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pe^<c-^au^ C IS^ 




InMan Institute, ^doxlu. 

THE f^ 









VOL. I. 





Tbe AiN I Akbari' is the third volume of the Akbak- 
KA'^MAH, by Shaikh AbuHazl, and is by far the greatest work in 
ihe whole series of Muhammadan histories of India. The first 
volume of this gigantic work contains the history of Timur's 
family as far as it is of interest for the Indian reader^ and the 
reigns of B&bar^ the Siir kings, and Humaydn, whilst the 
second volume is devoted to the detailed history of nearly 
forty-six years of the reign of the Great Emperor. * The con- 
cluding volume, the Aln i Akbarf, contains that information 
regarding Akbar's reign which, though not strictly historical, 
is yet essential to a correct understanding of the times, and 
embodies, therefore, those fi^^ts for which, in modem times, 
we would turn to Administration Reports, Statistical com- 
pilations, or Gazetteers. It contains the Sn (u e.j mode of 
governing) of Akbar, and is, in fiEict, the Administration 
Report and Statistical Return of his government, as it was 
about 1690 A. D. The contents, therefore, of the A'^fn are 
naturally varied and detailed. The first of its five books treats 
of Akbar's household and court, and of the emperor himself, 
the soul of every department, who looks upon the per- 
formance of his duties as an act of divine worship, and 
who enters into the details of government, in order to create 
a harmonious whole. Vouchsafed as king with a peculiar light 
from on high, his person is prominently put forward as the 
guide of the people in all matters temporal and spiritual ; in 


whose character and temper the governed find that rest and 
peace which no constitution can give, and in whom, as the 
author of a new and advanced creed, the dust of intoleration 
is for ever allayed. 

The second book treats of the servants of the throne, 
the military and civil services, and the attendants at court 
whose literary genius or musical skill receives a lustre from 
the encouragement of the emperor, and who in their turn 
reflect a brilliant light on the government. 

The third book is entirely devoted to regulations for the 
judicial and executive departments, the establishment of a 
new and more practical era, the survey of the land, the tri- 
bal divisions, and the rent-roll of the great Finance minister 
whose name has become proverbial in India. 

The fourth book treats of the social condition and liter- 
ary activity, especially in philosophy and law, of the Hindus, 
who form the bulk of the population, and in whose political 
advancement the emperor saw the guarantee of the stability 
of his realm. There are also a few chapters on the foreign 
invaders of India, on distinguished travellers, and on Muham- 
madan saints and the sects to which they respectively 

The fifth book contains the moral sentences and epigram- 
matical sayings, observations, and rules of wisdom of the em- 
peror, which Abulfazl has gathered as the disciple gathers the 
sayings of the master. 

In the A'in, therefore, we have a picture of Akbar's go- 
vernment in its several departments, and of its relations to 
the different ranks and mixed races of his subjects. Whilst 
in most Muhammadan histories we hear of the endless tur- 
moil of war and dynastical changes, and are only re- 
minded of the existence of a people when authors make a 
passing allusion to famines and similar calamities, we have 
in the A'in the governed classes brought to the foreground : 
men live and move before us, and the great questions of the 

time, axioms then believed in and principles then followed, 
phantoms then chased after, ideas then prevailing, and suc- 
cesses then obtained, are placed before our eyes in truthful, 
and therefore vivid, colours. 

It is for this reason that the Aln stands so unique among 
the Muhammadan histories of India, and we need not wonder 
that long before curious eyes turned to other native sour- 
ces of history and systematically examined their contents, 
the A'ia was laid under contribution. Le P^e Tieffentaller, 
in 1776, published in his ^Description Gr^ographique de 
rindostan' long extracts from the rent-roll given in the 
Third Book ; Chief Sarishtahdar Grant used it largely 
for his Beport on Indian Finances ; and as early as 1783, 
Francis Gladwin, a thorough Oriental scholar, dedicated to 
Warren Hastings his " Ayeen Akberi," of which in 1800 he 
issued a printed edition in London. In his translation, Glad- 
win has given the greater part of the First Book, more than 
one-half of the Second and Third Books, and about one-fourth 
of the Fourth Book; and although in modem times inaccuracies 
have been discovered in the portions translated by him — 
chiefly due, no doubt, to the fact that he translated from 
MSS., in every way a difficult undertaking — ^his translation 
has always occupied a deservedly high place, and it may con- 
fidently be asserted that no similar work has for the last 
seventy years been so extensively quoted as his. The mag- 
nitude of the task of translating the Aln from uncoUated 
MSS. will especially become apparent, when we remember 
that, even in the opinion of native writers, its style is " not 
intelligible to the generality of readers without great diffi- 

But it is not merely the varied information of the A^fn 
that renders the book so valuable, but also the trustworthi- 
ness of the author himself. AbulfazPs high official position 
gave him access to any document he wished to consult, and 
his long career and training in various departments of the 


State, and his marvellous powers of expression, fitted him 
eminently for the composition of a work like the Akbar- 
ndmah and the A'in. His love of truth and his correctness of 
information are apparent on every page of the book, which he 
wished to leave to future ages as a memorial of the Grreat 
Emperor and as a guide for enquiring minds ; and his wishes 
for tlie stability of the throne and the welfare of the people, 
his principles of toleration, his noble sentiments on the rights 
of man, the total absence of personal grievances and of expres- 
sions of ill-will towards encompassing enemies, shew that the 
expanse of his large heart stretched to the clear offing of 
sterling wisdom. Abulfazl has far too often been accused 
by European writers of flattery and even of wilful conceal- 
ment of facts damaging to the reputation of his master. A 
study, though perhaps not a hasty perusal, of the Akbar- 
namah will shew that the charge is absolutely unfounded ; 
and if we compare his works with other historical produc- 
tions of the East, we shall find that while he praises, he does 
so infinitely less and with much more grace and dignity than 
any other Indian historian or poet. No native writer has 
ever accused him of flattery ; and if we bear in mind that all 
Eastern works on Ethics recommend unconditional assent to 
the opinion of the king, whether correct or absurd, as the duty 
of man, and that the whole poetry of the East is a rank mass 
of flattery, at the side of which modern encomiums look 
like withered leaves, — we may pardon Abulfazl when he 
praises because he finds a true hero. 

The issue of the several fasciculi of this translation has 
extended over a longer time than I at first expected. The 
simultaneous publication of my edition of the Persian Text, 
from which the translation is made, the geographical diffi- 
culties of the Third Book, the unsatisfactory state of the MSS., 
the notes added to the translation from various Muhammadan 
historians and works on the history of literature, have ren- 
dered the progress of the work unavoidably slow. 


I am deeply indebted to the Council and the Phi- 
lological Committee of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal for placing at my disposal a fiill critical apparatus 
of the A'in and entrusting me with the edition of the text, for 
which the Indian Government had most liberally sanctioned 
the sum of five thousand Rupees. My grateful acknowledg- 
ments are also due to Dr. Thomas Oldham, Superin- 
tendent of the Geological Survey of India and late President 
of the Asiatic Society, for valuable advice and ever ready 
assistance in the execution of the work; and to Col. H. 
Yule, C. B., and to H. Roberts Esq., of the Doveton 
College, for useful hints and corrections. 

I have thought it advisable to issue the first volume 
with a few additional notes, and two indexes, one of persons 
and things, and the other of geographical names, without 
waiting for the completion of the whole work. I have thus 
^ had an opportunity of correcting some of the errors and 
inconsistencies in the spelling of names, and supplying other 
deficiencies. That defects will still be found, notwithstand- 
ing my endeavours to remove them, none of my readers and 
critics can be more senjsible than I myself am. 

Calcutta Madrasahy 

23rd September^ 1873. 



* u 




Abtjl Fazl's Psefacb, i to x 



Ain A^The Household, 11 

„ 2. — ^The Imsesial Teeasitbies, 12 

„ 3. — ^The Tbeasxtby FOB peegiotjs Stones, 15 

„ 4. — ^Thb Imfebial Mint, 16 

„ 6. — ^The Wobemen op the Mnrr, 18 

„ 6. — ^Baitwabi, ib. 


The method of refining silver^ 22 

ThepTocess of Kukrahy 24 

Theprocess ofBugr&wal^ 25 


„ 9. — The method of extbacthtg the silyeb fbom these ashes,.. 26 

„ 10. — THECorBTS OF this globious empibe, 27 

Chid coins, ib. 

Silver coins, 31 

Copper coins, ib. 

yy 11. — ^ThB DiBHAME AlTD THE DOTAB, 35 

„ 12. — The Pboftt of the dealebs m gold and silveb, 37 

„ 13. — ^The Obigin OF metals, 38 

„ 14.-— ;0n SPBCIFIO GBAVITX, 41 

„^14t— The Imfebial Habem, 44 

„ 16. — The Encampment ON JovBNEYS, 45 

„ 17. — ^The Encampment OF THE abmt, 47 

„ 18. — OnIlluminations, , 48 

• • 


/ • Page 

Ain 19.-^HK Ensigns of Royalty, -^IkSO 

„ 20.-vTHji Royal Seals, 52 

„ 21.->raE Fabra'sh Kha'nah, 53 

„ 22.-WHE Abda'e Kha'nah, 55 

CarpetSy ih, 

„ 23. — TiiE Imperial Kitchen, 56 

„ 24. — Recipes FOE dishes, 59 

„ 25. — Of bread, 61 

„ 26. — The Days of abstinence, ih, 

„ 27. — Statistics of the prices of certain articles, 62 

The spring harvest, ih. 

The autumnal harvest, ; ih, 

VegetahleSy 63 

Living animals and meats, ih. 

Butter, Sugar, Sfc, • • ih, 

Spices, • 64 

J^ickles, ••••••. ih, 

„ 28. — The Frtjitery, ih, 

Turdni fruits, « 65 

The stceet fruits of Hindustdn, 66 

Dried fruits, , ih. 

Vegetables, 67 

Sour fruits, ih. 

Sour fruits somewhat acid, ?.••••# ih, 

„ 29. — On flayotjrs, • • 73 

„ 80. — On Perfumes, ih, 

A list of Perfumes and their prices, 75 

A list of fine smelling Flowers, 76 

A list of Flowers notahlefor their heautg, ih. 

On the preparation of some Ferfumes, 77 

„ 81. — The Wardrobe and the Stores fob mattresses, 87 

„ 82. — On Shawls, Stuffs, Ac, • 91 

GoM stuffs, 92 

Silks, ^'c, plain, • , . • • 93 

Cotton cloths, • « 94 

Woollen stuffsy • 95 

„ 83. — On the nature of colours, • 96 

^^ 34j, — Xh£ Arts of writing and Painting, • • • , ih. 

The Art of Fainting, 107 


• • • 









Aln 35.^The ABflEHAL^ < 109 

n 86.— On Guirs, 112 

M 87. — On Matchloceb, &a» • • 113 

n 88. — The MAITNEB 07 COJSANINO GUNSy • t**... 115 

9 89. — ^The BjuirEB of the GiTNSy ••.... .••••• ib, 

fi iO, — On the fat of the Matchlock sEABSBfiy • 116 


42. — ^ThE GlASSOICATIOK of the ImPEBIAL EltEFHANTS, ', • • 124 

43. — ^ThE Food ALLOIHSD to the ELEPHANTSy • • ib, 

„ 4A. — ^The Sebtants of the elephant stables, • 125 

The Bmjddr, 126 

„ 45. — ^The Habness of elephants, • • ib, 

46. — The Elephants fob his Majesty's use, 130 

47. — The manneb of biding inTASAH elephants, 131 

48. — On Fines, «... • ib> 

y, 49. — The Ihfebial hobse stables,. • . . • • 132 

„ 50. — ^Thb Kane of the hobses, 134 

„ 51. — The Fodbeb allowed in the Impebial stables, ib, 

„ 52. — On Habness, &c., 136 

y 53. — The officebs and sebtants attached to the Ihpehlal 

stables, .•••...• 137 

„ 54.— The Babot, 139 

9 55. — Begulations fob bbanding hobses, ib, 

^ 56, — ^Begitiationb fob KEEPnrG ttp the full complehent of 

HOBSES, • • ••• 140 

IV 57. — On futes, • • ib, 

„ 58. — On Hobses kept in beadiness, • • • 141 

„ 59. — OnDonations, .« •• 142 

„ 60. — ^Regulations fob the Jelawanah, ib. 

n 61. — ^Thb Cahel stables,. • • • • ••••#' .« 143 

M 62. — ^The Food of Camels, »••••••• • 144 

„ 68.— The Habness of GAUEL0y • ••••• 145 


Ain 64. — Regulations foe oiling Ca^iels, and injecting oil into 


„ Q^. — TiiE Ranks of the Camels and theie seevants, 147 

Maibdri, ib. 

„ GG. — The Gaokqanaii oe Cow stables, 148 

„ 67. — The Dailt allowance of food, 149 

„ 68. — The Servants employed in the Cow stables, • 150 

„ 69. — The Mule Stables, ...,., r ^ . 152 

„ 70. — The daily allowance of food foe Mules, ib. 

„ 71. — The Fueniture of Mules, 153 

„ 72. — The mannee in which His Majesty spends his time, .... ib. 

„ 73. — Regulations foe admission to Couet, 156 


„ 75.-\0N Etiquette, 159 

„ 76. — The Mustee of men, 161 

„ 77. — His Majesty as the spieitual guide op the people, 162 

Ordinances of the Divine Faithj » 166 

Notes by the teanslatoe on the eelioious views of the 

Empeeob Akbae, 167 

„ 78. — The mustee of elephants, 213 

„ 79. — The mustee of hoeses, « . 215 

„ 80. — The mustee of caiiels, '. 216 

„ 81. — The mustee of cattle, ib. 

„ 82. — The mustee of mules, ib. 

„ 83. — The Paoosht Regulation, 217 

„ 84. — On animal fights. Regulations foe betting, 218 

Deer JightSy, • •...••....•. tb. 

„ 85. — On butldings, • 222 

„ 86. — ^The prices op BumDrNo mateetal, &c., ih. 

„ 87. — On the wages op laboubees, 225 

„ 88. — On estimates of house building, • 226 

„ 89. — Rxtles for estimating the loss in wood chips, ib. 

„ 90. — The weight op dlffeeent kinds of wood, 227 



Ain 1. — ^The DivisiOTfrs of the ashy, 231 

„ 2. — Qk THE AlOMALS OP THE ABMY, , 233 

„ 3. — The Maitsabdabs, , . , 236 

Note by the tbaetblatob ok the Maitsabs, 238 

„ 4. — ^The Ahadis, , , , , , . , . 249 

„ 6. — Otheb kinds of Tboopebs, 250 

„ 6. — The Infaktby, •. , , , 251 

The Banditqchis or matchlock hearers, ih. 

The Darbdna or porters, 252 

The KhidmatUfahs, ib. 

The Mewrahsy ...,.•..••• ib. 

The Shamsherhaz or gladiators, , , • ib. 

The Pahluw6ns or wrestlers, , 253 

The Cheldhs or slaves, «.•.•••••....• ib. 

The Kahdrs or Fdlki bearers, 254 

Ddhhili troops, , ib. 


f, 8. — Ok the BEFETITIOK OF THE KABK, •••..••• •• 256 

„ 9. — ^BULES AB017T MOlTNTIKa OTJAEDS, • 257 

n IO.vXeoulatioks beoabbing the Waqi'ahkawis, 258 

„ 11.— On Sakads, 269 

The JSbrmdn i sabti, . . . . ; 260 

^ 12. — ^The obdeb of the seals, 263 

„ 18. — ^The Fabmak i Bayazi, 264 


9 .14. — On the MANNEB IN WHICH SALABIES ABB paid, tb, 


„ 16. — On donations, • • . . • ib. 

^ 17.— Ok ALMS, 266 

y, 18. — ^The Gebemoky of -wEiGHiNa HIS Majesty, ib. 

19. — On Sayubghals, • 268 

Note by the Tbakslatob on the Qajubb of Aebab's beign, 270 

„ 20. — On the Cabbiages, &c., invented by his Majesty, 275 

^^' 21. — The Ten Seb tax (Dahsebi), ib. 

„ 22. — On feasts, 276 

„ 23. — ^Thb £hushboz ob day of fakcy bazabs^ » • • • ih. 





Ain 24. — Eequlatioks beqabdiho mahbliges, 277 

25. — Regulations eegabding education, 278 

26. — The Admiealtt, 279 

27.— On hunting, 282 

Tiger hunting, 283 

JElephant hunts, ....••• • • • • • . • 284 

Leopard hunting, • 285 

28. — The food allowed to leopaeds. The wages of the keepers, 287 

Skill exhibited hy hunting leewards, 288 

The SigdJtgosh, 200 

Dogs, • ••.••.•... ib. 

Suniing Deer with Deer, • . . , 291 

Buffalo Hunts, 293 

On Hunting with Hawks, • . • • ih. 

Allowance of food, .•••.••• • 294 

Prices of Hawks, ib. 

Waterfowl, 295 

Frogs, 296 

29. — On Amusements, • • 297 

*Ishqbdzi {pigeon flying'), 298 

The Colours of khdgah Figeons, 301 

The game of Ghaupar, 303 

The aame of Cliandal Mandal, 304 

Cards, 306 

„ 30. — ^The Grandees op the Empire (with biographical notices by 

the Translator), 308 

Note on the title of TarJchdn, 364 

Note on the title of A^af Khan, 368 

Note on the battle of Mughulmdrt in Orisd, 875 

Note on the Sayyids of Bdrha (Sadat i Barha), 390 

Note on the Nuq^aimyah Sect, •••... 452 

Note on the Death of ' Usmdn Lohdni, 520 

Concluding Note by the Translator on Akbar's Mansabdars, .... 528 

Ain 30 (continued). The learned men of the time, 537 

The Poets op the Age, . • • 548 

The Imperial Musicians, 611 

Additional Notes, ^ « . . 615 

Index op persons and things, , 623 

Geographical Index, 668 

Genealogical Table of the House of Timur. 






PLiLTES I TO III. The wosEicEir OP THE Mint, pp. 20 to 27. 

1, 2. Preparation of acids. — ^8. Washing of ashes. — i, 9, 10, 12, melting and 
refining. — 6. Weighing. — 6, 8, Making of plates. 
7. Work of the garrdb, p. 21.— 11. Engraving.— 12. The Sikkaehi, p. 22. 

Pl^ts IV. The Impebial Camp, (p. 47). 

a, h, Cj dffy y, roads and bizars. " The principal bazar is laid oat into 
" the form of a wide street, running through the whole extent of the army, 
" now on the righfc, now on the left, of the Diwan i kha^." Bernier. 

1. The Imperial Harem (shabUidn i iqbdl). At the right hand side is the 

Dudshydnah ManzU ; vifle p. 54, 3. 

2. Open space with a canopy (shdmydnah), 

3. Private Audience Hall {daulat^khdjuih i khdg), p. 46. 

4. The great camp light (dkdsdiah), pp. 47, 60. 

" The <iqu€U!y'd%e resembles a loftj mast of a ship, but is very slender, 
** and takes down in three pieces. It is fixed towards the king's quarters, 
** near the tent called Nagar-kane, and during the night a lighted lantern 
is suspended from the top. This light is very useful, for it may be seen 
when every object is enveloped in impenetrable darkness. To this spot 
persons who lose their way resort, either to pass the night secure from all 
** danger of robbers, or to resume their search afber their own lodgings. 
** The name ' Aquacy-die' may be translated ' Light of Heaven,' the lantern 
*' when at a distance appearing like a star." Bernier. 
6. The I^aqqdrah-khdnah, pp. 47, 50. 

AB, or distance from the Harem to the Camp Light, = 1530 yards ; 
AC = 360 yards ; p. 47. 

6. The house where the saddles were kept {zainkhdnak), 

7. The Imperial stables {i^ahal), 

8. Tents of the superintendents and overseers of the stables. 
0. Tents of the clerk of the elephant stables. 

10. The Imperial Office (dqftar). 



11. Tent for palkia and carts. 

12. Artillery tent {topkhdnak). 

13. Tent where the huntinfj leopards were kept (chitah-khdnah), 

14. The Tents of Maryam Makdni (Akbar's mother), Gulbadan Begum (Hu- 

mayiin's 8ister, p. 615), and Prince Danyal ; p. 40. 

15. The tents of Sultan Salini (Jahangir), to the right of the Imperial Harem. 

16. The tents of Sultan Murad, to the left of the Imperial Harem ; p. 48. 

17. Store rooms and workshops [huyutdt)^ 

18. Tent for keeping basins (dftdhchi-khdnah), 

19. Tent for the perfumes (khushbu-khdiiah), 

20. Tent for storing mattress {toshak-khdnah). 

21. Tent for the tailors, &c. 

22. Wardrobe {kurkt/ardq-khdnah)^ pp. 87, 616. 

23. Tent for the lamps, candles, oil, &.Q. (chi7'dgh-khdnah). 

24. Tents for keeping fresh Gauges water {dbddr-khd?iah), p. 55. 

25. Tent for making sharhat and other drinks. 

26. Tent for storing pdn leaves. 

27. Tent for storing fruit {mewah-khdnah), 

28. Tent for the Imperial plate (rikdb-khdnah). 

29. The Imperial kitchen (mathakh). 

30. The Imperial bakery (ndnbd-khdnah), 

31. Storeroom for spices {hawej-khdnah). 

32. The Imperial guard. 

33. The Arsenal (qur-khdiiah), 

34. Women's apartments. 
35 to 41. Guard houses. 

Round about the whole the nobles and Man^abdars with their contin- 
gents pitched their tents. 

" The king's private tents are surrounded by small kanats (qandts, stand- 
" ing screens), of the height of a man, some lined with Masulipatam chintz, 
" worked over with flowers of a hundred differents kinds, and others with 
" figured satin, decorated with deep silken fringes." JBernier, Bernier's 
description of the Imperial camp (second letter, dated Labor, 26th Febru- 
ary, 1665) agrees in minute details with the above. 

Plate V. Candlesticks, p. 49. 

1. Double candlestick {dushdkhah). — 2. Fancy candlestick with pigeons. — 

3. Single candlestick {yakshdkhah), 
4. The Akdsdiah, or Camp-light ; vide PI. IV, No. 4. 

Plate VI. The Empeeoe Akbab wobships fihe. 

In front of Akbar twelves candles are placed, and the singer of sweet melo- 
dies sings to the praise of God, SkS mentioned on p. 49, 1. 10 ff. 

The faces of the emperor and the singer are left blank, in accordance with 
the Muhammadan dislike to paint likenesses of anything on, below, or above 
the earth. The emperor sits in the position called duxdnu. 


Plate VII. Thbokes. 

1, 2. Different kinds of thrones (aurang) with pillows (nuunad) to lean 
against, the royal umbrella (chair), and the footstool (gandali), 

Plate VIII. The Naqqa'rah Kha'nah, pp. 50, 61. 

1. Cymbals (sanj).-^2. The large drum (Jcuwargah or damdmah), — 3, 4, 5. 
The Karand,—Q. The Sumd.—7. The Hindi Sumd.—S. The Nq/ir.—9. The 
Singh, or horn. — 10. The Naqqdrahs, 

Plate IX. The Eiirsioiirs op Eotalty, p. 50. 

1. The Jhand4, or Indian flag. " The Royal standard of the great Mogul is 

a Couchant Lion shadowing part of the body of a sun." Terry, 

2. The Kavkahah, 

3. Sdibdn or A'fldbgir. 

4. The Tumantoq (from the Turkish toq, or togh, a flag, and tuman or tumdn, 

a division of ten thousand). 
6. The Chair, or (red) royal umbrella. 

6. A standard, or 'alam. 

7. The Chatrioq. As Abul&zl says that this standard is smaller than the 

preoeding, it is possible that the word should be pronounced chuturtoq, 
from the Turkish chutwr, or chiitur, short. The flag is adorned with 
bunches of hair (qu^de) taken from the tails and the sides of the Tibetan 

Plates X & XI. The Iicfebial Tents. 

PUUe X. The three tents on the top, commencing with the left, are 
(1) the Shdmydnah; (2) A yaJcdari Khargdh, or tent of one door; (3) the 
DMarl, or tent of two doors ; p. 64, 8. Boiled up over the door is the ehigh ; 
p. 226, Ain 88. 

Below these three tents, is the Sardpardah and Gfnldlbdr, p. 54. At the 
foot of the plate is the Namgirah (pr, dew-catcher), with carpet and pillow 
{maenad) ; p. 46. 

JPlate XL On the top, the bdrgdh, p. 63. Below it, on the left, is the 
Dudehydnah Manzil, or two-storied house ; vide PI. IV, No. 1. At the window 
qf the upper story, the emperor shewed himself; vide Index, darsan and 
jharokah. To the right of this two-storied tent, is the Chobin Sdwaft (as the 
word ought to be spelt, from chobin, wooden, and rdtoaft, a square tent), pp. 46, 63. 
Below it, the common conical tent, tied to pegs stuck in the ground ; hence it is 
called zamindozy with one tent pole (yak^eurughah, from the Turkish surugh, or 
surugh, a tent pole). 

Below is a Zamindoz with two poles {diisurughah). At the bottom of the 
plate, to the lefb» is the Manual, p, 64, 6 ; and to the right, the 'Ajdibi, 64, 6. 

Plate XII. Weapons ; pp. 110 to 112. 

The numbers in brackets refer to the numbers on pp. 110 to 112. 

1. The sword, shamsher (1). 

2. The straight sword, k'hdndak (2). 
3, 3a. The gupti *agd (3). 

4. The broad dsigger,jamdkar (4). 

5. The bent dagger, khanjar (6). 

6. The jamk*hdk, or curved dagger (7). 

7. The bent knife, hdnk (8). 

8. The jharibtcahf or hiltless dagger (9). 

9. The katdrah, a long and narrow dagger ( 10). 

10. The narsinkmoth {narsing mofh?), a short and narrow dagger (11). 

11. The bow, kamdn (12). 

12, 13. The small bow and arrow, iakJtsh kamdn and tir (13). 

14a. Arrow, 

145. The paikdnkashf or arrow-drawer (19). 

15. The quiver, iarkash (16). 

16. The lance, naizah (20). 

17. The Hindustani lance, harchhah (21). 

18. The sdnky or broad-headed lance (22). 
19, 20. The saint' hi (23) and selarah (24). 

21. The shushbur, or club. This I believe to be the correct name ( instead of 

shasJipar, p. Ill, No. 26), from shush, lungs, and Jar, tearing. 

22. The axe, tabar, 

23. The club, gurz (25). On p. Ill, No. 29, the Yrordi piydzi has been translated 

bj * club,' and this seems to be the correct meaning ; but the plates in 
some MSS. call ' piyazi ' a long knife with straight back, ending in a point 

24. The pointed axe, zdghnol, L e. crow-bill (30). 

25. The chakar (wheel) and basolah (31). 

26. The double axe, tabar-zdghnol (32). 

27. The tarangdlah (33). 

28. The knife, *(fri (34). 

Plate XIII. Weapons (contdoted). 

29. The gupti kdrdy or knife concealed in a stick (35). 
80. The whip, qamchi kdrd (36). 

31. The clasp knife, chdqu (37). 

32. A bow, unstrung. 

33. The bow for clay bullets, kamfha, or kamdn i gurohah (38). 

34. The tube, or pea-shooter, tufak i dahdn (40). 

35. The pushtkhdr (41). 

36. A lance called girih-kiishd, i, e. knot-unraveUer (43). 

37. The khdr i mdhi, u e, fish-spine (44). 

38. The sling, gobhan (45). 

39. The gajbdg'h, or dnkus, for guiding elephants (46) ; vide p. 129, No. 27. 


40. The Bhield, npar (47). 

41^ Another kind of shield, dhdl (48). 

42. The plain cane shield, pahr{, or phari (50). 

43. The helmet, dubalghah (62). 

44. The g'hug'hwah, a mail coat for head and body, in one piece (56). 
46. The helmet, with protection for the neck, zirih-ktddh (64). 

46. The mailed coat, zirih (67). 

47. The mailed coat, with breast-plate, hagtar (58). 

48. An armour for chest and body, joshan (69). 

49. The breast and back-plates, chahdr-dinah (60). 

Plate XIV. Wkapohs aitd abmoubs (coirrnarED). 

60. The coat with plates and helmet, kofhi (61). 

51. An armonr of the kind called gddiqi (62). 

53. A long coat worn over the armour, angirk'hah (63). 

53. An iron mask, chihrah'Xirih % dhani (65). 

54. A doublet worn over the armour, ckihU'qad (67). 

55. The long glove, dcutwdnah (68). 

56. The small one is the mounK i dhani, or iron stocking (71) ; and the large one, 

the rdk (69). 

57. The kajem, or k^am, a mailed coyering for the back of the horse (72). 
58, 59. The artak i kajem, the quilt over which the preceding is put (73). 

60. The qoihgah, or head protection for the horse (74). 

61. The ka^t'kah sohhd (07) 

62. The rocket, hdn {17 U 

Plate XV. Aebab's machins fob cleaeoitg GUiirB : vide p. 115, Ain 38, of 

the Ist Book. 

Plate XVI. Hasness fob hobses. Ain 52, p. 136. 

Plate XVII. Gameb ; pp. 303, 304. 

The upper figure shews the board for Chaupaf, p. 303, and the lower figure 
18 the board for the Chandal Mandal game. Both boards were made of all sizes ; 
some were made of inlaid stones on the ground in an open court yard, as in 
Fathpur Sikri, and slave girls were used instead of pieces. The players at 
Chandal Mandal sat on the ground, round the circumference, one player at the 
end of each of the sixteen radii. 


P^e 31, last line, for Bahrah readi Babirah. 
32, line l,ybr Kalinwar read Ealanur. 
34, note 2, add vide p. 364. 
55, line 12, ybr woolen read woollen. 

line ^ihfoT Sirun read Sordn, aide p. 615. 
57, line 2 from below, /or Bhariij read ^abrdich. 
63, line h^for king read kind. 
„ line 25, ybr beron read crane. 
73, line 15, /br cbalk read slaked lime. 

84, last line, /or Marurdj (P) read Marar^j. . 

85, line 1,/br Indrakal read Indarkol. 
104, note 3, /or III, p. 139 read II, p. 278. 
122, line 22 ff., vide p. 618. 
167, line 24, /or is read are. 
174, line 4 from below,/br Hnsain read Hasan. 
176, line 26, /or Nahatis read Nuqfawis. 
180, line 16, /or Pnznkbotam reaa Pnrakbotam. 
190, line 15,/or the heretic of Jafrd&n read the heretical wizard. 

225, line 23, /or bricklayers read diggers. 

226, line 6, /or p'ha read p'harl. 
241, line 8 from below, /or duashpah read duaspah, 

273, line 21,/or tyranical read tyrannical. 

274, line 3,/br p. 38 read p. 33. 
282, line 10 from beIow,/or p. 225 read p. 252. 
286, line 22, dele comma after Fathpur. 

309, line 14»/or S^nbbar read S4nbbar. 
„ line 15, dele Jodh B4i, and vide Additional Notes, p. 618. 

310, line 23, for D&s of read Das. 
„ line 33, /br Nis4r read nnnis4. 

„ 312, line 2, for Ma'&ni read Ma'411. 

313, line 13, /or HuBain read Hiisaiii, son of Sulf^n Hnsam'Mirzi. 
315, line 4, /or Mukram read MukaiTam. 

line 25, /br Barhdmpnr read Barh^npiir. 
318, lines 10 and 13,/or 'Abdul Fatb read Abulfatb. 

line 9 from below, /or 981 read 975; vide Proceedings, A. S. Bengal, July, 



99 ff 




























99 99 


99 99 

99 » 

819, 1 


ne 9, /or at Jagir read as jagir. 

ne 11, for 'Abdul read Abul. 

ne 16,/br 981 read 980. 

ne 23, /or Ahmadnagar read Ahmadabdd. 

ne 14,/or 147 read 174. 

330, line 12, add " General Cunningham tells me that the correct name is Bidhi 
(Sansk. Yriddhi), not Budi." Vide Index. 

line 22, /or Talbanah read Talambah. 

lines 2 and 7 from below,/br Ak Mahall read Kg Mahall. 

331, note 1,/br cousin read uncle, 
333, line 4, /or B&bti read B4b&. 
335, line 1, for Dost read Daulat. 

9ff „ line 3, /or Sark\j read Sarkich. 

9, 338, line 9 from below, /br Mecsenas read Msooenas. 

u 340, line 19, for Sing Kdm read Sangrim. 

99 99 

99 99 







Viv^o 34/3, last lino, dele younger son or. 

844, line 18, et passim, yt»r Waijur 7*ead Bajor. 

345, line Vj^for Baj^jorah read Pajkorah (or Panjkorali). 

351, line X^^for severally read several. 

line 20, et passim, /br Gulabi read Kolabi. 

357, line 7 from below, /or 81 read 80. 
„ 358, note 2, dele and the latter... Editors. 

367, line VJ^for Chandr read Chand. 
„ 371, line 2 from bel()w,ybr Uymaq Kal readihe Uvmaqs of Miyiinkal 

{vide p. 620). 
„ 379, line 20,/or 330 read 333. 
„ 383, line 10,/or 223 read 144. 
„ 386, line 22, /or 362 read 361. 
„ 391, line 3 from below, for Jhajhii read Chajhii. 
„ 395, line 9 and Vlyfor Tang read Tisang. 
„ „ line VI t for Tas-ha rcaS Tis-ha. 

„ „ line 18,3^7* Sirdhaoli, Kilaodah read SandbaoH, Kailaodah. 
„ „ line 21, for Bhasi read Bhainsi. 
„ 400, line 26,/ar Bilkari read Bilahri. 
„ 407, line 14, et passim, /or Bandelah read Bundelah. 
„ 414, line 18, /or salamdt read saldmat. 
„ „ note 2, et passim, for Rahtas read Rohtas. 
„ „ „ for Tamkin read Namakin. 

„ 419, line 16 from below,/br son oi read son of Rajah Soja, son of. 
„ „ note 2, add " Tod mentions a * Kandhar* near Amber." Vide Geogr. 

Index, K bandar. 

426, line 11 from below, /or Ciibah of Agrah, read near Dihli. 

427, line 5 from below,/br Manqald read the mangald, 
437, line 15 from below, /or Jamal read Jalal. 

440, line 11 from below, /or tuqiil read tuyul. 

441, line 11 from below./br 186 read 186. 
448, note, line 1,/br political read poetical. 
456, note 1, add vide p. 621. 
472, note, last line, /or Wali read Wal&. 
475, line 6 from below,/br 5th read 7th. 
478, line 8,/or 5th read 6th. 
498, note l,./br Birl read Bairi. 
501, line 6 from below,/or 396 read 392. 
608, line 13 from below, /or Wa9li read Hijri; vide p. 622. 
514, line 17 f for Kingu read Kingri. 
539, line 23, /or Kapur read Kipiir. 
646, line 6 from below, /or Malina read Maulana. 
667, note, last line, /or Shah read Khan. 







Shaikh Abul Fazl, Akbar's minister and friend, was born at 
^grah on the 6th Muharram, 958,* during the reign of Isl&m Shdh. 

The family to which he belonged traced its descent from Shaikh 
Hiisfi, Abnl Fazl's fifth ancestor, who lived in the 9th century of the 
Hijrah in Siwist&n (Sindh), at a place called Bel (dij) . In '^ this 
pleasant village." Shaikh Musa's children and grandchildren re- 
mained till the beginning of the 10th century, when Shaikh £hizr, 
the then head of the family, following the yearnings of a heart imbued 
with mystic lore, emigrated to Hindustan. There he travelled about 
vifflting those who, attracted by Qod, are known to the world for not 
knowing it ; and after passing a short time in Hij&z with the Arabian 
tribe, to which the family had originally belonged, he returned to India, 
and fettled at Nagor, N. W. of Ajmir, where he lived in the company of 
the pious, enjoying the friendship of Mir Sayyid Tahy& of Bukhdrd. 

The title of Shaikh, which all the members of the family bore, was 
to keep up among them the' remembrance of the home of the ancestors. 

Not long afterwards, in 911, Shaikh Mub&rak, Abul Fazl's father, 
was bom. Mubarak was not Shaikh Khizr's eldest child : several 
children had been born before and had died, and Khizr rejoicing 
at the birth of another son, called him Mubdrak, i. e., the blessed, in 
allusion, no doubt, to the hope which Isl&m holds out to the believers, 
that children gone befoi*e bless those born after them, and pray to Qod 
for the continuance of their earthly life. 

Shaikh Mub&rak, at the early age of four, gave abundant proofs of 
intellectual strength, and fashioned his character and leanings in the 
company of one Shaikh 'Atan (c;^), who was of Turkish extraction and 

* 14th January, 1651. 


had come daring the reign of Sikandar Lodi to Nagor, where he lived 
in the service of Shaikh Saldr, and died, it is said, at the advanced age 
of one hundred and twenty years. Shaikh Khizr had now resolved 
perrnnnnntly to settle at Nagor, and with the v^'ew of brinjjjing a few 
reUitioiis to his Mdopted hoTue, he returned once more to Siwistun. His 
snd'en death during the journey left, the family at Na^^or in great dis- 
tress; and a f »miiie which broke out at the same time, stre!chel num- 
bers "f ihe inluibitants on the barren sands of the surrounding desert, 
and of all the members of the family at Nagor only Mubarak and his 
mother survived. 

Mubarak grew up progessing in knowledge and laying the founda- 
tion of those encyclopedial attainments, for which he afterwards became 
so famous. He soon felt the wish and the necessity to complete his 
education and visit the great teachers of other parts ; but love to his 
mother kept him' in his native town, where he continued his studies, 
guided by the teachings of the great saint Khwajah Ahrar,* to which 
his attention had been directed. However, when his mother died, 
and when about the stime time the Maldeo disturbances broke out. Mu- 
barak carried out his wish, and went to Ahmadabad in Gujarat, 
either attracted by the fame of the town itself, or by that of the shrine 
of his countryman Ahmad of Khattu.t In Ahmadabad, he found a 
second father in the learned Shaikh Abul Fazl, a khatib, or preacher, from 
Kazariin in Persia, and made the acquaintance of several men of reputa- 
tion, as Shaikh 'Umar of Tattah and Shaikh Yusuf. After a stay of 
several years, he returned to Hindustan, and settled, on tlie 6th Muhar- 
ram, 950, on the left bank of the Jamuna, opposite Agrah, near the 
Charbagh Villa.J which Babar had built, and in the neighbourhood of 
the saintly Mir llaffuddin Safawi of Injd (Shirdz), among whose dis- 
ciples Mubarak took a distinguished place. It was here that Mubarak's 
two eldest sons. Shaikh Abul Faiz,S and four years later, Shaikh Abul- 
Fazl, were born. Mubarak had now reached the age of fifty, and resolv- 
ed to remain at Agrah, the capital of the empire ; nor did the years 
of extraordinary drought which preceded the first year of Akbar's reign, 

• Died at Samarqand, 29th Rabi' I, 895, or 20tb February, 1490. 

t Vide p. 607, note. Ahmad of Khattii is buried at Sark'hich uear Ahmadabid. 
He died in 849 (A. D. 1445). 

J Later called Hasht Bihisht, or the Nurafsh4ii Gardens. It is now called the 
Bam Bngh. 

§ Bora A.H. 954, or A.D. 1547. Vide p. 490. 


and the dreadful plague, which in 963 broke out in Agrah and caused a 
great dispersion among the population, incline him to settle elsewhere. 

The universality of learning which distinguished Mubarak attracted 
a large number of disciples, and displayed itself in the education he 
gave his sons ; and the filial piety with which Abul Fazl in numerous 
passages of his works speaks of his father, and the testimony of hostile 
writers as Bad&oni, leave no doubt that it was Mubarak's comprehensive- 
ness that laid in Abul Faiz and Abul Fazl the foundation of those 
cosmopolitan and, to a certain extent, anti-Islamitic views, for which 
both brothers have been branded by Muhammadan writers as atheists, 
or as Hindus, or as sunworshippers^ and as the chief causes of Akbar's 
apostacy from Isldm. 

A few years before 963 A. H., during the Afghan rule, Shaikh 
Mubarak had, to his worldly disadvantage, attached himself to a reli- 
gious movement, which had first commenced about the year 9 JO, and 
which continued under various phases during the whole of the tenth 
century. The movement was suggested by the approach of the first 
millennium of Islam. According to an often quoted prophecy, the latter 
days of Islam are to be marked by a general decadence in political 
power and in morals, which on reaching its climax is to be followed by 
the appearance of Im&m Mahdi, ' the Lord of the period',* who will re- 
store the sinking faith to its pristine freshness. Christ also is to appear ; 
and after all men, through his instrumentality, have been led to Islam, 
the day of judgment will commence. Regarding this promised per- 
sonage, the Bauzat ul-Aimmah, a Persian work on the lives of the 
twelve Im&ms,t has the following passage — 

Mushm, Abu Baud, Nisai, Baihaqi, and other collectors of the tradi- 
tional sayings of the Prophet, state that the Prophet once said, ** Muhammad 
Mahdi shall be of my family and of the descendants of Eatimah [the Pro- 
phet's daughter and wife of 'All]." And Ahmad, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, and 
Ibn Majah state that the Prophet at some other time said, " When of 
time one day shall be left, God shall raise up a man from among my 
descendants, who shall fill the world with justice, just as before him the 
world was full of oppression ;" and again, " The world shall not come to 

* Cahib i zaman. He is the 12th Imam. The first eleven succeeded the Prophet. 
' Mahdi (which in India is wrongly pronounced Meh^di , ' myrtle' ) means ' guided* ; 
H4di means * a guide'. 

t By Sayyid 'Izzat 'Ali, son of Sayyid Pir Ali of Rasiilpur. Lithographed at 
JMk'hntLVL, 1271, A. H., 144 pp., royal 8vo. 


an end till the King of the earth shall appear, who is a man of my family, 
and whose name is the same as mine." Further, Ahmad and other collec- 
tors assert that the Prophet once said, " Muhammad Mahdi belongs to my 
family, eight and nine years." Accordingly, people believe in the coming 
of Mahdi. But there is also a party in Islam who say that Imam Mahdi 
has already come into the world and exists at present : his patronymic is Abul 
Qasim, and his epithets are ''the elect, the stablisher, Mahdi, the expected, 
the Lord of the age." In the opinion of this party, he was born at Surra- 
man-raa [near Baghdad] on the 23rd Eamazan, 258, and in 265 he came to 
his Sardabah [prop. * a cool place,' * a summer villa'], and disappeared whilst 
in his residence. In the book entitled ' Shawahid' it is said that when he 
was born, he had on his right arm the words written, ' Say, the truth has 
come and error has vanished, surely error is vanishing' [Qoran, xvii, 83], It 
is also related that when he was born into the world, he came on his knees, 
pointed with his fingers to heaven, sneezed, and said, '' Praise be to God, 
the Lord of the world." Some one also has left an account of a visit to 
Imam Hasan 'Askari [the eleventh Imam], whom he asked, *' son of the 
Prophet, who will be Khalifah and Imam after thee ?" 'Askari thereupon 
went into his room, and after some time came back with a child on his shoul- 
ders, that had a face like the full moon and might have been three years 
old, and said to the man, *' If thou hadst not found favour in the eyes of God, 
He would not have shewn you this child : his name is that of the Prophet, 
and so is his patronymic." The sect who believe Mahdi to be alive at 
present, say that he rules over cities in the far west, and he is even said to 
have children. God alone knows the truth ! 

The alleged prophecies of the Founder regarding the advent of the 
Restorer of the Faith, assumed a peculiar importance when Islam 
entered on the century preceding the first millennium, and the learned 
everywhere agitated the question till at last the Mabdi movement 
assumed in ludia* a definite form through the teaching of Mir Sayyid 
Muhammad, son of Mir Sayyid Khdn, of Jaunpur. This man was a 

* Badaoni, in his * Najatarrasbid/ gives a few particulars regarding the same 
movement in BadakhshaQ, from where the idea seems to have spread over Persia and In- 
dia. In Badakhshan, it was commeoced by Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh, a pupil 
of Abu Is-h^q Khatlani, who gained numerous adherents and created such disturbances, 
that troops were sent against him. He was defeated and fled to 'Iraq, in the moun- 
tainous districts of which country he is said to have gained thirty thousand followers. 
He had oflen to fight with the governors, but defied them all. Bad^oni has preserved 
a copy of the proclamation which Nurbakhsh sent unto all the saints. One of his 
disciples was Shaikh Muhammad Lahiji, the commentator of the ' Gulshan i £az.' 

descendant of the Prophet, and bore his name ; the fall of Jaunpur 
was to him a sign that the latter days had come ; extraordinary events 
which looked like miracles, marked his career ; and a voice from heaven 
had whispered to him the words, ^' Anta Mahdi," ' thou art Mahdi/ 
Some people indeed say that Mir Sayyid Muhammad did not mean to 
declare that he was the promised Mahdi ; but there is no doubt that he 
insisted on his mission as the Lord of the Age. He gained mtiny ad- 
herents, chiefly through his great oratorical powers, but pressed by 
enemies he went to Gujar&t, where he found an adherent* in Sult&n 
Mahmiid I. From Gujarat he proceeded, at the request of the king and to 
the joy of numerous enemies, on a pilgrimage to Makkah. From there 
also he seems to have been driven away. On his return, it was revealed 
to him that his teaching was vexatious, and he said to the disciples 
that accompanied him, *' God has removed from my heart the burden of 
Mahdi. If I safely return, I shall recant all." But when he reached 
the town of Far&h in Balochistan, where his arrival had created a great 
sensation, he died (911, A. H. ; 1505, A. D.). His tomb became a 
place of geueral pilgrimage, although Shah Isma'il and Sb4h X^^hm^p 
tried to destroy it The movement, however, continued. Some of bis 
followers adhered to their belief that he was Mahdi ; and even the 
histo^ian Badaoni, who was strongly attached to the cause, speaks of 
him as of a great saint. 

Other Mahdis appeared in various parts of India. In 956 (A. D., 
1549), a Mahdi of great pretensions arose in Bianah, S.W. of ^grah, 
in the person of Shaikh 'Alai. This man was a Bang&li Musalmdn. 
His father had been looked upon in his country as a learned saint, and 
after visiting Makkah, he had settled, in 935, with his younger brother 
Nafrullah, likewise a learned man, at Bianah, where they soon became 
respected and influential men. Shaikh 'Alai hud shewn from his youth 
the learning of the lawyer and the rigour of the saint ; and on the death 
of his father, he gathered numerous pupils around himself. 'But the 
love of power issues at last from the heads of the just,' and on the day 
Qfi the 'fd, he kicked an influential Shaikh from his hatidah^ and, 
ampported by his brothers and elder relatives, he proclaimed that he 
alone was worthy of being the Shaikh of the town. 

About the same time, one Miyan 'Abdullah, a Niyazi Afghan and 
disciple of Mir Sayyid Muhammad of Jaunpur, arrived from Makkah, 
and settled at a retired spot near Bi&nah. Like his master, he was a 
man of oratorical powers and was given to street preaching ; and in a 


short time he gained numerous followers among the woodcutters and 
water-carriers. Shaikh 'Ahii also was overawed by the impressive 
addresses of Miyan 'Abdullah ; he gave up teaching and struggling for 
local influence, turned faqir, told liis vrife eitlier to follow him to the 
wilderne^8 or to go, distributed his whole property, even his books, 
among the poor adherents of the Niyiizi, and joined the fraternity 
■which they had formed. The brethren liad established among them- 
selves community of property, divided the earnings obtained by 
begging, and gave up all work, because it was said in the Cioian, 
*Let not men be allured by trade or selling to give up meditating on 
God.' Religious meetings, the object of which was to prepare people 
for the advent of the promised Mahdi, were daily held after the five 
prayers, which the brethren said together, and wherever they went they 
appeared armed to the teeth. They soon felt strong enough to interfere 
with municipal matters, and inspected the bazars and removed by force all 
articles forbidden in the law, defying the magistrates, if opposed to them, 
or assisting them, if of their opinion. Their ranks increased daily, and 
matters in Bianah had come to sucli a pass, that fathers separated them- 
selves from their children and husbands from their wives. Shaikh 
'Alafs former ])osition and the thoroughness of his conversion had given 
him the rank of second leader ; in fact, he soon outdid Miyan 'Abdullah 
in earnestness and successful conversions, and the latter at last tried 
to rid himself of his rival by sending him with six or seven hundred 
armed men towards Makkah. 'Alai marched with his band over Basa- 
war to Khawa9pur, converting and preaching on the way, but on account 
of some obstacles they all returned to Bianah. 

Shaikh 'Alai's fame at last reached the ear of Isl^m Shah, who 
summoned him to Agrah ; and although the king was resolved to put 
him to death as a dangerous demagogue, and was even offended at the 
rude way in which 'Alai behaved in his presence, he was so charmed 
by an impromptu address which 'Alai delivered on the vanities of the 
world and the pharisaism of the learned, that he sent cooked provisions 
to ' Alai's men. To the amusement of the Afghan nobles and generals at 
court, 'Aldi on another occasion defeated the learned on questions 
connected with the advent of Mahdi, and Islam Shah was day after day 
informed that another of his nobles had gone to 'Alai's meetings and 
had joined the new sect. 

It was at this time that Shaikh Mub&rak also became a ' disciple,' 
and professed Mahdawi ideas. It is not clear whether he joined the sect 


from religious or from political motives, inasmuch as one of the objects 
of the brethren was to break up the party of the learned at Court, at whose 
bead Makhdum ul Mulk stood ; but whatever may have been his reason, the 
result was, that Makhdum became his inveterate enemy, deprived liim 
of grants of land, made him flee for his life, and persecuted him for more 
than twenty years, till Mubarak's sons turned the tables on him and 
procured his banishment.* 

The learned at Court, however, were not to be baffled by 'Aldi's 
success, and Makhd urn's influence was so great, that he at last prevailed 
on the king to banish the Shaikh. 'Alai and his followers readily obeyed 
the command, and set out for the Dak'hin. Whilst at Handiah on the 
Karbada, the frontier of Ishim Shah's empire, they succeeded in convert- 
ing Bah&r Khan A'zam Humdyun and half his army, and the king 
on hearing of this last success cancelled his orders and recalled Shaikh 

* 'Makhdum ul-Miilk' was the title of 'Abdullah of Sult&npur, regarding whom 
the reader may consult the inde^ for references. The following biographical notice 
from the Khazinatnl A9fi4 (Labor, pp. 443, 464) shews the opinion of good Snunis 
regarding Makhdum. 

'Maulan4 'Abdullah An9&ri of Sul^4npur belongs to the most distinguished 
learned men and saints of India. He was a Chishti in his religious opinions. From 
the time of Sher Sh&h till the reign of Akbar, he had the title of * Makiidiim-ul-Mulk' 
(prop, serred by the empire). He was learned in the law and austere in practice. 
He zealously persecuted heretics. When Akbar commenced his religious innovations 
and converted people to his 'Divine Faith' and sunworship, ordering them to substitute 
for the creed the words ' There is no God but Allah, and Akbar is the viceregent 
of God/ Maulana 'Abdullah opposed the emperor. Driven at last from Court, he 
retired to a mosque ; but Akbar said that the mosque belonged to his realm, and he 
shoald go to another country. Makhdum therefore went to Makkah. On his 
return to India, Akbar had him poisoned. He has written several works, a8 the 
LjJ\ yJJiS, Kashf ul-ghummah ; the ^^x Hi ^ap, *Iffat uUAnhiyd, the {*yi<^\ ^-^ 

Minkdj uddtn, &c. He was poisoned in A. H. 1006. 

' His son Hi}{ 'Abdul Karlm went after the death of his father to L^hor, where 
he became a religious guide. He died in 1045, and lies buried at Labor, near 
the Zib-uxmis^ Villa, at Mauza' Ko^. H is sons were Shaikh Yaliyd, I14h Niir, 'Abdul 
Haq and A'U Huzdr. Shaikh Tahya, like his father, wrought miracles.' 

In this account the date is wrong ; for Makhdum ul-Mulk died in 990, and as 
Badioni, Makhd6m's supporter, says nothing of poison (Bad. II., 311), the statement 
of the Rhazinat ul A^fii may be rejected. Bad^oni also says that Makhdtim's sons 
were worthless men. 

The titles of Makhdum ol-Mulk's works are not correctly given either ; vide 
p. 544. 


About the same time (055), Islam Shah left Agrah, in order to put 
down disturbances in the Panjab caused by certain Niyazi Afghans, 
and when he arrived in the neighbourhood of Bianah, Makhdum ul Mulk 
drew the king's attention to Miyan 'Abdullah Niyazi, who after Shaikh 
'Alai's departure for the Dak'hin roamed about in the hills of the Bianah 
district with three or four hundred armed men, and was known to poss- 
ess great influence over men of his own clan, and consequently over the 
Niyazi rebels in the Panjab. Islam Shah ordered the governor of Bia- 
nah, who had become a Mahdawi, to bring Miyan 'Abdullah to him. 
The governor advised his religious leader to conceal himself ; but 
Miyan 'Abdullah boldly appeared before the king, and so displeased 
him by his neglect of etiquette, that Islam Shah gave orders to beat 
him to death. The king watched on horseback for an hour the exe- 
cution of the punishment, and only left when Miyan 'Abdullah lay ap- 
parently lifeless on the ground. But he was with much care brought 
back to life. He concealed himself for a long time, renounced all Mah- 
dawi principles, and got as late as 993 [A. D., 1585] from Akbar 
a freehold, because he, too, had been one of Makhdiim ul-Mulk*8 
victims. He died more than ninety years old, in 1000, at Sarhind.* 

Islam Shah after quelling the Niyazi disturbances, returned 
to 4fgrah, but almost immediately afterwards his presence was again 
required in the Panjab, and it was there that Shaikh 'Alai joined 
the royal camp. When Islam Shah saw the Shaikh, he said to him in 
a low voice, " Whisper into my ear that you recant, and I will not 
trouble you." But Shaikh 'Alai would not do so, and Islam Shah, to 
keep up the appearance of authority, ordered a menial to give him by 
way of punishment a few cuts with the wliip in his presence. Shaikh 
'Alai had then scarcely recovered from an attack of the plague, which for 
several years had been raging in India, and had a few badly healed wounds 
on his neck. Whilst he got the cuts, one of the wounds broke open, and 
'Alai fainted and died. His body was now thrown under the feet of an 
elephant, and orders were given that no one should bury him, when 
all at once, to the terror of the whole camp and the king who believed 

■ * Badaoni visited him in Sarhind, and it was from 'Abdullah that he heard of Mir 
Sayyid Muhammad's repentance before death. Among other things, 'Abdullah also told 
him that after the Mir's death in Farah, a well-known man of that town seized on 
lands belon^ng to Balochis and proclaimed himself Christ ; and he added that he 
had known no less than thirteen men of respectable parentage, who had likewise claimed 
to be Christ 


that the last daj had dawned, a most destructive cyolone broke forth. 
When the storm abated, 'AUi's body was found literally buried among 
roses and other flowers, and an order was now forthcoming to have the 
corpse interred. This happened in 957 [A. D., 1550] . People prophesied 
the qaick end of IsUm Bh&h and the downfal of his honse.* 

Makhdum ul-Mulk was never popular after that 

The features common to all Mahdawi movements, are (1) that the 
preachers of the lattw days were men of education and of great oratorical 
powers, which gave them full sway over the multitudes ; and (2) that 
the Mahdawis assumed a hostile position to the leaned men who held 
office at Court Isldm has no state clergy ; but we find a counterpart 
to our hierarchical bodies in the 'Ulam&s about Court, from whom the 
fiadrs of the provinces, the Mir 'Adls, Muftis, and Q&zis were appointed. 
At Dihli and Agrah, the body of the learned had always consisted of 
stanch 8unni8, who believed it their duty to keep the kings straight. 
How great their influence was, may be seen from the fact that of all Mu« 
hammadan emperors only Akbar, and perhaps 'Al&uddin Khilji, suc- 
ceeded in putting down this haughty set. 

The death of Shaikh 'Al^f was a great triumph for the Court 'Ula- 
m^, and a vigorous persecution of all Mahdawi disciples was the imme* 
diate result. The persecutions lasted far into Akbar's reign. They 
abated only for a short time when the return of Humdyun and the 
downfal of the Afgh&n power brought about a violent political crisis, 
daring which the learned first thought of their own safety, well 
knowing that Hum&yun was strongly in favour of Bhi'ism ; but when 
Akbar was firmly established, and the court at Agrah, after the fall of 
Bairfim Kh&n, who was a Shi'ah, again teemed with Hinddstini Sun- 
niSy the persecutions commenced. The hatred of the court party 
against Shaikh Mubarak especially rose to such a height, that Shaikh 
'Abdunnabi and Makhdiim ul-Mulk represented to the emperor that 
inasmuch as Mubarak also belonged to the Mahdawis and was, therefore, 
not only himself damned, but led also others into damnation, he deserved 
to be killed. They even obtained an order to bring him before the 

* The circmnstances ooDnected with 'Aiii's death resemble the end of Sidi Mdlah 

AoiiDg the reign of JaJal-addf n Flrdz Shah. 

The place in the Panj4b, where the scene took place, is called Ban. (Bad. I., 408.) 
The &ct that Badioni spent his jonth at Bas&war near Biinah, t.^., in the yerj 

centre oi the Mahdawi movement, accounts perhaps for his adherence, throughout his 

life, to Mahdawi principles. 


emperor. Mubdrak wisely fled from i^grah, only leaving behind him 
some furniture for his enemies to reek their revenge on. Concealing 
himself for a time, he applied to Shaikh Salim Chishti of Fathpiir Sikri 
for intercession ; but being advised by him to withdraw to Gujarat, he 
implored the good offices of Akbar's foster-brother, the generous Khan i 
A'zam Mirza Kokah, who succeeded in alhiying all doubts in the mind of 
the emperor by dwelling on the poverty of the Shaikh and on the fact 
that, diflferent from his covetous accusers, he had not cost the state any- 
thing by way of freeholds, and thus obtained at least security for him 
and his family. M^hirak some time afterwards applied indeed for a 
grant of land for his son Abul Faiz, who had already acquired literary 
fame, though he was only twenty years old, and waited personally 
with his son on Shaikh 'Abdunnabi. But the latter, in his theological 
pride, turned them out his office as men suspected of Mahdawf leanings 
and Shi'ah tendencies. Even in the 12th year of Akbar's reign, when 
Faizi's poems* had been noticed at court, — Akbar then lay before Chi tor — 
and a summons had been sent to the young poet to present himself before 
his sovereign, the enemies at i^grah saw in the invitation a sign of ap- 
proaching doom, and prevailed on the governor to secure the victim this 
time. The governor thereupon sent a detachment of Mughul soldiers 
to surround Mubdrak's house. Faizi was accidentally away from home, 
and the soldiers suspecting a conspiracy, subjected Mubarak to various 
sorts of ill-treatment ; and when Faizi at last came, he was carried ofiE 
by force to Chitor.f Nor did his fears for his father and his own life 
vanish, till his favourable reception at court convinced him both of 
Abkar s good will and the blindness of his personal enemies. 

Abul Fazl had in the meantime grown up zealously studying under 
the care of his father. The persecutions which Shaikh Mubarak had to 
suffer for his Mahdawi leanings at the hands of the learned at Court, 
did not fail to make a lasting impression on his young mind. There 
is no doubt that it was in this school of misfortune that Abul Fazl learned 
the lesson of toleration, the practice of which in later years formed the 
basis of Akbar's friendship for him ; while, on the other hand, the same 
pressure of circumstances stimulated him to unusual exertions in study- 
ing, which subsequently enabled him during the religious discussions 
at Court to lead the opposition and overthrow by superior learning and 

* Abal Faiz wrote under the nom-de-plume of Faizi. 

t 20th Rabi' I, 975, or 24th September, 1567. The ode which Faizi presented 
will be found in the Akbarnamah. 


broader sentimentB the clique of the 'Ulamds, whom Akbar hated so 

At the age of fifteen, he showed the mental precocity so often obser- 
Ted in Indian boys ; he had read works on all branches of those sciences 
which go by the name of hikami and naqli^ or ma^qiil and manqiiL* 
Following the footsteps of his father, he commenced to teach long before 
he had reached the age of twenty. An incident is related to shew how 
extensive even at that time his reading was. A manuscript of the rare 
work of l9fahani happened to fall into his hands. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, one half of each page, vertically downwards from top to bottom, 
was rendered illegible, or was altogether destroyed, ty fire. Abul Fazl, 
determined to restore so rare a book, cut away the burnt portions, pasted 
new paper to each page, and then commenced to restore the missing 
halves of each line, in which attempt after repeated thoughtful perusals 
he succeeded. Some time afterwards, a complete copy of the same work 
turned up, and on comparison it was found that in many places there 
were indeed different words, and in a few passages new proofs even had 
been adduced ; but on the whole the restored portion presented so many 
points of extraordinary coincidence^ that his friends were not a little 
astonished at the thoroughness with which Abul Fazl had worked himself 
into the style and mode of thinking of a difficult author. 

Abul Fazl was so completely taken up with study that he pre* 
ferred the life of a recluse to the unstable patronage of the great and 
to the bondage which attendance at court in those days rendered inevita- 
ble. But from the time Faizi had been asked by Akbar to attend the 
court, hopes of a brighter future dawned, and Abul Fazl, who had 
then completed his seventeenth year, saw in the encouragement held 
out by the emperor, in spite of Mubarak's numerous enemies at court, a 
guarantee that patient toil, on his part, too, would not remain without 
fruit The skill with which Faizi in the meantime acquired and retained 
Akbar's friendship, prepared the way for Abul Fazl ; and when the latter, 
in the very end of 981 (beginning of 1574, A. D.), was presented to 
Akbar as Faizi's brother, the reception was so favorable that he gave up 
all thoughts of leading a life among manuscripts. ** As fortune did not 
at first assist me," says Abul Fazl in the Akbarndmah, ^'I almost 
beoame selfish and conceited, and resolved to tread the path of 
proud retirement. The number of pupils that I had gathered around 

* Page 540, note. 


me, served but to increase my pedantry. In fact, the pride of learning 
had made my brain drunk with the idea of seclusion. Happily for 
myself, when I passed the nights in lonely spots with true seekers after 
truth, and enjoyed the society of such as are empty-handed, but rich in 
mind and heart, my eyes were opened and I saw the selfishness and 
covetousness of the so-called learned. The advice of my father with 
difiBculty kept me back from outbreaks of folly ; my mind had no 
rest, and my heart felt itself drawn to the sages of Mongolia or to the 
hermits on Lebanon ; I longed for interviews with the lamas of Tibet 
or with the pddris of Portugal, and I would gladly sit with the 
priests of the Parsis and the learned of the Zendavesta. I was sick of the 
learned of my own land. My brother and other relatives then advised 
me to attend the Court, hoping that I would find in the emperor a leader 
to the sublime world of thought. In vain did I at first resist their ad- 
monitions. Happy, indeed, am I now that I have found in my sovereign 
a guide to the world of action and a comforter ia lonely retirement ; in 
him meet my longing after faith and my desire to do my appointed 
work in the world ; he is the orient where the light of form and ideal 
dawns ; and it is he who has taught me that the work of the world, 
multifarious as it is, may yet harmonize with the spiritual unity of truth. 
I was thus presented at Court. As I had no worldly treasures to lay 
at the feet of his Majesty, I wrote a commentary to the Ayat ul-Kurd^ 
and presented it when the emperor was at ^grah. I was favourably 
received, and his Majesty graciously accepted my offering." 

Akbar was at that time busily engaged with his preparations for 
the conquest of Bihar and Bengal. Faizi accompanied the expedition ; 
but Abul Fazl naturally stayed in Agrah. But as Faizi wrote to his 
brother that Akbar had enquired after him, Abul Fazl attended 
Court immediately on the emperor's return to Fathpur Sikri, where 
Akbar happened to notice him first in the Jami' Mosque. Abul Fazl, 
as before, presented a commentary written by him on the opening 
of a chapter in the Qoran, entitled ' Surat ul Fath,' ' the Chapter of 


The party of the learned and bigoted Sunnis at Court, headed by 
Makhdum ul-Mulk and Shaikh ' Abdunnabi, had every cause to feel sorry 

* Name of the 256th verse of the second chapter of the Qoran. 
t The details of Ahul Fazl'a introdaction at Court given in Badaoni differ slightly 
from Abul Fazl's own account. 



at Faizf'B and Abal Fasl's sacoesses ;* for it was now, after Akbar's 
return from Bih&r, that the memorable Tharsday eyening discasBions 
commenced, of which the historian Bad&oni has left us so vivid an account. 
Akbar at first was merely annoyed at the ^' Pharaoh-like pride" of the 
learned at court ; stories of the endless squabbles of these pious casuits 
had reached his ear ; religious persecutions and a few sentences of death 
passed by his Chief- Justice on Shfahs and *' others heretics" affected him 
most deeply ; and he now for the first time realized the idea that the 
scribes and the pharisees formed a power of their own in his kingdom ^ 
at the construction of which he had for twenty years been working. 
Impressed with a favourable idea of the value of his Hindu subjects, he 
had resolved when pensively sitting in the mornings on the* solitary 
stone at Fathpur Sikri, to rule with even hand men of all creeds in his 
dominions ; but as the extreme views of the learned and the lawyers 
oontinnally urged him to persecute instead of to heal, he instituted the 
discussions, because, believing himself to be in error, he thought it his 
duty as ruler to ' enquire.' It is not necessary to repeat here the course 
which these discussions took.f The unity that had existed among the 
learned disappeared in the very beginning ; abuse took the place of argu- 
ment, and the plainest rules of etiquette were, even in the presence of the 
emperor, forgotten. Akbar's doubts instead of being cleared up only 
increased ; certain points of the Hanafi law, to which most Sunnis 
cling, were found to be better established by the dicta of lawyers be- 
longing to the other three sects ; and the moral character of the Prophet 
was next scrutinized and was found wanting. Makhdiim ul-Mulk wrote a 
spiteful pamphlet against Shaikh ' Abdunnabi, the Sadr of the empire, and 
the latter retorted by calling Makhdum a fool and cursing him. Abul 
Fazl, upon whom Akbar from the beginning had fixed as the leader of hiff 
party, fanned the quarrels by skilfully shifting the disputes from one 
point to another, and at last persuaded the emperor that a subject ought 
to look upon the king not only as the temporal, but also as the only 
spiritual guide. The promulgation of this new doctrine was the making 
of Abul Fazl's fortune. Both he and Akbar held to it to the end of 
their lives. But the new idea was in opposition to Isldm, the law of 
which stands above every king, rendering what we call a constitution 

* BtMoni Mcribes to Makhdiim nl-Molk an almoit prophetic insight into Abol 
Fazl • oharaoter ; for the first time he saw Abul Fazl, he said to his disciples, 
'* What religions mischief is there of which that man is not capable P" Bad. Ill, 72. 

t Vide pp. 170/: 


impossible ; and though headstrong kings as ' Alauddin Khilji had before 
tried to raise the law of expediency {^J>j *-^sr^^, maglahat i waqt) above 
the law of the Qoran, they never fairly succeeded in separating religion 
from law or in rendering the administration of the empire independent 
of the MuUa. Hence when Abnl Fazlfour years later, in 980, brought 
up the question at the Thursday evening meetings, he raised a perfect 
storm ; and while the disputations, bitter as they were, had hitherto 
dwelt on single points connected with the life of the Prophet, or with 
sectarian differences, they henceforth turned on the very principles of 
Islam. It was only now that the Sunnis at Court saw how wide during 
the last four years the breach had become; that " the strong embank- 
ment of the clearest law and the most excellent faith had been broken 
through" ; and that Akbar believed that there were sensible men in all 
religions, and abstemious thinkers and men endowed with miraculous 
power among all nations. Islam, therefore, possessed in his opinion no 
superiority over other forms of worship.* The learned party seeing 
their official position endangered, now shewed signs of readiness to yield, 
but it was too late. They even signed the remarkable document which 
Shaikh Mubarak in conjunction with his sons had drafted, a document 
which I believe stands unique in the whole Church History of Islam. 
Badaoni has happily preserved a complete copy of it.f The emperor 
was certified to be a just ruler, and was as such assigned the rank 
of a * Mujtahid', t. e, an infaUible authority in all matters relating to 
Islam. The * intellect of the just king' thus became the only source of 
legislation, and the whole body of the learned and the lawyers bound 
themselves to abide by Akbar's decrees in religious matters. Shaikh 
'Abdunnabi and Makhddm ul-Mulk signed indeed the document against 
their will, but sign they did ; whilst Shaikh Mubarak added to his signa- 
ture the words that he had most willingly subscribed his name, and 
that for several years he had been anxiously looking forward to the reali- 
zation of the progressive movement. " The document," says Abul Fazl 
in the Akbarndmah, ** brought about excellent results, — (1) The Court 
became a gathering place of the sages and learned of all creeds ; the good 
doctrines of all religious systems were recognized, and their defects were 
not allowed to obscure their good features ; (2) perfect toleration (f w/A-t- 
AwZ, or * peace with all') was established ; and (3) the perverse and evil- 
minded were covered with shame on seeing the disinterested motives of 

* Pages 178, 179. t Vide p. 186. 


his Majesty, and thus stood in the pillory of disgrace." The copy of the 
draft which was handed to the emperor, was in Shaikh Mubarak's own 
handwriting, and was dated Rajab, 987 (September, 1579). 

A few weeks afterwards. Shaikh ' Abdunnabi and Makhdiim ul-Mulk 
were sent to Makkah, and Shaikh Mubarak and his two sons triumphed 
over their enemies. How magnanimous Abul Fazl was, may be seen 
from the manner in which he chronicles in the Akbam^mah the banish- 
ment of these men. Not a sentence, not a word, is added indicative of 
his personal grievances against either of them, though they had persecuted 
and all but killed his father and ruined his family ; the narrative proceeds 
as calm and statesmanlike as in every other part of his great work, and 
justifies the high praise which historians have bestowed upon his 
character that *' neither abuse nor harsh words were ever found in his 

The disputations had now come to an end (A. D. 1579), and Faizi 
and Abul Fazl had gained the lasting friendship of the emperor. Of the 
confidence which Akbar placed in Faizi, no better proof can be cited 
than his appointment, in the same year, as tutor to Prince Mur&d ; and 
as both brothers had entered the military, then the only, service and had 
received mansabs, or commissions, their employment in various depart- 
ments gave them repeated opportunities to gain fresh distinctions. 
Enjoying Akbar's personal friendship, both remained at court in Fath- 
piir Sikri, or accompanied the emperor on his expeditions. Two years 
later, Faizf was appointed Sadr of A^grah, Kalpi, and E&linjar, in 
which capacity he had to enquire into the possibility of resuming free 
tenures (say ur ghat), which in consequence of fraudulent practices on the 
part of government officers and the rapaciousness of the holders them-^ 
selves had so much increased as seriously to lessen the land revenue ; 
and Abul Fazl, in the very beginning of 1585,* was promoted to the man-» 
sab of Hazari, or the post of a commander of one thousand horse, and 
was in the following year appointed Diwdn of the Province of Dihli, 
Faizi's rank was much lower ; he was only a commander of Four Hun- 
dred* £ut he did not care for further promotion. Devoted to the muse, 
he found in the appointment as Poet Laureate, with which Akbar 
honored him in the end of 1588, that satisfaction which no political 
office, however high, would have given him. Though the emperor did 
not pay much attention to poetry, his appreciation of Faizi's genius was 

* Akbarndmab, III, 463. 


but just; for after Amir Kbusrau of Dihli, Muhammadaa India has 
seen no greater poet than Faizi.* 

In the end of 1589, Abul Fazl lost his mother, to whose memory he 
has devoted a page in the Akbarnamah. The emperor, in order to console 
him, paid him a visit, and said to him, " If the people of this world lived 
for ever and did not only once die, kind friends would not be required to 
direct their hearts to trust in God and resignation to His will ; but no 
one lives long in the caravanserai of the world, and hence the afflicted 
do well to accept consolation."t 

Keligious matters had in the meantime rapidly advanced. Akbar 
had founded a new religion, the Din i Ilahi, or * the Divine Faith,' the 
chief feature of which, in accordance with Shaikh MubSrak's document 
mentioned above, consisted in belief in one God and in Akbar as His 
viceregent [khalffah) on earth. The Islamitic prayers were abolished at 
court, and the worship of the * elect' was based on that of the PSrsis and 
partly on the ceremonial of the Hindus. The new era {tankh i ildhi)^ 
which was introduced in all government records, as also the feasts ob- 
served by the emperor, were entirely Parsi. The Muhammadan grandees 
at court shewed but little resistance : they looked with more anxiety on the 
elevation of Hindu courtiers than on Akbar's religious innovations, which 
after all affected but a few. But their feeling against Abul Fazl was 
very marked, and they often advised the emperor to send him to the 
Dak'hin, hoping that some mismanagement in war or in administration 
would lessen his influence at court. Prince Salim [Jahangir] also be- 
longed to the dissatisfied, and his dislike to Abul Fazl, as we shall see 
below, became gradually so deep-rooted, that he looked upon him as the 
chief obstacle to the execution of his wild plans. An unexpected visit 
to Abul Fazl gave him an excellent opportunity to charge him with dupli- 
city. On entering the bouse, he found forty writers busy in copying 
commentaries to the Qordn. Ordering them to follow him at once, he 
took them to the emperor, and shewing him the copies, he said, " What 
Abul Fazl teaches me is very different from what he practises in his 
house.*' The incident is said to have produced a temporary estrange- 
ment between Akbar and Abul Fazl. A similar, but less credible, 
story is told by the author of the Zakhirat-ul Khawdnin, He says that 

• For hiB works, vide p. 548. 
^^U^b 4JU^ oJUJ^o tr%** \r*^i>bji U^'J^ 'fO* ' •>^*-ri>^ (►^ J 4; 


Abul Fazl repented of his apostacy from Isl&m, and used at night to visit 
imcognito the houses of dervishes, and, giving them gold muhurs, reqaest- 
ed them '' to pray for the stability of Abal Fazl's faith/' sighing at the 
same time and striking his knees and exclaiming, *^ What shall I do !" 
And just as writers on the history of literature have tried to save Faizi 
from apostacy and consequent damnation, by representing that before 
his death he had praised the Prophet, so have other authors suc- 
eeeded in finding for Abul Fazl a place in Paradise ; for it is related 
in several books that Sh&h Abul Ma'&li Qidiri of L&hor, a man of 
saintly renown,* once expressed his disapproval of Abul Fazl's words 
and deeds. But at night, so runs the story, he saw in his dream that 
Abul Fazl came to a meeting held by the Prophet in Paradise ; and when 
{he Prophet saw him enter, he asked him to sit down, and said, ** This 
man did for some time during his life evil deeds, but one of his books com- 
mences with the words, ^ God, reward the good for the sake of their 
righteousness, and help the wicked for the sake of Thy love,' and these 
words have saved him." The last two stories flatter, in all probability, 
the consciences of pious Sunnis ; but the first, if true, detracts in no way 
from that consistency of opinion and uniform philosophic conviction 
wfaidi pervades Abul Fazl's works ; and though his heart found in pure 
drism and religious philosophy more comfort and more elements of 
harmony than in the casuistry of the Mullds, his mind from early youth 
had been so accustomed to hard literary work, that it was perfectly 
natural for him, even after his rejection of Isldm, to continue his studies 
of the Qor&n, because the highest dialectical lore and the deepest phi- ' 
kdogical research of Muhammadan literature have for centuries been 
concentrated on the explanation of the holy book. 

To this period also belong the literary undertakings which were 
commenced under the auspices of the Emperor himself. Abul Fazl, 
Faia, and scholars as Badaoni, Naqib Eh&n, Shaikh Sultan, Haji Ibrdhim, 
Shaikh Munawwar and others, were engaged in historical and scientifio 
compilations and in translations from the Sanskrit or Hindi into Persian.f 
Faizi took the Lil&wati, a well-known book on mathematics, and Abul 
Fazl translated the EalQah Damnah under the title of ^At/dr Danish 
bom Arabic into Persian. He also took a part in the translation of the 
Mahibharat and in the^composition of the Tdrikh % Alfly the ^ History 
of the Millennium.' The lastmentioned work, curious to say, has an 

• Bora A. H. 960; died at Lihor» 1024 KAaxinat uUA^d, p. 139. 
t Tide pp. 104, 105. 



intimate connection with the Mahdawi movement, of which pnrticulars 
have been ji;iven above. Although from the time of Shaikh 'Ahii' s death 
the disciples of the millennium had to suffer persecution, and the 
movement to all appearances had died out, the idea of a restorer of 
^he millennium was revived during the discussions in Fathpiir Sikri 
and by the teachings of men of Sharif i Amuli's stamp,* with this im- 
portant modification that Akbar himself was pointed to as the ' Lord of 
the Age,' through whom faded Ishim was to come to an end. This 
new feature had Akbar's full approval, and exercised the greatest influ- 
ence on the progress of his religious opinions. The Tarikh i Alfi, 
therefore, was to represent Islam as a thing of the past ; it had existed 
thousand (alf) years and had done its work. The early history, to the 
vexation of the Sunnis, was related from a Shi'ah point of view, and 
worse still, the chronology had been changed, inasmuch as the death 
of the Prophet had been made the starting point, not the hijrah, or 
flight, of the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah. 

Towards the middle of A. H. 1000 (begining of 1592, AD.), 
Akbar promoted Abul Fazl to the post of Diihazari, or commander of 
two thousand horse. Abul Fazl now belonged to the great Amirs 
(umard i kibdr) at court. As before, he remained in immediate at- 
tendance on the emperor. In the same year, Faizi was sent to the 
Dak'hin as Akbar's ambassador to Burhan ul-Mulk and to Rdjah 'All 
Khan of Khandesh, who had sent his daughter to Prince Salim. 
Faizi returned after an absence of more than sixteen months. 

Shaikh Mubarak, who after the publication of his famous document 
had all but retired from the world, died in the following year at L&hor, 
(Sunday, 17th Zi Qa'dah, 1001, or 4th September, 1593). He had 
reached the age of ninety, and had occupied himself in the last 
years of his life with the compilation in four volumes of a gigantic 
commentary to the Qordn, to which he had given the title of Manba^u 
Nafdis ul ' Ui/un. He completed it, in spite of failing eyesight, a short 
time before his death. 

• Page 462. We hear the last of the Mahdawi movement in 1628, at the acces- 
sion of Shahjahan. Akbar was dead and had not restored the MiUennium ; during 
Jahangir's reign, especially in the beginning , the court was indifferent to religion, and 
the king retained the ceremony o£sijdah, or prostration, which Muhammadans believe 
to be due to God alone. But Shahjahan, on his accession, restored many Muham- 
madan rites that had fallen in abeyance at court ; and as he was born in 1000 A. H., 
be was now pointed to as the real restorer. Since that time the movement has found 
no disciples. 


The historian Badaoof speaks of him as follows :— 

Shaikh Muharak belonged to the most distinguished men of learning of 
the present age. In practical wisdom, piety, and trust in God, he stood 
high among the people of his time. In early life he practised rigorous 
asceticism ; in fact, he was so strict in his views regarding what is lawful and 
unlawful, that if any one, for example, came to a prayermeeting with a 
gold ring on his finger, or dressed in silk, or with red stockings on his feet, 
or red or yellow coloured clothes on him, he would order the offending 
articles to be removed. In legal decisions he was so severe as to maintain 
that for every hurt exceeding a simple kick, death was the proper punish- 
ment. If he accidentally heard music while walking on the street, he ran 
away, but in course of time he became, from divine zeal, so enamoured of 
musiC| that he could not exist without listening to some voice or melody. In 
short, he passed through rather opposite modes of thought and ways of life. 
At the time of the Afghan rule, he frequented Shaikh 'Al&i's frater- 
nity; in the beginning of his Majesty's reign, when the Naqshbandis 
had the upper hand, he settled matters with that sect ; afterwards he was 
attached to the Hamadini school ; and lastly, when the Shi'ahs monopolized 
the court, he talked according to their fashion. ' Men speak according to 
the measure of their understanding' — to change was his way, and the rest 
joa know. But withal he wds constantly engaged in teaching the religi- 
ous sciences. Prosody also^ the art of composing riddles, and other branches, 
he understood well ; and in mystic philosophy he was, unlike the learned 
of Hindustan, a perfect master. He knew Sh&tibi* by heart, explained 
him properly, and also knew how to read the Qordn in the ten different 
modes. He did not go to the palaces of the kings, but he was a most 
agreeable companion and full of anecdote. Towards the end of his life, 
when his eyesight was impaired, he gave up reading and lived in seclusion. 
The commentary to the Qor&n which he composed, resembles the Tafsir i 
Kabir [the ** Gh*eat Commentary"], and consists of four thick volumes, and 
is entitled Manba'u Nafdis ul ' Ut/un, It is rather extraordinary that there is 
a passage in the preface in which he seems to point to himself as the 
renovator of the new century .f We know what this ' renovating' means. 
About the time he finished his work, he wisely committed the Farizi Ode 
(in f) which consists of seven hundred verses, and the Ode Bardah, the Ode 
by Ela'b ibn Zubair, and other Odes to memory, and recited them as daily 
homilies^ till on the 17th Zi Qa'dah, 1001, he left this world at Labor for 
the judgment-seat of Ood. 

• A writer on * Tigwid/ ' the art of reading the Qor4n correctly*. 

t Badaoni says in his 'Najat urrasbid* that Jal&luddin Suyiiti, in his time the 
most oniTersal scholar of all Arabia, pointed likewise to himself as the renovator of the 
loth oentory. 


I have known no man of more comprehensive learning ; but alas ! under 
the mantle of the dervish there vjras such a wicked love of worldly preferment, 
that he left no tittle of our religion in peace. When I was young, I studied 
at Agrah for several years in his company. He is indeed a man of merit ; 
but he committed worldly and irreligious deeds, plunged into lust of possession 
and rank, was timeserving, practised deceit and falsehood, and went so far 
in twisting religious truth, that nothing of his former merit remains. " Say, 
either I am in the correct path or in clear error, or you" [Qoran, xxxiv, 
23]. Further, it is a common saying that the son brings the curse on the 
head of his father ; hence people have gone beyond Yazid and say, * Curse 
on Yazid,* and on his father, too.' 

Two years after Shaikh Mubarak's death, Abul Pazl also lost his 
brother Faizi, who died at the age of fifty after an illness of six months 
on the 10th Safar, 1004 (5th October, 1595). When in his last moments, 
Akbar visited him at midnight, and seeing that he could no longer 
speak, he gently raised his head and said to him, '* Shaikh Jio, I have 
brought Hakim 'Ali with me, will you not speak to me ?" But getting 
no reply, the emperor in his grief threw his turban to the ground, and 
wept loud ; and after trying to console Abul Fazl, he went away.f 
How deeply Abul Fazl loved his elder brother, is evident from the 
numerous passages in the Akbarndmah and the Xin in which he speaks 
of him, and nothing is more touching than the lines with which he pre- 
faces the selections in the Ain made by him from his brother's poems. 
" The gems of thought in his poems will never be forgotten. Should 
leisure permit and my heart turn to worldly occupations, I would collect 
some of the excellent writings of this unrivalled author of the age, and 
gather, with the eye of a jealous critic, yet with the hand of a friend, 
some of his poems. But now it is brotherly love alone, which does not 
travel along thd road of critical nicety, that commands me to write down 
some of his verses."? Abul Fazl, notwithstanding his onerous duties, 
kept his promise, and two years after the death of his brother, he collect- 
ed the stray leaves of Faizi's Markiz ul-Adwdr, not to mention the 
numerous extracts which he has preserved in the Akbarnamah. 

* Husain, in whose remembrance the Muharram lamentations are chanted, was 
murdered by Yazid ; hence the latter is generally called Yazid % maVun, * Yazid, the 
acoarsed.' Badaoni here calls Abal Fazl Yazid. Poor Badaoni had only the thousand 
bfg'haba which Akbar had given him rent-free, but his school follow, Yazid Abul Fazl, 
was a commander of two thousand and the friend of the emperor, 
t Badaoni, II, 406. % I'age 649. 


It was abont the same time that Abnl Fazl was promoted to the 
port of a Gommaoder of two thousand and five hundred horse. Under 
this rank he has entered his own name in the list of grandees in the 
^Q i Akbari, which work he completed in the same year when he 
oollected his brother's literary remains (1596-97). 

In the following year, the forty-third of Akbar's reign, Abul Fazl 
went for the first time on active service. Sultan Mur^d* had not man- 
aged matters well in the Ddk'hin, and Akbar now despatched Abul Fazl 
with orders to return with the Prince, whose excessive drinking caused 
the emperor much anxiety, provided the officers of the imperial 
camp made themselves responsible to guard the conquered territory. 
If the officers were disinclined to guarantee a faithful conduct 
of the war, he was to see the Prince off, and take command with 
Shdirakh Mirz&.t The wars in the Dak'hin, from their first com- 
mencement under Prince Mur^d and the Kh&n Kh&n&n, are marked by a 
moat astounding duplicity on the part of the imperial officers, and thou- 
sands of men and immense stores were sacrificed, especially during the 
reign of Jahangir, by treacherous and intriguing generals. In fact, the 
Khfin Kh^ndn himself was the most untrustworthy imperial officer. 
Abul Fazl's successes, therefore, were chiefly due to the honesty and 
byalty with which he conducted operations. When he arrived at Bur^ 
hfapur, he received an invitation from Bah&dur Eh&n, king of Kh&ndesh, 
whose brother had married Abul Fazl's sister. He consented to come 
<u one condition, namely, that Bah^ur Ehfin should vigorously assist 
him and thus aid the cause of the emperor. Bah&dur was not inclined 
to aid the imperialists in their wars with the Dak'hin, but he sent Abul 
Fazl rich presents, hoping that by this means he would escape the penal- 
ty of his refusal Abul Fazl, however, was not the man to be bribed, 
^ I have made a vow,'' said he in returning the presents, " not to accept 
presents till four conditions are fulfilled — (1) friendship ; (2) that I 
ihoold not value the gift too high ; (3) that I should not have been 
amdous to get a present ; and (4) necessity to accept it. Now supposing 
that the first three are applicable to the present case, the favour of the 
onperor has extinguished every desire in me of accepting gifts from 


Prince Murdd had in the meantime retreated from Ahmadnagar to 
tlichpur, and as the death of his infant son Mirz& Bustam made him 

• Page 335. t Page 312. 


melancholy, he continued to drink, though dangerously ill with delirium 
tremens. When informed of Abul Fazl's mission, he returned at oncer 
towards Ahmadnagar, in order to have a pretext for not going back to his 
father, and he had come to the banks of the Puma,* twenty kos from Dau- 
latabad, when death overtook him. Abul Fazl arrived the same day, and 
found the camp in the utmost confusion. Each commander recommen- 
ded immediate return ; but Abul Fazl said that he was determined 
to march on : the enemy was near, the country was foreign ground, and 
this was no time for returning, but for fighting. Several of the com- 
manders refused to march on, and returned ; but Abul Fazl, nothing 
daunted, after a delay of a few days, moved forward, humoured the 
officers, and supplied in a short time all wants. Carefully garrisoning 
the country, he managed to occu|)y and guard the conquered districts 
with the exception of Nasik, which lay too far to the west. But he sent 
detachments against several forts, and conquered Baitdlah, Taltum, and 
Satonda. His headquarters were on the Godawari. He next entered 
into an agreement with Chdnd Bibi, that, after punishing Abhang Khan 
Habshi, who was at war with her, she should accept Janir as fief 
and give up the fort of Ahmadnagar. 

Akbar had in the meantime gone to Ujjain. The Dak'hin opera- 
tions had also become more complicated by the refusal of Bahddur 
Khan to pay his respects to Prince Dany^l, and war with Khandesh 
had been determined on. Akbar resolved to march on Asir, Bahadur 
Khan's stronghold, and appointed Prince Danydl to take command at 
Ahmadnagar. Danyal sent immediate instructions to Abul Fazl to 
cease all operations, as he wished to take Ahmadnagar personally. 
When the Prince therefore left Burhanpur, Abul Fazl, at Akbar's re- 
qest, left Mirza Shahrukh, Mir Murtaza, and Khwstjah Abul Hasan 
in charge of his corps, and hastened to meet the emperor. On the 14th 
Eamazdn, 1008 (beginning of the 44th year of Akbar's reign), he met 
Akbar at K'hargon, near Bijagarh. The emperor received him with the 
following verse — 

Serene is the night and pleasant is the moonlight, I wish to talk to thee on 
many a subject. 

* The southern Purn4 is meant. The northern Piirnd flows into the Tapti in 
Khindesh ; whilst the southern Pdrua, with the Diidnd, flows into the Godawari. 
Prince Murad had gone from riichpur to Narnalah, and from there to Shahpur, 
which he had huilt about eight miles south of Baiapur. It is now in ruins. 


and promoted him foi his excellent management to a command 
oi four thousand. .The imperial army now marched on Asir and 
oommenced the siege.* One day, Ahul Fazl inspected some of his tren- 
ches, when one of the hesieged, who had deserted to Akbar's camp, 
offered to shew him a way by which the Imperialists might get over the 
wall of the Mdlai Fort, an important fortification below Aisirgarh 
itself. Half way up the mountain, to the west and slightly to the north, 
were two renowned outworks, called the Malai and Antar Malai, which 
bad to be conquered before Asir itself could be reached ; and between 
the north-west and north, there was another bastion called Chunah 
M&lai. A portion of its wall was not finished. From east to south-west 
there were hills, and in the south was a high mountain called Korhiah. 
A hill in the south-west, called Sapan, was occupied by the Imperialists. 
Abul Fazl determined on availing himself of the information given by the 
deserter, and selected a detachment to follow him. Giving orders to 
the ofiicer commanding the trench to watch for the sound of the trum- 
pets and bugles, when he was to hasten to his assistance with ladders, 
he went in the dark of night, whilst it was raining, with his selected 
men on Mount Sdpan, and sent a few of his men under Qar& Beg along 
the road that had been pointed out to him. They advanced, broke open 
a gate of Malai Fort, and sounded the bugle. The besieged rose up to 

* ** Akbar had no sooner crossed the Nerebada [Narbadi], when Badzia Bador- 
xa [B^jah Bah&dQr Sh4h], who had possession of the fortress of Hasser [Asir], forti- 
fied the same against the king, and collected provisions from the neighbourhood. The 
king, thinking it dangerous to leave this fortress in his rear, considered how it might 
be captored. This fortress has three castles, of which the first is called Cho-lhianin, 
the second Comanerffhar : and the third is placed on the very summit of the hill, so 
that it is a oonspicaous object at tbe distance of six coss. The king with no delay 
forroimded it on aU sides ; and so energetically pressed the siege night and day, 
that at the end of six months it was on the point of being captured. Bador-xa how- 
ever perceiving his danger, having obtained a pledge that his life and property should 
he safe, came as suppliant to the king and surrendered himself****. Whilst the 
king was at this place, Abdul Fazel [Abul Fazl] came to him, and so worked upon his 
mind, that he fully determined to set out for the war in the Deccan." From Pro& 
Lethbridge's ' Fragment of Indian History,' translated from De Laet's ' India Yera,' 
and pablished in the Calcutta Beview for 1873. 

De Laet is wrong in a few minor details. I cannot identify the name Cho« 
Tzanin. ' Commerghar' is the Persian * Eamargih', ' the middle of a mountain.' 
The names of Fort Chunah Milai and of Mount Korhiah are doubtful, the MSS. hav- 
ing Khwajah Malai and Eorthah, Eortah, Korhiah, and similar variations. 

Vide also Crazetteer, Central Provinces, p. 8. 


oppose them, and Abul Fazl hastened to his men and joined them at 
break of day when the besieged withdrew in confusion to -^sir. On the 
same day, other detachments of the army occupied Chunah Malai and 
Mount Korhiah, and Bahddur Kh^n, unable to resist longer, sued for 
pardon (1009). Prince Danyiil, who had in the meantime conquered 
Ahmadnagar,* now joined his father at Ksir. 

About this time disturbances broke out in the Dak'hin, caused by 
Eaju Manni, and a party set up the son of 'Ali Shah as king. As the 
latter found numerous adherents, the Khan Khanan was ordered to march 
against him, and Abul Fazl was sent to Ndsik ; but a short time afterwards, 
he was told to join the KhanKhanan. Akbar returned, in the 46th year, 
to Agrah, leaving Prince Danyal in Burhanpiir. Abul Fazl had no 
easy life in the Dak' bin. The KhanKhanan stood idle at Ahmad- 
nagar, because he was disinclined to fight, and left the operations to 
Abul Fazl, who looked upon him as a traitor. Abul Fazl vigorously 
pushed on operations, ably assisted by his son 'Abdurrahman. After 
coming to terms with the son of 'Ali Shah, he attacked Rajd Mann4, 
recovered J^lnahpur and the surrounding district, and inflicted several 
defeats on him. Mannd found a temporary asylum in Daulatabad, and in 
a subsequent engagement he was nearly captured. 

As early as during the siege of Asir, Prince Salim, who had been 
sent against the Eana of Udaipdr, had rebelled against his father, and had 
moved to Ilahabad, where he had assumed the title of king. Though 
on Akbar's return from Burhanpiir a reconciliation had been eflected, 
the prince, in the forty-seventh year, shewed again signs of rebellion, 
and as many of Akbar's best officers appeared to favour Salim, the em- 
peror recalled Abul Fazl, the only trustworthy servant he had. As his 
presence at Court was urgently required, Akbar sent him orders to leave 
the troops of his contingent in the Dak'hin. Putting his son 'Abdur- 
rahman in charge of his corps, Abul Fazl set out for Agrah, only ac- 
companied by a few men. Salim, who looked upon him with little 
concealed hatred, thought Abul Fazl's journey, unprotected as he was, 
an excellent opportunity to get rid of him. He, therefore, persuaded 
Edjah Bir Singh, a Bundeli chief of iTrchah (Ifndchhd),! through whose 
territory Abul Fazl was likely to pass, to lay in wait for him and kill 

* Among the plunder taken at Ahmadnagar was a splendid library. Faizi's library, 
having on his death lapsed to the state, had been incorporated with the Imperial 

t rtde p. 488. 


hita. Bir Singh, who ^88 in disgrace at Court, eagerly seized the opport- 
unity of pleasing the Prince, who no doubt would substantially reward 
him on his accession, and posted a large body of horse and foot near Nar- 
'war. When arrived at Ujjain, Abul Fazl was warned of Salim's inten- 
tion, and his men tried to persuade him to go vi^ Ghati Chand& ; but 
Abnl Fazl said that thieves and robbers had no power to stop him on his 
way to Court. He, therefore, continued his journey towards Narwar. 
On Friday, the 4th RaW I, 1011 (12th August, 1602), at a distance 
of about half a kos from Sarai Bar, which lies six kos from Narwar, Bir 
Singh's men came in sight. The few men that Abul Fazl had with him^ 
strongly advised him to avoid a fight, and an old servant, Gad&i Ehdn Af- 
ghan, told him quickly to retreat to Antri, which was three kos distant, as 
lUi Bay&n and Suraj Singh were stationed there with three thousand Im- 
perial horse : he might first join them, and then punish Bir Singh. But 
Abul Fazl thought it a disgrace to fly. He defended himself bravely ; but 
in a short time he was surrounded, and, pierced by the lance of a trooper, 
he fell dead to the ground. Bir Singh cut off Abul Fazl's head, and sent 
it to Salun in Il&habdd, who, it is said, had it thrown ^' into an unworthy 
place/' where it lay for a long time. 

The Dutch traveller De Laet gives the following account of Abul 
Fazl's death.* 

Salim returned to Halebassa [Ilahbas, the old form of Bahabad], and 
began to coin gold and silver money in his own name, which he even sent 
to his father, to irritate him the more. The king, enraged at this, wrote an 
account of all that had happened to Abul Fazl, who bade the king be 
of good courage, for he would come to him as quickly as possible ; and added 
that hia son should be brought bound to him, either by fair means or by 
fouL * Accordingly, a little afterwards, having obtained leave of absence 
from Daniel Xa [Danyal Shah], he took to the road with about two or three 
hundred horsemen, leaving orders for his baggage to follow him. Xa- 
Seliniy to whom all these things were known, recalling how hostile Fazl 
had always been towards him, and hence justly fearing that his father would 
be more exasperated than ever against him, judged it best to intercept him 
on his journey. 8o he begged Badzia Bertzingh Bondela, who lived in his 

* From Frofl £. Lethbridge's ' Fragment of Indian History', Calcutta Beview, 

The place near which Abnl Fazl was killed, is called in the MSS.^^^r* Safdi 
Bar. Be Laet's Soor appears to be a bad reading for Narwar. 


provinoo of Ossoon [Ujjain], to He in wait for Fazl ftear Soor [Narwar ?] and ] 

Uvialor [Gwaliar], and to send his head to him, promising that he would be 

luiiult'ul uf so great a benefit, and would give him the command of five thou- 

8iuul I'iivalry. The Eadzia consented, and waited with a thousand cavalry 

and throo thousand infantry about three or four coss from Gualer, having sent 

out scouts into the neighbouring villages, to give him early warning of the 

approach of Fazl. Accordingly wlien the latter, ignorant of the ambuscade, 

had come as far as Collebaga [Kalabagh], and was going towards Soor, 

l\adzia Bertzingh and his followers fell ujion him on all sides. Fazl and 

his horsemen fought bravely, but being overpowered by numbers, they were 

gradually worn out. Fazl himself, having received twelve wounds in the 

light, was pointed out by a captive slave under a neighbouring tree, and 

was taken and beheaded. His head was sent to the prince, who was greatly 


Prince Salim, with that selfish nonchalance and utter indifference 
that distinguished him throughout life, openly confesses in his * Me- 
moirs' that he brought about Abul Fazl's murder, because he was his 
enemy, and, with a naivete exclusively bis own, represents himself 
as a dutiful son who through the wickedness of others had been de- 
prived of his father's love. He says — 

" On my accession, I promoted Eajah Bir Singh, a Bundela Rajput, 
to a command of three thousand. He is one of my favourites, and he is 
certainly distinguished among his equals for his bravery, good character, 
and straightforwardness. My reason for promoting liim was this. To- 
wards the end of my father's reign, Shaikh Abul Fazl, a Hindustdni Shaikh 
by birth, who was well known for his learning and wisdom, and who had 
externally ornamented himself with the jewel of loyalty, though he sold 
himself at a high price to my father, had been called from the Dal^*hin. 
He was no friend of mine, and damaged openly and secretly my reputation. 
Now about that time, evil-minded and mischievous men had made my father 
very angry with me, and I knew that, if Abul Fazl were to come back to 
Court, I would have been deprived of every chance to effect a reconciliation. 
As he had to pass on his way through the territory of BirSingh Bundel^who 
at that time had rebelled against the emperor, I sent a message to the latter 
to say that, if he would waylay Abul Fazl and kill him, I would richly reward 
him. Heaven favoured him, and when Abul Fazl passed through his land, 
he stopped him on his way, dispersed after a short fight his men, and killed 
him, and sent his head to me at Hahabad. Although my father was at first 
much vexed, Abul Fazl's death produced one good result : I could now 
without further annoyance go to my father, and his bad opinion of me gra- 
dually wore away." 


At another place ia his * Memoirs', when alluding to the murder, 
he says, as if an afterthought had occurred to him, that he ordered 
Bir SiDgh to kill Abul Fazl, because ^ he had been the enemy of the 

When the news of Abul Fazl's death reached court, no one had 
the courage to break it to the emperor. According to an old custom 
observed by Timur's desceadants, the death of a prince was not in plain 
words mentioned to the reigning emperor, but the prince's vakil pre- 
sented himself before the throne with a blue handkerchief round his 
wrist ; and as no one else would come forward to inform Akbar of the 
death of his friend, Abul Fazl's vakil presented himself with a blue 
handkerchief before the throne. Akbar bewailed Abul Fazl's death more 
than that of his.son ; for several days he would see no one, and after en- 
quiring into the circumstances he exclaimed, ** If Salim wished to be 
emperor, he might have killed me and spared Abul Fazl," and then 
recited the following verse — 

My Shaikh in his zeal hastened to meet me. 
He wished to kiss my feet, and gave up his life. 

Akbar, in order to punish Bir Singh, sent a detachment under Patr 
Das and Raj Singh* to 1/ndcha. They defeated the Bundeld chief in 
several engagements, drove him from Bhander and shut him up in 
Trich. When the siege had progressed, and a breach was made in the 
wall, Bir Singh escaped by one of Raj Singh's trenches, and withdrew to 
the jungles closely pursued by Patr Dds. As it seemed hopeless to catch 
him, Akbar called Patr D& to Court ; but ordered the • ofEcers 
stationed about 1/ndchfi to kill the rebel wherever he shewed himself. 
In the beginning of the last year of Akbar's reign, Bir Singh was once 
surprised by B^jah Raj Singh, who cut down a good number of his 
followers. Bir Singh himself was wounded and had a narrow escape. 
But the emperor's death, which not long afterwards took place, relieved 
Bir Singh of all fears. He boldly presented himself at Jahdngir's Court, 
and received l/ndch^ and a command of three thousand horse as his 

** It has often been asserted," says the author of the Madsir uU 
Umara, *' that Abul Fazl was an infidel. Some say, he was a Hindu, 
or a fire-worshipper, or a free-thinker, and some go still further and 

* Pages 469 and 468. 


call him an atheist ; but others pass a jiister sentence, and say that he 
was a pantheist, and that, like other Sufis, he claimed for himself 
a position above the law of the Prophet. There is no doubt that he 
was a man of lofty character,* and desired to live at peace with all men. 
He never said anything improper. Abuse, stoppages of wages, fines, 
absence on the part of his servants, did not exist in his household. If 
he appointed a man, whom he afterwards found to be useless, he did not 
remove him, but kept him on as long as he could ; for he used to say 
that, if he dismissed him, people would accuse him of want of penetra- 
tion in having appointed an unsuitable agent. On the day when the 
sun entered Aries, he inspected his whole household and took stock, 
keeping the inventory with himself, and burning last year's books. He 
also gave his whole wardrobe to his servants, with the exception of his 
trowsers, which were burnt in his presence. 

" He had an extraordinary appetite. It is said that, exclusive of 
water and fuel, he consumed daily twenty-two sers of food. His son 
'Abdurrahman used to sit at table as safarcJd (head butler) ; the super- 
intendent of the kitchen, who was a Muhammadan, was also in at- 
tendance, and both watched to see whether Abul Fazl would eat twice 
of one and the same dish. If he did, the dish was sent up again the 
next day. If anything appeared tasteless, Abul Fazl gave it to his son 
to taste, and he to the superintendent, but no word was said about it. 
When Abul Fazl was in the Dak'hin, his table luxury exceeded all belief. 
In an immense tent {chihilrdxvati) one thousand rich dishes were daily 
served up and distributed among the Amirs ; and near it another large 
tent was pitched for all-comers to dine, whether rich or poor, and k'hichrt 
was cooked all day and was served out to any one that applied for it." 

" As a writer, Abul Fazl stands unrivalled. His style is grand and is 
free from the technicalities and flimsy prettiness of other Munshis ;t and 
the force of his words, the structure of his sentences, the suitableness of 
his compounds, and the elegance of his periods, are such that it would be 
difficult for any one to imitate them." 

It is almost useless to add to this encomium bestowed on Abul 
Fazl's style. 'Abdullah, king of Bukhara, said that he was more afraid 
of Abul Fazl's pen than of Akbar's arrow. Everywhere in India he is 
known as ' the great Munshi.' His letters are studied in all Madrasahs, 

• I may remark here that Abul Fazl never accepted a title. 

t This is also the opinion of the author of the Haft Iqlim (vide p. 608). 


and thongh a beginner may find them difficult and perplexing, they are 
perfect models. But a great familiarity, not only with the Persian lan- 
guage, but also with Abul Fazl's style, is required to make the reading of 
any of his works a pleasure. His composition stands unique, and though 
everywhere studied, he cannot he, and has not been, imitated. The writers 
after him write in the style of the Padishdhnamah, the 'Alamdrai 
Sikandari, or in the still more turgid manner of the '^lamgirnfimah, 
the Buq'&t Bedil, and other standard works on Insh&. 

A praiseworthy feature of Abul Fazl's works lies in the purity of 
their contents. Those who are acquainted with Eastern literature will 
know what this means. I have come across no passage where 
woman is lightly spoken of, or where immorality is passed over with 
indifference. Of his love of truth and the nobility of his sentiments* 
I have spoken in the Preface. 

Abul Fazl's influence on his age was immense. It may be that 
he and Faizf led Akbar's mind away from Isl&m and the Prophet — 
this charge is brought against them by every Muhammadan writer ; 
but Abul Fazl also led his sovereign to a true appreciation of his duties, 
and from the moment that he entered Court, the problem of success- 
fully ruling over mixed races, which Isldm in but few other countries 
had to solve, was carefully considered, and the policy of toleration was 
the result If Akbar felt the necessity of this new law, Abul Fazl 
enunciated it and fought for it with his pen, and if the Khdn Kh&n&ns 
gained the victories, the new policy reconciled the people to the foreign 
rule ; and whilst Akbar's apostacy from Isldm is all but forgotten, no 
emperor of the Mughul dynasty has come nearer to the ideal of a father 
of the people than he. The reversion, on the other hand, in later times 
to the policy of religious intoleration, whilst it has surrounded in the eyes ^ 
of the Moslems the memory of Aurangzib with the halo of sanctity and 
still inclines the pious to utter a rahimahu-llahu (May God have mercy 
on him I) when his name is mentioned, was also the beginning of the 
breaking up of the empire. 

Having elsewhere given numerous extracts from BadSom to shew 
that Akbar's courtiers ascribed his apostacy from Isldm to Faizi and 
Abul Fazl, I need not quote other works, and will merely allude to a 
couplet by 'Urfif from one of his Odes in which he praises the Prophet— 

* Let the reader consult Gladwin's rendering of Abul Fazl's introduction to the 
fourth book of the Ain. Gladwin's A'fn, II, pp. 285 to 291. The passage is anti* 

I For 'Urfi vide p. 669. The metre of the couplet is Long Eamal, 


Prophet, protect the Joseph of my soul (i. e. my soul) from the harm 
of the brothers ; for they are ungenerous and envious, and deceive me like 
evil sprites and lead me wolf-like to the well (of unbelief). 

The commentators unanimously explain this passage as an allusion 
to the brothers Faizi and Abul Fazl. I may also cite the Tiirikh of Abul 
Fazl's death, which the Khan i A'zam Mirza Kokah is said to have 
made — 

The wonderful sword of God's Prophet cut off the head of the rebel.* 

But Abul Fazl appeared to him in a dream and said, " The date of 
my death lies in the words c-t-^^f^l »«>^, ' The slave Abul FazF — which 
likewise gives 1011 A. H. 

Abul Fazl's works are the following — 

(1) The Akbarndmah with the Kim i A k b a r i, its third 
volume. The A'ln i Akbari was completed in the 42nd year of 
Akbar's reign ; only a slight addition to it was made in the 43rd year 
on account of the conquest of Barar (1596-97, A. D.). The contents 
of the Akbarnamah have been detailed in the Preface. The second 
volume contains an account of the first forty-six years of Akbar s 
reign. t There exists a continuation up to the end of Akbar's reign by 
'Inayatullah Muhibb 'Ali. Thus at least the continuator is called ia 
two MSS. that I have seen. Elphinstone says that the name of the 
continuator is Muhammad Salia, which seems to be a corruption of 
Muhammad Salih. 

(2) The M a k t u b 4 1 i 'A 1 1 d m 1, also called I n s h 4 i A b u 1 
Fazl. This book contains letters written by Abul Fazl to kings and 
chiefs. Among them are the iriteresti ng letters written to the Portu- 
guese priests, and to 'Abdullah of Bukhara, in reply to his question 
whether Akbar had renounced Islam. Besides, there are prefaces and 
reviews, a valuable essay on the progress of the art of writing, portions 
of which are given in the Ain, &c. The collection was made after Abul 

* The word ^-ib hdghi, a rebel, has the numerical value of 1013 ; but the head 
(of the word, the letter \J) is cut off; hence 1013 — 2 = 1011, the year of the Hijrah 
in which Abul Fazl was murdered. The metre of the hemistich is Long Ramal. 

t The 46th year lasted from the 15th Ramazan, 1009, to 26th Ramaz4n, 1010, 
t. e. to about five months before Abul FazVs death. 


Fazl's death by 'Abdu99amad, son of Afzal Muhammad, Who says that 
he was a son of Abul Fazl's sister and also his son-in-law. The book, as 
above remarked, is frequently read in Madrasahs, and there exist many 
lithographed editions. In all of them, the contents constitute three 
books ; but Amir Haidar Husaim of Bilgr&m says in the preface to his 
' Sawdnih i Akbari'* that he had a collection of four books, remarking 
at the same time that MSS. of the fourth are very rare. It looks, 
indeed, as if Amir Haidar's copy was unique. 

(3) The Ay&r Ddnis h,t which is mentioned on p. 106. 

Besides, I have seen in different books that Abul Fazl also wrote a 
Bisalah i Mun&jdt, or * Treatise on Prayers' ; a Jimi'ullu- 
g h & t, a lexicographical work ; and a ^ K a s h k o 1'. The last word 
means a * beggar's cup,* or rather the small basket or bowl in which beg- 
gars in the East collect rice, dates, <&c., given as alms, and hence the 
term is often applied to collections of anecdotes or short stories. But I 
have seen no copies of these works. It was also mentioned above that 
Abul Fazl presented, on his introduction at Court, two commentaries^ 
of which no MSS. seem to exist at present Nor need I again refer to 
the part which he took in the translations from Sanskrit and the com- 
pilation of the Tdrikh i Alfi. 

The ' Durar ul Manshur ', a modem Tazkirah by Muhammad 
'Askari Husainf of Bilgram, selects the following inscription written by 
'Abul Fazl for a temple in Eashmir:^ as a specimen both of Abul Fazl's 
writing and of his religious belief. It is certainly very characteristic, 
and is easily recognized as Abul Fazl's composition. 

* Begarding ibis valuable work, vide p. 316^ note. 

t As the word is pronounced in India, instead of ' lyir i Danish, ' ' the test of 
wisdom.' The author of the Haft Iqllm seems to allude to this work ; for he says 
that Abid Fazl, when he saw him in lOOO A. H., was engaged in re- writing the Nawd- 
dir i Hikdydi, 

X Abul Fazl says in the fourth book of the Kin — " The best people in Kashmir 
tie the Brahmans. Although they have not yet freed themselres from the fetters of 
blind belief and adherence to custom, they yet worship God without affectation. They 
do not sneer at people of other religions, utter no desires, and do not run after lucre. 
They plant firoit trees and thus contribute to the welfare of their fellow-creatures. They. 
abstain from meat, and live in celibacy. There are about two thousand of them in 

Akbar seems to have looked upon these Kaahmiri Bishis as model men. 


Ails^ AiU. ^^t ^-« ly SS ^^^^ *3jsr-«*^ ^A^ A^ ^ ^^^^ wJiXiu« A^ 
^U^^jj^AJi>« Uyaa.^ ^^jcvIa v:;IcJ^;^-* «-^j^ ^iflj) CHi^ ^^ ^1 
^T^*^ jV r'-H"*' J^ c^^^*^ *^^* JUicI itUai 

God, in every temple I see people that seek Thee, and in every lan- 
guage I hear spoken, people praise Thee ! 

Polytheism and Islam feel after Thee, 
Each religion says, * Thou art one, without equal.' 
If it be a mosque, people murmur the holy prayer, and if it be a 
Christian Church, people ring the bell from love to Thee. 

Sometimes I frequent the Christian cloister, and sometimes the 

But it is Thou whom I search from temple to temple. 
Thy elect have no dealings with either heresy or orthodoxy ; for neither 
of them stands behind the screen of Thy truth. 

Heresy to the heretic, and religion to the orthodox, 
But the dust of the rosepetal* belongs to the heart of the perfume- 

* This line is Sufistic. The longing of the heart after God is compared to the 
perfume which rises from the rose petals. The perfume-seller, i, e, the Uuitariau, is 
truly religious, and is equally removed from heresy and orthodoxy. 


This temple was erected for the purpose of binding together the hearts 
of the Unitarians in Hindustan, and especially those of His worshippers 
that live in the province of Kashmir, 

Bj order of the Lord of the throne and the crown, the lamp of 

creation. Shah Akbar^ 
In whom the seven minerals find uniformity, in whom the four 
elements attain perfect mixture.* 
He who from insincere motives destroys this temple, should first destroy 
bis own place of worship ; for if we follow the dictates of the heart, we must 
bear up with all men, but if we look to the external, we find everything 
proper to be destroyed. 

Ood, Thou art just and judgest an action by the motive ; 

Thou knowest whether a motive is sublime, and tellest the king 
what motives a king should have. 

1 have a few notes on Abul Fazl's family, which may form the con- 
clusion of this biographical notice. The Kin gives the following list of 
Shaikh Mub&rak's sons. 

1. ShaikhAbulFaiz, better known under his poetical name 
of Faizi. He was born in A. H. 954 (A. D. 1547), and seems to 
have died childless. 

2. Shaikh Abul Fazl, born 14th January, 1551, murdered 
12th August, 1602. 

3. ShaikhAbulBarakdt, bom 17th Shawwdl, 960 (1552). 
*' Thongh he has not reached a high degree of learning, he knows much» 
is a practical man, and well versed in fencing. He is good-natured and 
fond of dervishes." He served under Abul Fazl in Kh&ndeslx. 

4 Shaikh Abul K h a i r, born 22nd Jumida I, 967. "He 
IB a well informed young man, of a regulated mind." He, too, must 
have entered the Imperial service ; for he is mentioned in the Akbar- 
n&mah as having been sent by the emperor to the Dak'hin to fetch 
Prince D&ny^. 

5. Shaikh Abul Mak^rim, born 23rd Shawwdl,976. He 
was wild at first, but guided by his father he learned a good deal. He 
also studied nnder Shah Abnl Fath Shirdzi. 

The abote five sons were all by the same mother, who, as remarked 
above, died iA 998. 

6. ShaikhAb6Turib,born23rdZilHijjah,988. "Though 

* J. 4, Akbar is the inedt^ i kdmil, or perfect man. 



his mother is another one, he is admitted at Court, and is engaged in 

Besides the above, Abul Fazl mentions two posthumous sons by 
qit?nmdy or concubines, viz. Shaikh A b u 1 H a m i d, born 3rd Rabi' 
11,1002, and Shaikh Abii Eashid, born 1st Jumada I, 1002. 
** Thev resemble their father." 

Of Mubarak's daughters, I find four mentioned in the histories — 

1. One married to Khudawand Khan Dak'hini ; vide p. 442. 
Badaoni calls her husband a llajizi, i. e., a Shi'ah, and says he died in 
Karf in Gujarat. 

2. One married to Ilusamuddin ; vide p. 441. 

3. One married to a son of Iirijah 'Ali Khan of Khandesh. Their 
son Safdar Khan* was made, in the 45th year of Akbar's reign, a com- 
mander of one thousand. 

4. Ladli Begum, married to Islam Khan ; vide ip, 41)3, note 1. 
Mr. T. W. Beale of Xgrah, the learned author of the Miftdh nttaiodrikhy 
informs me that Ladli Boguni died in 1017, or five years before the 
death of her husband. Her mausoleum, called the * llauzah i Ladli Be- 
gum,' is about two miles to the east of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandrah, 
near /^grah. The interior was built of marble, and the whole was sur- 
rounded by a wall of red Fathpiir sandstone. It was completed 
in 1O04. In 1843, Mr. Beale saw in the Rauzali several tombs without 
inscriptions, and a few years ago the place was sold by government to 
a wealthy Hindu. The new owner dug up the marble stones, sold them, 
and destroyed the tombs, so that of the old Rauzah nothing exists 
now-a-days but the surrounding wall. Mr. Beale thinks that the bodies 
of Shaikh Mubarak, Faizi, and Abul Fazl were likewise buried there, be- 
cause over the entrance the following inscription in Tughra characters 
may still be seen — 

^ js^I AjJUk, Jo'^l vrAjLJI ii^o Jb ^s ^'uJ jOJI ^U J^ilfyl uU 

II c-Jil ^ »^.l iiuM J ci^K^I ^1 C^Haa* |tUiAU *ljjal*« 

In the name of God the merciful, the clement, in whom I trust ! 
This mausoleum was erected for the divine scholar, the sage of the 

* The Lak'bnaa edition of the AkbarDamah (III, 830) calls him Sundar Ehin. 



eternal, the gatherer of knowledge, Shaikh Mubarakullah (may his 
secret be sanctified I), in filial piety by the ocean of sciences, Shaikh 
A b u 1 F a z 1 — may God Almighty preserve him ! — in the shadow of the 
majesty of the just king, whom power, auspiciousness, and generosity follow, 
Jdaladduny^ waddin Akbar Padish^ i Ghazi, — may God Almighty per- 
petuate the foundations of his kingdom I — under the superintendence of 
AbulBarakat, in 1004 [A. D. 1595-96]. 

Thus it will appear that the Raiizah was built in the year in which 
Fai^ died. Shaikh Mubarak, as was mentioned above, died in 1593 A. D« 
It seems, however, as if Shaikh Mubdrak and Faizr had been buried 
at a place opposite to Agrah, on' the left bank of the Jamun^, where he 
first settled in 1551 ; for Abul Fazl says in his description of Agrah in 
the Kin* — " On the other side of the river is the Chdr Bagh Villa, built 
by Firdaus Mak&ni [the emperor Bdbar]. There the author was born, and 
there are the resting places of his father and his elder brother. Shaikh 
'Alauddin Majziib and Mir Bafi'uddin Safawi and other worthies are 
also buried there," We have no information regarding a removal of the 
bodies to the other side of the Jamuna, though Abul Fazl's inscription 
no doubt shews that such a removal was intended. It is a pity, how- 
ever, that the Bauzah was sold and destroyed. 

Abul Fazl's son is the wellknown 

Shaikh 'Abdurrahman Afzal Kha'n. 

He was born on the 12th Sha'bdn, 979, and received from his grand- 
father the Sunni name of 'Abdurrahmdn. In the 35th year of Akbar's 
reign, when twenty years of age, Akbar married him to the daughter of 
Sa'&dat Yiv Kokah's brother. By her 'Abdurrahman had a son, to whom 
Akbar gave the name of Bishotan.f 

When Abul Fazl was in command of the army in the Dak'hin, 
'Abdurrahman was, what the Persians call, the tir i rui tarkaah i u, * the 
arrow at hand at the top of the quiver', ever ready to perform duties 
from which others shrank, and wisely and courageously settling matters 
of importance. He especially distinguished himself in Talingdnah. 
When Malik 'Ambar, in the 46th year, had caught 'Ali Mard&n Bah^ur 
(p. 496) and had taken possession of the country, Abul Fazl despatched 
'Abdurrahm&n and Sher Ehwdjah (p. 459) to oppose the enemy. They 

* Hy text edition, p. 441. Vide also p. 539 ; Eeene's Agra Guide, p. 47, and 
TQgBrding Lidli Begam, p. 45. ' Lidli' means in HindOst&ni ' a pet.' 

t Which name was borne by the brother of Isfandiyir, who is so often mentioned 
IB Firdaosi'B Sfaihnimah. 


crossed the Godawari near Ntinder, and defeated 'Amber at the 

Jahangir did not transfer to the son the hatred which he had felt 
for the father, made him a commander of two thousand horse, gave him 
the title of Afzal Khan, and appointed him, in the third year of his 
reign, governor of Bihar, vice IJam Klian (ihe husband of Abul Fazl'a 
sister), who was sent to Bengal. 'Abdurralimaii also received Gorak'h- 
pur as jagir. As governor of Bihar, he had his head-quarters at Patna, 
Once during his absence from Patna, a dervish of the name of 
Qutbuddin appeared in the district of Bhojpiir, which belonged to the 
then very troublesome Ujjainiyah Riijahs (p. 513, note), and gave 
out that he was Prince Khusrau, whom his unsuccessful rebellion and im- 
prisonment by Jahangir had made the favorite of the people. Collecting 
a large number of men, he marched on Patna, occupied tlie fort which 
Shaikh Banarasi and Gliiyas, 'Abdurrahman's officers, cowardly gave 
up, and plundered Afzal Khan's property and the Imperial treasury. 
'Abdurrahmtin returned from Gorak'hpiir as soon as he heard of the re- 
bellion. The pretender fortified Patna, and drew up his army at the 
Pun Pun River. 'Abdurrahman charged at once, and after a short 
fight dispersed the enemy. Qutb now retreated to the fort, followed by 
'Abdurrahman, who succeeded in capturing him. He executed the 
man at once, and sent his head to Court, together with the two coward- 
ly officers. Jahangir, who was always minute in his punishments, had 
their heads shaved and women's veils put over the faces ; they were 
then tied to donkeys, with their heads to the tails, and paraded through 
the towns (fash/nr) as a warning to others. 

Not long after this affair, 'Abdurrahman took ill, and went to Court, 
where he was well received. He lingered for a time, and died of an 
abscess, in the 8th year of Jahangir's reign (A. H. 1022), or eleven 
years after his father's murder. 


He was born on the 3rd Zi Qa'dah, 999. In the 14th year of 
Jahdngir's reign, he was a commander of seven hundred, with three hun- 
dred horse. In the 10th year of Shah Jahan's reign, he is mentioned 
as a commander of five hundred horse, which rank he held when he 
died in the 15th year of the same reign. 



O Lord, whose secrets are for ever veiled 
And whose perfection knows not a beginning, 
End and beginning, both are lost in Thee, 
No trace of them is found in Thy eternal realm. 
My words are lame ; my tongue, a stony tract ; 
Slow vrings my foot, and wide is the expanse. 
Oonftised are my thoughts ; but this is Thy best praise, 
In ecstasy alone I see Thee face to face ! 

