 
colonel; William A. Judkins, from first lieu- 
tenant to captain ; Crawford McDonald, from 
second lieutenant to first lieutenant; Barney 
Uline, from musician to first lieutenant ; Wil- 
liam Caldwell, from sergeant to second lieu- 
tenant, then to captain; Charles Mason, from 
corporal to second lieutenant. 

The Seventy-third infantry was mustered 
into the service at South Bend, August 16. 
1862, with Gilbert Hathaway as colonel. Com- 
pany C was raised in this county. The roster 
is as follows: 

Alfred B. Wade, Adjutant 

Edward Bacon, Quartermaster. 

George Guyon, Chaplain. 

Seth F. Myers. Surgeon. 

Charles H. Applegate, Asst. Surgeon. 


Charles W. Price, Captain. 

John A. Richley, Lieutenant 

Digitized by 




John O. Greenawalt, Lieutenant. 

Jamee B. Finley, Sergeant: 

Ctaas. W. Clements, Sergeant. 

Lorenzo Pearson, Sergeant 

John M. Pierce, Sergeant. 

John W. Ruple, Sergeant. 

John A. Romig, Ck)rporal. 

John W. Teel, CJorporal. 

Nathan S. Paurote, CJorporal. 

Geo. S. Brown, Corporal. 

Benjamin B. Cole, Corporal. 

Wm. Trueblood, Corporal. 

A. N. Thomas, Corporal. 

Howard L. Kendall, Corporal. 

W. E. Gorsuch, Musician. 

James F. Hall, Musician. 

Gregory H. Cotton, Wagoner. 


Augustus Annis 
Hiram Babcock 
Albert Ballou 
Orin Ballou 
Samuel T. Barr 
Joseph Biyins 
Wm. H. Brewer 
John Brewer 
John Brittenham 
Mahlon Brown 
Nathaniel Brown 
S. J. Brumfleld 
Milton M. Burke 
John Clark 
Jas. A. Curtis 
Andrew Davis 
Lerenzo Dively 
Creorge Dively 
James R. Eaton 
John Petzer 
Newton M. Finch 
Abram Finney 
13gl)ert Finney 
Allen Frame 
John A. Prazer 
Wm. M. Fulmer 
Michael Gilvey 
Henry Herring 
John Henry 
William H. Huey 
Jacob Hinebaugh 
Wm. B. Hoover 
Christian Hosier 
David M. Houser 
John Huber 
Christian King 
Barton H. Jay 
Eph. T. Lane 
Louis Larlo 
James Ledwick 

Simon Lembeck 
Joseph Liggett 
Moses Lonzo 
Jacob Loy 
Guide Madgeburg 
John J. Mapes 
Samuel D. Marter 
Ezra Marter 
George Mattes 
John May 
J. W. McDaniel 
E. K. McGoggy 
Wm. McGowan 
Jos. P. McLloyd 
Jeremiah P. Miller 
John H. Miller 
Wm. H. Moon 
Henry C. Morgan 
John O'Conner 
Wm. T. Parrish 
George Paul 
Hiram Pearson 
John V. Quigley 
George W. Quigley 
Wm. Roof 
Asbury Rose 
Daniel Schiller 
Tiras Schreffler 
John B. Shultz 
John T. Slick 
Henry C. Steele 
Austin Steele 
Frederick Stone 
James B. Streets 
Conrad Swank 
Moses Teel 
John M. Thompson 
Melvin P. Turner 
R. A. Vangeisen 
Charles Zu Tavern 

Nathaniel Burden Wm. G. Polk 

Woodford Cothia Levi Roberts 

Thos. M. Hughly 


Chas. L. Bulhand 
Timothy Hagerty 
Abner S. Haskin 
Christian Kilmer 
John W. Paxon 

Joseph Robinson 
James S. Wigmore 
J. B. Wilkinson 
George Westfall 
Otto World 

On October 1, 1862, the Seventy-third was 
assigned to the Twentieth brigade, Sixth di- 
vision of Buell's army and joined in the pur- 
suit of Bragg. On November 7 the regiment 
surprised and captured Gallatin, Tennessee. 
It took a gallant part in the battle of Stone's 
River, under Rosecrans, from December 29, 

1862, until January 3, 1863. On April 10, 

1863, the regiment was mounted and joined 
Colonel A. D. Streight's famous raid, in which 
the Seventy-third displayed the ^utmost valor. 
On May the second, in an engagement at 
Blount's Farm, Alabama, the brave colonel, 
Gilbert Hathaway, fell mortally wounded. On 
May the third Colonel Streight was forced to 
surrender, at Cedar Bluffs, Alabama. The 
men were forwarded north and exchanged, 
but the greater part of the oflScers were kept 
in prison for nearly two years. On March 28, 

1864, Major Wade, having been released from 
prison, assumed command of the regiment. 
Prom this time until April, 1865, the Seventy- 
third was attached to the first brigade, fourth 
division, Twentieth Army Corps. In Septem- 
ber and October, 1864, the regiment, then 
under Lieutenant Colonel Wade, won great 
renown in its defense of Decatur, Alabama, 
first against General Buford with four thou- 
sand men, and afterwards against Hood's 
whole army of thirty-five thousand men. The 
strength of the garrison while resisting Bu- 
ford was but five hundred men, and while 
withstanding Hood's army was but five thou- 
sand. Hood raised the siege, saying it would 
cost more to take the place than it was worth. 
The remainder of the service was in skirmish- 
ing and guarding railroad communications. 
On July 1,. 1865, the regiment was mustered 
( ut >\t Nashville. 

Of the members of Company C two were 
killed in battle, two accidentally killed, one 
killed in military prison, while twenty-one 
died of wounds or disease. Alfred B. Wade 
was promoted from adjutant to major, then 
to lieutenant colonel and finally to colonel; 
John A. Eichley, from first lieutenant to cap- 
tain ; Alexander N. Thomas, from corporal to 

Digitized by 




first lieutenant, and John Y. Slick, from 
private to second lieutenant. 

The Eighty-seventh infantry was organized 
at South Bend, August 28, 1862, with Kline G. 
Shryock as colonel, and mustered into the ser- 
vice at Indianapolis on the 31st of the same 
month. Company K and some members of 
other companies were from St. Joseph county. 
The roster of those from this county is as fol- 

Joseph R. Albright, Chaplain. 

Samuitl Hlggeabotham, Surgeon. 


John Q. Wheeler, Captain: 

George H. Niles, Lieutenant 

James M. Holliday, Lieutenant. 

John A. BegUn, Sergeant. 

John W. Boyd, Sergeant 

Wm. H. Bulla, Corporal. 

Chas. B. Tutt, Corporal. 

Alonzo S. Williams, Corporal. 

Francis M. Milliken, Corporal. 

Chas. E. Hutaon, Corporal. 

Daniel Boston, Corporal. 

William Cobb, Musician. 


Luke A. Aldick 
Henry J. Ashley 
Edwin A. Bartlett 
Jacob H. Bell 
Phil. Bradley 
John Burgner 
Charles Buyssee 
A. J. Chrisman 
Wm. Currier 
Adam Deelman 
Herman Dirst 
Daniel N. Dressier 
John A. Ferris 
Peter Fleming 
Bbert Gay 
Wallace S. Ghrist 
Wm. H. Gordon 
H. C. Greenleaf 
Geo. Guibert 
Henry C. Harris 
Henry C. Hays 
A. Heckathorn 
Peter Heminger 
Zebedee James 
Ira Jones 
John Jones 

Irwin H. Kelsey 
Lawyous Leslie 
Albert R. Leslie 
Chas. W. Long 
Geo. E. Long 
Geo. H. Martllng 
John H. Martin 
Wm. H. Maughermar 
John G. Maughermar 
John A. McMichael 
Loren C. Miller 
Edward Molloy 
Jonas Odell 
Nathan F. F. Russ 
Benjamin Schmidt 
Alexander Spousler 
Geo. S. Stevens 
Jas. A. Stuckey 
John Sumstaine 
Geo. C Sweeney 
Oscar Terr ill 
Asher Turner 
Lewis T. Van Nest 
Garrett Van Riper 
John Van Riper 
Bradford Van Riper 

Jacob H. Keifer 

Gabriel M. Everhart John H. Leslie 

Abraham C. Pyle 

Benjamin F. Hooten, Musician. 
John M. Roof T. Montgomery 

Michael Gilfoyle Ephraim Moffltt 

John Garner Amos Rogers 

At Louisville, on September 1. 1862. the 
regiment was assigned to General Burbridge's 

brigade, aud on October 1 it was transferred 
to the third brigade, third division of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps and took part in 
Buell's campaign, including an engagement at 
Springfield, October 6, and the battle of Perry- 
ville, October 8. The regiment moved from 
point to point in Kentucky and Tennessee for 
several months after this, engaging in skir- 
mishes with Forrest and other commands. On 
March 28, 1863, Colonel Shryock resigned and 
Lieutenant Colonel Newell was promoted to 
his place. Colonel Gleason was finally brevet- 
ted brigadier general. The regiment bore a 
conspicuous part in the campaign against 
Chattanooga, and suffered very severely in the 
great battle of Chickamauga, September 19 
and 20, 1863, losing forty killed, one hundred 
and forty-two wounded and eight missing. 
Afterwards the regiment was assigned to thp 
second brigade, third division. Fourteenth 
Army Corps. On November 25th the ^gi- 
ment was on the front line storming up Mis- 
sionary Ridge, and there lost in killed and 
wounded sixteen. It took part in the numer- 
ous engagements of the Atlanta campaign. 
In a charge at Utoy's Creek, before Atlanta, 
on August 4, 1864, the regiment lost seven- 
teen men killed and wounded. After the 
capture of Atlanta the Eighty-seventh joined 
with its corps in the pursuit of Hood, and 
then turned to take its part in Sherman's 
march to the sea, nwirehing into Savannah on 
January 30, 1865. In the march through the 
Carolinas, after the surrender of Johnston's 
army, the regiment went by way of Richmond 
to the city of Washington, where it partici- 
pated in the grand review. On June 10, 1865. 
the Eighty-seventh was mustered out and re- 
turned to Indianapolis. 

The promotions in Company K were : James 
M. HoUiday, from second lieutenant to cap- 
tain, and Andrew J. Chrisman, from private 
to first lieutenant. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth in- 
fantry rendezvoused at Michigan City and 
was mustered into the service March 18, 1864. 
Company D was made up wholly from St. 

Digitized by 




Joseph county, and there were St. Joseph 

county men in other companies. Those in the 

regiment from this county were : 


John M. Pierce, Captain. 

Solomon H. Fountain, Lieutenant 

William W. Finch, Lieutenant. 

Erastus A. Harris, Sergeant. 

Geo. O. Finch, Serjeant 

Zebedee James, Sergeant. 

John L. Cottrell, Sergeant 

Jacob Hbse, Sergeant 

David Wlttner, Corporal 

Aquilla B. Krelder, Corporal. 

WuL B. Green, Corporal. 

Jacob Hardy, Corporal. 

James T. Marsh, Corporal. 

Herbert Waxham, Corporal. 

Jesse Hathaway, Corporal. 

Jos. R. Emery, Corporal. 

Martin Kelley, Wagoner. 


Christian Myers 
J. C. McEnderfer 
P. A. McEnderfer 
Warren Munday 
Edward McCloud 
Hiram McAfee 

William H. Marshall 
Francis M. Neidlgh 
Wm. Runnlon 
Wm. F. Smlser 
Levi Stanbrough 
James Thompson 

John W. Anderson 
John Avery 
Wm. H. Avery 
Antonia Aubert 
Chas. H. Ballinger 
Edward Benway 
Xavler Bodway 
Wm. O. Blyler 
William Buchtel 
Jonathan Buchtel 
Wm. D. Buchtel 
Geo. W. Bowen 
Daniel W. Baker 
E^nsley Caudle 
Bishop R. C. Ooho 
Sylvanus Clay 
Francis Donaghue 
Michael J. Ditch 
Eld ward Emery 
Zlmri Finch 
Franklin A. Finch 
Peter Fisher 
Wm. A. Frasler 
Jackson Friar 
Albert C. Green 
Hugh Gillen 
Samuel Getting 
Daniel Hathaway 
Peter Hathaway 
Edward Hughes 
Patrick Hughes 
Simon S. Huyler 
Thomas J. Huyler 
C. M. Hanville 
John Hemlnger 
James M. Hardy 
Emalej H. Hardly 
James Hardy 
David N. Huey 
Spencer Hagerty 
John E. Kelder 

Daniel Kiser 
Augustus A. Lario 
A. Lammadee 
George Llphart 
Dennis Lyons 
Wm. Lichtenberger 
William A. Ligget 
John A. Long 
Isaac Miller 
Chas. McCann 
Casper Mayer 
Arthur J. Matthews 
James Moon 
Owen McLear 
James Mlnzey 
Isaiah T. Milner 
Caleb Mangus 
Columbus Neddo 
Patrick Orange 
Alonzo Oliver 
Henry Owens 
M. E. O'Cbnnor 
John O'Ragen 
Leonard M. Odiome 
Kane Pilson 
(Jeorge Price 
Mordecai M. Price 
John Runnlon 
John Ramsberger 
John M. Rowe 
John I. Smith 
James Smith 
Valentine Smeltz 
Daniel Shearer 
H. Snodgrass 
H. H. Stevens 
Joseph Shlnewa 
John Wier 
Emanuel Wlllard 
Wm. O. WiUiamB 
Silas Toung 

John D. Kllnk 

Andrew J. Oilman Wm. H. McDonald 

Albert McFarland Wm. D. Morgan 


Harris Butler Wm. C. Fluckey 

John Gaa Wm. Lambert 

Jesse Palmer Robert A. Moon 

Washington Ager Geo. W. Mullen 

BenJ. B. Bowen John Wolf 
Henry Cobb 

On March 23, 1864, the re^ment left Mich- 
igan City for Nashville, where it was assi^ed 
to the first brigade of the division commanded 
by Greneral Hovey, afterwards designated as 
the first division of the Twenty-third Army 
Corps, under command of General Schofield. 
The corps took part in the Atlanta campaign, 
engaging the enemy at Resaca, Dallas, New 
Hope Church, Lost Mountain, Kenesaw Moun- 
tain, Atlanta and Jonesboro. On June 6, 
1864, Colonel DeHart being disabled from 
wounds, Lieutenant Colonel Jasper Packard 
assumed command of the regiment. On Octo- 
ber, the third the twenty-third corps was de- 
tached from Sherman's army and ordered to 
report to General Thomas at Chattanooga, 
whose army proceeded to thwart Hood's effort 
to re-capture Tennessee. The One Hundred 
and Twenty-eighth was engaged at the severe 
fight at Franklin, where Hood received his 
first check. On December 15, 1864, Thomas 
attacked Hood at Nashville and totally routed 
his army. On January 5, 1865, the regiment 
having joined in the pursuit of Hood as far 
as Columbia, Tennessee, marched thence to 
Clifton on the Tennessee, river, and proceeded 
by boat to Cincinnati, and by rail to Wash- 
ington. On February the twentieth it em- 
barked by steamer for Fort Fisher, but landed 
at Morehead City, North Carolina, and went 
thence by rail to Newburn. For some time 
thereafter the regiment was engaged guarding 
railroads, marching and skirmishing constant- 
ly. On April 29, 1865, Colonel DeHart was 
mustered out and Lieutenant Colonel Pack- 
ard became colonel. He was afterwards 
brevetted as brigadier general. The regiment 
was not mustered out until 1866.' The pro- 

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motions in Company D were : John M. Pierce, 
from captain to major; Erastus A. Harris, 
from sergeant to second lieutenant, then to 
first lieutenant; George 0. Pinch, from ser- 
geant to second lieutenant. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-eighth in- 
fantry was mustered into the service for one 
hundred days, on May 27, 1864, and was mus- 
tered out on September 30, 1864. James H. 
Shannon was colonel. Company H was from 
St. Joseph county. The following is the 
roster : 

James K. Gore, Captain. 

John T. KeUogg, Lieutenant 

Jolm H. Quigg, Lieutenant. 



Calvin R. Stillson, Captain. 

Alexis S. Bertrand, Lieutenant 

Henry Smyser, Lieutenant. 


William Austin 
George Beeingor 
Martin Beiger 
Harvey Beal 
Frank Bingham 
Abraham Boys 
Alex J. Bodkin 
Jacob Bowers 
James C. Boyd 
Colonel Bond 
Harvey Brower 
Almon Brittell 
Willis Carlton 
Christopher CoUier 
Calvin Crain 
Elmer Crockett 
Wm. S. Leno 
James Dixon 
Frank R. Eb^rhart 
Gabriel Ernst 
Waverly Ferris 
Finley Farris 
Martin Fulmer 
Lewis Freeman 
Marion Garrison 
Henry Gilbert 
Michael Grenert 
James Harris 
Henry Harris 
N. Hollingshead 
John Holston 
George Hutchinson 
Albert G. Johnson 
Henry King 
Eidward Kurtz 
Eidwin Laidlow 
Wm. Leonard 

Thos. B. Loughman 
Chas. Metzger 
Edward Michael 
John BiUbum 
Sylvester McDonough 
Milo Macumber 
Eidwin Martin 
Geo. F. Niles 
Wm. H. Oliver 
Joseph Onsalman 
Asahel Peck 
Enos F. Pettit 
Braymond Pickett 
Charles Piatz 
Dasery Rayniers 
Charles Reynolds 
James Riddle 
Samuel C. Roach 
John Sandilands 
Daniel Seifert 
William Sherer 
Alfred Seniard 
Brevet Simanton 
Levi Sibley 
Adam Slough 
Levi Slusser 
James Spake 
E. N. B. Sweetland 
Christ Taylor 
Elliott Tutt 
Roberts Usher 
Samuel H. Vine 
Wm. H. Warren 
Jacob Ward 
Jacob Weber 
John Weiss 
Joseph Young 

The One Hundred and Fifty-fifth infantry 
was organized at Indianapolis, April 18, 
1865, with John M. Wilson as colonel. Com- 
pany I was principally from St. Joseph coun- 
ty, while several other companies had St. 
Joseph county men in their ranks. Those 
from this countv were: 

Mahlon W. Auten 
Andrew Aspey 
James Adams 
John F. Anderson 
William Bassett 
Henry Berg 
Wm. C. Blyler 
Chas. H. Bell 
Lewis V. Bailey 
Alexander Bonday 
Alexander J. Bodkin 
Samuel Byerly, Jr. 
Jerry W. Chenay 
Joseph Cotton 
John Creed 
Theodore Eppley 
Geo. M. Ebberson 
Frederick Flagle 
Celestine Galling 
Henry C. Hahn 
Peter Hosier 
Wm. J. Harris 
Stephan Hager 
Charles Hall 
Gottfrey Heinzman 
John M. Keiner 
Wm. KoUar 
BenJ. B. Kimble 
Frederick Laflore 
David M. Miller 
Albert Meikel 
Chas. L. Metzger 
John T. Morgan 
Alfred Metzger 
Stephen Moore 
Thomas Monhue 
Wayne McMichael 
Peter McManus 

Leonldas Norris 
Henry Nicholson 
Joseph S. Ordway 
Oliver Ferry 
Charles Ferry 
Henry C. Fenwell 
Wm. H. Fierce 
David R. Roof 
Henry Rouch 
Salathiel Reeves 
Jacob Rinehart 
Wm. A. Robinson 
Alanson Ross 
Josiah F. Smyser 
David Stevens 
Robt M. Sample 
Chas. A. Simpson 
Daniel Stonebille 
Frederick Smith 
Ephraim Schwin 
Chas. C. Staples 
Francis Sauls 
John W. Treanor 
William Turner 
Wm. H. Thomas 
Henry H. Varney 
Nathan Vanderhoof 
John H. Woofter 
David T. Webb 
George Webb 
Abraham Webber 
Frank Waner 
Simeon Watklns 
Geo. V. Williams 
Samuel G. Welton 
Wm. B. Whitmore 
Nathan Tingst 

John Heckathorn Adam Slough 

Geo. W. Holmes Michael Slough 

John Ketring 


Krandall G. Kidder 
Elijah MUls 
James Martin 
William McGowan 
Thomas Singleton 
Noah Smith 
James Six 
John Taylor 
Jeremiah Wood 

(Jeorge A. Anderson 
F. J. Beckwith 
Alfred A. Butler 
Peter Cummins 
Robert dark 
Wm. W. Evans 
George Herrman 
Abraham Heller 
Avllda Hardy 
David Haseldon 

The following were the promotions: Alex- 
ander J. Bodkin, from private to sergeant; 
David M. Miller, from private to sergeant; 
William A. Robinson, from private to ser- 
geant ; Josiah P. Smyser, from private to ser- 
greant; William Turner, from private to ser- 
preant; Andrew Aspey, from private to cor- 

Digitized by 




poral; John T. Morgan, from private to cor- 
poral; Peter MeManus, from private to cor- 
poral; Joseph S. Ordway, from private to 
corporal; Daniel Stonebill, from private to 
corporal ; Henry Berg, from private to musi- 
cian; Greorge V. Williams, from private to 

The Twelfth cavalry was organized at Ken- 
dallville, March 1, 1864, with Edward Ander- 
son as colonel. Company H and a few mem- 
bers of other companies were from this coun- 
ty. This was the only cavalry organization in 
which St. Joseph county was represented. The 
raster is as follows : 


Amos Dayhuff, Captain. 

Joseph Turnock, Lieutenant. 

Henry R. Fields, Lieutenant 


David Vaumerdstrand 
Lewis Viney 
Delos M. Woodbury 
Alden Whitney 
William Wood 
John Wood 

George W. Wright 
Solomon S. Woollet 
Lee Watkins 
Jos. Wilcoxson 
Reinhold Zweite 

Wm. Augustine 
David Augustine 
Aaron E. Abdill 
Joseph S. Abdill 
BenJ. J. Bamhart 
Leander N. Ball 
Wilber W. Ball 
Hansom M. Beck 
David Baker 
Strong Beer 
Alexis S. Brown 
Erastus Brown 
James M. Brown 
William Crumb 
Luther Curtis 
Andrew Curtis 
Henry Crocker 
Thomas Claffy 
Daniel H. Cotton 
John Clark 
Daniel M. Castellen 
Wm. Carpent&r 
Andrew J. Caruthers 
Daniel N. Dressier 
Enoe Durst 
Chas. A. Dewey 
Madison Donaldson 
Philip E. Ditto 
Wm. T. Diltz 
William P. Ells 
Geo. H. Eddy 
Mozier Frazier 
Oliver R. Pulmer 
Amos Friend 
Wm. L. Green 
Chas. B. Graham 
James W. Goit 
John Herman 
Peter W. Herman 
Reuben Herman 
Noah Hay 

Daniel Hollingshead 
Wm. Harlin 

Martin Hillard 
Henry Hausman 
Benj. F. Hague 
Seraphine Krill 
Daniel P. Kelley 
Jos. E. Liggit 
Jos. Kj, Leggitt 
Frederick Long 
Horton McNabb 
Josiah Morrow 
Marcus L. Miller 
Lewis C. McBride 
Adam Maudlin 
Richard Maxwell 
Jas. F. McDanlel 
Jacob Martin 
George W. McQuiston 
Fred D. Metz 
John Noel 
Robert H. Nler 
Jacob B. Ocker 
Jerome Pippenger 
Alexander Penrod 
Franklin Patridge 
Malachi Pool 
Wm. M. Reece 
Geo. Rittig 
Edward Reggion 
Martin G. Robinson 
Joseph Schock 
Jacob Summey 
Benjamin Scholtz 
Nehemiah Smith 
Jacob Smith 
David H. Smith 
Martin Swyhart 
Grin J. Simpson 
Jerome Shamp 
Samuel J. Staffer 
John Sheaks 
Sanford Sheaks 
Chas. Throckmorton 
John Tank 

William Harris 
George W. Mann 
Francis Mitchell 


Wm. H. B. Turner 
Christian Tank 
Emerson Woodbury 
Edwin Turnock, oaptain. 
Enoch Lancaster llobert Vandoosen- 

Frederick Newman Daniel Vandoosen 

But six companies of the regiment were 
mounted, and all were armed as infantry until 
the arrival of the regiment at Louisville, 
where cavalry arms were issued to the mount- 
ed companies. One of the mounted companies 
was Company H. The companies were in 
camp of instruction at Nashville for three 
weeks and started for Huntsville, Alabama, 
May 29, 1864. The duty assigned to the 
Twelfth was the protection of the railroads 
against bands of guerrillas and bushwhackers, 
with whom there were numerous skirmishes. 
On September 15, 1864, the regiment reported 
to Major-General Milroy at Tullahoma and 
was assigned to the defense of that post. 
Three of the mounted companies — C, D, and 
H — took part in the defense of Huntsville 
against Forrest, October 1, 1864. Upon the 
evacuation of Tullahoma, November 26, 1864, 
the regiment proceeded to Murfreesboro and 
took part in the battles of Wilkinson's Pike 
and Overall's Creek and in other skirmishes 
and then went into winter quarters at Nash- 
ville, where it was assigned to the second 
brigade, seventh division, cavalry corps. On 
February 11, 1865, the regiment embarked for 
New Orleans, but subsequently was ordered 
to disembark at Vicksburg to go on a raid 
along the Mobile and Ohio railroad. This 
order also was countermanded and the regi- 
ment again embarked for New Orleans, whence 
it proceeded to Navy Cove, Mobile Bay, and 
reported to Major-General Canby. On April 
17, 1865, after the fall of Mobile, the regi- 
ment reported to General Grierson, and, under 
command of Major William H. Calkins, took 

Digitized by 




. part in the raid of over eight hundred miles 
through Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi, 
arriving at Columbus, in the last state, May 
28, 1865. The regiment was thereafter en- 
gaged at and around Columbus, Grenada, 
Austin and other points in Mississippi, until 
its muster out at Vicksburg in November, 
after which it arrived at Indianapolis, Novem- 
ber .16, 1865. The members were finally 
paid and received their discharges November 
22, 1865. 

Five members of Company H died from 
wounds and six from disease. The promo- 
tions were: Joseph Tumock, from first lieu- 
tenant to captain ; Henry R. Fields, from sec- 
ond lieutenant to first lieutenant; Alden 

_ Whitney, from private to second lieutenant; 
Daniel N. Dressier, from private to second 
lieutenant, then to first lieutenant; Hansom 
M. Beck, from private to second lieutenant; 
William Augustine, from private to sergeant ; 
Josiah Morrow, from private to sergeant; 
William M. Reece, from private to sergeant; 
Daniel M. Castellen, from private to quarter- 
master sergeant; John Noel, from private to 
commissary sergeant; Andrew J. Caruthers, 
from private to bugler; David Augustine, 
from private to corporal ; David Baker, from 
private to corporal; Daniel H. Cotton, from 
private to corporal; Peter W. Hermaij, from 
private to corporal; George W. Wright, from 
private to corporal. 

The Twenty-first Battery, light artillery, 
was principally made up from St. Joseph and 
Laporte counties. It was mustered into the 
service at Indianapolis, September 9, 1862, 
with William W. Andrew as captain. Those 
who enlisted from St. Joseph county were as 
follows : 

William E. Chess, Second Lieutenant 
Alfred B. Miller, Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Henry C. Balrd Wm. M. Whitten 

Geo. P. Hicks 

Joseph Young David B. Miller 

David M. Lobdell Frank Pennwell 

Wm. H. H. Rltter Lewis Keller 

William Gross 
George P. Corey, Bugler. 


Welchom Bernhart Martin M. Miller 

James E. Blake Addison McNabb 

Wesley Barrett Ezra F. McNabb 

BenJ. Coonley George Meyer 

Jay S. Carpenter John J. Meyer 

William H. Dodd John Mather 

Absalom Gibson Willard Orvis 

Geo. B. Gibson Simon P. Peffley 

James H. Green Alexander Peak 

Edward M. Green Jeremiah Ryan 

Wm. S. Hoover Daniel Roof 

Elijah H. Hartzell David M. Ritter 

Hiram E. Hardman Marcus D. Ritter 

Benj. P. Huff Thos. J. Slick 

Wm. H. Huff Peter Schafer 

Aaron HufT Eugene Siexas 

Edw. P. Holloway John H. Shank 

John A. Heintzman Chas. J. Taylor 

James A. Johnson Ami H. Tarbell 

Henry Johnson John Vandom 

Jos. Keasey, Jr. Prosper Wagoner 

Jas. D. Kent Augustus Wickely 


S. Brandenburg Geo. W. Llnd 

John Blyler Geo. McCrary 

Allen Balin Benjamin Murphy 

Frederick Bills Jas. T. McCarty 

N. J. Bernhard John McCombe 

Jas. E. Busett Lambert McCombe 

W. H. n. Bonebrake Chas. P. Metcalf 

Franklin Best Charles Maurer 

Wm. G. Cease Geo. W. Orvls 

Samuel Casteter Peter Osborne 

Richard Cummings William Pool 

Geo. A. Dodd Henry Peters 

John B. Drury Alvah B. Putnam 

Lewis T. Eads Wm. Phinney 

Patrick J. Gorman Jacob Reidlnger 

John Hoose Isaac Runnion 

Wm. C. Heck Alexander Staples 

J. W. Ingersoll Henry Staples 

Samuel Jennings Mark Sandmeir 

Jonathan Knepp Thomas SoUenburger 

John Kleindinst Peter Vogle 

Daniel Kindlg Henry Woolman 

Cyrenius Keller Jesse W. Whiteman 

Jacob Karcher Thomas J. West 

Anthony Lamarind John White 

The Twenty-first Battery was occupied in 
Kentucky opposinpr Kirby Smith until Febru- 
ary 2, 1863, when it proceeded to Nashville 
and Carthage, Tenijessee. It took part in an 
expedition to Rome, Georgia, where there were 
skirmishes with the enemy, March 19 and 20, 
1863, after which it returned to Carthagre and 
engaged in many other expeditions and skir- 
mishes from that point. On June 3, 1863, the 
battery proceeded to join Reynolds* division 
of Rosecrans' army at Murfreesboro, and took 
part in the campaign against Chattanooga 
and also participated in the battle of Chieka- 
mauga and in the storming of Missionary 

Digitized by 




Ridge. During the summer of 1864, it was 
engaged at different points against Forrest, 
and on Hood's advanee moved to Nashville, 
where it rendered effective service December 
15 and 16, 1864. On June 21, 1865, the bat- 
tery arrived at Indianapolis, to be mustered 
out of service. The Twenty-first Battery went 
out with one hundred and forty-one men and 
five officers and received sixty-nine recruits. 
The losses were : Killed in action, two ; died 
of wounds, one; died of accidental injury, 
two ; died of disease, twenty-one. The promo- 
tions were: William E. Chess, from second 
lieutenant to first lieutenant; William M. 
Whitten, from sergeant to second lieutenant ; 
Alfred B. Miller, from quartermaster sergeant 
to second lieutenant. 

There were numerous others soldiers from 
St. Joseph county in other Indiana organ- 
izations, and indeed in the organizations of 
other states, particularly Ohio, Michigan and 
Illinois, but it is believed that the foregoing 
lists contain the names of those that belonged 
to distinct organizations from this county. 
Several soldiers from this county are said to 
have been in the Twenty-third Indiana in- 
fantry. There were also during the period of 
service occasional transfers from one regiment 
to another, chiefly in cases where recruits in a 
regiment were required to serve out their time 
after the rest of the regiment had been mus- 
tered out. In the Fifteenth infantry, for ex- 
ample, there was such a transfer to the Seven- 
teenth mounted infantry. There were also 
transfers to the Forty-eighth from the 
Twelfth, Eighty-third, Ninety-seventh, Nine- 
ty-ninth, and perhaps also other like trans- 
fers. In this way discrepancies in the state- 
ments as to membership in different organ- 
izations may in many cases be accounted for. 

Sec. 2. The Roll op Honor. — The follow- 
ing list gives, so far as can be ascertained, 
the names odf soldiers of all wars, from the 
war of the Revolution to the war with Spain, 
whose bodies are interred in St. Joseph 
county cemeteries, and also soldiers from this 

Vol. IT— » 

county whose bodies are buried in southern 

graves : 

Peter Roof, Sr. 
Isaac Robs. 
WAR OP 1812. 

Artemus Johnson 
Peter Johnson 
John Mack, Sr. 
Jesse K. Platz 
Jehu Meredith 
Peter Roof, Jr. 
Olayboume Smith 
John Sample 

Thomas J. Allen 
John B. Chandonia 
Daniel Cottrell 
Ransom Curtis 
Theophlus Case 
Archibald Defrees 
Christopher Emerick 
Daniel Heck 
Christopher Lenz 

Henry J. Blowney John Pendl 

John H. Fisher John B. Raymond 

George F. Frank William S. Saunders 

Hugh L. Hinds Albert Steinbeck 

Edwin T. Lucado Eugene N. B. Sweetland 

John Owen Frank X. Vilare 

Moses Peltier 


John Auten 
John E. Alexander 
Theodore Allen 
Andrew Aspy 
Wm. Aerhart 
Allen G. Austin 
Chas. H. Applegate 
W. S. Anderson 
Alpheus F. Baer 
Nelson C. Baker 
Lewis Barr 
Samuel T. Barr 
Wesley Barrett 
Sanford D. Beals 
John Becraft 
Daniel Bedger 
Charles L. Brenhard 
Varnum O. Birdsell 
Henry J. Blowney 
Charles Brehmer, Sr. 
Peter Brewer 
/Henry Brown 
George W. Bucher 
William H. Bulla 
John Bush 
Louis Benz 
Charles Buysse 
H. W. Bell 
Jesse Bridgeman 
H. H. Buck 
A. Byers 
H. C. Bond 
Samuel V. Black 
Orlando Babcock 
Wyman Baxter 
Charles Brockway 
David Brlggs 
H. C. Baird 
C. C. Brown 
R. D. Buchanan 
Jared Berger 
Johnson B. Oole 


David Cole 
Benjamin Coonley 
James K. Custer 
Alonzo B. Clifford 
David B. Creviston 
Peter Cimmerman 
Benjamin Calloway 
Edward Walter Curtis 
Stephen Davenport 
Daniel Dayton 
William A. Dillon 
Stephen D. Dodds 
John W. Duffleld 
George Dodd 
William H. Dodd 
William A. Duey 
William Eaker 
Milton G. Ebberson 
Norman Eddy 
James Ellis 
John Emberlin 
George Embick 
John Elbel 
LeRoy Eastwood 
Thomas Eller 
Joseph Eaker 
Owen M. Eddy 
Lewis Eller 
Alexander Emberlin 
John Felty 
Franklin A. Finch 
Henry Fisher 
Samuel L. Fisher 
Joseph W. Fowler 
David Frymire 
Samuel Finch 
Frederick Fazer 
Franklin A. Fisk 
Ananias Forst 
Alonzo J. Foster 
John R. Gerhart 
William G. George 

Digitized by 




WiUlam Gibson 
Alexander B. Goodrich 
James S. Greene 

D. W. Gardner 
Edward D. Geer 
Frederick Goller 
Peter Glassman 
Charles Hadley 
Levi J. Ham 
George H. Hanson 
Josiah W. Hambleton 
Prank A. Hardman 
Jacob Hardman 
Fazllo A. Harrington 
George W. Hart 
George Hehr 
Andrew Helnzman 
Samuel Hlgginbotham 
W. 0. Henry 

Wm. Helm 
Theodore Hull 
Ernest Hoffman 
Absalom Holman 
Israel Hogue 
Edward P. HoUoway 
John W. Hoover 
Noah H. Howard 
William Huey 
Louis Humphreys 
Henry Hollowell 
William Heck 
James Holland 
Henry Herring 
Gotlieb Hartman 
H. A. Harger 
Frederick W. Haase 
David C. Hogue 
Robert Hardy 
William Harlin 

E. K. Isenogle 
D. A. Ireland 

D. Frank Jaquith 
Henry Johnson 
Joseph Keasey 
Cyrenus Keller 
George T. Keller 
James Kimball 
Emanuel Kinzey 
Henry Kuney 
James A. Knevels 
Harry J. Kellogg 
Lewis Keller 
Joseph S. Kenyon 
Benjamin B. Kimble 
William Keasey 
John M. Koonsman 
Daniel P. Kelley 
Abram Kintner 
James D. Kent 
Henry Lantz 
Jefferson Laughlin 
Albert T. Lee 
Henry J. Lengel 
Oassius C. Lewis 
John Long 
Jasper E. Lewis 
Cyrus Lantz 
Samuel Lockhard 
August Lamadee 

James C. Marvin 
T. T. MatUock 
George W. Miller 
Alex. McCannon 
James Minzey 
Benjamin F. Morrill 
John T. Morgan 
Samuel Moritz 
Louis McGill 
Charles L. Murray 
Samuel Moore 
John McBain 
George H. Murphy 
Jacob W. Miller 
Abner Mitchell 
William Mifflin 
Wm. E. Murray 
Daniel W. Miller 
Davi(} B. Miller 
A. P. Matthews 
Ezra McNabb 
Ruel Newton 
William Nunnelly 
Joseph S. Ordway 
Victor Ochee 
John Owens 
Alexander Peak 
Ira Payne 
EJdward J. Perry 
Lewis C. Peterman 
William Pool 
C. W. Price 
Jacob Platz 
John M. Pierce 
David M. Pugh 
Henry Palmer 
J. M. Parsons 
Moses Pyke 
Charles C. Parker 
Eugene E. Payne 
John Poff 
Harvey W. Perkins 
Elijah Powell 
Thomas B. Roberts 
William Rogers 
Jonathan Runyan 
John Robinson 
John Richert 
Christ. Rindlespacher 
Francis C. Roe 
John Reed 
Ethan S. Reynolds 
Hanford T. Roberts 
Robert Sample 
Daniel C. Schenck 
Henry Schamel 
Oliver Slusser 
John N. Shackelton 
Robert D. Shelpman 
Charles Shetlock 
Frank J. Stimson 
Riley Stillson 
Henry Stites 
Francis A. Stover 
Henry A. Sweet 
William Smith 
Isaac Steeley 
Joseph S. Shirley 
John K. Seltzer 

John Sample 
Henry Shopbach 
Joseph Smizer 
Edson Spencer 
Clark Skinner 
Charles W. Scott 
David F. Spain 
J. M. Smith 
M. I. Shaeffer 
John D. Stormer 
Henry Swintz 
Joseph W. Taylor 
William C. Thayer 
Janes Thomson 
Ephraim C. Trueblood 
Edward Tumock 
Theodore A. Terrill 
David Van Horn 
Lewis T. Van Nest 
David Van Ordstrand 

Alfred B. Wade 
Robert Wade 
Edward Walbum 
Charles Walterhouse 
Mark Whinery 
Daniel Whitman 
Henry Woolman 
John Worley 
George Williams 
Aaron Walterhouse 
Orlando S. WitherUl 
Chester Wardlaw 
John G. Wagner 
David Witner 
Henry H. Ward 
Jacob D. Williams 
Samuel U. Waldo 
Scott Whitman 
Joseph Young 
Henry Young 


Albert Frame 
Henry Herring, Jr. 
Harry O. Perkins 
John bmith 
Clarence A. Wade 
Norman Eddy Weldon 
Rivervieto Cemetery, 
Martin Audleman 
Enoch Buckels 
A. M. Bums 
Andrew J. Chrlsman 
George DeLabar 
Jacob Deviney 
John G. Given 

Bowman Cemetery, 

Adolph Hess 
Christopher Maas 
John McCombs 
Alf. B. Miller 
J. F. Morehouse 
Leonidas Norris 
Michael Pfeister 
Carl Sherman 
J. Edward Skillman 
John M. Stettler 
Ami H. Tarbell 
Timothy G. Turner 
John G. Williamson 

Chas. Bruce 
Benjamin Duck 
Geo. W. Green 
Zack Garrett 
Alpheus B. Haney 
James W. Hunt 
Henry H. Howard 
Francis M. Ives 
Hiram E. Jackson 
William Kollar 
George Liphart 
William McBroom 
Jacob L. Mason 

Moses Punches 
Wm. Ragan 
Samuel Robbins 
Adam Scheerer 
Frederick F. Smith 
Daniel Stonehill 
B. F. Smith 
Alexander Scott 
Andrew F. Tipton 
Henry Wenger 
John Wentworth 
John Winter 
John Zumstine 

Hebrew Cemetery, 
Abraham Kahn Michael Levy 

Cedar Orove, 

Joseph Archambeault 
Zebulon Barnard 
Herbert Bernard 
Charles Bertrand 
John A. Beglin 
Edward Beyerley 
John E. Blaine 
Samuel Beyerley 
Casper Bowers 
Peter Brothers 
Xavier Boudry 
Zebedee Barnard 
Moses Betn 
Zebedee Beaudway 
Frank Coquillard 
Sylvanus Clay 
Peter Davis 

Peter Donahue 
Michael Dolan 
John Decker 
Nick Fritzer 
Michael Graham 
John Glenning 
CSarl Haverly 
Thomas M. Howard 
Martin Hllliard 
Thomas Hoban 
John Hughes 
Patrick Hughes 
John Jones 
Edward Kennedy 
Daniel P. Kelley 
John Le Fevre 
Augustine Lario 

Digitized by 




Charles Leschoir 
Denmis Lyons 
Louis Lario 
James Long 
Patrick McLaughlin 
David Mofflt 
Stephen Moore 
George McCreary 
Henry H. Meeker 
Barney Nelson 
Joseph Omea 
Dennis O'Malley 
John O'Ragan 
Justin OcHet 

Moses Peltier 
John Pendl 
Peter E. .Quinlan 
William P. ReyncUds 
Peter Rane 
William Ryan 
William Riffle 
Wm. Seifert 
James Smith 
Francis H. Schmaltz 
John Smithly 
John W. Treanor 
Francis X. Vllare 
Paul Weigel 

Community Cemetery at Notre Dame. 

Rev. William Corby 
Rev. Joseph Leveque 
Rev. P. E. Quillen 
Rev. Joseph C. Carrier* 

Rev. J. P. Bourget 
Rev. James Dillon 
Rev. J. M. Biartin 
Rev. Paul Qillen 
Rev. Peter P. Cooney 

Harris Prairie Cemetery 
Samuel Pardee Peter Schafer 

Tutt Cemetery, 
Lewis Fulkerson Elias Lei^h 

Palmer Prairie Cemetery 
Jacob B. Metz John Reidenauer 

Qeorge Reasor Thomas Robertson 

Van Buakirk Cemetery 

Elijah James Palmer 

XJllery Cemetery, 
Asa Jones Henry Wagner 

Albert Steinbeck 

Mt. Pleasant Cemetery, 

William R. Ross 
John B. Roys 
A. M. Smith 
Clayboum Smith 
John I, Smith 

Artemus Johnson 
Samuel W. Holderman 
Christopher Lenta 
MarUn M. Miller 
Mordecai M. Price 
John Ritter 

Bweet Cemetery, 
Prosper M. Wagener David R. Cripe 

Dunkard Cemetery, 
James E. Black William F. Page 

John QlasB 

St. Joseph County Soldiers in Southern Graves, 

Henry J. Ashley 
Edwin A. Bartlett 
Frederick Bedger 
Benjamin J. Bowman 
Samuel Bowers 
Robert Boyd 
John Brewer 
John Brittenham 
Thomas Brown 
James E. Blake 
Chas. W. Clemens 
Gregory H. Cotton 
Thos. Claffey 
Herman Durst 
John Drake 
Wm. P. ElUs 
James P. Finley 
Wm. Fulmer 
Wm. C. Fluckey 
Solomon H. Fountain 
Janies L. Gillen 
Albert C. Green 

Wm. J. Gibbons 
Geo. B. Gibson 
Edmund Harris 
George F. Hicks 
James Higgins 
Michael Hennessey 
Alexander Kimble 
Comrade King 
Michael Laudenberger 
Ephraim T. Lane 
Simeon Linebeck 
Sheffield Lucia 
George Mayer 
Benjamin Markel 
Benjamin Murphy 
Frederick D. Metz 
Brastus Munger 
Henry Mapes 
John J. Mapes 
Wm. H. Maughermar 
Jacob Martin 
John Martin 

Elias Miller 
Isaac Miller 
Miles H Miller 
Caleb Mangus 
Henry Moon 
Michael McDonald 
Horton McNabb 
James Norman 
Hiram Pierson 
Geo. Paul 
Stanton Porter 
John B. Price 
John V. Quigley 
Joseph Robinson 
Eli Rockhill 
Martin E. Robinson 
Ashbury Ritter 
Jasper N. Rockhill 
Lemuel Roseberry 
Wm. B. Replogle 

John Ryan 
Fred Secor 
Daniel L. Shanks 
Frederick Steiner 
Samuel M. Shepley 
Jas. B. Streets 
Joseph Schutt 
Daniel Shearer 
Joseph Shinewa 
Daniel B. Steiner 
Jacob Sipes 
George Sharp 
James M. Slusser 
Moses Teel 
John M. Thompson 
William Trueblood 
Calvin Watkins 
John Weir 
Jesse Whitman 
Michael Woolett 

Wab op 1812. 
Olive Chapel Cemetery, 
Harry Bennett Dudley Taylor 

Jacob Culp Robert Vandusen 

Hamilton Cemetery. 
John Cooper Joshua Keene 

David Dalrymple John Lane 

Gabriel Druliner Leonard Rush 

Moses Ivins Jacob White 

William D. Jones Virgil Reynolds 

New. Carlisle Cemetery. 
Ctoorge Morris Richard Cranmer 

Maple Orove Cemetery. 
William Knight John Ranger 

Indian Wars. 
Hamilton Cemetery, 
William Burden Elias Eaton 

Samuel Reynolds 

Fred Druliner 

Revolutionary Wab. 
Hamilton Cemetery. 

James Ranstead 
John N. Slane 
John V. Wrtght 
Andrew Campbell 
Wm. H. Graves 
Enoch Vandusen, Jr. 
Enoch Vandusen, Sr. 
John N. Slane 
Daniel Vandusen 

Wab of the 

Olive Chapel 
Israel Barker 
John T. Gulp 
William L. Campbell 
Forman Fradenburg 
Benjamin F. Hooten 
Robert C. Hall 
John F. Lane 
Stephen Pamell 
John A. Rank 

Hamilton Cemetery. 
Llewellyn Faurote Lewis Parker 

David Elaton Samuel J. Reid 

George Luther Lorenzo Service 

John McCurdy Michael Unruh 

New Carlisle Cemetery. 
Geo. A. Loomis John Shank 

John Leyda Isaac A. Wilder 

Jacob Miller Philip Bruch 

John Nickols Henry Dudley 

Chas. L. Buhland Elias R. Brockway 

John C. Williams Benj. F. Huff 

Digitized by 




Henry J. Miller 
John Batterson 
Lorenzo Renfro 
William H. Deacon 

Wm. T. Flanegin 
John C. Coulter 
Obediah Walker 
G^o. N. Stearns 
Joseph Sutton 

Hudson Cemetery. 
John C. Hale Seymour Sprague 

Alonzo Thompson 

Maple Orove Cemetery. 
John W. Carrier MaJ. D. Solloway 

Boot-Jack Cemetery. 
Abraham Shaw 

Terrill and Plainfield Cemeteries. 
Irwin Kelsey Daniel Burdick 

Ferrisville Cemetery, 
Jonathan Knepp Samuel Martel 

Loyous Leslie Peter Schafer 


Roll of Honor of Houghton Post No. 128, G. A. R., 

Department of Indiana. 

