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Full text of "The Ain I Akbari"

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HARVARD LAW SCHOOL 
LIBRARY 



Received JUL 2 9 1938 



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Wtnasr 



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THE 

e-t 



AiN I AKBARI 



BY 



ABUL FAZI^ ALLAMI, 

i 

TRANSLATED FROM THE bRIGINAL PERSIAN. 



BY 

COLONEL H. S. JARRETT, 

8BCBETARY AMO MEMDBB, BOARD OF BXAMINEBS, CALCUTTA^ 



PUBLISHED BY THE ASLA.TIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL. 



VOL. II. 



■■— I 



CALCUTTA : 
jPrimted at thb ^aptist ^ission ^rsss. 

1891. 



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^Uv 



JUL 2 9 1938 



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PREFACE. 



Though the reason that has compelled a change of author- 
ship in the continued translation of the Ain i Akhari i3 
doubtless universally known, the regretful duty of its for- 
mal announcement is imperatirei in the introduction of this 
volume. The early and somewhi^t sudden death of Professor 
Blochmann is a loss which Oriental literature may be per- 
mitted to share with his personal friends, and its regrets, 
though differing in kind and measure from theirs, will not be 
less grateful to his memory from its independence of associa- 
tions in which friendship bears a part, and as a testimony to his 
appreciation in a wider sphere where partial judgments have 
no sway. This is not the place to pass in review his services to 
letters which have been adequately commemorated elsewhere 
by the Asiatic Society of Bengal for whom he so largely 
laboured, but as commissioned by their authority to continue 
the work which death has snatched from an able hand, it is 
fitting that these few words from his successor should record 
the unfortunate necessity of their action. It was at one time 
supposed that the manuscript of the whole translation had 
been completed by Professor Blochmann and prepared for the 
pressj but whatever the origin of the rumour, no trace of the 
work was discovered amongst his papers, and the interval of 
five years between the conclusion of the first volume and his 
death, leaves little doubt that the report had no foundation. 
His preface deplores or excuses the delay that had already oc- 
curred in the translation of the volume then issued, and 
could not have omitted mention of the early completion of 
the whole were the manuscript of the remainder ready for 
publication. The enumeration of the diflGlculties which stood 



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ir PRBFICT. 

in his way is expressed in terms which imply that they had 
not been overcome, else his silence, when silence might be 
interpreted to his prejudice, is inexplicable. It may be, 
therefore, safely assumed that want of leisure, or other 
weighty reason, had hindered his continuance of a work which 
had become the preoccupation of his most serious study and 
which he hoped to leave to posterity as a record that he had 
not toiled in vain. But the event was otherwise ordained. 

While sensible of the hpnour conferred upon me by the 
Asiatic Society in selecting ijie for the duty of entering upon 
the labours and sharing the reward of my predecessor, I 
cannot but express my diffidence in presenting this second 
volume to public notice under their auspices, lest a com- 
parison should discredit the wisdom of the choice. But 
whatever the verdict of those competent from linguistic 
knowledge and acquaintance with the abrupt, close and 
enigmatic style of the original to judge of the merits of 
the translation, no pains at least have been spared to 
render it a faithful counterpart consistently with a clear- 
ness of statement which the text does not everywhere 
show. The peculiar tone and spirit of Abul Fazl are 
difficult to catch and to sustain in a foreign tongue. His 
style, in my opinion, is not deserving of imitation even in 
his own. His merits as a writer have, in general, been great- 
ly exaggerated. Omitting the contemporary and interest- 
ing memoirs of Al Baddoni, whose scathing comments on the 
deeds and motives of king and minister have an independent 
value of their own, the accident that Abul Fazl's works 
form the most complete and authoritative history of 
the events of Akbar's reign, has given them a great and 
pectQiar importance as state records. This they eminently 
deserve, but as exemplars of style, in comparison with the 
immutable types of excellence fixed for ever by Greece and 
Bome, they have no place. His unique position in Akbar's 



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PBEFAGE. V 

court and service enhanced the reputation of all that he 
wrote, and his great industry in a position which secured 
wealth and invited indolence, fully merited the admiration 
of his countrymen. B/Cgarded as a statistician, no details 
from the revenues of a province to the cost of a pine-apple, 
from the organisation of an army and the grades and 
duties of the nohility to the shape of a candlestick and the 
price of a curry-comb, are beyond his miscrospic and patient 
investigation : as an annalist, the movements and conduct 
of his sovereign are surrounded with the impeccability 
that fences and deifies Oriental despotism, and chronicled 
with none of the skill and power, and more than the flattery 
of Velleius Paterculus : as a finished diplomatist, his 
letters to recalcitrant generals and rebellious viceroys are 
Eastern models of astute persuasion, veiling threats with 
compliments, and insinuating rewards and promises with- 
out committing his master to their fulfilment. But these 
epistles which form one of his monuments to fame, consist 
of interminable sentences involved in frequent parentheses 
difficult to unravel, and paralleled in the West only by 
the decadence of taste, soaring in prose, as Gibbon justly 
remarks, to the vicious affectation of poetry, and in poetry 
sinking below the flatness and insipidity of prose, which 
characterizes Byzantine eloquence in the tenth century. 
A similar affectation, and probably its prototype, is to be 
found in the most approved Arab masters of florid com- 
position of the same epoch, held by Ibn Khallikan's 
erade and undisciplined criticism to be the perfection 
of art, and which still remains in Hindustan the ideal 
of every aspiring scribe. His annals have none of the 
pregnant meaning and poiht that in a few masterly strokes, 
efxalt or brand a name to all time, and flash the actors of his 
dxama across the living page in scenes that dwell for ever in 
tiie memory. The history of nearly forty-six years of his 



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VI PREFACE. 

master's reign contains not a line that lives in household 
words among his own countrymen, not a heautiful image 
that the mind delights to recall, not a description that rises to 
great power or pathos, nor the unconscious simplicity re- 
deeming its wearisome length which lends such a charm to 
Herodotus, and which in the very exordium of Thucydides, 
in Lucian's happy phrase, breathes the fragrance of Attic 
thyme. His narrative affects a quaint and stiff phraseology 
which renders it often obscure, and continues in an even 
monotone, never rising or falling save in reference to the 
Emperor whose lightest mention compels the adoring pro- 
stration of his pen, and round whom the world of his 
characters and events revolves as its central sun. What- 
ever its merit as a faithful representation, in a restrict- 
ed sense, of a reign in which he was a capable and distin- 
guished actor, it lacks the interesting details and portraiture 
of the life and manners of the nation which are commonly 
thought to be below the dignity of history but which brighten 
the pages of Eastern historians less celebrated than himself, 
and are necessary to the light and shade of a perfect picture. 
His statistical and geographical survey of the empire which 
this volume comprises is a laborious though somewhat lifeless 
compilation, of the first importance indeed as a record of a 
past and almost forgotten administration to guide and in- 
struct the historian of the future or the statesman of to-day, 
but iminf ormed by deductive comment and illustration which 
might relieve the long array of bald detail. His historical 
summaries of dynasties and events in the various S6bahs 
under their ancient autonomous rule, are incoherent abridg- 
ments, often so obscurely phrased as not to be under- 
stood without a previous knowledge of the events to which 
they relate and his meaning is rather to be conjectured than 
elicited from the grammatical analysis of his sentences. 
The sources from which he drew his information are never 



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* PREFACE. Vii 

acknowledged. This of itself would have been of no mo- 
ment and their indication might perhaps have disturbed 
the unity of his design had he otherwise so incorporated the 
labours of others with his own as to stamp the whole with 
the impress of originality, but he not seldom extracts passages 
word for word from other authors undeterred by the fear, or 
heedl^s of the charge, of plagiarism. 

Such, in my opinion, is the reverse of the medal which 
represents Abul Fazl unrivalled as a writer and beyond the 
reach of imitation. The fashion of exaggerating the impor- 
tance and merits of a subject or an author by those who 
make them their special study, especially when that study 
lies outside the common track of letters, inevitably brings 
its own retribution and ends by casting general discredit on 
what in its place and of its kind has its due share of honour 
or utility. The merit and the only merit of the Ain i 
Akbari is in what it tells and not in the manner of its tell- 
ing which has little to recommend it. It will deservedly 
go down to posterity as a unique compilation of the 
systems of administration and control throughout the vari- 
ous departments of Government in a great empire, faith- 
fully and minutely recorded in their smallest detail, with 
such an array of facts illustrative of its extent, resources, 
condition, population, industry and wealth as the abundant 
material supplied from official sources could furnish. This 
in itself is praise and fortune of no common order and it 
needs not the fictitious ascription of unparalleled powers of 
historiography in its support. The value of the Ain in this 
regard has been universally acknowledged by European 
scholars and it may not be out of place to quote here the 
opinion of the learned Beinaud on this work in his 1st vol. 
of the Geographic d 'Abulfeda, as it accurately represents its 
nature and worth and the style and quality of its literary 
ocHiipositicm. 



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Viii FEEFAOE. 

L 'Indemusulmane nous offre, dans les commencements 
du xvii* sitele, un ouvrage de compilation, qui est d'un 
grand int^rfet pour la gdographie; c'est le traits persan, 
compost par Aboul-Pazel, ministre de 1* empereur mogol 
Akbar, et intitule Ayyn-Akbery ou Institutes d* Akbar, par 
suite de 1' int^rfet qu* Akbar avait apport^ h. sa composition. 
L' empire fond^ dans 1' Inde par Babour, un des descendants 
de Tamerlan, avait pris, sous le r^gne d' Akbar, une grande 
extension et s' ^tendait depuis V Afganistan jusqu 'au fond 
du golfe du Bengale, depuis V Himalaia jusqu'au Dekhan. 
Gritce k Texcellent gouvemement dtabli par Akbar, les 
provinces, pendant longtemps ravag^es par les guerres intes- 
tines, avaient acquis une physionomie nouvelle. D*un autre 
c6t4, les vues lib^rales de I'empereur et de son ministre 
n'avaient rien de commun avec I'esprit ^troit et exclusif qui 
caract^rise Tislamisme, et ils avaient fait traduire en persan 
les meilleurs livres de la litt^rature sanscrite. Aboul-Eazel, 
se mettant a la t^te d'une soci^t^ de savants, entreprit une 
description g^ographique, physique et historique de Tempire, 
accompagn^e de tableaux statistiques. Ghacun des seize sou- 
bah ou gouvernements dont se composait alors Tempire 
mogol, y est decrit avec une minutieuse exactitude ; la situa- 
tion g^ographique et relative des villes et des bourgs y est 
indiqude ; T^num^ration des produits naturels et industriciS 
y est soigneusement trac^e, ainsi que la nomenclature des 
princes, soit idol£btres, soit musulmans, auxquels les soubah 
avaient €i^ soumis avant d'etre enclaves dans Tempire. On 
trouve ensuite un expos^ de T^tat militaire de Tempire, et 
r^numdration de ce qui composait la maison du souverain, etc. 
L'ouvrage se termine par un precis, fait en g^n^ral d'apr^s 
les sources indigenes, de la religion brahmanique, des divers 
syst^mes de la philosophic hindoue, etc. 

L'auteur^ par une recherche d'^rudition deplac4e» a 
effects le style des anciens auteurs persans ; on a souvent de 



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PEEFAOB. IX 

la peine a le comprendre. En 1783, Francis Gladwin, en- 
conrag^ par le gouvemeur g^n^ral Hastings, publia une ver- 
sion anglaise abr^g^e de Touvrage. Plao^ aussi favorable- 
ment qu'il V 6tait et aid6 des oonseils des indigenes, il vint 
k bout de difficult^s qui auraient 4t4 partout ailleurs insur- 
montables. La version anglaise, plusieurs fois r^imprim6e, 
se r^pandit h la fois dans Tlnde et en Europe, et cette pub- 
lication n'a pas ^t^, surtout dans les commencements, sans 
influence sur les progr^s des etudes indiennes. 

Maintenant, si on entreprenait une nouvelle Edition de 
la version de Gladwin, Ton pourrait la rendre d'un usage en- 
core plus utile. L*ouvrage fourmille de noms indigenes, 
particuli^rement de mots sanscrits, et ces mots, en passant k 
travers les caract^res de Talphabet arabe, ont souvent subi d* 
horribles alterations. Au temps de Gladwin, Ton n'^tait 
pas assez avanc6 dans les etudes indiennes pour rendre k ces 
mots leur veritable physionomie, Maintenant, un indianiste 
qui saurait passablement le persan, rdtablirait facilement les 
termes dans leur veritable 4tat. Pour ma part, dans le cours 
de mes travaux sur Tlnde, j'ai fait subir des corrections k 
la transcription, au fur et a mesure des besoins. 

Je ne dois pas n^gliger de dire un mot sur la table des 
noms de lieux, reproduite dans la version anglaise en carac- 
t^res arabes avec leur transcription, et dispos^e d'aprfes Tordre 
des sept climats. Non-seulement beaucoup de noms sont 
alt^r^, mais encore les noms sont places au hasard. En ce 
qui conceme la confusion, elle existe dans le texte original. 
Svidemment, la personne qui dans le principe, f ut charg^e 
de dresser cette table, 6tait pen au courant de la geographic. . 

The criticism of Gladwin's version is just and this deli- 
eate animadversion I desire to imitate. His di£B.culties with 
varying and corrupt MSS. from which he had to translate 
were very considerable, and it is much to his credit that he 
has on the whole succeeded so well. But it is not to be 



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I 

r 



PREFACE. 



denied that omissions are frequent and considerable and that 
he has often misconstrued his author and thus led those who 
followed and relied on him astray. In the Tables of Longi- 
tudes and Latitudes in the fourth book, the geographical 
names whether Persian or English are quite untrustworthy 
and very few are correctly spelt or transliterated. Much of 
the burden of this blame is to be laid on the original text which 
has been composed or transcribed without intelligence, 
discrimination or geographical knowledge, and for purposes 
of reference is so frequently incorrect as to be worthless. 
The fourth and fifth books which form the concluding 
volume of this work are now in course of translation and if 
the little leisure I can command will permit of it, I trust 
that their publication will not long be delayed. The constant 
elucidation which the text requires, involves no inconsider- 
able research which, while it lightens the exertion and en- 
courages the patience of the reader, is among the transla- 
tor's most anxious and laborious tasks. I have dispensed 
with two indices, such as are appended to the first volume, 
the advantage of which I have not been able to discover. 
There appears to me no more reason for distinguishing 
geographical from other proper names than for disjoining 
names of men from those of women, or animate from in- 
animate objects. I have therefore included all in a single 
index. The names of the towns and villages in the list of 
Sarkdrs, twice recorded by Abul Fazl both under the Ten 
Years' Settlement (p. 88. et aeq.) and in the histories of the 
Stibahs, have not been separately entered, to avoid augment- 
ing the index without necessity. A reference to the S6bah 
and then to the Sarkdr will suffice to trace the location 
of any particular town. 

H. S. Jarrett. 



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CONTENTS. 



BOOK THIRD. 











Page 






The Divine Era, 


... 


... 


1 






The Era op thb Hindus, 


... 


... 


15 






Thb KhatXi Era, 


«.• 




19 






The Turkish Era, 


... 


... 


20 






Names of the twelve years op the 


Cycle, 


••• 


21 






The Astrological Era, ... 


••. 


■•. 


ib. 






The Era op Adam, 


•«• 


.*• 


tb. 






The Jewish Era, 


••• 


... 


ib. 






The Era of the Deluge, 


.«. 


... 


22 






The Era op Bukht Na^ar (Nebuchadnezzar), 


■*. 


ib. 






The Era op Philippus (ARRHiDiius), 


... 


r.. 


23 






The Coptic Era,... 


... 


,. 


ib. 






The Stro-Macedonlln Era, ... 


•«• 


.«■ 


24 






The Augustan Era, 


.. • 


... 


25 






The Christian Era, 


, , , 


... 


26 






The Era op Antoninus op Rome, 


... 


• .. 


ib. 






The Era op Diocletian op Rome, 


•#• 


... 


ib. 






The Era op the Hijra, 


... 


... 


ib. 






The Era op Yazdajird, 


••. 


• •• 


28 






The Maliki Era, 


... 


1.. 


29 






The Kh/niEra,... 


... 


... 


ib. 






The Il/hi Era, ... 


..« 


!•• 


80 


SL'in 


I.- 


—The Commander op the Forces, 


.•• 


• a. 


37 


» 


II.' 


—The Foujd/r, ... 


..• 


... 


40 


99 


IIL- 


—The MIr Adl and the ^izi,... 


..• 




4.1 


99 


IV.- 


—The Kotw/l, 


«.. 


• t* 


ib. 


w 


V.- 


—The Collector op the Revenue, 


•»• 


• •• 


43 


» 


VI.- 


—The Bit(kchi, ... 


... 


... 


47 


» 


VII.- 


-The Treasurer, ... 


••. 


• •0 


49 


W 


VIII- 


-The Il/hi Gaz, ... 


..ff 


#•• 


58 


19 


IX.- 


-The TanA, 


•.• 


• t. 


61 


>» 


X.- 


—The BioHA, 


... 


... 


62 


f> 


XI.- 


—Land and its classipication, and the proportionate 








dues op Soyerbignty, ... 


■•• 


.•• 


ib. 



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CONTENTS. 



9f 



A'in XII.-*Ohaohae LAND, ... 
„ XIII. — Bahjablakd, ,„ 
„ XIV.— The Nineteen Ybabs' Bates, 
» XV.— The Ten Years' Settlement, 

MiLWAH, 

Account op the twelve SiJbahs, 

The SdBAH of Bengal, 

Obissa, 

Sarkdr OF Udne'e, „• 

„ „ Lakhnaittt, 
I, Fat^/bXd, 
„ Ma^mi^d/b/d, 

„ KHALiFAX/BiD, ... 

„ Bogl/, 

„ PrfBNITAH, 

„ T^jpi5h, 
„ Ghob/gh^t, 

„ PiNJABAH, 

„ BXbbaeXb^d, 
„ BXzoh/, 
„ SonXbg/o^, 
„ Sylhet, 
„ „ Chittagono, 

„ „ 8HABiFi(B/£>, 

„ „ SvLkmisihii}, ... 
„ ,1 S/tg/on, 

„ „ MADi^RAN, 

„ „ J ALB SAB, ... 

,. I, Bhadbak, '... 

„ „ KkTkK (Outtack), 
„ „ Kalang (PanppXt), 
„ „ BXj Mahandbah, 

s07ebeigns of bengal, 

Si$bah of BehXb, 

Sarkdr „ Bbhab, 

„ „ MONGHTR, ••• 

„ „ GHAHPiBAN, 

„ „ HXjIPIJB, 

„ S/ban, 

„ TiBHUT, 



Page 









.»* 


67 


• at 


ib. 


*.. 


69 


• •• 


88 


• •• 


112 


• •• 


115 


• •• 


ib. 


• •• 


126 


• •• 


129 


■ •• 


131 


■ •• 


182 


• •• 


ib. 


«t* 


184 


.»• 


ib. 


• •• 


ib. 


..« 


135 


• •• 


ib. 


• •• 


186 


• •• 


187 


• ■t 


ib. 


• •• 


138 


tc. 


189 


• •• 


ib. 


,,, 


ib. 


• •• 


140 


• •• 


ib. 


• •• 


141 


• a* 


142 


• t* 


143 


••• 


ib. 


0** 


144 


#•• 


ib. 


• •• 


ib. 


• •• 


149 


• •• 


158 


• •• 


154 


• •t 


156 


• •• 


ib. 


t.« 


ib. 


... 


156 



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COlfTlHTS. 



ZIU 



Sarkdr 

SdBAH 

Sarkdr 



ft 
ft 
t» 

»l 
ff 
99 



Sl$BAH 

Sarkdr 



SdSAH 

Sarkdr 



9> 
19 



SdBAH 

SarAwV 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
>9 



oy BOHTiS, •»• 

„ Allah/bXd, ••• 

„ AllahXrId, 

I, Gh/zip^b (EastX «•. 

„ BbnXbbb (East), «•• 

„ JaukpiJa (NobthX 

„ M/nikpi}b, ..« 

,1 OHAiriDAH (Ohava^a) South, 

,, ^hathehora (soutu), 

,, K/linjab (South), 

„ KoBABAH (Corah) West, 

,, EZabbah (WB8T), 

„ OUDH, .*. 

„ OUDH, 

,, GobakhpiJb, 
„ Bahbaioh, 

,, KnAIB^BiD, 
„ LUCKNOW, 
II AGBA| ••• 
„ AOBA, 
„ Ei^LPI, 

„ EoL (KoaX 

„ OWiCUOR, 
„ fRij, .« 
„ BkilinrJkX, 

„ NlBVAX, 
„ AlWAR, 

„ Tij/rih, 

„ N^BNOI., 

„ Sah/r, 
„ M/lwah, 
„ Ujjiin, 

„ lUlsiN, 
„ KUKAXIJ, 

„ Ohandb'bi, 

„ BiJA'aAiiA 
,. Mahdo 



Pag« 
,. 187 
. tfr. 
,. 161 
,. 162 
.. ib. 
,. 163 
>. 164 
. 165 
. 166 
. ib. 
. 167 
. ib. 
. 170 
. 178 
. 174 
. 176 
. ib. 
. 177 
,. 179 
,. 182 
. 184 
. ib. 
,. 186 
. 187 
I. ib. 
,. 188 
,. 189 
,. 190 
. 191 
,. 192 
. 193 
,. 196 
,. ib. 
,. 198 
,. 199 
,. ib. 
,. 201 
,. 203 
.. 204 
. 206 



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XIV 





CONTENTS. 






Page 


Sarkdr 


OF HiNpiAH, 


... 


... , 


... 207 


» 


„ NazarbXb, 


• •. 


• •• 


... 208 


» 


„ Mar6s<5r, 


• •• 


..• 


... lb. 


» 


„ G/eR<$N, 


• •• 




... 209 


«i 


„ K<5trI Pab/tah, 


■ •• 


... 


... ih. 


S07BRBIGNS OV Mi^LWAH, 




• •• 


... 210 


SubXh 


or DiCNDE^S, 


• •• 


• •• 


... 222 


Sarkdr 


„ Di^NDE'S, 


*•• 


... 


... 225 


SfjBiH 


„ Ber^r, 


•« 


... 


... 228 


SarJcdr 


„ GAWIL, 


#•• 


.•• 


... 232 


» 


„ PANiR, 


• tt 


• •• 


... 233 


» 


„ Khbrtjlh, 


.•• 


• tt 


... ib. 


}> 


„ Narn/lah, 


• •• 


tt« 


... 234 


ft 


,y Kallam (Ealamb), 


ttt 


... 235 


»» 


„ B^IM, 




• •• 


... ib. 


» 


„ Mi^HdB, 




... 


... ib. 


» 


„ Manikdruo, 




• tt 


tt. 286 


» 


„ PifTHRI, 




• tt 


... ib. 


>9 


„ Tbling/nah, 




t • • 


... 287 


»> 


„ B/nOHAR (BiCMQHAR), 


t»t 


ft ib. 


>f 


„ Mahkar, 


• •• 


• 


... lb. 


>t 


„ Batt/lah (Pit/lw/ri), 


• t» 


... %b. 


Si5bah 


„ GuJAr/t (GuZERi^T), 


• tt 


... 288 


PABftAKAHB OF THB TiMBB'l TRIBE, 


a»« 


... 246 


8(vrkdr 


OF Ajpmad/b^, 


••• 


••• 


... 262 


19 


„ Pattan, North, 


• t. 


••• 


... 254 


» 


„ N/d6t (Nandod) North, 


.•• 


••• ib. 


>f 


„ Baboda, South, 


... 


• •• 


... 256 


}> 


„ Bahr6oh (Broach) South, 


• tt 


... 16. 


» 


„ OhjCmpane'r, 


• •• 


.•• 


... 266 


» 


„ SdRAT, 


• •• 


• tt 


••• ib. 


» 


„ GODHRiC, 


>•• 


••■ 


... 257 


9> 


„ S6RATH, 


• •• 


ttt 


tt. 258 


Port DUTisg, 


«•• 


• •t 


.tt 259 


Prinoee 


\ OF Gujarat,- 


• •• 


• •• 


... 259 


StfBAH 


„ Ajmer (Ajmerb) 


,... 


••0 


... 267 


iSarArdr 


„ Ajme'r, 


,,, 


... 


... 272 


»> 


„ CHiT<$R, 


*•• 


tta 


... 278 


>} 


„ Eantanbh<5r, 


... 


• •• 


... 274 


» 


„ JODHPtfR, 


••• 


• •• 


... 276 



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CONTENTS. 






XV 

Tage 


Sarlcdr of SiBrfHi, 




•». 


... i6. 


„ „ NiCoOB, 




.tt 


... ih. 


„ „ Bikane'b, 




... 


... 277 


Si}ba.h of Dehu (Dblhi), 




• a. 


... 278 


Sarkdr of Delhi, 




««• 


... 285 


„ „ Bad/on, 




• •• 


... 288 


„ „ KUMiON, 






... 289 


„ p Sahbhal, 




• •• 


... ib. 


„ ,, SAHiCaANPl^B, 




... 


... 291 


1, ff Jn>B WARIy 




• t* 


... 293 


„ „ H19/B FiBdzAH (HisbXb), 


• •« 


... i6. 


„ „ SmHiNi), 


... 


... 


... 296 


SOVBBEIGNS OF DeLHI, 


... 


*•• 


... 297 


S6bAH of Li^HOB, 


••• 


• •• 


... 810 


Sarkdr of the Bet Klandhab Do/b, 


..* 


... 316 


„ „ „ B/biDo^b, 


... 


• •• 


... 818 


„ ,, ,, Bechn/u DOi^B, 


•0. 


... 819 


Chenhat (Jboh) Do^b, 


••• 


... 


... 821 


SiNDH SiOAB DoiB, 


... 


... 


... 322 


Betond the Pivb bivebs (Bib^n I Panjhad), 


325-330-333 


SdBAH OF MULT^N, 


••• 


... 


... 826 


Sarkdr of Mult/n. Foub Do/bs, 


• •* 


... 328 


Be't Jir.ANDHAB Do^B, 




• •• 


328-331 


B/bi Do/b, 




• *. 


829-332 


Rbchn/u Do/b, ... 




• *• 


830-333 


Bind S^gab Do/b, 




... 


.*• ih. 


Sarkdr of Dip/LFtjB, 




... 


... 331 


„ „ Bhakkab (Bukkur), 


.«• 


... 333 


Kings of MultXn, 




... 


... 834 


Sarkdr of Tattah, 




... 


... 836 


„ „ HXjKifN, 




... 


... 840 


,, ,, SsWISTiN, 




■ a. 


... %b. 


„ „ Na9ibpiJb, 




• «« 


... 841 


„ ,, ChakabhXlah, 




• •• 


... ih. 


Pbincbs of Tattah, 




.•• 


... ih. 


St^BAH OF K/bUL, 




... 


... 347 


Sarkdr of Kashmir, 




• t. 


... ih. 


The MabbXj Tract, 




... 


... 868 


Kamb/j Tract, ... 




• •• 


... 370 


Soyebeigns of KashmIr, 




• •• 


... 871 



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XVI 



vuni^fiiv. 


Page 


Sarhdr op Pakli, 


.. .•• 390 


„ „ Saw/d (Sw/t), ... 


... 391 


„ „ Daub, Baku and Ibakhail, . 


... 893 


„ „ ^andah/b, 


... ib. 


Dbpbndencies of ^andah/b, 


... 397 


SabkIb of KXbul, 


... 898 


Dbpbndencies of K/bul, ••• 


... 411 


•in XVI.— The Kab6h, or K6s, 


... 414 



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ADDENDA. 












CORRIGENDA. 






1 


line 


21 


for 


Taffil 


read Taf^fl. 


8- 




36 


i* 


Ans^ 


II 


Ans&rfl. 


9 




81 


)i 


Mathematioiam 


II 


Mathematioian. 


12 




9 


»» 


^ml 


II 


4imal. 


14 


„ 


3 


»» 


Sadhpdr 


M 


Siddhapdr. 


30 




note 


» 


cnrions 


It 


envioas. 


32 




6 


)i 


wahab 


It 


Wahb. 


32 




7 


If 


Marabbih 


II 


Manabbih. 


33 




2 


II 


*Ali 


„ 


Abi. 


88 




34 


II 


if 


II 


of. 


42 




28 


II 


or 


II 


nor. 


46 




note 


i» 


,^14. 


II 


{^i^ 


66 




,, 


It 


yshnri 


„ 


VTahrf. 


50 




6&8 


11 


l^wAkn 


II 


Fadd&n. 


57 




27 


II 


Tamaha 


II 


Tamghab. 


65 




15 


,, 


pignut 


It 


water ohestnat. 


118 




30 


II 


Tatoa 


II 


Tatoa. 


127 




note 4 


II 


after I G. 


11 


and. 


133 




28 


II 


Mardfdebh 


,, 


Mfliriifdeh. 


135 




27 


II 


Audalgao? 


II 


Andalg^o?. 


136 




35 


»» 


Aubel 


II 


Anbel. 


136 




36 


»» 


AabaH 


„ 


Amb&ri. 


154 




note 


»i 


Jai Ohanpa 


II 


Jai Champa. 


359 




24 


II 


B^bal 


II 


B&bil. 


388 




87 


i» 
1 


Ironoolast 


II 


Iconoclast. 




ADDENDA. 


« 



XV n 



Page 125, line 9, to Sherganj add the following note : 

Cisaa SinenBis, Briason. Cissa Venatoria, Blyth — the green }\j. It is found in 
the Soutb Eastern Himalayas and in the hill ranges of Assam, Sjlhet, Arakan and 
Tenaaserim. These birds wander aboat from tree to tree and pick grasshoppers, 
mantides and other insects, are frequently tamed and caged and are amusing and 
imitatiTe. They sing lustily a loud screeching strain and are highly carnivorous. The 
ihrike-like habit, in confinement, of placing a bit of food between the bars of their 
oage is in no species more exemplified than in this — Jerdon, II, 812. 
Page 56, line 6, to l^udan add following note : 

The text has ' k^d&n,' with a variant ' kulUn.' — I accepted the former without in- 
▼eaiigation at the time, but the true reading is Fadd^n (^t<3i) which means a certain 
neasiire of land, subdivided into 24 ij^ira^ — loosely reckoned as the quantity which 
a yoke of oxen will plough in one day and commonly defined as consisting of 333 1 
|afa6«^, ihe latter being 24 kah4ah, and the kab4ah being the measure of a man's fist 
witii the thumb erect, or about 6i inches. Lane's Arab. Lex. 



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book: TUXRTy, 

IMPERIAL ADMINISTEATION. 

Since somewhat of the recent imperial institutions regulating 
the Army and the Household have been set down, I shall now record 
the excellent ordinances of that sagacious intellect that energizes 
the world. 



ATN 1. 
THE DIVINE ERA. 

The connection of monetary transactions without fixity of date would 
Blip from the grasp, and through forgetfulness and falsehood raise a tamult 
of strife ; for this reason every community devises a remedy and fixes an 
epoch. Since thought fosters well-being and is an aid to facility (of action), 
to displace obsolete chronology and establish a new usage is a necessity of 
gOYernment. For this reason, the prince regent on the throne of felicity 
in the 29th year of the Divine Era,^ for the purpose of refreshing that plea- 
sure-ground of dominion and revenue, directed its irrigation and rendered 
blooming and lush the palace-garden of the State. 

(Compassing events within a determinate time, the Persian calls 
makross (date) ; the Arab has converted this into muarrakh (chronicled), 
and thence " tarikh (date) is a household word. Some derive the Arabic 
from irdkhy a wild bull. This conjugation of the measure of tdjaHl^ means, 
to polish. As ignorance of the time of an event grew less, it became dis- 



• 1586. See Vol. I, p. 196. The Use- 
fol TaUes pablished as an appendix to the 
loamal of the Asiatic Society, state 
tkat the date of the establishnient of the 
CCB is the thirtieth of Akbar's reign. 
It gives the epooh of the Ilahy era as 
falfingon Friday the 5th Babi us S4ni 
A. H. 908, corresponding with the 19th 
fchniAiy 1666. It is ased on inscrip- 
tipBSj eoins aand reoords of Jehangir's and 
teialloiwiiii^ raigna, but generally conp- 
M vHb the Hejira date. 
1 



' I can find no anthority for this 
statement — no dictionary that I have 
consnlted gives this meaning. Lane 
says that *■ tarikh' is an arabioized word 
according to some, borrowed apparently 

from the Hebrew H"!" " * month," or from 

t 

the Chaldean. Others say it is pnre Ara* 
bio. Al Biriini quotes Maimdn-b-Mihraii for 
the etymology of "Mahroz'* and * Tarikh.' 
A^har-iil BilfLijay* Sac(iaa's translation, 
p. 34. 



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tingnisbed by ibis name. Some assert tbat it is transposed from ' tdhhir 
wbicb is referring tb late period to an antecedent age. Otbers understand 
it to be a limit of time wherein an event determines. Tbej say " sncb 
a one is the tdrikh of bis tribe," tbat is, from wbom dates tbe nobility of bis 
line.^ It is commonly understood to be a definite day to wbicb subsequent 
time is referred and wbicb constitutes an epocb. On tbis account tbey 
cboose a day distinguisbed by some remarkable event,^ sucb as tbe birtb of 
a sect, a royal accession, a flood or an eartbqaake. By considerable labour 
and tbe aid of fortune, by constant divine worsbip and tbe observance of 
times, by illumination of tbe understanding and felicity of destiny, by tbe 
gathering together of far-seeing intelligences and by varied knowledge 
especially in the exact sciences and tbe Almigbty favour, observatories 
were built : wonderful upper and lower rooms with diversity of window 
and stair arose on elevated sites little affected by dust. 

By tbis means and with tbe aid of instruments sucb as tbe armillary 
sphere and others double-limbed and bi-tubular,* and tbe quadrant of 
altitude,* the astrolabe, tbe globe and otbers, the face of astronomy was 
illumined and the computation of the heavens, tbe position of tbe stars, tbe 
extent of their orbits in length and breadth, their distance from each other 
and from tbe earth, the compai'ative magnitude of the heavenly bodies and 
tbe like were ascertained. So great a work without the daily increasing aus- 
picioasness of a just monarch and his abundant solicitude, is not to be 



• The Arabic phrase is, ^Uy ;^p ^^ 

• This passage is so strikingly similar 
to the opening of the 3rd chapter of Al 
Biruni's Athar ul BfiJfiya that it can 
scarcely be accidental. There is nothing 
to hinder the supposition that Abfil 
Fazl Tras acquainted with that writer's 
works and not a little indebted to him. 

• I cannot determine accurately what 
these may be. No dictionary renders the 
expressions. It is possible that the first 
may be the ska'phium of Aristarchus 
which was a gnomon, the shadow of 
which • was received on a concave hemi- 
spherical surface, having the extremity 
of its style at the centre, so that angles 
might be measured directly by arcs in- 
stead of the tangents. The second may 
refer to the invention of Archimedes to 



ascertain the apparent diameter of the 
sun by an apparatus of double cylinders. 
There was another, too, of Aristarchus to 
find the distance of the sun by mea^nr- 
ing the angle of elongation of the moon 
when dichotomized. The kitah vl PihHst 
mentions only the astrolabe and the 
urmillary sphere, p. 284. S^iUot (Pro- 
logom^nes des Tables Astron. d'Olong 
Beg) speaks of a ** gnomon h trou " lued 
by Nafiruddin T<^. 

* So I venture to interpret the term. 
Dozy (Supplem. Diet. Airab.) quotes 
Berbrugger on this word "Buba^a-el- 
moudjihf le quart de oerole horodictiqae, 
instrument d'une grande simplicite dont 
ou fait usage pour oonnaitre I'heure par 
la hauteur du soleil." Moudjib should be 
" mu}2kyydb* 



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3 

aocomplislied. The gathering together of learned men of liheral minds is 
not achieyable simply by means of ample wealih, and the philosophic treatises 
of the past and the instiintions of the ancients cannot be secured without the 
most strennons endeayoors of the sovereign. With all this, thirty years 
are needed to obeerve a single revolution of the seven planets.^ The 
longer the period and the greater the care bestowed upon a task, the more 
perfect its completion. 

In this time-worn world of affliction Divine Providence has vouchsafed 
its aid to many who have attained considerable renown in these con- 
itrnctions, such as Archimedes, Aristarchus and Hipparchus in Egypt, from 
whose time to the present, the 40th year of the divine era, 1769 years have 
elapsed* ; such as Plotemy in Alexandria who flourished some 1410 years 
ago ; as the Caliph M&mtin in Baghdad, 790 years past, and Sind^ bin 'Ali 



^ The ancients gave the name of planets 
to the five planets risible to the naked 
eye, and the snn and inoon. The names of 
U» five— Mercnry, Venns, Mars, Jnpiter, 
and Saturn first oooor in the cosmical 
scheme of PhilolanB. (Lewis. Astron. 
of the Ancients) The thirty years must 
lefep to that planet of the seven occu- 
l^iBgthe longest period in its revolution, 
aamely , Saturn which wasthemost remote 
tiien known. It takes 29 years and 5^ 
nonths (very nearly) to return to the 
same place among the fixed stars, whether 
tl» centre of motion be the Snn or the 
Sarth. The Gopemican system had been 
pidilished fifty-six years before Abdl 
Ibd began this volume. 

' It is needless to say that all these 
I are very inexact. Archimedes flou- 
. 287-212 B. C. Aristarchus some- 
vftera about 280-264 B.O. and Hipparchus 
ii plaeed by Snidas at from B. G. 160 
ti 146, and yet they are all bracketed to- 
iMher. The date of Plotemy, illustrious 
M ha is as a mathematician, astronomer 
Mi gaogiBpfaer, is uncertain. He ob- 
IKviist Alezaadria, A. D. 139 and was 
llbft m A. D. 161. Mam^ snooeeded 
ii fta OaK^iato on 4he 24th September 
iMi Mb mmoA all Greek works that he 
' ta be translated, and in 



\ 



particular the Almagest of Plotemy. The 
real title of this work is MtydKri ^6trra^is 
rijf 'Affrpopofilas. There was another 
called fiadijfiartic/i trbrra^is. The Arabs, 
to distingpiish the two probably called 
the greater work /irydA?; and afterwards 
firyurrri and Almagest is a compound 
of the Greek with a prefix of the Arabic 
article. MamiiSn is said to have made 
the delivery of certain Greek MSS. at 
Gonstantinople, one of the conditions of 
peace with Michael the HI. He ordered 
the obliquity of the Ecliptic to bo ob- 
served at Baghdad which was found to 
be 23** 35', and less than some preceding 
observations had indicated. Another 
important operation was the measure of 
a degree of the terrestrial meridian. 
There is still preserved, a work composed 
under M&mdn's direction entitled, ac* 
cording to the Latin translation, Astro- 
nomia Elaborata a oompluribus D. X>, 
jnasu regis Maimun. (Encyol. Metro- 
politana. Art. Astron.) 

• Ahu Tayyih Sind-b-'Ali was a Jew 
converted to Islam in the Galiphate of 
M&mtin and was appointed his astronomer 
and superintendent of observatorieB. A 
list of his books may be fo^nd in the 
Kit^b ul Fihrist, p. 275, and in Hammer- 
Purgstall's Literaturgeeoh der Araber, p. 



k 



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4 



Eind Kbdlid' bin 'Abdal Malik al Marwazi 764 years since at Damascus. 
Hakim and Ibn^ Aa'lam also laid the foundations of an observatory at 
Baghdad which remained unfinished, 712 years, and Battani^ at Bacca 654 
years previous to this time. Three hundred and sixty-two solar years 
have passed since Khwdjah^ Na^ir of Tds built another at Muragha 



258, Vol. Ill, bat the latter is inexact 
and has in two plaoes misunderstood his 
original, the Fihrist : see also, Sedillot- 
Prolegomfenes d'Oloug Beg, Introd. ix. 

* Khalid^h-* Abdul Malik, A. H. 217 
(832) a native of Merv. He is included 
among three astronomers who first among 
the Arabs, instituted observations from 
the Shammasiyah observatory at Bagh- 
dad. His son MaJl^mmad b. Ehdlid was 
an astronomer in Mamdn's service. 
Ham. Purg. Lit. Gesch. der Arab. p. 259. 
Vol. III. and Sedillot. p. x. 

« Ibn u'l 'Aa'lam A. H. 376 (A. D. 985), 
stood in great credit with Adl^ad ud 
daulah, but finding himself in less estima- 
tion with his son Shamsud Daulah, he 
left the court but returned to Baghdad a 
year before his death. His astronomical 
tables were celebrated not onlj in his 
own time but by later astronomers. He 
died on his return from a pilgrimage to 
Mecca. Ibid. p. 311. Vol. V. Of Al 
Hdkimi, I can learn nothing. 

■ Muhammad b. Jdbir al Battdni, 
(Albatenius) a native of Harran and in- 
habitant of Bakka. His observations 
were begun in A. H. 264 (A. D. 877-8) 
and he continued them till A. H. 306. 
He died in 317 A. H. He was the author 
of the astronomical work entitled the 
Sabean tables. It is doubtful whether he 
embraced Islamism. His ancestors were 
Sabeans and he was probably so himself. 
In his table he marked the positions of 
the fixed stars in A. H. 299 (A. D. 911- 
12)« Among other works he wrote a 
treatise on the mode of calculating the 
amplitude of the Zodiacal signs for every 
latitude, which would be of use in the 



history of spherical trigonometry : also an 
explanation of Ptolemy's qitudripartitum. 
cf. Ibn KhallikAn. art al Battdni and 
the Fihrist, p. 279. In the Encyclop£edia 
Metropolitana it is stated that he was 
sumamed the Ptolemy of the Arabs. He 
corrected the determination of Ptolemy 
respecting the motion of the stars in 
longitude, ascertaining it to be one degp:«e 
in 70 instead of 100 years ; modern ob- 
servations make it one degree in 72 years. 
He also determined very exactly the 
eccentricity of the ecliptic and corrected 
the length of the year, making it con- 
sist of 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes, 
24 seconds, which is about 2 minutes 
short of but 4 minutes nearer the truth, 
than had been given by Ptolemy. Ho 
also discovered the motion of the apogee. 
His works have been collected and pub- 
lished in two vols. 4to. under the title of 
De Scientia Stellarv.m, of which there are 
two editions, one in 1537 and the other 
in 1646. 

* No^iru^ddin is the surname of 
Muhammad-b-Hassan or Ibn Mul^mmad 
at Tusi, often simply called Khwajah 
Na^iru'ddin (A. H. 697-672, or accord- 
ing to some 687). Hulaku the Tartar 
chief placed him at the head of the 
philosophers and astronomers whom his 
clemency had spared in the sack of 
Moslem towns, and gave him the ad- 
ministration of all the colleges in his ao- 
quired dominions. The town of Muragha 
in Azarbayj&n was assigned to him and 
he was ordered to prepare the astrono- 
mical tables which were termed Imperial 
(Elkhin). He studied and explained the 
elements of Euclid and wrote on the 



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near Tabriz and 156 is the age of that of Mirza Ulugh Beg^ in Samarkand. 
Basad signifies 'watching' in the Arabic tongue and the watchers, 
therefore, are a body who, in a specially-adapted edifice, observe the move- 
ments of the stars and stndy their aspects. The results of their investigations 
and their discoveries regarding these sublime mysteries are tabulated and 
reduced to writing. This is called an astronomical table (zij) . This word 
is an Arabicized form of the Persian,* ztk which means the threads that 
guide the embroiderers in weaving brocaded stuffs. In the same way, an 
astronomical table is a guide to the astronomer in recognising the conditions 
of the heavens, and the linear extensions and columns, in length and breadth, 
resemble these threads. It is said to be the Arabic rendering of zih from 



spherics of Theodosins and Menelaas in 
663 and 670. The Akhla^ i Na^iri, a 
work on morals was translated into 
Persian by this savant from the Arabic 
original the Kitab ut Taharat, written by 
Aba AH b. Maskawaih, minister of the 
hoQse of Bnwaib, with additions on do- 
mestic and political subjects. Gf. 
d'Herbelot art. Nassiraddin. S^dillot. 
Prolog. Introd. p. xcvii. Abnl Pharaj-ed. 
Poooke. 1663, p. 548 in which his death 
is placed in 675 A. H. 

* Ulngh Beg ( «-^ c!l "^t •-^•'l 

was the son of Shah Bnkh and grandson 
of Tamerlane bom at Snltanieh A. H. 
796, (A. D. 1393). In 810 he possessed 
tlie government of some provinces of 
Khorasin and Mazander^n and in 812, 
that of Tnrkistdn and Transoxania. He 
bowever, quickly abandoned politics 
■ad devoted himself passionately to 
^ favourite studies. He desired that 
kis tables should be scrupulously exact 
•nd procured the best instruments 
ihexL available. These at this period, 
were of extraordinary size. The obli- 
<Ittity of the ecliptic was observed in 
A, D» 995 with a quadrant of 15 cubits' 
»diM (21 feet 8 inches). The sextant 
of Abu Mu^ammed al Khojandi used in 
^ had a radios of 40 cubits (57 feet 



9 inches). The quadrant used by Ulugh 
Beg to determine the elevation of the 
pole at Samaroand, was as high as the 
summit of St. Sophia at Constantinople 
(about 180 feet). The astronomical 
tables were first published in A. H. 841 
(A. D. 1437). The ancient astronomy 
had produced only one catalogue of the 
fixed stars, that of Hipparchus. Ulngh 
Beg, after an interval of sixteen cen- 
turies, produced tbe second. Like all 
orientals he fell into the slough of 
astrology. The stars foretold his assas- 
sination. His suspicions pointed to 
his son, whom unmerited ill-treatment 
drove into rebellion and this brought 
about the catastrophe he dreaded. He 
was slain in 1449, and with his death 
closes the line of Arabian astronomers. 
A century and a half separates him 
from the great Keppler. Purbach, Re- 
giomontanus, Copernicus and Tjcho 
Brahe filled the interval and not a little 
of the honour accredited to Western as- 
tronomers is due to the labour of the 
Arabs. The subject is exhaustively dis- 
cussed by Sedillot. Prolegom. d'Oloug 
Beg, Vols. I and II. 

• See Sedillot. Prolog, des Tab. 
Ast. Tome I, p. 686. Note 1. whore 
the words of the text are almost literally 
given from Shah Kulji. 



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6 

the frequent necessitj of its use, which the intelligent will understand. 
Some maintain it to be Persian, signifying a mason's rnle, and as he, 
through its instrumentalitj determines the evenness of a building, so an 
astronomer aims at accuracy by means of this astronomical table. 

Many men have left such compilations to chronicle their fame. Among 
these are the Canons of 

1. Ma^a'r the Turk. 

There are two of this family whom SMllot terms the Benoa Amadjonr, vim,, ^ ^0 

if^y^\ jy^ ^ (^t ij^ cr^*^f J L^j^by^ ^' Hammer-Porgstall makes them the 
same person bat adds another name jy^'Ul/t ^ idDf*^ ^^^Iftityt Aooording to him, they 
were brothers, and the former was the anther of the Canon called al Bedi&or " the Wonder- 
fnl ;'* the latter of works on other astronomical tables with disputed titles. He appears to 
quote from the Fihrist and from Casiri who borrows from Ibn Jounis, bat the Fihrist dis- 
tinctly states that Aba'l Qasan was the son not the brother of AH b. Amajdr. Ibn 
Joanis speaks of Aba'l ]j|liLsim also, and as a native of Herat, AvpUfiit^yj ^^ which 

evidently refers to his Turkish orig^ bat mis -translated by Casiri and copied by Ham- 
Purgstall 'descended from the Pharaohs." (Sedillot. p. xxxix note). The Benon Ama- 
jur were astronomers of repute and made their observations between the years 885-933, 
leading the way to important discoveries. (Sed p. xxzv et seq), 

2. Hipparohus. 

3. Ptolemy. 

4. Pythagoras. 
6 Zoroaster. 

6. Theon of Alexandria. 

7. Sa'ma't the Greek. 

Another reading is S4bdt/ J:bL#) but I cannot recognize nor trace the name satis* 

factorily. The epithet ^ytj^ inclines me to believe the name to be that of a Oreek 

astronomer in Islamic times. 

8. Tha'bit-b-Kurrahb Hardnwasanativeof Harrin, of the Sabean sect, and 
rose to eminence in medicine, mathematics and philosophy, bom A. H. 221 (A. D. 836) 
died in A. H. 288 (A. D. 901). He was much favoured by the Caliph Al Mua'tadhid 
who kept him at Court as an astrologer. He wrote on the Spherics of Theodosius, 
and retranslated Euclid already turned into Arabic by Hunain-b-Isha^ al Ib^di. He 
was also author of a work in Syriac on the Sabean doctrines and the customs and 
ceremonies of their adherents. Ibn Khali. D'Herb. Sedillot. p. xxv. et seq. For a list 
of his works, see the Fihrist, p. 272. 

9. Hxisa'in b. Sina'n. (var. Shabin.) 

I believe the first name to be an error. The Fihrist mentions a son of Sinin with 
the patronymic Abul J^asan who is no doubt here meant. He was grandson of 
Thitbit-b-^urrah, and named also Thibit according to P'Herb. as well as Abdl ^asan 
after his grandfather. (Sedillot). Equally proficient in astronomy with his grandfather, 
he was also a celebrated physician and practised in Baghdad. He wrote a history of 
his own time from about A. H. 290 to his death in 360. Abdl Fiuraj speaks of it as 
an excellent work. See also Ibn Khali. De Slane. Vol. II. p. 289 and note 7. His 



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hiAet nmkn tiie son of Tli^bij>-b*Karrali, died at Baghdad A. H. 331. They were both 
Huranians, the last representatives of ancient Greek learning through whom Greek 
tdenoes were oommnnicated to the illiterate Arabs. Sin^ made a collection of meteo- 
rologioal obsenrations called the Kit&b nl anwi, compiled from ancient sonrces, incor- 
porated by Albironi in his Chronology, and thereby preserved to ns the most complete 
Ptoapegma of the ancient Greek world. Bee Albirdni. Ghronol. Saohan's Transl. 
p. 427. n. 

10. Thal>it.b-Ma'8a. 

I can find no such name The Fihrist g^res ThiLbit-b- Ah^sa, head of the Sabean 
sect in Harrin. 

11. Muhammad-b- Ja'bir sl Batta'ni. See p. 4, note 3. 

12. Ahmad-b-'Abdu'llah Jaba'. 

Jafaa is a copyist's error for Habsh ^Ji^J^ He was one of Al Itf amiin*s astronomers, 

and distinguished by the title of Al 9&sib or the Keckoner. He was employed by 
Mamin at Sinjar to observe the obliqnity of the Ecliptic and to test the measurements of 
geometrical degrees. He compiled a set of tables by the Caliph's order. Ham. Pnrg. 
B. m, p. 260. Abn'l Fara] (ed. 1663, p. 247} says that he was the author of three 
Canons ; the first modelled on the Sindhind, the second termed Mumtahan or Pro- 
Ten (after his return from his observations) and the third the Lesser Canon, known as 
tte ' Shih*. He lived to the age of a hundred. Though Ham. Purg. writes the name 
Hnbaysh ^^^^U^) and Habsh, the Fihrist and SediUot oonfirm the latter reading. A 

Hsi of this astronomer's works will be found in the last named work. 

13. Abu'Bayha'n. 

Abu Bayban-Mubammad-b-Abmad Albirdni, bom 862. A. H. (A. D. 978), d. 440. 
(A. D. 1048). For further particulars I refer the reader to Sachan's preface to the 
Indioa and the Chronology of this famous Savant. 

14. Khalid-b-'Abdu'l Malik. See p. 4 note 1. 

15. Tahya-b-Mansu'r. 

More correctly Yahya-b-Abi Ma^s^r, was one of Al M^mun's most famous astro- 
Bomen. Abu'l Faraj (p. 24B). says that he was appointed by that Caliph to the Sham- 
oUnya^ observatory at Baghdad and to that of Mount Kasiun at Damascus. The 
Pibzist gives a list of his works (p. 275) and (p. 143) his genealogy and descendants 
who appear to have shared and augmented their father's fame. He died about 833» 
(A H. 218) in Milmfin's expedition to Tarsus and was buried at Aleppo. 

16. Ha'mid Marwaru'di. 

This is doubtless, Abu 9^mid, A^mad-b-Mubammad as $^h£ni. ^^h&n is a town 
aear Marw. Ibn Khallik&n's derivation of Marwarrdd will explain the difference in the 
titular adjectives of place. I transcribe De Slane. Y. I, p. 60. " Marwarrudi means 
^athe of MarwarHidf a well-known city in Ehorasdn, built on a river, in Persian ar-rud, 
ttd situated 40 parasangs from Marw as Sh4hj&n ; these are the two Marws so frequent- 
ly mentioned by poets : the word Shahj&n is added to the name of the larger one from 
irhioh also is derived the relative adjective Marwaai ; the word rud is joined to that of 
the oUier dty in order to distinguish between them. ManoarHid has for relative 
lAjeetive Xarwarr6di and Marwazif also, according to as Sam^ni." Sh&hjin is, of course, 
Uljbiii. Abu 9&mid, was one of the first geometricians and astronomers of his time 
(1 879. A. H. 989J, and a maker of astrolabes at Baghdad and was employed to certify 
t^ oorrectness of the royal astronomical reports. Ham Purg. B. Y. 818. 



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8 

17. Mughl'thi. Perhaps, Mngbni f^^>kj\ tabolae astronomioae snfficienfces, 
mentioned by Hdji Khalifa, p. 568, Art. ^\ 

18. Sharki. (Var. Sharfi.) probably AbuT K^im as Saraki (<V;-Jl) o^ whom 
Casiri writes. 'AbMoassam Alsaraki Aractensis (of BAkka), AstrologiaB jndiciarisB et 
astronomisQ dootrina, uti etiam Tabalamm et Spherse peritia hand ignobilis, inter 
familiares atque intimos Saifeldanlati Ali-ben-Abdalla-ben Hamdan, per ea tempora 
Regis, habitns est, qaibnscnmqne Sermones Academioos freqnens conf erebat (Saifeldan- 
latus SyrisB Bex, anno Egiras 356 obiit. (Sedillot, p. xlviii.) 

19. Abu'l Wafa'-Nu'rha'ni. An error for B6zjdni. Bdzjin is a small town 
in the Nisdbur district in the direction of Herdt. He was bom A. H. 328 (939) d. 388 
(998). In his 20th year he settled in Irak. A list of his works will be found in the Fihrist, 
p. 283. Ham. Pnrg. B. V. 806. His Canon was termed " as Shimil." His most import»int 
work was the Almagest, which contains the formulas of tangents and secants employed by 
Arab geometricians in the same manner as in trigonometrical calculations of the present 
day. In the time of Al Battdni, sines were substituted for chords. By the introduction 
of tangents he simplified and shortened the expression of circular ratios. His antici- 
pation of the discoveries of Tycho Brahe, may be seen in Sed. p. ix. 

20. The Ja'mi*. (Plura continens) ^ 

21. The Bali'gh. (Summum attingens) > of Eyakushy&r. 

22. The 'Adhadi. ^ 

Kushydr-b-Kendn al ^anbali, t5*t^^t c>^ C^"* J^A wrote three Canons, ac- 
cording to Hdji Khalifa. Two were the J4mi' and the Salf ( C'^^ ) (Biligh is 
however, confirmed by D*Herbelot art Zig). These works were on stellar computations, 
on almanacs, the motions of the heavenly bodies and their number, supported by 
geometrical proofs. His compendium (mujmal) summarises their contents (p. 564.) The 
Jami' is again mentioned lower down as a work in 85 chapters applied by the author 
to rectify or elucidate the Persian era. He added to it a supplement in illustration 
of each chapter of the Jami' entitled t*^' ilLor^^^iUt ^ii^ rpj^^ ^.^^^.^ Canon is 
called simply jUJi^J^ ^j translated into Persian by Md-b-'Umar-b-Abi Talib at Tabrizi. 
This was probably dedicated te Adljad 'ud Daulah Alp Arslan lord of Khorasan who had 
condescended to accept this title from his creatare the feeble Kaim bi amri' llah at 
Baghdad. Hence, I conjecture, the name Ad^adi. 

23. Sulayma'n-b- Muhammad. Untraceable. This name does not occur in 
one of the MSS. of the Ain. 

24. Abu Ha'mid Ansa'ri. 

The only descendant of the Au^ars that I can find among the astronomers is Ibn us 
8hitir. d. 777 A. H. (1375) j the name was Alau'ddin, patronymic not given. See Haj. 
Khal. pp. 557. 566. It is possible that the celebrated Abu ^amid al Ghazzali may be 
meant. 

26. Safa'ih. Evidently the name of a Canon and not of its author. 

26. Abu'l Farah Shira'zi. 

27. Majmu'a'. Apparently the name of a Canon mentioned by Hiji Khalifa. 

auctore Ibn Shari'. ( y^ L^O oollecta de astrologia judioiaria. 

28 Mukhte'r^^^^l^b^l/I V^ U^ J^^\ auct. Shaikh Abu Mansiir 



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9 

Stkimaii b. al Qosam-b-fiar^owaih. Another work of the same name (Dilectos e 
Ubrifl eleotlonis diemm, astrologicae) was composed by the physician Aba Na^r Ya^^ya 
b. Jaru> at Takriti for Sadid nd Danlah Abn'l Ghan&im Abdii*l Karfm. 

29. Abn'l Hasan Tu'si. This name oocnrs in the Fihrist (p* 71) as that of a 
aohohur learned in tribal history and poetry. A son of the same name is mentioned as 
a diatingaished doctor, bnt there is no notice of his astronomical knowledge. 

30. Ahmad-b-IshalL SarakhsL 

The name of I^fyaif. does not occur in the genealogy of any Sarakhsi that I can dis- 
cover. The text probably refers to Abmad*b-Md. b. at Tayyih, the well known precep- 
tor of the Caliph al Mnatadi^d by whom he was pnt to death in A. H. 286 (899) for 
rerealing his pupil's confidences. D' Herb, states that he wrote on the EUraytnYfl of 
Porphirius, and Albiruni (Chronology) mentions him as an astrologer and cites a prophecy 
of his where he speaks of the conjunction of Saturn and Mars in the sign of Cancer. 

31. Qhara'ri. Probably Al Faziri. Abu Is\^ik Ibrahim-b-Qabib the earliest 
maker of astrolabes among the Arabs, who was the author of a canon and several as- 
tronomical works. Fihrist, p. 273, date not giren. 

32. Al Ha'ru'ni. 

It is difficult in such bald mention of names, where so many are alike, to be sure 
of the correctness of allasion. This is, probably, HiLrdn-b-al Muuajjim, an astrologer, 
native of Baghdad and an accomplished scholar. His great grandfather was astro- 
loger to the Caliph al-Mansur and his son Yahya served al Fadhl-b-Sahl in the same 
capftcity, died A. H. 288 (901). Ibn Khali. IV. p. 605. 

33. Adwa'r i Kira'in (Cycles of conjunctions) the name of a Canon whoso 
author I cannot discover. 

34. Ya'ku'b-b-Ta'u's. 

I may safely hazard the emendation T^ik (OX^) for 'fiuB, This astro- 
. nomer is mentioned by Albirdni. Ham. Purg. gives his date A. H. 218 (833) and a 
Hst of his works apparently copied from the Fihrist, p. 278. 

86. Rhwa'razmi. 

HQba>mmad<b-Mti8a, by command of al M£mun, compiled an abridgment of the 
Sindhind (Siddh&nta) ; better known as a mathematioism than as astronomer— see Se- 
dniot, I. zvi. He was the author of a Canon according to the Fihrist, p. 274. 

86. Yu'sufl. The secretary of Al M6mtin, Abu*t Tayyib-b-'Abdi'Uah is the only 
name I discover in this relative form. The Fihrist, (p. 123) mentions no astronomical 
works of his. Perhaps, Yusnf-b-Ali Thatta (1043) or Ibn Yiisuf al Ma^i^i may be 
meant : the text is too vague to determine accarately. 

87. Wa'fl— the work of Ulugh Beg " fi Mawdfi ul aa'mil nn Najdmiya, (de 
tnmsitibus operationum astronomicarum) is the only ^itle approaching that of the text 
that I discover. 

38. Jauzharayn — Jauzhar the Arabic form of Gauzhar, is the head and tail 
of Draco. The two points in the Ecliptic which mark its intersection by the orbit 
of a planet in ascent and descent, are called its Nodes or two Jauzhars — (Istila^&t u'l 
Punoon, arts. »-*ii and -ik^^) , There is a Canon called Jbj^arf^*^ ^ de motu 

TOO capitis et caudoe draconis, by Shaikh Ibn ul Kidir al Barallusi — see Haj-Khall 
pi56L 

89. Sama'a'ni. D'Horbelot mentions under this surname Abu Saa'd Abdu 
2 



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Earim Mnl^ammad, ibe author of a work on Mathematics entitled Ad&b fi ist'im&l il 
Hisdb. A. H. 506 — 62. The Fihrist p. 244, records another Sama'^n as a commen- 
tator on the Canon of fPtolemy, and a third Ibn Sama'dn, the slave of Abn Ma'shar, and 
author of an astronomical work. 

40. Ibn Sahra. 

The variants of this name suggest its doubtful orthography. Ibn Abi Safari 

\iS^^ i^* i:^* ) is mentioned by Ham. Pxirg. as an astrologer of Baghdad whose 
predictions were fortunate. He lived in the latter half of the century, 132 — 232, (749 — 
846) the most brilliant period in the annals of Arab literature. 

41. Abu'U Fadhl Ma'sha'llah, incorrectly Mdshd^a in the text.— Born 
in Al Man?ur'8 reign, he lived to that of Al Mdmun. His name " What God wills ** is 
simply a rendering of the Hebrew Mischa. The Fihrist calls him Ibn Athra /c^ I lo^ 
and notes his voluminous writings, copied by Ham. Purg. B. III. 257. 

42. 'Aa'simi— untraceable. 

43. KabiY of Abu' Ma'shar— a native of Balkh, a contemporary and envious 
rival of Al Kindi. — At first a traditionist, he did not begin the study of astronomy tiU 
after the age of 47. He died at Wdsit exceeding the age of 100, A. H. 272, (885)— An 
astronomer and astrologer of great renown. In the latter capacity, he paid the pen- 
alty of success in a prediction by receiving a flogging at the command of Al Musta'in ; 

upon which his epigram is recorded *^y^ ^-S-^^L " I hit and got hit." Thirty- 
three of his works are named in the Fihrist, p. 277. He was known in Europe as Albu- 
maser and his works translated into Latin, see Sachau's Albiruni (Chronol.) p. 375, — 
also Haj. Ehal. art. z{j. 

44. Sind-b-'Ali. See note p. 8. 

45. IbnAVlam Do. p. 4. 

46. ShahryaYa'n. 

This Oanon occurs in Albiruni (Chronol.) with the addition of the word Sh^h. — 
Sachau confesses his ignorance of it. Haj. Khal. gives a Canon called Shahrydr which 
is well-known — translated into Arabic by At Tamimi from the Persian. Fihrist, 244. v. 
also Sachau' s preface to Albirtini's India, p. xxx. 

47. Arkand. — In Albiruni called "the days of Arkand." The more correct 
form according to Reinaud, Memoire sur 1' Inde., p. 322, would be the Sanskrit Ahar- 
gana — See Sachau's note p. 375 of Albiruni's Chronol. from which I quote. 

Albirdni made a new edition of the Days of Arkand, putting into clearer words 
and more idiomatic Arabic, the then existing translation which followed too closely the 
Sanskrit original. 

48. IbnSu'fl. 

Al Shaikh Md. b. Abi'l Fatl^ as Sufi al Mi^ri wrote an epitome of the Canon of 
Ulugh Beg with additional tables and notes. It was with reference to this epitome that 
the work of Al Barallusi, Bihjat ul Fikr fi Hall is Shams Wal ^amr was written, of which 
the Jaazhar, one of its three parts, is alladed to in 38. 

49. Sehela^n Ka^shi. 

Sehelan, Sehilan or Ibn Sehil&i according to D'Hei-belot was the name of the 
Minister of Sultdn ud Daulah of the Buyide family, whose enmity with his brother 
Mushraf ud Doulah was due to the policy or personal feeling of that Btatesman. A 
canon might have been published under his patronage and name. 



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11 

50. Ahwa^. D*Herbelofc allndes to seyeral authors nnder this name ; odo a 
oommentator on Euclid. The Fihrist names M4-b-l8^d^ al Ahwazi, without date. 
He appears to have written on agriculture and architecture. 

61. The 'XJru'8 of Abu' Ja'far Bu'shanji. 

Bdshanj, according to Yakdt (Mu'jam il Bnldiin) is a small town about 40 miles 
from Herat, which has g^ren birth to some eminent scholars, but I can find no astro- 
nomer among them. 

62 Abu"! Fath— Shaikh Abu'l Fat^ as Sufi who amended the tables termed 
Samarcandi. Haji Khal, 566. III. 

63. A'kkali Raliibi- untraceable. 

54. Masa'u'di. — The Canon Masudious is extant in 4 good copies in Earopoan 
Ubraries, and waits for the combination of two scholars, an astronomer and an Arabic 
pbilogist, for the purpose of an addition and translation, v. Saohau, pref. to Alb. 
India, p. xvi. 

55. Mua'tabar of Saisjari. The surname of Abu'l FatI; Abdurrahman, 
called the ti^asurer ; he was a slave of Greek origin, in the service of A'li al 
Ehizin al Marwasi and much in his favour. On the completion of his Canon, the Sultan 
Sanjar sent him a thousand dinars which he returned. Haj. Khal. III. 564. 

56. Waji'z-i-Mua'tabar is doubtless, as its name imports, an epitome of the 
foregoing. 

57. Ahmad Abdu'l Jali'l Sanjari, author of two treatises on stellar 
inflaences. D'Herbelot mentions him as an astrologer of note, but adds no particulars. 

58. Muhammad Ha'sib Tabari. 
Untraceable. 

'^ These are names of tables which I do not find men- 

tioned. By the term Taylasin is meant a paradigm 



69 'Adani. , 

AA mi ' -t I Blowing astronomical calculations, in the shape of half 

* /K >• * ^ an oblong quadrangpilar field divided by a diagonal. It 

' -^..^^ / . is named after the form of the Scarf (Taylas&n) worn 

by learned men in the East. A model will be found in 

Albirdni's Chronology. (Sachau), p. 133. 

63- Sulta'n *Ali Khwa'razmi Ali. Shah-b-M<j[-b-il KAsim commonly known 

as 'Ala'uddin Al Ehwdrazmi, the author of a Canon called Shdhi — the royal ; also 

of a Persian opitome from the Elkhdni Tables, called the ^mdat ul Elkhdniya. Haj. 

Khal. p. 665, III. 

64. Fa'khir 'AU Nasabi. 

The variants indicate a corrupt reading — untraceable. 

65. The 'Alai of Shirwa'ni. Fariduddin AbuM ^lasan Ali-b-il Karim as 
Shinrani, known as Al Fahhad, eminent among the later astronomerF, the author of 
•ereral canons besides the one mentioned — See Haj. Khal. p. 567, in two places. 

There are two other Canons called 'Alai. H. K. 556-7. 
66- Balliri— var. Z^hidi— untraceable. 

67. Mostawfi — mentioned by Haj. Khal. without author's name. 

68. Muntakhab (Seleotus) of Yazdi. 

69. Abu' Basa' Yazdi. 

Tasd is a town between Naysabur and Shiraz. I find no record of either the 
i or the astronomer. 



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70. Kaydu'^rah. 

71. IkliOi. 

Al Ikin ia the 17th Lnnar Station — three stars in the head of Scorpio. I infer 
from the absence of any mention of saoh astronomers that these canons are named 
after stars. I can learn nothing of ^ydorah. 

72. Ka%iri~perhaps called after Nibim*d-DanlaJli- b-Qamdin, temp. Mntii bi'llih, 
A. H. 394. (946 A. D.) 

78. Mulakhkhas. (Simunariom). 

74. Dastu'r. Dasttir n*l Ami fi Tafl^i^^ il JadwaV—a Persian commentary by 

Mal»mdd-b-Mahd.-b-Ki4hiz^a (known as Menem Chelebi, (tr^ in H. K. and D'- 
Herb.) of the Canon of Ulogh Beg. See H. K. p. 660, III. and Sedillot, civ. I. 
76. Murakkab. (Compositns). 

76. Miklamah. (Oalamarinm). 

77. 'Asa'. (Bacnlns). 

78. Shatsalah. Var. Shashtalah. 

79. Ha^il. (Gommodnm). 

80. Khatal. A name of N. China : its people possessed an Astronomical 
Calendar in common with the Aighnr Tribe, ▼. D*Herb. Art. Igor. 

81. Daylami. 

This is a bare list of tables of whose anthers there is no certain record. Two of 
them, Kha^i and Daylam point to the oonntries where they were in yogpie. Knblai 
Khan the brother of Hnlika after his conqnest of China, introdnoed into the Celestial 
Empire the astronomical learning of Baghdad, and Cocheon-king in 1280, receired 
the tables of Ibn Tunas from the hands of the Persian Jamila'ddin. For the extent 
of Chinese science at this time, see SediUot. ci. I. 

82. Muf^ad. (Simplex) of McL-b-Ayyub. 
This Canon is in H. K. withont the anther's name. 

83. Ka^mil (Integer) of Abu Bashid. 

There is a commentary of the ShdmU of al Bdzj&ni by Qasan-b-Ali al Ij^nnm^ti, 
entitled the K&mil, mentioned in H. K. p. 565. III. 

84. Elkha'ni. 

There are the tables of Na^fm'ddin fusi. 

85. Jamshi'di. Ghiy£thn*dd£n Jamshid together with the astronomer known 
as K&dbiz4dah, assisted Ulagh Beg in the preparation of his Canon. The former died 
dnring the beginning of the work, the latter before its completion. H. K. 659. 
D*Herbelot (Art. zig. Ulng. Beg.) reverses this order and asserts that Jamshid finished 
it. I snspeot that he has copied and mistaken the sense of H. K. 

86. Gurga'ni. Another name for the Canon of Ulngh Beg. See Sed. p. cxiz. 
Whatever they set down, year by year from an astronomical table, as 

to the particular motions and individual positions of the heavenly bodies^ 
they call an Almanac. It embodies, in fact, the diurnal progression of a 
planet from its first entrance into Aries to a determinate point in the 
ecliptic, in succession, and is in Hindi called pairah. The Indian sage 
considers astronomy to be inspired by divine intelligences. A mortal 
endowed with purity of nature, disposed to meditation, with accordant 



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harmony of condnct, transported in sonl beyond the restraints of sense 
and matter, may attain to such an elevation that earthly and divine 
forms, whether as nniversals or particularized, in the sublime or nether- 
most regions, future or past, are conceived in his mind. From kindliness of 
dispoflition and in the interests of science they impart their knowledge to 
enquirers of auspicious character, who commit their lessons to writing, and 
this writing they term SiddhdrU. Nine such books are still extant ; the 
Brahm-Siddhdnty the Suraj'Siddhdnty the 86m-8iddhdnty the Brahcupat- 
Siddhdnty inspired by Brahma, the sun, moon, and Jupiter respectively. 
Their origin is referred to immemorial time and they are held in great vene- 
ration, especially the first two. The Ghu*g-Siddh4nt,^ the NiLrad-Siddhant, 
the Pdrdsar Siddhant the Pulast-Siddhimt, the Bashistah.Siddh&nt,^these 
five they ascribe to an earthly source. The unenlightened may loosen the 
tongue of reproval and imagine that these mysteries acquired by observa- 
tion of Stellar movements, have been kept secret and revealed only in 
Boch a way as to ensure the gratitude of reverential hearts, but the keen- 
sighted and just observer will, nevertheless, not refuse his assent, the 
more especially as men of innate excellence and outward respectability of 
character have for myriads of years transmitted a uniform tradition. 

Among all nations the Nychthemeron^ is the measure of time and 
this in two aspects, firstly,. Natural, as in Tur&n and the West, from noon 
to noon, or as in China and Chinese Tartary* from midnight to midnight ; 
but the reckoning from sunset to sunset more universally prevails. Ac- 
cording to the Hindu sages, in Jagmot^ — the eastern extremity of the 



^ These iMfc are named after five ce- 
lebrated Bishis or Mqiub. The anti- 
qnitj of Indian astronomy is a matter 
of dispute among the learned. The on- 
rioBs inquirer may refer to the 8th Vol. 
«f the Asiatic Besearobes where Mr. 
Beostley reduces its age, maintained by 
HoDsieiir Bailly to date back to the 
oommenoement of the Kali Tag, 8102 
B, C— to within a few hundred years, 
a&d fixes the date of the Siiraj-Siddhint 
"-"the most ancient astronomical trea- 
twe of the Hindos and professed to 
IwM been inspired by divine revelation 
VH899 years ago,— to 1038 of oar 
<Bk Xr. Bentley is in torn learned- 
ly answered by a writer in the Ediiv- 
♦■Tf* Review for July 1807. Sir W. 



Jones' essay on the Chronology of the 
Hindus may be read in conjunction 
with the preceding papers, r. Alb. India, 
Gap. XIY. where the names of the Sid- 
dh&nts and their sources are difPerently 
given. 

' This term for the twenty-four hours 
of light and darkness was used by the 
later Greeks and occurs in 2 Cor. zi. 
25. vwjce^ifMpop 4v t5 /9v0» vcvoiijjca 
Its precision of meaning commends its 
use which Sachau has adopted. 

• jiyki\ is the name of a Chaghtai 
tribe eponymously applied to this 
country, see D'Herb. Art. Igur and 
the observations thereon Vol. IV, p. 300. 

* Cf Albiriini's India, Edit. Sachau. 
p. 133. Cap. XXVI. This word should 



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14 

globe, they reckon it from sunrise to sanrise ; in Rdraak — ^the extreme 
west, from sunset to sunset ; in Ceylon, the extreme south, from mid- 
night to midnight and the same computation obtains in Dehli : in Sadh- 
pur, the extreme north, from noon to noon. Secondly, the Equated also 
called Artificial, which consists of a complete revolution of the celestial 
sphere measured by the sun's course in the ecliptic. For facility of cal- 
culation, they take the whole period of the sun's revolution and divide 
equally the days thereof and consider the fractional remainder as the 
mean of each day, but as the duration of the revolutions is found to vary, 
a difference between the natural and artificial day arises. The tables of 
Al-Battani assume it as 59 minutes, 8 seconds, 8 thirds, 46 fourths, 56 
fifths and 14 sixths. Those of Elkhdni make the minutes and seconds 
the same, but have 19 thirds, 44 fourths, 10 fifths and 37 sixths. The 
recent Gurgd.ni tables agree with the Khwajah^ up to the thirds, but give 
37 fourths, and 43 fifths. Ptolemy in the Almagest accords in minutes 
and seconds, but sets down 17 thirds, 13 fourths, 12 fifths and 31 sixths. 
In the same way ancient tables record discrepancies, which doubtless 
arise from varying knowledge and difference of instruments. The cycle 
of the year and the seasons depend upon the sun. Prom the time of his 
quitting one determinate point till his return to it, they reckon as one 
year. The period that he remains in one sign is a solar month. The 
interval of the moon's departure from a given position to its return thereto 
with the sun in conjunction or opposition or the like, is a lunar month. 
And since twelve lunations are nearly^ equal to one annual revolution of 
the sun, they are called a lunar year. Thus both the year and the month 



be " Jamk<5t.'* Albirdni qaotes from the 
Siddhdnta. The 4 cardinal points men- 
tioned are given as the names of 4 large 
towns — the globe is described a spheroid, 
half land, half water : the mountain Mfm 
occupies the centre, through which the 
Equator (Nalkash) passes. The Nor- 
thern half of the mountain is the abode 
of angelic spirits, the southern that of 
Daityas and Nags and is therefore 
called Dai tan tar. When the sun is in 
the meridian of Miru, it is midday at 
Jamk<5t, midnight at Bumak and even- 
ing at Saddpur. The latter name is 
spelt by Abiruni with a double d. See 
a map of this peculiar geographical 
system prefixed, to Qladwin's transla- 



tion of the Afn and in Bloohmann's 
text edition, following the preface. 

* Na?iru'ddin fusi, author of the El- 
khani tables. 

* A synodical month, the interval 
between two conjunctions of the sun 
and moon, is 29 d. 12 h. 44. m. It waa 
founded on the most obvious determi- 
nation of the moon's course and fur- 
nished the original month of the Greeks, 
which was taken in round numbers, 
at 30 days. By combining the course 
of the sun with that of the moon, the 
tropical year was assumed at a rough 
computation to consist of 12 unations 
or 360 days. See Astron. of the An- 
cients, Lewis, p. 16. 



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15 

are solar and lunar : and each of these two is Natural when the planetary 
revolutions are regarded and not the computation of days, and Equated 
when the computation is in days and not in the time of revolution. 
The Hindu sage divides the year, like the month, into four parts, 
allotting a particular purpose to each. Having now given a short 
account of the night, the day, the year and the month which form the 
basis of chronological notation, we herein set down somewhat of the 
ancient eras to complete our exposition. 

Era of the Hindus. 

The creation of Brahma is taken as its commencement and each of 
his days is an epoch. They assert that when 70 kalps are completed, each 
consisting of 4 Yugs^ and the total of these being 4,320,000 years, a 
Mann appears. He is the offspring of the volition of Brahma and his co- 
operator in the creation. In each of his days fourteen^ successive Manns 
arise. At this time which is the beginning of the 61st year of the age of 
Brahma, there have been six Manus, and of the seventh, 27 kalps have elapsed, 
and three Yugs of the 28th, and of the fourth Yug, 4,700 years. In the be- 
ginning of the present Yug, B^jd Judhishthira conquered the universe 
and being at the completion of an epoch, constituted his own reign an 
era and since that time to the present which is the fortieth of the Divine 
era, 4,696 years have elapsed. It continued in observance 3,044 years. 
After him Bikramajit* reckoned from his own accession to the throne and 
thns in some measure gave relief to mankind. Ho reigned 135 years. In 
this year 1652 years have since then gone by. They relate that a yoath 
named Sdlbdhan,^ was victorious through some supernatural agency and 



* Fta., the Satya or Krita, Treta, 
Dwapar and Kali j the first comprises 
1,728,000 years J the second, 1,296,000, 
the third, 864,000, the fonrth 432,000— 
being a total of 4,320,000. 

* The first is Svayambhuva (as sprung 
from Svayam-bhu, the self-existent,) 
the author of the famous Code : the 
nett five are Svarochesha, Uttama, 
Timasa, Baivata, Chakshusha; the 
terenth is called Yaivasvata, or the 
Snn-bom and is the Manu of the pre- 
inrt period,— conjectured to be Noah, 
as the first is thought to be Adam.— 
FHnsep'a Useful Tables. 

* Thia era to which the luni-solar sys- 
tem is ezoInsiTely adapted is called 



Sanvat, Vulg. Sambat. It began when 
3044 years of the Kali Tug had elapsed, 
». e., 67 years before Christ, so that if 
any year, say 4925 of the Kaii Yug be 
proposed and the last expired year of 
Vikramaditya be required, subtract 3044 
therefrom and the result, 1881, is the 
year sought. To convert Samvat into 
Christian years, subtract, 57; unless 
they are loss than 58 in which case 
deduct the amount from 68 and the 
result will be the date B. C. This era 
is in general use throughout Hindustan 
properly so called. — Useful Tables, Part 
II, p 26. 

• Salivdhan, a mythological prince 
of Deccan who opposed Vikramaditya 



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16 



took the B&J& prisoner on the field of battle. Since the captive was 
not deserving of death, he treated him with consideration and asked 
him if he had any request to make. He replied that thongh all his desire 
was centred in retirement from the world and in the worship of the 
one Supreme Creator, he still retained the wish that his era might not 
be obliterated from the records of the age. It is said that the boon 
was granted, and although he introduced his own era, he did not 
interfere with the observance of tho other. Since this era, 1517 years have 
expired, and they believe that it will continue in use for 18,000 years more, 
after which Rajah Bijiydbhinandan will institute a new era from his 
own reign which will last 10,000 years. Then N4g4 Arjun will come to 
the throne and promulgate another era which will continue for 400,000 
years, after which Kalki,^ whom they regard as an avatar, will establish 
a fresh era to last 821 years. These six are considered the principal eras 
and are called Sdkd, for there were many epochs and each termed 
" Sanpat."* After the invasion of Sdlbdhan, the era of Bikramdjit was 
changed from " Sdk4 " to " Sanpat." After the expiration of these six, the 
Sat^ Yug will re-commence and a new epoch be instituted. 

The Hindti astronomers regard the months and years as of four kinds — 
1st, " Saurmis," which is the sun's continuance in one sign of the Zodiac, 
and such a year consists of 365 days, 15 ghajris,^ 30 pals, and 22^ hipals ; 
2nd, " Chdndramds," which is computed from the first day of the moon's 
increase to the night of the new moon. This year is of 354 days, 22 
ghafis^ and one * paV The beginning of the year is reckoned from the 
entry of the sun into Aries. This month consists of 30 lunar days 



raja of Ujjain. His capital was "Pra- 
tislitli&na on the Godaveri. The Siki 
era, dates from his birth and commen- 
ces on the Ist Bysdkh, 3179. K. Y. which 
fell on Monday, 14th March, 78 A. D. 
Julian style. -Ibid. p. 22. 

* Vishnu, in his future capacity of 
destroyer of the wicked and liberator 
of the world. This is to constitute the 
tenth and last avatar and is to take 
place at the end of the four yugs. He 
is to re-appear as a Brahman, in the 
town of Sambhal, in the family of Vish- 
nu Sarmd. 

• Properly * Sanwat.* Sdkd signifieB 
an era or epoch and is generally applied 
to that of Salivdhan. 



• The text is here in error. The full 
stop after o^ nullifies the sense. It 
should be omitted together with the alif 
of OwMif The sentence is then complete 
and the raeaniog obvious and consistent. 
vSaaw is the ordinary Persian translite- 
ration of the Sanskrit ^f^. 

• A ghafi is 24 minutes, a pal 24 
seconds, a bipalf a second. This would 
give 6 hours, 12 minutes and 22^ se- 
conds, whereas according to our calcu- 
lation, it should be 5 hours, 43 m. 47i8. 
very nearly. 8aur and Chandra sig- 
nify * solar ' and * lunar * — Mds is a 
* month.* 

• This minus the 'pal' is our cal- 
culation exactly. 



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17 

{tUhi). Each twelve degrees of the moon's course, reckoning from its 
departure from conjunction^ with the sun is a Hthi : and from the slowness 
or speed of the moon's progress there is a difference in the number of 
gh€tris from a maximum of 65 to a minimum of 54. The first, tithi is 
called Pariw4 ; the second Diij ; the third Tij ; the fourth Chauth ; the 
fifth Panchami^ ; the sixth Ghhafh ; the seventh Saptamii^ ; the eighth 
Ashtami^ ; the ninth Naumi^ ; the tenth Dasmin ; the eleventh Ek^dasi ; 
the twelfth Duiulasi ; the thirteenth Tirtidasi ; the fourteenth Ohaudas : 
the fifteenth Piiranmdsi ; and from the 16th to the 29th, they use the same 
names up to the 14th. The 30th is called Am&was. From Pariwd the 
1st to the 15th they call Shuklapachoh, and the other half Kishnpachch. 
Some begin the month from the 1st of Kishnpachch. In their ephemerides 
generally the year is solar and the month lunar. 

And since the lunar year is less than the solar by ten days, 53 gkafia 
29 pals and 22^ hipalsy on the calculation of a mean rate of motion of thet 
nm and moon, the difference, after 2 years, 8 months, 15 days and 3 gharis, 
would amount to one month, and according to the reckoning in the ephe- 
meris would occur in not more than 3 years or in less than 2 years and one 
month. According to the first calculation, there is this difference in every 
twelve months and in such a year they reckon one month twice : according 
to the latter system, in every solar month when there are two conjunctions ;• 
and this must necessarily occur between Chait and Kn&r (dsin) and 
does not go beyond these seven months. They term this intercalary month 
Adhik (added), vulgarly called Laund.^ 

The third kind of month is Sawan Mds. They fix its commencement at 
any day they please : it is completed in thirty days. The year is 360 days. 



' The year oommenoes at the tme 
imtant of conjnnotion with the sun and 
mooiijthat is on the new moon which 
immediately precedes the beginning of 
the solar year, falling, somewhere 
within the 80 or 31 days of the 
H^ month Chaitra. The day of oon- 
jnnciion (amdvasya) is the last day of 
the expired month ; the first of the new 
month being the day af tor conjunction. 
The titkit are computed according to 
^Sppannt time, yet registered in civil 
tiaae. For the comprehension of this 
perplexing notation I refer the reader to 
the Useful Tables, Part II, p. 24. 

* When two new moons fall within 
3 



one solar month, the name of the cor- 
responding lunar month is repeated, 
the year being then intercalary or con- 
taining 13 months. The two months of 
the same name are distinguished by the 
terms ctdhika (added) and nija (proper 
or ordinary). U. T. p. 23. 

* As the place of the sun's and moon's 
apogee, the equinoctial precession, and 
the obliquity of the ecliptic are neces- 
sary, among other subordinate bases of 
calculation, for the true computation of 
the lunar days, I leare the verification 
of the text to the possessors of this 
knowledge. 



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18 



The fonrtli, Nacbhattar, is reokoned from the time the moon quite 
any mansion to her return thereto. This month consists of 27 days and 
the year of 324. 

The number of the seasons is, with them, siz^ and eacb tbey call 
Bitu. The period that the sun remains in Pisces and Ai*ies, they term 
Basant : this is the temperate season : when in Taurus and Gemini^ 
Qirekhamy the hot season ; in Cancer and Leo, Batrkha^ the rainy season ; 
in Virgo and Libra, Sard^ the close of the rainy season and the beginning 
of winter ; in Scorpio and Sagittarius, Hemanty winter ; in Capricomus 
and Aquarius, Shishra, the season between winter and spring. 

They divide the year likewise into three parts : to each they give 
the name of Kdly beginning from Phigun. They call the four hot 
months Bhupkdl; the four rainy months Barihakdl and the four cold 
months Sttkdh Throughout the cultivable area of Hindustan, there are 
but three seasons. Pisces, Aries, Taurus and Gemini are the summer ; 
Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, the rains; Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricomus 
and Aquarius, the winter. The solar year they divide into two parts* 
Tne first beginning with Aries to the extreme of Virgo they term 
Uttargoly which is the sun's progress to the north of the Equator, and from 
the beginning of Libra to the extreme of Pisces, BakkhangSl, the sun's 
course to the south of the Equator. Also from the first of Capricorn to 
the end of Gemini, they call Uitardyany the sun's northern declination 
(the summer solstice) : and from the 1st of Cancer to the end of Sagittarius 
Bachchhandyany or the sun's southern declination (the winter solstice). 
Many eyente, occurring in the first of these divisions, especially death, 
are deemed fortunate. 

The Nycthemeron they divide into 60 equal parts and to eacb they 
give the name of ghaUs, more commonly ghari, Eacb ghaj^ is subdi- 
vided into the same number of parts, each of which they call pal. In the 
same way they apportion the pal, and each part they term ndri and also 
hipal. Each ndri is equal to six respirations of a man of an equable tem- 
perament, undisturbed by running, the emotions of anger and the like. 

A man in good health respires 360 times in the space of one ghart^ 
and 21,600 times in a Nycthemeron. Some afi&rm that the breath whioh 
is respired, they term Swds and that which is inspired Parstodgy and 
both together they called a pardn. Six pardns make a pal, and 60 pcUs 
a gharu An astronomical hour which is the 24th part of a Nycthemeron 



^ Of two sidereal montbii each, the 

nooession of which is always the same : 

hat the yicissitiides of climate in them 



will depend upon the position of the 
equinoctial oolnre.— U. T. II, 18. 



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19 

k equal to 2^ ghafts, Each night and each day if again divided into 4 
parts, each of whioh ia oalled a pahr, bnt these are not all equal* 

The Khafdi era. 

They reckon from the creation of the world, which in their belief took 
place 8,884 Wans and 60 years preyiona to the present date. Each Wan 
m 10,000 years. They belieTe that the duration of the world will be 300,000 
ITofw^-according to some 360,000. They employ the natural solar year 
9iDd the natural lunar month. They begin the year from the sun's mid 
passage though Aquarius. Mat^'u'ddin^ Maghrebi places it at the 
16th degree, others between the 16th and 18th> They divide the Nycthe- 
meron into 12 Ohdghs. Each of which is subdivided into 8 Kehs, 
and to every one of these they give a different name. 

They divide the Nycthemeron also into Feneks. For this computa- 
tion of time they have three cycles, viz^ 8hdng TFan, Jung Wang^ and 
Khd Wan^ each comprising 60 years and each year of the cycle is deOued 
by a double^ notation. The revolution x)f the cycle is marked by a series 



^ He was a distinguished philosopher 
axid mathematictAn in the servioe of the 
Saltan of Aleppo. Somamed al Itfngh- 
r^ from his having been edaoated in 
Spain and Africa. On the taking of 
Aleppo by Huli^, he was spared in 
the name, and for the cause of science 
associated in A. H. 658 with Nasir- 
a'ddinf^i in the superintendence of 
the obserratory at Moriigha, and shared 
in tiie composition of the Elkh&ni tables. 
D'Herbelot. 

• See D'Herb. {Vol. IV. p. 42.) on 
this Bomeaclatore and his tables of the 
ojdes. 

• The word J*V may also grammati- 
oallj bat in point of fact less accurately 
apply to the cycle. The following ex- 
fbaation taken from the Useful Tables 
vffl efaioidate the text. They have two 
Mtiet of words, one of ten and the other 
flf twelve words ; a combination of the 
tot words in both orders is the name 
of the lot year : the next in each series 
tn taken for the 2nd year, and so to 
tU lOfeh; in the 11th, the series of 10 



being exhausted, they beg^ again with 
the first combining it with the 
eleventh of the second series : in the 
12th year, the second word of the first 
series is combined with the twelfth of 
the second : for the 18th year, the third 
word of the first list with the first of 
the second list is taken, that list also 
being now exhausted. Thus designa- 
ting the series of 10 by Roman letters, 
and that of 12 by italics, the cycle of 
60 will stand thus. 



laa 


21 ai 


41 ae 


2bb 


22 bk 


42 bf 


dec 


23 cl 


43cg 


4dd 


24dm 


44dh 


6 ee 


25 e a 


45ei 


6ff 


26fb 


46fk 


"^gg 


27 go 


47 gl 


8hh 


28 hd 


48hm 


9ii 


29 ie 


49 ia 


10 kk 


30 kf 


50 kb 


Hal 


31 ag 


61 a 


12 bm 


82 bh 


52 bd 


13 ca 


33 oi 


53 ce 


14 db 


34 dk 


54df 



L. 



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20 

of ten and a series of twelve symbols. The first is employed for the nota- 
tion of the year and the daj ; the second is similarly applied and is like- 
wise horary. By the combination of these two series, they form the cycle 
of 60 and work ont detailed calculations. 

The Turkish Era. 

Called also the Aightiri. It is similar to the foregoing, except that 
this cycle is based on the series of 12, They reckon their years and days 
after the same manner, but it is said that some astronomical tables also 
employ the series of 10. The commencement of their era is unknown. 
Abu Baihdn (Albirdni) says^ that the Turks add nine to the incomplete 
Syromacedonian yeai*s and divide it by 12 : and in whatever animal the 
remainder terminates, counting from the Sign of the Mouse, the year is 
named therefrom. But weighed in the balance of experiment, this is 
found wanting by one year. The intention, undoubtedly, is to carry tbe 
remainder down the animal signs of the series, and, beginning from the 
Mouse, to adopt the name of the animal in which it terminates. Although 
the commencement of the era is unknown, yet we gather sufficient informa- 
tion regarding the year of the cycle and its name. And if 7 years be 
added to the imperfect years of the Maliki era, dividing by 12, whatever 



15 eo 


35el 


56 eg 


16 fd 


36 fm 


66 fh 


17 go 


87 ga 


57 gi 


18hf 


38hb 


58 hk 


19 ig 


89 io 


59 il 


20kh 


40kd 


60km 



The Beries of 10 is designated in China 
by the name of tien lean or celestial 
signs. Their oharacters and names are 

1. K4a, 2. yih, 8. ping, 4. ting. 6. 
woo. 6. he, 7. hang, 8. kin, 9. jin. 
10. letoey. 

The series of 12 are the horary cha- 
racters and are named teche, terrestrial 
signs, they are as follows : 

1. tsxe, 2. chow. 3. yin, 4. moon. 5 
shin, 6. 8ze. 7. woo. 8. we, 9. shin, 
10. yew, 11. seo, 12. hoe. 

These characters being substituted 
for their equivalent letters in the cycle, 
will show the Chinese name of every 



year ; for example. Kea U»e is the first 
year. Kong yin the 27th. Their months 
are Innar of 29 and 30 days. Their years 
ordinarily 12 months, but a 13th added 
whenever there are two new moons, 
while the son is in one sign of the 
Zodiac, which occurs 7 times in 19 
years. The first cycle, according to the 
Jesuits, began in February 2397 B. C. ; 
we are now, therefore, in the 72nd 
cycle, the 28th of which will beg^ 
in 1890. To find the Chinese time, 
multiply the elapsed cycle by 60, and 
add the odd years : then if the time be 
before Christ, subtract the sum from 
2398 ; but if after Christ, subtract 2397 
from it ; the remainder will be the year 
required. 

* This reference I have not been able 
to trace in Albirdni's Atl^ar ul Bi^ya, 
or his India. 



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21 

remains is the yeai* of the animal reckoning from the Monse. This will 
prove correct according^ to the following series. 

Names of the twelve years of the Cycle, 
1. Sijkdn, the Mouse. 2. (Ti, the Ox. 3. Pdrs, the Leopard. 4. 
Tamshkdn the Hare. 5. LSty^ the Dragon. 6. Y*ildn, the Serpent. 7. 
Tunty the Horse. 8. J^u, the Sheep. 9. Btj, the Ape. 10. Takhdkuy the 
Cock. 11. YU, the Dog. 12. TonA;ti« the Hog. They add the word el to 
each of these words, which signifies year. 

The Astrological Era* 

The astrologers reckon from the Creation and assert that all the 
planets were then in Aries. The year is solar. According to their calcnla- 
tioo, from that time to the present 184,696 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Adam. 

Its beginning dates from his birth. The years are solar, the months 
lanar. According to the Elkhiini tables, 5,353 solar years have elapsed 
to the present date. But some of those possessing a book of divide 
revelation make it 6,346 solar years ; others 6,938 solar : others again, 
6,920, solar, but according to what has been reported from learned 
Christians, it is 6,793. 

The Jewish Era. 

Begins with the creation of Adam. Their years are natural, solar r 
their months, artificial, lunar. They reckon their months and days like 
the Arabians according to an intermediate system. The year is of two 
kinds, viz.t Simple,* which is not intercalary, and Composite, in which an 



* These 12 signs of the Zodiac ex- 
acUj correspond with the animals in 
the series of the Japanese Cycle given 
in the Useful Tables, bat the yemaonlar 
names are different. The calculations 
based on them are vaguely stated : in 
llbir^ni's Chronology, some informa- 
tkm may be obtained from the Bules 
for the reduction of Eras. Chapters YI 
and yn may be read by the curious, 
bat will be understood only by the 
isamed. See also D'Herbelot art. 
Cbagathai and the interesting obaerva. 



tions thereon, followed by tables of the 
denary and duodenary cycles, in Vol. IV, 
p. 43. 

* }y^ from J^ to pass or cross. 
Albiriini says that the Jewish leap year 
is called 'Ibbdr ('^'JSsy) derived from 

Me'uhhereth (^?i^^9) meaning a 
''pregnant woman." For they com- 
pared the insertion of the supernume- 
rary month, to a woman's bearing in her 
womb a foreign organism, ChronU 
Sach. p. 63. 



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22 



interoalal^ion is effected. Like the Hindus they intercalate a month 
every three years.^ 

The Era of the Deluge. 

This era is computed from this erent ; the year is natural, solar, the 
month natural, lunar. The year begins from theentiy of the Sun into Aries, 
Abu Ma'shar* of Balkh based his calculations regarding the mean places 
of the stars on this era from which to the present year 4,696 years have 
elapsed. 