It is proper for a man of true knowledge to praise Q-od not only 
in words, but also in deeds, and to endeavour to obtain everlasting 
happiness, by putting the window of his heart opposite the slit of his 
pen, and describing some of the wondrous works of the Creator. Perhaps 
the lustre of royalty may shine upon him, and its light enable him to 
gather a few drops £rom the ocean, and a few atoms from the endless 
field of God's works. He will thus obtain everlasting felicity, and 
render fertile the dreary expanse of words and deeds. 

I, Abulfazl, son of Mub&rik, return thanksgiving to God by singing 
the praises of royalty, and by stringiag its kingly pearls upon the 
thread of description ; but it is not my intention to make mankind, for 
the first time, acquainted with the glorious deeds and excellent virtues 
of that remarkable. man,* who clothes our wonderful world in new 
ooloors, and is an ornament to God's noble creation. It would be 
absurd on my part to speak about that which is known ; I should make 
myself the butt of the learned. It is only my personal knowledge of 

* Akbar. 


liim, a pricclesf; jewel, wliirli I send to the market place of the world, 
and my heart feels proud of being engaged in such an undertaking. 
But it eould not have b(M,»n from self-laudation that I have taken upon 
myself to carry out so great a task — a work which even heavenly beings 
would find beset with diffi(iulties ; for such a motive would expose my 
inability and short sight<Mhiess. My sole objfMt in writing this work 
was, first, to im]>art to all that take an interest in this auspicious century, 
a knowledge of the wisdom, magnanimity, and energy of him who 
understands the minutest indications of all things, created and divine, 
striding as he does over the field of knowledge ; and, secondly, to leave 
future generations a nobh^ legacy. The pajanent of a debt of gratitude 
is an ornament of life, and a provision for man's last journey. TIkto 
may be some in this world of ambitious strife, where natures are so 
different, desires so numerous, equity so rare, and guidance so scai'ce, 
who, by making use of this soiu'ce of wisdom, ^vill escape from the 
perplexities of the endless chaos of knowledge and deeds. It is with 
this aim that I describe some of the regulations of the great king, thus 
leavdng for far and near, a standard work of wisdom. In doing so, I have 
of coiu*se, to speak of the exalted position of a king, and also to describe 
the condition of tliose who are assistants in this great office. 

No dignity is higher in the eyes of G(jd than royalty ; and those 
who are wise, drink from its auspicious fountain. A sufficient proof of 
this, for those who reipiire one, is the fact that royalty is a remedy for 
the spirit of rebellion, and the reason why subjects obey. Even the 
meaning of the word Pddishah shews this ; for /;c/^ signifies stability 
and possession, and shah means origin, lord. A Idng is therefore the 
origin of stability and possession. If royalty did not exist, the storm of 
strife would never subside, nor selfish ambition disappear. Mankind, 
being under the bm*deu of lawlessness and lust, would sink into the pit 
of destruction ; the world, this great market place, would lose its pros- 
perity, and the whole earth beccmie a ban'en waste. But by the light of 
imperial justice, some fi^llow with cheerfulness the road of obedience, 
whilst others abstain from violence through fear of punishment ; and out 
of necessity make choice of the path of rectitude. Shtih is also a name 
given to one who sui-passes his fellows, as you may see from words like 
slidh-HUwury a/id/i-rdh ; it is also a term ap])lied to a bridegroom — ^the 
w^orld, as the bride, betrothes herself to the king, and becomes his 

• • • 


Silly and shortsighted men cannot distinguish a true king from a 
wifish ruler. Nor is this remarkable, as both have in common a large 
treasury, a numerous army, clever servants, obedient subjects, an abun- 
dance of wise men, a multitude of skilful workmen, and a superfluity of 
means of enjoyment. But men of deeper insight remark a difference. 
In the case of the former, the things just now enumerated, are lasting ; 
but in that of the latter, of short duration. The former does not attach 
himself to these things, as his object is to remove oppression, and provide 
for every thing which is good. Security, health, chastity, justice, polite 
manners, faithfulness, truth, an increase of sincerity, &c., are the result. 
The latter is kept in bonds by the external forms of royal power, by 
vanity, the slavishness of men, and the desire of enjoyment ; hence every- 
where there is insecurity, imsettledness, strife, oppression, faithlessness, 

Royalty is a light emanating fi^m God, and a ray from the sun, 
the illuminator of the universe,* the argument of the book of perfection, 
the receptacle of all virtues. Modem language calls this light /arr i izidt 
(the divine light), and the tongue of antiquity called it kiydn khwarah 
(the sublime halo). It is communicated by God to kings without the 
intermediate assistance of any one, and men, in the presence of it, bend 
the forehead of praise towards the ground of submission. Again, many 
excellent qualities flow irom the possession of this light. 1. A paternal 
love toicards the subjects. Thousands find rest in the love of the king ; 
and sectarian differences do not raise the dust of strife. In his wisdom, 
the king will imderstand the spirit of the age, and shape his plans 
acooidrngly. 2. A large heart. The sight of anything disagreeable does 
not unsettle him ; nor is want of discrimination for him a source of 
disappointment. His courage steps in. His divine firmness gives 
him the power of requital, nor does the high position of an offender 
interfere with it. The wishes of great and small are attended to, and 
their claims meet with no delay at his hands. 3. A daily iiwreasing 
trust in God. When he performs an action, he considers God as the 
real doer of it, (and himself as the medium,) so that a conflict of 
motives can produce no disturbance. 4. Prayer and devotion. The success 
of his plans will not lead him to neglect ; nor will adversity cause hiTQ 
to forget God, and madly trust in man. He puts the reins of desire 

^ Akbar worshipped the sun as the 
nsible representative of God, and the im- 

mediate source of life. Regarding hU 
form of worship, vide below. 


into ilif linnds of roaF^on ; in tlio wldo fi(*ld of his dosires he does not 
permit liiinself to bt* trodden down by restlessness, nor will he wasto 
his precious time in serving after that wliich is imju'oper. He makes 
^\TatIl, the t>Tant, pay homage to wisdom, so tliat blind rage may not 
get the upper hand, and ineonsiderateness overstep the proper limits. He 
wts on the eminence of propriety, so that those who have gone astray 
have a w^ay left to retui-n, w^ithout exposing their bad deeds to the 
public gaze. When he sits in judgment, the petitioner seems to be the 
judge, and he liimself, on account of his mildness, the suitor for justice. 
He does not permit petitioners to be delayed on the path of hope ; he 
endeavours to promote the happiness of the creatures in obedience to 
the wdll of the Creator, and never seeks to please the people in contra- 
diction to reason. He is for ever searching after those who speak the 
truth, and is not displeased with words that seem bitter, but are in 
reality sweet. He considers the nature of the words and the rank of 
the speaker. He is not content with not cc^mmitting violence, but he 
must see that no injustice is done within his realm. 

He is continually attentive to the health of the body politic, and 
applies remedies to the several diseases thereof. And in the same 
manner that the equilibrium of the animal constitution depends upon 
an ecpial mixture of the elements,* so also does the political constitution 
become well tempered by a proper division of ranks ; and by means of 
the warmth of the ray of imanimity and concord, a multitude of people 
become fused into one body. 

The people of the world may be di\ided into four classes.'* — 
1 . Warriors, who in the political body have the nature of fii-e. Their flames, 
directed by understanduig, consume the straw and rubbish of rebellion 
and strife, but kindle also the lamp of rest in this world of distur- 
bances. 2. Arfifccrs and merc/irinfft, who hold the place of air. From 
their labours and travels, God's gifts become universal, and the breeze 
of contentment nourishes the rose-tree of life. 3. T/te learned, such as 
the philosopher, the physician, the arithmetician, the geometrician, the 

^ Thus, according to the medical theo- 
ries of the middle ages. 

* This passage resembles one in 
Firdausi'g Shahnamah, in the chapter 
entitled dar ddstdn i JainsK4d ; vide 
also VuUers' Persian Dictionary, II., 756, 

s. Tcdtiizi. It is also found in the 
Akhldq i Mulmtn^ chapter XV., dar 
'adi, in the Akhldq i JaldU, and the 
Akhldq i Nd^irt, the oldest of the three 
Akhlaqs mentioned. 

iifltronoinery who resemble water. From their pen and their wisdom, a 
river rises in the drought of the world, and the garden of the creation 
receives from their irrigating powers a peculiar freshness. 4. Husbandmen 
and labaurerSy who may be compared to earth. By their exertions, the 
staple of life is brought to perfection, and strength and happiness flow 
from their work. 

It is therefore obligatory for a king to put each of these in its 
proper place, and by uniting personal ability with a due respect for 
others, to cause the world to flourish. 

And as the grand political body maintains its equilibrium by the 
above four ranks of men, so does royalty receive its flnal tint from a 
similar fourfold division. 

1. The nobles of the state, who in reliance on their position lead 
everything to a happy issue. Illuminating the battle-field with the halo 
of devotedness, they make no accoimt of their lives. These fortunate 
courtiers resemble fire, being ardent in devotion, and consuming in dealing 
with foes. At the head of this class is the Vakil, who from his having 
attained by his wisdom the four degrees of perfection,' is the emperor's 
lieutenant in all matters connected with the realm and the household. 
He graces the Council by his wisdom, and settles with penetration the 
great affairs of the realm. Promotion and degradation, appointment 
and dismissal, depend on his insight. It requires therefore an experien- 
ced man, who possesses wisdom, nobiKiy of mind, affabihty, firmness, 
magnanimity, a man able to be at peace with any one, who is frank, 
single-minded towards relations and strangers, impartial to friends 
and enemies, who weighs his words, is skilfcd in business, weU-bred, 
esteemed, known to be trustworthy, sharp and farsighted, acquainted 
with the ceremonies of the court, cognizant of the State secrets, 
prompt in transacting business, unaffected by the multiplicity of his 
duties. He should consider it his duty to promote the wishes of others, 
and base his actions on a due regard to the different ranks of men, 
treating even his inferiors with respect, from the desire of attaching to 

* Akbar said that perfect devotedness 
eonsisted in the readiness of sacrificing 
four things,— ^'(iw (life), mdl (property), 
din (religion), ndmus (personal honour). 
Those who looked upon Akhor as a guide 
in spiritoal matters (jpir) — an honour which 

Akbar much coveted — promised to shew 
this devotedness, and then belonged to 
the din i ildhi, or the Divine ' Faith, 
the articles of which Akbar had laid 
down, as may be seen below. 


liimself tlie hearts of all. IIo takes rare not to commit improprieties in 
(K)iiv(Tsatioii, and guards hims(»lf* from bad actions. Although the 
financial offices are not under his immediate superintendence, yet he 
receives the returns from the heads of all financial offices, and wisely 
keeps abstracts of their returns. 

The Mir-mal,' the Keeper of the seal, the Mir-bakhshi,"^ the Bar- 
bcgi,' the Qm-begi,* the Mir-tozak,^ the Mir-baliri,* the Mir-barr,^ the 
ilir-ilanzil," the Khwansalar,* the Munshi,'^ the Qush-begi," the Alditah- 
bcgi*^ belong to this class. Every one of tliem ought to be sufficiently 
acquainted with the work of the others. 

2. The aj^-sisfaiifs of vicforf/^ the collectors and those entrusted with 
income and expenditure, who in the administration resemble wind, at 
times a heart-rejoicing breeze, at other times a hot, pestilential blast. 
The head of this division is the Vizier^ also called JJ'mdn, lie is the 
lieutenant of the Emperor in financial matters, superintends the imperial 
treasiu'ies, and checks all accounts. He is the banker of the cash of the 
revenue, the cultivator of the wilderness of the world, lie must be a 
member of the Dirine Faith, a skilful arithmetician, free from avarice, 
circumspect, warm-hearted, abstinent, active in business, pleasing in his 
style, clear in his writings, truthful, a man of integrity, condescending, 
zealous in his work. He is in reality a book-keeper. Ho explains all 
matters which appear too intricate for the Mmtaufi ;*^ and whatever is 
beyond his own ability he refers to the Vakil. The Mustaufi, the Sahib 
i Taujili,'* the Awarjah Nawis,'^ the Mir-Saman,*'* the Ndzir i Buytitat,*' 
the Diwan i Buyiitat,'* the Mushrif ** of the Treasury, the Waqi'ah 

^ Perhaps an officer in charge of the 
Emperor's Privute purse. 

" Paymaster of the Court. 

" An officer who presents people at 
Court, their petitions, &c. He is also 
called Mir *Arz. 

* Bearer of the Imperial insignia. 

• Master of Ceremonies. 

• Harbour Master General and Admiral. 
'' Superintendent of the Imperial For- 

" Quarter Master General of the Court. 
Akbar's court was frequently tnivelliug. 

* Superintendent of the Imperial 

*° Private Secretary. 

*^ Superintendent of the aviaries (fal- 
cons, pigeons). 

^^ Superintendent of the Stud. 

** Deputy Diwan. 

** The Accountant of the Arm v. 

'* The Accountant of the daily ex- 
penditure at Court. 

*" The officer in charge of the Court- 
furniture, stores, &c. 

" Superintendent of the Imperial 

" The Accountant of the Imperial 

'"^ Clerk. 


NawiB,' the 'Amil' of the domains, are under hi& orders, and act by the 
foroe of his wisdom. 

Some princes consider the office of the Yizier as a part of that 
of the Vakily and are anxious to find in their reahn a man who 
possesses the excellent qualities of these two pillars of the edifice of the 
State. But as they are not always able to find a person qualified for 
the office of a Vakil, they make choice of a man who has some of his 
qualities, and appoint hiTn as Mmhrif i Diicdn^ which ofiice is higher in 
rank than that of the Diw&n, but lower than that of the Vakil. 

3. The companions of the king, who are the ornaments of the court by 
the light of their wisdom, the ray of their sharpsightedness, their know-. 
ledge of the times, their intimate acquaintance with human nature, their 
frankness and polite address. Through the excellence of their religious 
fedth and good will, thousands open in the market place of the world 
the stores of mtue. Wisely fettering ambition on the battle-field of 
the world, they extinguish the sparks of wrath by the rain of their 
wisdom ; whence they resemble water in the affairs of the body political. 
When they are of a mild temperament, they remove the dust of affliction 
from the hearts of men, and bestow freshness upon the meadow of the 
nation ; but if they depart from moderation, they inundate the world 
with a deluge of calamity, so that numbers are driven by the flood of 
misfortunes into the current of utter extinction. 

At the head of this class stands the philosopher, who with the 
assistance of his wisdom and example pujdfies the morals of the nation, 
and girds himself with the noble aim of putting the welfare of mankind 
npon a sound basis. The Sadr,' the Mir-'Adl, the Qr&zi,* the physician, 
the astronomer, the poet, the soothsayer, belong to this class. 

4. The servants who at court perform the duties about the king. 
They occupy in the system of the State the position of earth. As such, 
they lie on the high road of submission, and in dust before the majesty 
of the king. If free from chaff and dross, they are like an elixir for 
the body ; otherwise they are dust and dirt upon the face of success. 
The table servant, the armour bearer, the servants in charge of the 
skarbeU and the water, the servant in charge of the mattresses and the 
wardrobe, belong to this class. 

* The Recorder. ■ Collector. 

' Also called Sadr i Jahdn^ the Chief- 
Justice and Administrator General of the 


* Tlie Qazi hears the case : the Mir 
'Adl passes the sentence. 


If the king be waited on by servants to whom good fortune has 
given excellent qualities, tliere arises sometimes a harmony, which ia 
like a nosegay from the flower-bed of auspicionsness. 

Just as the welfare of the whole world depends upon the successful 
working of the above mentioned four classes, as settled by kings, so 
does the body politic depend upon the proper formation of the latter 
four di\dsions. 

The sages of antiquity mention the following four persons as the 
chief supports of the State — 1. An upright collector ; who protects the 
husbandman, watches over the subjects, develops the coxmtry, and 
improves the revenues. 2. A conscientious commander of the army, active 
and strict. 3. A chief justice^ free from avarice and selfishness, who sits 
on the eminence of circumspection and insight, and obtains his ends by 
putting various questions, without exclusively relying on witnesses and 
oaths. 4. An intelligencer^ who transmits the events of the time without 
addition or diminution, always keeping to the thread of truth and 

It is moreover incumbent on a just king to make himself acquainted 
with the characters of the following five kinds* of men of whom the 
world is composed, and act accordingly. 1. The most commendable 
person is the sagacious man who prudently does that which is proper and 
absolutely necessary. The foimtain of his virtues does not only run 
along his channel, but renders verdant the fields of other men. Such a 
one is the fittest person for a king to consult in State affairs. After him 
comes, secondly, the man of good intentions. The river of his virtues does 
not flow over its bed, and does not therefore become an irrigating source 
for others. Although it may be proper to shew him kindness and 
respect, yet he does not merit so high a degree of confidence. Inferior 
to him is, thirdly, the simple man, who does not wear the badge of 
excellence upon the sleeve of his action, yet keeps the hem of his garment 
free from the dust of wicked deeds. He does not deserve any distinction ; 
but ought to be allowed to live at his ease. Worse than he is, fourthly, 
the inconsiderate man, who fills his house with frimiture for his own 
mischief, without, however, doing harm to others. Him the king shoidd 
keep in the hot place of disappointment, and bring him into the road 
of virtue by good advice and severe reprehension. The last of all is the 

" The foUowinpf is a free paraphnise of a XXXIL, entitled dar siydsat, 
passage in the Akhlaq i Muhsini, Chapter 


richas many whose black deeds alarm others and throw, on account of their 
▼icioiisnees, a whole world into grief. If the remedies employed in the case 
of men of the preceding class, do not amend him, the king should consider 
him as a leper, and confine him separate from mankind ; and provided 
this harsh treatment does not awaken him from his sleep of error, he 
should feel the torture of grief, and be banished from his dwelling ; and if 
this remedy produce no effect either, he should be driven out of the 
kingdom, to wander in the wilderness of disappointment ; and if even 
this should not improve his vicious nature, he should be deprived of the 
instruments of his wickedness, and lose his sight, or his hand, or his 
foot But the king ought not to go so far as to cut the thread of his 
existence ; for enquiring sages consider the human form as an edifice 
made by Gbd, and do not permit its destruction. 

It is therefore uecessary for just kings, to make themselves first 
acquainted with the rank and character of men, by the light of insight 
and penetration, and then to regulate business accordingly. And hence 
it is that the sages of ancient times have said that princes who wear the 
jewel of wisdom, do not appoint every low man to their service ; that 
they do not consider every one who has been appointed, to be deserving 
of daily admittance ; that those who are thus favoured, are not therefore 
deemed worthy to sit with them on the carpet of intercourse ; that those 
who are worthy of this station, are not necessarily admitted to the 
pavilion of familiar address ; that those who have this privilege, are not 
therefore allowed to sit in the august assembly ; that those upon whom 
tliis ray of good fortune falls, are not therefore let into their secrets ; 
and that those who enjoy the happiness of this station, are not therefore 
fit for admission into the Cabinet Coimcil. 

Praise be to God, the Giver of every good gift ! The exalted 
monarch of our time is so endowed with these laudable dispositions, that 
it is no exaggeration to call him their exardium. From the light of his 
wisdom, he discerns the worth of men, and kindles the lamp of their 
energy ; whilst ever clear to himself, and without an effort, he adorns 
his wisdom with the beauty of practice. Who can measure, by the rules 
of speech, his power as a spiritual leader, and his works in the wide field 
of holiness ;* and even if it were possible to give a description of it. 

' Akbar u the spi ritual leader of the 
members belonging to the Divine Faith, 
wrought many miraclei>, of which some 


are related in the seventy-seventh Ain of 
thib book. 

who would bo able to liettr imd coiiipK^iond it ? Tbe best thing I can 
do is to abstain from such an attempt, and to confiiK^ myself to the 
description of such of his wonderful doings as illustrate the worldly side 
of his nature, and his greatness as a king. I shall speak — 

Fird, of his regulations eoneeming f/tc houncJtold ; secondly, of the 
regulations concerning the amuj ; thirdlf/, of the regulations concerning 
the enqyirCy as these three contain the whole duty of a king. In doing 
BO, I shall leave practical enquirers a present, wliich may seem difficult 
to understand, but which is easy ; or rather, which may seem easy, but 
is in reality difficult. 

Experienced men who are acquainted with the art of governing, 
and versed in the history of the past, cannot comprehend, how monarchB 
have hitherto governed witliout these wise regidations, and how the 
garden of royalty could have been fresh and verdant, without being 
irrigated by tliis fountain of wisdom. 

This sublime volume then, is airanged under three heads : it enables 
me, in some measure, to exj)ress my feelings of gratitude for favours 

ItemarJc hy the Author, As I had sometimes to use Hindi words, I have carefully 
described the eonsouants and vowels. Enquirers will therefore have no difficulty in 
reading ; nor will any confusion arise from mistakes in copying. Letters like alif, lam, 
and a lew more, are sufficiently clear from their names. Some letters I have distinguished 
as DUitiqutahy and lettei*s similar in fonn, without such a limitation. Letters which are 
purely Persian, have been distinguished as such ; thus the j) in padid, the ch^ in chanian, 
ihQ gdf in nigdry the zh in muzhdah. Sometimes I have added to the names of these 
letters, the phrase //flr/«<7 three points. Lettei-s peculiar to the Hindi language I have 
distinguished as Hindi. The letter //<^ as in /•////, I have called tahtd7ii, and the t^, as 
in dastj fauqdni. The h in adcd), 1 have merely called h^. Similarly, the letters nun, 
wdwy yd, and h^, when clearly sounded, have been merely described as mhi, wdw, &c. 
The nasal nun I have called tnhi i khaji, or nun i yinhdn. The final and silent h, 
as m farkhundah, I have called maktuby i. c, written, hut not pronounced. The t and 
Uy when modified to 4 or 6, I have called majhul. As consonants followed by an alif 
have the vowel a, it wius nut necessary to specify their vowels. 


JCTN 1. 

He is a man of high imderstanding and noble aspirations who, without 
the help of others, recognizes a ray of the Divine power in the smallest 
things of the world ; who shapes his inward and outward character accordingly, 
and shews due respect to himself and to others. He who does not possess 
these qualifications, ought not to engage in the struggle of the world, but 
obserre a peaceable conduct. K the former be given to retirement, he wlU 
cultivate noble virtues ; and if his position be a dependent one, he will put 
his whole heart in the management of his affairs, and lead a life free &om 
distressing cares. 

True greatness, in spiritual and in worldly matters, does not shrink 
from the minutiaB of business, but regards their performance as an act of 
Divine worship.* 

If he cannot perform every thing himself, he ought to select, guided 
by insight and practical wisdom, one or two men of sagacity and understand- 
ing, of liberal views in religious matters, possessing diligence and a 
knowledge of the human heart, and be guided by their advice. 

The wise esteem him not . a king who confines his attention to great 
matters only, although some impartial judges excuse a king that does so^ 
because avaricious sycophants who endeavour by cunning to obtain the 
position of the virtuous, often remind him of the difference of ranks, and 
succeed in lulling asleep such kings as are fond of external greatness, their 
only object being to make a trade of the revenues of the country, and to 
promote their own interests. But good princes make no difference between 
great and small matters ; they take, with the assistance of G-od, the burden of 
this world and the responsibility of the world to come on the shoulder of 
resolution, and are yet free and independent, as is the case with the king of 

* A phrase which Akbar often used. 


our fjmo. Til Ills r.isiloni. ho mal;rs llim^(•If ncqiiaintcd with tho siircopsful 
W(>i'lvi]ip:()l' i'vcry eh^partuu'iit, w}ii<-h, fJtliouj^-h former moiiarclis have tliou^^lit 
it (h>ro<i:atory to their i::n\'itnoss, is yot the first stop towards tho estal)lish- 
TiKMit r)f a p^ood gov(>rninont. For every branch ho has made proper re<2:iila- 
tions, and ho sees in the x)erformaiico of his duty a means of obtaining 
God's favour. 

The success of this vast undertaking depends upon two things : Jlrst^ 
wisdom and insight, to call into existence suitable regulations ; secondli/y a 
watchful eye, to see them carried out by men of integrity and diligence. 

Although many ser\'ants of the household receive their salaries on tho 
list of the army, there was paid for the household in the thirty-ninth year of 
• j' the Divine era, the sum of 309,186,795 dams.* Tho expenses on this account, 
; as also the revenues, are daily increasing. There are more than one hundred 
offices and workshops, each resembling a city, or rather a little kingdcmi ; 
/ and by the unremitting attention of his Majesty, they are all conducted with 
reg'uhirity, and arc constantly increasing, their improvc^numt being accom- 
panied by additional care and supenision on the part of his ^Tajesty. 

Some of tho regulations I shall transmit, as a present, to future 
enquirers, and thus kindle in others the lamp of wisdom and energy. 

As regards those regulations which are of a general nature, and which 
from their subject matter, belong to each of the three divisions of the work, 
I have put them among the regulations of tlie Household. 

ATN 2. 


Every man of sense and understanding knows that the best way of 
worsliipping God, consists in allaying the distress of the times, and in 
improving the condition of man. This depends, however, on the advancement 
of agricidturo, on the order kept in tlie king's household, on tho readiness of 
the champions of the empire, and the discipline of the army. All this again 
is connected with the exercise of proper care on the part of the monarch, liis 
love for the people, and with an intelligent management of tho revenues and 
the public expenditure. It is only when cared for, that the inhabitants of 
the towns, and those of the rural disti'icts, are able to satisfy their wants, and 
to enjoy prosperity. Hence it is incumbent on just kings, to care for the 
former, and to protect the latter class of men. If some say that to collect 

* Or, 7,729,669 J Riipoos. One nipoc 
(of Akbar) = 40 dams. The Divine era, 
or Tarikh i Ilabi, is Akbar's solar era, 

the commencement of which falls on the 
19th February 1556 ; hence the thirty- 
ninth year corresponds to A.D. 1595. 


wealth, and to ask for more than is absolutely necessaTy, is looked upon as 
contemptible by people given to retirement and seclusion, whilst the opposite 
is the case with the inhabitants of the towns, who live in a dependent 
position, I would answer that it is after all only shortsighted men who make 
this assertion ; for in reality both classes of men try to obtain that which 
they think necessary. Poor, but abstemious people take a sufficient quantity 
of food and raiment, so as to keep up the strength necessary for the pursuit 
of their enquiries, and to protect them against the influence of the weather ; 
whilst the other class think to have just sufficient, when they fill their 
treasuries, gather armies, and reflect on other means of increasing their 

It was from such views, when lifting the veil and beginning to pay 
attention to these weighty concerns, that his Majesty entrusted his inmost 
secrets to the Khajah sarai I'timdd Khdn,^ a name which his Majesty had 
bestowed upon him as a fitting title. On account of the experience of the 
Khajah, the reflections of his Majesty took a practical turn, widened by 
degrees, and shone at last forth in excellent regulations. An enquiry 
regarding the income of the diflerent kinds of land was set on foot, and 
successfully concluded by the wisdom of upright and experienced men. With 
a comprehensiveness which knew no difference between Mends and strangers, 
the lands which paid rents into the imperial exchequer were separated from 
the Jagir lands ; and zealous and upright men were put in charge of the 
revenues, each over one kror of d£ms. Incorruptible bitakchi^ were selected 
to assist them, and intelligent treasurers were appointed, one for each. And 
from kindness and care for the agricultural classes, it was commanded that the 
collectors should not insist upon the husbandman paying coin of full weight, 
but to give ^^Tn a receipt for whatever species of money he might bring. This 

* Ttimdd means trustworthiness. Eh&- 
jah sarai is the title of the chief eunuch. 
His real name was Phtil Malik. Afler 
ferving Sahm Shah (1545 to 1663)' who 
bestowed upon him theHitle of Muham- 
mad Khan, he entered Akbar's service. 
Akbar, after the death of Shamsuddln 
Muhammed Atgah Khan, his foster 
fiEither, commenced to look into matters 
of finance, and finding the Revenue De- 
partment a den of thieves, he appointed 
rtimikd Khan, to remodel the finances, 
ffwkiTiy him a commander of One Thou- 
sand (rwfe AhulCizl's list of Akbar's gran- 
dees, in part second, No. 119), and confer- 
ring upon him the title oiTiimdd Khan. 
He appears to have performed his duties 

to Akbar's satisfaction. In 1666, he 
conveyed the daughter of Mir4n Muba- 
rik, king of KhAnddsh (1536 to 1666), to 
Akbar's harem, took afterwards a part 
in the conquest of Benjifal, where he dis- 
tinguished himself, and was, in 1576, 
appointed governor of Bhakkar. When 
in 1578 Akbar's presence was required in 
the Panjab, I'timad Khan desired to 
join him. In order to equip his contin- 
gent, he collected his rents and out- 
standings, as it appears, with much harsh- 
ness. This led to a conspiracy against 
his life. In the same year he was mur- 
dered by a man named Maq^iid 'Alf. 
Madsir ul umard. 
• Writers. 


laudable regulation removed the rust of uncertainty from the minds of the 
Ciolli'ctors, and reheved the subji^ts from a variety of <»|)prefision8, whilst tho 
income became larger, and the state Hourislied. The founttiin of tho revenues 
having thus been purified, a zealous and lionest man was selo^cted for the 
general treasurorship, and a darogah and a clerk were appointed to assist him. 
Vigilance was established, and a standard laid dowii for this department. 

A\nienevor a (provincial) treasurer had collected the sum of two lakhs of 
dams, he had to send it to the Treasurer General at tho Court, together with 
a memorandum specifpng the quality of the sum. 

A separate treasurer was appointed for tlie peshkash^ receipts, another 
f(»r receiving heirless property, anotlier for nazar receipts,^ and another for 
tho monies expended in weighing the rovid person,^ and for charitable 
donations. Proper n^gidations were also made for the disbursements ; and 
honc^st superintendents, darogahs and clerks were appointed. The sums 
required for tlie annual (expenditure, are paid at the General Treasury to 
each cashkeeper of the disbiu'sements, and correct receipts granted for them. 
A proper system of accounts having thus been inaugurated, the empire began 
to flourish. In a short time the treasuries were full, the anny was augmented, 
and refractory rebels led to tho patli of obedience. 

In Iran and Turan, where only one treasurer is apjwinted, the accounts 
are in a confused state ; but here in India, the amount of the revenues is so 
great, and the business so multifarious that twelve treasuries are necessary 
for storing the money, nine for the different kinds of cash-payments, and 
three for precious stones, gold, and inlaid jewellery. The extent of the 
trea.suries is too great to admit of my giving a proper description with other 
matters before me. From his knowledge of the work, and as a reward for 
labour, liis Majesty very often expresses his satisfaction, or conveys repri- 
mands ; hence ever}i;hing is in a flourishing condition. 

Separate treasurers were also appointed for each of the Imperial 
workshops, the number of which is nearly one hundred. Daily, monthly, 
quai'terly, and yearly accounts are kept of the receipts and disbursements, so 
that in this branch also the market-place of the world is in a flourishing 

Again, by the order of his Majesty, a person of known integrity keeps 
in the public audience hall some gold and silver for the needy, who 
have their wants relieved without delay. Moreover a kror of dams is kept 
in readiness within the palacci, every thousand of which is kept in bags made 
of a coarse material. Such a bag is called in Hindi sahsah, and many of 

* Tributes. \ " Tide the cigliteeiitli Ain of the 

* Presents, vows, ^fcc. I second book. 


tiiem put up in a heap, gawj. Besides, his Majesty entrusts to one of the 
nobility a large sum of money, part of which is carried in a purse,^ This is 
the reason, why such disbursements are called in the language of the country 
hkmj i hahiah. 

All these benefits flow from the wonderful liberality of his Majesty, and 
from his unremitting cafe for the subjects of the empire. Would to Grod 
that he might live a thousand years ! 

Am 3, 

If I were to speak about the quantity and quaHiy of the stones, it 
woidd take me an age. I shall therefore give a few particulars, '* gathering 
an ear from every sheaf." 

His Majesty appointed for this ofB.oe an intelligent, trustworthy, cleyer 
treasurer, and as his assistants, an experienced derk, a zealous darogah, 
and also skilfril jewellers. The foimdation therefore of this important 
department rests upon those four pillars. They classified the jewels, and 
thus remoTed the rust of confusion. 

Rubies, — 1st class rubies, not less than 1000 muhurs in value ; 2nd class, 
from 999 to 500 muhurs ; 3rd class, from 499 to 300 ; 4th class, from 299 to 
200 ; 5th dass, from 199 to 100 ; 6th class, from 99 to 60 ; 7th dass, from 59 
to 40 ; 8th dass, from 39 to 30 ; 9th class, from 29 to 10 ; 10th class, from 
9^ to 5 ; 11th dass, from 4f to 1 muhur ; 12th class, from i muhur to \ 
rupee. They made no account of rubies of less value. 

Diamonds J emeraldsy and the red and blue i/dqats, were classified as follows : 
Ist dass, from 30 muhurs upwards; 2nd class, from 29 J to 15 muhurs; 3rd 
dass, from 14} to 12; 4th dass, from 11^ to 10; 5th dass, from 9| to 7; 6th 
dass, from 6J to 5; 7th dass, from 4} to 3; 8th dass, from 2j^ to 2; 9th class, 
from 1} to 1 muhur; 10th class, from 8J rupees to 5 rupees; 11th dass, 
from 4} to 2 rupees; 12th class, from 1^ to ^ rupee. 

The PearU were divided into 16 classes, and stnmg by scores. The first 
string contained twenty pearls, each of a value of 30 muhurs and upwards ; 
2nd dass pearls varied from 29 j^ to 15 muhurs; 3rd class, from 14 j^ to 12; 
4th dass, from 11| to 10; 5th class, from 9^ to 7; 6th dass, from 6^ to 5; 
7th class, from 42 to 3; 8th class, from 2f to 2; 9th class, from If to 1; 
10th dass, less than a muhur, down to 5 rupees; 11th dass, less than 5, to 
2 rupees; 12th dass, less than 2 rupees, to 1^ rupees; 13th dass, less than 1^ 

' A purge in Hindi is called bahlah. 


rupoos, to .'50 (liinis ; 14tli class, loss thiiii 30 dums, to 20 ddms; 15th class, loss 
tliaii 20 (lams, to 10 dams; lOtli class, less than 10 dams, to 5 dams. The 
pearls aro strung upon a number of stvint^s indicating their class, so that 
tliose of the KUli class are strung upon 10 strings. At tlu* end of each 
l)uudle of strings the imperial seal is affixed, to avoid losses arising from 
uusorting, wliilst a description is attaclied to each pdarl, to prevent disord(?r. 

Tlie following are the charges for boring pearls, independent of the daily 
and montldy \vag(;s of the workmen. For a pearl of the 1st class, J ruiieo ; 
2nd class, ^; 3rd class, ^'^ rupee; 4th class, 3 dams; .3th class, 1 suki; Otli 
class, 1 dam; 7th class, J dams; 8th class, Adam; Oili class, J dam; lOtli class, 
\; 11th class, ^; 12th class, |; 13th class, i; 14th class, ^; 1 r)th class, y*^ ; 
lOth class, yY dam, and less. 

The value of jewels is so well known that it is useless to say any tiling 
aljoiit it; but those which are at present in the treasury of His Majesty may 
be detailed as follows : — 

Rubies weigliing 11 tanks, 20 surkhs,* and diamonds of 5} tanks, 4 
siu'khs, each one lakh of rupees; emeralds weiglung 17^ tanks, 3 surkhs, 
52,000 rupees; ya(j[utsof 4 tanks, 7f surklis, and pearls of 5 tanks, each 50,000 

AI'N 4. 

As the successfid working of the mint increases the treasure, and is the 
source of despatcli for every department, I shall mention a fe\N' details. 

Tlie inhabitants of the towns and the country perform tlieir transactions 
by means of mon(*y. Every man uses it according to the extent of his 
necessities; the man whose heart is free from worldly desires sustains by it 
his life, and theworhlly man considers it the final stage of his objects — the 
wants of idl are satisfied by it. The w ise man looks upon it as the founda- 
tion, from W'hich the fulfilment of his worldly and religioiLs wishes flows. It 
is absolutely neccssaiy for the continuance of tlie human race, as men obtain 
by money their food and clothing. You may indeed gain these two things 
by undergoing some laboTir, as sowing, rearing, reaping, cleaning, kneading, 

* Sit rich means red ; also, a Utile xecd 
with a 1)1 a ck dot on ity Ciillcd in Hind. 
ijhtuKjchi, Abrus precatorius. The Per- 
sians called it cha^hm i khuruSy cock's 
eye. The seeds are often used for 
chiltlren's bracelets. AbuUazl means 
here the weight called in Hind, rati, 
vulgo ruttec. 8 surkhs, or 8 ratis, = 

1 mashidi ; 12 inashahs = 1 tolah, and 80 
tolahs = 1 ser. A tank is valued at 4 
nijushahs ; but it must have weighed a 
little more, as in the tenth Ain, Ahulfazl 
states that the weight of 1 dam was 
6 tanks, or 1 tolah, S mashahs, 7surkhs ; 
i. ^ c, 1 tank = \y miislialis = 4 
mashahs, I'j surkhs. 


f-ooking; twisting, spinning, wearing, &c. ; but these actions cannot well he 
jx-^rfonned without several helpers ; for the strength of a single man is not 
sufficient, and to do so day after day would bo difficult, if not impos- 
sible. Again, man requires a dwelling, for koee'ping his provisions. 
This he calls his home^ whether it be a tent, or a cave. Man^s exist- 
ence, and the continuance of his life, depend on five thi nr^?^ — a father, 
a mother, children, servants, food, the last of which is required by all. 
Moreover, money is required, as our furniture and utensils break; they last 
in no case very long. But money does last long, on ac(H)unt of the streuo th 
and compactness of its material, and even a little of it may produee much 
It also enables men to travel. How difficult would it bo to carry ])''(j visions 
fur several days, let alone for several months or years ! 

By the help of God^s goodness this excellent precious metal f gold) lias 
cfime to the shore of existence, and filled the store of life without nmch la]K)ur 
on the j>art of man. By means of gold, man caiTies out noble i)laus, and 
even performs Divine worship in a proper manner. Gold has many vaIual>lo 
qualities : it possesses softness, a good taste, and smell. Its component pans 
are nearly equal* in weight ; and the marks of the four elements arc^ visible 
in its properties. Its colour reminds us of fire, its purity of air, its 
^ftness of water, its heaviness of earth ; hence gidd possesses many 
Ufe-giHng rays. Nor can any of the foiu' elements injure it ; fin* it does not 
burn in the fire ; it remains unaffected by air ; retains for ages its appearance 
although kept in water ; and does not got altered when burie<l in th(i ground, 
whereby gold is distinguished from the other, mettils. It is for this reas(ju 
that in old books on philosophy in which man's intellect is termed ihe greater 
primlph^ {^o\*l is called the lesser principle,^ as the things required for human 
Ufe depend upon it. Among its epithets I may mention * the guiirdiau of 
justice;' * the universal adjuster;' — and imbuKl the adjustment of tliinj^u 
depencLs on gold, and the basis of justice rests upon it. To render it sei'- 
vi<-e, God has allowed silver and brass to come into use, thus croatini;- 
additional means for the welfare of man. Hence just kings and encrgiit'e 
nders have paid much attention to these metals, and erected mints, wher(^ 
their properties may be thoroughly studied. The success of this dt^partmenr. 
li(« in the a]ipointment of intelligent, zealous and upright workmen, and the 
f^ifice of the world is bmlt upon their attention and carefidness. 

* Aooording to the cheniists of the ' \w^ properties. Vide tlu' thirteenth Am. 

raiddlo:* ages, j:Cold consists of quicksilver I ^ "Were it not for piety, I would 

antl rtulphur taken in equal proportions ; bow down to irold and say, ' Hallowed 

lb<' Utter miu<t, however, ptissess colour- he thy name !' Hariri. 




Al'N :>. 

1. Tlio Dd/uf/(fl/. TTc must Ix* n ciiTumsjxHt and inlelligcnt man, of 
ln'oad principles, wlio tjikrs tlic cuniLroiis burden of his eolleaj^uos upon tlio 
shoulder of despatch. IIo must keep every one to his work, and shew zeal and 


2. Tlie Sairaf'i. Tlie su<cess of tliis impoi-tant department depends 
iipim his experience, as hi* determines tlie degrees of purity of the coins. On 
account of the prosperity of tlie present a<^e, there are now numbers of skilful 
Barrufs ;* and by the attention of his ^Majesty, gold and silver are refined to 
the highest degree of piu'ity. The higliest degree of purity is called 
in Persia dahdahi, but they do not know above ten degrees of fineness ; whilst 
in India it is (called hdrahhnnij as they have tinlve dc^grees. Formerly the old 
hun, which is a gold coin current in the Deccan, was thought to bepui'e, and 
reckoned at ten degrees ; but his Majesty has now fixed it at 8 J : and tho 
round, small gold dintir of 'Alauddin, which was considered to be 12 degrees, 
now turns out to be 10J-. 

Those who are experienced in this business have related wonderfid 
stories of the pui*ity of gold at the prc^sent time, and refen'ed it to witchcraft 
and alchemy ; for they maintain, that gold ore dtX'S not come up to this 
fineness. But by the attention of his ^Majesty, it has come up to this degi'eo ; 
hence the astonishment of people acquainted with this branch. It is, however, 
t^ertain, that gold cannot be made finer, and of a higher degree. Honest 
des(.'ribers and truthfid travellers have indeed nev<n' mentioned this degree ; 
])ut, M'hen gold is put into fusion, small particles separate from it, and mix 
witli the ashes, which ignorant men look tipon as useless dross, whilst the 
skilfiJ recover the metal from it. Althoiigli malleabU^ gold ore bo calcined 
and reduced to ashes, yet by a certain operation, it is broiight back to its 
original state ; but a piui: of it is lost. Through the wisdom of his Majesty, 
tho real circumstances connected with this loss, were brought to light, and 
the fraudulent practices of tho workmen thus put to the test. 

ATN 6. 


An abbreviation for hamvdr'i. Although in tliis country clever Sairafis 
are able from experience to tell the degree of fineness ]>y the colour and the 

^ TIh' KanuMus S:>air;ifl J hence a ^//ro/T, | ^ This 11 iiid. word wliieh is not given 
a money lender. , in the dietionariey; means the iesiing of 


brightness of the metal, the following admirable rule has been introduced, for 
the satisflEfcction of others. 

To the ends of a few long needles, made of brass or such like metal, 
small pieces of gold are affixed, having their degree of fineness written 
on them. When the workmen wish to assay a new piece of gold, they first 
draw with it a few lines on a touchstone, and some other lines with the 
needles. By comparing both sets of lines, they discover the degree of 
fineness of the gold. It is, however, necessary that the lines be drawn in the 
same manner, and with the same force, so as to avoid deception. 

To apply this rule, it is necessary to have gold of various degrees of 
fineness. This is obtained as follows. They melt together one mashah of 
pure silver with the same quantity of the best copper ; and let it get solid. 
This mixture they again melt with 6 mash ah s of pure gold of lOJ^ degrees of 
fineness. Of this composition one mdshah' is taken, and divided into sixteen 
parts of half a surkh each. If now 7^ surkhs of pure gold (of 10}^ 
degrees) are mixed with one of the sixteen parts of the composition, the 
touch of the new mixture will only be 10 J hdn,^ Similarly, 7 surkhs pure 
gold and 2 parts of the composition melted together, will give gold of 10 b&n ; 
6^ 9. pure gold and 3 parts composition, 9f b^ ; 6 a, gold and 4 parts 
composition, 9^ ban ; 5^ «. gold and 5 parts composition, 9^ ban ; 5 «. gold 
and 6 parts compo^tion, 9 b&n ; 4^ a, gold and 7 parts composition, 8 j^ bdn ; 
4 ». gold and 8 parts composition, 8jt b&n ; 3^ «. gold and 9 parts composition^ 
8^ b6n ; 3 s. gold and 10 parts composition, 8 hta ; 2^ $, gold and 11 parts 
composition, 7} bdn ; 2 «. gold and 12 parts composition, 7^ b&n ; \^ s. gold 
and 13 parts composition, 7^ b&n ; 1 «. gold and 14 parts composition, 7 b&n ; 
and lastly, ^ «. gold and 15 parts composition, 6f b4n. Or generally^ qyotj 
additional half surkh (or one part) of the composition diminishes the fineness 
of the gold by a quarter b6n, the touch of the composition itself being 6^ b&n. 

If it be required to have a degree less than 6^ ban, they mix together i 
surkh of the first mixture which consisted, as I said, of silver and copper, 
with 7^ surkhs of the secoild composition (consisting of gold, copx)er 
and sUver), which, when melted together, gives gold of 6^ ban ; and if 1 
surkh of the first mixture be melted together with 7 surkhs of the second 
oomxK)sition, the result will be 6 bdn ; and if they require still baser composi- 
tions, they increase the mixtures by half surkhs. But in the Banwari, they 
reckon to 6 b^Lns only, rejecting aU baser compositions. 

All this is performed by a man who understands the tests. 

3. The Amkn. He must possess impartiality and integrity, so that 

* Thw nianhah contains 6 parts gold, ■ The Hind, term ban means temj)er, 

1 part silver, and 1 part copper, ». e., degree, 
I ^old aud 1 alloy. 


{;!«■.."' .I'l I "*"■' 

■V . 1 

ill"', Ml ' ' I 11^. '- < I ,i;' :•( 

"!). >i. . ot him. Sli.MiM iln-vr \>o any <lilitM'i'n.'<'>, ln' 
'i: ..liti' w (ti kiiMii, iii;iiiiiains that wJiicli is ri;^-hl. 


1 i. ■ h '' ''/•■/. 

7 /'f ,'/' '■ li[. '^ . 

Fm v. ri>. - (Inwii :lir dnilv (*x]»(jii(litiiro in an u|>ri5j.-ht 
. ' ' ' . , - a s\- 4iMiiatic (lav-l»()()k. 

Il.l'ir/- 11]) ;^('!<1, silver and c()|»])rr, l>y which h«« 
p;iir.s a |ir"!ir I'cr I.Mir*!!*, n^-i-i- tlic (l.'])urfi"iii-iit, and heiicilts tlie ri^ViMiiu.-s 
..]■ i!;c M,.;. . Ti.;<l'\Aill 11 .m- 'i. wJiru justice is everywhere to he had, 
iiiif] \ hell riih-rs .'ii-r n-it a\iiri<':<>iis. 

(■». '///< 'Ln,<i'rn- v. h(» w;.irh(s ovc-i' tlie preihs, and is ii])ri^ht u\ all his 


'\\u) sahii'ie'^ of tlu' iirs1 tour and the sixdi ollieers dilTer from caeli other, 
the h»w«'si oi il'.t ai liohlinu' tlic j-jnk of an AJiadi.^ 

7. 'Liic ll'r<fh.iii<(iu wlio v.'ci .Us the eoin-^. For weiii'hinLr 100 yV/r/// irold- 
jindiurs, Jk p;rts l^^* (L;u!is ; for w<'i;:,irmu' 1(;(U) ru]Hrs, O^-J dams; and for 
wci^j^ldu;^' 1000 (-(/jiper d.inis, O, I of a ihini ; and, after this rate, aeeording to 
the li'L. ntit\'. 

H. Thr Jh'L'rr of fjic orr. lit' nudv(*s small and larti't^ trendies in a tahlot 
of (lay "wliith h(^ h 'snu :irs with j^reae, ajid pours into them the melted gold 
and -Il\er, to ea.^t tliem ijito i;ijj:ots. In the ease of eo2)p('r, instead of iisinf^ 
g'r''ase, it is sufu< ient to spi-iidde ashes. For the ahove mentioned quantity 
ttl' ^'old, h< ;.v -^ ' 2J^ d.'ims ; lor the sani<M|iiantity of silver, o dams and I'Sl 
ji'ta^.-^;" for the h:,nie (|Uall;i1^ of eo] per, i d:'ims and 21.1 jrtals. 

9. 77r iVr/. .7/'r/'v7'. He nadces the adulterated gohl into plates of six or 
seven mashaiLs eaeli, i- ix iln;j;-ers in h'Ugth and hreadtJi ; these liC carries to 
tin* assay master, who mea-ur '^^ tliem in a mould nuide of eoppcr, and stamps 
su«h as ari' saitahie, in order to pr<'\ent alieiations, jnid to .shew the work 
dniM . lie receives as wages i'or tlie ah«A'e mentioned (piantity of g<dd, 421- 


Xl'S 7 


AMu'U the al)ovc'nu'ntioned phites hav been stamped, tlio owner of tlie 
gold, for the weight of every 100 jalali goldmuhia-s, must fiu'msli 4 sers of 

* I'he --l/f((t//.y L'Orrcs])oinl toour ITi'r- 
ranh'd rJlirci'S. ^lost (:l<M'ks oi' the i>ii- 
jM'riid oill.T'S, the pMiaters el" tlu' coie't, 
the l.riMiiL'n in Ak bur's worksliojjs, iVc, 
bi'lui'u'od totliis corps. Thry ueivcillrd 
Ahddis, ov s/nr/h ?)i< n, bcM-iuisc ihoy st<jod 
under Akhur's iuiniediatc orders. 'J Ik; 

word A/uidiy tlio// of ^vhic•ll is the Arahic 
^, uiis s]>cU in ofiici.d returns witli the 

l\rsiiin J<. So di'C])-rootcd. says Badaoni, 
was Alvhav s hatred for every thing which 
was Avpltic. 

^ 'fwt ity-five jrlah make one dtim. 
Vidt the loth Aili. 


fsaltpoti'e, and 4 sers of brickdust of raw bricks. The plates after havinj^ 
been washed in clean water, are stratified with the above mixture (of tlie 
saltpetre and brickdust), and pui one above the other, the whole being covered 
with cowdung, which in Hindi is called uplah. It is the dry dung of the Wild 
Cow, Then they set fire to it, and let it gently burn, till the dung is reduced 
to ashes, when they leave it to cool ; then these ashes being removed froiji 
the sides, are preserved. They are called in Persian khdk i khaldg, and in 
Hindi sal6ni. By a process to be mentioned hereafter, they recover silver 
from it. The plates, and the ashes below them, are left as they are. This 
process of setting fire to the dimg, and removing the ashes at the sides, is 
twice repeated. "WTien three fires have been ai)plied, they call the plates 
siidi. They are then again washed in clean water, and stratified three times 
with the above mixture, the ashes of the sides being removed. 

This operation must bo repeated, till six mixtui-es and eighteen fires have 
been applied, when the plates are again washed. Then the assay master breaks 
one of them ; and if there comes out a soft and mild sound, it is a sign of its 
being sufficiently pure ; but if the sound is harsh, the plates must undergo 
three more fires. Then from each of the plates one milshah is taken away, 
of which aggregate a plate is made. Tliis is tried on the touchstone ; if it is 
not sufficiently fine, the gold has again to pass through one or two fires. In 
most cases, however, the desired effect is obtained by thi*ee or four fires. 

The follo^dng method of assaying is also used. They take two tolahs of 
pure gold, and two tolahs of the gold which passed through the fire, and 
make twenty plates of each, of equal weight. They then spread the above 
mixture, apply the fire, wash them, and weigh them with an exact balance. 
If both kinds are found to be equal in weight, it is a proof of pureness. 

10. The Melter of the refined tnetal. He melts the refined plates of gold, 
and casts them, as described above, into ingots. His fee for 100 gold muhurs 
is three dams. 

11. The Zarrdh. He cuts off the gold, silver and copper ingots, as 
exactly as he can, roimd pieces of the size of coined money. His fees are, 
for 100 gold muhurs, 21 dams, IJ jotals; for the weight of 1000 rui)oes 
53 dams, 8{ jetals, if he cuts rupees ; and 28 dams in addition, if he cuts the 
same weight of silver into quarter rupees. For 1000 copper dams his fee is 
20 dams ; for the same weight of half and quarter dams, 25 dams ; and for 
half quarter dams, which are called dumris, 69 ddms. 

In Tran and Tiirdn they caimot cut these pieces without a j^roper anvil ; 
but Hindustani workmen cut them without such an instrument, so exartlv, 
that there is not the difference of a single hair, which is remarkal)le enouj^h. 

12. The Engraver. Ho engraves the dies of the coins on" stool, and such 
like metals. Coins are then stamped ^-ith these dies. At thiy day, Maulana 


'All AJniind uf l)(llii, wlio lias not liis (H|iial in any oountrv, cnts difrercnt 
kinds of letters in steel, in sneli a numner as equals the ('opyslips of the mo«t 
skilfnl (ali^n-ajdiers. He holds the rank of a i/i'r:hayh'i ;* and two of his men 
serve in the mint. Doth luive a nn^nthly sahary of GOO dams. 

18. The SiJditrhi. Tie places the round pierces of metal between two 
dies; and hy tlu^ sirenj^th of the hammerer fpufhrhij hoth sides are stamped. 
His fees are for 100 j^^oldmnluirs, 1| dams ; for 1000 rupees, 5 dams, OJ jetals ; 
and for the weight of lOOO rnp(»es of small silver pieces, 1 dam, 3 jetals in 
additi<»n; for 1000 copper dams, ,3 dams; for '2000 half dams, and 4000 
quarter dams, 3 dams, 1S| jetals; and for 8000 half-quarter dams, lO.V dams. 
Out of these fees the sikkachi has to give one-sixth to the hammerer, for 
whom there is no sei>arai(» allowance. 

11. The SMdk makes the refined silver into round plates. For every 
1000 rupees weight, he receives 54 dams. 

The (lificovvni of aUou in silver. Silver may he alloyed with lead, tin and 
copper. In Iran and Turan, they also call the highest degree of fineness of 
hi\\cvduh(hthx ; in Hindustan, the sairafis use for it the ti*rm l/isf hisuah. Accord- 
ing to the quantity of the alloy, it descends in degree ; but it is not made less 
than five, and no one woidd care for silver baser than ten degre(\s. Practical 
men can diseovi^r from the cohair of the compound, which of tlie all(»3's is pre- 
vailing, whilst by tiling and boring it, the quality of the inside is ascertained. 
They also try it by beating it Avhen hot, and then throwing it into water, 
when blackness d(^notes lead, redness copper, a white greyish colom* tin, and 
whiteness a large proportion of silver. 


They dig a hole, and having sprinkled into it a small quantity 
of wild c<AV dung, they fill it with the ashes of 2fi(<jJiilan^ wood ; then 
they moisten it, and work it up into the shape of a dish ; into this 
they put the adidterated silver, together with a proportionate quantity 
of lead. First, they put a fourth part of the lead on the top of the 
silver, and having siuTounded the whole with coals, blow the fire with a pair 
of bellows, till the metals are melted, which operation is generally repeated 
four times. The proofs of the metal being pui'o are, a lightning-like bnght- 
ness, and its beginning to harden at the sides. As soon as it is hardened in 

' This Turkish word si«:^infics a com' 
maiuhr of oue humfrcJ men, a captjiin. 
Ahadi^s of distiiiL'tion \v«M'e promoted to 
tluH militjiry rank. The salary ot a Yuz- 
bashi varioil from five to seveu hundi'ed 

rupees /^rr nunsen/ ; vid^ the third Ain 
of the second book. 

' Called in Hind, hahnl^ a kind of 
acacia. It.^ bark is usod in tanuing. 


the middle, they sprinkle it with water, when flames resembling in shape the 
horns of wild goats, issue from it. It then forms itself into a dish, and is 
perfectly refined. K this dish be melted again, half a siirkh in every tolah 
will bum away, t. e.y 6 m^hahs and 2 surkhs in 100 tolahs. The ashes of 
the dish, which are mixed with silver and lead, form a kind of litharge, called 
in Hindi k^haral, and in Persian kuhnah ;' the use of which will bo hereafter 
explained. Before this refined silver is given over to the Zarrdb, 5 masliahs 
and 5 surkhs are taken away for the Imperial exchequer out of every hundred 
tolahs of it ; after which the assay master marks the mass with the usual 
stamp, that it may not be altered or exchanged. 

In former times silver also was assayed by the banwfiri system ; now it 
is calculated as follows : — if by refining 100 tolahs, of shd/ii silver, which is 
current in 'Iraq and Khurfisan, and of the Idri and mtsqdli, which are current 
in Tur&n, there are lost three tolahs and one surkh ; and of the same quantity 
of the European and Turkish narfilf and the tnahmudi and muzaffari of 
Oujrat and Malwah, 13 tolahs and 6^ mashahs are lost, they become of the 
imperial standard. 

15. The QurgMb having heated the refined silver, hammers it till it has 
lost all smell of the lead. His fee for the weight of 1000 rupees, is 4i dams. 

16. The Chdshnigir examines the refined gold and silver, and iixes its 
purity as follows : — Having made two tolahs of the refined gold into eight 
plates, ho applies layers of the mixture as above described, and sets fire to 
it, keeping out, however, all draught ; he then washes the plates, and melts 
them. If they have not lost anything by this process, the gold is pure. The 
assay-master then tries it upon the touchstone, to satisfy himself and others. 
For assaying that quantiiy, he gets \\ d&ms. In the case of silver, he takes 
one tolah with a like quantity of lead, which he puts together into a bone 
crucible, and keeps it on the fire till the lead is all burnt. Having then 
sprinkled the silver with water, he hammers it till it has lost all smell of the 
lead ; and having melted it in a new crucible, he weighs it ; and if it has lost 
in weight three* hirinj (rice grains), it is sufficiently pure; otherwise he melts 
it again, till it comes to that degree. For assaying that quantity, his fee is 
3 dams, 4^ jctals. 

17. The Nidriyah collects the hhdk i khaldg, and washes it, taking two 
sers at the time ; whatever gold there may be amongst it, will settle, from its 
weight, to the bottom. The khdky when thus washed, is called in Hindi 
kukrahf and still contains some gold, for the recovery of which, directions 
shall hereafter be given. The abovomentioned adulterated sediment is 
rubbed together with quicksilver, at the rate of six mashahs per s6.r. The 

* Some MSS. have katah. I * One MS. hsi» six. 


rjiiji 1; -.Ivcv f'l'niii it^ incdil'TTix .' ;:iliiiiiv, «li;'V.- tin- l:<']«1 ti- it-. If. and Inrm-- 
idi ;niM!_;';nii \". iii'h i^^ kfjit ov^-r tlif lirt- in a ]-.'t.»i't. till tii.- ii";i»I i^ ><•].. '.rat "I 
iVoiii 1 !..• (I iii( ]{-!!\ T. 

For •■xtractinii- tin- i^-uld l'i'<nii this (juantity n{' UmL, \\w Xf'f/nrif/c// 
r<'<;civ(-> 20 (Mnis, 2 jt'-tals. 

77'r iH'i^rtsU uj Kvhrdh. 

Tlwy mix wi'h tlu- I -^ ruli an cfjUal rpiantitv nt' y////^'-'//', and iorrn a 
|ur4«- iif /v'.v/ ;:<j:ni f'nvti- , and wild ('(iwiliiiiLr. Tiny then pound ila." tir^l 
roinp'j-il'nii, and mixiiiir it willi ilii' pa^t<', work it up into halls ot* \\\o .s»''rs 
v.. iu'lit, V. liicii th'-v (h'V on a «•!( \\\. 

I'urJti'r \> ohtahu d as 1o11(a\-> : — 

Tlh'V make a Imlc in ihi' rarih. and till it with the allies (jf J},fhl>J-\\KHn\^ 
at tin* iat(.' of six un^'<'rs oi' a^hos loi* cvtrv niaund jjI h ail. The had itscll' is 
put at tho hottoni (»r till- hole, ^\ hich has hern snuxttln-d; tln-n thry cuvcr 
it \» ith (lian-oalsj and nudt tjn" h-ad. Ai'tcr that, liavinu' rmaA'cd tho coals, 
t]i<'\' place over it two plati'-^ ol' ulay, Hxch] hy nn ans ol' thorns, and clo^r u]» 
the l)(]low.'> holr, hut not tin* vent. tiny kcr]) covered witli hricks, till 
the allies liavc Ihoroujihly soaked up the h'ad. The hiicks thoy frequently 
r(tjio\(', to leai'ii tlie !>tal«' ol' the hi.d. I'or tin* ahovejiientioncd (piantity of 
lead, thiie are 1 nii^h.ihs of silver mixed ii]) witJi tlio aslies. Tiirsu aslies 
ihcv cool in w-ater, wln-n thev are calh d ///^////6'/-. Out of everv man of lead 
two s'j-s ai'i' I'urnt ; hut tin- mass is increased hy four sers (;f a^5llL'S, m; that 
the'^ht oj' the ^\ hole mass will he oiu' man and two sers. 

Ju's'i is a kind of acM, nuide i)i' (fsl.{/ni/-^ and salt])etre. 

llaviuLT thu'. exphiinel what y/^' -//*'//■ ai''! /■">/ are, I r''tnrn to the descrip- 
tion of the ])r(M-f-s ol' JiC.'.ft/n. Thi'V make an (Aen-like v^'^^e], narrow at hotli 
ends, and wide in the middle, one and a li^lf yards in Iniiz'ht, witii a hole at 
theooiiimi. Then havin:^- iilled tlu* vessel with coals within four tin i^'ers of 
the l<»p, thev place it over a pit duii.' i]i the earth, and ])]ow the lir(' with two 
h(ll(A\.s. After Ihat, the ah )rementioned halls hein^- hroken into piecc^s, 
they throw them into the lire and melt th<'jn, wlien tlio p,-ohl, silvc^r, copper 
and lead, fall lhrou;^h \]u' liole in tiU' hc^ttoui of the vessel into the pit ])cdow. 
Whatever reiuains in the vessel, is softened and washed, and the lead separat- 
(d IVoni it. Thev Iikev,iso collect the ashes from whence^ aKo hv a certain 
p]-nce s prolit may he derived. The iiiJ-tal is then taken out ol' the [lit, ami 
melte(l according" to the y;/'////r//" s\ :tem. The lead w ill mix with the ashes. 

' 'I'l.c iii;e. Lriii"^ "I -'eiMc nf tl).- MSS, 
cNpliin tlu.>> word ii\ tf"' Iliad, vy,//. 

iiuiuuc i-iuhonato of st>da. 


from which thirty s^rs will be recovered, and ten s6r8 will be burnt. The 
gold, silver and copper, remain together in a mass, and this they call hugrdwati, 
or according to some, guHyrdtoati, 

The proceM of Bugrdtoati. 

They make a hole, and fill it with the ashes of ^a^u^wood, half a ser for 
every 100 tolahs of hugrawdtL These ashes they then make up in form of 
a dishy and mix them up with the bugrawati, adding one tolah of copper, and 
twenty-five tolahs of lead. They now fill the dish with coals, and cover it 
¥nth bricks. When the whole has melted, they remove the coals and the 
bricks, and make a fire of hahiil-wood^ till the lead and copper unite with the 
ashes, leaving the gold and silver together. These ashes are also called 
i^haraly and the lead and copper can be recovered from them by a process, 
which will be hereafter explained. 

AIN 8. 


They melt this composition six times ; three times with copper, and three 
times with sulphur , called in B[ind. ehhachhiyd. For every tolah of the alloy, 
they take a mashah of copper, and two mdshahs, two surkhs of sulphur. 
First, they melt it with copper, and then with sulphur. If the aQoy be of 
100 tolahs weight, the 100 mashahs of copper are employed as follows : — ^they 
first melt fifty mashahs with it, and then twice again, twenty-five mashahs. 
The sulphur is used in similar proportions. After reducing the mixture of 
gold and silver to small bits, they mix with it fifty mashahs of copper, and 
melt it in a crucible. They have near at hand a vessel full of cold water, on 
the surface of which is laid a broomlike bundle of hay. Upon it they pour 
the melted metal, and prevent it, by stirring it with a stick, from forming 
into a mass. Then having again melted these bits, after mixing them with 
the remaining copper in a crucible, they set it to cool in the shade : and for 
every tolah of this mixture, two mashahs and two surkhs of sidphur are 
used, ». d., af the rate of one and one half quarter s^r (If s^r) per 100 tdlahs. 
When it has been three times melted in this manner, there appears on the 
surface a whitisk kind of ashes, which is silver. This is taken off, and kept 
separate ; and its process shall hereafter be explained. When the mixture 
of gold and silver has thus been subjected to three fires for the copper, and 
three for the sulphur, the solid part left is the gold. In the language of the 
Panj&b, this gold is called kail, whilst about Dihlf, it is termed pinjar. If 



iho mixture containod muc-h p:ol(l, it (^eneraUy turns out to he of GJ brhiy but 
it is often only five, and even foiu\ 

In order to refine tliis gold, one of the follo\ving methods must be used: 
Either thov mix fifty tolah.s of tliis with 400 tolalis of purer gold, and refine 
it by the >SV//o/^/ process ; or else they use the ^'//o>^/ process. For the latter 
they make a mixture of two parts of wild cowdung, and one part of saltpetre, 
Having then cast the aforesaid j)f?(jar into ingots, tliey make it into plates, 
none of which ought to be lighter than U] tolahs, but a little broader than 
those which they make in the sahmi jirocess. Tlien having besmeared them 
with sesame-oil, they strew the above mixture over them, giving them for 
ev(»ry strewing two gentle lii*es. Tliis operation they repeat tlu'ee or four 
times ; and if they want the metal wevy \)\\yq^ they repeat the process tiU it 
comes up to nine Idn. Tlie ashes are also collected, being a kind of kWmral. 

AlN 9. 



^Miatever ashes and dross have been collected, both before and after the 
process of al()?f.'ij iliej mix with double the quantity of pure lead, put them into 
a crucible, and keep them for one watch over the fire. A\lien the metal is 
cold, they refine it as described imder the article Suhhuky p. 22. The ashes of 
it are also kliaraL The salon t process is also performed in other ways well 
known to those conversant with the business. 

18. The Pafihcdr having melted the k'haral, separates tlie silver fix)m 
the copper. His fee for every tolah of silver is 1^ dams. As a return for the 
profit h(^ makes, he pays monthly 300 dams to the diwan. HaA-ing reduced 
the Icliaral to small bits, he adds to every via7i of it \^ sers of tangdr (borax), 
and three sers of jiounded natrum, and kneads them together. Ho then 
])uts this mass, ser by ser, iuto the vessel above described, and melts it, when 
lead mixed with silver collects in the pit. This is afterwards refined by the 
process of the sahhak, and the lead which sexjarates fi-om this, and mixes 
with the ashes, turns pu/i/mr. 

19. The Paihdr buj^s the salorn and Ic'haral fi^om the goldsmiths of the 
citj^, and carries them to the mint to be melted, and makes^a profit on the 
gold and silver. For every man of salonij he gives 17 dams, and for the 
same quantity of k'haral 1 4 dams, to the exchequer. 

20. The NtchVuvdlah brings old copper-coins which are mixed with 
silver, to be melted; and from 100 tolahs of silver, 3^ rupees go to the 


di wan ; and when he wishes to coin the silver, he pays a fixed quantity for it 
as duty. 

21. The Ehakshde. When the owners of the metals get their gold and 
silver in the various ways which have now been described, the Khakshoe 
Bweeps the mint, takes the sweepings to his own house, washes them, and 
gains a profit. Some of the sweepers carry on a very flourishing trade. The 
state receives from this man a monthly gift of 12J rupees. 

And in like manner all the officers of the mint pay a monthly duty to 
the state, at the rate of three dams for every 100 dams» 

AfN 10. 


As through the attention of his Majesty, gold and silver have been 
brought to the greatest degree of purity, in like manner the form of the coins 
has also been improved. The coins are now an ornament to the treasury, 
and much liked by the people. I shall give a few particulars. 

A. Gold Coins, 

1. The S*hansah is a round coin weighing 101 tolahs, 9 mdshahs, and 
7 8iirkhB,.in value equal to 100 la* I i jaldli'VOMhuxa, On the field of one side 
is engraved the name of his Majesty, and on the five arches in the border, 
alsultdnu ala^zamu alkhdqdnu almu^azzamu khallada alldhu mulkahu wa suUdnahu 
tarhu dari'lkkildfati Agrah^ — ** The great sultan, the distinguished emperor, 
may Gk)d perpetuate his kingdom and his reign! Struck at the capital 
Agrah." On the field of the reverse is the beautiful formula^ and the 
following verse of the Qoran :^ — Alldhu yarzaqu tnan yashdu highairi hisdhtny — 
**God is boimtiftd unto whom He pleaseth, without measure;" — and 
roundabout are the names of the first four califs. This is what was first 
cut by Mauldnd Maq9ud, the engraver; after which Mulla 'Ali Ahmad 
made with great skill the following additions. On one side, Afzalu dindrin 
yanftiquhu alrajulu, dindrun yanfuquhu *ala aghdhihi fi sahklilldhy — " The best 
coin which a man expends, is a coin which he spends on his co-religionists 
in the path of God." 

And on the other side he wrote, 

Ahultdnu aPdli alkhalifatu almuta^dli khallada alldhu ta^dla mulkahu wa 
iultdnahu, wa ahhada ^etdlahu wa ihsdnahuj — '^ The sublime sidtan, the exalted 

^ Also called KaJiynah^ or the Confesaion I dun raml-ulldh. 
id Faith, Id Udha ill-alldh, Muhamma- I * Qor. Sur. II, 208. 


f .'«lir. m.'jy 0<''l tliv A\nA'j:].iy j'<'i]'»'iiat».- Isi- kir.u'''i«»iii and hi* reiirii, and givo 

Alt(nvurd- .'lU thi- -a a- r-inovf-d. ai.d t]i<^ fnllnwin<r two Eul"a*is of 
tli^- (ourt-j)Of-t and pIiilo-Mpliv^r i<}'"ihh Fo'.'i wt-re t-ngriived by him. On uno 

i^diifj ('■ A/ '/^//' /ii jifti'tiin' I fin jiiitlinr ynfi 
Kun nz on-.itr t-. tnrhi^/nf e u z^r ynff 
JJ'('ni znr' i-Juirnf az yikhah i S}>nh AJ^>nr utift. 
*' It is tli»' S\in* froTii whicli th^ slv<u oi^-aii^ g»-t their pearl!?, 
llie hlfi' k rock"^ jj:«'t t}i«'Ir j»'Wfl> from \\\^ hi<tre. 
The min^-!? ;f*-t th<'ir ;j:nld from hi> fosterinji Lrlaiico, 
And tli''ir pild ir? (-nnook-d l»y Ak])iir's stamp/' 
and, AllnliH akhnr, Jalhi julnhihii, — ''God is great, may lu« His gl')ry sliiuo 
forth !" in the middh*. And on the other side, 

fn hikkdh liJi p'lrunnh i uniHud Junrarf 
Ba yuiqnh i (hnrdui u )ffh/i I Jairid hiv.rad 
S'n/ifi i sa\idrJ.(f^/( hfoti'in has lih haddhr 
Yak zarrah nazar-kardah i klmrnldd hnwad. 
** Tliis coin, whieh is an ornament of ho2)0. 
Carries an ev<Tlasting stamp, and an immortal nanio. 
As a sign of its auspiciousness, it is sufficient 
That once for all ages the sun has cast a glim2>se upon it.'' 
and tho date, according to the Divine era, in tho middle. 

2. TJiero is another g(dd coin, of the same name and shape, weigliing 
01 tolalis and 8 ma'^liahs, in value equal to 100 round muhurs, at 11 mdshaliJ* 
eacli. It has the sam(^ imjuuxssiou as tho pre<.'eding. 

.*J. The Jlahaa is the half of each of the two preceding coins. It is 
sometimes made square. On one side it has tho same impression as the 
li'hanHahy and on tho otluT side the following Rub^'i by Faizi : — 

/'« 7iaqd i rawan i (jnnj i Hhdhinshdht 
Bd kaukah i iqhdl kunad hamrdhi 
Klnirshcd hiparxcaranh azdnrii kih hadahr 
Ydhad sharaf az sikkah i Akharshdhi. 
** Tliis current coin of tho imperial treasure 
Accompanies the star of good fortune. 
sun, foster it, because for all ages 
It is ennobled by Akbai**s stamp I'' 

* Ai'corcling to the Natural riiiloyophers 
of till' Middle Aj^oji, the inlluence of the 
Buu calls the metals, the pearLs and pre- 

cious stones into existence ; vide the tliir- 
t<.'(Mith Ain. The allusion to the sun is 
explain4?d by the note to page III. 


4. The Atmah is the fourth part of the a^hansah, round and square. 
Some have the same impression as the a^hansah ; and some have on one side 
the following Eubd'l by Faizf — 

fn Mkah kih dost % hahht rd zewar IM 

Phrdydh % nuh sipihr u haft akhtar had 

Zarrin naqd^st kdr azii chun zar hdd 

Dar dahr rawdn landm i shdh akhar hdd. 
*' This coin — May it adorn the hand of the fortunate, 
And may it be an ornament of the nine heavens and the seyen 

stars! — 
Is a gold coin, — May golden be its work ! 
Let it be current for all ages to the gloiy of Shdh Akbar." 
And on the other side the preceding Bub^'i. 

5. The Binsaty of the same two forms as the dtmah, in value equal to 
one-fifth of the first coin. 

There are also gold coins of the same shape and impression, in value 
equal to one-eighth, one-tenth, one-twentieth, one twenty-fifth, of the s^hansah. 

6. The Chuguly^ of a square form, is the fiftieth part of the a^hamahy in 
value equal to two muhurs.' 

7. The round IaCI i JaUdiy* in weight and value equal to two round 
muhurSy having on one side ^^ Alldhu akhar y^ and on the other Yd mu^knu — 
** helper." 

8. The Aftdhi is round, weighs 1 tolah, 2 mdshahs and 4f surkhs, in 

^ Or JuauL Abulfazl's Bpelling in the 
text is ambiguous. 

* The M8S. differ. Most of them place 
the Chufful as the sixth coin, a^er the 
£insatf and read : — 

*• The Chufful, of a square form, weigh- 
ing 3 tdlahs, 6} surkhs ; its value is 
thiitv rupees. Also, of a round form, 
weighing 2 tdlahs, 9 mashahs, having a 
value of three round muhurs, of 11 ma- 
shahs each, (». e., 27 rupees). But the 
impression of boUi is the same. They 
are iheJifHeth part of the S'hansah" 

The last sentence does not agree with 
the value and weight of the S hansah ; 
for the two Chuguls, as given by Abul- 
&zl, would each be the -^th part of the 
two kinds of S* hansah, not the fiftieth 

Mr. Thomas in his excellent edition of 
Prinsep 8 Useful tables, pp. 6 and 6, gives 
an extract firom a MS. of the Ain in his 
possession, which appears to agree with 
the above reading ; but he only mentions 
the square form of the Chuguly weighing 

3 tdlahs, 6 J surkhs, worth 30 rupees ; 
and then passes on to the eighth coin, the 

Two other MSS. — among them Col. 
Hamilton's — read after the Binsat, {i. e,, 
after the twenty-fifth 4ine of p. 24 of my 
text edition) — 

" 6. The Chahdrgdshah (or square) , 
weighing 3 tdlahs, 6^ surkhs, worth 30 

" 7. The Crird (or round) ; weighing 2 
t61ah8, 9 mdshahs, in value equal to the 
3 round muhurs of 11 mashahs each." 

" Both have the same impression." 

** 8. The Chufful, of a square form, the 
fiftieth part of a S' hansah, in value equal 
to two Xa7 I Jdlalt muhurs" 

This reading obviates all difficulties. 
But the real question is whether the 
Chahdrg68h<ihfihe Gird, and the Chugul 
are three distinct coins. 

■ For the round • Lai i Jaldlt, some 
MSS. only read, " The Gird," i. e,, round, 
taking the words La'l i Jaldlt to the 
preceding. Vide the tenth coin. 


v;ilii(. equal to 12 riipues. On one side, '' Allah u oUntr. JhIIm jalldluhu,'' and 
oil tli<' other tho diitu according to the Divine era, and the place where it is 

9. The JJahi is rcnmd, weighs 12 mdshahs, 1 J sui-khs, hears the same 
stamp as tlie Ajfuh't^ and has a value of 10 ru])ees. 

10. Tlie A7y//r/yv? Ijt'l i JaldJi is of the same weig'ht and value; on oue 
side '^ AUdhu ahhar,^' and on the otlier ''Jallu jahiluJmy 

11. 'Hui ^Ar//f/fff/c((/f is round, weighs 11 masliahs, and has a value of 
nine rupeivs. On one side '^ AUdhu ahhur,'^ and on the other, ** Yd inu'hni.'^ 

12. Tlie IloK/ifl muhiir^ in weight and value erpial to the ^ Adlgutkah, but 
of a different^ stamp. 

13. Jtlihrdhi^ is in weight, value, and stami), the same as the round 

14. The Mii^ini is hotli square and round. In weight and value it is 
('(pud to the La'l ijuldliy and the round muhur. It bears the stamp **ya 

mu luu. 

15. Tlie Chahdrff'Uhah, in stamp and weight the same as the Aftdhi, 
IG. The Gird is the half of the Ildhi^ and has the same stamp. 

17. The D'han'' is half a La' I i JaldU.^ 

1 8. The ^alimi is the half of the ' Adlcjuihali, 

19. The Rahi is a quarter of the Aft din. 

20. The Man^ is a quarter of the IldJn^ and Jaldli. 

21. The ILtlf ^^alh/ii is a quarter of the ^Adlguthih, 

22. The PauJ is the fifth part of tho IldJn. 

23. The Paiidau is the fifth j^art of tho LaU i Jaldli; on one side is a lily, 
and «)n the other a wild rose. 

24. The >SV /;/;//, or Axhffiiddhj is one-eighth of tho Ildhi; on one side 
^^ AUdJiu a/ihar,'^ and on the other ^^jalla JaldluJiu.'^^ 

2o. The Kald is the sixteenth part of the Ildhi. It has on both sides a 
M'ild rose. 

2G. The Zarah is tho 32nd part of an Ildh'i^ and has the same stamp as 
tho kald. 

As regards gold coins, the custom followed in the imperial mint is io 
coin La'l ijaldlisj J/huifs^ and Jla/is^ each coin for the space of a month. Tlie 
otluu* gold coins are never stamped without special orders. 

* It hjuM the Kaliinah. (Sayyid Ahmiul's 
edition of the Ain). 

The fi«rvuv called /;/ / 

ih rub /, 18 a^ p 

111 Forb^sH Dictionary, Jahan. 

* Several MSS. n-ad - " llolf a quarter 
Ilalii and La'l i Jalali." Forbes gives six 
rupees (?). 

• Several ^ISS. have Hahi . Perhaps we 
ahould write RahbL 


B. Silver Coins. 

1. The Rupee is roimd, and weighs eleven and one half mdshahs. It 
was first introduced in the time of Sher Khdn. It was perfected during this 
reign, and received a new stamp, on one side " Alldhu aJchar, jalla jaldluhu^'* 
and on the other the date. Although the market price is sometimes more or 
less than forty ddms, yet this value is always set upon it in the payment of 

2. The Jalalah is of a square form, which was introduced during the 
present reign. In value and stamp it is the same as No. 1. 

3. The Barb is half a JalMah. 

4. The Cham is a quarter Jalalah, 

5. The Pandau is a fifth of the Jal&lah, 

6. The Asht is the eighth part of the Jalalah, 

7. The Dasd is one-tenth of the Jalalah. 

8. The Kai& is the sixteenth part of the Jal6hh. 

9. The Siiki is one-twentieth of the Jaldlah, 

The same firactional parts are adopted for the [round] Rupee, which are 
however dlfierent in form. 

C. Copper Coins. 

1. The Dim weighs 5 tdnks, t. e., 1 tolah, 8 mdshahs, and 7 surkhs; it is 
the fortieth part of the rupee. At fii'st this coin was called Paisah, and also 
Bahldli: now it is known under this name (dam). On one side the plaoe is 
given where it was struck, and on the other the date. 

For the purpose of calculation, the ddm is divided into twenty-five parts, 
each of which is called a jetal.^ This imaginary division is only used by 

2. The Adhilah is half of a ddm. 

3. The PdtUah is a quarter ddm. 

4. The Damri is one-eighth of a d/im. 

In the beginning of this reign, gold was coined to the glory of his 
Majesty in many parts of the empire; now gold coins are struck at four places 
only, riz., at the seat of the government, in Bengal, Ahmadab&d (Gujr^t), 
and Ej&bul. Silver and copper are likewise coined in those four places, and 
besides in the following ten places, — H^abds, Agrah, Ujain, Surat,* Dihli, 
Patana, Kashmir, Lihor, Multdn, Tandah. In twenty-eight towns copper 
ooins only are struck, viz., Ajmir, Audh, Atak, Alwar, Badaon, Banfiras, 
Bhakkar, Bahial r , Patau, Jaunpur, J^dandhar, Hardwar, Hisar Firuzah, 

K Mv<<ii. . 

Often misspelt chdial. The text gives | the correct spelling. 

Kiil|>i, GwHliar, Gurak'hpur, Kalaiiwai', Lak'hnaii, Maudu, Niip^or, SarliinJ, 
♦Siyiilkot, iSaroiij, tSaliaraiipur, >Sriraii{>;])ur, 8ambal, Qanauj, Eantanbhur. 

^Eurcantiltj afliilrri in this country aro mostly trausacted in round muhurSj 
rupees, and dams. 

Unprincipled mon cause a great deid of niiscKief by rubbing down the 
coins, or by employing similar metliods ; and in consequence of the damage 
done to the nation at large, his Majesty continually consults experienced men, 
and from liis knowledge of the spirit of the age, issues new regulations, in 
order to prevent such <lotrimental practices. 

The currency underwent severtd changes. First, when (in the 27th. 
year) the reins of the governnK^nt were in the hands of Eajah Tudarmal,* 
four kinds of muhurs were alhjwed to be current : A. There was a Lai i 
Jaltdi, which had the name of his Majesty stamped on it, and weighed 
1 tulah, 12 surklis. It was quite i)m'e, and had a value of 400 dams. 
Again, there existed from the l)eginiiing of this glorious reign, a muhur 
with the imperial stamp, of which three degrees passed as current, r/z., 
B. Tliis muhur, when perfectly pure, and having the full weight of 11 
mashahs. Its value was J360 dams. If from wear and tear it had lost in 
weight within three grains of rice, it was still allowed to be of the same de- 
gree, and no ilifi'erence was made. C. The same muhur, when it had lost in 
weight from four to six rice grains ; its value was 355 d^ms. B. The same 

* Rj'ijah Todannal, a K'lietri by caste, 
was born at Labor. He apiK'ai-s to 
have entered Akbar's service durinj^ 
the eijijbleentb year of tbe emperors 
reif2^n, wlien bo was einpb)yed to setUe 
the art airs of Guj rat. In tlie ll>tb year, 
we rtnd bini in Bengal in coni})any with 
Mnnim Khan ; and tbree years later, 
attain in (Injrat. In tbe 27tb year, be 
was appointed Diirdfi of tbe empire, 
wben be remodeUed tbe revenue system. 
Alter an unsnecesstul attenjpt on bis life 
made by a K'betri in tbe \i'2nd year, be 
was sent aj^ainst tbe Yusul'zais, toaven^'e 
tbe death of Uir Bar. In tbe 3 Itb year, 
old age and sickness oblij^ed bim to send 
in bi.s resignation, wbicb Akbar miwill- 
uv^\y accepted. Retiring to tbe banks 
of tbe Ganges be died — or, tvcnt to hell, 
as Badj'ionI expresses Imnselt' in tbe case 
of Hindus — on tbo eleventh day A. II. 
998, or 10th November 1 589, the same 
year in which Riijah Bba^awan Das died. 
Todarmal had reached the rank of a 
Chahdrhazdrt, or commander of Four 
Thousand, and was no less distinguished 
for his personal courage, than bis finan- 

cial abilities. His eldest son D'hdru, a 
commander of seven hundred, was killed 
in tbe war with T'bat'hah. 

Abultazl did not like Todarmal per- 
sonally, but praises bim for bis strict in- 
te«xrity and abilities ; be charges him 
with vindictiveness of temper and bigotry. 
Aurangzcb said, be bfid beard from hLs 
father, that Akbar complained of the 
rajah's independence, vani/j/, and biffofed 
adherence to Hindu ism, Abulfazl openly 
complained of him to Akbar; but the 
emperor with bis usual regard for fiiith- 
ful services, said that he could not drive 
away an old servant. In his adherence 
to Hinduism, Todarmal may be contrast- 
ed with Bir Bar^ who a short time before 
bis death bad become a member of the 
Divine Faith. Once wben accompany- 
ing Akbar to the Pan jab, in the hurry 
of the departure, Todarmal's idols were 
lost ; and as he transacted no business 
before his daily worship, he remained for 
several days without food and drink, and 
was at la«t with difficulty cheered up by 
the emperor. 


muliur irhen it had lost in wriglit firom six to nine rice grains ; its value 
weLB 350 d&ms. 

Muhurs of less weight than this were considered as bullion. 

Of Rupees J three kinds were then current, viz., A, one of a square form, 
of pore silver, and weighing 11 J m^hahs ; it went under the name of 
Jalalahy and had a value of 40 dims. B. The round, old Akharshdhi 
Hapee, which, when of fuU weight, or even at a surkh less, was valued at 
39 djims. C. The same rupees, when in weight two surkhs less, at 38 

Bupees of less weight than this were considered as bullion. 

Secondly f on the 18th Mihr of the 29th year of the Divine era, 'Azad- 
addaulah Amir Eathullah^ of Shir^ coming at the head of affairs, a royal 
order was issued, that on the muhursy as far as three grains ; and on the 
ruj?ees, as far as six grains short weight, no account should be taken, but 
that they should be reckoned of full weight. If muhurs were still less, 
they should make a deduction for the deficiency, whatever their deficiency 
might be ; but it was not ordered, that only muhurs down to nine 
grains less, should be regarded as muhurs. Again, according to the same 
regulation, the value of a muhur that was one surkh deficient, was put 
down as 355 d^ons and a fraction ; and hence they valued the price of one 

* Amir Fatiballah of Shiraz was the 
pupil of Khajah Jamaluddin Mahmtid, 
Kain&laddin of Shirwan, and Mfr Ghi^r 
nddin Man^ur of Shiraz. He so excel- 
led in all branches of Natural philosophy, 
especially mechanics, that AduI&zI said 
of him, *' If the books of antiquity should 
be lost, the Amir will restore them." At 
the earnest solicitations of 'Adil Shah of 
!Kjapdr, he left Shiraz for the Dekhan. 
In AH. 991, after the death of 'Adil 
Shilh, he was invited by Akbar, who 
raised him to the dignity of a Sadr, and 
bestowed upon him, three years later, 
the title oi Aminulmulk. He was ap- 
pointed to assist T<Sdarmal, and rendered 
l^ood service in working up the old re- 
Tenae books. His title Aminulmulk^ 
to which Abulfazl alludes (vide p. 28, 1. 
9 of my text edition), was in the same 
year changed to Azaduddaulak, or the 
arm qf the empire. The Amir went 
afterwards to Khand^sh. After his return 
in 997 to Akbar, who was then in Kash- 
mir, he was attacked with fever, of which 
be died. Thinkinj? to understand the 
medical art, he reiused the advice of the 
famous Hakim *AK, and tried to cure 
the tever by eating hariaah, {vide the 

twenty-fourth Ain), which caused his 

Next to Abul&zl, Faizi, and Bir Bar, 
the A mfr was perhaps most loved by 
Akbar. Several of his mechanical inven- 
tions, mentioned below, are ascribed by 
Abulfazl to Akbar himself (!). The Amur 
was, however, on the best terms with 
Abul&zl, whose son he instructed. Ac* 
cording to the author of the Mir-dt ul 
*Alami he was " a worldly man, often 
accompanying the emperor on hunting 
parties, with a rifle on his shoulder, and a 
powder-bag in his waistband, treading 
down science, and performing feats of 
strength, which Bustam could not hav^e 

It is stated by the author of the Mad' 
sir ul umard that according to some, the 
Amir was a Sih-hazdri, or Commander 
of three thousand ; but I do not find 
his name among the lists of Akbar s 
grandees given in the Tabaqdt i Akbart, 
and the last Ain of the second book of 
this work. Instead of Amir Fathullah, 
we also find, especially in Badionl, Shdh 
Fathullah. He lies buried on the 
Takht i Sulaimdn. Faizi's ode on hi^ 
death is very (iue, 


gurkh of coined gold at the low rate af foifr dams and a fraction. According" to 
To(lannal\s regulation, a deduction oi'Jire diiuis was made for a deficiency of 
one fiurkh ; and if the muhur hud lost something more than the three grains, 
for wliich he had made no account, even if it were only \ surkh, fiJl five 
d^ms were subtracted ; and for a deficiency of 1^ surklis, he deducted ten 
d^ms, even if the deficiency shoidd not b(> (|uite li surkhs. By the new 
law of 'Azaduddaidali, the value of a muhur wa.s lessened by six dams and a 
fraction, as its gold was worth 353 ddms and a fraction only/ 

'Azaduddaulah abolished also the regulation, according to which the 
value of a round rupee had l)e('n fixed at one dam less than the square one, 
notwithstanding its perfection in weiglit and purity, and fixed the value of 
the round rui)ee, when of fidl weight or not less than one siu'kh, at forty dams ; 
and whilst fonnerly a deduction of two dams was made for a deficiency of 
two surklis, tliey now deduct for the same deficiency only one d^im and a frac- 

Thirdly^ when * Azaduddaidali went to Khundesh, the Eiijiih estimated 
the value of muhurs tliat had been expressed in Jaldlah rupees, in round 
rupees ; and from his obstinate and wrangling disposition, fixed again the 
deficiencies on midiurs and rui)ees according to the old rates. 

Fourthly^ when Qulij Klidn^ received the charge of the government, 
ho adopted the Rajah's manner of estimating the muliurs ; but he deducted 

* For 'Azaduddaulali haviii*^ fixed the 
value of 1 8urkh of coined i^old at 4 dams 
and a Hinall traction, the value of a mnhiu* 
of lull weight (11 iiuisbahs = 11 x 8 
Hurklis) was only 11>C8X(4+ a small 
fraction) diims, /. c, according to Abul- 
fazl, 353 dams and a fraction, instead of 
3(30 dams. 

^ Qw/^yA'Aaw is first mentioned during 
the seventeenth year of Akbar's rei^n, 
when he was made governor of tlie Fort of 
Surat, which Akbar after a sie^^e of forty- 
He ven days had conquered. In the 23rd 
year he Avas sent to Gnjrat ; and atU'r 
the death of Shah Mau(,*ur, he was, two 
years later, appointed iuj Diwdn. In 
the 28th year he accompanied the army 
during the conquest of Gnjrat. In the 
34th year, he received SamhhaJ as jaj^ir. 
Atler the death of T<Sdarmal, he was 
again appointed as Diwdu. This is the 
time to Avhich Abulfazl refei's. In 10O2 
he was made governor of Kabul, where 
he was not successfid. After his removal, 
he accompanied, in 1005, his son-in-laAv 
Prince Danyal ais Atdliqy or tutor, but 
he soon returned to Akbar. Dm-inf^ the 
absence, in 1007, of the emperor in Khan- 

dcsh, he was governor of Agrah. Two 
years later he was promoted to the go- 
vernorship of the Panjab and Kabul. At 
the accession of Jahangir, he was sent to 
(lujrat, but returned next year to the 
Panjab, where he had to hght against 
the ilaushaniyyahs. He died, at an ad- 
vanced age, in 1()35, or A. D. 1025-26. 
Abulfazl, in the last Am of the second 
book, mentions him as Clialidrhazdri^ or 
Commander of Four Thousand, which 
hip;h rank he must have held for some 
time, Its JVizdmt i Ilarawi, in his Tahd- 
(/(if i Akban, mentions him as such, and 
as Diwan. When tutor to Prince Dan- 
yal, he was j)romoted to the conunand of 
Four Thousand Five Hundred. Qulij 
Khiin was a pious man, and a stanch 
Sunni ; he wa** much respected for his 
learning. As a poet he is known under 
the name of Ulfati ; some of his verses 
may be ibimd in the concluding chapter 
of the Mif'dt ul *Alam, The high rank 
which he held, was less due to his talents 
as a statesman, than to his family- 
connexion with the kings of Tdraii. Of 
his two sons, Mirza Saifullah and Mirza 
liusaiu Qulij, the latter is best known. 


tern dims for a deficiency in the weight of a muhur, for which the B^'ah 
had deducted five dims ; and twenty d&ms, for the former deduction of ten 
d&niB ; whilst he considered eveiy muhur as bullion, if the deficiency was 
1^ sorkhs. Similarly, eveiy rupee, the deficiency of which was one eurkh, 
was considered as bullion. 

Ziuifyy his Majesty trusting to his advisers, and being occupied by 
Taiious important affairs, paid at first but little attention to this subject, till 
after having received some intimation of the imsatisfactoiy state of this 
matter, lie issued another regulation, which savBd the nation further lossed, 
and was approved of by every one, far and near. On the 26th of Bahman, 
of the year 36, according to the Divine era (A. D. 1592,) he adopted the second 
|[f. e., 'Azaduddaulah's] method, with one exception, namely, he did not 
approve of the provision that a mtdiur the deficiency of which did not exceed 
ikreey and a mpee, the deficiency of which did not exceed six, surkhs, should 
still be r^^arded as of full weight. And this regulation was the only effec- 
tual method for preventing the fraudulent practices of unprincipled men ; 
for the former regulations contained no remedy in cases when the officers of 
the mint coined money of the above deficiency in weight, or when treasurers! 
reduced frill coins to the some deficiency. Besides shameless, thievish people 
made light grain weights, and used to reduce muhurs, deficient by three 
grains, to six grains deficiency, whilst they accepted muhurs six grains 
deficient as muhurs deficient by nine grains. This reduction of coins being 
oontinaedf lai^e quantities of gold were stolen, and the losses seemed never 
to end. By the command of his Majesty grain weights of bdbdghiiri were 
made, which were to be used in weighing. On the same date other strin- 
gent regulations were issued, that the treasurers and revenue collectors 
should not demand from the tax-payers any particular species of coins, and 
that the exact deficiency in weight and purity, whatever it might be, should 
be taken according to the present rate and no more. This order of his 
Majesty disappointed the wicked, taught covetous men moderation, and 
freed the nation from the cruelty of oppressors. 

xrs 11. 


Having gjiven some accoimt of the currency of the empire, I shall add 
a few particulars regarding these two ancient coins, and remark on the value 
of ancient coinage. 

The Dirham, or Birhdm, as the word is sometimes given, is a silver coin, 
the shape of which resembled that of a date stone. During the califate of 


' OmaVy it was ehangod to a oirculai* form ; and in the time of Znhuir^ it was 
impressed with the words Alhihu (God), harahat (bh>ssing). TTojjdj stamped 
npon it the chapter of the Qorau called Ikhhtv; and others say that he imprinted 


H with his own name. Others assert, that 'Omar was the lii*st who stamped 
an impression on dirhams ; wliilst, according to some, Greek, Kliusravite, 
and nimyarite dirhams were in circidation at the time of Abdulmalik, the son 
Murwan, hy whose order Ilajjiij, tlie son of Yusnf, had struck dirhams. 
Some say that Ilajjiij refined the base dirhams, and coined them with the words 
AUdku ahad (God is one), and AUdhu camad (God is eternal) ; and these dirhams 
were called makruhah (abominable), because God's holy name was thereby 
dishonoured ; unless this tenn be a corrui)tiun of some other name. After 
Ilajjaj, at the time of the reign of Yazid ibn i Abdxilmalik, 'Omar ibn 
Hubairah coined in the kingdom of 'Iraq better dirhams than Hajjaj had 
made ; and afterwards Khalid ibn Abdidlah Qasri, when governor of 'Ii-aq, 
made them still finer, but they were brought to tlie higliest degree of purity 
by Yusuf ibn 'Omar. Again, it has been said that Mu^'ab ibn Zubair was 
the first who struck dirhams. Various accounts are given of their weights ; 
some saying that they were of ton or nine, or six or five mi'sqdls ; wliilst 
others give the weights of twenty, twelve and ten qirdts, asserting at the 
(same time that 'Omar had taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a coin 
of fourteen qirdts, being the third part of the aggregate sum. It is likewise 
said that at the time of 'Omar there were current several kinds of dirhams : 
Jirsty some of eight d&ngR, which were called haghliy after Eds haghl who was an 
assay-master, and who struck dirhams by the command of 'Omar ; but others 
call them haghalli, from haghal, wliich is the name of a village ;' secandlgy some 
of four daugs, which were called tahr{; thirdh/^ some of three d^ngs, which 
Were known as maglirihi ; and lastly , some of one dang, named yaman{y the 
half of which four kinds 'Omar is said to have taken as a uniform average 
weight. Fdzil of Khujand says tliat in former days dirhams had been of 
two kinds, ^r«^ : — full ones of eight and six d^ngs (1 dang of his = 2 qirdU ; 
1 qir&t = 2 tas8uj\ 1 tassuj ■=z 2 hahhah) ; and secondly , deficient ones of four 
dangs and a fraction. Some hold different opinions on this subject. 

The Dindj' is a gold coin, weigliing 09ie misqdlj i. <'., If dii'hams, aS 
they put 1 misqdl:=. 6 ddngs ; 1 dang 4 tassuj ; 1 tassuj ^= 2 hMahs ; 1 hahhah 
= 2 y^7?« (barley grains); \jau = 6 k/iardals (mustard-grain); I khaj^dal =:s 
12 fals ; 1 fal==. 6 fatils; 1 fatil =z 6 naqirs) 1 naqir =z 6 qitrnirs ; and 
1 qitmir =12 zarrahs. One misqdl, by this calcidation, woidd be equal 
to 96 barley grains. Misqdl is a weight, used in weighing gold; and 
it is also the name of the coin. From some ancient writings it appears 

* According to some inferior MSS., the name of a kind of gold. 


tkat the Ghreek misqdl is out of use^ and weighs two qirdta less than this ; 
and that the Greek dirham differs likewise from others, being less in weight 
^y i or i of a misqdl. 

Am 12. 

One round muhUr of 11 mdshahs buys one tolah of gold of 10 ban ; or 
one tolah, 2 surkhs of 9f ban ; or 1 tolah, 4 s, of 8} b^ ; or 1 tolah 6 a. of 
9:^ b&Q ; or 1 tolah, 1 m&shah of 9 b&n ; and similarly, according to the same 
proportion, the decreajse of one b&n increases the quantity of gold which a 
muhur can buy, by one mdshah. 

The merchant buys for 100 La' I i JalcUi muhurs 130 ^. 2 m. Of s. oi Hun 
gold of 8i b^ois. Of this quantity 22 L 9 m. 7^ a. bum away in melting, 
and mix with the khdh % khaMg^ so that 107 ^. 4 m. H s. of pure gold remain, 
which are coined into 105 muhurs, leaving a remainder of nearly half a tolah 
of gold, the value of which is 4 rupees. From the khdk i khaldg are recovered 
2 ^. 11 m. 4 «. of gold, and 11 t. II m. 4^ s, of silver, the value of both of 
which is 35 rupees, 12^ tangahs,^ so that altogether the abovementioned 
quantity of Sun gold yields 105 muhurs, 39 Es., and 25 d^uns. 

This sum is accounted for as follows. Firsty 2 Bs. ISd. 12^/., due to thd 
workmen according to the rates which have been explained above ; secondly, 
S Rm. Sd. Sj\ for ingredients ; which sum is made up of 1 ^. 4 <?. 1 J j\ on 
account of articles used in refining the metal, vt'z.y 26 d, 16^/. dung ; 4 d. 20 j\ 
saloni ; 1 d. 10 j. water ; lid. bj. quicksilver, and 4 Es. 4 d. 6jy. on account 
of the hhdk % khaldg {vtz., 21 d. 7jy. charcoal, and 3 Es. 22 d. 24/. lead) ; 
thirdly y 6 Es. 37^ d.y which the owners of the gold take from the merchant, 
ajB a consideration for lending hiin the gold ; this item goes to the Diw^ in 
case the gold belongs to the exchequer ; fourthly y 100 LaH i JaJdli muhurs, 
which the merchant gets in exchange for the gold which he-brought ; fifthly y 

12 E». 37 d. Si J. which the merchant takes ajs his profit ; sixthly y 5 muhura 
12 Es. Si d.y which go to the exchequer.' According to this proportion, 
meztihants make their profits. 

Although gold is imported into Hindustan, it is to be found in abundance 
in the northern moimtains of the country, aj3 also in Tibet. Gold may also 
be obtained by the ^Sa/dnt-process &om the sands of the Ganges and Indus, 

* One tangah = 2 dams ; now-a-days^ 
one tangah = 2 pais. 

* There is a slight mistake of lij^tals, 

as the several items added up give 105 m. 
39 Es. 24 d. 23f >„ but not 105 m. 39 Ks. 
2b d. 


fni<l sovoral other rivors, as most of the waters of this oountiy are mixed with 
^okl : ]iowover, the hihour and expoiise greatly exceed the profit. 

One Eupee buys 1 t.O m.2 m. of pure silver; hence for 950 Rs. the merchant 
gets UGl) t. 9 ;w. 4 s. of silver. Out of this quantity, 5 t. tn. 4^ s. burn away in 
<'asting ingots. The remainder j-iehls lOOG rupees, and a sur2)his of silver worth 
27. \ dilms. The several items are — -first, 2 Rs. 22 d. 12 j., as wages for the work- 
men {viz., The Wciyhman 5 d. 7^ J., the Chdshniyir 3 d. 4J; the Mrlter 6 d. I2lj. ; 
the Zdrruh 2 lis. 1 d. Oj. ; the Sikhachi Gd. 12.1/) ; secondhj, 10 ^. 15/, on ac- 
count of requisites {viz., 10 d. charcoal, and 15/ water) ; thirdhj, 50 Its. \^d. 0/, 
payable to the Ih'wiin \fourthhf, 950 Es., which the merchant gets in exchange 
for the silver he brought ; and fifthhj, 3 lis. 2\ d. lOJ^ /, being the profit of 
the merchant. If he refines the base silver at liis own house, his profit will 
be much greater ; but when he brings it to be coined, his profit cannot be 
so great. 

Of tlie silver called lar'i and shdln, and the other above mentioned baser 
coins, one rupee buys 1 ^. m. 4 «., so that 950 Rupees will buy 989 i. 7 m. 
In the Sdhhdki i)rocess, 14 t. 10 ?w. 1 *. burn away, being at the rate of IJ t, 
per cent. ; and in making the ingots, 4 ^. 11 m. 3 s. are lost in the fire. The 
remainder yields 1012 rupees; and from the Ihdk i k^haral 3. J Rs. are recover- 
able. The several items are — first, 4 Rs. 21 d. 21 J / on account of the wages 
of the workmen {viz., the IVeighman 5 d. 7f / ; the Sahbdk 2 Rs. d. 19/ ; the 
Qur^k6b 4 d. 19/ ; the ChMnU/ir 3 d. 4/ ; the Melter 6 d. 12^/ ; the Zarrdb 
2 Rs. 1 d. ; the Sikkachi 6 d. I2hj.) ; secondly, 5 Rs. 24 d. 15/ for necessaries, 
{viz. b Rs. W d. lead ; 10 ^. charcoal ; and 15/ water) ; thirdly, 50 Rs. 24 (f., 
payable to the state ; foxirthhj, 950 Rs. wliich the merchant receives for his 
silver ; fifthly, 4 Rs. 29 ^. his profit.^ Sometimes the merchant gets the 
silver cheap, when his profit is much larger. 

1044 dams buy one man of copper, «'. e., at the rate of 26 d. 24/ per ser. 
Out of tliis quantity, one ser is burnt away in melting ; and as each ser yields 
30 ddms, there are coined altogether 1170 dams, from which the merchant 
takes his capital, and IS d. 19 J/ as profit. 33 d. 10/ go to the workmen ; and 
15 d. 8/ for necessaries, {viz. 13 rf. 8 / for charcoal; 1 d, for water; and 
1 d. for clay) ; 58 i ^. go to the state. 

AIN 13. 


The Creator by calling into existence the four elements, has raised up 
wonderful forms. Fire is absolutely warm, dry, light ; air is relatively 

* These items added give Rs. 1016, 
2od. 14il /, I. e., a little more than the 

sum mentioned by Abuliazl (1015 Rs. 
20 d.) 


waniiy moifit, light ; water is relatively cold, moiet, heavy ; earth is absolutely 
cold, dry, heavy. Heat is the cause of lightness, and cold of heaviness ; 
moistiieas easily separates particles, whilst dryness prevents their separation. 
This wonderful arrangement calls four compounds into existence, fint^ the 
Mr X ^ulw{;*^ seamdly^ stones ; thirdly , plants ; fourthly ^ animals. From the 
heat of the sun, wateiy particles become lighter, Tm'-g with the air, and rise 
up. Such a mixture is called hukhdr (gas). From the same cause, earthy 
particles mix with the air, and rise up. This mixture is called dukhdn 
(vapour). Sometimes, however, airy particles mix with the earth. Several 
philosophers call both of the above mixtures hukhdr^ but distinguish the 
mixture of wateiy particles and air by the name of moiat^ or watery lukhdry 
whilst they call the mixture of earthy particles and air, dry hukh6ry or dukhdni 
hukkdr (vapour-like gas). Both mixtures, they say, produce above the 
surface of the earth, clouds, wind, rain, snow, &c. ; and, below the surface of 
our earth, earthquakes, springs, and minerals. They also look upon the hukhdr 
as the body, and upon the dukhdn as the soul of things. From a difference 
in their quality and quantity, various bodies are called into existence, as 
described in books on philosophy. 

Minerals are of five kinds : Jirst, those which do not melt on accoimt of 
their diyness, as the ydqiit ; secondly, those which do not melt, on aocoimt of 
their liquidity, as quicksilver ; thirdly, those which can be melted, being at 
the same time neither malleable, nor inflammable, as blue stone ; fourthly ^ 
those which can be melted, being however not malleable, but inflammable, 
as sulphur ; fifthly, those which can be melted, and are malleable, but not 
inflammable, as gold. A body is said to melt, when fi:om the union of 
4he inherent principles of dryness and moisture its particles are moveable ; 
and a body is called malleable, when we can make it extend in such a 
manner, as to yield a longer and wider surface, without, however, either 
separating a part firom it, or adding a part to it. 

When in' a mixture of hukhdr with dukhdn, the former is greater in 
quantity, and when, after their mixture and complete union, the heat of the 
sun causes the whole to contract, quicksilveb will be produced. Since no 
part of it is destitute of dukhdn, the dryness is perceptible ; hence, on touching 
ity it does not affect the hand, but flees from it ; and since its contraction was 
produced by heat, no warmth can dissolve it. Again, when in a mixture of 
hukhdr and dukhdn, both are nearly in equal proportion, a tenacious greasy 
moisture is produced. At the time of fermentation, airy particles enter, when 
cold causes the whole to contract. This mass is inflammable. If the dukhdn 
and the greasiness are a little in excess, sulphub will be produced, in colour 

* Or doings from on high, aa rain, snow, &c. 


citlior rod or yollow, or <^roy or white. If the proportion of the dukhdn is large, 
and tliat of the grease h'ss, AitsEXic will result, which is red and yellow. And 
if tlie quantity of the hidlidr is greater, pur(>, Idack and yellow NAniTiiA will 
arise, after the mixtiUH^ gets solid. Sinec^ in all, eold was the cause of the 
contraction, they can be melted ; and on account of tlie prevtdence of greasi- 
ness and tenacious moist ness, they are also inflammable, though, on account 
of the moistness, not malleable. 

Although quicksilver and sulphur are the only component parts of " the 
Boveii l)odies," tliere arise various forms from a diiference in purity, or from 
pecidiar cii'cimistances of die mixture, or from a variety of the action of the 
comi)onent parts on each otlier. Thus silver will residt, when neither of tlie 
two components mixes witli eartliy partich^s, when they are jnu'e and become 
perfectly united, and when the sul2)hur is white, and less than the quicksilver. 
Or, wlien both are in equal j^roportions and the suljiliur red, and capable of 
colouring, gold will originate. Again, under similar circumstances, if both 
contract after the mixture, but before a complete union has been effected, 
khurchhii vi^\\\,\)o produced. This body is also called Ahanchhn, and seems 
really to be raw gold ; some say, it is a kind of co2)per. Again, if only the 
suli)hur be impiu^e, and the quicksilver the larger component, with an 
additional j)ower of burning, copper will result. And if the mixture be not 
thorough, and the quicksilver larger, tin will be prodm^ed ; some say that 
piu'ity of the comi)onents is essential. If both compounds be of an inferior 
kind, closely mixed, and if the earthy particles of the quicksilver have a 
tendency of sej)aratiiig, and the power of burning be inlierent in the sulphur, 
iron will result. And if und€»r similar conditi(ms the intermixture be not 
perfect, and the cpiicksilver quantitatively larger, lead will come into existence. 
These seven metals are called the seven bodies ; and quicksilver has the name 
of the mother of the bodies^ and sulphur, the father of the bodies. Quicksilver 
is also denominated the spirit, and arsenic and suli)hur, the pivots of life. 

Jast (pewter), which, according to the opinions of some, Is Ituh i tiitiyd^ 
and resembles lead, is nowhere mentioned in philoso2)hical books, but there 
is a mine of it in Hindustan, in the territory of Jdlor, which is a dependency 
of the Subah of Ajmir. Some practical mechanics* are of opinion that the 
metal caUod ri^dg is a silver in the state of h^prosy, and quickisdver a silver in 
the state of apoplexy ; that load is gold apoi)lectic and burnt, and bronze 
crude gold ; and that the chemist, like the doctor, can restore these diseased 
metals by the principles of similarity and op2)osition. 

Practical men form of the above seven bodies several compounds, used for 
ornaments, vessels, &c. Among them I may mention, 1. Safidru, which the 

* According to »>ome MSS., the Iliudiis. 


people of Hindustan call kdnsi. It is a mixture of 4 sers of copper to 1 scr of 
tin, melted together. 2. ^itt, 4 sers of copper to 1^ sers of lead. It is called 
in this country hhangdr, 3. Brass, which the Hindus call pitaly is made in 
three ways, first, 2J sers copper to 1 s6r riih i tiitiya, which is malleable, 
when cold ; secondly, 2 sers of copper to 1 ser of ruh % tiUiyd, which is 
malleable, when heated; thirdly, 2 s6rs of copper to 1 s6r of riih i 
tutiydf not worked with the hammer, but by casting. 4. Sim i sukhtah^ 
oompoeed of lead, silver, and bronze ; it has a black lustre, and is used in 
painting. 5. Safijdsh, which, like the Khdr chink, is nowhere to be found ; 
it is said to consist of six metals. Some call it tdliqiin, whilst others give this 
name to common copper. 6. Ashtdhdt, a compound of eight metals, viz,, the 
six of the hafijdsh, r-kh i tiitiyd, and kdnsi. It is also made of seven 
components. 7. Katdpatr, 2 sers of safidrii, and 1 ser of copper. It is 
eoloured^ and looks well, and belongs to the inventions of his Majesty.^ 

Am 14. 

It has been said above that various compounds result from a mixture 
of hukhdr and dukhdn, which themselves consist of light and heavy idlemouts. 
Besides, bukhar is toet or dry ; and a complete union of the two sets in, 
sometimee before and after the mixture, and sometimes in either of those 
conditions. It is on this account that a compound whose fiery and airy 
particles are more numerous than its watery and earthy particles, is lighter 
thui a mineral in which there are more watery and earthy particles ; and 
likewise, every mineral in which the bukhir predominates over the dukh&n, 
IB lighter than a mineral, in which the opposite is the case. Again, a mineral 
in which the complete union of the bukhAr and dukh&n has set in, is heavier 
than one which has not reached this degree, because the interstices between 
the particles, and the entering of air, make a body large and light. Bearing 
this in mind, we have a means of discovering the weight and lightness of 
eveiy body. Some one,* now long ago dead, has expressed the weight of 
fieveral bodies in verses, (metre Mujtass) — 

2kt riiy ijussah i haftdd, u yak diram simdb. 

Child shashast, u m arzh siy u hasht shumdr, 

Zahah gadast surub panjah o nuh dhan chil ; 

Birinj u mis chihil 6 panj nnqrah panjah u chdr. 

' This phrase seems ^ mean that 
the invention was made at the time of 

■ Abu Na^r i J^arelA t, of Farah, a town 
in Sijistan. His real name in Muhammad 
B«draddin. Ue has written a Yocabu- 


lary in rhyme, entitled Ni^dh u^ibydn, 
which for centuries has been read in 
nearly every Madrasah of Persia and 
India ; vide Joiunal As. Soo. Bengal, for 
1868, p. 7. 


«* Quieksavcr* is 71 ; Eiii is 46 ; Tin is 38 ; Gold 100 ; Load 59 ; Iron 40 ; 
Brass and Copper 45 ; Silver 54." Others have expreBsed the numbers 
by nineniotechnical words in rhyme, (metre Ramal) — 

Nukjtlm i mustatciyyul hajm rd ekun harkashiy 
TkhtUaf i tcazn ddrad har paki hi ishtihdh. 
Zar lakan, zihaq alam, usrub dahan, arzh hoi, 
Fizzah nod, dhan yakl, miss o shahah mahy riii mdh, 

** If yon weigh equal volumes of the following nine metals, you will doubtlessly 
find their different weights as follows : — gold lakan^' quicksilver alam, lead 
dahan, tin hal, silver nad, iron yaki, copper and brass mah, rui m<fA." If of 
these nine metals, pieces be taken of equal dimensions, their weights will be 
different. Some sages ascribe this variety in weight to the difference in the 
qualitative constitution of the bodies, and trace to it their lightness or 
heaviness, their floating or sinking in water, and their weights as indicated 
by common and hydrostatic balances. 

Several deep-sighted philosophers compute the weight of bodies with a 
reference to water. They fill a suitable vessel with water, and throw into it 
100 misq^ of each metal; and from the quantities of water thrown out 
uxK>n the introduction of the metals, are' found the differences between them 
in volume and weight. The greater the quantity of the water is which 100 
misqals of a body displace, the greater is its volume, and the less its weight ; 
and reversely. Thus 100 m. of silver displace 9-| m. of water, and the same 
quantity of gold, 5^ m. K the weight of the water displaced by a body be 
subtracted from its weight in air, its weight in water will be found. The s<^es 
of the air-balance are both suspended in air : those of the hydrostatic balance 
are both on the surface of the water. As the heavier body possesses the greater 
power for sinking, it will, in any case, move in the direction of the perpendi- 
cular ; but, if either of the two scales be on the surface of the water, and 
the other in the air, the latter scale, although perhaps the lighter, will 
necessarily sink, as air, being a finer substance than water, does not offer so 
much resistance. A body will sink in water, if the quantity of water 
displaced by it be less than the weight of the body ; and a body will floaty 
if that quantity be greater ; and if the water displaced be equal to the weight 

* We fix the specific gravities as fol- 
lows i-^Oold 19.26 ; Mercury 13.6 ; 
Lead 11.326 ; Silver 10.47 ; Copper 9 ; 
Tin 7.32 ; Iron 7.7, for which numbers 
water is unity. Abul Fazl takes gold as 
standard ; and assuming, for his values, 
19.26 as its specific gravity, we would 
got, Mercury 13.87 ; Lead 11.36 ; Silver 

10.40; Copper 8.67; Iron 7.76; 2i» 
7.32 ; B4i 8.86. 

' The Arabic consonants of the mnemo* 
technical words lakan, alam, &c., re- 
present numbers ; thus ^ -|- ifc -|- « ^ 
30-1-20 + 60 ;a + ^-|-w = l-|- 30 + 


of the body, its upper side will coincide with the surface of the water. Abu 
Raihdn has drawn up a table, which I shall insert here. 

Quantity of wat&r displaced hy 100 Apparent weight {weight in water) of 
misqdh of 100 misqdh of 

HisqiUfl. D&ngs. Tassdjes. Misqals. D&ngs. Tassujea* 






. • t 


Copper, 11 

Brass, 11 

Iron, , 12 

Tin, 13 

T6qut (light blue), 25 
Ydqut(red), .... 26 

Euby, 27 

Zumurrud, d6 

Pearl, 37 

Lapis lazuli, .... 38 

Cornelian, 38 

Amber, 39 

Billaur, 40 





































Gold, 95 

Quicksilver, .... 92 

Lead, 91 

SHver, 90 

Efii, 88 

Copper, 88 

• . * • 




Y6qdt (red,) 


Zumurrud, 63 

Pearl, 62 

Lapis lazuli, .... 61 

Cornelian, 61 

Amber, 60 




Billaur, 60 

The weight (in air) of th^ undermen- The weight {in air) of the undermen- 
tioned metalsy the volume o/* 1 00 mis- tioned preciotM atones^ the volume of 
qdU of gold being taken as the unit 100 mi^qdls of the blue ydq-kt being 
of volume, taken as the unit of volume. 

Misq&ls. Dangs TaBsujes. Misqals. Dangs Taseujes. 

Gold, 100 

Quicksilver, .... 71 

Lead, 59 

Silver, 54 

Eui, 46 

Copper, 45 

Brass, 45 

L«n, 40 

Tin, 38 

Yaqut (light blue,) 94 

1 1 Y6qut(red,) 94 

2 2 Euby,* 90 

3 3 Zumurrud, 69 

2 3 Pearls, 67 

3 3 Lapis lazuli, .... 65 

3 5(?)Cornelian, 64 

Amber, 64 

2 2 Billaur, 63 



■ With th€ exception of Quicksilver, 

^ Silver, and Ydqut {light blue), the 

* Dumbere eiven in we MSs., and the above 

list, are slightly wrong, because the sum 

of the weights of the water displaced and 
the apparent weight, ought to give 100 
raisqdU (Im.^zQ d,; 1 a. = 4 t.) But in 
most items there is an excess of &/i« ddng. 


AI'N 1.3. 

I Tlis Maj(\'<ty is a o;r(»at friend of i^ood order and ]>n>priety in business, 

Tlirongli order the world becomes a meadow of truth and reality ; and that 
whieh is but external, receives tlirough it a spiritual meaning. For this 
reason, the large number of women — a vexatious question even for great 
statesmen — furnished liis Majesty with an opportunity to display his wisdom, 

1 and to rise from the low level of worldly dei>endeuce to the eminence of 
I perfect freedom. The imperial palace and household are therefore in the 
best order. 

llis Majesty fonns matrimoiiiid alliances with pnnces of Hindustan, and 
of other countries ; and secures by these ties of hai'mony the peace of the world. 
As the sovereign, by the light of his wisdom, has raised fit persons fi*om 
the dust of obsciu'ity, and appointed them to various offices, so does he 
also elevate faithfid persons to the several ranks in the ser\dce of the seraglio. 
Short-sighted men tliink of impure gold, which will gradually turn into pure 
gold ;^ but the ftu'-sighted know that his Majesty understands how to use 
elixirs^ and chemical processes. Any kind of gi'owth will alter the constitution 
of a body ; copper and iron will tui*n to gold, and tin and lead to silver ; hence 
it is no matter of astonishment, if an excellent being changes the worthless 
into men. ** The saying of the wise is true that the eye of the exalted is the 
elixir for producing goodness." Such also are the results flowing from the 
love of order of his Majesty, from his wisdom, insight, regard to rank, his 
respect for others, his activity, liis patience. Even when he is angry, he does 
not deviate from the right path ; he looks at every thing with kindly 
feelings, weighs rimiours well, and is free from all prejudice ; he considers it 
a great blessing to have the good wishes of the people, and does not allow the 
intoxicating pleasui'es of this world to overpower his calm judgment. 

I His Majesty has made a large enclosure with fine buildings inside, where 

he reposes. Though there are more than five thousand women, he has 

, given to each a separate apartment. lie has also divided them into sections, 
and keeps them attentive to theu* duties. Several chaste women have been 
appointed as ddrdghaM, and superintendents over each section, and one has 
been selected for the duties of writer. Thus, as in the im2)erial offices, every 
thing is here also in proper order. The salaries are sufficiently liberal. 
Not coimting the presents, which liis Majesty most generously bestows, the 
women of the highest rank receive from 1610 to 1028 Rs. per mensem. Some 

' So according to the opinion of the 
philosophers of the Middle Ages. 

* Elixirs change quickly that which is 
worthless into pure gold. 


of the servants have from 51 to 20, others from 40 to 2 Es. Attached to the 
private audience haJl of the palace, is a clever and zealous writer, who 
Buperintends the expenditure of the Harem, and keeps an account of the 
cash and the stores. If a woman wants anything, within the limit of her 
fialaiy, she applies to one of the Tahwilddrs (cash-keepers) of the seraglio. 
The TahwClddr then sends a memorandum to the writer, who checks it, 
'when the General Treasurer makes the payment in cash, as for daims of 
this nature no cheques are given. 

The writer also makes out an estimate of the annual expenditure, writes 
out summarily a receipt, which is countersigned by the ministers of the state. 
It is then stamped with a peculiar Imperial seal, which is only used in 
grants connected with the Harem, when the receipt becomes payable. The 
money itself is paid by the cash-keeper of the General Treasury to the 
General TahwQd6r, who on the order of the writer of the Harem, hands it 
over to the several Sub-Tahwflddrs for distribution among the servants of 
the seragHo. All monies are reckoned in their salaries at the current rate.' 

The inside of the Harem is guarded by sober and active women ; the J 
most trustworthy of them are placed about the apartments of his Majesty. 
Outside of the enclosure the eunuchs are placed ; and at a proper distance, 
there is a guard of faithful Rdjpiits^ beyond whom are the porters of the |i 
gates. Besides, on all four sides, there are guards of Nobles, Ahadfs, 
and other troops, according U> their ranks. 

Whenever Begums, or the wives of nobles, or other women of chaste 
character, desire to be presented, they first notify their wish to the servants 
of the seraglio, and wait for a reply. From thence they send their request 
to the officers of the palace, after which those who are eligible are permitted 
to enter the Harem. Some women of rank obtain permission to remain 
there for a whole month. 

Notwithstanding the great number of faithfril guards, his Majesty does 
not dispense with his own vigilance, but keeps the whole in proper order. 

Am 16. 


It would be difficult to describe a large encampment ; but I shall say 
aomething on the equipage used for hunting parties and short journeys. 