William F. Allen 
James Anderson 
Frank M. Andrews 
William Ansen 
Theodore Allen 
John W. Aldrich 
Henry Arthur 
George Arthur 
Benj. Anderson 
William Bell 
Constantine Beiter 
Daniel U. Baker 
Peter Baulden 
Geo. H. Bloomer 
John D. Barber 
Henry Baugh 
Benjamin Bonney 
Robert L. Boyd 
Samuel Boston 
Thomas Brown 
Frederick Bedker 
Col. Newton Bingham 
Orren Bullow 
John C. Beglin 
Jacob H. Bell 
Geo. H. Beaslnger 
Frank Bingham 
Benjamin Barnhart 
Charles Berger 
Henry l! Badger 
John Bartell 
Abraham Boys 
Nathan Boys 
W. W. Butterwort!i 
John Boner 
Hobart Bennett 
Geo. W. Brown 
Jacob Brown 
Strong Beers 
David Burrows 
O. W. Baker 
Bamett Byrkit 
Charles E. Burt 
Capt. Wm. H. Cresswell 
William Currier 
James Clements 
John Cook 
Wm. Chapin 

John Cooper 
W. O. Oarlton 
Christian Coppler 
Wm. Creager 
Seth Clark 
Solomon Close 
Wm. H. Collins 
Geo. Crakes 
J. W. Crane 
W. 0. Clark 
Wm. Cushaw 
A. H. Carpenter 
WnL Caldwell, Sr. 
Michael Ditech 
Adam Dellman 
Jacob Dellman 
Darius Dawley 
George Doolittle 
John Doolittle 
James Dixon 
Peter Elsie 
Jacob Edinger 
Samuel Ernsberger 
Allison B. Edwards 
George Edinger 
C. H. Eberhart 
Seth G. Eggleston 
Albert W. Fenton 
Geo. O. Finch 
Geo. E. Fenton 
W. A. :^ralick 
Levi Flory 
Martin Fulmer 
Horace B. Fitch 
Samuel Gardner 
F. M. Gllman 
W. B. Gilman 
Ebert Gay 
George Guibert 
Henry C. Greenleaf 
Adoniram Gill 
Felix Grundy 
George Geyer 
W. S. Gardheffner 
M. Grenert 
Henry Gilbert 
Capt Jas. Houghton 
Jonas Hoover 

William Heiner 
Adam Heckathorn 
Peter Hemminger 
Capt. J. M. Holliday 
Kile Heman 
Frederick Hetzell 
William E. Harrington 
David G. Helss 
Louis A. Holliday 
Edmond Harris 
Charles Hadley 
William C. Hopkins 
Hiram Hopkins 
Elam Heiss 
Spencer Hagerty 
Charles M. Hanvil 
John T. Hemminger 
Henry C. Hager 
Robert M. Hall 
Levi Hoke 
Solomon Hagey 
Henry Heiner 
Philip Hagey 
Gottlieb Hetzell 
William Halpin 
E. D. Harmon 
Emmet Ham 
Daniel Hollingshead 
Thomas Hemminger 
William Holsinger 
Eldwin Ham 

E, F. Howser 
Fred Heiser 
P. E. Jennings 
Ira Jones 
Peter Jansen 
Daniel Judie 
William A. Judkins 
Thomas Kirkwood 
Henry M. Keeny 
John Kamm 
George Klotz 
John E. Keile 
John D. Klink 
Martin B. Kyle 
Levi Kyle 

Henry Lamer 
Frederick Leschoir 
Thomas S. Long 
J. M. Long 
Charles Long 
Frederick Long 
William T. Leslie 
J. M. Manwaring 
Jesse Miller 
David Motts 
Edward S. McCurry 
William W. Manning 
Solomon Michael 

F. W. Matthews 
Casper nday 
John Michael 
D. Myers 
Henry Myers 
Jacob Motz 
Casper Moyer 
DeWitte C. Morse 
Crawford McDonald 
Richard Maxwell 

James McLane 
William McQuUlen 
Wallace Mcintosh 
Edwin Michael 
J. F. McMichael 
W. W. Moore 
F. B. Mix 
Marion McKnight 
James Menzie 
M. L. Miller 
J. P. Mosher 
John Marks 
L. J. Needham 
Michael Nusbaum 

A. C. Norton 
Francis A. Norwood 
Alonzo Oliver 
Jonas Odell 

Lieut. Seth B. Parks 
Capt. J. M. Pettit 

B. Pegg 
Selah Pickett 
Robert Parks 
L. Plckard 
Henry Perry 
Charles O. Pussey 
Henry S. Plumb 
George A. Potter 
William Pettit 
Newman Perkins 
Frederick Powell 
Kane Pillson 
George Perry 
John H. Quigg 
Eli Rockwell 
Charles Ruple 
Charles Reynolds 
Joseph Rodgers 
George W. Rosenbaugh 
David Riffle 

Wlllard Rockwell 
Frederick Rockstraw 
Albert Ruple 
Lewis Ray 
Wallace W. Roper 
L. K. Robinson 
William Stolzenberger 
Levi P. Snuer 
Benjamin Smith 
Sergt. Elmer Smith 
John Sandels 
John Sumpstine 
Albert Shearly 
Harrison Shearer 
Thomas Slain 
Patrick Shields 
David Sweitzer 
Jacob Shearer 
John Steward 
Clark C. Stevens 
John Sandilands 
O. W. Smith 
Lieut. Anton Sherman 
George G. Sweeney 
Joseph Stonebrook 
Ellas Shearer 
J. W. Seidel 
James A. Stuckey 
Henry Seese 

Digitized by 




Jacob Slauterbeck 
Andrew Swintz 
Valentine Smelts 
John Sudors 
L. E. Sibley 
James Sandllands 
Winfleld S. Tabor 
James Tharp 
John Taylor 
D. R. Ungery 
John Ungery 
William C. Vamey 
John Van Riper 
Bradford Van Riper 
Emannel Weltzell 
Louis B. Wllklow 
Israel H. Wlckham 
Isaac Whooper 
George Westfall 


Joseph Woods 
J. N. Wlckham 
A. S. Williams 
Isaiah Woodslde 
Evestus Washburn 
Marcus Washburn 
Richard Wlnlngs 
John Waldfogle 
Silas Young 
Relnbolt Zwlte 
Aaron Zellers 
Richmond Tuttle 
Frederick Swartz 
John Meader 
David Griggs 
Abel DoolltUe 
Daniel Crull 
JAmes Howard 

Albion A. Williams 
Henry Qulgley 
Benjamin Shultz 
Peter Stombaugh 
Christian Pulmer 
John Craln 
Henry Cruthers 
Joseph Bowen 
Joseph Oaudle 
John Hlldebrand 
William Shultz 
Zebedee James 
Nehemlah Smith 
Conrad Swank 
William Eells 

Jessie Palmer 
Hiram Rowan 
George Lorlng 
Joseph H. Legett 
Charles F. Arnold 
William Bloomfleld 
Benjamin Ross 
Elijah T. Lee 
Jason Hlldreth 
Ell T. Heater 
William H. Hostetler 
John Heath 
Ferguson Plance 
Dr. John Lorlng 
Jacob Leltner 

Wab of 1812. 
Henry Augustine 

Wab of the 
Alford Abbott 
James Curtis 
David Crouch 
Joseph McDonnell 
John DeBoys 
John Daugherty 
William GorsUne 
Jodah Gromons 
John Canlda 
Dennlson Pierce 
AmoB Roberts 
John Steele 
Daniel Leeper 
Frank Crouch 
William H. Long 
Richard Golt 
H. M. Mlntle 
Benjamin Miller 
John Llndsey 
J. M. B. Glbberson 

Henry Clayton 

Michael Valentine Asa Knott 

Michael Loy James George 

Daniel Rudduck John Antrim 

Frederick Stelner John Woofter 

Daniel Rowell 
J. L. Beatty 
Isaac Ealy 
Norman Monroe 
Moses Harschberger 
Philip Weller 
George E. Warner 
H. H. Brown 
Enoch Allen 
A. Heller 
Levi Grain 
Benton Teapol 
Lewis Rlnehart 
William Teapol 
William DeMyer 
Isaac Pofflnbarger 
M. R. Burger 
J. H. Jackson 
John McDanlel 

Andrew H. Rerrlck 
Samuel Bare 
William Fonts 
.George Swygart 
William Bowen 
John Sousley 
William Bassett 
Mahlon Auten 

Thomas W. McDonald 
Joseph C. Ulery 
Daniel Stevens 
William Llstenberger 
Mahlon Pearson 
Phillip Rhone 
Calvin Sullivan 
Jacob Fritz 

Orris J. Simpson Andrew Allison 

John N. Long James Seward 

Leander Wilder -^ Brace • 

Goodman Truesdale 

John Gushwa John Wajmer 

Jonathan Knepp F. D. Tuttle 

John Luke Comrade Hill 

John M. Guyse James M. Neidhardt 

Capt. Thos. Henderson Robt Anderson Moon 
Paris Henderson Robert James 

Dayton Henderson Jacob Wynn 

Ransom Shamp John Riddle 

, Robert Anderson 

Sec. 3. — The Grand Army op the Repub- 
lic. — The association of the soldiers of the 
Union army for four years, on the march and 
in camp, in success and in defeat, in battle and 
in prison, in health and in sickness, and in the 
final victory for the Union and the constitu- 
tion, resulted in a patriotic affection, which, 
after the return, resulted in an irresistible de- 
sire to meet again, to ** touch elbows,*' as of 
old. The meetings were at first simple re- 
unions of companies, regiments, brigades, di- 
visions, and array corps. After a time many 
of the young men who had been in the army 
together left home and comrades to seek their 
fortunes in other plaxies. Thus it came to 
pass, particularly in the west, that soldiers 
from various localities, and who had served 
in different organizations during the war, 
found themselves living together in the same 
community, and the desire for the companion- 
ship of comrades of the war gradually took 
the place of the old longing for reunions in 
their various organizations. That he was a 
comrade of the war became the equivalent of 
that he was my comrade in the war. The sug- 
gestion, therefore, of a social, semi-military, 
organization, in which local unions of all hon- 
orably discharged soldiers should be formed, 
became at once popular. Hence the origin of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, in which 

Digitized by 




honorably discharged Union soldiers and sail- 
ors of all organizations meet together as com- 
rades, in local posts, in department encamp- 
ments and in the grand national encampment. 
The framer of the original constitution, 
rules and ritual of the Grand Army, was 
Major Benjamin P. Stephenson, of Illinois; 
but the actual organization was eflPected by 
General Robert S. Foster and other Indiana 
comrades. In July, 1866, General Foster, hav- 
ing learned that Major Stephenson had drawn 
up a constitution, rules and ritual, went to 
Springfield, Illinois, and received from him 
manuscript copies and returning to Indiana 
began the organization. Among the first posts 
to organize was Auten Post, in South Bend, 
for many years the only post in northern In- 

diana. This post has another distinctive 
honor. It is the only post in Indiana that 
has continued its organization from the be- 
ginning. For several years, from 1871-2 until 
1879, the department of Indiana and all its 
posts, except Auten Post alone, abandoned 
their organization; Auten Post never ceased 
to meet, elect its officers and observe its other 
duties as a Grand Army post. 

On August 31, 1906 Auten Post celebrated 
the fortieth anniversary of its organization, 
in the presence of the department commander. 
Comrade E. R. Brown, and a large assemblage 
of comrades and citizens. In anticipation of 
that anniversary, the following roster, accom- 
panied by a brief history of the old post, was 
published : 

List of Officers, Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R., from date of Organization. 


1866 L. Humphreys • 

68 Alex. N. Thomas ♦ 

70 Joseph Turnock 

71 W. B. Gorsuch 

72 F. J. Goldman 

73 John Worley • 

74 J. P. Creed 


77 Louis Humphreys • 

78 Geo. Pfleger 

79 Alfred B. Miller • 

80 Edwin Nicar 


84 Elmer Crockett 

85 Jasper R Lewis • 

86 Handf d Roberts • 

87 Jasper E. Lewis • 

88 Cyrus C. Trump 

89 J. H. Loughman 

90 J. M. Pierce < 

91 John Finch 

92 Geo. Coquillard 

93 John S. Steele 

94 Jasper E. Lewis • 

95 J. A. M. LaPIerre 

96 J. G. Greenawalt 

97 Jasper B. Lewis • 

98 John T. Hall 

99 T. B. Howard 
1900 J. M. Dolph 

01 John Hughes < 

02 Joel M. Partridge 

03 John Layton 

04 Wm. A. Liggett 

05 Dan'l N. Dressier 

06 Martin L. Steffey 

07 R. W. Donmoyer 


Phlneas Solomon 

T E. Howard 

T. B. Howard 

A. M. Burns 
Cyrus C. Trump 

J. M. Pierce 
W. H. H. RItter 
Geo. Coquillard 
John S. Steele 
Lemuel Allen 
J. A. M. LaPIerre 
Jno. Caulfleld 
Joe N. Calvert 
Ro. F. Drullnger 
J. M. Dolph 
Henry Schamel 
John Layton 
J. M. Partridge 
F. T. Kemble 
R. W. Donmoyer 
D. N. Dressier 
Benj. F. Yerrick 


Hanford Roberts 
Thos. T. Matlock 

H. E. Jackson 

J. Waldschmldt 

John S. Steele 

Lemuel Allen 

H. B. Hardy 

Joe. N. Calvert 

R. F. Drullnger 

John T. Hall 

R. W. Donmoyer 

W. A. Liggett 

I. McConnell 
R. W. Donmoyer 
L. T. Stover 
Daniel Burton 
J. S. VanArsdale 



W. N. Severance 

A. B. Wade * 

M. A. Hawks 

J. M. Pierce 

W. B. Gorsuch 

W. C. Smith 


J. H. Shank • 

John H. Leslie 


John Worley • 

W. B. Gorsuch 

J. E. Garle 


John Worley ♦ 



J. G. Greenawalt 



Jasper B. Lewis • 




Henry Bond ♦ 


W. B. Stover 

W. B. Gorsuch 


John T. Kelley 

John Roth 

Jasper E. Lewis • 


W. G. Denman 


James H. Smith 

JAM LaPIerre 

W. H. H. RItter 


James H. Smith 


J. A. M. LaPIerre 

W. E. Gorsuch 

C. W. Scott 

Jno. Kleindinst 

W. G. Denman 


J. T. Kelley 


D. N. Dressier 


L. A. Hull 


John T. Hall 


D. N. Dressier 

H. Schamel • 

John Layton 

Jno. Kleindinst 

Joe Burke 


John T. Hall 


John Lasrton 

M. L. Webster 

J. A. M. LaPIerre 


Digitized by 




List of OfBcers, Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R., Contmned. 






1^94 Martin Beebe 

Joseph Heiser 

Isr. McConnell 

J. li^. VanArsdale 

F. Bills 

95 B. B.Row 


J. S. VanArsdale 

John Finch 


96 J. fi. VanArsdale 

B. B. Row 

Fred T. Kemble 

H. W. Perkins • 

M. L. Stefley 


H. B. Hardy 

Lemuel Allen 

W. A. Liggett 


98 D.N. Dressier 

John Hughes* 

Wm. H. Dodd • 





Fred T. Kemble 

L. D. White 

Dan'lbayton • 

1900 H. R. Backus 



James H. Smith 



Fred T. Kemble 

Frederick Bills 

Joe Burke 

J. M. Partridge 

02 D. B. Miller 

W. A. Uggett 

W. W. Hawkins 





J. M. Dolph 

W. H. Rupe 


W. W. Hawkins 

W. L. Hindman 

Henry Heiser 


05 R. D. Utter 

W. L. Hindman 

H. B. Hardy 


Dr. Clark 

06 F. Barnard 

H. B.Hardy and 
John Hoose 

John Hoose 
Edward Emery 

John Yant 


Roster Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R. 


Adelsperger, Thos. S 

AlUand, B. W 

Adams, James 

Anderson, W. S 

Allen, Lemuel 

Adelsperger, G. W 

Armstrong, David . . . 

Augustine, W. H 

Andreas, W. A 

Bernhard, Jacob 

Ballenger, Chas. H.. 

Bernhard, Fred 

Bills, Frederick 

Burke, Joseph 

Baird, Henry C 

Brewer, Wm. H 

Boyd, Wm. R 

Buckels, Enoch T 

Brown, C. C 

Ball, Wilber 

Bernhard, N. J 

Buckley, John 

Burton, Daniel 

Barnes, T. C 

Brewer, Qeo. W 

Berger, Jared 

Babcock, Wm 

Brewer, Louis 

Bunch, A. J , 

Bernhard, George 

Clark, Comrade Dr. . , 

Creed, J. P % 

Crocker, Henry 

Crane, J. D 

Cutshaw, F. B 

Coll. Frank 

Clee, Jacob F 

Cullar, Simon B 

Donmoyer, R. W 

Dolph, J. M 

Deal, Orange 

Drulinger, R. F 

Dribelbis, Isaac H... 

Dressier, D. N 

DuComb, P. P 

Deitrlch, W. B 














89th Indiana Infantry. 

19th Michigan " 
155th Indiana ** 

15th Indiana 
15l8t Indiana 
164th Ohio 

49th Ohio 

29th Indiana 

39th Illinois 

26th New York " 
128th Indiana 

15th Indiana 

21st Indiana 

29th Indiana 

21st Indiana 

73rd Indiana 
Union D. C. Vol. Infantry. 

48th Indiana Infantry 

9th " " 

12th " Cavalry 

21st " Battery 

160th New York Infantry. . . 

24 th Kentucky Vol 

6th Minnesota Infantry... 

29th Indiana " ... 
1st Pennsylvania Cavalry. 
7th Indiana Cavalry 

29th Indiana Infantry 

9th " " 

26th New York " 


126th New York Infantry. 

12th Indiana Cavalry 

2nd Michigan " 

15th Illinois Infantry. . . 
29th Indiana 

16th Indiana Infantry... 
74th " 

17th Pennsylvania Cavalry 

2ndS. S. 27 Michigan Infantry 

U. S. Signal Corps 

9th Indiana Infantry 

63rd " " 

87th " " 

29th " " 

53rd " " 


South Bend, Ind. 

Mishawaka, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Walkerton, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Lakeville, Ind. 

South Bend, Ind. 
Lakeville, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Lakeville, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Digitized by 




Roster Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R., Continued. 


JDavls, S. B 

EJmery, Edward... 

Bmsberger, J 

Bnglteh, W. H... 

Bberly, T 

Emery, Joe 

Finney, Egbert.. 
Frank, Abner B. 

Felty, John* 

Fritzer, John J.. 

Fritz, Jacob 

Fisher, David... 
Flenn, John B. . 

Flagel, Fred 

Fairchild, G. W. 

Greenawalt, John Q. 

Gillen, Hugh 

Gottfried, Jacob 

Gillman, A. J 

'Jillen, Edward 

Gun tee, Jonah 

Huey, M. G 

Harlin, Wm 

Hawkins, Samuel 

Howard, T. B 

Helser, Henry 

Heiser, Joseph 

Heintzman, A* 

Horner, L 

Mull, L. A 

Hoose, John 

Hoynes, Wm... ...... 

Hendricks, H 

Hardy, H. W. G 

Hall, J. T 

Harman, Jacob 

Hively^ John 

Hardy, H. B* 

Huff, Wm. H 

Heintz, John 

Hindman, Wm. L 

Hawkins, W. W 

Herrlck, B. W 

Hart, J. K 

Ireland, David A*... 

Jaquith, A. D 

Johnston, A. W 

Tohnson, Zack 

Tenning, Samuel 

James, Henry 

Kleindinst, John 

Kent, James D* 

Kemble, Barclay I... 

Kentner, A 

Kemble. F. T 

Key, Simeon 

Leslie. John H 

L#avelle, James 

Layton, John 

Liggett, William A.. 
Lobdell, David M... 
Lapierre, John A. M. 
Liphart, George* 















ytn Illinois cavalry... 
128th Indiana Infantry.. 

2nd Michigan Cavalry. 

1st Indiana 
156th Indiana Infantry.. 
128th " " .. 

73rd Indiana Infantry 

12th IllinoiB Cavalry 

173rd Pennsylvania Infantry. 

48th Indiana 


nth " Oavalry 

147 th " Infantry 

29th " " 

42nd " " 

2nd Iowa Infantry. 
128th Indiana 
48th " 

15th Indiana Infantry 

12th " Cavalry 

8th Michigan " 

12th ** Infantry 

9th Indiana " 

32nd " 

21st Indiana Battery 

2nd Battery R. C. Michigan. . 
Quartermaster Department 

21st Indiana Battery 

20th Wisconsin Infantry 

208th Pennsylvania " 

23rd Indiana " 

Gunboat Forest Miss. Flotilla. 

16l8tOhio National Guard 

9th Michigan Cavalry 

155th Indiana Infantry 

21»t " Battery 

3rd Michigan Cavalry....... 

66th Illinois Infantry 

29th " " 

29th Ohio " 

102nd U. S. Troop 

53rd Ohio Infantry 

48th Indiana Infantry 

49th Illinois " 

89th Indiana Infantry 

2l8t " Battery 

55th Mass. Infantry 

21st Indiana Battery 

21st " " 

15th " Infantry 

63rd " " 

48th " " 

29th " " 

87th " " 

26th Michigan " 

ibOth New York " 

128th Indiana " 

21st Indiana Battery 

48th Indiana Infantry 

128th " *• 


bouth Bend, Ind. 


South Bend, Ind. 

Lafayette Home, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Washington, D. C. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Lakeville, Ind. 
South Bend, Ind 

South Bend, Ind. 

Digitized by 




Roster Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R, Continued. 


Liamarand, Joe 

McNabb. Addison* 

McNabb, Ezra F 

McCartney, J. J 

McBiide, George 

Mclnemy, M 

McConnell, Israel .... 

Morgan, W. B 

Morey, George P 

MoUer, William 

Matthews, J. H 

MaUock, Thos. T* 

Miller, David B* 

Mot, George H...*.. . 

Manning, Jacob L 

Maughermar, John G. 

Maurer, Charles 

Martin, Horace 

Morse. M. M 

Morse, W. A 

Murphy, Wm 

Malotte, Johnson 

Nlcar, Eldwin 

O'Donnell, James 

Orvls, Geo. W 

Peffley, Simon P 

Parker, H. B 

Pealey, Daniel 

Partridge, J. M 

Pavey, Charles H 

Potter, Jerome 

Poyser, John W 

Row, Emanuel B 

Reeder, George W 

Roth, John 

Runkle, Charles 

Runyan, N. J 

Ragan, W* 

Rupe, W. H * . 

Ruddick, A. J 

Ritter, W. H. H 

Renno, David 

Ross, Silas 

Steele, John S 

Savadge, James 

Stover, William B 

Swintz, Henry* 

Smith, James H 

Souders, G. W 

Steffey, M. L» 

Seifert, Wm* 

Seifert, Daniel 

Stover, Lewis T 

Schamel, Henry* 

Slick, J. Y 

Sherman, Carlos* 

Shaffstal, N 

Slough, David 

Staples, Alex 

Slick, T. J 

Teel, John W 

Trump, Cyrus C 

Tutt, R. B 

Tescher, Frederick .. 

Thompson, A. D 

Trittipo, T. S 











156th Illinois "" 

2l8t Indiana Battery 

21st " " 

2nd Vermont Infantry 

87th Ohio " 

86th Indiana " 

4th Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

132nd Illinois Infantry 

136th New York " 

58th Indiana " 

102nd U. S. Colored Troop. . . 

48th Indiana Infantry 

Battery. . 


68th Illinois 

20th Ohio 

87th Indiana 



63rd • 


1st Michigan Cavalry 

15th Indiana Infantry 

138th " " 

21st Indiana Battery 

21st " " 

169th Ohio Infantry 

58th " " 

150th " " 

184thNew York " 

16th Ohio " 

48th Indiana '' 

67th Ohio " 

107th Pennsylvania Infantry. . . 

87th Indiana Infantry 

36th " " 

2l8t " Battery 

29th " Infantry 

48th " " 

10th Ohio Battery 

21st Indiana " 

29th " Infantry 

54th Ohio " 

11th Michigan Cavalry 

12th " Infantry 

20th Corps Army Cumberland. 

9th Indiana Infantry 

6th Michigan " 

47th Illinois " 

130th " " 

48th Pennsylvania Militia 

138th Indiana Infantry 

63rd " " 

116th New York " 

73rd Indiana " 

15th " " 

155th " " 

9th " " 

21st " Battery 

21st " " 

73rd " Infantry 

2nd Pennsylvania Artillery... 

15th Indiana Infantry 

38th Ohio " 

22nd Indiana " .... 

44th " " 


south Bend, Ind. 

Chicago, 111. 
South Bend, Ind. 

Chicago, 111. 
South Bend, Ind. 

South Bend, Ind. 

Digitized by 




Roster Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R., G>ncluded. 





Turner, F. H 


87th " ** 


Taylor. Charles 

21st " Battery 


Utter, R. D., chaplain 

VanArsdale, J. S 

150th " Infantry 


22nd " Battery 


Whiteman, Sam'l T 

29th " Infantry 


Whiteman, J. J 

23rd " " 


Wegner, Wm 

20th Wisconsin " 


Wllkeson, Levi 

48th Indiana " ... 


Wiedman, G. F 

82nd Ohio " 


White, L. D 

17th Michigan " 


Webster, M. L 

33rd Indiana '* 


Wlbert, D. A 

38th Ohio " 


Whltmer, Adam 

42nd Indiana " 


Waldschmidt, Julius 

19th " " 


Yant, John 

139th " " 


Yerrick. Benjamin F 

115th Ohio " 


Our Honored Dead. 


Alexander, John. 7 
Briggs, David L.. 
Backus, Harvey R 

Bradley, J. C 

Burns, Albert M.. 

Baer, A. F 

Baxter, Wyman... 

Bradford, H. I 

Bentz, Louis 

Buysse, Charles... 

Bond, Henry 

Brock way, C. T. . . 
Bedger, Daniel.... 

Brewer, Peter 

Brother, Peter 

Black, Samuel S.. 

Busch, John 

Bridgeman, Jesse. 
Creviston, D. B... 
Christman, A. J.. 

Calloway, B 

darter, James 

ClifTord, Alonzo B 
Dayton Daniel.... 
Dodd, William H. 

Dodds, S. D 

DiUon, W. A 

Duey, William A. 

Bdinger, G. W 

Frymire, David... 

Fisk, F. A 

Faver, Fritz 

Forst, A 

(Jeorge, W. G 

Gerhart, J. R 

Grisvoi, A 

Green, G. W 

Humphrey, Louis. 

Hughes, John 

Hoftman, Ernest.. 
Herring, Henry... 

Hoover, J. W 

Hoban, T. A 

Hogue, D. C 

Haase, F. W 

Holloway, Ed. P.. 
Hager, Stephen . . . 











48 Ind. Inft 
1st Ind. Cav. 

12 Mich Inft 

13 Ind. Inft 

10 Wis. Inft 
94 111. Inft 
26 Ind. Inft 
83 Ind. Inft 
29 Ind. Inft 
87 Ind. Inft 
25 Mich. Inft 

173 Pa. Inft 
29 Ind. Inft 
48 Ind. Inft 
97 Pa. Inft 
13 Ind. Cav. 

28 U. S. Cav. Troop. 
7 Pa. Inft 

87 Ind. Inft 
40 Ind. Inft 
128 U. S. Cav. 
35 Ind. Inft 

Sur. 9th Cong. Dist. 
21 Ind. Battery. 
66 Ohio Inft 
9 Ind. Inft 

29 Ind. Inft 

88 Ind Inft 
128 Ind. Inft 
82 Ohio Inft 
48 Ind. Inft 
32 Pa. Inft 
Capt A. A. Vol. 

11 Ind. Inft 
140 N. Y. Inft 
21 Ohio Inft 
29 Ind. Inft 
29 Ind. Inft 
140 N. Y. Inft. 
73 Ind. Inft. 

4 Mich. Inft 
44 111. Inft 
1 N. Y. Inft 
21 Ind. Battery. 
155 Ind. Inft 




Hummel, H 


Id Ohio Inft 

Hambleton, L W 

1 Cal. Oav. 

Holland, James 


142 Ind. Inft 

Hamilton, A. J 


6th Mich. Inft 

Hubberd, A. J 


40 Iowa Inft 

Hess, Ed. C 

Pa. Inft. 

Inman, J. N 


25 Mich. Inft 

Jones, John 


87 Ind. Inft 

Jones, Silas 


48 Ind. Inft 

Johnson, N. V 


68 Ind. Inft 

Keller, Louis 

21st Ind. Battery. 

Knevels, J. A 

11 Mich. Inft. 

Kimble, B. B 


155 Ind. Inft 

Kallar, William.... 


155 Ind. Inft 

Kellogg, H. J 


102 Ohio Inft 

Keasey, William.... 


7th Pa. Inft 

Koonsman, J. M 

24th Ind. Battery. 

Kelley, D. P 


12 Ind. Cav. 

Lefever, John 


140 N. Y. Inft 

Long, James 


8th Ind. Inft 

Leslie, Loyous 


87 Ind. Inft 

Lario, Louis 


73 Ind. Inft 

Lindsey, D. C 


37 Ind. Inft. 

Lockard, Samuel 


35 111. Inft 

Long, James 

8th Mass. Battery. 

Lemen, C. B 


66 Ohio Inft 

Lewis, Jasper B 


5th N. Y. H. Art. 

Maas, Christopher. . . 


13 111. Cav. 

Murphy, George H.. 


1st N. Y. Art 

Meeker, H. H 

9 Ind. Inft 

McCombs, John 

21st Ind. Battery. 

Mitchell, Abner .... 

102 U. S. Cal'd. 

Matthews, A. P 


25 Ohio Battery. 

Miller, A. B 

21st Ind. Battery. 

McChesney, T 


29 Ind. Inft 

McCrary, George. . . 

21st Ind. Battery, 

Morgan, J. T 


155 Ind. Inft. 

McBroom, William.. 

15th Ind. Battery. 

McLaughlin, Pat 


12 Mich. Inft. 

Nose, Conrad 


21 Ohio Inft 

Odiet Justin 


166 111. Inft 

Pierce, J. M 


73 Ind. Inft 

Peed, H. A 


132 Ind. Inft 

Pyke, Moses 


17 Ind. Inft 

Pray, Leander 


48 Ind. Inft 

Parsons. G. M 


17 Pa. Inft 

Perkins, H. W 


12 Mich. Inft 

Digitized by 




Our Honored Dead, G>ntuiued. 







Plumb, H. S 


17 III. Inft. 

Shaw, B. O 


7 Ind. Inft 

Pflster, M 


35 Ind. Inft. 
75 Ind. Inft 

Schmidt John 

Smith, B. F 



1st N. Y. Eng.^ 

Pugh, D. M 

3rd N. Y. Inft 

Poff, John 


29 Ind. Inft. 
48 Ind. Inft 

SteUer. J. M 

Slusser, Oliver E... 


53 Ind. Inft 

Robinson, John 

48 Ind. Inft 

Roberts, Hanford ... 


14 N. Y. Art 

Smith, E. N 


138 Ind. Inft 

Rerrtck, A, H 


23 Ind. Inft 

Scott Alex 

55 Mass. Inft 

Ross, W. R 



2nd Minn. Inft 
12 Mich. Inft 

Smaltz, F. H 

Thomas, A. N 



44 111. Inft 

Rowe, P. C. 

73 Ind. Inft 

Ryan, John 


U. S. Inft 

Treanor, J. W 


155 Ind. Inft 

Ryan. William 


12 Mich. Inft 

Tipton, A. T 


8 Iowa Inft. 

Roys. John B 


48 Ind. Inft 

Terrill, Theo 

Rindlishbacher, Chri 


60 Ind. Inft 

Van Nest L. T 


87 Ind. Inft 

RilBe. August 


171 Pa. MiliUa. * 

Wallace. J. M 


55 Mass. Inft 

Spain, David F 


48 Ind. Inft 

Williamson, J. G.... 


63 Ind. Inft 

Solomon, Phineas... 


178 N. Y. Inft 

Winter, John 

21st 111. L. Art 

Smith. W 

1st Long Island Inft. 

Worley, John 


6th Mich. Inft 

Sample, John 

29 Ind. Inft 

Wltherill, 0. S 

Paymaster Dept 

Shetlock. C 


12 Pa. Inft 

Waldo. S. U 


130 N. Y. Inft 

Stimson, F. M 


8 N. H. Inft 

Wagner, Geo. J 


18 Mich. Inft 

Seltzer, John K 


127 Pa. Inft 

Walburn, Ed 


136 Ind. Inft 

Scott, C. W 


1st N. Y. Eng. 

Waldfogel, John ... 


124 111. Inft 

Stonehill, D 


155 Ind. Inft 

Wynn. Jacob 


29 Ind. Inft 

Shirley, Joe 


47 Ind. Inft 
24 Mich. Inft. 

Woodruffs . . ". 


194 Ohio Inft 

Swain, F. D 

Wallis, S. R 

1st Mich. Cav. 

Seward, J. P 


151 Ind. Inft 

Young, Joe 

21st Ind. Battery. 

Smith, Fred 


155 Ind. Inft 

Young, Jacob H 


93 Pa. Inft 

M^nbers Transferred to Other Posts. 

Austin, A. G 

Fritz. W. H 

Loughman, G. W 

Livengood, L 

Reed, Andrew 

Anderson, A. 

Fisher, Peter 

Rulo, G. W 

Bebee. Martin 

Gorsuch. W. E 

Liedwick, James 

Lonzo. Moses 

Quillen, Joseph 

Brasinton. W 

Gillen. D. W 

Stanfleld, E. P 

Bnibaker I S. ....... . 

Goldman, F. J 

Heath. Jeremiah 

Hoover, E. W 

Listenberger, A. 

Ix>we, J. M 

Sticknev. C. R 

Bower, W. H 

Snyder, C. A 

Colver. Herman 

Lamb, C. C .^ . . . . 

Monroe. David 

Southwick, J. W. 

C5ulver. Lorenzo ....... 

Harris. B. B 

Stewart, Burton 

Calvert Joe N 

Gaulfleld, John 

Horrey, Elmer 

Morgan, H. C. 

Meeker, Frank W 

Matlock, S. S 

Smith, D. C 

Hunt J. W 

Turnock, Joseph 

Thay, E. P 

Carlton, F. S 

Humphrey, B. E 

Hoover, Elias 

Conrad, August 

Chapln, E. P 

Mickal, W. B 

Titus, Milton 

Ihler, Jacob W 

Miller, Soloman 

Nevin. David S 

Van Pelt 0. B 

Chanlin. E. W 

Jackson, H. E 

White. James E 

Crockett, Elmer 

Jay, Manuel 

OBrien, Patrick 

Pfleger, Geo 

Welley, Joe H 

Chatterton, I. G 

Keasey. John W 

Kling, Christian 

Kelley, John T 

Weaver, W. S 

Penman, W. G 

Plessner, H 

Walburn, J. W 

Davis, J. M 

Penrod, Alex 

Weber. Jacob S 

Dressier, J. C 

Koener, Andrew 

Krill, Seraphin 

Loughman, J. H 

Penwell, H. C 

Pompey, Z 

Watts, William 

Emerson. G. W 

Wrigh, J. W 

Pinch, John 

Rose, Rufus 

Weir. John I 

Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R., Suspended and Dropped M«nbers. 

Austin, W. H 

Bartlett J. W 

Brower. Francis 

Bodkin, Alex 

Blyler, W. C 

Burkett, W. W 

Brown, J. W 

Brown, W 

Brown, J. R 

Burkett B. S 

Bronson, R. 

Borton, W. A 

Brick. Charles 

Casad, James 

Aflfltin, AmoR 

Briges. N. A 

Close, Wesley 

Clark, J. W 

Andreas, J. 

Bruce, Charles H 

Burnham. E. F 

Bnibaker. J. S 

Augustine, Abram 

Andrews, L 

Coker, James 

Coquillard, G. W 

Allen. Wm -. . . 

Banning. J. H 

Chrisman, G. R 

Andrus, L. A. 

Brower Joseoh 

Crabill, Charles 

Ashcraft C. E 

Carpenter. Jay S 

Chandonia, Theo 

Coper. N. L 

Clark, A. D 

Colpoyes, G. L 

Austin. A. W 

Childs, Henry 

Carr. John P 

Audlaman, M 

Beard. Henry C 

DeGraff. N 

Digitized by 




Suspended and Dropped Member*, Continued. 

Dayis, Z. B 

Henderson, John 

Hardy, Joe P 

Morritz, Charles 

Molls, Gabriel 

Rickel, Peter 

Reed, Reuben E 

Sincerbraux, Ira 

Savage, W 

Darr, Frank 

Dissinger, Geo 

Hupp, C. E 

Moor, Joel ^.. 

Mayer. John J 

Duncan, B 

Holliday. P. W 

Demont, R 

Hoover. W. S 

Mills, J. E 

Sweet, H. A 

Snyder, M. V 

Statlar, Jacob 

Smith, J. M 

Durst, Bmos 

Hill, Henry 

McAlister, B. W 

McMickael, Wayne 

Martin, J. H 

Decker, J. C 

Houle, A. B 

DeLa Bar 

Hitchcock, M. 

Dunkel, W. F 

Holmes, J. M 

Merriman, J. J 

McMickael, J. A. 

Miller, J. C 

Stine, Isaac D 

Smith, J. K. 

Spickler, H. • 

Edinbo, D. U 

Hammon, J. B 

Evans. Jackson 

HuDD. John 

Evans, Elijah 

Holmes, G. W. . . , 

Mead, W. S 

McFann, A. 

McReynolds, H 

Shepard. C 

Smith, Eugene 

Sharpies, Joe 

Stephens, Thos 

Steel, 0. H 

Smith, Jacob 

Sheerer, Henry 

Shull, John 

Tutt, J. F 

Tarbell, W 

Taylor, Albert 

Tutt, Joseph D 

Eaton, J. R 

Hickey, B 

Putter, J. F 

Hauck, J. F 

Prazlar. I. A 

Hertzell, Elijah 

Isnogle, Ellas 

Ott. John 

Foster, A. J 

Ordway, J. S 

Ogden, H. N 

Oberly, Peter 

Flucard, J. P. . . .' 

Johnson. Charles 

Jones, Edward 

Jacob, Francis 

Passett, Herbert 

Pinch, N 

Pratt, Charles 

Fish, John 

Johnson. Jacob 

P"tnam, A. B 

Friend, W. G 


Jacobus, C. N 

Jones, Frank B 

Peterman, G. W 

Pomeroy, H. C 


Pest, W. B 

Klingerman, H. P 

Kendall, Howard 

Kollar, J. D 

Parker, J. Q 

Penrod, John 

Qiles, Jerome 

Taylor, B. C 

Van Eps, J. S 

Van Loon, S. M. 

Werd, B. F 

Whitten, W. D 

Worley, Oscar 

Wyman, W 

Green, W. C 

Platz, Charles A 

Pegg, W. A 

Garrison, M. J 

Kellev. John 

Grove, B. C 

Kelley. G. M 

Plumley, G 

Hl'^lriTIJin, Ia X . . 

Lieusck, Henry 

Pajme, Henry 

Hall, J. P 

Leibig, G. B 

Lamadee, August 

Tiamerand, A 

Powers, F. G 

Pool, Malachi 

Hay, John 

Hain, Ed. H 

Pool, A. G 

William. 0. W 

Worle, Otto 

Wilson. J. H 

Henrv. Orrin C . 

Lysinyer, J. H 

Plnkerton. A. 

Hacrertv. Ira 

Lamb, J. A 

Lichtenberger, J. H 

Lydick, Irvln 

Piper. A. J 

Helm, William 

Henrick, M 

Roseberry, W. H 

Reed, E. W 

Weatherwax, J. M 

Wallace, J. M 


Lynch, J. H 

Robinson, Alonzo 

Randall, Stephen 

Reed. Peter R 

Wilcoxen, G 

Hodge, Riley 

McMlchael, James P 

Miller, Daniel 

Haselton, John 

History of Auten Post No. 8, G. A. R 

The history of Auten post is coeval with 
that of the Grand Army of the Republic it- 
self; for both were instituted in the same 
year, 1866, and Auten Post has maintained its 
integrity uninterrupted through all the years 
since that date It is the only post within the 
Department of Indiana that did not go down 
when the department, as originally consti- 
tuted, went out of existence. With each re- 
curring year this post elected officers, and on 
the reorganization, in 1879, our quartermas- 
ter had a handsome balance in the treasury 
ready to start over again. Memorial Day, or 
Decoration Day, as it used to be called, never 
ceased to be observed by the p>ost ; and on each 
recurring 30th of May the comrades paid 
their loving tribute of flowers and eulogies to 
those who had gone before. 

The first post of the G. A. R. was instituted 

by Major Benjamin F. Stephenson at De- 
catur, 111., April 6, 1866. But the first 
organized department was that of Indiana. 
Prom a report made to the twenty-second an- 
nual encampment of the Department of In- 
diana, held at Logansport, May 15 and 16, 
1901, which report was approved by the en- 
campment and ordered printed in the Journal, 
it appears that this department was organ- 
ized in July and August, 1866. The first or- 
der ever issued from any department head- 
quarters was that issued August 20, 1866. by 
Robert S. Poster, provisional department, 
commander, Oliver M. Wilson, assistant ad- 
jutant general. While Major Stephenson, of 
Illinois, the author of the constitution and 
ritual of the order, was recognized as pro- 
visional commander-in-chief, yet there was no 
national organization perfected until at the 

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first ttational encampment held at Indianapo- 
lis, November 22, 1866. At this encampment 
Stephen A. Hurlburt, of Illinois, was elected 
commander-in-chief; John B. McKeon^ of 
New York, senior vice commander-in-chief; 
Robert S. Foster, of Indiana, junior vice 
commander-in-chief, and B. F. Stephenson, 
of Illinois, adjutant general. The delegates 
from Indiana to this encampment numbered 
210. and from aU the other states 78. It ap- 
pears, therefore, that while Major Stephenson 
was the originator the comrades of Indiana 
were the organizers of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. 

The Union soldiers of St. Joseph ^county 
were early to the front in the formation of 
the patriotic order. On August 22, 1866, two 
days after the issue of the first order issued 
by the provisional department commander, 
and just three months before the holding of 
the first national encampment, the earliest 
steps were taken ; and on August 31st Auten 
Post was duly organized. For the first two 
years the department was organized by dis- 
tricts, and this post was at first called Post 
No. 1, District of St. Joseph, Department 
of Indiana, 6. A. R. The post was named 
Auten Post from John Auten, a soldier of 
Company I, Ninth regiment Indiana volun- 
teer infantry, three months' service, who was 
killed in action near Laurel Hill, West Vir- 
ginia, July 10, 1861, at the age of twenty-one 
years, four months and twelve days. This 
was the first soldier from this part of Indiana 
killed in action. He was born on Sumption 
Prairie, St. Joseph county, and lived the life 
of a farmer's boy until his enlistment. His 
body was brought home by his comrades and 
his funeral was held ini the old court house, 
August 2, 1861. It was the first soldier's 
funeral in this part of Indiana, if not in 
the whole state. 

In 1868 the district system of organization 
was abandoned, and this became Auten Post, 
No. 17, Department of Indiana, G. A. R. 
The old organization of the Grand Army of 
the Republic continued only until about 

1871. At this time Louis Humphreys, a past 
pM)st commander of Auten Post, was depart- 
ment commander. No department officers 
were elected after this, nor was any depart- 
ment encampment held until after the reor- 
ganization. Auten Post, however, continued 
its organization, and on August 19, 1879, 
there being no Indiana department, the post, 
at the suggestion and request of the officers 
of the Department of Illinois, was duly mus- 
tered as Post No. 64 of that department. 

In the early part of 1879 a movement was 
made for the reorganization of the Depart- 
ment of Indiana ; but it was not until Octo- 
ber 3, 1879, that a charter was issued for this 
purpose from national headquarters. The 
reorganized department consisted of twelve 
posts, of which Auten Post was made No. 8, 
although it would seem that the post might 
well have been called number one, inasmuch 
as it was the only post in Indiana that re- 
mained intact during the whole time when 
the department itself had ceased to exist. 
The first meeting of the new organization was 
held at Terre Haute, October 31, 1879, when 
the Department of Indiana was formally 
mustered into the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, with provisional officers, and on Jan- 
uary 29, 1880, the first annual encampment 
was held at Greencastle, at which permanent 
officers were elected and the reorganization 
completed. From that date on the Grand 
Army of the Republic has continued to flour- 
ish in this department, and Auten Post has 
pursued a career of almost uninterrupted 

In 1884, Auten Post, in the person of Ed- 
win Nicar, past post commander of the post, 
was, for the second time, honored by the 
election of one of our comrades as depart- 
ment commander. 

The first serious disturbance in the history 
of the post occurred when the department 
commander, by an order issued January 20, 
1888y saw fit to annul our charter. While the 
act caused great sorrow to the post, yet there 
was no hesitancy in obeying the orders of the 

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department commander, and never did the 
comrades of Auten Post more nobly exem- 
plify in word and action, the cardinal prin- 
ciples of fraternity, charity and loyalty. 
Over two hundred comrades assembled in the 
post room January 27, 1888, and resolved 
that a committee be at once appointed to pre- 
pare an appeal to the Ninth Department En- 
campment. This appeal was prepared and 
adopted in due time, and a thousand copies 
ordered printed for presentation at the en- 
campment, which was held at Indianapolis, 
February 22 and 23, 1888. In this contro- 
versy Auten Post was involved through sym- 
pathy with Logansport Post, No. 114, of this 
department. The charter of that post was 
annulled at the same time. Our appeal was 
successful. On the explanations made and by 
reason of the representations of the repre- 
sentatives of both posts, and particularly 
through the good offices of Past Department 
Commander Nicar, the department com- 
mander, before the opening of the encamp- 
ment, revoked the order of annulment and 
the delegates from both posts took their seats 
in the encampment. It was a happy ending 
to an unhappy misunderstanding. 

On May 13 and 14, 1896, the city of South 
Bend, and particularly Auten Post, were 
honored by the holding in the Oliver opera 
house of the seventeenth department encamp- 
ment. This encampment was one of the most 
successful in the history of the Department 
of Indiana. It was then that Auten Post 
was further honored by the election of Elmer 
Crockett, a past post commander of the post, 
as senior vice commander of the department. 

One of the chief sources of the continued 
prosperity of Auten Post has been the sym- 
pathy of the good people of South Bend and 
St. Joseph county; but particularly the aid 
and kindly assistance given by Auten Relief 
Corps, No. 14, organized May 13, 1885. with 
Mrs. Mary H. Hill, who is now eighty years 
old, as the first president. These patriotic 
ladies have been an inspiration to their com- 
rades of Auten Post, and we would thus, in 

the most public manner, give our testimony 
to their womanly zeal and continued sisterly 
kindness to our feeble and disabled comrades, 
and also to the ornamentation and neatness of 
our post room. 

In 1901, chiefly through the labors of Past 
Post Commander Joel M. Partridge, the 
board of county commissioners set apart the 
court room and adjacent apartments of the 
old court house for the use of the Grand 
Army of the Republic ; and Auten Post, after 
the expenditure of seven hundred dollars for 
repairs, moved into the finest post room in 
the department. 

On June 25, 1903, the St. Joseph County 
Soldiers' Monument was dedicated under the 
auspices of the department officers. This 
monument, the gift of the good people of St. 
Joseph county, was built at a cost of twenty- 
five thousand dollars. Auten Post did her 
full share in securing the favorable action of 
the people in this patriotic work. The labors 
of Past Post Commander John Hughes were 
especially effective. 

In the years 1903 and 1904 the work of 
preparing this roster was undertaken and 
finally carried to a successful conclusion. It 
was not an easy task to secure the names of 
all the officers and comrades of the post from 
1866 to 1904; but the work was finally ac- 
complished, chiefly through the aid of our 
zealous quartermaster, John Kleindinst. 

Other posts in this county, and in Elk- 
hart and Laporte counties, were organized 
through the encouragement and friendly 
offices of Auten Post; among them Elmer 
Post, 37, Elkhart; Hathaway Post, 110, 
Rolling Prairie; Patton Post, 147, La 
Porte; and Shiloh Field Post, 198, Elkhart. 
The other Grand Army posts in St. Joseph 
county, all mustered after the re-organiza- 
tion of the Department of Indiana, and 
chiefly through the aid, or out of the mem- 
bership, of Auten Post, are: Deacon Post, 
115, New Carlisle; Houghton Post, 128, 
Mishawaka; Joseph Bowen Post, 197, North 
Liberty; Jesse Coppock Post, 378, Walker- 

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ton; Notre Dame Post, 569, Notre Dame; 
and Norman Eddy Post, 579, South Bend. 
Notre Dame Post is noted as being the only 
pofii; in the national oi^anization which has 
been made up exclusively of chaplains and 
other comrades who are all members of a 
religious society. Norman Eddy Post, named 
after the heroic and beloved commander of 
the Forty-eighth Indiana infantry volun- 
teers, was organized April 27, 1897, by former 
members of Auten Post. The first officers 
were: Henry W. Perkins, Post Commander; 
Charles A. Pratt, Senior Vice Commander; 
A. P. Matthews, Junior Vice Commander; 
Wilbur E. Gorsuch, Quartermaster; W. G. 
Denman, Chaplain; and Milton Titus, Sur- 
geon. The subsequent post commanders have 
been: Charles A. Pratt, A. P. Matthews, 
Edward P. Stanfield, F. S. Carlton, George 
W. Loughman, Joseph N. Calvert and Wilbur 
E. Gorsuch. The post has had a successful 
and harmonious existence. 

In all public affairs relating to the work 
of the Grand Army, Auten Post and Nor- 
man Eddy Post have worked together as com- 
rades, apportioning impartially to one an- 
other all the duties and honors of the several 
occasions. It is thus that the two posts come 
together as brothers on each Memorial Day, 
to pay their common tributes of respect to 
their comrades gone before. It was thus they 
united to secure the erection of the fine sol- 
diers' monument, of which mention will be 
made further on. 

Each post is aided in its patriotic labors 
by an active Woman's Eelief Corps, made up 
of the loyal ladies of the community. With- 
out their sisterly assistance the feeble veter- 
ans would often fail to receive that sympathy 
and active help so necessary as age comes on. 
The veterans gave their youth and strength 
to their country; and many of them have 
therefore not been able to keep up in the 
race of life with those who failed to go to 
the front and with those of the younger gen- 
erations. Every Grand Army man, every 
old soldier, is most grateful to the Woman's 

Relief Corps, ** Auxiliary to the Grand Army 
of the Republic." 

A camp of the Sons of Veterans is estab- 
lished in South Bend, who, like the Cin- 
cinnati of the Revolution, will carry on the 
patriotic work of the Grand Army, when the 
veterans 4;hemselves are no longer able to 
do it. 

Reference is made in the preceding history 
of Auten Post to the appeal taken to the 
encampment of the Department of Indiana, 
in 1888. To cover and preserve the facts of 
that historical event, the appeal itself, as 
presented to the encampment, is here set out : 
Appeal of Auten Post, No. 8, Department of 
Indiana, Grand Army of the Republic, to 
the Ninth Annual Department Encamp- 
ment, to be held at Indianapolis, Indiana, 
February 22-23, 1888. 
Headquarters Auten Post, No. 8, Department 
of Indiana, G. A. R. 
South Bend, Indiana, February 3, 1888. 
Commander and Comrades of the Ninth An- 
nual Department Encampment: 
At a regular meeting of Auten Post, held 
at these headquarters on Friday evening, 
January 27, 1888, the following general or- 
der from department headquarters was read : 
Headquabtebs Department Indiana, 
Gband Army of the Republic, 
Indianapolis, Ind., Jan. 20, 1888. 
General Orders 
No. 11. 
At a meetmg of the Council of Administration 
of this Department, regularly called and held at 
these Headquarters on the 27th ult., a printed cir- 
cular letter, purporting to have been Issued by cer- 
tain comrades as a committee of Logansport Post, 
No. 114, of this Department, bearing date of the 
13th ult, and reported to have been circulated 
among the Posts of this Department without 
authority therefor first sought or obtained from 
these Headquarters, which circular contains derog- 
atory and untrue statements concerning the De- 
partment Commander and other members of the 
Department Encampment, was presented and read 
to said Council; therefore said Council appointed 
a committee of Its members to visit said LiOgans- 
port Post, No. 14, and to Investigate the circum- 
stances of the issuance of said circular. 

Afterward, at a meeting of said Council of Ad- 
ministration, regularly called and held on the 13th 
inst. at the same place, said committee of the 
Council reported that, in pursuance of the pur- 
pose of its appointment, it had visited said Post 
No. 14, at a regular meeting thereof held on the 
10th inst., and as part of its report said commit- 
tee submitted to the Council a copy of said circular 
and certain duly authenticated extracts from the 

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minutes of regular meetings of said Post No. 14, 
held October 11th and 25th, and November 8th, 
1887, authorizing the issuing of said circular. 
And, as a result of its investigation, said com- 
mittee reported to the Council that said Post 
should be held responsible for the acts of its said 
committee in the publication of said circular and 
the distribution thereof to the Posts of this De- 

The Ck>uncil of Administration, having consid- 
ered the report, with its said exhibits, thereupon 
by unanimous vote, ordered: **That the Depart- 
ment Commander be requested and directed to 
annul the charter of Liogansport Post, No. 14, De- 
partment of Indiana, G. A. R., for insubordination 
and violation of the rules and regulations of the 
G. A. R." 

And thereafter, at the same meeting of said 
Council, official evidence was introduced before it 
concerning certain reported action of Auten Post, 
No. 8, of this Department, in relation to said cir- 
cular letter, which evidence from the Commander 
of said Post No. 8 was to the effect that said circu- 
lar so issued by said committee of Logansport 
Post, No. 14, was presented at a regular meeting of 
said Auten Post, No. 8, held on the 23d ult.; that 
action thereon was then postponed; but that at a 
regular meeting of said Auten Post, No. 8, held on 
the 30th ult, with a very full attendance, said 
circular, after being amended, as to the portion 
thereof in relation to the mode of deciding upon 
the place of holding Department Encampments, 
was endorsed by a unanimous vote. 

Said Council, having duly considered said evi- 
dence in relation to said Auten Post, No. 8, re- 
solved, by unanimous vote, "That the Department 
Commander be instructed and directed to annul 
the charter of Auten Post, No. 8, Department of 
Indiana, G. A. R." 

Now, therefore, in accordance with the findings, 
determinations and advice of the Department 
Council of Adn^inistration, above set forth, im- 
pelled by imperative official duty and the hard 
necessity of thus preserving and enforcing proper 
discipline and subordination, the Department Com- 
mander, by virtue of the authority vested in him 
by section 4, article I., chapter V., of the Rules and 
Regulations of the Grand Army of the Republic, 
does hereby order: 

I. That the charter of Logansport Post, No. 14, 
Department of Indiana, Grand Army of the Re- 
public, situated at LiOgansport, Indiana, be and the 
same is hereby forfeited and annulled; and that 
the Commander of said Post turn over and trans- 
mit forthwith to the Assistant Quartermaster- 
General of this Department all the property of this 
Department in possession of said Post, including 
books of record and Post papers, as provided by 
article 3, section I., chapter V., of said rules and 

II. That the charter of Auten Post, No. 8, De- 
partment of Indiana, Grand Army of the Republic, 
situated at South Bend, Indiana, be and the same 
is hereby forfeited and annulled; and that the 
Commander of said Post turn over and transmit 
forthwith to the Assistant Quartermaster-General 
of this Department all the property of this De- 
partment in possession of said Post, including 
books of record and Post papers, as provided by 

section 3, article I., chapter V., of said rules and 

III. All Posts and officers of this Department 
will take notice of the above and foregoing action 
and decision, and will govern themseUes accord- 
ingly. It is earnestly hoped that sincere devotion 
to the great principles of the Grand Army of the 
Republic and a common interest in the welfare 
and reputation of our Department will induce 
the Posts and the comrades of the Department to 
heartily co-operate in the attainment of the only 
purpose of this order— the preservation of disci- 
pline and fraternity. 

By command of 


I. N. Walkeb, Department Commander. 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 

The reading of this order was the first 
official information that any unfriendly ac- 
tion against the post was contemplated, still 
less that its ancient charter had been ac- 
tually annulled by the order of the depart- 
ment commander. The attendance at tnis 
meeting of the post was the fullest in its 
history, over two hundred of its two hundred 
and seventy-eight members in good standin;^ 
being present, being drawn out by the in- 
formation given in the public press that old 
Auten Post had been stricken from the rolls 
of the Department of Indiana, and her com- 
rades banished from their fraternal associa- 
tions in the Grand Army of the Republic. 

Nevertheless, these old soldiers, their hearts 
swelling with suppressed feeling, did not for- 
get their duty in the hour of trouble. Their 
post commander, Cyrus C. Trump, arose in 
his place and announced that he had reeeiveii 
the order the day before, and that, although 
he felt that the order was a harsh one and 
its severity utterly uncalled for, and that 
it was hard to be thus stricken down without 
a hearing, without even notice, this too by 
our own comrades placed over us by the 
suffrages of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, yet that a soldier's first duty Ls to 
obey orders and submit to lawful authority, 
even to the death. That he had therefore at 
cnce determined to obey the order and sur- 
render the charter; and he asked for the 
approval of his comrades of the post upon 
his action. This approval was given by the 
practically unanimous adoption of the fol- 
lowing resolution, offered by Comrade Jona- 
than P. Creed, there being but three dissent- 
ing votes, and the comrades rising to their 
feet in favor of the resolution : 

''Resolved, That this post approve of the 
declared intention of Commander Trump to 

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return to department headquarters all prop- 
erty in the possession of the post belonging 
to the department, in obedience to General 
Orders No. 11." 