The Era of Buhht Noffar^ (Nehtichadnezzar). 
This monarch instituted an era from the beginning of his own reign. 
The year is solar, artificial, of 365 days without a fraction. The month. 



* Or 7 month* in 19 loBftT ye*r«. Of. 
Albirdni'8 Ohronology, p. 13 where 
the Jewish Lnni-solar year is discussed. 
The Jews usually employed the Era of 
the Seleucides till the 15th century, 
and though some insist on the antiquity 
o^^heir present era, it is generally be- 
lieved to be not more ancient than the 
eentnry named. They date from the 
Creation which they number at 8,760 
years. Their year is luni-solar, of 12 
or 13 months each and each of 29 or 80 
days. The civil year commences with 
or immediately aiter the new moon 
following the equinox of autumn. The 
length of the year of 12 months varies 
between 858 and 355 days ; that of 13, 
may contain 385. In 19 years, 12 years 
have 12 months each, and 7 years 13 
months. A table of 19 years is given 
in the Useful Tables. The year must 
be divided by 19 and the remainder 
will show the year of the Cycle. If 
there be no remainder, it is the 19th 
year. To reduce the Jewish time to 
ours, subtract 3761 and the remainder 
will show the year. The ecclesiastical 
yeflur begins 6 months earlier with the 
month of Nls&u. Consequently when 
the given year is ecclesiastical, deduct 
a year in the date from Nisin to B161 
inclusive. Useful Tables, P. II, p. 8. 



' Albir^ni chastises what he call* 
the follies of this savant <m every op- 
portunity. Abu Ma'shar had calculated 
on the basis mentioned in the text that 
the deluge had happened once in every 
180,000 years and would thus continue 
to recur. The heavy hand of Albirdni 
buries the astronomer under the ruins 
of his owu system. See the Chronology, 
p. 29. 

• Albirtini says that this word in its 
Persian form, BUkht-narsij means one 
" who laments and weeps ;" in Hebrew, 
•* Mercury speaking " as he cherished 
sdence and favoured scholars. The 
era is based on Egyptian years. This 
is not the same king who sacked Jeru- 
salem ; there is an interval of 143 years 
between the two. (Ohronol. p. 81). 
To find the day of any Julian year on 
which the year of Nabonassar beg^ins, 
subtract the given year, if B. C, from 
748 and if A. 0. add to it 747. Divide 
the result by 4, omitting fractions, and 
subtract the quotient from 67 (♦. e. num- 
ber of days from January 1, to February 
26— the Ist day of the era being 26th 
February 747, B. 0.) If the quotient 
exceed 57, add 365, as often as neces- 
sary, before subtraction. The remain- 
der will be the day of the year given. 
The first result before the division by 4 



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23 



likewise, is of 30 days and fire days are added at the e!iid of the year. 
Ptolemy in bis Almagest computed the planetary motions on this era. 
Since its commencement 2,341 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Phil^^ (Arrhidmus).^ 

Galled also Filbos or FilJ^ns. It is also known as the Era of Alex- 
ander of Maoedon. It dates from his death. The years and months are 
artificial, solar. Theon of Alexandria has based his calcolations of the 
mean places of the stars in bis Canon on this Era, and Ptolemy baa 
leoorded some of bis observations regarding it, in the Almagest. Of 
this period, 1,917 years baye elapsed. 

The Coptic Era.* 

This is of ancient date. Al Batt&ni states that its years are solar, 
artificial, consisting of 365 days without a fraction. The Sulfftni tables say 



xncreMed bj a nnit for each 865 added 
to 67, will be the year of N. then be- 
gfaming. The day of the week may be 
known by diriding by 7 — ^if no remain- 
to, the day will be Tneiday : if there 
be a remainder, the day placed below it 
on the following table will be the day 
required. 

0. 1. 2. ' 8. 4. 6. 6. 
Tm W. Th. F. Sa. Sn. H. 

The year of K. being giren, to find 
when i^ begins. Bnle, Diride by 4r ; 
fohtraci quotient torn 57 adding 866^ 
if neceosaxy, as before; the remainder 
win be nnmber of days from Ist Janu- 
ary. The given year diminished, as 
often as 865 has been added, will shew 
the nnmber of Jolian years from 74ff 
B. 0. If leu than 748, subtract from 
that nmnhtki' and the remainder will b« 
tht fear B. 0. s if equal ov more, sub- 
tract 747 from it and the remaiader is 
A. 0. Useful Tables, P. II, p. 9. 

^ Ha was half brother of Alexander 
the Great, the son of Philip and a f e- 
aiale daasoer, Philinna of Larissa. He 
sad his wife Sorydioe were put to death 
bf (Hjaspiai B. O. 817. Of Thaoa's life 
no partioulara are known, save that he 



was the father of the famous and hap- 
less Hypatia. His works may be found 
in Smith's Class. Diet. 

' This is the era of Dioclesian or the 
Martyrs i was much used by the Ohris- 
tian writers till the introduction of the 
Christian era in the 6th century, and ia 
still employed by the Abyssinians and 
Copts. It dates from 29th August, 284, 
the supposed date of Diocletian's assump- 
tion of sorereigBty at Chaloedon. 
The year consists of 865 days with an 
additional day erery 4th year. Diyide 
the date by 4 and if 8 remain, the year 
is bisextile. The Coptic months are aa 
follows : 

Coptic. 0. 8. 

Thoth. August 29. 

Paophi. September 28. 

Athyr. October 28. 

Cohiao. KoTcmber 27. 

Tybi. December 27. 

Kesir. January 26. 

Phamenoth. February 25. 

Pharmouti. March 27. 

Pashons. April 26. 

Pyni. May 26. 

Bpiphi. June 25. 

MewMci. July 25. 



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24 

that its years and months resemble the Sjro-Maoedonian. It has the same 
intercalations, but the Coptic intercalary days precede those of the Syro- 
Macedonian by six months. 

The Syro-Macedonian Era. 
The years and months are artificial, solar, and they reckon the 
year at 365} days exactly. In some astronomical observations, the 
fraction in excess is less than }. According to Ptolemy, it is 14 m. 48 ». 
The Elkhani observations make the minntes the same, bat 32 seconds 
and 30 thirds. According to the caJcalations of the Cathayans^ the 
minates are the same, and 36 seconds, 57 thirds ; to the recent Gnrgdni 
observations, the minntes agree, with 33 seconds ; the Maghrebi has 12 
m. : the Battdni, 13 m. 36 s. Mnhiyu'ddin Maghrebi says that some of 
the Syro-Macedonian calculations make the fraction more than a qnarter, 
others less than a quarter, and thus a quarter has been taken as the 
medium. Others assert that the Syro-Macedonians have by observation 
determined the fraction to be a full i. Consequently it is a natural solar 
year, although Mulla 'Ali Ktishji^ makes it a solar year even on the first 
mentioned basis. This era dates from the death of Alexander the second,^ 
BicomutuSj but was not employed till 12 years after his death. Others 
assert that he established it in the 7th year of his reign when he set out 
from Macedonia, his kingdom, bent on foreign conquest. Mnhiyu'ddin 
Mughrebi on the other hand, states that it began with the reign of Seleucns 
{Nicator) who founded Antioch.^ This era was in use both with the 
Jews and Syrians. They relate that when Alexander the son of Philip 
marched from Greece to the conquest of Persia, he passed through Je- 
rusalem. Summoning the learned Jews of Syria he directed them to 
discontinue the Mosaical era and to employ his own. They thus answered 
him. " Our forefathers never observed any era above a thousand years 
and this year our Era will complete the thousand ; from next year, there- 
fore, thy command shall be obeyed." And they acted accordingly. And 
this took place in Alexander's 27th year. Some maintain that this Gre- 



The additional days are called by the 
modem Copts, Nisi, in common yeazs, 
and Kehiis, in leap years. To reduce the 
years of this Era to those of the Cbris- 
tians, add 283 y. 240 d. When the Dio- 
clesian year is the year after leap year, it 
begins one day later than nsaal, and in 
consequence, one day must be added to 
the Christian year, from 29th Aognst to 



end of February following. Useful 
Tables. 

* V. p. 12. 

' Anno. 1445. Sedillot. Proleg. olr. 

• Properly III. 

^ Besides the capital of Syria, he ia 
■aid to have founded 15 other cities 
of this name, called after his father. 



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25 

oianera is of Hebrew origixL Knshyir^ in his Jimi* says that there 
k no difference between the Syro-Macedonian and the Syrian era, except 
in the names of the months. The Syrian year begins on the Ist day of 
Tishrin nl Awwal. This happened formerly when the san was in the 4th 
degree of Libra, and now falls on the llth> With the Syro-Macedonians, 
tbafe date is the 1st of K4ndni i S&ni, when the snn is near the 20th degree 
of Capricorn. Battani mentions this era^ as beginning with Philip, father 
of Alexander Bicomntus, but that he called it after his son to exalt his 
fame ; and he has based on it the calculation of the mean places of the 
planets in his Canon. Of this era 1905 years have elapsed. 

The Augustan Era, 

He was the first of the Roman Emperors^. The birth of Jesus 
Chnst happened in his reign. The era begins with his accession. The year 
is the same as the Syro-Macedonian, and the months are Coptic ; the last 
month in the common years has 35 days and in leap years 36. Of this 
era 1623 years have elapsed.^ 



* V. p. 8. 

' Another reading is 15th. Gladwin 
has I6th. 

• There is a diacrepincy among chro- 
nologera as to the commencement of 
this era. So-ne deteikmine it to the let 
October 312 B. 0. (W. Smith, 01. Die. 
art Selene): the U. T. places it, 311 
y. 4 m. B. C. The Syrian Greeks began 
their years in September, other Syrians 
in October : the Jews, abont the antnm- 
nal eqninox. It is nsed in the book 
of Maccabees and appears to have begnn 
in Niflibi. Supposing it to begin on 1st 
September 312, B. 0. ; to rodace it to 
onr era, subtract 311 y. 4 m. The follow- 
ing are the months nsed by Greeks and 
Sfrians, according to the U. T. : 

Syrian. Macedonian, English. 
Eldl. Gorpioeas. September, 

Tishrin I. Hyperbere- October, 
teens. 



„ 11. 


Dins. 


November. 


Kandnl. 


Appellaens. 


December. 


„ n. 


Andynoens. 


January. 


Sfaiiba^ 


Peritins. 


February. 



Ai&T. 


Dystms. 


March. 


Nisin. 


Xanticns. 


April. 


Ayir. 


Artemisins. 


May. 


Hazirdn. 


DsBsins. 


June. 


Tamfiz. 


Panoemus. 


July. 


Ab. 


Lona. 


August. 



* Albirdni says that the word OaBsar 
in Latin, means, " he has been drawn 
forth after a cutting has been made' 
alluding to the death of his mother in 
parturition and his birth by means of 
the *' Csesarean operation," from which 
he received his name. An ingenious 
though fictitious etymology from ewdo. 

* The Spanish era of the Cassars is 
reckoned from 1st January, 38 B. 0., 
being the year following the conquest 
of Spain by Augustus. It was much 
used in Africa, Spain, and the south of 
France. By a Synod held in il80, its 
use was abolished in all the churches 
dependent on Barcelona. Pedro IV of 
Arragon abolished it in 1350. John of 
Oastile in 1382. It continued to be used 
in Portugal till 1455.— U. T. 



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26 

The Christian Era. 

Begins with the birth of Jesns Christ. The year consists, like the 
Syro-Macedonian, of 365 d. 5 h. At the end of 4 years, they add a day to 
the end of the second month. The beginning of their Nycthemeron is rec- 
koned from midnight. Like the Arabians, they name the days of the week, 
beginning with Snnday. The commencement of their year, some take to 
be the entry of the son in Capricorn : others, from the 8th degree of the 
same. 

The Era of Antoninus of Borne, 
It begins with his accession.^ The years are Syro-Macedonian, the 
months Coptic. Ptolemy determined the position of the fixed stars in his 
Almagest on this era of which 1457 years have elapsed. 

The Era of Diocletian^ of Borne. 

He was a Christian emperor. The era begins with his accession. 
The years are Syro-Macedonian^ the months Coptic ; 1010 years have 
since elapsed. 

The Era of the Eijra. 

In pre-Islamic times, the Arabs had varioos eras, such as the bnilding 
of the Ka'bah, and the sovereignty of Omar^ b. Babii'a to whom was due 



» A D. 138. 

• The name in the text is U^J^^^ 

with a variant wy^th^^' Diocle- 
tian. Abnl Fail evidently meant Constan- 
tine, bat probably following the text of 
Albir6ni, (Ohronol) he copied the heading 
of the Era of Diocletian, withont noticing 
in the body of the passage, the change 
of name to Oonstantine, as the 1st Ohris- 
tian Emperor. The nnmber 1010 is an 
error. Gladwin has 1410. If Abnl Fazl 
counts from the era of Diocletian A. D. 
284, the intermediate years would be 
about 1810; if from A. D. 324, the date 
of Oonstantine's sole mastership of the 
empire 1270, if from his proclamation as 
Emperor by the legions in 306, the num- 
ber would be 1290. His father Constan- 
tins was proclaimed Gsesar by Diocle- 
tian in A. D. 292. 



• An error for 'Amr-b-Lohayy-bom 
about 167 A. D., was king of ^ijis ; for* 
his genealogy see Oaus. de Perc. Essai 
Sur I'hiit. Arab. Tabl. H, Vni, 
The great tribe of KhudLa'h traee their 
descent from him. Whilst at Bal^i in 
Syria, he had seen its inhabitants prac- 
tising idolatry : their idols, they ayerred, 
protected' and faronred them, gp^anting 
rain at their prayers. At his request 
they presented him with the idol, Hobal, 
which he set up in Mecca and introduced 
its worship. It was made of red agate 
or cornelian and represented an old maa 
with a long beard. " Quam pulchre con- 
yenit figmento isti nomen suum," says 
Pococke. (Spec. p. 97) " utsit ^^H ^a»**" 
tcu" He also brought two other idols, 
Asaf and Nailah in the figure of a man 
and a woman and placed them upon 



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27 

ihe rise of idolatry in Hijaz, and this continued in nse till the year of 
the Elephant,^ which they, in turn, observed as a fresh epoch. Every 
Arab tribe constituted any important event in their history, an era. In the 
iome of the prophet this thread of custom had no coherence, but from the 
date of the Hijra, they gave each year a special name. Thus that year was 
called the ' year of Permission," that is, the permission to go from Mecca to 
Medina. The second year was named the " year of Gommaiid,*' i. e i^ to fight 
the unbelieyers.* At the accession of the second Oaliph (Omar), AbuMusa 
Asha'ri,^ governor of Faman made the following representation: '^Your 
despatches have arrived dated the month of Shab&n. I cannot dis- 
cover what date is understood by Shftbdn." The Caliph summoned the 
learned. Some of the Jews advised the use of their era. The sage Hdr- 
rnuz^n^ said ; " the Persians haye a computation which they call Mdhroz " 
and this he explained. But as there were intercalations in both, and their 
skill in calculation was slight, he did not accept either but adopted the era 
of the Hijrah. The month according to their system is reckoned from the 
sight of one new moon, after the sun has completely set, till the next is visible. 
It is never more than 30 nor less than 29 days. It sometimes occurs that 
four successive months are of 30 days, and three of 29. Chronologers put- 
ting aside calculations based on the moon's appearance, reckon lunar months 



maanta Safa and Merwa. The following 
referenoes deal fully with this subject. 
Poc. Spec 90 et seq. Caus. de Pero. I, 
223. Shahraatani, p. 434. Sirat ur 
Baadl. Ibn Hish&m, p. 50. Sale, Prel. 
Disc. Eur. p. 14. The same error in 
the name Babia' occurs in Albiruni 
Clinmol. p. 89. 

* 570 A. D. the year in which Maho- 
med was bom, and the name of which 
commemorates the defeat of Abraha, the 
Kthiopian king of Taman. The story is 
wen known v. Sale's Kurfin, p. 499. 
tesi snr THistoire des Arabes. Caus. 
an, de Perceral, I, 268. 

• the Srd year was called, the year of 

the trial 

4th „ „ year of Congratula- 
tion on the occa- 
sion of marriage. 

6th „ „ year of the earth- 
quake. 

6ih „ „ year of inquiring. 



7th „ „ year of victory. 
8th „ „ year of equality. 
9th „ „ year of exception, 
10th „ „ year of farewell. 

Chronol. Albirdni, Sa- 
chau, p. 35. 

* Abd Mdsa Al Asha'ri was one of 
the Companions, a native of Kdfah. Ho 
joined the prophet at Mecca and was a 
convert before the Flight to Medina. 
He was also one of the fugitives tb 
Abyssinia and including his journey from 
Yaman to Mecca, shared in the unusual 
distinction of three flights. His reading 
of the Kuran was unequalled. He died 
at Medina A. H. 50 or 51. Nawawi. Ta- 
hzih u*l Asmd. 

* Hurmuzan was a learned Persian, 
taken prisoner by Abu Mdsa and sent to 
the Caliph Omar by whom his life was 
spared, though the grace was obtained 
with some difficulty. He subsequently 
became a convert. Ibid. 



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28 



in two ways, viz.y Natural, which is the interval of the moon's departure from 
a determinate position, with the snn in conjunction or opposition or the like* 
to its return thereto; 2ndly, Artificial; since the motions of the moon 
are inconstant and their methodisation as well as an exact discrimination 
of its phases difficult, its mean rate of motion is taken and thus the task is 
facilitated. In the recent (Ourgdni) tables, this is 29 days, 12 hours and 
44 minutes.^ The rule is this, that when the fraction is in excess of half, 
it is reckoned as one day. Thus when the excess is over a half, they take 
the month of Muharram as 30 days, and the second month 29, and so on 
alternately to the last. In common years, therefore, D^i'l Hijjah is 29 
days. The mean lunar year consists of 354 d. 8. h. 48 m.« which is less 
than a solar artificial year by 10 d. 21 h 12 m. Mirza Ulugh Beg has 
based his new Canon on this era of which 1002 years have elapsed to the 
present time.* 

The Era of Yazdajird, 
He was the son of Shahrydr Aparwez* b. Hurmuz b. Noshirwan. It 
began with the accession of Jamshid. After him every succeeding mon- 
arch renewed its designation by his own accession and Yazdajird also re- 
instituted it from his assumption of sovereignty.^ The years are like the 
Syro-Macedonian ; but the fraction in excess was reserved till at the end of 
120 years, it amounted to a whole month, and that year was reckoned at 13 
months. The first intercalation was after Farwardm, and it was called by 
the name of that month. Then Urdibihisht was twice counted and so on. 
When the era was renewed under the name of Yazdajird, and his authority 
terminated in disaster, the continuity of intercalation was neglected. 
The years and months are Artificial, solar. 963 years have since elapsed.* 



* This is a lunation or synodical 
month, the interval between two con- 
janotions of the Snn and Moon. The 
periodical month, as distingnished from 
this, is the time taken in transit by the 
moon from any point of the Zodiac back 
to the same point : it consists of 27 d. 
7 h. 43 m. Hence a Innar month is 
sometimes taken in roxmd nnmbers at 
28 d. and this is the length of a Innar 
month according to the law of England. 
Lewis. Astr. of the Ano. p. 20. 

' And 86 seconds. Ibid. 

• For the prohibition of intercalation 



See Albir6ni Sachau. 



by Mahomed. 
Chronol. p. 74. 

* In Albirdni, Shahryar-b-Parwez. 
Parwez or Aparwez signifies Viotorions. 
All the fiye tables of the Sassanian kings 
in the Chronology vary somewhat, bufc 
are ag^reed in naming Shahryar as the 
father of Parwez, though he is not 
placed as a reigning sovereign. The U. T. 
however mentions him after Ardeshir 
III. A. D. 629. 

» A. D. 632. 

• " In Persia, since the age of Zoro- 
aster, the revolution of the snn has been 



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29 



The Mdliki Era. 

It is also called Jaldli. The Persian Era was used at tHai period. 
Tbroagh the interruption of continnitj in intercalation, the commencements 
of the years fell into confusion. At the instance of Snl^dn Jalilu'ddin^ 
Malik Sh4h Saljiiki, Omar Khayyam and several other learned men in- 
stituted this era. The beginning of the year was determined from the sun's 
entry into Aries. The years and months were at first Natural, but now the 
month is the ordinary Artificial. Each month consists of 30 days and 
at the end of IsfanddrmuZf they add 5 or 6 days. Of this era, 516 years 
baye elapsed. 

The Khdni Era 

dates from the reign of Ghdz&n^ Kh4n and is founded on the Elkhdni 
tables. The years and months are Natural, solar. Before its adoption the 
State records bore date from the Hijrah and the lunar year was current. 
By this means the road was opened to grievous oppression, because 31 
lunar years are equal to only 30 solar years and great loss occurred to the 
agriculturiste, as the revenue was taken on the lunar years and the har- 
vest depended on the solar. Abolishing this practice Qhiz&n Khan promo- 
ted the cause of justice^ by the introduction of this era. The names of the 
month are the Turkish with the addition of the word khdni. Of this, 293 
years have elapsed. 



known and celebrated as an annual fes- 
tival, bat after the fall of the Magian 
empire, the interoalation had been neg- 
lected: the fractions of minntes and 
hours were mnltiplied into days, and the 
date of the spring was remoyed from the 
ngn of Aries to that of Pisces." Gibbon. 
DccL and PaU. Vol. X. p. 867. Ed. 1797. 
* A brilliant sketch of his life may be 
iwd in Gibbon. I need not multiply 
references. " The reign of Malek was 
ilhs^ated by the Gelalsean era: and 
an errors, either past or fntnre, were 
ecnrected by a computation of time, 
iriuoh surpasses the Julian and ap- 
proaches the accuracy of the Gregorian 
style. The Gclalsan era is fixed to the 
IHh March A. H. 471 (A. D. 1079) Vol. 
X.p.867. 



* Ghizin Khia, Maltimiid, eldest son 
of Arghun, the 8th from Mangu Khia 
son of Jenghiz, of the Moghul Tartar or 
Ilkhanian Dynasty of Persia. He as- 
cended the throne in A. H. 694 (A. D. 
1294) and was succeeded by Ghiisu'ddin 
Au-gpiptu Ehudi bandah Muhammad, A. 
H. 708. (A. D. 1808). U. T. P. II, 
p. 146. A history of Gh&zan Ehin was 
written by Shamsu*ddin Mul^ammad al 
Kdshi, temp Bnl^in Abu Said. Hdji 
Khalifah giv^es the date of the author's 
death about A. H. 980. which does not 
agree with the date of Abu Qiid in the 
U. T. 

' A similar act of justice is recorded 
of the Caliph al Muatadhid in his re- 
form of the Calendar. V. Albiruni, 
Chronol. p. 36. 



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30 



The Ildhi Era, 

His Majesty had long desired to introduce a new computation of years 
and months throughout the fair regions of Hindustan in order that per- 
plexity might give place to easiness. He was likewise averse to the era 
of the Hijra {Flight) which was of ominous signification, but because of the 
number of short-sighted, ignorant men who believe the currency of the era 
to be inseparable from religion, His Imperial Majesty in his graciousness, 
dearly regarding the attachment of the hearts of his subjects did not carry 
out his design of suppressing it. Although it is evident to right-minded 
people of the world, what relevancy exists between the market-coin of 
commercial dealing and the night-gleaming jewel of faith, and what parti- 
cipation between this chain of objective connection and the twofold cord 
of spiritual truth, yet the world is full of the dust of indiscrimination, and 
the discerning are heedful of the fable of the f ox^ that took to flight when 
camels were being impressed. In 992* of the Novilunar year, the lamp 
of knowledge received another light from the flame of his sublime in- 
telligence and its full blaze shone upon mankind. The fortunately gifted, 
lovers of truth raised their heads from the pillow of disappointment and 
the crooked-charactered, drowsy-vnlled lay in the comer of disuse. Mean- 
while the imperial design was accomplished. Amir Fatljiu'llah Shir&zi,^ 
the representative of ancient sages, the paragon of the house of wisdom, set 
himself to the fulfilment of this object, and taking as his base the recent 
Gurg&ni Canon, began the era with the accession of his Imperial Majesty. 
The splendour of visible sublimity which had its manifestation in the lord 
of the universe commended itself to this chosen one, especially as it also 
concentrated the leadership of the world of spirituality, and for its cogni- 
tion by vassals of auspicious mind, the characteristics of the divine essence 
were ascribed to it, and the glad tidings of its perpetual adoption proclaimed. 
The years and months are natural solar without intercalation and the Per- 
sion names of the months and days have been left unaltered. The days of 
the month are reckoned from 29 to 32, and the two days' of the last are 
called Boz o Shah (Day and Night). The names of the months of each era 
are tabulated for focility of reference. 



* Gnlistan I. Story XVI. * What oon- 
neotion, Madcap/ they said to him ' has 
a oamel with thee and what resemblance 
hast thou to it ? * Peace ! ' he answered 
' for if the cnrioos should , to serve their 



own ends, say " — " This is a oamel," who 
would care about my release so as to in- 
quire ir.to my condition ?" 

» A. D. 1584. 

• See Ain Akb. Vol. I, p. 33, Ao. 



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31 



• 

wg 

8 



Chait 



Chanweh Ar^ Ay.* 
Zheshewehjlkandi Aj. 



Aaith 

Bhidov 
Knnwir 
Kitik 
Iffhan 

Xiffh 
fhSgan 



I 



Simweh 

Harweh 

Uweh 

Liiweh 

Oheweh 

Biweh 

Kheweh 

Shabweh 

Shajayweh 

Sirweh 



3 



Oohanj Ay. 
Dardanj Ay. 
Beshanj Ay. 
Altfnj Ay. 
Yetinj Ay. 
Ssksanj Ay. 
Tdkaanj Ay. 
Onnanj Ay. 
Onbaranj Ay. 
Ha^bit Ay. 






Tishri 
Marhesh- 

wan 
Kiilew 
Tebeth 
Shebi^ 
Adhir 
Nisin 
lyir 
Siw4n ^ 
Tammaz 
Ab 
£161 






Thoth 
Bipeh 

H£tor 
Eehak 
Tdbah 



„ Amsh^r Amsh^r 



Thoth 
B&peh 

Hator 
Kehak 
Tdbah 



Barmahit 

Barmddah 

Bashans 

Bonah 

Abfb 

IMisri 



10. 



wo 



Thoth 
Plopi 

Athyr 

Khawit: 

Tybi 

Makhir 

Phamanoth 

Pharmdthi 

Pachon 

Payni 

Epiphi 

Meson 



u. 


12. 


13. 


14. 


16. 


16. 


17. 


18. 


19. 


20. 


Syio-lCa- 

oedoman 

Era. 


li 


The Chris- 
tian Era. 




^1 

•S-l 


Era of the 
Hijrah. 


Era of 
Yazdijird: 


The Ma- 

UkiEra. 


The 
Ehini 
Era. 


The 

Diyine 

Era. 


TuhruUil 




January 




Mn^arram 


Farwardin 


Farwar- 


ArimAy 


Farwar- 


Awwal 










Mih. Old 
Style 


din Mih 
. i Jalili 


Khani 


din Mih 
illihi 


TMhrfnn'l 




Febroary 




Safar 


Ardibihisht 


Ac. 


Ac. 


&c. 


Akhir 










M4h. 0. S. 






like 18. 


Kindn'l 




March 




Babia' I. 


Khnrdid 


&c. 


AclikeS, 


substi- 


'^Awwal 


i 








Mih. 0. S. 




with the 


tuting 


Klninu'l 


S 


April 




Eabia' II. 


Tir U&k 0. 


Ac. 


word 


* llihi' 


Akhir 


d 








S. 




" Khini" 


for 


Shebit 


£ 


May 


i 


Jnmida I. 


Amnrdad 
Mdh. 0. S. 


like 17. 
with the 


after 
"Ay" 


"Jalili." 


l<4r 


"tt 


Jane 


3 


Jam&da II. 


Shari^war 


word 


Inthe4th 






o 




3 




MAh. 0. S. 


"Jalili" 


month, 




Hiifiii 


1 


July 


sS 


Bajab 


MihrMdh. 


after 


the word 








*tt 




0. S. 


" Mah." 


" Tor- 




Ayyfc 


1 


Aogost 


O 


Sha'bdn 


AbinM^h. , 


tanj" 










0. S. 




occurs, 




HuoriQ 


September 


^ 




Azar Mih. 




where in 






*3 




1 




0. S. 




Col. 3, it 




T$mia 


M 


October 


Shaww^l 


Day M£h. 0. 




is Dar- 






s 






S. 




danj." 




Mb 




Noyember 


1 


D^ Ea'da 


Bahman 
Mdh. S. 








AyUl 




December 


D^i ^ijjah 


Isfandirmaz 














H 


H 




M4h. 0. S. 









' Theee months are somewhat dif- 
fcnot in Albiruni. Chronol. p. 82. 

* The choice of yariants in these names 
n^ht haye been decided by a reference 
to C^esemus : the correct spellings appear 
to be relegated to the notes of the text. 



' In the Coptic months, I haye follow- 
the spelling of Sachau*s Albiruni (Chro- 
no). p. 83) and the U. T. p. 10. P. II. 
They are to be found also in Mas^udi's 
Murdj u^ Pahab. Chap. 65, and in Abdl 
Mahisin (Annals) Vol. I, p. 36. 



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32 

The events of the world recorded in chronological sequence, are ac- 
counted the science of history, and he who is proficient in them, is 
a historian. Many writings in this branch of knowledge regard- 
ing India, Khafd, the Franks, Jews and other peoples are extant. 
Of the Muhammadan sect, the first who in Hijiz occupied himself 
with this subject was Muhammad-b-Islji&V)^ *^e^ follow Wahab-b- 
Murabbih,* WAlfiidi,* Asma'i,* Tabari,^ Abu A'bdu'Uah Muslim-b-Kutaybah,* 



* Author of the well known work 
Al Maghdxi toa'a Siyar (ezpeditiones belUose 
etbiographisd); he was a native of Medina, 
and as a traditionist held a high rank, 
and regarded hy Al Bukh&ri and as 
Shifa'i as the first authority on the 
Moslim oonqnests. He died at Baghdad 
A. H. 151 (A. D. 768) other dates (151- 
2-3) are &lso g^yen. It is from his work 
that Ibn Hisham extracted the materials 
for his life of the prophet, v. Ibn Kha- 
lakan. Others aooord the honour of being 
the first writer on this subject to U*rwah- 
b-Zubayr. Haj. Khal. V. '646. 

* Was a native of Taman and one of 
the " Abn6" ♦. e., a descendant of one of 
the Persian soldiers settled there. He 
died at $ana'i in Taman A. H. 110. in 
Mubarram (April— May A. D. 728)— 
(others say in 114 or 116) at the age 
of 90. He was a great transmitter of 
narrations and legends. A great part of 
the information given by Moslem his- 
torians regarding the antislamio history 
of Persia, Greece, Taman, Egypt Ac. 
comes from him. He was an audacious 
liar, OS Moslem critics of a later period 
discovered. Ibn Khali. De. SI. IV. p. 
672-3. 

* Abu A'bdu'llah Mu\^ammad-b-Omar. 
Wal^id, al Wi^^idi, a native of Mecca, 
author of the well known " conquests" of 
the Moslems. He was born A. H. 130 
(Sep. A. D. 747) and died on the eve of 
Monday 11 Zul ^Jijjah. A. H 207 (27th 
April A. D. 823), being then IJladhi of 
the quarter of Baghdad, situated on the 



west bank of the Tigris ; vxikidi means de- 
scended from Wi^d, an ancestor of this 
name., I. E. III. p. 61. 

« Abu S%id 'Abdu'l MaUk-b-Kuraib al 
Asma'i, the celebrated phOologer, a 
complete master of Arabic. He was 
native of Basra, but removed to 
Baghdad in the reign of Hardn ar 
Bashid. It is said he knew by heart 
16,000 pieces of verse. He was bom 
A. H. 122 (A. D. 740) and died at 
Basra in the month of $afar A. H. 216 
(March— April A. D. 831). Others say 
he died at Marw. The voluminous 
treatises of this author are detailed by I. 
K. 

* Ibn Jarir at T&bari (native of T^ba- 
restin) author of the great commentary 
of the Kurin and of the celebrated his* 
tory. He is regarded as an exact tradi- 
tionist, born A. H. 224 (A. D. 838-9) at 
Amol in Tabarestsn and died at Baghdad 
A. H.310(A. D. 923)., I. K. 

' A native of Dinawar, some say of 
Marw, author of the Kitah uZ Ma'drif and 
Addb 41 Kdtib ; the first a work of 
general knowledge, from which Eichhoru 
extracted his genealogies of the Arabs 
published in his Monumenta kistorim 
Arahum : it contains a number of short 
biographical notices of the early Moslems. 
A list of other works will be found in 
I. K.'s biography. II. p. 22. He was 
bom A. H. 213 (A. D. 828-9) and died 
A. H. 270 (A. D. 884). Other dates 
given are A. H. 271 and 296 (A. D. 909). 
The Addb ul Kdtib or Writer's Guide is 



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Aa'tiiam of K&ta^^ Mn^mmad Mnkanna',* HaHm A'li Miskawaih,^ 
Fakhra'ddiQ Mu^mmad-b-A'li B&M Salaiman Bin&kiti,^ Abd'l Faraj, 



remarkable for its long preface, thongh 
itself a short work on philology, and was 
called by the learned * a preface without 
a book/ in contradistinction to Ibn as 
Sikkif a work, the Isl4? ul Manti^, a 
book without a preface. 

* tfuhammad-b-A'li, known as Aa'sim 
Eiifi; his work, the Fntiih Aa'thim (H. 
E.) is a short account of events from the 
death of the prophet to the death of 
9as^ at Karbala. It was translated into 
Persian by A^mad-b-Md. Mustaufi : a 
copy of it is among the MSS. of the 
Aaiatic Society. In this latter the name 
is spelt with a u^ instead of «^ 

* This name occurs in the Hamibah. 

A poem beginning ij^j* {:H^^i^ U^ 
W J the 89th of the " Bih til Adab»' is 
by Al Hukanna' al Kindi. Freytag gives 
hbname from the Scholia as Muhammad- 
b-Ohmaisah. He is said to have been 
oaUed Mu^anna' from the veil he wore 
to protect the beauty of his person. He 
sqaandered his wealth in lavish gifts 
and in the time of the Omayyads was 
still living, of much accoxmt with his 
people, but in poverty. This single 
poem scarcely deserves to place him in 
therdl ml Arab writers of note. The 
variant Mvkaffa^ must refer to Ibn al 
MnlalEa'. He was known as the Kdtih 
or Secretary and was the author of some 
oeiebrated epistles. He also translated 
KaHla and Damna into Arabic. He was 
Seentary to fsa-b-A'li, uncle to the 
Hut two Abbaside Caliphs, as Saff&h and 
al Ifaiifdr. His horrible death by order 
cf the governor of Basra, Sofyin-b- 
Itewtjrah al Huhallabi may be read in 
Bai-KhalL It occurred in A. H. 142 (A. 
iX 789-<K)). The latter states that some 
<Ckii poetry may be found in the Ha- 
5 



misah. He is evidently confounding 
him, with Mnkanna' above mentioned. 
According to H. E. the Tarikhu*! Furs, 
an ancient history of Persia by an un- 
known author and the principal source of 
the Shahnimah was translated from the 
Pehlevi into Arabic by Ibn al Mukanvna* 
I suspect Mukafla' is the right reading. 

* Abu A'U A^mad-b-Miskawaih, a 
Persian of good birth and disting^hed 
attainments. He was treasurer to Malik 
Adhd'ud Daulah-b-Buwaih, who placed 
the utmost trust in him. He was the 
author of several works. Abdl Faraj 
relates (Hist. Dynast, p. 328) that 
Avicenna consulted him on a certain ab« 
struse point ; and finding him slow of in- 
telligence an<\ incapable of solving his 
difficulty, left him. His death is placed 
about A. H. 420. Haj. £hal. makes it 
421 (A. D. 1030.) The latter mentions 
one of his works. TajdribM-Umum wa 
Tavxikih u*l Himam (evperientuB popu- 
lorum et stvdia animorum) of much re- 
pute. 

* BiniUdt is placed by Ya^iiit (Mua'ja* 
mid BuLddm) in Transoziana. He is the 
author of the Baudhat ul Albdb (viri- 
darium cordatorum) a compendium of 
Persian history. He lived tempore Jin- 
ghiz Khan and wrote on the history of 
the Khi^ kings at the request or com- 
mand of Sult&n Abu Said Bahildur. 
H. K. See Elliot's Bibl. Index to Mu- 
bammadan Historians India p. 70. 

* The well known author of the His- 
toria Dynastiarum, bom A. D. 1226 ; and 
died 1286 according to Chaufepi^. Po- 
cocke and D'Herbelot briefly allude to 
him ; Bayle at some length, whose pyni- 
oism enlivens if it does not add to the 
value of his notes. 



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Im&dn'ddin-b*Kathir,i Mal^addasi,' Ab6 Hanifah Dinawan,' Mait^aiixuiiaa- 
b-'Abdu'llah Maea'tidi,* Ibu Khall4k4n,» TAfa'i,*^ Abd Na^r Utlii;^ 
amongst the Persians, Firdansi, Tdsi, Ab61 Husain Bailiak,^ Ab6l 



> The H&fidh rm&da'ddm, Ism&il-b- 
A'bda'Uah ad Dimashki died in A. H. 
^4 (A. D. 1872). The name of his his- 
tory is 'Al Biddyah waH Nihdyah {ini' 
Hum et Jmia) and is continned to his 
own time. See H. E. 

• There are seyeral of this name. See 
D*Herb. art. Mocaddes. Shamsn'ddin 
^Abda'llah was the author of a geography 
entitled. — Ahsanu'l tdksdn fi Ma*r%fcUi'la 
hdUmy a description of the seven climates, 
died A. H. 441, (A. D, 1049 : a second, 
Hnsfimuddin Md.-b:-A'bnl W61?id au- 
thor of a work on judicial decigions ; died 
A. H. 648 (A. D. 1245) ; a third, probably 
the one alluded to, 6hah&b(idd£n Abu 
Ma^m^id as ShAfa'i author of the work 
MvihCruH Qha/rdm ila* ZidratU K^ds wdl 
8hdm (liber cupidinem esseitans Hiero- 
solyma et Damascum visendi.) He died 
in 765, (A. D. 1863). H. K. 

* Abd Hanffa A^mad-b-Daud ad 
Dinawari, author of a work Isldh u'l 
MarUik (emendatio sermonis). He died 
290 (A. D. 902). H. K. 

♦ The author of the Murfij ud Pahab. 
(Prata Auria) which he composed in the 
reign of the Caliph Mutia BilUh. It 
begins with the creation of the world, 
and is continued through the Caliphs to 
his own time. He died in Cairo iu 846. 
A. H,(A. D. 957). See D'Herb. andH. K. 
• • The famous biographer: his work 
the Wafaydtu*l Aa^ydn containing the 
lives of illustrious men is well known. 
It was composed in Egypt under Sultan 
Baybars of the Mameluke dynasty. He 
has given a few particulars of his life at 
the close of this work which was finished 
in A. H. 672 (A. D. 1278-4). He was bom 
in 608 (A. D. 1211) and died in 681 (A. 
D. 1282). D'Herb. and H. K. 



• A'bd'ullah.b-Asa'd al Ylfa'i al 
Yamani, died 768 A. H. (A. D. 1366). 
He wrote the Mirat u*l Janin wa I'brat 
u*l Yakdh&n (speculum cordis et ex- 
emplum vigilantis), a historical work 
beginning with the Flight and continued 
to his own time. Another is the Bau- 
dhatu'l Rid^in (viridariumhyacinthorum) 
containing lives of Moslem saints. This 
last is not mentioned by H. K. cf. 
D'Herb. 

' Author of the Tarikh Tamini which 
contains the history of the Ghaznivide 
Sulfcdn Yamfn u*d Daulah Ma^jmud-b- 
Subuktakfn of whom he was a contem- 
porary : it is brought down to the year 
428 (A. D. 10367) : De Saoy haa given 
an analysis of it in the 4th Vol. of N&tid€$ 
et extraits. I. K. III. p. 266. Ano- 
ther of his name is Al Utbi the poet of 
Basra; his surname was drawn from 
Vtba son of Abii Sufyin. It also signi^ 
fies descended from Vtba-b-QhaEin one 
of the prophefs oompanions. I. K, III, 
107. 

^ Abd ^asan' Ali-b-Zayd al Baiha)i 
afuthor of the Wishdhi Dwmyatil Koir ; a 
supplement to the Dnmyat u'l Ka9r of 
al B&kharzi the poet who died. A. H, 
467. (A. D. 1075). He is mentioned in 
I. E. under the latter name ; alpo by H* 
K., but his date is omitted ; also as the 
author of a work called Tarikhi Baihak* 
V. under Tarikh / Baihak, derived from 
the Persian baiha, good (6iWn), aoooid- 
ing to Yal^ii^ is a collection of 8Sl 
villages between Nisabiir and ^4mi8, 
there are two others given in H. K. one » 
the author of the Arha*(n {quadra^ 
^enaria de Moribm) Abu Bakr Al»mad-b- 
A'lias Shifa'f, died 458, (A. D, 1065) ^nct 
Abu'l Mabiain MasaHi4^b-A'U*d-64« (A* 



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85 



Bnnan author of the Tirikhi Khnsrawi,! Khwijah AMI Eozl Baihald,' 
Al>bfa-b-Mii9aV Al^nad-b-Sayyir,* Abu Isi^lf Bazz'az,^ Hafiiammad 
Balkhi,^ Abnl Ka'sim Ka'bi,7 Abul Hasan Fiun,» ^adra'ddin Muhammad 
author of the T^ju'l Madsir,^ (corona monumentorum)^ Abd'Abdu'llah 
jMJ&ii,w (author of the Tabak4t.i-N*firi), Kabiru'ddin 'Irtti," Abu'l 
Kisim Kishi,^ author of the Zubdah (LactU flos), Eliwijah Abti'l 
Fail^ author of the Makhzan ul Bal&ghat (pronUuarium eloquentuB 
and Fadhiil ill Mul6k (virtiUee pr^ndpum pr(iBitante$),^^ 'Atau'ddin 
Jnwainiy brother of the Khawijah Shamso'ddin author of a Diwin, (he 



D. Ili9) author of the Al AaHak u'l Ma- 
lawtdn {pretiosiores partes diei et noctis) 
d. FHerb. art. Baiheki. 

* Abu*! ^nsain MniiMimmad-b-Salai- 
man Al Asha'ri. the Tirikh KhuBrawi, 
ia a history of the Persian kiiigs. H. K. 
giTas no fnrther partionlars or date. 

' Anthor of a history of the House of 
Sahnktikin in sereral volnmes. H. K. 

'Author of the Tarlkh KhorMn 
H.K. 

* Ahmad-b-Sayyir-b-Ayyiib. The m- 
fidh| Abn'l J^^asan al Marwazi a tra- 
ditjaoist of great repute and accuracy. 
Died A. H. 268. A. D. 881. Abn'l Mahi- 
■in V. n. p. 46. 

' Abd Ish4-Mut^kmmad-b-al Bassis 
was the author of a history of Herat. 
EK. 

* Mnhammad.b.Akil al Balkhi-d-A. 
H. Sia (A. D. 928). (Abnl Mahisin H. 
p. 236.) anthor of history of Balkh H. K. 

' Ahn'l Ximm AH-b-Hal^dd anthor 
cf a history of Balkh. H. K. See also 
I.K.n.p.21. 

*Abdl Qasan, A'bd'n'l Ghifir-b- 
loBa'fl Al Firm, anthor of the Bijik 
AfsiUtdrikh l^iaabdr (cursus orationis 
%ipsDdiz ad historiam Nisabtro). He 
4M A. H. 687 (A. D. 1132.) H. K. 
.tTlda is the Persian History, men- 
tetdhj H. K. who gires no further 



•'^Tte Tabakdti N£«iri is on the 
«xpeditioui of K^ifim'ddin 



Ma^mud Sh&h-b-ntamish of Delhi. The 
name of the anthor is Abd Omar, Othman- 
b-Mubammad al Minhd], Sirhdj al Jdsjdni. 
So it ooonrs in the author's own preface 
to his work which has been printed un- 
der the superintendence of Captain Nas- 
sau Lees. The name is sometimes writ- 
ten,but apparently incorrectly as Jurjin : 
the latter city is placed by Ti^ut between 
Tabarist&n and Ehor£s£n, while Juzjin 
is an extensiye distract between Balkh 
and Marward^* See Oapt. Lees' preface 
for an account of this anthor. 

*^ Son of Tdjn'ddin IMd, who wrote 
of the conquests of Sult&n A'Uu'ddin 
Khilji. He was a skilled rhetorician, 
and writer ; see a slight sketch of him 
in the Tarikh Firoz Sh&hi. (p. 861) of 
ZilLuddin Bami. 

*' Abn'l ^sim Jam&lu*ddin. Mubam- 
mad-d- A. H. 886 (A. D. 1482), author 
of the Znbdatn't Tawiirikh, in Persian. 
H. K. 

^ Abd'l Fadbl Ubaidn'llah H. K. (In 
Bandhat us Safa, 'Abdullah).b.Abi Nasr 
Abmad-b-A'U-b-alMfkill ; both the works 
mentioned are historical. H. K, refers 
to the Bandhat us Safa without further 
detail. 

.^^ D'Herbelot and the Bandhat give 
the name A'lin'ddin A'ta Malik al 
Juwaini ; the anthor of the Jahdn JTu- 
ihd a Persian history; no other parti- 
culars are stated. 



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36 



wrote the Tarikh Jahinkushi, Eistoria, orhis terrarum victrim) Hamda'Uah 
Mufltaufi ^Cazwini,! Kidhi Nidhim Bay^hAwi,* Khwajah-Rashidi Tabib,» 
H&fiz Abm,* and other trustworthy writers. 

For a long time past, likewise, it has been the practice to record 
current events by a chronogram and to make the computation of years ap- 
pear from a single word, a hemistich and the like and this too they term a 
date ; as for instance, for the accession of his Majesty, they have devised 
the words "Na^rat i Akbar" (^ ^j^) victoria insignia and ''Kim 
Baksh" ( cr«^ f^ ). Optatis respondens), but the ancients practised it 
little; thus the following was written on Avicenna.^ 

The Demonstnation of Truth, Abu A'li Sina. 

Entered in Shaja* (j*^ 373) from non-existence into being. 

In Shasd ( ^-^ 391) he acquired complete knowledge. 

In Takaz (yC 427) he bade the world farewell. 



* A u thor of the Tarikh Chiz<da (prcBstan- 
tissimaeaohistoria) which ranks among the 
best general histories of the East, written 
for the Wazir Ghiathn'ddin Mn^ammad. 
It was first composed in 60,000 verses, 
and then tamed into prose about A. H. 
730 (A. D. 1329-80). It begins with 
the creation and giyes an account of the 
prophets, preislamite monarchies, and 
subsequent Caliphate to his own time 
with the usual digressions in biog^phy, 
geography and genealogy. The various 
chapters of this work are detailed in 
H. K. See Elliot's Bibl. Index, p. 75., 

' Ki^hi Nafiru'ddin Abdu'llah-b- 
Omar al Baidh&wi-d-A. H. 684 (A. D. 
1286) author of the Nidhimu't Taw&rikh 
(Ordo historiarum), a compendium of 
Persian history with an account of Mos- 
lem dynasties from the house of Umay- 
yah to that of Ehw^bazm and the 
Mongols. The text has the word Nidhdm 
as a name instead of the titles of his work. 
• Khwdjah Eaahidu'ddin Fadhlu'llah. 
the Wazir (put to death in 718 (A. D. 
1318), author of the Jami'u't Taw&rikh 
(hietoria universalis)* He began it 
just before the death of Gh£sin Khan 
A. H.704 (1304. A. D.) fiissaooessor 



Khudabandah MutAmmad ordered him 
to complete it and preface it with his 
name and to add to the history of the 
Jingis dynasty, a more general aoooont 
of the nations of the world. The full 
details will be found in H. K. under art. 
^ly^l g;*^. A more extended notice of 
the author and his work may be road 
in Elliot's Bibl. Index p. 1. Vol. I. 

* N6ru'ddfn Lutfullah, al Harawi-b- 
A'bduUah, known as ^ifidh Abrd, au- 
thor of the ZubdaimH Tawdr0eh composed 
for Bai SanJjpar Mirza, an account of the 
principal events and strange or extra- 
ordinary occurrences recorded in the 
history of the world carried down to A. 
H. 829 (1426 A. D.) He died in 834 
(A. D. 1480). Elliot's Bibl. Index p. 81. 

The whole of this series of authors is 
taken bodily and in the same order by 
Abu'l Pazl from the Baudhatu's Saf£ 
without acknowledgement. 

' Fur i Sfna signifies the same as 
Ibn 8ina, The full name of this philo- 
sopher is Abu 'Ali Susain-b-'Abdu'lliA- 
b-Sina, as Shaikh, ar B&is. He una bom 
in Buhk&ra A. H. 870 (A. D. 980) and 
died in 428 (1036) at the age of 68. The 
length to which these notes have nm 



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87 

A'fN I. 

The Commander of the Forces, 

He ifl the vicegerent of His Majesty. The troops and* people of the 
province are under his orders and their welfare depends npon his jnst ad- 
ministration. He mnst seek the will of God in all that he nndertakes 
and be constant in praise and snpplication. He most never lay aside the 
oonsideration of the people's prosperity nor suffer his zeal to sleep. He 
mnst not be prompt to vain converse or asperity of manner. Vigilance and 
the duo distinction of ranks must be his care, especially towards subordinates 
near his person and officials at a distance. What is the duty of dependents 
must not be committed to his sons, and what these can' perform he should 
not execute himself. In all transactions he should confide in one wiser 
tlian himself and if he can find none such, he should confer with a few 
chosen individuals and weigh carefully their deliberations. 

It haps at times, the hoary sage 

May fail at need in counsel right, ^ 

And unskilled hands of tender age 

A chance shaft wing within the white. < 

He should not admit many men to his secret councils, for the prudent, 
sealous, warm, disinterested adviser is rare, lest one of them should pro- 
voke dissension, and opportunities for timely action escape. He should 
regard his office of command as that of a guardian, and exercise caution, 
and making a knowledge of the disposition of men a rule of government, 
live as it behoves his office. Levity and anger he should keep under the 
res^int of reason. He should reclaim the rebellious by a just insight 
into the conduct of affairs and by good counsel, failing which, he should 
be swift to punish by reprimands, threats, imprisonment, stripes or amputa- 
tion of limb, but he must use the utmost deliberation before severing the 
bond of the principle of life. He should not pollute his tongue with abuse 
which is the manner of noisy vagabonds of the market place. He should 
refrain from the use of oaths in speech for this is imputing falsehood to 
himself by implication and distrust in the person he addresses. In judicial 
investigations, he should not be satisfied with witnesses and oaths, but 
pursue them by manifold inquiries, by the stady of physiognomy and the 



ooBipel me to reject information whioh 
the leader may easily gather for him- 
lelf. The life of Aricenna will be found 
m L K. Under art 8ina D*HerbeIot tran- 
his life and nnder Canwn the 



contents of his famons work on Medi- 
cine which has been a mine of know- 
ledge and contention to all subsequent 
Moslem writers on this subject. 
1 Goliath of Ba'di, Chap. UL 



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3S 

exercise of foresight, nor, laying the burden of it on others, live absolved 
from solicitude. 

Beware lest justice to that judge belong, 

Whose own ill-deed hath wrought the suppliant's wrong. 
Let him not inflict the distress of expectation upon supplicants for 
justice. He should shut his eyes against faults and accept excuses, and 
adopt such a course of conduct as will not disparage his good breeding 
and dignity. He should not interfere with any man's creed. A wiso man, 
in worldly affairs that are transient, seeks not his own loss, why then should 
he knowingly abandon the spiritual life that is eternal, iar if it be true, dis- 
turbance is criminal and if otherwise it is the malady of ignorance and is 
deserving of kind treatment. Each division of the kingdom, he should en- 
trust to zealous upright men and provide for the safety of the roads by the 
establishment of trusty guards and from time to time receive reports of 
them. He should select for purposes of secret intelligence honest, pro- 
vident, truthful and unavaricious men, and if such needful individuals are 
not to be obfained, in every afEair he should associate several who are un- 
known to each other and inspecting their several reports thus ascertain the 
truth. His expenditure should be less than his income, and from his trea- 
sury ho should sup])ly the needy, especially those who loose not their tongues 
in solicitation. He should never be negligent of the supplies and accoutre- 
ments of the troops. He should not refrain from the practice of horse- 
manship, and should use the bow and the matchlock and command this 
exercise to his men. In attaching individuals to his own person and in 
the increase of confidence, he should employ a cautious circumspection. 
Many are the evil dispositioned and licentious of nature who profess sin- 
cerity and sell themselves at a high price. He should turn his attention to 
the increase of agriculture and the flourishing condition of the land and 
earn the gratitude of the people by the faithful discharge of his obligations 
and account the befriending of the agriculturists as an excellent service to 
the Almighty. He should retain impartial collectors of revenue and from 
time to time obtain information regarding their actions. Let him store 
for himself a goodly reward in the making of reservoirs, wells, watercourses, 
gardens, serais and other pious foundations, and set about the repairing if 
what has fallen into ruin. He should not be given to retirement nor be 
unsettled in mind which is the manner of recluses, nor make a practice 
of associating with the common people nor be ever surrounded by a 
crowd which is the fashion of blind worshippers of outward appearances. 

Court not the world nor to it wholly die ; 

Walk wisely : neither phosnix be nor fly. 



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Let him hold in honour the chosen seifvants of Ood, and entreat the 
assistance of spiritually-minded anchorites and of mendicants of tangled 
hair and naked of foot. The imploring blessings from the sun and the 
solar lamp, he should not consider as its deification or a worshipping of 
fire.^ Let him accustom himself to night vigils and partake of sleep and 
food in moderation. He should pass the dawn and the evening in medita- 
tion and pray at noon and at midnight. When he is at leisure from worldly 
a&irs and introspection of conscience, he should study works of philosophy 
and act according to their precepts. If this does not satisfy his mind, he 
should peruse the spiritual admonitions of the Masnawi* and regardless 
of the letter imbibe its spirit. He should entertain his mind with the 
instructive stories of Kalila and Danma, and thus gaining a knowledge of 
the vicissitudes of life, regard the experience of the ancients as his own. 
Let him apply himself to the cultivation of true knowledge and put 
aside childish tales. Let him associate with a discreet and trusty friend 
aod give him permission to look carefully into his daily conduct in 
order that he may privately represent whatever, in the balance of his dis- 
cretion, appears blameworthy and if at any time his penetration should be 
at fault he should not be thereat displeased for men have ever been back- 
ward in uttering a displeasing truth especially in a season of anger when 
reason slumbers and the spirit is aflame. Courtiers, for the most part, 
seek pretexts of evasion and lend a false colouring to error, and if perchance 
one of them should be really concerned, he will hold his peace for fear, 
for he is indeed difficult to find who would prefer another's benefit to his 
own injury. Let him not be roused to anger by the representations of 
detractors, but rest in the path of circumspection, for men of evil nature, 
dissemblers in speech, palm oft their tales with the semblance of truth and 
representing themselves as disinterested, labour to injure others. He 
should not consider himself as fixed of residence but hold himself ever 
ready for a summons to the presence. .Let him not be malevolent, but 
prefer courtesy and gentleness. He should not subvert ancient families 
hot let an illustrious ancestry redeem unworthy successors. Let him see 
thai the younger among his followers when they meet, use the greeting " God 
is great,"* and the elder reply * Glorious is His Majesty." Let him not 
take as food a sheep or a goat of under one year and he should abstain 
from flesh for a month after the anniversary of his birthday. He shall 
nol eat of anything that he has himself killed. He should restrict him- 
self in sensual gratification and approach not a pregnant woman. The 



» See. VoL I, pp. 200-202. | • See Vol. I, p. 166. 

* Of Jal^a'ddin Rumi. 



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40 

food which is bestowed in memory of the deceased, he should prepare each 

year on his birthday and regale the needy. 

With heayenly treasures store thy grave — provide* 
While yet in life — none may when he hath died. 

When the sun advances from one sign of the zodiac to another, let 
him offer np a thanksgiving and discharge cannon and musketry to arouse 
the slumberers in forgetfulness. At the first beams of the world-illumining 
sun and at midnight which is the turning point of its re-ascension, let him 
sound the kettle-drum and enforce vigilance. 



ATN II. 

The Fovjd&r. 

In the same way that His Majesty, for the prosperity of the empire, 
has appointed a Oommander of the forces for each province, so by his 
rectitude of judgment and wise statesmanship he apportions several par- 
gaunahs to the care of one of his trusty, just and disinterested servants, 
appreciative of what is equitable, and faithful to his engagements ; and 
him they style by the above name. As a subordinate and assistant he 
holds the first place. Should a cultivator or a collector of the crown lands 
or an assignee of government estates prove rebellious, he should induce 
him to submit by fair words, and if this fail, he shall take the written 
evidence of the principal officers and proceed to chastise him. He should 
pitch his camp in the neighbourhood of the body of rebels and at every 
opportunity inflict loss upon their persons and property but not risk at 
once a general engagement. If the affair can be concluded with the in- 
fantry he should not employ cavalry. He should not be rash in attacking a 
fort, but encamp beyond bowshot and the reach of its guns and musketry, and 
obstruct the roads of communication. He should be vigilant against night 
attacks and devise a place of retreat, and be constant in patrolling. When 
he has captured the rebel camp, he must observe equity in the division of 
the spoil and reserve a fifth for the royal exchequer. If a balance of 
revenue be due from the village, this should be first taken into account. 
He should constantly inspect the horses and accoutrements of the troops. 
If a trooper be without a horse, his comrades should be assessed to pro- 
vide for him and if a horse be killed in action, it should be made good at 
the expense of the State. He must duly furnish a roll of the troops present 

* Sa'di-GnlisUn Preface. 



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41 

and absent, to the rojal court and ever bear in mind tbe daty of carrying 
oat its sacred ordinanees. 

XTN Ul. 
The Mir A*dl and the Kdzi. 

Although tbe supreme authority and the redress of grieyauoes rests 
with sovereign monarchs, yet the capacity of a single person is inadequate 
to the superintendence of the entire administration. It is therefore 
necessary that he should appoint one of his discreet and unbiassed servants 
as his judiciary delegate. This person must not be content with witnesses 
and oaths, but hold diligent investigation of the first importance, for the 
inquirer is uninformed and the two litigants are cognisant of the facts. 
Without fall inquiry, and just insight, it is difficult to acquire requisite 
certitude. From the excessive depravity of human nature and its covetous- 
ness, no dependence can be placed on a witness or his oath. By impartia* 
lity and knowledge of character, be should distinguish the oppressed 
from the oppressor and boldly and equitably take action on his conclusions. 
He must' begin with a thorough interrogation and learn the circumstances 
of the case ; and should keep in view what is fitting in each particular and 
take tbe question in detail, and in this manner set down separately the 
evidence of each witness. When he has accomplished his task with in- 
telligence, deliberation and perspicacity, he should, for a time, turn to 
other business and keep his counsel from others. He should then take up 
the case and reinvestigate and inquire into it anew, and with discrimina- 
tion and singleness of view search it to its core. If capacity and vigour 
are not to be found united, he should appoint two persons, one to investigate 
whom they call a Kdzi ; the other the Mir A'dl to carry out his finding. 

AfN IV. 

The Kotwdl 

The appropriate person for this office should be vigorous, experienced, 
aotive, ddiberate, patient, astute and humane. Through his watchfulness 
and night patrolling the citizens should enjoy the repose of security, and 
the evil-disposed lie in the slough of non-existence. He should keep a 
ragistor of houses, and frequented roads, and engage the citizens in a 
pkdge of reciprocal assistance, and bind them to a common participation of 
weal and woe. He should form a quarter by the union of a certain number 
of habitations, and name one of his intelligent subordinates for its superio- 
tendenoe and receive a daily report under his seal of those who enter or 
6 



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42 

leaTe it, and of wliatever events therein occnr. And he should appoint as 
a spy one among the obscure residents with whom the other shonld have 
no acqnaintance, and keeping their reports in writing, employ a heed- 
ful scrutiny. He should establish a separate serdi and cause unknown 
arrivals to alight therein, and by the aid of divers detectives take account of 
them. He should minutely observe the income and expenditure of the 
various classes of men and by a refined address, make his vigilance reflect 
honour on his administration. Of eveiy guild of artificers, he should name 
one as guildmaster, and another as broker, by whose intelligence the business 
of purchase and sale should be conducted. From these also he should require 
frequent reports. He should see to the open thoroughfare of the streets and 
erect barriers at the entrances and secure freedom from defilement. When 
night is a little advanced, he should prohibit people from entering or leav- 
ing the city. He should set the idle to some handicraft. He shonld 
remove former grievances and forbid any one from forcibly entering the 
house of another. He shall discover thieves and the goods they have 
stolen or be responsible for the loss. He should so direct that no one 
shall demand a tax or cess save on arms, elephants, horses, cattle, camels, 
sheep, goats and merchandise. In every Stibah a slight impost shall be 
levied at an appointed place. Old coins should be given in to be melted 
down or consigned to the treasury as bullion. He should suffer no 
alteration of value in the gold and silver coin of the realm, and its 
diminution by wear in circulation, he shall recover to the amount of the 
deficiency. He should use his discretion in the reduction of prices and 
not allow purchases to be made outside the city. The rich shall not take 
beyond what is necessary for their consumption. He shall examine the 
weights and make the ser not more or less than thirty ddms,^ In the gasfi 
hereinafter to be mentioned, he should permit neither decrease or increase, 
and restrain the people from the making, the dispensing, the buying or 
selling of wine, but refrain from invading the privacy of domestic life. 
Of the property of a deceased or missing person who may have no heir, 
he shall take an inventory and keep it in his care. He should reserve 
separate ferries and wells for men and women. He should appoint persons 
of respectable character to supply the public watercourses, and prohibit 
women from riding on horseback. He should direct that no ox or buffalo* 
or horse, or camel be slaughtered, and forbid the restriction of persona] 
liberty and the selling of slaves. He should not suffer a woman to be burnt 
against her inclination, nor a criminal deserving of death, to be impaled, 

» See Vol. I, pp. 16, 82, H seq, | • See Vol. I, p. 88. n. and Kin 11 of 

this book. 



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4A 

nor any one to be oironmcised ander the age of twelve. Above this limit of 
age, the permission may be accorded. Religions enthusiasts, calendars, 
and dishonest tradesmen he should expel or deter from their course of con- 
dnct, but he should be careful in this matter not to molest a Gt)d-fearing 
recluse, or persecute barefooted wandering anchorites. He should allot 
separate quarters to butchers, hunters of animals, washers of the dead, and 
sweepers, and restrain men from associating with such stony-hearted gloomy- 
dispositioned creatures. He shall amputate the hand of any who is the 
pot-companion of an executioner, and the finger of such as converse with his 
fiftmily. He should locate the cemetery outside of, and to the west of the city. 
He should prohibit his adherents from wearing sombre garments in mourn- 
ing and induce them to wear red. From the first till the nineteenth of the 
month of Farwardin, during the whole of the month of Abim, the days of 
the sun's passage from one sign of the zodiac to another, mz,, the first of 
every solar month, the sixteenth of the same, the lUhi festivals, the days 
of the eclipse of the sun and moon, and on the first day of the week. 
Be shall prohibit men from slaughtering animals, but hold it lawful as 
a necessity for feeding animals used in hunting and for the sick. He 
shall remove the place of execution to without the city and see that the 
Oihi festivals are observed. He shall have lamps lit on the night of the 
Kauroz^ (New Year's day) and on the night of the 19th of Farwardin. On 
the ere of a festival, as well r.s on the festival itself he shall cause a kettle- 
dram to be sounded at each watch. In the Persian and Hindu almanacs, 
he shall cause the Il&hi era to be adopted and the beginning of the 
month according to the Hindu nomenclature he shall place in Shukla* 
pachoh.* 

AFN V. 

The Oolleetor of the Revenue 
Should be a friend of the agriculturist. Zeal and truthfulness should 
be his rule of conduct. He should consider himself the representative of 
the lord paramotmt and establish himself where every one may have easy 
access to him without the intervention of a mediator. He should deal with 
the contumacious and the dishonest by admonition and if this avail not, pro- 
ceed to chastisement, nor should he be in apprehension of the land falling 
waste. He should not cease from punishing highway robbers, murderers and 
evildoers, nor from heavily mulcting them, and so administer that the cry 
of complaint shall be stilled. He should assist the needy husbandman with 

^ See Ain 22, Sod Book. | ' See p. 17 of this book. 



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advanoea of monefy and raooTer them gradvally. And when tlurough the 
ezartionB of tbe village headman the full rental is reoeived, be ehoold allow 
him half a hiswah^ on each highahj or otherwise reward him according to 
the meaaore of his services. He should ascertain the extent of the soil in 
ooiktiyation and weigh each several portion in the scales of personal observatixui 
and be aoqnainted with its quality. The agricultural value of land varies 
in different districts and certain soils are adapted to certain crops. He 
should deal differently, therefore, with each agriculturist and take his case 
into consideration. He should take into account with discrimination the 
engagements of former collectors and remedy the procedure of ignorance 
or dishonesty. He should strive to bring waste lands into cultivation and 
take heed that what is in cultivation fall not waste. He should stimulate 
the increase of valuable produce and remit somewhat of the assessment 
with a view to its augmentation. And if the husbandman cultivate less 
and urge a plausible excuse, let him not accept it. Should there be no 
waste land in a village and a husbandman be capable of adding to his 
cultivation, he should allow him land in some other village. He should be 
jaei and provident in his measurements. Let him increase the facilities of 
the husbandman year by year, and under the pledge of his engagements, 
take nothing beyond the actual area under tillage. Should some prefer 
to engage by measurement and others by appraisement of crops, let him 
forward the contracts with all despatch to the royal presence. Let him 
not make it a practice of taking only in cash payments but also in kind. 
This latter is effected in several ways. First, kanMt : kan in the Hindi 
language signifies gr^in, and kut, estimate. The whole land is taken either 
by actual mensuration or by pacing it, and the standing crops estimated 
in the balance of inspection. The experienced in these matters say that this 
comes little short of the mark. If any doubt arise, tbe crops should be 
cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling and the inferior, 
and the hesitation removed. Often, too, the land taken by appraisement, 
gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, hatdi, also called bhdoli ; 
the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence 
of the parties. But in this case several intelligent inspectors are required, 
otherwise the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly, hhet 
h(Udi, when they divide the fields after they are sown. Fourthly, Idng bcUdi; 
after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselrea, 
and each takes his share home to clean it and turn it to profit. If it be 
not prejudicial to the husbandman, he may take the value of the com-bear- 

' The aoth part of a highah. 



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4A 

vag kad in oash nk the madce^ rate. If onthiakixl thej sow the best kkide 
of produce,^ in ^e first year he should remit a fourth of the usual assesa- 
ment. If at the time of colkotioD, the better produce is found to be 
larger in quantity than the preyious year, but less land cultiyated, and the 
riTenue be the same, let him not be provoked or moved to contention. He 
Aonld alvrays seek to satisfy the owner of the crops. He should not en- 
trust the appraisement to the headmau of the yillage lest it give rise to 
leBusaness and incompetence and undue authority be conferred on high- 
baaded oppressors, but he should deal with each husbandman, present his 
demaod, and separately and civilly receive his dues. 

He must take security from land surveyors, assessors and other officers 
of revenue. He should supply the officials engaged in the land measure- 
nents, for each day on which they are employed, with 16 ddme and 81 
<ef», and as a monthly ration, oa the following scale : 

Flour. Oil. Grain. Vegetables Ac. 

s6r b6t s6r dam 

Superintendent of survey, ... 6. J 7. 4. 

Writer, ... ... ... 4. | 6. 4. 

Land surveyor and four thanadar8,each, 8. 1 „ 5. 

He shall affix a mark to the land surveyed and shall take a bond from 
the headman that there shall be no concealment regarding the land, and the 
various crops shall be duly reported. In the process of measurement if any 
inferior portion of land be observed, he shall at once estimate its qnantity, 
and from day to day take a note of its quality and this voucher he shall 
deliver to the husbandman. But if this discovery be made after the collec- 
tion of the revenue, he shall gather information from the neighbours and 
from unofficial documents and strike an average. In the same way as the 
harhun (registrar of collections) sets down the transactions of the assess- 
ments, the mulcaddam (chief village revenue officer) and the pattodrt (land- 
steward) shall keep their respective accounts. The Collector shall compare 
&ese documents and keep them under his seal and give a copy thereof to 
the clerk. When the assessment of the village is completed, he shall enter 
it in the abstract of the village accounts, and after verifying it anew, 
cause its authentication by the kdrkun and ^mtwari, and this document he 
Aall forward weekly to the royal presence and never delay it beyond 
fifteen days. After the despatch of the draft estimates to the imperial 
oeart, should any disaster to the crops occur, on ascertaining the exact 

• twfT 4j*^ guoh as gugar, pan or | inferior crops, suoh as maise. 
iottoa ia ooatradiatinotion to t!^*^' cT^ 



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46 

ptirtioalars on the spot, he shall calculate the extent of the loss and record- 
ing it in writing, transmit it without delay in order that it may be ap- 
proved or 01 commissioner despatched. He should collect the revenue in 
an amicable manner and extend not the hand of demand out of season. 
He should begin the collection of the spring harvest from the HoU, which is 
a Hindu festival occutring when the sun is about to pass from Aquarius 
and is entering or has reached midway in Pisces, and the Autumn harvest 
from the Basharah, which is a festival falling when the sun is in the mid- 
dle or lasfc ten days of Virgo, or the first ten of Libra. Let him see 
that the treasurer does not demand any special^ kind of coin, but take 
what is of standard weight and proof and receive the equivalent of the 
deficiency at the value of current coin and record the difference in the 
voucher. He should stipulate that the husbandman bring his rents himself 
at definite periods so that the malpractices of low intermediaries may be 
avoided. When fchere is a full harvest, he should collect the appropriate 
revenue and accept no adjournment of payments on future crops. Who- 
soever does not cultivate land liable to taxation but encloses it for 
pasturage, the Collector shall take for each buffalo six ddmSf and for an ox, 
three ddms yearly, but for a calf or a buffalo which has not yet calved, he 
shall make no demand. He shall assign four oxen, two cows and one 
buffalo to each plough and shall lay no impost on these. Whatever is paid 
into the treasury, he shall himself examine and count and compare it with 
the day-ledger of the kdrkwi,. This he shall verify by the signature of 
the treasurer and placing it in bags under seal, shall deposit it in a strong 
room and &sten the door thereof with several locks of different construc- 
tion. He shall keep the key of one himself and leave the others with the 
treasurer. At the end of the month, he shall take from the writer (hitikcht) 
the account of the daily receipts and expenditure and forward it to the 
presence. When two lakhs of ddms are collected, he shall remit them 
by the hands of trusty agents. He shall carefully instruct the patwdri of 
each village to enter in detail in the memorandum which he gives to the 
husbandman, the amount he receives from the same; any balances he 
shall enter under each name in a book and forward it attested by the 
signatures of the headmen ; and these, ax) the next harvest, he shall recover 
without distress. He shall carefully inspect the suyurghdl^ tenures, sending 



* If the word i^^^ be read instead of 

U^^ as oconrs in one MS., the ren- 
dering will then be " fine gold*' instead of 
fipeoialooin. 



* An aasignment of land revenue for 
charitable purposes : also a grant with- 
out stipulation of any condition. See 

yoLi,p«27a 



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oopiei of tbem to the registry office to be compared. He should ascertain 
tiie correctness of the chahndmahf^ and resume the share of a deceased 
grantee or one who is an absentee or actually in service of the state. He 
should take care that land cultivated by the farmer himself and not by the 
tenant, as well as resumed lands, should not be suffered to tsM waste ; the 
property of the absentee or of him that dies without an heir he should 
duly keep under ward and report the circumstances. He should see that 
no capitation-tax be imposed nor interfere with the remission of dues 
granted by former governments. He shall not make the occasions of 
jonmoying, feasting or mourning an opportunity for exactions, and refrain 
from accepting presents. Whenever a mukaddam or pattodri shall bring 
money or, advancing to the dais, shall present a ddm in obeisance, he shall 
not accept it. In the same way he shall renounce halkatif which is the 
practice of taking a small fee from each village when the harvest is ready 
for reaping. He shall also waive all perquisites on handicrafts, market- 
booths, police, travelling passports, garden produce, temporary sheds, en- 
closure, fishing rights, port-dues, butter, oil of sesame, blanketing, leather, 
wool, and the like malpractices of the avaricious who fear not God. He 
shall provide for the periodic appointment of one among those best ac- 
quainted with the district, to reside at the royal court and furnish it 
with the minutest particulars. Every month he shall submit a statement 
of the condition of the people, of the jdgtrddra, the neighbouring residents, 
the submission of the rebellious, the market prices, the current rents of 
tenements, the state of the destitute poor, of artificers, and all other 
contingencies. Should there be no hotwal^ the Collector must take the 
duties of that office upon himself. 



AfN VI. 

The Bitihchi^ 

Must be conscientious, a good writer, and a skilful accountant. He is 
indispensable to the collector. It is his duty to take from the kani^ngc^ the 



' This i« a g^ant of alienated lands 
specifying the boundary limito thereof. 
GKakt according to Elliot, is a patch of 
reiit*free land detached from a village. 

■ A word of Torkish origin, signifying 
t wiitw OP scribe. 

* An officer in each district acquainted 
with its cnstoms and land-t«nares and 



whose appointment is nsnally hereditary. 
He receives report from the paJtwMs of 
new cases of alluyion and dilayion, sales, 
leases, gifts of land &c. which entail a 
change in the register of mutations. He 
is a revenue oflBcer and subordinate to 
the tahsildir. Gamegy. Kachh. Tech- 
nical. 



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48 

average decennial state of the village revenues in money and kind, and 
having made himself acqoainted with the onstoms and regnlations of the 
district, satisfy the Col lector in this regard, and lend his ntmoet assistanee 
and attention. He shall record all engagements made with the agrienl- 
tnrists, define the village bonndaries, and estimate the amonnt of arable and 
waste land. He shall note the names of the mumify the superintendent 
the land-surveyor and ikanaddr^ also that of the cultivator and headman, 
and record below, the kind of produce cultivated. He should also set 
down the village, the pergunnah and the harvest, and subtracting the 
deficiency take the value of the assets, or after the manner of the people of 
the country, inscribe the name, the kind of produce, and the deficiency 
below the date of cultivation. When the survey of the village is complete, 
he shall determine the assessment of each cultivator and specify the revenue 
of the whole village. The Collector shall take the revenue on this basis, 
and forward a copy of the survey, called in Hindi khasra to the royal court. 
When drawing out the rolls, if the former documents are not available, he 
should take down in writing from the patwdri the cultivation of each 
husbandman by name and thus effect his purpose, and transmit the roll to- 
gether with the balances and collections punctually, and he shall enter the 
name of the tahsUdar below each village, in the day-ledger. He shall re- 
cord the name of each husbandman who brings his rent and grant him a 
receipt signed by the treasurer. Copies of the rolls of the patwdri and 
mukaddam by means of which they have made the collections, together 
with the sarkhati that is the memorandum given to the husbandman, he 
shall receive from the patwdri, and inspecting them, shall carefully scru- 
tinize them. If any falsification appears, he shall fine them and report to 
the Collector daily the collection and balances of each village and &cilitate 
the performance of his duty. Whenever any cultivator desires a reference 
to his account, he shall settle it without delay and at the close of each har- 
vest he shall record the collections and balances of each village and com- 
pare them with the pattodrTSf and enter each day in the ledger the receipts 
and disbnrsemenls under each name and heading, and authenticate it by the 
signature of the Collector and treasurer. At the end of the month, he 
shall enclose it in a bag under the seal of the Collector and forward it to 
the presence. He shall also despatch daily the price-current of mohurs 
and rupees and other articles under the seals of the principal men, and at 
the end of each harvest, he shall take the receipts and disbursements of the 
treasurer, and forward it authenticated by his signature. The abstract and 
settlement of the assessment, at the close of each year, he shidl laranamit 
under the signature of the Collector. He shall enter the effeote and oatUe 



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plundered in any village, in the day-ledger, and report the circnmstances. 
At the year's end, when the time of the revenae-collections has closed, he 
fiball record the balances dne from the village and deliver the record to 
the Collector and forward a copy to the royal conrt. When removed from 
office, he shall make over to the Collector for the time being his account 
mider the heads of balances, advances &c., and after satisfying him in this 
regard, take the detail thereof and repair to the Court. 

AtN VII. 

The Treasurer.^ 

Called in the language of the day Fofaddr^, The treasury should be 
located near the residence of the governor and the situation should be 
such where it is not liable to injury. He should receive from the culti* 
vator any kind of mohurs, rupees or copper that he may bring, and not 
demand any particular coin. He shall require no rebate on the august 
coinage of the realm but take merely the equivalent of the deficiency in 
coin- weight. Coinage of former reigns he shall accept as bullion. He shall 
keep the treasure in a strong room with the knowledge of the shikddr^ 
and the registrar, and count it every evening and cause a memorandum there- 
of to be signed by the Collector and compare the day-ledger with the regis- 
trar's account and authenticate it by bis signature. On the door of the 
treasury as sealed by the Collector, he should place a lock of his own, and 
open it only with the cognisance of the Collector and registrar. He shall 
not receive any monies from the cultivator save with the knowledge of the 
Collector and registrar, and he shall grant a receipt for the same. He 
shall cause the patwdri^s signature to be affixed to the ledger known in 
Hindustan as hakiy so that discrepancy may be avoided. He shall consent 



^ Khixinad&r. 

' The term fola is applied in Arabic, 
to cloths used as waist wrappers 
brought from Sind, and the word itself 
ii sapposed to be derived from that coun- 
try and not to be of Arabic origin. De 
Sacy in his Ghrest. Arabe I, 195 quotes 
from M. Yarsj that these cloths are 
nade in the Levant and Arabia, and are 
used for the bath, as veils for women 
ind for turbans. He adds, Les pagnes 
sont tres-oonnnes dans nos ports 
neridionaoz qni font le commerce dn 
lerant, aoos le nom de foutes, De la 



vient en portogais, Fota. The office 
was no doubt originally named from 
this distinguishing portion of apparel. 
In Marathi, it is termed sifi^K whence 
the common name Poddr applied to a 
banker, a cash-keeper, or an officer in 
public establishments for weighing 
money or bullion. See Wilson's Gloss, 

' An officer appointed to collect the 
revenue from a certain division of land 
under the Moghul govern men t ; it was 
sometimes applied to the chief financial 
officer of a province or to the viceroy in 
his financial capacity. — Wilson' sGlossory. 



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60 

to no disbarsements without the voncher of the diwdn} and shall enter 
into no usurious transactions. If any expenditure should be necessary 
that admits of no delay, he may act under the authority of the registrar 
and shikddr and represent the case to government. The aforementioned 
duties, from those of the commander of the troops up to this point, are 
primarily under the direct cognisance of the sovereign authority and as no 
one individaal can perform them, a deputy is appointed for each function 
and thus the necessary links in administration are strengthened. 

Currency of the means of Subsistence, 

Since the benefit and vigour of human action are referrible to bodily 
sustenance, so in proportion to its purity is the spirit strengthened ; the 
body, were it otherwise, would grow corpulent and the spirit weak : the 
thoughts too under such a regimen, incline to refinement and actions to 
virtue. The seekers of felicity, sober in conduct, are before all things 
particularly careful in the matter of food and do not pollute their hands 
with every meat. To the simple in heart who fear God, labour is difficult 
and their means of living straitened. They have not that luminous in- 
sight which penetrating to the essence of things, dwells in repose, but 
through fear of the displeasure of God, are sunk in exhaustion of soul from 
the pangs of hunger. As for instance in the case of the man who possessed 
a few cows, his legitimate property, and subsisted on their milk. By 
the accident of fortune, it chanced that they were carried off, and he 
passed some days fasting. An active fellow after diligent pursuit brought 
them back, but he would not accept them and replied, " I know not whence 
those dumb animals have had food during these past few days." In a short 
space this simple soul died. Many tales are told of such dull-witted crea- 
tures who have thus passed away. There are also avaricious worldlings 
who do not recognize the difference between other people's property and 
their own, and gratify themselves at the expense of their spiritual and 
temporal good. The ignorant and distraught in mind, making their own 
necessities an occasion of spoilation and seizure, prepare for themselves 
eternal punishment. 

Simple, innocent-minded folk consider that there are no unappropriated 
waste lands and were they obtainable, it would be difficult to furnish the 
implements of cultivation, and if these could be had, the means of providing 



* This term was especially applied to 
the head financial minister whether of 
the state or of a province, being charged 
in the latter with the collection of the 



revenne, its remittance to the imperial 
treasnry and invested with extensive 
judicial powers in all civil and financial 
causes. — Ibid, 



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51 

food which would enable them to labour, are not manifest. They can dis- 
coTer no mine to excavate, and if one were pointed out to them which had 
no owner, it wonld be extremely onerons to obtain a living therefrom. They 
are averse too, from the profession of arms, lest dear life be the exchange 
for base lucre. They withdraw themselves also from commerce for this 
reason that n^^y ask a high price for their goods, conceal their deficiencies 
and praise them for qualities which are not in them, while they close their 
eyes to the evident excellencies of what they purchase and disparage it for 
faults it does not possess, preferring their own benefit to another's loss. 
And they disapprove also of those who are content to hold lawful the 
sequestration of the goods of rival sectaries, and they affirm that if the 
fautor of such pretension be discerning and wise, it will seem an occasion 
for additional anxiety rather than a sanction to retain the property of 
another ; for how can the illicit seizure of what is another's be commend- 
able on the score of a difference of faith ? On the contrary, it is a sugges- 
tion of the evil one, a phantasy of the dreams of the avaricious and unfit 
for the ears of the good. At the present time His Majesty has placed a 
lamp upon the highway before all men, that they may distinguish the 
road from the pitfalls, and sink not into the slough of perdition, nor pass 
tbeir dear lives in unprofitableness. 

Since there is infinite diversity in the natures of men and distractions 
internal and external daily increase, and heavy-footed greed travels post 
haste, and light-headed rage breaks its rein, where friendship in this 
demon-haunted waste of dishonour is rare, and justice lost to view, there is, 
in sooth, no remedy for such a world of confusion but in autocracy, and 
this panacea in administration is attainable only in the majesty of just 
monarchs. If a house or a quarter cannot be administered without the 
sanctions of hope and fear of a sagacious ruler, how can the tumult of this 
world-nest of hornets be silenced save by the authority of a vicegerent of 
Almighty power ? How, in snch a case can the property, lives, honour, and 
religion of the people be protected, notwithstanding that some recluses 
have imagined that this can be supernaturally accomplished, but a well- 
ordered administration has never been effected without the aid of sovereign 
monarchs. That fiery wilderness of talismanic power, too, is haunted by 
spells and sorcerers, and storms of confusion from this sea of undiscern- 
ment have arisen and arise, and many souls, through simplicity and short- 
sightedness, in the turbulent billows of inexperience have been and are 
still ever engulfed, while those who by the light of wisdom and through 
the grace of acceptance have bridled their desires and garnered prorisions 
for the long journey to come, have, in the cross-roads of distraction, become 



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62 

the reproach of high and low, for their folly, irreligion and nnhelief. In 
that assembly of ignorance should a philosopher of experience enter, he 
mast needs take up the fashion of fools and so escape from the contumely 
of the base. 

It is evident that in all cultivated areas, the possessors of property 
are numerous, and they hold their lands by ancestral descenjj, but through 
malevolence and despite, their titles become obscured by the dust of un- 
certainty and the hand of firmness is no longer stretched above them. If the 
cultivator hold in awe the power of the Adomer of the universe and the 
Elixir of the living, and the merchant turn back from evil designing and 
reflect in his heart on the favour of the lord of the world, the depository of 
divine grace, his possessions would assuredly be approved of wisdom. Thus 
the virtue of property lies in the pledge of intention, and a just ruler, like 
a saltbed, makes clean the unclean, and the evil good. But without honest 
coadjutors, abundant accessories of state and a fall treasury even he could 
effect nothing and the condition of subserviency and obedience would lack 
the bloom of discipline. Now the man of robust frame should, in the first 
place, choose the profession of arms and reflect on the assistance which he 
is capable of rendering, so as to regard his life as devoted to the task of 
preserving human society from dissolution. The means of sustenance are 
likewise as abundant to the labourer as forage for his cattle. But if a 
man is unequal to this, he should endeavour, in some way, to enter into 
the number of state servants. Thas the currency of the means of sub- 
sistence rests on a twofold basis, viz,, the justice of sovereign monarohs 
and regard to the welfare of well-disposed dependents. The base materia- 
list understands not the language of reason and never transcends the 
limits of bodily sense. This unfertile soil needs the water of the sword, 
not the limpid spring of demonstration. In the presence of the majesty of 
the prince, the proud and perverse of disposition sink into obscurity 
while the prosperity of the good who seek after justice is ever continuous. 

Of a truth, whatever be the recompense of the guardianship over the 
four^ priceless elements of the constitution, it is both meet and expe- 
dient and according to the Almighty will. To the watchmen over the 
house, the lord thereof appoints the guerdon, and to the watchmen of the 
universe, its shepherds.^ If the whole of a man's possessions were spent 
for the protection of his honour, it would be but fitting if in gratitade he 
further pledged his whole credit, how much the more when it is a question 
of the guardianship of the four great elements of State polity P But just mo- 

* See Vol. I, p. lY. Abal Fasl's pre- I ' i. «., in the Homeric sense, noifjitvt^ 

oe. I XfiUtfv 



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narchfl 6xact not more than is necessary to effect their purpose and stain not 
their hands with avarice ; and hence it is that this principle varies, as has 
heen stated, according to diversities of age and ooantry. From this suggestive 
digression, it will be evident that whatever circumspect rulers exact from 
their subjects after due deliberation and to subserve the interests of justice 
and grant to their submissive dependents, has a perfect propriety and is 
nniyersally in vogue. It is also clear that the maintenance of the soldier 
should be ampler and more choice. Next follow the cultivators and then 
other artisans. Ancient Oreek^ treatises a£Srm that professions are cir- 
cnmscribed to three classes, the Noble, the Base, and the Intermediate. 
The former refers to the mind and is, also, of not more than three kinds : 
the first concerns the pure intellect, as sagacity and capability of adminis- 
tration ; the second, acquired knowledge, as composition or eloquence ; the 
third personal courage, as military duty. The Base also is of three kinds ; 
the first is opposed to the common weal of mankind, such as the hoarding 
of grain : the second is the contrary of any one virtue, as buffoonery ; the third 
is such as the disposition is naturally averse from, as the trade of a bar- 
ber, a tanner or a sweeper. The Intermediate comprises various callings 
and trades ; some that are of necessity,* such as agriculture ; others which 
conld be dispensed with, as dyeing ; others again simple, as carpentry and 
ironmongery ; and some compound, as the manufacturing of scales or 
knives.* 

From this exposition the distinguished character of the military pro- 
fession is evident. In short, the noblest source of maintenance is to be 
fonnd in a profession which is associated with just dealing, self-restraint 
and bravery and apart from evil doing and sensuality. The good regard 



' The reference is, no donbt, to 
Aristotle's Politics z. (^) the tme sense 
of whicli . has been lost by filtration 
through some Arabic version or para- 
phrase. 

'Ev dirouracs 8^ ral^ v6\€(nv iari rpia 
lUfnj rrj^ ^oXccos, oi ficy eviropoi o-^oSpa, 
Si ^ iiFOpoi c^oSpa, 61 S\ rpiroi ol futroi 
TovTcw lirct roLvw 6/LtoA.oyctTai ri fter- 
pcor Spurray Kai to fitaoy, ^avepov ori 
Kol TW fxynixfliMTiav 17 Krrjavi ^ p.i<ni 
P^XTtOTTf 7rdvT<ov 

The three classes of citizens are dif- 
ferently described by Theseus in the 



Suppliants of Euripides but the middle 
class is there also adjudged to be the 
most serviceable to the State, v. Iket. 
238. 

*. Scvrcpov 8^ TO fcoAov/icvov fiav 
avaov &m Sk tovto ircpt Tas revya^ 
&v av€v irokiv a^vvarov otKcur^oi* 
TOVTUiv 8k Ttav t€;(vo)v Tot? fxkv ii avdyicrf^ 
V7rdpx€iv Set, Tots Sk cis t/dv^^ rj to Ka 
Xws &jv* Id. z. (A) 

• Perhaps this distinction may lie be- 
tween arts and instruments made by the 
arts. So Aristotle, ^ (H) j ^ctTaT€xwis, 
7oXA(uv yap opydyutv Sctroi ro irjy 



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54 

three things as necessary in a profession — avoidance of tyranny, refraining 
from what is dishonourable, abstinence from all that is mean ; by what is 
dishonourable, is meant baffoonery and the like low pursuits ; by what is 
mean, is understood an inclination to base callings.* 

When an appropriate means of maintenance is secured, it is a re- 
quisite condition of economy to husband a portion of one's means, provided 
that the household is not thereby straitened. The mendicant should not 
be turned away disappointed nor subjected to the reproof of covetousness 
and greed. The proper control of an estate is conditional on the expen- 
diture being less than the income ; it is permitted to indulge a little 
in commercial speculation and engage in remunerative undertakings, 
reserving a part in coin and valuables, a part in goods and wares, 
and somewhat invested in the speculations of others, and yet a por- 
tion in lands and immoveable estates, and a share may be entrusted to 
borrowers of credit, and expenditure regulated with circumspection, justice 
and modesty. Let such a one be frank in kis commercial dealings and give 
no place in his heart to self-reproach. He should keep in view of his pur- 
pose, the will of God, not the hope of gratitude, the increase of reputation 
or the expectation of reward. He should also give freely to the needy 
whose destitution is unexposed. There is also a twofold manner of muni- 
ficence which if exercised in just measure, is meritorious. Firstly, what is 
given in pure generosity or largesse such as a present and the like. This 
should be done quickly and secretly and without setting store on its ampli- 
tude or abundance, nor yet so as to cripple one's resources or exhaust them. 

Secondly what is called for by occasional exigencies, either in pro- 
curing comforts or removing grievances, such as what is given to oppres- 
sors or to the profligate in order that person, property and honour may 
escape tbeir injury. But in this he should use moderation. In procuring 
the conveniences of life, however, it is better that the bounty should be 
liberal. 

People of the world in the matter of living are to be resolved into 
tbree classes. One class are fallen into such heedlessness that spiritual 
needs do not enter their comprehension, much less are practically con- 
sidered. Another through their luminous fortune are so immersed in the 
consideration of essential truths that they give no thought to their 
means of sustenance. But those who seek the felicity to come, the circum- 
spect in conduct, neglect not a just appreciation of life but make external 



• Aristotle counts among these, the 
mechanical and commercial professions. 
ouTc jSavavo'OV j3iov ovt' ayopaiov ScZ 



irjv Tovs TToXiras* iycw^s yap 6 toioG- 
Tos /?tos Kou irpo^ dptrrp^ vTrcvavrtos* A 
(H). 



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56 



conditions the instrnment of interior well being in the hope of admis- 
aion among those absorbed in divine love, and so attaining to the third 
degree of felicity, whence after traversing the arid waste of deliverance, 
thej may repose in the second.^ 

The dues of sovereignty have thus been set forth. The circu- 
lation of the means of sustenance, thus, is seen to rest on the jus- 
tice of prudent monarchs and the integrity of conscientious depen- 
dents. And because the conditions of the royal state and prerogative 
vary in different countries, and soils are diverse in character, some pro- 
ducing abundantly with little labour, and others the reverse, and as ine- 
q[ualities exist also, through the remoteness or vicinity of water and cultivated 
tracts, the administration of each state must take these circumstances in- 
to consideration and fix its demands accordingly. Throughout the whole 
extent of Hindustan where at all times so many enlightened monarchs have 
reigned, one-sixth of the produce was exacted ; in the Turkish empire, Iran 
and Turin a fifth, a sixth, and a tenth respectively. In ancient times a 
capitation tax was imposed called, khirdj. Kubdd disapproved of this prac- 
tice, and resolved that the revenue should be fixed upon arable land 
accurately surveyed. But his death occurred before he could accomplish 
his design. Noshirwan (his son) carried it to completion and made the 
janb of ten square reeds.* This was sixty royal yards square. One fourth 
of this was taken as a kaJW and valued at three dirhams,* and the third part 
was fixed as the contribution due to the state, ^aftz is a measure called 
also «aa* weighing eight rafl,^ and, some say, more. The dirhem is equal in 
weight to one mUkdh When the Caliphate fell to Omar, at the suggestion 
of the learned, he adopted the plan of Noshirwdn but through the vicissi- 



* That is, according to the theology of 
the mystics, the third stage in the pro- 
gressiTe spiritual life is the attraction of 

tlie soul to God ^1 ; the second is im- 
mersion in the Divine love *^* ^; the 

rapreme stage is the unitive *^' Cf re- 
ierred for his chosen saints. 

• In the original, the word kahzah is 
written erroneonsly for kofbah which is 
corrected in the subsequent page with 
the following note. " According to the 
glossaries, 6 barleycorns make an aiiba\ 
(finger breadth) : 4 aaha^ a kabzah : 6 
kahzahj a tarda* (cubit): 10 cubits, a 
kofkah : 10 kafhah, an aahl : a jarib is 1 



square ashl, u e. 10 square kofhah or 100 
square cubits. According to the kudd- 
mahf 4 aaba* is equal to a lkah:fah, and 
10 kabzah a cubit, and 60 cubits an ashZ, 
According to this, a jarib would be 60 
square oubits." 

* A space of ground containing from 
about 124 to 144 cubits square. It is 
also a dry measure. 

* See Vol. I, p. 86. 

* This is variously rated at 12 to 16 oz. 
At Bombay it is said to be equal to 86 
Surat rupees. In the Bed Sea Uttoral 
the Eottob, as it is corruptly called, 
varies from 10 to 24 oz. avoirdupois. 
Wilson's Gloss. 



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66 

tudes of temporal conditions, he introdnced some alterations which may be 
gathered from ancient volnmes. In Tnran and Irdn from ages past, they 
have exacted a tenth, bnt the exactions have increased to more than a half 
which does not appear exorbitant to a despotic government. In Egypt 
they take for a 

Kttddn of the best soil, 3 Ihrahimii 

„ „ middling, 2 „ 

„ „ worst, 1 „ 

The kuddn is a measnre of land of 100 square reeds, each of which is 
equal to one bda\^ An Ibrahtmi is current for 40 hahira and 14 kahirs is 
equal to a rupee of Akbar Sh4h. In some parts of the Turkish empire, they 
exact from the husbandman 30 Akchehs for everv yoke of oxen. The 
Akcheh is a silver coin equal to 81 Ihrahimis. And from crown lands the 
demand is 42 Kkchehy and from each soldier 21, besides which the gover- 
nor of the Subah takes 15 more. In some parts for each plough 20, and 
from each soldier 7 Akcheh, while the Governor takes six. In others, the 
Sanjakbegt^ receives 27 and the Subashi (kotw41) twelve. Other systems 
are also g^ven which obtain in that empire. 

The Mu^mmadans account conquered lands of 3 kinds ; TPshrt, Khirdji 
and Sulhiy, The first two are subdivided into five kinds and the last in- 
to two. Wahriy 1st, kind ; the district of Tehamah which comprises Mecca, 
Taif, Yemen, 0'm£n, Bahrayn.* 2nd, kind ; land of which the owner has 
voluntarily embraced that faith. 3rd, Lands which have been conquered 
and apportioned. 4th, Land on which an adherent of that faith has built 
a mosque or planted a vine or laid out a garden or fertilized it with rain 
water ; otherwise other conditions apply. 6th, Waste land which has been 



> A fathom— tlie arms extended to 
ilieir full reach. 