1. The Guldlbdr is a grand enclosure, the invention of his Majesty, 
the doors of which are made very strong, and secured with locks and keys. 
It is never less than one hundred yards square. At its eastern end a 

* At 40 dams per irupee. 



pavilion of two ontraiKi-s is orccttHl, containing o I divisions, 24 yards long, 
and 14 broad; and in tlie middle there stands a largo Chaubin rdoti,^ and 
round about it a Sardpardah} Adjoining to the Chaubin, they biult up a 
two-storied pavilion, in which his Majesty performs divine worsliip, and 
from the top of which, in the morning, he receives the compliments of tho 
nobility. No one connected with the seraglio enters this building without 
1 special leave. Outside of it, twenty-four chaubin rdotis are erected, 10 yards 
long, and 6 yards wide, each separated by a canvass, where the favourite 
women reside. There are also other pavilions and tents for the servants, 
with SdibAns^ of gold embroidery, brocade, and velvet. Adjoining to this 
is a Sardpardah of cari)et, 60 yards square, witliin which a few tents are 
erected, the place for the UrdMgUy^ and other female servants. Farther on 
up to tho private audience hall, there is a fine open space, 150 yards long 
and 100 yards broad, called the Mahidhi ; and on both sides of it, a screen 
is set up as before described which is supported by polos 6 yards long, fixed 
in the ground at distances of two yards. The polos are one yard in tlio 
groimd, and are ornamented with brass knobs on the top, and kept firm by 
two ropes, one passing inside, and the other outside of the enclosure. Tho 
guards watch here, as has been described. 

In the midst of the plain is a raised platfonn,* which is protected by an 
awning, or Namgirah, supported by four poles. This is the place, where his 
Majesty' sits in the evening, and none but those who are particularly favoured, 
are here admitted. Adjoining to the GuWhdr, there is a circular enclosure, 
consisting of twelve divisions, each of thirty yards, the door of the enclosure 
opening into the Mahtabi ; and in the midst of it, is a Chaubin rdoti^ ten yards 
long, and a tent containing forty divisions, over which twelve awnings are 
spread, each of twelve yards, and separated by canvasses. This place, in every 
division of which a convenient closet is constructed, is called Ibachkiy wliich is 
the (Chagatai) name used by his Majesty. Adjoining to this a Sardpardah is 
put up, 150 yards in length and breadth, containing sixteen divisions, of thirty- 
six square yai'ds, tho Sardpardah being, as before, sustained by poles with 
knobs. In the midst of it the state -hall is erected, by means of a thousand 
carpets ; it contains seventy-two rooms, and has an opening fifteen yards wide. 
A tentlike covering, or Qalandarlj made of waxcloth, or any other lighter 
material, is spread over it, which afiFords protection against the rain and the 
sun ; and round about it, are fifty awmings, of twelve yards each. Tlie pavilion, 
which servos as Diwdn i khdg, or private audience hall, has proper doors 
and locks. Here the nobles, and the officers of the army, after having 


' Described in the twenty-first Xiu. 
* Awuintj^s. ® Armed women. 

* As may be still seen in the ruins of 
Fathpiir Sikri. 


obtamed leave through the JBakkshiSf' pass before the Empefor, the list of 
officers eligible for admission being changed on the first of every month. 
The place is decorated, both inside and outside with carpets of various 
colours, and resembles a beautiful flower-bed. Outside of it, to a distance 
o£ 350 yards, ropes are drawn, fastened to poles, which are set up at a 
distance of three yards from each other. Watchmen are stationed about 
them. This is the JXwdn i ^Am, or public audience hall, round which, as 
above described, the various guards are placed. At the end of this place, at 
a distance of twelve tandha is the Naqq&rah Khdnahy* and in the midst of the 
area the Akdidiah* is lighted up. 

Some encampments, as just now described, are sent off, and one of them 
is put up by the Farrdshes on a piece of ground which the Mir Manzils^ have 
selected as an eligible spot, whilst the other camp ^imiture is sent in advance, 
to await the approach of his Majesty. Each encampment requires for its 
carriage 100 elephants, 600 camels, 400 carts, and 100 bearers. It is 
escorted by 500 troopers, Mansabddrs,' Ahadis. Besides, there are employed 
a thousand Farrdshes, natives of Trdn, Turdn, and Hindustan, 500 pioneers, 
100 water-carriers, 50 carpenters, tent-makers, and torch-bearers, 30 workers 
in leather, and 150 sweepers. 

The monthly pay of the foot varies from 240 to 130 dfims. 

Am 17. 


Although his Majesty but rarely collects his armies, a large number of 
troops accompany him in whatever direction an expedition may go ; but a 
considerable number, in every province, are employed on various services, 
and are not allowed to follow him. On account of the crowding of camp- 
followers, and tiie number of the troops themselves, it would take a soldier 
days to find Ms tent ; and how much worse would it be for a stranger f 
His Majesty has invented an admirable method of encamping his trooxm, 
which is a source of much comfort to them. On an open groimd they 
pfitch the imperial seraglio, the audience hall, and the Naqqdrah khdna^^ 
all occupying a space the length of which is 1530 yards. To the 
right and left, and behind, ie an (^en space of 360 yards, which no one 
but the guards are allowed to enter. Within it, at a distance of 100 yards to 

* Paymastero. The Conunandiiig Offi- 
een were at the same time paymastere, 
as they collected the rents of me lands 
assigned to them for the payment of their 

' A turret on the top of which the 

band plays. Regarding the tandb^ vide 
the tenth Aln of the third book. 

* A high pole to tho top of which an 
immense lamp is fixed. Vide p. 50. 

♦ Quarter masters. 
' Grandees. 


tlic h.'t't fontiT' arc tlio tc^iits ol' Maryam Makani/ (lulhadan Bi'gum, and 
otlior chaste ladies, and the tents of Prineo Danyal ; to the ri^ht, those of 
IVinee Sultan ►Salim ; and to the left, tliose of IVineo Shah Murad. Beliind 
their tents, at some distance, the offices and workshops are placed, and at a 
furtlier distance of 30 yards beliind them, ut tlie four corners of the camp, 
the V)azars. Tlie uohles are encamped without ou all sides, according to 
their rank. 

The guai'ds for Thursday, Friday and Saturday, encamp in the centre ; 
tliose for Sunday and Monday, on tlie right ; and those for Tuesday and 
Wednesday, on the left. 

ATN 18. 

Tlis Majesty maintains that it is a religious duty and divine praise to 
worsliip fii'e and light ; surly, ignorant men ccmsider it forgetfidness of the 
Almighty, and fire worsliip. But the deep-sighted know better. As tlio 
external fonn of the worship of ** the select"* is based upon propriety, 
and as people think the neglect of some sort of worship abominable, there 
can be nothing improper in the veneration of that exalted element which is 
the source of man's existence, and of the duration of his life j nor should base 
thoughts enter such a matter. 

llow beautifully has Shaikh Shai'afuddin Munyarf said, " What can be 
done with a man who is not satisfied with the lamp, when the sun is down r"' 
Every flame is derived fi*om that fountain of divine light, (the sun), and bears 
the impression of its holy essence. If light and fire did not exist, wo should 
be destitute of food and medicines ; the power of sight would be of no avail 
to the eyes. Tlie fire of the sun is the torch of God's sovereignty. 

At noon of the day, when the sun enters the 19th degi'ee of Aries, the 
whole world being then surrounded by his light, they expose a round piece 
of a white and shining stone, called in Hindi Surajkrdntj to the rays of tho 
sun. A piece of cotton is then held near it, which catches fire from the heat 
of the stone. This celestial fire is committed to tho care of proper persons. 

* Marram Malcdni (i. e., dwelling 
with the Virgin Mary, who together with 
Asiah, the wife of Pharao, Kliatlijah, the 
name of Muhaimruid's first wile, and 
Fatiniah, his daughter, are the ^onr perfect 
women of the Islam) is the title of Akbar's 
mother. Her name wa.H Hamidah Bdnu 
Bvfjum ; vide Badaoni, ed. Bibl. Ind. I, 
p. 487. Gulbudan liegnm (i. c. Lady 
Rose body) appears to be tbe name of one 

of Akbar's favourite wives. 

* The members of the Divine Faith. 

• This famouH saint died in the begin- 
ning of the filleenth century, Munair is a 
town in Babar ; vide Journal As. Soc. 
Bengal, 1868, p. 7, 1. 3, from below, and 
the biographies of Indian Saints in tho 
fourth book. Hi.s works are to be found 
among the Pereian MSS. of tbe Society's 


The lamp-lighters, torch-bearers and cooks of the household use it for their 
offices ; and when the year has passed away in happiness, they renew the 
fire. The vessel in which this fire is preserved, is called Agingir, i. e., 

There is also a shining white stone, called Chandrkrdntj which, upon 
being exposed to the beams of the moon, drips water. 

Every afternoon, one ghari'^ before sunset, his Majesty, if on horse- 
back, alights, or if sleeping, he is awakened. He then lays aside the 
splendour of royalty, and brings his external appearance in harmony with 
his heart. And when the sun sets, the attendants light twelve white 
candles, on twelve candlesticks of gold and silver, and bring them before his 
Majesty, when a singer of sweet melodies, with a candle in his hand, sings 
a variety of delightful airs to the praise of God, beginning and concluding 
with a prayer for the continuance of this auspicious reign. His Majesty 
attaches the utmost importance to praise and prayer, and earnestly asks 
God for renewed light. 

It is impossible to describe the beauty and various forms of the candle- 
sticks and shades, and to give an account of the offices of the workmen. 
8ome of the candlesticks weigh ten majis and upwards, and are adorned 
with various designs ; some single, others of two branches and more : they 
give light to the internal eye. His Majesty has invented a candlestick, one 
yard high. Five others are placed on the top of it, and each is adoinod 
with the figure of an animal. White wax candles, three yards, and upwards 
in length, are cast for it, so that a ladder is required to snuff it. Besides 
there are everywhere flambeaux^ both inside and outside, which increase the 
light very much. The first, second, and third nights of every lunar month, 
when there is moonlight but for a short time, eight wicks are used ;' 
from the fourth to the tenth, they decrease one in number every night, so 
that on the tenth night, when the moon is very bright, one is sufficient ; and 
they continue in this state till the fifteenth, and increase one wick every day 
from the sixteenth to the nineteenth. For the twentieth night the number 
is the same as on the nineteenth ; on the twenty-first and twenty-second 
they increase one daily ; the twenty-third is the same as the twenty-second ; 
and from the twenty-fourth to the last, eight wicks are lighted up. They 
allow for every wick one ser of oil, and half a ser of cotton. In some places 
there are fat-burners, where grease is burnt instead of oil. The allowance 
varies according to the size of the wick. 

In order to render the royal camp conspicuous to those who come from 

■ One (fhari = 2 1 miniitw. 

* Oil-buruL'rs with several wiclcs are 

vorv common in India. 
• For each fl.imbeaii. 


far. Ills Mnjosty lias causod to be erected, in front of the Durbar, a polo 
u[)\\ iirds ot* forty 3'ards high, which is supported by sixteen ropes ; and on 
the top of th(.' i)ole is a large lantern, which they call AJcdsdiah.^ Its light 
is seen from great distances, guides the soldiers to the imperial camp, and 
helps them to hud their tents. In former times, before the lamp was erected, 
tlio men liad to suller hardships fi*om not being able to find the road. 

In this department, Mansabdars, Aliach's, and other troops, are employed. 
The allowance of a foot soldier never exceeds 2400, and ls never less than 
80 dams. 

A'FN 19. 

Tlie Sliamftah^ of the arch of royalty is a divine light, which God directly 
transfers to kings, without the assistance of men ; and kings are fond of 
externtd splendour, becaiise they consider it an image of the Divine glory. 
I shall mention some of the insignia used at present. 

1. The Aura/Iffy or throne, is made of several forms; some are inlaid 
with precious stones, and others are made of gold, silver, &o. 2. Tlie C/iatr, 
or umbrella, is adorned with the most precious jewels, of which there are 
never less than seven. 3. The Sdibdn is of an oval form, a yard in length, 
and its handle, like that of the umbrella, is covered with brocade, and 
ornamented with precious stones. One of the attendants holds it, to keep 
off the rays of the sun. It is also called Aftahgir, 4. The Kaukahah,^ of 
which several are hung up before tlie assembly hall. 

These four insignia are only used by kings. 

5. The ^AJam, or standard. When the king rides out, not less than five 
of these are carried along with the Qwr,* wrapped up in scarlet cloth bags. 
On days of festivity, and in battle, they are unfurled. 6. The Chntrtdq^ a 
kind of ^ Ala my but smaller than it, is adorned with the tails of Thibetan 
yaks. 7. The Tumantoq is like the Chatrtuq, but longer. Both insignia are 
flags of the highest dignity, and the latter is bestowed upon great nobles 
only. 8. The Jha?idd is an Indian flag. The Qur necessarily contains a 
flag of each kind ; but on great occasions .many are displayed. 

Of musicid instruments used in the Naqqarahkhdnahy I may mention, 
1. the Kuwar(/ah, commoidy called damdniah ; there are eighteen pair of 

* From Akds sky, and diah lamp. 
The Akasdiyah is also mentioned by 

^ Shamsixh is a picture of the sun affixed 
to the jjatebor wally of the palaces of kings. 

At nipjht, these pictures are illuminated. 

■ 77fl?e the plates. 

* The Qwris a collection of flags, arras, 
and other insignia, which follow the king 
wherever ho goes. 


them more or less ; and they give a deep sound. 2. The naqq&rdh, twenty 
pair, more or less. 3. The duhul, of wliich. four are used. 4. The Karan^ is 
made of gold, silver, brass, and other metals : and they never blow fewer 
than four. 5. The sumd of the Persian and Indian kinds ; they blow nine 
together. 6. The nafir, of the Persian, European, and Indian kinds ; they 
blow some of each kind. 7. The sing is of brass, and made in the form of a 
ooVs horn ; they blow two together. 8. The sanj\ or e^tnhal, of which three 
pair are used. 

Formerly the bcmd played four ghaf is before the commencement of the 

night, and likewise four gharis before daybreak ; now they play first at 

midnight, when the sun commences his ascent, and the second time at dawn* 

One ghaji before sunrise, the musicians commence to blow the sum&, and 

wake up those that are asleep ; and one ghapi after sun rise, they play a 

short prelude, when they beat the kuwargah a little, whereupon they blow 

the karana, the nafir, and the other instruments, without, however, making 

use of the naqqarah ; after a little pause the sum&s are blown again, the 

time of the music being indicated by the nafirs. One hour later the naqqarahs 

commence, when all musicians raise '' the auspicious strain."' After this 

they go through the following seven performances. 1. The MursaU, which 

is the name of a tune played by the mursil ; and afterwards the hard&sht^ 

which consists likewise of certain tunes, played by the whole band. This is 

followed by a pianissimo, and a crescendo passing over into a diminuendo ; 

2. The playing of the four tunes, called ikMdfi, ibtiddi, shiriiziy qalandart 

nigwr qatrah* or nukhUd qatrah, which occupies an hour. 3. The playing of 

the old Elhw&rizmite tunes. ' Of these his Maiesiy has composed more than 

two hundred, which are the delight of yoimg and old, especially the tunes 

JaUhhdhi, Mah6m{r karkat (f)^ and the Naurdzi. 4. The swelling play of the 

cjmbalfi. 5. The playing of Bd miydn daur, 6. The passing into the tunes 

ffs/Sir, also called rdh i bdld, after which comes a pianissimo. 7. The ELwdriz- 

mite tunes, played by the Mursily after which he passes into the mursali ; he 

then pauses, and conmiences the blessings on his Majesty, when the whole 

band strikes up a pianissimo. Then follows the reading of beautiful sentences 

and poems. This also lasts -for an hour. Afterwards the suma-players 

perform for another hour, when the whole comes to a proper conclusion. 

His Majesty has such a knowledge of the science of music as trained 
musicians do not possess ; and he is likewise an excellent hand in performing, 
especially on the naqqarah. 

' Or Karran4. 

' Probably blessings on his Migesty. 
* Several of these names of melodies 
are unclear, and will in all probability 

remain so. Perhaps the words shirdzi 
qalandari, " a hermit of Shiraz," belong 
to each other. Nigar qatrah means, 
behold the tear. 

^liiiisalMJui^^, Aluulis, ami otlmr troo]>s aiv cinploycd in lliis (lc|»firtni('ut. 
Tli(i mouTlily ].ay of a foot-sol. lier J.m's not cxrrril ;M0, and is not less thau 
i-l (laius. 

xrs 20. 


Seals are used in the three* branches of the Government ; in fact every 
man requires them in his transactions. « In the beginning of the present 
reign, Maulana Maq(;ud, the seal-engraver, cut in a circidar form upon a 
Mirfaoe of steel, in the n'q/i character, the name of his Majesty and those of his 
illustrious an(*»,\stors up to Timurlang;" and afterwards he cut another similar 
seal, in the uafiin'lfq character, only with his Majesty's name. For judicial 
transactions a second kind of seal was made, mihrdbt in form," which had the 
l(>iU»^ iTig verse round tlie name of his Majesty — 

Jidsf'i miijib i n'zd i khiuldd^ kas nadidam kih gum ahnd az rah i rd^t. 
** T^pri^htness is the means of pleasing God ; I never saw any one lost in 
the straight road." 

Tamkin made a new seal of the second kind; and afterward)? Maulana 'Ali 
Alnnad of Dihli improved Loth. The round small seal goes by the (chagatdi) 
name of Uzuk, and is used iov farmdn i fiahiis ;' and the large one, into which 
h(^ ( ut the names of the ancestors of his Majesty, was at first ouly^used for letters 
to foreign kings, but now-a-days for both. For other orders a square seal is 
used, engraved wdth the words Alld/iu Akhar, jalla jaldhduy whilst another 
of a peculiar stamp is used for all matters connected with the seraglio. 
For the seals attached to farmdm, another stamp is used of various forms. 

Of seal-engravers I shall mention 

1. Mmddnd Maq(;ud of Herat, one of the servants of Ilimiayun, who 
writes well the riqd^ and nnstaWiq characters. The astrolabe, globes, and 
various nm^ars^ which he made, were mmli admired by people of experience. 
The patronage of his Majesty perfected liis art. 

* Convspmuliiij:; to the threefold divi- 
sion of the A in I Akhari. 

^ The word mtihury a seal, means ab*o 
a stamp y and generally, the sifjnafurc of 
a 7fian. We a/V/w documents. Orient jils 
»tani|> tlieir names to them. Sealing wax 
is rarely used on account of the climate ; 
a tenacious black liquid, or the juice of 
the l)//(^/d nut is prel'en-ed. 

■ Vide note p. 30. 

* Jlde the eleventh Ain of the second 

* Copyists take a piece a pasteboard 

of the same size as the paper on which 
they write. Then they draw^ two parallel 
vertical lines, each about an inch from 
the two vertical sides of the pasteboard. 
Along these lines they make small holes 
at equal mtervals, and draw^ a string 
from the first hole at the left hand to the 
first hole of the right of the pasteboard. 
Similarly, the two second holes are joined, 
and so on, care being taken that the 
horizontal strings are parallel. This con- 
trivance is called miatarf Irom satar, a 
Hue. The c(>pyist then puts the blank 


2 . Taml'itt o/ITdbuL Ho was educated in his native country, and brought 
his art to such a perfection, as to excite the jealousy of the preceding 
engraver, whom he surpassed in the na^taHiq, 

3. Mir D6st of Kdhd. He cuts both the riqd? and nasta^liq characters 
in oomelian. He does not oome up to the preceding artists. His riqif is 
better than his nastaUiq. He also understands assaying. 

4. Mauldnd Ihrdhim, In the art of cutting cornelians he is the pupil 
of his brother Sharaf of Yazd. He surpasses the ancient engravers ; and it 
is impossible to distinguish his riq^ and nastaUiq firom the master pieces of 
the best caUigraphers. He engraved the words la^l jaldliy or the glorious 
ruby, upon all imperial rubies of value. 

5. Mauldnd ^AU Ahmad^ of Dihli who, according to all caUigraphers, 
stands unsurpassed as steel-engraver, so much so that his engravings 
are taken as copies. His ruMtaHkq is charming ; but he writes also other 
characters well. He learned the trade from his father Shaikh Husain, 
studied the manner of Mauldna Maq9ud, and eventually surpassed all. 

AtN 21. 

His Majesty considers this department as an excellent dwelling-place, 
a shelter £*om heat and cold, a protector against the rain, as the ornament 
of royalty. He looks upon its efficiency as one of the insignia of a ruler, 
and therefore considers the care bestowed upon it, as a part of Divine 
worship. The department has been much improved, both in the quality 
and the quantity of the stores, and also by the introduction of new fashions. 
I shall mention a few particulars as specimens for future enquirers. 

1. The Bdrgdhy when large, is able to contain more than ten thousand 
people. It takes a thousand farr&shes a week to erect it with the help of 
machines. There are generally two door poles, fastened with hinges. If 
plain, (». 0., without brocade, velvet, or gold ornaments,) a bdrgah costs 10,000 
Bupees and upwards, whilst the price of one full of ornaments is imHmited. 
The price of others may be estimated fix)m the price of a plain one. 2. The 
Chauhm rdwati is raised on ten pillars. They go a little into the ground, and 
are of equal height, with the exception of two, which are a little higher, as 

sheets on the top of the mistar, and presses 
on them with the hands, when the strings 
will leave marks on the paper sufficiently 
clear to prevent the writer from writing 

* Nizdm of Her4t, in his Tahaqat i 
Akbari, mentions him among the contem- 
poraneous Persian poets, and gives a lew 
of his verses. 



the (TOSS beam rosts upon thorn. Tlio pillars have, above and below, a 
ddmhy^ to koop thorn tinii, and several rafters pass over the dasahs and the 
crossbeam, the wlicjle beinj^ kept tiglitly together by clamps and bolts 
and nuts. The, walls and the roof consist of mats. There is one door or 
two ; and at the height of the lower dasahs there is a raised platform. The 
inside is ornamented with brocade and velvet, and the outside with scarlet- 
sackcloth, tied to the walls with silk tape. 3. The Dodshydnah manzily or 
house of two stories, is raised upon eighteen pillars, six yards in height, 
which support a wooden platform ; and into this, pillars of four cubits in 
length are fixed with bolt and nuts, forming an upper story. The inside 
and outside are ornamented, as in the 2)receding. On the marcli it is 
used by his Majesty as a sleeping apartment, and also as a place of divine 
worship, where he prays to the Sun ; and hence the building resembles 
a man who strives after God ^vithout forgetting his worldly duties, whose 
one eye is directed to the solitude of pure devotion, and the other eye 
to the motly sardi of tlie world. After the devotions are over, the women 
are allowed to enter, to pay their compliments, and after them, outsiders. 
On journeys his Majesty inspects in this building the rations (of the 
elephants, camels, &c.,) which is called y^fl?rdZ*«^ or window. 4. The Zamindoz 
is a tent made of vai'ious forms, sometimes with one, sometimes with two 
door poles ; screens are also hung up within it, so as to form divisions. 
5. The ^Ajdibi consists of nine awnings on four pillars. Five of the awnings 
are square, and four tapering ; sometimes they make it so as to contain one 
division only, supported by a single pole. 6. The Mandal is composed of 
five awnings joined together, and is supported by four poles. Four of the 
awnings are let down, so as to form a private room j sometimes all four are 
di'awn up, or one side only is left open. 7. The Afhk^hamhah consists of 
seventeen awnings, sometimes separate, sometimes joined together ; they 
are supported by eight poles. 8. The Khargdh is a folding tent made in 
various ways ; some with one, others with two doors. 9. The Shdmydnak'SLwmng 
is made of various sizes, but never more than of twelve yards square. 10. The 
Qalandari has been described.* 11. The Sardpardah was made in former 
times of coarse canvass, but his Majesty has now caused it to be made of 
cari)eting, and thereby improved its appearance and usefulness. 12. The 
Gxddlhdr, is a wooden screen, its parts being fastened together, like the walls 
of the Khargdhy with leather straps, so that it can be folded together, 
when the camp breaks off. The gtildlhdr is covered with red cloth, tied with 

* A triangular piece of wood fixed into I the cross-beam, a s^upport, 
the angle formed by the vertical beam and I * Vide p. 46. 



His Majesty has caused carpets to be made of wonderful varieties and 
diarming textures; he haES appointed experienced workmen, who have 
produced many master-pieces. The carpets of Trdn and Tur4n are no more 
thought o^ although merchants still import carpets from Goshkan, Khuzistdn, 
Kirman, and Sabzwar.' All kinds of ^carpet weayers have settled here, and 
drive a flourishing trade. There are found in every town, especially in 
Agrahy Fathpiir, and Ldhor. In the imperial workshops, single carpets are 
made 20 yaz, 7 tassujes long, and 6 gax, Hi tassujes broad, at a cost of 1810 
rapees, which those who are skilled in the business have valued at 2715 

Takyahnamads, or woolen coverlets, are brought from Kabul and Persiai 
but are also made in this country. 

It would take up too much time to describe the jAjamSj shatrinjis, 
Muehis, and the fine mats which look as if woven with silk. 

Am 22. 

His Majesty calls this source of life " the water of immortaliiy," and 
has committed the care of this department to proper persons. He does not 
drink much, but pays much attention to this matter. Both at home and on 
travels, he drinks Ganges water. Some trustworthy persons are stationed 
on the banks of that river, who dispatch the water in sealed jars. When 
the court was at the capital Agrah and in Eathpur, the water came from the 
district of Sarun ;* but now' that his Majesty is in the Panj&b, the water is 
brought from Hardw&r. For the cooking of the food, rain water or water 
taken from the Jamnah and the Chan&b is used, mixed with a little Ganges 
water. On journeys and hunting parties his Majesty, from his predilection 
ht good water, appoints experienced men as water-tasters. 

Saltpetre, which in gunpowder produces the explosive heat, is ujsed by 
his Majesty as a means for ^cooling water, and is thus a source of joy for 
great and small. Saltpetre is a saline earth. They fill with it a perforated 
vessely and pour some water over it, and collecting what drops through, 

^ Croshkdn, or Jdshaqdn, a town in 
'Iraq i 'Ajami, half way between Kashan 
and I^fah&n. Khuzist&n is the Persian 
pTovinoe of which Shushtar, or Shustar, 
IS the capital ; the ancient Sunana, 
Kirm&n w the capital of the Persian 
pnmnce Kirman, which borders on Balii- 
dusUui. Sabzwdr is one of the chief 

cities of the Persian province Khurisin, 
between Mashhad (Meshed) and Ike Cas- 
pian Sea. 

' The nearest station on the Gane^es 
from Agrah. 

■ A. D. 1596. As in 1686 Fathpiirhad 
ceased to be the capital, Akbar resided 
mostly in the Panjab. 


tlioy boil it, (loan it, and lot it rrystalizo. One s6r of wator is then put into 
a ^o<2^1(»t of pt^wtor, or silver, or any otlior such metal, and tho mouth closed. 
Tlion two and a half sors of saltpotn* are throwninto a vessel, together with 
live sers of water, and in this mixture the goglet is stirred about for a 
<]uarter of an hour, when the watcT in the goglet will become cold. The 
price of saltpetre varies from | to 4 mans jw^r rupee. 

Since tlie thirtieth year* of the Divine Era, wh(m tho imperial standards 
wore erected in tho Panjab, snow and ice have come into use. Ice is 
l)rought by land and water, b^' post carriages or bearers, from the district of 
l^inhan, in the northern mountains, about forty-five k68 from Labor. The 
dealers derive a consi<lerable profit, two to three sers of ice being sold per 
rupee. The greatest profit is derived when the ice is brought by water, next 
when by cai-riages, and least when by bearers. Tho inhabitants of the 
mountains bring it in loads, and sell it in piles (containing from 25 to 30 seers, 
at the rate of 5 dams. If they have to bring it very far, it costs 24 d. 17 j\; 
if the distance bo an average one, 15 d. 

Out of tlie ten boats employed for the transport of ice, one arrives daily 
at the capital, each being manned l)y foui' boatmen. The ice bundles contain 
fr<mi six to twelve sers, according to the temperatiu-e. A carriage brings 
two loads. There are fourteen stages, where the horses are changed ; and 
besides, one elephant is used. Twelve pieces of ten to four sers arrive daily. 
By this kind of transport, a ser of ice costs in winter 3d. 21 j\ ; duidng the 
rains 14 d. 20 j. ; in the intermediate time 9 d. 21.}/ ; and in tho average* 
5 d. IfiXj. If it is brought by bearers, twenty-eight men are required for 
tho fourteen stages. They bring every day oin) load, containing four parcels. 
In the bogiiming of tho year tho ice costs 5 d. 19J J. ; in tho middle 16 rf. 
2^j. ; and in the end 19 d. 15g y., per sir ; in the average^ 8J rf. 

All ranks use ice in suumior ; the nobles use it thi'oughout the whole 

ArN 23. 


His Majesty even extends his attention to this department, and has given 
many \\ isc regidations for it ; nor can a reason bo given why he should not 
do so, as the equilibrium of man's nature, the strength of tho body, the 

^ A. D. 1586. 

^ The text hiis sardsariy which may 
jnean the average ; but the price given 
hy AbuU'azl is not an average. The 
chai^rcs for ice, at the time of Akbar, 

may be compared to the prices of the 
present afi^e. Here, in Cakutta, one sser 
of American ice costs two annas, or ^ 
rupee, i. c, "8=5 dams of Akbar. 


capability of receiving external and internal blessings, and the acquisition of 
worldly and religious advantages, depend ultimately on proper care being 
shewn for appropriate food. This knowledge distinguishes man from beasts, 
with whom, as far as mere eating is concerned, he stands upon the same 
level. If his Majesty did not possess so lofty a mind, so comprehensive an 
understanding, so universal a kindness, he would have chosen the path of 
BoUtude, and given up sleep and food altogether ; and even now, when he 
has taken upon himself the temporal and spiritual leadership of the people, 
the question, " What dinner has been prepared to-day ?" never passes over his 
tongue. In the course of twenty-four hours his Majesty eats but once, and 
leaves off before he is fully satisfied ; neither is there any fixed time for this 
meal, but the servants have always things so far ready, that in the space of 
an hour, after the order has been given, a hundred dishes are served up. 
The food allowed to the women of the seraglio commences to be taken 
from the kitchen in the morning, and goes on till night. 

Trustworthy and experienced people are appointed to this department ; 
and all good servants attached to the court, are resolved to perform well 
whatever service they have undertaken. Their head is assisted by the Prime 
MiniBter himself. His Majesty has entrusted to the latter the affairs of the 
state, but especially this important department. Notwithstanding all this, 
his Majesty is not immindful of the conduct of the servants. He appoints a 
zealous and sincere man as Mir Bakdtaal, or Master of the Kitchen, upon 
whose insight the success of the department depends, and gives him several 
uprig^ht persons as assistants. There are also treasurers for the cash and 
the stores, several tasters, and a clever writer. Cooks from all countries 
prepare a great variety of dishes of all kinds of grains, greens, meats ; also 
oily, sweet and spicy dishes. Every day such dishes are prepared as the 
nobles can scarcely command at their feasts, from which you may infer how 
exquisite the dishes are which are prepared for his Majesty. 

In the beginning of the year the Sub-treasurers make out an annual 
estimate, and receive the amoxmt ; the moneybags and the door of the store- 
house being sealed with the seals of the Mfr Bak&wal and the writer ; and 
eveiy month a correct statement of the daily expenditure is drawn up, the 
receipt for which is sealed by the same two officers, when it is entered imder 
the head of the expenditure. At the beginning of every quarter, the Diwdn 
I huydtdf and the Mir BaMwal, collect whatever they think will be necessary ; 
9. g.^ SuJi^hdds rice from Bhar&ij, Biwzirah rice from Gw^6r, Jinjin rice from 
EijorC and Nimlah, g*h\ from Kiqdr Firuzah ; ducks, water-fowls, and 

' Superintendent of the stores, workshops, (&c. 


certain vo<X('tul>I^-s from K i--lnuir. Patterns aro always ko])!. Thu shiM'p, 
j^oats, l>erl>(*rirs, fowls, dncks, &c., are fattened by the cooks; fowls are 
never kei>t longer than a month. The slaughter-honse is without the city or 
the camp, in the neighbourhood of rivers and tanks, where the moat is washed, 
when it is sent to the kitchen in sacks sealed by the cooks. There it is 
again washed, and thrown into the pots. The water-carriers pour the water 
out of their leather bags into earthen vessels, the mouths of wliich are 
covered with pieces of cloth, and sealed up ; and the water is left to settle 
before it is used. A place is also told off as a kitchen garden, that there 
may be a continual supjdy of fresh greens. The Mir Bakawal and the 
writer determine the price of every eatable, which becomes a fixed rule ; 
and they sign the day-book, the estimates, the receipts for transfers, the list 
of wages of the servants, &c., and watch every transaction. Bad characters, 
idle talkers, unknown persons are never employed ; no one is entertained 
vvith(nit security, nor is personal acquaintance sufficient. 

The victuals are served uj) in dishes of gold and silver, stone and 
earthen-ware ; some of the dishes being in charge of each of the Sub- 
Bakawals. During the time of cooking, and w^hen the victuals are taken 
out, an awning is spread, and lookers-on kept away. The cooks tuck up 
their sleeves, and the hems of their garments, and hold their hands before 
their mouths and noses w-hen the food is taken out ; the cook and the 
Bakawal taste it, after which it is tasted by the Mir Bakawal, and 
then put into the dishes. The gold and silver dishes are tied up in red 
cloths, and those of copper and china in white ones. The Mir Bakawal 
attaches his seal, and writes on it the names of the contents, whilst the 
clerk of the pantry writes otit on a sheet of paper a list of all vessels and 
dishes, which he sends inside, with the seal of the Mir Bakawal, that none 
of the dishes may be changed. The dishes are carried by the Bakawals, 
the cooks, and the other servants, and macebeai*ers precede and follow, 
to prevent people from approaching them. The servants of the pantry 
send at the same time, in bags containing the seal of the Bakawal, 
various kinds of bread, saucers of curds piled up, and small stands 
containing plates of pickles, fresh ginger, limes, and various greens. The 
servants of the palace again taste the food, spread the table cloth on the 
ground, and arrange the dishes ; and w^hen after some time his Majesty 
commences to dine, the table servants sit opposite him in attendance : first, 
the share of the derwishes is put apart, when his Majesty commences with 
milk or curds. After he has dined, he prostrates himself in prayer. The Mir 
Bakawal is always in attendmice. The dishes are taken away according to 
the above list. Some victuals are also kept half ready, should they be called 

The copper utensils are tiimed twice a month ; those of the princes, &c., 
once ; whatever is broken is given to the braziers, who make now ones. 

ATN 24. 

There are many dishes, but the description is difficult. I shall give 
Bome particulars. Cooked victuals may be arranged under three heads, 
Jlr4tf such in which no meat is used, called now-a-days gufiydnah ; secondly^ 
such in which meat and rice, &c., are used ; thirdly , meats with spices. I 
diall give ten recipes of each kind. 

jPir#<, 1. Zard hirinj, 10 «. of rice; 5«. of sugarcandy ; 3i*. of g'hi; 
raisins, ahnonds, and pistachios, ^8. of each ; i s. of salt ; ^s.oi fresh ginger ; 
1^ dims safibron, 2^ misqals of cinnamon. This will make four ordinary dishes. 
Some make this dish with fewer spices, and even without any : and instead 
of without meat and sweets, they prepare it also with meat and salt. 
2. KkuMcah. 10 «. rice ; ^ «. salt ; but it is made in different ways. This will 
likewise give four dishes. One maund of Ditoz^irah paddy yields 25 s. of 
rice, of which 17 sers make a full pot ; jinjin rice yields 22 sers. 3. K^hichri, 
Bice, split dal, and g'hi 5 «. of each ; \ 8. salt : this gives seven dishes. 
4. Shirhtrinj. 10 «., milk ; 1 «. rice ; 1 «. sugarcandy ; 1 d, salt : this gives five 
full dishes. 5. T^hiili. 10 «. of wheat ground, of which one-third will be 
lost ; half of that quantity of g'hi ; 10 misq&ls of pepper ; 4 m. cinnamon ; 
^i M. cloves and cardamums ; i «. salt ; some add milk and sweetmeats : 
this ^ves four dishes. 6. ChWhi. 10 «. of wheat-flour, made into a 
paste, and washed till it is reduced to 2 «. fine paste. This is mixed with 
spices, and dressed with various kinds of meat. 1 «. g'h( ; 1 s. onions ; 
safi&on, cardamums, and cloves, ^ d, of each ; cinnamon, roimd pepper, and 
coriander seed, 1 d. of each ; fresh ginger, salt 3 d. of each : this gives two 
dishes ; some add lime juice. 7. Bddinjdn, 10 «. rice ; H ^- g'hf ; 3} «. onions ; 
\ 9, ginger and lime juice ; pepper ajid coriander seed, 5 m, of each ; cloves, 
cardamums, and assafoetida, each ^ m. This gives six dishes. 8. Pahit, For 
ten s^rs of d£l, or vetches, or gram, or skinned lentils, &c., take 2^ «. 
g'hi ; ^ «. of salt and fresh ginger ; 2 m. cuminseed ; 1^ m. assafoetida : 
this 3rieldfi fifteen dishes. It is mostly eaten with Khuahkah. 9. Sag, It is 
made of spinach, and other greens, and is one of the most pleasant dishes. 
10 #. spinach, fennel, &c., H «• g'W ; 1 «• onions ; i 9. fresh ginger ; 5i^ m, 
of pepper ; ^ m. of cardamums and doves : this gives six dishes. 10. Halwd. 
Flour, sugarcandy, g'hi, 10 ». of each, which will give fifteen dibhcs ; it is 
eaten in various ways. 


There arc also various kinds of siigjirucl friiits, and drinks, wliicli I cannot 
liLTO describe. 

Sf-ro)/(fIf/y 1. QahitVi. 10 5. rice; 7 s. moat; 3 J s. g'hi ; 1 s. gram 
skinned ; 2 s. oniouw ; A s. salt ; \ h. frosli ginger ; cinnamon, round pepper, 
cuminseed, of each 1 d. ; cardamums and cloves, J d. of each ; some add 
almonds and raisins: this gives five dishes. 2. Duzdhirydn. 10 «. rice, 3J«. 
g'hi ; \0 8. meat; J «. salt: tliis gives five dishes. 3. Qimah Pal&o. Rice 
and meat as in the iireceding ; 4 s. g'hf ; 1 s. peeled gram ; 2 8. onions ; 
i «. salt; J«. fresh ginger, and pepper; cuminseed, cardamums and cloves, 
1 d. of each : this gives five dishes. 4. Shdlah. 10 «. meat, 3^*. rice; 2 #. g'hi ; 

1 *. gram : 2 s. onions ; h ft. salt, } s. fresh ginger ; 2 d. garlic, and round 
l)opper, cinnamon, cardamums, cloves, 1 d.y of each : this gives six dishes. 
5. liughrd. 10 «. meat; 3 s. floui'; \\ 8. g'hi, 1 8. gram; \\ s. ^dnega^; 1 «. 
sugarcandy ; onions, carrots, beets, tui'nips, spinach, fennel, ginger, J 8. of 
each ; saffron, cloves, cardamums, cuminseed, 1 d. of each ; 2 d. cinnamon ; 
8 m. round popi)er : this gives twelve dishes. 6. Qimah Shurhd. 10 *. 
meat; 1 «. rice; 1 8. g'hi; \ 8. gram, and the rest as in the Shullak: 
tliis gives ten full dishes. 7. Ilaruah. 10 «. meat; 5 8. crushed wheat ; 

2 8. g'hi ; \ 8. salt; 2 d, cinnamon : this gives five dishes. 8. Ka8hk, \0 9, 
meat; 8. crushed wheat; 3 8. g'hi; 1 8. gram; J «. salt; IJ «. 
onions ; ^ s. ginger ; 1 d. cinnamon ; saffron, cloves, cardamums, cuminseed, 
2 m. of each : this gives five dishes. 9. Ualim, The meat, wheat, gram^ 
spices, and saffron, as in the preceding ; 1 «. g'hi ; turnips, carrots, spinach, 
fennel, \ 8. of each : this gives ten dishes. 10. Qufdhf which the people of 
Hindustan call 8anhu8ah. This is made several ways. 10 «. meat; 4 «. flour; 
2 8. g'hi ; 1 8. onions ; \ 8. ginger ; i «. salt ; 2 d. pepper and coriander 
seed ; cardamimi, cuminseed, cloves, 1 d. of each ; J «. of 8ummdq, This 
can be cooked in twenty different ways, and gives four full dishes. 

Thirdly y 1. Birydn. For a whole Dashniandi sheep, take 2 «. salt; 1 8, 
g'hi ; 2 //*. saffron, cloves, pepper, ciuninseed : it is made in various ways. 
2. Yakhni. For 10 «. meat, take 1 8. onions, and -J- 8. salt. 8. Yuhrmh, 
A sheep is scalded in water till all the hair comes off ; it is then prepared 
like yakhnij or any other way ; but a lamb, or a kid, is more preferable. 
4. Kahdh is of various kinds. 10 «. meat; J 8, g'hi; salt, fresh ginger, 
onions, J 8. of each ; cuminseed, coriander seed, pepper, cardamums 
cloves, l}^ d. of each. 5. Mtisamman. They take all the bones out of a fowl 
through the neck, the fowl remaining whole, J 8. minced meat, J «. g'hf ; 
6 eggs ; J 8. onions ; 10 m. coriander ; 10 m. fresh ginger ; 5 m. salt ; 3 ;/*. round 
pepper ; \ m. saffron ; it is prepared as the preceding. 6. Dtipiydzah. 10 «.meat, 
middling fat ; 2 8. g'hi ; 2 8. onions ; J 8. salt ; ^ 8. fresh pepper ; cuminseed, 
coriander seed, cardamimis, cloves, 1 d. of each ; 2 d. pepper : this will give 


&ve diahee. 7. Mut(mjanak sheep, 10 «. meat, middling fat; 2 a. g'hi ; | s. 
gram ; \ $, ginger ; 1 d. cuminseed ; round pepper, doves, cardamums, corian- 
der seed 2 d. of each ; this will give seven dishes full. It is also made of fowl 
and fiah. 8. Dampukht 10 «. meat ; 2 «. g'hi; 1 s. onions ; llm, fresh ginger ; 
10 m. pepper; 2d. cloves; 2 <^. cardamums. 9. Qalyah, 10 «. meat; 2 s, 
g'hi ; 1 9, onions ; 2 d, pepper ; cloves, cardamums, 1 d. ecuih ; ^ s. salt : 
this will give eight dishes. In preparing qalyah^ the meat is minced, and 
the gravy rather thick, in opposition to the mutanjanah. Here in Hindustan 
they prepare it in various ways. 10. Malghithah 10 «. meat ; 10 «. curds ; 1 «. 
g'hi ; 1 s. onionB, i s, ginger ; 5 d, cloves : this will give ten dishes. 

XTN 25. 


This belongs, properly speaking, to the preceding chapter. Bread is 
made in the pantiy. There is a large kind, baked in aji oven, made of 
10 #. flour ; 5 s, milk \ l\ s, g'hi ; ^ s, salt. They make also smaller ones. 
The thin kind is baked on an iron plate. One s6r will give fifteen, or even 
more. There are various ways of making it : one kind is called chapdtkf 
which is sometimes made of hhmhhah; it tastes very well, when served 
hot. For the bread used at court, one man of wheat is made to yield ^ m, 
of fine flour ; 2 s, coarsely pounded flour ; and the rest bran ; if this degree 
of fineness be not required, the proportions are altered. 

AfN 26. 

THE DAYS OF ABSTINENCE. (9iifiydnah.^) 

His Majesty cares very Httle for meat, and often expresses himself to 
that effect. It is indeed from ignorance and cruelty that, although various 
kinds of food are obtainable, men are bent upon injuring living creatures, 
and lending a ready hand in killing and eating them ; none seems to have 
an eye for the beauty inherent in the prevention of cruelty, but makes 
himsftlf a tomb for animals. If his Majesty had not the burden of the world 
on his shoulders, he would at once totally abstain fr^m meat ; and now, it is 
his intention to quit it by degrees, conforming, however, a little to the spirit 
of the age. TTia Majesty abstained from meat for some time on Fridays, and 
then on Sundays ; now on the first day of every solar month, on Sundays, on 
solar and lunar eclipses, on days between two fasts, on the Mondays of the 

* Living according to the manner of the Sufis. 


month of EajaL,* on the feast-day of every solar month, during the whole 
inontli of Ftinvardhf,^ and during jthe month, in which his Majesty was bom, 
riz, the montli of A'bcin. Again, wlien the number of fast days of the month 
of A'b^n had become equal to the number of years his Majesty had lived, some 
days of the month of A'zar also were kept as fasts. At present the fast extends 
over the whole month. These fast days, however, from pious motives, are 
annually increased by at least five days. Should fasts fall together, they 
keep the longer one, and transfer the smaller by distributing its days 
over other months. Whenever long fasts are ended, the first dishes of meat 
come dressed fi'om the apartments of Maryam Makani, next from the other 
begxmis, the princes, and the princi2)al nobility. 

In this dopiU'tment nobles, ahadis, and other military', are employed. 
The i)ay of a foot soldier varies from 1 00 to 400 dams. 

AFN 27. 


The prices of course vary, as on marches, or dui'ing the rains, and for 
otlier reasons ; but I shall give hero the average prices for the information 
of future enquirers. 

A. The sjn'ing harvest. 
Wheat, per man^ 12 d. Linseed, ^;<?r 7nany 10 d. 

K^bul gram, do 16 d. 

Black gram, do 8 ^. 

Lentils, do 12 d. 

Barley, do S d. 

Millet, do ed. 

Mushkfn paddy, per man, . . 110 rf. 

Sadah paddy, do 100 rf. 

Suk'hdds rice, do 100 rf. 

Diinahparsad rice, do 90 d. 

Samzirah rice, do 90 d. 

Shakarchini rice, do 90 d. 

Safilower (carthamus), do. . . S d. 

Fenugreek, do 10 d. 

Peas, do 6 d. 

Mustardseed, do 12 d, 

Kewu, do 7 rf. 

i?. The autumnal harvest. 

Dewzirah rice, do 90 d, 

Jinjin rice, do 80 rf. 

Dakali (?) rice, do 50 rf. 

Zirhi rice, do , AO d, 

Sat'hf rice, do 20 d. 

Mung (black gram) do 18 rf. 

* Akbar was bom on the fifth of Rajab 
A. H. 949, a Sunday, This coiTesponds 
to the 15th October, 1542. The Mondays 
of the month of Rajab were obsei-\"ed as 
fast*<, because the Sundays htid been in- 
cluded in the list of last days. The 

members of the Divine Faith fasted 
likewise during the month of their birth. 
" February — March ; vide the first Ain 
of tlie thinl book ; Abdn corresponds to 
October — November. 


Mash (a kind of rQtch.)p&r man, 

Mot'h (do.), do 

White sesame, do 

Black sesame, do 

Lobijd (a king of bean), do. 
Jttwarf (a kind of millet), do. 

16 d, Lahdarah, do 

12 d. Kodram, do 

20 d, Kuri, do 

19 </. Shamakh(Hind.iSawM7«wX),do. 

\2 d, Gal (Hind. Kangni\ do, ... . 

\0 d. Millet (Hind, chinah), do. . . 

8 d. 

Mung ddl, per man, IS d. Lentils, per man, 16 </. 

Nukhudd^ do \Q\ d. Mot'h dal, do \2 d. 

Wheat flour, per man^ 22 d. Nukhud flour, per man, 

Do. coareey do \b d. Barley flour, do 

C, Vegetables. 

Garlic flowers, per sir, .... 
Upalhik, (from Kashmir) do. 

Jitu, do 

Ginger, do i 

P6i, do 

Kachndrbuds, do 

Chukd (sorrel), do 

Bat'hwah, do 

Batsakd, do 

Chanlai, do 

Femiel, per man, \Q d. 

Spinach, do 16 «?. 

Mint, do 40 (?. 

Onions, do 6 rf. 

Garlic, do 40 <?. 

Turnips, do 2\ d. 

Cabbage, per sir, \ d, 

Kankachhu, from Kashmir, do. Ad. 

Dapwr^tu, do 2d. 

61iaqaqul (wild carrot), do. . . 3 d. 

D, Living animals and meats. 

Dashmandi sheep, per head, . . %\ R. Duck, per head, 

A%hdn sheep, 1st kind, do. 2 R. Tughdarf (bustard), do 

Do., 2d kind, do 1^ i?- Kulang (heron), do 

Do., 3d kind, do HE. Jarz (a kind of bustard), do. 

Kashmir sheep, do 1^ E. Durrdj (black patridge), do. 

Hindustani sheep, do H JR. Kabg, (partridge), do 

Barbari goat, 1st kind, do. . . 1 JR. Budanah, do 

Do,, 2d kind, do i JR. Lawah, do 

Mutton, per man^ 65 d. Karwdnak (stone curlew), do. 

Goat, do 54 rf. Ffikhtah, (ringdove), do 

Geese, per head, 20 d. 

E, Butter, Sugar, Sfc, 

G*ki, per man, 105 d. Beflned sugar, per sir. 

Oil, do SO d. White sugar candy, do 

Milk, do. ••••... 2b d. White sugar, per man. 

Curds, do. •••... » IS d. Brown sugar, do 

22 d. 
11 d. 

1 d. 
1 d. 

1 d. 
1 d. 

1 E. 

20 d. 
20 d. 

20 d. 

1 d. 

20 d. 


• • • • 

• • • . 

56 d. 

Satrroii, per fiv)\ 

Cloves, do 

Cavrlamums, do 

Round popper, do 

Ijong popper, do 

Dry ginger, do 

Fresh do., do 

Cummin seed, do 

8our limes, per fn'r^ 

Lemon-juice, do 

AVine vinegar, 

Sugarcane vinegar, do 

Pickled a.slitargliar, do 

Mangoes in oil, do 

Do. in vinegar, do 

Lemons in oil, do 

Do. in \'inegar, do 

Do. in salt, do 

Do. in lemon-juice, do 

Pickled ginger, 

Adarshakh, do 

Turnips in vinegar, do 

Pickled carrots, do 

Do. bamboo, do 

Do. apples, do 


400 d. -tlniseed, per ^t'r, 2d. 

60 d. Tiumieric (Hind. Mdi) do. . . 10 d. 

52 d. Coriander seed, do 3 rf. 

n d. SiyAhcl^niihi lIhid.kaIaiinjT)jdo. l^ d. 

\(j d. Assafoetida, do 2d. 

4 d. Sweet fennel, do \ d. 

2 J d. Cinnamon, do 40 d. 

2 d. Salt, 7;^/* maUy 1 6 </. 

G. Pickles. 

6 d. Pickled fpiinces, per scr, .... 9 ^. 

d. Do. garlic, do Id. 

5 d. Do. (mions, do i rf. 

1 d. Do. badinjan (egg-plant,) do. 1 d. 
8 d. Do. raisins & munaqqa, do. 8 <^. 

2 d. Do. kacliudr, do 2d. 

2 d. Do. peaches, do Id. 

2 d. Do. sahajnali(horse-raddi8li), 1 d. 

2 d. Do. karilbuds (caj^paris), do. J d. 
l^ d. Do. karilbemes, do id. 

3 d. Do. suran, do Id. 

2i d. Do. mustard, id. 

2.} d. Do. tori (a kind of cucumber,) i d. 

1 d. Do. cucumbers, do ^ d. 

i d. Do. badrang, (gourd) do. . . id. 

4 d. Do. kachalu, do id. 

8 d. Do. raddishos, do id. 

AfN 28. 


His Majesty looks upon fruits as one of the greatest gifts of the 
Creator, and pays much attention to them. The horticulturists of Fran and 
Turan have, therefore, settled here, and the cultivation of trees is in a 
flourishing state. Melons and grapes have become very plentiful and 
excellent ; and water-melons, peaches, almonds, pistachios, pomegranates, 
&c., are everywhere to be found. Ever since the conquest of K^bul, Qandah^r, 
and Kashmir, loads of fruits ai*e imported ; throughout the whole year the stores 
of the dealers are full, and the bdzdrs well supplied. Muskmelons come in 
season, in Hindustan, in the month of Farwardm (February — March), and 


are plenty in UrdlhihUht (March — April). They are delicious, tender, opening, 
sweet smelling, especially the kinds called ndsh^&tiy bdbdshaikki, Wishdrf, 
alehak, harg i nai^ dikd i ehdrdghy ^e. They continue in season for two months 
longer. In the beginning of Sharitoar^ (August) they come from Kashmir, and 
before they are out of season, plenty are brought from K&bul ; during the 
nu>nth of A%ar (November) they are imported by the caravans from 
Badakhjah&n, and continue to be had during Dai (December.) When they are 
in season in Zabulist&n, good ones are also obtainable in the PanjUb ; and in 
Bhakkar and its vicinity they are plentiful in season, except during the 
forty cold days of winter. Various kinds of grapes are here to be had from 
Ekurddd (May) to Amurddd (July), whilst the markets are stocked with 
Kashmfr grapes during Shahriwar, Eight s6rs of grapes seU in Elashmir 
at one d&m, and the cost of the transport is two rupees per man. The 
Kashmirians bring them on their backs in conical baskets, which look very 
curious. From Mihr (September) till Urd4h%hisM grapes come from K^bul, to- 
gether with cherries,^ which his Majesty ceils shdhdld, seedless pomegranates, 
apples, pears, quinces, guavas, peaches, apricots, girdalus, and 41uchas, &c., 
many of which fruits grow also in Hindust&n. From Samarqand even they 
bring melons, pears, and apples. 

Whenever his Majesty wishes to take wine, opium, or kuknar (he calls 
the latter sahras)y the servants in charge place before him stands of fruits ; 
he eats a little, but most is distributed. The fruits are marked according 
to their degree of excellence : melons of the first quality are marked with 
a line drawn round the top ; those of the second, with two lines ; and so on. 

In this department Mansabd^s, Ahadis, and other soldiers are employed; 
the pay of a foot soldier varies from 140 to 100 <^. 

The following tables contain particulars regarding the names, seasons, 
taste, and prices, of various fruits. 

A. Tkrdni FruiU, 

uirAtfR^' melons, Ist quality, @ 2} R, K&bul and European apples, 6 to 

Do., 2nd and 3rd do., @ 1 to 2\ E, 10 for \ R. 

Eibul melons, Ist do., @l \ol^ R. Kashmir grapes, per man^ .... 108 «?. 

Do., 2d do., @ } to I R. Dates, per sir, 10 d. 

Do., 3rd do., @ i to J -ft. Raisins, do 9 d, 

Samarqand apples, 7 to 15 for I R. Abjosh (large raisins), do 9 d. 

Quinces, 10 to 30 for I R. Plums, do., S d. 

Guavas, 10 to 100 for I R. Khub4ni(dried apricots),^^ *^r, 8 d. 

Pomegranates, |Mr man, 6i to 15 i?. Qandah&rdry grapes, do., .. 7 d. 

* The original ha» a word I'ildt, which I It may bo ^nwus. 
is uot to be found in our dictionaries. I ' A town in liiidakhiihaji. 


Fi<j:s, per .9^;*, , Id. 

Muiiaqqa, do 6J ^. 

Jujubes, do 3J cf. 

Almonds, -without the shell, do. 28 d. 

Do., with do., do \\ d. 

Pistachios, do 9 r^. 

B. The sweet fruit ft of Hindustan. 

Mangoes, per hundred, up to . 40 «?. TJsird, 

riueapplrs, one for Ad. 

Oranges, two for \ d. 

f igaroanes, two for \ d. 

Giilghuzah nuts, per «er, .... 8 //. 

Sinjid (jujubes), do 6 J d. 

Pistachios, do 6 ^. 

Jauz (nuts), do 4 1 </- 

Filberts, do 3 r^. 

Hazel nuts, do 2\ d. 

Jaikfruils, two for \ d. 

Plantains, do \ d. 

Bt'r, per ser, 2d. 

I*omogranates, jt?fr w/^>i, 80 to 100 d. 

Guavas, two for \ d. 

Figs, per «^r, \ d. 

Mulberry, do 2d. 

Custard apples,* one for .... \ d. 

Melons, per man, 40 d. 

AVater melons, one 2 to 10 rf. 

K'hirni, per s^r^ 4 d. 

Mahuw^, do 1 d. 

Dep'hal, do 4 rf. 

Dates, per ser, Ad. 

Anguhal, * 

Dela, do \ d. 

Gulah, * 

Bholsari, per ser, 4 d. 

Tarkul, two for Id. 

Pani^ah, per x^r, 2d. 

Lahsaurah, do Id. 

Gurabhi, do 4 d. 

Karahri, 4 d. 

Tarri, * 

Bangah, two for Id. 

Gular, per sir, 2d, 

Pilu, do 2d. 

Barautah, * 

Piy^*, do 4 d. 

Tendu, do 2d. 

Mulberries and giilars are in season during spring; pine apples, oranges, 
sugarcane, bers, lisiras, bhuLsarfs, gimibhis, dep'hals during winter-, jackfruits, 
tarkuls, figs, melons, lahsauras, karahi*is, mahuwas, tendiis, pilus, barautahs, 
during summer ; and mangoes, plantains, dates, delas, gulahs, pomegranates, 
guavas, watermelons, pampas, bangahs, k'himis, piydi's, during the rains. 

C. Dried Fruits. 

Cocoanuts, one for 4 d. Mak'hand, per «er, 4 d. 

Dry Dates, per sh'^ 6 rf. Supy^rf, do % d. 

Wabiuts, do % d. Kaulgattah, do 2d. 

Chiraunchi, do 4 d. 

Dates, walnuts, chiraunchis, and kaulgattahs are in season during 
shimmer, and cocoanuts, mak'hdnas and supy^is, during icinter. 

* The original Rays that custard apples 
are to be had throughout the whole year. 

This seems a mistake of the MSS. The 
remark suits the next iruit (melons). 

* The Original does not mention the price. 


D. Vegetables. 

Palwal, per sir 2d. Kach^u, per ser, 2d, 

Gouid, one , 2d, Chacliiiid&, do 2d. 

B6dinj^y per sSr, • H d. Suran, do Id. 

Turai, do l^ d. Carrots, do Id. 

Kanduri, do l^ d. Sing'li^ah, do 3d. 

S6nb, do l^d. 861ak, do 2d. 

Pet'h, do lid. Pindfilu, do 2d. 

Karilali, do 1 J rf. SefiH, ».- * 

Eakdrah, do H d. Kas^ru do S d. 

Surans and s^^is are in season during summer ; palwals, gourds, turais, 
kadi^us, chachindiia, kandurfs, s^nbs, pet'hs, karilahs, kakuralis, and 
8ing'li6ralis during the rains; and carrots, s^aks, pind^iis, and kaserus, 
during winUr. Bddinj&ns are to be had throughout the year. 

E. Sour Fruits. 

Limes, four up to Id. G'h6p, * 

Amalb^t, do Id. Bijaurd, one for S d. 

Gblgal, two up to Id. Xjrwlah,per sir, 2d. 

lames and ^wlahs are to be had in summer, the others during the 

F. Fruits somewhat aeid. 

Ambili, per sir, 2d. Kait, four up to Id. 

Badhal, one for Id. K&nk^, * 

Kamrak, four up to Id. Pdkar, per sir, i d. 

N&rangf , two up to Id. Kamd, one for Id. 

Mountain grapes, * Labhir& * 

J&man, per sir, Id. Janbhfri, five up to Id. 

FMlsah, do H rf. Gamah, ♦ 

Karaund&, do Id. 

Kamraks and n^urangis are in season during tointer; ambilfs, badhals, 
mountain-grapes, p'h^lsas, labhiras, during summer; and kaits, p&kars, 
kamas, j&mans, karaundds, jhanbhiris, during the rains. 

The fruits of Hindustan are either sweet, or subacid, or sour ; each kind 
is numerous. Some finiits also taste well when dry; others as above 
described are used when cooked. I shall give now a few details. 

*T^e Mangoe. The Persians caU this &uit Naghzak, as appears from a 
verse of Khusrau.^ This fruit is unrivalled in colour, smeU, and taste ; and some 
of the gourmands of Tur&n and Irdn place it above muskmelons and grapes. 

* 71<ie the fourth note on p. 75 of my | text edition. 

* The Original does not mention the price. 


In sh}ip" it ri'soiiiblos an apric(>t, or a qiiiuce, or a pear, or a molon, and 
wc'ij^lis ovon one H«?r and upwards. Thero are green, yellow, red, variegated, 
sweet, and subacid mangoes. The tree looks well^ especially when young ; 
it is larger than a nut tree, and its leaves resemble those of the willow, but aro 
larg(»r. Tlie n(;w loaves appear soon after the fall of the old ones in autumn> 
and look green and yellow, orange, peacli-coloured, and bright red. The 
flower wliich opens in spring, resemldos that of the vine, has a good smell, 
and looks vun' cui'ious. About a m<inth after the leaves have made their 
appearanc^e^ the fruit is sour, and is used for preserves and pickles. It 
improves the taste oiqahjahn (p. 61 .) as long as the stone has not become hard. 
If a fruit gets injured whilst on the tree, its good smell will increase. Such 
nuuigoes are called koi/ds. The fruit is generally taken down when unripe, 
and ke])t in a particidar manner. Mangoes ripened in this manner are much 
liner. They mostly conmienee to ripen during summer, and are fit to be eaten 
(luring tlu» rains ; others commence in the rainy season, and are ripe in the 
beginning of winter : the latter are called Bhaditpjah. Some trees bloom 
and yield fnut the whole year ; but tliis is rare. Others commence to ripen, 
although they look unripe ; they must be quickly taken down ; else the 
sweetness would produce worms. Mangoes are to be found every where in 
India, especially in lieugid, Guji-at, Malwali, Khandesh, and the Deldian, 
Tlioy are rarcT in the Panjab, where their cultivation has, however, increased, 
since his Majesty made LaJior his capital. A young tree will bear fruit after 
four yc*ars. They put also milk and treacle round about the tree, which 
makes the fruits sweeter. Some trees vield in one vear a rich hai*vest, and 
li'rss in the next : others yield for (me year no fruit at all. When people eat 
a great deal of mangoes, thc^y may promote digestion by partaking of milk 
with the kernels of the mangoe stones. The kernels of old stones are subacid, 
and taste well : when two or three years old, they aro used as medicine. 
If a hidf ripe mangoe, together with its stalk to a length of about two fingers, 
be taken from the tree, and the broken end of its stalk be closed with warm 
wax, and kept in butter, or honey, the fruit wiU retain its taste for two or 
three months, wliilst the colour will remain even for a year. 

Fineapples'^ are also called KaVhal i tSafari, or the jackfruits for travels, 
because yoimg plants, put into a vessel, may be taken on travels, and 
wlU yield fruits. In colour and shape they resemble an oblong orange ; 
and in taste and smell, a mangoe. The plant is about a yard long, and its 
leaves have the shape of a hand. The edges of the leaves are liko a saw. 
The fruit forms at the end of the stalk, and has a few leaves on its top. 
Wlien the fruit is plucked, they cut out these leaves, separate them, and 

* Jalij'ingir in his Memoirs (Toozulc i that the piiuvipplcs, at his time, rame from 
JahdiKjiri, ed. Sayyid, p. 3,) states the harbour towns hold by the IVrtugueso 


put them singly into the ground : they are the seedlings. Each plant bears 
only once, and one fruit only. 

Oranges have the colour of saffiron, and the shape of quinces. They 
belong to the best fruits to be had in Hindustan. The tree resembles the 
lime tree ; its flower has a weak, but fine smell. 

SugarcanSy which the Persians call NakhakWy is of Tarious kinds ; 
one Bpecies is so tender and so frill of juice, that a sparrow can make 
it flow out by pecking it; and it would break to pieces, if let fall. 
Sugarcane is either soft, or hard. The latter is used for the preparation of 
brown sugarcandy, common sugar, white candy, and refined sugar, and 
thus becomes useful for all kinds of sweetmeats. It is cultivated as follows. 
They put some healthy sugarcane in a cool place, and sprinkle it daily with 
water. When the sim enters the sign of Aquarius, they cut off pieces, a 
cubit and upwards in length, put them into soft ground, and cover them up 
with earth. The harder the sugarcane is, the deeper they put it. Constant 
irrigation is required. After seven or eight months it will come up. 

Sugarcane is also used for the preparation of intoxicating liquor, but 
brown sugar is better for this purpose. There are various kinds of preparing 
it. One way is as follows. They pound Babul bark, mixing it at the rate 
of ten sers to one man of sugarcane, and put three times as much water 
over it. Then they take large jars, fill them with the mixture, and put them 
into the ground, surroimding them with dry horse-dimg. From seven to ten 
days are required to produce fermentatiou. It is a sign of perfection, when 
it has a sweet, but astringent taste. When the liquor is to be strong, they 
again put to the mixture some brown sugar, and sometimes even drugs and 
perfumes, as ambergis, camphor, &c. They let also meat dissolve in it. 
This beverage when strained, may be used, but it is mostly employed for 
the preparation of arrack. 

They have several methods of distilling it ; Jlrstf they put the above 
liquor into brass vessels, in the interior of which a cup is put, so as not to 
shake, nor must the liquid flow into it. The vessels are then covered with 
inverted lids which are fastened with day. After pouring cold water on tho 
lids, they kindle the fire, changing the water as often as it gets warm. As 
soon as the vapour inside reaches the cold Hd, it condenses, and faUs as arrack 
into the cup. Secondhf^ they close the same vessel with an earthen pot, 
fftstened in the same manner with clay, and fix to it two pipes, the free ends 
of which have each a jar attached to them, which stands in cold water. The 
vapour through the pipes will enter the jars, and condense. Thirdly^ they 
fill an earthen vessel with the above mentioned liquor, and fasten to it 
a large spoon with a hollow handle. The end of the handle they attach 
to a p]i>e, which leads into a jar. The vessel is covered with a lid, which is 
kejrt full with cold water. The arrack, when condensed, flows through tho 


Spoon into the jar. 8onie distil tlie arrack twice, when it is called Dudtashaky 
or twice hurned. It is very strong. If you wet your hands with it, and 
hold them near the fire, the spirit will bum in flames of different colours, 
without injuring the hands. It is remarkable that when a vessel, containing 
arrack, is set on fire, you cannot put it out by any means ; but if you cover 
tlie vessel, the fire gets at once extinguished. 

The Jackfruii has the shape of a black pudding, looks greenish, and is 
sometimes a yard long, and half a yard broad. When small, it resembles 
a water melon ; its peel is full of thorns. It grows out of the branches, the 
trunk, and the roots. Those that grow below the ground are sweetest. 
On opening you see roimd clusters, so viscous, that the fingers stick 
together, when you take them out. The tree looks like a nut tree, but is 
somewhat bigger, and has larger leaves. The flower, like the fruit, has a 
good smell. The fruits are also taken down, when unripe. They then apply 
chalk, &c., when the fruits wiU got ripe. 

The Plantain tree looks straight like a spear ; the leaves come out of the 
trunk thick and soft, and resemble an unsewn plaited sleeve, but are much 
larger and wider. Out of the middle rises something looking like a spindle, 
of a lilac colour ; this is the bud. The fruit consists of a cluster of seventy to 
eighty plantains. In shape they resemble small cucumbers ; the peel is 
easily removed. As plantains are very heavy, you cannot eat many. There 
are various kinds of plantains. The plant is every year cut down, and a 
stump only is left of it : if this is not done, it will no longer bear fruit. The 
vulgar believe that the plantain tree jdelds camphor, but this is wrong ; 
for the camphor tree, as shall be hereafter explained, is a different tree, 
although it has the same name. They also say that pearls originate in plan- 
tain trees, — another statement upon which the light of truth does not shine. 

The 3Iahuwd tree resembles the mangoe tree ; its wood is used for 
building purposes. The fruit, wliich is also called Gilaundah, yields an 
intoxicating liquor. 

The J)h6hfri tree is large and handsome ;* the fruit has an orange 
colour, and resembles jujubes. 

The Tarkul tree, and its fruit, resemble the cocoanut palm and its fruit. 
Wlien the stalk of a new leaf comes out of a branch, they cut off its end, 
and hang a vessel to it, to receive tlio out-flowing juice. The vessel will fill 
twice or three times a day. The juice is called tdri ; when fresh it is sweet ; 
when it is allowed to stand for some time, it turns 8uba<;id, and is inebriating. 

The Panidlah fruit resembles the Zarddlu ; and its tree, the lime tree ; 
the leaves are like those of the wUlow. AVhon unripe, the fruit is green ; 
and red, when ripe. 

' The text ha8 here a few words the | meaning of which I do not understand. 


The Gnmbhi has a stem the branches of which are like creepers ; its 
leaTee and fruits, as those of the kundr^ .come from below the roots. 

The TarH forms at the root ; it grows mostly in the mountains, and 
weighs a man, more or less, when the creeper is a year old ; and two, when 
two years old. It looks like a miUstone. When older, it grows larger according 
to the same proportion. Its leaves resemble those of the water melon. 

The Piffdr is like a small grape ; brownish and sweet. The inside o^ 
the kernel is like butter, and is used in the preparation of food ; it is called 
Chdraunfi. Its tree is about a yard high. 

The Coeoanut is called by the Persians JawL i Hindi ; the tree resembles 
the date tree, but is larger ; its wood, however, looks better, and the leaves 
are larger. The tree bears fruit throughout the whole year ; they get ripe 
in three months. They are also taken down, when imiipe and green, and 
kept for some time. Their inside contains a cup full of milk-like juice, whidi 
tastes well, and is very often drunk in summer, mixed with sugar. When 
ripe the fruit looks brown. The juice has now become solid, and gets black 
when mixed with butter ; it is sweet and greasy. When eaten with pdn- 
leaves, it makes the tongue soft and fresh. The shell is used for spoons, 
cupsy and ghichakt (a kind of violin). There are nuts having four, three, two, 
and one, holes or eyes ; each kind is said to possess certain qualities, the 
last being considered the best. Another kind is used for the preparation of 
an antidote against poison. The nuts weigh sometimes twelve s6rs and 
upwards. The bark of the tree is used for ropes ; the large ropes used on 
ships are made of it. 

Dates are called in Hindi Find^hajiir. The tree has a short stem, rising 
little above the groimd, and produces from four to five hundred fr^dts. 

The Supydrij or betel nut, is called in Persian fk/al. The tree is 
graceful, and slender like the cypress. The wind often bends it, so that its 
crown touches the ground ; but it rises up again. There are various kinds. 
The fruit when eaten raw, tastes somewhat like an almond, but gets hard 
when ripe. They eat it with betel leaves. 

The 8ing*hdrah is a triangular fruit ; its creeper grows in tanks, and 
the fruit is on the surface of the water. They eat it raw or roasted. 

The Sdlak grows in tanks imder the earth. They go into the water 
and dig it up. 

The Pinddlii is reared on lattice work, and grows about two yards high. 
Its leaf resembles the betel leaf; they dig up the root. 

The KasiriL grows in tanks. When the water gets low, they take it 
out of the ground and eat it, raw or boiled. 

The 8idli root is long and conical ; the plant is a creeper, to whose root 
the fruit is attached. 


'V\w Onf/if/r lias the sliaj> • of an c^^^g. One kind is called hdghazi. 
I5(*t\\'oon tlio peel and tlio fruit is a tliin white membrane. The fruit ia 
juicy, and tastes well ; one kind is to be had throughout the whole year. 

The AmalbH is like a lime, and very sour. If you put a steel needle 
into tliis fruit, the needle in a short time will dissolve ; and a white shell 
when put into its juice, will soon disappear. 

The Kaniii resembles an ap^de, and appears after the plant has reached 
tlie third year. At first the fruit is green, sour, and also somewhat bitter, 
but turns aftorwarda yellow and bitter ; when ripe it is red and sweet. 
AVHien it is kept long, it turns green again. The tree looks like an orange 
tree, but the leaves are somewhat broader, and the buds like fine arrows. 
The flower is white, and has fom* petals and yellow stamens. It has a fine 
smell, and is used for ambergis ; but it is beyond my power to describe the 
process of the manufacture. 

The /A'^^'/ loaf is properly speaking a vegetable, but connoisseurs call it an 
excellent fruit. Mir Kliusrau of DiliH in one of his vcTses savs, " It is an 
excellent fruit like the flower of a garden, the finest fruit of Hindustan." The 
eating of the leaf renders the breath agreeable, and repasts odorous. It 
strengthens the gums, and makes the liungr}' satisfied, and the satisfied 
hungry. I shall describe some of the various kinds. 1. The leaf called BiUihn 
is white and shining, and does not make the tongue harsh and hard. It tastes 
best of all kinds. After it has been taken away from the creeper, it turns 
white, with some care, after a month, or even after twenty days, when greater 
efforts are made. 2. The Kdler leaf is T\'hite with spots, and fidl, and has 
hard veins. WTien much of it is eaten, the tongue gets hard. 3. The Jaistcdr 
leaf does not get wliite, and is profitably sold mixed with other kinds. 4. The 
Kapuri leaf is yellowish, hard, and full of veins, but has a good taste and 
smell. 5. The KapurJcdnt leaf is yellowish-green, and pungent like pepper ; 
it smells Kko camphor. You could not eat more than ten leaves. It is to be 
had at Bandras ; l)ut even there it does not thrive in every soil. 6. The 
BangJah leaf is broad, full, hard, plushy, hot, and pungent. 

The cultivation is as follows. In the month of Chait (March — April), 
about Now- Year's time, they take a part of a creeper four or five fingers 
long with Karhanj leaves on it, and put it below the ground. From 
fifteen to twenty days after, according as leaves and knots form, a new 
creeper will appear from a knot, and as soon as another knot forms, a leaf 
\\ ill grow up. The creepers and new leaves form for seven months, when 
the- plant ceases to grow. No creeper has more than thirty leaves. As the 
plant grows, they prop it with canes, and cover it, on the top and the sides, 
with wood and straw, so as to rear it up in the shade. The plant requires 
continually to be watered, except during the rains. Sometimes they put 


milk, sesame oil and its seeds pressed out, about the plant. There are seven 
kinds of leaves, known under nine names : 1. The Karhanj leaf, which 
they separate for seedlingB, and call Piri, The new leaf is called Gadautah. 
2. The Naut{lea£. 3. The ^a^^lleaf. 4. The CMiw leaf. 5. The 
AdhifUdd leaf. 6. The Agahniyah or LiwArloBl. 7. The Karhmjleei 
itself. With the exception of the Oadautahy the leaves are taken away from 
tiie creeper when a month old. The last kind of leaf is eaten by some ; 
others keep it for seedlings: they consider it ve^ excellent, but eanrunssewrt 
prefer the PM. 

A bundle of 11,000 leaves was formerly called LahdBah^ which name is 
now giTen to a bundle of 14,000. Bundles of 200 are called Dhdli ; a lahdsah 
is made up of dholis. In winter they turn and arrange the leaves after four 
or ^e days ; in summer eveiy day. From 5 to 25 leaves, and sometimes 
more, are placed above each other, and adorned in various ways. They also 
put some betelnut and ka^h* on one lea^ and some chalk* paste on another, 
and roll them up : this is called a b^ah. Some put camphor and musk into 
it, and tie both leaves with a silk thread. Others put single leaves on plates, 
and use them thus. They are also prepared as a dish. 

ATN 29. 
As I have mentioned various kinds of food, I shall also say something on 
flavours. SM renders pungent that which is agreeable, bitter that which 
is greasy, and brackish that which has the proper flavour ; eold makes the first 
add, the second astringent, and the third tart. Astringency when affecting 
the tongue merely is called in Arabic qahz ; and ^ufdgat, when affecting the 
whole frame. A moderate temperature renders the first quality greasy, the 
second sweet, and the last tasteless. These are the fundamental flavours. 
Others count four, m., the sweet, the bitter, the acid, the brackish. The 
flavours produced by combinations is endless ; some have however names, e, g,j 
haehd^at is a bitter and tart flavour, and zu^itqah a combination of the brackish 
and the bitter. 

Am 30. 


His Majesty is very fond of perfumes, and encourages this department 

fxaOL religious motives. The court-hall is continually scented with ambergis, 

aloewood, and compositions according to ancient recipes, or mixtures invented 

' An astringent y^table extract eaten 
bj the naiives of IncQa with thej^ein leat. 
It lookii brown, and staizis the tongue and 


the gams red. 

' In Persian chunah ; but Anglo-Iudice, 


by liis Majt^sty ; and iiueiirte is daily burnt in gold and silver censers of 
various shapc^s, whilst sweet-smelling flowers are used in large quantities. 
Oils are also extracted from flowers, and used for the skin and the hair. I 
shall give a few recipes. 

1. Sautukifi used for keeping the skin fresh: IJ tolahs Civet; 1 (. 
Chuicah ;* 2 mdshahs ChamhtVi essence ; 2 bottles of rose-water. 2. Argajoh^ 
2 «. sandel wood ; 2 t. Iksir and Mid ; 3 t. Chuwah ; 1 t. violet root, and gehlah 
(the seed of a plant) ; ^ ?/*. camphor ; 1 1 bottles of rose-water. It is used in 
summer for keeping the skin cool. 3. Gidkdmah. Pound together 1 t. best 
Ambergis ; I t. Ladan ; 2 t. best musk ; 4 t. wood of aloes, and 8 t. Iksir i 
'abi'r ; and put it into a porcelain vessel, mix with it a ser of the juice of the 
flower called Qui i surlh, and expose it to the sun, till it dries up. Wet it in 
the evening with rose-water and with the extrat^t of the flower called Bahdr, 
and pound it again on tSamdq st(mo. Let it stand for ten days, mix it with the 
juice of the flower called Jiahdr i Ndr(ui}\ and let it dry. During the next 
twt^nty days, add occasionally some juice of the black Baihdn (also called 
black Ndzhlu), A part of this mixture is added to the preceding. 4. Riikafzd^ 
5 8. Aloewood ; \\ s. JSandelwood ; \\ 8, Ladan; Iksir, Lub^n, Dhup (a 
root brought from Kashmir), 3 J t. of each ; 20 t. violet root; 10 /. Ushnah, 
called in Hind. Chhurilah. Press till it gets tenacious like syrup. To be 
made into cakes with four bottles of rose-water. It is burnt in censers, 
and smells very fine. 5. Opatnah is a scented soap. 2 J s. Ladan; \^ s. 
5 d. Aloewood ; the same quantity of Bahar i N^anj, and 1 J s. of its bark ; 
1 8. 10 d. Sandelwood ; 1 *. 5 rf. Sumbul uttib, called in Hind. Chhar ; the 
game quantity of Ushnah ; 38 J t. musk ; \ s. A t. pdchah leaves ; 36 t. 
apples ; 11 ^. Su'd, called in Ilind. M6€h ; 5 d. violet root; 1 ^. 2 m. Dhup ; 
1 .V t. Ikanki (a kind of grass) ; the same quantity of Zurumbad, called in 
Ilind. kaehufy (zenmibet) ; 1 t. 2 m. Liiban ; 106 bottles of rose-water; 5 
bottles of extract of Bah^. Pound the whole, sift it, and boil slowly in rose- 
"water. WTien it has become loss moist, let it dry. 6. ^Ahirmdyah^^ 4 d, 
Aloewood ; 2 d. Sandelwood ; 1 d. violet root ; 3 d. Sumbuluttib ; 3 d, 
Duwalak ; 4 t. musk of Khatd (Cathay) ; 2\ d. Ladan ; 7 J d, Bahar i Naranj. 
Pound, and sift, boil over a slow fire in 10 bottles of rose-water, and put it 
into the shade to dry. 7. Kishtah, 24 t. Aloewood ; 6 A Ladan, Lubdn, and 
Sandelwood ; Iksir and Dhup, 2 t. of each ; violet root and musk, 2 t, ; It. 
Ushnah ; mix with 50 ^. refined sugar, and boil gently in 2 bottles of rose- 
water. It is made into cakes. It smells very fine when burnt, and is 
exhilarating. 8. Bukhur^ 1 «. Aloewood and Sandelwood ; J «. Lddan ; 2 t. 

* This and the following names of per- I chapter, 
fumes are explained fui-ther on in this \ ' Vide below the twelfth flower. 


musk ; 5 t Iksfr ; mix with two s^rs of refined sugar and one bottle of 
rosewater over a slow fire. 9. Fatilah, 5 8. Aloewood ; 72 t. Sandelwood ; 
Iksir and L&dan, 20 t, of each ; 5 t Yiolet root ; 10 ^. Lubdn ; 3 t, refined 
sugar; mix with two bottles of rose-water^ and make into tapers. 10. 
Bdrjdty 1 8, Aloewood; 5 t, L6dan; 2 t. musk; 2 t, Sandelwood; 1 t, 
Luh4n ; \ t. Camphor. Then distill it like Chuioah, (vide below). 1 1 ^Ahir' 
liHr, ^ 8. Sandelwood ; 26 t Iksfr ; 2 t. S m, musk. Pound it, and dry it 
in the shade. 12. Gha8ul (a liquid soap),* 35 t. Sandelwood; 17 L 
Katul (?)' ; 1 t. musk ; 1 t. Ghtiwah ; 2 m. Camphor ; 2 m. Mid. Mix with 
2 bottles of rose-water. 

A Lkt of Perfume8^ and their Prices. 

'Ambar i ashhab, lto3 Muhurs, per tdlah. 

Zab6d (dvet), J i2. to 1 if., do. 

Musk, lto4j It,, do. 

Ug^um aloes, Hind. Agar, 2 i?. to 1 M., per sSr. 

Chuwah (Distilled wood of Aloes), ^R.Xol R.,per tdlah. 

Gaurah," 3to5 R., do. 

Bhimsini Camphor, 3 i^. to 2 M., do. 

Mid, 1 to 3 i?., do. 

Za'farlm, \2\o22 R,, per sir. 

Za'faHLn i Kamandf, 1 to 3 if., do. 

Za'£ar&n (from Kashmir), 8 to 12 i?., do. 

Sandalwood, 32 to 55 i2., per man, 

N^ifidi i mushk, 3 to 12 if., ^^ «^. 

Kalanbak (Calembic,) 10 to 40 ^., p&r man. 

Sil&ras, 3to6 R,, per «er, 

'Ambar i Lfidan, 1 J to 4 i^., do. 

Kifur i Chfnah, 1 to 2 i?., do. 

'Araq i Fitnah, lto3 R,, per hottle. 

'Araq i Bed i Mushk, 1 to 4 ^., do. 

Bosewater, i to 1 -ft., do. 

'Araq i Bah&r, 1 to 5 i?., do. 

*Araq i Chambelf, i to i -R., do. 

Yiolet-root, J to 1 -fi., jwr «^. 

Azfiur uftib, 1 J to 2 i?., do. 

Barg i M4j (brought from Gujr&t), i to 1 ^., do. 

Bogandh GugalA, 10 to 13 -R., do. 

* Acoofding to Bome MSS. Kanwal. 

* Ho0t of the following names are ex- 
plained below. 

* In the text,p. 86, by mistake Kattrah, 
Vide my text edition p. 94, L 6. 


Lulmii (from ftargard ?), i to 8 /?., per tolah. 

liulr.'iu ; otliur kiiicLs), lto2 R.^ per Mvr. 

Alak, Ilind. Chhar, J to J i?., do. 

Duwalak, Uind. Chharilah, 3 to 4 rf., do. 

Gclilah, * 

Su'd, * 

Ikauki, * 

Zurunibml, * 

A List of fine smelling Flowers, 

1. The Sewti, Wliitish.; blooms the whole year, especially towards 
the end of the rains. 

2. The Bhdlsark. Whitish ; in the rains. 

3. Tlie Chamhcli. AVliite, yellow, and blue. In the rains, and partly 
during winter. 

4. lluihcl. White and jjale yellow. In the end of the hot season, and 
the beginning of the rains. 

5. The Mongrd. Yellow. In summer. 

6. The Champah. Yellow. All the year ; especdally when the sun 
stands in Pisces and Aries. 

7. KHH. Tlie upper leaves are green, the inner ones yellowish- white. 
It blooms during the hot season. 

8. Kuzdh. Wliite. During the hot season. 

9. The Pddul. Brownish lilac. In spring. 

10. The Jiihi, White and yellow, like jasmin. During the rains. 

11. ThQ NiwdrL Whitish. In spring. 

12. Iho Nargis, White. In spring. 

13. The Kewarah. From Leo to Libra. 

14. The Chaltah. 

15. The Guldl. In spring. 

16. The Tashih % Guldl. White. In winter. 

17. The Singdrhdr. It has small white petals. In the hot season. 

18. The Violet. Violet. In the hot season. 

19. The Eamah. White. In spring. 

20. The Ka^iir hel. 

21 . The Gul t Za^/ardn. Lilac. In autumn. 

A List of Floicers fwtable for their beauty. 

1. The Gul%Aft6b9 Yellow. 

2. The G\d % Kanwal. White, and also bluish. In the rains. 

♦ The original t<?xt does not mention the prices. 


3. The Ja^fa/n, A golden yellow, or orange coloured, or greenisli. In 

4. The QiMdl. Of different colours, red, yellpw, orange, white. In 
the rains. 

5. The JiaianmanfatU. Bright red. It is smaller ihan jasmin. All 
the year. 

6. The X^sit. In the hot season. 

7. The Sinbal. Dark red. In spring. 

8. The jRatanmdld. Tellow. In spring. 

9. The Sdffzard. Yellow. In spring. 

10. The Gul i MdUi. 

11. The JTornj^'M/. A golden red. 

12. The KarU. In spring. 

13. ThQKatUr. Bed and white. 

14. The Kadam, Outside green ; in the middle yellow threads ; the 
inaide leaves white. In spring. 

15. The Ndghisar. In spring. 

16. The Surpon. White, with red and yellow stripes in the middle. 
During the rains. 

17. The SWi VhanH. Inside yellowish white, outside reddish. In 

18. The Jait, Inside yellow, outside a blackish red. In the rains. 

19. The Champaiah. White, like orange blossoms. In spring. 

20. The Zdhi. It blooms in Pisces. 

21. The Gid i Karaundah. White. It is smaller than the Ohamb^, and 
blooms during the rains. 

22. The lyhanantar resembles the NUiifar. During the rains. 

23. The €hd % Sinnd. 

24. The Bupahnyd. Bright red, and whitia. All the year. 

25. The Bhitn Champd. Peach coloured. 

26. The Sudaraon. Tellow ; it resembles the NQufar^ but is smaller. 

27. The KangUi. There are two kinds, red, and white. 

28. The 8ir9. Yellowish green. It is fall of stamens. In spring. 

29. The /Son. Yellow. During the rains. 

On the Preparation of some Perfumes, 

1. ^Ambar. Some say that 'Ambar grows at the bottom of the sea, 
and that it is the food brought up again after eating, by various ftTiiTpa ]«^ 
living in the sea. Others say that fishes eat it and die fix)m it, and that it is 
taken from their intestines. According to some, it is the dung of the sea-cow, 
called sdrd ; or the foam of the sea. Others again say, it trickles from the 


moiiiitnins of islands. Many look upon it as marino p^nm; otliors whoso opinluu 
I adopt, take it to Lo wax. It is said tliat on some mountain.s a great dt>al 
of honey is to be found, so much in fact that it runs into the sea ; the wax 
riscis to the surface, when the hoat of tlie sim reduces it to a solid state. 
As tlio bees collect the honey fi*(^m sweet smelling flowers, 'Ambar is, 
naturally, scented. ]3oes are also occasionally found in it. Abu Stnd thinks 
that there is a fountain at the bottom of the sea, from which 'Ambar rills, 
when it is carried by waves to the shore. 'Ambar, when fresh, is moist ; the 
heat of tlie sun causes it to dry up. It is of various colours : the white one 
is tlie best, and tlie Idack is tlio worst ; the middling sort is pistachio- 
coloured and yellow. The best kind goes by the name of ashhab. It feels 
gi'casy, and consists of layers. If you break it, it looks yellowish white. 
The whiter, ligliter, and more flexible it is, the better. Next in qualtity is the 
pistachio-coloured 'Aml)ar ; and inferior to»it the yeUow kind, called 
Aliash/i'hdM. The black kind is bad ; it is inflammable. Greedy b6z^- 
dealers will mix it with wax, Mandal, and Lddan, &c. ; but not every one ha.s 
recourse to such practices. Mandal is a kind of 'Ambar taken from tlie 
intestines of dead fishes ; it does not smell much. 

2. Lddan is also often called ^Amhar. It is taken from a tree which 
grows in the confines of Qlhrun (C}T^)rus) and Qisufi (Cliios) or Qistus. It is a 
moisture that settles on the leav(is of the tree. Wlien goats in grazing pass 
near it, the hairs of their legs and the horn of their hoofs stick to it, and 
the whole then di'ies up. Such LMan as is mixed with goat's-hair, is coimted 
superior. It looks greenish, and has a good smell. But Ladan which is 
mixed with horn is looked upon as inferior. Sometimes people tie ropes 
round about the trees, and collect the Ladan which sticks to them. After- 
wards they boil it in water, clean it, and make it into cakes. 

3. Tlie Camphor tree is a large tree growing in the ghauts of Hindustan 
and in China. A hundred horsemen and upwards may rest in the shade of 
a single tree. Camphor is collected from the tnmk and the branches. Some 
say that during summer a large number of serpents wind themselves round 
about the tree, for the sake of its coolness ; people then mark such trees by 
shooting an arrow into the trunks, and collect the camphor during the 
winter. Others say that camphor trees are much frequented by leopards, which 
like camphor so much as never to go away from the trees. The camphor 
within the tree looks like small bits of salt ; that on the outside like resin. 
It often flows from the tree on the gi'ound, and gets after some time solid : 
If there are earthquakes during a year, or any other cosmical disturbances, 
camphor is found in large quantities. 

Of the various kinds of camphor, the best is called RihMy or 
QaiqurL Although difibrent in name, they are the same ; for it is said 


that the first camphor was found by a king of the name of Rihdh near 
Qai^^ which is a place near the island of Ceylon. According to some 
books, it is white like snow : and this is true, for I have broken it myself 
from the tree. Ibn Bait&r, however, said that it was originally red and 
fihiningy and only got white by artificial crystallization. Whatever the 
case may be, there is certainly a kind of camphor which is white in its 
natural state. And of all other kinds it is the best, the whitest, which has 
the thinnest layer^, tiiie cleanest, and the largest. Inferior to it is the kind 
ealled Qurqiii, which is blackish and dirty. Still inferior is the light brown 
kind called Kaukah. The worst camphor is mixed with pieces of wood ; it 
goes under the name of B&lus, By artificial crystallization each kind will 
become clean and white. In some books camphor in its natural state is 
called Jkddnah or Bhiminl If kept with a few barley grains, or pepper- 
oorns,^ or turkh ddnahs, it wiU evaporate the less. The camphor which is made 
of Zurumhdd by mixing it with other ingredients, is called Chini or MayyiU 
camphor. White Zurumbid is finely pounded, and mixed with sour cream, 
of cow or bufiioloe's milk ;'on the fourth day they put fresh cream to it, and 
beat it with the hand till foam appears, which they take away. With this 
they mix some camphor, put it into a box, and keep it for some time in the 
husks of grains. Or, they reduce some white stone to fine powder, mix it at 
the rate of ten drrhams of it with two dirhams of wax, and half a dirham of 
oil of Violet, or oil of Surkh GuL The wax is first melted, and then mixed 
with the powder, so as to form a paste. They then put it between two 
stones, and make it thin and flat. When it gets cold, it looks like camphor, 
bits of which are mixed with it. Unprincipled men profit in this manner 
by the loss of others. 

4. Zahad (civet) is also called Shdkh, It is a moist substance secreted 
during the rutting season by an animal which resembles a cat, having, however, 
a lai^r face and mouth. The zahid which is brought from the harbour- 
town of Sumatra, from the territory of Achin, goes by the name of Sumatra 
xahddf and is by far the best. The moist substance itself is yellowish white. 
The animal has below its tail a bag, of the size of a small hazel nut, in which 
there are fix)m five to six holes. The bag may be emptied every week or 
fortnight, and yields from half a tolah to eight m§shahs. Some civet cats 
become so tame as to hold quiet when the bag is being emptied ; but in the 
case of most animals, they have to catch hold of the tail, and draw it through 
the cage, when they take out the zab&d with a shell, or by pressing 
gently against the bag. The price of a civet cat varies from 300 to 500 Es. 
The zabad of the male is better than that of the female, because in the latter 
the vulva is just above the bag. When removed, the zab^d is washed, and 

' fiazar dealers here give a few pepper- | corns aloDg with every piece of camphor. 


)>ec()inoR aftei'warcls ono of the finest pefumes. The smell will remain a lonp^ 
time in the (.lothes, and oven on the skin. There are several ways of washing 
it. If the quantity l»o small, they put it into a cup, or if greater, into a 
larger vessel, and wash it thirty times in cold water, and throe times in warm 
water. The latter renders it thin and removes impurities. Then they wash 
it again in cold water till it gets solid, when they wash it three times in 
lime jui(!e, which removes all unpleasant smell. After this, they wash it 
again three times in cold water, pass it through a piece of cloth, put it into 
a Cliina cup, and wash it tliree times in rose water. They then smear the 
zahtid on the inside of tlie cup, keep it at night inverted in extract of 
Chambcli, or Euibcl, or Surkh gul, or Gul i Karnah, and expose it at day- 
time to the rays of the sun, covered with a piece of white cloth tiU all 
moisture goes away. It may then be used, mixed with a little rose water. 

5. Oaurah looks greyish white, but does not smell so well as the 
preceding. It is a moistiu-e secreted duiing the rutting season by an animal 
like the civet cat, but somewhat larger. It is also brought from the confines 
of Achin. The price of this animal varies from 100 to 200 Rs. 

6. Mid^ resembles the preceding, but is inferior to it. They mix it 
with other substances ; hence they seU it in larger quantities. The animal 
which yields Mid, is found in various countries, and only sells from five to 
six dams. Some say that Mid is the dried bag of the civet cat, pounded and 
boiled in water ; the greasy substance wliich rises to the surface is the Mid. 

7. ^Xfd^ or wood of Aloes, called in Hind. Agar, is the root of a tree. 
They lop it off and biuy it in the earth, when whatever is bad rots, and the 
remainder is pure aloes. Some say that they do so with the whole tree. 
The statement occasionally found in some old books that the habitat of the 
tree is Central India, is an absurdity of fanciful writers. There are several 
kinds : the best is called MandaVi, and the second in quantity, Jahali or Hindi. 
The smeU of the wood, especially that of the first kind, is a preventive 
against fleas ; but some think both kinds equal in this respect. Of other 
good kinds I may mention the Samanduri ; the Qumdr'i, which is inferior to 
it; the Qdquli, next in rank; the Barri ; the Qifi; and the Chinesey also 
called QismuHj which is wet and sweet. Still inferior are the JaWi, the 
Mdyatdqi, the Zaicdqi, the Ritalin But of aU kinds the Mandaliy is the best 
Samayidiiri is grey, fatty, thick, hard, juicy, without the slightest sign of 
whitishness, and burns long. The best of all is the black and heavy ; in 
water it settles at the bottom, is not fibrous, and may be easily pounded. 
The wood which floats is looked upon as bad. Former kings transplanted 
the tree to Gujrdt, and now-a-days it grows in Chanpdnir. It is generally 

t t^ with the kasrah, a kind of per- I * The luAjt three names are doubtful, 
fume. Kashfulluffhdt, I 


brought from Achfn and Dahn^ari. Nothing is known of the hahitat 
mentioned in old books. Aloewood is often used in compound perfumes ; 
when eaten, it is exhilarating. It is generally employed in incense ; the 
better qualities, in form of a powder, are often used for rubbing into the skin 
and clothes. 

8. Chiiwah is distilled wood of aloes; it is in general use. The 
preparation is as follows : They take fine clay, mix it with cotton or rice 
bran, and beat it well. When properly intermixed, they take a small bottle 
large enough to put a finger into it, smear it all over with the day, and let 
it dry. After this, they put very smaU pieces of wood of aloes into it, so as 
nearly to fill the bottle. The wood must have been kept wet for a week 
before. Another vessel, with a hole in the middle, is now placed on a 
three-legged stand. Into this vessel, they pass the neck of the little 
bottle inverted, placing a cup full of water at the bottom of the vessel, 
in such a manner that the mouth of the bottle reaches the surface of the 
water. On the top of the vessel they then put wild cow's dung, and light 
a gentle fire. Should flames break out, they extinguish them with water. 
The wood of aloes will then secrete a moisture which trickles on the surface 
of the water, where it remains. This is collected, and washed several times 
with water and rose water, to take off all smell of smoke. The oftener it is 
washed, and the older it gets, the better will be the scent. It looks black, 
although experienced people make it white. One ser of wood of aloes will 
yield from two to fifteen tolahs of Chuwah. Some avaricious dealers mix 
sandalwood or almonds with it, trying thereby to cheat people. 

9. Sandalwood is called in Hind. Chandan. The tree grows in China. 
During the present reign, it has been successfully planted in India. There 
are three kinds, the white, the yellow, the red. Some take the red to be more 
refreshing than the white ; others prefer the white. The latter is certainly 
more cooling than the red, and the red more so than the yellow. The best is 
that which is yellow and oily ; it goes by the name of Maqdgari. Sandalwood 
is pounded and rubbed over the skin ; but it is also used in other ways. 

10. Sildraa (storax) is called in Arabic ^e'^^. It is the gum of a tree 
that grows in Turkey. The kind which is clear, is called Miah % sdilah 
(liquid) ; the other kinds, Mi^ah i ydbisah (dry). The best kind is that which 
spontaneously flows out of the trunk ; it is yellowish. 

11. Kalanbak (calembic) is the wood of a tree brought from Zirbdd (?) ;* 
it is heavy and full of veins. Some believe it to be raw wood of aloes. 
When pounded, it looks grey. They use it for compoimd perfumes ; and 
they also make rosaries of it. 

' Zirbdd (Zirab4d), a town near the froutiers of Bengal. Ghidsullv^hdt. 



12. The Muldgir is a tree resembluig tlie former, only that the wood is 
lighter and uot veined. When pounded, it looks reddish white. 

13. Lnhdii (frankincense) is the odorous gum of a tree which is found iu 
Java. Some take it to be the same as Mi'ah i i/dhisah. Wlien exposed to 
fii'e, it evaporates like camphor. Tlie LuLan whi(;]i the Persians call 
Kundur i daryd'i (mastix), is a resin brought fi'om Yaman ; but it is not 

14. Azfdr ntttby or scented finger nails, are called in Ilind. Xak^It, and 
in Persian Ndkhun i hoyd. It is the house of an animal, consisting, like a 
shell, of two parts. Tliey have a good smell, as the animal feeds on sumbuls, 
and are found in the large rivers of Hindustan, Basrah, and Bahrain, the 
latter being consid(»rcd the b(;st. Tliey are also found in the lied iSea, and 
many prefer them to the other kinds. Tliey warm them in butter ; others 
expose them afterwards to the, pound them, and mix them with other 

15. Sur/audk g tiff aid (bdellium) is a plant very common in Hindustan ; 
it is used in perfumes. 

As I have said something on perfumes, I shall make a few remarks on 
several beautiful llowors. 

1. The t>ticti rc^'^embles the Gul i Surkh, but is smaller. It has in 
the middle golden stamens, and from four to six petals. Habitat, Gujr^t and 
the Dek'han. 

2. Of the Chanihvli there are two kinds. The Bdi Chamhelt has from 
five to six petals, outside red. The Chamhelt proper is smaller, and has on 
the top a red stripe. Its stem is one and a half or two yards high, and 
hangs over the ground. It has many long and broad branches. It flowers 
from the first year. 

3. The Rdi hel resembles the jasmin. There are various kinds; some 
are simple, double, &c. A quintuple is very common, so that each petal 
might be separated as a distinct flower. Its stem grows a yard high. The 
leaves of the tree resemble those of the orange tree ; but they are some- 
what smaller and softer. 

4. The Mungrd resembles the Edi hU. It is larger, but inferior in 
smell. It has more than a hundred petals ; the plant grows to a large tree. 

6. The Champah flower lias a conical shape, of the size of a finger,* and 
consists of ten petals and moie, lying in folds one above the other. It has 
several stamens. Tho trc(? hoks graceful, and resembles in leaf and tnmk 
the nut tree. It flowers ai ter seven years. 

' OrientalB, as a rule, have very small hands and fingers. 


6. The ITetki has the form of Bpindle, of the si2e of a quarter of a 
yard, with twelve or more petals. Its smell is delicate and fragrant. It 
bears flowers in six or seven years. 

7. The Kewrah resembles the preceding, but is more than twice as big> 
The petals have thorns. As they grow on different places, they are not all 
equal. In the midst of the flower, there is a small branch with honey-coloured 
threads, not without smeU. The flower smells even after it is withered. 
Hence people put it into clothes, when the smell remains for a long time. 
The stem of the tree is above four yards high ; the leaves are like those of 
the maize, only longer, and triangular, with three thorns in each comer. 
It flowers from the fourth year. Every year they put new earth round about 
the roots. The plant is chiefly found in the Dek'han, Gujr&t, Milwah, and 

8. The Ghaltah resembles a large tulip. It consists of eighteen petals, 
fdx green ones above ; six others, some red, some green, some greyish 
yellow ; and six white. In the midst of the flower, as in the flower called 
Mam^skah Bahar, there are nearly two hundred little yellow leaves, with a 
red globule in the centre. The flower will remain quite fresh for Ave or six 
days after having been plucked. It smells like the violet. When withered, 
the flower is cooked and eaten. The tree resembles the pomegranate tree ; 
and its leaves look like those of the orange tree. It blooms in seven years. 

9. The Tash{h^uldl has a flne smeU. The petals have the form of a 
da^er. The stem of the plant is two yards high. It flowers after four 
years. They make rosaries of the flowers, which keep fresh for a week. 

10. The Bholsari is smaller than the jasmin ; its petals are indented. 
When dr^jbthe flower smells better. The tree resembles the walnut tree, 
and flowers in the tenth year. 

11. The Singdrhd/r is shaped like a dove, and has an orange-coloured 
stalk. The stamens look like poppy seeds. The tree resembles the pome- 
granate tree, and the leaves are like the leaves of a peach tree. It flowers 
in five years. 

12. The Kii^sah looks like a Oul % mrhh; but the plant and the leaves 
are larger. It has five or a hundred petals, and golden coloured stamens in 
the middle. They make ^Abirmdyah and an extract from it. 

13. The P&dal has Ave or six long petals. It gives water an agreeable 
flavour and smell. It is on this account that people preserve the flowers, 
mixed with day, for such times when the flower is out of season. The leaves 
and the stem are like those of a nut tree. It flowers in the twelfth year. 

14. The Jiihi has small leaves. This creeper winds itself round about 
trees, and flowers in three years. 

lo. The Niwdri looks like a simple Bdi hil, but has larger petals. 


Tlie flowers arc ofton so niiiiKirous, as to coiu^eal the leaves and V>ranches «it 
the ])laiit. It ilowt.Ts ill the first year. 

10. Th(5 Kapiir bi'l lias fi\'(> petals, and resenihles the saffron llower. 
This flower was hrou^ht diiriii^^ the present reij>-n from Europe. 

17. The Zafaran (sallVon).' In the Leginning of the month of 
Urdil»ihi>lit, the sall'ron seeds are put into the ground wliich has heeii 
(•arci'ully prepanul and n^ndcred soft. After this, the field is irrigated with 
rain water. The src'il itself is a bulh resemhliug garlic. The flower appears 
in tlie uiiddh* of tlie month of A'lnin ; the plant is about a quarter of a 
yard hnig ; hut, aceovding to tin; difi(n*enee of the soil in which it stancLs, 
there are soinetinn^^ two-tliirds of it ahove, and sometimes helow the groimd. 
Tiu^ Uower stands on the top of the stalk, and consists of six petals and six 
stamens. Three of tlie six petals liave a fr(^sh lilac colour, and stand round 
ahout the remaining three petals. The stamens arc similarly placed, three 
of a villow coloin* standing round ahout the other three, wliich are red. 
The latter yield tlie sallron. YeUow stamens are often cunningly intermixed. 
In former times sail'roii was c(dlected by cimipulsory labour : they pressed 
men daily, and made them separate the sailron from the petals and the 
stamens, and gave them sidt instead of wages, a man who cleaned two 
pah receiving two j^aJs of salt. At the time of Gliazi Khan,^ the son of 
(Khiiji) Chak, another custom became genend : they gave the workmen 
eleven tarks of saffi-on flow^ers, of which one lark was given them as wages ; 
and for the remaining ten they had to fiu'nish two Akbarshahi sers of clean, 
di-y sall'ron, /. e.^ for two Akbarshahi nians^ of saffron flowers they had to 
give two sers of cleaned saffron. This custom, however, w as abolished by 
his IVIajesty, on Ids third visit to Kashmir, to the great relief of the people. 

When the bulb has been jmt into the ground, it will produce flowers 
for six years, provided the soil be annuaDy softened. For the first two 
yt^ars, the flowers will grow sparingly ; but in the third year tlie plant 
reaches its state of perfection. After six years the bulbs must bo token out; 
else tlu\y get rotten. They plant them again on some other place ; and 
leave the old groiunl uncultivated for five vears. 

JSalii'tm comes chi( lly from the place ranpiir, which belongs to the 
district of Maruraj" (?). The fields there extend over nearly twelve kos. 

^ Vide a similar account of the smIIVou 
flower ill tlic tliinl hoolv (Si'ihuh Kahiil). 

^ He was the contemporary of 8Ler 
Klifia ; vide Abulfazl's \\^t of Kaslnuir 
Kulers in the tliinl book. A good 
bioi^rapby of Ghdzi Khcin may be found 
in tile l)Lgiiining of the Madsir i Hahimi, 
Persian MS. 2s o. 45, of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengid. 

^ One KiLshmiri Turk = 8 sdrs (of 
Akbar) =-^ 4 Kaslim. mans ; 1 Kosh. 
man ^=^ 4 s^n' ; 1 Kash. ser = 7^ 

* These places lie to the south of Sri- 
nagar, the capitid of Kiishniir ; for 
Mururdj the test has g-h/*. I'lde Siibah 
Kabul, third book. 


Another place of cultiTatioii ifi in the Parganah of Paraspur, near Indrakdl, 
not far from Kamr&j, where the fields extend about a ids. 

li. The Aftdbi (sun-flower) is round, broad, and large, has a large 
number of petals, and turns continually to the sun. Its stem reaches a 
height of three yards. 

19. The Kanwai. There are two kinds. One opens when the sublime 
Sun shines, turning wherever he goes, and closing at night. It resembles 
the $haqdiq-Uij; but its red is paler. Its petals which are never less 
than six in number enclose yellow stamens, in the midst of which there 
is an excrescence of the form of a cone with the base upwards, which 
is the fruit, and contains the seeds. The other kind has four white 
petalsy opens at night, and turns itseK according to the moon, but does 
not dose. 

20. The Jd^fari is a pretty round flower, and grows larger than the 
^aiharg. One kind has five, another a hundred petals. The latter remains 
fresh for two months and upwards. The plant is of the size of a man, and 
the leaves resemble those of the willow, but are indented. It flowers in two 

21. The Grttdhal resembles the joghdaii-tuUpf and has a great number of 
petals. Its stem reaches a height of two yards and upwards ; the leaves 
look like Mulberry leaves. It flowers in two years. 

22. The Ratanmanjani has four petals, and is smaller than the jasmin. 
The tree and the leaves resemble the Eidbel. It flowers in two years. 

23. The Kesii has five petals resembling a tiger's claw. In their 
midst is a yellow stamen of the shape of a tongue. The plant is very large, 
and is found on every meadow ; when it flowers, it is as if a beautiful fire 
surrounded the scenery. 

24. The Kaner remains a long time in bloom. It looks well, but it is 
poisonous. Whoever puts it on his head, is sure to fall in battle. It has 
mostly five petals. The branches are full of the flowers ; the plant itself 
grows to a height of two yards. It flowers in the first year. 

25. The Kadam resembles a tumdghah (a royal cap). The leaves are 
like those of the nut tree, which the whole tree resembles. 

26. The Nag khavy like the Gtd i surkh, has five petals and is fidl of 
fine stamens. It resembles the nut tree in the leaves and the stem, and 
flowers in seven years. 

27. The Surpan resembles the Sesame flower, and has yellow stamens 
in the middle. The stem resembles the Minna plant, and the leaves those 
of the willow. 

28. The SrWhandi is like the Chamhili, but smaller. It flowers in 
two years. 


29. Tlio ITh}vn has four potals, and resoml)los the flower callfMl 
Kafavnmn. Difft'init i)hnits havo often tlowers of a difforont colour. 

30. The Ditpahriifd is round and small, and looks like tho flower called 
Hamcshah hnhdr. It opens at noon. Tho stem is ahout two yards high. 

.31. Tho Bhiui vhampd re^^enihles the N'flufin' flowers, and has five 
petals. Tho stem is about a span lonj^. It grows on such places as are 
periodically under water. Occasionally a plant is found above the water. 

32. Tlio t<u(larH(tn resembh^s the lidihi'l, and has yellow threads in- 
side. The stem looks like that uf the Sosan flower. 

33. Sthidal has five petals, each ten fingers long, and tliree fingers 

34. Tlie Rafanmdia is rouiul and small. Its juice is cooked out, and 
when mixed with vitriol and MutK-far, furnishes a fast red dve for stuffs. 
Butter, sesame oil, are also boih^d together with the root of the plant, when 
the mixture becomes a puri)le d^^e. 

35. The Sanzdrd resembles the jasmin, but is a little larger, and has 
from five to six petals. The stem is like that of the Chamheli. It flowers in 
two years. 

36. The Mnlti is like the Chamhm, l)ut smaller. In the middle there 
are little stamens looking like poppyseed. It flowers in two years more or 

37. The Karil has three small petals. It flowers luxuriantly, and 
looks veiy well. The flower is filso boiled and eaten ; they make also pickles 
of it. 

38. The Jait plant gi*ows to a large tree ; its leaves look hke 
Tamarind leaves. 

39. The ('hanjxdah is like a nosegay. Tlie leaves of the plant are like 
nut loaves. It flowers iu two years. The bark of the plant, when boiled 
in water, makes the water red. It grows chiefly in the hills ; its wood burns 
bright like a candle. 

40. The Ldhi has a stem one and a half yards liigh. The branches, 
before the flowers appear, are made into a dish which is eaten with bread. 
^VTien camels feed on this plant, they get fat and unruly. 

41. The Karaundah resembles the JklA flower. 

42. Tho Lhanantar resembles the Nilkfary and looks very well. It is 
a creeper. 

43. The Si'rfi flower consists of silk-like threads, and resembles a 
ttimAghah. It sends its fragrance to a great distance. It is- tho king of the 
trees, although the Hindus rather worship the P'lpal and Bar trees. The tree 
grows very large ; its wood is used in building. "Within the stem the wood 
is black, and resists the stroke of the axe. 


44. The Kangldi has five petaJfl, each four fiBgers long, and looks very 
beautiful. Each branch produces only one flower. 

45. The San flower (hemp) looks like a nosegay. The leaves of the 
plant resemble those of the Chandr, Of the bark of the plant strong ropes 
are made. One kind of this plant bears a flower like the cotton tree, and 
is called Fatsan. It makes a very soft rope. 

It is really too difficult for me, ignorant as I am, to give a descrip- 
tion of the flowers of this coimtry : I have mentioned a few for those who 
wish to know something about them. There are also found many flowers 
of Xiin and Turan, as the Oul % Surkh, the Nargisy the violet, the Yasaman i 
kahady the Sdsan, the Raihdn^ the So' fid, the Zihdy the Shaqdiq, the Tdj i 
ihurits, the Q/alghah, the Ndfarmdn, the KhatamS,, ^c. Garden and flower 
beds are everywhere to be found. Formerly peeple used to plant their 
gardens without any order, but since the time of the arrival in India of the 
emperor Babar, a more methodical arrangement of the gardens has obtained ; 
and travellers now-a-days admire the beauty of the palaces and their 
murmuring fountains. 

It would be impossible to give an account of those trees of the country, 
whose flowers, fruits, buds, leaves, roots, &c., are used as food, or medicine. 
If^ according to the books of the Hindus, a man were to collect only one leaf 
from each tree, he would get eighteen bdrs, or loads, (5 surkhs = 1 mdahah ; 
16 mdshahi = I karga; 4 kargm = 1 pala ; 100 palas =? 1 tula ; 20 tuUs = 1 
h6r) ; t. e.y according to the weights now in use, 96 mans. The same books 
also state that the diiration of the life of a tree is not less than two gharis 
(twice 24 minutes), and not more than ten thousand years. The height of 
the trees is said not to exceed a little above a thousand yu/^Tw.^ When a tree 
dies, its life is said to pass into one of the following ten things : ^re, water, 
air, earth, plants, animals, animals of two senses, such as have three, or 
four, or five senses. 

AfN 31. 


His Majesty pays much attention to various stuffs; hence fx^ai, \ 

European, and Mongolian articles of wear are in abundance. Skilful *» 

masters and workmen have settled in this country, to teach people an J 

improved system of manufacture. The Imperial workshops, the towns of I 

* Regarding this measure, vide the 
fiHirth book. 

• Hie text has a word (y^j^j^ which 
oecnrB aboat three times in this work. I 
have also found it in Sayyid Ahmad's 

edition of the Tuzuk i Jahangiri ; but I 
cannot find it in any Persian or Chagatai 
Dictionary. The meaning a wardrohe is 
however clear. 



Liilior, A'p^rah, Fallipur, Almmdiibjid, (xujrat, turn out many ina^^ter-pieccs 
of wurkiuansliip ; aud the figures aud patterns, knots, and variety of fasliioiis 
which now in-evail, astonish exporit^need traveHers. Ilis Maj(»sty Iiimself 
acquired in a short time a theoretical and practical knowledge of the whole 
trade ; and on account of the caro bestowed upon them, tlie inteUigent 
workmen of this country soon improved. AH kinds of hair-weaving and 
«ilk-spinning were broutJ^ht to perfi'ction ; and the imx)erial workshops 
furnish all those slufls which are made in other countries. A taste for fine 
nmterial has since become general, and the di*apery used at feasts surj^asses 
ev(^ry description. 

^\il articles wliieli have been bought, or woven to order, or received as 
tribute or 2)rosents, aro carefully preserved ; and according to the order in 
which they were preserved, they are again taken out f«)r inspection, or given 
out to be cut and to be nuide up, or given away as presents. Articles which 
aiTive at the same time, are arranged according to their prices. Kxperienced 
people incpiire coiitinmilly into the prices of articles us(m1 both formerly and 
at prt^sent, as a knowledge of the exact ]>rices is (icmducive to the increase 
of the stock. Even tlie prices became generally lower. Thus a piece woven 
by the famous Ghias i Na<is]iband may now be obtained for fifty muhiu^, 
whilst it had formerlv been sold for twice that sum ; and most other articles 
have got cheaper at the rate of thirty to ten, or even forty to ten.' His 
Majesty also ordered that i)(M)ple of certain ranks slnndd wear certain 
articles ; and this was done in f)rder to regulate the demand. 

I sluiLl not say juucli on this subject, though a fi.w particulars regarding 
the articles worn by his !Majt\sty may bo of interest. 

1. Tlie Tall (HI ('hi fj ah is a coat without lining, of the Indian form. 
Formerly it had slits in the skirt, and was tied on the left side ; his Majesty 
luis orthn-ed it to l)e nuulo witli a round skirt, and to be tied on the right 
tside.^ It requires seven yards and seven f/ifih.Sy^ and five girihs for the 
binding. The price for nuildng a jdain one varies from oiu^ rupee to three 
rupees ; but if tlie coat be adorned with ornamental stitcliing, from one to 
four and three quarters rux)ees. Besides a misqal of silk is required. 

' Or as we would, the prices have 
become less by 66 '5, and even 75 per rent. 

^ The coats used iiow-a-davs botli by 
Hindus aud Muliauunadans resend)le in 
shape our dressing gowns {Germ. Schlaf- 
rock), but fitting tight whore the lower 
ribs are. There the coat is tied ; the 
Muhamniadans make the tie on the left, 
and the Hindus on ihv rlf/h/ side. In tfie 
Ea.stern parts of Bengal, many Muham- 

niadans adopt the old Hindu fashion 
of wearing a simple uusewii piece of 
muslin (ehddar). 

■ It is not Ktattnl in the A'in how manj 
girihs the tailor's gaz, or yard, contiiins. 
It is probable that 16 (jirihit = 1 goz^ 
which is the usuid division at present. ¥oT 
other yard mejusures, vide the S7th and 
8Dth Ains of this book. The Persian word 
girih is pronounced in India girah. 


2. The P^ahwdz (a coat open in jfront) is of the same form, but tiea in 
front. It is sometimes made without strings. 

3. The Dwtdhi (a coat with lining) requires six yards and four girihs 
for the outside, six yards lining, four girihs for the binding, nine girihs for 
tiie border. The price of making one varies from one to three rupees. One 
jnisqil of silk is required. 

4. The Shdh'djidah (or the royal stitch coat) is also called Ska'^tkhaf 
(or sixty rows), as it has sixty ornamental stitches j?tfr^«r«A. It has geneniUy 
a double lining, and is sometimes wadded and quilted. The cost of making 
IB two rupees per yard, 

5. The SdiMtii requires a quarter of a ser of cotton and two dams of 
6ilk. If sewed with hakhyah^ stitches, the price of making one is eight 
rupees ; one with djidah stitches costs four rupees. 

6. The Qaiami requires f s. cotton, and one d^m silk. Cost of making, 
two rupees. 

7. The Qflhdj which is at present generally called jdmah i pumbahddr^ 
is a wadded coat. It requires 1 8. of cotton, and 2 m. silk. Price, one rupee 
to a quarter rupee. 

8. The Gadar is a coat wider and longer than the qahd, and contains 
more wadding. In Hindustan, it takes the place of a fur-coat. It requires 
seren yards of stuff, six yards of lining, four girihs binding, nine for 
bordering, 2 J «. cotton, 3 m. silk. Price, from one-half to one and one-half 
rupees. « 

9. The -For/Yhfiw no binding, and is open in front. Some put buttons 
to it. It is worn over the jdmah (coat), and requires 5 y. 12 ^. stuff; 5 y. 
5 y. lining ; 14 y. bordering ; 1 «. cotton ; 1 m, silk. Price, from a quarter 
to one rupee. "" 

10. The Faryul resembles the ydpanji,* but is more comfortable and 
becoming. It was brought from tEurope ;' but every one now-a-days wears 
it. They make it of various stuffs. It requires 9 y. 6^ y. stuff, the same 

' Bakkyah^ in Hind, hak^hiyd, cor- 

reroonds to what ladies call backst itching. 

Ajtdak is the batton hole stitch. These, 

at least, are the meanings which hakhyah 

and djidah now have. Sozant, a name 

which in the text is transferred to the 

eoat, 18 a kind oiemhroiderv, resembling 

our tatin'-tUtch. It is used for working 

leaves and flowers, &c.,on staffs, the leaves 

luring pretty loosely on the cloth ; hence 

we ofien find sozani work in rugs, small 

carpets, Sui. The mgs themselves are 

abo called sozant. A term which is 

•ometimAs used in Dictionaries as a 

9fwmjm for 90za»i is chikin ; but this 


is what we call white embroidery. 

■ A coatunedin rainy weather. Calcutta 
Chagatdi Dictionary. 

■ The etymology of the word fargul 
is not known to me. The names of 
several articles of wear, now-a-days cur- 
rent in India, are Portuguese ; as sdya, 
a petticoat ; fita, a ribbon. Among other 
Portuguese words, now common in Hin- 
dustani, are padri, clergyman; yiiy'd, 
a church, P<?r<. igrdja ; k4h{, cahhvrdt 
Port. c\i6ve ; chdbt, a key. Port, chave. 

Abul Fazl's explanation (vide my text 
edition, p. 102, 1. 16) corrects Viillers II. 
p. 663 a. 


qiiautily of lining', G m. silk, 1 *. cotton It is niadt- both single aiul doubl^. 
Pi-I('<', from A to 2 7?. 

1 1. Tho Choi-man'- is made of broadclnth, or woollen stuff, or wax cloth. 
His Majesty has It made of Dnrdi wax cloth, which is very light and pretty. 
The rain cannot jj^o throu<>'h it. It requires 6 y. stuff, 5 g. binding, 
and 1 7/1. silk. The pi'i^'t^ ^^^ making one of broadcloth is 2 i?. ; of wool, 
1-A Jl. ; of wax doth, .\ R. 

12. The /S77///rtfV (drawers) is made of all kinds of stuff, single and 
double, and wadded. It n^quires 3 y. 11 ^. cloth, 6 ff. for the hem through 
which the string runs, 3//. off. lining, 1 } m. silk, J s. cotton. Price, from 
J to .V 11. 

There are various kinds of earli of these garments. It would take me 
too long to d(^s(ribe the (//fraJtHy fdutahsy and dupatfahs^' or the costly dresses* 
worn at feasts or presented to the grandcc^s of the present time. Every 
season, there are made one tliousand comjJete suits for the imperial wardrobe, 
and one hundred and twenty, madi^ up i'ti Iwelve Imndles, are always kept 
in readiness. Frr>m his indllftrence to evjM-y thing that is worldly, His 
^lajesty prefers and wears woolh'!}^ ^\\\{\'^, especially shawls; and I must 
mention, as a moht (*urious sign <.)f auspi(iousuess, that His Majesty's dothea 
])ecomins-lv fit everv one whether he be tall or short, a fact which has 
hitherto puzzled many. 

His Majesty has changed the names of several gannents, and invented 
new and pleasing terms.'* Instead of yj///'//- (coat), he says aarhgdti^ i- ^-j 
coveringthe whole body ; ftu' izar (drawers), In* says ydrpir&han (the companion 
of the coat) ; for 7imtanah (a jacket), fanzeh ; for fautah, patgat ; for hurqu 
(a veil), chiirngupita ; for hdah (a cap), aA- sMd ; for muihaf [vl. hail* ribbon,) 
kcsgltan ; for pa fled (a doth for the loins), hffzeb ; foY i^hdl (shawl), parmnarm; 
for. . . .*, parmgarm ; for hipnrdhury a Tibetan stuff, kapurnur ; for p&iafidr 
(shoes), chanidhorn ; and similarly for other names. 