Not only was the action of the post com- 
mander and the comrades thus emphatic in 
compliance with the letter and spirit of the 
order of the department commander and the 
council of administration, but every word ut- 
tered in the numerous speeches of the com- 
rades expressed the same generous spirit. 
Never, in any post or encampment, was there 
a nobler exemplification of fraternity, char- 
ity and loyalty. While the veterans could not 
repress their emotion in contemplating the 
wrong they believed done them in their own 
household, yet they would speak only with 
respect of the hand that smote them; and 
even if they should be cut oflf forever, would 
still be loyal to the constituted authority of 
the Grand Army of the Republic. 

The undersigned committee were thereupon 
detailed to prepare this appeal from the order 
of the department commander to the depart- 
ment encampment, and ask that our charter 
be returned and that Auten Post be re-in- 
stated in full comradeship in the Department 
of Indiana, G. A. R. 

The post, through its committee, specifies 
the following errors for which General Or- 
der No. 11 should be revoked: 

1. — The meeting of the Council of Admin- 
istration, at which it was advised and deter- 
mined that such order issue was irregular 
and illegal in this: 

<k The members of the council were not all 
present, nor were all notified to be present. 

ft. The council was not presided over by 
the department commander, nor by the senior 
nor junior vice commander, nor did the coun- 
cil select one of its members as chairman. 

2. — ^No charges or specifications were pre- 
sented against the post, nor against any of 
its officers or members; nor was notice given 
of any contemplated action against them or 
any of them. 

3. — The punishment inflicted by the order 
is excessive, and out of all due proportion 
to the alleged offense, and is without prece- 
dent in the history of the Grand Army. 

4. — The order violates the spirit and prin- 
ciples of the Grand Army of the Republic in 

a. It is unfratemal in cutting off, without 
notice, from comradeship and fraternal rela- 

Vol. 11—10. 

tions, a faithful post and its veteran com- 

ft. It is uncharitable, by inflicting the se- 
verest penalty known to our discipline for a 
trifling offense unintentionally arising from 
a free and open criticism of the comrades 
issuing the order. 

c. It is disloyal, by needlessly destroying 
the post, disrupting the department, and thus 
striking at the life of the Grand Army of the 
Republic itself. 

We do therefore, comrades of the ninth 
annual encampment of the Department of In- 
diana, most earnestly appeal to you, in the 
name of our common fraternity, charity and 
loyalty, and in the name and memory of our 
comradeship in arms, our suffering and tri- 
umph together in the defense of our beloyed 
country, to revoke this harsh order and re- 
store us to the household of our brethren and 
to our rightful inheritance, from which we 
have been, without a hearing, without even 
a word of warning, so cruelly thrust out. 

That nothing may be concealed from our 
comrades, we give the offending circular, as 
follows, in full: 

LooANSPOBT, IND., December 13, 1887. 
Deab Sister and Comrade: — 

No reform is brought about without agitation 
and discussion. So much dissatisfaction exists in 
the G. A. R. and W. R. C, because of the iUegal 
and unwarranted conduct of some of the comrades, 
and their advising and counseling of the illegal 
acts of those ladies composing the Indianapolis 
faction of the W^oman's Relief Corps, that the 
comrades outside of that faction view with alarm 
the tendencies of those comrades to either control 
the two organiSBitions in this State or break them 
up into factions. We have too much regard for 
pur noble organization to quietly sit by and see 
these things accomplished. Hence we issue this 
circular letter to the comrades of the Department 
of Indiana, and hope that they will carefully ex- 
amine into the matter, and dispassionately and in 
a true spirit of charity decide what is the beet 
course to pursue to lift the G. A. R. and W. R. C. 
^out from under the baneful influences of the few 
who assume that they are the G. A. R. 

Without authority, and in the face of the law, 
rules and regulations, a so-called memorial com- 
mittee was appointed by the Department Com- 
mander to procure an endorsement from the Na- 
tional Convention, W. R. C, of the illegal action 
of the ladies who were at Indianapolis last Feb- 
ruary, and who, by the advice of these comrades, 
assumed, in violation of their obligation to their 
order, to hold a convention. Their action was il- 
legal, revolutionary and factious in the extreme, 
and tended to destroy the W. R. C. in this De- 
partment. By permitting this action the Depart- 
ment Commander violated his obligation to our 
order. Again, the Department Commander went 

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to St. Louis, and to the ladies composing the 
National Convention represented that the G. A. R. 
of this Department endorsed the faction at Indian- 
apolis. He could not have been ignorant of the 
fact that thi^ statement was not borne out by 
facts, and that the contrary was true. The G. A. 
R. of the State never endorsed that faction. 

It has been the constant effort of the faction at 
Indianapolis, under the leadership of the Depart- 
ment Commander, Comrades Carnahan, Foster, 
Vanasdol, Coburn and McMasters, the memorial 
(?) committee, to destroy the legally organized 
loyal aiixiliary Department of the W. R, C, pre- 
sided over by Mrs. L, J, Gorsuch, and substitute 
the illegal, revolutionary and reactionary faction 
at Indianapolis, presided over by Mrs. Plora 

In furtherance of these illegal and rebellious 
actions these comrades have published untruthful 
and exaggerated statements of the condition of 
affairs in this Department in the public press of 
the State. These comrades have, in their unholy 
desire to rule "the Department, advised the ladies 
of the W. R. C. to violate their obligation to their 
order, and thus induced them to organize an oppo- 
sition to the legal authority of that organization in 
this State. 

We don't believe that the G. A. R. or W. R. C. 
should be run for the political advancement or 
personal glory of any man or set of men. That 
is not the purpose of the organization. We believe 
that their affairs should be conducted in Frater- 
nity, Charity and Loyalty. As there does not 
appear to be any hopes of so conducting the De- 
partment Encampment and the Department Con- 
vention so long as they are held at Indianapolis, 
and kept under the baneful influences of Captain 
Carnahan and others, we recommend the follow- 

1. That the Encampment be held at the fol- 
lowing cities in the order herein named: Evans- 
ville, Terre Haute, Richmond, Fort Wayne, New 
Albany, South Bend, Lafayette, Vincennes, Logans- 
port and Indianapolis, and so on continuously. 

2. That the reports of the Council of Adminis- 
tration. Quartermaster and Adjutant-General be 
printed, and each delegate be furnished with a 
copy as soon as the Encampment meets each year. 

3. That the practice of comrades making com- 
binations and trades to help themselves or friends 
into office is especially reprehensible and ought 
to be condemned by the comrades, and those who 
practice it disfranchised. 

4. That any and all interference with the W. 
R. C. not authorized by their rules and regulations 
shall be deemed a violation of the rules and regu- 
lations of the G. A. R. 

It is with a hope that we may have a more 
prosperous future; that a better feeling of Frater- 
nity, Charity and Loyalty may exist in our order, 
and that more intimate and cordial relations may 
exist between the soldiers of the G. A. R. and the 
noble, great, big-hearted ladles composing the W. 
R. C, that we issue this address. 

Yours in F., C. and L., 

Committee of Logansport Post 14, Dep*t of Ind., 
G. A. R. 

In so far as there is anything in this cir- 
cular for which Auten Post can be held ac- 
countable, and which shall be found contrary 
to the rules and regulations, or contrary to 
the principles and discipline of the G. A. R., 
we do hereby, in the name of the post, dis- 
avow the same; and we do, in the name of 
Auten Post and of all her comrades, disavow 
any intention whatever of violating the spirit 
of our obligation as a post, or as oflScers or 
comrades thereof, or any intention of doing 
anything which should have subjected us to 
the censure or criticism of the lawful author- 
ities of our order. 

When we have said this, comrades, we 
have said all. We are men; we are free- 
born citizens of this republic ; we are Ameri- 
can Union soldiers, who have freely staked 
our lives in red battle, in hunger and wet 
and cold, in hospital and in prison, all in 
the glad service of free institutions and the 
liberty of man, and we have not come home 
to surrender our manhood. We believe that 
the institution or the organization which can- 
not stand free discussion and open criticism 
is unfit to enjoy the light of that liberty 
to which our armies have struggled through 
clouds and darkness; and we should be 
ashamed of the soldiers of the great repub- 
lic if they had come back to their friends 
and \ neighbors and banded themselves to- 
gether into an association which should fetter 
that free speech for which they had proudly 
fought and won on fields of glory. 

We ' therefore take back nothing of our 
action on that circular which calls attention 
to reforms that we believe should take place 
in the affairs of the G. A. R. in this depart- 
ment. And this we say whether it shall 
finally appear that those reforms are neces- 
sary or not! It was our right to express our 
views, honestly as we held them, in regard to 
those matters. The lowliest American citi- 
zen has the right to do that ; and the soldiers 
of the republic have forfeited none of the 
rights of freemen by fighting for liberty, nor 
have the veterans by banding together to 
preserve the memory of those hours of trial 
and danger. 

The reforms suggested in the circular are 
such as we believe proper to be made; 
whether our belief be correct or not, we had 
the right as men, as citizens and as comrades, 
to express it. For the form of expression 
we should not be held altogether accountable. 
We took the circular as it was sent us, giving 

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slight attention to the manner of expression, 
but much to the matter. We do believe that 
the comrades of the Grand Army should not 
have interfered in the management of the 
Woman's Relief Corps, and we do believe that 
other matters referred to in the circular 
should receive the attention of this encamp- 
ment. Shall we be punished for thus believ- 
ing, or for thus freely expressing our belief? 

And, comrades, granting even that we 
should first have taken this circular and re- 
vised its language, so that it should not be 
quite so plain-spoken, that references to in- 
dividual comrades should have been omitted 
or modified, — even so, in the sweet names of 
fraternity and charity, shall we suffer death 
for such an offense f Because honest soldiers, 
plain, blunt men, seeing what, in the sim- 
plicity of their hearts, they considered evil 
practices, should have used a soldier's free- 
dom, and should not have spoken with all the 
grace of Chesterfield, or all the obsequious- 
ness of Orientals addressing the Shah of 
Persia, — ^shall the mandate therefore go forth 
that they shall be exiled forever? 

We do not question the power of the de- 
partment commandeer to issue this order, but 
we do question the right and justice. The 
framers of our rules and regulations lodged 
that high power in the hands of the depart- 
ment commander, believing that the comrade 
so honored would be a man above all personal 
considerations, and one who would administer 
his high office in the spirit, not only of "dis- 
cipline and fraternity," but also of charity 
towards all his comrades and loyalty to the 
principles of the Grand Army of the 

The commander might have simply cen- 
sured the post for what he found censurable; 
he might even have suspended her charter 
and referred any wrong doing of which he 
could complain to the department encamp- 
ment: or he might, if he so chose, and this 
for an offense personal to himself, without 
asking for an explanation, aye, even for the 
very purpose, if possible, of excluding those 
who might explain from the floor of the en- 
campment, annul her charter and cut off the 
faithful old post forever. He might do this, 
such grave power is entrusted to his hands. 

'Tis excellent to have a giant's strength. 
Bat tyrannons to use it as a giant!" 

It does seem to us, looking at the matter 
in all calmness of mind and charity of heart, 

that the action of the council of administra- 
tion, endorsed by the department commander 
in General Orders No. 11, was unprecedented 
in our history, unnecessarily severe, and espe- 
cially harsh in view of the fact that no pre- 
vious intimation was given that the post had 
fallen under the displeasure of department 
headquarters. We think that the proverbial 
love of fair play, so characteristic of Ameri- 
cans and their, institutions, should have pre- 
vented trial, judgment and sentence, until 
the post by its representatives could have been 
heard and allowed to explain and plead in its 

Our noble order was originally based upon 
fraternity, without regard to former rank, 
and it was certainly never the design that we 
should establish an arbitrary rank of our own. 
Section 4, Article I., Chapter V., of the rules 
and regulations could not have been intended 
to place in the hands of one of our officers 
and his council, however exalted their rank, 
any star chamber authority. Offenses cog- 
nizable by the Grand Army of the Republic 
are specified in Article 1 of said chapter; 
and it is distinctly stated in Section 3 of 
that article that ''all accusations shall be 
made in the form of charges and specifica- 
tions,'' thus securing to the accused both no- 
tice of the charge against him and the right 
to plead in defense. It will hardly be claimed 
that the right thus secured to an individual 
comrade of a post is denied to all the com- 
rades taken together, or to the post itself. 

We do therefore enter our solemn protest 
against the summary provisions of Order No. 
11; and we submit to you, comrades of the 
department encampment, that for whatever 
w^rong we may have done, whether imaginary 
or real, the annuUment of our charter is an 
excessive, uncharitable and utterly dispropor- 
tionate punishment, and therefore confidently 
ask at your hands the restoration of that 

That charter, comrades, is one of the most 
venerable in this department, having been 
given to us while attached to the Department 
of Illinois, and before the existence of the 
present Department of Indiana. 

Auten Post, No. 8, was Auten Post, No. 1. 
District of St. Joseph, and afterwards Auten 
Post, No. 17, under the oH organization. 
When that organization was abandoned, 
Auten Post maintained its integrity, and al- 
though responsibly to no existing department, 
met, elected officers, disbursed charity, cared 

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for the needy and destitute in its ranks, and 
never once failed to observe Memorial Day 
in all the years that we had no department. 

On the 19th day of August, 1879, by vir- 
tue of a charter issued from the Department 
of Illinois, Auten Post, No. 64, took its place 
in that department, and there remained until 
the re-organization of the Department of 
Indiana, when it became Post No. 8, Depart- 
ment of Indiana. 

The post haa always been loyal to consti- 
tuted authority, and no insubordination was 
intended or thought of in its action regard- 
ing the Logansport circular. It is the intent 
that governs, and the absence of all evil 
intent in that action should entitle the post 
to the charitable judgment and fraternal in- 
dulgence of this encampment. 

Ever since the year 1866, we have kept 
the fires of the Grand Army burning. For 
twenty-two years no Memorial Day has passed 
that we have not strewn the graves of our 
dead comrades with the flowers of spring- 
time, and held forth the memory of their 
heroic example to the admiration and grati- 
tude of our people. Through good and evil 
report we have kept on our way, and held 
fast to the faith. Many a flourishing post 
around us looks up to ours as founder and 
helper, and is happy to call herself the child 
of old Auten Post. 

Faithful has the post been, as its reports, 
and the records of this department will show, 
to the rules and regulations of the G. A. R. 
and to department and national orders. Re- 
ports and dues have been promptly remitted, 
including those for the fourth quarter of 
1887; and the action of the post in voting 
to comply with Order No. 11 has shown its 
unquestioning devotion to the G. A. R. and 
to constituted authority. 

Is it fitting, then, comrades, that this old 
post, of nearly three hundred members, 
should be struck down for so slight a cause 
and in so summary a manner? The sternest 
laws of war are more lenient than this. The 
deserter in the face of the enemy, the very 
traitor himself, is granted at least the form 
of a court-martial. He is confronted with the 
evidence against him, and is called upon for 
his defense, if he has any. Even then, the 
extreme sentence may be mitigated or com- 
muted; or he may be fully pardoned and 
asked to prove himself once more in the fire 
of battle. 

Then, too, comrades, it is not the part of 

the magnanimous general to pass over the too 
great freedom of his subordinate, if personal 
to himself, even if he winces under thj crit- 
icism of this subordinate? Or, in any case, 
will he, for such an offense, order him shot 
at sunrise, without warning or the semblance 
of a trial? 

We are wholly unwilling to believe that our 
comrades of this department will sanction 
any such summary proceedings against a sis- 
ter post. Should you do so, comrades, it 
may be your turn to-morrow, as it is ours 
to-day; until the fine fabric of the Grand 
Army of the Republic crumbles to dust, bat- 
tered down by the fratricidal arms of its own 

"We believe you will rather act upon the 
holy precepts of fraternity, charity and loy- 
alty, the memories of comradeship in danger, 
our common love of country, and the sacred 
cause to which we have all devoted our lives. 
We make this plea for the Grand Army of 
the Republic and for the Department of In- 
diana, no less than for Auten Post and for 
her comrades. You are not ready yet, com- 
rades, without greater cause, to disrupt the 
noble Department of Indiana, blast her posts 
and scatter her membership. 

Commander and Comrades of the Ninth 
Annual Encampment of the Department of 
Indiana, our appeal is in your hands; do 
with it as honor and duty shall inspire you. 
We confide in that decision. We believe that 
you will return to us our charter, books and 
papers, give seats to our delegates in this 
encampment, and restore Auten Post, No. 8, 
Department of Indiana, to your fraternal 
embrace and to her pla^e of honor in this 
department, the place which she has so long 
and so nobly held in the fore front of the 
Grand Army of the Republic. 

Yours in F., C. and L., 

Timothy E. Howard, 
Elmer Crockett, 
Albert M. Burns, 
Jasper E. Lewis, 
Jonathan P. Creed, 
Committee (yn Avpeal on the part of Auten 
Post, No. 8, Dept. of Indianu, O, A. R. 
Adopted as the action of Auten Post, No. 
8, Department of Indiana, G. A. R., by unani- 
mous vote of the post, at a regular meeting 
held at headquarters. South Bend, Indiana. 
Friday evening February 3, 1888. 

Cyrus C. Trump, Post Commander, 
Jasper E. Lewis, Adjutant. 

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As stated in the foregoing history of 
Auten Post, the appeal to the department 
commander and department encampment was 
successful; and the post was immediately 
admitted to membership in the department. 

A few years after the close of the Civil 
war, a military spirit began to be shown 
in the generation then growing up. In this 
county that spirit manifested itself in the 
formation of the South Bend Light Guards, 
a well-drilled company of young soldiers who 
in a few years developed into Company F of 
the Indiana National Guard, oflScered by such 
enthusiastic young men as George M. Stude- 
baker, George W. Feaser, George W. Freyer- 
muth and others. Company F was regarded 
throughout the state as one of the best com- 
panies in the I. N. G. When the war with 
Spain came on and Indiana was called upon 
to furnish its quota. Company F at once 
became the nucleus of one of the regiments to 
start for the front. This regiment was the 
157th Indiana infantry, which acted so 
worthy a part in our short controversy with 
the proud nation whose dominion at one time, 
as we have seen, extended from the valley 
of the St. Joseph to the straits of Magellan. 
George M. Studebaker was appointed colonel. 
In time, George W. Feaser was advanced to 
the lieutenant-colonelcy, and George W. 
Freyermuth was promoted from captain to 
major. This later military story is so fresh 
in the minds of the people that it hardly 
seems necessary to extend it further. The 
young men of the Light Guards, Company 
F and the 157th regiment, showed themselves 
worthy sons of the veterans of 1861. A 
camp of Spanish war veterans is one of our 
military organizations. 

Sec. 4. — The Soldiers' Monument. — On 
June 25, 1903, was dedicated in South Bend 
the most beautiful soldiers' monument in In- 
diana, save only the state monument at In- 
dianapolis. This beautiful shaft, of granite 
and bronze, was erected by the county of 
St. Joseph, and is the ero^Tiing mark of 
honor for all time to the heroic soldiers and 

sailors of every war since the Revolution, 
whose bodies are at rest in the soil of our 
county. The exercises of the dedication 
constituted one of the very finest civic and 
military displays ever witnessed in northern 
Indiana. The monument itself has given the 
utmost satisfaction to our citizens, both as a 
work of art and as a fit and costly memorial 
to the defenders of the republic. The loca- 
tion of the monument in our small public 
square, and surrounded and obscured by pub- 
lic buildings, has been criticised. The beau- 
tiful shaft is hidden away as if it were some- 
thing to be concealed; whereas it is worthy 
of a place for itself, where it might be viewed 
and admired by all the world. Mr. Leighton 
Pine, a member of the monument commis- 
sion, earnestly contended that the shaft 
should be erected in one of the public parks j 
and people now generally acknowledge that 
Mr. Pine was right in this, as he was in 
relation to the stand pipe, and indeed in 
relation to almost everything concerning 
which he expressed a decided opinion. He 
was one of the brightest and most judicious 
minded of all the men that ever took part 
in the public affairs of St. Joseph county. 
But the soldiers' monument, notwithstanding 
its location, is a thing of beauty, and will 
be a joy forever, teaching to all the coming 
generations its silent lesson of love of coun- 
try and gratitude to her defenders. 

Soldiers and citizens came for a hundred 
miles on the beautiful June day, to join in 
the dedication of the monument, and to listen 
to the fine addresses of Mayor Edward J. 
Fogarty, Department Commander George W. 
Orubbs, Captain Edwin Nicar, Colonel Wil- 
liam Hoynes and former Congressman Ben- 
jamin F. Shively. The historical features con- 
nected with the erection and dedication of the 
monument will perhaps be best shown in an 
editorial in the South Bend Tribune of that 
day ; in the presentation address by the Hon. 
Isaac Newton Miller, president of the board 
of county commissioners and in the accept- 
ance on the part of the Soldiers' Monument 

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Association. These were, in order, as follows : 
The Editx)rial. 

The dedication of the soldiers' monument 
in the court house grounds in this city to-day 
marks the last of three important public 
events in St. Joseph county connected with 
the great civil war. The first was on an 
April evening forty-two years ago when, on 
the news of Sumter's fall, the citizens ot 
South Bend, filled with patriotic indignation, 
met in mass concourse, denounced disunionism 
and then and there by the scores volunteered 
to go M the president's call and battle for 
their country's cause. 

It was a sad occasion wlien again th^ met 
under the leafy maples on the same spot a 
few months later to pay humble, mournful 
tribute to the memory of one who had been 
brought back from the field of strife the first 
of his comrades to fall at the enemy's hands. 
Over the silent form of John Auten, wrapped 
in the starry flag, the highest honor to a sol- 
dier and the tenderest tribute of friend were 
paid. Eloquent were the eulogies said and 
beside the maimed body fresh vows were 
taken to stand by the flag and avenge his 

Many, many more of her brave, stalwart 
sons did St. Joseph county send to become a 
sacrifice upon the altar of their country, and 
the gathered thousands on the historic 
grounds to-day are there to pay the loftiest 
tribute, to express the deepest gratitude, to 
extend the most affectionate fealty, to show 
the all-abiding love of the living to the dead 
in the consecration of a monument of granite 
and enduring bronze to loyalty and heroism. 

This impressive memorial that St. Joseph 
county has erected at much expense to com- 
memorate the valor of her soldiers on the 
field of glory has been a long time going 
through the developing process, but it is now 
complete and will stand as long as time 
lasts. It certainly is a splendid specimen of 
the sculptor's art, and will be classed among 
the city's most conspicuous public ornaments. 
It is of symmetrical proportions and all of 
its embellishments and inscriptions are in 
good taste and appropriate. No one can well 
look upon the heroic figure surmounting the 
shaft, the color bearer holdiner aloft Old 
Glory, without a thrill of patriotic inspira- 
tion, while to the old soldier it stirs the blood 
and brings up memories of the long ago jyjien 
the demon of war stalked through ttR^ be- 
loved land. 

Those who took the responsibility of rais- 
ing funds for the monument and all who were 
in any way connected with the selection of 
its design and entrusted with its construc- 
tion are certainly to be congratulated upon 
the arucceas of their efforts. No criticism 
whatever is to be offered of the shaft. It 
is one of the finest memorials of the kind to 
be found in the country, and Indiana has 
none other to compare with it except perhaps 
the state soldiers' monimaent at Indianapolis, 
which is really no better, only that it is on 
a more elaborate scale. St. Joseph county 
may well be proud of the memorial she has 
erected in the public grounds to show her 
gratitude to the heroes who went forth to 
battle for the right in her name. It is a 
tribute to all who gave up their lives for the 
flag in every branch of the military and 
naval service, in all the wars of the republic, 
from the first struggle for liberty down t# 
the latest for the maintenance of American 
supremacy, the short war with Spain, for in 
old St. Joseph's soil sleep the soldiers of 
1776, of 1812, of 1846, of 1861, and of 1898. 
Mr. Miller's Presentation. 

We come to-day to dedicate and conse- 
crate this monument in honor of and to 
the memory of those who fought and those 
who fell in the war of the great rebellion. 
The citizens of St. Joseph county have 
erected this soldiers' and sailors' monument 
as a token of the high regard and love they 
have for the men who saved this, the great- 
est republic on earth, and who carried Old 
Glory on so many battlefields to victory. 

Almost four years ago there was a peti- 
tion presented to the county commissioners of 
this county, asking them to appropriate the 
sum of $25,000 with which to build a sol- 
diers' monument. The members of the board 
at that time were Peter Reaves, president: 
Samuel Bowman and John Fulmer. This 
county board submitted the petition to the 
county advisory board and the appropriation 
was granted without a dissenting vote. Prom 
this time on, with the aid of the 6. A. R. 
committee, for which they will please accej)* 
our thanks, we labored at every session of 
the board, up to the present time, to have a 
monument erected that would be an ornament 
to the city of South Bend and in keeping 
with the honor and dignity of St. Joseph 
county. How well we have succeeded our 
people must be the judges. 

The board of county commissioners feel 

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that they have done their whole duty and 
have used the funds intrusted to their care 
and keeping as economically as possible and 
have received in return from McDonnell & 
Sons, the contraotors, the full value of the 
money paid. 

At the earnest solicitation of the Grand 
Army of the Republic and the Woman *s Re- 
lief Corps, there will be a space left around 
the base of the monument three feet in width, 
for planting and cultivation of flowering 
plants, which we hope will be realized as 
soon as the grounds are in shape, thus keep- 
ing the base of the monument a living, per- 
petual bud and bloom. This we entrust to 
the Woman's Relief Corps, which we have 
good reason to believe will be done to per- 
fection. And now, Grand Army of the Re- 
public, as president of the board of. county 
commissioners of St. Joseph county, I present 
to you this beautiful monument as a tribute 
to the love and respect we have for you. 
May you receive it in the same generous 
spirit that it is freely given. 

Mr. Howard's Acceptance. 
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Board 
of County Commissioners and the County- 
Council : 

It is an honor that I appreciate most highly 
to be chosen on the part of the St. Joseph 
County Soldiers' Monument Association to 
receive from your hands this beautiful and 
enduring shaft which the good people of this 
county, through you, have erected to com- 
memorate forever the loyal and heroic citi- 
zen soldiers who went out from these borders 
to maintain the integrity of the republic. 
In gratitude to you, Mr. President and gen- 
tlemen, and to the noble men and women of 
St. Joseph county whom you represent, we 
accept this granite monument, surmounted 
with its noble bronze figures, commemorative 
of the soldiers and sailors who sleep in hon- 
ored graves in the cemeteries of every town- 
ship, city and hamlet of this splendid county 
named from and nestled in the bosom of the 
St. Joseph valley. So long as those, our 
heroes, sleep in the soil which their ashes 
have made sacred, so long, we trust, will this 
granite and this bronze bear aloft the flag 
which they lifted up to sunlight and glory. 
Happy are the people and secure are their 
liberties who thus remember and honor their 
heroic defenders. Well did the governor of 
the staite say, in sending to us his congratu- 

lations and his regrets for his unavoidable 
absence: **St. Joseph county honors herself 
in thus honoring her soldiers." 

Nearly four years ago, on the 16th day of 
December, 1899, the St. Joseph County Sol- 
diers' Monument Association was formed for 
the purpose, as stated in its articles of in- 
corporation, of aiding **in erecting at the 
county seat a monument or memorial hall to 
the soldiers and sailors of the civil war from 
St. Joseph county who fought and died in 
defense of the Union i^d the rights of man." 
Membership in the association was open to 
all the citizens of the county. The following 
representative board of directors was chosen : 
John Hughes, Edwin Nicar, Timothy E. 
Howard, Joseph M. Dolph, John Layton, 
John A. M. La Pierre, Wilbur E. Gtorsuch, 
Corwin B. Van Pelt, Edward P. Stanfield, 
Charles Frank, Edward A. Jemegan, G. H. 
Motts, W. S. Olmstead, William H. Deacon, 
H. A. Adle, Simon B. Cullars, James Oliver, 
Clement Studebaker, Joseph B. Birdsell, 
Marion B. Staley, George W. Lewis, Leighton 
Pine, George W. Loughman, Frederick H. 
Badet, Very Rev. Andrew Morrissey, Schuy- 
ler Colfax, Martin V. Beiger, Henry G. Niles, 
George W. Baker, George Wyman, John B. 
Stoll, Chauncey N. Fassett, Elmer Crockett, 
Patrick O'Brien, Irving A. Sibley, Charles 
T. Lindsey, Edward B. Reynolds, Lucius G. 
Tong, Myron Campbell, Charles L. Goetz and 
Frederick W. Mueller. 

As the executive officer of the association 
the directors selected the man of all the asso- 
ciation best fltted for the task. On more 
than one occasion had Past Department Com- 
mander Edwin Nicar shown his capacity as 
an organizer, and those who realized how 
great the task before us turned instinctively 
to him, and he was selected as president. He 
thought at first that he had too little time to 
spare for so great a work and was reluctant 
to serve. But on the principle that if you 
want a thing done you must get a busy man 
to do it, he was pressed into service. There 
was in another respect a certain fitness in 
things in the selection of Captain Nicar as 
president. In 1896 the seventeenth annual 
encampment of the Department of Indiana, 
G. A. R., was held in South Bend, and it may 
be said, without disparagement of the work 
of any one else, that the success of that en- 
campment was due in great measure to the 
ability displayed by Edwin Nicar as head of 
the executive committee. The citizens of 

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South Bend were generous on that occasion, 
as they always are when appealed to for a 
great and good purpose, and over $900 re- 
mained in the local treasury after payment 
of all expenses. What to do with this 
money was not easy to determine. In this 
emergency the thought of a soldiers' monu- 
ment came as an inspiration to Mr. Nicar, 
and the following^ resolutions drawn up by 
him were unanimously adopted. The money 
problem was solved and this fair monument 
loomed in the distance. These were the reso- 
lutions : 

''Whereas, The executive committee has 
reason to believe that the wishes of the con- 
tributors to the encampment fund, and public 
sentiment generally, wiU sanction the follow- 
ing disposition of the .surplus remaining; 

** Resolved, That the balance above men- 
tioned be and the same is hereby appropriated 
and set aside as the nucleus of a soldiers' 
monument fund, to be used in connection 
with such other funds as may hereafter be 
secured for the purpose, in the erection of a 
suitable monument in the city of South Bend 
to commemorate the sacrifices and valor of 
the soldiers of South Bend and vicinity who 
lost their lives in defense of the Union in 
the war of 1861 and 1865. 

''Resolved, That until a soldiers' monu- 
ment association shall be properly organized 
the balance above mentioned shall remain in 
the hands of the treasurer of this committee ; 
but, when it shall appear to the chairman and 
secretary of this committee that such associa- 
tion has been properly organized and is ready 
for business, they shall draw their warrant 
upon said treasurer in favor of the treasurer 
of the monumental association and this being 
done the work of the executive committee 
shall be deemed completed and the committee 

With the funds so provided by the wise 
foresight of the local committee of the sev- 
enteenth department encampment of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, all the ex- 
penses of the St. Joseph County Soldiers' 
Monument Association have been paid, un- 
der the watchful eyes of our efficient secre- 
tary, Comrade W. E. Gorsuch, and business- 
like treasurer, Mr. Frederick W. Mueller. 

But to secure sufficient funds to build n 
monument worthy the great county of St. 
Joseph was a formidable task. To secure an 
appropriation of twenty-five thousand dollars 

by your honorable board, it was necessary 
for the association, first of all, to present a 
petition signed, as the statute requires, by 
*'the majority of the voters of the county." 
Whether this could be done or not was the 
question. The effort had been made several 
times already and failed. Committees on the 
part of Auten Post, G. A. R., had tried over 
and over again, but were unable to succeed. 
A man of untiring energy, of unflagging cour- 
age and perseverance was needed. Happily 
for this day's triumph, such a man was 

Past Post Commander John Hughes was 
made chairman of the committee on x)etition, 
and he went to work with that quiet, unas- 
suming, patient energy that has alwa^'s 
marked the character of one of the most 
modest, brave and true soldiers that ever 
wore the uniform of the republic. It was 
necessary to get over seven thousand names 
to secure a majority of the voters. W^eek 
after week and month after month the quiet 
work went on, and whenever a discour- 
aged member of the association expressed 
doubt as to success Comrade Hughes quietly 
remarked that we must have patience, that 
the committee were getting there. It is a 
moral certainty that no one else could have 
accomplished the task, but in good time Com- 
rade Hughes brought in his great roll of the 
voters, and on counting, it was found that 
over nine thousand had signed the petition. 
The point of danger was passed. 

Edwin Nicar has been the commander of 
our forces; you, gentlemen, the representa- 
tives of the people, have furnished the sinews 
of war; but John Hughes, the true soldier, 
faithful to his assigned task, is the unpre- 
tending hero of the monument. 

Then came the trying task of securing plans 
and bidders to do the work. Meeting after 
meeting of the association was held for this 
purpose. In this connection, while words of 
praise cannot be given to so many that 
richly deserve it, there is one name, that of 
a most public spirited citizen, that cannot 
be passed over. One of the most faithful 
attendants of the sessions of the association 
and one whose encouragement and advice 
helped very much to keep alive the spirit of 
the association was that broad-minded, large- 
souled citizen who sympathized with every 
elevating and patriotic movement in the com- 
mnnity, Clement Studebaker. Th** soldiers 
of his count V were verv near to Mr. Stude- 

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/: -- 

li..J -' 

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baker's heart, and perhaps the very last pul> 
lie meeting which he attended was that of 
the association when the design of the present 
monument was finally selected. 

Mr. President, gentlemen, the soldiers' 
monument is with us to stay. "We receive it 
on the part of the people of St. Josepli 
county. We and you shall soon pass away, 
but the people will remain, and this enduring 
granite and bronze will remain with them as 
your monument also and ours. The people of 
our blood and kindred who shall succeed us, 
and all those who will come to dwell with 
them in the valley of the St. Joseph, will 
for a thousand years gather at the foot of 
this beauteous shaft to receive inspiration 

from the silent heroes who are here commem- 
orated and they will, too, remember with 
pride that their fathers arose to the full dig- 
nity of patriotic duty when they erected this 
mark of their love and devotion to those who 
died that the nation might live. 

And now we shall close the History of 
St. Joseph county with this story of the 
noble monument which the oounty has erected 
to the memory of those who, in the times that 
tried men's souls, went forth in defense 
of our homes and firesides and for preserva- 
tion of the republic. 

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W. L. KizEB. For many years the Kizer 
family have occupied a distinctive place in 
the affairs of South Bend and St. Joseph 
county. From a wilderness this section has 
been gradually transformed into a fertile 
farming country and into one of the most 
prosperous cities of the Union, and in this 
glorious labor the Kizers have been active 
and zealous, leaving to their children and to 
posterity the records of useful, well spent 
lives. A worthy scion of this family, W. L. 
Kizer, was bom in Holmes county, Ohio, 
February 15, 1844. His father, Ebenezer 
Kizer, came to St. Joseph county in the early 
year of 1846, locating in German township, 
where he purchased land and improved a 
farm. The latter part of his life was spent 
in South Bend, where his death occurred in 
1883, when he had reached the sixty-third 
milestone on the journey of life, passing 
away in the faith of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, of which he was long a faithful mem- 
ber. Mrs. Kizer bore the maiden name of 
Susanna Ward, and was a native of Ohio. 
Her death occurred in South Bend at the 
age of sixty-four years. In the family of 
this worthy pioneer couple were seven sons 
and one daughter, all of whom grew to years 
of maturity, but the daughter died at the 
age of twenty-four years. The sons are: 
George, a resident of Michigan; Peter, also 
of that state; W. L., whose name introduces 
this review; Ebenezer, a resident of Michi- 
gan; James, a farmer of German township, 
St. Joseph county; Jacob, also an agricul- 
turist of German township; and Robert P.. 
of South Bend. 

W. L. Kizer was only about two years of 
age when brought by his parents to St. Jo- 
seph county, and the early years of his life 
were devoted to the work of the home farm, 
while his education was obtained in the dis- 
trict schools near his home and in the city 
schools of South Bend. He also acquired a 
most liberal college education in the sciences 
and classics, where he also paid special at- 
tention to the study of the languages. He 
then became assistant revenue collector of 
the ninth district, fifth division, under Frank 
Tutt, and was later made deputy collector 
under Colonel Norman Eddy for the ninth 
district, state of Indiana, in which he re- 
mained for three years. He was next en- 
gaged in special agency work for the Etna 
Insurance Company of Hartford, but re- 
signed that position to engage in the real es- 

tate business in 1869. His name is now well 
known in manufacturing circles, being secre- 
tary of the Malleable Steel Range Manufact- 
uring Company, one of the leading industries 
of South Bend. He is the director of the St. 
Joseph Loan & Trust Company, also of the 
St. Joseph County Savings Bank, and is in- 
terested in many other leading industries oZ 
this county and city. At No. 803 West Wash- 
ington street. South Bend, Indiana, is located 
Mr. Blizer's fine home. 

In 1871 Mr. Kizer was married to Elizabeth 
Brick, the daughter of William W. Brick, of 
South Bend, and they have a son and daugh- 
ter, Horace E. and Willimena, the latter the 
wife of.T. E. Morrison, a real estate and in- 
surance d^ealer of South Bend. Ward Wells, 
another son, died July 6, 1904, at the age of 
seventeen years. Mr. Kizer gives his politi- 
cal support to the Republican party, and has 
served as the city commissioner, and for six 
years as chairman of the board of city com- 
missioners during the administration of Wil- 
liam H. Langley and Hon. David R. Leeper. 
Success has crowned the well directed efforts 
of W. L. Kizer, and he is popular and re- 
spected in all circles. 

John Harvey Myers, a prominent con- 
tractor and builder of South Bend, Indiana, 
was born in Madison township, May 15, 1864. 
His father, John P. Myers, was bom in the 
state of New York, April 24, 1838, and his 
father, Frederick Myers, was, as far as 
known, a lifelong resident of that state. Her 
husband having died and the ties which 
bound her to her old home having been 
broken, Mrs. Myers, grandmother of our sub- 
ject, emigrated to Indiana with her four chil- 
dren, and settled in Madison township, St. 
Joseph county, where she secured a tract of 
land, and there reared her family. Several 
years after coming to Indiana, she married 
a Mr. Hemlinger. John F. Myers, father of 
J. H. Myers, availed himself of the oppor- 
tunity of attending the district school and in 
the meantime resided on the farm, and after 
marriage continued to occupy the home farm, 
which he managed with signal ability until 
1898, with the exception of two years, which 
he spent as a soldier in the federal army dur- 
ing the war of the rebellion. Since 1898 he 
has lived retired from active work, and is 
now enjoying the quiet of a well ordered life 
and the rest which is due the man who labors 
long and faithfully. He is a stanch Repub- 
lican in his political affiliations and holds 

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AuguBt Hcrzog 

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membership in the local G. A. R. post. The 
maiden name of his wife, mother of Mr. 
Myers, was Margaret Jane Grimes. She was 
bom February 27, 1832, in Owen county, In- 
diana, where her parents were pioneers, and 
died December 23, 1895. She reared five chil- 
dren: Sarah Isabelle; George, who died 
August 3, 1879; John Harvey; Nancy 
Sophia, who died in 1893 ; and Emma Ellen. 

John Harvey Myers attended school in his 
youth and assisted on the farm, until eighteen 
years of age, and then commenced work at 
the carpenter's trade, continuing to live with 
his parents until twenty-four years old, then, 
having married, went to Lakeville and worked 
at his trade there two years, in 1890 removed 
to South Bend and engaged in business as 
contractor and builder, which business he has 
continued successfully ever since. There are 
many attractive evidences of his labor on 
East Wenger street, where there are, besides 
his own residence, twelve neat and substan- 
tial houses which have been erected under his 
supervision and in addition to these there are 
many others in different parts of the city. 
Mr. Myers is a practical plumber as well as 

On October 18, 1888, Mr. Myers was mar- 
ried to Miss Flora Isabella Kring. She was 
bom in Union township, St. Joseph county, 
July 22, 1869. Her father, Henry Kring, 
was a native of Stari^ county, Ohio. His 
father, grandfather of Mrs. M. Frederick 
Kring, emigrated from Ohio to Indiana, mak- 
ing the removal overland with wagons. This 
was a long time before there were other 
means of transportation thither than that of- 
fered by horses or oxen. He was an early 
settler of Penn township, where he bought 
a partially improved farm, where he spent 
the remainder of his days. Mrs. Myers' 
father was twenty-one years old when he 
came to Indiana with his parents, with whom 
he lived until his marriage, when he bought 
. good farm land in Union township and there 
he engaged in farming until about one year 
before his death, when he came to South 
Bend, where he died at the age of seventy- 
eight years, September 27, 1904. The maiden 
name of his wife, mother of Mrs. Myers, was 
Sarah Miller. She was bom in Stark coun- 
ty, Ohio, daughter of John and Catherine 
(Wenger) Miller, the former a native of Ohio 
and the latter of Pennsylvania. She was 
fifteen years old when she came to Indiana 
with her parents, and she died April 16, 1904. 

Mrs. Myers is the youngest of three daugh- 
ters, the others being named Violetta and 
Dora Ellen. Mr. and Mrs. Myers have one 
son, ' Cluro L., who was born September 9, 
1889, and was educated in the public schools. 
Mr. and Mrs. Myers are faithful and con- 
sistent members of the German Baptist 

August Herzoq. When, after years of long 
and honorable labor in some field of busi- 
ness, a man puts aside all cares to spend his 
remaining years in the enjoyment of the 
fruits of his former toil, it is certainly a well 
deserved reward of his industry. 
**How blest is he who comes in shades like 

A youth of labor with an age of ease — '' 
wrote the poet, and the world everywhere* 
recognizes the justice of a season of rest tol- 
lowing a period of business lite. 

August Herzog is one of the prominent 
citizens of St. Joseph county, and one of the 
few early pioneers of Mishawaka who have 
taken such a material part in the develop- 
ment of this beautiful little city. 

Always active in business, and possessed 
of no mean ability, he has conquered fortune, 
and now in age is seeking rest, and the en- 
joyment of the fruits of his long life of toil. 
Few are there who are better known or have 
a wider circle of friends. 

The Herzog family have resided in Misha- 
waka a full half century and are prominently 
identified with the best interests of the com- 
munity, not only in business, but in social 
and religious circles. 

The founder of the family in America was 
August Herzog, father of the subject of this 
sketch. He was bom in the dukedom of 
Baden, Germany, August 21, 1835. His 
father, Sebastian Herzog, a brick, stone and 
plaster mason, was a lifelong resident of 
Baden, his native land. The maiden name 
of his wife was Elizabeth Kastner, also a 
native of Baden. She survived her husband 
several years, and visited America, but re- 
turned and spent her last days in her native 
home. She reared four children, named 
August, Thekla, Anton and Christina. All 
except Christina came to America and settled 
in Mishawaka. August Herzog attended 
school steadily until fourteen years old, and 
then commenced to learn the trade of shoe- 
maker and served an apprenticeship of two 
and a half years, and then having become a 
skilful worlnnan, received his discharge, and 

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in accordance with the custom prevailing in 
that country, visited different cities, working 
a while in each city. He received a recom- 
mendation from each employer as an excel- 
lent mechanic and a youth of exemplary 
habits. At the age of eighteen he came to 
America. He sailed from Havre, France, in 
a sailing vessel and landed at Xew York for- 
ty-two days later. He found employment at 
his trade in the city and remained there six 
months, and then went to Massillon, Ohio, and 
worked at his trade there three and one-half 
years, and then, in March, 1857, he came to 
St. Joseph county and first stopped at South 
Bend, but not finding employment there, 
came to Mishawaka, and has been a resident 
here continuously since. He commenced here 
•as a shoemaker for Albert Hudson, proprie- 
tor of a shoe store, and was in his employ 
five years and then became a "partner, firm 
name Hudson & Co., and continued seven 
years, and then Mr. Hudson sold to C. C. 
Godeman, and the firm name was changed to 
Herzog & Godeman, and continued four and 
a half years, and later Mr. Herzog bought 
his partner's interest and continued the busi- 
ness until the year 1899, and in the mean- 
time has added a gentlemen's furnishing 
line, and selling his business has lived retired 
from active labor. 

He married in 1857, August 30th, Balbina 
Kotz. She was bom July 17, 1837, in Ba- 
varia, daughter of Francis Joseph and Maria 
Victoria Besler. She came to America with 
her mother when she was thirteen years old, 
made the trip in sailing vessel and was fifty- 
five days on the water. The family settled 
in Massillon, Ohio, where they lived several 
years, and then came to St. Joseph county. 

On the 30th of August, 1907, Mr. and Mrs. 
Herzog celebrated their golden wedding. 
There were present at the time six of their 
seven children and thirteen grandchildren. 
There were ten children, nine of which grew 
to manhood and womanhood : Francis Joseph, 
Henry, August .H., Joseph, John A., Eliza- 
beth M., Marie, Anna Thekla, Katherine, and 
a nephew, named August Weber, left an 
orphan when an infant, was reared by Mr. 
and Mrs. Herzog. 

John Augustus Herzog. Whether the 
elements of success in life are innate attri- 
butes of the individual, or whether they are 
quickened by a process of circumstantial de- 
velopment, it is impossible to clearly deter- 
mine; yet the study of a successful life is 

none the less profitable by reason of the ex- 
istence of this uncertainty, and in the ma- 
jority of cases, it is fouiwi that exceptional 
ability supplemented by close application and 
earnest purpose, forms the real success which 
so many have envied. It is a noticeable fact 
that the young men are rapidly occupying 
the foremost places in business and financial 
circles. Whether this is due to superior edu- 
cation or training, or to personal ability, is a 
question of dispute, perhaps it is due to all 
of these. At aU events the fact remains that 
every community numbers among its leading 
citizens men who yet young in years have 
made a success of life. And among those who 
deserve special mention in this volume is the 
subject of this sketch. 

He was educated in the St. Joseph school, 
Mishawaka, where he attended until fifteen 
years old, when he entered the employ of the 
Dodge Manufacturing Co., where he re- 
mained six months, then commenced clerking 
in his father's store, and continued clerking 
until January, 1899, when he purchased the 
business which he has continued to the pres- 
ent time. At the age of twenty-one he was 
elected city clerk and by re-election served 
four terms. Since starting in the shoe busi- 
ness he has given it such close attention that 
he has made his establishment the largest up- 
to-date shoe store in Mishawaka. He is a 
practical shoe man, having learned the trade 
on the bench when a boy of twelve years, as 
evidence of which he has among his collection 
in his Oriental room, a pair of boots he made 
at that time. 

In 1900 his health required a recreation 
and he took a trip to Europe, starting from 
Mishawaka August 1st, through Canada, em- 
barking on ship at Quebec, up the St. Law- 
rence, passing Anti Costa, Labrador, through 
the Straights of BeUe Isle to Ireland, Eng- 
land, Holland, Belgium, France, Switzerland, 
Germany, Italy, Egypt and the Holy Land, 
returning about December 1st greatly satis- 
fied after a very enjoyable time. His rare 
collection in Oriental footwear and souvenirs 
are on display in his Oriental room, also 
cards and photographs to show scenes along 
the whole trip. 

He was married July 7, 1891, to Henrietta 
Elenoir Yenn. She was born in South Bend 
and is the daughter of Simon Yenn and Jo- 
sephine Yenn. Mr. and Mrs. Herzog have 
two children, Mildred May, born October 6th, 
1893, and Francis Elenora, bom February 7, 

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1y Iv' lv;a* >\ ai lia* 1()\»' an 1 \^nt-ialiuii a: :'> 

\VlIM\\i M. ii.HT..\M\ p' '- d' ';t aiKl '..a. .- 

atr-'t' oi' t», ■ *-M'J 'y AIa»'hin" To-.. I ('(..■, v.- :-\ o, 
S^aiili I>(".'.; ^oni )ii \\ v*'U<-(\ >- **''a.slxa, 
diPH'. 4, l^tT. fTJs fatl'T, Jaiia^s I'^'Laiid, 
was a n ili\a id" Kn^rlnnd. t)at <'aaif !•» Aniar- 
iaa <iui'itiir liss vnai.'u nianlnurl, aia' in Xaw 
York was nan-i-icd to Alarirarat Fir. ley, aKo 
a nativt' 'd* Kn^land. Attar t'l^-ir marriai^-a 
Air. and Airs. Jlollaiid t*>'tk np Ih-'ir abod(» In 
Klldiart. Indiana, fra'a whi( h ]>ia<'a the for- 
mer anjist' d ih> a sold I. a jn tha Civil wa*' 

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; i-t-uj^.L h-iLu, 

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1896. The family are members of St. Joseph 
Catholic church. 

Joseph MiliLer. For many years Joseph 
Miller has been a resident of St. Joseph coun- 
ty and has been identified with many of the 
interests that have contributed to its substan- 
tial development and improvement. His 
probity, fidelity and sterling worth have won 
him the unqualified confidence of his fellow 
men, and now, in the evening of life, his path- 
way is brightened by the veneration and re- 
spect which ever follow an upright career. 
He was bom in Lebanon county, Pennsylva- 
nia, February 27, 1823, a son of Henry and 
Catharine (Harper) Miller, also natives of 
the Keystone state. Their ancestors came to ' 
America with William Penn, and Mr. Miller 
is of the fifth generation from the founders 
of the family on American soil. He was 
reared in the county of his nativity, attend- 
ing the log school houses so common in the 
early days, but the instruction which he re- 
ceived therein has been greatly supplemented 
by extensive reading and observation in later 
years. In the early year of 1837 he made 
his way to Michigan, locating on the present 
site of the city of South Bend. On the 3d of 
October, 1844, seven years after his arrival 
in this state, Mr. Miller married Martha A. 
Scott, the daughter of William and Susan 
(Nash) Scott, natives of Culpeper county, 
Virginia, but their daughter Martha was bom 
in Jennings county, Indiana, November 3, 
1827. She was about eight years of age when 
she accompanied her parents on their re- 
moval to St. Joseph county, and was reared 
in German township, on Portage Prairie, her 
education being obtained in its country 

In 1844 Mr. Miller located with his bride 
on a farm in German township, St. Joseph 
county, where they continued to make their 
home until 1849, going thence to New Buffalo, 
Michigan, where he had charge of the light 
house. But in 1853 the young couple re- 
turned to the farm in German township and 
were engaged in agricultural pursuits there 
until in April, 1865, when they took up their 
abode in South Bend. After locating here 
Mr. Miller engaged in the milling business, 
forming a partnership with a Mr. Judson, 
at that time the wealthiest man in the county, 
but after two years the partnership was dis- 
solved, and during the following five years 
Mr. Miller was engaged in business with 
Hiram Loomas. From 1876 until 1886 he was 

engaged in the milling business in Mishawaka, 
returning in the latter year to South Bend 
and engaging in the wood and coal business 
with Samuel Lontz, who had served as his 
head miller for twenty years, and was there- 
fore very proficient in the business. During 
the long period of forty years this firm has 
continued in business in South Bend, where 
they have become widely and favorably 
known and are awarded a liberal patronage. 
Mr. Miller* was one of the first justices of 
the peace in Warren township, but after 
holding that office six years he removed to 
the city, and during his residence in Misha- 
waka he served as president of the board of 
trustees. He was chairman of the board of 
trustees of Mishawaka for four years, being 
twice elected to that office. He was the 
founder and first member of Grace Methodist 
Episcopal church, in which he has ever since 
been an efficient and active worker. A stanch 
Republican in his political views, he has ever 
taken an active interest in the upbuilding of 
the party. 

