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Some time since, the author published a His- 
tory of Uie United States for schools, the plan of 
which, diou^ novel, met with general approba* 
tioD. Encouraged by this sanetion of a work, 
originally offered with much diffidence, tlie au- 
thor ventures to bring before the public the pre- 
sent volume, founded upon the work above-men- 
- tiaaed, but somewhat expanded, both in respoct 
to leading facts, and minute details. 

As to Uie views which led the author to adopt 
a plan, in traatiiig a historical subject, so widely 
departing from precadent and authority, he would 
refer to his preface to the school book for an ex- 
plaaatioQ, Whether these views will satisQr 
even' one of the excellence of the plan, or not, 
it is hoped, tliot they may at least rescue the 
work from being classed with that deluge of pub- 
lications, which imindate the country, and which 
seem to have no better origin Aan conceit, or p« 
cuoiary speculation. 

For the benefit of the reader who may not 
advert to the woik already mentioned, the f(d- 
lowing explanations may be necessary. 

This history of the United States is divided 
into eleven periods— oaob distipguidied by some 

peeuliv characteristic. The main purpose of 
this dinsion is, to aid the memory by presenting 
certain promineat eras, from which the whola 
mbject of dates may be disthictly surveyed, and 
die object of attaching to each period some dis- 
tinguishing trait is, that the recollection may the 
more readily .assign events to their eras, and thM 
determine their datc^. Thus, a person acquaint- 
ed with our divisicoi of the Bid>joct* knows t^t 
•11 di$eover%e9, or nearly all, belong to period I, 
and therefOTe lie between iko yaam 14^ iLni| 
1607- He i» therefore able to fix the date of 
tny discovery, with sufficient accural for all 
practical purposes. Tlie same will apply to 
e>eDt3 belonging to the other periods. 

The engravings are iatroduced rather to aid 
the momory ia ntaiiung the gener^ division, find< 
the eboracteristics of each period, than for the 
purpose of embelliahment. 

Two sizes of type are employed. The matter 
in target type is designed to give a brief outline 
of the history of iIk United States, and may be 
lead in connexion. The matter in smaller type) ' 
is to be regarded raUier in the light of notes, 
which, without studying exact regularity, ore 
thrown in, as they may subserve the purposes of 
illuatration, mid completeness Jn the delineatjon 
of events ; or as they may ccwtribute to support 
the interest, and establish die recollections of 
the reader. v 


' In raitering upon the perusal of a volume with 
bigfaer objects in view than those of nm% amuse- 
ment, it is well to place thoso objecta distinctly 
before UB. What advantages, then, do we pro- 
pose to ourselves, in peru«!ing the History of the 
Uaited States ? In general, it may be said, that 
the proper end of alt reading is to make ^'good 
men, and good citizens.^' But by what particu- 
lar sieps is History to subserve this end ? 

1. Uistmy sets before us striking instances ol 
virtue, enterprise, courage, generosity, patriot- 
ism; and, by a natural principle of emulation, 
inciteB us to copy such noble examples. History 
ulso presents us with pictures of the vicious ulti- 
mately overtaken by misery and shame, and thus 
solemnly warns us against vice. 

2. History, to use the words of Professor 
Tytler, is the school of politics. That is, it 
opens the hidden springs of human affairs ; the 
cuiscs of the rise, grandeur, revolutions and fall 
of empires ; it points out the influence which the 
manners of a pe<^le exert upon a government, 
and the influence which that, government recip- 
rocally exerts upon th« manners of a people , it 

' .....Google 


illuBtratea the blessiags of political union, mi 
the miseries of faction ; the dangeni of unbridled 
liberty, and the mischiefs of despotic power. 

Oitenation, In a free country, where every man aay be i 
cdled upon to dischafge impettent duties, nther by hii v«e, n 
cy tlie adnunlstratJoii of office, it \a tiie buslneu of all tn bt ' 
more or leu acquaiated with the science of politics. Nullii^ 
can better instruct ut in this, than the study of history. 

5. History displays the dealings of God w^ 
menkind. It calls upon us oilen to regard with 
aw?, His darker judgments, and again it awak- 
epsthe liveliest emotions of gratitude, for his kind ! 
and bnnignant dispensations. It cultivates a . 
senseof dependence on him; strengtheiisourcon- 
fidenco in bia benevoleniEe ; and impresses ui 
with a conviction of his justice. I 

4. Besides tliese advantages, the study of His- 
tory, if prt^rly conducted, offers otners, of in- 
ferior importance, indeed, but.still they are not 
t* be disregarded. It chastens the imagination; 
improves tl|^ taste ; furnishes matter for conver 
■atioD fmd reflection; enlarges the range of 
thought ; Btrengthens and disciplines the mind. 

Coined j,GOOglC 


The History of the United States of America 
may be divided into Eleven Periods, each dJ8- 
ringuished by some striking characteristic, or 
remarkable circumstance. 

The iPftSt JltttOlT will extend from the 
Duamery of America, by Colmnhu8, ^A92, to 
^e first permanent English settlement in Ameri- 
ca, at Jamestown, Virginia, 1607, and is distin- 
gmshed for Discoveries , 

06». Previeiia to the discoverj- of America in 1492, the in- 
habifants of Europe, Asia, and Africa, were of ixwiie ignorant 
of its esiaten«. But soon after tlri» event, several expeditoHa 
woe 6Kd out, »d came to m^e discoveries, in what was then 
caUed the « New World." Accordingly, betweeu 1493 and 
ifior, the principal countries lying along the eastran c«irt of 
North America, were discovered, and more or less eiplored. 
As our liistory, during this period, embraces little more thui 
accounts of tliese expeditions, we characterize it ma remarkaUe 
for diteoverifi. . , 

The SbetOtttf i^triOlf will extend from the 
. Settlement ^JaTttestown, 1607, to the accession 
of William and Mary to the throne of England, , 
1689, and Is distinguished for Settlements. 

p6«. During this period our lustory is principally occupied 
B detailing tiie var*ou8 geUlemejil», which were either effected, 
M anemi^, within the boundaries of the United StaUe, It 
inchides, indeed, wars with the natives-disputes between pro- 
prietors tf lands, and colonies— «he formation of governments, 
&c. &c. ; but these ai« drcumsiances which pertam to, and 
fonn a part of, the seiilement of new countries. As this pe- 
riod ranbtaces the setdement of most of the original Slatw in 
die lI»ioB. riz. Massachusetts, including Mwne, Conneclwiit, 
Rhode Island, New-Hampshire, New- York, New-Jersey, PeftB- 
OTlvanJa, MaiTiand, Ddaware^ North and South Caroima, aad 
Tnpimijitis^iereforechMacterlMdatremariiibk far tettfc- 

The S9ft%[ ^rrfoV will Extend from die 

Accesnion of William and Mary to the throne 
of Eoglaod, 1689, to the declaration of the war 
by England against France, called " tlie French 
and Indian War," 1 756, and is Remarkable for 
the three wars of KiMQ William, Queen A^jne, 
and George II. 

Obt. So long Bs the Colonies remained attached to the Eng- 

Stish crotm, they became involved, of course, in the wais tf 
le modier country. Three timcB during this period, was xkt 
proclaimed between England and France, and, a^ the French 
had possession of Canada, and were leagued with severnL 
powvrrul tribes of Indians, as often did the colonii'S become tile 
theatre of thdr liostile operations. This period is therefore 
most remarkable for tliese tAree loarg. . 

The ffiiXIXtii ^CtfOQ will extend from the 
Declaration of war by England against France, 
1756, to the commencement xtf hostilities by 
Great Britian against the American Colonies, in 
the battle of Lexington, 1 775, and is distinguish- 
ed for the French and Inuun War. 

The iPCftft iitrlOtt will extend from the 
Battle of Lexington, 1 775, to the disbanding of . 
the American Army at West Point, New-York, 
1783, and is distinguished forthfeWAR of tbe 
Revolution. ■" 

The Sfpth 39et(OTr win extend from the 
Disbanding of the Army, 1783, to the inaugu- 
ration of George Washington, as President of the 
tJnited States, under the Federal Constitution, 
1789, and is distinguished for the Formation 
AND Establishment of the Federal Cohstitu- 


The SU^tnth 33rvCOtr win extend from the 
hiaugwration of President Washington., 1 789, 
to the inauguration of John Adams, as President 
of the United States, 1797. This period is dis- 
^Dffuished for Washington's AB«miSTRATiON. 


The Cffilltll ^erfoV will extend from tLe 
Jnattguration of President Adams, 1797, to the 
Inauguration of Thomas JefFercon aa presiden* 
of the United States, 1801. This penodisdia- 
ttnguished for Adams' Admimstration. 

The tDCintll DerioQ will extend from llie In- 
augnration of President Jefferson, 1801, to the 
Inauguration of James Madison as president ol 
the United States, 1809. Thia period isdisti|i- 
guiahed for Jefferson's Adhiihistration. 
, The Centft BttfOQ will extend from the In- 
auguration of President MadisoHt 1809, to the 
Inauguration of James Monroe, as president of 
theXJmtedBtates, 1817. This period la disttn- 
gmsbed for Madison's Administration, and the 
fete Wab with Great Baitain. 

The SUitent^ 39t Vf OTr win extend from the 
Jnutiguratum of President Monro*, 1 8 1 7, to the 
present time, and is distlogulshed for Monrok's 


J,. Google 



Extending from the Discovery of San Salvok 
dor by Columbus, 1492, to thejirst perma- 
nent English settlement at Jamestown, Vir- 
ginia, 1G07. ' 

^ Section L The early discoveries on the Con- 
tinent of America were made by the Spaniards, 
English, and French. 

In these, the Spaniards took the lead ; and 
have the honour of first communicating to Eu- 
rope the intelligence of a New World. '■ 
'. For several years previoueiy to the discovery 
" {if^A mer i cH, -the"attEtttioR pf Europe had beeB 
dravtrn to the enterprises of the Portuguese, 
who were attempting to discover a passage to the 
East Indies, by doubling the southern extremity 
of Africa. 

Christopher Colundms, a native of Genoa, 
roused by these enterprises, and strongly per- 
suaded that a western passage to the East Indies 
was practicable, by steenng across the Atlantic^ 
determined to ascertain the point by experiment. 

Accordingly, after encountering various diffi- 
culties he sailed from Spain, Friday, Aug. 3, 
1492, with a small fleet, under the patronage of 
Ferdinand and Isabella, then (m the unitedth'rones 
of Castile and Arragon ; and on the 12th of Oct. 
1492, discovered the Island San Salvador. 
Thia Island is three thousand miles west of the 



naiOD L.lttt-tS07„JDISCOTUIBS. II 

Canaries, — the most western land known at the 
time of Columbus' discoverj, — and is now known 
aa one of the Bahamas. 

Colambiu, dA^ maturing bis plan, firtt offered to tail under 
ihe patrmiage of the Senate of Genoa, but tbey treated hU pi» 
ject as Tiaonarj. He next solicited tile patnHiage of tbe Por- 
tugaeae, Init was denied. 

Dbappoiined in tiiese applicatidni, and despairfa^ of assist- 
ance inaa Hear; VIL of England, to wtum be had sent his 
WnktT Barthol<»Bew, bat, who, bdng c^itDred, did not reach 
ia^aad for several years : Columbus next bid lus pUos befotv 
Ferdinand aad Isabella. 

Ferdinand was long deaf to his application ; but throu^ the 
faiKMir of Is^fdla, who listened to Ins plans, a treaty was made 
with lum. Tbe queen sold hra jewels and defrayed the ex- 
pense of his outRt and voyage. His fleet ctmiisled of the 
£<mla Mario, Piata and Ntgna, vith ninety men, victualled 
for a year. The whole expense was the small sum of about 
siites) tfiouBand dollars. 

Cohuabos, when he sailed, expected to land in India ;* 1)111 
Providence was openii^ his way to an unknown world. He 
Gist touched at the Canaries, and tbeace stretched wettwara 
into seas as yet unexplored. 

After sailing about two months, the crew became anuoni 
ml ffiscontenled. They were appalled at tbe extent of their 
Tovage, and despaired of accomplisnlng the purposes for which 
it was nndotaken. Columbus, nowever, in the midst of mil- 
tiny, and while eveiy heart around him sunk under tbe most 
glmtay apprehensions, remained firm and iikflexlble. He cm^ 
trived to padfy the spirit of rebellion, by promising to return^ 
if land mould not be discovered within thre« days. 

The night of tbe 11th of October, 1492, was memorable to 
CidaBbiu, and to the wcwid. Convinced lrora^>pearance8thtf 
■and was near, he ordered the sails flirled, and a «atch set. No 
^ however, was shut All on board was stapnise and slee|^ 
KB expectation. 

Aboot midnight, tbe cry of JotHf/ laud! was heard on hoard 
fe Rnta, The morning came, — October 12th O. B. — and 
teslised their anticipations. The island was distinctly in tow. 
IIm occasion demanded an acknowledgment to Him, who had 
so lo^iciausly guided their wa.y. Alt, iherdbre, bowed ia 
bnmUe giatkude, and joined in a hymn of thanks to God. 


12 rXRIOD 1...-I493— ICOT—DlSCOTnns. 

Cdombw, in a rid> dm*, and vitk t dmwn iwoid^ waim 
iUisr landed with his men, with whom hsYing kneeled and 
kissed the ground vritli tears of joy, he took forma] poBsessiun 
of the Island, in the name of Queen Isabella, his patron. Oa 
landing, the Spaniards .were surprised to find b race rf peupl«, 
quite uolike any that they had ever seen befi»«. 'Riey trere of 
a dUfky, copp» colour — naked — beardless, irith long blac£ 
hajr, doating on their shnulders, or bound in tresses romd their 
heads. The natives were still more surprised at t}w sight of 
the Spaniards, whom they considered, us the chHdren of the 
sun, their idol. The ships they looked upon as uumaU, irift 
eyes of lightning, and voices of thunder. 

Having spent some time in e^amtmng the country, and in aa 
amicable truffle with the natives, CohJiiabns set sail on his «> 
tum^ He was overtaken by a storm which had neaily prond 
fatal, I>uring the storm, Cohtmbns hastily enclosed |n a cak« 
of wax, a short account of his voyage and discoven', which htt 
put into a tight catik, and threw it into the sea. This be did, 
Rofdng that if he perished, it might fall into the hands of sotiw 
navigator, or be ca^t ashore, and thtis the knowledge of bit di^ 
cQvery be preserved to the world, fiut the gtorm abated, aai 
be arrived aafe in ?pain, March 13th, 1493. 

For this discoTeiy, it being the fiTst,and having laid the fouiia 
dation for all the subsequent discoveries in America, Colunbut 
was doubtless .^nlltled to die honour of giving ■ name tn.tbe 
Nev World. But he was robtwd of it by the addieasof Ame> 
ricus Vespucius. This adventarer was a Floreoine yrho sollei) 
to the New World in 1499, with one Alonio Ojeda, « gallant 
and active officer, who had accompanied his fint 
voy^. On his return, he published so 6iiitering an acccvrnt c4 
his voyage, that his mmie wax given to Ae continent with ma^ 
fcft injustice to Columbus. 

After thi^ Columbus made several other voyagts, but did not 
diacover the cotttinent of Ammea until Aug. 1, 1498» daring 
hi> third voyttge, at which time he made tnc land, now <al)ed 
Terra Finnaf--^uth America. 

During this voyr^ Columbus was destined to experienca 
fevere afSictioru. After his departure from Spain, havmg been 
appointed governor (tf the New World, his enemiei, by false 
representations, persuaded the king to appoint anc^er in hia 
place. At the same time die king was Indoced to give orders 
idxBt Columbus should be seized and sent to Spain. Tliis order 
was executed with ri^d severity, and the heroic Cohimbiu 
rWumed eg Spajo in irons ! 

Oa his arrival, be W9a set at Sbcrt; bv the \iJagi hut be ijimMr 
recovered his anthetily. Soon after a »w4i wytfe wUdi )w 
. . .,_,G„o8lc 

tBSlOV t~14M_IB0r~9aCOTBKIBS. U 

made, finding Isabella his patroni^si, dead, and himielf hs- 
^ected, he sunk beneath hia niiifortune* and mftrnuties, Bt;d 
died. May 20, 1506, in the fiiij-^iinth year of his age. 

Section U. In May, 1497,.Johii Cabot, and 
his sou, Sebastian Cabot, commenced a voyage 
of discovery, under the patronage of Henry VII. 
king of England ; and on the 24th of June, dis- 
oOYered land, which, being the ilrst tbey had seen, 
tliey called, Prima Vista. This was the Island 
ot' JVetcfoundland. Leaving this, they soon af- 
ter fell in with a smaller island, which they nam- 
ed St. Johns ; thence, continuing westerly, they 
made the first discovery* of the Continent (gf 
America, and ranged its coast from Labrador to 
Vir^nia, (n- according to others, to Florida, 

■ Jetton m. The French attempted no dis- 
coveries on the American coast until 15S4. This 
year Francis I. commissioned Verrazano, a Fio- 
rentise, for this Jiurpose. He ranged the coast 
from Florida to the 50th degree of North Lati- 
tude, and named the country New France. 

Section IV. In.l584, Sir Walter Rftleigh, un- 
der commission of Q,ueen EUzabeth, arrived in 
America, entered Famplico Sound, now in NQrth 
Carolina, and thence proceeded to Roanoke, an 
island near the mouth of Albemarle Sound. 
This county he took possession of, and, on re- 
inroiDg to England, gave so splendid a descrip- 
tion of its beauty and fertility, that Queen Eliza- 
beth bestowed upon it the name of Virginiay in 
celebration of her reign, and in allusion to her 
being unmarried. . 

Section V. In 1602, Capt. Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, from Falmduth, England, discovei^ and 
gave name to Cape Cod. 

* TItfM loUov Ike auUioritr of Dr. BotwM la fei« "Apwrifni JUk 
nab," who ptkcu die Bnt di«MT*i7 of tta OntioMt br "^iwfcm ta 


14 PEEIOD I.~l4&!^..iea7..»DlSCOVEBIBS. 

' GoanoU, baiig boond to Virginia, his discoroy Waa acci- 
demaL He named Cape Cod, in reference to the Sundance of 
Codfish about it. Coasting Hwih, he discovered Nantucket^ 
Buawd'E Bay, Martha'^i Vineyard, and one of the Elizabeth 

.Oilier expeditions were fitted out and came to America tar' 
diKcuvery ; we have however noticed above the leading adveu- 
urm and their discoveiiet durhig this period. ' - 

Sectiitn VI. As we are now about to eot^ 

upon s. period which will exhibit our ancestors 
as inhabitants of this uew world,- it wil! be in- 
terestmg to know what was its, aspect when Uiisy 
iiFBt 8et their feet upon its shores. 

arrival of the first settlers, North America waa 
almost one unbroken wilderness. From the re- 
cesses of these forests were heard the panther, 
the catamount, tlie bear, the wildcat, the wolf, 
and other beasts of prey. From the thickets 
rushed tlie buffalo, the elk, tlie moose, and the 
carrabo ; and suattered on the mountains, and 
plains, were seen the stag and fallow deer. Nu- 
merous flocks of tlie feathered tribe enUvened 
the air, and multitudes Offish filled the rivers, or 
glided along tlie shores. The spontaneous pro- 
ductions of the soil, also, were found to be vari- 
ous and abundant. In all parts of the land grew 
grapes, which historians have likened to the an- 
cient grapes of Eslicol. In the south, were found 
tuiuuerries, plumbs, melons, cucumbers, tobacco, 
eorn, peas, beans, potatoes, squfishes, pompi- 
ons, &.C. Acoms, walnuts, chesnuts, wild cher- 
ries, cturants, strawberries, whortleberries,, ia 
^be season of them, grew, wild in every quartei 

rKBIOD l.._n9a....IS07.-.&I8COVERraB. 13 

VII. ABORIGINES— The cmmtry wns in- 
habited by numerous tribfts or claus of Indians 
Of their numbf!r,.itt tlie period tlic Eiiglifli »etr 
tied among them, no certain RsUmate has bfen 
transmitted to us. They did not [>roltab1y much 
exceed 150,000 within the compass of tlie thir- 
teen original states.* 

In their pfiysical cfmradtr, the different In- 
dian tribes, ivithin the Ixiundaries of the United 
Statw, were nearly the same. Their persons 
Vere tall, straiglit, and woll proportioned. Their 
Fkins rtere red, or of a copper brown ; their 
eyes black, their hair lon^, l»l«(:k, and coarHc. 
In constitution they were firm and vigorous. 
cs/)«ble of sustaining great fatigue and hard-ship. 

As to their ^CTifra? character, tl>ey were quick 
of apprelicnsion, and not wonting in genius. 
At times, they were friendly, and even courteous. 
■In council, they were distinguished fiir gravity 
nnd eloqueitce : in war, for bravery and address. 
When provoked to anger, they were sullen and 
retired ; and when determined upon revengi;, no 
danger would deter them ; neiti»;r alwence nor 
time could cool them. If captured by an enemy, 
they never asked life, nor would they. betray 
emotions of fear, even in viev of the t&mjihawk, 
or of tlie kindling faggot. 

Tliey had no haokii, er wrklen WfTB(«rf.eice|itnrie Wpfn- 
glj'pliics ; and fdvcntian among thpm irns cnnfin-^tt In llie hhs 
of war, hunt iitg, idling, anddi^fnc Dianiifi*ctHr« which existed 
amung diem, miwt of wbicli every male iras nioiT or Ins in- 
structed in. Their language wns nide, hut scanrous, mefnphori- 
ca!, nnd energetic. It was well siiitfd to the piirpojM of jiuhlic 
spea^^, and, when nccompanitnl by th? im^fflisioned gwtiire?, 
and uttered with the deep {Tuttnml tones of tlie savage, it is Mid 
to have bod aeingnfarly wild and impressive e(Se^. T^eyhad 
(Otne few war songs, which were little niort ihan sii iminewninf 

•TMiiitiMMlmisteBirfr Trumbull 

t6 rtaxao i»usK.iM7-JisccmEBiGs. 

dnran, out, it it belkred, they bad no other tiompoutioni 
iriuch were pteserved. 

Their arts aiid maniifactitret vere confiaed to the conatruo 
don of wigwams, bowa ami atrows, wainpi m, ornaments, ston« 
IiBlcheti, mortars fur pouDdiiig com, to the dressing of Ekine, 
weaving of coarse mats from the ba^ of trees, or a coarse wrl 
'of bemp, Sic. 

Tb^ agriculture was small in extent, and the artick's thej 
cultivated, were few in number. Com, beans, peas, potatuei 
ineb<BKj anJ a fetv otlier* of a similar kind, were all. , 

Their tkiU ia mediant was con^ned to a few simple pre- 
scriptions and operations. Both the cold and warm bath were 
often applied, and a t^nsiderable nlimber of plants were luej 
with success. For sfime diseases lliey knew no remedy, Sii 
which case they rt^sorled to tlieir Paicow, or priest, who UBder 
took the removal of tiie disease by means of sorcery. 

]t may be remarked, however, thiit the disease* to wbidi the 
Indians were liabte, tvere &iv, compared with those wbicfa pw 
vail in dvili/.etl society. 

The empiogmaitt Jf the nten v.'ere principally kunting,jihhr 
ing, and tear. Tlie i/wncn dressed the food ; took charge of 
iw domestic concerns; tilled their narrow and scanty fields; 
and performed almost all the drudgery connected with tb«ir 
household affairs. 

The fomiscmtntt of the men were principally leaping, shool- 
ing at marks, dancing, gaming, .and burning, in all of which 
they made the most vi.>!eiil exertions. Tlwir dances wer« 
usually performed round a iarge ftre. In their war dances they 
sang, or i-ecited the feats whlcli they or their ancestors bad 
achieved ; represented the manner in which they were per- 
Ibrmed, and wnniglit themselves up to an toez|>ressible degrM 
ttf martial cnthoBiasm. The females occasionally joiiied io 
some, of these sport?, bHt had none peculiar to themselves. 

Their ib-esa was various. Ia summer, tbey wore little be- 
sides a covering about the waist ; but in winter, tbey clothed 
thems^ves in the skins of wUd bewU. Tbey 'were ezceediogly 
fond oi ofnameMa. On days of show and ftstivky, their 
sachems wi»e mantles of deer«ki», ^nbrnidercd widi white . 
beads, or copper, or they were painted whh various devices. 
Hideausness was tlM object aimed at in pamtJng themselves. 
A.cbaJD of fislnbones about tlie neck, or .the skin of a wiidcali 
was 9. ugn ot royalty. 

for luAitaiioma, the Indians had vieehaana, or wigwams as 
ptonounsed by the Englwh. These originally consisted of & 
strong pole, erected in the centre, around wMcu, aLlhedistance 
tf tan ar tw^ve leet^^Uer ^les weu drivai' obliquely into the 

fraoDil, and fastened to the centre pole nt the top. Th^ 
coverings were of mMi, or barkg of tree*, so well adjusted u to 
render them drj sad comfurtHble. 

Tbeir dimtstxe nten*iU extended not beyond a liatcJiet dT 
■lone, a few shells and sharp stoties, which tfaej used for 
knives : stone mortars for pounding com, and some mats and 
skins upon which tiiey slept. The/ sal, aj»d ate, tind lodged on 
tiie ground. With shells and stones they scalped their enemies, 
dre^ed their gami, cut their hair, &c. Tliey made nets of 
■AikaA, twisted from the bark of Indian hemp, or of the sineni 
of the moose and deer. For tislffaooks they used bouet which 
were bent. 

-'fheir/no^ was of the coarsest and simplest kind — the flesh, 
tnd even the antrails of all kinds of wild beasts and bu-ds ; and 
in their proper season, green corn, beans, |>eas, Sec Bic. which 
ftiey cultivated, and other fruits, which the country . sponta- 
neously produced. Flesh and fish they roasted on a stick, or 
ktriled on the fire. In same instances they boiled their meat 
mad com by pntlinc hot stones in water. Corn they parched, 
especially in the winter, and upcmthig (liey lived in tbe absence 
of other food. 

The money of the Indians called vampvm, consisted <tf 
■mail beads wrooght from shells, and strung on belts, and in 
dnins. The wampum of the New-England Indians wus black, 
blue, and white. That of the Six Nations was of a purple 
urfuor. Six of d>e white beads, and three of black, or blue, 
became of the vtdue •of a penny. A bdl of wampum was 
^ven aa a token of friendship, or as a scaler confirmaiinn of a 

. There was little amoi^ them that eoutd be called mxiety. 
Except when roused by some strong excitement, the men wese 
{enendly indoleiit, taciturn, end unsocial. The women ,weM 
lea degraded and oppressed to think of much besides thek 
Irib. Removing t«o, as the seasons changed, or as the §ame . 
grew scarce, or aa danger from a stronger tribe threatened, 
there was Ihtle opportimfty fer forming thoaelocal mtachiaeiita, 
and those social ties, which ^fmag from a lang MstdtuRe. in ^a 
Mrticuh>T spot. Their langnage,sdio,thou!}li«tterge<ic, was ion 
Darren to KTve the pntposes of fwnSiar ooevcrsalion. In nrder 
to be understood and l^t, it reqnired the aid 4^ atroag and «ai. 
nated gestictdation, which ceoM take ^dace .«nly wlien gittt 
«ccasiaas excited ^em. It seems, tberetore, that they drMvna 
-consideraUe part ofdieir enjoyments from iotercvufs^ mib one 
another. Female Ixauty had little ptHver <iver ike mtva ; aaA 
all other pleasures gave way to theinrong4i»pubes«<,]udi)ic 
Cntivity, at burning captiveS} «t 'sMkiag « - ' 
the daa^ar wa^vr glory-. 


18 nutioD u^uft^tuj-simoonMsu, 

War was the favourite empfoymeBt of the maga of Noilk 
Xowrtca. It roused them from the letbai^ iiit» whidt dtey 
fen, when thej ceased fram tlte chtue, snd AnmilMd them an 
cmpoiTunity to dbtinguiah tbemtdvei— to- acliieve deed* of 
ekiiy, and tEwte the sweets of revenge. TTieir wea^toos vera 
hows and arrows, headed nith flhtt or other hard sttmes, wlucb 
tbey discharged wnh great prenuon and force. The Muthem 
Indiana used targets made of bark ; the Mc^atrlu dotlied tliem- 
■elves with skins, as a defence against the arrows of their ene- 
mies. When they fought in the opoi field, they nubedllto tliV 
attack with incretUble fitry, and, at the same time, utteied their 
appalling war wlioop. Those whom tliey iiad tatei taffdv* 
1h^ ofini tortured', with every variety of cruelty, and to thea 
dymg agonies added eveir species of ins«jlt< If peace vm 
concluded on, the chiefs of the hostile tribes ratified the treaty 
Ay-amoking in succession the tame pipe, caUed the caAMM(,-or 
yqw of peace. 

The gooeramtra of tlie Indians in general, was an afastdutc 
nMKmrchy ; thoi^fa it difiered in diSereM tribes. Tiie will of 
(be sachem was law. In matters <A moment, he consulted, how- 
ever, his couasellco^ ; but tus decisions were finaL Wa> and 
peace, among some tribes, seon to have been determined on in k 
cooncilformedof old men, distingiiisbed~bydieire;[;doits. When 
in cmmcil, ibey spoke at pleasure, and always listened to the 
■peaker, with proround and respectfol silence. " Wben prc^wei- 
tiona for war or peace were made, or treaties proposed to ui<uu, by 
Ibe colonial govemours, they met th« ambaasadors in council, 
and at tlie end of each paragraph, or proposition, the principal 
sachem delivered a short stick to one of hii coanpil, intimstiog 
Aat it was his pecuUar duty to remember that paragraph. This 
was repeated till every proposal was fim^ed i they then retired 
to deliberate among tbeDtselvca, Afier their deliberatloos 
wne ended, the sachem, or some counsellors to whon be bad 
delated Als oBice, [«plied to every paragraph in its turn, wltb 
an exactness scftrcvly exeeedcd in the written correspondence 
of civilised powers. Each man actually lenaphered wku was 
cnnnflttcd to him, and with his assinance, the person who re- 
pGed remembered thft-wkole." 

The rdigi»ia lutioiu of the nuives. consisted of traditions, 
nfai^ed with Eiany mtatmiliaaa. LJke the ancient Greeks, 
Remans, Per^sni, ll in d aoa, iic they believed in the existence 
' of twa Mdi, At am go»d, who was tbe superior, and wboQi 
theystyRd the Otcat, <te-GMNl'S|Mnt} tb«. other etrtf. Tfa^ 
worthiptped botli ; and of both foined imain of stone, to whioi 
titvy paid i^cfamii hiagg. Besides tbait, they wbnAippcd 
vtVxm trilm ihithw wA m be, watw, ttnuulK— 4iigr ihiiig 

wUdi they canenred to W nperiw ta theaselvei, uhI eopaUe 
of doing them injury. Tb«« tnanner of worship wa* to ling aad 
dance lound lai^ fires. Besides dancing, they otiered prayen 
aod lometimee sweet scented puwdec In Virginia, die Indiani 
oflTocd Uood, deer's suet, and tobacco. Ol' the creation «nd \bt 
deluge diey had distinct tradiiiona. 

Marriage among them was generally a temporary -contract. 
The ineD chose their wives agreeable to fancy, and pnt liiein 
away .ai pleasure. Marriage was celebrated, however, wiih 
Mone ceremony, and in many iiutances was observed with 6- 
d^ty, not tinfrequently it wa> as lasting as life. Polygamy was 
somnxm among them. 

- Their treatmeni offemalet was cruet and oppreisive. They 
Were considered by the men as slaves, and treated as such. 
Those forms of decorum between the sexes, which lay the fouD-* 
diction fer the respectful and g^ant courtesy, with which women 
an treated in civilized society, were unknown among theu. Ol* 
comse, females were not only required to perform severe tabcur, 
bat oAea felt the fiill we^fat of the paisitms and caprices of the 

The riiet of buritd among the Indians, varied bat little 
throi^hoHt Ae conttDeat. They generally dug holes in the 
groond, with sharpened stakes. In the bottom of the grave 
^rere Udd sticks, upon whichlbe crn'pse, wrapped m skioi and 
mats, fras deposited. The orsos, utensils, paints, and omantenls 
of ibe deceased were buried with him, aikd a mound of earth 
rased over his grave. Among some tribes in New En^aad, 
and amoag the Five NaUons, the dead were buried in a sitting 
pesttire, with th«r faces towards the east. During the buri^ 
they uttered the most tamentaUe cries, and coBtiaued their 
mnuming for several days. 

T'tie origin of the Indians, inhabiting the country,- on the ar- 
ffvai of the English colonists, b involved in much obscurity, and 
several difiarent answers havebeen given by teamed mm to the 
inquiry, whence did they eonie to America? The opiai(m best 
supported is,'dwttheyorigktatedin Asia, and that at some form- 
er period, not now to be ascertained, they emigrated from that 
country to America, over which, in suoceedine years,, their de- 
BcendaBts s^wad. 11ms opinion is rendered the more probable 
by the ikct, thai the figiu«, com]dextoc, dress, mannn^, cus- 
toms, &c. &c. of the nations of both cimtiiieiiU are strikingly si* 
milar. That they mgU have emigrawd from the easl«n tonti' 
neni is evidntt, since the distance between the.£aat Cape ot Aaift, 
and Cape Prinoe of Wdes in America^ across the stvrighta of 
UotDg, is Old J about fortjr mttcB, a seeh ihtvttt distaase dwn 


wngeafreqnentiyt^ in thdr canoe*. BesidesUiu,th«BtrQghi 
ii aometiniei frozen over. 


Vm. We shall find it pleasant and profitable, occaaionaliy 
to pause in our history, ant) coiuidei what instruction may be 
^Biwn from the portion of it that has been perused. 

In the story of Columbus, we are introduced to a man of go 
nius, energy, and euterprise. We see him forming a new, anti 
in thai age, a mighty project ; and having matured his plan, we 
>ee him set himself vigorously aboilt its execution. For a time, 
he b either treated as a visionary, or baffled by opposition. 
But, neither discouraged, nor delected, he steadily pursues lilt 
purpose, surmoimts every obstacle, and at length spreads his 
tails upMi the unknowiv waters of the Atlantic A Vind Pro- 
vidence auspiciously guides hi.i nay, »id crowns his eitterprisa 
with the unexpected discovery of a new world. 

While we adciire the lofty qualities of Columbus, and loiA 
with wonder at the consequences which have resulted from bis 
discovery, let us emitlate his decision, enet^ and perseverance. 
Many are the occnsiops in ibe present world, on which it will be 
important to summon these to our ^d : and by their means, mti- 
ny usefiil objects may be accomplished, which, without them, 
would be unatiained. 

But, while we thus press forward in the career of usefulnesi 
— while we aim to accomplish for our fellow men all the amoiint 
of good in onr power, let us moderate our expectations of re- 
ward here, by the consideration that Columbus died the victiiii 
of ingratiiiide and disappmntment. 

Another consideration, of still deeper interest, is suggested by 
the story of Columbus. In his lirst voyage, be contemplated 
chiefly the diacoveiy of a passage to India. We who live in 
inark the wonderful events which have flowed from his discove- 
ry, within the short space of three centuries, J^Bnnot but advert 
with awe to Him, who attaches to the actions of a single indi- 
vidual, a tnun of consequences so mipendous and tmexpected. 
How lightly soever, then, we may think of our conduct, let ua 
remember that the invisible hand of Providence may becounecl- 
f ng wid) our smallest actions the most momentous results, to our- 
«t^s wid others. 

With respect to Americus Vespucius, h may be observed, 
tliHt although he deprived Columbus, of the merited honour ol 
jiving his name to the new world, and gained tliis distinctim fi» 
MmselC— «till, his nane will *^pr remain siigmatiacd as having 
appropriated dut to himself, which fsirly belonged to atmltMr. 


ri^ilTE]) STAT.HS. 

t>.'|i;:i".rj,i«".;:[itu"i'.,.i» .j;\.>!;,i'',-^'riyyrL^. 





Extending from the first permanent Engliah 
ttUletnent at Jamestown, Virsinia, 1607, t* 
the accession of William and Mary to the 
throne of England, 1681*. 

8ection-\. Prior to the year 1607, a period of 
one Jiundred and fifteen years from the discovery 
of San Salvador, by Columbus, attempts had 
been madt to effect settlements in various purtB 
of iVorth America ; but no one proved euccese- 
ful, until the settlement at Jamestown. 

In 1606, King James I. of England, granted 
letters patent, — an exclusive right, or privilege,— 
to two comptuue^, called the London and Ply- 
mouth Companies : by whirh they were author- 
ized to possess die lands, in America, lying be- 
tween the 34th and 45th degrees of north lati- 
tude ; the southern part, called South Virginia, 
to the London, and the northern, called North 
Virginia, to the Plymouth Company. 

Under this patent, the London Company sent 
Capt. Christopher Newport to Virginia, Dec". 
20th, 1606, with a colony »f one hundred and five 
persons, to commence a eetllement on the island 
Roanoke, — now in North Corolina. — After a te- 
dious voyage of four months, by the circuitous 
route of the West Indies, he entered Chesapeake 
Bay, having been driven north of the place of 
hia desboetioii. 

23 naiOB II_l4eL-I«>7.^ETTLIMEnTS. 

Here it was concluded to land ; and, proceed- 
ing up a river, called by Ihe Indians, Powhatan, 
but, by the colony, James River, on n heaatiful 
peninsula, in May, 1607, they began the first 
permanent settlement in North America, ami 
called it JaTnesUntn. 

The government of this colony was Tormed 
In England, by the LondoB Company. It con- 
sisted of a council of soven persune, appointed 
by the Company, with a president chosen by the 
council, from their number, who had two votes. 
■ All matters of moment were examined by this 
council, and determined by a majority. Capt. 
Newport brought over the names of this council^ 
cartrf'uUy sealed in a box, which was opened 
after their arrival. 

Among the most enterprising nnd iiseiii] members r>( thtf . 
colony and one of its magistrates, was Cajil. John Snilth. As 
he acted b distinguished part in the early histvy of the colony 
of Virginia,a brief sketch of his life will be interesting. 

He was born In Willuughby, in Lincolnshire, England, in 
1579- From his earliest youth, he discovered a roving und ro- 
mantic genius, and appeared irresistilily bent on extraviigani 
and daring enterprises. At the age of thirteen, be^Dming tir^ 
of study, ne disposed of his satcbe] and books, wi'Ji ibe imen> 
tion of escaping to sea.- But the death of bis father, just fttihaj 
time, frustrated his plans for the present, and threw htm upon 
guardians, who, to repress the waywardness of bis ^iiius, con- 
fined him Id a counting room. From a confmement so irk- ■ 
(Ome, however, he contrived to escape not long after, arid, with 
ten shillings in bis pocket, entered the train of a young nable- 
man, travelling to France. ' . 

On their arrival at Orleans, he received a discharge from fur- 
ther attendance upon lord Bertie, who advanced him money to 
return in England. 

Smith had no wish, however, lo return. With the money he 
had received, he insiled Paris,- from which he proceeded (o the 
low countries, where he enlisted into the service as a solt^er. 
Having cominued some time in this capacity, he was induced 
to accompany a gentleman to Scotland, who promised to recom- 
Mend hua to the notice of king Jamet. Being disappointed 



bbvever in tfais, be returned to En^and, and rUted the place 
of his birth. ' Nol finding Ibe company there that suited hit to- 
mantw: turn, he erected a booth in stwie #0(>d, and in the maa- 
ner oF a recluse, retired from society, de\-oting himself to the' 
8udv n( military history iind tactics, diverting himself, at inter* 
wis, (rith his borse anil liuice. 

Recnveriog atiout this lime a pan al his father's estate, whieb 
iud been in dispute, in 1596, he again cummt^nced hii tnivelt, 
being then only seventeen years of age. His first stage was 
Flimdere, where meeting TJth a Frenchman, who pretended to 
be h«r to a noble family, he was prevailed upon lo Kconipany 
Wm to France. On their arrivai at St. Valoiy, in Picardy, hy 
ttie connivance of the ■bipmaater, liie Frenchman and attend- 
ant# robbed him of his enects, and guccee<led in malung their 

t^gei to pursue his trardtf, he endeavoured to prooire a 
place on hoard a man of war. In one of his rambtes, search- 
ing fw a ship tliat would receive him, he accidently met une o' 
ilterfffaios e(mc«med in robbing him. Without exchanging a 
>ronf, they both instantly drew their sworda. The eontest was 
wrere, but Smith succeeded in wounding and disarming hii an* 
<b|;i)d1si, and oi^iged him to confess his guilt. Afiei this ren- . 
crarjter, having received pecuniary <isaiHtance from an acquaint- 
wee, the earl of Fioyer, ne travelFed along ilie French coast to 
Bayonne, and thence croaked to Marseilles, visidng and observ. 
intr every thing iq his course, which hnd K'ference tu naval or 
military architecture^ 

At Marseille* he embarked for Italy in company with a nvn- 
ber of pilgrims. But here also new troitblcs awaited him. 
nuring the v<w^, a tempest arming, ilie ship was forced into 
Toulon, after leaving which, contrary winds so impeded their 
progress, that in a fit of rage, the pilgrims, imputing their )D 
lortune to the presence of a heretic, threw him into the sea. 

Btii^ a good swimmer, be was cabled to n^ach the island 
^f St Mary, off Mice, at no great distance, wliere lie was taken 
in board a ship, in which, altering his course, he suled 
U) Alexandria, in Elgypt, and thence coasted the Levant- 
Having spent some time in this region of counti y, he sailed on 
^ return, and on leavii^ the ship received about two tho¥sani 
doUarSjftsfalspnitionofarich prise, which they bad taken dtir- 
Kg the voyage. 

Smith landed at Antibes. He now travelled through Ttaly, 
rroued the Adriatic, and passed into Stirria, to the seat of 
Ferdinand archduke of Austria. The emperor being at that 
time at war witlp the Turks, be eplercfl bja anu? u a fotuQ- 
Mr ' ,- 1 ' 

14 FSRtOD lL...t4a3....160T...^ETTLEMENn. 

By mfuu or liii val«ur and ii^eDoity, sided bv hia viiUter)' 
knowledge aud experieuct^, he soon distinguisbed himKir, and 
wu advBiiced to w commaDd ofa company, co^gting gf two 
hundred and tiF[y lioreemen, in the regiment of count Meldrick, 
a nobleman of TransylTania. 

The regiineiii in which he lened was en^ged in Mveral ha- 
SMldous raterprisea, in which Smith exhibited a braveiy admirod 
by cdl the army, and when Metdrick left the io^teml service for 
thai of his native prince, Smith followed. 

At the siege of Regal he w«j destined to new advoilurei. 
The Ottomani deriding the slow advance of. the TransyWajiis 
nrmy, the lord Turbistia despatched a messenger with a chal- 
lenge, that for the diver»on of 'the ladies of the place, he woald 
fight any captain of the christian troops. ^ ' 

The honour of accepting this challenge was determined by 
Dt, and fell on Smith. At the timti appointed the twQ chan^ 
p ions appeared in tbe field onhortebadi, andinthe[»«saiccot 
the armies, and of tbe ladies of the iiuulttng Ottoman, rushed 
impetuously to the attack. A short, but desperate conflict en- 
sued, at the end of which Smith was seen bearing the head of 
tbe lifeless Turbisha in triumph to his general. 

Tbe fall of the chief filled nis friend Crualgo with indignation, 
and roused him to avenge bis death. Smith accordingly soon 
after received a challenge from him, which he did not hesitate 
to accept, and the two exasperated combatants, upon their 
chargers, fell with desperate niry upon each otb^. Victory 
again followed the faulchion of Smith, who sent the Turk hea«t 
long to the ground- 
It was now the turn of Smilli to make tbe advance. He de- 
spatched a message therefore In tbe Turkish ladies, tfaaf if they 
weie desirous of nmre diversion oi' a similar kind, they should 
be welcome to his head, in case theb third champion could 
take it. 

BoaamalgTO t»ndered his services, and haughtily accepted tbe 
Cliristian's c}iallenge. When the day arrived the spectators as- I 
serabled, and the combatants entered the field. It was an hour 
i^deep anxiety to all; as the horsemen approached, a deathless 
ailence pervaded the multitude. A blow from the sabre of the 
Turk brought Smith to tbe ground, and for a moment it seemed 
as if the deed of death was done. Smith however was only 
stunned. Me rose like a lion, when he shakes the dew from his 
mane for the fight, and vaulting into his saddle, made his faul- 
chion "shed fast atonement for its first delay." It is hardly 
oeceiiary la add, that the bead of Bonamalgro was added tn the 

Smith was received wi* tVansiiorts of ipy by the prince of 

. ...:„,G„osic , 

l^BBjqrhmus, who after the capture of the place, preaeotrd Um 
nitb hu picture set in gold, granted him a pension of thi«e hun- 
dred ducats a year, md cMdecred on him a coat of umt, beai- 
LDg thi«e I'urk's headA in a thield. 

In a subsequent luutle between the TraMylvaniaD onay^ »ad, 
abody of Turlcs and Tmlar*, the fotsier was defeated, with k 
loss of many lulled and nouoded. Among the - wounded wa* 
the galhuu Smith. His dres« bespoke hii coBsequeace, and be 
*as treated kindly. On his recovery from his. wounds he was 
■old to the Basha Bc^, who s»it him as a presrat to his mis- 
tress at CoBStaUinople, assuring hei that he was a Bobemian 
oobfemaa, whom he had conquered, and whom he now prcMUt 
ed to het as her slave. 

The present proved more acceptable to the lady than her Ion) 
iolended. Ab she understood Italian, in that language Smith 
infonBed ha: of bis country and quality, and by Ins singular a4> 
dKw,aiid«itgBgiRg manaers, won the affection of berhearL 

Desigmngtoseciuvbim to herself, but fearing lest mom ntis- 
ftjrtime sfcotdd bef^l him, she sent him to her brother,a bashaw, 
oa the borders of the sea of Asoj^, with a dircctioii that he 
iftould be Initiated into the manners and language, as weU as 
the rdigkm of Ae Tartars, 

From the terms of her letter, her brother suspected her de^ 
>>ga, and resolved to disappoint her. Inunediatdy after Smith's 
arrival, ifaerelbre, be ordered him to be stripped, his head and 
beard to be shaven, and with an iron coHar about his neck, and 
a dress of hair cloth, he was driveii forth to labour amcHig some 
cbiistian slaves. 

The chcumstances of Smhh werfe now peculiarly afflictiM. 
He muld mdiilge no hope, except from the attachment of hia 
misb^ss, but aa her distance was great, it was improbaUe that 
the would soon become acquainted- with the story of hi* miafinv 

In the nidst of his distress, an opportunity to escape presra^ 
ed itself, but under circumstances, ivliich, to a person of a less 
^venturous spicit, would have served only %o heighten this db- 
fess. Hb employment was threshing, at the distance of a league 
fi'oni the residence of the bashaw, who daily msited him, but_ 
treated hkn with rigorous severity, and in fits of anger even 
abused him with blows. Thb kst was treatment to which the 
independent spirit of Smith could not submit. Watching a fa- 
vourable opportunity, c»t an occasion of the tviant's visit, and 
when his attendants were absent, be levelled his thieshing u^ 
strumnit at him, and laid him in the dusL 

He then hastily filled a bag with grain, and momitii^ the 
Iwdiaw's hors^ put hi^as^ upon IbrtHiM. DiiectiiV iw cownf^ 

t&wnda • doen, W entered hi mesaeajand contiiitringtocoti^ 
cnl hinuelf in Hm obKcrites fn^ wTerai da^, at length made his 
ocape. In lixteen dayi he arrivea U Exapolis on ihe rivei 
Don, where meeting with the RnHiOn garriMn, die commanded 
toeated him kindly, and gave him lettos nf TecomineiKlatioD to 
Mher comDMindeTS in that regiim. 

B« now travefledtlvough apart ti Rnsiia, and Poland, ^and 
at lejglh reached fai> fKendt in Transylvania. At Ldpek he 
enjoyed the pleasure of meeting his colonel count Meldrick, and 
S^amund, prince of Transylvania, who presented biin wuli 
me«n hundred ducata. Hii fortune being thug in a measure r«- 
paired, he travelled thnmgli Germany, France and Sp«uh,au4 
having visitetl the kingdom of Morocco, remmed once more ta 
Eagiand. C 

&ich is a rapid view of the life of thb interesting; adventurer, 
down to his arrival in faia native land. At this time the settle- 
ment of America was occupying the attentioa of many distin* 
unified men in England. The life of Smith, unhed to hts frntd' 
nes* for enteiprises of danger and difficulty, had prepared hint 
to embark 'rith seal' in a project so novel and sublime as thtl 
of eiploring the wilds of a newly discovered continent. 

He waa soon attached to the expedition, about to sail nndei 
Newport, and was appointed one of the magistrates of the colo> 
ny sent ove^ at that time. Before tiie arrival of the colony, hit 
colleagues in office becoming jealous of his influence, arrested 
him, on the absurd charge ibat be designed to murder the coanf 
cil, tnurp the government, and make himself king of Virginia. 
He was therefore rigorously confioed durUigthe remainder of the 

On their arrival in the country he was liberated, but cootd 
not obtun a trial, dthou^ in the tona of conscious integrity, 
he repeatedly demanded it The infant colony was socm ii^ 
voIvhI in perpteiity and danger. Notwithstanding Smith bad 
beeir calumniated, <u)d bis honour deeply wounded, hi? was not 
'he spirit to i^main idle when his services were needed. Nobly 
disdaining revenge, be offered his assistance, and by his talent^ 
eiperience, and indefatigable leal, (iimished important aid to 
the infant colony. ■■ 

Continuing to assert his innocence, and to demand a ttial, 
the time at leigth arrived when his ^cmies could nostpDne it 
no loiigar. After a fair hearing of the case, he was honourably 
acquitted of.the chai^ alleged against him, and soop after tow 
his seat in the council. 

The affairs of the colony becoming more settled, the active 
mtrit of SmMi prompted him to explore the neighboring eoun> 
li|F. ia an atteoi^tuncertato the source of ChiduJniniaKlT- 
. , ..-Cooslc-. 

BBIW 1I~.1M7— im-JK-rrLUIBNT^ XT 

ta^ht aKraded inaba^ufaraathcstreamwAnoiaterroMi-- 
td. Deugniiig to proceed Mill further, h« Wl\ the barge in ine 
k«e|Hngof tbeaew,withstiict injunctioiHoii noarcounitoimvi! , 
^er, and w'ah two i^ngrubmen, and iwo iiidiuu left the puly, 
Butno MMMwr was he out of view, than the crew, impatient of 
Kftraiiu, repur«d od bonrd. tite ba^e, and j>roceediBg some dia- 
tuice down the ■treaiii, landed at a pUce where a body of lo- 
diana Uy in ambush, by whom they were seized. 

by means of the crew, the rout of Smith wit asceitaiaed, ■od 
a pan; of Indiaiut were immediately despatched to take liim. Oa 
comini; up with him, they Gred, killed the Englishmen, anil 
Wounded fabnself. With great piesence of miod, be now tied hi> 
(u'Jivi guide to bu left ar|n, a* a shield from the enemies' ar> 
towa, vbjle with hii miuket he despatched three of the moat for- 
mrd of the assailants. 

In tlu> manner be continued to retreat towards bis canoe, 
vkdie 'W ImUaos, stiwk with admiration of his bravery ibtlaw- 
^ with sespcctlul caution. Unfortuoatelv Cuming Ida lunluii 
ipot ihed with mire, while engrossed with eyeing his pnnuen, 
Be amk to ile«p as to be unable to extricate himself, and waa 
(oteta to fliineiHler. 

Fruitful m eipedieots, to uvert immediate death, be presented 
u ivory ctHnpaw to the chief, whose attention was arregt'd by 
the vibratioRB of the n>%dle. Taking sdvaiitage of the impre>< 
non which he had thua made, partly by signs, and partiy by 
language^ he excited th^ w<mder still mure by telling tbem i>f 
ta singular powa:i 

Thdr wwder however seeiued soon to abate, and their atten- 
lion returned to thdr prisoner. He was now bound, nnM tied to 
a tree, and the savages were preparing to direct their aimws ai 
hts br-ast. At thi; instant the chief, holding up the compass, 
they laid down their arms, and led him in triumph to Powhatan 
llMir king 

Pnwhatan and his council doomed him to death, as a man 
whose courage and goiius were peculiarly dangeious to the lii> 
diaos. Preparations were accordingly made, and when the time 
arrived. Smith was led out to execution. His head was Jairf tip - 
on 8 Stone, and a club presented to Powhatan, who himself 
rlaimcd the honoor of becoming the executioner. The savages 
in silence were cirding round, nnd the j^ani arm of Powhatan 
fad already raised the club to strike the fatal blow, when to his 
islonishrnenf the yoimg and beautiful Pocahontns, his daughter, 
with a shriek of terror, ntshed from fhethrong, iind thiew her- 
•elf upon the body of Smith. At the same time she east an ira- 
plvii^ look towards her buious hut astoiushed father, and In 


tt mam 

dl Af doqaence of mm*, but hnpunkntd « 

The m&aioikT of die scene wai txmouratilc ts PcnriMtMt. 
Tbe chib of tlw chief was itiU uplifted, but a fetber^ pily hsd 
touched hit hMTt, and the ^e laai had id first kindkd with 
wnuh wu nov fast losing its fiero^Dess. He Wked rmind at 
if to collect his fortitude, or pertiaps to find >n excuse for his 
weakness, in tbe pity of the attendants. A rimilar sjinpathy 
had melted tbe savsgethrong, and seemed to join inlhepethioii, 
wklcl: the weeping I'ocahontas feh, but dnnt not Htter, " Mf 
fathprletthe prisoner live." Poi^atan raised his daughter, 
and the captive, scarcely yet assured of safety, from tbe earth. ~ 

Shortly ufter Powhatan dismissed CnpL Smith with insur- 
ances of frtendEhip, and the next muming, accompanied wiA a 
guard of twelve inen, he arrived safely at Jamestown, al^ a 
captivlw of seven weeks.* 

In lo09, circumstances having nrisen to iittermptdiefriendIV 
fllspositjons of Powhatan towards the colony, be plotted tlieu 
entire destruction. His design was to aUaek them onajipnsed, 
and to cnt them off at a blow. 

In a dark and stornij night, the heroic Pocabtmias htistmefl 
alone to Jamestown, and disclosed the inhmnan plot of ber t^ 
ther. The colony wne thus put on their guard, and thor rdn 

It BJay be irterestingto add concerning Pocahontas, ifiat some 
lime after this she was married to nn English gentleman, by the 
name of Solfe, with wiiom she visited En^and. She embraced 
the Christian ndigion, imd wns baptixed by the name of Rebecca. 
She left one son, who hnd several daughters, the descendants ol 
whom inherited her lands in Virginia, and are among the niost 
renpecCable families in that State. 

Section 11. In the early part of this year* 
lfi09, the London Company snrrendered tlieir 
rights to the king, and obtained a new charter. 
Under this charter Thomas West, Lord Dela- 
ware, was appointed govemoiu- for life. 

Towards the close of tbe year, the colony at JaoMstown, 
amounting lo five hundred inhabitants, was reduced in ux 
months, by pestilence, to sixty. Disheartened by this fearful v»- 
tamily, they resolved to leave the country, and retam (o Eng^d. 
Tbey dtvefore embarked on bonrd some vessels, just arrivad 
fnm Bcnniula; but ■weting lord I>elawaR,tlieiiewgoveniear, 

with one boodrvd and ei^ily men and pttivMioM,tkT retmed 
with them to thnr settlement, and the aSoira of the colooy agate 
began to prosper. 

Section III. In 1614, some Dutch advcRtHr- 
era built a fort at Albany, on Hudson's river. 
Thia commenced the settlement, and laid the 
foundation of that city. The next year, a for^ 
was built, and a settlement begun, by the Dutch, 
on the Island of Manhattan, now New-York. 

HudKMi's river derived its name from Henry Hudson, who 
entered, and_ gave name to it, 1608. At this time, or according 
to.othcrs, in iCOg, he ascended the river to the place were Al~ 
bony now stands. Htidson was in the service of the Dutck 
£B«t India Company, or add his dainii to theai. The Dutch, 
accordingly, to<A possession of the country, naming it New PM- 
\iMi\andi. Tijew-York, tfaey called New-Amsterdam. Thete 
names th^ retained, lill the conquest of the country, by tht 
Ei^liMh, in l6r>4. 

Section IV. In 1614, Capt. John Smith staled 
horn England, with'two ships, to America. He 
raided the coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod. 
On nis return to England, he presented a Map 
of the country to Prince Charles, who nam^d it 

Six years from thia, Dec. 32, 1620, a colony, 
commonly known by the name ofPurilant, land- 
ed at Plymouth, in Massachusetts, and soon after 
began the first permanent settlement in Nea- 
Engtand. These colonists were origioally from 
En^aiHl i but were driven thence by the urn of 
persecution, for urging a more thorough reform^ 
ation in liie Church of England. 
' They fled from England, first to Amsterdam, 
in Holland, in 1607, with their pastor, the Rev. 
Mr. Robinson. From Amaterdam7tt»j;soon af- 
ter removed to Leyden, where they coutw^edi 
(intiji they emftmrked for America. 

Among the motives which tnSueoced tkeni,SO 
Kmove to America, the prospe<9 of eajqyi^ ** • 

M rfestoD n.~im~nn...siemMim»n. 

purerworsliip and agreater liberty of conscience,*' 
was the principal. To secure these objecta, they 
were wUliag to become exiles from a civiHzed 
country, and enoounter the dangeca and priva- 
tiCHis which might meet them in a wildemesst 

Having resolved on a removal to America, they concluded 
(d settle on Hudson's river, and to live in h distinct body,unilM 
(be protection of the London, or South Vir^ia Company. 

Hftving with some difficuhy obtained a grant from the Virg» 
m& Company, they speedily piepared tor the voyage, departed 
from Leydeo in July, touched at South-Hampton, England^ 
vtience tltey tailed in' Augttit; but od «ecoimt of a leak in one 
riTtiwr ^p>, they were twice compelled to put back. 

On the fizth of September following, they finally bid adi«i t* 
tlKir coontiy, and on the itinth of November, discovered Cape 
Cod. It » said, that tke iBaster of the vesid was a Duttfaaui, 
Ud was bribed in Holland, to carry diem te the north of die 
HudKHi, that they mi|ht not disturb the Dutch there { who^ 
ftuMgh compelled in lSl4, by Capt. Argal from Jamestown, to 
•dmowledge the Sovereignly of King James, andthegova^noot 
of Vii^inia, had not long atVer thrown off the British yoke. 

They soon perceived themselves to be beyond &e bnte of 
die company'i patent, fh»n wbjdi they had dertrcd thdr Ale. 
But. iHMex being at hand, and fearing to mceuM^ the daiven 
of the sea, on an unknown coast, they determined to sedc a putoe 
ot settlement where they were. 

Before landing, " havii^ devoutly given dianks to Q«d for 
tkcir safe arrival, they formed themselves into a body peUlK^'' 
ibrty-4)ne signing a solemn contract, according to the provtf ions 
of which they were to be governed. Mr. John Cwrver ww 
elected governour for one year. 

PartKs were Aow despatchadio fee upon a spot fiw^eirMttls- 
foent. Skytni days were employed far this ^Hupose, duiii^ 
jrtudh, a number of Indians were seen, who fled on being ap. 
proached. They also discovered baskets of com hid in mt 
■aiid, which served for seed the ensuing spring. 

Al length, a imtable ^ot was selected far BMttl«taent,a«d ■ 
JuMise immeduitel^ erected. The ivlony w«s divided into viw^ 
(cen faroiliet, eaoi of which built its own cottage. On i^ord^ 
day, Dec. 31, tbey attended public wonbip^ for Ac firet tlnw 
va shore, and named the place Plymouth. 

Section \. the same monO, (Mot.) limt tbe 
f^wituii aimed ob Ae ooaflt frwu Efigland, King 
9mMi L iM»e4 «p«toiii to lh« duka of JLvno*, 

._ .....Google 

nsND nujiir.iai»stTTLBnBns. « 

Ferdinando Gorges, «od odiers, sorting diem, 
" The CouncU ofPlymouth, in the county of De- 
von, for planting aud goveraing New-Englemd 
in Amenca/' ThU Patent granted to them the 
territory between the 40th and 48th degree* of 
lumb latitude, and was the foundation of all tlie 
sobaequent patentH which divided the countiy. 

Section VI. In March, 1621 , the colony ofPly- 
mouth, through Governour Carver, entered into 
aleague of friendship, commerce, and mutual de- 
fence with Maflassoit, the great sachem of the 
neighbouring Indians. This treaty which waa 
Bthetly observed until the breaking out of Phillip's 
irar, (a period of more than fifty years,) gave 
general peace to the colony, and laid the founda- 
fion for their intimate and amicable correaptHid- 
ence with the neighbouring Indian tribes. 

Tlie pcrsoD, duefly instrumentid m bringing thii event to paM 
nuSameset, & tagantDre of tbe country, laying at the distance 
of about £^ daya jountey. He was the first viutant of tbe c»* 
)ony at Plymouth, and greatly surprised the inhabitants, by call- 
ing oat as he entered thdr village, " Welcome Engliriimen I 
Welcome Engltshmim \" He hod cuavrased with the English 
fahemen who had come to the eastent coast, and had learned 
soBK of the Iv^gu^e. He informed the colony that the place 
where they were settled, was called by the Indians Patux^i 
thnt five years before a pl^;ue had swept oS all the natires from 
ihe place, *o thsttthere was neither tnaa, woman, or child le- 
■ainiag. Prewidence liad thus siiiguhtrly prepared the way 
for the cokmiet to t^e possession ofthe land, without molesting 
a single owner. 

Suioset, having lieen treated with hosfntality byAese stran> 
g9s,wasdiBpoBalti)caltivBiea further ac<iuaintance with them; 
and on -Ids third viut was accoinpanied 1^ Squanto, a native of 
the counliy, who had l>een carried away in lfil4, by one Hunt, 
and sold into Spain, but had been taken to London, wbeacc he 
had rKtmecl t<i Amoica. 

TiKy inferraed the E^i^irii thai Masassoit, the greateit ib 
aboB 4it the nmghbouring Indians was near with a guard of liz^ 
men. Mutual distnul prevented for lome time, any advancei 
from eidier nd«. IBut SqoBito, who was « leaglh aeM (o Ma- 

Mtd w>me one to confer with ham. Mr. Edvrard Whulow w»" 
iccordingly sent, bcRring suitable present* to the chief. These 
prarvin^ acceptable, Masassnit left Mr. Wimlow in the-distody 
of his men as a hostage, and ventured to the English, by whom 
r he was hospitably entertained, and wkh whom he conchidedthe 
ttva^ already noticed. 

Section VII. In 1619, a govemour general 
of the Virginia Colony arrived from England, 
with inptnictiona to convoke a colonial legisla- 
ture. To this asse-mbly, eleven corporations, 
or towns, sent representatives, who sat with the 
govemour aiid council, appointed by the Com- 
pany. This was the first tegittlature to which the 
people of America sent representatives. 

In 1621 the London Company established • 
constitution and form of government for the co- 
lony. The powers of this government were 
vested in a governoar and two councils. On« 
of these was called the council of state, to ad- 
vise and assist the govemour- This council 
was to be appointed and removed by the com- 
pany. The other was called the general asJsem- 
bly, consisting of the council of state, and two 
burgesses, or representatives, deputed from 
each town, hundred, or plantation. Thie assem- 
bly met annually, and- were entrusted with thfl 
business of framing laws for the colony, the go- 
vemour having a negative upon their proceedings. 
No laws were vahd until ratified by a court of 
the company in England. 

In 1622, Uie Virginia Colony, which for sonio 
lime had enjoyed ^reat prosperity, uid had re- 
ceived frequent ftccesBions, experienced a stroke 
wliich nearly proved fa^l. The successor cd 
Powhatan, who waa of a pn»jd, revengeful spirit^ 
and extremely hostile to tie colony, concerted a 
plan to cut them off at a blow. Oa Uie 22d of 
March, it was fio &r put in execution, that UuM 

vtSM ii-im7~.,it89.^.ssmxaiairt8. a 

tnasdKd andfijfty-*(CTen of the odmy, men, 
women and caldren, were butchered Ernest ia 
the same instftt. 

A war of Extermination soon succeeded, 
which Bot loiifafter was followed bj a &nii8e. 
The tosses of le colony, however, which these 
calamities had i-ougfat upon them, were soon In 
ameasure repwed, hy the a-rival of new adveo- 

Section VIIl "While th; Virginians were 
mourning their bsses, the Pymouth colony be- ■ 
gan to experienci the distreaua of famine. By 
Sietime their pWing was finished in 1623, 
flieir piorisions wire so far Oausted, that they 
had neither breat, nor com 'or three or four 
months. A drouglit contiaue.from May, until 
some time in July. Under >iese afflictiona, 
however, they i^pointed a da_of fasting and 
prayer, to humble themselves, id to seek unto 
God. Notwithetandifig their ^p^y fears, a 
plentiAil harvest followed, whic ^ag suitably' 
noticed by a day of thanksgivingjifj praise. 

Section IX. This year, 1623j number erf 
pereons from England arrived in 5 river Pis- 
cataqua, and began two settlement qq^ ^^ (^^ 
mouth, at a place called Little Harb^ [^jg other 
at a place now called Dover. — Thes^^g^g ^^ 
first settlements in New-IIamtshisei 

Section X. In WZ^, the London ■^np^jj- 
which had settled Virginia, was dissou j,y ^jj- 
act of king James I. under pretext of tHJalami- 
ties which had beMlen the colony, abc^q ^ig^ 
sensions which bad aj^tated the cwjany^ 
Their charter was taken away, and the yem- 
ment of the colooy assumed by the ^^yg. 
The kiii£ himself appointed the novem^ i,| 

«4 ^umju.u 

whom, witb twelve counsellfflrd the powera of 
^ovenunent were vested. 

Tbe London Covpany, thua dissolved, Osisted of ^ntlemen 
of noble and dnintereited views, vrho hacbxp^ded more than 
one hundrefi thouiand pounds of their finmes, in this tirst at- 
tempt to plant on English colony in Ameca ; and more than 
nine thousand penons had been sent fro ^ motber country 
to people Ehis new settlement. At tbe tiie of the disiolution o/ 
(he company scurcely two thousand persos survived. 

' Charles I. succeeding Jatpes } in 1 625, brought 
the Vii^;mia ColonV more immdiately under the - 
direction of the crAvn. Undc this administra- 
tion, the colony suTered muct for many years, 
from the severe aai arbitrary.-e8traint8 imposed 
upon it by tiie kis;, through ;he goviernour and 
council. r ■ ■ ' 

Section XL it has beei stated, that the 
landa, upon whioi the PlynDuth colony settled, 
Were granted bjnhe crown to " the Council o( 
Plymouth," in England, in November, 1620. 
This was the s^e month that the Puritans hod- 
arrived in the Country. Being apprized of this 
grant, the colt^iyt in 1 026, began to take m^i' 
Bures to purcliise these lands. The negotiations 
for this purpdie ended the next year in a patent, 
which the c*ipany granted diem for one thou- 
sand eight Auidr^ pounds sterling, witK-ample 
powers of government. 

The goTerwent of the colon; waa at first formed and con 
ducted accowig to a voluntary compact, entered into befon 
landing. Tl tbe year 1624, it consisted of a gpvemour and 
one assbtatjbnly. FroDj this period five were annually choeen, 
the goremcW' having a double vote. The munber of assistanti' 
was afterwards increased to seven. — The lam of the colony were 
enacted, biH the affairs of government conducted, by these offi- 
cers tor ce&r Iventy years. In 1639, the lowns in thb ctriony, 
for the first time, sent deputies. The colony continued distim^ 
near seventy yean, until 1691, when, by charter of William and 
Mary, it waa united to the ctriony of Mawachnetts, aad tha ' 
Province of Maine. 

, • ......Google . 

nUOt II— JHT— lM>-..8£TTLUEin«. S9 

Section X9. In l6QBt the foun^ati<Hi was laid 
for another tolony, in New-Enfland, by the 
nune of the ttjlony of MassachuIetts Bat. _ 

The patent of bis colony was granted byklieComicjlof Ply^ 
mouth, or Ncw<£iigland, to Sir Henry RmwcU and otben } 
and conveyed to tliem the territory lying Iptween three milet 
north of the Marimack, EUittthree miles latth of Charin Ri- 


Sir Henry Rtwrell and his associatM, hoJrerer, soon sold the 

Ettrm to Sir Richard Saltonstall, John Endrott, and others in 
i^Iaiid, who were projecting a settlement i New-En^and, Ifar 
the purpoaes of greater leligious freedom. > 

The same year, John EndicottiraB sent over, 
and began the settlement of the tolony of Maa- 
HaebusettB Bay, at •Salem, then called by the 
Indians, Naumkeak. As the pa^^nt granted to 
tbis colony conveyed no powers af government, 
iting Charles, in 1629, granted tliese powers by 
charter. Six ships, fiimiBhed bf the company, 
brought over four hundred perecns, men, women 
&nd children, three hundred c^whbm settled at 
Salem, tho reftiainder at Gharlestown. 

During the eucceeding summer, 1630, John 
Winthrop, who had been appdnted govemour, 
and Thomas Dudley, deputy govemour, with 
<me thoHSand five hundred people, urived at 
Charlestown ; but owing to a mortal sickness, 
which soon after prevailed in that settlement, 
the govemour and several of the planters remov- 
ed to Sfaawmut, which they named Boston. 

ttoTernour Winthrop, and his .asKxiales, came over under 
as MTangement to transfn* the government of this colony, from 
LowUm) to Neff>En{^d, and to place it in the hands of officers 
to be elected by the Avemen: Thiswucanied tntoeBt'ct,and 
tiie fiMnen contiaiied mnually to decttiieir officers of govern- 

The colotw sooB euMriesced the distrestes of mortal ^ckneas 
•Bd wasting iamine. nerewai scarcely afiunity,inwhichtliere 
bad not b(«ii a denthbeforesprioe, and many of die people were 
■Uifcd ta w ha i sl oa Ama, bmscm, Hums, and nuti. Friday, 

TebnaiT 6, was ^ipointcd u a diy of iaitias butthe dajtb«- 
fOTe, I stup arTiriiii laden with proTiMonB,the{;orenioiir,cinth« 
joyfU ocurion, tiptoiiited a dsy of thaoksgiviig tbrougbout t}ie 

iS«ctMM» Xlil. Id 1632, Chertts I. grested 
a pateDt to Lord Baltimore, convening to bim a 
tract of countr/ on the Chesapeake Bay, which, 
in honour of Ifenrietta Maria, daughter of Henry 
the sreat of Fiance, he named Martlahs. 

The next yeir, 1633, Lord Baltimore appohkt- 
ed hia brother Leonard Calvert, governour of 
the province, who, with about two himdred 
planters, chiefy Roman Catholics, began a set- 
tlement in 163^, near the mouth of the Potomac, 
OT the northen nide. 

Emignwu soon locked to this province from Eiq^aad utd 
die otlwr coloniei, m tccount of the greater religious freedom 
eirioj'ed in it. 

tfy the patent, the proprietor, witli the consent of llie freemen, 
wlheirdeiegatea,wBsatthorisedto make all necenarvUm, not 
opposed to the lavsof England; the king did not reserve a r^t - 
to interfere in the govrniment of the province. This n 
original govenunent of the colony of Maryland, which, I 
B&arrwards linderwent Tarioiu modifications. 

Section XIV. Iii 1633, tlie firit house was 
wected in Connecticdt. This was a trading 
house at Windsor, the materials of which some 
Plymouth adventurers sent in a vessel up Con- 
necticut river. 

On their arrival in the river, they found Bome 
Dutch, from New Amsterdam, who had previ- 
ously heard of the intended settlement at Wind- 
sor, occupying a fort, which they had erected, 
where Hartford now stands. On the approach 
of the Plymouth adventurers, the Dutch garrison 
ordered them to stop ; but the commander gal- 
lantly disregarded the order, and proceeded tu 

Two years from this, 1$3^ about eixXy meo. 

rSSIOD n_lW-.lS89-..8KTTUaiBnTB. S7 

wtunen, and children, from Newtown and Wa- 
tertown, in Massacbusetu, commenced tbeir 
journey through the wiidernesa to Connecticut 
river. They settled at Windsor, WetherBield 

The aame year, John Winthrop, son of t)ie 
govemour of MossachuBetts, arrived from Eng- 
land, with a commission, as govemour of Con- 
necticut, under lord Say and Seal, and Icvd 
Brook, to whom the council of Plymouth bad 
given, in March, 1631, a patent of die territory. 

SooB after Winchrop's arrival at Boston, he despatdwd a 
iMtkQftliiny Urns with twenty inea, to take powessioa of Coi^ 
oecticni lirer, and to build a fort at its BUHitb. Thi* was m- 
cordi^y erected, and called Saybrook fort A few days aftcf 
tlwb«iviraJ, a Dutch veiisel, from New Netherlands, appeared, 
to lake pouession of the river ; but, as the English had already 
oiotinted two cannon, their landing was prevented. 

Hie next June, l63(), the Rev. Messrs. Hooker and Stom, 
wiA a Riunber of settlers, from DMrJiester and Walertown, re- 
nraved to Coimerticnt. With no guide bnt a compass, thetr 
made their way, one hundred miles over mountains, througo 
■wamps and rivers. Their journey, which was cm foot, luMl 
a fMtnight, during whiditbey lived upon the milk of their cowl. 
Th^ drove oike himdred mid nxty cattle. 

Section XV. This year, 1636, Roger Wil- 
liams, having been banished from the colony of 
Massachusetts in 1634, removed with bis iamily 
to Mooshawaic and began a plantation, whico 
he called Providence. From tbii wo date the 
settlement of Rhode Islahd. ■ 

Willtaias was a jainiBtw of Salem ; on acconot of heretic^ 
opimons, connected perhaps with errom^ of conduct, he was 
mmmoned in 1636, to appear before the General Court, and 
die ministers of the colony. Mr. Hooker was appointed to dis- 
pute with him ; but, being mable to reduce biin from his er- 
rours, he was sentenced by the court to depart out of the juri»- 
dirtion within six weeks. AJl the ministers but one approved 

In l638, William Coddington, who has sometimes been caD«d 
the father of Rhode Islan^^ vitit eij^Mea. gdMs, tamni frov 

SS rEBWD IL._lM7~.t6S&.^ETTL£BlENT& . 

Mu—irhittttte, and havii^ putcbawd of ike Indiam, iba Moiid 
Aqnueck, began aKttkment mtbeaortliemiMrt ofU. Otbets 
followed the uext nimmer, aud commenced utuber *«ttkiBeBt 
an th^ sotilh western side — dividing die Is^nd into two lov^ 
skipi, Portunnutfa and Newport. Tli«y fiiniifd tbenuelves 
into a body politick, and elected Air. Coddjngtoii chief mag^ 

In 1640, the inbabilanti of Providence agreed upon a form 
of government. Rhode Island, so ceiled from a lanried resem- 
blance to the ancientisl»idofRhode$,Boonb^aa to be extensive- 
ly Mttied, both on account of its natia^t lertilky. and alao on ac- 
count, of liie rejigioui freedom allowed to all deDomiiiationi. 

In 1644, -Rog«r WiUIams visited Ei^aitd, as agi-nt of (he 
MttleTS, and obtained of the earl of Warwick, one of the Ply- 
nouth company, a free cbaiier of incorporation for Providence 
and Rhode Island FlaRtaaiens. 

Ib 1663, a royal charter was granted to them, by CharUsIL 
This charter oonstkuted an -a8saHbly,conusting of agovetnour, 
deputy govenKmr, and ten assistants, with the repreaaUatives 
fr<m> the sevM-ai towns, all to be chosen by the freeniGik 

Section XVI. The year 1637 ia remarkable, 
in the history of Ckmnecticut, for the war with the 
Pequots — a tribe of Indians, whose principal set- 
tlement was on a hill in the present town of Gro- 

Prior to this time, the Pequots had frequently annoyed ^in- 
fant colony, and in several instances had killed sonit^ of its in- 
habitants. In March of tliis ytar, the cammander of Shybrook _ 
fort, with twelve men, was attacked by them, and three of his 
par^ killed. In April, Another portion of this tribe assaidted 
the people of Wethers6eld, as they were going to their rields 10 
lalKHir, and killed six men and three women. Two girjs were 
taken captive by them, and twen^ cows were killed. 

In tills perilous state of the coWy, a court was stminioned at 
Hartford, May I . A Her mature deliberation, it was determined 
that war should be commenced against the Pequots, 

Ninety men, nearly half the fencible men of the colony, were 
ordered to be raised — forty-two from Hartford — thirty from 
Windsor— and eighteen from Welhersfield. 

Oo the assembling of this force at Hartford, the Rev- Mr 
Hooker, previously to their marching, addressed th^m in the fol 
lowing manner. 

** Fellow' Soldiers, CountrymcTij and Companions, you ari 
ansrahled by the special AtnldeoCB of Ood, yon vs 

vH eeRettedhy wm timcy, iKH-femckm« paArimw. It b not s 
tn^adtiKHB auembly, wbMe actiont ore a.lwni're, or If iiiiiiwriil 
piodnce only tbeft^ rapine, rape, and niunh>r ; erimr* hacnotitt- 
entwiih tMtim'sl>ght,incon»sKm with a sokli^'s vnlMir. Yoi^ 
mydear beartR, trere selected rmtn your neieihtKniTS, by th« godly 
felfaers of the Ituid, for youf Itnawn coarngc, to execute nidi ft 

"•oar caus^ is the cause of heaven ; tUe etienty hirve blu- 
I^afied your God, Wad ttakn his servient!!; you are only the 
■nhnstMs of hi« Jmtrice. I 4a not pretend that yourenemin are 
carriess or ifuKmvent : no, their fanurd is indamed, tbeir lip« 
ibirst Ah- Uood ; they wmild dfvour you, and all the people of 
God; but, my brave set(l>erR,theh' guilt has reached ilte douda; 
tKey aic ripe for deMrurtinn ; their cnielty ia notorious ; and 
tniehy and cowaMltoe are always united. 

" Thpw is nothing, therefore, to prevnK your certitin victoiy, 
bid their nimble leet, their irnpenetTnl>le swuwps, and woods; 
fcoiB AeieyouT sitmII nuoibefii will entice them, or yonr courage 
4rim riKn. 1 now put the question— Who would not tight in 
•uvAacHwe? fig)» widi undaunted b<rfdneu f Dvyouw^lbr 
more encouragement? more I give you. Riches v;<keti the 
solffier's swortt ; and though yon will not obtain «lver and gold, 
on ihe'field of ^clory, you will secure wtiat is iiifinitdy mwe 
pr«dous ; yoQ i#ill Heoam ^le libertiea^ the pricileget, and file 
Imeaof Chriat't Chvrch, in tki» tteU) world. 

" Voo will prociue safety for yoiw affectionatv wives, safe^ 
fiiT your prattling, harmless, smiling babes; you will secure aU 
the bleisti^ EDJoycd by the people of >3od in the ordinances of 
the gmpet. DistioguisNed was tlie honour conferred 'ipon Da- 
vid, for fighting ttie battles of the Lord ; thu honour, O ye cou- 
tsgBotn s^ins of God, b now prepared for you. You wiO 
now execute his vettgeaoce on the heathen ; you will buid tlieir 
kings m cbains, aitd tiunr noUea in fetters of iron. But perhaps 
some one may ifar that a fatifl arrow aiay deprive blm of this 

" Let every fiuthful soldier of Jesus Christ be asstired, that if 
mv servant be taken away, it is uerely because the honouiB of 
this world are too narrow for hi>i reward ; an everlastbjr crown 
it Kt upon his head ; because the rewards of this life are insuffi- 
eient. Maich then with Christian courage, in the strength of 
die Lord ; march with &M\ in his divine tiroinises, and soon 
yuur swords shall God your enemies ; atma they shall fall like 
l»ves of die forest unfier your feet." 

Wi& these troops, together with seventy river and Moheagan 
bdians, Capt. Mason, to whom the command of the expedition 
was ^ven, dropped down the river Conncaicut, to Siorbnwk. 

40 nuM u^m-nm-Jmrrssaaam. 

UeMij^uofflpemiowwufonned. <te the ti^iQr-riuhsf 
}ll^y, abowt the dawn nf day, capt Mason (urpriutd Myttia 
one of the principal forts of the enemy, in the present torn d 
StoaingtOB. On thrir near approach to the fort, a dog barked, 
and an Indian wfao now discovered tbem, (Redout, "O wwitui 
O wsniu .'" Englisfaniaii Engliihmen. 

Tbe troopi inatantly preswd Ibnrafd and fired. Tbe .^ 
ibnetion of the enemy soon became terribie, imt they nSed al 
lei^th^ and tnode n ntanty resbtance. AAer a Bevere and pnv 
traded conflict, capt. Mnson and hii troopa being nearly ei- 
'•hauMed, uid vtctory Mill doubctril, he cried out to bia men, M 

At the >ame iastutt, seizing a firefamnd, be applied it to ■ 
ingwWBl The flames spread rapidly, on «very udei «ida> 
the SUB TOK upon the scene, it showed the wopk. of destructioii 
to be complete. Seventy wigiranis were in ruins, and between 
fife and nx hundred Indians lay bleeding on - the ground, or 
tnonUmnfr in the asiies. - - 

Bw though the vkloiy vw complete, the tro<^ were nov 
in great distress. Besides two killed, sixteen of their ntnnbef 
were wounded. Their surgeon, medicines, and provisions, were 
uD board some vessels, on their way to Pequot harbour, now 
New-Lcodon. While consdtihg what should be dtn>e hi this 
Bmwgency, how greitt was dirir joy to desciy their vesseb stasd- 
ing directly towards die harbour, under a prospereus windl 

Soon after, a detachment of nearly two hundred men, from 
Massachcsnts and Plymouth, aimed to assist Comecticut, hi 
prmecMting the war. 

Sbssacus, the great Sachem oftheP«i]ujDtB,and his wnifiouft 
««« so appuUed at the dastrucUoD of Mystic, ihot tliey fled Vh 
wards Hudson's river. The troops pursued them as fer as a 
great swamp in Fairfield, where another aGtioii took phiee, in 
wliJch ihe Indinna were entirely vanquished. 

This was followed by a treaty with die rrtnaining PeqnoM. 
about two hundred in number, agreeably to which they wen ^■ 
vided among the Nanagansetts and MOheagans. 

Thus terminated a coctflict which for a time was tjmatiDSf 
distressing to the colonies, This event of peace was celebral- 
^ thioughout New-England, by a day of thanks^ving and 

SecHou XVII. The expedition against <the 
Pequote raadetbe English acquainted with Quiii' 
napiak or NeiD-Haijen ; and the next year, 1638, 
led u the Bettleinent (^ that towa. Tfaia, wd 

>unoi> ii„i«7--i6n: 41 

^e adjbiDing towns, soon after settled, west bjr 
the name of the colony of New-Havek. 

Amoog the fuuidefs of thu colaoj' was Mr. John Daraopatt, 
B cdebfWed minuter of London. Tlwoplului Estoo, wfaohad 
been gorernourof theEastlndia Conpanj, wtd Edirard Ho^ 
InBikaviRhant of Loujon. Tb« unuu>letf«l cBJa>-nMt of 
civil uui religimis liberty was the object of tfaeit aaignuieo, M 
it RFM of moil of the «Biigniit* to thu country. 

Having pwdwwd the land ot MoDaugiiin, lacheMi . of tbc 
couiitty, wttom tb^ paid to hia full aatittiiGtion, on the 18th of 
April, they kept tlieir fint Sabbath ioahe place, aodar a la^ 
nUt tree, where Mr. Dav«np<»t pleached to tbem. 

Section XVIII. The following year, Januaiy 
14, 16Sd, the three towns on Connecticut river, 
'Windsor, Hartford, and, Wethersiield, finding 
tbcmselTea without the limits of the Massachu- 
eetta patent, met, and formed themselveei Into a 
distinct cominoiiwealth, and adopted a constitu- 

lliis c4»wtiiution, whkh hii been mucb admired, and which 
for more chan a century and a half underwent Tittle aJteratioa, 
ordained Hut there thodUl BDiwaUy be two genervl assembliet, 
■me in AprU, tlie atimr in September. In April tlw officers of 
govtfnneM wen (a be dacted by the freemen, and In coosiHto^ 
fovemonr, depoty garernour, and five or six anustaiita. The 
towns wwM to atod dcputin to tlie f;eneral aneaibliea. Under 
this coBstOulioa, the irst goveritour was John Hayaes, and 
Bag^ LwDow, tbe&tt d^uly goveraow. 

Section XIX. The example of die colony of 
Connecticut, in forming a conetitution, was fol- 
lowed, the next June, by the eohany of New-Ha- 
Ten. Both conatitotions- were essenlially alike. 
Theopbilns Eaton was the firat governour of 
the colony. 

Section XX. This same year, 1639, Sir Fer- 
^tmdo Gorgea obtsined of the orowa a charter 
(^ ^1 the land from Piaeataqua to Sagadahock, 
colling the territoiy the FnoTincE of Maine. He 
^Brmed a eystemof govenimeat for the pnmaee, 
bot it did not flouii^ In lO&l^ or 1652, it itw 
4 • L,,™.,C.ou^Sl.- 

Wkv^ mder tin jurisdiotion of HtiasH^HMettit 
1^ rewiest of the people of Maine- 

The Plyiaouth colonists bad obtaiaed a patent for hmd IvioB 
tm ibt Kennebeck river in 1623, aad had erected a haase then 
Ar trader Scattered fettlementa were nude in the teiritorjr 
ionw ytm afterward ; but the liUtory of thnr progreM ii oi- 

Sttiio» XXI. The next event of importuicfl 
in our history is the anion of the colonies of 
Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New- 
Haven, by the name of The Ukited Colonies 
•r New-Ghgi^iid. The articles of this confede- 
ntioB, which had been agitated for three ^esrs^ 
were signed May 19th, 1643. 

To tms union the colonies were strongly urged 
if a sense of common danger from the utdianst 
{« general combination of whom vEms expected,) 
ana by the claims and encroachments of the 
Putch, at ManhatUin, Now- York. 

By these articles of union, «ach colony retained its djitind 
mi separate government. — No two colonies might be united into 
one, aor onj cc4ony be received into the confederacy, wilhaul 
the comeiit of the whole. Each colooy wb* to elect two Com- 
■dtuooen, who sbontd meet annually, and at otbo- tiiiMs if »^ 
cewary, and should delerOurw " all affiiirs of war and peace, ot 
leagues, aids, charges, and numbers of men for war," &c. 
Upon notice that any colony was invaded, the real wtst iwne- 
diately t6 despatch asustance. 

This union subsisted more than forty yeais, until the charted | 
. of the colonies were dtber taken away, or suspended by JaiM> 
II. and his commissioners. 

In ld4B, Rhode-Island petitioned to be admitted to this coi- 
federacy, but was daiied, unleu she would be incorporated with 
PlymetAh, and lose her separate existence.— This she refused, 
and was coiueqiieDtly excluded. 

The eflects of this imion on the New-England «4oiuea were 
io a high degm salutary. Oa dw conmtetion of it, several In- 
dian Sachems, among wtumi were the chiefs of the Narra|anset 
and Moheagao tribes, came in, and submiued to the English go- 
TTie colonies also became formidable, by means ol 
c lAitch. Tbia uiuon was also made subsenieDt to tbt 
i r«llgio(K inprovenMBl of dw lodiwa. 


nmiOS 1L~.M«.-MW.^ETTLEHBNn> 4$ 

Prior to tliu.p^iod,Mr. Hs^bew and the devoted ERipl bsA 
made conuderable progT«M towards civilning ttie Indians, wmI 
convertii^ than to Chrisiia.nity. They had learned the Indian 
language, and had~pirached ti> the Indians in their own timgue. 

Upon a report in England of what these men had done, a so- 
ciety whs' formed for propagating the Gospel among the IndicUiSj 
which sent over books, money, &c. to be distributed by the 
CommuaioDers of the United Coloitiea. 

The Indians at first made a great opposition to Christianity j 
and stch was their averkion to it, tliat had tiicy not been over- 
awed by the United Colnnks, it b probable they would have put 
to de?th those among tlieni who embraced it. — Such, however, 
were die ardour, enerjjy, and ability of Messrs, Mayliew and" 
EUkii, aided by the countenance and support ofgoveniment, and 
blessed by t^vidence, that ii) 1 6G0, thierc were ten towns of con- 
verted Indians in Massachusetts. In 16^0, there were not less 
tban tbtee thousand adult Indian converts, in the islands of 
IMartha's Vmeyaril, and Nantucket. 

SecH&jiXXn. Wm. The colony of Connec- 
ticut, having pietitioned king Charles II. through 
governour Winthrop, for a charter of incorpora- 
tion, his majesty granted theirrequest, and issued 
his Idtters patent, April 2d, constituting them a 
body corporate and politick, by the name of TTle 
G«cerHowr and Company of the English Colo- 
vyof Connecticut in New'England in America. 
Tlie territory granted to lord Say and Seal, and lord Brooh, 
in 1631, and confirmed by tins charter to Connecticut, was 
bounded east hy NarragansM river; south by I^ong-Istaod 
wimd ; north by Massachusetts ; and extended west to the Pft- ' 
liEck Ocean. . . 

The charter of Connecticut ofdained that there should be ti 
grrremour, deputy governour, and twelve assistants to be chosen 
anfluaOy. 'file charier instituted two general as^teniblies for 
ach year, to consist of the above officers tind deouties Crom the 
towns : the former to compose the upper, and tW deputies the 
lower house. The government under the charier was essentially 
the same with that which the people had ihemseh'es adopted, 
in t639, and continued to be the constitution of the colony and 
State of Connecticut until the year 1818. 

This charter included the colony of New-Haven ; btit not be- 
iMg agreeable to that colony, It did nos unite irith Connecticut 
until two yetff* after. Thegraiitingof achanerwCfliioectieiii 


4a pekiod iL»t60T_.ie8i-.seTT]^in»nr8.' 

was foUowed the nest year, l66S, b; s limibr gMt to Bhoib- 
IiIukI (md Providnice Pbutatioas, m lUreody noticed. • 

Section XXIII. The aeUlement of the Dutch 
at Manhattan, in 1615, and their aubmiasioB to 
the government of Virginia, which sent an expe- 
dition against them Uie same year, has already 
been mentioned. But the succeeding govumour 
threw off the EngUsh yoke, and from that time 
they had remained independent of the English. 
—Belonging to a different nation, and having 
different interests, they availed themselves of 
every occasion to perplex and .annoy the New- 
England colonies. They even laid claim to a 
considerable part of Connecticut. 

At length, king Charles H. sensible of the 
evil consequences of having a Dutch colony iu 
the heartofhi»Ameriuan dominions, determined 
to dispossess them. Accordingly in the year 
1664, he made a grant of the wliole country, in* 
eluding in it the several colonies of New- York, 
New-Jersey, and Delaware, to his brother, the 
duke of York and Albany. 

An expedition wasjspen fitted out against the 
Dutdi, .under conunand of Col. Richard Nichols, 
who shortly after appeared at Manhattan, aud 
demanded a surrender. To this demand, the 
Dutch govemour, Stuyvesant, yielded Aug. 27, 
being unprepared for defence. — Thus the whole 
country passed into the hands of the English. 
In honour of the duke, tlie two principal Dutch 
settlements were now named New- York and 

Section XXIV. A short time previous to the 
surrender of the Dutch, the duke of York con- 
veyed to lord Berkley, and Sir George Carteret, 
^te territoiy of New-Jersey. This name waa 


RHf^ a-.jn7...jte9-..sE'mjaiEKTS. 45 

gnea it, in eollipUnient to Cuteret, viho had been 
goveroour of the Isle of Jeraey, in lite English 

Channel. Soon aAcr the grant, but before it. 
was known, three peraons tToin Lonff-Island pur- 
chased of the natires a tract whicii was ciulecl 
Elizdttethtown grant, and a settlement waa be- 
gun atEUzabethtown. Inafew ye8r8,emigrantB 
from Tarioua porta of Europe settled Newark, 
Middletown, and other places. 

IV fint Kttkment in New^ersey was made three or fiiw 
yean alter the settlement of Plymouth in New-Ei^;land,by some 
l>iil£b(nen and Danes. The inhabitants were considerabljr m^ 
merous at the time of the surrender of the province to the Eng. 

The next year, 1665, Philip Cftrteret, who had 
been appointed govemour by the proprietors, ar- 
rived at Elizabethtown, which he made the scat 
ofgoremment. He administered the government 
according to a constitution, which the proprie- 
tors had formed. 

This coostitutioB ordained a free assembly, consisting of a 
govemour, council, and representatives, the latter to be diosea 
by eacW town. The legislative power resided in the assembly 
— the exeraitive in the governour and council. 

Section XXV. Delaware wa& also includ-^ 
ed in the grant to the duke of York. At this 
time it was in the hands of the Dutch, but an 
expedition was sent against it under Sir Robert 
Carr, to whom it surrended Oct. I, 1664, soon 
after which, it was put undertbe authority of the 
English govemour of New-York. 

Delaware was first settled in 1627, by a number of Swedes 
ud Fins, who at the instance of Gustavus Adulphus, king t>t 
Sweden, emigrated to America. They landed at Cape Henlo- 
fat, which, on account of its beauty, they called Paradise Point; 
the TWawarc ihey namtd Swedeland Stream. 

The Dutch at New Netherlands bid claim, however, to the 

territory, and mutual contests subgiated for a. long time between 

ihem and the Swedes. After several times changing niasten, 

the terriuny finally inrmidered to the Put A, who held poaHB 

' L,,™. double 

46 nilOD n»I8U..tGaiL-.SBTTIXiaKTSi ^ 

riaitofH,attIietiiiieofthe Ei^^h expedHiait ngaimt it nodcr 
CatT, in 1664. 

Section XXVI. After the reduction of New- 
York, Gol. Richard Nichols, Sir Robert Can, 
George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, 
Eeqrs. entered upon the duties of a commifisioD 
from king Charles, " to hear and determine com- 
plaints and appeals, in all causes, as well mili- 
tary as criminal and civil," within New-England, 
and to proceed in all things for settling the peace 
and security of the country. 
- The c<»Hluct of these commissionf^s was ei- 
•eedingly arbitrary and ofTensiye to the coloniea. 
Under pretext of executing their commission, 
they received complaints against the colofiiea 
from the Indians ; .required persons, against the 
consent of tiie pt^ople, to be admitted to the pri- 
vileges of freemen ; to charch raernbership, oad 
full communion ; heard and decided in causes 
which had already been determined by the esta- 
blished courts ; and gave protection to Griminuls. 
After involving tlic colonies in great embarrass- 
ment and expense, they were at length recalled, 
and the country saved from impending ruin. 

Section XXVII. In the year 1663, the tract 
of country, extending from the 36th degree of 
north latitude , to the river St. Matheo, was 
erected into a province by the name of Gabo- 
LiNA, so called m honour of Charles IX. liing 
of France, under whose patronage the coast had 
Jbeen discovered in 1563. 

This tract was conveyed, by charter of Charles 
II. King of England, at this lime, to Lord Cla- 
rendon, and, seven others, who were made "abso- ' 
luteprojuietors of the territory, and invested with 
ample powers to settle and govern it. Two years 
after, the charter was confirmed and enlarged, so 

tEItlOD n.„lG0T....t6e9....S£TTLEHBNTS. At 

as to embrace the whole territory, now divided 
into tlie two Caroliuas, GeorgiB, and the Flsri- 


As early as 1 650, a seulement was begun in Albrmnrle county, 
by planters from Vii^inia, and emigrants from cjtiier places. 
Itus settlenient was placed b_v the proprietors, under the snpe*- 
iniendence of Sir Wiiliam Berkley, governour of Virgittia, who 
Yiax instructed to visit it, and to appoint a gov^Dour am) council 
of six for it. 

The alteiilion of the proprielora was nejtt turned to the coun- 
try swidi of Gape Fear, which they erected into a county by 
tlie Dame of ClBrendon. This county was settl-id in 1<3C5, by 
emigrants fri^ tfae Island of BarbaJovs. Sir John Yeamans, 
who was front that island, was appulnlcd governour, and a 
lepaiBle|ovemnient granted, similar to tbat of Albt^marle. 

In 16^, another Bt^tJement was made still further south, at 
Pen Rd^ under the direction of William Sayle, who was ap- 
pointed ibe6rst gevemour. The name of this county wuCu^ 
i"v9. Tlius three distinct governmeDts were formed in Can>> 

in iSri, Got. Sayle, dissatisfied with the situation of Port 
RojBlj removed to the northward, and took possession of a neck 
oi Und betwem Ashley and Cooper's rher. Here was laid 
the foundation of aiown called Charlestnwn. Nine yearsaftn, 
however, the inhabitants removed to "the Oyster Pnint," where 
r^baiiesloi), the present capital of South Carolina, was begun. 
The place which they left w«nt by the mune of " tha Old 

In consequence of the unhealthiness of the climate, Goveroour 
Sayle died shortly after bis removal to Old ChBilellon, up<m 
which this calouy was annexed to llie government of that of 
Clarendon, under govetnoar Yeamans, and the three goveri^ 
ments were reduced to two. 

During the admitiistraiion of governour Sayle, a constitution, 
prepared, at the request of the proprietors, by the celebntted 
Mr. Locke, was attempted to be put in force. 

By this constitution, a prendent ofapidatine court, to consist 
of the f>ropneb>ts, was to be choaeii for life. An hereditary 
nobility was to be established, cunsitiiiug of laiidgrave* and ca- 
ciques. A pai'ljament, chosen once in two yean, was to be 
beid, consisting of the proprietors, of the nobUity, and of repre- 
lentaidvea ftom each diBtriet. AH were to meet in one apai^ 
Dient, ajid to have an equal voice. No business, however, coiUd 
be proposed in pNrliameat, until it bad been debated in % £rand 

4S rasiOD IL..160T-lC89._8ETTLEBfEllTS. - 

council, to coimst of tbe foreiliour, aolnBQr, and depnUCB bf 

Thia CDrathutmi it was found iroposnbie ta redace to ^ac- 
dce. Great opposition wn madetoit; and in Albemarle-aa 
inBorrection ivas occanoned by an attempt to enforce it. It.was 
therefore at length abandoned, and the Iwmer proprietary go- 
vanKDcni re5iarf>d. Thii latt^ scfft of gavetiHMDt continued 
from 1669 to 1729* wlwn the proprietors suiteDdered theie title 
and interest to tbe King of England. The provinee was now 
divided into North and South Carolina, and- their igoreracUTB anil 
Gooncib were appointed by tbe crown. ■ 

Section XXVIII. Thisyear, 1675, began the 
memorable war ia New-England, with the In- 
dians, called King Philip's war; by which, thie' 
peace of the colonies was grually disturltedt.and, 
their existence for a time seriotwiy ^idangeredi. 

For several years previouslo the opming ofrtie -war, the te- 
diana had regarded the English w^h inrteaaiog jealooay. Thuy 
■aw them growii^ in numbers,- atadi a) -idly eAendmg their met' 
tlenenti. At the same time thrir (rwn tnititing grMiods wa« 
vifibty narrowing, and tiieir power and' privilegea somblyde- 
cieasing. The prospect b^ore thtm was hianblmg . to lite 
haoehiy descendants of the origind Iwd* of the soil. 

The principal eieiter of the Indians at this time againat th« 
English, was Philip, sat^em-of the Wampanoags,.f;rMidsoaasd 
wccesaor of Masasooit, who, filW years before, bad ntade.a 
twa^ with the colony ofPlymoi^. tulip's leiidMictt Was at 
Mount Hope, Srtstol, Rhode-IslaiML 

The inunediate canse of the war was the exeaition of three 

iBdiuiH by the En^ish, whom Philip had excited to morderotie 

Sauiaman, an Indian missiiMiaiy. SausftmaOi h^g friendly 

. to the £n^h, hud informed them that Philip, vim several 

tribes, was ftjotting their derimction. 

Tlie eiecHtiixi of these Indiana roascd the auger of Philip^ 
who immadiatdy-anned lua men, and commenced hos^t^ 
Their first attadi. was^ made ^ne 24th, t^on the people of , 
Swansey, in Plymmith ctJony, ■■ they were reluming bwne 
from pul^c worship, ona dayof himiilialfin) ^dpts.yer,iiBdet 
the ^qirebensioB of the approaching war. £ig^ or nine pe^ 
SOBS were kJUed. 

Tbe caiHtby was immediately alatmed, and the. troops of the 
colon; Oetit to the defenoe of Swanzey. On the 23tb, a com- 
pany of horse and-acompwy of foot, with one bundr^ondlLH 
wihmteers '6om Boston, joined the Plytoouth farees at Swana«i'. 

■ . .,_,GOoslo 

Ite-asxt mondng an attaek wm nwde i^Mn/cooM oTFUtt^a 
OKU, who were pursued, and five or ris of tbero killed- Tm 
moiute conduct of the En^uh made a dem im[«eidoii on dM 
vaoKf. Philip, wkh bis forces left Mount Hope the same ii%hl 
— mutiog lus raate, how«v«r, vkh die bnmiag ot houiei, uj 
theicalniig of the driencdeM loludritaMa., 

h being kaown that the Nut^uueti fevo«wed the Game ri 
Philip, bebKriag te« tut wonen and chBdrea to than for pio- 
tection, the Mas— dioaetto forces nnder C^it. Hulchbuon, yn- 
ceoded fa tl h w illi into their country, tamer to renew a treaty 
witk dwn, <» to give them Utttle. Fmninate)y, a treaty wat 
Mudoded, and die txfMpt returned. 

Ob the irth of Jidy, news arrived that Plulip, with his wani- 
OHi^ was in a swamp at Pocassrt, now llverton. Hie Masaa> 
chinetts and Plymoinh forces iuurteditiely marched to that place, 
md tbe next day resolutely char^ the enemy in their recesN^ 
As be traoM entered ifae swaaip, the Indians conilniMd Id ic- 
tke. TV td^jlish in vain pursued, till the approach of ittht, 
wbta thecomraander ordered a retreat. Many of the En^fUsh 
WCM killed, and the enemy seemed to take courage. 

A beiag uaposrible to cnroimter tbe Indians with advantage 
u) the swamps, it was deteiT-ned to starve tbnn out; butPhHip, 
apprehending their de^n, ^ntrived to escape with hb forces. 

ne now fled to the Nifi/nitcks, a tribe in Worcester county, 
Masndmsetu, wbomlieiiHluced to asnMhim. This tribe btui 
already commenced hostilities against ifae English ; but, in the 
hope of reclaimtng them, the govemoar and council sent Cap- 
Uios Wheeler and Hutchiii«on to treat with them. But tlie In> 
4ianB, having intimation of th«r coming, luiked h) anhnth for 
Ibem, fired upon Aem as ihoy approached, killed eight men, 
L mm) mottaUy wounded tight more,- of whom Capt. Hutchinson 
I nssMr 

Tlie remainder of tbe Ei^^h Oed to Qoaboag, Brook£eid. 
^ The Indians, however, closely pursued tfaem into tlie town, and 
bmt every house excepting one, in which the inhabitanta had 
lifc(n refuge. Thii house at length they sorronnded. " For 
tm days diey contiaued to pour a ttoao of mvsket balls npoit 
t, and although conntleas amnbers pierced Arough the walla^ 
b« one person was killed. With iwig poles, they neit thrust 
igsioBt it iM-ands, and rag* dipped m brimstone ; t^ey shot ar> 
rowi of fire ; they loaded a cart with flax and tow, and with 
ieng pales fastened (ogetber. they poshed it agonal the house, 
Dtslniction seemed inevil^ie. T%e house was klndlb^, and 
(he sav^ea stood ready to destroy the first diat jtboaU open dw 
doer to escape. At this awfiil moment atorretitrf rain di 




Al«Mt ^ ^Mc Willvd nme to tbdr rdid', nuMd A« 
iie|r, and decUoyed a «muderabk nninber of the auaitanti. 

Durii^ the mcHith of Septeiaber,Hadley, DeerGeld, and North 
firldf cw Conoectkat river, wwe attacked ; Bereral of the inba 
Ifitanti were lulled, and man; buildiogt con^ned. OnthelStfa, 
Captain Lathrop, with aeveral teami and eighty young mra^ the 
flon-er of the county of Esiez, wen sent to Deufield to trans- 
ppit a quantity of grain to Hadtey. On their return, itt^pii^ 
to gather grates at Muddy Brook, they were suddenly attacked 
by near eight hundred Indiana. Resistance was in vain, nod 
seven^. of these yoong men fell bet(»% the tnercilem enemy, and 
were buried in one grave. Captain Mosely who was at De«> 
field, hearing the report of die guns, battened to the ^ol, and 
with a few men, attacked the Indians, killed uinety-six, and 
wounded forty, losing faimietf but two men. 

Early in October, the Springfield Indians, who had hitherto 
been friendly to the En^^, concerted a plan, with the hostile 
tribes, to bum that town. Having, undeir cover of night, re- 
cdved two or three hundred of Philip's men into that fort, with 
the assijtance of tliese, they set fire to the town. Theplot,how- 
ever, was discovered so seasonably, that troops anived tntm 
Westfield, in time to save the town, excepting thirty-two bonaesy 
already consumed. 

Soon after hostilities were commenced by Philip, the Tarren- 
teens b^an their depredations in New-Hampshire, and the Pro- 
vince of Maine, lliey robbed the boats and plundered the 
houses of the English. In September they fell on Saco^ Scmr- 
borough, and Kiftexy, killed between twenty and thirty of the 
■nh tbitants, and con»gned their houses, bams, and mills, to the 

Elated with these successes, they next advanced toward* Pi»- 
cataqua, conimitiing the same outrages at Oyster river, Salmon 
Falls, Dover and Exeter.' Before winter, dity of the EngUsli, 
in that quarter, were lulled, and nearly as many biuldings con* 

The Indians in those pEvts, however, had real ground of con 
plaint. Some seamoi, hearing it reported that bidbn diildrn 
«puld swim by instinct, overset the canoe of Squando, sacbMn 
of the Saco Indians, in which were his aquaw and infant child- 
This act Squando could not overlook, especially as some tima 
after the child died, and, as llie sachem believed, on account oi 
sume injury that it then received. Besides this, several Indians 
itad been enticed on board a vessel, carried c^, and sold ml« 
slavery. To redress diese wrongs, the Indians CMUnenced bos 

Nutwithsismding the NarregansetBhadpkdged tfaeotHWetbj 

PERIOD iL.^n7...16S>-^STTLEHENT^ 51 

flMJr treaty, ddi to engage in the war a^inn tbe Englith, it irM 
ducorered tbat tfaey were taking pait whhdw em:my. It wai 
deemed necessary, therefore^ for tne aafe^ of the coloiueS| esrijr 
10 check thai puwertbl tribe. 

Accordingly, govemour Winslow of Plymouth, with aboifl 
one thousand ei^t hundred troops from Massachusetts and Con- 
necticat, and one hundred and sixty friendly IniJiaiis, comments 
ed tfieir march from Peltyquamscot, on the 19lh of December, 
IST'S, through a deep snow, towards the enemy, who were in a 
ivamp about fifteen miles distant. 

The army arrived at the swamp at one in the allemooD. 
Some Indians at the -edge of the swamp were fired upon, but 
lied. The whole army now entered and pursued tbe Indiuis to 
fcir fortress. 

Tim stood or a rising ground, in the middle of the swamp. 
Itwaa Bworic uf great strength and labour, being ct>hiposetl of 
pdisades, and surrounded by a hedge about »x(een feet m tliick- 

One entrance only led to the fort, through the surroiinding 
tbkket Upon this [he English pro videndalty fell; and wit'iuut 
vaitins to form, rushed impetuously towards itie fort. The 
English captains entered first. The resistance of the Indians 
was gallant and warlike. Captains Johnson and Davenport, 
*itb many of their men, fell at the entrance. At length the 
English gave back, and were obliged to retreat out of the fort. 

At this crisis, the army bdng on the point of a fatal lepulse, 
»me Connecticut' men, on the opposite side of the fort, disco- 
med a place destitute of palisades ; they mslantly sprang iido 
tbefortj fell upon the rear of t_he Indians, and, aided by the rest 
of tbe army, aft«r a desperate conflict, achieved a cmnplete vic- 
tory. Slz hundred wigwams were now set on fire. The scene 
was BwAil. Deep volumes of smoke rolled up to heaven, min- 
gling with the dying shrieks of modiers and jufants, while the 
"^ and infirm were consuming in the flames. 

Even at thisdiftant period, weconnotrecallthis scene withotit 
pain, and can justify this severity of our ancestors, :nly by ad- 
initlinf its necessity for self'preservation. 

Hie In<fians in tbe fort were estimated at four thousand ; of 
these seven hundred wtirriours were killed, and three hundred 
ffied of their wounds ; three hundred were taken prisoners, and 
Bs many women and children. The rest, except such as were 
consumed, fled. 

TTie victory of the English, complete as it was, was purchas- 
ed with blood. Six brave captains fell ; eighty of the troopl 
vere killed or mortally wounded ; and one hundred and fifty 
were wounded, who recovered. 

it tWaaOD U-„lfi07-16Be..SEm.£HBNTS. 

From tbb del«at, die Indiaiu never recovered. Ttiey wan 
not yet, however, effectually subdued. During the winter tbcty 
•dU continoed to murder and bum. The towns of Lanco^er, 
Heilfield, Weymouth, Grmon, Springfield, Northampton, Suit 
Imy, mid Marlborough, in MasMchuaeUs, and of Warwick aad 
Providence, in Rbude-Island, were assaulted, and some of tiMOi 
mrtly, and others vhoUy destroyed. In March, Caplaia 
Pierce, with fifty English, and twenty friendly Indians, were at- 
tacked, and every Englishman, and roost of the Indians, wra« 
slain. In April, Captain Wadswonli, marching with fifty men 
to dm retief of Sudbury, wai suiTounded, and all either killed on 
the spot, or reserved for long aiid iU8<re*sing tortures. 