• This word in Turkish, (properly 
Sa^Jdlc with the long alif) signifieB a 
flag or standard : it also means a minor 
province of which several in one Ejalat 
^^^if or Government. It is in this latter 
sense that the word should probably be 
taken, signifying the provincial gover- 
nor. An Akcheh is i of a 'pdra and con- 
sequently the xb of * piastre or the ^ 
of a penny ; it is frequently mentioned 
under the name of cwper, a corruption of 
the Greek equivalent for the proper 
Turkish word. 



• The text has a word following " Bah- 
rayn" which may possibly be read as a 
proper name. Either Rabah or Bayah, 
but Abu'l Fazl quotes evidently froni 
the Fat&wa of ^zi Khan (A. H. 592. 
HIij. Kbal.) where the deiinition of the 
limits of IPahari are laid down exactly as 
in the text with the omission of Babah. 
The Fatiwa i A'lamgfri foUows Ifjkxk 
Khin. From the variants of this doubtful 
reading g^ven in the notes, it is dear 
that there is some corruption and per- 
haps the yariant of M. S. {^) is oorreot. 



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57 

brought idto onltivation by permission of the owner. Khirdji 1st kind ; 
Persia proper and Kirmdn. 2nd, Land which a tributary sabject has laid 
oat as gronnds ronnd about his house. 3rd, Land which a Muslim has re-* 
claimed and irrigates from a source constructed from thb public revenues, 
ith, LaLd which has been acquired by convention. 6th, Land cultivated by 
means of water that pays revenue. Sulhty^ Lands of the fiani Najrdn and 
Bani Taghlib ;^ the details of these may be learnt from ancient documents. 
Likewise, in some treatises, land is regarded under three heads 1st, Land 
cultivated by Muslims which they deem U'shr.^ 2nd, Land of which the 
proprietors have accepted that faith. According to some, this is U^shri, 
and others say that it is TJ'shri or Khirdjiy according to the determination 
of the Imim. Srd, Land acquired by conquest, which some make Wshri 
and others khirdji, and others again affirm that its classification rests with 
the Imdm. 4th, Land which those outside the faith retain on convention. 
This they call khirdji. Tribute paid by khirdji lands is of two kinds. 1. 
Mukdsamah ^divided), is the 5th or 6th produce of the soil. 2. Waztfah^ 
which is settled according to the capability and convenience of the tribu- 
taries. Some call the whole produce of the revenue khirdji and as the 
share of the producing body is in excess of their expenditure, the Zakdt^ 
is taken from the amount under certain stipulations and this they call a 
tithe, but on each of these points there is much difference of opinion. 
The Caliph Omar, during his time, taxed those who were not of his faith at 
the rate of 48 dirhams for persons of condition, 24 for those of the middle 
class, and 12 for the lowest class. This was called the Jaziyah (capitation 
tax). 

In every kingdom government taxes the property of the subject over 
and above the land revenue and this they call Tamqha^ In Idm and 



* The text has Tha'lab, a misprint. 
The details of the sabmission of these 
two tribes may be gathered from Canssin 
Be Pero. Essoi aur Thistoire des ^rabes. 

* This word signifies a tenth and is 
the tithe assessed on lands nnder Mas- 
Km mle. XTshri are therefore those 
lao^ snbjeot to the tithe. 

* Wasifah signifies a stipend or any 
thing sfcipiilated or agreed npon ; hence, 
rerenue collected at a stipnlated or fixed 
rate for a certain quantity of land. 
WOfon'B Gloss. 

* The poor rate, the portion there- 

8 



from g^ven as the dae of God by th® 
possessor that he may pwri/y it thereby, 

the root of the word, ^ denoting purity. 
The proportion varies, but is generally a 
fortieth or 2^ p. c, provided that the 
property is of a certain amount and has 
been in possession eleven months. See 

Lane under JrJ 

' The Turkish word meaning a royal 
seal or stamp: sometimes written al- 
tamgha from the Turkish &I, red. The 
word also signifies a royal grant under 
the seal of some of the former native 



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58 

Tnrdn tbej collect the land tax from some, from others the Jihdt and from 
others again the Sdir Jihdt, while other cesses nnder the name of Wajuhdi 
and Farua*6t are exacted. In short, what is imposed on cnltiyated lands 
by way of qnit-rent is termed Mdl, Imports on manufactnres of respect- 
able kinds are called Jihdt^ and the remainder 8dir^ Jihdi. Extra ooUeo- 
tions oyer and aboye the land tax if taken by reyenne officers are Wajukdi ; 
otherwise they are termed Fwr4a^dt 

In eyery conntiy snch demands are tronblesome and vexations to the 
people. His Majesty in his wise statemanship and beneyolence of mle care* 
fnlly examined the snbject and abolished all arbitrary taxation, disapprov- 
ing that these oppressions should become established by custom. He first 
defined the gcutf the tendbf and the bighah and laid down iheir bases of 
measurement : after which he classed the lands according to their relative 
values in production and fixed the revenue accordingly. 



AFN VIII. 

The IWii Oax, 

Is a measure of length and a standard gauge. High and low refer to 
it, and it is the desire of the righteous and the unrighteous. Throughout 
Hindustan there were three such measures current, vxz,^ long, middling and 
short. Each was divided into 24 equal parts and each part called fassuj.^ 



prmoes and reoognised by the British 
Government as conferring a title to rent- 
free land in perpetoity, hereditary and 
transferable. AHhoogh, perhaps, ori- 
ginally bearing a red or pnrple stamp, 
the oolonr of the imperial seal or signa- 
tnre became in Indian practice indif- 
ferent. Wilson's Qloss. 

* In its original purport, the word 
sig^nifies moving, walking, or the re- 
mainder : from the latter it came to 
denote the remaining or all other sources 
of revenne in addition to the land tax 
from a variety of imposts, as customs, 
transit dnes, houses, fees, market tax ^., 
in which sense it is current thro«ghoitt 
India: the sereral imposts under this 
name were abolished by the British 
Government, except customs, duties on 
spirituous liquors and other minor items. 
The privilege of imposiiig local taxes 



under the name of Bdir, was also taken 
away from private individuals, but it still 
applies to various items of the income 
from landed property not comprised in 
the produce of cultivation, as rent from 
fisheries, timber, fruit-trees, bees' -wax 
Ac ; it also designates certsin admitted 
manorial rights or prescriptive fees and 
cesses levied from residents in a village, 
or from cultivators by the proprietors, 
which have long been established and 
are upon the record: the former of 
these additions are usually takeif into 
account, the latter not, in fixing the 
assessment. It is also a tax on personal 
property. In Marathi it also signifies 
the place where the oust<mis are levied. 
Wilson's Gloss. 

' This is an arabidsed word from the 
Pers. y^ a weight of 4 barley-corns, the 
24th part of a weight measure or day. 



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59 



A T'^xm; of the Ist kind was equal to 8 oi*diaai7 barley-corns placed to- 
gether breadthways, and of the other two respectively, to 7 and 6 barley- 
oonis. The long gaz was used for the measurement of cultivated lands, 
roads, distances, f<Mris, reservoirs and mud walls. The middling was employ- 
ed to measure buildings of stone and wood, bamboo-built houses, places of 
wonhip, wells and gardens, and the short gaz for cloth, arms, beds, seats 
of state, sedan chairs, palanquins, chairs, carts and the like. 

In some other countries, although they reckon the gaa as consisting of 
24 TWtt;, they make 



2 Habbah (grain). 

2 Barley-corns. 

6 Mustard seeds. 
12 Fab. 

6 Fatfla. 

6 Na^r. 

8 ^itmir. 
12 Zarrah. 

8 Habi. 
2 Wahmah. 



^1 Tassdj equal to 

1 Habbah 
1 Barley-corn 
1 Mustard seed 
1 Fak 
1 Fatila 
1 Na^ir 
1 ^itmh* 
1 Zarrah 
1 Hab& 

Some make 4 Tassfij equal to 1 Ddng. 
6 Ding „ 1 Oas. 

Others reckon the gaz as 24 fingers, each finger equal to the breadth 
of 6 barley-corns, and each barley-corn equal in thickness to 6 hairs from 
the mane of a cob. In some ancient books they make the ga% equal to two 
spans and twice round the joint (girth) of the thumb, and they divided it 
into 16 girih and each girth was subdivided into 4 parts which they 
called 4 pahr^ so that a pahr was the sixty -fourth part of a gaz. 

In other ancient records the gaz is reckoned of seven kinds. 1st, The 
Qttz i 8amda (Oa» of traffic) consisting of 24 digits and two- thirds of a 
digit Hariin At Rashid of the House of 'Abb&s took this measure from the 
hand of an Abyssinian slave who was one of his attendants : the Nilometer* 



In Arabic, it ia a weight of 2 barley-corns, 
a quarter of a 3^^ ag the 24th part of a 
i: the plur. is ^'"^. It also 
a district or province or a town- 

■Up, as ArdabU is of the ^^-^ of 
Qahrin. This term for an agglomera- 
tion of Tillages or townships is analo- 



gous to the 



vJuJiir* 



of Yemen, the 



^^^ of the people of Syria, the Jjf of 
Bl Ir6^ and the (>^S of £1 Jib4l. See 
Lane nnder ^J"^ 

* This scale is given nnder A(n II, 
Vol. I, p. 8«. 

' The onbit of the Nilometer is sap- 
posed to be the same as that of the Jews, 
which is exactly two feet Kaglish : if so 



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60 



of ^gypt is on this measure, and houses and cloths are also measnred by it. 
2nd, Zirda' i kashahy (Reed-yard) called also A^dmah^ and Bauty of 24 
digits : this was introduced by Ibn Abi Laila.^ 3rd, The Yusufiyah, used 
by the provincial governors of Baghdad for the measurement of houses : it 
consisted of 25 digits. 4ih, The short Hdshimtyah, of 28 digits and a 
third. BiUl* the son of Abi Bardah introduced it: according to some 
it was Abu Mdsa Ash'ari his grandfather. 5th, The long Hdshimiyah of 
29 digits and two-thirds which Man^dr the A'bbaside favoured. It is also 
called the Malik and Ziyddtyah, Zijidfi was the so-called son of Abd 
Sufiyin who used it to measure the lands in Arabian I'dLl^. 6th, The 
Omartydh of 31 digits. During his Caliphate, Omar carefally considered 
the long, short and middling gaz,^ He took the three kinds together and 
to one-third of the aggregate he added the height of the closed fist and the 
thumb erect. He closed both ends of the measure with tin and sent it to 
Hudaifah^ and Otl^mdn^-b-Hunaif which they used for the measurement 
of the villages in Arabian Ir^k. 7th, The Mdniuniyah of 70 digits less a 
third. Mamdn brought it into use, and it was employed for measuring 
rivers, plains and road distances. 

Some in former times reckoned the cloth-measure {gaz) to be seven times 
the fist, and the fist was equal to four fingers closed ; according to others, 
one finger less. The survey gaz^ according to some, was the same seven 
fists : others made it seven fists together with one finger (thumb P) erect 
added to the seventh fist. Others again added another finger to that fist ; 
while some made it seven fists with one finger adjoined to each fist. 



the 24 digita will be preciaely inches. 
Volney makes ifc 20^ French or 22 Eng- 
lish inches. Some allowance must pro- 
bably be made for the broad hand of a 
negro, but the other measnres will not be 
affected by the same error, as they most 
be referred to the ordinary delicate hand 
of a native of Asia. A finger's breadth 
may be safely taken as three quarters 
of an inch. Useful Tables, pp. 87, 88. 

* Mul?amroad-b-Abddr Barman, sur- 
named Ibn Abi Layla, was a distin- 
guished jurisconsult and one of the 
fdhiii. He was l^hi of Kdfa where he 
was born A. H. 74, and died in A. H. 
148. D'Herb. 

' The grandson of Abu Mdsa al Ashari, 
^i/dHt^x of Baarah, of which his grand- 



father had been Governor. See a brief 
notice of him in Ibn Khali. Vol. II, p. 2. 

• See D*Herb. and Ookley, p. 868 un- 
der art. Ziad for a fuller aooount of him. 

^ I think it probable that the word 
"long" has here been inadvertently 
omitted from the MSS. used for this 
edition. Gladwin has the word which 
confirms my suspicion. 

' One of the most eminent of the 
Companions of Mu|^mmad. Omar ap- 
pointed him to the government of 
Mad&in, where he died after the assassi- 
nation of OthmiLn and 40 days after the 
accession of 'Ali. Ibn Hajar. Biog. Diet. 

' He was governor of Basrah under 
the Caliph 'AU. Ibn KhaU, p. 891, 
Vol. IV. 



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61 

Snitan Sikander Lodi in Hindustin introduced another gaz of the 
breadth of 41 IsJeandaris and a half. This was a copper coin mixed with 
silTer. Hmnaydn added a half and it was thus completed to 42. Its length 
WM 32 digits. Bat some authors anterior to his time make mention of a 
similar measnre. Sher Khdn and Salim Khan,^ under whom Hindustan was 
released from the custom of dividing the grain and its apportionment, in 
measuring land used this goui. Till the thirty first-year of the Divine 
Era, although the Akbar 8hdhi gaz of 46 fingers was used as a cloth-mea- 
sure, the Iskandari gaz was used for cultivated lands and buildings. His 
Majesty in his wisdom, seeing that the variety of measures was a source of 
inconvenience to his subjects, and regarding it as subservient only to the 
dishonest, abolished them all and brought a medium gaz of 41 digits in- 
to general use. He named it the Ildhi gaz and it is employed by the public 
for all purposes. 

ArN IX. 
The Tandb.^ 
His Majesty fixed for the jarib the former reckoning in yards and 



* Of the family of Sdr who reigned 
between the expnision and restoration of 
Hamaynn. 

' The Tandhf Jar^b and B{gha eeem to 
hare been indiBoriminately need as near- 
ly interchangeable terms. The Jarih 
in its origmal nse, according to Wilson 
(Glossazy), was a measure of capacity 
equal to 60 kafla or 884 madd, abont 768 
pounds. It then became applied to a 
land measnre, or as much land as could 
be sown with a JarOt of seed-corn, and 
then appears to have been loosely used 
for a Ugha. In course of time it occurs 
as a measure of land of various extent, 
ud as the chain or rope for measuring. 
In the N. W. P. the measurements were 
made by a chain, and the jar^b is » to 6 
diains of 11 yards each, or to 60 gras or 
90 ga^has or knots. A square of one 
Jar{b is a h(gha. Before the new system 
of surrey, it was usual to measure lands 
paying revenue with 2k jarih of 18 knots 
^mly, two being coiled round the mea- 
iuror, but free lands were measured with 



the entire rope of 20 knots. In Sindh 
a jarih is a measure of a 150 square feet. 
In Telegu, it is applied to garden land 
or its produce. The standard bigha of 
the revenue surveyors of the N. W. P. is» 
to 8,026 sq. yds. or | of an acre. In 
Bengal the Ugha contained only 1,600 sq. 
yds. or a little less than i of an acre. In 
Benares at the time of the settlement, 
it was determined at 8,186 sq. yds. In 
other perganahs it was equal to 2,025 to 
8,600 or 8,926 sq. yds. A hachha bigha 
is in some places a third, in others only 
a fourth of a full Ugha, Akbat's higha 
of 8,600 Ilahi ga» was considered « to 
3,026 sq. yds. of the htgha of Hindustan. 
In Outtack the higha is now considered 
to be an English acre. The Haratha 
bigha is called 20 ptfi^ or 400 sq. hUhis 
or rods of (each) 5 cubits and 6 hand- 
breadths. The Guserit bigha contains 
only 284) sq. yds. Mr. Elliot specifies 
six rariations found in the Upper Pro- 
vinces. See Wilson's Gloss, under 
Bigha and Jan 6. 



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62 

chose the measurement of sixty square, but adopted the Ildki gaz. The 
Tandb (tent rope) was in Hindustan a measure of hempen rope twisted 
whioh became shorter or longer aooording to the dryness or moisture of the 
atmosphere. It would be left in the dew and thus fraudfully moistened. 
Oftentimes it would be employed in the eaiiy morning when it had got 
damp and had shrunk, and by the end of the day it had become dry and had 
lengthened. In the former case, the husbandmen suffered loss, in the 
latter the royal revenues were diminished. In the 19th year of the Divine 
era, the jar^b was made of bamboos joined by iron rings. Thus it is sub- 
ject to no variation, and the relief to the public was felt everywhere while 
the hand of dishonest greed was shortened. 

AFN X. 

The B4gha 

Is a name applied to iYi^jarih. It is a quantity of land 60 gaz long 
by 60 broad. Shonld there be any diminution in length or breadth or 
excess in either, it is brought into square measure and made to consist of 
3600 square ga».^ They divide the higha into 20 parts, each of which is 
called hiawah^ and this is divided again into 20 parts each of which is 
termed hiswdmah. In measuring they reduce no further. No revenue 
is required from 9 hisw6n$dh^ but ten they account as one hiswah. Some, 
however, subdivide the bisw&nsah into 20 parts, each of which they called 
tjLawom9a\ whioh they again divide into 20 parts, calling each tapwAnsah. 
This again they partition in 20 portions, and name them severally antvodn- 
sah. A higha as measured by the tan6h of hemp, was two hUtoah and 12 
hiswamah smaller in extent than the higha measured by the tanah of bam- 
boo. This makes a difference of 10 higha in a hundred. Although the 
tanah of hemp was of 60 gaz^ yet in the twisting it shrunk to 56. The 
Ilahi goM was longer than the libandari by one hiswahj 16 hinodnsah^ 13 
tanodAMoh^ 8 tapwdmdky and 4 answdneah. The difference between the two 
reduced the higha by 14 himoah^ 20 hiswdnsah, 13 taswdnsah^ 8 *apwdnsah^ 
and 4 answdnsah. In one hundred highas the variation in the two measures 
amounted to 22 highas, 3 hiswah and 7 hiswdnsah. 

ATS XI. 
Land and its classification^ and the proportionate dues of Sovereignty, 
When His Majesty had determined the gag, the tandh^ and the htgha^ 

^ The text has an error of 60 for 600. I womevrhmi more tiian half an acre. U. 
3600 sq. ga« = 2,600 sq. yards - 0.688 or | T. p. 88. 



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63 

m his profound sagacity he classified the lands and fixed a different reyenue 
to be paid bj each. 

Polaj is land which is annually cultivated for each crop in succession 
and is never allowed to lie fallow. 

Paraufi is land left out of cultivation for a time that it may recover its 
strength. 

Chtichar is land that has lain fallow for three or four years. 

Bcmjar is land uncultivated for five years and more. 

Of the two first kinds of land, there are three classes, good, middling 
and bad. They add together the produce of each sort, and a third of this 
representR the medium produce, one-third part of which is exacted as the 
royal dues. The revenue levied by 8her Kh4n, which at the present day is 
represented in all provinces as the lowest rate of assessment, generally ob- 
tained, and for the convenience of the cultivators and the soldiery, the 
value was taken in ready money. 



Produce of Polaj Land.^ Spring Hctrvest, called in Hindi Asddhi, 



1" 

•8 

• ■8 

8" 
II 



T 

•8 



■TT 

■s 

1 



II 



WLeat . 

Jr«atid— (Vetches) 

Ada» — False (Gicer lens) in 

Hindi. Masur ... 
Barley .. 
Linseed 
Safflower — (carthamns tincto- 

rins)... 
Anan — Millet (Panicnm milia- 

oenm (in Hindi China) 
Ungtard 
Peas ... 

Fenngreek, {Mtthi) 
Kkr rice 



Md. Sr. 

18 

18 



8 

18 

6 



10 
10 
18 
14 
24 



10 



ao 

80 

90 

20 







fi 






Md. Sr. 

12 

10 20 



Md. 
8 

7 



Sr. 
85 



20 31 



20 
20 
10 



6 80 



25 
15 



8 

8 

10 

11 

018 



20 

90 







6 
5 

8 

9 

14 



5 

5 

25 

85 

10 



II 

^1 



Md. Sr. 
88 85 




19 
38 



8015 



15 
85 
20 



10 20 80 



24 
24 
32 
84 
56 



5 

5 

5 

85 

10 




IT 



•s 






I 



11 8 



Md. Sr.Md. Sr. 
12 88^1 4 12{ 
10 18i 8 18 



6 18i 

12 88i 

5 7 

6 86^ 



8 

8 

10 

11 

18 



U 
If 
28 
25 
80 



2 6 

4 ]2i 

1 29 

2 12 



27i 

85 

10 



' I hav0 copied the fomn of the 4 fel- 
Unring tables from Gladwin. Abnl Fazl 
makm the ealeolatioB for tke4th and Sth 
oolmnna for wheat only. For yetohes and 
palse he omits the 4th column and omits 
the 4th and 5th of all the remainder. 



The fractions below a qnaspter of a seer are 
discarded in calculating the proportion 
fixed for revenne : the thirds ajfe not 
always mathematically exact, and frac- 
tions are sometimes raised to a unit or 
altogether omitted. 



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64 



The revenue from musk melons, ajtodtn {Ligusttcum ajowan), onions 
and other greens not counted as produce, was ordered to be paid in ready 
money at the i^tes hereinafter mentioned. 

Polaj Land. 
The Autumn Harvest^ called in Hindi Sawani. 



Molasses^ 
Cotton... 
S/idii lfu«?ifcin— Dark oolonred, 

small in grain and white, 

fragrant, that ripens qnickly 

and pleasant to taste 
Common rice, not of the above 

quality ••• 

Mdsh-in Hindi Mfing (Phaseo- 

luB mnngo) •• 

Mush Siah— H. Urdh (a kind of 

vetch) — •• 

Mo(h (lentiU), coarser than 

the white m^ng and better 

than the dark ... 
Jowdr (Andropogon Sorghum. 

Roxb.) ... , ,„ •;• 

Shamakh— H. Sawvodn (Pani- 

cum frumentaoenm. Roxb.) 
iTodron** like SanwAn) but its 

outer husk darkish red 
Sesame ••• 

Kanguni (Panioum italioum; 
Turiyay like mustard seed, but 

inclined to red ... ... 

Anan (Panioum miliaoeum) 

generally a spring crop 
Lah4arah grows in ear, the 

grain like Kangv/ni 
Mandwah (Cynosurus ooro<» 

nus) the ear like Sanwin, the 

seed like mustard seed, but 

some red, some white 



Md. Sr 
18 

10 



T" 

■8 



Md. Sr. 
10 

7 



24 
17 
10 
iO 

6 

13 

10 

17 
8 
6 

6 

16 







20 

20 

20 



20 





20 

20 



10 20 



11 



20 



.« 

•It 
§ 

* to 

a 

rs 



Md. Sr. 



18 
12 

7 

7 



010 



12 
6 
6 



018 



201 7 
5 




20 
20 
20 

10 

20 

20 

20 



10 

10 

20 

20 





T 



•si 



2031 
022 



Md. Sr. 




14 
9 
5 
6 

3 

7 
6 

9 

4 
8 

8 

10 



10 
15 
10 
10 

80 



15 



80 



h 
^1 






20 



66 
38 
23 
23 

15 



10 



20 



si's 

"** .« 

o 



CO o u 

d 
o 



o g $ 



Md. Sr 
10 134 
20 



Md. Sr. 
8 18 
2 20 



1018 

86] 

10 



12 
7 



80 

384 

80 

80 

64 



2081 010 134 



8 14 



24 

38 
18 
15 

16 



36 




80] 

2540 

1C28 



12 
6 
5 



5 

518 
10 



884 


7 

7 
H 

80 



S fl s 

§.2 § 



10 

18 

234 

284 

29 
18 



2 274 

4 124 

2 O 

1 29 

1 29 
4 1S4 

2 234 



I rpije 4th and 6th columns have been 
omitted by Abul Fazl. 

• A variant gives Kodon and Koderam 



probably the same as Kodo — ^a small grain 
(Paspalom Kora). 



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63 




As a coDsideration for watching the crops a quarter of a seer (per 
manDd) is allowed in some places and in others more, as will be shown. 

The revenne from indigo, poppy, ^n, turmeric, pignut^ (trapabispinosa), 
hemp, kachdlu (arum colocasia) pumpkin, ^tnna (Lawsonia inermis) cucum- 
hers, hddrang (a species of cucumber) the egg-plant (solanum melongena), 
radishes, carrots, Jcareld (momordica charantia) kakuraj^ tendas^^ and 
musk-melons, not counted as produce, was ordered to be paid in ready 
money at the rates hereafter mentioned. 



* This is the Sing^&rali or Singhafah. 
In the montli of November, the nut 
ripens and sach of the fmit as remains 
nngathered, falls off and sinks to the 
bottom of the pond. When the water 
driM up in May or Jnne, these nnts or 
bolbs are found to have thrown oat a 
number of shoots. They are then care- 
fully collected and placed in a small 
bole in the deepest portion of the tank 
Md covered with water. In the 
aitts when the ponds begin to fill, 
tiie balbe are taken np, each shoot is 
btoken off, enveloped in a ball of clay to 
■ink it and thrown into the water at 

9 



different distances. They at once take 
root and g^ow rapidly until in a short 
time the surface of the water is covered 
with leaves. The fruit forms in October. 
The produce of a standard hig\a is about 
%\ mam which at the selling price of 10 
sera for the rupee, represent a total value 
of Bs. 10. It is much more extensively 
consumed by the Hindus than the Ma- 
hemedaus. Carnegie's Kachhari Techni- 
calities. 

* Momordica Muricata. 

* Also called tendu : resinous fruit of 
the tree Diospyros glutinosa. 



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66 

Parauti land when cultivated, pays the same revenue aa potaj. 

His Majesty in his wisdom thas regalated the revenues in the aboTe- 
mentioned favourable manner. He reduced the duty on manufactures 
from ten to five per cent, and two per cent, was divided between the patwari 
and the kanungo. The former is a writer employed on the part of the 
cultivator. He keeps an account of receipts and disbursements, and no 
village is without one. The latter is the refuge of the husbandman. There 
is one in every district. At the present time the share of the kanungo (one 
per cent.) is remitted and the three classes of them are paid by the State 
accordding to their rank. The salary of the first is fifty rupees: of the 
Becoud, thirty ; of the third, twenty ; and they have an assignment for 
personal support equivalent thereto. It was the rule that the commissaries 
of the shikkdar, karkun,^ and Amin should receive daily 58 ddms as a 
peiquisite, provided that in spring they did not measure less than 200, nor 
in autumn less than 250 bighas. His Majesty whose heart is capacious as 
the ocean, abolished this custom and allowed only one dam for each higha. 

Many imposts, equal in amount to the income of Hindustdn were 
remitted by His Majesty as a thank-offering to the Almighty. Among 
these were the following ; 

The capitation tax. 

The port duties. 

Tax* per head on gathering at places of worship. 

A tax on each head of oxen. 

A tax on each tree. 

Presents. 

Distraints. 

A tax on the various classes of artificers. 

Bdrogha^a fees. 

Tahsilddr's fees. 

Treasurer's fees. 

Complimentary offerings on receiving a lease and the like. 

Lodging charges. 

Money bags. 

Testing and exchanging money. 

Market duties. 



* The registrar of the collections un- 
der a Zamindar, The Am{n was an 
officer employed either in the revenue de- 
partment to take charge of an estate 
and collect the revenues on account of 
government, or to investigate and report 



their amount : or in the judicial depart- 
ment, as a judge and arbitrator in civil 
causes. Wilson's Gloss. 

' The word is kar in the text, and is 
probablj from the Sansk. IfT an impost, 
fee or cess. 



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67 

Sale of cattle; also on hemp, blankets, oil, raw bides, weigbing, 
scaling ; likewise butcher's dues, tanning, playing at dice,^ passports, tur- 
bans,* hearth-money, fees on the purchase and sale of a house, on salt made 
from nitrous earth, on permission to reap the harvest, felt, manufacture of 
lime, spirituous liquors, brokerage, catching fish, the product of the tree 
Al {Morinda citrifoUa) ;^ in fine all those imposts which the natives of Hin- 
dustan include under the term Sair Jihdty* were remitted. 

AfN XII. 

Ghachar land. 
When either from excessive rain or through an inundation, the land 
falls out of cultivation, the husbandmen are, at first, in considerable distress. 
In the first year, therefore, but two fifths of the produce is taken : in the 
second three-fifths ; in the third,^ four-fifths and in the fifth, the ordinary re- 
TCDue. According to differences of situation, the revenue is paid either in 
money or in kind. In the third year the charges of 5 per cent, and ono ddm 
for each higha^ are added. 

AfN XIII. 

Banjar land. 
When through excessive inundations production has seriously dimi- 
nished, the revenue is collected in the following proportions : 

Spring Harvest, 
Proportion of revenue from one Btgha of Banjar 'land for five years. 







let year 


2nd year 


3rd year 


4th year 


5th year 






Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr 




Wheat 


... I. 


20 


1 


2 


3 


as polaj 


Knstard 


... R. 


5 


25 


35 


1 10 




VetcheB NukUd 


... I. 


10 


30 


1 10 


2 10 




Do. 


...R. 


5 


80 


1 10 


2 10 


ti 



* Two words follow which are marked 

in the text as donbtf nl, they are ****^ 

and iSjy^ : the latter word means sim- 
ply a tax : there is doabtless an omission : 
the former I cannot trace. 

* The word is pag^ contraction of pagrif 
a tnrban. It was a kind of poll tax 
leried on every tnrban. 

* From which a dye is extracted. 

* See p. 68. 

* There is probably an error in the 



text as the fonrth year is omitted. 
Gladwin has " the third and fourth years 
fonr-fifths each " 

• I take the J between ^ J J^6 to be 
an error, as by retaining it the percen- 
tage would rise to 15 or at least to 10^. 
Five per cent, was levied on mannfac- 
tnres ; it may therefore have been an 
extra charge on land though I do not 
see its reason or its justice. Gladwin 
translates as I have done. 



*.^- 



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68 



Proportion of Bevenw, Sfc 


. — Continued. 








let jear2iid yearSrd year 4th year 


6th year 




Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr 




Barley ... ... ... I. 


20 


1 


2 


3 


aa polaj. 


Do. ... ... ...B. 


6 


35 


1 20 


2 20 




VTilee{p%em'lffM)Adas ... ...I. 


10 


30 


1 10 


1 30 




Do. ... ... ... E. 


6 


30 


1 10 


1 30 






10 


26 


86 


1 


n 


Do. .. ... .. E. 


6 


25 


35 


1 




Linseed ... ... ... I. 


10 


20 


30 


1 10 




Do. .. ... ...R. 


5 


5 


30 


1 10 


»» 



Note. I stands for inundated land, and R for that which has suffered 
from rain. 

Autumn Harvest. 
Proportion of revenue from one Btgha of Banjar land for Jive years. 







let 


year 


2nd year 


3rd year 


4th year 


5th year 






Md 


. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 


Md. Sr. 




Jf(£«V 


...I. 





20 


1 


1 30 


2 10 


as polai 


Do. 


... R. 





6 


20 


1 


1 20 




Jowdr 


...1. 





20 


1 


2 


3 


" 


Do. 


...R. 





5 


20 


1 


2 




Moth 


... R. 





5 


20 


30 


1 10 


* 


Lah4araih ... 


... R. 





6 


20 


1 10 


2 




K6dr6i^ 


... I. 





20 


1 


2 


3 




Do. 


...R. 





5 


20 


1 20 


2 20 




Man^wah 


...I. 





20 


1 


2 


3 


" 


Do. 


... R. 





5 


80 


1 10 


2 10 




KMiri 


... I. 





10 


26 


35 


1 10 




Do. 


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In the 4th year the charges of 5 per cent, and one dam fw each higha 
were collected and this is still in force. 

In Banjar land for the Ist year, one or two sers are taken from each 
Ugha; in the 2nd year, 5 sers^ in the Srd year, a sixth of the produce ; in 
the 4th year, a fourth share together with one ddm : in other years a third 
suffices. This raries somewhat during inundations. In all oases the hus- 
tandman may pay in money or kind as is naost convenient. Banjar land 
at the foot of the hills and land subject to inundatioas in the districts of 



* For these names, see p. 64^ 



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69 

Sanbal^ and Bahrdicb, do not remain as hanjar^ for so mncli new soil is 
broaght down with the overflow that it is richer and more productive than 
fo^;'. His Majesty, however, in his large munificence places it in the 
nme class. It is in the option of the cultivator to pay in ready money or 
by hinkufi or hhaoli. 

AfN XIV. 

The Ninetepi Years Batesfi 

Intelligent people have from time to time set themselves to record the 
prices current of the Empire, and after careful inquiry the valuation of grain 
was accepted on this basis. 

The revenue rates for a htgha of polaj land were fixed as has been 
stated. From the 6th year of the Divine Era which runs with the Novi- 
hnar year 968 (A. D., 1560-1) and concluding with the 24th year of this 
rwgn, the statistics were collected and have been tabulated for reference 
after the most diligent investigation. The figures are entered under the 
heading of each year. 



' Or Sanbhal. See Vol. I, Geograph. 
Index. 
* See p. 44. 
' Ninetoen years correepond with a 



cycle of the moon daring^hich period 
the seasons are supposed to undergo a 
complete reyolution. Gladwin, p. 292. 
Vol. I. 



See Table next page. 



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88 



AIN 15. 

The Ten Years' Settlement. • 

Prom tlie beginning of this immortal reign, persons of intelligence 
and void of rapacity, together with zealous men of experience, have been 
annually engaged in noting the current prices and reporting them to His 
Majesty, and taking the gross produce and estimating its value, they deter- 
mined the rates of collection, but this mode was attended with consider- 
able inconvenience. When Khwajah Abdul Majid Asaf Khan^ was 
raised to the dignity of Prime Minister, the total revenue was taken at an 
estimation,* and the assignments were increased as the caprice of the 
moment suggested. And because at that time the extent of the empire was 
small, and there was a constant increase of dignities among the servants of 
the State, the variations were contingent on the extent of corruption and 
self-interest. When this great oflfice devolved on Muzaffar Khan^ and Rajah 
Todar Mull, in the 15th year of the reign, a re-distribution of the imperial 
assessment was made through the kanuvgos, and estimating the produce of 
the lands, they made a fresh settlement. Ten kanungos were appointed 
who collected the accounts from the provincial kanungos and lodged them 
in the imperial exchequer. Although this settlement was somewhat less 
than the preceding one, nevertheless there had been formerly a wide 
discrepancy between the estimate and the receipts. 

When through the prudent management of the Sovereign the empire 
was enlarged in extent, it became diflScult to ascertain each year the prices 
current and much inconvenience was caused by the delay. On the one hand 
the husbandman complained of extensive exactions, and on the other the 
holder of assigned lands was aggrieved on account of the revenue balances. 
His Majesty devised a remedy for these evils and in the discernment of 
his world-adorning mind fixed a settlement for ten years : the people were 
thus made contented and their gratitude was abundantly manifested. 
From the beginning of the 15th year of the Divine era to the 24th, an 
aggregate of the rates of collection was formed and a tenth of the total 
was fixed as the annual assessment ; but from the 20th to the 24th year 
the collections were accurately determined and the five former ones ac- 
cepted on the authority of persons of probity. The best crops were taken 
into account in each year and the year of the most abundant harvest 
accepted, as the table shows. 



* See Vol. I, p. 866, and Index. 

• See Vol. I, p. 849. 



■ See Vol. I, p. 848. 



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89 

Tfce Babak of Allahabad comprises nine sarkdrs (districts) and pos- 
sesses fifteen separate revenue codes.^ 

1. The Sarkdr of Allahabad inclades fifteen mabals and has three 
revenne codes. 

The sabnrban district of Allahabad comprises three mahals, viz., the 
SQburbB of Allahabad, Kantat, and a tract on the extreme limits of the 
suhdh of Agra,* and possesses one revenne code.- 

Jaldldbdd bas three mabals and a reyenue code. 

Bhadoi, seven mabals, viz,, Bhadoi, Sikandarpur, 8ardoii, Sangror, 
Mahj Kcfwdi, Hddidhds^ — and a revenne code. 

2. The Sarkdr of Benwres has eight mabals and a revenne code. 
The detail is as follows — the suburban district of Benares, the township 
of Benares, Pandarhd, Kaswdr, Harhawd, BydUsi,* 

3. The Sarkdr of Jaunjmr bas 41 mabals and two codes. 

The suburban district of Jaunpur, 39 mabals, one code, viz. : — 
Aldemao, Angali, Bheteri, Bhaddo'h, Belheti,^ Jaunpur, Suburban Jaun- 
pur, Ghandipur Badhar, Ghdndah, Ghiriyd Kot, GhakSsar, Kharid, Khdspur 
Tdndah, Khdnpur, Deogdon, Bdri, SanjhSli, Sikandarpur, Sagdi, Sarharpur, 
Shddi-dbddy Zafardbdd, Karydt Maftu, Karydt Dostpur, Karydt-Mendhah, 
Karydt Swetah, Kolah, Qhiswah, Ohosi, Kodiya, Qopdlpur, Kirdkat, Man- 
diaho, Muhammad-dbdd, MajhSrd, Mau, Nizdmdbdd, Naigun, Nathupur.^ 
4 The Sarkdr of Ghanddah, 14 mabals and one revenue code, viz. 



* The Dastur u*l A*mal is a body of 
instrnotions and tables for the use of 
oatiTe revenne officers under the Maho- 
medan Goyemment. Although profess- 
ing to be copied from the original of 
Akbar, no two copies agree, owing, as 
Mr. £lliot conjectures, to their having 
been made up, in various degrees of 
oinnpleteness, from another account left 
I7 the Kanungoe, the A^mal-dastur, in 
which orders superseding those of the 
Dfli*w u*l Amal were registered. Wil- 
ton's Gloss. 

• There is probably an error here as 
a note to the text suggests.— The MSS. 
all differ in the names of the various 
jnryanaAa of this district. 

' In Tieffenthaler's Geographic de 
nBdoaatan (Bernoulli. Descript de Tin- 

12 



de. Vol. I) the above names with one 
exception are mentioned with the addi- 
tion of Kheragafh. A note in the text 
of Abul Fazl supplies this omission. 

^ This makes but six, which is the 
number given by Tieffenthaler whose 
names, however, vary somewhat from 
the text. 

* This is the name in the note to the 
text and I have given it, as it accords 
with Tieffenthaler t the text itself has 
Talhanu 

• I am extremely doubtful as to the 
orthography of these names — the MSS. 
confessedly vary and many of these 
places have doubtless ceased to exist. 
The importance of their true spelling and 
pronunciation scarcely justifies the la- 
bour of an extensive research. 



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00 

the suburban district of Ohanddah, Ahirtodrdhf BhSli^ BafhSlf J\ln4ahf 
DhoSf BdghupHir^ — the villages on the western bank of the river, MajhufArdk^ 
Mahdechf Mdhwdriy MahSi^ Silpiirf Naran, 

5. The Sarkd/r of Qhdztpiir, 18 mahals, one code, vu.f the snbnrban 
district of Ohdzipur, BaU&, Paohdtar, Balkdhde, Bharidbddy Bhaldej, Ohauttd 
Lehhdj Sayyid^itr Namdt, Zahurdbdd, Karydt Pali, K6pd OKhit, Qanihd^ 
Karandahf Lakhner, Madan BendrcUf MuhammoLdahdd, Farhdrhdri. 

6. The Sarkdr of JKarrah, 12 mahals, one code, vur., the township 
of Karrahy its suburban district, Aichhi, Atharbanf Ayisd, Bdri, Kardri, 
Kdtla, Kaunra commonly called KSsSn, Fatehpur Ha^iwah, Hafgdo^ 
Hanswah. 

7. The Sarkdr of Korarahf 8 mahab, 8 codes, vur., thus detailed. 
Tbe suburban district of Korarah has one code and 2 mahals, i^., itself 
and Ohdtampiir ; K6tid, 3 mahals, K6tx&j Qondry Keranpir Kindrf and 
one code ; J4jmau, 3 mahals, viz. Jdjmau, Muhainpiir, Majh&on^ and one 
code. 

8. The Barhwr of Kdlinjar, 10 mahals, one code, vig., Kdlinjar with 
its suburbs, Agudsi, Ajigafh, Sendha, SamSniy Shddipur, Basan, Khar4Uihf 
Mahdbd, MSdhd, 

9. The Sarkdr of Mdnikpur^ 14 mahals, 2 codes. The suburbs 
of Mdnikpur have 10 mahals and one code, via,, Mdnikpur together with its 
suburban district, Arwal^ Bhalol, SalSn, Jaldlpur Balkhar,^ Karydt Kardrahy 
Karydt Faegdh, KhafSt, Na^irdbdd, 

B&e Bareli, etc. 4 mahals, one code, viz, Bde Bareli, ToZ^n^i, Jdes, 
Dalmau. 



* A note to tbe text gires Rdlhup&r 
B8 the present name of this mahal — the 
other names hare nearly all variants in 
the MSS„ no donbt due as mnoh to 
dialectic variations in pronnnoiation as 
to errors of copyists. Tieflenthaler adds 
to the above, the fortress of Tackinar- 



ghar (Ohan^r) built of stone, cm an emi- 
nence on the western bank of the Granges. 

* Thns in all MSB. bnt SUiot baa 
Kerafpur Kananda. 

* This is the variant in a note and ao* 
cords with the spelling at p. 428 of text, 

* Tieft. has " somomm^ Halaoa." 



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03 

The Bubah of Oudh comprises five sarkdrs and possesses twelve 
codes. 

1. The Sarkdr of Oudh, 21 mahals, 3 codes. The subnrban dis- 
trict has 19 mahals and one code. Two parganahs are comprised in 
Ehair&bad. They are as follows : 

Oudh with its suburban district; Anhddha, Anhonahy Pachham/rdthy 
BUehri, Baiodhi, Thdnah Bhaddoihy Bakthdj BaryaJbdd, B>udatdiy Selakj 
SultdnpuTj SdianpuTy Supahah, Sarwdpdli, Satrakahy Oawa/rchahy Manglasi 
Naipur, 

Ibrahim&bdd and Kishni are each a parganah with one code. 

2. The Sarkdr of Bharmtch has 11 mahals, one code. The suburban 
district of BhardUch, <fec. 8 mahals, one code. Bharditch with its suburbs 
6 mahals, Bahrahy Husampvry Wankduthy^ Bajhaty Banjhauliy Fakhrpur, Fort 
Navdgafh. 

Firuzdbdd, &c., two parganahs, one code, viz., Firuzdbddy Stdtdnpur, 
Kharomay one mahal, one code. 

3. The Sarkdr of Khdirdbddy 2 mahals, 3 codes. Khairdbddy <S!k;., 
12 parganahs, one code, viz.y suburbs of Khairdbddy Basdrdy Baswahy 
Bcurahy Ohhitdpur, Khairigafhy Sadrpdry Kheriy Kha/rkheld, and Laliarpury 
two mahals ; Machh<irha((ahy and Hargar&OQ, two mahals.' Pdliy &c. has 8 
mabals, one code, viz.y Pdliy Barurdnjnahy BdwaUy Sdndiy Sirahy OopamaUy 
Ehdnkatmauy Nimkhd; Bha/rwdrahy &c. two mahals, included in Oudhy 
vi2,y Bharwdrah and Pildy — and one code. 

4. The Sarkdr oi Qorakhpury 24 parganahs, one code. The subur- 
ban district of Gorakhpur with the town, 2 mahals, Atrauldy Anhold ; Ba- 
ndekpur &g, 4 mahals, Bdribhanpdrdhy Bha^todpdrdy Telpury Ohilupdray 
Darydpdray Dewdpdrd and Kotlahy 2 mahals, Bohli ; Bdmgafh and Qdriy 
2 mahals, Bas&lpur and OhSsi 2 mahals; Kafhldy Khaldpdrdy Mahdliy 
Mandwahy Mandlah ; Manghar and Batanpv/Ty 2 mahals ; Maharanthoi,^ 

5. The Sarkdr of Lucknow has 55 mahals, 2 codes. The suburban 
district of Lucknow, &c., 47 parganahs, one code. Abdthiy IsauUy Astyiuy 
Akhdy Unchah Gdony Balkar BijloWy^ Bdriy Bharimau Pangwdriy Bethdliy 
Tanhany Parsanddny PdtaUy Bdrdahdkory JhaUtery Dewiy Beorakhy Dadrah, 
EanbirpuTy Bdmkofy Sandilahy Saipury Sardsiy Sahdliy Sidhory 8t4hupury 
Sandiy SaroUy Fate^pdry Fort of Ambhafiy Kursiy KdkSri, Khanjrahy Ghdtam- 



' Dangdau/n. Tieffenth. — A variant in 
tbe text has Damakdun ; almost every 
name has an alternative spelling. 

> This name is neither in Bernoulli nor 



in Elliot and is not mentioned in the ac- 
count of Oadh. It has several variants. 
* A note snggests this to be Bijnonr. 



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94 

puTf Karan4a^ Kdnbhi, Lucknow with its saburbs, LoihkaTf^ Malihdbddf 
Mohdn, MordoHy McufidoHj Mahonah, Manaun^ Makrded^^ Hadhat rnhdr, 

Ondm &c., 8 parganahs, one oode, vi^.y Otuimy Bilgrdon^ Bangcarmau^ 
Hardoiy Sdkmpurt FcUe^pur Ohaurdsi, Kctchhdndu^ Mcddwah. 



Spring Harvest of the Subah of Ottdh. 



Wheat 

Indian Yetohes 
Mustard seed (Khardal) 
Barley 

Adtis 

Safflower 

Poppy 

Potherbs 

Linseed ... .«. 
Mustard seed {Sarahaf) 

Anuin 

Peas , 

Oarrots 

Onions 

Fenugreek 

Persian Mnskm^ons 
Indian do. 

Cumin seed 

Coriander seed 

Kur rioe 

Ajwdnn 



D. J. 
54.20 
84-17 

89-8 
28-12 
71-14 
127-15 



29-0 
80-5 
20-8 
29-2 
80-6 
78 
55-22 
115-20 
4-18 
79-15 



D. J. 
62-15 
89-8 
40-6 
45-21 
85-20 
72-0 
115 
76-1 
85-20 
88-0 
24-15 
38-0 
86-21 
80-18 
54-20 
280-4 
14-28 
61-12 
150-2 
46-24 
97-5 



I 

M 



D. J. 
58-4 
89-8 

42-12 

28-12 

88-21 

20|1 56-13 

68-5 
82-15 
27-24 
16-19 

29-2 
86-21 
79-10 

58-4 
160-1 
17-22 



46-24 
79-10 



D. J. 
54-20 
88-14 

88-6 
22-9 
71-14 
127-12 
66-12 
27-24 
29-2 
15-8 
25-8 
28-7 
78-7 
58-4 
110-20 
15-16 



45-21 
83-21 



D. J. 
55-28 
82-11 

85-20 
21-6 
69-8 
127-11 
54-20 
26-21 
29-2 
722 
24-15 
29-2 
78-7 
78-20 
115-20 
15-16 



44-18 
83-21 



D. J. 
55-20 
88-14 

'ss-o 

22-10 
71-14 
^27-11 
66-12 
27-24 
29-2 
20-8 
25-15 
29-2 
78-7 



115-80 
15-16 



45-21 
82-21 



Note,— The dif- 
ference in the 
two classes of 
mustard seed 
is in the size 
and colour of 
the grain. 



* The text has Lashkar only — Tieifen- 
thaler, Lashkarp&r. When there are 
seyeral varianta in the notes, I hare 
ventured to seleot those that acowd 



with other accounts, though differing 
from the selected names of the text. 
* Tieff. " Bdkraed aatrement Bin.'* 



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96 

1. The Sarhdr of Agra — the royal residence. 44 parganahs, 4 
codes. The suburban district of Agra, &c., 6 mahals, one code., viz,, Agra 
and its suburbs, Ohanufdr, Jalesar^ the citj of Agra, Dholpur, Mahdwan. 
Bednah &c. 33 mahals, one code; the suburbs of Bednah, 2 mahals, 
Oudihi, Od, Oly Bhasdwar Todahhhim, Btndwar, Ghatisafh, Khdnwd, Bajhd- 
har, Fafehpur known as Sikri, Seonkar Seonkri, Mathura, MahSU, MangSflah, 
Bhaskar, Wazirpur, HSlak, Hindon, Bdpari, Bart, Bajvfdrah. Etdwah &c. 3 
mahals, one code, viz., Efdwah, Bdpri,^ ffatkdnt. Manddwar &c. 2 mahals, 
one code, viz., MaTiddtoar, Kakhdnmar, 

2. Sarkdr of Alwar, 43 parganahs, 3 codes. The parganahs of 
Alwar (fee. 33 mahals, one code, viz., the suburbs of Alwar, Dhard, J)a4ekar, 
Bahddurpur, Pandin, KhelShar, JaldVpur, Bihrdzpur, Bdth, BdlhattO'h, BaJir- 
kol, Hdjipur, Budahthal, Anthulah Hdhru, Pardf, Balhdr, Barodah Fathkhan, 
Barodahmeo, Basdnah, Hasanpur, BaddTiar, Hasanpvr 06ri, Deoli Sdjdri^ 
Sakhan, Kiydrah, Qhdi Seon, Kohrdnd, Monkond, Manddwarah, Naugdon 
Ndhargafh, Rars&ri and Harpur, 2 mahals, Harsdnd. Bachherah, Ac, 5 
mahals, one code, viz., Bachherah, Khoharir^nd, Bhiwdn, Ismatlpur, Amran^ 
Mubdrakpur, &c., 6 mabals, one code, viz., Muhdrakpur, Harsdni, Manddwar, 
Khirtahali, Mojpwr. 

3. 4. Sarkdrs of Tijdrah and Erdj, 4 codes. The Sarkar of Eraj^ 
16 mahals, viz., Eraj, Parhdr, Bhdnder, Bijpur, Pdndur, Ohhatrah, BiytU 
hdnah, Shdhzddahpur, Khafdlah &o., Kajhodah, Keddr, Kunj, Khekas, 
Kdnfi, Khderah, Mahdli. The Sarkdr of Tijdrah, 18 mahals, 1 code, viz, 
Tijdrah, Indor, TJjaina, Umard Umari, P6r, Beg wan, Bandhrd, Jhamrdwat, 
Khdnpur, Sdkras, Sanfhdddri, Firuzpur, Fatehpur Mdngarta, Kotlah, Kar- 
herd, Nagindn. Thdnah of Kahwdr, one code. Beam, one code. 

5. Sarkdr of Kanauj, 5 codes. The suburban district of Kanauj, &o. 
11 mahals, one code. The suburbs of Kanauj, Bdrd, Bithur, Bilhur, 
Bilgrdon, Deohd, Sikandarpur, Sedli, Sedi^rakh, Malkusah, Ndnamau. Sakefh 
&c. 6 mahals, one code. SdkSfh, Kardoli, Bamah, Sahgr, Patidli, Sahdur. 
Bhdgdon, Ac. 10 mahals, one code. Bhdgdon, Sonj, Sakrdon, Sakatpur, 
Saror, Chhaharmau, Shamshdbdd, Pati *Alipur, Kanpal, Bhdjpur. Sikandar* 
pur, one code. Phapund, one code. 

6. Sarkdr of Sahdr. Sahdr, Ac. 6 mahals, one code, viz.^ Sahdr, 
Pahdri, BhadSli, Kdmah, Koh Majdhid, Hddal. NonhSra, one code. 

7. 8, 9. Sarkdr of Qwalior, Ac., one code. Sarkdr of QwaUor, 13 
mabals, one code. Sarkdr of Nardrpanj, 5 mahals, one code. Sarkdr of 
Beanwdn, 28 mabals, one code. 

* A note to the text snggeBtB this i nor in the account of the proyinoe of 
name to be an error, as not in Elliot | Agra. Neither is it in Tieifenthaler. 



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97 

10. Sarkdr of Kdlpi, 16 parganahs, one code. Ulaif Bildspdr, Badh' 
nefh^ DerdpAr^ DeohaU^ Bdth^ Edipur, Suganpu/r, Shdhpur, suburbs of Kdlpi^ 
Kendr, Kkandoff Khan4ela^ city of KaXpi, Muhammaddbdd^ Hamirpur, 

11. Sarkdr of Kdlf 4 codes. Thdtiah Fartda^ <&c. 10 mahals, one 
code, vta., Tkdnah Farida^ PahdsUy Danbhdi^ Malikpur, Shikdrpur, Nuh, 
ChandSs, Kharjahy Ahdr, Tapal, Suburban district of KSl^ <feo.y 4 mahals, 
one code, viz.^ KSl, Jaldliy Sikandar rdo, OangSri, Mdrharak, i&c, 5 mabals, 
one code, vt:g., Mdrharahy Balrdmy Soron, Pachldnah and Stdhpur^ 2 mahals. 
Akhardbdd, 2 mahals, one code, viz.^ Akbardbddj Atrauli, 

12. Sarkdr of NdrnSl^ 4 codes. Suburban district of Ndrnol, <feo., 
8 mahals, viz., suburbs of Ndrnol and city, Bdrhy K6f PStli, Bdbdi, Khan.' - 
iela, Sankhdna, Kdn&ri, villages at the foot of the hill. Barodah r^nd, <&c. 
2 mahals, viz., Barodah rgtndy Ldpoti, Ohdl Kaldnah, &o. 2 mahals, Chdl' 
kaldnahf Khoddnd. Kanodah, <&c. 3 mahals, Kanddah, Narharah, Jkojeon, 



See Table next page. 



13 



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71-14 
127-15 
60-9 
31-8 
22-9 
29-21 
24-20 
81-16 
81-16 


100-16 
15-16 
84-24 
51-11 
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62-16 

36-22i 
41.9i 
24-15 
72-17 
119-17 
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74-23 
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87-6 
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87-5 
61-15 
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24-16 
73-20 
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39-20 
80-18 


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82-18 

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31-20 
87-5 
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15-16 
84-24 

84-24 








r 


Wheat 

Cabul Vetches .. 
Indian do. 
Barley 

Adas ... 
Safflower 

Potherbs 
Mustard seed .. 
Arzcm ... 

Peas 

Carrots 
Onions 
Fenugreek 
Persian Musk Me 


Ions ... 
Indian ditto 
Cumin seed 
JTttrrice 
Ajwdin 



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102 

Subah of Ajmere, 7 Sark&rs, 9 codes. 

1. Sarkdr of Ajmere, 2 codes. Suburban district of Ijmere, Ac. 
24 Parganahs, i code. City and suburbs of Ajmere, 2 mabals, Ardine^ 
Parhaf, Bdhndi^^ JBhardnah, Bawdl, Bdhal, Bdndhan Sandheri, Bhardnda^ 
Tusina^ Johnair^ Deogdoi*, BSshanpur, Sdnhhatj Sarwdr^ Safheldf Sulai- 
mdnabddy Kekri, Khdrwah^ MdhrSf, Masgiuddhddy Nardindh, Harbor ^ Anh&r^ 
Ac., 4 Parganahs, 1 code, viz,, AnhSr^ Bhakoi, Jhdg, Muzdbdd. 

2. Sarkdr of Jodhpur, 21 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburbs and city 
of Jodhpur, Asopf Endr dotty BhSdhi, Palpdrahy Beldra, Pdliy &c., 3 mabals, 
Bdhilahy Podhhf Bhadrdjaufty Jetdran^ Dotdrdy Sujhat, SdtahnSry Sewdnd^ 
KhSrway Kheonsary Kundojy Mahewah, 

3. Sarkdr of OhitoTy 28 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburbs and city of 
OhitoTy 2 mahals, Isldmpur commonly Bdmpury Udaipury &c., 3 mahals, 
Aparmdly^ ArfSdy Isldmpur commonly MohaUy Bodhnur, Phulidy Banhera^ 
Pury Bihtn Surury Bdgory Begun, Pati HdjipuTy Jeran, Sdnwarkhdtiy Sdndri^ 
SamSl with the cultivated land, Kosidnahy Mdndalgarh, Mdndaly Maddriyd 
Nvmach Ac, 3 mahals. 

4. Sarkdr of Banthanhory 4 codes, BantlianbSr Ac., 36 Pai^gan- 
ahs, 1 code. Subarban district of Banthanhdry Alhanpur, Etd4ay Aton^ 
Isldmpur, Iwdn Bosamery Barodahy Bhadldon, Bakldnf, Paldtidhy Bhosor^ 
Belonahy Bdlakhatriy Bhoripahdriy Bdrdtiy Taldd, Jetpv/ty JJiditVy Khaljipur^ 
Bhariy Sanhusdriy Kotd, Khanddr, Khafoliy Kaddudy Ldkhriy Londahy Lahaud^ 
MdngrSry Momeddnah ^c, 16 mahals. Ohdtsu Sfc.y 16 Parganahs, 1 code. 
viz,y Ohdfsuy Barwdrahy TJniydrdy Pdfan, Banhatdy Sarsupy Bdliy BSjri, 
Kharniy Nawdhiy Jhaldwahy Khankharah, 8ui Supary Maldmahy Karor, 
Bondiy Delhwdrahy Ac., 7 Parganahs, 1 code, viz,y Delhtodrahy Be- 
todndhnahy Nagar, Antrorahy Deldnahy Amkhorahy Loharwdrahy Toffdy Ac., 
3 Parganahs, 1 code, viz., Todd, Tonky Tori, 

5. Sarkdr of Ndgor, 30 Parganahs, 1 code. Suburban district of 
NdgoTy Amar Samdiny Inddnah, Bhaddnahy Baldubatdniy^ BatSdhdy Barodahy 
Bdrah gatn, Chdel, Charodahy Jdkhrahy Khd/rijkhafUy Bendwdnahy Donpur^ 
Bewdsdy BStiy Basulpur, Bahot, SddSlahy Fafhpur Jhanjmdn, Kdsliy KhdSlak 
Kdjurahy K6Uwahy Kumhdriy KSrany Lddon, Merath, Manohar nagar, Nokhd. 

6 A 7. Sarkdrs of SarShi and BikdnSr. The codes of these two 
Sarkd/rs are not laid down. 

* Bahaedif Tieff. I * Zounbara, Ihid, 

■ Bosaina, Ibid, \ * Aparpdl, Ibid. 

' In the texfc Bahdu, but the abore ia the name in the aooount of this Siibah which 
oocors later on. 



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108 



Spring Harvest of the SubaK of AjmerS, 



Wheat 

Indian Yetohes 

Bariey 



flaiBower ... 

I*<W7 

PotaerlM 

Linseed 

Mwiardieed 

Anon 

Peat 

Carrota 

Onions ..« 

Fenugreek . 

Fenian Mnak-Meloiui.. 

Indian ditto 

Cnmin 

Kur rioe 

AjwUn 



D. J. 

49.5 
88-14 
83-14 

22-8 
62-16 
86-16 
66-28 

81-8 
44-18 

20-9 

26-9 
26-21 

67-2 

100^16 
11-6 
70-7 

61-11 
70-7 



D. J. 

81-8 
20-8 
20-3 
18-11 
88-9 
60-9 
86-20 
20-8 
26-21 
13-11 
20-8 
16-16 
44-18 

67^2 
6-18 
68-17 
83-0 
58-17 



D. J. 

100-16 
66-23 
67-2 

67^2 
116-20 
62-15 
81-8 
65-23 
66-23 



67-2 
66-0 



77-8 
78-7 



D. J. 

65-23 
81-8 
88-14 
22-9 
66-28 
89-24 
55-23 
26-21 
26-21 
13-11 
22-2 
22-9 
59-21 

88-il 
13-11 

67-2 
52-14 

67-2 



1 

1 



D. J. 

5523 
31-8 
83-14 
22-9 
55-22 
84-24 
55-23 
26-21 
24-16 
13-11 
209 
22-21 
59-21 
67. 
8911 
18-11 

67-2 
62-24 

67. 



D. J. 

53-18 
38-0 
88-0 

24-15 
58-9 

II6-20I 
46-8 

26-21 

17-22 



80-18 



13-11 
80-13 
40-6 
80-13 



D. J. 

67-2 
42-12 
49-6 
20-3 
59-4 
116-8 
56-22 
29-2 
27-24 
17-22 

27^24 
89-18 

89^1 
13-11 
80-13 
33-14 
80-13 



D. J. 

46-24 
27-24 
32-11 

36^29 
77-4 
36-24 

18^1 
14-15 

IS-il 
58-17 
5523 
89-8 
13-11 
53-17 

53!i7 



D. J. 

100-16 
55-28 
67-2 

67-2 
116-20 
62-15 

81-8 
55-23 
66-28 



68-2 



8-24 



88-7 



Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Ajmer. 










14 








A 




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D. J. 


D. J 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


Sugarcane (jpaundah) 




. 


... 


239-6 


239-6 










Common sugarcane 


116i-20 


86-1 


115-8 


115-8 


115-8 


134-4 


116-20 


81-16 


115-20 


Dark coloured rioe... 


55-28 


35-20 65-28 


67-2 


68-2 


72-20 


67-22 


44-18 




Common rioe 


44-20 


23-2 j 44-2 


53-17 


60-17 


67-2 


46-24 


31-8 


44-18 


Mdsh 


33-14 


29-2 


31-7 


33-14 


33-14 


39-3 


27-24 


18-16 


31-8 


Cotton 


60-15 


40-6 


67-2 


76-1 


76-1 


78-8 


72-17 


54-0 


67-0 


Mo(h 


24-16 


15-16 


36-3 


26-1 


26-1 


22-9 


40-6 


26-21 


20-8 


Odl 


13-15 


8-24 


38-21 


13-15 


13-15 


15-16 


16-16 


10-16 


38-8 


«rty« ... 


38-1 


24-16 


... 


38-14 


33-14 


15-6 


... 






Ar%an 


1722 


12-7 


55-21 


17-22 


17-22 


17-22 


22-9 


17-24 


55-6 


Indigo 


134-4 


85-11 


134-4 


111-20 


134-4 


134-4 


134-4 


89-11 


134-4 


Einna 


67-2 


44-18 


67-2 


65-23 


56-23 


67-2 


62-16 


40.-21 


67-2 


Hemp 


82-19 


63-8 


87-7 


78-8 


78-7 


89-15 


76-13 


76-13 


53-17 


Potherbe 


66-22 


86-20 


62-16 


66-23 


66-23 


62-16 


76-13 


26-9 


62-16 



Digitized by 



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104 

Aiitninn Harvest of the 84hah of Ajmere. — continued. 



Koch f ah ... 
Singhdrah 
Lobiya 
Jowdri 
Lahdafak ,,, 
Kodaram ... 
Mandwah ... 
Sesame seed 
Shamdkh ... 
Mdng ... 
Kurt 
Kalt 



U 








OQ 



D. J. 

13-2 

116-20 

81-20 

24-15 

20-8 

22-8 

22-2 

83-14 

15-6 

24-11 

21-6 



D. J. 

8-24 
116-20 
20-9 
11-16 
12-8 
11-6 
14-4 
20-8 
6-18 
16-16 
6-18 



^•9 



D. J. 

1811 

116-20 
22-9 
81-8 

17-20 



88-4 
26-21 



?•§ 



D. J. 

11-6 
116-20 
81-8 
29-2 
22-9 
22-9 
22-8 
88-14 
11-6 
40-6 
8-24 



D. J. 

16-6 

116-20 
81.8 

29-12 
22-9 
22-9 
22-9 

83- 14 
11-6 
40-6 
8-24 

38-14 



D. J. 

13-11 
116-20 
82-11 
32-22 
26-18 
88-14 
26-21 
24-16 
11-6 
86-22 






D. J. 

18-11 

116-20 

22-9 

42-2 

81-8 

88-14 

26-21 

84-17 

11-5 

42-12 

11-6 



'4 



D. J. 

8-24 

116-20 

18-14 

80-0 

19-0 

27-24 

17-22 

22-24 

6-0 

27-10 

6-8 

22-9 



4P 



?•§ 



D. J. 

18-11 

116-20 

22-9 

81-8 

17-22 



88-14 
26-21 



The rates of the Sarkdrs of Bikdn^r and Sardhi are not given. 

The Suhah of Delhi, 8 Sarkdrs, 28 codes. 

1. The Sarkdr of Delhi, 48 Parganahs, 7 codes. The old snbur- 
ban district, the new ditto Pdlam, Jhdrsah, Masauddbddy Tilpat, Luni^ 
Shakarpur, Bdghpat, Kdsnah^ Ddsnah, Sulaimdndhdd, Kharkhudah, SSnipat, 
TalbSgampur, Taldlpur, 

Fdnipat^ &o., 2 Parganahs, 1 code, viz., Pdnipat, Ka/mdl, Safedun, 
^utdnah, ChhaprSli, Tdndah JBhagwdn, Chnor, Jhanjhdnah, Kdn^hldk, 
OangSrkhera, 

Baran, Ac, 8 Parganahs, 1 code. Bara/n, Siydnah^ JSwar, Dankor^ 
Adh, Pothh, Senthhah, Sikarulardhdd, 

Merath, &c., 7 Parganahs, 1 code. MSrath, Hdpur, Bamdwah, Jaldld- 
bad, Sarwdrah, Oarh MuktSsar, Hatndwar,^ 

Jhajhar, &c., 4 Parganahs, 1 code. Jhajhar, Dddri fdha, Mdndothi, 
BSri Dobaldhan. 

Bohtah, 1 Parganah, 1 code. 

PaUl. ditto. ditto. 

2. Sarkdr of Baddon,, 16 Parganahs, 1 code. Ajdon, Anolah, 
Baddon and suburbs, Bareli, Barsar, P6nd, Telhi, Sahsdon, Sondsi ifon- 
dehah, Samyd, Kant, ^ot Sdlbdhan, Golah. 

* Hastinapur, Elliot A TieS, 



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105 

3. Sarkdr of Hisdr Firozah, 18 mahals, 4 codes. Suburbs of Hisdt* 
Firozahy <jbc., 7 parganahs, 1 code. Suburbs and city of Hdnsi, Bar- 
wdlahy Barwdy Tashdm and Agrohah, 2 mabals, Fatehdhdd. Oohd^iah, <&c., 4 
parganahs, 1 code. Qohdnah, Ahroni, BJiaft^ and 16 villages. Sirsd, 
1 parganab, 1 code. Muhintj &€., 6 parganabs, 1 code. Muhiniy Rohtak, 
Jindy Khdndah, Tohdnah, Afhlcerah, 

4. Sarkdr of Bewdri, 11 mabals, 4 codes. Rewdrt, <fec., 8 parganabs. 
1 code. Btwdriy Bdwal^ Kof Kdsim Al% Pdfodhiy Bhoharah, GhelSt^ Batdi 
Jatdi, Nimrdnah, TdorUy 1 parganab, 1 code. Suhnahf 1 parganab, 1 code. 
Kohdnah, 1 parganab, 1 code. 

5. Sarkdr of Sahdranpiir, 36 mabals, 4 codes. Deohand, &c., 26 
mahals, 1 code. Deohand^ Sahdranpur, Bhatkhanjdwar, Manglor, Ndnoth 
Bdmpur, Sarot, Purchhapdr^ Jordd, Sikri Bhukarharij Sarsdwah, Char- 
ihdwal, Burki, Baghra, Thdnah Bhewauy Muzuffardhdd, Baepurtdtdry Ambcfh, 
Nakor and Toghlakpur, 2 mabals, Bhogpur, Bhaffahy Thdnah Bhtniy SanhaU 
rd} Khodi and Gangwah, 2 mabals, Lakhnauti Kerdnah, <&c , 2 parganabs, 

1 code. Kerdnah, BSdoli, 

Sardhanahy &c., 7 parganab, 1 code. Sardhanah, Bhonah^ SuranpalH, 
Badhdnahy Jdli, Khatoli and Baghray 2 mabals. Indri. 1 mahal, 1 code. 

6. Sarkar of Sirhind, 2 mabals, 4 codes. Suburbs of Sirhindy 
Ac, 13 parganabs. Suburbs of Sirhindy Btipary Pddly Benory Jahaty 
Bholahy Dordlahy Deordnahy Khordniy Masenkariy villages of Bde Sarmly 
Anbdlah and Kethal, Thinesary <fec., 8 parganabs. Thdnesar, Sddhurdhy 
Shdhdbddy Khizrdbddy Mus^afa-dhddy Bhodar, Sultdnpur, Pondri. Thdrah, 
tc.j 2 parganabs. Thdrahy Ludhidnah. Samdnahy <fec., 9 parganabs. 
Samdnahy Sunndmy Mamurpur, Mdlnery Hdpariy Pondriy Fatehpur and Bha- 
tandahy Mdchhipur, 

8. Sarkdr of Sanhaly (Samhhal) 47 mabals, 3 codes. City of Sanhal, 
Ac., 23 parganabs. City of Sanhaly suburbs of Sanhaly Sarsi, NarSli, Man- 
jholahy Jadwdry Qonory Neodhanah, Deorahy Bahhdrsiy Dhakah, Bajahpury 
Amrohahy Ujhdri, Kachh, Agtzampury Islimpur DargUy Isldmpur BharUy Afghan- 
pur, Chopdlahy Kandarkiy Bachhardon, Qandor, Chdndpury <fec., 16 parganabs. 
Chdndpury Sherkofy Bijnaury Manddwary Keratpur, Jaldldbddy Sahanspury 
Nahtory Nadinah,^ Akhardhddy Islimdbddy^ Seohdrd and Jhdluy 2 mabals. 
Lakhndry <fec., 11 parganabs. Lakhnory Shdhi, Kdhar and Kdnkhari 

2 mahals. Hatamnahy Rdjpury Dddelahy LeswaJiy Sarsdwahy Basdrdy Parohi.,^ 

Sarkdr of Kumdon. (The names of its parganabs are not entered in 
theMSS.) 



* Sanbalhera, Elliot. 

■ So the text and Tieff. hut Elliot. 

• £Uiot, Islamahad — the di£Ference in 



pronanoiation is accoanted for by the 
Imdlah or prononnoiog Fatha like Kasra 
— as kxt(b for kitdb ; en nes for an Nds, 
♦ Elliot and Tieff. Biroi and Barohu 



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110 

The Suhah of Lahore contains 8 populated areas^ (Tteff. pagi et oppida)* 

1. The area of Lahore, &c. has 20 mahals, 1 code. Area of Lahore, &c. 
4 mahals ; metropolitan area, Bdri Dodh ; Barhidsat ;* lands of Panj Bari 
Shdhpur : lands of Kdlapand, Bachndu Dodb. 

Panjdh, 16 mahals : Tappah^ BhShiwdl of the Bari Bodh, Tappah Bharli, 
Tappah Phulwdrt, Fanjgardmi, Sandhwdl,^ 8dhu Mali, Sidhpur, Manhat- 
wdlah, Ohdzipur, Ohandanwarak, Amrdki Bhatah, Barsaror^ Bachndu, 
Sidhpur Fanchnagar, QarhandwdL 

2. Sarkdr of Jdlandhar, 30 mahals. 1 code. Jdlandhar, Sultdnpur, 
Shaikhpdr, Melsi, Lohi Bheri, Nakodar, TaUn, Muhammadpur, Midni 
Nurtya, Kharkhardon, Bahimdhdd, Jaldldhdd, Hddidhdd, Bdjwdrah, Harhd- 
nah, and Akbardbdd, 2 mahals, Balot, Bhonkd, Hdjipur, Pati Dhindt, Ddrdah 
Sdhimalot, Andwarah, Dadidl, Kard Jdlar ? 8arkar(?), Deswahah, Chaurdsif 
Naunankal, Nobi, 

3. Sarkdr of Batdlah, <fcc. 14 mahals, 1 code. Ba((dlah, Kdnuwdhan, 
Kaldnor, Jamdri, flanwdd and Bdba, 2 mahals, Thandof, Bdbhdwdlah, KJiokho' 
wdl, Paniydl, Bhalot, Kdtwahd and Bethdn, 2 mahals, Salimabad separate 
from Batt^lah. 

4. Pati Haibatpur, &c., 6 mahals, 1 code. Haihatpur, Hoshidr Kar- 
ndlah, Firozpur, Kasur, Muhammadot, Beosah, ? 

5. Sarkdr of Parsaror, Ac. 7 mahals, 1 code. Paraaror, MSkri,^ MahaS' 
ror, Pati Zafarwdl, Pati Bdrmak, Haminagar, 

6. Sarkdr of Bohtds, &c., 9 mahals, 1 code. Bohtds, Kari, Karidli, 
Bahni, Andarhal, Losdah, Sardahi, Maldtrai Keddri, Nandanpur. 

7. Sarkdr of Sidlkdt, <fco., 11 mahals, 1 code. Sidlkot, Mdnkdt, Wan, 
Sddrah, Nardt, Benhd, Jimah Ohatah, Mardt, Mankoknorl Sialkot ? 



' The term sawdd is usoally applied 
to the towns and villages of Arabian 
Irak, as those in Khurasan, are called 
rustd}Cf and in Arabia Felix mahhdlif. 

* This name does not oocnr in the 
account of Lahore later on. The vari- 
ants are Barhidtf Barhdt, Barsdhdt, Bar- 
sahasdt. It is scarcely necessary to note 
that the words Bdri and Rachna in con-' 
nection with Dodb are formed by the 
crasis of Beds and Rdvij in the former 
case, and Bdvi and Chendb in the latter. 

• Tappah denotes a small tract or di- 
vision of country smaller than a par- 
ganah bat comprising one or more 
villages. In some parts of the North- 



West, it denotes a tract in which there 
is one principal town or a large village 
with lands and villages dependent on 
them : or a cluster of villages acknow- 
ledging the supremacy of one amongst 
them and forming a sort of corporate 
body, although not otherwise identical. 
Wilson's Gloss. 

^ In the account of Lahore. Sandhicdn, 

* In TiefiFenthaler this is placed in the 
Bachna Dodh. 

' This and the following name in the 
account of Lahore Maukri and Mahror. 

* Uncertain for want of diacritical 
points. 



Digitized by 



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Ill 

8. Saridr of Haedrahy Ac., 16 mahals, 1 code. Hazdrah, Chandanwat 
of the Ohendu Dodb, Bherah, Khdkharwdl, KhusMb, Kal Bheldk,^ Khdr 
Darwdzah^ Tdral, 8h6r, Shamshdhdd, separate from Bherah, Shdrjpur separate 
from Chandanwat, Shakarpur separate from Shdr* 





Spring Harvest of the Suhah of Lahore. 








4 


4 

i 


4 


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4 


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1 


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QQ 


6 




D. J 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


Wheat 


60-13 


49-6 


63-17 


63-17 


63-17 


44.18 


33-17 


55-23 


Cabal Vetches.. 




64-21 




... 




••• 


60-10 


70-16 


... 






36-20 


33-14 


36-20 


33-14 


••• 


31-8 


36-20 


84-17 


Barley 




46-0 


36-20 


38-0 


88-0 


... 


81-8 


38-0 


38-0 


Adas... 




26-21 


24-16 


24-16 


24-16 


••• 


22-9 


23-21 


29-2 


Safflower 




79-10 


79-10 


78-10 


79-2 


••• 


67-2 


78-7 


79-10 


Popp7 




129-17 


129-17 


129-17 


129-17 


... 


116-20 


129-18 


129-17 


Potherhe 




71-14 


67-2 


67-2 


67-2 


..• 


65-20 


67-0 


67-2 


Linseed 




31-8 


27-24 


27-24 


31-8 


... 


22-9 


29-22 


31-8 


Mustard seed . 




31-8 


29-2 


81-8 


81-8 


••• 


26-21 


31-8 


35-21 


Anon •! 




21-6 


19-0 


19-0 


21-6 


•.. 


15-16 


20-3 


20-8 


Pew ... 




24-16 


26-21 


27-4 


2621 


••( 


26-21 


81-8 


27-24 


Carrots 




24-16 


26-18 


24-16 


24-16 


«•• 


19-0 


24-15 


24-15 


Onions 




83-21 


83-21 


86-18 


83-21 


... 


71-13 


83-21 


84-24 


Fenngreek 




50-8 


46-24 


61-12 


40-6 


... 


60-10 


67-2 


36-23 


Persiaii Water Melons ... 


116-20 


116-20 


116-20 


116-20 


... 


89-16 


111-20 


111-20 


Indian ditto 


15-16 


16-16 


16-16 


16-16 


... 


11-13 


15-16 


15-16 


Cnmmin 


67-5 


84-24 


84-6 


87-6 


,. 


81-4 


84-24 


87-6 


Ajwdin 


87-6 


84-24 


84-0 


87-0 


... 


71-4 


84-34 


87-6 



Autumn Harvest of the Subah of Lahore. 



Sngarcane (paundah) 
Common Sugarcane 
Dark oolonred rice 
Common rice 

Kalt 

Mash 

Cotton 



I 



D. J. 

240-12 
145-9 
64-21 
4d-5 
82-11 
36-20 
80-16 



D. J. 

240-12 
136-10 
60-9 
40-6 
31-8 
33-4 
85-0 



D. J. 

240-12 
145-0 
60-15 
40-6 
81-8 
85-20 
87-6 






D. J. 

240-12 
134-4 
60-16 
46-24 

30-5 
33-14 

88-5 



D. J. 

240-12 
123-0 
68-4 

46-121 
32-15 
33-14 
89-15 



I 



D. J. 

183-121 
123-0 
60-8 
83-14 
26-21 
81-8 
76-5 



^ 



D. J. 



67-0 
41-9 
31-8 
35-20 
77-6 



^ 



« 



240-12* 
170-16 
66-0 
49-6 
29-2 
86-23 
91-18 



^ In the acconnt of Lahor, Bhalak, 



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112 



Autumn Harvest i 


yftheSuhah 


of Lahore.^ 


continued. 






4 

i 
3 


4 


4 


i. 


4 

c 

eg 
M 

a 


4 
1 


i 
i 


6 

J 




D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


Moth 


20-9 


22-9 


23-23 


22-9 


22-9 


20-3 


23-12^ 


23-121 


Odl 


1722 


15-16 


17-20 


17-20 


15-16 


13-12 


16-15 


19-0 


Turiya 


,,, 


33-14 


85-20 


26-21 


... 


31-8 


38-0 


••• 


Arzan 


20-9 


17-0 


17-22 


22-9 


15-22 


14-14 


17-22 


29-2 


Indigo 


156-23 


156-13 


156-13 


156-13 


156-13 


134-4 


134-18 


158-19 


Hirma 


70-0 


70-0 


74-23 


76-0 


74-23 


67-6 


74-23 


77-24 


Hemp ... 


93-23 


93-23 


93-23 1 93-23 | 


89-15 


80-12 


93-23 


93-23 


Potherbs 


80-121 


80-17 


80-17 


80-12i 


80-17 


60-9 


70-17 


80-12i 


Kachrah 


12-8 


12-8 


12-8 


12-8 


12-8 


10-6 


12-8 


13-11 


Pdn 


123-15,123-15 


... 


123-15 


... 


••• 


... 


123-15 


Singhdrah 


116-20 


115-20 


... 


115-20 


... 


««• 


••• 


115-20 


Jowdri 


40^6 


35-20 


88-0 


88-0 


35-20 


81-8 


38-0 


38-0 


Lahdarah 


31-8 


29-2 


305 


29-2 


26-21 


24-15 


23-2 


31-8 


Kodaram 


33-U 


85-20 


34-17 


81-8 


33-14 


31-8 


35-20 


35-20 


Mandwah 


33-14 


31-8 


31-8 


32.15 


26-21 


, 26-21 


21-20 


32-15 


Sesame 


46-24 


42-12 


42- 12 J 


44-18 


40-6 


33-14 


42-12i 


46-24 


8ha7ndkh 


13-15 


12-20 


12-8 


12-8 


12-9 


10-2 


12-8 


13-15 


Mung 


40-12* 


,,, 


• .a 


... 


40-6 


26-21 


44-18 


44-18 


Kori 


13-16 


12-8 


12-8 


12-8 


15-5 


10-2 


12-8 


12-8 


Turmerio 


133-0 


133-0 


138-0 


184-4 


133-0 


115-20 


134-4 


133-20 



Slubah of Mdlwah, 

1. SarMr of Ujjatn, 10 mahals. City of Ujjain with suburban dis- 
trict, Dipdlpur, Bafldm, Ndldi, Badhndwar, Kanel^ Anhal, Khdchrod^ Sdnwer, 
Pdnhihdr, 

2. SarJcdr of Hindiahy 22 malials. 

3. „ „ Kotriy 9 do. 

4. „ „ Sdrangpur, 23 do. 

5. „ „ Bijagafhf 32 do. 

6. „ „ KakroUf 11 do. 

7. Sarkdrs of Baisin and Chanderi^ 1 code. Sarlcdr of Baiain, Asd- 
port, &c., 6 mahals. BUlsah, Bhori, Bhojpur, Bdldbhaf, Thdnah Mir Khdn, 
Jdjoi, Jhatdnawi, Jalodahy Khiljipur^ Blidnioniy Dekhwdrah, Deorod^ Dhdniah, 
Baisin with suburban district, Sewdni, Sarsiah, Shdhpur, Khimldsah, Khera^ 
Kesorah, Khdmgarhy Kargarh, Kordi, Laharpur, Mdhsamand. Sarkdr of 
MandOf 12^ mahals. City of Mando, Amjharah^ MakSsar, Bikthdn, Dkarm- 
gdon, Sdnkor, Fanmdn^^ Dhdr^ Barodah, Hdsilpur, Sandsi, Kofrah, Mandwarah 
Ngtlchah and Nawali^ 2 mahals. 



* In the account ot Mdlwah, 16 mahals is allotted to this Sarkdr, 

* Var. Bcmau or Peman, probably. Batman. 



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118 



SUahof MuUdn. 
Sarhdr of Dipdlpur. Dtpalpur, Ac., 14 mahals ; one Bastwr ; Dtpdl- 
pits Lahhi bald Bhoj^ Lakhi Kalndrki, Lakhi Ttisfdniy^ Lakhi. Khokhardin, 
J^abulah, Lakhi Sahtmdhddj Lakhi Chahnif Lakhi Kiydmpur, Lakhi Jangli, 
Lakhi Adlampur, Jaldldbdd^ Tappah Sadkarah, 2 mahals. Tappah, Sad- 
htira\ Shakzddah Baloj, Karal,^ Khdnpur, BaMpur^ Shahzddah Hajrau, 
Mundi. 



Spring Harvest of the Suhah 
of Multdn. 



Wheat 

Cabal Vetches 

Birley 

Aiai 

Safflower 

Poppy 

Pot-herbs ... 
Linseed 
Mustard seed 
Anan 

Peas* 

Carrots 

Ooioiis 

Fenugreek ... 

Peniaa mnsk melons .. 

Indian do. 

Cumin ... .. 

fir riee 

ijiotfm 



Spring Harvest of the Suhah 
of Mdltvah. 



D.J. 


D. J. 


D.J. 


63-17 


44-18 


51-11 


49^6 


sd-'s 


36I20 


44-5 


24-15 


47-14 


73-20 


78-20 


70-8 


115-20 


128-16 


129-0 


67-2 


70-16 


67-2 




29-2 


31-8 


441*18 


29-2 


31-2 


29-2 


20-17 


20-3 


... 


28-12 


25-17 


••■ 


22-9 


86-1 


71-14 


74-7 


72-18 


69-20 


39-8 


44-18 


••■ 


116-0 


115-20 


22-9 


15-16 


15-16 


73-20 


74-8 


77-11 
... 







4 


4 






1 


1 


M.8 D. 


J. 


D. J. 

29-20 
40-12 
46-24 
80-6 


D. J. 


3i 2 


13 


69-20 


•••••• 


4i 5 


20 


127-16 




H 2 


18 


60-9 
81-8 




8i 2 


18 


16.12 









31-8 


... ••• 






27-24 




8i "i" 


8 


116-'2b 
15-0 
46-2 
85-0 
86-2 


... *•• 

....a. 
...... 



^ I^Adni in the account of MtUtdn, 
S Khtiral ibid. 

* if. stands for MuxafaH, see Vol. I, 
p. 28. 

* In this and the table of the Spring 

15 



harvest of Lahore I consider «-^*^ a 
misprint for *-^^^^ which occurs in 
this order in all the previous tables. 

*-^>*, the FhaseoliM mwngOj is record- 
ed only in the Autumn harvest. 



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114 



Autumn BarveH of the Sihah 
of Multdn. 



Autumn Harvest of the Suhah 
of Mdkoah, 





•a 


as 


4i 


4 


1 


4 

•a 




D. J. 


D. J. 


D. J. 


M. D. J. 


D. J. 


M. D. J. 


BngaroMie (jMundah) ... 


... 


240-12 


240-11 


7i 1 81 


239-6 




Common Sugarcane ... 


134-4 


126.9 


143-3 


4i 5 8 


48-15 


6 10 


Dark oolonred rice ... 




60-3 


64-21 




70-13 




Common rice 


49-6 


49-15 


49-5 




553 




Kalt 


... 


27-24 


31.3 




46-6 




Mdsh 


40-0 


82-11 


35.20 








Cotton 


98.23 


87-5 


89.11 


2} 1 2 


87-5 


2f 3 1 


Moth 


38-0 


22.9 


2312 


• ... 


26-21 




Qdl 


26-21 


17-22 


19 


• ••• 


8-3 


.. ... 


Anan ... ... 


31.20 


23-12 


22-9 


• • • • 


• • . • 




Indigo 


145.9 


158-19 


159.22 


2} 1 2 


4-24 


...... 


Einna 


76-0 


76-0 


76-0 


... ••• 


• .•• 


2i 1 1 


Hemp 


85.0 


91-17 


93-23 




• . • • 




Pot-herba ... 


78-20 


77-4 


82-18 




• • • • 




Fdn 




123-0 


... 




• . • • 


•••••• 


Smgh&nih. ... 


... 


111-0 


... 


4i 6 20 


115-20 


6i 4 7 


Lobiya 
Joioari 


38-0 


38-0 


33-14 


... 


• . • • 




42-12 


35-20 


38-0 




44-18 




K4H 


... 


13.11 


12-8 




15-16 




Lahdardh 


44-18 


29.2 


81-2 




• . • • 




Kodaram 




33-14 


3314 





• • • • 




Man&wah 




8019 


31-8 




31-8 




Sesame 


41-9 


43-15 


44.18 





40-12 




Bhamdkh 


12-8 


12-8 


13-11 








Mdng 




... 


... 


•«. ••• 


40-5 






Note. — I cannot nnderstand nor explain the notation in Mnsaffaris and am not 
sure if I hare interpreted it correctly. 

The term Dostur u'{ 4^"^^ ^sb been translated by me, at p. 89, et 8eq, " reyenne 
code ** according to the definition in Wilson's Glossary, hot daat^r alone, without the 
sequent words in construction, he defines to be a subdiyision of a aarhdr or aggregate 
of seyeral adjacent parganahtf a sense in which it is now obsolete. I haye since noticed 
in Sir H. Elliot's Glossary that he considers dastAr as " perhaps " an abbreyiation of 
Da8i4r u'l 4mal (the code of instructions for Beyenue Officers) and under ' Sirhdr,* he 
explains it as a '* district " into which parganahs are aggregated, and his maps of the 
K. W. P. attempt to restore the Borkdrs and Aasturs established in Akbar's time. This 
meaning seems here the most appropriate and must supersede the definition I had 
g^yen before the opportunity of consulting his yaluable work was afforded me. The 
fiscal areas are thus designated. Each sibah is diyided into a certain number of 
zarkd^Sf and each saxkdr into por^afwi^ or mahaU (used as equiyalent expressions). The 
term parganah is employed in the Imperial QaneUer as a fiscal diyision and the tenito- 
rial unit and centre of local history, coinciding generally with the dominions of a native 



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115 

Bija under the Moghal dynagty whose revenue dlTisionB preserved the limits of their 
petty States. The words nsed before Akbar's time to denote tracts of country larger 
Uian the par^onoA were J^ Shakk, ^^^ Khittah, *^ Arsah, jk:> Diydr, *^.h 
Villyet, and ^^' I^^. Thus, says Elliot, in the early historical writers before the 
close of the 14fth century, we find Shakk i S&minah, Ehittah i Awadh, ^rsah i Gorakpur, 
Dijar i Lakhnauti, Yiliiyat i Mi&n Doab, and Iktd i Karra. 

ACCOUNT OP THE TWELVE SITBAHS. 

In the fortieth^ year of the Divine Era His Majesty's dominions consisted 
of one hundred and five Sarkdrs (division of a Sdbah) subdivided into two 
thonsand seven hundred and thirty-seven townships. When the ten years' 
settlement of the revenue was made (which amounted to an annual rental 
of three Arhs? sixty-two hrdrs, ninety-seven lakha^ fifty-five thousand two 
hundred and forty-six dams and twelve lakhs of betel leaves), His 
Majesty apportioned the Empire into twelve divisions, to each of which 
be gave the name of Subah and distinguished them by the appella- 
tion of the tract of country or its capital city. These were Allahabad, 
igra, Oudh, Ajmer, Ahmaddbdd, Behdr, Bengal, Dehli, Kabul, Labor, 
Kultan, Malwah : and when Ber£r, Khandesh and A^imadnagar were con- 
quered, thoir number was fixed at fifteen. A brief description of each is 
here get down, and an account of their rulers together with the periods in 
which they flourished, duly recorded. 

THE SITBAH OF BENGAL. 

Since the conceptions of sovereign rule embrace the universe, I propose 
to begin with Bengal which is at one extremity of Hindustdn and to pro- 
ceed to Zabulistan^ and I hope that Tur4n and Iran and other countries 
may be added to the count. The country lying to the east will be first 
described, followed by the north, the south, and the west. 

This Subah is situated in the second climate.* Its length from 



* A. D. 1594-6. 

' One hundred thonsand make 1 LaJeh. 
„ yy Lakhs „ 1 Kr6r, 

One hnndrd Kr6r „ 1 Arab. 

The total revenue is therefore Ru- 
pees 90,743,881-2.5. 

* Kibul and the adjaoent territory as 
fscaa Ghazna and even beyond come 
under this appellation which is derived 
hf Yiipity (Maajama'l Bnld&n) from 
2ibiil {grandfather of Bostam. 



* This term, literally a slope or inclina- 
tion, was nsed in the mathematical geogra- 
phy of the Greeks with reference to the 
inclination of various parts of the earth's 
surface to the plane of the equator. Be- 
fore the globular figure of the earth was 
known, it was supposed that there was 
a general slope of its surface from S. to 
N. and this was called wA/jua. But as 
the science of mathematical geography 
adyanced, the word was applied to belts 



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116 



Chittagong to Oarhi^ is fonr hundred feJA Its breadth from the 
northern range of mountains to the southern frontier of the Sarhdr 
of Maddran, is two hundred kos, and when the country of Orissa 
was added to this Suhah^ the additional length was forty-three ko$ 
and the breadth twenty-three. It is bounded on the east by the 
sea, on the north and south by mountains and on the west by the 
Subah of Behar. The tract of country on the east called Bhdti^^ is 



of the earth's snrfaoe, divided by lines 
parallel to the equator, those lines being 
determined by the different lengths, at 
different places, of the shadow cast by a 
gnomon of the same altitnde, at noon of 
the same day. This diyision into 
climates was applied only to the N. 
hemisphere as the geographers had no 
practical knowledge of the earth S. of 
the eqnator. There ware 19 climates as 
given by Ptolemy {Qeogr, i, 23). The 
term was afterwards applied to the 
average temperature of each of these 
regions and henoe onr modem nse of the 
word, (Diet, of Antiq. 2nd ed. art 
Climates.) The Arabs adopted this system 
but restricted the number to seven. 
They considered three-foorths of the 
globe to be submerged and one-fourth 
above water. Of this latter H was ha- 
bitable and the remainder waste or 
desert. The habitable portion was 
83,150,000 square miles in extent, each 
mile being 4000 cubits, each cubit 24 
digits. It was situated between the 
Equator and the N. pole and was divided 
into 7 climates. Their position and the 
limits of the divisions will be found in 
Yaktit. M. B. Vol. I, p. 25 sq. and in 
DeSlane's translation of Ibn Khald6n, 
pp. 93 — 168 et sq. Vol. I. An account 
of the corresponding geographical sys- 
tem of the Hindus may be seen in 
Wilford's Essay on the Sacred Isles of 
the West. Asiat. Research, Yol. YIII 
and in Albirimi's India, Gaps. 21 — ^24. 

^ This is Teliagarhi, a pass in the 
Santhil Parganahs, Bengal,1yiog between 



the Bijmahil hills on the S. and the 
Ganges on the N. Formerly of strategio 
importance as commanding the military 
approaches to Bengal Proper. The 
ruins of a large fort still exist, through 
which the E. I. Bailway passes. It 
seems never to have been completed and 
was constructed in the last century by 
the Teli namiiiddr who was forcibly oon- 
verted by the Mubammadans. Henoe 
the name of the fort and the parganak 
in which it is situated. Imp. Gazetteer. 
I retain the ordinary spelling of Chitta- 
gong. Ghatgiof or Ghaturgrama, i. 9., 
/our vUUiffes, denotes its origin. Wil- 
ford has another dwivation and iden- 
tifies it with the Pentapolis of Ptolemy. 
(Asiatic Research, XIY, p. 444.) 

' The linear measures are variable all 
over India but the kda is for convenience 
generally taken at two English miles. 
The basis of all linear systems is the 
same, vt»., the cubit or human forearm. 
Proceeding upwards four hdths or cubits 
»a danda or staff : and 2000 dandas a has 
which by this calculation should be 4000 
yards English or nearly 2\ miles. I refer 
the reader to the Useful Tables, p. 87, 
for a fuller account of these measures. 
Also to Elliot. Races, N. W. P. II, 194. 

' The name given by the Mnhamma- 
dan historians to the coast-strip of the 
Sundarbans from Hijili to the Meghna 
Lat. 20* aC to 22* SO* N., long. 88° to 
91^ 14' E. The name means *Mow 
lands overflowed by the tide" and is 
still applied to the Sundarban tracts of 
Khulna and 64kargan j Districts. I. G. 



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117 

reckoned a part of this province. It is ruled by Tea Afghia\ and the 
* Kkuibah is read and the coin straok in the name of his present Majesty. 
In this oonntry the mango trees grow to the height of a man or not 
80 high and produce abundant fruit. Adjoining it, is an extensive 
tract of country inhabited by the Tipperah tribes. The name of the ruler 
if Bijwy Mdnik, Whosoever obtains the chieftainship, bears the title 
of M6mk after his name, and the nobles that of Nardin. He has a force 
of two hundred thousand footmen and a thousand elephants. Horses 
are scarce. To the north is a country called Kuch, Its chief com- 
mands a thousand horse and a hundred thousand foot. Kdmrup com- 
monly called also Kdonru and Kdmtdy is subject to him. The inhabitants 
are as a race good looking and addicted to the practice of magic. 
Sb-ange stories are told regarding them. It is said that they build houses, 
of which the pillars, walls and roofs are made of men. Some of these 
tbej compel by the power of sorcery, and criminals deserving of death 
an also thus made use of « Whoever voluntarily surrenders himself for 
tins purpose, escapes retribution for a year. Various conveniences are 
nserved for him. In due time, men armed with swords cut them 
down, and from their movements or immobility or other aspects, they 
liave cognizance of scarcity or plenty or duration of years or the longevity 
of the ruler or defeat of enemies.' They also cut open a pregnant 
woman who has gone her full term of months and taking out the child, 
divine somewhat as to the future. There grows a wonderful tree whose 
branches when cut, exude a sweet liquid which quenches the drought of 
those a-thirst. They have also a mango tree^ that has no trunk ; it trails 
like a climbing vine, over a tree and produces fruit. There is likewise 



* See VoL I, p. 842. The name also 
oocnrs in the Bidau's 8alc4{n, p. 5, MS. 
whra^ this general is said to have con- 
fvered some of the Eastern provinces 
tmd imifced them to Bengal, reading the 
hkmtbah and minting the coin under the 
authority of Akhar. 

* The anthor of the Siyar nl Mnta- 
akhkfairfn in the introduction to his 
work, in his aoconnt of Beng^ quotes 
this narratiye of the magical prac- 
tioea in Kimrdp, and gravely adds that 
he has learnt from the authorities of 
the place itself, their absolute false- 



indebted to Dr. King of the 



Bojal Botanical Gkurdens, Calcutta, for 
a view of the specimens of this plant, 
the WUlughbeia edulie. It is known 
to natives of Bengal, Assam and the 
Chittagong Hill tracts, he says, as the 
Loti A'm [Loii, perhaps a corruption: 
of lata, a creeper) hut hotanically is 
far removed from Jbhe true mango. The 
fruit is said to he pleasant to taste. 
The leaf of the dried specimen is very 
similar to the ordinary mango leaf : the 
fruit is about 2^ inches long and 2^ 
hroad as it appears in its desiccated 
state. I am assured hy a native friend 
that he has seen the plant growing in the 
neighbourhood of Calcutta. 