Mr. and Mrs. Miller have traveled the path- 
way of life together for many years, mutually 
sharing the joys and sorrows which checker 
the lives of all, and to them has come the 
privilege of celebrating their sixty-second 
wedding anniversary. They have one living 
daughter, Elizabeth A., the wife of Dennis 
S. Brownfield, of South Bend. Their daugh- 
ter Molly C. was drowned in the St. Joseph 
river, having with three companions fallen 
over the dam. Mr. Miller, who is one of the 
oldest pioneers of St. Joseph county, can re- 
call many reminiscences of ,the early days, 
and he can distinctly remember of having 
heard Hon. Schuyler Colfax make his first 
speech, being then about seventeen years of 
age. His career has been an active, honor- 
able and useful one, and during his long 
residence in South Bend and St. Joseph coun- 
ty he has won the love and veneration of its 

William H. Holland, president and man- 
ager of the Sibley Machine Tool Company of 
South Bend, was bom in Florence, Nebraska, 
June 4, 1867. His father, James Holland, 
was a native of England, but came to Amer- 
ica during his young manhood, and in New 
York was married to Margaret Finley, also 
a native of England. After their marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Holland took up their abode in 
Elkhart, Indiana, froti which place the for- 
mer enlisted as a soldier in tie Civil war. 

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In 1865 they removed to Florence, Nebraska, 
where he was engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits, and in 1872 they returned to Indiana, 
locating in South Bend, where Mr. Holland 
was employed in the manufacturing of paper. 
His death occurred when he had reached the 
age of sixty- four years. In their family were 
eight children, all of whom grew to years of 

William Holland, the seventh child in or- 
der of birth, was but five years of age when 
he was brought by his parents to South Bend, 
and in its public schools he received the edu- 
cational training which fitted him for life's 
active duties. After its completion he was 
apprenticed to the machinist's trade in the 
firm of Sibley & Ware. His apprenticeship 
beginning in 1884, after eight years of effi- 
cient service Mr. Holland was made the su- 
perintendent, and thus continued until the 
company was organized as the Sibley Ma- 
chine Tool Company, when he became vice- 
president of the corporation, and at the death 
of Mr. A. P. Sibley he was made president 
and manager, his present position. 

Mr. Holland is president of the Commer- 
cial-Athletic Club of South Bend, and in so- 
cial as well as the business circles he is popu- 
lar and well known. In 1888 he was united 
in marriage to Mary A. Hanley of South 
Bend and their home has been blessed by the 
birth of one daughter, Helen, of eleven years. 

George Butzbach, whose name is closely 
identified with the business interests of South 
Bend, is at the head of one of its leading in- 
dustrial concerns, being president of the 
South Bend Fruit Company. He was born 
in Berrien county, Michigan, April 4, 1861, 
and is of German parentage. His father, 
Phillip Butzbach, after coming from his na- 
tive land to the United States, established his 
home in Berrien county, this being about the 
year of 1843, and he is still residing within 
its borders, having for many years been 
prominently identified with its agricultural 
interests. His wife, who is also living, was 
Blanche Harmen before marriage and a na- 
tive of Germany, coming to America with 
her parents. In Phillip Butzbach 's family 
were twelve children, all of whom grew to 
years of maturity and eleven are living at 
the present time. 

George Butzbach, their seventh child in or- 
der of birth, spent the period of his boyhood 
and youth on the home farm in Bainbridge 
township, Berrien county, Michigan, assist- 

ing in the work of the old homestead until 
1884, when he embarked in the fruit cooper- 
age business in Benton Harbor. After sev- 
enteen years in that connection he sold his 
interests therein and came to South Bend 
and organized the South Bend Fruit Com- 
pany, in which enterprise he is associated 
with Jacob and Samuel G. Butzbach, himself 
being the president and manager. They do 
an exclusively wholesale business, handling 
all kinds of fruits, and they ship to all points 
in Indiana, southern Michigan and parts of 
Illinois, their annual sales reaching to nearly 
half a million dollars, while each week they 
, handle about thirty carloads of this perish- 
able commodity. A large building, about 
sixty by two hundred and ten feet, is utilized 
for the business, located at 526-28-30 South 
Scott street. Mr. Butzbach has attained an 
enviable success in the business world, but 
his prestige has been won through marked 
executive ability, keen discrimination, sound 
judgment and unfaltering industry, and his 
life work thus far illustrates j:he wonderful 
possibilities which America affords her young 
men of energy and ambition. 

On the 5th of May, 1886, Mr. Butzbach 
was united in marriage to Lettie Weber, a 
daughter of John Weber, of Bainbridge town- 
ship, Berrien county, Michigan, and four 
children have been born of this union : Sam- 
uel G. and Irwin R., both associated in busi- 
ness with their father; and Nora May and 
Florence Blanch, at home. Mr. Butzbach 
has fraternal relations with the Elks, and in 
his political affiliations is a stanch Repub- 
lican. He is among the active workers in 
the party ranks, and during his residence 
in Benton Harbor he served for six years 
as its alderman, while for one term he was 
its mayor pro tem. A man of natural ability, 
his. success in business has been uniform and 
rapid. After all that may be done for a man 
in the way of giving him early opportunities 
for obtaining the ends sought in the schools 
and books; he must essentially formulate, de- 
termine and give shape to his own character, 
and this is what Mr. Butzbach has done. He 
has persevered in the pursuit of a definite 
purpose and gained a most satisfactory re- 

Henry Forster. The honored subject of 
this memoir was during a long period closely 
identified with the business interests of South 
Bend, Indiana, being one of her prominent 
and influential merchants. He was successful 

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in his business, and continued, his operations 
as a dealer in flour until his busy and useful 
life was ended in death, f^ebruary 11, 1905. 
St. Joseph county was proud to name him 
among her honored sons, his birth occurring 
in Clay township on the 17th of May, 1854. 
His father, John Porster, for many years a 
prominent agriculturist in Clay township, 
was a native of Bavaria, Germany, born May 
17, 1812. After reaching manhood's estate 
he left his native land for America, arriving 
in Clay township, St. Joseph county, Indiana, 
in 1850, and was here married to Barbara 
Rimiing, a native also of Germany and at 
that time a widow with two daughters, Mar- 
garett and Barbara. By her marriage to Mr. 
Porster she became the mother of two sons, 
but one died in infancy, and Henry was the 
younger in order of birth. Mr. Porster, the 
father, was a Democrat in his political af- 
filiations, and after reaching a ripe old age 
he retired from the active cares of a business 
life, his death occurring in South Bend in 
June, 1907, when in his eighty-sixth year. 

Henry Porster spent the days of his boy- 
hood and youth on the old homestead farm 
in Clay township, and the training which he 
received in its public schools was supple- 
mented by attendance at the University of 
Notre Dame, where he enjoyed superior edu- 
cational advantages. Prom 1870 until 1878 
he was employed by Knoblock & Gintz in 
their flouring mills, while during the follow- 
ing two years he was associated in the busi- 
ness of L. C. Axford, and lateu embarked in 
the flouring business for himself, gradually 
winning a name among the leading business 
men of South Bend. At the time of his mar- 
riage he purchased his present property on 
Lafayette street, and in 1900 erected their 
present commodious dwelling. 

On the 11th of September, 1888, Mr. Pors- 
ter married Anna C. pibel, who was born in 
South Bend December 4, 1859, the daughter 
of Earhart Elbel, a cabinet maker of South 
Bend. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, 
but during his young manhood came to Amer- 
ica, and in South Bend was united in mar- 
riage to Sophie Pickenscher, also a native of 
Bavaria. He had learned his trade of cab- 
inet-making in his native land, and continued 
one of its faithful devotees during the re- 
mainder of his life. Eight children were born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Elbel, two sons and six 
daughters, all of whom were born and edu- 
cated in South Bend and two are now de- 

Vol. 11—11. 

ceased. The father gave his political support 
to the Democracy, and was a member of the 
Odd Pellows fraternity, having been one of 
the first members of the order in the South 
Bend lodge. His death occurred in his eighty- 
second year, for he was bom in the year of 
1824 and died in 1905. Unto Mr. and Mrs. 
Porster were bom two children, a son and 
a daughter, — Plorence Eleanor, born on the 
28th of July, 1890, and Herbert, bom Octo- 
ber 5, 1894. Mr. Porster was also a sup- 
porter of Democratic principles, and to him 
was accorded a leading place among the rep- 
resentative citizens of South Bend. 

Henry 'C. Morgan is an honored veteran 
of the Civil war and one who has for many 
years held an important place among the 
business men of South Bend. He is a native 
son of the city, his birth occurring on the 20th 
of July, 1842, a son of Charles and Sarah 
(Shiunarg) Morgan, the former a native of 
North Carolina and the latter of New Jersey. 
In a very early day the father removed to 
Wayne county, Indiana, where he worked for 
some time at the carpenter's trade, and in 
1833 established his home in South Bend, here 
continuing his trade. His name was a well 
known and honored one in the early days of 
this (uty, and he was prominently identified 
with its early history. 

Henry C. Morgan is indebted to the public 
schools of his native city for his educational 
training, and after completing his education 
he worked at the wagon maker's trade with 
Whitten & Conrad, receiving twenty-five dol- 
lars for his first year's work and fifty dollars 
for the second. At the inauguration of the 
Civil war in 1861 he offered his services to 
the Union cause, and in the following year 
became a member of Company C, Seventy- 
third Indiana Volunteer Infantry. His serv- 
ices continued until the close of the war and 
he was mustered out July 4, 1865. He was 
a member of the Army of the Tennessee and 
participated in the battles of Nashville, Stone 
River and Perryville. While participating in 
Colonel Straight 8 raid in Tennessee he was 
captured and held as a prisoner of war, near 
Rome, Georgia, and finally on Belle Isle, 
where he was paroled and afterward dis- 
charged. He shared the fortunes of his com- 
mand, often being in the thickest of the fight, 
and all honor should be paid to those who 
aided in upholding the principles of liberty. 

Returning to his home in South Bend Mr. 
Morgan began work in the grocery store of 

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John Day, but after a short time embarked 
in the same busines for himself in. company 
with Charles George, the firm of Morgan & 
George continuing for six years. During the 
same length of time Mr. Morgan was en- 
gaged in the grocery business for himself on 
Washington street, on the expiration of which 
period he sold his interests therein to G. II. 
Porter and became connected with the Dodge 
Manufacturing Company, having charge of 
the shipping department for six years. Again 
selling his interest he purchased the Miller 
farm near Mishawaka, but a few years later 
sold that place at a great profit and then 
embarked in the real estate business in South 
Bend, being now numbered among the repre- 
sentative real estate dealers in St. Joseph 

Mr. Morgan married Miss Phebe W. Wad- 
hams, a daughter of Carlton Wadhams, of 
South Bend, and they have one son, Carlton 
W., who is engaged in agricultural pursuits 
near Niles, Michigan. Their only daughter, 
Estella, died when twelve years of age. Mr. 
Morgan is a public-spirited citizen, actively 
interested in every movement for the upbuild- 
ing of his native city and county, and he has 
represented the fifth ward in the city coun- 
cil. He is a member of the Independent Or- 
der of Odd Fellows and the Maccabees. He 
is a director in the First National Bank. 

Henry Leer. During the early history of 
St. Joseph county the Leer family became 
identified with its interests, and during the 
many years which have since elapsed its rep- 
resentatives have aided materially in the de- 
velopment of its resources, and have taken 
an active interest in all the movements for 
its welfare and upbuilding. The family came 
originally from Switzerland, but for many 
generations they have resided in this coun- 
try, and the grandfather of Henry Leer was 
a native of Pennsylvania. Samuel Leer, the 
father, and also a native son of the Keystone 
state, came to St. Joseph county as early as 
1829, being one of its first settlers. At that 
time the present city of South Bend was noth- 
ing but a trading post, and immediately after 
his arrival he secured land from the govern- 
ment, continuing to make his home in this 
-county until his busy and useful life was 
ended in death in 1850. He was a man of 
the strictest honor and integrity, and to his 
posterity he left an unblemished name and a 
record of which they should be ever proud. 
In the city of Dayton, Ohio, Mr. Leer was 

united in marriage to Mary Bowman, also a 
native of Pennsylvania, and they were blessed 
by the birth of nine children, all but one of 
whom grew to years of maturity. 

Henry Leer, the only surviving child, was 
born in the little log cabin in which his par- 
ents began their life in St. Joseph county, 
on the 2d of October, 1845, and within the 
borders of old St. Joseph he has spent his 
entire life. When he was but five years of 
age his father died, but he remained in the 
family home with his mother until she, too, 
was called to her final rest. During the early 
years of his life he was engaged in farming 
on the old homestead, which now forms a 
part of the city of South Bend, and in 1900 
he platted a part of the land, laying out fifty 
lots, which are now included in the most valu- 
able portion of the city, the lots selling from 
four hundred and fifty to fifteen hundred 
dollars apiece. The land is now known as 
the Henry Leer addition, and is a valuable 
adjunct to the city. 

The marriage of Mr. Leer was celebrated 
in 1868, when Caroline Shedrick became his 
wife, and they have two daughters, — Minnie, 
the wife of Ezra Bimm, of South Bend, and 
Dora, the wife of Harry Moore, an agricul- 
turist of Clay township, St. Joseph count>\ 
Mr. Leer has been a lifelong resident of St. 
Joseph county, actively identified with its up- 
building and development, and although a 
Kepublican in his political sympathies in local 
affairs he votes for the man whom he regards 
as best qualified for office. Wherever known 
he is held in high regard, and those who know 
him best are numbered among his warmest 

Joseph E. Nepf. Among those who have 
won a name and place for themselves in the 
industrial world is Joseph E. NeflP. His life 
history exhibits a long and virtuous career 
of private industry, and is the record of a 
well balanced mental and moral constitution, 
strongly marked by those traits of character 
which are of especial value in such a state of 
society as exists in this country. A commu- 
nity depends upon commercial activity, its 
welfare is due to this, and its promoters of 
legitimate and extensive business enterprises 
may well be termed its benefactors. 

Prominent in the business circles of South 
Bend stands Joseph E. Neflf. He was bom 
in Grant county, Indiana, on the 25th of De- 
cember, 1864, a son of John and Catherine 
(Bloomer) NeflP, both natives of Ohio. In 

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the days of the gold excitement in California 
the father joined the tide of emigration to 
that state and for six years was engaged in 
search for the precious metal. Returning to 
the east in 1860, he took up his abode in 
Grant county, Indiana, and engaged in farm- 
ing, and is yet an honored and respected resi- 
dent of that county, having reached the age 
of seventy-two years. In his political affilia- 
tions he is a Democrat, being firm in his con- 
victions and zealous in support of the princi- 
ples in which he believes. The cause of edu- 
cation has also always found in him a warm 
and faithful friend, and in all matters per- 
taining to the welfare of his fellow men he 
has always taken an active and helpful in- 

In 1884 Joseph E. Neff became a student 
in DePauw University, where he spent seven 
years, taking a course in liberal arts and 
graduating in law in 1891, with the degrees 
of A. M. and LL. B. In the same year he 
came to South Bend and began the practice 
of law with A. L. Brick, but in 1894^ he 
abandoned a professional for a business life, 
and during the following four years was dep- 
uty collector of internal revenue under Cleve- 
land 's administration. In 1903 he organized 
the American Trust Company, and previous 
to that time, in 1900, in company with C. T. 
Lindsay, he had organized the Citizens Trust 
Company, being connected with that institu- 
tion for two years. Since 1904 he has been 
secretary of the American Trust Company. 
He also organized tiie Navarre Place Com- 
pany, of which he is the secretary, and also 
assisted in organizing the Michigan City 
Trust Company and the Farmers and Mer- 
chants Trust Company of Ligonier, Indiana. 
He gives his political support to the Demo- 
cratic party, and is an active worker in its 

Mr. Neflf married Miss Daisy, a daughter 
of Rev. W. R. Mickles. She died in 1889, and 
in 1901 he married Miss Florence Young, of 
Rushville, Illinois, who died in 1905. He has 
one son, Raymond, born on the 6th of Novem- 
ber, 1889. Mr. Neflf holds membership rela- 
tions with the Masonic Lodge No. 294 and with 
the order of Elks, and he is also a member 
of the Commercial Athletic Club and the 
Country Club. He has in every way proven 
himself a public-spirited citizen, and possesses 
the public confidence to a remarkable degree. 

James H. Brink, South Bend's well-known 
and popular contractor and builder, is num- 

bered among the native sons of Illinois, his 
birth occurring at Kankakee on the 20th of 
September, 1857, his parents being George L. 
and Hannah R. (Blakeslee) .Brink, the for- 
mer of whom was born in Broome county. 
New York, and the latter in Orange county, 
that state. The father was reared to years of 
maturity in the county of his nativity, dying 
when he had reached the age of sixty-seven 
years, and the mother was called to the home 
beyond at the age of seventy-three years. In 
their family were four sons, one of whom 
died in infancy, one at the age of twelve 
years, and one when only six years old, leav- 
ing James H. Brink the only living member 
of the family. He attained to mature years 
in Plymouth, Indiaha, whither his parents 
had removed when he was only a year old, 
and there he also learned the trade to which 
he has devoted the remainder of his life. In 
time he rose to the position of contracting in 
Plymouth, and continued his activities in that 
city until his removal to South Bend in 1900. 
Here he resumed the contracting and build- 
ing business, and soon won the public confi- 
dence by reason of his excellent workmanship 
and his fidelity to the terms of a contract, 
while his patronage has steadily and rapidly 
increased. He employs a large force of work- 
men, including carpenters, brickmasons and 
other mechanics, and many of the finest 
buildings of the county stand as monuments 
to his ability and enterprise, including his 
own modern residence, erected iji 1902. In 
this city alone he has built about two hun- 
dred houses, also doing the work for the Inter 
Urban Amusement Company at Spring 
Brook park and all the stations between 
Goshen and South Bend.. As foreman for the 
Indiana Lumber Company he had charge of 
building the Hungarian school and Epworth 
Hospital, and has built many residences and 
business houses in Plymouth, including the 
M. W. Simons residence and store building. 

On the 2d of February, 1881, was cele- 
brated the marria^ge of Mr. Brink and Minnie 
J. Snyder, a native of Marshall county, In- 
diana, and a daughter of Simon Snyder, one 
of its early and honored pioneers. Two chil- 
dren have been born to them, Stella M., the 
wife of F. C. Henry, of South Bend, and 
George W., a prominent young business man 
of this city. Mr. Brink holds membership re- 
lations with the order of Ben Hur, and his 
political aflfiliations are with the Republican 
party. He withholds his support from no 

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movement for the public good, and is a gen- 
tleman to whom all honor is due for his many 
virtues and genuine worth. 

Martin J. Roach. Few residents of St. 
Joseph county are better known in business 
circles than Martin J. Roach, who was born 
in the city of South Bend on the 9th of No- 
vember, 1858, and has spent his entire life 
here. His father, William Roach, was a na- 
tive of Mayo, Ireland, but came to the United 
States when young and established his home 
in the east. In the early '50s, however, he 
made his way to South Bend and was one of 
the honored pioneers who aided in laying the 
foundation on which to erect the superstruc- 
ture of St. Joseph county's present pros- 
perity and progress. Through the period of 
early development he was an important fac- 
tor in the improvement and advancement of 
his adopted city, and he continued to make 
this his home until his busy life was ended 
in 1889, at the age of seventy-three years. 
He had married Bridget Holmes, also a na- 
tive of Ireland, and she still survives her 
husband, making her home with her son in 
South Bend. 

Martin J. Roach, one in a family of seven 
children, three sons and four daughters, re- 
ceived his elementary training in the schools 
of South Bend, this being supplemented by 
attendance at Notre Dame University. Hav- 
ing thus laid an excellent foundation for his 
future life-work he was thereafter employed 
as a mason for a number of years, when he 
rose to the position of a contractor in mason- 
ry. In 1896, with Martin Hoban, he organ- 
ized the present firm of Hoban & Roach, con- 
tractors of sewers and general street improve- 
ment. This has been a successful corporation 
from the commencement to the present time, 
having performed much of the principal 
work in their line in South Bend and sur- 
rounding country, and their business has 
been constantly enlarged to meet the growing 
demands of the trade until it is now classed 
with the leading industries of St. Joseph 
county. Both Mr. Roach and Mr. Hoban are 
practical men, and are up-to-date and pro- 
gressive in all their ideas. 

In 1906 Mr. Roach was married to Miss 
Anna Miller, of South Bend. They are mem- 
bers of the St. Joseph church, South Bend, 
and are accorded a high place in the social 
circles of South Bend. A Democrat in poli- 
tics, he has been chairman of the township 
committee for six years, and served as alder- 

man, representing the Seventh ward four 
years, and was a member of the board of park 
commissioners seven years. He is a member 
of the South Bend Lodge, B. P. 0. E., and 
the Independent Order of Foresters. 

August F. Beyer was born in the province 
of Pommeron, Germany, November 1, 1842, 
a son of August and Louisa Beyer. • The son 
became a fresco painter by trade, becoming 
recognized as one of the greatest decorators 
in that line of trade in the capital city of 
Berlin, Germany. Whenever a call for great 
fresco painting was made he was always in 
line, and it so happened that he worked four 
months in the old King William's palace at 
the time when this last Emperor William was 
a little lad of about two years of age, Mr. 
Beyer several times enjoying the opportunity 
of playing with the young emperor. During 
a period of nearly four years he was a sol- 
dier in the Tenth Company, Kaiser Alexan- 
der, Grenadier Regiment No. 1, in Berlin, 
also actively participating in the wars of 
1864 with Sweden and 1866 in Austria, hav- 
ing been slightly wounded in the great battle 
of Konigsgratz, July 3, 1866, and sent back 
to a private hospital, Landsberger No. 42, 
at Berlin, where he remained about six weeks. 

After leaving his regiment Mr. Beyer again 
resumed his trade of a fresco painter. On 
the first day of June, 1870, he sailed from 
Castle Garden on the old steamer ** Ocean 
Queen'' for America, this being just a few 
days before the commencement of the Ger- 
man and French war. He immediately ob- 
tained work at his trade in Philadelphia by 
Kehrweider Brothers, fresco painters, his first 
work being to help fresco the great Presbyte- 
rian church in West Chester, eighty miles 
from Philadelphia, a contract in oil colors 
amoimting to two thousand dollars. After 
the completion of this great work Mr. Beyer 
had a desire to visit Chicago, and immediate- 
ly after reaching that city obtained work at 
his profession in an opera house just oppo- 
site the court house by Jeffrey & Almini, 
while later he worked for Schubert & Konig. 
During his residence in that city he also 
started a business of his own in partnership 
with Herman Korbowsky, and their business 
increased so rapidly that they had completed 
about six churches when the great fire demon 
swept over the city and destroyed a tract 
about five miles long and one mile wide, 
sweeping everything in its path and destroy- 
ing Mr. Beyer's residence at the corner of 

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Franklin and Indiana streets, No. 110, also 
that of his partner on Church street. Both 
lost everythmg they owned, and this brought 
a great shadow over the partnership, but the 
same night they went to Englewood and on 
the following day started for Laporte, In- 
diana, where Mr. Beyer had just previously 
frescoed Father Oechtering's church there in 
company with Whitling Brothers, and Father 
Geehtering's (who was a brother of the La- 
porte priest) church in Mishawaka. He took 
the latter contract himself. Before night 
came on he had found a home in the Rumley 
House opposite the church and just above 
Father Geehtering's apartments. That night 
the depot burned and destroyed three hun- 
dred dollars in paints for him. The old part- 
nership was continued for three years, when 
it was then dissolved and Mr. Beyer came to 
South Bend in 1875, just one day before the 
burning of the Studebaker factory. He did 
a great deal of frescoing here and in neigh- 
boring towns, among his contracts being the 
old Masonic Hall for three hundred and fifty 
dollars, the old court house for one thousand 
dollars. Father Geehtering's church in Misha- 
waka, Father Burk's church in Michigan 
City, and a Presbyterian church in Cold 
Water, also working in St. Mary's and Notre 
Dame churches, together with Leipsziger and 
Bensock from Indianapolis, and Professor 
Gregory from Rome. 

Mr. Beyer was very successful in his work 
of fresco painting, but he was obliged to 
abandon the work on account of ill health 
caused by working so much with poisonous 
paints, and he then engaged in the gardening 
trade, a much healthier business. He first 
purchased of Aaron Skinner six and a half 
acres, the purchase price being four thousand 
dollars, lying between the Laporte road and 
Michigan avenue, but the tract was very poor 
sandy soil, on which was located an orchard 
of about two hundred old and crippled apple 
trees, with nothing but sandberries all 
around. Mr. Beyer had great trouble in 
bringing this land to a growing condition, 
/ and by so doing had overworked himself and 
for a year was very ill. In all that time there 
was scarcely any income, and both he and his 
family suffered many hardships, and during 
his sickness it. happened that both Aaron 
Skinner and his wife died, pasing away with- 
in fourteen days of each other, with the re- 
sult that Mr. Beyer was obliged to return the 
place to the Skinner heirs. At the same time 

it also happened that Mr. Wright, his neigh- 
bor and who owned the extreme fork of one 
acre joining his place between the Laporte 
road and Michigan avenue, offered his place 
to Mr. Beyer for four hundred dollars cash. 
Through the courtesy of a good friend, Mr. 
Boyd, at that time a partner in the lumber 
business of Boyd & Hillier, Mr. Beyer was 
able to become the owner of this one acre, 
which was very rich in fertilizer, and brought 
excellent crops. With the profits of this 
small tract, together with the old place he 
had worked that summer, he cleared about 
five hundred dollars, with which he secured 
as first payment a ten-acre tract from Christ 
Dille, ex-councilman, for the amount of twen- 
ty-five hundred dollars, the land being lo- 
cated on Mishawaka avenue near the Sample 
street bridge. Mr. Phillip Klingel loaned 
Mr. Beyer two thousand dollars with which 
to pay Mr. Dille, taking a first mortgage on 
the place, and after this debt had been paid 
he offered Mr. Beyer the cash to purchase 
the adjoining ten acres from Mr. Berk, the 
iceman, the purchase price being nine hun- 
dred dollars. Mr. Beyer's next purchase was 
the Charles Vinson place joining his former 
purchase, consisting of six and a half acres, 
with a brick house and stable, for which he 
paid thirteen hundred and fifty dollars. 
Again Mr. Phillip Klingel offered Mr. Beyer 
the money with which to buy the thirteen 
and a half acres joining the Vinson property 
around the corner on Eddy street, owned by 
John Woolverton, for the sum of twenty- 
five hundred dollars, which offer was also ac- 
cepted, and at this time his landed posses- 
sions consisted of a truck farm of about forty 
acres, partly within and partly out of the 
city limits at that time. He was very suc- 
cessful in raising first-class vegetables, and 
gained a wide reputation for the number of 
prizes which he secured, receiving over three 
hundred dollars in prizes from Henry Maule 
of Philadelphia, over one hundred dollars 
from Gregory Marblehead of Massachusetts, 
also from Johnson & Stokes and many from 
the Indianapolis State Fair Association, in 
one year receiving seventeen out of the twen- 
ty-six awarded, mostly first prizes, while in 
one year in South Bend he received sixty- 
four prizes and a gold medal awarded by 
Louis Nickel, Jr. & Company, for the great- 
est and finest display of vegetables. 

After seventeen years of hard and la- 
borious work as a truck gardener Mr. Beyer 

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turned the business over to his second son, 
Otto Beyer, and built a greenhouse. For 
this purpose he leased a lot from Sam Perly, 
agent for the Coquillards, on Main street, 
just opposite the court house, for ten years, 
on which he built a one-story frame building 
for a flower store, and just behind this a rose 
house with hot-water appliances. This build- 
ing and the greenhouse, with a first-class 
boiler, proved very expensive and was far 
ahead of the business of the town at that 
time, which was then inhabited principally 
by working people and too poor to purchase 
flowers, thus making it almost impossible to 
keep the expenses above watermark. Through 
this and failing health the place was even- 
tually lost. At this time Mr. Beyer was ad- 
vised by two physicians to seek a change of 
climate, and in search of health went to Se- 
attle, Washington, where he soon recuperated, 
and after a residence in that city of two 
months was made president of the Washing- 
ton Produce & Fruit Growers Union. This 
organization had a director in every county 
in the state of Washington, who had his own 
wholesale house, where all the growers 
brought their fruit during the season, and 
all money transactions went through the 
Puget Sound National Bank, no one receiving 
any funds from this bank or from the Union 
without the signature of August F. Beyer. 
He sent in refrigerator cars strawberries by 
the carload as far as Chicago, which brought 
returns as high as from three to nine dollars 
a crate. Through his connection with this 
organization Mr. Beyer became better ac- 
quainted with the state of Washington than 
many people who had been bom there. 

In the meantime he had sent in his appli- 
cation for superintendent of the city park 
of South Bend through the civil service ex- 
amination, and subsequently received a post 
card from the county commissioners stating 
that he had passed the highest examination, 
receiving eighty-seven and seven-eighths 
points, while Mr. Palmer received eighty-four 
points and Mr. Berkharst eighty-two points, 
and consequently he was in the list for ap- 
pointment. This was in the fall, but Mr. 
Beyer did not return to South Bend until 
the 1st of July of the following year. In this 
time the city had purchased through his 
agents a tract of land of about ten acres for 
park purposes, now known as La Salle Park, 
and it was soon after this sale was made that 
Mr. Beyer returned from Seattle, completely 

restored in health, and again began the rais- 
ing of flowers at his place on Mishawaka 
avenue. Through hard work and honest deal- 
ings he has been successful, and has today 
one of the finest and most up-to-date flower 
stores in the state of Indiana. On the 26th 
of November, 1906, Mr. Beyer again stold the 
city of South Bend thirteen acres of his place 
for a city park. He yet has twelve and a 
half acres, and is now making extensive im- 
provements in his hot-houses, and, although 
sixty-six years of age, can do two men's work. 
He believes in **Do it now.'' When com- 
pleted his plant will be one of the best in 

He was married in Strausberg, five miles 
from Berlin, Germany, to Louisa Hagedom, 
a native of that neighborhood, and by this 
union were bom eight children. One died 
in infancy, one died when one year old, and 
those living are: Paul, who was bom in Ber- 
lin, Germany. He is now manager of the 
florist business. He also is a great decora- 
tor, having had an established reputation in 
Chicago, but gave it up to relieve the great 
work of his father. Otto has the business 
charge of the garden business. Herman is 
superintendent of the South Bend city park. 
William assists Otto in the garden business. 
John is an assistant of his brother Paul. Rosa 
lives at home. Mr. Beyer is a member of the 
Lutheran church. He is also a member of 
the South Bend Turn-Verein, of which he is 
president for his second term, and of the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and 
is past commander of the Maccabees. He is 
a member of the Northwest Sanger Bund. 

Charles L. Goetz, a manufacturer of 
cigars at 307 West Jeflferson street, South 
Bend, was born in Rome, New York, on the 
22d of January, 1859, a son of Casper and 
Mary (Holderied) Goetz, both natives of 
Baden, Germany. The father spent the early 
years of his life in the place of his nativity, 
coming to America about 1856 and locating 
at Rome, New York, where he followed his 
trade of shoemaking. There his death oc- 
curred when he had* reached the age of sixty- 
four years, but his widow is still living, hav- 
ing reached the age of seventy-one years, and 
is a resident of Rome. In their family were 
seven children, six sons and one daughter, 
and all are yet living. 

Charles L. Goetz, the eldest of the children, 
received his education in the public and pa- 
rochial schools of his native city of Rome, 

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and after its completion at the age of four- 
teen years, began the trade of a cigar maker, 
following that occupation in different parts 
of the state of New York until his removal 
to South Bend on the 29th of April, 1881. 
Thus twenty-five years of his life have been 
spent in this city, and during all that time, 
through the channels of trade as well as in 
other ways, he has promoted the interests of 
its residents, and at all times is alert in his 
efforts to improve the condition of all lines 
of business. For four years after his arrival 
Mr. Goetz worked at his trade of cigar mak- 
ing, but on the expiration of that period, in 
1885, engaged in the manufacture of cigars 
for himself. Beginning in a small way, for 
he only employed two men at the start, the 
business has gradually expanded as the re- 
sult of his capable management and well- 
directed efforts, and at the present time an 
average of thirty-five operatives are given 
employment in the manufactory, and in ad- 
dition he also owns one of the finest blocks 
in the city. 

In 1883 Mr. Goetz was married to Emma 
E. Klingel, whose father, Valentine Klingel, 
was a prominent resident of South Bend, and 
one son, Philip K., has been bom of this 
union. He is a graduate of the South Bend 
High School, and is now engaged in business 
with his father. Throughout the period of 
his residence in South Bend Mr. Goetz has 
taken an active part in its public affairs. For 
four years he served* as deputy oil inspector 
of the Thirteenth Congressional district, was 
a member of the board of public works un- 
der the Colfax administration, and at the 
present time is a member of the county coun- 
cil. His fraternal relations are with the 
order of Elks, while politically he is a stanch 
supporter of Democratic principles. His 
public duties have ever been discharged with 
marked promptness and fidelity, and during 
his long residence in South Bend has been 
closely connected with its progress and ad- 
vancement, supporting all measures for the 
public good. 

Colonel Joseph Turnock. Colonel Tur- 
nock's family has an especially close identi- 
fication with the pioneer history of both Elk- 
hart and St. Joseph counties, and he himself 
has for many years of his life been a leading 
figure in military matters and those connect- 
ed with the preservation and enforcement of 
the law in South Bend. In the enforcement 
of his official civil duties, as well as in his 

capacity of soldier of the Civil war, the 
Colonel has always evinced unflinching 
bravery and cool judgment. He is a brave 
man and a good citizen and a useful member 
of the community, in every sense of the word 
— what better words could be spoken of an 
American * 

Joseph Turnock, whose present business 
occupation is financial secretary of the Build- 
ing and Loan Association of South Bend, was 
born in Stoke Trent, England, September 
30, 1836. His parents, Benjamin and Mary 
(Whitteker) Turnock, were bom, reared and 
married in the same locality. The father was 
a carpenter, and was long in the employ of 
the famous Minton Pottery. Bringing his 
family to America about 1839, he located at 
Jersey City, where he was employed at his 
trade for ten years, removing to Mishawaka, 
St. Joseph county, Indiana, in 1849. At that 
time, however, the site of the city was prairie 
land, upon which he engaged in farming. 
After an experience of two years in this new 
life Mr. Turnock took his two teams and 
moved his family back to Jersey City, New 
Jersey. He there resumed his occupation as 
a carpenter and contractor, . and continued 
thus employed for some seven years, but the 
freer life of the west again called him, and 
he returned to Indiana, locating at a point 
two and a half miles west of Elkhart City, 
in Elkhart county. The later years of his 
life were spent in Elkhart City, where he 
lived in comfortable retirement until his 
death, August 9, 1873. His wife and the 
mother of his thirteen children is also dead. 
Of the two daughters and eleven sons born 
to them, five sons and three daughters 
reached maturity, and the following are still 
living: Joseph and Hiram, residing in South 
Bend; Jamima, wife of Alexander Arisman; 
Mary, who married James Bigelow, both of 
the daughters living in Elkhart, and Colonel 
Joseph Turnock. 

Joseph Turnock, who is the eldest of the 
living children, was about four years of age 
when his parents brought him to America. 
He received his education in a public school' 
of Jersey City and at a log school house near 
the farm in Elkhart county, Indiana. When 
he reached the age of seventeen years he had 
virtually the charge of the farm, and con- 
tinued to operate it until he attained his 
majority, when he came to South Bend to 
learn the trade of a plasterer. This occupa- 
tion, which he subsequently followed for 

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some time, gradually drew him into a con- 
tracting business, which, in partnership with 
hi^ brother, Hiram, he prosecuted for about 
twenty-live years. 

Mr. Turnock dates his residence in South 
Bend from 1858, and was already weU on 
the road to success as a skillful workman 
when the Civil war broke out. In 1862-63 
he was with the Twenty-first Indiana Battery 
in the sutler's department, and afterward en- 
listed in Company H, Twelfth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Cavalry. When the company was or- 
ganized he was chosen its first lieutenant and 
subsequently was promoted to the captaincy, 
serving in the latter capacity for six months 
of 1865. He participated in the battle of 
Mobile, Alabama, had a horse shot from un- 
der him near Florence, Alabama, and was in 
several skirmishes near Murfreesboro, Tennes- 
see, and other engagements with bushwhack- 
ers. Returning to South Bend at the close 
of the war, he resimied his contracting busi- 
ness, which he so successfully followed for 
many years thereafter. 

Colonel Turnock 's official career com- 
menced in 1872, when he was elected by the 
Republicans as sheriff of St. Joseph county. 
He was re-elected in 1874 for another term 
of two years, and served as deputy sheriff for 
a period of four years. During the eight 
years of his connection with the shrievalty 
he earned the general respect both of good 
citizens and evil-doers, although the latter 
had a wholesome fear as well as respect for 
him. He was afterward chosen chief of the 
South Bend fire department, and his previous 
record as an officer of the law was so memor- 
able thut he became chief of police. Under 
his administration of this department of the 
city service he first uniformed the policemen, 
and also brought them to a commendable 
state of discipline and efficiency. In 1901 he 
was again placed at the head of the depart- 
ment, and continued the splendid work pre- 
viously begun for the succeeding two years. 

Colonel Turnock is recognized as one of 
the finest disciplinarians in the state, not 
only by the citizens of South Bend but by 
the military authorities of Indiana. He was 
for some time a captain in the First Regi- 
ment, Indiana National Guard, and was later 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel. His Civil 
war record has made him a leading member 
of the Norman Eddy Post No. 579, G. A. R., 
having served as post commander and a dele- 
gate to the national encampment. The colo- 

nel is also a well-known Mason, identified 
with Lodge No. 45, South Bend. 

Joseph Turnock was married to Miss 
Frances CottreU, daughter of Samuel S. and 
Catherine (Painter) Cottrell, and they have 
become the parents of the following: Nellie, 
wife of William P. Booth, of Chicago, and 
Frances, who married Robert Collmer, of 
South Bend. Mrs. Turnock 's father was 
among the pioneers of St. Joseph county, was 
its first sheriff and otherwise prominent in 
its early affairs. 

John Roth, one of South Bend's most 
honored and respected business men, is a 
veteran of the Civil war, and bears an hon- 
orable record for brave service in the cause 
of freedom and union, while in the paths of 
peace he has also won an enviable reputation 
through the sterling qualities which go to the 
making of a good citizen. As secretary of the 
St. Joseph Loan and Savings Bank he is well 
known throughout northern Indiana. 

Mr. Roth was bom in Greenville, Ohio, 
November 28, 1843. His father, the Rev. 
Peter Roth, was a native of Lorraine, (Jer- 
many, but in his boyhood days came with his 
father's family to the United States, the fam- 
ily home having been established in Ohio, 
where the son Peter became in time a well- 
known minister of the Evangelical church. 
He held pastorates m Ohio, Michigan and 
Indiana. In the early '60s he became pastor 
of a church in Mishawaka of the latter state, 
where he remained several years or until his 
removal to Ft. Wayne, where he was sta- 
tioned three years. He then came to South 
Bend in the late 70s and retired from the 
ministry. For many years he was one of the 
most efficient laborers in the cause of Chris- 
tianity in this city. A strong and forcible 
speaker, earnest and eloquent in the presen- 
tation of the truth, his efforts were abun- 
dantly blessed, laboring in the cause of the 
Master until his death, at the age of seventy- 
eight years, although for a few years prior to 
that time he had retired from his ministe- 
rial labors. He married Susan Kline, a native 
of Bavaria, Germany, but who came with an 
uncle and aunt to the United States during 
her girlhood days. 

When the great Civil war was inaugurated 
in 1861 John Roth was a lad of eighteen 
years, but he promptly offered his services to 
the Union cause, becoming a member of the 
Eighty-seventh Indiana Infantry, Company 
F, for just two years previous to his enlist- 

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ment he had removed with his family to this 
state. He took part in all the campaigns of 
his regiment, participating in the battles of 
Perryville, Chickamauga and in the cele- 
brated march with Sherman to the sea. He 
was a brave and fearless soldier, and was 
severely wounded at Chickamauga, where he 
suffered a gun-shot wound in his throat. He 
was mustered out at Indianapolis, Indiana, 
in 1865, for the war had ended and his coun- 
try no longer needed his service. Mr. Roth 
thence made his way to Mishawaka and in 
1868 to South Bend, his first employment in 
this city being as a clerk in a grocery store. 
He was then with the Union Manufacturing 
Company as a cabinet maker, while for six 
years he served as foreman of the box de- 
partment of the Studebaker Manufacturing 
Company. In 1888 Mr. Roth assisted in the 
organizing of the St. Joseph Loan and Sav- 
ings Association, of which he was elected 
secretary, and this is now one of the leading 
institutions of its kind in northern Indiana. 
He was the first gentleman to come to the 
assistance of the ladies in 1894 in organizing 
the Epworth Hospital and Training School. 
After its organization he was elected one of 
the trustees, and has served as secretary of 
the board of trustees ever since. He was also 
a member of the building committee. 

The marriage of Mr. Roth and Kate E. 
Yarger was celebrated in 1866, she being a 
daughter of Philip and Louisa (Welper) 
Yarger, of Laporte county. Five daughters 
have been born of this union, namely: Mary 
Ellen (now Mrs. Wilkerson, of Chicago), 
Fannie H., Catherine E., Carrie E., and 
Helen. Mr. Roth is a stanch supporter of 
Republican principles, and in 1884 he was 
its choice for the oflRce of city treasurer, 
which position he held for four years. He 
holds pleasant relations with his old army 
comrades by his membership with Auten 
Post, No. 8, G. A. R., while his religious aflSlia- 
tion is with the Methodist church. 

WiLU.\M ToEPP. One of the straightfor- 
ward and successful business men of South 
Bend is William Toepp. He is public spirited 
and thoroughly interested in whatever tends 
to promote the moral, intellectual and mate- 
rial welfare of the city, and for many years 
he has been numbered among its valued and 
honored citizens. His birth occurred in 
Rome, New York, April 14, 1851. His fath- 
er. Peter Toepp, was born in Alsace, France, 
and spent the first nineteen years of his life 

in his native land, coming thence to the 
United States and locating in Rome, where 
he was engaged in, business from 1857 until 
1880. On the expiration of that period he 
came to South Bend, Indiana, and was 
counted among the city's most successful 
business men until 1898, and his death oc- 
curred in 1906, when he had reached the age 
of seventy-nine years. In his early manhood 
Mr. Toepp married Catherine Karle, who was 
born in Baden, Germany, and she lived to 
the age of seventy-five years. In their family 
were the following children: William, P. H., 
Elizabeth M., Frank C, and Minnie, the wife 
of F. H. Goetz, of South Bend. 

William Toepp, the eldest of the children, 
grew to mature years in his native city of 
Rome, and after completing his education he 
entered the dry goods business in that city 
with his father and brother, in 1878. They 
moved their stock of goods to South Bend 
and established their store at what is now 121 
West Washington street. On the 28th of 
January, 1881, this store was destroyed by 
fire, and Mr. Toepp resumed his business on 
South Chapin street, organizing the firm of 
Toepp Brothers, they continuing in the dry 
goods business until 1885, when they trans- 
ferred their operations to the shoe trade. One 
year later, however, in 1886, the business was 
closed, and Mr. Toepp, of this review, then 
went to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Remaining 
in that city until 1888, he then returned to 
South Bend, and embarked in his present 
business of wholesale wines and liquors, and 
in addition to its proprietorship is also the 
owner of much valuable city property, being 
a part owner of the Toepp Building and the 
Jefferson Building. The latter was erected 
in 1906-7, and is the finest business block and 
office building in the city of South Bend. He 
is also president of the Sinking Fund Com- 
mission of this city, and served as one of the 
directors in the erection of the handsome 
Elks Temple, he being a prominent member 
of that fraternity and an active worker for 
its advancement. He belongs to the Mer- 
chants Association, and was one of the or- 
ganizers of the C. A. C. building on Colfax 
avenue, opposite the Elks Temple, and is a 
member of the Turners and Mannerchor of 
South Bend. 

The marriage of Mr. Toepp was celebrated 
on the 13th of September. 1881, when Linda 
Elbel became his wife. She was bom and 
reared in South Bend, a daughter of John 

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M. and Marie (Schmitz) Elbel. In his polit- 
ical connections Mr. Toepp is a Democrat, 
always taking a deep interest in local polit- 
ical affairs, and during a period of ten years 
he served as treasurer of the Central Demo- 
cratic Committte, of which he is now a mem- 
ber. He is a man of excellent business and 
executive ability, of keen discrimination and 
capable management. He has not limited his 
efforts to one line of business, but has en- 
couraged many enterprises, and to a high 
degree he enjoys the confidence and regard 
of those with whom he has been brought in 
contact through business and social relations. 

Horace M. Kauffman, manager for the 
Clem Studebaker estate, was born in Des 
Moines, Iowa, on the 10th of November, 1866. 
His career thus far in life furnishes a splen- 
did example of what may be accomplished 
through laudable ambition, for he has stead- 
ily worked his w^ay upward, gaining success 
and winning the public confidence. His par- 
ents were Daniel W. and Mary A. (Neff) 
Kauffman, the former a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, and the latter of Dayton, Ohio. In 
the early days of 1849 the father joined the 
tide of emigration to the Golden state, but 
returned in 1852 and located at Muscatine 
and later at Des Moines, Iowa, where the 
birth of his son Horace occurred. His life's 
labors were ended in death in 1901, when he 
had reached the good old age of eighty-four 

In the country schools of Iowa Horace M. 
Kauffman received the mental training 
which enabled him to begin life 's battles, but 
at a very early age he was obliged to lay 
aside his text books and begin work on a 
cattle ranch. When he had reached the age 
of seventeen years he entered the law office 
of Lamb, Ricketts & Wilson, in Lincoln, Ne- 
braska, where he diligently pursued his legal 
studies until his admission to the bar of Lin- 
coln in 1886. During the following three and 
a half years Mr. Kauffman was an employe 
of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, but 
prior to that time he had also engaged in the 
real estate business in Omaha, Nebraska. 
Coming to South Bend in 1893, he \yas ten- 
dered the important position of private sec- 
retary to Mr. Clem Studebaker, and after 
the death of that well-known financier he was 
made the secretary of the trustees of his 
estate. The world is not slow to pass judg- 
ment upon the individual, and when a man 
has won the high respect of those with whom 

business and social relations have brought 
him in contact it is by reason of his intrinsic 
honor and his worthy achievements. Con- 
demnation comes quickly when merited, and 
esteem therefore indicates the possession of 
worthy qualities and characteristics. 

The marriage of Mr. Kauffman occurred 
in 1892, when DoUie A. Harpster, of Omaha, 
became his wife. She is a daughter of David 
and Amanda (Redmond) Harpster. Mr. 
Kauffman affiliates fraternally with the 
Masonic order, Lodge No. 45, and with the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and 
socially is a member of the Indiana Club. 
His religious connection is with St. Paul's 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Edward F. DuBail, occupying an enviable 
position in the business circles of South Bend, 
is connected with real estate, finance and 
loans, and is well known throughout St. Jo- 
seph county. A native son of this city, he 
was bom on the 17th of November, 1867, his 
parents being Peter and Julia (Metzgar) 
DuBail, the latter a native of Ohio but of 
German descent. The father was a native 
of Alsace, Germany, but when only seven- 
teen years of age he left his German home 
and came to the United States, and from that 
time until his twenty-fourth year was a resi- 
dent of Louisville, Ohio. He then came to 
South Bend, where he was long known among 
its early and honored residents, his death 
occurring here in 1904, when he had reached 
the age of seventy years. 

Edward F. DuBail, a son of this worthy 
couple, received his educational training in 
the St. Patrick school of South Bend, and 
after completing his studies he was engaged 
as a grocery clerk for eight years. On the 
expiration of that period he was enabled to 
enter into business life for himself, and from 
that time until 1892 was the proprietor of 
a grocery store. Seeing the great possibil- 
ities open in the real estate field he decided 
to engage in the real estate and loan business, 
and in this field of endeavor has met with 
excellent and well-deserved success. He rep- 
resents sixteen of the oldest insurance com- 
panies of the world, and in this special line 
he has done a very large business, it having 
amounted in the past year to eight hundred 
thousand dollars. Mr. DuBail has also laid 
out several additions, has erected eighty 
houses, and has now the pleasure of seeing 
the south end one of the most beautiful por- 
tions of the city. He is a firm believer in 

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South Bend and its future, has done much 
toward its upbuilding and improvement, and 
the south end especially owes much to his 
industry and ability. Mr. DuBail is inde- 
pendent in his political affiliations, support- 
ing the men whom he believes best fitted to 
fill the positions entrusted to their care. He 
has served on many city committees, is public 
spirited and progressive in all his ideas, and 
lends his influence to all measures which he 
believes useful to the majority. 

In 1889 Mr. DuBail was married to Grace 
A., a daughter of David Bowman, who came 
to St. Joseph county, Indiana, in 1831, and 
was thereafter numbered among its honored 
early residents. They have one son, Donald 
E., who was bom September 15, 1890. Mr. 
DuBail is a member of the Commercial and 
Athletic aubs. 

S.vMUEii M. Robinson. **We build the 
ladder by which we rise" is a truth which is 
certainly applicable to Samuel M. Robinson, 
for the high position he now occupies in the 
business world is not the outcome of pro- 
pitious circumstances, but the honest reward 
of labor, good management, ambition and en- 
ergy, without which no man can win pros- 
perity. He was born in Berrien county, 
Michigan, April 2, 1862, a son of John and 
Mary (Shepley) Robinson, the former of 
whom was a native of Whitehall, Canada, and 
the latter of this country. The maternal 
grandfather was nmnbered among the hon- 
ored early pioneers of St. Joseph county. The 
Robinson family is of French extraction, 
prominent and well-known in that country, 
where the name is spelled Robilliard. They, 
too, bore an important part in the early his- 
tory of St. Joseph county, and one of their 
number served as the first commander of the 
fort at St. Joseph, Michigan. In the early 
'50s John Robinson established his home in 
St. Joseph county, Indiana, where he labored 
as a machinist, becoming a highly respected 
and valued citizen of his community, and his 
life's labors were ended in death in 1894, 
when he had reached the age of fifty-six 
years. His widow still survives him. 

Samuel M. Robinson received his educa- 
tional training in the Royalton school house 
in Berrien county, to which he was obliged 
to walk a distance of three miles, but being 
an industrious, determined lad he manfully 
pursued his course and embraced all the op- 
portunities obtainable. When fourteen years 
of age he entered the employ of the well- 

known firm of George Wyman & Company, 
of South Bend, with whom he remained both 
as a boy and man for twenty-four years, 
gradually ascending the ladder of success un- 
til he became manager and a stockholder in 
the business. In 1900, however, he left that 
excellent position to embark in the real estate 
business, at that time forming a partnership 
with James B. Staley, and the firm of Staley 
& Robinson are now among the largest deal- 
ers in their line in northern Indiana. They 
have also opened up much desirable property 
in South Bend, notably the City View Place 
addition in the southern part of town, and 
the Robinson & Haughton Addition and La 
Salle Park in the western portion. They have 
bought and sold much valuable property, 
having but recently purchased the old Sand- 
age Steel Skein plant and organized the 
National Wire Bound Box Company, which 
promises to be one of the most successful 
institutions of the city. Mr. Robinson is 
president of the company, and he also has 
other valuable interests in the city. A man 
of forceful individuality, he has been steadily 
advancing until he now occupies an enviable 
position in the ranks of the business men of 
South Bend. 

Mr. Robinson was united in marriage to 
Mary S. Sigerfoose, a native of Elkhart 
county, Indiana, and they have one son, 
Samuel B., who is a valued assistant to his 
father in business. Mr. Robinson is a mem- 
ber of the Maccabees, the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, the order of Elks, and also 
has membership relations with the Commer- 
cial Athletic Club. The family affiliate with 
the Presbyterian church. 

David Stover, deceased. Since in its most 
intelligent form success is measured by the 
faculty of contributing to the well-being of 
humanity by the promotion of soundness in 
business ethics, politics, and the moral side 
of life, the career of David Stover must be 
regarded as of representative and singular 
importance in the history of St. Joseph coun- 
ty. He was connected with affairs of South 
Bend and vicinity for many years and until 
his labors ended in death, June 16, 1906. In 
scope his labors ascended from that of a 
route mail agent to that of a retired capital- 
ist, diverging into the channels of politicly 
and commercial pursuits. He was public- 
spirited, interested in everything that would 
tend to advance the interests of the commu- 
nity in which he lived. 