The success of the Iniiian^, during the wlnbv, had been grnAj 
but on the retum of spring the tide turned agajntt thera. TIm 
Narmganset counffy was scoured, and many of the tkativeswere 
killed, among whom was Canoochet, their chiefgachem- 

On the 12th of August, l676, the [iiiifhing stroke was ffm 
to the war in the Uniird colonie», by the death of Philip. AA«i 
his fli^t from Momit Hope, he had attemfrfed to rouse the H6> 
hawks against the English. To dteci his purpose, he killea, si 
several times, some of that tribe, and laid it to the EngliBfa. But 
Jiis iniquity was discovered, and he was obUged hastuy to fleoh 
lie retained at length to MouAt Hope. 

TidingBofhisretiun were brought to Captain Church, a mui 
wlio had been of eminent service in this war, and who was bet* 
ter able than any otlier person to provide against the wiles ol 
itt enemy. Capt. Church immediately proceeded to the place 
of Philip's concealment, near Mount Hope, accompanied by a 
small body of men. On his arrival, which was in the night, he 
placed his men in amlMishes round the i^wamp, charging them 
not to move till daylight, tliat they might distingui^ Philip, 
should he attempt to escape. Such was his confidence of suc- 
cess, tliat taking Major Sandford by the band, he said, " It is 
scarcely possible thai Philip should esc^>e." At that UmtaoAp 
(I bullet whittled over their heads, arid a volley followed. 

The firing proceeded from Philip, and his men, who were iii 
view. Perceiving his p;rll,lhe savage chief, desperately snatch, 
ed his powder horn and gun, and ran fiercely towards the spot ' 
where an Englislunan and Indian lay dutcealed^— l^e EfigU^ 
soldier levelled his gun, but it missed fire : the Indian iired, and 
ahot Flulip through the heart. 

Captain Church ordered him to he beheaded, and quartered. 
The bidian who executed tlus wdcr, pivnotuiced the warriour'B 
aphaph, " You have beoi one very gnat man. You have made 
many a man afrtud of ynu- But so big as you be, 1 will ni ▼ 
chop you to pieces." 

■ L,.,.,C,oo8lo 

rBBlOD n„ie07.-ISSB..^KTn£H£HTS. 

llms feJl a »vage hero and patriot — of whose tt 
abilities unr history furnishes melaachaly evidence. — The ad 
vantage of civilized education, and a wider tfaefttre of action, 
m^it have made the tuune of Philip of Mount Hope, ai memo- 
raUe as that of Alexander, or Caesar. 

After the death of Philip, the irar continued in the province 
of Maine, till the spring of 1578. But westward, die Indiatu 
Staving lost their chiefs, wigwams, and provinons, and perceiv- 
ing fiiither contest vain, came in singlj', by tens, and hundreds, 
and aabmitted to the English. 

Tfans closed a meliuu^holy period in .the aonali of New-Eng- 
land history; during which, six hundred men, the flower of her 
itrengtb, had fallen ; twelve or thirteen towns had been destroy- • 
td, and ux hundred dwelling houses consumed. Every eleventh 
^mily was houseless, and every eleventh soldier had sunk to bis 
^rave. So costly was the inherhance which our fathers have 

Section XXIX. The grant of the territory of 
New-York, by Charles 11. to his brother the duke 
of York, in 1664, has already been noticed, as 
also its capture from the Dutch, the sa*ne yean 
In 1673, a war commencing between England 
and HoHand, the latter sent a smati Seet to New- 
York, and the town immediately surrendered. 

The following year, 1674, the war terminatedj 
and a treaty was concluded between Kngland 
and Holland, By this treaty New- York was re- 
stored to the English. To prevent controversy 
about his title to the terrltoiy, the Duke of York 
took out a new patent, and appointed Sir Ed- 
mund AndrosB governour, who entered upon the 
duties o"f his appointment, ia October of the same 

The administration of Andross, however, was 
arbitrary and severe. He admitted the people 
to no share in legislation, but ruled them by laws, 
to which they had never given their assent. 

Connectient also experienced Hit weight of his oppression and 

*ei, attbcM^ Icog befon grarued to we cokmy of Connecticut, 

5 ' 


vw indtMlgd tn the grant to the doke of York. By viittM at 
Has grant, Andross now claimed jurisdiction over tlie temt&ry, 
Bud in Jnl; lS75, made an attempt whh an armed force, to take 
ptwsession of Sa3'bn>ok Fort. 

The |ovemoar and council of CMHHCticut, having notice o( 
his comingjeent Capt. Ball to defend the fort. On the arriva] 
of Andross at the mouth of the river, after making a show of 
force, he invited Capi. Bull to a conference. This was granted ; 
bol no sooner itad he landed, than he attempted to read hUcoin* 
nussion, and tlie duke's patenU. This Capt Bull firmly «id 
positive])' forbid, and Sir Edmund, finding the colony dMcnnin- 
ed, at all events, not to submit to hi? government, reUsqairiMd 
his design and sailed for Long-Island. 

Section XXX. But the colonies had other trou- 
bieB to experience, and other enemies to combat 
In 1G76, while the Indian war was 6^11 going on, 
complaints were made in England against -the 
colonies, for violating the acta of trade. These 
acts imposed oppressive customs upon certaia 
commodities,if imported fromanycountryhesides 
England, or ^ transported from one colony to 
another. The acts were considered by the co- 
lonies as unjust, impolitick, and cruel. For se- 
veral years they paid little attention to them, and , 
lijsmajesty at length required, that agents fehould 
besent'toEngland to answer in behalf of the co- 
lonies for these violations. 

By the acts, of trade none of the colonies suf- 
fered more than Virginia and Maryland, their 
operation being greatly to lessen the profits on 
their tobacco trade, from which a great portion 
of ;heir wealth was derived. In addition to those 
eulferings, the colony of Virginia, in violation of 
chartered rights, was divided, and conveyed away 
,in proprietary grants. Not only uncultivatecl 
woodlands were thus conveyed, but also planta- 
tions, which had long been possessed, and im- 
proved according to law and charter. 

The Virginians complained, petitioned, remon 
. ......Google 

raaoD ti— t«T.^t««~.sinxuaaiTa.- u 

fltrated— -but without e^ct. Agents were wnt, 
to England, to lay their grievances at the foot of 
the throne, but agenta were unsuccessful. At 
length their oppresaion became insuppcntdble, 
and the -discontent of the people broke out into 
open insurrection- 

At the bead of tfaia mBurrection whs placed one fbdunid 
Bacon, an Englishman, who soon afler hw aniTaljIiad beta a|^ 
pmnted a memfaer of the council. He was a young man of 
comntHnding person, and great enngy and entapri*e. 

The colony at thia time was engaged in war with the Snqne- 
hannah Indians. Bacon despatched a messenger to govenwur 
Berkley, r«()uesting a commission to go against the IndJaiW. 
Thi& commission the govemour refused, and, at the same time, 
orAered Bacon to (Bsmiss his men, and on penalty of beii« de- 
clared a T«bel, to appear Jwfore liimself and the coondl. Exas- 
perated by such treatment, Bacon, without iUsbandiiu the feu of 

bis men, procecd«d in a sloop with forty of them, t 
Here a quarrel ensued, and Berkley illegally suspended him from 
the council. Bacon departed in a rage, with his sloop and men, 
but the govemour pursued him, and adopted such measuies that 
he was tiiken, and brought to Janieslown. 

Finding that he had dismissed Bacon from the council ille- 
gally, he now admitted him again, and treated him kindly. 
Soon after, Bacon renewed hw importunity (or a commiuion 
against tht! Indians. Being unable to eOect his purpose he left 
Jamestown privately, but soon appeared again with six hundred 
volimteers, and demanded of the assembly, then sitting, the re- 
quired commiasion. Being overawed, the assembly advised the 
goremour to grant it. But soon aftw Bacon had departed, the 
governour, by the same advice, issued a ptodaniation, deooune- 
ing hitB as a rebel. 

Hearing what the govemour had done. Bacon, instead of 
marching against tlic'Indians, returned to JnmestowD, wreaking 
his vengeance upon all who oppivscd him. Govanour Berkley 
fled across the bay to Accomack, but the spirit of rriwUion had 
g«>e before him. He therefore found himself unable to resist 
Bacoii, who now ranged the country at pleasure. 

At length the eovemour, with a small force, under command 
o( major Robert Beverly, crossed the bay to oppose the male- 
cooteota. Civil war had now commenced. Jamestown was 
burnt by Bacon's followers *, various parts of the colony were 
[uBagcd, and the wives of those that adhered to the {oveEMur's 
party were parried to the camp of the invui^euts. 

56 ItaiOD II_lM7-aaS»»JKTTlEHEHTS. 

Ib the nUit of tbcM coiBmotiofis, it pleased the Sttprem* 
Ruler to withdraw Bacon by a natural death. The inalecoD<^ 
lent*, thus left to recover their reason, sow began to disperse. 
Two of Bacon's geneiab surrendered, and were pardoned, and 
the people quietly returned to th^r homes. 

Upon this Berkley resumed the government, and peace was 
restored. This rebellton filmed an era nf some note in the his 
•ory of Virginia, anditsunhappyeCTects were felt for thirty years 
During' its continuance, husbandry was almost entirely neglected 
and such havock was made among all kinds oi' cattle, that the 
people were threatened with distressing famine. Sir William 
Berkley, after having been forty years govemour of Virginia 
returned to Englanit, where he soon after died. 

Three years after, 167'9, lord Culpepper was sent over as go 
. vemour, with certain laws prepared In conformity to the wishes 
of the ministry of England, and deigned to be enacted by the 
assembly in Virginia. One of those laws provided for raising 
ft revenue for the support of govemn^ent. It made the duties 
perpetual, and placed them under the direction of his majesty 
Out of the dutlei, Culpepper dishonestly took,ashis salary, two 
thousand pounds, and one hundred and sixty more for house 

On presenting these laws to the assembly, Culpepper inform- 
ed (hem that In case they were passed, he had instructions to 
offer pardon to all who had been concerned in Bacon's rebellion; 
but if not he had commissions to Iry and hang them as r^els, 
and a regiment of soldiers on the 'spot to support him. The a» 
semUy, thus threatened, passed the lavs. 

Section- XXXI. In the year 1676, the provioce 
of New-Jereey was divided into Eaat and Wesl 
Jersey, and continued thus divided until 1702. 
when the proprietors surrendered tiie govern- 
ment to the crown under Queen Anne, upon 
which the two provinces were united into one. 

The two proprietors of New-Jersr^ were Lord Berkley, anu 
Sir George Cartaret. In l674,lord Berkley made a conreyaocft 
of his hEdf to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Billinge, and 
his assigns. Billinge, being in debt, presented his interest in 
the province to his creditors, William Jones and others, being 
appointed trustees to dispose of the lands. 

In the division winch thus took place, Cartaret took East 
Jeraey, the government of which he retained, and the trustees at 
Billinge, West Jersey, The duke of York, though he had cor*, 
veyed away luq povcn of goreniment, when lie sold the pro- 


vtnce to B«Ue)> uid Caitaret, !n 1 664, nojuidy claimed Welt 
Jersey, as a dependency nf New^Ycwk. 

Undl 1 680, ihb dependency was mnintobwd, when the duke 
of York, atier iDucIi*so)icituion, relinquished his claim, and ro> 
itored to die proprieton, the right granted by tits patent of 1664. 
In l682, Cartaret, disgusted with the oeopk, lold bli figlit to 
East Jersey, to WiHiam Fenn, and others, wbo immediately 
' vAA one half of it to the earl of Perth, and his associates. Ro- 
bert Barclay, the celebrated author of " the Apt^ogy for the Qua- 
kers," was the next year made governour of ^ast Jersey. 

In 1686, both the Jerseys and New- York, were annexed (n 
New-England, and continued so till the accession of William 
and Mary to the throne of England, in 1689. " Agovemroent 
under the proprietors of both the Jerseys, had become eilreroely 
^sagreeable to the inhabitants: who from various causes, be- 
come so uneasy, that the proprietors surrendered the eovernment 
of East and West Jersey to the crown in 17*02, which Queen 
Anne very readily accepted." 

'^ 71k two provinces were now united into one, and k»d 
CAnbuTy was appointed govemour over the united colony, and 
leceired his conunission and instructions from the queen. 

" The freemen chose the house of representatives, consisting 
•f tweaty>four members, iNit the govemourand cotmcil, consist- 
ing of twelve membtMs, were appointed by Uie crown. New- 
York aitd New.Jersey had, till the year 1738,11 common goreni- 
our ; but at this time a separate governour was appointed over 
the latter province," 

Section XXXII. In 1 677, a controversy which 
had subsisted for some time between the colony 
of Massachusetts and the heirs of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, relative to the province of Maine, was 
was settled in England, and the colony adjudged 
to Gorges' heirs. Upon this, Massachusetts pur- 
chased the tide for one thousand two hundred 
pounds sterling, and the territory from that time 
till 1820, was a part of Massachusetts. 

Both the colony of Massachusetts, and the heirs of Gorges, 
claimed the province of Maine : the former 1^ virtue of her 
patentof 1628, which was construed as including that territory 
tiie clum of the latter was founded upon a charter granted to 
Gi»|es, hi 1639- 

Section XXXIII. Two years after this adjuat- 
tnent; viz. in 1679, acommiasioa was nude out» 


by order of Chartes H. for the separation of New- 
Hampstire from tlie jurisdiction of Massachu- 
setts, and its erection into a royal province. The 
form of government sent over by the king, or- 
dained a president and council to govern the 
province, with an assembly, &c. The assemblj 
to be chosen by the people ; the president ani} 
council to be appointed by the crown. 

In lC29, the Plyniouih company granted to John Mason t^ 
leiritory called New- Hampshire. About the year 164O, xi» 
Mtllements now being considerable, the pxtent hoUtts agreed 
to taiign their right of jariidiciiun m Masaochnsctta. The cofo 
ny of New-Hampshire, therefore, remHined under the govaa 
ment of Massachusetts, until it was separated by the kin^i coui 
nissiim, in 1G79- 

The first legislative Assembly, under the above commlasian 
was convened March 1 6, 1 680, when the colony of New-Hamn 
■hire was declared to be independent of Maasachusetti. Tint 
separation, however, was ctisagreeable to most of the people ; fbi -- 
near forty yeartthey had enjoyed under Massachusetts the prt* 
vit^e of choosing their own rulers, and had derived great peace 
and harmony from an impartial government. Nor did tliis pro- 
vince long enjoy iranqiillilty. Mason, grandson of the Mason to 
whom New-BanipshirK bad been originally granted, came over the 
next year, and demanded, by virtue of his claims to the soil, a 
seat in the council. This being granted, he soon after returned 
to England, and surrendered a port of his claims to the king, 
and niorlg^ed the remainder to Edward Cranfield, who wat 

ipointed lieutenant governonr, and shortly after repaired t( 


It is necessary to add, that ihe Bev. Mr. Wheelright ant 
Mhers, in 1C29, the same year that the grant^waa made to Ma 
tort by the Plymouth company, bought of the Indians a lai^< 
tract of land in New-Hampshire. The same land was, there 
fore, claimed under both these grants, and the fiiuBdation thus 
hud of snious disputes in the colony. 

Cranfield, finding it for his interest to favour the claim of Ma 
too to the province,sDoncatled upon the inhabitants to taltetbeii 
leases under him. Suit* were instituted against all the land- 
h»Iders who n^Iectud this call, and the jurors being selected by 
Cranfield, and interested in the result,unifarmly gave judgment 
•Salnst them. 

Under these oppressions, the people despatched an aeent, 
with comolaints to bis inajestyi against the govemour. Atta 


rosea u-.i«e7..^«B8. .uTTLuiDtn. 39 

>heMdnc;bf tbs lords of tmde, the mkfutoiis conduct of Gna 

fi^d was reprcMHted to the king, who recalled him. 

It may be proper tu add, that the above controveray aboot 
tfte claima of Mason cnntinaed long to disturb the peace of the 
province, and waa not finally terminated until dw death of 
Samuel Allen, in 17J9) to trtiom the heirs of Hasan bad kM 
tbdr claim for seven Inmdred and fifty poonds ; apon hi* dfr 
nise, no one appeared to renew the dains, and the questioB 

Section XXXIV. In 1681, King Charles 11. 
granted toWilliEiin Penn, sod of Admiral Feniit 
in consideration of debts due tlie latter, for ser- 
vicee done to the crown, the territory of Peknstl- 
VANiA, 80 called after Penn himself. 

Ttus patent encroached on the territory of Lord Baltimmv 
nMaiyland, one whole degree, or sixty-nine miles and a half ( 
and tm the aoith, nearly three hundred miles, across the whole 
temtory conveyed to Connecticut in I6S1,* and confirmed by 
the royal charter of 1662. Hence arose contentions between 
the colonies of Pennsylvania and Connecticut, about boundariei, 
Ibat were not settled till a century ader. Within a ^ort time 
from the date of the grant by king Charles to Penn, two otfaei 
conveyances were made to Irnn by the dulieorYotk. One was 
a bill of sale of NewCastle, and a territory of twelve milci 
around it. The other was a bill grantiog a tract south of the 
former, as far as Cape Henlopen. These two deeds embraced 
the whole state of Delaware. At this time, Delaware was d^ 
vided into three counties, which, in l6G2,.were annexed to 
Pennsylvania, although they bad a separate assembly, in whick 
ihegovemour of Pennsylvania presided. 

"fte parent of king Charles to Penn provided for the king's 
soverdgnty, and for obedience to British acts, regarding com- 
merce. It gavepowerto the proprietor to assemble the freemen, 
<x their delegates, as he should judge most convenient ; ^ 
levying moneys and enacting laws, not contrary to the laws of 

£i May, ICSI, Penn sent one Markham, with a few others, 
lo take poi3easion,and prepare for a settlement. The next year, 
Penn published a form of government, by which the inpreme 
power was lodged in a general assembly, to consist of a govem- 

* Sec page U, wbare die hwDdariw of tbe Mnitesy (lasM to CoDtics- 
C«nt art eikh. 

■ ......Gooslo 

nwoD n^ttn^ntm-MmMMumi 


be cboMO bjr the IreenteD. Tbc pnyrietor bwI gwaaowt'to 
pmide, ud to have t treUe Tuce is die cousdl, wliich wm to 
cmubt irf MvemjKwo monbera. 

It wMoboagKed, that eveiypenan of food movaldtaracter, 
prafemag bk bhh ia Christ, tbould be a freeman, and capaUe 
sfb^liiig any office; and that none who believed in one God, 
•hould be mMcited in his rdig^ or be couqidled to attend, or 
loainiBlii reliffloua worriiip. 

InOctobeTjPeiiDfWith two tboaaai>dplaiiten,mo«]y Quaker^ 
arrived at New-Castle. In December, be convolved an assent 
bly ; but so few delegates appeariu?, he ordered, that instead oi 
•eventy-two, three memberi only raould constitute the councD, 
and Dinetbe house of asiembl;. 

Penn now entered into a treaty with the JniSans, of whom Jie 
purchased large tracU of territory ; at the same time, he cobh 
inenced the city of Philadelphia, which, in one year, increased to 
ft hundred houses and cottages. 

' Penntylvania had a mure rapid and proaperoua settlement 
ftan any of the other cddnSes. "niia was doubtless owing part- 
hr to hs healthftd clunate and fruitfiil soil, partly to the fact, 
uiat the great tentacles of settlement had been overcome by die 
other colonies, and partly to the religiotu tolerance, mildness, 
and Equity, which characterized its laws, and their administrt- 

1d 16SS, Penn, at the request of the freemen, granted them a 
I)ew cliarter, by which (eighteen persons were to form the coun- 
cil, and thirty-six the assembly, flie next year, Penn Idinsdf 
returned to England. 

The lasting prosjwrity of Pennsylvania, the foundation of whldi 
must be traced to his wisdom. and benevolence, is an eloquent 
culogium upon his diameter. 

Section XXXV. In the year 1684, June 18, 
an event highly interesting to the colony of Mas- 
Bachuaetts took place in England. This was a 
decision in the high court or chancery, that she 
had forfeited her charter, and that faencoforth 
her government sbotdd be placed in the hands of 
the king. 

The person chieSy instrumental in bringing about this eveht 

i^as Edmund Randolph, a man who had long been the enei^ 

of the colonies, and who, for several yean, bad filled the ean 

•^^j**^ ■»**>■ <MiM|iUi«t»BgaiMt them fipT violating fho acH 


PEBIOS II-~l«n'-..lfle9....SETTLIUIB.Vn. 

To answer to these coinplaiDti, Hauadrai 

mcurred the expoise of sending agmis to E^Und,aBdof lOBin- 
*°"**^g thtm there ; but his m^esty would accept of no coo- 
dhions, short of a siuTeiider of her charter. A> loe would not 
make tbit surrender voJuotarily, it was violently wrested fron 

Before king Charles had time to adjust the af- 
€aiTB of the colony he died, and was succeeded 
by Jamea 11. Soon afVer his accession, similar 
proceedings took place against the other colonies 
Rhode-Island submitted, and gave up her char- 
ter. Plymouth sent a copy of her charter to the 
king, with a humble petition that he would re- 
aloie it. Connecticut voted an address to his 
majesty, in which she prayed him to recall the 
vnit that had been filed against her, and request- 
ed the continuance of her charter. 

The petitions and remonstrances of the colo- 
Dies were, however, of no avail. Both the heart 
and hand of the king were manifestly against 
them. AAer all their hardships and dangers in 
settling a wilderness, they had no other prospect 
before them than the destruction of their dearest 
rights, and no better security of life, liberty, and 
property, than the capricious will of a tyrant. 

In pursuance of this cruel policy towards the 
colonies, two years after the charter of Massachu- 
setts was vacated, king James commissioned 
and sent out Sir Edmund Andross as govemour 
of all New-England, Plymouth excepted. He 
arrived at Boston, Dec. 20, 1686. 

The commencement of his administration waa 
comparatively . auspicious. In a few months, 
however, the fair prospect was changed. Among 
other arbitrary acts, restraints were laid upcm 
the freedom of the press, and marriage contracts. 
The lil^rty to worship in the cwagretnitioQd 
6 ■ ......Co^k- 

a miOD a.ieo7-.lS81.-SBTTUlfEIVS. 

way mu threatened, and the fees of all oflScerB 
of gOTemment were exorbitantly and op|H%ssiTe- 
]j enhanced. 

la October, Sir Edmund, and suite, with s guard of abotit 
liz^ r^olar troops, went to Hartford, where the assembly of 
Connecticut was m ussion. He entered the bou*e of the as- 
wmbly, demanded the chailer of Connecticut, and declared the 
c ri onid goranment to be dluolved. 

Eitremely rductant to surrender the charter, the asumb y 
mtenti<»iaUy jHtHracted its debates till evenmg, when the char 
ter was brought in, and laid oa the table. — Upon a preconcerted 
dgnel, the lights were at once eitioguished, and a Capt Wads- 
irath, sraxing the charter, hastened away under cover of nighl, 
wd seoeted it in ^e hollow of an oak. The candles, which 
nad been exdtaniiehed, were soon relighted without doorder ; 
Bvt the liiaiter Bad dbappeared. Sir Edmund, however, as- 
sumed the government, and the reciods of the ctdony were 

The oMiditJon of the New-England colonies 
was now diBti'eaBing, and as the administration 
of Androes was becoming still more severe and 
oppressive, the future seemed not to promise al- 
leviation. But Providence was invisibly prepar- 
ing the way for their relief. Nov. 5tb, 1688, 
William, Prince of Orange, who maixied Mary, 
daughter of James U. landed at Torbay, in Eng- 
land, and, compelling James II. to leave the 
kingdom, assumed the crown, being proclaim- 
ed Feb: 16tb, 1689, to the general joy of the 


Section XXXVI. ^sntfenv of tut «co% 

lonffiitS. In the colonies of North Ameiica, 

at the close of thia period, three varieties of cha- 
ractermightbedistinguished. In Neto-England, 
the strict puritanicalnotioDsofthepeople wrought . 
a correspondent austerity upon the mannera of 
society. Placing implicit faith in the Scriptures^ 
they moulded their govenuneot, and shaped pri- 
vate character and morals upon a severe and li- 
teral construction of them. They were devout 
—patriotic — industrious — and public spirited; 
and though of a grave, reflecting exterior, they 
ot^eu showed that shrewd iuquisitiveness and 
keen reliah of a jest, which. are still character- 
istic of the New-Englanders. 

The lawa of the colonies throw some light on the vietn Riid 
mimners of the people. As examples, in 1639, tht dtinking ol 
hraiths was prohibited by law in Massacbiisetts. In 1651, (he 
legislature nf that colony prohibited aU persons whose "estate 
did not exceed two hundred pounds, from wearing any gold or 
aUver lace, or any bone lace above two shillings pet yard ." The 
law authorized the selectmen to take notice of the costlineu and 
fashion of the " apparel of the people, especially in the wearing 
o( ribands and great boots." The New-Haven colony, in I639| 
resolred that diey would be governed by the rules of Suipture } 
and that church members only should act in'tfae ci\'il b^is id 
the Plantation. 

In 1647, the colony of Connecticut expressed their disappro- 
bation of the tue of tobacco, by an act of assembly, in which it 
wasordered,*' that noperson under the age of twentyyears, nor 
any other that hath already accustomed himself to tlie use thereof 
shall take any tobacco, until he shall have brought a certilicate 
from under the hand of some who are approved for knowle^ 
and akiU in physic, that it is useftil for him ; and also that M 
hath received a license from the court for the same. AU others, 
who had addicted themselves to the use of tobacco, were, by tlK 
same court, prohibited taking it in any corppany, or at their la- 
bours, OT on their travds, imless they were ten miles at least 
from any bouse, or more than once a day, tb«^h not in con^ 

04 PERIOD Il,..lEa7....ISe9„-S£TTLEM£NlS. 

pony, on pain of a fine of sixpence for each time ; to be proved 
b^ooe BubstE.'tial witness. The constable in each town to 
make presentment of such transgi'sssions to the particulai cour^ 
and npon conviction, the fine to b« paid without gainsaying." 

In the Colony of Neio-York, during this period, the manners 
of the colonists were strictly Dutch — with no other inodificatioiu 
tlian the privations of a new country, and the few English 
among them, necessarily efTected. The same steadfast purauit 
of wealth; the same plodding iiidustry ; the same dress, air, and 
p^ysii^omy, which are given as characteristic of, ilollaiid, 
Here equally characteristic of the inhabitants of New-Amster- 

In Virgiiiia, the manners of the colonists were 
those of the less rigid English, rendered still 
more free and voluptuous by the influence of a 
softer climate and a more prolific soil. 

Stith says of the first settlers of this colony, that soine emw 
grated " to escajre a worse faj.e at home ;" others, it is said, 
sought to repair fortunes Ly emigration, which had been mined, 
by excess. Many persons, however, uf high character, were 
among the emigrants, and amidst the licentiousness of the Vir- 
ginian colony tvete found, at the close of this period, the seeds 
of that frankness, hospitality, taste, and refinement, which di»- 
tinguish the people of the South at this day. 

Other national peculiarities might be noticed, as tliose of the 
Fins in Delaware, those of the Quakei's in Pennsylvania, &c. ; 
but at this period tliey were loo limited to require a distinct no- 
tice in our work. 

Sectitm XXXVII. ^tliQiOU: The colony of 
Virginia, from its earliest existence, was esclu- 
sively devoted to the Church of England. 

For several years, its unsettled state prevented tliat attention 
to a reli^ous estalilishment, which afterwards tiie subject receiv- 
ed. At the expiration of thirteen years from the founding of 
the colony, there were but eleven parishes, and five ministers j 
the inhabitants of the colony did not aitliis time, however, much 
exceed two thousand persons. 

In 1621, the colony received a lai^ accession to its numncrs, 
and the govemour and council were iustrucied "to take into 
special regard the service of Almighty God, and the observance 
of his divine laws ; and that the people should be trained up 
in true nJigion and virtue." At the same time, the Virginia 
Company ordered a hundred acres of land, in each of the bo- 
rougfasi to be laid off for a glebe, and two hundred pounds stcr- 

F£aiOD It.....l{»7.....16S9.~.S£TTLEM£NTS. 6^ 

linf to be rabed, as a staDding and certain revenue out of the 
profits of each parish, to make a living ; this stipend was thus 
settled — that the minister shall receive yearly live hundred 
pounds of tobacco, and sizteen barrels of com ; which were col 
iectively estunated at two hundred pounds sterling. In 1642, 
the assembly passed a law prohibiting all, but those who had 
beat ordained by English bishops, from preaching. 

bi 1650, during the time of governour Berkley, the parishes 
of the colony were further regulated, ihe religion of the church 
of England was confirmed and established, and provision made 
for the support of the ministers. The maintenance of a minister 
was put at sixteen Ihousand pounds of tobacco, which as valued, 
at that tine, at ten shiJliiigs per hundred, was aboiit eighty 
pounds sterling. But in addition to this, he had a dwelling house 
and glebe J also four hundred pounds of tobacco, or forty shil- 
ting&for a funeral sermon, and two hundred pounds of tobacco, 
or twenty {killings for performing marriage by license, or five 
shillmgs when the banns were proclaimed. The tobacco deg< 
tjjied for the minister was brought to him, well packed in hogs- 
heads, prepared for shipping. To raise this crop, twelve ne- 
groes were necessary. 

The special object of the New-England planters, in settling 
the country, was the enjoyment of their religious opinions, and 
the firee exercise of religious worship, without molestation. 
Early attention was, therefore, paid to the gathering of churches, 
and the regulation of reli^on. They were Calvinists in doc- 
trine, and Congregational in discipline. 

Each church maintained its right to govon itself. They fadd 
to the validity of Presbyterian ordination, and the expediency 
of synods on great occasions. ■ From the commencement, they 
used ecclesiastical councils, convoked by particular churches 
lor advice, but not for the juthcial determination of ctmtroveT' 

In each of the churches there was a pastor, teacher, ruling 
elder, and deacans. The pastor's office conusted principally, 
in exhortation ; upon the teacher devolved the business of ex- 
phuningand defending the doctrines of Christianity. The busi- 
ness of the ruling elder was to assist the pastor in the govem- 
menl of the church. 

Early provision was made for the support of the ministry. 
On the arrival of the colonists of Massachusetts Bay, at Charles- 
town, before landing, a court of assistants was held, and the first 
question proposed was. How shall the ministers be maintained f 
The court ordered that houses be built, and scJaries be raised 
for them at the public chaige. Their two ministers, Mr. Phi- 
tips, and Mr. Wilson, were granted a salnrf— The former tMrty 


After the gettlement of the several colonies, all persons were 
obl^ed bj law to contribute to the support of the church. Sp»< 
cial care was token that oil persona ehouM attend public wor-* 
ship. In Connecticut tlie law obliged Uiem to be present on the 
Ijord'e day— on all days of public fasting, and tbanki^vii^ 
appointed by civil authority, on penalty of five sbilUngs, for 
every instance of neglect. 

By the year IC42, twenty-two years from the landing of the 
pilgrims at Plyraoutb, there had been settled in New-England, 
seventy-seven ministers, who were driven from the parent cotto- 
tty, fifty towns and villages had been planted, and thirty or forty 
churches gathered. 

In 1 637, the first synod convened m America, sal at Newtown, 
Massachusetts, and was composed of all the teaching dders 
in the country, and messengers of the several churches. Ma- 
gistrates also were presenf, and spoke as they thought fit. The 
object of calling this synod was to inqiure into the opinions of 
(me Ann Hutchinson, a very extraordinary woman, who held 
'public lectures in Boston, and taught doctrines considered here- 
tical. The whole colony was agitated and divided into parties. 
The synod, after a session of three weeks, condemned eighty-two 
erroneous opinions wlitch had become disseminated in New 

The Dutch Reformed Church was introduced 
into New- York with the first settlers, and was 
generally embraced by the Dutch population of 
that colony. 

The Roman Catholics first came to America 
in 1632; they settled in Maryland, and now con- 
stitute a respectable and numerous portion of the 
inhabitants of that state. 

The first Baptist church in America was form- 
ed at Providence in 1639. Their sentimeals 
Epreading into -Massachusetts, in 1651, the ge- 
neral court passed a law against them, inflicting 
banishment for persisting in the promtdgatjon of 
their doctrines. 

In 1656, the Quakers making their appearance 

rEKlOD U..tM7...UN— SBTTL£U£»TS. fi^ 

in Massachusetts, the legislature of that colonj 
passed severe laws against them. 

Ho master of a vessel was allowed to bring any one of this 
sect into its jurisdiction, on penalty of one hundred pounds. 
Other still severer penalties were inflicted upon them in 1657» 
such as cutting their ears, and boring their tongues with a hot. 
ircHi, &ic. They were at length banished on pain of death, and 
four, refusing to go, were executed in 1659- 

Without intending to justify these severities toward the Bap- 
tists, Quakers, and other sectaries, it is still proper to state, OM 
some apology for them, that the conduct of the leaders of these 
sects was often calculated, and no doubt designed, to provoke 
persecution. They sought improper occasions to inculcate thdr 
peculiar tenets — departed unnecessarily from the dteencies of 
social intercourse, andiudely inveighed against established and 
cherished opinions. In this way the peace of the colonies was 
disturbed, and that unanimity of religious sentiment which had 
hitherto existed, was broken. Our forefathers sought U> avert 
these evib by the arm of civil power ; not yet having learnt that 
persecution is a ready way to propagate the sentiments of the 

In the year IG46, a synod met at Cambridge, which, by ad> 
journmeni, proUacted its session to IG48, when it dissolved. 
This synod composed and adopted the " Cambridge Platform," 
and recommended it, together witli the Westminster Confession 
of Faith, to the General Court and to the churches. In this sy- 
nod were present the ministers and churches of Connecticut, 
and New-Haven, who united in the form of discipline which it 
recommended. This, in connexion with the ecclesiastical laws, 
Tvas the religious constitution of Connecticut, until the compils- 
tkaa of the Saybrook Platform, a period of about sixty years. 

Section XXXVIII. jETta&e auXf Coins 

ttttVtt- The colonies, during this period, had 
little other trade than with England, though the 
West-India trade had begun, and there was some 
commerce with Canada, and a lew porta on the 
European continent. The colonies imported 
(rota England all their merchandise ; and ex- 
ported thither tobacco, peltry, and atlength some 
beef, pork, grain, and fish. The importfltions 
from England, however, much exceeded the «x- 
ports tlumer 

63 rSRIOO II-.1607-..1689».SETTL£ME»T3. 

Duringtbe first thirty years of tlie colon; of Virginia, their ex 

fiorU were confined to tobacco. But the price of it fell at length 
rom three ahillings and sixpence per pound, to tweo^ shilling 
per hundred, in consequence of which, a trade was opened with 
the frontier Indians, and the five Nations. The skins of the deer, 
elk, and buffalo, and the furs of the otter, hare, fox, muskrat, 
and beaver, were procured for rum, hatchets, blaokets, SiC 
These skins and furs were exported to England. ' English grain 
and Indian com were also expcHled to a considerable extent. 
Altliough the Vir^nians owned a few vessels, the greattr part 
of the trade was carried on by English vesseb, during this pe- 
riod. They brought to the colony English manufacture, and 
took tobacco, furs, skins, grain, tar, pltcn, &c. in return. The 
Virginians also carried on some trade with Canada. 

The principal article of eicport from New-England during 
this period was peltry, which was procured of the Indians for 
goods of smalt value. In 1639, a fishing trade was begun at 
Cape Anne, and in l64), three hundred ttiousand codfish were 
sent to market. 

The first vessel directly from tie West Indies was a Dutch 
ship of 160 tons, which arrived at Marblehead, 1635. The 
first American vessel that went to the West Indies was a pin- 
nace of thirty tons, in 1636. The ship Detire of Salem made 
a voyage in 1C38 to New-Providence and Tortuga, and returned 
laden with cotton, tobacco, salt, and negroes. This was the 
first introduction of African slaves into New-England. The 
first importation of indigo, and sugar, fi-om the West Indies, 
mentioned in our accounts, was made in 1639. In l642, a 
Dutch ship exchanged a cargo of salt for plank and pipe staves, 
the exports of lumber from New-England. The nest year, 
deven ships sailed for the West Indies with lumber. 

In I6r8, the annual exports of the New- York colony, besides 
beef, pork, tobacco, and peltry, were about sixty thousand birahela 
of wheat. About ten or fifteen vessels on an average of one 
hundred tons, English and Colonial, traded to tliis colony in a 

SectvmXXXlX. MWCitUUUVe^ Early at- 
tention was paid to agriculture. The first busi- 
ness of the settlers, was to clear the forests and 
supply themselves with food from thesoil. But 
the fertility of the earth taught them soon to look 
to a^culture as a source of wealth, as well as ot 
subsistence. It therefore became th6 leading 
object of industry in the colonies. ; ,^, ,|^ 

rBEIOD ll...IS07...1«e9...SETrL£MEKT3. Qf 

The inediod adopted by ihe first settlen to dear the landvu 
very slow snd laborious, compared wiA the present modes. 
They used generally to cut down the trees and dig vp tbt 
stumps, before tillage. 

Tobacco was early cultivated in Viipnia, and soon began lobe 
exported. Xhe jear after thecolony landed,the peeptegather- 
ed rom of their own planting, the seed of which they r^eived of 
the Indians. Vineyards were attempted, and experienced vine- 
dressers were sent over for the purpose of taking care of them. 
Flax, hemp, barley, &c. were ciiUivatcd to a considerable ex- 
tent. Rye was first raised in Massachusetts, in 1633. Ploughs 
were early introduced into the coiuitry. 

The first neat cattle, ever brought into New-England, were 
introduced by Ml . Winslow, in lo24. In 1629, one hundred 
and forty head of cattle, some horses, sheep, and goats, were 
brought to Massachusetts Bay. In a few years they became 
>o numerons as to supply all the wants of the inhabitants. In 
1 62S, the cattle in Virginia hdd increased to above one thousand 

iVew-York raised considerable beef and pork for exportation, 
and in l€r8, they exported sixty thousand bushels of vbeaL 

Section XL. sirts atitt jHatiufsctttves. 

The colonists, during this period, being chiefly 
occupied in gaining a subsisrtence, and in protect- 
ing themselves against their enemies, had occa- 
sion for few articles beyond the necessaries and 
comforts of life. Arts and manufactures could, 
therefore, receive but little encouragement, be- 
yond the construction of such articles, and even 
those were principally imported. 

In 1620, one hundred and fifty persons came from England 
to Virginia to carry on the manufacture of silks, iron, pota^, tar, 
pitch, glass, salt, &c. but they did not succeed. In 1673, Chal- 
mer says of New-England, " There be five iron works whidi 
cast no gans — no house in New-England has above twenty 
rooms — not twenty in Boston have ten rooms each — a dancing 
school was set up here, but put down — a fencing school is al- - 
lowed. There be no musicians by trade. All cordage, sail- 
cloth, and mats, come from England — no cloth made there worth 
four shillings per yard — no alum, no copperas, no salt, made by 
their sun." 

The.first bmtdings of the settlers were made of logs and tbatch 
ed, or werebuih of stone. Brick and Iramed bouses ware soon 

70 nJUODU.-1607..18Sa-„3ETnJtHEHT8. 

Duiltin(IieU^ertovns,andafterwardgindievitIages. Tfaefrmnes 
and twkk were, however, in some instances, imported. Tbefim 
mill in New^Kngland nas a wind'inUl, near Watertown, ImA it 
was taken down in 1633, and piuced in ihe vicinitj of Boston. 
WaterHtitIb began to be erected the. next year. The first at' 
tempt to build water-crall, in iSeW'Engliuid, wits at Plymonth, 
in 1626. A house carpenter sawed th«c largest boat into two 
parts, and lengthened it five or six feet, built a dedk, and rigged 
it into a convenient vessel, which did service fcH' leveu yean. 
The first vessel, built in Massachusetts, was a bark in I6SI, 
called The Blessing of tke Bay. In l633,a shipof d^ tont 
was built at Medford. In lC36,one of one hundred and twenty 
t(HUi was built at Marblehead; In 1641, a ship of three hun- 
dred tans was launched at Salem, and one of one hundred and 
sixty tons at Boston. From this time ship building rapidly ex- 
tended in the northern colonies. 

The firstprtnttn^ in New-England, was done in l639,by one 
Day. The proprietor of the press, was a cler|yman, by the 
name of Glover_ who died on his paseage to America. The first 
thing printed was th- Freeman's Oatb, ibesecondan AlmanaclE, 
and tne third an edition of the Psalms. No other printing 
press was established in America, during this period. John 
Elliot, the celebrated missionary, having translated the bible 
into the Indian language, had it printed at Cambrittge in 1664. 

The mode of travelling considerable distances was on foot or 
»n horseback, there being no carriages for that purpose, and the 
roads from one village to another being only n.urow foot-pathsi 
through forests. 

Section XLI. ^OPUUltUm* We may esti- 
mate the population of the English American co- 
lonies at the close of this period at about 200,000. 

It is impossible to ascertain very exactly the population ol 
■he American colonies at the close of this period. The estimates 
made by writers are vague, and often contradictory, TTie eati 
mate of Dr. Humphries in 17OI, which seems as well eiili^dttt 
credit as any other, is as follows : 



















niUOD II„jm-J<S8w..8ftTTLBIIKfTfc 

Norto Cuoitiia, ifiOO 

South Cwidins 7^000 


New-En^aod, 120/WO 

Mid. WKt & Cdcnies,143^ 

Total, 262,000 

Mskiog a deduction from Una account, so aa to bring A« esti- 
Bsteto the dose of our period, we state the whole «h^ pdjiu 
latioa.of tbe English American colonies in 1689, at aboat two 
handled tboaaand. 

Section XLII. £lrttCat{on. In New-Eng- 
land schools were founded at the outset of the 
colonies for the education of aU dosses : in the 
southern colonies, provisions for the education 
of the higher dosses only were attempted during 

Scwcdy lad the American coloiusii optaed the fbrein, and 
cflastrncted h^ritations, belwre the; directed their attention t* 
tbe object of education. 

PrenouAy to I6l9, the king of England anthomed the c(4- 
lectioii of raoniei throughout the kingdom' to erect a col- 
It^ in Vii^nia, for the education of Indian children; one 
thousand five hundred pounds were collected for this purpose, 
and Henrico was selected as a suitable place fu the scuninaiy. 
Tbe same year, the Vir^ia company granted tea thousand 
acres of land fdr the projected universi^. — This donatiim, while 
it emteaced the original object, was intended also for the fotUH 
datkn of a seminary of learning for En^h sdiolars. 

In additkm to a college, the colonists, in 1621, instituted a 
school at Charies' city for the benefit of all the colony, which 
Akj called die EaU India School. For the maintenance of the 
Blaster and usher, one thousand acres of land were appropriated, 
with five serrants and an overseer. — From this school, pupils 
were to be traiUferred to the college at Henrico, when the latter 
sbonld be sufficiently endowed. These establishments in VIr> 
cmia, however, ^ed of success, and in 1692, th^ funds were 
1 to William and Mary's college, which we shall notice 

nrento V 
ttteaft er . 

Still mwe attentive to education were the northern colonies. 
1b 1630, a general court of Massachusetts Bay appropriated the 
nun ttt lour hundred pounds towards the commencement of a 
tbitege. Li 1637, the college was located at Newtown, which, 
not hag after, waa called CanAridgt, in memory of Cambridge 
■t England, where many of the C(4<HUsts bad received th«r e<to> 
cation. Mr. John Harvard, a wordqr minimi , dybf'at 

7S lEUOB n_1607— lS8>...nTTLDIBin8. 

Chariatown Bbont tfak daw, bequeathed nearij ngfit Inm4red 
peondi to the cottcge^ in coouderation of wbiat iegtcy, H was 
called after him. In 1642 was.beld thefiiitcwiui>eiicaiient,at 
vhich nine were graduated. 

To this initiwtion, the phmtMjoDS ot Cuonecticiit and Mew- 
HaTen, bo long aa they remaned onabk to mppoit a liiaila) 
ra'e at home, contributed funds from the publii^ pnise ; and sent 
to it nidi of their youth as they wished to be edncated. Pii 
vate aubscriptions wet« also made Ironi tlie united ccdimiea to 
aid the institution. 

Great attention was also paid by all the colonies to (be attb< 
jeet of common schools. As a specimen of the arrangements 
commoB to the New-England colmiies, we may nodce tkoae of 
Connecticut. By lier first code, in 16S9, only lax yean froa 
the time the first bouse was erected witW the Gol<ny> it was 
ordered that every town, consbting of fifty families, should main- 
tain a good school, in which reading and writii^ duwld be well 
taught, and that in eveiy county town a good granuaar school 
skmld be insiiluted. Large tracts of land were ^ipropri- 
ated by the legislature as a pennanent support of these scIkmIs, 
and the selectmen ottyery town wne required to see diat all 
heads of families instructed their children and servants to read 
the English tongue wdL 


XLm. AtthecommencemmtofthisperiodiOivhistoryiHV- 
sented us with a continent, over whose surface an intermiaaUo 
wildaness bad for ages cast its deep and solemn sbada If we 
apjHoach the stiMre, aod look through the glomn that gathen - 
over it, the scenes which strike the eye are £idians at thor wiw 
dance, or peihaps flames curling round sonM expiring captive, 
or wild b^tt mangling their prey. 

Pasung from this point of time to the ckwe of our period, ft 
•pace of eighty-two years, the prospect is greatly changed. We 
tkw see smiling fields and cbeerfiu villa^ in the place of dis- 
mal forests ; instead of beasts of prey, we see graxing h«^ j 
instead of the kindling fa^ot, we witness the.worsliip of Jesus. 
Christ ; and instead of the appalling war whoo|), we listen to 
the grateful songs of David. In the beautiful words of scripture, 
the wilderness baa begun to blossom as the rose, and the desert 
is Iwcomif^ vocal wiu the praises of God. 

But how is it that a change lo woaderful hai be«i brought 
to pass? We have indeed seen the hardy spirit of enterprise 
leaviflS tbe hisuries of Europe, and plungjag iato liie Smm ef 


rEBIOD It._»1607..-1GS9....S£TTLEJ>1LNT5. 73 

America. But we havealsoseenourforerathertsiruggUogwith 
difficulties, and often trembling on the very brink of rum. We 
have seen them amidst Indian war, dcsulating famine, and pes- 
tilence ; and we have wondered alter the storm bds passed, to 
see them rise with renovated strength, and seem to gather power 
and advantage from circumstances calculated to overwh^m 

Admitting then, the extraordinary energy, wisdom, enterprise, 
and hardihood oftheiiTEt settlers of America, still we are driven 
to the admission of a benign providence working in their ff^ 
TOOT, and mysteriously establisliing (heir strength and security, 
by exercising ihem for years with danger, trial, and misfortune. 

Nor are tbese^he only considerations which excite our admi- 
ration, in regard to the first settlers of North America. AJ- 
though, in the eloquent words of Mr. Walsh, " It was their pe- 
culiar lot, at one and the same time, to clear and cultivate a wil- 
derness-, toercct habitations and procure sustenance ; to struggle 
with a new and rigorous climate ; to bear up against all the bit- 
ter recollections inseparable t'rom distant and lonely exile ; to 
Aefeod their liberties from the jealous tyranny and bigotry ot 
(he mother country ; to be perpetually assailed by a savage foe, 
the most subtle and the most formidable of any people on the 
fece of the earth :" — still, they looked forward to the welfare ol 
future generations — laid broad and deep foundations for religious 
inadtutlons — made the most careltil provisions for learning, and 
enacted wholesome laws, the benefit of which is distincdy ,felt 
to this day. 

In onr introduction, we Imve remarked that history shows the 
influence of the manners of a people upon their government, 
^Ad the reciprocal influence of ^'overnment upon the manners of 
a people. The history of this period furnishes striking exam- 
ples of this. In Virginia, the free and licentious manners of se- 
cie^ produce a government unsteady twd capricious. Tiiis g»- 
Tenunent re-acts upon their maimers, and aiils rather than cnecks 
&dr licentiousness. On the contrary, ui iSew-Engiimd, Uie se- 
vere puritanical manners of the people prciiuce a rigid, energeU 
ick government, and this government returns its {MititsiUCld in> 
Aacnee bs^ upon the manners of tne peopie. 




Extending from the accession of William and 
Mary to the throne of England, 1689, to the. 
Declaration of the War by England against 
France, 1756, called " the French andmdian 

Section I. The news of William's accession 
to the throne of England, filled the colonies with 
ecstacy. Under the sudden impulse of their 
feelings, the inhabitants of Boston seized Sir 
Edmund Andross, with about fifty of his associ- 
etes, and put them in close confinement, where 
they lay, until ordered to England, to answer for 
male-administration. Connecticut and Rhode- 
Island immediately resumed their charters, and 
were permitted by his majesty to re-establish 
their former governments. Massachusetts soon 
after obtained a new charter, in some respects 
less favourable to the colony, but in others, more 
ao, than its former one. 

Andross had formerly been govcrnour of New- 
York, under the duke of York, in which province 
his administration had been distinguished for 
measures both arbitrary and severe. Subsequent 
governours, imder the duke, and after he came 
to the throne, had generally pursued a similar 
course. The discontents ofthe people had been 

.....Google . 


-yriMiD .S'lWTW.S 

ii'.iiLL.iAAi in . iH'injiiiK n. 


TERtOD III..-t6S«...lT56. 73 

gradually increasing, and they were ready fiw 
revolution, when the above intelligence of the 
proceedings at Boston arrived- A revolution 
soon commenced, and, although attended by un- 
happy evnnts, issued in the restoration of the 
rights of the people, and the formation ot a con- 
stitution,' which h-iid the foundation of their pro- 
vincial, code. 

From the reduction of New-York, in l664,'to IC83, (he p«o. 
[itehadnosliareinlhegovernineiit. In 1681, the councUcmut 
sf assizes, und corpraalion, liad soljcittd the duke of York to 
permit the people to clioose ilieir own rulers. Accordingly, the 
next year, Thomas Dongan, a papist, was appointed govern- 
out, vith'msinictions to call an asiiembly, to consist of a couu- 
rjl often, and of eighteen representatives, elected by the free* 
holders. • 

Oit tfie accession of the duke of York totlie tlirone, under the 
(itie of James II. he refused lo confirm to the people llie privi- 
leges granted them when he was duke. No assembly was per- 
mitted to be convened ; printing presses were prohibited, an J 
■he more important provincial offices were conferred on papists. 
Such was the state of things, when intelligence of the seizure 
of Aodross arrived. This gave a spring to 3ie general di»ali>- 
fitction, which burst forth jtito open resistance to the existing ad- 

One Jacob 7^eisler, with several others, immediately took pos- 
session of the fort. Governour Dongan had j ust embarked tar 
Englatid, leaving the adminislrati<>n of the government, during 
his absence, to Charles Nicholson, at that time )ib deputy, 
Nicholson and his officers made what opposition to Lcisler they 
were able, but he having been joined by six militia captains, 
and four hundred and severity men, Nicholson absconded. Upon 
this, Leislcr assumed the snpreme command. 

Thia assumption of Lcisler was far from being pleasant to 
tlie council and magistrates, at the head of whom were Col. Bay- 
aid and the mayor. Finding it impossible, however, to suc- 
ceed against Leisler in New- York, tliey retired to Albany, and 
there employed their influence to foment opposition. Both Lria- 
ler, in New-Yoik, and the people at Albany, held their respect- 
ive garrisons in the name of William and Mary, but neither 
would submit to the authority of the other. 

In this state of things, a letter from the lords Carmathea and 
Halifax, arrived, directed, '"' To Francis Nicholson, Esq. or in 


bk abMoce, to nich as, for the time being, take care for prMerv* 
ing the peace and admiiiisterlng the laws," See. Accompany^ 
ing tnis leiter, was another of a subsequent date, vesting Nichol- 
ton with the chief command. 

As Nicholson Imd absconded, Leisler construed the letter &■ 
<Uiected to himself, and from that time assumed the tide and au- 
thority of lieutenant govemour. The soiitliern part of New- 
York generally submitted to; but Albany refusing subjec- 
tion, Milbn'n, his son-in-law, was sent to reduce tHem. In hii 
lint attempt he failed ; but during the ensuing spring, l690, he 
took possession of the fort, and tiie inhabitants submitted. 

On the 19th of March, 1691, Col. Slaughter arrived at New. 
York, in the capacity of the king'^s goveroour. Nicholson and 
Baj'&rd, who had been imprisoned by Leister, were released. 
Tbe latter was obliged to abandon the fort, and with Milbom, 
his iuo-4n4aw, was apprehended, tried for high treason, and 
condemned. Tbcir immediate execution was urged by the peo- 
ple ; but the govemo'ir, fearful of consequences, chose to defei 
iL To effect their purpose, an invitation mws given him by tho 
citizens to a sumptuous feasi, and while bis reason was drowned 
in intoxication, a warrant for their execution was presented to 
ium and signed, Before be recovered his senses, the prisoners 
Vere no more. 

Measures so violent gieatly egitated the existing parties, but 
in^ end, the revolution which had taken place, restored the 
rights of Englishmen to the colony. Governour Slaughter con- 
voked an assembly, who formed a constitution. This consti- 
tution, among other provbions, secured trials by jury, freedom 
Stom taxation, except by ^ consent of tiie assembly, and tole 
ration to all denominations of Christians, excepting Roman Co- 

Section 11. While these troubles were distress- 
ing the colonies of the north, that of Carolina, 
in the south, was far from being in a state of 
tranquillity. Dissensions early arose in that co- 
hmj respecting the proprietary government, un- 
der which they still continued. On the one hand, 
a part of the people insisted upon implicit obe- 
dience to all the laws and regulations of the pro- 
prietors in England : while another part contend- 
ed, on the other hand, that no such obedience 
was due Both parties being ardent and deter- 

PERIOD III™16e8.„lJ6«. 77 

mined, the conflict between tliem was violent, 
and greatly prolonged, to the serious injury of 
the colony. 

In addition to these disaensions, others arose 
between the English settlerH, and a colony of 
French Protestants who had planted then»selvea 
in the county of Craven"; to whom the English 
denied nearly every civil privilege, and especially 
the right of representation in tlie assembly. 

In view of these accumulating troubles, John 
Archdale, one of the proprietors, was sent to 
America in 1695, with fiill powers to redress 
grievances, and, if possible, to adjust existing 

Archdale was received with cordiality, and by 
his siDgniar wisdom and address, was so happy 
as to accomplish the purposes of his mission, ex- 
cept that he was unable fully to secure the rights 
and liberties of the French refugees. Not long 
after, however, the prejudices of the English 
against them abated, and they became incorpo- 
rated with the freemen of the colony. 

Section III. Aboutthisperiod,1692, commenc- 
ed in Danvers, then a part of Salem, Massachu- 
setts, a singular infatuation on the supposed pre- 
valence of witchcraft. In a short time, this infa- 
tuation pervaded several parts of New-England, 
producing, in its progress, the greatest distress 
in private families, and disorder and tumult 
throughout the country. 

The tirsl suspicion of witchcraft in New-England, and in the 
United States, began at Springfield, Maesachusetts, as earif ai 
1645, Several persons, about thai time, were acc^^ed, tried, 
and executed in Massachusetts ; one at CliarleBtotm, one at 
Dorchester, one at Cambridge, and one at Boston. For almost 
thirty years afterwards the subject rested. Butin l637orl688, 
it was revived in Boston ; four of the children of John Goodwin 
uniting in accuung a poor Ir'sh woman with bnritdiii^ thrtn. 
7* L,,™. Google 

78 PERIOD in....ie89....1?e6. 

Unhappily the accusation was regarded widi attention, and the 
vomfan was tried and executed. 

Near the close of February, lC52, the subject was agmn re- 
vived, inconsequence of sever^ children in Dan vera, Salem, be- 
ginning to act in a peculiar and unaccountable manner. TTieir 
■trat^ conduct* continuing for several days, their friends be- 
took themselves to fasting and prayer. Durmg religious exer- 
cises it was found that the children were generally decent and 
ftiti ; but after service was «ided, they renewed their fnrmo' 
inexplicable conduct. This was deemed sufficient evidence that 
they were labouring nnder the influence of witchcraft. 

At the expiration orsooie daj-s, the children began to accns* 
BererHl persons in the neighbouriioiid of bewitching them. Un 
forttmately they were credhed, and llie suspected authors of th* 
spell, were seiaed and imprisoned. 

From tliis date, the awfid mania rapidly spread into the neigh 
bouring country, and soon appeared in various parts of Essex 
Middl^ex, and SulTulk. Persons at Andover, Ipswich, Glou- 
cester, Boston, and several other places, were accused by theit 
neighbours and others. 

For some time, the victims were selected only from the lower 
classes. £ut at length the accusations fell upon persons of the 
most respectable rank. In August, Mr. George Boroughs, some 
time minister in Salem, was accused, brought to trial, and con- 
demned. Accusations were also brnueht against Mr. English, 
a respectable merchant in Salem, and his wife ; against Messrs. 
Dudley and John Bradstreet, sons of the then late govemour 
Bradstreet ; agEunst the wife of Mr. Hale, and the lady o( Sir 
William Phippa. 

Theevilbad now become awfully alarming. Onema)i,named 
Giles Corey, had been pressed to death for refusing to put him- 

* The manner in which those who were aupposeil to be afflicted with 
this malady were eieroised, b thus described by Cotton Mather in his 
Slagnalio, " Sometimes Ihej were deaf, Bometimes dumb, sometinics 
liliud, and often all this at once. Their tongues would be drawn dows 
their throats, sod then pulled out upon thcii chins to a prodigious leiig:th. 
Their moulbs were forced open to such a wideness that their iaws weut 
out of joint; and anon would clap together again with a force like thdl of 
tt ^ring lock; and flie like would happen to their shouldeT.bladea, and 
I'leir ethowB, and their hand-wrists, and eefend of their joints. 6oiDe- 
times thej wouM be benumbed, and be drawn violuill)' logetbcr, and pre- 
sently stretched out and drawn back. Thef complained that thev were 
out with knives and struck witli blows, and the print* irf (he wounds were 
seen upon lljem." We cannot believe that all fins o^uaJ^ took' pbce : 
timbably the persons were singularly afleded, and the excited &DCiBt of 
'Vse who looked on, added tha rut of the picture. 

rEBIOD llI....1669....lTae. 79 

sdf on trial by jury; and nineteen persMis had been execnted, 
more tban one third of whom were memben of the chiirchi . 
One hundred and Ally were in prison, and two hundred woe 

At length the inquiry was anxiously suggeated, where irill 
this accuinutating mischief and misery end i A convictioo b^ 
gao to spread that the proceedings bad been rash and mdefen- 
sible. A special-court was held on tlie subject, and fifty wlw 
were brought to trial, were acquitted, excepting three, who mse 
afterwards reprieved by the governour. These events were fol- 
lowed by a general release of those who had been impriaoned. 
" Thus the cloud," says the late President Dwight, " which had 
so long hung over the colony, slowly and sullenly retired ; aad 
like the dai^iness of Egypt, was, to the great joy of the distress- 
ed inhabitants, succeeded by serenity and sunshine."* 

We, who live to look back upon this sc«ie, are wont to con. 
temptate, with wonder, the seeming madness and infatuation, not 
of^e weak, illiterate, BJid unprincipled; but of men ofsmse, 
education, and fervent piety. Let us consider, however, that 
at (his period, the actual existence of witdicrall was taken for 
granted, and that doubts respecting it were deemed little less 
than heresy. The learned Baxter, who lived at this time in 
England, where the same notions on this subject prevailed, pro- 
nounced the disbeliever in witchcraft, an " obdurate Sadducee ;" 
and Sir Matthew Hale, one of the brightest ornaments of the 
English bench, tepeatedl-; tried biuI conc^emncd those as crimi- 
nals, who were accused of witchcraft. 

T4ie human mind is prone to superslhion, and more or less of 
it prevails in every country, even hi tliose which are civilized 
and refined, and upon which divine revelation sheds its li^t. 
In the case of the people of Essex, where this delusion chiefly 
prevailed, there were circunistaaces existing which did not exist 
in England. They had lived forsonie years among the savages, 
had heard their narratives of Hobbamocko, or the devil, of his 
frequent appearance to thom, of their conversations with mm, 
and of his sometimes carrying them olT. Every village was the 
theatre of some such scenes, and stories of mystery and won- 
der, heightened by imagination, went the rounds during their 
wilder evenings, conSrnied their opinions, roused tbek admira- 
lioD, and furnished materials for approaching terrours. , 

The circumstances ^tending the first strange appearances 
were also unfortunate, and powerfully tended to give them cur- 
rency. The family of a ministet, who was himsdf creduloUf^ 


and with wfaoin an Indian and his wife lived, were fimafiecled. 
Ilie opinions of the Indiana were deemed important, as they 
were supposed to be adepts in the science of witchcrafl. Added 
to this, the physician o( the village cuncurred in the opinion, and 
the fact was therefore no longer to be doubted. The atteniioa 
of the public)! mind wax immediately roused, and as others seem 
ed to be exercised in a similar manner, the way was [)repared 
for the delusion to spread. Children of not niore than twelve 
years of age were permitted to give their testimony; Indians 
were called to tell tlieir stories of wonder, aodwomenllieirnoc 
tumal frights. For a time the counsels of age were unjirard; 
wisdom was confounded, and religion silenced. 

If, however, the uniform protestations of those who were exf>- 
cuKd, or the cotifessions of numbers who had been accusers, or 
the conviction of errour im the part of those who were leaders 
in these awful scenes, be credited, we shell be satisfied that the 
whole originated in folly nnd delusion. All who were executed, 
excepting the first, proiested their innocence with their dying 
breath, when a confession would have saved their lives. Years 
afterwards, those who had been accusers, when admitted to the 
church, acknowledged their delusion, and asked " pardon for 
having brought the guilt of innocent blood on the land." 

Even juries, who had been concerned in the trial and condem- 
nation of some of these unfortunate sufferers, recanted their er- 
rours. " We do signify," to use the language of a jury subset 
quently conscious of their wrong, " oiir deep sense of, and sor- 
row for, our errours in acting on such evidence; we pray that 
we may he considered candidly and aright, by the living suffer- 
ers, as being then, under the power of a general and strong de- 
lusion." In one instance at least, a church, that of Danvers, 
which had excommunicated a person on suspicion of witchcraft, 
and who was hung, four years afterwards, recalled the sentence, 
" that it might not stand against her to all generations," 

h conclusion it may be remarked, that no people on earth 
trejfow more enlightened on this subject than are the people of 
America. Nothing of a similar kind has since existed, and pro- 
bably never will exist. Stories of wonder, founded upon an- 
ient tradidon, or upon a midnight adventure, sometimes awe 
the village circle on a winter's night, but the succeeding day 
•hases away every ghost, and lulls every fear. It becomes the 
present generation to advert with gratitude to their freedom from 
those delusions which distressed and agitated tlieir ancestors, ra- 
ther than to bestow invectives upon them, since they could plead 
in palliation of their errour— the spirit of the age in which they . 


PERIOD in.-.ie80.„I726. 81 

Section IV, Scarcely were the colonies reliev- 
ed from the oppression of king James, before 
they were visited witli troubles of a nature still 
more distrepsing. The revolution, which follow- 
ed the accession of Williiyjt and Mary, had in- 
aeed restored their liberties, but it involved them 
ui awar both with the French and Indians, which 
continued from 1690, to the peace of Ryswick, 
in 1697, commonly called "King Wuliam*a 

KingJaiiiesjonleavingCngland, fled toFranre. Louis XIV. 
lciagofFrance,slteinptuigtosupporl him, kindled ilieSmme of war 
betwecnKiaown country and England. The subjects of Louis, 
in Canada, uf course directed their nrma against the colonies of 
Ke«--£n%laDd andNew-Yorkj and instigated ibe Indiana to join 
ibeni in their hostilities. 

Count Frontenac, a brave and enterprising of- 
ficer, was now the governour of Canada. In- 
flamed with the resentment which had- kindled 
in the bosom of his master, Louis XIV. of France, 
against William, for iiis treatment of James, he 
fitted out three expeditions, in the dead of winter, 
against the American colonies — one against New- 
York, a second against New -Hampshire, and a 
third against the province of Maine. Each of 
these parties, in the execution of their orders, 
marked their progress with plunder, fire, and 

The party destined against New-York, consisting of about 
three ]tundred nien, in February fell upon Schenectady, a Til- 
lage on the Mohawk. The season was cold, and the snow so 
deep, that it was deemed impossible fur an enemy to approach. 
TTie attack was made in the dead of the night, while the inhabit- 
ants were in a profound sleep. Not a sentinel was awake to 
announce the approaching danger. Care had been taken, by a 
envision of the enemy, to attack almost every house in thesame 
moment. When the preparations were ready, on a preconcert- 
ed signal, the apalling war-whoop was begun ; houses werettfO* 
Keo opea and set on fire — men and women were dngged from 


iheir beds, and with their sleeping infants were inhumanly ntnr- 
(lered. Sixty persons perished iu the niiissacre, thirty were itiadt 
prisoners, while the rest of the inhabitants^ mostly naked, fled 
through a deep snow, either sutreviiig cjtirt^mfly, or jierishing in 
the col J. 

The second party, directing their course to New-Hamp- 
^iri, burned Snfinou Falls, killing thirty of the tnravest aien, 
and carrying fifty-four of the iuhabilunts into a mberable cap* 

The third party, proceeding from Quebec, destroyed the s^- , 
(lenient of Cusco, in Maine, and killed and captured one hun- 
dred people. 

Section V. Rcrused by these proceedings of 
the French, the colony of Massachusett:!i resolv- 
ed to attack the enemy in turn. Accordingly an 
expedition consisting of seven vessels, and eight 
hundred men, under command of Sir William 
Phinps, sailed for the reduction of Port Royal, 
in Nova Scotia, wliicli was eeisily and speedily 

A second expedition, under the same comman- 
der, was soon after resolved upon by the colonies 
of New-Y(Ji'k, Connecticut, and Massachtisetts, 
united, for the reduction of Montreal and Que- 
bec. A combination of unfortunate circumstan- 
ces, however, defeated the design, and the ex- 
pedition after encountering numerous hardships 
and disasters, returned. 

The plan was for the troops of New- York and Connecticut, 
consisting of about two thousand, to penetrate uito Canada, by 
Lake CJianiplain, and to attack Montreal, at the same time that 
the naval armament, consisting of between thirty and forty ve»* 
sels, with a similar number of men, should invest Quebec. The 
troops destined for Montreal not being supplied, either with 
boats or provisions, sufficient for crossing the lake, were obliged 
to return. The naval expedition did not reach Quebec, until 
October. After spending several days in consultation, th« laird- 
ing of the troops was effected, and they began their march for 
the town. At the same time the ships were drawn op ; but the 
attack, both by land and water, was alike unsuccessfij. The 
troops were soon after re-embarked, and the weather, prov- ■ 

PERIOD IIL...1C89-. 1T56. 83 

iiig tempestuous, scattered the fleet, and terminated the espedi- 

The anccess of the expedition had been so confidently calcu- 
lated upon, that provision had not been made for the payment 
uf the troopa; there was danger, therefore, of a mutiny. In 
llus extremity, Massachusetts issued bills of credit, as a substi- 
tute formoney ; the first emission of the kind in the American 

Sir William Phipps, to \vhom the above expeditions were en- 
trusted, was a native of New-England. The extraordinary in- 
cidents of his life will serve to exhibit the powerful spirit of per- 
sonai enterprise which the peculiar circumstances of the colo- 
nies called forth. 

The place of his birth, which happened in l6S0, was a small 
plantation, on the river Kennebeck, at that time nearly the limit 
of die £n^h settlements on the east. His fathn was a gun- 
imixfa, who had a family of twenty.«ix children by ime mfe, 
iwenty-one of whom were sons, of which William was nearly 
the youngest. His father dying while he was quite a lad, he 
Jived with his mother until his eighteenth year, durii:^ which 
time he was chiefly concerned in the care of sheep. Contraiy 
la the wishes of his (riends, he now indented himself as an ap- 
prentice to a ship-carpenter, for four years, in which time he be- 
came master of his art. Upon the expiration of his service, he 
went to Boston, where he followed his trade abeut a year, during 
which he learned to read and write, and in which time he was 
respectably married." 

Failing of that success in his trade, which his enterprising ge- 
nius coveted, he turned his attention to the sea, and during hisfirft 
voyage, bearing of a Spanish wreck near the Bahamas, he di- 
rected his course thither, but obtained from it only sufficient t« 
fiunish himself for a voyage to England. On his arrival in that 
country, he heard of another Spanish wreck, in which was lost 
onimmensetreasure; buliheprecisespot of which wasas yet un- 
discovered. Being sanguine in the belief that he should be more 
Bitccessful than those who had preceded him, in their attempts 
to discover, it, he solicited the patronage of several penons in 
office, through whose influence he was appointed to the Algier 
Rose, an English frigate of eighteen guns and ninety-iive men, 
io which, some time after, he s^led in quest of the wreck. 

It often happens that Divine Providence, previously to crown- 
ing a man's exertions with success, involves him for a season in 
difficulties, and tries him with disappointments. This was strik- 
ingly verified in the case of Capt. Phipps. Not meeting with 
Ae success which he had promised his crew, they at length be- 
came mutinous, and on a sudden rushed upoa him, wbole Mi die 


(piBiter deck, with drawn svords, and demanded of him, as liie 
only condJtion(MFlil<;,thatlie should join them ineGCapiagtothe 
South Seaa, to engage in piracy. Although entirely unarmed, he 
■toodfinn and collected until hchad fixed Ids plan, and then nith 
a.courage bordering on rashness rushed in upon their pointed 
•words, dealing his blows so judiciously that he felled uumbers 
to the deck, and so awed the rest, that they consented to jield. 
At another time finding it necessary to careen his vessel, he put 
hita a desolate Spanish island, near to a rock from which a 
temporary bridge was extended to the ship. Matiny was se- 
cretly working among his crew. While preparations were mak- 
ing by the carpenter for repairing the vessel, ninety of his men 
left hpr, and retired into the adjoining wood, under pretence of 
diversion, but in reality for mutinous purposes. Here a plan 
was formed, which was to seize Capi. Phipps, and the nine or 
ten men who were known to be friendly to him, and to abandon 
them to ttieir fate on the island. 

Apprehensive that the carpenter might be necessary on their 
voyage, they sent to him, then at work on the vessel, and re- 
quested that he would come to them. On his arrival he was 
apprized of their design, and threatened with death should he 
Dot second their views. The carpenter, being an honest man, 
requested an half hour to think upon the proposal, and return- 
ing to the ship, accompanied by a ejty ham the mutineers, re- 
sumed his work. On a sudden, fwgning himself severdy difr 
tressed with pain, he excused himself, while he should hasten 
to the captain, who was below, for a dram. In Tew words, 
while the dram was getting, he discovered the plot to Capt. 
fhipps, and sought bis advice.. The capttun bid hitn go back 
to the rogues, sign their articles, andleave the rest to bim. No 
sooner had the carpenter gone, tiian Capt. Phipps summoned 
the men on boa:d, of whom the gunner was one, and having 
briefly stated the plan in agitation, demanded of them, whethfer 
they would share his fortune ; to which they unanimously ^reed. 
All their provisions were on shore in a tent, round which seve- 
rs! guns had been planted, to defend diem from the Spaniards, 
should any chance to pass that way. These guns Capi, Phipps 
Mtdered his men to charge, and silendy to tum in the diiection 
of the mutineers, wlule he should pull up the bridge, and wHh 
tlia as^uance of two or three others bring the guns on board to 
bear on every side of the tent. 

Scarcely were these preparations ended, when die mulineen, 
Aubed with their anticipated success, made their appearance. 
t)n_ their nearer approach, Capt. Phipps bade them advance at 
Aeirpe»il; atlhe same time directing his men to fire, should a 
■"•ele ene come forward. Awed by hb deduon, and the Antttf 

jkeprqMfBtu»iiviuUe,theypaiBed; upon wUch Cqit. PUpp* 
Bfenaed than that tbeir pfot wu dUcovereit, and tbiit be wm 
detcnaiaed to leave them to that fate, wfaidi they had dedgned 
for hiBi, md those of the crew who wen too virtHous ta Korad 
ifteir yiUwious purposes. At the same time he directed lbs 
tsidge to be let down, and the proviskina to be brought on bosnl 
— troiie WMoe of ihe men shotdd stand with matchet at the gana, 
with (Holers to fire should a siogk mutineer advance. Hiis n^ 
eipected revote, and especially the prospect of • certain, bnta 
lingoiag death on a desdate shore, had the eflect to lubdne 
die mutineers, who now on their knees besought liis pardon, 
and pMauaed obedience to his orders. Unwimjog, however, la 
(nut them, Capt. Pbipps tied tljeir arms cme after Bootber ; and 
vbea all were on board, immediately weighed anchor, and n^ed 
for Jamyira, where he dismissed them. From this place, hav>- 
ing dapped another crew, he sailed for Hispaniola, intending to 
proceed m -search «f the Spwish wiedt ; but liit crew proving 
unfit, be ictumed to England. 

TbriHigli ifae assistance of the duke of Albemarie, and other per- 
ton ofquality, he was fiimisbed with anoth^ tiap and a tender, 
with which he sailed for Port de la Plata, where after competing 
bis preparations, he proceeded in search of the wreck. Having 
lot a laag time fruiUeuly sou^t the object of U» voyage, in the 
odgbbourfaood of a reef of rodu called the BoUirt, Airtlier 
Karch was about being abandoned, when, as one of dte boaia 
waa retwiHng to the ship across the reef, one of tbemenlodung 
over the side, spied as be thought a *ai feather, growing out <tf a 
rock ; whereupon an Indian diver was directed to descend and 
fetcii it up. But what wae their surprise and joy, on his return, 
ta learn that he had ttiscovervd several gum, lying on the botton 
of the deep. A second deseraM of the Indian increased their joy 
still note, for on his rising, bfr was bearing in hb band a rani, as 
ibegtcalled it, or a mass of silver, of the value of several hii» 
dt«F pounds Btniing. Tidings of the discovery were inunedi- 
alely nmveyed t« Capt. Phipps, who, with bis men, lepured 
to tbti spot, and upon leaving the plate, carried with inm tbitn'- 
two tOiM tii tdver btdUon, besides a large qunotily of gold, pearu, 
and jewels, over which the billows had been calling for mon 
than hall a cnituiy. Oa his arrival in London, the pr(^>erty 
thus reKued was valued ar neariy three-hundred tbousaod pounds 
sterlii^ ; y«t of this sum aueh was his exemplary htmesly and 
iibendily, that partly by folfiUing his asiuraaces to bis seaMen, 
and partly t^ condentioudy pamng over to 1^ employers tSk 
tiwx dues, he hod left to himsMf tess than sixteen thoaaaiMl 
poniids. As a reward to Us fidelity, however, be recdved & 
Iwrse uaoA frfoa tbe dokc of Albemarle, and upon » nyco- 
8 L,„„.. Google 


M Mm lb* boDosraf knqilitboDd. 

Im itj tfae rirnimiiMnmcri of the nary to continue in Ea^aodf 

^nt he had too pest an altachment for hit native comtiy te 

lUiik of s paauMot icBdcnce in any other land than that of 


JamealL vaaattbiitimeonthethroneof JGagland, bywhon 
4ha cclcoiea hi Anerica.had been d^ved ot, tbew tbaiten, and 
ywler wfaoee govaaoon dtqr were severely tvBenne fton ar- 
hhtvy kvi, and exocNive eiactiMis. — Pleased with PUppa,. 
fhe lu^ gave bim an opportnmly to ask of iiis majes^ w^ be 
pkwied ) upon which, forfetting petsonal i^ronduiemeM, be 
twaou^l far New-En^aud, that her lost privileges might be re- 
(tswd to her. This was too great a boon to be granl^ and tfaa 
king replied, " mg tiing but that." His next reqaort was^ 
that he might be appointed high sherifif of tlie counti?, fao^wig 
that by means ot hu deputies iu diat office, lie might supply tlM 
country withconscieittiousjuries" which was the only method,'* 
nys Sfather, " that the New-£nglandrai bad Left tbein to seonttt 
any thing that was dear unlo them." 

Having at some expense obtained his request, aAer an abseoee - 
mS five yearly he arrived in his native country ; but the kingli 
government found means not only to set aside his conuniwioa 
as high sheriff, but.alRo to ruse against huo such a tide of t^po* 
ntion, that he had nearly been assassinated before his awndooTi 
Finding aflaics in so unsettled a state, and his own sitnation no* 
cowfortable, be, lurt long aAer, took another voyage lo Enghndt 
Socm aAer lus arrival In that country, Jaoies abdicated the 
throne, and the Prince of Orange ascended it. This. event waa 
i|ie harbinger of better things to New-Kngland. H&viaf tern 
dered his services to William, and rejected with disdain the go- 
renunent of New-Eoglond, proffered to him about this time iq 
the abdicated king, he hastened his retum to Aroerka, hmuDg 
now to be of some service to his country. , In the unaettledl^ 
of the colonies, his wisdom and influence were of great hnporti- 
ance, and contributed not a little to forward the revolutiaHt 
yhich issued in freeing the colonies from the tyiMUiy of Jamea 
and his piinisters> 

The latter part of the life of Sir WiUiam PI^>ps is Andeted 
doubly interesting, by hist^iily espousing the cause of reHf^on. 
At the age of forty he vns pub^ckly b^tiaed ia one erf the 
churches of Boston, and received Into fao' coaummion. In an 
address or^ that occasion, in conclusion be observed, ** I have 
bad proffers of baptism elsewhere made to me, bwt I resdvcd 
rather lodefa ii until 1 eo^ enjoy it in ^CoOMDUldMi of these 
CBUiches. I iMve had awthl iiopreasiatt civsn ifae voids afibe 

Lord Jenu, ' Wboaoem thall he ariwBcd of me, wad of a^ 

vofd, orkimifaaUtheSaaM'Mfui be a^taiMd.' Wbn Gotf 
Iiad bksscd ise with Bomellitng of th« world, ,1 had IM tn>ubk 
«o great as tbis, lest it should not be in mercy ; nod I tremUed 
■t Dodiia^more than teing put rf widi a portion here. TfaU 
I may be Hire of better things, I now oiler myself uototfaeMllfc 
■luiun of the feitht'uk" 

Kiiig Wiltiani's war breaking out at thb time, he MuUd upo* 
lite expedition against I'urt Royal and Quebec, related above. 
In the fnUowing year he recrived a amaiMon B* captain gene- 
tA and gavernour in chief over the province of MesaachuMlti 
Bay. No appohitntcnt could have been more acceptable (o lb» 
people. He canie lu ibe goverDoient however in un&ettled timUt 
ind thou^ his adDiinistraiion was marked by disioterettednws 
and lib««lity, it was his fortune, as it i* the Ibrtune of all in 
hi^ atatioiw, to have enemies. Too rettk'ss to reiunln ut ea»e, 
4wy attengih preferred charges iigainsi him [» the king, uba, 
lh«Dgli satnfied of IiIe fidelity, cnnsideriHg it e}i[;edient W in- 
tpiae into tiie ease, directed Sir ^Villinm to apiiear in Gnuland. 
In obedience to the royal cummand, he tuiJi leave of IkiMvii, in 
Nov. 1 694, attended with every demonstration of res)iect ihta 
the people, and with addresses to dn-ir Majesties, that lie niigin 
be coiitimied in his -present r'.-s{>cctiible and useful station. 

On bis tnrrival tn England, the cloud, which had hung ovet 
him, was fast dispelling, and die ]>rospect flattering of hit speedy 
retani to his govemnient uninjured by the accusation of prejn- 
Aee and cftlumny. But Providence httd novr accomnlisbed its 
desigrw in respert to hia. He was suddenly attacked by a ma- 
lignanl disease, which lenninated his life, in February, to the 
great giief of all who were acqoainted with ibe generosity and 
patriotjsiR, integrity, and piety, that dislinguished him. 

The life of such a nun is always replete with instmction. It 
reveals to tboae-in the hmabter walks of life,the means by which 
they may not only arrive at distinction, but to that which is tA 
far h^^r importance^-'an extended sjihere of usefulness in 
cburt^ and state. Enterprise, exettion, integrity, will accom-' 
pUlhevny tUt)^.* 

BeeHion V{. The failure of the expedition to 
Quebec was humbling to New-England, and oto- 
ductive of other unhappy conaequeuoes. The. 
Indian tribeci, Mohawks, Oneidas, Senecas, On- 

• MstheHs MscnaEa. 

It THB£B Win W WM.ia»JLiai(B~.0£0. IL 

Mid«gofl,aadDelBWBreB, celledtbe FceeiVofMiM, 
wttlcd along the banks of the Susquehannah, and 
in the adjacent country, who were in alliance 
with Great Britain, and had long been a eafe- 
giwrd to the colonies against the French, be- 
came dispatisfied. They Uamed the English 
for their inactivity, and manifested a disposition 
to make peace with the French. 

To restore the conftdencR of the Indian alUes,Maj(irP. Schuy- 
ler, the next year, 1691, with three thousand men, Qeariy haCf 
Mohawks aod Sdiakook Indians, madean attack on tlie French 
■ettlemmts, nortli of Lake Charaplain. De Callieres, govenir 
our of Montreal, was wailing to oppose hrm. After a severe 
mcounter, Schuyler made good his retreat, having kilted thiiteea 
oflicen and three hundred inen. 

New- York found great security npinst ihe encroach inenta ol 
the French, in the Five Nations, who now carried on a vigwom 
war, fdong the liver St. Lawrence, from Montreal to Quebec 

But the eastern portion of llie country, particularly New- 
nampshire, sirfTered exceedingly ; the storm falling with the 
g^reatest severity upon them. Itolh Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts raised troops for their defence ; but such was the danger 
and distress of the colony of New-Hampshire, that the inhabit' 
ants were ujwn the point of abandoning the Prcvince, 

The winter of iwG was unusually severe. Never had Ae 
country sustained such losses in commerce, nor had provisions, 
ita sny period of the war, been more scarce or borne s higher 

Section Vn. in the midst of these dutressofis 
the country was threatened with a blow, which 
it seemed impossible that it should sustain. The 
marquis Neamond, an officer of lugh reputation* 
was despatched from France, with ten ^ipa of 
the line, a galliot, and two frigates. Count Fnm- 
tenac, from Canada, was expected to join hiitn 
at Penobscot, with one thousand five hundred 
men. With this -force, they were to make a de- 
scent on Boston ; to range the coast of New- 
foundland, and bum the shipping which should 
fall in tlwir wvy^ To Gmab ,tUeir work of de- 

PSnOD IIL...16S9-.'175<. 

structiun, they were to take New- York, i^ence 
the n-oops, under Frontenac, were to return, to 
Canada, through the country, wasting and de- 
stroying the regions through v^ch they should 
pass. But De Nesmond sailed too late' for the 
accomplishment of his purpoES. On his arrival 
oQthe coast, not being able to join Frontenac iu 
season, the expedition failed, and the colonies 
were saved. At length, Dec. 10, 1697,a treaty 
was concluded between France and England, at 
Ryswick, in Germany, by which it was agreed, 
in general terms, that a mutual restitution »iouId 
be made of all the countries, forts, and colonies, 
taken by each party during the war. 

Kin^ William's wwt, which v/aa thus terminated, bad b«ea ' 
marked by atradtia oa the part of the French aiid Indians, ui»- 
lil then, unknown in the history of the coloufcs. Women, ukhi 
eipeeting to become mothers, were gener^y ripped up, and' 
their luibMn otTspring inhumanty dnshed against a stone or tree. 
Infants, irtien they became troublesome, yren despatched in tli« 
same manner. Or, to add to the anguish of a mother, ber babe 
was sooieiimes lacerated with a scourge, or nearly Htnngled 
imder water, and then presented to her to quiet. If unable 
sotm to succeed in this, it was too effectually quieted by the 
hatchet, or left isehind to become the prey of prowling beasts. 
Some of the captives were roasted flive ; others received .deep 
wounds ia the fleshy parts of thetr bodies, into which sticks oa- 
ire were tlmtsi, until tormettted out of life, tliey oipiredL In 
Hie mstanee, an infsnt was tied to the corpse of its mother, and 
eft to perish, -vainly endeavouring to draw nonriibment from 
KT bosom. 

Great were the suffirings of those whose coedidoB vu lb* 
iwft. IlKy w^re subjected to the hardddpa of ttftvelliDg wMm 
out iboe», without cloihes, and often without food, amidst froM, 
and rain, and snow, by night and by day, throu^ pathless de- 
serts, and thrnugb gliiomy swamps. No kindness was diown 
them,3ndnopityfehferthem. Ifthey lahitedundertlMirbuntafH 
human ctmdnctors the severest ehaitiiement,W ei^Mred by muiu 
uf a blow from the tomahawk. Such were some of the ealam)> 
ties which our aneestora endured in the defenn of the counKrf^ 
TrtuditbqfbaveftMamitW*WnMisHll»MA^Miar^ ... 

90 TBUBWAUOrWH.llL.JJ))ffi--aEO.n. 

' HRm detub ^ indrridml Mflerings, nUdi occarred domg 
Aia mr, were they faithfully i-Morded, would exche tite aym- 
pallilM of the matt unfediag IXMotn. One iiHtaiK« only can 

Id an amA by a body of ladiant on Havcriiill, New-Homp- 
■hire, in tbewiDtcr of 169~, tb« emidu^g year of the wv, a 
putroftheaisailaDti, burningvitfa ravage animoiity,im»n)ach- 
ed the home of a Mr. Dostan. Upon the flm aUna, he flew 
fnna a neigbbounDg fidd to his faintly, with the bape of bntiy* 
11% thcni to a place of lafety.. Seven of fai&ehildKn he directed 
to flee, wliUe he himself vent to awist his irife, wbo wu cwifii^ 
ed to the bed with an infant, a week dd. But befiare ^le could 
leave her bed, the snvagps arrived. 

In 4n]»air of rendning h«' assistEtfiee, Mi. Dnstan flev to (lis 
door, Bounted his horse, and determined in his owamuid, to 
snatch up andiMTe the child idiich he loved ^ best He fol- 
lowed in pWsail of his tittle flock, biri, upon coming np to 
ihem, he ftmnd it impossible to make a selection. The eye of- 
tbe pami. ixmld see no' one of the number that he cotrid alxuidoii 
t» the kidfe of the savage. He determined, therefore, to mMt 
hm tee whh them ; to defend and save them from iheif ptaw^ 
era, or die by their ride. 

A body of Induns soon came wp vitk him, and, frona short 
^stances, Tired upon htm and Ins little comptmy. - For mon 
than a mile he continued to retreat, placing himself between bis 
children and the (ire (^ the savages; and returning thur riraf* 
srith great stmit and success. At lengdi he saw them all safelj 
lodged from didr bloody parsuers, in a distant house. 

£ is ixHcEAy to fmd a nobler instance of fortitude and courage^ 
inspired by allection, than is exhibited in ^lis instance. LdMia 
ever cidtirate tbe i^timce of those ties trf kindred, which an , 
capable oi'gndngio generous andelevMc^a direction to our •«• 

As Mr. DustM quitted his itawe, a party of ibtdians entered 
it Mrs. Dnstaa was in bed ; but they ordered her to rise, and, 
befbre dit coaU completely dna> hmdU, obliged het and th« 
mirte, 1^0 had viuidy endeavoured to escape, with the infant, to 
i|Blt the honse,.s^ch th^ plmidered end set on Are. 

In tbete distresMng circnmitmcaa Mrs. Dustan b^an her 
imvcb, whh odier captives, iDM the wildemeas. The air was 
Iwm, and tb^ path led dMMtely through snow and deep mud j 
■nd'her savage condacUm delated rMber In (he infiictkm <^ 
tmaait, than (be alleviation of disticas. 

The company had proceeded but a short distance, wlien an 
IMnn, thinking tbe infant an Incunibrance, iookit from tbe 
K»K^Mnu,:^»irmkMir icnnnMled iM life. Suck nT tb« 



aadims of hor wdfttiags, of nakmg qne^^sra cwcen^ U} 

thin|, but the mcceii or ibe enterprise. 

** But whatever may be thought of the rectitude of for con 
duct, that of her husband is in every view honourable. A fiuei 
Buccesiion of scenes for the pencil was hardly ever presented (o 
tlw ey; than h fiimmhed by ibe efibrU of ibis gallant man, with 
their inlerMting appendages. The artist must be destitute in 
deed of talmts, who could not engross every heart, as well ai 
every eye, by exbtbitions of tbis husband and father, flying M 
rescue his wife, her infant, and her nurse, from the approadimg 
horde of savages; aUempliog on bis horse to select from ha 
fiyinfi[' family tbe child which he was the least able to spare, and 
unable to make the selection ; facii^ in their rear the horde of 
heil^iounds ; alternately and sternly retreating behind his inet> 
timable charge, and fixintingtheenemy again ; receiving and !«■ 
toning their fire ; and presenting famuelf, equally, as a biUTter 
against murderers, and a shelter to the flight of innocence and 
anguish. In tbe back ground of someor other of these pScoires, 
ni%ht be exhibited, with powerflit imi^eMion, the kindled duell- 
ing; the sickly mother; tbe terrified niBK, withthe new-bao) 
inuuit in her arms ; and the furious natives ■mrounding them, 
drivii^; them forward, and di^^ying the troj^es of savage vie* 
lory, and the insolence of savage triumph." 

Section VIII. Scarcely had the c<^onies re- 
covered from the wounds and impovenshmeDl 
of King WUlicm^B war, which ended in 1697, 
before they were again involved in the horrours 
of another war With the French, Indians, and 
Spaniards, coranionly called " Queen Anne's 
War," which contiHued from 1702, to tbe peace 
of Utrecht, March Slet, 1713.' 

By the treaty of Ryswick, it was in general terms agreed, tbtf 
France and England should mutually restore to each other all 
conquests made during the war. But the rights and prf tensions 
af either monarch to certain places in MOdson's Bay, ftc- «<^ 
left to be ascertdoed and determined at some fiitare duy, by 

The evil consequences of leaving boundaries thus unsrtde* 
were snon perceived. Disputes arose, which, mingling whh 
other differmces of RiQ greater importnnce, ted England to' de^ 
dare war against France and Spain, May «h, 1702. 

Section IX. The whole weight of the war in 
America, unexpeetedb' fell on New-England. 

The get^nphieal position of New-York particu- 
larly exposed that colony to a combined attack 
irom the lakes and sea; but just before the com- 
mencement of hoBtilities, a treaty of neutrality 
was concluded between the five Nations and tlie 
French governour in Canada. The local situa- 
tion of the Five Nations, bordering on the fron- 
tiers- of New- York, prevented the French from 
molesting that colony ; MassachusettB and New- 
Hampshire were thus left to bear the chief ca- 
lamities of the war. 

The declaration of war was immediately fol- 
\owed by incursions of French and Indians from 
Canada into these colonics, who seized every 
oppCHtunity for annoying the inhabitants by de- 
ptvdation and outrage. 

On Timday, Feb. 29th, 1704, at day break, a party of French 
and Ltdisns, three hundred in number, under command of the 
infamom Hextcl De Rnuville, fell upon Deerfield, IMasi. Un- 
hap{uly, not only the inhabitants, but even the watch were 
a^eep. They soon made themselvea masters of the house fai 
wKck the garrison was kept. Proceeding thence to the house 
of Mr. Wiiliams the clei^'man, they forced the doors, and en- 
tered the room wtierc he was sleeping. 

Afraked by the noise, Mr. Williams seiied hia pistol, and 
mapped it at the Indian who first approached, but i' missed 
fire. Wr. Williams was now seized, disanned, bound, and kept 
standing, witliout his clothes, in the intense cold, nearly an 
hour. * 

His house was next plund^ed, and two of hb cliildien, toge- 
tlie- with ft block female serrant, were butchered before his eyes. 
The savages at length suflired hia wife and five children to put 
•a their clothes, after which, he was himself allowed to dress, 
and prepare for a long aiid melancholy march. 

The whok town aronnd them was now on fire. Every house, 
but the one next to Mr, Williams' was cfinsumed. This bouse 
is ttill standing ; a bole cnt by the savages m the door, and the 
mariu of the bullets in the w^ls, are vbible to this day. 

Having completed their work of destruction, ia bumuiB the 
town, and lullii^ forty-seven persons, llw enemy hastily retreat- 
ed, taking with them one hundred of the inhabitants, aiDOflf 
whom, were Mr. WilKoKis and hi> fiimily 



The fint niriit after tlirir depantire trma Deci^fidd, ibt ttTv 

ces murdered Sir. WiUiams' servaot, and mi the day succeed^ 
finding Mrs. Klllianij unable lo Xei-p pace with the rest, plun^ 
ed a hotdnt into her head. Site bnJ recently bonie an infant, 
and was not yet recovered. But Jier hasbaiid was not p«Tnitted 
to assist her. Ife himstif was lami?, bound, insulted, threatened, 
and nearly Tarnished — but what were personal Bufferings Itke 
these, and even greater ihyji these, to the sight of a wife under cir 
cunistancet so tender, inhumanly butihned before his eyes ! Be- 
fore tiie journey was ended, seventeen oth^v shared the Bidam> 
holy fate of Airs. Williams. 

On tlieir arriviJ in Canada, it may he added,^ Mr. WJUiant 
was treated with civility by the French. At the end of two 
yeara, he was redeemed wiih fifiy-«even others, and returned U> 
Deerddd, where, ufter twelve yean labmir in the gospdjfceeiw 
tered into his i«st. 

Section X. In the si)ring of 1707, Masaachu- 
setts, Riiode-Island, and New-Hampshire, fitted 
out an expedition agninet Port Rcryal, in Novd 
Scotia. The expedition, consisting of one thoa 
eand men, sailed from Nantucket id twenty-three 
transports, under oonvdy of the Deptfcrd man of 
war, and the Province galley. After a short 
voyage, they arrived at Port Royal ; but March, 
the commander of the expedition, though a brave 
man, being unfit to lead in an enterprise so diffi- ' 
cult, little was done, beyond burning a fewboaseSj 
and killing a few cattle. 

While this unfortunate expedition was on foot, the frontiui 
were ke|it in constant alann. Oyster River, Exeter, KingsKn, 
and Dover, in New-Hmnpihire^ Berwick, York, Wells, and 
Casco, in Mame, were attacked, and,j:omider&bly Aamaged bj 
the enemy. 

Section XI. The colonies -were now resolved 
on another attempt upon Canada. In 1708, Mas-, 
sachusetts petitioned Queen Anne for assistance, 
and she promised to isend fire regiments of re- 
gular troops. These, with twelve hundred men 
rtdsed in Massachusetts and Rhode-Island, Were 
to.sail from RoetoB to Quebec .^ - 

nuuoD nui<8e-..]7W 95 

A aecoad diriaionof one thousand eight hun- 
dred men, trom colonies soutti of Rhode-Island, 
were to march against Montreal, by way of 
Champlain ; but this project also failed, the land 
b-oops returning, after penetrating to Wood 
Creek, ili consequence of learning that the naval 
armament, promised from England, had been 
directed to Portugal. 

Section XII. The patience of the colonies was 
not yet exhausted. Another application was 
made to the Queen, and in July, 1710, Col. Ni- 
cholson earae over with five frigates and a bomb 
ketch, for the purpose of reducing Port Royal. 
In tUJi expedition, he was joined by live regi- 
ments of troops from New-Kngland. 

Thearmament, consiatingofSieabovefrigates, 
and between twenty and thirty transports, belong- 
ing to the colonies, sailed from Boston, Septem- 
ber 18th. On the 24th, it reached Port Royal, 
which surrendered October 5th, and in honour 
. of Queen Anne, was called Annapolis. 

Animated with his success, NtchoUon soon after sailed far 
Ei^^and, to Bolicit another expedition against Canada. Con- 
trary to the expectations of the colonies, tiie ministry acceded 
to the proposal, and orders were issued to the northern Cotoniai 
to get ready Uieir quotas of men. 

Sixteen days after these orders arrived, a fleet of men of war 
and transports, under cninmand of Sir Hovenden Walker, with 
(even regiments of the duke of Marlborough's troops, and a bat- 
talioo of marines, und^* Bri^dier Gen. Hill, sailed into Boston. 
But the fleet had neither provisions nor pilots. Aided, how- 
ever, by the prompt and active exertions of the colonies, on the 
SOth of July, the fleet, consisting of fifteen men of war, forty 
tru^KMts, atid six store ships, with nearly seven thousand men^ 
M3«d fma Boston for Canada. 

Shortly after the deputuie of the fleet, genenlNiduibonjpro- 
ceeded from Albany towards Canada, at &e head of four then* 
sand men, from the colonies of Connecticut, New- York, and 
. 'theflMtaniTCdiotbeSl.L<W(«nce,AHg.l4th. Inprawctl- 

90 TBBEl. WiUU one WH. m-^iXQOLjaO. tt. 

tag up Ae river, througfa ttie uiu^fuhiets of die }>H<it>| and by 
contTBT; vinds, it was "in imminent danger of mtire denructtOD* 
On the 22d, about midnight, ^e seamen discovered tliat they 
wvre driven on tlie north shore, amoog islands and rocks. 
E^lht or nine of the British transports, on board of which vers 
idNHit one thousand seven hundred officers and soldiery wtxe 
tast away, and nearly one thousand men were lost. Upon this 
disaster, no further attempts were made to prosecut« the expe- 
£ti<m. The fleet sailed directly for England, and the provin- 
cial troops returned home. Gen. Nicholson, who had advaoecd 
to Lake George, hearing of the miscarriage of tbeeipedttioiim 
the Sl Lawrence, returned with the land forces, and abandoned 
the enterprise. 

The failure of this expedition w'as unjustly imputed, hy the 
mother country, wholly to New-England ; nor did the ctdonies 
receive any credit for their vigorous exertions in raising men, 
and fitting out the fleet. Tlie expedition was not, however, 
without a beneficial effect, as it probably prevented Annapi^ 
from felling into the hands of the enemy. 

SeetionXIU. The spring of 1712 opened 
with new depredations of the enemy upon the ' 
frontier settlements. Oyster River, Exeter,' 
York, Welts, &c. were again attacked and plun- 
dered. Many inhabitants in different p^ts of 
the country were miu-dered, although, in some 
portions of the colonies, one half of Uie militia . 
were constantly on duty. 

Section XIV. The northern colonies were not 
alone in the distresses of Queen Anne's weu*. 
■Carolina, then the southern frontier of the Atne-. 
rican colonies, had her full share in its expenses _ 
and Bufierings. 

Before official intelligence had been received 
of the declaration of war by England against 
France and Spain, in 1 702,, .although war ha4 
actually been declared, Gov. Moore, of the south- 
em settlements in Carolina, proposed to the as- 
sembly of the colony an expedition against the 
Spanish settlement of St. Ajigustioe, Florida. 
. AUhoufrtt.M^w^.of i^pM/. coiique»t,,^,.of 

naooB iB-iea.-4»e. -gr 

baag BOifiy rewarded hj its treasures of g^ 
aod folver, numbeEa of the more coDsiderate in 
the assembly were opposed to ihe oxpeditioa. 
A m^otitj, however, being in favour of it, two 
tfaoasasd poundB were voted, and one thousand 
two hundred men were raised, of whom one- 
luJfTrNe Indiana— bat the expedition entirdy 

Wift dK forcea above named, and some DMrdunt tumIi, 
impreued as transports. Gov. Moore sailed for St. Al^natHW. 
The de»|D . vu (or Col. Daniel, ao enterprising officer, to pro- 
ceed by Vte inland passage, ant) to attack the tovn by land, vrith 
% party of militia and Indians ; while Moore was to proceed bg 
tea, (Old take possession of the harbour. Daniel advanced 
agunst the town, entered and plundered it, before the goTersoUT*i 
anivaL The Spaniards, however, retired to the cattle, trith 
tbeir principal riches, and with provisions for four montlu. 

the govemoar, on his arrival, could effect no*hing ftv want 
•l* artillery. In diis emergency, Daniel was despatched tu Ja- 
maica for cannon, mortars, &:c. During his absence, two larae 
Spanish ships appearing off the harbour, Gov. Moore hast£yr 
raised the siege, abandoned his shipping, and made a precipitate 
retreat into Carolina. Co!. Daniel, having no intelligence dtat 
the siege had been raised, on his return^ stood in for the barbonr, 
and narrowly esc^ed the ships of the enemy. In consequoice 
of this rash and unfortunate enter^^rise, the colony was leaded 
iritfa a debt of six thousand pounds, which gave rise to the first 
paper currency in Carolina, and was the means of filling the 
cirfony with dissension and tunult. 

. Section XV. The failure of this expedition 
was soon after, in a measure, compensated by a 
sttccessfblwarwith the Apalachian Indians, who, 
in consequence of their connexion wilh the Span- 
iards, became insolentand hostile. Gov. Mo«we, 
wi Aabody of nliite men and Indian allies, mwvfa- 
ed into the heart of their country, and compelled 
them to submit to the English. 

ASdte towns ofthe tribes brtween (he rivers Alttmafaa Md 
SaiVBunah were burnt, and l>etween six hundred and ei^t im> 
ilncd &tdiaBs'weK«a»de {IfHonen. ' 

^l^ctHtm XVI. Althougtt Am ^tfnqwiae wM 

t wiM or WKBUJuniB-ABa n. 

i* new dangers soon threatened the co- 
fei^. Its invasion was attempted, 1707, by the 
Vrench and Spaniards, in order to annex Caro- 
Hna to Fkmda. Hie expedition, headed br I^. 
Feboure, consisted of aFrench frigate, uid foidr 
«nned slo(^, having about eight hundred men 
on board. Owing to the prcxnpt and vigorous 
measures of Johnson, who had BupenededMoor» 
as govemoor, the enemy were lepulsed, and the 
tlureatMed calami^ averted* 

No ■Dono' wu the tnunded iavaaion romovred abraacl, tlma 
pieptratiou were cammenccdto repel the enemy. Tbemilitia 
wen muteved and mined, and the fitftificalkiiit of ChariettoB 
anil other ^acct repaired. These prepandcmi were tcarcely 
cosqrfeied, before the fleet of the enenrr appeared. Sometime 
dafwed, howenr, before tbey croned the bar, which emUed 
Ae gOTemour to alann the nintKiiidiiig countiy^ and to caD in 

At length, with a foir wind, the enemy pasted the bar, and 
MBt a aunimoiu to the guvemour to surrender. Four hours 
were aBowed him to retnm his answer. But the govemour io- 
fttmed the messenger that be ^d not wish one minute. Ontbt 
Kcqttkm of this nnswer, the enemy seemed to he«tate, and al> 
tanpted notUng diat day. 

The day socceeAng, a party of the en«ny, landing on James 
Sdand, bwnt a village by the rtver's side. Anodter par^ ef 
•ne hundred and uzty landed at Wando Neck. Hie neit di^, 
both these parties were dislodged— the hitter party bemg sut> 
ptised, and neariy all killed or taken prisooen. 

This success so animated the Canrfnuans, that it ma deleft 
ndned to attach the enemy by tea. This was attempted wilk 
a fotce of ax vessels under command of William Blut, but oi 
the ^pearancc of Rbec, the enemy wd^ed anchor, and |»^ 
^Htatdy fled. 

Some dm racceedhig diis, Mtm^Kur Athuset appealed on 
iIm coast WMh a ship of force,*and landed a number of men at 
SeweeBay. Rhet sailed out against him, and Httbessnc&ne^ 
Capt. Fenwick cnmed Ibe river, and marched to attack the 
enemy by land. After a brisk engi^ement, Fenwick took the 
oiemy on land, prisonen, and lUiet succeeded in c^tnring the 

SeettenXYU. In 1710,aIargeinuQberofFs- 
Kuines, infaabitanta of a Falatiaate, a ABaUtnfi- 

toiy in Germany, whose govemoar or prince it 
caJleci a Palatine, arrived and settled on the Ro- 
anoke, in Albemarle and Bath counties, withijn 
the boundafies of North Carolina. These were 
a gr^at accession to the strength and numbers of 
the colony, which, although of sixty years stand* 
ing, was exceedingly small. 

The same year, near three tliousand of tbe lame people cune 
to Nuw-York. Some settled in that city aud built the old Lu- 
'theraa church ; others settled on Livingston's maner. Sone 
went into Pennsylvania, and at rabsequeu periods, 4bk fiJltf'- ' 
td by many Aousaods of their countrymen. 

Two years after the above Bettlcrs> arrived in 
Carolina, and during Q,ueen Anne's war, a plot 
KaaliidbytheCorecs and Tuscaroraa, with other 
ladian bibcs, to mofeacre the whole npinber. 
TItispiot was soon so far put in execution, that 
one hundred and seven eettleis were butchered 
in their houses, in a single night. Informatitm 
of their distress was speedily sent to Charleston ; 
Boon after which. Col. Barnwell, with six hun- 
dred militia and tliree hundred and fifty friendly 
Indians, explored their way through the inter- 
Tcoingwilderness, and came to their reUef. On 
hia arrival, Col. B. surprised the Tuscaroras, 
lulled three hundred of them, and made one hun- 
dred prisoners. 

Tiw surviving IndiaiB fled to a town vhlt:h had been tbftifi' 
^by the tribe; biitheietbey verea^tin attacked by Barn veil, 
ttho killed great nnntbenof them, and compelled tiie remainder 
u> lue for peace. It is estimated that the Tiucaroras, in this 
*»r, lost one thousand of thdr number. The remaindei of the 
Oibe, early after the war, abandoned the coantry, and became 
tniied with the Five Natioiu, which >ince that time, have been 
called the Six Natiotu. 

Section XVHI. The next year, March 31 st, 
1713, a treaty of peace was concluded at Utrecht, 
between England aad France. This relieved 
^ q^tehenuwis of tbe northern part <^ tkc 


oouDtiy, tnd put a welcoeie period to an expca- 
aive and dmtreBsiog war. After the peace was 
known in America, the eastern Indians sent in 
4 flag and desired peace. The govemour of 
Massachusettd; with his council, and with that 
of New-Hampshire, met them at Portsmouth, re- 
ceived their BubmiseioD, and entered into tenoa 
of pacification. 

By the above treaty between England and France, Nevi*- 
foundland and Nova Scotia vrcfp ceded to Great Britain. It 
mu also 4|iuialed that " t)ie subjects of France, inhabi^ng Ca- 
nada, and other places, shall heieafn;rgivenoliindiance0rnio> 
lestation to the Five Nations, nor tu the otiier nations of Indiana 
*ho are friends to Great Britain." By the treaty aim, the 
blench relinquisiied all claim to tlie Five Nations, and to all 
parts of their territories, and as far as respected themsekvf:s, en- 
tiled tlie.firitish crown to the sovereignty of the country. 

Section XIX. The termination of Queen 
Annc^s war gave peace to the nor therQ colonies, 
but the contest with the Indians for some time 
continued to distress the Carolinians. 

Scarcely had the people recovered from the above war wilb 
the Corees Hnd Tusiaroraa, before they were threatened wilfa a 
calamity still greater and more general. The Yamosees, a 
powerful tribe of Indians, with all the Indian tribes from Florida 
to Ca])e Fear river, formed a conspiracy for the total extirpa- 
tion of ttie Carolinians. The 15ih of April, 1715, was fiied 
upon as the day of general destriictionr— Owing, however, t» 
the wisd<>in, de'spatch, and firmness of Govemour Craven, and 
(he blessing of Providence, the calamity was in a measure avert- 
ed, and liie coloaies saved, thiiugh at the expense, during the 
warj of near four hundred of the inhabitants. The Yamosees 
were expelled the province, and took refuge among the Spni^ 
iards in Florida. 

Sectien XX. In 1719, the government of C.a- 
roJina, which till now had been proprietary, was 
changed, the charter was declared by the king's 
pnry council to have heea foi^eited, and the co- 
lony, from this time, was taken under the royal 
protection, under which it continued till the Amo' 
ri$an tevolution. 

- ttajoD^isi. i«i 

Th* pmi^ bad long been diigutted with the ■miBganeat sf 
die [Ht^metors, and w«r« restdved, at all faazardi, to execute . 
tttair ovn laws, and defend the limits of the province. A lul^ 
aoqitioD to this effect was drawn up, and generally signed. 

Qd tfae meeting of the assembly, a committee waa Knt whh 
this aubsCriptkiD to the govemour, Robert Johnson, requeslm^ 
him to acc^ the government of the province, under the king, 
instead of the proprietors. 

Upon his refusal, the assembly chose Col. Jttmcs Moore g»- 
vemour, under the crown, and on the 21st of December, I7i9, 
the convention and militia marched to Charleston fort, and pro- 
claimed Moore governour m bis Majesty's name. 

Tbe Catolinians, having assumed the govemnient, in behalf 
of Ae king, referred their complaints to the royal ear. On a 
Ibll bearing of the case, the privy council adjudged thatthepro. 
prietorshad forfeited, llieir charter. From this time, therefore, 
tV colony, as slBted above, was taken under the royal protec- 
tion, voder which it continued till the American revolution. 

This change was followed, in 1729, by another, nearly as 
important. This was an f^reement between the proprietnn 
and tbe crown, ihnt tbe former should smrender to th« cfdwb 
their right and interest both to the govemmrait and soil, for the 
sum of seventeen thousand five hundred pounds sterling. Tbii 
agreement being carried into efTecl, the province was divided 
into North and South Carolina, eacli province having a distinct 
govemour under the crown of England. 

Section XXI. It has been stated that peace 
was concluded by MassachusettsandNew-Hamp- 
shire, with the eastern Indians, soon after the 
pacification at Utrecht, in I7I3. This pJeace 
however was of short duration, dissatisfactica 
arising on the part of the Indialis, because of the 
eacroaehments of the English on their lands, 
and because trading houses were not elected for 
the purchase of their commodities. 