^ As this word is not given in any 
dictionary, the vowels are doubtful. So 
is Yullers' form chitapan. 

^ St nils of different shapes, used for 
making turbans. 

" In alhLsiou to the practice of (^t[fis, 
who only wear garments nuule of wool 
(^t[f). Abul F.r/l often tries to rr-present 
Akl)ar as a (^'[fl of so high a degree aa 
to be able to work miracles, and he states 
below that it was his intention to WTite 
a book on Akbar's miracles. The charge 
of fulson:eness in praise has often been 
brought against Abul Fazl, though it 
would more appropriately lie against 

yaizi who — like the poets of imperial 
Rome- -represents the emperor as God, 
as may be seen in the poetical extracts o( 
the second book. But the praises of the 
two brotliera throw a peculiar light on 
Akbar's character, who received the most 
immoderate encomiums with self-com- 

* The ibl lowing passage is remarkable, 
as it shews Akbar's predilection for Hindt 

* The MSS. have an unintelligible 
word. The Banaras MS. has pardak 
Jb^irdngy or European Pardak (P). 


Am 32. 


His Majesty improved this department in four ways. The improvement 
Lb visible, yfr«^, in the Ta% shawls, which are made of the wool of an animal of 
that name ; its natural colours are blaek, white, and red, but chiefly black. 
Sometinies the colour is a pure white. This kind of shawl is unrivalled for its 
lightness, warmth, and softness. People generally wear it without altering 
its natural colour ; his Majesty has had it dyed. It is (curious that it will not 
take a red dye. Secondly, in the Safid AlcJiahs,^ also called TarhddrSy in their 
natural colours. The wool is either white or black. These stuffs may be 
had in three colours, white, black, or mixed. The first or white kind, was 
formerly dyed in three ways; his Majesty has given, the order to dye it in 
yarioos ways. Thirdly, in stulfs as Zarddzi,^ Kaldbaturiy Kashidahy Qalghai, 
jBdndhnun, Chhint, Alchah, Purzddr, to which His Majesty pays much attention. 
Ftmrthlyy an improvement was made in the width of tdl stuffs ; His Majesty 
had the pieces made large enough to yield the making of a full dress. 

The garments stored in the Imperial wardrobe are arranged according 
to the days, months, and years, of their entries, and according to their 
oolour, price, and weight. Such an arrangement is now-a-days called mUl, 
a set. The clerks fix accordingly the degree of every article of wear, which 
they write on a strip of cloth, and tack it to the end of the pieces. Whatever 
pieces of the same kind arrive for the Imperial wardrobe on the Urmuzd day 
(first day) of the month of Farwardinj provided they be of a good quality, 
have a higher rank assigned to them than pieces arriving on other days ; 
and if pieces are equal in value, their precedence, or otherwise, is determined 
by the character* of the day of their entry ; and if pieces are equal as far 
as the character of the day is concerned, they put the lighter stuff higher in 
rank ; and if pieces have the same weight, they arrange them according to 
their colour. The following is the order of colours : fus, safidalcliah, ruby 
coloured, golden, orange, brass-coloured, crimson, grass green, cotton-fiower 
coloured, sandalwood-eoloured, almond-coloured, purple, grape-coloured, 
tiuiuce like the colour of some parrots, honey-coloured, brownish lilac, 

* Alchah, or Aldchah, any kind of 
corded fmukhaffafj stuff. Tarhddr 
means corded. 

* Zarddzt, ITaldbatun, (Forbes, kola- 
hattum), Kashidah, Qalahai, arc stuffs 
with gold and silk threads ; JBdridhnun, 
are staffs dyed differently in different 
parta of the piece ; Chhint is our chintz, 
which is derived firom Chhtnt, Purzddr 
are all kinds of stuffs the outside of which 

is plush-like. 

• Akbar, like all Parsees, believed in 
lucky and unlucky days. The arrange- 
ment of the stores of clothing must strike 
the reader as most unpractical. Similar 
arrangements, equally curious, will be 
found in the following Ains. Perhaps 
they indicate a progress, as they shew 
that some order at least was kei)t. 


colom-ed like tliu Ratanmanjani Howor, coluuivd like the A7/.v;/t Hower, api^Ie- 

(oloured, hay-ooloured, pistiicbio, \ Uojpafra coloured, piidi, 

li^^llt blue, coloured like the qalghah flower, water-coloured, oil-coloured, 
brown red, (^meruhl, hhiisli like China-ware, violet, hri^^lit pink, manj^oe 
coloured, niu><k-coloured, eoloure<l like the FaJ:ht(ih]}vr(Hm. 

In former times shawls were often brought from Kashmir. Pwple 
foUled them up in four folds and wore thf^n for a very long time. Now-a- 
davs thev an^ <renerallv worn without folds, and merely thrown over the 
sliould(»r. His ^lajesty has commenced to wear them double, wliich looks 

ver}' well. 

Ilia I^fajesly encourages, in every possible way, the mamifaHure of 

hhawls in Kashmir. In Li'dior also tliere are more than a thousand work- 

i^hoi)S. A kind of shawl, called tnYti/dn, is chiefly woven there ; it consists of 

bilk and wool nuxed. Both are used for chiraliH (turbans), fautahs (lorn 

bands), &c. 

I subjoin the following tabular pai-ticulars. 

A. Gold ftUffffi. 

Brocaded velvet, from Yazd,'^ per pirccy 15 to loO 3f. 

Do. from Europe, do 10 to 70 J/. 

Do. from OKJrdt, do 10 to 50 Jf. 

Do. fnmi liushdn, do 10 to 40 J/". 

Do. frcmi Ilcrdt, do * 

Do. from L/dwr, do 10 to 40 J/. 

Do. from Burmh, (?) do 3 to 70 J/. 

Mutnhbaq,' do 2 to 70 Jf. 

miuh, do 3 to 70 ilf. 

Brocrade, from, do 4 to 60 M. 

Tt/v '-Brocade, from do. do 1 to 35 3/. 

* The text contains two doubtful 
words. The next word hhajpatra is the 
bark of a tree used for making hukka 

* Yazd is the principal city in the 
Bonth of the Persian province of Khurasan. 
KiUhdn lii's in 'Iraq i 'AjamI, north of 
lc,4ah{in. " The ivsses of Kashan are 
wiser than the men of Isfahan," which 
latter town is for Persia what Ba?otia is 
for Ancient Greece, or the Bretagne for 
France, or the kingdom of Fife for Scot- 
land, or the town of Schilda for Germany, 
or Bahar for India, — the home of fools. 
During tlie time of Moguls, the Sayyids 
of B/irhali enjoyed a similar notoriety. 

■ Mutahhaq^ a kind of cloth, chiefly 
brought from Khallukh, and Milak 

from Naxishdd in Turkestan. Ghidsul' 
Inn hat. 

* Tds menj]f^ qenerally brocade ; Darat- 
hdfif^ a kind of brociuled silk ; ^luqctf/i/ash 
is silk with stripes of silver — the Ghhif 
says that Muqai/ii/ash conies from the 
Hind, k^h, hair, to which the silver- 
Btripes are compared, and that it is ^ 
Arabicised form of the Hindi word, JW 
qaranful^ a clove, for the Hind, karn^ 
2)hul ; iirifal^ a kind of medicine, for irx- 
p'hal, as it consists of three fruits ; &^' 
Mushajjar is a kind of silk with leaves ana 
branches woven in it ; Debd is coloured 
silk ; Khdrdi moir^e antique ; Khazz w 
filosell€-»\\\i. For taf/ilah (t id-e Freytag 
III. p. 353), we also iind tc^lilah. 


Ddrd{hdf, from Gujr&t, 2 to 50 ^f. 

Muqayyashj do 1 to 20 Jlf. 

Shincdni Brocade, do 6 to 17 if. 

Mushajjary from Europe, per yardy 1 to AM, 

Dihd ailk, do. do 1 to AM, 

Do., frt>m Tazdy do 1 to 1^ if. 

Khdrd, do 5 i2. to 2 if . 

Satin, from Chmeee Tartary, ♦ 

Nawdty from do ♦ 

Khazx, 6ilk, ♦ 

Tafyilah, (a stuff from Mecca) from 15 to 20 E. 

Kurtahwdty from Gujr4t, 1 to 20 if. 

Mindil, 1 to 14 if. 

Ckirahy (for turbans) J to 8 if . 

Ihiptatah, do 9 to S Jt. 

FautahSf (loin bands) ^ to 12 i/. 

Counterpanes, 1 to 20 if . 

* The Text does not give th^ prices, 

B, Silks, ifCy plain. 

Velvet, from Europe, per yard, 1 to AM, 

Do. from, K&shan, per piece, 2 to 7 if . 

Do. from Yazd, do 2 to 4 if . 

Do. from Masbhad, do 2 to 4 if . 

Do. from Herdt, do 1 J to 3 if . 

Do. ^KhiSi, do 2 to AM, 

Do. from L^or, do. . ; 2 to 4 if . 

Do. from Gujrdt, per yard, 1 to 2 iZ. 

Qatifah i Purabi,* do 1 to IJ i?. 

Tajah Baf, pw piece, 2 to 30 if. 

DirAf Baf, do 2 to 30 if. 

Mu^bbaq, do 1 to 30 if. 

Shirwani, do H to 10 if. 

Mflak, do 1 to 7 if . 

Kamkhdb, from K&bul aad Persia, do 1 to ^ M. 

Tawar, (?) do 2 i^. to 2 if . 

Kburf (?) do 4 to 10 i2. 

Mushajjar, from Europe, per yard, 2 i2. to 1 if . 

Do. from Yazdy per piece, 1 to 2 if . 

Satin, from Europe, per yard, 2 i2. to 1 if . 

* A kind of velvet. 


Salin, from Herat, per pirce^ 5 /?. to 2 M. 

Khard, per yard, \ U. \.o ^ R. 

►Silu-ang-/ per pivcv, 1 to 3 J/. 

Uiitni,^ do U i?. to 2 J/. 

Katan,^ from Europe, per yard, ^ to 1 i?. 

Tfiftah,^ do i to 2 ^. 

Anbari, do \ d. to \ R. 

Darai, do l i^. to 2 i?. 

Sitipuri, per piece, 6 7?. to 2 J/. 

Qiibaband, do Q R. to 2 M. 

Tat baiid])uri, d(^ 2 R. to \^ M. 

Lah, 2)er yard, J to | i^. 

IVIi^ri, per piece, ^ to 1 3/. 

►Siir, per yard, ^»_ to J ^. 

Tassai',^ per piece, J to 2 i^. 

Plain KurtahwCu- iSatin,7^^v yard, i to 1 /?. 

Kapvirmir, formerly called Kapiirdhkr, do ^ io \ it. 

Alehali, do i to 2 jB. 

Taf^ilali, per piece ^ 7 to 12 i^. 

C. Cotton cloths. 

Kh^gali, ^p^/* 2)i^ce, 3 7?. to 15 J/. 

Chaiitar, do 2 i?. to 9 J/. 

Malmal, do 4 72. 

Tansak'li, do 4 7?. to 5 J/. 

Siri gaf, do 2 72. to o J7. 

Gaiig-ajal, do { R. to b M. 

Bliiraun, do 4 72. to 4 J/^ 

Salian, do 1 to 3 J/. 

Jhonali, do 1 72. to 1 J/. 

Atdn, do 2i 72. to 1 M. 

Asawali, do 1 to 5 J/. 

Baftah, do U 72. to o If. 

Malimudi, do J to 3 Jf. 

Panchtoliyah, do 1 to 3 Jf. 

Jholah, do i to 2^ J/. 

Salii, per piece, 3 72. to 2 J/". 

* Changing silk. 

* A stutl'made of silk and wool. 

■ Generally translated by linen. All 
Dictionaries agree tliat it is exceedingly 
thill, 80 much so that it tears when the 

moon shines on it ; it is Mttslin. 

* Properly, woven; hence taffeta. 

• Now-a-days chiefly made in Berham- 
pore and Patna ; vulgo, tessa. 


Doriyah, per piece, 6 B. to 2 M. 

BaMdur Sh4hf, do 6 B. to 2 M. 

Garbah Suti, do U to 2 if. 

Sh^lah, from the Dek'han, do i to 2 M. 

Mihrkul, do S B. to 2 M. 

Mindil, do J to 2 if. 

Sarband, do ^ to 2 if. 

Dupattah, do I B. to 1 M. 

Katanchali, do 1 i2. to 1 if. 

Fau^, do i to 6 J?. 

Goshpech, do 1 to 2 i?. 

CbhiiLt, per yard, 2 (/. to 1 i?. 

Ckizinah, per piece, ^ to 1^ i?. 

Silihatf, per yard, ' 2 to 4 <^. 

2). Woollen stuffs. 
Scarlet Broadcloth, from. Turkey, Europe*, and 

Portugal, per yard, 2^ iJ. to 4 if. 

Do., from N6g6r and JJIlot, per piecCj 2 J?. to 1 if. 

^uf i Murabba*, do 4 to 15 if 

9uf i •, do 3 J?, to 11 if. 

Pannnarm, do 2 i2. to 20 if 

Chirah i Parmnarm, do 2 i?. to 25 if. 

Fautah, do i^ to 3 if . 

J&mahwdr i Parmnarm, do i to 4 if. 

Goshp^ch, do H B. to li M, 

Sarp^ch, do ^ to 4 if. 

Aghxi, do 7 B.to2iM. 

Panngarm, do 3 ^. to 2^ if 

Katas, do 2i iJ. to 10 if. 

Fhiik, per piece, ^ 2i to 15 i2. 

Durmah, do 2 J?, to 4 if 

PatA, do 1 to 10 ^. 

* The articles imported from Eu- 
rope were chiefly broadcloth; musical 
instruments, as trumpets ; pictures ; 
curiosities {vide Bad4oni II, p. 290, 
I 2 from below; p. 338, 1. 7.) and, 
since 1600, tobacco. Of the names 
of cloths mentioned by Abulfazl, several 

woollen stuffs and, for the poorer classes, 
blankets, was much more general than 
now. Even the light caps generally worn 
by Muhammadans in this country, called 
in Hind, topi, and in Persian tahhfifah 
(vide Bahar i 'Ajam) are mostly imported 
from England. I am not aware that 

are no longer known, as native weavers the soldiers of the armies of the Mon-uls 
cannot compete with the English Long- were uniformly dressed, though it appeai-s 

doth and the cheap European Muslins, 
Alpaccas, Chintzes, and Mohairs, which 
are now-a-days in common use with the 
natives all over the East. At the time 
of the Mogula, and before, the use of 

that the commanders of the contingents 
at least looked to uniformity in the caps 
and turbans. 
• The MSS. have an unintelligrible word. 


Kewkar, per piece, 2\ M, 

Mi<;ri, do 5 to 50 ^. 

Burd i Yamimi, do 5 to 35 i?. 

Manji (?) immad, do 2 J2. to 1 if. 

Kaiipak(V) uamad, do 2 i?. to 1 if. 

Takyalmainad, from Kabul and Persia, * 

Do., country nuide, do 1 J to 5 JB. 

T^^'i ^o Ud.ioAR. 

Blankets, do \0 d. to 2 R. 

Kashmfrian Caps, do 2 rf. to 1 i?. 

ATN 33. 


Wliite and black are believed to be the orij^in of all colours. They 
are looked upon as extremes, and as the component parts of the other 
coloiu'S. Thus white when mixed in larji^e proportions with an impui'e black, 
will yield yellow ; and white and black, in equal proportions, will give red. 
\\niite mixed with a larj^o quantity of Idack, will give a hlitiHh green. Other 
colours may be foniied l>y (-(miixHinding these. Besides, it must be borne in 
mind that cold makes a jui( y l)ody white, and a diy l)ody Idack ; and heat 
renders that which is fresh black, and white that wliitih is dry. These two 
powers (heat and cold) produce, eacli in its i)lax'e, a change in the colour of a 
body, because bodies are both qdhil, i. e., capable of being acted upon, and 
7?Nff/faz(/j i. e., subject to th«3 influence of the heavenly bodies (chiefly the sun), 
the active origin of heat. 

ATN 34. 


Wliat we call form leads us to recognize a body ; the body itself leads 
us to what we caU a notion, a?i id^a. Thus on seeing the form of a letter, we 
recognize the letter, or a word, and this again will lead us to some idea. 
Similarly in the case of what people terra a picture. But though it is true 
that painters, especially those of Europe, succeed in drawing figures 
expressive of the conceptions which the artist has of any of the mental 

* The price is not given in the text. 


states/ so much so, that people may mistake a picture for a reality : yet 
pictures are much inferior to the written letter, inasmuch as the letter may 
embody the wisdom of bygone ages, and become a means to intellectual 

I shall first say something about the art of writing, as it is the more 
important of the two arts. His Majesty pays much attention to both, and is 
an excellent judge of form and thought. And indeed, in the eyes of the 
friends of true beauty, a letter is the source from which the light confined 
within it beams forth ; and in the opinion of the far-sighted, it is the world- 
reflecting cup" in the abstract. The letter, a magical power, is spiritual 
geometry emanating from the pen of invention ; a heavenly writ from the 
hand of fate ; it contains the secret of the word, and is the tongue of the hand. 
The spoken word goes to the hearts of such as are present to hear it ; the 
letter g;ives wisdom to those that are near and fax. If it was not for the letter, 
the spoken word would soon die, and no keepsake would be left us of those 
that are gone by. Superficial observers see in the letter a sooty figure ; but 
the deepsighted, a lamp of wisdom. The written letter looks black, 
notwithstanding the thousand rays within it ; or, it is a light with a mole 
on it that wards off the evil eye.' A letter is the portrait painter of 
wisdom ; a rough sketch from the realm of ideas ; a dark night ushering in 
day ; a black cloud pregnant with knowledge ; the wand for the treasures 
of insight ; speaking, though dumb ; stationary, and yet travelling ; stretched 
on the sheet, and yet soaring upwards. 

When a ray of God's knowledge falls on man's soid, it is carried by the 
mind to the realm of thought, which is the intermediate station between 
that whicli is oonsciouB of individual existence {mujarrad) and that which is 
material (jndddi). The result* is a concrete thing mixed with the absolute, 
or an absolute thing mixed with that which is concrete. This compoimd 
steps forward on man's tongue, and enters, with the assistance of the 
conveying air, into the windows of the ears of others. It then drops the 
burden of its concrete component, and returns as a single ray, to its old place, 
the realm of thought. But the heavenly traveller occasionally gives his course 
a different direction by means of man's fingers, and having passed along 

' KhiJqi (from hhilqat) referring to 
states of the miiul natural to us, as bene- 
Tolence, wrath. Sec. These, Abulfazl ways, a 
painter may succeed in representing ; but 
the power of writing is greater. 

* The fabulous cup of king Jarashed, 
which revealed the secrets of the seven 

• Human beauty is imperfect unless 
accompanied by a mole. For the mole on 


the cheek of his sweetheart, Hafiz would 
make a present of Samnrqand and Buk- 
hara. Other poets rejoice to see at least 
one black spot on the beautiful face of the 
beloved who, without such an amulet, 
would be subject to the influence of the 
evil eve. 

* The spoken word, the idea expressed 
by a sound. 


the contiiiem of tln^ ])«*ii and ovossed the ocean of the ink, alij^hts on the 
pleasant rxpaii^^e of tlie pa,t,-e, and returns through the eye of the reader to 
its wonted habitation . 

As the letter is a repr(*sentation of an articulate sound, I think it 
necessary to give some information regarding the latter. 

Tlie sound of a letter is a mode of existence depending on the nature of 
the air. By qara' we mean the striking together of two hard substances ; and 
by qala\ the separation of the same. In both cases the intermediate air, 
like a wave, is set in motion ; and tlius the state is produced which we call 
sound. »Some pliilosophers take s(nind to be the secondary effect, and define 
it as the air set in motion ; but otiiers look upon it as the primaiy effect, f'. e.y 
they define sound to be the very qara\ or the qal(i\ of any hard substances. 
Bound may be a(Mompanied by modifying circumstances : it may be piano, 
de(?p, nasal, or guttural, as when the throat is affected by a cold. Again, from 
th(^ nature of the organ with which man utters a sound, and the manner in 
which the i)articles of the air arc divided, another modif^'ing circumstance 
raav tu'ise, as when two i»iano, two deep, two nasal, or two guttural sounds 
separate from each otlier. Some, as Abu 'All Sin^, call this modifying 
element i^Wiriz) the sound of the letter ; otliers define it as the original state 
of the sound thus modified {ma^ruz) ; but the fai'-sighted define an articulate 
soimd as the union of the modifying element and the original state modified. 
This is evidently the correct view. 

There are fifty-two articidato sounds in Hindi, so and so many^ in Greek, 
and eighteen in Persian. In Arabic, there are twenty-eight letters represented 
by eighteen signs, or by only fifteen, when we count the joined letters, and if 
we take the ILamzah as one with the Alif. The reason for writing an AUf and 
a Ldniy (SI) separately at the end of the single letters in the Arabic Alphabet, is 
merely to give an example of a saJciu letter, which must necessarily be 
joined to another letter ; and the reason w^liy the letter Urn is preferred* 

' Abid Fazl has forgotten to \n\i in the 
number, lie coimts eis^ditoen loiters, or 
rather signs, in Persiiui, because ^, ^, 
and 5, bave the same fundamental sitrn. 

^ Or rather, the alif was preferred to 
the ^cdw or yd, because these two letters 
may be either sdkhi or mutaharrik. 
But the custom has become estabUshed to 
call the alif, when mutaharrik, hamzah ; 
and to call the alif, when sakin, merely 
alif. *Ahdulwdsi\ o{ Rdnsah, in his ex- 
cellent Persian Grammar, entitled EUd- 
lah i *Ahdulwdsi\ which is read all over 
India, says that the Idm-alif has tbe 
meaning of not, i. e., *do not read this 
compound Idm-alif, but pass over it, 

wlien 3'ou say the Alphabet : look upon it 
as a mere example of a sakin letter.' 

Tbe tenn hamzah, as used here in 
native schools, is carefully distinguished 
from the terms Shakl i Hamzah and 
Markiz i Hamzah, Shakl i Hamzah 
is the small sign consisting of a semicircle, 
one extremity of which stands upon a 
straight fine slightly slanting. Markiz i 
Hamzah is either of the letters alif, wdic, 
or yd, but chiefly the latter, when accom- 
panied by the Shakl i Hamzah, Hamzah 
is a general term for either of the three 
letters alif, wdw, yd, wben accompanied 
by the Shakl i Hamzah. In European 
grammars, the chapter on the Hamzah is 


as an example, is because the letter Idm is the middle letter of the word altf, 
and the letter 0/1/ the middle letter of the word Idm, 

The vowel-signs did not exist in ancient times, instead of which letters 
were dotted with a different kind of ink ; thus a red dot placed over a letter 
expressed that the letter was followed by an a; a red dot in front of the 
letter signified a u ; and a red dot below a letter, an i. It was Khald ibn i 
Ahmad,' the famous inventor of the Metrical Art of the Arabians, who 
fixed the forms of the vowel-signs as they are now in use. 

The beauty of a letter and its proportions depend much on personal 
taste ; hence it is that nearly every people has a separate alphabet. Thus 
we find an Indian, Syriac, Ghreek, Hebrew, Coptic, Ma*qal£, Kufi, Kashmfri, 
Abyssinian, Baih&nf, Arabic, Persian, Himyaritic, Berbery, Andalusian, 
Buh^f, and several other ancient systems of writing. The invention of the 
Hebrew characters is traced in some poems to Adam i Hafthaz^i ;' but 
some mention Idris* as the inventor. Others, however, say that Idris 
perfected the Md'qali character. According to several statements, the Kufic 
character was derived by the Khalffali 'All from the Ma'qalL 

The difference in the form of a letter in the several systems, lies 
in the proportion of straight and round strokes : thus the Kufic character 
consists of one-sixth curvature and five-sixths straight lines ; the Ma'qali has 
no curved lines at all ; hence the inscriptions which are found on ancient 
buildings are mostly in this character. 

In writing we have to remember that black and white look well, as 
these colours best prevent ambiguities in reading. 

In Tr^ and Tiirdn, India, and Turkey, there are eight caHgraphical 
sjrstems^ current, of which each one is liked by some people. Six of them 
were derived, in A. H. 310, by Ihn i Muqlah from the Ma'qali and the Kufic 
characters, viz.^ the Stds, Tauqfy MulMqqaq, Naskh, Baihdn, RiqtP, Some add 
the Ghuhdr, and say that this seventh character had likewise been invented 
by him. The Naskh character is ascribed by many to Ydqiit, a slave of the 

badly treated, because all explain the 
word Hamzah as the name of a sign. 

Another peculiarity of European gram- 
man is this, that in arranging the letters 
of the alphabet, the wdw is placed after 
the hS; here, in the East, the hS is 
invariably put before the yd. 

* He \b said to have been bom A. H. 
100, and died at Basrah A. H. 175 or 190. 
He wrote several works on the science 
vfaich he had established, as also several 
books on the rhyme, lexiciographical com- 
pilations, &c 

' 'Adam is called Haft-hazdri^ because 
the number of inhabitants on earth, at 

his death, had reached the number seven 
thousand. A better explanation is given 
by Badaoni (11. p. 337, 1. 10), who puts 
the creation of Adam seven thousand years 
before his time. Vide the first Ain of the 
Third Book. ^ Idrts, or Enoch. 

^ It is remarkable that, in the whole 
chapter, there is not the slightest allusion 
to tne art of printing. Nor do Abulfazls 
letters, where nearly the whole of this 
Ain is repeated, contain a reference to- 
printed books. " The first book printed 
in India was the Doctrina Christiana of 
Giovanni Gronsalvez, a lay brother of the 
order of the Jesuits, who, as far as I 

^ .■ -n 

Kliah'riili Mil: ;i'(;{mi Hillali.' Tlie Sifl-s ami the Xaxhh consist narli t>i" 
oiic-tliird" ciirvt"! lines, it iitl two-thirds straight lilies ; the Ibriuer (the-^///s; 
is j''l'fJ" whilst the latter ,the iiashh) is kluifi. The Tduq'i' and Iliqd^ consist of 
tliree-i'oiirths ciivved lini'^, and one-fourtli straight lines; tho fcn-mer is jid'i^ 
tlie lattf'i' is Lhdfi. Tlir Mahu'Hiaq and Raihun contain thrc^e-fom-ths straigdit 
lines ; tlic f« inner, as in the pret-eding, i<, Jal'i, and the llaihiin kluifi. 

Among fa I nous copyists I must mention 'All ihn i IliLil, Ixitter known 
nndcr tlic mnne <>f Ihn i Jicircdb;'^ In^ wrote well the six characters. Yat[ut 
In'ouglit tin ]ii to pert'ection. Six of Yiujut's pupils are notieeahle ; 1. {Shaikh 
AliiiKul, so well known under the name of Shaikhzadah i Suhrsvardi ; 
2. Ai-giiun of Ki'J)ul ; .*3. MauLina Yusuf Shah of ^[ashhad ; 4. Maiilana 
Mnharik Shfdi, styh'd Xdrrht qalam (the gohh'n pen) ; 5. Haidar, called 
Gaiiddltmnr'iK [j. r., the writer of tliey^//^i ; G. Mir Yahya. 

Tlie following <-align(])]iists an^ likewise well known : ^ufi Xacridlah, 
also called ^adr i 'lrci<[i ; Arqau 'Ahdullah ; Khajali 'Ahdullah i ^airafi ; 
n^ji Muhammad; Mauhina 'Abdullah i A'slipaz ; ^laulana ^luhi' of JShiraz; 
Mu'inuddin i Tanuri ; vShamsuddin i Khatiii ; 'Ahdurrahini i KludvUi (y) \ 
Abdidlmy ; Maulana Ja'far* of Tabriz ; ^fiiulana Shah of Mashhad ; Maulana 
Ma'ruf ^ of Baghilad; ]\Iaulan.i Shamsnddin i Bayasanghur ; Mu'inuddiu of 

know, first c;ist T;muili(* dinraclrrs in 
tlio year 1577. Alb'v tliis jipiu-arcd, in 
ir>7S, a ln)')k entitled /'Vo.v S.nirfnrf m, 
whii-li \v;'s toUowi'd (?) by tlu' 'raniulic 
Dlclionarv ol" K.iilicr Antoiiutdi.- l'roiM;/.;i, 
printed in 1'>7'J, at Anil'.ilacatc. en the 
(•(•n^t el' Md.iltar. From tliat j)vri».d the 
Danish .Alissionarii"^ at Tr-nKiuchar li'vo 
prinli'il many w<>vKs. a (MlahiL:-iit» (»1" wliich 
may I'e ioiind in Alherti Fahri. 11 Sa/n- 

liifion ut' Fra J\ J)(f ^V// J>(frf"/i>)n(o\s 
Vof/(ff/c (() thv EifM Jii'I'ks, j). 1^1 '0. Tlio 
Italian Orii^inal lias the same years : 
1577, 157'S, l(j7l>. 

^ lie Atas the last ealijih. and reigned 
from 1212 to FioS, when Ik* was pu: to 
deatli by llulai^u, gramlson of Chii giz 

^ llenoe tlie name sifls, or unc-fhird. 

® Jiili (/. ('., clear) is a term nsed by 
copyists to ex])ress that letter^ are ihii'k, 
and written with a ])en full of ink, 
G^Ii'kU. — J\h {/'/(hidden) is the o])po>l!e. 

* Ihn Mif(//((/f, Ibu li(iir}i:<'ihy and 

Ydqnf, are the three oldest eal;'^Ta])hists 

mentioTU'd in various bihlories. The 

folio vini;- notes are chiefly extracted from 

Bakiitawar Khan's Mir-dhil ' Ahuu :-- 

Ihn J\li((il(fh, (n* aeeord:!i;j^ to his full 
name, Abii 'Ali Muhannnad ibu i 'All 

ibn i Hasan ihn i ^Inqlali, w:l^ the vizier 
of tlie Khalhahs ]\Iimtadir billah, Ah^ain'r 
billah. and ArRazi billah, who reiirned 
from A. 1). iK)7 to HlO. The last cut olf 
Ibn i ^luijlah's riL,dit hand. He died in 
prison, A. H. 827, or A. 1). 9;]8-:i9. 

]f)n i Jidirti'dh, or Abal Hasan 'All ibn 
i Ililal, lived under the twentv-iiflh 
Khalifah, Al.jadh billah (A. D. i)l)2-l();i<)), 
the eontemporarv of Mahmiid of (ihazni, 
and died A. H. lit), or A. D. 1025. 

y'dqi'ff, or Shaikh Janu'duddin, was 
born at HaLrhdad, and was the Libn\rian 
of iMusta'eam billah. the thirty-seventh 
and last Khalifah, who imprisoned him 
some time on aeeount of his Shiiih 
tendt'ueies. ]fe survived the general 
slanL,diter (12oS) of llulagii Khan, and 
died, at the age of one hundrwland twenty, 
A. H. (':i7. or A. I). 121»7, during the 
reie^n ot (Jhazau Khan, llulagii's great 


* Hv lived in tlie beginning of the 
fifteenth cenfury, at the time of Mirza 
Sluihrukh, {1101-14^17). 

• A contemporary and rival of the 
great poet Salman of Sawah (died 769). 
The name Maritf appeal's to have been 
common in Baii^hdad since the times of 
the famous saint Maruf of Karkh (a 
part of Baghdad). 


Far^ ; Abdulhaq of Sabzwir ; MauMnd Ni'matullah i Baww6b ; KMjagf 
Muniin i Marwarfd, the inventor of variegated papers and sands for strewing 
on the paper ; iSultdn Ibrahim, son of Mirzd Shahrukh ; Maulani Muhammad 
Hakim Hifiz ; Maul&ni Mahmud Siy^ush ; Mauldnd Jam^uddin Ilusain ; 
Maulaiii Fir Muhammad ; Maul^& Fazlulhaq of Qajcwin'. 

A seventh kind of writing is called TaHiq^ which has been derived from 
the Riqd^ and the TauqC. It contains very few straight lines, and was 
brought to perfection by Khajah Tdj i Salmdni,^ who also wrote well the other 
six characters. Some say that he was the inventor. 

Of modem caligraphists I may mention : Mauldni 'Abdidhay, the 
Private Secretary' of Sxdtdn Abu Sa'idMirz^ who wrote TaHiq well ; Mauldni 
Darwish ;* Amir Man9ur ; Mauled Ibrahim of Astardbdd ; Khajah Ikhtiyar ;* 
Munshi Jam^uddin ; Muhammad of Qazwin ; Mauland Idris ; Khajah 
Muhammad Husain Munshi ; and Ashraf Kli4n,' the Private Secretary 
of His Majesty, who improved the TaUiq very much. 

The eighth character which I have to mention is the NastaHxq: it 
consists entirely of roimd lines. They say that Mir 'Ah' of Tabriz, a 
contemporary of Timur, derived it from the Naskh and the Ta'lfq ; but this 
can scarcely be correct, because there exist books in the Nasta'liq character, 
written before Timur's time. Of Mir 'All's pupils I may mention two :^ 
Maulan& Ja'far of Tabriz, and Mauldn/i Azhar ; and of other caligraphists 
in Ta'liq, Mauldud Muhammad of Aubah (near Hordt), an excellent writer ; 
Maulana Biri of Herdt ; and Mauldna Sultan 'Ali® of Mashhad, who surj^asses 

• The Mitk'fi'hdt and the Mir-dt 
aUo u)(*ntion MuUa Aba Bakr, and Shaikh 

• According to the Maktubat and 
several MSS., Stdaimdnu 

• In the orij^inal text, p. 114, 1. 5, by 
mistake, Maiihina 'Abdulhay and the 
Uiuishi of Sultuu Abu Sa'id. 

• Maulanii Darwish Muhammad was a 
friend of the famous Amir 'All Sher, the 
vizier of Suhan Husain Mirza, king of 
Khurasan (A. D. 1470 to 1506), aud the 
patron of the poet J ami. Maulnua 
barwii«h entered afterwards the service 
of Shah Junaid i Cafawi, king of Persia, 
(A D. 14^9 to 1.V25). A biography of 
the Maulana may be found in the Madsir 
i HahiMi, p. 751. 

• Khajah Ikhtiyar, the contemporary 
and aucc<i»sful rival of the preceding 
eali^ntphii^t. He was Private Secretary 
to >ult{iu Hu.^iin Mirza. 

• Thu* iti the title of Muhammad 
A^'^^Iiar, a ISayyid from Miu<hhad — or 
BAX*oidiiii^ to the Tabnc^tit i Akbaii, from 
'Arabbhahi. He sei'ved Humayiin as 

\ Mir Munshi, Mir 'Arzi and Mir Mali.' 
He accompanied Tardi B^g on his 
flight from Dihli, wjis imprisoned by 
Biiiram, and had to go to Mecca. He 
rejoined Akbar, in A. H. 9t)8, when 
Bairam had just fallen in disgrace, 
received in the following year the title of 
Ashraf Khan, and served under Mun'im 
Khan in Bengal. He died in the tenth 
year of Akbar s reign, A. H. ^73. In 
Abulfazl's list of grandees, in the second 
book, Ashraf Kh&n is quoted as a 
commander of two thousand. Badaoni 
mentions him among the conteniponine- 
OUH poets. Abul Muzaflar, Ashraf Khan's 
son was, A. D. 151)0, a commander of tive 

' The Mir-dt mentions a third imme- 
diate pupil of Mir All. Afai./dnd Khajah 
JUuhammadf and relates that he put 
Mir All's name to his own writings, 
without giving offence to his master. 

"He also was a friend of Amir *Ali 
Shdr, and died A. H. 910,during the reign 
of Sultan Husain Mirza, mentioned in the 
fourth note. 


tlipin all. He imitated thr writiui^ of Mauhiiiii Azhar, though ho did not learn 
troiii him personally. Six <d' his puj)ils are well known : Sidtan Muhammad 
i Khandan ;^ ►Sultan Muhaiiimad Nur; Maulana 'Alauddin^ of Ilerat ; 
]\[aulana Zainuddin (of Nishajiur) ; ^MaulCina 'Ahdi of Nishapur ; Muhanmiad 
(iasim Shadi Shah, each of whom poss»'ssed some distinguishiui^ qualities. 

]^_'sides these, there are a jj^'cat numher of otlu»r good caligi'aphi?^ts, 
who are famous for thrir skill in Nasta'liq; as Maulana Sultan *Ali, of 
(layin i'' !Maulana SuHan ^Mi of Mashhad i"* Mauldnd Hijrani ;* and after 
tluMU the illustri(»us ^raulana 'Mir 'Ali,*^ the pupil, as it appears, of MauMnd 
Zainuddin. Tie brought his art to perfect i(m by imitating the >\-riting of 
Sultan 'All of Mashhad. The new method which he established, is a proof 
of his genius ; he has left many master-])ieces. Some one asked him onee 
what tlie diiference was Ijetween his writing and that of the ^fauland. Ho 
said, *^I have brought his writing to perfection; but yet, his metliod has 
a peculiar charm.'* 

In eonclusion T may mention : — Shah MahmiuP of Nishapur ; Malimud 
Is-haq ; Sham sudd in of Kirman ; ^Nfaulana Jam shed, the riddle-writer ; 
Sultan Husain of Khujaud ; !A[aulana 'Aishi ; Ghiasuddin, the gilder ; 
JklauMua 'Ab(lu(;(,'anuid ; ]\raulaua Malik ; Mauland 'Abdulkarim ; Maulana 
Abdurrahim of Kharizm ; ^faulana Shaikh Midiammad ; Maulana Shah 
Mahnuid i Zarrinqalam (or gold jx'u) ; Maulanii Muhammad Husain* of 
Tabriz ; Maulana Hasan 'All of Mashhad ; IVEir Mu'izz of Kashan ; Mirzd 
Ibr5him of I(;fahan ; and several others who have devoted their lives to tho 
.improv(^m(*nt of tho art. 

His Maj(*sty slu^ws much rc^gard to tho art, and takes a great interest 
in the difl'erent systems of writing ; hence the large number of skilful 
caligraphists. Nasta'liq has especially receiv(?d a new impetus. The artist 
who, in the shadow of the throne of His ^[ajesty, has become a master of 
caligraphy, is IMuhammad Husain* of Kashmir. He has been honoured 

* He was cjillod Khondnn. as lie was 
always h(ij)])tf. He was a tViend of Amir 
'AH Shor, ami died A. II. 1)15. 

^ In ihcMa/iiiifjdff 'Alauddin Muham,' 
mail of Ilerat. 

^ He was the instructor of Saltan 
Hnsain Mir/.Ji's children, and died A. H. 
91 1-. Qfii/in is a Persian town, 8.E. of 
Khurasan, near the frontier of Afghanis- 
tan. It is spelt (nhai/an on our maps. 

* According to the Makfilbdt^ Maula- 
na Sultjin 'All shi^'r of ALishhad, which is 
evidently the correct reading. 

* A poet and friend of Amir 'All Sher. 
He died A. H. 1)21. ^ 

* Manlana Mir 'AU, a Savvidof Herat, 
died A. H. 024. As a poet he is otlen 

mentioned together with Mir Ahm'id, son 
of Mir Khusrau of Dihli, and Bairam 
Khan, Akbai''s Khankhanan, as a master 
of DakhJ poetry. Dak hi, or entering , 
is the skilful use which a poet makes of 
verses, or parts of verses, of another poet. 

^ According to the Makfiihdf and the 
Mir-di, Shah Muhammad of Nishapur. 
Both mention another caligi"aphist, Mir 
tSayyid Ahmad of Mashhad. 

® He was the teacher of the celebrated 
caligraphist 'fmdd, whose biography will 
be found in the Mir-dt. Vide also the 
preface of Dr. Sprenger's Gulistdn. 

® He died A. H. 1020, six years after 
Akbar's death. 


with the title of Zdrrinqdlam, the gold pen. He surpassed his master 
liauULn^ ^Ahdul-'Aziz ; his madddt and dawdir^ shew everywhere a proper 
proportion to .each other, and art critics consider him equal to MuUa Mir 
'All. Of other renowned caligraphists of the present age, I must mention 
Maid4n& B^ir, the son of the illustrious Mulld Mir 'Ali ; Muhammad Amin 
of Mashhad ; Mir Husain i Kulanki ; Mauldna ' Abdulhay ; Maul&nd Dauri^ ; 
MauUin^ 'Abdurrahim ; Mir 'Abdullah ; Niz&nu of Qazwin ; 'All Chaman of 
Xashmir ; Nurullah Q&sim Arsal&n. 

His Majesty's library is divided into several parts : some of the books 
are kept within, and some without the Harem. Each part of the Library 
is subdivided, according to the value of the books and the estimation in 
which the sciences are held of which the books treat. Prose books, poetical 
worksy Hindf, Persian, Greek, Ka^hmirian, Arabic,' are all separately 
placed. In this order they are also inspected. Experienced people bring 
them daily and read them before His Majesty, who hears every book 
from the beginning to the end. At whatever page the readers daily stop, 
Hifi Majesty makes with his own pen a sign, according to the nimiber of the 
pages ; and rewards the readers with presents of cash, either in gold or 
silver, according to the number of leaves read out by them. Among books 
of renown, there are few that are not read in His Majesty's assembly hall ; 
and there are no historical facts of the past ages, or curiosities of science, 
or interesting points of philosophy, with which His Majesty, a leader of 
impartial sages, is unacquainted. He does not get tired of hearing a book 
over again, but listens to the reading of it with more interest. The AkhMq 
i N&qiri, the Kimiyi i Sa'ddat, the Q^busn^ah, the works of Sharaf of 
Munair {vide p. 48), the Gulistdn, the Hadiqah of Hakim San&i, the 
Masnawi of Ma'nawi, the J&m i Jam, the Bustdn, the ShUmdmah, the 

* By Madddt, (extensions) caligra- 
phists mean letters like cj, ci ; by dawdir 

(curyatores), letters like O, ^* 

Draw four horizontal lines at equal 
intervals ; call the spaces between them 
a, b, c, of which a is the highest. Every 
letter which fills the space b, is called a 
skdskak ; as J , a, j , o». The diacritical 
points are immaterial. Every line above 
o, ill called a markiz ; every line below 
h, I. ^. in r, a ddman. Thus ^ consists 
of a sh68hah and a markiz ; ^j* of a Bh6- 

thah and a daman. The knob of a 


^jCfTij* is called kallah, head. Thus iJ 
is a Maddah, consisting of a kallah, and 
ftdiman; so also f*^>^* ^^ «-^ con- 
sists of a markiz and a daman. 

In Grammar the word markiz means 
the same as shosJiah in caligraphy ; thus 
5 , 3^, consist of a markiz, and a shakl i 
hamsah . 

By ifldh caligraphists mean any addi- 
tional ornamental strokes, or refilling a 
written letter with ink (Hind, siydhi 
bhamd\ or erasing (Hind, chhtlna). 

' His name is SultAn Bdyazid ; he 
was bom at Herat. Daurt is his poetical 
name. Vide Badaoni's list of poets (Vol. 
Ill of theBibl. Indica). Akbar bestowed 
on him the title of Kdtib ul mulk, the 
writer of the empire. His pupil was 
Khdjah Muhammad Husain, an Ahadi, 
(vide Baddoni, II, p. 394, where for 
Ibrdhtm, in the Tdrikh, read Bardhim). 

' Observe that the Arabic books are 
placed last. 


roilt ( ti'd ]\I,isiia\vi;- '>i .^liai^ii rsi/umi, the works oi' Kliusrau and ^MiiiiluTia 
Jriiiii, th«' L)iWiiiit> oi" IvliatjaJii, Aiiwari, and sevcTal W(H'ks on IIi!>t(»ry, are 
eoiitiiinallv read out to His Maiestv. l*lnloIomsts juv <'onstantlv eniraired 
in tvanslatinc; Hindi, Greek, Ara1)ie, and Pt^rsian Looks, into other languages, 
'ilius a 2>art of tlu^ Znh i Jadi'd i Mirzai {ride Ilird l)ook, A'iu 1 ) was transhited 
under the superintiMuh^nee of Amir FathiiUah of Shirfiz {ride p. 33), and 
also th(? Kislnijnslii, the Gangadhar, the Mohesh Mahauand, from Hindi 
(Sanscrit) into Persian, according to the interpretation of the autlior of tliis 
boolv. The ^lalvahhiirat which ])eh)ngs to tlie ancient l)0(»ks of ILindustau has 
likewise hccn translated, fi'oni Hindi into IVrsian, under tlu' superintendence 
of Nacph Killing Maidana 'Al)dul(iiidir of l^adaon,'-^ and Sliaikh 8ultan of 
T'hanesar.^ The book contains nearly one hundred thousand verses : His 
Majrsly calls this ancient history Raznuuiinah, tlit* ])o»)k of Wars. The same 

* l{i'Li':inliii<i; tills rciKiwiicd mnn, vide 
Al'ullii/.l's of (.iraiulcfS, Unci book, 
Ko. 1«')1. 

- MuUa 'AlKliilQ;ulir, i.octiri.llystylod 
Qnilirl, N\as l.orii A. 11. '.MT ,or"l)l'.», at 
I>iulaoii, 21 town near DiliK. \\v was llius 
two vrars older than Akl)ar. Ili^tatlirr, 
whom hr h>st in i)'>l), was calK-d Shaikh 
]\I uluk Shah, ami was a j»U])il ot" ihi' Saint 
Jji'clui of Samhlud. Alxlul Qailir, or 
liiidnmiL^i^ we jjfcncrallv call him, studied 
various scii nccs under thi' most rcnowiKKl 
and picus men ot'his ai,''e, iiu)st of whom \w 
enumerates in the lu'Lcinnint; of the third 
vohune of his .Mi(itf<(/i/ndj. He excelled 
in ]\lusie, History, and Astronomy, and 
was on account of Iiis beaut il'ul voice 
appointed Court Imnm tor AV(•dne^days. 
He had early been introduecd to Akbar 
by Jalal Khan (Jtirchi {rii/r List of 
(irandees, Jlnd l)ook, >«o. 213). For forty 
years l>adaoni liyed in company with 
S]iad<h Mubarik,and Faizi and Abulfazl, 
theShaikh'sso!is; but tliere was nosijietM-e 
friendsliip between tlu'm, as liadacni 
looked U])on liU'iii as heretics. At the «'om- 
niand of Akbar. lie tiinu-lated the Uomn- 
yan {liadu'iii \\. \)\). 33(>, 3oo,) from the 
Sanscrit int^d^-rsian, rcceivini: tor twenty- 
iourthousand .v/"'X.vl.V)Asiirat'is andlO,(M)() 
Ta.ni4ahs ; and ])artsot'the ^lahabharat ; 
ON tracts from the History of J{ashid; and 
the IJahr ul asmar, a work on the JlndU. 
A co])y of another of his \yorks. entitled 
J\'/(jfihn'nrs/ti(/ may be found among the 
Persian MSS. of the As. S(u*. Beni^al. 
His historical work, entitled Mnufallnd)- 
lil Tdvarilih, is nuich prized jls written 
by un enemy of Akbar, whose chanicter, 

in its p-aialeur and its failini^^s, is mucli 
nu)]-e ])r('m!ne]it tlian in the--l/.At/r/e////^'//, 
or the 'Tidnn^of } Akhmd.KwiXwMddxin 
Ufth'nni. It is especially of value for the 
r(lii:;ious views of the em])eror, and con- 
tains interest in t^ bioirraphies of most 
famous men and })oets of Akbar's time. 
Th(^ History ends with the bei:innin«r of 
A H. 1(>(>[, orelcyen years before Akhar's 
death, and we may conclude that Badaoui 
died soon after that year. The book wm 
ke}>t secret, and accord in<^ to a statement 
in th(> Mir-(\tnr ahiiiu it was made public 
durin*^ the rei;j:n of Jaliangir, who 
shewed his disjilcasure by di> belie vinj; the 
stati'inent of B:ida«)ni's children tliatthe}' 
thi-mselves had been unaSyare of the exis- 
tence of the book. The Tuzuk i »jaban- 
iiiu untortunatelv savs nothiuir alwait 
this circumstance ; but Badaoni's work 
was certainly not known in A. H. 1(J25. 
the tenth vear of Jahanirir's reijrn, in 
which the Madsir i liahimi was written, 
whose author ctunplains of the want of a 
history beside the Tabaijat, and the 

In point of style, Bjulaoni is much 
inferior to Bakhtawar Khan (Mir-uful 
Whim) and ^luluunmatl Kazini (the 
*Alaiuii;n-uamah), but s(»mewhat superior 
to his frii'ud Mir/a ^s'izanuiddin Ahnnid 
of Herat, author of the TcfhafjnC, and 
to 'Abdul Hanud of Labor, author of the 
PddisJi all n a lU a h . 

'Abdul Qadir of Badaon must not l)e 
conlhunded with MaulaTui Qadiri, another 
learned man coidemporaneous with Akbar. 

^ (7</c 15adaoni III, p. 118 ; and for 
Haji Ibrjihim, III, p. 13JK 


learned men translated also into Persian tlie Bamfyan, likewise a book of 
ancdent Hindustan, which contains the life of Il4m Chandra, but is full of 
interesting points of Philosophy. H6j{ Ibrihlm of Sarhind translated into 
Persian the At^harhan^ which, according to the Hindus, is one of the four divine 
books. The Lilawati, which is one of the most excellent works written by 
Tndian Mathematicians on Arithmetic, lost its Hindd veil, and received a 
Ffflrsian garb from the hand of my elder brother. Shaikh 'Abdul Faiz i Paizi.' 
At the command of His Majesty, Mukammal Kh&n of Gujr&t translated 
into Persian the T&jak, a well known work on Astronomy. The Memoirs* 
of B6bar, the Conqueror of the world, which may be called a Code of 
practical wisdom, have been translated from Turkish into Persian by Mirz& 

* •* In this year (A. H. 983, or A. D. 
1575) a learned Brahmin, Shaikh Bh4- 
wan, had come from the Dek'han and 
tamed Muhammadan, when His Majesty 
gave me the order to translate the 
AVharhan. Several of the religions pre- 
cepts of this book resemble the laws of the 
Isliiin. Ab in transkting I found many 
difficult passages, which Shaikh Bhawan 
ooold not interpret either, I reported the 
circumstance to His Majesty, who ordered 
Siaikh Faizi, and then Haji Ibr4him, to 
translate it. The latter, though willing, 
did not write anything. Among the 
precepts of the Afharban, there is one 
which says that no man will be saved 
unless he read a certain passage. This 
passac^e contains many times the letter 
\ and resembles very much our Zi Ulak 
illallak. Besides, I found that a 
Hindu, under certain conditions, may eat 
cow flesh ; and another, that Hindtis bury 
their dead, but do not bum them. With 
such passages the Shaikh used to defeat 
other Brahmins in argument ; and they 
had in fact led him to embrace Isl4m. 
Let us praise God for his conversion !" 
Baddani II. p. 212. 

The translation of the Mah4bh&rat 
was not quite a &ilure. *' For two nights, 
Hii Majesty himself translated some pas- 
sages of the Mahdbh&rat, and told Naqib 
Khan to write down the general meaning 
in Persian ; the third night he associated 
me with Naqib Kh4n ; and, after three or 
four months, two of the eighteen chapters 
of these useless absurdities — enough to 
conlbund the eighteen worlds — were laid 
before His Majesty. But the emperor 
took exception to my translation, and 
called me a Hardmkhur and a turnip- 
tater, as if that was my share of the book. 
Another part was subsequently finished 


by Naqfb E:h4u and Mull& Sh^ri, and 
another part by Sultan H4ji of T'han^sar ; 
then Shaikh Faizi was appointed, who 
wrote two chaptera, prose and poetry; 
then the H4ji wrote two other parts, 
adding a verbal translation of the parts 
that had been lefl out. He thus got a 
hundred juz together, closelv written, so 
exactly rendered, that even the accidental 
dirt of flies on the original was not left out ; 
but he was soon after driven from Court, 
and is now in Bhakkar. Other translators 
and interpreters, however, continue now* 
a-days the fight between Pandtis and the 
Kurds. May God Almighty protect those 
that are not engaged in this work, and 
accept their repentance, and hear the 
prayer of pardon of every one who does not 
hide his disgust, and whose heart rests in 
the Islam ; for ' He allows men to return 
to Him in repentance !' This Razmn&mah 
was illuminated, and repeatedly copied ; 
the grandees were ordered to make copies, 
and Abdul Fazl wrote an introduction to 
it of about two jva, &c." Baddoni II. 
p. 302. A copy of this translation in 
two volumes, containing eighteen ^^m 

(e^) 8 among the MSS. of the As> Soc. ' 
of Bengal, No. 1329. One juSi (J^) 
= sixteen pages quarto, or two sheets. 

■ This work has been printed. Abulfazl's 
words Hindu veil are an allusion to Lfla- 
wati B sex. 

• Vide Tuzuk i Jah4ngH p. 417. 
The Waqi4t i Timur were Iranslated into 
Persian, during the reign of Shdhjahan, 
by Mir AbA T&ib i Tnrbati. Padshdh- 
ndmah II, p. 288, edit. BibL Indica. 
" Conqueror of the world," (/Sti sitdni, is 
B4bers title. Regarding the titles of 
the Mogul Emperors from Babar to 
Bah&dur Sh4h, vide Journal As. Soc 
Bengal for 1868, Part I. p. 39, 


'Al)(lurralnm Khiin, tho pro^^ont Khlii Khandn (Commander-in-Cliiof). Thi> 
ITisfory of Kaslunir, wliicli extends over tho last four thousand years, has 
been translated from Kasliniirian into Persian' by Maulind Shah Muhammad 
of ShuliJihiid. The Mujam id liulddn^ an excellent work on towns and countries, 
has been translated from Arabic into Persian bv several Arabic scholars, 
as !Mulla Ahmad of T'hat'hah, Qasim Beg, Shaikh Munawwar, and others. 
Tlio Harilamy a book containing the life of Krishna, was translated into 
Persian by Maulana Sheri ( Vide the poetical extracts of the second book). 
By order of His Majesty, the author of this volume composed a new 
version of the Kalilah Damnah, and published it under the title of ^Aydr 
Ddfu'sh.^ Tho original is a master-piece of practical wisdom, but is full of 
rhetorical difficidties ; and though NaqruUah i Mustaufi and Maulana 
Husain i WiViz had translated it into l^ersian, their style abounds in rare 
metaphors and difficult words. The Hindi story of tho Love of Nal and 
Daman, which melts tho heart of feeling readers, has been metrically 
translated by my brother Shaikh Faizi i Fajydzi, in the masnawi metre of 
the Laili Majnun, and is now everywhere known under the title of iVW 

As His Majesty has become acquainted with the treasure of history, 
he ordered several well informed writers to compose a work containing the 
events which have taken place in the seven zones for the last one thousand 
3'ears. Naqib Klian, and several others, commenced this history. A very 
largo portion was subsequently added by MuUd Ahmad of T'hat'hah, and 
the whole concluded by Ja'far Beg i Acjaf Khan. Tho introduction is 
composed by me. Tho work has the title of Tarikh i Alfiy* the History of 
a thousand years. 

» " Dufmp this year (A. H. 999, or A. 
D. 1590-91,) I received the order from 
His Majesty, to re- write, in an eas}' style, 
the History of Kashmir, which MuUa 
Shah Muhammad of Shahab/id, a very 
learned man, had translated into Persian. 
I finished this imdeitakinf]; in two months, 
when my work was put into the Imperial 
Library, to be read out to His IMajesty 
in its turn." Baddoni, II. p. 374. 

* Regardinf^ the tra<:^ic end of this 
"heretic," vide Badaoni II. p. 304. 
Notices regai-ding the other two men will 
be found in the third volume of Badaoni. 

* Yov'Jydri Danish. Such abbrevia- 
tions are common in fitles. 

* " Faizi's Naldaman (for Nal o Da- 
ma7i contains about 42()() vei-ses, and was 
composed, A. H. 1003, in the short space 
of hve months. It wa.s presented to 
Akbar with a few ashrafts as nazar. It 

was put among the set of books read at 
Court, and Naqib Klian was appointed 
to refld it out to His Majesty. It is, mdeed, 
a masnawi, the like of which, for the 
last three hundred yeare, no poet of 
Hindustan, after Mir Khusran of Dihli, 
has composed." Badaoni, II. p. 396. 

• In A. H. 100(), A. D. 1591-92, the 
beliei'appeare to have been current among 
the Muhammadans that the Islam and 
the world were approaching their end- 
Various men arose, pretending to be 
Imam Mahdi^ who is to precede the reap- 

S?arance of Christ on earth ; and even 
adaoni's belief got doubtful on this 
point. Akbar's disciples saw in the com- 
mon rumour a happv omen for the pro- 
pagation orthc Din I I/dht. The Tdrtkh 
i A (ft was likewise to give prominence to 
this idea. 
The copy of the Tdrtkh i Aljt in 



The Art of Painting. 

Drawing the likeness of anything is called tagw&. His Majesiy, from his 
earliest youth, has shewn a great predilection for this art, and gives it every 
encouragement, as he looks upon it as a means, both of study and amusement. 
Hence the art flourishes, and many painters have ohtained great reputation. 
The works of all painters are weekly laid before His Majesty by the 
D&r^hahs and the clerks ; he then confers rewards according to excellence 
of workmanship, or increases the monthly salaries. Much progress was 
made in the commodities required by painters, and the correct prices of 
such articles were carefully ascertained. The mixture of colours has 
especially been improved. The pictures thus received a hitherto unknown 
finish. Most excellent painters are now to be found, and master-pieces, 
worthy of a BihzMy^ may be placed at the side of the wonderful works of the 
European painters who have attained world-wide fame. The minuteness 
in detail, the general finish, the boldness of execution, &c., now observed in 
pictures, are incomparable ; even inanimate objects look as if they had life. 
More than a hundred painters have become famous masters of the art, 
whilst the number of those who approach perfection, or of those who are 
middling, is very large. This is especially true of the Hindus :' their 
pictures surpass our conceptions of things. Few, indeed, in the whole world 
are found equal to them. 

Among the forerunners on the high road of art I may mention : 

1. Mir Sayyid 'All of Tabriz." He learned the art from his father. 
From the time of his introduction at Court, the ray of royal favour has 
shone upon him. He has made himself famous in his art, and has met 
with much success. 

2. Kh&jah Abdu^Qamad, styled SlMnqalamy or sw&et pen. He comes 
from 8h{r6z. Though he had learnt the art before he was made a grandee^ of 
the Court, his perfection was mainly due to the wonderful effect of a look of 
TTifl Majesty, which caused him to turn from that which is form to that which 
is spirit. From the instruction they received, the EMjah's pupils became 

tbe Libruy of the As. Soc. of Bengal 
(Ko. 19,) contains no preface, commences 
with the events subsequent to the death 
of the Prophet (8th June, 632), and ends 
abraptly with the reign of 'IJmar ibn i 
'Abdul Malik (A. H. 99, or A D. 717-18). 
The years are reckoned from the death of 
the Frophet, not from the Hijrah. For 
fnither particukrs regarding this book, 
ride Badaoni, U. p. 317. 

* ** JBihzad waa a &mous painter, who 
lired at the Court of Shah lama'ii i ^a&- 

wi of Persia." SirdjuUiighdt. 

' Compare with AbuLPazl's opinion, 
JElphinstonee History of India, second 
edition, p. 174. 

' Better known as a poet under the 
name of Juddi. Vide the poetical ex- 
tracts of the second book. He illumina- 
ted the Story of Amir Hamzah, men- 
tioned on the next page. 

^ He was a Ckahdr^adL Vide the 
list of grandees, in the second book, 
No. 266. 


3. Daswant'h. lie is the son of a palkee-bearer. He devoted his 
wliole life to tlie art, aud used, from love to his profession, to draw and 
paint figures even on walls. One day the eye of His Majesty fell on him ; 
his talent was discovered, aud he himself handed over to the Khdjah. In 
a short time he surpassed all painters, and became the first master of the 
age. Unfortunately the light of his talents was dimmed by the shadow of 
madness ; he committed suicide. He has left many master-pieces. 

4. Basdwan. In back grounding, drawing of features, distribution of 
colours, portrait painting, and several other branches, he is most excellent, 
BO much so, that many critics prefer him to Daswant'h. 

The followdng painters have likewise attained fame : Kesu, Lai, 
Mukund, Mushkin, Farrukhthe Qalmdq(Calmuck), Mddhu,* Jagan, Mohesh, 
K'hemkaran, Tdrd, S^nwlah, Haribans, Bdm. It woidd take me too long 
to describe the excellencies of each. My intention is " to pluck a flower 
fi'om every meadow, an ear from ever}' sheaf." 

I have to notice that the observing of the figures of objects and the 
making of likenesses of them, which are often looked upon as an idle 
occupation, are, for a well regulated mind, a source of wisdom, and an 
antidote against the poison of ignorance. Bigoted followers of the letter of 
the law are hostile to the art of painting ; but their eyes now see the truth. 
One day at a private party of Mends, His Majesty, who had conferred on 
several the pleasure of drawing near him, remarked : ** There are many 
that hate painting ; but such men I dislike. It appears to me as if a painter 
had quite peculiar means of recognizing God ; for a painter in sketching 
anything that has life, and in devising its limbs, one after the other, must 
come to feel that he cannot bestow individuality upon his work, and is thus 
forced to think of God, the Giver of life, and will thus increase in 

The number of master-pieces of painting increased with the encourage- 
ment given to the art. Persian books, both prose and poetry, were 
ornamented with pictures, and a very large number of paintings was thus 
collected. The Story of Uamzah was represented in twelve volumes, and 
clever painters made the most astonishing illustrations for no less than one 
thousand and four hundred passages of the story. The Chingizndmah, the 
Zafam^unah,* this book, the Razmndmah, the Ramdyan, the Nal Daman, 
the Kalilah Damnah, the 'Ay6r Danish, &c., were all illustrated. His 
Majesty himseK sat for his likeness, and also ordered to have the likenesses 

* Mentioned in the Madairi JRahtmt 
(p. 753) as in the service of Abdurrahim 
Khan Khauan, Akbar's Commauder-in- 

■ A History of the House of Timur, 
by Sharafuddin of Yazd (died 144^). 
Vide Morley's Catalogue of Historical 
MSS., p. 94 


taken of all the grandees of the realm. An immense album was thus 
foTined : those that have passed away, have received a new life, and those 
who are still alive, have immortality promised them. 

In the same manner, as painters are encouraged, employment is held 
out to ornamental artists, gilders, line-drawers, and pagers. 

Many Mansabdars, Ahadis, and other soldiers, hold appointments in 
this department. The pay of foot soldiers varies from 1200 to 600 dams. 

Am 35. 

The order of the Household, the efficiency of the Army, and the 
welfare of the country, are intimately connected with the state of this 
department; hence His Majesty gives it every attention, and looks 
acmtinizingly into its working order. He introduces all sorts of m 
methods, and studies their applicability to practical purposes. Thus a 
plated armour was brought before His Majesty, and set up as a target ; but 
no bullet was so powerful as to make an impression on it. A sufficient 
number of such armours has been made so as to supply whole armies. 
His Majesty also looks into the prices of such as are sold in the hizkra. 

All weapons for the use of His Majesty have names, and a proper rank 
is assigned to them. Thus there are thirty swords, [khdgah swords) one of 
which is daily sent to His Majesty's sleeping apartments. The old one is 
returned, and handed over to the servants outside the Harem, who keep it 
tin its turn comes again.' Forty other swords are kept in readiness : they 
are called kotal swords. When the nimiber of khdgah swords (in consequence 
of presents, &c.) has decreased to twelve, they supply new ones from the kotal 
swords. There are also twelve Yakhandi ffj^y the turn of every one of 
which recurs after one week. OfJdmdhara and IT^kapwahs, there are forty of 
each. Their turn recurs every week ; and each has thirty kotah, from 
which deficiencies are supplied as before. Besides, eight knives, twenty 
spears and harehhtu are required monthly. Of eighty-six Mashhadi bows, 
Bhaddyan bows, and twenty-four others, are returned monthly....' 
In the same manner a rank is assigned to each. 

Whenever His Majesty rides out, or at the time of the Bdr % ^Am^ or 
Levee, the sons of the Amirs, and other Mansabdirs and Ahadis, carry the 
Qur in their hands and on their shoulders, i, «., every four of them carry four 

^ I donbt the correctness of the trans- 
lation. The word ^o^^amft is not in the 

' The text has an unintelligible sen- 


quivers, four l)ows, four swords, four sliields ; and besides, they take up 
lances, spears, axes, pointed axes, piydzi war-clubs, sticks, bullet bows, 
l)(stl<'s, and a footstool, all properly arranged. Several qifdrs^ of camels 
and mules are loaded with weapons and kept in readiness ; and on travels, 
they use Baetriau (ramels, «S:c,, for that purpose. At Court receptions the 
Amirs and other pe«)ple stand opposite the Qur, ready for any service ; 
and on the nuirch, tlu'y follow l)ehind it, with the exception of a few who 
are near ITis ^Majesty. Elephants in full trappings, camels, carriages, 
nacpi'dralis, flags, the kaukabahs, and other Imperial insignia, accompany the 
Quf'j wliile eager macelicarers superintend the march, assisted by the Mir- 
bakhsliis. In hunting expeditions several swift runners .ire in attendance, 
and a few others are in (fharge of harnesses. 

In order to shorten the trouble of making references, I shall enumerate 
the weapons now in use in form of a table, and give pictures of some of 

1. Swords (slightly bent), J i2. to 15 Muhurs, 

2. K'hiindah (straight swords), 1 to 10 jK. 

3. Gupti 'A^a (a sword in a walking stick), 2 to 20 R. 

4. Januriiar (a broad dagger), J i?. to 2.i JlJT. 

5. Klmnjar, J to 5 i?. 

C. K'hapwah, ^ R. to l^ M. 

7. Jam K'h^k, ^ R.ioH M. 

8. B^nk, \ R.iol M. 

9. Jhanbwah, J i?. to 1 M. 

10. Katiirah, I E. to \ M. 

11. Narsink Mot'h, \R.io2M, 

12. Kam&n (bows) J i?. to 3 Jf. 

13. Takhsli Kamdn, 1 to 4 jK. 

14. Nawak, ^ R, to \ M. 

15. AiTows, ^><r hioidky i to 30 jR. 

1 6. Quivers, ^ R, to 2 M. 

17. Dadi, J to 5 i2. 

18. Tirbard^ (Arrow drawers),* ^ to 2^ d. 

19. Paik^ikash (Do.), i to 3 R, 

20. Naizah (a lance), li R. to 6 M. 

21. Bai'cldiah, i R. to 2 M, 

22. Sank, i to H R, 

* Five camels are called a oitdr, in 
Hind, qatjir. A string of Rome length is 
titnl to the t;iil of the front camel and is 
drawn throuk^h the nose holes of the next 
behind it, and so ou. Young camels are 

put on the backs of their mothers. 

* If this spelling be con*ect, it is the 
same as the next (No. 19) ; but it may 
be tit' i pardar, an arrow Avith a feather 
at the bottom of the shat\, a barbed arrow. 


23. Saint'W, i to 1 2?. 

24. Selarah, 10 e?. to f ^. 

25. GuTz (a war dub,) J to 5 -B. 

26. Sliashpar (do.), iJB.ioSM. 

27. Kestan (?)* 1 to 3 ^. 

28. Tabar (a war axe), J jR. to 2 if. 

29. Piy6zi (a dub), i to 6 .B. 

30. Zaghnol (a pointed axe) -^ jB. to 1 ^. 

31. Chakar-Basolab, 1 to 6 ^. 

32. Tabar z6glm61, 1 to 4 jB. 

33. Tarangilah, i to 2 i?. 

84. Kird (a knife) 2 d. to I M. 

35. Gupti k^ SB.toHM. 

36. Qamdii kird, 1 to 3J 5. 

37. Chiqu (a dasp knife) 2 d. to i JR. 

38. Kamin i Gurohah (bullet bow) 2 <;. to 1 i?. 

39. Kamt'lialL, 5 <;. to 3 jB. 

40. Tufak i dah&n (a tube ; Germ. Blaserobr) 10 <^. to } JR. 

41. Pufllitklidr,^ 2 <^. to 2 iJ. 

42. Shaqtdwez,* 2d.tol JR. 

43. Girihkusbd, 1 <?. to i jB. 

44. Khir i M^i, 1 to 5 ^. 

45. Gobhan (a ding) li ^. to ^ jB. 

46. Gajb%, 1 to 5 ^. 

47. Sipar (a shield), 1 to 50 jB. 

48. BhSl, i JK. to 4 Jf. 

49. K'h6rali, 1 ^. to 4 Jtf". 

50. Pahrf, 1 -B. to 1 3f. 

51. XJ^toah, i to 5 i?. 

62. Dubulghah, i -B. to 3 J Jf. 

53. K'hog'hi, 1 to 4 .B. 

54. Zirih KuMi, 1 to 5 jB. 

55. G'hug'huwah, 1 iJ. to 2 Jf. 

56. Jaibah,* 20 J2. 30 Jf. 

> This name is doubtfal. The MSS. 

fiTe all sorts of spelliiigs. Vide mj 
ext edition, p. 121, 1. 1. The Dictionaries 
gire no information. 

' Vide Joornal As. Society, Bengal, for 
1868, p. 61. 

* A weapon resembling the following. 
The word Shagtdtoiz, or more correctly 
skoftdw^t means a thing by which you 

can hook anything. In VuUers' Persian 
Dicty. II. p. 426, b, read Mz forpantr (/). 
* This word is used in a general sense, 
an armo^ir. It is either Turkish, or a 
corruption of the Arab, jubhah. The 
form jaibd is occasionally met with ; but 
jabah, as given by Vullers I, p. 608 a., 
is wrong, and against the metre of hia 


.57. Zirih, 1 J 7?. to 100 31. 

58. Bagtar, 4 22. to 12 3f. 

oi). Joslian, 4 J?. to 9 M. 

50. Char A'iiiali, 2 R. to 7 M. 

61. Kot'lii, 5 -B to 8 Jf. 

62. gacliqi, 3 72. to 8 Jf. 

6.3. Angirk'hah, 1 J JB. to 5 Jf. 

64. Bhanjii, 3 -B. to 2 Jf. 

65. Cliiliralmrih i Aliaiii, 1 j^ ^. to 1 -3/1 

66. Salhqaba, 5 72. to 8 3f. 

67. Chiliilqad, 5 to 25 jB. 

68. Dastwanah, 1^ B. to 2 M. 

69. E4k/ 1 7?. to 10 Jf. 

70. Kant'hali sobha,- 1 to 10 jB. 

71. M6zali i i^hani i to 10 72. 

72. Kajem, 50 to 300 72. 

73. Artak (the fjuilt) i Kaji'm, 4 72. to 7 M, 

74. Qasluiah 1 72. to 2^ 3/. 

75. Gardani,' 1 72. to 1 Jf. 

76. MatcUocks, i 72. to 1 J/. 

77. Ban (rockets), 2 J to 4 72. 

ATN 36. 

Guhr are wonderful locks for protecting the august edifice of the 
state ; and befitting kc^ys for the door of conquest. With the exception 
of Turkey, there is perhaps no country wliich in its guns has more means 
of securing the government than this. There are now-a-days guns made 
of such a size that the l)all weighs 12 mcnifi ; several elephants and a 
tliousand cattle are recj^uired to transport one. His Majesty looks upon the 
care bestowed on the elticiency of this branch as one of the higher objects 
of a king, and therefore devotes to it much of his time. D^oghahs and 
clever clerks ai*o appointed, to keej) the whole in proper working order. 

His Majesty has made several inventions, which have astonished the 
whole world. He made a gun which, on marches, can easily be taken to 

* According to some MSS. rag. 

■ The figure represents a long spear ; 
but tbe etymology, as also its position in 
the list of \vea])ons, shews that it must be 
a part of the armour, a neck-jplece. 

■ A round shield-hke plate of iron 
attached to the neck of the horse and 
hano^ing down so as to protect the cheat 
of the animal. 


pieces, and properly put agaia together wlien required. By another 
inventioiiy His Majesty joins seventeen guns in such a manner as to be 
able to fire them simultaneously with one match. Again, he made another 
Mad of gun, which can easily be carried by a single elephant ; such guns 
have the name of Gqfndls. Qxms which a single man may carry, are called 

The imperial guns are carefully distributed over the whole kingdom, 
and each Siibah has that kind which is fit for it. For the siege of fortresses 
and for naval engagements, His Majesty has separate guns made, which 
accompany his victorious armies on their marches. It is impossible to 
count eveiy gun ; besides clever workmen make continually new ones, 
especially Gqfndls and Narndls, 

Amirs and Ahadis are on stafi^ employ in t}iis branch. The pay of the 
foot varies from 100 to 400 d. 

Am 37. 

These are in particular favour with His Majesty, who stands unrivalled 
in their manufacture, and as a markman. Matchlocks are now made so 
strong, that they ^o not burst, though let off when filled to the top. Formerly 
they could not fiU them to more than a quarter. Besides, they made them 
with the hammer and the anvil by flattening pieces of iron, and joining the 
flattened edges of both sides. Some left them, from foresight, on one edge 
open ; but numerous accidents were the result, especially in the former kind. 
His Majesty has invented an excellent method of construction. They flatten 
iron, and twist it round obliquely in form of a roll, so that the folds get longer 
at every twist ; then they join the folds, not edge to edge, but so as to allow 
them to lie one over the other, and heat them gradually in the fire. They also 
take cylindrical pieces of iron, and pierce them when hot with an iron pin. 
Three or four of such pieces make one gun ; or, in the case of smaller 
ones, two. Guns are often made of a length of two yards ; those of a 
smaller kind are one and a quarter yards long, and go by the name of 
Jkmdnak. The gunstocks are differently made. From the practical 
knowledge of TTi« Majesty, guns are now made in such a manner that they 
can be fired off^ without a match, by a slight movement of the cock. Bullets 
are also made, so as to cut like a sword. Through the assistance of the 
inventive genius of His Majesty, there are now many masters to be found 
among g^unmakers ; «. ^., Ust6d Kabfr, and Husain. 

Iron, when heated, loses about one-half of its volume. 



Wlicn a Larrel is complotod len<]^thways, before the transverse bot- 
tom pi<^(i' is fixed to it, thoy engrave on it the quantity of its iron and the 
k'n^lh, b otli boing expressed in numerals. A barrel thus far finished, is called 
IhvuL In this imperfect state thoy are sent to His Majesty, and delivered, 

in proper order, at the Ilarem, to which pla^*e they are also brought for * 

At tlie sajne time, the weight of the ball is fixed, ajid the order is given for 

the transverse nection of the niatclilock. For long guns the weight of a ball 

does not exceed twenty -five tanks, and for smaller ones, fifteen. But balls 

of the former weight no one but His Majesty ° would dare to fire. When 

the barrels are polislied, they are again sent to the Harem, and preserved 

in proper order. They are afterwards taken out, and closed by the order 

of His jMajesty with a transverse bottom piece. Ha\dng been put to an old 

stock, they are tilled to oue-thii*d of the barrel with powder, and fired off. 

If no tardwish'^ takes place, ami the trial is satisfactory, they take the 

barrels again to His Majesty, wlio gives the order to finish the mouth pieca 

of the baiTel. After this the gun is again phiced on the stock, and subjected 

to a trial. K the ball issues in a crooked line, the barrel is heated, and 

straightened by means of a rod introduced into it, and, in the iiresence 

of His Majesty, handed over to a filer. He adorns the outside of the barrel 

in various ways, according to orders, when it is taken to the Harem. The 

wood and the shape of the stock are then determined on. Several things 

^lire marked on every matchlock, viz., the weight of the raw and the 

manufactured iron, the fonner marks being now removed ; the place 

where the iron is taken from ; the workman ; the place where the gun is 

made ; the date ; its number. Sometimes without reference to a proper 

order, one of the unfinished barrels is selected, and completed at His 

Majesty's command. It is then entered in another place ; the transverse 

bottom piece is fixed ; and the order is given to make the cock, the ramrod, 

tho /xfrf/az,"* Si^c. As soon as all these things have been completed, a new 

trial is ordered ; and when it succeeds, they send in the gun, and deliver 

it a third time at the Harem. In this state the gun is called sddah (plain). 

Five bullets are sent along witli it. His Majesty, after trying it in the manner 

above described, returns it with the fifth bullet. The order for the colour 

of the barrel and the stock is now given ; one of the nine kinds of colour 

is selected for the stock. Guns also differ in the quantity of inlaid gold 

* Tlie text has an uiiintelli«^iblo word ; 
the rariante^ Irctiones are marked on 
p. 125 of my text edition, Note (13). 
The Banaras M^^. has {J^j^- The word 
appears to be a foreign term. 

* Akbar was remarkable for bodily 

■ Tarawlsh meauB a trickling; the 
particular meaning which it here has, is 
unclear and not given in the Dictionaries. 

* Parfjaz, or Purgaz, may mean the 
groove into which the ramrod is put, or 
the ramrod itself. The word is not in the 

strength. Vide Tuzuk iJahangiri, p. 16. Diets., and appears to be unknown at the 

present day. 


and enamel ; the oolonr of the barrel is imiform. A gun thus far completed 
is called ran^in (coloured). It is now, as before, handed over together with 
five ballets ; His Majesty makes four trials, and returns it with the last 
]balL When ten of such guns are ready, His Majesty orders to inlay the 
mouth of the barrel and the butt end with gold. They are then again sent 
for trial into the Harem, and whenever ten are quite complete, they 
are handed oyer to the slaves^ 

ATN 38. 


Formerly a strong man had to work a long time with iron instruments, 
in order to dean matchlocks. His Majesty, firom his practical knowledge, 
has invented a wheel, by the motion of which sixteen barrels may be 
eleaned in a very short time. The wheel is turned by a cow. The plate 
will best shew what sort of a machine it is. * 

ATN 39. 


The Imperial Arsenal contains manufactured, purchased, and presented, 
guns. Each of them is either lon^, or short ; and these are again subdivided 
into sSdah (plain), rangin, (coloured), and koftkdr (hammered) guns. His 
Majesty has selected out of several thousand gims, one hundred and five as 
ihd^ah, f . e., for his special use. First, twelve in honour of the twelve months ; 
each of them is brought back in its turn after eleven months. Secondly, 
thirty for every week ; after every seven days one goes out, and another is 
brought. Thirdly, thirty-two for the solar days ; one for every day. Fourthly, 
thirty-one hotals. Sometimes there are only twenty-eight. Whenever some of 
the former guns have been given away, kotals are brought, to supply their 
places. The order of precedence is as follows : the guns for the month ; 
the week ; days ; kotals ; plain ; coloured ; koftkar, not handed over to 
the slaves ; koftk&r, handed over to the slaves ; long ones, selected from 
pishkatk presents, or from such as were bought ; DamAnaks, selected from 
pwhkaeh, or from bought ones ; such as have been chosen from selections 
of both. The one hundred and five khdgah guns are divided into seven 
parts ; every fifteen form a kishk, or guard, and are always kept ready by the 
slaves. On Sundays, two are taken from the first ; four from the second ; 
five frt>m the third ; four from the fourth. This order is also followed on 
Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays. On Thursdays, two are again taken 
frum the first, and four from the second ; foui* from the third ; five from 


the fourth. On Fridays, one is taken from tho first ; five from the second ; 
four from the third ; five from the fourth. So also for Saturdays. In 
order to supply the plaoes of sueh khdgah guns as have been given away, five 
other classes have been determined on : half kotals, fourteen ; quarter kotaLs, 
seven ; one-eighth kotals, four ; one-sixteenth kotals, two ; one-thirty second 
kotals, one. When kotal gims are given away, they bring half kotah ; 
similarly, the place of a gun, when given away, is taken by the next ; and the 
place of the last is supplied by one selected from such as have been bought. 

One hundred and one guns are continually kept in the Harem. Their 
order is as follows. On the first day of every solar month eleven guns are 
handed over to the servants of the Harem, one of each of the guns for the 
months, tlio weeks, the days, the kotals, the plain ones, the coloured ones, the 
Jcoftkdr not in charge of the slaves, the koftkar in their charge, the selected 
long ones, the selected Bamdnaksy the chosen ones of the selected ones. On the 
second day only the guns of the months (*. e.y ten) are handed over in the 
same order. For ten days an equal number is sent to the Harem. 

His ^lujesty practises often. When he has tried each gun, he commences 
from the beginning; and when each gun has been used four times, it 
is sent away and replaced by a new one of each kind. If guns have been 
left unused at the beginning of a new month, they are placed last, and the 
guns for the current month are put first. 

An order has also been given to the writers to write down the game 
killed by His Majesty with tlie particulars of the gims used. Thus it was 
found that wath the gun, which has the name of Sangrdnty one thousand 
and ninetoen animals have been killed. This gun is the first of His 
Majesty's private guns, and is used during the Fartcardin month of the 
present era. 

ATN 40. 


The pay of a Mirdahah' is of four grades, 300 dams, 280 d.y 270 <?., 260 d. 
The pay of the others is of five grades. Each grade is again subdivided into 
three classes. First grade, 250 rf., 240 d., 2S0d. Second grade, 220 d., 210 d,^ 
200 d. Third grade, 190 d,, 180., d,, \70 d. Fourth grad^, 160 d.y 150 d.^ 
140 d. Fifth grade, 130 d,, 120 d., 110 d. 

* A man placed over ten. The rank 
of the Mtrdahah appears to have been 
the only non-com missioned rank in tho 
Mogul Armies. The lowest commissioned 
rankwa8thatofal>a^/ni*//2, which word, 
though of the same etgmological meaning. 

differs in usage, and signifies a man in 
command of ten. The rank of a Dahbft- 
shi was the lowest Mansabdar rank (rid^ 
the second book). Mtrdahah is also 
used in the sense of a servant who looks 
after ten horses. 


ATN 41. 

This wonderful animal is in bulk and strength like a mountain ; and in 
eonrage and ferocity like a lion. It adds materially to the pomp of a king 
and to the success of a conqueror ; and is of the greatest use for the army. 
Experienced men of Hindustan put the value of a good elephant equal to 
five hundred horse ; and they beKeve, that when guided by a few bold men 
armed with matchlocks, such an elephant alone is worth double that 
number. In vehemence on one side, and submissiveness to the reins on 
the other, the elephant is like an Arab, whilst in point of obedience and 
attentiveness to even the slightest signs, it resembles an intelligent human 
being. In restiveness when full-blooded, and in vindictiveness, it surpasses 
man. An elephant never hurts the female, though she be the cause of his 
captivity ; he never will fight with young elephants, nor does he think it 
proper to pimish them. From a sense of gratitude, he does his keepers no 
harm, nor wiU he throw dust over his body, when he is mounted, though he 
often does so at other times. Once an elephant, during the rutting season, 
was fighting with another. When he was in the height of excitement, a 
small elephant came in his way : he kindly lifted up the small one with his 
tnmk, set him aside, and then renewed the combat. If a male elephant 
breaks loose during the rutting season, in order to have his own way, few 
people have the courage to approach him ; and some bold and experienced 
man will have to get on a female elephant, and try to get near him and tie a 
rope round his foot. Female elephants, when mourning the loss of a young 
one, will often abstain from food and drink ; they sometimes even die from 

The elephant can be taught various feats. He learns to remember 
such melodies as can only be remembered by people acquainted with music ; 
he will move his limbs, to keep time, and exhibit his skill in various ways. 
He wiU shoot off an arrow from a bow, discharge a matchlock, and will 
leam to pick up things that have been dropped, and hand them over to the 
keeper. Sometimes they get grain to eat wrapped up in hay ; this they hide 
in the side of their mouth, and give it back to the keeper, when they are 
alone with him. 

The teats of a female elephant, and the womb, resemble those of 
woman. The tongue is round like that of a parrot. The testicles are not 
visible. Elephants frequently with their tnmks take water out of their 
ttofmachfl, and sprinkle themselves with it. Such water has no offensive 
imell. They also take out of their stomach grass on the second day, without 
its having undergone any change. 


Tli(» prifo of an dopliant varies from a lak* to one hundred rupees ; 
eloj)liants wcjrth five tliousand, and ten thousand rupees, are pretty eoranion. 

There are four kinds of elephants. 1. BJuuldar. It is well proportioned, 
has an erect head, a broad chest, large ears, a long tail, and is bold, and can 
Lejir fatigue. They take out of liis forehead an excrescence resembling a 
large i)eiui, which they call in Hindi GaJ maniJc,^ Many properties are 
ascribed to it. 2. JIand. It is black, has yellow eyes, a uniformly sized 
belly, a long penis, and is wild and ungovernable. 3. J/i'/y. It has a 
whitisli skin, with IjLuk sputs ; the colour of its eyes is a mixture of red, 
yellow, black, and white. 4. J//>. It has a small head, and obeys readily. 
It gets frightened, when it thunders. 

From a mixture of tliese four kinds are formed others of diiBferent 
names and properties. The colour of the skin of elephants is threefold : 
white, black, grey. Again, according to the threefold division of the 
dispositions assigned by the Hindus to the mind, namely, sat benevolence, 
raj love of sensual enjoyment, and ta?n irascibility, which shall be further 
explained below,' elephants are divided into three classes. First, such, in 
which sat predominates. They are well proportioned, good looking, eat 
moderately, are very submissive, do not care for intercourse with the female, 
and live to a very old age. Seco?idli/y sucli in whose disposition r(i/ prevails. 
They are savage looking, and proud, bold, ungovernable, and voracious. 
Lastly, such as are fiiU of tarn. They are self-willed, destructive, and g^ven 
to sleep and voraciousness. 

The time of gestation of the female is generally eighteen* lunar months, 
For tliree months tho Jluida f/er?ni}ialia mtGrinix in the womb of the female ; 
when agitated, the mass looks like quicksilver. Towards the fifth month 
the fluida settle, and get gelatinous. In the seventh month, they get more 
solid, and di*aw to perfection towards the ninth month. In the eleventh, the 
outline of a body is visible ; and in the twelfth, the veins, bones, hoofs, and 

* During the reiji^s of Akbar's siicces- 
Bor, the pric'o of a well trained war elephant 
rose much higher. Vide Tuzuk i Jahan- 
giri, p. 11)8. At the time of Shahjahan, 
the lirst white elephant was brou*,'ht 
from Pc^u, Piidishdhmimahy I. p. 207. 

* Tliis excrescence is also called Gaj- 
inoti^ or elephants' pearl. Forbes has, 

asj[) Gjjjmanih, and the Dalili Sdti, 

i/^ ^'^.i watiF). 

• In the fourth book of this work. 

♦ The time is differently given. The 
emperor Jahun^ir says in his Memoirs 
(p. 130) : — During this month, a female 
elephant in my stables gave birth before 
my own eyes. I had often expressed the 

wish to have the time of gestation of the 
female elephant correctly determined. It 
Ls now certain that a female birth takes 
place after sixteen, and a male birth afler 
nineteen months [the emperor means 
evidently solar months] ; and the process 
is dillerent from w^hat it is with man, the 
fa'tus being bom with the feet foremost. 
After giving birth, the female at once covers 
the young one with earth and dust, and 
continually caresses it, whilst the young 
one sinks down every moment trymg to 
reach the teats of the mother.'* Tl^ie 
Lt. Johnstone's remarks on the same 
subject, in the Proceedings of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal for May, 1868. 


hairs, make their appearance. In the thirteenth month, the genitalia become 
distinguishable, and in the fifteenth, the process of quickening commences. 
If the female, during gestation, gets stronger, the foetus is sure to be a 
male ; but if she gets weak, it is the sign of a female. During the sixteenth 
month, the formation becomes stiLl more perfect, and the life of the foetus 
becomes quite distinct. In the seventeenth month, there is eyery chance' of 
a premature birth, on account of the efforts made by the foetus to move, 
iiU, in the eighteenth month, the young one is bom. 

According to others, the sperm gets solid in the first month ; the 
eyes, ears, the nose, mouth, and tongue, are formed in the second ; in the 
third month, the limbs make their appearance; in the fourth month, 
the foetus grows and gets strong ; in the fifth, it commences to quicken ; 
in the sixth, it gets sense, which appears more marked during the seventh 
month ; in the eighth, there is some chance of a miscarriage ; during the ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh months, the foetus grows, and is bom during the twelfth. It 
will be a male young one, if the greater part of the sperm came from the male ; 
and it will be a female young one, if the reverse is the case. If the sperm of 
both the male and female is equal in quantity, the yoimg one will be a herm- 
aphrodite. The male foetus lies towards the right side ; the female towards 
the left ; a hermaphrodite in the middle. 

. Female elephants have often for twelve days a red discharge, after 
which gestation commences. During that period, they look startled, sprinkle 
themselves with water and earth, keep ears and tail upwards, and go rarely 
away from the male. They will rub themselves against the male, bend their 
heads below his tusks, smell at his urine and dung, and cannot bear to see 
another female near him. Sometimes, however, a female shews aversion 
to intercourse with the male, and must be forced to copulate, when other 
female elephants, at hearing her noise, will come to her rescue. 

In former times, people did not breed elephants, and thought it imlucky ; 
by the command of His Majesty, they now breed a very superior class of ele- 
phants, which has removed the old prejudice in the minds of men. A female 
elephant has generally one young one, but sometimes two. For five years the 
young ones content themselves with the milk of the mother; after that period 
they commence to eat herbs. In this state they are called hdl. When ten 
years old, they are named pitt ; when twenty years old, hihka ; when thirty 
years old, kalhah. In fact the animal changes appearance every year, and then 
gets a new name. When sixty years old, the elephant is foil grown. The 
■kuU then looks like two halves of a ball, whilst the ears look like winnowing 

• The wordu of the text are ambiguous. | month, the effort of the foetus to move 
Tliey may also mean : In the seventeenth | causes the female to sink down. 


fans.* Wliito eyes mixed with yellow, black, and red, are looked upon as a 
.sign of excollonce. The forehead must he flat without swelling's or wrinkles. 
Tlio trunk is the nose of tlie animal, and is so long as to touch the ground- 
AVith it, it takes up the food and puts it into the mouth ; similarly, it sucks up 
water with it, and then throws it into the st^mac^h. It has eighteen teeth ; 
sixteen of them are inside the mouth, eight above and eight below, and two 
are the tusks outside. The latter are one and more yards long, round, shining, 
very strong, white, or sometimes reddish, and straight, the end slightly bent 
upwards. Some elephants have four tusks. With a view to usefulness as 
also to ornament, they cut off the top of the tusks, which grow again. With 
some elephants they have to cut the tusks annually ; with others after two or 
tlu'ee years ; but they do not like to cut them when an elephant is ten and eighty 
3^ears old. An elephant is perfect wlien it is eight (last high, nine d<i4it long, 
and ten dast round the belly, and along the back. Again, nine limbs ought 
to touch the ground, namely, the fore feet, the hind feet, the trunk, the tusks, 
the penis, tlie tail. AMiite spots on the foreliead are considered lucky, 
whilst a thick neck is looked upon as a sign of beauty. Long hairs 
on and about the ears point to good origin. 

Some elephants rut in winter, some in summer, some in the rains. 
They are then very fierce, they pidl down houses, tlu'ow down stone walls, 
and will lift up with their trunks a horse and and its rider. But elephants 
differ very much in the amount of fierceness and boldness. 

When they are hot, a blackish discharge exudes from the soft parts 
between the ears and the temples, which has a most offensive smell ; it is 
sometimes whitish, mixed with red. They say that elephants have twelve 
holes in those soft parts, which likewise discharge the offensive fluid. The 
disciharge is abundant in lively animals, but trickles drop by drop in slow 
ones. As soon as the discharge stops, the elephant gets fierce and looks 
grand; in this state he gets the name of I'afti or Sarhari. AVhen the 
above discharge exudes from a place a little higlier than the soft parts be- 
tween the oars and the temples, the elephant is called Singadhdl ; and when 
the fluid trickles from all three places, T(iIJ6t\ When hot, elephants 
get attached to particular living creatures, as men, or horses ; but some 
elephants to any animal. So at least according to Hindu books. 

The Bhaddar ruts in Libra and Scorpio ; tlie Mand in spring ; the Mirg 
in Capricorn and Sagittarius ; the Mir in any season. Elejihant drivers 

* Ghallah afshan. This word, though 
common, is not in our dictionaries. It 
is a flat piece of wicker work, from one 
to two feet square. Three sides of the 
square are slightly bent upwards. They 
put grain on it, and seizing the instru- 

ment with both hands, they throw up the 
grain, till the husks, stones, and all other 
refuse, collect near the side which ia not 
bent upwards, when the refuse is removed 
with the hand. We use sieves for such 


have a drug which causes an artificial heat ; but it ofton endangers the life 
of the beast The noise of battle makes some superior elephants just as 
fierce as at the rutting season ; even a sudden start may have such an effect. 
Thus His Majesty's elephant Oqfmuktah ; he gets brisk, as soon as he hears 
the sound of the Imperial drum, and gets the above mentioned discharge. 
This peculiar heat generally makes its first appearance, when elephants have 
reached the age of thirty ; sometimes, however, earlier, at an age of twenty- 
five. Sometimes the heat lasts for years, and some of the Imperial 
elephants have continued for five years in an iminterrupted alacrity. But it 
k meetly male elephants that get hot. They then commence to throw up 
earthy and run after a female, or roll about in mud, and daub themselves 
all over with dirt When hot, they are very irritable, and yawn a great 
deal, though they sleep but little. At last, they even discontinue eating, and 
dislike the foot-chain ; they try to g^t loose, and behave noisily. 

The elephant, like man, lives to an age of one hundred and twenty 

The Hindi language has several words for an elephant, as Juutiy gajy 
pUj hai^hi^ &C. Under the hands of an experienced keeper, it will much 
impirove, so that its value, in a short time, may rise from one hundred to ten 
thooBand rupees. 

The Hindus believe that the eight points of the earth are each guarded 
by a heavenly being in the shape of an elephant ; they have curious legends 
regarding them. Their names are as follows : 1. Atrdwata, in the East ; 2. 
Pumdariioj South-east ; 8. Bdmwny South ; 4. Eumada, South-west ; 5. Anjan^ 
West; 6. Puhptidanta^ North-west; 7. iSir&^i^A^ma, North ; 8. Supratika^ 
North-east. When occasions arise, people read incantations in their names, 
and address them in worship. They also think that every elephant in the 
world is the ofispring of one of them. Thus, elephants of a white skiu 
and white hairs are related to the first ; elephants with a laige head, and 
king hairs, of a fierce and bold temper, and eyelids far apart, belong to tho 
second ; such as are . . . /, good looking, black, and high in the back, are tho 
offiqiring of the third ; if tall, ungovernable, quick in understanding, short- 
haired, and with red and black eyes, they come from the fourth ; if bright 
black, with one tusk longer than tho other, with a white breast and belly, 
and long and thick fore-feet, from the fifth ; if fearful, with prominent 
veins, with a short hump and ears, and a long trunk, from the sixth ; if 
diin-bellied, red-eyed, and with a long trunk, from the^ seventh ; and if of a 
combination of the preceding seven qualities, from the eighth. 

' The MS8. have an unintelligible i the correct reading. 
«utd. I*erhap6 khushsa^;, graceful, in | 



Tlii^ fliihUis also iiiako the following division into e'///;^^ classes. 1. TAe- 
pliant s whose skin is not wrinkled, who arc never si(.-k, who are grand look in j^, 
do not run away from the hattle-fiold, dislike moat, and preferclean food at pro- 
per times, are said to l)o Dcfv mizuj (of a divine temper). 2. Such as possess 
all the g(jod qiialities of elephants, and are quick in learning, moving about 
the head, ears, trunk, foreli'gs, hind legs, and the tail, and do no one harm, 
except they ho ordcrcKl to do so, are Gandharha mizdj (angelic). 3. If 
irritable, of good a2)p<'tite, fond of being in water, they are Barhaman mizdj 
(of a braliminical tem[>er). 4. Such as are very strong, in good condition, 
fond of lighting, ungovernable, are said to have the temper of a KJietriy or 
warrior. 5. TIkjso which are of a low stature, and forgetful, self-willed in 
their own work, and neglectful in that of their master, fond of unclean food, 
and spiteful towards other elei)hants, ai'o Sudra mizdj. 6. Elephants which 
remain hot for a long time, and are fond of playing tricks, or destructive, 
and lose the way, have the temper of a serptmt. 7. Such as squint, and 
are slow to learn, or feign to be hot, have the temper of a Pishdcha 
(spectre). 8. Those which are violent, swift, and do men harm, and are 
fond of running about at night, have the qualities of a Rdehhas (demon). 

The Hindus have written many books in explanation of these various 
tempers, us idso many treatises on the diseases of the elephants, their causes 
and proper remedies. 

Elephants are chieily fotind in the Subah of A'grah, in the forests of 
Bayawan and Narwar\ as far as Barar ; in the Subah of B^iabas (AUahabad), 
in the couiines of l^attah (y), and Cr'horag'hat, and Eatanpur, Nandanpur^ 
Sargachh, and Bustar ; and in the Subah of Malwah, near Handiyah, 
Uchhod, Chanderi, Santwas, Bijagarli, Ituisin, Hoshang&b^d, Gadh, Harya- 
gadh ; in the Subah of Bahar, in the neighl>om'hood of Ealitis and Ch^ 
K'hand ; and in the Siibali of Bcnigal, in Orissa, and Satgdow (Hugli). The 
cleidiants of Pattah (?) are the best. 

A herd of eh^phants is called in Hindi sahn. They vary in number j 
sometimes a lierd amounts to a thousand elephants. Wild elephants are very 
cautious. In winter and summer, they select a proper place, and break down 

* Niu'war, "svIktc Ahiil Fazl was subse- 
quently uiTiriirrcd :it the iustipftiou of 
PrinfcSaliiii (.hilu'iii- ir),]j()n;4-. 77'''5H, 
25° ?A)' ; Gli()ruifli(U, near Diiiaii'epnro, 
L()n«:. Si)° 17', Lat. 25° 12'; l^a'tinipHr 
(Al>ul Fa/.l evidently lueaus tlie one south- 
east of Sai-raehh) Lou<c. S2°, Lat. 22° It' ; 
^,(rr/ac/iU, Loiv^. b;{° S', Lat. 2:3° S' ; 
Bus/ar, Loui;. cS]° 58', Lat. 10° i;3'. The 
towns i'roni Handiyah to Harya*;adh lie 
all holweeu Loug.75'^ and 79°, and Liit.21° 

and 21° (Gwahar). For Uchhod {c^^^l) 
the third hook has Unchhod («574aBr*^|)' 
The I'tu't of Eahtas, the scene of Sher 
SI I nil's tii-st exploit, lies Long. 84°, Lat. 
21^° .SS'. The name Pafiak (Aij) ia 

doul.ttUl, each MS. having a different 

AA ild ele})hants have now-a-days dis* 
appealed in nearly all the places mentioned 
by Abuliazl. 


a whole forest near their sleeping place. For the sake of pleasure, or for 
food and drink^ they often travel over great distances. On the joui-ney one 
runs far in front of the others, like a sentinel ; a young femaJo is generally 
selected for this purpose. When they go to sleep, they send out to the 
four sides of the sleeping place pickets of four female elephants, which 
relieve each other. 

Elephants wiU lift up their young ones, for three or four days after 
their birth, with their trunks, and put them on their backs, or lay them over 
their tusks. They also prepare medicines for the females when they are 
sick or in labour pains, and crowd round about them. When some of thorn 
get caught, the female elephants break through the nets, and pull down the 
elephant-drivers. And when a young elephant falls into a snare, they hide 
themselves in an ambush, go at night to the place where the young one is, 
set it at liberty, and trample the hunters to death. Sometimes its mother 
slowly approaches alone, and frees it in some clever way. I have heard the 
following story from His Majesty. — " Once a wild young one had fallen into 
a pit. As night had approached, we did not care to pull it out immediately, 
and left it; but when we came next morning near the place, we saw that 
some wild elephants had filled the pit with broken logs and grass, and thus 
pulled out the young one." Again, '^ Once a female elephant played us a trick. 
She feigned to be dead. We passed her, and went onwards ; but when at 
night we returned, we saw no trace left of her." 

There was once an elephant in the Imperial stables, named Aydi. For 
some reason, it had got offended with the driver, and was for ever watch- 
ing for an opportunity. Once at night, it found him asleep. It got hold 
of a long piece of wood, managed to pull off with it the man's turban, seized 
him by his hair, and tore him asunder. 

Many examples are on record of the extraordinary devemess of 
elephants ; in some cases it is difficult to believe them. 

Kings have always shewn a gre&t predilection for this animal, and done 
every thing in their power to collect a large number. Elephant-keepers 
are much esteemed, and a proper rank is assigned to such as have a special 
knowledge of the animal. Wicked, low men see in an elephant a means of law- 
lessness; and unprincipled evildoers, with the help of this animal, carry on 
their nefarious trade. Hence kings of former times never succeeded in 
suppressing the rebellious, and were thus disappointed in their best intentions. 
But His Majesty, though overwhelmed with other important matters, has 
been able, through God's assistance and his numerous elephants, to check 
those low but haughty men ; he teaches them to desire submission, and 
bestows upon them, by wise laws, the blessings of peace. 

His Majesty divided the Imperial elephants into sections, which he 


put ill ch.'irij:'' MJlKMirst IVir()<^lialis. Certain dcpliiiiit.'^ wore also declared 
khi'ii^ah, /. t'., appoiuttul for the exclusive use of His Majesty. 

A'TN 42. 

His Majesty made a seven-fold division, based upon experience ; 
1. Mast Kull blood) ; 2. Skerrjir (tiger-seizing) ; 3. Sddah (plain) ; 4. ManjMah 
(middlemost) ; 5. Karha ; 6. P^handurkiya ; 7. MokaL The first class 
comprises yoimg elephants, possessed of the pocidiar heat which renders 
the animal so strong. The second class contains likewise young ones, which 
once or twice have given signs of perfection, and oxliibit an uninterrupted 
alacrity. The third class comprehends useful elephants, which ai'O nearly as 
good as the preceding. The fourth class contains elephants of a somewhat 
inferior value. Those of the fiftli class are younger than those of the fourth. 
The elepliants of the sixth class are smaller than tliose of the fifth. The last 
class contains all young ones still unfit for use. 

Eacli class is divided into three subdivisions, viz., large sized, middle, 
young ones ; the last class contains ten kinds. A certain quantity of food 
lias been fixed for each class. 

ATN 43. 


Formerly the classification of the elephants was never attended to ; 
hence in feeding them a large quantity of the stores was wasted. But when 
Hi.s Majesty, 80(m after lifting tlie veil,' commenced to care for the happiness 
of liis subjects, this matter was properly inquired to, and wise regulations 
were issued for guidance. 1 . Mast elephants. Largo ones get daily 2 mans 
24 sers ; middle-sized, 2 m, 19 «. ; small ones, 2 m. 14 s, 2. Shergirs, Largo 
ones, 2 M. 9 «. ; middle-sized ones, 2 m. 4 s, ; small ones, 1 iw. 39 *. 
3. ISiulahs. Large ones, 1 m. 34 s. ; middle-sized ones, 1 m, 29 s. ; small ones. 
1 m. 24 s. 4. Manjlwlalis. Large ones, 1 m, 22 s. ; middle-sized ones, 1 m, 
20 s. ; small ones, I m. IS s, 5. Karhas, Large ones, 1 m, 14 *. ; middle- 
sized ones, 1 m. 9 «. ; small ones, Irn.As. 6. P^handurkiyas. Large ones, \m,\ 
middle-sized ones, 36 «. ; small ones, 32 s, 7. Mokals. Large ones, 26 s. ; 
middle-sized ones, 2-is ; third class, 22 s. ; fourth class, 20 s. ; fifth class, 

* Tho same ijhrasc a** on p. 13, 1. 12. I fell in disgrace, and Akbar assumed tho 
It roi'erb to the year 1560, wlieu Baiium | reins of the govermueut. 


18 s. ; siirth daes, 16 «. ; seventh claae, 14 «. ; eighth class, 12 «. ; ninth class, 
10 8. ; tenth class, 8 8. 

Female elephants have been divided into four classes, m., large ones, 
middle-sised ones, small ones, Mokals. The first two classes are divided 
into three; the third, into four; the fourth, into nine subdivisions. 

1. Larffe ones. Big, 1 m. 22 *. ; middling, 1 m, 18 s, ; small ones, 1 m. 14 *. 

2. Middle-tused ones. Big, 1 m, 10 8. ; middling, \m, 6«. ; small, \m, 2«. 3. Small 
MM. Big, 37 8. ; middling, 32 «. ; small, 27 8. ; still smaller, 22 8. 4. J^okaU. 
First class, 22 «. ; second, 20 9. ; third, 18 8. ; fourth, 16 8, ; fifth, 14 8. ; sixth, 
12 8. : seventh, 10 8. ; eighth, 8 8. ; ninth, 6 «. 

ATN 44. 

1. Most elephants. There are five and a halP servants for each, viz,,, 
jEn/, a Mahdwatj who sits on the neck of the animal and directs its movements. 
He must be acquainted with its good and bad properties, and thus contribute 
to its usefulness. He gets 200 ddms per month ; but if the elephant be 
thufaJkoTy t. «., wicked and addicted to pulling down the driver, he gets 
220 d. Secondly y a Bhot^ who sits behind, upon the rump of the elephant, and 
asBistB in battle and in quickening the speed of the animal ; but he often 
performs the duties of the MahdwaL His monthly pay is WO d. Thirdly, 
the Ms^hi, of whom there are three and one-half, or only three in case of 
nudl elephants. A met'h fetches fodder, and assists in caparisoning the 
elephant. Met'hs of all classes get on the march four d&ms daily, and at other 
times, three and a half. 

2. For every 8hergir, there are five servants, r«., a Mahdwat, at 180 <^. ; 
a Kioi, at 103 1^. ; and three Met'hs as before. 

3. For every Sddahy there are four and a half servants, m., a Mahdwat, 
at 160 d., a Bhoi at 90 d. ; and two and a half Mot'hs. 

4. For every Manjholah, there are four servants ; viz., a Mah&wat, at 
140 ^. ; a Bhoi, at 80 d, ; and two Met'hs. 

6. For every Karha, there are three and a half servants ; viz., a Mah&wat 
at 120 d., a Bhoi at 70 d. ; and one and a half Met'hs. 

6. For every P*handurhiya, there are two servants ; vh., a Mahawat, at 
100 d., and a Met'h. 

7. For every Mohal, there are likewise two servants ; viz., a Mahiwat, 
at 60 d,, and a Met'h. 

* 1. €., «ither eleven servants for two | elephants, or the last was a boy. 



<;. . 'i 

1 i^ . i- • .• -f.."." M :':_-. -. MliU" -i-T':-! :--*? Live ihree 
^ r^-.:--- : ' :- i M A^-x^:. ^: -• ^. : ^ II L a: o-> <J- : i^d one 
M *';--. ^. ^~--l :-' - :- ^"-^ *~ • • • -- '- M^liTit. :;: »;> i. : and 
^ M :'?., i. M ;._^ LiVv LV.^-'T -"•: r.:. a >I_^^^:- a: O) tf., and a 

T'f I': ' .'. 

}[* M y^-yh:^^ aT> ii-v-ia ^u2-rii.:^-ir-: over evrrr tr>3p of ten, 

♦ v- .' J •' '— ^^ <-•-'' ---i *^' '" .1 *^ > ''t '- • ^'-i a *-:\ '*• ; th^ snr^erin- 

n::. :.-:.•: :« .all^'l f:ijiir. Yli^ r.'i.-:- ►>-- is lo Ix'k aftrr the e .n-iiuon and 

♦ ,.. w,.r%.r r,* •'-..- ^'..-.v .--i. • h^ t-a. h''^ tL' n to r-E- bi'lL aiil to stand 
f^r::. ^' •;. ; .:;rL: of !.r^, ai. 1 at tLo n:.:^ of artillrry : an 1 he is re-^p.»n-=ible 
f',r -.'x-ir v-:i.avV/ir ii. trie-- r.-^p^.t-. AVh-n a Fa-i;.lir is ral^i to the 
'..>:.:••.- '.f a Oid\ (\ coTr.r:..;\d-:r of one r-inir.:-! •. ^r tijrh-rr, he has twenty- 
f.v^: ^:: -phiri-r a^-i;m-i to h:n.'..:f. the o:h^r F^:rdir^, as B\^*\^ (cjnimanders 
oftv.<:r,*v ar.d yy'/''/y'i-/.lf ^■'^n.inaLd'.-r^ of ten >.-injr -.inler his opiers. The 
f-a:/.'- ord-:r i-' f'/Jow.rd from tli- L 'Vo.i-K'u up to the EizdrU ._^3niniander3 of 
or;r- tho"i^ar,d;. Tn*: pay of oiii ^.-r- a'-jv- tLe ^a-li is diii-rrent. Some Fauj- 
d4r-. }jav»; W.n rai-»"i to the Ji;rn:tv of jrand'-'S .»f the ojurt. A Cadi marks 
t-AO hordes. K Ji'i't'i (A the tir-t jri-a-i- has Go PtUp^-es ptr m^mon ; second 
jrrade, 2.j It; tliird ;rra'h;, -JO R. A Dahoa.-«hi of the tirst grrade has twenty 
R. ; -hfhuA ^radr., 10 A'. ; third ;rrad».', 12 R. Bi-tis and Dahbishis mark one 
hor-^-, and h.doii^ to the Ahvi'd. Su-.h Fau;dars as have thirty or twenty- 
liv*; el.phaiits a--i;rii'd to tlieniselves, have to piiy the wages of the Maha- 
wat and of rme lihoi of that eh'i»hant, which they select for their own use ; 
hut Muh as }iav(^ twenty or t<,'n, only pay f(jr a Mahawat. 

Tlie ahovr; an-an;r»*inent re^^arding the servants was not thought 
Huffirient hy His ^Iaje>ty, who lias much experience in this matter. He 
tJjer^-foro j>ut .several hyilqahs in charj^e of every grandee, and required him 
to look after them. Tlie fodder also is now supplied by the government. 
A trustwortliy clerk lias, besides, been ai)pointed, who is in charge of the 
corrcjspondenco of tliis branch ; he looks after the receipts and expenditure, 
and Hcf^s tliat tliu orders of His Majesty are carried out. He also parades 
tho elephants in tho order described below (A'l'n 78). 

ATN 45. 


1 . Tho Dharnah is a largo chain, made of iron, gold, or silver. It is 
made of sixty oval links, each weighing tliree sers ; but the chain differs in 
length and tluckness according to the strength of the elephant. Ouo end of 


the chain is fixed in the gronnd, or fastened to a pillar ; the other end i& 
tied to the left hind leg of the elephant. Formerly, they fastened this chain 
to the forefoot ; but as this is injurious for the chest of the elephant^ His 
ICajesty ordered to discontinue the usage. 

2. The Andu is a chain, with which both forefeet are tied. As it 
annoyB the elephant, His Majesty ordered it to be discontinued. 

3. The Beri is a chain for fastening both hindfeet. 

4. The Baland is a fetter for the hindfeet, an inrention of His !^ajesty. 
It allows the elephant to walk, but prevents him from running. 

5. The Qaddh beri resembles the Andd, and is an additional chain for 
the hindlegs of tmruly and swift elephants. 

6. The Zoh langar is a long chain, suitable for an elephant. One end is 
tied to the right fore foot, and the other end to a thick log, a yard in 
length. This the driver keeps near him, and drops it, when the elephant 
runa too swiftly, or gets so unruly as no longer to obey. The chain twists 
roond his leg, and the log will annoy the animal to such an extent that 
it neceesarily stops. This useful invention, which has saved many lives, and 
protected huts and walls, is likewise due to His Majesty. 

7. The Charkhi is a piece of hollowed biamboo, half a yard and two 
tassujee long, and has a hole in the middle. It is covered with sinews and 
filled with gunpowder, an earthen partition dividing the powder into two 
halves. A fuzee wrapt in paper, is put into each end. Fixed into the hole 
of the bamboo at right angles is a stick, which serves as a handle. Upon 
fire being put to both ends, it turns round, and makes a Mghtful noise. 
When elephants fight with each other, or are otherwise imruly, a bold man 
on foot takes the burning bamboo into his hand, and holds it before the 
animals, when they wUl get quiet. Formerly, in order to separate two 
elephants that were fighting, they used to light a fire ; but people had much 
trouble, as it seldom had the desired effect. His Majesty invented the present 
method^ which was hailed by all« 

8. Andhiydriy i, e,, darkness, a name which His Majesty changed into 
IfydJiy f. e.y light, is a piece of canvass above one and a half yards square. 
It is made of brocade, velvet, &c., and tied with two ends to the Kildwah 
(ffei^ next). When the elephant is unruly, it is let fall, so that he cannot 
see. This has been the saving of many. As it often gives way, especially 
when the elephant is very wild. His Majesty had three heavy bells attached 
to the ends of the canvass, to keep it better down. This completed the 

9. The Kildwah^ consists of a few twisted ropes, about one and a half 

' This should be Kaldwah, Abulfazl I edition, p. 136, 1. 16. It looks as if 
•pelk the word wrong ; vide my Text | Abulfazl- nad mistaken this Persian word 


yard-? lonji;. Tlioy aro laid at tho side of oacli other, without howovor boin^ 
intorwovon among thoDisolvos, tho whole being about oiglit lingers broml 
A ring is drawn through botli ends of tlie ropes, aud fa^t^med where the 
tliroat of tlio elephant is : the elephant di'ivor rests his feet in it, and thus 
sits finnly. Sometimes it is mado of silk or leather. Others fix small 
pointed iron-spikes to the kalawah, which will prevent an unruly elephant 
from throwing down tho driver by shaking its head. 

10. Tho DulVhi is a rope, live yards long, as thick as a stick. This 
they tie over the kaldwali, to strengthen it. 

11. The Kandr \^ a small pointed spike, half a yard long. This they 
likewise attach to tho kalawah, and prick tho elephant's oars with it, in 
order to make tho animal wild, or to urge it on. 

12. Tho Dor is a thick rope passing from the tail to the throat. When 
properly tied, it is an ornament. They also catch hold of it, when the 
elephant makes an awkward movement. They also attach many other trap- 
pings to it. 

1 3. The Gadelahy is a cushion put on the back of the elephant, below 
tho didt'hi. It prevents galling, and is a source of comfort. 

14. Tlie Oudau^i is a chain of brass. They attach it near the tail, which 
it prevents from getting injured by tho dult'hi. It is also ornamental. 

15. The Pichicah is a belt made of rox)es, and is fastened over the 
buttocks of tho elephant. It is a support for tho Bhoiy and of much use to 
him in firing. 

16. The Chaurdsi consists of a number of bells attached to a piece of 
broadcloth, which is tied on before and behind with a string passed through 
it. It looks ornamental and grand. 

17. Piihichh is tho name of two chains fastened over the elei)hant*8 sides. 
Attached to them, a boll hangs below the belly. It is of great beauty aud 

18. Large chains. They attach six on both sides, and three to the 
kalawah, the latter being added by His Majesty. 

19. Qu^tis (the tail of the Thibetan Yak). There are about sixty, more 
or less, attached to the tusk, the forehead, the throat, and the neck. They 
are either white, 6t black, or pied, and look very ornamental. 

20. The Tayyd consists of five u'on plates, each a span long, and four 
fingers broad, fastened to each other by rings. On both sides of the Tayy& 
there are two chains, each a yard long, one of which passes from above the 
ear, and tho other from below it, to the kaldwah, to wliich both ai'o attached. 

for a Hindi term ; else, why sboidd ho 
have any sixjUiiij^ at all. In V unci's' 
rtiiiiiau Dictiouary, 11, p. 862 6, read 

k/iiiit for kkat, and ba tanid for hia 
emoudatiou (F) tahpn. 


Between &em there is another chain, which is pa83ed over the head and tied 
to the kalftwah ; and below, orossways, there are four iron spikes ending in a 
etirve, and adorned with knobs. The Qutds are attached here. At their 
lower end, there are three other chains similarly arranged. Besides, four other 
chains are attached to the knob ; two of them, like the first, end in a knob, 
whilst the remaining two are tied to the tusks. To this knob again three 
chains are attached, two of which are tied round about the trunk, the middle 
one hanging dowiK Quf^ and daggers are attached to the former knobs, but 
the latter lies over the forehead. AH this is partly for ornament, partly to 
frighten other animcds. 

21. The Fdk'har is like an armour, and is made of steel ; there are sepa- 
rate pieces for the head and the trunk. 

22. The Qaj-jhamp is a covering put as an ornament above the paJc ^har. 
It looks grand. It is made of three folds of canvass, put together and sewn, 
broad ribbons being attached to the outside. 

23. The Meg*h damhar is an awning, to shade the elephant driver, an 
invention by His Majesty. It also looks ornamental. 

24. The Ranpiydla is a fillet for the forehead, made of brocade or 
Bimilar stufGs, from the hem of which nice ribbons and qut&s hang down. 

, 25. The Oateli consists of four links joined together, with three above 
them, and two others over the latter. It is attached to the feet of the 
elephant. Its sound is very effective. 

26. The P6i ranjan consists of several beUs similarly arranged. 

27. The j(nku8 is a small crook. His Majesty calls it Gajbd^h.^ It 
is used for guiding the elephant and stopping him. 

28. The Gad is a spear which has two prongs, instead of an iron point. 
The Bhoi makes use of it, when the elephant is refractory. 

29. The Banffri is a collection of rings made of iron or brass. The rings 
are put on the tusks, and serve to strengthen as well as to ornament them. 

30. The Jagdwat resembles the Oad (No. 28), and is a cubit long. The 
Bhoi uses it, to quicken the speed of the elephant. 

31. The Jhanddy or fiag, is hung round with Q^td8y like a togh^ It is 
fixed to the side of the elephant. 

But it is imx>oB8ible to describe all the ornamental trappings of elephants. 

For each Matt and Shergir and Badah^ seven pieces of cotton cloth are 
annually allowed, each at a price of 8^ dams. Also, four coarse woollen 
pieces, called in Hindf kamhal, oilO d, each, and eight ox hides, each at 8 d, 

*/.«., an elephant-rein. His Majesty 1 Hence the Pereians pronounce it 

had reason to cnange the name AnkuSy 1 annuzh. 

" whieh tHHinda ofieuHive to a Persian ear." I ^ T6gh is the same as t6q, Vid^ Am 

Haghidt, I 19, p. 50. 



For Manjholah and Karha elephants, four of tho first ; three of the second ; 
and seven of the tliird, are allowed. For FltandurkiyaSy and Mokais, and female 
elephants, three of the first ; two of tho second ; four of tlie third. 
The saddle cloth is made of ch)th, lining, and stuff for edging it round 
about; for sewing, half a ser of cotton thread is allowed. For every 
fna?i of grain, the halqah ddr is allowed ten sers of iron for chains, &c., at 
2 d, per ser ; and for every hide, one ser of sesame oil, at 60 d. per man. 
Also, 5 8. coai'se cotton thread for the kaldwah of tho elephant on which the 
Fiuijddr rides, at 8 d. per ser ; but for other elephants, the men have to 
make one of leather, &c., at their own expense. 

A sum of twelve d^ms is annually subtracted from the servants ; but 
they get the worn out articles. 

ATN 46. 

There are one hundred and one elephants selected for the use of 
His Majesty. Their allowance of food is the same in quantity as that of 
the otlier elephants, but differs in quality. Most of them also get 5 *. of 
sugar, 4 8. of g'hi, and half a man of rice mixed with chillies, cloves, &c. ; 
and some have one and a half man^ of milk in addition to their grain. In 
the sugar-cane season, each elephant gets daily, for two months, 300 sugar- 
canes, more or less. His Majesty takes tho place of the Mahdwat, 

Each elephant requires tlu-ee hhois in the rutting season, and two, when 
cool. Their monthly wages vary from 120 to 400 d.^ and are fixed by His 
Majesty himself. For each elephant there are four Met^ks. In the Halqahsy 
female elephants are but rarely told off to accompany big male ones ; but 
for each k/idgah elephant there are three, and sometimes even more, 
appointed. First class big female elephants have two and one-half mefhs ; 
second class do., two ; third class do., one and one-half; for the other classes, 
the same as in the Ualqahs. 

As each Halqah is in charge of one of the Grandees, so is every kJid^ah 
elephant jmt in charge of one of them. Likewise, for every ten khdgah 
elephants, a professional man is appointed, who is called DaMiddr. They 
draw twelve, ten, and eight rupees ^tr me^isem. Besides, an active and 
honest superintendent is appointed for every ten elephants. He is called 
Kaqib (watcher), and has to submit a daily report, when elephants eat little, 
or got a shortened allowance, or in cases of sickness, or when anything unusual 
happens. He marks a horse, and holds the rank of an Ahadi, His Majesty 

Liquids are sold in Lidia by the weight. 


also weekly dispatches some of the servants near him, in the proportion of 
one for eveiy ten elephants, who inspect them and send in a report. 

Am 47. 

TTift Majesty, the royal rider of the plain of anspicionsness, mounts on 
every kind of elephants, from the first to the last class, making them, 
notwithstanding their almost supernatural strength, obedient to his command. 
His Majesty will put his foot on the tusks, and mount them, even when they 
are in the rutting season, and astonishes experienced people.* 

They also put comfortable turrets on the backs of swift-paced elephants, 
which serve as a travelling sleeping apartment. An elephant so capari- 
soned, is fidways ready at the palace. 

Whenever His Majesty mounts an elephant, a month's wages are given 
as a donation to the Bhois. And when he has ridden ten elephants, the 
following donations are bestowed, viz., the near servant who has weekly 
to report on the elephants, receives a present ; the former, 100 JR.; the 
Daliai, 31 JR. ; the Naqib, 15 E. ; the Mushrif (writer), 7i JR. Besides, 
the regal rewards given to them at times when they display a particidar 
zeal or attentiveness, go beyond the reach of speech. 