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David Stover was born in Botetourt coun- 
ty, Virginia, January 19, 1816, and was 
there reared to man's estate and came from 
there to Indiana in early manhood. For a 
time he was employed by his brother, Mathias, 
at cabinet work, at South Bend, and later 
engaged in business for himself, and while 
still a young man entered the service of the 
United States as mail agent, and was one of 
the first, if not the first, railway mail agent 
between Toledo and Chicago, and continued 
eight years and then engaged in marble busi- 
ness at South Bend quite a number of years ; 
then engaged in tea business a number of 
years; then sold to the Union Tea Company 
and removed to Vistula avenue, where he 
lived retired. He had been successful in 
business and after retiring from commercial 
pursuits his time was well occupied attend- 
ing to his private affairs. 

He was married in 1855, October 21, to 
Calista S. Hunt, bom in Eden, Erie county, 
New York. Her father, Eddy Hunt, was 
born in New Jersey and there reared on a 
farm. When a young man he went to York 
state and bought a farm in Eden, and lived 
there a few years, then sold and engaged in 
the mercantile business in Eden. From there 
he moved to White Pigeon, Michigan, ' and 
bought a section of land on the state line, 
and lived some years, when on account of 
sickness in the family he sold and started to 
return east. He stopped temporarily in 
Hillsdale county, where the mother of Mr. 
Stover died. He then went to Monroe, Mich- 
igan, and died there a few years later. 

The maiden name of the mother of Mrs. 
Stover was Margaret Pound, and her father, 
the grandfather of Mrs. Stover, John Pound, 
was a native of Scotland, who on coming to 
America located first in New Jersey, and 
from there to Eden, New York, where he was 
a pioneer and where he died. His wife was 
Catherine Sharp. Mrs. Stover was very 
young when her parents died and she was 
thrown on her own resources. She appren- 
ticed herself to a milliner, who taught her 
the commercial as well as the manufacturing 
part of the trade, and her employer soon sent 
her to Toledo to conduct a store there. At 
that time Toledo was but a village with two 
railroads. It was a very unhealthful place, 
and during her residence there she passed 
through two seasons of cholera, when at 
times there were not well ones to care for 
the sick. It was while she lived there she 

met and married Mr. Stover, who was many 
years her senior. After her marriage she 
removed her stock of goods to South Bend, 
where she conducted a flourishing business 
for many years. 

Mr. Stover was a life-long Methodist, an 
interested worker, and filled various offices in 
the church. He was a Democrat all his life, 
and was a member of the city council for 
many years and fire policeman, was acting 
mayor some months in the absence of Mayor 
George, and for a time was an Odd Fellow. 

Mrs. Stover in early life joined the Pres- 
byterian church, and has always been an ear- 
nest advocate of its religious tenets. In fact, 
she has been active in all that tends to ele- 
vate humanity. A broad-minded woman who, 
while giving attention to her personal busi- 
ness affairs, has yet found opportunity to 
aid in the material progress, intellectual de- 
velopment and moral advancement of the 
community, realizing that not alone a man's 
but a woman's nature should grow along 
those lines. Mrs. Stover is a woman of not 
alone splendid business ability, as is shown by 
the record of her life, but of unimpeachable 
character, unswerving integrity and honor — 
who has a strong appreciation of the higher 
ethics of life, and in her pleasing personality 
has gained and retains the friendship and 
highest esteem of the entire community. 

Albert H. Cushlng. One of the straight- 
forward, energetic and successful business 
men of South Bend, is Albert H. Cushing. 
He is public spirited and thoroughly in- 
terested in whatever tends to promote the 
moral, intellectual and material welfare of 
the city of his birth, for he is a native son 
of South Bend,»hi8 natal day being the seventh 
of April, 1865. His father, Albert G. Cush- 
ing, took up his abode within its borders 
in 1849, and was thereafter numbered among 
its prominent and useful citizens. Mrs. 
Cushing bore the m^idert name of Martha 

After completing his education in the pub- 
lic schools the son, Albert H. Cushing, em- 
barked in the cooperage business, but was 
afterward engaged in the drug trade. Since 
1891, however, he has been extensively en- 
gaged in real-estate operations, in which he 
is associated with his father. Few men are 
more prominently or widely known in the 
business circles of South Bend than these 
gentlemen, and their popularity is well de- 

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In 1893 Mr. Albert Gushing was united 
in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Tutt, a daugh- 
ter of Charles Tutt, one of the honored old 
residents of St. Joseph county. 

W. P. Kelley. The name of W. P. Kelley 
has been prominently associated with the 
business interests of St. Joseph county and 
South Bend for a number of years, and his 
whole career has been marked by signal in- 
tegrity, justice and honor. He was born in 
Sullivan, Sullivan county, Indiana, on the 
nineteenth of October, 1862, the son of James 
Kelley, a native of Ohio, while the mother 
was a daughter of E. Rockwell, also a native 
of that state. After their marriage Mr. and 
Mrs. Kelley took up their abode in Sullivan, 
Indiana, where the father became well known 
as a merchant, and his death there occurred 
when his son was but five years of age. In 
1870 the mother was again married, after 
which W. P. Kelley went to Terre Haute, In- 
diana, and became a student in its public 
schools. After completing his education he 
engaged in the fire insurance business in 1880, 
but in 1893 he removed to Indianapolis and 
in the following year came to South Bend, 
where he has ever since been engaged in the 
fire insurance business. His sound judgment, 
sagacity and unflagging energy have made 
him a valued factor of the department which 
he represents, and his reputation in trade 
circles has ever been unassailable, for he has 
exemplified in his dealings the old adage that 
honesty is the best policy. In politics he is 
an earnest Republican, an active worker in 
the ranks of his party, and he holds the of- 
fice of treasurer of the Republican central 

On the twelfth of September, 1888, Mr. Kel- 
ley was united in marriage to Miss Ella M. 
Mitchell, a daughter of James Mitchell, of 
Indianapolis. Mr. Kelley holds membership 
relations with the Knights of Pythias and the 
Commercial Athletic club. 

Wn^LiAM L. Temple. Mr. Temple is truly 
a self-made man, and from the study of his 
life one may learn valuable lessons. De- 
pending upon his own resources from the 
early age of eleven years, he has by sheer 
force of will and untiring effort worked his 
way upward until he now occupies a leading 
place among the business men of South Bend, 
for as president of the Temple & Shaw Cigar 
Manufacturing Company he is well and fav- 
orably know^n. He traces his ancestry to 
the mother country of England, the birth- 

place of his great-grandfather, while his 
grandfather, Caleb Temple, was a native of 
the commonwealth which cradled so much of 
our national history, the Old Dominion of 
Virginia. His son and the father of him 
whose name introduces this review, William 
L. Temple, was a native of Crawford county, 
Indiana, where he was well known as a mer- 
. chant and leading politician, and for a 
number of years he held the position of 
county clerk. His death occurred when he 
had reached the age of seventy-five years. He 
was united in marriage to Martha Sanders, 
a native of Georgia, and in their family were 
ten children, nine daughters and one son. 

William L. Temple, the only son and the 
youngest child of the familj^, is also a native 
of Crawford county, Indiana, where he was 
born on the fifteenth of January, 1858, and 
there he was reared and received his limited 
educational training. At the early age of 
eleven years he started out alone to battle 
with the world, for three years working in 
the county treasurer's office. On the expira- 
tion of that period he came west to Lincoln, 
Nebraska, where at the early age of fourteen 
years he became guard in the penitentiary, re- 
maining there for two years, and at the end 
of that time he was serving as the warden's 
private secretary. Returning thence to Leav- 
enworth, Indiana, he became deputy clerk of 
Crawford county, and on the expiration of 
his four years' term in that position he was 
elected the county auditor of the county, be- 
ing then but twenty-one years of age and the 
youngest county official in the entire state 
of Indiana. Despite his years, however, the 
duties of the office were discharged with a 
promptness and fidelity worthy of all com- 
mendation for four years, and at its close he 
entered upon the duties of a traveling sales- 
man, thus continuing for the long period of 
twenty-one years, and during that time he 
traveled throughout every state in the Union 
selling cigars. It was in the year 1891 that 
he came to South Bend and organized the 
firm of Temple, Hummel & Ellis, cigar manu- 
facturers, which later became Temple & Ellis 
and subsequently was changed to its present 
form of Temple & Shaw, one of the largest 
cigar manufacturing companies in this sec- 
tion of the state, their manufactory being lo- 
cated at 301 South Carroll street. They 
began operations with thirty employes, but as 
their business continued to grow they ex- 
panded their facilities and now 350 competent 

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operatives are given employment, With three 
men on the road, and their product is sent 
throughout every part of the United States. 

In 1879 Mr. Temple was united in marriage 
to Mary Scott, a daughter of A. M. and 
Sarah (Clark) Scott, of Leavenworth, Craw- 
ford county, Indiana, where their daughter 
was born and reared. To this union has been 
bom two children, a daughter and a son, — 
Ethel Loraine, the wife of Horace T. Rey- 
nolds, of South Bend, and William L., Jr., 
attending the Culver Military academy. Mr. 
Temple gives his political support to the 
Democracy, and is a prominent member of the 
Masonic order, being a Thirty-second degree 
Mason and a Shriner. He is also a member 
of the Odd Fellows order in Leavenworth, 
Indiana, of the Elks of South Bend, and is 
a member of all the leading city clubs. 

W. B. ScmvEPER. Conspicuous in the roll 
of names of the younger men who have been 
successful in the business circles of St. Jo- 
seph county is that of W. B. Schaefer, who 
is extensively engaged in the lumber business 
in South Bend. He was bom in Pierceton, 
Indiana, on the fifth of November, 1874. His 
father, William R. Schaefer, was a native 
of German, but when a. young man about 
twenty-one years of age came to the United 
States and made his way to Indiana, resid- 
ing in Goshen for a number of years there- 
after. He then removed to Pierceton of that 
state and engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness, but is now living retired from the active 
duties and cares of life, enjoying the fruits 
of years of toil in the past, but he still main- 
tains his home in Pierceton. His wife bore 
the maiden name of Sarah J. Ruch, and was 
a native of Ohio. 

W. B. Schaefer completed his education in 
the high school of Pierceton, in which he 
graduated in 1893, and immediately thereafter 
he entered upon a clerkship in a store in 
Elkhart. A few years afterward he came to 
South Bend, this being in 1897, and again 
assimaed a clerical position, with the Martin 
& Page Lumber Company, where he laid the 
foundation for his. future life work, for in 
1901 he embarked in the wholesale lumber 
business for himself, with offices in the Dean 
building. He has attained a high degree of 
success in his business venture, and is recog- 
nized as a young man of energy, enterprise 
and ambition. His trade extends over 
northern Indiana and southern Michigan and 

is constantly increasing, for his business 
methods are honorable and above reproach. 

Mr. Schaefer is a member of the Grace 
Methodist Episcopal church and of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, of which 
he is secretary of the board of directors. 

Milton Barmore Pine. Milton B. Pine, oc- 
cupying an enviable position with the Singer 
Sewing Machine Company of South Bend, was 
born in this city on the twenty-first of April, 
1873, a son of Leighton Pine, whose sketch 
will be found elsewhere in this work. After 
completing his education in the schools of 
South Bend Milton B. decided to enter the 
dental profession, and accordingly spent two 
years in the office of Dr. Conklin, of this city. 
He then went to Chicago and entered the Chi- 
cago College of Dental Surgery, in which he 
was graduated in 1894, but owing to the ex- 
cellent training he had received while with 
Dr. Conklin within one year and a half after 
entering college he was granted by the State 
Board of Dental Examiners a license to prac- 
tice, and he opened an office while attending 
college. The Doctor was engaged in practice 
in Chicago until 1902, when he returned to 
South Bend and in March of the following 
year assumed charge of the works of the 
Singer Sewing Machine Company at Cairo, 
Illinois, and South Bend, while in 1904 he 
was officially installed as manager of the 
works in both cities. Dr. Pine was not brought 
into this company by his father, but for 
several years they had repeatedly urged him 
to join them, and at last he determined to 
abandon his profession and accept their offer. 
His excellent business ability has won him 
a high position in this large corporation, and 
South Bend numbers him among her promi- 
nent young business men. 

On the ninth of February, 1904, Dr. Pine 
was united in marriage to Miss Gamett M. 
Hupp, of South Bend. The Doctor is a mem- 
ber of the Chicago South Shore Country club, 
the Chicago Automobile club, the Chicago 
Athletic club and the Chicago Yacht club. 
He is an enthusiastic automobilist, having 
owned the first steam car in Chicago and was 
one of the organizers of the Chicago Automo- 
bile club. A young man of vigor, and like 
his father, an able organizer, he fills his im- 
portant position with satisfaction to all. 

Joseph A. Webwinski. Mr. Werwinski is 
distinctly the architect of his own fortunes, 
and as the record of a young man it is one of 
which he may well be proud. He has gained 

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a most brilliant success, a just reward of 
meritorious, honorable effort, which commands 
the respect and admiration of all. He is a 
native son of South Bend, born on the four- 
teenth of January, 1882, a son of Michael 
and Amelia (Kaiser) Werwinski, the former 
having been bom across the water in Europe, 
while the latter was born in Laporte county, 
Indiana. When a young man the father came 
to South Bend and engaged in the grocery 
business, thus continuing until his death in 
1889, at the early age of thirty-six years. The 
mother still resides in South Bend. 

Their son Joseph attended the parochial 
schools of South Bend, also the normal school 
at Valparaiso and the South Bend Commer- 
cial College, remaining in the last named in- 
stitution for five years, thus receiving an ex- 
cellent educational training. For a short time 
thereafter he clerked in a grocery store, and 
was also deputy township trustee under James 
D. Reid for one and a half years, and then 
for the following' two years taught in the 
public schools in Crumstown, St. Joseph 
county, Indiana. He then secured a position 
with the real estate firm of Staley & Robin- 
son, with whom he remained for three years, 
and on the first of January, 1905, he em- 
barked in that business for himself on Chapin 
and Divison streets. His first venture in this 
business, however, was at the age of twenty- 
one years when he bought one acre of ground, 
naming it Werwinski, which he subdivided 
and built upon, making a success of this ven- 
ture. He is now handling one of the largest 
tracts of land in St. Joseph county, consist- 
ing of thirteen hundred and twenty-six lots 
belonging to the Clement Studebaker estate, 
which is known as Summit Place addition and 
is located south and west from the Singer 
Manufacturing Company. Mr. Werwinski has 
practically built up the west end, a remark- 
able feat for so young a man. Out of four 
hundred and twenty lots in the first and 
second additions there have been built about 
three hundred houses, while in the third addi- 
tion he has up to the present time sold over 
three hundred lots, twelve of which were to be 
used for a Polish church and school, facing 
on Ohio street. On the Summit addition 
cement walks and curbings have been built. 
He has recently purchased for a syndicate, 
composed of Horace M. KauflPman, himself 
and a few other local business men, the Kauff- 
man place addition, consisting of one hundred 
and thirty-three lots in the most prosperous 

part of the city, within two hundred feet of 
Michigan avenue, and one of the streets is 
named Werwinski in honor of our subject. 
Mr. Werwinski is part owner of this addition, 
and is also vice-president of the Kosciusko 
Building & Loan Association, one of the 
largest corporations of its kind in South Bend. 
He is a Republican in his political views, 
and is second vice-president of the county 
Republican central committee. Fraternally 
he affiliates with the Knights of Columbus, the 
order of Owls and the Elks, and is a member 
of the Polish Turners, the Polish National 
Alliance of America and the Local Real Es- 
tate Board. His is a remarkable career for so 
young a man. He was left without a father 
when a mere boy, and alone and unaided has 
worked his way upward to the high position 
he now occupies. 

Emanuel R. Wills, of South Bend, is too 
well known to the citizens of this community 
to need any introduction to the readers of this 
volimie. He is a prominent factor in the in- 
dustrial and political life of St. Joseph 
county, and both his public and private record 
is one of which he has every reason to be 
proud. The place of his nativity was York 
county, Pennsylvania, where he was born on 
the first of October, 1840, a son of Lewis 
and Magdeline (Fleshman) Wills, natives 
also of that commonwealth. 

Emanuel R. Wills grew to manhood on his 
father's farm, being occupied in the labors 
incident to the clearing and cultivation of the 
homestead. In 1865 he came to South Bend, 
and for a time thereafter clerked in a dry- 
goods store, while later he was engaged in 
the grocery business for himself. In 1882, 
without any solicitation on his part, he was 
chosen and elected city treasurer, the duties 
of which he discharged with promptness and 
fidelity worthy of all commendation for two 
years, and on the expiration of that period 
he was made the treasurer of St- Joseph 
county. At the following election he was re- 
turned to that position, thus showing how 
efficiently he had discharged the obligations 
resting upon him. In 1891 Mr. Wills was 
elected the county assessor, and was as 
equally successful in that office, while at the 
present time he is engaged in the fire insurance 
and real estate business in St. Joseph county. 
He has earned for himself an enviable repu- 
tation >a8 a careful man of business, always 
known for his prompt and honorable methods 
of dealing, which have won him the deserved 

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and unbounded confidence of his fellow men. 
In 1874 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 
Wills and Miss Margaret Coquillard, she be- 
ing a daughter of Benjamin and Sophia Co- 
quillard, of South Bend, and they have four 
children — ^Leo J., Edmund A., Florentine M. 
and Adele M. 

V George Goetz. The late George Goetz, a 
well known merchant of South Bend and for 
years engaged in the wood and coal business, 
was born in Baden, Germany, March 24, 
1844. His father, Adam Goetz, was a farmer 
of Germany, where he married Catherine 
Karle, also a native of Baden. They had one 
child and the father died before George was 
born, the widow coming to America when he 
was an infant of six months. The m^other and 
her two children settled in New York, and 
she was again married to Peter Toep, who, 
although a German, was born under the 
French flag. Mr. Toep had come to the 
United States when he was twenty-one years 
of age, and by his marriage to Mrs. Adam 
Goetz he became the father of three sons and 
three daughters: William, Katherine (de- 
ceased), Henry, Elizabeth, Frank and Min- 

In 1880 Mr. Toep located with his family 
in South Bend, and during the first year of 
his residence there was engaged in the dry 
goods business. Subsequently he was in the 
coal and wood business, for a portion of the 
time with George Goetz, and still later formed 
a partnership with his son Frank in the jew- 
elry line. He died in 1906, highly respected 
as a merchant and a man. 

George Goetz was married, in 1871, to Miss 
Catherine Mayer, at Rome, New York. His 
wife and widow was born in Bavaria, Ger- 
many, December 11, 1847, the daughter of 
Leonard and Catherine (Miller) Mayer, also 
both Bavarians. The father was a farmer, 
and had a family of six children, Mrs. Goetz 
being the only one of the children who came 
to America. In 1880 Mr. and Mrs. Goetz 
became residents of St. Joseph county, the 
husband working for the first year there as 
superintendent of the shipping department of 
the Singer Sewing Machine Company. Later 
he engaged in the coal and wood business. 
In 1890 he went into the post office as stamp . 
clerk, retired from active work in 1894 and 
died in 1906. Of the family of eight sons 
and two daughtei^s three of the former are 
deceased, the children in the order of their 
birth being as follows: George Peter, Wil- 

liam (deceased), Frank (deceased), Joseph, 
Minnie, Edward, Katherine, Frederick, Ar- 
thur and John (deceased). The children were 
all reared and schooled in South Bend, and 
have proved a credit to themselves and their 

In politics Mr. Goetz was a Democrat. He 
was a faithful and active member of St. 
Mary 's Catholic church, and in every relation 
of life a man of probity and reliability. His 
widow is now classed among the old residents 
of South Bend, and a substantial factor in 
its best progress. 

Gabriel R. Summers. Among the repre- 
sentative citizens of St. Joseph county, es- 
teemed alike for his sterling worth of 
character and his activity in the business 
world is Gabriel R. Siunmers, a resident of 
South Bend. He was born in Laporte county, 
Indiana, on the thirteenth of March, 1857, a 
son of Edward Summers, whose birth oc- 
curred in Ireland. During his early man- 
hood, however, he came to the United States, 
and after one year spent in Virginia went to 
Laporte and entered the service of the Drul- 
linger family, one of the oldest and best 
known in that section of the state. He after- 
wards married Miss Catherine Drullinger, and 
his death occurred in Clay township, St. Jo- 
seph county, Indiana, in 1880, when he had 
reached the fifty-sixth /milestone on the jour- 
ney of life. 

Gabriel R. Summers received an excellent 
education at Notre Dame University, in which 
he was graduated in 1873, and after leaving 
that institution he lived on a farm until he 
purchased the Jennings place adjoining the 
old homestead in 1880, which he still owns 
and operates. In addition to carrying on the 
work of the farm Mr. Summers has also dealt 
heavily in real estate, having been very suc- 
cessful in this line of endeavor, and he has 
handled some of the most valuable real estate 
in the county, being the owner of much land 
at the present time. In 1895 he organized 
the Vanderhoof Company, manufacturers of 
proprietary medicines, of which he is now the 
sole owner, and in 1894 he became president 
of the South Bend Iron Bed Company, one of 
the most successful enterprises of its kind 
in this section of the state. Thus for many 
years Mr. Summers has been an active factor 
in the industrial interests of St. Joseph 
county, and through his diligence, persever- 
ance and business ability has acquired a hand- 
some competence, while at the same time he 

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has also contributed to the general prosperity 
through the conduct of large enterprises. 

In 1880 Mr. Summers was married to Miss 
Mercy Ann Longley, a daughter of Andrew 
and Mary (Rupel) Longley, of St. Joseph 
county. One daughter has blessed their home, 
Alice, who was bom on the seventeenth of 
August, 1893. Mr. Summers has fraternal 
affiliations with the order of Elks, the Royal 
Arcanum, the Foresters and the Maccabees,' 
and he is also a member of the Commercial 
Athletic club. 

John GalluVGher. After a long and suc- 
cessful business career John Gallagher is now 
living a retired life in South Bend, his pleas- 
ant residence being located at 319 Colfax 
avenue. His birth occurred in the city of 
Burlington, Vermont, September 3, 1830, but 
to the Emerald Isle must we turn for the early 
ancestral history of the family. His father, 
Patrick Gallagher, was born in Ireland, and 
in that country was married to Ellen Giblin, 
but shortly afterward, in 1824, the young 
couple set sail for America, journeying first 
to Canada, thence to Burlington, Vermont, 
and finally to Canton, Stark county, Ohio, in 
1836, where the husband spent the remainder 
of his life and died in 1842. The wife and 
mother survived until eighty-nine years of 
age, dying in Massillon, Ohio. They became 
the parents of six children, two sons and four 
daughters, all of whom grew to years of ma- 
turity, but only two are now living, the 
daughter being Rose Kersy, of Illinois. 

John Gallagher, the third child and second 
son in order of birth in the family, was taken 
from his native city of Burlington, Vermont, 
to Canton, Ohio, by his parents when only 
six years old, there attaining to years of ma- 
turity and receiving his education in its pub- 
lic schools. In 1843 he began the tailor's 
trade, and six years later, in 1849, removed 
to Lewisville, Ohio, to engage in that occupa- 
tion for himself, while in 1853 he came to 
South Bend. In this city he established a 
merchant tailoring business, which he carried 
on successfuly until 1904, covering a period 
of fifty-two years, and thus at that time was 
the oldest merchant in South BeAd. 

November 22, 1852, Mr. Gallagher was 
united in marriage to Jemima Vanderhoof , a 
native of Summit county, Ohio, and their 
union resulted in the birth of seven children, 
but the only two now living are Florence 
Decker, of South Bend, and Charles C, a 
practicing physician of Marietta, Ohio. The 

Vol. 11—12. 

wife and mother has long since passed away, 
and in February, 1879, Mr. Gallagher married 
Rachel Rush, whose death occurred in Sep- 
tember, 1905. He votes with the Democratic 
party, and as its representative served as one 
of the first trustees of South Bend. 

During the long. period of fifty years he 
has been associated with the Odd Fellows fra- 
ternity, being at the present time the oldest 
member of South Bend Lodge, No. 29, while 
he is also the only surviving charter member 
of the Masonic order of this city, in which he 
has attained the Knight Templar degree. He 
has passed the Psalmist's span of three score 
years and ten, and now, as he journeys down 
the western slope of life, he is resting from 
arduous cares, in the midst of friends who 
esteem him for his honorable record and his 
many commendable charajcteristics. 

ViRGiNius NiCAR, who is numbered among 
the leading business men of South Bend and 
St. Joseph county, was bom in Mishawaka 
on the first of November, 1841, his father 
being Robert B. Nicar, a native of Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, and a millwright by trade. He 
came to Mishawaka, St. Joseph county, In- 
diana, in the thirties, and was thereafter 
prominently identified with the history of this 
locality. He served as the treasurer of St. 
Joseph county from 1851 until 1857, and in 
many other ways was identified with the pub- 
lic life of the county of his adoption. From 
the date of his retirement from the treasurer's 
office in 1857 until his death in 1865, at the 
age of sixty-three years, he was engaged in 
the hardware business. In his life he ex- 
emplified the beneficient principles of the 
Masonic order, while politically he was a 
staunch Republican from the time of the 
organization of that party until his death, and 
previous to that time was a Whig, having left 
the south on account of his hatred of slavery. 
For his wife Mr. Nicar chose Mary E. 
Lewellyn, a native of Lynchburg, Virginia, 
where she was also reared, and her mother 
was a first cousin of William Henry Harrison. 
Her death occurred in St. Joseph county in 
1880, aged seventy-one years. In the family 
of this worthy pioneer couple were nine chil- 
dren, all but two of whom grew to years of 

Virginius Nicar, the youngest of the family, 
remained in his native city of Mishawaka until 
ten years of age, when he came with his 
parents to South Bend and continued his 
education in the public schools of this city, 

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also attending the Hillsdale college. On the 
completion of his education he learned the 
tinner's trade, and was thereafter employed 
in his father *s hardware store until the 
later 's death, when he assumed the control of 
the business in company with his brother, 
Captain Edward Nicar and brother-in-law, 
Dwyght Deming. Mr. Nicar subsequently 
withdrew from the firm and engaged in the 
hardware busines for himself in this city, thus 
continuing until he sold his interests in 1875 
and turned his attention to market gardening 
and general farming, also becoming purchas- 
ing egent for the Birdsell Manufacturing Com- 
pany of South Bend, having entire charge of 
their buying for four years. At the close of 
that period he engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness, which he now conducts in connection 
with a fruit ranch one and a half miles south 
of Spring Brook, and which is one of the 
finest properties of its kind .in the state of 
Indiana. It consists of a tract of thirty acres, 
planted to many varieties of fruit, and its 
product has received more first premiums 
than that of any other farm in the state. 
Mr. Nicar is also connected with the Indian- 
apolis, Logansport & South Bend Railroad 
Company, of which he is one of the stock- 
holders and directors, and at one time was 
treasurer of the company. 

In 1865 Mr. Nicar was united in marriage 
to Mary Taylor, the daughter of the late' 
^ Colonel L. M. Taylor, the founder of South 
Bend, where his daughter was born on the 
twenty-fourth of May, 1844, and was edu- 
cated in its public schools and St. Mary's 
seminary. The only child of this marriage 
is a son, Robert L., of Seattle, Washington. 
Mr. Nicar has given lifelong support to the 
Republican party, always active in its work, 
and for five years served as the assessor of 
Union township. He is president of the St. 
Joseph County Horticultural society and a 
member of the Grange. Sixty-five years have 
passed and gone since Mr. Nicar became iden- 
tified with the interests of St. Joseph county, 
and fifty-five years of that time have been 
spent in South Bend, years devpted to the 
improvement and upbuilding of its many in- 
terests. He has been a traveler throughout 
his life, visiting nearly all sections of the 
United States, and thus gaining that exten- 
sive information which only travel can 

Earl R. Perrin is nimibered among the 
enterprising young business men of St. Jo- 

seph county. A community depends upon 
commercial activity, its welfare is due to this, 
and its promoters of extensive business en- 
terprises may well be termed its benefactors. 
Mr. Perrin was born in Lena, Illinois, Sep- 
tember 13, 1870, a son of Noah and Rosannah 
(Henderson) Perrin, the former a native of 
Pottsdam, New York, and the latter of Brock- 
ville, Ontario. In 1854 the father removed 
to Illinois, where he taught school and had 
charge of the construction work on the Illi- 
nois Central Railroad. He later embarked 
in the grain trade, purchasing the first grain 
ever brought into Lena. A number of years 
ago he retired from the active cares of a 
business life, and he now spends much of his 
time in traveling. His wife died in 1894, ht 
the age of sixty-four years. 

Earl R. Perrin, one of their nine children, 
three of whom are now living, received his 
educational training in the public schools of 
Lena, Illinois. For several years after laying 
aside his text books he was engaged in the ad- 
vertising business. Since 1896 he has been a 
resident of South Bend, and during a year 
and a hali of the early period of his resi- 
dence here he was engaged in the study of 
law, and although he did not continue in the 
proifession he obtained a knowledge of its 
fundamental principles which proved useful 
to him in his subsequent business career. In 
1900 he embarked in the real estate business, 
first conducting operations in partnership 
with Daniel Gise, but in February, 1904, he 
purchased his partner 's interest and has since 
been alone. He has contributed much toward 
the development of his adopted city and 
county. Among other work he laid out and 
developed the Battell Second Park Addition 
of Mishawaka, and also built for five blocks 
a boulevard eighty feet wide, with beautiful 
flower plots at the intersections of the streets. 
This was the first step toward the long pro- 
posed idea of building a boulevard from 
Mishawaka to South Bend. In South Bend 
Mr. Perrin is also interested in the Bowman 
addition and other enterprises for the im- 
provement of the city. He also represents the 
Continental Fire Insurance Company of New 

On the first of January, 1900, Mr. Perrin 
was united in marriage to Miss Mae Humes, 
a daughter of John and Loranna (Tipton) 
Humes, of St. Joseph county. Mr. Perrin 
holds membership relations with the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, and is depart- 

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ment commander of Indiana for the Patri- 
archs Militant, the uniformed branch of the 
order. lie also holds membership in several 
other fraternal societies. 

John Beyrer, a prosperous real estate 
dealer of South Bend, is of that substantial 
and invaluable German stock which combines 
unfailing industry and broad common sense 
with native shrewdness and business ability. 
He is a native of the Fatherland, born No- 
vember 22, 1850, to Jacob and Barbara 
(Greiner) Beyrer, who brought him when an 
infant of six months to America, and settled 
with their family on a farm in Berrien 
county, Michigan. On this homestead he de- 
veloped to manhood, working on the farm 
and attending the district schools of his neigh- 
borhood, thus assisting his father and himself 
until he had reached the age of twenty-six 
year. He then purchased a thirty-acre farm 
in German township, two and a half miles 
northwest of South Bend, married and there 
established a home of his own. 

For eight years after settling in Gterman 
township Mr. Beyrer carried on an extensive 
dairy business, disposing of his product 
mostly in South Bend, afterwards contracting 
for gravel which he obtained from immense 
deposits in his land. For five years he sup- 
plied the gravel for roofing for the Ford Roof- 
ing Company of Chicago, has graveled twen- 
ty-one acres of roofing for the Oliver Chilled 
Plow Works and nearly as much for the 
Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Com- 
pany, which are fair illustrations of the mag- 
nitude of the business which he conducts in 
this line. In former years he devoted some 
of his time to the real estate business, but is 
now devoting his time to his roofing business 
with his sons. 

On the eleventh of October, 1877, Mr. Bey- 
rer was married to Miss Flora E. Miller, who 
was born in Warren township, this county, 
September 25, 1856, and is a daughter of 
James R. and Amanda E. (Ritter) Miller. 
Their four children were* bom : J. Lloyd, 
August 11, 1878; James R., December 16, 
1881 ; Ada, June 10, 1886, and Mary L., in 
December, 1890. Mrs. Beyrer is a worthy 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
Her husband is a good citizen and man, and 
a warm practical supporter of worthy pro- 
jects. Politically he is a Republican, and an 
active and influential local factor of the party. 
He has been a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity and Odd Fellows order for the best 

part of his life, and is also a member of other 
fraternal organizations. Altogether he is a 
man and citizen who is a credit to himself, 
his nationality and the community in which 
he has faithfully labored for so many years. 

E. A. ScHiPPER. Numbered among the 
younger but prominent business men of South 
Bend is E. A. Schiffer, who is the proprietor 
of one of its leading drug houses, located at 
527 East Jefferson street. South Bend also 
claims him among her native sons, his birth 
here occurring on the tenth of August, 1876, 
a son of E. A. and Augusta (Tesmer) Schif- 
fer, both natives of Germany. Mr. E. A. 
Schiffer was numbered among this city's 
earliest residents, where he was engaged as a 
florist for a number of years, and his death 
occurred at the comparatively early age of 
thirty-two years. His widow is yet living, 
and is now the wife of August Kuss. 

South Bend has continued as the home of 
E. A. Schiffer throughout his entire life, his 
educational training having been received in 
its public schools, and he is also a graduate in 
pharmacy. When twenty-one years of age he 
engaged in the drug business at his present 
stand. Gradually he has ascended the ladder 
of success, his business constantly growing in 
volume and importance, and the city now 
numbers him among her substantial business 

In 1899 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 
Schiffer and Miss Grace May Arris, her father 
having been the late John Arris, whose name 
is so well known throughout South Bend, 
where he was one of its leading politicians. 
For eleven years Mr. Schiffer has held mem- 
bership relations with the Knights of the Mac- 
cabees, and his political affiliations are with 
the Democratic party. He is an earnest 
worker and a valued member of the Trinity 
Presbyterian church, in which he is serving as 
trustee and secretary, and in all the varied 
relations of life he is proving himself a worthy 

C. A. DoLPH. Occupying an enviable posi- 
tion in the business circles of South Bend, 
C. A. Dolph is honored and respected by all, 
not alone on account of the success he has 
achieved, but also by reason of the honorable, 
straightforward business policy he has ever 
followed. He was bom in Hillsdale county, 
Michigan, on the 27th of August, 1862, a son 
of Joseph M. and Cordelia (Cox) Dolph, both 
natives of the state of New York. The father 
was born in Rochester, that state, July 1, 

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1835, his parents being Obed and Electa 
(Lewis) Dolph. His educational training was 
received in the schools of his native state, and 
during his boyhdod days he moved with his 
parents and family to Ithaca, New York, 
where he resumed his studies. In 1848 the 
family home was established in Michigan, and 
young Joseph engaged in cabinet-making and 
the undertaking business, and his efforts have 
ever since been directed along that line. In 
1892 he came to South Bend to join his son in 
the furniture business. On the 24th of Feb- 
ruary, 1864, Mr. Dolph enlisted for service 
in the Civil war, becoming a member of the 
second company of Sharpshooters attached to 
the Twenty-seventh Michigan infantry. He 
participated in the battles of the Wilderness 
and Spottsylvania Court House, in the latter 
of which he was wounded and was discharged 
on the 18th of August, 1865. He now makes 
his home in South Bend, and is a member of 
Auten Post, No. 8, G. A. R., in which he main- 
tains pleasant relations with his old army 

Charles A. Dolph came to South Bend in 
1892 and organized the extensive furniture 
business of which he is now the proprietor. 
In 1903 he assisted in organizing the South 
Bend Brick Company and he is the treasurer 
of the company and also a director. This com- 
pany turns out over ten million brick a year 
and is an industry of importance in this sec- 
tion of the state. He is a director and vice- 
president of the Merchants National bank, and 
is a director and one of the original incor- 
porators of the Home Improvement Company, 
which made Navarre Place one of the most 
beautiful home sights in the state of Indiana. 
In 1882 Mr. Dolph was united in marriage 
to Miss Jennie Snyder, a daughter of Philip 
and Betsey (Snider) Snyder. One son, Frank, 
has been bom to this union, a promising 
young man now serving as assistant in his 
father's business. Another son, Bertie, died 
in 1894, at the age of nine years. The family 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and Mr. Dolph also has membership 
relations with the Commercial Athletic club. 

W. R. Philups. In the business circles of 
South Bend Mr. W. R. Phillips has become 
an important factor through his connection 
with the coal and wood trade, and as a mem- 
ber of the firm of Kanouse & Phillips he is 
well known in its industrial interests. His 
birth ocurred in Center township of St. Jo- 
seph county April 29, 1859, a son of Randolph 

Phillips, who claimed Virginia as the common- 
wealth of his nativity, and he was there reared 
to years of maturity. He was also married 
to one of its native daughters, Lucy Ann 
Storer, and they became early settlers of St. 
Joseph county, Indiana, and the parents of 
four sons, one of whom died when young. 

W. R. Phillips, the youngest in order of 
birth of the four sons, attained to years of 
maturity in his native township of Center, 
attending its public schools during his early 
boyhood days, and after reaching a suitable 
ag6 engaged in the tilling of the soil. For 
some time he was also employed as a house 
painter, and in 1888 he embarked in the coal 
and wood business in company with Mr. Ka- 
nouse, this business relationship continuing to 
the present time. They conduct both a whole- 
sale and retail trade, with offices at 540 South 
Chapen street, and they are among the lead- 
ers in their line in South Bend, and are num- 
bered among the city's valued and useful resi- 

In Paris, Illinois, in 1885, Mr. Phillips was 
united in marriage to Rosella Green, who died 
leaving one son, Ralph, a resident of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania. In 1900, Mr. Phillips 
wedded Anna Clingman, and their only child, 
Helen, is now six years of age. Mr. Phillips 
has been a lifelong resident of St. Joseph 
county, and since age conferred upon him the 
right of franchise he has supported the prin- 
ciples of the Democratic party. He has earned 
for himself an enviable reputation as a man 
of business, and his honorable methods of 
dealing haye won him the unbounded confi- 
dence of his fellow citizens. 

J. E. Williams is a worthy representative 
of the business interests of South Bend*, and 
possesses that progressive spirit which, un- 
deterred by seeming obstacles or disadvan- 
tages, steadily presses forward to a desired 
end and accomplishes the result in view. 
Throughout his entire life he has been a resi- 
dent of St. Joseph county, his birth having 
occurred within its borders in North Liberty 
on the 11th of August, ^1852. The paternal 
family has long been established in the United 
States, and is traced back to Thomas Will- 
iams, who came from the mother country of 
England in 1777 and planted the family home 
on American shores. He was of Welsh 
descent. The grandfather of our subject, 
George Williams, was bom in Harpswell, 
Maine, August 3, 1777, and was married to 
Mabel Litchfield, of South Lewiston, that 

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state. Their son, Sumner 6. Williams, was 
bom in Durham, Maine, December 20, 1813, 
and as early as 1836 he came to Indiana, 
locating in North Liberty, where he was en- 
gaged as a farmer and carpei^ter until he 
retired from the active duties of a business 
life and established his home in South Bend 
in 1874. His death occurred on the 23d of 
April, 1894. In his early manhood Mr. Wil- 
liams married Ann Wood, who was born on 
Staten Island, New York, of French descent. 
She was in her eighty-fourth year when death 
claimed her, and had been the mother of 
twelve children, only three of whom are now 
living: W. S., who is now engaged in busi- 
ness with his brother J. E., and Mabel, the 
wife <rf Jacob Reamer, of South Bend. 

J. E. Williams remained on the home farm 
in St. Joseph county until he came to South 
Bend in 1874, purchasing the grocery store of 
J. W. Buflfman, the business being carried on 
under the firm name of Reamer & Williams 
until Mr. Williams purchased his partner's 
interest in 1888. Remaining alone from that 
time until 1897, his brother, W. S. Williams, 
then became a member of the firm, which is 
now known as Williams & Brother. South 
Bend has long placed this institution at the 
forefront of her business interests, and the 
house enjoys a large and representative trade. 

In 1877 Mr. Williams was united in mar- 
riage to Anna, the youngest daughter of Col. 
Norman Eddy, of South Bend, and they have 
three children, Owen, of Mishawaka ; Eugene, 
at home; and Bertha, the wife of Harold 
E. Herr, of South Bend. To Mr. Williams 
belongs the honor of being the second oldest 
grocery merchant in point of years of con- 
tinuous service in South Bend, his connec- 
tion with the trade continuing during the 
long period of thirty-four years, while during 
that time there has been no shadow of wrong 
or injustice to mar his career. At one time 
he represented the third ward in the city 
council, and for one term served as a mem- 
ber of the city council, the cause of education 
ever finding in him a warm friend. His fra- 
ternal relations are with the Masonic order. 
Having spent his entire life in St. Joseph 
county, Mr. Williams is very widely known, 
and his extensive circle of friends and the 
warm regard in which he is held indicate his 
upright and honorable life. 

Jacob P. T. Kirsch. For many years Mr. 
Kirsch has occupied a very conspicuous place 
among the leading business men of South 

Bend. As the manager of the South Bend 
Mercantile Company, he is prominently con- 
nected with its commercial interests, and 
through the channels of trade has contributed 
not alone to his individual prosperity but 
to the welfare of others as well. His birth 
occurred in Priedheim, Adams county, In- 
diana, July 10, 1869. His father, Charles 
Kirsch, was a native son of the fatherland, 
bom in Baden, Germany, but when eighteen 
years of age he came to Ainerica. In Indiana 
he was married to Margaret Kiefer, who was 
bom in Adams county, that state, of German 
descent. They became the parents of nine 
children, seven of whom grew to years of 

Jacob P. T. Kirsch, the sixth child and 
second son in order of birth, spent the early 
years of his life in his native place, receiving 
his higher education in Addison Seminary, 
of Addison, Illinois, where for five years he 
pursued the teacher's course. Thus with this 
excellent educational training to serve as the 
foundation for his future life work he entered 
the teacher's profession, spending about two 
years in Pekin, Illinois, and about seven 
years in South Bend, he having taken up his 
abode in this city in 1880. About 1887 he 
abandoned the professional for a business 
career, embarking in the general mercantile 
order and advertising business, and on the 
19th of June, 1906, he organized the South 
Bend Mercantile Company, of which he was 
made the secretary and manager. The com- 
pany sells all kinds of merchandise by mail. 
By his able management of finances, Mr. 
Kirsch has succeeded in placing it upon a 
substantial and paying basis, and is making 
it one of the leading mercantile interests of 
the city. He is also the secretary and treas- 
urer of the South Bend Advertising Agency. 

Mr. Kirsch was first married to Anna 
Knoll, by whom he had one child, Hulda, 
while by his second marriage, to Lizetta Hans, 
he has become the father of four children, 
Renata, Oswald, Genevieve and Aletha. Mr. 
Kirsch is an active and valued member of 
St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran church, in 
which he is completing his third term of 
three years as one of its deacons, and for 
seven years he has also served as a teacher 
in its parochial school. In this city, where 
they have so long been citizens, the family 
are held in the highest regard by their in- 
numerable friends. 

Hilton Hammond. The name of Hilton 

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Hammond occupies a high place in the busi- 
ness circles of St. Joseph county, being well 
known in connection with contracting and 
real estate, and the success he has achieved 
is the result of enterprise and his own un- 
aided efforts. He was born on a farm m 
Bartholomew county, Indiana, near Colum- 
bus, October 1, 1860, his father being Joseph 
Hammond and a native of Switzerland coun- 
ty of this state, but was reared in Cincinnati. 
In 1863 he moved west to Hastings, Minne- 
sota, where he continued his occupation of 
contracting, for he too was well known as 
a contractor and builder, and his death oc- 
curred in Kansas City, Missouri, January 1, 
1893, when he had reached the age of seventy- 
three years. lie was of English descent, as 
was also his wife, nee Minerva Hilton, a na- 
tive of Cincinnati, Ohio, where she was 
reared and educated. Her father, John Hil- 
ton, taught the first public school in that city, 
continuing in the profession for forty years, 
and his labors were effective in raising the 
standard of the schools with which he was 
connected. During the Civil war he served 
as scout for General Harrison. Mrs. Ham- 
mond passed away in death in 1892, aged 
sixty-eight years, the mother of eleven chil- 
dren, seven of whom grew to years of ma- 

Hilton Hammond, the sixth child and fifth 
son in order of birth, began in the contracting 
business with his father when only thirteen 
years of age, and two years later, at the 
early age of fifteen, he started out in the 
world to battle for himself, traveling over 
the country as a journeyman until his ar- 
rival in South Bend in 1888, coming hither 
from Chicago and associating himself with 
the well known contractor, Mr. Werst. Sev- 
ering his connection with that gentleman six 
years later, he entered the contracting field 
for himself, and many of the finest buildings 
which now adorn St. Joseph county stand as 
monuments to his ability, among which may 
be mentioned the Jefferson building, several 
of the Singer manufacturing buildings, the 
Masonic Temple, Places Hall on Lafayette 
street, and he now has in course of construc- 
tion the Y. W. C. A. building. Mr. Ham- 
mond is also extensively interested in real 
estate in St. Joseph county, where he owns 
and handles much valuable property. He 
today ranks among the leading men of 
finance in his adopted county, and although 
a young man his creditable life work has 

won him the respect and commendation of all 
who are familiar with his history. 

In 1884 Mr. Hammond was married to 
Reese Bailey, the daughter of Elisha Bailey, 
and their only child is a daughter, Edith, the 
wife of A. C. Mecklenburg, a manufacturer 
of gasoline engines in South Bend. Mr. Ham- 
mond is a prominent member of the Masonic 
order, having reached the Knight Templar 
degree, and in his political affiliations he up- 
holds the principles of the Democracy. 

Fred T. Kemble may well be termed one 
of the representative business men of South 
Bend, as well as one of its most highly re- 
spected and esteemed citizens. He is an hon- 
ored veteran of the war of the rebellion, and 
his bravery aided in no small way the cause 
for which he victoriously fought. He was 
born in Burlington county. New Jersey, De- 
cember 13, 1843. His father, John Kemble, 
also a native of that commonwealth, became 
a resident of South Bend on the 3d of June, 
1853, where he engaged in farming, saw-mill- 
ing and the distillery business. He was quite 
an old man at the time he established his 
home in this city, and he was the father of 
twelve children, of whom his son Fred was 
the youngest in order of birth and was nine 
years of age when he accompanied his father 
to South Bend. In 1861 he offered his service 
to his country's cause, enlisting in Company 
E, Forty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
and after three years of service re-enlisted 
in the same company and regiment and was 
mustered out as first duty sergeant on the 
17th of July, 1865, his military career having 
covered a period of four years. During that 
time he participated in many of the historic 
battles of the war, including those of Corinth, 
Raymond, Jackson, Champion Hill, siege of 
Vicksburg, the Atlanta campaign and the 
march of Sherman to the sea and finally took 
part in the grand review at Washington. Al- 
though often in the thickest of the fight he 
was never wounded or in the hospital, and his 
military career is one of which he may justly 
be proud. 

Arriving at fcis home on the 25th of July, 
1865, Mr. Kemble began at once to learn the 
mason's trade, which he has mastered in 
every detail, and in 1869 he began contract- 
ing in masonry work. Gradually he has 
forged to the front in his chosen line of 
endeavor, and has long been recognized amon^ 
the leading mason contractors in St. Joseph 
county, many of its large buildings being the 

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result of his handiwork, including the city 
library and the county jail and many of the 
residences of South Bend. 

The first marriage of Mr. Kemble was cele- 
brated in 1866, when Anna Matlock became 
his wife, and after her death he married 
Dr. Lorena Duch in 1873. She was born near 
Akron, in Stark county, Ohio, November 29, 
1848, and when but five years old was brought 
by her parents to South Bend, where she 
received her literary education, and her med- 
ical training was received under the precep- 
torship of Dr. William Buchel. In 1876 she 
entered upon the active practice of her chos- 
en profession, which she has continued during 
the long period of thirty years in South Bend, 
where she has become widely known both pro- 
fessionally and socially and is enjoying a 
large and representative practice. She speaks 
several languages, including' the Polish, Hun- 
garian, German, French and English. Mr. 
Kemble is a member of Auten Post No. 8, 
G. A. R., in which he has filled all the chairs 
with the exception of that of commander. He 
is a Democrat in his political afl&liations, and 
during Cleveland's administration served as 
a mail carrier in South Bend. 

David A. Westbury. One of the leading 
citizens and influential business men of South 
Bend, Mr. Westbury has for a number of 
years been an active factor in its industrial 
circles as a representative of the plumbing 
and heating business. He was born in Ro- 
chester, New York, August 12, 1854, a son 
of James and Anna (Carter) Westbury, the 
former a native of Scotland and the latter 
of the north of England. The Westbury fam- 
ily came to America in 1827, and James 
Westbury was an expert in the mixing of 
glass and also as a shoemaker. In 1855, with 
his family, he emigrated to Iowa, locating on 
a farm near Cedar Palls, where they con- 
tinued to reside for about nine years, when 
they sold their possessions there and returned 
to Rochester, New York. There Mr. West- 
bury passed away in death at the age of sev- 
enty-nine years, his wife having preceded him 
to the home beyond, dying when fifty-nine 
years of age. They were the parents of six 
children, four sons and two daughters. 

Their son David was the eldest child in 
order of birth, and he spent nine years of 
his early life in Iowa, returning to his na- 
tive city of Rochester when a lad of ten 
years. When fifteen years of age he began 
learning the plumber's trade, serving a three 

years' apprenticeship, during which time he 
received fifty dollars in money and his clothes 
for his first year's work, boarding at home, 
and the third year he was advanced to sev- 
enty-five dollars. During a year and a half 
at the close of his apprenticeship he worked 
as a jobber in Rochester, and then, abandon- 
ing his trade, spent nine years on the stage 
in concert work with many noted companies, 
namely : The John T. Raymond, Prank Mayo 
and Abbie & Schofield at Buffalo; Norcross 
& Nixon Minstrels at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania; spent one season with Joe Murphy 
and Latta, and was also with Mary Anderson, 
Adeline Neilson, Charlotte Cushman, Law- 
rence Barrett, E. L. Davenport, Thomas Sal- 
vina, Janauschek and other companies. He 
won for himself widespread fame as an artist 
of great ability, but returning to Rochester 
at the close of his nine years on the stage, 
he resumed his old trade of plumbing, and 
for seven months continued that occupation 
in his native city. At this time Mr. West- 
bury received an offer to assume charge of 
the American Heating & Plumbing Company 
at Winnipeg, Manitoba, which he accepted 
and remained there until December of 1884, 
when he removed to Chicago, and in the 
spring of 1885 came to South Bend to install 
the heating plant at the Oliver Opera 
House. After completing the work, he 
went to New Orleans and other parts of the 
country in the interests of the heating trade, 
and finally accepted a position with E. P. 
Bates, of Syracuse, New York, taking charge 
of all his western work, and making his head- 
quarters at Chicago. His interests, however, 
were centered in many of the leading western 
cities, including St. Louis, St. Paul and Min- 
neapolis. Returning to South Bend in June, 
1887, Mr. Westbury put in the heating works 
at the Oliver plant, and afterward installed 
heating plants for the Studebakers, the Bird- 
sells, the Wilson Brothers shirt factory, the 
Colfax Manufacturing Company, St. Mary's 
Academy, thence returned to the new plants 
of the Olivers and the Studebakers and also 
cleared up all the work for E. P. Bates. In 
1894 he engaged in business with Mr. Blair, 
this partnership continuing until 1901, when 
Mr. Westbury purchased his partner's inter- 
est, and has since carried on his vast and 
important business alone. His relations, Jiow- 
ever, in this city are many and varied, for 
he is one of the directors of the South Bend 
Mercantile Association, ex-president of the 

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South Bend Business Men's Association, of 
which he is a member of the board of direc- 
tors, and is one of the city's leading business 

In 1882 Mr. Westbury was united in mar- 
riage to Lucy Convery, and they had one son, 
John D., now a resident of Pana, Illinois. 
For his second wife he chose Ella Holtorf, 
their marriage having been celebrated in 
1893. Mr. Westbury has fraternal relations 
with the Masonic order and the Elks of South 
Bend, and is a valued worker in the ranks 
of the Republican party. 

F. M. CiiiMERMAN for a number of years 
has been prominently identified with the busi- 
ness interests of St. Joseph county, and in 
that time has become recognized as one of its 
most valued and useful citizens. Connected 
with real estate operations, he is well known 
in South Bend. He was bom in Logansport, 
Indiana, January 13, 1866, a son of Peter 
and Mary (Shiers) Cimmerman. The mother 
claimed Ohio as the state of her nativity, 
while the father was bom in Maryland, just 
one year after the arrival of his parents in 
the United States from Germany. He con- 
tinued a resident of the Buckeye state until 
the outbreak of the Civil war, when he en- 
listed for the struggle in the Ninety-third 
Ohio Volunteers and served during the entire 
campaign. His military career was one which 
will ever redound to his honor as a loyal and 
devoted son of the republic and as one whose 
courage was that of his convictions. After 
the close of the war he removed to Logans- 
port, Indiana, which continued as the family 
home until 1876, when a removal was made 
to St. Joseph county, and here the father en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. 