The governour of Maaaftchusetts promised 
them redress ; but the general court not canying 
his stipuhitions into eseculion, the Indians be- 
came irritated, and, at the same time, bemg ex- 
cited by thje'Frejich Jesuits, were roused to war, 
whioh> in J«I^ 1722* beeame seoexa), and con- 

102 raas£ wabs ofwm. iiL...Ai<inu.'6E0. u. 

tinued to dUtreas the eastern settlements un^ 

The tribei engaged id ihe war, were the Norridgewocki, Pe» 
nohscoti^ St Francois, Cape Sable, and St. John ladiani. Id 
June, 17^23, hostiUties ceased, soon after which a treaty was 
signed by the Indians, and was afterwards ratified by comnu^ 
doners from Maisachuselts, New-Hampshire, tind Nova ScotiB. - 
This Irea^ wu greatly applauded, and under it, owing to die 
nDce padfick feelings of the Indians, and the more faithful tJb 
strrantx of its stipulations by the English, the colonies expe- 
rienced unusual tranquillity for a long time. 

Section XXU. The settlement of Georgia 
.was begun in 1733, and was named afler King 
George II. of England, who was then on the 
throne. In the settlement of Georgia, two ob- 
jects were principally in view — the relief of indi- 
gent inhabitants of Great'Britain and Ireland, 
and the greater security of the Carolinas. 

Tbe charter was granted to twenty-one persoDs under the 
title of triistees, and passed the seals June 9tb, 1732. The first 
settlers, one hundred and sixteen in number, embarked from 
England, in November of the same year, under General Ogle- 
thorpe. They landed at Charleston, whence they repaired to 
Savannah river, and commenced the town of that itame. 

The coltmy cKd not Sourish for. many years. In thdr rega- 
lUions for its management, tbe tnislees enacted that aU lands 
granted by them to settlers should revert back, in case of the 
failnce of male succession ; although certain privileges were to . 
be allowed to widows and daughters. At the same time, all 
trade with the Indians was prohibited, unless by virtue of spe. 
dal )tcaise. Tbe use of negroes aad the importation of rum 
were absolutdy forbidden. 

Although the trustees were actuated by tbe pinrest qiotive»— 
by principles of bumanity, and a regard to the health and moiab 
of the inhabitants^ this system of r^ulations was unfitted to the 
condition of the poor settlers, and was highly injurious to thedr 
increase and prosperity. 
, Emigrants, hotrever, continued to arrive. The £rst adven- 
turers being poor and anenterpriung, a mnre active and effident 
race was desirtd:>le. To induce such to settle in the coluny^ 
eleven towns were laid out in sliares of fifty awes each ; one of 
•J^^h was oBerR4 to 'ach new settler, ifpos this, large nam- 
Kta of Swiss, Scoicb, and Germms, becnae adv^nrttito tbe 

rSBIOD UI-1«89.M.17S«. lOS 

cekmy. Within three yean from the fint settleAunt, am tboO' 
sand (bur hundred planters had arrived. 

To aid the colony, parUament made sereral grwtta of noMjr; 
individurds also gave considerable sums for the aame parpoM ; 
owing, however, to the impolitick regulattoniof tbe tnadeeigllM 
cabny niajnttuned only a feeble existence. 

Section XXIII. Upon the declaiation of war 
by Kngland against Bpain, Oglethorpe was ap- 
pointed, 1740, to the chief coiaraand in South 
Caroiina and Georgia. Soon after his appoiDt- 
ment, he projected an expedition against St. 
Augustine. Aided by Virginia and Carolina, he 
piarched at the head of more than two thousand 
men, for Florida, and after taking two small 
Spanish forts, Diego and Moosa, be sat down 
before St. Augustine. Capt. Price, with seve- 
ra/ twenty gun ships, assisted by sea ; but after 
ail tUair exertions, the general was forced to raise 
the siege, and return with considerable loss. 

Section XXIV. Two years after, 1742, the 
Spaniards invaded Georgia in turn. A Spanish 
armanjent, consisting of thirty-two sail, with three 
thousand men, uuder command of Don Manuel 
de Monteano, sailed from St. Augustine, and 
arrived in the river Altamaha. The expedition, 
although fitted out at great expense, failed of ac- 
complishing its object. 

General Oglethorpe was at this time at fort Simons. Finding 
hiouelf unable to retain possession of it, having but about seven 
hundred men, he spiked his cannon, and,destrojingbismiIitaiy 
stoics, retreated to his bead^qaoiters at Frederica. 

On the first prospect of an invasion, general Ogletliorpe ha^ 
applied to the gavernour of Swth Carolina for assistance, but 
■the Carolinians, fearing for the safety of their own teiritory, and 
not approving of general Oglethoqie's nuinagenient in his late 
npedition against St. Augustine, declined fiirnishing troops, but 
vmed supplies. 

In ^us state of danger and perptcxit;, die feneral resorted to 
stratagem. A French soldier belonging to his anny had d^ 
Mrted to the enemy. Fearing the cotueqtiaices of urir lenn- 

IM ™BU WAM op «M. t«~AHN&~.GEO. IL 

!■■ UftweakMN^IwdevtM^s plan by «4ick to destroj 0*- 
credit of any inforniatkMi that die dMeHer n%ht give. 

Witfa tiM vi«w> iw vrote a letter to the French deserter la 
tW °r™*h camp, addresMRg htm as if ke were a spy of lfa«- 

^lTH*"*! TUi letter he bribed a Spanish captive to deSver, ia 
which be directed the deMTl^ to state to the Spaniards, that he ' 
wv vv • weak and defenceless condition, and to urge them on 
to an attack. 

Should he not beable, howevw, to persuade tbem to this. He 
wtsbfld bin tn indace them to continue three days Itmger «t <^r 
qWft«rs, in which time, lie expected tno thousand men, and. 
uj Brttbh men uf war, from Carolina. The above letter, as. 
was intwided, was defivered to the Spanish general, instead ot 
tlw desCTler, wl»o immediately put the latter in irons, 

A council of war was colled, and while deliberating upon th& 
measures which should be taken, three supply ships, which had 
been vnied by Carolina, appeared In sight. Imagining these to 
be the men of war allgded to in the letter, the Spaniards, in great 
haste, fired the fort, and embarked, leaving behind them seve- 
ral cannon, and a quantity of provisions. By this artful,' but 
uojustifiabk expedient, the coimtry was relieved of its iny^ers,. 
and Gcoi^ia, and probably a great part of South Carolina, saved 
from ruin. 

Section XXV. In 1752, the colony, continu- 
ing in a languishing condition, although parlia- 
ment had at difTcrent times given them nearly 
one hundred thousand pounds, and many com- 
plaints having been made against the system of 
uegulations adopted by the trustees, they surren- 
dered their charter to the crown, upon which the 
government became regal. In 1755. a general 
court was established. 

Sectwn XXVI. March 29tli, 1 744, Great Bri- 
tain, Auder George JI. declared war agamst 
Pranee and Spam, The most important event 
of this war, in America, was the capture of Lou- 
isburg, ftom the French, by the New-England 
colonies, under command of sir William Fep-^ 

After the peace ofVbecht, in 1713, the French had bnilt 
Louisburg, on the island of Cape Breton, as a security to dieit' 
navigation and gshepy, and bad fortified it at an expense C^ Ave 

mioD in...ta8»-jT». iu 

■flbuu uid a balf of ddlafi. The fortifieatiau ooMkted flf 
a rampart of stoae, nearly tbirly-su feet in bei^t, and a dit^ 
eighty feet wide. There were six bastions, and Uiree battariM. 
witb embrasureB for one hundred and forly-^igbt caanon, ana 
six mortars. On an island at the entrance of the harbour, waa 
another biitiery of thirty cannon, carrying twenty>i>tght pounds 
diat, and at the bottom of the harbour, oppoute the entnuce, 
wat situated the royal battery of twenty-ei^t forty-two pound* 
ers, aiid two eighteen pounders. The entrance of the town, on 
the land side, was at the west, over a drawbridge, near which 
wua a circular battery, mounling sixteen guns of twenty-four 
pounds shot. These works had been tnenty-Gvc years in build- 
ing, and diough not eulirely completed, were of such strength 
that the place was sometiines called the " Gibraltar of Ametica." 

The acquisition of this place was deemed emi- 
nently important to New-England, Bince,while in 
possesion of the French, it had furnished a safe 
and convenient retreat to euch privateers as dis* 
hirbed and captured the inhabitants of the colo- 
nies employed in the fisheries. 

Impressed with the necessity of measures to secure this fortresB, 
Govemour Sbirley of Massachusetts had solicited tlie assistance 
of tlie British ministry, for the acquisition of Cape Breton. 
Early in January, 1745, before receiving an answer to his te^ 
lers to England, he C()mmuDica.ted to the general court, midv 
an oath of secrecy, a plan which he had formed, for an attacic 
on X»uisburg. To this plan strung objecAons were urged, and 
tlie proposal of the govemour was at first rejected ; but upon 
recocsideratior. it was carried, by a majority of a single voice. 
Cirailu^ were immediately addressed to the colonies, as for 
Muth as Pennsylvania, reques'.i:ig their assistance, and that an 
erabaifo mi^ht be laid on all their ports. The New-England 
ciilontes only, however, were concerned in the expedition. Of 
the forces raised, Massachusetts furnished three thousand two 
hundred and fiffy; Connecticut live hnndred and rixteen; 
lUode-Istand and New-Hampshire, each three hundred. Tiie ' 
naval linrce consisted of twelve ships and vessels. In two 
montiis the army was enlisted, victualled, and equipped for aa 

On the twenty-third of March, an express boat, which had 
been sent to commodore Warren, in the West ladies, to invite 
his co-op^ation, returned to Boston, wiA adricei from hiot^ 
that as the contemplated expedition was a colonial affau, witb- 
ovt fvden Enmt EngUmd, he must excuse himielf bom anjr con- 

106 rauE WAu or wbl nL-ANia»GBa a. 

cent ia the ent^irise. This iiueOig«iH« waa peoiltariy anw«l> 
come, but the gnvernoor and gtmeral cMicetding the tcuour of 
the advice, die anny Wds embarked, and the next moniiiig tbe 
fleet uuled. On the fourth of April, ibe fleet and anny arrived 
HI talety at Canao, where they were joined hy the troops from 
New-Bamptifaire, and Boon ui\«r, by those from Connecticutt 

Most uuexpectedly to ihe general. Commodore Warren, trith 
his fleet, arrived at Canso, having, soon f&ir iiis advices by the 
express boat to Governour Shirley, received orders to repair to 
Nojth America, and t'> concert measures with ihe Gi.veriKHir 
for Ids majesty's service. Hearing Uiat the fleet had sailed for 
Canso, he proceeded directly for that port. Great wa* Ihe joy 
which pervaded the whole Beet and camp, on the arrival of this 
important auxiliary force. AAer a short consult ation^with G^ 
neral Pepperell, Comraodore Warren sailed to crtiise before 
Loubburg:, and, not long after, was followed by thp Seet and 
army, which, on the thirtieth of April, arrived in Chapearoi^e 
bay. The euediy were, until thb moment, in profound igno> - 
ranee that any attack was mtditated against them. 

The sight of the transports gave the alarm to the French, aiul 
a detachment was sent to oppose the landing of the troops. 
But while the general diverted the attention of the eiteray by a 
^nt at one place, he wus landing his men at another. 

Tlie ne^ morning, four hundred of the English marched 
raund behind the hills to the northeast harbour, setting fire to 
all the houses and stores, till they came within a mile of the 
royal battery. The condagrallon of the stores, in which was a. 
considerable quantity of tar, concealed the English troops, at 
the same tiue that h Increased Ihe alarm of the French so great- 
ly thai lliey precipiiately abandoned the royal battery. Upon 
thdr flight Ihe English took possession iif it, and by means oTa 
wdl du-ected fire from it, seriously damaged the town. 

The main body of the army now commenced the siege. For 
fourteen nights Imey were occupied in drawing cannon towards 
the tovrn, over a morass, in whicii oxen and horses could not be 
used. Incredible was the toil ; but what could not men accom- 
plish, who had been accustomed to draw llie pihes of the forest 
for masts ? By (he twentieth of May several fascine batteiies 
had been erected,one of which mounted five forty-two pounders. 
On opening these batteries, they did great execution. 

In the mean time Commodore Warren captured the Vigilant, 
a French ship of seventy-four guns, and with her five hnodred 
and sbcty men, together with great quantities of military stores. 
This capture was of great consequence, as it not only increased 
the Ei^ah force and added to their military supplies, but as it 
seriousfy lessened the strength of the enemy. Hiortly after this 


VEUOD Ul..l0Blu.lKa. ]07 

capMre, tbeimniberofttieEni^bbllMt ma cenridci^yu^ 
nented b; the arrival of several men of war.' A conbyied M- 
lack by Ha and land was now detenntned (ni> and fixed fi» At 
•ighteenth of June. ' 

Frcviouily to tibe anival of thb aflditiooa] naval tarn, mdt 
bad beenaccomplisbed towardathereductknoftbeirfKe. Tht 
inland battery had been silenced ; die western gate trf the ttrwu 
was beaten down, and a breach effected in the w^ ; tbe cirai- 
bx batteiy of rixteen gtms was nearly mined, and tbe westoa 
taxik cf ue king's basti<m was nearly demolislwd. 

Such bdng tbe injured stat«; of the worlu, and pCTcenring pn> 
parations mt^ing for a joint aiaault, to sust^ wfflch tittle pn^ 
nect remaned, on the fifteenth the enemy desired a ctMrtion cf 
Imatiliiies, and on the seventeenth of June, after a siege of ferQr- 
iune days, the dty of Louisburg, and the island of Cape Bretoi^ 
were nuraidered to his Biitannick majesty. 

Thos tuccessAdly tenninated a daring expeditioa, ^ich had 
Ikecn tmdntaken without dte knowledge of the aotber country. 
The acqoisitioa of the ftvlress of Lo^burg was as useful aod 
Jbiportant to the colcmies, and to the Britisb eminre, as its redne* 
liofi was surpiising to that empire and mortifying to tbe court ttf 

Besides the stores and prizes wUch lUl into the hands of tfis 
Ei^Hah, which were estimated at littk less than a nrillicm slev- 
ISagf security was given to tbe colm^ea fai dieir fisheries ; Nmm 
Scoda was preserved, and die trade and fisheries of Fnnet 
Bn^ ruined. 

Section XXVII. The capture of Louisburg 
roused the court of France to seek revenge. 
Under the duke D'Anville, a nobleman of great 
courage, an armament was sent to AmerioQ, 
1746, consisting of forty ships of war, fiffy-six 
transports, with three thousand five hundred 
men, and forty thousand stands of arms for the 
use of the French and Indians in Canada. The 
object of this expedition was to recover posses- 

' sion of Cape Breton, and to attack the colonies- 
A uiercifiU Providence, however, averted the 
blow, and by delaying the fleet, and afterwards 

^sabling it' in a Btcmn, blasted die hopes of the 
GmUL ««■ iUe cauttrnal^xm of ^ colOBies, wten tlM news 

Mrivcil ihM tht Ficncfa ieet -wat nMtriin A«Mrieu <XM8t, ^ 
'traolj kcMMed, m leankag that M Engiiih dect WW n qnot 

Serenl thipfl erf' the Tonnidable French fleet were daaiagM 
ftynoMMf «ikttt ««« hat, and one forced to reton to Brest, 
*nBeconM«f a naligitaDt disease among ber cmr. ,Tvo tt . 
MttCfeadyoTdie sUpitiridi a few oflfae tr3Mi|Hirt>, aiTiv«d « 
Ch ab ii BW^aaw Hafifax. Here Ae adnurol died, Wong^ mor* 
MMthtat «t, as acABe say, by poisoit. Hie TtGeHodBural caM 
to a similar tMgitd dnuli by raunng luiBsdf teoogh Ae body. 
ThUytft vfllMfleet that aitiTed sa^ed with a view to Mtack 
AuaMMlte, >m a sum '■taturea them, and [uvmnted dm ae 
WMHMrfwmR of idm object. 

S«ctw» XVIII. In April, 1 748, prelinuBaries 
tif p&ace were signed between France and En- 
fland, at Aix la Chapelle, aoon after which, hos- 
tilitiM cMsed. The definitive treaty wm si^ 
^ in October- Prisoners on all sides were to 
be released without ransom, and all com^uevts 
made during the war were to be mutually restored. 

SttH^m xxix. jffSinvmva of tiie ®olo% 

||fiBtB> ' The coloniee were now peopled with 
i^abitants, by ftr the greater part of whom 
were borii »ad educated in. America. And al- 
diougbthd first settlers were collected fi-cun most, 
or all, the coutitries of Europe, and emigraata 
from various cations continued to flock to Arae- 
yka, stilt We may observe, during diis period, a 
gradual assimilation of national manners arid 
diarActer. The pecuUaritiea of each class be- 
came less distinct by intereoin'sewith theotfaeri, 
•nd every succeeding generation seemed to ex- 
Mbit, V^fs {Strongly, those traits which tkatifio. 
giiished the preceding. 
lUA«i^tHs't(imie«MtMifMct<ft4eAiiHki«pi vhniet 

FUIOD HI.mJG8»..-I;h 209 

we were Eome eieeptieni. Some i^^m, n tenW 
tones, being settled exclusively by emigrsnU Bpemking a At- 
fereat languane ftom that gaierally spiStea— h die OenBoai, 
for eiBiMfim- -w- eBtertaining some pecnliBT retigfon* iMtionft-^ 
as the Quakos— Mill preserved their own peailnrmunieit. 

But ID atteniptuig to ascribe some general character to the 
people «( the ctrionies during tbii period, ire night consider 
ibcffl, H during our second period, on the whde) exMbking 
three varieties; viz. the rigid puritan Englah of the Bortt^— 
the Dutch in New-York — and the luiurious English of die 
south. The aaatenty of the north was, howerer, taudt retaxed. 
The elegurt varieties of lifc, which before had been prtrhibited, 
were ((derated, and the refinements of polished society appeared 
among the higha' classes. The strong lines of Dutch manners 
in New-York were slowly disappearing, uuder an Eiwlish go- 
Tcrnment, and by means of the setitement of EnglisB among 
HKtn. The manners of the south were assnmir^ an aspect of 
BMtre refinement, particularly among the hi^ier classes— bat 
showed liule other cliange. 

Section XXX. |S£rlffl(On- During this pe- 
riod, the spirit of religious bigotry and intole- 
rance may be observea to have abated in a very 
coDsiderable degree. The conduct of those 
fleets, which had called forth those scTere and 
luuustifi&ble restrictions upon the freedom of 
religious worship, had become less offensive and 
exceptionable ; and at the close of this period, 
religious persecution had ceased in all the colo- 
uies, and the rights of conscience were genefol- 
ly recognized. 

In 1693, the Metmonitet were introduced into Fennsylvaaia, 
and settled at Gerntantown. Their increase, however, has been 

Id 1719, the Tttuiert, or General Bapli^s, arrived at I%iU- 
delphia, and dispersed themselves into several parts of FoaqA- 

In 1741, the Momviaiu were introduced into Amenca ly 
Count Knieodorf, and settled at Bethlehem, Pennqlvama. ' 
Rt^utnityTiaifaM^, ingenmty, and economy, an diaracterislictL 
of this pe^e. They have considerably increased, and ar* • 
ifSpect^ile body of Christians. 

TJk Qtman Latkeram were first mtroduced iota die Ajm> 

• 10 .,„„.. Guugic 


rioui cidDiuea,duriutIiu period, u 
sjlvanis and New-York. 

Epiict^Mcy was congidetably extended during this period. 
In 1693, It wu introduced into New-York ; into New-Jersey 
tiud Rhode-island in 1702; into South Carolina in 1703, by 
law; in Connecticut in 1704. 
* In ] 703, the Saybrook PlatTorm was formed by s Synod, 
composed of coogr^ational ministers, under iwtfaority of the le 
fislaturenf Connecticut. 

About the year 1737) a revival of religion very extensively 
prevailed in New-England. At this lime, great numbers united 
ihemseTves to the church, and lestiHed by their craiduct through 
life tlie genuineness of their profession. 

The cdebrated Whitfield came to America about the year 
1740, and produced great religious excitement by his singular 
powersof pulpit eloquence. He did not found any peculiar sect 
in this country, although he gave rise to that of the Calviimtick 
MelioduU in England. 

Section XXXI. stAVe atCB eottfttmrtr. 

Although the trade of the colonies began to feel 
the restrictions imposed upon it by the mother 
country, still it steadily increased during this 

From the very commencement of the colonies, the mother 
country was not without her jealousies respecting their increase 
in population, tmde, and manufactures. Intjuuies on thesp 
points were instituted, and opportunities sought to keep in check 
the spirit of colonial enterprise. Laws were enacted Atim time 
to lime, designed and calculated not only to make the colonies 
(lepoid on the mother country for her manufactures, but also lo 
limit their trade and commtrce, and keep them in safe subjection 
lo En^and. 

As illustrating this course of policy, we may notice several 
laws of partinraent. In 1732, an act was passed, prcJutnting 
" the exportation of hats out of the plantations of America, ajid 
to resuain the number of apprentices taken by bat makers." 
So also the act of I7.'i0, prohibited^ on penalty of two hundred 
I>ouuds," the erection of any mill for slitting, or rolling of iron, or 
anypladngYurgeto work with a tilthaifimer; or any furnace for 
mdung steel in any of the colonies." At the same time, en- 
couragement was given to export pig and bar iron to England 
fur her manufactories. In like manner was prohibited the ex* 
poriation from one province to another by water, and even the 
curriage by Iqndfon horsehaclt, or in a cart, of all wools ana 

FEKIOD III-..ieSS..-lT5S. lU 

woolen goods of the produce of America. The colonies were 
also (impelled by law to procure many articlei from England, 
whicb ihey could have purchased twenty per cent, cheaper in 
other markets. 

But nctwithstanding these restrictions, trade and coAimerce 
gradnatly and steadily increased. To England, the coloiuea 
exported lumber of all sorts, liemp, flax, pitch, tar, uil, rosin, 
fopper ore, pig and bar iron, whale fins, tobacco, rice, fish, in 
cago, fla.t seed, beeswax, raw silk, &e. They also built many - 
Tcssels whlcli were sold in the mother country. 

But the importation of goods from England, in consequence 
of the course p irsued by die British government, was still much 
greater than itie amount of exports to England. In 1728, sir 
William Keith stated that the colonies then consumed one sixth 
part of all the woolen nianufuctures exported from (ireat Britain, 
and more than double that value in Itnen and catices ; also 
great tpianiities of Enp:llsh manufactured silks, small wores, 
household fiirniiuie, trinkets, and a very considerable valiie in 
£ast India goods. From 17S0 to 17^5, this importation of 
goods from England amounted to one million of ]kiuih1s sterling 
annually, on an average. 

But, if the amount of Imports from Oreat Brituii) was thus 
more than the colonies exported tliiiher, the^ would lall in debt 
to England. How did they pay tlus balimce of trade against 
them P It was done by gold and silver obtained chiefly from the 
West India settlements, to which they e:iported lumber, fish of - 
an inferior quality, beef, pork, butter, horses, poultry, and otiier 
live stock, an inferior kind of tobacco, com, cider, apples, cab- 
bages, onions, Sec. They built also many small vessels, which, 
found a ready market. 

The cod and whale fisheries were becoming considerable ; 
they were principally carried on by Ncw-Engtend. The cod- 
fish were sold in Spain, France, England, tlieWesl-IndieSj&c; 
and the money obtained for them aideil ilie colonies in paying 
the balance of trade against them in F^ngland. 

StxtionXXXll. ^grfCttUttte. Agriculture, 
during this period, waa greatly improved and ex 
tended. InimenBc tracts of forests were cleared, 
and more enlightened modes of husbandry were 
introduced. The number of articles produced 
by agriculture weia also increased. 

The colonies now not only raised a sufficient supply of (bed 
for their own use, but their exports became great. Wheat and 
other English grvn i^ere the principal products of the loiddle 


CDlotuei ; pva, beef, pork, hones, batter, cbeeK, See. vme Ibc 
chief prodwm of the nortbeni cdonies ; tobacco, wheat, aai 
rke, were the principal products ofthe soutli. 

Id the south, also, large Dumbns of swine ran viid in the 
(inrests, tiring upon must. These were t&ken, sahcd down, snd 
trporod to a. coasidenihte extent. 

Section XXXHI. SBtttS UtOl fiSUmUUUs 
tttVra. Under tlie head of commerce, we bare 
noticed the obstacles interposed by Great Bri- 
tain, to the progress of arts and manufactures- 
Notwithstanding these, however, the coarser 
kinds of cutlery, some coarse cloths, both linen 
find woollen, hats, paper, shoes, household furni- 
turn, farming utensils, &c. were manufactured 
to a considerable extent ; not sufficient, however, 
to supply the inhabitants. AI! these manufac- 
tories were on a small scale ; cloths were made, 
in some families, for their own consumption. 

The art of printiag made coasiderable progress, during thb 
period. A newspaper, the Arst in North Aaierica, called The 
Boston Weekly News-httter, wta established in 1704. Before 
the close of tliis period, teu others were established — four in 
New-England ; two in New-York; two in Pennsylvania ; one 
in South Carolina; and one in Maryland. The number of 
boc>ha pdilished was also considerable, although they were ex* 
ecuted in a coarse style, and were generally books of devotion, 
or for (be purposes of education. 

SccHanXXXlV. HopUUtton* At the ex- 
piration of our second period, we estimated the 
population ofthe Enghsh colonies in America at 
200,000 souls. About the close of oar thkd pe- 
riod, Franklin calculated that there were then 
QUO million or upwards, and that scarce 80,000 
had been brought over sea. 

thoritiM," tiftg J755, whidt is u Mom : 

■ .....Google 

PERIOD Iir...ieM...I7SG. 

Nev-Hdinpshire, SO/K)0 

Massadiusetti Day, 220,000 

deoce Plantations, ^ 
Connecticut, 100,000 

New-England, 385,000 

MkL and S. Colonies, 661 ,000 



The JerBCTS, 







Nortli Carolina, 


Somli Carolina, 




Total, l,04fl,000 


Section XXXV. StrucatfOtl* The south- 
ern colonies continued to treat the subject of ed- 
ucation differently from the northern colonies, in 
tliis respect ; in the north, one of the first objecta 
of legislation was to provide for the education of 
all clagses ; in the south, the education of the 
highet classes only was an object of publick at- 

The first publick instilulion for tlie purpcnes of educatioE, 
which succeeded in the south, was thnt of William and M(U7 
College in Virginia, established in l6i)2, hy the sovereigns whose 
names ii bears. 

Tale College, in Conncciicnt, was commenced in 1700— 
elfvcn of the principal ministers of the neighbouring lotms, who 
had boen appointed to adopt sucli measures as they should deem 
expedient, on the subject of a college — agreeing to found oneir 
ihe colony. The next year, the legislature granted ttiem a char- 
ter. The college was begun at Sayhrook, where wSs held the 
first commencement, in 1702. In 1717, il was removed to 
New-Haven, where it became permanently established. It was 
named after the Hon. Eliliu Yale, governOur of tlie East Indis 
Company, who was its principal benefactw. 

The College, at Princelwi, New-Jersey, calkd " Nassau Hall," 
was first founded by charter from ickm Hamilton, Esq. presi- 
dent of the council, about the year 173S, and was enlai^^ by 
Got. Belcher, in 1747- 


XXXVX TbeWstOTy of thii period presents the North A m<»- 
rican Colonies to our view, at tbie s«me time that they were vi- 
sited irith cruel and desolating wars, still advancing in pnpiila* 


114 raSBE WABS OF WM. m„„iXSt^.GtO. U. 

tion, extending tbeir commerce, forming new senleownta, enlarge 
tag 0w bouncUrlei of their territory, and laying wide* asd deep- 
er the foundations of a futine nation. And, wtM< we foek iMck, 
Titfa admiration, upon the hardy spirit which carried our anees- 
tor* thnHigh itcenes ro trying, and enabled them to reap pr«»> 
perity from the crimsoned fields uf foattie and bloodshed, let us 
oe dion^fid that mir lot is cast in a heppier day ; and that hi 
stead of sharing in the perils of teebk coicHiies, we enjoy the pro 
tection and privileges of a fren aiid po#erfuI naticni. 

In addiiitm to the rcllectii>ns subjoined to the account which 
we have giveq of the " Salem witciicraft," we may add another, 
respecting the dunger of popular deltaio^. In that pertian of 
eur history, we see a kind of madness rising up, and fooa 
ftretching if? inSueRce over a whole community. An<t sucb 
too is the pervading power of the sped, that the wise and igno- 
rant, the good and bad, are alike subject to its control, u)d for 
the time, alike incapable of judgng, or reasoning aright. NoW) 
wherever wc see a community divided into parties, and agitate^ 
by. some general excitentent — when we feel ourselves bcrn< 
auH^^ on one side or the other, by the popular tide, kt us in- 
quire whether we are not acting under tlie infioence of a delu- 
rion, which a few years, perhaps a few months, or days, majt 
Hbpel and expose. — Nor, at such a time, let us regard onr sin- 
cerity, or our consciousness of inl^rity, or the seeming clear- 
ness and certainty of pur reasonings, as furnishing an absolute 
usuranre that, after all, we do not mistake, and that our oppo- 
nents are oot ri|^it. 

Another reflection of some importance, and orte that majr 
serve to guard us against censuring, too severely, the wise and 
good, is su^ested by this account of the " Salem witchcraft." 
It is, that the best men are liable to err. We should not, there- 
fore, cond«nn, nor should we withhold nur charity from those 
who AtU into occasional errour, provided their characters are 
in other respects^ such as lay cMn to our good opinion. 



r^'TTr.b ;sT.-\Tifis 

irT;"|ii>TT 1-r ■■ ^„l:^-'I)M..^^^^\]F,V . 

Coined j,GOOglC 



Extending from the Dechfratton of War by 
England againtt France, 1 756, to the Com- 
mencement of Hostilities by Great Sritain 
against the American Colonies, in the Battle 
^ hexington, 1775. 

Section I. The war, which ended in the treaty 
of Aix-Ia-Chapelle, in 1748, had been highly in- 
jurioua to the general prosperity of his Majesty's 
Colonies in America ; and the return of peace 
found them in a state of impoverishment and 
distress. Great losses had been sustained in 
their commerce, and many of their vessels had 
been seized on the coast by privateers. Bills of 
credit to the amount of several millions, had been 
issued to carry on the war, which they were now 
unable to redeem, and the losses of men in va- 
rious expeditions against the enemy, had seri- 
ously retarded the increase of population. 

The expenses of the northern colonies, including New-Eng- 
land and New- York, during the war, were estimated at not less 
|ku) Qtie milliim paunds sterling. MassactiaMtts alone b sau] 
to have |)atd half this sum, and to have expended nearly foiSF 
hundred thousand pounds, in the expedition ^^nst Cape Bre- 
ton. The expenses of Carolina) ''X' the war in that quarter, 
were not less in pn^mHion. 

To sttp^ the t^Acieney of naoqey, bitta of credit wer« issveil 
to the amoHDt of several miLEions. Th^ bills issued by M^Wb 
ofauMtts, during two rar three years oS the war, araoiuited to ^e* 
twcea two and thiw miUionft vtavBfij ; wbU« at l^ tUw ! of 

116 ' PERIOD IT— IJSS....1TTS. 

ibeir emission, five or six faupdred pounds were equal to • Ay 
one hundred pounds sterling. Before the complete redetapaon 
oTlhese bills, says Dr. Tnirabull, in those colonies, where their 
credit wai best supported, (he depreciation was nearij> twenty 

The tosses niitained by the colooies, in the fnll of many of 
their bravest men, during this and the last Indian war, were se- 
verely fdt. From 1722 to 1749, aperiod of twenty-flev»i years, 
the losses of Massachusetts and New-Harapshire equalled the 
whtile increase of their iniint)«v, whereas, in the natural course 
of population, their numbers would have more th<m doubled. 

Such, in few words, was the general state of 
the colonies, at the cloae of this war. The re- 
turn of peace was hailed as the harbinger of bet- 
ter days, and the enterprising spirit of the peo- 
ple soon exerted itself to repair the losses which 
had been sustained. Commerce, therefore, 
again flourished ; population increased ,- settle- 
ments wereextended; andpubiick credit revived 

Section II. Scarcely, however, had the colo- 
nies time to reap the benefits of peace, before 
the prospect was clouded, and the sound of ap- 
proaching war filled the land with general aox- 
ietyand distress. After an interval of only about 
eight years, from 1748 to May 18th 1756, Great 
Britain, under George II. formally declared war 
against France, which declaration was recipro- 
cated on the ninth of June, by a similar declara- 
tion on the part of France, under Louis XV. 
against Great Britain. 

The general cause, leading to this war, com- 
monly called the " French and Indian War," 
was the alleged encroachments of the French, 
upon the frontiers of the colonies in America, 
belonging to the English Crown. 

These eucroBchmenta were tatdt upon Nova Scotia in the 
east, which had been ceded to Great Britain, by the 12th article 
of ^ treaty of Utrecht, but to a considerable part of which the- laid clitiin,and, in several places, were erecting foniTi- 

latioos. Iv fhe nwtli uid west, they w«n Mtiltng ami fcvti^ 
ing Crown Point, and, in the west, were not only attempting to 
complete a line of forU Trcun the head of the St. Lawrence to 
tbe Mi*«i»ippi, but were encroaching far on Virginia. 

T^e circumstance which terved to open tkt 
war, was the alleged intruaion of the Ohio CotO" 
•pa/ay upon the territory of the French. This 
company consisted of a nuinher of influential men, 
from London and Virginia, who had obtained a 
charter grant of aix hundred thousand acres of 
land, on and near the river Ohio, forthepurnose 
of carrying on the fur trade with the Indians, 
and of settling the country. 

The governour of Canada had early intelli* 
gence of the transactions of this company. Fear- 
ing that their plan would deprive the French of 
Ae advantages of the fur trade, and prevent 
communications between Canada and Louisiana, 
he wrote to the governour of New- York and 
Pennsylvania, claiming the coimtiy east of the 
Ohio to the AUcghanic?, and forbidding the 
further encroachments of the English traders. 

As yet, the Pennsylvanians had princifially managed the trade 
with the IndiLLns. But, being now about to be deprived of it, 
bjr the Ohio Cnmpany, who were opening a road to the Poto- 
mac, they excited the fears of the Indians, lest their lands should 
be token from tliem, and gave early intelligence to the French, 
of the designs and transactions of die Company. 

The French governour soon manifested nis hostile itetermiim> 
nation, by leiziog several of the English traders, and cnnyiog 
them to a French part on tite south of Lake Erie. — The Twi^- 
weei, a tribe of Indiana in Ohio, near Miaioi river, among 
whom the English had been tradinj', resented the seizure, and, 
by way of ret-.3iation, to<^ several French traders, and sent then 
to Pennsylv^nii^ 

Id the na^an time, a communiciriitm was open- 
ed along the French Creek and Alleghany n- 
ver, between Fort Presqu' He, on LiSte Erie, 
and the Ohio ; and French tro(^ were statioii- 

I i 8 r£BiOD n'....l75e._.lTT9- 

ed at convenient distances, aecured by tempo- 
rary fortifications. 

The Ohio Company, thus tlireatened with the 
destruction of tHeir trade, vTcre now loud in their 
complaints. Dinwiddie, Heul. governour of Vir- 
ginia, to whom ihci^e complaints were addressed, 
laid the subject before the assembly, which or- 
dered amessenger to be despatched to the French 
commandant on the Ohio, to demand the reasons 
of his hostile conduct, and to summon tlie French 
to evacuate llieir forts in that region 

Section III. The person entrusted with this 
service was George Washtr^ton, who at the 
early age of twenty-one, thus stepped forth in 
the pubiick cause, and began that line of servi- 
ces, which ended in the independence of bis 

The service to which Washington was now 
appointed, wa.s both ditficult and dangerous ; the 
place of his destination being above four hun-i 
dred miles distant, two hundred of which lay 
through a trackless desert inhabited by Indians. 
He nrrived in safety, however, and delivered a 
letter from Gov. Dinwiddie to tlie commandant. 
Having received a written answer, and secretly 
taken the dimensions of the fort, he returned. 
The reply of the commandant to Gov. Dinwiddie 
was, that he had taken poaseesion of the country, 
under the direction of the governour-general of 
Canada, to whom he would transmit his lettcri 
and whose orders only he would obey. 

Section IV. The British ministry, on being 
made acquainted with the claims, conduct, and 
determination of the French, without a formal 
declaration of war, instructed the Virginians to 
resist their encroachments, by force of arms 


Accordingly a regiinent was raised in Virginia, 
fPhioh was joined by an independent company 
from South Carolina, and with this force, Wash- 
ington, who was appointed to coniniand the ex- 
pedition, and was now raised from the rajik of 
major to that of colonel, marched early in April. 
1754, towards the Cireat Meadows, lying wirtiia 
the disputed territories, for the purpose of expel- 
ling the French. The enterprise of Washmg- 
ton and his troops was highly creditable to them, 
but the French forces being considerably supe- 
rior, he was obliged to capitulate, witli the pri- 
vilege, however, of returning with his troops t« 

On bis arrival at the Great Meadows, he learned that the 
French had dispossessed some Virginians of a fortification, 
which the latter were erecting for the Ohio Company, at tba 
confluence of the Alleghany and Monongahela, and were en- 
|aged in completing It, for their own use. He also leanied, 
ihat a detachment from that place, then on its march towarda 
the Great Meadows, had encamped for the night, in a low and 
retired situation. 

Under Uie guidance of some friendly Indians, and under co- 
ver of a dark and rainy night, thii party he surprised and em- 
tured. Having erected, at the Great Meadows, a small stoi^- 
sde fort, afterwards called Fort Necessily, he proceeded with his 
trcKipB, reinforced by troops from New-York, and others from 
South Carolina, to nearly four hundred men, towards the French 
fbn, Du Quesne, now Fittsbui^, with the intention of dislodging 
the enemy. Hearing, however, that the enemy were approach- 
ing, lie judged it prudent to retire to Fort Necessity. Here the 
enemy, one thousand five hundred strong, under the eommand ViUiers, soon appeared and commenced a furious at- 
tack oa the fort. After an engagement of several hours, de 
Villien demanded a parley, and offered terms of capitulaticm. 
These terms were rejected ; but during the night, July 4th, ar- 
ticle* were ugned, by which Washington was permitted, npon 
carreitdering the fort, to march with liis troops, immolested, li> 

' Such was the beginning of open hostilities, 
which were succeeded by a series of other Kos- 
.....Google ■ 

}W «■»» IV-.l7Sdu_lTlfc 

tilitiM diaracteriaed 1^ the teirit end MIMMrCif 
war* although the fcHiaal decloratiui oiwttr wtM 
iMt nmde until 1756, two yean after, a« already 

Section V. Tb6 British ministiy, ^exeoimit 
irar to be inevitablo, recommended to die Bn- 
tmh aolonios in America, to unite in some Holieuie 
fbr tbeir consnon 'd«feHce. AccordiagfyiaccNa- 
vrattlon of delegates from Massachttsetts* Newr 
Hampahire, R^ode-Ifitand, Connecticut, P«w- 
■jlTttDia, Maryland, with the heat, geveniour aad 
ooundl of New^y wk, waa held at Attaa)', tian 
year, 1754) and a plan of union adopted, resem- 
bling, in several of its features, the present 60I^- 
•titution of the United Slates. 

Bnt the plan met with the approbationt nei- 
Ifcer of The Provincial Asaeuiblies, nor the King's 
Council. By the former, it was rejected, ^- 
caiwo it gave too much power to the crown, aiod 
Inr the latter, because it gave too much power tv 
the people. 

According ta thts plan, a grand oooncil wu to be fbrmed si 
mnnbera chosen by tbc provincial i^sembliea, and sent from all 
the oolwiiei ; which council, tvhh a govertiuur general, appoint 
ed by the crown, and having a n^otive voice, ihould be em- 
fowered to make general laws, to raise money in alj the cotoaiei 
u>r thw defence, to call fisrth iroopa, regitlate trade, lay dutki, 
See. &c. 

The plan, thus matured, was i^)proved and signed, on the 
fourth of Jidy, the day that Washington smrenderefi Fort N«- 
cesaity, and t»«nty-two years befi»re the declaration u( Inde- 
pandence, by all the deif^^ates, excepting those from Connecti- 
cut, who objected to the negative voice of the goveniour getie< 

One dronmatance^in the history ofthis|rian,deMrves bents 
be reoorded, as evincing the (Ui*nitf spirit «f the revolatiea.' 
Although the plan was rejected by the provincial assembliesi 
^y declared, widiout reserve, that if it were adopted, ^ey 
wmid undertake to defend tfiemselvcs from the French, without 
Mrairina&w riam CnatCritabt. 1%er t«liiire4, kul to be 

amsotHKD naoiH WAK. 

l^mmait^ibm atygbes is th^ ovd mt* totfifcct AdrMi- 
a^y afw predomiiuuice. 

The motim country was too jealoiu to tniit such powen 

#idi the Americans, but she propoted mother phm, des^iwd 1b 
lay B IboiidBtion ibr the perpetuaJ dependence md thvny <rf'tlM 
jColMues- 'I^a..plBo was, diat the govertioim, with on^ or 
more of their council, should form a convention to concert mea- 
soret for the general defence, to erect fortifications, raise men, 
&e. £c with power to draw upon the BiJtiafa treeMoy, to 4a&i^ 
alljdia^ei; wWfh dnrga fUmMtMrambnKi bg laxttnpim 
the cotaniei, impw^d by acts of parliament. But to allow ttw 
British eoverniumi the rigiil of taxation — to lay the coloniea 
under ^e obligations of s debt to be thus liquidated — to iiibject 
^emsHfin to lh« rapacity of king's collectws, «e-scarcely rmA 
iM^^wn a ifftiposid wbtch met with utuverssl ditapprobatiqn. 

- iSecJuwiVI, Early in the spring of 1755, pre- 
pei%tioiia were made, by the colonies, iar vigw-' 
oua exertions against the enemy. Four exiMsdi* 
tions frere pfoniied. One against the French 
m Novti Scotia ; a second against the French on 
the- Ohio ; a tMrd against Crown Point ; and a 
i^rlA ngaii^ Niagara. 

Section VII. The expedition against JVonfl Sco- 
tia, coDsistingof three thousand men, chieflyfirom' 
Massachusetts, was led by gen. Monckton and 
gen. Win^Iow. With these troops, they sailcfl 
it(Aa Boston, May 20tli, and on llie Ist of June, 
tnTivedRtCiiigneeto,onthebay ofFtmdy. Aftnr- 
being joined by three hundred British troops anda 
anaall train of artillery, they proceeded against 
fort Beau Se)«ur, whicJi, a^er. lour days invei^- 
ittent, samHdi»<ed; Tlie Dsme of the fort was 
nbw changed to that of Cumberland. From this 
place Gen. Monckton proceeded further into the 
omiabyt took. ^ «ther fortd ia pqasesakHiof the 
Prea^^ and disoraied ikte i&k^itents. By Ubia 
snccessiful' expedition, the English possessed 
themselves of the whole coimtry of Nova Bootit,. 
a, part afwbi»h,Ai already aaticod, theFraach 

cl&iined ; its tranquillity was restwod vad plated 
Up^ A permanent basis. 

If Ait iriwlt cxp*4itki% tbe EInsIiili took but twenty nea 
Lane qantitin of proviitons and milttsry Mores fell into tbir 
h«>M, wiA a ntnnbcr nf vakable cannon. 

The French force in Nnni Scotia being Rubdnerf, a dfficoll 
^natian occiVTcd, reipecthif \b* disposal to be made of the hr 
InbttantB. Fcarinf that the; might join the French in Canada 
«d)oni they had before liirnished with intdligence, qitarters, and 
■nH^nom, h wna (tetermincd to disperse Hiero among the En^ 
bsfa colonies. Under this order, one thousand nine hiindnrd 
wtrt th« dispersed. 

Section VIII. Tbe expedition against the 
French, on the Ohio, waa led by Gfin. BniddooH» 
it British officer, who commenced his march A-om 
Tirginia, ib June, with about two thtjusand men., 
Apbrehensive that Fort du Quesnc, agaittst 
wtueh ^c-wfls proceeding, might be reinforced^ 
Brsddock, with one thousand two hundred s»* 
lected troops, hastenf^d hie march, leaving CoL 
Dunbar to follow more slowly, with the other 
troops and the heavy baggage. 

On the 8th of July. Braddock had advanced 
sixty miles forward of Col. Dunbar, and within 
twelve or fourteen miles of Fort du Qruesoe. 
Here he was advised by bis officers to proce«d 
with caution, and was earnestly entreated by Col, 
Washington, his aid, to permit him to precede 
the army, and guard agmnst suprise. Too 
Itaughty apd sclf-confideot to receive advica, 
Btihddoek, without any knowledge of the condi- 
tion of the enemy, coutinued to presg towardsi 
the fort. About twelve o'clock, July, 9th, when 
wilhm seven miles of the fort, be was suddenly 
attw^ked by a body of Frooch and Indians. M-\ 
though the enemy did notesceedfive hundred, 
yet, after an action of three hours, Braddock, un- 
- ^r wlioai five horses had been killed^ was mor- 
. \, . .,.,.,G„o8lc' ' 


tally wuiHiiled, and his troops defeated. Tho- 
toes of the Engliab army wus sixty-four oat «f 
sixty-^e officer*, and atMwt one mtf of the pri- 

Tka unfotlunMe defeat of Qen. BrmddiKk u to b« ucvAa^ 
to bis unprudence,.BndtoudfiTii)gmtTe{iidity. Uud he ^tendc)! 
to those precautiuas which werf rccamiBeiHied lu liim, he wobM 
not faave been tlms ambmcaded ; ur li»d he wisely retreated from 
a ctmcealed enemy, uid scoured tlie tbicLet inib his canuoo, 
thesielsncholy calastrwphe might havebeen avoided. But,ob' 
■tJDBtdy riveted to the spot on which be was fim attacked, he 
vainly continued his attempt to funn his ntM iu tegular or<iei', 
although, by this means, a sam prey to die eaemy, und briny 
himetf woanded, lie could no hmgtf be accessary u the de. 
«aH0w oT human life. 

A tenarkable fact in the history of this affair f emaioa tu be 
tiJd. ticn. Braddnck, lield the yrumncial troops in great'don- 
teinpt. Consequently, he kept the V'irginiaHS, and other pnv 
viudab, who were in the avuua, in the rear. Yet, althuugti 
equally espoved with the reat, bv from beiug aflircied with the 
feara that disordered the regular triiops, they stood firm and uu- 
bnricen, and, under Col. Wastiington, covered the retreat of the 
ragulars, and saved them from total detlructioD. 
The ri>treat ol' the araiy, after Braddock waa 
ptvcipitatK. No pause was londe until the raar diviaon w 
'I'liis divtsiun on its juiiciion with tlie other, was seised with - 
ifae same spirit of Si^M widi tfae retreating, and both diviaions 
pmeeeded tu Fort CunibertdDd, a distance of nciirly one hun- 
dred and luetKy Buira ln>m the (dace of acdon. 

Hud the utiops, t>v«n here, recovered their spirits and tetttf^ 
ed, success ni))tht still have crdwned the expadidoo. At least, ' 
the aruiy mighi have rendered the must important service to the 
ratwe, by preventing Ute devasiAtioii« and inhuman anirders, 
lierpelraled by the Frenth and Indians, during the soBBaer, on 
llw western borders of Virginia and Pennsylvania. Biit.inntcad 
''f adopUng n coarse sn selutnry and impnrtitnt, CoL Dunhnr, 
leaving the sick aiHl wounded at Cumberland, ntarcbed with hii 
troopa lo Phikdelphia. 

Section IX. The expedirion affainst Crown 
Point was Ted by Gen. William Jonoson, a mem- 
ber of the council of New-York, and although it 
failed a{)'to its main ohJRct, yet its reHtihs difliieed' 
exultation, tbrough ihe American colonics, and 

124 tEUOD 1?-.I7»~1779. 

dupelled tlie gloom which followed Braddo(JL'« 

The army, under Johoson, anived at the south 
end of Lake George, the latter part of August. 
Vniilehere, intelligeace waa received that a uodr 
of the enemy, two thousand io number, had land- 
ed at Soutbbay, now Whitehall, under commuiui 
of Baroa Dieskau, and were marching towards 
Fort Fdward, for the purpose of destroying the 
proroioiH and military stores there. 

At a council of war, held on the morning of 
Sept. 8th, it was resolved to detach a party to 
intercept the French, and save the fort. This 
party consisted of twelve hundred men, com- 
manded by Col. Ephrairo Williams of Dccrfield,, 
Massachusetts. Unfortunately, this detachment 
was surprised by Dieskau, who vras lying in 
ambush for them. After a most signal slaugh- 
ter, in which Col. Williams andHeadrick, a re- 
aowned Mohawk sachem, and many oUier offi- 
cers fell, the detachment was obliged to retreat. 

The firing was h^anl in tlie camp of Johiuon, 
and as it seemed to approach n^irer and nearer, 
it was naturally conjectured that the English 
troops were repulsed. The best preparations 
which the time allowed, were made to receive 
the advancing foe. Bieskan, with his irocff%, 
soon appeared and commenced a spirited attack. 
They were received, however, with so much in- 
trepidi^-<-tbe cannon and musquetry did so 
much execution among their ranks, that the enc 
my retired in great disorder, having experienced 
« signal defeat. The loss of the French was not 
less than eight hundred, Dicskan estimated them 
himself at one thousand, and this loss was ren- 
4ared still more severe to the French, by a mor- 


Ml wawd wUch tlus cUrtinguutied <^feer Jum- 
setf received, and in conBeqjuence of which he fell 
into the hands of the English. The lou of the 
English did not much exceed two hundred. 

Few eventB of no greater magnitud* leave 
stronger impressions than moulted from the bat- 
tle or Lake George. Following aa it did the 
<lt8comfiture of Braddock, it served to restore the 
honoor of t^e British arms, and the tone of the 
publick mind. 

AJL the tbne it w« mnlitMed to wad a cfetaiftsMurt UMte 
CoL Williams, to inlercejit Dieskua, thpRuralMr ofmoipropo^ 
rd mm raentioRed to Hendrick, tbe Mohawk chief, and ois opi-. 
nioD asked. He replied," ll'ihey are to fight, th^ br too few. 
If the; are to be killed, ifaey are too many." Tiw aonbcr wm' 
MxoT^ndy incroaaed. Gim. Jobnwm proposed aba t« cUvfal» 
tbe detadiment into three parties. Upon this Rendrirk took 
rtree sliriu, and putting ibcm logetiwr, laid to him, " Pot ibcM 
tagvtber, and you cannot break ihem ; take them one by aae, 
and ypu will ln«ak tbem easily." The hint succeeded, «ad 
Hendrick's sticks saved many of the party; and probably tbr 
wllole army from destruction.' 

Early in tiM action, Gm. Johnoon was wounded, and Gea. 
Lynuin micceeded to the coDimaii'], which he held oiroogh the 
day. To this geotlemaii's gall nnt exert ionsj tbe tuccesi of the 
any, nniler Providence, was cliiefly to iw ascribed. Yet h is 
moarkahle, that Gen. Jt^nson made no mention of Ocn. Ly- , 
iMn H> his ofEdal letter, annoimcinf tlie inteliigeace of Ibe 
vktory. The ambition of Jolinton was too great, and lusna» 
rice too greedy, to actuiouledge tlie merits of a rival. Gen. 
Johoxon was created a baronet, and parliament voted him five 
dtonsajKl pMmda sterling, in eonndeialion of his sueceM. The 
rewwd of Gen. Lyman ww tlte esteem and honour of tbe ftn- 
pie aiarmg whom be lived. 

Among the wounded of the French, as already stated, waa 
(he Baron Dieskau. He had'received a ball through hii lag, 
Md huni; naable to liiUinir tw reCreatiiig army, was fuud Inr 
ta Enj^Usb svUier, resting upon die stump of a tree, vidt 
■carcely mi attrodant. Dieskau, apprehensive for his tafiXy, 
was feeliajg for his watch, in order to give it to die toldier, vlie*> 


116 lUKH) [T~t7U-Jt». 

goB, and fnMDded bim in dte hipi. He wu curied to tb 
camp, nnd treated with great kindness. From the camp fat vai 
taken to Albanj and New-York, whence, some rime after, fae 
niled fbr England, vhen he died. He was a nipcrior oSkor, 
pwOiied of faoDouniUe fedtngs, and adonxid with l^U; 
p(dished manners. One stain, however, attkcues to hii chaiac- 
ier. Before his engagement with Col. Wilbams' corps, he gave 
orders to hii troops neitlier to pve nor take quarter. 

iSecfton X. The expedition against Niagara 
W83 committed to Gov. Shirley of Massachusetts, 
whose fprce amounted to two thousand five hun- 
dred men. But the season was too far advanced, 
before his preparations were completed, to effect 
any thing of unportancc.— After proceeding to 
Oawego, OB Lake Ontario, the army being poor- 
ly supplied with provisions, and the rainy season 
ai^pr«aching, the expedition was abandoned, and 
jihk tfWpB returned to Albany. Thus ended the 
euiipui^of 1755- 

Section XI. In the spring of the ensuing year, 
1756, Gov. Shirley was succeeded by Gen. Aber- 
crombie, who waa appointed to command, tmtil 
the arrival of the earl of Loudon, commander in 
chief of all hia majesty's fences in America. 

The hostilities of the two preceding years had 
been carried on without any fornuJ^proclamatioB 
•f war ; but this year, June 9th, as aiready stat- 
ed, war was declared by Great Britain against 
Pi)uice, and soon af^er, by France against Great 
Britain, ia turn. 

The plan of operations fer Ae eiw!»ugn of 
*56 embraeed the attack of ilHogorw aiid CVinns. 
Point, wMch were stilt in pomesscoo of thft 
French. Both these places were of gre^ im- 
portance ; the former being the eonnectiiig link 
in tlte line of fbrtifieattons factmm Canadft aad 
Itoninuia; and the Uxm v e m m n ^ mg lakt 


Champlain, and guardinff the only ; 

rhat time, into Canada. But important as were 

these poate, the reduction of neither was this year 

aiC«omplished,nor even attempted, owingichiefly, 

to the great delays of those who held the chief 


Troops were raised for the expedition against Crown Point, 
amounting io seven thousand, ibe command of whom was aas^it- 
cd to ranjor-geoeral Winslow, of Massachusetts. But Im mirch 
was delayed by obstacles ascribed to the improvidence of Abo^ 

After the mortal wound received by Dieskau, 
at the battle of Lake George, the Alarquis de 
Montcalm, an able and enterprising officer, suc- 
ceeded to the command of the French frt-ces. 
In the month of August, this officer, with eight 
thousand regulars, Canadians and Indinns, in< 
vested the fort at Oswego, on the south side of 
Lake Ontario,-T-one of the most important posts 
held by the English in America, — and in a few 
days took it. On the receipt of this intelligence, 
lord Loudon, who had arrived in Albany, and 
entered upon the command, despatched orders 
tO Gen. Winslow, on his march towards Crown 
Point, not to proceed. 

The fall of the fort at Oswego was most unfortunate for flie 
English, and iheir loss of men made prisoners, and muiutioat 
of war, petniliaiiy severe. By the capnure of this post, the ene- 
my obtain^ the.entire coromaiid of the lakes Ontario and Erie, 
and of the whole country of the Five Nations. Sixteen hu.idred 
men were made prisoners, and one hundred and twenty pieces 
of cannon were taken, vitfi fourteen m<»tars, two ^oops of war, 
•Bd two hondred boitfa aai battamx. 

After this disastrous event, ail offensive opera- 
tions were imonediatcly relinquished, although . 
it waathen three moodis to the time of the usual 
^e^ampDwnt of the arnay. Thus through the 
:uuu^nty of a bmh, whose leading trait was in- 
^^cdbttcm, nM one i^ct of the oani)wign w«b 

12S PUUOD tr.-lJfi4-. (T». 

gmaadt nor one purpoBoaueon^ishedteiUier bo 
nour^le or importaDt. 

SeeHon XII. Notwithst&ndiag the failure of 
the campaign of this season, the British Parlia- 
ment made great preparaticMis to prosecute the 
war the succeeding year, 1 757. In July, an ar- 
mament of eleven ships of the line and fifty tran- 
spocts, with more than six tliousand troops, ar- 
rived at Halifax, destined for the reduction of . 
Louraburg. — The colonies had been raising men 
foran expedition against Ticonderogaand Crown 
Point. Great was their mortiUcatiou and disap- 
pointment, when they learned from the orders 
of lord Loudon, that these troops were to be 
employed against Louisburg. ^cb inconstaney 
and fluetuatioa appeared beneath the dignity of 
the commander in chief. But they were obliged 
tc submit, and lord Loudon proceeded to join 
the armament at Halifax. 

So dilatory were their measures, however) 
thai before they were ready to sail, Louisburg 
was reinforced by a fleet of seventeen sail, ana 
with troops to make it nine thousand strong. 
On the reception of tlus intelligeace,it was deem- 
ed inexpedient to proceed, and the expedition 
was abandoned. 

Section XIII. While weaknessand indecisioD 
were marking the counsels of the Engli^, the 
French continued to urge rm their victories. 
Montcalm, still commander of the French in the 
iu)rth, finding the troopa widuhrawn from Hali- 
fax, for the reduction of Louisburg, seized the 
occasion to make a descent tm Fort WilUam 
Henry, ntuated on the north shore of Lake 
GeOTge. The garrison of the fort consisted of 
tbne ^rawand men. With a force ef mne ilio«> 


aand men, Montc^m laid siege to it. — After a 
gallant defence of six days, the garrisoD tnirreih- 
deredt'thus giving to Montcalm the command of 
the lake, and of the weatern frontier. 

The spirited and protracted defei^e <rf die fort, agauM such 
niunben, reflects the highest Iionotu' upon its brave coBtmander, 
CoL Munroe. Six days was the enemy kept at bay, with una- 
bated resoluuon, in full expectation of usistance from Gen. 
Webb, who lay at Fort Edward, bnly fifteen miles distant, with 
an army of four diousand men. 

The citaracter of Gen. Webb continues sullied, by his unpar- 
dooable indifierence to the perilous situation of his brethren in 
arms, at Fort Williara Heiuy. It deserves to be known that 
Sir William Johiison, after very importunate solicitations, ob- 
tuned leave of GeneriU Webb to inarch with as many as wwdd 
vdunteer in the service, to the reEef of Munroe. 

At the beat of the drums, the provincials, bJmost to a man, 
■allied fijTth, and were soon ready and eager for the raucb. Af- 
ter being under arms almost all day, what were their ifteliiigs 
when Sir W^am, retnrning'from head-ijaartns, infomwdtb^ 
that General Webb had fiirlridden them to march I 

The BoUien were mexpres»bly mortified and enraged,~wid 
th^ coUmafider did himself no common honour in the tears he 
tbed, as lie tamed from his troops, and retired to his tent. 

The deffficeofFort William Henry was so gallant, that Cd. 
Mimroe, wUi bi* troops, was admitted to an Iionourabie capim 
latton. The capitutatitm, however, was most shamefully broken. 
While the troops >ere marching out at the gate of the fan, tbe 
Indians attached to Montcalm's party, dragged the men from 
ihdr ranks, and with alt the inhniiamty of savage teelii^ plun- 
dered them of their baggage, and butchavd ibem in cold tueod. 
Out of a New-Hampshire porps of two hundred, eighty were 

It is s^ that tffotta weie m&de by the French to restraiath* 
baiiiariaas, but the Inilti of the assertion may well be doubted, 
when it is coosidercd that Montcalm's force was at least toven 
thousand French, and yet these barbarians were not restnuned. 

Section XIV. In 1758, most fortunately for 
the honour of the British arms, and for the sal- 
vatlon of the colonies, a change took place in the 
ministry of England. The celebrated Pitt, lord 
Chatham, now placed at the head of the admi- 
nistration, breaithed a new soul into tbe Britiih 
L, ,.„.., Google 

130 ^WHOD ir-.17M._J7n 

couficils, ftad revived the energies of dw cofa- 
nitis, weakcDed and uxhausted by q aeries 'ofiH 
Contrived tmd unftntunate expeditions. The tid« 
nf suceeM! now tamed in favour of the Kng^h^ 
who continued, witb some few exceptions, to 
achieve one victory ai\er another, until -the 
whole of Canada Bwrrenderetl to the British arms. 
Pitt, upon coining into oflice, addressed a cir- 
cular to the colonial governoiirs, in which he as- 
sured them of the detcritiinairon of the ministry. 
to send a large force to America, and called upon, 
them to raise as many troops, as the number of 
inhabitants would allow. The colonies w«re 
prompt and liberal in fumisbing the requisite sup-. 

f.Iies. Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New-- 
lampshire, unitedly, rnisnd fiAeen thousosd 
men, who were ready to take th& 6eld in May. . 
Section XV. Three expedititms w^<o {Hropefl- 
ed — the first against Louisburg; the aecond' 
against Ticooderoga ; the third tigainst Fort Du 

Section XVI. On the expedition against Iam- 
iiburg, admiral Boscfawen sailed from Halifax, 
May 23th,withadeetof twenty sbms of the line. ' 
eigliteen frigates, and an army of fourteen thou- 
sand men, miderthe command of brigadier Gen. 
A.mher8t, next to whom in command was Gen. 
Wolfe. On the 26ih of July, after a vigonxis 
resistance, this fortress was surrendered, and 
with it five thousand seven hundred and thirty- 
seven prisoners of war, and one hundred and 
twenty cannon* besides which the enemy kist 
five ships of the line and fcnir frigates. At the 

■ ' c.,,.„jj, Google 

rumit ANIt INDIAN WAS. . I5i 

tame l^ejsle Roya), St. Johns, with Cape Bre* 
UiQt fell Into the hands uf the English, who now 
fcecame mastera of the coast from St. Lawrence 
to Nova Scotia. 

Tbe Mirrender of this fortress «-.i* ■ more lignal ttvs to France 
dun any wfeich abe had atutainetl since tfce conuneneement of 
the war. It gmtly obetnicted hei communicadoiu with Chi» 
da, and was powerfully mstrumenbil in haatening the tutyuga- 
tlm of thai country to iht: British crown. 

Section XYII. The expedition against Tieon- 
tkroga was conducted hy Gen. Abercrombie, 
commander in chief in America, lord Loudon 
having rettimed to England. An army of six- 
teen uoiwand men, nine thousand of whom were 
provinools, followed hia standard, besidoaa for* 
midable train of artillery. 

Having passed Lake George, the army pro- 
ceeded widi great difficulty towards the fortress. 
Uidbxtttnately, Gen. Abercrombie trusted to 
others, who were inciMnpetent to the task, to re- 
connMb% the ground and entrenchments of die 
enemy, and, without a knowledge of the strength 
of the [daces, or of the prop<^ points of attack, 
tSBQed his orders to attempt the lines without 
bringing up a single piece of artillery. 

Thft army advanced to the charge widi the 
greatest intrepidity, and for more than four 
hours maintained the attack with incredible ob- 

After the loss of nearly two thousand in kifled 
and wounded the troops were summoned away. 
Tlie retreat was as unhappyastheattackhadbeen 
precipitate and ill advised. Not a doubt can ra- 
tionally enst, that had die siege been prosecuted 
with prudence and vigour, the reduction of the 
l^ace would have been easily accfHnpIished, 
irithout ao great a waste of-Himan life, as th« 

13S mOOB IT-Jfll-llH. 

garrison amounted to but l^e ntore dMCBtiuee 
&ousand men. 

Tbe pMsage of AberutiiDbie, acrou Lake G«i^ on Ma 
WBj iritb bis ansy to IVanderoga, was efiected t^ meaiw of 
one lliiwiiH a^d tbirty>fiTe boats. The splmdoor of the mili- 
tate parade on tbe occasioD was eminnitly imposing, and ds- 
servcs to be recorded. A late writer, Dr. Dwiglr^ thus d«- 
-seribes it. 

" IIm nonmig was RnattaUr hrigfit and beaulifiil ; andtbe 
fleet moved \vhh exact r^nlarity to the lound of fine martial 
Bituick. The ensigns waved and glittered in the snn-b^anu, 
and the anticipation of future triumph ahone in every eye. 
Above, beneath, armmd, the Kenery was that of eodMoMneOI. 
-Barely hai the son, rince that lantinaiy was firit liriited up m 
lite Iwavens, dawned on such a complicati(») of beauty afid 
magnificence." How greatly did alt tlie parade wbidi wasdi*- 
played, and all tbe anticipation winch was indidged, add to titt 
mwtiScaticHi of the defeat whidi followed I 

After his repulse, Gen. Abercrombie retired 
to bia former quarters on Lake Greorge. Herd, 
SQxiouB in any way to repair the miechief and 
disgrace of defeat, he consented, at the solicita- 
tion of Col. Bradstreet, to detach him with three 
thousand men, against fort Frontenac, on the 
northwest side of the outlet of Lake Ontario. 
TVith these troops, mostly provinda^ Bradstreet 
•ailed down the Ontario, landed within a mile 
of the fort, opened hia buteries, and, in two 
days, f<»ced this important fortress to surrendw 
Nine armed Tessels, sixty cannon, sixteen, mor- 
tars, said avast quantityofaoummition) ^- && - 
' fell into bis hands. 

Section XVHI. To disposaoss tbe French at 
Fort Du Quesne, Uie bidwark of their d(»nini(tt 
oyer the western regions, was a third expedition 
contemplated tfab year. Tbis 'enterprise was 
entrusted to Gen. Forbes, who left Philadelphit 
m July, bid did not anive at Du i^oesne till late 
M Netenber. The force ooUeoled % the 4it 


ladt nmouirted to eight thousand eftotive mm. 
An attft^, however, was needless, the fort bav* 
mg been deserted by the garrison die erenii^ 
before the sjrival of the army. On taking quirt 
possession of the place, Forbes, in bOBOvr of Mr. 
Pttt, called it JPittshuTg. 

Notwithstanding the defeat of Tteomderogk^ 
Ae camtiaign eliMed with honow to the eolonics, 
and to the nation in general. The Buccesstisof 
the year prepared ^e way for the still greater 
M^ieYABeatB oi the ensuing year. 

Section XIX. Another event of this yoaramk' 
eurred in bringing to pass the fortunate i swies of 
Ae «eit. This was a treaty of peace and Iriaid- 
■M|> with the Indian nttiooa iEsabitiag betiMOB 
ihe Apalachiaa noKntaiaB, the Alle^iiniee,Bi«i 
^ Jakes. This trw^ wom concludra at £aatOD, 
sixty miles from Phil&delpbia. 

1%^ tnutagR^ «f the Wnly oi tbe part*fQi«at BlitaiB,iMM 
die govemours of Pf^nnsylvania smd New-Jnvcy, Sir WiOiAW' 
Johnson, four members i^f the council of Peniuylvanw, fix 
memben of assembly, ami two agents from New jenpy. 

The tribes nprea&Oed on tbii occasicHi, and with wfaieh the 
treaty was made, were the Mohawk^, Onridas. Oixmdagoes, 
CayugTis, Senecas, Tiucaroras, Nanticoques, ana C«naya, the 
Tuteloes, Chugnuts, Delawares, Vnan]ies,Minisiiiks,MidiKuiij 
and Wappingers. The whole Bumber of lodiaM, tMkidiiig 
mmen and children, present, amomiled to Ore huHdred. 

SeeHon XX. The campaign of 1759 had, for 
its object, iIm ^tire conqoest of Canada. For 
this porpose, it was determined, that three pow- 
erful armies should enter Canada by diff^ent 
routes, and attack, at nearly the same time, aft 
tkfl strong holds of the Frettcb in that csouutiy. 
These were TiconderogawaA Crown PomttN^ 
t^txra and Qtuhee. 

Sednon XXI. Gen. Amherst, wh» hfid sae- 

eeeded Abercrombie, as commander m chiefs 

>2 .„..„G„uslc ■ 

iT—iTse-im. , 

led one cbvinon against TVcofuterdgOt which he 
reached Juty 22d. This fortress soon Burender- 
^d, the principal part of the garrison having re- 
tired to Crown Point. Having strengthened Ti- 
conderoga, the army next proceeded against this 
latter place, and took quiet possession of it, the 
enemy having fled before their arrival. 

The French retired to tbeblcauz Noil, utuated at the Danh> 
era extremity of Lake Champliun, where they were strongly 
encamped with a force of three thousand fire hundred men, and 
a powerful artillery. Oen. AoAerst designed lo fellow np tut 
ncccssea against them in thtf quarter, bnitbewaatof asuitalrie 
Bind armaineiit jirerented. 

Section XXII. The second division of the 
army, commanded by Gen. Prideaux, was dea- 
tined agabut NiagartL, at which place they ar-. 
rived July 6tb, without loss or opposition. The 
place was immediately invested : on the 24th of 
the month, a genera] battle took place, which 
decided the fate of Niagara, and placed it in the 
hands of the English. 

Four days previous to this battle, that able and distii^idshed 
officer, General Prideaui, was killed by the bursting of a co- 
horn. The command devolved cat Sir William Jc^nson, wh« 
successfully pid in execution the plans of his lammted prede- 

Section XXIII. While the English troops 
were achieving these important victories inT^ 
per Canada, Gen. Wolfe was prosecuting the 
most important enterprise of the campaign, viz.' 
the reduction <>f Quebec. Embarking at Louis- 
burg with eight thousand men, under convoy of 
Admirals Saunders and Holmes, he landed witli 
Ms troops in June, on the island of Orleuis, a 
little below Quebec. 

Aiter several attempts to reduce the place, 
which proved unsuccessful, Wolfe conceived the 
(iivject of ascending wiUi his troops, a precipice 
. .....Google 


of from 150 to 200 feet, by which ho would reach 
the plains of Abraham, lying aouth aad west of 
the ci^, and thus gain access to the enemy, in a 
less fortified spot. 

- This ascent he effected with his army, and ere 
Montcalm, the French general, was aware of it, 
the army had formed on the heights of Abraham, 
and' were prepared for battle. 

Here, on the morning of the 1 3th of Septem- 
ber, Wolfe met tlie French army mider Mont- 
calm, and after a severe and bloody contest, in 
which' both these brave commanders fell, victory 
decided in fevour of the English. A thousand 
prisoners were taken, and a thousand of the ene 
my were killed. The loss of the English, in 
killed and wounded did not exceed six hundred. 
Five days after, the city capitulated ; tlie in- . 
habitants were to enjoytlieir civil and religious 
rights, and remain neutral during the war. The 
city was garrisoned under the command of Gen. 

Md from the jtrat V* take ibe 

ke Ibe place, impngnfttde ai 
GfJi. Wolf^ irer« liogultu^ 

it WM accoumcd, the meaiHires of G 
bold, aad apparently repugnant lo all the mitiiins of war. 
Wtentkm wa» first drawn to point Levi, on the sombem bank nf 
(he St. Lawrence, upon whici), nfter taking posseaiioii of it, he 
•erected battnies. By means ol'the»e, he destroyed many haiaea, 
Imi from tttu point it was aooa appareot tint little tmpnsaon 
(Wild be OMde upon th« fbrtificatioDs of the town. 

Finding it ImfHvcticable thus to accomplish liis purpoas, Wolfe 
next decided on more daring m^aaures. For the purpose of 
drawing Moutcalm to b general battle, Wolfe, with hb troops, 
crtnaed the river Montmorenci, and attacked the enemy in their 
cntioKhiMnts. Owing, however, to the grounding of tome oi 
die boatH which conveyed the troops, a part of the detachmeoC 
did not land so soon aa the otbers. The corps that 6rtt landed, 
wibtout waiting to form, ruslied forward, impetuously, toward* 
lite enemy's entrHichments. But their courage proved thek - 
niia. A dose and w^ directed fire from the eoeniy cot Utem 
down in great numbers. 

.....Google _ 

7 36 HJU«P nr.._lTK— 1779. 

Montcaln's futy had &*w fea^M^ awl mnc drawn ^ am 
the bracb ia cH^er. But it wm nev ui^ k tbuader Kgnn 
t*aa a^jiroachbig, and ihe tide w^ rapidly MUing in. Fcwinf 
ihe couw^uMiees of dcluy, WiJfe ordered a jetnsal acros the 
MoDtmorenci, and returned to hia quarten on Ike lfl« of Oi^ 
l^OBM. Jo tUa rcBcminter, ku Iom ^mouBted to near six k«^ 
died of the dower of his army. 

The difiicirftiea of cflectliig itie conqueat of Quebec now prea^ 
ed BfKiii Wolfe with all ibeir futce. Bat he knew the impmt* 
aoce of taking tliis stronfceM hold — be kaew the expectationB of 
hit coantrymen — he «-ell knew thai no aHEitarf eoo^utt could 
•iunethat wm not gilded wiih aucceu. 

Dia>ppoin:ed ifaua far, aiitl ivorn down with fatigue and watch- 
ing) Qnwra) Wolfe fell Tiolenily uck. Scarcely had be reco- 
Tend, before he proceeded to pot iaexeoaion a plan which ha4 
been matured on his sick bed. This was (o proceed ap the r^ 
ver — galo the beighis of Abn^iun, ami draw ItlontcuiD to a 
gemral engagpinent. 

AccortUi^ly, tlie Intops were transported up the rlrer about 
nine' miles. On the i2iii of Se]it one hour after nidvght, 
Wolfe and his troops left the ships, and in buata aihntly dr^K 

Sdawn the ciurent, intending to land a ietpie above Cape 
mond, and there ascend the bank ieadbg to the station be 
-wUbed to gain. Uwing, however, to the i*^£^ of the ' 
' IT fell below the intended ' 

a a h^f, above the.chy. 

Tlie operation was a crkkai one, as they had to nangate, In 
lilanee, down a rapid Hrenm, and to find a right place for ttad- 
ia^ which, anidst nmonding darkness, might be easily mis- 
taun. Beaidss thia, die shore was shelving, nod the bonk so 
stf^ aw) Ml-, aa ■earcety to be ascmded even witbont oppo- 
titimt from an epemy. Indued the attempt was in the greateit 
danger of being defeated fay an nccnrrenc^ peculiarly interetting, 
OS mwkii^ the Very great delicacy of the tnuMSction. 

One of the French lenttnels, posted d<wg the shore, ■• the 
English boats were dncendmg, ch^tci^ed them in tlie caaio- 
nwry military tangungeof the Fnndu " Qui vUT" *'who goes 
there ^; to which h cKptoin in f ram's re^nent, «ho had 
served is Haltand, and was (ttimliar w<lli ^ f'rench langnqe 
and ouslocna, pnmptiy r^ied, <* &i fViMca." Tbenectqncs- 
ti«n waa still more embarrassing, for the seMhid demanded " a 
qut^rfgiti^^f" " to what regiment." The captain, irimhap* 
paned to know tfie name of a reginieBt which was op the river, 
with Boagauiville, prompdy rejoined, "^ la Retne," "the 
iimm'a." The xoklier immediately renlied, "foate," lor he 
CMKtutied at wire, t!|at iIik was a French convoy of prorUoMt 

nUNCU AHD Iin>U)( WUL 1S7 

<t^aA u ibe Eiq^itb had Inmed from some desetten, wm tx^ 
pectml to pui down the rivtr to Qiiebec. The other lentineU 
were deceived in ■ liinUaT mtinoer ; but<)ne,lewcredulo)UthB* 
the rest, running dowa to the water's edge, called out " Pour 
qKoia eit ce <pie vaut ne partex pbu haut t" " Why dont you 
speak louder f" The suae c^ain, with perfect tel^commimd, 
re^ed, " Ttiit toi, noict lerotu tniendu*!" " Haih, we sliall 
be overheard and discovered !" The sentry, satisfied with this 
catttiou, rAired, and the boats passed in safety.* 

About an hour before day, the army began to ascend the pre- 
cijuce, the distance of one hundred and 6.fty or two hundred 
feet, almost perpendicuiHr ascent, atiove which spread the plains 
of AlMaham. By day-light, Sept. 13th, this almost incredible 
enterprise had been ^ected-— tlie desired station was attained, 
the army was foriDed, and ready to meet the enemy. 

To Montcalm, the intelligence that the English were occupy- 
ing dieheigbts of Aluaham was moM surprising. The impossi- 
bility of ascending the precipice he considered certain, and ther» 
five had taken no measures to fortify its line. But no sooner 
was he informed of the posilion of the English army, than per- 
ceiving a battle no longer to be avoided, he prepared to fight. 
Between nine nnd ten o'clock, the two armies, about equal in 
numbers, met face to face. 

The battle now commenced. Inattentive to the flreof abody 
of Canadians and Indians, one (housHnd five hundred of whom 
Montcalm had stationed in the cornIielUs and bushes, Wolfe di- 
rected his troops to reserve their Gre for the main body of the 
French, now rapidly advancing. On their approach withiu 
forty yards, the Cngiish opened their lire and the dealruction 
became immense. 

The French fought bravely, but their ranks became disorder- 
ed, and, notwithstanding the repeated elTorts of their officers to ' 
form tbem, and to renew the attack, they were so successfully 
pushed by tbe British bayonet, nnd hewn down by the Highland 
broadsword, that theii discomfiture was complete. 

During the action, Montcalm was on the French left, and 
Wolfe on the £ni;liah right, nod here they both fell in the criti 
ca] moment that decided (he victory. Early in the baidt, Wolfe 
rccnred a bdL in his wrist, but binding his handkerchief around 
it, be contmoed to encourage his men. — Shortly alter, another 
baj] penetrtied his g^n ; but this wound, abliough much more 
severe, 1m concealed, and continued to uige on the contest, till 

• SiRlman'sTiniT.frcmSMi^M. 

12* .,_. Google 


•9 RAlOn IT~.l»Sw.I77fc 

fAird^HlIct pureed hb bi«ui. H* wu now obTiged, AMIJb 
R^nntJv, to becanwd toUw rear ofihe kaie. « 

' Gvn. Monckton Hwoeecteil to thecomDwid, but wa> imninJi 
atdy wnaoded, and conveyed awn;. In iMs criticai dote of 
the Bctkin, dK coflimend devolved on Qen. TownshmiL Gen, 
Montcalni, tigbting in front af his bettxlion, received « moitat 
mnad aboot the same lime, and tien. Jennezergus, his aeoMtd 
in CDmmHnd, fell near hU side. ' 

Wolfe died in the field, befarc tlie battle was ended ; but be 
lived long enough to know that tlie yidory was his^While 
leaniog on the ahouldLT of it lieuienantj whokneeled to aupport 
him, he was seized with the agonic* of death : at this moment 
was heard the distant sound, "They fly"— "they fly." Th« 
hero raised his drooping head, and eagerly asked, " Wlio Rj }* 
" ' toldtliai ii was tlie French — "Then," he replied,"! di« 
," and expired, 
^his death," says profestor SiJlinian, "hai flirnshed ■ 
grand and pathetic subject for the pniuter, t^ poet, and the his* 
torian, and undoubtedly, considered as a specimm of mere mS< 
lary glory, it is one of the most sublime that the annals of war 

Mvatcalm was eveiy way worthy of bring the competitor of 
Wolfe. In talents — in military skilU-in personal coura^, h« 
was not his ioferiour. Nor was his death much less sublime. 
He lived to be carried to the city, where his last moments wer« 
employed in writing;, with his own hand, a letter lo the EngliA 
gener^, recommending the French prisoners to his care andhu 
manity. When informed thai his wound was mortal, he rcfdied, 
* I shall not then live to see the surrender of Quebec" 

Tiie following tnteresiing particulars, relating to the dangen 
and sufferings of two ofiiocrs of the English army, during the 
battle, we shall be excused for inserting, notwithstanding their 

" Captam Ochterlony and Ensign Peyton, belonged lo the ' 
re^ment of Brigadier-General ftlonekton. They were' nearly 
nf an age, which did not exceed thirty ; the first was a North- 
Brhor,.the other a native of Ireland. Both were agreeable iti 
person, and were connected together by the ties of mutual friend- 
■hip and esteem. On the day that preceded the btltle, csptaia 
Ouilerlany had foucrht a duel with a German officer, id which, 
thoiiglihe«aunded and disarmed his antBgoDiat;yet be hiniHc]fr» 
ceived a dangems hurt undn' the right arm, tn consequeocc of 
which his friends insisted on his remaiii'mg in camp during the 
actiiHiofnextdHv; but his spirit was too great to comply with d>is 
r^wonsironce. He declared h should never b« said that a scratch, 
rrecived in a private rencouvtei^ had prevented him fn»m doing 


iat duty, when hH evatitry repaired hi* tervte { uMi b» unk 
Ibe Iteld with a fusil in hit hand, tfioa^ tw wm hardy sfata w 
carry his arms. In leading up hii men ta the eneay's eottaicb- 
■tent, he was shot through the tangs with a niiuket ball, an k* 
cident vrhich obliged him to part with tiii Aitil, but he stjU cmi- 
tinued advancing, antil, by Iom (rf blood, he became loo weak (o 
proceed fbrtber. About the same tiiiK, Mr. Peyton was lamed 
by a shot, which shattered the small bone of his left leg. Tbs 
•bldters, in their retreat, eaniestly begged, with tear* in ibrir 
ejres, that captain Ocbterlony would allov them to carry him 
and the ensign off the field. But he whs so bigotted toaacYere 
p«HDt of hononr, that he wontd not quit the ground, though he 
desired Aey would take care of his eniign. Mr. Peyton, with 
a generous disdain, rejected their good oHices, declaring tliat hc 
would not leave his captain in swSi a aituiilion ; and in a little 
time, they remained sole survivors on that part of (lie field. 

** Capiiun Ochterlony sat down by his friend, and as they ejt- 
pected nmlung hot immediate death, they look leave of each 
other ; yet they were not altogether abandoned by the hope of 
being protected as prisoners-; for the captain seeing a Preach 
soldier, with two Indiitns, approach, started up, and accostiiw 
ihem in tiie French language, which he spoke perfectly well^ 
expressed his expectation that they would treat him and lua com* ' 
panion as officers, prisoners, and gentlemen. The two Indian) 
seemed to be entirely under the conduct of theFrenchnian, who, 
coming up to Mr, Peyton, ns he sat on the ground, snatched his 
laced hat from his head, and robbed the captain of his watch 
and money. This outrage was a signal to the Indians ftw mur^ 
deraiid pillage. One of thrro, clubbing his firelock, Mruck at 
him behind, with a view to knock him down, but the blow mis»> 
ing his head, took place upm his shoulder. At the same iiutant, 
the other Indian poured nis shot into the breast of this unfortun- 
ate young gentleman, who cried out, " O Peyton ! the villain 
has shot me." Not yet satiated with cruelty, -the barbarian 
sprung upon him, and stabbed him in the belly with hii scalping 
knife. The captain having parted with his fusil, had no wear< 
pon for his defence, as none of the officers wore swords in th« 
action. The three ruffians finding him atill aljve, endeavoured 
to strangle him with his own sash ; and be was now upon bit 
knees, struggling against them wi^ surprising eaertion. Mr. 
Peyton, at this jancturej having a double-barrel led musket in hit 
Iiand, and seeing the distress of his friend, tired at one of tht 
Indians, who dropped dead on the spot. The other, think mjg 
the ensign wonld now be an easy prey, advanced towiird* him, 
'knd Mr. Peyton, having taken good ab», at the distatiea of foar 
|rardt, diielmrgeil his piece the aeaond lime, but il soeiMd to 

tlkenotfiM. Tlie MTBge fired id his tarn, and wnandfld die • 
eaugn in the ahtmldv ; iIkd rnftbing span bini, tfanist hb b^o - - 
nat ihnwgh faia body ] be rq)eMed (be blow, wliich Mr. Peytoa 
attanpting to pairy, r(n:eivetl anotber wound in ins left hand ; 
Devertbdna, be sriied the Indian's musket with the tame baod^ 
pulled Ub forwards, an^ with bis right, drawing a dagger whicli 
iiung by hi* side, plunged it inthe barbarifui's side. A viirimt - 
•Iniggle $ntued ; but at length Mr. Peyton was uppennon, and^ 
with repeiUed strokes of bis dagger, killed ids ant^onist out- 
rigfat. Here he was seised with an ttnaccountable emotiwi ol 
(■uriosity, lo know whether or not his slurt had taken effect on 
the body of the Indian ; be accordingly turned hint up, and 
ittipping off his blanket, perceived (hat the ball had penetrated 
quite throi^h the cavity of the breast. Having thus obtained a - 
dear bought victory, he started up on oik leg, and saw captain 
Ochtoiony standing at the distance of sixty yards, close by the < 
enemy's breast-work, wiih tlie French soldier attending hiiD. 
Mt> Peyton then called aloud, " Captain Ochterlony, I am glad 
lo see you have at last got under protection. Beware of that 
vi''»in, who is more barbarous than the savages. God blesa 
ytou, my dear Captain. I see a party of Indians coming this, 
way, and expect to be murdered immediately." A number of 
tbw barbarians had tor some time been employed on the left, 
in scalping and pillii^ng the dying and the dead that were left 
upon the field of battle ; and above thirty of them were in full 
mardi to destroy Mr. Peyton. This gentleman knew he had 
no mercy to expect ; for, should his life be spared for the pre< 
sent, they would have afterwards insisted upon sacrificing him to 
the manes of their brethren whom he had slnin ; and in that 
case be would Iwve been put to death by the most excruciating 
tortures. Full of this idea, he Gn3tcrhi?d uf) his musket, and, not< 
mthstanding his broken leg, ran above forty yards without hati* 
ing ; and feeling hiifisdf now totally disabled, and incapable of - 
proceeding one step further, he loaded his piece, and presented 
it to the two foremost Indians, who stood aloof waiting to be 
joined by their fellows : while the French, from their breast- 
works, kepi up a continual fire of cannon and small arms upon 
this poor, solitary, maisied gentleman. In tliis uncomfortable 
situaticm he stood, when he discerned at a distance, e, H^hland 
officer, with a p«^ of fais men, slurting the' plmn. towards the 
field of battle. He forthwith waved his hand in signal of dis- 
txtss, and being perceived by the ofCcer, be detached three ol 
his men to his assistance.. These brave fellows hsstened tobim 
tbrouf^ the midst of a tmible fire, and one of them bore bim 
08 on his shoulders. ; The Highland officer was capiun Mai> 
^oaaidf at Colonel Fraiwr'aJiatuJion } who, understanding that 


am, hif Iwisman, had dropp ed 
i put fainweir nt the head of rtm party, vhfa whhb ha 
pcnetraled to the middle of the fleld, drove a coiuiditrabie num- 
ber of ^ FraKh and Indiaiu btlure hiui, aiid fituJing hii rela- 
lun Mill mttcalped, cairisd him off in triumph. Poor captun 
Ocbterlnty wu conveyed tu Quebec, whnv, in a few dayi he 
died of wtHindx. After the reduction of t^ place, ibe French 
iingeoiu who attended him, declared, that in al) probability, he 
wouU have recovered of the two shoti he had received in his 
breajA, had be not been meitally wounded in the belly by the 
[odiaua scalping luule. 

"A* this very rfnnarkable foene was acted in lieht (rf both 
armies, Genctvl Townsbend, in the lequel, expostulated with 
(be French officers upon the inhunaRtty of keeping up Mrh a 
severe fire gainst two wouniied gemleaien, who wrrr diMUed, 
and destitute nf all hope of escaping. They answered that th* 
lire wus out made by the reguUrsj-biU by the Cfiaadiana and 
*avages,whi»ii it was notin thepowet of dUciplinetorestrali;."* 

Section XXIV. TbecaptureofCluebec, which 
soou followed, important aa it was, did not imrae' ' 
diately terminate the war. The French in Ca- 
nada had etitl a powerful army, and some naval 
force above the city. 

Section XXV. In the ensuhig spring, 1760, 
Monsieur Levi approached Ciuebec from Mon- 
treal, aesi^iteti by nix frigates, for the purpoiie of 
recovering it from the English. Gen. Murray, 
who commanded the English gurriHon, mait;hed 
out to meet him, with only three thoiusand men, 
and,onUie 28th of April, after a bloody battle, 
fought at Silluery, three miles above the city, the 
English army was defealod, with the loss of one 
thousand men, the French having lost more than 
double that number. 

The English retreated to Quebec, to which 
ttie French now laid siege. About the middle 
of May, an English squadron arrived with reia- 

• SaUMii^ Tow, «sn fia«sL 

t4S rEltOD IV_17JS»^inL 

rorcements, soon after which, the FVench flieei 
was taken and destroyed, and tlie siege was 

Section XXVI. The attention of the English 
commander in chief, Gen. Amherst was nowdi 
rected to the reduction of jMontreal, the last for- 
tress of conse({uencc in the posse^aiou of the 
French. To ettect this he dttached CoJ. Havi- 
land, with a well disciplined army to proceed to 
Lake George, Crown Point, and Lake Cham- 
plain ; Gen. Murray was ordered from Quebec, 
with such tbrcea as could be spared from the gar- 
rison, while General Amherst himself proceeded 
with ten thousand men, by Lalie Ontario, down 
the river Sl Lawrence. 

Generals Amherst and Murray arrived at Mon- 
treal the same day Sept. €lh, and were joined 
by Haviland, on the day succeeding. While pre- 
paring to lay siege to the place, the commander 
of Montreal, M. de Vaudreuil, perceiving that 
resistance would be ineffectqpl, demanded a ca- 
pitulation. On the 8th, Montreal, Detroit, Mi- 
chili mackinac, and al) the other places within the 
government of Canada were surrendered to his 
Briltanick Majesty. 

Section XXVIL Thus ended a war which, 
from the first hostilities, had continued six years, . 
and during which much distress had been expe- 
rienced and many thousand valuable Hves lost. 
Great and universal was the joy that spread 
through the colonies, at the successful termina- 
tion of a contest, so long and severe, and pub- 
lick thanksgivings were generally appointed to 
ascribe due honour to Him, who had preserved 
to the colonies tlieir existence and liberties. 

Section XX\lll. While the troops were em- 


plwed in tbe conquest of Canada, the Colomea 
of Virginia and South Carolina, sufiered inva- 
sion and outrage from the Cherokees, a powerful 
tribe ofsavages on the West. Buttn 1761,ihey 
were signally defeated by Col. Grant, and com- 
pelled -to Bue for peace. 

£itell^aice being communicated to Qeo. Ambent otAedut- 
ger of these colonies, he despatched Gtfta. MonigDmery with oat 
thouiandi two htmdred men, for their protection utd relief. 

Being jmned by the forces of the province of Carolina on his 
urival, he immediately proceeded into the country of tbe Cb»- 
rokeea, plundering and destroying their viilaget aad RWganoa 
uf corn.' In revenge, tbe savages besieged Fori Loudon, <« the 
con&itea of Vii^nia, which was oblige*], by reason erf foiniiie,lo 
ca{utulat<>. The capitulafion was, however, brdien, and the 
troops, wh9e on their march to Virginia, were assaulted— «u»- 
ben of tbem kSled, and the rest tak«i captive. 
. Tbe nekl yiar, 1761, Oen. Montgomery beiog obliged to r»- 
Imti, Cd. Grant was sent to continue the war. With an army 
of near two thoosand six hundred men, he began his march tc^ 
wards the enemies' country. On the fourth day the army fell 
in wkh a body of savages, and after a strongly coniested battle, 
put them lo flight- F^lowing up this rictory, Col. Gram pr^ 
ceeded to destroy then: magazines, bum their com fields, and 
cHuame their setllenieots, until, having elTectually routed then*, 
be returned with his troops. Sotm alter this, the Cherokee 
ebleft came in, and a peMe was conduded. 

Section XXIX. The conquest of Canada 
having been achieved in 1763, a definitive treaty, 
the preliminaries of which had been settled the 
year before, waa signed at Paris, and soon aAer 
ratified by the kings of England and France ; 
by which all Nova Scotia, Canada, the Isle of 
Cape Breton, and all other islands in the gulf 
and river St. Lawrence, were cadeU t« 1^ Bri- 
tish, crown. 


tU&» HF—ITM^W. 


Seetitm XXX. 0iXntttKtt «C t||t ColCts 
nifftV. TbechangeinreBpecttomBiuiei-aiiithe 
colonies, duringtbis period, consisted cbie^ iiMt 
peaihAl wearing away of national distinctionB 
and peculiarities, aati a tendency to a stillgreftt- 
er unity and asBimilation of character. 'The ra- 
pid iihcrease of wealth, and the frequency of in- ' 
lereoora* witb Europe, began to introduce ejnong 
the colonies tbe testes, end fashions, end luxo- 
ries of European countries. , But the introduc- 
tion of them produced little enervation of cba- 
facter among the people of America. Such oa 
-•flfect was cponteracted by tbe bloody, but suc- 
eessAil war with tbe French and Indians, and 
<he boundless prosperity which seemed to opeok 
lo Um «auatty, ama ttil forth its enei^es. in- 
stead, therefore, of a growing weakness in tbe 
volonies, we perceive a more vigorous spirit of 
cmamer^at euterprisCf pervading the country ; 
a comiciousoessfH political importancebeoonaiDft 
uraflnaed ; and a deep and ardent lore of <^tii 
hbetty breatMu: over the lajid. 

BMtitm XXXI. SErUfliOn. The only reH> 
gious Beet introduced into America, during ^i» 
period, was tluit of the Skakert, or SkaJting 
Qwrnktrtt who nnived from England in l?7^ 
and settled at Niskayuna, near Albmy. 

Althn^h Aw »pkk of nbpam tntdtnaae bad Stt»fftamJt 
from the colonies, and tbe puritanical severity of the dwUi hui 
become much softened, yet until the commenceinenl oi' thp 
French and Indian wnr, the religious chartcter of the colonies 
had remained essenUally the tame. But during this wttr, iit/t- 
dditj/ was extenstrely introduced into tlie army, by bmbiu o( 
the foreign En^ish officers and soldiers who were sent into tfat 
c^miiy. Froni the arm^, it sprmd Itaetf iMo mcMt, md m*- 

fimCH AND WMUI iru. 149 

iuoed a enumerable reluaikm of morali, and a bmcr mUm- 
ence lo priaciples. 

Section XXXII. ^VHVt Unll €0111% 

VWSft* During this period, trade and com- 
merce made great advances ; the annual amount 
of imports from Great Britain, was about two 
and a half millions of pounds sterling, from 1 756 
to 1771 : from 1771 to 1773, it was three millioas 
and a half annually, on an average. — The annual 
amount of exports of the colonies to Qreat Bri- 
tain andelsewhere, was about four million pounds 
sterling! at the close of this period. The articles . 
of export, and the nature of the trade of the eq- 
loniesi were essentially the same as stated in tbs 
notAS to period third. 

In l^^lbemmber of ships anployed by GmtBrittkaaA 
lfa« coiouies, in the irade with the cities, wu one thouaand i^ 
▼eiltf-eiglit, manned by twenty-eight tbouwnd oioe himdred tod 

The whale and other fisbnie* in the ctjaaies had becMM of 

great wapoitance. Id i775, there weteenploycd iDthefisbcfj , 
geaerally, and in carrying the fish to market troDi New-Engtan^ 
DIM tbousand four hundred and fifty vessels of all descriptions, 
of MM hundred thoiaand tontb(mben,-anddeTeiitfaMBandMt- 

Sectum XXXIII. MVtitUltWCt, During 
this period, a gradual progress was made in ag- 
riculture, but it doea not need any speciiek no- 

Section XXXIV. Arts «ntr i^snutscs 

' tWCttL Great Britain still continued to oppose 
the pa-ogresa of arts and manufactures in the eo- 
loaies, tad, ^refore, there was but a moderns 
•dvance of these interests, during this period. 

Section XXXV. BoilUlatiOtl. At the close 

of this period, the wmte and black p<^Hd&tk>n .of 

tfa»-cokMHe»did not vary greasy from tfave mH- 


SicOon. XXXn. EirttCattotI* in the yeu 


146 KBIOD IV..-1796L.;77S. 

1769, the college at Hanover, New-Hampshire, 
yta» founded, and called Dartmouth College, in 
honour of the eari of Dartmouth, who was one of 
its principal benefactorB. 

In J 770, the University in Rhode-Island called 
Brovm tlnivereity, was established at Provi 
dence. It was incoiporated in 1 764, and first lo* 
cated at Warren. At this place the first coni' 
inepcement y/o& held, 1 769. 

XXXVn. TheprecedingshortperiodafoDThittOlTpceseiiU 
teveral interesting subjects of reflectinn. The American color 
nies became the Hieatre of a bloody conflict, attended by all ttw 
appalling features of savage war. Although feebly supported 
ky England, aild embarrassed by the want a! political union, 
the}' surmounted ev«-y obAade, and compeUed4b« French, their 
eumpei, to depart from Ihelt shores for ever, 

But no sooner was this conflict ended, than th«^ began lo 
feel, with add^ weight, the hand orbritish oppression. — Not 
humbled, however, by injustice, nor crushed by severities, they 
vigorously put forth their strength in commerce, trade, end eg- 
riujlture. They spread inmunerable sails upon t)ie ocean ; 
they converted fore«« iftto mesidAws apd wheat fields ; estab- 
iisbed seminaries of learning; foufidei) <^t'>es ; and built churches 
U>Go4 ■ 

Nay, more— we see that tho^e very steps, which were taknt 
by the mother country tp cripple the American colonies, were 
■o ordered tis tQ add to their strength. ' By living them to bear 
the war of IJiG utmost alone, she showed them that they could 
not expect defeace from her ; she taught th^oi the peces^ of 
relying upon their own energies ; gave them an c^portunity tQ 
lewm the art of war, and to ascertain their own strength. 

The long line of British' acts, designed to crush the colonies^ 
and te keep them in humble subjection, passed, as they wer«, 
in wilful ignorance of the feeling* and power of America, 
awakened the spirit of tiie revolution, and laid the foundation 
uf a gre^ nation. 

What' a lesson may tyranny gather from this ! And hov 
thaokfitl fhoul4 iM be, tfiat a jiut Providenc« is above, who re- 
. gards the afUrs of men — who turns aside the tramf^g heel of 
•>ppresrion, and cause; fbc blood wrung out by granny to try 
IroHi the ^undj and to caH fitrth the %pmt of liberty I 

":BA'Ji":i';fcif! -».>' i.BA]iyu''L'';ii>::*-; 

J, Google 





Extendwgfrom the commencement ofkostiiititi 
hy Oreat Britain against the Ataeritan co- 
tonies, in the battle (y Lcxingtotty 1775, to the 
di»bandiiig of the American Army at West 
Point, 1783. 

Section I. On the I9th of April, 17l'5, was 
shed at Lexio^oD, Massachusetts, the first blood 
in the war of the revoiution — a war, whicii ter- 
minated in the separation of the American colo- " 
nies from Great Britain, and in their change from 
this fanmblc character and condition, to that of 
free and independent States. 

Section II. The causes^ which led the colonies 
to take up arms against the mother country, de- 
serve adistinct recital in this portion of our his- 
tory, as they will clearly show the justice, wis- 
dom, and necessity of those acts of reusiance, to 
which, at that trying period, resort was had. 

"The independence of America," it has been 
observed, "was found by those who sought it 
not." When the Fathers of this country left 
Great Britain, they had no intention of establish- 
'"S ^ government independent of that of Eng- 
land. On the contrary, they came out as colo- 
niats, and expected still to acknowledge allegi- 
ance to Ihe mother country. For many years. 

148 *muoD T_-m(„.i7as-jmroLmioit 

when Aey spoke, or Wrote, or thoi^ht of Eng- 
land, it was under the filial and affectionate idea 
of " home." " And even at the commencement 
of the controversy with Greftt Britain," if we 
credit those who lived at that time, " there ex- 
isted no desire, nor intenUon of becoming inde* 

Testimony vMt retpect to the filial dtspoiition of ihe colo- 
nic* loirards the molher country abiNinils. "f profess," said 
Fomial, who had been govei'noiir and commander in chief of 
Massachusetts Bay — governour of South CarolinB, &c. &c. 

** I proliMi," said he, in 1765, " an aflaction for the colcmie^ 
becaiiw, bavinf lived amoug their people, in a privaie u well as 
pablick character, I know them — 1 know that in their private 
•ncial relations, there \t not a more friendly, and in iheir politi- 
cal one, a mwe zenlously loya] people in all his majesty's du- 
miaions. They would sacrifice thdr deamt interest for tbe lio> 
noar of tliuir mother country. I have a right to say this, be- 
Muse experience has given me a practical knowledge and thb 
impression of them. — They have no other idea tif tnis country 
than as their bnme ; they hate no other word hy which lo te* 
|»«M it, uul till of late, it liaa bemi conatantljr czprmced l>]r lh« 
name of home." 

To the same effect is the testimony of Dr. Franklin. « Scot- 
land," said he, in 17C3, "has hiid its rdiellions; Ireland he* 
liad its rebellions 4 Knstamt itsnlotso^tasttbefe^ndngfemilyj 
bat America a free irow this reproach i" — *'No people. were 
ever knowa ow>re truly loyal : ttie protestant atccession in tlie 
house of Hanover was their idc^" 

For these feelings of affectluu for the mother 
country, the rolonies deserve the hiehftst enco- 
mium. Causes nxinted which lu^gntitave justi' 
fied u less degree of attachment, ei>-\ were calcu- 
lated to produce it. These were the oppression 
and losses which they endured ; the shackles im- 
posed upon them ; the restraints upon their com-^ 
raerce ; the parsimony with which aid was admi- 
nistered by Uie mother country ; tlK3 maleadmi* ' 
nistration — the peculation and arbitrary conduct 
of the royal govcmours — ^these things were suffi 
cient, and more than sufficient, to stifle every 

VVHOB r_l}t5i^lf8)..JKrOUmOK |4f 

f^efei^ 0^ a^^on, end «liake the last remainj 
«f tikair allegiance. 

Yet} througk-all tbb oppressive subordinatioa 
-"^iifomgk tl^ calamities of war — throagh the 
afttempt to wreet from thera Ihs'vt charters,' and 
ihea decreet rig'hts — they couldsay, aod did say, 
*' England, with all thy faults, I love thee stiU." , 

Nor is H prtrfmble that ^lese friendly disposi- 
tions of the colonies would at this time hare been 
withdrawn, had not Great Britain interrupted 
then by a grievous cbaage of policy tmvards the 
irdiabttants totiching the subject of revenue and 

Before the peace of '63, this subject had been 
wisely Irt alone. The colonies had been per- 
mitted to tax themselves, without the interfer- 
ence of the paclkuiient. Till this period, it had . 
Boffieed &}T the mother country so to -conti*?^ 
tbeir caraBseroe, as to moD(^oliEe its benefite to 
herself. But from and after this period, the 
aacieat system was set aside, and a ditlerent 
tad depressive poUoy adopted. The first act,. 
the avowed purpose of which was a nevcnue 
&om ^e colonies, passed the parliament, Sept. 
29th, 1 7Qiy the preamble to which began thus ; 
— "Whereas, it ib just and necessaiy that a 
rezimue be raised in America, for defraying the 
expenses of defending, protecting, and securing ' 
the same, we the commons, &c." The act then 
proceeds to lay a duty on " clayed sugar, indigo, 
C)pj5ae, &c. Si<^ heing the produce of a, colony 
not uader the dominien of hia majesty." , 

"^is act the colonies oould not approms 
They coidd not approve of it, because it reccrg-; 
iHiied tho ejuatence/of ^ right to tax them — a 
Ngbt iu>t feuaded ia juatice* aiul whifh «»eo 

their eiiMence, nearly one hundred and fifty 
years, until now, liad Bcldom been named. Bat 
die colonies could submit to it, although unplea- 
sant and imjuat, nor would thia act alone have 
led to permanent disaffection, had it not been 
followed by other acts, still more unjust and 

On the Bobjeet of the rif^ of the Britiih parliBaMat-to Uut 
the ctAoiaes, it was aaterted in the mother country " to be et- 
•ential to the unity, nod of course to the prosperity, of the em- 
pire, that the Brituh parliameat should ha*e a ri^t of laxaticMi 
over emy part of the loyai AaiiaioBs." In the aieaam H 
wn coDtended, " that taxatioM and r^retaUation were in- 
■eparaUe, and that they could not be safe, if their property 
uight be t^tea from tb^, nithout their eoiuent." Tbis dahn 
•f the right ctf taxetioB va the one aide, «nd the denial of it on 
the other, wu (Ae t>ery Unge on which the rev^ution tunted. 

In accordance with the policy to be observed 
towanls America, the next year, 1765, the fa- 
mous gUanp act passed both houses of pariia- 
ment. This ordained that instruments of writ- 
ing, such as deeds, bonds, notes, &c. among the 
colonies, should be null and void, unless exe- 
euted on ttarnped paper, for which a duty should 
be paid to the crown. 

' When this UU was bronglit in, the ministers, sad pftrticnlarly 
Charles Townshend, excl^med: 

" These Ainericaiii, oar own childrot, planted l^ omr («i«, 
nourished by our induigeaca, protected by our arms, until they 
are groim to a good degree of strength and opulence ; will they 
now turn their backs upon us, and grodge to contribute their 
siite to relieve us from the heavy load which overwiielms us P* 

C<A. Barre caught the words, and, with a vehemence becom- 
ing a soldier, rose and said i 

" Piamted by yonr care ! No ! your oppresuon idantec , 
them in America ; they fled from your tyranny into a then ds- 
edblwattd land, iriicre thty were exppsed to alinoit all the 
hardships to which bumui luuure is Uable, and among otb«n, 
tnthe sBvi^ crud^ of Ae enemy of the country, a peofje, tha 
moBt subtle, and, I take tqion ne to say, dw most tndy leriM* 
Of MV ptcfilo that «t« iobabited aaj part ■( God*i sMlh f «nd 


r&aOD T^TTa~-17Sl-aKT0LtJTI0H. lit 

yet acbiated 1^ prwci)des of true En^'uh libntjr, tiie; met nO 
tbete faardsbips with pleasure, compared whh tUoae they mflep- 
ed in their own country, from the hands of those that shouU 
hftve been their frfends. 

" Tkag ROumAeif by your iiidiilgetux ! They grew by 
yonr neglect} as soon as you began to care about tlKm, that 
c&re was exercised in sending persons to rule over them, in one 
department and another, who were, perhaps, the deputies of 
die deputies of some members of this house, sent to spy out 
their Ifiwrty, to inisrepresent thdr acticHis, and to wey upon 
dtma : mbn, whose benaviour, on many occasions, has caused 
the blood of these sons of libnty to recoil within them : men, 
]»onoled to the highest seats of justice, some of whom, to my 
knowieclge, wen eUd, by gning to foreign countries, to escape 
the T^igeamte of the laws in their own. 

^ llKff protected by your arm*! They have nobly taken 
up aims in your d^ence, have exerted thnr valour amidst tlieir 
Gonstaot and laborious industry, for the defence of a country 
vImm ftnntkfs, while drenched in btood, its interin' parts have 
yielded for your enlargement the little savings of thrar frugally 
and the iruits of their toils. ' And believe me, remeiiAer, I this 
day told you so, that the same spirit which actuated that peojde 
U first, will contunie with them still." 

The night zftfx this act passed, Doctor Franklin, who wa* 
then in London, wrote to Charles Thompson, afterwards secre- 
tary of the Continental Congress, " The tun of liberty it let; 
the Americans mutt light the lampt afindutlry and eamomy." 
To wlncfa Mr. Thompson answeied ; " Be assured we slmll 
light toriAe* of quite attolier tort" — thus, predicting the coin 
vuLiioDS which were about to follow. 

Sectum III. On the arrival of the news of tlw 
■tamp act in America, a general indigcatton 
spread through the country, and resolutions were 
passed against the act, by most of the colonial 

In these resolutions, Virginia ted die way. On the nieetii^ 
•f the house of burgesses, Patrick Heniy presented, among 
others, the following resolutioBs, which were snfaatactially 


', That his laqeity'i liege pec^ of this his aadcat 
cidoqy^ have e^oyed the rigMs of bang Ihas governed by their 
own oMembly, id the article of taxes, and internal poUce, and 
that the lame bave nevw been forfeited, or yielded up, but have 
bMRe«n*(«UlyrBC^MHdbyth«Mng«aipe<^^BrMiIn , 
. .„„,Gooslc 

iM mtioD r....tns~.tns-jtBv«MmoH. 

JUmltedj tbmfere, That As goienl UMoMy of Ab coliH 
117, togedwr wMi his ma|e8ty, or bis subjUtutes, have, in their 
representative capacity, the only exdmive right and power to 
lay tales and imp<nts upon the inhabitaflts (rf^thb tdmay ; and 
that every attnopt to vest mieh powa in toy other pafMD^ or 

Krtons, irhatsoever, than the gtNteral asKiiiUy afereisid, ii il^. 
jal, unconstitutional, and unjust, and hath a manifest tendenep 
to destroy British as well as American liberty. 

Rewtied, That his majesty's liege people, Ac inbabkmts at 
' diis cokny, are not bound to yield obedience to any l«w ^ 
ordinance whatever, designed to impose any taJwtioD friiatever 
upon them, other than the laws or ordinances of the geoeral at^ 
»erably aforesaid. 

flesoAwd; nat BBT pawn wbo iMI, tijr apeAfw or wiMif , 
■tKTt or maintain thnl any person, or persona, otW Am tM 
gmeial assembly of tlus colooy, have any right or power to im- 
pose or lay any tax on the people here, shall he deemed an- 
enemy to this, his majesty's- colony. 

Copies of these rerolutions were immediately ftwwiwded to tiw 
other provinces, and served to raise stitl lugber the gmer&. 
feeling of oi^HDsition to the conduct 'of tlie mother country. 

Section IV. In June, Massachusetts recom- 
raeitded a colonial congress to consult for the 
general sofety. The recommendation was weU 
received hy most of the colonies, and in Octo- 
ber. twenty-eight members assembled in New- 
Vfvk, w^Mre they remoastj'ated against the 
stamp act, and petitioned its repeal. At the- 
same time, also, they drew up a bill af rights, 
in which -taxation and represoBtfttioii weredeK 
eland to be inseparable. 