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118 



\^ 



a flower* which after it has been gathered for two months, does not wither 
nor lose its colour or smell. Of this they make necklaces. 

Bordering on this country are the dominions of the Bajah of* Asha m 
(Assam) whose great pomp and state are subjects of general report. When 
he dies, his principal attendants of both sexes voluntarily bury themselves 
alive in his grave. Neighbouring this is Lower Tibet and to its left 
is Khata.^ This is also called Mdhdchin which the vulgar pronounce 
Mdchm. From Khdn Bdligh^ its capital, to the ocean, a forty days* 
journey, they have cut a canal both sides of which are embanked with stone 



I 



^ Mr. Mann, Conservator of forests, 
Shillong, informs me that many kinds 
of flowers are worn, bnt the only one 
that he has seen worn dry, and which 
to some extent retains its smell and 
colour, is the Tulsi, (Ocymam Sanctum). 

* China for nearly 1000 years, writes 
Yule {Marco Poio, 2nd ed. Introd. p. 11) 
has been known to Asia under the name 
of Khitai, Khata or Cathay and is still 
called Khitai by the Russians. " The 
pair of names Khitai and Machin is 
analogous to the other pair, Seres and 
Sinai. Seres was the name of the great 
nation in the far East as known by land, 
Sinai as known by sea : and they were 
often supposed to be diverse just as 
Cathay and China were afterwards.* 
D'Herbelot gives the name of Khathai 
or Khatha to northern China whose 
ruler the Khdl^an, according to Eastern 
romance or tradition, joined his forces 
to those of Afrdsiib, king of Tartary 
against Kai Khusru king of Persia. The 
monarchs of this country in the time 
of Chingiz Khin, bore the title of Al- 
toun Khin, and in the time of Tamar- 
lane and his successors, that of Daiman 
Khin. The latter is a western corrup- 
tion of Tai-mim— great brilliancy, Mim 
being the dynastic title taken by the 
Chinese conqueror who expelled the 
Mongols and was proclaimed Emperor 
in 1368. In the time of Chengiz, China 
was divided into Northern which com- 
prized ono-third, and Southern which 



included the remaining two-thirds. The 
former was under a Tartar chief, the 
latter ruled by a Chinese Emperor, 
paying tribute to the Tartar, who 
might be thus said to be monarch of the 
whole of China or Khathai which em* 
bodies that meaning. See D'Herbelot 
Vol. II, art. Khathai and IV, p. 17 et 
seq. — Japhet is credited by Orientals 
with the paternity of Chin who received 
the celestial empire as his inheritance 
and begot Machin, his first-bom. For 
Sinai and Serik^ see Ptolemy's India 
by McCrindle. The Chatae Scjthae are 
placed by Ptolemy to the north of bis 
A'kha88a regio^ identified by Cunningham 
with Ladik, and therefore west of Tibet. 
The name has perhaps survived with 
oriental geography. 

' De Guignes (Hist, des Huns, gives 
this name to Pekin called also Ta- 
ton the grand court or Kh&n fiiligh, 
the court of the Khdn. The extent 
and opulence of this city and the 
splendour in which Kublai Khan lived 
will be found in the reference, bnt 
several towns have received this name 
which as it signifies the royal residence 
is transferable to any that the monarch 
may honour with his presence. It is 
the Camhalu of Western geographers 
and historians and placed by them in 
Northern China or Grand Tartary, while 
the Orientals locate it in China Proper. 
Those conflicting locations are due to 
ignorance of the meaning of the name. 



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119 



and morlar. Alexander of Greece advanced to that conntry by this 
ronte.^ Another road is also mentioned which can be traversed in four 
dajs and four nights. 

To the south-east of Bengal is a considerable tract called Arakan 
whicb possesses the port of Ohittagong, Elephants abound, but horses 
are scarce and of small size.^ Camels are high priced : cows and buffaloes 
there are none, but there is an animal^ which has somewhat of the char- 
acteristics of both, piebald and particoloured, whose milk the people drink. 
Their religion is said to be different to that of the Hindus and Mnham- 
madans. Sisters may marry their own twin brothers, and they refrain 
only from marriages between a son and his mother. The ascetics, who 
are their repositaries of learning, they style Wali whose teaching they 
implicitly follow. It is the custom when the chief holds a court, for the 
wives of the military to be present, the men themselves not attending to 
make their obeisance. The complexion of the people is dark and the 
nen have little or no beard. 

Near to this tribe is Fegu which is also called Chin, In some ancient 
aoooonts it is set down as the capital city of Ohtn, There is a large 
military force of elephants and infantry, and white elephants are to be 



rM 



Kinkorum was the first Kh£n Bdligh 
of the Mongols. Besides Pekin, a city 
called Kai'pim-foUj built hj Kablai Khan 
in 1256 seventy leagnes north of Pekin, 
bore this title. The bewilderment of a 
student of Chinese history in the mnlti- 
tade of almost similar names, applied 
to different places, by snccessive dynas- 
tic races, eager to abolish the traces of 
itfl predecessor, is amnsingly illustrated 
in D^Herbelot, Vol. IV, p. 24 ^ seq. and 
Yule*8 Marco Polo, Vol. I, pp. 309-324 
»eq. 

* In B. C. 329 Alexander crossed 
the Oxus in pursuit of Bessus and after 
patting him to death, he passed the 
Juartes (Sir Daria) and defeated several 
Scythian tribes north of that river. 
Tbis was the northernmost point that 
he reached. After fonnding Alexandria 
Bschata, the modem Khojend on the 
Jaxartes, he re-crossed the Oxus. In 
the following year he completed the 
wnquert of Sogdiana, and marched 



south to Bactria and in the spring of 
B. C. 327, passed the Indus at Attok. 

• In one MS. yL occurs for c^jL 
which connected with the following 
word y^ would read " asses anji 
camels ** as Gladwin has taken it. The 
reading of the text appears to me more 
probable. In the names of places I have 
followed as far as possible the spelling 
of the Imperial Gazetteer. 

■ The domestic animals of the Arakan 
Hill Tracts according to the Imp. Gaz. 
are the gayal, buffalo, ox, goat, pig 
dog. "The Gayal {Bos Frontalis) has 
interbred with the common Indian cattle ; 
these hybrids are brought down by the 
Butiahs to the annual fair in the Dar- 
rung District : though they thrive in 
Shillong they soon die if kept in the 
plains. The Gayal is plentiful along the 
spurs of the Bhutin hills, amongst the 
Dofflas, Lushais, and along the hilly 
tract well into Chittagong." Sport in 
British Bunnah by Lieut.-Col. Pollock. 



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120 

fonnd. On one side of it is Arakan,^ There are mines of rabies, dia- 
monds, gold, silver, copper, naptha and sulphur, and over these mines 
there is continual contention between this country and the Maghs as well 
as the tribes of Tipperah. 

The original name of Bengal was Bang. Its former rulers raised 
mounds measuring ten yards in height and twenty in breadth throughout 
the province which were called Alfi From this suflSx, the name Bengal 
took its rise and currency. The summer heats are temperate and the cold 
season very short. The rains begin when the sun is midway in Taurus, 
(May) and continue for somewhat more than six months, the plains being 
under water and the mounds alone visible. For a long time past, at the 
end of the rains, the air had been felt to be pestilential and seriously 
affected animal life, but under the auspices of his present Majesty, this 
calamity has ceased. 

Its rivers are countless and the first of them in this province is the 
Ganges : its source cannot be traced. The Hindu sages say that it flows down 
from the hair of Mahadeva's head. Rising in the mountains towards the north, 
it passes through the province of Delhi, and imperial Agra, and Allahabad 
and Beh&r into the province of Bengal, and near ^dzihattalfi in the Sarkar 
of Bdrbakdbdd, it divides into two streams. One of these, flowing east- 
wards, falls into the sea at the port of Chittagong. At the parting of the 
waters, it takes the name of Padrndtoati and pursues a southern course. 
It is divided into three streams ; one, the Sarsuti ;♦ the second the Jamna 
( Jamuna) and the third the Ganges, called collectively in the Hindi language 
Triheniy^ and held in high veneration. The third stream after spreading 
into a thousand channels, joins the sea at Sdtgdonfi The SairsuH and 



^ All the MS. and the Khuldsat-ut- 
TMJodr^kh read ^5^*^. The author of 
the Siyar has a shrewder oonjeotnre 
( ij^jt ) which I have adopted. Ara- 
kan is the silver country (Argyra) of 
Ptolemy, though according to MoCrin- 
dle no silver is known to exist in that 
region. 

' Sanik. ^VTf% a mound of earth or 
ridge for crossing ditches, dividing fields 
and the like. 

' Anglioe, GoasimbaMor, 

^ Usually Saraawati, though the spell- 
ing in the text has ancient authority. 
Imp. Gaz. This name according to 



McGrindle has been frequently gfiven 
to rivers (being a compound of saras, 
* flowing water,' and the affix vati) and 
applied among others to the river of 
Arakhosia, probably the Helmand. 

• Sansk. fwWl three braids of hair. 
Wilford says (Asiatic Besearch. YoL 
XIY, p. 896) that the waters of these 
three rivers do not mix. The waters of 
the Jumna are blue, those of the Saras- 
vati white and the Ganges is of a muddy 
yellowish colour. 

* See Statistical Account of Bengal, 
Yol. Ill, pp. 307-810 and Imp. Gaz. 



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the Jamna unite with it. In praise of this stream the Hinda sages have 
written Yolnmes. From its source to its mouth it is considered sacred 
but some spots have a peculiar sanctity. Its water is carried as an offering 
of price to fiar distant places. Believing it to be a wave of the primeval 
river, they hold its worship to be an adoration of the supreme being, but 
tliis is no part of the ancient tradition.^ Its sweetness, lightness and 
wbolesomeneBS attest its essential virtues. Added to this, it may be kept 
in a vessel for years without undergoing change. 

Another river is the Brahmaputra^ It flows from Khati^ to Kuch 
and thence through the Sarkdr of Basoha and fertilising the country, 
falls into the sea. 

And again there is the sea which is here a gulf of the great ocean, 
extending on one side as far as Basrah and on the other to the Egyptian 
?nlzum^ and thence it washes both Persia and Ethiopia where are Dahlak* 
and Sti^kin, and is called (the Gulf of) Oman and the Persian Sea. 

The principal cultivation is rice of which there are numerous kinds. 
If a single grain of each kind were collected, they would fill a large vase. 
It k sown and reaped three times a year on the same piece of land with 
Me injury to the crop. As fast as the water rises, the stalks grow, so 
^t the ear is never immersed, inasmuch as those experienced in such 
matters have taken the measure of a single night's growth at sixty cubits.^ 
The people are submissive and pay their rents duly. The demands of each 



/ 



' "This superstition is not to be 
found in the earliest books of Sanskrit 
literature, composed at a time when the 
primitiTe Aryan race had not yet pene- 
trated into the great plain of Eastern 
Hindustan. The legend first appears 
ia the two epio poems of the Mahabhii- 
lata and Bimiyana" I. Gr. 

' Its rise is supposed to be from 
the S. £. base of the sacred Kailas hill, 
on the opposite side of the water-part- 
ing in which the Sntlej and the Indns 
also take their rise. Its coarse, con- 
fluents and history may be read in the 
L G. and BemonlU, Vol. Ill, p. 111. 

' This is the ancient Clysma, the site 
rf the modem Snez, in the neighbour- 
hood ci which the Tel £nlzum still re- 
tains the name which has been given 
to the Bed Sea. It is derived from the 

16 



qnadriteral root of the Arabic verb * to 
swallow,' which that sea is said to 
deserve from its unmerons victims. — 
Yal^ut Mn'jam iil Bnld&n. 

^ This is the well-known island Dah- 
lak el Kabir, opposite Massonah. Ya^nt 
says that it was nsed by the Bani 
Umayya as a place to which subjects 
under their displeasure were deported. 
This passage recalls a similar one in Albi- 
runi's India, I, p. 270. Sachau's trans] . 

• The long stemmed rice, according 
to the I. G. is extensively cultivated in 
the swamps. The seed is sown whea 
the marshes are dry or nearly so, and 
when the rains set in the plant shoots 
up with the rise of the water and can 
be grown in water to a depth of from 18 
to 20 feet, but even this is not in one 
night. Gladwin has six for sixty. 



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year are paid by instalments in eight months, they themselves bringing 
mohurs and rupees to the appointed place for the receipt of revenue, as the 
division of grain between the government and the husbandman is not here 
customary. The harvests are always abundant, measurement is not insisted 
upon, and the revenue demands are determined by estimate of the crop. 
His Majesty in his goodness has confirmed this custom. Their staple food 
is rice and fish ; wheat, barley and the like not being esteemed wholesome. 
Men aud women for the most part go naked wearing only a cloth about 
the loins. The chief public transactions^ fall to the lot of the women. 
Their houses are made of bamboos, some of which are so constructed that 
the cost of a single one will be five thousand rupees or more and they last 
a long time. Travelling is by boat, especially in the rains, and they make 
them of different kinds for purposes of war, carriage or swift sailing. For a 
siege they are so adapted that when run ashore, they overtop the fort and 
facilitate its capture. For land travel they employ the Sukhdsan, This is 
a crescent-shaped litter covered with camlet or scarlet cloth and the like, 
the two sides of which have fastenings* of various metals and a pole 
supporting it is attached by means of iron hooks. It is conveniently 
adapted for sitting in, lying at full length or sleeping during travel. As 
a protection against sun and rain they provide a commodious covering 
which is removable at pleasure. Some enjoy the luxury of riding on 
elephants but tbey rarely take to horseback. The mats made here often 
resemble woven silk. Tria^ inde genera eunuchorum veniunt, quos San- 
dalos, Badaraos et Kafuros nuncupant. Priores, partibus genitalibus 
radicaliter exsectis, A^lises etiam nominant. Bad^mis pars solum penis 
relinquitur. Kafuros adhuc teneroe 89tatis, testes vel compressi conficiuntur 
vel exsecantur : tamen notatum est, castrationem, quae pervicaciam caeteris 
omnibus animalibns tollit, hominibus solis excitare. Salt is in great 
demand and is brought from long distances. Diamonds, emeralds, pearls, 
cornelians and agates are imported. Flowers and fruit are in plenty. 
The betel-nut is of a kind that stains of a red colour the lips of those 
who chew it. 

Jannatdbdd is an ancient city : for a time, it was the capital of Bengal 
and was widely known as Lakhnauti and for a while as Qaur. His Majesty 



* The anthor of the Araish-i-MaJ^fil 
who copies his acoonnt from the Khula* 
\/ fat-ul-Tawarikh disputes this statement, 
(p. HI.) 

' The text is here doubtful as to the 
true reading. 



' I hare imitated the example of 
Gladwin in veiling the following passage 
under the mask of a learned language 
and with a slight alteration have bor- 
rowed his words. 



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tbe late Emperoi' Hnm^ydn distlDguished it by this title of Jannatdbad.^ 
It has a fine fort and to the eastward of it is a lake called Ohhatidpatid^ 
in which are many islands. Were the dam that confines it to break, the 
city would be nnder water. About a kos to the north of the fort, is a 
large building and a reservoir, monuments of great antiquity. From time 
immemorial^ its water has been considered to be of a poisonous character. 
The phwje was called Piydshdri,^ and criminals condemned to death, were 
there confined who in a short time perished from the effects of this 
hrackish water. At present in the blessed reign of His Majesty, this 
practice has been discontinued. 

Mahmuddbdd, — The marshes around the fort have added to its im- 
pregnability. The ruler of this district, at the time of its conquest by 
Sher Ehdn, let some of his elephants loose in its forests from which time 
they have abounded. Long pepper* grows in this tract. 

The Sarkdr of KhaUfatdhdd is well wooded and holds wild elephants. 
The Sarkdr of Bagld^ extends along the sea shore. The fort is snr- 
iwmded by woods. On the first day of the new moon the sea steadily 
rises until the fourteenth, and from the fifteenth till the end of the month 
as gradually falls. In the 29th year of the Divine Era, a terrible 
inundation occurred at three o'clock in the afternoon, which swept over 
the whole Sarkdr. The Rajah held an entertainment at the time. He 
at once embarked on board a boat, while his son Parmdnand Rae with 
some others climbed to the top of a temple and a merchant took refuge 
in a high loft. For four hours and a half the sea raged amid thunder 
and a hurricane of wind. Houses and boats were engulfed but no damage 
occurred to the iemple or the loft. Nearly two hundred thousand living 
creatures perished in this flood. 

In the Sarkdr of Ohoraghdtj^ silk is produced and a kind of sackcloth. 
Numbers of eunuchs are here and hill ponies in plenty are procurable. 



^ 



* This is confirmed by the Tabakdt 
Akbari. Elliot»B Hist of India, Vol. V, 
p. 201. In Bernoulli's 3rd Vol. the nama 
is said erroneonslj to be given by Akbar. 
The history of Gaur will be found in the 
Imp. Gaz. 

* Called Chhatalbhatah by the author 
oftheArdish-i-Mabfil. 

• • The abode of thirst.' So the I. G. ; 
the tert has Biarhdri a variant Pidzbdri. 

• Thia is the Piper longum, a native 



of Java, Malabar and Bengal. The 
fruit is gathered while green and dried 
in the sun. 

• In the Siyar nl Mntaakhirin, Hugla 
and said to be called so from the well- 
known grass of that name (Typha ele- 
phantina) which here abounds. 

• In the Riizn's SaUtin, this name is 
coupled with Rangpfir, and ponies are 
said to bo bronght hither from Bhutan. 
Jute is one of the staple crops. 



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124 

There are many kinds of indigenous fi-uits, especially one called Latkan,^ 
It is the size of a walnut with the taste of a pomegranate and contains three 



The Sarkdr of Bdrhakdbdd produces a fine cloth called Oangajal 
(Ganges water), and a great abundance of oranges. 

In the Sarkdr of Bdzohd are extensive forests which furnish long and 
thick timbers of which masts are made. There are also iron mines. 

The Sarkdr of Sondrgdon^ produces a species of muslin very fine and 
in great quantity. In the township of Kiydra^ Sundar is a large reservoir 
which gives a peculiar whiteness to the cloths that are washed in it. 

In the Sarkdr of Sylhet there are nine^ ranges of hills. It furnishes 
many eunuchs. 

There is a fruit called Suntarah^ in colour like an orange but large 
and very sweet. The China root* is produced in plenty. In ancient times 



^ Avariant lias Lankan. Dr. King of 
the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calontta, 
considers this to be a species of EIcbo- 
cavpus. They are now-a-days, he says, 
indiscriminately called Jalpai by the 
natives. .The fruits of all the species 
are a good deal alike, varying in size 
from an olive to a walnnt, having an 
external fleshy palp more or less palat- 
able (in some species of fair flavour) 
and containing a stone. The latter is 
usually found to be divided into 8 cells, 
one of which contains a mature seed, 
the seeds in the other two being abor- 
tive. The taste of the pulp of the E, 
serratus and E. lancaofolius (both natives 
of Kangpiir) is a good deal like that of 
the pomegranate. 

' This was the ancient Mu^ammadan 
capital of Eastern Bengal but is now an 
insignificant village called Painam in the 
Dacca District. I. 6. 

* A variant is Eat^rah which Gladwin 
adopts. 

^ In the south of the district, says the 
Gazetteer, eight low ranges of hills run 
out into the plain, being spurs of the 
Tipperah mountains. The highest is 



about 1000 feet above sea level. There 
is also a small detached group, the Ita 
hills, in the centre of the district. 

• Commonly Sangtarah. The name is 
supposed to be a corruption of C intra, 
but its mention by Baber in his Me- 
moirs seems subversive of this deriva- 
tion, for though the fruit is said to have 
been an eastern importation into Portu- 
gal, it is improbable that the foreign 
name could have been current in India 
at so early a date. Humayun praises 
it highly saying that no one cares for 
any other fruit who has this. He states 
that it is found only at Senargam (so 
Erskine spells the name, doubtless Sonar- 
gaon) in Bengal and in the greatest per- 
fection only at one place. A note to the 
Memoirs (p. 329) says that the descrip- 
tion of the fruit by Baber suits more the 
Citi^us decumana than any other, bat 
Roxburgh states that this shaddock is 
found (or was in his day) only in the 
Botanic Gardens in Calcutta and its 

. /Bengali name Batavi nimhuy the Patavia 
lime, denotes its being an exotic. 

\1 • The root of a species of Smilax of a 
pale reddish colour with no smell and 



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it had not been discoyered nntil some scientific travellers from Enropean 
Turkey introduced it to universal notice. Aloes- wood is abnndant in these 
moantains. At the end of the rains they fell the trees to the groand, 
and after a certain time they give them various names according to their 
greenness or maturity. 

The Bhangrdj^ is a bird of a black colour, with red eyes and a long 
tail. Two of the feathers extend to a length of a gaz. They are snared 
and tamed. It catches the note of any animal that it hears, and eats flesh. 
The Sherganj is of the same kind but its beak and legs are red ; in imita- 
ting sounds, it matches the other and pursues sparrows and the like and 
eats them. 

Chdtgdon (Chittagong) is a large city situated by the sea and belted by 
voods. It is considered an excellent port and is the resort of Christian 
and other merchants. 

In the Sarkdr of Sharifdbdd is a beautiful species of cattle, white in 
colonr, and of a fine build : like camels they are laden kneeling down and 
ttrry fifteen man weight. It is noted for the Barbary goat and for 
%hting cocks. 

In the SarJidr of Satgdon^^ there are two ports at a distance of half a 
ht from each other ; the one is Satg^on, the other Hugli : the latter the 
chief ; both ai*e in the possession of the Europeans. Fine pomegranates grow 
here. 

In the Sarkdr of Maddran is a place called Harpah in which there 
is a diamond' mine producing chiefly very small stones. 



very little taste. The Smilcue glabra or 
IcnceiBfolicLf not diBtingiiiBhable, accord- 
iogto Boxbnrgh, by the eye from the 
drag known as China root. It is a native 
of Sylhet And the adjacent Garrow 
ooimtiy. 

* The Edolius paradiseus or large 
racket-tailed Drongo. Plnmage nni- 
fomily black with a steel-blue gloss. 
Length to end of ordinary tail 14 
inches; wing 6f ; tail to middle 6}; 
outer tail feather 12 to 13 inches 
more; the shaft having the termi- 
nal end for abont Zi inches barbed 
externally,' but towards the tip only on 
the inner side, and turning inwards so 
that the nnder-side becomes uppermost. 
It will eat raw meat, lizards, and almoat 



any kind of food offered to it. It imi- 
tates all sorts of sounds, as of dogs, 
oats, poultry. BhimHlj or Bhring-rtfj, 
king of the bees, is its common name. 
It is found in the dense forests of India 
from the Himalayas to the Eastern 
Ghats as far S. as N. L. 15^ Jerdon. 

' The traditional mercantile capital 
of Bengal from the Puranic age to the 
time of the foundation of the town of 
Hugli by the Portuguese. Its decay 
commenced in the latter part of the 
16th century owing to the silting up of 
the channel of the Saraswati. In 1632, 
Hugli being made a royal port, all the 
public offices were withdrawn from 
S£tgr&on which soon sunk into ruin. 
Stat. Acct. of Bengal, III, 307—310. 



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Orissa, 



This was formerly a separate State. The climate is extremely healthy. 
His Majesty apportioned it into five Sarkdrs, mar., Jalesar} Bhadrak^ 
Kafak (Cuttack,) Kalang Dandpdf and Baja Mahandrah. These five are 
now included in the province of Bengal. It contains one hundred and 
twenty-nine masonry forts. Its ruler is entitled Gajpati.* The rainy season 
extends over eight months ; there are three cold months and one month only 
that is hot. The staple cultivation is rice and the food of the inhabitants 
consists of rice, fish, the egg-plant^ and vegetables. When the rice is 
cooked, they steep it in cold water and eat it on the second day. The men 
are effeminate, anointing their bodies with sandal oil and wearing golden 
ornaments. The women cover only the lower part of the body and many 
make themselves coverings of the leaves of trees.* The walls of their huts 
are of reeds and their temples are of stone and of great height. Elephants 
abound. The inhabitants of Bengal do not understand the languasre of 
this country. A woman may have more than one husband. They write 
on palm leaves^ with an iron pen, holding it with the clenched fist, 
and pen and ink are rarely employed. The litters called Sukhdsan are 
much in use: cloths are manufactured and the province furnishes 
eunuchs : fruits and flowers are in great plenty, especially the gul i nasrin^ 
which is very delicate and sweet-scented : its outer petals are white, the 
inner yellow. The keoraW grows in great abundance and there are various 
kinds of betel-leaf. Money transactions are in kauris which is a small 
white shell generally divided down the middle ; it is found on the sea shore. 
Four kauris make a ganda, five gandasy a hudi^ four hudis, a pan, sixteen 
or according to some twenty pan, a khdwan, and ten hhdwan, a rupee. 

Kaiak (Cuttack.) The city has a stone fort situated at the bifurcation 
of the two rivers, the Mahdnadi, held in high veneration hy the Hindus, and 



* In the I. G. Jaleswar, popularly 
Jellasore, an old border town between 
Bengal and Oriasa on the Calcutta high 
road. The name was also applied to an 
ancient Mubammadan circle or Sarkir 
which comprised the present Midnapur 
District, including Hijli. 

• Lord or rider of the elephant. The 
gnit of cards used by Akbar (Vol. I. 
p. 316) under the name of Gajpati; 
symbolised the power and reputation of 
Orissa in the possession of these animals 



■ Solanum melongena. 

* For the leaf- wearing tribes of Oriasa, 
the Juangs or PattoaSf see Hunter's 
Orissa, II. 116. 

* The Brahmanioal archives of the 
temple of Jagannkth consist of bundles 
of palm leaves, neatly cut and written 
over with a sharp iron pen without ink. 
LG. 

* In Hindi, Seoti the Rosa glandulifera. 
Roxb. 

' Pandanus odoratissimus, Bozb. 



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127 

the Oanjuri} It is the residence of the governor and contains some fine 
btiildings. For five or six kos round the fort during the rains, the country 
is under water. Rajah Makand Deo* built a palace here nine stories in 
height ; the first story was taken up for the elephants and the stables : 
the second was occupied by the artillery and the guards and quarters for 
attendants : the third by the patrol and gatekeepers : the fourth by the 
workshops : the fifth, by the kitchen : the sixth contained the public re- 
ception rooms : the seventh, the private apartments ; the eighth, the 
women's apartments, and the ninth, the sleeping chamber of the governor. 
To the south is a very ancient temple. Overlooking this, in the city of 
Pumshottama^ (Puri) on the sea shore stands the shrine of Jagannath. 
Kear to it are the images of Krishna and of his brother and sister,* made 
of saodal-wood. It is said that over four thousand years ago Rajah 
Indradaman (Indi-adyumna) ruler of the Nilkar (Nilgiri) hill sent a 
learned Brahman to select a suitable spot for the building of a city. 
He wandered much in search of his object and found a fitting site which 
he preferred to all other places. On a sudden he beheld a crow plunge 
into the water and after bathing itself, pay its devotions to the sea. He 
WB8 astonished at this action and as he understood the language of 
inimalB, he inquired of the crow the reason of its proceeding. He received 
this answer. " I was once of the number of the deotas and through the 
curse of an ascetic was transformed into this shape. A spiritual guide 
of high illumination affirms that the Supreme Creator has a special 
r^ard for this spot and whosoever dwells here and applies his soul 
to the worship of God, quickly attains his desire. For some years past 
I have supplicated for my deliverance in this manner and the time 
is DOW at hand when my prayer will be answered. Since thou art 
essentially meritorious, watch in expectation and comprehend the wonders 
of this land." The Brahman in a short time witnessed with his own eyes 
the things he had heard. He apprised the Rajah of these occurrences, who 



* The I. G. has Katjuri, This latter 
ia one of the deltaic tribntaries of thi 
Mahinadi dividing into two branches^ 
one of which retains its own name while 
the other takes that of Koy^khai and 
supplies the Fiiri district. 

* Telinga Makand Deo (Harichandan) 
A. D. 1550 : in this reign the sovereignty 
ofOrissawas overthrown by the King 
of Bengal. The titular Bija under 
Akbar, Ramohandra Deo, took pos- 



session in 1580. U. T., p. 114 and 
Orissa, II. 189. 

' 'The best of men* an epithet of 
Vishnu. 

^ Balabhadra and Subhadra. The 
images are rude logs coarsely fashioned 
in the shape of a human bust, and are 
actually in the sanctuary itself. For a 
description of the temple and other local 
shrines, I refer the reader to the I. G. 
•♦ Orissa." 



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128 

builti a large city and appointed a special place of worship. The Rajah, one 
night, after having administered justice, was reposing on the coach of 
divine praise when it was thus revealed to him, ** On a certain day, 
watch in expectation npon the sea shore. A piece of wood of fifty- 
two fingers in length and a cnbit and a haU in breadth will approach : 
this is the special image of the deity : take it and placing it in thy 
house, guard it for seven days and whatever shape it then assumes, 
place it in the temple and enshrine it." After waking, the thing happened 
in the same wise, and by a divine inspiration, he named it Jagannath and 
decked it with gold and jewels. It became a place of devotion to high and 
low and many miracles are reported regarding it.^ Kal4 Pahar the General 
of Sulayndln Karani,* on his conquest of the country, flung the imag« into 
the fire and burnt it and afterwards cast it into the sea. But it is now 
restored and these popular fables are related of it. 

The three images are washed six times every day and freshly clothed. 
Fifty or sixty priests wearing the Brahmanical thread, stand to do them 
service and each time large dishes of food are brought out and offered to the 
images, so that twenty thousand people partake of the leavings.* They 
construct a car of sixteen wheels which in Hindi, they call Buth^ npon 
which the images are mounted, and they believe that whosoever draws it, is 
absolved from sin and is visited by no temporal distress. Near Jagannath 
is a temple dedicated to the Sun.* Its cost was defrayed by twelve years 
revenue of the province. Even those whose judgment is critical and who 
are difficult to please stand astonished at its sight. The height of the wall 
is 150 cubits^ high and 19 thick. It has three portals. The eastern has 
carved upon it the figures of two finely designed elephants, each of them 



* The legend will be found related at 
length in ** Orissa," Vol. I, p. 89. 

• The Riizn's Snlitin confirms this 
variant which the text has relegated to 
a note. In " Orissa " Vol. I, p. 85, the 
burning and miracnlons recovery of the 
image are described. 

• ^^\ of the text should be ^Jt^\ 

* The temple of Kaniirak which formed 
a landmark along the coast, and still 
sighted by ships in their passage np the 
Bay : said to be the most ezqnisite 
memorial of son worship in existence. 
Orissa, I, 188. 

'^ Sir W. Hnnter in his Orissa, I, p. 



288, quotes these measurements from 
Gladwin, but changing "cubits" into 
"hands'' and adding in a note. 
"Gladwin says cubits but the word 
in the original is diist." It would 
have been more satisfactory had this 
distinguished writer told us what he 
understood by * hand.' The Persian 
dost is equivalent to the Hindustani 
hdthy namely, the length from the point 
of the elbow to the tip of the middle 
finger, and this is a cubit. Whether 
Abdl Fazl's measurements are right or 
not is another matter but Gladwin has 
rightly interpreted his meaning. 



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129 

carrying a man upon his trunk. The western bears sculptures of two 
horsemen with trappings and ornaments and an attendant. The northern 
hafl two tigers, each of which is rampant upon an elephant that it has 
OTerpowered. In front* is an octagonal column of black stone, 60 yards 
high. When nine flights of steps are passed, a spacious court appears 
with a large arch of stone upon which are carved the sun and other planets. 
Around them are a variety of worshippers of every class, each after its 
manner, with bowed heads, standing, sitting, prostrate, laughing, weeping, 
lost in amaze or in wrapt attention and following these are divers musicians 
and strange animals which never existed but in imagination. It is said 
that somewhat over 730 years ago^, Raja Narsing Deo completed this 
stapendous fabric and left this mighty memorial to posterity. Twenty- 
eight temples stand in its vicinity ; six before the entrance and twenty-two 
without the enclosure, each of which has its separate legend. Some affirm 
that Kabir Mua'hhid^ reposes here and many authentic traditions are relat- 
ed regarding his sayings and doings to this day. He was revered by both 
Bindu and Muhammadan for his catholicity of doctrine and the illumina- 
tioa of liis mind, and when he died, the Brdhmans wished to bum his body 
ud the Muhammadans to bury it.* 

The Sdbah of Bengal consists of 24 Sarhars and 787 Mahals. The 
NTenue is 59 crores, 84 lakhs, 59,319 Mttis (Bs. 14,961,482-15-7) in money. 
The zanoindars are mostly Kayaths} The troops number 23,330 cavalry, 
801,150 infantry, 1,170 elephants, 4,260 guns, and 4,400 boats. 

The Parganahs will now be entered in alphabetical order in long 
double columns te each page accompanied by a few descriptive notices. 

Sarkdr of UdnSr commonly known as Tdndafi 
Containing 52 Mahals, Rev. 24,079,399^ Bams, 



KkmsJijaX, 



Dams. 
133,017 



' TMb now stands in front of the 
Lion-gate of Jag^nith. Orissa, I. 290. 

' The Eandrak temple was bnilt ac- 
cording to the most trustworthy records 
between 1237 and 1282 A. D. Orissa, I, 
288. 

• " A believer in one God," for his 
tetohing, see Orissa, 1, 108. 

^ Gladwin adds that when they lifted 
the sheet from the bier, the corpse could 
not be found. Neither the text nor the 
Siyai hare this addition. 

17 



• The writer caste of Hindis. 

' The ancient capital of Bengal after 
the decadence of Ganr : now a petty vil- 
lage in Maldah District. Its history is 
obscure and the very site of the city has 
not been accurately determined. What 
shall be said for the obscurer roll of 
names which the above list preserves ? 
The I. G. says that this much is known 
that it was to the S. W. of Ganr beyond 
the Bhagirathi. Old T&nda has been 
utterly swept away by the changes in 



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130 









Ddni*. 




mmt 


Aobli, 








Dug&obb{,* 


226,746 


DarsMip&rah, 


••• 


... 


404,287i 


B&mpdr, 


116,632 


Ashrafnih^l/ 








R^basp^, 


188,122 


Ibrahimpdr, 


••• 


... 


860,867 


Sariip Singh, 


1^8,877 


Ajiyilglulti,* 


••• 


... 


231,957 


Sultinpur Ajiy&l, 


466,894 


TJngichhi, 


>•• 


... 


869,357* 


Sulaim^n Sh&hi, ... 


198,742 


Barhgangal, 


••• 


... 


666,200 


Sulainiin4b4d,« ... 


197,70) 


Bhat&l, 


... 


... 


415,470 


Salimpiir, 


187,097 


Bah&dnrpib, 


>•• 


... 


814,870 


Sambal4,« 


174,660 


B&hriri, 


••• 


... 


24,655 


Sherah&hi, 


178,280 


Phulwiri, 


••• 


••• 


193,025 


Shamsh Khdni, ... 


861,952 


Bahidnr Sh&hi, 


••. 


... 


138,102 


Sherpdr, 


163,097 


TM^ with Suburban diatriot, 


4,326,102 


Pir6zp6p, 


347.787i 


Tijpiir, 


••• 


... 


201,997 


KiiQwarparUib, ... 


1,607,200 


Taallu^ Barbh&kar, 


... 


11,725 


K&nakjok, 


1,689,832 


Tanauli, 


••• 


•«. 


196,380 


Kithgarh, 


1,266,632 


Jiinagbiti, 


... 


... 


689,967 


Gankarah, 


894,027 


Oh&adptT, 


..• 


... 


190,027 


Kltfhip^, 


86,240 


Na»ibi,» 


.-. 


... 


160,206 


Kaohld, 


86.240 


Chdngnadiy^ 


... 


... 


145,305 


Kifiirdiya, 


1,440 


H4jipiir, 


••• 


... 


106,255 


M^desar, 


1,608,358 


Husain&b&d, 


... 


... 


266,545 


Mangalpiir, 


226,770 


Kh&npfir, 


••• 


..• 


81,410 


Beoeipta from scattered 




Dhiwab,* 


••• 


... 


260,597 


estates,* 


46,837 


Deviyapdr, 


... 


... 


559,557 


Nawanagar, 


826,966 


D46d Rh&hi, 


... 


... 


242,802 


Na»ibpfir, 


877,760 



the course of the ViglL Sulaimin Shih 
Kar&ni, the last but one of the Afghan 
kings of Bengal, moved the seat of 
government of T4ndi in 1564, A. D. 
eleven years before the final depopula- 
tion of Gkiur. It was a favourite resi- 
dence of the Mughal governors of 
Bengal untU the middle of the following 
century. In 1660 the rebel Shujia' Shih 
was defeated in its vicinity. After this 
date, it is not mentioned in history and 
was deserted in favour of Eijmahal and 
Dacca. In noticing variants in the spell- 
ing of the above list, I shall refer to 
Tieffenthaler under T. to Gladwin under 
G. and a variant of the text in the text 
notes as var. 
^G.thil. T.bhiL 

• T. Adjeptt. 

• Vtur. agreeing with Q. 



* G. Dahdah. 

I> Var. and G. Durg&chi. 

* T. and var, Salim&bid. 

* T. and var, Sanila. 

* The text has e^Jl/*^ instead of 
C^JL^*^ an error which has been re- 
peated in the following page. The term 
was applied in old revenue accounts to 
small and scattered estates not included 
in the accounts of the district in which 
they are situated, and of which the as- 
sessments were paid direct to the Govern- 
ment- officers : subsequently it denoted 
a revenue payer, paying through the 
intervention of another, except in Gut- 
tack where it implied the reverse, or the 
heads of villages paying the revenue 
immediately to the Collector. Wilson's 
Gloss. 



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181 



Sarkdr of Jannatdhdd or LakhnatUi, 
66 MahaU. Rev. 18,846,967 Daww. 
Castes Kdyaths and Brahmana. Cavalry 600. Infantry 17,000. 





Dams. 






Ddms. 


Jumat£b£d, commonly known 




ShAhbizpur within the city. 


400 


as Ganr. It has been a 




GhiyAfipdr 




41,920 


brick fort 


7,869,202 


KamalA, 




16,377 


Adjacent viUagea of Akri 




KnthachhApA, ... 




12,000 


fonning 14 Parganahs as 




M(5di Mabal, ... 




13,000 


follows: 


1,573,296 


Mewa Mabal, ... 




860 


Ajar, 


138,925 


Duties from the New Market, 


11,700 


BiikhokWb 


192,608 


Adjacent villages of Dihikdt 7 




Baler, 


127,060 


maJ^tcUs, 


... 


869,000 


Aba mbnTban distriot, 


211,260 


BarAripinjar 


... 


698,900 


Bbanpiir, 


140,340 


Pak(5r,* 


... 


87,720 


Beriya, 


112,208 


Dihikdt 


... 


31,624 


Sarinmr/ 


71,000 


DahlgAon 


... 


130,920 


SblbbaU, 


98,400 


ShAbzAdahptir, ... 


... 


84,360 


fihlhlalsari, 


8000 


MAligAoii, 


... 


141,460 


Khektar, 


60,200 


M6dipur, 


... 


61,880 


MadnAwati, 


151,890 


Adjacent villages 


of Ram- 




Modihat, 


6,980 


rauti 7 mahals, 


*•* 


749,795 


Nahat 


242,710 


BadhtahU, 


••• 


207,500 


Haahtganjpur ... 


28,616 


B^mauti, 


... 


194,767 


Adjacent villages of Darsarak 




Selkharlya,* ... 


... 


103,000 


16 mahcUa as follows : 


2,009,344 


SangkalkarA, 


... 


93,320 


Acbirikhanah where they 




Sul^anpur, 


... 


29,210 


eeU undried ginger 


7,800 


Sangdwar, 


... 


14,447 


Bhatiya, 


826,132 


Mahinagar, 


... 


107,550 


Bflbari, 


91.560 


Adjacent villages of SarsAbad, 




Baxari Kadim (Old BaxAr), ... 


3,720 


rev. of 10 mahals 




13,192,377 


Damrak, 


62,83& 


Akbarpur, 




9736 


Rfekimiti,* 


8,200 


PArdiyAr, 




85,280 


8«r duties* from Gangapat 




KhizrpAr, 




396,100 


and neighboorhood of Hin- 




SarsAbAd, 




663,080 


dui («c.), 


170,800^ 


K(5twAU 


... 


788,427 


Sherpur and Gangalp6r 2 ma- 




Garhand,* 


- 


334,880 


bali, 


2000 


Garhi, 


«. 


200,000 


* T. Sirapour, G. Seernoor. 




♦ T. Nagor, G. Tagore. 




* T. Bangamati, G. Kaggamatty. | 


• T. Sablgiria, G. 


Sebelgehrya. 


• T. p. 58, n. 1. 


1 


• G. Goiamend. 







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132 



Ddmg. 
MakHin, ... 106,480 

Manikpdr and Hatanda, 2 
nwAoZa, ... ... 630,770 

Adjacent yiHages of Mildah, ]1 ma^s. 



VdfM. 
B^bakpdr, B&z4r i Tusaf, Suburban 
diBtriot of Mildah, Dh^rpur, 8iij£ptir, 
Sarb^ablpur, Sankodiji,! Sb&lesari, 
Shilbmandawi,^ Fat^p6r, Mui'szu'ddin- 
pdr. 





Barkdr of Fathdhdd. 






31 makals. Rev. 


7,969,568 ddms. 






Zamindars of three classes. 






Cavalry, 900. . 


Infantry, 60,700. 






Ddms. 




I>dm. 


fsTdcb^j, 


34,024 


Sardiy^, 


53,882 


BboUyib^l, 


... 384,452 


Sadbwd, 


37,127 


BsMr, 


... 124,872 


Sawiil, commonly called 




Bbilgalpdr, 


2,115 


JaUlp^, 


1,857,280 


BAdhidiyi, 


1,442 


Shahbtzp6r, 


782,172 


Telha^i, 


... 377,290 


Kharakptir, 


118,136 


Cbamlakbi, 


35,645 


Kasodiya, 


102,405 


CharbiW, 


80,200 


KSsi, 


68,360 


Suburban district 


and town 


Mak<5rg£o9, 


3,157 


ofFatWbW, ... 


... 902,662 


Masnadpiir, 


55,312 


Salt duties, 


... 277,758 


Mirdnpur, 


22,172 


Hazratpiir, 


11,640 


Eeceipts from scattered 




Market dues, ... 


11,467 


estates, 


133,365 


Basdlpiir, 


... 103,767 


Nal^lesar, 


49,422 


Sopdip, 


... 1,182,450 


Nia'matpiir, 


20,960 


Sarb&rkal, 


... 787,430 


Hazirhati, 


21,597 


Saris^ni, 


... 173,227 


Tusofpur, 


258,025 



Sarkdr of Mahmiiddhdd, 

88 mahaU, Rev. 11,602,256. 
Caste Kdyath, Cavalry, 200. Infantry, 10,100. 



Adniyi, 

Anotamptir, 

Ajiy&lpdr, 

Indarkalli, 

Amdab, 

Bdzdrast, 

B&zdcbap, 



Ddms. 






Ddms. 


76,113 


Baradi,* 




... 604,122 


48,365 


Bisi, 


... 


25,247 


37,307 


Barin Jumlah, 


... 


.. 102,210 


11^50 


Betbariya, 


... 


96,117 


192 


B&kbn&n, 


... 


85,447 


652,507 


Bdtkin* 


**• 


... 41,317 


271,240 


Belwdri, 


... 


80,196 




• G. and var. 


Pardri. 






^ T. and G. B4nki. 





> Var. and T. Sankatodiya. 
* Var. and G. Sbih Hindui. 



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133 









Dama. 




Ddnu. 


BsDdwil, 




... 


26,166 


S«ibariy4, ... ^ 


6.760 


P4d' ka mira, ... 




... 


22,710 


SAtor, 


290,727 


Blbhanburli, ... 




... 


14,895 


ShAhajiyil, 


644,787 


Parfnp^. 






12,672 


Sherpdrbari, ... 


9,402 


Barmahp^,* ... 




... 


6,717 


Sherpdr and Tasholi, 


2,797 


Fatkamiri,* 




... 


3,667 




14,422 


Kpalbariyi, ... 




... 


2,045 


Ghaznipiir, 


12,367 


Btthotiy£.* 




... 


217 


Par^tpdr, 


301,790 


B^Ikasi, 




... 


128,387 


Fat^piir Noeeka, 


102,525 


Tinkini, 




... 


675,790 


¥utabp<ir, 


23,352 


Ttyfeliili, 




... 


96 


¥A?ip<ir, 


2,652 


Kmjiyal. 




... 


891,365 


Kan^aliyi, 


20,417 


CUi£ddiy4 or Chhiddiya, 


... 


9,126 


KhelphAti, 


19,940 


Jifirokhi, 




... 


11.505 


Kandi Nawi, ... 


8,477 


Jaginnithpdr, ... 




... 


762 


KolbariyA, 


6,517 


JWiWiy£,» 




... 


44,007 


KaudaaA," 


6,435 


Wfiya, 




... 


44,700 


KAliyinpiir, ... 


26,236 


]iteb^(i« ... 




... 


952,950 


Kali MaW. 


26,717 


SmiiAjiyil, ... 




••• 


845,135 


Liniy&n, 


813,286 


flwrfi,' 




... 


91,575 


Lannkohil, 


15,425 


aOinrtir, 




... 


56,805 


MihmAn Shihi, ... 


575,727 


Ciiinkhiiil, 




... 


1,092 


MakhijA, 


14,505 


KKorrampdr, 




... 


265 


MafemiidShAM,... 


226,562 


Jhkid* 




••• 


51,740 


Mirpdr, 


2,370 


Dnrlabahp^, ... 




... 


13,775 


Mah^aarpOr. ... 


42,852 


Dh^K, 




... 


13,665 


Madh<$diya, 


695 


Deora, 




... 


107 


Marfif^ebh, 


2,302 


DaUat*JaUlp^, 




... 


1,200 


Naldai, 


804,440 


Dostflini, >• ... 




••• 


lfi62 


NafratShihi, ... 


272,450 


Dhdmarh^t* 




... 


42,505 


Nakarohil Eotiy&, 


61,235 


Sadkiohil Kotiji or 


Eota, 


... 


8,205 


NakarB&nkA, ... 


8,382 


SArotiyi, 




... 


6,530 


NAahipiir called also IJjain,... 


91,080 


SanariyA, 




... 


72,147 


Hamtanpdr, 


477,860 


Sankardiyl, 




... 


10,212 


Hald4, 


122,566 


SaHmp^, 




... 


23,637 


HawAl GhAti, ... 


66,217 


8olt4ra Ajiyil, commonly Koma, 789,220 


HatapAn, 


8,665 


Bnrdppdr, 




... 


7,482 J 


Hosipur, 


17,426 


» Far.Pini. 








• Donbtfol whether proper 


name or 


• G. Bernapoor. 








Snbarban district of abore. 




• G. Patkabiri, T. 


Bangabiri. 




• T. and var. DakAri. 




♦ T. and G. Bagot 


ia. 






• G. and var. Dahkat. 




* T. and tNH-. Chandi b. 






'• G. and var, Doahiniya. 




• Q. Chytan. var. 


Chetan and Chain. 


»* G. T. and var, GAada. 





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134 



Sarkdr of Khalifatdhad. 

35 mahaU. Rev. 5,402,140 dams. 

Castes, Tarious. Cavabj, 100. Infantry, 15,150. 





Ddms. 




Ddmi. 


Bhdl, with township, 


476,102 


Snbarban dist. of Ehalifat&bdd, 


31,443 


Bhilk^, 


230,515 


Khili^pdr, 


32,770 


P61ah, 


135,932 


DdniyA, 


522,885 


Pdtki,* 


104,205 


Ringdiya, 


129,910 


B4gh Mirii,* .. 


81,807 


Sahaapiir, 


260,340 


Bhandi, 


25,300 


Solaiminibid, ... 


168,504 


Bhades, 


11,225 


Sihas, 


91,500 




9,527 


Sobhnith, 


61,663 


Bhulnagar,* 


66,660 


Sile'sarbihi,* ... 


11.484 


Tailing of E^sinilth, 


297,720 


Im&dpur, 


97,102 


TiU, 


174,676 


Khokral, 


105,520 


Taa'IlnV of Srirang, 


26,427 


Kanges, Taallu^ Parmanand, 


166,360 


„ Mah^s M4ndal, 


23,727 


Munddkichh, ... 


126,360 


„ Pannodar* Bhattacharaj, 13,860 


Malikpur, 


61,327 


„ Sripat Kirdj,* 


8,675 


Madhariy£, 


45,007 


Jesar, commonly, Rasiilpdr,... 


1,723,850 


Mangorghdt, 


16,842 


Gharanli, 


99,550 


Mahresa, 


11,170 


Chhalera,« 


60,920 







Sarkdr of Bogld, 
Containing, 4 mahals. Rev. 7,150,605. 
Castes, various. Elephants, 320. Infantry, 15,000. 

Dams, 
4,348,960 
263,000 



Ismailpnr, commonly Bogla, 
Brir&mpur, 



Sh&hziMlahpfir, 
Aidilpur, 



Ddmg. 

977,245 

1,558,440 



Sarkdr of Pumtyah, 
9 mahaU. Rev. 6,408,775 daTns. 
Infantry, 5,000. 





Dams. 




Ddms. 


A86nja, 


734,225 


Sripdr, 


390,200 


Jairampur, 


467,785 


8dir duties from elephants ... 


85,000 


Suburban dist. of Ptirniyah, 


2,686,995 


Eathiyiri, 


690,100 


Dalm£lpdr, 


671,530 


Ka^wdn, 


280,592 


Solt^ptir, 


502,206 






» T. G. and var. Piinga. 




* G. Kabraj, var, Kdraj. Kabraj. 


• T. and var. B. bari. 




* G. and var. Chabrah. 




• T. and G. Pha 




» T. and G. and var. 841oeari. 




* G. Narmodar, 









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135 



Sarkd/r of Tdjpur. 

29 mahals. Rev. 6,483,857 dams. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 100. Infantry, 50,000. 





Ddm8. 




Bankat,* 


3,307,885 


DiUwarpiir, 


Badokhar, 


238,855 


Dabhat,* 


PhiK, 


60,860 


SesahTd, 


Band^fl, 


190,830 


Siijipiir, 


Bobam, 


23,192 


Shahpur, 


Bho^hari, 


118,295 


Knw&rpdr, 


Badgaoi^ . ... 


9,330 


Kas&rglon, 


Bisigio?, 


104,492 


Gopilnagar, 


Pingao?, 


115,990 


Goghra, 


Bahadurpar, ... 


96,012 


Mah<5i?,« 


Bahuagar, 


91,630 


Nflnagar, 


Badalkl, 


71,664 


NU6n, 


■Kliwir, 


208,540 


Yusnf, 


ChUpartal, 


243,255 


Zak4t,* 


fttbuban dist. and town of 






Tljpar, 


886,254 





Ddms, 
944,055 
124,196 
376,760 
244,507 
126,235 
406,000 
258,742 
233,160 
147,392 
194,475 
267,612 
147,510 
146,240 

78,487 



Sarkdr of Ohordghdt. 

84 mahals. Rev. 8,083,072| ddms. 

Castes, .various. Cavalry, 900. Elephants, 50. Infantry, 32,800. 



Dams. 

Adhwi, ... ... 91,292 

Andhar, ... ... 75,010 

Andalgion, ... ... 154,337 

Anwarbin, ... ... 31,022 

Algion, ... ... 171,695 

Abthuri, ... ... 25,326 

AbmadiWid, ... ... 18,617 

AttbaUkichhi, ... ... 9,200 

Anwar Malik, ... ... 8,020 

AlHit, ... ... 7,508 

lUhadadpur, ... ... 2,190 

Bizn Zafar Shdhi, 2 mal^als, 735,835 



Dd/ms, 

Bizn Fanldd ShMii, ... 711,412 

P£gdw4r,» ... ... 102,440 

Phnlwdri, ... ... 6,580 

Birbakpdr, ... ... 84,952 

B&manpdr, ... ... 349,070 

Town of Nasratdbid, ... 886,445 

Barsala, .. ... 233,680 

Bari Sibakb£la,7 ... 146,767 

„ Ghoragbdt, ... 165,827 

Bfiyazidpur, ... ... 144,227 

PAtildeb, ... ... 41,365 

Bilk4, .. ... 80,335 



^ 6. and var. Pangat. 

* G. and var. Daibat. 

* G. and var. Mab8<5n. 

* Seo n. 4, p. 57. 



• G. and var. Ambathuri. 

• G. and var. Tak. 

' G. and var. Tdmuk, T. and 
Sank. 



Digitized by 



Google 



136 



Bh61i, 

Bdjpat&ri, 

Banwirk&jar, ... 

Belghati, 

B&z&r Chhutighit, 

Bal&8b&ri,l 

B&nj M&nka,8 ... 

Tnlsighat, 

Taalluk Qasain,... 

„ Baln&tb,... 

„ Siw&n, ... 

„ Ka8«, ... 
TAohahal, 
Ta^llu^ Abmad Ehin, 

Khairdbddi 

Rnknpiir, 

Saltitipiir, 

Sfkhsbahar,8 

S&nbipdr, 

Sirhata, 

Sabdi/ 

Sitpdr. 

Biriji E^di, ... 

Q&ghit, 

Sberp^ir Eoibari, 

Fat^piir, 

Ehet&ri,» 

Gaji^ur, 



Castes, 



Anbel," 
Anb^, 



* In text figures wanting, G. baa 
7,000. Var. 6,340. 

8 Var. BinkI, Malki, G. Matk£, T. 
Pantscb Botaoa. 

8 Var. Sabtakab, Besbekb. S'ilab. T. 
Sankba. 

♦ For. and T. Sidi. 



D4ms. 




DdfM. 


12,040 


Eiibulpiir, 


98,465 


7,900 


Ganj S&kbm&l&, .. 


98,465 


4,452 


Eba^kbadi, 


81,565 


3,245 


Gokal, 


56,865 


387 


Eo^bi Bari* 2 maliaU, 


48,807 




Ebalsi, 


264,822 


6,340 


Ean^ibiri, 


125,797 


... 164,840 


Enli Baz&r, commonly Jorpuri, 


115,680 


86,410 


Gobindpdr Akband, ^. 


40,675 


27,962 


Eai^btdl,* 


40,367 


16,490 


Kanak Sakbar, ... 


28,065 


16,267 


Gbatnagar, 


27,921 


8,290 


Eaw&Eacbbi, ... 


25,600 


... 238,476 


EbitiWiri, 


24,847 


6,580 


Eori, receipts from Zakit, ... 


18,000 


5,602 


Eokaran, 


18,120 


2,785 


E&bnl, 


11,690 


10,950 


Garhiya, 


10,980 


... 108,377 


Gokanpird, 


9,860 


93.071 


Magatpdr,* 


124,00$ 


49,570 


Mubabbatpdr, ... 


46,612 


... 344,097 


Mnsjid Hnsain Sb4bi, 


28,M5 


... 206,224 


„ Andarkbini, 


3,447 


... 128,776 


MaUir, 


24,800 


24,622 


Nandabra, 


61,050 


16,412 


Naupira, 


19,202 


16,675 


Nabajann Bitor, 


49,010 


... 353,355 


Wakar Hazir, ... 


30,646 


... 1,844,280 


Wacbbi, 


16,833 


... 107,205 


Wabrib,» 


4,230 


Sarhdr of 


Pinjarah, 




21 mahaU. Be^ 


. 5,803,275 ddms. 




various. Cavalr 


y, 50. Infantry, 7,000. 




DdtM. 




Ddms. 


... 1,0£8,725 


Aag6cbab, 


101,822 


36,625 


Bdrangpdr," 


635,890 



6 G. and var. Ebatiyiri, T. Ebefiri. 

• T. G. and var. Tari. 

7 Var. Gatral, G. Gautnill. 

• Var. and G. Makaebpdr. 
» Var. Wabaib. 

'• G. and var. Amp<5l. 
** T. and var. B&rikpur. 



Digitized by 



Google 



137 





Mms. 




Mms. 


B^ibasar, 


719,107 


Deor6, 


107,727 


Btja^pdr. ... 


266,445 


Sadbarb^, ... 


.. 273,04« 


fitharnagar^ 


119,720 


Sankati, 


261,410 


WriOk^, 


84,277 


Snlt<np4r, 


208,292 


B4d%har, 


66,206 


S&Bb^r, 


.. 166,180 


!NM, 


$74,490 


Snlaiminib&d, ... 


42,682 


Hflon, 


82,142 


Kbat^, 


.. 777,265 


Sabovban distariot of PinjfinUi, 


98,967 


Ked4b4ri, 


218,882 


DfiU>% 


149,887 








Barkdr of Bdrhakdhdd, 




38 fnahals. Rev. 


17,461,532 ddms. 




Castes, varioTi9. Cayak 


7, 50. Infantry, 7,000. 




Am61, 


660,882 


Shikfrpdr, 


.. 827,842 


(% of above-mentioned, 




Sheq)4r and Bahrimpiir 


2 


(B£rbakib6d}... 


816,840 


mqhcds, 


. 891,626 


Biaddl, 


190,885 


Tikbirpdr, 


.. 606,826 


Wirhir, 


186,712 


^i^dhBi^ 


.. 620,477 


llltfil, 


662,867 


Kardabi, 


.. 1,890,572 


pnvijay 


64,886 


Gn^bi^ 


.. 1,296,240 


Wigiony •.• 


819,000 


Kb^, 


.. 861,060 


w»^, 


179,840 


Ganj known as Jakdal, 


.. 694,665 


(&bBdi7a> B&xfi, 


766,622 


Gobindpdr, 


410,586 


Ohinri, 


169,882 


Kiligie E6tbiya, 


841,067 


itii^Md' and Joka, 2 morals, 


407,007 


Kbaril, 


.. 210,182 


JaaOlii, 


269,840 


Ko^nagap, 


129,650 


Wa6,* 


86,787 


Kaligie, 


.. 196,982 


8abiiib. district of Sikh Sha- 




Laskarp^, 


.. 255,090 


li». 


1,629476 


Mttjipfip, 


.. 925,680 


Dhiman, 


860,896 


Mas^bi, 


.. 689,712 


D6£dp6r. 


8,902 


Man Sam&U, ... 


694.792 


BankiiTdal, Qonunonlj, Niste* 




Habmddp(ir, ... 


.. 124,582 


P^» 


889,975 


Wazirpdr, 


.. 169,190 




Sarkdr oj 


' Bdeohd. 




82 


mot^aU. B< 


jv. 89,516,871. 




Castes, varions. Cavalry, 1,700. 


Elephants, 10. la&ntary, 


6,300.4 


laipShihi, ... 


760,667 


Bbdrija* Bisd, ... 


.. 2,820,740 


^MiiQir/ Ka«rat Shihi, -\ 




Babwftl B&z^ ... 


.. 1,986,160 


Mehwwmah, C 


4,178,140 


Partib-Bizfi, ... 


.. 1,881,265 


Phinrina, SiraU 6 mo^oZa, ) 




Bakbariyi B&xti, 


.. 1,716,170 


» For. and Q. Jirfyi. 


1 


* G. and vor. Barbtizii. 


Tbere are 


« For. and G. Jasnad and Ohangion. 


also sUgbt yarianta of tbe otber namea. 


• Var, and G. HainasiL 




• G. and var, Bhasoriya. 




^ G. haa 45,000. 








18 









Digitized by 



Google 



138 



1 



Qnsain ShUhi, ... 
DaskhiidiTa B^^ 
Phaki B6z6, ... 
Salim ParUb B£sd, Ohind 
. TatUh B&z6, 
Snlt&n B&z6, 
8on£gh£ti B&zti,... 
8oii£ B&z6| !•• ••• 

Sflbaras/ 

Dnee on produce and piscary 
of riyers, tanks, &o,, •«. 
Sh&h Ajiyil B£z6, 



182,750 
1,946,602 
1,901,202 

4,625,476 

1,910,440 
1,706,290 
1,484,820 

261,280 
405,120 



Zafar Ajiyal „ 

Eatannal „ ••• 

Khati „ 

Mihmin Slitiii, khown as 

Sherpdr,' 
Manmani Singh, Nafrat -v 

Sh&hi, ^nsain Singh, C 
Na9rai Ajiyil 4 maJ^, ) 
Mubirak Ajiyil,... 
BaxijiX B&zd, ... 
Ydgof Shihi, .^ 



250,047 

2,804^890 

187,720 

2,207,716 

1,867,640 

468,780 

844,440 

1,670,900 



Sark&r of Sondrgdon, 
b2mahdl8. Bev. 10,331,333. 



Castes, various. 


Cavalry, 1,500. 


Elephants, 200. Cavalry, 46,000. 


Uiar Shihpiir, ... 


•.• 


888,442 


Snbarban district of Sonlrgio^ 




Al Jihit,* 


... 


68,090 


with dty. 


459,638 


T7tar V^minpnr, 


•a. 


24,880 


Khizrpdr, 


40,808 


Bikrampiir, 


• .. 


8,885,062 


Dohir, 


458,524 


Bhalw4jow4r, ... 


• •• 


1,881,480 


DAnderi, 


421,380 


Baldikh&l, 


• •* 


694,090 


Dakhan Sh£hp(ir, 


289,910 


BawiUy^ 


... 


287,820 


Dilawarpdr: receipts from 




Barohan^i, 


... 


120,100 


vuffWv, ... . , ( 


127,207 


B4th Ear&, 


... 


4,080 


Dakhan V^m^piir, 


8,840 


Bal«8K&thi,«fta, 


... 


48,266 


lUepfir, 


4,535 


Bardiyi, 


... 


86,812 


Sakhargiov, 


840,865 


Phnlari, 


... 


19,000 


Sakari, 


184,780 


PInhatta, 


... 


7,867 


Salimp6r, 


91,090 


T6ri, 


... 


104,910 


S&lisari with produce and 




Wjpdr, 


••• 


60,000 


piscary of rivers, tanks, ^., 




Tarki, 


• •• 


18,270 


rotyottft and the like 


40,726 


Jogidfy^ 


... 


612,080 


Sakhwi, from raiyatif 


280,000 


Bnvirons of Port, 


••. 


82,632 


„ „ sdir dues, ... 


28,000 


Ohhokhandi, from shop 


dnes. 


17,827 


Sakhideh, 


28,000 


Ohand Yi<>ar,» ... 


•.« 


80,822 


Seojsl,' 


18,000 


Ohindp(ir, 


... 


120,000 


Shamshp^, 


22,000 


' T. Sabal var. Baral 


[, 




the revenue is paid in money in opposi- 


• G. and var, Serpur 


Morchah. 


tion to khamdr lands of which revenue 


• G. and var, Chhap. 


T.J4t 


. 


was paid in kind : also to a settlement 


* G. and var. PaUaghati. 




direct with the cultivators.- 


-WiUon'B 




Ql088, 




is evidently corrupt. 






* G. and var. Sabarcha 




' Applied in Bengal to lands of which 







Digitized by 



Google 



139 



Kerfpdr/ 


••• 


... 298,403 


Ifehlr, ... ••• 


60,800 


Gardi, 


... 


89,690 


Manoharp^, ... 


68,801 


Kitikpdr, 


... 


80,000 


MahijiO, 


26,000 


Khindi, 


... 


40,140 


Narienpdr, from sdW doef, 




K6|hri,« 


••• 


86,160 


»ak(U and raiyati, ..• 


940,760 


GithiKadhi,* 


.*• 


20,000 


Niwikot, 


16,080 


Ifehri^dl, 


... 


... 1,089.470 


HamU Bix^ ... 


281,280 


Mnaiiampdr, 


... 


... 286,880 


H&fc Gbiti, 


10,286 



Castes, Trarions. 

Ftet£bgarh, called 

P&njkhanf, 
Baoi^^ Chang, ... 
Btjwa BiyijV ... 
I«i(Jamti7af)« 



Sarkdr of Sylhet 
8 mahdU. Rev. 6,681,308. 
Cavalry, 1,100. Elephants, 190. Infantiy, 42,920. 



also. 



870,000 

1,672,080 

804^080 

272,200 



Snbarban diBtrioe of Sylhet,... 2,290,717 

Sarkhaa^lal, ... ... 890,472 

L4dii,7 ... ... 246,202 

Harnagar, ratyottand sdir, ... 1,010,857 



Sarkdr of OhiUagong. 

7 maMs. Rev. 11,424,310 ddms. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 100. Infantry, 1,500. 



T<Ug^,« ... ... 606,000 

Cbl^9 (Chittagong) ... 6,649,410 
Deogao9, — ... 775,540 

Solaiiii^iipiir, commoiilY, Shaikh* 
p6r, ... ... 1,672,400 



Sdir does from salt-pits, 


.. 787,520 


Sahwi, 


.. 6,079,840 


Naw4p«, 


.. 708,800 



Sarkdr of Sharif dhdd. 

26mahal8. Rev. 2,488,750. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 200. Infantry, 5,000. 



Bardwin, ... ... 1,876,142 


B^U, 


... 609,340 


B»hror, ... ... 1,786,795 


Bhitsel^, 


... 807,340 


Barbaksail,* ... ... 640,896 


Bisir Ibr&himpiir, 


16,740 


Bharkondah,><' and Akbar- 


Janki, 


... 937,705 


Bhihi, commonly Sindal, 2 


(hotMakand, ... 


2,316 


fMhal8, ... ... 1,276,196 


Dhaniyin, 


... 1,608,860 



*■ G. and var^ Eharapiir. 
^ G. and var. Kolhari. 
' T. G. and var, DaniLi. 

* G. By4n var. Uijin, Shdn. 

* Var. Ba]w4 Sihir G. Bahoowa Sahir. 

* G. and var. ChainUur, T. Tschena. 



^ G. and var. Lawed. 

* G. and par, Milgio?. 

* G. T. and var. Barikseel, sel,- or 
sail. 

^* G. and var, Bhargodah. 



Digitized by 



Google 



140 



Bnlann^ Shihi,... 


... 721^386 


Khan*» 


... t#6,88d 


S<5my4, 


90,S70 


Khanga, 


... 174,860 


Sabarban distriot of Sherpiir ^t&i, 816,068 


KodM, 


68,128 


Vzmatpdr, 


... 1,660,045 


HahlMid, 


... 1,881,880 


Fat^ Singh, 


... %096,460 


Haiu^iar Shihi, ... 


... 1,708,920 


9iuain Ajiyil, ... 


... 89S,M6 


HiifaAtf Shihi, ... 


... 1,852^178 


Kargio^ 


... 848^860 


Naeak,* 


... ^88,517 


Kiratpdr. 


... »«,776 


Natain," 


.•• B06|8oO 



Sarkar of Suladmdndbdd. 

81 ma^. Bey. 17,629,964 dams. 

Castes, varions. Cavalry, 100. In&ntry, 5,000. 



Indar^in, 


... 


... 


592,120 


8lt8ftt.« 




757,111 


iBmaflptir, 


... 


••• 


184,640 


Sahspiir, 




ill4,842 


Anliya, 


... 


•.* 


124,577 


Sangbanli, 




72,747 


Uli,... 


... 


... 


88,277 


Sultimpfir, 




44,576 


Basandhari, 


... 


... 


2,266,289 


Umarpfir 




223,320 


Bhoeat,* 


•.. 


.. 


1,968,990 


Mlampdr, 




38,^0 


Pan4wah, 


... 


... 


1,823,292 


^b&ipdr, 




747,200 


Piohn6r,» 


.*• 


... 


601,495 


Gobinda (KosadaP) 




867,943 


B&U Bhang&< 


2mahalSt 


... 


417,185 


Beoeipti from independont 




Chhdtdpdr, 


... . 


• .. 


554,956 


talukddrs, 


... 


218,067 


Ghdmhl 






455,901 






48,515 


Jaipiir, 


.." 


... 


44,250 


Molgbar, 


... 


782,107 


^nsainp^, 


... 


... 


855,090 


Nagfn,* 


... 


810,890 


Dhirsah, 


... 


... 


95,250 


KlUri, 


•*. 


872,846 


Rie8«i,'(IUlenahP) 


... 


68,257 


Naaang, 


«•• 


600,766 


Sabarban distriot of 


Stdai- 




Nabiya,"* 


... 


77^17 


minib&d, 


... 


... 


2,051,090 









Sarhdr of Sdtgdon. 

53 maJ^. Bev. 16,724,724 dams. 

Castes, yarions. Cavalry, 50. Infantry, 6,000. 

Banwa,Kotw4U,Fari8atgliar, (?) j ITkrf, 

BmaJials, ... ... 1,640,770 | Anwarpur, 



726,300 
236,960 



' Text-note, now Ehandghosh. 
' G. and var. Nasang. 

* G. and var. Nabrin. 
^ T. and var. Bhorsa^. 

* var, and G. Bijmor. T. and var, 
Bajponr. Text-note adds that tkeore la 
a Piohndr in Nadiya. 

' G. and var. Ghanga. Kot9»— There 
ifl a B^ Danga in Nadiya. 



* G. and var. BaeelUc. Note^Baenih 
probable oorreot ^reading, as this name 
oocQm in 'the snbarfoan diBtnot of Bit* 
aiminibid 

* G. and var. Satsanga. Noie^Now 
in the district iji Bardwin, 

' G. and var, Makin. 
>• G. and vwr. mpL, 



Digitized by 



Google 



141 



Ana> TUcnOi S&tgio? 2 



Srir&jpdr, 



125,792 



moM*, 


... 


234,890 


Sdir dues from Bandarbdn 




Akb4rpfir, 


... 


ll(s690 


and ICandawi, 2 maf^als, 


... 


1,200,000 


Bo^han, 


... 


956,457 


&ikhi%, Ka|8i1, 




..■ 


45,757 


Fuiw&n and Salimpiir, 


... 


96^505 


Il^pdr, 


••• 


... 


80,702 


P&»h, 


... 


662,470 


Oalontta,Bakoya,« B^ffbakpdr, 






383,808 


8<»KiiM«, 


... 


... 


988,215 




... 


283,602 


Khirar, 


... 


... 


865,275 


Bflm^i, 


... 


125,250 


Kan^iUji, 


... 


... 


242,160 


%tr£ii and Bang^b^, 


... 


100,000 


K£ldrd, 


*•• 


... 


197,522 


BaKyi. 


••• 


94,725 


Mag6r4, 


... 


... 


801,802 


KttW, 


... 


88,245 


MatiyAri, 


... 


... 


307,845 


Baridhati,* 


... 


26,027 


Medal Mai, 


... 




186,242 


1^}rtari7l^ 


... 


86,604 


Mn^afifarpdr, 


..« 


••. 


108,832 


Sobarban dirtriot, 


... 


502,880 


MTindgiohh4, 


... 


... 


96,565 


*»mp6r. 


... 


824,822 


M&Uhatti, 


... 


... 


40,985 


Wpfir. B£rt)Uqifir* 


2 




Naddiya* and 


S4taiip4r, 


2 




«M», 


... 


142.592 


mai^, 


••• 


... 


1,506,820 


Bbfiyip^/ ... 


... 


78,815 


H^lki, 


... 


... 


90,042 


^"m, 


... 


1,858,510 


H&thi KandU, 


... 


... 


55,702 


M^iA' 


... 


468,058 


Haiyagarh, 


••. 


... 


781,860 


Btka^ 


• a. 


204,072 











Sarkdr of Maddran. 

16 mai^aia. Bev. 9,403,400 d(hn$. 

Castes, various. Cavalry, 150. Infaiitry, 7,000. 



Anhafctl, 


... 122,656 


Shergafh, commonly Sakhar- 




Bflgarhi, 


... 937,077 


bhdm, 


... 


.*• 


915,237 


BirbhTim, 


... 641,245 


Shihp^, 


•a. 


• •• 


684,160 


Bhawilbhfim, ... 


... 495,220 


K^t, ... 


... 


*»« 


46,447 


Cliatwi, 


... 606,642 


Mandalgh&t, 


... 


•m. 


906,776 




... 412,250 


Nig(5r 


... 


• •* 


4,026,620 


Snbarban dlBtriot of Madluran 1,727,0^7 | 


Uinah&k^ 


... 


... 


279,822 


Sambhdm, 


... 615,805 


H^tuHi, (MeadaUP) 


... 


268,207 


Samar Sinhaa, ... 


... 274,461 











* 6. and var. Anid Tawili. 

* -G.^nd var, Bacrmah fifrab. 

* G. Barmadbakti. T. Barmand- 



^ T. Bariqxmr. 



* (Note). Is in tbe 24-Pavgaanafa8. 
' G. and var, Maktima. 
' In ancient higtoriea, ^Nodiyi^ or 
Nodi, (note). 
S G. MinaUig., 



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U2 



Ori88a. 

Sarkir of JaUsar. 

28 ffiahdU. Bey. 5,052,738^ ddms. 

Castes, yarions. Elephants, 2. Cayalry, 3,470. Infantiy, 43,810. 



Binsanda,* oommonly Haf t-*^ 
ohdr" has five strong forts, j 
Castes, Khandait, Brdh- > 
man, and Bhej. Cayalry, j 
100. Infantry, 6,800, ...j 

BibU* (PipU?) Cayalry, 10. 
Infantry, 40, ... 

Bdli Shihi Cav. 200. In. 2,000, 

B&lkolisi,* has three forts : 1, ' 
Sokrah;2, Binhas TiU' 
8, Daddhpnr. Cav. 20, 
Inf. 800, ... 

Parbadl Cav. 400, Inf/ 
1,600 ; has a strong fort, 
partly on a hill, partly 
fenced by forest, 

Bhogrii, has a fortress 
great strength ; Caste 
ZTumdaie, Cav. 100, Inf. 
2,200, archers and match 
lookmen, ... 

Bngdi, i2(i/ptte, Cay. 100, Inf. 
200, 

B£zilr, 

B&bbanbhdm,* Brdhman, Cay. 
20, Inf. 400, ... 

Taliya with town of Ja]6sar, 
has a brick fort. Caste, 
Khandait, Cay. 800, Inf. 
6,250, 

Tanb61ak,» Cav. 50, Inf. 1,000, 
has a strong fort, Khandait, 



4,211,480 



2,011,430 
968,430 



756,220 



640,000 



497,140 



89,428 
125,720 




2,671,480 



» G. 60,052,787. 

* G. and var. B&nsad. 

* G. and var. Hiir. 
^ G. and var, Beli 

* G. and var* Kohi, K^osi. 



'•! 



Tark61: a fort in the jnngle. 
Cay. 80, Inf. 170, 

Diwar Sh6rbh6m, common- 
ly BArah,« Cay. 100, Inf. 
100, 

Bamna,' has fiye forts, 1*| 
adjacent to city ; 2, Bam- 
chandpiir; 8, bjf^ ; 4, Diit ; 
6, Saldah, Cay. 700, Inf. 
8,650, hold the fiye, .. 



720,670 
1,842,860 



> 6,062,306 



Bayn, on the border of\ 
Orissa, has three forts, | 
Cay. 160, Inf. 1,500, ... ) 

B&ep^, a large city, with a 
strong fortess. Cay. 200, 
Inf. 1,000, ... 

Sabang, strong fort in the 

jangle. Cay. 100, Inf, 
2,000. 

Siyiri, 

KisijorH, Cay. 200, Inf. 

2,500, matchlock and 

bowmen, ... ... 

Kharaksdr, a strong fort 
in the wooded hills, 600 
footmen and maohlock< 
men, ... •.O 

KM£rkhan4, three strong 
forts, Cav. 60, Inf. 600, ... 

Kada.*0 Infantry 100 



* Brahmanpnr in Midnapdr. 
f Tamliik. 

* G. Tarah. 

* G. and var. Khamn^* 
^* G. and v(ir. KerL 



:1 



218,806 

986,970 

1,267,140 
106,570 
898,160 

528,570 



468,570 
285,720 



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143 



G^Dlp6r, Bajp^, OaT. 60, 

Inf-400, ... ... 86,720 

^^W ... ... 68,570 

lUlchhata,* Cay. 600, Inf. 

5»W0, ... ... 9,812,810 

llednipdr, alarge oitj with"^ 

two forts, one anoient 

and 

Gaate 

Inf. 



wo ions, one anoient 

id the other modem. V 1,019,980 

Bate Khandaii, Cay. 60, I 

rf.600,» J 



ULahik&aghit commonly'' 
Ka^bp^r, a fortress of 
great strength, Gay. 80, 
Inf. 1,000, ... 

Nariinpiir, oommonlj Kan-'| 
dh&r, with a strong fort 
on a hill. Cay. 100, Inf. 
4,000, 



SarJcdr of BhadraJk. 
Imafials. Rev. 18,687,170. 



Caates, varioiis. 

Bsrwa, two strong fortresses,*^ 

Blnakand Baskdi, castes* 1 

Ihandait, and Kdyaih, j 

CtT. 60, Inf . 400, ...J 

fcbirban district of Bha-^ 
dnk, has a fort called 
Dhimnagar, with a resi- 
dent goyemor, KhandAit, 
Cav. 200, Inf. 8,600, ... 

S«ha986, 2 strong forts, 
Khamdaity Cay. 800, Inf . 
1,700, 



Infantry, 760. Cavalry, 3,730. 

Kilm&n, a stone fort of the"^ 
greatest strength. Khan- I 
datt, Cay. 100, Inf- j 
400, ... ...J 

Kadsa,^ 

Independent Talokdirs ; "^ 
three forts, Pachchham 
Donk, Khandait, and Ma- 
jori. Cay. 100, Inf. 800; 
the three forts, held by 
ZTumdoits. 



8,240,000 



67,14^ 



9,642,760 



8,614,280 



Sarhdr of Katak (Outtach,) 

21 ma^ls. Bey. 91,482,780 ddms. 

Castes, varions. Cavalry, 900. Infantry, 108,160. 



240,000 



2,280,860 



1,616,840 



780,480 



86,720 



AM. 2,100, ... ... 6,429,180 


Paohohham Dfkh, Cay. 100, 


A?akah, Inf . 16,000 ... 8,160,880 


Inf. 60,000, ... ... 662,490 


Aihgarh, with a strong\ 


Bahir. ... ... 6,129,880 


fort, Brdhnum, Cay. 200, ( 1,184^980 


Basil Diwarm&r,* Inf. 


Int 7,000, ... ...) 


1,000, ... ... 2,746,660 


Pfiiab Dikh, fonr forts. Cay. 


Barang, 9 forts, among the \ 


200 Inf. 6,000, ... 22,881,680 


hiUs and jungles. Caste, ( 2,182,940 




ah<r, Cav. 20, Inf. 800,... ) 


* G. and var, KerauH. 


sentence, differing in two MSB., in two 


' G. and var, Miljlkta. 


others it is omitted. 


'Here follows an unintelligible 


♦ G. and *or. Garsii. 

* G. and van B. D. pur. 



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14A 



Bhijnagar wiUi atKNig forfc, \ 

Tdingha, Oav. (K), Inf.! 880,190 

22,000, ••• ••. / 

Banjd,» Biflf/ptif, Cay. 100, 

Inf. 20,000, ... ... 866,208 

Pan6tam,* «. ... 601,680 

Ohaabisk^t, 4 fortaof greai \ 

strength, day. 800, Inf. | 2,898,970 

20,000, ... ... ) 

Jash,* oommonly, T&jpdr, a \ 

strong fort Brdhmany \ 2,078,780 

Oav. 200, Inf. 1,800, ... ) 
Dakhan Dfkh, 4 forts, Cay. 

180, Inf. 18,060, 
S(r<n, ... ... 207,880 

20,lBf.200, .J ^'^'^ 



iay. 1 

J 22,066,' 



,770 



K6td^, witk tluM teis,^ 
the original fort, E^sibah, i 
€a«te, Khandait, Oay. f 
6,008, Inf. 800, ...J 

Ka|ak Baniias, snbarban^ 
district with city, has a 
stone 'fort of grsat 
sUsogth, and a masoiiFy 
pahioe wijthin, BrdJ^mon 
and KhanddM, Oay. 200i 
Inf. 1,000, ... 

Khatrah, with strong \ 
fortress, KhandaiUt Oay. > 
100, Inf. 400, ... ) 

M inakpaftan, a ktfge port, 
where salt does are 
collected, ... 



4,720,980 



» 608,800 



"5 



1,120,230 



600,000 



Sarkdr of Kailang Dan^pdtf 

i1 maials. Bev. 5,560,000 <2(im«. 

Cavalry, 500. Infantry, 30,000. 

8(»rhdr of Bdj MdhandraJu 
16 matale. Bey. 5,000,000 ddm9. 

Cavalry, 1,000. Infantry, 5,000. 

A general view of the country having i;iow been cursorily given, I 
proceed to record the snccession of its mlers and the doration of their 
reigns. Twenty-fonr princes of the Khatri caste, kept aflame the torch of 
sovereignty from father to boa in succession during 2418 years. 











Tears, 








TCOTB. 


B&ji Bhagrat, Khatri reigned 


... 218 


Ben6d Singh, 




II 


... 97 


Anaoghhim, 




i> 




... 176 


Silar S^n, 




II 


... M 


Banhhim, 




h 




... 108 


Sattarjl^ 




11 


... 101 


Oajbhim, 




II 




... 82 


Bhtipati, 




II 


... 90 


Deodst, 




II 




... 86 


Sadhrak, 




i» 


... m. 


Jag Singh, 




II 




... 106 


Jaydhuk, 




11 


... W2 


Barmah Sing|h, 




II 




... §7 


Udai Singh, 




II 


... 85 






II 




... 102 






II 


... 99 


^ G. and var 


Ban^d. 








found only in one MS. 


"detailed 


in each 


*Here the 


following 


words 


oooor, 


SOfhar:' 
















1 


• G. and var. 


Qabsh. 







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143 



Tears, 



Bi'nnith, reigned 


... 83 


Kdlddand, 


Bnkhdera, „ 


... 81 


Eamdeva, 


Bikhbind, (Rukhnand) „ 


... 79 


Bijai Kam, 


Jagjiwan, „ 


... 107 


Sat Singb, 



reigned 



Tears, 
... 85 
... 90 
... 71 
... 89 



Nine princes of the Kdyeth caste ruled in succession 620 years after 
Vhicb the sovereignty passed to another Kdyeth house. 







Tears. 




Tears. 


Riija Bhdjgaorija reigned 


... 75 


Pirthu Rija, reigned 


... 53 


lils^n, 


>» 


... 70 


U&ii Garrar, „ 


... 45 


Baja Hadhd, 


it 


... 67 


„ Laohhman, „ 


... 50 


Samantbhdj, 


»> 


... 48 


„ Nandbb6i, 


... 53 


Baji Jaint, 


i» 


... 60 







£leven princes reigned in succession 714 years, after which another 
Kdyeth family bore rule. 









Tears. 








Tears, 


B4iird36r, (Adiaiir,) 


reigned 


... 76 


BAii 


Grid bar, 


reigned 


... 80 


„ J&manibhan, 






... 73 


a 


Pirtbidhar, 


II 


... 68 


„ Unrud, 






... 78 


» 


Shisbtdbar, 


» 


... 58 


„ Partab Radr, 






... 65 


i» 


Pmbbakor, 


>» 


... 63 


,, Bbawadat, 






... 69 


» 


Jaidbor, 


}) 


... 23 


„ BokdeTa, 






... 62 











Ten princes reigned 698^ years, after which the sway of another 
Kdyeth family was established. 

Tears. 



Baji Bbop&l, 
„ Dhrip^l, 
„ Devapdl, 
„ Bbnpatip&l, 
„ Dbanpatip41, 



reigned 



... 55 

... 96 

... 83 

... 70 

... 45 



Tears. 

BAji Bigan (Bijjan) p6l, reigned ... 75 
„ Jaipil, „ ... 98 

Rajp61, * „ ... 98 

Bbogpdl, hia brotber, „ ... 5 

Jagpdl, his son, „ ... 74 



I According to the Ueefnl Tables 
fPt IT, p. 117), tbis is too mnob: the 
eocoession of names differs also some- 
what from those of the inscriptions. 

Monghir Plate. 

Gop^la. 

Dhermap&la. 

Devap&Ia. 

Budal Plate. 

B«j^p^la. 

Siirap&la. 

19 



Nlriiyanp^Ia. 

Samdth inscription, 
Mabip&Ia. 
Sthripala. 
Yasantpdla. 
1017. Kumarapila. (Fer.) 

Dindjpur Copper-plate, 
Looapdia. 
DhermapMa. 
Jayapdla 



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146 

Seven princes governed in snooession during 106 years. 

Tears. 



Bukh &6n, reigned 

Balil Sen, who built the 

fort of €^nr, „ 

Lakhan (Lachhman) S^, „ 



60 

7 



Tean. 

Midh^ S^n, reigned ... 10 

E^uS^n, „ ... 16 

Sada (Sara) S^n, ,, ... 18 

Sij& Nilajah, (NMjan), „ ... 3 



Sixty-one princes thus reigned for the space of 4,544 years when 
Bengal became subject to the Kings of Delhi. 

From the time of Snl^dn Kn^b n' ddin Aibak to Saltan MolAmmad 
Tnghlak Sbah 17* governors ruled during a period of 156 years. 

These were followed by — 

A. H. A. D. Tears. Months, 

741 1840 Malik Fakhr'addin Sil4»d&r, reigned ... ... 2 some 

743 1842 Snl^&n Al&a'ddin ... ... ... ... 1 „ 



Narayanp41af (Two 

illegible). 
Baj&p41a. 
Vigrahap^Ua. 
Mahip41a, at Benares. 
Nayap&la. 
1027. Vighrapila. 

The Monghir plate, dated 28 or 128 
Samvat refers to the Bhupila dynasty 
and not to the Vikramftditya era as was 
snpposed by Wilkins. The Yaidya 
Bajas of Bengal are thns giyen. 
1063. SnkhSen. 
1066. Belil Sen who bnilt the town 

of Ganr. 
1166. Lakshman Sen. 
1123. M&hava Sen. 
1138. KesayaSen. 
1151. SnraSen. 

1154. Nir&yana. Nonjeb, last BAji 
of Abnl Fazr s list. Laxmana. 
Laxmaniya. 
9se were : 
A. D. 

1203 Md. Bakhtiyar Ehiliji, 
governor of Berit un- 
der Kn^b. 
1205 Md. Sher&n Izfa'ddin. 
1208 Ali Merd&n Ala^ddin. 



609 12X2 Hosimn'ddin, Ohiy^is^d. 

din. 
624 1226-27 Nasra'ddin-b-ShamBn'd- 

din. 
627 1229 Ma^miid-b-ShamBn'ddiB 
became Emperor d 
Hindustan. 
684 1287 Toghan Khan, goyemar 
under Sultana Bizia. 
Tiji or T£ji. 
Timiir Khia Keria. 
Saifu'ddm. 
Ikbtiy&ru'ddin Malik 

Usbeg. 
JeUlu'ddm Kh^ni. 
Taju'ddin Arslau. 
Md. Tatir EhiLn. 
MnizEu'ddin Tughral. 
Na^ru'ddm Baghra con- 
sidered by some Ut 
Sovereign of Bengal. 
725 1325 K4dir Khan, viceroy of 
Md. Shih. Fakhr'uddin Sikandar followed 
and assumed independanoe in 1340, bat 
this does not tally with the period of 
years given by Abul Fazl. I add the 
dates to Abul Fazl's list from the U. T. 
II, p. 148. 



641 


1243 


642 


1244 


644 


1246 


661 


1258 


656 


1257 


667 


1258 


659 


1260 


676 


1277 


681 


1282 



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147 



A.H. 


A.D 


744 


1843 


760 


1858 


769 


1367 


775 


1373 


786 


1383 


787 


1886 


794 


1892 


812 


1409 



Shamgii'ddin Bangarahl 

Sikandar (Sh&h) his son, 

SnlUn Ghiyisa'ddin his son, 

Snl^n 'us SaliLtin, his son, 

Shamsa'ddm, his son, 

Kinsi native of Bengal, 

Snl^n JaUla'ddin, ^. 
„ Ahmad, his son, 

N^fir his slave, 
830 1426-7 Nifir Shah, descendant of Shamsa*ddin Bangarah, 
862 1457 Barbak8h4h, ... ^ 

YiisnfShih, 

Sikandar Shih, ... ... ... 

Fat^Shih, 



879 


1474 


887 


1488 


887 


1482 


896 


1490 


897 


1491 


899 


1494 


90O 


1496 


9» 


1498 


«7 


1521 


9i0 


1584 


944 


1537 


945 


1538 


946 


1539 


952 


1545 


962 


1555 


968 


1560 



Tears, MofUh$, 

16 some 

.. ... .•• u „ 

7 

10 

3 some 

7 

17 
' ... 16 

a week or according to others, half a day. 

322 

17 . 

7 6 

half a day 

7 6 



two and a half days. 

3 

1 

9 6 

27 (?) some 

... 11 (?) 



BdrbakShih, 

Firoz Sh^, ... ... ... 

Mahmiid Shah, his son, 

Mnzafi^ ^ahshi, 

Alia'ddin, 

Na^rat Sh&h,8 his son, 

Mahm&d Shdh^ son ofAldWd defeated by 

Sh^r Eh£n. 

Hnmaynn (held his court at Gaar). 

Sher Khan, a second time. 

Mnl^mmad Khiui. 

Bahddor Sh4h, his son. 

Jal&ln'ddin, his brother. / 

HotinU.T.I^^y^*^^- 
i TiLj Kh&n. 

971 1563^ Solaim^ (Kar&ni), his brother. 

981 1573 Bayazid, his son. 

981 1573 Dind, his brother, (d«/0ated by ii(;6ar'f/orc6«) 

Fifty princes ruled during about 357 years and one hundred and 
eleven kept alive the torch of sovereignty throughout the period, approxi- 
mately, of 4,813 years and passed into the bleep of dissolution.^ 

The first Bija, (Bhagrat) came to Delhi by reason of his friendship 
for BAji Jarj<5dhan, and fell manfully fighting in the wars of the Mahi* 



' In the Tirikh-i-Firishta. Bhangerah^ 
i «., opium eater. 

' Ihetext has 2 bat in a note 32 ia 
Koorded as the proper number and tallies 
with the U. T. 

* Nofibf in the text according to all 



the MSS. bnt corrected by a note. 
Nofrat accords with the U. T. 

* The calculations of the U. T. show 
a diiference of 13 in exoeii in both 
nvmbers. 



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148 

bhirat, 4,096 years previous to the present time. When the cup of life of 
R^ja Naujah overflowed, the sovereignty fell to Lakhmaniya son of Eie 
Lakhman. Nadiya was at that time the capital of Bengal and the seat of 
various learning. Nowadays its prosperity has somewhat abated bat 
the traces of its erudition are still evident. The astrologers predicted the 
overthrow of his kingdom and the establishment of another faith and they 
discovered in Muhammad Baktiydr Khiiji the individual by whom these 
two events would be accomplished. Although the Bdja regarding these 
as idle tales refused to credit them, many of his subjects sought refnge in 
distant provinces. At the time when Ku^bu'ddin Aibak held India for 
Shahabu*ddin, the Khiiji took possession of Behar by force of arms, and 
when he marched upon Bengal, the Raja, escaped in a boat. Mu^mmad 
Bahktiyar, entered Bengal and having amassed enormous plunder, he de- 
stroyed the city of Nadiyd and transferred the capital to Lakhnanti. 
From that time Bengal has been subject to the kings of Delhi. 

During the reign of Sultan Tughlak, Kadar Kb^n was viceroy in 
Bengal. Malik Fakhru'ddin his sword-bearer through greed of power, dis- 
loyally determined upon the death of his master and plotting in secret, 
Blew him and with pretentious allegations fraudfully possessed himself 
of the government and refused allegiance to the sovereigns of Delhi. 
Malik ^l\ Mubdrak, who had been one of the principal adherents of Kadar 
Khan, assumed the title of Alau*ddin and rose against Fakhru'ddin, and 
taking him alive in action, put him to death. Haji Iliyas jjilai, one of the 
nobles of Bengal, entering into a confederacy with some others, slew him 
and took the title of Shamsu'ddin. He is also called Bhangarah. Sul^n 
Firoz set out from Delhi to chastise him and a severe struggle ensued, but 
as the rainy season was approaching, he concluded a hasty treaty and 
returned. When Shamsu'ddin died, the chiefs of the army raised bis 
eldest son to the throne under the title of Sikandar Shdh. Sul^dn Kroz 
again marched into Bengal but, retreated after aiTanging terms of peace. 
On Sikandar's death his son was elected to succeed him and was proclaimed 
under the title of Ghiyasu'ddin. Khwdjah Hdflz of Shiraz sent him an 
ode in which occurs the following verse :^ 

And now shall India's parroqaets on sngar revel all, 
In this sweet Persian lyric that is borne to far Bengal. 
A native of Bengal by name Kansi fraudfully dispossesed Shamsu'ddin 
who was his grandson. When he died, his son embraced Islam and 



* Kosenzweig-Schwannan in his trans 
lation of H&fiz identifies the Ghij^n'd- 
din of this poem, as prince of Herat- 



whom Tim6r later deprived of his king- 
dom. The verse is certainly against tho 
supposition. 



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149 

took the Dame of Saluda JaUIa*ddiii. It was the cnstom in that country 
for seven thousand footmen called Pdyiks^ to patrol round the palace. 
One evening a eunuch conspiring with these guards slew Fatl^ Shah and 
assumed the title of Barbak Shah. 

Firoz Shdh was also slain by these guards and his son Mahmtid was 
raised to the sovereignty. An Abyssinian slave named Muzaffar with the 
assistance of the same guards put him to death and mounted the throne. 
iflLlaa'ddin. an attendant of MuzafPar, in turn, in conspiracy with these 
guards despatched his master and established himself in power. Thus 
tlirough the caprice of fortune, these low footsoldiers for a considerable 
time played an important part in the state, ^lau'ddin placed the admi- 
nistration of justice on a better footing and disbanded the Pdyiks, Nasrat 
Shah is said to have followed the example of his father in his justice 
in and liberality and treated his brothers with consideration. When 
Sultan Ibrahim (Lodi) met his death in the engagement with Sultan 
Bibar,* his brother and the chiefs of the army took refuge with this 
Booarch and lived in security. Humaytin appointed Jahangir Kuli Beg 
to the governorship of the province. When Sh6r Khdn a second time rose 
to power, he beguiled Jahangir under pretext of an amicable settlement 
and put him to death. During the reign of Salim Khan (at Delhi) 
Muhammad Khan his kinsman, united loyalty to his lord with justice to 
his subjects. When he fell in action against Mamrez Kh&n, his son Khizr 
Khan succeeded him and assumed the title of Bahadur Shdh. Mamrez 
Khdn entered the field against him but perished in battle. Tdj Khan, one 
of the nobles of Salim Khan, slew Jalalu'ddin and assumed the govern- 
ment. His younger brother Sulairadn, although of a tyrannous disposition, 
reigned for some time, after which his sons Bayazid and Daud through 
misconduct dishonoured the royal privileges of the mint and the pulpit. 
Thus concludes my abstract. 

Praise be to God, that this prosperous country receives an additional 
splendour through the justice of imperial majesty. 

The Subah of Behdr. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from Gadhi to Rhotds 
k 120 Kos; its breadth from Tirhut to the northern mountains, 110 kos. 
On its eastern boundary is Bengal ; to the west lie Allahabad and Oudh, 
On the north and south it is bounded by hills of considerable elevation. 

* Hindi. Mlf*!* Pers. «-^J a mes- | * At PAnipat, April 21 st, A. D., 1626. 

seoger, guard, ranning footman. 



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150 



Its chief rivers are the Ganges and the Son. Whatever of wood or leather 
and the like falls into the Son, becomes petrified. The head springs of 
these three rivers, the Son^ the Narbada and the JoJUla^ babble np from a 
single reed-bed^ in the neighbonrbood of Oa4ha. The Son is pleasant to 
the taste, wholesome and cool ; flowing in a northerly direction, it joins 
the Ganges near Maner,^ The Ohandak flows from the north and unites 
with the Ganges near Hdjipur, Such as drink of it suffer from a swelling 
in the throat,^ which gradually increases, especially in young children, 
to the size of a cocoanut. 