There the early part of Mr. Cimmerman 's 
life was spent on the farm. At the age of 
thirteen he left the farm and was engaged 
in various kinds of work, from a section hand 
on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to that of 
a grocery clerk, that he might educate him- 
self. In March, 1884, he came to South Bend, 
where for the following thirteen years he 
served in a clerical capacity for the A. C. 
Kern Dry Goods Company, while for the fol- 
lowing seven years he was with the Livings- 
ton Clothing Company. Thus for many years 
he has been an active worker in the mercan- 
tile interests of South Bend, and through his 
diligence, perseverance and business ability 
was enabled to enter into trade relations for 
himself, and since 1904 has been numbered 

among the leading real estate dealers of St. 
Joseph county. An ardent advocate of the 
principles of the Republican party, it was 
in but natural sequence that he should be- 
come an active worker in the cause and one 
of the leaders in political work. In January, 
1906, he was elected chairman of the Repub- 
lican central committee. 

In 1889 Mr. Cimmerman married Miss 
Jessie, a daughter of David Card, one of the 
honored early pioneers of St. Joseph county, 
and one daughter has blessed this union, Lu- 
cille, who was bom on the 9th of September, 
1891. In his fraternal relations Mr. Cim- 
merman is a member of the Benevolent and 
Protective Order of Elks, and Protective Or- 
der of the Royal Arcanum. Mr. Cimmerman 
also holds the very responsible position of 
assistant postmaster. 

Joseph ScHMuyr. The name of Joseph 
Schmidt is deeply engraved on the pages of 
South Bend's industrial history, for through 
many years he has been a prominent con- 
tractor in cut stone, and "many of the noted 
buildings of northern Indiana and southern 
Michigan stand as monuments to his ability. 
With a mind capable of planning, he has 
combined a will strong enough to execute his 
well formulated purposes, and his great ener- 
gy, keen discrimination and perseverance 
have resulted in placing him among the lead- 
ing business men of the community. 

Mr. Schmidt's birth occurred in Grermany 
on the 22d of March, 1864, and he remained 
in his native land until eighteen years of age, 
attending its public schools until his four- 
teenth year and serving his time as an ap- 
prentice to the stone cutter's trade. Crossing 
the ocean to the United States, he located at 
Columbus, Ohio, where he began working by 
the day, but steadily he worked his way up- 
ward, overcoming many difficulties and ob- 
stacles in his path, until he became a well 
known contractor of cut stone in that city. 
After a residence there of eighteen years he 
came to South Bend and resumed operations 
as a contractor, and among the buildings 
which are the result of his handiwork may be 
mentioned the city hall, the Perley, Oliver, 
grammar, Studebaker and Mussell schools, the 
Elks and Masonic temples, and he now has un- 
der construction the cut stone work for the Y. 
M. C. A. building, the Studebaker office build- 
ing and the First National Bank building of 
Gary, Indiana, an all-stone front building, 
also the Mix residence, city hall and school 

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building of Mishawaka, the Huntington li- 
brary at Huntington, Indiana, the library at 
(Joshen, the library building at Port Huron, 
Michigan, a church at Plymouth, the First 
Congregational church and Elks Temple at 
Elkhart, the Plymouth State Bank, and a 
church in Troy, Ohio, which is built entirely 
of stone, as is also the Elkhart church, and 
many other public buildings and private resi- 
dences. He furnishes constant employment 
to twenty men, all of whom are skilled arti- 
sans in their calling and are paid the highest 
wages. His business methods have ever been 
in strict conformity with the ethics of com- 
mercial life, and he has long been accounted 
one of the leading citizens of St. Joseph 

In 1896 Mr. Schmidt married Etta 
Schwank, and their two children are Richard 
and Lawrence. He gives his political sup- 
port to the Democracy, and is a member of 
the Elks and Turners fraternities. 

Harry L. Yebrick, the leading undertaker 
of South Bend, was bom in Springfield town- 
ship, Simimit county, Ohio, five miles from 
Akron, April 2, 1872. His father, Benjamin 
F. Yerrick, also claimed Summit county as 
the place of his nativity, and he was there 
reared and married. When about five years 
of age Harry L. Yerrick accompanied his par- 
ents on their removal to St. Joseph county, 
Indiana, their first home being in Walkerton, 
where the son remained until seventeen years 
of age. In February, 1889, he became a citi- 
zen of South Bend, spending his first seven 
years in this city in the special order depart- 
ment of the toy works. In January, 1897, 
he took up the work of an undertaker, con- 
tinuing with some of the leading firms of the 
city until 1904, when he embarked in the 
business for himself. In the meantime he 
had pursued a two months * business course at 
Indianapolis, Indiana, and in 1889 secured 
his license as an undertaker from the state 
board of health and the State Board of Em- 
balmers. He is now the only undertaker in 
the city who owns his own stable and fur- 
nishes his own horses and carriages, owning 
six splendid turnouts. The success which has 
attended his eflForts is but a merited reward, 
for in him are embraced the characteristics 
of an unbending integrity, unabating energy 
and industry that never flaggs. He is public 
.spirited and thoroughly interested in what- 
ever tends to promote the moral, intellectual 
and material welfare of the city in which 

he has so long made his home, and he is rap- 
idly winning for himself a place among its 
most valued citizens. 

In 1895 Mr. Yerrick was united in mar- 
riage to Ada A. Hood, the daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. L. E. Hood, and two children, a 
son and a daughter, have been born to them, 
Helen M. and Harry L., Jr. Many of the 
fraternal societies of South Bend claim Mr. 
Yerrick as a member, namely: The Knights 
of Pythias, Elks, Eagles, Royal Arcanum, the 
Loyal Americans arid the order of Ben Hur, 
and he is also a member of the Grange. In 
the Masonic order he has attained the Royal 
Arch degree. He upholds the principles of 
the Republican party, but at local elections 
votes independent of party ties, and is a 
worthy member of the Grace Methodist Epis- 
copal church. 

Ross K. ScHUTT, identified with the busi- 
ness and social life of South Bend, was born 
in Noble county, Indiana, on the 12th of 
October, 1882, his parents being Abraham 
and Harriett (Skinner) Schutt, both natives 
of Indiana and still well known citizens of 
Noble county, where the father is engaged in 
agricultural pursuits. In their family were 
seven children, four sons and three daugh- 

Their son Ross K. received his educational 
training in the schools of Noble county, and 
in early life began the study of his chosen 
life work. His studies were pursued in the 
east with several prominent architects, and 
for a year and a half hfe was with the Col- 
liery Engineering Company of Scranton, 
Pennsylvania. In 1903 he came to South 
Bend and opened an office for the practice of 
his profession, in which he has met with a 
very high degree of success. In addition to 
the local work which he is called upon to 
perform Mr. Schutt has also accomplished 
considerable state work, and at the present 
time is erecting the city hall at Kend^llville, 
Indiana. He has made thorough research 
along the line of his profession, and although 
he has already achieved success, still brighter 
prospects await him. 

In 1904 was celebrated the marriage of Mr. 
Schutt and Miss Nettie H. Gundaker, she be- 
ing a daughter of Jacob Gundaker of Denver, 
Colorado. One daughter has been born to 
bless their home, Ruth Margaret, whose natal 
day was the 12th of November, 1906. Mr. 
Schutt is a member of the Kjiights of Pythias, 
the Odd Fellows No. 29, the Elks and the 

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Young Men's Christian Association. His re- 
ligious affiliation is with the Presbyterian 

Henry Ort, whose name is one which has 
been prominently identified with the annals 
of St. Joseph county from an early period in 
its history, was born in Penn township, on 
the 31st of March, 1853. His father, Fred 
Ort, was a native of Little York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and as his father died in early life the 
responsibilities of the family fell upon the 
son's young shoulders. In his native state 
he was married to Charlotte Novis, who was 
born and reared in Germany, and to them 
were born five children, three sons and two 
daughters, four of whom claimed St. Joseph 
county as the place of their nativity. Shortly 
after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Ort came 
to this county, settling in Mishawaka, Penn 
township, where they secured one hundred 
and twenty acres of land in the dense woods, 
and in addition to clearing and cultivating 
his land he was also employed in Judson's 
flour mill. As they grew older the children 
assisted in clearing the farm, and in time the 
fields were placed under an excellent state 
of cultivation, and the little log cabin in 
which they began life in this county was re- 
placed by a commodious and comfortable 
dwelling. There the father lived and labored 
many years, then removed to South Bend and 
purchased a home on Colfax avenue on the 
site now occupied by the high school. There 
his useful life was ended in death, when he 
had reached the age of sixty-three years, 
leaving to his children valuable property in 
South Bend, as well as farm property. He 
was a valued member of the Evangelical 
church, having been one of the founders of 
that denomination in this locality, and was 
a Republican in his political .affiliations. His 
wife was nineteen years old when she came 
to America with her parents, Henry and Eliz- 
abeth Novis, who were early settlers in Misha- 
waka. Henry Novis lived but a few years, 
and after his death his widow continued to 
live with her daughter (Mrs. Ort) till her 
death. Fred Ort and wife reared four chil- 
dren, Elizabeth, Daniel, Frederick and Henry 
M., Margaret dying in infancy. The mother 
now resides with her daughter Mrs. Streibel 
of South Bend. 

Henry Ort, a son of this honored old pio- 
neer, spent the early years of his life in 
Penn township, and then came to South Bend, 
where he was married on the 15th of Janu- 

ary, 1873, to Mary Keller, who was born in 
Berrien county, Michigan, July 12, 1851, of 
German parentage. Her father, Jacob F. 
Keller, came from the fatherland to America 
when very young, residing first in New York, 
where he was engaged as a packer and 
butcher. In that state he was married to 
Rosanna Beyrer, also a native of Germany, 
and they were the parents of ten children, 
five sons and five daughters, of whom Mrs. 
Ort was the youngest in order of birth and 
only two of the number are now living. From 
New York Mr. Keller removed with his fam- 
ily to Ohio, and subsequently to Berrien 
county, Michigan, where he became the owner 
of a section of land, but subsequently sold a 
part of his farm and came to St. Joseph 
county, Indiana. After a time he removed 
to Niles, Michigan, but shortly returned to 
St. Joseph county, where for a number of 
years he was engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits in German township. After the death 
of his wife he returned to his native land of 
Germany, but it was not long before he again 
set sail for America, eventually drifting to 
the far-oflf state of California, where the re- 
mainder of his life was spent. The union of 
Mr. and Mrs. Ort has been blessed by the 
birth of five sons, Edward H. (deceased), 
Harry F., Arthur D., Howard J. and Marvin 
K., all of whom were born in this city. 

At the time of his marriage Mr. Ort erected 
his present hoiAe on West Colfax street, South 
Bend, and in addition he also owns three 
hundred acres of land in Greene township. 
He follows in the political footsteps of his 
father and votes with the Republican party, 
and fraternally he is a member of the Mac- 
cabees and the Grange. His religious affilia- 
tions are with the St. Paul Methodist Episco- 
pal church, of which Mrs. Ort is also a mem- 

Marion Brown Russ. As the labors of the 
faithful pioneers of a new country must of 
necessity be devoted to the rugged, practical 
and often prosaic task of making it habitable 
for future generations, due credit must be 
given their children for devoting their lives 
to the upbuilding of local governments which 
are also prime necessities to the progress of 
settled and advanced communities. Marion 
B. Russ comes of pioneer stock on both the 
paternal and maternal sides, and has had a 
large share in the efficient development of 
both the educational and civic institutions of 
St. Joseph county, thereby upholding and 

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perpetuating the family name in the highest 
sense of the phrase. 

Marion B. Russ, one of the county com- 
missioners of St. Joseph county, has for many 
years been a substantial and honored citizen 
of Mishawaka. He was born in Windham 
county, Connecticut, September 26, 1840, be- 
ing a son of Dan and Mary Ann (Brown) 
.Russ, both also natives of the county named. 
The father, a farmer through life, came to 
St. Joseph county in 1858, and died in the 
following February, at the age of fifty-six 
years. He had been twice married, his first 
union being with Esther Mosley, by whom 
he had three daughters (all deceased), and 
his second marriage with Mary A. Brown, 
who bore him three sons and three daughters 
and died near Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the 
age of ninety-two years. 

Mr. Russ, the second child and eldest son 
in this family, remained in his native county 
of Windham until he had reached the age of 
eighteen years, when he migrated to St. Jo- 
seph county and completed his education in 
the schools of Mishawaka. This thorough 
mental training enabled him to advantage- 
ously enter the educational field, and for 
twenty years he proved an efficient teacher 
in the schools of Mishawaka and St. Joseph 
county. In his early manhood he had learned 
the carpenter's trade, and during the sum- 
mer months, when not engaged in the school 
room, he followed this occupation, thus build- 
ing into his life the stable elements both of 
useful manual labor and intellectual vigor. 
During a period of six years he was a resi- 
dent of Minneapolis, Minnesota, engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and on his return to 
St. Joseph county located on a farm just out- 
side the limits of Mishawaka. 

Thus for years living in this community as 
a practical and intelligent citizen, taking an 
active part in its useful work and highly re- 
spected as a representative of its best men- 
tality, Mr. Russ has naturally been called 
upon to assist in the conduct of public af- 
fairs. For four years he served as trustee 
of Penn township, for five years as its as- 
sessor, and in 1896 was elected a commissioner 
of the county. Accurate, systematic, enter- 
prising, able and honest in the performance 
of his duties, his re-nomination for the office 
in 1904 was equivalent to an election. This 
is his sixth year as county commissioner, and 
the general satisfaction of his constituents in- 
creases with his length of service. During 

his official period the beautiful and substan- 
tial cement bridges which span the river at 
South Bend and Mishawaka have been con- 
structed under his personal supervision, and 
he has been altogether alive to the practical 
needs of all the people of the county, thor- ' 
oughly appreciating the duties and dignity 
of his office. 

In 1865 Mr. Russ was united in marriage 
with Mary Olive Stuckey, daughter of James 
Stuckey, who was among the very early pio- 
neers of St. Joseph county. Mrs. Russ was 
born in Clay township in the county named, 
March 16, 1845. Her father was a native 
of North Carolina, where he was reared and 
married, and whence he journeyed, in 1832, 
to the wilderness then embracing St. Joseph 
county. Loading his household goods and 
family into a home-made wagon, he made the 
entire journey overland, and for about a year 
lived at Richmond. He then settled in this 
county on a tract of timber land which he 
purchased from the government. His first 
habitation was hastily constructed of poles, 
and the few white settlers at South Bend and 
scattered through the county were planted 
in surroundings almost equally rude. South 
Bend was then but an Indian trading post, 
and the savages roamed the country with wild 
turkey and other game. Mr. Stuckey was a 
skilful himter, and in return for supplying 
his neighbors with meat he received the as- 
sistance of the settlers in clearing his land. 
At this time Michigan City was the nearest 
market for grain and depot for supplies. As 
the early settlers lived chiefly on the products 
of their land and on wild game; and wood for 
shelter and fuel was plentiful, it was not dif- 
ficult for them to obtain the necessities of 
life, their clothing of course being made and 
fashioned by the ** women folks.'' As the 
years passed Mr. Stuckey 's prospects and cir- 
cumstances improved, he cleared a generous 
tract of land, developed it into a good farm, 
erected large frame barns and other out- 
buildings, and the log house was replaced by 
a commodious brick residence in which he 
passed many comfortable and happy days. 
His death at the age of sixty-one was caused 
by injuries received from a runaway team. 
Mrs. Russ was reared amid pioneer scenes in 
her native town. Her first schooling was ob- 
tained in a log house, Anthony Navarre, an 
Indian, being the teacher. 

Two sons have been bom to Mr. and Mrs. 
Marion B. Russ — Irwin Warren and James 

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Marion. Irwin W. Russ was born April 18, 
1866, and is now a resident of Robbinsdale, 
a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, where 
he is engaged in the grocery business. His 
wife was formerly Mary CJook, of that place, 
and she has borne him five daughters, Grace, 
Marion, Hazel and Harriet (twins), and 

James M. Russ is a native of Robbinsdale, 
Minnesota, bom September 23, 1868, but is 
now farming on the homestead in Penn town- 
ship. He married Nellie Herrick, and they 
have become the parents of two sons, Ray and 

G. Albert Maurer, manager of the Misha- 
waka office of the South Bend Tribune, is a 
capable newspaper man and business mana- 
ger. He was bom in South Bend, December 
10, 1869. With his parents, Fred M. and 
M^ry (Steirling) Maurer, at the age of eight 
years removed to Laporte, Indiana, where he 
passed through the public schools, and after 
a limited school training became a printer's 
apprentice with A. Beal, of the Laporte Her- 

In 1890 Mr. Maurer removed to Michigan 
City to accept a position with the Dispatch, 
but after a short term of employment there 
located at Mishawaka, being connected for a 
brief period with the Democrat. In 1891 he 
made another change of residence by going 
to South Bend, where he became first identi- 
fied with the interests of the Tribune, re- 
maining for seven years in its mechanical de- 
partment. His steady progress and perfect 
reliability in whatever task he was assigned 
convinced his employers that he was worthy 
of greater responsibilities, and in January, 
1899, he was appointed manager of the Mish- 
awaka office. 

Under Mr. Maurer 's energetic management 
the Mishawaka department has become a 
strong feature of the paper. He is a hard, 
faithful and judicious worker, and during 
the eight years of his superintendency has in- 
creased the local circulation of the Tribune 
from a small list to a large number, the ad- 
vertising columns having been expanded in 

In 1894 Mr. Maurer was married to Miss 
Lida Nettleton, daughter of A. L. Nettleton, 
of Mishawaka, and they have one son, Llew- 
ellyn. Mr. Maurer is prominent fraternally, 
being a member of Mishawaka Commandery 
No. 51, K. T., and identified with the Knights 
of P3rthias and K. 0. T. M. He is active in 

the work of the Business Men's Association, 
and takes a deep interest as well in the elevat- 
ing infiuences of music. He is a member of 
the First Methodist Episcopal church. 

August H. DeGroote, who is representing 
the Third ward of Mishawaka in the city 
council, is a native son of the city, bom on 
the 16th of April, 1870, a son of Frederick 
and Rosalia (DeClarcque) DeGroote, who 
were born ,and married in Belgium. They 
became the parents of eleven children, four 
sons and seven daughters, of whom August 
was the fifth child and second son in order of 
birth. In 1863 the parents set sail for Amer- 
ica, coming direct to Mishawaka, Indiana, 
where they reared their family and became 
prominent and well known citizens. 

At the early age of seventeen years August 
H. DeGroote began the battle of life for him- 
self, having previously secured his educa- 
tional training in the public and parochial 
schools of Mishawaka, and then learned the 
machinist's trade, which he has ever since 
followed in this city, being now associated 
with the Mishawaka Woolen Manufacturing 
Company. From the time of reaching man- 
hood's estate he has taken an active part in 
the public life of his community, and in 1905 
was made a member of the city council. In 
this responsible position he has made a fine 
record for general efficiency, fidelity and 
promptness in the discharge of his duties. 
He stands high in the councils of the Demo- 
cratic party in this district, and has been 
an energetic, efficient worker in its behalf. 

On the 31st of January, 1895, was cele- 
brated the marriage of Mr. DeGroote and 
Theresa Konewitter, she being a native 
daughter of Mishawaka, bom November 28, 
1872. Her father, Sebastian Konewitter, was 
one of the early pioneers to St. Joseph county, 
but was a native of Germany, and here he 
was employed as a mason for many years. 
To Mr. and Mrs. DeGroote have been bom 
five children, Serena, Louisa, Wilfred (de- 
ceased), Agnes and Mildred. Mr. DeGroote 
has membership relations with the Modern 
Woodmen and the C. B. L. of Mishawaka. 
The family are members of the St. Joseph 
Catholic church. 

Martin V. Beiger. When Martin V. 
Beiger passed away St. Joseph county 
mourned the loss of one of its most 
prominent and highly respected citizens. 
As the day, with its morning of hope, 
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pleted and successful efforts, ending in the 
grateful rest and quiet of the night, so was 
the life of this honored man. His career was 
a long, busy and useful one. He was the 
founder and promoter of many enterprises 
which advanced the material welfare of the 
state and added as well to his individual 
prosperity, but although an earnest business 
man, devoting his whole daily time and at- 
tention to the further development of his in- 
dustrial interests, he never allowed the pur- 
suit of wealth to warp his kindly nature, but 
preserved his faculties and the warmth of his 
heart for the broadening and helpful influ- 
ences of human life. 

The birth of Mr. Beiger occurred on a farm 
about three miles south of Mishawaka, on the 
3d of February, 1847. His father, Jacob 
Beiger, was numbered among the early and 
honored pioneers of St. Joseph county, for it 
was in a very early day that he and his wife, 
who were natives of Germany, journeyed 
hither and took up their abode upon a farm, 
where they resided for several years. But 
the last thirty years of the mother's life were 
spent in Mishawaka. Mr. Beiger, during k 
pleasure trip, died in Holland about 1871. 
Nine children blessed the union of these old 
St. Joseph pioneers, but two have passed 

Martin V. Beiger, the eldest of their four 
sons, entered the district schools near his 
home at an early age, but when only thirteen 
years old he put aside his te:^t books to serve 
his country in its civil war. His services 
were during the lattei* part of the war, and 
in 1865 he returned to Mishawaka and en- 
tered the store of A. B. Judson, but a short 
time afterward severed his connection there- 
with to enter Wabash College at Crawfords- 
ville, where he worked his own way through, 
and thus his splendid educational training 
was the result of his own determined efforts. 
After completing his course he returned to 
Mishftwaka and secured work in the woolen 
factory, where he gradually, step by step, 
mounted the ladder of success until he be- 
came the owner of the factory, and to him be- 
longs the honor of being the patentee of the 
knit woolen boot, while later he engaged in 
the manufacture of rubbers, etc. He was a 
man of resourceful business ability, and in 
addition to his large manufacturing interests 
he was also president of the First National 
Bank, president of the Malt Cream Company 

and an officer in the South Bend Watch 

In December, 1876, Mr. Beiger married 
Susie S. Higgins, a native daughter of Mish- 
awaka, where her birth occurred on the 4th 
of August, 1859. Her father, Henry D. Hig- 
gins, was a native of Warner, New York, and 
in that commonwealth was married to Nancy 
Barnes, also a native of the Empire state, 
her birth occurring near Phoenix, and in 
1847 they journeyed to Mishawaka, Indiana, 
where the husband and father was engaged as 
a jeweler and dentist. In 1849, during the 
gold excitement in California, he went to the 
Golden state, but disappointed in his search 
for the precious metal returned to this city 
and opened his jewelry store. .He was an 
ardent Republican in his political affiliations, 
and his death occurred when he had reached 
the age of seventy-two years. To Mr. and 
Mrs. . Higgins were bom four children, one 
son and three daughters, but two of the num- 
ber are now deceased, one having died in in- 
fancy, and Mrs. Beiger is the youngest of the 
family. Mr. Beiger was zealous in his sup- 
port of the Republican party, while frater- 
nally he affiliated with the Masons. Death 
came to him on the 26th of September, 1903. 
During many years he had been a consistent 
member of the Methodist church, an active 
worker in the cause of Christianity. In all 
the varied relations of life he was honorable, 
sincere and trustworthy, winning the praise 
and admiration of all who were associated 
with him in any manner. 

Jacob Eckstein. In the death of Jacob 
Eckstein Mishawaka lost one of her repre- 
sentative business men and respected citizens. 
His career was a long, useful and honorable 
one, and to the end he was a kindly, genial 
friend and gentleman with whom it was a 
pleasure to meet. His birth occurred in Ger- 
many, February 12, 1837, a son of John and 
Catherine (Greenawalt) Eckstein, natives 
also of the fatherland, where the father was 
employed as a cabinet-maker. When their 
son Jacob, who wafi the fifth in order of birth 
of their seven children, two sons and five 
daughters, was seventeen years of age the 
family came to America, where he learned 
the English language and also the black- 
smith's trade. It was in the year 1861 that 
he came to Mishawaka, and during the re- 
mainder of his life followed the carpenter 
and cabinet-maker's trades, his excellent 
business and executive ability winning him 

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marked success, and, though the architect of 
his own fortunes, he builded wisely and well. 

In Mishawaka, in 1864, Mr. Eckstein was 
united in marriage to Mary A. Haubert, who 
was bom in Brooklyn, New York, February 
26, 1843, but is of German parentage. She 
was eleven years of age at the time of the 
removal of the family to Miahawaka, where 
she completed her educational training. Her 
father, who followed agricultural pursuits, 
erected their present home in this city. In 
his political adherency Mr. Eckstein was a 
Democrat, zealous in the support of its prin- 
ciples, and for three years served as the 
trustee of his township. The family are 
members of the Catholic church, and he also 
had membership relations with the Catholic 
Knights of America. Throughout the long 
years of his residence in Mishawaka he was 
ever true to the trusts reposed in him, 
whether of a public or private nature, and 
his reputation in business circles was un- 
assailable. He commanded the respect of all 
by his upright life, and was well and favor- 
ably known in his adopted city. 

James Boles. It is our privilege to pay 
a brief tribute to the memory of James Boles. 
An honorable, broad-minded gentleman, he 
commanded the respect and esteem of his 
fellow men by his upright life, and to his 
family he left not only a comfortable com- 
petence acquired through years of honest 
toil as an agriculturist, but also the priceless 
heritage of a good name. His birth occurred 
in Wooster, Wayne county, Ohio, July 14, 
1835, in which commonwealth his parents, 
James B. and Jane (Lawrence) Boles, were 
also bom and married, and to them were 
born nine children, four sons and five daugh- 

James Boles came with his parents to St. 
Joseph county, Indiana, during his young 
manhood, assisting in the cultivation of the 
old Boles homestead, and after his marriage 
he continued to reside on the farm for two 
years, when he located on a place near Os- 
ceola, St. Joseph county, his time being ex- 
clusively given to his agricultural pursuits 
there until the time of his death, when he 
had reached the age of forty-eight years. 
On the 31st of March, 1859, he was married 
to Calcina Belden, who was born in Penn 
township, St. Joseph county, October 14, 
1839, the daughter of Zenos Belden, who 
claimed the Empire state as the place of his 
nativity, but when a young man he came to 

St. Joseph county, Indiana, and soon pur- 
chased a farm in Bango township, Elkhart 
county, near St. Joseph county line, there 
clearing nearly eighty acres of land, which 
he placed under an excellent state of culti- 
vation and there reared his children. After 
his arrival in this county Mr. Belden mar- 
ried Hannah Jane West, a member of one 
of the old pioneer families of the county, 
and they became the parents of three chil- 
dren, two sons and a daughter, of whom Mrs. 
Boles was the eldest in order of birth and the 
only one to reach years of maturity. Mrs. 
Belden 's death occurred in 1844. After the 
death of his first wife Mr. Belden married 
Jane McNay, and three children were bom 
of this union, one son and two daughters. 
Mr. and Mrs. Boles became the parents of 
six children, two of whom are deceased. Two 
sons and two daughters live in Penn town- 
ship, St. Joseph county. Mr. Boles gave his 
political support to the Democi'atic party, 
taking an active part in its work, and was 
a Mason and a member of the Methodist 
church. For one year he served as the assessor 
of his township. By reason of his well-spent 
life he enjoyed the high regard of his fellow 
men, and in his death St. Joseph coimty 
mourned the loss of one of its true and good 

Simon Yenn. Mr. Yenn is now living 
practically retired from the active cares of 
a business life. In former years he occu- 
pied a distinctive position in the commercial 
circles of his community, and has ever been 
faithful to his conceptions of the duties of 
citizenship, ever striving to advance the in- 
terests of his fellow men. His birth occurred 
in the far-off land of France, May 11, 1840, 
and in that country his parents, Theobold 
and Christena (Greenway) Yenn^ were also 
born. The father was bom on the 21st of 
January, 1813, and after completing his edu- 
cation in the common schools of his native land 
learned the mason's trade, while later he be- 
came a contractor. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Yenn 
were bom seven children, Simon, our subject 
Christinia, deceased; Agnes, deceased: Ce 
celia, who married Mr. Pealy of South Bend 
Edward, deceased; and two died in infancy. 
In 1849 the family set sail for America, 
spending their first year in Canton, Ohio 
and in 1864 they came to St. Joseph county 
Indiana, and purchased one hundred and 
twenty acres of land in Greene township. 
The father cleared the most of the land, and 

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his life's labors were ended in death at the 
age of seventy-nine years. He affiliated with 
the Democratic party, and the family were 
members of the Catholic church. * . 

When but five years of age Simon Yenn, 
whose name introduces this review, accom- 
panied his parents on their emigration to 
America, receiving his educational training 
in the east, and in Stark county, Ohio, he 
was united in marriage to Josephine, a 
daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Pohl) 
Roth, also natives of France. This union has 
been blessed by the birth of nine children; 
Simon M., who attended college in Bufifalo, 
New York, and is now a contractor in Fort 
Wayne, Indiana; Mary J.; Hattie E. ; Clara 
Olivia ; William H. and Francis J., twins, but 
the former is now deceased; George; and 
August B. and Augusta G., twins, the last 
named being also deceased. 

It was in the year 1863 that Mr. Yenn 
came to Mishawaka, and for a time after his 
arrival drove a team, while during the sub- 
sequent four years he managed his father's 
farm in Greene township. Thus the time was 
spent up to the year 1868, when he embarked 
in the grocery business in Mishawaka, his 
connection with tb'at department of trade 
covering the unusually long period of twen- 
ty-five years. He prospered in his enterprise, 
and now owns valuable property in this city. 
He has ever been actively interested in the 
promotion of the interests of the Democratic 
party, and in 1893 was elected the treasurer 
of St. Joseph county, while he has also been 
honored with many other oflSces of trust and 
responsibility. The family are members of 
the Catholic church. He has been a member 
of St. Joseph's Society since 1868, and has 
been treasurer for thirty-three years. He has 
been a member of the building committee of 
St. Joseph's church, which erected the mag- 
nificent church and school in Mishawaka. 
His life, which has nearly covered the 
Psalmist's span, has been filled with useful, 
loving deeds, which will be remembered long 
after he has been called to his reward. 

Albert J. Philion, the genial proprietor 
of the Hotel Milboum, conducts one of the 
most popular resorts in St. Joseph county. 
The hotel is an old and well-established one, 
and the peculiarly well-adapted characteris- 
tics and affability of its present proprietor 
ipake him a host most attractive to the trav- 
eling public. He is a life-long resident of 
the county, for his birth occurred in the city 

of South Bend on the 25th of February, 
1868, his parents being Philias and Fannie 
(ShoKionia) Philion, the former a native of 
Canada and the latter of Detroit, Michigan. 
The father was reared to years of maturity 
in his native country, and in 1856 came to 
South Bend, Indiana, where for many years 
he was one of the city^s most prominent gro- 
cery merchants, but with his wife he now 
resides in Kingston, Illinois. Of the six chil- 
dren bom to this worthy couple, three sons 
and three daughters, only two are now living 
and both are residents of St. Joseph county. 
The only surviving daughter is Emma, widow 
of Alford Belmner, and a resident of South 

Albert J. Philion, the fourth child and 
second son in order of birth, received his 
educational training in the city schools of 
South Bend, and at the close of his school 
days became associated with his father in the 
grocery store. Subsequently he spent three 
years in the west, and on the expiration of 
the period returned to South Bend, but short- 
ly afterward came to Mishawaka, and during 
the long period of sixteen years was with the 
Dodge Manufacturing Company. From that 
time until assuming charge of the Hotel Mil- 
boum in 1904 he was engaged in business for 
himself in this city, and since entering upon 
his present relations he has enjoyed richly 
merited success, while the future is bright 
with promise. 

In 1904 occurred the marriage of Mr. 
Philion and Marian Rooney, she being the 
widow of J. Rooney. She is the mother of 
two daughters, Margine and Carmin, twins. 
Mr. Philion gives a stanch support to the 
Republican party, and is a member of the 
Owls of Mishawaka. He is well known to 
the citizens of Mishawaka, in which so many 
years of his life have been passed, and no 
hostelry in the community has so excellent 
a reputation for hospitable treatment as has 
the Milboum. 

^ Michael. C. Shea. Throughout the period 
of his residence in Mishawaka Mr. Shea has 
been justly numbered among its leading cit- 
izens. He is prominently identified with its 
leading business interests, and is now serving 
as chief engineer of the electric light and 
water plant. He is a native of Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, born on the 29th of August, 1856, 
his parents being Patrick and Mary (King) 
Shea, both of whom were born in the far-off 
land of Ireland. In 1853 they came to 

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America and located in Boston, where the 
father became well known in connection with 
railroad interests, and in 1859 removed to 
Girard, Pennsylvania, and assisted in the 
construction of most of the Lake Shore Rail- 
road, serving as foreman of the construction 
work. He was also connected' with the Phila- 
delphia & Erie Railroad, but the most of hid 
life was spent with the former company, and 
he died in their employ when fifty-two years 
of age. His widow is still living, and resides 
in Ashtabula, Ohio. 

Michael C. Shea, the eldest of their ten 
children, was reared to years of maturity in 
Pennsylvania, whither he had been taken by 
his parents when only three years old, and 
received his educational training in the pub- 
lic schools of Pittsfield and Clark, that state. 
At the early age of fifteen years he was a 
fireman on the Lake Shore Railroad, remain- 
ing in the employ of that company for twen- 
ty-two years, and was also for a time with 
the Western New York & Philadelphia Com- 
pany, but it was then known as the Dunkard 
& Warren Railroad. During seven years he 
was employed as an engineer, and then en- 
tered upon construction work, mostly in the 
laying of track. His record in the service of 
the railroad is one of which he has just rea- 
son to be proud, for he was prompt, vigilant 
and efficient, and was fully relied upon by 
his superiors. For seventeen years Mr. Shea 
was a resident of Elkhart, Indiana, serving 
during a part of that time in the construction 
and train department. While serving as local 
engineer he also had charge of the power 
plant for the Indiana Railway three years, 
and was for five years with the Claws Print- 
ing Press Company, having entire charge of 
the plant, and was thus engaged at the time 
of his removal to Mishawaka, Indiana, where 
he assumed charge as chief engineer of the 
water and electric light plant, his present 
position, and in which he is giving general 
satisfaction to all concerned. 

Mr. Shea was married in 1882, Emma, the 
daughter of Gus Thomas, becoming his wife, 
and they have five sons living, Patsey M., 
Thomas C, Chancy G., Minnife 0., and Wil- 
liam R., all of whom are at home, and the 
eldest son is serving as his father's assistant. 
Where national issues are involved Mr. Shea 
votes with the Democracy, but otherwise is 
not bound by party ties, and is a valued 
member of the Masonic order of Mishawaka. 
The family is held in high esteem, and the 

kindly social qualities with which they are 
endowed by nature win for them the friend- 
ship and good will of every one. 

Charles Melville Collins, of Mishawaka, 
St. Joseph county, has been consulting engi- 
neer for the Dodge Manufacturing Company 
during the past twelve years, and for a de- 
cade of that period manager of their cement 
department. During the previous seventeen 
years he was in the employ of the Stude- 
bakers as master mechanic. 

Frederick J. Cook. One of the prominent 
old pioneer families of St. Joseph county is 
that of the Cooks, where they have been well 
represented ever since the opening decades of 
its history. They have ever borne their part 
in the upbuilding and development of this 
region, and have invariably been exponents 
of progress and liberal ideas upon all sub- 
jects. A worthy representative of this hon- 
ored name is Fred J. Cook, whose birth oc- 
curred in St. Joseph county on the 18th of 
June, 1866. His father, James Cook, was 
a native of New York, bom in 1829. and in 
1833 he came with his father, Arthur Cook, 
to St. Joseph county, Indiana. Arthur Cook, 
who was a soldier in the war of 1812, se- 
cured government land and was successfully 
engaged in agricultural pursuits near 
Mishawaka until his death. James Cook 
engaged in agricultural pursuits until about 
1900, when he retired from the active cares 
of a business life, and his death occurred in 
1906, when he had reached the seventy-sev- 
enth milestone on the journey of life. His 
wife, nee Arvilla Graham and a native of 
Ohio, preceded him to the home beyond, 
having passed away in 1893. 

Fred J. Cook received his education in the 
district schools near his home, and he was 
early trained to the work of the farm, con- 
tinuing to follow the tilling of the soil until 
1904, when he was elected township trustee 
of Penn township, being the present incum- 
bent of that position. He joined the ranks of 
the Republican party, and has since been one 
of its stalwart advocates, actively interested 
in all that will promote good government, 
and is a progressive, public-spirited citizen. 

In 1888 Mr. Cook was united in marriage 
to Minnie Doolittle, a daughter of James H. 
Doolittle, a well-known resident of St. Joseph 
county. Two children have been born of this 
union, Grace A., bom October 1, 1890, and 
James R., bom May 2, 1896. Mr. Cook is 
a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 

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1909 x^ 

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and has lived a conscientious Christian life, 
characterized by many good deeds. 

George Frank Stoeckinger, although a 
resident of America less than twenty-five 
years, ranks as among the most successful 
men of aflfairs of Mishawaka, having thor- 
oughly mastered the business of plumbing, 
sewer construction and steam-fitting — a suc- 
cessful combination which requires un- 
usual mechanical ability and sound judg- 
ment. These qualities which, in a certain 
sense, are national traits, Mr. Stoeckinger 
possesses in a marked degree. He was born 
in Geiselwint, Bavaria, Germany, on the 6th 
of May, 1860, and is therefore in the full 
vigor of middle age. Sebastian Stoeckinger, 
his father, was a native of the same place, 
where for some years he operated a mill, but 
later engaged in agricultural pursuits. He 
resided in the Fatherland until 1885, when 
he emigrated to the United States, locating 
at once in Mishawaka, where he spent the 
remainder of his life. His wife (the mother 
of Greorge F.) was formerly Barbara Dotter- 
weich, and she is still a resident of that 
place, having given birth to the following 
eight children: George Frank, Fred, John, 
and George, four sons ; and Elizabeth, Mag- 
dalina, Maggie, and Barbara, four daugh- 

George F. Stoeckinger attended the schools 
of his home community quite steadily until 
he was sixteen years of age, and subsequently 
assisted his father in the conduct of his mill 
and farm. Thus employed, he remained at 
home until he reached his majority, when he 
went to reside with a maternal uncle, with 
whom he was employed in agricultural pur- 
suits until February 2, 1883. On that date 
he returned to his home in the Fatherland 
for the last time, remaining there until late 
in April, when he received a letter from his 
uncle, Valentine Stoeckinger, a resident of 
Mishawaka, in which was inclosed a ticket 
for the journey from Sweinfurth, Bavaria, 
to that point. On the 26th of April he bade 
his home people farewell, but before taking 
passage called upon his uncle and family, 
with whom he had lived for about two years. 
Being of military age, Mr. Stoeckinger took 
secret passage from Antwerp, and, landing 
in New York on the 12th of May, 1883, trav- 
eled direct to Mishawaka. 

When George F. Stoeckinger thus became 
a permanent resident of Mishawaka and St. 
Joseph county, he secured employment for 

Vol. IT— 18. 

a short time with the Roper Manufacturing 
Company. For two years he then worked on 
the farm of William Milburn, and next ac- 
cepted the foremanship of the Andrews 
Manufacturing Company of Niles, Michigan, 
being thus engaged until the factory was re- 
moved to Chicago three years later. During 
the succeeding seven and a half years he was 
head steam-fitter for the Niles paper mills, 
and returning thence to Mishawaka em- 
barked in his present business on a small 
scale. Steadily perservering in this line, he 
forged his way to the front, secured trade 
and patronage by his thorough workmanship 
and courtesy, was gradually forced to em- 
ploy assistance to meet the demands upon his 
services, and he is now the proprietor of a 
large and remunerative business, in which 
he furnishes employment to a number of 
men. He is now the leading sewer contractor 
of the city, and during the construction of 
the- rubber plant in this city furnished all of 
its steam fittings. Neither is his trade con- 
fined to this city, but extendis to South Bend, 
where his name is almost equally well known. 
The final result, therefore, of Mr. Stoeck- 
inger 's business efforts is to build up an en- 
terprise which not only greatly redounds to 
his individual ability, enterprise and advan- 
tage, but is also of decided industrial benefit 
to his home community. 

In 1886 Mr. Stoeckinger was united in 
marriage with Miss Barbara Endres, and 
they have become the parents of four chil- 
dren, of whom Maggie is deceased. Katie 
married Charles Schelter, George is asso- 
ciated with his father, and Fred is a student. 
Mr. Stoeckinger gives his political support 
to the Democracy, and, although public spir- 
ited and actively interested in the affairs of 
his community, has never aspired to official 
notoriety. For the past twenty years he has 
been identified with the Modern Woodmen of 
America, and is, in every regard, prominent- 
ly connected with the social and business life 
of St. Joseph county. 

W. S. Moore, who is well known to the 
citizens of Mishawaka because of his effect- 
ive, earnest labors in the position of city 
engineer, was bom in Indianapolis, Indiana, 
May 14, 1875, a son of John and Ellen 
(Manix) Moore, the former a native of 
Wayne county, Indiana, and the latter of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. The father now resides in 
Indianapolis, where has won a name and 
place among the leading contractors of the 

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city. In their family were seven children, 
five sons and two daughters, but only four 
of the number are now living. 

W. S. Moore, the fourth child and third 
son in order of birth, received his early edu- 
cational training in the public schools of his 
native city of Indianapolis, graduating 
therein in 1893, and in the following year 
he entered Purdue University. During four 
years he pursued his course of civil engineer- 
ing in that famous institution of learning, 
receiving his diploma on the expiration of 
that period, in 1898, and in the same year 
was appointed assistant civil en^eer in 
South Bend. On the 16th of June, 1904, 
however, he resigned that position to become 
the city engineer of Mishawaka, wherein he 
has labored earnestly and untiringly and is 
winning the commendation of all. 

In 1900 was celebrated the marriage of 
Mr. Moore and Miss Hettie Haverly, she 
being a daughter of James and Anna (Plum- 
beck) Haverly, of Laporte, Indiana. Mr. 
Moore gives a stanch and unfaltering sup- 
port to the principles of the Republi- 
can party, and fraternally is a mem- 
ber of the Bliss and the Knights of 
Columbus of South Bend and the Foresters 
of Mishawaka. He is also a member of the 
Sigma Nu Society of Lafayette. Personally 
he is esteemed by all who have the pleasure 
of his acquaintance, for he is loyal and true 
to his friends, courteous and kindly in dis- 
position, and has due regard for the rights 
and welfare of his fellow men. 

John Alexander McMichael, a promi- 
nent representative of the business interests 
of Mishawaka and St. Joseph county, was 
bom in Harris township of this county, 
September 14, 1846. His father, John Mc- 
Michael, was bom in Cumberland county, 
Pennsylvania, on the 10th of September, 
1813, and was of Scotch descent. His death 
occurred on the 2d of April, 1905. In the 
early year of 1833 his father's family made 
the journey by wagon to St. Joseph county, 
Indiana, encountering many hardships and 
difficulties on their way hither, and after 
their arrival the father engaged in farming. 
John McMichael took an active and promi- 
nent part in the subsequent development of 
the county, and for years served as super- 
visor of Harris township, also assisting in 
the construction of the first public highway 
through that township. In 1857 he gave up 
his agricultural pursuits and came to Misha- 

waka, where he served as stock-buyer for 
A. B. Judson for a number of years. He 
gave his political support to the Democratic 
party, and was a worthy and consistent mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church. His first 
wife, n6e Mary Level, was a native of Ken- 
tucky, and they became the parents of thir- 
teen children, of whom four sons and two 
daughters are now living, namely: Mary 
Rachel Stoy, of Defiance, Ohio; John Alex- 
ander, whose name introduces this review; 
Margaret E. Householder, of Mishawaka; 
and Alfred R., Adoniram B., and James A., 
aU of Toledo, Ohio. 

J. Alexander McMichael received his edu- 
cation in the public * and high schools of 
Mishawaka, and from 1861 until 1863 served 
an apprenticeship at the printer's trade on 
the St. Joseph Valley RegisFter in South 
Bend. He then went to Elkhart, Indiana, 
and joined his brother, William C, who was 
at that time publishing a paper there, but 
shortly returned to Mishawaka and took 
chaise of the office work of the Mishawaka 
Enterprise until 1871. In that year he went 
to Mason City, Iowa, to take charge of the 
Cerro Gordo Republican, but in the follow- 
ing year came again to this city and for a 
time thereafter was connected with his broth- 
er in the publication of the Ave Maria at 
Notre Dame. Mr. McMichael next had 
charge of the mechanical department of the 
St. Joseph County Register, but his health 
becoming impaired he sought outdoor em- 
ployment and for seven years was engaged 
in farming near Mishawaka. On the expira- 
tion of that period he became connected 
with the Mishawaka Enterprise, thus con- 
tinuing for eight years. In the meantime 
his brother, William C. McMichael, had been 
elected clerk of St. Joseph county, and he 
then left the journalistic field to become the 
latter 's deputy, remaining in that position 
during the following eight years. Return- 
ing once more to Mishawaka, he assumed 
charge of the Mishawaka Building & Loan 
Association as secretary, at the same time 
engaging in the real estate business, in which 
he has since continued. He is also secretary 
of the Masonic Temple Association, whic>^ 
controls some of the most valuable property 
in the city, and is one of the directors and 
members of its executive committee. He has 
served as city commissioner, also as city 
trustee, and in 1886 was admitted to the bar 
of St. Joseph county. His talents are many 

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and versatile, and in the various positions 
which he has been called to fill he has nobly 
performed his work and has won a name and 
place among the leading business men of his 
city and county. 

In 1871 Mr McMichael was married to 
Eva A. Norton, of Perry, Ohio, whose death 
occurred on the 8th of December, 1906, leav- 
ing one daughter, Grace E; Mr. McMichael 
exemplifies in his life the principles of the 
Masonic fraternity, of which he is a member, 
and his religious c<mnection is with the 
Presbyterian church. 

CuABjJSS AiiBERT. Representing as he does 
one of the oldest families of St. Joseph coun- 
ty, the subject of this review is well entitled 
to an honored place in the records of this 
section of Indiana. The family have borne 
a very important part in the development of 
the community, which was a wilderness at the 
time of their arrival here from Pennsylvania, 
the birthplace of their son Charles, who was 
bom in Philadelphia March 7, 1843. His 
father, Anthony Albert, was a native of Ger- 
many, but during his young manhood' came 
to America and located in Philadelphia, 
where he was married to Barbara Beck, also 
a native of the fatherland. In that city he 
worked at his trade of carpentering a few 
years or until he saved enough money with 
which to purchase a horse and wagon and to 
enter an eighty-acre tract in St. Joseph 
county, Indiana. Thus in true pioneer 
style the family journeyed overland to In- 
diana, arriving in Elkhart in 1850, and in 
the same year they continued the journey 
to St. Joseph county, where the husband 
and father purchased eighty acres of unim- 
proved land in Madison township, erected a 
little cabin, and at once set about the ardu- 
ous task of clearing his land and placing 
it under cultivation. In time this task was 
acc(Hnpliahed, and he remained on the old 
homestead until his life's la/bors were ended 
in death at the age of fifty-five years. He 
was a Democrat in his political affiliations, 
and for many years was its representative 
in the office of township supervisor. Unto 
this worthy old pioneer couple were bom 
seven children, five sons and two daughters, 
and all are yet living. The father and mother 
were members of the German Evangelical 

Charles Albert, the eldest of the seven chil- 
dren, received his educational training in thf^ 
district schools of Madison township, and the 

early years of his life were spent in assist- 
ing in the clearing of the old home farm, be- 
ginning that arduous labor when only seven 
years of age. At the time of his marriage he 
took up his abode on a farm in Penn township, 
where he cleared a part of two farms and 
was also the owner of several farms, at one 
time having in his possession six hundred and 
thirty-five acres of land, while he has also 
erected four houses and four barns. His 
entire active business career was devoted to 
agricultural pursuits, but in 1905 he laid 
aside its cares and responsibilities and re- 
moved to Mishawaka, where he erected the 
pleasant residence in which he now resides, 
and is also the owner of considerable other 
valuable property in this city. 

It was on the 12th of May, 1864, that Mr. 
Albert was united in marriage to Margaretta 
M. Klein, who was bom in Prussia, Germany, 
Janu«try 15, 1845, a daughter of Mathias 
Klein, also a native of that country, where he 
was a prominent farmer and miller. The fam- 
ily came to America in 1854, making their way 
direct to St Joseph county, Indiana, where 
the father cleared a farm in Penn township, 
and became one of the leading agricultur- 
ists of his community. Mrs. Albert was edu- 
cated in the schools of Penn township, and 
by her marriage became the mother of eight 
children, namely : Mary, the wife of George 
Moon, a farmer ; Katherine, the wife of Adam 
Huntsberger; Louis; Anna, wife of Winfield 
Hauston, also an agriculturist; Bena, wife 
of William Lechlitner, a carpenter; Theresa 
R. ; Matilda, the wife of Jacob Weiss, a farm- 
er; and M. Victoria, Mrs. Melvin Hunts- 
berger. The children were all bom and reared 
in Penn township. Mrs. Albert, the loving 
wife and mother, was called from the family 
home by death on the 28th of May, 1906, when 
sixty-one years of age. Mr. Albert gives his 
political support to the Republican party, 
but is also an active worker in the ranks of 
the Prohibition party, and for several years 
served as the supervisor of Penn township. 
His religious affiliations are with the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, and he is an active 
worker in the cause of Christianity. 

Davto a. Shaw. The name which intro- 
duces this review is one which is familiar 
to the residents of Mishawaka, for he is now 
serving as its postmaster and is one of its 
leading business men. His birth occurred in 
Hamden, Delaware county. New York, Aug- 
ust 24, 1866, a son of Hector and Rachel A. 

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(McClaren) Shaw, also natives of the Em- 
pire state, where their deaths occurred. The 
father was a tanner by occupation. There 
were but two children in the family, the 
daughter being Kittie, the wife of Rev. H. A. 
Percival, an Episcopal minister of Peoria, 

David A. Shaw, the only son and eldest 
child, spent his early life in the place of his 
nativity, and graduated at the Andover Pre- 
paratory School. It was in the year of 1892 
that he came to Mishawaka, Indiana, remain- 
ing in a clerical position until his appoint- 
ment to the office of postmaster in 1903 by 
President Roosevelt. He is a stanch Repub- 
lican in his political affiliations, and is well 
known in his community as an active worker 
in public affairs. Hs is now serving as sec- 
retary and treasurer of the Niles Realty Com- 
pany, of Mishawaka, who own the Edgewater 
addition to the city, which is one of its most 
beautiful and valuable sections. 

In 1896 was celebrated the marriage of 
Mr. Shaw and Elizabeth M. White. She 
is a native of Delhi, New York. Mr. Shaw 
has attained the Knight Templar degree in 
the Masonic order. He is an energetic and 
capable young business man, in whom are 
exemplified the best and noblest elements of 

William S. Warner. As he journeys 
down the western slope of life Mr. William 
S. Warner is vouchsafed an honored retire- 
ment from labor, as the reward of a long, 
active and useful business career, for through 
a long period he was identified with the agri- 
cultural interests as well as the carpenter's 
trade in St. Joseph county. He was bom in 
Adams county, Pennsylvania, December 15, 
1822. His father, Michael Warner, was also 
a native of Pennsylvania, and was there mar- 
ried to one of its native daughters, Margaret 
Slabauch, and they became the parents of 
twelve children, nine sons and three daugh- 
ters, and two are now deceased. When their 
son William, who was the sixth child in order 
of birth, was a lad of eight years the family 
moved to Ohio, and in Stark county of that 
state the father passed away in death. 