Section v. The stamp act came into opera- 
tion on llie first of November. In Boston, and 
in Portsmouth, the day was ushered in by h Ai- 
neral tolling of the bells. In . the latter pla<^e,' 
in the course of the day, a coffin, neatly orna- 
mented,' and inscribed with the wtnii Liberty, in 
large letters, was carried to the grave. Minnts 
guns were fired during the movement of th«i 
procession to the place of interaient ; where «a 
.....Google . 

oi^rioii Was offered in fiirour iy( the deeeaaed. 
Similar expressions of wounded and indignnat 
foeling occurred in variuuH parta of the couatiy. 

Id some places, the stttoip officers were oblig* 
ed to resign, or to secrete thems^lveH, to escape 
the vengeance of the people. Stamps were not 
permitted to be landed, and business) in many 
plaens, was conducted without tbem. At tim 
same time, associations were formed in all parte 
of the the country, by merchants, not to import 
goods until this <^ioufi act was repealed. Moat 
cheerfully did the people, women as well as 
men, enter upon this self-denial. Luxuries, 
decorations, elegtuicics, were universally laid 

The opposition to the stamp act in America 
Was so spirited, so deep Imd, so universal, that 
parliament had only the alternative, to compel 
her tri submit, or to repeal it. After a lone and 
angry debate on the question, the repeal vna 
carried : — but accompanying the repealing act, 
was one called the declaratory act, more hostile 
to Anietican rights than any which had preced- 
ed. The language of the act was, " that par- . 
liament Iiave, and of right ought to have, power 
to hind the eolaities in aU cases ichatiomer." 

On the meeting of ParUament, Jan. T'h, 1766, hts m^cM; 
in his speedi ipdte of the nhove oppnsitirn of the coloniei ID 
the stamp net, in pointed termg of reprehemion. On the im^ 
tkid for nn S(klr«si> to thit king, Mr. Pitt, the iidependou tmA 
inTsriiible friend of liberty and equal rights, wm the firit to of. 
fer his sentimentH on the stnte »( affairs. " It is a long time, 
Mr. Speaker," sniil lie, " since I bave attended In Parlinmeat : 
when the resolutioi* was tnknn in this house to tas America, 1 
ma iH in bed. If I oonlA have endured to have been earrted in' 
my bed, so great was the notation of my mind for the oonse. 
,1 would have solicited aome kind hand to have (aid 

me dQwn on this floor to have home my tesdmony againit it. 

• , ...,;,G„o8lc 

nivwy oyihuMt titttfiUi tuffifeH loi ira xmar to Uy atu 

«pon tJw colonies." 

Upon c<mclu<llng bis speech, A silence of some mhitites suc- 
ceeded. No one speared inclined to take the part of the late 
mimiter, or to ronse the lion, wliich la.y basking in t)w eye ol 
Ibe great Ctimmonet who had just sat down. At lengtfa, Mr 
Grenrille rote to reply. Ailer declaring the tumult in AmericB 
fo border upon rtbetlion, and insisting npon the constitutional 
rigbl of PBrliament to tax the coltmies, he umcluded ai folbnrs : 
" Ungrat^fid peopk of America! Tbe nation has run iuell 
kito ao iDuncnae debt to give them protectiMi ; iMuntiea have 
been extended to them ; in their favour the .act of naTigatioo, 
that palladium of the British commerce, has been relaxed : end 
now that they are called upon to contribute a small share to- 
wards the publick expence, thpy reooimce your authority, bwuk 
your olBcerS) and break out, I might almost say, into open [«• 

Mr. GienviUe had scarcely taken hta seat, when Mr. Pitt, 
rose to reply — but the rules of the house forbidding him b> 
speak twice on the same motion, he was called to ordef) and hi 
obedience to the call, was resuming his seat, when the loud aiid 
repeated cry of " Go on," induced him once more to take th* 
floor. In the course of his speech he laid^ " We are Itdd 
America is oh^inate — America is in open rebeOion. i&r, 1 tv- 
joice that America han rnitted; three millions of people m 
dead to all the feelings of liberty, as voluntarily to mbmit to be 
slaves, would have been fit instruments to make bUvcs of all 
the rest. I am no courtier of America. 1 maintain thnt Pallia- 
meot has a right to bind, to restrain America. Our lectslative 
power over the Colonies is sovereign and supreme. " When," 
asks the honourable gentleman " were the colonies tmiuteipat- 
edt" At what time, say I in answer, were they made jJfnie* ^ 
I ^>eak from accurate knowledge when I say that the profits to 
Gi«at BrittJn from, the trade of the colonies, through all its 
branches, is two mil'iom per annum. This is the fund whkh 
eamad you triumphantly through the war; this is the prioo 
America pays you for her protection ; and shall a miserable 
financier come with a boeat that he can fetcH a peppercorn 
into the exchequer, at the loss of millions to the nation 7 

I know the valour of your troops.-i-I know tbe slult of your 
officers — I know the force of this country ; but In such a cawe 
your success would be hazardous. America, if she fell, wd«M 
foil like the strong man : she would embrace tbe pillars of tbe 
■late, and pall down the crnistltntion with her. Is this yoin 
bowted peai»7 not to sheatba tbe sword in dia Kabbaid, but 

rE»ODV-.i7fs.„im~iisroujTioii iss 

10 Bheathe it ki the boiwU of joat coutttrjinni ? Hw Ameri- 
cans have heen wronged — they have boen driven to BMliieu ' 
by injustice ! Will you punbh them for the madneu you hkve 
Occasioned 7 No : let this country be the first to resume its pru- 
dence and tempn; I will pledge myseir for the colonies, that 
Ml rtieir part, animosity and resentment will cease. Upon the 
whole I will beg leave to tell the house in few words «diat fa 
really my opinion. It is, that the stamp act be repealed abuh 
luttiy, Malty and intmediately." 

On tbe 22d of Februuv, deneral Conway introduced a mo- 
tion to repeal this acL The debate lasted mitil three o'clodt 
io the morning, and never was there a debate which excited 
more wamth of interest, or more vehemence of opposition, 
llie lobbies of die house wne crowded with the manufacturers 
and traders of the kingdom, whose anxious countmances plainly 
sliowcd that tbar fates bung upon the issue. A division at 
length being called for, two hundred and seventy-five rose in 
Buppon of Ae motun, and one hundred and uxty-seven ^[ainit 

On learning this vote, the transports of the people were un- 
governable, 1m[H«S8ed with the conviction that they owed 
their deliverance to Mr. Pitt, thdr gratitude knew no bounds: 
when be a[^)eared at the door, in the language of Burke, " they 
jamped upon him, like children on a long absent father. They 
dung to him as captives about their redeemer. All England 
joinml In his applause." In the house of Peers, the oppoeitioti 
lo the motion was still tnore obstinate. Some of the Duke*, 
and the whole Batch o/ Bwftops were for forcing the Ameri- 
cans to submit, with jfrc and tutord. Opposition however was 
at length wearied out, and the motion to repeal was carried by 
a majority of thirty-four, a compromise having been made by 
introdudng die above declaratory act. 

The satisfaction of the coloniea on the repeal 
of the stamp act was sincere and universal. Ele- 
vated with the idea of having removed an odious 
and oppressive burden, and believing, notwith- 
standing the declaratory act of parliament, that 
the right of taxing the colonieB was at length sur- 
^Hitlered, better feelings were iiAilged ; com- 
ihercial intercourse was revived, aSid larger im- 
portations of goods were made than €^er. 

Section VL The colonies, however, mistook 
tlio spirit and determination of the ministry 
......Google . 

136 imUOS T-ins-lTSS-JtBTOUmOT. 

For* ia 1767. a bill pasMtd the parliament, iip- 
poaing a duty to be collected in the colooies cm 
glass, paper, painter's colours, and tea. 

This act, with several otherg, not less arbitra- 
ry and unjust, ugain spread alarm through the 
colonies, and revived the fire of oppoaitioii which 
had been smothered by the repeal of the stamp 
act. Again were associatioas fonned to prevent 
the importation of British goods ; i^ain were 
meetings called to resolve, petition, and remon- 

Section VII. In Feb. 1 769, both houses of par 
bament went a step beyond all that had preced- 
ed, in an address to the king, requesting him to 
give orders to the govemour of Massachusetts—!- 
me spirited conduct of which province was par- 
ticularly olwoxiouB to the ministry — to take, no 
tice of such aa might be guilty of treason, that 
they sent to England and tried there, 
A measure more odious to the people of Ame- 
rica, or more hostile to the British coH8tituti<m, 
could not be named, than for a man to b^ torn 
from his country, to be tried by a jury of stran- 

The house of bnrgvsses of Virginia met soon after dn official 
accounts oralis address were recnved, and, in a few dayB,pas>- 
ed several spirited resolutions, expressing " iheir exclusive right 
to las their constituents, and denying the right of his majesty to 
nmoreui (^nd«aut(^the«oiintryf«- trial." Thenextdrr, 
the royal foverowr of ifaat c<JoDy sent for tie bouse <rf biu£es»- 
es and addressed them laconically as liiUows : " Mr. Sj>^^«r, 
and gentlemen of the house of bui^ses, I have heard of your 
resolves, and augur ill of their effects. Yon have made tl my 
Aity to dissolve you, and you bi« accorda^y disB(4ve4 !" tnt ■ 
4swmbty of Ntcth Carotiaa passed similar roohitioos and WMB 
dissolved by theirgovemour, in a similar manner. 

Section Yltt. While affairs were thus situated, 
an event occurred which produced great excito- 
meni in America, particuuu'ly in i/heaai^iJiSGUfh 
■ ■ ■■ , ......Google 

PEaiOD V,...lTTS....1783....aETOLUTION. 157 

This was an affray on the evening of the fifth of 
March 1770, between some of the citizens of 
Boston, and a number of his majeaty's soldieis, 
who had been sent from Halifax, and were now ■ 
stationed at the custom house. Bererat of the 
inhabitants were killed, and-ottiiers severely 

Tbe qirarrel commenced on the 2d' of Marcli> at Gray's not 
walk, between a soldkr, and a man employed at the rope walk. 
The provocaticHi was given by the citizeo, and a scuffle ensued, 
in which the sgldier was beaten. On the 5lh of the month, the 
soldiers while under arms were pressed upon and insulted, and 
dared to fire. One of them, who had received a Mow, fired at 
tbe agjpreMoi,and asingle discharge from six othera succeedetl. 
Three of the citizens were lulled, and five dangerously wounded. 
The town was iiistuitly thrown into the greatest commolton, the 
bells were rung, and the general cry was " to arms." In a draft 
tnne MrersI thouswdH of die citizens had assembled, and a 
dMKitiai scetK of bknd must have ennied, but for the pronuse 
of Oovemour Hulchinson^ that the affair should be settled to 
their satisfaction in the morning. Captain Preston, who com- 
manded the soldiers, was committed mth them to prison. Up- 
on th^ trial the captain and six soldiers were aujnitted j twa ' 
wcte conYi<^d of man^anghter. For several subsequent years 
the Gve'nhig of the day on which this outrage was committed was ' 
commemorated by the citizen? of Boston, and the event gave oc- 
casion to addresses the most wann and patriotick, vriUch served 
to woken up, and increase the spirit of the revolntion. 

Section IX. 1773. The recommendations of 
meetings and associatioris- to suspend the impor- 
tation of tea, had been so strictly complied with, 
that but little had been tn-ought into the country. 
The consequence was, that vast qouttHies, se- 
venteen millions of pounds, had accumulated 
upon the hands of the East India Company. — 
For their relief, the pariiajoeot now antnorizeU 
Aem to export this tea into any part of the world, 
free of duty. By this regulation, tea would come 
cheapei* to the colonies than before it had been 
made a source of revenue— paiHamfflftt haviilf,' 

1S» fmOO:1Uins..I3Bt-.JUV0I.0TlQK 

in 1767, redUGod the duty cm it to three penoe a 

. CoDftdent of now findiog n market for dieir 
tea in America, the, East India Company freight- 
ed several ships with that article fbr ths different 
celonies, and appointed agents to dispose of it. 
On the arrival of this tea, however, the determi- 
nation of the colonists was formed — they would 
not pay even three pence by way of duty. The 
CDDsequeoce was, that cargoes of tea, sent to 
New-York and FhilodelphieL, were returned 
without being entered at the custom house ; and 
those sent to Charleston, S. C. were stored, but 
not (^ered for sale. 

In Massachusetts, a different f^£ awaited it. 
Upon its arrival, the inhabitants endeavoured to 
procure its return, but this being impracticable, 
the tea having been consigned to the , relations 
and friends of the royal govemour, Hutchinson, 
they resolved to destroy it. Accordingly, a num- 
ber of persons, dreaaed like Indians, repaired to 

' the ships, and discliarged tliree hundred and 
forty-two chests often into the water, without, 
however, doing any other damage. 

Section X. Intelligence of these proceedings 

■was, on the 7th of March, 1774, communicated, 
in a message from the throne to both houses of 
Parliament. The excitement was peculiarly 
strong.. In the spirit of revenge against Maeaa- 
chusetts, and particularly against Boston, which 
was conffldered as the chiefscat of rebellion, a 
bill wasbroughtforward, called tlie"Bo»fon/»ori 
fo'K," by which the port of Boston was precltided 
from the privilege of landing and discharging, or 
of loading aiid shipping goods, ware?, and luier* 
i'3mmiiae, " ■ - ' 

VSRIOD V....lT76„~lTSS...REVOUm01f. ||9f 

A second biti, yhioh passed SKhis tirae, e*> 
seniially altered tlie charter of the provinoef 
raaking tbe appointment of the council, jiwticea^ 
judgea, Slc. dependent upon the crown, or ita 
agent. A third soon followed, authorizing and 
directing the govemour to send any person in- 
dicted for murder, or any other capital offence, 
to another colony, or to Great Britain for trial. 

Section XI. On the arrival of theae acts, the 
townofBostonpassed the following vote : "Tbirt 
it HI the opinion of ihis tonn, that, if tli© other 
colonics couip into a joint resolution to stop all 
importation from Great Britain and the West 
lodiefi, till the act for blocking up thid harbour 
be repealed, the same will prove the salvation of 
N. America and her liberties." Copies of this 
vote were transmitted to each of the colonies. 

Aa an expressiou of their sympathy with the 
people of Boston in their distress, the Jiouse of 
burgesses in Virginia ordered that the day, on 
wiiiif 1 the Boston port bill was tO' take oJTect, 
should be observed as a day of fasting and 

06*. The w«rita Wiig* and IMfs were, about this time, t»> 
trmkced as thf? distinguishing wanes or parties. By ihc former, 
vaa mrant thixe whu favoured the cause of Dostnn, iind were 
zealous iu Bup|>orting the coluiiiest Hgninst tlie parliament: by 
the latter, was meant llie tiivoarers al'Grrat Brhiiin. 

Section XII. During these transactions in 
Massachusetts, measures' had been taken to con- 
Fene a Contijiental Congress. On the 4th 6f 
Sept. 1774, deputies from eleven colonies met 
M Philadelphia, and elected Peyton Rnndolphf 
the then Itjite speaker of the Virginia Assembly, 
president, and Charles Thotnpson, secretuy. 
After considerable debate, it was Agreed thftt 
84ofa celoay should have cue equal vote. , 

iBB RKioD v~Jins-t7ai...xs.rQiAmaiH. 

Having settled the manpet of Toting. the cou 
grass proceeded to the discharge of the high trust 
. committed to them. Tliey agreed upon a de* 
claration of their rights, recommended the non- 
Importation ofBritieh goods into the country, and 
the non*exportution of American produce to 
Great Britain, so long as their grievances were 
unredresijcd — voted an address to his' Majesty — 
and likewise one to the people of Great Britain, 
and another to the French inhabitants of Ca- 

This congress, ha\ing liaished their business 
in less than eight weeks, dissolved themselves, 
after recommending another congress to be 
convened on the 10th of May ensuing, imless 
the redress of tlieir grievances should be pre- 
viously obtained. 

Although the power of this congress was only 
advisory, their resolutions were approved, not 
only by the people, but also by the authorities, 
whether established, or provincial, and exerted 
a cominauding influence in consummating that 
union among the colonies, which had been in* 
creasing with their grievances. 

'rUe name by which the above congress is genetsUy known 
is " fjke CantimeKlal CoTigregt." Jt consisted t? Gfty-nve mem- 
bers, (Hie half (i( wlium were lawyers. Aller the airival of 
tbedel^atei from Nurth Caroliaa, twelve colonies were repre- 

Section XIII. An assembly was ordered by 
Gov. Gage, of Massachusetts, to convene Oct. , 
5th ; but before that period arrived, judging 
their meeting inexpedient, he counteracted the 
writs of convocation, by a proclamation. The 
assembly however, to the number of ninety, 
net at Salem, where the govemour not attend- 
ing, they adjourned to Concord. Here th^ 

MBMUD T~ins~lT8>-JtEV0Ll]Tiail. j^ 

chos^ John Hancock president, and, after ad- 
journing to Cambridge, drew up a plan for th^ 
immediate defence ol tlie province, by eolisting 
men, appoinUng general officers, &,c 

In Nt>v«inber, this provincial congFeu iih4 ag^D, aiul t» 
sol ved to get ia readiuets twelve thuusand mf:n to uct in any 
emergency; and that one fourth part of ihe mill Qa should bo 
enlisled as minute-men. At tlw sane tiiiie,-B requmi wvt for 
wanied to Cooneoticut, Ncw^ampsbire, ud'Rlioile-Iilaiii^ 
.joinlhr to increase tbis anny to twenty ihousaod men. 

Section XIV. Early the next year, Jan- 7tb, 
1 775, Lord Chatham, Mr. FiU, after a long re- 
tirement, resumed Ua seat in the housft of 
Lords, and introduced a concUiatory bill, the 
■object of which was, to settle the troubles ia 
America. But die eifforts -of this venerab!c and 
f>eace-tnaking man wholly failed, the bill being 
rejected by a majority of sixty-four to ihirty- 
two, withotit even the compHraent of lyirg on 
the table. 

lite rejeetitAi of (his liill wm iiAowed flte next Say \y tin 
ntroduction of a bill, which finally passed, to re»lrain tbr trade 
of the New-England provinces, and to forbid their fisb'ngaa 
iite baaks of NewfagncUand. Soen aAer, rettfictioiii Avrne -in- 
poied upon the luiddle and -louthefn <oi>nits, with the *'i«^ 
4iMi of New- York, Delaware, and North Carolinft., Tb'* buL 
■designed among the colonie), hi^ipily failea 
of ita object. 

Thus we have given a suocrnctaccotmt of the 
system of measures adopted by the ministry of 
Englantl toward the Jbnericau colonies after 
the peace of '63 — measures most unfeetiag nnd 
unjust ; but which do petitions, however reroect- 
fuf, and no remonstrances, however loud, 
could change. Satisfied of this, justice permit' 
ted the people, and self-respect and setf-f PC - 
"SMTirtioft loud^ flumiMoned ihem, to Mtitt ijf 

.StfciMmXT, The crtHif, therefore, bad iu« 


amved, the sgnal of war waa "given, Mid the 
blood shed, at Lexington opened the scene. 

Gen. Gage, the lung's governour of Maasa* 
ehusetts, learning that a large quantity of mili- 
tary, stores had been deposited by the provin- 
eiaJa, at Concord, detached Lieut. Col. Smith, 
ud Major Pitcuro, with eight hundred grena- 
diers, to destroy them. On Aeir arrival at 
Lexington, on the morning of the I9th of April, 
1775, seventy of the militia, who had hastily 
assembled upon an alarm, were under arms, on 
the parade. Eight of these were without pro- 
rocatioh lulled, and several wounded. 

The greatest preoantion weis takea by Governour Gage, to 
prevent the intdligence of this expeditioa from reachhig the 
coimtr;. Offieen vere dispersed along the road to intercepi 
espreaaes, who mighl be •ent from Boston. But the precautni) 
proved ineflectuat. The alarm was given, and was rapidly 
spread hy meant of church belis, guns, and volleys. 

The ^Etughter of the militia St Islington was extremely wan- 
ton. Major PitcBJrn, on seeuig diem on the parade, roite uplo 
dwm, aud, with a loud voice, cried out, " disperse, cUsperse you 
rrii^} throw down your arms and disperse." The sturdy 
yeomanry not immediately obeying his orders, he approached 
■MBrar, (fiscbarged bis pistol, and ordered his soldiers to ira. 

Ftoni Lexington, tiie detachment proceeded to Concord, and • 
' destroyed the stores. After killing, several of the roilkia, who | 
came out to oppose them, they retreated to Lexington with wHne | 
loss, the Americuns firing upon them from behind walls, het^es, 
and buildings. 

Fortunately for the British, here Lord Percy met them, with 
a reinfoivement of nuie hundred men, some marines, and two 
field-pieces. Still annoyed by the provincials, they continued 
dieir retreat to Bunker's Hill, in Charlestown, and the day fol- 
lowing crossed over to Boston. The British tost, ia kUled and 
wDunned, during their absence, two hundred and seventy-three. 
The loss of the Americans amoonted to eighty-eight killed, 
votmded, and missing. 

Section XVL Biicit was the a&ir ox Lexing- 
ton, the first action that opened the war of the 
i««d«tkia. Th« isiMO of it ill«d Ihtt Engliali 


officers with indisoation : they could not ondun 
that an undiaciplined multitude, that " ajlock 
-of Yankees," ae they coutemptuously named 
the Americaas, should have forced them to turn 
^eir backs. On the contrary, the result of the 
day immeasurably increased the courage of the 
Am«ricans. Tlie tidings spread ; the voice of 
war nmg through the land, and prcparatiooa 
were eveiy where commenced to carry it for- 

The provincial Congress of-MaesachuBetta^ 
being in session at this time, despatched a mi- ' 
Dute account of the affair at Lexington, to Great 
Britain, with depositiona to prove that the Bri- 
tish troops were the aggressors; In conclusion, 
. they used this emphatic language : " Appealing 
to Heaven for the justice of our cause, we deter- 
mine to die, or be free.''' 

■ The congress, at the same time, resoWed 
that a levy should be made in the province of 
thirteen thousand six hundred men. This force 
being raised was soon after joined by troops 
from New-Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rbode- 
I Island, and an a.rmy of thirty thousand mea 
assembled in the environs of Boston. 

Section XVII. As the war had now begun, 
and was likely to proceed, it was deemed inii. 
portant to secure the fortresses of Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, Accordingly, a number of 
volunteers from Connecticut and Vermont, un- 
der command of Col." Ethan Allen, and CoL 
Benedict Arnold, marched against Ticonderoga, 
and, on the 10th of May, took it by surprise, the 

farrison being asleep. The fortress of Crown 
oint surrendered shortly after. 
On the arrivfl of AHen at Ti««Mte««g«, he deamded tfe 
firt. " By whatnghority >" wlMd tte c wn an nd e r. "Ide- 

t64 KMOD V.» 

naad h," Mid AUm, '^ iu the name of the Great Jebovnh, ahd 
f^ the Ctmtineiial Congress." The siuiuiiong wtu inUantly 
nbf jed, and the fort wtu, with its valuHble stores, surrendtred. 

Section XVIII. The taking of Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point was soon followed by the 
memorable Battle of Bvnker^g Hill, as it ia 
usually called, or of Breed's Hill, a high emi- 
nence in Charleetown, within cannon-shot uf 
Boston, where the battle was actually fought, 
June 17th. 

The evening pf«ceding, a detachneat of one thouwrnd Arae- 
tkans vere ard««d to make an iutrenchmeiit <mi Ihisker's Hill ; 
btit,^ by suBC nuMake, they proceeded to BrteiFi HiU, and by 
tbe dawn of day, had tliniwA up a redoubt eight rods squorei 
and four feel hi^. 

On discovering this redoubt in the morning, the British com- 
Menced a tevere cuiDonade Upon it, from sever^ sliips and 
floating batteries, and from a timificatioii on Copp's Hilt, ia 
BoxtoD, wMch was cootinued until aflemooa. Tbe Americans, - 
liowever, never intermitted the'tr vork for a moment, and du- 
ring; the forenoon, lost but a sitis^e man. 

Between twelve and one o'clock, three thousand Britisli un- 
d«- command of Major (ien. Howe, and Brigadier Gen. Pigot, 
crossed Charles River, with an intention to di3lo<%e the Am&- , 

As. they advanced, the British commenced firing at some dis- 
tance from the redoubt ; but the Americans reserved their fire, ' 
until the enemy were Within twelve rods. "Riey tiwB opened, 
and the carnage was terrible. The Britisb retreated in preen 
piiatt eoaftidon. They were, however, rallied by (heir (Acers, 
being, hi sotoe instances, pushed on by their swords, and were 
again ted to the aRack. The Americans now sufered^em ta 
approach within sl3i rods, when their fire mowed them down in 
heaps, and again they Aed. Unfortunately for the Americans, 
their nmmunltioH here fuled; and, on the third charge of the 
British, they were obliged to retire, after huving obnhiately re- 
sisted even longer than prvdence admitted. 1%e British loat ia 
thl& engagement two hundred and twen^'Cis killed, among 
whom was Major Pitcaim, who first lifted the torch of war m 
Lexington, and eight hundred and twenty-eight woanded. The 
Americans lost one hundred and thii^-idne killed, vaA of 
wounded and m-ssing tiiere were Aree hundred and fbwtnwi. 
AMMig tlMkiUed was tiM ktnented Oen. Warren. 

Tilt hontMmur this scene vere grratly increaMd bylbecttO' 
llagratlon' of Cbarlestown, effected, during the heal of the battle, 
try the orders of Gen. Gage. By this wanton act of barbarity, 
two thousand people were deprived of their hubitatJMis, uid 
propeny to the amount of one tiundrtnl and twemy tliousiind 
poonda sterling iwrisfaed in ili« flBineB. ^' Wunton, however, 
as die burning of Cbarlestown was, it wonderfully enhanced 
tlie dreadful magnilicence of the day. To the vc^ya of 
musketry tuid the roar of cannon ; to the shouts of the figh^ 
tug and the groans of the dying ; to tlie dark and atrful at- 
mosphere of smoke, enveloping the whole peninsula, and illu- 
mined in every quarter by the streams i>r lire from the various 
instruiuenis of death ; the conflagration of six hundred buildings 
added a gloomy and amazing gr<mdeur. In the midst of tl^ 
waving lake of Hame, tlie lofty steeple converted into a blazing 
pyranud, towered and trembled over the vsM pyre, and finished 
the scene of desolation."* 

To the Americans, the consequences of ttus battle wneAose 
of a decided victory. They learned that their enemies were not 
nivulncmble. At the same time, they learned the iwporlaiKC 
of stricter disei|diae, and greater preparations. As the result of 
the battle spread, the national pulse beat still hi^ier, and the 
arm of opposition was twraced still morefimily. 

Section XXX. The second coutinental eon* 
gress met at Philadelphia, on the 10th of May. 
As military opposition to Great Britain was now 
resolved upon by the colonies, and had actually 
commenced, it became necessary to fix upon a 
proper person to conduct that opposition. The 
person unanimously selected by congress was 
George Washington, a member of their body, 
Trom Virginia. 

General Washingtoo, in his reply to the President of Con- 
fress, who amiouuced to him his appointment, after consenting 
M ^ler upon llie momentous duty assigned him, addeil : " Sut 
lest some imlucky event sliould happen unfavourable to my re- 
potBtion, I beg it may be remembered, by every gentleman in 
die room, that 1 this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I . 
do not think myself equ;d to the cununand I am honoured wilb. 

*'As to pay, air, I beg leave to assure the congress, that ai 


ao pecHiuaiy conndnalion cwid bare tmipted nl^ to aecepk 
[his arduous employment, at the cxpenK of mj tiomestic en* 
and happinesa, I do not wbh to make any profit iVoin h. I 
will keep aa exact ftccoiim o( my expeoses. Those 1 doidit 
not they will ducliarge, uad that is aU 1 dnire.'^ 

A ipecial comniitsiuu was drawn up and presented to bimi 
as comtQundw in chief of ihe American forces ; on preseBting 
it, congress unanimously adopted this resolution : " that ihey 
would maintain and assist him, and adhere to him with theU 
lives and ibrtunes in tite cause of Ann'ican liberty." 

Following the appointment of Genera) Wiwhii^on, was the 
appointment of four Majoi^Geuerdls, Artemas Ward, Charlci 
Lee, Philip Schuytrr, uud I&rae) Putnam ; aitd eight Brigadier 
Geiierals, Seth Fomeroy,RicbardMo[Ugoaicry, Duvid Woosier, 
William Heath, JoE?[ih Spencef, John l^oous, John Sullivan, 
and Nathaniel Gre«ne. 

Section XX. Gen. Washington, on hJB arrival 
at Cambridge, on the second of July, was re- 
ceived with joyful acclamations by the Americas 
army. He found them stretched from Roxfouiy 
to Cambridge, and thence to Mystic river, a dis- 
tance of twelve, miles. The British forces oc- 
cupied Bunker and Breed's bill, fuid Boston 

The atlentioB of. the commnnder in chief was ioi mediately di- 
rected to the strength and situation ofiht efiemy, and to the io- 
troduction of system and union into the army, the want of wbicb 
pervaded every department. This was a delicate and diflkub 
altempl, but Ihe wisdom end firmness of Washiagton removed 
«Tery obstacle, andatl^gth brought even independent freemeOf 
in a good degree, to the controul of military discipline. 

Section XXI. While Washington was em- 
ployed in organizing his army, and preparing 
for future operations, an important expediticM 

* Tbe wbid« turn which, in the coune of the wsr, pused tbrongli fd( 
bsndc amounted oolj to Wrteco thousand four hundred ■ndMTcDQ'-^liil 
pounds Merlins. Amr Qen. Washincton's davafioo to Ifae prnidMwy, In 
continued to Mnd to the eompfioUen of the treasury ananmtalwoDtmtel 
Ms eipsBMs, which, in some jesrs, usouDlod to Oirtj-mn tbouMni 
doUsrs. Ai Uie salarj fixed b* law for that ofice was no ouve than 
. Arn^'^TB tbownnd joOm, te ««•■ 1m paid oM of Idt prin# An*. 

ffSKIOD T-.l*75~.17SL„BCV«Umi>N lOf 

wM planned agaiilACan'nHa,thechai^e.of which 

was assigned to Gens. Schuyler and Montgomery. 
On the 10th of September, one thousand Arae- 
lican troops landed at Bt. Johns, the first British 
post in Canada, one hundred and fifteen mite» 
north of Ticonderogft, but found it advisable to 
retire to the Isle aux Noix, twelve miles south of 
St. Johns. Here the health of Gen. Schuyler 
obliged him to return to Ticonderoga, and the 
coDiraand devolved on Gen. Montgomery. This 
enterprising officer, in a f^w days, returned to 
the inveirtment of St. Johns, and on the 3d of 
November, received the surrender of this import- 
ant post. 

On the Hirrender of St. JohiH. (Sve hundrMl regalan and one 
^jindred CanBdiana berame prisoners to tba provinciala. There 
were ftlio taken thirtv-nine pieces of cannon, Mveo moitarir 
■nd five hundrnl stands of nrms. 

Gen, Montgomery next proceeded against .■ 
Montreal, which, without resistance, capitulated. 
From Montreal he rapidly proceeded towards 

Before his arrival, however, Col. Arnold, who 
had been despatched by Gen. Washington with 
one thousand American troops from Cambridge, 
had reached Quebec by the way of the Kenne- 
beck,ariver of Maine, — had ascended the heights 
of Abraham, where the brave Wolfe ascended be- 
fore him ; but bad found it iieceesory to retire to 
a place twenty milea above Quebec, where he 
was waiting for the arrival of Montgomery. 

Sridom WB3 tlicre an expedition attempted during th« Amni- 
nn war, in wtiidi more huidship was eiUtured, or iautp untiring 
persevemuce maniltrated, iliau in this of Anmld's. In ascefldiog 
tte Keonebeck, hia trocpi were constantly obli^ to work. 
iptiMt *a iiBponiooa current, and often to liaul ihek birtteaux up 
rapid rurrcnts and over dangerous falls. Nor was their mar(Jt 
diiuLigli thu country, by an uueAjilored mule of tiiree hundred 
Buk^laM dUBRtdt ucdutsenHH. They bad >wwnp»auil wvoil*^ 

IflS PEKKH) T.~1775._.nSS«JtkTOLDTiOII. 

BOUMlatni and p »e cip i«CT ■bematel^ n> turpast. Added W 
tkeir other trials, Ihev provbrans failed, aiul, to suppwt lUi^ 
Aey were obligeil to eat their dogs, cartouch boxes, cjothes and 
^oes. While at the distance of one hundred miles inm humsa 
halHtations, they divided tbeir whole atore, about four pints ol 
iour to H man. At thirty miles distiince, they had baked and 
eaten their last pitiful morsel. Yet the courage and fortitude ol 
these m«) ctmt'mued nnohaken. They were sufoing for tfadr 
coutitry'i cause, were toiling for wives and children, were coo- 
tending for the r^hts and blessings of fi«edom. After thirty 
one days of incessant toil through a hideous wilderness, they 
reached the hatmatlons of men. 

Dec. Ist, MontgomerT' having effected a June* 
tion with Arnold, commenced the siege of Que- 
bec. Ailer continuing the siege nearly a month 
to little purpose, the bold plan was adopted ot 
attemptiog the place by scaling the walls. Two 
attacks were made, at the same time, in different 
quarters of the town, by Montgomery and Ar- 
nold, The attempt, however, proved unsuccess- 
ful, and, to the great loss and grief of America, 
&tal to the brave Montgomery. He fell while 
tttempting to force a barrier, and with him fell 
two distinguished officers, Capt. M'Pherson, his 
aid, and Capt Cheeseman. 

After this repulse, Arnold retu-ed about Aree 
miles from Quebec, where he continued encamp- 
ed through a rigorous winter. On the return of 
spring, 1 776, finding his forces inadequate to the 
reduction of Quebec, and not being reinforced,, 
be retired. By the IStfa of June, the AmericEuis, 
having been compelled to relinquidi bne post 
after another, had wholly evacuated Canada. 

The garrison of Quebec consisted, at the time of the above U- 
tack, of about one tiiousand five hundred men ; ibe AmericMi 
fBiRM w«re iwar eight hundred. The loas of the Am«icans in 
killed and wounded was about otte hundred, and three bandred 
were taken prisoners. , 

The death of General mmtgomery was deeply lamented both 
)b Ehifope and America. " lite most pDwcrfalspnkcn in ilis 

PERIOD V.-.i;7S....17S3„.nEVOUmOIr jC9 

British parliameiil duplayed tlwir eloquence in praUiog hii nr- 
lues and lamentijig his fall." Congresg directed a rouaumeiitlo 
be erected to his niemory, expressive of tlieir sense of liii lii)[h 
patriotism and heniick conOuct. 

Section XXII. During tliisyear, 1775, Virgi- 
Qia, tlirough the indiscretion of lord Buamore, 
the royal guve mour,, was involved in difficulties 
little ^liort of those to which the inhabitants of 
Massachusetts were subjected. From the ear- 
liest stages of the controversy with Great Bri- 
tain, the Virginians had been in ihe foremost 
rank of opposition, and, in common with othei 
provinces, had taken measures for defence. 

These measures for defence, the royal govem- 
our regarded with an eye of suspicion, and at- 
tempted to tliwart them by the removal of gima 
and ammunition, which had been stored by the 
people in a magazine. The conduct of the go 
vernour roused the inhabitants, and occasioned 
intemperate expressions of resentment. Appre- 
hending personal danger, lord Dunmore retired 
on board the Fowey man of war, from which he 
issued his proclamations, instituting martial law, 
and proffering freedom to such slaves as would 
leave their masters, find repair to the royal stand- 
ard. Here, also, by degrees, he equipped and 
armed a number of vessels, and, upon being re- 
fused provisions by the provincials, from on shore. 
he proceeded to reduce the town of Norfolk to 
ashes. The loss was estimated at tiirce hundred 
thousand pounds sterling. Nearly six thousand 
. persons were deprived of their habitations. 

In like manner, the royal governouin of North and South 
Carolina thought ii prudent to retire, and seek ^tnfrty nn board 
men uf war. Royal gnvemment generally terminated thii ycur 
throughout the country, the king's goverjiours, for die most part, 
abdicatiDK then- goremmenO, and tAiog refoee OD bawd the 
CngUsh ikipping, 

13 L,„„..,Guuglc 

S70 muoD r_jm~»es...HsroLOTioM. 

• XXni. Earlj in the BpriB^of 1776, 
€ren. Washington contemplated the expulaioa of 
the British army from Boston, by direct aasault. 
In a council of war, it was deemed expedient, 
however, rather to take possession of, and fortify 
Dorchester Heights, which commanded the har- 
bour and Briti^ shipping. The night of the 
4th of March was selected for the attempt. Ac- 
cordingly, in the evening a covering party of 
eight hundred, followed by a working party of 
twelve hundred, with entrenching tools, took pos- 
session of the Heights, unobserved by the ene- 

Here they set themselves to work vdth so 
much activity, that by morning, they had con- 
litructed fortifications which completely sheltered 
diem. The surprise of the British cannot easily 
be conceived. The English admiral after ex- 
amining the works, declared that, if the Ameri- 
cans were not dislodged from their position, his 
Vessels could no longer remain in safety in the 
harbour. It was determined, therefore, by the 
British, to evacuate Boston, which they now 
did, and on th^ 17tb, the British troops, under 
command of lord William Howe, successor of 
Gen. Gage, sailed for Halifax. General Wash- 
" iiigton, to rtie great joy of tlie inhabitants, army, 
and nation, immediately marched into the town. 
' Tlie rear gnard of the British ^as scarcely out otihe town, 
ithen Wsshingtna entered it on the other side, with colours 
displayed, drums benting, and all the forms of victory and til- 
uraph. He was received by the inlmbitaots, with demonstra- 
tions of joy and gratitude. Sixteen months had the people suf- 
bred (he tUstnuei of btipger* and (be ouingH of ao ^isotont 

^PhirWona had bMD wiokKM in Boston, tlwt ■ poand ot frath fish 

tr^ twMn ^BDce steriJiK, a PMM ei^ sbilliwi and bw petwe, B Rirtej 


i>ieBua> i^j: 

The tnvn pteaeiited a melancbaljr spectacle, at the lime the 
«Byr of Washfligtoa eotered. One thouiand five hundred loyal- 
ists, wttti iheir fiiiHiliea, had jus) departed on board the BritMi 
fletb, tearing (hemaelves friim home and friends, fur the love of - 
ttie rojal cause. Churches were stripped of }>evs and b^i^et 
for fuel, shops were opeaed and rifled of gciod^ to dotbe the 
army, and housec had been ulhtged by an unfeeling soldiery. 

Section XXW. While affairs were proceed- 
ing thus in the north, an attempt was made, ia 
June and July, to destroy the fort on Sullivan's 
Island, near Charleston, S. C. by Gen. Clinton 
and Sir Peter Parker. After an action of up- 
wards of' ten hours, the British were obliged to 
retire, having their ships nearly torn to pieoee, 
and with a loss of two hundred killed and 
wounded. The loss of the Atnericuis waa but 
ten killed, and twenty-two wounded. • 

Tlie fort was-ciMninanded by Col. Moultrie, whose garrigoB 
consisted of but three hundred and seventy five regulars, and a 
few militiii. On the fort was niaimleil twenty-«ix cannon of 
eighteen and nine pounders. Tlie Bpiibh force conaisted of twa 
fifty gun ships, and four frieates, each of twenty^ight guns, . 
besides several analler vessels, with three thousand troops OB 
fMard, ^y tliis repulse of the IkitJsh, the southern staUsi oI>- 
tnined a respite from the calamities of war lor two years and a 

Among the American troops who resisted tlw British, in ihek 
attach on fort Monllrie, was a. sergeant Jasper, whose nauie has 
been given to one of the counties in C>e(»^a, in cwnmciiKti utinn 
of his gallant deeds, and iviio dest^vcs an iMniouruhli' luitife in 
every history of his country. In the warmest part of the cini- 
tesl, the ling sttlT was severed by a cannMi haH, and the Hag 
teil to the bottom of the ditch, on the outside of the works. Thhi 
accident was considered, by the anxious inliabitants in Charles 
toil, as putting an end to the contest, by striking the American 
(lag to tlie enfmy. The moment Jasper made the discovery, 
^al the flag had fallea, he jumped froni one of the emhrasuna. 

tirelTesl^ns<iu>d*>xp^<^«iB.dueliei^t iliiUingsBDdlvoMDae, hrai 
two sl^ines tui'l one puioT P<^ poand. A ibeep ooA tbii^4ve 8faillii«s, ' 

■terliat;,^IilBStlilrty4hreeshiI1iiisiuulfi»irpenccperbusbel. Fire wood 
fortj-oDe aM]lins«u<lcig]ktpeiu:epGrMrd,aBdfiinHy was not lobe era- 
itir^A -at aiiT Dricfl. . ■ 

cuied at au7 price. 


173 HRioD 

■ad toos up tbe flag, wkkh he li«l to a pent, Biid tepket i A oo 
the parapet, where he fuppoited it until another flag ftaff wu . 

The subsequent activii}' and enterprise of this patriot tndoced 
Ctri. Aloultrie to giveliim )iitorlorruvingcoioDiiuion,toKoand 
cttne at pleasure, cdfxtident that he wu always usefully em- 
ployed. Jle was privileged to select such men from the regi- 
■itent as he should choose, to accompany him in his enterprisiTS. 
Jlii parties t.onsibtcd generally of five or six, and he oft«i n^ 
turned wi'Ji prisoners, before Ittoulirie was apprised of bis ab- 
tence. Jasper was distinguished for his humiuie treatment 
*4ien an enemy tell into bis power. Hb ambition eppears to 
have heftn limited to tlte clinracierislicks of bravery, humanity, 
and usefulness to ilie cuiuie in which he was Engaged. By hi< 
cuiming and enterpVisc, he often succeeded in the capture ol 
Ihote who were lying in ambush fur him. He entered the Bri- 
Ibh lines, aud remuined several days in Savannah, in disguise, 
aadf after informing himsell' of theii strength and intentions, re. 
itimed to the American camp with uselut inforraalion to his 
commanding olliccr. 

In one of tliese excursions, an instance of bravery end hu- 
manity is r:^corded, by the biograplier of General Marion, 
nhkh coiilil not be cr^ited if it was not well altfsied. While 
he wiis ejiomining the British camp at Hbenezer, all the sympa- 
lliyofhis heart nnsawakenedbyinc distresses of a Mrs. Jones, 
whose hiishitnd, an Araerican by binli, Iiad tifken the king's 
jirolt^tion, and bcon confined in irons fi>r di'sening the roy^ 
cause, after he hiid token the o.ilii of altt^ance. Hkt well 
founded belief was, that nothing short of tlie'llte of her husband 
would atone for the oflVnce with which he was charged. Aa- 
licipafing the awful scene of a beloved hnshnnd expiring oo tlie 
gibbet, liod cxcittd inexpressible erooilonsof grief and distrac- 
tion. Jas]>er secretly consulted with his companioa, SerjeEtni 
Newton, whose feilings for the distrc^'sed fi^male and her child ' 
wert cqiinliy melted with his own, upon the prnctlcability oj 
releasing Jones from his impending fate. Though they were 
tmahle to auggesl a plan of operation, they were determined to 
wBt<:h fiH tlie most fuvonrnble opportunity, and make the efTort. 

l1iG departure of Jones and several others, all in irons, to 
Savannah, for trial, under a guard, consisting of a Serjeant, cor- . 
ntxal, and eight men, was ordered upon the succeeding morn- 
mg. Within two njlles of Savannah, about thirty yards from 
ifae main road, is a spring of fine water, surrounded by a deep 
and thick underwood, where travellers ofien halt to refreiR 
ibenisetves with a cim>I draught from this pure fountain. Jasprr 
•bd Ins companion selected thu «not at the rooft favourable ft > 

nsioD v.^iin.^tm.:JtxmLvmm. 171 

iheir erteiprise. They HcoHxIingly pawed the pnnl, i 
cedtcd themselves near the spring. 

Wheti the enemy came up, iheyhaltml, and twoof tfie finH 
«nty reniainfd with the pfboners, while the othen Penned tfadi 
euns a^insi Irees ia a careless raanner, Mid went tu die spring. 
Jasper und Newton spmng from their place of concealment, 
■eiied two or the minkets, and ahol the sentinels. The posae*- 
sion of all the arms pliiced the enemy in their jioww, and com- 
pelled^hem ta surrendfr. The irons vere I^cen off from the 
prraonen, and arms putinio their hands. Tlie whole party fti^ 
rived at Penyshurg, the next mvming, and joined the American 
camp. There arehut few instances nponTecord vhere persood 
exertions, even for seltpreservation from certain piospects of 
deaA, would have induced a retort to an act so desperate of 
■execntion; how much more laudable was ^is, where the spriof 
to action was roused by the lamentations of a female nnknom 
io the adventurers ! 

Subsetjnently to tlie galbint defence al Sultivnn's Island, Cot. 
Moultrie's regiment was presented with a stand of colours by 
Mrs. Elliot, which she had richly embroidered with her own 
iiands ; and, as a- reward of Jasper's particular merits, ^3overo- 
-our Rudedge presented hiia n'ith a very handsome sword. Dw- 
ring the assaidt gainst Savarniah, two officers had been kitled 
And one wounded, endeavouring to plant these cnlmrs upon the 
■enemy's parapet of the Sprinphill redoubt. Just bdbre the r^ 
■ treat was ordered, Jasper eivdcavoured to replace them upon the 
works, and while he -was in the act, received a mortal wounA 
and fell into the dtlch. When a retreat was ordered, he recol- 
lected the honourdble condition iipon which the donor presented , 
the colours to his regiment, and among theiast a<Ka of -Usiifi^ 
succeeded in bringing them off. 

Major HiOfry caUed to ^ee liim soon after (he retreat, 1* 
-*hom, It is said, he made the following communication.. ""Z 
have got my "furlou^. That nrord was presented to me Ijy 
Govemour Butledge, for my services in the defence of fort 
Moultrie. 'Give it to my fadier, and tell him I haive worn it 
with honour. If he should weep, teTl liim his eon died in the 
hope^if a better iifa. T^ Mrs. Efliottliat Host my life, mo- 
porting the colours which $be presented to onr regiment, m, 
you shoidd ever see Jones, Kis wife and son, tell them that hi- 
an is -gone, bat that die .rentemberonce «f the bstde, whidli 
ve fought for them, brought a secret joy to his heart whenil 
was about to stop ^ motion forever." He^xjHfnisft 
«ltef ^tef doaii^ ihis-seittence.* 



174 nRtOI>T....t7n_„17SB...ftevOtVTIIMtj 

" Section XXV. During these tranaactions ia 
die Boutit, the coDtineota) congress was in sea- 
son, intentiy observing the aspect of things, and 
deeply revoiviDg the probable issue of the pre- 
sent important contest. The idea of independ- ' 
cnce had now been broached among the people, 
and the way was, in a measure, prepared to. 
briag the subject befwe the txingresa. 

Accordingly, on the 8th of June, Richard 
Henry Lee, one of the deputies from Virginia, 
rose and made a lootion to declare America free 
and independent. 

Mr. Lee addr^swd tbe bouse on Uiis motion, uid concluded, 
u follows : " Whj then do we kniger delay, why still deliber- 
Bte ? Let this most happy day give birth to the American Te> 
publick. Let her arise, not to devastate and conmier, but t« 
Te-«stabli(h the re^ of peace and of tbe taws. The eyes of 
Europe are fixed upon u» ; she demands of us a living example 
of freedcMn, that may contrast, by the fehciw t)f the citizois,. 
trith the em uicreauDg tyranny which desdates her polluted 
ikorEi. She invkei us to prepare an asylum, where the unhap- 
py MULyfiadMUce,andlhepersecutedrepose. She entreats us ta 
cultivate a propitious soil, where that generous plant, which 
first sptnng np and grew in England, but is now withered by 
Aepoisonousblastsof Scottish tyranny,, may revive and flourbltj, 
shdtenng uader its aalubrious'and interminable shade, all th^ 
unfortunate of the human race. 

This is the end presaged by so many omens, by our llrst 
victorias, by the. pretieot ardour and unicm, by the flight ot 
Howe,* and the pestilence whidi broke out amongst Dun- 
Bore's peopk,t by the very winds which baffled the enemy'^ 
fleets and transports, and Uiat terrible tempest which inguh>hed 
■even bntdrcd waaeh upon the coast of Newfoundland. iC we 
are not diis day wanting in our duty to our country, the namci 

• AQudins to the evaeuBtrao at BiMoa by On BtMib, Dnder Howe^ 

t Lord tHunof, Di» rajtt lOTMnouraf ViHwia.ietiKd to the Fofwer 
nan irf wwvu noticed pice 169, ontKiitnl of nhicKsnd the other vemea 
at Ml iqnadron, a pestikntial msUdT broke out, whidi carrietl off gnA 
nDinl«n sf tbe crnrd, botli wUe uvt bbch. wtndr bmi t ht o ng rt Iha 

. . ......Google 

mwD r™in6....i7B3.-.BEV0Lt)Ti0N. 175 

of the American legislston will be placed, by posterity, at the ' 
aide of those of Theseus, of Lycurgus, of Rumulus, of Numa, 
of the three Williams of Nassau, and of all those whose memory 
has been, and will be for ever dear to virtuous men, and good 

The deputies of Pennsylvania and Ma^land 
not being presmit, and congress being desirous* 
by some delay, to evince the maturity of their 
deliberations, adjourned the further considera- 
tion of the subject to the first of July. 

On the arrival of the day assigned, the sub- 
ject was resumed, and on the 4th of July, 1 776, 
upon the report of Tliomaa Jefferson, John 
Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, 
and Philip LivingstMi, the thirteen confederate 
colonies dissolved their allegiance to the British 
crown, and declared themselves Free and Ind«- 
pendent, under the name of the Thirteen Uni- 
ted States of America. 

AAer specifically enumerating the wrongs received, and de- 
claring these to be sufficient grounds for a separation, they sol- 
emnly and defiberately proceeded to the ad of sepantitHi, in 
die words following : 

" We, therefore, the repreaentatiTet of the United States of 
, AmericH, in generni congress ass«nbled, appealing to the St>^ 
preme- Judge of the worM, for the rectituth of our intentions, 
and by authority of thegood people of these colonies, solennly> 
publish and declare, IriBt these united colonies are, and eS 
light ought to be, ftee and independent states; that they are 
absolved from ^ allegiance tu the British crown, and that all 
polittcal cDnnection between them and the state of Great Britain 
B, aqd oagkt to be, touUy dissolved ; and ibst a» free and in> 
dependent states, they have full power to levy war, conduda 
peace, ccmtracl ailiances, establish commnre, and to do all 
Mher acts and things, which independent slates may of right do. 
And ftir the support of this dec! eration, with a firm reliuiM on 
Ae protwtion of Divine Providence, we mutually plodge to MCli 
•ther OUT lives, our foitunes, md our sacred bcMOur." 

liie BKinbera wha con^uaed lUi CM^res, all af whom 
iH^nei tbededaistien, wav* 



ildhB Hmcoek, PttMaU, tmn M 

Jouah BaKlett, 
WiUka Whipple, 
Mwbew Thwnton. 

Samuel Ad urns, 
John Adams, 
Robert Treat Pajne, 
EU>ridge Gerry. 

Stephen Hopkins, 
WilUam Ellery. 

Roger Sherman, 
Samuel Huntington, 
William Williams, 
Oliver Wolcott, 

William Floyd, 
Philip Livin^ton, 
Francif Lewis, 
Lewis Morris. 

Kcl)M'<] Stockton, 
John Wither^MMn, 
Francis Hoptiinson, 
John Hart, 
Abraham Clark. 

Roben Morris, 
Benjamin Rusk, 
Benjamin l^riuikUn, 
Jolm Morton, 
Gem^ Clymw, 

This cTeclaroUw) was received by the people wiA tmapens 
•f jiiy. PuWic rejoicings toe* place in various parts of tite 
Union. In Ni!w-¥ork, ilie statue irf <>eorge HI. was taken 
down, and the lead, of wliich it was composed, was convetieil 
into muskrt balls. In Boston, the garrison was drawn up in 
King^ street, which frem that moment, look the name of S.t<ite- 
itreet, and thirteen sMutea, by tiiirteen detadnnents, into which 
*lie troops were forme^ were fired ; the bells of the tow^ were 
rung, intoken of felicilation, and the evening concluded witk 
the tearing in pieces, and burning^ the msigns of roydty— 
*«■»•» scqHrei^ aad crowns. 

Jsmes Smith, 
0«orge Taylor, 
Jafnes WilsMt, 
George Boss. 

Ca;sar Rodni^y, 
George Read. 

Maryhxi < 
Samuel Chase, 
William Piica, 
Thomas Ston<r, 
Chailes Carroll ^fCairotltm 

Geoi^ Wythe, 
Richard Henry Lee, 
Thomas Jeflerson, 
Benjamin Harrison, 
Thomas Nelson, Jim. 
Thomaa Ligh'ifoot Lee, 
Carter Braxton. 

North Carolina- 
Willwm Hooper, 
Josejjh Hewes, , 
John Penn. . 

South CtiToUna. 
Edward Butledge, 
Thomas Hayward, Jun. 
Thomas Lynch, Jun. 
Arthur Middleton. 

Itntton Gwinnett, 
Lyman Hall, 
George Walton. 

; I-ERIOD V„..l7T3._178J-..aETOLlITIOii. f/f 

la Virginia, ttw exultation exceeded deMription. On learn* 
iiig the measures of Caiigre»», ilie Virginia convention iramedi- 
atelv decreed, that the nunie ol' the king should be mppresseil 
in all the puLlick prayers. They ordiuned diat the great Hal 
of the commonwealth sliuuld represent Virtue as the tutelary 
g«iius of the province, robed in drapery uf en Amazon, rest- 
ing one hand upon ber lance, and holding with the other a 
Bword, trampling upon tyranny, und<;r the hgure of a prostrate 
man, having near him a crown, fallen from his head, and bear- 
ing in one hand a broken chain, and iu the other a scourge. At 
the foot was charactered the worJ Virginia, and round the effigy 
of virtue was inscribed : — Sic srwij^cr tt/rannis. The reverse 
represented a group of figures; in (he middle stood Liberty, 
with her wand and cap; on unrside was Ceres, with a horn of 
plenty in (he right hand, and a sheaf of wheat in the left; upon 
the othn" appeared Eternity, ujili the globe and the phcenix. 
At the foot were found these words : — Dem nobit kac otiafi- 

Section XXVI. Soon, after the evacuation of 
Boston by the British troops, Washington, be- 
lieving that the possession of New- York would 
be with tlicm a favourite object, determined to 
make it the liead quarters of his army, ojid there- 
by prevent their occupation of it, if such a step 
had been contemplated. Accordingly, he soon - 
removed to that city with the principal part of 
htB troops. 

Section XXVll. On the lOth of June, Gen. 
William Howe, with the army which had evacu^ 
' atcd Boston, arrived from Ilalifax, off Sandy 
Ilook. Iloce he wa.s soon after joined by his 
brother, Admiral Lord Howe, from England, 
with a reinforcement. Their combined forces 
amounted to twenty-four thousand. On the 2d 
of August, th(:y landed near the Narrows, nine 
miles from the city. 

Sectimi XXVUI. Previous to the commence- 
ment of hostilities, AHinirul and Gen. Howe 
communicated to Washington, they were 
commissioned to smXiW all diMcultiea, betvyeei) 

' 178 FEBIOD T.-1775»im..JUCVOLtmOK 

Ureal Britain and the colonies. But, Dot od. 
dressing Washington by the title due to his rank, 
he thought proper to deciine receiving their com- 
munioetion. It appeared, however, that the 
power of these comniissionerfl extended little 
&rther than, in the language of their instruc- 
tions, ''to grant pardons to such ad deserve 

Section XXTX. The American army, in and 
near New-York, amounted to seventeen thou- 
sand two hundred and twenty-five men, a part 
of whom were encamped near Brooklyn, on 
Long-Island. On the 27th of August, this body 
of the Americans, under command of Brigadier 
Gen. Sullivan, were attacked by the British, un- 
der Sir Henry Clintqn, Percy, and Cornwallis, 
and were defeated with the loss of upwards of a 
thousand men, while the loss of the British 
amounted to less than four hundred. Gen. Sul-. 
livan, and Brigadier Generals Lord Sterling 
and Woodbuli, fell into the hands of the British, 
aa prisoners. 

In die beat of ihe engageittent, Gen, Washington had crossed 
over to Brooklyn from Neff-Yorii, and on setting souk erf hia 
beat troopi slaughtered, or taken, he uttei^ed, it is said, an ex- 
dsmation of anguish. But deep aa hia anguish was, and much 
aa he wished to succour his troops, prtidence forbad the calling 
in of his forces from New-York, as they would, by no means, 
have Bufiiced to render his army equal to that of the English. 

Section XXX. After the repulse at Brooklyn, 
perceiving the occupation of his position on Long- 
Island to be of no probable importance, Wash- 
ington vrithdrew his troops to New- York, and 
soon after evacuated the city, upon which, on 
the 12th of October, the British catered it. 

Seldom, if ever, was a retreat conducted with more ability 
md pfudence, or under more favourable auspices, than that ot 
the American troops from Long-Islaad. llie necestary prs 


ptnai<XH having been made, on the 29lh of August, st ekht in 
die evening, the troops began to move in the greatest suence. 
"But they were not on board their vessels before eleven. A vio- 
lent northeast wind and the ebb tide, which rendered the cuiw 
ntM very rapid, prevented the passage. Tlie time pressed, 
hovfCvcr. Fortunately, the wind suddenly veered to the nurtli- 
- west. They immediately made sail, and landed in New-York. 
Providence appearpd to have watched over the Aniericans. 
About two o'clock in the morning, a tliick fog, and at this sea- 
son of the year extraordinary, covered all Ltmg-Island, whereas 
the air was perfectly clear on the aide of New-York. Nolwith- 
standing the entreaties of his officers, Washin^on remained th« 
Inst uponthe shore. It -was not till the next morning, when the 
niD was already hi^h, and (he fng dispelled, that die English 
-perceived the Americans had abandoned their campi and were 
sheltered from pursuit. 

Washington with a part of his troops, retired 
to White Plains, where he entrenclied himself 
with great care. Here, on the mornilig of the 
28tJi of September, he was attacked by Gene- 
rals Clinton and Heister. The loss in the ac- 
tion ou each side, was several hundred.-^But 
neither party could claim any decided advan- 

While Washington was retiring from New- 
York, Sir William Howe seized the opportunity 
to reduce Fort W.ashington, on the Hudson, 
then under the command of Col. Maguw. 

Nov. l6lh, the English forces invested the fort, and after a 
■evere contest, which continued nearly all day. Col Magaw, 
finding hi!! ammunition mostly exhausted, surrendeied the fort, 
and with it about two thousand seven hundred men as prisoners 
of war. The surrender of Fort Washington was followed short- 
ly after, by tlie surrender of Fort Lee, on the Jersey shore, the 
{arrison abandoning it on the approach of the enemy. 

Section XXXl. Washington, having crossed 
the North River, continued his retreat to New- 
trk, Brunswick, Princeton, and Trenton ; and 
thence crossed to the Pennsylvania side of the 
Delaware ; Lord Comwaliis being close in his 
rear. This retreflt through New-Jersey was at- 

180 rEaWD T..-lT75.„.1783.._REVOLUTIOH. 

tended by circiuriBtaiices of- deep depression. 
The Americans bad just lost two thousand seven 
hundred men in Fort Washington; numbers of 
the militia were daily claiming to be discharged, 
fmd some of the leading characters, bothinNen'- 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, were changing sides, 
and making peace with the enemy. 

tnthis season itfgt^neral despondency, congress recommend- 
ed to each of the States, the observance of a " day of solenui 
fasting and hiuiiiliatiun before God." At the same time tbey 
called ujion the Slates to furnish iiiijitia to reinforce the continent- 
al army, now so enfeebled as scarcely to amount to three thou- 
■and men. Soon after, one thousand live hundred Feflusylvap 
nian niiliiia joined the Arnerican standard. 

Section XXXII. Notwithstanding the general 
aspect of affairs, on the part of America, was 
thus forbidding, the continental congress, so far 
from betraying symptoms of despair, manifested 
more confidence than ever ; and, as if success 
must eventually crown their enterprises, calmly 
occupied themselves in drawing up various ar- ' 
tides of confederation, and perpetual union be- 
tween the States. 

Such' articles were obviously necessary, that 
the line of distinction between the powers of the 
respective States, and of congress, should be 
exactly defined. In thia way, only, would col- 
lisions be avoided, and the peace and harmony 
ofthe union be preserved. 

Accordingly, such articles were now digested, 
and at the sitting of congress, Oct. 4th, 1776, 
were signed by all the members, and copies im- 
mediately sent to tlie respective assemblies of. 
each Stale for approbatidn. The principal ar- 
ticles of con federation vvprethe following. 

" They all and each obligiite themselves to contribute for tbe 
common defence, a»d for tlie maintenance of their liberties. 

" Ea<:fc particular staW preserved Ihe e)tclu«v« right of regu 
, U_„Cooglc 

PEKIOD V....I779....l783....REVOLUTIOIt jfil 

iMii^ its inteniEd government, and or framing lavs in all mat- 
ters, not included in the articles of contedenuion, and which 
would not be prejudicial to it. 

" No particular Stale was either to send, or to receive pmlut- 
■adors, enter into negotiations, contract engagements, form al* 
liances, or make war, except in the case of sudden attack, with 
an; king, prince or power, whatsoever, without the c(»weiit of 
the United States. 

"No individual, holding any magistracy, office, or commis- 
sion, whatsoever, Irom the United States, or from any of them, 
was allowed to accept of any presents, or say office, or title ol 
any kind whatsoever, from any foreign king, prince, or potcn 

" No ass«nbly was to confer titles of nobility. 

" No Stute was to make alliances or treaties of what kind m^ 
ever, with another, without the consent of all. 

" Each particular State had authority to mmntain, in peace 
OS well as war, the number of armed ships and of land troops, 
judged necessary, by the general assembly of all the States, and 
mo more. 

"There shall be a publick treasury for the service of the coa- 
(federaticH), to be replenished by the particular contribuciom of 
each State ; the same to be proportioned according to the num- 
ber of inhabitants, of every age, sex, or condition, with the eX' 
ceptioD of Indians. 

" A general congress was to be convoked every year, on tha 
first Monday of November, to be compMed of d^uties fiwQ aL 
the States ; it was invested with all the powen that bdoi^ed U 
die sovereigns of other nations." These powers wa« exactly 

" Every individual holding any office, and either wages, 
salary, or emolument whatsoever, was thereby excluded fron 

" There was to be a council of state composed of one deputy 
from each province, nominated annually by his colleagues, of 
the game State, and in case these should not agree, by ine gene- 
ral congress." Each State was to have but one vote. 

" During the session, as well as the recess of the general con- 
gress, tlie council of state was to be charged with the manage 
ment of the publick affairs of the confederation, always restrict- 
ing itself, however, within the limits prescribed by the laws, fiu] 
pBTticulEuly by the articles of the confederation itadf." 

Section XXXIII. December 25th, at night, 
WaahingtoQ recrossed the Delaware into New- 
Jersey, and, pushing his wa/ rapidly to lVeat<Mi* 

•wrfHised snd took pnaonera, on tbe follomag 
day, about one thousand Hessians, ^en in die 
service of the British. Having secured these 
prisoners on the Fennsylvaoia side of the Dela- 
ware, he marched to Princeton, and attacked a 
party of British, who had taken refuge in the 
college. About sixty of the enemy were killed, 
and three hundred made prisoners. 

T^e successes at Trenton and Princeton re- 
vived the desponding friends of independence. 
JDtiring the month of December, u melancholy 
gloom had overspread the United States. These 
9ucceBses,hoYpeTer, seemed to brighten the pros- 
pect, and promise better things. Washington 
now retired to Morristown, where his army were 
nearly all inoculated with the small pox, that 
disease hnving appeared among the trocys, and 
rendering such a measure necessary. The dis* 
ease proved mortal but in few instances, nor was 
there a day in which the soldiers cmiid not, if 
i>dled apoo, liave 'fcftrght the enemy. 

Section XXXIV. On the opening of the cam- 
pugn of 1777» the army of Washington* although 
congress had offered to recruits bounties in iuid, 
ttod greater wages, amounted to little tfiore than 
seven thousand men. Towards the latter end 
of May, Washington quitted his winter encamp- 
ment at MMristown, and, about the same time, 
Ae royal army moved from Brunswick, which 
they had occupied during the winter. Much 
fihifting of the armies followed, but no definite 
plan of (^ration had apparency been settled 
by fflther. 

Prevtotu to thli, howent. General Howe sent a dAadmeot 
of Wo thmuBiid men, under command of Gen. Tiyon, Gen. 
Afoev, knd S!r WHUrbi ErskiDC, to destroy some stores and 
IHw l i iuM df^KPiHed 9t 9«n1tUTy, ip CuuKctioHt Meednj 

nw(»,trno>L iss 

•Ml no resiaance^y retclied-Daidwiyonthe XfiAof A^ni^ 

uid destroyed one thousand eight fauadred barrels of beef uid 
jpork, and eight hundred of flour, two thousand bushels of grain, 
clothing for a regiment, one hundred hogshetuis of rum, and one 
tbousand seven hundred and ninety tents. Besides the destruc- 
tion of these tulicles, the enemy wantonly burned eighteen hou»- 
es with their furniture, murdered three unoffending inliabilanis, 
■nd threw ihem into the flames. 

GeBernls Sullivan, Wooster, and AmiJd happmit^ to be in 
ihe neighbonriiood, hastily coltected abot^ six hundred militia^ 
with wham they inarched in pursuA, in a liesvy rain, aji far as 
fiethel, about two miles from Danbury. On the morning of the 
SJth of April, the troops were divided. Gen. Wooster with 
about three hundred men, falling in ihcrear of the enemy, whil 
Arnold took post in front, at Ridgefield. 

Gen. Wooster proceeded to attack the enemy, in whidi eii- 
f agement he wus mortally wounded, and from wliich his troop) 
wete compeli>>d to retire. At Ridgelield, Arnold war.'nly re- 
'ceived the enemy on their retreat, and although repulsed, retum- 
■ed lo the attack the next day on theirmarcb to the Sound. Find- 
ing themselves continually annoyed by theresoluteand courage- 
ous yeomanry of the country throng which th^y passed, ihey 
liastened to embark on board (heir ships, in which they sailed 
for New-York. Their killed, wounded, and missing, amounted 
lo about one hundred and seventy ; the loss of the Americans 
was not admitted to exceed one hundred. Oen. Wooster, now 
in his seveiicieth year, lingered wiili his wounds nnttl the 2d of 
May. Congress resolved that a monument should lie erecii^ to 
■lis memory. To Gen. Arnold they presented a horse, projierly 
caparisoned, as a reward for his gallantry on the occasion. 

At length, the Brhiah General Howe, leiiving 
New-Jersey, embarked at Sandy Hook, with 
8.btteen thousand men, and sailed for the Chesa- 
peake. On the 14th of August, he landed liis 
troops, at the head of Elk river, in Maryland. 

It being now obvious that his design was the 
occupation of Philadelphia, Washington imme ■ 
diately put the American army in motion, to 
wajds that place* to prevent, if possible, its fall 
ing into the bands of tite enemy. 

The two armies met at Brandywine, Dela- 
ware, on the 1 Ith of September, and a&ir «u 

184 riBlOD V,.tm~lT»»IlET<U.OTIOJT. 

engageiUMit, which continued neaFly all day* 
the Americans were oompelled to retire. 

The loss of tlie Americans in this action was estimated at 
ihree hundred killed, and sii hundred wounded. Between 
three and four handred, principally the wounded, were made 

Erisonera. The losa of the British was stated at less than one 
undred killed, and Tour hundred wounded. 
Not considering the battle of Brandywine as decicive, con 
gress, which was sitting in Philadelphia, recommended to the 
cammandcT in chief to risk another engagement ; preparations 
for which were accordingly made. Sept, l6th, the two armies 
drew near to each other, and the advance guards began tor 
skirmish, when they were separated by a heavy rain, which 
rendered the musketry and ammunition of the armies wholly 
unfit for action. 

Section XXXV. An easy access to Philadel- 
phia was now presented to the enemy, and on 
the 26tJi, Howe entered the place without mo- 
lestation. The principal part of the British 
army was stationed at Germantown, six miles 
from Philadelphia. Congress adjourned to 
Lancaster, and Washington encamped at eigh- 
teen miles distance from Germantown. 

Section XXXVI. Immediately after the oc- 
cupation of Philadelphia, the attention of Gen. 
Howe was drawn to the reduction of some forts 
on the Delaware, which rendered the naviga- 
tion of that river unsafe to the British. — Ac- 
cordingly, a part of the royal army was detach- 
ed for that purpose. Washington seized the 
opportunity to attack the remainder at German- 

This attack was made Oct. 4th, but, afler a 
severe action, the Americans were repulsed with 
a loss of double that of the British. The loss 
of the Americans was two hundred killed, «x 
himdred wounded, and four hundred prisoners ; 
that of the British was about one hundred kill- 
ed, and five hundred wounded. 



Afler this action, the British removed to 
Philadelphia, where they continued long inac- 
tive. Washington retreated to SkJppack creek, 
and there encamped. 

. Great was the chagrin of Washington, on account o( the re- 
pulse at Gennastown, which was much, increased by the anspi- 
<^ous commencement of the battle, and the tiattering piovpect 
of a speedy and complete victory. The ultimate failure of the 
Americans was attributed to fhe inexperience of a part of the 
troops, and to embarrassments arising from a fog whicli increas- 
ed uie d-rirkness of the night.. Congress, however, expressed 
their approbation of Washington's plan of attack, and highl; 
Applauded the conrage and firmness of the troops. 

Section XXXVII. While such was the pro- 
gress of military operations in the middle Stateg, 
important events were taking place in the norUi. 

It lias aiready been noticed, that in May, 
1 775, Ticonderoga and Crown Point had been 
taken by surprise, by Colonels Allen and Ar- 
nold ; that in the ensuing fall, Gen. Montgom- 
ery had reduced the fort of St. John's, captured 
Montreal, and made an ineffectaal, though des- 
perate assault upon Quebec. 

On (i»e return of spring, the American army 
gradually retired up tlie St. Lawrence, and af 
ter a loss of one post and aAother, in June, 1 776» 
entirely evaewated Canada. 

In the spring of 1777, it was settled in Eng 
land tliat an invasion of the States should beat- 
tempted from the north, aitd a communication 
formed between Canada and New- York. Could 
such a plan have been eseouted, it would obvi- 
ously have precluded intercourse between New-; 
England and the more southern St£ri«s. 

The execution of Uie plan was committed to 
Gen. BuTgoyne, who le^ Canada with seven 

• Do,,„j J, Google 

136 JEWOD V__l«5....t783i-HfiV0ttm0K. 

tiiousand troops, besides a powerful trmn of ar- 
tillery, and several tribes of Indians.* 

Sectwn XXXVIII. On the 1st of July, Bur- 
goyoe landed and invested Ticonderoga. The 
American garrison here amounted to three thou' 
sand men, under command of Gen. St. Clair, an 
(^cerofhigh standing. 

Deeming this force inadequate to maintain 
the post, especially as Burgoyne had taken poa- 
session of Mount Defiance, which commanded - 
Ticonderoga, and not having provisions to sus* 
tain the army for more than tvrenty days, St. 
Clair perceived no safety for the garrison but in 
a precipitate flight. Accordingly, oa the night 
of the 5th, Ticonderoga was abandonf>d. By a 
circaitbus march, St. Clair continued to retreat, 
first into Vermont, although closely pursued, 
4nd thence to Hudson river, where, after having 
'itwt one hundred and twenty pieces of artillery, 
with a great quantity of military stores, he joined 
Gen. Schuyler, commanding the main army of 
the north. After this junction, the whole army 
continued to retire to Saratoga and Stillwater, 
uid at length took post on Van Shaick's Island, 
in the mouth of the Mohawk, on the 18th of Au-. 

After the taking of Ticonderoga, Gen. Bur- 
goyne, with the great body of his troops, pro- 
ceeded up the lake, and destroyed the American 
fiotilla and a considerable quantity of bag^ig« 
and stores, which bad been deposited at Skeensr 
iKtrough. Having halted at this place for nearly 

* The nmnber of Indian waniosn, emplojeit bj Ihe BriliBh in the rero 
hnionan war, tni been estimated at abcnit tirrire thouaaad. S«« hbMb 
Il<«. ddTioL 10. p. 133, where the several tiibet m nedfied, wiUl tlw I»U» 
Mr ntwaniiAin Mdi trilM Amiishc^ ^ _^^ Goo>;lc 

MBIOOV..-177S....17a3..^HEVOLUnON. isf 

three weeks, he proceeded to Fort Edward, on 
the HudeoD, where he did not arrive until July 
30th, his way having been obatructed by Schuy- 
ler's army, which felled a great number of trees 
across the road, and demolished the bridges, 
while on their retreat. 

Section XXXIX. While Gen. Burgoyne lay 
at Fort Edward, a detachment of his army (» . 
five hundred EngUsh and one hundred Indians* 
under Col. Baum, who had been sent to seize a 
magazine of stores at Bennington, in Vennont, 
was totally defeated, and Col. Baum slain, by a 
party of Vermont troops called Green Mountain 
Boys, and some New-Hampshire militia, under 
command of Gen. Stark. 

Baum, on his arrival near Bennington, learning that the 
Americans vere strongly entrenched at that place, hatted, and 
despatched a messenger to Gen. Burgoynn, for a reinforcement. 
Gen. Stark, now on his march with a body of NewHamp- 
■hire mtiitia, to join Geo. Schuyler, receiving intelligence at 
Baum's approach, altered his movement, and collected hia force 
at Bennington. 

Before the expected reinforcement could arrive, Gen, Stark, 
having added to his New-Hampsbire corps a body of Vermont 
militia, dMermined In attack Baum in his entrenchments. A> 
cordingly, onthe l6ih of August, an attack vas made, which re- 
sulted in the flight of Baum's detachment at the moment in whicb 
tihe reinforcement of troops, despatched by Gen. Burgoyne,arriv< 
«d. With the assistance of these, the battle was now renewed, btK 
ended in the discomfiture of the British forces, and with a loss, 
on their part, of about seven hundred in killed and wounded 
The loss of the Americans was about one hundred. 

Section XL. The battle at Bennington great- 
ly revived the courage of the Americana, and as 
greatly disappointed the hopesof Gen. Burgoyne, 
and served materially to embarrass and retard 
his movements. 

The situation of Gen. Burgoyne, at this time, 
was seriously perplexing, being greatly in want 
of provisions, and the course of wisdom and pru- 

jsa JEhlOD T-.I776....1783._JIEV0HJTI0R 

ience being not a little difficult to determine 

To retreat was to abandon the object of his ex 
pedition ; to advance seemed replete with diffi- 
culty and danger. This latter step, however, 
at length appeared the most judicious. 

Accordingly, on the 13th and I4th of Sep- 
tember, he passed the Hudson, and advanced 
upon Saratoga and Stillwater. On the 17th, 
his army came nearly in contact with that of the 
American, now commanded by Gen. Gates, who 
had succeeded Schuyler, August 21 ; some skir- 
mishing ensued, witliout bringing on a general 

Two days after, the two armies met, and a 
most obstinate, though indecisive engagement 
ensued, in which the Americans lost, in killed 
and wounded, between tliree and four hundred, 
and the British about six hundred. 

On the 7th of October, the battle was renew- 
ed, by a movement of Gen. Burgoyne towards 
t)ie left of the Americans, by which he hoped to - 
effect his retreat to the lakes. The battle wan 
extremely severe ; and darkness only put an end 
to the effusion of blood. 

During the night which succeeded, an attempt 
was made by the royal army to retreat to Fort 
Edward. — While preparing to march, intelli- 
gence was received that this fort was already in 
possession of the Americans. No avenue to 
escape now appeared open. Worn down with 
constant toil and n'atching, and having ascer- 
tained that he heid but three days' provisions, a 
council of war was called, which unanimously 
resolved to capitulate to Gen. Gates. Prelimi- 
naries were soon after settled, end the armyv 
consisting of five thousand seven hundred e^ct-^ 

tVaOSt V..-m5,-.l783„jaBTOLtITIOK. ISO 

ire men, surrendered prisoners of war on the 
17th of October, 

Gen. Gates, immediately after the victory, de- 
spatched Col. Wilkinson, to carry the happy 
tidings to Congress. On being introduced into 
the hall of congress, he said, "The whole Bri- 
tisli army has laid down arms at Saratoga : our 
SODS, full of vigour and courage, expect your or- 
ders : il is for your wisdom to decide where the 
country may still have need of their services." 

Among the romantick iiicidenu of reallile, kw surpus the 
ndventures of the Baroness de Reidesel and Ladji Hairiet Ack- 
laud, two ladies who had followed ihe fortunes of their hu3< 
bands, the Baron de Reidesel and Major Ackland, officers in 
the army af Gen. Burgoyne, the latter of triiom was wounded 
in the battle of the 9th of October. 

On the 7th of October, says the Baroness de Reidesel, out 
nisfortunes began. I was at breakfast with my husband, and 
heard that something was intended. On the same day I ex- 
pected Generals Burgoyne, Phillips, and Fraser, to dine with ua. 
[ saw a great movement among the troops; my husband told 
tne it was merely a reconnoissance, which gave me no concern, 
as it often happened. I walked out of the liouse, and met 
•everat Indians in their war dresses, with guns in their hands. 
When I asked where they were going, they cTied out. War I 
War ! meaning that they were going to battle. This filled me 
with apprehension; and I had atarcely got home, before 1 
heard the reports of cannon and musketry, which grew louder 
by degrees, till at last the noise became excessive. 

About four o'clock in the afternoon, instead of the guest* 
whom I expected. Gen. Fraser was brought on a litter, 
Dtortallj wuimded. The table, which was already set, waa 
removed, and a bed placed, in its stead, for the wounded gene- 
rak I sat trembling in a corner; the noise grew louder, and 
the alarni increased ; the thought thnt my husband might be 
bi'ougitt in wounded, in the same manner, was terrible to me, 
and distressed trie exceedingly. General Fraser s^d to the 
Mugeon, " Tell nu if my teouiid ts mortal, do not fiatter me.'* 
The ball had passed through his body, and, unhappily for the 
general, he had eaten a very hearty breakfast, by which the 
Bloraach was distended, and the ball, as the surgeon said, had 
passed, through it. 

I beard hfau often exclaim, with a righ, ** Qa fatm. AMSI- 

jt)9 nMI0BT...in5....USl_BET0URI«R 

noKl PoMi Gamut, BvKoona ! Oa hy *a«» wira I" B* 

wuuk«d if be had. any request to in&ke,to which he replied ± 


TO »m BOUKP AT 6 o'clock in tbk ■vKNino, ok thk top of 


I did DM know which way to Itiro ; all the ethttr rooma w«« 
AiU of aick. Towards evening, I saw my husband coming; 
then I forgot all my sorrows, and thanked God that he was 
tpued to me. He and his aid-de-camp ate, in great haste, 
with me, behind the house. We had been told, that we baii 
the advantage of the enemy ; but the sorrowful faces I beheld 
told a different tale; mid, before my husband went away, he 
took, me one side, asd said every thing was going very bad ; 
that I otust keep myidf in readiness to leave dte place, but not 
Is BcntioR it to any tme. 1 made the pretence that I would 
Kove, the next morning, into my new house, and had evef]r 
dung padied up ready. 

1^1^ H. Ackiaad had a tent, not lar from our house, !a 
which she slept, and the rest of tiie day she was in the «uap. 
Ah of a luddeo, a man came to teH her, that her ttusbnnd was 
MMtally woutided, and lakoi prisoner ; on hearing this, abq 
became very miserabte ; we comforted her, by telling her, that 
th« wound was taiy slight, and, at.the same time, advised b«e 
to go ever to her husband, to do wliich she would fortaiuly ob 
tain permiflsioo, and then she could attend him herseUl Sha 
WM a charming woman, mmI veiy Ibnd of him. 1 spent muck 
of the ni^ in comforting her, ai>d then went again to my cki^ 
dMD, whcun 1 had ptil to bed. I couU not ga to sleep, as i bad 
Cieneral Fraser, and all the other wimoded gentlemen, in my 
room ; and I was sadly afraid my cliilUren would awake, and 
by their crying, disturb the dying man, in Ids last momesls, 
who often addnssed me, and aptd^giBed "/or the tnMble k» 

About three o'clock in the morning, I was told that he could not 
iuAd out much longer ; 1 biid deureil to be informed of the near 
approach of this sad crisis, and X then wrapped up my children 
in their clothes, and went with them into the room below. — • 
About c^bt o'clock in the morning, he died^ After he was 
laid oat, and his corfise wrapped up in a sheet, we came agaia 
into the room, and had this stHrrowftil »ght before us, the whole 
day ; and, to add to the melancholy scene, almost every mo- 
ment, some officer of my aequ^ntauce was brought in wound- 
ed. The cannonade commenced agmn ; a retreat was spijcea 
vt, but not the smallest motion was made towards it About 
four o'clock in the afternoon, I saw the house, which had jwt 
bMBtaiUtfM me, hi flames^ and the enemy was not far off We 

nstOD T..-m5..->re3-..RETI)LUTHni. 151 

tsew tint Gettaai Kn^'vne wnnid not n^bae tbe tait reqnnt 
t)t GeRttvl Fraser, 4Jioegh, by his acceding to it, en oiHieces^ 
auy delay was occasioRed, by which the inconvenience of «lie 
«nny was increased. 

At six o'clock, ih« rorp»e wn bronelit out, ind we mw «1I 
die generalH attend 'n to the moimtuin ; uie chaplflin, Mr. Bnide^ 
»e\\, perfO'med tbe Aineril itervice, rendered unusually Bolesui 
•nd awful, 'froat its b^ag accwnpanied by constant peals front 
ihe etiMny's artillery. Muiy cannon baib Sew close by m^ 
tMt 1 ba-d my eyes directed towards the monntun* wb^ my 
husband was standing, anWdst the fire a( the memy, and, et 
emirse, I could not think ofmy own danger, 

General Gales afteriwds mid, that if. be had known it had 
keen <a funeral, ke woatd'ool hare permitted it to be fired on. 

As soon as tbe fimeral service was finished, and the giwe tit 
Gen. Fraier was closed, «n order was iasaed that the amy 
■houldvfltreat. My ctdash was prepared, but I would not conk 
■eat to -go before the ti«ops. Major Hamange, ahhoi^ au^ 
feting from his wounds, crept from his bed, at he did aol wish 
to remain hi the hospital, whicli was left with a &ag of truoe. 
When Geo. Reidesejaaw me in the midit of danger, he ordered 
My women and diildren to be brought into tbe calash, and ii>- 
timated to me to d^art, without dHay. I atill prayed to re^ 
main; but my bodiand, knowing my week side, said, " weH 
dien, yoar diildren must go, that, at least, they may be s«te 
Gfom danger." I then agreed to enter tbe calash with tbem, 
atid we set off at eight o'clock. The retreat was ordered to be 
Condncted with tbe gKeatest sitence. Many irres were l^btei^ 
«nd several tents leA Manding. We travelled continudly d» 
ring tbe nif ht. 

At six oVIodt in tbe monung, we baited, which exdted the 
•ur^Kiae (rf all. Oeneral Burgoyne had tbe csniioa ranged and 
prepared for battle. This delay seemed to displease erery 
iwdy ; for, if we -could only have made another good march, we 
should have been in salety. My hnsband, qniie exhausted with 
Ibtigne, came into my calash, and ^ept for three hours. Da- 
ring that time, Capt. Wilde brought me a bag full of bank 
notes, and Capt. <9«ismaii his riegant watch, a ring, and a 
parse full of money, which they requested me to take c«re of, 
and which I promised to do to tlie utmost of my power. W« 
again marched, bat had scarcely proceeded an boor befcre m 
biahed, as the memy was in sigbt. It proved to be only a 
nconnoiteting party of two hundred men, who might easily 
hstve been made prisoners, if Gen Burgoyne bad given prqHtr 
orders on the ooeasitm. 

About evening wk arrived M Saratoga ; ny dven ana «M 

192 PEIUOP T~..lTTS....I7eS..JUT0LUneK 

thteugh BDd thnwfih vitfa rain, and, in that ttate, 1 had to r^ 
miin llw whole night, having no pUce to change it ; I however 
got ckwe to a lai^ fire, and at last la; down on some alraw. 
At this nwmenl, General Phillips came up to me, and I uked 
him why we had not continued our retreat, as my husband had 
promis^ to cover it, and bring the army thrtugh f " Poor 
dear woman," said he, " I wonder bow, drenched as you ar^ 
you have still the courage to persevere, and venture further in 
this kind of wevtber. I wisn," continued he, " you was out 
commandiTig gen««l. General Burgoyne is tired, and meaoi 
to halt here to-night, and give us our supper." 

On the morning of the 9th, at ten o'doek, General Burgoyat 
ordered the retreat to be continued, and caused the handsoow 
houses and milb of General Scbayler to be burnt ; we marched 
however but a sbmt distance, and ihm halted. The greatest 
misery at this time prevailed in the army, and more than ibirnr 
•ffieers came to me, ftn- whom tea and cofiee were prquiredj 
and with whom I shared all my provisio&s, with whidi my 
calash was in g«»eral well supplied ; (or I bad a cook who waa 
an eicetlent catem, and who often, in the night, crossed small 
tivers, and foraged on the inhabitants, hringing in with faim 
sheep, small pigs, and poultry, for which he often forgot to pay, 
though he received good pay fi^mi me, as long as I bad any, 
and he was, ultimately, handsomely rewarded. <ka piovitioin 
now failed us, for want of proper conduct in the conmisiuy's 
department, and I began to despair. 

About two o'clock in Hh; afternoon, we again heard a firing 
of cannon and small arms ; inatafl'y all was in alarm, and 
every thing in motion. My husband told me to go to a house 
not far off. I immediately seated myself in my calash, with 
m}' children, and drove off; but, scarcely had we reached it, 
before I discovered five or sii armed men, on die other side t4 
the Hudson. Instinctivvty 1 threw my children down in the 
calash, and concealed myself with them. At tliat moment the 
fellows fired, and wounded an already wounded English soldier, 
who was behind me. Poor fellow I I pitied' him exceedingly, 
but, at that moment, had no power or means to relieve him. A 
terrible cannonade was commenced by the enemy, which was 
directed against the house In which I sought to obtain sheher 
for mysdf and'children, under tlie mistaken idea that all the 
generals were in it. Alas! it contained none but wounded and 
women ; we were at last obliged to resort to the cellar (at re- 
fuge, and, in one comer of this, I remained the whole day, my 
children sleeping on the earth, with their beads in my lap ; and ' 
in the same situation I passed a sleepless night Eleven cannon 
Wis iMued throiqifa the bouse, and we could dotm^jr bear 

WMOD V-..1776.~iTtt3.~JtEVt)UJT10K. IjM 

iImi esU.sw^. - Odc poor uJdier, who wm Ijrkis on&taUe, 
(iff tlu pujpofe nf having lua leg tuopotued, wu atruck by a 
'^^Mt, whicfa cwrkd away his uther l«g. His CMnradn hod left 
Ufli, uadf wfa«n we went to his assistance, we Ibund tutn in a 
c«raer of the Footn, into whicb he iiad uept, more dead than 
alive, acorcdy brealhiag. My tefliiciiiitu on the ^aget to 
which my ^uabaad was exposed now ogoniiied me ezeeedii^jr, 
and the ijiDugbts of my childfca, and ihe neceiaity <rf straggUag 
(ur their {Nreservatioii alone austiiined me, 

i now occupied myself through the day at altendiog (• llw 
wounded; I mad« them tea and ci^ee, and often ibwed my . 
dinner with them, for which they otfered me a tho<wuid «ipre»- 
■ions (rf gratitude. One day a Canadian officer came to oim 
' ceUar, wbo had hardly the power of holding himaelf upright) 
wd wa oonchided he was dying for want of nouriabmeDt. I 
waa happy in t^oing him my dinner, which Krenethened him, 
and [UDCured me his friradghtp. I now undeitooK the care of 
Major Bloomfield, another sid-de-camp of Gen. PhiUipa, whs 
had received a musket ball through both cheeks, whidi in id 
course, had knodied wK several of his teeUi, and cut his tongue 
He ooiild hold nothing ui his mouth; the matter whicb rau 
&W» his wound alnuHt chtdced him, and he was not ahle to 
take any nourishment, except a tittle snup m something liquid. 
We had some Rhwisb wine ; and, in the hope that the acidity 
oC it would cleanse the wound, I gave Iiim a bottle of it ; he 
took a little now and then, and with tuch eSect, that his cure 
■oon followed ; and thus I added another to my litxk of fnends^ 
and derived a satisfaction, whicb, in the midst of uiQeriiip, 
Mned to tranqi^lise rae, and diminish their ercuteness. 

One day. General Phillips accompanied my husband, at the 
risk of their lives, on a visit to us, who, after having witnesacii 
our situaliM), said to him, " I would not, for t^ thousand 
guineas, come again to this place, my heart is almost bn^n." 

In tUs horrid B^uatimi we remained six days. A cessatioci 
of hoUiUties was now spoken of, and eventually took place i « 
coovenlioa was afterwards agreed upon ; bat one day a mas sag e 
vat sait to my husband, who had visited me, and wu reposing 
IB my bed, to attmd a council irf war, where it was propoaed to 
break the sonventisti, but, to my great joy, the majonty were 
far adherfatg to U. On the l6th, however, my hostniBd had (• 
repair to bis. post, and I to my cellar. This day &edi beef wet 
■ened out to the officers, who, imtil now, had only h«d salt 
fiTovisioaa, wUch ww very bad for tfadr wounds. 

Oa the 17th of October, the cvnvcUtKm was coispleted 
Oawrol Buc^yne and the other generals waited or Genent 
"— "^ ■ mder. TlKtTM^r "* 


194 nSHW V_177S— 1783-JUTOLUTIOH. 

ana% ud gave tbcnuclHs op pnaoont itf war, and now, tlw 
good woman, who had mpplied lu with water, at tbehaxardrf - 
her life, recehcd the reward of iier icrvicei ; «acb of m threw 
a haiwlfiil of money into ber aproa, and abegotaki^^etherabqui 
twenty guineas. At mch a mofoent as thU, bow Haceptible i« 
tbe b«an of fecUi^ of gratitude! 

My Ituaband Mnt a meuage to me, to come over to him with 
mjr rhildreD. I sralcd nyiiM, once rawe, in my dear calasby 
and then rode dirough tbe American camp. At J pasaed on, I 
al»nTed(and thia wa* a great coniolation to me) tliat no <«• 
eyed me with looks of reMntaient, but that they all gte«ted us, 
and evm •hewed compassion in their countenances, at the sight ' 
of a woman with small children. I was, I confess, eftaid'to ga 
over to the enemy, at it was quite a new situation to me. When 
1 drew near tfie tents, a handsome man approached and met 
me, toMt my chiUren from the cofoiA, atid kuggtd and kitted ■ 
them, which aftcted me oteorf to tean. " You treotble,'* 
said he, addreiring himself to me, " be not afrdd." " No," I 
answered, " you seem so kind and tender to my children, it in- 
spires me widi counvtt." He now led me to the tentof Geui ' 
(jales, where I found Generals Bur^yne and Philltps, who 
were on a friendly footing with the former, Burgoyne sud to 
me, " Never mind, your sorrows have now on end." I an- 
swered him that I ^aaii he repr^ensibte to have any carev" 
tie hadnone, and I was [deased to see bini on such a friendly 
rooting with General Gales. All tbe generals rentainedto di|]« 
iritli General Gates. 

The tome gentleman, who recrived me so kindly, now cans 
and said to me, ** You will be very much embarragsed to eat 
with all these gentlenien ; Come teith your ekiUren to my tentf 
there J leitlprmarefor you a frugal duuter, and give it mOt 
a free wiU." I said, " You axe cEaTAiiiLT A rusbaio Anb 
A FATHKB, yoit h9,ve thown me so muck kimdnevt. I now 
found that he was Genbbal Scii'iyleb. He treated tne with 
PTcellent smoked tongue, beef steaks, pc^ttoes, and good bread 
and butter. Never could I have wi^ed to eat a better diitner. 
I was content. I saw alt around me were solilwwlae; and, 
what was better than all, my husband was out of datqjer. 

When we had dined, he told me his residence was at Attnny, 
and that General Burgoyne ititmded to honoorhimaa hitgnest, 
and mvtted itself and children to do likewise. I aAed my 
husband bow I should act ; he totd rae to accept the invitatiiMi. 
As it was two days' journey there, headvited me to |0 to • 
->lace, which was about three Vmts* ride distant' Gen. Sduy- 
ler nad the politeness to send with roe a Froich (Acer, a verj 
aSi'ceable man, who commanded the Te c o nnri tering fvty « 

which i Iiave'belore spoken ; and vhoi he hsd ncotted im t«. 
tte tuuM) when 1 wb* to remain, he turned back iipun. Jo 
ibe house 1 found a French lurgeon, who hail uuUcr hit cafe a 
feuiuwick officer, who wu murtKlly woanded, nud died Hime 
4ays afterw«rda. 

lite Frraichman bouted much of the care h« took nT hii p»- 
ticHt, sad perhaps was skilful enuugb as h sut;geun, but orhei- . 
VIST wa» a mere simpletoa. He wh* rejoiced when lie fuuiid I 
could Bpeflk Ilia language, and he began to addnwi nuuiy cmpl; 
and impertinent sjieei^es lo me ; lie said, among niliet tiiiuga, 
he could not believe that I was a general's ivite, as be was cer- 
tain a woman -of such rank woiild not follow Iwr htuband. U« 
wifhcd me to rem^n with him, as be said il was better to be 
with dte coiiquerers tlian the conquered. I was shocked at hk 
ftnpudeace, hui dared not sltow ihe contempi i Ml for hiin, be- 
cause it wouid deprive uie of a place nf surety. Towards evei 
lung he betfged nie to tike a part of his chamber. 1 (oJd liiia 
I was determined to remain in the room with the wounded dS- 
-ctm ; wfaerei^mn he attempted to pay me some stupid compli- 
ments. A/ thi* nuimext the door tgtewd, and my limbuttd with 
kU aid-de-i:iaap eiUerrd. I then said^ " Here, Sir, is my hus- 
band ;" and at the. same time eyed him with scum, wiiekcu)>oo 
lie rfttrrd abashed, nevertheless, he was to polite as to ofTer hi* 
chamber to us. 

Slime days afler this we arrived at Albany, where we so oftea 
wished ourselves, but we did not enter it as we eT|)ecle(l we 
should, victors! We were received hy the gt/od Gtaeral 
Schuyler, M» ^fe, and daughters, not a» ensmie»> but kind 
friends ; and tbey trested u> with die most marked attention 
Slid politeness, as they did Gweral Burgoyne, who hita caused 
Oenerol Schuyler's Iveautilutly Gnislied house to be burnt. In 
foct, ^y behav^ like persons of enalled minds, who detetv 
mined to bury all recollectkin of their awn injuries, in the con- 
templation of our misfortunes. General Burgoyn'i \vas airunk 
with General Schuyler's generosity, and said to him, " You 
tliom me great kindneai, alt/tougft I hone done you mugA ta~. 
jnyJ' " laa* unu tKefale of war ^' replied the brave man, 
^ let v9 tay no more about il."* 

The fortunes of Lady Harriet Ackland were not less interest- - 
Sng than tha%e of the Baroness de Reidesel, just revsited. Tiuc 
lady, says Geneml Bui^oyne in his " State of tlie Expedition 
from Canada," had accompanied her husband to Canadii, in 

* VnUnson^Jtawdr^AroQllMMeincdrsoflbsBaronesBdeBddneL 

L.,,.„j'j, Google 

*e btgfntifaig oT tlw year 177& In tbe cobm Af thai cum- , 
pnign, (be travcraed a Tnst space of coontry, in di fi w c u t «r' 
tfeiDWei (rfthe M«wm, and with difficnhia, of whkh an Euro' 
peati tnT^ller canpol earily enac«Te. 

In dwopetUi^ of the campaign, in 17TT>i^ was nsti^ned 
frai»A)ffi>rii^ boself to a shve of tbe bHpx and hazard ex- 
pected before Ticonderoga, by the pontive injunctinns <rf ber 
nuband. Tbeday aftertheccmquest ofdiepbcebewat bad- 
ly woondedf and ihe croued Lake Cfaemptaio lo join him. 

As tana as he recnveivd, Lady Harriet procenlMl to f60i,w 
■M fortunes through the campaign ; and at Fort Edward, or at 
tbe next camp, bIk acqiured a two wheel tambrii, whkli had 
been constructed by the artificers of the artilleiy, srmething 
rfmilar to the carriage used for tlie mul, upon Uie greul roadi 
in England. MHJor Acklend commanded tbeBridsh grenadiers, 
which were attached to Oen. Fraser^ corps; and consequendy 
were B)ways the most advanced part of the army. They wer« 
often so mtich oo the alert, that no penwn ilept oM of his clothes. 
One of their te»np<Hmry encampments, a tent in which the ta^ 
jor and Lady Harriet were asleep, suddenly look ire. An or^ 
derly sergeant of grenadiers, with great hnanrd of tidlbcalion, ' 
dragged out the first person he caught hold of. It proved to be 
the major. It hap^Kned that, in the same instant, site hod, un- 
knowing what she did, and perhaps not perfectly awaked, pro* 
Videiitially made her escape, by creeping ander the walls of the 
lent- Tlie first object she saw, upon tiie reo^ve^J of her sens, 
efl, was the major on the other side, and in the same instant, 
again iu tlie fire in search of her. The seriettnt agnin saved 
b)m, bat not vrithont the mnjor's b«ng very severely burnt in 
h is fiite, and diflferetit parts of his body. Every (hii^ they had 
With them in the lent was consumed. 

This accident happened a little lime before the array ci«Cse«t 
the Hiidsoti, 19th Sept. It neither altered the raolution ar 
cheerfulness of Lady Harriet ; and she continued her iirogren, 
a partaker of the fatigues of the advanced corps. The next caH 
Upon her fortitude was of a diffi^reni nntore, and more diabess- 
ing, as of longer suspense. On the morning of the 19th of Sept. 
ftie grenadiers being liable to action at every step, she had been 
directed by die major to follow the rottte of tne artillery anA 
beggage, ivhich veie not exposed. At the time the action be- 
gan, she found herself near an uninhabited hut, where she ali^t 
cd. When it was found tbe action was becoming general, tlw 
surgeon of the hospital took possession of the same place, aa 
Ibe most' convenient fi>r tbe firet care of the wAonded. Thns 
was this lady in the hearing of one confmned fire of cannon ami 
flmiketo' for foar hours tcvjether wilb the preiumiltii»b fruai 

AepoMitfberfaWband,atth«h«ftdof tbegrcnaiHan, tlwtki 
was in tbe mnt expoaed put of the action. Sbe bad three f» 
male comptkaions, tbe Baroness of Reidetel, «tid tbe wivet of 
two British officers, MaJM Haoage and Lkutenant B«]ni^{ 
bM, io the event, their presence served but little for corn'oiT. 
Majnr Hanagc wb« soon brought to the surgeon vei; bad}j> 
wvu&ded ; and a little time after, catut^ intelligence that Lieut. 
R^mell was ^ot dead. Imagination will want no help to' 
figure the state of the whole group. 

From the date of that sctioD to the Tth of October, Lady 
Harriet, with her usual serenity, stood prepared for new trials^ 
wd tl was her lot that their Heverity increased with their nun^ 
ber> Sbe was again exposed to the iKsring of the whole actlAi, 
and, at last, received the word of her indtvidual miafomnt^ 
miacd with the intelltgcnce of the gen^^al calamity \ the tro^ia 
were defeated, ead Major Ackland, desperately woioided, waa 

1^ day of the Sth was passed by Lady Harriet and her 
MApantons in bncsmmon anxiety ; not a tent nor a shed beiaf 
standing, exoept what bdonged to ihe buspital, their refiige vac 
amoiv tiie wounded and the dying. 

" When the army was upon the point of moving, I received 
a raewage from Lady Harriet, sobmitling to my decision a prop^ 
id, and ezpres«ng.aB earnest solicitude to execute it, if not iO' 
tRfering with my design, irf passing to the carop of the enemj'^ 
wad leqticsfing Qea. Gates' permission to attend her husband. 

'* loongfa I was ready to believe, fur 1 had experi^ocad, that 
patimce and foilHiide in a supreme de^e, were (o be ibund, as 
well as every oAer virtue, under the no*t tender forrus, I wa| 
attoniebed at &e propoaaL After so long an ogtta^n, cxhaoM- 
ed Bot only for want of rest, but abeohitelywmt of food, drench 
«d tnraia fin- twdvchoaiBtii^ctber, that a woman ih(wldl>e car. 
p^le of suchan «BdmakiBg,asddiveringberselfiu the enemy, 
NobeMy in the ni|^ and nncertaia of what hands she mi^ 
orst laH into, ^peared an e&rtt above human nature^ The as. 
nraBoel wasenabledlogivewas smallindeed. Ihad oot-evei) 
a- cap ot urine to rifer t b«l I was told stie found from sam« 
Uad and fotrtnnate band, a little rum and dirty water. All ] 
could ftimish to her was an <»en boat, and a few lines, wiittt« 
upon dirty and wet paper, to ueneral Gues,recoinmea£ng hat 
fo his protection.'* 

Tkit i^er twu mtfoBoiot .• 
. &ay-~Laily Harriet Ackland, a udy of the first distittctko 
by faauly,iwik,widpenoDal virtues, is under such concern oA' 
acconst «f ftluor A dJ«nd,bcf husband, wfluaded*n4 nuisck* 


« ia four haada, that I caoBM reliae bar ntjaeit to contmit 
her lo jmir prMection. 

Whatever general impropriety there may be in personi, act>- 
in{ IB your situation and mine, to solicit favours, I cannot ler 
the uDOommoo preeminence ui every female grace and ezalU 
dtm ef diameter in thii lady, and Ijer very hard fiutiute, mith 
out tdtifying that your attentions to her vill lay me under obIt> 

J. BuxooTiat. 

Wtdi this letter did thii woman, who waa of the most tendCT 
and detieate frame, habituated to all the toft elegancies and re> 
ined CDJoytBCBti, thai attend high birth and fnnuue, and far ad- 
ranoed In a Mate in which the tenderett cares, always due to tha 
■ex, beeoiiw mdiipenaably necessary, in an open boat leave the 
camp of Bm^jme with a flag of truce fot that of the enemy. 
Hw niriit was advanced before the boot reacbej the shore.' 
Lady Qairief was immediately conveyed into the iqiartoait ol 
Major Heavy Deubom, since Alajor General, who commanded 
die goard at that place, and evwy attention was paid ber which 
ber rank and lituBtioa demanded, and which circumstances per- 
mitted. Eoriy in the morning, she was permitted to proceed 
in the boat to the camp, where Gen. Gates, whose gallantry 
wjtl not be denied, stood ready to receive her, with due retpetd 
and courLsy. Having ascertained that Major Acklond had set 
out for Albany, Lady Harriet proceeded, by permission, to join 
Um. 5<Nne time after, Major Ackland eflected his exchange, 
and returned to England. Thectfastropheoflbls taleiiaii^t 
ing. Ackland, afler his rebim to England, procured a rui- 
ment, and at a dinnn of militaty fnen, where the conn^ of the 
' Americans was made a question, took the n^aiive «de with tua 
iudbI decinon. He was opponed, warmth ensved, and he ga*e 
the lie direct to a Lieutenant Lloyd, fought him, oDd was shot 
Arougb the head. Lady Harriet lost bar>eU>es,aiid continued 
deranged two years ; after which she married.Hr. Bmdendl, 
who accompanied her from Gen. Bnifoyne's campf HbOi ibe 
seoght her wounded hasband on Hodaoa river. 

Section XLI. It would be difficult to deBcribie 
the transports of joy which the news of the sur- 
render of Burgoyne excited among the Ameri- 
cans. They now beean to look forward to the 
future with sanguine Dopest and eagerly expect- 

ed ibe aeiiDowledgmeBt of ^ir country^s inde* 
pendence by France and otherEuropean poweni. 
The capitulatioo of Gen. Burgoyne, at Saratoga, 
was soon followed by an acknowledgment of the 
lidependenceof America at the court of France,* 
and the conclusion of a formal treaty of alliance 
and commerce between the two countries — an 
event highly auspicious to the intereeta of Ame- 
rica. Th6 treaty was signed Feb. 6th — " nei- 
ther of the contracting powers to make war or 
peace, without the formal consent of the other." 

For more than a yeaT) commissioneTs from amgreu, at the 
head of Wfaotn was Dr. Franklin, bad resided at tbe court <tf 
France, in^g the abore important ttept. Bnt the ■iiec«n of 
die Ataaieie ttni^le was yet too doubtful for thai cooiuj to 
embroil hetsetf in a war with Great Britain. Tlie capture of 
tlie British 'army it Saratoga seemed to inereaie the jN'obabilitf 
that the American arms would finally triumph, and decided 
France to espome her cause. 

. Section XL!1. Upon the conclusion of the 
campaign of 1 7 77, the British army retired to 
winter quarters in Philadelphia, andthe Ameri- 
can army at Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill, fif- 
teen miles from Philadelphia. 

Scarcely were the American troops established in their ett* 
eampment, which -conaisled of huli, before they were,in dangw 
«f a fanune. The adjaceiit country was nearly exhausted, and 
that which it nvght havesparedtllteinh^itants concealed in the 
wood*. At this Ume, also, bills of credit had fallen to one fourth 
ortbeir nwainal value, so tliat one hundred dollars, in paper, 
wontd command no more than twenty-five dollars, in specie. 
In addition to these scenes of perplexity and sufficing, the army 
was nearly deaittute or comfortaUe clothing.' Many, for want 
of shoes, walked barefoot on the frovea groimd: few, if aay, 
had blankets for the night. Great numbers sickened. Near 
three thousand at a time were incurable of bearing arms. 


M» mio* T.ii7>~im,-BBT0wn»K 

^nUt dw ikftiiiuii U Ihe CwnHry irat d« wifeiBg ** jWfc 
raUng, the rayal am; wu enjoying aUtbeconveiuenGa which 
an opwot 09 afforded. 

Section, XLIU. On the alliance of America 
intfa FraDCB) it was resolved in Great Britaio 
immediately to evacuate Philadelphia, and to 
ooncentrate the royal force in the city of New- 
York. In pursuance of this resolution, the royaT 
army, on the 18th of June, passed the Delaware 
into New-Jersey, and continued their retreat to 

General Washington, penetrating dieir design, had already 
•ent forwaid a deta!chiii«Dt to aid the New-Jenej militia, ia hn- 
yeding the prD§^«M of the enemy. With the aaaiD body of his 
army, be now creased the Delaware m pursint. June 38tb, lb» 
tvo amies were engaged at Monmouth, lixly-Jbur miles from 
Philadelphia, and after a severe contest, in which the Ameriouia, 
upon the whole, obtained the advantage, were separated only by 
n^. Oen. Wa^htgtim and his army reposed on the field of 
battle, intending to renew the attack in the ntomii^. But the 
British geiteral, daring the n^ht, made goad his retreat towards 

The suSernigs of both armies during- thb engagement, froni 
the heat of the day, were unparalleled in the t^toiy of the re* 
volotionary war. No (ess thwa fifty<^ae Britiah soldiers pe- 
rished from heat, and several of the Americans died tluxwgh the 
same cause. The tongues of many of the s<Mi«s were so swot- 
hn, that it was impossible to retain them to the nuHrth. Ilie 
loss of tbcu Americana was e^bt cAcets, and »baj-<me privsMt 
UUed, and abutn one banfted Ktd riity wounded ; ibu of the 
BritifA, in kHled, wottoded, aad -Htiuhig, was llvee hunted anA 
My^ght men, htctading cffieen. €^ hmidred wtrt talitB 
yrisoAers, and ofw thousand dtsoted dorii^ the much. 

Section XLIV. On the let of July, Count 
D'Estaing arrived at Newport,R. I. from France, 
with twelve ^ipe of the line and eix frigates, to 
«ct in .concert with the Americaiw in an attempt 
on Rhode-Island, which had been in poasession 
•f the British aince December, 1776. 

Heatteg «f (his eipeditioti, Admiid Howe followed D'Es 
taittg, and anived m sig^ of RfaodeJsland the day after lbs 
Vnnch Ami had mtered the harbour of Newpoic fMtbeifi' 

HiBIOD T-. IT78....1783..,BIlT0um6lt 

[Marance of Howe,^ French admiral, instead of «< 

with the Americans, satledout to give him battle. , 

howerer, aruing, separated die fleets. D'EiiRfaie^enttreil Bm- 
ton to repair. . Howe, after the storm, returned to Rhod»Maai^ 
and landed Sir Henry Clinton, tvith fourtboarand frocq»— bu^ 
fortunately, the AmericiuiB had raised the sie^ of Newport the 
day before, and left the island. — Sir Henry Clinton sooo after 
■aiJed again for New-York. 

Section XLV. Hitherto tlie conquest of the 
Statea had been attempted, by proceeding from 
north to south ; but that order, towarda the close 
of this year, began to be inverted, and the south' 
ern States became the principal theatre on 
which the British conducted their ofiensive 

Georgia, being one of the weakest of tbe 
Southern Statea, was marked out as the first ob- 
ject of attack, in that quarter of the union. 