The Sdlgirdm^ is a small black stone which the Hindtis account among 
divine objects and pay it great veneration. If round and small and unctu- 
ous, they hold it in the highest regard and according to the variety of its 



1 This passage has haffled the editor, 
who unable to make sense of any of the 
variants, regards it as oormpt. A re- 
ference to the 8iyaru*l MutcMhhhhiHn 
and the Khuldsat u*t Tawarikh clears the 
diffiooltj. In both of these works the 
passage is identical and is as follows : 

^y, lAj^ »*^ ^ </* ^y- *^3* ^^ 

and establishes the acoorapy of the 
readingSy if not of the fact, Tieflfentha- 
ler confirms it. In his account of Behar 
he writes: "Snivant un livre qui con- 
tient la description de I'lnde, o'est dans 
le Gondvane, que le Narbada, le Soane 
et le Djnhala jaillissent d*un buUson de 
hcmibot^s, comme d'nne source. Selon 
nn ingenieur Anglais qui depuis Elahbad 
a pen6tr^ jusqu'lL la source, les trois 
rivieres susdites sourdent d'un etang, 
long de 8 aunes, et large de 6, qui est 
entoure d'un mur de brique. Get etang 
se trouve an milieu d'un village appel^ 
Amar cantak; ii est doming par un 
hameau assis sur le sommet d'un ooUine 
haut de 60 aunes ; des Brahmes en sont 
les habitants : il est distant de 20 milles 
de Bettenpour, cp:tuide viUe situ^ an 
Nord, et de 80 de Mandela a' I'Est. 

Le Narbada, apres sa sortie de I'etang, 
parcourt Tespace d'un mille et demi 
vers I'Est: ensuite se pr^ipitant d'nne 
colline avec violence d'une hauteur de 26 



aunes, il uoule rapidement vers le village 
de Gapaldara. La fleuve, au sortie de 
Tetang, a une aune en largeur. 

Le 8oane n'est visible qu'a la distance 
d*un demi mille de Tetang. Ensuite 
apres un oours de 6 milles, il se perd 
dans le sable, mais acquerant de nouvean 
un plus g^nd volume, il devient one 
fleuve considerable, et poursuit soa 
course vers Bot&s. 

Le DJuhala commence seulement a se 
montrer lorsqu* il est d^j& eloign^ de S 
milles de I'etang. L4 il descend de la 
colline en un mince filet d'eao, qui par 
I'espace de 12 milles echappe aux yeox ; 
apres quoi il devient une petite riviere et 
continue de rouler ses eaux en xp^oore 
quantity." 

* The junction is thus indicated in 
the Bengal Atlas of 1772. It is now 
about 10 miles higher up. 

8 No doubt from the same causes 
which affect Alpine streams. It is snow- 
fed, but soon acquires the character of 
a deltaic river. 

* A species of black quartsose found 
in the G^ndhak containing the impres- 
sion of one or more ammonites conceived 
bj the Hindus to represent Vishnu. 
This river is also known as the SalgL 
ram. 



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151 

form, different names and properties are ascribed to it. The generality 
ha?e a single perforation, others more and some are without any. They 
contain gold ore. Some say that a worm is bred within which eats its 
way through ; others maintain that it works its way in from the outside. 
The Hindus have written a considerable work on the qualities of this stone. 
According to the Brahminical creed, every idol that is broken loses its 
claim to veneration, but with these, it is not so. They are found in the 
Son for a distance of 40 kos between its northenmost extremity and the 
Bonih of the hills. 

The Karamndsd flowing from the south unites with the Ganges near 
Chausd, Its waters are regarded with aversion.^ The Punpun flows also 
from the south and joins the Gkinges near Patna. The smaller rirers of 
this Sdbah cannot be recorded. The summer months are intensely hot, 
while the winter is temperate. Warm garments are not worn for more 
than two months. The rains continue during six months and throughout 
the year the country is green and fertile. No severe winds blow nor 
ckids of dust prevail. Agriculture flourishes in a high degree, especially 
tie cultivation of rice which, for its quality and quantity is rarely to be 
iqaalled. Kisdrfl is the name of a pulse, resembling peas, eaten by the 
poor, but is unwholesome. Sugarcane is abundant and of excellent 
quality. Betel-leaf, especially the kind called Mahhiy* is delicate and 
beantiful in colour, thin in texture, fragrant and pleasant to the taste. 
Pmits and flowers are in great plenty. At Maner, a flower grows named 
Majkand,^ somewhat like the flower of the Blidtura^ very fragrant and 
found nowhere else. Milk is rich in quality and cheap. The custom of 
dividing the crops is not here prevalent. The husbandman pays his rents 



1 No person of anj caste will drink its 
waters. The reason of its imparity is 
•aid to be that a Brahman having been 
murdered bj a Baja of the Solar line, a 
sunt pnrified him of his sins hj ccUeot- 
ing water from all the streams of the 
world and washing him in their waters 
which were collected in the spring from 
which the Karamndsd now issnes I. G. 
Bee Baber's acoonnt of this river in his 
If emmrs, p. 408. YHien he crossed it, 
the Hindns accompanying him embarked 
in a boat and passed by the (Ganges to 
avdd it. Its name signifiea * the rain 
of reUgiona merit.' 



S Lathyrns sativna. 

8 Gladwin "Maghee." Thoogh a ^ 
in the text, the Am constantly prefers 
this Taranian form, both initial and 

terminal to the Irini ^. Not mentioned 
in his description of the Betel at p. 72, 
Vol. I. 

^ Dr. King of the Royal Botanical 
Gkurdens, Oaloatta, snggests that this 
may be the Jasminam pnbescens. The 
flower resembles a miniatore Dhatara 
flower and is very fragrant. 



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152 

in person and on the first occasion presents himself in his best attire. The 
houses for the most part are roofed with tiles. Good elephants are pro- 
cumble in plenty and boats likewise. Horses and camels are scarce. 
Parrots abound and a fine species of goat of the Barbary breed which they 
castrate : from their extreme fatness they are unable to walk and are 
carried on litters. The fighting cocks are famous. Game is abundant. 
Gilded glass is manufactured here. 

In the Sarkdr of Behdr^ near the village of Bdjgar is a quarry of stone 
resembling marble, of which ornaments are made. Good paper is here 
manufactured.^ Gayd the place of Hindu pilgrimage, is in this province : 
it is also called Brahma Oayd being dedicated to Brahma, Precious stones 
from foreign ports are brought here and a constant traffic carried on. 

In the Sarkdr of Monghyr {Mungir) a strong stone wall has been built 
extending from the Ganges to the hills,^ which they consider as demarca- 
ting the boundary of Bengal. 

In the Sarkdr of Hnjipur the fruits Kafhal^ and Barhal g^row in 
abundance. The former attain such a size that a man can with diffical* 
ry carry one. 

In the Sarkdr of Ohampdran the seed of the vetch Mdsh* is cast on 
unploughed soil where it grows without labour or tilling. Long pepper 
grows wild in its forests. 

Tirhut has from immemorial time, been a seat of Hindu learning. Its 
climate is excellent. Milk curds keep for a year without alteration. If 
those who sell milk adulterate it with water, some mysterious accident be- 
fals them. The buffaloes are so savage that they will attack a tiger. 
There are many lakes and in one of them the water never decreases, and 
its depth is unfathomable. Groves of orange trees extend to a distance of 
thirty kds^ delighting the eye. In the rainy season gazelle and deer aud 
tiger frequent together the cultivated spots and are hunted by the inhabi- 
tants. Many of these with broken limbs are loosed in an enclosure, and 
they take them at their leisure. 

Bohtds is a stronghold on the summit of a lofty mountain, difficult 
of access. It has a circumference of 14 kos and the land is cultivated. It 
contains many springs, and wherever the soil is excavated to the depth of 



' This indastry together with that 
of cloth, formerly its principal mann- 
factures have now nearly died oat. I. G. 

■ To the Boath-west, according to 
Tiefifenthaler, to close the entrance into 
Bengal. 



8 Known as the Jack fruit (Artocar- 
pns integrifoUa, Roxb ). The Bafhal 
according to the dictionary is a small 
round fruit, also an Artocarpus, doubt- 
fully disting^shed as " lactieha" 

* Phaseolus radiatus. 



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. 153 

three or four yards, water is visible. In the rainy season many lakes are 
formed, and more than two hundred waterfalls gladden the eye and ear. 
The climate is remarkably healthy. 

This Suhah contains seven SarJcdrs subdivided into 199 Pargannahs, 
The gross revenue is 22 krors, 19 lakhs, 19,404J darns, (Rs. 66,47,985- 
1-3.) Of these ParganahSy 138, pay revenue in cash from crops charged at 
special rates.^ The extent of measured land is 24 lakhs, 44,120 highas, 
yielding a revenue of 17* krors, 26 lakhs, 81,774 dams (Rs. 43,17044) in 
cask The remaining 61 Parganahs are rated at 4 krors, 22 lakhs, 37,630^ 
dam. (Rs. 12,30940-12-5), out of which 22 lakhs, 72,147 ddms are Suyur- 
gM,^ (Rs. 56,803-8-10). The province furnishes 11,415 Cavalry, 449,350 
Infantry and 100 boats. 

Sarkdr of Behdr, 

Containing 46 Mahals, 952,598 Bighas. Revenue, 80,196,390 ddms 
in cash from special crops, and from land paying the general higdh rate. 
g«yur^^aZ, 2,270,147 diiw». Castes various. Cavalry 2,115. Infantry 6 7,.350. 





Bighas and 
Biswas. 


Kevenne. 
D. 


Cav. 


Inf. 


Suydrghal. 
D. 


Castes. 


Anral 


57,089-5 


426,780 


... 


1000 






Ankhn* ... 


49,401-10 


8,747,940 


,. 


... 







fkhal 


40,404-4 


335,260 


... 


200 




Afghan & 
Brahman 


Amritu ... 


24,387-19 


18,21,333 




... 


16035 


Do. 


Anbald ... 




847,920 


., 


250 





Brahman 


Anchha ... 


10,'296-57 


6,700,000 


20 


300 




Afghan 


Antri 


1998-9 


147,980 


20 


200 


....•• 


Kayath 


Behir with enborban 














dis^ot, has a fort 














of Btone and brick ... 


70,683-9 


5,534,161 


10 


400 


653,200 




BahUwar ... 


48.310-3 


3,651,640 


... 


500 


9000 


Brahman 


BM6k 


35,318-18 


2,706,539 


... 


300 


1,708,130 


Shaikhza- 


PaUch ... 


30,030-18 


2,270,438 




500 


59,185 


dah,Br&h. 


Ralia 


26,000-18 


2,056,502 


20 


400 


85,747 


man, 
Rajptit 



* The terms iJ^ though originally 
applied to lands sequestrated by the 
■tate, was nsed of rent free lands sub- 
jected to assessment in Bengal, to lands 
which had been resumed from Jagir 
grants by Jafar Khan: in the north- 
west, to money rents on the more valu- 
able crops, such as sugar, tobacco, and 
cotton where rent in kind was the rule. 
Abdl Fazl employs it loosely elsewhere 
for the revenue collection or assessment 

20 



of a village. According to Camegy 
the word is not in general use in Ondh. 

• Gladwin has 18, but 17 is confirmed 
by the reading of the S. ul. M., the 
writer of which has, however, misunder- 
stood the reference by Abul Fazl to 
parganahs in the figures 138 and 61, 
and confused the sense of the passage. 

• See p. 46, note. 

• var, Khokri T. Ghogri. 



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154 





Bighas and 
Biswas. 


Bevenne. 
Lo. 


Oav. 


Inf. 


Snyiirghal 
D. 


Castes. 


Patna, has two forts, 














one of brick and the 














other of nrnd 


2l«846-8 


1,922,480 


... 


... 


131,807 




Phalwiri ... 


20,226-19 


1,586,420 


20 


700 


118,120 


Rijpfifc. 


Pahra 


12,283.6 


941,160 


20 


400 


18,560 


Brahman 


Bhimpiir ... 
PandAg» ... 


10,862.16 


824,684 




... 


24,424 






727,640 


300 


2000 




[ah 


Tilddah ... 


89,653-12 


2,920,366 


20 


300 


232,080 


Shailchzad. 


Jarar« 


12,930-10 


979,363 


60 


600 


880 


Do. 


Cbarg&on ... 




904,440 


20 


300 





Brahman 


Jai Chanpa 




620,000 


20 


600 






Didar 


••• . 


262,600 




... 






Dhakner ... ... 




215,680 


... 


... 






Eiih 




260,100 


20 


1500 


••. .. 


Br&hman 


R&mpiir ... 


...... 


863,820 


... 


... 






Wjgarh ... 


3766-12 


288,228 


... 


... 


17,225 




San<5t 


36,780-7 


2,824,180 


20 


500 






Bam&i 


82,614.8 


2,637,080 


10 


200 


62^380 


Kiyath 


8ahrah 





2,079,000 


... 


600 




Rijput 


S&ndah ... 


24,962-2 


1,889,956 




600 


•.•••* 


Afghan 


Se6r, has a strong fort 












Biihman 


on a hill... 


14,146-8 


1,250,691 


200 


6000 






Ghiasptir ... 


84,206-7 


6,667,290 


... 


... 


227,454 




Gidbanr,* has a strong 












B&jpiit 


fort on a hill in the 














jungle ... 




1,452,500 


250 


10,000 






Kitibahra... 


••. ... 


737,640 


... 


... 






K&bar 


7400-9 


660,876 


80 


700 


....•• 


K&jbXI 


G6h 




874,880 


100 


1000 




B4jpiit 


Ghiltis&r ... 


.••... 


860,820 


••. 


... 






Karanpiir ... 




863,820 


... 


••. 


... .. 




Gaya 


951,4 


74,270 


... 


., 


14,235 




Mnner 


89,039-15 


7,049,179 


.«• 


... 


325,880 




Masodhi* ... 


67,161-10 


4,631,080 


... 


... 


...... 




Mildah ... 


28,128-9 


2,151,675 


100 


8000 


49,805 


Brilhman 


Manro& ... ••. 


7706-6 


685,500 


20 


600 




Do. 


Mah^r 


23,937-19 


1,779,540 




200 


47,700 


Do. 


Narhat ... 


30,655-7 


2,880,309 


6' 


200 




Kiyath 



8a/rkdr of Monghyr. 

Containing 31 Mahals. Bevenne I09,625,981| ddms. 

2,150 Cavalry, 50,000 Infantiy. 

Bevenne. 
Abhipur ... ... 2,000,000 

Gala ... ... 89,760 



Ang6 
Anbalu 



Castes various, 



Berenne. 

147,800 

60,000 



> var, and G. Pandarak T. Pandok. 

The word ^^J^ with variant »«>*^ 
follows the reyenne figures, bat the text 
offers no explanation and I can afford 
bat nnsatisfaotory conjeotore. It also 
oocors ander " Jai Chanpa." 



• var. and G. Jadar. 

* var. and G. Gandhor. T. Kon^dha- 
poar. 

4 var. G. and T. Modha. 



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155 









Bevenne. 








BeveiiTie. 


Bligtilpdr 


... 




... 4,696,110 


Sdrajgarh 




... 


299,445 


Balii 


... 




... 3,287,320 


Sakhrasini 




... 


160,000 


Paharkiah 


... 




... 3,000,000 


Sa^iri 




... 


68,730 


PbihnnUi 


• •* 




140,920 


Khe1g^9 




... 


2,800,000 


Paaai" 


... 




... 132,000 


Eharhi 




••• 


689,044 


Tandr 


• .• 




88,420 


E6zrah ^ 




... 


260,602 


Ghai 


>•• 




... 9,280,000 


Kha^ki 




... 


160,000 


Chand6i 


... 




860,000 


Lakhanp6r ... 




••• 


633,280 


Dharmpdr 


... 




... 4,000,000 


Masjidpdr 




••• 


1,259,760 


Dand Sakhw&rah 




... 136,000 


Monghjr and aabarban distriot 


808,907i 


Bohni 


... 




95,360 


MaBdi 




... 


29,726 


Sarohi 


... 




... 1,773,000 


Hindiii 




... 


108,000 


Sakhdehra 


... 




... 690,240 


Hazirtaki 




••• 


9,182 


SaghaoH 


... 




... 860,000 
















SarMr of Ghampdran. 








Containing 


3 Mahals, 85,711 Bighas, , 


5 Biswas. Revenue 


5,513,420 Ddms, 








Horsemen, 700. 


Infantry 30,000. 












B. 


& B. D4ini. 








Dims. 


onron. 




7200 


„ 2 600,095 


Majhora, 22,416 


„ 16 1,404,890 


liW, 


66,096 


„ 7 3,518,436 











Sarkdr of Hdjijmr, 
Containing 11 Mahals, 10 Villages 436,952 Bighas, 15 Biswas. 
Revenue 27,331,030 dams. 
B. & B. Bevenae. 



Akbarpdr, 8366 „ 17 195,040 Bati, 

Bodiwi, 10,851 „ 14 624,791 Sar^ai, 

Baflira, 106,370 „ 7 6,380,000 Im&dptir, 

Btlagachah, 14,638 „ 2 913,660 Garhsanah,* 

Patkehra,* 68,306 „ 13 3,518,354 Naip6r, 
Hijipur Trith sn- 

bnrfaan district 62,653 „ 17 3,833,460 

Sarkdr of 8dran. 

Containing 17 Mahals, Measured land 229,052 Bighas, 15 Biswas, 

Revenue 60,172,004^ ddms. Castes various. Cavalry 1,000. 

Infantry 50,000. 



B. & B. Bevenne. 

30,438 „13 1,824,980 

102,461 „ 8 6,704,300 

12,987 „ 7 795,870 

876,200 

27,877 „ 9 1,663,980 





B. &B. 


D^ms. 




B. & B. Dium. 


Indar, 


7218 „ 4 


534,990 


P£l, 


66,320 „ 6 4,893,378 


Barif. 


7117 „10 


533,820 


Biri, 


16,059 „ 3 383,797* 



1 T. and G. Baaai. 

* var Tekhra. T. Tigira. G. Tay- 
kekra. 

* ror. and T. Garaind. A note states 



that the Pargannah of Gadhaar, 

( jr^^ ) ia probably meant, which Ilea 
to the N. of Bati and W. of Baslrd. 



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156 



Barhan/ 

Pachlakh, 

Chanend,* 

Chanbdra, 

Jawainah, 

D^gei, 

Sip&h, 



B. & B. 
8,611 „ 8 
9,266 „15 
8,413 „13 



8 



5825 
3662 



Dams. 
654,508 
437,997 
638,270 
400,000 
309,285 
277,630 
290,598 



B. & B. 
Kodah (Gaw4 ?) 28,049 „ 3 
KaliyAnpiir, 17,437 



Kashmir, 
Mangjhi, 
Mandhal, 
Maker, 



16,915 
8,752 
9,405 

10,936 



,19 
, 7 
.14 



Dams. 

2,012,950 
774,696 

1,314,539 
611,813 
698,140 
811,095 



Sarkdr of Tirhut. 



Containing 74 Mahals, Measured land 266,464 Bighahs 2 Biswas. Revenue 
19,1 79,777^ dams. Castes various. Cavalry 700. Infantry 80,000. 



B. A B. B. Dams. 



Ahaapur, 4,680 „ 

irtarkhand, 2,068 „ 

Ahlwdr, 1,001 „ 1 

Anbhi, „ 

AugUri, 836 „ 16 

Atli6£s,« 559 „ 17 
Basri, Ac., 4 Mahals, „ „ 



Bahrw^rah, 

Banpdr, 

Bar^I, 

P^pra, 

Padri, 

Bas6tra, 

Pachhi,* 

Bahn<5r, 

Bachhn6r, 

Pachham Bhagti, 

Ba^, 

Ptirab Bhagu, 

Pandrfijah, 

B£di Bhoiadi, 

Bhdli, 

Bha<]iwdr, 

Parharpur, 

Bahldurpdr, 

Baraf, 



18 



16,176 „ 
40,347 „ 

6,185 „ 

1,823 „ 

9,048 „ 

8,864 „ 

5,816 „ 

5,033 „ 

4,956 „ 

4,095 „ 

3,716 „ 

8,022 „ 17 

3,135 „ 4 

2,823 „ 

2,840 „ 

2,087 „ 

1,968 „ 

1,936 „ 16 

1,455 „ 12 



302,550 

128,412 

62,212 

60,000 

53,980 

84,356 

1,125,000 

942,000 

894,792 

789,858 

112,591 

554,258 

546,627 

361,920 

289,773^ 
275,185 
271,826 

267,862^ 
222,280 

195,8371 
175,585 
145,437 

130,4711 

121,0671 
119,305 
90,3691 



B. & B. B. 
1,303 „ 17 
1,170 „ 9 
1,060 „ 4 
875 ,. 16 



Parhir Bighd, 

Bhaur^, 

Palwarah, 

B6rd, 

Banwl, „ „ 

Parharpur, Jabdi,» 604 „ 14 

Bagi, 505 „ 6 

Bochh4w£r, 188 „ 10 

Barsiliii, ' 200 „ 18 

Tariini, 7,171 „ 

Talokoh^wand, 2,411 „ 7 

T^jpiir. 1,351 „ 14 

Tdndah, 1,038 ., 4 

Tarsdn, 980 „ 4 

Tirhnt with sabnr- 

ban district, 21,398 „ 
Jdkhar, 



. Dams. 
81,605 
69,608 
65,628 
55,767 
40,539 
87,736 
81,550 
12,875 
12,695 
443,242 
149,896 
85,434 
63,768 
61,180 



Jariiyal, 

Ghakmani, 

Jakhal,6 

Jabdr, 

Dahr6r, 

Darbh&nga, 

lUmjannd,7 

Sareshti, 

Salimpur, 



17,140 „ 
8,297 „ 
6,173 „ 
3,092 „ 

ty tf 

3,165 „ 

2,038 „ 

7,409 „ 

16,474 „ 

458 .. 



14 



1,307,706 

1,068,020 

515,732 

321,326 

196,020 

45,025 

202,818 

159,052 

470,0051 

941,010 

29,094 



* A note suggests that Narhan, still 
existing in Ohamp^uran is meant, but G. 
and T. both have Barhan. 

* T. Oharband. G. Cheranend. 

* var, and T. Athi^s. 



* var. and G. Bachti. T. Batschi. 
' var, Jhandi, Jahdi. 

* In the maps Jakhalpiir. 

* Note suggests, B&mchdwand. 



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157 





B. A B. 


B. Dtos. 




B. & B. 


B. Dams. 


Salim&b^, 


44„16 


4,184 


Mdrwah, 


8,289 „ 


615,485 


Sanj<Sli Tadr^ 


2,460,, 


150,843i 


Mandah, (Ma- 






Alipiir, 


8,796 „ 


442,466 


h^nd ?) 


107,7 „ 12 


66,693 


Fnkrsbdd, 


1,170 „ 6 


72,355 


Margil,« 


632 „ 18 


39,022 


EhananU, 


4,644,, 


408,804 


Malahmi,* 


151 „ 1 


9,728 


Ghar Chawand, 


6,510 „ 


349,4801 


Nanram, 


»» i» 


288,140 


Eddakhand, 


3,888,, 


243,677 


Nautan, 


3,381 ., 7 


209,153 


Kof£di, 


i> >» 


90,000 


H4fchi, 


2,563 „ 18 


159,79(»i 


Khandi, 


330,, 6 


21,443 


Harni, 


796 „ 17 


50,342 


Kadwari,l 


2,609,, 


142,495 


Hdbf,* 


3,665 „ 8 


230,700 


Hahla, 


15,295 „ 


946,048 









783,425 
2,769,466 
2,370,790 
8,786,040 
1,829,300 



Sarkdr of Eohtds. 

Containing 18 Mahals, 47,334 BigTias 15 Biswas. Revenae, 40,819493 

Bams. Castes various. Cavalry 4,550. Infantry 1d2,000. 

B. & B. B. Dims. 
Ratanpur, has a 

strong fort, 
Sar8f,7 44,710 „ 3 

SahsarAon, 31,220 ., 18 

Fai^pdr bhaiya,50,474 „ 15 
K(5tr^ 29,167 „ 16 

K6t, has a strong 

^o'*^» I, „ 847,920 

Mangr6r, „ „ 924,000 

Nann<5r, 29,621 „ 2,000,000 

The Subah of Ildhdbdd. (Allahabad.) 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from Sinjhauli in the 
Jaunpur district to the southern hills^ is 160 kos ; its breadth from 
Chausa ferry to Ghdtampur 122 kos. On the East is Behdr. To the 
North, Oudh. Bdndhu^ ^lies to the South and Agra to the West. 

Its principal rivers are the Ganges and the Jurrvna, and there are. 
other smaller streams such as the Arand,^^ Ken, Sard (Sarjd), Bama, <fcc. 





B. & B. 


R. Ddms. 


firah, 


53,512 „ 16 


4,028,100 


aojpdr, 


66,078 „ 17 


4,903,310 


Rrt, 


» »> 


3,407,840 


ftnwar. 


22,733 „ 3 


1,677,000 


Ba4g4oo,6 


10,546 „ 17 


842,400 


Jwind, 


45,251 „ 3 


4,440,360 


Jaidar, 


26,538 „ 16 


1,634,110 


Dinwar, 


29,154 „ 4 


2,076,520 


Dinar,' 


}f )> 


350,000 


Kobtas with su- 






burban dist.. 


84,330 „ 19 


2,258,620 



^ In the maps L^wiri. 

* Note Naranga. 

* var. Malhani, T. Malhi. 

* T. Hdti, Gr. Halee, var. Hapi and 
Hawi 

* In the maps, Birahglion. 

* In the maps, Din&rah. 



^ In the maps, Saras. 

• No donbt the Kiimnr range, ont- 
lying the Vindhyan platean. 

* Banda. 

'• The Arand is in the S. nl. M. Jj. 
and in Tisff. Rend. " nne petite riviere 
qni coule a pen de distance de Corra." 



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158 

Its climate is healthy. It produces a variety of fruits, flowers and 
garden herbs, and it has always an abundant supply of melons and grapes. 
Agriculture is in a flourishing state. Jow&ri^ and LaMarah, however, 
do not grow and Moth is scarce. Cloths, such as Jkdli,^ and Mihrhal and 
the like are beautifully woven, especially at Bendres, Jaldldhdd and Mau 
At Jaunpilr, Zafanodl and other places woollen carpets are manufactured. 
A variety of game is also to be found. 

Illahahdd anciently called Priydg was distinguished by His Imperial 
Majesty by the former name. A stone fort was completed and many 
handsome edifices erected. The Hindds regard it as the King of shrines. 
Near it, the Ganges, the Jumna and the Saraswati meet, though the latter 
is not visible. Near the village of Kantat considerable captures of ele- 
phants are made. What is most strange is that when Jupiter enters the 
constellation Leo, a small hill appears from out of the Ganges and remains 
there during the space of one month upon which the people offer divine 
worship. 

Bdrdnasi, universally known as Benares, is a large city situated be- 
tween the two rivers, the Barna and the Aaifi In ancient books, it is styled 
Kdsi, It is built in the shape of a bow of which the Ganges forms the 
string. In former days there was here an idol temple, * round which pro- 
cession was made after the manner of the Tcaghah and similar ceremonials 
of the pilgrims conducted. From time immemorial, it has been the chief 
seat of learning in Hindustan. Crowds of people flock to it from the 
most distant parts for the purpose of instruction to which they apply 
themselves with the most devoted assiduity. Some particulars of its 
history shall be related in what follows. 

In A. H. 410 Sult&n Mal^mud of Ghazni marched hither, and some 
disruption of the old faith was effected. In A. H. 416, he again invaded 
the country. He first invested Gwalior but raised the siege under 
a treaty of peace. He then resolved to take the fort of Kdlinjar, The 
governor sent him 300 elephants vnth his respectful submission and 
proffered some eulogistic verses. Mal^mdd was so much pleased that he 



^ This is now one of the principal 
crops. 

« SeelstVol. pp. 94, 95. 

■ The Asi ia a mere brook and the city 
is situated on the left bank of the Gan- 
ges, between the Bamd Nadi on the N. 
E. and the Asi Nala on the S. W. The 
former rises to the N. of Allahabad and 



has a course of 100 miles. The Asi NalA 
will be foand in James Prinsep's map of 
the city of Benares. From the joint 
names of the two which bound the city, 
N. and S. the Br&hmans derive Yaranad, 
the Sanslait form of Benares. Cnn- 
ninghami Ancient Geog, of India, p. 437. 



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169 

bestowed on him the governorship of the fort together with the charge of 
fourteen other places. 

Jawnpur is a large city. Sultan Firoz (Tughlak) king of Delhi laid 
it6 foundations and named it after his consin Fakhrtiddin Jaanah.^ Its 
loDgitade is 190° 6" ; its latitude 26° 15 '. 

Chanddah (Chanar) is a stone fort on the snmmit of a hill, scarce 
equalled for its loftiness and strength. The river Ganges flows at its foot. 

In its vicinity, there is a tribe of men who go naked, living in the 
wilds, and subsist by their bows and arrows and the game they kill. 
Elephants are also found in the forests. 

KUinjar is a stone fortress situated upon a heaven-reaching^ hill. 
No one can trace its origin. It contains many idol temples and an idol is 
there, called Kdli Bhairon^^ 18 cubits high, of which marvellous tales are 
related. Springs rise within the fort and there are many tanks. Adjoin- 
ing it is a dense forest in which wild elephants, and kestrels and hawks 
and other animals are trapped.^ Ebony is here found and many kinds of 
fraits grow spontaneously. There is also an iron mine. In the neigh- 
Imirhood, within eight kos, the peasants find small diamonds. 

It is said that RAja Kirat Singh the governor of the fort possessed 
fix precious treasures, a learned Brahman of saintly lif e, a youth of great 
beauty and amiable disposition, a parrot that answered any questions 
pat to it and some say, remembered everything that it heard, a musician 
named Bakshti unequalled in the knowledge and practice of his art, and 
two handmaidens lovely to behold and skilled in song. Sultan Bahadur 
Gajrdti having formed a friendship with the Rdjd asked him for one of 
these. The B4jah generously and with a provident wisdom sent him 
Bakshd. Next Sher Eh&n of the House of Sdr requested the gift of the 
two wonderful songstresses, and when his messenger returned without 
them, he invested the fort. Works were erected and the besieged were 
reduced to great straits. In despair, the Baj&, after the manner of the 



* Aooordiog to Tieffenthaler, it was 
named after a womsoi] called Djona 
whoee husband was a herdsman, and 
who founded the city 700 years ago and 
became its eponymons heroine. 

* Its elevation is 1230 feet above sea 
leyeL I preserve the epithet. Ferish- 
ta ascribes the fort to Eedir lUj^, a 
contemporary of Mohammad, bat local le- 
gend connects it with Chandra Brim, 



ancestor of the great Chandel famUy 
of Bajpnts, who removed hither after 
their defeat by Prithi Bdj the Chanhin 
ruler of Delhi. I. Q. 

8 Probably v?:^, a name of Siva, but 
one of his inferior manifestations. 

* This classification of game does not 
betray either the sportsman or the 
naturalist. 



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160 

Hindas who hold their honour dear, burnt his women, for in the slumber- 
ing of his reason, he had set his affections upon the things of this fleeting 
life, and so giving his body to ashes, according to the desire of his enemies, 
he became soiled with the dust of dissolution. As to Sher Khdn, who 
had conceived this wicked design, he fell at the powder magazine when 
the fire opened on the fort and the harvest of his life was consumed.^ 

In the village of Modha high and low are distinguished for their 
comeliness. 

This Suhah contains ten SarkdrSf And 177 Parganahs, Revenue 21 
hrorsy 24 lakhs and 27,819 dams (Rs. 53,10,695-7-9,) and 12 lakhs of 
betel leaves. Of these Parganahs 131 pay revenue from crops charged at 
special rates. Measured land 39,68,018 highas, 3 hiswas, yielding a re- 
venue of 20 krors, 29 lakhs 71,224 dams (Rs. 50,74,280-9). The re- 
maining 46 Parganahs pay the general bigah rate. They are rated at 94 
lakhs, 56,595 dams (Rs. 2,36,424-14). Of this, 1 kror, 11 lakhs, 65,417 
dtirns (Rs. 279,135-6-6,) are Suyurghdl. The province furnishes 11,375 
Cavalry, 237,870 Infantry and 323 elephants. 

Note. — In the names of the parganahs under the following Sarkdrs, I 
have altered the spelling where the variants allow, in accordance with 
Elliot's lists, as his personal acquaintance with their true pronunciatioa 
is probably more correct than those of my previous lists which were 
adapted as far as possible to reconcile the readings of Gladwin and 
Tieffenthaler. The discrepancies are slight and will not interfere with 
their recognition. 



S4bah of Ilahdhdd. 


8uhah 


of Agra, 


Suhah of Ovdh. 


S4bah of Delhi. 


Sarhdrs. 


Sarkdrs, 


Sarkdrs, 


Sarkdrs, 


lUh&bas. 


Agra. 




Garakhpur. 


Delhi. 


Karrah. 


Eanauj. 






Rewari. 


Eorarah (Kora). 


K£lpi. 






Sahiranpfir. 


KAlinjar. 


Kol. 






Hisdr Firozah. 


Jannpiir. 


Tijarab. 






Sambhal. 


Gh&zipdr. 


Irij. 






Bad&on. 


Benares. 


Sahar. 








Chan&r. 











* This took place in 1554. Dnring 
the siege a live shell rebounded from 
the walls into the battery where Sher 
Shib stood and set fire to the gunpow- 



der. He was brought out severely 
burnt and died next day, having pre- 
viously ordered an assault which was at 
once made with success. I. G. 



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161 



Sarkdr of lUhdbdsX 
Containing 11 Mahals^ 573,311 Btghas, 14 Biswas. Of these, 9 Mahals yield 
20,833,374J Ddmsy in money. 8uy4rghdl, 747,0011 Ddms. 
Castes yarious. Cavalry 580. Infantry 7,100. 





Bighas and 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


ghiD. 


1 


1 

1-^ 


Castes. . 


lUhibas, with snbarban 














district: has a stone 














fort 


284,057 


9,267,859 


253,261 


... 


1,000 


Brihman. 


fihaddi, with a brick fort 














OD the bank of the Gan- 














ges ... ••• 


78,252-2 


8,660,918 


37,584 


200 


6,000 


IUjp(it,afew 
Bhar.* 


Jalilabid," 5 MaiuUfl ... 


*•• 


787.220 


... 


10 


400 


Brahman. 


Sorton 


68,932-4 


8,247,127 


161,527 


40 


1,000 


E<jpdt,Chan- 
d61. Brah- 
man. 


Singranr, has a brick fort 














(u the bank of the 














Ganges 


88,636-6 


1,886,066 


74,888 


... 


... 


Brihman,K£- 
yath, Rah- 
matalluhi. 


ftindarp6r ... 


84,756-8 


1,867,704 


92,138 


25 


600 


Brihman. 


Eantifc, has a stone fort on 














the Ganges ... 




856,555 


... 


60 


2,000 


Khand^I ?* 


Uii. (Elliot K6wii) ... 


14,885-3 


721,115 


19,005 


16 


400 


Eijptit, Bi-dh- 
man. 


Kbairagarh, has a stone 














fort on a hill... 


... 


400,000 


... 


200 


6,000 


Rajpfit, Bi- 
r4si?» 


Xah, has a stone fort on 














the hill Alwandfi 


21,982 


1,139,980 


22,495i 


20 


400 


Rijpiit, Ga- 
harw&l 


HWiibis, (now caUed 












JhusL BUiot) 


42,422-5 


2,018,014 


79,078 


20 


400 


EAjptit.Brih- 
man. 



' Changed by Shih Jahin to Ilahab^d 
M the termination hda saronred too 
much of Hindnism. Elliot's Glossary II. 
104. but Mr. Beames considers that bdd 
wu the original Mahammadan termina- 
tion, changed by the lower orders to 
^1 as they continae to call it to this 
day. 

* The Bhars were a powerful tribe 
during the period of Bnddhist asoen- 
dsncy. In Sonthem and Eastern Oadh 
there are many relics of their wealth 
*Bcl power in the shape of tanks, wells, 
emhinkments and deserted sites of brick 
Wt forts and towns. I. G. 

21 



■ Three names follow without diacri- 
tical points, illegible in the MSS. Tieff. 
gires ** Sobehe, Aniiif Bando, Barbar. 

^ A note to the text suggests, Gahctr- 
wdl, one of the 86 royal tribes of Raj- 
puts. 

' This is doubtful and the variants are 

* A note states that in the maps there 
is no hill. Altoand is the name of a 
well-known mountain in Hamadan, 80 
leagues from Ispahan, often employed 
in Persian imagery as a synonym for 
loftiness. 



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162 



SarJcdr of Ohdzipur^ (East) 

Containing 19 Mahals, 288,770 Bighas, 7 Biswas. Bevenae 13,431,9 
Ddmsj in money. Suyurghal, 131,825 Ddms. Castes varioas. 
Cavalry 310. Infantry 16,650. 





Bighas and 
BUwas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


Snydr- 
ghiXD, 


1 


6 
1 


CaBtat. 


BalU 


28,844.16 


1.260.000 




200 


2000 


lUjpdt.* 


Pach<$tar 


13,679-9 


6,982,040 


2,260 


60 


2000 


Do. 


Bilhabia* 


12,306 


652,860 




10 


200 


Do. 


B4briabad 


6,988-10 


856,840 


ii72b 


••• 


200 


Do. 


Bhaldech, (B. Barfioli) ... 


2,265-19 


112,461 




... 


... 




Chaasi, (E. Ghaonsi) ... 


16,602-11 


791,663 


... ... 


10 


600 


Brihman. 


Dibhiy (B. Dihmah) 


2,808-16 


12H,816 


2,077 


... 


50 


R&jp^t. 


Sayyidpur Namdi 


26,721-3 


1,260,280 


18,172 


20 


1000 


Brihman. 


ZaharaUd 


18,802-12 


667,808 


29,528 


600 


20 


Do. 


Ghizipnr with gnburban 












Kayath,Rii. 


diatriot 


12,826-9 


670,350 


89,680 


10 


20 


p6t. 


Kariyafc Pali ... 
Kdpachhit ... ... 


1,394-6 


76,467 




... 


... 




19,266-11 


942,190 


*898 


20 


2000 


Ujpiit. 


Gandhi, (B. Gafhi) 


10,049-10 


600,000 




... 


200 


Do. 


Karendi 


6,260-16 


293,516 


... «•• 


••• 


300 


Do. 


Lakhn^r • (E. T<ftVhneBar) 


2,883-3 


126,636 


834 


... 


... 




Hadan Benares 


66,648-7 


2,760,000 


1,866 


50 


5000 


Brihman. 


Mobammadibid, and Par- 














harbari, 


48,774-16 


2,260,707 


4,777 


2000 


100 


Do. 



Sarkdr of Benares (East.) 

Containing 8 Mahals, 36,869 Bighas, 12 Biswas. Revenue 8,869,315 Dam 

in money. Suyurghdl 3,38,184. Castes varions. 

Cavalry 830. Infantry 8,400. 



Afrady ... ... ... 


10,656-6 


853,226 


20,080 




400 


Brabman, 


BenArea, with mibnrban 












Bijpat. 


district, 


81,667-1 


1,734,721 


22,190 


50 


1000 




ByiiiBi. 


60,961-3 


647,684 


• a.... 


20 


800 


Do. 


Pandarba, (var. and E. Pan- 














drab) 


4,610-16 


844,221 


15,836 


10 


400 


Do. 


KaswAr, 


41,184-14 


2,290,160 


80,120 


50 


2000 


Do. 


Eatebar, baa a brick fort,.. 


30,495-14 


1,874,230 


48,070 


500 


4000 


BagbnTansi. 
Bribman. 


HarhO, 


18,098-8 


713,426 


8,145 


... 


300 



^ Here follows an unintelligible sen- 
tence yarying in four HSS. 
' G. and T. Baliabass. 



" " Lakbnesar " in text witb rar. Lakb- 
ner (see p. 90) in wbioh tbe otbor antbo- 
rities oonoor. 



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163 



Sarkdr of Jaunpur (North). 

Containing 41 MaTuds, 870,265 Bighas, 4 Biswas. Revenae 56,394,107 dams 

in money. Suyurghdl, 4,717,654. Castes yarions. 

Cavalry 915. Infantry 86,000. 





Bighas and 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


Suvdr- 
ghix D. 


1 

6 

60 


1 


Castes. 


Aldimn, 


46,888-12 


8,099,990 


88,976 


3,000 


Bajpdt Bach- 

goti. 
Sayyid, BAy 


AiigU, 


42,992-14 


2,718,661 


464,616 


50 


2,000 














put, and 














Bahmatol- 














labi. 


Bflitari 


17,708 


844,867 


12,620 


10 


100 


Anjari.* 


Bhadion 


4,800 


229,315 


... - 


10 


100 


$addi^i. 


Tilhani 


10,988-8 


664,863 


27,167 


10 


100 


Bdjput. 


Jaonpur with snburbfl, has 














ft fort, the lower part 














•tonoi and the upper ooo- 














i^ctedofbriok 


66,789-4 


4,247,048 


807,821 


120 


2,600 


Bajptit Ko- 
sak. Brah- 
man, Kor- 
mi." 


(Aindip^ Ba^har, (B. Bir- 














^) 


22,826-7 


1,467,206 


167,641 


20 


400 


BahmatalU- 
hi, Briih- 
man. 


Chindah 


17,690 


989,286 


*■••.• 


20 


800 


Bachgoti. 
E£jpSt. 


Chiriyftkot 


14,153 


807,848 


13,689 


20 


200 


Jakcaar (B. Chakegar) ... 


6,416-10 


286,586 




10 


100 


^addiki. 


Kharid. has a brick fort on 














the banks of the Sarah 














(!r) 


80,914-13 


1,445,743 


3,140 


60 


6,000 


BAv^^Lt Kau- 


Kblfpnr T^^oh 


17,866 


986.953 


40,189 


10 


800 


Kiyath. 


KhAnp^r ... ... 


6,628-10 


8,06,020 


6,387 




160 


Kijpdt 
Do.Gantami." 


Deoflr&on 

Un 


44,624-18 


2,683,206 


196,288 


26 


1,000 


24,360 


1,326,299 


84,602 


10 


800 


Eajp6t. 


SftDJhaQU 


46,816-8 


2,938,209 


334,932 


60 


100 


Sayyid, E£j- 
piit, Brah- 
man. 



' These according to the I. G.( Bahraioh) 
wete the descendants of the early Mos- 
mhnaa settlers and invaders. For their 
descent and history, see Blliot I, 7. For 
Bachgoti, see Blliot (Baces of the N.W.P.) 
who says that all Chanhans are Bach- 
gotts, being of the gotra of Bach bnt 
Sherring prores this to be an error, 
isstanoing the gotras of V^atsa and Kyasp. 
Hindu Tribes, I, p. 164. 



S A note sng^g^ests ''Konbhi" or "Gan- 
tami," bnt Enrmi is a well known agri- 
onltnrist caste in Eastern and Central 
Hindustan, being the same essentially as 
the Ennbhis of the west and sonth. 

' A clan of B&jptits of the Chandar- 
bans, once a powerful clan in the Lower 
Doab. See Blliot, p. 118, 1, and Sherr- 
ing, 1, 202. 



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164 





Bighas and 


Beyenne 


Snynr- 


IS 


1 


Castes. 




Biswas. 


D. 


ghalD. 




M 




Sikandarpur, has a brick 












forfc 


82,674.10 


1,706,417 


6,826 


10 


3,000 


Brfihman. 


Ragdf, (E. Sagri) 


19.792 


1,274,721 


102,224 


10 


200 


Eijpiit. 


Sorharpir 


18,851 


1,164,095 


7,094 


10 


20 


Do. 


Sh^didbdd 


80,848-8 


1,700,742 


10,020 


20 


400 


Do. 


?Hfarab4d 


2,622-9 


166,926 


13,806# 


... 


60 


Do. 


Kariyat Mittu ... 


8,991-11 


561,410 


*. • • 


10 


300 


Do. 


„ Dostpur, 


8,857 


481,624 


42,227 


,,, 


100 


Do. 


„ Mendhah 


7,416 


894,870 


21,260 


• •• 


100 


Do. 


„ So^thah 


2,988-10 206,783 


14,224 




100 


Do. 


K<51ab; 


24,281 


1,863,832 


14,971 


10 


800 


Do. 


Ghiswah 


30,776 


1,241,291 


42,366 


10 


2O0 


Do. 


Ghdsi, ... ... 


18,913 


1,037,934 


69.650 


10 


200 


Do. 


Ga<^wdrah 


2,191 


618,942 


2,682 


60 


6,000 


BijpiitBaoii- 

gotl 
Bajpfit. 


Kdndiyah, (E. Kanrii) ... 


6,764.12 


811,890 






200 


Gropdlpur 


8,266-8 


18,043 


4,948 


... 


100 


Do. 


Kai*4kat 


48,882-14 


23,002,748 


77,389 


20 


600 


Do. 


Mandiahd, has a briok fort 














(E. Mariahii) 


88,899-5 


6,269,466 


278,788 


60 


2,000 


R^jptit Kau. 

sik. 
Edjput,Brih. 




66,860-14 


8,229,068 


220,442 


80 


1,000 


Mungra 


9,626-6 


629,730 




••• 


200 


man. 
Riljpdt. 


Majhinra 


6,417-6 


420,164 


i4,4a7 


... 


200 


Bahmatdl- 

Ubi. 
Shaikh si- 

dah. 
Rajpdt Gaa- 


Man ... 


2,646.8 


209,067 





• •. 


60 


Ni?am4btd 


6,074-18 


602,592 


478,026 


200 


4,000 














tami, Brah- 














man, Rah- 














matiillahL 


Negdn 


10,146 


75R,796 


145,860 




200 


Br&hman. 


Xathdptir 


4,948-14 


273,472 


21,239 


10 


200 


l^addDu. 



Sarkdr of MdniJqntr. 

Containing 14 Mahals^ 666,222 Bighas, 5 Biswas. Revenue 33,916,527 

Ddms in money. Suyurghdl, 8,446,173. Castes various. 

Cavalry 2,040. Infantry, 2,900. 



Arwal, has a brick fort ... 


62,131-10 


2,957,077 


87 520 


114 


7,000 


Rajpfit. 


BhaWl 


82,843.3 


1,832,288 


175,763 


20 


500 


Eijput, Ki. 
yath, Bao- 
riya.* 


Tilhandi 


11,721-6 


388,251 


64,821 


10 


800 


Do. 


Jalalpiir Balkhar, has a 














brick fort 


76,617.8 


3,918,017 


140,326 


400 


5,000 


Bachgoti, 
Brahman. 



1 Var, Granriya, Pnriya : perhaps Ba- 
oria a tribe of professional thieves 
widely spread, and in a loose way, a dis- 



tinct caste. I. G. under, Rajpotana and 
Sherring II. 82. 



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165 





Bigbae and 


Eevenae 


Sayur- 




c 


Castes 




Biswas. 


D. 


gh£l D. 




5 

1— 1 




JUi, has a brick fort, (I. 














G.Jais) 


25,625 


1,424,737 


277,868 


260 


7,000 


YarioQS. 


D8imau,hasabrick fort on 














the Ganges ... 


67,508-9 


3,626,067 


844,130 


50 


200 


Turkoman. 


Bae Bareli, has a brick fort 














on the Sal ... 


65,751-17 


8,650,984 


180,080 


40 


2,000 


E4ip(it, 
Khand, 
Baoria. 


SaloDi has » briok fort ... 


66.102 


2.717,391 


894,774 


180 


8,900 


B^p6t 
Khandwil,* 
Bisen. 














Kir7^Ear£rah... 


51,505-19 


2,461,077 


115,774 


20 


700 


Edjptit, 
Bisen. 


» P^egih 


22,130 


1,117,926 


6,794 


20 


400 


Do. do. 


EiM^hasabHokfort... 


9,456-8 


514,909 


8,187 


100 


2,000 


Baohgoti. 


Minikpflr with suburbs, 














has a brick fort on the 














Ganges 


129,830-1 


6,737,729 


612,312 


500 


6,000 


Bis^n. 


Wrtbid 


55,599-4 


2,582,079 


108,148 


40 


1,000 


Rijpdt, K4- 










yfttb, Bao- 










ria, Bais. 



Sarkdr of Chanddak, {Ohandr,) South. 

Contaaning 13 Mahals, 106,270 Bighas, 8 Biswas. Revenue 5,810,654i 

Ddms, in money. Suyurghdlf 109,065. Cavalry 500. 

Infantry 18,000. 





Bighas and 


Eevenue 


Suyur- 


'3 


! 


Castes. 




Biswas. 


D. 


gh&l D. 




Ahirwarah 


1,858-8 


109,073 






..• 




Bhdii, (B. Bhfifli) 


18,975-10 


1,112,656 


33,605 


... 






Badhaul, (B Barhaul) ... 


6,412-11 


861,364 


605 




.,, 




Tandah 




488,010 





... 






Ghanidah, with suburban 


12,939-14 


833,908 


8,467 


500 


18,000 


Saddiki, 


district, has a stone fort. 












FaruVi, 
Ansari. 


Dh6s 


4,274-10 


235,644 


14,548 


... 


... 




R^hfipdr, (now pro- 














nounoed Rahfipur B.) ... 


7,267-12 


451,962 


17,869 


... 


... 




Tfllages, this side of th^ 














river 


18,098 


846,371 


14,492 


... 


... 




Ifojhwirdh 


9,812-8 


649,817 


14.597 




• *• 




Hahaich 


7,950-2 


390,609 


2,069 


... 


... 




Mahwari 


4.878-3 


227,067 





... 


... 




lUhdi, (£. Maw^) 


4,301-2 


206,283 


8,853 


... 


• a. 





* Sharring gives the name of Khond' | 
eMU to a trading caste in Bhurtpdr. I 



III, 52. 



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166 



Sarkdr of BliatKkhora} (South.) . 

Containing 89 Mahals, Bevenne^ 7,262,780 DdmSf in money. 
Cavalry 4,304. Elephants 200. Infantry 57,000. 



Sarkdr of Kdlinjar^ (South.) 

Containing 11 Mahali. Measured land, 508,273 Bighas, 12 Bitwas. 

Revenue 23,839,470 Ddma, in money. Suyurghdl 614,580 Bdms, 

Castes various. Cavalry 1,210. Elephats 112. 

Infantry 18,100. 





Bigbas and 
Biswas. 


Hevenae 
D. 


Snyilir- 
gbilD. 


1 


"a 

>-• 


j 


Castes. 


VgniaU hM a brick fort, (B. 
















Ugisi) 


58,963-6 


2,502,893 


60,776 


400 


5,000 


10 


Sayyid, 
Ga^hwal, 


Ajaigarb, bas a stone fort 














Parihir.* 


on a bill 


.••... 


200,000 




20 


2,000 


10 


Gond. 


Sendba, (B. 8ib<$nd£) bas 
















a stone fort on tbe Ken... 


138,467-12 


6,262,8331 


129,412 


20 


3,000 


26 


Gond, Chan- 
del, Ac. 


Simannf, bas a brick fort... 


48,866-3 


2,247,346 


16,300 


300 


3,000 


... 


Kbandwa 


Sb&dipur, bas a stone 
















fort 


62,765-16 


2,798,329i 


96,312 


40 


700 


... 


Mjpdt, Ac 




11,988-10 


612,026 




60 


100 


20 


Bbar,Bai8. 


K&linjar witb snbnrban 
















district 


22,494 


970,269 


130,490 


20 


600 


7 




Kbar^lab, bas a brick 
















fort 


25,940-1 


1,275,326 




60 


1,500 


... 


Bdjpnt, Bail. 


Mabob^ bas a stone fort. 
















and eaob side of tbe 
















yOlage is flanked by two 
















bigb bills 


81,667-13 


4,042,014 
4 120,000 
pdn leaves. 


860,528 


100 


3,000 


40 


Bagri. 


Mindbi, bas a stone fort... 


62,530-7 


2,998,062 


154,062 


30 


400 




Rabmatn'l- 
Uhi. Pari, 
b&r. 



^ G. Bnbtgorab. Tieif, omits it. 

' One of tbe 4 Agniknla or Fire-races, 
tbe otbers being Pramir, Solankbi and 
Gbanblin. See BUiot, I, 68. Tbe Bigri 
are a tribe inbabiting tbe B^lgar country, 
a tract between tbe S.-W. border of 



Hariana and tbe Gb&ra. BIgar is also 
tbe name of a tract in Milwab, but in 
tbe N.-W. P. applied to tbe Bigri Jats 
of Hissir and Bbattiina. Slliot, I, 
9-10. 



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167 



Bark&r of Korardh (Corah,) West. 

Containing 9 MdhaU, 341,170, Bighas, 10 Biswat, Bevenne 17,397,567 

Dams. Suyurghdl 469,350 Ddma. Gasfces yarioos. Cavalry 500. 

Elephants 10. Infantry 15,000. 





Bigbas and 
Biswas. 


Rerenae 
D. 


Snyiir- 
gb&lD. 


1 

200 


1 


i 


Castes. 


Jijmlo, lias a fort on the 


62,196-10 


8,106,846 


189,986 


4,000 


7 


Afgb&n 


Qanges 














Lodhi, My 
p6t, Bais. 


Konrah,* with snbarban 


124,748-12 


6,771,891 


267,878 


50 


800 


... 


Brihman. 


district, haa a brick fort 
















(mthe Arand... 
















Gbitampiir 


78,876-8 


8,667,664 


48,664 


100 


2,000 


10 


R£jpiit D(- 
khifc (Di- 
kshit) E&- 
yath 

BrAbman. 


Xajhiwan 


26,980-8 


1,823,889 


2,574 


20 


1,000 




litii 


12,178-11 


684,274 


20,816 


80 


1,000 




Rijput Gml- 
tami. 


Gin^ 


10,041-19 


618,497 




20 


1,000 


... 


Do. 


Innpdr Kinir, (Elliot 


17,966 


880,070 




30 


1,000 


... 


Do. 


Uratpdr Kaninda) 
















l*anpiir 


18,181 


600,586 




60 


2,000 


2 


RiLjpdt 
















Chandel. 



Sarkdr of Karrah,^ (West.) 

Containing 12 Mahals, U7,6h6'B%ghas, 19 Biswas, Revenne, 22,682,048 

Dams, Suyurghal, 1,498,862 Ddms, Castes various. 

Cavalry 390. Infantry 8,700. 





Bigbas and 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


Suy6r- 
gbil D. 


1 
O 

10 
10 
10 




s 


Castes. 


Kiehhi, (Elliot Bncbbi) ... 
Atharban 

^n»i 


86,825-11 
18,617-14 
16,783-11 


l,624,084i 
894,036^ 
846,766 


84,974 
4,770 


600 
200 
6<H) 


•• 


RiLjpfit, 
Do. 
Do. 



* Elliot. (3/ Tbe S-nl-M tj/ A 

^Msyed town in Fatebpdr district ; f or- 
nwriy the capital of this Sark^ under 
the Hugbals : it still retains traces of 
iti former importance. A few words 
foQow this name which are either omit- 
ted or illegible in the other HSS. 
l-ftenny they run thns: "And there 
M » village called Ndmi which prodnces 
flowers and oolonr." Perhaps, a dye. 
'or the Dikhit tribe of Rajputs. See 
HKot,I,88. 

* The text has !^ and at p. 849 



^ Tbe Utter is correct. "In 1876, 
the fief of Karra, Mahoba and D&laman 
were united under one governor called 
Malik u's Shar^. Akbar removed the 
seat of government to Allahabad, which 
henceforth superseded Earra in im- 
portance *' I. G. Earrah is now a ruined 
town on tbe right bank of tbe Ganges, 
40 mUes N.-W. of AUahibAd. It was 
the scene of the famous meeting be* 
tween Muizu'ddin and his father in 1286 
which forms the subject of Mir Ebusm's 
well-known Persian Epic, the Eirinn's 
Saadain. 



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168 





Bighas and 
Biswas. 


Eevenne 
D. 


Suyur- 
gbalD. 


! 


1 


00 

1 


Gsfltes. 


Haveli, fsnburban district) 
















of Karrah 


9,638-17 


6,192,170 


442,080 


100 


J, 000 




Kiiyath.B&j. 
piit, Brih. 
man, KharL* 


lULri 


66,727-18 


2,707,084 


26,350 


10 


4,000 




Eijpfit, 


BaldahSof Earrah, has a 














ffrj^bTn%"T 


fort on the (Janges, 
















lower part stone, npper, 
















brick 


70,001-12 


236,868 




... 


••* 




Various. 


Karari, has a brick fort on 
















the Jnmna ... 


89,686-19 


141,953 


,,..„ 


«•• 


... 






TL6t\i 


18,043-1 


909,234 


122,191 


10 


300 




Brihman, 


K^9r£, commonly K<5s6n, 














Eajpiit. 


(Elliot, Karson),^ baa a 
















brick fort 


11,782-9 


698,487i 




100 


2,000 




Various. 


Fatebpnr Hanswah, (EtUot 
















Haswa) 


65,916-8 


2,892,705 


370,420 


50 


1,000 




Rijpdt, 
Brahman. 


Hatgaov 


55,322-12 


2,728,508i 


24,829 


40 


1,000 




Do. 


Hai^swah 


42,621-3 


2,123,661i 


16,606 


30 


1,000 




Afghan, 
Bajpdt. 



Its rulers, 

Sultinu's Sharif reigned, 16 years. 

Mubarak Shah „ 1 year aad a fraction. 

Sult&n Ibrahim „ 40 years „ 

SuUan Mal^aidd „ 21 years and a few mouths. 

Ma^raud^ Shah „ 5 months. 

Hnsain „ 19 years. 

These six princes held sway for 97 years and a few months. 
This province was formerly administered by the sovereigns of Delbi. 
When the imperial authority devolved on Sultin Mahmlid-b-SuHin 
Mufeammad-b-Firdz Shah, he bestowed the title of Saltan us Shark upoa 



* Elliot makes the ^^Kharris" a 
division of GFanr K^yaths. 

■ Mr. Beames in a note to Elliot's 
Gloss., p. 88, II, distingnishes between 
Eaveli and Baldaht the former alluding 
to the district close to the Capital and 
the latter to that at a distance. It would 
have been more satisfactory had he 
determined the limits of the distance. 



It cannot be far, as Elliot at p 107, says 
that the distinction between Haveli and 
Baldah Earra has been lost as separate 
ParganahSf both being in Parganah 
Karra. 

• T. Kurson, G. Kursoon. 

* A note corrects the name as Mui^m- 
msd Sh^. 



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169 

Malik Sarwar a ennuob who bad received from his predecessor the 
dignity of Khdn-i-Jahdn, and sent him to this province.^ Ho gave lustre to 
his reign by his judgment, clemency, justice and valour and thus garnered 
a provision for his life's last journey. When the cup of his days was full, 
the son whom he had adopted, named Mubirak l^aranf ul, by the assistance 
of the chief men of the State, raised himself to power and had the khutbah 
read and the coin struck in his own name. When the news of this event 
reached Mallti (Khdn^) he collected troops and marched from Delhi to 
oppose him and encamped in readiness for battle on the banks of the 
Ganges,^ but nothing decisive having been efiEected, both armies returned 



When this prince died, his younger brother Ibrahim was raised to the 
throne. By his knowledge of men and capacity for affairs he administered 
the kingdom with justice and made the chastisement of the unruly a source 
«f prosperity to his government. Wisdom was eagerly sought and the 
(mpects of the intelligent in every profession were advanced, l^izi 
SUulbu'ddin,^ a sage of Hindustan flourished about this time. He was 
ha at Delhi and in that city acquired a comprehensive knowledge of the 
ndnctive sciences and traditional lore, and at the time of the arrival of 
Timnr, he set out for Jaunpdr in the company of his master Maulana 



^ In the aocount of the rnlers of 
Xflwah later on, Halik Sarwar is said 
to hare been appointed to Jaanpur by 
Mntammad son of Piroz Qhih, father of 
Mahmiid. The latter's accession dates 
from 1393, whereas Malik Sarwar was 
aeatto Jannpiir in 1388. 

' This is a capital instance of the 
abruptness and obscurity of Abnl Fazl. 
Without a knowledge of contemporary 
Ustoiy (and in this case, of details which 
^ uthor had no warrant to anticipate 
in His leaders) this passage woald not be 
ti^j understood. The S. n1. M. has 
f ondthed me with the completion of the 
naoie and information as to its bearer. 
He WIS one of the chief nobles of the 
court of Mubarak's father. 

• At Kanauj in 1401. The dates of 
tbe nrions authorities do not agree. The 
L Q. makes the length of the first reign 
IS yoan instead of 16 : Tieffenthaler only 

22 



6 between A. 


H. 796 and 802. (A. D. 


1393-99.) 




According to 


the Useful Tables the 


line runs thus : 




A. H. A. D. 




800 1397. 


Khoja Jehan, Subah- 




dar of Kanauj, Oudh, 




Kora, and Jaunpur 




asjumed indepen- 




dence. 


803. 1400. 


Mubirik Sh£h his 




adopted son. 


804. 1401. 


Shems ud din Ibrahim 




Qhih Sharki. 


845. 1441. 


Mahmud Shih-b-Ibra- 




him. 


866. 1451. 


Husen Shih-b-Mah- 




mud-b-lbrahimShah. 


883. 1478. 





the court of Aland 
din of Bengal where 
he died in 906 A. H. 
Known as Malik u*! Ulam&. 



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170 



Eliw&jagi who was the successor of Na^fra'ddin Chir&gh^ of Delhi and 
there continued his progress and became the envy of his time. Shih 
Maddr, however, who is esteemed one of the saints of Hindustan and 
the chief of his contemporaj series of divines, through the disagreement 
that ever exists between philosophers who regard the material world, 
and masters of the spiritual life, entertained no esteem for the EJai, 

When the days of Ibrahim came to a close, his eldest son Bikhan' 
Khan, under the name of Snlfan Mal^mud, assumed the sovereignty. As 
his deeds were not approved, the sentence of deposition was issued against 
him and his brother Husain^ raised to power. He made rectitude his rale 
of conduct and his chief object the conciliation of all hearts. Fortnne 
favoured his desires and the world praised him but intoxicated by the 
maddening fumes of worldly^ success, he became arrogant. He v^as iuvolved 
in war with Sulfdn Bahlol and was defeated. Sultdn Bahlol left^ his son 
Bdrbak at Jaunptlr and entrusted him with the goverument. On the death 
of Sultan Bahlol the throne of Delhi devolved on SulfAn Sikandar. 
Sultan Husain with the connivance of Birbak collected troops, made 
several attempts against Delhi, but with him the Sharhi dynasty closed.^ 

The Suhah of Oudh, 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from the Sarkir of 
Oorakhpur to Kanauj is 135 kos. Its breadth from the northern mountains 
to Sidhpurf on the frontier of the Suhah of Allahabad is 115 kos. To the 
east is Behar ; to the north, the mountains ; to the south, ManihpuTy and 



^ A short biog^phioal notice of him 
will be found at conclusion of Ferishta's 
history. 

• So the text The 8 nl. M. " Bhikan." 

' There was an interval of 5 months 
dnring wich Mn^^mmad son of Ma^mtid 
lived through his brief day of power 
which he stained with omelty. He was 
assassinated, on account of his bmtal 
treatment of his brothers. 

^ The text has an evident error of 
ij^,^ for ^^ J see p. 5 Vol I. (Preface 
to text) for the peculiar orthography of 
the Ain. 

• In 1478. 

* Jaunpiir continued to be governed 
by the Lodi dynasty till the defeat and 
death of Ibrahim grandson of Bahlol and 



last of the line, at Panipat by Bihar in 
1526. A local kingdom was for a short ^ 
time established under Bahadur Khin 
governor of Jaunptlr who asserted his 
independence. It was recovered by 
Humay^, passed again into the hands 
of Sher Kh&n and his son Salim. Hn- 
mayun on his reconqueet of Hindustin 
died before he could master his eastern 
possessions. Jaunpur continued under 
the Af ghins until Akbar in the 4th year 
of his reign, took possession of it 
through Ali Eiili Ehin and incorpora- 
ted it with his dominions. In 1575 the 
Yioeregal Court was removed to Al- 
lahabad and Jaunpur was governed 
thenceforth by a Nizam. 
* This name is not traceable. 



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171 



to tbe west, Kanauj. Its olimate is good, Sammer and winter are nearly 
temperate. Its principal streams are the Sari {Sarji), the Ohaghar 
{Oogra) the Sai and the Oodi (Oumti), In the first mentioned, divers 
aquatic animals and forms of strange appearance show themselves. Agricul* 
tue 18 in a flonrishing state, especially rice of the kinds called Sukhdds, 
Madkhar, and Jhanwdh,^ which for whiteness, delicacy, fragrance and 
wholesomeness are scarcely to be matched. They sow their rice three 
months earlier than in other parts of Hindustan. When the drought begins, 
the Sai and the Gogra rise high in flood and before the beginning of the 
rains, the land is inundated, and as the waters rise, the stalks of rice shoot up 
and proportionately lengthen : the crop, however, is destroyed if the floods 
are in full force before the rice is in ear. Mowers, fruit and game are 
alnmdant. Wild bulEaloes are numerous. When the plains are inundated 
the animals take to the high ground where the people find sport in hunting 
ttem. Some of the animals remain all day in the water and only at night 
^preach the dry ground and breathe in freedom. AwadJfi is one of the 
latest cities of India. In is situated in longitude 118^, 6', and latitude 
Wy 22'. It ancient times its populous site covered an extent of 148 hos 
A length and 36 in breadth, and it is esteemed one of the holiest places 
at antiquity. Around the environs of the city, they sift the earth and 
gold is obtained. It was the residence of B&machandra^ who in the Treta^ 
agp combined in his own person both the spiritual supremacy and the 
kmgly office. 

At the distance of one ho8 from the city, the (hgra, after its junction 
with the Sai, flows belows the fort. Near the city stand two considerable 
tombs of six and seven yards in length respectively. The vulgar believe 
Ihem to be the resting-places of Seth and the prophet Job, and extra- 
ordinary tales are related of them. Some say that at Battanpur is the 
tomb of Kabir^^ the assertor of the unity of Ood. The portals of spiri- 
tual discernment were partly opened to him and he discarded the effete 



* Uroally " Jhanwin." 
■ Ajodhya. 

* The 7th avatdr, who in this capital 
d the Bolar dynasty founded on the 
cbdioi wheel of Brahma, consnmmated 
theg^es of sixty generations of solar 
ftiBoes and as the incarnate "ELimi, is 
^ hero of the famous epic that bears 
Inmame. 

* A misprint in the text of 4y for 



^ For an account of this Vishnuvite 
reformer I refer to the I. G. (2nd ed. VI, 
p. 218). His doctrines were preached 
between A. D. 1380 and 1420 and at. 
tempted the union of Hindu and Mu\^am- 
madan in the worship of one God whether 
invoked as Ali or B&ma. On his decease 
both these sects claimed the body and 
while they contested it, Kabir sud- 
denly stood in their midst and com- 
manding them to look under the shroud' 



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172 



doctrines of hi?^ own time. Nnmerooa verses in the Hindi langnage are 
still extant of him containing important theological tmths. Bahraich is 
a large town on the banks of the river Sarju. Its environs are delightful 
with numerous gardens. Sdldr Mas^ud^ and Rajab 8i\&r are both buried 
here. The common people of the Muhammadan faith greatly reverence 
this spot and pilgrims visit it from distant parts, forming themselves in 
bands and bearing gilded banners. The first mentioned was connected by 
blood with Mal^tid Ghazni, and sold his life bravely in battle and left 
an unperishable name. The second was the father of Sultan FinSz king of 
Delhi and won renown by the rectitude of his life. 

In the vicinity of the town, there is a village called Dokon which for 
a long time possessed a mint for copper coinage. 

From the northern mountains quantities of g^ds are carried on the 
backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats, such as gold, copper, lead, 
musk, tails^ of the kufds cow, honey, chuk (an acid composed of orange juice 
and lemon boiled together), pomegranate seeds, ginger, long pepper, majit^ 
root, borax, zedoary, wax, woollen stuffs, wooden ware, hawks, falcons, 
black falcons, merlins, and other articles. In exchange they carry back 
white and coloured cloths, amber, salt, assafoetida, ornaments, glass and 
earthen ware. 

Nimhhdr is a fort of considerable note and a shrine of great resort. 
The river Godi (Ghimti) flows near it, and around are numerous temples. 
There is a tank called Brahmdwartkund in which the water boils and 
with such a swirl, that a man cannot sink therein,* and it ejects whatever 



vanished. A heap of beautiful flowers 
was there discovered, which, divided 
among the rival worshippers, were bu- 
ried or burnt according to their re- 
spective rites. Pilgrims from upper 
India to this day beg a spoonful of rice 
water from the Kabir Monastery at 
Puri in Bengal. 

* Under the orders of Ma^mtid of 
Ghaznl, he penetrated the country in 
A. D. 1033, but was eventually defeated 
at Bahraich and fell fighting, aafiguine 
purpuratum, as Tieffenthaler writes, 
crowned with the double glories of the 
hero and the martyr. 

' It would seem from a passage of 
Ferishta mentioning an inroad of 
Tibetans into Kashmir in the reign 



of Ibrahim, son of N£suk Shih (p. 
359, II) that the yik is meant. The 
Kashmiris retaliated by pursuing the 
marauders, and exacting as compensa- 
tion 500 horses, 1000 pieces of paU4, 
200 sheep and 50 kutis cows ( u^^ ^1 
Later on, it is mentioned by Abul Fail 
among the fauna of India and described 
as little differing from the common cow 
except in the tail which is a distinguish- 
iog peculiarity, and the origin of its 
name, hutds, 

* Eubia Munjista, Boxb. a native of 
Nepal and other mountainous countries 
N.-E. of Beng^. Its root yields a red 
dye. 

* Tieffenthaler asserts that it derivef 
its name from Brahma who is supposed 



Digitized by 



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173 

is tbrown into it. In the neighbonrhood is also a deep hollow, the spring- 
head of a small stream one yard in breadth and four digits deep that flows 
into the Gnmti. The Brdhmans tell strange tales of it and pay it wor- 
ship. It^ aand shapes itself into the form of Mahddeo which qnicklj 
disappears again and of whatever is thrown in, as rice and the like, no 
trace remains. 

There is likewise a place called GhardmiH, whence, daring the Holt 
festival, flames spontaneously issue forth with astonishing effect. 

Lucknow is a large city on the banks of the Oumti, delightful in its 
surroondings. Shaikh Mina whom the people consider a saint, lies buried 
here. 

Surajkand is a place of worship frequented bj yariooB classes of 
people from the most distant places. 

Khert is a town on the banks of the river Sat upon which the people 
go in boats to spear fish. 

Bilgrdm is a small town the air of which is healthy and its inhabitants 
are generally distinguished for their quick wit and their love of singing. 
There is a well here which adds to the intelligence and comeliness of 
▼homsoever drinks of it for forty days. 

This Suhah is divided into five Sarkdrs and thirty-eight parganas. 
The measured lands are 1 kror, 1 lakh, 71,180 highas. Its revenue, 20 
hrors, 17 lakhs, 58,172 dams, (Rs. 6,043,954-4), of which 85 lakhs, 21,658 
dams (Bs, 213,041-7,) are SuyurghdL The provincial force consists of 
7,640 Cavalry, 168,250, Infantry and 59 Elephants. 

Sarkdr of Oudh. 

Containing 21 MehaU, 2,796,206 Bigahs, 19 Bisivahs, Revenue, 
40,956,347 Bdms in money. Suyurgh&l, 1,680,248 Dims. Castes various. 
Cavalry 1340, Elephants 23, Infantry 31,700. 





Bighas 
Biswas, 


Bevenne 


m 


1 


1 




Castes. 


Oodfa, with suburban 

Anb^dlia, has a briok 

^'ort, ^ 

ibrahimab^d, 


88,649-17 

282,037 
19,838-8 


2,008,866 

1,298,724 
445,417 


158,741 

7,318 
103,806 


5 

80 


600 
700 


... 


Brahman 
Knmbi. 

Bais. 
Ansari. 


to have sacrificed here, b 
the I. G. there is a le£ 
of these tanks, B£m6 wa 


nt aooordin 
fend that in 
tshed away 


gto 
one 
his 


8 

I 
I 


in of ha^ 
)er8on of 
Lis wifeS 


ring 
Rava 
ita. • 


slain I 
tna, wl 


\ Br 
10 ha 


^man in the 
A carried off 



Digitized by 



Google 



174 





Biffbas 
Biswaa. 


Bevenae 
D. 


1- 


M 


1 


i 


Cayabj. 


Anli6nah, has a brick 














fort, 


74,090 


1,268,470 


••• 


100 


2,000 


... 


Gbanban, 
newly oon- 
yertedto 
IsUm.' 


Paohhamrith, 


289,086 


4,247,104 


88,886 


20 


600 


... 


B&jpiit,6£ch. 
bal,Gbelot. 
BacbgotL 


Bilehri, has a briok fort, 


16,859 


816,881 




60 


2,000 


... 


Ba8<$dhi, 


81,188 


606,478 


1,600 


20 


600 


... 


Do. 


Th£nah Bhadiof. 


8,708-2 


427,609 


86,172 




1,000 


... 


Do. 


Bakthi, 


44,401 


886,008 


8,960 


••• 


600 


... 


Do. 


DBTjihid, has a brick 
















fort, ^ 


487,014 


5,869,621 


226,871 


100 


2,000 


... 


B£jpdtCbaa- 
bto, Raik- 


Bndanli, baa a brick fort. 


861,683 


8,248,680 


269,083 


60 


2,000 


*•• 


wir.* 
Bajpnt,Ghaa- 
bin, Bais. 


Sflak, do. 


671,071 


4,728,209 


200,946 


100 


2,000 


... 


R&jpnt, Raik. 

wir. 
Baobgoti. 


Snltinpnr do. 


76,898 


8,832,680 


98,967 


200 


7,000 


8 


Satanpnr, do. 


80,164 


1,600,741 


109,788 


300 


4,000 


... 


Bais, newly 
converted to 
l8Um,Bach. 






























goti, Josbi. 


Snbeba," 


104,780 


1,609,293 


87,200 


30 


1,000 


... 


Rijpiit. 


Sarwap^-, 


68,170 


1,210,885 


47,107 


... 


1,000 


... 


BacbgotL 


8atrikah(Satrikh,I.a.) 


87,041 


1,126,296 


92,696 


20 


1,000 


.•• 


Anfiiri. 


Gaw^hak, 


79,168 


8,778,417 


8,782 


60 


1,070 


... 


Baikwir. 


Eishni, has a brick fort. 


26,674 


1,889,286 


123,847 


••• 


1,600 


8 


Bijpiit. 


Hangalsi, 


116,401 


1,860,763 


86,604 


20 


1,000 


... 


SomblaiBL 


Naipar, 


6,997 


808,788 


2,940 


... 


600 


... 


Variona. 



BarkAr of Oorahhp4r^ 
Gontaming 24 Mahals, 244,283 Bighas, 13 Biswas. Revenue 11,926,790 



^ Sberring mentions a clan of tbese 
oonyerts in Obait division of AUababad 
Dist. 1, 162. 

S Tbe origin of tbis tribe is given in 
tbe L G. (Babraiob) and tbeir settle- 
ments in Sberring I, 219. 

• In text *rt** ? witb a note of in- 
terrogation. Snbeba is a well-known 
parganah in BIra Banki District. In 
tbe I. G. its area is recorded as 88 



square miles, or 66,467 acres of wbich 
30,788 are cultivated. Ck>vt. land le- 
venue £6611. In Akbar's time accord- 
ing to tbe above figures Bs. 40,282-7, 
and tbe average, taking tbe bfgba at { 
of an acre, 65,487i acres nearly. 

^ An inferior tribe of Brabroans em- 
ployed in casting nativities. Elliot I, 
140. 



Digitized by 



Google 



175 

Dam in money. Suyurghal 51,235 Dams. Castes varioos. Cavalry 1,010. 
Infantry 22,000. 





Blghas 
Biswas. 


BeTonoe 
D. 


I- 

OQ 


1 


M 


4 


Castes^ 


ltraiiU,haiabriokfort, 


82,052 


1,897,867 


6,986 


60 


1,600 


..■ 


Afghin-i-Mi- 
y6nah.» 


AnhanU, 


4,114-17 


201,120 


2,170 


«•• 


400 


... 


Bison. 


Bmiikpdr, has a briok 
















lorty ••• ••• ••• 


18,867-7 


600,000 




400 


8,000 


... 


B&jpdt Sd- 
rajbansL 


BiabhAiip4rah, (E. Bam- 
















bm, p. ) ••• ... 


6,688 


414,194 




••• 


2,000 


... 


lUjpiit. 


Bhaawipteh, 


8,106-16 


.166,900 


••.*.. 




200 


... 


Bisen. 


ttipdr, has a briok fort, 


9,006-17 


400,000 




100 


2,000 


•• 


B&jp6t S6- 

raibansf. 
B&]put. 


Ohflnpirah, do. 
Buyip^rah (£. Dhnria, 


6,686-14 


289,802 


••• • 




2,000 


















P- ) 


8,1867-19 


1,617,078 


6,067 


60 


400 


... 


Bia^n. 


Dewlp^rahaiidKotlah,* 
















SmahalB 


16,194-17 


717,840 


, 


20 


2,000 


•«. 


Do. 


Bihli, (or Budanli) ... 


88,188-19 


1,618,074 


20,878 


... 


1000 


... 


lUijpdt Bisen. 


Bu^pur and Ghod, 
















2 mahalB, (£. GhaiiB 
















6» 


4,200 


622,080 






600 


... 


Sombansf. 


B&mgarb and Ganri, 
















SmahaLi, ... 


10,762 


486,948 




^ 


... 


... 


Do., troops 
entered 
under Bi- 
n&ikpiir. 


Gonklipdr with Bubnr- 
















ban diBtriot, has a 
















brick fort on - the 
















Kapti, 


12,666-8 


667,886 


8,919 


40 


200 


... 


S&rajbansL 


Kapli, has a briok 
















fort, 


900-12 


40,000 




800 


2000 


... 


Bansi. 


















Bibk, p.) 


16,012 


426,846 




20 


800 


• •• 


Bisen. 


Mahanli, Do. ... 


2,628 


618,266 




... 


2000 


... 


Bisen. 


]laD4wah, ••• 


1,909-19 


462,321 


.*.... 


20 


600 


... 


SombansL 


Manflah, 


1,262-6 


61,100 




... 


... 


... 




Maghar and Batanpiir. 
















2mahals,hasabrick 
















MW, ••• ... 


26,062 


1,862,686 


16,771 


... 


2000 


•• 


Bisen, Bai8« 



* See YoL I, pp. 466 and 506 ; see also 
Shenrmg n, 248: also Afghan tribes 
rdarlcarof Eibnl. 



* EUiot, Dhlwip&ra Enhini. 



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Google 



176 

Sarkdr of Bahraich, 

Containing 11 Mahals, 1,823,435 Bighas, 8 Biswas, Reyenue 24,120,525 
Dams in money. Suyurghal, 466,482 Ddms, Castes various. Cavalry 
1,170. Infantry 14,000. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Rerenne 
D. 


1. 


1 


i 


1 


Castes. 








^ 


Ss 


^ 


i} 










m 


o 


l-H 


» 




Bahraich with suburban 
















district has a fort on 
















the river SarjA 


697,231 


9,189,141 


402,111 


600 


4,500 


•.. 


Rijpiit. 


Bahrah 


926 


87,185 


, 


••• 


500 


••. 


Kahnahi 


Hus4mpur, has a brick 
















fort 


157,416 


4,707,035 


1,601 


70 


900 


... 


Raikwir,Bi* 


D&ngddn 


84,436 


440,562 


••• ■•• 




2,000 




JanwiiT.* 


Kajhat 


4,064-11 


166,780 




... 


1,000 


... 


Ditto. 


Sinjhanli — •.. 


124,810 


877,007 





... 


... 


... 


E^jpdt Jan- 


Snltinptir 


58,146 


166,001 


••«... 


».• 


700 


... 


Janwir. 


Fakhrpiir, has a brick 
















fort 


191,720 


8,157,876 


56,085 


150 


2,000 


•• 


Raikwar. 


Ffrozabdd, ditto ... 


108,601 


1,933,079 


4,107 


200 


7,000 


••• 


^s;u/ 


Fort of Nawagarh 


417,601 


2,140,858 




50 


1,000 


... 


Various. 


Eharonsa, has a brick 
















fort 


28,489-17 


1,316,051 


2,628 


100 


1,000 


... 


Bais. 



Sarhdr of Khairdh&d, 

Containing 2"^ Mahals, 1,987,700 Bighas, 6 Bwwtw. Revenue, 43,644,381 
Ddms in money. Suyurghal, 171,342 Ddms. Castes various. Cavalry 
1,160. Infantry 27,800. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


1 


J 






CajBtes. 


Bar6r Anjnah* 
Baswah, has a brick fort. 
P&li 


79,670-9 
185,119 
144,627 


4,825,437 
8,545,648 
1,849,270 


107,079 

107,916 

87,945 


50 
80 
80 


2,000 
1,000 
1,000 


... 
... 
... 


Rijpdt, 

Rijpdt, 

BibhhaL 
Asnin.* 


* Var. Kher. 

« A tribe of Rajputs i 

3ithur of Cawnpore a 
Gunir of Fatehpiir. 


m Sihonda 
RasdUbM 
nd in Ku 


and 
and 
biya 


TV 

T 


• Hind, 
ell knov 
uar, and( 

• T.Bar 

• Var. h 


m ] 
some 
6rA 
[flin, 


I or ^ 
Sijput 
times ii 
Qzana, ( 
A^hin, iS 


trib 
ioorr< 
&. Bi 
Jmin 


Mid ri\^^l a 
9, commonly 
Botly, Tenore^ 
rduranjeh. 



Digitized by 



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177 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




> 


1 


m 

S 
1 


Castes. 










c8 

o 

20 




s 




Biwan 


66,156 


1,161,236 


26,488 


1,000 




Ditto. 


Basrah 


60,063 




•■.• • 


... 


300 


... 


Yarions. 


Bhanrirah, haa a brick 
















fort 


8,971-18 


43,548 




60 


2,600 


... 


Ahnfn ' 


Basari 


21,740 


276,066 






200 


... 


Bachhal. 


PiU 


981-14 


48,202 




... 


200 


... 


Ahnin.* 


Cbhatyipdr ... 


64,706 


1,765,641 


41,094 


60 


700 


... 


Bajput GUbor. 


Khairibid with subtir- 
















ban District, 2 Mahals, 
















has a brick fort 


169,072 


2,161,284 


174,191 


60 


2,000 




Brihmftn. 


Sio^, has a brick fort... 


211,804 


3,055,839 


195,106 


20 


2,000 


... 


Sombansi. 


fiiiah 


68,832 


2,091,983 


8,666 


60 


600 




Chanbin. 


fiidrpir 


120,698 


881,176 


16,581 


20 


600 


• •• 


Janwilr, 


Gop^u, has a brick 














Bichhal. 


fort 


107,868-6 


5,620,466 


662,087 


100 


3,000 


••• 


RAjputKudr. 


Kheri, do. do. 


260,168 


3,250,522 


60,622 


60 


1,600 


... 


Bison, Rij- 


Ihair%arh, one of the 














p(it, Jan- 


most important fort- 














wAr. 


mses in Hindnst&n. 
















There are 6 f orta of 
















brick and mortar, at 
































it 


43,052-7 


1,829,328 





300 


1,600 


••• 


Bais, Bisen, 
Bachhal, 
Kahnah. 


XharkheU 


15,815-16 


478,727 




20 


600 


... 


Asfn.* 


Khiokhat Man 


8,058-11 


235,666 


... •• 




400 


... 


Various. 


lihirpdr 


208,288 


3,029,479 


200,079 


60 


1,000 




BrAhman. 


Haohharhat^h 


71,069 


2,112,176 


2,430 


30 


2,000 




Kijpdt, 


Nimkhir, has a brick 














Bachhal. 


fort 


68,775-18 


3,666,056 


66,055 


100 


1,600 


... 


Ahir. 


B«Karfon 


66,952 


200,000 


26,385 


20 


500 


... 


Brahman. 



Sarkdr of Lucknow. 
Containing 55 Mahals, 3,307,426 Bighas, 2 Biswas. Revenue 80,716,160 
J)dm in money. Suyurghdl, 4,572,526 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry 
2,680. Elephants 36. Infantry 83,450. 





Bighas. 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


to 


1 


1 


5 

I 

s 


Castes. 


Abethi (Amethi), has a 
l»rickfort 

TJnim, has a brick fort. 

laanli, has a brick fort 
ontheGKimti. 


117,381 
61,045 

1,670,093» 


3,076,480 
2,012,372 

4,208,046 


300,217 
253,747 

240,846 


300 
50 

50 


2,000 
4,000 

2,000 


20 


Ansdri, 
Sayyid. 

RAjpiit, 
Baohgoti. 



• i Var. Asin, Ahin, Ahnin. 

23 



• In some M. S. S. 1,670,093, for both 
the first two columns. 



Digitized by 



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178 





BighM 

' Biawaa. 


Bevenae 
D. 


^Q 


1 


1 


i 

1 


Oaatea. 








& 


O 
10 


3 




Asiy^n 


67,726 


880,626 


68,421 


600 




Bais, Oban- 


Asoha 


26,027 


609,901 


•••••• 




400 


... 


del 
Abnin.' 


XTnchahg4on ... 


83,122 


417,967 




1000 


2,000 




Baia. 


Bilgr4ov, lias a brick fort* 


192,800 


6,124,118 


Z6e]m 


20 


1,000 


... 


8ayyid,Btti 


BangamuuL Ditto ... 


242,291 


8,802,122 


161,481 


... 


2,000 


... 


Rajput, 

Gbelot 
Chanbin. 


Bijlaur* 


80,681 


2,606,047 


198,961 


80 


1,000 




Ban 
Bhariman ... 


80,690 


1,284,799 


61,660 


80 


1,000 


••• 


Bais. 


19,409.8 


691,406 


...... 


20 


600 


... 


Bua. 


BefchoU* 

Paixhan ... ... 


84,727 


420,732 


12,780 


... 


600 


... 


Baia. 


8,786 


840,191 


8,194 




200 


... 


B4jput,Jit. 


8,946 


267,809 




... 


800 


... 


Baia. 


Paraandan ... 


9,111 


287,687 




... 


200 


... 


•^Sf^H 


Pitan 


6,621 


214,266 


■.. ... 


... 


400 




Bribman, 


B^b^hak6r ... 


9,867 


168,684 




... 


800 




Kbnnbi. 
BriLhxnan. 


Dewi, has a briok fort... 
Deorakh 

Dadrah 

Banbarp^, haa a brick 


61,774 
88,687 


1,128,176 
1,988,887 


2i,'441 
174,207 


20 
80 


2,000 
2,000 


... 


CbandO. 
Bijpdt. 


18,840-9 
10,796 


689,686 
78,787 




100 
60 


1,600 


... 
**• 


Baia. 
Rijpdt. 


fort ... ... 


76,490 


2,486,886 


79,226 


100 


2,000 


... 


Baia, BA' 


Bimkot, Ditto 
Santiiilah, Ditto 


9,790 
898,700 


268,099 
10,628,901 


887,246 


ICO 


200 
6,000 


••* 


man. 
Bijp^t 
Gbelot, 


Siipfir 


89,088-16 


2,626,888 


28,886 


40 


1,000 




BiohbiL 
B4jpdt, 

CbandeL 
Gbandel, 


Sapoflf 


2,671 


1,289,767 


1,667 


20 


1,000 




Bitanp^ 


60,600 


1,028,800 


10,192 


60 


2,000 




RajpAt 
Baia, Brah- 


Sah£lf 

Sidhor* 


18,066 


694,707 


180,216 


10 


600 




man. 
Eijpiit. 


86,794 


1,692,281 


813,022 


100 


1,000 


... 


Afghan, B£j- 

pdt. 
Baia. 


Sldbpfir 

Sandi 

SanSii 

Fate^p6r, baa a brick 


9,871-4 


606,018 




160 


1,600 




7,866-9 
6,676 


892,818 
210,816 


181792 
2,868 


... 


1,000 
100 


... 


Bijp6t. 


fort 


198,800 


8,161,440 


261,440 


200 


2,000 


6 


Sbaikbi£di]i, 


Patebp6r Chanriwi ... 
Garb Anbbatti (Amethi) 


106,962 


909,176 


6,694 


10 


600 


... 


Bljpfit. 
R4jp6t, 
Gbandel 


baa a briok fort 


47,866 


1,800,000 




260 


6,600 


8 


Bijpdt, Bah. 


Kurgi, baa a briok fort... 
K£k6ri, Ditto 


80,817 
81,684 


1,698,844 
1,184,482 


62,919 
14,480 


20 
80 


2,000 
600 


8 


manQoti. 
Bijpdt. 
BAjpdt, 


Khanjpah ... 


22,800 


818,472 





100 


2,000 


... 


Biaen. 
Baia. 



^ See note 2 laat page. 

» So alao in G. but T. Bidjndr. 

• G. Bitbowly, T. Bethda 



* Var. Sayyidpor, 
G. Seedhora. 



Seopdr, Sheopnr. 



Digitized by 



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179 





Blghas 
Biswas. 


ReTcnae 
D. 


i 


i 
1 


M 


} 


Castes. 


Ghtonpfir 


27,890 


662,661 




••■ 


500 


••• 


Br&hman. 


Kschhandan * 


22,066 


480,696 


^460 


••• 


600 




OhandeL 


6onnctt,(Eaniida p. 94] 


4,808 


884,769 


*■•*•• 


••• 


200 




Br&hmaii* 


Konbhi 


6,940 


267,089 




••• 


400 


••• 


B&jp^t. 


Lwsknow with snlrarbaii 
















distriot ... ... 


91,722 


1,746,771 


241,196 


200 


8,000 




Shaikhz&dah 
Br&hman, 

KijBJth. 


huhkBi 


16,894 


168,629 


•*••.• 


•*• 


4,000 




Bais. 


]CaIikhib^,*lia8abriok 














IUjp6t,Bais. 


fa* 


169,269 


4,479,260 


108,646 


80 


1,000 


••• 


Bais. 


laUwah 


88,022 


8,698,718 


222,088 


80 


2,000 


••• 


Bais. 


Xohan has a brick fort.. 


60,990 


1,996,678 


198,484 


80 


2,000 


••■ 


Rijpdt, Bais. 


Harioii, has a hrkk fort 


68,847 


1,698,444 


4,806 


160 


2,000 




Bijp^t, Bais. 


Madiion 


49,422 


1,186,218 


82,900 


80 


600 


••• 


BarkhaU. 


lUhdnih 


60,896 


977,860 


8,806 


60 


2,000 




B4jp6t. 


Ktnawi^hasabriokfort. 


29,466 


771,872 


18,767 


••• 


2,000 


... 


Mosalm&n, 
Rijptit. 


lArfod* 


17,969 


676,200 


6,24^ 


, 


1,000 


... 


Eiipdt,Bais. 


Bttha, has a brick fort. 


163,226 


2,460,622 


6,609 


100 


1,600 


... 


Bali. 


ftrfoi 


11,734 


869,748 


6,026 




800 




BHhman* 


Isnhir* 


18,109 


829,786 





80 


600 




Bais. 



The Subah of Agra, the Boyal Residence. 
It is situated in the second climate. Its length from Ohdtam^ on 
the Allahabad side to PaUoal on that of Delhi is 175 koi. In breadth it 
faka^ from Kanauj to OhandSriiu Mdlwah. On the east lies Ohitampwr; 
to tiie north, the Ganges ; to the south GhandSri, and to the west, PaltodL 
It possesses many rivers, of which the principal are the Jumna and the 
Ohamhal. The former flows down from the northern mountains, the latter 
rises at HdsH^r in Mdl/wah and unites with the Jumna at Kdljpi. Banges 
of bills lie scattered to the south. The excellence of its climate is almost 
muiTaUed. Agriculture is in perfection. Fruits and flowers of all kinds 
abound. Sweet-scented oil, and betel-leaf of the first quality are here 
obtained, and its melons and grapes rival those of Persia and Transoxiana. 
Sgra is a large city and possesses a healthy climate. The river Jwrrma 
flows through it for five hos, and on either bank are delightful villas and 



' la tha I. G. Kaohandan. 

* In the I. G. MalihiUd, also in T and 
G. 

' Here a word illegible, Barkala is an 
iv&rior class of Bijpdts found in West- 



ern and Central pwganaks of Bnland- 
shahr. 

« T. called also B&ri. 

• Donbtful in text whether initial 
letter a ' or ^. G. Henhlr. 



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180 

pleasant stretches of meadow. It is filled^ with people from all countries 
and is the emporinm of the traffic of the world. His Majesty has hnilt 
a fort of red stone, the like of which travellers have never recorded. It 
contains more than five hundred buildings of masonry after the beautiful 
designs of Bengal and Gujerat which masterly sculptors and cjinning artists 
of form have fashioned as architectural models. At the eastern gate are 
two elephants of stone with their riders graven with exquisite skill. In 
former times Agra was a village dependent on BidnahK Sultan Sikandar 
Lodhi made it his capital,^ but his present Majesty embellished it and 
thus a matchless city has arisen. On the opposite side of the river is the 
Char Bdghy a memorial of Bdbar.* It was the birth-place of the writer 
of this work, and the last resting-place of his grandfather^ and his elder 
brother. Shaikh j^la u'ddin Majzdb, Bafiiu'ddin Safaw: and many other 
saintly personages also repose there. 

Near the city on the banks of the river Jumna is a village called 
Bangtah, a much frequented place of Hindu worship. 

Fatehpur was a viUage formerly one of the dependencies of Biamh^ 
and then called Stkrt, situated twelve kos distant from Agra. After the 
accession of his Majesty, it rose to be a city of the first importanca 
A masonry fort was erected and two elephants carved in stone at its 
gate inspire astonishment. Several noble buildings also rose to com- 
pletion and although the royal palace and the residences of many of the 
nobility are upon the summit of the hill, the plains likewise are studded 
with numerous mansions and gardens. By the command of his Majesty 
a mosque, a college and a religious house were also built upon the hill, the 
like of which few travellers can name. In the neighbourhood is a tank, 
twelve kos in circumference and on its embankmeut his Majesty constmct- 
ed a spacious courtyard, a mindr^ and a place for the game of Chaugdn ; 
elephant fights were also exhibited. In the vicinity is a quarry of red stone 



^ I am inclined to doubt the correct- 
neBf of the jnxtapoiition of «^vl with 
A^'wA and would refer the former 
to the preceding sentence, and place 
the stop after it. The S. ol. M. bears 
ont this view. 

* I follow here the spelling of this 
name in the first volume. 

• The old Agra of the Lodhi dy- 
nasty lay on the left bank of the river 
where traces of its foundations still 



exist. The modem city is on the right 
bank and is the work of Akbar. The 
fort was built in A. D. 1566. 

* Later called Hasht Bihisht, or M- 
rafshdn Gardens, and now called the 
Ram Bigh. 

^ His grandfather Shaikh Khizrdied 
on his journey to Siwistdn, and his 
father Mubdrak, at Lahore in 1593. 
See Preface to text, Biog. of Abul Fasl. 
pp. i, ii, xi. 



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181 

whence colamns and slabs of any dimensions can be excavated. In these 
two cities under his Majesty's patronage carpets and fine stuffs are woven 
and nnmerons handicraftsmen have full occapation. Bidnah in former 
times was a large city. It possesses a fort containing many buildings 
and cellars, and people at the present day still find therein weapons of war 
and copper utensils. There is also a lofty tower. Fine mangoes grow here, 
some of them more than two pounds in weight. Sugar of extreme white- 
ness is also manufactured. Here too is a well, with the water of which 
mixed with white sugar, they make cakes weighing two pounds more or 
less which they call kandcturah (with no other water will they solidify) 
aod these are taken to the most distant parts as a rarity. Indigo of finest 
quality is here to be obtained, selling at ten to twelve rupees per man weight. 
Excellent hinna is also to be found, and here are the tombs of many emi- 
nent personages. 