It was in the early year of 1854 that Wil- 
liam S. Warner came to St. Joseph county, 
Indiana, securing work at the carpenter's 
trade in South Bend. In 1875 he moved to a 
farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Penn 
township, which continued as his home for 
eleven years, but at the close of the period, 

in 1886, he sold the farm and came to Misha- 
waka to resume the carpenter's trade. His 
enterprise, energy, capable management and 
honorable dealings through all these years 
brought to him a comfortable competence, 
and in 1903 he laid aside the burdens and 
cares of a business life to rest in the en- 
joyment of the reward of his former toil, 
spending the evening of his life in the pleas- 
ant home, 217 East Lawrence street, Misha- 
waka. He is the owner of two houses and 
lots in this city. ^ 

In Canton, Ohio, on the 2d of May, 1847, 
Mr. Warner was united in marriage to Bar- 
bara Bushong, who was bom in Stark county 
of that state July 23, 1826, the daughter of 
John and Barbara (Crishbaimi) Bushong, 
who were farming people. Mrs. Warner died 
July 6th, 1888. Eleven children were bom 
to Mr. and Mrs. Warner, namely: Mary 
Bamhardt, Emeline (deceased), Elizabeth, 
Margaret (deceased), Milton, EUen (de- 
ceased), William Henry, Edward, Lorenzo, 
Emilie (deceased) and Schuyler. The Re- 
publican party receives Mr. Warner's hearty 
support and co-operation, and he as a stanch 
advocate of all measures to improve and 
benefit his community. His reputation in 
business has ever been unassailable, and in 
all the walks of life he is found true to duty 
and to the trusts reposed in him. 

Jacob C. Snyder, a retired carpenter and 
farmer of Mishawaka, with residence at 223 
East Grove street, is distinctively the archi- 
tect of his own fortunes, and from the study 
of his life history one jtnay learn valuable 
lessons. He was born in Ohio on the 17th of 
September, 1825, a son of Christian J. Sny- 
der, who claimed the fatherland of Germany 
as the place of his nativity. During his boy- 
hood days he came with his brothers to Amer- 
ica and located in Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, where he learned his trade of a butcher 
and continued there in that occupation for 
nine years, when he removed to Circleville, 
Ohio, and resiuned his trade. From that citj^ 
he made his way to Marion county, Ohio, and 
in that state was married to Sarah Miller, 
who was born, reared and educated in Penn- 
sylvania, the daughter of Adam Miller, one 
of the early pioneers to Portage township. 
St. Joseph county, Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. 
Snyder became the parents of eight children, 
five sons and three daughters, all of whom 
were bom in Ohio. The father spent the re- 
mainder of his life in that commonwealth. 

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but the mother's death occurred in Indiana. 
He gave his political support to the Demo- 
cratic party. 

Mr. Jacob C. Snyder, their eldest son and 
second child in order of birth, was but eleven 
years of age when he left the parental home 
and started out in the world to battle for 
himself, learning the carpenter and mill- 
wright's trades under the direction of Ben- 
jamin Cramer. When he had reached the 
age of nineteen years he started- for the west, 
and on the St. Joseph river he met a man 
with whom he secured employment for a few 
weeks, thence went west to Illinois and re- 
mained one year, returning at the expira- 
tion of that period to his old home in Ohio, 
where he was married. With his young wife 
he then journeyed to St. Joseph county, In- 
diana, locating on one hundred and sixty 
acres of heavily wooded land in section 23, 
Madison township, and at once began the 
arduous task of clearing his farm and plac- 
ing the fields nnder cultivation. This was 
an early ei)och in the history of St. Joseph 
county, when the wild animals were yet 
plentiful in this ' vicinity, and the first home 
of the family was a hewed log house. Later 
he built a frame house. In 1866 Mr. Snyder 
rented his land and moved to Mishawaka, 
building a residence on the old Vistula road, 
now caUed Second street, but this he later 
traded for one hundred and twenty acres 
of land in Clay and Harris townships, living 
there for about thirty years, then he 
moved to Mishawaka, bought the present 
home, and has lived here ever since. He de- 
voted his time for awhile to carpentering, 
then retired from active life and is enjoying 
a well-earned rest. 

In Ohio, in 1850, Mr. Snyder was married 
to Catharine E. Arthur, who was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1830, a daughter of Aaron 
B. Arthur, who was also of that common- 
wealth and a representative of a prominent 
old family, to which President Arthur also 
belonged. Spending her first sixteen years 
in her native state of Pennsylvania Mrs. Sny- 
der then moved to Marion county, Ohio, 
where she gave her hand in marriage to Mr. 
Snyder, and to them have been born six 
children, five sons and one daughter: John 
W. (deceased), Arthur B., Henry J., Schuy- 
ler H.. Sarah M. and Charles (deceased), all 
bom and reared in St. Joseph county. In 
his younger life Mr. Snyder gave his political 
support to the Democracy, but when the Re- 

publican party was formed to prevent the 
institution of slavery he joined its ranks, for 
he was an ardent anti-slavery man, and in its 
ibehalf had many a heated debate with emi- 
nent politicians, including Draper and 
Thomas Hendricks. During the war which 
followed he served in the irregular service 
and was a member of the Union League. Dur- 
ing a period of four years he served as the 
assessor of Madison township and for one 
year was its deputy appraiser. Mr. Snyder 
is also an active church worker, aflftliating 
with the Baptists, and on the 14th day of 
May, 1867, he helped to organize the church 
of that denomination in Mishawaka, and of 
its eighteen charter members only three are 
now living. His path has ever been upward, 
his friends are many and his example is well 
worthy of emulation. 

Waitteb Michael. Among the officials of 
Mishawaka will be found the name of Walter 
Michael in connection with the position of 
city clerk. This is an indication of his popi^ 
larity and prominence, and all who know him 
willingly accord him a leading place among 
the esteemed citizens of the community. His 
entire life has been passed within the borders 
of St. Joseph county, and has been one of 
honor in husiness and fidelity in places of 
public trust. On the 14th of May, 1876, in 
Mishawaka, Indiana, there was born to Wil- 
liam and Ella (Friend) Michael a son to 
whom they gave the name of Walter, and he 
is proving a worthy scion of a noble sire. 
The parents were natives respectively of 
Mishawaka and Portage Prairie, St. Joseph 
county, Indliana, and the father was long en- 
gaged as a wood turner in this city, his death 
here occurring at the <age of fifty-two years, 
but his widow still survives. They were the 
parents of two children, the daughter being 
Grace, the wife of 0. W. Gingrich, of South 

Walter Michael, the only son and younger 
child, supplemented the educational training 
which he received in the schools of Misha- 
waka by a conunercial course in the National 
Business College of Chicago, in which he was 
graduated in 1897. He afterward secured 
the position of bookkeeper with the firm of 
Rankert & E^leston of Mishawaka, with 
whom he remained for three years, and since 
that time has been connected with the public 
affairs of this city, first serving as the deputy 
clerk in 1902, and in 1906 was elected to that 
important ofiBce, assuming charge of its af- 

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fairs in September, 1907. He has been effi- 
cient and faithful in the discharge of his 
duties, making a most competent official. The 
fraternal relations of Mr. Michael connect 
him with the Masonic order, in which he has 
aittained the Knight Templar degree, and 
with the Elks of South Bend. In political 
affiliations he has been a zealous Republican^ 
active in campaign work, and laboring ear- 
nestly for the adoption of the principles which 
he believes will best advance good govern- 

Amos Williard, who for many years has 
been prominent in local affairs, giving his best 
talents and powers to his fellow men, is one 
of the native sons of St. Joseph county, bom 
in Penn township on the 1st of April, 1862. 
His father, Emanuel Williard, was born in 
Pennsylvania, but became one of the early 
pioneers of St. Joseph county, Indiana, 
whither he emigrated when about eighteen 
years of age. He afterward returned east, 
and was there married to Emelina Schofstall, 
whose birth also occurred in the Keystone 
state, and after their return to St. Joseph 
county they took up their abode on a farm 
in Penn township. During the Civil war 
the husband and father spent three years in 
the service of his country, and with his wife 
he yet resides in his old township of Penn, 
surrounded by the friends of long ago as 
well as those of recent years. Unto Mr. and 
Mrs. Williard six children have been born, 
four sons and two daugthers, and the family 
circle yet remains unbroken by the hand of 

Amos Williard, their eldest son and third 
child, spent the first fifteen years of his life 
on the old homestead in Penn township, com- 
ing thence to Mishawaka and identifying 
himself with the occupation of drilling wells, 
his time being thus employed for five years. 
For a time thereafter he followed various 
employments, and for five years was asso- 
ciated with the old pulp mill, after which 
he entered the Dodge Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and for ten years served as foreman 
of one of its departments. Mr. Williard then 
spent one year in the south, returning on 
the expiration* of the period to Mishawaka. 
Throughout the period of his majority he 
has remained an active member of the Re- 
publican party, and his devotion to the in- 
terests of the public won him his present of- 
ficial position as chief of the city fire de- 
partment. In the early days of the company 

he had served as chief of the volunteer de- 
partment, and on the organization of the paid 
department was made its first chief, thus con- 
tinuing until his resignation in 1905 in order 
to visit the south, while on his return, on 
the 1st of April, 1907, he was reinstated as 

The marriage of Mr. Williard was cele- 
brated in 1886, when Rosa Edwards became 
his wife. She, too, claims St. Joseph county 
as the place of her nativity, and their union 
has been blessed by the birth of one child, 
a son Harry. The fraternal relations of Mr. 
Williard connect him with the Masonic order 
and the Knights of Pythias of Mishawaka. 

John A. Graham, the teller of the Misha- 
waka Trust & Savings Bank of Mishawaka, 
was bom in London, Canada, January 14, 
1872, a son of John and Rebecca Graham, 
the former a native of Scotland and the lat- 
ter of Canada, but of Scotch descent. Of 
their ten children, eight sons and two daugh- 
ters, their son John was the seventh in order 
of birth. His early educational training was 
received in the public schools of his native 
country, and later he pursued a pharmacy 
course in Toronto, fully preparing himself 
to enter the drug business, while for two 
years following his graduation he served as 
manager of a drug store in Grand Rapids, 
Michigan. In 1897 he came to Mishawaka, 
Indiana, and engaged in the drug business 
in company with his brother, A. B. Graham, 
this relationship continuing until 1901, and 
from that time until 1905 Mr. John Graham 
was the manager of the American Malt 
Cream & Drug Company of Mishawaka. At 
the organization of the Mishawaka Trust & 
Savings Company he was tendered the posi- 
tion of teller, the duties of which important 
position he has ever since continued to dis- 
charge with his iisual promptness and fideli- 
ty. The institution was organized in May, 
1905, and on the 14th of June of the same 
year the doors of the bank were opened for 
business, the following men constituting the 
officers of the firm: W. W. Mix, president; 
J. H. Beiger, vice-president; E. L. Beatty, 
second vice-president; P. S. Fuson, secretary 
and cashier. The capital stock of the com- 
pany is one hundred thousand dollars, while 
the surplus amounts to twenty-five thousand 
dollars. The bank is regarded as one of 
the most reliable financial institutions in this 
section of the state, and its board of directors 

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embrace some of the most prominent and sub- 
stantial business men of the city. 

In 1889 Mr. Graham was married to Fan- 
nie Beiger, the daughter of J. H. and S. L. 
Beiger, of Mi^iawaka. The only child of 
this union is a son, Henry Beiger. Mr. Gra- 
ham is a stanch Republican in his political 
affiliations, taking an active interest in the 
work of the party, and has represented the 
Second ward in the city council. His ster- 
ling worth commands the respect and con- 
fidence of all, and he is one of the valued 
citizens of Mishawaka. 

C. A. OsTROM. Canada has furnished to 
the United States many bright, enterprising 
young men who have left the Dominion to 
enter the business circles of this country with 
its more progressive methods, livelier com- 
petition and advancement more quickly se- 
cured. Among this number is Mr. Ostrom, 
who was bom in Ontario, Canada, March 1, 
1872, a son of Elijah and Catherine 
(Archer) Ostrom, also natives of the Domin- 
ion, where the husband and father was for 
many years engaged as a commission mer- 
chant in Petersburg, his death there occur- 
ring in 1892. The widow still makes her 
home in Canada. Of their seven children all 
grew to years of maturity and four are now 
living, two sons and two daughters. 

C. A. Ostrom, the youngest of the family, 
spent the first twenty years of his life in 
his native land, receiving his education in 
the high school of Petersburg, and also pur- 
suing a course in a business college in that 
city. In 1892 he left that city for Chicago, 
where for a time he served as assistant tea 
buyer for the large firm of Reid, Murdoch 
& Company, later becoming one of their trav- 
eling salesmen, with headquarters in South 
Bend, and his entire connection with that 
corporation covered a period of eight years. 
After his marriage, in 1899, Mr. Ostrom 
joined the tide of emigration to Cripple 
Creek, Colorado, where for one year he was 
engaged in mining operations, having in his 
employ fifty-five men, but at the close of 
that period he sold his interests there and 
returned to the east, locating in Mishawaka, 
where he purchased a half interest in the 
Graham & Wilson drug store, but two years 
later sold his interests therein and engaged 
in the real estate and other business interests. 
Success has attended his well directed efforts, 
and his varied interests in this city include 
his presidency in the Ross Furniture Com- 

pany, vice-president of the Mishawaka Fold- 
ing Carriage Company, secretary of the 
Mishawaka Public Improvement Corporation, 
president of the Business Men's Association, 
president of the Mishawaka Realty & Invest- 
ment Company, secretary and treasurer of 
the Eastern Mishawaka Realty Company and 
a director and one of the organizers of the 
M. V. Beiger Realty Company. He is a thor- 
ough worker, and applies himself closely to 
his business. It has been very largely 
through Mr. Ostrom 's personal efforts that 
Mishawaka is to have its one hundred thou- 
sand dollar hotel building. Stock has been 
subscribed, the ground bought and bids are 
now being accepted by the Mishawaka Im- 
provement Corporation Company, of which 
Mr. Ostrom is secretary and Mr. M. W. Mix 
is president. The building will stand as a 
monument to the men who have made it 
financially possible, and Mr. Ostrom deserves 
the greatest credit. 

In 1899 Mr. Ostrom was married to May 
C. Jemegan, the daughter of E. A. and 
Nannie C. (Sherman) Jemegan, whose 
sketch will be found elsewhere in this work. 
They have become the parents of two chil- 
dren, Alfred Sherman and Margery Jeme- 
gan. Mr. Ostrom gives his political support 
to the Republican party, is an active and 
efficient worker in its ranks, a member of 
the leading clubs of Mishawaka and also a 
Knight Templar Mason. 

George F. Eberhart. One of the enter- 
prising business men of Mishawaka is Georg:e 
F. Eberhart, who has been identified with vari- 
ous of its leading interests, and is now ranked 
with the representative citizens of the com- 
munity. He is also numbered among the 
county's native sons, for his birth occurred 
in Penn township on the 8th of November, 
1868, his parents, Frederick G. and Roxey 
R. (Vesey) Eberhart, being numbered among 
the early residents of St. Joseph county, 
where the father is still engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits in Penn township. Four chil- 
dren blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Eber- 
hart, but only two are now living, the daugh- 
ter, Sabra, being the wife of George F. Cooke, 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

George F. Eberhart, the younger of the 
children, is indebted to the public schools of 
Mishawaka for the early educational training: 
which he received during his boyhood days, 
and since leaving the school room he has been 
variously employed. During a period of two 

Digitized by 




years he was a general merchant in Osceola, 
Indiana, and for four years traveled for the 
Mishawaka Woolen Company, while for two 
years he was engaged in the wood and coal 
business in Mishawaka, and in 1902 turned 
his attention to real estate operations, in 
which his efforts have been attended with 
success. Steadily and gradually he has been 
advancing in the business world until he 
now occupies an enviable position in the in- 
dustrial circles of Mishawaka. 

Mr. Eberhart has been twice married, first 
in 1891 to Abbie E. Plumb, who died after 
a happy married life of only two years, and 
in 1895 he wedded Olga L. Burgess. Their 
union has been blessed by the birth of two 
sons, George F. and Rusself J. Mr. Eberhart 
votes with the Republican party, and has 
membership relations with the Elks of South 

Albert 0. Row, one of the leading real 
estate dealers of Mishawaka, with offices at 
107 West Second street, was born in Liberty 
township, St. Joseph county, Indiana. Febru- 
ary 20, 1873, a son of Jacob D. and Hannah 
(Knepp) Row, both natives of Ohio, the for- 
mer of Tuscarawas and the latter of Holmes 
county. It was in the year 1859 that the 
father came to St. Joseph county, locating 
on the farm he now owns in Liberty town- 
ship, and it continued as his home and the 
scene of his labors until 1906, when he re- 
moved to another farm near Lakeville in 
Union township. There he yet resides, and 
in addition to his agricultural labors he is 
also a veterinary surgeon. During the Civil 
war he became a member of a company at 
its organization, and with it assisted in the 
suppression of the rebellion. Mr. and Mrs. 
Row became the parents of five children, 
namely : William C, a mail carrier in South 
Bend; Martin A., a farmer in Union town- 
ship; Jennie, the wife of Lewis Lonzo, also 
of Union township; Albert 0., whose name 
introduces this review: and Clara A., the 
wife of Clarence Rensberger, a merchant of 
Lakeville, Indiana. 

Albert 0. Row spent the early years of his 
life on the old homestead in Liberty town- 
ship, attending the district schools near his 
home and' later pursuing the teacher's course 
in the Valparaiso University. With his edu- 
cation completed he was engaged in farming 
and dairying for seven years in German 
township, St. Joseph county, and in 190D 
purchased a farm in Harris township, there 

continuing his agricultural labors until 1906. 
In that year he sold his farm and removed 
to Mishawaka to engage in the real estate 
business. He is the leading real estate dealer 
of the city and has control of considerable 
valuable property. Mr. Row is energetic and 
reliable in all his transactions, and has thus 
gained the confidence as well as a liberal 
share of the patronage of the public. 

In 1894 occurred the marriage of Mr. Row 
and Fannie, the daughter of W. O. and 
Elizabeth (Chamberlin) Jackson. She was 
bom and reared in German township, St. 
Joseph county, and has become the mother of 
two children, Grace A. and Lester Jay. Air. 
Row has taken an active part in the public 
affairs of the community, voting with the 
Democratic party, and in 1900 he was elected 
to the position of trustee of Harris township, 
continuing to discharge its duties for four 
years. He is a member of the Knights of the 
Maccabees, the Owls, No. 4, of Mishawaka, 
and of the Grange. 

Samuel Ulery is prominent among the 
energetic, far-seeing and successful business 
men of Mishawaka. His life history illus- 
trates what may be attained by faithful and 
continued effort in carrying out an honest 
purpose, and integrity, activity and energy 
have been the clowning points in his success. 
His birth occurred in Marshall county, In- 
diana, January 6, 1859, his parents being 
Jesse and Louisa (Benner) Ulery, both na- 
tives of Ohio. The former was bom in Dela- 
ware county and the latter in Summit 

Michael Ulery, grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, was bom in Reading, Penn- 
sylvania, of German ancestry. He removed 
from there to Ohio and settled in Delaware 
county, living there until 1852, when, accom- 
panied by his family, he removed to Indiana, 
making the entire journey overland with 
teams, and located at what was then called 
Uniontown, but now named Culver, in Mar- 
shall county. He bought a farm, of which 
there was about twenty acres cleared, and 
a log house constituted the improvements. 
He resided in that county until his death in 
1871. The maiden name of his wife was 
Elizabeth Speicher, born in Pennsylvania. 
She died in 1856. The father of our sub- 
ject was but eighteen years old when he came 
to Indiana with his parents. He was reared 
on the farm and followed agricultural pur- 
suits all his active life. After retiring from 

Digitized by 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by, 




the farm he cape to Mishawaka and has 
since made his home at 809 Elizabeth street. 
The wife and mother died in this city in 
February, 1905, at the age of seventy years, 
leaving the companion of her youth and sub- 
sequent years to continue the journey of life 
alone. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Ulery were bom 
nine children, seven sons and two daughters, 
but only five sons and one daughter lived 
to adult age. 

Samuel Ulery, their eldest child, grew to 
years of maturity on the old home farm in 
Marshall county, and the educational training 
which he received in his early years was the 
result of his own energy and determined 
efforts. For eight years he was engaged in 
teaching school in Marshall county, while 
during his residence there he also served 
as a justice of the peace and was appointed 
by Governor Claude Mathews as a deputy 
prosecuting attorney. It was in the year of 
1897 that Mr. Ulery came to Mishawaka, his 
first employment here being as a wood worker 
in the furniture company, while later he as- 
sisted in installing the machinery for the 
Singer works at South Bend. After spend- 
ing some time with the Dodge Manufacturing 
Company, he was with the Mishawaka 
Woolen Company, and then began his con- 
tracting business, this being in 1901, and 
since that time he has diligently pursued the 
vocation, at the present time working on the 
eighty-third building which he has erected in 
Mishawaka. Among the nimiber are included 
many of the city's most beautiful and sub- 
stantial structures, including the Masonic 
Temple, and he has also built and sold many 
houses. In the prosperity of the city of his 
home he has been an invaluable factor, his 
public spirit and progressive ideas being of 
inestimable worth to the community. 

The marriage of Mr. Ulery was celebrated 
in 1879, Clara P. Burket, who was bom in 
Pulaski county, Indiana, a daughter of Dan- 
iel and Rachel Burket, becoming his wife, 
and their four children are: Alice, the wife 
of Clifford Kiracofe, of Mishawaka; Stella 
M., Herbert C, who is engaged in business 
with his father, and Ernest S. Mr. Ulery 
is one of the leading members of the Evan- 
gelical Association in Mishawaka, having 
served as the superintendent of its Sunday- 
school for seven years. He has filled many 
of the oflSces of the denomination, and is an 
active worker in the cause of Christianity. 
He also has membership relations with the 

Masonic order and the Knights of the Mac- 
cabees, and in his political affiliations is a 
Democrat. His residence is at 219 West Jo- 
seph street, Mishawaka, Indiana. 

Herman Schifper. A native son of St. 
Joseph county, and during the past few years 
a resident of Mishawaka, Herman Schiffer 
enjoys an enviable position among the 
younger representatives of the business 
interests of the city, having by honor- 
able and correct methods gained the confi- 
dence of his fellow townsmen. He was bom 
in South Bend on the 29th of March, 1875. 
His father, August Schiffer, a deceased flo- 
rist of South Bend, was bom, reared and 
educated in Germany, but during his young 
manhood came to America and established 
his permanent home in South Bend, Indiana. 
In that city he was united in marriage to 
Augusta Tessmar, who also spent the early 
years of her life in her native land of Ger- 
many, and they became the parents of three 
children, two sons and a daughter : Herman, 
whose name introduces this review; Edward 
and Clara, the wife of Robert Schwank, of 
South Bend, where all of the children were 
born and reared. Mr. Schiffer was a mem- 
ber of St. Peter's church in that city, and 
his death occurred at the early age of thirty- 
three years. 

Herman Schiffer received his educational 
training in the schools of South Bend, but 
from his twelfth year, when not in the school 
room, he was busy at work in the factories, 
having made his own way in the world from 
that early age. He began the study of phar- 
macy under the preceptorship of M. M. 
Myers, of South Bend, with whom he spent 
about two years and a half, and also studied 
under his successor, a Mr. Coonley, working 
in the store from the 16th of March, 1893, 
until the 6th of November, 1899. During 
that time he had embarked in the drug busi- 
ness with his brother across the river, and 
in 1899 became associated with W. 0. Rennoe 
on West Washington street, with whom he 
continued for about two years, and on the 
expiration of that period, in 1901, came to 
Mishawaka and purchased the drug business 
of Cass & Company at his present location 
in partnership with R. P. Milton, having 
previously sold his interest in South Bend 
to his brother. In addition to his large store 
which he has conducted throughout his resi- 
dence in Mishawaka, he is at the present 
time opening another store on the north side 

Digitized by 




of the city. He is public spirited and thor- 
oughly interested in whatever tends to pro- 
mote the material welfare of his chosen city, 
and during the period of his residence here 
he has been nimibered among its valued and 
honored citizens. 

In South Bend, on the 8th of May, 1900, 
Mr. Schiflfer was married to Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Henry Miner, of that city. She 
was bom in Germany, but was reared in ' 
South Bend, as she was brought here by her 
parents when only three years of age. Two 
children have been bom of this union., a son 
and a daughter, Herman and Helen, the 
former a native of South Bend and the lat- 
ter of Mishawaka. The family home is at 
207 West Fourth street. The fraternal rela- 
tions of Mr. Schiflfer connect him with the 
Knights of Pythias of Mishawaka, with the 
Knights of the Maccabees of South Bend and 
he is a member of the Zion Evangelical 
church of South Bend. 

William F. Kerr, proprietor of the Misha- 
waka Opera House, was born in Penn town- 
ship of St. Joseph county, Indiana, April 
5, 1859. His father, John Reed Kerr, was 
a native of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, but in 
early life was taken by his parents to Ohio, 
and about 1837 came to Mishawaka, Indiana, 
where for four years he was connected with 
the Montgomery Furniture Company. He 
then entered the employ of the Singer Sew- 
ing Machine Company, with, whom he re- 
mained during the long period of thirty-two 
years, his life's labors being ended in death 
at the age of seventy-two years. He was a 
prominent factor in the business and social 
circles of the 6ity in which he so long made 
his home, and for forty years he held mem- 
bership relations with the Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. In early life Mr. Kerr wedded Alvira 
Oliver, who was bom in New York, but came 
with her parents to St. Joseph county, and 
she now resides in South Bend. To them 
were bom two sons, but the younger died 
at the age of eighteen years. 

William F. Kerr began the battle of life 
for himself at the early age of fourteen 
years, and, learning telegraphy, was for five 
years in the employ of the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern Railroad Company. On 
the expiration of that period he began learn- 
ing the cabinet maker's trade and was asso- 
ciated with the Roper Company for eighteen 
years, about sixteen years of the time serving 
as foreman of their cabinet department. His 

next employment was at the carpenter's trade, 
continuing his contracting and building oper- 
ations until 1906, when in January of that 
year he rented the Mishawaka Opera House, 
and at the present time owns the controlling 
interest in the building, and also the build- 
ing underneath. In his various undertakings 
Mr. Kerr has been very fortunate, and grad- 
ually he has forged his way to the front until 
he is now numbered among Mishawaka 's 
leading business men and representative 

In 1887 was celebrated the marriage of 
Mr. Kerr and Orrena Batson, and they have 
had four children, Margaret, Alice, Esther 
and Carroll, but the third daughter, Esther, 
is deceased. Mr. Kerr has given a life-long 
support to the principles of the Democratic 
party, his first presidential vote having been 
cast for Winfield Scott Hancock. He is a 
man of sterling worth, and justly merits the 
high regard in which he is held. 

Jacob BucHHErr. Among the citizens of 
Mishawaka to whom is vouchsafed an hon- 
ored retirement from labor, as the reward of 
a long, active and useful business career, is 
Jacob Buchheit, who through an extended 
period was prominently connected with the 
agricultural interests of St. Joseph county. 
His birth occurred in Waterloo, Ontario, 
Canada, on the 10th of March, 1844, a son 
of Jacob and Mary Buchheit, natives of Ba- 
varia, Germany. The father came to Amer- 
ica when a young man, and seven times he 
crossed the broad Atlantic, living in Buffalo, 
New York, for six years, while for nineteen 
years he was a resident of Canada, and in 
1862 located in Penn township, St. Joseph 
county, Indiana, where his death occurred 
when he had reached the age of eighty-one 
years. The wife and mother was called to 
the home beyond at the age of sixty-eight 
years. In their family were fourteen chil- 
dren, eight of whom grew to years of 
. maturity. 

Jacob Buchheit, the eldest son and second 
child in the family, was eighteen years of 
age at the time of the removal of the family 
from Canada to St. Joseph county, and with 
the exception of one year spent in Buffalo, 
New York, he has since been a constant resi- 
dent within its borders. In June, 1904, he 
sold his old homestead in Penn . township. 
Throughout his entire business career he was 
engaged in agricultural pursuits, but in 1904 
he erected and moved to his present home 

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in Mishawaka, his energy and enterprise, 
capable management and honorable dealings 
having brought to him a comfortable compe- 
tence, and therefore he put aside business 
cares to rest in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of his former toil. 

Mr. Buehheit gives his political support to 
the Democratic party, and at one time was 
his party's candidate for the oflSce of county 
commissioner, and although defeated by one 
hundred and eighteen votes, he carried South 
Bend and Portage township. His reputation 
in business has ever been unassailable, and in 
all the walks of life he is found true to duty 
and the trusts reposed in him. 

Prank J. Pinch. In connection with the 
midertaking business the name of Prank J. 
Pinch is not limited to the confines of Misha- 
waka, but extends throughout the surround- 
ing country. When we trace the careers of 
those whom the world acknowledges as suc- 
cessful and of those who stand high in public 
esteem we find that in almost every case they 
are those who have risen gradually by their 
own efforts, their diligence and perseverance. 
These qualities are undoubtedly possessed by 
Mr. Pinch, who is the acknowledged leader in 
undertaking circles in Mishawaka. His birth 
occurred in Penn township of St. Joseph 
county, three miles northeast of this city, 
August 13, 1876, his parents being Charles 
H. and Levina (Huntsinger) Pinch, both 
also natives of St. Joseph county. The father 
claimed Penn township as the place of his 
nativity, and there he continued to reside 
until a few years ago, when he moved to 
Mishawaka and embarked in the grocery busi- 
ness, continuing in that occupation for about 
five years. At the close of that period he 
retired from active business cares and re- 
moved to South Bend, where he is spending 
the evening of a long and useful life. Mrs. 
Pinch passed away at the early age of thirty- 
five years, and in their family were four sons 
and one daughter, but the latter died at the 
age of thirteen years. 

Prank J. Pinch, the second child and sec- 
ond son, remained on the old home farm in 
Penn tovmship until about nine years of 
age, when he came to Mishawaka, and at the 
early age of thirteen years he began the 
battle of life for himself, working for a time 
at any occupation which would yield him an 
honest living. When he had reached the 
age of twenty years he entered upon an ap- 
prenticeship at the furniture and undertak- 

ing business, at first receiving the munificent 
salary of three dollars a week and board, 
and for nine years he remained in the employ 
of J. S. Ellis. At the expiration of that 
period, in 1902, he engaged in business for 
himself, pi'actically without capital, but 
gradually his indomitable perseverance and 
unfaltering energy enabled him to slowly 
mount the ladder of success and to become 
the proprietor of his former employer's busi- 
ness. Previous to this time, however, he had 
graduated from Dr. Myers' school of embalm- 
ing in Cincinnati, Ohio, and had received a 
state license. In addition to his extensive 
undertaking business he also conducts a hack 
line and livery stable, and is one of the enter- 
prising young business men of Mishawaka. 

In 1900 was celebrated the marriage of 
Mr. Pinch and Grace Crooks, she being a 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Crooks, of 
Penn township, St. Joseph county, Indiana. 
The only child of this union is a daughter, 
Emily Lovina. Mr. Pinch holds membership 
relations with the Masonic, the Modern 
Woodmen, the Knights of the Maccabees, the 
Knights of Pythias and Odd Pellows frater- 

Lawrence W. Crakes. The deserved re- 
ward of a well spent life is an honored 
retirement from business in which to enjoy 
the fruits of former toil. To-day, after a use- 
ful and beneficent career, Mr. Crakes is 
quietly living at his pleasant home in Misha- 
waka, surrounded by the comforts that ear- 
nest labor has brought to him. He is one of 
its most prominent citizens, winning this place 
by his commendable characteristics and busi- 
ness ability, through which he was able to 
"build up a large lumber business. He was 
bom in Penn township, St. Joseph county, 
Indiana, October 27, 1851, a grandson of 
Prancis and Martha (Marshall) Crakes, and 
a son of Thomas and Mary Crakes. The 
father was bom in England in 1827, and 
was but four years of age at the time of the 
emigration of his parents to this country, the 
family first locating in New York. Thomas 
Crakes subsequently removed to Huntington, 
Indiana, and thence to St. Joseph county in 
1848, purchasing a farm of eighty acres in 
Madison township, to which he later added a 
tract of forty acres. As the years passed 
by he succeeded in clearing the most of his 
land, and was numbered among the leading 
agriculturists of the township. In the fall of 
1861 he enlisted for service in the Civil war. 

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entering the Forty-eighth Indiana Vohinteer 
Infantry, in which he served for three years 
and three months, entering the ranks as a 
corporal, and at the time of his discharge 
was serving as sergeant. During his army 
service he was severely wounded in the col- 
lar bone, and in compensation for his army 
life he afterward drew a pension. Mr. Crakes 
participated in many of the important bat- 
tles of the conflict, includdng the siege of 
Vicksburg, and after the close of the war 
he returned to the old home farm in St. 
Joseph county. He had been previously mar- 
ried to Mary (Moon) HoUingshead, a native 
of New York and at that time a widow. Her 
death occurred' in 1868, and by her marriage 
to Mr. Cra'kes she became the mother of 
three sons and three daughters, — ^Francis M. 
(deceased), Lawrence W., Martha A., Mary 
J., George 0. and Hattie H., all of whom 
were born and reared in St. Joseph county. 
Mr. Crakes aflSliated with the Republican 
party, and also in later years upheld the 
principles of the Prohibition party, while 
religiously he was an active member of the 
Methodist church, in which he held the of- 
fice of treasurer. He gave his support to 
many of the leading business enterprises of 
St. Joseph county, but his principal occupa- 
tion was in connection with milling, having 
for many years been the proprietor of a saw 
mill in Madison township, while for three 
years he conducted a mill in Alabama. Hi^ 
life's labors were ended in death when he 
had reached the seventy-seventh milestone on 
the journey of life. 

Lawrence W. Crakes, a son of this leading 
business man and pioneer citizen of St. Jo- 
seph county, received his education in the 
district schools of Madison township, and the 
early years of his life were spent on the old 
homestead farm, which he assisted in clearing 
and cultivating. In the fall of 1872 he went 
south with his father, making the journey 
with teams to Madison county, Alabama, 
where they engaged in farming for three 
years. Returning thenee to St. Joseph county 
he engaged in the saw mill and lumber busi- 
ness with- his father, but returned in 1885 
to Alabama, to Jackson county, where he en- 
gaged in the saw milling business, coming 
agam^to St; Joseph county in 1888. He re- 
mained with his father until the latter 's re- 
tirement in the fall of 1888, when he pur- 
chased the business and property and con- 

tinued its conduct until his retirement in 

On the 14th of September, 18^1, Mr. 
Crakes was united in marriage to Carrie M. 
Sarber, born in Michigan City, Indiana, to 
William and Sarah (Hunstable) Sarber. Mr. 
S. P. L. Hunstable, the grandfather of 
Mrs. Crakes, was a shoe dealer in Niles for 
fifty years. During her girlhood days Mrs. 
Crakes came to St. Joseph county with her 
parents, where the father followed farming 
in Madison township, and after the mother's 
death they removed to South Bend, he there 
resuming his trade of carpentering. Four 
sons have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Crakes, 
namely: Willis Hunstable, Francis Willard, 
both now at Los Angeles, California; Clar- 
ence Sarber and Thomas Steele, all bom and 
reared in St. Joseph county. Strictly tem- 
perate in all his habits, Mr. Crakes upholds 
the principles of the Prohibition party, and 
is also a worthy member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He has won and retains 
the esteem of his friends and associates and 
the confidence of the business public. 

L. E. HiNER, a member of the firm of Hess 
& Hiner, general contractors and builders 
of Mishawaka, with oflSces at 517 Bridge 
street, was born in Madison township, St. 
Joseph county, Indiana, July 23, 1858, a son 
of Abraham C. Hiner, who claimed New Jer- 
sey as the state of his nativity. He was 
reared, however, in Pennsylvania, and in an 
early days came to St. Joseph county, estab- 
lishing his home in Madison township, where 
he was engaged in general agricultural pur- 
suits for many years. He now resides in 
Mishawaka, one of the honored old pioneer 
residents of the county. Mrs. Hiner, whose 
birth occurred in Ohio, is also living, and to 
this revered old couple were bom seven chil- 
dren, all of whom are proving worthy repre- 
sentatives of the honored family name. 

L. E. Hiner, their eldest child, spent the 
first seventeen years of his life on the old 
homestead farm in Madison township, assist- 
ing in its cultivation and improvement, and 
afterward learned and followed the milling 
trade for about four years, when he was com- 
pelled to relinquish its work on account of 
failing health. Since that time he has fol- 
lowed the carpenter's trade, and in 1906 a 
partnership was formed with Mr. Hess, whose 
history will be found elsewhere in this work. 
The firm of Hess & Hiner is well known 
throughout this section of St. Joseph county, 

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Digitized by 





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for as contractors and builders they have 
erected many of the principal buildings, and 
their name is synonymous with straightfor- 
ward business principles and honorable 
methods. Mr. Hiner is also prominently iden- 
tified with the social life of the city, holding 
membership relations with the order of Odd 
Fellows and the Masonic order, and is a 
stanch Republican in his political affiliations. 
He enjoys the regard of his fellow citizens, 
and is favorably known in Mishawaka and 
St.Jo9eph county. 

Fred W. Kuss. During the long period 
of thirty-three years Fred W. Kuss has been 
a resident of Mishawaka, and has been iden- 
tified with many of the interests that have 
contributed- to its mibstantial development 
and improvement. His probity, fidelity and 
sterling worth have won him the unqualified 
confidence of his fellow townsmen, and now 
as he passes down the western slope of life 
his pathway is brightened by the respect and 
honor which ever follow an upright career. 
His birth occurred in Prussia, Germany, 
February 27, 1845, and in his native place 
was reared and attended school until fifteen 
years of age, after which he served an ap- 
prenticeship of five years at the baker's trade. 
Coming to America in 1868, Mr. Kuss first 
located in Chicago, Illinois, where for three 
years he plied his trade, and for two years 
was a baker in South Bend. On the expira- 
tion of that period, in 1873, he engaged in 
both the bakery and grocery business in that 
city, thus continuing for twelve years, and 
for three years resided on a farm in Penn 
township. Coming thence to Mishawaka, he 
resumed his work of baking, which has ever 
since claimed his entire time and attention, 
and in 1905 he opened his present establish- 
ment, in which he furnishes employment to 
nine men. His name stands conspicuously 
forth in the history of the business inter- 
ests of Mishawaka, for .through many years 
he has been one of its leading factors, pro- 
gressive, enterprising and persevering. These 
qualities always win success, and to Mr. Kuss 
they have brought a handsome competence 
as the reward of his well directed efforts. 

On the 26th of March, 1874, he was united 
in marriage to Mary Wies, whose death oc- 
curred on the 25th of April, 1905, leaving 
three children, Charlie, Edward and Anna, 
all at home. For many years Mr. Kuss has 
taken an active part in local politics, and for 
six years represented the Second ward in 

the city council, while in 1905 he was elected 
councilman at large, which position he now 
holds. His fraternal relations are with the 
Odd Fellows. His career has been an active, 
useful and honorable one, and by reason of 
his well spent life he enjoys the high regard 
of his fellow men, 

DAvm Moore. Among those who have 
achieved success in their chosen calling is 
numbered David Moore, whose record is the 
account of a life which is uneventful, yet dis- 
tinguished by the most substantial qualities 
of character. The family was established in 
Ohio in a very early day by the grandfather 
of David, John Moore, who was a native of 
Maryland, and his son, Abraham Moore, the 
father of our subject, was a native of Harri- 
son county, Ohio. The latter was employed 
as a cooper, stone cutter and shoemaker, and 
his busy and useful life was ended in the 
state which gave him birth at the age of sixty- 
three years. In his early life he married Blizia- 
beth Hagey, a native daughter of Pennsyl- 
vania, but reared in Ohio from the age of six 
years, and she lived to the good old age of 
ninety-two years. In their family were thir- 
teen children, three sons and three daughters 
of whom grew to years of maturity and five 
are now living. 

David Moore attained to years of maturity 
in his native state of Ohio, and when fourteen 
years of age he began working for himself, 
although he remained at home for some years 
thereafter. It was in June, 1873, that he 
arrived in Mishawaka, Indiana, and for three 
years he was employed in the furniture fac- 
tories of the city. In 1876 he went to Villis- 
ca, Iowa, but returned to this city in 1878 and 
resumed his employment in the factory. In 
1881 he began his contracting and building 
operations, and since that time has erected 
many of the best residences in Mishawaka and 
surrounding country. His name is thus 
prominently associated with the building in- 
terests, and he has achieved success in this 

During his residence in Villisca, Iowa, in 
1877, Mr. Moore was united in marriage to 
Ervilla B. Edenfield, a native of Ohio and a 
daughter of William DeCorse Edenfield. 
Four children have been born of this union, 
namely: Guy M., a resident of South Bend; 
Otto G., who makes his home in Mishawaka: 
Charles Albert, attending a commercial col- 
lege in South Bend; and William DeCorse, 
who died at the age of nineteen years. Otto 

Digitized by 




G., the second son, served three years in the 
Twenty-eighth Regiment Infantry, spending 
over two yeara in the Philippines, and he now 
lives in Grand Rapids. He married Minnie 
McDougal and has a daughter, Helen Ervilla. 
Mr. Moore of this review hodds fraternal rela- 
tions with the Knights of the Maccabees, and 
politically is allied with the Republicans. 
Although he has led a busy life he has yet 
found time to devote to those interests which 
develop the best interests of the community, 
and his many admirable characteristics have 
gained him a wide circle of friends. 

A. S. Hess. During a number of years the 
subject of this memoir has been classed 
among the prominent and influential citi- 
zens of Mishawaka^ and is now a member of 
the firm of Hesy and Hiner, which has been 
an important element in this community, 
aifording employment to many of the citi- 
zens and aiding materially in the prosperity 
of the town. A native son of the Keystone 
state, he was born in Evansville, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 27, 1869, a son of John I. and 
Sarah (Bowsher) Hess, also natives of that 
commonwealth. The father was employed as 
an iron worker, and his entire life was spent 
in the state of his nativity. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hess were the parents of four daughters and 
three sons, of whom their son A. S. was the 
fourth child in order of birth. After com- 
pleting his education he was employed at 
various occupations in Pennsylvania, and in 
1888 he came to Mishawaka, Indiana, spend- 
ing the first year and a half here in the 
Dodge plant, and then began learning the 
mason's trade. So proficient did he become 
in his work that in the spring of 1896 he was 
able to begin contracting in masonry work, 
while in 1906 he formed a partnership with 
L. E. Hiner, and they conduct a general con- 
tracting and building business, many of the 
principal buildings of Mishawaka standing 
as monuments to their skill and ability. In 
addition Mr. Hess is also engaged to a con- 
siderable extent in the real estate and insur- 
ance business, his varied relations placing 
him among the leading business men of his 
adopted city. 

In 1891 occurred the marriage of Mr. Hess 
to Clara E. Williams, but after a happy mar- 
ried life of twelve years the wife was called 
to the home beyond, passing away in Sep- 
tember, 1903, and in September, 1904, Mr. 
Hess married Delia Margaret, the daughter 
of Anthony E. Keagy. Mr. Hess gives a 

stanch support to the Republican party, and 
for seven years was its representative in the 
city council of Mishawaka, while for one year 
he was president of the board of city com- 
missioners. He was an intelligent and popu- 
lar oflScial, systematic and careful in the dis- 
charge of his duties, courteous to all, and he 
won many friends while in oflSce. He is a 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Pel- 
lows, the Masonic order and the Elks in 
South Bend. He is a broad-minded, pro- 
gressive man and public spirited citizen, and 
in all life's relations is found true to all the 
duties of business, public and social life 
which the day may bring forth. 

Charles V. Kobpal. Among the citizens 
of South Bend to whom has been accorded a 
high place in business and social circles is 
Charles V. Korpal, who came to this city in 
1870, and from that time to the present has 
taken an active share in the development of 
the resources of this locality. He was born 
in Poland, Germany, February 14, 1853, and 
in his native country received an excellent 
educational training, having studied for the 
priesthood and for a teacher, but not desir- 
ing to enter the professions he made the 
journey alone to the United States in 1870, 
when a lad of eighteen years, being the only 
representative of his family in this country. 
Making his way at once to South Bend he se- 
cured employment in the Oliver foundry, this 
being the first work he had ever performed, 
but he only remained there about one year 
and then went to Chicago and accepted a po- 
sition with the Chicago & Alton Railroad 
Company, with whom he remained for six 
months. Returning thence to South Bend 
Mr. Korpal spent one year with the Stude- 
baker Brothers, while for the following five 
years he was again with the Olivers, and on 
the expiration of that period was appointed 
a street commissioner, continuing to discharge 
the duties of that nflfice with ability for a 
period of three years. His appointment as 
street commissioner was received from Judge 
Howard, and at the close of his term of office 
he was made a member of the police force, and 
after serving thereon for four years became a 
mail carrier under Cleveland's administra- 
tion. Thus for a long period Mr. Korpal re- 
mained in public service, and he was ever 
faithful to the obligations devolving upon 
him, winning for himself the high commenda- 
tion of his fellow citizens. 

With a splendid official record to serve as 

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a voucher for honorable and straightforward 
dealing Mr. Korpal then entered upon an 
independent business career, first on Duntum 
street and then at his present location, 1143- 
1149 West Division street, where he has re- 
mained for twelve years and where he is well 
known as a general merchant. His political 
support is given to the Democratic party, and 
he is an active worker Jn its ranks. In 1892 
he was the (Choice of his party for the posi- 
tion of councilman, in which he represented 
the Sixth ward. 

On the 5th of May, 1875, Mr. Korpal was 
united in marriage to Catherine Qonia, and 
they have three children, two daughters and 
a son, Stella, Ladystaus and Tillie. 

Major Henry J. Blowney, who is num- 
bered among the honored dead of St. Joseph 
county, was a native son of the Emerald Isle, 
bom in county Kildare on the 22d 
of February, 1828, but from his early 
youth he was an American citizen, ever 
loyal to the spirit of the republic. In 
May, 1844, with his mother, he crossed 
the Atlantic to the United States, making his 
way direct to Chicago, Illinois, and from that 
city he journeyed to South Bend in 1852. 
The year following his arrival in this city he 
was united in marriage to Lovina Shade, a 
native daughter of South Bend, bom on the 
17th of December, 1837. Her father, Michael 
Shade, came to this locality in a very early 
day from Pennsylvania, where he had been 
previously married to Mary Baker, who was 
bom and reared in that commonwealth, and 
they became the parents of six children, 
three sons and three daughters, Mrs. Blowney 
being the youngest in order of birth, and 
four of the number are now deceased. The 
father, who was an old-time shoemaker, died 
soon after his arrival in St. Joseph county, 
leaving his widow with the care of their large 
family, but bravely she struggled on, keep- 
ing them together and supporting them as 
best she could, and all have proved an honor 
to the honored family name. Mrs. Blowney 
received her educational traininsr in the prira- 
itiv*» nioneer schools of South Bend, and she 
has become the mother of four children, two 
son and two daughters, namely: Minnie D., 
the wife of William Saunders, of South 
Bend: William Henry and Lester Henry, 
who died in infancy; and Marie Ellen, the 
wife of T. T. Keller, also of this city, where 
aU were bom. 
In 1847 Major Blowney oflFered his serv- 

ices to his adopted country and enlisted in 
Company I, Second Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, serving throughout the entire Mexi- 
can campaign, and was four times wounded 
during the conflict. Ever loyal to its inter- 
ests, he again entered the ranks as a soldier 
in 1861, serving as a lieutenant of Company 
I, Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, until 
his promotion to major of the Twenty-ninth 
Indiana, with which he served until ill health 
made it necessary for him to resign his com- 
mission before the close of the struggle. Re- 
turning to his home in South Bend, he be- 
came the proprietor of an art store, for many 
years being well known for his skill as an 
ornamental decorator, and he was also the 
patentee of the Storm Sign and the artist 
of the state seal which was for so long and 
is yet the principal feature on the old court 
house of South Bend. He also had the honor 
of numbering James Whitcomb Riley among 
his employes, and later that renowned author 
made him one of the characters of his well 
known poem entitled **The Wild Irishman." 
Mr. Blowney died March 23, 1879, loved and 
honored by all who knew him. 

Peter Stocker. In the very early days 
of the history of St. Joseph county Peter 
Stocker took up his abode within its borders, 
and throughout the remainder of his life he 
was closely identified with its interests and 
upbuilding. His life, which was one of un- 
tiring activity, was crowned with a high de- 
gree of success, and although he has passed 
away his memory is still enshrined in the 
hearts of those who knew him. He was a na- 
tive son of Pennsylvania, his natal day being 
the 5th of May, 1818, and his parents were 
Samuel and Crisetta (Uhler) StOcker, also 
natives of the Keystone state. In their fam- 
ily were five children, four sons and one 
daughter: Peter, Richard, Godfrey, Samuel 
and Malinda. As a life occupation the father 
followed the trade of weaving. 

Peter Stocker, the eldest of his children, 
was reared to years of maturity and received 
his educational training in his native state 
of Pennsylvania, and at the age of eighteen 
years he accompanied his parents on their 
removal to the state' of New York, remaining 
at home until his marriage and assisting in 
the work of the farm. In the Empire state, 
on the 12th of December, 1844, he was united 
in marriage to Mary Ann Adams, who was 
iborn in Northamnton county, Pennsylvania, 
September 30, 1824, the daughter of Jacob 

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and Phebe (Uhler) Adams, who were also 
from that commonwealth and the father fol- 
lowed agricultural pursuits. Mrs. Stocker, 
the eldest of their nine children, was reared 
to years of maturity in New York, whither 
she had been taken when only four years old. 
In 1845 Mr. and Mrs. Stocker made the over- 
land journey to St. Joseph county, Indiana, 
twenty-eight days having elapsed ere they 
reached their destination in South Bend, and 
here they cast in their lot with its earliest 
pioneers. They at once purchased a farm of 
eighty acres in German township, subse- 
quently adding another eighty acres to their 
domain, and in time this place was cleared, 
the fields placed under an excellent state of 
cultivation, and the old homestead became 
one of the valuable places of the township. 

The union of this brave pioneer couple 
was (blessed with five children, all daughters, 
namely: Minerva, the wife of Samuel Good, 
who is engaged in farming and the real es- 
tate business; Mrs. Cora D. Sarle; Elizabeth 
A. Wagner ; Ella C. Carskaddon ; and Emma, 
deceased. All were born, reared and mar- 
ried on the old home farm in German town- 
ship, and all attended its district schools and 
also the city schools of South Bend. Death 
came to the father of this family June 19, 
1906, but he was long permitted to carry 
on the work assigned him, and he ever ex- 
erted a broad and beneficial influence upon 
the lives of his family and friends. His sup- 
port and co-operation were held from no en- 
terprise intended to prove of public benefit, 
and he was prominently identified with the 
Prohibition party, temperance and political 
reform ever finding in him a firm friend. He 
was a member of the Baptist church in which 
he and his wife had held membership rela- 
tions since 1845, and he was a life member 
of the Baptist Theological Union. His wife 
now resides with her daughter, Mrs. Cora D. 

WmLiAM H. English is one of the promi- 
nent and honored early residents of South 
Bend. For over fifty-one years he has been 
identified with the interests of St. Joseph 
county, and he also has the honor of being 
the pioneer butcher of South Bend. He was 
born in Scott county, Kentucky, November 
9, 1837, and in that commonwealth his par- 
ents, Samuel and Eleanor (Taylor) English 
also had their nativity. In an early day they 
came to Marshall county, Indiana, and be- 
came identified with its a«rrieultural interests. 

and there the father passed away in death in 
1845. The mother died in Indiana in her 
eighty-ninth year. In their family were 
seven children, of whom five grew to years of 

William H. English, the second child in 
order of birth, was but a little lad of three 
years when the family home was established 
in Marshall county, and when he was eight 
years of age his father died, and he was taken 
by his grandfather, Robert English, back to 
Kentucky, where he spent the following nine 
years. At the close of that period he went 
to Cincinnati, Ohio, there remaining for two 
years, and it was then, in 1856, that he came 
to South Bend and allied his interests with 
its early pioneers. In his youth he had mas- 
tered the carpenter's trade, and resuming 
its work here he erected nearly every good 
barn in his section of the county, continuing 
as its representative from the age of nine- 
teen until his fiftieth year. In that time he 
erected many barns for the Studebakers, and 
became well known in his occupation through- 
out the entire county. In about 1882 Mr. 
English became the proprietor of a meat mar- 
ket in South Bend, and during the long 
period of twenty-five years he has remained 
in the business, in the meantime winning for 
himself a leading place in the business r*irnles 
of the city. 