Each elephant has his match appointed for fighting : some are always 
ready at the palace, and engage when the order is given. When a fight is 
over, if the combatants were khdgah elephants, the bhois receive 250 d&m8 as 
a present ; but if other elephants, the bhois get 200 d. 

The Dahdiddr of kh&^ah elephants receives one ddm for every rupee 
paid as wages to the Bhois and Met'hs ; the Mushrif is entitled to \ d.y and 
the Naqib U^ \ d. In the case of JHcUqah elephants, the Qadiwdl, the 
Dahhd^hiy and the Bisti, are entitled ix) I d. for every rupee ; and the Mushrif 
and the Naqfb receive the allowance given for kh&9ah elephants. 

AfN 48. 

In order to prevent laziness, and to ensure attentiveness, His Majesty, 
as for all other departments, has fixed a list of fines. On the death of a 
nude or a female khdgak elephant, the JBkoU are fined three months' wages. 
If any part of the harness is lost, the Bhofs and Met'hs are fined two- 

* Jahingir, in his Memoirs, gives I respect ; vide Tazuk, p. 16. 
acvend examples of Akbar's daring in this | 

J 32 

tliirds ol the value of the article ; but in the case of a saddle cloth, the full 
price. When a female elephant dies from starvation, or through want of 
cure, the Bhois have to pay the cost price of the animal. 

If a driver mixes drugs with the food of an elephant, to make the 
animal hot, and it dies in consequence thereof, he is liable to capital punish- 
ment, or to have a hand cut off, or to be sold as a slave. If it was a kMqah 
elephant, the Bhois lose three months^ pay, and are further suspended for 
one year. 

Two experienced men are monthly dispatched, to enquire into the 
fatness or leanness of hhdrah elephants. If elephants are found by them 
out of flesh, to the extent of a quai'ter, according to the scale fixed by 
the PdgosJit Regulation [vide Ain 83), the grandees in charge are fined, and 
the bliois are likewise liable to lose a month's wages. In the case of 
ITalqah elephants, Ahadis are told off to examine them, and submit a report 
to Ilis Majesty. If an elephant dies, the Mahdwat and the Bhok are fined 
three months' wages. If part of an elephant's tusk is broken, and the 
injury reaches as far as the kali — tliis is a place at the root of the tusks, 
which on being injured is apt to foster, when the tusks get hollow and 
become useless — a fine amounting to one-eighth of the price of the elephant 
is exacted, the d^rogah paying two-thirds, and the Faujdar one-third. 
Should the injury not reach as far as the kaliy the fine is only one-half of 
the former, but the proportions are the same. But, at present, a fine of one 
per ce7iL has become usual ; in the case of khagah elephants, however, such 
punishment is inflicted as His Majesty may please to direct. 

Am 49. 


His Majesty is very fond of horses, because he believes them to be of 
great importance in the three branches of the government, and for expeditions 
of conquest, and because he sees in them a means of avoiding mudi 

Merchants bring to court good horses from 'Ir6q i 'Arab and 'Ir4q 
i 'Ajam, from Turkey, Tm*kestan, Badakhshdn, Shirwdn, Qirghiz, Thibet, 
Kashmir, and other countries. Droves after droves arrive from Tur6n and 
Tran, and there are now-a-days twelve thousand in the stables of His Majesty. 
And in like manner, as they are continually coming in, so there are others 
daily going out as presents, or for other purposes. 

Skilful, experienced men have paid much attention to the breeding of 
this sensible animal, many of whose habits resemble those of man ; and 
after a short time Hindustan ranked higher in this respect than Arabia, 


wUkt many Indian horses cannot be distinguished from Arabs or &om 'Ir&qi 
breed. There are fine horses bred in every part of the country ; but those 
of Cachh excel, being equal to Arabs. It is said that a long time ago an 
Arab ship was wrecked and driyen to the shore of Cachh ; and that it had 
seren choice horses, from which, according to the general belief, the breed of 
that country originafted. In the Fanjab, horses are bred resembling 'Iraqis, 
eepeciaUy between the Indus and the Bahat (Jhelum) : they go by tho 
name of Saniiji ;* so also in the district of Pati Haibatpdr,' Bajwarah, 
Taharah, in the Subah of Agrah, Mew&t, and in the Subah of Ajmfr, where the 
horses have the name oi pachtoariyah. In the northern mountainous district 
of Hindustan, a Mnd of small but strong horses is bred, which are called 
$k^ : and in the confines of Bengal, near Kuch [- Bah&r], another kind of 
horses occurs, which rank between the gut ^>^^ Turkish horses, and are called 
Ung*han : they are strong and powerful. 

His Migesty, from the Hght of his insight and wisdom, makes Tn'maftlf 
acquainted with the minutest detcdls, and with the classification and the 
condition of every kind of article ; he looks to the requirements of the times, 
and designs proper reg^ations. Hence he also pays much attention to eveiy 
thing that is connected with this animal, which is of so great an importance 
for the government, and an almost supernatural means for the attainment 
of personal gpreatness. 

Fir9t^ he has set apart a place for horse-decders, where they may, 
without delay, find convenient quarters, and be secure from the hardships 
of the seasons. By this arrangement, the animals will not suffer' from that 
hardness and avariciousness so often observed in dealers of the present 
time ; nor will they pass from the hands of weU intentioned merchants into 
those of others. But dealers who are known for their uprightness and 
humanity, may keep their horses where they please, and bring them at an 
appointed time. Secondly^ he appointed a circumspect man to the office of an 
Amh^ % Kdnodnsardi who from his superior knowledge and experience, 
keeps the dealers from the path of disobedience, and ties the mischievous 
tongues of such as are wicked and evasive. Thirdly, he has appointed a 
derer writer, who^keeps a roll of horses that arrive and have been mustered, 
and who sees that the orders of His Majesty do not fall into abeyance. 
Fimrthlyy he has appointed trustworthy men, acquainted with the prices 
of horses, to examine the animals, and to fix their prices, in the order in 
which they are imported. His Majesty, from his goodness, generally gives 

' Serend good MSS. read Saiuji. 
* Hfttbatpiir, Lat 29o 61', Long. 76* 
2'; TAh4ii!b, Lat 30' 57o, Long. 75o 

' AkW abhorred croelty towards 

domestic animals. Towards the end of 
his Ufe, as shall be mentioned below, 
he even gave up hunting and animal 


hiilf as much again abovo tlic price i'lxod hy them, and does not keep them 
waitin^j; for thoir money.* 

Am 50. 


There are two classes of horses: I. Jihd^ah ; 2. Those that are not 
hh(i<;ah. The khiigah horses are the following — six stables, each containing 
forty choice horses of Arabia and Persia ; the stables of the jmnces ; the 
stables of Turkish courier horses ; the stables of horses bred in the Imperial 
studs. They have each a name, but do not exceed the number thirty. 
His Majesty rides upon horses of the six stables. 

The Second class horses are of three kinds, viz., si-asjA, hist-aspij dah-aspi 
i, c, belonging to the stables of thirty, twenty, {md ten. A horse whose 
value conies up to ten muliurs, is kept in a Dali-muhri stable ; those worth 
from eleven to twenty muhurs, in a Bist-muhn i^i'd\)\e, and so on. 

Grandees and other Maa^nhddrSj and Senior AhadU are in charge of 
the stables. Hay and cruslied gi-ain are found by the government for all 
horses, exoex)t for the horse wliich the Yatdqddr (guard) of every stable is 
allowed to ride, and which he maintains in gi*ain and grass at his own 

ATN 51. 


A IcMqah horse was formerly allowed eiglit ner^ fodder per diem, when 
the Bcr weighed twenty-eiglit dd)m. Now that the ser is fixed at thirty 
dams, a khji(;ah horse gt^ts seven and a half sers. In winter, they give boiled 
peas or vetch ; in siimm(>r, grain. The daily allowance includes two sers 
of flour, and one and a half sers of sugar. In winter, before the horse gets 
fresh grass, they give it half a ser o{ g^hi. Two dams are daily allowed for 

" Abulfazl mentions this very often in 
the Ain. Contractors j^enerally received 
cheijuoR on a local treasury; but they 
nii<cht be sent froiu there to another 
local treiisury, unless they bribed tlie 
collector, or made over tlicir cheques, 
for a considered ion^ to MahAjans (ban- 
kers). It wa.s the same in Persia. 
" The clerks whose habit it is to annoy 
people, gave him (Wazir Mirza ^alih, 
biother of the <i^"eat Persian historian 
Still ndar Beg) in payment of his claims 

a lot of transfer receipts, and left him in 
the hands of the collectors (muha^^il), 
who, like the clerks, always pretend to 
be in a hurry ; and although Mii'za 
Rahim, a relation of his, tried to come to 
an undei'standing with them, in order 
to help Mirza ^alih out of his wretched 
plight, they ruined him, in a short 
time, to such an extent, that they liad 
to provide in lieu a daily subsistence 
allowance. He died of a broken heart." 
Tdhir NagrdhddCs TadzJcirah. 


hay ; but hay is not given, when fresh grass is available. About three 
%'Am of land will yield sufficient fodder for a horse. When, instead of 
sugar, the horses get molasses, they stop the g^hi ; and when the season of 
fresh, grass comes, they give no grain for the fiiffet three days, but allow 
afterwards six Mrn of grain and two sers of molasses per diem. In other 
*Irdq{ and 2\irJti stables, they give seven and a half sers of grain. During 
the cool six months of the year, they give the grain boiled, an allowance 
of one dam being given for boiling one fnan of it. The horses also get once a 
week a quarter ser of salt. "When ff^hi and fresh grass are given, each horse, 
provided its price be above thirty-one muhurs, gets also one ser of sugar ; 
whilst such as are worth from twenty-one to thirty muhurs, only get half a 
ser. Horses of less value get no sugar at all. Before green grass is given, 
horses of a Value from twenty-one to upwards of one hundred muhurs, get 
one man and t-en sers of g'hi ; such as are worth from eleven to twenty muhurs, 
thirty sers ; but horses up to ten muhurs get neither g'hi, brown sugar, 
nor green oats. Salt is given at the daily rate one-fiftieth of a d&m, though it 
is mostly given in a lump. 'Ir^qi and Turki horses which belong to the 
court, are daily allowed two d» for grass ; but such of them as are in the 
country, only one and a half. In winter, each horse gets a big'ha of fresh 
oats, the price of which, at court, is 240 «?., and in the country, 200 d. At 
the time of fresh oats, each horse gets two mam of molasses, the same 
quantity being subtracted from the allowance of grain. 

Experienced officers, attached to the Imperial offices, calculate the 
amount required, and make out an estimate, which in due course is paid. 
When a horse is sick, every necessary expense is paid on the certificate of the 
horse doctor. 

Every stallion to a stud of mares receives the allowance of a khdgah 
horse. The ffttf horses get five and a half sers of grain, the usual quantity 
of salt, and grass at the rate of one and a half d. per diem, if at court, 
and at the rate of 1-^ d., when in the country ; but they do not get g'hi, 
molasses, or green oats. Qisrdqs, t. «., female horses, get, at court, four 
and a half sers of grain, the usual allowance of salt, and one d, for grass ; 
and in the country, the same, with the exception of the grass, for which only 
three fourths of a d4m are allowed. Stud mares get two and three fourths 
sers of grain ; but the allowance for grass, salt, and fuel, is not fixed. 

A foal sucks its dam for three months ,* after which, for nine months, 
it is allowed the milk of two cows ; then, for six months, two and three- 
fourths sers of grain ^9^ diem; after which period, the allowance is every 
flix months increased by a ser, till it completes the third year, when its food 
ia determined by the above regulations. 


ATN 52. 


It woiild be difficult and tedious to describe the various ornaments, 
jewels, and trappings, used for tJie khd(;ak horses on which. His Majesty 
rides out. 

For the whole outfit of a llidqah horse, the allowance is 277i d, per 
annum; viz., an artak, or horse quilt, of wadded chintz, 47 rf. ;'a ydlpoih 
(a covering for the mane) 32 d. ; a woollen towel, 2 d, — these three articles 
are renewed every six months ; in lieu of the old art^k, half the cost price 
is deducted, and one-sixth for the old ydlposh — ; a saddle cloth, the outside 
of which is woven of hair, the lining being coarse wool, 42 d. ; halters for 
the nakhtah (headstall) and the hind feet,' 40 d. ; b. piishi-tajig (girth), 8 J. ; a 
magas-rdn (a horse tail to drive away flies), 3 <f . ; a nakhtah and qaizah (the 
bit), 14 d.\ a curry-comb, \^ d. ; a grain bag, 6 (j?. ; a basket, in which the 
horse gets its grain, 1 d.^ These articles are given annually, and fifteen 
ddms, tan Jeiah, subtracted in lieu of the old ones. 

In the other stables, the allowance for horses whose value is not less 
than twenty-one muhurs, is 196 J d. per anmim, the rate of the articles being 
the same. Twenty-five and a half d^ms are subtracted in lieu of tlie old 

In stables of horses worth twenty to eleven muhurs, the annual 
allowance is 155 J d. ; viz., for the artak, 39f d. ; the ydlposh, 27 J d. ; a 
coarse saddle cloth, 30 d. ; the girth, 6 d. ; the nakhtah and qaizah, 10 </., and 
the nakhtah ropes and feet-ropes, 32 rf. ; the inagasrdn, 2 d.] a. towel, li d, ; & 
curry-comb, 1 J d. ] a basket, I d.; a grain bag, 4^ d. Twenty dams are 
subtracted for the old articles. 

For horses worth up to ten muhurs, and qisrdqs, and yuf, the allowance 
is ll7i d. ;' viz., an artak, S7 d, ; a ydlposh, 24^ d. ; a Jul, 24 d. ; a nakhtah 
hand and a pdiband, 8 (f. ; a nakhtah and qaizah, 8 rf. ; a pusht-tmig, 5 d, ; 
a mayasrdn and a towel, each li d. ; a curry-comb, li d. ; a basket, 1 d. ; a, 
grain bag, 4J (?. The amount subtracted is the same as before. 

* In consequence of tlie climate, horses 
are kept, in the East, much more outside 
than in the stables. When being cleaned 
or fed, each of the hindlegs is fastened 
by means of a rope to a peg in the 
ground. In the of wicked horses, 
a rope is attached to each side of the 
head stall, and fastened, like tent ropes, 
to pegs in the ground. Native grooms 
in feeding horses, generally squat on the 
ground, pushing the gi'ain in the basket 
towards the mouth of the hoi'se. The 

word nakhtah, which, like hundredp of 
other words, is not given in our dic- 
tionaries, is generally pronounced nuqt-ah. 
Similarly, qaizah is pronounced qiizah ; 
vide Journal As. Soc. Bengal for 1868, 
I. p. 36 b. c. 

^ Altogether 196^ d., and 81 d. on 
account of the first three articles renewed 
after si^ months. The deduction in lieu 
of old articles refers, of course, to the 
wages of the grooms. 

■ The items added only give 116J d. 


1. The KarSh is an iron Yessel for boiling grain sufficient for ten 
horsee. The price of a Jzwr&h is at the rate of one hundred and forty dSmsjMr 
flum of iron ; but this includes the wages of the maker. 2. The Misain Safl^ 
or brass bucket, out of which horses drink. There is one for every ten hkdgak 
horses. The price of making one is 140 d» For other horses, as in the 
stables of thirty, &c., there is only one. 3. The Kamand is a halter, 
attached to iron pegs, for fSastening the horses. In stables of forty, there 
are three ; in stables of thirty, two ; in others, one. The weight of a halter 
is half a ftum ; its cost price is 140 d.y and 16 d, the wages of the rope maker. 
4. The Ahanin mekh, or iron peg, of which there are two for every halter. 
Each peg weighs five sers, and costs 15 d, 5. The Tabartukhmdq, or 
hammer, weighs five sers, and is used for fixing the iron pegs. There is one 
in every stable. 

All broken and old utensils of brass and iron, in the khdgah stables, if 
repairable, are repaired at the expense of the D4roghahs ; and when they 
are past mending, their present value is deducted, and the difference paid 
in cash. In other stables, a deduction of one-half of their value is made 
every third year. 

6. Ifa*l, or horseshoes, are renewed twice a year. Formerly eight d4ms 
were given for a whole set, but now ten. 7. Ki^ndldn. One is allowed for 
ten horses.' The price of it is 80J R. 

Am 53. 



1. The Athegi is in charge of all horses belonging to the government. 
He directs all officers charged with the management of the horses. This 
office is one of the highest of the Stat^, and is only held by grandees of high 
rank : at present it is filled by the Khdn Khdndn^ (Commander-in-Chief). 
2. The Ldroghah, There is one appointed for each stable. This post may 
be held by officers of the rank of commanders of five thousand down to 
Senior Ahadis. 3. The Mushrif, or accountant. He keeps the roll of the 
horses, manages all payments and fines, sees that ELis Majesty's orders are 

* Tills appears to be the same as the 
Hud. i^j^^ which our meagre die- 
describe as " a kind of tent." 


• Or Mirzd Khdn Khdndn, i. e,, Ab- 
darrahim, son of Bair4m Kh4n; vide 
List of Grandees, Ilnd book, No. 29. 


carried out, and prepares the estimate of the stores required for this depart- 
ment. He is (/hosen from anirnig the ^^audees. 4. The Didahwar^ or inspector. 
Their duty is occasionally to inspect the horses, before they are mustered 
by His Majesty; they also determine the rank and the condition of the 
horses. Their reports are taken down by the Mushrif. This office may be 
held by ^Mansabdars or Ahadis. 5. The Akhtachis look after the harness, 
and have the horses saddled. Most of tliem get their pay on the list of the 
Ahadis. 6. The Chuhuksaivdr rides the horses, and compares their speed with 
the road, which is likewise taken down by the Mushrif. He receives the pay 
of an Ahadf. 7. The IIMd. This name is o^iven to a class of Eajputs, who teach 
horses the elementary steps. Some of them get their pay on the list of the 
Ahadis. 8. Tlu; Mirdohah is an experienced groom placed over ten servants. 
He gets the \)i\y of an Ahadi : but in other l/fd^ah sta])les, he only gets 170 d.; 
in the country-bred stables, IGO d.; in the other Sht-spi stables, 140 d.\ in 
the Bistaspi stables, 100 d. ; and in the Dah-aspi stables, 30 d. Besides he 
has to look after tw'o horses. 9. The Baitdry or horse-doctor, gets the pay 
of an Ahadf. 10. The Naq'ih, or watcher. Some active, intelligent men 
are retained for supervision. They report the condition of each stable 
to the Daroghahs and the Mushrif, and it is their duty to have the cattle 
in readiness. The two headNaqibs are Ahadis, and they have thirty people 
imder them, who receive frcmi 100 to 120 ^. 11. The Sdis, or groom. 
There is one groom for every two horses. In the Chihilaspi stables, each 
groom gets 170 ^. ; in the stai)les of the eldest prince, 138 rf. ; in the stables 
of the other princes, and in the courier horses stables, 1 36 </. ; in the coimtry 
bred stables, 126 rf. ; in the other Sia.spi stables, 106 d. ; in the BUtaspi 
stables, 103 c?. ; and in the DaJiaspi stables, 100 d. 12. The Jilauddr {ride 
Ain 60) and the Faik (a runner). Their monthly pay varies from 1200 to 
120 d., according to their speed and manner of service. Some of 
them will run from fifty to one hundred kroh (kos) p. day. 13. The 
NaUhand, or farrier. Some of them are Ahadis, some foot soldiers. They 
receive 160 (/. 14, The Zmddr, or saddle holder^ has the same rank and pay 
as the preceding. In the Klid^ah stable of forty horses, one saddle is 
allowed for every two horses, in the following manner : for the first and 
twenty-first ; for the second and twenty-second, and so on. K the first horse 
is sent out of the stable, the saddle remains at its place, and what was the 
second horse becomes first, and ihe second saddle falls to the third horse, 
and so on to the end. If a horse out of the middle leaves, its saddle is 
given to the preceding horse. 15. The Abka^h^ or water-carrier. Three 
are allowed in the stables of forty ; two in stables of thirty, and only one 
in other stables. The monthly pay is 100 «?. 16. The Farrdsh (who dusts 
the furniture). There is one in every khdgah stable. His pay is 130 rf. 



17. A Sipandiwi^ is only allowed in the stables of forty horses j his pay is 100 d, 

18. The Khahr'khy or sweeper. Sweepers are called inEdndustaa Saldlkkur ;* 
HIb Majesty brought this name en vogue. In stables of forty, there are 
two ; in those of thirty and twenty, one. Their monthly pay is 65 d. 

During a march, if the ddroghahs are in receipt of a £bEed allowance for 
oooliesy they entertain some people to lead the horses. In the stables of 
thirty horses, fifteen are allowed. And in the same proportion does the 
goTemment appoint coolies, when a d^oghah has not received the extra- 
aUowance. Each cooly gets two d&ms per diem. 

Km 54. 


His Majesty, from the regard which he pays to difference in rank, 
beUeree many fit for cavalry service, though he would not trust them with the 
keeping of a horse. For these he has told off separate stables, with 
particolar D&roghahs and Mushrifs. When their services are required, 
they are furnished with a horse on a written order of the BitiJcM (writer) ; 
but they have not to trouble themselves about the keeping of the horse. A 
man so mounted is called a Bdrgkrsuwdr, 

AIN 55. 


In order to prevent fraudulent exchanges, and to remove the stamp of 
doubtful ownership, horses were for some time marked with the word^^fej {nasuir 
flight), sometimes with the word cf^ {ddghy mark), and sometimes with the 

* The §eeds of sipand (in Hind, sar- 
•on, a kind of mustard seed) are put on 
aWted plate of iron. Their smoke is 
acneffectnal preventive against the evil 
eje {nazar i bad, ckashm rastdan), 
which is even dangerous for Akbar's 
choiee horses. The seeds bum away 
slowly, and emit a crackUn^ sound. 
The man who bums them, is called 
Sipandsoz. Vide the poetical extracts of 
the Hod book, under Shikebi, Instead 
of Sipand, grooms sometimes keep a 
monkey over the entrance of the stable. 
The inHuenoe of the evil eye passes from 
the hortts to the ugly monkey. 

Another remedy consists in nailing old 
horse shoes to tiie gates of the stables. 
Hundreds of such shoes may still be 
seen on the gates in Fathpur Sikri. 

• Akbar was very fond of changing 
names which he thought offensive, or of 
giving new names to things which he 
Eked ; vide p. 46, 1. 28 ; p. 66, 1. 18 ; 

666, 1. 16 ; p. 90, 1. 22 ; also Forbes* 
ictionary under rangtard. Saldlkhur, 
i, €,, one who eats that which the cere- 
monial law aUows, is a euphemism for 
hardmkhur, one who eats forbidden 
things, as pork, &c. The word haldl- 
khur is still in use among educated 
Muhammadans ; but it is doubtful whether 
it was Akbar 8 invention. The word in 
common use for a sweeper is mihtar, 
a prince, which like the proud title of 
knalffah, now-a-days applied to cooks, 
tailors, &c., is an example of the irony of 


niuiieral v (seven).* Every horse that was received by government had 
the mai'k burnt on the riglit cheek ; and those that were returned, on the 
left side. Sometimes, in the case of ^IrAqi and Mujannas^ horses, they 
branded tho price in numerals on the right cheek ; and in the case of 
Turki and Arab horses, on the left. Now-a-days the horses of every stable 
are distinguished by their price in numerals. Thus, a horse of ten muhurs, 
is marked with the numeral ten ; those of twenty muhurs, have a twenty, 
and so on. WTien horses, at the time of the musters, are put into a higher 
or a lower grade, the old brand is removed. 



Formerly, wlienevor there had been taken away either ten horses from 
the stables of fort}', or from the "stud-bred horses, or live fi*om the courier 
horses, they were replaced in the following manner. The deficiency in 
the stables of forty was made up from horses chosen from the stables of 
the princes ; the stud-bred horses were replaced by other stud bred ones, 
and the courier horses from other stables. Again, if there were wanting 
fifteen horses in the stables of the eldest prince (Salim), they were replaced 
by good horses of his brothers ; and if twenty were wanting in the stables 
of the second prince (Mur^d), the deficiency was made up by horses taken 
from the stables of the youngest prince and from other stables ; and if 
twenty-five were wanting in the stables of the youngest prince (Danyal), 
the deficiency was made up from other good stables. 

But in the thirty-seventh year of the Divine Era (A. D. 1593), the 
order was given that, in future, one horse should annually be added to 
each stable. Thus, when, in the present year, the deficiency in the 
khdgah stables had come up to eleven, they commenced to make up the 
complement, the deficiency of the other stables being made up at the time 
of the muster parades. 

Am 57. 
When a khdgah horse dies, the Daroghah has to pay one rupee, and 
the Mfrdahah ten d.^ upon every muhur of the cost price ; and the 

* Vide Ains 7 and 8 of the second book. 
The branding of horses was revived in 
A. H. 981, A. D. 1573, when Shahbaz 
had been appointed Mtr Bakhshi. He 
followed the regulations of 'Alauddin 

Khilji and Sher Shah ; vide Badiooi, 
pp. 173, 190. 

* Mujannas, i. e., put nearly equal 
(to an Irdqt horse) ; vide Ilnd book, 


grooms loee one-fourth of their monthly wages. When ahorse is stolen, or 
injured. His Majesty determines the fine, as it cannot be uniform in each 

lii the other stables, they exacted from the Daroghah for a single 
horse that dies, one rupee upon every muhur ; for two horses, two rupees 
upon erery muhur; and from the Mirdahah and the grooms the above 
proportions. But now, they take one rupee upon every muhur for one to 
Uiree horses that die ; and two upon every muhur, for four horses ; and 
three upon every muhur, for five. 

If the mouth of a horse gets injured, the Mfrdahah is fined ten d^s 
upon every muhur, which fine he recovers from the other grooms. 

Am 58. 

There are always kept in readiness two khdgah horses ; but of courier- 
horsee, three, and one of each stable from the seventy muhurs down to 
the ten muhur stables and the Oiifs, They are formed into four divisions, 
and each division is called a misL 

FirU misly one from the chihilaspi stables ; one from the stable of the 
eldest prince ; one from those of the second prince ; one from the stable of 
Ihdgak courier horses. Second misly one from the stable of the youngest 
prince ; one from the studbred ; one from the chihilaspi stables ; one 
courier horse. Third misl, one horse from the stables of the three princes ; 
one stud bred. Fourth tnisl, one horse from each of the stables of horses of 
forty, thirty, twenty, and ten muhurs. 

His Majesty rides very rarely on horses of the fourth misl. But when 
prince Sh^ MurM joined his appointment,^ His Majesty also rode the best 
horses of the stables of forty muhurs. The arrangement was then as 
foIlowB. First misly one horse from the stables of forty ; one horse from 
the stables of the eldest and the yoimgest prince, and a courier horse. 
Sseand misly stud bred horses fr^m the stables of horses above sevenly 
muhurs; khdgah horses of forty muhurs, and courier horses. Third misl^ 

^ " Prince Marad, in the beginning of 
the fortieth year (1696) of Akbar's reign, 
wu put in command of the army of 
Oigrat, and ordered to tdce Ahmadnagar. 
But when, eome time after, Akbar heard 
tint Mand's army was in a wretched 
eondition, chiefly through the carelessneBs 
and drunken habits of the prince, the 

emperor resolyed to go himself (43rd 
year), and dispatched Ahul&zl, to bring 
the prince hack to court. Abulfazl came 
just in time, to see the prince die, who 
from the preceding year had been suffer- 
ing from epileptic fits {par', delirium 
tremens P) brought on by habitual drunk- 
enness." MiT'dt, 


one horse from tlie stables of each of the two princes, the stud bred, and the 
seventy inuliur li(;rses. Fourth mlsl^ horses from the stables of sixty, forty, 
and thirty nmliurs. 

Horses are also k(?2)t in readiness from the stables of twenty and ten 
muliurs and the Guts. 

ATN 59. 


Whenever His Majesty mounts a horse belonging to one of the six 
Jchdc^ah stables, he gives something, according to a fixed rule, with the view 
of increasing the zeal and dcisire for improvement among the servants. For 
some time it was a ride that, whenever he rode out on a khdgah horse, a 
rupee shoidd be given, riz.y one dam to the Atbegj, two to the Jilaudar ; 
eighteen and one-half to the grooms, the rest being shared by the Mushrif, 
the Naqib, the Aklitachi, and the Zindar, In the case of horses belonging 
to the stables of the eldest prince, thirty dams were given, each of the 
former recipients getting a quarter of a dam less. For horses belonging to 
stables of the second prince, twenty dams were given, the donations decreas- 
ing by the same fraction ; and for horses belonging to the stables of the 
youngest prince, as also for eoui'ier horses, and stud-breds, ten ddms, 
according to the same manner of distribution. 

Now, the following donations are given : — For a horse of a stable of 
forty, one rupee as before ; for a horse belonging to a stable of the eldest 
prince, twenty dams ; for a horse belonging to the youngest prince, ten 
dams ; for courier horses, five ; for atud breds, four j for horses of the other 
stables, two. 

Am 60. 


Whenever a horse is given away as a present, the price of the horse is 
calculated fifty pet' ce^it. higher, and the recipient has to pay ten d^ms upon 
every muhur of the value of the horse. These ten dfims per muhur 

* Jilau is the string attached to the 
bridle, by which a horse is led. A led 
horse is called jaiiihah. The adjective 
jilawdnah, which is not in the diction- 
aries, means referring to a led horse. We 
have to 'wyMq jilawdnah, not jilaudnahj 
according to the law of the Persian 
language, to break up a final diphthong in 

derivatives ; aa na-in, jawtn, from «a», 
jau, not nai'in, or jau-in. The jilau- 
ddr, or janihahdar, or jantbahkxsk, is 
the servant who leads the horse. The 
jilauhegi is the superintendent of horses 
selected for presents. The tahptlddr 
collects the fee. 


divided as follows : — The Atbegi gets five d&ms ; the Jilaubegi, two and a 
half; the Mushrif, one and a quarter ; the Naqibs, nine jetals ; the grooms, 
a quarter dim ; the Tahqilddr, fifteen jetals ; the remainder is equally divided 
among the Zinddr and Akhtachi. 

In this country, horses commonly live to the age of thirty years. Their 
price varies from 500 muhurs to 2 Bupees. 

Am 61. 

From the time His Majesty paid regard to the affairs of the state, he has 
shewn a great liking for this curiously shaped animal ; and as it is of gpceat 
use for the three branches of the government, and well known to the 
emperor for its patience under burdens, and for its contentment with little 
food, it has received every care at the hands of His Majesty. The quality of 
the country breed improved very much, and Indian camels soon surpassed 
those of Ir^n and Turan. 

From a regard to the dignity of his court, and the diversion of others, 
His Majesty orders camel-fights, for which purpose several choice a-Tn'mglH 
are always kept in readiness. The best of these khdgah camels, which is 
named Shdhpasand (approved of by the Sh^), is a country bred twelve years 
old : it overcomes all its antagonists, and exhibits in the manner in which 
it stoops down and draws itself up, every finesse of the art of wrestling. 

Camels are numerous near Ajmir, Jodhpur, N^or, Bik^ir, Jaisalmir, 
Batindd, and Bhatnir ; the best are bred in the Subah of Gujr&t, near Cachh. 
But in Sind is the greatest abundance : many inhabitants own ten thou- 
sand camels and upwards. The swiftest camels are those of Ajmir ; the best 
ht burden are bred in T'hat'hah. 

The success* of this department depends on the Arwdnahs, i, e.j female 
camels. In every country, they get hot in winter, and couple. The male 
of two humps goes by the name of Bughur. The young ones of camels are 
called nor (male), and m6yah (female), as the case may be; but His Majesty has 
given to the nor the name of Bughdx, and to the female that of Jammdzah. 
The hughdi is the better for carrying burdens and for fighting ; the jammdzah 
excels in swiftness. The Indian camel called Loky and its female, come dose 
to them in swiftness, and even surpass them. The offspring of a Imghur 
u^d SL jammdzah goes by the name of g^htrd; the female is called mdyah 

' In the text ntdyah, which also 
Bcans a female camel — a very harmless 
pun. Vide Dr. Sprenger's Gulistan, 

preface, p. 6. Eegarding the word bughur 
vide Journal, Asiatic Society, Benfind, for 
1868, p. 69. 


g'hurd. If a huglcVi^ or a hh^ couples with a jammdzah^ the young one is 
called huijMi or lok rcsi)ectively. But if a hughdi or a lok couples with an 
arwunah, the young male is named after its sire, and the young female after 
its dam. The lok is considered superior to the (fhurd, and the m/ujah gliurd, 

WTien camels are loaded and travel, they are generally formed into 
qafdrs (sti'ings), each qatdr consisting of five camels. The first camel of each 
qatur is called ])eshang ;^ the second, i}e>ihdarah ; the third, miydnah qatdr ; the 
fourth, duiiidast ; the last camel, dumddr. 

ATN 62. 

The following is the allowance of such hughdis as are to carry burdens. 
At the age of two and a half, or three years, when they are taken from the 
herd of the stud dams, a hughdi gets 2 8. of grain ; when three and a half to 
four years old, 5 r. ; up to seven years, 9 «. ; at eight years, 10 «. The same 
rule applies to hugJiurs. Similarly in the case of jamm^ahs, g'hurds, mdyah 
g'hurds, and loks, up to four years of age ; but from the fourth to the 
seventh year, they get 7 s, ; and at the age of eight years, 11 «., at the rate 
of 28 dams p. ser. As the ser has now 30 ddms^ a coiTesponding deduction 
is made in the allowance. When baghdis are in heat, they eat less. Hence 
also concession is made, if they get lean, to the extent of 10 «., according to 
the provisions of the Fagosht rule (Ain 83) ; and when the rutting season is 
over, the Daroghahs give out a corresjionding extra allowance of grain, to 
make up for the former deficiency. If they have nuide a definite entry into 
their day-book, and give out more food, they are held indemnified according 
the Pagonht ride ; and similarly in all other cases, note is taken of the 
deductions ac(-ording to that rule. 

At Court, camels are found in grass by the government for eight 
months. Camels on duty inside the town, are daily allowed grass at the 
rate of 2 d. per head; and those outside the town, X^ d. During the four 
rainy months, and on the march, no allowance is given, the drivers taking 
the camels to meadows to graze. 

^ So accordinc^ to the best MSS. The 
word is evidently a vulj^ar corruption of 
]^h'dJiangy the leader of a troop. Pesh- 

darah means * in front of the helly, or 
middle, of the qatdr* 


XTN 63. 

The following articles are allowed for hhdqah camels : — an Afsdr 
(head stall) ; a Bum-afodrj (crupper) ; a Mahdr kdfhi (famiture resembling 
a horse-saddle, but rather longer, — an invention of His Majesty) ; a Mchi 
(which serves as a saddle-cloth) ; a Qafdrchi ; a SarhcM ;^ a Tanff (a girth) ; 
a Sartang a (head-strap) ; a Shebhand (a loin-strap) ; a Jal^il (a breast rope 
adorned with sheUs or bells) ; a Oardanhand (a neckstrap) ; three Chddara 
(or coverings) made of broadcloth, or variegated canvass, or waxcloth. 
The value of the jewels, inlaid work, trimmings, and silk, used for adorning 
the above articles, goes beyond description. 

Five qafdrt of camels, properly caparisoned, are always kept ready for 
riding, together with two for carrying a Mihaffahy which is a sort of wooden 
turret, veiy comfortable, with two poles, by which it is suspended, at the 
time of travelling, between two camels. 

A camel's furniture is either coloured or plain. For every ten qatdrs^ 
they allow three qafdrs coloured articles. 

For BughdiBy the cost of the [coloured] furniture is 225f d.^ v%%,y a head- 
stall studded with shells, 20^ d. ; a brass ring, l^d.-, an iron chain, 4i\ d,\ a 
haUagi (an ornament in shape of a rosette, generally made of peacock's 
feathers, with a stone in the centre), 5 d. ; ^pttshtpo%i (ornaments for the 
strap which passes along the back), 8 (f . ; a dum-afsdr (a crupper), l^ d,\ 
for a takaU'U (saddle quilt) and a sarhchi, both of which require 5 sers of 
cotton, 20 d. ; a Jul (saddle-doth), 6S d, ; ajahdz i ffajkAH,* which serves as 
a maharhdVhi (vide above), 40 (f. ; a ta/ngy shehhand, guluhand (throat-strap), 
24 nT. ; a t<*^3 (long rope) for securing the burden — camel-drivers call this 
rope ^dqak fandby or kharwdr — 38 d. ; a hdldposh, or covering, 15 d.^ 

For Jammdzahsy two additional articles are allowed, viz,, a gardanhandy 
2 d.; and a tinah band (chest-strap), 16 d. 

The cost of a set of plain furniture for Bughdu and Jammdzahs amounts to 
168^ d,j viz., an afsdr, studded with shells, 10 d, ; a dum-afsdry i d, ; ajahdzy 

* The meaning ia doubtful. The 
Anb. tarb, like qitdr, signifies a troop 
of camels. From the following it ap- 
pears that sarhchi is a sort of quilt. 

' Oajkdri appears to be the correct 
reading. The Arab, jahdz means what- 
ever u upon a camel, especially the 
saddle and its appurtenances, generally 
made of coarse canvass, steeped in lime 
igoj). Hence gajkart, white- washed. 

' These items added up give 246 d., 

not 225f , as stated by Abulfazl. When 
discrepancies are slight, they will be found 
to result from a rejection oi the fractional 
parts of the cost of articles. The dif- 
ference of 20i d. in this case can only 
have resulted from an omission on the 
part of the author, because all MSS« 
agree in the several items. Perhaps 
some of the articles were not exchanged 
trienniall^y, but had to last a longer 



IGi '1. ; i\ Jul, o'2J d. ; a iang^ a shebhand, and gnluhand, 24 (^?. ; a ^ayrtf/e ta}idb, 
37A f/. ; a bdl/tposh, 28 </.' 

For ZoX'«, the allowance for furniture is 143 d., viz,, an «/"«ar, jahdz, 
hharwdr, according to the former rates ; a jul, 37 J d. ; a ta)ig, sliehhand, 
giduhandy 14^ d. ; a hcddposh, 28 o?.^ 

Tlio coloured and plain furniture is renewed once in three yeai's, but 
not so the iron bands and the wood work. In consideration of the old 
coloured furniture of evei'V qaldr, sixteen ddms, and of plain fiu-nitiire, 
foiu'teen ddfus^ are deducted by the Government. At the end of eveiy three 
yeais, they draw out an estimate, from which one-fourth is deducted; then 
after taking away one-tenth of the remainder, an assignment is given for 
the ro^t.' 

^Ahffi camels (used for foraging) have their furniture renewed annually, 
at the cost of 521 ^- f^r countrybred camels and lohy viz., [for countrybred 
camels] an (fjsdrj 5 rf. ; a j'ulj 36 ^ d ; a sardoz, ^ d. \ a tang, and a shehhand, 
lOJ rf. •* and [for lohs]y an afsdr, a tang, and a shehbandy as before ; a Jul, 
45J c?. ; a sardoz, J d. 

From the annual estimate one-fourth is deducted, and an assignment 
is given for the remainder. 

Shalitiih pdtSy or canvass sacks, for giving camels their grain, are 
allowed one for every qaldr, at a price of 30J d. for bughdis and jammdzahs, 
and 24J <?. for lohs. 

Hitherto the cost of these articles had been uniformly computed and 
fixed by contract with the camel-drivers. But when in the forty-second 
year of the divine era [1598 A. D.], it was brought to the notice of His 
Majesty that these people were, to a certain extent, losers, this regulation 
was abolished, and the current market price allowed for all articles. The 
price is therefore no longer fixed. 

On every New Year's day, the head camel-di'ivers receive permission for 
ehearing the camels, anointing them Avith oil, injecting oil into the noses 
of the animals, and indenting for the furniture allowed to ^Alafi camels. 

ATN 64. 

The scientific terms for these operations are tatliyah and tajri\ though 
we might expect tatligah and tdnshkq, because tanshiq means injecting into 
the nose. 

* These items added up give 169 d., 
instead of Abulfazl's 1680- d. 

* The items added up give 144 d., 
instead of Abulfazl's 14,3 d. 

* Hence the Government paid, as a 

rule, -jO^ )^ J = {5 of the estimates 

* The addition gives 52 f d. instead of 
62^. The following items, for loks, 
give added up 62^. 


For each Bughdi and Jammdzah 3f sers of sesame oil are annually 
allowed, viz., three sers for anointing, and i ser for injection into the nose. 
So also i s. of brimstone, and 6^ 8: of butter-milk. For other kinds of 
camels the allowance is ft s. of brimstone, 6^ s. of butter*milk, and i «. of 
grease for injecting into the nose-holes. 

Formerly these operations were repeated three times, but now only once 
a year. 

A'fN 66. 


His Majesty has formed the camels into qafdrs, and given each qafdr 
in charge of a sdrhdn, or driver. Their wages are four-fold. The first class 
get 400 d. ; the second, 340 d, ; the third, 280 d, ; the fourth, 220 d., per 

The qafirs are of three kinds — 1. Every five qafdra are in charge of an 
experienced man, called histopanji, or commander of twenty-five. His salary 
is 720 d. He marks a YSd horse, and has four drivers under him. 
2. Double the preceding, or ten qafdrsj are committed to the care of a Faiy'dhiy 
or commander of fifty. He is allowed a horse, draws 960 d,, and has nine 
drivers under him. 3. Every hundred qafdrs are in charge of a Panjgadif 
or commander of five hundred. Ten qafdr» are under his personal superin- 
tendence. With the exception of one qafdr, Government finds drivers for 
the others. The Panjdhis, and Bistopanjis are under his orders. Their 
salary varies : now-a-days many Yuzbasbls' are appointed to this post. 
One camelis told off for i^e/arrdshes, A writer also has been appointed. His 
Majesty, from his practical knowledge, has placed each Pangadi under a 
grandee of the court. Several active foot-soldiers have been selected, to 
enquire from time to time into the condition of the camels, so that there 
may be no neglect. Besides, twice a year some people adorned with the 
jewel of insight, inspect the camels as to their leanness or fatness, at the 
beginning of the rains, and at the time of the annual muster. 

Should a camel get lost, the Sdrhdn is fined the full value ; so also the 
PanjdAi and the Pangadi. If a camel get lame or bUnd, they are fined the 
fourth part of the price. 


Baihdri is the name given to a class of Hindus who are acquainted with 
the habits of the camel. They teach the coimtry bred lok camel so to step 
as to pass over great distances in a short time. Although from the capital 

* Correspondiiig to our Captains of the Army, commanders of 100 soldiers. 


to the frontiora of the eni])ir<\ into ovorv diiNvtion, rt'lny hor«;os are stjitiouod, 
and swift niiniers have Won posted at the distance of ovory five Aym, a few of 
these camel riders are kept at the jialaco in readiness. Each liaihdri 
is also put in charj^o of fifty stud ar\Yanahs, to whi<li for the purpose of 
breeding, one hughur and two hh are attaclied. The latter (the males) got 
the nsual allowance of grain, but nothing for grass. Tlio fifty ancdnain 
get no allowance for grain or grass. For every hughur, hughd'i, and jam- 
indzah, in the stud, the allowance for oiling and injecting into the nostrils, 
is 4 8. of sesame oil, J a. of brimstone, 6 J a. of ])utter milk. The first 
includes ^ «. of oil for injcntion. Zo/>', arwdnah, gliunh, andmdgah g'kurd^, 
only get 3| s. of sesame oil — the deduction is made for injection, — 6J s, of 
butter milk, and § s. of brimstone. 

Botahs and DumldlahH — these names are given to j^oung camels ; the former 
is used for light burdc^ns — are allowed 2A s. of oil, inclusive of J s. for 
injection into the nostrils, I ^- ^>f brimstone, and 4 J r. of butter-milk. 

Fidl grown stud camels get weekly J- «. of saltx)etre and coumion salt ; 
hotahs get J s. 

The wages of a herdsman is 200 d. per mensem. For grazing evety 
fifty stud camels, he is allowed five assistants, each of whom gets 2 d. per 
diem. A herdsman of two herds of fifty is obliged to present His Majesty 
throe arwdjialis every year; on failure, their price is deducted from liis 

Formerly the state iLsed to exact a fourth paii; of the wool sheared from 
every hifjhdi and jammdzali, each camel being assessed to yield four sers of 
wool. This His Majesty has remitted, and in lieu thereof, has ordered the 
drivers to provide their camels with dum-afadrs, wooden i)egs, &o. 

The following are the prices of camels : — a hughdi, from 5 to 12 Muhurs ; 
ajarnmdzah, from 3 to 10 M. ; a hughur, from 3 to 7 J/! ; a mongrel lok, from 
8 to 9 ^. ; a country-bred, or a Baluchi Joh, from 3 to 8 Jf. ; an arwdnah, 
from 2 to 4 ilf . 

His Majesty has regidated the burdens to be earned by camels. A first 
class higlidij not more than 10 ynans ; a second class do., 8 ni. ; superior 
jammdzaliSy hies, &c., 8 m. ; second class do, 6 m. 

In this country, camels do not live above twenty-four years. 

Am 66. 


Throughout the happy regions of Hindustan, the cow is considered 
auspicious, and held in great veneration ; for by means of this animal, 
tillage is carried on, the sustenance of life is rendered possible, and the table of 


the inhabitant ia filled with milt, butter-milk, and butter. It is capable of 
canying burdens and drawing wheeled carriages, and thiis becomes an 
excellent assistant for the three branches of the government. 

Though every part of the empire produces cattle of various kinds, those 
of Onjr&t are the best. Sometimes a pair of them are sold at 100 muhurs. 
TheywiU travel 80 kos [120 miles] in 24 hours, and surpass even swift 
horses. Nor do they dung whilst running. The usual price is 20 and 10 
muhurs. Good cattle are also found in Bengal and the Dakh'in. They 
kneel down at the time of being loaded. The cows give upwards of haK a 
tMn of nulk. In the province of Dihll again, cows are not more worth 
than 10 Rupees. His Majesty once bought a pair of cows for two lacs of 
ddou [5000 Hupees]. 

In the neighbourhood of Thibet and Kashmir, the Qafds, or Thibetan 
Tak, occurs, an animal of extraordinary appearance. 

A cow will live to the age of twenty-five. 

From his knowledge of the wonderful properties of the cow, His 
Majesty, who notices every thing which is of value, pays much attention to 
the* improvement of cattle. He divided them into classes, and conmiitted 
each to the chaise of a merciful keeper. One hundretl choice cattle were 
selected as kh&gahy and called kotal. They are kept in readiness for any 
service, and forty of them are taken unladen on hunting expeditions, as 
shall be mentioned below (Book 11, Ain 27.). Fifty-one others nearly as 
good are called hsll-kotal, and fifty-one more, quarter-/b^a^. Any deficiency 
in the first class is made up &om the second, and that of the middle firom 
the third. But these three form the cow-stables for His Majesty's use. 

Besides, sections of cattle have been formed, each varying in number 
from 50 to 100, and committed to the charge of honest keepers. The rank 
of each animal is fixed at the time of the public muster, when each gets its 
proper place among sections of equal rank. A similar proceeding is 
adopted for each section, when selected for drawing waggons and travelling 
carriages, or for fetching water {vide Afn 22). 

There is also a species of oxen, called gaini^ small like guf horses, but 
reiy beautiful. 

MOk-cows and buffaloes have also been divided into sections, and 
handed over to intelligent servants. 

iffN 67. 


Eveiy head of the first khdgah class is allowed daily 6^ s. of grain, and 
Ijf d, of grass. The whole stable gets daily 1 man, 19 «. of molasses, which 


is distributed bv tho Darogah, wli«> must bo a man suitalilo for Ruoh a duty 
and otfice. Cattle of the remaining: khd^ah classes get daily 6 s. of grain, 
and gi'ass as before, but no molasses are given. 

In other co^-stablos, the daily allowance is as follows. First kind, 6 *. 
of grain, \^ d. of grass at court, and otherwise only 1 d. Tlie second kind 
get 5 s. of grain, and grass as usual. Tho oxen used for travelling carriages 
get 6 8. of grain, and grass as usual. First class gainis get 3 *. of grain, 
and 1 d. of grass at court, otli(»rwise only J d.. Second class do., 2 J s. of 
grain, and J d. of grass at court, otherwise only \ d, 

A male butfalo (called Amah) gets 8 s. of wheat flour boiled, 2 «. 
of g'hi, J 8. of molasses, Ij 8. of grain, and 2 d. of grass. This animal, 
when 3'oung, fights astonisliingly, and will tear a lion to pieces. Wken this 
pe(ndiar strength is gone, it reaches tho second stage, and is used for 
carrying water. It then gets 8 s, of grains, and 2 d, for grass. Female 
buffaloes used for carrying water get (5 8. of grain, and 2 d. for grass. First 
class oxen for leopard-waggons" g^i^i 6J s. of grain ; and other classes, 5 8. 
of grain, but tho same quantity of grass. Oxen for heavy waggons got 
formerly 5 «. of grain, and li ^. for grass ; but now they get a quarter ser 
less, and grass as before. 

Tho milk-cows and buffaloes, when at court, have grain given them 
in proportion to the quantity of milk they give. A herd of cows and 
buffaloes is called fhd^. A cow will give daily from 1 to 15 «. of milk; a 
buffsdo from 2 to 30 8. The buffaloes of the Panjdb are the best in this 
respect. As soon as tho quantity of milk given by eac^h cow has been 
ascertained, there are demanded two dams weight of g'hi for every ser of 

Al'N 68. 


In tho khd^ali stables, one man is appointed to look after four head of 
cattle. Eighteen such keepers in the first stable get 5 d. per diem, and the 
remaining keepers, 4 d. In other stables, the salary of the keepers is tho 
same, but each has to look after six cows. Of the carriage drivers, some 
get their salaries on the list of the Aliadis ; others get 360 d., others 256 d. 
down to 112 <?. Bahahy OT carriages, are of two kinds: — 1. Chatriddr or 
covered carriages, having four or more poles (which support the chatry or 
umbrella) ; 2. without a covering. Carriages suited for horses are called 
g^htirhahah. For every ten waggons, 20 drivers and 1 carpenter are allowed. 

* Carriages for the transport of trained hunting leopards. Tide Book II, Ain 27. 


The head driver, or Mirdahahj and the carpenter, get each 5 d. per diem ; 
the others, 4 d. For some time 15 drivers had been appointed, and the 
carpenter was disallowed: the drivers themselves undertook the repairs, 
and received on this account an annual allowance of 2200 ddms [b5 Eupees.] 
If a horn of an ox was broken, or the animal got blind, the Daroghah 
was fined one-fourth of the price, or even more, according to the extent of 
the injury. 

Formerly the Ddroghahs paid all expenses on account of repairs, and 
received for every day that the carriages were used, half a dto ung money — 
itng is hemp smeared with g'hi, and twisted round about the axle-tree which, 
like a pivot, fits into the central hole of the wheel, and thus prevents it 
from wearing away or getting broken. "When afterwards the Ddrogahship 
was transferred to the drivers, they had to provide for this expense. At 
&ret^ it was only customary for the carts to carry on marches a part of the 
baggage belonging to the dLSerent workshops ; but when the drivers 
performed the duties of the Ddroghahs, they had also to provide for the 
carriage of the fuel required at court, and for the transport of building 
materials. But subsequently, 200 waggons were set aside for the transport 
of building materials, whilst 600 others have to bring, in the space of ten 
months, 1,50,000 mans of fuel to the Imperial kitchen. And if officers of 
the government on any day use the Imperial waggons for other purposes, 
that day is to be separately accounted for, as also each service rendered 
to the court. The drivers are not subject to the Pdgoaht regulation {vide 
Ain 83). K, however, an ox dies, they have to buy another. 

But when it came to the ears of His Majesty that the above mode of 
contract was productive of much cruelty towards these serviceable, but 
mute animals, he abolished this system, and gave them again in charge 
of faithfdl servants. The allowance of grain for every cart-buUock was 
fixed at 4 «., and 1^ d. were given for grass. For other bullocks, the 
allowance in one-half of the preceding. But during the four rainy months 
no money is allowed for grass. There were also appointed for every 
eighteen carts twelve drivers, one of whom must understand carpenter's 
work. Now, if a bullock dies, government supplies another in his stead, 
and likewise pays for the ung, and is at the expense of repairs. 

The cattle that are worked are mustered once a year by experienced 
men who estimate their fatness or leanness ; cattle that are unemployed are 
inspected eveiy six months. Instead of the above mentioned transport of 
firewood, &c., the carters have now to perform any service which may be 
required by the government. 


AFN 69. 

Tlio mul(> possesses the strength of a horse, and the patience of an ass ; 
and tlioiigli it has not the intelligence of the former, it has not the stupidity 
of tlie hitter. It never forgets the road which it has once travelled. Hence 
it is liked hy His Mnjesty, whose practical wisdom extends to every thing, 
and the breeding is encouraged. It is the best animal for carrying burdens, 
and travelling over uneven gi'ound, and has a very soft step. People 
generally believe that the male ass cou^des with a mare, but the opposite 
connexion also is known to take place, as mentioned in the books of 
antiquity. The mule resembles its dam. His Majesty had a young ass 
coupled with a mare, and they produced a very fine mule. 

In many countries just princes prefer travelling about on a mule ; and 
people can therefore easilj^ lay their grievances before them,' without 
inconveniencing the traveller. 

Mides are only bred in Hindustan in Pak'hali,- and its neighbourhood. 
Tlie simple inhabitants of this country used to look upon mules as asses 
and thought it derogatory to ride upon them ; but in consequence of the 
interest which Ilis Majesty takes in this animal, so great a dislike is now 
nowhere to be foimd. 

Mides are chiefly imported from 'Iraq i 'Arab and 'Iraq i 'Ajam. Very 
superior mules are often sold at lis. 1,000 per head. 

Like camels, they are formed into qatdrs of five, and have the same 
names, exce2)t the second mule of each qa(dr, which is called hardwity 
[instead of ^;<.v//rfr7rrtf//, vide liin 61, end]. 

Mules reach the age of fifty'. 

ATN 70. 


Such mules as are not country-bred, get at court, 6 s. of grain, and 2 d. 
for grass ; otherwise, only 1 J d. Countiy-bred mides get 4 s. of grain, and 
1 J rf. of grass, when at court ; otherwise, 1 d. for grass. Each mule is 
allowed every week ^^jetah for salt ; but they give the salt in a lump. 

' Wliich the subjects could not so 
easily do, if the jn-iucea, on their tour« 
of administration of justice, were to 
ride on elephants, because the plaintiff 
would stand too far from the king. 

* The Sarkar of Pak'hali lies between 
Atak (Attock) and Kashmir, a little 
north of Rawul Pindee. Tide towards 
the end of Book III. 


ATN 71. 

For imported mules, a head stall of leather, 20^ d. ; an iron chain 
weighing 2 «., 10 J. ; a ranaki (crupper) of leather, 4 d, ; & pdldn (pack- 
saddle), 102 d. ; a shdltang (shawl strap), and SLpalds-tang (blanket strap), 
36^ d. ; a fdqah fandh (a rope for fastening the burden,) 63 (/. ; a qatir shuldq 
(a short whip), 6 <^. ; a bell, one for every qafdr^ 10 <^. ; a horse hair saddle* 
40 if. ; a hddwah (vide Am 45, No. 9) of leather, 13 d. ; a set of ropes, 9 d, ; 
a saddle cloth, 4^ cf . ; a sardoz (a common head stall) 4 d. ; a. Jchurjin 
(wallet), 15 d,\ a fodder-bag, 4 <?. ; a magas-rdn (to drive away flies) of 
leather, \ d,\ £l curry-comb and a hair-glove (for washing), 4 d. Total, 

For country-bred mules the allowance is 151 J df., rwj., a head stall of 
leather, 4 d. ; pack-saddle, bl d, 18f y. ; the two straps, lOJ d.'j a tdqah 
fandh and sardoz, 40 d.; a beU, 5 d.; a, fodder-bag, S d,; a crupper, 3 d, ; 
a saddle, 24 d.; a cuny-comb and a hair-glove, 4 d. 

The furniture is renewed eveiy third year ; but for aU iron and wood 
work, half the price is deducted. The annual allowance for the repair of 
the furniture is 40 d. ; but on the march, the time of renewal depends on the 
wear. Mules are shod eveiy six months at a cost of 8 d. per head. 

Each qafdr is in charge of a keeper. Turdnis, Trdnfs, and Indians, are 
appointed to this office : the first two get from 400 to 1920 d. ; and the 
third class, from 240 to 256 d. per mensem. Such keepers as have monthly 
salaries of 10 R. [400 d.~\ and upwards, have to find the ^tf«Aany (first mide of 
their qafdr) in grain and grass. Experienced people inspect the mules tvdce 
a year as to leanness or fatness. Once a year they are paraded before His 

If a mule gets blind or lame, the muleteer is fined one-fourth of the 
cost price ; and one-half, if it is lost. 

Asses also are employed for carrying burdens and fetching water. 
They get 3 s. of grain, and 1 d, for grass. The furniture for asses is the 
same as that for country-bred mules, but no saddle is given. The annual 
allowance for repairs is 23 d. The keepers do not get above 120 d. per 

Am 72. 


The success of the three branches of the government, and the fulfilment 
of the wishes of the subjects, whether great or small, depend upon the 



mainicr in \^]ii«li a kiiiLi ^pfuds liis tim(». The caro with which His Majosty 
j^iianls over liis motives, and watclies over his emotions, hoarsen its faeo the 
si;^ni of the Inliiiite, and the stamp of immortality ; and though thousands of 
imimrtant matters or(U])y, at one and tlie same time, his attention, they do 
not .stir np iIm- ru1»l»isli t»t' confusion in tin* temjjle of his mind, nor do they 
allow the (lu>t of dismay to settle on the vipfour of his mental powers, or 
tlie hahitual earnestness witli wliieh His Majesty contemplates the charms 
of God's w(n'ld. Ilis anxiety to do the will of the Creator is ever increasing ; 
and thus his insij^ht ami wisdom are ever dc^^pening. From his practical 
knowh^lge, and capacity for every thing excellent, he can sound men of 
expericmce, tliougli rarely casting a glance on his own ever extending 
excellence. He listens to great and small, expecting that a good thought, or 
the relation of a nohle deed, may kindle in his mind a new lamp of wisdom, 
tliough ages have past without his having found a really great man. 
Impartial statesmen, on seeing the sagacity of His Majesty, blotted out the 
hook of their own wisdom, and commenced a new leaf. But with the 
magnanimity which distinguislies liim, and with his wonted zeal, he continues 
his search for superior men, and finds a reward in the care with which he 
selects such as are fit for his society. 

Although surrounded hy every external pomp and display, and by 
every inducement to lead a life of luxury and ease, he does not allow his 
desires, or his wrath, to renounce allegiance to Wisdom, his sovereign — how 
much less woidd he permit them to lead him to a bad deed ! Even the 
telling of stories, which ordinarj' people use as as a means of lulling themselves 
into sleep, serves to ke(^p His ^lajesty awake. 

Ardently feeling after God, and searching for truth, His Majesty 
exercises upon liiniself both inward and outward austerities, though he 
occasionally joins public worship, in order to hush the slandering tongues of 
the bigots of the present age. But the gi'oat object of his life is the 
accjuisition of that sound morality, the sublime loftiness of which captivates 
the hearts of thinking sages, and silences the taunts of zealots and 

Knowing the value of a lifetime, he never wastes his time, nor 
does he omit any necessary- duty, so that in the light of his upright in- 
tentions, every action of liis life may be considered as an adoration of God. 

It is beyond my power to describe in adequate terms His Majesty's 
devotions. He i)asses every moment of his life in self-examination or in 
adoration of God. He especially does so at the time, when morning spreads 
her aiure silk, and scatters abroad her yoimg, golden beams ; and at noon, 
when the light of the world-illuminating sun embraces the universe, and 
thus becomes a source of joy for all men ; in the evening, when that 


fountain of light withdraws from the eyes of mortal man, to the bewildering 
grief of all who are friends of light ; and lastly at midnight, when that 
great cause of life turns again to ascend, and to bring the news of renewed 
cheerfulness to all who, in the melancholy of the night, are stricken with 
sorrow. All these grand mysteries are in honor of God, and in adoration 
of the Creator of the world ; and if dark-minded, ignorant men cannot 
comprehend their signification, who is to be blamed, and whose loss is it ? 
Indeed, every man acknowledges that we owe gratitude and reverence to 
our benefactors ; and hence it is incumbent on us, though our strength may 
isaly to show gratitude for the blessings we receive from the sim, the light 
of all lights, and to enumerate the benefits which he bestows. This is 
essentially the duty of kings, upon whom, according to the opinion of the 
wise, this sovereign of the heavens sheds an immediate light. ^ And this 
is the very motive which actuates His Majesty to veneiate fire and reverence 

But why should I speak of the mysterious blessings of the sun, or of 
the transfer of his greater light to lamps ? Should I not rather dwell on 
the perverseness of those weakminded zealots, who, with much concern, talk 
of His Majesty's religion as of a deification of the Sun, and the introduc- 
tion of fire-worship ? But I shall dismiss them with a smile. 

The compassionate heart of His Majesty finds no pleasure in cruelties, 
or in causing sorrow to others ; he is ever sparing of the lives of his subjects, 
wishing to bestow happiness upon all. 

His Majesty abstains much from fiesh, so that whole months pass away 
without his touching any animal food, which, though prized by most, is 
nothing thought of by the sage. His august nature cares but little for the 
pleasures of the world. In the course of twenty-four hours, he never 
makes more than one meal. He takes a delight in spending his time in 
performing whatever is necessary and proper. He takes a little repose in 
the evening, and again for a short time in the morning ; but his sleep looks 
more like waking. 

His Majesty is accustomed to spend the hours of the night profitably ; 
to the private audience hall are then admitted eloquent philosophers, and 
virtuous ^ufis, who are seated according to their rank, and entertain His 
Majesty with wise discourses. On such occasions His Majesty fathoms 
them, and tries them on the touch-stone of knowledge. Or the object of an 
ancient institution is disclosed, or new thoughts are hailed with delight. Here 
young men of talent learn to revere and adore His Majesty, and experience 
the happiness of having their wishes fulfilled, whilst old men of impai*tial 

* Vide Abolfazl's Preface, p. iii., and p. 49. 


Hul^V»K'»it s(H< tliemsolvos on tliu expanse of sorrow, fuiding that tliey have 
t»» i»uss tlii()u;^li a new course ol* in.struction. 

There aro also present in these assemblies, unprejudiced liistorians, 
w ho do not mutilate liistory by adding or suppressing facts, and relate tlie 
iiii|»n'>.siv(; events of ancient times. His Majesty often makes remarks 
wonilrrl'iilly hhrewd, or starts a litting subject for conversation. On other 
(M <a 'Iniis mutters referring to tlie empire and the revenue, ai'e brought u^^, 
nnIk'Ii His Majesty gives orders for whatever is to be done in each case. 

About a watch before day-break, musicians of all nations are introduced, 
wlio recreate the assembly with music and songs, and religious strains; 
and when four glufris are left till morning, Ilis Majesty retires to hia 
private apartments, brings las external appearance in harmony with the 
Hinijilicity of his heart, and launches forth into the ocean of contemplation. 
In tlie meantime, at the close of niglit, soldiers, merchants, peasants, trades- 
people, and otlier professions, gather round the palace, patiently waiting 
to catcli a glimpse of His Majesty. Soon after day-break, they are allowed 
to make tlie hornish {vide Ain 74). After this, Ilis Majesty allows tlie 
attendants of the Harem to pay tlieir compliments. Dui'ing tliis time vai'ious 
matters of worldly and religious import are brought to the notice of Kis 
Alajesty. As soon as they are settled, he returns to his private apartments, 
and reposes a little. 

The good habits of Ilis Majesty are so numerous, that I cannot 
adequately describe them. If I were to compile dictionaiies on this subject, 
they would not be exhaustive. 

ATN 73. 

Admittance to Court is a distinction conferi'ed on the nation at large ; 
it is a pledge that the tlu'ee branches of the government are properly 
looked after, and enables subjects personally to apjdy for redress of their 
grievances. Admittance to the rider of the land is for the success of his 
government, what irrigation is for a flower-bed ; it is the field, on which 
the hopes of the nation ripen into fruit. 

His l^Iajest}' generally receives twice in tjio course of twenty-four 
hoiu\s, when people of all classes can satisfy their eyes and hearts with the 
light of his countenance. Firnt, after performing his morning devotions, 
he is visible, from outside the awning, to people of all ranks, whether they 
be given to worldly pursuits, or to a hfo of soUtary contemplation, without 
any molestation from the mace-bearers. This mode of showing himself is 


called, in the langaage of the country, darsan (view) ; and it frequently 
liappens that business is transacted at this time. The second time of his 
being TLsible is in the State Hall, whither he generally goes after the first 
watch of the day. But this assembly is sometimes announced towards the 
doee of day, or at night. He also frequently a;ppears at a window which 
opens into the State Hall, for the transaction of business ; or he dispenses 
there justice calmly and serenely, or examines into the dispensation of 
justice, or the merit of officers, without being influenced in his judgment 
by any predilections, or any thing impure and contrary to the will of God. 
Every officer of gOTomment then presents various reports, or explains his 
several wants, and is instructed by His Majesty how to proceed. From his 
knowledge of the character of the times, though in opposition to the practice 
of kings of past ages. His Majesty looks upon the smallest details as mirrors 
capable of reflecting a comprehensive outline ; he does not reject that 
which superficial observers call unimportant, and counting the happiness 
of his subjects as essential to his own, never suffers his equanimity to be 

Whenever His Majesty holds court, they beat a large drum, the 
sounds of which are accompanied by Divine praise. In this manner, people 
of all classes receive notice. His Majesty's sons and grandchildren, the 
grandees of the Court, and all other men who have admittance, attend to 
make the karntsh, and remain standing in their proper places. Learned 
men of renown and skiKul mechanics pay their respects ; the Daroghahs 
and Bitikchis (writers) set forth their several wants; and the officers of 
justice give in their reports. His Majesty, with his usual insight, gives 
orders, and settles everything in a satisfactory manner. During the whole 
UmBj skilful gladiators and wrestlers from all countries hold themselves 
in readiness, and singers, male and female, are in waiting. Clever jugglers, 
and funny tumblers also are anxious to exhibit their dexterity and agility. 

His Majesty, on such occasions, addresses himself to many of those 
who have been presented, impressing all with the correctness of his 
intentions, the unbiasedness of his mind, the humility of his disposition, 
the magnanimity of his heart, the excellence of his nature, the cheerfulness 
of his countenance, and the frankness of his manners; his intelligence 
pervades the whole assembly, and midtifarious matters are easily and 
satisfactorily settled by his tridy divine power. 

This vale of sorrows is changed to a place of rest : the anny and the 
nation axe content. May the empire flourish, and these blessings endure ! 


ATN 74. 

Superficial oL.scTVors, coiTcotly onougli, look U2)oii a king as tlie origin 
of tlie 2)eaee and conilbrt of tho subjects. But men of deeper insight are 
of opinion thatieven spiritual progress among a people woidd be im2)ossible, 
uidess emanating from tlie king, in whom the light of God dwells ; for near 
tlie throne, men wipe oil" the stain of eonceit, and build up the ai-ch of true 

AVith tho view, then, of promoting this true humility, Idngs in their 
wisdom have made regulations for the manner in whieh people are to shew 
their ol)edienc(\ »S(;me kings have adopted the bending down of the head. 
His Majesty has commanded the palm of the right hand to be plaeed upon 
the forehead, and the head to be bent downwards. Tliis mode of sidutation, 
in the language of the present age, is called kurniah, and signihes that tho 
saluter has placed his head (which is the seat of the sensi^s and the mind) 
into the hand of humility, giving it to the royal assembly as a present, and 
has made himself in obedience ready for any service that may be required 
of him. 

The salutation, called tasVim^ consists in placing the back of the right 
hand on the ground, and then raising it gently till the jjcrson stands erect, 
wlien he puts the palm of his hand upon the crown of his head, which 
pleasing manner of saluting signifies that he is ready to give himself as an 

Ilis Majesty relates as follows : " One day my royal father bestowed 
upon me one of his o^vn caps, which 1 put on. Because the cap of the king 
was rather large, 1 had to hold it with my [right] hand, whilst bending my 
head downwards, and thus performed tho manner of salutation (kornish) 
above described. The king was pleased with this new method, and from his 
feeling of jiropriety ordered this to be the mode of the kornhh and taslim. 

Ujion taking leave, or presentation, or upon receiving a viansaby a jagir, 
or a di'ess of honoiu-, or an elephant, or a horse, tho ride is to make three 
iadiins ; but oidy one on all other occasions, when salaries are paid, or 
presents are made. 

Such a d(^gree of obcnlienro is also shown by servants to th(»ir masters, and 
looked upon by them as a source of blessings. Ilence for the disciples of 

* Hence tho presoiieo of the king 
promotes humility, wliich is the founda- 
tion of all spiritual life. So especially 
iu the case of Akbar, towards whom, a** 

the head of the New Church, the suhjects 
occupy the position of disciples. Vide 
Aiu 77, and the Note after it. 


His Majesty, it was necessary to add something, riz., prostration* (sijdah) ; 
and they look upon a prostration before His Majesty as a prostration 
performed before God ; for royalty is an emblem of the power of God, and 
a light-shedding ray &om this Sun of the Absolute. 

Viewed in this light, the prostration has become acceptable to many, 
and proved to them a source of blessings upon blessings. 

But as some perverse and dark-minded men look upon prostration as 
bla8];^emous man- worship. His Majesty, firom his practical wisdom, has 
ordered it to be discontinued by the ignorant, and remitted it to all ranks, 
forbidding even his private attendants from using it in the Darbdr i ^Am 
(general court-days). However, in the private assembly, when any of those 
are in waiting, upon whom the star of good fortune shines, and they receive 
the order of seating themselves, they certainly perform the prostration of 
gratitude by bowing down their foreheads to the earth, and thus participate 
in the halo of good fortune. 

In this manner, by forbidding the people at large to prostrate, but 
allowing the Elect to do so, His Majesty fulfills the wishes of both, and 
shows the world a fitting example of practical wisdom. 

AFN 75. 

Just as spiritual leadership requires a regulated mind, capable of 
controlling covetousness and wrath, so does political leadership depend on 
an external order of things, on the regulation of the difference among men 
in rank, and the power of liberality. If a king possess a cultivated mind, 
his position as the spiritual leader of the nation will be in harmony with his 
temporal office ; and the performance of each of his political duties will be 
equivalent to an adoration of God. Should any one search for an example, 
I would point to the practice of His Majesty, which will be found to exhibit 
that happy harmony of motives, the contemplation of which rewards the 

* The prostration, or sijdah, is one 
of the positions at prayer, and is there- 
fore looked upon by all Muhammad- 
ans as the exdusive right of God. 
When AkW, as the head of his new 
faith, was treated by his flattering 
firiends, perhaps against his calmer judg- 
ment, as the representative of God on 
earth, he had to allow prostration in the 
sMemblies of the Elect. The people at 
lai^e would never have submitted. The 
practice evidently pleased the emperor, 
oecaoae he looked with fondness upon 
every custom of the ancient Persian 

kings, at whose courts the irpo^tcvvtiy 
had been the usual salutation. " It was 
Nizdm of Badakhshdn who invented the 
prostration when the emperor was still 
at Fathpur [before 1586]. The suc- 
cess of tlie innovation made Mulla 
A'lam of Kabul exclaim, " O that I had 
been the inventor of this little business !" 
Bad. Ill, p. 163. Kegarding Nizam, 
or Ghazi Khdn, vide Abulfazl's list of 
Grandees, Ilnd book. No. 144. The 
sijdah as an article of Akbar's Divine 
Religion, will be again referred to in the 
note to Ain 77 1 


scarclior witli an iiirroaso of personal knowlcflp^o, mid loads him to worship 
lliis ideal of a king.* 

"When His ^Mnjohty seats himself on the thi'one, all that are x)resent 
prn-form tlie hornishy and then remain standing at their places, aceording to 
tin 'ir rank, with tli«ar arms crossed,* partaking, in the liglit of his imperial 
coTuitenance, of the elixir of life, and enjo;)'iug everlasting happiness in 
standing ready for any servdco. 

The i'Llest prince places himself, when standing, at a distance of one 
to fr)nr yards from the tlu'one, or when sitting, at a distance from two to 
eight. Tlie second prince stands from one and one-half to six yards £i*om 
tlio tlirone, and in sitting from tlu'ee to twelve. So also the third ; but 
sometimes he is admitted to a n<'arer position than the second prin<^c, and 
at other times Loth stand together at the same distance. But His Majesty 
generally places the younger princes affectionately nearer. 

Then come the Elect of tlie highest rank, who are worthy of the spiritual 
guidance of Ilis Majesty, at a distance of tlu'oe to tifteen yards, and in sitting 
froni five to twenty. After this follow the senior grandees ii'om three and a 
half yards, and then the other grandees, £i*om ten or twelve and a half yards 
from the tlu'ono. 

All others stand in the Yasal.^ One or two attendants' stand neai*er 
than all. 

* Tlic words of the text are anilii^uous 
Tlu'v may also moan, <nnl haih h'nn fo 
praise mc tfs the man ivlto dinc/cd hini, 
(otrnrds ih /.v v voiuph'. 

^ Till' tin«j;('r lips of tlio Icfl liai)d tou'-li 
the rijxlit t'lliow, and those of tlio ri^lit 
iiaiul, tlio lotl elbow ; or, the fin;^('rs of 
each haiul rest apiinst tlie inner npi)er 
nnn of the o]) side. The lower 
arms rest on the l\nnarhand. When in 
this ])osition, a servant is ealled ixmaduh 
i khidinaf, or ready for service. Some- 
tin les the ri^^ht tool also is put over the 
lelt, the toes of the former merely 
touching the ji:ronnd. The shoes are, of 
course, left outside at the pv//' / ui'dl. 
The em])eror sits on the throne {ride 
Plate VII.) with crossed le^s. or c/nf/nir- 
z<un(.i\ position of comfort which Orientals 
alK>w to persons of rank. This position, 
however, is cnWi'd Jiratnn 7ii,s/iusff or 
Pharaoh's mode of sitting, if assumed 

by persons of no rank in the presence of 
strangers. Pharaoh — Orientals mean the 
Pharaoh of the time of Moses — is pro- 
verbial in the Ea>t for vain-glory. TJie 
})(»sition suitable for society is the duziinu 
nmde of sitting, i, e., the pei-son first 
kneels down with his body straight ; he 
then lets the body gently sink till he sits 
on his heels, the arms being kept ex- 
tended and the hands restmg on the 

' Yasal signifies the wing of an anny, 
and liere, the two win«(s into which the 
assembly is divided. The ])lace before 
the throne remains free. One wing was 
generally occupied by the grandees of 
the Court, and the chief functionaries ; on 
the other wing stood the Qnr {ride pp. 
lUU, 110), the Mullius and the *Ulam6, 

* The servants who hold the sdibdn 
Ain 19, or the fans. 


AfN 76. 

The business which His Majesty daily transacts is most multifarious ; 
hence I shall only describe such afiEairs as continually recur. 

A large number of men are introduced on such days, for which an 
Anjuman i Ddd o IHhish, or assembly of expenditure, has been announced. 
Their merits are enquired into, and the coin of knowledge passes current. 
Some take a burden from their hearts by expressing a wish to be enrolled 
among the members of the Divine Faith ; others want medicines for their 
diseases.* Some pray His Majesty to remove a religious doubt ; others 
again seek his advice for settling a worldly matter.* There is no end to 
such requests, and I must confine myself to the most necessary cases. 

The salaries of a large number of men' from Turan and Tran, Turkey 
and Europe, Hindustan and Kashmir, are fixed by the proper officers in a 
maimer described below, and the men themselves are taken before His 
Majesiy by the paymasters. Formerly it had been the custom for the men 
to come with a horse and accoutrements ; but now-a-days only men appointed 
to the post of an Ahadi* bring a horse. The salary as proposed by the 
officers who bring them, is then increased or decreased, though it is generally 
increased ; for the market of His Majesty's liberality is never dull. The 
number of men brought before His Majesty depends on the number of men 
available. Every Monday all such horsemen are mustered as were left 
from the preceding week. With the view of increasing the army and the 
zeal of the officers, His Majesty gives to each who brings horsemen, a 
present of two dams for each horseman. 

Special Bitikchis* [writers] introduce in the same manner such as are 
fit to be Ahadfs. In their case. His Majesty always increases the stipulated 
salary. As it is customary for every Ahadi to buy* his own horse, His 
If ajesty has ordered to bring to every muster the horses of any Ahadis that 

' This is to he taken literoHv. The 
w»ter on which Akbar breathea, was a 
nniTersal remedy. Vide next Ain. 

' As settling a family-feud, recom- 
mending a matrimonial alliancei giving 
anew-born child a suitable name, &c. 

* Abnlfazl means men who were willing 
to lerre in the several grades of the 
tUnding army. The standing army 
consisted of cavalry, artillery, and rifles. 
There was no regular In&ntry. Men 
vbo joined the standing army, in the 
liegioning of Akbar's reign, brought 
their own horse and accoutrements with 
them ; but as this was found to be the 
of much inelliciency (vide Second 

Book, Ain 1), a horse was given to each 
recruit on joining, for which he was 

* As Ahadis drew a higher salary (II, 
Ain 4), they could buy, and maintain, 
horses of a superior kind. 

' Ain 4 of the second book mentions 
only one officer appointed to recruit the 
ranks of Ahadis. 

• So according to two MSS. My text 
edition, p. 168, 1. 10, has As it w not 
customary for Ahadis to buy a horsey 

fc. Both readings give a sense, though 
should prefer the omission of the nega- 
tive word. According to Ain 4, of the 
second book, an Ahadi was supplied with 



uiny havt' lati'ly (IumI, ^vlliell li«* hamU over to tlic newly ai)i)oiuted iVIiadis 
either «'is presenttH, or charging the price to their monthly salaries. 

On such occasions, 8enior Grandees and other Amirs introduce also 
any of tlieir friends, for whom tliey may solicit appointments. His Majesty 
then fixes the salaric^s of such candidates according to circumstances ; but 
appointments under fifty rupees per mensem are rarely ever solicited in this 

Api)ointments to the Imperial workshops also are made in such 
assemhlies, and the salaries are fL\ed. 

AI'N 77. 

God, the Giver of intellect and the Creator of matter, forms mankind 
as He pleases, and gives to some comprehensiveness, and to others narrow- 
ness of disposition. Hence the origin of two opposite tendencies among' 
men, one class of whom turn to religious {dln)^ and the other class to worldly 
thoughts {dunyd). Each of those two divisions selects different leaders,* and 
mutual repulsiveness grows to open ru^^ture. It is then that men's blindnc^ss 
and silliness appear in their true light ; it is then discovered how rarely mutual 
regard and charity are to Lo met with. 

But have the religious and the worldly tendencies of men no common 
ground ? Is there not everywhere the same enrapturing beauty' which beam.s 
forth from so many thousand hidden places ? Broad indeed is the carpet* 
which God has spread, and beautifid the colours which He has given it. 

The Lover and the Beloved are in realitv one ;* 

Idle tallcers speak of the Brahmin as distinct from his idoL 

a lioi*se when his first horse had died. 
To siiclrcasea the negative phrase would 
refer. But it teas custouiary for Ahadis 
to brinj^ their own horse on joining; 
and this is the case which Abulfazl 
evidently means ; for in the whole Ain 
he speaks of newcomei*8. 

' A note will be found at the end of 
this Ain. 

* As prophets, the leaders of the 
Church ; and kings, the leaders of the 

' God. He may be worshipped by the 
meditative, and by the active man. 
The fomier speculates on the essence of 
God, the latter rejoices in the beauty of 
the world, and does his duty as man. 
Both represent tendencies apparently 
antagonistic; but as both strive ailer 

God, there is a ground common to both. 
Hence mankind ought to learn that there 
is no real antagonism between din and 
dnnyd. Let men rally round Akbar, 
who joins Cufic depth to practical 
wisdom. By his example, he teaches 
men how to adore Grod in doing one's 
duties ; his superhuman knowledge 
proves that the light of God dwells m 
him. The surest way of pleasing Grod 
is to obey the king. 

The reader will do well to compare 
Abulfazl's preface with this Ain. 

* The world. 

* These Cufic lines illustrate the idea 

that * the same enrapturing beauty' is 
everywhere. God is every^where, in 
everything : hence everything Is God* 
Thus God, the Beloved, dweUs in man. 


There ie but one lamp in this hotise, in the rays of which. 
Wherever I look, a bright assembly meets me. 

One man thinks that by keeping his passions in subjection he worships 
God ; and another finds self-discipline in watching over the destinies of a 
nation^. The religion of thousand others consists in clinging to an idea : 
they are happy in their sloth and unfitness of judging for themselves. But 
when the time of reflection comes, and men shake off the prejudices of their 
education, the threads of the web of religious blindness^ break, and the 
eye sees the gloiy of harmoniousness. 

But the ray of such wisdom does not light up every house, nor 
eould eveiy heart bear such knowledge. Again, although some are enlightened, 
many would observe silence from fear of fanatics, who lust for blood, but 
look like men. And should any one muster sufficient courage, and openly 
proclaim his enlightened thoughts, pious simpletons would call him a mad 
man, and throw him aside as of no account, whilst ill-stared wretches would 
at once think of heresy and atheism, and go about with the intention of 
killing him. 

Whenever, from lucky circumstances, the time arrives that a nation 
learns to understand how to worship truth, the people will naturally look to 
their king, on account of the high position which he occupies, and expect 
him. to be their spiritual leader as well ; for a king possesses, independent 
of men, the ray of Divine wisdom," which banishes from' his heart every- 
thing' that is conflicting. A king will therefore sometimes observe the 
element of harmony in a multitude of things, or sometimes, reversely, a 
multitude of things in that which is apparently one ; for he sits on the 
throne of distinction, and is thus equally removed from joy or sorrow. 

Now this is the case with the monarch of the present age, and this 
book is a witness of it. 

Men versed in foretelling the future, knew this when His Majesty was 
bom," and together with aU others that were cognizant of the secret, they 

the lover, and both are one. Brahmin = 
the idol == God ; lamp = thought 


of God ; house = man's heart. The 
thoughtful man sees everywhere ' the 
bright assembly of God's works.' 

* The teit has taqltd, which means 
io put a collar an one*B oton neck, to 
follow another blindly, especially in 
religious matters. "All thmgs which 
Tefer to prophetship and revealed religion 
Um7 [Abul&zl, Hakim Abulfath, &c.] 
calied taqlidiydi, i. e., things against 
■VMon, because they put the basis of 
reli^iofi upon reason, not testimony. 
Besides, there came [during A. H. 983, 

or A. D. 1575] a great number of Portu- 
guese, from whom they likewise picked 
up doctrines justifiable by reasoning." 
Baddoni II, p. 281. 

* Vide Abulfazl's preface, p. Ill, 1. 19. 

* This is an allusion to the wonderful 
event which happened at the birth of 
the emperor. Akbar spoke. " From 
Mirzi Shah Muhammad, called Ghaznin 
Khdn, son of Sh4h Begkh&n, who had 
the title of Daur4n Kb4n, and was an 
Arghun by birth. The author heard 
him say at Labor, in A. H. 1053, 
" I asked Nawab 'Aziz Kokah, who has 
the title of Eh&n i A'zam [vide List of 


iiHVe sill re been waiting in joyful oxpoctation. His Majesty, however, wisely 
sun'oimded himself for a time with a veil, as if he were an outsider, or a 
stranger to their hopes. But can man counteract the will of God? Ilis 
!Majpsty, at first, took all such hy surprise as were wedded to the prejudices 
of the age ; but he could not help revealing his intentions : they grew Uy 
maturity in spite of him, and are now fully known. He now is the sj>iritual 
guide of the nation, and sees in the performance of this duty a means of 
pleasing God. He has now opened the gate that leads to the right path, 
and satisfies the thirst of all that wander about panting for truth. 

But whether he checks men in their dt^sire of becoming disciples, or 
admits them at other times, ho guides them in each case to the realm of 
bliss. Many sincere enquirers, from the mere light of his wisdom, or his 
holy breath, obtain a degree of awakening which other spiritual doctors 
could not produce by repeated fasting and prayers for forty days. Numbers 
of those who have renounced the world, as Sanndsis, Jog'is, Sevrds, Qalandars, 
irakhns^ and (^iffis, and tliousands of such as foUow worldly pursuits, as 
soldiers, tradespeople, mechanics, and husbandmen, have daily their eyes 
opened to insight, or have the light of their knowledge increased. Men of all 
nations, young and old, friends and strangers, the far and the near, look 
upon ofiering a vow to His Majesty as the means of solving all their diffi- 
culties, and bend down in worship on obtaining their desire. Others again, 
from the distance of their homes, or to avoid the crowds gathering at Court, 
ofi'er their vows in secret, and pass their lives in grateful praises. But 
when Ilis Majesty leaves Court, in order to settle the affairs of a province, 
to conquer a kingdom, or to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, there is not a 
hamlet, a town, or a city, that does not send forth crowds of men and women 
with vow-offerings in their hands, and prayers on their lips, touching* the 
ground with their foreheads, praising the efficacy of their vows, or proclaim- 
ing the accoimts of the spiritual assistance received. Other multitudes ask for 
lasting bliss, for an upright heart, for advice how best to act, for strength 
of the body, for enlightenment, for the bii*th of a son, the reunion of friends, 
a long life, increase of wealth, elevation in rank, and many other things. 
His Majesty, who knows what is really good, gives satisfactory answers to 
every one, and applies remedies to their religious perplexities. Not a day 
passes but people bring cups of water to him, beseeching him to breathe 
ujion it. He who reads tlie letters of the divine orders in the book of fate, 
on seeing the tidings of hope, takes the water with his blessed hands, places 

Grandees, second Book, Ain 30], whether 
the hite emperor, like the Messiah, had 
really spoken with his august mother. 
He replied, " His mother told me, it was 
true." Dahistdn ul Mazdhib, Calcutta 

Edition, p. 390. Bombay edition, p. 260, 
The words which Christ spoke in the 
cradle, are given in the Qoran, Sur. 19, 
and in the spurious gospel of the Jnftincy 
of Christ, pp. 5, 111. 


it m the rays of the world-illuminating sun, and fulfils the desire of the 
suppliant. Many sick people* of broken hopes, whose diseases the most 
eminent physicians pronounced incurable, have been restored to health by 
this divine means. 

A more remarkable case is the following. A simple>minded recluse had 
cut off his tongue, and throwing it towards the threshold of the palace, 
said, " If that certain blissful thought," which I just now have, has been put 
into my heart by God, my tongue will get well ; for the sincerity of my 
belief must lead to a happy issue." The day was not ended before he 
obtained his wish. 

Those who are acquainted with the religious knowledge and the piety 
of His Majesty, will not attach any importance to some of his customs," 
remarkable as they may appear at first ; and those who know His Majesty's 
charity and love of justice, do not even see any thing remarkable in them. 
In the magnanimity of his he£u*t, he never thinks of his perfection, though 
he is the ornament of the world. Hence he even keeps back many who 
declare themselves willing to become his disciples. He often says, " Why 
should I claim to guide men, before I myself am guided ?" But when a 
novice bears on his forehead the sign of earnestness of purpose, and he be 
daily enquiring more and more, His Majesty accepts him, and admits him 
on a Sunday, when the world-illuminating sun is in its highest splendour. 
Notwithstanding every strictness and reluctance shewn by His Majesty in 
admitting novices, there are many thousands, men of all classes, who have 
cast over their shoulders the mantel of belief, and look upon their con- 
version to the New Faith as the means of obtaining every blessing. 

At the above-mentioned time of everlasting auspiciousness, the novice 
with his turban in his hands, puts his head on the feet of His Majesty. 
This is symbolical,* and expresses that the novice, guided by good fortime 
and the assistance of his good star, has cast aside' conceit and selfishness. 

1 « 

He [Akbar] shewed himself every 
momiDg at a window, in front of which 
multitudes came and prostrated them- 
selves ; while women brought theii* sick 
infants for his benediction, and offered 
presents on their recovery." From the ac« 
count of theGoa Missionaries who came to 
Akbar in 1596, in Murray's Discoveries 
in Asia, II, p. 96. 

* His thought was this. If Akbar is a 
prophet, he must, from his supernatural 
wisdom, find out in what condition I am 
lying here. 

• •* He [Akbar] shewed, besides, no par- 
tiality to the Mahometans ; and when in 
strMta for money, would even plunder 
the mosques to equip his cavalry. Yet 

there remained in the breast of the mo- 
narch a stronghold of idolatry, on which 
they [the Portuguese Missionaries] could 
never make any impression. Not only 
did he adore the sun, and make long 
prayers to it four times a day ; he also 
held himself forth as an object of worship ; 
and though exceedingly tolerant as to 
other modes of faith, never would admit 
of anv encroachments on his own divi- 
nity/ Murray's Discoveries, IT, p. 96. 

* The text has zcUtdn i hdl, and a little 
lower down, zabdn i bezufdni. Zahdn 
i hdl, or symbolical language, is opposed 
to zabdn i nuiqdl, spoken words. 

• Or rather, from his head, as the text 
has, because the casting aside of selfish- 


tho root of so many evils, offers liis heart in worship, and now comes to en- 
quire as to the means of oLtaining everlasting life. His Majesty, the chosen 
one of God, then stretches out the hand of favour, raises up the suppliant, 
and roplaros the turLan on his head, meaning by these symbolical actions 
that he has raised wp a man of pure intentions, who from seeming existence 
has now entered into real life. His Majesty then gives the novice the 
Sha(^t,^ upon which is enp^ravod * tlie Great Name,** and His Majesty's 
B^Tnbolical motto, * AUdhu AHar.^ This teaches the novice tho truth that 

*' The pure Shn(;t and the pure sight never errV 

Seeing the wonderfid habits of His Majesty, his sincere attendants are 
guided, as circumstances require it ; and fi'om the wise counsels they receive, 
they soon state their wislies opc^idy. They learn to satisfy their thirst in 
the spring of divine favour, and gain for their wisdom and motives renewed 
light. Others, according to their capacities are taught wisdom in excellent 

But it is impossible while speaking of other matters besides, to give a 
full account of the manner in which His Majesty teaches wisdom, heals 
dangerous diseases, and ai)plies remedies for the severest sufferings. Should 
my occupations allow sufficient leisure, and should another term of life be 
grantexl me, it is my intention to lay before the world a sejiarate volume on 
tliis subject. 

Ordinances of the Divine Faith, 

The members of the Divine Faith, on seeing each other, observe the 
following custom. Oue says, ^^ AUdhu Alhar ;^^ and the other responds, 
^^ Jail a Jaldluhuy^ The motive of His Majesty, in laying down this mode 

ness is symbolically expressed hy taking 
oil* the turban. To wear a turban is a dis- 

* Sha^t means aim ; secondly ony 
ihi7ig ronudy either a ring, or a thread, 
a.s the Brahminical thread. Here a ring 
seems to be meant. Or it may be the 
likeness of the Emperor whicli. accordinj* 
to Badaoni, the membei*s wore on tlieir 

" The Great Name is a name of (lod. 
** Some say, it is the word Atlah ; others 
say, it is ^amadj the eternal : others, at- 
haj/yj the living ; othei-s, alqayyinn^ the 
everlasting; othei*8, arrahindiiy arrahtm, 
the clement and merciful ; others, ahnu- 
haimin, the protector. Ghids. " Qazi 
Hamiduddin of Nagor says, the Great 
Name is the word Hu, or He (God), 
because it has a reference to God's na- 
ture, as it shows that He has no other 
at His side. Again, the word hu is a 

root, not a derivative. All epithets of 
God are contained in it." KashfuUughdt. 
■ These formula; remind of Ak bar's 
name, JaMluddin Muh<tmmad Akbar, 
llie woixls AUdhu Akbar are atnbi- 
gnous : they may mean, God is great, or, 
Akbar is God, There is no doubt that 
Akbar liked the phrase for its ambiguity ; 
for it was used on coins, the Imperial 
seals, and the heading of books, farmans, 
&c. His era was called the Divine era ; 
his faith, the Divine faith ; and the note 
at the end of this Ain shews how Akbar, 
starting from the idea of the Divine right 
of kings, gradually came to look upon 
himself as the Mvjtahid of the age, then 
as the prophet of God and God's Vice re- 
gent on earth, and lastly as a Deity. " It 
was during these days [A. H. 983, or A. D. 
1575-76] that His Majesty onoe asked 
how people would like it, if he ordered 
the words AUdhu Akbar to be cat on 


of salutation, is to remind men to think of the origin of their existence, and 
to keep the Deity in fresh, lively, and grateful remembrance. 

It is also ordered by TTift Majesty that, instead of the dinner usually 
given in remembrance of a man after his death, each member should pre- 
pare a dinner during his lifetime, and thus gather provisions for his last 

Each member is to give a party on the anniversary of his birth-day, 
and arrange a sumptuous feast. He is to bestow alms, and thus prepare 
provisions for the long journey. 

His Majesty has also ordered that members should endeavour to abstain 
from eating flesh. They may allow others to eat flesh, without touching it 
themselves ; but during the month of their birth they are not even to ap- 
proach meat. Nor shall members go near anything that they have them- 
selves slain; nor eat of it. Neither shall they make use of the same 
vesselB with butchers, fishers, and birdcatchers. 

Members should not cohabit with pregnant, old, and barren women ; 
nor with girls under the age of puberty. 

Note by the Translator on the religious views of the 

Emperor Akbar. 

In connection with the preceding Ain, it may be of interest for 
the general reader, and of some value for the future historian of Akbar's 
reign, to collect, in form of a note, the information which we possess 
regarding the religious views of the Emperor Akbar. The sources 
from which this information is derived, is, besides Abulfazl's Ain, 
ihe Muntakhab ui Tawdrikh by 'Abdul Q&dir ibn i Muluk Sh&h of Bad&on 
— ^regarding whom I would refer the reader to p. 104, and to a longer 
article in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1869 — and 
the DabiHidn ul Mazdhib\ a work written about sixty years after Akbar's 
death by an unknown Muhammadan writer of strong Fdrsi tendencies. 
Nor must we forget the valuable testimony of some of the Portuguese 
Missionaries whom Akbar called from GFoa, as Eodolpho Aquaviva, 

the Imperial Beal and ihe dies of his coins. 
Most said, people would like it veiy 
much. But Haii Ibr&him objected, and 
nid, the pbrnw nad an ambiguous mean- 
ing, and the emperor might substitute 
the Qoran verse iazikru AUdhi akharu 
(To think of God is the greatest thing), 
because it involved no ambiguity. But 
Hia Majestj got displeased, and said, 

it was surely sufficient that no man who 
felt his w^Jcness, would claim Divini- 
ty ; he merely looked to the sound of 
the words, and he had never thought 
that a thini^ could be carried to such an 
extreme." Baddoniy p. 210. 

* Printed at Calcutta in 1809 with a 
short dictionary, and reprinted at Bombay, 
A. H, 1272, [A. D. 1866]. This work 


Antonio do IfonsoiTato, Francisco Enriques, Ac, of wliom the first 
is mentioned by Abulfazl under the name of Pddr'i RiKhiJf? There exist 
also two articles on Akbar's religious views, one by Captain Vans 
Kennedy, published in the set^ond volume of the Transactions of the 
Bombay Literary Society, and another by tlie late Horace Ha^Tnan 
Wilstm, which had originally appeared in the Calcutta Quarterly Oriental 
Magazine, Vol. I., 1824, and has been reprinted in the second volume of 
Wilson's works, London, 1862. Besides, a few extracts fi'om Badaoni, 
bearing on this subject, will be found in Sir 11. Elliott's Bibliographical 
Index to the Historians of Muhanmiadan India, p. 243 ff. The Proceed- 
ings of th(^ Portuguese Missionaries at Akbar's Court ai'e described in 
Murray's Historical Account of Discoveries and Travels in Asia, Edin- 
biu'gli, 1820, Vol. II. 

1 sliall commence witli extracts from Badaoni.^ Tlie translation is 
literal, which is of great importance in a diflicult wTiter like Badaoni. 

AhiflfazPfi S(.ro)i(l {Hiroihicfion to AJcbar. Ill's pride. 

[Badaoni, edited by Maulawi Agha Ahmad 'Ali, in the Bibliotheca 
Indica, Vol. 11, p. 198.] 

** It was during these da3's [end of 982 A. 11.] that Abulfazl, son of 
Shaikli Mubdrik of Nagor, came the second time to court. He is now styled 
^Alldm'i. lie is the man that set the world in flames. Ho lighted up the 
lamp of the QabdhiSj illustrating thereby the story of the man who, because 
he did not know what to do, took up a lamp in broad daylight, and repre- 
senting himself as opposed to all sects, tied the girdle of infallibility round 
his waist, according to the saying, * He who fonns an opposition, gains 
power.' Ho laid before the Emperor a commentary on the Ai/at ul-kursi • 

has also been translated into Enj^lish at 
the cost of the Oriental Translation 

* Kot Padre Budify v-flJ^^ LSJ^^^ ^^ "^ 
Elphinstone's history, but ^Sj, the letter 
(lam) having been mistaken for a { (yd). 

* As in the following extracts the years 
of the Hijrah are given, the reader may 
convert them according to this table : — 
Theyear 980 A. H. commenced 14 May 
1572 [Old Stvle. 

981 — 3 May, 1573. 

982 — 23 April, 1571. 

983 — 12 April, 1575. 

984 — 31 March, 1576. 

985 — 21 March, 1077. 

986 — 10 March, 1578. 

987 — 28 February, 1679. 

988 — 17 February, 1580. 

989 — 5 February, 1581. 

990 — 26 January, lo82. 

991 — 15 January, 1583. 

992 — 4 January, 1584. 

993 — 24 December, 1584. 

994 — 13 December, 1585. 

995 — 2 December, 1586. 

996 — 22 November, 1587. 

997 — 10 November, 1588. 

998 — 31 October, 1589. 

999 — 20 October, 1590. 
KXX)— 9 October, 1591, 

1001 — 28 September, 1592. 

1002 — 17 September, 1593. 

1003 — 6 Sept4?mber, 1594. 

1004 — 27 August, 1595. 

■ Qor. Sur. II, 256. 


which oontamed all subtleties of tha Qordn ; and though people said that 
it had been written by his father, Abulfazl was much praised. The 
numerical value of the letters in the words Tafsir % Ahhari (Akbar's com- 
mentary) gives the date of composition [983]. But the emperor praised it, 
chiefly because he expected to find in Abulfazl a man capable of teaching 
the Mullas a lesson, whose pride certainly resembles that of Pharaoh, though 
this expectation was opposed to the confidence which His Majesty had 
placed in me. 

The reason of Abulfazl's opinionativeness and pretensions to infallibi- 
lity was this. At the time when it was customary to get hold of, and kill, 
each as tried to introduce innorations in religious matters (as had been the 
case with Mir Habshf and others), Shaikh ' Abdunnabf and Makhdum ul mulk, 
and other learned men at court, unanimously represented to the emperor 
that Shaikh Mubarik also, in as far as he pretended to be Mahd(\ belonged 
to the dass of innorators, and was not only himself damned, but led others 
into damnation. Having obtained a sort of permission to remove him, they 
despatched police officers, to bring him before the emperor. But when they 
found that the Shaikh, with his two sons, had concealed himself, they 
demolished the pulpit in his prayer-room. The Shaikh, at first, took 
refuge with Salim i Ohishti at Eathpiir, who then was in the height of his 
g^oiy, and requested him to intercede for him. Shaikh Salim, however, 
sent him money by some of his disciples, and told him, it would be better 
for him to go away to Gujrat. Seeing that Salim took no interest in him, 
Shaikh Mub&rik applied to Mirzd 'Aziz Kokah [Akbar's foster-brother], 
who took occasion to praise to the emperor the Shaikh's learning and yolun- 
tary poverty, and the superior talents of his two sons, adding that Mub&rik 
was a most trustworthy man, that he had never received lands as a present, 
and that he ['Aziz] could really not see why (the Shaikh was so much 
persecuted. The emperor at last gave up all thoughts of killing the Shaikh. 
In a short time matters took a more favourable turn ; and Abulfazl, when 
once in favor with the emperor, (oflELcious as he was, and time-serving, 
openly faithless, continually studying His Majesty's whims, a flatterer 
beyond all bounds) took every opportunity of reviling in the most shame- 
fdl way that sect whose labours and motives have been so little appreciated,' 
and became the cause not only of the extirpation of these experienced 
people, but also of the ruin of all servants of God, especially of Shaikhs, 
pious men, of the helpless, and the orphans, whose livings and grants he 
cat down. 

■ Vide p. 106, Note 6. 
* Bftdaoni belooged to the believers in 
ilM appioidi of the MiUenniom. A few 


yean later, Akbar lued Mahdawi ru- 
mours for his own purposes ; fnde below. 
The extract shows that there existed before 


He used to say, openly and implicitly, — 

Lord, send down a proof for the people of the world ! 
Send these Nimrods^ a gnat as big as an elephant ! 
These Pharaoh-like fellows have lifted up their heads ; 
Send them a Moses with a staff, and a Nile ! 

And when in consequence of his harsh proceedings, miseries and mis- 
fortunes broke in upon the 'Ulamas (who had persecuted him and his 
father), he api)lied the following Euba'i to them :— 

1 have set fire to my barn with my own hands, 

As I am the incendiary, how can I complain of my enemy ? 

No one is my enemy but myself, 

Woe is me ! I have torn my garment with my own hands. 

And when during disputations peojde quoted against him the edict of 
any Mujtahid\ he used to say, '' Oh don't bring me the arguments of this 
sweetmeat- seller, and that cobbler, or that tanner !" He thought himself 
capable of giving the lie to all Shaikhs and 'Ulamds." 

Commencement of the Disputations, [Baddoni 11, p. 200.] 

" During the year 983 A. H., many places of worship were built at the 
command of His Majesty. The cause was this. For many years previous 
to 983 the emperor had gained in succession remarkable and decisive 
victories. The empire had grown in extent from day to day ; everything 
turned out well, and no opponent was left in the whole world. His Majesty 
had thus leisure to come into nearer contact with ascetics and the disciples 
of the Mu'iniyyah sect, and passed much of his time in discussing the word 
of God (Qordn), and the word of the prophet (the HadU, or Tradition). 
Questions of Cufism, scientific discussions, enquiries into Philosophy and 
Law, were the order of the day. His Majesty passed whole nights in 
thoughts of God ; he continually occupied himself with pronouncing the 
names Yd Jixl and Yd hddiy which had been mentioned to him,* and his 

982, heretical innovators, whom the em- 
peror allowed to be persecuted. Matters 
soon took a difterent turn. 

* That is, a man, capable of teaching 
the 'Ulamas a lesson. Abullazl means 


*» Nimrod, or Namrud, and Pharaoh, are 
proverbial in the East for their pride, 
rlimrod was killed by a gnat which had 
crept through the nose to his brain. He 
could only relieve his pains by striking 
the crown of head ; but at last he died 
from the effects of his own blows. 

• A man of infallible authority in his 

explanations of the Muhammadan law. 
There are few Mujtahids. Amon^ the 
oldest there were several who phed a 
trade at the same time. The 
Kuba'i is translated by Sir H. ISUiott in 
the Muhammadan Historians of India, 
p. 214. 

^ By some ascetic Yd hu means 
He (God), and Ya hddi, O Guide. The 
frequent repetition of such names is a 
means of knowledge. Some faqirs repeat 
them several thousand times during a 


lieait was ftill of reverence for Him wlio is the true Giver. From a feeling 
of thankfulnesB for his past sucMsesses, he would sit many a morning alone 
in prayer and melancholy, on a large flat stone of an old building which 
lay near the palace in a lonely spot, with his head bent over his chest, and 
^thering the bliss of early hours.'' 

In his religious habits the emperor was confirmed by a story which 
lie had heard of Stdaim&n,* ruler of Bengal, who, in company with 150 
Shoildis and 'Ulamds, held every morning a devotional meeting, after 
which he used to transact state business ; as also by the news that 
Mirz& Sulaim&n, a prince of 5^ tendencies, and a (Idhib % MP was 
ooming to him &om Badakhsh&n, 

Among the religious buildings was a meeting place near a tank 
called AnuptaldOy where Akbar, accompanied by a few courtiers, met 
the 'Ulamis and lawyers of the realm. The pride of the 'Ulam&s, and 
the heretical (Shi'itic) subjects discussed in this building, caused MuUd 
Sheri, a poet of Akbar's reign, to compose a poem in which the place 
waa called a temple of Pharaoh and a building of Shadd&d (vide Qor. 
8or. 89). The result to which the discussions led, wiU be seen fix>m the 
following extract. [Bad. II, p. 202.] 

" For these discussions, which were held every Thursday* night, His 
Majesty invited the Sayyids, Shaikhs, 'Ulam^, and grandees, by turn. But 
as the guests generally commenced to quarrel about their places, and the 
order of precedence, His Majesty ordered that the grandees should sit on 
the east side ; the Sayyids on the west side j the 'Ulamas, to the south • 
and the Shaikhs, to the north. The emperor then used to go from one side 

to the other, and make his enquiries , when all at once, one night, 

'the vein of the neck of the 'Ulam&s of the age swelled up,' and a horrid 
noise and confusion ensued. His Majesty got very angry at their rude 
behaviour, and said to me [Baddoni], ''In future report any of the 
HTlam^s that cannot behave and talks nonsense, and I shaU make him 
leave the hall." I gently said to A9af Kh&n, '' If I were to cany out this 
order, most of the 'Ulam^ would have to leave,'' when His Majesty 
taddenly asked what I had said. On hearing my answer, he was highly 
plettsedy and mentioned my remark to those sitting near him." 

^The edition of Bad&onl calls him 
i^^ KinrardnU. He is sometimee oail* 

^dlLardmi,' aometiineB, Karzdn{. He 
i«gDed in Bengal from 971 to 981, or 
A. D. 16«3 to 1673. 

Sdl is the state of ecstasy and close 
QBioD with God, into which 9 lifis bring 

themselves by silent thought, or by pro- 
nouncing the name of God. 

' The text has Shah i Jutnah^ the 
night of Friday ; but as Muhammadans 
commence the day at sunset, it is our 
Thwrsday night. 


Soon after, another row occuiTed in the presence of the Emperor, 

[Bad. n, p. 210.] 

*' Some people mentioned that Hiiji Ibrahim of Sartind had given a 
decree, ])y which he made it logjd to wear red and yellow clothes,* quoting 
at the same time a Tradition as his proof. On hearing this, the Chief 
Justice, in the meeting hall, called him an accursed wretch, abused him, and 
lifted up his stick, in order to strike him, when the Hfiji by some subter- 
fuges managed to got rid of him." 

Akbar was now fairly disgusted with the 'Ulamds and lawyers ; 
he never pardoned jiride and conceit in a man, and of all kinds of 
conceit, the conceit of learning was most hateful to him. From now 
he resolved to vex the principal 'Ulamds ; and no sooner had his 
courtiers discovered this, than they brought aU sorts of charges against 


[Bud. II, p. 203.] 
" His Majesty therefore ordered Maulana 'Abdidlah of Sul^dnpur, who 
had received the title of Jlakhdnm ul miiik, to come to a meeting, as he 
wished to annoy him, and appointed Haji Ibrahim, Shaikh Abidfazl (who 
had lately come to court, and is at present the infallible authority in 
aU religious matters, and also for the New Eeligion of His Majesty, 
and the guide of men to truth, and their leader in general), and several 
other newcomers, to oppose him. During the discussion, His Majesty 
took every occasion to interrupt the Maidana, when he explained any- 
thing. When the quibbling and wrangling had reached the highest point, 
some coui'tiers, according to an order previously given by His Majesty, 
commenced to tell rather queer stories of the Mauldna, to whose position 
one might apj^ly the verse of the Qoran (Sur. XVI, 72), ' And some one 
of you shall have his life x)rolonged to a miserable age, &c.' Among other 
stories, Kh^u Jahau said that he had heard that Makhdum id mulk" had 
given a fattvaj that the ordinance of pilgrimage was no longer binding, 
but even hm-tful. Wlien people had asked him the reason of his ex- 
traordinary fatwa, he had said, that the two roads to Makkah, through 
Persia and over Gujrat, were impracticable, because people, in going by 
land (Persia), had to suffer injuries at the hand of the Qiziibdshes (i. «., tho 
Shi'ah inhabitants of Persia), and in going by sea, they had to put up with 
indignities from the Portuguese, whose ship-tickets had pictures of Mary 
and Jesus stamped on them. To make use, therefore, of the latter alternative 
would mean to countenance idolatry ; hence both roads were closed up. 

* As women may use. 
■ This extract as given by Sir H. Elliott 
on p. 244 conveys a wrong impression. 

Akbar did not prohibit pilgrimages be£bi« 
990 A. H. 


Kli^ Jab^ also related that the MaiiMn^ had invented a clever 
trick by which he escaped paying the legal alms upon the wealth which 
he amassed every year. (Towards the end of each year, he used to make 
over all his stores to his wife, but he took them back before the year 
had actually run out/ 

Other tricks also, in comparison with which the tricks of the children 
of Moees are nothing, and rumours of his meanness and shabbiness, his 
open cheating and worldliness, and his cruelties said to have been practised 
on the Shaikhs and the poor of the whole country, but especially on 
the Aimadars and other deserving people of the Panj&b, — all came up, 
one story after the other. His motives, ' which shall be revealed on the 
day of resurrection' (Qor. LXXXYI, 9), were disclosed; all sorts of 
stories, calculated to ruin his character and to vilify him, were got up, 
till it was resolved to force him to go to Makkah. 

But when people asked him whether pUgrimage was a duty for a 
man in his circumstances, he said No ;' for 8haikh 'Abdunnabi had risen 
to power, whilst the star of the Maul&nd was fast sinking." 

But a heavier blow was to fall on the 'XJlam&s. [Bad. II, p. 207.]-. 

." At one of the above-mentioned meetings, His Majesty asked how 
many freebom women a man was legally allowed to marry (by nikdh). 
The lawyers answered that four was the limit fixed by the prophet. The 
emperor thereupon remarked that from the time he had come of age^ 
he had not restricted himself to that number, and in justice to his wives* 
of whom he had a large number, both freebom and slaves, he now wanted 
to know what remedy the law provided for his case. Most expressed 
their opinions, when the emperor remarked that Shaikh 'Abdimnabi had 
once told him that one of the Muj tabids had had as many as nine wives. Some 
of the 'Ulam&s present replied that the Mujtahid alluded to was Ibn Abi 
Laila ; and that some had even allowed eighteen from a too literal trans- 
lation of the Qordn verse (Qor. Sur. lY, 3), "Many whatever women ye 
like, two and two,* and three and three, and four and four ;" but this 
was improper. His Majesty then sent a message to Shaikh 'Abdunnabi, 


* Alms are due on every surplus of stock 
or stores which a Sunni' possesses at the 
end of a year, provided tnat surplus have 
been in his possefsion for a whole year. 
If the wife, therefore, had the surplus for 
a part of the year, and the 'husband took 
it afterwards back, he escaped the paying 

* I. e., he meant to say he was poor, 
and thus refuted the charges brought 

• Thus they got 2+2, 3+3, 4+4=18. 
But the passage is usually translated, 
* MaiTy wnatever women ye like, two, or 
three, or four/ The Miytahid who took 
nine unto himself, translated * two + 
three + four,' =: 9. The question of the 
emperor was most ticklish, because, if the 
lawyers adhered to the number four, 
which they could not well avoid, the 
hardmzddagi of Akbar s freeborn pria- 
cesses was acknowledged. 



xvKo replied that lie had merely wished to point out to Akbar that a 
difference of opinion existed on tliis j^oint among lawyers, but that ho 
had not given d^fativa^ in order to legalize irregular marriage proceedings. 
This annoyed His Majesty very much. ** Tlie Shaikh," he said, **told 
nio at that time a very different thing from what he now tells me." He 
never forgot this. 

After much discussion on this point, the 'XJlamis, having coUected every 
Tradition on the subject, decreed, firsts that by Mufah [not by nikdK] a 
man might marry any number of wives he pleased ; and secondlt/^ that 
MuVah marriages were allowed by Inidm Milik. The Shi'ahs, as was 
well known, loved children born in Mufak wedlock more than those bom 
by 7iik(Vi wives, contrary to the Sunnis and the Alil i Jam&'at. 

On the latter point also the discussion got rather lively, and I would 
refer the reader to my work ewiiXlQ^ Najdturrashid \_Fide note 2, p. 104], 
in wliich the subject is briefly discussed. But to make things worse, 
Naqib Kh^in fetched a copy of the Jluwaffa of Imdm Malik, and pointed 
to a Tradition in the book, which the Im4m had cited as a proof against 
the legality of MuVah marriages. 

Another night, Qazi Ya'qiib, Shaikh Abulfazl, Haji Ibr^im, and 
a few others were invited to meet His Majesty in the house near the 
Anuptaldo tank. Shaikh Abulfazl liad been selected as the opponent, 
and laid before the emperor several traditions regarding Mufah marriages, 
which liis father (Shaikh Mub^rik) had collected, and the discussion 
commenced. His Majesty then asked me, what my opinion was on this 
subject. I said, " The conclusion which must be drawn from so many 
contradictory traditions and sectarian customs, is this : — Imim M^k and 
the Shi'ahs are unanimous in looking upon MuVah marriages as legal; 
Imdm Shdfi'l and the Great Imim (Hanifah) look upon Mufah marriages 
as illegal. But, should at any time a Qdzi of the M6.1iki sect decide that 
Mufah is legal, it is legal, according to the common belief, even for Sh^'is 
and Hanafis. Every other opinion on this subject is idle talk." This 
pleased His Majesty very much." 

The unfortunate Shaikh Ta'qub, however, went on talking about 
the extent of the authority of a Qazi. He tried to shift the ground ; 
but when he saw that he was discomfited, he said, " Very well, I have 
nothing else to say, — just as His Majesty pleases." 

" The emperor then said, '*I herewith appoint the M^liki Qdzi Husain 
'Arab as the Q^i before whom I lay this case concerning my wives, and 
you, Ya'qub, are from to-day suspended." This was immediately obeyed, and 
Q^i Hasan, on the spot, gave a decree which made Mufah marriages leg^. 


The veteran lawyers, as Makhdum ulmulk, Q6zi Ya'qdb, and others, 
made very long faces at these proceedings. 

This was the commencement of ' their sere and yellow leaf.' 

The result was that, a few days later, Maul^i Jal&luddln of Mult&n 
a profound and learned man, whose grant had been transferred, was 
ordered from Agrah (to Fathpur Sikfi,) and appointed Q&zi of the realm. 
Qfizi Ya'quh was sent to Gaur as District Q^i. 

From this day henceforth, ' the road of opposition and diiFerence in 
opinion' lay open, and remained so tiU His Majesty was appointed Mujtahid 
of the empire." [Here follows the extract regarding the formula ^Alldhu 
AJtboTy g^ven on p. 166, note 3.] 

[Baddonin, p. 211.] 

"During this year [983], there arrived Hakim Abulfath, Hakim 
Hum&y^ (who subsequently changed his name to Hum&yun Quli, and 
lastly to Hakim Hum&m,) and Nuruddin, who as poet is known under 
the name of QardrL They were brothers, and came from Gil4n, near the 
Caspian Sea. The eldest brother, whose manners and address were exceed- 
ingly winning, obtained in a short time great ascendancy over the Emperor ; 
he flattered him openly, adapted himself to every change in the religious 
ideas of His Majesty, or even went in advance of them, and thus became 
in a short time, a most intimate friend of Akbar. 

Soon after there came from Persia Mull^ Muhammad of Yazd, who 
got the nickname of Yazidi, and attaching himself to the emperor, com- 
menced openly to revile the Qahdhah (persons who knew Muhammad, except 
the twelve Im^uns), told queer stories about them, and tried hard to make 
the emperor a Shi'ah. But he was soon left behind by Bir Baf — ^that 
bastard ! — ^and by Shaikh AbulfcLzl, and Hakim Abulfath, who success- 
fully turned the emperor frt)m the IsUm, and led him to reject inspiration, 
prophetahip, the miracles of the prophet and of the saints, and even the 
whole law, so that I could no longer be£u* their company. 

At the same time, His Majesty ordered Q&zi Jal4luddin and several 
'ITlam&B to write a commentary on the Qor&n ; but this led to great rows 
among them. 

Deb Chand £&jah Manjholah — that fool— once set the whole court in 
laughter by saying that Allah after all had great respect for cows, else 
the cow would not have been mentioned in the first chapter (Surat ul haqarah) 

of the Qor6n. 

His Majesty had also the early history of the Isl&m read out to him, 
and soon commenced to think less of the (^ahdbah. Soon after, the ob- 
servance of the five prayers and the fasts, and the belief in% every thing 
connected with the prophet, were put down as taqlldi, or religious blindness, 


and man's reason was acknowledged to be the basis of all religion. Portu- 
guese priests also came frecj^iiently ; and His Majesty enquired into the 
articles of theii* belief which are based upon reason." 

[Badcioni II, p. 245.] 
'* In the beginning of the next year [984], when His Majesty was at 
Dipalpur in Malwali, Sharif of A'mid arrived. This apostate had run 
from country to country, like a dog that has burnt its foot, and turning 
fi'om one fc^ect to the other, he went on wrangling till he became a perfect 
heretic. For some time ho had studied ^lifie nonsense in the school of 
Maidana Muhammad Zahid of Balkh, nephew of the great Shaikh Husain 
of Kliwarizm, and had lived with derwishes. But as he had little of a derwish 
in himself, he tidked slander, and was so full of conceit, that they hunted 
him away. The Maulilna also wrote a poem against him, in which the verse occurs : 

There was a heretic, Sharif by name, 

Who talked very big, though of doubtful fame. 

In his wanderings he had come to the Dak'hin, where he made him* 
self so notorious, that the king of the Dak'hin wanted to kill him. But 
ho was oidy put on a donkey and shewn about in the city. Hindustan, 
however, is a nice large place, where anything is allowed, and no one 
cares for another, and people go on as they may. He therefore made for 
Miilwah, and settled at a place five kos distant from the Imperial camp. 
Every frivolous and absurd word he spoke, was fuU of venom, and became 
the general talk. Many fools, especially Persian heretics, (whom the 
Islam casts out as people cast out hairs which they find in dough — such 
heretics are called Xahatis, and are destined to be the foremost worshippers 
of Antichrist) gathered round him, and spread, at his order, the rumour 
that ho was the restorer of the Millenium. The sensation was inmiense. 
As soon as His Majesty heard of him, he invited him one night to a private 
audience in a long prajer room, which had been made of cloth, and in 
which the emperor with his suite used to say the five daily prayers. Ridicu- 
lous in his exterior, ugly in shape, with his neck stooping forward, he 
performed his obeisance, and stood still 'with his arms crossed, and you could 
scarcely see how his blue eye (which colour* is a sign of hostility to our 
projihet) shed lies, falsehood, and hypocrisy. There he stood for a long time, 
and when he got the order to sit down, he prostrated himself in worship, 
and sat down duzdnu {vide p. 160, note 2), like an Indian camel. He talked 
privately to His Majesty; no one dared to draw near them, but I some- 

* Chashmi i azraq. Europeans have I Hariri and the Crasades. 
blue eyes. The expression is as old as | 


times heard from a distance the word *ilm (knowledge) because he spoke 
pretty loud. He called his siUy views * the truth of truths/ or ' the ground- 
work of things.' 

A fellow ignorant of things external and internal, 

Erom silliness indulging idle talk. 

He is immersed in heresies infernal. 

And prattles — God forbid ! — of truth eternal. 

The whole talk of the man was a mere repetition of the ideas of 
Mahmud of Basakhw&n (a village in Gil&n), who lived at the time of Timiir. 
Mahmud had written thirteen treatises of dirty filth, full of such hypocrisy, 
as no religion or sect would suffer, and containing nothing but titdl, which 
name he had given to the ' science of expressed and implied language.' 
The chief work of this miserable wretch is entitled £ahr o Kiktah (the Ocean 
and the Jug), and contains such loathsome nonsense, that on listening to 
it one's ear vomits. How the devil would have laughed into his face, if 
he had heard it, and how he would have jumped for joy ! And this Sharif — 
that dirty thief — had also written a collection of nonsense, which he styled 
Tarathshuih t Zuh^r^ in which he blindly follows Mir 'Abdulawwal. This 
book is written in loose, deceptive aphorisms, each commencing with the 
words mifarmiidaiid (the master said), a queer thing to look at, and a mass 
of ridiculous, silly nonsense. But notwithstanding his ignorance, according 
to the proverb, * Worthies will meet,' he has exerted such an influence 
on the spirit of the age, and on the people, that he is now [in 1004] a 
commander of One Thousand, and His Majesty's apostle for Bengal, posses- 
sing the four degrees of faith, and calling, as tHe Lieutenant of the emperor, 
the faithfol to these degrees." 

The discussions on Thursday evenings were continued for the next 
year. In 986, they became more violent, in as far as the elementary 
principles of the Islam were ohosen as subject, whilst formerly the 
disputations had turned on single points. The MJlam^s even in the 
presence of the emperor, often lost their temper, and called each other 
Kafirs or accursed. 

[Bad. n. p. 256.] 

''Makhdum also wrote a pamphlet against Shaikh 'Abdunnabi, in 
which he accused him of the murder of Khizr Khdn of Shlrw&n, who was 
suspected to have reviled the prophet, and of Mir Habshi, whom he had 
ordered to be killed for heresy. But he also said in the pamphlet that it was 
wrong to say prayers with 'Abdunnabi, because he had been undutiful 
towards his father, and was, besides, afflicted with piles. Upon this, Shaikh 
'Abdunnabi called Makhdum a fool, and cursed him. The 'Ulam^ now 



"broko Tip into two parties, like the Sihtis and Qibtis, gathering either 
round tho Shaikli, or round MakJidum ulmulk ; and the heretic innovators 
used this opportunity, to mislead the emperor b}' their wicked opinions and 
aspersions, and turned truth into falsehood, and rei)resented lies as tnitli. 