Todah Bhtm is a place at a distance of three kos, from which is a pit 
fall of water, the depth of which none has sounded. Mines of copper and 
turquoise are said to exist, but the expense of working them exceeds their 
income. 

Mathura (Muttra) is a city on the banks of the Jvmna : it contains 
lome fine temples, and is one of the most famous of Hindd shrines. Kdlpi 
is a town on the banks of the Jumna, It is the resting-place of many 
saintly personages. Excellent sugarcandy is here manufactured. In the 
time of the Sharhi princes, it was tributary to Delhi. When Kadir Khdn 
affecting the airs of sovereignty proclaimed his independence, SuH^n 
Hoshang marched from Milwah and having chastised him, reinstated him 
in the government. Sultan Mnhmud of the Sharhi dynasty, however, 
seised it in turn from Na^ir Khdn the son of Kddir Khan. 

Ka/navj was in ancient times the capital of Hindustdn. 

Owaliar is a fanlous fortress and an elephant carved in stone at its 
gate fills the beholder with astonishment. It contains some stately edi- 
fices of its former rulers. Its climate is good. It has always been noted 
for its exquisite singers^ and lovely women : here is an iron mine. 

Alwar (Ulwar) produces glass and woollen carpets. 

Ferdih^ possesses a copper mine, so profitable that from a man weight 
of ore, they obtain 35 sere of metal. A silver mine is also said to exist but 
it does not pay to work it. 



1 Aocording to the S. ul M. the 
CimoiiB T&nsen was one of these. See 
Yol I. pp. 611 of the Ain. 



« G. Beerat. T. Berith. S. nl M. ^]ji* 
a dependency of the g^veminent of 
Narnol, according to Tieffenthaler. 



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182 



Near the hill of Ndmol is a well at which the Hindiis worship and 
when the tithi^ of Amdwas fMa on a Friday, it oyerflows at simrise and 
water can be drawn withont the aid of a rope. 

At Singhdnahf TJdaipir^ and KdfpiUK are mines of copper. In the 
town of Edndri^ are many cold and hot springs. 

The Sibah contains thirteen Sarhdn, two hundred and three Pargo' 
nahs (fiscal subdivisions). The measored lands are 2 irors, 78 lakhs, 
62,189 highas, 18 htswas. The revenue is 54 krors, 62 lakhs, 50,804 dam. 
(Rs. 13,656,257-9.6). Of this, 1 hror, 21 laJchs, 5,703^ ddms (Rs. 302,642- 
9.) are SuyirgJM. The provincial force consists of 50,681 cavahy, 
577,570 Infantry, and 221 elephants. 

8a/rkdr of Agra. 

Containing 33 MahaU, 91,007,324 Bighaa, 
Ddms in money. Suywrghdl 14,566,818 Bams, 
15,560. In&ntry 100,800. 



Revenue 191,819,265 
Castes various. Cavalry 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne. 
D. 


1' 


i 


1 


1 


Castes. 








02 


o 


•-• 


^ 




Agra with gubiipban 
















district 


881,990-6 


44,966,468 


8,824,464 


8000 


1,6000 


»•• 


Ganr,8 Jat 


EUwah, hM a briok 














Lodh.Ac. 


fort on the Jamna ... 


284,106 


10,789,326 


161,862 


2000 


1,6000 


... 


Bhadanri- 
TaBrihmaa. 


ov 


15S,a77.9 


6,609,477 


81,642 


1000 


1000 


... 


IMjpdt, 
BrihnuMi, 


OadAii, (ElUot Odhi)... 


274,067 


2,884,866 


78,166 


20 


600 


... 
















ITd (EUiot Od) 


203,506 


1,008,848 


86,870 


100 


600 


... 


Shaikhii. 
dah. 


Bajw&rah, has a atone 
fort, 


668,286 


10,966,660 


••■ 


1600 


6,000 


... 
















... 


Bi&nah with snbnrban 
















dist. has a stone fort 


286,442 


7,110,104 


662,206 


60 


100 


... 


Ahfr, Jat. 


Biuri, ... ... , ... 


276,964 


6,064,168 


67,414 


800 


7000 


... 


B&jpdt. Po9- 
wfc. (Pan. 
wfcr.) 

Rigp6t of 


Bhosiwar, 


808,609 


6,606,460 


266,460 


60 


1600 


... 
















varions 
















castes. 


Ban£war, 


12,880 


166,360 


... 


80 


400 


... 


Bafeiijar. 



' See p. 17 of this Toliune. 
• 8o T. G has Kanwery. 
3 A Snrajbansi tribe of Bajpnts. 
Lodh, a widely spread tribe ohieflj 



fishermen. Bhadanriya is a branch of 
the Chanhan B4]pnts. Elliot. 
4 T. 01. G. Owl. 



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183 





Bighas 
Biswas 


BoTenne. 
D. 


5« 


1 


i 


1 


Castes. 








& 


3 


M 


i 




TbdahBhlxih ... 


264,103-11 


8,787,076 


18,861 


100 


1000 




Thatthar.' 
















Bhtikir, 


48,009 


2,891,100 


15,825 


20 


700 




Br&hman, 
Ahir. 


Jaleiar, has a brick fort 


904,738 


6,836,400 


412,080 


400 


6000 


... 


Ghelot, SoriLj 
Biuikrah.S 


Janwlr/ has a brick 
















fart on the Jumna ... 


407,652 


11,442,250 


60,348 


200 


7000 


... 


Ohanhfin. 


Ghauath, 


974,84 


4,182,048 


674,815 


50 


1000 


... 


E4jp6t, 
Brihman, 
Jat, Ahir. 

Bijpdt, Jat. 


Ih^wah, 


^884 


2,912,495 


222,628 


80 


4000 




Dkolpdr, has a brick 
















fort on the Ghambal, 


284,037 


9,729,811 


255,747 


200 


4000 




Sikarw^l. 


Upd, has a brick fort, 


477,201-11 


18,508,035 


178,407 


200 


4000 




Ohaohin, 
descen- 
dants of 
B^wat 
B4han.* 


Bajhohar» 


818,286 


1,694,208 


48,023 


20 


300 


... 


B&jptit. 


Seonkar Seonkri, 


90,599 


985,700 


7,822 


70 


600 




Bijpnt 


f ate^p^, has a stMie 














Ohanhan. 


fort| ••• ... 


202,723-18 


8,494,006 


597,846 


600 


4000 




Shaikhs^- 
dah, 
Ghashti, 
Bijpdt 
Sankar- 
wdl.* 


Xha|t($n]nar, 


96,760 


745,951 


• a. 


60 


300 




B6jpat, Jat. 


Kahiwan, has a brick 
















fort ... ... 


290,708 


6,784,780 


284,787 


200 


2000 


... 


Sayyid, 
Brihman. 
















Vathnris ^0. 


87,847 


1,156,807 


69,770 


■ •«. 


... 






lUhSli, 


66,690 


1,501,246 


••• 


80 


600 


... 


B&jpatacc. 


Mangdtlah, 


74,974 


1,148,075 


79,855 


20 


400 




Do. 


Hfend&war, 


10,190 


182,500 


... 


150 


800 




Chanh^n. 


Wazirp^, 


71,328 


2,009,255 


9,256 


20 


300 




R&jpdt. 


Hindanni 


432,980 


9,049,881 


301,980 


100 


1000 


... 


Bajput, 
Brahman, 


Haikint, has a brick 














Jat. 


fort 


606,991-12 


5,698,807 


43,231 


2000 


20,000 


••• 


Ohaohin, 
Bhadan- 


H'llak. 


187,421 


2,789,494 


30,581 


20 


600 


... 


riya. 
Bajpdt, of 
▼arions 
castes. 



* Gdjars conyerted to Islam. Elliot. 
1. 101. 

' Var. Mankrah. or Bankrah. 

• Var. Ohandwir. T. "Tshandvar 
•ajoordhoi Ferosabad." Distant from 
Agra 85 mileB east, on the rente from 



Mattra to Etiwali, I. G. 

♦ Probably error for Bahman or Brah- 
man. See Elliot nnder Chandel or Gan- 
tam. 

* Probably Sikarwil, a branch of the 
Badgdjar Bajputs. 



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1S4 



Sarkdr of Kdlpi, 
Containing, 16 MahdU^ 800,023 Bighas, 9 BiswaSy Bevenne, 49, 356, 
?32 Dctms in money. Surgurghdl 278, 290 J Dams. Castes varions, Cavalry 
1540. Elephants 80. Infantry 34000. 





Bighag 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 




1 


1 


i 


Castes. 








QQ 


O 




H 




tJ'laf, 


95,677-18 


1,297,379 


72,218 


20 


600 




Rijp6t. 


Biliflpiir, 


126,888*14 


8.714,647 


13,110 


100 


50,000 


... 


Kaohhwi- 


Badhn^th, (Elliot, Bho- 














hah. 


dhek) 


72,930-14 


1,260,199 


3,414 


60 


2000 


... 




P^pdr, 


108,085 


1,760,750 


4,221 


50 


2000' 


... 


Saikhsidah. 


Deokalf. 


109,652 


1,466,985 


1,700 


200 


2000 


10 


Brahman. 


B&tli} has a briok fort, 


510,970-16 


9,270,894 


270,894 


70 


8000 


9 


Afghan, Tor- 
koman. 


Bfrepiir, 


48,168-8 


120,000 


.»• 


• • 


500 


10 


Rijpot. 


S6gaiip6r,* 


... 


1,607,877 


58,664 


60 


1000 


., 


Rajput, Bail. 


Sh4hp6r, 


... 


8,843,420 


245,747 


300 


3000 


6 


Chaahin, 
Maliksi. 


KHpiy with Bubarban 














dah. 


distriot 


... 


4,871,053 


203,909 


4000 


5000 


10 


Various. 


Kanir, 


... 


4,948,096 


6,065 


100 


2000 


1 


Sengar.* 


Khandan^, 


... 


3,027,917 


27,121 


50 


4000 ... 


Parhir. 


Khand^lal?, (Elliot 






, 










Khurela) 


86,053-11 


871,733 


15,008 


20 


1000 


... 


Rijpiit. 


Mal^kammad^bad, 


184,080 


1,617,257 


4,260i 


60 


1000 


... 


Rijpnt, 
Knmbi. 


Hamlrpar, 


404,797-6 


4,803,828 


132,245 


200 


2000 


... 


Knmbi. 



Sarkdr of Kanauj. 
Containing 30 Mahals, 2,776,673 Bighas, 16 Biswas, Revenue 52,5S4, 
624 Dams, Suyirghdl, 1184 655 Dams, Castes various, Caralry 3765. 
Infantry 78, 350. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


m5 

P 


1 

09 


a 


1 

0) 


Castes. 








w 


o 


•-^ 


» 




BhugaoQ, has a fort and 














near it a tank called 
















Somnit full of water 
















extremely sweet 


837,105 


4,577,010 


53,316 


1000 


10,000 


... 


Chauhiin. 


Bhojpur, ... 


150,974-13 


3,446,737 


104,705 


150 


3000 


... 


Kharwal.* 


Bilgrao?, (ElUot Till- 
















gra^w.) 


74,100-10 


3,387,076 


128,558 


20 


1000 


... 


Rijpnt, 
jdusalmln. 



' Matchlockmen. 

■ T. Schsgunpoor. G. Seekenpoor. 

* A branch^of the Agnibansi Rijputs. 



Elliot I. 174. Spelt elsewhere S^ngarh. 
♦ Elliot has Kharwdr as a tribe. 1. 10. 



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185 





Bighas 
Biflwaa 


Bevenne . 
D. 


¥ 


f 


§ 


i 


Oastei. 








o 
OQ 


o 


S 


s 




Wthir, 


176,042-11 


2,921,889 




800 


6000 




Chand^. 


Mhfir, 


68,773-14 


2,828,849 


216,741 


20 


1000 


• *• 


Eiljpdt. 


Ffttiilt 


158,684-14 


1,877,600 


46,666 


100 


2000 


• •• 


Bdjpat 

Chaah&9. 
Bijpdt. 


Fkti^ttpdr, 


88,418-11 


1,158,682 


8060 


80 


600 




Pati Nakhat, 


49,261-18 


666,997 


2497 


50 


500 


... 


Sengarh. 


Baraah, 


84,786-14 


450,000 


... 


10 


200 


••• 


Bijpdt, of 
yariooa 
Castes. 


BW, ' 


8,789-14 


400,000 


••• 


10 


800 


... 


Chanh&n. 


Phapdnd, 


111,646 


5,432,391 


19,818 


800 


2000 


... 


Sengarh. 


CUiftbrimao, 


76,318-7 


1,522,028 


22,128 


20 


600 




Bijput 

Ghaohin. 
Ohaahdn, 


Oeohi, 


11,960-12 


483,171 


79,045 


20 


800 


... 
















Bais, Dhi- 
















kra* 


8ak^, • 


182,956-9 


8.230,762 


168,810 


100 


8000 




Chauhin. 


Sonj, • 


64,070-6 


1,200,000 


... 


200 


8000 


... 


Dhfckrah 


Wi4wap, 


78,574-9 


262,245 


21,969 


20 


500 




Gauroah.* 


8eoIi,(EUiot. SheoU)... 


12,528 


623,478 


... 


10 


800 




B4jput. 
Rajput, Bais. 


Saka^^Ti 


22,561 


623,441 




800 


4000 


... 


8afario9, 


19,817-10 


549,050 


2253 


10 


500 


... 


Rajp6t. 


Sahar, 


25,195-8 


846,558 


1640 


80 


600 


... 


Ghaahin. 


8e<mraldi,8 (BUiot San- 
















rakh) 


10,089-5 


465,828 


7188 


20 


400 


... 


Ghanhin, 
Dhakrah. 


ffikandrapfir Udahu, ... 


4,964-14 


276,918i 


22,624 


10 


200 


... 


Ganrdah, 
Brahman. 


8ar6r,* 


20,121-16 


447,568 


2044^ 


10 


800 


... 


Chauhto, 
Sengar. 
BAjpdt. 


8ikandarp6r Atx^ji ... 
Shamsibid, has a fort 


86,084-17 


269,622 


6511 


5 


160 


... 


on the (Jangea, 


718,577-7 


7,138,458 


19,608 


400 


2000 


... 


B&thor. 


KanaTij with sabnrb. 
















diit. has a brick fort: 
















one of the great capi- 
















tals of Hiadnstin, .. 


126,266-12 


2.470,748 


222,086 


200 


10,000 


... , Shaikzadah, 
















m: cm usau. 

Afghan 
















Ghanhin. 


Kanpfl, 


189,803-6 


1,651,586 


30,870 


100 


200 




Eijpnt, 
Ghanhin, 
Panwir. 
















KaraoK, 


40,445-6 


1,409,988 


,,, 


20 


1000 


•«. 


Bajpdt 


Halkfiaah, 


80,229-14 


1,500,000 


... 


800 


16000 


... 


Kijpvit Ghe. 

1A«- 


Nitiamaa, 


8,829-6 


186,921 


... 


200 


200 


1 IVfW. 

< BdUunan. 

1 



* A Bajpat tribe Mattered oyer Agra, 
lUter% Etawa and Bohilkhaod. BlUot, 
1.78. 

' An inferior dan «f B&jpdts often 

24 



eonfonnded with Ghuirihars but quite 
distinct. EUiot, 1. 115. 

* T. Sonarka; G. Sewboigeh. 

* Bir6r (Elliot). G. Serwer. T. Saror. 



Digitized by 



Google 



186 



Barhirof Kol, (Koa). 

Containing 21 MahaUl 8,461,78, Bighaa, Berenne 54,992,940 Ddmt in 
money, SuyurgML 2,094,840 2>im«. Castes yarions. Cavalry 4,035. In- j 
fantry 78,950. ] 



Atrauli, 



AklMuriUd, 

Abir, Yarn a brick fort 
on the GangM, 

Fahisd, 
Bilrim, 

Padiliiii, 

Tappal, has a briok fort, 
Thinah Firidi, 

JaUai, 

Chandans, 

Ehorjah, 

Dambhai has a briok 

fort* 
Sikandrah Bio, has a 

briok fort, 

8^r6n, has a briok fort, 

8idhfip6r, 

8hik£rp6r, 



Eol, has a briok fort, ... 



Gang^ri, 

Mlbrahrih, 
Malikpiir, 

Nd^y, has a briok fort, 
(Elliot, Noh. 



Blghas 
Biswas. 



880,669 
118,889 

46,764 

65,060 
111,878 

89,128 

168,046 
68,847 

146,801 

48,469 
89,726 

48,689 

88,480 

40,666 

70,667 

44,880 



648,666 



68,646 

205,687 
80,846 

189,299 



Bevenne 
D. 



6,464,469 
8,008,409 

2,106,664 

2,602,662 
2,181,766 

624,826 

1,802,671 
112,760 

2,967,910 

1,749,288 
8,708,020 

2,169,989 

4,412,881 

876,016 

989,468 

1,974,827 



10,412,806 



872,060 

8,679,582 
1,446,132 

1,811,966 



2 



d 
02 



6400,469 
28,060 
87,140 
66,661 

2,571 

86,862 

86,662 
583,066 

72,869 

290,468 

16,900 

60,291 

446 

81,849 

156,095 
2,288 

29,160 



600 



600 



100 

60 

200 

100 
20 

500 

100 
200 

60 
400 

20 
200 
250 



460 



25 

200 
60 

100 



9500 
6000 

400 

2000 
1000 

6000 

8000 
500 

6000 

2000 
5000 

1000 

4000 

400 

2500 

2000 



29,060 



200 

2000 
400 

8000 



I 



Oastei. 



Bijpdt, 
Chanhan, 
Afgh&a. 

Bijpat, Fon- 
dir.» 

Hnsalmin, 

BrihmaiL 
Ba^jar. 
Afgh&o, 

GhaidifiL 
Ujpat, 

Qanrthar. 
Ghaohin. 
R£jpdt, 

B&ohhaL 
Bijpdt, Pan- 

Ohauhloi. 
Ba^giijar. 

Do. 

Afghin, 

Pundir. 
Sayyid, My 

pdt. 
Bajpdt, 

8urki.» 
Sayyid, 

Shaikh- 

s&dah, 

Bafedjar. 
Ohanhln, 

Jangha- 

rah.* 
Afghin, Bij- 

pdt. 
Chauhin. 
Pundir, 

Ghanhln. 
Bijpdt. Jat. 

Afghin. 



* Pundir is one of the nomerons 
branohes of the 66]ar olan. Elliot, 1 19. 

* The word <fort' has been omitted 
and the text bat Gladwin oonfirms the 
emendation. 



Yar. Sirkhi Snkhi. 
^ A tnrbolent tribe of Bijpdts of the 
Tnar olan in the 8. E. BohilkhsBd 
BlHot, 1, 14L 



Digitized by 



Google 



187 



Sarkdr of OwdUor. 
ContaiDiiig 16 Mdhali, 1,146,465 Bighaa, 6 Biium. Bevenae 29,683, • 
6i9 Bdms in money. Suyirghdl, 240,350 Ddnu. Castes Tarions. Cavaliy 
2,490. Infantry 43,000. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Beyenne 
D. 


}• 


1 


1 


1 


Castes. 


Aohdn, has a f oii, ... 


106,899-14 


8,277,947 


••• 


20(1 


4000 




To^wa^. 


BadiMtah, Do. ... 


68,914.18 


696,800 


*.. 


800 


6000 


... 


Do., Raj. 


ChatUwar/ Do. 


140,140-16 


1,061,841 


86,980 


100 


4000 




pdt. 
Brihman. 


J]ud6^ Do. 


82,677-15 


219,806 


••■ 


100 


20001 




Gdjar. 


DandrdH, 


197,816-11 


1.807,207 


••• 


60 


1000 


... 


Rijpnt T(^' 


W' 


87,797-17 


1,017.721 


••• 


40 


700 




war. 
Toi^war. 


Siw&ii, 


94,248 


882,128 


*•. 


200 


6000 




SikarwiL 


fitmaiili, 


46,284-8 


2,001,844 


... 


601 


700 




Bigti. 


StriMnfali, has a brick 
















fort. 


22,124-17 


267,497 


..• 


200 


6000 




Sikarwil. 


lUlXir, has a fort. 
















daring Sn]Un Ali- 
















6ddin's time it was 
















«Ued Akhir.« 


211,229 


6,128,766 


**■ 


60 


600 




BT4hni^r>t 


€wiIior with suburban 
















district. 


846,657 


12,488,072 


188,740 


1000 


2000 


... 


B4jpnt, To^- 


Khatdli, has a fort. ... 


198,270 


8,106,819 


6,460 


200 


4000 


*•• 


war. 
Jat. 



Sarkdr of Trij. 

CWtaining 16 MahaU, 2,202,124 BighoB, 18 Bimas. Revenue 37,780,- 
«1 mms in money. Suyurghdl, 456,493 Ddrm. Castes various. 
Cavalry 6,160. Elephants 190. Infantry 68,500. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Eevenue 
D. 


1 

OQ 


1 


1 


i 


Oastes. 


PuOUIr, liM a brick 

fort. 
BMnd&. 


625,597 

752,791 
257,042-18 

80,635 
8,951 


2,922,436 
in money. 

6,237,096 
2,533,449 

1,391,097 
464,111 


101,661 

172,880 
100,638 


100 

940 
60 

8000 
100 


6000 

2O5O0 
2000 

6000 
2000 


10 

69 
6 

■•• 
6 


Eiyath. 

R4jp(H. 
Afghan, 

Kiyath. 
Ta^war. 
Parihir. 



*Vm. GhanpAwar. Chantiwar. G. 
^S»«ntowsr. T. Tsohetanr. 
' Vw. Akhar, Eafair, Sahir. 



* Var. and G Phind^r. 

♦ Var. Bhijpiir. 



Digitized by 



Google 



188 





Blghas 
Biswtti. 


Reyenne 
D. 


1' 

CQ 


! 


i 


1 

■ o 

3 


Castes. 


Jhatra,^ 4 mahals, ham a 

briok fort. 
Biiibinah, haa a fort, ... 


12,072 


11,787,904 
6Q0.000 


... 


4000 
50 


15000 
2000 


70 


R«jp6t. 
Kaohhwi- 


Sli&hzidahpar, 
Kbat61ah&o. 8 mahals, 

has a fort. 
Eajh<$dab, 
Kidir,« 

Edfich, has a fort. 
Khak^,*kasafort, ... 


21,267 

••• 

155,330 
89,283 


450.7«1 

8,000,000 
750,200 
120,000 
1,851,802 
1,343,073 


27.712 
7,678 


100 

"so 

50 


5000 

2000 
1000 


20 


Gond. 

EambL 
EachhwA. 
hah. 


Kh&erah, has a brick 
fort. 


222,557 


240,000 
4,776.857 


46,729 


20 
200 


6O0O 
6000 


10 
10 


Gond. 

Eachhwi- 
hah. 


Mah6U, 


26,681 


502,102 


... 


100 10,000 


10 


Parih^. 



Sarkdr of Baydnwdn^ 

Containing 27 Mahals, 762,014 Bighas. Revenue, 8,459,296 Bam. 
Suyurgkdl, 82,662 Ddms. Castes various. Cavalry 1,105. Infantry 18,000. 



• 


Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


i 


5 

1 


Castes. 








d^ 


08 


fl 












OQ 


o 


M 


H 




Antrf, yields excellent 
















quality of betel leaf 
















from which the reve- 
















nue is chiefly derived. 


906,140 


... 




10 


100 


... 


Various. 


Amw4ri, 


228,000 


... 


... 


Bntered under 
Batangarh. 


M&rwir, 
GNiaruah. 


Atiwan,* 


85,958 


165,165 


64,114 


16 


200 


... 


OondfGaiini- 


An^elah,* 


29,444 


82,455 


1,257 




100 


••• 


Brihman. 


Bayanw&n, 


86,241 


801,276 


20,169 


820 


8000 


... 


Pundfr, Ps»- 
w^ 


Pa^wir, 


17,829 


457,489 


6,568 


20 


800 


... 


Brihman, 
Khidma- 
tiyah. 


Parinohah, 


89,784 


896,193 


21,641 


20 


600 


... 


Bund^la. 



* Jhatr&. Jhatar. Chhatar, Chhatar- 
p^r. 

* E64piir. 

* Ehankes. Ehakeab. Ganges. Ehak- 
sen. 



* Var. and G. Sanwto. T. Beanban. 

* Yar. Jaitwan. Atiwin. Anboan. G. 
Jjtewan. T. Intva. 

* Yar. and T. Adh«la. 



Digitized by 



Google 



189 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


BiBveniia 
D. 


AQ 


1 


1 


I 


Oastes. 











1 


•g 


s 










00 


o 


»-• 


H 




Bado^ 




276,000 


•a. 


10 


200 




B^nd^ 


BUandi, 


,, 


169,040 


• •• 


10 


800 


... 


Pa^war. 


Jiodr,* baa a f oxi, 


60,^8 


64(3,681 


8,800 


10 


200 


•*• 


Ahfr, Brih- 
man. 


Jtriiili, 


19,$65 


144,056 


••» 


10 


800 


..• 


Pa,w4r. 


Jagtin, 


••• 


12»,680 


... 


... 


160 


... 


Yariona. 


Dhimflali,* here a large 
















lake» f nU of vater- 
















liliM, 


13,127 


17,806 


••• 


20 


860 


... 


Brihrnan, 
Gdjar. 
Kiyath, 


Boohifah, 


94,228 


472,889 


16,702 


10 


20C 


... 


















Batuigarb, baa a fort, 


70,$28 


865,996 


•*. 


200 


4000 


••• 


Jat. 


Boh^rah, 


2,809 


1,017,682 


••• 


60 


600 


... 


Gnjar. 


Sohandl, haa a briok 
















fort, 


81,656 


896,969 


••• 


800 


6000 


••• 


Vinwir. 


Kananlah, 


11,764 


864,968 


■•• 


10 


200 


... 


Gojar, Jat. 


Karharah, 


••• 


277,000 


••• 


... 


*•• 


... 


Mentioned 
under 
Baton- 


Xahe^d,' has a fort in 














garb. 


the mountains, 


27,290 


196,804 


••• 


... 


200 


... 


Brihman. 


Khandhi, 


17,408 


162,661 


8,036 


... 


200 


••• 


Ah£r, Jat. 


Ehand Bajrah the 
















greater. 


88,782 


188,984 


*•• 


26 


800 


... 


Bnndeli, 
Jat. 


Da the lesser, ... 


1,602 


68,470 


••• 


10 


200 


••• 


MlnA,»a6ja» 


Kherih^t,^ 


24,818 


112,079 


... 


..* 


800 


... 


Do. 


Ka|h£ral|, has a stone 
















fort on a hill. 


17,269 


82,291 


••• 


6 


800 


... 


Gdjar. 


Kadw4hah, 


7,169 


48,296 


*«• 


60 


800 


... 


Ahfr. 


Man, haa a fori, 


59,070 


860,429 


M89 


60 


1000 


... 


Ahir. 



Sarkdr of Narwar. 

Containing 5 Mahals, 394,853 Bighaa. Bevenne, 4,233,322 Dams. 
amiirghdl96,994il)dms. Castes, Bajpdt To^war. GavaJry, 500. Infantry^ 
200,00. 



* Tar. Chitor. T. Tschinor, G. Chitore. 

* Tar. Dhaolah. T. Dehala. It was 
2 miles to the west of this plaoe^ acoord- 
ingtoT. that Abnl Fazl lost hislife in the 
Bmbascade set for him hj the Bund^U 
Oluef Bir Bing : *' il fat, vilainznent 
pria dans tea laqs oomme-nn gibier et 



tn^ 4 Tinstigation de Jehangir fila 
d'Aobat." 

* Yar. and T. Somandi. Yar. uid T. 
Ean<51. 

4 For the Minas, see Sherring, III. 78; 

* Yar. Ghatripal. Q. KhetoryhauL 



Digitized by 



Google 



100 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


BeTenne 
D. 


AQ 


! 


1 


} 


Castes. 


Bardi, 1im a fort i some 
















of the Tillages near 
















the SakU are of 
















great prodootiTe 
















▼alae. 


88,085 


688,700 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


Banli, has a fort on the 
















Sakll^ 


2i2,456 


141,916 


,,, 


••• 


••• 


•.. 


... 


Beopdri/ has a stone 
















fort, 


24,976 


1,250,000 


•»M 


••■ 


... 


••• 


... 


KoUras has 2 forts, one 
















near the Tillage of 
















Barwi. There is a 
















smaU hm with a 
















waterfall. It is a 
















place of Hindu wor- 
















ship, 


188,10 


764,880 


14,882 


••• 


••• 


••• 


... 


Narwar with snhnrb. 
















dist. has a stone fort. 
















In certain parts of 
















the fort are ancient 
















Hindn temples of 
















stone. 


26,522 


488,026 


81,812 


••• 


... 


«.» 


••■ 



Sarhdr of Manfldir, 

Gontaii^ing 14. Mahals. 65,642 Bighas. Beyenne 8,738,084 Dam. 
Castes, Bijput, Jid6^. Cavalry 4000. Infantry 5000. 





Bfghas 


Berenne 






Bfghas 


Rerenat 




Biswas. 


D. 






Biswaa. 


D. 


Ifntgar, has a stone 














fort on a hill and 














below it flows the 














riTor Ghambal, 


7,674 


498,978 


Dfingrf, 




902 


54,126 


Bijhip6r, 


6,413 


869,706 


RatanbaUhar, 




1,215 


82,098 


BaUoU, 


6,806 


824,091 






9,160 


526,830 


B^har, 


4,882 


261,746 


Kamfikharah, 




1,988* 


116,168» 


Bagn5nd.« 


••. 


... 


Ehamdn, 




820 


54,074 


Jhakw&r, 


769 


88,488 


Kahtdni,* 




1,925 


51,944 








Handliler, has a fort on 












a hill and the 


riTer 












Chambal on 


the 






Ding Hakhdri,* 


7,812 


498,978 


north, 


... 


15,745 


697,794 



^ I adopt a Tariant, as it agrees with 
O. and T. The text has Seorpdri. 
> Yar. Bakhr^nd. T. Baortfnd. 
• T. Makreri. G. Boghowry. 



• Var. 1310. 

• Var. 76i,880. 

• Yir. and T. ChaloU. 



Digitized by 



Google 



191 



Sark&r of AU/oar. 
Contunmg 43 MahaU, 16,62,012 Bighas. Bevenne, 39,832,204 Dimi. 
S«y^JWI, 699,212 Ditrw. Cavalry 6504. Infantry 42,020. 





Biglias 
Biswas. 


Berenue 
D. 




1 


1 


1 


Castes. 








QQ 


O 


H* 


S 




Ahrar, has a stoiie fori 
















onfthiU, 


86,084 


2,679.820 


S60,066 


10 


1,600 


••. 


Ehinsidahof 
Mewit, des- 
oendants of 
Bahidnr 
Ehin. (See 
I. G. Hew- 
it).» 


WwHlUlli HftDPO, ••. 


24,956 


850,781 


*.. 


20 


600 


... 


E:aolihw41iah. 


Asian, 


89,762 


642,153 


1,048 


20 


1,000 


... 


Ba^Vil. 


IniOpfir, 


28,988 


603,840 


2,266 


40 


600 


... 


Khinzidahof 
Mewit. 


1U(, hai a stone fort. 
















(hff&(i,p. 96.) 


23,522 


7,201,791 


1,796 


60 


1,000 


•.. 


Bal^Wl. 


nr6n>arf ... 


119,016 


2,621,958 


9,317 


850 


2,000 


... 


Ehiins&dahof 


Jhkftdarp^, 


60,451 


1,950,000 


95,000 


500 


2,000 


... 


Mewit. 


llkik61, ••• 


74.281 


678,783 


.•• 


60 


1,000 


... 


Do. Do. 
Do. Do. 


Irihir, 


68,664 


448,612 


... 


40 


600 


... 


Ba^ffdjar, 
Rajput. 
Kbinz&dahof 


Btt^dahFate^Kh&Ti,... 


16,074 


201,059 


1,059 


80 


800 


.. 
















Mewit. 


hBib, 


28,726 


195,680 


... 


6 


60 


... 


Ehinzddah 
andMeo. 


Bir6dab Meo, 


18,062 


168,046 


619 


50 


300 




Do. 


B6dihTbal, 


80,606 


146,000 




6 


60 


... 




BKwin, 


14,918 


122,088 


... 


6 


60 


... 


Various. 


BMioab, 


20,789 


100,856 


... 


6 


60 


... 


Do. 


Btjhah, 


2,668 


104,890 


... 


10 


60 


•*. 


Ehinsidah 
and Meo. 


BtoattiA. 


6,666 


183,507 


*.. 


30 


600 


... 


Bate^jar. 


JtHlptr. 


46,840 


398,599 


10,666 


... 


... 


... 


Ehansidah 
andMeo. 


Hanop6r Bad<$hftr, ... 


20,853 


947,871 


8,020 


100 


300 


.*. 


Do. 


Hannp&r Kori, (G6ri, 
















»R^) 


47,740 


1,269,669 


... 


120 


800 




Do. 


gfflwr, liaa a stone 
















faft, ,„ 


26,489 


456,779 


8,120 


500 


1,000 


... 


Chanhin. 


DedUSAjari, 


83,188 


1,600,000 


... 


150 


1,000 


... 


Ba<jlg6jar. 


Wft«, 


27,051 


695,262 


7,812 


150 1,000 


1 


Meo. 



* Mentioned in BUiot as in ancient 
^isM a well-known lawless plundering 
»«% driTen ont of the Etawah tract by 
^Senghers andChanhins. According 
W ftoRmg (m. 90) thej are an inde- 



genons tribe converted to Islim, but re- 
taining a good ntianj Hindn cnstoms; 
now an agricultural people divided into 
12 clans. 



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192 





Bighaa 
BUwas. 


Berenne 
D. 


Mi 


1 


i 


1 


Oastei. 








& 


1 


3 






Dhari. 


12,888 


512,618 


6,016 


100 


600 




andHeo. 


Eit|h, 


6,030 


229,741 


8,744 


10 


100 


... 


Meo. 


Sakhan, 


18.790 


804,262 




100 


700 


..« 


Chaahln. 


Khohari B^na, 


8,208 


4,869,272 


96,919 


900 


6,000 




Ehinz^dah 
of Mewit, 
A'm4» and 
Daor. 


Khel<$har, ... 


68,276 


1,469,048 


14,088 


125 


1,000 


... 


Meo. 


Kol Dho4r, 


88,956 


627,100 


... 


80 


500 


... 


Rijp6t. 


Kiyirah, ... 


307 


600,000 


... 


100 


1.000 




Mina. 


Kh^tahli, 


26,746 


465,640 


28,150 


100 


600 


... 


Sayyid, G«. 
jar. 


Gh&t S6dan * (or Seo^) 














has a fort, 


16,494 


867,110 




... 


... 


... 




Kohrini, ... 


3,566 


166,666 


... 


800 


1,000 




Mahat.' 


Mandiwar, has a brick 
















fort, 


100,822 


1,889,097 


6,608 


500 


1,000 


... 


Chaob^. 


M6jpiir. ... 


44,140 


639,858 


12,022 


300 


600 


... 


Abbiai. 


Mnbiirakp^ir, 


18,636 


614,193 


... 


60 


800 


., 


Khinz£daL 


Hong6n&, ... 


88,112 


475,260 


... 


100 


700 


... 


Do. 


Mandaurah, 


17,800 


27,051 


... 


4 


20 


... 


Chanhin. 


Nangiov, (Nowgong) ... 


28,771 


2,056,612 


84,'296 


70 


600 


... 


Kbindidak 


Nahargarh, 


85,452 


604,194 


... 


20 


200 


... 


Do. 


Haredri, ... 


11,800 


227,096 




10 


100 


... 


Meo. 


Harper, ... 


16,944 


686,605 


8,'265 


20 


4,000 


... 


Jat. 


Haraini, ... 


4,026 


208,281 


... 


40 


600 


... 


Meo. 



Sarkdr of Tijdrah, 

Containing 18 Mahals, 740,001 Bighdhe. 5^ Biswas, Bevenne, 
17,700,460 Dams. Suyurghdl, 701,761^. Cavalry 1,227. Infantiy 9.650. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Berenne 
D. 


1 

GD 


1 

o 


1 


! 


Castes. 


Ind6r, has fort on a hill, 
ITjinah, ... 


184,150 
88,926 


1,995,216 
428,847 


26,096* 
22,796 


400 
46 


8,000 
160 


... 


Mewat. 
Khinsidah, 
Thathar. 


* The reading of the li 
donbtfnl and has the fol 

* I adopt the varian 
withT. 


ut two nan 
lowing Tarii 

t which af 


tesis 
ants. 

p-ees 




• Donb 
aeotedwi 

*Aflg 
bween the 


bfol, 
bhno 
ore f 

2Mi 


var. Hi 
tel. 
leems i 
dthee 


Eht. a| 
o be 


)parentl7 con- 
omitted be* 



Digitized by 



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193 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


! 





Castes. 








QQ 




o 


» 




Umii ITmri, 


8,107 


807,037 


... 


10 


100 


... 


Tha^har, 
Meo. 


Biirii, ... 


35,703 


216,800 


6,364 


10 


200 


... 


Ehinzidah, 
Meo. 


Par. 


2,476 


540,645 


1,659 


10 


200 


... 


Tbathar. 


Pangwin, has a stone 
















JOTt, ... 


75,148 


1,329,350 


34,312 


20 


800 


.•• 


Meo. 


Banohri,* has stone fort 


67,778 


1,416,715 


25,471 


30 


400 


... 


Do. 


Tijirah, has a fort, ... 


131,960 


3,603,596 


204,419 


600 


2,000 


... 


Do. 


Jhimiiwat, has a stone 
















fort on a Mil, 


22,632-11 


496,202^ 


31,283} 


60 


300 


... 


Do. 


Khinpdr, ... 


9,893 


195.620 


... 


20 


150 


... 


Do. 


Siknis. ... 


12,106 


460,088 


50,411 


14 


160 


... 


Do. 


fianthad&ri. 


7,712-11 


406,811 


267,470 


200 


... 


... 


Do. 


firdzpiir, situated on the 
















ikirt of a hill in which 
















there is an ever-flow- 
















ing fonntain with an 
















image of Mahadeo set 
















up; a Hinda Shrine... 


64,160 


3,042,642 


69,044 


60 


1,000 


... 


Do. 


iWebpurMdngarti* ... 


43,700 


1,136,140 


12,955 


10 


200 


... 


Do. 


Xotlah, has a brick fort 
















on a hill on which 
















there is a reservoir 4 
















loe. in circumference 


71,266 


1,652,196 


7,017 


30 


700 


... 


Kh&nz&dah, 
Gujar. 


Earherah, (Gh^s^h, 
















EUiot) ... 


9,785 


330,076 


... 


10 


200 


... 


Meo. 


Khora ka Thinah. (So 
















in MSS., but Elliot 
















Khaw£) ... 


7,945 


168,719 


... 


10 


250 


... 


Do. 


Nagini^, ... 


7,215-19 


377,267 


8,672 


100 


160 


... 


Do. 



Sarkdr of NdrnoL 

CJontaining 16 Mahals, 2,080,04.6 Btghas, Revenue, 50,046,703 Dams. 
8wfurg7ialy77b,lOSDdm8. Castes various. Cavalry 7,520. Infantry 37,220. 



Cavalrj. 



Uth 



Bisrhas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


1" 




! 


i 






CQ 


I— 1 

100 


o 


H 


146,754 


2,060,662 




1,000 





Ohanhin, 
Bajpnt, 
Mnsalmin, 
Khandar. 
(Far. Ke- 
dw-). 



* Var. Babnohna. Elliot. Bhasohri. G. 
Bonbohra. 

25 



• Var. Mongota. 
Mewngowneh. 



T. Mnngrina. G. 



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194 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 


1. 
5« 


1 


6 


oS 
1 


Castes. 








o 


% 


•a 


»2 










02 


Q 


M 


» 




Bihii, has a stone fort 
















aod a ooppermine ; 
















hills adjacent. 


78,426 


920,170 




400 


3,000 


... 


Parihir. 


Bar6dah Ran£, 


47,266 


692,995 


■ •• 


300 


2,000 


... 


Chanhin. 


CU\ kalanah, 


617,540 


7,744,027 


56,164 


200 


5,000 


••• 


Jat of the 
Sangwin 
clan. 


Jhojeiin, has a stone 
















fort on the skirt of a 
















hill, 


96,831 


2,329,069 


... 


2000 


3,000 


... 


Eiyam 
Khixd} 


Singhanah Udaipiir, has 
















a Coppermine and mint 
















for copper coinage ... 


... 


11,881,629 
in money. 


3,351 


400 


1,000 


... 


Tonwar, 
Parihar. 


Kin<5dah, in the village 
















of Zcrpur in this Par- 
















ganah, a large Hindn 
















temple, ... 


10,728 


4,356,189 


91,577 


1000 


4,000 




Rijpiit, Mii- 
salmsn, 
^u.> 


Kotpotli, has a stone 
















fort and in the village 
















of BhandhArah is a 
















copper mine in work- 
















ing, 


170,674 


4,266,837 


29,425 


700 


4,000 


... 


Tonw£r Eaj- 
put, Good. 


Kanrfri, has 3 forts in 
















three villages, 


150,297 


2,721,126 




1000 


5,000 


... 


Tonwar. 


Khand6lii, 


*.. 


1,300,000 
in money. 


... 


200 


2,000 




RAjpiit, 
Kachhwi- 
hah. 


Khodfina, ... 


18,493 


808,109 




20 


700 


... 


Jat. 


Lapoti, 


88,281 


1,512,470 


16,000 


100 


500 


... 


Chauhan. 


Villages^ at the foot of 
















the mountain where is 
















a copper mine. In that 
















of Rdepore is a copper 
















mine and a mint and 
















the stream there is 
















polluted hy it, 
Narnol, has a stone fort, 


176,650 


274,350 


. 


100 


2,000 




Narbin.* 


214,218 


5,913,218 


549,161 


500 


2,000 


... 


Ahir. 


Narhar, do.. 


356,293 


4,262,837 


29,405 


500 


2,000 




Ki4m Khini, 
Afghan, 
MAkar*. 



* Called Kaim Khini by Elliot and 
Sherring. They are Chauhins convert- 
ed to Islam. Their ancestors fought 
against B&ber in 1628. 

« For. 94n<i. Jkt. 



• G. 8 villages. 

^ A sub-division of the Rijpdt clao 
of Chauh&ns. 

• Var. Mfikru, G^»ar, Ttkar. 



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195 

Sarkdr of Sahdr, 

Conisaimng 7 Mahals. 763,474 Bighas. Revenue 5,917,569 D6ms. 
SvfurghM 109,447 JDdms. Castes various. Cavalry 265. Infantry 1,000. 





Bighas 
BUwas. 


Revenue 
Do. 


1 


b 

1 


1 


1 


Oastes. 








QQ 


o 


•^ 


H 




?Mh£li, ... 


106,422 


1,228,999 


26,046 


20 


700 




Meo,Tliathap. 


fihadauH, ... 


25,980 


441,840 


6,840 


10 


800 


... 


Jat &o. 


Sahir, has a fort, 


386,896 


2,489,816 


21,678 


200 


7,000 




B^hhal, 
G6jar,Jat, 
Kaohhwi- 
hah. 


Eimah, ... 


90,600 


606,724 


1,229 


10 


800 


... 


Meo, Jat, 
Ahir. 


K6h Mnj&hid, 


23,769 


170,866 


... 


4 


200 


... 


Meo, Jat, 


569htokh, 


60,816 


618,116 


17,616 


... 


... 


... 


Ahir, Jat, 
Meo. 


Hodal, 


78,600 


462,710 


88,140 


10 


200 


... 


Jat Ac 



Tho Subah of Mdlwah. 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from the extreme point 
of Oarha (Mdndla) to Bdnswdrah is 245 kos. Its breadth from OhandSri 
U> Nadarhdr^ ia 230 ko8. To the east lies B^iniAti ; to the north Narwar; 
to the south Bagldnah ; to the west (Hjardt and Ajmer, There are moun- 
tains to the south. Its principal rivers are the Na^hadah^ the Siprd, the 
KdU Sindy the BHwa^^ and the K6di^ ki qyqtj two or three kos clear 
and limpid streams are met on whose banks the willow grows wild, and 
the hyacinth and fragrant flowers of many hues, amid the abundant shade 
of trees. Lakes and green meads are frequent and stately palaoes and 
lair country homes breathe tales of fairyland. The climate is so tem- 
perate that in winter there is little need of warm clothing nor in summer 
-of the cooling properties of saltpetre. The elevation of this province is 
somewhat above that of other areas of the country and every part of it 
is cultivable. Both harvests are excellent, and especially wheat, poppy, 
sugarcane, mangoes, melons and grapes. In Hd§tlpur the vine bears ' 
imoe in the year, and betel leaves are of fine quality. Cloth of the best 



^ Sometimes in the text Nazarb^, 
Bayley in bis History of Ghijarit has 
Stndarh^. It is nearly dne E . of Snrat. 

' 2^e text has Betamah with a vari- 
aot ITjAm which Gladwin adopts. T. 



reads Betba ou Baghanti, The text also 
has the d of Narbadah reduplicated. I 
follow the I. G. 

* T. reads Ohambal. G. Lowdy. I do 
not trace it in the I. G. Perhaps Loni 



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196 



texture is here woven. High and low give opium to their children up 
to the age of three years. The peasants and even grain dealers are never 
without arms. Ujjain is a large city on the banks of the Sipra. It is re- 
garded as a place of great sanctity and wonderful to relate, at times the 
river flows in waves of milk. The people prepare vessels and make use 
of ity and such an occurrence brings good fortune to the reigning monarch. 

In the 43rd year of the Divine Era when the writer of this work was 
proceeding to the Deccan by command of his Majesty, a week before his 
arrival at Ujjain^ on the 16th of the Divine month of Farwardin (March) 
four gharis of the night having elapsed, this flow occurred, and and all condi- 
tions of people, Musalman and Hindu alike talked of it.* 

In the neighbourhood are 3t)0 places of religious worship for BdUi- 
mans and other Hindus. Close to this city is a place called Kdliyddah, 
an extremely agreeable residence where thei'e is a reservoir continually 
ovei-flowing yet ever full. Around it are some graceful summer dwell- 
ings, the monuments of a past age. 

Garha^ is a separate state, abounding with forests in which are nu- 
merous wild elephants. The cultivators pay the revenue in mohurs and 
elephants. Its produce is sufficient to supply fully both Gujarit and 
the Deccan. 

Chanderi was one of the largest of ancient cities and possesses a stone 
fort. It contains 14,000 stone houses, 384 markets, 360 spaeious caravan- 
serais and 12,000 mosques. 

Tumun is a village on the river Beiha (Betwd) in which mermen are 
seen. There is also a large temple in which if a drum is beaten, no sound 
is heard without. 

In the Sarkar of Btjdgarh there are herds of wild elephants. Mandii ia 
a large city ; the circumference of its fort is 12 kos, and in it there is an 
octagonal tower. For some period it was the seat of government and 
stately edifices still recall their ancient lords. Here are the tombs of the 



* Another reading adopted by Glad- 
win is " partook of it." Gladwin while 
rejecting this fable, suggests a sadden 
impregnation of the river with chalk and 
happily quotes Pope*s Windsor Forest 
regarding one of our own rivers, ** And 
chalky Wey that rolls a milky wave." 
It might he argued that the people of 
Ujjain must have distiguished chalky 
water from milk, but the incapacity in 



this respect of Londoners of the pre- 
sent day triumphantly answers the ob- 
jection. 

' It was the ancient capital of the 
Gond Dynasty of Garha Mdndla and its 
ruined keep known as the Madan Mahal 
still crowns the granite range along the 
foot of which the town stretches for 
about 2 miles. I. G. 



Digitized by 



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197 

Khiiji Saltans. A remarkable fact is that in summer time water trickles 
from the domed roof of the mausoleum of Sultan Hosbang and the simple- 
minded bave long regarded it as a prodigy, but the more acute of under- 
standing can satisfactorily account for it. Here the tamarind grows as 
large as a cocoannt and its kernel is extremely white. 

Learned Hindus assert that a stone is met with in this country wbicb 
when touched by any malleable metal tarns it into gold, and they call it 
Para*. They relate that before the time of Bikramdjit, there reigned a 
just prince named Raja Jai Sing Deva who passed his life in deeds of 
beneficence. Such a stone was discovered in that age, and became the 
source of vast wealth. The sickle of a straw-cutter by its action was 
changed into gold. The man, not understanding the cause, thought that 
some damage had occurred to it. He took it to a blacksmith by name 
Mandan to have it remedied, who divining its properties, took possession 
of it, and amassing immense wealth, garnered a store of delights. But 
his natural beneficence suggested to him that such a priceless treasure 
was more fitted for the reigning prince, and going to court he presented it. 
The Rdja made it the occasion of many good deeds, and by means of the 
riches he acquired, completed this fort in twelve* years, and at the request 
of the blacksmith, the greater number of the stones with which it was 
bnilt, were shaped like an anvil. One day be held a festival on the banks 
of the Narbadah, and promised to bestow a considerable fortune on his 
Bdihman priest. As he had somewhat withdrawn his heart from worldly 
goods, he presented him with this stone. The Brahman from igno- 
rance and meanness of soul, became indignant and tbrew the precious 
treasure into the river to his subsequent and et>ernal regret. Its depth 
there prevented his recovering it, and to this day that part of the river 
has never been fathomed. 

Bhdr is a town which was the capital of Rajd Bhoja and many ancient 
princes. The vine here bears twice in the year when the sun first enters 
Pisces (February) and Leo (July), but the former of these two vintages is 
the sweeter. 

In the Sarkdr of Hindiah are numerous wild elephants. 

In Nazarbdr^ good grapes and melons are obtainable. 

This Subah contains 12 Sarkdrs, subdivided into 301 Parganahs. The 
measured land is 42 lahhs^ 66,221 Btghas^ 6 Biswas, The gross revenue is 
24 Jkror^, 6 luJchs, 95,052 Lams. (Rs. 6,017,376-4-15). Of this 11 lakhs,^ 



* In the demarcation of the province ' * Var. 1 2 lakhs, 

above, this word is written Nadarbar. | 



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198 

50,433 Dams (Re. 28,760-13) are Suyurghdl The Provincial force con- 
sists of 29,668 cavalry, 470,361 Infantry and 90 Elephants. 



Sarkdr of Ujjain. 

Containing 10 Mahals, 925,622 Btghas. Revenue 43,827,960 Dam« 
in money. Suyirghdl^ 281,816 Dams, Castes yarions. Cavalry 3,250. 
Infantry 11,170. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


1 


o 


Castes. 








a 

OQ 


08 




s 




Ujjain with snburban 
distriot, has fort of 
stone below and of 
brick aboTe, 

Anhal, 


289,560 
56,841 


1,388,086 
2,801,972 


55,328 
20,935 


760 
130 


2,000 
500 


... 


Alj(yah,> 
BiL^hor. 

Bijpdt. Alji. 
yah,* Dhl. 
karah. 


Badhniwar has a stone 

fort, 
PAnbahdr, ... 
Dipalpiir, ... 


60,096 
86,667 
96,706 


3,056,195 
1,937,596 
6,000,000 


1,095 
29,400 


600 
100 
600 


3,000 

600 

1,000 


... 


Bii^r, &o. 

Aljiyah.* 

Rdjpdt,Alii'. 

yah. 
R^-piit Meh- 

tar,Soriah. 

B^jpi&t. 

Dharar or 
Dhur. 

Bais, Jidda, 
(Yadu). 


Baalim, ... 
Sd^wer, ... 


94,466 
46,694 


4,421,540 
2,418,875 


21,548 
133,156 


500 
160 


1,000 
300 


... 


Kanfl,* has a fort part- 
ly stone, partly brick, 
Ehiohr6d, 


59,802 
66,626 


2,907,817 
2,651,044 


2,344 


160 
60 


4O0 
1,200 


... 


Nolii, has a brick fort 
on the banks of the 
Ghambal, 


126,264 


8,851,886 


18,016 


400 


1,200 


... 



* Donbtfol. The other Tariants are 
without diacritical points. 

* Uncertain. Var, Kamw^, Makwir, 
Kamw4th. 

* Var, Khan^. Khampal. G. Kehnayl. 
T. Bebl. 



* Var, Bodnah, Aodariya, Adoriya, 
perhaps Deora, a sept of the Ghanhins. 
The following word is also marked donbt- 
fol in the text. 



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199 



Sarkdr of Bdisin. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


1. 


i 


1 


1 

■g. 


Castes. 








i 


•a 













OQ 



170 


HH 


H 




Asapdri &c. 6 Mahals,., . 


3,238 




178,064» 


946 






Bnflsah, ... 


40,816 


6,^94,970 




480 


1,000 




Rajput. 


Bh6ri,» ... 


5,970 


316,017 




••• 


100 






Bhdjpur, ... 


4,097 


220,592 




115 


1,000 






Bilbhafc, ... 


... ••• 


215,122 




265 


600 


... 




Thanab Mir Kh£n, ... 




735,815 




200 


500 




B4jp(it. 


Jijdi," ... 




215,122 




15 


100 






JJiatinawi, 


3,464 


184,750 




10 


160 






Jalodi, ... 


260 


18,290 




2 


6 


... 




Khiljipur, ... 


775 


41,060 




2 


150 


... 




Dhim<5ni,r.. 


13,007 


788,389 




5 


400 


... 




Dekhwarah, 


4,932 


292,313 




75 


620 




R6jp6t. 


DeortSd, ... 


1,974 


144,000 




35 


100 


... 




Dhanijah, ... 




21,502 




20 


170 


• •• 




Baisi'n, with suburb, dis- 
















trict has a stone fort 
















on a hill, one of the 
















famons fortresses of 
















Hindastdn, 


17,497 


934,739 




80 


426 


... 


R^ip6t, 
Solankhi. 


Sew£ni, ... 


10,975 


580,828 




80 


945 


... 




Sarsiah, ... 


5,557 


279,346 




70 


600 


• •• 




Shihpiir, ... 


1,673 


89,067 




5 


40 


... 




Klumlisah, 


11,720 


645,666 




40 


100 


... 


R6jpdt. 


KWra, ... 


10,534 


560,037 




80 


820 






Ke86rah, ... 


8,375 


478,267 




40 


100 


... 




Kbamgarh, 


7,102 


378,460 




50 


100 


... 




Kargarh, ... 


6,907 


365,707 




70 


600 


• •« 




Korii, 




145,566 




60 


100 










32,267 




80 


100 


... 




Uflisainand, 


814 


48,024 




50 


140 


... 





Sarkdr of Kanauj, 

Containing 57 Mahals. Revenue 10,077,080 Ddtns. Castes Gond. 
Cavalry 5,495. Infantrj 254,500. 



Am<5dgarh„ has a brick 

fort on a hill, 
Bin, and Tankar,* 2 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



Revenue. 
D. 



239,000 
485,000 



OQ 



03 

•a 



200 



Castes. 



Gond. 
Do. 



' In one MS. these figures come un- 
der Revenae. I follow the text. 

* Var. Bal6ri. 

• For. Jajoli. 



* Var. and G. Dhamoti, the latter 
Dhamowty. 

» Var. Tabker. Batkar. G. Benker, T. 
Bangar. 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 





Bighas. 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


x3 


1 


1^ 

J 


5 

a 

-a 

.2 


Castes. 








w 


u 


l-H 


H 




BhutgAoxi, ... 




400,025 




50 


1,000 




Gond. 


Blirb, Sini and Jhimi^ 
















bar/ 3 mahalB, 




895,000 




200 


4,000 




Do. 


BiAwar> and NejH» 2 
















mahals, ... 




800,000 




... 






Do. 


Bakhrah, ... 




238,000 




100 


10,000 




Do. 


Ban&kar, Amr^, 2 ma- 
















hale, has a stone fort, 




140,000 




150 


10,000 




Do. 


Babai,^ ... 




82,000 




100 


10,000 




Do. 


Biragafh, has a strong 
















fort, ... 




45,000 




16 


200 




Do.* 


Gb&ndpdr, Ohand^rf, 2 
















TnahivlB ••« 




89,000 




5 


••* 




Do. 


J^tgarh, Bhald^wi* and 
















suburb, district, 3 
















mabals ... 




12,000 




400 


80,000 




Do. 


Jeth4,« ... 





12,000 




100 


1,000 




Gond Brah- 
man. 


Dam6dah,... 


•••••• 


1,866,000 




10 


530 


••* 


Gond. 


Dh&m^rl and Dham^rd, 




















49,000 




10 


200 




Do. 


Deogao?, ... 




26,000 


...... 


20 


1,000 




Do. 


Deohir, Hdrbhat,' 2 
















mahals, ... 




18,000 




20 


1,000 




Do. 


Darkarah,... 




18,000 




10 


200 




Do. 






















618,000 




10 


... 




Do. 


Kdngarh, ... 




400,000 




200 


10,000 




Do. 


Bdngarh and S^ngpdr, 




















1,066,0(K) 




10 


200 




Do. 


Kasdliyfe, ... 
SitalpOr, .,. 


••*••• 


12,000 




200 


5,000 




Do. 




75,000 










Gond mtn- 
















tioned un- 
















der Gafhs. 


8h&hpnr, Ghanrikah, 2 
















mahals, has a strong 
















fort, 




850,000 




100 


1,000 


... 


Gond. 


Garha with suburb, dis- 
















trict has a strong fort 




1,857,000 




500 


8,000 


... 


Do. 


Khat<5lah, ... 




121,000 




500 


50,000 


... 


Do. 


Ked4rp6r &o. 12 mabals, 




1,626,000 


... .. 


600 


10,000 


... 


Do. 


L^ji, Ear61ah, Dunga- 


















. ....•• 


1,000,000 


••. .•• 


200 


20,000 


... 


Do. 


Man^ld, ... 




362,000 




100 


1,000 


... 


Do. 


Harariya, Deogayh, 2 
















mabals has a wooden 
















fort on a hill. 





909,000 




1500 


60,000 


... 


Do. 



> T. Djahiahar. 

• Var. B^ard. Penir. T. Bearou. G. 
Penar. 

* Var. Benjile. T. Bedjeli. G. Nejehlj. 



^ G. Beey. T. Pei. 
» Var. G. Bbald^wi. 

• Var. and G. Ch61a. T. Tschetia. 

* Var, and G. Hurbihiaht. 



Digitized by 



Google 



201 

Sarkdr of OhandSri. 

Contaiimig 61 Muhals. 554,277 Sighae, 17 Biswas. Bevenne 
31,037,783 Ddms. Suyurghdl 26,931 Vdms. Gastee Tarioos. Cavalry 
5,970. Infantry 66,085. Elephants 90. 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


i 

GQ 


1 


1 


5 


Castes. 


Udaipdr. has a stone 
















fort> 


86,996 


832,066 




2000 


10,400 


•t» 


Bigri, Bat;. 
Kh4tL 


Ak5ii,* „, 


.. 


216,000 




10 


40 


... 


Kno, ••• ••• 


1*769 


1,769 




10 


100 


... 


D6ngi,(name 
given to 
Bond^las 
in Sangor 
territory.) 


mwah, ... 


2,816 


80,000 


...••• 


15 


60 


■•* 


Ahir &o. 


Bboriaah, has a stone 
















fbit on the Betwa, ... 


6,738 


766,000 




40 


160 


... 


Br&hman. 


BudaijhaU, 


2,750 


720,000 




26 


600 


... 


Brihman, 
Jat, Bign. 


BInh Ac 6 mahals. 
















Each of the 5 Par- 
















ganaha has a fort of 
















which 4 are stone and 
















that of Mil (PJ* brick, 


12,074 


636,600 




600 


6,000 


... 


Bnnd^hih, 
Kiyath. 


Bidarwis and A^ak,* 2 
















mahals, ... 


4,961 


804,800 


.. ... 


10 


170 


... 


Ahir. 


B^h£r,«hasabriokfort 
















and a large tank and 
















svaU hiU are adja- 
















esnt, ... 


2,600 


174,000 


• ••• 


20 


800 


... 


Brdhman. 


m 


1,253 


70,000 


... ... 


10 


170 


... 


Ahir. 


TflBar6dah, 


18,619 


1,090,000 




60 


3,000 


••• 


^naA.lfn^n, 


Tmn^D, on the Betwa: 
















the residents there 
















say that mermen in- 
hia>it the river. There 






























is also a temple. 


6,704 


812,604 




16 


120 


... 


Brlhrnaa. 


Thataharijir, 


408-17 


22,600 




6 


10 


... 




Thanwirah. LaUatp6r 
















ko, 8 mahals, has a 
















stone fort, 


10,977 


619,997 




80 


2,000 


..« 


RAjpdt, 
8ihti* 



' Vor, and G. Asdar. 

* Uncertain. The text marks the 
doabt and suggests no emendation. 
Gladwin evades or was not oonfroi\ted 
with the difficulty, he translates sin\ply 
'^andoneof brick.'* 

26 



* Var. and G. Akeh. 

♦ Var. G. and T. Baohh^. 

• Uncertain. Var. 84thi, S4hni, Simni, 
Siihi, Bip4hi. 



Digitized by 



Google 



202 



Bighu 
Biswas. 



Chand^ri with Bnbnrban 
distriot, 2 mabals, has 
a stone fort, 

Jhi}h6n, Deohari the 
Binaller, 2 mahals, ... 

Jorsing^ &o., 6 mahals, 

Jharg69, has a fort, ... 

Joisah, 

Deohari, the greater, on 
the river Siodh, 

Dub Jakar, has a stone 
fort, 

Danr&hah &o. 4 mahals,' 

Ban6d, has a stone fort 
and near it a large 
reservoir whioh is a 
Hindu shrine, 

Bodahi &o. 6 mahals, 
has a stcne fort above 
the bandar where 
there is also a large 
temple, ... 

B&gah, has a stone fort, 

Baron j, white mnslin of 

the kind called Ma^- 

mudi is here mann- 

factored,* 

gahjan &o. 8 mahals, ... 
6idh(irah, near this 

town is a small hill, 
Ganah/ has a brick fort 
Garanjiyab,* has a stone 

fort on the Betwa, ... 
K<5r(5ri, on the Betwa, 
Kangrah, has a stone 

fort on the Sind, 
Kadroalah,' has a stone 

fort. 



Bevenne 
D. 



28,021 

6,468 
9,568 
6,096 
2,560 



16,466 

8,875 
2,600 



6,833 

8,652 
1,487 

186,427 

70,221 

6,840 
18,615 

8,887 
4,196 

4,670 

2,970 



1,186,888 

887,480 
448,000 
200,000 
144,000 



857,998 

680,500 
147,282 



864,000 

206,000 
84,000 

11,066,766 

8,976,700 

884,290 
1,092,062 

468,000 
252,000 

239,990 

168,000 



1. 

00 



26,981 






95 



65 

500 
310 



15 

20 

60 

100 

150 

50 
16 

80 
25 

85 

20 



1,850 

900 

100 

150 

40 



200 

5,000 
5,000 



60 

700 
150 

2,500 

20,000 

1,000 
250 

200 
150 

100 

400 



Castes. 



Abir. 

Chaah&n Ao. 
Mikhiti.' 
Eh&tl. 
Bajpiit, 
Khiti. 

Da 

KachhL 
Yarions. 



Bakkh&l. 



lUjpfifc, 
Gond. 
Baw&tbansL* 



Kijpufc, Vb- 
kar^r.(?)» 
Dandar* 

Makh&tu 
Eachhi ^bc 

D&Dgi. 
BrihrnifcTi. 

Mosahnin. 

D&ngi. 



* Var. N^khitL 

» Var. G. and T. Dndhinah. 

* Uncertain. Var, Bad^t, and B&wat. 
The termination ' bansi ' of the text is 
ponjeotnral from the reading of a word 
without vowel points. 

* Some words follow here whioh the 
text regards as oormpt and unintelli- 



gible. For OifiL, an obvious amendation 
is la^. 

• Var. UskanSr. 

• Var, Dandi, Dander. 

^ Var, G.'andT. Kenih. 

• Var. G. Eerejirah. 

• Var. and G. and T. Eadrola. 



Digitized by 



Google 



203 





Bighas 
Biswas 


Bevenne. 
D. 


& 


1 


1 


5 

i 


Castes. 


Z61&k6t, has a stone 
fort on a hill, 


2,771 


156,469 




150 


1,600 


••• 


Koohah. (F) 
(For. G6- 
jar). 

Ahfr. 

Ba^Md. 

Kljath. 
Kh£ti. 


KiSjin, on the Betwa,... 
Laroflah,* on the Betwa 
MnngAJti, has a brick 

f(^ 

UMnah, 3 kos from it 

isahighhiU, 


1,224 

8,140 

29,756 
12,196 


69,152 
168,000 

1,440,000 

668,600 




10 
10 

70 

60 


20 
20 

700 

8,000 


••• 
••• 

••• 


Mahadpfip, 


661 


144,000 




••• 


140 


••• 



Sarkdr of Sdrangpur, 



Containing 24 Mahals. 
Bwfurghdly 324,461 Dams. 
21,710. 



706,202 Btghas. 
Castes varioas. 



Bevenue 32,994,880 DctfM 
Cavalry 3,125. Infantry 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


2 


f 




i 

1 


Oastes. 








CQ 


o 


M 


w 






48,602 


800,790 


790 


230 


1,600 


... 


Ohanh^n, 
D6dhi,« 
(Dodhia). 


Akfaarp^, 


80,094 


170.610 


•••••• 


45 


160 


... 


Various. 


A'grah, 


7,852 


472,362 




100 


2,000 


... 


Chaahin. 


BtjOptir prodnces the 
















finest qnality of betel 


















11,690 


647,644 




140 


560 


... 


Eaohhi. 


Papliin,* ... 


11,180 


610,544 




160 


700 




Eatb6r. 


Bb<5r^sah, ... 


4,147 


259,777 




30 


100 


• a. 


Varioas. 


Baj6p, 


1,100 


65,820 


•••• t 


10 


200 


... 


Do. 


Um&n, ... 


721 


40,841 


•••••• 


26 


100 


• .. 


Do. 


''eawajp, ..i •.• 


2,605 


156,740 





60 


700 


... 


Kfijath. 


Talain, ... 


48,056 


1,800,700 


27,826 


150 


600 


... 


Chanh^. 


^jT'::: ::: 


113 


6,027 




100 


200 


... 


Various. 


6,047 


877,352 




40 


800 


• •• 


Kachhi. 


S4nngpdr, with snbnrb. 
















district 2 mahals, has 
















a brick fort. 


21,800 


1,294,321 


47,659 


120 


2,000 


... 


Chaubin. 


Sahir BiU HIji, 


20,263 


1,093,049 




150 


1,000 


... 


Dhand6r.* 



> Var, G. and T. Karwilah. 
* Var. Didi. This is a Dodhia tribe in 
Manrir. Sherriog, III, 48. 



* Var. and G. Biliin or Bailnn. T. Pil<5n. 

* Elliot giyes J)ha/ndSl to the name of 
a tribe of Hara Bijputs, I, 79. 



Digitized by 



Google 



2M 





BSghaa 
Biswas. 


Betenne 
D. 




i 


1 


1 


Castes. 










02 


s 


1 


S 




Sondani, ... 


9,448 


484,889 


••• ••• 


106 


2,000 




Ghaxiliia. 


86sii&, ... 


121 


64,876 




26 


800 


... 


Various. 


ShnjAapfip. 


138,488 


8,017,124 


288,212 


600 


8,000 


••• 


Ghanh&n. 


Karhali, ... 


17,179 


7,447,906 


80,606 


60O 


2,000 


... 


Do. 


Klyath, ... 


88,938 


1,198,896 


10,868 


110 


700 


... 


Do. 


K&nHar, ... 


26,046 


1,097,047 


16,818 


„, 


••• 


... 




KarhaH, ... 


288 


17,262 




26 


200 


... 


Varions. 


MnJI^aiiimadpiir, 


47,704 


1,981,182 




170 


1,000 


... 


Aljiyah, 
Dharar, 






























Dndmiff) 


Kaug&ni, ... 


69,472 


2,766,488 


4,882 


200 


1,600 


... 





SarUr of Stjagafh. 

ContBomugid Mahals, 2S3,27S Bighas. IS Biswas. Beyenne 12,249,121 
Ddms, Suyurghdl 8,574 Ddms. Castes varions. Gavalrj 1,773. In&ntiy 
19,480. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Beyenne 
D. 


1. 


1 


i 


1 


Castes. 








? 


«B 


^ 


r-^ 










02 


o 


M 


H 




Anjari, situated near 
















the Narbadah, 


18,718 


1,707,098 




... 


... 


... 


BhO, indnd- 
edin Seo- 
rdnah. 


Awin,^ San&war, here a 
















temple to Mahadeo, 


6,821 


290,848 




800 


1,000 


... 


£U5har, Uy 
piit. 


Ablihattah,*herealake 














called by the Hindds 
Saman,'... 
















4,919 


226,677 


...... 


... 


... 


•.. 


Bajput, 86- 
















bar, includ- 
















ed in Balk- 
















w4rah. 


Binhbang&of, 


16,679 


781,014 


...... 


6 


100 


.•• 


SarsiTah,^ 
3rahmsn. 


BaUnHbvh, famous for 
















fine sweet musk me- 
















lons, 


9,268 


407,014 




600 


1,000 


... 


S<$har, Sij- 

p6t. 
Brihman. 


BanSdarah, 


6,462 


869,898 




6 


60 


... 



* Var, and G. Anann. 
' In the maps 
Utah. 



Amlattah or Am- 



• Var, Bimsn. 

* Var. Barsiyah. 



Digitized by 



Google 



805 









Q 






i 






Blghas 
Biswas. 


Eeyeniie 
D. 


1 


1 


§ 




CaatM. 


Bikbangiov, bas a stone 
















fort ; here good horses 


















12,680 


^8,816 




60 


216 


•- 


har. 


Ba^UttJ, near the Nar- 
















Iwdah; adjaoent are 
















am^ hills, 


6,684 


228,616 


*••■•. 


indaded 
in Balk- 
wirah. 


••• 


Wjptt. 


Bfaiiyah,*... 


9,870^8 


86,600 


*•••• 


••• ; 


60 


... 


Asabore 
mentioned. 


Badriya,* ... 


6,880 


84,298 




••• 


60 


... 


Rijp6t, Bo', 
har. 


Baog^lah, forest adja- 
















oent where elephants 
















aze hunted, 


2,186 


162,989 




6 


800 


••* 


BhQ. 


Bfr6r, 


7,477 


891,838 


••*•.• 


6 


600 


... 


Do. 


iftn,ontheK<$di;here 
















a krge temple to 




> 




1 








Mah£deo, and a small 
















hill, ... 


14,771 


646,246 


••«••• 


inch 
Seoi 


idedin 
*inah. 


• a. 


BiHpdt, Bhfl, 


JsUUbad, with snborb. 
















district bas a stone 
















fort. 


9,286 


414,268 




84 


1,470 


«•• 


Bhfl,Btiial. 


Chamin, has a stone 
















ibrt, ... 


17,91« 


648,994 




100 


660 


... 


Bsjpnt, Bo* 
Bijpat, 86. 


BeoUKhatOL,* 


6,430 


392,060 


•••••• 


... 


•M 


•• 
















har, inclnd. 
















ed in Balk- 
















wirah. 


DeoliNarhatr, 


8,286 


98,669 


•••■•• 


6 


600 


... 


BhlL 


SeoHbah, near the Nar- 
















badah, and a lazge 
















temple there, 


18,074 


627.207 


••••.• 


800 


2,026 


••• 


Bhfl,&o. 


ttihawi, good fannting 
















gronnd for elephants, 
^wirah, has a brick 


9,974 


d63,819 


..• ■•. 


24 


650 


... 


KiJli 


Jort. 


9,628 


826,544 


•••••• 


860 


9,000 


... 


Bhfl. 


oangon ... ... 


4,607 


i70,210 




6 


260 


..« 


Nahal, Kar- 
hah. 


Ea«ri64, on the Narba- 
































aodasmaOlhin, ... 


20,490 


1,160,669 


... .. 


under Balk- 


B<5hat. 










wiiah. 





> T. Balsia. 6. Bansjeh. 
* In the maps Bardiyah. 



* Var. and O. Ghita: in the maps 
Ketami. 



Digitized by 



Google 



206 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


1- 


1 


^ 


5 
S 

t 


Ctftei. 


Kharg6ii, has a fort, 
















stone below, brick 
















above, ••• #•. 


14,526 


768,194 


•••••• 


50 


600 


... 


n4rth.* 


E&nhpdr, ... 


5,858 


126,846 




under Balk- 
w&rah. 


Do. do. 


Kh6rg£o^ 


2,738 


85,082 


•••*•• 


6 


20 


• •• 


=*e^ 


Labrptir, commonly 














Mnl^mmadpdr, 


6,792 


205,743 




6 


400 


... 


^&, 


Lowiikoh,* 


2,476 


50,000 




5 


800 


... 


Bhfl. 


Mandiwarah, here a 
















large temple, 


16,948 


777,881 


4,187 


nnder Seorfmah. 


Do. 


Mah6i, near the Nar- 
















badah, ... 


8,318 


896,206 




5 


50 


... 


Bhfl,&o. 


Morinah, has a stone 
















fort, 


9,211 


866.902 


»•••• 


6 


70 


• •. 


Biipdt, 86. 
bar. 


Niwari, has a stone fort. 


9,779 


408,164 




.*• 


... 


... 


BhiL 


Kangalwirf, 


9,067 


870,208 





5 


500 


... 


B4haL 



Sark&r of Mando. 

Containing 16 Mahals, 229,969 Bighas, 15 Biswas, Beyenne 
13,788,994 Bdms, Suyurghdl 127,732 Ddms. Castes yarions. OaTaliy 
1,180. Infantry 2,526. 









qg 






i 






Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


-3 


Q 

■i 


Castes. 








& 


c8 


A 


s 




Amjharah, 


••*... 


896,400 


8,806 


60 




... 




Bar(5dah, ... 


27,870-19 


1,307,760 


3,936 


80 


iso 


... 




Betmdn,* ... 


7,780-12 


656,556 


8,750 


60 


100 


• •. 




Ch<5H Mah^sar, 


18,183 


968,370 


10,500 


70 


200 


••• 




Hifilpur, the vine here 
















bears twice a year. 
















and fine doth of the 
















kinds iimdn* and KTuf- 
















8ah are mannf actnred. 


4,805-13 


210,000 




40 


85 


... 




Dhir, anciently a large 
















city, ... ... 


88,660 


2,079,806 


86,864 


120 


150 


... 





» Var, Katiri. 
' Var. and G. Lowirikoh. 
* Var, Patman and Bimin. G. Pnhn- 
m6n. T. Biman. 



« Marked as donbtfal in the text 
Probably At4n. SeeTol.1.94. 



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Google 



207 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Rerenne 
D. 


\' 


1 


1 


5 

1 


Castes. 








do 


O 


w 


H 




Dikkt^, ... 


17,648 


968,986 




70 


200 


••• 




Dbsrmgio?, 


8,018-11 


916,442 




... 


... 


■•• 




8iiig6r, ... 


12,807-14 


683,084 




60 


160 


... 




Suiisi, .. 


70,670 


8,097,190 


29,696 


300 


600 


••* 




K6trah, ... 




2,393,871 


886 


166 


800 


••. 




Mindo, with saborb. dis- 
















trict, 2 mahals, 


640-17 


48,398 


•••*.• 


10 


60 


... 




Maniwanh, 


2,048-10 


102,164 


•«• .. 


20 


60 


••* 




Kaflcbah, ... 


9,949-7 


646,962 


84,106 


70 


200 


... 




N»w41£, ... 




224,608 




45 


100 


«•* 





SarJedr of Hindiah, 
ContsiDing 2S Mahals, Land under special orops 20 Jfa^oZv. 89,573-18 
Bighas. 18 Biswas, Amount of revenue in cash from crops charged at 
q)ecial rates and from land paying the general higah rate. 11,610»969 
Ddms. Suyurghdl 157,054 Ddms. Castes yarious. GaTalry 1,296. In- 
hutrj 5,921. 



!Tncli6d, ... 

AwalgiuJv, 

Amdndah, ... ... 

Bijnola, ... 

Bi^Ebah, ... 

Balahri,* ... 

Cbakbodi, 

Cbampan^, 

I>ewii, ... 

Wi(5r», 

fiatwiis, ... 

Bamarnf, ... 

Srffongarh, 

8e6m» ... 

Khand6h& TslAmpfir, ... 

Modi, ... 

Mard4np6r, 

Himiwar, 

Naogiov, 

Himaa, 

Hindab, 

Hindiab with snbnrb. 
diitriot, bas a stone 
f Oft on tbe Narbadab 
<n a level pbun. 



Bigbas 
Biswas. 



69.496 
414 
892 
606 
873 



2.319 
317 
188.249 
383 
971 
776 
160 

22i632 
367 



18,207 
1,187 
1,160 
2,964 



6,164-16 



Bevenne 
D. 



2,037,877 

422,947 

21,834 

44,418 

26,261 

826 

168,876 
20,350 

6,718,000 
25,641 
89,080 
62,116 
20,494 
2,260 

1,298,581 
19,443 
460 

946,467 
79,264 
76,162 

146,044 



860,061 



1= 



10,826 



13,824 



42,837 
7,604 



6,400 



76,160 



200 

160 

7 

26 

10 

20 
20 

876 

7 

46 

6 

HI 
60 

120 
7 
60 
25 
80 
14 
80 



40 



I 



600 
200 

20 
100 
100 

16 

80 

100 

2,000 

20 
160 

40 
660 
600 
600 

20 
600 
100 
120 

66 
100 



160 



M 



Castes. 



Tor. and 0. BaUUsi 



• For. G. andT. Se6U. 



jitL 



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208 

Sarkdr of Na^airhdr} 

Gontaimiig 7 Jtfa^Ilff. 2,059,604 Bi^Acw. Beyenae 50,162,250 Bern 
SuyurgJuU 198,478 Ddm$. Castes various. Cavalry 500. Infantiy 6000. 



Bb£mb&:,* 
Sal^npdr 

Ka^arb&r, witk lab. dist. 

N6r, 

Namdrhi, 



BIghas 
Biswas. 



212,880 

995,998 

868 

208,007 

16,253 

1,645 



Bevenne 
D. 



69,244,855 
28,119.749 

58,810 

14,252,191 

7?2,7€0 

89,585 



1 

OQ 



159,744 
88,784 



Castes. 



Sarkdr of Mardsdrfi 

Containing 17 Mahals. Bevenne 6,861,396 Dams. 8uy4rgUl, 23,887 
Ddms. Castes varions. Cavahy 1,194 Infantry 4,280. 





Bighaa 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


1- 


f 


1 


1 


Gastei. 








& 


5 


A 


s 




Ayknfid, 


•••••• 


716,858 




80 


250 




Ses6dii. 


Aujanwis, 




170,958 




60 


200 


••• 


Ahir,Gond. 


Bas&hirah, 




515,400 




80 


250 


•.. 


Ses<$dii. 


Bodah, 


••«••• 


255,062 




65 


800 


.». 


Bijpnt. 
B^dii 
(Dodhia.) 


Baht<5r, 




109,220 




74 


250 




Ahir. 


Banlta^* 





106,708 





50 


200 


.•• 


Ahlr,Goiid. 


Bariodah, 




90,970 


727 


80 


100 


••• 


Ghanbln. 


Bhathp6r,* 




68,104 




16 


250 




D^dia. 


Ttt, 


•••*.• 


1,600,000 




160 


250 


... 


Do. dow 


Telr6d,» ... 


*••... 


600,000 




80 


220 


... 


Do. do. 


JamUwarah, 




619,759 




80 


200 


••* 


Sesddii. 


Seokherah, 




46,090 




50 


800 


... 




Ghiyi^pur, 


•*..•• 


138,890 




60 


800 


•.« 


Gond, Ahir. 


^y4mp6r, 




175,850 




110 


800 


••• 


Deori. 


K(5ri, 




303 




50 


500 


*•• 




Mar<586r, with suburb. 
















district, 2 mahals, ... 


•». ••. 


1,651,920 


28,660 


100 


400 


••• 


B^jpdt, 



* Elsewhere. Kadarbir. 

* Var, and T. Bhiln^. Ner is in 
Khandesh Dist. lat. 20* 56' N., long. 74P 
84' B. 14 miles W. of Dhnlia. 

* T. Mandessor. Var, Mards6r: in 
the maps Mandsor. 



G. aqd T. Barlahath, Barleth, 
Bhenpiir. 



♦ Far. 
Barleet. 

• Var. and T. Bhanahp6r. 

* T. Talbarod. G. Teerood. 



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209 



Sarhdr of OdgrSn, 
Containing 12 MahaU. 63,529 Bighas. Bevenne 4,585,794 Ddms, 









3 






i 






Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


1 


9 
1 


Castes. 








OQ 


o 


M 


w 




ITrmil, ... 


••• .. 


602,774 
in money. 




... 


... 


... 




Akbaip4r,... 


•••••a 


62,500 




••« 


... 


... 




Pknj Pahir. 


21,899 


1,573,560 


• •* .• 


... 


... 


... 




Jyat, .., 




222,640 




.•• 


... 


... 




Khtir&Ud, 


17,186 


646,000 




... 


... 


... 




Bwpfir, ... 


9,716 


28,730 




... 


., 


• «. 




Sdnhal, ... 


9,638 


281,909 


. 


... 


... 


... 




Sender, ... 


695 


81,929 




... 




... 




GWti. 




600,046 




... 


... 


... 




CMgnSn, with raborb. 
















district, has a stone 
















fcrt, ... 


...••• 


19,781 
in money. 




... 


... 


... 




Nfmth<$r, ... 


4,945 


608,834 




... 


• •. 


... 





Sarkdr of Kotri Pardyah,^ 

Containing 10 Mahals^ 190,039 Bighas. Revenne 8,031,920 Dams. 
Oaetes various. Cavalry 2,245. Infantry 6,500. 









2 






i 






Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




1 


i* 




Castes. 








00 


o 


M 


H 




A'86p, 


42,220 


1,733,927 




250 


700 






A^igarh, ... 


4,553 


855,612 




350 


200 


••• 


lUjput, Be- 
w4r.* 


Ah<5r, 


9,204 


532,056 




80 


800 


... 


B6w^r.» 


BanSdah, 


20,224 


923,667 




160 


400 


... 


Edjput, Son- 
dhk. 


Dakdadhilii,* 


13,381 


4.58,144 




125 


400 


... 


Do. do. 


Sohat, 


13,381 


693,5S5 




240 


500 


... 


Do. Bewar.* 


Kdtripariyah, 2 mahals. 


46,046 


1,856,566 




770 


1,300 


... 


Kayath,with 
Bnburb. 
district. 
















Gangrir, 


202,616 


1,066,683 




200 


700 


... 


Eiljpnt, 

Sondh£ 
Sondhi. 


GboC ... 


2,597 


116,380 




60 


200 


... 



* G. Kowtry beraneh. T. Konnry Par- 
anah. In the maps, according to a note 
to the text, Kotli Pardwah. 

27 



• Var. Dewdr and Deora. 

* Var. and G. harlia. 



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210 



.c 


840. 


>» 


760. 


w 


670. 


M 


680. 


If 


680. 



Princes of MdlwahJ 

I. 

Five B&jahs of this dynasty reigned in snccession, 

387 years, 7 months, 3 days. 

Ts. Ms. D». 
Dhanji, (Dhananjaya, a name of Arjon, 

about 785 before Vikramaditya), ... 100 
Jit Chandra, ... ... ... 86 7 3 

S&liydhana, ... ... ... 10 

Nirvihana, ... ... ... 100 

Putrdj, (Patra Bijas or Yansavalis with- 
out issue), ... ••• ... 100 2 
11. 
Eighteen princes of the Ponw&r caste reigned 
1,062 years, 11 months, 17 days. 
B. G. 400. Aditya Panw&r, (elected by nobles. [Co- 
temp. Sapor, A, D. 191. Wilford.*]),... 86 7 3 
Brahmahr&j, (reigned in Yidharbanagar), 30 7 3 
Atibrahma,^ (at IJjain, defeated in the 
north), ... ... ... 90 

Sadhroshana, (Sadasva Sena. Yisudeva 
of Wilford, Basdeo of Ferishta, A. D. 
390, father-in-law of Bahrim Qor. re- 
vived Eanauj dynasty), ... ... 80 

Hemarth, (Heymert, Harsha M6gha, kill- 
ed in battle), ... ... ... 100 

Oandharb,^ (Gardabharupa^ Bahrimg<$r of 
Wilford), ... ... ... 35 



390. 
360. 

271. 



191. 



91. 



* This line is flnppoeed to have been 
fnrnished from Jain authorities ; it 
agrees nearly with appendix to Agni 
Pormna, (Wilford). I have appended to 
the list the date of each prince, taken 
from the TJ. T. from which the above 
is quoted, for reference and comparison. 

S See Wilford's Essay on Yiorama- 
ditya and Salivahana, As. Res. IX. 117. 

' This and the following name are 
relegated to footnotes in the text, the 
variants chosen, however, do not accord 
with other authorities. 



* Under power of a ourse, in oonse- 
quence of a crime, he was changed into 
an ass resuming his human form only at 
night. Hemrat, notwithstanding, gave 
him his daughter in marriage and she 
gave birth to Vikramaditya. Tieff. Wil- 
ford plausibly identifies this Vikrama- 
ditya with the Persian Yezdejird son 
of Bahram Gor, and adapts in ecmse- 
quence a suitable ohronology. 



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211 



Tb. Mb. Ds. 



86 








100 








7 








1 





1 


60 









B. G. 56. Bikramajit, (Vikramaditya. Tn&r oaste, 

3rd of Wilfopd), ... ... 100 2 3 

A. D. 44. Ghandras^n of the same raoe (possessed 

himself of all Hindast&n),... ... 86 3 2 

„ 135. Eharaksen, (Smya Sena, w. 676), ... 85 

„ 215. GhatarWt, ... ... ... 10 

„ 216. Kanaks^,^ (conquered Sanrashtra [Snrit 
and Gnjerat] founder of the Mew&r fami- 
ly, ancestry traced by Jain Ghronicles 
consulted by Tod, to Sumitra, 56th from 
R&ma), ... ... 

„ 302. Ghandrapdl of the same race, 

„ 402. Mahendrapal, 

„ 409. Karamchand of the same race, 

„ 410. Bijainand, (Yijyananda), ... 

„ 470. Mnnja, (killed in the Deccan, reigned A. D. 
993, according to Tod). 

„ 483. Bhdja, (by Tod 667 A. D. The other two 
R&jas Bhdja, Tod fixes in 665 [from 
Jain MSS.] and 1035, the father Ud^ 
yati. K&lidds flourished),... ... 100 

„ 583. Jayachand, (put aside in favour of the 

following), ... ... ... 10 2 

m. 

Eleven princes of the To^war, (Tuar) caste reigned 142 years, 3 days. 

Ys. Ms. Ds. 
A.D.593. Jitpdl, ... ... ... 5 

„ 598. Rdn^Rdju, ... ... ... 5 

„ 603. BandBdju, ... ... ... 10 3 

„ 604. Rin4 Jaju, (Jalu, var. and U. T.), ... 20 



' The text differhig from all other 
antiioritiee, has Gang. 

Wilford asserts on the anthoritj of 
the appendix to the Agni-pM/raxka that 
QKxira-cita in Bnndelkhand is the name 
of the metropolis of these princes meta- 
morphosed into a king. The three names 
*SUa Kanaksen, he says, should be 
properly, Rama Chandrft who did not 



reign, Chaitrapala who was elected after 
the death of Jayananda, and Maha 
Ohandrapala or Mahendrapala (p. 140) 
and shoald follow and not precede R^j4 
Bhoja, (p. 166), in accordance with the 
Agni and Bhayishya-pnrana lists. His 
reason for the transposition most be 
taken on trust. 



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30 








5 








5 








5 








5 








60 








1 









212 



A. D. 620. Rdna Chandra,... 

„ 654. Bdna Bahadur,... 

„ 659. Bte Bakhmal, (Bakhtmal), 

„ 664. BAe Sakanpil, ... 

„ 669. RieKiratpil, •.. 

„ 674. R^ Anangpi], (rebnilt and' peopled 

Delhi 791, Tod.), 

„ 734. Kn^warpdl, 

IV. 

Eleven princes of the Ghauh^n caste reigned 140 years. 

Ys. Ms. Ds. 
A. D. 735. Rdjd Jagdeva, ... 
„ 745. Jaganndth, his nephew, 
„ 755. Hardeva, 
„ 770. Basdeva, 
„ 786. Srideya, ^ 

„ 801. Dharmdeva, 
„ 815. Bhaldeva, 
„ 825. N^nakdeva, 
„ 834. Eiratdeva, 
„ 845. Pithuri, 

„ 866. Mdldeva, (conquered by Shaikh Sb4h &ther 
of Ala u'd din), ... ... 9 

V. 

Ten princes redgned 77^ years. 



10 








10 








15 








16 








15 








14 








10 








9 








11 








21 













A.D, 


1037. 


Shtdkh SMh, (from Ghazni), 


70 








ft 


1037. 


Dharmr&ja Slid, (Vizierduring minority of, 20 








V 


1057. 


A1& n'd din, sou of Shaikh Sh&h, -who pat 










the Vizier to death. 


20 








>» 


}> 


Kam&l a'd din, (murdered by, 


12 








M 


1069. 


Jitpal Chanhin, ( Jaya Sing of Delhi and 
Lahore P 977, a descendant of Manikya 












Rai?), 


20 








» 


1089. 


Harchand, 


20 








l> 


1109. 


Eir&tchand, ... ... ... 


2 








if 


1111. 


Ugars6n, 


18 








>» 


1124. 


Snrajrand, 


12 









1 So all the MSS. tranBcribing blindly. The earn of Abal Faal's fignreB gives 199 
years. 



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213 











Ts. 


Ms 


. Ds. 


A. D. 1186. 


Tipparaen, (or Birsen, dispossessed by the 












following), ... 


10 












VI. 












Eight princes reigned 206^ years. 








A. I) 


K 1146. 


Jalal u'd din, (an Afghan), .. 


22 








>> 


1168. 


4'alam Shah, (killed in battle by, 


24 








>? 


1192. 


Kharaks^n, son of Harsen (Birsen, emi- 
grated to Kdmrdp, married the king's 
daughter, succeeded to the kingdom 












and regained Malwah), ... 


8 












^Udayddityadeva, ^ 


r§ 












Naravarmadeva, | 


uninscripti 








99 


1200. 


Narbihan. -i Yasovarmadeya, S3 ^ 


20 












Jayavarmadeva, p 












Lakhan, <j 


i§ 








99 


1220. 


Birsal, ... ... ... 


16 








99 


1286. 


Ptiranmal, 


89 








» 


1268. 


Haranand, 


62 








99 


1380. 


Sakat Sing, (killed at the invasion of 












the following). 


60 












VII. 










Eleven 


princes reigned 142 years, 2 months and 4 


days 






A. D. 1390. 


Bahddur Shdh, (king of Deccan, killed 












at Delhi), ... 


some montlis. 


91 


1390. 


Diliwar Khdn Ghori, (viceroy of M41wah 


Ts. 


Ms 


Ds. 






assumed sovereignty), ... .... 


20 








99 


1405. 


Hoshang Sh^, ... 


80 








99 


1432. 


Muhammad Shdh,(GhizniKhdn, poisoned). 


1 


some ms. 


>9 


1486. 


Sultan Mal^mtid, uncle of Hoshang, 
(R&n4 of Chitov Kumbho, presents 












tankas coined in his own name, 1450), 


34 








99 


1469. 


Sultan Ghiyd? u'd din, 


32 








99 


1600. 


„ Ni^ir u'd din, (his son ShahAb u'd 












din revolts). 


11 


4 


3 


99 


1512. 


„ Matmud 11, (younger son, last of 












the Khiljis), 


26 


6 11 


19 




KddirShdb, ... 


6 









The total giyes 251. 



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214 



Yb. Mb. Ds. 
A. D. Shnj&^t Khin, known as Saj&waU Kban, 12 

„ Biz Bah&dar. 

In 1534 Malirah tncorporattd with Oujerdt kingdom ; in 1568 annexed 
as a province of Akhar^s empire. 

It is said that two thousand, three hnndred and fifty-five years, fire 
months and twenty-seven days prior to this, the 40th year of the Divine Era', 
an ascetio named Mahahdh^ kindled the first flame in a fire-temple, and devo- 
ting himself to the worship of God, resolutely set himself to the consuming 
of his rebellious passions. Seekers after eternal welfare gathered round 
him, zealous in a life of mortification. About this time the Buddhists 
began to take alarm and appealed to the temporal sovereign, asserting thai 
in this fire-temple, many living things were consumed in flaming fire, and 
that it was advisable that Brahmanical rites should be set aside, and that 
he should secure the preservation of life. It is said that their prayer was 
heard, and the prohibition against the said people was enforced. These 
men of mortified appetites resolved on redress, and sought by prayer a 
deliverer who should overthrow Buddhism and restore their own &ith. 
The Supreme Justice brought forth from this fire-temple, now long grown 
cold, a human form, resplendent with divine majesty, and bearing in ito 



^ Var, 8huj&wal. Perhaps Shuj&a dil. 
A note in Bemonlli sngg^estg that Tieffen- 
thaler has drawn on a history of Milwah 
bj Niz&mi A. H. 910. (A. D. 1504-5,) 
for this list of princes. Its identity with 
that of Abul Fazl, and the fact of his 
having largely nsed the ^A£n for his 
geographical description of HindiiBt&n, 
famishes another and surer infer- 
ence. 

« This would be B. 0. 761, bnt the U. 
T. antedates the appearance of Dhanji 
or Arjan by nearly a century, (B. 0. 
840) and places the time of Mahamah 
(sic.) the founder of the fire-temple 
" in early ages." The chronology is, of 
course, like the account, legendary. The 
rise of Buddhism occurred in the 6th 
century, B. 0. long before which the 
Yedic religion was in operation, in which 
Agni the god of fire was the object of 
almost as many hymns as Indra himself, 



the Aqueous Vapour and bountiful giver 
of rain. The temporal sovereign to whom 
the Buddhists appealed, accords with 
Asoka's support of them. His age is 
about 257 B. C, and Arjun appears sub- 
sequently, but as this hero, with his five 
brothers, was miraculously bom in the 
Mahabharata the main story of which if 
assigned oonjecturally to about 1200 
B. 0., his re-appearance may as miraon- 
lously and conveniently be effected at any 
later time. It is more probable, howcTer, 
that the story has reference to some 
local religious factions which miist have 
existed at many places and times in 
India of which tradition, as in the case 
of the Brahman Eum&rila, and the per- 
secution of the Buddhists by his royal 
disciple Sudhanwan in the 8th century, 
has exaggerated the extent and import- 
ance. 



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215 

hand a flashing Bword. In a short space, he enthroned himself on the 
Bommit of power, and renewed the Brahmanical ohservance. He assumed 
the name of Dhanji and coming from the Deooan, estahlished his seat of 
goToimient at M41wah and attained to an advanced age. 

When Patrdj, the fifth in descent from him, died without issue, the 
nobles elected Aditja Ponwir his successor, and this was the origin of the 
BOTereignty of this house. On the death of Hemairth in battle, Gandharb, 
the chosen, was raised to the throne. The Hindtis believe that he is the 
same as Hemarth whom the Supreme Ruler introduced among the celestials 
in the form of a Oandharh^ and then clothed in huinan shape. Thus he 
became universally known by this name and prospered the world by his 
justice and munificence. A son was bom to him named Bikram^jit who 
kept aflame the lamp of his ancestors and made extensive conquests. 
The Hindds to this day keep the beginning of his reign as an era and 
rdate wonderful accounts of him. Indeed he possessed a knowledge of 
talismans and incantations and gained the credulity of the simple. Chan- 
diapal obtained in turn the supreme power and conquered all Hindiist&n. 
Bijainand was a prince devoted to the chase. Near a plant of the Munjcfi 
he suddenly came upon a new-bom infant. He brought him up as his own 



' A dass of demigods who inhabit the 
hetven of Indra and form the oelestial 
eixnr at the banquets of the deities. He 
appoan also in the lists as OaJidha-pdlat 
fostered by an ass, Qandha-ri^a or HoT' 
thoandgka, epithets of the same animal. 
Aooording to Wilf ord the Pandits who 
assisted Abnl Fazl disfigored the chrono- 
logj of the supplement to the A gni-prirana. 
Of SaUvahana and Nara-Yahana they 
made two distinct persons as well as of 
Bahrim with the title of Gor in Per- 
sian and Himiir, or the Ass in Arabic. 
Thus they introduced Him&r or Hemarth 
«nd Gor or Gkuidharb and told Abnl 
Pasl that the former having been killed 
ia battle, his sonl passed into the body 
of Gandharb. The accession of Yikra- 
ottditTa son of Bahr&m Gor is placed 
hi the sapplement to the A.-pnrana and 
m the Sa^rujaya-mahdtmya, A. D. 4S7. 
In ^ appendix to the A. P., the acces- 
sMm of Aditya is placed A. D. 185, bat 



in the Cumdricdc'hanaj A. D. 191 : the 
difference is 6 years which added to 437 
or rather 486, will place the same event 
in 442, the date of the Western Chrono- 
logers. As. Bes. IX, 168—75. 