In 1862 Mr. English was married to Jane 
Brothers, a daughter of David Brothers of 
St. Joseph county, Indiana, and they have 
two living children: Laura, the wife of Wil- 
liam Thomas, of South Bend, and Cora, the 
wife of William Hawley, of Lansing, Michi- 
gan. In his political affiliations Mr. English 
is a Democrat, and his fraternal relations 
connect him with the Masonic order, Lake- 
ville Lodge No. 353. His services in the Civil 
war entitles him to membership in Auten 
Post, No. 8, G. A. R. His military career 
covered a period of over two years, enlisting 
in Company L, First Indiana Cavalr>% in 
which he served for one year, and he was 
also one year with the Twenty-third Indiana 
Infantry, Company G, serving as bugler in 
both regiments. He pmrticipated in many 
hard-fought battles of the war, and on one 
occasion his horse was shot under him and in 
falling injured his left leg, but he remained 
with his regiment and did not go to the hos- 
pital. His sterling worth commands the re- 
spect and confidence of all, and he is one of 

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the valued residents of the city in which he 
has so long made his home. 

Hanpord Boberts. The record of an hon- 
orable, upright life is always read with inter- 
est, and those who have fought and suffered 
for their country are especially deserving of 
an honored place in all its annals. One of 
the boys in blue of the Civil war was Han- 
ford Roberts, whose birth occurred in the 
state of New York January 8, 1846, his par- 
ents being William and Sarah (Clayton) 
Roberts, both natives of England, where the 
father found employment as a master 
mechanic. In their family were thirteen chil- 
dren, eight sons and five daughters, of whom 
Hanford was the youngest in order of birth. 
His early boyhood days were spent in his na- 
tive state of New York, where he learned his 
trade of engineering under his brother John's 
instructions. He was thus engaged at the 
time of his marriage, which occurred in the 
Empire state on the 15th of April, 1867, 
Miss Alice Yarwood becoming his wife. She 
is the daughter of William and Elizabeth 
(Fisher) Yarwood, who were natives of Eng- 
land, as was also Mrs. Roberts, but when only 
two years of age she was brought by her 
father from the mother country to America, 
the family home being established in the state 
of New York. After several years devoted 
to agricultural pursuits in that -common- 
wealth a removal was made to Wisconsin, 
while later the journey was continued to 
Washington, where Mr. Yarwood followed 
farming for a number of years, and when his 
daughter Alice had reached the age of ten 
years the family came to Indiana, first locat- 
ing in Lagrange county. There the father 
continued his agricultural labors for a time, 
but his death occurred in Washington when 
he had reached the age of eighty-eight years. 

It was in the year of 1871 that Mr. and 
Mrs. Boberts came to St. Joseph county, and 
here the husband and father soon became 
associated with the Oliver Chilled Plow 
Works as a master mechanic, thus continuing 
until his busy and useful life was ended in 
death on Decoration Day in 1904. One of the 
most important events in his life was his en- 
listment with the boys in blue for the Civil 
war, entering in 1864 the Fourteenth New 
York Heavy Artillery, with which he served 
until the close of the conflict. During the time^ 
however, he was taken prisoner at Peters- 
burg, and for the long period of seven months 
and three weeks was confined in Libby prison. 

Vol. 11—14. 

there suffering the terrible hardships and 
privations which have so often been described 
in song and story. He ever maintained pleas- 
ant associations with his old army comrades 
by his membership in the Grand Army of 
the Republic, and he was also a member of 
the Odd Fellows order. His political affilia- 
tions were with the Republican party, and 
during two terms he represented his district 
in the city council. 

The union of Mr. and Mrs. Roberts was 
blessed by the birth of six children, two sons 
and four daughters, namely: Jennie, Grace 
E., Alice, Sarah, William and Hanford. 
Grace E., Sarah and Hanford are with their 
father in the home beyond. 

Alpheus F. Baer. The late Alpheus F. 
Baer, who passed away on November 20, 
1906, was a veteran of the entire four years 
of the Civil war, and for a period of forty 
years, as a skilled machinist, was connected 
with various industries of South Bend. He 
was industrious, able and reliability itself, 
and a fine type of the old-school mechanic 
anxious to give in honest services the full 
worth of his wages. Although unobtrusive, 
his long residence in South Bend and his 
sturdy and admirable character gained him 
hosts of friends and he was very well known. 

Alpheus T. Baer was a native of Stark 
county, Ohio, bom April 23, 1844, his father, 
David Baer, being bom in Pennsylvania and, 
during his mature life, an Ohio farmer. He 
became one of the pioneer agriculturists of 
Stark county, where he married Elizabeth 
Doll, a native of Virginia, by whom he had a 
large family. 

Alpheus F. Baer was married in Wayne 
county, Ohio, on May 14, 1862, to Marguerite 
Fisher, a daughter of Jacob Fisher. Her 
father was a tailor, who learned his trade in 
his native state of Pennsylvania, where he 
also married Sophia Ishler, who became by 
this union the mother of fourteen children, 
equally divided as to sex. Mrs. Baer, who 
was the second child of this generous house- 
hold, was bom, reared and educated in Stark 
county, Ohio, where her husband learned his 
trade. In 1861, the year before his marriage, 
Mr. Baer enlisted in the Ninety-fourth Illi- 
nois Volunteer Infantry (Company I), and 
served in this command throughout the war. 
He was in all the battles in which his com- 
pany participated, and his experience in- 
cluded Sherman's historic March to the Sea, 
with the Grand Review at "Washington. Mus- 

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tered out in 1865, he became a resident of 
St. Joseph county in the following year. 

Mr. Baer found prompt employment at his 
trade, among his early works being that in 
connection with the mill race, in association 
with Mr. Railing. In this he was engaged for 
about two years, after which for some time 
he was identified with the furniture business. 
About 1880 the Studebaker Brothers secured 
his services as a machinist, and he remained 
with them as a valued employee for many 
years. At his death he was in his sixty-sec- 
ond year. The deceased was a Republican, a 
member of the G. A. R., a Mason and a Bap- 
tist. He was a stanch friend to the worthy, 
charitable to the limit of his means, a kind 
husband and father and a useful worker in 
the community which he assisted to defend 
in the distant battle fields of the Gulf and 
Atlantic states. 

Mr. and Mrs. Baer became the parents of 
one son and one daughter. Lulu is the wife 
of B. J. Wiley, deceased, a well known South 
Bend miller, and Allen T. was formerly as- 
sociated with the Paris edition of the New 
York Herald. He died March 28, 1900, in 
Paris, France. Mrs. Wiley now resides with 
her mother at 626 N. LaFayette street. 

Reuben Pink is one of the prominent men 
of South Bend, where he has been engaged 
in the drug business for a number of years, 
and in that line is well known to the public. 
His well appointed drug store is located at 
701 Vistula avenue. His birth occurred in 
Elkhart county, Indiana, February 4, 1859, 
and for a history of his father's family see 
sketch of Dr. Fink in this work. The son 
Reuben was reared in his native county of 
Elkhart, receiving his educational training in 
its common schools and in the Valparaiso 
Normal University. He then spent a few 
years in the middle west, in Illinois and 
Iowa, and returning was for three years a 
resident of Attica, Ohio, where he was en- 
gaged in farming and threshing. On the ex- 
piration of that period Mr. Fink returned to 
Elkhart, Indiana, where he secured employ- 
ment with the United States Express Com- 
pany, spending one and a half years on a 
wagon and for three years had chai'ge of the 
night transfer. He was then promoted to the 
position of express messenger on the Lake 
Shore Railroad, running from Buffalo to Chi- 
cago, a distance of five hundred and forty 
miles, and this was one of the heaviest runs 
in the service. On account of ill health he 

was obliged to resign this position after three 
years of service, and in 1892 came to South 
Bend, where he and his brother John opened 
a drug store at 303 South Michigan street. 
Later Mr. Reuben Fink became the sole owner 
of the store, which he conducted until May 1, 
1905, at which time it was sold and on the 
18th of July following he bought his present 
store, where he has since carried on a large 
and ever increasing business. 

In April, 1883, Mr. Fink was united in 
mari'iage to Emma C. Pontious, who was 
born in Akron, Ohio, and she was reared in 
Elkhart, Indiana, and Topeka, Kansas. 
One son has been bom of this union, Ed- 
ward W., who is now attending the high 
school. Mr. Fink has membership relations 
with the Knights of the Maccabees, South 
Bend Tent No. 1, and with the Woodmen of 
the World, in which he has served as clerk of 
Harmony Camp, No. 78, since its organiza- 
tion. His political affiliations are with the 
Democratic party. 

John Main. This honored citizen of St. 
Joseph county is one of its sturdy pioneers, 
where since his early manhood he has been 
identified with agricultural pursuits, and has 
aided materially in the development and 
progress of the community. He has ever been 
found loyal to the cause of right and truth, 
his influence being used for the good and 
well being of those in any way associated 
with him. His birth occurred in Henry 
county, Indiana, March 31, 1835, his parents 
being Horace and Anna (Smith) Main, the 
former of English and the latter of German 
descent, while both were natives of Ohio. 
As early as 1828 the father journeyed to St. 
Joseph county, Indiana, but in the same year 
returned to Henry county, Indiana, which 
continued as his home until 1835. In that 
year he again made the journey to Warren 
township, St. Joseph county, where he im- 
proved a farm, and there lived and labored 
until the close of his earthly career, passing 
to the home beyond at the age of forty-five 
years, being survived many years by his 
^\'idow, who died at the age of fifty-eight 
years. They became the parents of six chil- 
dren, five of whom are now living. 

John Main, the eldest child, was brought 
by his parents to St. Joseph county, Indiana, 
in April, 1835, just one month following his 
birth, and when but a small boy he began 
assisting in the work of the old home farm 
in Warren township. When it was possible 

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1909 .-.^ 

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he attended the district school near his home, 
but his educational advantages were limited, 
and he continued with his parents until his 
marriage. With his young bride he then 
took up his abode on a farm of his 6wn in 
Warren township, gradually placing his fields 
under an excellent state of cultivation, and 
in addition to his agricultural labors he was 
also quite extensively engaged in stock-rais- 
ing, being quite successful in the dual occu- 
pation. His farm consisted of one hundred 
and sixty acres, and has been divided among 
his children, he owning and residing in a 
pleasant home of his own at 125 North Wal- 
nut street. South Bend, where he is living 
in quiet retirement after many years of 
earnest labor. 

In 1858 Mr. Main was united in marriage 
to Sarah Padock, by whom he had six chil- 
dren, Melvina, Martha S., John (deceased), 
Esther Rosetta, Robert and Sarah E. In 
1875 he married Phebe Weed, while in 1883 
Jennie Gantz became his wife, and his pres- 
ent wife bore the maiden name of Julia A. 
Snyder, and their marriage was celebrated in 
1901. Mr. Main was at one time a member 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
and is a Democrat in his political affiliations, 
having held many of the local offices of his 

John Byers. In the best development of 
St. Joseph coimty John Byer3 has borne his 
full share, having been prominently identi- 
fied with its agricultural interests from pio- 
neer days, and while promoting the material 
welfare of the community has also given an 
active and liberal support to those measures 
which tend to advance its intellectual and 
moral status. He is now living retired from 
the active cares of a business life at his pleas- 
ant home, 517 South Main street, South 
Bend, enjoying the comforts which many 
years of toil have brought. He is of Scotch 
descent, and his paternal grandfather was 
Andrew Byers, in whose family were eight 
children, four sons and four d&ughters. An- 
drew Byers, Jr., the third son and fourth 
child in order of birth in the family, was 
born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 
December 6, 1800, and when but a little 
lad moved with his parents to Morgan county, 
Ohio, where he was reared to years of ma- 
turity on a farm, and after completing his 
studies in the district schools near his home 
entered college, thus obtaining excellent 
training for those early days. During sev- 

eral years thereafter he was one of the most 
efficient teachers ih Morgan county, Ohio. 

In Licking county, Ohio, Mr. Byers was 
united in marriage to Mary Price, who was 
bom in Kentucky in 1801, a daughter of 
John B. Price. After his marriage Mr. 
Byers located on a farm in Morgan county 
and resumed the teacher's profession, also 
working at his trade of shoemaking, and con- 
tinuing all three occupations until he came 
to St. Joseph county, Indiana, in 1836 and 
entered land. In the following year he moved 
to Marshall coimty. He traded two yoke of 
oxen and a wagon for one hundred and 
seventy acres of land near the St. Joseph 
county line, and there his death occurred in 
1838, leaving his widow with seven small 
children, five sons and two daughters, the 
eldest being but fifteen years of age, while 
the youngest was less than a year old: In 
order of birth they were as follows; Melissa, 
who became the wife of Abram Kelter and 
died on the 31st of July, 1890; Sarah, who 
became the wife of Hiram Mikesell, and died 
on the 3d of February, 1895; John, whose 
name introduces this review ; Andrew, a resi- 
dent of South Bend ; Alva, of Oregon ; Ben- 
jamin P., deceased; and William J., also de- 
ceased. The mother was a brave pioneer 
woman, and after her husband's death she 
continued the work of the farm and the sup- 
port of the children, their home being a lit- 
tle log cabin of one room, sixteen by twenty- 
four feet, while their nearest neighbor was 
about two miles distant, with no roads be- 
tween the farms, and the second nearest 
neighbor was four miles away. Indians still 
roamed at will over the country, and many 
other dangers beset those brave pioneers. 
Her death occurred on the 4th of July, 1852, 
when she had reached the age of fifty-one 
years. Mr. Byers was reared in the faith of 
the Presbyterian church, but after his mar- 
riage he joined the Methodist Episcopal de- 
nomination, and ever afterward remained one 
of its faithful members. 

John Byers was but eleven years old at the 
time of his father's death, and from that 
early age he assisted in the clearing of the 
farm. In June, 1843, the family moved seven 
miles west, locating in Kankakee district, St. 
Joseph county, where the mother purchased 
a forty-acre farm, erected a little log cabin, 
and the work of clearing the land was begun. 
In addition to assisting in the clearing and 
cultivating of the land Mr. Byers also learned 

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the mason's trade, and after his marriage 
he took up his abode on a farm of forty 
acres in Portage township, five miles from 
South Bend, which he had previously pur- 
chased. On the land was a little log cabin, 
in which the young couple began their mar- 
ried life, and the hu^and continued the 
work of improving the fields, subsequently 
adding sixty acres to his original purchase, 
which made him the proud possessor of one 
hundred acres. In 1867 he sold that place 
and purchased a farm on Sumption's prairie, 
Greene township, to which he shortly after- 
ward added twenty acres, again becoming 
the owner of one hundred acres, and after 
partially improving the land he traded the 
farm for city property in South Bend in 
1900. Previous to this time, however, in 
1892, he had rented his farm and moved 
to this city, where he has ever since lived a 
retired life, enjoying the rest which he has 
so truly earned, for although now surrounded 
by all the comforts of life, in his early years 
he experienced many of the hardships and 
difficulties incident to the establishment of a 
home on the frontier. 

On the 19th of October, 1848, Mr. Byers' 
married Anna Eliza Brown, who was bom 
in Middlesex county, New Jersey, December 
29, 1829, a daughter of Abram and Char- 
lotte (Brown) Brown. In 1835 the family 
located on a farm five miles west of South 
Bend, and at that early day the facilities 
for travel were very meager, ss these trav- 
elers came to Lake Erie by canal, thence to 
Detroit, Michigan, by lake boat, and from 
that city to their new home by wagon. The 
log cabin into which they moved was located 
on an Indian trail, and was long a stopping 
place for the dusky warriors who inhabited 
that section. The maternal grandfather of 
Mrs. Byers was a soldier in the Revolutionary 
war, and her father taught the first school 
in his community, gathering the children of 
the neighborhood into his own home and thus 
becoming one of the founders of the educa- 
tional system of St. Joseph county. Mrs. 
Byers united with the Methodist Episcopal 
church in the summer of 1843, during serv- 
ices held in the house of Archibald Defrees, 
/ and she lived an exemplary Christian life, 
manifested in good deeds, and will long be 
remembered as a loving wife, a kind and 
gentle mother, a quiet and peaceful neighbor 
and an honored and respected citizen. Her 
death oc<»urred on the 30th of January, 1907, 

and she now sleeps in the South Bend ceme- 
tery. Seven children were born to Mr. and 
Mrs. JByers, namely: Andrew J., who was 
bom in Portage township September 26, 
1849, and is now a resident of Sumption's 
Prairie; Abram W., who was born in the 
same township February 14, 1852, is at home; 
Margaret A., who was born July 7, 18.>4, 
is the wife of William Inwood, who is living 
retired in South Bend; Mary Ella and Clara 
Charlotte, who died whei^ young; Carrie E., 
bom in December, 1864, is at home; and 
George W., bom in 1866, is a postal telegraph 
operator in Lafayette, Indiana. Mr. Byers, 
the father, upholds the principles of the De- 
mocracy, and his first presidential vote was 
cast in South Bend, Indiana, for General 
Lewis <5as8, and twice he has supported the 
Prohibition ticket. During eight yeai-s he 
served as a justice of the peace in Greene 
township, and has also held other local of- 
fices. For sixty years he has been a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church, while for 
fifty-five years continuously he has served as 
a class leader and has also been supei'inten- 
dent of the Sunday-school, always attending 
the Sunday-school when able. The friends 
of John Byers are legion, his many noble 
qualities having won the praise and admira- 
tion of his associates and acquaintances, and 
his life, which has long passed the Psahn- 
ist's span, has been filled with useful, loving 
deeds, which will be remembered when he 
has been called to his reward. 

WiLUAM Mack. South Bend in the '40b 
was a community of too infantile growth to 
have developed any careers or to have pro- 
duced any sterling business promises. In 
the nature of things its destiny was the slow 
but sure unfolding of a prairie site, depen- 
dent upon a rich agricultural region, and 
upon the proximity to a clear and beautiful 
river. The most adventurous and daring 
could discern no road to rapid fortune, or 
any short cut to immediate personal aggran- 
dizement. The man who sought wealth only 
continued his way to the Pacific Coast 
Necessarily, those who tarried here to lend 
their brain and energy and heart to the 
making of homes and the establishment of 
legitimate enterprise possessed patience, 
courage and pioneering instincts. They were 
the backbone of the city of to-day. A few 
remain to tell the story of their struggles 
with unsettled conditions. But more left 
hardy sons to continue their work or to main- 

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tain the dignity and purpose of their less 
happily environed lives. To the latter class 
belongs William Mack. 

William Mack was born near Silver Creek, 
Chautauqua county, New York, October 9, 
1828. His father, John Mack, was born in 
New England, and his father. Captain John 
Mack, also a native of New England, was 
one of the pioneers of Chautauqua county. 
He made the entire journey from New Eng- 
land with teams, passing the present site of 
the city of Buffalo when there were but two 
houses there. He halted for a short time 
in Hamburg, Erie county, and from there 
to Chautauqua county and bought land about 
one-half mile from the mouth of Cattaraugus 
creek. He built a hotel which became a 
stage station, and which he cond^icted many 
years, until his death. He was twice mar- 
ried. His first wife was Experience Joiner 
and the second Silence Enos. 

The father of our subject was but a boy 
when his parents moved to York state. With 
his brother-in-law he succeeded to the owner- 
ship of his father's estate, and they operated 
the hotel a few years, and then purchased 
land on the lake shore and built a hotel a 
mile west of the hotel previously mentioned, 
which was a stage station, and also farmed 
and got out timber from the Cattaraugus res- 
ervation for ship builddng and docks. In 
1844 he sold his interest there and oame to 
Indiana. With his wife he made the jour- 
ney via lake to Detroit, thence via railroad 
to Jackson, and then came to LaPorte 
county, while the four children made the 
entire journey overland with e team. He . 
lived in LaPorte county one year, and then 
came to South Bend and bought land on 
the east side of the river, and there he built 
a home. He soon after entered the employ 
of Alexis Coquillard, and with him made 
an overland journey to the territory of Kan- 
sas, assisting in removing the Indianis to 
their reservation in that territory. He was 
in Mr. Coquillard 's employ several years. 
He spent his last years retired, and died in 
his eighty-third year. He was twice mar- 
ried. Hia first wife, the mother of our sub- 
ject, was Clarissa W. Hanford. She was 
bom in Connecticut, a daughter of Joseph 
Hanford. She died in York state, previous 
to the removal of the family to Indiana. 
There were six children born to this mar- 
riage and one to tie second marriage. 

Our subject attended school quite steadily 

in his youth, both in the state of New York 
and in South Bend, and at twenty-one com- 
menced an apprenticeship to learn the trade 
of brick, stone and plaster mason, in which 
he served three years and then conunenced 
contracting. For several winters he served 
as deputy clerk in the office of the clerk of 
the Circuit Court, and later entered the em- 
ploy of the Studebakers and was cashier in 
their office thirty-one years, when he resigned 
and has since lived retired, enjoying the 
fruits of a well-®pent life. 

He has been twice married. The maiden 
name of his first wife, to whom he was mar- 
ried in 1852, was Lauretta Thurber. She 
was, it is thought, born in northeastern Penn- 
sylvania, a daughter of Nathaniel and Sarah 
Ann (Leland) Thurber. Mrs. Mack died in 
1900: His second marriage occurred to Mrs. 
Harriet (Dennison) Chaffee, widow of Cem- 
fert T. Chaffee, of South Bend. By the first 
marriage there were two sons. William H., 
the second, is a resident of South Bend. He 
married Eva Staley and they reside in South 
Bend, Indi^ma. They have two children, 
Ethel and Winnifred, both married, the for- 
mer wife of Earl Doty and resides in Chi- 
cago; the latter married W. 0. Davis and 
resides in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The oldest 
son, Walter E., married Janet Lewis, of Illi- 
nois, and settled in Cleveland, Ohio, where 
she died in 1893. He died in South Bend in 
1906. There were four children born to 
Walter and his wife: Walter L., Annie, 
William and Janet. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mack are both members of 
the Baptist church, as was his first wife. 
He cast his first presidential vote for Frank- 
lin Pierce, and has always been a Democrat. 
He has served as a member of the city coun- 
cil and city treasurer. 

Mr. Mack is to-day, although seventy-nine 
years of age, a man of striking personal ap- 
pearance, a representative type of the early 
pioneer, strong and vigorous, retaining his 
youth mentally and physically. His genial 
and kindly nature has won for him the high- 
est regard of his fellow men, so that in the 
evening of his life he is blessed with health, 
friends and happiness. 

Colonel Charles Ream. Colonel Charles 
Ream, a retired farmer living at No. 1522 
South Michigan street. South Bend, was born 
in Canal Dover, Tuscarawas county. Ohio, 
October 29, 1838, a son of Andrew J. and 
Leah (Shaffer) Ream, the latter being a na- 

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tive of Waynesburg, Stark county, Ohio, and 
of German descent. She lived to the age 
of sixty years. The father, also a native of 
the Buckeye state, was a life-long tiller of 
the soil. In 1850 the family home was estab- 
lished in Marshall county, Indiana, but later 
the family removed to Union township, St. 
Joseph county, where the father followed his 
chosen occupation of farming until his life's 
labors were ended in death, passing away at 
the age of seventy-five years. He was a 
son of Michael Ream, a native of Pennsyl- 
vania, a hatter by trade, and one of the 
early pioneers of Tuscarawas county, Ohio. 
The family is of German descent. Mr. and 
Mrs. Ream became the parents of six chil- 
dren, three sons and three daughters, and 
all grew to years of maturity. 

Colonel Ream, the eldest child, remained 
in his native place of Canal Dover until his 
eighteenth year, when he accompanied his 
parents on their removal to Indiana, the 
home being established in Marshall county, 
while in 1858 he came with them to Union 
township, St. Joseph county^. He was early 
inured to the labors of the farm, and was 
thus engaged until his enlistment in the Civil 
war on the 27th of August, 1861, entering 
Company K, Twenty-ninth Indiana Volun- 
teer Infantry, entering the ranks as a private, 
but for meritorious service on the field of 
battle was promoted first to orderly sergeant 
of the company, thence to the captaincy, next 
to major and was finally made the lieutenant 
colonel, serving with that rank until the 
close of the war. He subsequently re-enlisted 
in the same company ^nd regiment, his entire 
military career covering a period of four 
years, three months and six days, during 
which time he participated in the battles of 
Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, Perryville, Stone 
River and Chickamauga, after which he was 
sent back with Thomas to Nashville, with 
whom he served in many battles and skir- 
mishes. In the engagement at Chickamauga 
Mr. Ream was wounded in the left foot by 
a minie ball, and for ten days was left lying 
on the field of battle, afterward spending 
two months in the hospital. Returning 
thence to his regiment he with ten others 
of his company was captured at the battle 
of Stone River and for two months was in- 
carcerated at Libby Prison. It was on the 
13th of December, 1865, that he was made the 
colonel of his regiment. His promotions 
came to him as the meritorious reward of 

bravery and self-denying labor in the cause 
of his country, and with a military record 
of which he has every reason to be proud 
he returned to his home in Union township 
and to the quiet pursuits of the farm. In 
1870, however, Mr. Ream sold his home place 
and went to Oregon, but three years later 
sold the place which he had there purchased 
and returned to South Bend, his labors there- 
after being confined to farming and the buy- 
ing and selling of wood until 1901, when 
he gave up the active cares of a business 
life to enjoy in quiet retirement the labors 
of former years. 

On the 8th of November, 1866, Mr. Ream 
was united in marriage to Margaretta J. 
Haney, the daughter of Joseph and Mary 
(Bowman) Haney, who were numbered 
among the early settlers of St. Joseph county 
and prominently identified with its early his- 
tory. Mrs. Ream was bom in Portage town- 
ship of this county April 19, 1845, just 
across the street from where she now resides, 
and by her marriage has become the mother 
of five daughters: Rose, the wife of Charles 
E. Huse, an employe of the Studebaker Com- 
pany; Mary, the wife of Lloyd Alward, of 
South Bend; Florence, deceased; and Daisy 
and Fanny Haney, at home. Colonel Ream 
has been a life-long supporter of the Repub- 
lican party, and in the county where he has 
so long made his home he is well and favor- 
ably known. Mrs. Ream is a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. 

Andrew Koener. For many years An- 
drew Koener was a prominent factor in the 
business life of South Bend, but now in the 
evening of a long, useful and honorable ca- 
reer he is enjoying a well earned rest. He is 
distinctively the architect of his own for- 
tunes, and from the little German home 
across the sea, where he was born on the 8th 
of September, 1837, he made his way to the 
new world at the age of twenty years, being 
accompanied on the journey hither by his 
father. In his native land he had received 
his education, and when only fourteen years 
of age began working at the cabinet-making: 
business, thus continuing until his emigration 
to the new world. Landing in New York 
city, he shortly afterward made his way to 
Englishton, New Jersey, thence, to Go wan da, 
that state, and subsequently returned to Dun- 
kirk, New York. His next location was in 
Warren, Pennsylvania, subsequently remov- 
ing to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and thence to 

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Appleton, Wisconsin, from whence he en- 
listed for service in the Civil war, enlisting 
on August 21, 1862, in Company I, Thirty- 
second Volunteer Infantry, in which he 
served until the close of the conflict as a 
private, but during a part of the summer of 
1863 he was in the hospital. In August, 
1864, at the skirmish on the Summerfield 
road, near Decatur, Alabama, he was made 
a prisoner and taken to Kahaba, Alabama. 
He was held a prisoner nine months, until 
the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged from the service at Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin, on June 12, 1865. After the close of 
the war Mr. Koener spent about two years in 
St. Louis, Missouri, where he worked at his 
trade of cabinet making; from that city 
journeying to Kansas City, six months later 
to St. Charles, Missouri, thence to Hillsboro, 
Illinois, and on to Chicago, from which city 
he came to South Bend in 1869 and became 
associated with the Union Manufacturing 
Company. His connection with that corpo- 
ration continued until 1877, when he re- 
turned to Hillsboro, Illinois, but in 1882 
came again to South Bend and began work 
with the Liphart Manufacturing Company. 
He remained with this company until 
that concern quit business, after which 
he was associated with Wells & Creithbaum. 
Throughout his long and active business ca- 
reer he was most faithful to the ethics of 
commercial life, but in 1895 he laid aside the 
active cares of business to live quietly in his 
pleasant home which he had purchased about 
1884. In addition to his residence he also 
owns property adjoining, which he rents, and 
is the owner of residence property on Hill 

On November 25, 1870, was celebrated the 
marriage of Mr. Koener and Miss Mary Shef- 
fler, and they have one adopted son, Rich- 
ard. Mr. Koener maintains pleasant rela- 
tions with his old army comrades by his 
membership in Norman Eddy Post, No. 579, 
6. A. R. In political matters he supports the 
principles of the Republican party, but in 
local affairs votes for the man whom he re- 
gards as best qualified for office. Such is the 
biography of one of the successful men of 
St. Joseph county. He has carved his way 
to aflBuence unaided, alone, by constant ap- 
plication and hard work, and his many ster- 
ling characteristics have gained him the re- 
spect and confidence of men. 

John Zeltner. The late John Zeltner, 

whose sudden death from a paralytic stroke 
occured at the family residence in South 
Bend, had been a prominent business man 
of the city for the preceding twenty-four 
years. He was of honesit, sturdy character, 
intelligent, economical, industrious and 
practical; he had all the distinctive traits of 
his (German ancestry, plus a large measure 
of the American enterprise, and therefore 
made a good business man as well as a 
typically useful citizen. Besides his wife 
and brothers he left a wide and warm circle 
of friends who had been attracted to him by 
his good heart and acts of kindness and help- 

T^e deceased was bom in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
a son of George and Mary Zeltner, and there 
he spent his boyhood and received his educa- 
tion. Quite early in life he learned the trade 
of a bellows maker, and when he removed to 
Laporte — still but a boy— engaged both in 
that avocation as well as in the bakery and 
restaurant business. Immediately after be- 
coming a resident of South Bend, in 1883, 
he opened a hardware store on Chapin street, 
commencing the business with his brother 
Andrew under the firm name of Zeltner 
Brothers. He continued at this site until 
the time of his death, when his house had 
conducted business longer at the same local- 
ity than any other establishment in South 

On the 16th of December, 1891, Mr. Zelt- 
ner was married to Miss Frances Pike, a 
native of Willoughby, Ohio, his faithful and 
sorrowing wife still surviving him. The fam- 
ily were members of the St. Paul's Memo- 
rial church. Rev. W. F. Hovis, the pastor, 
conducting the funeral services of the de- 
ceased. Mr. Zeltner gave his vote and sup- 
port to the Republican party, but he never 
entered politics, being content to be known 
as an honest, able business man, and good 
husband, a helpful friend and an unosten- 
tatious but useful citizen. 

Frank P. Christoph. The name of Frank 
P. Christoph stands conspicuously forth on 
the roster of St. Joseph county's officials in 
connection with the position of clerk. Many 
years of his life have been passed in the 
county, and have been of uniform honor in 
business and fidelity in places of public 
trust. He was born in Erie, Pennsylvania, 
December 14, 1858, a son of Frank and 
Magdalena (Fink) Christoph, both natives of 
Germany, but both came to this country in 

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early life. They were long residents of Erie, 
Pennsylvania, and the father served as bag- 
gage master for the Lake Shore Railroad 
Company during the long period of forty 
years, his death occurring at the age of fifty- 
seven years. The mother preceded her hus- 
band to the home beyond, dying at the age 
of fifty-five years. They were the parents of 
nine children, but only two are living at the 
present time, the daughter being Mary, wife 
of Sanford Elias, of Painesville, Ohio. 

In his native city of Erie Prank P. Chris- 
toph was reared and received his educational 
training, attending a Catholic school. At the 
early age of seventeen years he left home and 
inheriting something of his father's taste for 
railroad work engaged in that occupation, 
having been employed with most of the large 
railroad companies operating between New 
York and San Prancisco, serving in the ca- 
pacities of brakeman and conductor, while 
for twelve years he was a conductor on the 
Grand Trunk. Por two years thereafter Mr. 
Christoph was with the Mishawaka Woolen 
Company, and in 1906 was elected to the 
position of clerk of St. Joseph county, in 
which he is the present inciunbent, while for 
some time he also served as the marshal of 
Mishawaka. In his present position he has 
been very efficient and faithful, making a 
most competent officer. 

In 1884 Mr. Christoph was married to Min- 
nie, a daughter of L. A. and Anna Smith, of 
Mishawaka, although the daughter is a na- 
tive of Iowa. Two children have been bom 
of this union, Hazel P. and Prank H. In 
his political affiliations Mr. Christoph has 
always been a zealous Democrat, active in 
the work and laboring earnestly for the adop- 
tion of the principles which he believes will 
best advance good government. In his fra- 
ternal relations he is a member of the Elks, 
the Knights of Pythias and the Knights of 
the Maccabees, all of Mishawaka with the 
exception of the Elks, with which he holds 
membership in South Bend. He enjoys the 
regard of his fellow men and is widely and 
favorably known in St. Joseph county. 

William 0. Davies. During a number of 
years past the name of William 0. Davies 
has been inseparably interwoven with the 
business interests of South Bend, and 
through his diligence, perseverance and busi- 
ness ability he has acquired a handsome com- 
petence, while at the same time he has con- 
tributed to the general prosperity through 

the conduct of enterprises which have fur- 
nished employment to many. He was bom 
in Portage, Wisconsin, on the 7th of Jan- 
uary, 1857, and his father, Thomas R. Davies, 
was a native of Wales, but came to America 
during his early manhood and located first 
in Utica,' New York, where he followed his 
trades of carpentering and stair-building. 
He was there married to Winifred Jones, also 
a native of Wales, and together the young 
couple emigrated to Portage, Wisconsin, 
where in those early days he was engaged in 
the manufacture of fanning mills. His life's 
labors were ended in death when he had 
reached the age of sixty-one years, his wife 
surviving until sixty-five years of age, and 
they now lie buried in Spokane, Washington. 
In their family were eight children, five sons 
and three daughters. 

William 0. Davies, their eldest child, re- 
mained in his native city of Portage, Wiscon- 
sin, until fourteen years of age, removing 
thence to Rockford, Illinois, and one year 
later, in February, 1872, to Chicago, where 
he secured employment in the Wilson Broth- 
ers' shirt factory. In 1883 he was sent by 
his employers to South Bend to open a shirt 
factory in this city, continuing with this 
company for twenty-four years or until the 
1st of January, 1896, when he resigned his 
position to go to Chicago and start a high 
grade hand laundry. This enterprise has 
grown until it is now one of the largest ex- 
clusive hand laundries in the United States, 
giving employment to eighty people and oc- 
cupying a large building built. expressly for 
the purpose. In 1899, however, Mr. Davies 
returned to South Bend and established a 
laundry in this city, while two years later a 
shirt factory was made an addition to the 
South Bend laundry, where in that depart- 
ment alone employment is furnished to 
eighty people, and they have established a 
reputation for high grade shirts which has 
made them famous throughout the central 
west. Mr. Davies still retains his interest 
in the Chicago laundry, where he also has a 
large market for his shirts. Thus by his own 
efforts he has made himself a leader in the 
business circles of the community, and has 
won a name in connection with industrial 
interests that is widely known. 

The marriage of Mr. Davies was celebrated 
on the 16th of September, 1882, when Han- 
nah Schimmel. a daughter of Elam 0. and 
Sfirnh (Kauffman) Schimmel, became his 

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wife. She was bom in Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, but was taken to Chicago when ten 
years of age and reared in that city, grad- 
uating in one of its high schools. They have 
three sons and one daughter, — Warren T., 
who is assisting in his father's shirt factory; 
W. Owen, Jr., attending Wabash College ; 
George E., a student in the public schools 
of South Bend; and Helen, a little lady of 
twelve years. The cause of education finds 
in Mr. Davies a warm friend, who has ef- 
fectually advanced its interests, and for three 
years was treasurer of the school board, and 
it was through his efforts that domestic sci- 
ence was introduced into the schools of South 
Bend. He is a Republican in his political 
affiliations, but was placed in the oflSce by 
the Democratic vote of the council. He is 
the present vice-president of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of South Bend, 
having previously served as its president for 
a number of years, and was its first physical 
director, conducting the gymnasium class 
during the evenings. During his residence 
in Chicago he was also prominent in athletic 
circles. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
church, in which he has served as an elder 
for eighteen years, while formerly he had a 
young men's class of thirty members, many 
of them being now prominent young business 
men of South Bend. He is now serving aa 
superintendent of the Sunday-school, is one 
of the directors of the Associated Charities 
of South Bend and is vice-president of the 
County Sunday-school Association. 

David B. Miller, whose death occurred 
on the 18th of June, 1907, was numbered 
among the veterans of the Civil war, and was 
a worthy representative of one of the pio- 
neer families of this region. He was bom 
in German township, St. Joseph county, In- 
diana, March 26, 1843, a son of David and 
Louisa (O'Connor) Miller. The father, who 
was bom in Northumberland county, Penn- 
sylvania, on the 5th of July, 1806, was a 
Dunkard minister, and in the early year of 
1839 he cast in his lot with the pioneer set- 
tlers of German township, St. Joseph county, 
Indiana, where he followed farming and also 
labored as a minister in the Dunkard church 
until his life's labors were ended in death 
on the 29th of November, 1876. Mrs. Miller, 
who was bom on the 31st of August, 1807, 
(lied in March. 1843. They were the 
parents of seven children, namely: Tobias, 
born in 1830; Maria, in 1832; Eliza- 

beth, in 1834; Laura A., in 1837; Sarah, in 
1839; Solomon C, in 1841; and David B., 
in 1843. For his second wife Mr. Miller 
chose Catherine Keltner, who was born on 
the 29th of November, 1824, and died at the 
age of sixty-eight years. They became the 
parents of nine children: Lucinda, born in 
1845 ; Narcissus, in 1847 ; Margaret, in 1849 : 
Daniel C, in 1851; Hiram, in 1854; Jessie, 
in 1856; Louisa J., in I860; Mary, in 1864; 
and Grant, in 1866. With the exception of 
two, Tobias and Maria, all of the sixteen chil- 
dren were born in St. Joseph county, in 
Green and German townships. 

David B. Miller, whose name introduces 
this review, was reared in the home of his 
grandmother until he was five years old, for 
his mother died within three weeks of his 
birth, and he was thereafter cared for by 
his stepmother, who proved a loving and faith- 
ful counselor, giving to him the same filial 
devotion as to her own children. In 1861, 
when eighteen years of age, Mr. Miller of- 
fered his services in the defense of his coun- 
try, becoming a member of Company I, 
Ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and after 
three months of service therein he re-enlisted 
in Company F, Twenty-ninth Indiana Vol- 
unteers, under Colonel John F. Miller, who 
afterward became a general. After twelve 
months of service he received an honorable 
discharge and veteranized in the Twenty-first 
Light Artillery, Indiana Battery, with which 
he continued for fourteen months, when he 
became ill and was sent to the Nashville 
hospital, from where he was transferred to 
the Invalid Corps and was honorably dis- 
charged on the 19th of June, 1865, after a 
military career of four years. Mr. Miller 
was ever true to his duties as a brave and 
loyal soldier, and he was promoted to the 
positions of sergeant and corporal. After 
participating in the grand review at Wash- 
ington he returned to his home in South 
Bend, and in August, 1865, began learning 
the trade of a wagon maker with the Stude- 
baker Brothers, his connection with them con- 
tinuing for about thirty-two years, but not 
continuously. For two years from 1876 he 
was engaged in agricultural pursuits in Lib- 
erty township, going thence to Union town- 
ship, and in 1883 returned to the Studebaker 
Brothers and was made foreman of their lum- 
ber department. During the long period of 
seventeen years he continued in that impor- 
tant office, and after his resignation lived in 

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quiet retirement at his pleasant home in 
South Bend until his death. Strictly up- 
right and above reproach in all his dealings 
with others, he merited the high esteem in 
which he was held by all who had the pleas- 
ure of his acquaintance. 

On the 25th of December, 1867, Mr. Miller 
was united in marriage to Anna M. Morgan, 
the daughter of Charles and Sarah Morgan, 
and her death occurred on the 15th of 
August, 1902, leaving one son, Henry N., 
who was born September 1, 1868, and is now 
associated as a machinist with the Singer 
Manufacturing Company. In political mat- 
ters Mr. Miller upheld the principles of the 
Republican party, and he was a member of 
the Knights and Ladies of Columbus, the 
Maccabees, and Auten Post, No. 8, G. A. R., 
in which he has served as a chaplain for 
seven years. His path was marked by good 
deeds, by honest purpose, by commendable 
industry and worthy motives, and when the 
final summons came he left a record that is 
well worthy of emulation. 

William Washington Giddings, who was 
long a prominent Democrat and a leading 
railroad man and progressive citzen of South 
Bend, died in the city of his adoption on 
the 21st of March, 1883, and his widow, nee 
Mary Elizabeth Flinn, who for many years 
was a leader in the local work of the W. C. 
T. U., still survives him as a useful and 
honored resident. Mr. Giddings was a na- 
tive of Barkhamsted, Litchfield county, Con- 
necticut, bom March 29, 1826. Lorain Gid- 
dings, his father, was of southern blood, but 
a farmer of Connecticut, in which state he 
married a native daughter, Desdemona Cow- 
drey. They became the parents of five sons 
and four daughters, all of whom were born 
and reared in Connecticut. 

William W. Giddings was the fourth child 
aiid the second son in the farmily bom to 
Mr. and Mrs. Lorain Giddings. He was of 
a studious and reflective disposition, and his 
original intention was to enter the ministry, 
but he was obliged to abandon his purpose 
on account of a weakness of the eyes and un- 
certain health. He then retired to his fa- 
ther's farm, where he remained until his 
health was fully restored, when he removed 
to Springfield, Massachusetts, to become con- 
nected with the grocery business. Later he 
went to New Hampshire, and commenced his 
long identification with railroading Avith the 
Boston, Lowell & Nashua Railroad. 

On the 17th of January, 1854, while liv- 
ing in Connecticut, Mr. Giddings was united 
in marriage to Mary E. Flinn, daughter of 
Samuel and Clarissa Flinn, a Massachusetts 
lady, bom March 2, 1835. Her father, who 
was born in Dublin, Ireland, was an expert 
in the installing of heavy machinery, and his 
services were in ready demand by many of 
the manufacturers of the east. He came to 
America when only fourteen years of age, 
and his wife, Clarissa Durgin Langley, was 
a native of Nottinghapi, New Hampshire. 
They became the parents of five sons and four 
daughters, of whom Mrs. Giddings was the 
fourth child and the second daughter. 

Mr. and Mrs. William W. Giddings lo- 
cated in South Bend in 1872, and shortly 
afterward the latter became corresponding 
secretary of the W. C. T. U., remaining in 
that position for about fourteen years, and 
always maintaining her deep and practical 
interest in it as a steadfast and active worker. 
The three children in their family were: 
William Washington, Jr., Samuel Ballon and 
Mary Greenleaf . Mr. Giddings was a Demo- 
cratic leader of much local influence, and at 
one time represented the Third ward in the 
city council. He was a Mason, an Odd Fel- 
low, a leading member of the Episcopal 
church, and a citizen of wide usefulness and 
unimpeachable honor. His widow has cause 
to feel a deep' pride in his record, and her 
own life of high thoughts and good deeds 
gives an added luster to the family name. 

Edson Foster, retired merchant and prom- 
inent citizen of South Bend, Indiana, now 
residing at 741 West Washington street, is 
a native of Orange county, Vermoi^t, bom 
August 29, 1821, the son of William E. and 
Lucinda (Walker) Foster. His grandfather, 
Hezekiah P. Foster, was a native of New 
Hampshire and a patriot of the Revolutionary 

Edson attended the district schools of his 
native locality until he was fifteen years of 
age, when the parents brought their family 
to Indiana, making the journey by teams 
and lake vessels. They located near Middle- 
bury, Elkhart county, where the father died 
in February^ 1837, and where the son taught 
school for more than ten years. In this occu- 
pation Edson Foster obtained a high reputa- 
tion, but finding his mind more and more 
turning to mercantile pursuits abandoned it, 
and, after clerking for about four years, en- 
tered that field as a principal. In 1851 he 

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formed a connection with his brother-in-law, 
under the firm name of Foster & White, and 
conducted a growing and finally an extensive 
business until 1892. Since 1875, however, it 
has been practically managed by Mr. White, 
and upon his death in 1892 it was closed up. 

In the meantime Mr. Foster had been mak- 
ing frequent additions to his landed inter- 
ests, and is now the owner of several hundred 
acres in Elkhart county, besides valuable 
real estate in South Bend. He has been a 
resident of the city since 1875, being con- 
sidered not only a substantial but a broad- 
minded and public-spirited member of the 

Mr. Foster's wife, to whom he was mar- 
ried in 1845, was formerly Mary H. White, 
daughter of James J. White. Their only 
child, Mrs. Mary J. Hickox, is the widow of 
Albert J. Hickox, formerly a leading citizen 
of San Francisco. With D. O. Mills, he was 
also one of the founders of the Petroleum 
and Mining Exchange of New York city. 
Mr. Hickox died in July, 1883, and since 
his decease his widow has resided with her 
father in South Bend. Despite his venerable 
age, Edson Foster attends to his real estate 
and other business interests, the brightness 
of his mind and his sturdy bearing being a 
source of wondier and gratitude to his many 
friends and associates. 

Samuel B. Westlake, M. D. During the 
brief period of Dr. Westlake's professional ca- 
reer he has met with gratifying success, and 
though his residence in South Bend dates back 
but a short time he has won the good will and 
patronage of many of its leading citizens. He 
was bom in Brooklyn, New York, on the 9th 
of February, 1879, a son of Charles E. and 
Nettie C. (Powell) Westlake, both natives of 
New York. The father, who was a manu- 
facturer, was long engaged in the book-bind- 
ing business, and his death occurred in 1887. 

The elementary educational training of 
Samuel B. Westlake was received in his native 
city of Brooklyn, while later he attended Nor- 
wich Free Academy, of Connecticut and the 
Mt. Hermon Preparatory School, Baltimore 
Medical College, entering the latter in- 
stitution in 1902 and graduating in 1906. 
In the same year he became a resident 
of South Bend and engaged in the practice of 
medicine, his office being located in the Dean 

James Nelson. From an early period in 

the development of St. Joseph county the 
Nelsons, father and son, have been important 
factors in its improvement and advancement 
as contractors and builders. James Nelson 
was bom in Trenton, New Jersey, August 8, 
1861, but in 1866 was brought by his parents 
to South Bend, being then but a little lad 
of five years. His father, Bernard Nelson, 
became one of the leading contractors and 
builders in the city, many of its most beau- 
tifid and substantial structures now standing 
as monuments to his ability. His life's labors 
were ended in death at the age of fifty-seven 
years, and both he and his wife (nee Ann 
Green) were natives of Ireland. 

Wheij about twenty years of age James 
Nelswn began the business in which his father 
had been so successful, that of contracting 
and building, and much of his time since has 
been devoted to street and sewer contracting, 
while he has also been interested quite exten- 
sively in real estate operations, being now the 
principal owner of the entire 600 block. Dur- 
ing his business career he has built about ten 
miles of street pavement, and has also per- 
formed much other work which has contrib- 
uted to the substantial improvement of this 
city. Mr. Nelson gives his political support 
to the Republican party, while fraternally 
he is a member of the Benevolent and Pro- 
tective Order of Elks. 

George V. Glover, the former efficient 
and popular sheriff of St. Joseph county, 
holds and merits a place among its repre- 
sentative citizens, and the story of his life, 
while not particularly dramatic, is such as 
to offer a typical example of that alert Amer- 
ican spirit which has enabled many an indi- 
vidual to rise from obscurity to a position 
of influence and renown solely through na- 
tive talent, indomitable perseverance and sin- 
gleness of purpose. Mr. Glover was born in 
Windsor county, Vermont, March 10, 1828. 
His father, Peter S. Glover, was bom and 
reared in Massachusetts, and was a manu- 
facturer of pearlash on a large scale. He 
subsequently removed to Vermont and was 
there married to Mary Robinson, a native of 
that state, and they continued to reside at 
Barnard, Windsor county, the remainder of 
their lives, the father dying when about forty 
years of age and the mother when about 
sixty. In their family were ten children, 
but two of them died when young. 

George V. Glover, the fifth child and third 

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son in order of birth, remained in his native 
commonwealth of Vermont until his thir- 
teenth year, but previous to this time, when 
only nine years of age, had begun to fight 
the earnest battle of life for himself. For 
three years he lived with a man for whom he 
worked for his board and clothes, and when 
thirteen years of age, as above stated, left 
the old Green Mountain state for Lowell, 
Massachusetts, to became an employe in his 
brother-in-law's store. Three years later Mr. 
Glover began work in the cotton mill, and 
four years later went to Boston, Massachu- 
setts, and drove an omnibus from Charles- 
ton to that city, making seven trips each day 
and continuing in that occupation for six 
years. In 1853 hie went to St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, and engaged in farming, and in that 
early day he could have purchased the land 
on which Minneapolis now stands for a dol- 
lar and a quarter per acre. He had the 
money and could have bought a section of 
land, but, oblivious to these great possibili- 
ties, he purchased a half section on the east 
side in Wisconsin, thirty miles from Minne* 
apolis and continued its cultivation and im- 
provement until his removal to South Bend, 
Indiana, in 1856. Here he resumed his agri- 
cultural operations, but later turned his at- 
tention to threshing clover, in which he was 
very successful, clearing during the first year 
thirteen hundred dollars, and he was en- 
gaged in that occupation for four years. He 
was then deputy sheriff four years under 
Sheriff Solomon W. Palmer, after which he 
was elected to the office for two terms. On 
the expiration of that period Mr. Glover be- 
came cashier of the Birdsell Company during 
their financial troubles, for three years suc- 
cessfully conducting their affairs and in that 
time assisting them to once more forge to the 
front. During the past eighteen years, how- 
ever, he has lived retired from the active 
cares of a business life, relieved of the bur- 
dens and rasponsibilities which he so long 
and faithfully bore. He is held in high re- 
gard by all who know him, his public service 
has been most exemplary, and his private 
life has been marked by the utmost fidelity' 
to duty. 

Mr. Glover is the father of two daughters, 
Addea and Georgia. Since the organization 
of the Republican party he has faithfully 
supported and upheld its principles, having 
voted for each Republican presidential can- 
didate since casting his ballot for Fremont, 

but in local affairs he supports the men whom 
he regards as best qualified for their re- 
spective offices. During many years he has 
been a Knight Templar Mason, exemplifying 
in his life the noble and beneficent spirit of 
the order. 

John M. Sinqler. To John M. Singler 
has been vouchsafed an honored retirement 
from labor as the reward of a long, active 
and useful business career. Through an ex- 
tended period he was prominently connected 
with the hardware trade of South Bend, and 
throughout the entire period of his residence 
in this city he has occupied a distinctive posi- 
tion in the commercial circles of his com- 
munity, and has ever been faithful to his 
conceptions of the duties of citizenship. He 
was bom in Tyrol, Austria, November 7, 
1830, attending the common schools of his 
native city until the age of twelve years, 
when he began learning the tailor's trade and 
continued in the occupation until his twenty- 
sixth year. In 1856 he became an American 
citizen, establishing his home in Goshen, In- 
diana, but in 1857 he removed to Franklin 
Grove, near Dixon, Illinois, where he con- 
tinued his tailoring busines until 1858. Dur- 
ing the following year he was engaged in 
agricultural pursuits near Franklin Grove, 
and' on the expiration of that period returned 
to Goshen, Indiana, to resume his tailoring 
business, but in the same year transferred 
his residence and operations to Lima, that 
state, and after his marriage, which occurred 
in 1860, Mr. Singler again returned to 
Goshen and purchased a grocery and bakery 
stock, his proprietorship therein continuing 
for one year, when he removed to MiJlers- 
burg, Indiana. During his residence in that 
city he conducted a hotel and grocery store, 
and also erected seven houses, a hotel and 
a three-story brick business building, while 
from 1862 to 1867 he served as the post- 
master of the city, his residence therein cov- 
ering a period of fourteen years. While 
there he purchased a hardware store in 
Goshen, taking one-half of the stock to Avilla, 
Indiana, and the remainder to Millersburg, 
and erected store rooms for this purpose. 
In 1873 Mr. Singler removed to Plymouth, 
Indiana, where he purchased a large hard- 
ware store of Mr. John Hohain, the purchase 
price being fourteen thousand eight hundred 
dollars, he having traded his Millersburg 
property toward the store, and on the second 
of February, 1873, he came to South Bend 

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