Hi's Majcsfy till now [OHf)] Jwd hIuivh every sincen'ti/, and teas diligtnUy 
searching for truth. But his education had been much neglected ; and surrounded 
as he ivas by men of low and heretic principles, he had been farced to dauht the 
truth of the Islam. Falliny from one perplexity into the other ^ lie lost sight of 
his real object , the search of truth ; and when the strong embankment of our clear 
law a fid our excellent faith had once been brohen through, His Maje^^ty grew colder 
and colder, till after the short space of fire or six years not a trace of Muhamtnadan 
feeling was lift in his heart. Matters then became very different.'*^ 

[Bad. //, p, 239.] 

" In 984, tho news arrived tliat Sliah Tahmlsp of Persia had died, and 
Sh^ Ism^'il II. had succeeded him. Tho T^rikh of his accession is given 
in the first hitters of the three words oJj»i, ^, and y^ [ ^ -j- o + ia ==^ 
984]. Sh^i Isma'il gave the order that any one who wished to go to 
Makkah could have his travelling expense^ paid from the royal exchequer. 
Thus thousands of people partook of the spiritual blessing of pilgiiniage, 
whilst hero you dare not now [1004] mention that word, and you would 
expose yourself to capital punishment, if you were to ask leave from court 
for this purpose." 

[Bad. IT, p. 241.] 
In 985, tho news arrived that Shah IsmaMl, son of Sh^ Tahmlsp had 
been murderc^l, with the consent of the grandees, by his sister Pari Jan 
Khdnum. Mir Ilaidar, the riddle writer, found the Tirikh of his accession 
in the words Shahnshdhi rid zamhi [984,] ' a king of the face of the earth,' 
and the TCirikh of his death in Shahinshdhi zer i zamin [985,] 'a king below 
the face of the earth." At that time also there appeared in Persia the 
great comet which had been visible in India (p. 240), and the consternation 
was awfid, especially as at tlie same time the Turks conquered Tabriz, 
Shirwan, and Mdzandaran. Sultan Muhammad Khuddbandah, son of Shfih 
Tahnuisp, but by another mother, succeeded ; and with him ended the time 
of reviling and cursing the (^ahdbah. 

But the heretical ideas had certainly entered Hmdustdn frmn Persia.'' 

* As Tahniasp in his short Memoirs 
(Pel's. Ms. 7S2, As. Soc. Bengal) gives the 
word J£ zil [930] aa tlie Tarikh of his 
jiceession, we have 

Tabmasp from 930 to 984. 

Isma'n II. 984 to 985. 

Prinsep's Tables (Ilnd edition, p. 308) 
Tahmasp, 932 to 983, 

Isma'il II., from 983 to 985. 


Bada'oni''8 Summaht of the reasons which led Akbar to 


[Bad. II, p. 256.] 

The following are the principal reasons which led His Majesty from 
the right path. I shall not give all, but only some, according to the 
proTerby '^ That which is small, g^des to that which is great, and a sign 
of fear in a man points him out as the culprit." 

The principal reason is the large number of learned men of all deno- 
minationB and sects that came firom various countries to court, and 
received personal interviews. Night and day people did nothing but 
enquire and investigate ; profound points of science, the subtleties of 
revelation, the curiosities of history, the wonders of nature, of which 
large volumes could only give a summary abstract, were ever spoken of. 
His Majesty collected the opinions of every one, especially of such as were 
not Muhammadans, retaining whatever he approved of, and rejecting every- 
thing which was against his disposition, and ran coimter to his wishes. 
From his earliest childhood to his manhood, and from his manhood to old 
age. His Majesty has passed through the most various phases, and through 
all sorts of religious practices and sectarian beliefs, and has collected every 
thing which people can find in books, with a talent of selection peculiar 
to him, and a spirit of enquiry opposed to every [IsMmitic] principle. Thus 
a fiaith based on some elementary principles traced itself on the mirror of 
his heart, and as the result of aU the influences which were brought to bear 
on His Majesty, there grew, gradually as the outline on a stone, the con- 
viction in his heart that there were sensible men iu all religions, and 
abstemious thinkers, and men endowed with miraculous powers, among all 
nations. If some true knowledge was thus everywhere to be found, why 
should truth be confined to one religion, or to a creed like the IsMm, which 
was comparatively new, and scarcely a thousand years old ; why should 
one sect assert what another denies, and why should one claim a preference 
without having superiority conferred on itself. 

Moreover Sumanis^ and Brahmins managed to get frequent private 
interviews with His Majesty. As they surpass other learned men in their 
treatises on morals, and on physical and religious scieuces, and reach a high 
degree in their knowledge of the future, in spiritual power and human 
jHTfection, they brought proofs, based on reason and testimony, for the 
truth of their own, and the fallacies of other religions, and inculcated their 

* Explained in Arab. Dictionaries as 
% wet in Sind who believe in the trans- 
loipration ot* souls {tandsukh,) Akbar, 
as will be seen firom the following, was 

convinced of the transmigration of souls, 
and the iL' lore rejected the doctrine of 


tlo(*triues so fimily, aud so skilfully represented things as quite self-evident 
which require consideration, that no man, by expressing his doubts, could 
now raise a doubt in His Majesty, even if mountains were to crumble to 
dust, or the heavens were to tear asunder. 

Hence His Majesty cast aside the Isl&mitic revelations regarding 
resurrection, the day of judgment, and the details connected with it, as also 
all ordinances based on the tradition of our prophet. He listened to every 
abuse which the courtiers heaped on our glorious and pure faith, which 
can be so easily followed ; and eagerly seizing such opportunities, he shewed 
in words and gestures, his satisfaction at the treatment which his original 
religion received at their hands. 

How wise was the advice which the guardian gave a lovely being, 

" Do not smile at every face, as the rose does at every zephyr." * 
When it was too late to profit by the lesson. 
She could but fi-own, and hang down the head. 

For some time His Majesty called a Brahmin, whose name was Puzukho- 
tarn, author of a commentary on the . . ," whom he asked to invent particular 
Sanscrit names for all things in existence. At other times, a Brahmin of 
^he name of Debi was pulled up the wall of the castle,' sitting on a chdrp&i^ 
till he arrived near a balcony where the emperor used to sleep. Whilst 
thus suspended, he instruc^ted His Majesty in the secrets and legends of 
Hinduism, in the manner of worshipping idols, the fire, the sun and stars, 
and of revering the chief gods of these unbelievers, as Brahma, MahideVi 
Bishn, Kishn, R^im, and Mahamdi, who are supposed to have been men, 
but very likely never existed, though some, in their idle belief, look upon 
them as gods, and others as angels. His Majesty, on hearing farther 
how much the people of the country prized their institutions, commenced 
to look upon them with affection. The doctrine of the transmigration of 
souls especially took a deep root in his heart, and he approved of the saying, 

<« There is no religion in which the doctrine of transmigration has not 

taken firm root." Insincere flatterers composed treatises, in order to fix 
the evidence for this doctrine ; and as His Majesty relished enquiries into 
the sects of these infidels (who cannot be counted, so nimierous they are, 
and who have no end of revealed books, but nevertheless, do not belong to 
the Ahl i Kitah (Jews, Oliristians, and Muhammadans), not a day passed, 
but a new fruit of this loathsome tree ripened into existence. 

* Just as Akbar liked the zephyr of 
enquiry into other religious s^^stems. 
But zephyrs are also destructive ; they 
Mcatt«r the petals of the rose. 

* The text has a few unintelHgible words* 
■ Perhaps in order not to get polluted, 

or because the balcony belongcNl t j the 



Sometimee again, it was Shaikh Tdjuddin of Dihliy wlio had to attend 
the emperor. This Shaikh is the son of Shaikh Zakariyd of Ajodhan. 
The principal 'Ulamas of the age call him TdjuTartfiny or crown of the 
^ufls. He had learned imder Shaikh Zam^n of P^ipat, author of a 
oommentary on the Law^, and of other very excellent works, was in ^ufism 
and pantheism second only to Shaikh Ibn 'Arab!, and had written a 
oomprehensiYe commentary on the Ntahai tdartcdh. like the preceding 
he was drawn up the wall of the castle. His Majesty listened whole nights 
to his ^Vi&Q trifles. As the Shaikh was not overstrict^ in acting ac* 
eofding to our religious law, he spoke a great deal of the pantheistic 
presence, which idle ^ufis will talk about, and which generally leads them 
to denial of the law and open heresy. He also introduced polemic matters, 
as the ultimate salvation by faith of Pharaoh — Ood's curse be upon him ! — 
which is mentioned in the Fuqiig ulhikanij' or the excellence of hope over 
fear,* and many other things to which men incline from weakness of dis- 
position, unmindful of cogent reasons, or distinct religious commands, to 
the contrary. The Shaikh is therefore one of the principal culprits, who 
weakened His Majesty's faith in the orders of our religion. He also said 
that infidels would, of course, be kept for ever in hell, but it was not likely 
nor could it be proved, that the punishment in heU was eternal. Hi a 
explanations of some verses of the Qor^, or of the Tradition of our prophet, 
w^re often fSeur-fetched. Besides, he mentioned that the phrase ^Insdn % 
kdmil (perfect man) referred to the ruler of the age, firom which he inferred 
that the nature of a king was holy. In this way, he said many agreeable 
things to the emperor, rarely expressing the proper meaning, but rather 
the opposite of what he knew to be correct. Even the stjdah (prostration), 
which people mildly call zaminbos (kissing the ground,) he allowed to be 
due to the Insfin i K4mil ; he looked upon the respect due to the king as 
a religious command, and called the face of the king Ka^hah % Murdddt^ 
the sanctum of desires, and Qihlah i Hdjdt, the cynosure of necessities. 
Such blasphemies* other people supported by quoting stories of no credit, 
and by referring to the practice followed by disciples of some heads of Indian 

* As long as a ^df! conforms to the 
Qoran, he isf^rV; but when he feels 
tluihe has drawn nearer to God, and does 
BO longer leqoire the ordinances of the 
frofaimm vuigtu^ he is dzdd^ free, and 
moomes a heretic. 

' Pharaoh claimed divinity, and is there- 
fion maVun, accursed by Ood. But ac- 
cording to some books, and among them 
the Fa^uf , Pharaoh repented in the mo- 
ment of death, and acknowledged Moses 

a true prophet. 

' The Islam says, Alimdn baina^l 
khaufi warrijdj ' Faith stands between 
fear and hope.' Hence it is sin to fear 
God's wrath more than to hope for God's 
mercy ; and so reversely. 

^ As the zaminbos, or the use of holy 
names as Kahah (the temple at Makkah) 
or qiblah (Makkah, in as far as people 
turn to it their face when praying). 


sects. And after tliis, when. . . / 

Otlior great pliilcjsopliieal ^^riters of the age also expressed opinions^ 
for which there is no authority. Thus Shaikh Ya*qub of Kaslimir, a well 
known writer, and at present the greatest authority in religious matters, 
mentioned some opinions held by ^Ain ulquzat of Ilamad^, that our 
prophet Muliammad was a personification of the divine name of Alhdd'i 
(the guide), and the devil was the personification of God's name of AlmiaiU 
(tlie tempter),^ that both names, thus personified, had appeared in this world, 
and that both personifi(!ati(ms were therefore necessary. 

Mull^ Muliammad of Yazd, too, was drawn up the wall of the castle, and 
uttered Tmworth}^ loathsonu^ abuse against the first three Khalifahs, called 
the wh(jlo ^ahubali, i\\m f()llow(Ts and next followers, and the saints of past 
ages, infidels and adulterers, slandered the Suimis and the Ahl % Jamd^at* 
and represented every sect, ex(e2)t the Shi'ali, as damned and leading men 
into damnation. 

The dillerences among the 'ITlamls, of whom one called lawful what 
the other called unlawful, furnished Ilis Majesty with another reason for 
apostacy. The empenu' also belicived that the 'Ulanias of his time were 
superior in dignity and rank to Imam i Ghazziili and Imam i E4zi,* and 
knowing from experience the fiimsiness of his 'Ulamas, he judged those 
gi'eat men of the past by his contemporaries, and threw^ them aside. 

Learned monks also came from Europe, who go by the name of Padre.* 
They have an infallibh? head, called Piipd. He can change any religious 
ordinan(fes as he may think advisable, and kings have to submit to his 
authority. These monks brought the gospel, and mentioned to the emperor 
th€>ir proofs for the Trinity. Ilis Majesty firmly believcnl in the truth of 
the Christian religion, and wishing to spread the doctrin(?s of Jesus, ordered 
Prince Murdd*' to take a few lessons in ("hristianity by way of auspicious- 

* The text hajs an unintelligible sen- 

2 According to the Islam, God leads 
(hd(lt) men to salvation, l»ut also to sin 
and damnation. Clod created also wicked- 

* Ahl i jama at is a term which is 
often joined with the word Sunn is. All 
religious ordinances are either bii.sed upon 
the Qoran ; or u})on the Tradition ; or 
upon the opinion (qids) of famous (^u- 
hdhU ; or lastly, ujK)n ijmd\ agreenifiit, 
or the custom generally followed dunng 
the first century of the Hijrah. Hence 
^/if i jaivdut eomprises all such jis be- 
lieve ijind' binding. 

* Two i'aniuus authoritie.>< in religious 

matters. Tlie most po])ular books of TiTiaw 
Ghazzdii are the Ihi/d nVulumj and the 
Kiinff/d 7 Sa'ddat, wdiich, according to 
p. 103, wa^s one of the few books which 
Abkar liked. 

* The text ha.s (4>A^b. 

• Prince Murad was then abont eight 
years old. Jahangir (Salim) was bom 
on Wethiesday, the 17 Kabi'ulawwal 977. 
Three months after him, his sister Shahzd- 
dah Khdnum was bom ; and after her (per- 
haps in year the 978) Shdh Murdd, who 
gut the nickname of Pahdri^ a8 he was 
born in the bills of Fathpiir Sikn. Dan- 
yal ft;is born in Ajmir during the night 
iHtwccn Tuesday and Wednesday, the 
loih the Jumadsilawwal 979. 


n668, and chained Abulfazl to translate the Gbspel. Instead of the usual 
BinmUdh^rrahmdn-irrahkmy^ the following lines were used — 

Ai ndm i tu Jesus o Kiristo 
(0 thou whose names are Jesus and Christ) 
which means, ' thou whose name is gracious and blessed ;' and Shaikh 
Faizi added another half, in order to complete the Terse 

Suhhdnaka Id siwdka Yd hu, 
(We praise Thee, there is no one besides Thee, God !) 

These accursed monks applied the description of cursed Satan, and 
of his. qualities, to Muhammad, the best of all prophets — God's blessings 
rest on him and his whole house ! — a thing which even devils would not do. 

Bir Bai" also impressed upon the emperor that the sun was the 
primarj origin of every thing. The ripening of the grain on the fields, 
of fruits and vegetables, the illumination of the universe, and the lives 
of men, depended upon the Sun. Hence it was but proper to worship 
and reverence this luminary ; and people in praying should face towards 
the place where he rises, instead of turning to the quarter where he sets. 
For similar reasons, said Bir Bar, should men pay regard to fire and 
water, stones, trees, and other forms of existence, even to cows and their 
dung, to the mark on the forehead and the Brahminical thread. 

Philosophers and learned men who had been at Court, but were in 
disgrace, made themselves busy in bruiging proofs. They said, the sun 
was ' the greatest light,' the source of benefit for the whole world, the 
nourisher of kings, and the origin of royal power. 

This was also the cause why the Nauruz i Jalfili* was observed, on 
which day, since His Majesty's accession, a great feast was given. His Majesty 
also adopted different suits of clothes of seven different colours, each of 
which was worn on a particular day of the week in honor of the seven 
colours of the seven planets. 

The emperor also learned from some Hindus formulae, to reduce 
the influence of the sun to his subjection, and commenced to read them 
moniings and evenings as a religious exercise. He also believed that 
it was wrong to kill cows, which the Hindus worship ; he looked upon oow- 
dang as pure, interdicted the use of beef, and killed beautiful men (?) 

* The formula ' Bismilldh, &c,* is said 
by every schoolboy before he commenoes 
to read from his text book. 

The words Ai ndm i tu Jesus o Kiristo 
are taken from the Dabist4n ; the edition 
of Bodaoni has Ai ndmi wai zhazho 
Kiristo, which, though correct in metre 
{tide my * Prosody of the Persians, p. 

33, No. 32,) is improbable. The formula 
as given in the Babistdn has a common 
Masnawi metre, {victe my * Prosody,' p. 
33, No. 31), and spells Jams jjJ^ dezuz. 
The verse as given by H. Wilson (Works 
II, p. 387) has no metre. 

* Vide the Tdrikh i MuM, in the 
beginning of Book III. 



instead of cows. The doctors confirmed the emperor in his opinion, and 
told him, it was written in their books that beef was productive of all sorts 
of diseases, and was very indigestible. 

Fire-worsliippers also had come firom Nans^i in Gujrdt, and proved 
to His Majesty the truth of Zoroaster^s doctrines. They called fire-worship 
^ the groat worship,' and impressed the emperor bo favorably, that he 
learned from them the religious terms and rites of the old Parsis, and 
ordered Abulfazl to make arrangements, that sacred fire should he kept 
burning at court by day and by night, according to the custom of the 
ancient Persian kings, in whose fii'e-temples it had been continually burning; 
for fire was one of the manifestations of God, and ' a ray of His rays.' 

His Majesty, from his youtli, had also been accustomed to celebrate 
the Ifom (a kind of tire-worsliip), from his affection towards the Hindu 
princesses of his Harem. 
/ , From the New Year's day of the twenty-fifth year of his reign [988], 
His Majesty openly worshipped tiie sun and the fire by prostrations ; and 
the coui'tiers wore ordered to rise, when the candles and lamps were lighted 
in the palace. On the festival of the eighth day of Virgo, he put on the 
mark on the forehead, like a Hindu, and appeared in the Audience Hall, 
when several Brahmins tied, by way of auspicioiLsness, a string witL jewels 
on it round his hands, whilst the grandees countenanced these proceedings 
by bringing, according to their circumstances, pearls and jewels as presents. 
The custom of Kak'hi (or tying pieces of clothes round the wrists as amulets) 
became quite common. 

When orders, in opposition to the IsUm, were quoted by people of 
other religions, they were looked upon by His Majesty as convincing, whilst 
Hinduism is in reality a religion, in which every order is nonsense. The 
Originator of our belief, the Arabian Saints, aU were said to be adulterers, 
and highway robbers, and all the Muhammadans were declared worthy 
of reproof, till at length His Majesty belonged to those of whom the Qor&n 
says (Sur. 61,8:) ** They seek to extinguish God's light with their mouths : 
but God will perfect his light, though the infidels be averse thereto." In 
fact matters went so far, that proofs were no longer required when any- 
thing connected with the Isl^m was to be abolished." 

Akbar publicly assumes the spiritiLal leadership of the nation. 

[Bad. II, p. 268.] 
In this year [987], His Majesty was anxious to unite in his person 
the powers of the state and those of the Church ; for he could not bear 
to be subordinate to any one. As he had heard that the prophet, his 
lawful successors, and some of the most powerful kings, as Amir Timur 
5^ibqiran, and Mirza Ulugh Beg i Gurgan, and several others, had 


themeelveB read the Khufhah (the Friday prayer), he resolved to do the 
Bame, apparently in order to imitate their excuuple, but in reality to appear 
in public as the Mujtahid of the age. Accordingly, on Friday, the first 
Jumidsrlawwal 987^ in the J^mi' Masjid of Fathpur, which he had built 
near the palace, TTir Majesty commenced to read the Khutbah. But all at 
onoe he stammered and trembled, and though assisted by others, he could 
Bcarcdy read three verses of a poem, which Shaikh Faizi had composed, 
came quickly down from the pulpit, and handed over the duties of the 
Imim (leader of the prayer) to Ha&s Muhammad Amin, the Court Khafib, 
These are the verses — 

The Lord has given me the empire, 

And a wise heart, and a strong arm, 

He has g^ded me in righteousness and justice, 

And has removed from my thoughts everything but justice. 

His praise surpasses man's understanding, 

Great is His power, All&hu Akbar !" 

Ip, 269.] 

''As it was quite customary in those days to speak ill of the doctrine 
and orders of the Qor&n, and as Hindu wretches and Hinduizing Muham- 
madans openly reviled our prophet, irreligious writers left out in the 
prefaces to their books the customary praise of the prophet, and after say- 
ing something to the praise of God, wrote eulogies of the emperor instead/ 
It was impossible even to mention the name of the prophet, because these 
liars (as Abulfazl, Faizi, &c.) did not like it. This wicked innovation gave 
general offence, and sowed the seed of evil throughout the country ;* but 
notwithstanding this, a lot of low and mean fellows put piously on their 
necks the collar of the Divine Faith, and called themselves disciples, either 
from fear, or hope of promotion, though they thought it impossible to say 
our creed." 

[p. 270 U 272.] 
'' In the same year [087], a document made its appearance, which bore 
tlie ognatores and seals of Makhdum ulmulk, of Shaikh 'Abdunnabi, 
<;adni99udiir, of Qizf Jaliluddin of Mult^n, CUzilquz&t, of ^adr Jah&n, the 
mnfti of the empire, of Shaikh Mub&rik, the deepest writer of the age, and 
of Ghizi Khin of Badakhsh&n, who stood unrivalled in the various sciences. 

' As Abolfaxl has done in the Ain. 
' But Faizi added the usual pndse of the 
prophet {na*t) to his Nal Daman, a short 
time before his death, at the pressing 
nqoest of some friends/ Baddoni. 

* fieeanse books were sure to be copied ; 

hence many would see the innovation 
and imitate it. As the formula ' Bismil- 
Idh, <f*c.' had been changed to Alldkn 
Akbar, we also find Juldhn Akbar in 
the heading of book&, as in the Ain, 



Tlio object of the document was to settle the superiority of the Imam i ^ddil 
(just leader) over the Mujtahid, which was proved by a reference to an ill- 
supported authority. The whole matter is a question, regarding which 
people differ in opinion ; but the document was to do away with the 
possibility of disagreeing about laws, whether political or religious, and 
waii to bind the lawyers in spite of themselves. But before the instrument 
was signed, a long discussion took plaoe as to the meaning of ijtihdd^ and 
as to whom the term Mujtahid was applicable, and whether it reaUy was the 
duty of a just Imdm who, from his acquaintance with politics, holds a higher 
rank than the Mujtahid, to decide, according to the requirements of the 
times, and the wants of the age, all such legal questions on which there 
existed a difference of oi)inion. At last, however, all signed the document, 
Bome willingly, others against their convictions. 
I shall copy the document verbatim. 

The Document, 

* Whereas Hindustan has now become the centre of security and peace, 
and the land of justice and beneficence, a large number of people, especi- 
ally learned men and lawyers, have immigrated and chosen this country 
for their home. Now we, the principal 'Ulamds, who are not only well 
versed in the several departments of the law and in the principles of 
jurisprudence, and well-acquainted with the edicts which rest on reason or 
testimony, but are also known for our piety and honest intentions, have 
duly considered the deep meaning, ^r«/, of the verse of the Qordn (Sur. IV, 
62,) " Ohetj Gody and obey th^ prophet, and tJwse icho have authority among you" 
and secondly y of the genuine tradition, ** Surely, the man who is dearest to 
God on the day of judgment , is the Imam i ^Adil : whosoever obeys the Amir, 
obeys Me ; and ivhosoever rebels against him, rebels against Me,'* and thirdly, 
of several other proofs based on reasoning or testimony ; and we have 
agreed that the rank of a Sultan i ^Adil (a jiLst rider) is higher in tiie 
eyes of God than the rank of a Mujtahid. Further we declare that the 
king of the IsMm, Amir of the Faithful, shadow of God in the world, 
Abul Fath Jaldluddhi Muhamynad Akbar Fddishdh i ghdzi, whose kingdom 
God perpetuate, is a most just, a most wise, and a most God-fearing king. 
Shoidd therefore, in future, a religious question come up, regarding which 
the opinions of the Muj tabids are at variance, and His Majesty, in his 
penetrating understanding and clear wisdom, be inclined to adopt, for the 
benefit of the nation and as a political expedient, any of the conflicting 
opinions which exist on that point, and issue a decree to that effect, we 
do hereby agree that such a decree shall be binding on us and on the whole 


Further, we declare that, should His Majesty think fit to issue a new 
t>rder, we and the nation shaJl likewise be bound by it, provided always 
that such an order be not only in accordance with some verse of the Qor&n, 
but also of real benefit for the nation ; and further, that any opposition 
om the part of the subjects to such an order aa passed by His Majesty, shall 
involve damnation in the world to come, and loss of religion and property 
in this life. 

This document has been written with honest intentions, for the glory 
of God, and the propagation of the Isl&m, and is signed by us, the principal 
'UlamAs and lawyers, in the month of Eajab of the year 987 of the Hijrah.' 

The draft of this document when presented to the emperor, was in the 
handwriting of Shaikh Mubdrik. The others had signed it against their 
will, but the Shaikh had added at the bottom that he had most willingly 
signed his name ; for this was a matter, which, for several years, he had 
been anxiously looking forward to. 

No sooner had His Majesty obtained this legal instrument, than the 
road of deciding any religious question was open ; the superiority of intellect 
of the Imam was established, and opposition was rendered impossible. 
,A11 orders regarding things which our law allows or disallows, were abolish- 
ed, and the superiority of intellect of the Tmdm became law. 

But the state of Shaikh Abulfazl resembled that of the poet HairaU 
of Samarqand,^ who after having been annoyed by the cool and sober 
people of M&waral-nahr (Turkistdn), joined the old foxes of Shi'itic Persia, 
and ohose ' the roadless road.' You might apply the proverb to him, ' He 
prefers hell to shame on earth.' 

On the 16th Bajab of this year. His Majesty made a pilgrimage to 
Ajmir. It is now fourteen years that His Majesty has not returned to that 
place. On the 5th Sha'bin, at the distance of five koB from the town, 
the emperor alighted, and went on foot to the tomb of the saint (Mu'in- 
uddin). But sensible people smiled, and said, it was strange that His 
Majesty shoidd have such a faith in the Khwdjah of Ajmir, whilst he 
rejected the foundation of everything, our prophet, from whose * skirt' 
hundreds of thousands of saints of the highest degree had sprung." 

[>. 273.] 

'' After Makhdum ulmulk and Shaikh 'Abdunnabi had left for Makkah 
(987), the emperor examined people about the creation of the Qor&n, elicited 

' "Hie birthpUoe of the poet Havrati is 
not exactly known, thoagn he belongs to 
Torkut&Q. It is said that he was a great 
wine-bibber, and travelled about in search 

of places where wine-drinking was con- 
nived at. At last he settled at K&sh^n, 
and became a Shi'ah. He was murdered 
there by a robber in 961. 


their belief, or otherwise, in revehitioii, and raised doubts in them regard- 
ing all things connected with the prophet and the im^uns. He distinctly 
denied the existence of Jins, of angels, and of all other beings of the invisible 
world, as well as the miracles of the prophet and the saints ; he rejected the 
successive testimony of the witnesses of our faith, the proofs for the truths 
of the Qoran as far as they agree with man's reason, the existence of the soul 
after the dissolution of the body, and future rewards and punishments in 
as far as they differed from metempsychosis. 

Some copies of the Qoran, and a few old graves 
Are left as witnesses for these blind men. 
The graves, unfortunately, are all silent. 
And no one searches for truth in the Qor^. 

An '/</ has come again, and bright days wlU come — like the face 

of the bride. 
And the cupbearer wiU again put wine into the jar — red like blood. 
The reins of prayer and the muzzle of fasting — once more 
Will fall from these asses — alas, alas !^ 

His Majesty had now determined pu]>licly to use the formula, 'There 

; is no God but God, and Akbar is God'.s representative.' But as this led 

I to commotions, he thought bettor of it, and restricted the use of the for- 

: mula to a few people in the Harem. People expressed the date of this 

, event by the words fitnahdi ummat, the ruin of the Church (987). The 

emperor tried hard to convert Qutbuddin Muhammad Kh^ and Shahbfiz 

Kh^ (^vide List of grandees, lid book, Nos. 28 and 80), and several 

others. But they staunchly objected. Qutbuddin said, "What would 

the kings of the West, as the Sult^ of Constantinople, say, if he heard all 

this. Our faith is the same, whether a man hold, high or broad views." 

His Majesty then asked him, if he was in India on a secret mission from 

Constantinople, as he shewed so much opposition ; or if he wished to keep 

a small place warm for himself, should he once go away from India, and be a 

respectable man there : he might go at once. Shahb&z got excited, and 

took a part in the conversation ; and when Bir Bar — that hellish dog — 

made a sneering remark at our religion, ShahbSz abused him roundly, and 

said, " You cursed infidel, do you talk in this manner ? It would not take me 

long to settle you." It got quite uncomfortable, when His Majesty said 

to Shahbdz in particular, and to the others in general, " Would that a shoe- 

f ull of excrements were thrown into your faces." 

^ Badaoni bewails the blindness of I the means of grace of the Isl&m (prajeis, 
Aklar, Abulfazl, &c., who threw away | fasts). 


[p. 276.] 

" In this year the Tamghd (inland tolls) and the Jazyah (tax on infidels), 
which broxight in several krors of ddms, were abolished, and edicts to this 
effect were sent over the whole empire." 

In the same year a rebellion broke out at Jaimpur, headed by 
Muhammad Ma'fum of Kdbul, Muhammad Ma'9um Kh&n, Mu'izzul 
Ifulk, 'Arab Bah&dur, and other grandees. They objected to Akbar's 
innovations in religious matters, in as far as these innovations led to a 
withdrawal of grants of rent-free land. The rebels had consulted Mulld 
Mohammad of Tazd {vide above, pp. 175, 182), who was Q,azi-lquzdt 
at Jaunpur ; and on obtaining his opinion that, under the circumstances, 
reheUion against the king of the land was lawful, they seized some 
tracts of land, and collected a large army. The course which this 
rebellion took, is known from general histories ; vide Elphinstone, p. 511. 
Mulli Mohammad of Taad, and Mu'izzulmulk, in the beginning of the 
rebellion, were called by the emperor to Agrah, and drowned, on the 
road, at the command of the emperof , in the Jamnah. 

In the same year the principal 'Ulam&s, a.s Makhdum ul mulk, 
Shaikh Munawwar, Mulld 'Abdushshukur, &c., were sent as exiles to 
distant provinces. 

■ Ip. 278.] 

" H&ji Ibr^im of Sarhind {vide above, p. 105) brought to court an old, 
wonn-eaten MS. in queer characters, which, as he pretended, was written 
by Shaikh Ibn 'Arabi. In this book, it was said that the (^dhih i Zamdn^ 
was to have many wives, and that he would shave his beard. Some of 
the characteristics mentioned in the book as belonging to him, were found 
to agree with the usages of His Majesty. He also brought a fabricated 
tradition that the son of a Qahdbi (one who knew Muhammad) had once 
come before the prophet with his beard cut off, when the prophet had said 
that the inhabitants of Paradise looked like that young man. But as the 
H&ji during discussions, behaved impudently towards Abulfazl, Hakim 
Abalfath, and Shdh Fathullah, he was sent to Eantanbhur, where he 
died in 994. 

Farm&ns were also sent to the leading Shaikhs and 'Ulam&s of the 
Tarions districts to come to Court, as His Majesty wished personally to 
enquire into their grants (vide lid book, Ain 19) and their manner of 
living. When they came, the emperor examined them singly, giving 

' ^dAih i Zamdn, or ' Man of the Period/ is a title frequently given to Imam Mahdi. 


them private interviews, and assigned to them some lands, as he thought 
fit. But when he got hold of one who had disciples, or held spiritual 
soirees, or practised similar tricks, he confined them in forts, or exiled them 
to Bengal or Bhakkar. This practice become quite common.* * * The poor 
Shaikhs who were, moreover, left to the mercies of Himiu Financial Secre- 
taries, forgot in exile their spiritual soirees, and had no other place where 
to live, except mouseholes." 

[p. 288.] 
" In this year (988) low and mean fellows, who pretended to be learned, 
but were in reality fools, collected evidences that His Majesty was the 
Qdkib i Zam&n, who would remove all differences of opinion among the 
seventy-two sects of the Islam. Sharif of Amul brought proofs from the 
writings of Mahmud of Basakhw^n {vids above, p. 177), who had said that, 
in 990, a man would rise up who would do away with all that was wrong**.* 
And Khwdjah Maul^n& of Shir^, the heretic of Jafrddn, came with a 
pamphlet by some of the Sharifs of Makkah, in which a tradition was 
quoted that the earth woidd exist for 7,000 years, and as that time was 
now over, the i)romised appearance* of Im^m Mahdi would immediately 
take place. The Maiddn^ also brought a pamphlet written by himself on 
the subject. The Shi'ahs mentioned similar nonsense connected with 'Ali, 
and some quoted the following Rub^'i, which is said to have been composed 
by Nd^ir i Khusrau,* or, according to some, by another poet : — 

In 989, according to the decree of fate, 

The stars from all sides shall meet together. 

In the year of Leo, the month of Leo, and on the day of Leo, 

The Lion of God will stand forth from behind the veil. 

All this made His Majesty the more inclined to claim the dignity of 
a prophet, perhaps I should say, the dignity of something else."* 

Ip. 291.] 
** At one of the meetings, the emperor asked those who were present, to 
mention each the name of man who could be considered the wisest man 
of the age ; but they should not mention kings, as they formed an exception. 
Each then mentioned that man in whom he had confidence. Thus H^im 
Hum^ {vide above, p. 175) mentioned himself, and Shaikh Abulfazl his 
own father. 

* The text here does not give a clear 

■ A Persian poet of the fifth century of 
the Hijrah. As he was a free-thinker 
and Shi'ah, his poems were much read at 

the time of Akbar. The Farhantf i j 
Jahdinjiri is full of verses from the works 
of this ancient poet. 


During this tame, the four degrees of faith in His Majesty were defined. 
The four degrees consisted in readiness to sacrifice to the Emperor property, 
life, honor, and religion. Whoever had sacrificed these four things, 
poeseesed four degrees ; and whoever had sacrificed one of these four^ 
poeseesed one degree. 

All the courtiers now put their names down as faithful disciples of the 

[p, 299.] 

'' At this time (end of 989), His Majesty sent Shaikh Jam^ Bakhty^ 
to hring Shaikh Qu^buddin of Jalesar who, though a wicked man, pretended 
to be * attracted by God.' When Qufbuddfu came, the emperor brought him 
to a conference with some Christian priests, and rationalists, and some other 
great authorities of the age. After a discussion, the Shaikh exclaimed, 
'Let us make a great fire, and in the presence of ELis Majesty I shall pass 
through it. And if any one else gets safely through, he proves by it the 
tmth of his religion." The fire was made. The Shaikh pulled one of 
the Christian priests by the coat, and said to him, " Come on, in the name 
of God !" But none of the priests had the courage to go. 

Soon after the Shaikh was sent into exile to Bhakkar, together with 
other faqirs, as His Majesty was jealous of his triumph. 

A large number of Shaikhs and Faqirs were also sent to other places 
mostly to Qandah^, where they were exchanged for horses. About the 
same time, the emperor captured a sect consisting of Shaikhs and disciples, 
and known under the name of Ildhis, They professed all sorts of nonsense, 
and practised deceits. His Majesty asked them whether they repented 
of their vanities. They replied, '' Bepentance is our Maid." And so they 
had invented similar names for the laws and religious commands of the 
IfiUm, and for the fast. At the command of His Majesty, they were sent 
to Bhakkar and Qandah^, and were given to merchants in exchange for 
Turkish colts." 

[p. 301.] 

" His Majesty was now (990) convinced that the Millennium of the 
U&mitic dispensation was drawing near. No obstacle, therefore, remained 
to promulgating the designs which he had planned in secret. The Shaikhs 
and 'TJlam&s who, on account of their obstinacy and pride, had to be entirely 
discarded, were gone, and His Majesty was free to disprove the orders and 
principles of the IsMm, and to ruin the faith of the nation by making 
new and absurd regulations. The first order which was passed was, that 
the coinage should shew the era of the Millennium, and that a history of 
the one thousand years should be written, but commencing from the death 


of the prophot. Othor extraordinary innovations were devised as political 
expedients, and such orders were given that one's senses got quite perplexed. 
Thus tlie sijdah, or prostration, was ordered to be performed as being 
proper for kings ; but instead of sijdah^ the word zam'inhos was used. Wine also 
was allowed, if used for strengthening the body, as recommended by doc- 
tors ; but no mischief or impropriety was to result from the use of it, and strict 
imnishments were laid d(jwn for drunkenness, or gatherings, and uproaw. 
Eor the sake of keeping everything within proper limits, His Majesty 
established a wine-shop near the palace, and put the wife of the porter in 
charge of it, as she belonged to the caste of wine-sellers. The price of 
wine was fixed by regulations, and any sick persons could obtain wine on 
sending his own name and the names of his father and grandfather to the 
clerk of the shop. Of course, people sent in fictitious names, and got 
supplies of wine ; for who could strictl}^ enquire into such a matter ? It 
was in fact notliing else but licensing a shop for drunkards. Some people 
oven said that pork formed a component part of this wine ! Notwith- 
standing all restrictions, much mischief was done, and though a large 
number of people wore daily punished, there was no sufficient check. 
[ Similarly, according to the proverb, * * Upset, but don't spill,' the pro- 
stitutes of the realm (who had collected at the capital, and could scarcely be 
counted, so large was their number), had a separate quarter of the town 
.^assigned to them, which was called Shall dnpurah^ or Devilsville. A D^gah 
and a clerk also were appointed for it, who registered the names of such as 
went to prostitutes, or wanted to take some of them to their houses. People 
^iiight indulge in such connexions, provided the toll collectors knew of it. 
But without permission, no one was allowed to take dancing girls to his 
house. If any wellknown courtier wanted to have a virgin, they should 
first apply to His Majesty, and get his pennission. In the same way, boys 
prostituted themselves, and drunkenness and ignorance soon led to blood- 
shed. Though in some cases capital punishment was inflicted, certain 
privileged courtiers walked about proudly and insolently doing what they 

His Majesty himself called some of the principal prostitutes and asked 
them who had deprived them of their virginity. After hearing their replies, 
some of the principal and most renowned grandees were punished or censured, 
or confined for a long time in fortresses. Among them, His Majesty came 
across one whose name was EAjah Bir Bar, a member of the Divine Faith, 

* Raj ddr o mariz, which is impossible. 
Akhar's order was well meant ; but ac- 
cording? to Bsidaoni, his Act of Segregation 
was impractical. The passage is re- 

markable, as it shews the open profligacy 
among the Grandees, which annoyed 
Akbar verv mnch. For another instance, 
vide Bad.ll, p. 20. 


who Had gone beyond the four degrees, and acquired the four cardinal 
Tirtues.' At that time he happened to live in his j%ir in the Farganah 
of Karah ; and when he heard of the affair, he applied for permission to 
turn Jogi ; but His Majesty ordered him to come to Court, assuring him 
that he need not be afraid. 

Beef was interdicted, and to touch beef w£is considered defiling. The rea- 
son of this was that, from his youth, ELis Majesty had been in company with 
Hindu libertines, and had thus learnt to look upon a cow — ^which in their 
opinion is one of the re£isons why the world still exists — as something holy.^ 
Besides, the Emperor was subject to the influence of the numerous Hindu / 
princesses of the Harem, who had gained so g^at an ascendancy over him, I 
as to make him forswear beef, garlic, onions, and the wearing of a beard,* / 
which things His Majesty still avoids. He had also introduced, though modifled / 
hy his peculiar views, Hindu customs and heresies into the court assembHes^j 
and introduces them still, in order to please and win the Hindus and their | 
castes ; he abstained from everything which they think repugnant to their ;' 
nature, and looked upon shaving the beard as the highest sign of friendship/ 

and affection for him. Hence this custom has become very general. Fan-< 


dering pimps also expressed the opinion that the beard takes its nourish- 
ment from the testicles ; for no eunuch had a beard ; and one could not 
exactly see of what merit or importance it was to cultivate a beard. More- 
over, former ascetics had looked upon carelessness in letting the beard 
grow, as one way of mortifying one's flesh, because such carelessness expos- 
ed them to the reproach of the world ; and £is, at present, the siUy lawyers . 
of the Isl&m looked upon , cutting down the beard as reproachful, it was 
clear that shaving was now a way of mortifying the fleshy and therefore 
praiseworthy, but not letting the beard grow. (But if any one considers 
this argument calmly, he will soon detect the fallacy.) Lying, cheating 
Muftis also quoted an unknown tradition, in which it was stated that ' some 
Qizis' of Persia had shaved their beards. But the words kamd yafdu 
h^zuifuzdti (as some Qdiis have done), which occur in this tradition, 
are based upon a corrupt reading, and should be kamd yafalu ha^zuPmdt 
(as some wicked men have done). * * * * 

The ringing of bells as in use with the Christians, and the showing of 

the figure of the cross, and' , and other childish playthings of theirs, 

were daily in practice. The words £\ifr shdf shud, or 'heresy became com- 

' FazdU i arbaak, or the four virtues 
riz., kikmat wisdom ; thuid*at courage ; 
*^at chastity ; *addlat lustioe. Books 
OD Akkldq divide each into several 
kinds. Compare the above with the car- 
dinal virtues of the ancient justice, pru- 


dence, temperance, and fortitude. 

* 'The last three things are incon- 
venient in kissing.' 

• The text has o halbaldn .(?) hik 
khushgdh i Uhdnast, which I do not 



mon', express the TdriJch (985). Ten or twelve years after the comtaeiice- 
ment of tliese doings, matters had gone so far that wretches like Mirz^ Jani, 
chief of Tattah, and other apostates, wrote their confessions on paper as 
follows : — ' I, such a one, son of such a one, have willingly and cheerfully 
renounced and rejected the Islam in idl its phases, whether low or high, 
as I have witnessed it in my ancestors, and have joined the Divine Faith of 
Sliali Akbar, and declare myself willing to sacrifice to him my property and 
life, my honor and religion.' And these papers — there could be no more effec- 
tive letters of damnation — were handed over to the Mujtaliid (Abulfazl) of 
the new Creed, and were considered a source of confidence or promotion. 
The Heavens might have parted asimder, and earth might have opened her 
abyss, and the mountains have crumbled to dust ! 

In opposition to the Isl^m, pigs and dogs were no longer looked upon 
as imclean. A large number of these animals was kept in the Harem, and 
in the vaults of the castle, and to inspect them daily, was considered a re- 
ligious exercise. The Hindus, who believe in incarnations, said that the 
boar belonged to the ten forms which God Almighty had once assumed. 
* God is indeed Almighty — but not what they say.* 
The saying of some wise men that a dog had ten virtues, and that a 
man, if he possess one of them, was a saint, was also quoted as a proof. 
Certain courtiers and friends of His Majesty, who were known for their 
excellence in every department, and proverbial as court poets, ' used to 
put dogs on a tablecloth and feed them, whilst other heretical poets, Per- 
sians and Hindustanis, followed this example, even taking the tongues of i 
dogs into their own mouths, and then boasting of it. ; 

TeU the Mir that thou hast, within thy skin, a dog and a carcass.* 
A dog runs about in front of the house ; don't make him a messmate. 
The ceremonial ablution after emission of semen"* was no longer con- 
sidered binding, and people quoted as proof that the essence of man was the 
iperma genitalej which was the origin of good and bad men. It was absurd 
that voiding urine and excrements should not require ceremonial ablutions, 
whilst the emission of so tender a fluid should necessitate ablution ; it 
would be far better, if people would first bathe, and then have connexion. 

Further, it was absurd to prepare a feast in honour of a dead person ; 
for the corpse was mere matter, and could derive no pleasure from the feast. 
People should therefore make a grand feast on their birth-days.* Such feasts 
were called Ash i haydt, food of life.* 

The flesh of the wild boar and the tiger was also permitted, because the 

* Faizi. 

* I. e.f that you are a dog. 

* According to the law, bathing is 

required BJ^rjimd,' and iktildm, 
* For the poor. 
' Provisions for the life to come. 


courage wliich these two animals possess, would be transferred to any one 
who fed on such meat. 

It was also forbidden to marry one's cousins or near relations, because 
such marriages are destructive of mutual love. Boys were not to marry 
before the age of 16, nor girls before 14, because the offspring of early 
marriages was weakly. The wearing of ornaments and silk dresses at the 
time of prayer was made obligatory.* ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The prayers of the Isl&m, the fast, nay even the pilg^mage, were 
henceforth forbidden. Some bastards, as the son of Mulla Mub&rik, a 
worthy disciple of Shaikh Abulfazl, wrote treatises, in order to revile and 
lidicole our religious practices, of course with proofs. His Majesty liked such 
prododaons, and promoted the authors. 

The era of the Hijrah was now abolished, and a new era was intro- 
duced, of which the first year was the year of the emperor's accession (963). 
The months had the same names as at the time of the old Persian kings, 
and as given in the Ni^dhu^^ibydn^ Fourteen festivals also were introduced 
corresponding to the feasts of the Zoroastrians ; but the feasts of the Mu- 
eahnins and their glory were trodden down, the Friday prayer alone being 
retained, because some old, decrepit, silly people' used to g^ to it. The 
new era was called Tdrikh iUdhi, or ' Divine Era.' On copper coins and gold 
muhurs, the era of the MlUenium^ was used, as indicating that the end of the 
religion of Muhammad, which was to last one thousand year?, was drawing 
near. Beading and learning Arabic was looked upon as a crime ; and 
Mohanmiedan law, the exegesis of the Qor&n, and the Tradition, as also 
those who studied them, were considered bad and deserving of disapproval. 
Astronomy, philosophy, medicine, mathematics, poetry, history, and novels, 
were cultivated and thought necessary. Even the letters which are peculiar 
to the Arabic language, as the d», », ^, (j©, ^, and ^, were avoided. 
Thus for 4lJ|0AP ^AhduHahy people wrote aUi jj| Abdullah ; and for iS'^^^ 
Aiadi, (^oAf Ahadi, Sfe. AU this pleased His Majesty. Two verses from 
the Shahnimah, which Firdausi gives as part of a story, were fre- 
quently quoted at court — 

From eating the flesh of camels and lizards 
The Arabs have made such progress. 

^ ' The Mnhammadan law einoins Mus- 
liBu to go to the Mosques simply dressed. 
Slk is forbidden. Muhammadans dis- 
approve of our ' Sunday dresses* and 
■ Vide p. 41, note 2. 

* The text has an unintelligible 

^ That is, the word aZf (one thousand) 
was put on the coins. From this passage 
it would appear that coins with atf on it 
(<7i<f<?Marsden,p.599)were struck al>ottt99I 


or dresses of honor, according to the rules of hospitality, or in proportion of 
the tribute they liad brought." 

In this year Giilbadan Bogum [iVkbar's aunt] and Salimah 
Sultan Begum returned from a pilgrimage to Makkah. Soon after 
Shah Abu Turab also, and I'timad Khdn of Gujrat, returned from the 
pilgi'image, and brouglit an immense stone with them, which had to 
be transpoi-ted on an elephant. The stone contained, according to Abii 
Turab, an impression of the foot of the prophet. Akbar — though it is 
diflicult to guess the motive — went four kos to meet it, and the grandees 
were ordered to carry the stone themselves by turns, and thus it was 
brought to town. 

[p, 312.] 
**In this year. Shaikh Mubarik of Nagor said in the presence of the 
emperor to Bir Bar, ** Just as there are interpolations in your holy books, 
so there are many in ours (Qoran) j hence it is impossible to trust either." 

Some shameless and ill-starred wretches also asked His Majesty, why 
at the approaching close of the Millenniimi, he did not make use of the sword, 
* the most convincing proof,' as Shih Ism^Ml of Persia had done. But His 
Majesty, at last, was convinced that confidence in him as a leader was a 
matter of time and good counsel, and did not require the sword. And 
indeed, if His Majesty, in setting up his claims, and making his innovations, 
had spent a little money, he would have easily got most of the courtiers, 
and much more the vulgar, into Ids devilish nets. 

The following Euba'i of Naqir i Khusrau was often quoted at court — 

I see in 992 two conjunctions, 

I see the sign of Malidi and that of Antichrist : 

Either politics must change or religion. 

I clearly see the hidden secret. 
At a council meeting for renovating the religion of the empire, £4jah 
Bhagawdn said, " I would willingly believe that Hindus and Musalmins 
have each a bad religion ; but only teU us where the new sect is, and what 
ojunion they hold, so that I may believe." His Majesty reflected a little, 
and ceased to urge the Kajah. But the alteration of the orders of our 
glorious faith was continued. The Tdrikh was found in the words Ihddi % 
bi(Vaty the innovation of heresy (990). 

During those days also the public prayers and the az&n^ which was 
chanted five times a day for assembly to prayer in the statehall, were 
aboHshod. Names like Akmad, Muhammad^ Mug^afa, &c., became offensive 
to His Majesty, who thereby wished to please the infidels outside, and 
the princesses inside, the Harem, till, after some time, those courtiers 


▼ho had such names, changed them; and names as YAr Muhammad^ 
IMammad Khdn^ were altered to Rahmat. To call such ill-starred wretches 
by the name of our blessed prophet would .indeed be wrong, and there was 
not only room for improvement by- altering their names, but it was even 
necessary to change them, according to the proverb, * It is wrong to put 
fine jewels on the neck of a pig.' 

And this destructive fire broke all out in Agrah, burnt down great and 
small families, and did not even spare their family tombs — May God forsake 
these wretches I" 

[i?. 315.] 

'' In JSabfussdni 990, Mir Fathidlah came from the Dak'hin (vide above 
p. 33).* * * * As he had been an immediate pupil of Mir Ghiasuddin 
Man^ur of Shfr^z, who had not been overstrict in religious matters, His 
Majesty thought that FathuUah would only be too glad to enter into 
his religious scheme. But Eathullah was such a stanch Shi'ah, and at the 
same time such a worldly office-hunter, and such a worshipper of mammon 
and of the nobiliiy, that he would not give up a jot of the tittles of bigoted 
Qif'ism. Even in the statehaU he said, with the greatest composure, his 
Shi'ah prayers — a thing which no one else would have dared to do. His 
Majeety, therefore, put him among the class of the bigots ; but he connived 
at his practices, because he thought it desirable to encourage a man of such 
attainments and practical knowledge. Once the emperor, in Fathullah's 
presence,' said to £ir Bar, '^ I really wonder how any one in his senses can 
believe that a man, whose body has a certain weight, could, in the space of 
a moment, leave his bed, go up to heaven, there have 90,000 conversations 
with God, and yet on his return find his bed still warm ?" So also was the 
splitting of the moon ridiculed. ** Why," said His Majesty, lifting up 
one foot, ** it is really impossible for me to lift up the other foot ! 
What siUj stories men will believe." And that wretch (Bir Baip) and some 
other wretches — whose names be forgotten — said, " Tea, we believe ! Yea, 
we trust !" This great foot-experiment was repeated over and over again. 
But FathuUah — ^His Majesty had been every moment looking at him, because 
he wanted him to say something ; for he was a new-comer — ^looked straight 
before himself^ and did not utter a syllable, though he was aU ear." 

Here Bad&oni mentions the translations from Sanscrit into Persian 
which have been alluded to above, p. 104. It is not quite certain 
whether the translations were made from Sanscrit, or from Hindi trans- 

^ Ab Falhollah was a good mechanic, 
AkW thoaght that by referring to the 
weight of a man, and the ibllowiDg 

experiment with his foot, he would induce 
FathuUah, to make a remark on the 
prophet's ascension (mirdf). 


lations, or from both. Badioni clearly states that for some translations, as 
as tlio At'hc'irhau, Hindus were used as interpreters. For other works as 
tlie Maliabliarat, there may have been Hindi translations or extract*, 
because Akbar himself (^cidc p. 105, note 1) translated passages to Naqib 
Khun. Abulfazl also states that he was assisted by Pandits when writing 
tlie fourth book of the Km, Compare Sir H. Elliott's Index to the 
Historians of India, p. 259. 

Ip. 321.] 

**Iu those days (991) new orders were given. The killing of animals 
on certain days was forbidden, as on Sundays, because this day is sacred 
to the Sun ; during the first eighteen days of the month of Farwardin ; 
the whole month of Aban (the month in wliich His Majesty was bom) ; 
and on several other days, to please the Hindus. This order was extended 
over the whole realm, and capital punishment was inflicted on every one 
wlio acted against the command. Many a family was ruined. During the 
time of these fasts. His Majesty abstained altogether from meat^ as a 
religious penance, gradually extending the several fasts during a year over 
six months and even more, with the view of eventually discontinuing the use 
of meat altogether. 

A second order was given that the Sun should bo worshipped four times 
a day, in the morning and evening, and at noon and midnight. His 
Majesty had also one thousand and one Sanscrit names of the Sun collected, 
and read them daily, devoutly turning towards the sun ; he then used to get 
hold of both ears, and turning himself quickly round about, used to strike 
the lower ends of the ears with his fists. He also adopted several other 
practices connected with sun-worshiji. He used to wear the Hindu mark on 
his forehead, and ordered the band to play at midnight and at break of day. 
Mosques and prayer-rooms were changed into store rooms, or given to 
Hindu Chaukidto. For the word jamdHat (public prayer). His Majesty 
used the term jima' (copulation), and for hayya^ ala, he said yalald talald. 

The cemetry within the town was ordered to be sequestered." 

[p, 324.] 

** In the same year (991), His Majesty built outside the town two places 
for feeding poor Hindus and Muhammadans, one of them being called 
Khmrphrahy and the other Bharmpiirdh, Some of Abulfazl's people were 
put in charge of them. They spent His Majesty's money in feeding the poor. 
As an immense number of Jog'i^ also flocked to this establishment, a third 

* Hayya *ala, for * hayya *ala-9(jalah* 
[the waqjT fomi of faldtj^ *Coine quick 
to the prayer,* is a phrase which occurs 

in the Azdn. Yalald talald is a phrase 
used by drunkards in the height of mirth. 


place was built, whicli got the name of Jogipkrah. His Majesty also called 
some of the Jogis, and g^ve them at night private interviews, enquiring 
into abstruse truths ; their articles of faith ; their occupations ; the influence 
of pensiveness ; their several practices and usages ; the power of being 
absent from the body; or into alchemy, physiognomy, and the power 
of omnipresence of the soul. His Majesty even learned alchemy, and 
shewed in public some of the gold made by him. Once a year also during 
a night called Sivrdt, a great meeting was held of all Jogis of the empire, 
when the emperor ate and -drank with the principal Jogis, who promised 
him that he should live three and four times as long as ordinary men. His 
Majesty fully believed it, and connecting their promises with other inferences 
he had drawn, he got quite convinced of it. Fawning court doctors, wisely 
enough, found proofs for the longevity of the emperor, and said that the 
cycle of the moon, during which the lives of men are short, was drawing 
to its dose, and that the cycle of Saturn' was at hand, with which a 
new cycle of ages, and consequently the original longevity of mankind, 
would again commence. Thus they said, it was mentioned in some holy 
books that men used to live up to the age of one thousand years, whilst in 
Sanscrit books the a^s of some men were put down as ten thousand years ; 
and in Thibet, there were even now a class of Ldmahsj or Mongolian 
devotees, and recluses, and hermits, that live two hundred years, and 
more. For this reason. His Majesty, in imitation of the usages of these 
Limahs, limited the time he spent in the Harem, curtailed his food and 
drink, but especially abstained from meat. He also shaved the hair of the 
crown of his head, and let the hairs at the sides grow, because he believed 
that the soul of perfect beings, at the time of death, passes out by the crown 
(which is the tenth opening* of the human body) under a noise resembling 
thunder, which the dying man may look upon as a proof of his happiness 
and salvation from sin, and as a sign that his soul, by metempsychosis^ 
will pass into the body of some grand and mighty king. 

His Majesty gave his religious system the name of Tauhid % Ildh{, or 
* Divine Monotheism.' 

*^ Zukalf in Pendao JUaiwdUf Saturn. 
ThM planet is looked npon as the fountain 
of wisdom. Nizimi says sawdd i aaflnah 
hakaUedn supurd, 'He (Muhammad) gave 
Satuni the power of writing.* Anwdr 
SmAaili, in praiae of some physician, 
Zukal skdgird i 4 dar nukJUahddni, 
* Saturn in wisdom is his pupil.' Hence 
fte fionous astronomer Ahmqasim has the 
UfoA (title) of OhuUm % Zuhal. Besides, 
tliere are several cycles of years, over 
which each of the seven planets reigns. 


The first cycle was that of Saturn, during 
which the ages of men were long. The 
last cycle is that of the moon, durine 
which people do not attain a very old 
age. It existed already at the time of 
H4fiz, who says, In chih akarest kik dar 
daur % qamar mibinim, 'What misfortune 
is this which we witness in the cyde of 
the moon.' 

' Vide my text edition, Fourth hook, 
p. 8,1. 9. 


He also called, according to the manner of the Jogis, a number of 
special disci2)les Chelahs (slaves). A lot of vile, swindling, wicked birds, 
who were not adniitt(>d to the palace, stood every morning opposite to the 
window, near which His Majesty used to pray to the sun, and declared, they 
had made vows not to rinse their mouths, nor to eat and drink, before they 
had siMjii the bhissed countenance of the emperor ; and every evening, there 
was a regular court assembly of needy Hindus and Muhammadans, all sorts 
of ])(H)ph% men and women, healthy and sick, a queer gathering, and a most 
terrible crowd. No sooner had His Majt.^sty finished saying the 1001 names 
of the ' Greater Luminary', and stepped out into the balcony, than the whole 
crowd prostrated themselves. Cheating, thieving Brahmins collected 
another set of 1001 names of ' His Majesty the Sun,' and told the emperor that 
ho was an incarnation, like Earn, Kishn, and other infidel kings ; and though 
Lord of the world, he had assumed his shape, in order to play with the 
peoi>le of our planet. In order to flatter him, they also brought Sanscrit 
versos, said to have been taken from the sayings of ancient sages, in which 
it was predicted that a great conqueror would rise up in India, who would 
honor Brahmins and cows, and govern the earth with justice. They also 
wrote this nonsense on old looking paper, and shewed it to the emperor, 
who believed every word of it. 

In this year also, in the stat^ haU of Fathpur, the ten cubit square of 
the Hanafis and the Qullatain^ of the Shafi'is and Shi'ahs were compared. 
Tlie fluid quantum of the Hanafis was greater than that of the others. 

His Majesty once ordered that the Sunnis should stand separately from. 
the Shi'ahs, when the Hindustanis, without exception, went to the Sunni 
side, and the Persians to the Shi 'ah side." 

[j3. 336.] 

** During this year [992], Mull4 Hdhdfid of Amrohah and MulU Sheri 
attended at Coui*t, in order to flatter the emperor ; for they had been 
appointed to (^adrships in the Du4b of the Panjdb. MuUd Sheri presented 
to His Majesty a poem made by him, entitled Razor Shud.\ or * The Thousand 
Bays,' which contained 1,000 qita'hs in praise of the Sun. His Majesty wits 
much pleased." 

At the feast of the emperor's accession in 992, numerous conversions 
took place. [Bad. II. p. 338.] 

* Qnllatain, two large jars containing 

weigh not less than 1,200 rati, or the cube 

1,200 rati i 'irdqi ('iraqi pounds) of of 3i spans. Hanifah fixed (10 plj3)*» 

water. According' to the Shi'ahs • ,_+ j--_ ^_^_,„v i.i,„+ 4.v« v^^a :« • - 

J i.1- oi 'ii" i. i. 1 i. just deep enough tnat the nana, m paasine 

and the Shah i sect, water does not ^„„, ;+ ^ j^ ^'^x 4.„„,.i, +v„ x^^L^J^ m.^ 

become Tiajis, or soiled, from its being 
used, provided the quantity of water 

over it, do not touch the bottom. The 
experiment which Akbar made had for its 
object to throw blame on theHanafiSuAnis. 


^^ They were admitted as disciples in sets of twelve, one set at a time, 
and declared their willingness to adopt the new principles, and to follow the 
new religion. Instead of the usual tree,^ His Majesty gave his likeness, 
upon which the disciples looked as a symbol of faith and the advancement 
of viitae and prosperity. They used to wrap it up in cloth studded with 
jewels, and wore it on the top of their turbans. The phrase ' Alldhu Akhar* 
was ordered to be used as the heading in all writings. Playing with dice, 
and taking interest, were allowed, and so in fact was every thing else 
admitted which is forbidden in the Isl&m. A play-house was even built at 
Courts and money from the exchequer was lent to the players on interest 
(rufo Second book, A in 15). Interest and shatal (money given at the end 
of the play to the by-standers) were looked upon as very satisfactory things. 

Girls before the age of fourteen, and boys before sixteen, were not to 
many, and the story of the marriage night of the Prophet with Qtddiqah^ 
was totaUy disapproved of.* But why should I mention other blasphemies — 
May the attention which any one pays to them run away like Quicksilver — - 
really I do not know what human ears cannot bear to hear ! 

The sins which aU prophets are known to have committed, were cited 
as a reason, why people should not believe the words of the prophets. So 
especially in the case of David' and the story of Uriah. And if any one 
dared to differ from the belief of these men, he was looked upon as fit to be 
killed, or as an apostate and everlastingly damned, or he was called a law- 
yer and enemy of the emperor. But according to the proverb, * What people 
BOW, that they shall reap,' they themselves became notorious in the whole 
world as the greatest heretics by their damnable innovations, and ' the 
infallible authority ' got the nick name of Ahiijahl^ Yes, ' If the king is bad. 

Heads d sects give their pupils 
not of genealogy, but of disiciple- 
thip, as, Ahma^, disciple of 'AH, disciple 
of Mn'in, disciple of Bayazid, &c., ending 
with their own mime and the name of 
that dijiciple to whom the tree (shajarah) 
m given. 

' Qiddtqah is the title of *Aishah^ the 
daughter of Abii Bakr. " She was six 
Tears old, when she was .engaged to 
jCnhammad, who was then filty years 
old. The actual marriage took place, 
when she was nine years old. ' I sat,' she 
leltttes, * with other girls in a swing, when 
mj mother called me. I went to her» 
Dot knowing what she wanted. She 
took my hand, and led me to the door 
«f the boose. I now guessed what she 
wiabed to do with me : my heart throbbed, 
but I aoon got again composed. I washed 
my face and my head, and was taken 

inside, where several women were as- 
sembled, who congratulated me, and 
dressed me up. When they had done, 
they handed me over to tne prophet.' 
As she was so young, she took her toys 
to the house of the prophet. The pro- 
phet loved her so much, that even in the 
mosque, at the time of the service, he 
put his head under her veil, and caressed 
her, and played with her hair (Tha'labi 
Tafsir 2, 180} ; and he told the faithful that 
she would be his wife in Paradise." From 
Sprenger's Life of Muhammad III. p. 62. 

' David counts as a prophet. The 
book revealed to him is the zah^, or the 

* Properly father of ignorance, Ba- 
daoni means Abulfazl, which name 
signifies father of wisdom. Besides, 
Abulfazl had the iiue{fakhaUu(}) *Allam(, 
the moist learned. 



the Vizier is worse.' Looking after worldly matters was placed before reli- 
gious concerns ; but of all things, these innovations were the most important, 
and every thing else was accessory. 

In order to direct another blow at the honour of our religion, His 
Majesty ordered that the stalls of the Fancy bdzfirs, which are held on New 
year's-day, should, for a stated time, be given up for the enjoyment of the 
Begums and the women of the Harem, and also for any other married 
ladies. On such occasions, His Majesty spent much money; and the 
important affairs of Harem people, marriage-contracts, and betrothals of 
boys and girls, were arranged at such meetings. 

The real object of those who became disciples was to get into office ; 
and though His Majesty did everything to get this out of their heads, he 
acted very differently in the case of Hindus, of whom he could not get 
enough ; for the Hindus, of course, are indispensible ; to them belongs half 
the army and half the land. Neither the Hindustanis nor the Moghuls can 
point to such grand lords as the Hindus have among themselves. But if 
others than Hindus came, and wished to become disciples at any sacrifice, 
His Majesty reproved or punished them. For their honour and zeal he did 
not care, nor did he notice whether they fell in with his views or not." 

[p. 340.] 

'*In this year Sultan Elhwijah died. He also belonged to the elect 
disciples of His Majesty. After burying him, they laid down a new 
rule. They put a grate over his grave in such a manner that the light of 
the rising sun, which cleanses from all sins, could shine on the face of the 
corpse. People said, they had seen fiery tongues resting over his mouth, but 
God knows best." 

During the month of Qafar (the second month of the year) 994, 
Akbar's troops were defeated by the Yusnfeais. BadAoni says (p. 350) : 

"Nearly 8,000 men, perhaps even more, were killed. Bir Bay also, 
who had fled from fear of his life, was slain, and entered the row of the 
dogs in hell, and thus got something for the abominable deeds he had done 
during his lifetime. During the last night attack, many grandees and 
persons of renown were killed, as Has^ Kh^n, * and Khw&jah 'Arab, 
paymaster (colonel) of Khdn Jahdn, and MidM Sheri, the poet, and many 
others whose names I cannot specify. The words az Khwdjah ^Arab haif* 

* Fw?e List of grandees, Text edition 
of the Ain, p. 227, No. 220, where for 
Jfn^ain read Hasan, In the MSS. of 
the Ain he is called ^yuu or ^JJj. My MS. 

of the Tabaqat reads {J^\^^^ Patent 
Afghan, and calls him a iLazdrt. The 

edition of Badaonf has wrong (*ij. His 
biography is not given in the Madsir 

* The letters give 993 ; hence one 
more = 994. 


express the Tfirfkli of the defeat, by one less. Hakim Abulfath and Zain 
Khdm, on the 5th Babi'ulawwal, reached with their defeated troops the fort of 
Atak.* * * But His Majesty cared for the death of no grandee more than 
for that of Bir Baf. He said, '' Alas ! they could not even get his body out 
of the pass, that it might have been burned ;" but at last, he consoled 
himself with the thought, that Bfr Baj- was now free and independent of all 
earthly fetters, and as the rays of the sun were sufficient for him, there was 
no necessity that he should be cleansed by fire." 

New orders were given in the beginning of 995. [^Page 356.] 

" No one was to marry more than one wife, except in cases of barren- / 
nesB ; but in all other .cases the rule was, * One God, and one wife.' Women^ 
on reaching the limit of their period of fertility, when their courses stop, 
should no longer wish for the husband. If widows liked to re-marry, they 
might do so, though this was^ against the ideas of the Hindus. A Hindu 
girl, whose husband had died before the marriage was consummated, should 
not be burnt. If, however, the Hindus thought this a hardship, they 
should not be prevented (from burning the girl) ; but then a Hindu widow 
should take the girl ' 

Again, if disciples meet each other, one should say * Alldhu Aklar^ and 
the other should respond ' JaXla Jaldluhu.^ These formulas were to take the 
place of our saldmy and the answer to the saldm. The beginning of counting 
Hindu months should be the 28th day, and not the 16th, because the latter 
was the invention and innovation of Bikram&jit. The Hindu feasts, 
likewise, were to take place in accordance with this rule. But the order 
was not obeyed, though farm^ms to that effect, aj9 early as 990, had been 
sent to Gujr&t and Bengal. 

Common people should no longer learn Arabic, because such people 
were generally the cause of much mischief. Cases between Hindus should 
be decided by learned Brahmins, and not by Musalm^ Q&zis. If it were 
necessary to have recourse to oaths, they should put heated irons into the 
hands of the accused, who was guilty if his hands were burnt, but innocent 
if not ; or they shoidd put the hands of the accused into hot, liquid butter ; 
or the accused should jump into water, and if he came to the surface before 
an arrow had returned to the ground, which had been shot off when the man 
jumped into the water, he was guilty. 

* The text has wot not against the 
ideas of the Hiudue (P). 
* The text of the whole passage is 

doubtful. The readings of the three MSS. 
which Maulawi Agh4 Ahmad 'All had ia 
editing Badaoni, give no sense* 


People should bo buried witli their heads towards the east, and their feet 
towards the west/ Ills Majesty even commenced to sleep in this position." 

[p. 363.] 

** In the same year the prohibition of the study of Arabic was extended 
to all. I*eople should learn Astronomy, Mathematics, Medicine, and 
Philosopliy. Tlio Tarildi of this order is Fasdd ifazl (995) * * 

On tlie lOlh day of Miiharram 996, His Majesty had invited the 
Khan Khanan, and Man Sinj^h (who had just been appointed gover- 
nor of Bailor, Ilaji2)ur and Patna) ; and whilst they were drinking, His 
Majesty commenced to talk about the Divine Faith, in order to test M^ 
8ingli. He said without reserve, **If Your Majesty mean by the term of 
membership, willingness to sacrifice one's life, I have given pretty clear 
proofs, and Your Majesty might dispense with examining me ; but if the 
term has another meaning, and refers to religion, surely I am a Hindu. 
And if I am to become a Muhammadan, Your Majesty ought to say so — 
but besides Hinduism and Islam, I know of no other religion." The 
emperor then gave uji urging him. 

During the month of Cafar 996, Mirza Ful^ Beg Barl^ managed 
to get one night Midla Ahmad of T'hat'hah, on some pretext, out of his 
house, and stabbed at him, because the Mulla openly reviled [as Shi'ahs 
do] the comi>anions of the j)r()phot. The T^rikh of tliis event is expressed 
by the wor<ls Zlhe khan jar i Fu/ddj * Hail, steel of FuMd,' or by ^huk * 
saqarij * hellish hog !' And really, when this dog of the age was in his agony, 
I saw that his face looked just like the head of a pig,* and others too 
witnessed it — God ! we take refuge with Thee against the evil which may 
befall us ! His Majesty had Mirza FuMd tied to the foot of an elephant 
and dragged through the streets of L^hor ; for when Hakim Abulfath, at 
the request of the emperor, had asked the Mi'rzd, whether he had stabbed 
at the MuUa from religious hatred, he had said, *' If religious hatred had 
been my motive, it would have been better to kill a greater one' than the 
Mulla." The Hakim reported these words to His Majesty, who said, 
" This fellow is a scoundrel ; he must not be allowed to remain alive," and 
ordered his execution, though the people of the Harem asked the emperor 
to spare him for his general bravery and courage. The Mulld outlived 

* This was an insult, because the 
Muhammadans in India face the west 
during prayer. Vide Journal Asiatic 
Society, Bengal for 1868, p. 56. 

^ Sunnis assert that this transfigura- 
tion into an animal (nuisk^t) happens 
very often to Shi'ahs, because they revile 
the Quhdbah. Faizi, according to Ba- 

daoni, looked and barked Hke a dog, 
when dying. Another thing which the 
Sunnis all over India quote as a gresA 
proof of the correctness of their mazAiib, 
IS that no Shi 'ah can ever become a hdfiz, 
i. e., no Shfah can commit the Qoran to 
■ Either Akbar, or Abulfazl. 


the Mini three, or foxir days. The Shi'ahs, at the time of washing his 
corpse, eay that, in conformity with their religion, they put a long nail into 
the antUy and plunged him several times into the river.' After his burial, 
Shaikh Faizf and Shaikh AbulfazI put guards over his grave ; but notwith- 
standing all precaution, during the year His Majesty went to Kashmir, the 
people of L4hor, one night, took the hideous corpse of the Mulli from the 
grave, and burned it." 

[pp. 375, 876, 380.] 

** In 999, the flesh of oxen, buffaloes, goats, horses, and camels, was 
forbidden. If a Hindu woman wished to be burnt with her husband, they 
should not prevent her ; but she should not be forced. Circimicision was 
forbidden before the age of twelve, and was then to be left to the will of 
the boys. If any one was seen eating together with a butcher, he was to 
lose his hand, or if he belonged to the butcher's relations, the Angers which 
he used in eating. 

In 1000, the custom of shaving off the beard wajs introduced." 

In 1002, special orders were given to the kotwdls to carry out, 
Akbaj's commands. They will be found in the Third book of the Ain, 
iLm 5. The following are new : 

If any of the darsaniyyah* disciples died, whether man or woman, they 
should hang some uncooked grains and a burnt brick round the neck of the 
corpse, and throw it into the river, and then they should take out the corpse, 
and bum it at a place where no water was. But this order is based upon a 
fimdamental rule, which His Majesty indicated, but which I cannot here 

If a woman was older than her husband by twelve years, he should 
not lie with her, and if a yoxmg girl was found running about town, whether' 
veiled or not, or if a woman was bad, or quarrelled with her husband, she 
should be sent to the quarter of the prostitutes, to do there what she liked." 

[^. 391.] 

" At the lime of famines and distress, parents were allowed to sell their 
children, but they might again buy them, if they acquired means to repay* 
their price. Hindus who, when young, had from pressure become Musal- 
mins, were allowed to go back to the faith of their fathers. No man should 
be interfered with on aocoimt of his religion, and every one should be 
aDowed to change his religion, if he liked. If a Hindu woman fall in love 
with a Muhammadan, and change her religion, she should be taken from him 

' This was done to clean the intestines 
of faee€$, which were thrown into the 
HTer from which the Sunnis got their 


■ Prom darsafif for which vide p. 
167, 1. 1. 


l)y force, and bo given back to her family. People should not be molested, 
if tliey wished to build churches and prayer rooms, or idol temples, or fire 

[p. 398.] 
** In this year A'zam Khan returned from Makkah, where he had suffered 
much harm at the hands of the Sharifs,* and throwing away the blessing 
wliich he had derived from the pilgrimage, joined, immediately on hia 
return, the Divine Faith, perfonning the sijdah and following all other ndes 
of disciple.sliip ; he cut off his beard, and was very forward at social meetings 
and in conversation. He learnt the rules of the new faith from the Reverend 
Master Abidfazl, and got Ghazipur and Hdjipiir eisjdpir" 

[p. 404.] 
"During the Muharram of 1004, (^adv Jahdn, mufti of the empire, who 
had been promoted to a commandership of One Thousand, joined the Divine 
Faith, as also his two over-ambitious sons ; and having taken the Sha^t* of 
the new religion, he ran into the net like a fish, and got his Mazdriship, He 
even asked His Majesty what he was to do with his beard, when he was told 
to let it be. On the same day, Midla Taqi of Shushtar' joined, who looks 
upon liimself as the learned of all learned, and is just now engaged in 
rendering the Sh^din^mah into prose, according to the wishes of the emperor, 
using tlie phrase jallat ^azniatuhu wa ^azza shdnuhu,^ wherever the word 
Sun occurs. Among others that joined were Shaikhzddah Gos^ah Kh&n 
of Banaras ; Mulla Shdh Muhammad of Sh^dbSd ;* and (^\d\ Ahmad, who 
claimed to belong to the progeny of the famous Muhammad Ghaus. They 
all accei)ted the four degrees of faith, and received appointments as 
Commanders from One Hundred to Five Hundred, gave up their beards 
agreeably to the rules, and thus looked like the youths in Paradise. The 
words midardsh i chand, or ^ several shavers', express the tdrikh of this event 
(1004). The new candidates behaved like Hindus that turn Muhammadan,' 
or like those who are dressed in red clothes, and look in their joy towards 
their relations, who say to them, ** My dear little man, these rags will be 
old to-morrow, but the Islam will still remain on your neck. This Ahmad, 
* the little §ufi', is the same who claimed to be the pupil, or rather the perfect 
successor, of Shaikh Ahmad of Egj^t. He said that at the express desire of 
that religious leader of the age, he had come to India, and the Shaikh 
had frequently told him, to assist the Sultan of India, should he commit an 

* This is the title of the rulers of Makkah. 

* Ska^t, which has been explained ou 
p. 166, also means a fish hook. 

* Vida List of Grandees, Second Book, 
No. 352. 

^ Because Muhammadans use such 
phrases at\er the name of God. 
* Vide p. 106, note 1. 
' That is, over-zealous. 


error, and lead him back from everlasting damnation. But the opposite 
was the ease." 

So &r Bad&oni. We have, therefore, the following list of mem- 
bers of the Divine Faith. With the exception of Bir Bar, they are all 
Muhammadans ; but to judge from Bad^ni's remarks, the number of 
those that took the Shanty must have been much larger. 

1. Abulfasd. 

2. Faizi, his brother, Akbar's oourt-poet. 

3. Shaikh Mub&rik, of Ndgor, Iheir father. 

4. Ja'far Beg ^9af Khan, of Qazwm, a historian and poet. 

5. Qasim i E^i, a poet. 

6- 'Abdu99amad, Akbar's court-painter ; also a poot. 

7. A'zam Kh&n Kokah, after his return from Makkah. 

8. Mulli Sh&h Muhammad of Sh4h&bad, a historian. 

9. ^ufi Ahmad. 

10 to 12. 9*"^ Jahfin, the orown-lawyer, and his two sons. 

13. Uir Sharif of Amul, Akbar's apostle for Bengal. 

14. Sult&n IGiw&jah, a 9adr. 

15. Mirzd J&ni, chief of T'hat'hah. 

16. Taqi of Shustar, a poet and commander of two hundred. 

17. Shaikhzadah Oos&lah of Ban^as. 

18. Bir Bar. ^ 

Nos. 4 to 6 are taken bam the Ain ; the others are mentioned in 
the above extracts from Bad&oni. The literary element is well 
represented in the list. 

The above extracts from Bad&oni possess a peculiar value, because 
they show the rise and progress of Akbar's views, from the first doubt 
of the correctness of the Isl&m to its total rejection, and the gradual 
establishment of anew Faith combining the principal features of Hindu- 
ism and the Fireworship of the F&rsis. This value does not attach to 
the scattered remarks in the Ain, nor to the longer article in the 

Ajb the author of the latter work has used Bad&oni, it will only 
be necessary to collect the few remarks which are new. 

The following two miracles are connected with Akbar's birth. 

[IkbUidn, p. 390.'] 

' Vide also Shea and Troyera* English Translation of the Dabistan, III, p. 49. 



'*Khwajah Mas'ud, son of Khw^jah Mahmiid, son of Khwajah Mursliid- 
ulhaq, who was a gifted (^dhib i lial^ said to the writer of this book, 
" My father related, ho had heard from great saints, that the Lord of the 
faith and ^^ world * reveals himself.' I did not know, whether that august 
personage had appeared or would appetir, till, at last, one night I saw that 
event, and when I awoke, I suddenly arrived at that place, where the blessed* 
Lord was born, namely on a Sunday of the month of Eajab of the year 949, 
the lord Jalaluddin Akbar, the august son of Humdytin Pddishah and 
Hamidah Bdnu Begum." 

The second miracle has been related above, on p. 163, note 3. 
Those two miracles make up the first of the four chapters, into which 
the author of the Dabistan has divided his article on the " Divine Faith." 
The second chapter contains religious dialogues, and extracts firom 
Badaoni, which are rather conjectui^ally rendered in Shea's Translation. 
The third chapter contains remarks on the worship of the sun and stars, 
chiefly with reference to the sun-worship of the Tat&rs.* The last 
chapter contains extracts from the third and fifth books of the Am. 

P. 410. " ITis Majesty also sent money to Irdn, to bring to India 8 
wise Zoroastrian of the name of Ardsher."' 

P. 412. Abulfa^zl wi'ote, as a counterpart to his commentary on the Ayatul- 
hurst (p. 169), a preface to the ti*anslation of the Mahdbh^at {vide p. 105) 
of twoy«2. 

P. 413. ** When Sultan Khwajah,* who belonged to the members of the 
Divine Faith, was near his death, he said that he ho2)edy His Majesty would w>t 
have him buried like a mad 7nan. He was therefore buried in a grave trith a 
peculiar lamp, and a grate was laid over it, so that the greater luminary, 
whose light cleanses from all sins, miglit shine upon him.* * * 

Should a Hindu woman fall in love with a Muhammadan, and be 
converted to the Islam, she would be taken away by force and handed over 
to her family ; hut so should also a Mmalmihi wornan, who Itad fallen in loct 
with a Hi7idUj he prevented from joining Hinduismy^ 

P. 414. "I hoard from Mulla Tarson of Badakhshdn, who was a Hanafi 


^ Vide p. 171, note 2. 

' The author of the Dabistan 
much prominence to the idea tliat the 
power and success of the Tatars was in 
some way mysteriously connected with 
their sun and star woi*ship, and that their 
conversion to the Islam was looked upon 
as the beginning of their decline. It 
looks as if the writer wished to connect 
this idea with Akbar's successes and sun- 

• Regarding this Ardsher, ru:^ Jonmal 
Asiatic Society, Bengal for 1868, p. 14 
Akbar's fire temple was in the Harem. 

• Vide above, p. 204 

• The words in Italics are not in 
Badaoni. The object of the order was 
evidently to prevent a woman firom 
doing what she hked ; for, according to 
the Muhammadans, women are looked 
upon as ndqig ufa^L 


by sect, that once during the year 1058, he had gone on a pilgrimage to 
Silcandrah, the burial place of AkbaXf ^^ One of my companions," he said, 
"declined to enter the pure mausoleum, and even abused the Bepresentative 
of Qod [Akbar]. My other companions said, '^ If Akbar possesses hidden 
knowledge, that man will certainly come to grief." Soon after a piece of a 
broken 4stone feU down, and crushed his toe." 

jP. 431. ''In Mult^, I saw Shah Salamullah, who has renounced the 
world, and is a muahhid (Unitarian). He is very rigid in discipline, and avoids 
the society of men. He said, he had often been in company with JaliLuddin 
Akbar, and had heard him frequently say, '' Had I formerly possessed 
the knowledge which I now have, I would never have chosen a wife for 
myself; for upon old women I look as mothers, on women of my age as 
sisters, and on girls as daughters." A Mend of mine said, he had heard 
Nawab Abul Hasan, called Lashkar £h&n of Mashhad, report the same as 
having been said by Akbar. 

Salamullah also said that God's Eepresentative (Akbar) had offcen 
wept and said, '' that my body were larger than all bodies together, so that 
the people of the world could feed on it without hurting other living animals." 

A sign of the sagacity of this king is this, that he employed in his service 
people of all classes,^ Jews, Persians, Tiir&nis, &c., because one class of people, 
if employed to the exclusion of others, would cause rebellions, as in the case 
of the Uzbaks and Qizilbishes (Persians), who used to dethrone their kings. 
Hence Shlh 'Abb&s, son of Sul^dn Khud&bandah i ^afawi, imitated the 
practice of Akbar, 'and favoured the Gxirjis (Georgians). Akbar paid 
likewise no regard to hereditary power, or genealogy and fame, but favoured 
those whom he thought to excel in knowledge and manpers." 

The passages in the Ain which refer to Akbar's religious views are 
the following :— p. Ill; 11 ; 48; 49 ; 54; 57; 58, 1. 4 from below; 
Ain 26, p. 61 ; p. 90, notes 3 and 4, the Sanscrit names being very 
likely those which were alluded to by Bad&oni, vide above p. 180, 1. 18 ; 
p. 91, note 3 ; p. 103, note 3 ; lol, 105, 106 ; p. 108 1. 22, because the 
" Tnalnng of likon^sses" is as much forbidden by the Isldm, as it was 
interdicted by the Mosaic law ; Km 72, p. 153 ; 159 ; iSQn 77, p. 162 ; 
Kin 81, p. 216. In the Second Book, Ains 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25 ; in the 
md book, end of Ain 1 (T&rikh HSM) ; Ains 2, 5, 9, 10 ; and lastly, 
the greats part of the fifth book. 

It will be observed that the remarks on Akbar's religious views do 
not extend beyond the year 1596, when the greater part of the Km had 

* Vide the notes to Ain 30 of the Second Book 


bf^pii ('oni|)l('t(*d. BadiiOTii's history ends with A. H. 1004, or A. D. 
151)0 ; hut his remarks on Akbai'^s religion hocome more and more 
sparing- towards the end, and as suhsc^iucnt historians, even Jahangir 
in liis ' Menioire,' are almost entirely silent on the religious ideas of the 
emperor, we have no means of following them up after 1596. Akbar, in all 
prohability, continued worshipping the sim, and retained all other pecu- 
liarities of his monotheistic Parsi-Hinduism, dying as he had lived. The 
story related in that edition of Jahangir's Memoirs which has been 
translated by Major Price, that Akbar died as a good Musalman, and 
' reprinted' on his death-bed, is most untrustworthy, as every other 
particular of that narrative.* 

With Akbai-'s death,' the Divine Faith died out. Akbar, solely 
relying on liis iuihienec^ and example, had established no priesthood 
and had appointed no proper person for propagating liis faith. If we 
except the influence which his spirit of toleration exerted, the masses 
had remained passive. Most of the members, mentioned on p. 209, had 
died before Akbar ; such as were still alive, as Sharif of Amul took 

* The story of Akbar's * convoi-fiion' is 
also re]>onti.'(l in Elphinstonc's History, 
Second edition, p. 531. The Mulhi whom 
Akliar, aecordin<j *o Price's I^Iemoirs, is 
Huid to have called, is ^adr Jahan who, 
as remarked ahove on p. 2U9 was a mem- 
ber of the Divine Faith. This in itself is 
improbable. I^esides, the Tuzuk i Ja- 
han^iri, as piihlished by Sayyid Ahmad, 
says nothiiij^ about it. Nor does the 
I<|balnamali, a poor production (though 
written in beautiful Irani Persian), or 
Khali Khan, allude to' the conversion, 
which, if it had taken place, would certiinly 
have been mentioned. Khiili Khan espe- 
cially would have mentioned it, because 
he says of iJadaoni, that he said and wrote 
about the religious views of the Emperor 
things which he should not have related 
(vide Klttifi Khan, 1., p. li)()). The silence 
of the author of the Dabistan is still 
more convincing, whilst the story of Mulla 
Tarson, and the abuse uttered by his 
companion against Akbar (p. 210), 
are proofs that Akbar did not * repent.' 
To this we have to add that Jahangir, 
in his Memoirs, adopts a respectful phrase- 
ology when mentioning the sun, which 
he calls JIazrat JVai/t/i?* i A'zam; 
he also continued the sijdah, though 
offensive to pious Muhammadans, and 
Akbar 's ISolar Era, thougu it involved 

a loss to the revenue, because for 
every 33 lunar yeai-s, the state only 
received taxes for 32 solar years ; he 
allowed some Hindu customs at Court, 
as the Rdk'hi {vide above p. 184), and 
passed an order, not to force Hindus to 
join the Islam {Tuzuk, p. 100). 

^ Akbar died on the Sfuib i Chakdr- 
shambihj 12 fh Jumada-lukhra 1014 
A. 11., w'hich, accordingto note 3 of p. 171, 
is our Tuesday night [not Wednesday, 
as in Price, and all European Historians], 
the 15th October, 1(505, old style. Hence 
Akbar would have died in the night 
which followed the day on which he cele- 
brated his sixty-third birth-day, if we 
^dopt our mode of reckoning ; vide p. 62, 
note 1. 

There is some confusion in the Histories 
regarding the exact day of Akhar*s death. 

The PddMdhndmah (Vol. I, p. 66) says 
that Akbar died at the age of sixty-three 
(solar) years and one day, in the night of 
the Chahdnshambih (the night between 
Tuesday and Wednesday) of the 12th Ji*- 
niddalukhra, corresponding to the 2d 
Ahdn of Akbar 's Era. The Mir-dt and 
Khdfi Khan (I, p. 236) give the same ; the 
latter adds that Akbar died at midnight. 

The Padishahnamah (p. 69) and Khafi 
Khan (p. 246) fix the Julus, or accession^ 
of Jahangir for Thursday the 20th J ami- 


again to sophistry, and tried to create sensations under Jalidngir.' As 
Jahangir did not trouble himself about any religion, Akbar's spirit 
of toleration soon changed to indiflference, and gradually died out, when 
a reaction in favour of bigotry set in under Aurangzeb. But people still 
talked of the Divine Faith in 1643 or 1648, when the author of the 
Dabistan collected his notes on Akbar's religion." 

AFN 78. 

The beginning of the musters is made with this animal. The Khd^ah 
elephants with their furniture and ornaments are the first which are daily 
brought before His Majesty, namely, ten on the first day of every solar 
month. After this, the Ral^ah elephants are mustered according to their num- 
ber. On Tuesdays from ten to twenty are mustered. The Bitikchi, during the 
muster, must be ready to answer any questions as to the name of each animal 
(there are more than five thousand elephants, each having a different name. 

His Majesty knows to which section most of the elephants belong ten 

elephants form a section of ten {dahdi)y and are in charge of an experienced 
officer) ; as to how each elephant came into the possession of His Majesty ; 
the price ; the quantity of food ; the age of the animal ; where it was bom • 
the period of heat, and the duration of that state each time ; the date when 
an elephant was made khd^ah ; its promotion in the halqahs ; the time when 

dalukbra, or the 10th Aban, ». c, 8 days 
•fter Akbar's death. 

Muhammad Uadi, in his pre&ce to the 
Tusvik i Jahdrigiri, says that Akbar died 
00 the Shab i Chahdrshambih, 13ik 
Jumddalukhra ; and Sayyid Ahmad's 
Edition of the Tuzuk refers the Jultis to 
Thundaj the eighth Jmn4dalukhra ; but 
the word i»x*w tf > is often confounded in 

KS8. with /«jUaj. 

Again the Mir-dt, and Sharif i Irkni 
in his Iqbdlndmah, mention the Julus as 
hiTing taken place on Thursday, the 
tlfretUh Jum&dalukhra. Lastly, the pre- 
^soes of the Farhang i Jahdngtri refer 
the julus to the third Thursday [the 
twentieth day] of Jum4dalawwal [a mis- 
take for aluihra], corresponding to the 
roz i khur, or the eleventh, of Abdn. 

* rirfe Tuzuk, p. 22. 

* Only one of Akbar's innovations, the 
Sifdah, MUB formally abolished by Sh4h- 
jah&n. " During the reigns of 'Arshd- 
Mhydnt [Akbar], and Jannat Makdni 

[Jahangir], it was customary for courtiers 
on meeting their Majesties, or on receiving 
a present, to prostrate themselves, placing 
the forehead on the ground.* * * This 
custom had also obtained in antiquity, 
but had been abolished by the Islam.* * * 
When His Majesty [Shahjahan] mounted 
the throne, he directed his imperial care 
to the re-introduction of the customs of 
the Islam, the strict observance oftchi<'h 
had died away, and turned his august 
zeal to re-building the edifice of the law 
of the prophet, which had all hut decayed. 
Hence on the very day of accession, His 
Majesty ordered that putting the forehead 
on the ground should be restricted to 
God. Mahdbat Kh4n, the Commander- 
in-Chief, objected at first, &c. His Majesty 
would not even allow the Zaminbos, or 
kissing the ground, and subsequently 
introduced a fourth TasHm [Akbar had 
fixed three, vide p. 168, 1. 5]." Fddishdh^ 
ndmah I, p. 110. 


the tusks axe cut ; how many times His Majesty has mounted it ; how many 
times it was brought for riding out ; the time of the last muster ; the 
condition of the keepers ; the name of the Amir in charge. For all other 
elephants eight things are to be reported, viz., the change of its name(?) > 
the repetition of it ; its price ; how it came into the possession of His 
Majesty; whether it is fit for riding, or for carrying burdens ; its rank; 
whether it has plain furniture or not ; which rank the Faujdar has assigned 
to it. The rule is, that every Faujdar divides his elephants into four classes, 
sei)arating those that are best from those that are worst, whether they are 
to remain with him, or whether he has to give some to other Faujdara. 

Each day five tahwili (transferable) elephants are inspected by an experien- 
ced man. The following custom is observed : When new elephants arrive for 
the government, they are handed over in fifties or hundreds to experienced 
officers, who fix their ranks. Such elephants are called Tahtcili elephants. 
When His Majesty inspects them, their rank is finally settled, and the 
elephants are transferred to the proper sections. Every Sunday one elephant 
is brought before His Majesty, to be given away as a present to some 
deserving servant. Several h^lqaJis are set apart for this purpose. The 
rank of the khdgah elephants formerly depended on the number of times 
they had been inspected by His Majesty ; but now their precedence is fixed 
by the nimiber of times His Majesty has mounted them. In the halqahs, 
the precedence of elephants is determined by the price. When all elephants 
have been mustered, the kha<^^ah elephants are again examined, ten every 
day. Then come the elephants of the princes, who mostly march them past 
themselves. After them come the halqahs. As they are arranged in 
sections according to the price, some elei)hants have, at every muster, their 
value either enhanced or lowered, and are then put among their equals. 
For this reason, many Faujdai^s are anxious to complete their sets, and 
place themselves for this purpose in a row at the time of the musters. His 
Majesty then gives the elephants to whomsoever he likes. If the nximber 
of the elephants of any Faujdar is found correct, some more are put 
in his charge ; for such officers are thought of first. Faujddrs, whose 
elephants are found to be lean, are preferred, in making up the comple- 
ments, to such as bring less than their original nimiber. Each Faujdar 
receives some, provided he musters all his elephants. The Muahrif 
(accoimtant) receives orders where to keep the elephants. 

The elephants of the grandees also, though not belonging to the fixed 
establishment, are almost daily brought before His Majesty, who settles 
their rank, and orders them to be branded with a peculiar mark. Elephants 
of dealers also are brought before His Majesty, who fixes their rank and 


Am 79. 


They begin with the stables of forty ; then come the stables of the 
princes ; then the khdgah courier horses ; then the conntry-bred, and all 
other stables. When the ten mnhnr horses have been inspected, they 
bring the GiLfs, Qisrdqs, the horses on which the hunting leopards ride, and 
the Bdrgir horses {vide p. 133, 1. 12 ; p. 135, 1. 10 from below, and Ain 54, 
p. 139). The plaee of the horses at the musters, is determined by their 
▼alne, and in the case of horses of the same value, the precedence is 
detennined by the time of service. Before the musters, the horses are 
inspected by clever officers, who again fix their value, and divide them into 
three classes. When the rank of a horse has been put higher or lower, it 
is placed among his proper class-fellows. Those horses which belong to the 
third class, form separate stables, and are given away as presents. If 
hones have their value raised, they are given over to such keepers as 
bring to the musters either the full complement of their horses, or at least 
a complement not more deficient than by two. Incomplete stables are 
daily filled up during the musters; or if not filled up, they are put in 
charge of separate keepers. Twenty horses are daily mustered. On 
Sundays, horses are the first that are mustered. Double the usual number 
are then inspected. Several horses are also kept in waiting at Court, viz,^ 
one from each of the sixty to the forty muhur stables, and one more from 
each of the thirty to the ten muhur stables. They are given away 
as presents or as parts of salaries. The precedence at musters of b^Lz&r- 
horsee is fixed according to the price. According to the number of horses 
availahle, from twenty to a hundred are daily mustered. Before the musters, 
experienced officer^ fix the prices, which are generally enhanced at the 
tbne of the parades. Horses above thirty muhurs, have their value fixed 
in the presence of His Majesty. A cash-keeper attached to the State- 
hall is -entrusted with money, so that horse-dealers have not to wait long 
for payment of their claims. When horses have been bought, they are 
marked with a peculiar brand, so that there may be no fraudulent exchange. 

From foresight, and on account of the large profits of the horse-dealers, 
His Majesty enforces a tax of three Eupees for every ^Irdqi, Mujannas (vide 
p. 140, note 2), and Arab, imported from K&bul and Persia ; two and a 
half Bupees for every Turkish and Arabian horse imported from Qandahir ; 
snd two for £&bul horses, and Indian Arab breed. 


ATX 80. 


The oeginning is mado with coiintry-brGd camels, of which five qatdn 
are daily inspo(;ted. Those pancadis (officers in charge of five hundred 
camels) come first who are oldest. The Head D^ogah has the permission 
to parade before His Majesty a qatiSr of excellent Bughdis and Jammazahs. 
Tlien come the Bughdis, and after them the Jammfizahs, the G'hurds, the 
Loks, and all other camels. The commencement of the musters takes place 
on Fridays, on which day doul)lo the usual number marches pa'st. The 
precedence of camels is determined by their value. 

ATN 81. 

Cattle are mustered according to their value, ten yokes daily. Tho 
muster conmiences on Wednesdays, on which day double the usual number 
is inspected. 

On the day of the Diwdli — an old festival of this country, on which the 
Hindus pray to the cow, as they look upon reverence shewn to cows 
as worship — several cows are adorned and brought before His Majesty. 
Peoi)le are very fond of this custom. 


ATS 82. 

The musters of this beast of burden conunence on Thursdays, when 
six qafcirs are inspected in order of their value. Mules are mustered once 
a year. 

Formerly all musters took place as above described. But now horses 
are inspected on Sundays ; camels, cows, and mules, on Mondays ; the 
soldiers, on Tuesdays ; on Wednesdays, His Majesty transacts matters of 
Finance ; on Thursdays, all judicial matters are settled ; Fridays His Majesty 
spends in the Harem ; on Saturdays, the elephants are mustered. 


AfN 83. 

His Majesty has taught men something new and practical, and has 
made an excellent rule, which protects the animal, guards the stores, teaches 
equity, reveals the excellent, and stimulates the lazy man. Experienced 
people saw their wisdom increased, and such as inquired into this secret, 
obtained their desires. 

His Majesty first determined the quantity of daily food for each 
domestic animal, and secondly determined the results, which different quanta 
of food produce in the strength of an animal. In his practical wisdom and 
firom his desire of teaching people. His Majesty classifies the dishonest 
practices of men. This is done by the PUgosht regulation. From time to 
time an experienced man is sent to the stables of these dumb creatures. He 
inspects them, and measures their fatness and leanness. At the time of the 
musters also the degrees of fatness or leanness are first examined into, and 
reports are made accordingly. His Majesty then inspects the animals himself, 
and decreases or increases the degrees of their fatness or leanness as re- 
|)orted, fixing at the same time the fine for leanness. If, for some reason, the 
allowance of grain or grass of an animal had been lessened, proper account 
IB taken of such a decrease. The leanness of an elephant has been divided 
into thirteen classes. ♦ * * • 

The object of this curiotia resfulation 
to determiDe the amount of the fines 
which Akbar could justly inflict on the 
officers in charge of the animals belonging 
to the Court, if the condition of the 
animals did not correspond to his expect- 
ations. The daily quanta of food sup- 
plied to the animals had been fixed by 
minute rules (Ains 43, 61, 62, ^7, 70), 
and the several Daroghahs (store-keepers) 
entered into their rozndmchahs, or day- 
books, the quantum daily given to each 
animal. These day-books were produced 
at the musters, and special officers 
measured the fiitness of eacn animal, and 
eompared it with the food it had been 
receiving since the last muster, as shewn 
in the day-book. Akbar determined a 
maximum &tness (A), which correspond- 
ed to a maximum quantity of daily food 
(a). Similarly, he determined a fatness (B), 
resulting from a daily quantity of food (6), 
though AbttlfazI does not specify how 
this was done. The quantities A, B, &c. 
were then divided into several fractions 


r— , TT-, &C. Thus 


in the case of elei^hants, the maximum 
fatness (A) was divided into 13 degrees. 

Pd-go8ht means a quarter of flesh, 
and evidently expresses that the food 
a only produced f A, instead of jA. 
The name was then transferred to the 

We do not know how the mustering 
officers applied Akbar's rale, whether by 
measuring the circumference of an ani- 
mal, or by weighing them. The rule 
may appear fanciful and unpractical ; 
but it shews how determined Akbar 
was to fathom the dishonesty of his 
Daroghahs. Hence the carefulness which 
he shewed in assessing fines (Ains 48, 
67), in ordering frequent musters of 
animals and men, in reviving the re- 
gulations of branding animals as given 
by 'Alauddin Khilji and Shcr Shah, in 
fixing the perquisites, in paying cash 
for all supplies, in allowing veterinary 
surgeons certain powers, &c. 

• The text (p. 163, 1. 19) enumerates 
several fractions, or degrees of leanness, 
but they give no sense. The confusion 
of the MSS. is due to the want of inter- 



For all otlior animals beside the olophant, six degrees have been laid 
down, viz. the second, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and tenth [degrees of the 
thirteen for tlio eh^phunt J. And as it is the custom of the Faujdte, to 
mark, at tlio time of the musters of the halqahs, one halqah which is the 
best in their opinion, and to put separate that which is the worst, the officers 
wlio inquire into tlio leamiess and fatness, deduct fifty jj^r cent, from the 
degree of the former, and count one half for the latter halqah. If the 
Faujddr works in concert with the Daroghah, and both sign the entries in the 
day-book, tlie Faujdar is responsible for one-fourth, and the D^oghah for 
the remaining part of the food. The leanness of old elephants is fixed by 
tlie condition of tlie whole halqah. In the horse stables the grooms, water- 
carriers, and Rwcoj^ers are fined one-fourth of the wages. In the case of 
camels, the Daroghah is fined the amount of the gi'ain, and the driver for 
the sliare of tlu* grass. In the case of oxen used for carriages, the Ddroghak 
is fined for tlie part of the grass and the grain ; but the driver is not liable. 
In case of heavy carriag<}s, half the fine is remitted. 

AI'N 84. 


His Majesty is desirous of establishing harmony among people of 
difi'erent classes. He wishes to arrange feasts of friendship and union, so 
that every thing may be done with propriety and order. But as all men 
do not possess a mind capalde of selecting that which is true, and as every 
ear is not fit to listen to wisdom. His Majesty holds social meetings for 
amusement, to whi<h he invites a large number of people. Through the 
careful arrangements of His Majesty, the court has been changed from a 
field of ambitious strife to a temple of a higher world, and the egotism and 
conceit of men have been directed to the worship of God. Even superficial, 
worldly people thiLs learn zeal and attachment, and are induced by these 
gatherings to enquire after the road of salvation.' 


The manner of fighting of this animal is very interesting, and its 
method of stooping down and rising up again is a source of great amuse- 
ment. Hence His Majesty i)ays much attention to this animal, and has 
succeeded in training this stubborn and timid creature. One hundred and 
one deer are khd^ah; each has a name, and some peculiar quafities. A 
keeper is placed over every ten. There are three kinds of fighting deer. 

1 fV 

To join Akbar's Divine Faith. 


J^rdy those which fight with such as are bom in captivity and with wild ones ; 
tectmdlyy such as fight best with tame ones ; and thirdly, such as fiercely 
attack wild deer. The fights are conducted in three different ways. First, 
aecording to number, the first fighting with the second, the third with the 
fourth, and so on, for the whole. At the second go, the first fights with the 
third, the second with the fourth, and so on. K a deer runs away, it is 
placed last ; and if it is known to have run away three times, it ceases to be 
ihd^ah. Betting on these fights is allowed ; the stake does not exceed 5 
d&ms. Secondly, with those belonging to the princes. Five khdgah pair fight 
with each other, and afterwards, two kh&qah pair from His Majesty's 
hunting-ground ; then five other khdgah pair. At the same time two pair 
from the deer park of His Majesty's hunting-ground fight, and afterwards 
&^e khdgah deer engage with five deer of the eldest prince. Then fourteen 
kkd^ah pair engage with each other, and fight afterwards with the deer of the 
prince, till the fight with the deer of the prince is finished. Upon this, the deer 
of princes fight with each other, and then khdgah deer. The betting on such 
fights must not exceed one muhur. Thirdly, with the deer of other people. 

His Majesty selects forty-two from his nearer friends, and appoints 
every two of them as opponents, forming thus one and twenty sets. The 
first winners receive each thirty deer, and all others get one less, so that 
the last get each eleven. To every set a Mal,^ a water-buffalo, a cow, a 
quehqdr (fighting ram), a goat, and a cock, are given. Fights between cows 
and goats are rarely mentioned to have been held in ancient times. Before the 
fighting commences, two khdgah deer are brought in trimmed up, and are set 
against two deer belonging to people of various sets. First, with a deer 
belonging to a powerful grandee, and then the fight takes place before 
His Majesty. If a general assembly is announced, the fight may also 
take place, if the deer belongs to a commander of One Thousand. The 
betting on khdgah deer is eight muhurs, and on deer belonging to one of a 
set, five muhurs, if it be an Afkal ; and four, if an Anin. As deer have not 
equal strength and impetuosity of attack, the rule among deer-keepers is, 
once to select each of their deer in turn and take it to the arena. Such 
deer are called An\n, Another then estimates its strength, and brings a 
deer as opponent. The latter is called Afkal. In case of Mais, the betting 
is five muhurs ; for water buffaloes and cocks, four ; for cows and fighting 
rams, and goats, two. A commander of One Thousand is allowed to bet 
six muhurs on a khdgah deer ; and with one of his own rank,' 3 J muhurs, 
if the bet is on an Atkal ; and three on an Anhn ; and so also in the same 

* Mai, according to Afn 6 of the Second I * Or pcrliaps with his opponent in 
Book, is the name lor a Gujrat wrestler. ] the set (misl). 


jjiopMrflnTi oi. Mdh^ wator-l)ufral(>os, and cocks; but on cows, fighting rams, 
iuul :4<jat^, tw<». A cuiuniandcr nf Nino Hundred may bet on o, kkd^ah deer 
ru) liupL'Os ; and with one of liis own rank, 80.} R. on an Athal, and 25 E. 
on an Ania ; on a Mnl .'>i mnlmrs; on a wat<T-l>uffalo and a cock 3 J if.; 
and on all other animals, 1 .1 J/. A commander of Eij^ht Hundred is allowed 
to bet IS li, on a kLurah deer ; with one of his rank, 30 R, on an Atkal ; and 
:i 1 II. on an .inhi ; on a Mnl 3 J J/". ; on a water-buffalo and cock, 2 J Jlf., 
and on other animals, as before. A commander of Seven Hundred is 
all()w<nl to b(^t 1 i R. on a kin'uah deer ; with one of his own rank on an Athal 
1^"^ it. ; on an Anhi 22 II. ; on a Mai 3 Ji"; on other animals as before. A 
Commander of JSix Hundred may bet 40 R. on sl khd(^ah deer; with one of 
liis own rank, 25 R. on an Atkal : 20 i?. on an Anbi ; (m other animals as 
before. A Commander of Five Hundred may bet 4 M. [36 -B.] on a 
khdrah deiT ; witli one of his own rank 21 M. on an Afkal, and 2 iJ/". on a 
Avh) ; on other animals, as the preceding. A Commander of Four Hundred 
may l)et 34 R. cm a khdrah deer; with one of his own rank 21 J M. on an 
Atkal; 17 R. on nil A'/rm ; on a 3fal 21 31. ; on a water-buffalo and cock, 
2 31. ; on ii cow, a fighting ram, and goat, 1 3f. A Commander of Three 
Hundred may ])ot 30 R. on a khd(;ah deor ; with one of his own rank, 18:J R, 
on an Atkal ; 15 R. on an Anin ; 2k 31. on a 3fal ; on other animals as the 
l)receding. A Commander of Two Hundred may bet 24 R. on a khdrah 
deer ; with one of his own rank 15 R. on an Atkal, \2 R. on nnAniny and 
on other animals as before. A Commander of One Hundred may bet 2 M. 
on a kh('i(;uh deer; with one of his own rank l.J 31. on an Atkal ; 1 i[f . on an 
Anhi ; and on other animals as before. A (Commander of Eighty may bet 
16 i?. on a k/i/tralt deer; with one of his own rank 10 JK. on an Atkal; 8 B» 
on an An'in ; 17 R. on a 3fal ; IJ 3L on a water-buffalo and a cock; on 
other animals as l)efore. A Commander of Forty may bet 12 i^. on a khdgaJt 
deer ; with one of his own rank 7i R. on an Atkal ; 6 i2. on a Antn ; on 
other animals as before. A Commander of Twenty may bet 10 R. on a 
khd' ah deer; 6.1 R. with one of his own rank on an Atkal ; 5 i?. on an Anin ; 
on other animals as before, A Commander of Ten may bet 8 i?. on a khdrah 
deer, and 5 R. on an Atkal, with one of his own rank ; 4 72. on an Anin ; on 
other animals as before. People who hold no mafigabs, bet 4 i2. on a khd(^ah 
deer; with one of their own rank, 2^ it*, on an Atkal ; 2 i2. on an Anin ; 
1 5 it. on a 3fal ; on other animals as })efore. 

But if the opponent hold a less rank, the amount of the bet is deter- 
mined according to the amount which tlie opponent is allowed to bet on 
un ^In'in. When the last pair comes, tlie betting is everywhere on the deer. 
A fourth i)art of what people take from each other in 3Ial fights, is given 
to the victorious wrestler. The presents which His Majesty makes on such 
occasions, have no limits. 


The rule is that every one of such as keep animals brings on the fourteenth 
night of the moon one deer to the fight. The Bitikchi of this department 
appoints half the number of deer as AninSy and the other half as Atkals. He 
then writes the names of the Atkals on paper slips, folds them up, and takes 
them to His Majesty, who takes up one. The animal chosen has to fight 
with an Antn. As such nights are clear, fights are generally announced for 
that time. 

Besides, there are two other classes of deer, koted^ and half kotal. The 
number of each is fixed. As often the number of khdgah deer decreases, the 
deficiency is made up from the kotal deer ; and the deficiency in the nimiber 
of iotala is made up from half kotaU. One pair of kotah also is brought 
to the fight, so that they may be tried. Hunters supply continually wild 
deer, and bring them to His Majesty, who fixes the price. A fat superior 
deer costs 2 if. ; a thin superior one, 1 ilf. to 15 i2. ; a fat middling one, 12 
R, ; Do. lean, 8 i2. ; a third class fat one, 7 B, ; Do. thin, 5 E. ; a, fourth 
dass fat one, 4 It. ; Do. lean, 2^ to 2 i2. 

Deer are kept and fed as follows : Khdgah deer selected for fighting 
before TTia Majesty, get 2 8. grain, i a. boiled flour, \ s. butter, and 1 d. for 
grass. Such as are kept on His Majesty's himting-grounds, kotalsy and fight- 
ing deer of the sets, get If «. of grain, and flour and butter as before. The 
grass is supplied by each amateur himself. All khdgah, home-bred, kotal deer, 
and those of His Majesty's hunting-ground, have each one keeper. The 
fighting deer of the sets have one keeper for every two ; the single last one 
has a keeper for itself. Nothing is given for grass. Deer which are given 
to people to have them fattened, get If «. grain, and i d, for grass. They 
have one keeper for eveiy four ; but one for every two, if they are fit to 
become khdgah. Some deer are also sent to other towns ; they get 1^ «« 
grain, and have each one keeper. K deer are newly caught, they get no 
regular food for seven days, after which they get i 8. of grain for a fort- 
night. They then get 1 «., and when one month is over, 1^ «. 

In the deer park, Man^abd&rs, Ahadis, and other soldiers are on staff- 
employ. The pay of foot-soldiers varies from 80 to 400 d. 

His Majesty has 12,000 deer; they are divided into different classes, 
and proper regulations are made for each of them. There is also a stud 
for deer, in which new results are obtained. A large female gets li s. grain, 
and } d, for grass. A new bom deer drinks the milk of the dam for two 
months, which is reckoned as equivalent to i s, of grain. Afterwards, 
eveiy second month, the allowance is increased by a quarter ser of grain, 
80 that after a period of two years, it gets the same as its dam. For grass, 
i d, is given from the seventh to the tenth month. Young male ones also 
get weaned after two months, when they get } s. of grain, which is increased 


])y tliat quantity cvpry sooond montli, so that, after two 3'oavs, they got 2\ .«. 
From the fiftli to the (M^^hth luouth, thoy get -J d. for gi'ass, after which 
period they get \ d. for grass. 

I liave given a short description of animal fights as announced for 
general asseinhlies. His Majesty announces them also for day time ; but 
as often a more important a(;t of worship is to bo performed, he announces 
them for the niglit. Or else His Majesty thinks of God, and seeks for 
wisdom in self- (?x ami natiim ; ho cares neither for cold nor heat ; he spends 
the time which others idle away in sleep, for the welfare of the people, and 
prefers labour to comfort. 

AFN 85. 

Regulations for house-building in general are necessary ; they are 
required for the comfort of the army, and are a soui"(.e of splendour for 
the government, l^eople tliat are attached to the world will collect in towns, 
without which there would be no progress. Ilence Ilis Majesty' plans 
splendid edifices, and dresses the work of his mind and heart in the garment 
of stone and clay. Thus mighty fortresses have been raised, which protect 
the timid, frigliten the reb(?llious, and please the obedient. Dehghtful 
A'illas, and imx)osing towers have also been built. They afibrd excellent 
protection against cold and rain, provide for the comforts of the princesses 
of the Harem, and are conducivo to that dignity wliich is bo necessary for 
worldly power. 

Everywliero «also Sardis have been built, which are the comfort of 
travellers and tlie asylum of poor strangers. Many tanks and weUs are being 
dug for the benefit of men and the improvement of tlie soil. Schools and 
X)laces of worship are being founded, and the triumphal arch of knowledge 
is newly adorned. 

His Majesty has enquired into every detail connected with this depart- 
ment, whicli is so difficult to be managed, and requires such large sums. lie 
has passed new regulations, kindled the lamp of honesty, and put a stock 
of practical knowledge into the hands of simple and inexperienced men. 

ATN 86. 


Many people are desirous of building houses ; but honesty and 
conscientiousness are rare, especially among traders. His Majesty has 


c&refullj inquired into their profits and losses, and has fixed the prices of 
articles in such a manner, that both parties are satisfied. 

Sed sandstone costs 3 d, per nian. It is obtainable in the hills of 
Fathpur Sikri, His Majesty's residence, and may be broken from the rocks 
at any length or breadth. Clever workmen chisel it so skilfully, as no 
turner could do with wood ; and their works vie with the picture book of 
JToMt [the great painter of the Sassanides]. Pieces of red standstone 
(utn^ i yuliilah), broken from the rocks in any shape, are sold by the p^hari, 
which mecms a heap of such stones, without admixture of earth, 3 gaz long, 
2i y. broad, and 1 g. high. Such a heap contains 172 manSy and has a value 
of 250 I?., ». e,j at the rate of 1 d, 11 jy. per man. 

Bricks are of three kinds : burnt, haK burnt, unbumt. Though the 
first kind are generally made very heavy, they weigh in the average three 
KTSy and cost 30 d, per mille. The second class cost 24 d,j and the third 
10 if. per thousand.' 

Wood, Eight kinds of wood are in general use. 1. Sisaun, unrivalled 
for its beauty and durability. A block 1 Ildhi ga& long, and 8 Tassujes 
broad and high, costs 15 d, 6/ But if the height be only 5 or 6 T., II d- 
lOjy. Other sizes according to the same proportion. 2. Nazhiiy called in 
Hindi Jidh.^ A beam, 10 T'* broad and high, costs ^^ ga% 5 d. 13f y. ; and 
a half size beam, from 7 to 9 J', broad and high, costs per gaz 5 d, S}j. 
3. Lasang (?), called in Hindi Kar{; a beam 3 T, broad, and 4 gasL long, 
costs 5 rf. 17 J y. 4. J?er,* 1 T. broad and high, 4 gaz long, 5 d, l7i j\ ; so also 
Tuty or Mulbery. 5. Mughildn (Babul), of the same cubic content as No. 4., 
6 d. 2j. 6. Sirs, size as before, 10 d, 4 j, 7. Dagdl, same size, first quality 
8 i. 22 J y. ; second quality, 8 d, 6ij\ 8. JBakdgin, same size, 5 d. 2j\ 

Gaj i Shirin, or sweet limestone. There is a quarry near Bahirah. 
When a merchant brings it, it costs 1 R, per three mans ; but if any one 
Bends his own carriers, only 1 d, Sangin qaVi, per man 5 d, 5 j, Qada/i 

5 i, Chiinah, or quick lime, 2 d. per man ; it is mostly boiled out of hanguTj 
a kind a solid earth resembling stone in hardness. 

Iron cramps, if tinned, 13 for 18 if. ; plain ones, for 6 d. 
Iron door-knockers, £rom Persia and T(!irlln, tinned ; large ones, 8 d, 
per pair ; small ones, 4 d, Indian do., tinned, 5^ d, ; plain ones, 4 d, 12 j. 
Gid MeJeh (large nails with broad heads), 12. d. per ser. I>in^inaik, 

6 d. per ser, Gogah, or small nails, tinned, first quality 7 d, for one hundred ; 
second quality, 5 d. ; smallest, 4 d. 

* This word is spelt Chidh in Ain 
90. No. 69. 

* •* The jBer wa«in great request in Ak- 
bar*i time aa abuikLing timber,bat is now 

little used.except for kingposts and tiebeams, 
as the direct cohesion of its fibres is equal to 
that ofSalwood." Balfour s Timber Trees 
of India. 


8(T('Ws and nuts, chiollj used for doors and boxes. Tinned, 12 d. 
per ficr ; plain, 4 d. 

Rin<^s, tinned, 6 d. inr ser ; plain, 4 d. 

K'ltaprel, or tiles. They are one hand long and ten fingers broad, are 
burnt, and are used for the roofs of houses, as a protection against heat and 
cold. Plain ones, 86 d. per » ille ; enamelled, 30 d. for ten. 

Qulhah^ or spouts, to l(?ad off water. Three for 2 d. 

Bdnfy or bamboo. It is used for spears. First quality, 15 d. for 
twenty pieces ; second quality, 12 d. for do.; third quality, 10 rf. for do. 
The price of some kinds of bamboo is much higher. Thus a peculiar kind 
is sold at 8 Afihrafis [Muhurs] per piece. Thoy are used for making thrones. 
Bamboo, at a rupee yj^Ty;/m', is common. Fatal in made of the reed which is 
used for qalams (pens). It is used for covering ceilings. First quality, cleaned, 
l|r ^.7;^/* square gaz ; second quality, \ d. Sometimes ihiiy ^(^M patal Vii 2 d. 
for pieces 2 gaz long, and 1 J g. broad. Sirhi is made of very fine qalam reeds, 
looks well, and is very smooth ; it is sold at the rate of \\ d. per pair ^ IJ^. 
long, and 16 girihs broad. The ceilings and walls of houses are adorned 
with it. 

K'^ha^ is the sweet -smelling root of a kind of grass, which grows along 
the banks of rivers. During summer, they make screens of it, which are 
placed before the door and sprinkled with water. This renders the air cool 
and perfumed. Price, \}j li. per man, 

Kdh i chappar (reeds for thatching) is sold in bundles, wliich are called 
in Hindi pidah, per ser from 100 to 10 d. 

Bhusj or wheat straw, used for mixing with mortar, 3 d. per mmi. 

KlOi i I)aVh^ straw, &(!., which is put on roofs, 4 d. for a load of 2 mam. 

Mu)ij\ the bark of qalam reeds, used for making ropes to fasten the 
thatching, 20 d. per mati. 

San is a plant. Peasants mix it with quicklime. People also make 
ropes of it for well buckets, &c., 3 d. per man. 

Guniy of an inferior quantity, is mixed with quicklime, 70 d. per nian. 

Sirisk i kd/iij or reed glue, is mixed with sweet limestone, 4 d. per ser. 

Luk is the flower-bunch of the reed which is used for matting. People 
bum it, and use it as a candle. It is also mixed with quicklime and 
QaVi. Price, 1 R. per man. 

Simgil (silver day) is a wliite and greasy clay, 1 d. per man. It is used 
for wliite -wasliing houses. It keeps a house cool and looks well. Gil i 
siirhh, or red (day, called in Ilindi geru, 40 d. per t?iafi. There is a quarry 
of it in the hills of Gwiliar. 

Glass is used for windows ; price, 1 R. for li s., or one pane for 4 d. 


Am 87. 


Gilkdrs (workers in lime), first class workmen, 7 d, ; second class, 6 d, ; 
third class, 5 d. 

Sangtardih (stone-masons). The tracer gets 6 d. for eachyaz; one 
wko does plain work, b d. A labourer employed in quarries gets for every 
man he breaks, 22 y. 

Carpenters, first class, 7 d, ; second do., 6 d, ; third do., 4 d. ; fourth 
do., 3 d, ; fifth do., 2 d. For plain job-work, a first class carpenter gets 1 d, 
nj. for one ffoz; second class do., 1 d. 6j\ ; third class do., 2iy. 

Pinjarah sdz (Lattice work and wicker work). First, when the pieces 
are joined (fastened with strings), and the interstices be dodecagonal, 24 d. 
for eveiy square yoa ; when the interstices form twelve circles, 22 d, ; when 
hexagonal, IS d.; when. jW fori [or rhombus-like, one diagonal being vertical 
tHe other horizontal], 16 d, ; when shafranji [or square fields, as on a chess 
board], 12 d. for every square paz. 

Secondly, when the work is ^hair wagl'i (the sticks not being fastened 
with strings, but skilfully and tightly interwoven), for first class work, 48 «?. 
per square yos ; for second class do., 40 d, 

Arrahkdsh (one who saws beams). For job-work, per square gaz 2i rf., if 
Asaun wood ; if nazhii wood, 2 ^. A labourer employed for the day, 2 d. 
There are three men for every saw, one above, two below. 

BUddrs (bricklayers), first class, daily 3j^ d, ; second class do., 3 d. 
If employed by the job, for building fortress walls with battlements, 4 d, per 
yos ; for laying foimdations, 2^ d, ; for aU other walls, 2 d. For digging 
ditches, ^ d, per gaz, 
^ The gaz of a labourer contains 32 tassHjes, 

Chdh-kan, or well diggers, first class work men, 2 d. per gaz ; second 
class do., 1^ d ; third class do., H ^' 

Ghaufah khur, or well-divers. They clean wells. In the cold season, 
4 d. per diem ; in the hot season, 3 d. By the job, 2 R, for cleaning a depth 
of one goi. 

Khisht tardsh, or tile makers, for 100 moulds, smoothened, 8 d, 

Surkhxkoh (pounders of old bricks), \^ d, for a heap of 8 mans. 

Glass-cutters, 100 d, per gaz. 

Bamhoo-cutters, 2 d. per diem. 

Chapparhand, or thatchers, 3 d. per diem ; if done by the job, 24 d, for 
100 goi, 

Patalband (vide p. 224), 1 d, for 4 gaz. 