' Saccharum munjay a rash or grass 
from the fibres of which a string is pre- 
pared of which the Brahmanical girdle 
is properly formed. Mnnja wrote a 
geographicfil description of the world 
or of India which still exists under the 
name of Munja-prati-desa-ryavasthd or 
state of various countries. It was 
afterwards corrected cmd improved by 
Edj4 Bhoja, and still exists in Gujerit, 
Munja transferred the capital from 
IJjjain to Sdnitpura in the Deccan called 
after him Munja-pattana on the Goda- 
veri. S<5nitpura (city of blood) was 
thus called because Munja was defeated 
here with great slaughter and lost his 
life. Wilford. 



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216 

Bon and called him by the name of Mtinja. When his own inevitable time 
approached, his son Bh6ja was of tender age. He therefore appointed 
Monja his successor, who ended his life in the wars of the Deccan. 

Bb6ja succeeded to the throne in 541st^ year of the era of Bikram&jit 
and added largely to his dominions, administering the empire with justice 
and liberality. He held wisdom in honour, the learned were treated with dis- 
tinction, and seekers after knowledge were encouraged by his support. 
Five hundred sages, the most erudite of the age, shone as the gathered 
wisdom of his court and were entertained in a manner becoming their 
dignity and merit.^ The foremost of these was Barrnj, a second was 
Dhanpdl, who have composed works of great interest and left them to 
intelligent seekers of truth, as a precious possession. At the birth of 
Bhdja, either through a grave miscalculation of the astrologers or some 
inadvertence on the part of those who cast his horoscope, the learned in 
the stars in consultation announced a nativity of sinister aspect. They 
prognosticated hazard to the lives of such as sympathised with him, and 
these to save their own, cast this nursling of fortune in the dust of des- 
titution and exposed him in an inhospitable land. He was there nourished 
without the intervention of human aid. The sage Barraj, who at that 
time was not accounted among the learned, having recast his horoscope 
after profound investigation, foretold the good tidings of a nativity linked 
to a long life and a glorious reign. This paper he threw in the way 
of the Raja, whose heart on reading it, was agitated with the impulse 
01 paternal love. He convened an assembly of the astrologers, and when 
the nativity was scrutinised, and it was ascertained where the error lay, 
he went in person and restored Bhdja to favour and opened the eyes of his 
understanding to the strangeness of fortune. They relate that when the 
child was eight years old, the short-sighted policy of Munja impelled him 
to desperate measures and he contemplated putting the innocent boy to 



^ Wilford says that this is impossible 
as it would place Bhoja's accession in 
the year 982 which he considers to be 
more probably the date of his death, his 
accession occorring abont the year 918 
of Christ. This must be Tod's third 
Bija of the name. I refer the reader 
to Wilford's Essay where he may lose 
himself at leisnro in the wilderness of 
conjectural chronology and encounter 
the numcrons phantom Vikramadityas, 



Bhojas and Salivahanas that will con- 
front him at every step. 

• Dr. Hall shows (Joum. B. A. S. 1862 
Vdsaradatta, Pref.) that there ia little 
foundation for this prince's fame as a 
patron of letters. Elphinst. India, 281, 
note. The names of the two pandits 
as given by Wilford are Dhanwanti and 
Bararuchi, and the number five han- 
dred is reduced to nine. 



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217 

defttL He entrnsied him to some of hia trostj followers to make away 
with him secretlj, bnt these ministers of death spared him, and concealing 
him, invented a plausible tale. On his taking leave, he gave them a letter 
telling them to read it to the lUjd in case he should inquire regarding 
him. Its purport ran as follows : — *' How doth darkness of soul in a man 
cast him oat of the light of wisdom, and in unholy machinations stain his 
hands in the blood of the innocent ! No monarch in his senses thinks to 
earry with hini to the grave his kingdom and treasures, but thou by 
%\xpng me seemest to imagine that his treasures perpetually endure and 
that he himself is beyond the reach of harm." The BAji on hearing this 
letter, was aroused from his day-dream of fancied security and brooded in 
remoTBe over his crime. His agents, when they witnessed the evidences 
of his sincerity revealed to him what had occurred. He gave thanks to 
God, welcomed Bh<$ja with much affection and appointed him his successor. 
When his son Jayachand's^ reign was ended, none of the Poqiwir caste was 
fcmnd worthy to succeed. Jitpal of the To^war caste, who was one of 
the principal landowners was elected to the throne, and thus by the vicis- 
Bitades of fortune the sovereignty passed into this family. When Ku^- 
warpil died, the royal authority passed into the hands of the Ghauh&ns. 
During the reign of Maldeva, Shaikh Sh&h came from Ohazni and ac- 
quired possession of M&lwah and lived to an advanced age. At his 
death his son A14 u'd din was a minor, and his chief minister Dharm Rij 
6M occupied the throne. As soon as J^ u'd din came of age, he rose in 
arms to assert his rights and put to death the disloyal usurper. Jitpal 
Chaohan, a descendant of Mdnik Deva' Chauhdn, who was in the service 
of Kamftl u'd dfn, under the impulse of malice and in pride of wealth 
compassed the destruction of his master and in the hope of gain, ac- 
quired for himself eternal perdition. Under the rule of Tippars^n,^ an 
intriguing Afgh&n, getting together some desperate characters as his 



* Jajrananda aocording to Wilford, 
who giyes the next name as Chaitra or 
ijiep6X and identifies or confonnde him 
With Chandrapila, who, he considers, is 
•rroneonsly placed before Bh<5ja in Abal 
taxi's list. He acooants him one of the 
Bany Yikramadityas among whom the 
htto of the era is not easilj recognised. 

* Manikya Rai, is recorded in the U. 
T. as the 18th in the list of the Ohanhin 
dynaatj at Ajmer and Delhi and after- 
wards at Eotah and Bnndi. He flourish- 

28 



ed A. D. 695, and founded Sambhar 
henee title of S&mbri B6o; slain by 
Moslem invaders under Abul A^. The 
Chauhins were one of the four Ag^cola 
tribes, Ghanhins, Parihirs, Sol^ki and 
Pramlira, said to have been produced by 
a oouTocation of the gods on Mount 
'Abd. Tod. 

* The name is misprinted in the text 
through the misplacing of the diacritical 
points. 



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218 



abettors, laying an ambnBli for the B4j&, slew him while hunting, and 
assumed the sovereignty with the title of Jal41 u'd din. Tippars6n had 
married his son Kharaks^n into the family of the Riji of K&mrdp.^ The 
Bdjd, for his eminent services, appointed this adopted son his heir, and 
when the BAji died, Eharaks^n ascended the throne and to avenge his 
wrongs marched an army against Mdlwah and Adlam Sh4h was killed in 
battle. 

In the reign of Sakat Sing a prince named Bah&dut Shih advanced 
from the Decoan and having put the B&j4 to death, marched against 
Delhi and was taken prisoner while fighting against Sulfin Shah^b u*d din. 

From the time of Snlt&n Ghiyd? u'd din Balban (A. D. 1265) 
to that of Sultdn Muhammad son of Firoz SMk (A. D. 1387) no serious 
weakness in the imperial authority betrayed itself, but on his death the 
empire of Delhi became a prey to distractions. Diliwar Kh^ Ghori 
who had been appointed by him to the government of M&lwah, assumed 
independence. The Sult&n bestowed the government of four provinces 
upon four individuals who had been &dthful to him in his adversity. To 
Zafar Eh4n' he gave Gujerdt ; Khizr Kh4n was appointed to Multin ; 
Khw4jah Sarwar to Jaunpdr and DiUwar Kh&n to M41wah. After his 
death, the time being favourable, each^ of the four assumed indepen- 
dence. 

Alp Khdn the son of DilAwar Kh4n was elected to the succession 
under the title of Hoshang. It is said that his father was poisoned by 
his order whereby he has gained everlasting abhorrence. Sulfdn Muza&r 
of Gujer&t marched against him and took him prisoner and left his own 
brother Na^ir Kh&n in command of the province. But as he was tyrannons 
in conduct and ignored the interests of his subjects, Mtisa, cousin \A 
Hoshang, was raised to the throne. Sultan MuzafEar released Hoshang 



* The text hwKdmHt, 

* Zafar KlUui took the title of Mnzaf • 
far Sh&h. AcoordiDg to some historians 
both he and DiUwar owed their appoint- 
ments to Firoz Shih. Khizr Khin was 
continued in his goyemment of Multan 
and Dip&lpur by Tim^ and acted as 
the viceroy of that oonqaeror. Within 
two years of the death of Ma^mud the 
last of the hoose of Toghlal^ he advanced 
to Delhi at the head of 60,000 horse and 
established the dynasty of the Sayyids in 



1414. Malik BA}i of Ehindesh asserted 
his independence at this time 

* There is an evident omission in the 
text of a qoalifying word before the 
nnmeral, and the sentence is improperly 
assigned to the next paragraph. The 
S. nl. M. sappUes j^. The text is so 
obscure and confused that nothing bat 
a knowledge of the history of the times 
can guide a reader to the meaning of 
the incoherent narratiye. Gladwin is 
completely astray. 



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219 

bom confinement and despaicbed liiin to MiUwah in company with his own 
son A^mad Khin^ and in a short time he was restored to power. On the 
death of Mozafibr, he perfidiooslj marched against Gnjerat, bat meeting 
with no success, retnmed. On several subsequent occasions he attacked 
Saltan Alpnad of Ghijerdt but was shamefully defeated. 

On one occasion cunningly disguised as a merchant, he set out for 
Jijnagar.^ The ruler of that country accompanied by a small retinue 
Tisited the oararan. Hoshang took him prisoner and hastened back. 
While journeying together, Hoshang told him that he had been induced 
to nndertake this expedition in order to procure a supply of elephants and 
added that if his people attempted a rescue, the prince's life should pay 
the penalty. The prince therefore sending for a number of valuable 
elephants, presented them to him and was set at liberty. 

Hoshang was engaged in wars with Mubirak Shih son of Ehizr Khiu 
▼iceroy* of Delhi, with Sult&n Ibrahim of the Jaunpdr dynasty, and with 



' Jijpdr on the Baitar&ni river in 
Orisaa, capital of the province nnder the 
lion Dynasty, the Gajpati or Lords of 
Elephants. This story oocnrs in the 
Tab. Akbari, p. 537, and in Ferishta, 
Vol n, p. 236. (Briggs, IV, 178). Pe- 
ziahta's account is that in A. H. 825 
(1421^2), Hoshang with a 1,000 picked 
cavahy disg^nised as a merchant set ont 
for Jijnagar, one month's joomey from 
Mihrah and took with him a nnmber of 
cream-oolonred horses, much songht after 
by the ruler of Orissa and stuffs of vari- 
ous kinds, his object being to exchange 
tiiese for elephants the better to meet 
Sol^in Mmad of Gnjer&t in the field. 
On his arrival near Jajnagar he sent to 
inform the B&jah of the presence of his 
Qiravan and the prince arrived with a 
nimber of elephants to barter for the 
hones, or ready to pay in coin, as the 
need arose. The horses were caparison- 
ed and the stuffs laid out for inspection, 
when, a storm of rain came on and the 
li^tniiig frightening the elephants, they 
trampled on the goods and caused great 
damage. Hoshang tore his hair and 
swore that life was no longer worth hav- 



ing and at a sig^ial* his men mounted and 
attacked the R&ji's guard, and put them 
to flight. Capturing the R^ja, Hosh- 
ang discovered himself and excused his 
action on the ground of the destruction 
of his property. He then stated his ob- 
ject. The R&jah admired his audacity 
and 75 elephants purchased his own re- 
lease. Hoshang carried him as far as the 
frontier and set him at liberty. On the 
lUja's return to* his own capital, he 
sent Hoshang a further present of a few 
more of his finest elephants in testimony 
of his gallantry. Hoshang returned to 
Mando which Sul^ A|^mad was be- 
seig^ing and eluding an engagement en- 
tered it by the T&r&pdr gate Ferishta 
relates a similar expedition undertaken 
by Sul(£n Shams n*d din Bhankarah of 
Bengal to J&jnagar about A. H. 754 
(A. D. 1853) to obtain elephants (p. 296, 
Yol. II) which proves the reputation of 
that province for the superior breed or 
number of these animals. 

* He never assumed the royal title 
but styled himself viceroy of Timdr in 
whose name the ooin was minted and 
the Khutbah read. 



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220 

Sultan A(^mad of ihe Deccan.^ On his death, the nobles, in aceordaiice 
with his bequest, raised his son Na^ir* Kh6n to the throne under the title 
of Muhammad Sh&h. Mal;^miid Ehan, oousin of Saltan Hoshang, basely 
bribed his cup bearer and that venal wretch poisoned the Sultan's wine. 
The generals of the army kept his death becret hoping to place his son 
Mas^^d Khan upon the throne and they sent to confer with Ma^M 
Khan. He replied that worldly affairs had no longer any interest for him 
but that if his presenoe in council were necessary, thej must come to him. 
They foolishly went to his house and were placed in confinement, and by the 
aid of some disloyal mercenary partisans, he seized upon the sovereignly 
of M^wah and was proclaimed under the title of Sul^in Mahmud (Kbilji). 
Upon such a wretch,^ in its wondrous vicissitudes thus did Fortune smile 
and the awe he inspired secured him the tranquil possession of power. He 
waged wars with Sultan Mul^mmad son of Mubdrak Shih, king of Delhi, 
with Sultan Al^nad, king of Gujer&t, with Sultin Husain Sharki of 
Jdunptir, and with R4na Kombha^ of Mew&r. 

Khwdjah Jamal u'd din Astar&b&di^ was sent to him as ambassador by 
Abd Said Mirza with costly gifts which greatly redounded to his glory. 
Malt^mtid II (1512 A. D.) through his ungenerous treatment of his adopt- 



* Ali^mad Shah. Wall of the Bahm&iu 
dynasty (1422—35). 

' Var. Husain Khin whioh name Glad- 
win adopts. Ferishta oalls him Ghizni 
Khin. 

* He proved notwithstanding, the 
ablest and most chivalrons of all the 
Hilwah princes. This indignation is 
somewhat misplaced. Considering the 
nsnal road to an Eastern throne, this is 
innocence. 

* In the U. T. Kunibo, Tod. Knmbho. 
Gladwin Gownho. 

* This ambassador arrived with pre- 
sents from Mirza Sal|in S^id 3rd in de- 
scent from Tamerlane who reigned over 
Transoziana and held his court at Bokh- 
iri — grandfather of Biber. He returned 
with presents of elephants, singing and 
dancing girls, Arab horses and anode 
in the vernacular composed by Mabmdd 
himself which Abu S^id valued above 



aU the other gifts. Ferishta II, 254. 
When Abfi Safd was killed in JHlf. 
he left 11 sons, vis., Ai^mad, Ha^miid, 
Mul^ammad, Sh&hrukh, Ulngh, Omar 
Shaikh, Abu Bakr, Mur&d, Khalil, Omar, 
and Mirza. Four of these became sove- 
reigns in their father's life-time, Ulngh 
Beg in Gabul, A|^mad in Samarkand, 
Mahmud in Kunduz and Badakshan, and 
Om&r Shaikh in Farghinah. Tunas Khan 
king of Moghulist&n, gave each of these 
(except Ulugh Beg) a daughter in mar- 
riage. In A. H. 888 (1483—4) Kutlugh 
Nig&r KhiUiam, the daughter of Ydnas 
bore a son to Omar Shaikh whom he 
called B&ber. The genealogy from Timur 
is as follows : — 

Aniir Tim6r 

Mirin Sh4h Mirza 

Sul^n Muhammad Mirza 

Sultan Abii S^d Mirza. 



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221 

ed followerfli feU into miafortune but was again reinstated in power by 
the aid of Sultan Muzaffiar SWh (II) of GujerAt (A. D. X611— 26), 
Tbrongh his reckless bravery in battle he was taken prisoner by the Rkni 
(Sanga)* who treated him with generosity and restored him to his kingdom. 
He was again captured in action against Snlt4n BahMur of Gajerilt and 
conveyed to the fortress of Chdnpan6r. He was killed (A. D. 1626) on 
bis way thither and Mdlwah was incorporated with Qnjerit until it was 
conquered by Humaytin. When this monarch returned to Agra, one of 
the relations of Sultdn Mafemdd, by name Malld, seized on the government 
of Mflwah under the title of J^idir Khin. 

During the supremacy of the usurper Sh&- Khin the control of the 
province was invested in Shuja^tt Kh4n,8 who rebelled under the reign of 
Mm Khan and assumed independence under Mubdriz KhAn. 



• S. nl M. citojil/. The reference is 
teluidiBmiasal of hie Hmdu mioister 
Medni Bae and the R4]p6t troope to 
Thorn he owed his kingdom when desert- 
ed bj his nobles at the beginning of his 
Bngn. The loyalty of Mednl Bie, 
tboQgfa proved under the greatest trials, 
4id not disarm the king's sospioions and 
le fled to the Coort of Qujerftt in 1647. 

* Sana Sanga (also Si^grim or Sinka) 
(A.D. 160&— 1629) under whom Uew&t 
molted its highest prosperity, snooess- 
foQj resifted Bihar at Biina in 1626. 

■ See Vol. I, p. 821. Sher Shih wai 
loeceeded by his second son Jalil Khin, 
ae laUm 8hih oormpted into Salim Bbih 
A. H. 952 (May 26th, 1645). On his 
death in A. H. 965 (1548-9) he was sno- 
«eeded by his son prince Firoz, then 12 
yews of age who was placed on the 
throne by the chiefs of the hoose of 
S6r at Ghiralior. He had not reigned & 
%i when liabiriz Khin. son of Nisim 
Khin and nephew of Sher 8hih and 
l»oiher-in-]aw of Salim Shih, assassi- 
••^ his sister's son Firos, and assumed 
the lOTereignty under the title of Mn. 
banunad Shih ^fidil. The common peo- 
ple dropping the alif and adding a yd 



caUed him 4dU%. Perishta (Vol I, p. 
288,) adds'* and J^m from hi» vnmt of 
capacity betook himself to the socie- 
ty of low and base companions and re- 
ferred to them the highest affairs of 
State." At page 460 of Blphinstone's 
India (Murray, 1866, ed. CoweU) is a 
footnote to the name of " Adali " which 
runs thus. ["His ignorance and ab- 
surdity obtained for him the name of 
Adah ("the foolish"). Sir H. Elliot's 
Hist., i. 802)--Bd.] The responsibflity 
for this meaning apparently rests with 
Dom for in Yol. V of Dowson's Elliot, 
p. 45, is the following footnote. " The 
Mdkhaan i Afghdni says, this name was 
changed to 'AdaU' which Dom saya 
Bignifies foolish." Though the root JX* 
bears the meaning of 'deriation fiom 
the right way* this is by no means 
synonymous with feebleness of mind 
and * Adali,* as an epithet, does not 
meair "looliah.** I suspect Dom*s error 
i« based on FeriiBihts*a wacda which I 
have underlined and which he haa 
severed from their connection with what 
follows and referred them to the nam«. 
Perishta adds that the Afghin wits 
called him * Andhli ' for his ill-regulated 



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222 

On his death, his eldest son Bayizid succeeded under the title of Biz 
Bahadur until the star of his Majesty's fortune arose in the ascendant and 
this fertile proyince was added to the imperial dominions. 

May the robe of this daily- widening empire be bordered with per- 
petuity, and its inhabitants enjoy to their hearts' fill a prosperity that shall 
never decay. 

Suhah of Ddndh. 

This flourishing country was called Ehdndes, but after the captare of 
the fortress of Asir^ and when this province fell under the goyemment of 
prince Dknj&L, it was known as B&ndis} It is situated in the second 
climate. Its length from Borgdon^ which adjoins Hindiah to Lalanj* which 
is on the borders of the territory of AhmadnagoMr is 75 kos. Its breadth 
from Jdmod adjoining Berdr to Pal which borders Mdlwah is 50, and in 
some parts only 25 kos. On its east is Berd/r ; to the north, Mdlioah : to 
the south, Odlnah (J&lna) : to the we«t, the southern chain of the mountains 
of Mdlwah. The rivers are numerous, the principal being the Tdli^ which 



condnct, " Andhli being in the Hindi lan- 
guage * blindness.' " Accurate Boholar- 
ship is not looked for in a jest and the 
similaritj of sound will suffice for a 
pun, but it maj be remarked that 
*iindhli* is not admissible for "blindness" 
which should be andhla-pan or perhaps 
' andhUU* Since writing the above, Dr. 
Bost has traced for me the work in which 
Dom has committed himself to this 
interpretation of 4^ili. It occurs in his 
tronslation of Neamat TJUah. (History 
of Afghans, Vol. 1, 171) " but, in despite 
of his usurped title, he was commonly 
called Adili (the Foolish)." A note re- 
fers the reader to Briggs' Ferishta. 
Vol. II, p. 144, which is, as I suspected, 
the passage quoted and underlined by 
me above. Briggs represents his origi- 
nal with freedom, but in the main, as 
far as I have seen, with truth. In this 
instance his paraphrase has misled Dom 
into an inference, probably not intended, 
but if intended, certainly incorrect. 



^ It was ceded to Akbar towards tke 
close of A. H. 1008 (1600 A. D.) by 
Bah&dur Khan F&r6|d the last of that 
dynasty. See A. A., Vol. I, zxiii and 
p. 886. 

' A combination of D&ny&l and Khin- 
des, as ELhindes was named after Nasir 
u'd din son of Malik Baja the first of the 
F&r6^ dynasty. 

8 T. and G. Pourgaon, Poorgong. S. oL 
M. Pdrgdo^. 

^ Var, T. and G. Talang. T. has also 
Lelang. 

* Var. Tibi, M&U. T. passes by the 
name altogether, while G. has it, but 
strangely omits the Tapti. I find no 
mention of the T&li in the I. G. The 
Tapti rises in a sacred reservoir in the 
town of Multai. (lat. 2^ 46' 26" K., 
long. 78° 18' 6" B.). The Prfmo, aoeord- 
ing to the I. G. is one of its tributuies. 
The text has here P4m% but later on 



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228 

riaes between Beraar and Oondhwdnahy the Tapti which has its source from 
the same quarter and which is also called the Fitma, and the Oimi near 
Chapmh. The climate is pleasant and the winter temperate. 

Joufdri is chiefly cultivated of which, in some places, there are three 
crops in a year, and its stalk is so delicate and pleasant to the taste that 
it is regarded in the light of a fruit. The rice is of fine quality, fruits 
grow plentifully and betel leaves are in abundance. Good cloth stuffs are 
woTen here : those called Siri Sdf^ and Bhiraun come from Bharangdon, 
A'nt^ is the residence of the governor. It is a fortress on a lofty hill. 
Three other forts encompass it which for strength and loftiness are 
scarcely to be equalled. A large and flourishing city is at its foot. Bw- 
Unpw is a large city three Icos distant from the Tapti. It lies in latitude 
21^ Wf and is embellished with many gardens and the sandal-wood also 
grows here. It is inhabited by people of all countries and handicraftsmen 
play a thriving trade. In the summer, clouds of dust fly which in the 
nuns turn to mud. 

Aadilahid is a fine town. Near it is a lake, a noted place of worship, 
and the crime of Baj4 Jasrat^ was expiated at this shrine. It is full all 
the year round and it irrigates a large area of cultivation. 



' See A. A., VoL I, p. 94. 

' It was captured by stratagem from 
its eponjmoiiB hero Asa Ahfr by Na^ir 
Kbin FlMUd acoording to TieflPenthaler, 
bat the I. G. gives the date about 
1970, in the reign of Malik Bij&. The 
story of Asa Ahfr is told by Ferishta. 
The fortress is situated on a spur of the 
Satp6ra range, height 850 feet from the 
l»se and 2,500 above sea level. The 
three forts are probably the outworks 
embracing inferior spurs of the hill and 
commanding the approaches. TieflPen- 
thaler says "elle est def endue par un 
triple mnr, muni par intervalles, de tours 
londes ; il faut franchir oes trois rem- 
parts pours arriver an sommet." 

• Properly 21° 18' 36" N., long. W 
W 26" E. It was founded by Na?ir 
Khia F&rW of Khindesh and called by 
him after Shaikh Burhan u*d din of 
Danlatib^ I. G. 

^ That this name is an error for Dala- 



ratha, I am convinced by the S. ul. M. 
which although it retains " Jasrat " adds 
the information that he was the father 
of B^ma Chandra, known as Bama. 
Professor Cowell of Cambridge has 
placed me under obligations for the 
following note : " Dafiaratha*s crime was 
committed in his youth when he un- 
wittingly killed the hermit's son in the 
forests by the banks of the river Sarayfi 
in Ondh. The story is told in B^milyan, 
Bk. II, Sec. 63 (see Griffith's translation, 
VoL II, p. 243). He was cursed by the 
bereaved father and fated to be simi- 
larly agonised for the loss of his son in 
after years. I suppose these universally 
known legends are localised in different 
spots of India, like King Arthur's ex- 
ploits in Cornwall, Wales and Scotland. 
The shrine of local celebrity in Khan- 
desh no doubt claimed the glory of 
having been Daferatha's resort after his 
crime in order to expiate his guilt." 



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224 

Ohingdec^ it a village near which the Tapti and the Pimd unite, and 
the oonflnenoe is aooonuted a place of great eanotity. It is called OMkof^ 
Tirth, Adjacent to it is an image of Mahddeo, Thej relate that a hlind 
man carried abont him an image of Mahildeo which he worshipped dailj. 
He lost the image at this spot For a time he was sore distressed bai 
forming a similar image of sand, he placed it on a little eminence and 
adored it in a like spirit. By a miracle of dirine will, it became stone 
and exists to this day. Near it a spring rises which is held to bd 
the Qanges. An ascetic by the power of the Almighty was in the habit of 
going to the Ganges daily from this spot. One night the river appeared 
to him in a dream, and said, '* Undertake these fatigues no longer ; I my- 
self will rise np in thy cell/' Accordingly in the morning it began to well 
forth and is flowing at the present time. 

JdmSd is a noh parganah. In its neighbonrhood is a fort on a bigb 
hill called PipaldoL Bdmarw? is a prosperous town. Near it is a tuik 
in which a hot spring perpetually rises and which is an object of 
worship. 

Ohopfah is a large flourishing town, near which is a shrine call- 
ed EdmAtar at the confluence of the Qiffii and the Tapti. Pilgrinu 
from the most distant parts frequent it. Adjacent to it is the fort of 
Malh&mad^ 

ThMner was for a time the capital of the Fdrufei princes. The fort 
though situated on the plain is nevertheless of great strength. 

This 8ubah contains 82 parganahs. Scarce any land is out of cultiva- 
tion and many of the villages more resemble towns. The peasantry are 
docile and industrious. The provincial force is formed of KSlia, BhiU and 
Oonds, Some of these can tame lions, so that they will obey their com* 
mands, and strange tales are told of them. 

Its revenue is 12,647,062, Berdri tanlcaTu as will appear in the state- 
ment. After the conquest of Asir, this revenue was increased by 60 per 



> Var» Ohiiekdeo. T. Taohanekd^n 
G. OhangdaTj. 

* Var. Ghikil. T. Tacheklitiret. Glad- 
win. Jigger teerat, whioh he renden 
** the tiyer of adored places ! " a deriva- 
tion more curious than tenable. ' Ohikil ' 
aignifiea mad, mire or sHrne. Chikar 
is no donbt ChCkar which has the same 
meaning, and the place of pilgrimage 



may be called after the marshy chano* 
ter of the spot. Though not as holj ti 
the Narbada, the Tapti nererthlesi baf 
no fewer than 106 Hrths or shrines of 
pilgrimage on its banks. 

* Var. Amarti, Amemi, AmM, Da- 
mami. 

^ G. MeloDga. S. ol M. Malki&d. 



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225 



eeot. Tht tankah is reckoned at 24 ia^iw. The total is therefora^ 
455,294,232 Akbari d6aM> (Rs. 11^82,355-12.9.) 



Sarkdr of Ddndes. 



Omtaioing 32 'Mahahi, BeveBoe 

Tanhaha. 
Ikt, north of Barfaiinpiir, 
Alnii|*aoa(b, ... 
AaudwAt MHKb, by loaUi, 
AanahM* 

Bviogtov, east bj south, 
Pidirfrah/ west, 
B^^, west, ... 
Md^, sonth-east,* 

Kamies omitted in all M-SS. 



Bihil, sooth, ... 

Bebdgiu>n* south, 

Bitiwad,^ soath, 

B4er * west by soath, 

TUu^uar, west by sonth, ... 

HiM, east, ... 

ilan^, midway between B. 



1,060,221 
2HM9 
648,328 

2,406,180 

215,504 

206,728 

162,830 

183,540 

r 58,511 
I 246,112 

290,311 

256,331 

320,782 

596,968 

594,289 

176,844 

470,042 



in money 12,647,062 Tankahs. 

Tanhahg 
Ohindsar, sonth, 
JakSd, south, 



Gb^pMh,west, ... 
D4bc^ sonth, .«. 
Dimri, west, 
Bilnw^r, west, ... 
B^npiir,* east, ... 
SiUxli, sonth, ... 
Sand^inii, between B. and W., 
AildilAb4d, east by south, . . . 
Lalang,**soatb, ... 
Loh&ri, south, ... 
Manjr6d, east, ... 
Nasiiibad, south 
Name omitted in all M8S ," 



198,900 
817,206 
730,966 
815,326 
825,800 
883,665 
820,971 
430,008 
104,764 
627,228 
862,644 
247,966 
104,966 
824,925 
316,888 



In ancient times this country was a waste and bat few people lired 
abottt the fortress of Asir. The locality was traditionally connected with 



' A note in the text disputes the aocu< 
nej of these fig^ures, which are perfectly 
correct, and proposes a miscalculation of 
itiown — 

Tankahs. 
Fifty per cent, on 12,647,062 
is 6,323,531 



producing a total of 18,970,598 
If Abnl Fazl's toUl of Akbari ddma be 
difidsd by 24, the quotient will result in 
13,970>93 Taniaks. In the I G. Y I, 297, 
the knd revenue of EhAndesh under 
Akbsr, Giro. 1580 is given at Bs. 7,568- 
237, and under Aurangzeb, 11,216,750. 
Bes Ephinstone's India (ed. 1866) note 
for the fluctuations of the value in coins. 

29 



• T. and G. AtriU. 

• Var. Anmaler. T. Anmalra. 

• T. Bangora. G. Banjnreh. 

• T. Bondbar. G. Poormal. 

• T. Bancadgion. 

^ Var, Beiwad. T. Beanvad. 

• T. Matar. 

• Var. Raspiir. Rattanpdr. T. and G. 
Ruttenpoor. 

*• Tar. Nalang. 

>^ These sums give a total of 14,578,863 
instead of 18,970,593. Gladwin's figures 
yield 15,546,863. The deficiency is pro- 
bably due to errors of copyists or to 
omissions of income from other sources. 



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226 

AihwaUhdmd^ and established as a sbrine. It is related that Malik Udji 
from whom Bahddwi* is the ninth in descent, nnder stress of misfortune 
came from Bidan^ to these parts and established himself in the village of 
KarSndA^^ a dependency of Thdlnir^ but being molested by the natives, he 
repaired to Delhi and took service nnder Saltan Fir6z. The king admired 
his skill as a huntsman, and his reward being left to his own choice, he 
received a grant of that village^ and by jadicions policy acquired possession 
of other estates and reclaimed much waste land. In the year 784 A. H. 
(A. D. 1382), he made TMUiSt his seat of government, assumed the title 
of Aadil Shdh and reigned for 17 years. He was succeeded by his son 
Ghizni^ Eh4n under the title of Nafir Sh4h, after which this province 
became known as Ehind6s. He reigned 40 years, 6 months, and 26 
days. On his death his son Mir&n Shah administered the state, fiy 
some he is called ^-^dol Shah. He occupied the throne 3 years, 8 months 
and 23 days. He was followed by his son Mub4rik Sh&h Chaukandi*' 
Sultan during 17 years, 6 months and 29 days. His son ^kdll Shah 
4-yn4^ whose name was Al^san Khdn, had a prosperous reign of 46 years, 
8 months and 2 days. He removed to Burhdnp^tr and made himself 
master of Asir.* Soltan A^mad of Oujerdt, the founder of AJ;^med4bad, 
gave him his daughter in marriage. At his death, his brother Daid 
Shah reigned for 7 years, 1 month and 17 days, ^kdiil Shah (II) son 
of Hasan^^ took refuge in Gujerat. Sulf^n Mil^mdd Bigarah^ Biji 
gave him in marriage ^iW^ the daughter of Sultan Muzaffar, (his son) 



' See nnder Sdbah of Ajmer, in the 
description of Marw&r. 

* Bahadur Kh&n Firiiki, 1596 A. D. 
last of the dynaatj. 

* G. and S. nl M. Bandar. 

^ G. Keerandeej. S. nl M. Girdpadai. 
According to T., his father was Khiui 
Jah&n one of the ministers in the oonrt 
Ala n*d din Khilji and of Mnhammad 
Tnghla^. He claimed descent from the 
Caliph Omar called by Mnhammad " al 
F^ul^ " or the discriminator, on the day 
that he publicly professed his conver- 
sion, because on that day " Isl&m was 
made manifest and truth distinguished 
from falsehood." For an account of 
this, see as Suyuti's Hist, of the Cab'phs, 
my translation, p. 118. 



T. states that he was given "les 
cantons de Thanessor et de Gacrond," 

' G. Gharib, which name is also ft 
variant of the text. 

* S nl M. Gharkhan^i. 

8 Var, Aya, Ab£, Anyi. G. Jya. 8. 
nlM. I's4. 

* T. says that be fortified the place 
with another wall. 

*• This is probably the correct name 
and not A^san as above. 

H For derivation of this name, see ToL 
I., 506, n. His twisted moustache was 
in shape like the horns of a cow, Bigaiab 
signifying a cow in the Guzeriti lan- 
guage. 

*• S. ul M. ^), Eu^ayyah a more 
likely name. 



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227 

and accompanjing him to KhdndSs, restored him to his kingdom and re- 
turned to his own. He reigned 13 years. He left two sons, Mir&a 
Mo^panunad Shih and Mnbarik Shah. Salt&n Bahddor of Gnjardt being 
on terms of friendly alliance with the first-named^ made him his heir, and 
guardian to his nephew Ma^m6d and his own brother Mnb&rik. Mirdn 
8hah, from a sense of their deserts, and with political sagacity did them 
no injnry and contenting himself with the kingdom Khdnd^ restored 
Ma^4d to the sovereignty of Gujedtt. He reigned 16 years, 2 months 
and 8 days. When the measure of his days was full, the nobles raised 
liissonBaji to the throne. Mir4n Mnb&rik wrested it from him and 
reigned in succession to his brother, administering the government for 
81 years, G months and 5 days. He was succeeded by his son Midtn 
Mnlt^ammad who reigned 9 years, 9 months and 15 days. When he died, 
his younger brother Bdja Ali Eh4n' was elected and assumed the title 
of Aidil Shih, His administration was conducted with ability and he 
was killed in the wars of the Deccan fighting on the side of his Majesty's 
victorious troops. He was buried at Burhanpdr, after a successful reign 
of 21 years, 3 months and 20 days. At his death the succession de- 
Yoked on Ehizr Kbin, his son, who took the name of Bah&dur Sh&h, 
But the star of his destiny was obscured and in the 45th year of the 
Divine era, he was deprived of his kingdom as has been recorded in its 
proper place. 



^ Hii lister being mother of Mir&n 
Shih. 

S He married a sifter of Abnl Fazl. 
See Vol. I, p. xzxiv, and p. 886. The 
line of these prinoes aooording to the 
U. T. is as follows. (Compare Elphinst. 
India, app. p. 770). 
A.I). 
1870. Halik Bija FidUlFi, reoeives Jl^ 

of Talner from Firos. 
1899. Malik Naair or NasirKh4nF&r6^^ 

hnilds Bnrh&npdr. 
1441. Miran Adil Khin FibW, expels 

Deocanies from Kh&ndesh. 
1441. Miran Mnbarik Kh&n F&r^i; 

peaoefol reign* 



1467. Miran Ghani or AdUEhUnFirdl^ 

I ; tribntary to Gnser^t. 
1608. Daond Khin F4r<iti, tributary to 

Malwa. 
1610. Arim Hnmajnn or Adil Ehin F, 

II, grandson of Gnserit king. 
1620. Miran Mnhammad Kh&n F., sno* 

oeeds to Gnzehit throne. 
1686. Miran Mnbirik Kh^ F., hrother $ 

war with Moghals 
1666. Miran Mhf. Khan F., attack from 

Deccan. 
1676. B4ja Allj Khin F. acknowledges 

Akbar's supremacy. 
1696. Bahidnr Kh^ F. defies Akbar i 

is imprisoned at Gwalior. 



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228 

Subdh of Berdr. 

Its original Dame was Wdrddtaf, from Warda^ the river of that name 
and taf, a bank. It is situated in the second climate. Its length from 
Batdlah^ to Btragarh is 200 kos, its breadth from Bidar to Hindiah 180 
ho8. On the east lies Biragarh adjoining Bastar; to the north is Hindiah; 
to the south Telingdnah ;* on the west Mahkardbdd. It is a tract — situated 
between two hill-ranges having a southerly direction. One of these is called 
Bandah^ upon which are the forts of Odwilgar\ Namilat and MSlgafh. 
The other is Sahta,^ whereon rise the forts of Mah6r and lUmgarh. 

The climate and cultivation of this province are remarkably good. 
There are many rivers, the principal of which is called Gang Oautami called 
also the Qodaveri, 

As the Ganges of Hindustan is chiefly connected with the worslup 
of MahAdeo, so is this river with (the Bishi) Gautama, Wonderful tales 
are related regarding it and it is held in great sanctity. It rises near 
Trimhak^ in the Sahia range and passing through the country of Ahmad- 
nagar, enters Berdr and flows into Telingdnah. When Jupiter enters the 
fiign Leo, pilgrims flock from all parts to worship.* The Tdlx' and TapU 
are also venerated. Another river the Pumd rises near Diwalgdony and 
again the Wardd issues forth ten kos higher up than the source of the 
Tdli. The Napta^ (?) also rises near DSwalgdon, 

In this country the term for a Ohaudhri is Desmukhf for a Kdning6^ 
Bda Pdndiah ; the Mukaddam is called Paftl and the Patwir, Kalkami. 



1 Var. Patiilah. O. Pufcaleh, T. Pa- 
niila. S. ul M. S£Iah. 

■ Ab this province eorresponds geo- 
graphically with the aooient Trt-Kalinga 
Gen. Canninghom thinks Telingdnah to 
be probably, a alight contraction of Tri- 
Kalinga. See Ano. G^. Ind., p. 510. 

3 Another name preanmably for the 
branch of tbe Satpnra mountaina on 
which Gliwilgarb stands. 

* Var, Saha, Sahsia, Sahsi. 

• In the N£sik Dntrict, aboat 50 
miles from the Indian Ocean. At this 
spot is an artificial reservoir, reached by 
a flight of 90 steps, into which the water 
trickles drop by drop from the lips of a 
earthen image shronded by a canopy of 
stone. Its peonliar sacredness is said 



to have been revealed by Bima hhmelf 
to the sage Gantama. I. G. 

6 Once in every 12 yean, a great bath- 
ing festival ealled PntMcmram, is held 
on t^e banks of the Godaveri, alternate- 
ly with the other eleven aaered fivers 
of India. The moat ftreqnented spots 
are the sonroe at Trimbok, Bhadii- 
ohalam on the left bank abont 100 vdlm 
above lUj&mahendri, thie latter itsetf» 
and the village of Kotipiti. Ibid. 

T Var. Pili. P4tL 

9 The text marka the name as dMAft- 
fol. B.tilM.Bin£. 

» See Vdl. II, pp. 46—41. ChavO^ 
is the head man of a oaate, gnild or 
trade, or of a village. 



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229 



EUehpitr w « lai^ otty ftnd tW oftpital. A flower riolet in colofur 
ii foimd her* aad is very fragnuxt. It is called Bh^pcm ehampahf^ mad 
grows diote to the ground. 

At the di0t«Boe of 7 ^ is OSwil^ afoitross o( almost matchless 
fllnagth. In it is a apriog at whieh thej water weapons of steel. 

Pandr is a strong fort on an eminence which two sfcreasM surround 
ea three vides. 

EhSrldh is « strong fort <m a plain. In tlie middle of it is a smi^l hiU 
wbick is ■% place of worship. Four ko9 from this is a well, into which if 
tbe bone cf any animal he thrown it petrifies,' like ft ooime-ehell only 
imaller. To the east of this resides a Zaminddr named OhMwdfi wbe 
s mastei* cf 2,000 cavalry, 50,000 foet and more than 100 elephants. 
An(^her such Zwrn^inddfr is named Didhi BSo who possesses 200 eavalry, 
and 6,000 foot. To the north is Ndhar Edo a chief whose f oroe consists 
of 200 horse and 5,000 loot. Formerly in this neighbonrhood, was a 
Zaminddr named HaU&y hut now his possessions aro nnder <ither snbjecfaom 
and the whole race are Ootids. Wild elephants are found in this country. 
The chiefs were always tributary to the kings of Milwah : the first, te 
tte governor of t7af^, and the olAiers to the government of HinAiah. Nar- 
%6lah is a strong fortress on a htU, containing many buildings. Bija Edo 
\b% Zaminddr in the neighbourhood who has a force of 200 cavalry and 5,000 
foot. Another is Dungar Khdn with 50 horse and 3,000 foot : both of 
'3re €hnd tribe. Kear Bdlajdr are two streams, about the herders of 
wMch are found various kinds of pretty stones, which are cut and kept 
18 curiosities. Six kos distant was the head-quarters of Prince Sult&n 
}txcM^ which grew into a fine city under the naime of Shahpwr. 

Near Melgarh is a spring which petrifies wood and other substances 
^t are thrown into it. 

Kallanif^ is an ancient ciiy of cofnsiderable importance ; it is noted for 



1 At p. 91, Vol. I. the name is Bh4n 
Ckam^ aad is aaid to hare a peach 
oolonied blossom. The S. nl M. calls it 
Bktih Ohawtpah and adds " it grows also 
k Bengal ; it shoots from ih& gronnd 
Hilli IsaTes like ftbe ginger-plant and till 
fte raii^ season it oontinoes infgrowth 
sndisgnea. In the winter it witfaen 
tmtf and ^appears altogether." The 
word is properly Bhdm Ohampak, " The 
gh)iiiid Champak/' and is the Koampfe- 



ria Botonda. 
« The B. «1 M. has ^^ a 

(instead of ^^ ** a stone — of the text) 
and adds " like a coum and is of that 
kind," apparently the tme reading. 

8 A note says, historically J&tihi or 
J&twi. 

♦ See Vol. I, pp. 309, 885, 867. 

* In the I. G. Kala^nh in W^ District. 
Lat 20** 26' N., long 78* 22' 30" B. 



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230 

its boffaloefl. In the yicinitj is a Zaminddr named Bahjeo of the t^ond 
tribe, more generally known as Ohandd : a force of 1,000 horse and 40,000 
foot is under his command. Btrdgafh which has a diamond mine and 
where figured cloths and other stuffs are woven, is under his authoritj 
It is but a short time since that, he wrested it from another chief. Wild 
elephants abound. 

About Bdsim is an indigenous race for the most part proud and 
refractory called Hatkars : their force consists of 1,000 cavalry and 5,000 
infantry^ Banjdrah is another Zamindari^ with 100 horse and 1,000 foot 
At the present time it is under the authority of a woman. Both tribes 
are R&jptits. 

Mahor (Mahur, I. O.) is a fort of considerable strength situated on a 
hill. Adjacent is a temple dedicated to DurgA^ known in this oountry as 
Jagadathd, Here the buffaloes are of a fine breed and yield half a man 
and more of milk. The Zaminddr is a Rajptit named Indrajeo and is en- 
titled Bdnd. He commands 100 horse and 1,000 foot. 

Mdnikdrug is a remarkable fort on a hill surrounded by eztensire 
forests. It is near Ghandd^ but up to the present is independent territory. 

Jitawpur is a village in the Sarkdr of Fdthriy where there is a thii?iiig 
trade in jewels and other articles of value. 

TeUngdnah was subject to Kufb u*l Mulk^ but for some time past has 
been under the authority of the ruler of Berar. 

In Indore and Normal there exist mines of steel and other metals. 
Shapely stone utensils are also carven here. The breed of buffaloes is fine 
and, strangely enough, the domestic cocks are observed to have bones and 
blood of a black colour. A Zaminddr called Ohandnerif is Besmukh^ a man 
of most distinguished character and who has a force of 300 horse. Mm- 
ghar is a strong fort on a hill, enclosed by forests. Wild elephants are 
numerous. It has not as yet been annexed to the empire. 

Lundr is a division of Mahhary and a place of great sanctity. The 
Brahmans call it Bishan Qayd. There are three Oayds^ where the per- 



1 Warangal was the anoient capital 
of this kingdom founded by the Nara- 
pati Andhras which was also considered 
to include the coast territory from the 
month of the Ganges to that of the 
Kistni known as Kalinga. No aocorate 
historical record of it oocnrs before the 
invasion of Ali n'd din in 1808. It con- 



tinued with some intermptioiis nndar 
Hindn rule till its remains were incorpo- 
rated in the dominions of KnU $Q|1> 
Bh^h the founder of the Entb Sh^hi 
dynasty, in 1512 with Gefaonda seiii 
capital. It was conquered by Anxnng- 
sebinl688. I. G. 
* Var, JapahM. 



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231 

formance of good works can be applied as a means of delirerance to tbe 
flonls of deceased ancestors ; namely, Oayd in Behdr which is dedicated to 
BrahmOy Oayd^ near Bijdpur dedicated to Budray^ and this one. Here is alsa 
a rraervoir, having a spring in it of great depth, and measnring a hos in 
length and in breadth, and surrounded hj lofty hills. The water is 
brackish, but when taken from the centre or at its sides, it is sweet. It 
contuns the essential materials for the manufacture of glass and soap 
and saltpetre is here produced and yields a considerable revenue. 

On the summit of a hill is a spring at the mouth of which is carved 
Hbe figure of a bull. The water never flows from this spring to the other, 
imt when the 30th lunar day' falls on a Monday, its stream flows into the 
large reservoir. In the neighbourhood is a Zamtnddr called Wdilah of the 
E^jpdt tribe, commanding 200 horse and 2,000 foot. Another is called 
Sarkath, also a Rajput, and possesses 100 horse and 1,0C0 foot. 

Batialah is a fort of considerable strength on a hill, of which Pafdl 
Nagari is a dependency. In the sides of the hill twenty-four temples have 
been cut, each containing remarkable idols. The Zamtnddr is Medni Bdo, a 
Bijpdt, with 200 horse and 1,000 foot. Another is Kdrnjeo^ a Rijptit 
having under him 100 horse and 1,000 foot. 

This Suhah contains 16 sarkdrs and 142 jperganahs. From an early 
period the revenues were taken by a valuation of crops, and since the 
tankah of this country is equal to 8 of Delhi, the gross revenue was 
^ krors of tankahs or 56 krora of ddma^ (Rs. 14,000,000). Some of the 
Deccani princes increased the revenue to 37,525,350 tankahs. In the time 
of Sultan Murad a further addition of 2,637,454 Berdri tankahs was made. 
The total amounted to 40,162,704 Ber&ri tankahs. The original amount 
and the additional increase were thus tabulated, the whole reaching the 
amount of 642,603,272 Delhi ddms. 



^ The ' Howler ' an epithet of Siva or 
his inferior manifestation as a roaring 
tempest. 

* Amiwaa, see p. 17 of this volome. 

^ This makes 16 ddms to the tankah. 
In the revenue statement of Khiindesh, 
the tankah is reckoned at 24 ddma. That 
of Gajerat «> ^^ af a dam or 100 to the 
rupee of 40 ddms. Bajley Hist, of Gnje- 
Jtt, p. 6. If Prince Mnrad's increase bo 
added to that of tbe Deccani princes, 
the total gives 40,162,804 tinkahs. This 
■nm moltipUed by 16 results in 642,604- 



864 ddms. As 40 Akbari ddms are eqni- 
yalent to a mpee, the above total repre- 
sents 16,065,121 rupees. Under Akbar, 
according to the I. G. the land tax 
of Berdr was Es. 17,376,117. Under 
Sh&h Jehan, Rs. 13,750,000, and under 
Anrangzeb, 15,350,625, bnt the latter 
amount, taken bj Mr. E. Thomas from 
Manncoi, is g^ven by Tieffenthaler from 
the same anthoritj as 10,587,500. See 
his dissertation on the apparent inaoon* 
racies of calculation in the registers of 
the empire and their cause. Vol. I, p. 65. 



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238 

Bight perganah€ of the Saf^dir of KaXlam (Kalaml)) were annex- 
ed to Okdudd^ the revenne of which is not included, nor thote of 22 
fHBrganahs ^t the Sgarhar of Kherlah, held bj Chitwi and some few otber 



Sarhdrof Odwil. 

Contodning 46 pttrffonahs. Bevenne 134^666,140 dims. Svywrghdl 
12,874,048 ddm$. 





Sevenne 
D. 


Snjdrgbai 


Thag^ov, 


Bevenne 
D. 


Snyurgh^ 


8ab. dis. of EUioh- 






6,600,000 




p6r, has a fort of 






Ohakhki,8(BBnj£ri8 






■tone and briok 






and Gonds. 400 






on the plain, 


14,000,000 


2,800,000 


Oav. 2,600 Inf.)... 


2,400,000 


... 


Ashti, ... 


4,800,000 


... 


Darylipur, 


6,400,000 


... 


ArtJn, ... 


8,200,000 


•«• 


Dh4m<5ri, 


2,718 640 


1,118,540 


Anji, 


1,600,000 


... 


Ridhptir, ... 


6,400,000 


... 


AnjangAoi^, ... 


S,200,000 


••• 


Barasgaov, 


6,296,000 


486,000 


Karyit Bdbfl,l ... 


604,000 


... 


Kabbah SedLU, ... 


1,835,890 


1,016.890 


„ Biri, .. 


114,368 


82,868 


Sarfl69, 


4,8(X),000 


•«• 


Bah&dkaU,ft 


8,200,000 


••• 


SM6r,« 


840,000 


•*. 


Be4wad4,8 


1,280,000 


•.. ' 


Kary4t Sh^rpfir, ... 


48,000 


... 


BasranU; 


700,000 


60,000 


Earh&tba Kiiram,10 


2,400,000 


... 


Palaskh^r,* 


960,000 


■1. 


KhoUpur, 


4^70,114 


70.1U 


Karyit TUn, (100 






Kiranja, Badhon^U 






Oar. 2000 Inf. 






2mdbal8, 


4,800,000 


••• 


(Jondfl.) 


800,000 


••• 


Karanjg&09,9^b4h 






Bardr, ... 


1,280,000 


... 


Kherah, 2mahalR, 


523,200 


... 


IgLa^bah Bab'g^?, ... 


817,360 


177,850 


Kamargio^ 


640,000 


*•• 


„ P<5Btah,6 . 


914,460 


594,460 


KAranjfi Bibi,*« ... 


4,200,000 


1,400,000 


Badhar&mani,^ ... 


4,825,300 


1,625,800 


K6rhft, 


4,800,000 


••* 


Te<58ah,7 


800,000 


Manah, 


4,800,000 


... 



> For. Bel, Banel. T. Bih£i. 

* T. Bhahancali. G. Baharkal^. 

* Var, Be&daw4. 

* Apparently PaUsgarh of the I. G. 

* T. Bonssna. G. Boosnah. 

* T. Barn^rapai. G. Bnbhenmiy. Vgif. 
Badr&halL Babhar&ntL 

* T. Bot<5sBa. G. Betnaeh. 



* Var, Jakdki. Jakhli. G. Jnghnoky. 
T. DjeaethL 

' Var. Sal6d, and in one MS. BeTenoo 
8»040,000. 

^ Var. Eharigdram, Earsikdram. Ktr- 
matkdram. G. Kehrjgurram. T. Oar- 
nioooram. 

" T. Madh<Sna. G. Bmdhola. 

*• T. Pafci, G. Am7. 



Digitized by 



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233 



Hanbah,! 

MInjarkher, 

Milkh^r, 

Kuig1<$r,(Maiigr61)S 

Kfirjbi, 



Bevenne 



800,000 
6,400,000 

480,000 
2,800,000 
4,800,000 



Soyurg&hl 
D. 



Nandgion Pi(h, 
Nnodgto^, 
Parganah Nir, 
HatgAov, 



Bevenae 
D. 



6,638,826 
3,200,000 
3,200,000 
1,600,000 



Snjurghil. 



233,826 
1,600,000 



Sarkdr of Panar, 
Containing 5 Parganahs. Bevenue 13,440,000 Dams. 
Revenue 



8ab. dift. of Pan&r, has a lofty 

■tone fort, Bnrroiinded on 8 

rides by water, ... 4^000,000 

Sewanbarh^ Kint Barh&, ... 640,000 
Bfid, 10 horsemen, 400 foot, 1,600,00 



Kh^jhari, 100 horsemen, 400 

foot, R£jp<it, 
M&ndg6o9 Karar, 25 horse, 

400 foot Bijpdt, 



Revenue 
D. 

2,400,000 

4,800,000 



Sarkdr of Kherlah. 
Containing 35 Parganahs. Bevenne 17,600,000 Dams. 
Revenue 



Atn^r,3 has a stone fort on the 

plain. Rijput, 100 horse, 

2,000 foot, ... ... 3,200,000 

Ashtah,Jiti£? ... ... 160,000 

Patau, ... ... 1,200,000 

Bh^sdahi, Rajput, 100 horse, 

2,000 foot, ... ... 1,600,000 

Ban5r, Chandji Mili(?) 20 horse, 

600 foot, ... ... 2,800,000 

Basad, (Misad), Brahman, 

Gond, 10 horse, 100 foot, .. 480,000 
Faoni, Bajput, 40 horse, 600 

foot, ... ... 400,000 



Suburb, dist. of Kherlah, Raj- 
put, Loh&ri, Gond, 50 horse, 
2,000 foot, .. 

S&tner, Atner 2 mahals, Gond, 
100 horse, 2,000 foot, 

S&inkherah, 

](JLa9bah Jar6r, ... 

Mandoi,^ Brahman, Gond, 10 
horse, 100 foot, 

Mtiltii, 

Durgah,^ 

Narangwari,^ 

Maldbil, 



Revenue 
D. 



3,200,000 

1,600,000 

2,000,000 

480,000 

480,000 



* G. Myna, T. Manrfr. 

' Apparently an emendation in the 
text. T. and G. have Maglor, Munalore. 
Tor. Peti. Tappah. G. Tuppeh. 

• G. and T. Amner. 

30 



* T. Mandoli. G. Mundonry. 
» Var, Dadgah. Dukah. 

• Nanakwiri. Manikdari. G. Do. T. 
Tanekbari. 



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234 



m\6i, 

Hangah, 

Sewah, 

J£mkh^r, 

B^wali, 

Sini,... 

ChakhU, 

W41dah, 



Rerenne 
D. 



Biri,... 

WAigio?, 

Deo thinah, 

Biri, .. 

SaMi, 

Rimjok, 

JaQ&bak,^ 

Jom&r,^ 

Habiyipiir,^ 



Rerenne 



Sarkdr of Narndlah, 

Containing 34 Parganahs, Revenue 130,954,476 Dams. 

SnyurgUl 11,038,422 Bdim. 





Bevenae 


Snyurgh&l. 




Eevenne 


Snyiii^hil. 




D. 


D. 


DhAr<5r, 


D. 


D. 


Ankdfc, 


6,470,066 


70,066 


1,200,000 


••• 


Adgion, Dogar, 






Dh^ndd, 


5,600,000 


... 


Gond, 60 horse, 






Eohankher, 


2,000,000 




2000 foot, 


8,000,000 


••• 


Rdj6r, 


1,000,000 


62oi0W 


Amner and Jalpi, 2 






Sheola,7 


640,000 


... 


mahals, 


4,800,000 


•«• 


Sh^rpur, 


48,000 


... 


Aiig61ah, 


11,200,000 


••• 


Karankh^r, 


2,400,000 


800,040 


Bslapur, 


22,000,000 


8,800,000 


Kothal. 


1,409,000 


209,000 


Panjar, 


2,000,000 


,,, 


K6thli, 


640,000 


.- 


Bdrei T£nkU,6 ... 


2,864,000 


,., 


Mang4on,9 


4,800,000 


... 


Pigalgdov, 


2,400,000 


... 


Mah^n,« 


600,000 


280,000 


P^tar Shaikh B£bii 


3,700,000 


600,000 


Malklpiir, 


11,200,000 


... 


](a?bah Barig&o^,... 


1,600,000 


640,000 


Melgarh, (from pro- 






Patarrah, 


8,342,500 


1,262,500 


ceeds of road tolls 






Banbahar, 


1,568,000 


618,000 


or safe-oondQot 






Badn^r BhiSli, ... 


2,764,450 


364,462 


passports. 


94,360 


... 


Badner Kinka,* ... 


4,813,700 


13,800 


Karyfet IUj6r, ... 


400,000 


170,366 


Jalgao9, 


10,000,000 


2,000,000 


Niddrah. (Nindd- 






Jaipur, 


400,000 


••• 


rah).10 


1,200.000 


... 


Ch4nd6r, 


4,887,000 87,000 


^a9bah Hatgo&9,ll 


1,500,000 


300,000 



* Far. and T. Kenaur. 

* Var. Hatdpak, Han&mak. Halbitak. 
Jan&nak. T. Jinak. 

' Chamar. G. Chopar. 

* Var. and G. Hdmiyanp£r. 

» T. Panabakhi. G. Partahkulsy. 

* T. Ganga. 



^ Var, and T. Seuola. 

• Var. Maigion. Mahagioi?, Maligio^ 

• J. and Var. Mahfr. 

*• T. MadArodra. G. Madroodreh. 
" T. Nitgnon. G. Hastgiou Fflf. 
Hastgio^, Bfstgao^. 



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235 



Sarhdr of Kallam (Kalamb), 
Containing 31 Parganahs. Revenue 32,828,000 Ddms in money. 







Bevenue 




BeTonne 






D. 




D. 


I'nd6ii, 


..• • 


.. 1,200,000 


Kafbah Kallam, 


600,000 


Dmrfoti. 


... 


.. 1,200,000 


KhelipCir, 


1,200,000 


I'm.'... 


... 


. 1,600,000 


lMkh6t. 


1,600,000 


Wiak, 


••• • 


. 8,600,000 


N4igi09, 


960,000 


BAri,... 


• •> • 


.. 1,200,000 


Naohangio^Y 


640,000 


im, 


... 


.. 2,800,000 


TtiiitLolUW,8 ... 


128,000 


■hSgi^ 


... • 


100,000 


Tark Chluidi,4 (in the poasea- 




mghf, Waigioy, 


. 4,800,000 


sion of a Zaminddr), 




Wiigw. 


• .. • 


. 1,600,000 


MalWri, 




Migio?,« 


... 


. 200,000 


Chanddr, 




Sflor, 


... 


. 8,200,000 


Lahab&tf, 




Utht, 


... . 


.. 960,000 







Sarhdr of Bdsim. 
Containing 8 Parganahs. Revenue 32,625,250 Ddms in money. 
Suyurghdl 1,825,250. 



Aondah, ••• 

Suburb, diat. of B4- 

rim, Bajpdt, 100 

hone, 1,000 foot, 

B4thf, 



Bevenue 
D. 



4,864,000 



8,161,250 
2,400,000 



Snydrgahl 
D. 



64,000 
161,260 



Chir Thinah, 
Kalambnh "Sin, ... 
Karari and B4mni,B 
Ifangldr, — 

Ifarai,... 



Berenne 
D. 



4,800,000 
8,200,000 
1,200,000 
8,200,000 
4,800,000 



Sayiirgh&l 
D. 



1,600,000 



Sarhdr of MdJwr, 

Containing 20 Parganaha. Revenue 42,885,444 Ddmt in money. 
Suyurghdl 97,844 Dams. 



Bevenne 


Bevenne 


D. 


D. 


AMingah, ... ... 960,000 


Fnsihfi ... ... 4,000,000 


AmarKher, ... ... 6,400,000 


TAmsi, ... ... 2,177,844 


« T. Bni. G. Jyni. 


in one MS. Two other have, Bark 


•T. Baigaott. G. Banygong. 


Oh4nd. Bark Hind. G. Barkehond. T. 


' T. Nobat-Lokar. G. Nonittowhiri. 


Narectchand. 


7^. NonitolohM. No44loh4ra. 


* Vmr, and G. Damni. 


* Doabtfal. This aentence found only 


« T. and G. Bonsaa, Booaeh. 



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236 





Bevenne 




RefeniM 




D. 




D. 


Chakhni,! 


8,200,000 


Se6m,8 


64,000 


Chikjh<5U, 


2,400,000 


OanSli, 


... 8,200.000 


Suburb, dist. of MAhdr, with 




Khen<5(, 


... 1,300,000 


KMbah, of S6rah,t Su^- 




Koralh, 


... 480,000 


9fcaZ 97,844^ ... 


8,680,000 


M^ttM 


... 2,400,000 


Dhirwah, 


2,400,000 


Mahgiov, 


... 1,600,000 


Dhftnki, 


820,000 


NliucULp^,B 


... 2,000,000 


SewiUiiy •.• ... 


2,400,000 


Hald Badhon4,6 


... 



Barkdr of Madiknrug, 
Containing 8 Parganahs. Beyenne 14,400,000 Ddma in money. 



Bahiwal, 
Bh&u, 
Gh&nd6r, 
Jiir, ... 



Bevenue 




D. 




8,400,000 


RijiJr, 


2,000,000 


Kara(b, 


2,400,000 


Nfr, ... 


1,600,000 





Berenne 

D. 
2,400/)00 
2,000,000 
1,600,000 



Barhdr of Pathri. 

Containing 18 Pargancihs. Revenne 80,805,954 D&ma in money. 
Buy^ryhdl 11,580,954 Mma. 





Bevenue 


Suyfirghil 




Bevenue 


Suj^ighfl 




D. 


D. 




D. 


D. 


Ardh4piir, 


1,600,000 


• 
... 


Jahri,... 


1,600,000 


400.000 


Suburban district of 






8e61i, ... 


8,600,000 


1,200,000 


Pathri, 


26,114,740 


6,014,740 


K68ri,... 


8,200,000 


... 


Parbani,7 


8,000,000 




L^hg4o9, 


4,800,000 


1,600,000 


PiLuohalgao^, 


2,000,000 




Makat Madhkher,!! 


2,400,000 




Balhdr, 


2,400,000 




Mfttargiov, 


480,000 


leo^ooo 


Basamt, 


11,200,000 




Nand^r, 


6,871,208 


471,209 


Bttr,8... 


160.000 




Wae^,... 


400,000 


... 


T4nkali,« 


640,000 




H4A 


1,200,000 


240,000 


Jant6r,lO 


3,600,000 


1,200,000 









» Var, and T. ChakhU. G. Jughely. 

* Var. and 6. DahB6r and Siirah. 

• T. Sorli. G. Sooretj. Var. Seorli, 
Surati. 

* Var, Manth. Kahanth. G. Mahen- 
teh. In maps Se^h, (note). 

• Var. Niw£p6r, NWipur. T. Nay£- 
p(ir. G. Nadapur. 



* Var. Honi Haldand. Haldboia. 
Haldand Nauna. G. Huldbota. 

* G. Burree. T. BaraL Vur. Parti. 

* Var' Biror. 

' T. and G. Bfcnoali, Bungallj. 
>* T. Tachetor. G. Ohitore. 
'' For. H. Badhkb^r. 



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237 



Sarkdr of Telingdnah. 

Containing 19 Parganahs. Bevenne 71,904,000 Dams in money. 
Suyurghdl 6,600,000 Dams. 





Bevenae 


Eevenae 




D. 


D. 


rnAJr, 


4,800,000 


Karj^ KhncULwand Khin, ... 640,000 


Uhh, 


800,000 


Dhakwdr, ... ... 96 


B4aan,l Suy^^uU 4,400,000, 


8,000,000 


Uj6r,8uykrghdlBOOfiOO ... 1,600,000 


mmt, B^M^ghdl 400,000 ... 


1,600,000 


K6tglr,* auy4rghdl 1,000,000, 2,200.000 


Bhi88,8 


6,400,000 


Kharkli, ... ... 6,400,000 


Bllb^di, 


6,400,0Q0 


Kosampaltah, ... ... 664,000 


Bimgal, 


2,400,000 


Lfihgio^ ... ... 11,200,000 


l«Bor£,8 


8,200,000 


Madh<51, ... ... 6,400,000 


BIAap, 


1,600,000 


Narmal, ... ... 6,400,000 


ft«finu, 


1,600,000 




8arMr of Bdngl 


iar (Bdmghar), 


Containing 5 Parganahs, Revenue 9,600,000 Ddms in money. 




Revenae 


Bevenne 




D. 


D. 


Bil*rab, 


800,000 


Khandwah,B ^. ... 2,240,000 


8obQb. dist. of Bamgbar, ... 


2,560,000 


M6lMarg,« ... ... 800,000 


Chfcdr, 


8,200,000 





Sarhdr of MahJear, 
Containing 4 Parganahs, Bevenne 45,178,000 Ddmis in money. 
Suyurghal 376,000 Ddms, 
Bevenne 



Suburban distriot of Mahkar, 7 
diTinons, 



D. 

2,660,000 
7,200,000 



D^walg&o?, 

Sakkar Kh^rlah, Suy4rghal 
876,000, 

Sarhdr of Batidlah^ (PitdlwdH). 
Containing 9 Parganahs, Revenue 19,120,000 Ddms. 
Suywrghal 4,800,000 Ddms. 
Bevenne 






D. 
400,000 
40,000 



BatUlabS B&ri, 
Ch&nd<5ri 



Bevenne 

D. 
5,600,000 

6,776,000 



Bevenne 

D. 
1,200,000 
1,280,000 



* For. Btiran. 

' Tar. and G. BbfldL T. Bb&nsl 

* For. and G. P6nori. 

* For. T. and G. Kapk6t, Garkdt. 
•for.andG. Kandhad. 



• Var, G. and T. Maig M<S1. 

• G* Snmmemj. T. Sehamarli. 

• G. Pnttyaleh. T. Paniala. 

• Var, Ab4d£n. At4w4n. G. Atawan. 
T. Abav&n. 



Digitized by 



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238 





HeTenoe 




D. 


Qedni, 


... 640,000 


Sindlad Birah,S 


... 1,600,000 



Beyenne 
D. 
Chakhb*, ... ... 2,000,000 

DahW,l ... ... 4,800,000 

Dahiw&f,« ... ... 2,600,000 

This province was dependent on the ruler of the Deccan. During the 
reign of Sult&n Ma^dd, five Sarddrs rebelled and kept him under re- 
straint, and the sovereignty was assumed by Fa(^ u'l lah who had held the 
office of Im^ u'l Mulk.^ He ruled but four years. At his death, his 
son AU u'd din, took the same title and reigned 40 years. His son 
Daryd Kh&n succeeded, and enjoyed the government for 15 years. After 
him, his son, Burh&n a minor, was raised to the throne, but the nobles 
perfidiously usurped the administration, till Murtaza Niz&m u*l Hulk 
conquered and annexed the country to Ahmadnagar. 

Suhdh of Oujdrat (Ouzerdt), 
It is situated in the second climate. Its length from Burhdnpur to 



» ror. T. and G. Dahi. 

* Far. Dahfewar. 

* G. Sownlapara. T. Salvar Bara. 

* |miul a'l Mnlk one of the oldest of 
the Bahmani ministers had been appoint- 
ed to the government of Ber£r by Mu- 
hammad Shih n of the Bahmani djnasty 
(A. D. 1463—1482) nnder the advice of 
his prime minister Ma^mdd Giiwan, to 
whom this dynasty owed its splendour, 
and which perished at his death. Ma^- 
mild II (A. D. 1482—1618) for a period 
of 87 years was content with the nomi- 
nal sovereignty leaving the real power 
in the hands of K'asim Band and his son 
Amir, the founder of the Barid Sh4hi 
dynasty of AJ|>med4b&d. The Bahmani 
kingdom was now broken up into five 
independent sovereignties, via., the Barfd 
Shahi, the Aidil Sh&hi of Bijipur, the 
Kiz&m Shahi of Abmadnagar, the Ku^b 
Shihiof Ooloondaand the fm&d Shilhi 
of Ber&r. Imid u'l Mulk, in the general 
anarchy seised the government which 
had been eatrosted to him and declared 
his independence in A. D. 1484. The 



succession is thus given in the U. T. 

A. D. 

1484. Fath tt'l lah Bahmani, gor^nff 

of Berir, became independent 
. AU u'd din, Im&d Shih, fixed hii 

capital at (Hwel. 
1628. Darya Imid Shih, married bis 

daughter to Hasan Nisam Shih. 

. Burhin Imild Shah, deposed by 

his ministers. 

« 

1668. Tufal, whose usurpation opposed 
from Al^madnagar and family 
of Imild Sh&h and Tuf il extin- 
guished. In the appendix to 
Elphinstone's Hist, of India, 
(Edit. CoweU 1866) the dates 
are as f ollo?rs :^ 

A.D. 
Fatah iniah, ... 1484 

Aliu'ddfn,... ... 1604 

Derya (about), ... 1629 

Burh£n (perhaps), ... 1660 
During the minority of Burhin, his prime 
minister, Tuf 41 usurped the gotermneat 
and the State merged in that of Ahmad- 
nagar in A. D. 1572 A. H. 



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239 

Je/ga£^ is 302 ho8 ; its breadth from Jal6r to the post o! Damarfi 260 kosy and 
from Edaf^ to Kambhdyat (Cambay) 70 kos. On the east lies Khdndes ; 
to the north Jalor and Ed(vr ; to the south, the port of Daman and 
Kambhajat, and on the west, Jagat which is on the seashore. Mountains rise 
towards the south. Is is watered by noble rivers. Besides the ooean, there 
ore the Sdbarmatti (Savamamati), the BatraJc, the Mahendri^ the Nar* 
laddhy the Tapti^ the Sa^aswoH, and two springs called Oangah and Jamnah. 
The climate is temperate and turning the sandy character of the soil pre- 
vents it from turning into mud in the rainy season. The staple crops are 
Jowariy and Bdjrahy^ which form the principal food of the people. The spring 
iiarvest is inconsiderable. Wheat and some food grains^ are imported from 
Udltoah and Ajmer, and rice from the Deccan. Assessment is chiefly by 
nloation of crops, survey being seldom resorted to. The prickly pear is 
planted round fields and about gardens and makes a goodly fence, for this 
reason the country is difficult to traverse. From the numerous groves of 
mango and other trees it may be said to resemble a garden. From Pattan^ to 
Barodah which is a distance of a 100 koa, groves of mango yield ripe and 
sweet fruit. Some kinds are sweet even when unripe. Fine figs grow 
here and musk-melons are delicious in flavour both in snmmer and winter, 
and are abundant during two months in both seasons. The grapes are 
only moderate in quantity : flowers and fruit in great plenty. From the 
thick growth of forest sport is not satisfactory. Leopards^ abound in 
the wilds. 

The roofs of houses are usually of tiles and the walls of burnt brick 
and lime. Some prudently prepare the foundations of stone, and of consider- 
able breadth, while the walls have hollow spaces between, to which they 
kave secret access. The usual vehicles are two-wheeled drawn by two 



• Dwarka in KAthiaw&r. Lat. 22° 14' 
20"N.,andloiig.69°6'B. 

' The Portngnese town and settlement 
on the Golf of Cambay, lat. 22*'25'N., 
long. 72 53' B. 

■ Lat. 23° SC N., long. 73° 4' B., 64 
miles N. B. of Ahmed&bid, traditionally 
Imown as Ildrug. 

* Tanicvm Bpicatwm. 

* For ^j^ Gladwin and the S. nl M. 
'oad >^ barley. . 

• I. G. Anhilwira Pattan, lat. 23° 51' 
30" N., long. 72° 10' 30" E. on the Sara- 



Bwati, one of the oldest and most re- 
nowned towns of Gujarat. 

* The term Jyi is employed in A'^n 
27 and 28 Vol. I, (Book II) for leopards 
generally incIndlDg the hunting leopard, 
(P. Jnbata), being used indifferently with 
the common name for the latter, chitd. 
The jP. Juhata is said to be a native only 
of the Deccan, but as Akbar hunted and 
caught leopards in the neighbourhood of 
Agra, and trained them to take deer, it 
would seem that the ordinary panther 
(F. Fardus) is capable of such training. 



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240 

oxen. Painters, seal-engravers and other handicraftsmen are ootintlett. 
They inlay mother-o'-pearl with great skill and make beantifnl hoxes and 
inkstands. Stnfb worked with gold thread and of the kinds Ohirahf 
Folah} Jdmahtodr, Khardy and yelyets and brocades are here skilfollj 
mannfactured. Imitations of stnfEs from Turkey, Europe, and Persia are 
also produced. They make likewise excellent swords and daggers of tiie 
kinds Jamdhar^ and Xhapwah, and bows and arrows. There is a brisk 
trade in jewelry and silver is imported from Turkey and Ir4^. 

At first Pattan^ was the capital of the province, next Ohampdn^ and 
at the present day, Ahmaddbad, The latter is a noble city in a high stato 
of prosperity, situated on the banks of the Sdbarmatti. It lies in latitude 
25^.^ For the pleasantness of its climate and its display of the choicest 
productions of the whole globe it is almost unrivalled. It has two forts, 
outside of which are 360 quarters of a special kind which they call 
Tordhy^ in each of which all the requisites of a city are ta be found. At 
the present time only 84 of these are flourishing. The city contains 1,000 
stone mosques, each having two minarets and rare inscriptions. In tbe 
BaMdbdd Porah is the tomb of Shdh Adlam B6khdr%> Bafwali^ is a 



> See p. 49, (note 2) Vol. II, Book III, 
and pp. 98—96 of Vol. I, B. I. Chirah 
is a parti-coloared clofch ased for turbans. 
Jdmawdr, is a kind of flowered woollen 
BtnfC, well known, Khdrd an undulated 
silk oloth. 

« See p. 110, Vol. I, Book I. 

* Of Buooessive dynasties of Rijpiit 
kings from 746 to 1194 A. D. Ghampdner 
was taken by Ma^miid (Bigarah) of 
Ahmadib^ after a siege, it is said, of 
12 years and was made his capital and 
continued to be that of the Gujar&t kings 
till about 1560 A. D. I. G. 

♦ Lat. 28** 1' 45" N., long. 72° 38' 80" B. 
The Emperor Aurangzeb hsid a different 
opinion of its olimate and called it among 
other abusive epithets, Jahannumabid 
or the Abode of Hell. See Bayley, p. 91. 

• A quarter or ward of a town, having 
its own gateway. The I. G. has pol and 
describes it as a blook of houses varying 
in size from small courts of 5 or 10, to 
large quarters of the city containing as 



many as 10,000 inhabitants. The laigs 
blocks are generally crossed by one main 
streel with a gate at each end and sub- 
divided into smaller blooks each with 
its separate gate branching off from 
the chief thoroughfare. 

• See Vol. I, p. 547 and Bayley's HUt. 
of Gujarat. 

' The text has Fatwah, the variant 
Batwah being relegated to the notes, hut 
the best authorities concur in the Isttor 
reading. For Ku^b-i-Aalam, see Bsyiey, 
p. 128, and Briggs' cities of Gujarasbtra, 
p. 292. Regarding the lithoxyle over 
the tombi Briggs writes that one of the 
legends given him concerning it is that 
Ku(b-i-Ailam on a journey to his masjid 
tripped against a stone and piokingit 
up, said, ** Can this be stone, wood or 
iron ?'* and the combination ensued. A- 
visitor who had preceded Briggs on a visit 
to this place wrote to him as follows : " The 
size mentioned by Abul Fazl is correct. 
The stone is not now on the sepolobre 



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241 

village 3 kos from Ahmaddbdd where are the tombs of Kufh-t^Adlam father 
of 8hdh Adlam, and of other eminent personages. In the vicinity are fine 
gardens. Over the tomb is suspended a covering of abont the measure of 
a cnbit, partly of wood, partly of stone and a part also of iron, regarding 
which they relate wonderful stories. At a distance of three kos is the 
village of SarJchech (Sarkhej) where repose Shaikh Ahmad Khaftu^^ 8ul(dn 
Ahmad after whom Ahmaddbdd is named, and many other princes. Indigo 
of good quality is here grown and exported to Turkey and other countries. 

Twelve kos from A^mad&b^ is Mahmuddbdd a city founded by Sulfan 
Mahiud in which are beautiful buildings extending to an area of 4 koF 
sqaare. The whole is surrounded by a wall and at every half kos is a 
pleasure house and a preserve in which deer and other kinds of game are at 
krge. 

The chief of Edar is a Zaminddr' named Hardin JDds, and of such 
austere life that he first feeds his cattle with corn and then picks up the 
grains from their dung and makes this his food, a sustenance held in 
much esteem by the Brdhmans. He is regarded as the head of the Bdthor 
tribe and has a following of 500 horse and 10,000 foot. 

The ports of Ohogah^ and Kambhdyat (Cambay) are included in this 
Sarkdr, The latter is a large city where merchants of divers kinds reside 
uid wherein are fine buildings and much merchandise. Vessels sail from 
and trade to Ohogah. The cargoes^ are pnt into small ships called Tdwari 
which transport them to Kambhdyat. 



bat deposited in the chief Said's house. 
Qreat rererexice is paid to it and on snch 
occasions as visitors desire to see it, it 
is produced nnder a covering of brocade. 
It appears to be petrified wood, the barky 
part gives it the appearance of iron oxy- 
dised; that portion where it has been 
chipped by the hand of Akbar when he 
Tisited Batwa (according to the Abbot 
of the commnnity) shews the fibre or 
rein of the wood ; and upon the opposite 
side, where it seems to have been groand 
crosswise, it bears the appearance of 
•tone/' 

* See Vol. I, p. 607 and Bayley's Hist. 
of OojaHlt, pp. 90 and 130. A descrip- 
^bn of these mansolenms will be fonnd 

31 



in Messrs. Hope and Fergosson's ** Aroh- 
tectnre of AhmediLbid." London Murray, 
1866. Khattu is one of the towns in th(> 
Sarkir of N£g6r. Of. Briggs* cities of 
Gujarashtra, p. 275. 

• Commonly Oogo in Kithiiwfir on 
the Gulf of Cambay in lat. 21'' 39' 30" N., 
long. 72° 21' B. For its history, see 
Briggs, " Cities of Gnjarashtra/' p. 281 

• A misspelling in a word of the true 
reading has misled the Editor who hae 
amended conjecturally an incorrect vari- 
ant The MS. [ cA ] is correct if a ddl 
be substituted for the ultimate wdo in 



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242 

In Kari are fine oxen, a pair being worth 300 rnpees, and according 
to their shapeliness, strength and speed fetching even a larger price. 

Jhdlwdrah^ was formerly a separate principality containing 1200 villages. 
Its length is 70 kos and its breadth 40. It famished 10,000 horse and the 
same nnmber of infantry. Now it possesses but 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot. 
Its ruler was subject to the king of Gujardt. It formed four divisions, 
the inhabitants mostly of the Jhdlah tribe of Rijpdts. At the prAsent day 
it is accounted a Parganah of A))imaddb&d, and its villages and districts are 
summarized in the following table. 

Great JhaHAjowrah contains Birdmgdon^ residence of the chief, HaUd^ 
Badhwdn, K6\a^ Darang Darah^^ Bijdnd^ Pdtri which has a salt-pit, Sahdld, 
Barodah, Jhinjhuwdrd^ Sanjwn^* VhtUhar, Man4al' 

Parganaha of Machhukhantd contain Morhi,^ Bdmpur, Tanhdrd,^ Khan- 
jaridy Malta^y Kazor^^ in the vicinity of which pearls are foond, Dhamart 
Amrdl. 

Parganaha of Jdmhuji contain Jdmhu. Limri^ 8idn%. 

Parganaha of Jombaai,^ chief seat of the Parmdr^^ tribe contain lf(Wt, 
with 36 villages and Chotild with 55" villages. Now Morhi with 7 districtg 
is included in Sorath 

Pattan has two forts, one of stone and one of brick. It lies in long 
117° 10', lat 23° 30'.w It produces fine oxen that will travel 50 iwin 
half a day. Good cotton cloths are here woven and are taken to disUnt 
parte as gifts of value. 

Sidhpwr^^ is a town on the Sarsuti and a great place of pilgrimage. 

Barnagar is a large and ancient city and containing 3000 pagodas, 
near each of which is a tank; it is chiefly inhabited by Brdhmans. 

OhdmpdnSr is a finely situated fort on a crag of great height ;** the 



* JhaUw&r, aooording to the I. G. in 
KathiawAr. 

* T. PBTmgiox^, 

• Var. and T. DIngdarah. 

♦ Var, Senjini, T. Soheohnna. 
» Far. Mopli. 

• T. Tekdra. 
' T. Milna. 

* Var. Ka^ror, Ka8r<5z, Kfrdr. T. Gar- 
var. 

• Var, Jambi-Jdmsi. Evidently Jto- 
bnsar. Lat 22^ 8' SC' N., long. 72° 51' 
30" B., in Broach District. 



'• Var, Riyir, Rabdr. T. Parhsr. I. G. 
Purmdr. Sometimes written Pramara 
which has been shortened or oorraptel 
into Puar. 

»• According to the I G. 86. 

•• Long. 72° IC 30" E., lat. 93° 61' 
80" B. 

«• In Baroda State. Lat. 23° 66' 80" 
N., long. 72° 26' B. 

'* Tiefifenthaler states that the for- 
tress on the sommit of the hill is called 
Pauaghar and the town at its foot Chim- 
p&ner. 



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243 

ftpproach to it for two tcos and a half is extremely difficult. Oates have 
been posted at intervals. At one place a catting about 60 yards long has 
been made across which planks are laid which can be removed when 
necessity arises. Fine fruits abound. 

SurcU is a celebrated port. The river Tapti runs by it and at a dis- 
tance oil hoe thence, falls into the sea. 

Mner^ on the opposite side of the Tajpti is a port dependent on Surai ; 
it was formerly a large city. The ports of Khandiwi and BaUdr also 
are a part of the Surat division. Numerous fruits abound especially the 
pine apple, and oils of all kinds and rare perfumes are obtainable. The 
followers of Zoroaster coming from Persia, settled here. They follow 
the teaching of the Zend and the Pdzend, and erect funeral structures.* 
Thns through the wide tolerance of His Majesty every sect enjoys freedom. 
Ilirongh the negligence of the ministers of state and the commanders of 
the frontier provinces, many of these Sarkdrs are in the possession of 
European nations, such as Baman^ Sanj&n^ Tdrdpur, Mdhim and Bas6 
(Bassein) that are both cities and ports. 

Bharqj (Broach) has a fine fort. The Narhadah flows past it in its 
course to the ocean. It is accounted a maritime town of first rate im- 
portance, and the ports of Kdm, Ohandhdr, Bhdbhut and Bhankord* are 
its dependencies. 

Near the town of EdnsSt is a game preserve S koe in length by 4 in 
breadth, full of deer and other animals. The cover is rich and fresh 
with verdure, being situated on the banks of Narhadah and is perfectly level. 

The Sarkar of SSrath^ was an independent territory, having a force of 
50,000 cavalry and 100,000 infantry, the ruling tribe being OheloL Its 



* I. 6. R4nd^r, said to have been a 
place of importance about the beginning 
rf the Chriatian era when Broaoh waa 
the chief seat of commerce in Western 
India. 

' From the nnmber and antiqnitj of 
the Towers of Silence at Broach, the 
Pinis are supposed to have settled there 
in the 11th century. I. G. 

' A small village in Th4n£ (Tanna) 
Dist., where the Parsis first landed in 
India, known to the Portngnese and long 
rffcer their time as St. John. I. G. The 
text has «^ after ^Lo which is liable 

to misinterpretation. Bassein is un- 
doabtedlj meant as all these places 



are in or abont the Thana Dist. My 
view is confirmed by Gladwin and Trieff. 
Bay ley (p. 18) makes Bas^ synony- 
mons with Bassein. 

« Var. Bhak<5rl. Bhak6r. In 1820, 
according to the I. G. there were 6 sea- 
ports, vui.f Degam, Tankiri^ Ghandhar, 
Dehej, and Broach. Bayley g^ves Bhako- 
rah as a village on the frontier of Gajarat. 

• The old name for Katbiawar, or 
Snr^htra, known to the Greeks and 
Roman under the name of 'Zavpafn-f^vji^ 
and Prakritised in that of Seraph which 
is to this day the name of a large district 
100 miles in length in the south-west. 
T. G. See also Ano. Geog. Ind., p. 824. 



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244 

length from the port of Ohogah (Gogo) to that of Ardmrdt^ is 125 hot; it« 
breadth from Sardhdr to the seaport of Diu, 72 koi. On the east it is bound- 
ed bj Ahmaddbdd; on the north bj the State of Kachh (Catch) ; on the 
sonth and west by the (Indian) Ocean. Its climate is healthy, its fraite 
and flowers nnmerons and grapes and melons grow here. This terntory 
is divided into 9 districts each inhabited by a different tribe, as follows:^ 

Parganahs of new Sorafh, 
Junahgafh with suburban district, Sultdnpur^Barwa^ Hdnsdwar, Ohawra 
Bdmpur, KandSlnd,^ Hast Jati,^ Ifnrf,^ JBagsard, Mahandrdd,^ Bhdnir^,^ 
and others. 

Parganahs of old Sorafh, called Ndghar.^ 
Pattan Somndth, Atmah^ Belwdrah^ Mangldr, Korindr^ Mil Mahddeo, 
Ghdrwdty Biu, &c. 

Parganahs of Oohelwdrah. 
Lathi, Luliydnah^ Bhimpur,^^ Jasdhon}^ Mdndwi, Birdi^^ Sehdr, 

Parganahs of Wdldh.^^ 
Mohtoah, Talajd, Pdlitdnah, &c. 

Parganahs of Bddhdlah. 
Jagat (called Dw&rki), Ardmrde, DhdrhO* 

Parganahs of Barrd, (Berda ?) 
Barri, G6mH,» Ac. 

Parganahs of the BdghiUM^ tribe. 
8<yrdhdr, Oondhal (Gondal 1. G.), Bdyet, Bhdnah, Ac. 

Farganahs of the Wdji in the tmcuUivated tracts, 
Jhdnjhmer, 



* T. Rimri. Bayley places it 10 Icoa 
from Jagat nnder the name of Ar&mah 
with Bereral variant spellings, p. 196. I 
find no mention of Sardh&r in the maps 
nor in Bayley. If the Dhir frontier is 
meant it most have been mnch more 
extended than it is at present. 

• Var. Sarwa. 

■ Var, KandollUL 

♦ Var. Jagi, ChAni. 

» Var. Unah. T. Adand : probably 
Unah which Bayley places near Din. 

* Var. Mahadra. T. Mahandra. 

* Var. Banar6z. T. Batianrdr. 

• For. and T. Bakhar. 



* T. Banliana. 

"• Var. and T. Bhimran. 

^ I. G. Jaedin. 

" T. Saral. 

*• I. G. Wala. 

** A note Boggests, Sanldidhir. Per- 
haps Dhari. 

'• So the tejct, following, as a note 
says, the maps, bnt MSS. hare Bfimll 
I. G. Ghnmli. 

le The I. G. (I. 660) calls this daa 
Wigh^i a tribe of Rajpdte, a remnant 
of the SoUnki race who fled from Anhil* 
w&rah when that kingdom was destroyed 
by by Ali n'd din in A. D. 1297. 



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245 



Parganahs of the Timh^ tribe. 

Not assigned in any of the MSS. 

The first district known as New Sorafh had remained unexplored on 
account of the impenetrable natare of the forests and the intricate windings 
o! the mountains. A reclnse by chance foand his wa^ into it and through 
him a knowledge of it was gained. Here is the celebrated stone fortress of 
Mnahgafh which Sul^in M&l^mdd,^ T, captured by force of arms and at 
the foot of it built another fort of stone. At a distance of 8 kos is the fort of 
Osam^ on the summit of a hill ; it has now fallen into decay, but is worthy of 
restoration. There is also another stronghold on the summit of the hill 
of Qimdl in which are many springs, a place of worship of the Jains. 
Adjacent is the port of Kondi KoUydt^ which derives its name from two 
villages at a distance of one kos from it. In the rear of Junahgafh is 
&& island called Sidlkokah^ 4 kos in length by 4 in breadth, adjacent 
to which is a forest,' 3 kos square, where wild fruits grow and where 
there is a settlement of Kolis. This tract is called Oir. Near the 
▼illage of TunkdgSsha^^ the river Bhddar falls into ocean. Its fish are so 
delicate that they melt when exposed to the sun. Good camels are here ob- 
tainable and a breed of horses somewhat larger than the Ouf (Gdnth).''' 

In the second district is Pat tan, a city on the seashore possessing a 
rtone fort. This they call PcUtan Somndtk. It is both a capacious harbour 
sad a town having nine^ stone towers on the plain, within an area of 



* Bigarahof Gajarit. One derivation 
of this name is its snppoeed meaning; of 
two fort€ (garh) because Ma^^m^d's army 
oonqnered on one day Gh&mp&ner and 
J6nahgarh, Vol. I, p. 606, n. According 
to T. Junahgaph signifies the ancient 
fort, because it was long concealed in 
the dense forest and discovered by a 
wood cntter. The legend mns that 
1600 years elapsed from its discovery to 
the time of Mindalik from whom Mii|^- 
n^ wrested the fortress, ^^ee Bayley's 
Hiflt. of GnjaWit, pp. 161—182, for the 
derivation of the name. 

' For and G. Adham. T. has both 
names. The I. G. gives the name to a 
MU near Gimil. 

' For. and G. Kondi or Gondilakiy&t. 

^T.Sialgoga. 

* T. calls this forest Navanagor ; Ber- 
Qo&m suggests that it belongs to Nava« 
nagar. The latter is a State on the S. 



shore of the Gnlf of Oatoh. 

* A note says Tunhragosd^ in the 
maps. There are two rivers of the name 
of Bhidar $ one rises in the MiLndav hills 
and flowing S. W. falls into the sea at 
Nawi- Bandar afters a conrse of 11 6 m iles * 
Another from the same hills, flowing E. 
falls into the Gnlf of Oambay. The 
K61iB (or Coolies of Kennel and Coalis 
of M. Anqaetil) are a predatory tribe 
and their distribution is not confined to 
a single provinc-e. They were spread 
over the coantry between Cambay and 
Ahmadab^ and the well-wooded country 
afforded them a refuge from attack. 

» See Vol. I, p 133. 

' Gladwin has turned those words into 
a name whioh mistranslation I notice as 
it has been adopted by Count von Noer 
in his monograph on Akbar, p. 98. (Mrs- 
Beveridge's Transl.) The Diwin of 
Junagarh, Haridis Viharidas, has coor- 



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246 

three kos on the sea shore. Good swords are made here, there being a well 
in the vicinity the water of which gives them a keen edge. 

The ports of Manglor} Diu Purhandar, Korindr, A^madpur and Muzaffa- 
rdbdd are abont this coast. A spring of the Sarsnti ( Saras wati*) rises near 
Somndth. The Brahminical shrines are numerons, but among these Bom- 
ndth, Pardnchif and Korindr are accoanted among the most sacred. Be- 
tween the rivers Haran and Sarsuti about 4,000 years ago, 560,000,000 
of the Yadu race while engaged in sport and merriment, fell to fighting 
and all of them perished in that field of death, and wonderful are the 
legends that they relate.* Two and a half kos from Faff an Somndth is 
JBMl ka TirathS (or the shrine of the Arrow). In this place an arrow 
struck Sri Eashn and buried itself under a pipal tree on the banks of the 
SarsuH. This they call Ptpal sir, and both these spots are held in great 
veneration. An extraordinary event occurs at the town of Mul Mahadeo 
where there is a temple dedicated to S^iva. Every year on a certain daj 
before the rainy season, a bird called Mukifi appears. It is somewhat 
smaller than pigeon, with a coarser beak and pied in colour. It alights 



teonsly given me the benefit of his local 
knowledge. The new temple and the 
mins of the old are within the fort 
which was inhabited chiefly by the 
attendants of the shrine, the population 
liring in the environs forming the town. 
Pattan is said to have had three walls 
and hence named Trigadhi, The length 
of the present walls covers nearly two 
miles. The fort had or has 10 towers or 
bastions of which 8 are existing and two 
are in rains. 

* The I. G. gives Mangrol. The text, 
unites Din and Pnrbandar (elsewhere 
Porbandar) in one name, as Somnith is 
called Deo Pattan, bnt it is probable 
that the port of Din was intended by 
Abnl Fazl. 

* This river rises in Monnt Aba and 
enters the Rnnn of Catch, though a part 
of its course near Sidhpur and Patau 
towns, is said to be subterranean. If 
the sacred river of the Punjab that rises 
in the Sirmur hills be intended, this 
stream after its junction with the Ghag- 
gar, is said in ancient times to have flow- 
ed through BAjputana into the Indus. 



Its reputation as the Arethusa of the 
Hindus, will account for its appeanooe 
wherever the sanctity of a shrine teqoses 
it. 

• Wonderful, indeed, if they can beat 
this. 

• Apparently the Bhdt Kund of the 
I. G. Todhisthira after the slaughter of 
the 56 tribes of the Tadu race on the 
field of Kurukshetra and the death of 
Duryodhana, in grief at the loss of bo 
many kinsmen, placed Parikshita on the 
throne of Indraprastha, and retired with 
Krishna and Baldeo to Dwarka. They 
were attacked by the Bhils and Krishna 
was slain. Baldeo founded the city of 
Patalibotra or Patna. 

• Or Makh. In a work called ^^aki^:«t. 
i-Hindustin, the word is 8ahh or Bvkh, 
G. has Beekh, but much of this narrstire 
he has misunderstood. The name how- 
ever, is of minor importance ; the loss 
of the species must to the naturalist, 
be a regret, to the meteorological De- 
partment, a calamity. See Bayley, p* 
197, who records this event and places it 
in the village of Madhdpur. 



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247 

on the temple, disports itself for a while, and then rolls over and dies. 
On this day, the people of the city assemble and bum various kinds of 
perfame and from the proportions of black and white in the plnmage of 
the bird, they calculate the extent of the coming rainfall, the black por- 
tending rain, the white, drought. In this tract, there are three crops of 
jcmr annually. At Ifnah there are two reservoirs, one of which is called 
Jomnahy the other Oangah. The water bubbles up and forms a stream 
and the fish of these two springs have three eyes, the third eye being in 
the forehead. 

Between Manglor and Ghurdwdr is a tract into which the sea enters. 
On a certain day of the year the water is sweet. It is related that in 
sseient times a certain person was in need of Gtinges water. A recluse 
node a sign to the expanse and sweet water came forth. Ever since, 
npoQ that day this wonder is repeated to the astonishment of all. 

In both of these districts the Ohelot tribe of Rajputs prevail and 
the ruling power in this country is in their hands. At the present time 
&e force (of the first district) consists of 1,000 horse and 2,000 foot. 
There is also a settlement of Ahirs called Bdhriyas.^ The force (of the 
Moond district) is 2,000 horse and 3,000 foot. 