In November, Col. Campbell was despatched 
from New -York by Gov. Clinton, with a force of 
two thousand men, against Savannah, the capi- 
tal of that State. This expedititm proved sue* 
cessful, and Savannah, and with it the State of 
Georgia itself, fell into the power of the Eng- 

~ On the airival of Campbell and his troops at Savannah, bt 
was opposed by Gen. Howe, ihe American officer, to whom 
Waa intrusted the defence of Georgia. Hu fwce, consisting of . 
only 600 eominentsh, and a few hundred militia, wu maide- 
(jTiate, however, to rerist the enemy. After an engBgement, in 
vbich the Ameriirans kilted upwards of one hundred, and took 
about four hundred and fifty prisoners, with several cannon, and 

large quafltities of miiitary stores, the capital surreDdered. 

In die succeeding year, 1779, Count D'Estaing, who, i 
repairing his Sect at Bostmi, had sailed for the West hdie% 



returned whh a design to co-operate with the Amerif^ans against 
the common enemy. In Sept. he arrived upon the cqait of 
Georgia so luiezpectedly that the ExpeHiucnt, a man of war of 
fifty gmis, and three frigniM, fdl into his hnsds. At sobd m hia 
.irrivaJ was known, Gen. Lincoln marched with tbe arioT under 
^triaeonmaBdjandaomeniilitiAaf Soutb Cuolina andOMtgi*, 


tn cooperate wMi Mm in dw reduction of StTUtnJi. Befei* 
Linctdn airived, IHEstalng denmnded the unKncler of the town. 
'tida demand, Geoeral Preroet, the Eoglish comnamler, n. 
queited « day to conaider, whith whi incsutifinlj panted. 
Before the day expired, a remrorcement of eight hundred men 
joined the rtwidfu'd of Prevost from Bemfbrt, wbereopon he bid 
defiMce la IHEitiung. On the arrival of Lincohi, it vas de- 
teimhied to lay liege to the place. Much time wtu spent in 
prepAration, but in an aasaiitt under D'Estaing and Lincolu, the 
Americans suETeredso severely, both as to their numbers, and 
in their trorks, that it was deemed expedient to abandcn the 
project Count D'Eitaing re-embarked hia troths, and left tbi 

While the tlege of Savannah was pending, one of th« id>js1 
«xtraordinary enterprises ever related in history, one, indeed, 
wbich nothing, but the reipeetability of the testimcMiy, could 
have prevented our considering as marvellous, occurred. U 
was an entemrise conceived and executed by Colund John 
White of the Georpa line. A Captain French, of Delancey'a 
first battalion, was posted with one hundred men, British tegu- 
lars, on the Ogeechee river, about tiventy-five miles from Savan- 
nah. There lay also at the same place five armed Vestels, the 
largest mounting foui«^en gims, and having on board altegclhei 
forty-one men. Col. White, with Captain Ethobn, three sol 
diers, and his own servant, approached this post, on the even- 
ing of the SOlfa of September, kindled a numba of fires, ar* 
ranging them in the manner of a large camp, and aummooed 
French to surrender, he and his comrades in tlie mean time 
riding about in various directions, and giving orders in a loud 
vdce, as if performing the duties of the staff, to a large army. 
French, not doubting the reality of what be saw, and anxiouc 
to spare the elTusion of blood, which a cMitest with a force so 
superior would produce, surrendered thewhole detachment, to- 
gether with the crews of the Qveves^els, amounting in all to one 
hundred and forty-one men, u)d one hundred and thirty slant)* 
«f anns.' 

Col White had still, however, a very difficnit game to play ; 
it was necessary to keep up the deluMon of CapL French, until 
the prisoners should be secured ; and with thb view, he prc- 
temjed that the animosity of his troc^ was so luigovemable, 
that a Utile stratagem would be necessary to save the prisoners 
from their fury, and that he should therefore commit tliem to 
the care of three guides, with orders to conduct them to a place 
of safety. With many thanks fw the o^ond's humanly, 
French accepted the proposition, and marched off at a quick 
Mee, under the ditection of three guidesi fearfiil, si evei;^ U^ 

f£UOD ▼^.177S.-.iTa3-..B£VftUITtOII. 203 

^tat die nfe of White's troops would bum i^mD tban in ds-. 
fiance of lib humane attempts to reatrein them. White, aa loan 
u they were out of sight, employed himself in cc^ecting the 
iwlttia of tbe Deighbourhood, with whom he overtook, hit pcitm^ 
era, sad they were conducted in safety for twenty-five miles, to 
n American fort.* . . 

Section XLVI. The campaign of 1779 was 
listinguished for nothing splendid, or decisive, 
»n the part either of America or England. 

The British seemed to have aimed at little 
more than to distress, plunder, and consume, it 
having been, early in the year, adopted as a prin- - 
•iple ufKm which to prQcee(j, " to render the cor 
lonies of as little avail as possible to their Dew 

Actuated by these motives, an exj^dition was 
fitted out from New- York for Virginia, which, 
in a predatoty incursion, took possession of large 
naval stores, magazines of provisions, and great 
quantities of tobacco. After enriching tnem- 
aelves with various kinds of booty, and burning - 
several places, they returned to New-York. 

Soon after this expedition to Virginia, a simi- 
lar one, under the command of the infam<»ia 
Gov. Tryon, was projected against tbe maritime ■ 
parts of Connecticut. During this expedition, 
New-Haven was plundered ; East-Haven, Pair- 
field, Norwalk, and Green's Farms, were wan- 
tonly burnt. 

In an account of the devastations made by the £i^ish in this ' 
expediiion, which was transmitted to Congress, it appeared dmt 
« Fairfield there were burnt two hottses of publick worship, fif- 
teen dwelling houses, eleven bams, and several stores. At Nor- 
tralk, two houses of pubtlcic worship, eighty dwelling houses, 
^x^-ceven bams, twenty-two nana, seventeen shops, four nulla 
•o4 Arf vesfd*. In addition to this wanton destruction sf pnx 

J, Google 

a04 BfiBHiu r—in9_i38s-.jtB?oLtrcnnt 

party, wrioos were the acts of faruathji, nfiwe, ami enwl^, 

coBunhted on ■ged pemttu, womeu, wid promen. At NeW' 
Haven, an aged ciliaeii, who laboured under a BUraa] iaatrility 
of t|ieecfa, had bii tongue cutout b> oae oftlie royal army. At 
Fmrfield tbe doeried bouses of the inhabitants wera mta<edt 
desks, thmlu, closets, and chests, were broken open aod robbed 
of every ihiu valuable. Wuniea were insuhed, abused, and 
threatened, while their apparel was taken front them. Even aa 
iabnt waa robbed of its clothes, while a bayonet wb6 pointed at 
the breast of its Rwther. 

About this ttnie General Putnam, who had beoi stationed with 
a respectable force at Reading, in Connecticut, then on a visit to 
his out-post, at Burse Neck, was attacked by Govemour Tryon, 
with one tliousand fivf himdred men. Putnam had only a pukei 
of one haodred and fifty men, and two fidd pieces, inthout 
hones or dn^-rupes. He Itowever placed his cannon on the. 
high groond,ne&f the meeting house, and continued to pour in 
upon tbe advancing foe, until tbe enemy's horse appeared upon 
a chaive. The general now hastily codned hb men to retreM 
to a ndgfabouring awanq), inaccessible to bone, whSe he him' 
Mif put spun to his need, and phioged down tbe preci|HceUdw . 

This isBOfteep, as to have artificial stain, composed of neariy 
true hundred Hone atep», for. the accommodation of wor^ippera 
ascending lo the sanctuaiy. On tbe arrival of the drt^ouns at ■ 
tbe brow of the hill, they paused, thinking it too dang^ooa to . 
follow the steps of the adventurotu hero. Before any could go 
rcund the hill and descend, Putnam had escaped, iminjured by 
tbe many balls which were fired at him in his descent ; but one 
toocbcd hw, and that mly passed through Ids hat. He pro- 
ceeded to Stamford, where, having strenguienedhis picket with 
some nilitia, he boldly faced about and pursned Gov. Tryon on 
Ids return.* 

While itm Brilbli wvre proceeding in these desi lating qtera* 
tions, Gen. Washington was loudly caUed vpon by. tbe suflering 
inhabitants, for coodnentsJ troops to resist them ; but his cit^ 
cumstances permitted him to spare but few. Had he listened 
to dieir calls, and divided his army confonnabfy to the wishes 
of the invaded citizens, he would have exposed his whole force 
to ruin. Choosii^ rather to bear the reproaches which were by 
■one heaped upon him, than to hazard the loss of every thing, 
he k^t his array concentrated on both sides of the North River, 
tt some distance from New-Yoric, to prevent, if posdUe, tb« 


PERIOD T...I779...-17B3..-BErOLCTtOrf. fl03 

Wtbh from pnw«»ing ihemsetvei of West PoEnt^ titiy miln 
north of New-Yori(, a port which they eagerly caveted, and tho 
paeteanoR of vrhich would have giv<^it tAem incalculabie advan- 
tage over that part ol'tlie country. 

Section XLVII. The exertions of the Ameri- 
cans, during this canipaif>n', were still more fee- 
ble than those uf the enemy. Scarcely an ex- 
pedition was planned which merits any notice, 
and, with the exception of the reduction' of 
Stoney Poict, forty milea north of New-York, 
on the Hudson, scarcely any thing was accom- 
' plisfaed of importance. The reduction of this 
place. July 15th, was one of the most hold enter- 
priRea which occurred in the history of the war. 

At ibii time, Sloney Point was in the condition of a real for- 
tmsg; it waa furnished with a select garrison of more than at' 
hundred men, and had itoret in Rtwndance, and deftouve pn- 
pwatioia wbtcli woe fwrnidable. 

Fonified as it wa», Gen, Washington ventored an attempt (w 
r>i1uce it. The entwprise wai committed to Gen. Wayne, who, 
with a strong detachment of aaivE infantry, set out towanb tlie 
place, at i)«on. His hukIi of rMuteea roitea, over bi^ mmn- 
tains, through deea mcrasan, and djfficuh defile*, was accniu- 
|(Usbed by eight </clock in the eremne. 

At the distance ofa mile from tbeTofnt,Oen.Wa3niehahed, 
and formed his men into two cohun&s, putting hinuelf at the 
bead of the right. Both columns were directed to march hi otder 
tnd silence, with unjoadeti muskets and lixed bayonet*. At 
nidnight they arrived under the walls of the fort. " Ad imei- 
pected obstacle now presented itself: the deep morass, which 
covered the work*, was at this time, overflowed by the tide. 
The CngUtfa opened a tremendous fire a( mqpkeiry and of can- 
Dan liiaded with grape shot: but neither the inundated monm, 
aor a double palisade, nor the storm of fire that was poured 
upon tkeni, could arrest the impetuosity of the American*; 
they opened their way with the bayonet, prostrated whatever 
•Vpmed them, scaled the fort, and the two columns met m tlie 
ceqtre of the worlu. The English lost upwards of six bundreU 
men is lulled and prisoners. The conquerors abstained (ram 
pillage, and Ironi all disorder; a conduct the more worthy, as 
ib^ had still present in mind, the ravage* and butcbnic*, 
wInA iMr wiBBriw bad ao recently committed iii Virginia wkI 

L, ,.„.., Google 

miOD T.^}73i».I781>.B£VOLaTION. 

Bnnnuuty imputed new diilgtim to the rielorf 

hwl obtauied.'** 

Section XLVIII. Aoother expedition, plan- 
ned and executed this year, entitled to some 
notice, was one under Gen. Sullivan, against 
the Six Nations, which, witli the exception of 
Iho Oneidas, had been induced, by the English^ 
to take up arms against America. 

At the head of between four and five thousand 
men. Gen. Sullivan marched into the country, 
up the Susquehannali, and attacked the Indians, 
in well con9tructe<l fortifications. The resist- 
ance of the savages was warlike. Being over 
powered, however, they were obliged to flee. 
Gen. Sullivan, according to his instructions, 
proceeded to lay waste their country. Forty 
villages were consumed, and one hundred and 
sixty thousand bushels of com were destroyed. 

Section XLTX. It has already been stated, 
that the campaign of 1779 was remarkable for 
the feeble exertions of the Americans. Among 
the causes wliich contributed to lessen their ac- 
tivity, the fiiilure of tlie French fleet, in every 
scheme undertaken foi- their benefit, was no in- 
considerable one.' America had expected much 
from an alliance with France, and looked to the 
French fleet under D'Estaing, to hasten the 
downfall of British power in the country. But 
when they perceived nothing equal to their ex- 
pectation accomplished, they became despond- 
ent, and exertion waa enfeebled. 

But another, and a ptlU more powerful cause 
of these feeble exertions, on the part of the 
Americans, was the daily depreciation of ttieir 
bills of credit. 


l-ERIOD r....l7T5....1783,...REVOLUTION. 20^ 

As the contest between England and Ai:ierica originated In 
the aiibject of taxation, it wiu enrly perceived, by the rotitinftn- 
-•I congress, Uiai the imposition uf taxes, adequate tu ibe eiigen- 
cies of war, even if pmcticable, would be impoliticly The oaljr 
expedient, therefore, in their power to adopt,' WBS the emission 
of bills of credit, representing specie, under a publick engage- 
ment, ultimately to redeem [Base bills, by an eirhai^ of grnd 

- Accordingly, in June, 1773, on the resolution to raise an 
.army, congress bsued bills of credit, to the amount of two mil- 
lions of dollars. This emission was followed, the next month, 
by the i««ie of another miilion. For their. redemption, the con> 
federated colonies were jjedged—each coIodj to provide meant 
to pay ia proportion, by tlie year 1779> 

In the early periods of the war, the enthusiasm of the people, 
for liberty made them comparatively indifferent to property. 
The cause was popular, and the publick credit good. Bilb of 
credit, therefore, by common consent, mpidly cirodsted, and 
calculations about private interest were, in a great me>isurf>, 

It was obvious, however, that there was a point, beyond 
which the credit of these bills would not extend. At the expi- 
ration of eighteen months from their first embsion, when abwit 
twenty Biillious bad been issued, they began to depreciate. At 
first, the diminution of their vulne was scarcely perceptible, but 
from that time it daily increased. 

DeaiTous of arresting the grotring depredattoo, cai^;t«si at 
length resorted to loans and taxes. But loans were di^ult la 
ncgociate, and taxes, in several of the States, could not be col- 
lected. Pressed with the necessities of an army, congreti 
fiHind theninelves obliged to continue to issue bitb, afler they 
had begun to depredate,. and to pay that depreciation, by in* 
creaung the sunis emiued. By the yeu 17&0, the amount in 
circulation was the overwhelming sum of two himdred million*. 

The progress of this depreciation is worthy of notice^— To- 
wards the close of 1/77, the depreciation was twn or three for 
one ; in YS, five or six for one ; in TQ, tw«nty-«e»en or twenty^ 
eight fur one ; in '80, fifty or sixty for one, in the first four or 
five months. From this date, the circulation of these oills waa 
limited, but where they passed, they soon depreciated to (hw 
hundred and fifty for one, and Anally, several hundreds for one. 

Several cnnses contributed to sink the value of the cmitinental 
currency. The excess of its quantity at first hegut a natural 
de{H«ciation. This was increased by the enemy, who counter 
litited the hills, and spread theii forgeries through the States. 
Publick agents, who received a o ~ ' 

^08 fBBIOD T~177S-.I7S3~BEV0I.UTI0H. 

ihrir parchaMS, Hrlt it lo be their intereM to give a hi^ priM 
rot m conuBoditief. Thme causes, co-operatiiig widi Uw de- ■ 
cUde of publick confidence, and the return of idok adfiib fe^ 
inn, ra^dly increasetl the dnireciation, until biUsef oedil, or 
woMt has 'been comiuonl; cdled, " cbntiuental eiurency," b^ 
came of bRle or oo value. 

The nib which resulted from this system were imisciias. 
Under it, itbectuue extremely difficult to raise an army, and t* 
]^ov»de necessaries for its subsistence. At the same tiDC, iC 
originated discontents among the officers and soldina, mbc* 
tfaeir pay, in this depreciated currency, was inadequate to lbs 
•uppdtl of their fomihes at home. " Four mttirtba pay, of a pri- 
vate, would Itot procure his family a riMde busbd of vlieat, uid 
the pay of a colonel would not purJIue oats for his bone." 
Under circumstances like these, it reflects the highest boBour 
upon Washington, that his wisdom and prudence sbotdd have 
been able to ke«p an army together. 

In addition to these evils, which fell so heavily upon the 
army, others, not less depkituble, fell upwi the community. Id 
order to prevent tlie growing driiiecialion of their bills, COIW 
gress directed that they should be a legal tender. But this, 
while it did not much retard the regular diminution of theii 
Value, was the source of immeasurable injustice and distress. 

The aged, who had retired to enjoy the Cmits of their indus- 
try, Itnmd their substance but a scanty pittance. The widow 
was compelled to take a shilling, wiiere a pound was her diw, 
and lite orphan was obliged to discharge an executor on tbe 
payment of sixpence on the pound. In many instances, tbe 
eamrngs of a long Lfe were, in a few years, reduced to a tr^Sing 

Had congress foreseen these evils, they would have guanletl 
acaiast them. But it was a Any of poverty and experiment. 
Chey designed no injustice. They bad placed beftwe them the 
freedom ol' the country from the yoke of British thminioo, antl 
if, in their seal to effect it, they sometimea erred, tbe sufiM'inga 
which resulted from their ignorance have been a thousand times 
compensated, by the subsequent enjoyments of a free and inde- 
pendent petite* 

Section L> Towards the close of the year 
1779, Sir Henry Clinton, committing the Eng- 
linh garrison of New- York to Gen. Kniphausen, 
embarked with a force of hetween seven and' 
eight thousand men- for the reduction of ChBiie» 

PERIOD V-„l775„l783..,.BEVOtUTIO«. 20$ 

bull South Carolina, which important object b* 
WMJomplisheil on the 12th of May, 1780. 

After a tempestuous voyage of atime weeks, in whidi sereni 
traysport* were lost, the tinny arrived at Savannah, whence 
tbey sailed on (h«ir destined jjurpose. On the 2d of AprH, 
17%0, Gen. Clinton opened hb batteries against Charlesnm. 
Gen. Lincoln, at tliis time, commanded the American furces of 
the sooth. Ui^ed by the inliabitiuitfi, on the approach of the 
enemy, to contintie in Charleston, and assist in repelling the 
attack, h? cunsi'mitl to nnmin, and, with Gov. Rutlrdge, in- 
dustiiousty forwarded preparations for defence. 

Notwithstandiiig tht'N':' preparations, the batteries ofthe ene- 
my soon .obtained a lieciiicd superiority over those of the to«-n, 
atid left bin tittle n-as(Mtf|B the besieged lo hope that they should 
he able todctnid the pRree. A council of war, held on the 21st, 
agreed thai a retreat would probably be im practicable, and ad- 
vhed that otfers of capitulation should be made to Gen. Clinton, 
whicli might admit of the army's withdrawing, and afiord seeu- 
lity to the persons and proj>erty of the inhabitants. 
- On the prupnsal of these terms, they were reeded. Hoslilt 
ties were now renewed by thejrarrison, and returned with mm- 
sasl ardour by the British. On the 1 1th of May, Rnding the 
longer defence of th** place impracticable, a number of citizens 
addressed Geu. Lincoln, advising him to capitidate. Acquies- 
cing in the measure, painfiil as it was, Gen. Lincoln again pr^ 
seated terms of capitulation, which being acceptfsj, the Ameri- 
can army, amomiiingio SUOO, together with the inhabitants of 
the place, and four hundred pieces of artillery, were surrendered 
(n the British. 

The loss on- both sides, during the siege, was nearly equal. Of 
the royal troops, seventy-six were killed, and one hundred and 
eighty-njne" wounded. Of the Americans, eighty-nipe were klH- 
ed, and one hundred and forty woundeil- By the articles of ea- 
pHnlation, the garrison was to march out of town, and to deposit 
dtnr arms in front of the worka, hut, as a mark of humiliation, 
which, eighteen moulhar afterwards, was remembered ar»d re- 
taliated on Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, the drums were net 
to beat a British march, nor the cdoura to be uncased. 

Section LI. Shortly after the surrender of 
Charleston, Sir Henry Clinton, leaving four 
tbousuid men for the eouthem service, undei* 
Lord Cornwallis, returned to New- York. Bri- 
tish garriBons were'now posted in different parts 
of ti^ State of South Carolina, to awe tho in- 

XlD PERIOD V._l7n.~17S3...REr0Lim0II. 

habitants, and to secure their submission to the 

Britiyli government. 

The spirit of freedom, however, still remained 
with the people, nor was it easy to subdue that 
spirit, huw njuch soever it might be temporarily 
repressed, by royal and oppressive menace. 

NotwitliBtanding the efforts of Ilia mojestyV 
servants to preserve quietness, tlie month of July 
did not pass by in peace. General Sumpter, a 
man ardently attached to the cause of liberty, 
in several engagements in Scuth Carolina, with 
the English and their pa^Btins, gained great 
advantages over them, and in one instance, re- 
duced a regiment — the prince of Wales' — from 
two hundred and seventy-eight to nine. 

While Sumpter was tluis keeping up the spi- 
rits of the people by a succession of gallant ex- 
ploits, a respectable force wasadvancingthroiigh 
the middle States,, for the relief of their south- 
em brethren. 

We sliflll interrupt tlie thread of our history to relate the peN 
sonal adventures of i^Iajor General Wadsworth, in the district 
of niaine, during the si)rlng of this year, 1780. He had been 
sent hy the Jegisluture of Massachusetts, to command in that 
pan of the ctHintry. Having attended to the objects uf his mis- 
sion during the summer of 79, and the principal part of the sue 
ceeding winter, he dismissed Itis troops towards the'end of Feb- 
raary,and began to prepare for his return to Boston. }le had 
lieen accompanied during this time by Mrs. VVadsworth,and « 
friend of hers, Miss Fenuo, of that place. 

His prepara^ons, however, were discovered, by a disafleded 
inhaititant In the neighbourhood, who gave intelligence to the 
commander of the British fort at Bagadvce, and assured him 
thnt the general might easily be made a prisoner. - No time <ras 
lost. T\t enty-live soldiers, with the proper officers, vere soon 
embarked on board a vessel, in which they proceeded to an in- 
let, four miles from the general's quarters. Here they landed 
imder cover of night, and lying concealed till near midnight, 
thay proceeded on their destined purpose. 

The nuiure of tlie ground was such as to conceal them, nntil 
iliey had arrived at Uie house. The sentinel, hdng surfnisedt 

- ,. ^ ■' ......Google 

fBRIOD V -.i776....i783....BEVOLUTIOH. m 

■prong into thf! kilclien door, and was foUoiredby avirft^from 
Ae assailants, and by some of the assailants tlieiiiHlvea. Add* 
■her party blew in the window* of the General*! twd^wmi^ 
whilst a third pariy, farcing the windows of MiMFenno, nuheil 
into her apartment. 

The general's room ijeing barred, he determined to maks 
what resistance he was able. Accordingly, rs the assailants %p- 
proat.hed his apartment, he repeatedly dischareed his pistols, a 
blunderbuss, and fusee. At length a ball from tne kitchen brgke 
Us arm, and terminated the contest. 

The party, apprehensive of danger, now retired in hast«, tak- 
ing with them the wounded genera), but leaving his wife and 
Miss fenno, to emotions the most intense. ■After proceeding 
with some difSculty mm a mile, General Wadswortb was put 
on H horse, behind a ^Pnted soldier, and being warned that 
ulence alone would ensure his safety, the party at length reach- 
ed the vessel, which immediately sailed for the fort. 

Near the closeof the. day the party arrived with their charge. 
General Wadswortli Uiided amidst the shouts of a multitude, 
which had assembled to see the man, who had justly excited 
tbeir admiration, by his entf rprlses in that Quarter, and, under 
a guard, was conducted to the of&cers' guard room. Herf his 
wounds were dressed ; a room in the officers' barracks was as- 
signed him, and through the civilitjj of General Campbell, the 
commandant of the fort, who often visited him, his situation was 
renderi^d as comlbrlable as could be expected. 

General Wadsworth, however, was a prisoner and alone. 
Kothing could supply the place of freedom, to which 4 spirit 
like his constantly aspired, or of domestick happiness, which, 
though a solcUer of the most ardent stamp, fae well knew hoT 
to appreciate. Added to this, his wound, -daring the first two 
weeks, had become so inflamed as to confine him entirely to his 

At the expiration of this time, he had the happiness to hear 
from his wiGe by means of an officer, bearing a Hag of truce, 
who at his request had been despatched by General Campbell 
with B letter to her, and another tp the govemour of Massachd* 
setts. The intelligence he received from Mrs. Wadsworth, of 
b«- safety, and especially of that of his tittle son, who he supposed 
had been killed the night he was taken prisoner — was peculiar- 
I7 gratifying. So far from having been injured, his sun had 
riept amidst all the horrors of the scene, and only knew of Uis 
trossaetioos of the dreadful night, fay the devastations he saw 
around him in the morning. 

At the end of five weeks, when his wounds were neariy healed, 
the genecd re<iiKMed Uw onttomuv priviletie of a parole. Cii- 


cnnMaaco, hgwever, e:iisted which nmiWretl ii neeemty to 
4en; hint, and he acquiesced. About this tinie Mrs. Wadswcutli 
uad ftlifi Feiuw, under protection of a passport from General 
Gampbel), vtuted him. The visit laued tea days, in their rau- , 
tuat utiafsction. 

!■ the oMsn time, orders respecting him had arrived fnun the 
ComnuMltDg geneT'd at New-York. Of the tenir of these or- 
ders, General Wadsworth was ignorant, but their unpropiiiuus 
Ratura was imficated by tJte change of conduct nnd counte 
Dance in some of ihe officers. Miss Fenno had accidentallj 
learned their import, but she carefully concealed her knowledge, 
until the luoment of her departure, when, to prevent suspicion, 
■be hareiy said, " General Wadsworth, tdke care of yourself." 
From tVie servants, not long after, he learned that instead of be- 
ing exchitnged, he was to be sent to Etfpnd. 

In the course of some days, Major Benjiimin Burton, abrAve 
officer, was conveyed as a prisoner to Bagaduce, and lodged in 
(he same room with General Wadsworth.- He confirmed the 
report of the servants lespecting the transportation of ihe gene- 
ral to England, and learned, not long after, that he himself wai 
destined to a similar fate. The monitory caution of Miss Fennu 
was now explamed, and the general plainly siiw the importance 
of attending to it. These officers were not long in deciding that 
lliey would not cross the A'l^ntick ; and though scarcely a ray 
of hope presented itself to encourage then), they nevertheless re- 
solved to attempt to escape. 

Bagaducc, uo which the fort stands, is a peninsula of mode- 
rate extent, washed by considerable waters on every side, ex- 
cept the sandy beach which connects it with the main land on 
the west. The fort stands on the middle of the peninsula. The 
prisooers were confined in a grated room in the officers' bar- 
racks. The walls of the fort, exclusively of the depth of the 
ditch surrounding it, were twenty feet high, with fmsing on the 
top, and cbevaui-de-frise below. Sentinels were stationed in 
every [^ace in and about the fortress, wltere their presence couU 
be supposed to be necessary. Escape, therefore, seemed al- 
■Kwt impracticable. 

Afler several plans proposed by the prisoners for their escape, 
they settled at length upon the following. As the room in 
which they were confined was ceiled with boards, they deter> 
mined to cut off one of these so as to admh their entrance. 
After passing tbrough, iliey proposed to creep along one of the 
jcists to which these boards were nailed, and thus to pass over 
the room adjoining it, which belonged to the oflicers, until they 
■honid come to the nriddle entry, and then by a blanket, which 
was to be taken with tham, to let themaelvee down in this enMy. 

FUUOO.T"-177S"^>733— ttEVOLUnON. fit 

la cftSe of b«ir^ obwrved, they agreed upon MTVral atntagmi 
to be employed, in order that their attempt might be cnnrned 

In agreement with (his plan, after the MOtinel had taken th* 
required precautioa in rward la the prisoner*, and seen them in 
' bej, General Wadswtwui nrose, and attempted (o moke the 
necessary inciakm into the board with bis knife. But he found 
the Btten^ uaeleu, and hazardfHU, sitice it could be done na> 
iber with the neceuary expedition nor without noise. Thil 
part of the design was therefore atiandoned. He, bowever, 
■eon found means, through the agency of a soldier, who wu hi) 
barber, to procure a giniuet without exciting a suspicion as to the 
puipoM for wluch lie intended it. 

(^ (be sncceeding afSht, they made the attempt with tbdr 
gimblet,btit this also occasioned too much ntnse. They resolved 
next to make the expeiimeiit in the duy time ; and although 
two seminels in walking the entry every moment or two passed 
by thev door, which htul a glass window in h, and althoi^h 
they were exposed every hour to the intrusion oftheh servaDts, 
or ofthe officers of the fort, they succeeded in perforating th« 
ceiling from time to time. The stratagem was simply this. As 
tht; sentineb were in the habit of pacing the entry backwards 
^nd forwards, the prisotters would commence the same tour in 
titeir own room, being careful to keep time with them, and both 
to pass at the same instant by the glass door ; but as the senti- 
nels had to go twice the length the prisoners had, this aflwded 
BO Importunity for one of tlie latter to be engaged with the gim- 
btet in the mean time, and tben to join his compam<m as the 
sentinels came back. 

In this manner a sufficient number of hole* were bored in the 
course of three weeks. The small spaces between the holes 
were cut with a pen-knife, except one at each corner, in order 
to hold the pece in its proper place, till Oiey were rmdy finally 
to remove it. The wounds in the mean time were covered over 
with a pane made of chewed bread, resembling the col(.ur of the 
Board, and the dust was carefully swept from the floor. All 
this was done without suspicion from any (|u3rter. 

Their conveyance to New-York, or Halifax, and thence to 
Cnglnad, was understood to be by a privateer, wbich was then 
on a I ruise, but was soon expected to return. Their attention 
of course was arrested by every thing which they hetutl relative 
to this vessel, and they made every unsuspicioua inqi^ in 
their power, concerning the situation of the fort, the pooting of 
Ihe sentuiets, and similar sub}ecU. The information thus ob- 
tained, •'oabUd Gnuiral Wadawortfa, who had previously sone 

- ......Goosic 

Sl4 rERlOD r-..177S-..lIb3..-R£VOLllTIOH. 

hnowledge of the place, to form b correcf view of the wh»d 

During thii time they made vbat littk ftreparetiofla tbey 
were able, as to provisioiM, and other things, that relMed ta 
their intmded e»cnpe. At the end of three weeks thej were aU 
ready. The privateer was daily ezpcclett to return, vh?eti 
would diiconcert nil their purposes, and they wished nothing 
more than such an opportunity as a dark and rainy oigbt would 
afford, iu order to their deliverance. During a whole week bo 
such opportunity <^ercd,and, ti^tber with this fact, some ciiw 
cumstances, tetiding to excite a belief that their design was aus- 
pecled, occurred, and rendered their anzk^ extreme. 

At length the favourable occasion us presented. A slom 
on the itUh of June brought on an uifflluiid degree of darfcueu 
-and rain. At about eleven o'clock the [irisoners retired appa- 
rently to rest, while the sentinel was looking through the glass 
door. No sooner, however, were their lights eilingtushed, thao 
they arose; their first object was to cut the comer» of th« 
board, through whicli they were to make their escape. Aji 
hour WHS si>ent In accomplishing this purpuae, and aa it yna 
attended with considerable noise, it was nut dime without dUH 

Burton first passed throu^ the aperture. His use r«idered 
it a difticult ntlempt. The general, although snialtei, found even 
greater ditSculCy from the weakness of his arm. But the uf> 
gency of the case, induced hiai to put forth every effort By 
means of a chair, on which he stood, and a blanket bttened 
wi()i a skewer put through the hole, he nused himself throi^ 
The noise made by these attempts, and even the cacklmg of Ri« 
fowls that roosted above the rooms were unheeded, being drown- 
ed by the torrents of rain pouring incessantly on the roof of the 

By agreement, when Burton had reached the middle enliy, 
he was to w:iit for the general ; the latter, however, when, be 
had gained the place was unaUe to find him, bat judging frotn 
appearances Uiat he had escaped through the door, be followed 
on. Passing partly round the building iu order to gain the 
western side, he felt his way directly under the eaves, lest he 
should strike against some person, an ev«)t to which he waa 
exposed in consequence of the eitreme dorkneaa. Fiom thia 
point be made his way towards the neigldNNirlug wall of the 
fort, but was unable to climb the bank imtil he bad foand out 
an oblique path. 

' Just as he had gained the place on the north bastion, where 
Burton and himself had agreed to cross the waU, the guard 
house do<w, on the opposite side of the fort, wai thrown opeaj 

mUOD T-.4T7ft-l]r83...JlEVOI.OTION. 215 

anddwwMds " Relief turn out" were dicfinctljr HHnuled. At 
lki> iiiMani he heard a ■a'amUing io a contraiy direction, 
which ha knew mu« be made by bi> companion. This wo3 a 
critical loaaient. The general was in danger of being trod «t 
bj the guard, ai they came around on the lop of the wall, and 
he bore^ {nvrented tfaia catastrofdie, by getting himself md fata 
vet blanket upoa the fraiuog, which was the outward margin of 

After die guard had passed cm, by dkbiu of bis blanket, 
fastened round a picket of the fraising, he let himself duwn m 
tKBT the ground as the length of the blanket would ndmi^ 
and then let go hi* lurid, and fdl without injuiy. Havini 
Bade aeveni moveinrats with great silence, in order to cleat 
himself irom the works connected with the fort, he at leogtli 
found himself descending tbe declivity (^ the hill, into the opes 
field. AU this was done, not witliaut extreme difficulty, owing 
to the hoMnesc of his arm. No indicattoni appealed that m 
was as yet discovered. 

As the rain and dsirkness continaed, be gn^wd his way to aa 
•Id guard house on the shcve of the back cove. At this buU^ 
fog he and his companion had agreed to meet, should they have 
b«eo prevkmsly separated. Barton, however, after a kw 
search was, not to be found. Accordingly the g«ieral prepared 
to cross the cove, and bi^ily aucceededj'as the time was Uat 
«f low watet*. It was now about two o'clock in the monrngf 
and he had proceeded a mile anA a half ftopi the fort. Ifik 
course lay up a sloping acclivity, which at the time happened 
to be overspread with trees, a circumstance that greatly impeded 
Ma jtK^ress. He proceeded a mile over the ground, dll he 
mdted tbe summit, whae he found a road, which, however^ 
he soon left for the woods, in ordn to make his way to the 
river. Mere the day dawned, and he heard the reveille beat at 
du fint. At sun-rise he reached the eastern shore of the Penob- 
scot Choosing however not lo croa the river at that place, 
be continued his way still higher up at tbe foot of the bmik, 
passing near the water, so sa to have his steps washed by tha 
tkle. By this means tie hoped to be secure from the blood* 
botmds kept at the fort. Having reached a place at a distance 
of seven imles from the fort, where it was necessary for him to 
eroBs the rivn, and where tie found a canoe lying on die shor^ 
be concluded to rest for a time, and dry his clothes. While in 
tilts situation, what was his joy to descry his friend Burton ap> 
{ffoariring him, in the veiy track, which he himself had takett. . 
' l^e major, afier having passed tbrou^ the hole in the deil^ ' 
fai(;. immediately made his way into the second entry, and cott^ . 
dodag that bis toKut wuuU iw unaote lo past thm^ the b^ 


210 FSB10I>T„.m9,.l783-Ma£\'01.UTH)H 

fer vuU of (wbunce in (be nxxn, tboiif^ It beat to CM^dete 
hi* ntmyi Amt. He met with bide dii&ciil^ till dw door of 
iIm pxati room wtm auddenlj <^M!oed, aad w[q)on^ Au a d» 
cover; had taken place, be immedktdjr Jesped fiat ibe waUt 
lanuiMvly receiviag no injurj, tiiotigh faU lib was nngnlarlj 
exposed by the leap, he easily escaped into the open ground. 

Histaking the groiMhJ be aluHdd have taken, Burtoa wddailT 
fraud himieir near a ten^nel, who was one of a picket guan!, 
MatiiMted not lar tcmn the isihaiua. A> however be woi not 
perceived, be fiXBd Ineans Mlently to withdraw fitnn hit anvd* 
ODBoe nctgbboar, mtd esAering tiw wafer on the ride of tha 
iHhwM neat the river, be pawed nrer to th* oppoMie side aboTO 
(be picket. Tliit undenaking was basardooa im the catronet 
and ami biro an bour'x exccMive toil. ChUlcd and cxbautied 
bt tbcB luuk bit way through the forest, which the general had 
Iritctt before, and by ttu loeans njctned him. 

Tb« two fnatdm caCned the canoe, and m tbey wen ta th* 
expectation of being pursued by the eaeiay, tbejr pr^KMed !• 
ctcM the tivtw oUiquely. While executiDg thie project, a barge 
bdoapif re the British eaaie ia sight nt some dtitance. Cir» 
cnMtBBCPt, bowever, (aimared the concefllment of the officpra, 
aad bjbetd j^>winf.tbey landed out of reacb of their porsaeta, 
Fw greater aaietj' they abandoned tbe shore, and directed tfaeir 
CMne through the fhrfMs towards tbe bead of St. Geor^'s 
rivei^ A eompHsa wfakh fiurton bad fortunately ^tainnl was 
iWr pUe. Tkm^k srvatljr infXMamnded by showers, beat, 
■nd dks obstr^nions of a ftnst, they traretled twen^five aiitea 
by swMct 

They node lees pmgress bowevxr the next day ; and on the 
tUrd day, G^Mval Wadsworth, fram soreness, iBmenes, and fa* 
tigne, pK^Nwed (o stnp where be was, until Ms friend, by pro. 
ceeding onward to the nearest settlemoit, contd toing faiDi re- 
lief! To this plan, however, Burton strenuotuly objected. 
Hiey tben both propased to refresh themselves with a little 
lleep. This they ftid in the heat of the day, and found the et 
feet M> beoefidal, that they were invigorated to pursue tlieir 
journey, which they finished nt six o'clock, P. M., by reaching 
the se^menti townrds which they hnd directed ibeir coune> 
The iohabitams florked amund them with the sinjftgeit expna- 
■ioiiB of joy, and having formed themselves into a guard fortbeir 
protection, cotiducted these mfficers to an inn, not iBr frooi tbe 
place wbere the general wtis taken prtsooei. Parties of the 
enemy wtm lurkug rouoJ in order to way-lay then, and they 
ovre nwed fM« ftllli^ "fCain into their bands only by tbe de- 
hnoe which was so gimeroash' aflbrded them. Burtoa sonti 
tMtbfd Ids &miljr. CcDCral Wadsworth aHmtbr PiMbnid 


FERIOD V..~171S.~.nB3.JBXVOLVTim. 317 

where He expected to findMra. Wadsvonh. ButjheandMitt 
Fnuio had sailed for Boston, before hia anivaL 
' He immediately proceeded to join them at that place. On 
Ins arrival, he found that they had suffered much from the vant 
of mon^ and friends, besides being nearly shipwrecked on their 
iray. The past however was forgotten in the felicities »rf th* 
present and^in gratiUide to a kind Proidideqce, through wluA 
they had escaped perils both by sea and land.* 

Section lAl. The southern army, now placed 
under the oommaod of Gates, the hero of Sara- 
t(^— Genera) Lincoln having been superseded, 
amounted to four thousand ; but of these scarcely 
one thousand were regnliu: troops^ the rest coB- 
■Htsae of militia, &om North Carolina, Maryland* 
and Virginia. 

As this army approached South Carolina, Lord 
Rawdon, who commanded on the frontier, nudw 
htad Gomvallis, concenteated the royal forees, 
two thousand in number, at Camden, one hun- 
dred and twenty miles northwest £rom Charles- 
ton. Here CorawalUs, on learning the< more- 
ments ofthe Americans, joined him. 

On the morning of the 16th of August, the two 
armies met, and a severe and general action en- 
sued, in wtiich, through the unpardonaUe failinre 
of the tmlitia, the British gained a decided ad- 

At the first onset, a latve body of the Virg^oift militia, under 
a charge of the British imantry with fixed bayonets, threw down 
then- arms, and Sed. A considerable part of the North Carft. 
Una militia followed their unworthy example. But the coeli- 
nental troops evinced th<> most unyielding firmness, aod pressed 
forward with unusual ardour. Never did men acquit them- 
selves more honourably. They submitted only when fbrsakea 
by their brethren in arms, and when overpowered by numbers. 

In this battle, the brnve Baion de Kalb, second in csmman^ 
M (be head of the Marylanders, fell, covered wiUi woundi^ 
wbkh he sundved only a few days. De Kalb was a GenoMi 

lit MUU(H> T»l?T>.^mi~UV(XJDTION. 

ky UHh, aai fawl formerij Mfrvd m tin vmiei of the Fnpcb. 
Id eaa^enHon of Int dbdngoMied merits » bb (Acn iiod 
Midkr, congrcM reaolred lh>t a moomnent diaiddbneRCteillo 

Tbe kaine of Camden wu exnediii^ Moody, l^e fidd of 
bUtk, the road aod ■wampa, far Mnne ifistaace, w«ra ccmred 
vith woondcd and ilun. Tbe niunber of Americans tifkc^ 
MuaA not certain, probably amoonleit to between ah and 
Kren nudred, and the wounded and prf*nMi to one lboa> 
■and three himdred ot one tboaamd four hnriAwd. Ite'feiliib 
■ttlcd dKb- feai to be onl^ tinee boadred and twenty fonr, ft 
fcVed and woibmM ; but it was probably much peateTr 

^SeeUoh LIII. " llie disaster of Uu anny, tm- 
dar 6ei>. Gates* ovei^read, at first, the face of 
Amerioan idfura with a di«tial gloom ; bat A« 
dar of prosper:^ to the United States began, as 
will f^petu- iD me sequel, from that moment to 

'* Their prospects Imghteaed, vAii» tho» of 
dieir enemies were obaeured fav disgrwe, broken 
t^ defeat, and, at last, covered with nnn. Elat- 
ed with their victories, the commerora grew more 
insolent and rapacious, while me real friends of 
independence became resolute and deferani Bed." 

aeetioK LIV. While the campaign of 1780 
Was thits filled up with important events in the 
■outbem department, it passed aw^, in th« 
northern States, ie successive disappointoaents, 
and reiterated distresses. 

In June, a body of five tliousand of the enemy, 
under Gen. Kniphauaeo, entered New-Jersey, 
«»I, in addition to plundering the cfwntry, wan- 
tonly burnt several villages. 

on the Brrival of this body et Coonecttcut Farm^, a small 
■etttement containing about B'do7,ra houses and a church, th^ 
hurnt tbe whole. At this place there resided a presbyterian ml- 
MMr by the nune of Caldndl, who had takra a conspicooos 
port in tbe cause of Ireedom, and who had,<^ei)ane, inettrred 
•^ deeg dl^leawre c^ Gen. KniphaineD. SuuMsiBb haw- 
^vvr.tlnt die gcMeraf *« rMrcttmeM would be CMiffned to hioii 

na»6 V~im-.lf83-ABTOLOTI9liv ttik 

mttUwtlib lamilr would be wfeoalbeaf^troach atibuma^t 
lie hastily withdren', leavUic his wife and ctuldren tn tb^ ne^ 
cy. Col. Draylon had previously withdrawn the militia from the 
place, that there might he no pretext for encmaitiei | bnt dn 
Britiah soldien in the American war, did not wait Sx {wetwU 
to be emA Mrs. CaMwell wa« shot in the mUst of twr di9> 
dren, by a villain, who walked ap to the windowof die roooi 
in iriiidi the was sitting, and took deliberate am liith bli muv 
k«ti TUs BlKcioui acL was attempted to be excused as an oo* 
GJrfsnt, as R mtdom shot ; but tbe attnapl at poUiatioo wrTMl 
<niy to inereBse the crime. 

Besides these predittoiT incursions, bjr wUch 
die inhabitants suffered alarm, distress, and de- 
struction of property, they sufTered greatly, also, 
from, the constantly diminishing value m dieir 
ps^r ciurency, and from unfavourable crops. • ' 

The situation of Gen. Washutgtno, oflen during the warem- 
b^rassing, bad been distressing through the winter, is hb en- 
campment at Morristown. 1^ cold wu more intenie thait it 
had ever been known to be before in this climate, within the 
memory nf the oldest inbabit^L The wintcn to thia day, bean 
the distinctive epithet of the hard tetnter. The army aufl^Ted 
extremely, and often had Washington the prospect before him 
oT being obliged to break np bU encampment, nad lUriitnd Us 
sa;ldiers. ' 

lYte retam of spring bron^ little alleviHtiontothrir distrest> 
Great disorder pervaded the departments for sui^lying the army. 
Abuses crfpt in, frauds were practised, and notwiuistanding the 
jiovtiTiy of the [country, economy, on Uie part ofAecoauuna- 
rles, was exited. 

In Hay, a. CMomittee from congress visited the army, and r^ 
ported to that body, an account of the distresses and disorden 
copspicMoitaly prevalent. In particular, they slated, "thw the 
array was unpaid for five m<Hiths — that it seldom had more than 
Six days' pron»ons in advance, and was, on sevnal occauoiu, 
for mndry successive dnys, withtut meat — thn the medical de- 
partment had neitlter sugar, coffee, tea, chocolate, wine, nor spi- 
ritootu liquors of any kind; and that every departinent of the 
army was withont money, and faed not even the shodov of cre- 
dit left." 

Section LV. But under atl tliis tide of evils, 
there appeared no disposition, in public bodies, 
to purr Bso their relief by concession. They 


S» PERIOD T.~.1775..in3..-BeVULimON. 

•eemecl, on the contrary, to rise in the midst 0/ 
their distressca, and to gain firnmess and strength 
by the pressure of calamity. 

Section LVI. Fortunately for the Americans, 
as it seemed, M. de Temay arrived at Rhode- 
I^aod, July 10th, from France, with a sijuadron 
of seven sail of the lino, five frigates, and five 
smaller armed vessels, with several transports, , 
and six thousand men, all Under command of 
Lieutenant General Count de Rochambeau. 
Great was the joy excited by this event, and high - 
raised expectations were indulged from the aa- 
wfltonce of so powerful a force against the ene- 
my. But thu British fleet, in our waters, was 
still superior, and that of the French, and the 
French army, were for a considerable time, ixtc 
capacitated from co-operating with the Ameri- 
cans, by being blocked up at Rbode-Islaud. 

The arrival or the French fleet, at Newpoit, ve» greeted by 
the citizens witli every demonstration of joy. The town was 
illDinlDaled, and ccflgratulatory uddreases were exchanged. As 
a lymbol of friend^IuggaL affection fur the allies, Geo. Wask- 
ineton rccore mended Wi^merican officers, to wear blacli aad 
white cockadea, the ground to be of tlie first colour, and tlie re- 
lief of the spcixid. 

Section LVII. The fortress of West-Point, on 
the Hudson, sixty mites nortli of New-Tork, 
and its importance to the Americans, has already 
been noticed . Of this fortreas, Gen. Arnold had 
solicited and obtained the command. Soon af- 
ter assuming the command, Arnold entered in- 
to negotiations with Sir Henry Clinton, to make 
such a disposition of the forces in the fortress, 
as that the latter might easily take possession of 
it by surprise. Fortunately for America, this 
base plot was seasonably discovered to prevent 
the ruinous consequences that must have follow- ~ 
ed. Arnold, however, escaped to the enemy ' 

PERIOD V-..i77S..*..1783-..HEVOLUTION. S2j 

loaded with infamy and disgrace. Andre*, the 
agent of the Britian, in thia negotiation, wbb tak- 
OD, and jiutly expiated his crime on the gal- 
lows, aa a spy. 

Major Andre, at thii time ^Jjutant-gcnaal of tbe British 
Ktmy, was on officer extremely young — but liigh-minded, brave, 
and accomplished. He was traniparted in a vessel called tlie 
Vulture, up the North river^ as near to Wmi Point as was prsc> 
Dcable, without exciting suspicion. On the 2Ist of Septemberj 
at oigfat, a boat was sent from the shore, to bring him. On its 
return, Arnold met bim at the beach, without tbe posts of either 
army. Their business was not finished, till too near the dawn 
of day for Andre to return to the Vulture. He, tberefbre, lay 
concealed within the American lines. During the day, the Vul- 
ture found it' necessary to change )ier position, and Andre, not 
b^Dg able now to get on board, was compelled to attempt hia 
return to New-Tork by land. 

Having changed hia military dress for a plain coat, and re> 
ceived a passpoit from Arnold, under the assumed oame of 
Jubo Anderson, he passed the guards and outposts, without 
suspicion. On his arrival at Tarrytown, a village thirty miles 
north of Newf-Tork, in the vicinity of the first British posts, be 
wai met by three militia soldiers—John Paulding, David Wil- 
Hams, and Isaac Van Wert He showed them his passport, 
and they suffered him to continue his |Mtt>. Immediately after 
lbi8,oneoftlie&etliree men, thinking that he perceived something 
singular in tlie person of the traveller, culled liim back.^ Andre 
asked them where they were from f " From down below," they 
/e}died, intending to say, from New- York. Too Grankto ins- 
pect a snare, Andre immediately answered, " And so am I." 

Upon this, they arrested him, when he declared himself to be 
a British officer, and ofiered them his watch, and all the goM 
be bad with him, to be released. These soldiers were pow and 
obscure, but they were not to be Ixibed. Resolutely refuung 
his offers, they conducted him to Lieutenant Col. Jameson, their 
commanding officer. 

Jameson injudicioudy pemutted Andre, still calling himself 
Anderson, to write to Arnold, who iramediatdy escaped (Ml 
board the Vulture, and took refuge in New- York. 

Washington, on his way to head quarters, from Connecticut 
—where he had been to confer with Count de Rocharabeao— 
providentially happened to be at Wert Point, jugl at this tioM. 
After taking measures to insure the safety of the fort, he a»> 
pointed a board, of which Gen. Greene was president, to dfcMc 
upon the conditiofl and pmushment of Andre. ' 

10" ......Gooslo 

222 PKJUOD V--l77d....lTS3..Jt£TOUJT10H. 

•Aftna ptfiattlieuiBgofdiec8w,S«ptenber 3£Kl^i«i^ic}i.' 
fVcfjF fediBg of kindims, liberality, and geosfoix ^Wpathy 
WM •tnuigly evinced, the board, upon his owq coetesnan^ m»' 
niibimly prtmonaced Andr« K jpj, and decUrad, tint ap««- 
ably to ilie Uwa «id w^es irf nations, he ou^ to n&i death. 

Major Andre had mtmj frienda in the Americui. amy, aad ' 
cTOt ^aahington would have sfiared him, bad chitj to hia 
connlTf pmnitted. Every possible tftait was made by Sir 
Hcitiy Clialaii io hit &Tour, bat 'it was deemed impoftam that 
ibe decision of t)>e bcwrd of war ahould be carried into execu* 
tkm. Whm Major Aiidre was apprised of the sentence of 
dead), he made a last appeal, in a tetter to Washugton, that 
bo m^hl l»e shot, rather thwi die on a gibbet, 

" Buoyrd nitate the lerrour of death," said hit, " by the 
roHsdousnras nf a life devoted to hooourable pttrsuits, and 
stained with no airtiua that can give me remorse, I trust that 
the request I Bake to your excellency at this serious period, and 
which is to soften my last momeots, will not be rejeaed. Sym- 
pnthy towards a soldier will surely induce your exccUenGy, and 
a military frimd, to ad^t the mode <rf my death to the fedlngs 
of a man of hoiioar. Let me hope, sir, that if aught in my 
character impresaef you with esteem towards me, a* the victim 
(rfpt^y nod resentment, I shall experience the operation of 
ihase feelings in your breast by being informed that I am not to 
die«n a gibbet." 

This letter of Ai^M reused the sympathies of Washington, 
and hsd'Ae only been concerned, the pristwier would have been 
pardoned aiKJ release<l. But the interests of his country were at 
stake, and tbe tfemness of justice demanded that private feelings 
shwitd be sacrificed. Upon consulting his officers, on the pro- 
priety of Major Andre's reqiieal, to receive the death of a soldier, 
-~4o be shot — it was deenii:d necessary to deny it, and to make 
Idn an example. On the 2d of October, this unfortuni^e 
younr roan eifured un .the gsUows, wlqle foes and inends uni- 
varsJly lamented hia untimely end. 

As a reward to Paulding, Williams, and Van Wert, for that 
virtuous and patriotick conduct. Congress voted to each of them 
an annuity of two himdred dollars and a silver medal, on one 
tide of which, was a shield with this inscription — " fideUty,"— 
and on the other, the following motto, " vindt amorfMri^ 
—At love of country conquers. 

Amc^, the miserable wretch, whose machinations led to th* 
■sriancholy fate Andre experienced, escaped to New-Tork, 
where, ■■ the price of his diwionoiir, |w received the commtsaion 
•f irigtuii^r general, and the sum of ten thotuandptmndi ater- 
Ung. This last boM was tbt grmd ncret of Auiold'a fall fivn 


Tirhie; hignnity and extntr&gance bad led liiiii IiiIimUjiiiWi 
winch k was neither in the power nor will ^rf rgiwreM to u^ 
port. He had involved hhaself in debt, froia wfaida he nw a» 
hope of extricating himself; and his boBoor, tiNcriere, ww bw 
tend Tor British gold. 

Section, LVIII. Gen. Washington, having 
learned whither Arnold had fled, deepied it pos- 
Bible sttU to take him, and to bring him to the 
just reward of his treachery. To accomplish 
an object so desirable, and, at the same time, in 
so doing, to save- Andre, Washington devised a 
plan, which, although it ultimately failed, evinc- 
ed the capacity of his mind, and his unwearied 
ardour for his country:'s good. 

Having matured the plan, Washington sent to Majtv Lee to 
repair to head quarters, at Tappan, on the Hudson. " I h«ve 
sent for you," said Gen. Washington, " in the expedatKin that 
you have some one in your corps, who is willing to undertake « 
delicate and hazardous project. Whoever comes forward will 
confer great obligations upon me persraiBlty, and, in bdialf of 
the United Stntes, I will reward him amply. No time is to be 
Inst ; tie must proceed, if jiossible, to^iight. I intend to sein 
Arnold, and save Andre." 

Major Lee named a sergeant-major of his corps, by the nanM 
of Champe — a native of Virginia, a man full of b<Mie and mus- 
cle — with a countenance grave, thoughtful, mid tachum— of 
tried courage, and inflexible perseverance. 

Champe was sent for by Major Lee, and the plan propoMd. 
This was for him to desert — to escape to New- York — to wff 
pear friendly to the enemy — to watch Arnold, and, iqKwi sone 
fit opportunity, with the nsststance of some ooK whom ChtunM 
could trust, to saxe him, and conduct him to a place on tb* 
rfrer, appointed, where boats should be in Aad^ess to bear 
ibem away. 

Champe rtstened to the plan Mtenttvely-^mt, iritb ihesi^ilt 
of a man of hoaour and integrity, repKed — " tfati it was not 
danger nor ^fficulty, that deterred him ftmn imme^stely ac- 
cepting the proposal, but the ignominy of daertion, ami ijw 
%ymcri*y ojen&iUng uith tie enemy!" 

To these objections, Lee repfied, that although he would m> 
pear to d^ert, yet as he obeyed the coll of his cotmaantier m 
chief, his departure could not be considered as criminal, and 
ftiat, tf he mflered in reputstion, for a time, the natter would 


one day be explainMl to hit credit. Ai to the secoad objection, 
it wu urged, tliat to bring such a man as Arnold to jaslic^— 
loMled with guilt as he was — and to save Andie — so young-— 
so accompUsIied-~so beloved — to achieve so nuich good in the 
ctuse of his country— was more than suSicient to balance a 
wnmg, existing only iu appearance. 

Tlie obJKtidDs of Chanipe' wi'te at length sunnoontetj, anit 
he accepted the service. It was now eleven o'clocli at night. 
With his tnslructiona in his pocket, the set^ant returned tn 
camp, and, taking hb cloak, valice, and orderly bo6k, drew liic 
Ihvse litiin the picket and mounted, putting himself upon for 

Scarcely had haifan hour elapsed, beforeCapt.Carnes, the ofli- 
cer of the day, w^ted upon Lee, who was vainly attempting tc 
rest, and informed him, ihat one of the patrul had fallen in with 
a dragoon, who, being challenged, put spurs to his horse and es- 
caped. Lee, hoping to conceal tbe flight of Cfaampe, or at least 
to delay pursuit, complained of fatigue, and told the captain 
that the patrol had probably mistaken a countryman for a dra- 
goon. Carnes, however, was not thus to be quieted ; and be 
withdrew to assemble his corps. Ou examination, it was found 
that Charope was absent. The captain now returned, and ac- 
quainted Lee with the discovery, adding that he had detached a 
party to pursue the deserter, and be^ed the major's written or- 

Afler making as much delay as practicable, without eidting 
sospidon, Lee delivers his orders — in which he directi;d the p ally 
to take Champe if possible. " Bring him alive," said he, " th;il 
Se may suffer in the presence, of the army ; but kill him if he 
■esists, or If he escapes after being taken." ' 

A shower of rain fell soon after Charape's departure, which 
tiraUed the pursuing dragoons to take the trail of his horse, bi> 
shoes, in common with those of the horses of the amry, being 
made in a peculiar form, and each having a private mark, whlcn 
was to be seen in Uie path. 

Middleton, the lender of the pursuing parly, left the camp k 
few minutes past twelve, so that Champe had the start of but 
little more thiin an hour — a period by far shorter than had been 
contemplated. During the night, the dragoons were often de- 
layed in the necessary halts to examine the road; but, on the 
comiftg of morning, the impression of the horse's shoes was S9 
apparent, that tliey pressed on with rapidity. Some miles abova 
Bergen, a village three miles north of New-York, on the oppo 
■he side of the Hudson, oti ascending a hill, Champe was des- 
cried, not more than half a mile distant. Fortunately, Champe 

; .,_,G„o8lc 

MBI0D_y-..17rs....l783..,.RET0Ltm0N. 22S 

dneried hit pimu«^ at tbe same momenl, and, conjecturiiig 
itteir object, put spun to liis Iiorse, with the hope of eicape. 

By tifcing a different roitd, Chympe was, for a time, lost 
light of — but, on Bpproachiiig the river, he was again descried. 
A (rare or his danger, he now kshed his valice, containing his 
clothes and orderly book, to his slioulders, and prepnred him- 
self to plunge into the river, if necpssary. Swift was hi) flight, 
and swift the pursuit. Middleton and hb party were within i 
few hundred yards, when Champe threw himself from hla hoiM 
iind plunged into the river, culling aloud upon some British gal- 
leys, at no great distance, for help. A boat was instently de- 
r:ched to the sergeant's assistance, and a fire commenced upon 
puriuen. Champe was taken on board, and soon after car- 
ried to New- York, with a letter from the captain of the gaUey, 
slating the past scene, all of wJiicli he had witnessed. 

The pursuers having recovered the sergeant's horse and cloak, 
relumed to camp, where they arrived about three o'doch the 
next day. On their appearance with the well known horse, the 
soldi«^ made the air resound witli the acclamations that the 
scoundrel was killed. The agony of Lee, for a moment, .waa 
past description, lest the fditliful, honourable, intrepid Champe 
had &llen. But the truth soon relieved his fears, and he ^patr> 
ed to Washington to impart to him the success, thus, far of his 

Soon after the arrival of Champe in New-Tork, he was sent 
til Sir Htery Clinton, who tre.ited him kindly, but detained him 
more than an hour in asking him questions, to answer some of 
which, without exciting suspicion, required ail the art the ser- 
geant was master of. He succeeded, however, and Sir Henry 
gave liim a couple of guineas, and recommended him to Arnold, 
who was wishing to procure American recicils. Arnold re- 
ceived him kindly, and proposed to him ti jo'n his l^ion ; 
Cbnmpe, however, expressed his wish to reti.e fro m war ; but 
asstu-ed the general, that if he should ciiangebu mind, he would 

Champe found means to communicate to Lee an account of 
hla adventures f but, unfortunately, he could not succeed in tak- 
ing Arnold, as was wished, before the execution of Andre. Ten 
days before Champe brought his project to a conclusion, Lee 
recrived from him his final commiuiication, apjsointing the third 
stibsequent night for a party of dragoons to meet bim at Hobo- 
ken, opposite New-York, when be hoped to deliver Arnold to 
the officers. 

Champe had enlisted into Arnold's legion, from whidi time 
he had every opportunity, he could wish, to attend to the habits 
of the general. He discovered that it was Ids eastern to ictum 
, • , . ...Googlo 

220 rsRlOV V»]T7S.IT8S-.IIET01.tITIdN, 

borne abnut IvfIvi* every nigbl, and that, [im-ioiH)y to ning Im 
beJ, be alwayi vuked Om gardm. [>un»g iltii vint, ttw oaa»- 
ipiiators wete la x'xK b'tai, and, being prepared widi a gag, 
tbey ware to apply the *aote instatitly. 

Adjoining the hotue in wiiich Arnold rcwled, whl in wluch 
it wu ilMigned to seize nm) gag liLn, Ctuunpe had takes ofl 
•event! of the palings and repUced tbna, so tbH «M nse, ud 
witbout nniae, he could readily open hb way lo the adjcHaing 
tiHey. Into this alley he intended to convey lii> praouer, aided 
by his cumpiukin, une of two associstea, who bad beea uitH>> 
duced by the friend, to whrnn Champe had been nrigwallr 
nude kiiown by iHier from the commander in thjifr, aai with 
whose aid and cuuniel, he had so far conducted ibr-eHtepriatti 
His other associate was, witt) the bont, prepareil al ate at tbe 
irfaarvcs on the Hudson river, tu receive l)ie party 

Champe and his friend iaiended to place ftwtwwlrn t»A 

nnrier Arnold's shoulder, and tbus to bear him tbrou^ the meM 

unfret)ueiitcd alleys and streets to tbe boat, rvpreM>Btiog AnMtldf 

' in case of being questioned, as a drunken Kildier, iratin tbej 

were conveying to ihe guanl^inuse. 

Wkm arrived at the boat, the liifflciAies woald be aU mw 
mounted, tbMe being no danger nor dattade iu jiassiBg Is 
the Jersey shore. Tbtse particulars, as soon ivs iftade koown 
to Lee, were cumununicated to the commander in chti:f, who 
WHS highly gratified with the much desired inteffigOMK. Ha 
desu'ed Major Lee t« meet Champe, and to t^e Mie ihti Ai^ 
ftuld should not be hurt. 

The day arrived, anil J-:ee, with a party nf accontned IwrseSt 
(one for Arnold, one fur tlie sergeant) and tl>e third lur his as 
social:', who was to assist in securing Am<Jtl,) left tbe camp, 
D^ver doubting the success of the Enterprise, from the leniwr of 
the Idst received communication. The party reached Ildraluii 
about niidnight, where they were citnceaJed in tbe ailjtuiung 
wood— Lee, wiih three dragoons, itntionit^ himself near tm 
shore of tiie river. — Hour ufier Iwitr passed, but no boat w^ 

At len^h the day broke, and the major retired to hit party, 
ittd, with his led horses, returned to the camp, where he pro* 
ceeded to head (Quarters to inform the generul of the «udi la- 
mented disappointment, as mortifying, as iuexplic^tc. Wub- 
it^ton, having perused Chnmpe's plan and commniiicRlioB,-bad 
~iRdu%ed the presumpti'm, that, at length, the object of his keen 
Bod constant purstiit was sure of executioR, and did not An- 
semble the joy which such a convietiun imidiiGed. H« wtu 
ctugruted at the kme> and upprehended that his futhful atr- 


mUO»V«l976»,178S»JIKTOLUTieK. nj 

fBMttmutlnwbccn-deteMed mlbelaM aoM ol UiMdiMN 
and <fiScuh eotfV|»n«. 

In * tew <layf, I^ee received sn tatoajmoiM leaa fron 
.Champed pntron uiil friend, tBformiDg him, that on the dsy 
M«ce«g tiie nigtrt fixed for the execution of dw pint, Anold 
Md KWDMd Ui quM«n to tnothtf put of the tow*, to at/m- 
iotmd Uw enbBrkatkia of troc^w, pr^araig, ai was nuaontd* 
&» BB expe^ticm to, be directed by himaelf ; and that die Aai^ 
' rican legMi, emiiitiiiK diieSy of Am«ican deMrten, fakd been 
a — ■ ft i ifi fawt thrir hairaciu to w>e of Uie tranaporti^ it bdig 
a|ipielN»M'that if left tni dKm, aatfl Uie eiqieditiiiB «a« ratdy, 
. BM^ of then n^ht deMrt. 

Ivm it happened thai John Champe, instead of croiniy the 
Hudson that 1^1^ va< Mifelydeposit««d on board aneoflhe fleet 
•f mutiporti, drom «4ience he never departed, nntU the m«^ 
un d er AmoU landed ki Virginia. Nw va* he able to «K^e 
bwa the Bittith anny, until afier the juiKtion of Lord Com* 
walU* U Petenbo^, wb«i he deserted ; uid, procceiUng hi^ 
op into Virginia, lie paneti into North Carotina, near the Saiwa 
IDinu, and, keeiw^ in the friendly district* of that Stat*, aalUy 
joined dw ainy aooa after it had passed the Congaree^in fot- 
adt ofLonjlIUwdoo. 

Ui> •ypearasee escitet) extreme surprise among his fanner 
aomradei, which was not a little increased, when uey saw the 
eceditd reontion be met with hmo the late majw, now Lleii- 
Maant CoL Lee. His whole story was soon known to tbe-cw;^ 
which reproduced the love and respect of officen and stddim, 
ttntatort unari^y entertained (or the leijeaBt, heightened bgr 
aniversal «bmmtiM of hu late dating and aiduoua atttmpt. 

Cbunpc was introduced lo Gen. Greene, who very cheerfiil^ 
som^iad widitbe proause aiudc by the comaander in chief, au 
Wr as in hia power ; and, hnviog provided the sergeuit with « 
good^Mrseandmoney for his journey, tent him to (^n. Waib- 
ii^oa, who muaificeody anticipated cw^ desire of the eer* 
eeaat, sad presented him wilb a dischn)^ Uom further service, 
Kfl he nug^t, in tlie vicissiiudia of war, lidl into die hands af 
the en«niy, when, if reco^ized, he was sure to die on a gibbet. 

We ihidl only add, respecting the aftN life of this interesting 
•dveotumr, that when Gen. Washington was called by PresidcM 
Adaau, in 179S, to the command of the army, prepared to de- 
fend the country, againrt French hostility, be sent to Liei^tea- 
^tac CoL Lee, to inquire for Champe; b^^ determined to bring; 
-htai'lUodie Md M the head of a company of m&ntry. IM 
■ou tnLtfidfin coun^, Virginia, where Cbaa^aetdedafterUi 


sas rBiD(u>v--i7n-i7s>-a£voi.tiTiov. 

fcrhnf fiMw tlin ninij : «4)fn he leaned that the gaJltMnl- 
dier Ind removed to KentaicL;, wbcre be mod after (bed.* 

Section hlX. The year 1781 opened with 
on event extremely afflicting to Gen. Washing 
tott, and wliicb, for a time, Berioualy endangered 
the American army. This was the revolt of 
the whole Pennsylvania line of troopa, at Mor- 
ristown, to the number of one' tbonsand three 
hundred. The cause of this mutiny was want 
«f pay, clothinff, and provisiotts. Upon exami- 
nation of the grievances of the troops, by a com' 
mittee from congress, their complmnts were coa- 
sidered to-be founded in justice. Upon their 
being redressed, the troops, whose time of ser* 
vice had expired, returned home, and the reJ^ , 
cheerfully repaired again to camp. 

Gen. Wayne, who eommuided thcM troopi, and vbo «m 
peady respected by them, used every eiertioH to quiet thoii 
twtin vain. In the ardour of ri^monstrance with them, be cock- 
ad bis )»Btol, and turned it towards them. Instantly, an hun- 
dred twyooeti wen directed loirards him, and the men cried 
•at, " we love you, we respect you ; but you are a dead man, if 
you fire. Do not mistake us ; we ore not going to the enemy. 
On dte contrary, were they now to come out, yuu should see us 
fig^ under your orders, with as much resdution and alacrity as 

Leaving the camp, the mutineers proceeded in a body to 
Princeton. Thither, Sir Henry Clinton, who had heard of the 
levoh, sent agents to induce them to come over to the British, 
frith the promise of large rewards. 

But these soldiers loved their country's cause too weQ to Kstm 
to proposals so rep roach M. They were sufiering privaiirau 
which could no longer be sustained ; but they u)umed, Ailh 
disdain, the offer of ttre enemy. They also s^Eed the agents ot 
the British, and nobly deliv<»ed them op to Oeu. Wayne to b* 
treated as spies. 

Section UL. In the miilst of these tnmbles, 
arising from discontents of the troopa, news ar- 

FMHODV._m5„.1783....EE?OUmOIl fjj 

rived of^reatdepredationsin Virginia, by Arnold, 
who had left New- York for the south, witii one 
thousand six hundred men, and a number of arm- 
ed vessels. Extensive outrages were committed 
by these troops in that part of the country. 
Large quaatities of tobacco, salt, rum, &c. were 
destroyed. In this manner did Arnold show tnm 
change of spirit, which had taken place in his 
breast, and his fidelity to his new engagements. 

Upon receiving news of these depredations, at 
the request of Gen. Washington, a French 
sciuadron, from Rhode-Island, was sent to cut 
off Arnold's retreat. Ten of his vessels were de- 
stroyed, and a forty-four gbn ship was captured. 
Shortly after this, an engagement took place off 
the Capes of Virginia, between the French and 
Knglish squadrons, which terminated so far to 
the advEmtage of the English, that Arnold was 
saved from imminent danger of falling into the 
hands of bis exasperated countrymen. 

Section LXI. After the unfortunate battle al 
Camden, August 16th, 1780, congress thought 
proper. to remove Gen. Gates, and to apponit- 
Gen. Greene in his place. In December, 1780, 
Gt^ne assumed the command. The army at 
this time was reduced to two thousand men, 
more than half of whom were militia, and all 
irare miserably fed and clothed. ' 

With this force. Gen. Greene took the field, 
agUDst a superiour regular force, flushed with 
sruccesstre victories throi^h a whole campaign. 
Soon after taking the command, he divided bis 
force, and, with one part, sent Gen. Morgan to 
die' Western extremity of South Carolina. 

At this time,' Lord Cornwallis was nearly pro-* 
pared to invade North Carolina. VnwiUung to 

ue ruaoD T...ms_.i7S3.~iWTOLonoN. 

Miare such an enemy as Morgan in bis rear, he 
despatched Col. Tarleton to engage Gen. Mor- 
^a, and " to push faim to the utmost." 

Seetwn LXII. January 17th, 1781, these two 
detachments met, when was fought the spirited 
battle of the Gowpens, in which the Americau 
arms signally triumphed. 

, Id tins ateinwaUe battle, the Brituh Itvt upwards (tf oae fauo. 
dred killet^ atncHig whom were ten commissKmed officers, and 
tiro hundred wounded. More than five huuiJrcd prisonei's fell 
into the bands of the Americaos, besides two pieces of sRillefj, 
nrelre standards, eiglrt hundred muskets^ thirty-five baggi^e 
mggoni, one-hundred dragoon horses; the loss of the Ameri- 
oSos iras no nore than twelve killed and sixty wounded. 

The victory of the Cowpens must be reckoned as oae of the 
tiiDSt tM-illiant achieved during the revolutionary war. The 
force of Morgan hardly amounted to five hundred, vhile that «i 
Ml adversary eiceeded one thousand. Moi^n's brigade were 
principally militia, while Tarleton commanded the flower of the 
British army. 

Section LXIII. Upon receiviog tiie intelli- 
■gence of Tarleton's defeat, Comwatlis aban- 
doned the invasion of North Carolina for the 
present, and marched in pursuit of Gen. Morgan. 

Greene, suspecting his intentions, hastened 
with his army to join Morgan. This junction 
was at length ellected, at Guilford Court-House, 
after a fatiguing march, in which Cornwallis 
nearly overtook him, and was prevented only by 
the obstruction of a river. 

After his junction with Morgan, Gen. Greene, 
with hie troops and baggage, crossed the river 
Don, and entered Virginia, again narrowly es- 
caping the British, who were in close pursint. 

Section LXIV. Satisfied with having driven 
Greene from Nortit Carolina, CorawaUia retir- . 
ed to Hillsborough, where, erecting the royai 
standard, he issued his proelamatiott, invitmg 
the loyalists to join him.' Manyaoo^tedhbtB- 

nWOD T~.t7n.-.178l-~UVOL1JTIOK Ul 

vitation. At the Berne time, he dei^Mtohed 
TfU'letoo, widi four hundred and fifty men, to se- 
cure the countenance of a body of loyalists, col- 
lected between the Hawe and Deep rivers. 

Section LXV. Apprehensive of Tarlettm's 
success, Gen. Greene, on the 18th of February, 
re-crossed the Dan into Carolina, and despatch- 
ed Generals Pickena and Lee to watch the move- 
ments of the enemy. These officers wore un- 
able to bring Tarleton to an engagement. Gen. 
Greene, having now received a reinforcement, 
making his army four thousand five hundred 
strong, concentrated his forces, and directed bis 
meurch towards Guilford Court-House^ whither 
Lord Comwallis had retired. 

Here, on the Sth of March, a general engage- 
ment took place, in which victory, after alter- 
nately passing to the banners of each army,iinal- 
ly decided in favour of the British. 

Tbe Brhbh Ion, in tim battle, exceeded fire faaadred in lull- 
ed Bod (rounded, among vbom wen several of tbe moM distin- 
gnbbed officers. The American loss was about four hundred, 
in killed and wounded, of which more than three fourlhi fell 
vipon the continentals. Thou^ tbe numericid force of General 
Oreene nearly doubled that of Coniwallii, yet, whoi ve coo- 
uder die difference beiwcm these forces, Uie shamefid nmdua 
of the North Carolina militia, who fled at the first fire, tbe de< 
■ertion of the second Maryland regiment, and that a body of 
rcserre wan not brought into action, it will ajmear, that our 
nunben, actually eng^jed, but little eiceeded inat (rf" die en^ 

Section LXVL Notwithstanding the issue of 
the above battle, Gen. Greene took the bold re- 
solution of leading back his forces to South Car- 
olina, and of attacking the enemies' strong post 
ai Comdeu, in that State. Accordingly, on tbe 
Qth of April, he put his troops in motion, and on 
the ^)Ui> encaoiped at iMgUiwn, within sight of 


the enemies' works. Lord RawdoD, at this time, 
held the command of Camden, and had a force 
of only nine hundred men. The army of Gen. 
Greene — a detachment having been made for 
another expedition under Gen. Lee — amomited 
scarcely to twelve hundred men of all classes. 

On the 25th, Lord Rawdon drew out his for- 
ces, and the two armies engaged. For a season, 
victory seemed inclined to the Americans, but, 
in the issue. Gen. Greene found himself obliged 
to retreat. 

Tbe Aomican Icms in killed, wounded, and missing, was tws 
hondrcd and sixty-eiglit ; the English lou was nettrly cquaL 
Tlie iailure of (lie victory, in this battle, was not attributable, as 
in some cases, to the flight of the militia, wiien danger had 
scarcely begun — but Gen. Greene eiperienced the mortilication 
of seeing a i>!n;inicnt of vFterons give way to an inferiour force, 
wlieo every circumsiance vat in their favour — tlw vety re^ 
tuent tuo, whieh, at die battle of the Covpens, behaved with 
such beiDick tiravery. 

' Stction LXVIL Although the British arms 
gained the victory of Camden, the result of 
Uic whole was favourable to the American cause. 
Gen. Lee, with a detachment despatched for that 
purfltose, while Greene was marching against 
Camden, took possession of an important post 
at Mottes, near the confliience of the Congaree 
and Santee rivers. This auspicious event was 
followed by the evacuation of Camden, by Lord 
Rawdon, and of the whole line of British posts, 
with the exception of Ninety-Six and Charles- 

Section LXVIII. Ninety-Six, one hundred 
and forty-seven miles north-west from Charies- 
ton, was garrisoned by five hundred and sixty 
men. Against this post, afler the battle of Cam 
den. Gen. Greene took up his march, and, on 
the 22d of May, sat down before it. Soon after 

f EBIOD V~.lJr5-..i783_JtEVOUJT10N. . 23» 

the aege of it had been commeaced, intelligence 
arrivea that Lord Rawdon had been reinforced 
by troops from Ireland, and was on his march 
with two thousand men for its rehef. Greene 
now determined upon an assault, but in this he 
failed, with a loss of one liundred and fifty men. 

Soon after his arrival at Ninety Six, Lord 
Rawdon deemed it expedient to evacuate tliia 
post. Retiring himself to Charleston, his army 
encamped at the Eutaw Springs, forty miles 
from Charleston. 

Section LXIX. Gen. Greene, having retired 
to the high hills of Santee, to spend the hot and 
sickly season, in September approached the 
enemy at the Eutaw Springs. On the morning 
of tlie 8th, he advanced upon him, and the bat- 
tle between the two armies became general. 
The contest was sustained with equal bravery 
on both sides — victory seeming to decide in fa- 
vour of neither. 

Tbe British lost in killed, wounded, and prisoners, about one . 
ihtMisand one hundred. Tlie loss of the Americans was five 
hundred and fifty-five. 

Section LXX. The battle at the Eutaw 
Springs was the last general action that.- took 
place in South Carolina, and nearly finished the 
war in that quarter. The enemy now retired to 

TboscloMd the campaign of 1781, in South Carolina. Few 
coBUDanden have ever had greater ditficultiei to encounter than 
Genetal Greene; and kw have ever, with the lame mean^ 
accomplished lo nuich. Though never so decisively victoriooa, 
yet the battles which ha fought, either from necessity or choic^ 
were always so well managed as to result to his advantage. 

Not unmindful of his eminent ser^ces. Congress presented 
him wbli a British standard, and a gold medal, emblematical of 
the aictioD at tbe Eutaw Springs, wluch rett(n«d a rister Stale tf^ 
Ac American Union. 

Section LXXl. After the battle of Guilford, 

234 PUUO«:-.V„_177S^.17S3-..BGVOLVTIOII 

between Greene and Cornwallis, noticed above, 
ttie latter, leaving South Carotins in chai^ of 
Lord Rawdon, commenced his march toward* 
Peterfiburs, in Virginia, where he arrived on the 
20th of May. Having' received several reitt* 
forcements, be found himself with an army of 
eight thousand, and indulged the pleasing anti' 
cipatioDS that Virginia \vuuld soon be made to 
}'ield to his arms. 

Early in the spring, Gen. Washington had de- 
tached the Slarquis de la Fayette, with three 
thousand men, to co-operato with tlie French 
6eet, in Virginia, in tlie capture of Arnold, who 
was committing depredations in that State, Od 
ibe failure of this expedition, La Fayette march- 
ed back as far as the hedd of Elk river. — ^Here 
he received orders to return to Virginia to op- 
pose the British. Qn his return, hearing of the 
advance of Cornwaltis, towards Petersburg, 
twenty miles below Richmond, he hastened hi« 
march to prevent, if possible, the junction fA 
Cornwallis, witli a reinforcement, under Gen. 
Phillips. Ill till?, however, he failed. 

The junction being effected at Petersburg, 
Cornwallis moved towards James' river, which 
he crossed, with the intention of forcing the 
marquis to a battle. 

Prudence forbad the marquis risking on en- 
gagement, with an enemy of more than twice 
his force. He thetefore retreated, and, not- 
withstanding the uncommon efforts of his lord- 
ship to prevent it, he effected a junction with . 
Gen. Wayne, who had been despatched by Wa- 
shington, with eight hundred Pennsylvania mi* 
titia, to' his assistance. After this reinforce-, 
■nent, the disproportion between himself and 

>EKIOD r....ir76 ...178S,..E£POU;TIOh! J55 

hia adversary was still too great to permit him 
to think of battle. He contiuued his retreat, 
- therefore, displaying, in all hia manceuvrea, the 
highest prudence. 

Section LXXII. While these thinga were 
transpiring in Virginia, matteri^ of high moment 
seemed to be in agitation in the north, which, 
not long after, were fully developed. ■ 

Early in May, 1781. a plan of the whole cam- 
paign had been arranged by CJpn. Washington, 
in consultation, at Wetherafield, Connecticut, 
with Generals Knox and DirPortail, on the part 
of the Americans, and Count de Rochambeau, 
on the part of France. The grand project of 
the season was to lay siege to New-York, in 
concert with a French ffeet, espected on the 
coast in Augutit. 

In the prosecution of this plan, the French 
troops were marched from Rhode-Island, and 
(oined Gen. Washington, who had concentrated 
hiu forces at Kingsbridge, iifleen miles above 
New- York. AU things^ were preparing for a 
vigorous, siege, and, towards this strongest hoW 
of the enemy, the eyes of all were intently direct- 

In this posture of things, letters addressed to 
Gen. Washington, informed him that the ex- 
pectBd F^nch fleet, under the Count de Grasse, 
would soon arrive in the Chesapeake, and that 
thisy instead of New- York, was liie place of its 
' destination. 

Disappointed in not having the cooperation 
of such a force ; disappointed also in not receiv- 
ing the fiill quota of militia, which had been or- 
dered from New-England and New-Jeraeyif 
^d, mcH^OTer, Isarning that Clioton had b««ii 

336 FUUOD V— iI7B....i7£3....RErOLUTION. 

reinforced in New- York, by the arrival of three 
thousand Gennaiis; Wasliiogton was induced 
to change the plan of operations, and to direct 
hisatteotioD to CornwaUis, who, ftom pursuing 
the Marquia de la Fuyctte, had retired to Tork- 
town, near the raoutli of York river, and had 
fortified that place. 

Section LXXIII. Having decided upon this 
measure, on the 19th of July he drew off Ids 
forces, and commenced his march, at the same 
time strongly impressing Clinton, by every art 
in his power, that an attack wouH soon be made 
upon New- York. So successfully was this de 
ception practised, that Washington was some dia 
tance on his way towards Virginia, before Clin- 
tcm suspected that his object was any other than 
to draw him from New- York, to fight him in the 
field, vrith superiour forces. 

Having halted at Philadelphia a few days, the 
army continued its march to the head of Elk 
river, whence it embarked for Williamsburj;, 
then the heao quarters of the Marquis de la 
Pavette, where it arrived September 25th. 

Gen. Washington and Count do Rochambeau 
preceded the troops ten days, and, to their 
great joy, found that the Count de Graaae had 
entered the Capes on the 30th of the preceding 
month, with twenty-eight sail, and three thou- 
sand troops. 

On the arrival of these two generals at Wil- 
tiamsburg, a vessel was in rea.dincss to convey 
them on board the Ville de Paris, the flag-ship 
of the Count de Graaae, where a councn was, 
held to determine on future operationa. 
'* Section LXXIV. These being settled, the 
tOfflbiMd armiea, aauMiBting to twelve thowand 

PE^OD V„„mB...478S...JtErOLOTION. isf 

men, moved upoo Yorktpwn and Gloui^ster, 
Beptember 30th, and the Count de Graese, with 
his fleet, proceeded up to the mouth of York 
riser, to prevent Comwallia either from retreat- 
ing, or receiving assiatance. 

Yorktown is a smaU village on the south side of York river, 
n^ose soutbem banks are high, and in whote waters a ship of 
ihe Jine may ride In safety. Gloucester Pointis a piece orland 
on the opposite shore, projecting far inio the river. Both thcK 
posts were occupied by Cornwallia — the main body of the army 
being at York, under the immediate command of fai^ Iwdship, 
and a detachment of uz hundred U GJoucestei point, under. 
Lieut Col. Tarleion. 

. On the 6t]i of October, Waehington's heavy 
ordtiance, &c. arrived, and the siege was com- 
menced in form. Seldom, if ever, during the 
revolutionary struggle, did tlte American com- 
mander in chief, or bis troops, appear before the 
enemy with more cool determination, or pursue 
him with more j)ersevering ardour, than at the 
siege of Yorktown. With the fail of Comwal- 
lis, it was perceived that the hopes of Great Bri- 
ton, successfully to maintain the contest, must 
nearly expire ; with this in prospect, there was 
no wavering of purpose, and no intermission of 

On the 19th of October, the memorable victo- 
ry over Cornwalbs was achieved, and his whole 
army was surrendered, amounting to more than 
seven thousand prisoners of war, together with 
e pork of artillery of one hundred and sixty piec- 
es, the greater part of which were brass. 

Articles of capitulation being mutually signed and ratified^ 
Qen. Lincoln was appointed, by the commander in chief, to re- 
c«ire the submisaion of the royal army, in the Mme manner, in 
iriiich, eighteen months before, Corowsllis had received th*l of. 
the Americana at Charleston. 

The spectacle is represented as having been impresnve and 
•fliMAin^. The road throutlh which tike c«ptin a 

SSa VEItlOD V,...I77S-17t% iXVOLOTIOK 

wu tiaed vidi spnteUn, French aitd Annriauu Oa«B<ibl^ 
ibe commander in chief, «inT> .nded with his suite, and llieAai«'< 
rican (taff, took hi* Etatiun ; oii lhf> other side, opposite to hiai, 
was the Count de Rochitmbeaii, m the like manner vReoded. 

The captive army approached, inovnifr slowly in column, 
with grace aiid precision. Universal silence vas ubsRrved 'cUniOst 
t)ie vast concourse, and the utmost deccvic^ prevailed ;- eihilMt 
ing an awful seoac of ttte vicissitudes of human life, mingfed wilk 
commjsserution for the unhappy 

Every eye was now turned, searching for the British com- 
mander in chief, anxious to look at the man, heretofore so much 
the object of their dread. All were disaf^inted. CorDvallis, 
unable to bear up against the humiliution of marching at ibe 
head of his garrison, constituted Gen. O'Hara his representa- 
tive, on the occasion. 

The post of Gloucester, falling with tl>at of Yorit, wu ddhr- 
cred up the same day, by Lieut. Col. Tarieton. 

At the termination of tbe siege, the besieging army amotmtetf 
(o sixteen th<iusund. The British force was put down at sere*, 
thousand one hundred and seven, of which only four thoosand 
and seven rank and file ate stated to Itave been fit for duty. 

Section LXXV. Five days after the surrender 
of Cornwallis, Sir Henry Clinton made his ap> 
pearance off the Capes of Virginia with a rein- 
forcement of seven thousand men ; but, receiv- 
ing intelligence of his lordship's fate, he re- 
turned to New- York. 

Corawallis, in his despatches to Sir Henry, more than hinted 
that his fall had been produced by a too fiiin reliance on pro- 
mises, that no pains were taken to fulfil. Clinton had promis- 
ed Coruwallis that this auxiliary force should leave New-York 
on the Sth of October, but fn-reasons never explained, it di4 
not s^l uuti! the 19th, the very day (liat decided the fate of th« 

Section LXXVI. Nothing could exceed the 
joy of the American people, at this great iind 
important victon', over Lord Cornwellis. Ex- 
ultation broke forth from one extremity of the 
country to the other. The remembrance of th*» 
past gave place in all minds to the most brilliant 
bopea. It was confidently anticipated, that the 
affair of Yorktown would rapidly hasten the ac 

KBIOD y....i7n„l79S...lUirOUmOIfc S39 

tittOwledgnieBt of American Independmce— an 
event, for which the people had been toiling and 
bleeding through so many campaigns. 

In all parts of the United States, solftnn festivals and lejoie- 
Ings celebrated the triumph of American fortune. The nanm 
. wf Washington, Rochambeuu, De Gnuse, and La Fayette, re- 
vounded every where. To the unanimoiu acclum of the peo> 
Vl«, congren jtnned the authority of its resolves. It addr^ied 
thanks to the generab, officers, and soldiers — presented British 
colours — ordered the erection of a marble column — andwentin 
procession to church, to render publick thanks^ving to God for 
the recent victoryr The 30th of December was appointed as • 
tlay of national thanksgiving. 

Section LXXVIT. While the combined ar- 
mies were advancing to the siege of Yorktown, 
an excursion waa made from New- York, by Gen. 
Arnold, against New-Londoo, in his nativestate. 
■ The object of this expedition seems to have been* 
to draw away a part of the American forces^ 
Sir Henry Clinton knowing but too well, that if 
they were left at liberty to push the aiege of 
Yorktown, the blockaded army must inevitably 

This expedition was signalized by the great- 
cat atrocities. Fort Trumbull, on the west, and 
Fort Griawold, on the east side of the river 
Thames, below New-London, were taken, and 
the greater part of that town was burnt. 

At Fort Trumbull, little or no resistance was made ; but Fort 
driswold was defended for a time, with great bravery and reso- 
lution, Aftpr tlie fort was carried, a British officer entering, in- 
quired who^omnendcd. Col. Ledy«rd answered, " I did, but 
you do now" — at the same time prtsenting his sword. The 
officer immediately plunged the sword into his bosom, A gene- 
ral ma^acre now took place, as well of those who surrendered u 
of those who resisted, which continued until nearly all the garri- 
son were either killed or wouaded. Sixty dwelling houses, and 
cightyfour stores in New-London, were reduced to ashes. 

Section LXXVIII. The fall of Cornwallia 
may be considered as substantially elosing the 

_ ......Google , - 

tm tVeOV T~.1779~17Sl.-it£rOLimQat. 

WW. A few poets of importanee ivere sllttbetci 
by the British — New- York, Charleston, and Sa- 
TBunah — ^but ail other parts of the country, 
which they -bad possessed, were recovered into 
the power of congress. A few skirmishes alone 
indicated the eootinuance of war. 

A part of the French army, soon after the cap 
tare of Comwallis, re-embarked, and Count de 
Grasse sailed for the West Indies. Count Ro- 
chambeau cantoned bis army for the winter, 
1782, in Virginia, and the main body of the 
Americans returned, by the way of the Chesa- 
peake, to tbeir former position on the Hudson. 

SectionhX^lX. Froin the 12th of December, 
1781, to the 4th of March, 1782, motion after 
motion was made in the British Parliament for 
putting on end to the war in America. On ^is 
latter day, the commons resolved " that the 
Wise would consider as enemies to his majesty 
and to the country, all those who should advise, 
or attempt the further prosecution of offensive 
war, on the continent of North America." 

Section LXXX. On the same day, the com- 
mand of bis majesty's forces in America was 
taken from Sir Henry Clinton, and given to Sir 
Guy Carieton, who was instructed to promote 
the wishes of Great Britain, for an accommoda- 
tion with the United States. 
' In accordance with these instructjpns, Sir 
Guy Carieton endeavoured to open a corres- 
pondence with, congress, and with this view sent 
to Gen. Washington to solicit a passport for his 
secretary. But this was refused, since con- 
gress would enter into no negociations but ill 
concert witli his most Christian Majesty. ■ 

Section LXXXI. The French courts on n^ 

ra&ioD y-~im.M.i783....BEroLUTioK. mi 

ceiving hitelHgence of the surrender of Ckmi- 
w^attia, pressed upon congress the appoiatmeot 
of commissioDers for negotiating peace mth 
Oreat Britain. Accordingly, John Adams, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, John Jay, and Henry Laurens, 
'twere appointed. These commissioners met 
Mr. Fitzherbet and Mr. Oswald, on tho part of 
Great Britain, at Paris, and provisional articles 
of peace between the twocountriea were signed, 
November 30th, 1782. The definitive treaty 
was signed on the 30th of September, 1783. 

Although the definitive treaty was not signed 
until September, there had been no act of nos- 
titity between tiie two armies, and a state of 
peace had actually existed from the commence- 
ment of the year 1 783. A formal proclamation 
of the cessation of hostilities was made through 
the army on the 19th of April, — Savannah was 
evacuated in July, New- York, in November, and 
Charleston, in the following month. 

Section LXXXII. The third of November 
was fixed upon by congress, for disbanding the 
army of the United States. On the day previous, 
Washington issued his farewell orders, and bid 
an aifectionate adieu to the soldiers, who had 
fought and bled by his side. 

After mentioning the trying times througb which he had 
paaaed, and the unesampled patience which, under every cir- 
cumstance or suffering, his army had ennced, he passed to the 
glorious prospects opening before them, and their country — and 
then bade them adieu in the folluwing words: " Being now to 
conclude these bis last publick orders, to take bis ultimate leave 
in a short time of the military character, and to bid a final adieu 
to the armies be has so long had the honour to commar-' he 
can only again offer in their behalf, his recommendations tu 
their nratefiil country, and bis prayer to the God of armies. 

" May ample jiutice be done them here, and may the 
chtMcest favour, both here and hereafter, attend those, who, 
aadN Ac Shrine aoapicei, hitre >ea«ed immmMs UaniH* 
«. L,,™. Google 



ftroAcnl m* tbsM wbhM, ud thk beDMfiflia% the can^ 
vsndw ta chM i* about to retire from xrnce^ Tbe curt^ of 
a viQ loaB be dnwa, and tlK mitiiaTy icene to Uri 
ll be dosed fof rrer." 

Section LXXXIII. Soon after taking leave 
«f the army, Gen. Washin^on waa called to the 
•till more painful hour of separation from his 
•fficers, greatly endeved to him bj a long series 
of common sufieringe and dangers. 

Tbe otBcen having previously assembled in New^TMi for 
tke parpose, G«b. Wuhmglon n»w joined tiieio, and caKoe fer 
A glut of wine, dtus addressed ioem : " With a Iwart full of 
kre Mu) g^tilude, I now take ray leave of yoq. I ntoet de- 
Tpiitly wi^ thali your latter days may be aa praspemn and 
knppy, W your fomer «aes have been gkriotu ood hoMiir' 

HwHif 4m» afiectionately addresaed tbeiB, he nov tnok each 
by Aa hand and bade hint farewiiU. Followed by them to the 
side of the Hudson, be entered a bai^^e, and, while tears roBed 
down Ut cheeks, he tamed towards the eoBapanieiis of kis 


Sedion J 

i LXXXIV. December 23, Washing- 
ton appeared in th« ball of congress, and re^ 
signed to them the commisdk»i which they had 
^vea him, as conunajader in chief of the arnues 
tftha United States. 

AAr haaiBg tp»\aaB of the «c«>in]yjAsient of hu wiibw 
•nd escnion^ ia the independence oi tus coantiy, and coot- 
Bended hii bfficers and soldiers to Congress, he concluded w 
follows ; 

" I conrider it an iBdi^ensaUe duty to chae the last adtfOD 
act of my oflhM life, by eonnneaifitig the intereili <tf our ievh 
est country to the protectbn of Ataiglitir God, tad thoie wb* 
havetheaaperiiHendenceof ttiein to Ua h(^ keeying. 

" Having now Aniahed t>|e work ass^MMl m^ I redm from 
the gr-nt neatre of ncticm i and, bidding an affadionate bie* 
well t< th» august body, mtAtt wboae svdeM I kwre long acte^ 
I Ifere oAr my GiNBmhua«> uid tako^bawof oH the car 

Sedum. UiJCKV. Upon accepting his eom- 
iMuiuan, ooBgrowi) thfOMgh their president, ex.- 
VrcMwd ^ |io™«^ i^VMga ta WwhuxtAil* 

L,„„.., Google 

llieir hi^h sense o€ bi« wisdom and eoergjr, u 
conducting the war to so happy a ttirmmatioa* 
and invoked the choicest blessinga upon bis 
future life. 

Preaident Mifflin conduded as follows; " We join yoa in 
vnmBwnding the interests of oar dearest country to the fwotec- 
(ton of Almiglity God, beseeching Him to dispose the heuts anil 
minds of its citizens to improve the opportunity afibrded them 
of beconing- a ha})py and respedaUe nation. And for VOD, w« 
address to Him our earnest prayers, that a lite so beloved, may 
be fostered wiih all His care : that your days may be as happy 
as they have been illustrious ; and that Hx wHi linally give you 
that t«ward whirJi this world cannot give." 

A profound silence now pervaded the aaeera* 
bly. 'The grandeur of the scene, the recol- 
lection of the past, the felirsity of the present, 
and the hopes of tlie future, crowded fast upon 
at), while they united in invoking blessings upon 
the man, who, under God, had achieved so 
much, and who now, in ttie character of Q mere 
■citizen, was aastening to a long desired repose 
at bis seat, at Mount Vernon, in Virgintn. 


Action LXXXVI. J$|8ttnrtS« At the 
commencement of the revolution, the colonists 
'of America were a mass of husbandmen, mer- 
chants, mechanicks, and fishermen, who «x're 
occupied in the ordinary avocations of their re- 
spective callings, and were entitled to the 
appellation of a sober, honest, and industrious 
■et of people. Being, however, under tlie con- 
trol of a country, whose jealousies wcie early 
and strongly enlisted against them, and whicli, 
therefore, was eager to repress every attempt, 
on their part, to lise. they had comparativeljr 

244 nuiOD v»m>.-17S3-BErOLUnON. 

little scope orencouragement, for exertion and 

But, when the struggle for independence 
began, the case was altered. New fields for ex- 
ertion were opened, and new and still .stronger 
impulses actuated their bosoms. A great 
change was suddenly wrought in the American 
people, and a vast expansion of character took 
place. Those who were before only known in 
the humble gphere of peaceful occupation, soon 
shone forth in the cabinet or in the field, fully 
qualified to cope with the trained generals and 
statesmen of Europe. 

But, although the revolution caused such an 
expansion of character in the American people, 
and called fortli the most striking patriotism 
among ail classes, it introduced, at the same 
time, greater looseness of manners and morale. 
An army alwavs carries deep vices in its train, 
and communicates its corruption to society 
around il. Besides this, the failure of publick 
credit so far put it out of the power of indmduala 
to perform private engagements, that tho breach 
of them became common, and, at length, was 
scarcely disgraceful. That high sense of in- 
tegrity, which had extensively existed before, 
was thus exchanged for more loose and slippery 
notions of honesty and honour. 

. da the whole, says Br. Ramsay, who wrote goon after th« 
close of thia period, " the literary, political, and military talents 
«f (he United States, have been ii]:q>roTed by the revolution, hut 
thdr moral character ia inferiour to what it foimerly was. Sa 
grent is the change for the vorse," continues he, '' that the 
friends f *■ publick order are loudly called upon to eiert their ut- 
most abilities, in extixpati&g the vicious principles and habtt^ 
which have triun deep root during the Iftte emartiiaoim.*' 


SeetimLXXXVn. KtlCfffon.* During the 
revolution, the coloniea being all united in one 
irause — a congreas being asBerabled from all 
fiartB of America — and more frequent inter- 
ccHiTse benreeK different parts of tke eountiy 
being p^'omoted by the shining of the arniies-^ 
local prejudice and sectarian asperities were ' 
obliterated ; religious controversy was sus- 
pended ; and bigotry soUened. That spirit of 
intolerance, whidi had marked some portions of 
the cfwntry, was nearly done away. 

But, for these advantages, the Kvoluticn 
brought with it great disadvantages to religion 
in general. Thp atheistical phiLoac^hy, which 
lad been spread over PrFaice,and wbich would 
involve the whole subject «f religion is the 
gloomy mists nf skepticiMn— which acknow* 
ledges no diatinc^n between right emd wT«n^ 
and consideFs a future existence as a dream* 
that may or may not be realized— -was thickly 
sown in the American army, by the French:; 
and, uniting with the infidelity, wlucb before had 
take& root in the country, produced a seriow 
declension in the tone of reUgious feetings, 
amtnig the American people. 

In addition to this, rdi^eus iottirations dunng (be w&r, -wen 
wftoiji negletited; churches were demolished, or converted itd* 
barracks-; poblickwonhip was often suspended; and Uw der< 
117 MiQcted sererely, from the reduction of their aalanaiXUiMl 
by the depreciatiim of the drcida^g mediun. 

* I>r. WAaaaf, ta dssdnf tfaoM paMU, In America, who frere to.l^ 
■vow, and tkow lAo venof^ond; to the rcfokitiaB. uticei smoDc tin 
Oirmer, the JrtAtMitrmtt KtaettOj; flie mow eaUgtitWMd Oe r mm iftto 
rnA^trimtt, and ind^cMMti; flw«p«knlilM*AaU«n,in11w«o«ttwn 
States) and aaaMtitf,am ■wng, lb* ariai, tba m i I Wh h i , tni tba.MfW 
frufnf.HiimigtaoM ^ counliT. Among tboie «1io wen oppoted tsdi* 
- >, wets fta BftA n ^tr^U, • ^ am% Wn vm m, ■M^^M 

i4ii rBwoDi ..iT75_in3._KEve[.irnoN. 

Section LXXXVlIi. ffrOVt 9119 ffOtlls 
VMVKt. Duriog the war of the revolution, 
the commerce of the United States was intfir- 
nipted, not only with Great Britain, hut, iq a 
great measure, with the rest of the world. The 
greater part of the shipping, belonging to the 
country, was destroyed by the enemy, or 
perished by a natural process of decay. 

Our coBiU were so lined with British cruisers, as to render 
oavi|atioa too hazardous to be pursued to any cMisiderable ex-< 
tait. Some privateers, however, were fitted out, which auo 
ceeded in capturing seveiral valuable prizes, on board of which 
were arms, and other munitions of war. During the last three 
years of the war, an illicit trade to Spanish America was cor 
ried on, but it was extremely limited. ^ 

Section LXXXIX. MttVltUUnVt* Agri- 
culture was greatly interrupted during this 
period, by the withdrawing of* labourers to the 
camp— by the want of encouragement, fur- 
nished by exportation, and by the distractions 
which disturbed all the occupations of society. 

The anny often suffered for the means of subsistence, and the 
officers were sometimes forced to compel the inhabitants to fur- 
nish the soldiers food, in sufBdent quantities to prevent their 

Section xc. nvt» anTJ jManttfactitrr«. 

The trade with England, during this period, 
being interrupted by the war, the people of the 
United States were compelled to manufacture 
for themselves. Encouragement was given to 
all necessary manufactures, and the zeal, inge- 
nuity, and industry of the people, furnished the 
country with articles of prime necessity, and, in a 
measure, supplied the place of a foreign market. 
Such was the progress in arts and manufactures, 
during the period, that, after the return of peace, 
when an uninterrupted intercourse with England 
was again <^ned, some articlesi wlucb before 

PEEIOD T....lT7S-..t763.»BEVOLimOH. 247 

were imported altogether, were found so well 
anc so abundantly manufactured at home, that 
their importation was stopped. 

Sectitm XCI. ^JlUlatfon. The increase 
of the people of the United States, during this 
period, was small. Few, if any, emigrants ar- 
rived in the country. Many of the inhabitaots 
were slain in battle, and thousands of that class 
called torieg, lefl: the land, who never returned. 
Perhaps we may fairly estimate the inhabitants 
of the country, about the close of this period, 
1 784, at three millions two hundred and fifly 

Section XCII. SQtICatfOn* The interests 
of education sufibred in common with other 
kindred interests, during the war. In several 
colleges, the course of instruction was, for a 
season, suspended ; the hall was exchuiged by 
the students for the camp, and the gown for tlie 
sword and epaulette. 

Towards the concluaion of the war, two colleger were found- 
ed — one in Maiyland, in 1782, by the name of Washington 
college; the other, in 17^3, in Pennsylvania, which received 
the name of Dickinson college. The writer, whom we have 
(]uoted above, eslimates the whole number of ct^eges and 
academies in the United States, at the close of tUs period, at 

XCIU. The American Revolution is doubtless the most In> 
teresting event in the pages of modern history. Changes 
equally great, and convulsions equally violent, have often taken 
place ; and the history of man tells lu of many instances, in 
which oppression, urged beyond endurance, has called £rilh 
the spirit of successful and triumphant resistance. But, in the 
event before us, we see feeble colonies, without an anny— witb- 
out a navy — without an estaUished government — without a 
revenue — without munitions of war — without fiMllGcatioiia, 
Mdly Btepfinig fwth to meet the veteran armies of > [miwl. 

UB PKMOD T..ins— ittk-JtEvoumoH. 

pmmfiilfSiid vindictive eiwniy. Wc lee thcM colonieB amiilri 
waat, foytny, and misfortune — supported by the pervadin| 
■pirit of Ijbei^, and guid«d by the good hand of Heaven — for 
nearly eight yatn suMaining die we^t uf a cruel coaflict, upoa 
ibek own toil. We ipe tbem at length vidorioiu ; llieir toe- 
laia flollenly reHre from their tbores, and the«e humble colcwuea 
•tand forth eoroUed ou the f >tge of history — a free, BovereigD, 
and indepeodeDt n>itiaa. Nor it this all. We tee a wise gov- 
ernment springing up fhim the blood that was spHt^ and, down 
to our own time, shedding the choicest political bleBsings npoa 
sereral millions of people 1 

What natiun can dwell witli more juiit SBtisfaction upon it> 
annals, than ours? Almost all others trace their fotmdatioD ta 
*ome ambitious and bloody conquerer, who so^ht only, by en- 
shiving odtMs, to K§^andize himself. Our independence waj 
mm by the people, who fought for the natotal righti of maih 
Other nations have left their annals stained with the crimes (tf 
their people and princes ; ours shines with the glowing traces 
of patriotism, constancy, and courage, amidst every rank of 
life and every grade of office. 

Whenever we advert to this portion of our history, and re- 
view it, as we weH may with patiiotick interest, let us not forg^ 
the gratitude we owe, as well to those who " fuight, and bled, 
and died" for us, as that benignant Providence, who stayed the - 
|)roud waves of British Wranny. 

Let us abo gather pwitical wisdom from the American revfr 
lulioa. It has taugbl the world, emphatically, thut oppression 
teii<fa to weaken and destroy the power of the opprOsor ; thai 
a people united in the cause of liberty are invincible by those 
who would enslave them ; and that Heaven will ever frowa 
upon tbeeausenf injustice, and ultimMcIygnua success to tbMt 
who oppose it. 


(•ii,v>'i;.>'^L' I ox .VI- J ' n M.A [ Jii'M' : I u\, 





Extending from the disbanding of the army, 
1 783, to the inauguration of George Wash- 
ingt'On, as prenid^nt of the United States, 
under the Federal Constitution, \ 789. 

Sectvm I. During the revolutionary war, the 
American people looked forward to a state of 
peace, independence, nnd self-government, as 
almost necessarily ensuring every possible bless- 
ing. A short time was sufficient, however, to 
demonstrate that sometbingi not yet possessed 
was necessary to realize the private and publick 
prosperity that had been anticipated. After a 
short strug'gle so to administer the existing sys- 
tem of government, as to make it competent to 
the great objects for whicli it was instituted, it 
became apparent that some other system must 
be substituted, or a general wreck of all that 
had been gained would ent^ue. 

' Section \\. At the close of the war, the debts* 
of the Union were computed to amount to some- 
what more tha* forty millions of dollars. By 

* Tbew debtswcroof two kinds, foreign and (tomestlck. Tbe IbreiED 
debt amounted to near eigbt millions of dollars, and was due to indivi- 
duals Id France — to the crown of France — to tenders in Holland end 
Spain. Tbe domestick debt amonaled to some more Oian thirty-four 
millions of doUiin, and was due to persons who held loan office certifi- 
e»tes — to the officer* and aoldien of the reFolutionaijr army, ke. 


the articles uf confederation and unic»i between 
the States, congress had the power to declare 
war, and borrow money, or issue bills of credit to 
cany it on ; but it had not the al^ity to dis* 
charge debts, incurred by the war. All that 
congress could do, was to recommend to the 
individual States to raise money for that [HI^ 

Soon after the war, the attention of pongress 
was drawn to this subject ; the payment of ^ 
national debt being a matter of justice to cre- 
ators, as well as of vital importance to the pre- 
servation of the Union. It was proposed, 
therefore, by congress, to the States, diat they 
dtouM grant to that body die power of laying a 
duty of fire per cent, on all foreign goods, which 
riiould be imported, and that the revenus 
arising thence should be applied to die diiBi< 
nution of the pabtick debt, until it was exdn> 

To this proposal, most of the States assented, 
and passed an act, granting the power. But 
lUiode-Islaad,, l^»pr^eDsive that such a grant 
Would lessen the advantages of her trade, de- 
clined passing an act for dial purpose. Subse- 
quently, New-York joined in the opposition, 
and rendered all prospect of raising a revenue, 
in diis way, hopeless. 

The consequence was, that even the interest 
of the publick debt remained unpdd. Certifi- 
cates of public debt lost their cttdit, and many 
- of the officers and soldiers of the late army, who 
were poor, were compelled to sell these certifi.- 
CfLtea at excessive reductions. 

Section HI. While the friends of the na- 
tional govmiment were making anaT«liii£ ef' 

ferto to fix upon a permanent revenue, wUeh 
might enable it to preserve the natioDaJ iaith, 
0t^r cauees, besides the loss of confidence in 
the confederation, concurred to hasten a radi- 
cal change in the political system of the United 

• Among these caus^t, the principal was the 
evil resuhing from the restrictions of Great Bri- 
tain, laid on the trade of the United States with 
the West Indies; the ports of those islands 
being abut against the veseela -of the United 
States, and enormous duties imposed on our 
UMWt valuable exports. 

Had Qongresa posaessed the power, a remedy 
might have been found, in pa«Ki^ siHilar acts 
against Oreat Britain ; but this power had not 
been d^egvted l^ lb« States to the congress. 
That thirteen independent sovereignties^ alwayB ' 
jealous of one ano^er, would separately concur 
in any j>r(^er measures to compel Great Britain 
to relax, was not to be expected. The "im- 
portance of on enlargement of the powers of 
congress was thus rendered still more obvious. 

Section IV. During this enfeebled and disor- 
ganized state of the general government, at- 
tempts were made, in some of the states, to 
maintain their credit, and to satisfy their credi- 
tors. The attempt of Massachusetts to afieet 
this, by means of a heavy tax, produced an open 
insurrection among the people. In some parts 
of the State, the people convened in tumulluous 
assemblies — obstructed the sitting of courts, and, 
finaHy, took arms in opposition to the. laws of 
the State. The prudent measures of Gov. Bow- 
doin and his council, seconded byan armed foree* 
under Gen. Linco'o, in the winter »f 1786, gn- 

293 PKRIOO Vt-.lTes...l7W~..ESTABU3HHBNT O 

dually subdued the spirit of oppositioo, and re 

stored the authority of the laws. 