Lak'hirah. They varnish reeds, &c., with lac. Wages, 2 d. per diem, 



AhJcash, or Tvntcr-camers. First eliihS, f3 d. per diem ; second class do., 
2 d. Such water-carrlors as are used fur furnishing house-builders with 
water for mortar and quicklime, j2^et 2 d. per diem. 

ATN 88. 

SfonehuiJdinfjs. For 12 naZy one j)lm {vide above Atn 86) is required; 
also 75 mans chiinah ; but if the walls be covered with red stone, 30 iiiann 
chxinah are required per gaz. 

Briclcluildings. Yor every gaz^ there are required 250 bricks of three 
ser each, 8 mans cliknah^ and 2 rn. 27 8. j^oimded brick {mrhhi). 

ClayhuiJdings. 300 bricks are required for the same ; each brick-mould 
contains 1 s. of earth and J s, of water. 

A^tarlcdri work. For every //^rz, 1 man chunahj 10 8, qaVi, 14 «. surkhi, 
and I 8. son {vide p. 224) are required. 

Qtvidalahbiri work. For every gaZy 1 s. of qaVi^ and 3 «. surkhi are 

SafidJcdri work. 10 «. of <7«Z'2 are required ^er gai. 

Gajldri work (white-washing). For walls and ceilings, \0 8. per gaz; 
for pantries, 6 s, ; chimneys, 10 #. 

Wiyidows require 24 s. of lime, 2i «. of glass, 4 ». of «?rwA i Icdhi (putty). 

Plaster for walls, for 1 4 ^^s 1 m. of straw, and 20 m. earth ; for roofs 
and floors, do. for 10 gaz. For ceilings, and the inside of walls, do. for 15 gaz. 

Lac (varnish work) used for chigh^ [sliced bamboo sticks, placed 
horizontally, and joined by strings, with naiTOw interstices between the 
sticks. They are painted, and are used as screens]. If red, 4 s. of lac, and 
1 «. of vermilion ; if yellow, 4 «. of lac, 1 s. of zarnikh (auripigment). If 
green, i 8. of indigo is mixed with the lac, and zarnikh is added ; if black, 4 «. 
of lac and 8 8. of indigo. 

AI'N 89. 

One gaz = 24 ^assujes 

1 {assuj = 24 tasivdnsahs 

1 tamvdiisah = 24 khdm^g 

1 khdm = 24 %arrahs. 
Whatever quantify of wood be used, the diippings (?) are reckoned at 

* I am not sure whether this Am has been correctly translated. 


one-eighth (?). In Sisaun wood, per t^siij) 26^ sers, 15 tdnks ; Babul wood 
2^ t.6d.; Sirs wood, 21^ s. 15 tdnks; Nazhii wood, 20 *. ; ^^r wood, 
18J *. ; Daydd wood, 17 «. 20 ^n^. 

Am 90. 

His Majesty, from his practical knowledge, has for several reasons 
experimented on the weight of different kinds of wood, and has thus adorned 
the market place of the world. One cubic gaz of dry wood of every kind has 
been weighed, and their differences have thus been established. Khanjak 
wood has been fotmd to be the heaviest, and SaflMr the lightest wood. 
I shall mention 72 kinds of wood. 

The weight of one cubic ga% of 

Jtfiins. Sers, Tdnks, 

1. Khanjak, is 27 14 — 

2. kjoMi (^Tamarindus Indica) 24 SJ 25 

3. Zaitun ( OytmAkiplU A^tictUf^ f) y. ^y^ f^J ) oi 04 


4. Balut (Oak), '-<:\..}: . . ./, 

6. K'her {Acacia catechu) * • * ) 21 16 

6. K'himi {Mimtuops), ) 

7. Parsiddh, 20 14 17 

8. Abn6s (Ebony), 20 9 20 

9. Sam {Acacia 8utna\ 19 32 10 

10. Baqqam ( Caesalpina sappan), 19 22} 10 

11. K'harhar, 19 Hi 6 

12. Uakwk {Bassia latifolia), 18 32} 2 

13. Chandani, j ^3 

14. FhuWhi, ) 

15. Bed Sandal, in Hindi Bakt Chandan, (Pterocarpus 

8antdlinus\ 18 4^ 10 

16. Chamri, < 18 2 7J 

17. ChamarMamri 17 16J — 

18. 'Unn&b {Zizyphw sativus\ 17 5 4 

19. Bisaim Patang (t;ii^5 No. 40), 17 If 7 

20. Btodan, 17 1 28 

21. Shamshid {Buxtu SempervirenSj) 16 18 25 

* 80 aocordinff to Watson'B Index. But / very Hght, and is used for boats. Abulfazl 
Toigt, in his Mortus Bengaleiuis says, I puts Zaitun among the heaviest woods, 
the wood of ZaUwi^ or Oyrocarpue, is | 



Mans. Siyrs. Tanks. 

22. D'hau ( Gn'ska fomentosa), 16 1 10 

2.3. Amlah, ILnd. A'nwlali, {EmhUca officinalis), 16 1 J 1 

24. KarW {SferculiafefiJa), . . i . .'.a /.Y^.v.i. A l-.'V. .-.^S ) 16 1 10 

25. Sandalwood, \ .' '. . . ! 15 17 20 

26. Sal {Sho/ra rohista), 15 4J 7 

27. Banaus. llis Majesty calls tliis tree t^hdh Alu ; but in 

Kdlnd and Persian it is called Alk Balk (Clierry), 14 36 J 10 

28. Kailds (Cliorry tree) 14 So.J — 

29. Ninb {Azadirakhta Indica), 14 32i 31 

30. Dkrhoxd^nerheris aristata), 14 32^ 19 

31. Main,^ ,.. | 14 22J — 

32. Babul {Acacia Arabica), • • • ^ 

33. S^aun, : 14 10 20 

34. Bijais^, '..;.....,'..; ',.'.., ) ^^ ^^ _ 

35. Pili'i, ) 

36. Mulberry, ••«««••« 13 28^ 15 

37. D'liaman, ,^ ;t ;.:;....,.. ; j.'.-. 13 25 20 

38. BdnBai^s, . . . .\ 13 10 29 

39. Sirs (Acacia odaratissima), 12 38 21 

40. Sisaun {Dalhergia sissoo ; vide No. 19,) 12 34 J 5 

41. Findmi, [,\:\ '^/W. /'. . ^ .'.'<' //. 12 26 4 

42. Chliaukar, '..... | jgHJ 22 

43. Dudd'lii, '. . ^ I .', . ,\\\ . A : !.'/. (<: . . C V* , ) 

44. Haldi h:^^.: 12 13i 32 

45- Kaim {Nauclea parviflora)]' 12 12^ 30 

46. Jdman {Jambosa), / ... V. C .'../•.. .^■. .. i . ^ T. J ) ^q g 90 

47. Fards, T.^.wc*. ,^'^\ . W.cti.^v, . ) 

48. Bar {Ficus Indica), 12 3J 5 

49. K'handu, ) j^ j 29 

50. Chandr, J . J?. I ^L-: . /.' ; . / . i . i.K J:. .'. .y . . ' 

51. Ch^miaghz (Walnut tree), ) -- g, ,y 

52. Cbampa {Michelia chainpaca), ) 

53. Bor {Zizt/pkus jKj'uha), 11 4 — 

54. Amb (Mango, Mattgifcra Indica,) , \ - „^ 

55. Pdpari (Ulmus), ) 

56. Diy^ ( Cednis deodar), ) . ^ 2o 

57. Bed (Willow), ) 

58. Kunbhir {Gunbhir (P), Gtnelina arborea), ) 10 IQI 9*2 

59. Cbidh (Finus longifolia), ) 

60. Pipal. Tbe Brahmins worship this tree (/<«« rtf/#yw«<i). 10 10 J 21 


Mans, Sers, Tmiks, 

61. Kat'hal (Jacktree, Artoearptu integrifolia), | 2q yi ^^ 

62. Gurdain, ) 

^ 63. Eiiherd (Terminalia heUrica), 10 7 30 

64. "TaliuB {Butea frondosa), 9 34 — 

/ 65. SurkhBed, ...... .i..Vii rl . .%..^ 8 25 20 

66. Xk (Calotropts gtgantea\ \ 8 19i 25 

67. ^nhdl {Cotton tree), , 8 13 34 

68. BakJLyin {Mel^ campMiia)^ 'Jht/k^CS.Kk /.^'.i. , , 8 9 30 

69. Lhasor^ ( Cordia mixa)^ . . . « | g g qq 

70. Padm&k'h ( Cerams caproniana), ) 

71. And, ri'"f fi'\ ^ ^ ^^ 

72. Safidar, .^4^/^ /^.<k ..(/.(>/.'. ^'^.^. .?. A 6 7 22i 

(^ In the aboYe weights, the ser has been taken at 28 ddms. 


rL ^ A r-u «^^< /j / r 


, . . -v End op thb Fikst Book. 



Am 1. 


His Ifajestj guides the Imperial Airmy by his excellent advice and 
counsel, and checks in various ways attepipts at insubordination. He has 
dinded the army, on accoimt of the multitude of the men, into several 
dasBes, and has thereby secured the peace of the country. 

With some tribes, His Majesty is content, if they submit ; he does not 
exact much service from them, and thus leads many wild races towards 

The Zamind&rs of the country furnish more than four millions, four 
hundred thousand men, as shall be detailed below (Third Book). 

Some troopers are compelled by His Majesty to mark their horses with 
tiie Imperial brand. They are subject to divisions into ranks, and to musters. 

Some soldiers are placed tmder the care and guidance of one commander. 
They are called Ahadis, because they are fit for a harmonious unity. His 
Kajesty believes some capable of commanding, and appoints them as com- 

A large number are worthy but poor ; they receive the means of 
keeping a horse, and have lands assigned to themselves, without being 
obliged to mark their horses with the Imperial brand. Ttb*dnis and 
Persians get 25 Rupees ; and Hindustanis, 20 R. If employed to collect the 
rerenue, they get \b R. Such troopers are called Bardwardi, 

Some Commanders who find it troublesome to furnish men, get a 
number of such soldiers as accept the Imperial brand. Such troops are 
called Ddkhilis. 

In the contingent of a Commander (mangabddr) of Ten Thousand, other 
*M^Mdrs as high as JETazdris (Commanders of One Thousand) serve ; in the 
contingent of a Commander of Eight Thousand, Manqabddrs up to JSashtgadis 
(Conunanders of Eight Hundred) serve ; in the contingent of a Commander 
of Seven Thousand, Manqabdto up to Haftqadis (Commanders of Seven 


Hundred) servo ; in the contingent of a Commander of Five Thousand, 
otlier Mangabddrs as higli Fanqadvx ((tommanders of Five Hundred) serve ; 
and in the eontingent of a Pimqadi^ Mangabdto as high as (^adu (Commanders 
of One Hundred) serve. Manqabdars of lower ranks do not serve in tlie 
contingents of high Manqabd^rs. 

»Somo Commanders also receive auxiliaries. Such reserves are called 

At the jiresent time, tlu)se troopers are pr(^ferred whose horses are 
marked with the Imperial brand. This class of soldiers is superior to others. 
His Majesty's chief object is to prevent the soldiers from borrowing horses 
(for the time of musters), or exchanging them for worse ones, and to make 
them take care of the Imperial horses ; for ho knows that avarice makes 
men so short-sighted, that they look upon a loss as a gain. In the beginning 
of the present reign, when His Majesty was still * behind the veil,' many 
of his servants were given to dishonest practices, lived without cheek, and 
indulged, from want of honour, in the comforts of married life. Low, avari- 
cicms men sold their horses, and were content to serve as foot-soldiers, or 
brought instead of a superior horse, a tatoo that looked more like an ass. 
They were magnilocjuent in their dishonesty and greediness of pay, and even 
expressed dissatisfaction, or rebelled. Hence His Majesty had to introduce 
the Descriptive Boll System, and to make the issue of pay dependent upon 
the inspection of these rolls {vide below Ain 7). This stopped, in a short 
time, muc^h lawlessness, and regenerated the whole military system. But at 
that time the regidations regarding the Imperial brand were not issued, as His 
Majesty had adopted the advi(;e of some inexperienced men, who look upon 
branding an animal as an act of cruelty ; hence avaricious men (who cannot 
distinguish that which is good from that which is bad, having neither 
respect for themselves nor their master, and who think to promote a cause 
by ruining it, thus acting against their own interest) adopted other vicious 
practices, which led to a considerable want of efficiency in the army. Horse 
borrowing was then the order of the day. His Majesty, therefore, made 
the branding of the horses compidsory, in addition to the Descriptive KoU 
System. Easy -minded idlers thus passed through a school of discipline 
and became worthy men, wliilst importunate, low men were taught honorable- 
ness and manliness. The unfeeling and avaricious learned the luxury of 
magnanimity. The army resembled a newly irrigated garden. Even for the 
Treasury the new regulations proved beneficial. Such are the results which 
wisdom and practical knowledge can produce ! Branding a horse may 
indeed inflict pain ; but when viewed from a higher point, it is the cause of 
much satisfaction to the thinking man. 


A'm 2. 


In the 18th year of Ids reign, His Majesty introduced the branding 
system [vide p. 140, note 1]. The ranks of the men were also laid down in 
the best manner, and the classification of the animals belonging to the army 
was attended to. The requirements for eaxjh were noted down, and excellent 
regulations were issued. The maximum and minimimi prices were enquired 
into by His Majesty, and average prices were fixed. A proper check by 
aooounts was enforced, and regulations on this subject were laid down. The 
Bakhshis were also freed from the heavy responsibility of bringing new 
men, and every thing went on smoothly. 

1 . Horses. They have been divided into seven classes. The rate of 
their daily food has also been fixed. These seven classes are Arabs, Persian 
horseSy MujimnaSy Turki horses, Ydhus, Tazks, and Janglah horses. 

The first class are either Arab bred, or resemble them in gracefulness 
and prowess. They cost 720 ddmsper mensem ; and get daily 6 s. of grain (the 
price of which, in the estimates for each animal, is put down at \2 d, per 
fum), 2\ d. of g'hf, 2 d. for sugar, and 3 d. for grass. Also, for a jul, artak, 
ffdlp^h, girth (His Majesty does not call it tang, but fardkhi), gaddi, 
nakhtahbandy qaizah (which the vulgar pronounces qdizah), magasrdn, curry • 
eomb, hatt^hi (a bag made of horse hair for washing the hor^e), towel, 
pdibandy nails, &c., [vide "p. 136], 70 d,per mensem, which outlay is called 
khofj i yardq i asp (outlay for the harness of the horse). Besides, 60 d, for 
the saddle, and an apchi{?) every second month ; 7 d. per mensem for shoes ; 
and 63 d, for a groom, who gets double this allowance, if he takes charge 
of two horses. Total, 479 d. But as BUs Majesty cares for the comfort of 
the army, and enquires into the satisfactory condition of the soldiers, he 
increased, in the very beginning, this allowance of 479 d. by 81 d. ; and 
when the value of the Bupee was increased from 35 to 40 dams, His Majesty 
granted a second additional allowance of SO d. This coin [the Eupee] is 
always counted at 40 d. in salaries. Afterwards, a third additional allowance 
of 2 It. (80 rf.) was ordered to be given for each class of horses, except 
Janglahs, which horses are now-a-days entirely left out in the accounts. 

The second class are horses bred in Fessia, or such as resemble Persian 
horses in shape and bearing. Monthly allowance, 680 d. Of this, 458 d. are 
necessary expenses, being 21 ^. less than the former, viz. 10 d. for iheyardq, 
10 d. for saddle and bridle, and 1 d. for shoes. The first increase which was 
given, amounted to 67 i^. ; the second, to 75 i. ,- the third to 80 (^. Total 680 d. 

The third class, or Mujannas h«rses, resemble Persian horses [vide 
p. 140, note 2], and are mostly Turk!, or Persian geldings. Monthly cost 



560 d. Of this, 358 d. are for necessaries. The allowance for these horses is 
100 d. less than the preceding, viz.y 30 ei^. less for sugar; 30 (^. less for 
saddle, bridle, &c. ; 15 d. less in g'h{ ; 3 d. less for the groom ; 2 d. less for 
shoeing. First increase sanctioned by His Majesty, 72 d. ; second, 50 d, ; 
third, 80 d. 

The fourth class are horses imported from Turin ; though strong and 
well-formed, they do not come up to the preceding. Monthly allowauee, 
480 d. Of this, 298 d. are for necessaries. The allowance is 60 d, less than for 
MujantiM horses, vi%.^ 30 d. less for sugar, 30^. less for grass ; 10 i. less for 
the yarAq ; 4 d. less for the saddle, bridle, &c. ; 2 d. less for shoeing ; 2 d. less 
for gfhi. But the daily allowance of grain was increased by 2 sers (which 
amounts to 18 <^. per mensem) j as the sugar liad been left out. Pirst increase 
52 d. ; second, 50 d. ; third 80 d. 

The Jifth class {ydbd horses) are bred in this country, but fall short in 
strength and size. Their performances also are mostly bad. They are the 
offspring of Turki horses with an inferior breed. Monthly cost 400 d. Of 
this, 239 d, are for necessaries. The allowance is 59 d. less than the 
preceding ; viz., 28 d, ior g^hi ; 15 ^. less for the groom ; 10 <^. less for the 
yardq ; and 6 d, less for the saddle, bridle, &c. First increase, 41 d,\ 
second increase, 40 d, ; third, 80 d. 

The last two classes also are mostly Indian breed. The best kind is 
called Td%u ; middling ones, Janglahs ; inferior ones, Taitis. 

Good mares are reckoned as Tdzis ; if not, they are counted as Janglahs, 

1. Tdzks, Monthly cost, 320 rf., of whicli 188 d. are for necessaries. 
The allowance is 51 (f. less than for the Ydhuy viz,, ISd. less for grain, as they 
only get 6 sers per diem ; 15 d. less for grass ; 10 ^. less for g'hi and sugar; 
8 d. less for yardq. First increase, 22 d, ; second, 30 d, ; third, 80 d. 

2. Janglahs, Monthly cost, 240 d,, of which 145^ d. are for necessaries. 
The allowance is 42} d. less than for Tdzis, The daily allowance of grain 
has been fixed at 5 sers. Hence there are 15 d. less for grass ; 9 d, less 
for grain ; 6 d. less for g'hl and molasses ; 4} d, less for the yardq ; 2 d, 
less for shoeing. First increase, 29} d, ; second 25 d, ; third, 40 d. 

Formerly, mules were reckoned as Tdzi horses ; but now-a^days, as 

For Tdtus the monthly expenditure is 160 d. ; but this animal is now 
altogether thrown out. 

Note by the Tramslaior. We may arrange AbnlfazVs items in a tabular form. From 
several remarks in Badiu)ni, we may oonclnde that the horses of the Imperial army were 
mostly fourth and sixth class horses. The exportation of horses from Hindastan was strictly 
prohibited by Akbar, who made the kotw&ls responsible for it ; vide Bod, II, p. 390, L 5 
from below. Many recruits on joining the contingent of a M<mgabddr» brought horses 


with them, for which the Maii9abd£r reoeiyed from the Treasury an allowance aocordiopr 
to the following table. 







Saddle, &c., 



Original Allowance, 

lit Increase, , 

2nd Ditto, 

3rd Ditto, 



Total monthly cost in dams. 

54 d. 
76 d. 
60 d. 
90 d. 
70 d. 
60 d. 
63 d. 


479 d. 

81 d. 
80 d. 
80 d. 

720 d. 

•g g 

64 d. 
76 d. 
60 d. 
90 d. 
60 d. 
60 d. 
63 d. 

P oS 




468 d. 

67 d. 

75 d. 
80 d. 

680 d. 

64 d. 
60 d. 
30 d 
90 d. 
40 d. 
20 d. 
60 d. 

358 d. 

72 d. 
30 d. 
80 d. 

72 d. 






60 d. 
80 d. 
16 d. 
60 d. 

72 d. 

30d. [ 

60 d. 
20 d. 
10 d. 
46 d. 

298 d. 

62 d 
60 d. 
80 d. 

660 d. 480 d. 






239 d. 

41 d. 
40 d. 
80 d. 

400 d. 

54 d. 
10 d. 
10 d. 
46 d. 
12 d. 
10 d. 
46 d. 

188 d. 

22 d 

30 d. 
80 d. 

320 d. 













45 d. 

4 d. 

4 d. 

30 d. 




10 d. 

• « • 

46 d. 



25 d 


40 d. 


240 d. 

160 d. 

The allowance of sugar, or molasses, according to Abulfazl ceases from Glass IV. ; 
but as he goes on mentioning it in the inferior classes, I have made brackets. G'hi and 
molasses were generally given together ; ^ride p. 135. 

2. Elephants, The branded elephants of the army are divided into 
Mven classes : Masti, Shergir^ Sddah^ Manjhalah, Karha, P^handurkiya^ and 
Mo&aly elephants ; but there are no subdivisions, as in His Majesty's 
elephant stables [vid4 p. 124^ 1. 17]. 

The monthly allowance for Mast elephants is 1320 dtos [33 Eupees]. 
Daily allowance of grain, 2} tnans. No elephant has more than three 
servants, a Mahdwaty a Bhok, and a Meth, of whom the first gets 120 d,, and 
the two last 90 d. An increase of 120 d. was given. From the beginning 
elephants were branded ; but now certain differences are made. 

Shergir Elephants. Monthly cost, 1100 d.y which is 220 i^. less than 
the former. Grain, 2 m. per diem, which makes 180 d, less jE7^r mensem ; also 
\b d, less for the Mah&wat and the Bhoi. His Majesty increased the 
allowance by 110 d, 

Sddah Elephants. Monthly cost, 800 <?., which is 300 d. less than the 
preceding. Grain li m, per diem, which gives 180 d, less per month. Besides 


30 d. loss for the Metli, and 15 d. less for the Malidwat and the Bhoi. An 
iucrease of 50 d. was sanctioned. 

Manjholah Elephants. Monthl}^ cost, 600 d. Grain 1 m. The decrease 
is th^ same as in the i)receding ; but an additional allowance of 90 d, was 

Karha Elephants. Monthly cost, 420 d. Grain, 30 «. Hence there is a 
decrease of 30 d. on this account, and of \b d. for the Mahdwat. No Bhoi 
is allowed. The additional gi*ant is 60 d. 

P'^hundurlciya Elephants. Monthly cost, 300 d. Grain, 15 «. per diem, 
which gives a decrease of 135 d. per mensem. Only one servant is allowed, 
at 60 d. per 7nonth. An additional grant of 105 d. was sanctioned. 

Mokal elephants were formerly not counted. Now they are considered 
worthy of entering the classes. Monthly allowance, 280 c?. 

In all payTiients on accoiuit of elephants, dams are taken, not rupees, so 
that there is no possibility of fluctuation. 

3. Camels. Montlily cost, 240 d. Grain, 6 «. ; grass, 1 d. ; furniture, 
20 d. ; the driver, 60 d. An addition of 5S d. was sanctioned ; and when 
the value of the Eupee was fixed at 40 ddmSj 20 d. more were allowed. 

4. Ojcfi. Monthly allowance, 120^;?. Grain, 4«. ; grass 1 d.; furniture, 
6 d. Additional grant, SS d. At the time when the value of the rupee was 
raised, 1 d. more were given. 

5. 0:ir?i for ilie waggons. For each waggon, the monthly expenditure 
is 600 d.j viz.y 480 d. for four oxen ; 120 d. for grease, repairs, and additional 

Elephants and waggons are only allowed to Manqabdlrs, and to those 
who bring good horses and camels, and middling oxen to be branded. 

ATN 3. 


Wise inquirers follow out the same principles, and the people of the 
present age do not difi'er in opinion from those of ancient times. They all 
agree that if that ^liich is numerous be not pervaded by a principle of 
harmony, the dust of disturbances will not settle down, and the troubles of 
lawlessness will not cease to rise. It is so with the elements : as long as the 
uniting principle is absent, they are dead, and incapable of exhibiting the 
wonders of the kingdoms of nature. Even animals form unions among 

* The Arabians say man gib ; in Persia 
and India, the word is pronounced mangah. 
It means a post, an ottice, hence inan^ab- 

ddr, an officer ; but the word is generally 
restricted to high officials. 


tkemflelves, and avoid wUful violence ; hence they live comfortably, and 
watch over their advantages and disadvantages. But men, from the 
wickedness of their passions, stand much more in need of a just leader^ 
round whom they may rally; in feict their social existence depends upon tneir 
being ruled by a monarch ; for the extraordinary wickedness of men, and 
their inclination to that which is evil, teach their passions and lusts new 
ways of perversity, and even cause them to look upon committing bloodshed 
and doing harm as a religious command.^ To disperse this cloud of ignorance, 
God chooses one, whom he guides with perfect help and daily increasing 
favor. That man will quell the strife among men by his experience, 
intrepidity, and magnanimity, and thus infuse into them new vigour. 

But as the strength of one man is scarcely adequate to such an arduous 
undertaking, he selects, guided by the Hght of his knowledge, some excellent 
men to help him, appointing at the same time servants for them. For this 
cause did His Majesty establish the ranks of the Man9abddrs, from the 
Dakbdshi (Commander often) to the Dah Handri (Commander of Ten Thousand), 
limiting, however, all commands above Five Thousand, to his august sons. 

The deep-sighted saw a sign, and enquirers got a hint &om above, 
when they found the value of the letters of God's holy name ;• they read in 
it glad tidings for the present illustrious reign, and considered it a most 
auspicious omen. The number of Manqabs is sixty-six, the same as the 
value of the letters in the name of Allah, which is an announcement of 
eternal bliss. 

* " When the collector of the Diwan 
tfks them (the Hindus) to pay the tax, 

they should pay it with all humility and 
ralnnission. And if the Collector wishes 
to spit into their mouths, they should 
open their mouths without the slightest 
Ku of contamination (taqazzuz), so that 
the Collector may do so. In this state 
[with their mouths open], they should 
stand hefore the Collector. The ohject 
of such hmniliations and spitting mto 
their months is to prove the obedience of 
Infidel subjects under protection, and to 
promote the glory of the Islam, the true 
reli^n, and to show contempt to false re- 
Hgums. God himself orders us to despise 
them ; for He says (Sur. 9, 29), * Out of 
hand, whilst they are reduced low.' To treat 
the HiDdos contemptuously is a religious 
doty, because they are the greatest enemies 
of MuBtaia (Muhammad),Decause Mus^a, 
ngarding the killing, and plundering of 
Hindiu, and making slaves of them, has 
c«dered« * They must either accept the 
Islam, or be killed or be made slaves, and 
their property must be plundered ;' and 

with the exception of the Imam i A'zam 
(Abti Hanifah), to whose sect we all 
belong, there is no other authority for 
taking the Jazydh from Hindus ; but all 
other lawyers say, * Either death or the 
Islam.' Tdrikh % Firuz Shdhi, p. 290. 
Akbar ofben reproached theMuhammadans 
for converting with the sword. This, he 
said, was inhuman. And yet, he allow* 
ed the suttee. 

• Jaldlah, This curious word is, ac- 
cording to Bahdr i *Ajdm, an abbrevia- 
tion of the phrase Jalla jaldlahu, * May 
His glory shme forth.' It is then used in 
the sense of God ; thus the dual y'aldla^ 
taiUf saying Allah ! Allah ! ; and 
khatm ijaldlah saying the word Allah 
126,000 times. Similarly here ; the 66 
man^abs correspond to the value of the 

letters oiJaldlah, i. <?. ^| = 1 + 30 + 
30 -I" ^ = 66* Abulfazl makes much of 
the coincidence ; for Akbar's name was 
Jaldl uddin, and Akbar was a divinity. 
Perhaps I should not say coincidence, 
because of the sixty-six man^abs only 
one half existed. 


In soloctinj^ his officers, His Majesty is assisted by his knowledge of 
the spirit of the age, a knowledge which sheds a peculiar light on the jewel 
of his wisdom. His Majesty sees through some men at the first glance,' and 
coniers upon them high rank. Sometimes he increases the manqab of a 
servant, but decreases his contingent. He also fixes the number of the 
beasts of Ijurdon. The montlily grants made to the Manqabddrs vary according 
to the condition of their contingents. An officer whose contingent comes up 
to his man^ab, is put into the first class of Ids rank ; if his (contingent is one 
half and upwards of the &xed number, he is put into the second class ; the 
third class contains those contingents which are still less, as is 8ho>vn in the 
table beh)w. 

Yuzhcishht (Commanders of One Hundred) are of eleven classes. The 
Jlrst class contains such as fui'nish one hundred trooj)ers. Their monthly 
salary is 700 E,ui)ees. The elaetith class contains such as have no 
troops of their own in accordance with tlie statement made above, that 
Ddkhili troops are now-a-days preferr(?d. This class gets 500 Rupees. 
The nine intermediate classes have monthly allowances decreasing from 
700 Rupees by 20 Rupees for every ten troopers whicli they furnish less. 

In tlio live stock accoimts of the DuhlsfU, the fixed number of Turii 
and Janglah horses, and of elephants, is not enforced. For Ckjmjiianders of 
Thirty and Twenty, foiu* horses are reckoned, generally Mujannas, rarely 
Ydbils ; and Dahhdshis ai'o excused tlie Turki horse, though their salaries 
remain as before. 

Note by the Translator on the Mancabs. 

The sixty-six Mancabs, detailed by Abulfazl in the following table 
appear to be the result of a minute classification rather than a repre- 
sentation of the Mancabs wliich actually existed at the time of Akbar. 
The* table may represent Akbar' s plan ; but the list of grandees, as given 
by Abulfazl himself in the 30th Ain of this Book, only mentions thirty' 
throe — the tliree commands of the three Princes from 10000 to 
7000 ; and tliirty commands of the Man^abddrs, namely commands 
of 5000, 4500, 4000, 3500, 3000, 2500,2000, 1500,1250, 1000,900?, 
800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 350, 300 ?, 250, 200, 150, 120, 100, 80, 60, 
50, 40, 30, 20, 10. Of the last thirty commands, two are somewhat 
doubtful (the commands of 900 and 300), as not given in all MSS. of the 
Ain, though the List of Grandees of Shah Jahdn's time {Pddishdhndnuihj 
II. p. 717) mentions a command of 900. It does not specify a command 
of 300, because no Mancabs under 500 are enimierated in that list. 

* Abulfazl often praises Akbar a« a Akbar leanit the art from the Jogis. 
good physiognomist. Badaoni says, 


AbnlfBusl speoifieB below the names of all of Akbar's Commanders 
vp to the Man9abd4rs of 500 ; he then gives the names of the Com- 
manders of 500 to 200, who were living, when he made the list. Of j^he 
Commands below 200, he merely gives the numbers of those that were 
alive, ins.y 

of Commanders of 150 53 

120 1 

100 (Yiuibdshis) 250 

80 91 

60 204 

50 16 

40 260 

30 39 

20 250 

10 224 

in all, 1388 Commanders firom 150 to 10. The number of the higher 
ManfabdajB from 5000 to 200 is 412, of which about 150 may have 
been dead, when Abulfazl made his list. 

As Abulfazl's list (-^in 30), according to the testimony of Nizam 
i Harawi is a complete list,^ it is certain that of the 66 Man9abs of the 
following table, only 33 existed in reality. The first eighteen of these 
33 are commands down to 500, which corresponds to the list of Shdh- 
jah&n's grandees in the Pddishdhndmahy which likewise gives 18 com- 
mands to 500. 

The oonmiands as detailed in the Pddishdhndmah are : — ^Four com- 
mandB of the princes (Dixk Shikoh, 20,000 ; Sh&h Shuj&, 15,000 ; 
Anrangzeb, 15,000 ; Murad Bakhsh, 12,000) and commands of 9000, 
7000, 6000, 5000, 4000, 3000, 2500, 2000, 1500, 1000, 900, 800, 700, 

From the fact that Abulfazl only gives names up to commanders 
of 200, and the Pde/isAoAnamaA up to 500, we may conclude that, at 
Akbar's time, Man9abB under 200, and at Sh&hjah&n's time, Man9abs 
mder 500, did not entitle the holder to the title of Amir. To judge 
from Niadm^s Tabaqdt and the Maadr i Rahimiy Man9abd&rs from the 
ri (Commander of 1000) were, at Akbar's time, styled umarSri^ 

^ Kizim MTs in the introduction to 
kit List of the principal grandees of 
Akbar's Court, that it was unnecessaiy 
fiat him to specify all, because tqfpil i 

asdmi i bar yak rd afdzilpandh Shaikh 
Abulfazl dar kitdb % Akbamdmah mar- 
qum i qalam i baddi*raqam gardanidah. 

2 to 

kih(h\ or fn)iard'i'\'zdhf,gretit Amirs ; and lam not quite sure whether 
tho title of Amir is not restricted to Mancabdars from the Sazdrk 
upwards. Nizam does restrict his phrases ba marfahah i imdrat rasidy or 
day jargah (or s/ZA', or znmraJi) I nniard mimtazim gmht^ to commanders 
from Ilazaris. 

The title Amir ul Umard (the Amir of the Amirs, principal 
Amir) , which from its meaning would seem to be applicable to one at 
the time, seems to have been held by several simultaneously. Nizam 
gives this title to Adham Khan, Khizr Khwajah Khan, Mir Muhammad 
Khan Atkah, Muzaffar Khan, Qutbuddin Muhammad Khan, and to 
the three commanders-in-chief, Bairiim Khan, Mun'im Khan, and 
Mirz^ 'AbdiuTahim, the three latter being styled Khan Khdndtiy or 
KJidn Khdndn o SipaJisdldr. 

In the Pddishdhnamdhy however, the title of Aminil Umurd is 
restricted to the first living grandee (' Ali Mardan Khan). 

It is noticeable that Nizam only mentions commanders of 50O0, 
4000, 3000, 2500, 2000, 1500, and 1000— for lower Man9ab8 he does 
not specify names. Abulfazl gives three intermediate Man9abs of 
4500, 3500, and 1250 ; but as he only gives five names for these three 
ranks, we may conclude that these Man9abs were unusual. This agrees 
also with the salaries of the commanders ; for if we leave out the 
commands of 4500, 3500, and 1250, we have, according to Ain 30, 
twch'e steps from 5000 to 500, and the monthly salary of a commander 
of 500 (Es. 2500) is the twelfth part of the salary of a commander of 
5000 (lis. 30,000). The Pddishdhndmah giwes fourteen steps between the 
commanders of 7000 and 500, and fixes the salary of a Commander 
of 7000 at one kror of ddnis per annum, or 250000 i?s., stating at the 
same time that the salaries decrease in proportion. The Persian 
Dictionary, entitled Ghids nllughdt, states that the salary of a conmiander 
of 5000 is 1 kror, or 250,000 J?6-., and that the salary of a Pan^adiyOr 
commander of 500, is 20,000 Rs. per annum, the 12 Jth part of the former. 

It would thus appear that the salaries of the Man9abdar8, as given 
by Abulfazl in the following table, are somewhat higher than those 
given in the Padkhdhndmah and the Ghids, whatever may have been 
the source of the latter. 

The salaries appear to be unusually high ; but they would be 

* For Khan i Khdndn, the Klian of I IvAiJat is left; out. 
the Khans. In such titles the Persian I 


considerably reduced, if each Man9abd&r had to keep up tlie establish- 
ment of horses, elephants, camels, carts, &c., which Abulfazl specifies 
for each rank. Taking the preceding i^n and the table in the note as 
a guide, the establishment of horses, &c., mentioned in the following 
table, would amoimt 

for a Commander of 5000 (monthly salary 30,000 B.) to 10637 R. 

1000 ( ditto 8200 B.) to 3015^ E. 

100 ( ditto 700 R.) to 313 S, 

The three classes which Abulfazl mentions for each Man9ab differ 
veiy slightly, and cannot refer to p. 238, 1. 7. 

A commander of 5000 was not necessarily at the head of a 
contingent of 5000 men. In fact, the numbers rarely even approach 
the number expressed by the title of a Man9abdar. Thus Nizdm says 
of Todar Mall and Qutbuddin Muhammad Kh^, as if it was something 
worth mentioning, that the former had 4000 cavalry, and the latter 
5000 naukars, or servants, i. e,, soldiers, though Todar Mall was a 
commander of 4000 (Nizfim says 5000), and Qutbuddin a commander 
of 5000. Of 'Abdul Majid A9af Khdn, a commander of 3000 (vide 
Ain 30, No. 49), Nizdm says, * he reached a point when he had 20,000.' 
In the Padish&hn&mah, where more details are given regarding the 
numberof men under each commander, we find that of the 115 Commanders 
of 500 under ShShjah^n only six had contingents of 500, whilst the last 
had only 50 troopers. This also explains the use of the word ciil3 zd/^ 
after the titles of Man9abd&rs ; as pan; hdzdri i zdt sihhazdr suwdr, " a 
Commander of 5000, personally (zdty or by rank), and in actual command 
of 3000 cavalry." Sometimes we meet with another phrase, the meaning 
of which will be explained below, as Shdistah Khdn panjhazdriy panj 
hazdr suwdr % duaspah aihaspah, '^ Sh^tah Kh&n, a Commander of 5000, 
contingent 5000 cavalry, unth two horses, with three horses.'^ A trooper 
is called duaspah, if he has two horses, and sihaspah, if three, in order to 
change horses during elghdrs or forced marches. But keeping duashiyah 
sihaspah troopers was a distinction, as in the Pddishdhndnuih only the 
wnior Man9abdar8 of some ranks are so designated, viz., 8 (out of 20) 
Panjhaz^bris ; 1 Chah&rhaz&ri ; 2 Sihhaz&ri ; 2 Duhazari ; 2 Hazar o 
pan9adi ; 1 Haz^ri ; and 1 Haft9adi. 

The higher Man9abd&r8 were mostly governors of ^^bahs. The 
governors were at first called sipahsdldrs ; towards the end of Akbar's 
reign we find them called Hdkitm, and afterwards, (Jdhih Qubah or 



Qubahddrs^ and still later merely C^ubahs. The other ManfaM^rs held 
Jdgh'fi, which after tlie times of Akbar were frequently changed. The 
Mancabdiirs are also called fa'inutitjdn (appointed), whilst the troops of 
their continp^onts are called tdhindt (followers) ;* hence tdbinbaslii, the 
Mancahdar himself, or his Bakh>ihi (pay-master, colonel). 

The contingents of the Mancabd^rs, which formed the greater part 
of tlio army, were mustered at stated times, and paid from the general, 
or. the local treasuries ; rido Ahis G, 7, 8. Akbar had much trouble with 
these musters, as fraudident practices were quite common. The reform 
of the army dates from the time when Shahbaz Khan {vide pp. 140, 188) 
was appointed Mir Balchahi. The following passage from Badaoni (11, 
p. 190) is interesting : 

** The whole country, with the exception of the JOaV/^ffA lands (domains), 
was ]ield by the Amirs as jagir ; and as they were wicked and rebellioiLs, 
and sjient large sums on tlieir stores and workshops, and amassed wealth, 
they had no leisure to look after the troops or take an interest in the 
people. In cases of emergency, they came themselves with some of their 
slaves and Moghul attendants to the scene of the war ; but really useful 
soldiers there were none. Shahbaz Khdn," the Mir Bakhshi, introduced 
the custom and rule of the ddgh o mahalli, which had been the rule of 
A'laiuldin Khilji,^ and afterwards the law under Sher Sh^. It was settled 
that every Amir should commence as a commander of twenty {l{sti\ and be 
ready with his followers to mount guar<l and ....,* as had been ordered ; and 
when, according to the rule, he had brought the horses of his twenty troopers 
to bo branded, he was then to be made a C^adi, or Commander of 100 or more. 
They were likewise to keep elei)hants, horses, and camels, in proportion 
to their Manqabs, according to the same ride. When they had brought to 
tlie musters their new contingent complete, they were to be promoted 
aceording to their merits and circumstances to the post of Hazdrk, Duhasdri, 
and even Panjhazdrij which is the highest Man^ab ; but if they did not do 
well at the musters, they wore to be put down. But notwithstanding this 
new regulation, the condition of the soldiers got worse, because the Amirs 
did what they liked ; for they put most of their own servants and mounted 

the Indian pronunciation of ^^^^ tayin, 
to appoint, tdbiiu (irW^> to follow ; then 
as an adj., one who follows. This cor- 
rects the erroneous ineaninj^s of tdhin on 
p. 62 of the Journal A. S. of Bengal for 

" The passage in the printed edition 
is frightfully unintclligihU*. For kih read 
Kambu ; for baii dahiuiuhth, we have per- 

haps to read ydd d<thdntdah, having 
brought to the memory of (Akbar) ; for 
tdbtdn, read tdbtndn ; iorpandh Xkudd, 
read pandh ba Khudd; for dn Aam, read 
an hamah. 

• The Tarikh i Ffrwc Shdht says bnt 
little re^rding it. The words ddgh o 
mahalh occur very often together. 

* OJdr ma!jdr{r). For idr, » 
Turkish word, vide Vullers. 


attendants into soldiers' clothes {lihds i sipdhi)^ brought them to the musters, 
and performed everything according to their duties. But when they got 
their j^trs, they gave leave to their mounted attendants, and when a new 
emergency arose, they mustered as many * borrowed' soldiers as were required, 
and sent them again away, when they had served their purpose. Hence 
while the income and expenditure of the Manpabd^ remained in statu quo^ 
' dust fell into the platter of the helpless soldier,' so much so, that he was 
nolonger fit for anything. But from all sides there came a lot of low 
tradespeople, weavers, and cotton-deaners {nctdddf), carpenters, and green- 
grocers, Hindu and Musalmfin, and brought borrowed horses, got them 
branded, and were appointed to a Manqab, or were made Kroris {vide p. 13, 
L 5 from below), or Ahadis, or DJikhHis to some one {vide p. 231) ; and when 
a few days afterwards no trace was to be found of the imaginary horse and 
the visionary saddle, they had to perform their duties on 'foot. Many 
times it happened at the musters, before the emperor himself in the Diw&n- 
khinah i kh&9, that they were weighed in their clothes, with their hands and 
feet tied, when they were found to weigh from 2J to 3 man^ more or less (?) 
and after inquiry, it was found that all were hired, and that their very 
dotheB and saddles were borrowed articles. His Majesty then used to 
8ay, " With my eyes thus open, I must give these men pay, that they 
may have something to live on." After some time had passed away, His 
Majesty divided the Ahadis into dua»pah, yakaspah (having one horse), and 
nvBMupah (having half a share in a horse), in which latter case two troopers 
kept one horse together, and shared the stipulated salary, which amounted 
to six rupees.^ 

Weigh well these facts, but put no question ! 

These were things of daily occurrence, f but notwithstanding 

an this. His Majesty's good luck overcame all enemies, so that large 
numbers of soldiers were not so very necessary, and the Amirs had no 
longer to suffer from the inconvenient reluctance of their servants." 

Henoe the repeated musters which Akbar held, both of men, and 
of animal H, carts, &c. ; the minuteness of some of the regulations recorded 
in the Ain ; and the heavy fines imposed on neglectful servants (p. 217, 
note). The carefdlness with which AJ^bar entered into details {kasrat), 
in order to understand the whole {wahd<it) — ^an unusual thing for rulers 
of former times — ^is the secret of his success.* 

We have not sufficient data to form an exact estimate of the 
strength of AJ^bar's army. We may, however, quote a statement in 

^ So according to one MS. The passage 
not quite clear. 

' Here follows a sentence which I do not 
know how to translate. 
• Vide p. 11, note. 


the PdilisJiai;. amah regurJing the strength of Shahjahan's anny ; r/Vfe 
PadixhaJm. II, p. 7 10. 

''Tlie paid army of the present reign consists of 200,000 cavalry, 
according to tlie rule of branding the fourth part, as has been mentioned 
above. Tliis is exclusive of the soldiers that are allowed to the Faujdfirs, 
Kroris, and tax-collectors, for the? administration of the Parganahs. These 
200,000 cavalry are madn up as follows — 

8000 Mangabdars. 

7U()0 mounted Ahadis and mounted Barqayiddzes. 
185,000 Cavalry, consisting of the contingents (^aJzwaw) of the 
Princes, the Chief grandees, and the other Manqabdars. 
'' Besides these 200,000 cavalry, there are 40,000 foot, musketeers, 
artillery, and rocket-bearers. Of these 40,000, 10,000 accompany the emperor, 
and the remaining 30,000* are in the ^iibahs and the forts." 

The ' Rule of branding the fourth part' is described among the 
events of the year 105G, as follows (II, p. 500) : — 

^^The following law was made during the present reign (Shdhjah6n). 
If a Manqabdiir holds a jagir in the same qiibah, in which he holds his 
man^ab, he has to muster one-third of the force indicated by his'] raaik.* 
A(^cordingly a Sih JIaznri i zut sihhazdr smear (a Commander of 3000, personal 
rank ; contingent, 3000 cavalry) has to muster (bring to the brand) 1000 
cavalry. But if ho holds an aj)pointment in another ^ubah, he has only to 
muster a fourth part. Accordingly, a Chahdrhazdri chakdrhazdr suwdr (a 
Cununander of 4000 ; contingent, 4000) has only to muster 1000 cavalry. 

At the time when the Im2)erial army was ordered to take Balkh and 
Samarqand [1055], His Majesty, on account of the distance of those 
countries, gave tlie order that as long as the expedition should last, each 
Mancjabdilr shoidd only muster one-fifth. Accordingly a Panjkazdri panj- 
hazdr mwdr (a commander of 5000 ; contingent, 5000) mustered only 1000, 
viz., 300 Sihafipah troopers, 600 Puaspah troopers, 100 yahaspah troopers 
[i. €., lOOO men with 2200 horses], jn'ovided the income {hdgil) of his jdgir 
was fixed at 12 months; or 250 Sihaspah troopers, 500 duaspah troopers, 
and 250 yakaspah troopers [_i. e., 1000 men with 2000 horses], provided the 
income of his jagir was fixed at 11 months; or 800 duaspah troopers, and 
200 j/al-aspah trooix^rs [i. e,, 1000 men and 1800 horses], if the income of 
his jagir was fixed at 10 months; or 600 duaspah troopers and 400 yakaspah^ 
if at 9 months ; or 450 duaspah and 550 yakaspah troopers, if at 8 months ; 

* The edition of the Pddishdhndmah 
has \vro!i<?ly 3(XX). 

^ Literally, he has to bring his follow- 

ers (troopers) to the brand (dagb) ac- 
cording to the third part. 


cor 250 duaspak and 760 yakaspah troopers, if at 7 months ; or 100 duaspah 
and 900 yakaspah troopers, if at 6 months ; or 1000 yakaspah, if at 5 months. 
But if the troopers to a manqab had all been fixed as sihaspah duaspah 
[in other words, if the Commander was not a Panj hazdri, panj hazdr suwdr, 
bat a Panj hazdri panj hazdr suwdr i duaspah siaspah^ he musters, as his 
proportion of duaspah and sihaspah troopers, double the number which he 
would have to muster, if his manqab had been as in the preceding. 
Accordingly, a JPanf hazdri panj hazdr tamdm duaspah sihaspah (a Commander 
of 5000 ; contingent, only duaspah and sihaspah), woidd muster 600 troopers 
with three horses, 1200 troopers with two horses, and 200 troopers with 
one horse each [i. e», 2000 men with 4400 horses], provided the income 
of his j^ir be fixed at 12 months, and so on." 

From this important passage, it is clear that one-fourth of that 
number of troopers, which is indicated by the title of a Man9abd&r, 
was the average strength of the contingents at the time of Sh^hjah^n. 
Thus if a Commander of 1000 troopers had the title of Hazdri hazdr 
suicdr, the strength of his contingent was ^°j ® = 250 men with 650 
horses, ciz. 75 sihaspah, 150 duaspah, and 25 yakaspah ; and if his title 
was Hazdri hazdr suwdr i duaspah siaspah, the strength of his contingent 
was 500 men with 1300 horses, m. 150 sihaspah, 300 duaspah, and 50 
yakaspahy if the income of his j&gir was drawn by hiTn for every month 
of the year. The above passage also indicates that the proportions of 
sihaspah, and duaspah, and yakaspah troopers was for all man9abs as 
300 : 600 : 100, or as 3 : 6 : 1. 

As the author of the Padishdhnaniah does not mention the restriction 
as to the number of months for which the Man9abdars drew the income, 
we may assume that the difference in strength of the contingents 
mentioned after the name of each grandee depended on the value of their 

Prom an incidental remark {Padishahnanmh, I. p. 113), we see 
that the pay of a Commander of sihashpah duaspah troopers was double 
the pay allowed to a Commander of yakdspahs. This agrees with the 
fact that the former had double the number of men and horses of the 

The strength also of Aurangzeb's army, on a statement by Bemier, 
was conjectured to have been 200,000 cavalry, vide Elphinstone's History, 
Second Edition, p. 546, last line. 

Akbar's army must have been smaller. It is impossible to compute 
the strength of the contingents, which was continually fluctuating, 
and depended rather on emergencies. We can, however, guess at the 


stroTigtli of Akbar's ntandUuj army. At the end of A!\vl 30, Abulfazl 
states that there were alive at the tinio ho wrote the Ain 

250 Commanders of 100 (Yuzbashis) 

204 60 

260 40 

250 20 

224 10 

As these numbers are very uniform, the regular army could 
not have been larger than 2-30 X 100, or 25,000 men (troopers, 
musketeers, and artillery). The Imperial stables contained 12,000 
horses (vide p. 132, 1. 6 from below), which were under the immediate 
charge of Mir;:4 Abdurrahim Khan Khanan, Akbar's Commander-in- 
Chief. Ilence there may have been about 12,000 standing cavalry. 
The rest were matchlock-bearers and artillery. In Ain 6, Abulfazl states 
that there were 12,000 matchlock-bearers. The number of Ahadis, of 
which Shahjahan had 7000, cannot have been very large. Many of 
them were on staff employ in the various offices, store-houses, Imperial 
workshops ; others were employed as adjutants and carriers of important 
orders. They were, at Akbar's time, gentlemen rather than common 
soldiers, as they had to buy theh' own horse on joining. Badaoni 
mentions an Ahadi of the name of Khwajah Ibrahim Husain as one of 
his friends (II, p. 394). Tlie nimiber of Man^abdars, which imder 
Shahjahan amoimted to 8000, was also much less. Of the 415 Man- 
cabdars, whose names are given in Ain 30, about 150 were dead, 
when Abulfazl wi'ote it,* so that there would be about 250 higher 
Man^abdars, to which we have to add 1388 lower Man9abddrs, from 
the Commanders of 150 doAvnwards ; hence altogether about 1600 

But Akbar's Man^abddrs, on the whole, had larger contingents, 
especially more horses, than the Mancabdars of the following reigns, 
during which the brevet ranks {zdi) were multiplied. 

In the beginning of Akbar's reign, Man9abdars had even to 
furnish men with four horses {chahdrmpah). A Dahba-ski, or Commander 

* The list of pjraiideoa in Am 30 is 
quoted in Nizam's Tubaqat which do not 
go beyond A. H. KKJ'i, as the author died 
in October 1594 ; but it may be still older, 
as Nizam assigns to several Mancabdars 
a higher rank than the one mentioned 
by Abultazl. In fact, the list refers to 
a time prior to the year 993, when the 

three princes {Bad. II, p. 342) were ap- 
pointed Commanders of 12000, 900O, and 
7000 respectively, whilst in Abulfazls 
List, Prince SaUrn (Jahangir) is still put 
down SIS a Commander of 10000, Murad 
a.s Commander of 8000, and Diuiyal as 
of 7000, 


of Ten, had to fumiah 10 men "with 25 horses ; but in later times 
(ride Am 5) the Chahdraspahs were discontinued, and a Dahbdshi fur- 
niBhed 10 men with 18 horses. As the other ranks had to famish 
hoiBes in proportion, one of Akbar's Haz&ris would have had to bring 
1800 horses, whilst a Haz&ri at the time of Shahjahan only furnished 

Of Non-Commissioned officers a Mirdahah is mentioned ; vide note 
1, p. 116. The pay of a Mirdahah of matchlock-bearers varied from 
1\ to 6 J R. per mensem. Common matchlock-bearers received from 6 J to 
2f R. As they were standing (household) troops, Abulfazl has put them 
into the first Book of this work (Ains 36 to 40) ; and generally, the reader 
will have to bear in mind that the second book, relating to the army, 
treats chiefly of the contingents of the Man9abd&rs. 

Bad&)ni, in the above extract, p. 243, speaks of a libds i sipdhiy or 
eoldier's uniform (armour P). 

The distinctions conferred by the emperor on the Man9abd&rs con- 
sisted in certain flags (vide p. 50, 1. 6, from below), and the gharyal 
or gong {vide in the beginning of the Fourth Book, A in i Gharyal). 


Tahlv shcwinp th- Ksfaf)1Uhmcnts and Salaries of the Matigahddrs} 



Beasts OF Blr. 

Monthly Salaries. 


uEx AND Carts. 


mand: us 


















T' 1l 

.=: c 


















40 10 






• •• 

• • • 



5 1|51- 





35 50 36 34.15 

1 _ 






• • • 



19: t9 





30 42 29 27 






• • ■ 

• • • 









2u30 20 20'lU 




3 ►.OOO 29,000 










20:^0 19 19 





27,600 27,400 










2U 29^19 19 





27,600 27,400 










19 2919 18 




26,800 26,600 










28 19 18 





26,4<X) 26,200 










28 19 17 





26,000 25,800 









18 28 19 16 









29 2M 





17 27 19 16 
























4,1 I/O 






16-26 18' 16 



I7i 133 












16 25 1815 




17 130 












16 24 

18' lo 

1 _ 
















18 lo 




16^ 124 
















16^ 121 












16 23 

17 14 
















16 23 































22 22 





















15 21 





144 106 






























15 20il6'14 

1 1 
















15 1916 13 
















15 18 


















14 17 





1141 88 












13 15 





104 84 

















10 80 











12 13 





9§, 76 












12 12 10 




84 72 

















8^1 68 































10 12 





































9 7 

















9 7 



54 51 













9 7 




5§ 52 













8 7 



5 5') 













8 7 


44 49 













71 7 



H 48 
































7i 7 



4| 44 1 














7 7 


















6 7 


















5 5 

















Sj 4 4 









j 600 f 










5 2 
4 2 









For diflcreuces in reading I must refer the reader to my Text edition, p. 185. 

JIN 4. 
There are manj brave and worthy persons whom Hie Majesty does not 
■ppoint to a Man^ab, but whom he frees &om being under the orders of any 
one. Such persons belong; to the immediate servants of His Majesty, and 
•re dignified by their independence. They go through the school of learning 
thdr duties, and have their knowledge tested. As it is the aim of His 
Uajesty to confer a spiritual meaning on that which ie extoraal, he calls 
nich persons Ahadii (&om ahad, one). They are thus reminded of the 

A new regulation regarding rank was given. 

For the sake of the convenience of the Ahadis, a separate Diwfin and a 
FttTmaster were appointed, and one of the great Amirs is their chief A fit 
I>enon has also been selected to introduce to His Mf^esty such as are 
candidates for AhodSships. Without partiality or accepting bribes, he takes 
^j several before His Majesty, who examines them. When they have 
Iwan approved of, they pass through the YdddiUht, the Ta^l\q<th, the doscrip- 
tiTe roll, and accounts {vide Ain 10]. The paymaster then takes security, and 
mtreduces the candidate a second time to His Majesty, who generally 


iiii'i'oases hi.s pay from an oiglith to tlu'eo-fourtlis, or even to more than 
Bix-sevuiitlis.* Many Ahadis have indeed more than 500 llupees/^^r mensem* 
lie then gets tlio number 7Hm as his brand \_vide Xin 7]. In the beginning, 
when their rank was lii'st estal>lished, some Ahadis mustered eight horses ; 
but now, the limit is five. On his sarkhaf [^vide Am 11] each receives a 
farmdnchnh (rank and pay certificate), on which year after year the treasurer 
makes payments. 

Ahadis are mustered every four months, when on a certificate signed 
by the Diwan and the Baklishi, wliich is called now-a-days Tarht/iah,* the 
clerk of the treasury writes out a receipt, to be countersigned by the 
principal grandees. This the treasurer keeps, and pays the claim. Before 
tlie period (of four months) is over, he gets one month's salary in advance. 
In the course of the year, he receives cash for ten months, after deducting 
from it one-twentieth of the sum, the total stoppage being made on 
account of his liorses and other expenses. On joining the service, an 
Ahadl generally finds liis own horse; but afterwards he gets it from the 
Government ; and if the certificate of the ins2)ector8, which is called 
Saqafndmah,* explains the reason why the horse is not forthcoming, he ia 
held indemnified for his dead horse, but does not receive the money for 
keeping a horsj until he guts a new one. But if he has no Saqapidmah to 
shew, he is not allowed anything from the time of the last muster. Those 
who are in want of horses, are continually taken before His Slajesty, who 
gives away many horses as presents or as part of the pay, one-half being 
reckoned as irmus money,* and the other half being deducted in four 
instalments at the subsequent four musters ; or if the Ahadi be in debt, in 
eight instalments. 

AFN 6. 


As I have said something about the Mangabd^s and the Ahadis, I 
shall give a few details regarding the third class of troopers. 

* Or as we would say, by 75 or even 
85 f per cent. Vide note 4 p. 88. 

* This agrees with a statement which 
I have seen in some historian of Akbar's 
reign that a senior Ahadi was promoted 
to a Yuzbdshishipf as the next step. 
Vide p. 20, note 1. 

* The Titfhihah corresponds therefore 
to a * life certificate.* Arabic infinitives 
II. take in modern Persian a final S ; 
thus ta'liqah Ivide below Ain lOj, takk^ 

f(fah [vide p. 95, note, 1], ^c. 

* From saqafa he fell. 

• Or armas money. The word ij^jk 
may be Inf IV., or plural of ramt, a grave. 
Badaoni evidently reads irmds, because 
in II, p. 202, he explains irmds by zawiil i 
duahman the burying, or destruction, of 
the foes, * which word the gprandees used 
instead of falab i a^nds, requesting stores, 
&c.' Hence inna^, a request ^ ^ f s for 
m'ditary suppHes or for salary. 


The horse-dealer fixes tJie quality of the horses, which are carefoUy 
inspected by the BakhahSs. The description of the man is then taken down 
in writing. If a trooper has more than one horse, they add to his establish- 
ment a camel or an ox, for which he gets half the alldwance usually given 
to troopers of a superior olass ; or if this be not given, he gets an addition 
of two-fifths. 

A Yakaspah trooper is paid according to the following rates. If hia 
horse be an 'Ir&qf , he gets 80 R. per mensem ; if mujannMy 25 R, ; if Turkl^ 
20 £. ; if a Ydhk, 18 R.\ if a TdzC, 15 R, ; ifeiJanglah, 12 E, 

The Bevenue collectors of domain lands got formerly 25 jS„ but now 
only 15 R» 

Troopers of this kind mustered formerly up to four horses, but now the 
order is not to exceed three. 

Every DaMdshi had to muster 2 ehahdraspah, 3 sihaspahy 3 duaepak, and 
2 ydkaepah troopers [i. e,y 10 troopers with 25 horses], and the other 
Man^abd^urs in the same proportion. But now a Dahb&shi's contingent 
consists of 3 sihdspahj 4 duaspahy and 3 yakaepah troopers [». ^.,10 troopers 
with 18 horses]. 

xm 6. 


As I have said something about the Cavalry, I shall make a few 
remarks on foot soldiers. They are of various kinds, and perform remarkable 
duties. His Majesty has made suitable regulations for their several ranks, 
and guides great and small in the most satisfactory manner. 

The writer of these. ... Ms the Awdrahnmoia, Inasmuch as they are of 
importance, they are counted as belonging to the infantry. There are 
several classes of them. The first dass get« 500 ddma ; the second 400 d. ; 
the third, 300 d. ; the fourth, 240 d. 

The Rand^qehis or MatMock-hearere. 
There are 12,000 Imperial Matchlock-bearers. Attached to this service 
is an experienced Rittkchi, an honest treasurer, and an active D&rogah. 
A few Banduqehis are selected for these offices ; the others hold the following 
ranks. Some are distinguished by their experience and zeal, and are 
therefore apjyointed over a certain number of others, so that uniformity 
may pervade the whole, and the duties be performed with propriety and 
anderstanding. The pay of these [non-commissioned] officers is of four 
grades, >•«<, 300 rf. ; seeand, 280 d. ; thirdy 270 d. ; fourthy 260 d. 

^ The text has a word which does not luit. 


Coiiimon BanduqchiH aro divided into five classes, and each class into 
three subdivisions. Fird clasfi, 250, 240, and 230 d. Second elms, 220, 
210, 200 d. Third class, 190, 180, and 170 d. Fourth clasSy 160, 150, and 
140 d. Fifth class, 180, 120, and 110 d. 

The DarbdnSy or Porters. 
A thousand of these active men aro employed to guard the palaee. 
The pay of the Mirdahahs is fivefold, 200, 160, 140, 130, and 120 d. 
Common Darhans have from 100 to 120 d. 

The Khidmatiyyahs. 
The Khid mat iyy alls also belong to tlio infantry. They guard the environs 
of the palace, and see that certain orders are carried out. PanjdhU to 
Bifitis have 200 d. ; and a Dahhdshi gets 180 and 140 d. The others 
get 120, 110, and 100 d. 

The caste to which they belong was notorious for highway robbery and 
theft ; former rulers were not able to teep them in check. The effective 
orders of His Majesty have led them to honesty : they are now famous for 
their trustworthiness. They were formerly called Mdwis. Tlieir chief has 
received the title of Khidmat Rdi. Being near the person of His Majesty, 
he lives in affluence. His men ai*e called Khidmat iyy aha} 

The MewraJis.^ 
They aro natives of Mewat, and are famous as runners. They bring 
from great distances with zeal anything that may be required. They are 
excellent spies, and will perform the most intricate duties. There are 
likewise one thousand of them, ready to carry out orders. Their wages are 
the same as the pre(;eding. 

TJie Shamsherhdz, or gladiators. 
There are several kinds of them, each performing astonishing feats. 
In fighting they shew much swiftness and agility, and join courage to 
skill in stooping down and rising up again. Some of them use shields 
in fighting, others use cudgels. The latter are called LaJcrdit. Others 
again use no means of defence, and fight with one hand only ; these are 
called yaJc'hdVh. The former class come chiefly from the Eastern districts, 
and use a somewhat smaller shield, which they call chiricah. Those who 
come from the southern districts, make their shields large enough to conceal 
a horseman. This kind of shield they call tilwah. 

* They arc called in the Tiizuk i Ja- 
hkix^iriPiyddahd i Khidmaiiyi/ah. Tlie 
name of their chief under Jahangfr was 
Par Man. He once picked up the young 
Shah Shuja', who had fallen from an 
upper window to the ground. Tuzuk 

i JahdTujlrt, p. 303. 

" " Among the innovationB made by 
Akbar are the Ddk-Meicrahs, of whom 
some were stiitioned at eveiy place." 
Khdfi Khan I, p. 243. Henc« the 
Mewrahs were chiefly postmen. 


Another dafis goes by the name of F^ hard its. They use a shield not 
quite so large as to conceal a man, but a yaz broad. 

8ome again are called Bandits. They use a long sword, the handle of 
irhich is more than a gen long, and seizing it with both hands, they perform 
extraordinary feats of skill. 

The class which goes by the name of BanJciiUs are likewise famous. 
They use a peculiar sword which, though bent towards the point, is straight 
near the handle. But they do not make use of a shield. The skill which 
they exhibit passes all description. Others make various kinds of daggers 
and knives, and perform with them the most extraordinary feats. Each 
daas of these men has a different name ; they also differ in their perform- 
ances. But it is reaUy impossible to give a mere description of them ; nor 
would mere listening to my descriptions be sufficient. 

There are more than a himdred thotisand of them. At Court due 
thousand of them are always in readiness. Their C^adi (commander of one 
hundred) holds the rank of an Ahadi, and even a higher one. Their salaries 
Taiy from 80 to 600 d. 

The Pahluwdns, or Wrestlers* 

There are many Persian and Tiiriai wrestlers and boxers at Court, as 
also stone-throwers, athletes of Hindtist^, clever Mais from Gujrat, and 
many other kinds of fighting men. Their pay varies from 70 to 450 d. 
Every day two well-matched men fight with each other. Many presents are 
made to them on such occasions. The following belong to the best wrestlers 
of the age— Mirzi Khdn of Gil4n ; Muhammad Quli of Tabriz, to whom His 
Majesty has given the name of Sher hamlah, or Lion-attacker ; ^&dlq of 
Bukhara ; 'All of Tabriz ; Murdd of Turkistan ; Muhammad 'All of Tur^ ; 
Fulid of Tabriz ; Qfisim of Tabriz ; Mirzd Kuhnahsuwdr of Tabriz ; Sh6h 
Quli of Kurdist^; Hilil of Abyssinia; Sadhd Dayal ; 'All; Sri E^on; 
£anhy&; Mangol; Ganesh ; Anbd ; Nink&; Balbhadr; Bajmdt'h. 

The Chelahsy or Slaves, 

His Majesty, from religious motives, dislikes the name bandah, or slave ; 
fiwr he believes that mastership belongs to no one but God. He therefore 
calls this class of men Chelahsy which Hindi term signifies a faithfyl 
disciple.* Through His Majesty's kindness, many of them have chosen the 
road to happiness.' 

* The word Chelah \s the same as 
the Arab, murid, a disciple who places 
implicit belief in his murshid or ptr, 
the head of the sect. "And many of 
His Mi^esty's special disciples, in 991, 
calkd themselves chelahs in imitation of 
the 096 of this term amonir Josfs." Ba- 
ddoni II. p. 326. 

The author of the pretty Tazkirah, 
entitled Kalimdtushshu ard, which con- 
tains biographies of the poets of the 
eleventh century, was called Chelah, 
His real name is Mirza Muhammad 
A£sal ; as a poet he is known as Sarkhush,. 

■ By joining the Divine Faith. 


VarioTia moaning^s attach to tlio tonn slave. First y that which people 
in fi^oiieral moan l)y a slave. Some men o])tain powor over wich as do not 
l)olon<^ to tlioir sect, and sell and buy them. The wise look upon this 
as abominable. Secondlt/, he is called a slave, who leaves the path of 
selfishness, and chooses the road of si)iritual obedience.* Thirdly ^ one's child. 
Fourthly^ one who kills a man, in order to inherit his projierty. Fifthly^ a 
robl)er who repents and attaches liimself to the man whom he had robbed. 
SijrtJdy, a murderer whose guilt has been atoned by payment of money, 
in which case the murderer becomes the slave of the man who releases 
him. Seventhly y he who cheerfully and freely prefers to live as a slave. 

The pay of Chelahs varies from 1 72. to 1 d, per diem. His Majesty 
has divided them into several sections, and has handed them over to active 
and experienced people, who give them instruction in several things. Thus 
they acquire knowledge, elevate their position, and learn to perform their 
duties with propriety. 

His Majesty who encourages everything which is excellent, and knows 
the value of talent, honors people of various classes with appointments in the 
ranks of the army ; and raises them from the position of a common soldier 
to the dignity of a grandee. 

The Jiuharsj or PdlkL hearers. 
They form a class of foot-servants peculiar to India. They carry heavy 
loads on their slioidders, and travel through mountains and valleys. With 
their pdlkU, singhdsanSy ehandoh, and dul'tSy they walk so evenly, that the 
man inside is not inconvenienced by any jolting. There are many in this 
country ; but the best came from the Dak'hin and Bengal. At Court, several 
thousands of them are kei^t. The pay of a head bearer varies from 192 to 
384 d. Comnum bearers get from 120 to 160 d. 

Ddl'hili troops. 

A fixed number of these troops are handed over to the Man9abdte ; 
but they are paid by the State. His Majesty has ordered to designate these 
infantry soldiers in the descriptive rolls as nimah suwdrdn, or half troopers. 

The fourth part of Ddkhili troops are matchlock-bearers ; the others 
carry bows. 

(Carpenters, workers in iron, water-carriers, pioneers, belong to this 

A non-commissioned officer of the matchlock-bearers receives 160 d., or 
4 Jl.; common matddock-bearers get 140 d. The Mirdahahs of the archers 
get from 120 to 180 d. ; common archers from 100 to 120 (f. 

* Inasmuch as such a man blindly follows his^iV. 


I could say much more on this subject, but I must content myself with 
having described the principal classes. I have also given some details in 
speaking of the seyeral workshops and offices of the Household. 

Am 7. 


When His Majesty had fixed the ranks of the army, and enquired into 
the quality of the horses, he ordered that upright Bitikchis should make out 
deflcriptive rolls of the soldiers and write down their peculiar marks. Their 
ages, the names of their fathers, dwelling-places, and race, were to be 
registered. A D&rogah also was appointed, whose duty it is to see that the 
men are not unnecessarily detained. They were to perform their duties 
without taking bribes or asking for remunerations. 

Every on© who wishes to join the army, is taken before His Majesty , 
in whose presence his rank is fixed, after which the clerks make out the 
Ti^l\qah {tide Afn 10]. 

Ddkhili troops are admitted on the signature of the Mangabd&rs. 

His Majesty has also appointed five experienced officers who hare to 
look after the condition of the men, their horses, and the stipulated amount 
of pay. His Majesty has the men assembled in an open place, and receives 
the several descriptive roUs, when the men with their horses are handed 
over to the above five officers. The amount of their pay is then entered at 
the bottom of the descriptive rolls, and is countersigned by those officers, 
which serves as a proof, and prevents fraudulent alterations. Each roll is 
then handed over to the inspecting Dirogah. He takes them in the manner 
described abore [vide Kin 4.] to His Majesty, who orders the pay to be 
increased or decreased. His Majesty discerns the value of a man by the 
lineaments of his forehead, and can therefore increase or decrease his pay. 
He also distinguishes a tradesman by the look of his face from a soldier, 
BO much so that experienced people are astonished, and refer His Majesty's 
power of diflcemment to ' hidden knowledge.' When the roU is thus 
certified, it is also signed by the JFdqi^ah Nawia (Ain 10), the Mir ^Arz, and 
the officer commanding the guards. On the strength of this certificate, the 
Dirogah of the dd^h (brand) marks the horses. 

When the brand was first introduced, it was made in the shape of the 
head of the letter sin [t. e. like this, r], and was put on the right side of 
the neck of the horse. For somo time, it was made in shape of two alifi 
intersecting at right angles, the heads of the alif being made heavy, as in this 


fip^uve wT\j» "1^^^ P^i^ ^^^ ^1^** riiz:lit tlii^h. For some time again, it was 
made ^ ^^ lilv(' a how witli tlie string taken off. At last, numerals were 
introduced, wliicli pljui Lost frustrat(»s fraudulent jiraoticjes. They make 
inm numerals, hy wliicli all indistinctness is avoided. These new signs are 
likewise put on the right thigh. Formerly, each liorse on being mustered 
for the lu-st time, was marked witli a 1 ; the second time with a 2, and 
so on ; hut now Kis Majesty has ordered that sejmrate numerals should Le 
used for the horses of the princes, tlie !Manqahdars, the governors of the 
provinces, and all other dignitaries attached to the Court. 

The carefulness with whi('h the system of marking horses was attended 
to, resulted at once in truthfid rejiorts rt^garding dead horses ; for when a 
soldier, after the introduction of the system of rex)eated marks {vidf next 
Ain), brought a horse which had been exchanged, he would demand his pay 
from the time he had last received liis pay, whilst the Bakhshi commenced 
to count from tlitj day lie brought his (exchanged) horse. But since the 
l)resent nmrk was introduced, the rule was uuule that each horse with which, 
instead of with liis old one, a trooper came to the muster, should be described, 
and should get tJu^ same mark as the dead one ; the Bakhshis, at the 
subsequent nmsters held for repeating tlie marks, were to inspect it and 
go by the brand. Horses answering the description in the rolls wore even 
hired, and substituted for the old ones ; but as the mark was not forthcoming, 
the deception was detected, and the soldiers thus learnt to bo honest. 

AIN 8. 


The servants (Manqabddrs) of Ilis Majesty have their horses every 
year newly marked, and thus maintain the efficiency of the army, as by 
tlieir endeavours, unprincij)led 2)eoj)le learn to choose the path of honesty. 
If a Man^-abd^r delays bringing his men to the muster, one-tenth of his 
j^gir {aq(cVy is withheld. Formerly when the mark was rejieated, they put 
the number on the muster of the horse, marking, for example, a horse with a 
2, when it was mustered the second time, and so on ; but now, as each class 
of soldiers has a particidar mark, the mai'k is merely re2)eated at the 

* Proi)erly i(jfd\ Inf. IV. of qataa ; 
but in India tlie word is mostly pro- 
nounced as aqid.' The kin^ is there- 
fore called muqti\ one who confers lands 
on the nobles ; ahstr. n. tuiuitii the 
giving of lands to nobles, of wliieh the 
Moghul Historians accuse Sher Shah. 
Vide end of Ain 10, Third Book. Muqta\ 
past pai't., one on whom lauds have bccu 

conferred ; so often in the Tdrikk i 
If'iruz iShdhi. From the tiiues of Akbar 
the words aqta and jdgir are used as 
synonyms ; before liis time we only find 
aqtd' used ; but jdgir ^ or Jdigir, occurs 
in itvs etymological sense. In later His- 
torians the word aqta is bul rarely met 


subsequent muBters. In the case of Ahadis, the former custom was retained. 
Some Bitikchis, and near servants of His Majesty who have no leisure to 
look after j^irs, receive their monthly salaries in cash, and muster their 
horses every eighteen months. Grandees whose jagirs are very remote, 
do not bring their horses to muster before twelve years have elapsed ; but 
when six years have elapsed since the last muster, one-tenth of their income 
is retrenched. And if a Manqabddr has been promoted to a higher Man9ab, 
and three years have elapsed since he last presented his horses at muster^ 
he receives a personal (oli) increase of salary, but draws the allowance for 
the increased number of his men after the first muster. His old and Ids 
new men then get their assignments. If at the renewal of the mark at 
subsequent musters, any soldier brings a superior horse in exchange for 
ids old one, he is taken before His Majesty, who inspects and accepts it. 

Am 9. 


Mounting guard is called in Hindi chauku There are three kinds of ' 
guards. The four divisions of the army have been divided into seven parts, 
each of which is appointed for one day, under the superintendence of a 
trustworthy Manqabd&r. Another, fully acquainted with all ceremonies 
at Court, is appointed as Mir ^Arz. All orders of His Majesty are made 
known through these two officers (the Mir ^Arz and the Commander of the 
Palace). They are day and night in attendance about the palace, ready 
for any orders His Majesty may issue. In the evening, the Imperial Qur 
[fide p. 110) is taken to the State hall. The moimting guards stand on 
the right ; the ranks of the guards to be relieved are drawn up on the 
other side. His Majesty generally inspects the .guards himself, and takes 
notice of the presence or absence of the soldiers. Both ranks salute His 
Majesty. If His Majesty be prevented by more important affairs from attend- 
ing, one of the princes is ordered to inspect the guards. From predilection 
and a desire to teach soldiers their duties, as also from a regard to general 
efficiency. His Majesty pays much attention to the guards. If any one 
is aWnt without having a proper excuse, or from laziness, he is fined one 
week's pay, or receives a suitable reprimand. 

The Imperial army has been divided into twelve parts, each of 
which mounts guard for the space of one month. This gives all troops, 
▼hether near or far, an opportunity to come to Court, and to partake of the 
liberality of TTi« Majesty. But those who are stationed at the frontiers, or 
told off for any important duty, merely send in reports of thoir exact 


condition, and eontinur' to ])erfonn His Majesty's special orders. On the first 
of every solar month, tlie guards arc drawn np to salute His Majesty, as is 
usual on weekly parades, and are then distinguished by royal marks of 

The Imperial army has also })(Mm di\dded into twelve other divisions, 
each of wJiicli is sele( ted in turn, to come to Court for one yeixr and Jo 
duty near tlie person of His Majesty. 

ATN 10. 

Keeping records is an excellent tiling for a government ; it is even 
n(?cessary for (n^ery rank of society. Though a trace of this office may have 
exifsted in ancient times, its higher objects were but recognized in the 
present reign. His ^fajesty has a2)i)ointed fourteen zealous, experienced, 
and impartial ch^rlvs, Uvo of whom do daily duty in rotation, so that the 
turn of each comes ai'Un' a fortnight.® Some other suitable men are selected 
as supernumeraries, each of whom Is a2ij)ointed for one day; and if any 
of the fourteen bo dc^tained by an important business, this additional person 
acts for him. Hence thej^ are called kotal (sujiernumeraries). 

Their duty is to write down tlie orders and the doings of His Majesty 
and wliatever the heads of tho departments report ; what His Majesty 
oats and drinks ; wln^n he sleeps, and when ho rises ; the etiquette in the 
State hall; the time His Majesty spends in the Harem; when he goes to 
the general and private assemblies ; the nature of hunting-parties ; the 
slaying of animals ;^ when he marches, and when he halts ; the acts of 
His Majesty as the spiritual guide of the nation; vows made to him; his 
remarks {ride Fifth Book) ; what books he has read out to him ; what alms 
he bestows ; what presents he makes ; the daily and monthly exercises* 
which he imposes on himself ; appointments to manqabs ; contingents of 
troops ; salaries ; jdgirs ; IrmdH money {ride above, p. 250, note 5) ; saydrghdU 
(rentfree land) ; tho increase or decrease of taxes ; contracts ; sales ; money 
transfers ; pcMash (tribute receipts) ; despatch ; the issue of orders ; the 

* From wdqiah an evoTit, and iiaiciii 
a writer. Instead of vuiq'iah naicis we 
also find ?najlis nawia. 

There was a Wtni'taJnuiich^ or recorder, 
in each ^libah. I'roni several places in 
the Tuzuk i Jahanfiiri, we see that the 
Bakhshis of Ihe ^ulndis often hekl tho 
posts of Wdqia/nuriris at the same time. 
VideTviznk, p. 121, 1. 2. ; p. 137, 1. 1. ; 

p. 171, h 5. 

® Hence the arrangement must hare 
been as follows — first day, first and 
second writcre ; second day, second and 
third writers ; third day, third and fourth 
writers, and so on. 

® Akhar wished to restrict the slf»ying 
of animals. Vide above, p. 200, 1. y. 

* Especially fasts. 


paperB which are signed by His Majesty ; the arrival of reports ; the minutes 
thereon ; the arrivals of courtiers ; their departures ; the fixing' of periods ; 
the inspection of the guards ; battles, victories, and peace ; obituaries of 
well-known persons ; animal-fights and the bettings on them ; the dying of 
horses ; capital punishments ; pardons granted by His Majesty ; the proceed- 
ings of the general assemblies ; marriages, births ; ekaug&n games {vide 
Afn 29) ; chaupar, nard, chess, card games, &c. ; extraordinary phenomena ; 
the harvests of the year ; the reports on events. 

After the diary has been corrected by one of His Majesty's servants, 
it is laid before the emperor, and approved by him. The clerk then makes 
a copy of each report, signs it, and hands it over to those who require it 
u a voucher, when it is also signed by the Parwdnchiy by the Mir *ArZf and 
by that person who laid it before His Majesty. The report in this state 
ifl called yddddaht^ or memorandum. 

Besides, there are several copyists who write a good hand and a lucid 
style. They receive the ydddasht when completed, keep it with them- 
selves, and make a proper abridgment of -it. After signing it, they return 
this instead of the ydddasht, when the abridgment is signed and sealed 
by the Wdqt^ahnawks, and the RiadlaMdr,^ the Mir ^Ar%, and the 
Ldmgah, The abridgment, thus completed, is called TaHiqah, and the writer 
is called TaUiqahnawks. 

The Ta^ltqah is then signed, as stated above, and sealed by the ministers 
of State. 

His Majesty's object is, that every duty be properly performed ; that 
there be no undue increase, or decrease in any department ; that dishonest 
people be removed, and trustworthy people be held in esteem ; and that 
artive servants may work without fear, and negligent and forgetful men be 
held in check. 

Am 11. 


Every money matter wiU be satisfactorily settled, when the parties 
express their minds clearly, then take a pen, and write down the statement 
in legible handwriting. Every written statement of accounts is called a 
imad. All classes of men adopt such a practice. 

' Ta in i muddat, the fixing of period- 
ical in»])ection8 ; opp. beiaini dmadan 
to come at tiroes not appointed before 
hand, unexpectedly. 

* The text has rudlah, which standa 

for risdlahddr, as, in later times, Cubah 
for Qubahddr. 
For Mir 'Arz we find in the earlv 

TT« ■ • » / • "••-^ 

Uistoriaus am. 


Tlu» saannl is the vouclior which relieves tJie treasurer of all responsibility, 
and on ^liich peo2)lo receive payment of their claims. Honest experiemt^d 
oificers, upon whose forehead tlio stamp of correc'tness shines, write the 
af^rc^ement upon loose pa}i;es and leaves, so that the transaction cannot be 
for;^otten. These loose sheets into which all sanads are entered, are called 
the Diiftor.' 

Tlis Majesty has made himself acquainted with this department 
and brought it into proper working ord(*r. He has a2)pointed clever, 
honest, incoiTuptible, ex2)erienced writers, and entrusts the dafiar to 
impartial ofHcers, who are under his immediate control. 

The Daftar of the empire is divided into three parts : — 

1. The Ahiviihuhndl, or entries referring to the revenue of the country. 
This part of the Daftar explains the revenue of the empire, details any 
increase or decrease, and specifies every f)ther source of income (as presents, 


2. The Arhdh uftahdtnL^ This i)art explains the manner in wliich the 
sums for the Household have been expendcnl ; it contains the debits and 
credits entered on account of the cashkeepers employed at Coui't ; and lastly, 
contains the accounts of daily exj^enditure, &c., for things bought or sold. 

3. The Tanj'ih.^ This part contains all entries referring to the .pay 
of the army, and shows the manner in which the pay is given out, 

Home fidniulfi are merely sealed with the imperial seal. Other sanadi 
are first signed and sealed by the ministers of State, and are afterwards 
laid b(^fore His Majesty for signature. Many sounds j however, are only 
si<^ned and sealed by the grandees of the Court. This will be explained 
in^the following. 

T/ie Farmthi i aahfi. 

Far man i sahfis are issued for three purjwsos : — 

1. For a]>pointments to a Man^ab ; to the Vakilship ; to the post of 
SipahmJdr (governor of a province and Commander-in-Cliief) ; to the tutorship 
of the princes ; to the rank of Amindumard {vide p. 240) ; to a Ndhiati^ or 

' Eni^lislj wviteis of the la.4 century 
ot\cn veli-r to this system of keeping all , 
(locuincnts in loose sheets, instead of I 
bound books. The sheets were ke])t 
tou^'ther hy a slrin*; drawn throui^h 
thciii. This eustoin, I am iniormcd, is 
still in iiM' ill IN'rsia ; and suits ea^stern 
countries, the hot and damp ehmate of 
which so«m destroys the bindin*;];' of 
books. Tl»e word dafUw is the Greek 
5t(^fl€V«' =• ^''""^'^^ '''^^^' l>Jivehm<'nt. (^dhih 
i dufhtr. Minister of Finance, the same 

as Diwdn and Vaztr. Daftart means 
in India a man kept in every office for 
mendinii: pens, niling ])aper and forms, kc. 

^ The men %cho get transfer receipts 
on the Treasuri/. This part of the Dallar 
contained all Household accounts, as 
specified above. Though all MSS. read 
Arhdl), it is probable that ahicdb is the 
more usual expression. 

' Oi% the giving of wajh [pay) to the 
annif ; hence taujih miHtai*y ao«)unts. 
For taujih, some MSS. read taujihak. 


districtahip ; to the post of VaztTf or Finance Minister ; to the Bakhshi- 
tkip, (Pay master and Adjutant General) ; to the post of a Qadry or a judge. 

2. For appointments to j'dffirsy without military service ;* for taking 
charge of a newly conquered territory ; sometimes. ..." 

3. For conferring Sayurghdh {vide Ain 1 9) ; for grants on account of daily 
subsistence allowance ; and for grants for beneficent purposes. 

When the Td'liqah has been made out, the J)kodn i Jdgir (who 
keeps the J&gir accounts) pays the stipulated grant. If the j6gir is 
given for military services, with the order of bringing horses to the muster, 
the grant is once more sent to the Bahhshis for inspection, when the following 
words are written either on the back or the comer of the paper — Jchd^ah^ o 
mardum hardward numdyand ; kdrgardn i in ahughl chihrahnawisi hunand (this 
is special ; the estimate for the salary may be made out. The proper 
officers are to prepare the descriptive rolls). When the horses are then 
branded at the time of the muster, the BdkhsMgeneral takes the Td'liqah, 
keeps it, and hands instead of it a writing specifying the amount of the 
monthly salary, duly signed and sealed. 

This paper, which the Bakhshi grants instead of the Ta^liqah, is called 


The Sarkhafs are entered in the daftars of all Sub-Bakhshis, and are 
distinguished by particular marks. The Biwdn then keeps the Sarkkaf 
with himseK, prepares an account of the annual and monthly salary due on 
it, and reports the matter to His Majesty. If His Majesty gives the order 
to confer a j^r on the person specified in the Sarkkafy the following words 
are entered on the top of the report : TaHiqah % tan qalami numdyand (they 
are to write out a Ta^liqah i tan (certificate of salary). This order suffices 
for the clerks ; they keep the order, and make out a drafb to that effect. 
The drafb is then inspected by the Diw^, who verifies it by writing on it 
the words Bobt numdyand (ordered to be entered). The mark of the Dafbar, 
and the seal of the Dfw^, the Bakhshf, and the Accoimtant the Diwdn, are 
put on the draft in order, when the Imperial grant is written on the outside. 
The draft thus completed is sent for signature to the Diwdn. 

The (^ih i Taujih, or Military accountant, keeps the former TaHiqah 
with himself, writes its details on the Farmdn, and seals and signs it. It is 

* J'dgtrs, to which no military service ^ 
ittacbes, appear to be called heddgh o 
makalU, 4. e., the holder had nothing to 
do with the army and the musters, at 
which the Man^abdirs drew the salaries 
of their contingents, nor with the collec- 
tioo of the taxes of the several Mahalls 
orParganahs. Thus PathuUah of Shiraz 
[vide p. 199) received BaRawar as his jf^gir 

heddgh o mahalli. Baddcyni, p. 315. 
Badaoni also had a jagir of 1000 Big'has, 
at which he often grumbles, calling 
himself by way of joke Hazdri, or 
Commander of One Thousand. 

■ The text has ide (sometimes ?) ha 
*umcdn i mulk (milk '/) dddan — which I 
do not understand. 


tlicTi iiispoftcd by tho Mu^fanl'i^ and is signed and soalod hy him. Aftor- 
wards tJio AV^/> and tli(> HalhsJus do so likewise, whon it is sealed by the 
J)i\Vt'i7i, Ills Accountant, and tJic Val'tl of tln^ State. 

If His Majesty's order s[)ecilies a cash payment, tho farmdn is made 
out in tlie sani(5 manner, but is o-enerally called liardf. (cheque). A statemcut 
of aciM'Uids of tile transaction is appeudi^l at tlie ])Ottom of it. After tho N&zir^ 
tin- J)'urari i JJKfjtUdt si^-ns it, aiid wlien it lias passed tlirou^'h the hands of tho 
Halclisjiis and tho Diwan, it is sealed and sip^ned })y the /iV/aw Sdt/idti. The 
r(H:eIpts and expenditure of the Inip(Tial worksho2)s, the deposits and pay- 
iiK^nts of salaric^s to tlie \v(n*kmen (of whom some draw their pay on [military] 
descriptive rolls, and others according to the services performed by them, as 
the men en<^a<j^ed in the Im])erial ele]diant and horse stables, and in the 
wajj^^on department) ar<' all nuuhj by hnydts. The accountant of each work- 
shop (or stable) writes out annually two hardts, one for the six months frt)m 
Far ward in (F(d)rnary — March) inS/ndtrurar, and the other from Mt'kr (Septem- 
ber) to IsfamliijdrinHz. He writes do\\ n the allowances on account of grain, 
grass, &(\, both in shapes of cash and stores, and the salaries of tho workmen, 
and si«;^ns tlie statement. The I)hrdn i Buf/atdt insjjects them, passes the 
ordca* for papuent, iin(|uires into the increase or decrease, if any, and 
writes on the marLi'in az faha-'tl i J'aldn'f hardt uawisand^ * Let a hardt be made 
out shewing the anjount to be d« posit fil with such and such a Mushrif.* 
Tho Mushrif of tlie workshop or siabh^ then takes it, writes out an order 
and i\m receipt, and seals and signs it. In tdl cash payments, one-fourth is 
deducted, as another sanad is given for this amount. The Durdn i J]uf/uldt 
then gives the ord(4' to have* it entennl. The Muslu'if does so, sig'ns and 
seals the hardt. and the receipt. It then passes through the hands of 
the ^lilitary Accountant, the Nazir, the Diwan i Buyutat, the Diwan i 
Kill, the Khan Saman, the Mushrif of the Diwan, and the Yakil, who 
sign and seal it. In every case? the (estimate is sent along with it, so 
that there may be no mistake. "When it has been laid before His Majesty, 
the ]\Iuslirif writ(^s out the recei})t, which is then in tho same manner 
entered into the several da/furs. The mode of j^ayment also is detailed 
on the back of it, riz. on(?-lbiirth is to be j^aid in gold [ashrafis) ; one-half 
in silver [rajAs) and one x^^^rt in copper (jldm^s), according to the fixed 
values of the coins. 

The Fanitd/is in favor of MaiK'abdiirs are made out in the same manner; 
th<»y are, however, never sent to the; ofticers of the workshops and stables. 

In case of t)utjur<jJiah {vide Ain 19), the farmans, after having been 
signed by the Mustaufi, are entered in the doff am of the Diwan i Sd'ddat 
{ride A'm 19) ; they are then sigMied and sealed }>y the (Jrtr/r, and the Diwdn 
i KuL 


Farmdns are sometimos written in Tu^hrd character j but the two first 
lines are not made short. Such a Farman is called a Parw&nchah, 

Parw&nchahs are made out for the stipulated salaries of the Begums and the 
princes ; for the stipends of people under the care of the Diwdn i Sa^ddat {vide 
Ain 19) ; the salaries of the Ahadis, Chelahs, and of some officers in the work- 
shops; and for the allowances on account of the food of Bdrgir horses {vide 
p. 139, Kin 54). The treasurer does not annually demand a new sanad, but 
pays the allowances on the mere receipt, signed and sealed by the ministers 
of the State. The Mushrif (accountant) writes out the receipt, which is signed 
by the recipient, and is then sent to the Diwdn for orders. It is then signed by 
the Mushrif, the Mustaufi, the Ndzir i Buyutdt, the Diw^ i Kul, the Khan- 
Stoin, the Mushrif of the Diwdn, In the Parwdnchahs given to Ahadis, 
the signature, seal, and orders of the Ahadihdshi, or Commander of the 
Ahadis, are required after those of the Mustaufi, the Diwdn, and the 
Bakhshis, because His Majesty, from motives of kindness, and from a desire to 
avoid delay, has ordered that these Parwdnchahs need not be laid before him. 

Nor does His Majesty sign sarkhafs, sale and purchase receipts, price- 
lists, ^arzndmchnhs (statements of sums forwarded to Court by the collectors 
of the Imperial domains) qardr ndmahs (which specify the revenue collections 
of the collectors on account of the rj'ots), and the muqdsd (statements of 
account which TahwUd&rs take from the Mustaufi, showing that the sums 
which they had received as deposits, have been correctly expended). 


AfN 12. 


Farmdns, Parwdnchahs, and Barilts, are made into several folds begin- 
ning from the bottom. On the first fold which is less broad, at a place towards 
the edge where the paper is cut off", the Vakil puts his seal ; opposite to it, 
but a little lower, the Mushrif of the Diwdn puts his seal, in such a manner 
that half of it goes to the second fold. Then, in like manner but a little lower, 
comes the seal of the ^adr. But when Shaikh 'Abdunnabi and Sultdn IQiwdjah 
were qadrs (vide note to Ain 19), they used to put their seals opposite to that 
of the Vakil. In the middle of that fold is the place where that person puts 
his seal who comes nearest in rank to the Vakfl, as Atkah Khdn did at the 
time of Mun'im Khdn, and Adham EZhdn. The Mir Mdl, the Klidn Sdmdn, the 
Parwdnchf, &c., seal on the second fold, but in such a manner that a smaller 
part of their seals goes to the first fold. The seals of the Diwdn, and the 
Bakhshi do not go beyond the edge of the second fold, whilst the Diwdn i 
juz, the Bakhshi i juz, and the Diwdn i Buyutdt put their seals on the third 

26 1 

fold. Tlu" ^rustfiufi puts his s(»al on tho fourth, and the Cahlh i Taujih on 
tliu lit'th fold. The soal of His Majc^sty is 2)ut above the Tughrd lines on 
tlie top of the Fannan, where the princes also jiut their seals in TaWtqaJts. 

AfN 13. 

»S(»me matters connected with the Government do not admit of delay, 
or nmst not to he known to everyone. 8uch an order receives only the 
Imperial seal, and is called a Farmdn i Baydzi.^ The farman is folded up, 
and two edges are made to meet, "wht^n a knot of paper is put over them, 
which is sealed uj), in such manner, that the c(mtents cannot be seen. The 
sealin*^ wax is made of tlie gum of tlie Kunar, the Bar, tho Pij)al, and 
other trees. Jjike wax, it gi^ts warm when exposed to fire, but gets 
afterwards cool and hard. When thus seided, the farman is put into a 
golden cover ; for Ilis Majesty looks upon the use of extermd signs of 
grandeur as an act of divine worship. Such farm^ns are caixied by 
Mancabdars, Ahadis, or conmion foot-soldiers, to the parties concerned. 

When an oificer receives such an order he proceeds a proper distance to 
meet it, jierforms various acts of obeisance, puts it on the crown of his head, 
makes the sijdah, and rewai'ds tlie messenger according to the favour eonferred 
upon himself, or according to his circumstances. According to His Majesty's 
wishes, tho bags in wliicli reports are sent, are secured in the same manner 
as a Farmdn i JJaf/dzi^ so that no alterations are possible. In consequence 
of this, much trouble is avoided, and dishonest practices are put a stop to. 

Am 14. 


W^hen any one has tho good fortune of joining the ann\", he receives, 
on bringing his horses to the muster, a proper sanad without delav and 
without (^osts. All accounts of salaries are made out in dams ; but at the 
time of making out the estimate, ho receives one half in rupees, reckoned at 
thirty-eight ddms^ eac-h. Half of the remainder is paid in midiurs at nine 
rup(»es each, and the last quarter is given in diims for stores. When the 
value of the rupee was raised to forty d^ms, tho soldiers, through His 
Majesty's kindness, received dams at the same rate. Every year one 
month's pay is subtracted on account of the horse, the value of which is 

* That is, a blauk farmaa. | ^ The MSS. have foriy-cight. 


raised fifty per cent, above prime cost, and for accoutrements ; but as much 
care is shewn in bujdng horses, this increase is not productive of any loss for 
the soldier. Besides, Ahadis are continually employed for affairs of import- 
ance, and are permitted to cany the orders of His Majesty ; and whatever 
is given to them as an acknowledgment for 4heir services by the recipients 
of the orders, is allowed to be kept by the Ahadis as a present, if they bear 
a good character ; but if not, a part of it is reckoned as monthly pay. 

With the view of teaching zeal and removing the stamp of laziness, 
His Majesty fines soldiers for absence &om guard : an Ahadi loses fifteen 
days' pay, and other soldiers one week's. 

The Commander of every contingent {TdhMdsM) is allowed to keep 
for himself the twentieth part of the pay of his men, which reimburses him 
for various expenses. 

Am 15. 

Higher Officers, who receive lands or monthly salaries may occ€isionally 
come into difficulties when it would be against the rules of the government 
for them to ask for a present. For this reason His Majesty appointed a 
treasurer and a separate M(r ^Ar%j and those who wish to borrow money, 
may now do so without prejudice to their honour, or annoyance of 
delay. For the first year, nothing is chained ; in the second, the loan 
is increased by a sixteenth part of it ; in the third year, by one-eighth ; in 
the fourth year, by one-fourth ; ^m the fifth to the seventh, by one-haK ; 
^m the eighth to the tenth year, by three-fourths ; from the tenth year 
and longer, double the original loan is charged, after which there is no 
farther increase. 

His Majesty's only object' is to teach propriety in transactions ; else 
mutual esteem will never increase among men from the nature of their 
mercantile affairs. 

This reg^ation brought unprincipled usurers to the proper path, and 
thus prevented much impropriety. 

Am 16. 

His Majesty, from his knowledge of man's nature, gives donations in 
Taiioos ways. It looks as if he lends, but in his heart, he makes a present ; 

* It is needless to remind the reader I the Muhammadan law. But Akbar was 
tbat charging interest on loans is against | a Hindu in such matters. 



or he calls the donation a loan, but never asks it back. The far and near, the 
rich and poor, share His Majesty's liberality. He gives away elephants, 
horses, and other valuable articles. The Bakhshis read out daily the names 
of the guards and other soldiers, mentioning such first as have never received 
anything. His Majesty gives them horses. Wlien a soldier has received a 
horse, he is not recommended to His Majesty for the space of a year for 
any other donation. 

Am 17. 

His Majesty bestows upon the needy money and necessaries, winning 
the hearts oi' all in i)ublic or private. Many enjoy daily, monthly, or yearly 
allowances, which they receive without being kept waiting. It is impossible 
for me to detail the sums which some people receive in consequence of 
representations having been made of their circumstances by such as stand near 
the throne ; and it would take up too much time to describe the presents made 
daily to beggars, or the eating houses which have been established for the 

There is a treasurer always in waiting* at Court ; and every beggar 
whom His Majesty sees, is sure to find relief. 

AfN 18. 

From reasons of auspiciousness, and as an opportimity of bestowing 
presents upon the poor. His Majesty is weighed twice a year. Various 
ai'ticles are put into the scales. 

On the first day of the month of Abdn [15th October], which is the 
solar anniversary of the emperor, His Majesty is weighed twelve times 
against the following articles: gold, quicksilver, silk, perfumes, copper, 
riih i tutiy^, drugs, g'hi, iron, rice-milk, seven kinds of grain, salt; the 
order of these articles being determined by their costliness. According to 
the niimber of years His Majesty has lived, there is given away an equal 
number of sheep, goats, fowls, to people that breed these animals. A great 
number of small animals are also set at liberty. 

His Majesty is weighed a second time on the 5th of Eajab,* against 
eight articles, viz.^ silver, tin, cloth, lead, fruits, mustard oil, and vegetables. 

» Vide p. 200, 1. 6 from below. 

' Vide p. 16, 1. 1. 

• The lunar birthday of the emperor. 

As this was the Muhammadan birthday, 
the articles were of course fewer, and le» 


On both occasions the festival of Sdlgirih (birthday) is celebrated, 
when donations, or grants of pardon, are bestowed upon people of all ranks. 

The Imperial princes, sons, and grandsons of His Majesty, are weighed ' 
once in every solar year. They are for the first time weighed, when two 
years old, but only against one thing. Every year, however, a new 
additional thing is put on the scales. When grown up, they are generally 
weighed against seven or eight things, but not against more than twelve. 
Animals are set free as usual. 

A separate treasurer and an accoimtant are appointed for this purpose, 
fio that the expenditure may be made with every propriety.* 

' According to the Tu2uk i Jahdngiri 
(a 163) and PddUhdhndmah (1, p. 243), 
ttie weighing of the Royal person was 
introduced by Akbar. It is an old Hindu 
cufltom. At first, the weighing took 
place once a year, on the birtnday of the 
emperor; but with the introduction of 
Akoar's Divine (solar) Era, we find in the 
histoiy of evety year the record of a wazn 
i thavui, OT9{dar weighing, and a toazn i 
qamari, or lunar weighing. There was, 
of course, a jashn, or feast, on such 
oonsionB, and courtiers, on the same day, 
were promoted to higher Man^ahs, or 
presented their pe»AA(wA. The feast was 
of special importance for the Harem. 
It appears (viae P&dishahnamah, p. 243) 
that the articles against which the royal 
person was weighed, were sent from the 
narem, or by the mother of the reigning 
emperor. Jahanfi^ir, according to several 
remarks in the Tuzuk (pp. 69, 70, 276, 
Ac.) was even weighed' m the palace of 
his angost mother, to whom the Tuzuk 
f^ves me title of Maryam Zamdn4, the 
Maiy of the age, as Akbar's mother had 
been styled Maryam Mahdni (vide p. 48, 
note 1). The solar wazn was even 
Rtained by Aurangzeb; vids 'Alamgir- 
dmah, p. 229. 

The birthday of the emperor was of 
importance for the Harem, as there the 
itnng was kept, which numbered as 
many knots, as the emperor numbered 
years ; hence also sdlgirih (or salmrah, 
u the word is pronounced all over India) 
'the year's knot,' or birthday. 

IVmg knots, or bits of string or ribbon 
to the tombs of saints is considered by 
barren women as a means of obtaining 
a son, and the tomb of Saltm i Chishti 
in Fathpur Sflqi, in whose house Jahin- 
Rir was bom, is even now-a-days visited 
ny Hindu and Mnsalm4n women, who 
tie bits of string to the marble treUice 
ranoonding the tomb. Similar vows are 

even placed on Akbar's tomb in Sikandrah, 
near Agrah. 

Akbar s regulation, as given in the above 
Ain, appears to have been continued 
under Jah4ngir. Sh&hjahdn made some 
alterations, in as far as he was weighed on 
each feast first against gold, and silver, 
and then against other articles. The 
articles themselves were given away to 
the courtiers, or to pious men, and beg- 
gars, as a means oi keeping the royal 
person from all bodily and mental harm. 
The gold and the silver against which 
Jahangir was once weighed, amounted to 
Bs. 33,000 ; but according to the Tuzuk, 
the money was distributed among the 
women of the Harem. On another occa- 
sion (Tuzuk, p. 163), Jahan^ was found 
to weigh 6514 tolahs. Taking the tolah 
at 186 grains (Prinsep's usenil Tables, 
by E. ^omas, p. Ill), Jahangfr, at the 
age of forty-seven, would have weighed 
210J lbs Troy. 

Akbar, in accordance with his Hindu 
tendencies, used to give the money to 
Brahmins. " On the fifth of R^ab 973, 
which is the day on which the Emperor 
was bom, the feast of weighing His 
Majesty was held at Nizam4bad, a 
town belonging to the Sirkar of Jaunpur ; 
for according to established custom, the 
emperor is weighed twice a year, on his 
solar and lunar birthdays, against gold, 
silver, &c., which is given as a present 
to the Brahmins of India, and others. 
Poets used, and still use, such opportuni- 
ties for presenting nice poems," jSaddan{, 
II, p. 84. 

Ckx^asionally, courtiers were weighed 
for important personal services. Thus Ja- 
h&nglr had once his Court doctor Biihullah 
weighed in silver (Tuzuk, p. 283), the 
sum being ^ven him as a fee in addition 
to three villages, which were bestowed 
upon him sAJdgir, 


AI'N 19. 

His Miijc^sty, in his caro for tho nation, confors honofits on people of 
various classes ; and in the higher wisdom whicli God has conferred upon 
him, he considers doing so an art of divine worsliip. 

His Majesty, from his dosii'e to promote rank distinctions, confers 
lands and suhsistonce allowances on the following four classes of men, fint^ 
on enquirers after wisdom, who have ^^'ith(b•a^vn from all worldly occupation, 
and make no diilLTcnce hetween night and daytime in searc^hing after true 
knowledge ; st'condli/y on such as toil and practise self-denial, and while 
engaged in the struggle with the sellish passions of human nature, have 
renounced tlie society of men ; (hirdl//, on such as are weak and poor, and 
have no strength for enc^uirj' ; fourt/ilf/, on honorable men of gentle birth 
who from want of knowledge, are unable to provide for themselves by taking 
up a trade. 

Subsistence allowances, paid in cash, are called Wazifak ; lands 
conferred ai-e called J///X;, or Madad i ma^dah. In this way, krors are given 
away, and yet the grants are daily increasing in number. 

As the circimistances of men have to be enquired into, before grants are 
made, and their petitions must be considered in fairness, an experienced 
man of con^x^t intentions is employed for this office. He ought to he 
at peace with every party, and must be kind tf) wards the people at 
large in word and action. Such an officer is called ^adr. The Qdzi and the 
M'lr ^Adl are under his orders. He is assisted in his important duties by a 
clerk, who has to look after the financial business, and is now-a-days styled 
Diivdn- i Sit'ddat. 

His Majesty, in his mercy, orders his servants to introduce to him such 
as are worthy of grants, and a large number receive the assistance they 

When His Majesty commenced to enquire into this department, it was 
discovered that the former Qadrs had been guilty of bribery and difihonest 
practices. He therefore a2)pointed, at the recommendation of near Mends, 
Shaikh 'Abdimnubi to this important office. Tho lands which were 
then held by Afghans and Chaudris, were taken away, and became 
domain lands (ZZf^/Asr///),* whilst all others tliat hold grants were referred to 
the Shaildi who enquired into, and certified, their grants. After some time 
it was reported that those who held gi*ants, had not the lands in one and 
the same place, whereby the weak whose grounds lay near khdligah lands or 

* Vide the note at the end of this Am. 

* This itj the Indian pronunciation for the Arabic and Persian khdligah. 


near the j%irs of MaiiQabddrs, were exposed to yexations, and were encroached 
upon by unprincipled men. His Majesty then ordered that they should get 
lands on one spot, which they might choose. This order proved beneficial 
for both parties. The officers of the govemment, on receiving this order, 
told off certain villages for this purpose : those who were weak were 
protected, and the encroachments of the unprincipled were put a stop to. 

But when Time, according to his custom, commenced to tear the veil of 
secrets, rumours also regarding this ^adr ['Abdunnabi] came to the ears of His 
Majesiy. An order was therefore given that aU those who held more than 
five hundred big'hahs should lay their farmdns personally before His 
Hajesly, and in default, should lose their lands. As, however, the practices 
of these grant>holders did not come up to the wise counsels of His 
Majesty, the order was passed, that the excess of all lands above one 
hundred bfg'hahs, if left unspecified in the farm&os, should be reduced to 
two-fifths of it, three-fifths of the excess being annexed to the domain lands. 
Trial and Tiirini women alone were excepted ^m this rule. 

As it was reported that impudent, avaricious people used to leave 
Iheir old grounds, and take possession of new places, it was ordered that 
eveiy one who should leave his place, should lose one-fourth of his lands 
and receive a new grant. 

Again, when His Majesty discovered that the Qizis were in the habit 
of taking bribes from the grant-holders, he resolved, with the view of obtaining 
God's favour, to place no further reliance on 'these men [the Qdzis], who wear 
a turban as a sign of respectability, but are bad at heart, and who wear long 
sleeves, but fall short in sense. He examined into the whole matter, and dis- 
missed all Qizls, except those who had been appointed during the ^adrshtp of 
Bul^ Khw&jah. The frdni and Turdni women also were convicted of fraud, 
and the order was passed that every excess of land above one hundred bfg'hahs 
held by them, should be enquired into, whether it was correctly held or not. 

During the ^adrship of 'Azaduddaulah [Mir Fathullah of Shiriz] the 
following order was given : — J£ any one held a Saydrghfil together with a 
partner, and the farmin contained no reference to the share possessed by 
each partner, the ^adr should, in the event of one of the partners dying, 
proceed without further enquiry to a division, the share of the deceased 
partner lapsing to the Grown and remaining domain land, tiLL the heirs 
should personally apply to His Majesty. The new ^adr was at the same 
time prevented from granting, without previous reference to His Majesty, 
more than fifteen big'hahs. 

On account of the general peace and security in the empire, the 
grant-holders commenced to lay out their lands in gardens, and thereby 
derived so much profit, that it tempted the greediness of the Qovemment 


offirors, who had certain notions of how much was sufficient for Sayi'irghal- 
hohh^rs, to demand revenue taxes ; hut this displeased His Majesty, who 
commanded tliat such profits should not be interfered wdth. 

Again, when it was found out that holders of one hundred big'hahs 
and even less were guilty of briber}', the order was given that Mir f adr 
Jahiin sliould bring these people before His Majesty ; and afterwards it 
was determined that the fadr with the concurrence of the writer of this 
work shoidd either increase or decrease the grants. The rule now followed 
is this, that all Sayiirghal land shoidd consist of one-half of tiRed land, and 
of one-half of land capable of cultivation ; if the latter half be not so [*. tf., 
if the whole be tilled land], one-fourth of the whole should be taken away 
and a new grant be issued for the remainder. 

The revenue derived from each big'hah varies in the several districts, 
but is never less than one ru2)oe. 

His Majesty, with the view of teaching wisdom and promoting true 
piety, pays much attention to this department, and appoints disinterested 
men as ^adrs of districts and Qadr of the realm. 

Note hy the Tra7islator on tlw ^adrs of Akhar^s reign. 

In this Ain — one of the most interesting in the whole work — ^the 
Chagatai word saijurghal is translated by the Arabic madad ul ma^mhy 
in Persian madad i ma^d-ih, for which we often find in MSS. m/idad o 
nu/(Uh. The latter term signifies * assistance of livelihood,' and, like its 
equivalent vu'Jk, or property, it denotes lands given for benevolent pur- 
poscH, as specified by Abulfazl. Such lands were hereditary, and differ 
for this reason from Jdfjir or tut/ul lands, which were conferred, for a 
specified time, on Man9abdars in lieu of salaries. 

This Ain proves that Akbar considerably interfered with SayurgMl 
lands, arbitrarily resuming whatever lands he liked, and increasing the 
domain, or khdlii^ah,^ lands to the ruin of many a Muhammadan (AfghSn) 
family. He also completely broke the power of the ^adr^ whose dignity, 
especially before the Moghul dynasty, had been very great. It was the 
Cadr^ or as he was then generally styled, ^adr i Jahan^ whose edict 
legalized thejalits, or accession, of a new king. During the reign of Akbar 
also, he ranked as the fourth officer of the empire {ride end of Kin 30). 
Their powder was immense. They were the highest law-officers, and had 
the powers which Administrators-General have among us ; they were in 

* Renjarding the tnrninp: out of Al- I i^ide Elliot's GloBsary, under Aliamghd 
tamghd and Madad i ma' ash holders, | p. 18. 


charge of all lands deyoted to eodesiastical and benevolent purposes, 
and possessed an almost nnlimited authority of oonferring such lands 
independently of the king. They were also the highest ecclesiastical 
law-officers, and might exercise the powers of High Inquisitors. Thus 
'Abdnnnabi, during his ^adrshipj ordered two men to be killed for 
heresy (mde p. 177, 1. 4 from below). 

In the times before the Moghuls, the terms idrdrdty wazaify milky 
inborn X dehhd, in'dm i zaminh&y 8fc,y occur for the word myiirghdl (or 
siyurgdly or mghiirghdly as some dictionaries spell it.) 

Among the former kings, 'Alduddin i Khilji is notorious for the 
disregard with which he cancelled the grants of former rulers. He 
resumed the greater part of the madad i nia^dsh tenures, and made them 
domain lands. He also lowered the dignity of the porfr by appointing 
his keybearer to this high office {TdrUch i FiriizahdUy p. 363). Qutb- 
uddin Mub&riksh&h, however, during the four years and four months 
of his reign, reinstated many whom 'Alduddin had deprived {T. F.y 
p. 382). Firuz Sh&h is still more praised for his liberality in conferring 
lands (T. F.y p. 668). 

That Sher Shfih has often been accused by Moghul Historians for 
his botmty in conferring lands, has been mentioned above (p. 256, 
note) ; and this may have been one of the reasons why Akbar shewed 
such an unexpected severity towards the grant-holders of his time. 

Each ^&bah had a ^adr ijuzy or Provincial farfr, who was under 
tiie orders of the Chief padr {^adr i Jahdny or ^adr i Kuly or ^adr i 

As in every other department, bribery was extensively carried on 
in the offices of the ^adrs. The land specified in thefarmdn of a holder 
rarely corresponded in extent to the land which he actually held ; or the 
language of the farm&i was ambiguously worded, to enable the holder 
to take possession of as much as he could, and keep it as long as he 
bribed the Qdzis and provincial ^adrs. Hence Akbar had every reason, 
after repeated enquiries, to cancel grants conferred by former rulers. 
The religious views of the emperor {vide p. 167), and the hatred 
whiah he shewed to the 'Ulamd, most of whom held lands, furnished 
him with a personal, and therefore stronger, reason to resume their 
grants, and drive them away to Bhakkar in Bind, or to Bengal, the 
dimate of which, in those days, was as notorious as, in later days, that 
of Gombroon. After the fall of 'Abdunnabi — a man whom Akbar used 
once to honor by holding the slippers before his feet, — Sultan Khwajah, 


a mewbvr of the Dirine Faif/i, {rule p. 204) was appointed a5 ^adr ; and 
llio yacli's after him were so limited in conferring lands independently 
of Akbar, and had so few grants to look after, as to tempt Badaoni to 
indulge in sareastical remarks. The following were Akbar's fadrs : — 

1. Shaikh Gadai, a Shi'ah, appointed at the recommendation 

of Bairam Khan, till 968. 

2. Khwdjah Muhammad Calih, till 971. 
a. Shaikh 'Ahduunahi, till 986. 

4. Sultan Kliwajah, till his death in 993. 

5. Amir Fathullah of Shiraz, tiU 997. 

6. 9^^ Jahiin, whose name coincides with the title of his 


Abidfazl also mentions a ^adr Maulani 'Abdul Baqi ; but I do 
not know when he held oifice. 

I extract a few short passages from Badaoni. 

Page 29. Sliaikli Gradai caiuellod the Maditd i mn*dsh lands, and took 
away tlio Legacies' of the KJuinzddahs (Afgliaiis), and gave a Sayurgh^ to any 
cue that woidd boar up witli humiliating treatment, but not otherwise. 
Novertlieless, in comparison with the present time, when obstacles are 
raised to the possession of every jarkh of ground, nay, even less, you may 
call the Shaikh an ^Alamhakhh (one who gives away a world). 

Page 52. After Shaikh Gadai, Khdjagi Midiammad fiilih was, in 968, 
appointed ^adr ; but ho did not possess such extensive powers in conferring 
lands as madad i DuCdshy because he was dependent on the Diwins. 

Page 71. In 972, or perhaps more correctly in 971, Shaikh 'Abdunnabf 
was made ^adr. In giving away lands, he was to consult Muzaffar £Mn, 
at that time Vazir and Vakil. But soon after, the Shaikh acquired such 
absolute powers, that he conferred on deserving people whole worlds of 
subsistence allowances, lands, and pensions, so much so that if you place the 
grants of all former kings of Ilindiistun in one scale, and those of the 
Shaikh into the other, his scale would weigh more. But several years 
later the scale went uj), as it had been imder former kings, and matters 
took an adverse turn. 

Page 204. In 983, His Majesty gave the order that the Aimahs of the 
whole empire shoidd not be let off by the kroris of each Perganah, unless 
they brought the farmdns in which their grants, subsistence allowances, 
and pensions were described, to the ^adr for inspection and Terification. 
For this reason, a large number of worthy people, from the eastern districts 

* Auqaf, The text of Badaoni has wrongly auqdt. For hdr read bdrah. 


up to Bhakkar on the Indus, came to Court. If any of tliem had a powerful 
protector in one of the grandees or near Mends of His Majesty, he could 
numage to have his affair settled ; but those who were destitute of such 
recommendations, had to bribe Sayyid 'Abdurrasdl, the Shaikh's head man, 
or make presents to his farr&shes, darb&ns (porters), syces (grooms), and 
mehters (sweepers), * in order to get their blanket out of the mire.' Unless, 
however, they had either strong recommendations, or had recourse to 
bribery, they were utterly ruined. Many of the Atmahs, without obtaining 
their object, died from the heat caused by the crowding of the multitudes. 
Though a report of this came to the ears of His Majesty, no one dared to 
take these unfortunate people before the emperor. And when the Shaikh, 
in all his pride and haughtiness, sat upon his masnad (cushion), and 
influential grandees introduced to him, in his office, scientific or pious men, 
the Shaikh received them in his filthy way, paid respect to no one,^ and 
after much asking, begging, and exaggerating, he allowed, for example, a 
teacher of the Hiddyah (a book on law) and other coUege books 100 Big'hahs, 
more or less ; and though such a man might have been for a long time in 
poeseesion of more extensive lands, the Shaikh took them away. But to men 
of no renown, to low fellows, even to Hindus, he gave primitive lands as marks* 
of personal favor. Hence science and scientific men fell in estimation.* * * 
At no time had a ^adr, for so long a time, exercised more iyranical powers. 
The fate of Abdunnabi has been related above. Akbar gave him 
money for the poor of Makkab, and sent him on a pilgrimage. When he 
came back, he was called to account for the money, was put in prison, 
and murdered ^ by some scoundrel' in 992. 

The next ^adr was Sultdn Khwdjah. Matters relating to Sayur- 
ghals now took a very different course. Akbar had rejected the Isl&m, and 
the new ^adr^ who had just returned from Makkah,° become a member 
of the Divine Faith. The systematic persecution of the learned and the 
lawyers had commenced, and His Majesty enquired personally into all 
grants (tide p. 189, last para,). The lands were now steadily with- 
drawn, and according to Bad^oni, who had managed to get 1000 

' Badaoni says that even in the State 
liali vhen before the time of prayer he 
washed his hands and feet, he took care 
to spirt water on the grandees standing 
near him. 

• For hataftia in the text^ (p. 206),^ 
one MS. of Badaoni reads zamxn i ibtiddi 
hatofazzul az khud middd, 

* The same happened aflerward[« to 


Mirz4 'Aziz Kokah. In fact, several 
examples are on ' record that devout 
pilgrims returned so disappointed and 
' fleeced' from Makkah as to assume a 
hostile position to the Islam. There is a 
proverb current in the East, Alshai^dn 
Ji-lharamainj 'The Devil dwells in Mak- 
kah and Madinah.' 


In'^'lialis, at first to tlio groat disgust of 'Abdiiniuil)!, many a Muhum- 
niudaii family was impoverished or utterly ruiued. 

In 903, Fatlmllah of Shiriz {ride p. 38) was appointed (^adr. As 
tlie S'ljjurghdl duties, and with them the dignity of the (^adr, had 
dwindhvl down to notliing, Fathullah, though (^adr, could be spared for 
missions to the Dak'hin, Bad. p. 343. 

" His Shiri'izi servant Kamdl officiated for liim during his ab.seme, and 
looked after these lacklands of Aimahdars,' who had a few spots here and 
there ; for thn dignity of the padr had approached its kain&l (perfecdon). 
rathullah had not even the power of conferring five big'hahs : in fact he 
was an imaginary ^adr, as all lands had been withdrawn. And yet, the 
lauds which had been withdrawn became the dwelling-places of wild 
animals, and thus belonged neither to the Aimahdars^ nor to farmers. 
IIowev(?r, of all these oppressions, there is at least a record left in the 
bo^>ks of the (^adr\ though of the office of the ^iidr the name only is left. 

Page 3G8. Fathidlah [the ^.adr himself] laid before His Majesty a bag 
containing the sum of Es. 1,000, wliich his collector by means of oppression, 
or under the pretext that an Aimahd^ was not forthcoming or dead, had 
squeezed out of the widows and unfortunate orphans of the Parganah of 
13as^war [which was his jagir], and said, " My collectors have this much 
collected from the Aimahdars as a kifdyat {i. e. because the collectors thought 
the Sayurghal holders had more than stifficient to live upon)." But the 
emperor allowed him to keep the sum for himself. 

The next fV/^/r, fadr Jahdn, was a member of the Divine Faith. 
Though appointed (^adr immediately after the death of Fathullah, 
Badaoni continues calling him Mufti i mamdlik i makrmah, the Mufti of 
the empire, which had been his title before. Perhaps it was no longer 
necessary to have a separate officer for the (^adt-shi^. f adr Jahan 
continued to serve under Jahangir. 

A great portion of the Sayurghal lands is specified by Abulfad in 
the geographical tables of the Third Book. 

* Maqtuidardziy a pun reminding of 
muqhi {\)\\&i part. IV), one on whom 
lands have been conferred, and muqti 
(])art. aet. IV) one who confers hinds. 
Observe that Badaoni uses the word 
aimali not only in the phiral sense of 
aimahddrSf but as an equivalent of those 

who hold a Sayurghal, 

Reganling the punishments which 
grasping fadrs were subject to, vide 
Elliot's Index, p. 253, note, of which, 
however, the first para, ought to be 
expunged as unhistoncal. 


Am 20. 


His Majesty has invented an extraordinary carriage, wliicli has proved 
a source of much comfort for various people. When this carriage is used 
for travelling, or for carrying loads, it may be employed for grinding com.' 

BUs Majesty also invented a large cart, which is drawn by one elephant. 
It is made sufficiently large so as to hold several bath-rooms, and thus 
serves as a travelling bath. It is also easily drawn by cattle. 

Camels and horses also are used for pulling carriages, and thus 
contribute to the comfort of mankind. Finely built carriages are called 
hakals* : if used on even ground, several may sit together and travel on. 

Water wheels and carts have also been so constructed, that water may 
be fetched from far, low places. Two oxen may pull four such wheels at the 
same time, or one ox two. 

Another machine exists which conveys water jfrom a well, and moves 
at the same time a mUlstone. 

AfN 21. 


His Majesty takes from each big'hah of tiUed land ten sers of grain 
as a royalty. Storehouses have been constructed in every district. They 
supply the animals belonging to the State with food, which is nev^r bought 
in the b6z&rs. These stores prove at the same time of great use for the 
people ; for poor cultivators may receive grain for sowing purposes, or 
people may buy cheap grain at the time of famines. But the stores are 
only used to supply necessities. They are also used for benevolent purposes ; 
for His Majesty has established in his empire many houses' for the poor, 
where indigent people may get something to eat. He also appoints 
everywhere experienced people to look after these store-houses, and selects 
for this purpose active Darogahs and clever writers, who watch the receipts 
and charges. 