This rising of'lhe people of Masaacimseta is luiialljr styled 
Sluiyt* inaurreetion, Itoax one Daniel Shays, a captain in the 
revolutiooary army, who headed the insurgmts. In August, 
irsd, fifteen hundred insurgents assembled at Nurtliami.ton, 
toolc possession of the court-bouse, and prevented the session of 
the court. Similar outrages occuried at Worcester, Concord, 
T^untmi, and Springfield. In New-Ham phlre, also a body of 
men arose in September, and surrounding the general assembly, 
sitting at £x«Ier, held ihem prisoners for several hours. 

In this state, of civil commotion, a body of trnons, to the aun- 
ber of four thousand, was ordered out by Alassacnusetls, to sup- 
port the judicial courts, and suppress the insurrection. Th^ 
force was pot under the cnnimand of General Lincoln. Ann. 
tber body of troops was collected by Gen. Shepherd, near Spring. 
field. After some skirmishing, tVie insurgents were dispersed; 
sereral weretaken prisoners and condemned, but were ultimately 

Section V. The period have airiv- 
ed, when it was to be decided whether the gene- 
ral governmeot was to be supported or aban- 
doned — ^whether the glorious objects of the re- 
volutionary struggle should be realized or lost. 

In January, 1 786, the legislature of Virginia 
adopted a resolntioa to appoint commissioners, 
who were to meet such others, as might be ap- 
pointed by the other States, to take into consid- 
eration the subject of trade, and to provide for 
a uniform system of commercial relations, &c. 
This resolution, ultimately, led to a proposition 
for a general convention to consider the state of 
the union. 

But five States were represented in the con 
vention, proposed by Virginia, whicii met at An- 
napolis., In consideration of the smalt number 
of States represented, the convention, without 
coming to any specific resolution on the paticy 
ha subjects referred to them, adjourned to meet 

■ „.,„Goo8lc 

THE pBvxiLu. coMnrnmoN. aas 

'm Fluladelphia, the succeediog May. Fre- 
nously to adjournment, it recommended to the- 
Bevcral States, to appoint delegates for that 
meeting, and to give tbein power to revise thA 
federal gyetem. 

Agreeably to the above recommendation, all 
tlie States oi the Union, excepting Rhode-Island, 
appointed commissioners, nho, on the I9Lh of 
May, assembled at Philadelphia. 

Of this body, Gen. Washington, one of the 
commissioners from Virginia, was unanimously 
elected president. The convention proceeded, 
with closed doors, to discues the interesting sub- 
ject submitted to their consideration. 

Section VI., On the great principlea which 
should form the basis of the constitution, not' 
much difierence of opinion prevailed. But, in 
reducing those principles to practical detaila, less 
harmony was to bo expected. Such, indeed, 
was the difference of opinion, that, more than 
once, there was reason to fear, that the conven- 
tion would rise, without effecting the object for 
which it was formed. Happily; however, it was 
at length agreed to sacrifice local interest on the 
altar of publick good, and on the 17th of Sep- 
tember, 1787, the Feoeral ConSTiTunon was 
presented to congress, who, shortly afler, sent it 
to the several States for their consideration. 

Kn abstract of this constitutioti, with its several subsequent 
■roendmpiits, rolIow» : it is extracted from Mr. Webster's El»- 
msiits of Useful Knowledge. 

Oftlte Legislature. "The legislative power of the Unhe4 
Stales is Tested in a congress, consisting of two houses or brandies, 
a senate, and a house of representatives. The members of the 
bouse of representatives are chosen once in two years, by thv 
persons wlu are qualified to vote for members of the mwt iuit 
Rieroiis branches of tlie legislature, in each State. To be eor 
titted'iu fi'seat la this hotue, a person miBt ham attkimdtotlN 
<2 L,,™.,Googlc 

age cf twcB^F-fire jtan, bem adtitraaftbeUniudSlateifM 
Mvca yttOf *md be an inbabiluU of the State in which he is 

Of the Senate. " The tenale conaisU of two senaton &odi 
•kIi Stale, ctMwen by tlw legislature for six yettn. The senate 
ia divided into three cLasws, the seatt of one of wliicb are vor- 
calcd every secood yew. If a vacancy happens, during the 
recem of ilte legislature, the executive of the state maXes a tem- 
porary app<HOIaieot of a senator, until the next meeting of the 
legislature. A senator must have attained lo the age of thirty 
yean, been a cilisen <^ tlie United ^ates nine years, and be an 
iahabhaut of the Stale for which he is chosen. 

Of the potnert of the two Houaet. " The boose of repre> 
■eniaiives choose ihnr own speaker and other officen, and 
have the exuusive power of im[ieaching public officers, and 
originating bills fui raising a revenue. The vice president oj 
Ae United Slates is president of the senate ; but tlie other c^* 
ccrs are chosen by the senate. The senate tries all impeacb- 
menta; each bouse determines the validity of the elections and 
qiialificati<»is of its own members, form* its own rules, and 
keeps a journal of iu proceedings. The members are privile^ 
ed from arrest, while attending on the session, going to, or re* 
turning from the same, except for treason, felony, or breach of 
the peace. 

Of tie poteen of Cottgret*. " The Congreu of the United 
States have power lo make and enforce all taws, which are 
•ecessary for the general welfare~as to lay and collect taxes, 
imposts, and excises ; borrow money, legutete commerce, esta- 
Mitb unilbroi rules of naturaliiation, ccun moitey, establish post 
roads and post-offices, promote the arts and sciences, institute 
tribunals inferiour to the supreme court, define and puiu»b 
piracy, declare war, and make reprisals, raise and support 
armies, provide a navy, regulate rtic militia, aqd to make all 
laws necessary to t^airy tbese powers into effect. 

Of Reitrictiona. " No bill of attainder, or retrospective 
law, shall be passed; the writ of habeas corpus cannot be sus- 
pended, except in cases of rebellion or Invasion ; no direct tax 
can be laid, except according to a census of the inhabitants ; no 
duty can be laid on exports, no money can be drawn from the. 
treasury, unless appropriated by law ; no title of nobility can 
be granted, nor can any publick officer, without the consent of 
tim^ress, accept of any present or title from any fordgn prince 
or state. The States are restrained irasa emitting ImIIs of credit, 
from making any thtiig but gold or silver 4 tender for debts, and 
pom passing any law impairing private contracts. 

<y % Bveeuiive, « Tfee executive pow«t of the UaUel 


States ia vested in a president, who fadds hii <^Bce for AMI 
years. To qualify a man for pietident, b« mtvt bare been • 
citiEen at the adoption of the conatilulton, or must be a s^ve 
of the Unit'^d Stales ; he mint have attained to the n|;e of 
diirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within Ac 
United States. The president and vice-president are cfiosoi 
ay electors designated in such a manner as tbe legiatatnre at 
each l^ate shall direct. The number of dectors, in each 
State is equal (o the whole numtwr of senators and represents- 

Of ihxpcwen of the Pretident. " The prerident of tbft 
United State* is commander in chief of the army and navy, and 
of the militia when in actual service. He grams reprieves and 
pardons ; nominates, and, wHh the consent of the senate, ajK 
points ambassadors, judges, and other officers ; and, with tM 
advice and consent of the senate, fomis treaties, provided two 
thirds of the senate agree. He lilts vacancies in offices which 
happen during tbe recess of the senate. He convenes tbe am- 
gress on extraordinary occa^ons, receives foreign ministers, 
gives information to congress of the state of publick affeirs, and 
in genCTal, takes care that the laws be faithlully execnted. 

Of the Judiciary. " The Judiciary of tlie United States 
consists of one supreme court, and such inferioiir courts as the 
congress shall ordain. The judges arp to hold their olilices du- 
ring good behaviour, and their salaries cannot be diminished 
during their continuance in office. The judieialpowrr of these 
courts extends to all cases in law and e4]idty, arising under (tx 
constitution, or laws of the United States, and tinder treaties ; to 
cases of publick minbters and consuls ; to all cases of ailmiralty 
and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies between the State*^ 
«im1 in which the United States are a party ; between citizens of 
difierent States ; between a State and a citizen of another State, 
and between citiaens of the same State, claiming under grants 
of different States ; and to causes between <me of the States or 
an American citicen, and a foreign State or citieen. 

Of Right* and Tmmunitiet. " In all criminal (rials, except 
bnpeachmMK, the trial by jury is guaranteed to the accused. 
Treason is restricted to the simple acts of levying war against 
the United States, and adhering to their enemies, giving them 
«d and comfort; and no person can be convicted, but by two 
witnesses to the same act, or by confession in open court. A 
conviction of treason is not followed by n comiptint» of blood, to 
disinherit the heirs of the criminal, nor by a fbrfature of estate 
except daring the life of the offender. The cttizeos of each 
State are entitled to all privileges and immunHies of citizens in 
tbe sereral Suies. Congress m^y admit new Stttci into the 


tmton, ind the national compact guatsntees, to each State, ftK- 
paUiean fbnn of government, together with prMectiiHi from to- 
reign invasion and dcMnotick Tiolence." 

Section VII. By a resolution of the conveD- 
tion, it was recommended that assemblies should 
be called, in the different States, to disKiusB the 
merits of the constitution, and either accept or 
reject it ; and, that as soon as nine States should 
have ratified it, it shoula be carried into operation 
by congress. 

To decide the interesting question, respecting 
the adoption or rejection of the new constitution, 
the best talents of the several States were as- 
wHnbled in their respective conventions. Tho 
fete of the constitution could, for a time, be 
scarcely conjectured, so equally were the parties 
balanced. But, at length, the conventions of 
eleven States* assented to, and ratified the JOn- 

Section VIII. From the moment it was settled 
that this new arrangement, in their political sys- 
tem, was to take place, the attention of all class- 
es of people, as well anti-federalists as federal- 
ists, (for, by these names, the parties for and 
Bgainst the new constitution were called,) wns 
directed to General Washington, as the first 
president of the United States. Accordingly, on 
the opening of the votes, for President, at New- 
York, March 3d, 1 789, by delegates from eleven 
Btates, it was found that, he was unanimously 
elected to that office, andliiat John Adams was 
elected vice-president. 

. •IfoilfcOaallBaK 
■ft«nreni< mmOwI iq 



Section IX ^atlttetfii. The war of the 

revoluticii, as was observed in our notes on the 
last period, seriously allected the morals and 
manners of the people of the . United States. 
The peace of 1783, however, tended, in a mea- 
Bure to restore things to their former state. 
Those sober habits, for which the country was 
previously distinguished, began to return ; busi- 
ness aasumed a more regular and equitable cha- 
racter; the tumuituous passions, roused by the 
war, subsided ; and men of wiadom and worth 
began to acquire their proper influence. 

The change wrought in the manners of the 
l^eople, during the revolution, began, in this pe- 
riod, to appear. National peculiarities wore 
away still more ; local prejudices were further 
corrected, and a greater assimilation of the yet 
discordant materials, of which the population of 
the United States was composed, took place. 

Section X. l^tliQitin, Methodism wm 
introduced into the United States, during this 
period, under the direction of John Wesley, in 
England. This denomination increased rapidly 
in the Middle States, and, in 1789, they amount- 
e<l to about fifty thousand. 

Daring this period, also, the infideliti/, which we have boSa- 
■«d, seems to have Iwit groDnd. Publich trorship wai morepune- 
tnally aaended, than during the war, and th« «siise of j^gioB 
*fcegan again to fiourisli. 

Section XI. ^tJlKt KXOt €^OmmtTtt* 
The commerce of the United States, during the 
war of Uie revolution, as already stated, was 
•nearly destroyed ; bat, on the -return of peaoe, 
it revived. An excessive importation of geeSs 
inmediately UK&pl^seftemEi^flsDd. laSSVAi 

ait ruiofi TL.-in9»-i7n. .bstabubhmbkt at 

the importe, from England alone, emoanted to 
eighteeo millioDa of dollars, and in 1 785, to 
twelve millions — making, in tlioae two years, 
thirty millioDs of dollars, while the exports of 
the United States to England were only between 
eight and nine miltiona. 

On the average of lix years posterior to the ww, the extent of 
this period, the imports from Great Britain inta the Uniteti 
States, were two Qiillions, one hundred and nineteen thousand, 
eight hundred and thirty-seven pounds sterling; the expwrs 
nine Jiu&dred and eight tiiousand, six hundred and thirty-six 

Cunda sterling, leaving an annual balance of five millions, Qiree 
odred and twenty-nine thousand, two hundred and eighty- 
four dollars in favour of Great Britain. 

The commercial intercourse of the United States with other 
countdei was less extensive, than with England, yet it was not 
inconsider^le. From France and her dependencies, the United 
States imported, in I7S7, to the amount of about two mUlions, 
five hundred thousand dollars, and exported to the same, to the 
value of five millions dollars. 

The trade of the United States with China commenced sooa 
after the close of the revolutionary war. The first American 
vessel that went cm a trading voyage to China, sailed from 
New- York, on the 22d of February, 17S4, and returned on the 
llthof May 1785. In I7S9 there were fifteen American ves- 
sels at Canton, being a greater number, than from any other na- 
tion, except Great Britiiin. 

During ibis period, also, the Americans commenced the long 
and hazardous trading voyages to the North West Coast of Ame- 
rica. The first of the kind, undertalien from the United States, 
was from Boston, in 178S, in a ship commanded by CapL Ken- 
drick. The trade afforded ereat profits, at fiiat,and since 1788) 
has been carried on from the United States to a considerE^le 

The whale Gsfaeiy, which during the war, was suspended, re- 
mved on the return of peace. From 1787 to 1789, both inclit- 
live, ninety-one vessels were employed from the United States, 
mth one thousand sis hundred and eleven seamen. Nearly 
eight thousand barrels of spermacily oil were annually taken, 
and about thirteen thousand barrels of whale oil. 

Small quantities of cotton were first exported from the United 
States about the year 17S4. It was raised in Georgia. 

Section XII. MW^tUltUtt* Agriculture 
revived at the close of the wari and, in a few 

I.,;.... .Couple 


]i«ars, the exports of produce raised in the Uni 
ted States were again considerable. Attentioo 
began to be paid to the culture of cotton, in the 
southern States, about the year 1 783, and it soon 
became a staple of that part of the country. 
About the same time, agricultural societies be- 
gan to be formed in the country. 

SectionXin. nvta&nTimjmnUnuvtft, 

The excessive importation of merchandize from 
Great Britain, during this period — muchof which 
was sold at low prices — checked the progress of 
manufactures in the United States, which had 
been extensively begun, during the war of the 
revolution. Iron works, however, for the con- 
struction of axes, ironing of carriages, and the 
making of machinery, &c. &c. were still kept up 
in all parts of the United States. Some coarse 
woollen and linen cloths, cabinet furniture, and 
the more bulky and simple utensils for domes- 
tick use, Slc. &c. were manufactured, in New- 

Section XIV. ^^Optllatfon* The nopulation 
of the United States, at the close of this period, 
was nearly four millions. 

Section XV. SVUCatCOtl. Several colleges 
were established, during this period — -one in 
Maryland, at Annapolis, called St. John's col- 
lege ; a second, in 1785, at Abington, in the 
same state, by the Methodists, called Cokeebury 
college ; a third, in the city of New- York; and 
a fourth, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1787 
—The former, by the name of Columbia college* 
and the latter, by that of Franklin college. 
The North Carolina university was incorporated 
in 1789. 

The subject of education, daiing this period^ 
L.,,.„j., Google 

SCO nuoliTL„iT«s.^in»..jeSTABUSH»ENT or 

seems to have attracted pubtick attention 
dirougliout the United States, aqd pormaaent ib- 
stitutioDti, for the inatniction of you^, were 
either planned, or established, in every sectitm 
of the country. 

XVL The hblory of the world furaUbea no pm^lel to the 
hhtory of the United States during this short period. At the 
commeiicement of it, they had but just emerged from ulii^g and 
distressing war, which had nearly exhausted the <»untry, and 
knpostfd an sccumulated debt upon the nation. They were 
united by a confednation inadequate to [he purposes of govern- 
ment ; they had just disbanded an army wliich was unp^d, and 
- diisatisfied, and more than all, they were untried in the art oj 

In circumstances like these, it would not have tteen strangv 
bad the people fnllen into dissensions and anarchy, or had some 
bold, ambitious spirit arisen, and fastened the yoke of monarchy 
upon them. But a happier destiny awaited them, tnthishotir 
<ii peril, tire same Providence, that had guided ihem thus far, 
•till watdied over them, end, as victory was granted them in 
the hour of battle, so wisdom was now vouchsafed In a day ot 
peace. Those mnsier spirits of the revolution, some of whom 
tiad recently retired from the camp to the enjoyment of civfl 
life, were now called lo devise the meansi of securing the inde- 
pendence which they had won. Perhaps they exhibited tu the 
world a no less striking spectacle as the framers of our excel' 
fcnt cnutitution, than as victrav ayex the arms oi BritaiB. 




ut tbr 

r:yTTi:i3 states 



ittJ.'y " 





Extendi:^ from the inauguration ofPreaidtnt 
Washington, 1789, to the iiutugvration of 
JoknAdamt,a$pTesidentofthe Vhited Statea, 

&cHon I. On the 30th of April, 1789, Gen. 
Washington, in the presence of the firstcongresB, 
under the Federal Constitution, and before an 
immense concourse of spectators, was inducted 
into the office of President of the United States, 
by tfiking the oath prescribed by the copstitu- 


bneUigence of his election was communicated to Washingtra, 
while on his farm in Vii^inia. On his way to New- York, ta 
enter upon the duties of l)is station, lie received, in almost eveiy 
[riace through which he passed, ihe higliesl expressions of afiec* 
lh>D and respect, th»t h grateful peupk could pay. 

Soon after his arrival in New-1 ork, a day was assigned for his 
taking the oath of office. On tlie morning of ihat day, publicli 
|irayen were offered in allilie churches. Ainuon, a procession 
ira< formed, which escorted Wasiilnglon, dressed on the occa- 
tion wholly in American manufactures, to Fedeiel HbH. Here 
the oath prescribed by the constitution was administered to him, 
by the chancellour of the Slate of New- York. 

The ceremonies of the4tifiuguTatinn being concluded, Wash- 
ington entered the senate chttiiibxr, and delivered his first speech. 
Id this, after expressing the reluctiince with which he obeyed the 
call of hit countrymen, from repose an* relirement, so ardently - 
coveted, after a series of miltt^ry toils, and the diffidence with 
which he entered upon an office, :io full of responsibility, he pn>> 
ceeded thus : 

" It will be peeuliarly Improper to omit, is this ^it officM 

202 raaoo nL-.i7B*;~im. 

mcif mj fervent •appCratioDs to that Abni^Xtf BeiDp^ whs 
niici over the univene; trhopreudaiDthecouitabof nationa," 
&C, Thus did Waabingtfui, in the ctmuneDcenient of bis nd- 
■uinittnttoD, publickly appear on the sideof religion ; norwai 
beaihimed to acknowledge, before the nation, Us sense gi dfr- 
peadeoce upon God, fur wisdom and direction. 

Section IL Business of importance, in rela 
tiun to the organization and support of the new 
gOTernment, now pressed upon the attention of 
Uie president, and of congress. A revenue was 
to be provided; the departments of government 
were to be arranged and tilled ; a judiciary was 
to be establiBhcd, and its officers appointed 
and provision was to be made for the support of 
publick credit. 

After a long discussion, congress agreed tc 
raise a revenue for iLe support of government 
by impost and tonnage duties. Having next 
fixed upon, and' arranged the several depart- 
ments of the government) the president, whose 
duty it was, proceedet) to nominate the proper 
persons to fill them. In performing this ser- 
vice, be appears to have been actuated, simply, 
by a regard to the best good of the country. 

Mr. Jefferson was selected for the depanment 
of State; Col. Hamilton was appointed secre- 
tary of the treasury ; Gen. Knox secretary of 
war, and Edmund Randolph attorney general. 
At the head of the judiciary wafl~ placed John 
Say, and with him were appointed John Rut- 
ledge, James Wilson, WiUiam Gushing, Robert 
Harrison, and John Blair. 

During this session of congress, several new 
articles were proposed to be added to the con- 
stitution, by way (Jf amendment, and to be avit 
mitted to the several States for their appro 



After a long and aoimated discusaitHi of the 
subject, twelve new articles were agreed upon, 
which, when submitted to the respective State 
legislatures, were approved by three-iburths of 
them, aod were thus added to the constitution. 

Congress adjourned on the 29th of Septem- 
ber. It was among their concluding acta, to 
direct the secretary of the treasury to prepare a 
plan for adequately providing for the support of 
the public credit, and to report the same at their 
next meeting. 

Section III. During the recess of congress, 
Washington made a tour into New-Engtand! 
Passing through Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts, and into New-Hampshire, as far as Ports- 
mouth, he returned by a different route tO New- 

With this excursion, the president bad much reasun to be gra- 
tified. To observe the progress of society, the improvemenU 
in agrictilture, commeTce, and manulactum, and the temper, 
cirGuiiutance*, and dbpoaitioDa of ihe people — while it could 
not fail to please an intelligent and benevolent miod, iraa, in all 
respects, worthy of the chief magistrate of the nation. He wai 
every where received with expressions of the purest affectitHi, 
and could not fail to rejoice in the virtue, religion, happineit, 
and prosperity of the people, at the head of whose government 
ae was placed. 

Section IV. The second session of the first 
congress commenced, January 8th, 1790. In 
obedience to the resolution of the former con- 
gress, the secretary of the treasury, Mr. Hamil- 
tcHi, made his 'report on the subject of main- 
tainiag the public credit. 

In this report, he strongly recommended to 
•ongraas, as the only mode, in his opinion, in 
which the public credit would be supported : 

1. That provision be made fur the full dis* 


264 rCBIOD VIL„l>aSL_lTKt 

charge of the fiwel^ debt, accoTding to the 
precise terms of tlie contract. 

2. That provision be made for the payAeol 
of the domcfitick debt, in a similar maimer. 

3 That the debts of the several States, 
created for the purpose of carrying on the war, 
be assumed by the general govemmeDt. 

The proposal for making adequate provisioo 
for the foreign debt was met, cordially and-una- 
nimou^ly ; but, respecting the full discharge of 
the domestic debt, and the assumption of the 
State debts, much division prevailed in con- 
gress. Ailer a spirited and protracted debate 
on these subjects, the recommendation of the 
secretary prevailed, and bills conformable 
thereto passed, by a -small majority. 

The dmsion of seDtimoat among the memben of congreu, in 
lelation to die full, or only a partial payment i^. the dtnoeslick 
ilebt, arose from ihis. A considerable proportion a( the origin- 
al holders of publick securities had found it necessary to sell 
dtem, at a reduced price — even ai low as two or three shillings 
on th« pound. These securitiea had been purchased by specti- 
laton, with the expectation of ultimately receiving the bit 
MDount. Under these circumstances, it was comended by 
some, that ccmgress would perform their duty, should they pay 
to all holders of publick securities only the reduced market pnce. 
Others advocated a discrimination between the present holders 
of securities, and those to whom the debt was or^inaUy due, 
&c. &c. 

In bis report, Mr. Hamilton ably examined these severd 
points, and strongly mnintained the justice of paying to al 
nolders of flecurities, without discrimination, the full ralue oi 
what appeared on the face of their tertifioatn. This lie coi^ 
tended, justice demanded, and for this, the publick faith wot 

By the opposes of the bill, which lelnted to the nsaumptiifn 
ttt the State debts, the constitutional authority of the fedend 
goremment for this purpose was questioned ; and th« policy 
and justice of tli< measute controverted. 

To cancel the several debts which congr^sB 
thus undertstok to discharge, the proceeds of 


pqbUok Itinds. lying in the western territory, 
were directed to be applied, together with the 
surplus reTenue, and a loan of two millions of 
dollars, which the president was authorized to 
.borrow, at an interest of five per cent. 

This measure laid the foundation of publtck 
credit upon such a basis, that government paper 
soon rose from two shillings and six pence to 
twenty shillings on the pound, and, indeuJ, for 
a short time, was above par. Individuals, who 
had. purchased certificates of public debt low, 
realized immense fortunes. A general spring 
was given to the affairs of the nation. A spirit 
of enterprise, of agriculture, and commerce, 
universally prevailed, and. the foundation was 
thus laid for that unrivalled prosperity which the 
United States, in subsequent years, enjoyed. 

Section V. During this session of congress, 
a bill was passed, fixing the seat of government 
for ten years at Phikidetphia, and, from and 
after that time, permanently at Washington, on 
the Potomac. 

Sectitm VI. On the 4th of March, 1791, Ver- 
uonT, by consent of congress, became one of 
the United States. 

The tract of country, which Is now known by the name of 
Vermont, was settled at a much later period, than any nther of 
the eastern states. The goTemments of New- York and Massa- 
cbusetts made large grants of territory in the direction of Ver- 
mont ; but it was not until 1734, that any actual possession wai 
taken of land, withhi the present boundaries of the State. la 
that year, Fort Durance was buiit, by the officers of Mauacho- 
■etts, on Connecticut river. On the other side of the state, the 
French advanced up lake Champlain, and, in 1731, buitt 
CroWn Foin^ and began a settlement on the eastern shore <ri 
the lake. 

Vermont being supposed to fall within the limits of Nev 
Rampshke, that goveminent made lai^ grants of land to sett' 
lors, even west «f Connecticut river. New-Voric, however, cotf 

8» .._„G„oslc 

SC6 nuoD vn^vm-im- 

cciTCd benrif to lum b beitv ^it to the tenilacy, in cmw- 
quMicc trf the grant of Cbarks H. to hit brotbcr the dnkf nf 
iwk. Hxte itatn bone thus at uuue, tbe com was rabmhted 
lo the Engliib crown, which decided in bTDur of New-Yofk, 
aai c(m6rined hi jmitdictioa, u br ai CanDecticm river. In 
tbU decision New Uanipshire acquktced ; but Nsw-YotIl per- ■ 
lAatiag in Hs clunu to land east of the river, ttctions of eject- 
aent were instituted in the court* at Albany, which resolted m 
iarour of the New-Trak title. The aetU«^, hoverer, dece^ 
mined to resist tbe officer* of justice, and under Ethan AQen, 
wsociated together to oppose the New- York niilUu, which wer« 
caU*^ 'U to enftffce the laws. 

^•1 the commencemeirt of the rerohition, the people of Ver 
noot were placed in an embarnustng utuation. Tfiey had nn 
evea a form of govemment. The jurisdiction of Nev^York 
bring disclumed, and allegiance to the British crown refhsed, 
eveiy thing was cQected by Toluntary agreement. In Jantisry, 
1777, a convention met and proclaimed ihat the diatrict before 
known by the name of the New Hampshire grants, was of right 
a fiee And independent JBrisdit:tion, and should be liencefortb 
called New CnmeotiaH^ aliat Venoont. The esurentJoB pr^ 
ceeded to mAke known their proceedings to congress, mid peti- 
Uoned lo be admitted into ine confederacy. To lhi», New- 
York ubjected, and for a time, prevailed. Other difficulties 
i>Me naui New Hanipsbire and MBssacbuaetts, each of whidi 
bidclaia to land within the piesnitbouBdaries trflhertate. At 
the peace ori7SS, Vermoni found herself a sovereign aadinde- 
pendent slate de facto, united with no confederation nnd theK* 
fbre unemtuirraased by the debts that weighed down the other 
«aUB. Ncwt-Yoit still dwned jurisdiction Q*cr the sta», bi|t 
was unable to enforce it, and the state goveniBBnl ww *'"'' 
istered as regularly as in any of the other states. After the 
formation of the federal coostituUon, Vermont again retjuested 
admisnon into the Union. The opposition of New- York was 
(till strong, but in 1789 was finally whhdrawn, ij|ion the co"- 
sent of Vermont to pay her the sum of thirty thouiand dDllar>| 
Thus termuiated a controversy which had been canied on wil» 
animosity, and with injury to both parlies, for twenty-six V^^' 
A convention was immediately called, hy which it *»» '^ w^ 
.o join the federal union. Upon Hpi^icalion to «>ngt«»» Jh^ 
consent was readily eiven, ftnd on the 4tb of Match, l791j.Y»* 
tnont was added to the United States. 

SmUq* VII. At tbe time tbat ooagFeBS m- 
aumed the State debts, during their second »►■ 
•ion, ftg pecretaiy of tt^e treasuiy had www 

L,,.... .Google 

meftded a tax on dotnGsUck spirits, to Enable 
tbetn to pay the interest. The discussion of the 
bill having been postponed to the third session, 
was early in that ^"ession taken up. The tax, 
contemplated by the bill, was opposed with 
great vehemence, by a majority of coutherri and 
western members, on the ground that it was un- 
necessary and unequal, and would be particu- 
larly burdensome upon those parta of the Union, 
which could not, without very great expense, 
procure foreign ardent spirits. Instead of this 
tax, these members proposed an increased duty 
an imported articles generally, a particular duly 
on molasses, a direct tax, or a tax on salaries, 
&:.c. &e. After giving rise to an angry and 
protracted debate, the bill passed, by a majority 
of thirty-five to twenty-one. 

Section VIII. The secretary next appeared 
with a recommendation for a national bank. 
A bil), coaforming to his plan, being sent down 
from the senate, was permitted to progress, un- 
molested, in the house of representatives, to the 
third reading. On the final reading, an unex- 
pected opposition appeared against it, on the 
ground that banking systems were ustdass, that 
the proposed bill was defective, bnt. especially, 
that congress was not vested, by the consthu- 
tion, with the competent power to establiajt a 
national bank. 

These several objections were met by the 
fliipporters of the bill, with mueh strength ol 
u-gument. After a debate of great length, sup- 
ported with the ardour excited by the import* 
ance of the subject, the bill was carried io the 
•ffirmative, hjf a nityority of nineteen voices. 

t6t EUOD V^tT80_im. 

A bill which had been s^ted with to niiich wnmuh, in tbm 
hquse of representative!, the executive wai now called upon to 
cxamtae with refereitce to its sanction or rrjectinn. The pr»- 
ddent ivquired the opinions of the cabinet in writing. The ae- 
afOarj oTittfe, Mr. Jefferson, and (he attomejr general, Mr. 
Randolph, considered the bill as decidedly nnconititutioiia]. 
The secr^ary of the treasury, Mr. [lomillon, with equal deci 
tion, maintained the opposite opinion. A deliberate invest^ 
tioD of the (iibject uUsCed the president, both of the constitv 
tiooaliiy and utihty of die bill, upon which he gave it hit wiga^ 

Tbft bill which had now passed, with those n-Jating to the S 
tiancei of the country, the assumption of the state debts, th« 
fundifig of the nationa) debt, &c contributed greatly to the com- 
plete organization of those distinct and visible parties, wbicli, in 
tbar loi^ and ardent conflict for power, have sinci! shaken the 
United States to their centre. 

Section IX. While matters of high importance 
were occupying the attention, and party etrife 
and conflicting interests were filling the coun- 
sels of congresa with agitation, an Indian war 
opened on the north-weatern frontier of the 
States. Paeiiick arrangements had been at- 
tempted by the president with the hostile tribes, 
without effect. On the failure of these, an of- 
fensive expedition was planned agmnat the 
tribes, northwest of the Ohio. 
,The cowpinnd of the troops, consisting of 
three hundred regulars, and about one thousand 
two hundred Pennsylvania and Kentucky mi- 
litia, was given to Gen. Harmar, &. veteran 
officer of tlie rtsvolution. His instructions re- 
quired him, if possible, lu bring the Indians to 
an engagement ; but, in any event, to destroy 
their settlements, on the waters of the Bcioto, 
a river felling into the Ohio, and the Wabash, 
in the Indiana territory. In this expedition, 
Harmar succeeded in destroying some villages, 
and a quantity of grain,, belonging to the In 
disna ; but in an engagement wiui thenij near 


Chilkotbe, he waa routed with conatdMable 
UfNHi the failure of Gen. Harmar, Major-Ge- 

neral Arthur St. Ciair was appointed to succeed 
him. Under the authority ofan act of congress^ 
the president caused a body of levies to be rais- 
ed for six months, for the Indian service. 

Section X. Having arranged the northweat- 
erii expedition, directing St. Clair to destroy 
the Indian villages, on uie Miami, and to drive 
the savages from the Ohio, the presidoat com- 
menced a tour through the southern States, simi- 
lar to that which he had made through the 
northern and central parts of the union, in 1789. 

The same enpresSions of respect and alTeeiion awaited hitn,in 
every stag<e of his tour, wbich had been so zealijuidy accordedta 
him m the north. H«it, also, lie enjoyed tke high satiEfecttW 
W witnejting the nios^ happy efiects, resukieg from tke adni- 
tustratiDD of tjiat government gver wliicb he presided. 

Sectum XL On the 24th of October, 1791, 
the second congress comitieBced its titst session. 
Among the subjects that early engaged their 
attention, was a bill " for apportioning represen- 
tatives among the people of the several States, 
according to the first census." J^^ much dis- 
cussion, concerning the ratio ^^ should be 
adopted, between representation and population, 
congress Anally fixed it at uue representative to 
each State, for every tfairty-three thousand is- 

The first biU fixed the ratio at one representative for ereiy 
t^rty thousand inhabitants ; btil to this bi)) the senate weulS 
not agree. A-seccmd bill was introduced, pruvidmg one repre* 
Bentatlv€ for every thirty thousand, aod dividing eight repr^ 
sentaliveg amo|ig those States which had the greatest fractions. 
'Tliis bill the president returned to the house, w^ience it origiiMiW 
«d, a£ uacoartitudoiiat, as by it, eight States wtuld send mtn 
Rprcsentativas than their popniation flowed 

Ssetden XiL In December, iatdIifCBwe«ni 

S70 PERIOD Va_.iT89— (797. 

receired by the president, that the array under 
GeD. St. Clmr, in battle with the Indians, near 
die Miami, in Ohio, bad been totally defeated on 
the 4th of the preceding month. 

The army of St. Clair ofliounted to near one thousand Htc 
hundred men. The Indian fi>rce consisted of nearly the same 
number. Of the losi c^ the Indians, no estimate could be fann- 
ed; but the lou of the Amnicans was unusually severe ; thutjr- 
' eigbt eommiuioned officers were killed in the field, and five 
hundred and ninety-three non-commissioned o&ieers and privates 
were slain and missing. Between two and three hundred offi- 
cers andjprivates were wounded, many of whom afterwardi 
died. Tu* result of the expedition was as unexpected, aa ua- 
Intimate ; hot no want nther of ability, seal or intrepidity, was 
aacribed, by a conuoittee of congress, appointed tn eianine the 
causes of its failure, lo the commander of the expedition. 

Section XIII. Upon the news of St. Clair's 
defeat, a bill was introduced into congress for 
raising three additional regiments of mfantry, 
and a squeidron of cavalry, to serve for three 
' years, if not sooner discharged. This bill, al- 
though fiofdly carried, met with an opposition 
more warm and pointed, from the opposers of 
the administration, than any which had before 
been agitated in the house. 

By those who opposed the bill, it was u^d that the war with 
the Indians vMBuijust ; that militia would answer as well, and 
evea better ttn^Kgular troops, and would be less expensive tn 
support ; that adequate funds coald not be provided ; and more 
than all, that this addition of one regiment to the army after ano- 
ther gave fearful intimation of monarchical designs, on the part of 
those who administered the govemmeut. 

On the other hand, the advocates of the bill contended, that 
tfae war was a war of self defence; that between the years 1783 
aad 1790, not less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants 
of Kentucky, or emigrants to that country, and probably double 
that number, had been massacred by Uie Indians; and that re. 
pealed efforts had been made by the rovemment to obtain a 
^ace, not withstanding which, the' but dieries of the savages stSl 
continued in their most ^palling forms. - 

Section XIV. On the 8th of May, 1792,cwi- ■ 
grees adjourned to the first Monday in Novem- 


ber. The asperity which, on more than one. 
occasion, had discovered itself in the course of 
debate, was a certain index of the growing ex- 
asperation of parties. With their adjournment, 
the conflicting feelings of members in a measure 
subsided ; the opposition, however, to the admi- 
nistration, had become fixed. It was carried 
- into retirement — was infused by members into 
their constituents, and a party was thus formed 
throughout the nation, hostile to the plans of 
government adopted by Washington, and his 
friends in the cabinet. 

Section XV. On the first of June, 1792, Ken- 
tucky, by act of congress, was admitted into 
the Union as a State. 

The country, now called Kentucky, was well known to the 
Indian traders, many years before its settlement. By whom it 
was first explored, is a matter of uncertainty, and has given rise 
to controversy. In 1752, a map wrs published by Lewis 
Evans, of the country on the Ohio and Kentucky rivers ; and 
it seems that one James Machr'de, with others, visited this re- 
gion in 1754. No further attempt was made to explore tiie 
country until 1767, when John Finley of North CaroKna, tr(t- 
vetted over the ground on the Kentucky river, called by the In- 
dians, "tlie dark and bloody ground." On retoming to Caro- 
lina, Finley communicated his discoveries to CQ^>aniel Boone, 
who in 1769, with some othera, undertook toflpoi^ the coun-' 
(ry. After a long and fatiguing march, tbe^^iscovered the 
bmitiful valley of Kentuclcy. Col. Boone continued an inhabit- 
ant of thb wilderness until 1771, when be returned to his fa- 
mily for the purpose of removing them, and forming a settlement 
in the new country. In 1773, having .made the necessary pre- 
parations, he set !out again whh 6ve families and forty men, from 
Powell's Valley, and after various impediments, reached the 
Kentucky river, in March 177^, where he commenced a settle- 

In the years, 1778, 1779, ai¥i 1780, a consiilerable number 
of persons emigrated to Kentucky ; yet, in this latter year, after 
an unusually severe winter, the inhabitants were so distresseil 
that they came the determination of abandoning the country fpr 
ever. They were fortunately diverted from this step, by the ar- 
rival of emigrants. Ihiring die revolutionary war they sufleretl 

S71 «RIOD vn-...iw.-.iW- 

MTfJely frotu the Indians, incited by the Bu^h g 
1b 1779, Qen. Clarke uveTcame the Indianc, nnd luid waste 
tbeir villages. Frnni this time ihe inhabitanu began to feel 
mure secure,. and the settlements were extended. In 1779) tlw 
legistalure of Virginia, within whose limits this re^on lay, erect- 
ed it into a coanty. In 1782, a su]ȴtne court, with an attor- 
nej-^eneral, waa established within the district, la the yean 
1783, 1784, and 178S, ^e district was laid out into counties, 
andagreat pan of the country surveyed and patented, bi IT^i, 
an attempt' was made to form an independent State ; but a ma- 
jority of tbe inliabilanls being opposed to the meoHire, it wa* 
delayed until December, I?!^, when it became a separate st&te. 
In 17£12> a« stated above, it was admitted into the UnioB. 
The ^owth of Kentucky has been rapid, and she has oblaineJ 
a re^iwctable runk and iDfiuoncc among her sister State*. 

Section XVl. Duriog the cecess of congress, 
preparRtiotis were hastened by tlie presidcot, 
for a vigorous prosecution of the war with the 
Indians ; but such small inducements were pre- 
aeuted to engage in the service, that a sufficient ' 
Dumber of recruits coukl not be raised to autho- 
rize an expedition ugainbt them the present 
ycnr. As the clammir against the war, by tlte 
opposcrs of ihe ndininitstniTioB, waa atiJl loud, 
the prcsidtoit deemed it advisable, while prepa- 
ration* for„JiostiIities were advancing, to make 
another efloirt at negotiation, with the un- 
friendly Indians. The charge of this business 
was comaiitted to CoL. Harden and Maj. Free- 
man, two brave officers, and valuable men, who 
Were murdered by the Bavages. 

Section XVII. On the opening of the next 
congress, in Nuvcmber, a motion wns made to 
reduce the military establishment, but it did not 
prevail. The debate on ibis subject was pecu* 
liarfy earnest, and the danger of standing ar- 
mies was powerfully urged. This motion, de 
ngned as a reflo<ition upon the executive, wM 
foflowed by several resohitions, intiodocod by 


Mr. Giles, tending to criminate the secretaiy of 
the treasury, Mr: Hamilton, of mieconduct, in re- 
lation to certain loans, negotiated under hid di- 

In tliree distinct reports, sent to tlie houBe, 
the secretary offered every require<i explanation, 
' and ably defended hims^ilf against the attackei 
of the opposition. Mr. Giles, Bnd^some others, 
however, were not satisfied ; other resolutions 
were, therefore, offered, which, although re- 
jected, were desiguRd to fix upon the secretary 
the reputation of an ambitious man, aiming at 
the acquisition of dangerous power. 

During theite discussions, veheraenE attacks were made upon 
the secretary, in the publick prints. Hints also were suggeited - 
agEunsI tjie president himBcIf; and although he vas not openly 
accused of being the bead of the federal party, of &vouring their 
cause, or designing to subvert the liberties of his country, yet it 
was apparent that such suspicions were entertuined of hiro. 

On the 3d of March, T 793, a constitutional 
period' was put to the existence of this congress. 
The members separated with obvious symptoms 
of irritation ; and it was not to be doubted that 
their efforts would be exerted to communicate 
to their constituents tlie feelings which agitated 
their bosoms. 

Section XVIII. The time had now arrived, 
1 793, when the electors of the States were again 
called upon to choose a chief magistrate of the 
Union'. Washington had determined to with- 
hold himself from being again elected tothe 
presidency, and to retire from the cares of poli- 
tical life. Various considerations, however, 
prevented the declaration of his wishes, and he 
was again unanimously elected to the chair of 
State. Mr. Adam<t wts re-elected vice-'pre- 
aident. , . , 

274 rCRtOD ni--lT8B_lT*r; 

Section XIX. Through the unceaung endct 
TOUTS of the president to terminate the lodiau 
war, a treaty had beeti negotiated with the In- 
dians, on. the Wabash ; and through the inter- 
vention of the SixNation:^, those of tlie Miamis 
had' consented to a conference during the 
ensuing spring. Offensive operations were- 
therefore, suspended, although the recruiting 
service was industriously urged, and assiduous 
attention was paid to the discipline and prepa 
ration of the trnops. 

Section XX. Tho Indian war, though of real 
importance, was becoming an object of second- 
ary conaideration. The revolution in France 
. was now progresaing, and began ao to affect wtt 
relation with that country, as to require an ex* 
ertion of all the wisdom and firmness of the go* 
vemment. Early in April, also, information 
was received of the* declaration of war by 
France, against England and Holland. 

This event excited the deepest interest in the 
United States. A large majority of the people, 
grateful for the aid tliat France nad given us in 
Our revolution, and devoted to the cause of li- 
berty, were' united in fervent wishes for the suc- 
cess of tho French repubhck.* At the same 

*TtiBmK>)tak)iiIiiFVancacoiBmeBce(labinit(ha]r«*rl7S). ■t'*J?51' 
to have bom hMtencd, or brought on, b7 be aewldeu of fraedom, VBUU 
bad beu imbibed by tha Frandi »rmj in Um Vnittd SUM, *I><1 >^*»<" 
diMcmitinted aiUoi^ tbc peoiile of Fraikce, fot atonKtimeapprMMaa^ 
dagnded by a dctpotMt catemment UDfortniialsIf, tbe rarotnliau M 
into lh«handiof*alfl^ utd unprineipled mea, who, in 17S3, eze^Xn 
their kini, Lgnb XVI. nod, KioD after,lita bmilj, nod murdered or najWj 
lonedaMte wbo were Mupeetedof boefiU^ to tkeir i>i«<in, •t><lb>™"4 
Pranee in a eeeM itf nik and bloodshed, wluch oannot be MDteMliw^ 
withmX bOTnmr. In the ftttt *ti«e« of Ihi* rcrolullon, Ibe ftieodi of v. 
bar^ throD^nltte world were ftdl af b^ee for a mdloialUon ofOM po- 
litiealMndiaonofPrsBce; but tbeMbcmt were iood blaiMdl^ !)>■•">' 
falnuj Kcpi adt^ited by tbe rerolutioiuiti. Had thej been men <•'*'* 


Ihne, the prejudiceB against Great Britain, which 

had taken deep root during the revolution, now 
jprung forth afresh, and ^e voice of many waa 
deurd, ur^ng the propriety of the United States 
making a common cause with France against 
Great Britain. 

A pressing occurrence had called Waahing- 
ton to Mount Vernon, when intelligence arrived 
of the rupture between France and England. 
HaBtening his return to Philadelphia, he Bum- 
moned the attention of his cabinet to several 
questions respecting the course of conduct, pro- 
per for the United States to observe in relation 
to the belligerentB. 

Although sensible of the prejudices existing 
in the country against Great Britain, and of the"' 
friendly disposition which prevailed towards 
France, it was the unanimous opinion of the 
cabinet, that a strict neutrality should be ob- 
served by the United States towards the con- 
tending powers. Tbe council was also unani- 
mous that a minister from the French Repub- 
fick should be received, should one be-sent. 

In accordance with the advice of his catanet, 
Ae president issued his proclamation of neu- . 
tr«lity, on the 22d of April, 1 793. This pro- 
clamation, being without legislative sanction, - 
soon became the subject of load invective. The 
oppoution party, through the press, pronounced 
it "a royal edict," an assumption <a power on 
the part of the president, and a proof of his mo- 
narcnical disposition. They denounced the con- 

Mi bricmom Mtd raGskitt, tnctoad of anbriiUed asblttoa : MdMedb^lt 
pbibnthn^iclt itgari to the good of tbe people, iQMeut of i seHih fluni 
ofpower: Pniwe to Hiij di; nitiA\t»nmlojtii flwt h M i^ ti afftArM 


Src PEBIOD VII->1TS9.~1797. 

duct of the executive as dishonourable, and an 
act of neutrality, as bigh ingratitude towards 
France, the finn and magnanimous ally of tbe 
Uoited 8tates, which had assisted in achieving 
die liberties of the country. 

Section XXI. In this state of things, the Re- 
publick of France recalled the ministei' of the 
crown, and appointed Mr. Genet to- succeed 
him. His miBsion had for its object the enlist- 
ing of America in the cause of France, against 
Great Britain. Flattered by the manner in 
which he was received by the people, as well as 
by their professions of attachment to his coun- 
try, Mr. Genet early anticipated the accomplish- 
ment of his object.— Presuming too much upon 
this attachment, he was led into a series of acts 
infringing the neutrality proclaimed by the prp- 
sident. He also attempted to rouse the people 
against the government, because it did notse- . 
cond all his views. At length, on the advice 
of his cabinet, the president solicited of the 
French Republick the recall of Mr. Genet, and 
the appointment of some one to succeed him. 
Monsieur Fauchet was appointed, and was in- 
structed to assure tbe American government, 
that France totally disapproved of the conduct 
of his predecessor . 

Mr. Oenet, on hii aniTal in the country, landed at ChaHe» 
iwi S, C, He was received by the govpmour of that State, an« 
by tbe citizens, with a Sow orenthusiastick feeling, equalled on>y 
by that which had been eraiced towards hb natim at ihe con- 
quest of Yorktown. 

Soon after landing at Charleston, he b^n to authorise the 
fitting and arming of vessels, in that port, enlisting men, and 
^ving commissions to cruise and commit hostilities against na- 
tions, with which the United States were at peace. Vessels cap- 
tured by these cruisers were brought into port, and the cmisiu* 
of France, under the authority of Genet, n<^ yet recognized »*'* ' 
miiiitter by the American government, assumed the power «f 



lulding courts of admiralty on them, of trying and condemning 
them, and of authorizing their sale. Upon a complaint of the Bri- 
tish minister, Mr. Hammond, the American cabinet unanimously 
coDdemned ^ose proceedings, and agreed that the efficacy of the 
laws should be tried against those cidzeiu, who had beoi con- 
cerned in them. Prosecutions were accordingly ordered and ac 
tnally commenced. 

Tlie decisions and conduct of the cabinet gave great umbrage 
to Genet, who had now been accredited as the minister ol 
France. In his communications to the secretary of state, his 
dissatisfaction was expressed in strong terms, and the executive 
charged with holding opinions, and adopting a course diametn 
cally opposed to the views and wishes of the American people. 
In language highly oQensive and reprehensible, he demande*} 
that those persons under arrest, by order of the government et 
the United States, should be released, " on the ground that they 
woe acting under the authority of France, and defending the 
glrarious cause of liberty in common with her children." Anil 
at length, he incautiously avowed the purpose, should his de- 
mands not be complied with, of appealing from the president td 

'The language and conduct of Genet made a deep impression 
on the officers of the administration ; but happily, they preserv- 
ed, in all their communications with that gentleman, a beconting 
digniQr, and continued to express a high respect and affection for 
his nation, and an earnest desire to promote its interests. 

On the meeting of congress, Deceml>er, 1793, the prodama 
tion of neutrality was approved by them, hi well asthe condact 
of the government towards Mr. Genet. 

Fmding on most questions, arisingbelween the Frend) minis 
ler and the government of the United States, a wide and an in 
creasing difference of views, and perceiving no beneficiel effects 
resulting from his continuance in that character the cabinet 
unauimously advised his recall. 

SectionXXll. 1794. On the last day of De 
cember, 1793, Mr. Jefiferson, the secretory of 

state, reeigned his office, and was succeeded 
by Edmund Randolph, the then attorney-gene- 
ral. This latter office was filled by William 
Bradford, a gentleman of considerable emi- 
nence in Penne^Wania. 

Section XXIII. During the session of con- 
gress this year, a resolution passed to iprcvido a 

278 PEBIOD VII..„lT89.~.lTt7. . 

naval force adequate to the protection of the 
commerce of the United States, against the Al- 
gerine corsairs. The force proposed wih to 
consist of six frigates, four of forty-four, and two 
of thirty -six guns. 

This meaiure was founded upon the conmunications of the 
pmident, from which it appeared that the prospect of being 
able tu n^oiiate a treaty of peace with the dey of Algiara was 
donbtfol ; that eleven Ajnerican merchant vessels, and upwardt 
of one hundred citisena hod been captured by them ; and that 
funher preparations were making for a renewed attack upon ub< 
protected vessels, belonging to the United States. 

SectionXXIV. During this session of congress, 
a law passed, prohibiting the carrying on of the 
slave trade froim the American ports. 

England had been actively engaged in the slave trade nearly 
fifty yean, when the first settlement was effected in Virginia. 
Slaveiy wag early introduced into the American colonies. The 
first staves, about twenty in number, were brought to Virgitiia, 
in 1619, by a Dutch ship. The importation of them gradnally 
increased, and althougli principally bought by the sonthem 
|Jant«i, slaves were soon found, in great numbera, in all the 
colonies. In lTS4, they amounted to six hundred thboiaad. In 
1790, to six bundled and ninety-seven thousand six bundred 
and ninety-six. 

A disgust towards this inhuman traffick appeared very early 
in the colonies | but it was countenanced and patronized by aie. 
English government, and thus introduced into, and festened 
upon the country, without the power, on the part of the colonies, 
to arrest it 

. In Massachusetts, m 1645, a law was made, " prolHl»&w 
the buying and selling of slaves, except those taken in lawfU 
war, or reduced to servitude by their dimes." In 1703, the 
same colony imposed a heavy duty on every negro impotted^ 
and in a subsequent law on the subject, they called the pi«e6e«^ 
" Ike utatataral tmd tixaccotmtable aulom of aulavittg mm- 
fditd." In Virpnia, as early as I699, attempts were ma^ to 
repress the importation of slaves, by heavy duties. These, and 
other acts, show that the North American provinces would, if 
left to themselves, have put an end to the importatioD oi sUvgt 
before the era of dieir independence. 

In 1778, VirginJa abolished the traffick by law ; Cotmectieot, 
Rhode-Island, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts prohibited it 
before Ae year 1789- The continental congress passed, ft reso- 


laiaa ngwnst the purchaie of slaves, imported from Africt, Uid 
ezhoned the colonies to abandon the trade alb^etber. TIr 
third UH^reM of the United States, as stated above, prohibited 
the tiack, by lair. Thus we see, in the United States, a v«y 
early and settled aversion to tlie slave trade ntaniresting itself, 
Mid before European nations had consented to relinquish it, 
■everal of the States had utterly proliibited it 

Section XXV. At this Bession, also, several 
measures were adopted in anticipation of a frar 
with Great Britain, growing out of her commer- 
cial restriction, which bore heavy, and operated 
most unjustly upon the U. States. Bills were 
passed for laying an embargo for thirty days — 
for erecting fortifications-^for organizing the 
militia, and iiicreasing the standing army. As 
an adjustment of differences, however, seemed 
desirable, Mr. Jay was appointed envpy extraor- 
dinary to the court of St. James, and succeeded 
in negotiating a treaty with Great Britain the 
following year. 

Among the offensive acts of the.govemn]ent of Great Britain, 
was an o«ler of June, 1793, prohibiting the exportalion of corn 
to France, and authorizing the capture of neutral vessels car- 
rying it Uiither, Under this order, many American vessels 
trere captured, and carried into England. In November fol- 
■onjng, additional instructions were given by the British cabinet, 
to ships of war, asd privateers, to bring into port, for trial, 
all sbi[^ laden with goods from France, on her colonics, 
and such as were canying pnmsions, or other supplies, to 
either. To these causes of complaint, Great Britain had added 
another, viz. neglecting to deliver up the western posts accord' 
me to treaty. 

While measures were taking, in anticipatiijn of war, the pre- 
sident received advices from England, that (he order of Novem- 
ber had been considerably modified ; that most of the merchant 
vessels, which had been carried into port for trrnl, would be »• 
leased ; and that a dispositivii for peace with the United Sttfei 
existed in the British cabinet. 

These advices opened to the president a prospect of restoring 
s good understanding between the two natitms, and induced hitr 
inmediately to neoiinate an envoy to settle cxiating differeiioesi 


280 PERIOD r....l7S0..1797. 

and to negotiate comniercial arrangements. The nomina&iD of 
Mr. Jay wai ^prov«d, in the senate, by g majority of t«D. 

To thoM opp«)ied to the acUninistTation, no step could have 
been more unexpected, or disagreeahle, than thia decisive mea- 
siure of the praident. Prejudices against Great Britaiu had 
risen to tbnr height, and hostilities against her were loudly de- 
manded, a* both just and necessary. It was not singular, there- 
fore, that for this act, the president should receive the severest 
censures of the oppoMtioa party, nor that all who favoured tu) 
effotts for peace should be included in the general denunciation. 

Section XXVI. The Hiispension of hostilities 
against the Indians in the northwest, in conse- 
quence of their consenting to a conference in 
the spring of 1794, has already been noticed 
This effort to conchide a treaty with them fail- 
ing, "Gen. Wayne, who had succeeded Gen. St. 
Clair, engaged the Indians, August 30th, 1794, 
on the banks of the Miami, and gained a com- 
plete victory over them. 

The American troops engaged in this battle did not exceed 
nine hundred ; the Indians araoimted to two thousand. In tbia 
decisive engagemeni, Geo Wayne lost one hundred and seven 
in killed and wounded, including officers. After the battle he 
proceeded to Ug waste the whole Indian countiy. By meaua 
of this victory over the Mianiis, a general war with the Six Na- 
tions, and all the tribes northwest of the Ohio, was prevented. 

' Section XXVII. This year, 1794, was dis- 
tinguished by an insurrection in PennBylvania, 
growing out of laws enacted by congress, in 
1791, laying duties on spirits distilled within the 
Umted States, and upon stills. In August, the 
president issued his proclamation, commandiog 
the insurgents to disperee. This not haying 
the desired effect, a respectable body of miliM 
was ordered out, under Gov. Lee, of Maryland, 
on whose approach the insurgents laid down 
their arms, solicited the clemency of the govern- 
ment, and promised future submission to the 
laws. - 

From the time thM dutiwi were laid upon spiriU distiUed vm 


ia tbe Unittd States, Sic combinuiaof wete fonned, ia the fotir 
weatem couoties of PenasjlvEuiia, to prevent their coUectioo 
Ntuneretu neetings were held at different timet and placet, al 
which resolutions were passed, and, in several inttaaces, vialeacw 
irwe committed upim the officers of ttK revenue. Ei^teen of 
the lasurgeots were taken, and tried for treason, but Dot con- 

S^tion XXVm. 1795. January 1st, Col. 
Hamilton resigned the office of secretary of the 
treasury, and was succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, 
of Connecticut. Nearly at the same time, Ti- 
mothy Pickering succeeded Gen. Knox, in the 
department of war. 

Section XXIX. In June, Mr. Jay, having ' 
succeeded in negotiating a treaty with Gre« 
^ Britain, the senate was convened to consider its 
merits. Afler an elaborate discussion of it, that 
body advised to its ratification by a majority of 
twenty to ten. Notwithsltrnding the great op- 
position to it that prevailed among the enemies 
of Great Britain, the president gave it his sig- 
nature. Contrary to the predictions of many m 
the country, ths treaty settled existing difficul- . 
lies between the two nations, prevented a war, 
which previously seemed fast approaching, and 
proved of great advantage to the Upited States. 

The treaty, when published, found one party prepared for iti 
condemnation, whUe the other was not ready for its defence. 
Time waa necessary for a Judicious and careful consideradoD of 
its merits. 

In the populous cities, meetings were immediately called, and 
resolutions and addresses forwarded to the president, requesting 
lum to withhold his assent. Upon the president, however, these 
had no other effect, than to induce him to weigh still more care- 
fully the merits of the treaty. When, at length, he was satisfied 
of its utility, he signed it, although he thereby incurred the cen- 
sures of a numerous portion of the citiKens. , 

Section XX A. In the course of the following 
autumn, treaties were concluded with the dey 
of Algiers, and with the Miomis in the west* 
24* .._„G„oslc 

SI2 PERIOD VU.~17S«...in7. 

By ihe former trea^, American citizens, io cap - 
txvity in Algiers, were liberated, and by the lat- 
ter, the western frontiers of the United States 
were secured from ravage invasion. A. treaty 
with Spain soon after followed, by which the 
claims of the United States, on the important 
points of boundary, and the navigation of the 
MiBsisaippi,'were fully conceded. 

Section XXXI. On the 1st of June, 1796, 
Tennessee was admitted, by act of congress, 
into the Union as a State. 

Tennessee (terives ils name from its principal river. This 
nsmcj in the language of tfae Indians, signifies a curved s}Mon, 
the curvature, to their imaginations, resembling that of th? river 

The territory of Tennessee was granted in I6fl4, by Charles 
II. to the earl of Clarendon, and others, being included in the 
limits of the Carolinas. About the beginning of the next cen- 
tury, Carolina was divided into two provinces, and Tennessee 
fell to the lot of the northern province. Near the year 1754, 
fifly families were settled on the Cumberland river, where Nasfa- 
vHk now stands ; but they were dislodged by the savages soon 
kller. In 1765, a number of emigrants settled themselvea be- 
yond the present limits of North Carolina, and were the iirst of 
the colonists of Tennessee. By the year 1773, the inhabitants 
had considerably increased. When the constitution of North 
Caralina was formed, in 1770, that district sent deputies to the 
meeting. In the year 1780, a smaH colony of about forty fami- 
lies, under the direction of James Robertson, crossed the moun- 
tains, and settled on (he Cumberland river, where they founded 
Nashville. In 17S5, the iniiabitanis of Tennessee, feeling the 
iRConvenienc'i«s of a govemmentso remote as that in the capital 
of North Carolina, endeavoured to form an independent one, to 
whicli they intended to give the name of the " State of Frank- 
lin ;" but differing among themselves, the scheme for the time 
was nbnndoned. In 17S9, the legislature of North Carolina 
passed an act, reding tlie territory, on certain conditions, to the 
United States. Congress, in the following year, accepted the 
cession, and by another act, passed on the 26th of May, .1790, 
prarided for its government imder the title of " The territorjr 
of the United Mates, south of die Ohio." In 1796, Congress 
pined on act eKtiiag the people to f«rm « stite coot^tiAionj 

„„,Goo8lc ^ ■ 


which having ben) adopted and approved, ' 
knowledged as a suvereign state in the. union. , 

Section XXXII. On the meeting of congreais 
in 1796, resolutions were paseed to carry into 
effect the treaties negotiated the preceding year. 
On the Bubject of the treaty with Great Britain, 
the Uveliest sensibility still prevailed. After a 
spirited and pr,otracted debate of seven weeks, 
on the subject of making the necessary arrange- 
ments for this treaty, resolutions to that effect 
passed the house by a majority of only three. 

Section XXXIII. As the time for a new 
election of the chief magistrate of the Union 
approached, Gen, Washington signified his in- 
tention to retire from publick life. Wishing to 
terminate his political course with an act suit- 
able to his own character, and permanently 
useful to his countrymen, he published a vale- 
dictory address to the people of the United 
States, fraught with maxims of the highest po- 
litical importance, and with sentiments of the 
warmest affection for his country. 

In February, 1797, the votes for his successor 
were opened, and counted in the presence of 
both houses of congress. The highest number 
appearing in favour of Mr. Adams, he was de- 
clared to be elected president of the United 
States, for the four years ensuing, commencing 
on the 4th of March. Mr. Jefferson succeeded 
Mr. Adams in the vice-presidency. 


Sectum XXXIV. ifmanneVN. We eaa re- 
mark, during this period, no veiy dnthiRt 


tU RUM Tn~.lMa.U»7. 

dungs te the mnsen of the people of the 
Uniteo States, except that the iatrcKluction ol 
French philosophy seems to have affected, in 
•Otoe degree, the sober habits and strict mon- 
li^ of the people, which, altbtnigb relaxed bj 
die war, bad no# begun to resiime their in 

Section XXXV. lUUgtOtl. At the close 
of the preceding period, we observed that reli- 
gion had revived, in a degree, from the injuries 
it suffered during the revolutionary war; and 
we might have expected, that under the auspi- 
ces of a wise and settled government, conducted 
by a practical christian, like Washington, it 
would have acquired a still more commanding 
influence. Such, hnwevsr, was not the fact. 

As the people of the United States heartily 
espoused the cause of the revolution in France 
and sympathized with that people, in their strug- 
gle for freedom, it was but too natural, that the 
sentiments of the revolutionists, an other than 
political subjects, should be imbibed. As the 
French revolutionists were almost universally 
deists, or atheists, these sentiments were exten- 
sively spread over the United States. 

For a lime, the boldness of the enterprises, the splendour w 
the victories, and ihe importance of the conquests, achieved by 
the French repuWick, promoted the extension of French mli- 
delity in the United Slates. " Most eyes," says Dr. DwigiHi 
" were disabled from seeing the nature of the purpoies, whicii 
the revolutionists had in view, and of the characters which were 
exhibited on this Eingular stage. In the agitation and Hmaze- 
ment ejdted io all men, few retained so steady opticka as to 
discern, without confusion, the necessary consequence of this 
stupendous shock." 

Infidelity was also greatly extended, at thi* time, by the wri- 
tings of ftiat, Godwin, and otken, which were iiidiHin*»^'y 



circulated through the country.* The perspicuous and simple 
style of Pafaie, his keen powers of ridicule, directed against the 
Bible, and above ail, the gratitude which multitudes felt for the 
idd his pen had given to our revolution, contributed to impart 
to him a peculiarly jjKwerfu! influence. His vicious life, how- 
ever, and the horrible enormities, committed by the French 
revolutionists, gave such a fearful comment upon their princi- 
ples, as at length, in a great measure, to bring them into dis- 
credit, and to arrest their growing influence. 

Sectionxxxvi Zv03ft mtf ^ommtvtt. 

These flourished, during this period, beyond tdl 
former example. la 1 797, the exports of the 
United States, of all kinds, amounted to fifty- 
six millions, eight himdred and fifty thousand, 
two hundred and six dollars. The imports 
amounted to seventy-five millions, three hun- 
dred and seventy-nine thcius^nd, four hundred 
and six dollars. Our vessels visited every part 
of the world, and brought wealth and luxuries 
from every country. 

Section XXXVII. ^QVitUltUVt, Aside 
from the importance of agriculture, as furnish- 
ing U9 with the greatest portion of our food, it 
began now to derive greater consequence, as 
furnishing materials for our manufactures, and, 
still more, as contributing largely to our exports. 
In 1796, it was estimated that three-fourths of 
the inhabitants of the United States, if not a 
greater proportion, were employed in agricultu- 
ral pursuits. 

sectionxxxvin. MttuanrtMantttutc 

tttVCEt. During this period, manufactures at- 
tracted the attention of government. Mr. Ha- 
milton, secretary of the treasury, made a report 
to congress, on the subject, in which he set forth 

. * Godniu'H Politieal Jutlioe, and Puae'a Ase of Rcbsoq, powerflillj 
Otged OD the tide of infidelity. AnenormoHB editicHi of the latter pnbBca- 
0011 was printed in France, and sent to America, to be aid ftff 4 Aw 
f«iiceoii]f : unfirherelt could not be sok^itwas^Tenairef. ' 

386 rsBioD Tiu.ini~im 

their importance to the counby, and urged the 
policy of aiding them. Since that time, the re- 
venue laws have been framed, with a. view to the 
ancoiiragemeot of manufactiireB, and their pro- 
motion has been considered as a part of the set- 
tled policy of the United States. Although the 
flourishing state of commerce commanded the 
attention, and absorbed the capital of the coun- 
try, in some degree, to the exclusion of other 
objects, still manufactures made considerable 

Section XXXIX. ^^O^ttlatfOtl. The in- 
habitants of the United States, at the close of 
this period, amounted to about five millions. 

Section XL. S&UCAttatl. The adoption of 
the federal constitution placed the political af- 
fairs of theUnited States on a permanent basia, 
and since that period, learning has flourished. 

In 1791. the university of Vermont was established nt Bur- 
Uogton; Williams' College, Massachusetts, ia l^gS; Union 
College, at Schenectady, New- York, and Greenville CoH^e, 
TraaeaHe, in 1704 ; Bowdnin College, at Brunswick, in Maine, 
17P3- An faistorical society was formed in MasMGhuBctts, in 
1791, and incorporated in 1794. It has published twelve ▼»• 
luines of documents, designed to illustrate the past andpRKnt 
state of riic.coontjy. 

XLI. A shoit time since, we were occupied in coDaidoiDg 
the United States strugpliag for independence, under Washing- 
ton, as a kailer oftkdr armiti. Under his guidance, we mfl 
tlinn triumpn, and become a tree nation. We have also sseo 
then, wkh Washington at the head of the ameentimt, fomnng 
our euellent cfwatittAitMi. We now see Uiem with Washington 
their cMef magiitrate, takliig their place among the goverei^- 
ties sfthe eorUi, and launching fordi on the full tide of success- 
ful experiment. 

Under Washington, as mir teado*, we voq our independence ; 
fiNnned OQr ccnstitution ; established our govemment. Aiul 
irtiatreimddanheulEfbrurvieciUIfQthMe? I>ee«licufc 


ktfiadem? Poes he lay hii hand upon our national treasuiy? 
Does he clum to be emperor of the nation that has risen up un- 
<Ier his aumices ? No— although " first in war — fiist in peace 
—first in the hearts of his countrymen,"— lie sublimely retires 
to the peaceful occupations orrurallife^conteot with the honour 
of having been instrumental in achieving the iadependence, and 
securing the happiness of his country. 

'niereunoparaUeiinhistfffytothisI By the aide of Wash- 
ington, Alexander is degraded to a selfish destroyer of his race ; 
Csesar becomes the dazzled rotary of power ; and Bonaparte, a 
bofiled aspirant to universal dominion. 

Washington has been the theme of eulogy in every nation. 
" His military successes," it has been well said, " were more 
solid than brilliant, and judgment, rather than enthusiasm, regu- 
lated his conduct in battle. In the midst of the inevitable dis- 
order of camps, and the excesses inseparable from civil war, 
humanity always found a refnge in his tent In the morning of 
triunqih, and in the darkness of adversity, he was alike serene ; 
at all times tranquil as wisdom, and simple as virtue. After 
the acknowledgment of American Independence, when the una- 
■inioiis suffrages of a free people called him to administer their 
government, his administration, partaking of his character, ma 
mild and finn at home ; noble and prudent abroad.* 

* Induquin's Letters. 

C.^.;eJ^,. Google 



Extending from the iTtaugwratton of Presidef^ 
Adamty 1 797, to the inauguration of Thoma* 
Jefferson, as presideta of the United States, 

Section 1. On the 4th of March, 1797, Mr. 
Adams, in the presence of the eenate, of the 
officers of the general and state govemmentBi 
and a numerous concourse of spectators, look 
the oath of office, as president of the United 

The condition of the country, at the clone of 
Washington's administration, and the com' 
mencement of Mr. Adams', was greatly im- 
proved from that of 1789, the period at uhich 
the former entered upon his office. 

At home, a sound credit had been established ; an iramaise 
floating debt had been funded in a manner perfectly Bamfactorj 
to the creditw^ and an ample revenue had been pioinded. 
Those difficulties, which a system of internal taxation, on iU 
first introduction, is doomed to encounter, were completely re- 
moved ; and the authority of the fovenunent was firmly estab- 

Funds for the gradual payment of the debt hadbe«i provideat 
a considerable part of it bad actually been discharged ; and 
that system which is now operating its entire extinction, had 
been matured and adopted. The agricultural and commerciu 
wealth of the nation had increased ^yond all former exam^ 
The numerous tribes of Indians, on the west, had been tai^ 
by arms and by justice, to respect the Uoiteil States and t« CW 
linue in ptacs. 

.....Google . 

,iijir,v /.\ ti.vM^ 




AbnxA, the differences with Spain had been HCComilKNlated. 
Yhe free navigation of the Mississippi had been acquired, intli 
the nse cf New-Orleans, aa a place ot deposit for three yean, 
and afterwards, until some equivalmt place should be de^ 

Thoae cautes of mutual exasperation, which had threatened 
to involve the United States in a war wilh the greatut mBritime 
and commerdal power in the world, had been removed ; and 
the military posts which had been occupied wjtbin their leiri* 
tory, from thdr existence as a nation, had been evacuated. 
Treaties had been formed with Alters and Tripoli, and no ■ 
captures appear to have been made by Tunis; so that the 
Mediterranean waa opiened to American vessels. 

This bright prospect was, indeed, in part, shaded by the di^ 
contoBts of France. But the cauaes of these discontents, it IimI 
been ispossible to &void, without surrendering the right of seU^ 
govemm»)t. 3uch waa thesitnation of tlie United States at the 
dose of Washington's, and the commencement of Adanu'admi- 

Section n. Just before Washington retired 
from office, learning' that France meditated hos- 
tilities against the United States, by way of de- 
predations on her West India commerce, he had 
recalled Mr. Monroe, then minister to that court, 
and despatched Gen. C. C. Piockney, minister 
plenipotentiary, to adjust existing differences. 

Immediately upon succeeding to the presi- 
dency, Mr. Adams received intelligence that the 
French republick had announced to Gea. Pinck- 
ney its determination " not to receive another 
minister from the United States until after the 
redress of grievances," &c. 

Od the receipt of this intelligence, the pre- 
fiident issued his proclamation to convene eon • 
gross on the 15th of June. In his speech on 
that occasitHi, having stated the indignity offer- 
ed the United Btates by France, in refusing to 
receive her minister, the president, in the tone 
6f a high-miaded and independent American, 
acged coQgrem " to repel tfaia indigni^ of the 
25 ...... X',oogk 

290 ruuoDviiL_i»7-.iaitt. 

French governmeot, by a course which shall 
convince that government and the world that 
we are not a degraded people, humiliated under 
a coIoDial spirit of fear and a sense of inferiori- 
ty, fitted to be the miserable instnunents (^ fo- 
reign influence, end regardless of national ho- 
nour, character and interest." 

Notwithstanding this language, the president 
still retained a desire for peace. Upon bis re- 
commendation, three envoys extraordinary, C. 
C. Pinckney, Etbridge Gerry, and John Mar- 
shall, were appointed to the French republick, 
to carry into effect the pacifick dispositions of 
the United States. 

Section III. For a considerable time, no cer- 
tain intelligence reached the country respecting 
the negotiations at Paris. At length, in the 
winter of 1798, letters were received from the 
American envoys, indicating an unfarourable 
state of things ; and in the spring despatches 
arrived, which announced the total failure of the 

Before the French government would acknowledge tbe eavop, 
money, by way of tribute, was demanded in explicit terms of 
the United States. This being refused, an attempt wai next 
made to excite the fears of the American ministers for their caiuH 
try and themselves. The immense power of France was ^iy 
cd in glowing' colonrs, the humiliation of the house of Austria 
was stated, and the conquest of Briton was confidently ""^^ 
pated. In the friendsliip of France done, they were tiid, could 
Ajnerica took for safety. 

During these transactions, occasion was repeatedly taken W 
insult the American government; open war was continued to be 
urged by the cruisers of France on American comroeiW! 
and the flag of- the United States was a fuffident j]itti&ca6o« 
ftr rtie capture and condemnation of any vessel, over which it 

SficttonlV. Perceiving further negotiations 
to be in vain, congress now proceeded to the 

. - ...,„G„oslc 


adoption of vigorous measures for retaliaUn^ 
iujuries which had been suBtained, and for re- 
pelling stitl greater injuries which were threat- 
ened. Amongst these measures was the aug- 
mentation of the regular army. 

A regiment of artillerists and engineers was added to the per- 
manent establishment, and the president was authorised to reuse 
twelve additional regiments of infantry, and one re^junent of ca- 
valry. He was also authorized to appoint ofiicm for a provi- 
sional army, and to receive and organize vo!untt«r corps. 

By the unanimous consent of the senate. Gen. 
Washington was appointed lieutenant-general 
and commander in chief of all the armies raised, 
or to be raised, in the United States. 

Section V. "While prcparatiens were thua 
making for vrf0, indirect pacifick overtures were 
communicated by the French government to the 
president, and a willingness expressed to 
accozomodate existing diiTerences on reasonable 

Solicitous to restore that harmony and good 
tmderstanding, which had formerly existed 
between the two countries, the president listened 
to these overtures, and appointed three envoys, 
Oliver Ellsworth, chief justice of the United 
States, Patrick Henry, then late governour of 
Virginia, and William Vans Murray, minister at 
the Hague, to discuss and settle, by trea^, all 
controver^es between the United States and 

On the arrival of these envoys at Paris, they 
found the government in the hands of Bonaparte, 
vrfao had not been concerned in the transactions 
which had disturbed the peace of the two coun- 
tries. Negotiations were commenced, which 
terminated in a treaty of peace, September SOth* 

Mt PBMM) TnL..4n7— MM. 

1800* Boon after wbictiT the proriBioiial amy in 
America was, by order of copffTeaa, diabaiKiccL 
Section VI. Go the 14th of December, 1799, 
Gen. Wasliiogloo expired at his scat, at Mount 
VemoD, io Virginia^ leaving a nation to moum 
his loss, and to embalm hia memory with tbeii 

llie disease, of which Gen. WatUogton died, vta an inflain 
fflatory aflectton of the windpipe, occasioned by an expowm U 
a liglit rain, while attending, the day before, to some impfove 
' ntentc on his estate. 

The dtscaw at its commencement was violent, and medicai 
■kill wai applied in vain. Respiration became more and nvvt 
contracted and imperfect, until half pust eleven o'clock on 5»' 
turday night, when retaining the full poss^.'ssion of his intelkct| 
he expired witlrout a groan. 

Believing at the commencement of his coilPaint, (hat its ctb- 
diwion would be mortal, he economised his time in ammgingi 
irith the utmost serenily, those few concerns which required liii 
attention. To his physician, he expressed his conviction thsl 
he was dying ; " hut," said lie, " I am ttoi afraid to die." 

On Wednesday, the 1 8th of December, his body was deposj' 
ed in the bmily vault, attended with military bonomv, and a* 
able religious services. 

On the artivjl of the news of his death at Philadelphia, M(in- 
day, congress immediately adjourned. On the day succecdii^i 
resolutjotu were adopted expressive ofthegrief of the membeni 
and a committee was appranted to devise a mode by whKB tW 
natiooal feelings should be exptessed. 

, On the melancholy occasion, llw senate addressed to tl"*.!^ 
rident, a letter, in which they say ; " Permit us, sir, to ni"?* 
our tears with yours. On this oecasi<»i it is manly to weep. 
To lose such a man, at such a crisis, is no common oIai^'Q' . 
the world. Our country moiinjs a fatber. Tlie Almighty ai»- 
spoger cf eroits has talten from us our greatest I>enefactor a"'' 
ornament. It becomes us to submit with reverence to Hm ^"° 
laabeth darkness his pavilion. 

« With pauiotick pride we review the life of WasMngtoHj""' 
compare him with those of other countries who have been pK* 
eminent in favour. Ancient and modem names are diuiimsb^ 
before htm. Grcatmns and guilt have too often been allJeaj 
hut Ait j^me a whiter tlian it is brilliant. The destmyen of 
■uMhuu stood abashed at the majesty of hia virtaet. Il nf"'' 


ed tbe iolciDpenuice of tlieir ambition, and darkened dn iplen- 
do(S of victory. 

" The scene is closed ; aod it« are no longer anxiou leM 
nuafortmie should sail; liii glory. He has traveUed od to tilt 
end of his journey, and carried with him an iocreasing veiglt 
nt honour. He has deposited it safely irhere raisfiMlune cattnot 
tarnish it ; where malice cannot blast it. Favoured of Iiesnwi, 
be depailed without eshibitiog the weakness o"" jmanity; nia^ 
nAnimoas in death, the darkness of (he gravi ould not obscure 
his briglitness." 

The coinmitlee, appointed to devise s^-ne mode by which toei- ' 
press tlie national feelings, recommem' that a marble monament 
be erected by the United States, at tl.c >. ty of Washington, to coor- 
memorate the great events of Washington's military and polite 
cal life ; that a flineral oration be delivered by a member of 
congress ; that the president be requeslvd to write a letter of 
condolence to Mrs. Washington ; -and thai it be recommended 
Bo the citizens of the United States, to wear crape on tlie left 
arm tor thirty days. 

These resolutions passed both houses unanimously. Th« 
whole nation appeared in mourning. The funeral procession 
at the city of Washington was grand and solemn, and the elo- 
quent ondion, delivered on the occasion by Gen. Henry Lee^ 
was heard with profound attention, and wiih deep interest. 

Throughout tbe United States, similar mai^ks of affliction 
were eahibiied. Funeral orations were delivered, and the best 
talents devoted to an expression of grief, at the loss of " tli« 
man, first in war, first in peace, and (iret in the hearts of his fel- 

Section VII. In 1800, agreeably to a resolu- 
tion passed in congress in 1 790, the seat of go- ■ 
vernment was transferred from Philadelphia to 
the city of Washington, in the District of Co- 

The IHstrict of Colienbia is a territory of ten miles square. 
It B about three hundred miles from the sea, at the head of ti^e 
. water on the Potomac, which run's tbroogh it diagonally, near 
the centre. It was ceded, in l790, to the United States, by 
Maryland and Vii^;inia, and it is under th« hnmeditio guvwn- 
nant of congress. 

Section VIII. On the 4th of Marcfa, 1801, 
Mr. Adams' term of office as president would 
eipire. Before the arrival of the time for <i 

294 rSRIOB TIU~.17&t-.ISat. 

new elecdon, it had been pretty certiunlj pre- 
dicted that he could not be re-elected. Hia 
adninistration, through the whole course of it, 
had been the subject of much popular clamour, 
especially by the democratick party. But the 
measures which most excited the oppositioa of 
Uiai party, and which were most successfully 
employed to destroy the popularity uf Mr 
Adams^ adniioistratioD, and to place the go- 
vernment in other hands, were several laws 
passed during his presidency, among which wero 
the " Alien" and " Sedition" laws. 

By (he " alien laiff' tbe president was audioriud to ordet 
any alien, whuiu " he should' judge dangerous to the peace aud - 
•afety of tlie United Stales, Sec- to depart out of the temtoiy, 
within such time" as he should judge proper, upon penalty oi 
being " imprisoned for a term nut exceeding three years," Sic 

The design of the " sedition lau>" so called, was to punish 
the ahuse of speech, and of the press. It imposed a heary pe> 
cuniary fine, and imprisonment for a term of years, upon such 
as should combine or conspire K^ther to oppose any measurs 
of government ; upon such as should write, print, utter, publish. 
Sic. " any false, scandalous, and malicious writing agdnst the 
govetnnient of tlie United States, or either house of the congress 
of the United States, or the president, &c." 

These acts, together with others for raising a 
standing array, and impoaing a direct tax and 
internal duties, with other causes, so increased 
the opposition to Mr. Adams' administration, as 
to prevent his re-election, and greatly to weaken 
the strength of that party to whom he owed his 
elevation to the presidency. 

Section IX. The strife of parties, during the 
term of electioneering, was spirited. On ciui- 
vassing the votes of the electors for president, 
it was found that Mr. Jefferson, and Mr. Bun 
Htad each seventy-three votes, Mr. Adams sixty- 
ftve, and C. C. Pinckney sixty four. As the 
constitution provided that the person having the 


greatest number of votes should be president, 
and Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Burr having an equal 
number, it became tbe duty of the house of re- 
presentatives, voting by States, to decide be- 
tween these two Gentlemen.' 

The ballot was taken for several days in suc- 
cession, February, 1801, before a choice was 
made. The federalists generally supported Mr. 
Burr ; the democratick party Mr, Jefferson. At 
length, afler much political heat and party imi- 
mosity, the choice fell upon -the lattery who was 
declared to be elected president of the United 
States for four years, commencing March 4th, 
1801 . Mr. Burr was elected vice-president. 

Section X. ^anntV&, The manners of 

the people of the United States underwent no 
marked change during this period. 

Section XI. jUcU0fOll. Although infideli- 
ty does not seem to have made much progress 
in the United States, during this period, it was 
evident that it had taken deep root in many 

Inlidels, however, were lesa confident, and less ready la 
avow iheir sentiments. They stood abashed before the wwld, 
at tiie fearful and blood-chiliing horronrs which their principles 
had poured out upon France. Their doctrines were, at the 
same time, powerfully refuted by the ablest men both in Eng- 
land and America. At length, they ceased to make proselytes, 
spoke favourably of the Christian religion, generally admitted 
that it was absolutely necessary to good government ; and ei^ 
nnir, with regard to religion, assumed a new form. 

Towards the close of this period, a revival of religion com> 
menced in New'England, and seems to have been the beginning 
ofthat series of revivals which have since overspread tl^e United 
States. Some sects which had before regarded " tevi^s sf r^ 

SB6 nsHH) TUL-inT-jsu. 

Ufjoa" with auspkion or aTemoo, became conviacei] gf tiiA 
twl^ and b^an to promot* them. 

Section XII. WSOlt UUtl eomnUVK, 
Trade and comrtierce were still prosperous, and 
the remarks made in respect to them, under pe- 
riod VII. apply to them during this period. 

Iheeiportg, in I801,wereaiDety-thrce ini(tions,tveiity thou* 
sand five hiiDclred and seventy-three dollars, tlie impons, one 
handled and eleven milUons, three hundred and nttj-tfaree thou- 
■aad tive lituidred and eleven dollars. 

8e*tion XIII. ^grUttUttJ^r. Agriculture 
still ct>ntinued to flourish. 

Section XIV. ^rts stiV jSlattttCsnttres. 

The gttneral remarks on the preceding period, 
relative to this subject, apply, without material 
alteration to this period. 

Section XV. ^OUttlStfOn. The number 
of inhabitants, at the close of this period, was 
not far from five millions, five htmdred thou- 

Section XVI. SVltCatton. We have no- . 
thing particular to observe in relation to educa- 
tion. Publick and private schools, however, 
were multiplied as liie people increased, and 
as new settlements were made. 

In 1798, a college was founded at Lexington, Kentucky, call 
ed th« Transylvania University. Middlebuiy college, in Ver«- 
inoDt, was founded in ISOO. At the commencement of the ISth 
centivy, there was, in New-England but one college ciunpletely 
ff'Undcd, but now thwe frere six ; in the colonies south of Con- 
Moileul, ibwe was only one, but now there were fiAe«n or six 



.|>1' llz.- 

•TutujJT.A^ .jBiPii',): 




mvutrt sx 

risTiNGmsBED FOR jeffebson's adhidutration 

Extending from the inauguration of President 
■ Jefferson, 1 80 1 , *o (Ae inauguration of James 

Madison as president of the United States, in 


Section I. On the 4th of March, 1801, Mr. 
Jeffereon agreeably to the constitution, was regu- 
larly inducted into the office of president of the 
United States. 

At the time of his inauguration, Afr. Jefferson delivered an 
address, exptessive of his political opinioDs, and t)ie principles 
by which he designed to shape bis aUniinislration. Tliese were 
" Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or per- 
sttasion, religious, or political : peace, commerce, and honest 
friendship, with all nations, entangling alliances with none: — 
the support of the State governments in all their rights, as the 
most competent administrations for our domestick concerns, 
and the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies : — 
the preservation of the general government in its whole constitu. 
tional vigour, as the sheet anchor of our peace at home, and 
safety abroad : — a jealous care of the right of election by the 
people, a mild and safe corrective of abuses wiiich are lopped 
by tne sword of revolution where peaceable remedies are unpro- 
vided'. — absolute acquiescence in the decisions of tlie majorityi 
tJ.e vital principle of repubticlts, from which is no appeal but to 
force, the vital principle and iuimedlate parent of depotisma >~~ 
A well disciplined mUitia, our best reliance in peace, and Ibr the 
^rst moments of war, till regulars may relieve them : — the supre- 
roacy of the civil uver the military authority ; — economy in the 
pnbltck expense, that labour may be lightly bnrthened :— the 
honest payment of our debts, and sacred preservi^on of tbe 
publick faith : — encouragement of agriculture and of commerce 
u its hand^naid :— 4he diffusion of information and arraignntent 

298 P8BIOD ix—iau^isoa. 

ol all oDOfCf ai tbe otr of publick reuon : — freedoio of reli^on-^ 
— freedom of the press: — and freedoin of person, under the pro 
lection of the Habeas Corpus, — and trial by juries impartiallj 
selected." — " Thtrse principles," added Mr, Jefferson, " should 
be the creed of our political faith ; and should we wander from 
them in momenta of errour or of alarm, let us hasten to retrace 
our steps, and tu regain the road which alone peace, li- 
berty, and safety." 

Section II. The commencement of Mr. Jef- 
fersoo's administration was marked hy a re- 
moval, from responsible and lucrative offices, ot 
« great portion of those whose political opiaions 
were opposed to bis own, on the gromid that 
moat of tiie offices at the disposal of the govern- 
ment) had been exclusively bestowed on the ad 
herents of the opposite party. 

In a re))fy to a remonstrance of merchants of NeW'Haven, 
against the removal from office of a federal coUcctM- i^ that 
port, and the appointment of a gentleman of opposite polilidUf 
the president formally assigned this as the reason of the ooune 
he adopted. 

" It nrould have been to me," said he in that reply, " a cir 
cumstance of greftt relief, had I found a moderate paiticipatioa 
of office in the hands of the majority, (the democratick party.) 
I would gladly have left to time and accidoit to raise Aem to 
their just share. But their total exclu«on colls for prompter 
correctives. I shall correct the procedure; but thnt done, re- 
turn with joy to that stnte of things, when the only question 
crniccrning- a candidate shall be. Is he honest? Is he capable? 
Is he faithful to the constitution ?" 

Section III. Congress met on the 8th of De- 
cember. In his speech at the opening of the 
session, the president recommended the aboli- 
tion of the internal taxes — the repeal of the act 
passed towards the close of Mr. Adams' admi- 
nistration, reorganizing the United States 
courts, and erecting sixteen new judges — and 
an enlargement of the nghts of naturalization. 
The debates on these several topicks in both 
houaea of congress 'were extended to great 
length, and displayed much eloquence, argu- 


ment, and warmth. Th<^ recommendation of 
the president, notwithstanding the opposition, 
prevailed, and bills in accordance therewith 
were passed. 

The internal tAXts, from the time of their establishment, had 
been extremely unpopular, with the party, wliich had elevated ' 
Mr. Jefienon to the presidency. It was a favourite measure, 
therefore, of his, to procure their abolition 

Tde national judicial establishment originally ctmsitted of a 
tupreme court, with six judges, who twice a year made a tour of 
the United States in three circuits. Under this arrangement, 
great inconveniences were experienced by the court, the bar, 
and the suitors. The new arrangemenl in the judicial system, 
Rnd the increase of judges at the close of Mr. Adams' term, 
. had excited, in a large portion of the citizens, the hope of a 
nore prompt and impartial administration of justice. To that 
portion of the community the repealing act was a painful disap- 

Section IV. In 1802, Ohio was admitted by 
act of congress, as an independent state into the 

IIk state of Ohio derived its name from the river Ohio, 
which sweeps the southeastem border of the state. 

Until 1767, it .was inhabited only by Indimis, a few Mora- 
vians, and trespassers on lands belonging to the publick. By 
virtue of her charter, the tenhory was claimed by Virginia, and 
faeld by her, although the original charter of Connecticut, ex- 
tending west to the Pacific Ocean, induded a great part of it. 

Ib 1781, the legislature of Vir^nia ceded to the United 
States all her rights to the territory northwest of the river 
Ohio, ex{,epting some few military tracts. In 1788, the first 
settlement was begun at Marietta, under General Rufus Put- 
oan), from New-England. It had been, the year before, erect- 
^ into one district, including the present territories of Michigan} 
Illinois, and Indiana. 

Until 1795, the settlement of Q^o was retarded by constant 
wars with the Indians. But at that ^me, a general peace with 
the different tribes, being effected by General Wayne, under 
Washington, the population of the territory rapiifly increased 
by emigrations frcHn Europe, and still more from New-Enghmd. 

Section V. The year 1804 was distinguish* 
ed for an event, which filled a considerable por-- 
lion of the American people with great grief. 

Thw W8B the deatb of Gen. Hamilton, who fell 
io a duel with Col. Burr, the vice-president of 
the United States. 

Sectum VI. Mr . Jefferson's first tenn of of' 
fiee ending this year, a new election totdc plu:e, 
at which he was re-chosen president, and on the 
4th of March again took the oath of office. 
George CUntonof New-Yu'k, was elected vice- 

Seetion VH. During the year which com- 
menced the second of Mr. Jefferson's presidency, 
^ war, which had been continued for several 
years between the United States and Tripoli, 
was concluded, and a treaty of peace negotiated 
by Col. Lear, between the two countries, by 
which the Tripolitan and American priscmers 
were exchanged, and the sum of sixty thousand 
dollars given to the pacha.' 

The Urtorjr of tbis war deserves a place io these pages. Ilw 
ctHDinerce of the United Stades had been loug annoyed by tfaa 
TrifM>lita» cnitera-— iD«>y mcrcfaanttnen had been taken, «ad 
thei Ciews iMptiflooed and cniel^ treated. 

Ai Mwly n 1S03, a aqHadnm under Com. PreUe bad beat 
MM to the Medjt«rrBDean, to protect the American commace, 
and to bnag ibc cacatun to subntusioa. Duiing the iMne year, 
Capt. Bainbridge, in the Philadelphia, jmned Com. Fftble, and 
in ehaaing a cnrisei into the harbour of Tripcdi, ground^ fai< 
venel, and he and hi» crev tt«« takai pntotiera. 

ShwUy after the ranrender of the Pluladelphia, the Tripd*. 
tans got hei afloat, and warped her into the outvsrd harbour. 
In t^ utvation, Lieiitei^at, afienv«^d« Cooimodore, DecUtir, 
coDcdved the bold plaQ of attempting to set her on fire. He 
had (ke day beibre capUrfli a Rmall xebec, laden with finiit 
Wd oil, which was bouitd to Tripoli ; and havhig oa board Um 
Enteipriae, which be eorniaanded, an old pilot, who mtdsrstootf 
the Tdpolitan langtu^, be au^etted hk ^aa to ComamdcM 
Preble, who appcoved of it. He wowld accept of only twen^ 
men, ejihoush a much greater number rotunteered,and but ooe 
officer, Mr, Morris, a midshipman. With these men, concealed 
lb the bottom of the xeber, on the approach of nietrt, he sailed 
flK *e PhUadi^hia, iiikkw triih U» the dd [i^ OD.ap 
L,,™. Google 

JSFfxuoNV AoeinqttiunoN. im 

prowMng the frigate, dte xebec was hailed, wkm ^ jAoH vt- 
BwereU that he bad loit his cable and anchor, and be^edpe^ 
mission to make fast to the frigate, until the meriiiag. lliii, 
thecrt^ refusedjtmt said he might make fast to their stani haw- 
ser, until they aetit a boat to the adinkal fur leave. 

As the boat put off foe the shore, Lieutenant Decatur, with hji 
6rave compaiHtms, leaped on board the frigate, and in a few. 
minutes swept the deck of every Tripoiiton. Of fifty, not one 
reached the shore. The frigate was now set on fir^and while 
■the flanMt roK, to spread consternation auoog the Tripofitani, 
they serred to lighten the way for the heroick Decatur and hia 
band to go back in safety to the American squadron. Of the 
party, not one was killed, and but one wounded. This wu • 
■eeman wbo saved the life t)i his commander. In the first dw 
peraie strugglein bavd the Philadelphia, Decatur was diutnft> 
cd, and let). A Mbtc was already lifted to strike the fatal blow, 
wh«n tins seaman, observing the perilous situation of his officer, 
nached forward, and received the blow of the sabre on his ana, 

1b consequence of the burning of the Philadelphia, the suffer- 
ings of Commodore Bainbridge and his crew, as wdl as tboaeof 
-Mfaer Americans in c^)Ovily at Tripoli, wea^ greatly increased. 
The accounts of their suBeiings, transmjlt^ to the United 
States, excited the sympathy of all classes, and a general cry for 
txertioas to eSect tbeir deliverance was heard from all parts of 
the union. 

It happened (hat some lime before this, the tSten reigtrinf 
bashaw of Tripoli, Jussur, third son of the late bashaw, ba)l 
mnrdered his father and eldest )»atber, and proposed to mnrder 
the second, in ordn to possess himself of tbe urooe. Bnt the 
latter, Haaiet Caramelli, made bis escape, and Jussof, without 
further opposition, usurped the government. 

fiamet took reG^ in Egypt, where be was kindly treated by 
tbe bry9. Here few was, on the arrival of an accredited agent 
of the United States, General Eaton, who revived bis almost ex- 
piring hopes of regaining his rightful kingdom. 

Oeneral Calon had been consul fur the United States vp tbe 
Mediterranean, and was retnming home nben he heard ca tbe 
-idtuaticm of fiamet. Conceiving a plan of liberating the Anw- 
ricaas in c^idvity at l^poli, by means of the assistance %t 
Hamet, and, at the same time, of restming this exile In hji 
tbrcme, he advised with Hamet, who readily UMened to tbe pro* 
ject, and gave his cooperation. 

A eonveittion was aceordii^ly eotflnd into between Geneid 
Katon en the part of the United States, and Hamet, by nkiA 
die latter stipulated much in bvoor of (lie AHierioans, aw) WU 
1>f«ida«l to be rcMotcd H> Ins th^)n^ 

' 3G L,,™.,Gougl.- 

Vfmk * HMdl font, coraistk^ of awMin fran tbe Anerjcaa . 
•qnadroa, tbe Mlowen of Uamet, aDtl §omt Eg^ti«i troops. 
Gen. EdtiMi and Hamet, with incredible loil and Bulling, pas*> 
cd tbe desert of Barca, and took. pouegiiMi of Derne, tbe capital 
ofa large province belonging to the kingdom of Tripoli. Tlie 
forcei of Eaton were now so much increased, and the cause of 
Hamet bad become so popular, that the prospect was flattering 
o{ his being able to reduce the city of Tripoli, end of effecting 
tbe libera^n of the captives without ransom. 

The successes nf Eaton struck the usurper Jassof with terrour. 
Trembling fur hi* fate in this joncttire, he proposed to Mr. 
Lear, the consul-general of Aroeriea, then in the MediterraneaD, 
to enter into negotiation. Mr. Lear, who was authorized to en- 
ler into negntiation, accepted the proposal, althougb he koewof 
the success of Eatcm and Hamet, and a treaty ensued. Katon 
and Hamet were consequmtly arrested in the prosecotioa of 
ihrir purpose, and the unfnrtunate exile failed of his promised 
restoration to the throne. 

In 1805, Hamet visited the UnKedStateswiththe expectation 
of obtHining some remuneration for his services, from America, 
and fur her failure in fulfilling her stipulations to htm by GeiL 
Eaton. A propotntion to this effect was brought before con- 
gress, but alter much discussion was rejected. 

Section VTII. During thia year, 1805, Michi- 
gan became a distinct territorial government of 
the United States. 

The Michigan territory, when first discovered by the while), 
was inhabited by the Hvrong, a tribe of Indians, manyiof wlmrn 
were converted to Christianity by the Jesuit MisBionarles in 
1G48. About the yenr ir>70, tbe Hurons were defeated and 
dbpersed by the Six Nations, about which time, the French look 
possession of the territory, and built a fort at Detroit, and nrto. 
dier at Michillimackinac. Little, however, was dope by the 
French to settle the country. 

At the peace of 1763, the territory was ceded by the Fi^nch 
to Great Britain, and by the latterto tbe Uniud States in 1783. 
Until 1787, it remained Jn the same state of nature, without go* 
vemment, or iniy considerable settlnnenis ; but at this lime, the 
several states who had claims upon it, ceded them to die United 
States, and a territorlHl govrmment was instituted over all the 
territory, northwest of the Ohiu, 

Thi? territory remaned under one government imtil 1800, 
wifen the present state of Ohio was detached, and made a db- 
tinct government. This was followed, in 1801, by s further 
separation of Indiana and lllinob ; and, in 1809, Mtdiigan was 



Kbo detached, and was erected into a dntinct ten1tari& govern* 
ment. Gen. Hull wta appointed \>y Mr. Jefferara the fint go- 

mection IX. In the autumn of 1806,'a project 
was detected, at the head of which waa Cot Burr, 
for revolutionizing the territory west of the Alle- 
ghanies, and of establishing an independent 
empire there, of which New-Orleans was to be 
the capital, and himself the chief. Towarda 
the accomptiehment of this scheme, which it af- 
terwards appeared had been some time in con- 
templation, the skilful cunning and intrigue of 
Col. Burr were directed. Happily, however, 
government, being apprised of his designs, ar- 
rested him, while us yet he had few adherents, 
and before his standard was raised. He was 
Itfought to trial at Richmond on a charge of 
ti"eason committed within the district of Vir- 
ginia ; but no overt act being proved against 
iiim in that State, he waa released. 

In addition to thia project, Col. Burr had fonned another, 
which, in case of Tailure in the first, might be carrwd on in(|e- 
jMndeatly of it : — tliis was an attack in Mexico, and th» e*tt^ 
bUihment of an empire theie. "A third object was pronded, 
mne\y oueitsible, to wit, the settlement of tlie pretended pui- 
t:hase of a tract of country on the Washita, claimed by a Baron 
Bastrop. This was to serve as a pretext for all his prepare 
tions, an allurement lor such fnllowerB aa really wished to ac- 
quire settlementa in that counQ'y, and a cover under wliicii to 
retreat in the event of a final discomSture of both branches of 
hii resl designs." 

" He found at once that the attachment of the western country 
to the present union was not to be shaken ; that its clissolution 
could not be effected with the consent of the inhabitants; and 
tfaot his resources were inadequate, as yet, to effect it W force. 
He determined, therefore, to srize New-Orleans, plunder the bank 
there, poaaess himself of the military and naval stores, and pro- 
ceed on his expedition to Mexico." 

" He collected, UiereKm:, from all quarters, v\itn himself or 
bii Bcents possessed infiueoce, bU the ardent, resdesi, desperate, 
44sa&cted posoni who were ''"r an enterprise aoalt^otu to their 
Lv„„.. double 

He abo wdvoed gDO(l,w^4BMt^<iliaM%M 

^ asMtfaotn tku he pouesaed the Gonfiileiwe of ibe goTcnunen^ 
aad vas KdDf nnjer its Kcirt pHtrocifi^ ; and olhm by ofien 
of land in Ba^p^i cUim in the Waabto."* 

Section X. 1806. To understand the snb- 
■equcnt political history of the United States, 
and tliuso measures of government which were 
taken in relation to foreign powers, it is oecea- 
•ary to glance at the state of the Eun^ean na- 
tions, at this period — particularly that of Eng- 
land and France. These two countries were 
now at war with each other, and in their con- 
troversies had involved most of the continental 
powers. Towards the belligerents, America 
was endeavouring to maintain a neutrality, and 
peaceably to continue a commerce with thran. 
It was hardly to be expected, however, that 
jealousies would not arise between the contend- 
ing powers in relation to the conduct of America, . 
and that events would not occur, calculated to 
injure her commerce, and disturb her peace. 

In addition to these circumstances, a contro- 
versy had long existed, and continued to exists 
between the United States and Great Britiu'n, in 
respect to the right of eearching neutral ships, 
and impressing seamen. Great Britain claimed 
it OS among her prerogatives to take her native 
bom subjects, wherever found, for her navy, and 
of searching American vessels for that purpose. 
As yet no adjustment of this controversy had 
been effected. Notwithstanding tlie remon- 
strances of the American government, the offi- 
cers of the British navy not unfrequently seized 
native born British subjects, who had voluntarily 
enlisted on board our veuels. They also im 

• Pmldciifi MciMa« lo Conpcit, July tl, 1801. 



|H%8aed into the British service some thoaiiianda 
of American seamen. 

Section XI. May 16th, 1806, the British go- 
vernment issued an order in council, declaring 
the, ports and rivers from the Elbe, a river in 
Germany, to Brest, a town of France, to be in a 
state of blockade. By this order, American 
vessels, trading to these and intervening ports, 
were liable to seizure and conderanation. 

Section XII. In the ensuing November, 1806, 
Bonaparte issued his celebrated decree at Ber- 
lin, called the " Berlin decree,'^ by which all 
the British Islands were declared to be in a 
state of blockade, and all intercourse with them 
was prohibited. This decree violated the treaty 
between the United States and France, aftd the 
law o( nations. 

The following are the. principal articles of that decree, 
which related to the obstniclion of American commerce: 

1. The Brillsh Islands are hi a state of blockade. 

2. All commerce and corre^iondencB with them ii prohibit- 

3. No vessel coming directly from England, or her colonies, 
or having been there since the publication of this decree, shal! 
be admitted into any port. 

Section XIII. This decree of Bonaparte at 
Berlin, was in part retaliated by the British 
government in an order of council, issued Janu- 
ary 7th, 1807, by which all coasting trade with 
France was prohibited. 

" V.Hiereas the French government has issued certain orders, 
vhich purport to prohibit the commerce of all neutral nations 
with his majesty's dominions," &c. — " hia majesty is pleased to 
order that no vessel shall be permitted to trade from one port 
to another, both which ports shall belong to, or be in possession 
of, France or her allies, or shall be so far under their controul 
aa that British vessels may not fredy trade thereiU," &c. on pain 
of capture and condemnation. 

■ Section XIV. While measures were thus tak- 
■ ing by France and England, whose tendency 

was to iaiure AmericaB OHnmerce, aai to in 
Tolve her in a controrersy wiUt both, an event 
occurred which filled the Americao people with 
kidi^aiioD, and called for immediate ezecutiTe 
notice. This was an attadi uptm tlia Ainerioan 
frigate Chesapeake, Commodore Barron, off the 
capes of Virginia, by the British frigate Leop- 
pard of fifty guns. Tlie attack was oecadoned 
by the refusal of Commod(H% Barron to flurren* 
der several seamen, who liad deserted ffom the 
British urmed sliip Melampus, a short time pre- 
vious, and had voluntarily enlisted on board the 
Chesapeake. After crippling the American fri- 
gate, which made no resistance, the commander 
of the Leopard took from her the seamen in 
question, two of whom had been proved to be 
American citizens. 

The persons who deserted from the Melampus, then l^ing in 
Hampton road», were William Ware, Daniel JVIartm, John Sira- 
chan, John Liule, uiil Ambrose Watts. Within a month Irom 
their escape from the Melampus, the first three of these desert- 
erg oBered themselves foi enlistment, and were received on 
board the Chegape:ike, then at Norfolk, Virginia, preparing foi 

The fiiitish consul at Norfi:^, being apprized (^ this oircinD- 
■tance, wrote a letter to the American naval officer requesting 
these men to be returned. With this request the offiter refusing 
(0 comply, the British ngent lost no lime in endeavouring to 
procure an order from gnvemmem for their ^orrender. In coo- 
sequenee of this application, the secretary of the oavy ordered 
an examination into the characters and claims of the men in 
f^uestion. The required examination resulted in proo.'' that 
Ware, Martin, and Strachan, were natives of America. TTie 
two former had proteetiona, or notarial certificates of their bring 
American citizena. Strachan had no nrolection, but asserted 
that he lost it previously to his escape. Such being the clrcunt- 
stances of the men, the government refused to surrender them. 

On the 2tA of June, the Chesapeake weighed anchor and 
proceeded to sea. She passed the British ships BeHona and 
MebuBpns, lyi<^ in Lynnhaven bay, whose appearanee ma 
frienO^jr. Theiewwetivootlwr ships that hyofCapeHnry* 


due of whid), the L^opntA, Captain Humphrejv, wfigbfd m- 
db>r, and in a few haurs came aluog aide tbe Cb«Mpnkfi. 

. A Brilisl] officer iuimediately oune od board, and (Jemauded 
the deserters. To this, Capt. Barron replied, that he did not 
know of any being there, and that his dut^ forbade tum taW- 
Istr of an; musler'ef his crew, eicep t b; dieir own officva- 

Dining this iiaerview, Barren noticed someproefedings of « 
hostile nature on board tbe adverse ship, but he could not be 
persuaded that any thing but menace was uilended by them. 
After the British oflicer departed, be gave ord«3 to clear hi* 
gim dedc, and after some tine, he directed bis men to ihar 
quailen, secretly, and without beat of drum : still, bowev^, 
without any serious appr(;hensions of an attack. 

Before these orders could be executed, the Leopard com- 
menced a hoavy fire. This fire unfortunalely was vety destruc- 
tive. In about thirty minutet, the hull, rising, and ^ars of 
the Chesapeake were greatly damaged, three men were killed 
ond si^i^^n womidud ; among the latter was the captain bim- 
self. Such was the previous disorder, that during this time, tbe 
utmost exertions were insuHicient to prepare the ship for action, 
and the captain iJiought proper to strike his colours. - 

Tlie British captain refused to accept the surrender of tbe 
Chesapeake, but look from her crew, Ware, Martin, and Stra- 
chan, the three men formerly demanded as deserters, and a 
fourth, John Wilson, claimed ss a runaway from a merdiant 

Section XV. Such was the agitation of the 
publick mind, in consequence of this outrage 
eominitted on the Chesapeake, that the preei- 
dent conceived liimself required to notice the 
transaction, and by some decisive publick act, 
to show }iow deeply America conceived herself 
tobewounded. Accordingly, on the 2(1 of July, 
ihe president issued his proclamation, wdering 
dl British armed vesi^els to leave the waters of 
the United Btates, and forbidding tliem to enter, 
until satisfaction for the attack on the Chesa- 
peake shoutil be made by the British goverjl' 

- Mr. Munroe was at this time tiie minister of 
the United States, at the ccmrt of St. James. 
Steely in September, he received the instmvtiow 

308 PERIOD IK— lS(»-,.ia09. 

of the American gorernment, pertsdning to the 

attack on the Chesapeake, and was required to 
demand reparation tor that attack, and, as an 
essential pnrt of that reparation, security 
agftinat future impressments, frdm American 
snips. The British minister, Mr. Canning, 
however, protested against conjoining the gene- 
ral question concerning t)ie impressment of 
persons frgm neutral merchant ships, with' the 
particular affray between the Leopard and the 

As Mr. Monroe vfoa not authorized to treat 
these subjects separately, further negotiation 
between these two ministers was suspended,- 
and Mr. Rose was appointed, by the British 
government, as a special minister to the United 
States, empowered to treat concerning the par- 
ticular injury complained of, but not to discuss 
the general question of impressing persons from 
merchant ships. 

Section XVI. While such measures were 
taking in England, in relation to the affair of 
the Chesapeake, congress, which had been sum- 
moned before tiie regular time, by proclamation 
of the president, met on the 27th of October. 

In his message to congress at this time, tlie president entered 
fully into the state afourrelationswith Great Britain — informed 
ihera of a treaty which had been negotiated with the British go- 
"vernnient, by Messrs. Monroe and I'inckticy — but which he 
had rejected, principally because it made no sufficient provision 
on the subject of impressments — stated the aiTair of the attack 
on the Cheaapeake— his proclamation to British armed vessels 
to quit the waters of the United States — his instructions- to the 
American minister at Lpndon, in relation to reparation expected 
from the British government, and his expectation of speedily hear- 
iag from England the result of the measures which had been taken. 

Section XVII. On the Uth of November, 
were issued at London, the celebrated British 
Orders in Council, retaliatory upon the French 


gOTemmcBt fat the Berlin decree of November, 
1806. By theae orders in council, France and 
her allies; all nations atwar with Great Britain, 
and all places from which the British flag is ex- 
cludeu, were declared to be under the same re- 
BtrictioDS in point of trade and nnviiration, as if 
the same were in a state of blockade. 

Section XVIIl. Before the arrival of Mr. 
Rose, congress was sedulously employed in con- 
sidering the state of the nation, and in making 
provision for putting the country in a posture of 
defence. Acts passed, appropriating one mil- 
lion of dollars to be employed by the presi- 
dent in equipping one hundred thousand of the 
national militia; eight hundred and fiAy-two 
thousand five hundred dollars, for building one 
hundred and eighty-eight gun-boats; one mil- 
lion of dollara, for building, repairing, and com- 
pleting fortifications, and for raising six thou- 
sand six hundred men, infantry, rifiemeu, artil- 
lery, and dragoons, as an addition to the stand- 
iug army. On the 22d of December, an act 
passed, laying an embargo on idl vessels within 
the jurisdiction of the United States. 

Section XIX. On the 17th of December, Bo- 
naparte, by way of retaliating the British orders 
in council, issued a decree, called '^tke MUan 
decree," declaring every vessel denationalized 
which shall have submitted to a search by a Bri 
tish ship; and every vesael a good prize, which 
shall sail to or from Great Britain, or any of 
its colonies, or countries, occupied by British 

Section XX. Mr. Rose arrived in Ameiiot 
on the 25th of December. The American minu- 
ter was soon after informed, that fae, Mr. Row, 

310 nSIOD 1Z.._1B01...UDIL 

was expreeaty forbidden by his government to 
ni'ike any proposal, touching the great subject 
of compluim, so long aa the president's procla- 
Qiution of July 2d, exciudiiig British arm^d ves- 
sels from the waters of the United States, 
shoulu oe in force. 

For a time, the president refused to annul this 
proclamation till tlie atonement was not only 
solemnly offered, but formally accepted ; but in 
order to etude this difficulty, be finally agreed to 
revoke his proclamation, on the day of the date 
of the act, or treaty, by which reparation should 
be made for the recent violence. This conces- 
sion, however, was built on two conditions ; first, 
the terms of reparation which tlie minister was 
oharged to offer, must be previously made 
known; and, secondly, they must be such as by 
the president sliould be accounted satisfactory. 

But as the British minister declined to ofler^ 
or even to mention, the redress of which he was 
the bearer, till the American proclamation was 
recalled, and the president deeming its recall 
inexpedient, the controversy, for the present, 

Tlie controvprsiy rpspfciing the Chesaiieake wns finally ad- 
justed in Novciiilipr, 18ii, at which luue the British miiiista 
communicated to the icrretary nf state, that the ultack on lb« 
flwsMppake was unauthorized bj his majesty's government— 
that the officer at thnt time in command on tlie American coast 
had been recalled — llial the men taken from the Chesapeake 
should be restored — and that suitable pecuniary provisinn should ■ 
be mnde Tor those who siifTcred in the attack, and for the fami- 
lies of the seamen that fell. To these propo^ions the presi' 
dent acceded. 

Section XXI. The difficulties with France 
and England, regarding commerce, still conti- 
nuing, and the existing embargo having failed to 
coerce these powers as was anticipated, into en 


acknowledgment of our rifhts- — a more com- 
plete atop to our intercourse with them was 
deemed advisable by congresa. Accordingly, oa 
the lat of March, congress interdioted, by \a.\f, 
all trade and intercourse with France and Eng- 

Section XXII. Mr. JefFereoa's second term 
of office expired on the 3d of March. Having 
previously declined a re-election, James Madi- 
eon was chosen president, and George Clinton 

Section XXHI. JUlannrtS. TRe bitter- 
ness of parly spirit which had now raged "in the 
United States for some years, began to have a 
visible effect upon society. It interrupted, to no 
small extent, the general harmony, and even re- 
strained the intercourse of friends and neigh- 
bourhoods. The strife for power, alao introdu- 
ced a disposition to intrigue ; political cunning 
became fashionable, and political duplicity lost 
much of its deformity. These things necessa- 
rily affected the state of manners. They with- 
drew the finger of derision, which used to point 
at meanness of all kinds, and blunted that love 
of honour, and manliness of conduct, which ex- 
isted before. Cunning began to take the place 
of wisdom; professions answered instead of 
deeds; and duplicity stalked forth with the 
boldness of integrity. 

Section XXIV. MrUOfOll. Powerful revi- 
vals of religion pervaded the country during this 
period, and tended strongly to prevent open in- 

iMi^i «id to cheek the ti^e of pollutioB which 
was iBTUtbly apread over the land. 

SeeHimXxy. iTtAlw «iiV e«mmcrtr. 

Wade and comsaerce made greet advanisea 
■bout the year 180S. The Evr^ieBn povren 
being involved in war, and the United States re- 
— h'lng jMutral, our vessels carried to Europe, 
aot iMj the produce of our own county, but 
wi»o ibe produce of other countries. This is 
usMiHy eaUed the carrying trade, and was veij 
pofitable to the country. 

Id 1805, 6, aaA 7, our mvwi^ winaBl exportt ■noiBMcd ts 
Mr hondred and two millions, flv« hundred and lizty-veveB 
iboonBd, four hundred and fifty-four dollar*, of which torty-fom 
■ilfoos, e^ht hundred and sixt;4liree dMunnd, five kmdred 
and aenmeen dollan, vtn for ckuBestiek produce, and fil^ 
wren miUiom, seven hundred and one thoUMUd, nine hundred 
and Ihirty-Mven dollart, tot foreign produce. The ennual 
•wnge of inqwrti during these three years, amounted to about 
me hundred and forty mlllitHis of dollars ; a large proportjoit 
of lb« ankles, forming* this amount, were re-exported to iIm Wett 
Indes, South America, and elsewhere. 

After the year ISO?*) the commercial restriction! laid 1^ 
France Hid England, began to curtail our trade, and the em- 
bargo, impused atthe close of the same year,by our own govent- 
tnent, intemipted it still more esentially. 

Section XXVI. ^0r(ttt(tttrr. Agricnlture, 
during a part of this period, received great en- 
couragement from our foreign trade. Europe 
being involved in contentions, the people had ■ 
Uttle leisure there to cultivate the soil; they 
were therefore supplied from other countries, 
and the United States furniehed them with a 
great amount, and were thence deriving great 
profits, when the commercial restrictions inter- 
rupted the trade. 

The first merino sheep were introduced into the country. In 
1S02, by Robert R. 'Livingston, and the some year, a gteaUf 
' r, one'lHUM)rea,byOen. Hnmphiej-s, then wemiaiiHr 



to SpiUR. Great attention was paid to the breeding of dwn, 
kod the; are now numerora in the United States. . 

Sectwn XXVII. mXtH WOt SHOtlUUlts 
tttVPS. Arte and mantifacturesstill progressed. 

Secfum XX VIII. 3|atmUt(OII. The popu- 
lation of the United States, at the close of Mr; 
Jeferson's administrationvwas about seven mil' 

SedMmXXW. Stt«filt(01l. The enUghtensd 
riews-reapecting the importence of general ia> 
formation, entertained before, cOTitinued to pnv- 
irul. New literary and scientifick piiblieatiflas 
were commenced ; more enlightened methods 
of instruction were adopted ; academies were 
multipUed; colleges founded; and thet^gical 
seminaiies liberally endowed. 

A theological serainary was (bunde6 al Andover, M&naCbn- 
■etts, ID 1808. The amoont, which has been contributed tar 
it> pennaaent use, and which was ^ven by six lamHies, is more 
than three hundred thousand dollars. This sum incflides the 
permanent fund^ library, and publick buildings. Xn 1822, the 
officers were four professors, and tlie number of stnduits, one 
hundred and tlurty-lwo. Tlie library contains about live dio«^ 
sand volumes. A majority of the students are ropperted tu 
wIm^ or in put, by dujity. 





E^cUnding from the inauguration of President 
Madison, 1 809, to tKe inauguration of James 
Monroe, as president of the United StaieSf 

Section I. On the 4th of March, 1809, Mr. 
Madiaon was inducted into the office of president 
of the Udited States, according to the form pre- 
scribed by the constitution. 

The situation of the United States, on the 
accession of Mr. Madison to the presidency, 
was in several reapectu gloomy and critical: 
The two great powers of Europe, France and 
England, were still at war, and were continuing 
to array againat each other the most violent 
commercial edicts, both in contravention of the 
laws of nations, and of their solemn treaties; 
and calculated to injure and destroy the com- 
- mcrce of nadons desirous of preserving a neu- 
trality. America was also further suffering un- 
der the restrictions of commerce, imposed by 
her own government. Kvery effort to secure 
the due observance of her rights, by the cson- 
tending powers, had hitherto failed, and the sad 
alternative was presenting itself to the American 
people, either to suffer the evils growing out of 
foreign and domestick restrictions, or to take up 

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arms, and risk the consequeace of a war with 
the beJIigerents. 

Section II. Previously to the a^ourjunent of 
the last congress, under Mr. Jefiorson, on act 
passed, as already noticed, 1st of March, re- 
pealing the then existing embargo, and inter- 
dicting commercial intercourse with France and 
Great Britain. Should either of these powers, 
tiowever, revoke their edicts, the president was , 
Authorized to renew the intercourse. 

April 18th, the British minister, Mr. Erskine, 
informed the secretary of state, Mr. Smith, that 
his majcstyV govemraeDt, considering the non- 
intercourse act, passed March let, as having 
produced ao equality in the relations of the two 
belligerent powers with respect to the United 
States, would be willing to rescind the orders 
in council^of January and JVovember, 1807, so 
far as it respected the United States, provided 
the president would issue a proclamation for the 
renewal of intercourse with Great Britain, lliis 
proposal was readily accepted. The British 
minister, inconsequence of this acceptance, stat- 
ed himself authorized to declare t'uat the above 
orders in council would be withdrawn as it re- 
spected the United States, on the succeeding 
lOth of June. A proclamation by the president 
soon after followed^ renewing the intercourse 
with Great Britain, from and after that time. 

This event produced the highest satisfaction 
throughout the country; but was speedily fol- 
lowed by a disappointment as great. The 
British govermnent denied the authority of Mr. 
Erskine, to enter into any such stipulations, and 
refused its ratification. On learning this refusal, 
the president issued his proclamation, August 

910 tsuoD X. jiaB-jn?. 

10th, renewing tbe non-intCTCoune with Gzest 

Section HI. Early in September, Hr.Jaok«oii 
arrived at WaBhington, as successor of Mr 
Erakine. A correspondence was soon com- 
menecd between this minister and the secretary 
of BtatOf which, after continuing several weeks, 
widiout adjusting any difierences between the 
two countries, was suddenly closed, by tbe jH-e-~ 
sident, on account of an alleged, insult on tbo 
part of Mr. Jackson. 

In the course of correspoadeiKe with the wcretsiy, Mr. 
Jackion bad repeatedly asserted that the American ^«ciitiv« 
couM not but know from tbe powers eihibited by Mr. Erskinc, 
thitt in Ae above atipulatkHU lie had trarucended those powera, 
ud WW therefore acting without the authority of his govern 
laeDt. Tliii was dcemnJ by the execattve equivalent to a de 
daratioB, that t]ie American government did know that Air 
Enkine wa* eiceediog bis powers. The Eritish mtnister d^ 
ikd the kgitimacy of such an inference — bat die executive, r* 
fudinff hit ki^uage as reflecting npon the honow mi iMe^o^ 
« tbe ABKricon govemmenl, cIos«i tbe correspmidence-HHion 
after wUcb, Mr. Jackson was recalled, but wiAout the censure 
of hU gwernntenL 

SeeiumlV. 1810. On the 23d of March, Bo- 
naparte issued a decree, usually called the 
** Rambouillet decree," designed to retaliate the 
act of congress, passed March 1st, 1809, wbich 
forbade French vessels entering the porta of the 
United States. By the above decree, all Ame- 
rican vessels and cargoes, arriving in any of the 
ports of France, or of countries occupied by 
SVench troops, were ordered to be seized and 

Section y. On the 1st of M^, congress 
passed an act, excluding British and FVench 
armed vessels from the waters of Uie United 
States ; but, at the same time, providing, thatin 
Wm either of the above nations should modify 


its edicts before the third of March, 1811, so 
that they should cease to violate neutral com- 
nerce, of which fact the president was to give 
notice by proclamation, and the other nation 
should not, within three montlia afler, pursue a 
similar step, conunercial intercourse with the 
former might be renewed, but not with the 

Section VI. In conaequence of this act of the 
American government, the French minister, the 
Duke of Cadore, at Paris, informed the Ameri- 
can minister, Mr. Armstrong, then in France, 
that the Berlin and Milan decrees were revoked, 
and that, from and after the 1st of November, 
they would cease to have effect. But, at the 
same time, it was subjoined,'that it was "un- 
derstood, that, in consequence of this declara- 
tion, the English shall revoke their orders in 
council, &,c." About the same time it was an- 
nounced that the Rambouillet decree had also 
been rescinded. 

Although the condition subjoined to the 
Duke of Cadore's declaration rendered it doubt- 
ful whether the Berlin and Milan decrees would 
in fact cease to take effect after the 1st of No- 
vember, the president issued his proclamation 
on the 2d of that month, declaring that those 
decrees were revoked, and that intercourse be- 
tween the United States and France might be 

Section VII, While the affairs of America, in 
relation to the belligerents, were in this pcffiture, 
an unhappy engagement took place. May 1811. 
between the American frigate President, com- 
manded by Capt. Rogers, and a British sloop 
of war, the Little Belt, commanded by Capt. 

>lt mUOD X.IS0>M-Ut7. 

Bij^hain The attack wa? commenced by tlie 
latter vessel, without prorocatiim, and, in the 
rencontre, suffered greatly in her men and rig* 

A oourt of inquirjr wa> ordered on the conduct of CapUJa 
Bogen, which decided that it hod heen satisfactorily proved to 
the court, that Capt. R<^rs hailed tb« Linle Belt first — thai 
hi* hail was not satisfactorily answered — that the Little Beh 
fired the fijst gun — and that it was without prerious provocor 
tion or justifiable cause, &C&C. 

Seetion VUI. Congresawas assembled hy 
proclamation on the 5th of November. In hia 
message at the opening of tiie session, the pre- 
«dent indicated the expectation of hostiktiea 
with Great Britain at no distant period, since 
her orders in council, instead of b^ins with- 
drawn, were) when least to have been expected, 
pnt into more rigorous execution. 

" I muit now add," continues the president b his message, 
" that the period has arrived which claims from the legislative 
foardians of the natkuial rights, a system of more ample pro- 
vnion for maintaining them." — " With" tuch full " evidence 
of the hostile infleiibllity" of Great Britain, " in ttampling on 
rights which no independent nation can relinquish, congresis ' 
Will feel the duty of putting the United Slates into an armour 
uid an attitude demanded by the crisis, and corresponding with 
the national spirit and expectations." 

On the 29th, the committee on foreign rela- 
tions presented their report, in which, adopting 
the language of the president's message, they 
strongly recommended, " That the United 
States be immediately put into an armour and 
attitude demanded by the crisis, and corres- 
ponding with the national spirit and expecta- 
tions." Bills agreeable to. this recommenda- 
tion passed congress preparatory to a state ol 
hostilities, among which was one Sat raising 
twenty-five thousand men. 

SeeHoti IX. In December, ^e president com- 


xtunicated to'congress an official account of the^ 
battle of " Tippacanoe''' — near a branch of the 
Wabash — fought November 7th, between tin 
army under Gen. Harrison, governor of the In* ■ 
diaoa territory, and a large body of Indians, in 
which the latter were defeated 

The EtRack was commenced by the Indians about four o'clock 
in the morning, while the army or Harrigon were 'm a mesiiire 
unprepared. But notwithstanding this disadvantage, after a 
faard fought action, the Indians were repulsed with a lou (rf 
nearly seventy killed, and upwards of a hundred wounded. 
The loss of the Americans was severe, being, according to offi 
cial return, one hundred and eighty-eight in killed and wounded. 

Sectwn X. During the following year, 1812, 
Louisiana was admitted into the union as a so- 
vereign state. 

Until the year I8ll, Louisiana comprehended that vast trBd 
of country which was ceded to the United States by France, in 
1 803. At that time, however, the Territory of Orleeau, wliuch 
was then a distinct territorial government, assumed the name <rf 
Louisiana, and was admitted the following year as a state into 
the Union ; since which time, the remaining portion of original 
Louisiana has received distinct denominations. 

Louisiana was first discovered in 1541. by Ferdinand deSotOw 
In 1683, Monsieur de la Salle, an enterprising Frenchman, 
sdled up the Mississippi a considerable distance, and n^med 
the country Louisiana, in honour of Louis XIV. A Freoch 
settlement was begun in 1G99, by M. d'Ibberville, in Lower 
Louisiana, near the mouth of the river Perdido. The progress 
of the colony was slow. In 1712, although twenty-five huiidred 
emigrants had arrived, only four hundred whites and twenty'ne- 
groes were alive. 

About this time, the French government made a grant of the 
country to M. de Crosal for a term of ten years ; but ttlKi 
five years he relinquished his patent to the Mississippi company 
In the same year, 17*17, the city of Orleans was founded. 

By the treaty of 1763, all Louisiana east of the Miniau»- 
pi, was ceded to England, together with Mobile, and all the 
possessions of France in that quarter. About the same time, 
the possessions of France west of the MissiBsippi w«re aeeretly 
ceded to Spain. After the cession to Great BrUain, thai paxt 
of the territory which lay west of the Mississippi received die 
name tf Wot Florida. On the breaking out of ^ ravolutim** 

120 PBBIOD X-..lBm„.16t7. 

my w«r, Spun, ritef considerable h«siraii(Mi, took put with the 
Unhed Staiea, incited, probably, by the liope of regsimog her 
poswuions east of the Mississippi. In 1779] Galvoj, the gt>- 
vemour of Louisiana, took possession of Baton Rouge; and the 
Other Mttlenients of the English in Florida surrendered tucce»- 
■ivelj. By the treaty of 1783, tlie Mississippi was made the 
wettera boundary of the United States from its source to the 
31st d^rce of latitude, and following ihis line to the Sl Mary's. 
By a treaty of the same date, the Floridas were ceded to Spain 
withoat any specifick boundaries. This omission ted to a con- 
tioveny between the United States and Spain, which nearly 
tetminated in hostilities. By a treaty with Spain, however, in 
I rSS, boundary lines were ainicabty settled, and New-Orleans 
vaa gtanted to American citisens as a place of deposit for tbek 
effects for three years and longer, unless some other place t4 
equal impcMtaoce should be assigned. No other place being as- 
signed within that time, New-Orleans continued to be us^ as 

In 1800, a secret treaty was signed at Paris, by the plenipo- 
tentiaries of France and Spain, by which Louisiana was goaruH ~ 
teed to France, aitd, in 1801, the cession was actually made. 
At the same time, the Spanish intendant of Louisiana was in- 
ttructed to make arrangements to deliver the country to the 
French commissioners. In violation of the treaty of Spun with 
the United 'States, the intendant, by his proclamation o( Octo- 
ber, 1802, forbade American citizens any longer to deposit 
merchandize in the port of New-Orleans. Upon receiving in- 
telligence of this prohibition, great sensibility prevailed in cou- 
gress, and s proposition was made to occupy the place by forcri ; 
but after an animated discussion the project was relinquished, 
and negotiations with France were commenced by Mr. JefTer- 
lon, for the purchase of the whole country of 'Louisiana, which 
ended in an agreement to that effect, signed at Paris,April 30th, 
1 803, by which the United States were to pay to France fifteen 
millions of dollars. Early in December, 1803, the commission- 
ers of Spain delirered possession to France ; and on the 20th 
of the same month, the authorities of France duly transferred 
the coimtry to the United States, Congress had provided for 
this event, and under their act, William C. C. Claiborne was 
appointed govemour. By an act of March, 1804, thni part of 
the ceded country which lay south of the parallel of thirty-three 
degrees was separated from the rest, and called the Terrilary 
<if Orkant. In 1 A 1 1 , this district was erected into a state, and 
in 1812, waa admitted into the Union by the name of I<OMt> 

- ,,_,G„o8lc 


SecfwHiXf On the 3d of April, 1812, con- 
gress passed an act laying an en^areo for 
ninety days on all vesseb within the jurisdiction 
of the United States, agreeably to a recommeti- 
datioQ of the president. This measure, it was 
uoderstood, was preparatory to a war with 
Great Britaio, which the executive -would soon 
urge upon congress to declare. 

Section XII. On the 4th of June, 1812, abill 
declaring War against Great Britain, passed the 
bouse of representatives, by a majority of seven- 
ty-nine to forty-nine. Ailer a discussion of this 
bill in die senate till the 1 7th, it passed that 
body also, by a majority of nineteen to thirteen, 
and the succeeding day, I8th,* received the sig- 
nature c^ the president. 

The principal grounds of war was set forth in 
a message of the president to congress, June 1 st, 
and was further explained by the committee on 
foreign relations in their report on the subject 

^The Ibllowiiif nre Uw orden id coanoil, Frradi dcenai, uiJ Iha ccfr 
nfUHit acta of the AmcricBii eorertimeat, with their roputire dalei, p*- 
KRted in One vietr. 

IBOe, Mbj ifith, British blockade from the Elbe to BrenL 

" NJw. Slrt, Berlin decree. 
1807, Ju. 8th, British order in council prohibiUng the eoutiDf tnda. 
" Not, lltb, The celebrated British ordert ID cotmciL 
" Dec. lTlh,.Mi[sn decree. 
" Dec SSd, American embargo. 
1B09, Mtrch Ist, Non-tntercoune with Oreat Britain ind Fraaca, ert» 
bliahed bj consress. 
" April lOth, Mr. Erskine'a nesotiatlon, which opened the tikds 

willi England. 
" June 19th, MoQ'intercouree with Great Britain. 
1910, March ISlh, Ramboaitlet deoi«e. 
" Mn 1st, AMofeongren coodittoiMUj opauog Qm tnde vtt 

En^Dd and France. 
" Not. 9d, rreodent'i proclamation dBcIaring the FreDchdecmei to 
be reicinded. 
1813, April 4tb, American embaigo. 
<■ Jni>el8th,DeclBreUonofwwbjllMUnlM8tftlM«piaM(h«f- 
Britsln. , ~- L..,™.Guu>^lc 

32S rsBlOO X.-.1809_-1817. 

of the meisage, were suminarily-^nie impreu 
meot of Americao seamen by the British; the 
blockade of her enemies' ports, supported bj 
no adequate force, in consequence of which, tlie 
American commerce had been plundered in 
every sea, and the great staples of the country 
cut off itom their legitimate markets, and tlie 
British orders in council. 

On tbese grounds, (be president urged the declaration of war. 
In unison wilb the recommend ati on of ihe presideut, the comi 
iniltee on foreign relations concluded their report as fnlluws ; 

" Your committee, believing that the freebnm sons of Ameiica 
ore worthy to enjoy the liberty which their fathers purchased at 
the fprice of much blood nnd treasure, and seeing by the mea- 
sures adopted by Great Britain, a course commenced and per- 
sisted in, whiirh might lead to a loss of national character and 
independence, feel no hesitation in advising renstanoe by foree, 
in which the Americans of the present day wilt prove to the 
enemy, and the world, that we h<ive not only inherited that li- 
berty which our fathers gave us, but also the will "and^wwer to 
maintain it. Relying on the patriotism of Ihe nation, and con< 
fidently trusting that the Lord of Hosts will go irith nt to battle 
in a righteous cause, and crown our efforts with raccesi — your 
commitice recommend an immediate appeal 10 anna." ' ' 

Against thLi declaration of war, the minority in the boose of 
representatives, aroong which were foimd the principal part ol 
the delegation from New-England, in an address to their consti- 
tuents, solemnly protested, on the ground tltat the wroDgs of 
which the United States complained, although in some reepectt 
grievous, were not of a nature, in the present state of the world, 
to justify war, or such as war would be likely to remedy. On 
the subject ofimpressment, they urged that the question between 
'the two countries had once been honourably and satbfactoriljr 
settled, in the treaty negotiated witli the British court by Messrs. 
JVfonroe and Pinckney, and altliough that treaty had not been - 
ratified by Mr. Jefferson, the arrangements might probably again 
be made. In relation to the second cause of war — the blockade 
of her enemies' ports without an adequate force — the minority 
replied that this was not designed to injure the commerce oflh* 
United States, but was retaliatory upon France, which had taken 
the lead in aggressions upon neutrd rights. In addition, it wa> 
*aid, that, as the repeal of the French decrees had been olficiBl- 
ly announced, it was to be expected thai a revocation of the of^ 
wew in council would soon follow. , - 1 


In conducivn of the protest, the minority tpoke ai followi : 

" The undersigned cannot reA-ain from asicing wliat are the 
United States to gain by this war ? Will the gratiiicBtiQn of , 
some privateers men compensate the nation far that sweep of our 
legitimate commerce by the extended mariite of our enemy^ 
trhich this desperate act invites ? Will Canada compensate the 
middle States for New- York ; or the western States (br New- 
Orleans ? Let us not be deceived. A war of invasion may in- 
vite a retort of invasion. When we visit the peaceable, and to 
us innocent colonies of Great Britain with the horrours of war, 
can we be assured that our own coast will not be nsited with 
like horrours, 

"At B ciisis of the world, suiii as the present, and under im- 
piefsions such as these, the undersigned could not consider the 
vai into which the United States bave in secret been precipi- 
Ued, as necessary, or required by any moral duty, or any poli- 
tical expediency." 

As a diSerence of views respecting the war, which bad now 
been declared, prevailed in congress, so the country generally 
was divided into two opposite parties respecting it. The (riends 
sftfae administration universally commending, and its opposen 
as extensively censuring and condemning the measure. By the. 
former, the war was strenuously urged to be unavoidable and 
iust ; by the latter, with equal decision, it was proitoanced to be 
impolitick, tmnecessary, and imjust. 

Section XIII. The military establishmenta 
of the United States, upon the declaration of 
war, were extremely defective. Acts of congress 
permitted the enlistment of twenty-five thousand 
men, but few enlisted. The president was au- 
thorized to raise fifty thousand volunteers, and 
to'call out one hundred thousand tntlitla, for the 
purpose of defending the sea-coast and the iron- - 
tiers. But the want of proper officers was now 
felt, as the ablest revolutionary heroes had paid 
the debt of nature. Such was the situation of 
things at the commencement of hostilities. 

Section. XIV. August 16th, Gen. Hull, go- 
Temour of Michigan, who had been sent at me 
liead of about two thousand five hundred men 
to Detroit, with a view of putting an end to In- 

, ■ , .....Google ■ . 

t24 rsBnDS—isaiujn?. 

cBaB hoatttities in that countay, eamndtwA his 
annjr to Gen. Brock, withfflit a battle, and with 
it the fort at Detroit. 

The aensMkniB produced by diis occurrence dir<Highoiit the 
tfiuted States, and pwticubrly in the vestem coonlry, can 
•caroriy be deaeribed. So entirely nnprepored wu the puUick 
Bund for thia extraOTdinary event, tiaat no one could believe it 
to have taken place until communicated from an offidid source. 

In hit official despatch, Hull took greet pains to Tree his con- 
duct from censure. ~ Among the reasons for his surreader, and 
those wluch determined him to that course, be assigned the want 
of provision to suMain tlie siege, the eipected r«nf<»«einenti of 
tlie eaemy, and the savage ferodty of the Indians, should he ul- 
timately be obUged to capitulate. 

The govemmeot, hoTeyer, not bring satisfied with Ins ^cose^ 
ordered a court martial, before which he was charged with trea- 
son, cowardice, and unofEiceilike conduct. On the first charge 
the court declined giving an opinion : od the two last he was 
sentenced to death ; but was recommended to mercy in conse- 
quence of his revolutionary services, and his advanced age. 
The sentence was remitted by the president ; but his name was 
ordered to be struck from the rolls of the at my. 

Section XV. About the middle of August, 
that seriiis of splendid naval achievementH, fox 
trloeh this war was distinguished, was ccMn- 
iDeficed by Capt- Isaac Hull, of the United 
States' frigate Constitution, who captured the 
Biitish frigate Guerriere, cmnmanded by Cnpti 

The American frigate was soperioar in force only by r Aw 
goiu, but the difliHeiice bore no comparison to the dispari^ ot 
the conflict The loss of the Constitution was seven killed, 
and seven wounded, while that on board. the Cfuerriere was 
fifteen killed, and sijty-three wounded, among the latter was 
Capt. Dacres. The Constitution mistained so little injury that 
she was ready for action the succeeding day. But the British 
frigate was so much damaged that she was set on fire and burnt. 

Section XVI. Upon the declaration of war, 
the attention-of the American general was turned 
towards the inTasion of Canada, for which eight 
ort^B thousand . men, and considerable military 
stores were collected at different points along 
■ ■■-- , ..„„.. Gougk 


die Canada line. Skilful officers of the naVy 
were also despatched for the purpose of arming 
vessels on Lake Erie, Ontario, and Champlain, 
if possible to gain the ascendency there, and to 
aid the operations of the American forces. 

The American troops were distributed into 
three divisions — One under Gen. Harrison^ 
called the North Western Upy ; a second un- 
der Gen. Stephen Van Rensellaer, at Lewis- 
town, called the army of the Centre ; and a 
diird under the commander in chief, Gen. Dear- 
bom, in the neighbourhood of Plattsburg and 
Greenbush, called the army of the North. 

Section, XVII. Early on the morning of the 
13th of October, 1812, a detachment of about 
one thousand men, from the army of the Centre^ 
crossed the river, Niagara, and attacked the 
British on Queenstown heights. This detach- 
ment, under the command of Col. Solomon Van 
Rensellaer, succeeded in dislodging the ene- 
my — but not being reinforced by the mUitia 
from the American side, as was expected, they 
were ultimately repulsed, and were obliged to 
surrender. The British Gen. Brock was killed 
during the engagement. 

. The forces designated to Btoria the hdghts, were divided into 
two columns: one of three hundred militia, under CoL Vaa 
Benseltaer, the other uf three hundred regulars, under Col. 
Christie. These were to be followed by Col. Feawick's ardlle- 
ly, and then the other troops in order. 

Much embarrassment was experienced by the boats from tlie 
eddies, as well a» by the shot of the enemy, in crossing (he river. 
Col. Van Rensellaer led the van, end hnded first with one hia- 
dred men. Scarcely had he lenped from the boat, when he i» 
oeived four severe wounds. Beiti^, however, aide to stand, he 
Mdered his officers to move with rapidity and storm the font 
Tliis service was gallantly performed, and the enemy wse dji- 
ren down the hill in every direction. 
Both parties were now leinforced — the Americans by imhtfl 
28 L,,™..Guuglc 

Md ■Btffr-tbe bWdi b; Ibe rorty-iuDth f _ 

of tit, taadred i^iiUn, under Gen. Brock. Cpon (his, the con^ 
Act ma reaewed, in which Gen. Brock^ and nil aid, Captain 
tIPOwtM, fill alnHWt m the same noment. Afta a d es pentc 
tagngemnt, ibe eneny were repulsed, and the vUnarj waa 
tbot^ht complete. 

Geo. Van Renaellfter now eroaied over, for the purpose nf 
fortiTying the heights, preparatorr to another attack, should the 
repubed coemy be reinforced. This duty he emgned to LiieuL 
Totten, an title engine<«| 

But ibe fortune o( thPday was not yet decided. At dvee 
o'clock in dte afternoon, the enmiy, i>eing r^nfm^^d by several 
hondred Chippewa Indians, rallied, and again advancedi tmt 
were a third time repalsed. At this moment, Gen. Van ifan^ 
mUmt, pcroeivii^ the mHHia ra the t^pnnte skle ei^iarl^^ 
butsioiny, hastily recrossed the river, to accelerate thev move- 
ments. But what was his chagrin, on reaching the Aoierican 
side, to hear more than twelve hundred of ihe militiB positiYely 
rtfwe to embuic. The sight ot the engaaement had cooled 
that ardour which, prenmuly to the altacx, the commander 
in chief could scarcely restrain. While their countrymen w«rc' 
nobly struggling for vict«y, they could reouun idle spectators 
of the scene. All that a brave, resolute, and benevolest com- 
nmider could do, Gen. Van Reasellaer did— Jk tvged, enteeat- 
«1, commanded, but it was all in vain. Eight bundled British 
soldiers, from Fort George, now hove in sight, and pressed on to 
renew the attack. The Americans, for a time, continued to 
■Ini^e against this force, but were linally obliged to surrmder 
themselves prisoners of war. 

The number of Ameiicui troops killed amounted to aboat 
tixty, and about one hundred were wounded. Those that sur- 
rendered themselves prisoners of war, including the wounded, 
were cdwut seven hundred. The loss of thb British is unknown, 
bat it must have been severe. 

AJUiough the issue of this battle was unfortunate, seldom hai 
Aauckan valour shone more conspicuously, or a victory beet 
relinquished with more reluctance. Had but a small pert of th* 
'*'idle men" passed over at the critical moment, when urged b} 
their brave commander, revolutionary history can tell of few 
Bobler.aclHevements than this would have be^i. 

Seciion XVIII. On the 17th of October, ao- 
other naval victory was achieved over an enemy 
(i^Bpi/l^'y superiour in force, and under circum- 
atanoea the moat fuvoiirable to him. Thia wa^ 



the capture of the brig Frolick, of twenty-tWO 
guns, by tlie sloop of war Wasp. 

Captain Jones had relumed from France two weeks aJtor the 
decloratbn of war, and on the 13th of October, again put lo mk 
On the IT'th, be fell in with six merchant BliifW; under cenvoy 
of a brig, and twn ships, armed with sixteen euns eodi. 1 %! 
brig, which proved to be the Frolick, CapL VVhhiyates, di tp- 
ped behind, while the others made saiL At half patt eleven^ 
the action b^n b; the raiemy's cannon and musketiy. In.fivs 
minutes, the main^opHnaSt was shot away, and falling down, 
with the maia4op-aail yard across the lai^oard fore and &re> 
(op-sail, rendered her head yards unmanageable, durii^; 
, the rest of the action. In two minutes more, her galf, ami 
mizen top-gallant-^oast Were shot away. The sea being ex- 
ceedingly rough, the muzzles of the Wasp's guns were s<Hue- 
times under water. 

The English fired as Aeir vessel rose, so that their shot wa* 
uther thrown away, or touched onlv the rigging of the Ameri- 
cans ; ihe Wasp, on the contrary, fired as she sunk, ani* every 
time struck the hull of Iier antagonlsL The fire of the FtvlicK 
was soon sladcencd, and Captain Jones determined to board 
her. As the crew leaped on board the enemy's \-esBol, their 
surprise can scarcely be imagined, as they found no peison on 
decK, except three officers and the seaman at the wheel. The 
deck was slippery with blood, and presented a scene of havuck 
and ruin. The officers now threw down then' swords in sub- 
nissifm, and Lieut. Biddle, of the Wasp, leaped itito the rig- 
ging, to haul down the colours, which were still fiymg. Tliux, 
in forty-three minutes, ended one of the most bloody conflicts 
recorded in naval history. The loss, on board the FruUck, was 
thirty killed, ajid fifly wounded ; on board the Wasp, fi vc wen 
lulled, and five slightly wounded. The Wasp and FrolJcb 
were both captured die same day, by a British seventy>fo<ir, ilie 
Poictiers, Capt. Beresford. 

Section XIX. The above splendid achieve- 
ment of Capt. Jones was followed on the 25th . 
of October by another not much less splendid 
and decisive, by Commodore Decatur, of the fri- 
gate United States of forty-four guns, who cap- 
tared the Macedonian off the Western Isles, a 
frigate of the largest class, mounting forty-nine 
guns, and manned with three hundred men. 

In this action, which continued an hour and a half, the Mac*- 

nS PERIOD X.~I8(W~.ISl7. 

4aaiaa loM thirty-six killed, and ^xty-eigltt wounded : on board 
Ibe United Statei, leveo only were killed, and fire woimded. 
The BritiBh frigate lost her main-mast, maia-toMiast, and 
Baiit-yard, and. was injured In her hull. The United Statei 
■nffered so little, that a n^tum to port was umiecessaiy. 

An act of generosity and benevolence on the part of Qui 
brave lafs, of this victorious frigate, deserves to be hononrablj' 
Kcwded. The carpenter, wtio was unfortunately killed in Uk 
conflict with the Macedonian, had Ictl three small children to 
^tt care of a worthless niotlier. When tlie ciTcuuislance be 
came known to the brav« seamen, thby instantly made a contri 
butian amongst themselves, to the amount of dgiit hundred dol 
Ian, and pia.exti it id safe hands, to be appropriated tb the edu 
Cslioa and maintenance of the unhappy orphans. 

Section XX. December 29th a second naval 
victory was achieved by the Constitution, then 
QommoDded by Com. Bainbridge, over the 
Java, a British frigate of thirty-eight guns, but 
carrying forty-nine, with four hundred men, 
commanded by Capt. Lambert, who was mor- 
tally wounded. 

This action was fought off St. Salvador, and continoed nearly 
two hours, when the Java struck, havi:^ lost sixty killed and. 
one hundred and twenty wounded. The Constitution had nint 
jnen killed, and twenty-live wounded. On the 1st of' January, 
the commander, finding his prize incapable of being brought io^ 
was obliged to burn ber. 

Section XXI. Thus ended the yeai 1812. 
With the exception of the naval victories alrea- 
dy mentioned, and some others of the samo 
kmd, equally honourable to. America, nothing , 
important was achieved. Neither of the armies 
destined for tlie invasion of Canada bad obtain- 
ed any decisive advantage, or were in poBsea- 
sion of any post iu that territory. Further pre- 
parations, liowever, were making for its con- 
quest. Naval armaments were collecting on the 
lakes j and the soldiers, in their winter quar- 
ters, were looking forward to " battles fought 
and victories wo " 

, „„,G„o8lc. 


aectionXX.ll. 1813, January 22d, a bloody 
action was fought at the river Raiain, between a 
detachment from the north-western army, ex- 
ceeding seven hundred and fifty men, under 
Gen. Winchester, and a combined force of Bri- 
tish and Indians, amounting to one thousand 
five hundred men, under Gen. Proctor. Many 
of the Americans were killed and woimded. 
Among the latter was Gen. Winchester. The 
remiunder, on surrendering themseJves prison- 
ers of war, were nearly a^ inhumanly massa- 
cred by the Indians, contrary to the express sti- 
pulations of Gen. Proctor. 

The station of General Harrison, lh« commander of the north- 
western army, was at this lime at Franklinton. General Win* 
Chester was stationed at Fort Defiance, half way between Fort 
Wayne, on the Miami, and Lake Erie, wilb eight hundred 
troops, chiefly young men, of the first respectability, from Ken- 
tucky. Learning ihnt a body of British and Indians was about 
to concentrate itt Frenchtown, on the river Raiun, he Knt a de- 
tachment \o protect iliat place. Before the arrival of ihe de- 
tachment, Frenchtown was uc<;upied by a party of the enemy, 
but they were dislodged alter a severe engagement, in which the 
Americans had twelve killed, and fifty-five wounded. 

On the 20th, General Winchester joined ihe detachment at 
Frenchtown, wllh the remainder of his troops, and, on the 22d, 
the battle of Raisin was fought. After a desperate conflict, in 
which many on both sides were killed, the Americans surreiv 
dered, with the express stipulation of being protected from ibe 

Contrary, however, to tliese stipulations, tiie savages were 
permitted to Indulge their full thirst fur bluod. The tomahawk 
was mercilessly buried in many a bosom, and the scalping ksife 
wantonly tore the crown I'roni many a head. 

Even the last sad rites of sepulture were forbidden, by their 
murderers, and the remains of tliese brave youth of Kentucky 
lay on the ground, beat by Ihe storms of Heaven, and exposed 
to the beasts of the forest, until the ensuing autumn, when theit 
friends and relations ventured to gather up theu: bkaching hoatt^ 
uid consigned them to the tomb. 

Section XXIII, Dimng the winter, an en* 
gagement took place between the llbrnet) Cop- 


M« PEBtOD x.„isa9..iaiT. 

tain Jamea Lawrence, and the British sloop of 
war Peacock, Captiun William Peake, off South 
America. This action lasted but fifteen minutes, 
when the Peacock struck. 

On her nirrendering, a signal of distress was discovered, on 
board the Peacock. She had been so much damaged, that^ al- 
ready, she had six feel of water in her hold, and was sinking (usL 
Boats xftiK iminediatety despatched for the wounded, and every 
Measure taken, which was practicable, to keep her afloat onu 
the crew coold be removed. Her guns were thrown overboard, 
the shot holes were plugged, and a part of the Hornet's creV| 
at the imminent hjizard of their lives, laboured incessantly tff 
rescue the vanquished. The utmost efforts of these generotn 
Men were, however, vain ; the conquered vessel aunk in the 
midst of them, carrying down nine of her own crew and threo 
of the Americans. With a generosity becoming them, the crew 
of the Honiet divided their clothing witb the prisoners, wbo wen 
left destitute by the sinldog ship. In the action the Hornet re^ 
ceived but a slight injury. The killed and wounded, om boani 
the Peacock, were supposed to exceed fifty. 
■■ Section XXI V. On the 4th of March, I8I3, 
Mr. Madison entered upon his second term of 
office, as president of the United States; having 
been re-elected by a considerable majority, 
diough De Witt Clinton, of New- York, was sup- 
|K>rted by the federal electors. George Clinton 
was elected vice president: he died, however, 
soon after, and Elbridge Gerry succeeded him. 

Section XXV. It having been communicated 
■to the American government, that the emperour 
of Russia was desirous of seeing an end put to 
the hostilities between Great Britain and Ame- 
|ica, and had offered to mediate between the 
two countries, Messrs. Albert Gallatin, Jamea 
A- Bayard, and 3ohn Quincy Adams, were, 
early in the spring, ldl3, appointed commis- 
sioners to Russia, to meet such commissioners 
as should be sent by the British court, and were 
empowered to negotiate a treaty of peace ancl 
commerce wi^ Great Britain 

\. ...Google '■ ^ 


Section XXVI. During the winter, which had 
now passed, Great Britain sent a number <:€ 
troops to Halifax, and made conaiderable pre- 
parations for the defence of Canada. Similar 
preparations had been urged by the American 
government, with the hope of completing the 
conquest of that territory, before the close of 
another campaign. 

About the middle of April, the commander in 
cliief, Gen. Dearborn, determined to attack 
York, the capital of Upper Canada, the great 
depository of British military stores, whence the 
western ports were supplied. Accordingly, on 
the 27th, a successful attack was made, and 
York fell into the^ hands of the Americans, with 
all its store?. 

The command ofthe iroops,oi 
tached for ihis purposej was givei 
the llefil under Commodore (Shauncey, moved down the lake^ 
with the troops from Sackeit's Harbour, nnd, on the 27th, arriv- 
ed at ihe place of debarkation, about two miles westward from 
Vork, and one and a half from the enemies' works. The Bri- 
tish consisting of about seven hundred and fifty regulars, and 

■five hundred Indians, under Gen. Sheaffe, attempted to oppose 
the landing, but were thrown into disorder, and fled to their gar- 

Gen- Pike, having formed his men, proceeded towards Ihe 
enemies' fortifications. On their near approach to the barracks, 
about sixty rods from the garrison, an explosion of a magaeine 
took place, previouily prepared for the purpose, which killed 
about one hundred of the Americans, among whom was the gal- 
lant Pike. . _,. - 
Pike lived to direct his troops, for a moment thrown into dis- 
order, " to move on." This they now did under Col. Pearce j 
and, proceedingtowards the town, took possession of the barracks. 
On approaching it, they were met by the officers of the Canada 

■ militia, with offers of capitulation. At four o'clock.the troops 
entered the town. . 

. The loss of the British in killed, wounded, and prisonert, 
amounted to seven hundred and fifty— the AnnrioMU lwt,iB 
kfUed and wounded, abmt three hundred. 


US FEUODX— I9S9_1817. 

Section XXVll. During the remainder of the 
aanagj the war continued along the Canada 
hue, and on some parta of the sea board ; but 
ftothins important was achieved by either power. 
The Chesapeake Bay was blockaded by the 
British, and predatory excursions, by their 
troops, were made at Havre De Grace, George- 
town, &c. Several villages were burnt, and 
much property plundered and destroyed. To 
the north of the Chesapeake, the coast was not 
exempt from the effects of the war. A strict 
blockade was kept up at New- York. The 
American frigates United States and Macedo- 
nian, and the sloop Hornet, attempted to sail on 
a cruise from that port, about the beginning of 
May, but were prevented. Iri another attempt, 
they were chased into New-London harbour, 
where they were blockaded by a fleet under 
Commodore Hardy, for many months. Fort 
George, in Canada, was taken by the Americana. . 
Sackett's Harbour was attacked by one thou- 
sand British, who were repelled with considera- 
ble loss. 

Section XXVIII. On the first of June, the 
American navy experienced no inconsiderable 
loss, in the capture of the Chesapeake, by the 
Bntisb frigate Shannon, off Boston harbour — a 
loss the more severely felt, as on board of her 
fell several brave officers, among whom was her 
commander, the distinguished and lamented 
Capt. Lawrence. 

Capt Lnwrence had been but recently promoted to the com 
nuid of thf ChesapeEkke. On hia arrival at Boston, to take 
charge of Wr, he was informed that a British frigate was lying 
vff the harbour, apparently inviting an attack. — Prompted by 
the ardour wliich pervaded the service, he resolved to meet tht. 
«ii«iny> vrilhout suffictenlly examining his strenfth. With a 

■ ■ ......Google 


crew, cbieSy enlisted for the occasion, as that of the Cheiapeaka 
had mostly been discharged, on the istof June,he sailed twt of 
the hai'bour. 

,The Shanntai, observing the Chesapeake put to sea, imme- 
diately followed. Al half DHSl five, the tvo ships engaged. By 
the first broadside, the tailing master of the ChesHpeake trat 
killed, and Lieut. Batlard mnrtally wounded: Lieut. Sromi 
and Capt. Lawrence were severely wounded, at the same time. 
A second, and third broadside, besides adding to the destruction 
of lier officers, so disabled the Chesapeake in her rigging, that 
her quaiter fell on the Shannon's anchor. This accident may 
be considered as deciding the contest; an opportunity was 
given the enemy to rake the Chesapeake, and, toward the close 
of the action, to board her. Capt. Lawtence, though severely 
wounded, still kept the deck. In the act of summoning the 
boarders, -a musket ball entered hb body, and brought him 
^wn. As he was carried below, he issued a last heroick order, 
" Don't give 110 the ship ;" but it was too late to I'etrieve what 
was lost ; the British boarders leaped into the vessel, and after 
a short, birt bloody straggle, hoisted the British Rag. 

In this sanguinary conflict, ttceuty-three of the enemy wen ■ 
killed, and fifty wounded; on board the Chesapeake abput 
tsventy were killed, and eighty-three wounded. 

Section XXIX. The tide of fortune seemed 
now, for a short time, to turn in favour of Great 
Britain. On the 14th of Augtist, the Argus, of 

eighteen guns, another of our national vesaeLs, 
was captured by the Pelican of twenty guns. 

The ^jpis had been employed to carry out Mr. Crawford, as 
minister, to France. After landing him, she proceeded to ci'uise 
in (he British channel, and, for two months, greatly annoyed the 
British shippiug. At length that government was induced to 
send several teasels in pursuit of her. On the 14th of Aurast, 
the Pelican, a sioop of war, of superior force, discovered ner, 
and bore down to action. At the first broadside Capt. Allen 
fell severely wounded, but remained on deck for some tiiiie> 
when it was necessary to carry him below. After a hard fm^it 
action, the Aigus was obliged to surrender, with a loss of six 
killed and seventeen wounded. On board the Pelican there 
were but jhree killed and five wounded. Captain Allen died 
soon after, in England, and was interred with the honours of 

Section XXX. After the lose of the GheBa- 
peake and Argus> victory agiun returned to the 


SS4 FBBIOD ]c.~]BM-.tB17. 

ride of America. On the 5tb of September fol- 
lowing, the British brig Boxer surrendered to 
the Enterprize, after an engagement of little 
more than half an hour. 

The Enterpri£« lailed from Portsmouth un the Ist, and was 
«i the fifth deaaied b7 the Boxer, which immedielely gave. 
cfaaie> After the action had continued for fifteen minotes, the 
EoterpriKe ranged ahead, and raked her enemy so powerfiiDj, 
(hat in twenty minutes the firing ceased, and the cry of quarter 
waa heard. The Enterprise had one killed and thirteen 
wounded ; but that one was her lamented commander, Ijeu- 
tenaot Burrows. He feU at the commencement of the actum, 
bat continued to cheer his crew, averring that the flag should 
never be struck. , When the sword of the enemy was presented 
to him, lie exclaimed " I die contented." The British low was 
more considerable. Amon^ their killed was Captain Blythe. 
These two commanders, both in the morning of life, were intav 
Kd beside each other, at Portland, with military honours. 

Section XXXI. During these occurrences on 
.he sea board, impoitant preparations had been 
made for decisive measures to the vrestward, 
and the general attention v/aa now turned, with 
great anxiety, towards the movements of the 
northwestern army, and the fleet under com- 
mand of Commodore Perry, on Lake Erie. 

TJiis anxiety, not long after, was, in a mea- 
sure, dispelled by a decisive victoir of the Ame- 
rican fleet, over that, of the British, on Lake 
Erie, achieved, after a long and desperate con- 
flict, on the 10th of September. 

The American squadron consisted of nine vessels, carrying 
fifty-four guns, ih^t of the British, of six vessels and sixty-three 
^ns. The line of battle was formed at eleven, and at a quarter 
before twelve, the enemy's flag ship, Queen Charlotte, opened 
a tremendous Are upon Uie Lawrence, the Hag ship of Commo- 
dore Perry, which was sustained by the latter, ten minutes be- 
fore she could bring her corronades to bear. At length!) she bore 
up and engaged the eneroy, making ^gnals to the remainder ot 
the squadron to hasten to her support. Unfortunately, the wind 
was too light to admit of a compliance with the order, and she 
«M catqwUcd to contend, for two hour>, with tira shim ot 


lUDUOWB AOMomisumoN. ■ us 

MpuJ larae. ^ this time, the brig had become tmmaiwgetUf^ 
and her am, excepting four or five, were either lulled or wound* 

Whib thus surrounded iritfa death, — and destruction BtiQ 
pouring is apoa himj Perry left the brig, now only a wrsck, in 
aa opan boat, and heroically waving lua oword, peued unhurf 
to the Niagara of twenty guns- The wind now roie. Orderi 
ing every canvass to be spread, he bore down upon the enemy ; 
— passing the enemy's vessels, Detrcni, Queen Charlotte, and 
Lady Frevosl, on the iHie side, and the Chippewa, and Little 
BeHt on. the ether, into each of which, he poured a broadud^— t 
he at length engaged the Lady Provost, which received so heavy 
a fire as to compel her men to retire below. 

The remainder of the Amerrcao squadron, now,oneafterano* 
ther, BrTived,'aBd tollowiog the exanq)le of their intrepid. teadcTf 
closed in with the enemy, and the battle became general. 

Three hours finished the contest, and enabled Perry tO an> 
Bounce to Gen. -Harrison the capture of the whole squadnn, 
which he did, in-this modest, laconick, and emphatick ftyte: 
" We have met the enemy, and they are ours." 

The loss in the contest was great in proportion to the numbera 
ei^aged. l^e Americans had twenty-seven killed' and ninety- 
■tz wtHinded. But the British loss was still greater, being about 
two hundred in killed and wounded. The prisoners amounted 
to six hundred, exceeding the whole number of Americans en- 
gaged in the action. 

Section XXXII. The Americans were now 
masters of Lake Erie, but Detroit and Maiden 
were in posaessionof the British General Proe- 
tor. Against these, Gen. Harrison, commander 
of the north-western anny, now resolved to di- 
rect his forces. 

CqI. Johnson, with a body of Kenmcicians, 
was despatched against Detroit. Gen. Harri- 
ion with his troops reptiired on board the fleet, 
jtnd the same day reached Maiden. The Bri- 
tish general, however, destroyed Maiden, and 
retired with his forces. 

Finding Maiden destroyed, Harrison neit de-' 
termined to proceed in pursuit of Proctor. On 
the 2d of October, with about two thousand five 
hundred men, selected for the purpose, he eenr- 

S36 rEBioi>x-_ieoa«iBi7. 

nenced a rapid march, and, on the 5lh, readied 
the place where the enemy h,ad encamped the 
night before. Col. Johnson, who liad joined 
Gen. HarriBon, was sent forward to reconnoitre 
the enemy, and soon returned with the informa- 
don that they had made a Btand a few miles 
distant, and were ready for action. 

The American troops were now formed in or- 
der of batde. The armies engaged, and, for a 
time, the strife raged with fury. Providence, 
however, gave to the Americans a dcci^ve vic- 
tory, and Detroit fell into their hands. 

In this engasnnent, the lois of the British was nmeteai regti 
kra killed, fifty wounded, and about six hundred prisonera 
The Indians left one hundred and twenty on_ the field. Tha 
loss of the Americans did not exceed fifly. 

In this battle were engaged one thousand two hundred orons 
Ibousand five hundred ^dians, led on by TcGaaueb, a savagt 
warriour, than whom the annals of history can scarcely boast a 
greater. Since the defeat of Harmer he had been in almost eve> 
ry engagement with the whites. On the opeiung of the tate 
war, he visited various tribes, and, by his eloquaice and influ- 
€Bce, roused his countrymen to arms against the United Statei. 

Section XXXII!. The fall of Detroit put an 
end to the Indian war in that quarter, and gave 
security to the frontiers. Gen. Harrison now 
dismissed a greater part of his volunteers, and 
having stationed Gen. Cass at Detroit, with 
about one thousand men, proceeded, according 
to his instructions, with the remainder of his 
forces, to Buffalo, to join the army of the centre. 

Section XXXlV. The result of the opera- 
tions of the north-west, and the victory on Lake 
Erie, prepared the way to attempt a' more effec- 
tual invasion of Canada. 

Gen. Wilkinson was now commanding the 
American forces in the north, Gen. Deiu'bom 
having some time before retired on account of 


M&DISetrs ADMLNtSTftATlON. tt7 

tndispoBiiion. The force destined for the con- 
templated invasion of Canada, amounted to 
twelve thousand meu, — eight thousand of whom 
were stationed at ?Jiagara, and four thousand at 
^attsburg, under the command of Gen. Hamp- 
ton. — In addition to these forces* those under 
Gen. Harrison were expected to arrive in sea- 
son to furnish important assistance. 

The outline of the plan which had been 
adopted, was to descend the 8U Lawrence, 
passing the British forts above, and, after a 
junction with Gen. Hampton, at some designat- 
ed point on the river, to proceed to the Island 
of Montreal. Unexpected difficulties, however, 
occurred, whjch prevented the execution of this 
plan, and the American forces retired into win- 
ter quarters at St. Regis. 

'^Gen. Wilkinion concentrated his forces at GrcDadiers' Island, 
oetween Sacbett's Harbour and KJngston, one hundred anil 
entity mileg f^tun Montreal, by the way of ibe river. This place 
the 'army left, on the 25th of October, on board the fleet, and 
descended the St. Lawrence, sanguine in the expectation of sub- 
duing Montreal. 

On the arrival of the flotilla at Willifunsbw^, November 9A, 
one thousand five hundred men, of Gen. Boyd't briga({e, were 
landed with a view to cover the boats in their passage duuugli 
the rapids. On the 11th an engagement took place, whkh con- 
tinued two hours, between this detachment of the Americaa 
anny, and a detachment of the Brtti^ under lieut Gol. Mw 
tiaon. — Both parties claimed the victoty, but it was, properly, a 
drawn battle, the British retiring to their encampments, and the 
Americans to their boats. The loss of the British is not ascer- 
tained; that of the Americans, in klHed wounded, was three 
hundred and thirty-^dne. Among the latter wu Gen. Canio^ 
ton, .who died of his wounds. 

A few days previous to this battle, as Gen. Hannson had net , 
arrived, Gen. Wilkinson despatched orders to Gen. Hampton 
to meet him at St. Regis. To these orders, Gen. Hampftm re- 
pBMI, that it was impracticable to comply with them. On tbe 
receipt of this communication, a council of oSicers was called) 
which advised to abandon the project and to retire. Ancorii- 


s$s nsioD x...ieas„.iu7. 

tagl*,' Gtn-Wilkiiucm ordered a reUeat, Biul.idectcd S^rach 
'HIU||H lbs-, vinter quarters of his aimy. lie troops of Gen. 
Iflin'irt"' MOO followed this ezample. 

Thus ended a caoipaign which gave rise to 
dissausfaction, proportioned to the high-expec- 
tationa that had been indulged of its success. 
Publick opinion was much divided as to the 
causes of its. failure, and as to the parties to 

.whom the blame was properly to be attached. 

Section XXXV. The proposal of the empe- 
rour of Russia to mediate between the United 
€tateB' aad Great Britain, with reference to an 
amicable adjustment of their - differences, ani 
-the appointment of Messrs. Gallatin, Adams, 
and Bayard, as commissioners under that pro- 

^posal, have been mentioned. This proposal, 
however, Great Britain thought expedient to de- 
dine; but the prince regent offered a direct 
negotiation, either at London or Gottenburg-. 

' The offer was no sooner communicated to our 

"ffTtvernment, than accepted, and Messrs. Henry 
Clay, Jonathan Russel, and Albert Gallatin, 
were appointed in addition to tlie cgmmission- 
ars already in Europe, and soon after sailed for 
Gottenburg. Lord Gambier, Henry Goulboum, 
and William Adame, were appointed on the part 
of the court of St. James, to meet them. The 

' place of their meeting was first fixed at Gotten- 

' burg, but subsequently was changed to Ghent, 
in Flanders, where the commissioners assem- 
bled in August. 

Section XXXVL The spring of 1814 was 
distinguished for the loss of the American fri- 
gate Essex, Commodore David Porter, which 
was captured on the 28th of March, in th^bay 
uf ValparaisQ, South Ameriea, by a superionr 

' Sritish force. 


CtMniDodore Potl» had been cruising in the Padfidt for neai^ 
ly a y^^y '^ t^ course sf which he had captured several 3n- . 
tiah armed whale ships. Some of these were equipped as Ame- 
rican cruisa^ and store ships ; and the Atlaniick, now oalled , 
the Essex JunioF, o( twenty guns and sixty meu, wa* assi^ed 
to Lieut. Downei. The prises which were to be laid up, . 
were coiuroyed by this officer to Valparaiso. On Ills return, ne 
brought intelligence to Commodore Porter that a British squad- . 
ron, consisting of one frigate, and two sloops of mur, and a 
' stiM:e ship of twenty guns, had sailed in quest of the Essex. The 
conunodoce took measures, immediately, to repair his vessel, 
which, having accomplished, on the 12th of December, 1813^ 
he sailed for Valparaiso, in company with ihe Essex Junior. 

" It was not long after the arrival of Commodore Porta at 
Valparaiso, when Commodore H^lyar appeared there in the 
Fbttbe trlgnte, accompanied by the Cherub sloop of war. — 
These vessels had been equipped for the pur|)Ose of meeting the 
Essex, with picked crews, in prime order, and hoisted flags 
bearing the motto, " God and our country, British Bailors' beet 
rights ; traitors offend thent." This was in allusina to Potter's 
cadsratcd motto, " Free trade and .sailors' rights;" he now 
hoisted athis mizzen, " God, our country, and hbeEty : tyrants 
ofiend tliem." On entering the harbour, the British commodore 
fell foul of the Essex, in such a. situation as to be placed com- 
[riftely in the power of the latter ; the turbearance of Commo- 
dore fortev was acknowledged by the English conunander, and 
hepossed his word and honour to observe the same regard to 
the neutrality of the port. 

'* The BritiMi vessels soon after stood out, and cruised oS'the 
port about six weeks, rigorously Wcckading the Cssi^i. Their 
united fcrce 'smonnted to eighty-one gims and about five hun- 
d[e4nien,^&l>out double that of the Essex ; but the circumstance 
of thia force being divided in two ships, rendered the disparity 
still greater ; and was by no means counterbalanced hy the Es- 
sex Junior. Commodore Porter being prevented by this great 
diaparify of force, from engaging, made repeated attempts to 
draw the Phcebe into action singly, either by manoeuvring or 
sending formal challenges ; but Commodore I^Iillyar carefully 
avoided the coming to action alone. The American, command- 
er, hearing thatan additional British' force was on lis ivay, and 
having diMovered that his vessel could outsail those of the Bri- 
tii!^ determiacd'to sail out, and, while the enemy was in chase,, 
eoablethe Essex Ju^or to escape to a place of rendezvous pre- 
viously appointed. 

"Chi'tae-tweBty-eighth Qf< March, the wind coKmgon.tft. 
blowfrMbifremtMi sintliwwdt the Essex parted herjtarbo^d 

340 PBBIOD X...1B0»~U17. 

Mbl^ md dragged her lartioard andior to m. Nat a mamo't 
wu KM in getting mU on the ship, as it vu detenntned to 
Mise thi* momeat to escape. In endeaToaring to pan to tbe 
windward of the memy, a ■qnall Aruck the American vessel, 
{iitt M she wu doubling the point, which carried away ber 
■uin-top-maat i both ihips imnwdiately gave diaie, uid being 
uiuMe to eKape in his crippled state, the c^munodon endett* 
Touml to pat back into lliehBTbooT ; liut finding this impractica- 
blo, be ran into a small bay, and anchored within instol shot oT 
the Aon; where, from ^ sanposition tluU the e 
'' ■ -' utrautvoftb ' '--■'- 

». to respect the neutraUty of the port, be dioagfat himaejf 
•eenre. He icon found, however, by the masner in wlach they 
■ppioacfaed^ th«t he was mistaken. With all poralde deB|nlcb, 
Uterefore, fae prepared his ship for Bctinn, and endeavoured to 

Ea *prii^ on his cable, which he could not accomplish bef(«e 
memy cpmmenced the attack, at lifly-foiv minutns post 
Ikree. " 

At firat Ae Phoebe placed Ifcrself on bis stem, and the Ch» 
rub oo hii larboard bow ; bui tlie laiCsr soon finding faeradf e& 
pofed to a hot fire, changed hfr position, and with ner coBsort, 
kepi up a mkine fire under his stern. Tbe Amanan, being 
tunbte to bring his broadside to bear on the en«ny, bii satatf 
cabin having been tliree times shot away, waaoU^ed, ihere- 
fore, to rely for defence against this tremendous attack, on three 
long twelve pounders, which he ran out of the sten potts; 
which wtif worked witli such bravery and skill, as in half an 
hour (o do so much injury to the enemy, as to compel them ta 
haul off and repair. 

It was evident that Commodore Hillyar ineaat to risk DOthuig 
from the daring courage of the Americans ; all bis manoewrea 
were deliberate and wary ; his nniagonist was in tiis power, and 
his (miy concern was to succeed with as little loss io himself as 
possible. The ritnation of the Essex was most veiatiovs to our 
brave countrymen; many of them were aheady killed and 
wounded, and fcim the crippled state of Arir swp, they were 
unable to bring her guns to bear upon the enemy. — Her gallant 
^rew* were not disheartened ; aroused to desperation, Aey ex- 
pressed their defiance to the enemy, and th«r determinBtion to 
hidd out to the last 

TTie en«ny having repaired, now plai^ faims^, wWi both 
■hips On the starboard quarter of die Essex, wha« notte of ber 
gatu ctmld he brought to t>ear ; the commodore saw no heme 
but in getting under way ; the flying-jib was the only sul he 
could set j this he caused to be hoisted, cut his cable, and ran 
down on bodi ships, with the intenticm of laying tbe Pltcefee «« 
^oard. Perashort(i<nehewtt<enriiledtoelineirididteeoe 
• . ......Google 


my, «id the firiag vu tremendous ; the decki of the Enex 
w«re (trewed with dead, iuid her cockpit HUed vith the wound- 
ed ; ihe had been several times on fire, and was, in fact, a per- 
fect wreck. At this moment, ^feeble hope arose, that she might 
still be saved, in consequence of the Cherub bemg compelled to 
haul off on account of her crippled state ; she, however, kept 
Dp her fire al a distance, with her long guns. The Essex was 
unable, however, to take advantage of the circumstance, as the 
Phcebe edged off, and also kept up, git a distance, a destrLctive 
fire ; the Ibrmer being totally bereti of her sails, could not bring 
hei to close quarters. 

C(»)Aiicdore Porter finding the greater part of his crew dis' . 
abled, at last gave up all hope, and attempted to run his vessel 
on shore, the wind at that moment favouring his design; but it 
suddenly changed, drove her close upon the Fho^be, exposing 
h» to a rakinj; Hre. The ship was totally unmanageable, but 
as she drifted with her head to the enemy, Commodore PiHter 
again seized a faint hope of being able to board. At this mo- 
ment Lieutenant Downes came on board, to receive orders, ex 
pecting that his comiqander would soon beaprisoner. His ser- 
vices could be of no avail in the present deplorable state of the 
Essex, and finding from the enemy's putting up his helm, that 
the last attempt at hoarding would not succeed, Downes was 
directed to repair to his ship, to be prepared for defending )uid 
destroying her, in case of attack. 

The slaughter on board the Essex now became horrible, the 
^nemy continuing to rake her while slie was unable to bring a 
single gun to bear. Still her commander refused to yield while 
B ray of hope appeared. Every expedient, that a fertile and 
invmtive genius could suggest, was resorted to, iii the forlorn 
hope, that he might be able, by same lucky cliance, to escape 
from the grasp of the foe. A hawser was bent to the sheet an- 
choTj and the anchor cut from the bows, to bring the ship's head 
aroimd. Tbb succeeded; the broadside of the Essex was again 
brmightto bear; and as the enemy was much crippled, andun* 
aUe to hold his own, the commodore thought she might drift out 
of gunshot, befwe he dbcovered that the Esses had anchored ; 
but alas! this last expedient failed ; tlie hawser parted, and with 
.it went the last lingerir^ hope of the Essex. 

At this moment her situation was awful beyond description. 
She was on fire both before and aft, the flames were bursting up 
her hatchway, a quantity of powder exploded below, end word 
was given that the fire was near her magazine. T^s surround- 
by horrours, without any chance of saving his slvp, he bimol 
his aUention to the saving as many of his gallant companions at 
he could t the (fistnnca W the shore not exeeetSng itir^e (jiimtft^ 

29* .,_.Gyoglc '^ 

S4S tFiu6t>»'....iiiir. 

of Aqu^>)w iu^dlhat many of them wauld save th^iiaSiekeil 
before tbe >liip blew up. Hii boats bnng cut up, tbej couU 
odI; hope lo escape bv swimming ; by some this was' effi^cted, 
but tbe greater part of his generous crew resolved to etaj by tbe 
shin, and. share the fate of their commander. 

lliey now laboured to extinguish the Q&mes, and sncceeded ; 
iiAer this, they again repaired to their guns, but their strength 
had become so much einausted, that this effort was in vsin. 
Compiodore Porter summoned a consultation of the officers of 
the divisions, when to his astonishment only one actitig' lieul^ 
Bant, Stephen Decatur M'Night, appeared. The accounts finm 
every part of the ship were deplorable inile^ ; she waa in Im- 
minent danger of sinlung, and so crowded ffith the wounded, 
that even her birthdeck couid hold no more, and sevnrd were 
killed under the surgeon's hands. In the mean time the enemy, 
at a secure distance, continued his fire ; the water having \te- 
cooie smooth, he struck the hull of the Essex at every shot. At 
last, despairing of saving his ship, the commodore was compil- 
ed, Bt twenty minutes past six, to give tlie painful orders to strike 
ibe colours. Tbe enemy, probably nut seeing that this had ta- 
ken place, continued to fire for ten minutes after, and Porter was 
. about to give orders tliaC the colours should again be houted, 
under a belief that the enemy inlended to give no quarters, when 
the- firing ceased. The loss on board the Essex was fifty-eight 
killed, thirty-nine wounded severely, tiventy-seven slightly, and 
thirty one missing. The loss on board the British vessels was 
five killed and ten wounded ; but they were both much ctit up 
in their hulls and rigging ; the Phtebe could scarcely be kept 
afloat until she anchored in the port of Valpar^so next morn- 

Commodore Porter was paroled, and permitted to return to 
the United States in the Essei Junior, which was converted in- 
to a cartel for the purpose. On arriving off die port of New- 
York, the vessel was detained by the Salurn razee, and to the 
disgrace of the British navy, already dishonoured by the base 
attack upon this gallant otHcer, he was compelled to give up 
his parole, and declare himself a prisoner of war, and, as such, 
he informed the British officer that be would attempt his escape. 
In UHU^quence of tliis tlueat, tbe Essex Junior was ordered to 
rem^ under tbe lee of tbe Saturn ; but the next morning Com- 
modoiv ?ortw put off in bi^ boat, though thirty miles from sfaore, 
and notwithstanding the pursuit by those of Uk Saturn, anrhreti 
safely in New-York."" 


^fic/MwiXXXVlI, Towards the clbae of Aprih, 
after an action of forty-two niiDUtes,' the British 
brig Epervier surrendered to the Peticook. Fort 
Erie Was taken ft-oih the British, early in July, 
and during the same month, sanguinary b&ttlea 
were fought at Chippewa and Bridji^ewater. 
~ lo the battle of Bridgevcater, or Niagara, Generals Brown 
and Scott commanded the Americans; GieneraU Dnumnond 
and lUall the Britisli. The battle lasted from four o'clock, P. 
M. till inidnight. The' British loss was nine hundred m kilted, 
wounded, and prisoners ; the loss of the Americans (Ud not ex- 
ceed one hundred. The fonner were obliged to retire. 

Section XXXVIII. While these events were 
transpiring in the north, the publick attention 
was irresistibly drawn to the movements of the 
enemy on the sea-board. About the middle of 
August, between fifty and sixty sail of the Bri- 
tish arrived in the Chesapeake, with troops des- 
lined for the attack of Washington, the capital 
of the United States, On- the 23d of August, 
six thousand British troops, commanded by 
Gen. Ross, forced their way to that place, burnt 
the capitol, president's house, and executive of- 
fices. Having thus accomplished an object 
highly disgraceful to the British anna, and wan- 
tonly burned publick buildings, the ornament 
and pride of the nation, the destruction of which 
could not hasten the termination of the war- 
on the 25th they retired, and,-by rapid marches, 
regained their shipping, having lost, during the 
expedition, nearly one thousand men. 

The troops, under Cren. Ross, were landed at Benedict, on 
the Pawtuiet, forty-seven miles from Washington. On the 
21st, they moved towtird Nottingham, and, -the following day, 
reached Marlboron^. A Mtish Sotilla, commanded by Cock- 
bum, consisting of launches and barges, ascended the rinr at 
dte satne time, keeping on the right flank of the army. The 
day followihg, on approaching the American fotUla of Com. 
BUtnsy, whkh had ttJwn nfagt h^{il up the liveri twelve mllei 


from WsaUngtoo, BOOM nulan left on baud the flotUla fiwdie 
panMee, ihoiud it be necnMir, >et fire to h, and fied. 
On liw airiral of the Britidi ( . ™ . . 

from Waihtngton, Gen. Winder, commander of the Americu 
foico, chiefly militia collected for the occaiion, <m)ered dmo to 
engage the enemy. The principal port of the milida, bowerrer, 
fled, at the opening of the contest. Commodore Barney, wkh 
n few eighteen pounders, and aboot fonr hundred men, made a 
gallant resistance ; but being overpowered by numb^, aatd 
himielf woundpd, he and a part of his brave band were coinpdl- 
ed to surrender themselve* pristmers of var. 

From Bladensburg, Gai. Ross urged his march to Washu^* 
ton, where he arrived at about 8 o'clock in the evening. Havug 
stationed his main body at the distance of a mile and a hall 
from the capitot, he entered the city, at the head of aboat seven 
hundred men, soon after which, he issued his orders for the cob- 
flagratioD of the publick buildings. With the capitol were con* 
sumed its valuable libraries, and all the fivntture, and-articles of 
taste and value in that and in the other buildings. The greM 
bridge acTOH the Potomack was burnt, togethn with an elegant 
hotel, and other private buildings. 

Section XXXIX. The capture of Washing- 
ton was followed, September 1 2th, by an attack 
on Baltimore, in which the Americaa forces, 
militia, ajid inhabitants of Baltimore, made a 
gallant defence. Being, however, overpowered 
by a superiour force, they were compelled to 
retreat; but they fought so valiantly, that the 
attempt to gain posyei^sion of the city was aban- 
.doned by the enemy, who, during the night of . 
Tuesday, 13th, retired to their shipping, having 
lost among their killed, Gen. Ross, tlie commaa- 
der in chief of the British troops. 

The British army, after the capture of Washington, having 
le-embarked on board the fieet in the Fawtuxent, Admiral Coch 
rane moved down that rivi^r, and proceeded up the Chesapeake 
On the niorning of the 1 1th of September, he appeared at ths 
month of the Patapsco, fourteen miles from Baltimore, with a 
fleet of ships of war and transports, amounting to fifty sail. 

On the next day, 1 2tb,-land focces, to the number of six thou- 
sand, were landed at North Point, and, under the command ot 
Oen. Ross, commenced thiur march towards the city. In anti- 
cipation ofitalondhig of the ttwqos. Gen. S^itker was. despatch 


ed wMi three tbouaond two hnodred men from Bgltimne^ to 
keep the eawy in check. 

On die 13th, a battle was fought by the two armies. Early 
in the eagsgement, a considerable part of Geo. Strieker's troops 
retreated in confusion, leaving him scarcely one thousand four 
htmdred men, to whom was opposed the whole body of the 
enemy. An inceuant lire was continued from half past tw» 
o'clock, tiU a little before four, when Gen. Strieker, finding the 
contest unequal, and that the enemy outflanked him, retreated 
ipon his reserve, which was effected in good order. 

The loss of the AmericaDs, in killed and wounded, aiiiounted 
M> one hundred and sixty three, among whom were some of the 
most respectable citizens of Baltimore. 

The enem^ made his appearance, the next morning, in front 
01 the American entrenchments, at a distance of two miles from 
ttie city, showing an iotentioii of renewing the attack. 

L) the meantime, an attack was made on fort M'Henry, from 
frigates, bombs, and rocket vessels, which continued dirough 
the day, and the greater part of the night, doing, however, but 
little damage. 

In tlie course of ihc night of Tuesday, Admiral Cochrane 
helo a communication with the commander of the land forces, 
and the enterprise of taking the city being deemed impractica- 
ble, ihe troops were re-embarked, and the next day, the fleet 
descended the bay, to the great joy of the released inhabitants. 

Section XL. During these troubles in the 
south, the enemy were far from being inactive in 
other parts of the United States. August 14th, 
Fort Erie was attacked by the British, com- 
manded by Lieut. Gen. Drummond ; but, after 
—a severe engagement, they wore repulsed, with 
a loss of six hundred, in killed, and wounded, 
and prisoners. The American loss was two 
hundred and forty-five. 

September Ist. The British took possession 
of Castine, in Maine, as sometime before they 
tiad taken Eastport, a town situated on one of 
the islands of the bay of Paeaammaquoddy. 
About this time, also, - the seaports along the 
shoi-es of New England being seriously threat- 
ened, the militia v/Ote Called out, by the authe- 

rities of the States bordering on the sound, to 
repel the expected foe. 

Section XLI. The joy experieneed in all 
parts of the United States, on account of the 
brave defence of Baltimore, had scarcely sub- 
sided, when intelligence was received of the 
signal success of the Americans at Plattaburg, 
and on Lake Ghemplain. The army of Sir 
George Prevost, amounting to fourteen thou- 
sand men, was compelled by Gen. Macomb to 
retire from the-former, and the enemy's squa- 
dron, commanded by Commodore Downie, was 
captured by Commodore Macdonough on the 

Towards the close of the winter of 1 8 1 4, General Wilkinson, 
with his taiay, removed from their winler-quarters at St. Regis, 
and took slalion at Fljttsburg. Gen. Wilkinsoa leaving the 
Gommand of the army, Gen. Macomb succeeded hini at this 
place. BySeptembfr, the troops at PlaltsbuTg were diminisJi- 
ed by detachntenu, withdrawn to other staiious, to one :botisand 
five fauadred men 

In this state of the forces, it wat announced that Sir George 
Pievost, govcrnoiir-general of Canada, with an army of four* 
leen thousand men, completely equipped, and accompanied by 
a numerous train of artillery, was about making a deicent on 

At this time, both the Americans and British had a respecta 
ble aavul force on lake Champlain ; but that of the latter was 
considerably the superiour, amounting to ninety-five guns, and 
one thousand and fifty men, while the American squadron car 
ried bat eighty-six guns, and «ght hundred and twenty-ciz men. 

On the 11th of September, whilethe American fleet was lying 
aff Plattsburg, the British squadron was observed bearing dotrn 
upon it in order of battle. 

Com. Macdonou^^, ordering his vessels cleared for action, 
gallantly received the enemy. An engagement ensued, which 
lasted two hours and twenty minutes. By this time, the enemy 
was silenced, and one frigate, one brig, and two sloops of war 
fell into the hands of the Americans. Several British galleys 
were sank and a few' others escaped. The loss of the Ameri- 
eani'WMC ttfiyntm kiDHl, and6Ay-«ight wounded; of the Bri- 
tish, eighty-four killed, and ona hundred end ten wounied. 



wmy^.utivedin Ae vicinHy.of F^ftOabFirg' ..In anticipation of 
iJaia-fivrntyGeOrMMiVfab made every preparatioB wtudi ttne 
avd nKftDS alloved, and called in to Us assistance connderaUe 
numbers of the mibtia. ' 

In the sight of these two ansin^ Uw rival s^ iiadrQiu,cop;uaaic- 
«iLlheir caUttt. And, asif thdr ei^agement had been a pre- 
Miac^ed. ugoal ; and as if to raise stiil biglter the sdemn gran- 
deur of the scene; Sir George Prevost now ledupWibrces 
against the American works, and -bsgui tfarcnring upon them, 
shells, bails, and rockets. 

jAatbejmaxt time^ tbe:Ameiicans opened a severe and de- 
Btructive fire from their forts. Before sunset, the temporary bm- 
. teries of Sir George Prevost were all silenced, and every att£XDpt 
of. the enemy to cross- from Plattsburg to the Amnican works* ' 
VH repelled. At nine o^dock, perceinng tlie attainnentofhis 
^ol^ect impracticable, the British general hastily drew off his for- 
- BW) idimlnished. by killed, wounded, and deserted, two thousand 
£v« hundred. At the same time he abandoned vast quantkies 
^f military stores, and left the inhabitants of Flattsburg to take 
eareof iberick and wounded of his army, and, the ".star-span- 
,gled bauier " to wave in triumph, over the waters of Cham- 

''Section XhH. It has been already noticed, 
' that di& New Gngland representatives in con- 
gross, as'well m& great portion of the people in 
iSiat section of the country, were early and 
-<M]roDgly opposed to the.war with Great Britain. 
During the progress of .the war, this opposition 
continued, and became confirmed. Enlistments 
-of troops into the f^niy from this, quarter were, 
-■therefore, fewer than under other circimistances 
might have been ' expected. Dissentions also 
•arose between the general and state govern- 
ments respecting the command pf the militia, 
called out by order of the former, to defend the 
sea-board. 'Great dissatisfaction prevailed from 

-- *nwT31s{ieofPlaltS^UQ is situated on tbeeortbeutrideofthes^Dall 
river Sinmac, near ita eBtnnee into tbe lake, and IheAmcitaui Tom *r* 
directlfOT^osil*. L n(wl ' 

in apprehension that the ofUrs of the gu^nl 
gorernment were iniB''manBged, and, to manT* 
It appeared that a cneie was forming, which, 
unless seasonably provided agauiBt, might in- 
volve the comitiy in ruin. 

Such apprehensions for the political safety 
extensively prevailing throughout New Eng- 
land, it was deemed important, by those -who 
felt for them, to take measures to remove pub- 
lick grievances, ^nd to provide against antici- 
pated evils. 

Accordingly, on the 8th of October, 1814, at 
an extra session of the Massachusetts Legi^- 
ture, a committee, to whom was referred the 
apeedi of die govemour, (Strong,) in the con- 
clusion of their report, recommend the appoint- 
ment of " delegates to meet and coni«r with 
delegates froo^uie States of 'New England, or 
an^ of them, upon the subjects of their publick 
gnevances and concerns" — '* and also to take 
measures, if they shall think proper, for procur- 
ing a convention of delegates from all the Uni- 
ted States, in order to revise the constitati<Hi 
thereof, and more effectually to secure the sup- 
port and attachment of aU the people, by plac- 
ing aZI upon the basis of fair representation." 

This feaolution met with a spirited opposition 
from a respectable minority, both in the senate 
and house of representatives — but fintdly pass- 
ed. Delegates were accordingly chosen. This 
example was followed by Rhode-tsland antl 
Connecticut. Vermont refused, and New-Hiunp 
shire neglected to send. 

On the 15th of December, these delegates, 
togethei/with two elected by counties in New- 
Hampshire, and one similarly- elected in Ver- 


iooatttaet at l!|utfoFd. After a sesoon of near 
three weeks, they published a report, id which, 
after dwelliiig upon the publick grievances felt 
by the New JBnglaod States particularly, and by 
(he country at large, in no small degree, they 
proceeded to suggest several alterations of the 
federal constitution, with a view to their adop- 
tion by the respective states of the Union. 

TbtfK aheradont coiuisted of seven articles— ^f<, that n- 
presentatives aod direct tezei shall be apportioned to the num- ' 
bw of free penmni ; — »tcondfy, that no new State tball be ad- 
mfated uitD the union without the concuirance of two thirdi of 
both boiiie* i-^-thirtBy, that congress shall not have power to 
lay an emboigo iat more than sisty days ; — -fourthly, that con- 
gress (hall not interdict commercial intercourse^ without the con- 
currence of two thirds of both houses •f—f.fthly, that war shall 
not be declared without the concurrence of a aimilttr majority;— 
aixthty, that no person who shall be hereafter naturaUsed, shall be 
elwibleas a member of the senate or house of representatives, or 
bold any civil office under the authonty nf the United Slates ; 
and geventhiy, that no person shall be elected twice to the pre* 
sidency, nor the preudent be elected from the same State two 
terms in succession. 

The teport of the convention concluded with 
a resolution, providing for the calling of another 
convention, should ^e United States " refuse 
their consent to some arrangement whereby the 
New England States, separately, or in concert, 
might be empowered to assume upon them- 
seWes the defence of their territory against the 
enemy," appropriating a reasonable proportion 
of the publick ' taxes for this purpose; or, 
" should peace not be concluded, and the de 
fence of the New-England States be jieglected 
aa it iias heen since the commencement of the 

The condusion of a treaty of peace with Great Britain, dm 
long after bei^ announced, anotoer convention wan not called ; 
andon Aeiubmission ofllie ^ove amendraeots of the constitu- 
tion to die several states, tliey -were rejected. 

30 .,_.Guuyl.' 


No act of Ae fcdaal partj hn ben a 
bj dxir appaaeoti, u IM fofUBtioci of tbe Hattfim) C 
It b icpmented b; them, at a treasooabk — '-' — * 

UdoM aiBndnals, who, taUag Mhranuge a 

•f dw Ttr~"' admioinniioa, arini^ ant irflbe « 

•ever the mutxi ; and were odIj detmed bom an , 

lo acconplub Ibetr purpose by (he uoexpecSed wwrJarion of a 

tm^ oT peace whh Gieai Britain — which dbenbanuMd the 

adninMCralion — and iwept awaj all graandi Dpfm which to |w<y 

■ecnte their dwignt. 

In defence of the coovrntion, it is ui^;ed, that the indiridaals 
who compoaed it, auembled in obedience to l^islalive^piMnt- 
nent t and be the formation of a convention right or wrong, 
the;, a« individual!, xme not respoiuible for it. That the coll* 
ing »f the convention was right, ia virged on the following 
gToundt: at the period of its foroiation, the situation of (be coon- 
tt; wai nich a* gave serious ground* of alarm to reflectii^ men ; 
—the war operations had beensiDguIarlydiiaatnNu; iherecnit- 
ing lervice languished ; the national treaiunr was almost pei^ 
ni&M ; the national credit was shaken, and loans were effected 
at a nibou* discount ; the New-England seaboard was left ei- 
in#)d to tlie enemy — and instead of securing the ccmfidence of 
<tv people of the eastern states, by tilling the militaivand civil 
'tMIgcs under the general government, with men of Known ta- 
icuu Aid character, the administration committed the inteieats 
ct the nation at a critical period to men contemned by a vait 
maiority of the people in those states. , 

The publjck mind in view of this state of things, was exch* 
ed to a pitch bordering on insurrection ; and as their representa 
tion in congress was unheard, they looked with earnest impor 
tunity lo their ttate legislatures. What could be done ? From 
Uie earliest dales of its history, the legislatures of New-EnglaBd 
had been accustomed to call ccmvetitians, at petlods of common 
<lMiger, to confer upon tiie publick welfare. It was natural « 
this moment to resort to the same course ; and iastead of favour^ 
ing the suspicion of treasonable intentions by the character of 
die men selected to form this convontion ; the age, gravity, and 
MtablishedreputHtionofthegreater part of the members of it axe 
1 foir refutation of such suapicians. There are no clear proob 
to support the charge of treasonable designs on the put of the 
ConTCntion ; on the contrary their doingt, which are the oaiy 
Mt teat of their motives, and the only just grounds upon wldch 
to form its character, and which are before the world in th«r re- 
port, and their secret journal, U-iuniphantly refijie such a charge; 
And it is fiirther maintained that the actu^ operation of the pro- 
•MkUngsoftheconvention, was, instead of romingoppaaitioat* 
■ .....Google 


the general govrnimenl, to soolUe the publick apprahenuow, 
and 4]iuet that restless anxiety which pervaded the country* 

Section XLIII. As early as the month of 
September, indications of no dubious character 
were' given, that notwithstanding the negotia- 
tions pending between the American and British 
commissioners at Ghehtf serious preparations 
were making for an invasion of Louisiana. 
About December 5th, certain intelligence was 
received that a British fleet, consisting of sixty 
sail, was off the coast to the east of the Missis- 
sippi. In the course of the month, fifteen thou- 
sand troops were landed, under the command of 
Sir Edward Packenham, and, on the 8th of 
JanuTtry, they attacked the Americans, amount- 
ing to about six thousand, chiefly militia, in 
their intrenchinents, before New-Orleans. Af- 
ter an engagement of more than an hour, the 
enemy, having lost their commander in chief, 
and Major-General Gibbs, and having been cut 
to pieces in an almost unexampled degree, fled 
in confusion, leaving their dead and wounded on 
the field of battle. 

On the receipt uf iDtelligence that the enemy were off the 
coast of the Mississippi, Conunodore Patterson deepatched fitfe 
gun boats, to watch their motions. These boats \mag unibrtn- 
nately captured, the enemy were lell to choose their point of at- 
tack, et^irely unmolested. 

A part of the British forces were landed on the 32d of De- 
cember; and several engagements took place between them and 
the Americans, some miles from New-Orleans, but nothing d*. 
cigive.was effected on either side. 

During these prelifiainary engagements, Geo. Jacksoij, com- 
manding at New-Orleans, had been diligently employed in pr^ 
psrationE to defend tlie place. His front was a tlnught line of 
m^ thousand yards, defended by upwards of three thousand in- 
fantry and artillerists. The ditch eontmned five feel of water, 
and his front, from having been flooded by opening the levees, 
smd by frequent rains, was rendered slippery and muddy. Eight 
distJaet batteries were judiciously disposed, mountingtndltwdvt 

333 PERIOD X...IS09~I817. 

^nsof diSerentculibrei. On liie opposite ude of iherirer \m 
a >tronF battery of fifteen gims. 

On the monHng of Uie Sth of January, Genenl Packenham 
hrm^M ap hi* (oi':^, amonniing to twelve diooaand men, to tht 
attafiK. llw Britiih deljbitraiely advanced in solid coIumB^ 
over an even plain, in front of tu American intrenchments, the 
men conyhig, Efesidea llieir muskets, faacines, and some nf them 

K ic^enin tilence now prevailed thrnugji the American line^ 
until the enemy approached witbln reach of the battmes, which 
Bt that moment opened an incessaot and destructive cannonada. 
The enemy, not withstanding, continued to advance, dnsing i^ 
their ranka at last aa tiiey were opined by the fire of the Am^ 

At lei^lh, they came within reach of the musketry and rifia. 
The extended American line now unitedly presented one sfae^ 
of fiM, and poured in upon the BiitisU columns, an uneea^ng 
tidettfdeuh. Hundreds felLat every discharge, raid by ccIuduh 

Being unable to stand the shock, the British became diswdet- 
ed aad fled. In an attempt to rally them, Geiv Packenham was 
ki!M. Oenwals Gibbs and Kean succeeded in pashi^ Anw 
ward tbfir ooluinns a second time, hut the second sfqiroach was 
still more fatal, than the first. Tlir fires again idled from the 
American batteries, nnd from tliousands of muskets. The ad- 
vancing col'imns agun broke and fled ; a few platoona only 
reached the edge of the ditch, there to meet a more certain d«- 
MWctitaL In a tJiird but unavailing aRempt to lead up tbdr 
troops, Genrrals Gibbs and Kean were severely wonnded, tbs 
former moitally. 

The field of bnttle noweihibited a scene of extended carnage. 
Seven hundred brave soldiers were stewing in death, and one 
thnnsand fcur hundred were wounded* Five bundred were made 
prisoners — nmking a loss to the British, on this memorable day, 
of near three thousand men. The Americans lost in the en- 
garment only seven killed, Rnd six wounded. 

The enemy now sultcnty retired, and on the night of the I Sth, 
evacuated their camp, and, witb great secreay, embuftsd on 
board their shipping, 

(Section XLIY. The news of the victory at 
New-OrlosDH spread with haste through the 
Uiiited States, and soon afler was followed' bf 
tfas atill more welcome tidings of a treaty of 
pasce, wfatoh was signed at GMiit,.oathe2Wtof 
, ^ .....Google 


December, 1814. On the 17tb of February, diis 
treaty was ratified by the president and senate. , - 

Upon the mbjecta for which the war had been profesKdly 
declared, ihe ttraty, thus concluded, was silent It proviiM 
only for the suspension of hostilities — the ^change of prisraKis^ 
the restoration of territories and possessions obtained by the 
, contending powers, during Ihe war — the adjustment of unsettled 
boundaries — and for a combined effort (o effect the entire abo- 
Utioa of tradick in slaves. 

Bi.t whatever diversity of opinion had prevailed about- the 
justice or pcdicy of the war— or now prevailed about the raerits 
of the treaty — all parties wdcomed i^e return of peace. The 
soldier gladly exchanged the toils of the camp for the rest of hii 
home ; the marinn once more spread his canvass to the wind, 
and, (earless of molestation, joyfully stretched his way on the 
ocean ; and the yeomanry of the land, unaccusUuned to the din 
of arms, gladly returned to their wonted care of the' field, and 
the flock. ^ 

Section XLV. The treaty with England was 
followed, on the 30th of June, 1815, by a treaty 
with the dey of Algiers, concluded at Algiers at 
that time, by William Shaler, and Com. Stephen 
Decatur, agents for the United States. 

The war which thus ended by treaty was commenced by the 
dey himself, as early as the year 18l'2. At that time the Ame- 
rican consul, Mr. Lear, was suddenly ordered to depart from 
Algiers, on account of the arrivitl of a cargo of aaval and mili- 
tary stores; for the regency of Alters, in fulfilment of treaty 
stipulations, which tiie dey alleged were not such in quantity or 
quatity as he expected. At the same time, depredations were 
commenced upon our commerce. Several American vessels 
were captured and condemned, and their crews^ subjected tc 

Upon a representation of the case, by the president, to con 
greas, that body formally declared war against the dey in 
Alaixh.' Soon afker an American squadron s^led for the Me- 
diterranean, captured an Algerine brig, and a forty-four gui 
frigate, and at length appeared before Algiers. 

The respectability of the American force, added to the two 
important victories already aclucved, had prepared the way for 
the American commissioners to dictate a treaty upon such a 
basis as they pleased. Accordingly, the model nf a treaty wu 
tent to the dey, who signed it. By this treaty, the United States 
wer* exempted from paying tribtits in Aitiire— «H^)Rd pnnwftr 

H4 KUOD Z».ura„WlT. 

wM w ta Tcttond by the dejr—piiMswn to b« d^ivand «p 
wttbout nnMaa, 4m^ dec 

iS«c<um XLVI. By the math article of the 
treaty between the United States aod Great 
Britain, it was stipulated by the former, ^at 
measures should be Immediately taken to esta- 
blish a peace with the several tribes of Indians, 
which had been engaged in hostilities against 
the United States. Such measures were accord- 
ingly token, and, in his message, December* 
1815, the president commjnicated to congress, 
that a renewal of treaties had readily been ac- 
ceded to by several tribes, and that other more 
distant tribes would prubably follow their exam- 
ple, upon proper explanations. 

Stfrtioft XLVII. iTie treaty with Great Bri- 
tain, which ended the war, left the subject of 
commercial intercourse between the two nations 
to future negotiation. In the summer following 
the close of the war, plenipotentiaries, respect- 
ively appointed by tlie two countries for that 
purpose, met at London, and on the third of 
July, signed " a convention, by which to regu- 
late the commerce between the territories of the 
United States, and of his Britanick majesty." 

Tbis CdDventiun provided liir a reciprocaf liberty of com- 
merce between the two countries — for anequalitation'of dntits 
on iraportatinns and expoFtatiDiig IVoid either country to the 
other — and fur the admission of A nierican vessels to the priaci- 
. j>al lettlemenu of the British doiuliiions in the East Indies, viz. 
Madriis, Caicutta, Srmibay, Sic. 0[ this convention the preai 
dent spoke in terms of approbation, in his meuage to congress ; 
bfd by^e portion of the commiuiity it wBi recnved with 
coldnest, from an apprehension that it wotild operate iin favour 
ably to America, and would seriously abridge her commerce. 
The convention was to be binding oidy ibt four years. 

Section XLVHI. By the second article of the 
treaty with Great Britaia,'it was agreed, that all 
vessels, tolcen by either power, within twelve 

...,„ Google 


d^S from Uie exohapg« of ratificatioiui, b«tveeii 
twenty-three degrees and iUlf degrees o£iuaik 
latitude, should be considered lawful orizea. 
A longer period was stipulated for more aiist&iit 
latitudes. Within the time limited hy this arti- 
cle, several actions took place, and several ves- 
sels of various descriptions were captured by 
each of the belligerents. The frigate President 
was taken January 15th, 1815, by a Britisfa 
squadron ; the Biiti^h ships Cyane, LeTUit, and 
Penguin, were captured by the Americans. 

In consequence of tlie cuntinued bluckude uf Commodore De. 
catur'g squadron at New-London, that oflicer was traiMferred to 
the President, then at New-York. Soiin after taking conunand 
of her, a cruise was contemplated by the commodore, in cull- 
junction with the Peacock, Hornet, and Tom Bowline. Tliiiik- 
ing it more safe io.yeiitiiTe out singly, tlie commodore appoint' 
ed a place of rendezvous 'I'ur the vessels, and set sail in the Fre<- 
aideni. Through the carelessness of the pilot, his vessel, iu 
passing out, struck upon the bar, where she lay for two hgurs 
tossing about, by which her ballast was deranged, and her trim 
for sailing lost. Truitiing to the excellence of his vessel, how- 
ever, and not being able to return to port, the commodore put 
out to sea. 

At daylight, he fell in with a British squadron, consiisting of 
the Cndymion, Tenedus, and Pomone frigates, with the Majes- 
tick razee. In spile of every exertion, they gained upon him; 
at length the Endymion came within reach, and opened her fire. 
Commodore Decatur detenained to engage her befiit« the other 
vessete should come up. Thb he now did, and in a shiHl time 
completely silenced her. By this lime, the rest of the squadron 
had arrived; being unwilling to sarrilice his men in a useless 
contest, on receiving the fire of the nearest frigate, be surreiider- 
ed. Commodore Decatur was taken on hoard the Endymion, 
^and although ihe was only a wreck, lie was required to surren- 
der hia sword to the officer of that vessel. To lliis the spirit of 
Oecatur could not submit, and he indignantly refused to relin- 
rpuah '« to' any one, but to the coramandtr of the squadron. 

The Cy.aoe, a frigate of thirty-four gwig, and the LeraU, a 
tioop of eighteen thirty pound carronades, were taken by the 
Consfituuon about the same lime. 

The Peacock, Homet, and' Tom Bowline, left New-Yoit a 
few days after the siting ef the President, wiiUoitt having heiird 

. S3£ fEBIOD X...16D9«1817. 

of her capture. On the 2$d o( Jwaaaxy, the Hornet pftncd 
eompuay, and directed her course toward* Tnctan d'AcUDa, 
' the place of rendezToui. Oa the 23d of March, rite descried 
the British brig Penguini of ei^rteeo guns and. a twelve pound 
carrenade, to Uie fouthwartt and eattward of the island. Cap- 
tain Bfddic hove to while the Penguin bore down. At foMy 
mniirtet past one, the British brig opened her lire. After fif- 
teen minutea-th* Penguin gradually neared the Hornet with an 
intention to board, the captain having given orders for that pur* 
pose. At this time, he was killed by a grape shot. Her lieu- 
tenant then bore her up, and running her bowsprit between the 
main and mizxen rigging of the Hornet, gave orders to board. 
His men, however, perceiving the crew of the Honief ready to 
receive them, refused to follow him. At this moment the heavy 
swells of the sea lifted the Hornet ahead. The commander of 
the Penguin called out thai he had surrendered, and Captain 
Biddle ordered his men to c«ase filing. 

Immediately alter this, an officer of the Hornet called to Cap- 
tain Biddle, that a man in the enemy'ii shrouds was taking aim 
at liim. Before he could change his position, a musket ball 
■track him in the neck, and wounded hint severely. Two ma- 
rinea immediately levelled thpir pieces, and killed the wretch 
before he. had brought his gun from his shoulder. The crew of 
the Hornet, indignant at this outrage, demanded to give the 
enemy a fresh broadside, and the vessel had nearly wore round 
for the purpose, before Captain Biddle could restrain the justly 
tiasperaied erew. The loss of the Penguin was fourteen. in 
killed, and twenty-eight wounded. The Hornet had one killed 
and eleven wounded. The former vessel was so serlouilj in< 
jured, that Captain Biddle sunk her. 

Section XLIX. The attention of congress, 
during their session in the year 1815 — 1816, 
was called to a bill, which had for its object the 
incorporation of a National Bank. In the dis- 
cussion which followed, much diversity of opi- 
nion was found to prevail, not only as to tlie 
constitutional power of congress to establish 
such an institution, but also as to the principles 
upon which it should be modelled. AAer 
weeks of animated debate, a bill incorporating 
th* " Bank of the United States," with a capi- 
taFof thirty-five millions of dollars, passed, and 


on Wednesday, April 10th, received the ugia- 
ture of the president. 

Orthestockof the bank, seven raillloniveret'ibeilibMritMd 
bf ibe United Snues,the reraiuning tweoty-^ij^ by iadh4dualf> 
The affairs of the corporation were to be managed by twen^* 
five directors, five of whom were to be chosen by the president, 
with the advice and consent nf the senate ; the remainder to be 
elected by the stockholders, at the banking houfe in Philadel- 
phia. The charter of the bank is to continue in force unlU the 
3d of March, IS36. 

L. The summer of 1816 pasaed awaymtfa- 
out heiaz marked by any events of peculiar mo- 
meot. The country appeared to be gradually 
recovering from the embarrassments iaduced 
by the war, and that asperity nf feeUng,'which 
had agitated the diiiereot political parties in the 
United States, was visibly wearing away. Con- 
gress met in December. Id the conclusion of 
his message at the opening of the session, Mr. 
Madison, anticipating the speedy arrival of the 
day, when he should retire from the presidency, 
took occasion to express his attachment for his 
country, and his wishes for her futnre peace and 
prosperity : 

*' I can indulge the proud reflection," said he, " diat Ae 
Anericwi people have reached in safety and success, their for- 
tieth ye«r, as an independent nation ; tliat for nearly .an entire 
geoerBtion, they have had experience of their present constitu- 
tion, the offspring of their undisturbed deliljeratiotts and of tfanr 
free choice; tltat they have found it to bear the trids of adverse 
u well as prosperous circumstancps, to contain in its cnobiniH 
ti«n of the federate and elective principles, a reconcilement of 
publick strength with individual liberty, of national power, for 
the defence of national ri^ts, with a security against wars of 
injustice, df ambition, or of vain glory, in the fiindamental pro. 
viMon wtiich subjects all questions of war to the will of the n»- 
tion itself, whioh is to pay its costs, and feel its calamities. Nor 
ia it less a peculiar felicity of this constitution, so dear to u> at, 
diBt rt u found to be capable^ without losing it> vital eIMigiB^ 
•f wpm dJBg Itietf avat a spacious temtory, with tb» fawmsa 


538 PERIOD X...lS09..18ir. 

and •xpsnuon of the conunuBity, for whose benrft h wu cttB 

Stctum LI. In December 1816, Indiana be 
oame an indepeodent state, and was received 
into ttie union. 

Detached places in Indiana wqre Mttled by the French, up- 
irardi of a century ago. The exact period, at which the fint 
■ettkment was made, is imcertain. 

In 1763, the territory was ceded by France to SngUnd. By 
the treaty of Greenville in 1795, the United Slates ohtnioed 01 
the Indians several small grants of land within this territory ; 
and, in subsequent years, still more enensive tracts. Durii^ 
the war with England, which broke out in 1812, Indiana was 
the scene of many Indian depredations, and of nlany imusaally 
severe battles, between the hostile tribes, and the troops of 1M^ 
United States. Until 1 SOl , Indiana formed a part of the great 
Bortb-western territory, but, at that date, it was erected into a 
territorial government, with the usual powers and privil^cs. 
In December I8I5, the inhabitants amounting to sixty tbousalid, 
the legislature petitioned congress for admission into the union, 
and the privilege of forming a state constitution. A bill Air thii 
purpose passed congress, in April 1816; a conventioa of dele- 
gates met in confu-mity to it, by which a consiitutioD was adopts 
ed, and Indiana became an independent state, and a monber ol 
the union in Decemlier following. 

SectionLU. 1817. On Wednesday, Febru- 
ary 12tli, the votee for Mr. Madison's succeBfior 
were counted in the presence of both houses of 
congress, wlien it appeared that James Monroe 
was elected president, and Daniel D. Tompkina 
vice-president of the United States, for the four 
voars from anj after the 4th of the ensiung 

Section IMl. ^atllirVS. The only no- 
ticeable change of manners, which seeme to 
have taken place during this period, arose from 
the spirit of pecuniary specutatitm, which per- 



vaded the country during the war. Money waa 
borrowed with facility, and fortunes were often 
made in a day. Extravagance and proflicacy 
were, to some extent, the consequence. The 
return of 'peace, and the extensive misfortunes 
wlHctt fell upon every part of the community, 
counteracted these vicea, and restored more so- 
ber Eind industrious habits. 

Section LIV. HtU0fOtl* During this peri- 
ed, extensive revivals of rehgion prevailed, ' and 
liberal and expanded plans were devised and 
commenced for the promotion of Christianity. 
Several theological institutions were foilnded, 
missionary and bible societies were established, 
and a great call ior ministers of the gospel was 

Section hv. ^vatit ajitt tiTommfvcr. 

During this period, trade and commerce were 
, crippled by foreign restrictions, our own acts of 
non-intercourse, and, at length, .by the war with 
England. During this war our carrying trade 
was destroyed, nor was it restored by the peace 
of 1815. 

On the return of peace, immense importations 
were made from England, the country being des* 
titute of English merchandise. The market 
was Boon glutted, prices fell, and extensive bank- 
ruptcies were the consequence. 

Section LYI. SgvUuUltVP. Agriculture, 
during this period, cannot be said to hav^ made 
great advances. 

An excessive disposition in die people, Ibr trade and specula' 
tion, drewoff the attention of the more intelligent and active part 
«f the communis, and directed much of the capital of the coun- 
tiy to other objecLS. Upon the return of peace, however, when 
nercantile distresiea overspread the land, (^ricuItuTe was again 
lesoTted to, as one of the surest means of obtaining a livelihood. 
Men of capkal, too, turned their attention to farming ; i^rknl- 

iCi) fglI0D»»,ISB»...iai7. 

tBalcooMin were eMaUithed, in an pvtt of lae country: mere 
enli^tened meibodi of culture were introduced, aad agrieuttim 
becanw not (mlj one of the most profitable, but one {>f the moat 
popular objecti of pnmiit. 

Section Lvii. mvttt anv gannuptts 

tUtttI* During the war which occurred in tliis 
period, the intercourBc with England and other 
places, being Bto]iped, the country was soon des- 
titute of those articles which had been supplied 
by English manufactoriee. Accordingly, the 
people began to manufacture for themselves. 
Extensive manufacturing establisbmeDts were 
started for almost every sort of merchandise. — 
Such was their success at the outset, that an im- 
mense capita! was soon invested IQ them, and 
the country began to be supplied with almost 
every species of manufacture from our own es- 
tablishments. After the peace, the country be- 
in^ inundated with British goods, these esta- 
blishments suJfered the severest embarrass- 
ments, and many of them were entirely broken 
down. A considerable portion of them, how- 
ever, were maintained, and continued to 000 

Section LVIII. I^OtttllatfOn. At the expi- 
ration of Mr. Madison's term of office, in 1817, 
thenumber of inhabitants in the United States 
was about nine millions, five hundred thousemd. 

Section lAX. ^trUtatfOtl. The pecuniary 
embarrassments experienced throughout the 
country, during the latter part of tiiis period, 
sensibly, affected some institutions devoted to 
science and benevolence, especially those which 
depend, in part, upon the yearly contributions 
of the patrons of learning and religion, for th« 
means of support. In several of the higher sc- 
minuies, the number of students was, for a 


lime, diminished. Nevertheless, parochial 
schools^ academies, and colleges, upon the 
whole, continued to increase, and to qualify 
many for the common and higher professions of 

A tbeol<%ical institution was established at PrincetoD, New- 
Jenejf in 1812, by the General Assembly of the Frerityterian 
Church. In 1821, the theological seminary of the Auociate 
Befoimed Chuich, in New-York, was united to that irf Princ»- 
ton, and its library, consisting of four thousand volumes, which 
ctMt seventeen thousand dollEU^, was transferred to the tatter 
plBce. This seminary has three professors, and in 1821, hftd 
seventy-three students. 

Xhinng the same year,' Hamilton Ci^ege was incorponted 
at Clinton, New- York ; it has beoi lib««IIy patronised liiy tbr 
l^islatore, and by individuals. 



yettov XK. 


Extending from the inaugiiratimi of President 
Monroe, l9n,to the dose of the year 1822. 

Section I. On the 4th of March. 1817, Mr. 
MoDroe took the oath prescribed by the consti- 
tution, and entered upon the duties of president 
of the United States. 

The condition of the country, Dti the accessioa ef Mr. Afon- 
toeto the presidency, was in several respects more piospiTOus 
and happy, than on the secession of his predecessor. Not only 
had war ceased, and the political asperity, excited by it, given 
plac« to better feelings, but elTorts were made in every seciion 
of die umoD, to ttvWe those plans of business, which the war 
had nearly annihilated. — The country had suffered too Taodb, 
however, to regain, immediately, its former prosperity. Com- 
merce was far from being flourishing ; a considerable part of 
the legitimate trade was in the hands of foreigners ; many ships 
were lying unemployed, and the ship building in many ports 
had nearly ceased. The isanufacturiDg establishments, which 
had not been entirely broken down, were sustaining a precariotra 
existoice. ForeigB merchandise was inandating the counliy; 
and the speue, borrowed In Europe for the national bank, at an 
excessive premium, as well as that which was previously in the 
country, waa rapidly leaving it to pay the tedance of D'sde 
against ua.' Li his inaugural address, howevo*, the president 

* The Bonk of thcDnited States coBunenced the importation of sptde 
In ISIT, Mid iuboduced into the couatrr sevoD mtlliont, Oatt bnndred 
and elavea thoiuand, uTen htmdred and fifty dollars, at an azpeaM of 

Ihui half s milliOD of dollars. As fast as this specie anired It ms 

— ' •- ■Europe, to par tbe bsLuioc of trade a^ainrt tbe UniteJ 
tolndia or Caiaa ta pur«liase (MKhandisa. iVKhtUi 


•r Ibr 


,IA.M KS MUkV,lH.).B 





spoke in auimattng terms i>f ihn happy sta.^nf the couHtty^and 
of its proapects of regaining, at no dislant pcriuo, tliat meuure 
of prosperity, whicli in Ibrmcr years it had eiijoyed. 

Section II. In the summer and autumn, fol- 
lowing his inaugumtion, ihe president made a 
tour through the northern and eastern states of 
the union. ■ 

The objects of this tour weri; connected whh the Bational in- 
ieresta. Congress had appropriated large sums, of money for 
the foi tiGcation of the sea coast, and inland frontiers, (br the es- 
lablishment of naval docks, and for increaung the navy. The 
superintendence of these works belonged to the president. So- 
licitous to dischai^ his duty in reference to them with judgment, 
lidelitv, and economy, he was induced to visit the most import- 
ant points along the sea coast, and in the interior, from a con- 
viction of being better able to direct in reference lo them, with 
(he knowledge derived from personal dbservalion, *.han by meant 
of information communicated to him by others. He leA Wash- 
ington on the Ist of June, accompanied by Gen. Joseph C. 
Swii^, chief engineer of the United States, and his private sccre. 
tary, Mr. Mason. Passing through Baltimore, fhiladelphia, 
New- York, New-Haven, Harlforo, New-London, and Provj- 
dence, he arrived in Boston, in which place and its vicinity, be 
spent several days. 