' This was, according to Nizam's 
Tabaqftt, an invention of FathnUah of 
Shiraz i^lde p. 38, note). Nizam says, 
" He constructed a millstone which was 
placed on a cart. It tamed itself and 
fcround corn. He also invented a looking- 
)?laftii which, whether seen near or at a dis- 
Unce, showed all sorts of curious figures. 

Also a wheel, which cleaned at once 
twelve barrels." The last mentioned wheel 
also is ascribed by Abulfazl to Akbar ; 
vide Book I. Ain 38, p. 115. 

' Regarding English carriages {rafh 
% angrezi) brought to India under Jahan- 
gir, vide Tuzuk pp. 167, 168. 

• Ftefe pp. 200 and 201. 


Al'N Tl. 

ITis Majesty onquiros into the excoUont customs of past ages, and 
without lookinp^ to t]io inou of tlie past in particular, he takes up that 
which is proper, thougli ho liavc* to pay a high price for it. He bestows 
liis fostering earo u[)i'n luen of various chisses, and seeks for occtasionsto 
uiake pres(Mits. Tlius, when His Maje^sty was informed of the feasts of 
the Jamsheds, and tlie festivals of the Parsi priests, ho adopted them, and 
used them as opportunities of conferring "benefits. The following are the 
most important feasts. 1. llie Kew Yearns day femt^ It commences on 
tho day when the Sun in his splendour moves to Aries, and lasts till the 
nineteenth day of tho month [Farwardin]. Two days of this period are 
(considered gi'eat festivals, when much money and numerous other things 
are given away as presents : tho first day of the month of Farwardfn, and 
tho nineteenth, which is tho time of the Sharaf. Again, His Majesty 
followed the custcjui of tho ancient Piirsis, who held banquets on those 
days the names of wliich coiiuided with the name of a month." Tlie following 
are the davs which have tho same name as a month: 19th Farwardin: 
i3rd Urdibiliisht ; 6th Khurdiid ; 13th Tir ; 7th Amurddd ; 4th Shahriwar; 
16th Mihr; 10th Ab^n ; 9th Azar ; 8th, loth, 23rd, Dai : 2ndBalmian; 
5th Isfanddrmuz. Feasts, are actually and ideally, held on each of these days. 
People in their happiness raise the strain of inward joy. In the beginning 
of each pahr i\\Q yioqqdraha {ride j). 51, 1. 1.) are beaten, when the singers 
and musicians fall in. On tho first of the above feasts coloured lamps are 
used for three nights : on tho second for one night, and tho joy is general. 

I have given a few particulars in tho first Book (Ain 18). 

AFN 23. 


On the third feast-day of every month. His Majesty holds a large assembly 
for thepurjiose of enquiring into thomany wonderfid things found in this world. 
Tlie merchants of the age are eager to attend, and lay out articles from all 
countries. The people of His Majesty's Harom come, and the women of 
other men also are invited, and buying and selling is quite general. His 
Majesty uses such days to select any articles which he wishes to buy, or to 

* Badaoni generally calls this day 
Naun'iz i JaJdli ; vide p. 183, note 2. 

* Thus Abdn was the name of the 

eighth month (October-November) : but 
the tenth day also of every month had 
tlie same name. 



fix the price of things, and thus add to his knowledge. The secrets of the 
empire, the character of the people, the good and bad qualities of each 
office and workshop, will then appear. His Majesty gives to such days 
the name of KhushrtSzy or the jojrful day, as they are a source of much 

After the Fancy b^iz&rs for women, b^^s for the men are held. Merchants 
of all countries then sell their wares. His Majesty watches the transactions, 
and such as are admitted to Court indidge in the pleasure of buying. Bazir 
people, on such occasions, may lay their grievances before His Majesty, 
without being prevented by the mace-bearers, and may use the opportunity 
of laying out their stores, in order to explain their circimistances. For those 
who are good, the dawn of success rises, whilst wicked b^lzar people are called 
to account. 

His Majesty has appointed for this purpose a separate treasurer and an 
accountant, so that the sellers may get paid without delay. The profit 
made by tradesmen on such occasions is very great.* 

Am 24. 

Every care bestowed upon this wonderful tie between men is a means 
of preserving the stability of the htmian race, and ensuring the progress 
of the world ; it is a preventive against the outbreak of evil passions, and 
leads to the establishment of homes. Hence His Majesty, inasmuch as 
he is benign, watches over great and small, and imbues men with his 
notions of the spiritual union and the equality of essence which he sees in 
marriage. He abhors marriages which take place between man and woman 
before the age of puberty. They bring forth no fruit, and His Majesty 
thinks them even hurtful ; for afterwards, when such a couple ripens into 
manhood, they dislike having connexion, and their home is desolate. 

Here in India, where a man cannot see the woman to whom he is 
betrothed, there are peculiar obstacles ; but His Majesty maintains that the 
consent of the bride and bridegroom, and the permission of the parents, 
are absolutely necessary in marriage contracts. 

Marriage between near relations His Majesty thinks highly improper. 
He says, " The fact that, in ancient times (?) even, a girl was not given to her 
twin brother, ought to silence those who are fond of historical proofs. 
Marriage between first cousins, however, does not strike the bigoted 

* Regarding these Fancy b&z4r8, vide above Baddoni's remarks on p. 204, 1. 4. 


followers of Muhammad'fi religion as wroiiji: ; for tlio beginning of a religion 
rosonihlos, in this regard, the beginning of the creation of mankind." 

His Majesty disapproves of liigh dowries ; for as thej are rarely ever paid, 
they are mere sham ; but he admits that the fixing of high dowries is a pre- 
ventive against rash divorcers. Nor does His Majesty' apj)rove of every one 
marrying more than one wife ; for tliis ruins a man's health, and disturbs the 
peaee of the home. He censures old women that tiike young husbands, and 
says that doing so is against all modesty. 

Ho has also appointed two sober and sensible men, one of whom 
enquires into the circumstances of the bridegroom, and the other into those 
of the l)ride. These two oilicers have the title of Tttihegij or masters of 
marriages. In many cases, the duties are performed by one and the same 
officer. His Majesty also takes a tax from both parties, to enable them to 
shew their gratitude. The payment of this tax is looked upon as auspicious. 
Manqabddrs commanding from five to one thousand, pay 10 Muhurs; do. 
fi'om one thousand to five himdred, 4 M, ; do. to Commanders of ono 
hundi'ed, 2 M. ; do. to Commanders of forty, 1 Jf . ; do. to Commanders of 
ten, 4 B. The latter fee is also paid by rich people. The middle classes 
2my 1 E., and common people 1 ddm.^ In demanding this tax, the officers 
have to pay regard to the circumstances of the father of the bride. 

AIN 25. 


In every countr}^ but especdally in Hindustan, boys are kept for 
years at school, where they learn the consonants and vowels. A great 
portion of the life of the students is wasted by making them read many 
books. His Majesty orders that every school boy shoidd first learn to write 
the letters of the iVlphabet, and also learn to trace their several forms.* 
He ought to learn the shajio and name of each letter, which may be done 
in two days, when the boy should proceed to write the joined letters. They 
may bo practised for a week, after which the boy shoidd learn some prose 
and poetry by heart, and then commit to memory some verses to the praise 
of God, or moral sentences, each written separately. Care is to be taken 

* " The sons and dau^^hters of common 
people were not allowed to marry, unless 
they came to the office of the kotwjil, and 
were stared at by the kotwal's men, who 
had to tiike down their respective ages ; 
and you may imaijine what advantages 
and fine opportunities the officers thus 

had, especially the people of the kotw^, 
and the khdnii i kaldl (?), and tJieir 
other low assistants outside." Sad. II, 
p. 391. Vi<U also Third Book, Ain 6. 

* Boys in the East generally learn to 
write by running their pens over the 
characters of the copyshps (qifahs). 


that he learns to understand eveiything himself ; but the teacher may assist 
him a little. He then ought for some time be daily practised in writing 
a hemistieh or a verse, and will soon acquire a current hand. The 
teacher ought especially to look after five things : knowledge of the letters ; 
meanings of words ; the hemistich ; the verse ; the former lesson. If this 
method of teaching be adopted, a boy will learn in a month, or even in a 
day, what it took others years to understand, so much so that people will 
get quite astonished. Every boy ought to read books on morals, arithmetic, 
the notation peculiar to arithmetic, agriculture, mensuration, geometry, 
astronomy, physiognomy, household matters, the rules of government, 
medicine, logic, the f^Ciy ripdzi, and tldhij sciences,' and history; all of 
which may be gradually acquired. 

In studying Sanscrit, students ought to learn the Bay^aran, Niydi, 
Bedanta, and P&tanjal. No one should be allowed to neglect those things 
which the present time requires. 

These regulations shed a new light on schools, and cast a bright 
lustre over Madrasahs. 

Am 26. 

This department is of great use for the successful operations of the 
army, and for the benefit of the country in general ; it furnishes means of 
obtaining things of value, provides for agriculture, and His Majesty's 
household. His Majesty, in fostering this source of power, keeps four 
objects in view, and looks upon promoting the efficiency of this department 
as an act of divine worship. 

First — The fitting out of strong boats, capable of carrying elephants. 
Some are made in such a manner as to be of use in sieges and for the conquest 
of strong forts. Experienced officers look upon ships as if they were houses 
and dromedaries, and use them as excellent means of conquest. So especially 
in Turkey, Zanzibar, and Europe. In every part of His Majesty's empire, 
ships are numerous; but in Bengal, Kashmir, and T'hat'hah (Sind) 
they are the pivot of all commerce. His Majesty had the stems of 
the boats made in shape of wonderful animals, and thus combines 
terror with amusement. Turrets and pleasing kiosks, markets, and 
beautiful flower-beds, have likewise been constructed on the rivers. Along 

This is the three-fold division of 
Ildhi, or divine, sciences oom- 
pvise eveirthing connected with theo- 
WfCy and the means of acquiring a know- 
k^ of God. Bi^dzi sciences treat of 

quantity, and comprise mathematics, 
astronomy, music, mechanics. Tabt't 
sciences comprehend physical sciences. 

Some dictionaries call the last class of 
sciences faba'i, instead of ^o^V. 


tho coasts of tlio o'^ean, in tho west, east, and sonth of India, large sliips arn 
Iniilt, wliicli iiYi) suitable for voya^'es. Tlie harbours have been put into 
ex((dl(^nt condition, and the (*xperi(*n(o of seamen has much improved- 
Larj^o ships are also built at Ilalidl>as and L^hor, and are then sent to tlie 
coast. In Kashmir, a modol of a ship was made which was much admired. 

Sccnndlif. — To a^^point experienced seamen, acquainted with the tides, 
the deptlis of the ocean, the time when the several winds blow, and their 
advantajjfi^s and disadvantap;es. T]i(»y must bo familiar with shallows and 
banks. 15esides, a s(>anian must be hale and strong, a good swimmer, 
kind hearted, hard workin^-, capable of bearing fatigue, patient ; in fact he 
must possess all good qualities. 'M^n\ of siu-h character can only be found 
after much trouble. The best seamen come from Malibdr (Malabar). 

Boatmen also bring men and their things from one side of the river to 
tho other. 

The numl)or of sailors in a ship varies according to the size of the vessel 
In large ships tlieru are twelve class(.'^. 1. Tlie i\^aM?/(/(f, or owner of the 
s]iip. This word is evidently a short form of ydvJchudd, He fixes the course 
of the ship. 2. The MiCaUi}ay or Captain. He must be acquainted with 
the dei)ths and the shallow places of tlie ocean, and must know astronomy. 
It is he who guides the sliip to her destination, and prevents her from falling 
into dangers. 3. The Tandil, or chief of the JchaJd^U, or sailors. Sailors, 
in s(^amen's language, are (.'ailed k/iu/dgLS or Ihdrwahs, 4. The NtUchudd- 
Ichashah, He su2)plies the passengers with firewood and straw, and assists 
in ship])ing and imlading the cargo. 5. The Sar/mn^, or mate, sujierintends 
the docking and lauding of the ship, and often acts for the Mu^allim. 
G. Tlie Bhanddri has the charge of the stores. 7. Tho Karrdni^ is a writer 
who keeps the accounts of the ship, and serves out water to the passengers. 
8. Tlie Sul'/cd/i(/ir, or helmsman. He steers the ship according to the orders 
of the Mu\iUim. Some sliips carry several lielmsmen, but never more than 
twenty. 9. The Panjari looks out from the top of the mast, and gives notice 
when he sees land, or a ship, or a coming storm, &c. 10. The Gunmti 
belongs to tho class of khald(;i8. He throws out the water which has leaked 
through the ship. 11. The Topanddz, or gunner, is required in naval fights; 
their number depends on the size of the shij). 12. The Khdncahy or common 
sailor. They set and furl the sails. Some of them perform the duty of 
divers, and stop leaks, or set the anchor free when it sticks fast. The 
amount of their wages varies, and depends on the voyage, or kmh^ as seamen 
call it. In the harbour of Sdfgdnw {Ilughlt) a Ndkliudd gets 400 R, ; besides 

* Tliis word is now-a-diiys pronouncod 
Kirdnif and is jipplied to any clerk. The 

word is often used contemptuously. 


iie is allowed four malUhy or cabinsy wliich he fills with wares for his own 
profit. 'Esrery ship is diyided into several divisions, for the acoommodation 
of passengers and the stowage of goods, each of the divisions being called a 
mdikh. The Mu'allim gets 200 £, and two maUtks ; the TandU^ 120^. ; the 
Enrrani^ SO B, and one malikh ; the Ndkhudd kkashahy SO R, ; the Sarhangy 
25 B, ; the Stikkdngiry Fdnjari and Bhanddri, each 15 JS. ; each Khdrtoahy or 
oonunon sailor, 40 jS., and his daily food in addition ; the Deganddz, or 
gunner, 12 B. 

In Kamhhdyat (Cambay), a Ndkhudd gets 800 B.y and the other men in 
the same proportion. 

in Ldhariy a nikhndd gets 300 B,y and the rest in proportion. 

In A chin he gets half as much again as in southern harbours; in 
Portugal, two and a half as much again ; and in Malacca, twice as much 
again. In Pegu, and Dahnasarf , he gets half as much again as in Cambay. 
All these rates vaiy according to the place and the length of the voyage. 
But it would take me too long to give more details. 

Boatmen on rivers have wages varying from 100 to 500 d, per mensem. 

Tkirdlyy an experienced man has been appointed to look after the 
rivers. He must be an imposing and fearless manj -must have a loud voice, 
must be capable of bearing fatigue, active, zealous, kind, fond of travelling, 
a good swimmer. As he possesses experience, he settles eveiy difficulty 
which arises regarding fords, and takes care that such places are not 
overcrowded, or too narrow, or very imeven, or full of mud. He regulates 
the number of passengers which a ferry may carry ; he must not allow 
travellers to be delayed, and sees that poor people are passed over gratis. 
He ought not to allow people to swim across, or wares to be deposited 
anywhere else but at fording places. He should also prevent people from 
croflsmg at night, unless in cases of necessity. 

Fourthlgy the remission of duties. His Majesty, in his mercy, has 
remitted many tolls, though the income derived from them equalled the 
revenue of a whole country. He only wishes that boatmen should get their 
wages. The state takes certain taxes in harbour places ; but they never 
exeeed two and a half per cent, which is so little compared with the taxes 
formerly levied, that merchants look upon harbour taxes as totally remitted. 

The following sums are levied as river tolls. For every boat, 1 B. per 
tos at the rate of 1000 mans, provided the boat and the men belong to one 
sad the same owner. But if the boat belongs to another man and everything 
in the boat to the man who has hired it, the tax is 1 B, for eveiy 2i kos. At 
feny places, an elephant has to pay 10 d» for crossing ; a laden cart, 4 d, ; 
4o. empty, 2 d. ; a laden camel, 1 d. ; empty camels, horses, cattle with 
their things, i d. ; do. empty, ^ d. Other beasts of burden pay ^ d.y which 



inclti(l<s the toll ihw l)y tlio driver. Twenty people pay 1 d. for crossing; 
but tliey are oftni taken f/ratis. 

The rule in that one-half or one-third of the tolls thus collected go to 
the State (the other half goes to the boatmen). 

Mer(!liants are therefore well treated, and the articles of foreign coimtries 
arc imported in large quantities. 

ATN 27. 

Superficial, worldly observers see in killing an animal a sort of 
})leasure, and in their ignorance stride about, as if senseless, on the field of 
their passions. But deep encpiirers see in hunting a means of acquisition of 
knowledge, and the temple of their worship derives from it a peculiar lustre. 
This is the case with His Majesty. He always makes hunting a means of 
increasing liis knowle<lge, and besides, u^es hunting parties as occasionfl to 
enquire, without having first given notice of liis coming, into the condition 
of the people and the army. He travels incogtiito^ and examines into matters 
referring to taxation, or to Siiyiirghdl lands, or to affairs connected with the 
household. He lifts up such as are o2)pressed, and punishes the oppressors. 
On account of these higher reasons His Majesty indulges in the chase, and 
shews himself quite enamoured of it. Short-sighted and shallow observers 
think that His Majesty has no other object in view but hunting ; but the 
wise and experienced know that he pursiies higher aims. 

When His Majesty starts on a hunting party, active Qar&waU [men 
employed by the Mir Shikar, or Master of Hunting] surround the himtiag 
ground, the Qur (p. 110) remaining at a distance of about five kos from it. 
Near the Qur, the grandees and other people await the arrival of His Majesty. 
The men who look after the things sit down and watch. About a yard 
behind them the Mir Tozah stands ready for service, and about a Aw and 
one-half behind them stand some of the Khidniatiyyah (p. 225) and other 
servants of His Majesty. The Kludmattyyah are told off to watch at that 
place. At about the same distance, there stands a vigilant ojfficer with 
some of His Majesty ^s servants. He advances very slowly, and guards the 
private huilting ground. Behind them an experienced officer is stationed 
to superintend the whole. Several near* servants of His Majesty have 
admission to this place ; but generally only such are allowed to come as are 
required to render services at the chase. 

When a certain distance has been passed over, His Majesty selects a 
few to accompany him, and then moves on ; and after having gone over 


another distance, he generally goes alone, or accompanied by one or two. 
When the hour of rest comes, both parties which had been left behind, 
again join His Majesty. 

As I have stated the views of His Majesty regarding the chase, and 
have written down some remarks on the arrangements which are made during 
hunting parties, I shall give a few particulars as to the several modes of 
chasing, and the wonderi^ contrivances which people have recourse to. 

1. Tiger hunting. 

They make a large cage, and having fastened it (on the ground) with 
strong iron ties, they put it in places frequented by tigers. The door is lefb 
open ; but it is arranged in such a manner that the slightest shaking will 
cause it to close. Within the cage they put a goat, which is protected by a 
screen so constructed that the tiger can see the goat, but not get hold of it. 
Hanger will lead the tiger to the cage. As soon as he enters, he is caught. 

Another method. They put a poisoned arrow on a bow, painted green, 
in such a manner that a slight movement will cause the arrow to go off. 
The bow is hung upon a tree, and when the tiger passes, and shakes it a 
little, the arrow will hit the animal and Mil it. 

Another method. They tie a sheep to a place in a road frequented by tigers, 
putting round about the sheep on the ground small stalks of hay covered 
with glue. The tiger comes rushing forward, and gets his claws full of the 
glue. The more he tries to get rid of it, the more will the glue stick to his 
feet, and when he is quite senseless and exhausted, the hunters come from 
the ambush and kill him. Or they catch him alive, and tame him. 

Hifi Majesty, from his straightforwardness, dislikes having recourse 
to such tricks, and prefers with bows or matchlocks openly to attack this 
brute, which destroys so many lives. 

Another method. An intrepid experienced hunter gets on the back of a 
male buffalo, and makes it attack the tiger. The buffalo will quickly get 
hold of the tiger with its horns, and fling him violently upwards, so that 
he dies. It is impossible to describe the excitement of this manner of 
hunting the tiger. One does not know what to admire more, the courage of 
the rider, or his skill in standing Arm on the slippery back of the buffalo. 

One day, notice was given that a man-eating tiger had made it^ 
appearance in the district of Bari. His Majesty got on the elephant NdJiir 
Kh&n^ and went into the jungle. The brute was stirred up ; and striking its 
daws into the forehead of the elephant, it piilled the head of the animal 
to the ground, when the tiger was killed by the men. This occurrence 
astonished the most intrepid and experienced hunters. 

On another occasion. His Majesty hunted near Todah. The tiger had 


stretched onp of tlio party to the ground. His Majesty aimed at the brute, 
killed it, and thus saved the life of the man. 

Once during a qamarghaU chase, a large tiger was stirred up. The 
animal attacked His Majesty, when he shot it in time through the head, 
and killed it. 

Once a tiger struck his claws into a man. All who witnessed it, des- 
paired of his life. His Majesty shot the brute right through the body, and 
released the unfortunate man. 

A remarkable sc-eno took place in the forest of Mut'hra. Shuja'at 
Kh^n {vide Ain 30, No. 51), who had advanced very far, got suddenly 
timid. His Majesty remained standing where he was, and looked furiously 
at the tiger. The brute cowered^- down before that divine glance, and turned 
right about trembling all over. In a short time it was killed. 

The feats of His Majesty are too numerous to be imagined ; much 
less can a Hindustani, as I am, describe them in a dignified style. 
He slays lions, but would not hurt an ant. 
He girds himself for the fray ; but the lion drops his daws from fear.' 


There are several modes of hunting elephants. 

1. Kliedah^ The himters are both on horseback and on foot. They 
go during summer to the grazing places of this wonderful animal, and 
commence to beat drums and blow the pipes, the noise of which makes 
the elephants quite frightened. They commence to rush about, till from 
their heaviness and exertions no strength is left in them. They are then 
sure to rxm under a tree for shade, when some experienced hunters thiov 
a rope, made of hemp or bark, round their feet or necks, and thus tie them 
to the trees. They are afterwards led off in company with some trained 
elephants, and gradually get tame. One -fourth of the value of an elephant 
thus caught is given to the hunters as wa^es. 

2. Chor k^hedah. They take a tame female elephant to the grazing place 
of wild elephants, the driver stretching himself on the back of the elephant, 
without moving or giving any other sign of his presence. The elephants 
then commence to fight, when the driver manages to secure one by throwing 
a rope round the foot. 

3. Gad. A deep pit is constructed in a place frequented by elephants, 
which is covered up with grass. As soon as the elephants come near it, 

* Qatnarghah is a chase for which 
drivers are employed. 

* This is one of Akbar's miracles. 

• These two verses are taken from 
Faizi's Nal Daman; vide p. 106, note 4. 

* Hence our elephant kneddas. 


the hunien frazn their ambush, ooinmence to make a great noise. The 
elephants get confused, and losing their habitual cautiousness, they fall 
rapidly and noisily into the hole. They are then starved and kept without 
water, when they soon get tame. 

4. BAr. They dig a ditch round the resting place of elephants, leaving 
only one road open, before which they put up a door, which is fastened 
with lopes. The door is lefb open, but closes when the rope is cut. The 
himteiB then put both inside and outside the door such food as elephants like« 
The elephants eat it up greedily ; their voraciousness makes them forget 
all cautiousness, and without fear they enter at the door. A fearless hunter, 
who has been lying concealed, then cuts the rope, and the door doses. The 
elephants start up, and in their fiiry try to break the door. They are all in 
commotion. The hunters then kindle fires and make much noise. The 
dephante run about till they get tired, and no strength is left in them. 
Tame females are then brought to the place, by whose means the wild 
elephants are caught. They soon get tame. 

From times of old, people have enjoyed elephant hunts by any of 
the above modes; His Majesty has invented a new manner, which 
admits of remarkable finesse. In fact, all excellent modes of hunting are 
inventions of His Majesty. A wild herd of elephants is surroimded on 
three sides by drivers, one side alone being left open. At it several 
female elephants axe stationed. From all sides, male elephants will 
approach to cover the females. The latter then go gradually into an 
enfilosure, whither the males foUow. They are now caught as shewn above.^ 

Leopard hunting. 

Leopards, when wild, select three places. In one part of the country 
th^ hunt ; in another part they rest and sleep ; and in a third district they 
play and amuse themselves. They mostly sleep on the top of a hiU. The 
shade of a tree is sufficient for the leopard. He rubs himself against 

* " A large number of people had sur- 
nmnded the whole jungle, outside of 
which, on a small empty space, a throne 
made of wood had been put on a tree, as 
a seat finr the emperor [Jahdngir], and on 
the neighbouring trees beams had been 
pot, n^on which the courtiers were to sit 
and eigof the sight. About two hundred 
male elephants with strong nooses, and 
manv females were in readiness. Upon each 
dnmant there sat two men of the JkarUf^ 
fok caste, who chiefly occupy themselves 
m this pari of India [Gigr&t] with ele- 
pliaat hunting. The plan was to drive 

the wild elephants from all parts of the 
jungle near the place where the emperor 
sat, so that he might ei^joy the sight of 
this exciting scene. When the drivers 
closed up from all sides of the jungle, 
their ring unfortunately broke on account 
of the density and impenetrability of the 
wood, and the arrangements of the drivers 
partially failed. The wild elephants ran 
about as if mad ; but twelve male and 
female elephants were caught before the 
eyes of the emperor." labdlndmah, 
p. 113. 


the trunk. Round a>)out the tree, tlioy deposit their excrements, vhidi 
are callod in Hindi aJc'Lar. 

Formerly, hunters used to make deep holes and cover them with grass. 
Tlieso pits were called od'i. The leojmrds on coming near them, fell down 
to the Ijottoni ; but they often In-oke tlieir feet in pieces, or managed by 
junipin<^ to get out again. Nor coidd you catch more than one in each pit. 
Ilis Majesty therefore invented a new method, which has astonished the most 
experienced hunters. He made a pit only two or three gaz deep, and 
constructed a peculiar trapdoor, which closes when the leopard falls into the 
hole. The animal is thus never hurt. Sometimes more than one go into the 
trap. On one occasion no less than seven leopards were caught. At the 
time of their heat, which takes place in winter, a female leopard had been 
walking about on the field, and six male leopards were after her. Accident- 
ally she fell into a pit, and lier male companions, unwilling to let her off, 
di'opped in one after the other, — a nice scene, indeed. 

His Majesty also catclies leopards by tiring them out, which is very 
interesting to look at. 

Another me^thod is to fasten nooses to the foot of the above mentioned 
tree. AVhen the animal comes to sc-ratch itself, it gets entangled. 

His Majesty generally hunts leopards thirty or forty hos firom Agrah, 
especially in the districts of Bari, Simiiwali, Alapur, Sunnam, Bhatindah, 
Bhatnir, Patau in the Panjiib, Fathpur, Jhinjhanu, Niigor, Mirt'ha, Jodhpur, 
Jaisalmir, Amrsarn<iyin ; but several other more remote spots have been 
selected as hunting grounds. His Majesty used often to go to the first 
mentioned places, take out the leo2)ards that had fallen into a pit, and hand 
tliem over to the keepers. He would often travel over great distances, and 
was perhaps just on the point of resting a little ; but before he had done so, 
good news were brought from some other limiting ground, when he hastened 
away on a fleet courser. 

In former times, people managed to train a newly caught leopard 
for the chase in the space of three months, or if they exerted themselves, 
in two months. From the attention which His Majesty pays to this animal, 
leopards are now trained, in an excellent manner, in the short space of 
eighteen days. Old and active keepers were surprised at such residts, 
and extolled the charm of His Majesty's knowledge. From good motives, 
and from a desire to add splendour to his court. His Majesty used to take 
it upon himself to keep and train leopards, astonishing the most experienced 
by his success. 

A rather remarkable case is the following. Once a leopard had been 
caught, and without previous training, on a mere hint by His Majesty, it 
brought in the prey like trained leopards. Those who were present had 


their eyes opened to truth, and experienced the blessing of prostrating 
themselvea in belief on His Majesty.* 

Attracted by the wonderful influence of the loving heart of His 
Majesty, a leopard once followed the imperial suite without collar or chain, 
and like a sensible human being, obeyed every command, and at every 
leopard chase enjoyed it very much to have its skill brought to the test. 

There are two hundred keepers in charge of the khdgah leopards. A 
proper system of training has been laid down. 

Am 28. 



First class leopards get 5 «. of meat every day ; second class, 4 J «. ; 
third dass, 4 «. ; fourth class, 3} «. ; fifth class, 3^ «. ; siKth class, 3^ «. ; 
seventh class, 3 s. ; eighth class, 2} 8. The meat is given in a lump ; and as 
on Sundays no am'Tnalft are kiUed,^ double the daily portion is given on 

Formerly every six months, but now annually, four s&ra of butter and 
one-tenth of a ser of brimstone are given as ointment, which prevents itch. 
Four men also were appointed to train and look after each leopard; 
but now there are three men told off for such leopards as sit on horses 
when taken to the hunting ground, and only two for such as sit on carts 
and on doolies. The wages of the keepers vary from 30 i2. .to 5 R, per 
meiuem ; but they have at the same time to look after the cattle which 
draw the leopard c£u:ts. The servants who look after the cattle, are divided 
into seniors and juniors, each class being subdivided into five divisions. 
The seniors get 300 d., 260 (?., 220 d., 200 d,, and 180 d.y which is the 
West allowance; the juniors get 160 ^., 140 (?., 120 d., 110 d,, and 100 d. 
For the sake of show, the leopards get brocaded saddle cloths, chains 
studded with jewels, and coai'se blankets, and Gushkdni^ carpets to sit on. 
Grandees of the court also are appointed to superintend the keepers of 
eaeh leopard ; they are to take care that the animals are nicely dressed, 
and that new ones are added to the establishment. Each leopard has a 
luime which indicates some of his qualities. Every ten leopcirds form a 
Mid or faraf (set) ; they are also divided according to their rank as follows. 

' Two more mirades of Akbar's. 
' AoeordiDg to the order mentioned on 
p. 200. 1. 10. 

* In my text edition, p. 208,1. S.J/<J^. 

This should perhaps be j^*^**? or ^Jf^^ 

aoskhdni, Goshkan, (in "Arabic Joshqdn), 
being a town in Iran, fiunous for its 


One thousand* leopards are kept in His Majesty's park, and an interesting 
encampment tliey form. Tlio three first sets are khd^ah ; they are kept at 
Court together with two other sets. For their conveyance two litters 
{mfhajfah) are hung over the back of an elephant, one litter on each side. 
On each litter one leopard sits, looking out for a prey. Litters are also 
put on camels, horses, and mules. Carts even are made for the leopards, 
and are drawn by horses or cattle ; or they are made to sit on horses ; 
and sometimes they are carried by men in doolies. The best leopaid 
wliich His Majesty has, goes by the name of Samand nidnik ; he is carried 
on a Chaudol, and proceeds with much pomp. His servants, fully equipped, 
run at his side ; the naqqdrah (a large drum) is beaten in front, and 
sometimes he is carried by two men on horseback, the two ends of the 
pole of the Chaudol resting on the necks of their horses. Formerly two 
horses were kept for every le(^pard ; but now three horses are given to 
two leopards. Others have a dooly, or a cart drawn by four oxen. Many 
travel alone on one and the same dooly. A tame, trained leopard has the 
dooly carried by three men, others by two. 

SJcill exhiliied hy hunting leopards. 

Leopards will go against the wind, and thus they get scent of a prey, 
or come to hear its voice. They then plan an attack, and give the hunters 
notice where the prey is. The himters keep the animal near themselves, 
and proceed to catch the prey. This is done in three ways. 

1 . ITparg^hati, The hunters let off the leopard to the right from the 
place where the deer was seen. The leopard swiftly seizes it with his 
claws. 2. Biy/inL The leopard lies concealed, and is shewn the deer from 
a distance. The collar is then taken off, when the leopard, with perfect 
skill, will dash off, jumping from ambush to ambush till he catches the 
deer. 3. Muluiri. The leopard is put in an ambush, having the wind 
towards himself. Tlie cart is then taken away to the opposite direction. 
Tliis perplexes the deer, when the leopard will suddenly make his way near 
it, and catch it. 

It is impossible to describe the wonderful feats of this animal ; language 

* ** Amonj^ the curious events which 
happened during the present [Jahangir's] 
reign, I must mention that ti leopard 
in captivity covered a female leopard, 
which gave birth to three cubs. The 
late emperor [Akbar], during his youth, 
was passionately fond of leopards and 
hunting with leonai'ds. He had about 
9000 leopards collected during his reign, 
and tried much to pair them, so as 

to get cubs, but in vain. He even 
allowed some leopards to rnn abont 
in the gardens without collars, letting 
them walk about and hunt after their 
fashion : but they would not pair. 
During this year a male leopard broke 
its collar, and covered a female, which 
after a space of two months and a half 
gave birth to three cubs. They went on 
well, and grew big." Iqhdlndmah, p. 70. 


f«ils to express his skill and cunning. Thus he will raise up the dust with 
his forefeet and hind legs, in order to conceal himself ; or he will lie down 
80 flat, that you cannot distinguish him from the surface of the ground. 

Formerly a leopard would not kill more than three deer at one and the 
same chase ; but now he will hunt as many as twelve. 

His Majesty has also inyented a method called cJiatrmandal. The hunters 
lie in ambush near a place frequented by deer, and commence the chase from 
tbis place, as if it was a qamarffhah hunt (in which drivers are used). The 
leopards are then let off in all directions, and many deer are thus caught. 

The men employed to train and keep the imperial leopards, receive 
presents on all occasions when the animals exhibit skill, as an encouragement 
to further exertions. A special present has been fixed for each animal, but 
1 cannot specify this. 

Once, from the kindness shewn by His Majesty, a deer made 
friendship with a leopard. They lived together and enjoyed each other's 
company. The most remarkable thing was this, that the leopard when let 
off against other deer, would pounce upon them as any other leopard. 

In former times leopards were never allowed to remain loose towards 
the dose of the day ; for people were afraid of their stubbornness and anxiety 
to ran away. But now, in consequence of the practical rules made by His 
Majesty, they are let loose in the evening^, and yet remain obedient. 
Formerly leopards were also kept blind-folded, except at the time of the 


ehase ; for the leopards used to get brisk and run about as if mad. But 
Bow-a-days they are k^pt without covers for their heads. The Grandees of 
the court are allowed to bet on forty kMgah leopards ; whoever wins takes the 
amount of his bet from the others. If a leopard is first in bringing twenty 
deer, his Doriyah^ gets five rupees from his equals. The Grandee in charge 
of the khiu^ah leopards, Sayyid Ahmad of B&rha,' gets one muhur from each 
bet, by which he makes a good deal of money. As often as a Grandee lays 
before His Majesty twenty pair of deer horns,' he tak:es an Ashrafi from 
each of his equals. So also do the Tarafddrs and QardwaU* bet ; in fact every 

' The man who holds the chain to 
vhieh the leopard is fastened. 

* He was a 2}ukazdrt; vide Ain 30, 
Ho. 91. 

' Akbar Tequired the horns of deer. 

•* In this year (981), His Majesty built 
wrenl edifices and castles on the road 
frnn Anah to Ajmir. The reason was 
^k. He thought it incumbent upon. 
him oDoe a year to make a pilgrimage to 
tiw tomb (dargdh) of Mu'in i Chishti at 
AjmSr ; he therefore had houses built at 
ereiy stage on the road to that town. 
He ako erected at every hot » tower 


(mandrah), and had a well made near it. 
The towers were studded with several 
hundred thousand horns of deer which 
His Majesty had killed during^ his life- 
time. The words mil i shdkk contain 
the Tdrtkh (981). I wished His Majesty 
bad made gardens and sardis for tra- 
vellers instead." Baddont, II, p. 173. 
Vide also Elliot's Index, p. 243, note. 

* Tarafddrs, the men in charge of a 
taraf\ which word Abulikzl above used in 
the same sense as misl, or set. Tarqfddr 
means alfto a Zamlndar. A Q/nrdwal is a 


one sliows his zoal in trying to get as many deer as possible. The skins of 
the deer are often given to poor people as part of money presents. 

It is remarkable that His Majesty can at once tell by seeing a hide to 
what hunting ground the deer belonged. 

Ilis Majesty, in fulfilment of a vow made by him before the birtiiof 
the eldest prince, never hunts on Fridays.* 

The Siyngosh.^ 

His Majesty is very fond of using this plucky little animal for hunting 
purposes. In former times it would attack a hare or a fox ; but now it 
kills black deer. It eats daily 1 8, of meat. Each has a separate keeper, 
who gets 100 d. per mensem. 


His Majesty likes this animal very much for his excellent qualities, 
and imports dogs from all countries. Excellent dogs come from K4bul, 
especially fi'om the Hazdrah district [north of R^iil Pindi]. They even 
ornament dogs, and give them names." Dogs will attack every kind of 
animals, and more remarkable still, they will attack a tiger. Several also will 
join, and hunt down the enemy. KJui^ah dogs get daily 2 «. of meat; 
others get \\ s. There is one kee2)er for every two Tazi (hunting) doga; 
their wages ai'e 100 d. per mensem. 

* " It was at this time, [1027 A. II. or 
A. D. 1618] that Shahzadah Shuja, 
son of Sluilijahan, fell ill, and as I am 
so much attached to liim, and the doctors 
could not him of the insensibility in 
which lie had lain lor several days, I 
humbly prayed to God, and asked Him a 
favor. During the prayer, it occurred to 
me that I had alretuly made a contract with 
my God and had promised Him to give up 
li'nting alter reaching the age of fitly, not 
to touch alter that an arrow or a gun, and 
never again to slay an animal with my own 
hands ; and I thougiit that if I should 
caiTy into etlect my former vow from the 
present time, which would prevent so 
many animals from being killed, God 
might gi'ant my prayer for the prince's 
recovery. I then made this contract 
with God, and })ronilsed, in all singleness 
of intention and true belief, never again 
to liarm an animal with my own hand. 
Through God's mercy the sufl'erings of 
the prince were entirely allayed. WTien 
I wa.s in the womb of my mother, 
it ha])pcned one day that I did not 
guicken as usual. The servants of the 
Harem grew alarmed, and reported the 
fact to my august father [Akbar]. In 
those days my father was continually 
hunting with leopards. That day hap- 

pened to be Friday. My ikther then, 
with a view of making God inclined to 
preserve me, made a vow never again, 
to the end of his Ufe, to hunt on Fridays. 
I have followed the practice of my father, 
and have never hunted with leopards on 
a Friday." Tuzuk % Jakdngtri, p. 249. 

Jahangir's self-denial was not great; 
for when the prince was sick, Jah4iigir 
was fitly years of age ! 

^ Or Hack ear, the Persian trans- 
lation of the Turkish qara-qolaq, whence 
our Felis caracal. 

■ This would not strike us as some- 
thing worth mentioning. But as dogs 
are considered unclean animals hy Ma- 
hammadans, they are not looked npon 
as domestic. Now-a-days we hear oocsr 
sionally names, as kallu, hachhu; or 
EngUsh names as feni (Fanny), bMdg 
(bull dog), &c. 

European bloodhounds were earij 
imported by the Portuguese. Jahingir 
once said to Eoe * 1 only desire you to 
help me to a horse of the greatest size, 
and a male and female of mastifi'es, and 
the tall Irish greyhounds, and such other 
dogges as hunt in your lands.' Begard- 
ing European dogs in India, vide ako 
Tuzuk, p. 138, L 3 from below. 


Sunting Deej- with Deer. 

This timid animal also may be tamed and trained. They put a net 
over his horns, and let it off against wild deer, which from fear will figh^ 
with them. During the struggle, the horn, or the foot, or the ears of the 
wild deer will get entangled in the net ; the hunters, who have been lying 
in ambush, will then run up to it, and catch it. The deer thus caught 
passes through a course of instruction, and gets tame. If the net should 
break, or the deer get tired during the struggle, it will return to the keeper, 
who either puts a new net on it, or sends out a fresh deer. 

Sult^ Ffruz i Khiljl used to indulge in this sport ; but His Majesty 
reduced this manner of himting to a proper system. 

Sometimes it happens that a wild deer will carry on the struggle from 
morning till evening, defeating as many as four tamed deer ; but at last it 
will succumb to the fifth. Deer are now-a-days rendered so perfectly 
obedient as to hunt at night ; of their own accord they will return to their 
keepers, should the net break, or the wild deer run away ; on hearing the 
call, they will discontinue a fight, come back, and then again engage, if 
ordered to do so. 

In former times deer were never let loose at night time ; for people 
were afraid, lest they should run away. Hence they attached a heavy ball 
to one of their feet, when the deer were let loose. 

Many stories are related of the sagacity and faithfulness of trained deer. 

Only lately a deer created much sensation. It had run away from 
TUh^b^d, and after bravely crossing rivers and plains, returned to the Panjdb, 
its home, and rejoined its former keeper. 

In former times, two persons at most enjoyed together the pleasures 
of deer hunting. They would even, fr^m fear of the timidity of the deer, 
alter the style of their dress, and lie concealed among shrubs. Nor would 
they employ other than wild deer ; they caught them somehow, and taught 
them to hunt. His Majesty has introduced a new way, according to which 
more than two hundred may at the same time go deer hunting. They 
drive slowly about forty cattle towards a place where deer are ; the hunters 
are thus concealed, and when arrived enjoy the chase. 

There are now-a-days also deer-studs ; the deer born in captivity are 
employed as hunting deer. 

The keepers will also bend forward, and allow the trained deer to 
jump on them, from behind. Wild deer, on seeing this, will think that 
they are in the act of copulation, and come near to fight. This way 
of hunting is disapproved of by His Majesty, who uses female deer as a 
means of making wild deer fight. 


Onoe a deer cauglit a leopard, whose foot had got entangled in the net. 
Both were brouo^ht toj^ether from Gujr^t, as mentioned above (?). 

Gliantaherali is the name given to the following mode of hunting. The 
hunter takes a sliield, or a basket, the concave side being turned from him. 
He then lights a lamp, which being put in the concavity of the shield, will 
conceal him, and commences to ring bells. Other hunters lie at the same 
time in wait. The light of the lamp, and the sound of the bells, will 
attract the animals towards the place, when they are shot by the hunters 
in ambush. TIkj sound of musical instruments will so enchant deer, 
that they are t asily caught ; or sometimes himters will charm them 
with a song, and when the deer approach, will rise up, and cruelly slay 
them. From a long time His Majesty has disapproved of these two 

Th'nuji. The hunter manages to get opposite a wild deer; and 
barelieaded, froui a distance, he commences to throw himself into odd 
attitudes. TIk* deer tlien mistakes him for a mad man, and from curiosity 
will ai)proach him. At this moment the hunters come from the ambush 
and kill it. 

Baukdruh. The hunters lie in ambush, against the scent, at a good 
distance froui each other. Some others drive the deer towards them, each 
of the drivers swinging a white sheet above his head. The deer naturally 
will take friglit, and run towards the hunters in ambush, who kill them. 

Daddwan, Two good shots, dressed in green, place themselves as 
before, and have the deer driven towards themselves. This manner of 
hunting j-ields much amusement, as the deer get quite perplexed. 

Ajdrah. The hunters tie green twigs round their bodies from head to 
foot, and similarly conceal their bows and arrows. They then move boldly 
to a place where deer generally pass, and enjoy the chase. Or they make 
ropes of deer skin, and attach them to trees, or let them hang down from 
poles all round about the place where wild deer sleep. They then lay down 
some nooses at a place situate against the wind. When the hunters shew 
themselves from the side, the deer are compelled to run towards the spo* 
where the nooses lie, and thus get caught. Sometimes the hunter will take 
his place behind a tree, and imitate the voice of deer. As Boon as deer 
approach him, he kiUs them. Or, they tie a female deer to a place in a 
plain, or they let a trained deer go to the pasture place of wild deer. The 
latter will soon come near it, and get entangled with their feet. 

ThagL The hunter....* walks about bareheaded as if mad; his 
clothes are stained all over with^on juice, and the man himself acts as if he 

* The text has dar khdiiah i zin, in the hollow of a saddle (P). 


were wounded. Wild animals and others will soon gather round him, 
waiting for his death ; but their greediness and desire lead them to 

Buffalo SunU. 

At a place where buffaloes sleep, a rope is laid in the ground ; but 
the end forming a loop is left outside. Another long rope is attached to it. 
To this they tie a female buffalo that wants the male. A courageous active 
man lies in ambush. As soon as a wild male buffalo comes to the spot, 
and covers the female, the hunter makes use of the opportunity, and fastens 
the foot of the male ; but it frequently happens that the man loses courage, 
and has to pay for the attempt with his life. 

Another mode of catching them is to go near the ponds which they 
frequent. They put snares round the ponds ; and sitting on tame buffaloes, 
the hunters go into the water with spears in their hands. Some buffaloes 
are then killed with spears, others are caught in the snares. A similar 
method may be adopted, when buffaloes are attacked on their pastures. 

On Hunting mth Hawks. 

His Majesty is very fond of these remarkable animals, and often uses 
them for hunting purposes. Though he trains the bdzy shAhinj shunqdr, and 
hurkat falcons, and makes them perform wonderful deeds, His Majesty 
. prefers the hdshahy to which class of hawks he gives various names. 

As I am compelled to hurry on, and must restrict myself to summary 
accounts, it is impossible to say much about this matter, or about the skiQ. 
of the several birds, especially as I know little about it, being by nature 
averse to destroying Hfe. I shall, however, give a few details, and lead 
enquirers to the retired spot of knowledge. 

In the middle of spring the birds are inspected ; after this they are 
allowed to moult, and are sent into the country. As soon as the time of 
monlting is over, they are again inspected. The commencement is made 
with the khdgah falcons (ios), which are inspected in the order in which 
thej have been bought. The precedence of jurrahs is determined by the 
nmnber of game killed by them. Then come the hdshaha, the shdhins, the 
i'kslahs, the chappak hdshahsy the hahrisj the young hahris, the shikarahs, the 
ekappak skikarahs, the turmoHs, the rekis, the hesrahs, the dhotis, the eharghsy 
the eharfilahsy the lagars, and ^'^jhagars (which His Majesty calls the ehappak 
Und of the lagar). The MoleMns also are inspected — the molohin is an 
aoimal resembling the sparrow, of yellowish plumage, like the shdhin ; 
it will kill a hdang crane. People say that, whilst flying, it will break 
the wing of the kulang, and others maintain that it pierces its eyes ; 


but this cannot be proved. Odhpapars^ also are brought from Kashmir. 
Tliis bird havS a bluish {sahz) colour and is smaller than a parrot ; its beak is 
red, straiglit, and long ; its tail is ratlier elongated. It brings down small 
birds, and returns to the hand of the kee]3er. 

Many other birds can be trained for the chase, though I cannot specify 
all. Thus the crow, the sparrow, the bodnah, and the sdru will learn to 

His Majesty, from motives of generosity and from a msh to add splendour 
to his Court, is fond of hunting with falcons, though superficial observers 
think that merely hunting is his object. 

In this department many Manqabdars, Ahadis, and other soldiers are 
employed. The footmen are mostly Kashmiris or Hindustanis. Their pay 
is as follows. First class of the former, first grade, 7^ R, ; second, 7 R. ; 
third, 6f R. Second class, first grade, 6^ R ; second, 6^ JK. ; third, 5 J R. 
Third class, first grade, 5 J R. ; second, 5 R. ; third, 4J jK. First class of the 
latter (Hindustani), first grade, 5 R ; second 4 J R, ; third, 4 J R. Second 
class y first grade, 4J i?. ; second, 4 R. ; third 3 J R. Third class, first grade, 
S^ R.; second, S^ R. ; third, 3 R. 

Alloivance of Food. 

In Kashmir and in the aviaries of Indian amateurs, the birds are generally 
fed once a day ; but at Court they are fed twice. A hdz falcon gets a 
quantity of meat weighing 7 dams ; the jurrah, 6 d. ; the hahriy Idchin, and 
kUielah, 5 d. ; the hash a h, 3 d, ; the chaj)pah bdshah, shikar ah, chappak Mkarah, 
hesrahy dhotis, &c., 2 d. Towards the close of every day, they are fed on 
sparrows, of which the hdz, jurrah, and hahri, get each seven ; the Idchin, 
five ; the hdshah, throe ; others, two. Charghs and lagars get at the same time 
meat. Shunqdrs, sJuihhdzrs, hurkats, get one ser. On the hiinting grounds 
they feed them on the game they take. 

Prices of Falcons, 

From eagerness to purchase, and from inexperience, people pay high 
sums for falcons. His Majesty allows dealers every reasonable profit ; but 
from motives of equity, he has limited the prices. The dealers are to 
get their gain, but buyers ought not to be cheated. In purchasing falcons 
people should see to which of the following three classes birds belong. 
First, khdtiah kurh birds ; they have moulted whilst in charge of experienced 
trainers, and have got new feathers. Second, choz birds ; they have not 
yet moulted. Third, Tarindk birds ; they have moulted before they were 

* The name of this bird is doubtful. I Kashmiri birds given in the Iqhdlnd- 
It is not to be found among the names of | nvah, p. 159. 


captured. First class, a superior hdz costs 12 tnuhurs ; second grade do., 
9 if. ; third do., 6 M, Second dose, first, 10 if. ; second, 7 M. ; third, 4 M. 
A third class baz is somewhat cheaper than second class ones. 

Jurrahs, First class, 8 5, 2, 1 M, Second class, 6, 4, 1^, 1 Jf., 5 B. 

Bdshahs. First class, 3, 2, 1 M,, 4 E. Second dass, 2, 1 if., 5 B. 

Shdhins of both kinds, 3, 2, 1 IT. 

Bahrisy 2, 1^, 1 if. Young Bahris a little less. 

IChelahsy H, 1, i if. 

Charghs, 2i JR., 2, li i?. 

Chappak hashahs, 1 JR. ; ^, i i2. 

iSAOarff^, U i?., 1, i ^. 

Besrahs, 2 i?., 1 J, 1 B, 

Chappak shikarahs, lagars, jhagars, turmatis, rek(s, 1 B., i, ^ B. 
Their prices are not classified. 

His Majesty rewards the Mir Shikars (superintendents of the chase) 
according to their ranks, with suitable presents. There are also fixed 
donations for each game brought in, varying from 1 if . to 1 <^. K the 
fidcons bring the game alive or dead, attention is paid to the skill which it 
exhibited, and to the size of the prey. The man who keeps the falcon gets 
one-half of the allowance. If His Majesty hunts himself, fifty j^^r cent, of 
the donation is stopped. If birds are received by the Imperial aviary as 
peshkash (tribute), the Qushhegi (Superintendent of the Aviary) gets for every 
haz HB., and the accountant, i B, Tor jurrahs, the Qushbegf gets 1 JR. ; the 
accountant, i JR. ; for bdshahs, the former receives ^ B, ; the latter, ^ B, ; 
for eveiy laehin^ chargh, chargilah, k^helah, bahri bachchah, the former gets 
i B., the latter i^ B. ; for every chhappak, bdshah, dhoti, &c., the former 
receives ^, the other j'^ B. (siiki). 

The TniniTniiTn number of bdz and shdhin falcons, kept at Coiirt, is forty ; 
of jwrraks, thirty ; of bdshahs, one hundred ; of hahrks, charghs, twenty ; of 
Ugars, and shikarahs, ten. 


Hunting waterfowls affords much amusement. A rather curious way 
of catching them is the following. They make an artificial bird of the skin 
of a waterfowl with the wings, the beak, and the tail on it. Two holes 
are made in the skin for looking through. The body is hollow. The 
btuiter puts his head into it, and stands in the water up to his neck. He 
then gets carefully near the birds, and pulls them one after the other below 
the water. But sometimes they are cunning, and fly away. 

In Kashmir they teach bdz falcons to seize the birds whilst swimming 
about, and to return with them to the boat of the himter. Or the hawk 
will keep a waterfowl down, and sit on it [till the man in the boat comes]. 


Another metliod is to let water buffaloes go into the water, between 
wliich the hunter conceals himself, and thus catches the birds. 

Burraj hunting. There are various methods. Some get a young one 
and train it till it obeys every call. It will fight with other birds. They 
put it into a cage, and place hair-nets round about it. At the signal of the 
fowler, the ])ird commences to sing, when wild ones come near it either 
from friendship, or a desire to fight, and get entangled in the snares. 

Bodnahs. The hunter makes a clay pot with a narrow neck and, at 
night time, blows into it, whicli produces a noise like an owl's cry. The 
bodfiahs, frightened by the noise, come together. Another man then lights a 
bundle of straw, and swings it about, so that the eyes of the birds get 
dazzled. The fowlers thertnipon seize the birds, and put them into cages. 

Lagars. They resemble churghs : in body they are as large jurrahi. 
They hang nets (about the body of a trained iagar), and put birds' feathers 
into its claws. It is then allowed to ^y up. The birds think that it has got 
hold of a pre}', and when they get entangled in the nets, they commence 
to fight, and faU to the ground. 

Ghaughdt, They fasten together on a cross-stick an owl and a ghaughdij 
and hang hair nets round about them. The owl will soon get restless ; 
the birds think that the owl wishes to fight, and conmience to cry out 
Other ghanghuis and owls will come to their assistance ; and get entangled 
in the nets. 


Frogs also may be trained to catch sparrows. This looks very funny. 

His Majesty, from curiosit}^ likes to see spiders fight, and amuses 
himself in watching the attemjjts of the flies to escape, their jumps, and 
combats with their foe. 

I am in the power of love ; and if I have thousands of wishes, it is 
no crime ; 

And if my passionate heart has an (unlawful) desire, it is no crime. 

And in truth. His Majesty's fondness for leopards is an example of 
the power of love,* and an instance of his wonderful insight. 

It would take me too long, to give more details. It is impossible to 
enumerate all particulars ; hence it is better to go to another subject. 

* The Historian may thank Abulfazl 
for having preserved this .little trait of 
Akbar's character. In several places of 
the Ain, Abulfazl tries hard to ascribe to 
His Majesty higher motives, in order to 
bring the emperor's passion for hunting 
in harmony with his character as the 
spiritual guide of the nation. But as 


' higher motives' were insufficient to 
explain the fancy which Akbar took in 
frog and spider fights, Abulfazl has 
to recognize the £ct that peculiar 
leanings will lead even a sensible man to 
oddities and to actions opposed to tlie 
general tenor of his character. 


AFN 29. 


His Majesty devises means of amusementy and makes his pleasures a 
means of testing the character of men. 

There are seyeral kinds of amusements, of which I shall give a few 

The game of Chaugdn (hockey).* 

Superficial observers look upon this game as a mere amusement, and 
consider it mere play; but men of more exalted views see in it a 
means of learning promptitude and decision. It tests the value of a man, and 
strengthens bonds of friendship. Strong men learn in playing this game 
the art of riding ; and the animals learn to perform feats of agility and to 
obey the reins. Hence His Majesty is very fond of this game. Externally, 
the game adds to the splendour of the Court ; but viewed from a higher 
pointy it reveals concealed talents. 

When His Majesty goes to the maiddn (open field), in order to play 
this game, he selects an opponent and some active and clever players, 
who are only filled with one thought, namely, to shew their skill against 
the opponent of His Majesty. From motives of kindness, His Majesty 
never orders any one to be a player ; but chooses the pairs by the cast of 
the die. There are not more than ten players ; but many more keep 
themselves in readiness. When one g^hari (20 minutes) has passed, two 
players take rest, and two others supply their place. 

The game itself is played in two ways. The first way is to get hold 
of the ball with the crooked end of the chaugdn stick, and to move it slowly 
from the middle to the hdL* This manner is called in Hindi rol. The other 
WBy consists in taking deliberate aim, and forcibly hitting the ball with 
the chaugdn stick out of the middle ; the player then gallops after it, quicker 
than the others, and throws the ball back. This mode is called helah, and 
may be performed in various ways. The player may either strike the ball 
with the stick in his right hand, and send it to tho right forwards or 
backwards ; or he may do so with his left hand ; or he may send the ball 
in firont of the horse to the right or to the left. The ball may be thrown in 

* There is scarcely a Muhammadan 
Histarian that does not allude to this 
jpupe. Bahar says, it is played all over 
Thibet In the Erist of India, the people 
oTHaniiipore (Assam) are looked upoaas 
deTer hockey-players. Vide Vigais 
Travels in Cashmir, II, p. 289. 

Sayyid 'Abdullah Khan, son of Mir 
Khwandah, was Akbar's chaugdnbegt, 


or Superintendent of the game of chau- 
adn: vide Bad. II, p. 368. In the 
Dc^nninff of Akbar's reign, after 970, 
G'bariwau, which lies a farsana from 
Agrah, was the favorite spot for chaugdn 
playing. Bad. II. p. 70. 

* The pillars which mark the end of 
the playground. 


tlie same direttion from behind tlie feet of the liorse or from below its body ; 
or tJie rider may spit it, when the ball is in front of the horse ; or he may 
lift liiniself upon the back leather of the horse and propel the ball from 
between the feet of the animal. 

His Majesty is unrivalled for the skill which he shews in the various 
ways of hitting the ball ; he often manages to strike the ball while in the 
air, and astonishes all. A^Tien a ball is driven to the hdl, they beat the 
7iaqqdrah, so that all that are far and near may hear it. In order to increase 
the excitement, betting is allowed. The players win from each other, and 
he who brought the ball to the h&l wins most. If a ball be caught in 
the air, and passes, or is made to pass, beyond the limit (mi7), the game is 
looked upon as hard (drawn). At such times, the players will engage in a 
regular fight about tlie ball, and perform admirable feats of skill. 

His Majesty also plays at chaugdn in dark nights, which caused much 
astonishment even among clever players. The balls which are used at night, 
are set on fire." For this purpose, palds wood is used which is very light, 
and biu^ns for a long time. For the sake of adding splendour to the games, 
which is necessary in worldly matters, His Majesty has knobs of gold and 
silver fixed to the tops of the chaugdn sticks. If one of them breaks, any 
player that gets hold of the i)ieces may keep them. 

It is impossible to describe the excellency of this game. Ignorant as 
I am, I can say but little about it. 

^hhqhdzi (pigeon-flying). 

His Majesty calls pigeon flying Ushqhdzi (love-play). This occupation 
affords the ordinary run of people a dull kind of amusement ; but His 
Majesty, in his wisdom, makes it a study. He even uses the occupation 
as a way of reducing unsettled, worldly-minded men to obedience, and 
avails himself of it as a means productive of harmony and friendship. 
The amusement which His Majesty derives from the tumbling and flying 
of the pigeons reminds of the ecstacy and transport of enthusiastic dervishes : 
he praises God for the wonders of creation. It is therefore from higher 
motives that he pays so much attention to this amusement. 

The pigeons of the present age have reached a high state of perfection. 
Presents of pigeons are sent by the kings of Trdn and Tdr&n ; but merchants 
also bring very excellent ones in large numbers. 

* " In the beginning of 974 (July 1566), 
the emperor returned (from Jaunpur) to 
Agrah, and passed his time in amusements. 
He went to Nagarchtn, a new town which 
he had built near Agrah, and enjoyed 
the chaugdn game, dog-hunting, and 

pigeon-flying. He also invented a fire 
ball with which he could play at ckau* 
gdn during dark nights." Bad. II, p. 4S. 
The town of Nagarchin was subse- 
quently deserted. 


When HiB Majesty was very young, he was fond of tliis ^usement ; 
but afterwards, when he grew older and wiser, he discontinued pigeon- 
flying altogether. But sinoe then^ on mature consideration, he has again 
taken it up. 

A weU trained pigeon of bluish colour, formerly belonging to the Khdn 
i A'zam Kokaltfish ('Aziz, Akbar's foster-brother) fell into His Majesty's 
bands. From the care which was bestowed upon it by His Majesty, it has 
since become the chief of the imperial pigeons, and is known under the name 
ofMohanah. From it descended several excellent pigeons as Ashki (the weeper), 
PaHzdd (the fairy), Ahnds (the diamond), and Shah Hdi (Aloe Eoyal). 
Among their progeny again there are the choicest pigeons in the whole 
world, which have brought the trained pigeons of 'Umar Shaikh Mirz& 
(father of B&bar), Sult&n Husain Mirz& {vide p. 101, note 4) into oblivion. 
Such improvement, in fact, has been made in the art of training, as to 
astonish the amateurs of Xrta and Tdrdn, who had to learn the art from the 

In former times pigeons of all kinds were allowed to couple ; but His 
Majesty thinks equality in gracefulness and performance a necessaiy condition 
in coupling, and has thus bred choice pigeons. The custom is to keep a 
male and a female pigeon, if not acquainted with ecuih other, for five or 
six days together, when they become so familiar, that even after a long 
separation, they will again recognize each other. The hen generally lays 
her eggs from eight to twelve days after coupling, or more if she be small 
or sickly. Pigeons couple in Mihrmdh (September — October), and separate in 
Fanoardin (February — ^March). A hen lays two eggs, but sometimes only 
one. The cock will sit upon the eggs by daytime, and the hen during the 
night, and thus they keep them warm and soft. In winter they hatch for 
twenty-one days; but if the air be warm, they only take seventeen or 
eighteen. For about six days, the pigeons feed their young ones with 
fdaky which means grain reduced to pap in the crops of the old ones. 
Afterwards they feed them from the grain in their crops, which they bring 
up before it is fully digested. This they continue for about a month, and 
as soon as they see that the yoimg ones can pick up their own grain, the 
old ones wOl go away. Eggs, or even young ones, are sometimes given to 
other pigeons to take care of. Home bred young ones are trained. Some 
are kept in a for (?) till they get stronger, and get acquainted with the 
place. As soon as these two things have been attained, the pigeons only 
get one-third or one-fourth of their daily allowance of food. When they 
have got a little accustomed to hunger, they are gradually allowed to take 
flights. They take daily about forty hawds (air), ». e. forty flights. At, 
this period, the trainers pay no regard to what is called churkh and bdzi 


{vide below). Of feathers, they count ten, and if eight of them have fallen 
out, the keepers no longer allow the pigeons to fly, but keep them at rest 
{khdbanidan). After two months, the pigeons get new feathers, and become 
very strong. They are then again let off. This is the best time for shewing 
their skill. As soon as the pigeons learn to perform the hdzi and the cluMrlh^ 
they are sent to His Majesty for inspection, and are kept for four months in 
readiness, to exhibit their skiU. Charkh is a lusty movement ending with 
the pigeon throwing itself over in a full circle. If this circular turn be not 
completely carried out, the movement is called katif (shoulder), and is held 
in no esteem. Bdzi is the same as mu^allaq zadan (lying on the back 
with the feet upwards, and quickly turning round, in Hind. Kola). 
Some thought that the two wings {katif) meet, which appears to the 
observer as if it were a mii^allaq ; but His Majesty had one wing of a 
pigeon blackened, when the erroneousness of that opinion became evident. 
Some pigeons get confused duiing the bdzi and charkh, and come stupified 
to the ground. This is called gululah, and is disliked. Sometimes pigeons 
hurt themselves and fall down ; but often they get all right again when 
they come near the ground ; and taking courage and collecting their strength, 
they fly up again. A pigeon of the kh<i(;ah pigeon cots will perform fifteen 
charkhs and seventy hdzisy a feat which wiU certainly astonish the spectators. 
In former times, they let eleven or twenty-one pigeons fly at a time ; but 
now-a-days they let off as many as one hundred and one. From the 
attention which His Majesty has bestowed upon pigeons, they are now so 
carefully trained as to be let fly at night, even to great heights. 

At the time of departure and the breaking up of the camp, the pigeons 
will follow, the cots being carried by bearers {kuhdr). Sometimes they will 
alight and take rest for a while, and then rise again. 

It would be difficult to count the pigeons at Court ; but there are more 
than twenty thousand. Five hundred of them are khdgah. They have a 
great reputation, and remarkable stories are told of their skill. 

Figeon trainers of former times, in order to determine the value of a 
pigeon, used to twist tlie foot, or looked to the slit of the eyes, or the openings 
on the top of the bill ; but they failed to discover more signs of the value of 
a breed. His Majesty has discovered many more ; and fi-giTig the value of a 
pigeon, in former times a matter of great difficulty, has now become very 
easy. First, His Majesty subdivided tlie three signs of former trainers as 
follows : the two eyes, and their upper and lower signs ; the eight daws ; 
the two sides of the beak, above and below. The mutual compaiison of 
these signs has led to many additional means of fixing the value of a pigeon. 
Secondly. His Majesty looks to the variety and the colour of the annular 
protuberances on the feet of pigeons. A book has been made, in which 


the Bystematic order of these signs has been laid down. According to them^ 
His Majesty distinguishes ten classes, for each of whidusepaxate aviaries 
have been constructed. The price of pigeons in the first house has not 
been limited. Many a poor man anxious to make his way, has foimd in 
the training of superior pigeons a means of getting rich. A pair of second 
class pigeons has a value of 3 i2. ; third class, 2^ JR. ; fourth class, 2 R. ; 
fifth dass, Hid.; sixth class, 1 B, ; seventh class, i B. ; eighth class, i B. ; 
ninth and tenth classes, f B. 

When inspections are held, the stock of Mohanah first pass in review ; 
then the young ones of Ashki. Though the latter belong to the former, 
they are now separately coxmted. Then come the four ziriM pigeons ; they 
are the stock of a pigeon which belonged to Hdji 'Ali, of Samarqand, which 
coupled with an ' Udi hen, of which I do not know the owner ; their stock 
has become famous. The precedence of ail other pigeons is determined by 
their age or the time they were bought. 

The Colours of Khdgah Pigeons. 

Magasi (fly-bitten) ; zirihi (steelblue) ; amiri {?) ; zamiri (a colour 
between zirihi and amiri ; His Majesty invented this name) ; chini (porce- 
lain blue) ; nafti (grey like naphta) ; shafaqi (violet) ; ^udi (aloewood coloured); 
mrmai (dark grey, like ' powder of antimony) ; kishmishi (dark brown, like 
currants) ; halwdi (Hght-brown like Halwd sweetmeat) ; gandali (light-brown, 
like sandelwood) ; j'igari (brown) ; ndbdti (greyish white) ; dughi (bluish- 
white, like sour nulk) ; toushki (of the same colour as the gum called umshk ;) 
jiiani {ehilani ?) ; Mrai (brown, like a new earthen pot ? ); niliifari (bluish- 
white) ; azraq (a colour between yellow and brown ; His Majesty applies 
this name in this sense) ; aiashi (black brown) ; shaftdlu (peach coloured) ; 
/mZ t^<i2; coloured (?); yellow; kdghizi (yellowish, like native paper); zagh 
(grey like a crow) ; agri (a colour between white and brown) ; muharraqi (a 
dirty black) ; khizri (a colour between greenish and ^lidi) ; dhi (water 
ooloured) ; surmag (a name invented by His Majesty to express a colour 
between surmai and magasi). 

Pigeons of these colours have often different names, as gulsar (whose 
head resembles a flower) ; dumghdzah (stumptail) ; yakrang (of one colour) ; 
Idqumsafid (white throat) ; parsafid (white wing) ; kdlah (big head) ; 
ghaxghash (wild chick) ; mdgh (name of an aquatic bird) ; hdhari (f) ; dlpar 
(red wing ?) ; kaltah par (short wing) ; mdhdum (moontail) ; tf^uqddr (ring- 
bearer) ; marwdridsar (pearl head) ; mash^dahdum (torchtail) ; &c. 

Some trainers of the present age gave pigeons such names as indicate 
their colours. His Majesty rather calls them according to their qualities, as 
hughwr (?), qarapilk (with black eyelids) ; abgdri ; palangnigdri ; rekhtahpilk. 


There are also many pigeons wliich do not perform chirhhs and hazU^ 
but are (listinguishod by their eoluurs, or by peculiar tricks. Thus the 
Kokah pigeon, the voice of which sounds like the call to prayer. 2. The 
Baghah, which utters a peculiar voice in the morning, to wake up people. 
3. The Lnqqariy which struts about proudly, wagging its head, neck, and 
tail. 4. The Lot an. They turn it about, and let it off on the ground, when 
it will go through all the motions which a haK killed fowl goes through. 
Some pigeons will do so when the keeper strikes his hand against the 
ground, and others will show the same restlessness, when on leaving the 
cage their beak is made to touch the ground. 5. The K^herni, The cock 
shews a remarkable attachment to the hen. Though he fly up so high as 
to be no longer visible, if the hen be exposed in a cage, he will get restless 
and drop himself instantly down to join her. This is very remarkable. Some 
of them come down with both wings spread, others close one ; some close 
both ; or they change alternately the wing which they close in flying. 
6. The Bal^h pigeon is chiefly used for carr^-ing letters, though any other 
kind may bo trained to bring letters even from great distances. 7. The 
NiftlnUcari pigeon will fly uj), and follow its cage to whatever place it be 
taken. It will fly out of sight, and stay away for a day or two, when it 
comes down, and remains in its cage. 8. The Parpa (having feet covered 
with feathers) will inhale air (?) and act as if it sighed. 

Some pigeons are merely kept for the beauty of their plumage, the 
colours of which receive pecidiar names. Thus some are called thzraedy 
shustariy hkhani, jogiyah^ rezahdahatiy magasi^ and qumri. Wild pigeons are 
called golah. If some of them are caught, they wiU be joined by a thousand 
others ; they soon get domesticated. They return daily to the fields, and get 
on their return salt water to drink. This makes them vomit the grain which 
they had eaten on the fields. The grain is collected and g^ven as food to 
other pigeons. 

People say that pigeons will but rarely live above thirty years. 

Four sers of grain will be suflicient for one hundred of such pigeons as 
are made to fly ; but for other pigeons, five s&rs are required ; or seven and a 
half, if they pair. But flying pigeons get millet, not mixed with other 
grain ; the others get a mixture of the seven kinds of grain, viz,^ rice, tLili 
nukhud (gram), mung dal, millet, karar^ la/uhrah, j'uwdrf {vide -p. 63). Though 
most servants of His Majesty keep pigeons and shew much skill in training 
them, there are a few that have risen to eminence, as Qui 'Ali of Bukhara, 
Masti of Samarqand, Mullaz^dah, Pur i Mulla Ahmad Chand, Muqbil 
Kh&n Chelah, Khwajah 9andal Chelah, Mumfn of Hardt, 'AbduUatif of 
Bukhara, Haji Qasim of Balkh, Habib of Shahrsabz, Sikandar Chelah, 
Malta, Maq^ud of Samarqand, Khwajah P'hul, Chelah Hiranand. 


The servanta attached to the pigeon houses draw their pay on the list 
of the army. The pay of a foot soldier varies from 2 jB. to 48 R. per 

The game of Chaupar. 

From times of old, the people of Hinddst&n have been fond of this game. 
It is played with sixteen pieces of the same shape ; but every four of them 
must have the same colour. The pieces ail move in the same direction. 
The players use three dice. Four of the six sides of each dice are greater 
than the remaining two, the four long sides being marked with one, two, 
fire, and six dots respectively. The players draw two sets of two parallel 
lines, of which one set bisects the other at right angles. These parallel lines 
are of equal length. The small square which is formed by the intersection 
of the two sets in the centre of the figure is left as it is ; but the four 
rectanglee adjoining the sides of the square are each divided into twenty-four 
equal spaces in three rows, each of eight equal spaces, as shewn in fig^e 
(XyU). The game is generally played by four players, of whom two play 
against the other two. Each player has four pieces, of which he puts two 
in the sixth and seventh spaces of the middle row of the parallellogram 
before him, and the other two in the seventh and eighth spaces of the right 
row. The left row remains empty. Each player moves his pieces, accord- 
ing to his throw, in the outer row, always keeping to the right, till he 
anives at the outer left row of the parallelogram from which he started ; 
and from there he moves to the middle row. When arrived at the latter 
place, he is pukhtah (ripe), and from here, he must throw for each of his 
pieces the exact number which will cany them to the empty square in the 
eentre of the figure. He is now raeidahy or arrived. 

When a player is pukhtah or raaidah, he may commence to play from 
the beginning, which leads to amusing combinations. As long as a player 
keeps two of his pieces together, the adversary cannot throw them out. 
If a player throws a double six, he can move two pieces over twelve spaces, 
provided the two pieces stand together on one field ; but he is allowed to 
move them only six fields onwards, should he prefer doing so. A similar 
role holds for double fives, &c. A throw consisting of a six, a five, and 
a one, is called kham (raw) ; and in this case, two pieces, provided they are 
together on the same field, may each be moved six fields forwards, and 
eveiy single piece twelve fields. If a player throws three sixes, and three 
of ius four pieces happen to stand on one field, he may move each of them 
over twelve fields. A similar rule holds, if a player throw three twos, or 
three ones. There are many other rules for particular cases. If a player 
has brought his four pieces into the central square, he throws, when his 
turn comes, for his companion, to get him out too. Formerly the custom 


was that when a pioco had come to the last row, and...,'. His Majesty 
thinkft it prop(»r to do 80 from the very eighth field. If the throws of two 
players are the .same as the throw of the preceding players, His Majesty 
counts them as qdim, or standing. Formerly ho did not allow such equal 
tlirows. If the four pieces of an opponent are pukhtahy and he yet lose his 
bet, the other i^layers are entitled to double the amount of the bet. Should 
any of the players leave the game for some reason, he may appoint any- 
one to play for him ; but he wiU have to be responsible for the betting of 
liis substitute. Of all winnings, the substitute is entitled to two per cent; 
if a player loses a bet, his substitute has to pay one per cent. If a player 
drops one of his pieces, or any of the players be late or inattentiTe, he is 
fined one rupee. But a fine of a muhur is exaxjted if any one prompts the 
other, or moves his pieces over too many fields, or tries to get two throws. 

Formerly many grandees took part in this game ; tliere were often as 
many as two hundred players, and no one was allowed to go home before he 
had finished sixteen games, which in some cases lasted three months. If any 
of them lost his patience and got restless, he had to drink a cup of wine. 

Superficially considered, aU this is mere play ; but His Majesty has 
higher aims : he weiglis the talents of a man, and teaches kindness. 

The f/ome of Chandal MandaL 

This game was invented by His Majesty. The figure, or board, which 
is required, consists of sixteen parallelograms, arranged in a circular form 
round a centre. Ea(?h parallelogram is divided into twenty- four fields, 
every eight of which form a row ; vide Figure XVELE. The number of pieces 
is sixty-four, and four dice are used, of which the four longer sides are 
marked with one, two, ten, and twelve points respectively. The number 
of players is sixteen. Each gets four pieces, which are placed in the middle. 
As in Cliaupar, the pieces are moved to the right, and pass through the whole 
circle. The player who is out first, is entitled to receive the stipulated 
amount from the other fifteen players ; the second that is out, from fourteen 
players, and so on. The first player, therefore, wins most, and the last loses 
most; the other players both lose and win. His Majesty plays this game 
in several ways ; one way in which the pieces are moved as if the fields 
were squares of a chess board, is very often played. I shall give a few 
particulars and directions how to play the different kinds of this game. 

First kind, no piece can throw out another piece, but moves on by itself. 
Second way, single pieces may be thrown out. Each player whose piece has 

* The MSS. have az khdnah i ha^htum I dmddah gardad, which words are not 
pdydii shawad, hangdm i khdni shudan J clear to uie. 


tliufl been thrown out, commences again from his starting point. Third 
^ajj at each throw two pieces are moved at a time, either with or without 
ttie permission of throwing out pieces. Fourth way, the preceding rule is 
applied to three or four pieces at a time. Fifth way, the dice are thrown 
four times, and four pieces are moved at each throw. These different ways 
may, moreover, be varied by some players playing to the right, others to 
the left, or all in the same direction. Sixth way, a player is out when he 
oomes to the place from which the player opposite to him commenced to 
play, moving from the middle row of his opponent into the empty space in 
the centre of the board. Or the game ends when each player arrives at the 
place from which his left hand neighbour commenced to play. Seventh 
way, each player puts his pieces before himself, and has three throws. At 
the first throw, he moves tsto of his pieces ; at the second, one of his own 
pieces and one belonging to his right hand neighbour ; at the third throw, 
he moves any piece of his own, and allows his left; hand neighbour to move 
one of his pieces. In this way of playing, no player throws out the pieces 
of his neighbours ; and when the g^me is in full swing, he allows each piece 
which happens to come into the row in which he is, to move according to his 
own throw, as a sort of compliment to a guest. Eighth way, two pieces when 
together may throw out another set of two pieces ; but single pieces do not 
throw out each other. Ninth way, four pieces together may throw out three 
together; three together, sets of two; and two together, single ones ; but single 
pieces do not throw out each other. Tenth way, each player moves his pieces 
according to the number of points which he throws ; but at the same time, 
the player who sits opposite to him moves his pieces according to the 
imnber of points on the reverse sides of the dice, whilst the two players to 
the right and left of the player who threw the dice, move their pieces 
aooording to the number of points on the right and left sides of the dice. 
Ekventh way, the players use five dice and four pieces. Each player, in his 
torn, throws the five dice, and moves his pieces according to the sum of the 
two highest points of his throw. The next highest point is taken by his 
tM-d-m, and the two lowest points by his right and left hand neighbours. 
JMfth way, the players have each five dice and five pieces. At every 
throw, he gives the points of one die to his right hand neighbour, and uses 
the others for himself. Sometimes the thrower mentions beforehand the 
Karnes of four players to whom he wishes to give the points of four dice, he 
himself taking the points of the fifth die. And when a player requires only 
a few points, to get pukhtah, he must give the remaining points to those 
near whom the dice fall. 

The game may also be played by fifteen or less players, the figure 
being lessened accordingly. So also may the number of the dice be increased 
<ir decreased. 


Tliis is a well known game. His Majesty has made some alterations in 
the cards. Ancient sages took the number twelve as the basis, and made the 
suit to consist of twelve cards ; but they forgot that the twelve kings should 
be of twelve different kinds. His Majesty plays with the following suits of 
cards. l«i, Ashcapati, the lord of horses. The highest card represents a 
king on horseback, resembling the king of Dihli, with the imibrella (chatr^ihQ 
standard {'alam), and other imperial ensigns. The second highest card of the 
same suit represents a vazir on horseback ; and after this card come ten 
others of the same suit with pictures of horses, from one to ten. 2nd, Gajpatij 
the king whose power lies in the number of his elephants, as the ruler of 
Orisah. The other eleven cards repres^uit, as before, the vazir, and elephants 
from ten to one. Srd, Narpafi, a king whose power lies in his infantry, as 
is the case with the rulers of Bijdpur. The card represents a king sitting on 
his throne in imperial splendour ; the vazir sits on a foot stool (fawfa/i), 
and the ten cards completing this suit have foot soldiers, from one to ten. 
4fhy Gadhpati. The card shews a man sitting on a throne over a fort ; the 
vazir sits on a gandali over a fort ; and the remaining ton cards have forts 
from one to ten, as before. 5th , Dhanpatiy the lord of treasures. Tlie first card 
of this suit shews a man, sitting on a throne, and gold and silver heaps ; the 
vazir sits upon a (;andaUj as if ho took account of the Treasury, and the 
remaining cards shew j a rs full of gold and silver, from one to ten. 6M, Balpati, 
the hero of battle. The fii-st card of this suit shews a king in armour, sitting 
on his throne and sui-rounded by warriors in coats of mail. The vazir sits on 
a <;andalij and wears a jaihah (breast armour) ; the ten other cards shew 
individuals clad in armour. Itk, Naivdpati, the lord of the fleet. The 
card shews a man sitting on a throne in a ship ; the vazir sits, as usual, 
on a gandali, and the other ten cards have boats from one to ten. 8M, Tipatij 
a queen sitting on the throne, surrounded by her maids. The second card 
shews a woman as vazir on a gandnli, and the other ten cards have pictures of 
women, from one to ten. 9^7/, Surapati, the king of the divinities {deotah), also 
called Indar, on a throne. Tlie vazir sits on a gandali, and the ten other 
cards have pictures of divinities from one to ten. lO^A, -4 «rpa<*, the lord 
of genii {deo). The card represents Sulaiman, son of D6ud, on the throne. 
The vazir sits on a gandali, and the other ten cards have genii. Wth, Bempati, 
tlie king of wild beasts. The card represents a tiger (jsher) with some 
other animals. The vazir is drawn in the shape of a leopard {pdUmg) and 
the other ten cards are pictures of wild beasts, as usual from one to ten. 
\2th, Ahipati, the king of snakes. The first card shews a serpent mounted 
on a dragon, whilst the vazf r is a serpent riding on another serpent of the 
same kind. The remaining ten cards shew serpents, from one to ten. 


The first six of these twelve suits are called hishhar (powerful^, and the 
BIX last, kambar (weak). 

His Majesty has also made some suitable alterations in the cards. 
Thus the Dhanpati, or lord of treasures, is represented as a man distributing 
money. The yazir sits on a gandali, and inspects the Treasury ; but the 
ten other cards of this suit are representations of the ten classes of work- 
men employed in the Treasury, viz., the jeweller, the melter, the piece»cutter 
{mufaIJaS'8dz)y the weighman, the coiner, the muhur counter, the hit-ikchi 
(writer) of dhan pieces (vide p. 30, No. 17), the hitikchi of man pieces (vide 
p. 30, No. 20), the dealer, the qurggar {vide p. 23, No. 15). His Majesty 
liad also the king of assigimients painted on the cards, who inspects /annon^, 
grants, and the leaves of the daftar (vide p. 260) ; the vazir sits on a 
^andaU with the daftar before him ; the other cards show officers employed 
in the Financial Department, as the paper maker, the mistar maker (vide 
p. 52, Note 5), the clerk who makes the entries in the Daftar, the illuminator 
(mvfatrfrtr), the naqqdsh (who ornaments the pages), the jadwdlhaah (who 
draws blue and gold lines on the pages), the farmdn writer, the mujallid 
(bookbinder), the rangrez^ (who stains the paper with different colours). 
The Padithah i qimdsh also, or king of manufactures, is painted in great state, 
looking at different things, as Thibetan yaks, silk, silken stuSa, The vazir 
dts near him on a gandaii, enquiring into former proceedings. The other 
ten cards represent beasts of burden. Again, the Padishah % Chang , or 
lord of the lyre, is painted sitting on a throne, and listening to music ; 
the vazir sits before him, enquiring into the circumstances of the 
performers, of whom pictures are g^ven on the remaining cards. Next, 
the Padishah i zar i safid, or king of silver, who is painted distributing 
nipees and other silver coins ; the vazir sits on a ^andali, and makes 
enquiries r^^arding donations. On the other cards, the workmen of the 
cQver mint are depicted, as before those of the gold mint. Then comes the 
Padishah ishatnsher, or king of the sword, who is painted trying the steel 
of a sword. The vazir sits upon a gandalt, and inspects the arsenal ; the 
other cards contain pictures of armourers, polishers, &c. After him comes 
the Padishah i Tdj,^ or king of the diadem. He confers royal insignia, and 
the fandali upon which the vazir sits, is the last of the insignia. The ten 
other cards contain pictures of workmen, as tailors, quilters, &c. Lastly, 
ihe Padishdh i Ohuldmdn, OT king of the slaves, sits on an elephant, and 
the vazir on a cart The other cards are representations of servants, some 

* Hua 18 the Hindustani corruption of 
the Persian rangraz. 

* Tdj ID often translated by a crown ; 
but tdj ts a cap worn by orieutal kiugs 

instead of the crown of occidental kings. 
Hence the word diadem does not express 
the meaning of tdj either. 


of whom sit, some lie on tlie ground in worship, some are drunk, others 
sober, &e. 

Besides these ordinary games of cards, His Majesty also plays chess, 
four-handed and two-handed. His chief ohject is to test the value of men, 
and to estaldish harmony and good fellow-feeling at Court. 

Ara 30. 

At first I intended, in speaking of the Grandees of the Court, to record 
the deeds which raised them to their exalted positions, to describe their quali- 
ties, and to say something of their experience. But I am unwilling to bestow 
mere praise ; in fact, it does not become the encomiast of His Majesty to 
praise others, and I should act against my sense of truthfulness, were I 
but to mention that which is praiseworthy, and to pass in silence over that 
which cannot bo approved of. I shall therefore merely record, in form of a 
table, their names and the titles which have been conferred upon them. 

/. Comvumders of Ten Thousand. 

1. Shah'za'dah Sulta'n Sali'm, eldest son of His Majesty. 

II. Commanders of Eight Thousatid. 

2. Sha'hz'adah Sulta'n Mura'd, second son of His Majesty. 

III. Commanders of Seven Thousand. 

3. Sha'hza'dah Sulta'n Da'nyal, third son of His Majesty. 
Akbar had //re sons— 

1. Hasaii ") ^^.^g^ ^^ 3j.^ ijj^^j. j^ 972, They only lived one month. 

Ji. xlUKilUl } 

3. Sultan Salim [Jahangir], 

4. Sultan Murad. 

5. Sultan Danyal. 

Of daughters, I find three mentioned — (a.) Sbahzadah Khanom, bom three 
months after Salim, in 977. (6.) Shukrunnisa Begum, who in 1001 was married to 

* From the fact that Ahulfazl mentions 
in his list of Grandees Prince Kliusrau, 
(vide No. 4) who was born in 995, hut 
not Prince Pai-wiz, who wiis born in 997, 
we might conchide that the table was com- 
piled prior to 997. But from my note to 
p. 246, it would appear that the beginning 
of the list refers to a time prior to 993, 
and Ahulfazl may have afterward added 
Khusrau's name, though it is difficult 
to sav why he did not add the names of 
Parwiz and Shahjahan, both of whom 
were born before the Ain was completed. 

Again, Mirza Shahnikh (No. 7) and 
Mirza Muzaftar Husain (No. 8) are men- 
tioned as a Commanders of Five Thousand, 
though they were appointed in 1001 and 

1003 respectively, t. c, a short tim6 
before the Ain was completed. 

Tlie biographical notices which I have 
given after the names of the more illos- 
trious grandees are chiefly taken from a 
M S . copy of the Madsir ul Umard (So. 77 
of the MSS. of the As. Soc. Bengal), the 
Tiizuk i Jahdngiri, the Tabaqati Akbart, 
Baddontt and the Akhamdmah. For the 
convenience of the student of Indian 
History, I have added a genealogical 
table of the House of Timur, and would 
refer the reader to a more detailed articld 
on the Chronology of l^ur and his De- 
scendants, published by me in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
for August, 1869. 


Mtna Sh&hrakh (No. 7, below, p. 312) ; and (c.) Ardm B4nu Begam ; both bom afler 
Saltan Ddny&L Begarding the death' of the last Begum, vide Tuzuk, p. 386. 

Of Akbar's wives the following are mentioned : — 1. Sultan Raqijah Begum 
(a daughter of Mirz4 Hind&l), who died 84 years old, 7th Jumida I, 1035, (Tuzuk, 
p. 401). She was Akbar's first wife (zan i kaldn), but had no child by him. She tended 
Shabjahan. Ndr Jah&n (Jah&ngir's wife) also stayed with her after the murder of 
8her Afkan. 2. Sult4n Salimah Begum. She was a daughter of Gulrukh (P) Begum^ 
(a daughter of B4bar) and Mirz& Nuruddin Muhammad. Humayun had destined 
her for Bairim Kh&n, who married her in the beginning of Akbar's reign. After the 
death of Bairam, Akbar, in 968, married her. She died 10th ZS. Qa'dah, 1021. As a 
poeUes, she is known under the name Mahkfi (concealed), and must not be confounded 
with Zebunnisi' (a daughter of Aurangzeb's), who has the same poetical name. 3. The 
daughter of R4jah Bih4ri Mai and sister of R&jah Bhagawdn Das. Akbar married her 
in 968, at Sdnbbar. 4. The beautiful wife of 'Abdulw&si\ married in 970, (vide Bad. 
II, 61). 6. Jodh B4i, or Princess of Jodhpur, the mother of Jahdngir. Her 
name is not mentioned by any Muhammadan historian. As Akbar's mother had the 
title of Maryam Makdnt, so was Jodh Bai called Maryam uzzamdnu She died in 
&e month of Bigab 1032, A. H. {Tuzuk, p. 361). The Tiizuk expresses a hope ' that 
God will receive her in His mercy ; for Jahdngir's mother, though a Hindu, could not 
well ' be sent to hell.' 6. Bibi Daulat Sh4d, mother of (b.) and (e.) ; vide Tuzuk, p. 16. 
7. A daughter of 'Abdullah Khan Mughul (964). 8. A daughter of Miran Mu- 
barik Shah of Khandes ; vide p. 13, note. 

Sultin Salim. Title as Emperor, Jah&nglr. Title after death, JannatmakdnL 
Bom at Fathpur Sikri, on Wednesday, 17th Rabi' I, 977, or 18th Shahriwar of the 
14th year of Akbar's Era. He was called Salinij because he was born in the house of 
Shaikh Salim i ChishtL Akbar used to call him Shaikhu Bdhd (vide Tuzuk, p. 1). For 
his wives and children, vide below. No. 4. Jahanglr died on the 28th Pafar 1037 (28th 
October, 1627) near Bajor on the Kashmir frontier. Vide my article on Jah4ngir in the 
Calcatta Review for October, 1869. 

Sultan Murad, Akbar's fourth son, was bom on Thursday, 3rd Muharram, 978, 
and died of delirium tremens in 1006, at Jalnapur in Barar (Tuzuk, p. 16 ; Akbar- 
nimah II, p. 443 ; Khafi Kh&n, p. 212). He was nicknamed Fahdri (Bad. II, 378). 
He was sabsBrang (of a livid complexion), thin, and tall (Tuzuk), A daughter of his 
was married to Prince Parwiz, Jahdngir's son (Tuzuk) y p. 38.) 

Sul^n D&ny&l was bom at Ajmir, on the 10th Jumdda I., 979, and died of delirium 
tremens, A. H. 1013. Kh4fi Khan, I. p. 232, says, the news of his death reached Akbar 
in the beginning of 1014. He was called D&nyal in remembrance of Shaikh Ddny41, a 
feUowerof Mu'in i Chishti, to whose tomb at Ajmfr Akbar, in the beginning of 
his reign, often made pilgrimages. D&ny41 married, in the beginning of 1002, the 
dftog^bter of Qnlij Kh4n (No. 42), and towards the end of 1006, J&nan Begum, a 
dauf^htor of Mirz4 'Abdorrahim Kh&n Kh&nan (Khafl Kh4n, p. 213), and was 
betrothed to a daughter of Ibr&him 'Adilshih of Bljapur ; but he died before the 

* Begarding her, vide Journal, A. S. 
of Bengal for 1869, p. 136, note. 

* Her charming Diwan was litho- 

graphed at Lucknow, A. H. 1284. She 
was the eldest daughter of Aurangzeb 
and was bom in 1048, A. H. 


Tnarrlapfc was cons^umniatt'd. He had three sons : — 1. Tahmuras, wbo was married to 
Sultjiii Biihar Begum, a daughter of Jahangir. 2. Bajasanghar (^ii-^U). 3. 
Hoshang, who was married to Hoshmaiid Banii Begum, a daughter of Khuerau. 
Besides, he had four daughters whose names are not mentioned. One of tbem, 
Bulaqi Begum, was married to Mirza Wall (Tuz., p. 272). Tahmuras and Hoshang 
were killed hy A9af Khan after the death of Jahangir (vide Proceedings, A». 
Society of Bengal, for August 18oi>). Nothing appears to be known regarding the fata 
of Bayasanghar. Vide Calcuttii Review for October, 1869. 

Danyal is represented a.s well built, good looking, fond of horses and elephanti, 
and clever in composing Hindustani poems. 

IV, CommancUrg of Five Thousand, 

4. Sulta'n Ehusrau, eldest son of Prince SaUm [Jahfingir]. 

Jahangir 8 icives (Tuzuk, p. SI, and Preface, p. 6). A daughter of R^ah Bhagawan 
Da«, married in 993, gave birth, in 994, to Sultanunnisa Begum \^KhdJt Khd^ 
Sultan Begum], and in 995 to Prince Khusrau. She poisoned herself with opium in 
a fit of madness apparently brought on by the behaviour of Khusrau and her younger 
brother Madhii Singh, in 1011 (Khafi Khan, p. 227). 2. A daughter of fiai Rai 
Singh, son of R/ii Kalyan Mai of Bikanir, married 19th Rjgab 994, Bad. II, p. 353. 
She is not mentioned in the Tuzuk among Jahangir's wives. 3. A daughter of Odai 
Singh, [Mot'h Rajah], son of Rajah Maldeo, married in 994 The Tuxulc (p. 6) calls her 
Jagat Gosayinl. She is the mother of Shahjahan, and died in 1028, (Tuzuk, p. 268). 
4. A daughter of Khwajah Htisan, the uncle of Zain Khan Kokah. She ia the mother 
of Prince Parwiz. She died 16th Tir, 1007. 5. A daughter of Rajah Keshu Das of 
Rat'hor. She is the mother of Bahar Banii Begum (bom 23rd Shahriwar 998). 6. and 
7. The mothers of Jahandar and Shahryar. 8. A daughter of 'All Rai, ruler of Uttle 
Thibet (Bad. II, 376), married in 999. 9. A daughter of Jagat Singh, eldest son of 
Rtijah Man Singh (Tuzuk, p. 68). 10. Mihrunnisa Khanum, the widow of Sher Afkan. 
On her marriage with Jahangir she received the title of Nur Mahall, and was later 
called Nur Jahan. (Tuz. p. 156). Jahangir does not appear to have had children by 
Nur Jahan. 

Jahangir s children. 1. Sultan Khusrau. 2. Sultan Parwiz. 3. Sultan 
Khurram (Shahjahan). 4. Sultan Jahandar. 6. Sultan Shahryar. Two daughter! 
are mentioned : — (a.) Sultan Nisar Begum ; (b.) Sultan Bahar Banii Begum. There 
were * several children' after Parwiz ; but the Tuzuk (p. 8) does not give their names. 
They appear to have died soon after their birth. 

Sultan Khusrau wiu> born on the 24th Amurdad 996, (Tuzuk, Prefece) ; but 
Khafi Khan says 997. He was married to a daughter of A'zam Kh4n Kokah. His 
sons — 1. Baland Akhtar, who died when young, Tuzuk, p. 73. 2. Dawar Bakhsh, 
(also called Bulaqi)* whose daughter, Hoshmand Band Begum, was married to 
Hoshang, son of Danyal. 3. Garshasp. 

Khusrau died on the 18th Isfandiy4nuuz, 1031. He lies buried in the Khusrau 
Gardens in Allahabad. Dawar Bakhsh was proclaimed Emperor by A^af Khan aft^r 

* The MSS. spell this name ^J>^ and ^J)iy,. 


the d«Bth of Jahangir ; but at the order of Sh6hjah&n, he was killed, together with 
kiB brother Ghurehasp, by A^af Khan. 

StU^dn Parvdz, bom 19th Ab4n, 997. He was married to a daughter of Mirza 
Bustam i ^a&wi (No. 9) and had a son who died when young (Tuz. p. 282). A daughter 
of Parwiz was married to Ddr4 Shikoh. Parwiz died of delirium tremens in 1036. 

aiUidn Xhurram [Shalyahan] was bom at L4hor on the 30th Kabl' 1, 1000 
A. H. Begarding his femily, vide Proceedings A. S. of Bengal, for August 1869, p. 219. 

He was Akbar's favorite. 

8^dn Jahdnddr had no children. He and Sulfdn Shahrydr were bom about 
the same time, a few months before Akbar's death {Tuz. Preface, p. 17). Shahryar 
was married, in the 16th year of Jahingir, to Mihrunnisd, the daughter of Niir Jahan 
kj Sher Afkan, and had a daughter by her, Arz&ni Begum (Tuzuk, p. 370). The Iqldl- 
ndmak (p. 306) calls her ^^X^ ^5;^. From his want of abilities, he got the nickname 
Ndikudani (fit for nothing). Khusrau, Parwiz, and Jahandar died before their father. 

Shahryar, at the instigation of Ndr Jah&n, proclaimed himself Emperor at Labor 
a few days after the death of Jah&ngir. He was killed either at the order of Dawar 
ftUchsh or of A^ Khan ; vide Proceedings A. S. Bengal for August 1869, p. 218. 

6. ICi^raa' Sidaiina'iiy son of Eh&n Mirz^, son of Salt&n Mahmdd, son of 
Ab6 Sa'id. 

6. ICi'rza' Ibra'him, son of Mirzd Snlaimin (No. 5.) 

Mirzd Sulaimdn was bom in 920, and died at L&hor in 997. He is generally 
called Wdli % Badakkshdn, As grandson of Abii Sa'id Mirza, he is i^e sixth descen- 
dant fipom Tlmur. Abu Said killed Sult&n Muhammad of Badakhshan, the last of a 
series of kings who traced their descent to Alexander the Great, ayd took possession of 
Badakhsh4n, which after his death fell to his son, Sult4n Mahmud, who had three 
sons, Biyasanghar Mirz4, 'AK Mirza,^ Khan Mirza. When Mahmud died. Amir 
Khusrau Khan, one of his nobles, blinded Bayasanghar, killed the second prince, and 
ruled as usurper. He submitted to Babar in 910. When B4bar took Qandah&r, in 
912, finom Shah Beg Arghun, he sent Kh&n Mirz4 as governor to Badakhsh&n. 
Mirz4 Sulaiman is the son of this Kh4n Mirz4.' 

After the death of Elhan Mirza, Badakhsh&n was governed for Babar by Prince 
Humayiin, Sult4n Uwais (Mirz4 Sulaiman 's father-in-law). Prince Hindal, and lastly, 
by Mirz4 Sulaimin, who held Badakhshan till 17 Jumdda II, 948, when he had to sur- 
render himself and his son, Mirza Ibrdhim, to Prince Kamr4n. They were released by 
Humayiin in 952, aud took again possession of Badakhshin. When Humayun had 
taken K4bul, he made war upon and defeated Mirz4 Sulaimdn who once in possession 
of his country, had refused to submit ; but when the return of K4mr4n &om Sind 
obi]|i^ Humayun to go to K4bul, he reinstated the Mirz4, who held Badakhshdn till 
Bent on making conquests, he invaded in 967 Balkh, but had to return. His 

Ittirzi Ibr&hfm, was killed in battle.* 

* . 

■ The Madsir ul Umard calls the his birth being the word 

•eeond son. Mirz4 Mas'M. • Hence he never was a grandee 

• oT^"" w"^^ ?*?*• ^^1 ^^4^"^ of Akbar's Court, and has been put on 


In the eif^hth year when Mirza Muhammad Hakim's (Akbar's brother) mother 
had been kilkul by Shah Abul Ma' ani, Mirza S. went to Kabul, and had Abul Maali 
hant^ed ; lie then married his own dau«^hter to M. M. Hakun, and appointed Umed 
'AH, a Badakhshan noble, M. M. Hakim's Vakil (970). But M. M. Hakim did not 
^0 on well with Mirza Sulaiman, who returned next 3'ear to Kabul with hostile inten- 
tions ; but M. M. Hakim iled and asked Akbar for assistance, so that Mirza S., though 
he had taken Jalakibad, had to return to Badakhshan. He returned to Kabul in 973, 
when Akbar's troops had left that country, but retreated on being promised tribute. 

Mirza Siilaiman's wife was Khurram Begum, of the Qibchak tribe. She wan 
clever and had her husband so much in her power, that he did nothing without her 
advice. Her enemy was Muhtarim Khiinum, the widow of Prince Kamran. M. Sulaimui 
wanted to marry her ; but Khurram Begum got her married, against her will, to 
Mirza Ibrjihim, by whom she had a son, Mirza Shahrukh (No. 7). When Mirza 
Ibrahim fell in the war with Balkh, Khurram Begum wanted to send the Khanum to 
her father. Shah Muhammad of Kslshgar ; but she refused to go. As soon as Shahrukh 
had grown up, his mother and some Badakhshi nobles excited him to rebel against his 
grandfather M. Sulainum. This he did, alternately rebelling and again making peaoe. 
Khurram Begum then died. Shahrukh took away those parts of Badakhshan which his 
father had held, and found so many adherent-s, that M. Sulaiman, pretending to go on a 
pilgrimage to Makkah, left Badakhshan for Kabul, and crossing the Nilab went to 
India (983). Khan Jahiin, governor of the Panjab, received orders to invade Badakh- 
shan, but was suddenly ordered to go to Bengal, as Mun'im Khan had died and Mirza 
Sulaiman did not care for the governorship of Bengal, which Akbar had given him. 

M Sulaiman then went to Isma'il II. of Persia. When the death of that monarch 
deprived him of the assistance which he had just received, he went to Muzafiar Hasain 
Mirza (No. 8) at Qandahar, and then to M. M. Hakim at Kabul. Not succeeding in 
raising disturbances in Kabul, he made for the frontier of Badakhshan, and luckily 
finding some adlierents, he managed to get from his grandson the territory between 
Tdiqdn and the Hindu Kush. Soon after Muhtarim Khanum died. Being again 
pressed by Shahrukh, M. Sulaiman applied for help to 'Abdullah Khan Uzbak, king of 
Tiiran, who had long wished to annex Badakhshan. He invaded and took the country 
in 992; Shahrukh fled to Hindustan, and M. Sulaiman to Kabul. As he could not 
recover Badakhshan, and rendered destitute by the death of M. M. Hakim, he followed 
the example of his grandson, and repaired to the court of Akbar who made him a 
Commander of six thousand. 

A few years later, he died at Labor, at the age of seventy-seven. 

7. Mi'rza' Sha'hrukh, son of Mirza Ibrahim. 

Vide Nos. 5 and 6. Akbar, in 1001, gave him his daughter ShukrunnL^a Begum, 
and made him governor of Malwah, and he distinguished himself in the conqnest of the 
Dak'hin. Towards the end of Akbar's reign, he was made a Commander of seven 
thousand, and was continued in his Manual) by Jahangir. 

He died at Ujain in 1016. His wife, -ff^a^MZt i^c^rz^m, was a daughter of Mira 
Muhammad Hakim. She wanted to take his body to Madinah, but was robbed by the 
Badawis ; and afler handing over the body to some * scoundrels,' she went to Basrah, 
and then to Shiraz. In 1022, Shah 'Abbas mamed her to Mirza Sultan 'All, his uncle, 
whom he had blinded ; but the Begum did not like her new husband. 


Skdkrukh*s Children. 1. Hasan and Husain, twins. Hasan fled with Elhusrau 
lad was imprisoned by Jahanglr. 2. Badi'uzzaman (or Mirz4 Fathpuri), ' a bundle 
of wicked bones/ murdered by his brothers in Patan (Gujrat). 3. Mirzd Shuja rose 
to honoors under Sh4hjah&n, who called him N^abat Khd.n. 4. Mirzd Muhammad 
Zaman. He held a town in Badakhsh4n, and fell against the Uzbaks. 5. Mirz4 
Saltan, a favorite of Jahangir. He had many wives, and Jahangir would have given 
him his own daughter in marriage, if he had not perjured himself in trying to conceal the 
number of his wives. He fell in disgrace, was appointed governor of Gh4zipur, where 
he died. 6. Mirza Mughul, who did not distinguish himself either. The Tuzuk 
(p. 65) says that after the death of Sh4hrukh, Jahangir took charge of four of his sons, 
and three of his daughters, ' whom Akbar had not known.' ' Shahrukh, though 
twenty years in India, could not speak a word of Hindi.' 

8. Hinsa Muzafllear Husam, son of Bahr&m Mirz^ soa of Shdh Ismd'il 
i pafawi. 

In 966, Sh4h Tahmasp of Persia (930 to 984) conquered Qandahar, which was 
given, tt^ether with Da war and Garmsfr as far as the river Hirmand, to Sul^in Husaiu 
Mirza, his nephew. Sultan Husain M. died in 984, when Shah Ism&'il II (981 to 
U85) was king of Persia, and left five children, Muhammad Husain M(rz4, Muzaffar 
Hnsiun Mirza, Rustam Mirza, Abu Sa'id Mlrzd, and Sanjar Mirz4. The first was killed 
by 8h4h Ism4'ilin rr4n. Th^ other four in Qandah4r had also been doomed ; but the 
arrival of the news of the sudden death of the Shah saved their lives. The new Shah, 
Khodabandah, gave Qandahar to Muzaffar Husain Mirz4, and Dawar as far as the 
Hirmand to Rustam Mirza, who was accompanied by his two younger brothers, th^ir 
Vakil being Hamzah B^ Zul Qadr, or Kor Hamzah, an old servant of their feither. The 
arbit'raiy behaviour of the Yakil caused Muzaffar Husain Mirz4 to take up arms against 
him, and after some alternate fighting and peace-making, Muzaffar had the Vakil mur- 
dered. This led to fights between Muzaffar and Mirza Rustam who, however, returned 
to Dawar. 

Not long after, the invasion of Khurasan by the Uzbaks under Din Muhammad 
Saltan and Baqi Sult4n (a sister's son of 'Abdullah Khan of Turau) took place, and 
the Qandah4r territory being continually exposed to incursions, the country was. un- 
settled. Most Qiztib4sh g^ndees fell in the everlasting fights, and the Sh4h of Persia 
promised assistance, but rendered none ; Mirz4 Rustam who had gone to Hindust4n, was 
appointed by Akbar Governor of L4hor, and kept Qandah4r in anxiety ; and Muzaffar 
hesitatingly resolved to hand over Qandahar to Akbar, though 'Abdullah Kh4n of Tdr4n 
advised him not to join the Chagatai kings (the Mugkuls of India). At that time Qar4 
Beg (an old servant of Muzaffar's father, who had fled to India, and was appointed 
Farrdshbegi by Akbar) returned to Qandahar, and prevailed upon Muzaffar's mother 
and ekiest son to bring about the annexation of Qmdahar to India. 

Akbar sent Beg Kh4n Arghun, Governor of Bangish, to take prompt possession of 
(^ndahnr, and though, as in all his undertakings, Muzaffar wavered the last moment 
ud had reoourse to trickery, he was obliged by the firm and prudent behaviour of Beg 
Khan, in 1003, to go to Akbar. He received the title of Farzand (son), was made a 
Couunander of five thooaand, and received Sambhal as Jagir, *' which is more worth 
than all (^dahdr." 


But the ryots of his jagir preferred complaints against his grasping collectors, and 
Muzaffar, annoyed at this, applied to go to Makkah. No sooner had Akbar granted 
this request than Muzaffar repented. He was reinstated, but as new complaints were 
pielerred, Akbar took away the jagir, and paid him a salary in cash (1CH>5). Muzaffar 
then went to Makkah, but returned ailer reaching the first stage, which displeased 
Akbar so much, that he refused to have anything to do with him. 

Muzallar found everything in India bad, and sometimes resolved to go to Persia^ 
and sometimes to JMiikkah. From grief and disapjiointment, and a bodily hurt, he 
died in 1008. 

His daughter, called QandaJidr MahaU, was in 1018 married to Shahjahan, and 
gave birth, in 1020, to Nawab Parhez Banii Begum. 

Three sons of his remained in India, Bahram Mirza, Haidar Mirza, (who rose to 
dignity under Shahjahan, and died in 1041), and Ismail Mirza. The Madair men- 
tions two other sons, Alqiis Miiva and Tahmas Mirza. 

Muzafliir's younger brothers, Miraa Abu Sa'id, and Mirza Sanjar, died in 1005- 
They held commands of Three hundred and fifty. (Vide Nos. 271 and 272.) 

9. Mirza Rustam. — He is the younger, but more talented brother of the pre- 
ceding. As the revenue of Da war was insufhcient for him and his two younger 
brothers, he made war on Malik Mahmud, ruler of Sis tun. Muzaffar Husain assisted 
him at first, but having married Malik Mahmud's daughter, he turned against 
Ruatam. This caused a rupture between the brothers. Assisted by Lallah (guardian) 
Hamzah Beg, M. Rustam invaded Qandahar, but without result. During the 
invrision of the Uzbaks into Khurasan, he conquered the town of Farah, and bravely 
held his own. Some time after, he again attacked Malik Mahmud, The latter wish- 
ed to settle matters amica])ly. During an interview, Rustam seized him, and killed 
him, wlien Jalaluddin, IMahmiid's son, took up arms. Rustam was defeated, and 
hearing that his brother Muzaffar had occupied Dawar, he quickly took the town of 
Qaliit. Being once absent on a hunting expedition, he nearly lost the town, and 
though he took revenge on the conspirators who had also killed his mother, he 
ifclt himself so insecure, that he resolved to join Akbar. Accompanied by hia brother* 
Saiy'ar Mirza, and his own four sons Murad, Shahrukh, Hasan, and Ibrahim, he went 
in 1001 to India. Akbiir nuido him a Panjhazdri, and gave him Multan as jagiri 
"which is more than Qjiiiduhiir." His inferiors being too oppressive, Akbar, in 
1003, wished to give him Chit or, but recalled him from Sarhind, gave him Pat'h4n as 
tui/iil, and sent him, together with A'cjaf Khan against Rajah Basu. But as both 
did not get on well together, Akbar called M. Rustam to court, appointing Jagat 
Singh, son of Rajah ]\Ian Singh, in his stead. In 1006, M. Rustam got Raisin as 
jagir. He then served under Prince Danyal in the Dak'hin. In 1021, Jahangir 
appointed him Governor of T'hat'hah, but recalled him as he ill-treated the ArghunB. 
Afler the marriage of his daughter with Prince Parwiz, Jahangir made him Shash' 
hazdri, and appointed him Governor of Allahabad. He held the fort against 'AbduUah 
Khan whom Shahjahf'm, after taking possession ot Bengal and Bihar, had sent against 
Allahabad, and forced 'Abdullah to retire to Jhosi. In the 2lBt year, he was appoint€d 
Governor of Bihar, but was pensioned off as too old by Sh4hjali4n at 120000 Rs. per 
annum, and retired to A'grah. In the sixth year, M. Rustam married his daughter to 
Prince Dara Shikoh. He died, in 1051, at Agrah, 72 years old. 


Ab a poet lie is known under the taJchalhu; of Fiddi. He was a man of the world 
and onderstood the spirit of the age. All his sons held suhsequently posts of distinction. 

His first son Murdd got from Jah&ngir the title of Iltifdt Khdn, He was mar- 
ried to a daughter of 'Ahdurrahim Ehan £[hdn4n. Mur4d s son, Mirza Makram 
Khan, also distinguished himself; he died in 1080. 

His third son Mirzd Hasan i (jafawi, a Hazdr o panqadt under Jahangir, was 
Governor of XucA ; died 1069. Hasan's son, Mirzd Qafehikan, was Paujdar of 
Jesaore in Bengal, retired, and died in 1073. ^a&hikan's son, Sat fuddin i Qafawi, 
accepted the title of Khan under Aurangzeh. 

10. Bairam Khan, the fifth in descent from Mir 'Ali Shukr BegBahdrlu. 

Bahdrlu is the name of a principal clan of the QadLqdilii Turks. During the time 
<^ their ascendancy, under Qara Ytisuf, and his sons Qar4 Sikandar and Mirza Jahan 
3iah, rulers of 'Ir4q i 'Arah and Azarh4ij4n, 'Ali Shukr Beg held Dainiir, Hamadan, 
and Kurdist&n, " which tracts are still called the territory of 'AH Shukr." His son 
Pir 'All Beg stayed some time with Sult4n Mahmud Mirz4, and attacked afterwards 
^he Governor of Shiriz, but was defeated. He was killed by some of the Amirs of 
Saltan Husain Mlrz4. Fir AH B^'s son, in the reign of Sh&h Ismd'il i Cafawi, left 
Irftq, settl^ in Badakhsh4n, and entered the service of Amir Khusrau Sh4h (vide 
p. 311, 1. 26) at Qunduz. He then joined, with his son Saif 'All Beg, Babar's army 
as Amir Khusrau had been deposed. Saif 'All Beg is Bairam's father. 

Bairam Elian was born at Badakhshdn. After the death of his Either he went to 
Baikh to study. When sixteen years old, he entered Humayiiu's army, fought in the 
battle of C^maiy (10th Muharram, 947), and fled to the Rajah of Lak'hnor (Sambhal). 
%er Sh4h met Bair4m in M41wah, and tried to win him over. But Bairam fled &om 
Barhimpiir with Abul Q4sim, governor of Grwaliar, to Gujr4t. They were surprised, on 
Uie road, by an ambassador of Sher Sh4h who just returned from 6ujr4t. Abul Qasim, 
a man of imposing stature, being mistaken for Bairam, the latter stepped forward and 
said in a manly voice, " I am Bairam." "No," said Abul Qasim, "he is my attend- 
ant, and brave and faithful as he is, he wishes to sacrifice himself for me. So let 
him ofi*." Abul Qasim was then killed, and Bair4m escaped to Sul^ Mahmtid of 
Gujrat. Under the pretext of sailing for Makkah, Bairam embarked at Surat for 
iSndh. He joined Humayun on the 7th Muharram, 950, when the Emperor, after 
paasing through the territory of Bajah M41deo, was pressed by the Arghiins at 
Jon. On the march to Persia, he proved the most faithful attendant. The King of 
Persia also liked him, and made him a Kh4n. On Humay tin's return, Bairam was 
sent on a mission to Prince Kamr4n. When Hum4yun marched to Kabul, he took 
Qandahar by force and treachery from the Qizilbashes, and making Bair4m governor 
of the district, he informed the Sh4h that he had done so as Bairam was ' a Mthful 
servaDt of both.' Subsequently rumours regarding Bair4m's duplicity reached 
Humayun ; but when in 961, the Emperor returned to Qandah4r, the rumours turned 
oat ialse. 

The conquest of India may justly be ascribed to Bairam. He gained the battle of 
Machhiw4rah, and received Sambhal as jaglr. In 963, he was appointed atdltq 
(guardian) of Prince Akbar, with whom he went to the Panjab against Sikandar Khan. 
On Akbar s accession (2nd Rabi 'II, 963) at Kalanur, he was appointed Waktl and 


KJk'ui Klu'innn, aiwl recoived the title o^ Khan Bdhd. On the second of Shawwal, 904, 
sliortly ulkr the surrender of Mankot, when Akbar returned to Labor, an imperial 
elephiuit ran n;^^ainst Bairam's tent, and Bairara blamed Atgah Kban (No. 15), 
Avho never hiul been his friend, for this accident. The Atgah, after arrival at Labor, 
went with his whole family to Bairuin, and attested his innocence by an oath upon the 
Quran.* In t»()-^, Bairam married Salimah Sultan Begum (p, 309, note,) and soon 
atUr, the ivstiaiii^emont commenced between Akbur and him. Badaoni (11, p. 36) 
altrilmtes the fall of Bairam to the illtreatment of Pir Muhammad (No. 20) and the 
intluenco of Adliam Khan, and his mother Mahum Anagah (Akbar's nurse), Ciddiq 
Muluminiad Kban, Shihabuddin Ahmad, &c., who etiectually complained of the 
wretchedness of their jagirs, and the emptiness of the Treasury, whilst Bairam Khan's 
friends lived in afttuence. The Tabaqdi i Akbari says that no less than twenty-live 
of Bairam's friends reached the dignity of Paiijhazaris — rather a proof of Bairam's 
gift of selecting proper men. Bairam's fall is known from the Histories. "Akbar's 
trick resembles exactly that which Sidtiln Abii Sa'id i Mughul adopted towards his 
minister Amir Chauban. (Bad.) 

On hearing the news tliat Akbar had assumed the reigns of the government* 
Bairam left A'grah, and sent his friends who had advised him to go to Akbar, to Court 
He himself went under the pretext ot going to Makkah to Mewat and Nagor, irom 
where he returned his insignia, which reached Akbar at Jhujhar ; for Akbar was on 
liis way to the Panjab, which Bairam, as it was said, wished to invade. The insignia 
were confen-ed on Pir Muhammad Khan, Bairam's old jprot^^e; and he was ordered 
to see him embark for Makkah. Bairam felt much irritated at this ; and finding the 
road to Gujrat occupied by Bajab Maldeo, his enemy, he proceeded to Bik4nir to his 
friend Kalyiin Mai (No. 1)3). But unable to restrain himself any longer, he entrusted 
his property, his family, and his young son 'AbduiTahIm (No. 29) to Sher Muham- 
mad Dfwanah, his adopted son and j.Mgir holder of Tabai'hiudah, and broke out in 

' So Bad. II, 19. The story in 
Elphinstone (Fifth edition), p. 497, does 

not agree with ilie soure. >. 


The Akbar- 
namaii says, Bairam was on board a ship 
on the .lamnah, when one of Akbar's 
clopbants ran into the water and nearly 
n])set the lH)at. Abnlfazl. moreover, refers 
it to a later period than 9(! J. TJie author 
of the K>i(icd)iih i Akhayi luis a tine critical 
note on Abulfazl's account. I would re- 
mark here that as long we have no trans- 
lation (f all the sources for a history 
of Akbar's reign, European Historians 
should make the Sawdnih i Akbari the 
basis of their labours. This work is a 
modern compilation dedicated to William 
Kirkpatrick, and was compiled by 
Amir Haidar of Belgram from the 
Akbamamah, the Tabiuiat, Badaoni, Fi- 
i-ishtah, the Akbanidmah by Shaikh 
lldhddd of ISarhind (pcK'tically called 
i^aizi ; vide Journal As. Soc. Bengal for 

1868, p. 10) and AbulfazFt Utters, of 
which the compiler had four books. 
The sources in italics have never been 
used by preceding historians. This work 
is perhaps the only critical historical 
work written by a native, and con- 
iirms an opinion which I have else- 
where expressed, that those portions of 
Indian History for which we have several 
sources, are full of the most astounding 
discrepancies as to details. 

Belgram was a great seat of Mnham- 
madan learning from the times of Akbar 
to the present century. For the literati 
of the town vide the Tazkirah by Ghulam 
'AH Azad, entitled Sarw % Azdd, 

The author of the Sawdnih i Alebofi 
states that Abulfazl does not shew mach 
friendliness to Bairam, whilst ErsloDe 
(Elphinstone, p. 496, note) represents 
Abulfazl as " Bairam's warm panegyrbt." 


open rebellion. At Dipalpur, on his way to the Panjab, he heard that Diw&nah had 
squandered the property left in his charge, had insnlted his family, and had sent 
Hazaffiur 'All (whom Bairam had despatched to IXwdnah to settle matters) to Court a 
prisoner. Mortified at this, Bairam resolved to take Jalindhar. Akbar now moved a^inst 
him ; bat before he reached him, he heard that Bairam had been defeated^ by Atgah Khan 
(No. 16), Bair&m fled to Fort Tilw&rah on the banks of the Bayah, followed by Akbar. 
Fighting ensued. In the very beginning, Sult4n Husain Jaldir was killed ; and when 
his head was brought to Bair&m,' he was so sorry, that he sent to Akbar and asked for- 
^reness. This was granted, and Bairdm, accompanied by the principal grandees, went to 
Akbar's tent, and was pardoned. After staying for two days longer with Mun'im 
Kh4n, he received a sum of money, and was sent to Makkah. The whole camp made 
a collection fchaitdoghj. H4ji Muhammad of Sist4n (No. 55) accompanied Bairam over 
Kagor to Patau (Nahrwalah) in Gujrat, where he was hospitably received by Miisa 
Khioi Fdladi, the governor. On Friday, 14th Jumida I, 968, while alighting from 
a boat after a trip on the Sahansa Lang Tank, Bairam was stabbed by a Loh4ni Aighdu 
of the name of Mubaiik, whose &ther had been killed in the battle of Machhiwarah. 
" With an Alldhu Akbar on his lips, he died." The motive of Mubarik Kh4n is said 
to have merely been revenge. Another reason is mentioned. The Kashmiri wife of 
Salim Sh&h with her daughter had attached herself to Bairdm's suite, in order to go 
io Hij4z, and it had been settled that Bairdm's son should be betrothed to her, which 
annoyed the Afghins. Some beggars lifted up Bair4m's body, and took it to the tomb of 
Shaikh Husamuddin. Seventeen years later the body was interred in holy ground at 

Akbar took chaise of 'Abdurrahim, Bairdm s son {oide No. 29), and married soon 
after Salfmah Sultan Begum, Bairlun's widow. 

For jAj^, Bairdm, we oft»n find the spelling /^^ Bairam. Firishtah generally 
calls him Bairam E[h4n Turkman. Bairdm was a Shi'ah, and a poet of no mean pre- 
tensions (vide Badaoni III, p. 190). 

11. Mim'iin Khan, son of Bairam* Beg. 

Nothing appears to be known of the circumstances of his father. Mun'im Khan was 
a grandee of Humdyun's Court, as also his brother FazH Beg. Wlien Humayun, on 
his flight to Persia, was hard pressed by Mirzd Shah Husain of T'hafhah, one grandee 
after another went quietly away. M. and Fazil Beg also were on the point of doing so, 
when Humaytin made them prisoners, as he had done from motives of prudence and 
policy with several other nobles. M. did not, however, accompany Humdyun to Persia. 
He rejoined him immediately on his return, and rose at once to high dignity. He reject- 
ed the governorship of Qandahar, which was given to Bairam Khan. In 961, he was 
appointed atdliq of Prince Akbar ; and when Humayiin invaded India, M. was left as 
governor of Kdbul in charge of Mirzd Muhammad Hakim, Akbar's brother, then about 

* Near j^^^ii^ (^^jy^^^) ^^ ^® ^^' 

g*ii*h j\^^ [Bad. ; j\^^ Madsir ; 

jlA^d Sawdnih] near Jalindhar. For 

i>*^y, Bad. (II, 40) has j^)^. 

Firiiihtah says (Lucknow edit., p. 249) the 

fight took place outside of Machhiwarah. 

• The madsir mentions this fact with- 
out giving the source. 

* Some MSS. read Miram ; but Bai- 
ram is the preferable reading. 


a year old. In Kabul M. remained till Bairam fell into diRjrrace. He joined Akbar, 
in Zi Haijah, 967, at Liidhianah, where Akbar encamped on bis expedition againut 
Bairam. M. wjis then appointed Khdn Khdndu and Vakil. 

In the Hoventb year of Akbar'a rei^^n, when Adliam Khan (No. 19) killed AtgahEhan 
(No. 16), Alun'im who liad been the insti^^ator, iled twice from Court, but was caught the 
second time i