On leaving Boston, he continued eastward to Portland, through 
Salein, Newburyport, and Portsmouth ^ and thence directed his 
course westward to Plattsburg, in the state of New- York, fo 
his route thither, he passed through Dover, Concord, and HantK 
ver, in New-Hampshire, and through Windsor, ajid Burlington, 
ill Vermont. The important post of Plattsburg occiipieJ his 
close attention for several days. From this tatter place he conp- 
tinut^ westward, to Ogdensburg, Sackett's Harbour, aiid De- - 
troit. Having now cfTected the leading objects of his tour, he 
commenced hb return to the seat of government through the in- 
terior of Ohio. At the close of the day, Sept. 17th, he entered 
Washington, after having been absent more than three months, 

BoMkc. went B large portjon of tliat which was in the cotintrj at tba clme 
w tbc war. Tlie ex|)onatiou of specie from Uie United Stales (o Chlm, 
tloDt, in Viree years, amounted to abare seventeen milUont of ddhnv. 
V!e;— 1816-17 ^4,67a,O00 

904 7SBI0D ZI.„JB17«lBtt. ' 

ndhKTinglmvelkdtlim thousand miles. In tbe caui»e of liis 
to«r, die preiident examined the varioua fortiGeations on the sea 
bawd, mad in the interior, visited publick buildings and insUtu- 
lioBi, devoted to the purpowa of literature, the am, and general 
benerolsnee^ — Although uadeairoui of attracting publidt atteo- 
lion on a tour, whose object wax the good of his country, tie wac 
met by a respeaable deput^on from the various jdaces, thtougb 
which it vas understood he would pass, and inlwely and patri- 
iMick addresses was welcomed to their, hospitality. 

Section HI. Congress met on the lat of De- 
cember. In his meesage at the opening of the 
'^ussion, the president stated that the national 
uredit was attaining a high elevation; that pre- 
paraUona for the defence of the country were 
progressing, under a well digested system; that 
arrangements had been made with Great Britain 
lo reduce the naval force of the two countries on 
the western lakes, abd tliat it was agreed that 
each country should keep possession of the isl- 
ands which belonged to it before the war ; and 
that the foreign relations of the country coikti- 
nued to be pacifick. The message concluded 
with recommending the surviving officers and 
soldiers of the revolutionary army to the special 
notice of congress, and the repeal of the inter- 
nal duties, on the ground that the state of the 
treasury rendered their longer continuance on- 

Section IV. On the 1 1th, the state of Mrssis- 
sippt was acknowledged by congress as sove- 
reigo and independent, and was admitted to the 

The fint European, who visited the pretent state of Missis- 
sippi, appears tu have been Ferdinand de Soto, a native of Ba- 
dajoE, in Spain, who landed on the coast of Florida on the 25th 
of May, 1539. He spent three yecirs in the country searching 
for gold, but at length died, and was buried on the banks of the 
Missiuippi, May, 1542. 

In 1663, M. de Salle descended the Mississippi and gave the 
name of Louisiana to the cotintry. la eaOKflwDce of tidib the 


FrcDchci^inedtohavejuriHlictioDovertt. Inl7lA,tlw3rfuiiuei 
a settlemeDt at the Natchez, and built a Tort, which they nam- 
ed Rosalie. Other setllemenls were elTected ui subsequeDt yean. 
The French settlements were, however, seriously disturbed by 
the Indians, particularly by the Natchez, once the most power* 
ful of all the soutliern tribes. 

TheFrendi retained an acknowledged title to the conntiy, 
oil the east side of the Mississippi, until the treaty of 1763, 
when they ceded their possessions, east of that river, to the 
English.' By the treaty of iT'bS, Great Britain relinquished the 
Floridas to Spain, without specidck boundaries; and al the 
satne time, ceded to the United Stales ail the country north of 
the thirty-first degree of latitude. The Spaniards retained pos- 
session of the Natchez and the ports north of the thirty-first de- 
gree, until 1798, when they Anally abandoned them to the Unit- 
ed Slates. 

In the year 1 800, the territory I>etween the Mississippi and 
the western lioundary of Georgia was erected into a distinct 
territorial government. By treaty in 1801, at fort Adams, the 
Choctaw Indians relinquished ti> the United States a large tvMi; 
of land, and other cessions have since been made. On ihe Isl 
of March, 1817, congress authorised the people of the western 
part of Alississippi territory to form a constitution and state go- 
vecitinent. A convention met in July, 1817, by which a consti- 
tution was formed, and in December following, Mississippi was 
admitted into the union as a separate slate. 

Section V. In the course of the same month, 
an expedition which had been set on foot by a 
number of adventurers, from different countries, 
against East and West Florida, was terminated 
by the troops of the United States. These ad- 
venturers claimed to be acting under thcj autho- 
rity of some of the South American colonies, and 
had formed an establishment at Amelia Island, a 
Spanish province, then the subject of negotia- 
tion between the United States and Spaiil^— 
Their avowed object being an invasion of the 
Floridas, and of course an invasion of a part of 
the United States, the American government 
deemed itself authorized, Without designing any 
hostility to Spiun, to take pos8«BBion of Amelia 
lalond, their head quarters. ^ . (^,^,^,o|o 


A linBH cdabliUunnit htd prerioody beeo fbmed at Gal- 

*aieo, & imall i(laBd <n ifae coast of the Texas, doHiwd by th« 
Uniml Statu. From both of these pUcei prirateen were fitted 
out, whidi greatly annoyed our ii^uUr Gommerce. Prizes 
were lent in, and fay a preteniicd coort of admnalty, condoauied 
and sold. Slavca, in great numbers, were shipped through these 
IflMids to the United States, and thtough the aame ckBoael ex- 
lensiTe dandntiae impoit^ions of goods y/ae made. Justly 
apprehendii^ the result* of these establuhmcnts, if auflered to 
proceed unmueMed) the executive took eaiiy meawues to sup- 
press them. Acconlbigly, a naval force, with the neceaaary 
troops, was despatched under command of Captain* Henly and 
Ba^head, to whom Amelia Island was surrendered, on the 
24th of December, without the efiiision of blood. The «up- 
prestion of GtlveztoB followed toon after. 

Section VI. Several bills of importance pass- 
ed congress, during their session, in the winter 
of 1817, 1818; a bill allowing to the members 
of ihe sennte, and house of representatives, the 
sum of eight dollars per "day, during their attend- 
ance ; a second, in compliance with the recom- 
Hiendation of the president, abolishing the in- 
ternal duties ; and a third, providing, upon the 
same recommendalron, for the indigent officers 
and soldiers of the revolutionary army. 

Tiie compensation bill, as it was called, excited much sensa- 
tion throughout the nation, on the ground that the sum was un- 
necessarily enhanced, and gave occasion to long and animated 
debates on the floor of the house of representatives. By a por- 
tioD of the representatives, strenuous efforts were made to fix the 
per diem albwance at six doJlars, while others attempted to 
raise it to nine or ten. After a protracted discussion of the 
stibiect, it was fixed at eight dollars. 

Against the repeal of the internal duties, few objections were 
VT0A- The recommendation of the prewdent to repeal them 
was anticipated, and on taking the vole in the house of repre- 
sentatives, one hundred and sixty were found in faTour of the 
Ml, and but five voices against it. 

In GolltBg the atientiim of congress to the happy ^ituatkn of 
liie United States, the president, in hb message, adverted with 
much sensibility, to the surviving officers and soldien of the 
rembitiiniary army, who, by their services had Idd the fonndff- 
lion Af AKeripan f^ory. Most of these who snrrivcd' At 


aclrieTement of our independence, said he, dave p^d the debt of 
nature. Among the suirivora there ore some, who are reduced 
to indigence, and even to real distress. These men liave a claim 
on the gratitude of their country, and it will dq honour to thdr 
country to provide for them. The lapse of a few more years, 
and the opportunity wUl be lost forever, as they will all have 
gone to the grave. In compliance with this recommendation, 
a bill was introduced into congress, which, after some amehd- 
ments, passed, granting to indigent o£5cers of the revolution,Bry 
army the sum of twenty dollars, per month, during life, and of 
eight doir^s, p'er month, during life, to indigent non-commii- 
sioned officers and privates. 

Section VII. In April 1818, Illinois adopted 
a state constitution, and in December following, 
waa admitted as a member of the union. 

Illinois derives its name from its principal river, which, in 
ihe language of the Indians, signifies the river of nun. The 
first settlements, like those of Indiana, were mode by the 
French, and were the consequence of the adventurous enterpri- 
ses of M. de la Salle, in search of the Mississippi. — The first 
settlements were the villages of Kaskasliia and Cahokia. In 
liie beginning of the eighteenth century, the settlements of HU- 
nois were represented to have been in a flourishing condition. 
But subsequently they in a great measure declined. 

From the beginning to the middle of the eighteenth century, 
little was heard of the settlements of the French, on the banks 
of the Illinois. About 1749, the French began to fortify the 
Wabash and Illinois, in order to resist the British. In 17^, all 
(he country to the east of the Mississippi was ceded to the latter 
power, and consequenlly UlJnois passed under the British do- 
minion. At the peace of 17^3, Great Britain renounced its 
claims of sovereignty over this country, as well as over the 
United States. Virginia, however, and some other states, 
claimed the wliole country, north and west of the Ohio ; but at 
the instance of congress, a cession of these claims was made to 
the general government. Illinois remained a part of Indiana 
oniiTlSOa, when a distinct territorial government was establish- 
ed for it. In ISIS, the people formed a constitution, aod it is 
now one of the United States. 

Section VII. Early after the conclusion of 
this session of congress, the president, in puma- 
ance of. bis determination to visit such parts of 
the United States as were most exposed to the 
naval and military forces of an enemy, prepared 

364 rEBIOD XL_ttl7-J8ll 

to eurvey the Chesapeake bay, and the country 
lying on its extensive shores. 

In tbe month of Alay, he lefl WuhingtOD, accompanied by 
ibe Mcretery of war, and tiie secretary of tbe navy, with other 
gentlemen of dutinciion. On his arrival at AnnapoUs, the pre- 
udent and his suite minutely ciaroiDed the waters conligiious, 
in refeieoce to their fitness fur a naval depot. Embarlung at this 
place on board a vessel, he further examined the coast, and 
thence proceeded to Nuifolk. Having at length accomplished 
llie principal object of his lour, in the examination of the Che 
sepeake bay, he returned to Washington, June 17th, tltronglt 
■lie interior of Virginia. The respectful, and sfieciionate de 
niuns [rations of atlBcIimeDt, paid to him during his nortbern 
lour, were renewed in this. 

Section IX. On the 27th of May, 1818,atrea- 
ty, concluded with Sweden, at Stockholm, on the 
4tii of September, 1816, by Mr. Russel, minis- 
ter plenipotentiary to that court, was ratified by 
ihe president and senate, on the part of the 
United States. The same was ratified by the 
king of Sweden on the 24th of the following-* 

This treaty provided for maintaining peace and friendship 
between the two countries — reciprocal liberty of commerce— 
equalisation of duties, &c. &i:. The treaty was to continue k> 
(ufcejov eight years from the exchange of ratifications. 

Section X. During the year 1818, a war waa 
carried on between the Seminole Indians, and 
the United States, which terminated in the com 
plete discomfiture of the former. 

The history of this war is rendered the more interesting by 
the conspicuous pait which the hero of New-Orleans bore in it, 
and the decisive, though novel measuies which he adopted in 
prosecuting it. 

Tiie Indians, denominated Seminole Indians, inhabited a tract 
of country, partly within the limils of the United Slates, but a 
greater part of which lies within the boundaries of the Floridas. 
They originally consisted of fu^iives li-om the northern tribes, 
resident within the limits of the United States. Afler the treaty 
of 1814 with the Creek Indiana, a considerable addition was 
made to these fugitives from tiie Creeks, niuibers of whom, be- 
ing ditsattified with the provhiwis of that treaty, withdrev tc 


the Setninoles, ouryioe with them feelings of hoidli^ Bgaimt 
khe United Stales, lliese feelinga seem to liave been mudi 
strengthened by foreign emissaries, who had taken ap their re- 
sidence among them for the purposes of trade, among whom, ai 
the most conspicuous, were two Eagliahmen, Alexander Ar 

buthnot and Robert C. Ambrbter. Many outrages were pei- 

Eetrated from time to time, by the Indians, upon the border in- 
abitants, and several murders, under aggravated circumstances, 

were commined. Moreover, with a demand by General Gaines, 
the United Stales* officer, in that quarter, to deliver up the of- 
fenders, the Indians refused to comply, alleging (hat the first 
and greatest {Agressions had proceeded from the whiles. In 
consequence of this refusal, Gen. Gaines was instructed, by the 
secretary of war, to remove, at his discretion, such Indians as 
were still on the lands cedAl to the United States bytheCredu 
in 18L4. 

Pursuant to this discretionary authority, Gen. Gaines detached 
a party of near three hundred men, under command of Majot 
Tmggs, to take an Indian village called Fowl Town, about four- 
teen mites from fort Scott, and near the Florida line. In execut* 
ing this order, one man and one woman were killed, and two 
women made prisoners. A few days after, as a second detach- 
ment were on a visit lo the Town, to obtain property, they were 
fired upon, and a skirmish ensued, in wltich several on both 
sides were killed and wounded. Shortly after this event, Lieit 
tenant Scott, with a detachment of forty men, seven women, and 
some children, ascending the Appalacbicola, with supplies for 
the garrison at Fort Scoll, were attacked, and the whole party 
killed, excepting six men, who made their escape, and a woman 
who was taken prisoner. ' 

From this time, the war became serious. The Indians, in 
considerable numbers, were embodied, and an open attack was 
made on Fort Scott, to which General Gaines with about six hun- 
dred r^ular soldiers was for a time confined. Information of 
this state of things being communicated to the department of 
war, General Jackson was ordered, Dec. 26, to take the field, 
and directed, if be should deem the force with General Gaines, 
amounting to one thousand and eight hundred men, insufficient 
to cope with the enemy, " to call on the executives of the adjar 
cent states for such an additional militiB force as he might deem 
requisite." On the receipt of this order. General Jackson pre- 
pared to comply; but instead of calUng upon the executiTCS <^ 
the neighbouring states, especially upan toe govemour of Teo- 
neuee, who lired near \us residence, he addressed a circnln to 

■ _ . .,_,G„o8lc 

ST'O r£IU0DXl...lB17.aS12. 

the patriot! of West Teooessee, iavitiiig one taoiuand of tlm 
to join his standard.* 

At the same time he wrote to the govemour of Tennessee, 
M'Mini), inrorminghiin oftbe appealhe had made to the men 
whom he had led to victory on the pl^uns of Talledega, Emuch- 
fail, and Toliopeko, and added, " should the appeal prove ineffi 
cacious, I will embrace the earliest opportunity of making tk 
requisition on you for a like number of drained militia." Ilie 
call of General Jackson was promptly obeyed, and the thuusasD 
vcdunteei's, officered by the geneial,! or by the volunteers tbem- 
selves, were ordered to Fort Seotl. 

Before taking up liis murch, he wrote, Jan. 12lh, to the seci«- 
twy of war, apprising him of the appeal he had made to the Tea- 
aesseeans, assigning as his reason fur such asiep, that he deemed 
the force with general Gaines, one thousand eight hundred, in- 
sufficient, and " that the greater portion of this number were 
drafted militia from Geoi^ia, who might apply for their <iis^ai;gi; 
at the expiration of three months from the time they were mua- 
tered," about the time he should probably reach Fort Scott. To 
litis communication the secretary replied — " I have the honour 
to acquaint you of the entire approbation of the president, of all 
the measures which you have adopted to terminate the rupture 
witit tiie Indians." 

With these truc^is, and a number of friendly Cieelu, under 
Gen M'Intosh, raised by General Gaines, Jacksonenhereduymi 
the Sauw^e war. 

As a consideral>Ie numi>er of these Indians dwelt in Florida, 
it becane necessary to pursue the enemy thither. Antidpatir>g 
the necessity of this measure, the secretary of war issued an o^ 
der to General Gaines, while he was in command, to pursue tbem 
into Florida if necessary, " and to attack them within its Itnuts, 

• The apolosjofferedbyGeneral Jactscn for not csDing upon the go- 
Tsroonr of Tennessee was, that at the time theorcier waa issued, for bus 
(o take the field, the soTernom- was eitiier at KuoxvJIle, or in the CberO' 
kee naliOQ; and Hat to have waited the [taultof the usual proocas of 
drafliiit. WOuM ba^e produced the two evils of much toss of vJu^Ie timf, 
and the raiaing of a force reluctant in disposition, and inefficient it) cbit 
racier and equipment. 

} itbasboen demed that Qmiral Joctavn ^p<Hnted tba officers of Iba 
volunteer corps. ")t is true," however, sijs his defence, (see Niles'Bef^ 
iiter VoL 16,p. 53.)"thathe appealed to the officers who had sailing 
(bOf ht wittl Mm in the wildemesa of the Creek nation and od Uie plalu 
of New Orleans, and afain ronsed them to the defence of their frootiara 
But (heir ^qioiiitiiHiBta to eommaad were, in all cases, nude bj the eboiH 
of Am meowtomtherttlw officers to whom QNieralJaeksoQ nad ■ppt*!' 
•d} brpnsM iota Uw field." 


unless tbey should shelter themselves nnder a Spanish fart. Jn 
this last event you will immediately notify this department." 

Deeming it necessary for the subjugation of the Seminoles, to 
enter Florida, General Jackson marched iqion St. Marks, tt feeble 
Spanisli garrison, in which some Indians had taken refaige. Of 
tills gitrmon, General Jackson quietly look possession, and oc- 
cupied it as an American post.* At St. Marks was found Alex- 
ander Arbuthnot, who was taken prisoner, and put in confine- 
ment. At the same time were taken two Indian chie&, one of 
whom pretended to possess the spirit of prophecy ; they were 
hung without trial.^ St. Marks being garrisoned by American 
troops, the army marched to Suwaney river, on which they found 
a large Indian village, which was consumed, aher which the 
army returned to St. Marks, bringing with them Robert C. Am- 
brister, who had lieen tsdien prisoner on their march to Suwaney. 
During the halt of the army for a few days at St. Marks, a geae- 
ia\ court martial was called, upon whose result. General Jack- 
son issued the^ollowing general order. " At a special court 
martial, ctHnraenced on the 26th instant at St. Marks, and con- 
tinued until the night of the 28th, of which brevet Major-Gene- 
vai £. P. Gaines was president, was tried A. Arbuthnot, on the 
following charges and specifications, vi^.: 

Charge 1st, Exciting and stirring up the Creek Indians to 
war against the United States and her citizens, he, A. Arbuth- 
not, being a subject of Grent Britain, with whom the United 
States are at peace. 

-Charge 2d, Acting as a spy ; aiding, abetting, and comfort- 
tng the enemy, and supplying them with the means of war. 

Charge 3d, Escitingthe Indians to murder and destroy Wil- 
liam JHambly and Edmund Doyle, confiscate their property, 

* Thii disobedience of the orders wliidi hud been giren to Qenersl 
Uaines, not to attack B Spanish fort, but to notify the aecrebuj of war, 
ibaald any Indians tsJce sbelter ander one, was defended by GeQeral Jack- 
»a, on the srouad, tha.t otdera iasued to one officer coujd not be coDBlnied 
underato hissnecessor without 3, special reference to the first; — that hit 
ordera were g-eiural and discrtHonary : — and that the circumstaaces cootem- 
plaled by the orders to General Gaines never exiBted, The Indians not 
bring found enjer Ou guia of a Spanish ibrt, but iluileni inthia ih mtto. 

t In the defence of General Jackeon, already aludcd to, it is atated tbat 
Francis, the prophet, had long been a dire and daugeroua foe to the Uoi- 
led States, tlist he had a brisadier's conuoission from Great Britain, and 
^lua superstitioua influence insligated faie brethren to deeds of r^ine 
ind mas^acra. The other cldef had headed the party, who, in cold blood, 
mmderad Scott »nd his unhappy conmanioas, while osoeudins the Appa- 
bcUcnla, These considerations the General deemed guflidetit toJvHO^ 
the muntry course, adopted in rsepect to Uiem. 

372 miODn— inT—un. 

aid caM^ng didr amtt, with a new to tbrir UHtdemnsfion to 
<WHh, and the arinira of their propetty, the;; bang ntiwaam^ at 
Spaia, on accoant of thtir active and sealoiu exerlionB to m^U' 
tain peace between Spain, the United Staiei, and the bufians. 

To wtttch chaise* the prisoner pleaded not gidity. 

ThecONit, after maluredeliberiilim on the evidence addaced, 
find the priaoner, A> Artiuthnot, guO^ of the fint cinrgc, and 
guaijoftbetecond cfaai^, leaving out the iradi "acth^ns a 
spjr i" and after mature reflection, lentence him, A. Arbmluiot^ 
to be nuptnded by the neck, nntil be ii dead. 

Wu dn tried, Robert C. Ambriater, on the following diaries, 
TO. ' 

Charge IM, Aiding, abetting,'and comforting the eaemy, and 
supplying them with the means of war, be bdng a sobject ol 
Ornt Britmn, who are at peace with the. United States, andlate 
an officer in the British colonial marines. 

Chai^ 2d, Leading and commanding the lover Creek In- 
dians in carrying on a war against the United States. 

To wliich chaises the prisoner pleaded as fellows: to the 
int cluirge not guilty, to the second charge guilty, and jostificB^ 

" The court, on examination of evidence, and on mature de- 
liberation, find tbe prisoner, Rcibert C. Ambriiter, guihy of the 
int and second charges, and do therefore sentence liim to sofler 
death T)v being ahot. The members requesting a reconrider*- 
tion of the vote on this sentence, and it being had, they sentmce 
the prisoner to receive fifty stripes on his bare back, sind be con- 
fined with a ball and cbain, to hard labour for twelve calendar 
months. The commanding general approves the finding and 
sentence of the court, in the case of A. Arbuthnot, and approves 
the finding and jfrtf sentence oftiw court, in diecaseof Rab«l 
C. Ambrister, and disapproves the reconsideration of the s«d- 
leoce of llr„ honourBble court in this case. 

" It a]ii)ears from the evidence and pleading of the pristmer, 
that he did lead and command within the territory of Spain, 
(beinga subject of Great Britain,) the Indians in war against the 
Unit^ Slates, tliose nations being at peace. It b an establnhed 
principle of (he laws of nations, that any individual of a nation, 
making wiic against the citizens of any other n^on, they bdng 
at peace, forfeits his allegiance, and becomes an outlaw and }m- 
rate. This is tlii? rase of Robert C. Ambrister, dearly ahown 
by the evidence adduced. 

" The commanding general orders that brevet Major A. C. 
I>. Fanning, of the corps of artillery, ndll iiave I)etween the bonrs 
of eiglit and nine o'clock, A. £1. A. Arbiithnrt siapanded by 


UOMtSB'S JWliUNIftTSAriOIt. (71 

dl««eck wUk *ray«, until lie is (fciM^,andB(iberlC AvMrter 
to be ttKA tP (fetuEA) Attfeeably to the sentence of the court." 

Prwi St Marks, General Jackson addressed commuaicatins 

to the secretary of war, informing him that the Indan forces 

had be«n divided and scaHeced, and that liis prcsenoe in^Urat 

eomtxy caulti be no longer necessary ; and that he should soou 

leave St. Marks for Fort Gadsden, where, afiur ijiaking all ne- 

ceSHUry aiTangements to scour ilie country, he should retire. In- 

fon)i^ti(;o, however, was given him, some days after, that the 

govemour of Pensacola was favouring the Indians. On leani- 

ing this, General Jackson, with his forces, took up his inarch for 

t)ie ct^itaj of that province, before which, after a march of 

twenty days, he appeared. This place was taken with scarce 

the show of resistance.— The governour had escaped to Barsn- . 

caj», 9 fort six miles distant, to which place the army soon 

marched. The fortress was invested on Uie 25th of May, an4 

a (leunmd b^ng made for iu surrender, and rehised, as attack 

upon it wie jtiade, both by sea and land, and, after a hnmbard- 

iMnt «nd coMDonading of the place, for two days, the garriMn 

swreadcred, as prisooert of war, and the officers of the gannh 

meol, cinl nod inilitary, were transpnled, agreeably to &e 

teriQS of capitulation, to Havana. A new government was 

established for ihe province, the powers of which were vested 

partly in mililary officers, and partly in citizens of the province. 

Omonl iackscHi now announced la the tecretary tltat the Sevi- 

nole mr w«s closed, and returned to his residence nt Naabvffle. 

SmK titmt after, the American executive, deMning the loagH 

possMMoD of the Spanish forts unnecessary to the pesce e{)bt 

Goontry, md iBconsisient with guod faith to %tttDi,<lkectedth« 

lo be lestOKd, and aceoiapanied the restoratioii with the M ti ai u 

trhicdt bad led lo their occupation. - , 

"Hk nt^sures adopted by Genetal JacluoB in die pmK«r 

lion of this war — particularly his appeal to the peo[^ of W<stt 

Ttnoeaawi his conduct in relatiiKn to the trial and czccMion 

^Arbuthnot and Arabrister — and bis occuptfton of Sl Uaikc 

and Pensacol^— excited strong sensations in the bomni of b 

ctMfliderable portion of tlie American people. Daring the tes- 

sioBofcvngresf in tbewinter of 1818 — lS19.thesesubJ9Ctsw«[« 

extensively and doquently debated. By the military conuHit- 

tee of the bouse, a report was presented censurii^ the coadaet 

of General Jackson ; but, after an clabor^e examinaticn of -^ 

oase, the house, by a majority of one bundled and ei^it, tL> 

sixty-two, refuted its concurrence. Towards Aa close of du 

session a report unfavoLrabls to General Jackstm, was ttn 

broD^ (brward in the senate, bat no vote of oouuce or rendu 

tien WW attached, and no discussion of ia mwits was IukI* 

32 - 

tg4 nuoD iu~isi7.._iati. 

Stetion XI. On the 28th of January, 1819, a 
convention between Great Britain and the Unit- 
ed States, concluded at London, October 20th, 
1818, and ratified by the Fhnce Regent oa the 
3d of November following, was ratified by the 
president of the United States. 

Bytbefinlartideofthis conveDtion, tKe citizens oftheUntt- 
•d Stmtes have liberty, in common widi the subjects of Great 
Britain, to take figh on tlie (outhern, western, and nonbem coast 
of Newfoundland, See. The lecond article establi^RS the Dorth- 
ers booiidariei of the United States from the Lake of the Wood^ 
to the Stoney Mountains. By the fourth article, the commer 
eUl conventitm between the two countries, concluded at Loa 
don, in 1915, is extendeil for the termoi* ten years longer, &c 

Stctim XH. On the 22d of Febmary, rotlow- 
ing, a treaty was concluded at Washington, by 
John Quincy Adams, and Luis de Onis, by 
which East and West Florida, with all the Isl- 
ands adjacent, &c. were ceded by Spain to the 
United States. 

By this treaty the western bnundary between the Uiuted 
State* and Spain was settled. A sum not exceeding five mil- 
Kou of dollars is to be paid by the UnitPd Sitiiea out of the pto- 
cec«b of tales of landsin Florida, or in stock, or money, to citi- 
mu of the United States, en account of Spanish Spoliations and 
isjuriea. To liquidate the claims, a board was to be constitcied 
by the government of the United States, of American cidiens, 
to coonct of three commissioners, who should report within 
three years. 

Suu) were the essential provisions of the above treaty, which 
was ratified by the president and senate on the 24th. tJnder a 
Qill confidence that it would, within six months, the time s%u- 
tateJ, be ratified by his Catholick Majesty. His majesty, how- 
eirer, declined the ratification, on the ground that the American 
vnveroment had attempted to *lter one of the principal artides 
«f the treaty by a declaration, which the minister of the United 
States had been ordered to present, on the ex''.hange of ratifica- 
lioni ; and also on the ground that the government of the United 
Slates had recently tolerated o' protected an expedition from 
the United Stales against the province of Teias, 

Li a message to congress, the president satisfactorily ezplained 
the«anil>ject(, and sutnahted to thehr cen«<ter8tiMi wlwiber it 



-vould not be proper for the Uniied Slates to carry the VtUj 
into effect on her part, in the same manner as if it bad hem r»- 
tified by Spain, cluiming on their part all its advantage, and 
yielding to. Spain tlii^se secured by !ier. A bill, authorizing die 
president to lake possession of Florida, was iniroducejd into 
the house, but the subject was postponed to the conEideration of 
the next congress. In October, 1820, the king of Spain gave 
the treaty his sig{)ature. On the l^lh of February followine, 
1821, the president, with the advice of the senate, finally ratii> 
ed the treaty. Fonnal possession of tlie territory was given ts 
General Jackson, as ibe commissioner of the Uniied States, in . 
the month of July following. 

Section XlII. On the 2d of March, 1819, the 
government of the Arkansas Territory was 
organized by act of congress. 

The earliest setiiement, within the limits of the territory of 
Arkansas, was made by the Chevalier deTonte,in 1685, attiie 
Indian \'illBge of Arkansas, situated on the river of that name. 
Emigrants from Canada afterwards arrived, but the progrfsi of 
settlement was slow. Upon the cession of Louisiana to the Unit- 
ed States, the ceded territory was divided intatwo parts, the 
territory of Orleant, lying south of latitude thirty degrees and 
the district of Louisiana, comprehending all the tract of coun- 
try between ,the Mississippi and the Facitick Ocean. In Mardi, 
1605, the latter country was denominated the Territory of Lou-, 
jsiana. In 1812, this territory was constituted a territorial giv 
vernraent, by the name of the Territory of Missouri. In March, 
1819j the inhabhai>ts of the northern parts were formed into a 
distinct district, by the name of Missouri, and soon aflet the 
southern was formed into a territorial government by the name 
of Arkansas. lo December, 1819, an election for a delegate t« 
congress was held for the first time. 

Section XIV. During the following summer, 
1819, the president visited the southern sectioh 
of the country, having in view the same great 
oational interests, which had prompted him m 
his previous tour to the nortli. 

In tfais lour the president visited Charleston, Savannah, and 
Augusta; from this lattei place he proceeded to Ncuh^le, 
throueh .he Clierokee nation, and thence to Louisvills and Lex- 
iiigton, Kentucky, whence he returned to the seat of govmUDent, 
ewly in August. 

Section XV. Od the 14th of December ibl- 

t7i imoft u-.iai7.un. 

lowing , a Tesolution passed coagnm MtuHnte^ 
Alabama into the union, on an eqnal footing 
with the original states. 

Alabaaw, though recently Mttled, wipears to have been vi»t- 
ed by FenlliuuMl de Soto, in 1539. Some scattered Httlemeots 
were nade within the present state of Miwissip^ before th« 
Aoericaii revoIution,butAlabainA continued tneDunting ground 
of aavaga, unti] a much later period. 

AAsf tbe peace of 17S3, Georgia laid claim to thii terriuuj, 
ud czerated juriidiction over it, until the heginning of the pre- 
■ent centoiy. In 1795, an act passed the legislature of Georgia, 
bjr which twenty-five millions of acres, of its ueilem territort/, 
were add to companies for five hundred thousand doUan, snd 
llH porchaie nKMiey was paid ioto their treasury. The purclus- 
en of theae lands sood afler aold them at advanced pricea. The 
nle of the territory excited a warm opposition in Geor^, and at 
a Mibaequcnt meeting of the legislature, the transaction was im- 
pMcbed, OD the ground of bribery, corruption, and onconatitu- 
tionatity. The records respecting the sale wtXK <wdered to b« 
kunt, and the live hun>lred thousand dollars lo be refunded to 
the purchasers. Those who had acquired titles of the originai 
pnrchasen insdttited suits in the federal courts. 

In 1603, however, Georgia ceded to the United Stales all hei 
ve^ieni tetritory, for one million, two hundred and ^y thouaaad 
dollars. On this event, the purchosen of the Yazdo land peti- 
tioned congress for redress and compensation. After con^der- 
able oppoaitioD, ap act paused for reimbursing them with funded 
stock, called tbe MiMissippi sloclc. In 1 800, the lerritorj' whicb 
DOW forata the states of MisHssippi and Alabama, was erected 
into a terrJtorlaE government. In 1817, Mississippi terrilory 
was divided and the western portion of it was authorized lo fona 
a state constitution. The eastern portion wia then formed into 
a territorial government and received the niime of Alabama. In 
July, 1 8 19, a convention of delegates met at Huntsnlle, and adopt- 
ed a state cnnstilution, which being approved by congress in De- 
cember kHAoina^, tbe state was declared to be henceforth one of 
the United States. 

Section XVI. In the ensuing year, March 3d 
1820, MAiifE became an independant state, and 
ainember of the federal union. 

tile separation of the District of Maine from Manacfausetts, 
and its erection into an independent state, had iMen frequently 
aOempted without suctxss. In October, 1783, a convention met 
at Pordaaid, fbr Ae purpose of coniadering thji BHb}ect Ta lb* 


Succeeding yMV, the question was submittai to tbs pecqde (rf^ 
MaiM, t« be decided in town msetinga, whes it wm foiwd tlw(~ 
a iDBJorily of freemen were against the measure. The subject 
was r«new«d in 1802, when a majority appeared averse li> a 
separation. In 1819? an act passed the general court of Ma»- 
sacfamens, for eseertaining the wishes of the people; tnconfotm- 
ity to which, a vote was taken in all the towns. A large ma- 
jority were found in fevwir of a separation. A convention was 
c^ed, and a conalitiition adopted, which being approved, Mas< 
sacbusetts and Maine amicably separated, tbe latter taking her 
pr«per rank, as one of the United States. 

Sectwn XVII. On the 3d of March, 1821, the 
I6th congress closed its second sessioa. Few 
subjects of importance were discussed, and but 
litt^ dcme for the iMlvancement of publiek inter- 
est, or the promotion of private prosperity. 
Actswerepassed to admit Missouri into the uni- 
on conditionally ; to reduce the military peace 
establishment to four regiments of artillery, and 
seven regiments of infeintry, with their proper 
officers; and to carry into further execution the 
provisions of treaties with Spain and Great Bri- 

Section XVIII. On tlie 5th, Mr. Monroe, who 
had been re-elected to the presidency, took the 
usual oath of office. The re-election of Monroe 
was nearly unaninraus. Mr. Tompkins Was 
again elected vice-president. 

SectionXJX. August 10th, 1821, the preu- 
dent, by his proclamation, declared MiasouBi to 
be an independent state, a%d that it was admit- 
ted into the federal union. 

The Grst pennaneni settlements, in Missouri, appear to have 
been, made at St. Genevieve and New-Bourbon, which wera 
/bunded soon afKr the peace of l663. In the succeedmg year, 
St. Louis, the capital (^the state, was commeHced. In 17^i 
Louisiana, and Missouri of course, were secretly ceded t»y FiSBse 
to Spain ; but the latter did not attem^-it to take poascttioii ol 
(he country until some years after. 

Missouri rencuned in poueaaion of Spain, tlirough tlie wn of 

^?a ^ll^l0PIi.l.lWW.■■1Mf 

the muMiinn, until tlie cesiion of Loaiuana to France, in 1801, 
by irhidi Inner pover it was ceded to tbe United States, ia 

Upon (he cession of Louisiana to the United States, the dia> 
trkt, which nov forms the state of LiouitiBaut, was separated 
from thelerrilory, snd made a distinct government, by the Dame 
ot tbe territory of Orkant. In 1611, the territoiy of Orleans 
became a state, by the name of LouUiana. The remaining 
pari of (he ori^nal province of Louisiana, extending to the Pa- 
dfick, was erected into a territorial government, and called JlCr- 
souri. In 1818-19, application was made to congress by tbe 
people of this territory, to form a state constitution. A bill was 
iiccordjngly introduced, for the purpose, a provision of which 
forbade slavery or involuntary servitude. The bill with this 
provision passed the house of representatives, but was rejected 
in the senate, and, in consequenceof this disagreement, the mea- 
sure, fur tiie timt.', failed. In the session of 1819-20, the bill 
was revived ; and, after long and animated debates, a compro- 
mise was effected, by which slavery was to be tolerated in Mis- 
souri, and forbidden in all that part of Louisiana, as ceded by 
France, lying nortli of 36" 30' north latitude, except so much 
:is was included within llie limits of tiic state. In tbe mean time 
the people of Missouri had formed a state constitution. Wiien 
this constitution was presented to congress, in 18SO-21, a pio^ 
vision in it, which required the legislating to pass laws "to pre- 
vent free negroes and mullattoes from earning to, and settling in 
tbe state," was strenuously opposed, on the ground that it violat- 
ed the rights of such persons of that description, as were citizens 
of any of the United Slates, Tiie contest occupied a great part 
of the session, and it was finally detef mined, by a small majority, 
that Missouri should be ad&iilted, upon the fundamental condi- 
tion, that the contested clause should not be construed to autho- 
rise the passage of any laws, excluding ciiisens of other states 
from enjoying the privileges 1o which they are entitled, by the 
conitituticHv of the United States. It was also provided, that if 
the l^slature of Missouri sRould, by a solemn publich act, pre- 
viously to the 4th Monday of November, 1821, declare the as- 
sent of the slate lo this fundamental condition, the president 
should issue his proclamation, declaring the admission complete. 
On the S4th of June, 1831, the le^lature of Missouri assented 
(a tbe fundamental conditioa ; and, on tbe lOth of August fol- 
lowing, the president's proclamation was issued, declaiing Uie 
admission complete.* 

* America Atlas— Philaielrb!i. 


Section XX. The first session of the seven- 
teenth congress commenced on the 3d of De- 
cember. The affairs of the nation were generally 
prosperous, and there seemed to be no obstacle 
in the way of wise and prudent nraaaurea. A 
spirit of jealously, however, obtruded itself upon 
their deliberations, by which some beneficial 
measures were defeated, and the business of the 
session was unnecessarily delayed and neglected. 
Several acts of importance, however, were pass- 
ed, concerning navigation and commerce ,'— 
relieving still further the indigent veterans of the 
revolution ; — and fixing the ratio, between popu- 
lation ond representation, at one representative 
for every forty thousand inhabitants. 

The constitution has not limited tbe number, but has ooly 
)>rovided tbat no mote than rme_ shall be sent for thirty tboussntl 
inhabitants. Publick opinion seems generally to have decided 
tliiit a numerous representation is an evil, by which not only, tbe ' 
business of the nation is neglected, in the confticts of individual 
opinions, but the. people are subjected to an unnecessary ex- 
pense. The congress that signed the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence consisted but of fifly-six members ; and no diliberative 
assembly excelled them, in industry and publick virtue. 
The congress that formed the confederation consisted 
of forty-eight ; that which formed the constitution consisted of 
only thirty-nine, and the first congress under that constitution, 
of but'siity-five. After the tirst census, the appointment being 
one for every thirty-three thousand inhabitants, the house con- 
sisted of one hundred and five representatives. The same ap- 
portionment being continued under the second censBs, there 
were one hundred and forty-one representatives. — The appor- 
tionment, under the third census, allowed one for thirty-five 
thousand ; and the' house consisted of one hundred and eighty- 
seven members. The ratio fixed upon, by the present congress, 
is one for forty thousand ; and the number of representatirei is 
two hundred and twelve. 

Section XXI. During the above session of 
congress, March 31, 1822, a territorial goveQi- 
ment was established for Florida. 

The name of Florida was formerly given tn an immenie rp- 

g^of country, dJKowmdbf Cal>oi,-iB 1497. T^ ^M 
uC U tfc« actuai tarkcvy of Flarida wb> Ponce de Leon, 

lMMMo»£ut«r day, 1M2. NavigHton, from wreral cam- 
trio, vi*iied it, and various European sovereigns attempted n 
appropriate the country to thems^ves. 

Spam, liMrever, held poHeMion of it u»l6i 1763^ ^^ K^"' 
ceded to Great Britain. In May, 1781, Don Galvez capnmd 
Pen*ac<d^ and, soon afterwards, completed the conqoest of th 
whole of West Florida, which remained in possession of Spmii, 
nntS I7S3, when Great Britain rethMjnished both provntcts of 
Florida to Spain. 

Bjrthe Irea^ ofFrance, in 1803, whidi ceded LouisiaDato 
the United States, it was declared to be ceded, with the muk 
extent that it had in the hands of Spain, when ceded to Franre. 
By virtue of this declaration, the United States daimedthf 
coHHtry west of the Perdido river, and, in 1811, took powttMMi 
■tf H, except the town and fort of Mobile, which were surreodfr' 
ed the following year. In 1814, a British expedition haroiE 
been fitted out against the United States, from Pensacola, GeW' 
ral Jackson took possession of the town ; ^ut, baring no »"■ 
thority to hold ir, returned lo Mobile. The S^uinole Sadms, 
with whom the United Slates w«^ at war, residing partly "''(''ill 
the limits of Florida, and making their incursions thence irili- 
out restraint from tlie Spaniards, it became necessary to cross 
the territorial line, to chastise them. Subsequently, General 
Jackson took possession of Fort St. Marks and Pensacola, 
which the American troops held til! November, I8l3, wheD 
[hey were restored to Spain. In 1819, a transferof the wbole 
province was made, by treaty, to the United States, Mid, sfK' 
many vexatious delays, the treaty was ratilied, by Spain, i" 
October 1820, and, finally, by the United States, in the iBonlh 
of February, 1831. Possession was delivered to General Jack- 
son, as commissioner of the United States, in July, 1821. 

Section XXII. The second seasion of the 
seventeenth congress commenced at Washing'' 
ton, on the 2d of December. In hia messa^i 
at the opening of the session, the president ib- 
fornaed congress that, in June, a conveation ol 
navigation and commerce, resting esseatiaJJj' ^J" 
a basis of reciprocal and equal advantage to the 
t*) countrtes, had been conclsded beCWW" 
France and the United States ;— that the proW' 
bitfon, which had been imposed on tbecftnuner^^' 


betVAOi tke Umced States and the BrhiiA colo* 
mee, hi t^ Weat Indies and on this contment, 
had been removed, and that the ports of those 
colonies had been opened to the Teasels of the 
United States, by an act of the Britisb parlia- 

In a second message, a few days subsequent- 
ly, the president introduced to the notice of con- 
gress tne interesting subject of the " multiplied 
outrages and depredations, recently committed 
on our seamen and commerce, by Pirateg, in the 
West Indies and Gulf of Mexico," and recom- 
mended the immediate organization of an effi- 
cient force to suppress them. A bill was ac- 
cordingly introduced, authorizing the president 
to pnmde such a force, and to despatch it im- 
mediately to the protection of our persecuted 

The president had mentitmed the subject of piracy, in his 
first message ; but he was prompted early after to moke it tlie 
subject of a. special communication, in consequence of inteUi- 
gence that captain Allen, of the Alligator, a brave and merito- 
rious officer, had fallen in the neighbourhood of Matanzaa, by 
the hands of these ruthless barbarians, while attempting, in dis- 
charge of his duty, to rescue an unprotected merchant ship, nrUch 
had fallen into their power. Immediately after the pass^e of 
the above bill, Commodore Porter was Rppoinled to this senrice, 
and, soon after, lioisting bis broad pendant on board the Pea- 
cock, stretched his way, with a respectable force, to chaatiK 
these miscreants, that regard no law, and that feel no nercy. 


Section. XXilt gtitmntVU* Two centu- 
ries have elapsed, since the first settlfflnents 
were commenced in the United States, hj £u- 

sti nuoo xL«ui7— latt. -^ 

rofwaiUt yet the people have not acquired that 
uniform character, which belongs to ancient zm- 
tiooa, ilpon whom time, and the stability- of in- 
Btttutions have imprinted a particular and in<li- 
vidual character. Although partial changes 
occurred, which have been noticed in the pro- 
gress of this work, yet so far down aa the pre- 
sent time, the esBential variations, which have 
taken place, are few. The general physiogno- 
my is nearly as varied as the origin of the popu- 
lation is different. English, Irish, German, 
Scotch, French, and Swiss, all retain suniething 
of the first stamp, which belongs to their ancient 
country. The original roughness and severity 
of the first settlers are, indeed, lost, and a de- 
gree of softness and pliancy, more congenial 
witli an improved state of society, has general- 
ly obtained. 

A marked dislinction undoubtedly exists between the inhabit 
ants of the commercial ^nd maiitime towns, and the villages of 
llie coumry. The former in a more considerable degree, ai to 
luiury and vice, resemble the great towns of Emnpe. Xhosc 
of the country, who lead an agricultural life, pmerre much of the 
simplicity, with something of the roughness of former days) 
but they enjoy all that happiness which proceeils from the ex- 
cercise of the social virtues, in their primitive purity. Their af- 
fections are constant; felicity crowns the conjugal union; pa- 
rental authority is sacred; infidelity on the part of the vnfe is 
almost unknown ; crime is rare, mendicity and theft uncommon. 

The people generally are enterprising, industrious, persevering, 
and submissive to government. They are also inteUigent, 
brave, active, and benevolent, and possess a strength and uility 
of body, which are seldom miited in so great a degree, with 
somewhat of the appearance of apathy, and under a sober exteri- 
or, strong feelings and a capacity "for the most lively sallies are 
concealed. As the benefits of education are extensively difliised, 
the ingenuity and intelligence of the people have been displayed 
to advantage, if not in the higher walks of literature, yet in the 
useful branches of knawled^e, and in the arts which molt^y 
thecomlbrts of life. 

From th« perfect freedom and equality which are f 


but the bamer created by education will, it is hoped, luep in 
check the aawelcome tide. In the amuteraentB of th£ people, 
there are evidenlly some changes for the better, indicating more 
correct ideas both of humanity andlEiste. Upon the ffh(Me,the 
manners of the people of the United States, especinlly among 
the more cultivated classes, are, probably, a medium, between 
«D honest bluntness, on the one hand, and a sickly delicacy, on 
the other, or between a low and the highest degree of refinement. 
The latter, indeed, is hot to be expected in a country where there 
is no court, and no hereditary nobility, whose leisure and incli- 
nation might lead them to substitute the affected and burdeniome 
politeness of courtiers, for the present manly ease of freemen. 

Section XXIV. lirUflCon* The principal 
religious deDominatioos, at present, in the Unit- 
ed States, are Presbyterians, and Congregation- 
alists, Baptists, Friends, EpiacopaUans, and 
Methodists. The two first of these, unitedly, 
have more than twenty-five hundred congrega- 
tions ; the number of Baptist congregations ex- 
ceeds two thousand ; the Friends nave five hun- 
dred, and the Episcopalians about three hun- 
dred. The Methodists also are numerous. 

For the effectual employment of those who wish to be en 
gaged in the christian ministry and in missions, peculiar facili- 
ties haw been devised ; and the plans of benevolence, mention- 
ed under the last period, have been continued and greatly aug- 
mented. The American Board i>f Commissioners for foreign 
Missions, the American Bible Society, the American Education 
Society, together with a Society for the colonization of free blacks 
m Africa, have risen in respectability and resources. Missionaries 
in considerable numbers are sent, not only into vacant and desti- 
tute parts of our own country, to the South and West, and agiong 
the Indians ; but also to Southern Asia, to Palestine, and to the 
Tslands of the Paeifick Ocean. 

It is not to be disguised that much irreligion and vice, and 
some opposition to the al>ove named objects prevails, and that 
a spirit of infidelity exists, though in a form more concealed 
than formerly, and under mote decent names. Nor does it be- 
tome us to deny, that in a lime of so much religious action and 
teligious news, by which attention is occupied, there is danger 
of a superficial acqiwuntance with the doctrines of the Bible, 
among the mass of professors. Yet, whatevei may be the dan- 
ger from this sonrce, we are persuaded that such exertioni' 

(14 nsWDXI-UlT^Utt. 

••d At ipumt takat in politick dbowiou, a teateticy t» 
£miateacn in our UBiUKn U nndoubtedlv ta be pcrcnved ; 
4Mt tkcf ate altogether congenial with the precqjita of the 
anipd^ will i> the end produce a viutly counterbalancing good. 
The cxigenci«i of the chorch, and or the tisiei, lequiie preciaely 
neb a i|utit «f benevolent enteipiise, to be iocreued, we tnut 
«ith the growtfa of the nation. 

Tbaalbntiuf^ which is now paid to bibtcallearnini;, and to a 
wm^nMWatickiubucdoniDtheologi^jbyibosevboareto b» 
ODM Cbrittiaa teacben, Ibrau an era in the history of rdjgion, 
•1 this couoffy. This will be a means, in due Ume, of coiintci- 
letiag that tendency to r^I^ous dissipuion, and to a svperficial 
loctrinal knowledge, among professing christians, which have 
beea pteittioned. Indeed, Vte good consequences of sik^ pr^ 
pantny itudies begin to be felt in odier Mip«ets, at least ; ud 
(he call for a lewned and efficimti as well as a |uous mjiustry ia 
loubly increasing. Morality, which is a component part of re- 
igioo, has taken deep root, and the increased means of christian 
nctroction just noticed, and forms a striking contrast to the ef- 
eets, which proc«ed front a dearth of the Ipiril antf <tf the word 
af God, in less favoured paita of the country. It ii werdiy of 
nirtice, also, diat some vigorous attempts have been made, by 
means of the aasuciation of individuals, in various places, to pre- 
vent the progress of vice, and, of course, to promote the inlereats 
of christian virtue. Intemperance, which is the most alanine 
symptom of ttte limes, has, by this means, received a putiaj, 
ihough, it must l>e contesaed, inadequnte restrnint. ' 

Section XXV. Zvntft an* ^ommtvtt. 

The commerce of the United Statep consists, 
principally, in the exchange of agricultural pto* 
duce tor the manufactures of other parts of the 
world, and the productions of the tropical cli- 
mates. The principal articles of domestic pro- 
duce, exported, are cotton, wheat flour, biscuit, 
tobacco, lumber, rice, pot and pear) ashes, In- 
dian corn, and meal, dried and pickled fish, beef, 
rye, pork, &.c. 

Of tneae, cotton" is the most conudeiable article, and hag in- 

* The ETcater attention to the cultiv&Uon of cotton it to b« anribad to A* 
invMitioD of 8 muddne (or olc^os upland oMtoOi frontti siiitti Wtg 
(H> MMhhia w» ■•» ii||jeb(ed to Mr Whitiiey.of NewIiaTe||,rMBra- 

...,„G„oglc _ 


, Kgitlariy, from one hundred tbontand poundh the 

wnouat exported in l7Mf to more than eighty-fire miUionr or 
poonda, exported in 1817- It now constitntes one third of die 
whole value of oar exports, or about twenty millions of dcdlon. 
Next to cotlon, wheat, flour, and bbcoit, are exported in the 
fieriest quantittes>^-Tobacco and rice ore on the decline, the 
vttentiwi of planters being directed to the more profitable culti- 
vation of cotton. 

Of these exports, New-England and New-Tork are the grwt 
carriers. To them heli^ns nearly two thirds of all the shipping 
(if the United States. The states south of the Potomac own 
•nly one eighth part Our staple articles are principally the 
rrowth of the louUiern states, and are carried coast wise, from ~ 
& southern to the middle states, whence they are sent to fe- 
rdgn coontries, almost entirelj, in ships owned by northern 
mncbants, and navigated by northern seamen. In 1820, there 
were about seventy ^ousand jiersons, in the United States, en- 
gaged in commerce, of which thirteen thousand, or neariy one 
sinh, bdonged to -Massacliusetts {done. Nearly half ^ the 
wbide nombK belonged to the New-England States, and New- 

The exports from the United States are sent to Tarion* eoini- 
tries, bat the British dominions always receive the lareest pm^ 
tjcwof onr domestick OToduce, particLilarly cntttm. llie Spa- 
nish, Portuguese, end French dominions have usually recdvcd 
the most, next to the British. During the period in which the 
United States enjoyed the carrying trade, that is from 17^ tn 
1807, when the wars, which succeeded the French revohitim, 
existed, and during which the Umted States was the principd 
neutral power, the nations for which she 'carried emlvaced neai^ 
ly aU Eurrae; but thnee for which she carried the most wen 
the Dutch, French, and Spaniards. Since the retom of peace. 
In 1 SIS, the nations of Europe have been chiefly (bnr own cai^ 
riers. Of course, the foreign produce, exported from this coun- 
try, hn been small, com[Mred with its amoont from 1802 to 
ISIS. In the year ending iheSOth of September 1822, tbet»- 
tal value of export* from me United State* was seventy-two mS- 

MsxIieBeljHiiiiled. Itliiimraidlhatad, 
tonaat extent, is be siatM south ofViiaii]^ and Kentoekj. newbsal 
and ll<nir enoited are nised, priiM<Mlb, in IM noddle md western sWm ; 
latuHMohiHsi^siidiTiitiidBiMidHaiaiCanABa; Imnbsr Is cUs^ Enm 
the fereils of H^ New Bsi^iUre, and die low ooonbies nf dM Car- 

^TiitiidSiMidHaidiCanABa; ImnbsrlscUs^Enm 

n. New BsuiUre, and die low ooonbies nf die Car- 

atteaiiDdOeofiis. Km Is ■wsttr raJsadln fta OsinllMa. qiiqili. mi 

3S ■"--t;ouglc 

S«6 rSBlOO 3X-.18I7— USS 

lioM, oQe hnndrad and vxty iho mwod , two liiiiidi«<l ud a^tj- 
Dflc'dollui. Ul* tfaii mil, but about tweoiy-tiTw miUiau were 
foreign exporti, leaving nearly &tty ■"iiiij^" for dwnerttck n- 
pott*. AlmgnbalfofUKdoineslicli expoft* werw sent to Eog- 
lanJ, Scotland, ood Ireland. During ttie aame year, tbr low 
value or iuiporu waa eighty-three uiiiliona, two hundred and Ibf 
ty^oue ihiHi«aad, five hundred and forty-one doUars, of ffhkb 
thirty-two uiKlioni were from Eugland tdoue. 

lUte goodt received, in return for exports, are, generally, 
the manulacturet of those countries to which the exports an 
carried. Fram Great BriEain are imported vast quantitiei ol 
woollen and cottun goodi, and nionufactiires of iron, steel, Imtuj 
copper, gtsu, eanbeii ware, gil£, &c Fran Chiua we recdn 
tea and silk ; troni Ruuia in>o and hemp. Coffee comes froa 
the colonies of the European powers in America^ and the Em 
India; sugar from the tlast and West Indies; nua Irom lbs 
Britisb antT Danish Wrst Indies. Wines are^ principally, trim 
France, Spain, Portugal, Madeira, and the Canary Ides, tiras- 
dy froin Fruice, Spain, Italy, &c Notwithstanding the iarp 
amount of cuttmi, tobacco, lumber, &c. seat to Great Britain, 
yet the balance with that country it, and always has been sgaiiul 
us. It is also agiiinst us in respect to China, Russia, Siredeu, 
Denmaric, and trance, because these countries, from wbicb we 
import largely, have occasion for very httie of our surptus pn> 

Aa to the tonnage of the Un'-ted Sutes, it may be obxtvti, 
that it aDniially increased from 1 790, at which time it was near- 
ly half a miUioo, to the year 1810, when it arriired "•i"™"": j 
Bumi, and amounted to niore than one million and four bundnd I 
thousand tons; an amwint lar greater thaiii that^aay ouxr 
natint in (be world, except Great Britain. In 181P, the "^ 
nage employed in the coasting trade amounted to neany su 
hundred thousmid tons, having increased In thirty years more 
than five fold. 

Tlie tonnage employed in the fisheries has not progresK^ 
with the same rapidity. During the revolutionary "^'^ 
fisheries were destroyed, and, for many years afterwards tn^ i 
did not regain their original importance. To encouraged*"'' 
ctmgress, in 1792, granted a bounty to the owners and seames , 
eapioyediotbebank,orcod fisheries, and,in 1814, this ^)^ | 
was eoowdwably increased. During the late war, our DSbo- 
men suffered heavy losses, but, since the return of peaM) tp9 
have resumed their occupations, and the fisheries are now 10 a 
more flourishing state t^an they have been at any period *u^ 
the declaration of our independence. In 161fi, there Ix^f I 
to Haw Bedfivd and NfoUicltet seventy-two vessels, toffV^ " ' 


Ifae whkle toAtery, irticwe aggregate tonnage was about sereiiteen 
tbouMiDd ton*. This nuniber has since incrcHsed. Massachu- 
setts is the principal state eoiici^med in ihts lisheiy. No Elate 
south of New-Yoiit ever wrned a single veisel employed in the 
wbale fishery. 

Nearly connected with commerce is the revtnue of the coon- 
O-y. ThJs has almost entirely arisen, ever since the establbh- 
tnenl of the present goTernmeni, from duti<?s pnid on tonnage, 
and on foreien goods imported into (he Usitcd States. Internal 
(iutiet Hnd direct taxes nave, occasionally, bteo resorced to, as 
was the case during the ad nun ist rat ion ot' Mr. AdaroSf and du- 
ring the late war, but upon these, ihe gov^moient ordinarily 
place no dependence. Several inillioiis of doUais are annually 
received from the sale of pubtick lands, and the sum is yearly' 
increasing. In 1813,.lhereveDuc was mudi greater than it had 
been at any former ptrlo'd, owing (o the immense inipiirtations 
of foTifign'goods into the coimtry. It continued to decrease, 
hotrtvet, until 1821, since whicli time it lias been again slowly 
rising. It may now be estiinatiid in ordinary years, at about 
twenty millimis of dollars. 

It will not be foreign to this article to add as few rf'mark 
upon the piiblick debt. This debt was contiactiid in sup- 
port of the war of independence. In IT91, it aiiiunnted to 
about seventy'live millions of dollars. From this date to the 
year 1812, owing to the gcKit pi'ouperiiy of the couiiiry, the 
debt was gradually diminished to about one !ialf. But, en Ihe 
recurrence of war, it again increased, and, in f E iC, amuuiilut! to 
one hundred and- twenty-three millions. It has been since di- 
■uinishing, and, OQ ihe firstof January, 1823, was about iitueiy 
mijlious of dollars. 

Section XXVI. ^j^t^fCttUttte. Until nithm 
a few years, agricultLtrc, as a Bcience, received 
b,ut little atteittiou, in the Uniteti Slates. Few, 
if any,, valuable impruvcmcnts wore attempted. 
Indi^ereDce and UDCommoti apathy seem To have 
pervaded society. A new era, however, Una re- 
cently commenced, and agriculture, both as a 
science and an art, is recoivirtg rauch ofUiat 
attention which it^ acknowledged importance 
detnands. Jt is beginning to be regamed, as it 
■liould be, not only ua the basis uf subsistence 

aad popabtioi), but as die parevt of indiTidiMi 
•cd nanonal opuleuce. 

Men of enUghteDed minds, and of diatingiiish 
ed wealdi, ere, in many parts of the country, 
^voting themaelveB to the study of the art, anil 
to new and usefUl ezperimenta. Agricultural 
societies abound ; at the head of which may be 
seen Home of the most scientifick aad practical 
men, combining titeir powers in favour of agri- 
culture, for the collection and diffusion of in- : 
formation, and for the excitement of indusOy i 
and emulation. The exhibitions which annu- , 
ally teike place, in almost every county, of cattle, 
and of the productions of the soil, the learned 
and often eloquent addresses, which these exhi- 
bitions call forth, have a strong tendency to 
awaken the attention of our countrymen to a 
pursuit more favourable to health, virtue, and 
peace, than any otiier. 

The propuition of the inhabhauti of the United Statem, devot- 
ed to agricuttaral punuiiti, ii large. By the ceuui of 1820, h 
■ippean, that this pioportion is more than one fifth of the whole 
fraptdation, oTtwo milliuni. Tliis number indudcf oaljr then 
w\u> are tbtu ei^ged by actual occupation, chitdren and femaia 
e^erally being excluded. It embrace*, therdbre, about two 

third* of all the male* over ten yean of age. The slaTe holding 
■tales are the ma« agrkultur^, the proportion heing UMallj 
from one quarter to one third of the whole popoladoa, whik u 

the other states it gennally folk below one fifth. 

Of the several states, New-York has the greatest number en- 
eaged in agriculture ; Virginia next ; and next to those itatei, 
North Carolina, South CarMtna, Pennsytvaniei, Kentucky, Ohio, 
'hnoessee, and Georgia, in wder. But the proportion of those 
devoted to Bgricultnre, in the respective stues, to their popula- 
tion, is difierent. Louisiana has the greatest proportion, or about 
thk'^-live per cent. ; South Carolina has tniity-two ; Georgia 
and Mississippi, each tweo^-ome ; North CBroUna twenty-se- 
ven ; while New-Tork has Enit eighteen, and PenBYlv>i>>B hul 
thirteen per aent No Hate in the tmim hu so imBJl apropw- 
tion H Hanachuseitt 


tnvttt. 1 

the United 
numerous ; 
during the 
the depress 
ately after t 
of tbe ezcet 
vrhich were 

By tbt Ai«n< 
makJDg to tndu 
tides, now ezt< 
manufactHred a 
to those of our 
' increaie of (be ■ 
ly in.tlwgouth, 
blishiaents, con 
b; the eicUtnif; i 
Bue, and geneni 

) efforts, time odI 
Tbe number 
United Statei, 
-dred and fort) 
Rhode-btand )i 
^b «■ msnafa 

lation of t) i 
miltions, si i 
nine hundi 
nillioD, iivi ' 
four hundn ' 
Imndred ai 
dred and n 

ananrage, ai < 
«e*. Ilie na i 


Sum Hajr BOW, Ihenfore, (dow of the year 1822,) be cow. 
dnvd ai exceeding ten tnilUoHa. 

The foUowing obMrvolions, respecting the popnUlioii of lb 
aiNnitr)>, have beni found to be true by a late reapMstable writer.* 
I. TfaU the mhabilaiiu of the United Stales double in aboul 
twnty-five jeus. 2. Thmt taking the whole United Statn tic 
gettier, the white* increaM faater than the blacks; but that in 
the states in which the blacks are very numerous, tfaey have al- 
moM nnifi«mly iooeased foster tlian the whites, in those Mita 
la MaryhDd, Virginia, North Carolina, South Caroliaa, Geoi 
gia, TciuKnee, and Kentucky, the blacks, f<» tiie last lUri> 
years. Hare increased much laster than the whites. In Noni 
CaroUna and Tenaessee, tbey have increased man than asljii 
again, and in South Garolina, during the last ten years, ifaefbiH 
iocreaaed three times as fast. In the northern states, on ibe 
coptranr, the black population is almost stationary, and ia Msin^ 
Hew>I]anip*hire, and Rhode-Island, it is diminislung. 5. 'Ho' 
in all our great cities the fenxdei are more numeroas than ihc 
aialei, whUe in tlw whole United States die reveise it trut 
The average of all (be cities glres nearly one hundred and nine le- 
males to one hundred males, whereas, in the whde Usitcd 
Slates, the average of females is but ninety-seven to one bimdred 

SectionXXlX. SbttCatfOtl. The education .j 
of youth, which is so essential to the well being' 
of society, and intimately connected with the 
political prosperity of a republican govern- i 
ment, has received, as has been noticed id 
the progress of this work, considerable atten- I 
tion in the United States, in every period since , 
their settlement. The present state of our pn- 
mary and higher schools, of our cDlleffea, iiniver- i 
aities, and other establishments of education, w 
more flourishing than at any former period ; their 
number is annually increasing, and a more liberal { 
spirit, in respect to their endowment, is P^' 

Infill the New-England Statet, excepting Rhode-Island, ««^ 
taoa icbooli are suiqtorted by law. In t&s latter state, aow 

• S. £. HOTM, who bai reoMitlT pubUihed a TBliuble Beagt^'" 
wUtfi the MflNn I* ia4>Wea te maur invortant facti lalbMs BMW 

«ves, uaaemies nre ei 

private kHooU are ex 

■nonihi. In tbe new i 

fired thousand doUats, 

support of a ichtxd m: 

The number of scbool 

In CMinecticot the < 

arising lira>m tbe sale oi 

to tbe state. This fun 

and seven hnhdred tho 

together with twdve t 

annoally devoted to thr 

in every town in the at 

this fund, in 1818, wa 

greater sum by Iwenty- 

taK amounted to in tht 

A common school fi 

In 182S, it consisted 

thousand dollars, and 

BUR), which this fund i 

dtdiars, and it assists i 

children of that populi 

I leen years. Besides t 

I nearly fitly incorporat 

'' fund of nearly one hi 

which is annually disli 

mies of the state. 

In Virginia, a literal 
legislature, consisting i 
for military services c 
cembei, 1818, to aboi 
dollars, to which b 
tTntted States. The' 
fines, forfeitures, &c. 
same object, will, in i 
niisl income of near! 
(orty-^ve thousand dc 
the support of primai 
the endowment of a u 
ITnuI within a few 
ed but little attention 
has recently been dis 
nnd sclxM^s. Previo 
in die state} thereat 

thirty ihj—i J dnBfi fcr th» wmMiJ 
e wdioai. £i lS17f ibe Mate of Gewpa fsve one fawM 
thMMaddeDBnfartbeMUDeobJMt. la tteitalacf AlibiM, I 
diw, Md flbBoii, nrarakw 1m been wwK ^T ^ U«k' 
Sme^farAecdMWim of youth, oneaectiea, arBtlwi]'«ii 
putM emj tmnMfaip, bebig graatRd I17 tbe act of aaftai 
OM adniUed thne stun lo £e naioa, for the >n|^Kin of ca» 

diipa for the MippoR of « college. 113i tccnKtj, edacMkii tm 
beoi BiKli B^Med in Lombmib, and nany of tbe ipJnbituU 
■te imaUr tilfaer lo md or write. Latdy, tbe attentim otik 
eoveminr it has heat directed to this aubiect, and >clii»ti wi 
higher ■eminariea of leanuag are cMabtislu^ in varkaw (Miatf 

Senral onivatsitiea and colleges have be«i added to tbe liu- 
tarjr institntioaa in the United States, witfain iU» period. Of 
iKUTCnitiet, two have recmtljr commenced optn&m in ti» ' 
■tateof Ohio, oDCat Atbeoi, onthe Hoclrbockii^, bytheouK 
of Ae Ohio Univenity; tbe other tf Oxford, oear the widb Ml . 
corner of the state, by the namq of die Miwni Univenity. ^ 
fanner of these has two tavubip* oftandjor liwty^ai tbwnn^ 
acres, and an annual ineaioe of two tbotwand three famM I 
doUars ; the latter has uoe township wbicfa ^Ids aAeut O 
dtoosand didtars. 

Bendes these, there is a flourisbii^ college at CiodiuMtii 
which wasiiKorparated in 1S19, and whicb has fuBdsaisMM> | 
ing to thirty thoasand doHars. A mecKcal college is coaiKctN . 
vhh it WofthiogtoB collie was incorporated dnriiig iheniM 
year. In 1818, Traoiylvania univeruty, is Lexington, Ktfr 
tucky, was re^irgaDixeU and placed upon a more libers' ^^ 
dation. The oumber of students now exceeds three hmdK'l' , 
A college was established, in 1819 at Danrille, aboot thiitf 
miles soothwest from Lexington. _„_jn. ■ 

A anirersily bss recently been eomaienced at Chariottevrw^ 
in Albemarle county, Virginia. The plan comemplaies tea pro*^ I 
■orsbips ; and the buildings, consisting of ten pavillitns f^' tM 
professors, five hotels tot dieting the students, with one bouitta 
end four dormitories sufficient for two hundred and eight studes* 
are already finished, in an elegant style of arcuito^U"** " 
cdl^ has recently gone into operation in the District (^^ | 
hnnbia. h is shuated three miles from tbe CKtital. A ^*ff^ 
Theological seminary is lo be connected with tbe ■■>'*'^"*^ I 
Besides these institutioiM, there aie several others, vis. ' '"j*^ | 
aehool at Bangor, Maine, whose object is lo prepare ytnoEf* 
far tbe ministry, in a shorter time uiaa is iimibI at "^^J^^^ I 
(in f a Baptist Iftefaty tod Uteokipcal M^Bsry al Wat««iB^<* 

ElEHscopu Lfaurch. A rhetuogical mttuuuoa hu uio beon <•• 
t^rfkbed at Aabiira, New-York, by the Presbyteriuu. Seve- 
nd others are in cotriemplatjoii in the country. 

The Ibregoing bets, in relation to the atale of our ummoi 
mnd faigber inatitutioni of leaniing, no Aoierican, in whoae bo- 
som glowi Ibe SMrit of tile patriot, wiU regartl iridi indUTerence. 
Ijike the %ht oiheaven, Mience cbeers, beautifies, and adorns. 
To in influence are ire indebted for mnch of the dvil and reli. 
^ons freedom which we enjoy, and intimately cMUtecied with 
its prugresi art the future honour and happineM of our countnr. 
An inteUigent people will select inlelligent ntleis, and intdlK 
sent rulen will nuuii^ safely the governuient confided to their 
trtisL " There is scarcdy one instance brot^t" sajrs Bocmi^ 
** of a disaArous govMitment, where learned men have bem 
seated at the helm.'* 

The general diffusion of knowledge tends alsoto makepeace- 
able citiiciu. " It causes men," in the language of a periodical 
work of nur own country, " to havejust views of the nature, value, 
and relations of things, the pnrposes of life, the tendency of a^ 
tions, to be guided by purer motives, to form nobler resolutions, 
aod to press forward to more desirable attainments. Know- 
ledge smooths down the rougliness and tames the native ferocity 
of man." Our ancestors knew these things ; they were aware 
of the importance of knowledge among the people to the strength 
of the soeid and political fabrick, which they were commenciiig ; 
they, thereliwe, when they laid the foundations of their dweUii^, 
alinost SI nultaneously laid the foundations of our common and 
higher sei jnaries of learning. 

A steady, though too slow an advance has been making m 
r«dation to science, through the vhole period of oar histraiy. 
The ifflpCHtance of it is more generally admitted, and greater 
favour is showo towards those institutions which ore devoted t* 
it! cultivation. Far distant be the day, when the prevalence of 
lenoranc^ shall expose us to anarchy, and leave us to become 
the victims to some ambitious, turbulent, futhlesa spirit, wb« 
nuj rise to widd the sword of despotism. On the coo- 
tmry, may knowledge continue to increaw, and with it that 
lore of justice, virtue, and religion, which, under th* blessing of 
heaven, will make our beloved country pKpetually the scat of 
|ieace and freedmn. 



XXX* Vfoa concludiag this history of our county, w« cai 
wemAy remuo Jhun tukiiig, who of our aa^enora anticipautl 
NMiba from tbeir toiU, to Hiupeoduus lu tboee which we bebuld I 
Who of them predicted, while they were Lying up the pines ol 
the foicn for a ■hellO', that ibey were coiuaienciug au empira^ 
whkh, within two ceniurieii, would extend thousAiids of aiilea, 
■nd embrace, within iu buMini, ten miUioni of the human racel 
Who then tboU)jht of ciiieti, with iheir haty populaLioii, u tboa 
wimI mile* from the wuters of ifae Allantick i — or uf fleets, na 
inland mm, proceeding tu, and returning Iruin di&tant voystgfx } 
or of navies pouring forth iheir thunder and ibeii fiame ? Si'et 
renihs entered not into subi^r calciiktion, and were beyond r vea 
the dieuu of fancy. Vei two ceuuirie* have bmuglit tJ^di u 

The braach which our father* planted, under the ktaterivg 
cue of besven, rose, extended, inngurated. It acqi jietl flabil> 
ly by (^presiioD, and gathered importance front the eflbrlk 
which were made to cnuh it. In the progreu of ourluMtnry, 
we have leen the American people, wliile suit tuning ooly die 
character of colonists, and struggling witli the discourage meoia 
and difficulties of new seitlenjeina, maiiitaintDg at tbeir nwu en- 
petue, and bringing to prosperous cnocluiion,wBis,wiHcIi a cet 
G>h and jealous mother countrv, by her pride tind imprudence, has 
occasioned. We have seen these coluiiiea, amidst all the op[He^ 
sions which they experienced, through eiuctiuns, and caliunnies, 
ioss of charters, and une abridgment of libeity aft» unolher, 
still maintaining their lovBlty — still indulging the feelings, and 
adopting the language of affection, until justice and pauiotisiia 
■nd rel^oo hid them rise to assert those rights, which the Gotf 
of oature designed for all liis rational oflspiiDg. 

UnMigh a long and trying war, iu which inexperience h«d to 
contend with discifjine, and poverty with wealth, we see tlieu 
pledging their fortunes, liberties, and live* to one another, and, 
to the astonishment of the world, accomplishing their emaiicip« 
don. And when emancipated, and transformed into «n inde- 
pendent nation, we fee them calmly betsking themselves to the 
organisation of a government, under a constitution us wise as ti 
was singular, and whose excellency and competency the expe- 
rience of more than thirty years has confirmed. — Simultaneous. 
ly with these events, what extensive conquests have been rnade - 
OK the witdemeis ! Deserts have put on beauty and finitfiilaeii, 

fMUtlck, tor tbi 

Had we the i 

•Ion of Americii 

catjoi], howevei' 

nstional proape 

our climate pro; 

severing. A at 

numerous canal 

five and indqie 

: and faaldoo ou 

pohcjr ihall die 

I qualifying ntnnl 

i' academiet and i 

. leled extent, aa, 

t institutions of C 

, all tb« blessings 

ed, what should 

I lience of nation 

I cannot extend r 

i ■ nerce, inland i 

g aient our capita 

I pnironage to sT 

'ly to the institu 

I cIGcient govern 

, action ; and un 

, Let but die s] 

,.' fj/ of the first pli 

,: jects — let Ond 

f word and inslttu 

■re ours. We 

quillity at liome 

prosperhj will 1 

gunge of inspira 

' tlirir youth, and 

the similitude oi 

all manner of s 

and ten tbousan 

•rill b« no tMvaki 

->-Happy is that 

people whose G 


IJfott. After thii t 
at the request of the pu 
tory to the present tin 
btiloDg to this portion t 
very recent date, and 
Still living, he coald go 
the outlines of a history 
ses, leaving this to be di 
the present geaeration 

Oir~ The sectiotu, it 
numerical order, from 

SectwnXXm. ' 
teentb Congress, cl(. 
Ldtde business of nai 

SectumliJilV. < 
ing, being the day -esl 
eighteenth Congress 
bis message at the t 
dent spoke in animati 
dition or the country 
relations with foreign 
The message repre« 
more prosperous than I 
of the army in its orgao 
aally improriag for »e\ 
degree of perfection ; 
country, were rapidly ) 
and that the military ac 
tained a high degree of 
instraction. In relatic 
' stop the depredations o 
the President stated, th 
Mexico, the naval fore 
the provisione of Con| 
** has beeu eminently 
Us object. The pirac 
neigfaboarhood of the 
have been repressed, a 
U) B great newvre lesl 

In the preieDt itrnggle of the Greeks for libertj, thti 
AinenoHii have felt a lively isle reat. la sllnsioa to this 
intereatiDg ■nbject, the inefltuge cootiiiiied the foiiowing lat> 
giiHfe— Imgnage lo which every Amencan nould cordiall/ 
■abscriba : " A atrong; hope hatt beeo long ealertaioeri, 
foanded on the heroic siruggle of the Greeks, that they 
woak) sacceed in their coBte«t, and resame their equal alu- 
lioa anoag the aations of the earlb. It ia believed that the 
whole civilized world Inkea a deep i&terestio their weirnre. 
AltboBgh no power baa declared in their favoar, yet none, 
according to our ioforroatioq, baa taken part against tbem. 
Their canac and (heir Dame bave protected Ibeoi from dan- 
(era, which might, ere tbis,:haTe overwhelmed anj other 
people. The ordinary calcalationa of interest, and of ac- 
([iMitMn, with a view to aggraBdizcment, which mingle so 
much in the tranuctioDS of Datioo^ aeemto have had no ef- 
fect IB r^ard to tbesi. From the iaoti which have come (i> 
our knowledge, there i« good caate to believe that their en- 
emy haa lo«t, forever, all domiiiian over them-g-tbat. Greece 
will again become an independent nation. That she may 
otriain that rank, is the nbject of our me«l ardent wksbea." 

At. the previoua aewioa of Cangreas, tho' pceaideat had 
coBirounicateii the important fact in relation to Spaia aod 
Portugal, that a great effort waa making in thoae countries to 
improve the condition of the people, and that it appeared to 
be conducted with unuuial moderation. The result, how- 
ever, waa widely different from what bad been anticipated, 
Inalead of an emancipation from their oppraasiona, tKeir bon- 
dage, through the interference offoreiga powers, bad be- 
come doubly severe, and atrong indlcationa were perceived of 
an intenlioD on the part of the " Holy Alliance," to eitend 
their " political ayalem" to Mexico and South America.— 
But OB thia topick. the eiecative observed, " the citizens of 
the United States cherish seotimenls the most friendly in 
favonr of the liberty and happineaa of their fellow men on 
that aide of the Atlantic. In the wars of the Etiropean pow- 
ers, in multera relating to themselves, we have never taken 


in thi§ respect, fromi 
ceedx from ihat whici 
And (0 the defence ( 
the loBS of 10 DiDch 1^ 
wifldom of Iheir mosl 
vrehave enjoyed on) 
devoted. We owe il 
cable relatioDS exi^ti 
powers, to declare, 1 
their part, (o extend 
isphere, lu dangemu 
iog culoDJes or depti 
hare net interfered, 
gorerniTKntB who li 
mainlained it, anJ w 
coDiideratioD and on, 
' BOt view any inlerpt 
'them, or controlling, 
- any European powei 
festation of an anfr 
States. In the war 
Spain, ne fleclared c 
irition, and to this nc 
adhere, provided no 
ment of the compet' 
make a corresponili 
Stales indispensable 
The late events ir 
is still unsettled. O 
can be Hitduced, thp 
thought it proper, o 
-Reives, to hfive inter 
of Spain. To wba' 
ried, on the same pr 
peTident powers, wh 
interested , even th< 
flo than tbe United S 
svhicji was adopted 
have so long agitat€c 
reniHins the same, n 
eonr.erns of any of 
tnenf defaeto as the 
tivate friendly relali' 
lionrbj a innk, firi 

■iBDcea the jott cluiiiu of every power, Bobmitting to ioja- 
rie> from none. But in r^ard to Ibeae continen(j>, circani* I 
sUtDcei ure eminently and conapicaoosly different. It is im- 
poHihle ihitt rbe allied powers should extend their politic;^: 
•yitem to any portion of either continent withont endangering 
oar peoce and hnppmesi ; nor can any one believe that our 
•outhcrn brethren, if left to tberoselvei, woold ndopt it of 
their ono nccord. It is equally impomibte, therefore, thai 
vre xhonld behold such interposition, in anv form, with tndil- 
ference. If tie look to the compamttre etrengtb and re- 
rources of Spain and those new gorernmeDt's, and their dii- 
tancefrom each other, itmust be obvionsthat Ehecannerer 
subdue them. It is »till the trae policy of the United Stal« 
to leave the parties to therntelves, in the hope tiiat olber 
powpra will pursue the same cotme." 

This langunge, so just, so patriotic, so iadepeodent, it 
scarcely needs be added, received the approbation of the 
whole Amencan people, and called forth the wann^ eologi- 
ntn of the frieode of rational liberty in Enrope. The inde- 
pendent i-t.ind thus taken by the American nation, hits thns I 
tiip bad the effect upon (he naltoni in qnestion, to repress 
those aggreiisjons npon our southern brethren, vybich, there 
is too mach evidence not to believe, were designed. 

On the present state of the conntry, (he Presidentlield the 
following Mrong and eloquent language : " If we compare 
(be present condition of our onion with its neiunletnte at the 
close of our revolution, the history of the world furnishes no I 
example of a progress in improvement, in all the important | 
circumstances which constitute (he happiness of a nation, 
which bears any resemblance to it. At the first epoch our | 
population did not exceed three millions. By Ifae last cen- 
sus it amounted to about ten millions, 'and, what ia more ex- 
traordinary, it Is almost a'tnrtelher native, for the emigration 
from other countries has hoea inconsiderable. At the fir^t ' 
epoch, halt (he territory, within ourncknowledged limits, was 
uninhabited and a wilderness. Since then, new territory has 
been acquired, of vast entent, comprising within it many 
livers, particularly, the Mississippi, the navigation of which 
to the ocean wa? uf the highest importance to the original 
states. Over (hia territory our population has expanded in 
every direction, and new states have been established, al- 
most nqnal, in number, to those which formed the first bond 
of our union. This expansion of our popnlalton and acces- 
sion ofnevr states to sur onion, have had the happiest effect 

on all its higl 

our resource 

aa a power, 

taut circumsti 

manifest, that 

creasing the 

greatly stren 

and diBDoion 

cable. Each 

' less to apprel 


cient for all t 

Section, X 

'. opening of t 

to the stru§ 

, expressed, a 

; pathy of the 

, presented to 

ber, providir 

' ment of an , 

ever the Pre 

pedieiit A 

ent to adop 

. poned, it se 

" of regard, o 

; people, and 

' ' the principle 

"In ofTerii 

'. from being hi 

this or any of 

ident of the 

gregs, not onl 

its present ati 

the whole civ 

the TurJ^ish i 

he thought th 

CongresB sho 

view was to o 

sive to the se 

crtfices mi si 

flofieriDgs, v\ 

eial minded d 


OQghl Rot to be reitrained from expresfiBg, (rith freedon), 
wlut are oar views m relatioo to the GrRek cause, bo far ai 
iDHj be done without committing onraelvei in tbe contest. 
Aod he reallv did bope that we iboold obew to the world, I 
that there it at Iptut, one goreroment which does eolertaiD 
a proper *iew of that barbaroOB despotism, which Ubderthe 
tyta of Enrope, baa beeo permitted, by a syttem of the foul- 
nt alrocilj, to ■tlempt to ctusfa an interesling christian na- 

" In tnoit of onr large Iowdi and Literary In* tit at ions, 
neetingi were held in refierence to this subject, and reaolu- 
tion* adapted, expressirc of sentiments alike honoDrable to 
oar citizen* as members of afreecommoDitj, and as friends 
«f bomanitj. They spoke a Isogaage worlbj of the cause 
which called them forth, and sach as tbe circumstances of 
the age require.' Thej are n proof loo, of the existence, 
and the energy of that principle in the American people, 
'Which remoTea ibem farther from the supporters of iegiti- 
ntac J, than the breadth of tbe Atlantic, and is a safer bul- 
wark than Jtsbillowa." 

To tbisil maj be added that at asnbseqaent period, large 
contributions were made throughout the country, and for- 
warded (0 the constituted aalhorities of Greece, toaid liiem 
ill achieving the liberties of that interestine people. 

■Section XXVI. On the Slth of May, 1824, the 
eighteenth Congress closed its iii-st session. Among 
the most infiportant bills which wrtre passed was one 
fer abolishing imprisonment for debt ; and s second 
establisbii^ a tariif of duties on imports into the coun- ' 

" Each of these hills caused much debate in tbe n^ional 
Jegiilatare, and excited no small soticilnde among those dal- 
les of citizens, whose interests were likely to be most afiect- 
•9 by them. Tbe biltfor abolishing imprisonment for debt, 
was necessarily qualified and guarded, giving no immunity 
to fraud, and containing the requisite checks to shield its 
benefits from abuse. The bill for a revision of the Tariff, 
occupied the House of Representatives for ten weeks, and 
Was at length passed only by a majority of five. On the oc- 
casion of its final decision, only two member*,, out of two 
. hundred and thirteen, were absent. 

Section XXVII. In the courseof the summer an 
event occurret), which caused the ^hest sensations 

jVlarqui3 de L.a t 

^VcnericaDS, during 

ajid who eininentl; 

ence, skill and brav 

of their re volution a 

Sometime previoui 

pressed his inteotioD 

Thie being knowD, J 

President " to offer 1 

tion, Htid to assure hi 

great Republic, (hat 

affectionate attachme 

lature of ISasiachueei 

monwealth to make 

receptiaa of the Mar 

tbe State. In other 

were adopted to rece 

ed HO diaiDtereited a 

whose life had beeo i 

The delicacy of ll 

invitation of Gorern: 

bathesooD attereEo' 

The time of bis eui 

inillions nere offeree 

ocean. At length in 

and was received by 

He landed at Nen 

panied by his ion an 

welcomed by thousai 

years before, he had 

olence, a heroism, oi 

" From New Yorl 

try to Boston, consta 

gratulations of the p< 

be stopped, but as h 

to catch a glimpse of 

Having visited most 

New HaBipshire, Rh 

ed again to New Yoi 

convey in general te 

into which the count 

etantly arriving from 

' itopped, to solicit tb 


OD what daj and at nhat hoar bis arrival might he expected. 
la aime iostancei, gentlemeD jeiidiDg at a distance from hit 
route, direoteJ the newi of hia approach to be sent them by 
eipreaiei. Meantime (be Geoeral was so obliging hs to al- 
low himteir to be transported nith the utoiaitt tiipidil^ from 
place to place, often Inivelliiig most of the night, so as not to 
diiappoiot the aazious expectations of tbe people. From 
New Vork the General went to Philadelphia, Baititnore, 
Wathinglon, &c., conat.iDtlj^ receiving from tbe people the 
same cordial welcome, and witnessing the same demoastra* ' 
lions of joy wherever he went. 

But tbe feelings of the nation demanded that something 
more should be done for General La Fayette, thaD could be 
expressed by acclauiation alone. This love of liberty had 
been the means of depriving him of a gf^at proportion of 
his fortane. When, during our revotulion, the country was 
■a exhausted as to be unable te clothe or feed her little i^r- 
my. La Fayette not only gave all bis pay to government, but 
advanced money which never was refunded : so that, in ad- 
dittoo lo the debi of gratitude, the nation owed him for ad- 
vancements made during ber necessities. It was tbe exer- 
cise ol the lame leading principle, (the love of liberC^^ 
which occasioned the con6»:c:ation of his estates in France, 
when (be jacobin faction controlled tbe kingdom. 

Under every consideration, the nation was bound toshev 
La Eayette, and the world, that in the prosperity of bJa 
adopted country, his former services were remembered with 
too much gratitade to be passed over without some perma- 
neni mark of national beneficence. 

The President of the United States, therefore, iu hti . 
message to Congress, at the opening of the last session, re- 
commended in appropriate terms, (he consideration of Gen- 
eral La Fayette's eminent services to the country, and re- 
quested that tbe leaistntive body of the nation would devise 
some means of making htm at least a partial remuneration. 
— Agreeably (o this recommendation. Congress appointed a 
committee to deliberate on the subject, and on the 20tb of 
December, " Mr. Hajne, from tbe committee appointed on 
so much of the President's message as relates to making 
provision for tbe services of General La Fayette, reported 
the following bill : — 

" Re it tnacted by the Senate and Home of Repreienlativea 
of the United Statei tn Con^rcji attetnbled, That the eum 
of two bpndred thoiuand dollan be, and the sane is 

hereby gmniecl to Jt 
tion for his icnpoTlni 
American Re vol alio 
tlint amouut he issue 
1824, bearing an aoi 
quarter jearJy, and 

" Sect. 8. ^nd 
7ownsh<p of Innd bi 
tbe snid ftlRJor Gene 
of (he United State! 
ship to be located oq 
uosolil ; and that pa 
for the same." 

Od the 2l9t this b 

Senate, and the folio 

• journals of Congress, 

-'eoQ the bill was pass 


" The Senate pro 

the consideration of 

ces nod espendilares 

Mr. Hayne, (of S, 

BroTVD nho objectec 

atioas made by the h 

daty, though it vma 

bill woold pass withe 

mittee,'to submit the 

proceeded in preser 

he should t>e able to 

men, and that there 

the bill. 

fVilh regard to Ibi 
right, (Mr. Macon,) I 
tion, under any circu' 
tbtT for services ren 
stood hn had said, it 
should have spent hi 
try — should have put 
penses of the war, sti 
lion could be made. 

He coold show Ihi 
ly the case with rega 
peodedbit fortane in 


*M rigfat, it wu neccMary — they.trNC called on by duty (» 
thn>ielT«i, at leait to refond the ezpemc* lo which be had 
been labjected. Mr. Hayne proceeded to tty, that he held 
docamcDla in bh band nbicb it became hu daty to submit (o 
tbe Senate— docamen Is derived from the higheat aQlfaoritj, 
The paper he held id bif hand c ml ained ace aunts from tbe 
proper officers, sbewing the eipeDtes of Ln FRjrette, aod 
peiDling oat the manner in irhich bis estate had been dissi- 
|nled in the service of liberty. In the year 1 777, he htidnn 
annual income of I4G,000 francs, eqaal to S8,700 dollan. 
This had been bIdioiI entirely eipended in the services 
which be had rendered to liberty, in this nnd the other hem- 
itpbere. During a period of six years, from the year 1777, 
to 1783, he had expanded, id tbe American service, 700,000 
fraoci, equal to 140,000 dollars. This document, said Mr. 
Hayne, is derived from tbe most aatbenticsoorf^es id France, 
and has come into my hands from a. respectable member of 
this Honse, without the knowledge or coasent of the Gea- 
<eral and bis friends. 

Thefacttowbirb he called their attention was, that daring 
Ibe six years tbe General had been engaged in the serviGe, be 
bad eipended l'tO,000 dollars of bis fortuoe ; he was in a 
■tale of prosperity, nnd in the enjoyment of a pkntifnl fbr- 
tane in his o;vn conntry, when he resolved to come lo tbit. 
lie purchased a ship, raised, equipped, armed and clothed a 
regiment at his own expense, and when be landed on these 
coasts, fafe came freighted with the muoitions of war. which 
he distributed gratuitoutly to our army. It is on record that 
be clothed and put shoes on the feet of tbe naked, euffcrlDg, 
soldiers of America, and that during six years he sacriiiced 
140,000 dollars. He asked for no compensation — he made 
out no account — he received no pay— he epent his fortune 
for this country, and not only gave his services, but hazard- 
ed his life in iis defence, ebed his blood in its service, and re- 
turned boroe broken in his fortune. What did Government 
do ? After the war, in 1794, they gave him tbe futt pay of 
a Major General, to which he was entitled twelve or four- 
teen years before. If any American citizen bad done as 
much and bad brought in an account stating he had expend- 
ed 1 40,000 dollars, and make application for compensalion, 
would it not have been grunted ! Indeed if we were to make 
oat an account current of the fxpenses and sacrifices of the 
Oeneral, it would far exceed the mm now proposed. But 

ie never reodeKdac 
woald hnve ioat it. 

I bate other docoiui 

'briefly refer. There 

^TAs to sTCr; honourab 

tbat can neter be repa 

him a doDiilioD of 11,0 

of lands at tfaia time, v 

lara ; and by no act in 

this land nn any *pot ii 

caot : and hii agent ai 

band of New Orleani 

coDfirmisg the title to 

laada witbln ilx hondi 

Part of the laad beli 

eluded in this grant, a 

hitR in France by hii a 

the Talidity of his title 

inqaire iato the circnn 

from the goTennnent o 

it AS tbey qhote to gtvf 

relinqnishment of the 

ins to "le esticaate of ( 

S0(),000 dollars. But 

gtated : having locate< 

Irish Baronet tor the s 

made it hia baatnesi to 

right, and, at his own 

every leg^il claim that 

This relinqnishment i 

Hayne sahmitted the 


These claints appe 
might sayj irresistible 
able friend, on the ri{ 
mitn better than we di 
they barely did himj 
tbts government neri 
for sacriSces and ser« 
in 1790, granting com 
Steaben, for sacrifice 
Mr. Hayne pr6cee< 
the gorernmeot bad : 
but had granted a wt 


■erricu. He wta not one of tboie whs w.ere afraid of ma- 
kiog precede D Is — a good precedeat can never do evil ; and 
witeo nationt as well at individi)ali, gave way to the no- 
blest faeliogi of oor natnre, they belt promoted the glory 
of the country and the welfare ofthe people ^ but the c^e 
of La Fayette conld form no precedent — it stood alone. 
Coold this couDtry be born again — could it aisume a second 
childhood, and be placed in circumstaoces similar to those in 
which it had formerly been ? If this were possible, if it could 
be reduced again to equal distress, be struggling for existence, 
about to perish, without fuoda, arms, clothing, or ammuni- 
tioD, and looking aroQod for help — if, under such circumstan- 
ces, a foreign nobleoian should step forth and devote bis 
life and fortune to ber service, sacridciog every thing, aacf 
shedding bis blood in her behalf, and, while the scale waa 
depressed, throwing himself into the balance, and deciding 
its fate— 4tirel;, such a man would be entitled to the warm- 
est gratitude of the country."* 

Afler somefurther debate, the bill was passed, and a com. 
mittee appointed to wnJt on La Payette with a copy of the 
act. To an address to the committee on the occasion of pre- 
senting the act, the Marquis returned the lotlowing ansiver. 
Gentltmen of (he Committee of bath Hovks of Congress : 

The immense and unexpected gift, which, in additiou to 
former and considerable bounties, it has pleased CongresB to 
conler open me, calls for the warmest acknowledgmenta of 
an old American Soldier, an adopted son of the United 
States, two titles dearer to my heart than all the Ireasorea in 
the world. 

However proud I am of every sort of obligation received 
from the people of the United States, and their Represenia- 
liTes in Congress, the large extent of this benefaction might 
have created in my mind feelings of hesitation, not inconsist- 
ent, I hope, with those of the most grateful reverence. Bnt 
the so very kind resolutions of both Houses, delivered by 
you, gentlemen, in terms at equal kindness, precludes all 
other sentiments except those of the lively and profound 
gratitude of which, in respectfully accepting tt)e mnniScent 
favour, I have the honour to begyou will be the organs. 

Permit me also, gentlemen, to join a tender of my affeo. 
tionate personal thanks to the expression of the highest rt- 

•Memoin oTLa Fayette. 

pect, with which I t 

At WashiDgten, La 
of Congress •rith salt 
Southj hcTuiled mo; 
coantry, and ii dOW, ( 
KDglaod States.. 

Section XXVII 
eighteenth Congres: 
1 834, on which occE 
country to be high! 
- respect to its inte 

, " Our relalioni" t: 
a frieadl; character, i 
remain uDBettled. O 
impost aod toooage, c 
poses of goTerDmeDt. 
lactures and navigalio 
TBucing, ID the degn 
tions, to matarity, aiK 
■tioD of Ibe oav; to it 
The iiresitleDt also 
tioD and commerce c 
and France io 1822, s 
intercourse nilb the 
East Indies, resting o 
heeo arranged b; a cc 
continued for ten year 
trith the Brilisb colon 
been settled to the sat 
commerce wilbSneitt 
feet reciprocity, by t 
lands, Prussia, and the 
fouMed on mutual agr 
emnieats ; and that 
which bad happened i 
two yenr«, bad not se 
■nbsisting betneen the 
bad preienied obstacle 
■uhjecu ftf diKQuioa 

^ c;o.,si. 

tbeT«aMMmpow«nWEBt»f«,«itli tbiMBflB th« coaMof 
Dirbary, and wilb all the new South American Surtea, oat 
ralMiooi, ware nareoTcr lUted to be ofa friendly cbarac- 
tar. TJia coaiCrjr bM nuuster* fleaipolantiRTj vvatiling 
mUh ibe repablica of Colmbiaaad Chili, Avdkare rmcmnei 
mitii»ien wf tbc mow nak, froai CoiombiB, G«atinala, 
Rnenoi Ajrrei Mtd Mexico, and a charge 4*«fl«irea iraoa tbc 
mdepeodeDt gorereinent of Brazil. 

In rala(i«B to th« aMfl of the marilknc /area oftbe ctraa- 
trjr, tba meange repr«Mated the tqaadion ia tfM Medhei- 
nmean to have beeti muntained, aod to have afforded ta vnr 
comoierce (he neceMaij prolectioD in that aea ; that the 
force in (be gaJph of IBeiTco, and the neighbonring seas, 
for (he »iip|irecRioD of pincj', hitd slso been continued i hot 
tbet lach were the atrocities oflbcfMratei in that qaart«f ,)t 
wa« importaotto tncraaie, rather than to diminiib, o»r force. 
On the Pacific onr commerce hai oinch increased, and on 
that coBit, a» well u on that sea, the United Statea bait 
maoy important itatioot, which require attentiMi and pro- 

*' From the rieir above presented," thePretident ceotin- 
oed. ■' itnmiinirest that the situatioB uf the United ^'folee, ig, 
in tlie higbenl degree, protperons and bappj. Thexe is do 
object vbtcb, a« a people, ne can desire, which ire Aa not 
pOHCS^orMbicb isnotwithieoar reach. Bleated with gor- 
emmeot* (he hiippieat wiiich (he norld ever knew, with no 
dittinct ordera in aociety, or divided intereals in any ponioa 
of'thie Tart lerrltorjr over which their dominion eztendB, we 
kare every motive to cling together, which can animate a 
Tirtnoot and enltghteued people. T^e gieat object ia to pre- 
■erve these hlessingi, and to hand them down to oar latest 
posterity. Our experience ouglit to «al)sfjr as that onr pro- 

freis, under the most cerrecl and provident pel icj, will not 
e eiempt from dnoger. Our inUiiotions form an important 
epoch in the history of the civ^ized wotld. On their pre- 
gervation, Hndin their ij(B>ostpnrity,eveiylhiD| win depend 
Extending, as oor interesls do to every part of the iahabited 
g1<Ae, and to every sea, to which our cilizeoi are carried by 
their indortrj and eotetprise, to nhicb Ih^y are 'invited by 
the fuoti of otberv. and have a.right to go, -we nuat either 
^irotect them, in the eqjoymeot of Ibeir ri^ta, er ahandon 
Yhem, in certain events, to waate aad desolatMHi. Oor atti- 
tude ii 'higd'}' intereitinf, aa relates to other jMwen, and 
(BTticutarlylo Dumulhen oeigblionrk "We luv« duties to 

perfiMni>> with rape< 
T* e»«rj kind of d; 
»nd otMeafini; atWati 
pVBcHcirttle, nnd be p 
Stfcrion XXIX 
ei^tee nth Congres 
being limited by 
Aaiongthe most i 
■tsattCBtion duiiiH 
ef tliR Oregen on t 

EressionoT Piracy. 
owev«r, was los! 
laiil OD the taUe ; 
sed ; which bovver 
ma the building of 
Tbe bill ftWhoriz 
'p«SB«d by the House 
been to lunended as 
of tbe nioath uftlw 
for iba p«rpo«e of 
Grcirt BritMD, whkl; 
frontier, ihal t raoNHi 
. Ob Km sahjAct of 
tke SeM«(e, au^estc 
•f tksofeiiden to tl 
tb« Island, fren wl 
on th« uhatritantt ; 
«f tboM Mwda. T 
ScBOle, which enbi 
tbv DBAsen^, anA w 
topic of debate. Tl 
nitroducn a new p 
tlial e reMrt to the i 
fcct a deetaraltOB of 
- tidlpated by th« Prei 
ttwt lk« Spaaiih ai: 
proiiii^ tbe practif 
•abjed baa led to a 
iU afracities and thi 
coii)ecUire, and wh 
•onelhing, and som 

'i SecrieraXXX 

roe closed od the 


cy tbe country has ei^oyed a ntiifonn state of peace i 
aod prosperity. By hb pnideot management of the 
aatKMial aflhira, both ((»«ien and domestic, helms em- ' 
ioenUy conti^ted to toe hoiiour aod happiness of 
milli(»8, and has retired from office, emoying the i 
respect and affection, and gratitude of afl wm are ; 
able duly to apf»eciate the blessings of having a wise i 

•Section XXXI. The electcffB of a successor (o 
Mr. Monroe having failed to make a choice, tbe elec- 
tion devolved on the House of Representatives. Oa 
the 9th of Feb. 1825, that body proceeded to the dis- 
cbarge of this duty, when John Qiiincy Adams, of 
Massachusetts, was elected President of tbe Uniled 
iStates, for the four years from and al^er tbe 4tb of tin 
ensuing March. John C. Calhoun of South Caroli- 
na, had been chosen Vice President, by the electoral 

TbeiubjectofaaaccesiorloMr. Monroe, was very earlj 
after hi* eoteriog ufioo bia secoDiI term of office, introrfnced 
fo tbe notice of Ihe public, lince wbicb time nnlil the fate 
ilclermiDatioD of Ibe qaestioD on the fioor of Congr«ii, the 
newKpapers and public jnurnnU ofthe coantry hiire been dia- 
f:rncefully loud and clitmorODS. Besidei Mr. Aifamfl, Mr. 
Crnwfotd, Secretary oftbe Treasury, Mr. Clay, Speaker of 
the Houte of Repre^eatalivea, and Gen. Jackson, a Senator, 
were candidnteo, for Ihe office ; ench of nhom liad their re- 
spective friends in the' country, and amonf; tbe Legialalares 
of tbe Sliitefi', nearly all of which by a public vote, declared 
in favour of lome one oftbe candidates. On counting the 
votes ofthe electors, it appeared that 84 were in faroar of 
Mr. Adams, 99 for Gen. Jacktoo, 41 for Mr. Crawford, and 
37 for Mr. Clay. Notwithstanding Gen. Jackiion had the 
. greateal number of votei froin the electoral colleges, the 
lloute of Representatives, voting by States, elected Mr. Ad- 
ams. Tbe result of the bsJIoting was, for Mr. AHatns, 13 
Stales; for Mr. Jackson, 7 States; for Mr. Cravfora, 4 
States. By the constitution only the three highest on the 
list, could be candidates for the office in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. Mr. Clay therefore was not voted for ; bat ■■ 
sapposedby his iufiueoce, to have detennioed the qoeslioa 
in favour of Mr. Adams, in opposition to Mr Crawford, who 
bad been nominated by a caacas at Washington ; aod to Oen. 
Jackson (vbo had received tbe highest vote by the electors. 

Oideon Granger, of 
ftetnm J. Heiga, o 
Joho M'Lettn, ofO 


>>ohn Jay.ofNeiT-li 
William Cii8hing,o 
Oliver Elhnorth, <i 
John Jut, of'New-'l 
Jobn Manhall, of V 

Eilmund Randolph. 
William Bradford, : 
Chxrles Lee, of Vii 
Levi Lincolo, of M 
Robert Smith, oriUi 
John Breckenridge 
CsfiirA. Rodney, : 
WitliHin PinckDoy, < 
Richard Haih, of F: 
William Wirt, of V 

Firtt Congreii. — iBt ; 
the 3d At PhiUdelf 
PeDDBylraDia, ' 

Second Congrt 
Jonathan Trumbull, • 

Third Congrt ■. 
Frederick A. Mahlei < 

Forirth Congrt ■■ 
Jonathan Daj^fno, of 

Fifth Congress 
Jonathan Dayfou, of 

Sixth Congreit • 

Theodore Sedgwich, : 
■ Seventh Omgr 

Nathaniel Macon, of 

Eighth Co»grtn. 
NillMud HaeoB,orNorthCaroUin, 1803 

JfiMk Ctrngrttf, 
Natbanid Hocod, orNorib Carolina, 180& 

Thilk CiMgreu. 
JoMph B. Varonnt, of MuMcbasetti, 180T 

EUwtntk Cmgnn. 
JaMph B. Vsraam, or Haanchaacttt, If 

TmOfih Camgrttt. 
HMry C)a]f,ofK«nIncky, 1811 

Thirlttntk Qmgrttt. 
H«DrT-Cla7, ofKentacky, 181^ 

(vntil Janoarr 27Ui, 1814.) 
LangdoD Cheerei, of South Csrolina, for tbe rcBidoe of the 

Fourttmiih Gmgnu. 
HMr7 CtB7, of KratDckr, 1815 

Fyieenik Cangrm. 
HMryCIaj.erKentucky, 1817 

SixUtitih Cougreu, 
HtBrrClay, of Kentucky, dariog tfis Gnt •auioD. 
JabnW. Taylor, ofNew-Voric, durisg tbe aacondieMOO. 

Sev^tUenth Congrttt. 
rUlip P. Barbour, of VirgJDJa, l&SV 

Eighteenth Congrtn. 
Henrjr Cb;, »f Keatack>. 1823 



Albany. Httl«d, 39. 

AndrosB, Sir Edmuod 

government of, 53, ( 

Aborigines, see laJiaii 

Agriculture, 66, 111 

258, 385.396,319, 31 

Arta and Maaaraclare 

145, 246, 338, 385, 

359, 389. 

Allen. Elban, takes 

or, 167; obtains o 
Westpaiot, WO; tr 
£22 ; escape of, 233 ; 
to take him. 223—3 
datioDs in Virf iaia, 
sicD of Cod nee tic D I 
Acklaad, Ladv Harri 
turasof, J9fr— 198. 
Andre. Ma), capture i 

death of, 231, 9:». 
Argus, cnptured, 332. 
Adams, John, electei 
sident. 366; Pretid 
Amelia Island, notice 
Arkansas Terrilorf, 


Alabama, erected inli 

Boston aettled, 35; P 

Bacon, rebellion of, I 

Braddock. defeat of, 

Barre, Coh speech oi 

fiat tie of l.ezmgloi 

Bunker Hill, 164 

Island, 178; of I 

183; ofGermantoi 

BenaJDffton, ItiT ; 

LSS; of Maumout 

Camden, SIT; ol 

Kos, 230 : of Gui 
luse, 331 ; of Ci 
ofNinelf siK, 93? 
taw Springs, 333 
town, 237 ; near 
268 1 of MiBina, '. 
Tippacanoe, 319; 
town. 3i5 : of Riv€ 
of York, 331 ; of 
346; ofNeirOrle 
Bank, National Rata 
967 ; reneval of, : 
Bills of credit, dep 


Cliobn, Geargt, rlacted Vicel WMbinKton, SG6 1 removed, 

Praiideiil,311. 293. 

Cbeiapealu ftigatt, attack apaaJGeaet, M., ceimmUB txtaducf 

30b { captured, 3^. of, ZT6. 

DMCoreriM.earljr, bywhoniaMdetHiBlor;, niei of, 5, 6; diviBtOD of 

Delaware, Lord, appointed |^- 

■rnoar at Jaoieatoif a, SB. 
Delaware let tied, 46. 
Duitao, Mri. ator; of, 90. 
DuDrnoie, l^rd, ceuaurable cod- 

duot of, l*i9. 
Danburf burnt, 13S. 
De Rpideael, baraaaaa of, ad- 

veotureiof, 11J9— L96. 
De Galaing, count, arrival of, 

wiiba French Seel, 200. 
Debt. U Statea, at the cIom oFII 


■, 249. 

of. 38. 
Hamilton, Col., appointed Sec- 

reUiy of the Treaanrj', 363; 

report of, on pablic credit, ^t>J ; 

reaig'natiaD of, S81 ; daalh of, 

Harlford CoaventioD, 348. 
Harraar, defeat of, 368. 
Hull, lurrender ol Detroit bjSBi 
FluU, naval HcbierenieDl al. 324. 
lonn.setllefnenl of, 32. 
U- abdicaEiODof,«2. 

Decilur, heroic condact of, 

Tripoli, ■JtM. 
Decree, Berlin, 305; MiU 

RurabouiUet, 316 1 repeal or 

Detroit, fort, aurrendar of^ 324 

retaken, 336. 
Education, 71,113, 145,347,259, 

286, 296, 313. 360, 390. 
Eaton, Gen. enterprise of, 301. 
Embarg^i laid, 309 ; repealed, 

315; renewed, 321. 
England, war wilb, 321. 
Essex frirate, captured, 338. 
Fort William Henry, brave de- 
fence of, li% 
Fart Washington, capture of, 179, 
France, -re rolalion in, noticed. 

274; pros|>ectofwarwilh,2«l. 
Florida, Eatt asd West, cessior 

of, 374 ; territorial gOTernmeut 

formed for, 379. 
Oorgei, Sir Ferdinando, grant 

Georgia settled, tm; charter 

surrendered, 104; fallsifitothe 

power of the British. 901. 
(Hies, lakes the arm V under Bur- 

gojne, liJSj appointed to Ibe 

•outhero commaRd, SI7 ; de^ 

feated at Camden, 917 ; *u 

peneded, 299. 
Greene, Gea. appointment of to 

tbe MHithern deparlmeot, 939. 
^"■renitnenl) seat of, fiud ai 




Jefiersoti, Tbomaa, appointment 
of ai Secretary, 3fi4; resigna- 
tiaa of, 277 ; vtcti pretideot, 
2M3; pr^ideot, 295 ; reelec- 
tion of, 300 ; reiigMtioB of,30l 

Jackson, Geo. defenae of Neit- 
OrleaoB by, 351 ; oondm^tof in 
the Seminole war, 368—373. 

Indiana, erected into a slate, 359. 


!ted into a slate, 367. 
niphausen, Gen. iofamoiu con- 
dact of. 218.' 

Knox, Geo. appointraent ot, a* 
Secretary of War, i69. 

Kentucky, MttlMii est of.STI. 

Lenox, duke of, grant to, 30. 

Leisler, Jacob, uiurpalioo of, 75. 

Louisfaurg expedition againat, 
104 ; restored, lOB ; taken by 
tbe English, 1%. 

Lee, Richard Henry, eddreM ef, 

Lincoln, Gen. defeat of, 209; ■□- 
persadod, 217. - 
aws, alien and Mditioo, notice 

HioviieiaiiB, anotetl in 

I^awrence, Capt. deal 

Afassacbusetta Bay, 

or, 36. 

- Marjrlanii, aedlenieot 

MaoderB of (becolonii 

144, 24a, S3T, 3S3, 


MtiDlcalm, dealh of, <: 

Massacre of oitiseat 


Moo t ^ornery , Gen. de 

Montreal, capture of. 

. Aloi^^o. Gen. braver 

battle of iheCowpe 

Michigan, territorial g 

for. 303. 
Mad i SOD, James, elei 
dent, 3M ; ro'eloolt 
tires, 351. 
Mop rue, Jame«, elei 
d«Dt, 358; tour ol 
conti lour of. 391; 
re-elected, 377.- 
L Hiwiaiippi erected in 
I 364. 

Maine erected into an 
. Ne< 

New Eagliad receirei 
39 j seLllement of, 
of (he Colonies of, 3 

New Hampshire, sell 
24; seperBtioo of, fi 
cbu»etii, 58. 

New Haven, Mtllemc 
Colony of, united tc 
cut, 43. 

Kew Jersey, aettlemt 

Nova ^otiR, capture c 
Niaf^ara, capture of, I 
Norfolk, burnioii; of, 
OcHterlony, Capt. atoi 
Ohio. aeltlemeDt of, 29 
Orden in council, B 

Officers and xoldjer*. 

■ry, proriBioD for, i 
Powhatan, accountof, 
PocthoRtaa, ber Itor^, 
Porilaoi, acooant ol, 

ment, S9. 
Fro?ul4ace, teUiemBD