In the third district at the foot of the Satrunjah (Satrunjaya) hill,^ 
is a large fort and on its summit, the fort of Pdlithdnah. Though in ruins, 
it deserves restoration. It is in great veneration with the Jains f The 
port of Ghogah (Gogo) is a dependency of this district. The island of 
Biram (Perim) was formerly the residence of the governor ; it is 9 kos 
square and is a low rocky island in the midst of the sea. The Zaminddr is 
of the Qohel* tribe. This district possesses 2,000 horse and 4,000 foot. 

In the fourth district, are the ports of Mohwah^ and Taldjd, inhabited 
hj the Wali clan. The local force consists of 300 and 500 foot. 



I The name of one of the old territo- 
zi&l prmU or distriet into which Kathia- 
wirwaa divided, was called B&briawdr 
ahfllytractontheS. S. 

S The hill is sacred to Adin&th the 
ddfied priest of the Jains. The descrip- 
ti(Ri of Palit&na in the I. G. taken from 
Ifr. Burgess* " Notes of a visit to Satrnn- 
jaya Hill," gives an interesting sketch 
d this temple hill. Perim (the Baiones 
ef the Periplus) is in the Gnlf of Cam- 
bay, a miles S. of Gogo. 

^ Gladwin has misonderstood this 



passage and misled Genl. Gnnningham 
into reading this and the preceding word 
into the name of a town, Maabidcheen. 

4 The Gohels came from the north in 
the 13th centnry, and retreating before 
the tide of Mohammadan conquest con- 
quered for themselves new seats in the 
decadence of Anhilwira. They are now 
in E. E&thiawir. 

» I. G. Mowa. S. E. of Kathiawir. 
Lat. 21° 3' N., long. 71° 43' B. Talaj^ 
Lat. 21° 21' 15" N., long. 72*» 4' 80" E. 
The I. G. mentions the Walis as one of 



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248 

In the fifth distriot is Jagak^ called also DwdrJed. 8nKruhnc$m^ 
hither from Mathura (Mnttra) and here died. It is a great Brahminical 
place of worship. The island of Somhudhdr^ 4 hoi square is reckoned 
within this district. Near Ardmrde is an island 70 has in length and 
breadth. An area of hslf a kos of this land is for the most part stony 
and if an excavation is made salt* water ponrs in on all sides. Malik 
Aydz,^ Ehdp Khel, of Snlfin Ma^mtid I of Gnjer&t, had, one-foTLrtli 
of it dug up. The port of Aramrde is superior to most of its class. 
The inhabitants are of the Bddhil tribe. It masters 1,000 horse and 
2,000 foot. 

In the sixth district Barra^^ the conntry is so hillj, the forests 
so impenetrable and the defiles so extensive that it is impassable for 
troops. The Jaitwah clan inhabit it. It famishes 1,000 horse and 2,000 
foot. 

In the seventh district are the BaghSlahs. It famishes 200 horse and 
the same number of foot. The Kdfhis^ are nnmerous in this tract ; ihej 
are of the Ahtr cast and are skilful in the management of horses. The 
military force is 6,000 cavalry and 6,000 infantry. They are said by some 
to be of Arabian origin. Canning bat hospitable, they will eat of the food 
of people of every caste, and are a handsome race. When wajJaghirdff 
comes amongst them they make it a condition that there shall be no 
acconnt taken of the incontinence of any of their people. In the vicinity 
of the Kdthis on the banks of the river DSndi, there is a sept of AUrs 



four old raoes now existing as pro- 
prietors of the soil ; the other three be- 
ing the Jaitwas, Ghnrasamas, and the 
Solankis. 

1 Now called Beyt, in the Gnlf of 
Gntch. 

S See Bajley's Hist, of Qnjar&t, p. 283 
et seq. Khis Khel represents the posi- 
tion of a rojal equerry oombiaed with 
high command. Ferishta calls him the 
ijp^ j*** or confidential attendant of 
Mal^mud. He was the premier noble 
(Amir n'l Umari) and commander in 
chief of the army, fought and defeated 
the Portuguese fleet at Ohaul and 
sank the admiral's flagship yalued at a 
1cr6r of rupees. (A. H. 918— A. D. 1507)* 
Vol. II., p. 204. The family title of the 



Qickwir is at the present time " Sens 
Kh&s Khel Shamsh^r BahiLdur." 

S I have no doubt that this is Bardi (or 
Jaitw^r) of the I. Q.; a division of Kithia- 
w£r lying between 21° 11' and 21° 6/ N. 
Wi.y and 69** 30' and 70** 7' B. long., 
bounded N. and N.-E. by Hallir : E. by 
Sorath, and 8..W. by Arabian Sea. The 
Barda hills are from 12 to 18 miles dis- 
tant from the coast and formed a f*- 
vourite refuge for outlaws. 

4 The name of K&thiawiur, formerly 
given to a tract to the B. of the centre 
of the peninsula; from having been 
overrun by the K&this who entered from 
Cutoh in the 13th and I4th oenturiea, 
it was extended to the whole country by 
the Mahrattas who had come into con- 
tact with tham in their forays. 



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219 

(sailed Poreehas.i Their force is 3,000 horse and the same number ol foot. 
Thej «re perpetnaUy at feud with the Jdms.^ 

In the eighth diatriot JhAnjhm^r is a maritime port* The Wdji^ tribe 
Jwewl. There are 300 horse and 2,000 foot. 

In th« ninth district is the Chiran tribe. Mahadeva formed a man 
from the sweat of his bron^ and gave him the charge of his own boll.* He 
spoke ia rhythmio sentenoes and sang the divine praises and revealed the 
past and the future. His descendants are known by his name. They chiefly 
tmte panegyrics and genealogies and in battle chant deeds of valour and 
animate the warriors and some of them reveal future events.' There 
M© few of the nobles of Hindust&n who have not some of these in their 
tetiaue. This district furnishes 500 horse and 4,000 foot. The tribe 
Mlled Bhdf resemble this caste in their panegyrics, their powers, their 
b»ttle*ohantB> and genealogical recitations, wid although in some of these 
rwpeots they surpass them yet the Ohdtans are better swordsmen. Some 
pretend that the Ohdtuns were called into life by the mere volition of the 
lUvinity, and the BUfs from Mahddevtk.^ 

Between Jhdltodrah in the SarMr of A(tmaddhdd, and Pafian and 
Soraih is a low-lying tract, 90 kos in length by 7 to SO in breadth, called 
the Banf (the Runn). Before the rainy season, the sea rises and covers 
this area and falls as the rains cease. A considerable part dries up and is 
oovered with salt, the duties of which are collected in the parganaK of 
fhdlwdrah. Ahmadahdd lies to the east of this tract On the west is a 



^ For. Porejah. Porboehha. 

S The JIureJa Bijputa, to whidh branch 
the Rao of OnUOx belongs, are desoended 
from the Sdmnia (Sama )) tribe and oame 
•riginally fromi the north. They are 
mid to have emigrated from diad aboat 
the 15th century under the leadership 
rf Hm Ii^kha» ton of Jin from whom 
the tribe derive their name. Till 1540 
the Jima raled over Outch in three 
Wanches. About that year Khengir 
neeeedad in making biaiself head of the 
tribe and master of the province. His 
Mole Hm B4wal ded to lUthiawir and 
feniided the present reigning honse of 
l^AWanagar, the ralers of which are 
•till called Jams. See Jam under the 
li^cootint of Sind. 

32 



t Var. Wachi. 

♦ According to the B. nl M. " of the 
boll he rode." 

t The tett has a misprint of V4* for 



e The 8. nl M. "from the sweat of 
the forehead of Mahadeva.'* 

7 The Word in Hindi signifies a Waste 
or wilderness. There are two, the 
northern or larger Ennn, 160 by 80 miled 
has an area of abont 7,000 square mile^ 
The eastern or smaller Rnun, 70 mileft« 
from B. to W. covers an area of 2,000 
square miles. Except a sfray bird, a 
herd of wild asses, ot ah occasional cara* 
van, no sign of life breaks the destirt 
loneliness^ I* G» 



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250 

large separate territory called Ktichchh (Gutoh) 250 has ih lengtk by lOO 
ko8 in breadt h. Sind lies to the west of Gutch. The physical aspect of 
the country is barren and sandy. There is an excellent breed of horses 
believed to be of Arabian race, and there are good camels and goats* 
The chief of this country is of the YadiA race and his tribe is now 
known as Jdr^cu. The military force of this clan is 10,000 cavalry and 
50,000 infantry. The men are handsome, tall in statnre and wear long 
beards. The residence of the chief is Bhuj, which has two strong forts 
Jhdrah and KantkSt On the Gnjardt side towards the sonth is a Zaminddf 
of note whom they call Jiim, a relative of the ruler of the above-' mentioned 
state. Sixty years ago, Jim Bawali after a war of two months, was driven 
out of the country, and settled in 86rath between the territories of the 
Jaitwahf Bddhel, Chdran^ and Tumhel tribes. He possessed himself of 
other parts and foanded the city of Natsanagar and his country received 
the name of Little Outch. Sattarsdl the present R4jah, is his grandson. 
There are many towns and the agricultural area is extensive. The resi* 
dence of the chief is at Nawanagar and his force consists of 7,000 cavalry 
and 8,000 infantry. The camels and goats are of good breeds. For a 
considerable period the prime ministers of these two states have been of 
the Mnl^mmadan religion. 

In the vicinity of Mord and MangrSj is a state called PaV through 
which runs the river Mahendri towards the Gujarat side. It has a separate 



* The lunar race established by the 
Soythian Budh, expanded into fifty- 
six branches and filled nearly the 
whole of northern India. Yada 4th 
in descent from Badh gave his name 
to the royal line which closed in 
Krishna and Baldlma. While the solar 
race was confined to a narrow strip 
of land between the mountains and the 
Ganges, the Tadds had spread over the 
whole country. Yadu, says Elliot, (Races 
of the N.-W. P., Vol. I, 128) is the patro- 
nymic of all the descendants of Buddha, 
the ancestor of the Lunar race, of which 
the Bhatti and the Jar^ja are now the 
most conspicuous, but the title of Jddon 
is now exclusively applied to that tribe 
Which appears never to have strayed 



far from the limits of the ancient Son- 
seni, and we consequently find them 
in laige numbers in that neighboitr- 
hood. The tract south of the Gham 
bal called after them Yaduvati is in 
the possession of the Gwalior Mahrst- 
taa and the state of Kirauli on the 
Chambal is now their chief independent 
possession. 

S PAk in the text, with the emendatioa 
Vi\ by the Editor. There aife two of 
the name, one within M6hi Ednta on its 
N. B. frontier. The other one of the 
petty states in Hallir, Kathiaw^. The 
former must here be meant, as Diingar- 
pdr Ues in lat. 23° 62^ N., long. 79>'* 49' 
B. It is now a separate native state* 
The early history of the ruling famil/ 



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261 

ruler who resides at Diingarpir. On the Mdlwah side is B&nswAlah 
(BAnswira) and that too has a separate chief. Each of them has a force 
of 5,000 horse and 10,000 foot, and both are of the Besddiah clan. The 
rulers were of the B&na's family, bnt for some time past it has been 
othervnse. 

Adjoining the Barkdr of Paftan is a state, the chief town of which is 
8ir6ki and which possesses a force of 2,000 horse and 5,000 foot. On the 
BOBunit of a hill is the strong fortress of Ahigafh (Monnt Abu) about 
which are 12 flourishing villages. Pasturage is plentiful. 

There is also a territory having Nafarhdr^ on the east, MandU on the 
norih, NadSt on the south and Gh£mp&ner on the west. Its length is 60 
iot, and its breadth 40. The chief is a Ghauhin and his residence is the 
town of AU Mohan. Wild elephants are numerous. The force consists 
of 600 horse and 15,000 foot. 

Between Swrai and Na^rb&r is a mountainous bnt flourishing tract 
called Bagldnahy the chief of which is a Bafhor, commanding 8,000 cavalry 
and 10,000 infantry. Fine peaches, apples, grapes, pineapples, pome* 
granates, and oranges grow here. It possesses seven remarkable forts, 
among which are MuISt^ and Sal6r. 

Between the Sarkdrs of NddSt (Nanddd), and Nazarbir is a hilly 
district 60 hoe in length by 40 in breadth, which the Oohel tribe of Bijptits 
inhabit. At the present day a Br&hman named Tmodri has the manage* 
ment of affairs, the titular Bajah being of no account. He resides at 
Bdjp^lah^ or Khulu, and has a force of 3,000 hor9e and 7,000 foot. The 



ia not known with certainty ; they paid 
tribute to the Mnghal Empire and did 
military Bervioe, and on the fall of the 
Empire became tribntaiy to the Mah* 
zmttas. I. G. The name Pdl says 
Bayley, Beems to have been g^ven to a 
congeries ot petty hill states of which 
themlers were Hindds. They appear 
to haFe included Dnng&rpiir, Bijanagar 
and others. 

1 See demarcations of Sdbah of Mil« 
wah and the list of Sarkirs of that pro- 
▼ince. Nidoc, is no doubt Nandod of 
the I. G. capital of the Bijpfpla State. 
Ut. iV" 54' N., long. 78"* 84' B. These 
points of the compass would be true to 
a spectator looking towards Mandu with 



NiuliSt in his rear, Nadarbar would then 
He B. and Chimpinet W. In Bayley's 
map, Alice ($ie) and Mohun are two 
distinct towns but adjacent. The itdjatt 
of the text imply an impossible location 
and must be omitted. 

S Both these lie in the Navasari (Nosari) 
district of the Baroda territory, the latter 
in the 8. B. comer. Muler is Mulher in 
I. G. and Mooleirin Bayley. Sengarh 
and Rupgarh are two other forts. The 
former 48 miles B. of Surat, and Bupgarh 
10 miles S. of Songarh. The hills must 
refer to the B&jpipla range, there being 
no other in the whole territory. 

8 Rijpipla is now a native state with* 
in the Agency of Bewa K&ntlMS lying 



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252 

water of this tract is very unwholeaomie. Bice aud honey of the finest are 
here produood. 

This 84}Mh emhvaoes 9 Sarkdrs and 198 parganaht, of which 18 are 
ports. The reTenne is 4A hrors, 68 lakhs, 22,301 d4m8 (Re. 10,920,657-8*0) 
and one lakh, 62,028i Mahmudia^ as port dues. 

The measured land (except Sorath which is paid in money by esti- 
mate) ie 1 kror, 69 lakJu, 86,377 b^ghaa, 8 hiswat, oat of which 4 lakht, 
20,274 dams are Suy^rf^hdl The local force is 12,440 cavalry, and 61,100 
infantry. 



Sarkdr of AJ^maddbdd. 
Containing 28 MahaU, 8,024,158 Bighat. Reven»e 208,806,994 Dam. 
Svfurghdl 6^11,441 Ddmg. Castes various. Cavalry 4,120. Infantry 

20,500. 



City of A^ma44hid, 
Sabarb. dist. of AhmedAbiKl, 
Arfaarmitar, on the riyer 

Baroli,' 
A^madnagar has a stone fort 

faced with chunamf 
Edar, (revenne by estimate 

of crops)) ... ... 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



870,087 

146,S84 

64,870 



Bevenne 
D. 



15,000,078 
23,999,371 

9,662,754 

1,770,912 

1,616,000 



9 

QQ 



144,660 
4201,788 

160,986 

50,774 



100 

100 
500 
1000 



800 

200 
5,000 
6,000 



Castes. 



Ohanhin. 
Solaiikf. 

R«jp6t. 



within lat. 21*' 23' and 21*' 59' N., and 
between long. 78*' 5' and 74** B. The 
capital is Nandod on the river Karjan. 
It is bounded on the N. by the Narbada, 
on the B. by the Mehwisi estates in 
Khandesh, on the S. by Baroda and 
Snrat, and on the W. by Broach. Three- 
fourths of the State are occupied by a 
continuation of the S^tpura range known 
as the Bijpipla hills. 

1 Mr. E. Thomas (Numismatio Chro- 
nicle, Vol. Ill, 8rd series) quotes Sir T. 
Herbert as saying about 1676 A. D. <* A 
mahmddi is twelve pence, a rupee two 
•hillings and three pence." See Bayley's 



History of Gujarat, p. 16. The teUtsTS 
value of coin varied according to tins 
and locality. The Changesi Mahmtkdf 
is varionsly at half and two-tkirds of a 
rupee and at half a crown, Fienob 
money. Ibid, pp. 18 and 16. 
« T. Bar6n. Var. BarmaU. Mar4ni 
8 The Rajpdts are here divided into 
two cUisses. (1) Gar^siahe or land- 
owners (see Bayley's History of Ghijarilt 
p. 98, for the derivation of this tem)^ 
and (2) Cultivators. Hu farmer Ut« 
a life of idleness on their lands and sie 
greatly given to opium. I. 0. 



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263 





Bighaa 
Biswas. 


BoTenae 
D. 




1 


1 


Oaatea. 


Bbil, 


875,675 


6,988,920 




100 


200 


Bh6dia.l 


Birah8ew«h, ... 


84.960 


2314»124 


i'Jdos 


60 


100 


Lodiah.2 


IMrpHrt iMt a «^oiie fort on 














^Mahendri, 


198,885 


1,778,800 


— 


800 


600 


H&jpiit, 
Khwb4 
and 


























Bonab.t 


I^pl<«,* 


89,980 


1,498,249 




60 


100 


Ittjp6t. 


Pftriusii, (PltfAiiiiJ of I. O. ?), 
Bandar Solah, (rerenne in 


159,278 


2,076,874 




100 


200 


01. 


moneyX 




900,000 




... 






PilWd, 




771,960 


128,990 


... 


••. 




Thimanab, (rer. in monej), 




600,000 




... 


... 




Jbakbirhi, baa a briok fort, 














somewhatdilapidated; aalt- 














petre obtained here, 


48,388 


M,908,220 


282,860 


200 


10,000 


Koli. 


JhiUwirah, baa a fort of 














stone Krae^ ... 


679,877 


4,826,892 


6,627 


60 


0OO 


JhiMwir. 


DhoHFab the Bibarmati flows 














adjacent. 


884,606 


1,660,000 


188,160 


50 


100 


Ponwir. 


Dhandb^, baa a ttasonry 














fort of chwnam, 


406,628 


1180770446 




500 


4,000 


Do. 


ffimil. 


80,646 


2,628,682 




100 


800 


Garisiab, 
Mehtar. 


Kari, 


986,837 


80,125,788ft 


894,968 


800 


1,000 


(yi,Ao. 


Kambhiyat, ... 


836,818 


22,147,986 


160,406 


100 


200 


""&. 


K-ranj,7 a maaonrj fort of 












chunam. 


..••.. 


80,126,778 


27.809 


100 


500 


KoU. 


Mandah, 


1 


22,147,978 


801,320 


50 


500 


Do. 


Mor^Mah, baa a briok fort, ... 


507,870 


428,610 


16,062 


100 


200 


Do. 


¥Mpn^dib4d, baa a temple 














toMahideya,... 


45,590 


1,748,080 


120,088 


... 


... 


Obanbin. 
















fort, 


218,806 


1,400,000 




... 


... 


01.8 


Maagr^j, baa a maaoniy fort 














of e^unom, ... 


76,629 


121,762 




100 


800 


Ohaah£n. 


Kariid, 


202,062 


8,108,098 


49',i78 


en 


^red 
ider 
rnil. 


Gar&siab. 


HaM6r, 


200,027 


752,202 




20 


100 


Koli. 



^ V»r» Bbodtaia. Yabndia. 
8 Dodiab, Didwiab. 
^ For. Kariadewar, and two otber 
namea ittegtble from haTing no vowel 

points. 



♦ T. Pilod. G. Beelowd. 
» G. bas 11 million. 

4 Far, 20,081,106, 30^126,987. 

7 Var. Kafranj. Kiranj. G. Cerneej. 

• Far. KoU. 



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254 



Sarkdr of Pattan^ north, 

ContsAmngie Mahals. 88,600,016 B^^o*. Revenue 600,326, 099D(ii»w. 
Suyirghal, 210,627 Datiw. Castes various. Cavalry 716. Infentry 6,000. 



Pa(^, has two forts, 

Bijipdr, 

Puhanpur, 

Ba^nagar, has a stone fort, 

Bisalnagar, 

Tehrir, has a brick fort, ... 

Tahrwirah, do. 
Baburb. diet, of Pat^an, 

B&dhan, has a brick fort, ... 
Bami, has a shrine mnoh 
venerated in Hindastan,... 
Batalp6r, 
Eherilii, 
Kikr^ji, 

Mdnjpdr, 
Horwirskh, 

Wisah, (Disah?) has a brick 
fort, 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



290,664 

87,'600.18 

18,281 

240,062-11 

294,616-17 
1,478,750 

267,709-6 

107,298S 

84,267 

101,946-17 

112,888 

61,814-11 

47,777 

288,270 



Bevenoe 
D. 



967,462 

6,001,882 

628,611 

1,844,824 

674,848 

4,000,000 

2,180,000 
20,064,046 

4,000,000 

1,266,998 
287,840 
4,000,000 
1,812,690 

909,630 
820,030 

1,600,000 



148,862 

2,882 

8600000' 
1,749 



QQ 



862,104 



160 



200 
60 



I 



8,000 



600 
600 
nnder 
Bijapnr. 
100 



200 



1,000 
nnder 
Pat^. 
100 200 



20 



100 



nnder 
Tehr£r. 



26 



60 



100 
200 

200 



Bijpat^Eoli, 

Eombi. 
KolL 

Do. 

Do. 

BAjpfit, 

Jiddn. 
B&jp4t, 

Birfaah. 
KoIL 



EoU. 
Do. 



Eoli 

Do. 
Do. 

Da 



SarMr of NddSt. (NandodJ^north. 
Containing 12 Jfa^ofo. 64il,Si7 Bighas. 16 Biswas, Revenue 8,797,596 
Dams. Suyuryhdl 11,328 Ddms. 





Bfghas 


Eevenne 




Bighas 


Eerenuo 




Biswas. 


D. 




Biswas. 


D. 


Amrdli, 


16,648-16 


148,620 


Jamung£op, 


21,444 


412,098 


Andhi, 


4,290 


17,076 


Kah6r,S 


14,903 


80,8<>8 


Basrdi, (Suyiirghdl 






Marghadrah, 


16,028 


62,328 


I1,328J, 


168,696 


2,061,868 


Mandan, 


5,402 


16,000 


Badil, 


40,663 


272,645 


N6d6twith snbnrb. 






Talkwirah, 


66,859 


1,695,526 


dist.. 


128,021 


8,929,330 


Tahwi, 


78,268 


166,500 


Natrang, 


16,188 


40,798 



1 So the MBS., bnt I apprehend these 
figiures shonld be rerersed, the larger 
coming nnder rerenne, as G. has it. 

> Initial fignre omitted or the series 



has been by an error rererfled. The 
entry of lands in Col. I. nnder Kherfl« 
is donbtfnl throngh a press error. 
8 Var, T. and G. Eear, Eyir. 



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266 



Sarkdr of Baroda, south. 
Oontaining 4 Mahasl. 922,212 Bighas. Bevenae 41,145,895 Dims. 



Snyurghal 388,358 Dams. 


Castes yarions. Cavalry 900. 


Infantry 5,800. 




Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenae 
D. 


I'd 

QQ 


! 


1 


Oartet. 


fittodi with Bub. diit has a 
hrickfort, ... 

Dftb]i<$i, has a stone forfc, ... 

86idr, the Narhada, in ite 
oonne from the north, 
pwses tinder the town, ... 


600,920 

1,680,960 
167,090 

148,160 


20,408,486 

6,248,280 
6,252,660 

5,746,680 


4,662 


200 

600 
600 

600 


400 

6,000 
600 

6,000 


Ponwir, &c. 
B4jpdt. 

Bahrih. 

fi4jp6t, (fol- 
lowing 
name ille- 
gible). 



Sarkdr of Bahroeh (Broaeh)^ south. 

Containing: U Ifa^oZtf. 349,771 Bighas. Bevenne 21.845,663 Dg^. 
8uyurghal 141,820 Bams. Castes varions. Cavalry 990. Infantry 8,600. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


1 


1 


1 


Castes. 


Crpfc, 


186,420 


1,666,877 




... 






Akl^sar, 


188,876 


668,010 




... 


... 




Atl^ear, 


90,888 


807,787 




60 


200 


Gw&lii. 


Broach, has a briok fort, on 














the Karbada; here is a 














Hindn shrine, ».. 


64.660 


466,280 




500 


6,000 


Rijpdt. 


TarkA»r, 


8,762 


6,651 




... 


... 




Chharmandwi, ... 


44,821 


122,795 




••• 


... 




Suburban dist. of Broach, ... 


62,975 


7,022,690 


64,610 


..1 


... 




Dahej Birhi, ... 


42,664 


1,174,640 


*..... 


... 


... 




Kadi(Kiwilj, ... 


177,939 


4,276.000 


12,650 


20 


800 


Rijpdt 

Barhlih. 
Bijpiit 




16,181 


868,670 




... 


800 


Gandhir, a port frequented 














hj Vessels, ... 




240,000 




... 


•». 





^ This sngg^estion is by the Editor, bat I as representing the proper orthography* 
the I. Q. has Kadi, with Kan in brackets | Lat 28^ 17' N., long. 72^ 21' 80'' E. 



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Lorakh,! on the seashore, ..» 
Mat:bdlib£d, on the seashore. 
Salt here obtained, 

H&ns6t, one of the ports of 
this district, ... .,. 



Bfghas 
Biswas. 



256 



Revenue 
D. 



81,760 
81,750 

77,660 






1,277,250 
1,918,040 

2,489,158 



I 



20 



400 



I 



100 



8,000 



Bijpdt, 
Musalm^p, 

B&jp6t 
Bighelah. 



SkirkAr of Ckdm^nSr. 

ContBinmg 9 MahaU, S0,nS7 Btghas. 11 BisuXit. Reveatie 16,009,884 
Dams. Suyurghal 173,730 Dams, Castes various. Cavalry 530. la&ntry 
1,600. 





Bighas 


Revenue 


!*« 


i 


t 






Biswas. 


D. 


1 


Castes. 








s* 


« 


*i| 








- . 


OQ 


o 


iH 




Arw^rah, 


19,129 


48,209 










Ohimpdn^r, with snb. dist. 














has two stone forts, one 














on a hill called Pdwah, 














and the second at its foot, 


159,690 
27,d20^ 


1,429,649 


173,780 


600 


1,000 




Chanddwirah, ... 


21,530 










OhanHLd, 


107,714 


2,215,276 










Dh<5d has a stone fort. 


68,2*9 


1,288,300 










Dh<51, 


82,014 


172,992 


...... 








DiUwarah, 


18,129 


48,628 










Sonkh^rah, 


240,318 


2,999,696 










8inw4s, has a stong stone 














fort, ... ... 120,191-1 [ 


2,800,000 




60 


100 


Wjpiit. 



8arha/r of Surat, 

Containing 81 MahaU. 1,312,815 Bighas. 16 Biswat. Revenue 
19,035,180 Ddms. Suydrghdl 182 870 Ddms. Castes various. Cavalry 
2,000. Infantry 5500. 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


1 

QQ 


1 


} 


Castes. 


Aniwal, has a stone fort, ... 
Pirohdl, 


9,681 
66,980 


424366 





... 





1 Var. and Q. Norak. Nooiek. T. Gork. 



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257 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


B#yenae 
D. 


1' 


! 


^ 


Castes. 


Balsir, en the sea, 


74,702 


1,281,480 


19,785 


100 


600 




Balesar, 


86,400 


1,016,045 


15,035 


... 


... 




Beltwaxah, has a stone fort 














near the Tapti, 


58,659 


554,820 




2000 5,000 1 


Wjpiit. 


Balwirah, has a stone fort, 














and a shrine with a hot 














spring. 


41,650 


478.620 


•••••• 


... 


... 




Bh&r^t, 


21,170 


425,055 




... 


... 




Pirn^r, 


64,460 


277,475 




... 


... 




Bhiitsar, 


12,076 


146,230 




... 


... 




BiMr, 


21,435 


592,180 


...... 


••• 


... 




T^Uri, 


35,091 


917,890 


90,985 


... 


M* 




Kmb4, 


51,029-19 


26d,890 


2,040 


•.. 


*•• 




Ghikhli, on the sea, has an 














uou niiie, •.. ... 


387,618 


889,880 


••*••• 


... 


• t. 




Dham<5ri, on the river Timi ?» 














(Kim?), 


40,994.19 


767,620 




... 


... 




Ban^r (Bandar), 


5,523 


63,692 


13,C»2 


... 


,,, 




Snrat with suburh. dist. has 














a stone f«rt, ... 


50.788 


5,530,145it 


•••••• 


... 


•at 




8np4, 


37,594 


73,151 


8,720 


... 


... 




Sarbhiin, 


64,127-18 


601,257 




... 


... 




Kh6bl6ri, 


4,024 


26,760 





••• 


• *. 




Ghand^wi, 


4,524 


835,330 


4]310 


••• 


1 .•• 




Kharka, on the Timi,8 


42,019 


629,810 




*•• 


• •• 




KarAiah, 


800,70* 


383,240 


H520 


... 


• •• 




KAmr^, 


68,044 


328,205 




... 


i ••• 




£^8 has a stone fort. 


9,771 


238,390 




... 


... 




Lohiri, 


5,928 


85,260 




..* 


••• 




HariwaU, (Mar6U) on the 














sea, 


17,044 


370,410 


•«*t«« 


••• 


... 




Mahwah, (Mowa ?) on the sea, 


15,016 


100,290 




..« 


! •.» 




Nanwfli, 


1,629 


65,220 


•«*••• 


... 


... 




Nawasari, ( Ntfsari ), with a 














manufactory of perfumed 














oil, foand nowhere else. 


17,853 


297,720 




... 


... 




Nariid, on the sea, 


7,290 


130,700 


.*• ••• 


•*• 


... 





Sarhdr of Oodhrd. 
Containing 12 Mahals. 586,255 Bighas. Revenue 8,418,624 Dims, 
Castes various. Cavalry 1,000. Infantry 5,000. 





Bighas 
BUwas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


Bera,5 
Jadnagar, 


Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


Andh4, 
Athiwarah, 


17,877 
46,704 


184,935 
63,460 


87,318 
46,696 


257,202 
120,660 



1 T. Dehor sur le Tfcpti. 
s From 84lr JahM duties, see p. 58. 
Vol. II. 
* Var. and T. Tapti. 

33 



4 Var. in these two oolnmns, 68,544 
and 328,205 respectively. 

B Donhtf nl, there being no rowel points. 
Note suggests Babra or Bhabra. 



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268 



Jhi16d, 
DhiLnb6d,l 
Sehra, 

GiSdhra with 
diAt, 





Bighas 
Biswas 


BoTenae 
D. 


sub. 


92.406 
17,082 
36,702 

160,260 


794,664 
146,392 
786,660 



K6li£nah, 

Miril, 

Mahadwarah, 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



20,868 
46,756 
19,268 



BeTonae 
D. 



786,860 

526,976 

18,026 



Sarkdr of Sdrafh. 

Containing 12 MahaU^ of which 13 are ports. 
DdfM, Cavalry 17,000. Infantry 365,000. 



Eevenue 63,437,366 





Berenoe 




RerenTie 




D. 


Jasdhon (Jasd^n I. G.), 


D. 


Aiinab, 


7,630,888 


98,600 


ArbWia,« 
Ami^li, 


780,500 


Sabnrban dist. of Sorafh, 


982,000 


1,784,160 


Dhaalatdb4d, 


857,424 


Apletah, 


1,214,692 


D4nk, ... 


4,410 


Pttttan Deo, 


4,468,912 


D6ngar, 


760,400 


Banwirah, 


2,049,340 


Dharwir, 


69,791 


Belkhi, 


140,000 


Dhintr6r,« 


252.048 


Balsir, 


609,760 


DhAri, ... 


644,270 


B^, ... 


145,600 


Banpdr, 


16.127 


Bnrwa,* 


60,664 


R41gan, 


113,280 


Bandah, 


84,960 


R4m6fc, 


£8,820 


B&nd<5r, 


14,060 


Siydr, 


42.480 


Bhimridah, 


28,820 


Sarii,7... 


4,936 


PAliThanah, 


240,592 


Snl^npdr, 


424,800 


Bagsra, 


66,840 


Gariidhibr, 


628,040 


Barar, ... 


734,790 


Kdrin&r, 


4,588,660 


Barwir&, 


74,792 


Ghogah,(Goffo) exolndye of port 


666,{60 


Bhid^4 


14,160 


K^nibanier£,8 ... 


42,480 


TaUifc, 


2,436,620 


Kathar,« 


127,480 


Chokb 


453,120 


Garidhari,l0 


698,704 


Jaitp<ir, 


12,832 


Gondal, 


66,640 


Jagat, ... 


803,200 


Kotiini, 


1,797,266 


Chorw&r, 


986,960 


Kand61n£,ll 


198,482 


Chanra, 


97,288 


L61iin4, 


1,428,080 


Jhatri,6 


1,071,660 


LemdrA Batw4,l« ... 


487,676 



1 Var' Dhamndd. 

2 Var. and G. Artehji. 
8 Var. Barda. 

4 Var. and T. BhawOL 

6 Var. T. and G. Jethri. 
« Var. Dhihrdr, 

7 T. and G. Sarsu 



8 Var. and G. Gh^^MeWL 
^ Var. and G. Kankar. 

10 Var. Earari Dhanun. In the mapf 
Ganridhar in HalUr. 

11 Far. G. and T. Gaadolna. 

12 Var. Banwa. 



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259 





BeFenne 
D. 




Beyenne 
D. 


U^hi, 

Malikp^r. 

Mobwah, (Mow»), 

Mtndwi, 

lUngWr, 


296,162 
996,048 

2,061,136 
127,440 

16,689,472 


Medarah, 

M6rbi,... 

Miinah, 

Nilgsari, 

Hatasni,! 


2,208,160 
2,608,836 
14,106 
755,876 
1,012,692 


Port duties. 




ReFBDae 
Ma^mddis. 


Port of Hohwah< (Mowa), ... 
„ Melk<5r? ... 
„ Diingar, ... 
„ TaUji, 4 Mahals, ... 
„ Aanah, ... 


Beyenne 
Mal^mudii* 


PortofMangMf, ... 
„ Pft^tanDeo, 
„ Korinir, ... 
„ Ni^reari, ... 
n Porbandar, 


27,000 
25,000 
1,000 
10,000. 
27,228 


1.000 
8.000 
1,000 
7,000 
* 16,000 




Princes of Oujardt. 




Seyeti prinoei 


1 reigued in saccessiou 196 years. 


Years. 
... 60 


Suij Chiwarah,* ... 


•»• ••• ••• 


Jog R4j,... 


••• ••• *»• 


... 86 


BhimdLj, 


•»• ••• ••• 


... 62 


Bb6r, ... .•• 


••• •»• ••• 


... 29 


Ba^r Singh, 


•»• ••• ••• 


... 26 


Batnddat (var. Bash^dat), 


.•• ••• ••• 


... 15 


Samant (yar, Simat), 


••• »*• ••• 


... 7 



! Var* and G. Hastani. 
> Var. and T. Birj Jidiin. Var, and 
G. Bansr&j. The following table is from 
the IT. T. taken from the Ain-i-Akbari, 
t&d collated with the Agni Por&aaof 
Wflford. 
AD. 
606. Saila Deya, liying in retirement 

at Ujjain fonnd and educated. 
745. (S. 802) Banarija» son of Samanta 

Sinh (Ohoh&n) who founded 

Anhalpiir, called after Anala 

Chohin 



806. Jagardja. 

841. Bhira B&ji, (Bhnnda Deya. Wil« 
ford). 

866. Bheur. 

895. Behersinh. 

920. Beshadat, (Baja Adity W.). 

985. Samanta, (dan. married son of 
Delhi Baja). The total of yean 
of reignt in the A. A. makes 228 
instead of 196. G. and T giye 
Bhimr&j 25 instead of 42, and 
thus oorreot the error. 



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S0O 

Ten princes of the Sbhtnki race reigned 2H years. 









Trs. M8. 


Mnlr&j Solanki, ... 


••• 


• •• si 


... 56 


Chdmandy 


... 


... 


... 18 


Balabha, 


••• 


• •• •< 


... 6 


Darlabha, his nephew, 


••• 


• »• •< 


... 11 e 


Bhim, hifi nephew, 


••« 


••• 


... 4,2 




••-• 


• •• • 


... 81 


Jai Singh, called also 


Sudhdlj, 


... 


... 50 




.»• 


... 2a 


Ajai pals, his nephew, 


••• 


• •• • 


... 8 


LakhmtU, 


••• 


... 


... 8 



Six princes o{ the Bigh61ah tribe reigned 126 years. 

Trs. Ms. Ds. 
Hardmtiis Bdghelah^ 
Baldeva, 

Bhim, his nephew, 
Arjnn Deva, ... 
Strang Deva, 
JSk.ar8»n, .*• ••• 



• ••• 


12 


5 


• .•• 


84 


6 10 


••• 


42 





... 


10 





• •• 


21 





• ••• 


6 10 15 



1 Far. and G.Eamadarpal. The totals 
give only 238 years. The U. T. nmA as 
follows : — 
A. D. 

Mxila B&ja, ngnrped the throne. 
Chimnnd, invaded by Saltan 

Mahmud (Samanta. W.). 
Vallabha (ancient line restored). 
Dorlabha (Dabisalima Feriahta) 

nsnrped the throne. 
Bhima R&ja. 

kaladeva (Karan. A. A.) Gama 
Bajendra or Visaladeva, (W.) 
who became paramoont sove- 
reign oi Delhi. 
Biddha or Jayasinha, an nsorper. 
Kam&rapal, poisoned (by Ajaya* 
pala, son of Jayasinha.) 
S Far. and T.Hardhon,Hai:4<8m. Var. 
and G. BardmuL Birdmool. 



910. 
1025. 

1088. 
1089. 

1050. 



1094. 



The U. T. give the following ^- 

The BhdglUla tribe. 
Mnla (LakhmtU. A. A. Lakhan Baya* 
W. without issne. 
Birdmul ^ Balnea— Mala, Wd. of Bhi* 
Beildeva ) g€\& tribe. 
AD. 
1209. W. Bhima Deva, or Bhala Bliina 

Deva, same as last W. 
1850. Arjnn deva, -s 
ISm. Sarangadevsi > A. A. 
12QL Karao. ) GaroatheOohi- 

la fled to the 
Deooan when 
in the year 
Qnjar6b was annexed to Delhi by 
4U a'd din. 



I80a 



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261 



mi. 

1411. 

1443. 
1451. 

1459. 
J459. 

1511. 



1526w 

152$. 

I53e. 
1536. 

1553. 



Fourteeot (Mn^aikimad&ii) primM^ reigned aboat 160 years* 

Trs. Mb. D«. 



Sultan Maaaffar Sh4b, 

Snltiii AJ^mad, I, his grandson (bnilds Ai^mad&b&d 

and A^madnagar), ••• ••• 

Mn]&ammad 8hAh, his son, ••• 

1$[Qth nd' din Ahmad Sh&h (opposes Malwa King and 

Ohitor Baja Kombha), 
Bkitdi Sh&h, his nncle, (deposed in fovonr of) 
l£ahni6d Sh&h I, son of Mnhammad Sh&h (Begardl : 

two expeditions to Deccan), ... ..^ 

Snlf&n Mnzaffar, his son, (war with Rij4 Sangrima), 
„ Bikandar, his son, (assassinated), 

„ Na^ir Kh&n, his brother, (Mahm^d Shih II, 
displaced by), 

jy Bah&dnr, son of Saltan Mnzaffar, (invades 
Mdlwa: mnrdered by Porfcnguese), 
Mnhammad Sh&h, sister's son, (Firdki of Malwa), ... 
Snlt&n'Mabm4d, grandson of Mnzaffar, ... 



8 8 16 



83 


6 20 


7 


9 


4 


7 


18 








7 


55 


1 


4 


14 


9 





10 16 



4 



11 


9 





1 15 


18 


2 aomo 




days. 



8 



12 & odd. 



, Al^mad (11) a descendant of Snlt&n Atimad, 

(spnriotts heir set np hj ministers), 
1561. n Mnzaffar 111, (Habbn, a suppositions son of 

Mahmid), ... ... •„ 

1583. Qnjardt becomes a prorince of Akbarls Empire. 

The Hindi chronicles record that in the year 802 of Bikramijit, 
corresponding with A. H. 154!* Sardp kindled the torch of independence 
and Gajar&t became a separate state. TdUji Sri Bhor Deva mler of 
Kananj pat to death one of his dependants, named S&mat Singh for 
his evil disposition, disloyalty and disorderly conduct, and seized 
his possessions. His wife was pregnant at the time, and urged by dis- 
treBSy she fled to Gujarat and in an uninhabited waste gave birth to 
an ia&mt. It happened that a Jain^ devotee named Saila Deva passing 



^ Tlie dales and remarks ia brackets 
wa from the 0. T. 

s 80a of the era ol Viltramaditya is 
94&A.D.-A.H. 12S— ». The 8. nl M. 
hmUZ, To correspond with A. H. IM) 
t^ S. date riMld be 826. 



^ Var. PiDhr^j. Manrij. BansHlj. 

4 Far, Ujjain, bnt as Anhilwirah 
Pji(^n haa no fewer than 108 Jain 
temples, one-eighth of its present pt^cr- 
lation being Jains and extensive Jain 
libraries of palm' leaf MSfiT., it is probable 



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262 

that way took cotnpassion on the child and committed it to the charge of 
one of his disciples who took it to BMhanpilr, and brought it np with 
tender solicitude. When he grew to manhood, associating with wicked 
reprobates, he fell to outrage and highway robbery and a gang of free^ 
hooters was formed. He plundered the Qujarit treasure on its way to 
Kanauj, and through the good fortune that attended him, he was joined 
by a grain merchant^ called Chdmpd. Wisdom guided his sword and from 
works of evil he inclined to deeds of good till in the fiftieth year oC his 
age, he acquired the sovereignty of the state, and founded Paftan. It is 
said that he long deliberated regarding the site of his capital and was 
diligent in search of a suitable place. A cowherd called Anhil informed 
him that he knew an excellent site which he would show on condition that 
the king would call the city after his name. His ofEer being accepted, he 
directed them to a wooded spot where a hare, he narrated, had grappled 
with a dog and by sheer strength of limb had got away. The Baji 
founded the city there and named it Anhilptir. Astrologers have predicted 
that after the lapse of 2,500 years, 7 months, 9 days, and 44 gharis, it 
shall be in ruins. Through the corruption of language and syllabic change 
it came to be called Nahrwdlab, but as in the tongue of that coantrf 
' chosen ' is rendered ' Pattan/ it became universally distinguished by ty 
name. 

H&J& Samant Singh gave his daughter in marriage to Sri Dan^ak 
Solanki, a descendant of the Delhi princes. She died when on the point of 
giving birth, but a son was by a surgical operation taken from her womb. 
The moon at the time was in the sixteenth' mansion termed by the Hind^ 
Mul, and hence he was named Mulr&j. Raja Sdmant Singh adopted him 
as his own son and watched over his education. When he grew up, he 
entered into a conspiracy with some evil-disposed persons. The RAja in 
a fit of drunkenness abdicated in bis favour^ but on becoming sober re- 
called his promise which so infuriated this miscreant that he slew his bene- 
factor and assumed the sovereignty. During the reign of Bajd Chamand 



that the tme reading ib Jain and the 
n. T. and Gladwin, following a corrupt 
variant of the A. A. are in error in adopt- 
ing Ujjain. 

1 A trade in favour, apparently, with 
6njar4t kings. One was the intimate 
friend and counsellor of Snl(an Mn^am- 
mad. See Baylej, pp. 182 and 188. 



S Yarionsly taken as the I7tb, 19th and 
24th Innar aeterism, containing 11 starsi 
apparently those in the tail of Scorpio 
and said to be unlucky. In the disser' 
tation on Astronomy that folloTfS in a 
subsequent book, M61 is counted as th9 
19th mansion. 



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263 

A. H. 416 or 1064 of the era of Bikram&jit,^ Bn\\ikn Mahmlid of Ghazni 
conquered this ooantrj, but on leaving, he found no fitfcer person on whom 
be might confer the government than a descendant of the royal line, and 
having arranged for the annual payment of a tribute, he returned by way 
of Sind. What is remarkable is that at the desire of this prince he 
carried with him captive another scion of the same family. After a time, 
eith^ through fear or foresight, the captive's restoration was solicited by 
the same prince who went out to meet him as he approached his territory 
in order that intriguers might not secure his favour. On the day that 
they were to meet, the R4j4 fell asleep for a short space under a tree, 
when an animal of prey tore out an eye. At ihat time a blind man being 
incapacitated from reigning, the ungrateful soldiers substituted the cap- 
tive prince in his place and placed the Rajd in confinement.' 

Kumirp&l Solanki through fear of his life lived in retirement, but 
when the measure of Jai Singh's days became full, he came forth from 
the wastes of disappointed ambition and seated himself on the throne 
and considerably enlarged his dominions. Ajaipil wickedly poisoned 
his sovereign and for a fleeting gratification has acquired eternal abhor- 
rence. 

Lakhmdl having no issue, the worthiest representative of the Bagh61ah 
tribe was chosen as sovereign. 

During the reign of Elaran, the troops of Sulfdn J^\i u'd din overran 
Gujarat. Karan, defeated in the field, fled to the Deccan. Although 
previous to this time Muizz u'd din S&m^ and Kutb u'd din Eibak had 
made expeditions into the country, it was not until the reign of A1& u'd din 
that it was formally annexed to Delhi. 

In the reign of Mul^mmad, son of Firdz Sh^h, Niz^m Mustakhr^j, 
called also B4sti Khdn,* was appointed to the government of Gujarat, but 



1 1064 A. B. 18 eqaivalent to A. D. 
1007 and A. H. 416 to A. D. 1025. It 
was in Sept. 1024 A. D. that Mol^mfid 
set out from Ghazoi in his expedition 
against Somnith, which Ferishta says 
oocnined 2^ years, but from his own 
dates, and the time needed for his ex- 
pedition againat the Jats, oonld not have 
been more than one and a half. 

S The story is told differentlj in Sl- 
phinstone's Hist, of India, p. 838 (ed. 
1866) on the anthority of D'Herbelot 
and Bird's translation of the Mirat i Ah- 



madi. The rnler selected is said to have 
been a descendant of D&bishlim well 
known in connection with the fables of 
Pilpay. Ferishta calls both the princes 
by this name. The story is related at 
greater length from the Mirat i Ahmadi 
in Bayley's Hist, of Gnjar&t, pp. 29—34 
and its probability defended in a dis- 
cursive note. 

ft Otherwise Shahib a'd dm Ghori. 

4 Malik Mnf arrah Snltdni, who after- 
wards obtained the title of Farhat n'l 
Molk Basti Khin. Zafar Kh&n was ap- 



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264 

his injustice beooming oppressive, he was ranored and the Ticerojalty 
was conleiTed on Zafar Khiu son of Wajih nl Mnlk Tink. The former 
governor disloyally rebelling, was killed in the field. The events of this 
time may be gathered from the history of the Delhi sovereigns. His 
son Tatar Khin was a man of base character and in whom wicked- 
ness was ingrained. At this period after the death of Sultan Mo^m- 
mad when the throne of Delhi devolved on Snlfin Mahmlid, oonsider- 
able anarchy prevailed. Zafar Kh&n withdrew from affairs and TMr 
Kh&i assumed royal state and marched against Delhi, bat was poison- 
ed at the instigation of his father^ who coming forth from his re- 
tirement had the Kkufhah read and the coin straok in his own name, 
and was proclaimed under the title of Sult&n Mussaffar.* Oujar&t thus 
became an independent kingdom and the government of the proviaoe 
was established in the Tdaik family. The father of Zafar, Wajih nl 
Hulk had been a Brahman and was converted to Isl&m. Abmad the 
son of Tat&r Khan conspired against the life of his grandfather and took 
possession of the throne thus garnering eternal perdition. Al^madiMid 
was founded by him. With deep design and meditated hypoorisy he wiUi- 
drew himself from all worldly pageantries till at a festival when all 
suspicion was laid asleep in the midst of universal enjoyment, he put 
to death twelve of his uncles. Subsequently he applied himself wiih 
earnestness to the duties of his government and was filled with continaal 
remorse, and to his last breath set himself to a just and capable adminis* 
tration of the state. 

When Ditid Kh&n^ was deposed on account of his incapacity, Fat^ 
Khin son of Muhammad Shah was raised to the throne and was proclaimed 
90 Solt^n Mabmtid (I). He distinguished himself by his recognition of 



pointed to sacoeed him on the 2nd Bahia 
J, 793 A. H. (2l8t Feb. 1391) Bayley 
Hist, of Guj., p. 68. Wajih n'l Mulk 
was a Hindu called Sadh&ran, converted 
to Islam and belonged, sajs the Mirat i 
Sikandari, to the Tink caste, an outcast 
branch of the Khatris. One of them was 
expelled for his use of strong drinks and 
the name is said in Hindi to signify an 
outcast. The deriyation is asserted to 
rest on some form of the Sanskrit i^TW. 
meaning, separation, divorce. Ses Bsj- 



le/s note. Ihid^ p. 67. Baber oiUs 
the race Tang, Memoirs, Erskine, p< 811. 

1 ' It is commonly beHeved' says the 
Mirat i Sikandari that Tit4r Khin pl«oed 
his father in confinement and seated 
himself on the throne under title of 
Mhd. Sh^h, whence the repnM- I^ 
p. 81—82. 

« A. D. 1407, 

S He reigned ooly 7 days, flee Bay- 
ley's Hist, of Quj., pp. 161.2L 



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265 

mmt^ and by hk jusiioe, and ^rt himself with the fenoe of mniiifioenoe 
and iiberaUty. Mi^k Sh^^b&a who held the title of Imid n'l Malk was 
of the utmost service to him.* In the beginniag of his reiga some of the 
wealthy favourites conspired against the life of their lord and in the first 
instance plotted • the overthrow of this judioions and sincere oounsellor. 
Like intrigoers as they were, they conveyed false allegations to the king, 
and as the worldly-minded are suspicions of eaoh other, he imprisoned this 
peerless denixen of the world of faith and purposed putting him to death. 
He was on the point of being condemned when Malik j^bdu'llah the 
superintendent of the elephuits who had the royal ear, revealed the 
innocence of his faithful minister and the designs of the conspirators. The 
king skilfully contrived his escape and, the veil of their pretence being 
rent asunder, the miscreants took to arms. The royal guard and the slaves 
together with the officers in charge of the elephants made a stand against 
them, and the elephant) themselves proved of service in chastising the 
rebels. Disgracefully routed, these disloyal subjects met with just retri- 
bution. At Mal^iid's death, his son MuzafEar Sh&b, with the assistance 
of the nobles, ascended the throne and assumed the title of Sul^n Muza^Mr 
(11). His reign was beneficent. Sh4h Ismail of the Sdfi dynasty of Persia 
sent him as presents the choicest goods of Ir&k.^ and he in turn courteously 
reciprocated his acknowledgments. On his decease, his son succeeded him 
under the title of Snlfan Sikandar. In a short time he was wickedly done 
to death by Imad a'l Mulk who raised his brother Na^ir Kh4n to the 
throne. The nobles plotted to displace him. The king appealed for 
succour to His Majesty B&ber and engaged to surrender to him the port of Dih 
<Din) with its dependencies and several kr&rs of tankahs, if he would advance 
in aid with his victorious troops. On account of his former ungrateful con- 
duct, his offer was refused.* At this juncture, Bdhadur the son of Salfdu 



1 And likewise bj his enormonB appe- 
tite. HiB daily allowance of food was 
one man Gajadlt weight (equal to 16 
Bahloli a^ra). He pat aside 6 twra of 
boiled rioe and before going to sleep, 
plaeed half on one side of his ooaoh and 
hatf om the other, so that on whichever 
aide hm awoke, he might find something 
te eat. This was followed in the morning 
bf • onp of honey, a onp of batter and 
100 to 160 plantains. After this, Abul 
Jf Sid's appetite sinks into insignificance. 
JBs aUesrance was 22 nen daily. 

84 



8 The whole aooonnt will be fonnd in 
Bayley nnder this monarch's reign. 
The reader is referred to that work for 
details of this historical synopsis. 

8 A tarqnoise cap of great ralae, a 
chest fnll of jewels, many valnable 
tieeaes and 80 Persian horses. Bayley, 
p. 244. 

4 Ferishta says (Bayley, p. 819) that 
this letter nerer reached B&ber, the 
B^jah of Dnngarpur having intercepted 
it. 



L 



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266 

Muzaffar came from Delhi at the invitation of the BiLbriyas^ and the nobles 
joined his standard. During his father's reign he was unable to remain 
at court through the envy borne towards him by his brother (Sikandar) 
He, therefore, betook himself to Sul^in Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi and was 
received with favour. The nobles of Jaunp6r invited him to be their 
king, and his intentions were inclined that way, when at this time his 
partisans wrote to him from Gujarat and entreated his acceptance of the 
throne. He willingly set out for the capital and being successful, he 
made his administration prosperous by his justice and liberality. Carried 
away by the intoxication of worldly success, he imprudently engaged 
in a war with Humaytin, and being defeated, sullenly withdrew in 
discomfiture.* 

At his death, Mir&n Muhammad ruler of Kh4ndesh, his nephew, wbom 
during his lifetime he had constituted his heir, was in his absence pro- 
claimed in the khutbah by the nobles, but died shortly before re^hing 
Gujarat. Mal^mud, grandson of Sulfdn MuzafiEar, who was then in con- 
finement, succeeded him. A miscreant called Burh^n with some of his 
adherents put him to death^ and under pretence of establishing a rightful 



1 See p. 247, n. 1 and Bayley, p. 85, 
n.; and for his adventures after leav- 
ing Gnjarit, p. S21 et seq, 

S Baber says of him that he acted 
rightly in enforcing the law of retalia- 
tion by pntting to death }mid n'l Malk 
who had strangled his brother Sikandar, 
bat besides this, he slew a nnmber of 
his father's Amfrs and gave proof of a 
blood-thirsty and ungovernable nature. 

8 Bayley, p. 446, et seq. Burhin who 
had been a low favourite of the king, 
poisoned and stabbed his master and 
sallied forth from the palace in the pomp 
of royalty when he was met and slain by 
Shirw&n Khin Bhatti, adopted son of 
Af zal one of the murdered nobles. Feri- 
shta's account is that on the death of the 
king becoming known, ftimid Kh&n with 
Ghang(z Khan, Ulug Kh&n, I^bshi and 
others, came out to oppose him. Bur- 
h&n was thrown at the first charge and 
killed by Shirwdn Khin. His feet were 
tied to a rope and he was dragged 



through the city. The Mirat-i'Sihandari 
g^ves the name of Basi u'l Hulk to one 
of the nobles who was sent to bring the 
new king, A^ad, to the capital, but 
Ferishta expressly states that this de- 
scendant of Al^mad Shih was nam- 
ed Bazf u'l Hulk and was raised to 
the throne as A^^mad Shih II. He oon- 
tinues, that disg^ted with his nominal 
sovereignty, after a 5 years' tutelage he 
took refuge with Mirin Mub&rak Shih 
one of the principal nobles on whose 
death in the field, an aooommodationwis 
ag^in effected with ftimid Khin, bat 
having expressed himself too openly as 
desirous of the death of that minister, 
he himself was found dead the next day, 
near the river opposite the house of 
Wajih u'l Mulk and it was g^venout 
that, caught in a love intrigue in that 
nobleman's house, he had been unwit- 
tingly shdn. The Mirat-i-BiJumdari t^ 
the story more in detail. On his death, 
Itimid Khin produced a boy (not named 



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267 

Biieaessioii, massacred twelve of the nobles. Itimild Kh&n prudently absented 
himself on the occasion, and next morning collecting his followers, attacked 
him and pat him to the death he deserved. He then set up one Razi ul 
Hulk by name a descendant of Sultan Ahmad, I, under the title of Saltan 
Ahmad (II) as a nominal sovereign and took the government into his own 
hands. But when the boy grew to manhood, he altered his purpose and 
oarryiog him to the house of one of his adherents> he slew him and then 
leading some unknown minor by the hand, swore upon oath that he was 
the son of the last SulfiLn MaJl^mlid (II). By fraudful allegations, he be- 
stowed on him the sovereign authority and giving him the title of Sul^dn 
MozafEar, he himself assumed the reins of power, until his present Majesty 
tiirew the shadow of justice over the province and annexed this pro* 
sperous country to the imperial dominions. 

Hay it ever be adorned with perpetuity and high and low enjoy 
ttnfading blessings. 

Subah of AJmer (Ajmere). 

It is situated in the second climate. Its length from the village of 
Bhahar^ and dependencies of AmhSr to Bikaner and Jaisalmir is 168 koi. 
Its breadth from the extreme limits of the Sarkdr of Ajmer to Bdnswdrah 
is 150 ko8. To the east lies Agra : to the north the dependencies of Delhi : 
to the south Qujardt : to the west Dtpdlpur and Multdn. The soil is sandy, 
and water obtainable only at great depth, whence the crops are dependent 
on rain. The winter is temperate, but the summer intensely hot. The 
spring harvest is inconsiderable. Jowdri^ Lahdarak and Mofh are the most 
abundant crops. A seventh or an eighth of the produce is paid as revenue, 
uid very little in money. The people dwell in tent-shaped bamboo huts. 



mFerishta nor, I think, in the Mirat) 
whom he swore to be the son of Malymdd 
Sbih, II, his mother's pregnancy not 
haying been diacovered till the 6th 
month when too late to check it. For 
Md|ym6d had nnnatnrally interdicted 
the fertilitj of his wives to avoid a dis- 
puted throne. The nobles accepted or 
feared to oppose the pretension, and the 
boy was placed nnder the control of 
Ithnad KhAn. The snbseqnent history 
nay be read in Ferishta, or in Brigg's 
free but generally faithful rendering, 
but the events of his worthless life 



—it cannot be called a reign — are lost 
in the contests of the nobles for their 
share of short-lived power till the in- 
corporation of the kingdom with the 
empire on the 24th Bajab A. H. 890 
(Nov. 20th 1572). Bayle/s translation 
oonolndes with the death of Ma^miid 
Shah IV, bnt his original continues the 
history of Gnjarit to 1001 A. H. (1592-8) 
and the death by his own hand of 
the last of its sovereigns. 

I Var. Phakar, Bikhar. Bahkar. T. 
Bhak<5r. G. Bekhur. 



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269 

To the south are the (AratraUi) monntams of which the p aa ee s ore diffl^ 
oalt to traverse. 

This S^bah is formed of Mewdr, Martodr and HadautV- The former 
poseegaes 10,000 (troops) and the whole of the Sarkdr of OhMr is depen- 
dent on it. Its len^h is 40 Asot b j 30 in breadth. It has three faiaoiis 
fortresses, Ohtt&r the residence of the governor, Komhhalm^ and MdndoL 
In the village of Ohddarf^ one of the dependencies of Ohainpur is a seiqc 
mine. In Ohainpur and other dependencies of Mdn4al are eopper minss, 
which are extremely profitable. 

The chief of the state was formerly called Bdwal, bat for a long time 
past has been known as BdndJ^ He is of the G helot clan and pretends a 
descent from Noshirwin the Jnst.^ An ancestor of this family through 
the vicissitades of fortune came to Bedur and was distinguished as the 
chief of Namdlah.^ About eight hundred years previous to the present 
time, Namdlah was taken by an enemy and many were slain. One BSfo, 
a child, was carried by his mother from this scene of desolation to Mewdr, 
and found refuge with Bdjah MandaltkhP a BML When he grew up to 
man's estate he followed the pursuit of a shepherd and was devoted to 
hunting in which his daring was so conspicuous that he became in favour 
with the lUja and a trusted minister of state. On the death of the 
Bdj4, his four nephews disputed the succession, but they eventually 
decided to resign their pretensions in favour of Bdpa and to acknowledge 
his authority. Bdpc^ however, declined their offer. It happened one 
day that the finger of one the these four brothers began to bleed, and he 
drew with the blood the ceremonial mark of installation on the forehead 
of B^&, and the others also concurred in accepting his elevation. He then 
assumed the sovereignty. To this day the castom continues of making 



1 Harowtee or H^rdote, a tract form- 
ed of the terrritory of Kotah and Bandi, 
and named after a dominant tribe of 
Bdjputs. 

8 I. G. Komnlmair is a pass that runs 
throngb a series of ragged ravines in 
the Aravalli range and defended by a 
fortress. In art. Udaipur, it is spelt 
Kamalmer. 

8 Var. Ch&war, Ghanra, Jiwadl. G. 
Ohowra. In the I. G. (under Udaipur) 
Jiwar, 24 milos S. of Udaipdr, is said 
to have possessed ziao mines now an- 
worked. « 



^ The foundation of the Ghelot dynasty 
in Rdjpntilna was effectod by Bappa 
Bawal who is said to have established 
himself in Ohitor and Mew^ in 72S 
A. D. I. G. 

^ It is asserted that a danghter of 
Noshirwin, whose qneen was a danghtec 
of Maurice of Constantinople married in- 
to the Udaip^ royal family. 

A Var, Pamilah. Bamilah. T. writes 
the former. G. the latter. 

7 Rao Mandalik says Bayley (Hist. 
Gnjar4t) is the title assomed by all ths 
chiefs of Gim^, p. 183. 



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269 

witih hmnuk blood ihu sign of investihire on any Bdna who sncoeedfl to 
the tbrona The nngratefol monarch pnt the four brothers to death. 
On a former occasion while passing throngh the wilds, mistaking one 
Saranfy^ a hermit, for a wild animal, he fitted an arrow to his bow. The 
hermit intnitiFely prescient of this action throngh his pnrity of heart, 
made himself known, and the IU3A repentantly ezcnsed himself and 
hnmblj visited him with assiduity. The hermit one day predicted his 
elevation, and marvellons tales are told regarding him. Having made his 
head qnartera at Sesoddf the tribe is called Setodiah and as a Bdihman, 
at the beginning of their history nurtured their house, they are accounted 
8s belonging to this caste. 

When Bdtffal Battan Si^ died, a relative named Arn was raised to the 
throne and entitled RinA from whom the present Bdna JJm/rd is tenth in 
descent^ thus ; Hamir^ Kattd, Ldkha^ Mohal, Komhhdr, Bdemal, Sdngd^ 
JIdai Singh, PaHdh, Umrd. 

Ancient chroniclers record that Sultan A1& ud' din Khilji king of 
Delhi had heard that B6u>al Rattan 8i prince of Metodr possessed a most 
beautiful wife. He sent to demand her and was refused, upon which be 
led an army to enforce compliance and laid siege to Okitor, After a long 
persistenoe in beleaguering the place in vain, he had recourse to artifice 
and proposed terms of peace and friendship. The BAji readily acquiesced 
and invited him to an entertainment. The Sultan entered the fort with 
kis chosen followers and the meeting took plaoe amid festivi^ and mirth, 
and finding his opportunity he seised the R6j4 and carried him off. It 
is said that the Sultan's retinue consisted of a hundred men and 800 picked 
soldiers dressed as attendants. Before the R4ja's troops could assemble 
he was hurried away to the camp amidst the wailing of his people. The 
king kept the B4j4 in close confinement with a view to extort compliance 
with his desire. The faithful ministers of the RAji implored the king 
Bot to injure him and promised to deliver up to him not only the object of 
his love but other suitable partners for his harem. They also sent a forged 
letter purporting to come from the virtuons queen and lulled his suspi- 
cions to sleep. The king was delighted and not only refrained from 
perBonal violence but treated the B4j& with cordiality. It is related 
that 700 of the choicest troops dressed as women were placed in 
litters and set out for the king's camp and it was given out that the BAxd 
with a large number of her attendants was on the way to the royal pavi- 



. 1 For. Harbanj. Marf j. 

* Far. Battan Sen. In As. Bes. iz. 
p. 191. Batna Sinha, whose romantic 



love for the beaatifol Padm&vati is the 
snljeot of the Hindi poem of that i 



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270 

lion. When they approached the camp, word was sent that the Bini 
wished to have an interview with the Raji previouB to entering the 
king's quarters. Lapped in his illusive dream of security the king granted 
the interview, during which the soldiers seizing the opportunity, threw o£E 
their disguise and bore off their prince. Time after time the Rijpdte stood 
to face their pursuers fighting manfully and many were slain before the 
Raj& had gone &r. At length the Chauh^ns, Oaurd and Bddal made 
a stand fighting to the death enabling the B4wal to reach Chitor in safety 
amidst universal acclamation. The king having endured great hardships 
during the siege and finding it to no purpose, returned to Delhi. After 
an interval, he set his heart again on the same project but returned dis- 
comfited. The B&wal wearied with these assaults, conceived that an 
interview with the king might result in an alliance and that he would 
thus escape this state of continual strife. GTuided by a traitor he met the 
king at a place 7 ko8 from Ohttor where he was basely slain. His relative 
Arsiy after this fatal event, was raised to the throne. The Sultan returned 
to the seige of Chttor and captured it. The IUj4 was slain fighting and 
all the women voluntarily perished by fire. 

ffamdr his son betook himself to the adjacent mountains. Sulfin 
Muhammad Khuni^ made over the government of Ghitor to M&ldeva Chau- 
hin ruler of Jalor. As this prince was unable to bring the province into 
order, he summoned flamirf made him his son-in-law, and through his 
means restored its prosperity. At his death, Hamir made away with his 
sons and raised the standard of independence.* 

The present local militia consists of 16,000 cavalry and 40,000 infan- 
try, but Mew4r formerly controlled much more extensive territories, so 
much so that R4jah Sanka (Sanga) x>0Bsessed a force of 180,000 cavalry 
and a numerous in&uitry. 

Mdrwdr ia 100 kos ia length by 60 in breadth, and it comprises the 
Sarkdrs of Ajmer, Jodhpiiirf Sirdhi^ NdgSr, and BikanSr, It has long been 
head quarters of the Edthor tribe. When Muizz u'd din S4m^ had 
terminated his campaign against PitMrd (Prithwi Bij^, A. D. 1191 — 93), 



1 " The murderer," the special title to 
fame of Muhammad Tnglak but this 
monopoly of the epithet is scarely fair 
to many other members of the royal 
honses of Delhi. 

S As Abol Fasl has not thonght it 
necessary to g^ve the list of the Mewlb? 
Binas, I imitate his reserve. The lists 
of Wilson and Tod are summarised in 



the XXVm Table of the U. T. p. 109. 
The dynasty of Bdpd dates from A D. 
727 and Jewan Singh the last of bis 
race was living in 1828. 

* Shah&b n'd din Ab^ Mnzaifor 
Mnbammad b. Sim al Ghori (A. D. 
1192—1206) the first of the Ghori dy- 
nasty in India. 



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271 

he resolved to turn his arms against Jaiohand king of Kanauj. The Rijali 
in his flight was drowned in the Gtuiges.^ His descendants fell into 
obscarity. His brother's son Slha,* who resided in Shumsdbdd was slain 
with a large number of troops. His three sons Sutik, Ashwatthama^ and 
if;* set out for GnjarAt, and on their way rested at Pdli^ near Sojhat, In 
this city dwelt a number of BdLhmans who were much molested by the 
Mtnah tribe, some of whom at this period made a raid on the town. The 
exiles came out, attacked them valorously, and put them to flight. The 
Brihmans gave them great honour and treated them with every considera- 
tion and thus alleviated in some degree their distress of heart. As they 
acquired the means of worldly success they grew bolder and seized Kh&r^ 
from the Qohel tribe and thus advanced their condition. Butdc indepen- 
dently wrested Eda/r from the Minahs, and Aj setting out for Bagldnah^ 
took that district by force from the KolU. From that time their descen- 
dants have inhabited the country. The descendants of Ashwatthamd who 
remained in Mdrwdr gradually gained credit till eventually Maldeva his six- 
teenth descendant waxed so powerful, that Sh6r Kh^ nearly lost his life 
in his campaign against him.^ 

This territory contains many forts, but the most important are Ajmer^ 
Jodhpur, BiJcdner^ JaUahnir, Amarhot, Ah^afh and J&lor. 

Hdddottf is called also the Sarkdr of Nigdr. It is inhabited by the 
H^ (Hara) tribe. 

This Subah comprises 7 Sarhdrs and 197 parganahs. The measured 
land is 2 Krors 14 lakhSf 85,941 higJios, 7 biswcu. The revenue in money 



* Other acoounts aasert that he was 
■lain by an arrow from the bow of Kn^b- 
iiddin the favorite general of Mnl^ammad 
Ghori, and the founder of the Djuasty 
' of the Slave Kings, It is historical that 
his body was f onnd and recognised by 
his false teeth, "a oircnmstanoe," says 
Blphinstone in the solitary instflknce of 
homonr in his solemn history, "which 
throws grave light on the state of man- 
ners." One result of this defeat was the 
retreat of the greater part of the Bah- 
tor dan from Kananj to Mibrwir. 

• Yar. Binh&, 8ik&, Sahb6. 

• See p. 226, Vol. II. 

• Var. Bawaj, adopted by G. 

• Lat. 25'' 46' N., long. 73" 26' 16" 



B. acquired says the I. G. by the Bah- 
tors of Kananj in 1166 A. D. 

• Var. Kather, Kombhlr. 

7 He invaded Marw&r in A. D. 1644 
and his camp was surprised by an 
attack of 12000 Bijpfits who so nearly 
put an end to his oompaigning that he 
declared he had nearly lost the empire 
of India for a handful of millet, allud- 
ing to the poverty of the country and the 
low quality of its produce. The follow- 
ing is the line of Marw4r or Jodhpur 
princes in the IT. T. taken from Tod's 
genealogical rolls of the Bahtors, pre- 
served by the Jains. 



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272 



18 28 krSrs 84 lakhs, 1,557 d^ms, {Bs. 7,210,088-14.9) of wbiefa 28 ItAlu, 
26,336 ddms (Bt. 51,158-6-5). The local force is 86,500 cavaby, 847,000 
infantrj. 

Barh&r of Ajmir. 

Containing 28 P<irgana%s, 5,605,487 BighcLs, Bevenne in monej, 
62,183,390 DdTM. Suyurghdl 1,475,714 Ddms. Tribes, Kachhwdhdh, Af- 
ghdn^ CTiauhdn, 



Ajm£r with ^Kst. iU fort on a hill, one of tbe 

moat important in [ndi», 
Anb^, liaB stone fort on a hill, ... 



Bighaa. 



795,tt5 

1,185,096 

170,678 



BeTenne 



6,214,781 
12,266.297 
1,766,960 



Snydrghal 
D. 



^2,4«0 



1210. Sivaji, grandson of Jaya Chan- 
dra eeitled in the dewrt, 

iUhtharaa (AsotliaiBa, Tod). 
Doohar. T. Dnla fiai. (Wilfbrd. 
made attempt on Kananj 
and Mand<5r.} 
Baipil. 
Kanhnl. 
Jalhnn. 
Cbado. 
Theedo. 
Silnk or Silko (origin of the 

Silk^wats or Bhome^s). 
Biramdeva. 
1881. Ohonda, atsanlted Manddr and 

made it hia capital. 
1408. Binmal, of Oohila mother, 

made pilgrimage to C^ya. 
1427. Bao Joda and 23 brothers, had 

separate fief a. 
1468. founded Jodhp6r« and 

removed from Mand($r. 
1488. Bao S^joh, or Siinajmal; rape 
of Bahtor yirgiAS bj Path- 
ans. 
1616. Bao Ganga. 

1681. Bao Maldeo, becomes chief 
Biija of Bijpnts. Fortifies 



1668. Capital: sends son as hostage 
to Akbar. ; marriage aBumoe. 

1683. Udaya Sinh: Chandra Bmb, 
«ph^d bj dans, inetaUed by 
Akbar. 

1694. Soor Sinh : named Siwai Bxja, 
a general in Mogid armies. 

1619. B&J& Gaj Sinh, slain in G^jarit. 

1637. Jeswant Sinh, died in Cabnl. 

1680. Ajit Sinh, poethnmons. Bah- 
tor conflict at Delhi 4th 
Jaly 1679 (7th Srayan 1716) 
80 years' war against eonpire. 
Murdered by his son 

1724. Abhay Sinh ; entitled Maharija 
R&jeswar, 1728. 

1749. Bim Sinh, son, defeated by 
his nnde. 

1749. Bakht Sinh, poisoned in 1762. 

1762. Yijaya Sinh (Beejy Sinh) dis- 
puted succession with Bim 
Sinh. 

1798. Bhim Sinh, usurps throne on 
his grandfathei^B death, by 
defeat of ZaUm 6inh. 

1808. Main Sinh. Feud for Kishna 
Kumiri, the I7daip6ur pria* 



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273 





Bighas. 


Reyenne 
D. 


Suyurghil 
D. 


Parbat.* 


279,295 


2,200,000 




Bi£k6i,» 


90,488 


486,161 


... 


Bhaniiy ... 


849,774 


1,400,000 


• .. 


Bhadmah, 


68,712 


271,266 


• •• 


Bawil, ... 


368,712 


749,783 


... 


Bahal, ... 


81,914-11 


600,000 


... 


B4ndhan, Sandari, 


15,522 


435,664 


15,674 


Bharondi," 


24,220 


270,000 


... 


T6smi, 


861,779-12 


8,300,090 




J6bn^r/ 


138,718 


241,442 


... 


^ik, 


27,092.18 


501,844 


... 


Deogiop, 


49,065 


1,200,000 


... 


BiSshanpur, 


71,356 


692,512 


... 


Sambhar, has a stone fort, 


76,54S 


9,649,947 


277,687 


Sarwir, has a brick fort, 


194,064 


1,616,825 


... 


Sithla/ 


245,136 


1,270,009 


16,027 


Snlaim^nib&d, 


72,698 


1,860,016 


... 


Kekri, 


147,923 


1,808,000 




Kh^rwah, 


50,640 


7,020,847 


... 


Mabrofc. 


252,871 


5.756,402 


... 


M6zibid* 


124,361 


1,459,577 


... 


MasaudiWW, 


251,978 


1,587,990 




NaWiinab, 


266,614 


2,660,159 


260ri00 


Har8<5r, has a brick fort. 


168,278 


1,200,926 


926 



Sarkdr of Ghttor, 

Contaioing 26 Parganahsy 1,678,800 Bighas, 17 Biswas. Revenue, 
30,047,649 Dams. Suyurghdl, 360,737 Dams. Tribes, R4jpufe Sesodia, 
Cavalry, 22,000. Infantry, 82,000. 



laUrapiir, known as Rdmpdr, 

Udaip6r, here is a large lake abont 16^ K68 

in circumference ; by its means wheat crops 

are g^own, 



Bighas. 



101,526 



Revenue 
D. 



7000,000 

1,120,000 
in money. 



SuyiirghM 
D. 



* Var. and Ot. Parit. 

* Var. Biak6hi, Bhakoi. B^ghorwi. 
T. Bahacoi. G. Bhagorvi. 

* Var. and G. Bhardandah. 

* Var. Jotirah, Jon^r, Jonerah. 
» Var. T. and G. Sathfli. 

* Var. T. and G. Mananrabad. 

' The I. G. says 5 mites. T. calls the 

35 



lake Rai Sigar and describes it aa 
abont 2 miles in length and 200 paces 
across. The I. G. speaks of another, th^ 
finest from an engineering point of view 
at Eankroli or lUjnagar, of which the 
area is abont 12 square miles. There are 
besides many othor large artificial laket 
throughout the state. 



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2T4 





Bighas. 


Revenue 
D. 


Snydrghil 
D. 


Aparmil, 


27,806 


280,000 




Art<5d, 


44,720 


200,000 


••• 


IsUmpdr, known as Mohan, 


... 


120,600 
in money. 


••• 


6<5dhn<5r, has a stone fort, 


118,265 


4,311,551 


69,815 


PhdlU do. 


257,481 


2,848,470 


43,47a 


fianehra) ... ... .•• 


58,038 


3,296,200 


244,000 


Wr 


199,209 


2,601,041 


13,452 


Bhin Sar6r, has a stone fort, 


... 


1,200,000 


... 


Bag6r, ... ... ••. 


17,44-17 


39,550 


••• 


B^n, 


234,804 


1,176,729 


• 1. 


Barsi^ ^ijfptir, has a stone fort, 


35,098 


1,375,000 


... 


Chitor, with snb. dist. 2 mahals, has a stone 








fort, and is a frontier of Hindnstfo proper. 


461,118 


800,(D0 


• .■ 


Jiran, 


39,218 


1,985,250 


••• 


Bfipwilrgh^ti, 




470,294 


••• 


S Andri, has a stone fort. 


5^991 


400,020 


... 


S^mbal with the cnltiyated tracts. 


••• 


100,000 
in money 


... 


Kosidnah, 


62,718 


268,812 


... 


Mandalgarh, has a stone fort on a hill, 


... 


8,384,750 
in money 


... 


Mdn4al, has a brick fort, 


18,B48 


447,090 


••• 


Madiriyd, 


... 


160,000 
in money 


... 


fJomech (Nimach) Ac 3 mahals, 


21,416 


719,203 


... 



Sarhdr of Bantanbhor. 

Containing 78 Mahals. 6,024,196 Bighas, 11 Biswas. Revenue, 
89,824,576 Dams. Suyurghdl, 181,134 Ddms. Rdjptit Hacjd (Hara). 
Cavalry, 9,000. Infantry, 25,000. 





Bighas. 


Revenue 
D. 


Snyurghai 


Alhanpar, 


18,481 


1.662,289 


20,209 


Uniiwl, 


67,308 


1,237,169 


... 


AtidA, 


45,849 


770,525 


... 


A'tdn. 


14,684 


600,000 


... 


Islimpur, 


5,191 


77,500 


... 


Amkb6rah,' 


... 


160, 00 
in money. 


..< 


Antardah, 


166,173 


1,600,000 


... 


Iw^n Bosamir, 


25,747 


1,200,000 


... • 


Bundi, has a stone fort on a hill, ... 


33,161 


1,620,000 


... 


Boli, has a stone fort. 


151,430 


2,622,747 


22,747 



* Vdr. and T. Patti. 

■ Var. Ankhorah, Anghorah. G. Unghoreb. 



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275 





Bighas. 




Snyurgh^ 
D. 


Bar6dak, 


267,326 


4,571,000 




Barwirah, 


168,226 


1,969,776 






Pa^n, 


139,280 


2,800,000 




,, 


BhadUoiji, 


96,886 


2,686,389 




,, 


Baklant, 


149,087 


1,200,000 




,, 


Palatiah, 


29,302 


1,400,000 




,, 


Bh6«Sr, 


40,677 


600,000 




,, 


Banahta, 


21,267 


624,856 




•• 


B^Wnah, 


81,616 


466,479 




•t 


Bejri, 


16,694 


884,890 




,. 


Bilikhatri, 


83,980 


800,000 




•• 


BhdriBhari.* 


16.846 


110,000 




., 


Barin, 


242,107 


880,000 




.. 


T<5nk, 


602,402 


7,600,000 




,, 


T6dri, 


443,028 


5,869,006 




., 


400,768 


6,456,840 




., 


Talid, 


22,609 


428,288 




,, 


Jetpdr, 


28,014 


928,600 




., 


Cluiteu, 


616,626 


7.586,829 




,, 


Jhalawah.* 


13,180 


600,000 




>•* 


Jhiin. 


87,758 


476,000 






Khiljip^r, 


80,818 


1,209,886 




... 


Dhari, 


97,861 


1,800,000 




... 


Delwirah, 


54,668 


409,260 


9.260 




... 


783,400 
in money. 


... 


Bantanbh^r with sub. disk. 


871-19 


166,796 


1,606 


Rewandhnah, 


49,746 


430,364 


6,292 


8uiS<5par. 


494,070 


6,041,306 




Sto6p, 


86,636 


1,068,876 


... 


Sahanairi, 


28.575 


800,000 


• •• 


Ko^ has a stone fort on a hill, near which 








the C hambal flows, 


860,878 


8000,000 


... 


Khandar, has a stone fort on a hill. 


90,246 


400,000 


.•• 


Khankrah,* 


220,860 


1,611,994 


11.994 


Khami* 


86,448 


628,178 


26,744 


KhdtoU,* 


2,389 


200,000 


,,, 


aadwirah/ 


6,98012 


188,095 


>•• 


Kar6r, has a stone fort on a hill, 


6.377 


200,000 


• t. 


liikhri, do. 


8,623 


800,000 


• *• 


I^ndah, 


17,400 


260,000 


••• 


L6harwirah, 


20,334 


260,000 


*•• 


Jiahiwad, 


8,678 


126,000 


••. 


Mdmidinah, 16 Mahalt, 


... 


4,100,000 


... 


Kal^imah, 


172,698 


8,299,241 


•f . 


Mingrdr, 


140,799 


1,004,848 


... 


Naw4hi, 


38,927 


«30,000 


..• 


^agar. 


83,900 


1,000,000 


••• 



* Under Subah of Ajmir, p. 102 Bhori 
Pahiri. 

• Tar. Ghhaladah, 
8 At p. 102 Delanah. 



* Var. Kharti, Khari. 

* Var. Khanoi, KhanoU. In Thorn- 
ton's Gazetteer ^atoli is mentioned as ^ 
town in Kotah. 

* Var. T. an<l G. Jg^adiud. Gndaved. 



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276 



Sarkdr of Jodhpur. 

Containing 22 Mahals. Revenue 14,528,750 Dams, Tribe, BAthor, 
Cavalry 16,000. Infantry, 60,000. 





Revenue 




Revenue 




D. 




D. 


A'86p has ft brick fort, 


6,000,000 


Jet&ran, has a small fort on a 




I'ndrioti. 


8,000 


hill. 


3,000,0C0 


Phulddhi, has a stone fort, ... 


640,000 


Duniur&, > has a stone fori, 


100,000 


Palp4rah, 


1,463,000 


S<5jhat, has a stone fort on a 




B^laril, 


314,000 


hill, 


2,812, 750 


P&li Ac, 3 Mahals, has a smaU 




S^talm^r, do. 


660,000 


stone fort. 


250,000 


S^wdnfe, do. one of the 




Bahilah, 


180,0J0 


most important strongholds 




P<5dhah has a stone fort, 


46,008 


in India, 


1,200,000 


Bah&dar Ajun, has a stone fort 




Kh^rwi, 


220,000 


on a plain, 


800,000 


Kheonsar, has a stone fort, ... 


172,000 


Jodhpur with sab. dist. has a 




Kund<5j, do. 


90,000 


stone fort on a hill, 


280,000 


Mahewah, 


960,000 



Sarkdr of SirShu 

Containing 6 Mahals. Revenne 4,2,077,437 Dams. Tribes, lULjput, 
Ghelot, Afghan. Cavalry, 8000. Infantry, 3,800. 



Tribe. 

Rijpdt. 

Do. 

Afgh&n. 
Rajpdt 
Ghelot 



Abugafh and Sirdhi, 2 Mahals ; the latter has 

a strong stone fort, 
Binswarah, a delightful conntry; has a stone 

fort, 
Jaldr, S4noh<5r, 2 Mahals ; has a very strong stone 

fort, 
Dungarpiir, 



Revenne 
D. 


f 


1 

1-4 


12,000,000 


3000 


15,000 


8,000,000 


1500 


20,000 


14,077,437 
8,000,000 


2000 
1000 


5000 
2000 



Sarkdr of Ndgor, 
Containing 31 Mahals. 8,037,460 Btghas, 14 JBtswas. Revenne, 
40,389,830 Ddms. Suyurghdl, 30,806 Dams. Castes various. Cavalry, 
4,600. Infantry, 22,000. 



Amarsarndin, 
ludunah. 



Bfghaa 
Biswas. 



649,809 
262,302 



Revenue 
D. 



7,029,370 
1,313,006 



-a. 

OQ 



479 



400020,000 



Gastea. 



Eaohhwi- 
hah. 



Var. Dut&ri. G. Dootara. 



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277 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


3 

m 


1 


t— • 


Oastes. 


Bhadinah, 


544,340 


1,271,960 


70460 








BaldV 


87,947 


670,000 


... 








Batddha, 


143,370 


322,816 


... 






,., 


Barodah, 


2,620 


220,363 








... 


^irih Kim, 


280,379 


68,000 


... 






••• 


J6el.« 


293,066 


965,273 


3200 








Jdrodah, 


141,692 


874,284 


2147 






... 


Jakhrah, snrronnded by a 














waste of sand, 


... 


137,757 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Khirij Kha^, haa a stone 














fort, and a quarry of white 














marble. 


77,677 


348,814 








... 


D^ndwinah, has a briok fort. 


36,631 


4,586,828 


15215 






... 


Dfinpiir, 


219,698 


780,085 


■.• 






... 


Eewiai, 


801,171 


1,995,824 


... 






... 


R6ii. 


616,212 


913,251 


... 






... 


Basdipur, 


144,986 


704,306 


... 








Bah<5t, 


45,269 


183,137 


... 






>•• 


Sid^lah, 


153,032 


1,266,930 








• •• 


Fatehpiir Jahi^jhuD, has a 














stone fort. 


152,200 


1,233,222 


... 


600 


2000 


Eiy&Qi Kh&< 


Kiali, 


28,740 


1,587,167 








ni. 


Khielah, 


114,955 


558.660 


... 








Kojdrah, 


270,490 


466,890 


... 


... 




... 


Kdl^wah. 


12,748 


352,305 


... 








Enmhiri, 


469,881 


435,604 


3200 






... 


Kh^rau,* 


26,083 


57,160 










LiA6n, 


149,760 


780,842 


4387 








M^tb, has a stone fort, ... 


2,144,773 


7,701,622 


45,437 








Manohamagar, 


129,895 


2,903,386 


... 








N6khi, 


83,096 


880,756 


••. 






... ^ 


Nagdrwath sub. dist. has a 






• 








briok fort, 


67,756-14 


813,581 


114,440 


... 




... 



Sarkdr of BikanSr. 

Containing 11 Mahals, Revenue 4,750,000 Ddms. Tribe, Bhdti. 
Cavalry, 12,000. Infantry, 60,000. 





Tribe. 




Tribe. 


Bikamptir, 
Bawalpdr, 


... 


Bikan^r, 
Jaisalmir, 


R£th<5r. 
Bh&U. 



* Bakdd. p. These names will ocoa- 
nonally be foond to differ from those in 
the nominal list of Mahal s^ given nnder 
the ten yeara assessment rates. 



« Var. Ohiel. 
S Yar. Karan. 



Qeran, G. Geyran. 



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278 





Tribe. 




Tribe. 


B«harmll," 
P<5kal. 
Barkal. 
Pokharan, 


... 


Chan tan, 

Kdtri, 

Dewadar^ 


••• 



Subah of Dehli, (Delhi). 

Tt is in the third climate. Its length from Palwal^ to Ludhiandh on 
the banks of the Satl^ is 165 kos. Its breadth from the Sarkdr of Rewdri 
to the Kum&on hills is 140 hos, and again from Hisdr to Khizrdbdd is 130 
kos. On the east lies^ the capital, Agra : on the north-east it marches 
with Khairdhdd in the Sdhah of Oudh : to the north are monntains : on 
the south the Suhahs of Agra and Ajmer : on the west is Ludhidnah. The 
chief rivers are the Ganges and the Jumna, and both these take their rise 
in this Sdhah, There are besides nnmerons other streams, amongst thera 
the Ohaghar. The monntains prinoipally to the north. The climate is 
nearly temperate. Much of the land is sabject to inundation and in some 
places there are three harvests. The fruits of Irin, Tiir4n and Hindustan 
are here grown and abundant flowers of various kinds. Lofty buildings 
of stone and brick delight the eye and gladden the heart, and it is scaron 
equalled for the choice productions of every clime. 

Delhi is one of the greatest cities of antiquity. It was first called 
Jndrapat^ and is situated in long.^ 114° 38'., lafc. 28° 15'. Although some 



*■ In the naaps Balm^r (note) and 
RUiot. Races of the N. W. P. I. 37. 

' A town of nndonbied antiqnity, snp- 
^sed to figure in the earliest Aryan 
traditions under the name of Apelava, 
part of the Pindava kingdom of Indra- 
prdstha. 

• The word * Khdwar^ like * Bdkhtar* 
is often misapplied and the two are in- 
terchangeably and inoorreotly used for 
B. and W. alike. Abul Fazl, however, 
invariably uses " Bahktar" for W. and 
Khdwar for B, though with a southing 
tendency, as may be seen from his deli- 



mitations of other provinces. Here Agra 
is certainly B. of Delhi in longitude, but 
it is also almost south of it. See Cunning- 
ham's explanation of the anomalous use 
of * Khdwar * and * Daltkhin \ in his Ano, 
Geog. of India, p. 94. 

^ Yar. Indraparast. 

• Properly Lat. 28° 38' 58" N., long. 
77" 16' 80" B. Though the true ortho- 
graphy of this name is Dehli or Dilli, I 
shall continue to write as it is usually 
written and pronounced. A variant in 
the name of this Sdbah, in one of t^ 
HSS. is Shahjehandbdd, 



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279 

consider it as in the second climate, making the soathom mountaiootM 
system begin from this region they are certainly mistaken as the latitude 
shows. Sultans Kufhu'ddin (1,206-10), and Shamsu'ddm (Altmish, 1210- 
35) resided in the citadel of Rajah Pithwra (Prithwi). Sultan GMydsud(Un 
Bdban erected another fort, intending it as a (royal) cemetery. He also 
built a handsome edifice in which if any criminal took sanctuary, he was 
absolyed from retribution. Muiaz u'd din Kai Kubdd (12[86-9) founded 
another city on the banks of the Jumna called Kilukhari, Amir Khusrau 
in his poem the " Kirdnu's S^dain^ '' eulogises this city and its palace. 
It is now the last resting-place of Humdytin where a new and splendid 
monument has been erected. Sultan 4^ t^'^ <^^^ (1295 — 1316) founded 
another city and fort called Siri. TugJUakdbdd is a memorial of Tughlak 
Shah (1321—24). His son Muhammad (1324—51) founded another city 
and raised a lofty pile with a thousand columns of marble and constructed 
other noble edifices. Suit an Fir6» (1351 — 88) gave his own name to Sr 
large town* which he founded and by a cutting from the Jwmna brought 
its waters to flow by. Qe likewise built another palace at a distance of 3 
h68 from Firozdhdd^ named Jahdnnumd (the world-view). Three subter-* 
ranean passages were made wide enough to admit of his passing along 
m mounted procession with the ladies of his harem ; that towards the 
river, 5 jarihs in length ; the second towards the Jahdnnumd^ 2 Jeosy and 
the third to old Delhi, 3 hoa, Humilytin restored the citadel of Indrapat 
and named it Dinpandh (asylum of the faith), Sh6r Khdn destroyed the 
Delhi oi 4.ld ud din and built a separate town. Although the monuments 
of these cities are themselves eloquent and teach us the highest moral 
lessons, yet even is this latest Delhi now for the most part in ru:ins. The 
eemeteries are, however, populous. Khwdjah Kufh u*d din Ifshi lies here^ 
&nd Shaikh Nizdm u*d din Aulia^ and Shaikh Nasvr u*d din Mahmiid, the 
Lamp of Delhi, and Malik Ydr-i-Pirdn^ and Shaikh Sald^, and Malik 
KaUr-i-Aulia, and Mauland Muhammad^ and Hdji Abdu*l Wahhdb and 
Shaikh Abdu*llah J^uraishi, and Shaikh Shams Tark-i*Biydbdni, and Shaikh 
Shamsi'Autdd and Amtr Khusrau^ with many other servants of God in- 



^ An excellent analysis of this well 
known poem by £. B. Cowell will be 
found in the Jonm. Ab. Boo. Bengal) 
1860, p. 225. 

' It 10 supposed to hare ooonpied 
the ground between Hnmilyun's tomb 
Imdthe Ridge. I. G. The arohiteoture 
of Delhi has been treated with appre- 



ciation and judgment by Fergusson in 
his Hist, of Ind. and Eastern Arch« 
Tughluk4biMl stood to the S. of Delhi 
between the Kufb Min&r and the Jnmna< 
* Of thestf personages the last is suffi« 
oiently famous to dispense with a refer- 
ence, the rest need not be pursued into 
the holy obscurity of their lives. That 



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280 

strncted in Divine knowledge who in this spot repose in their last sleep. 
Hei'e too lie Saltan Shahab ud din Ohoriy and Sultan Shams ui^d d4n^ and 
Ndsir u'd din Ohdzt, and Ohiyds u*d din, and Aid u*d din and Ku(b u'd din, 
and Tughluky and Muhammad 4a^t7, and Firoz and BahUl, and Sikandar 
Lodi. Many now living, likewise, have laid out pleasant spots and groves 
for their final resting-place — to the introspective a source of blissfal 
ecstasy, to the wise an incentive to watchfnlness. 

In the hill of Isldmuhdd is a very deep spring called Prahhds^ Xand 
from which warm water continually babbles up, and which is a great place 
of worship. 

Biswamitra Rikhesar^ made a deep excavation of three htghaa of this 
hill and devoted it to purposes of worship, and to this day it testifies to the 
antiquity of this construction. 

Baddon is conspicuous amongst ancient cities and a great many holy 
religious are there buried. 

A part of the northern mountains of this Subah is called Ktimdon, 
Here are mines of gold, silver, lead, ii*on, copper, orpiment and borax. 
Here also are found the musk-deer and the Kutds cow,^ as well as silk- 
worms, hawks, falcons and game of various kinds, and honey in abundance 
and the species of horse called Gut, (Gunt.) 



they were born in one place and died in 
another and were considered learned 
doctors is the usnal extent of infor- 
mation to be gained after a laborious 
search very inadequately repaid by the 
result. The second and third and last 
on the list will be, found in Ferishta's 
YitsB et acta sanctorum at the close of 
his work. 

* This is the name of another celebra- 
ted place of pilgrimage near Dw^rka. 
It was here that occurred the destruc- 
tion of the Yadu race alluded to by 
Abul Fazl under * Somnath,' when dis- 
sension excited by liquor brought about 
the fray where they all perished. By 
sending them to Prabh&sa, Krishna 
purposely prevented the Y^davas from 
obtaining " Mnkti " or finftl liberation 
which would have been the consequence 
of dying at Dw&rk&. Death at Prabhasa 
conferred only ludra's heaven. Vishnu 



P. Wilson, 609. Prabh^ is one of the 8 
semi -divine beings called Vasua. These 
in the Mahibhdrata are named Dhara, 
Dhruva, Soma, Aha, Anila, Anala, 
Pratynsha and Prabhasa. 

* Visvamitr is the name of a celebra- 
ted Eshatriya deriving his lineage from 
an ancestor of Kusik of the lunar race : 
he was king of Eanya-Kubja or Kanauj. 
His famous quarrel with the rival sage 
Yasishtha to perform the great tribal 
sacrifice, runs through the Big Yeda and 
he succeeded in raising himself to the 
rank of a Br&hman by long and painful 
austerities. According to the Ramayan 
he became the companion and counsel- 
lor of the young Ramaohandra. He was 
the father of Sakuntala by the nymph 
Menaka whom the g^s, jealous of his 
increasing power, sent to seduce him 
from his passionless life. 

* see p. 172, note 2. 



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281 

There is game in plenty in the Sarkdr of Sambal (Sambhal), where 
the rhinoceros is found. ^ It is an animal like a small elephant, without a 
trcmk, and having a horn on its snout with which it attacks animals. 
From its skin, shields are made and from the horn, finger-guards for bow- 
strings string and the like. In the city of Sambal is a temple called Hart 
Uan4aP (the temple of Yishnu) belonging to a Br&hman, from among whoso 
descendants the tenth avatAr will appear in this spot. Hdnsi is an ancfent 
city, the resting-place of Jamdl the successor of Shaikh Farld-i-Shakar» 
ganj,* 

Near the town of Sahnah is a hot spring on the summit of a hill, the 
peculiarity of which is undoubtedly due to a sulphur mine. 

Hi^dr (Hissar) was founded by Sultan Firdz who brought the waters 
of the Jwnna to it by means of a cutting. A holy devotee predicted his 
accession to the throne and at his request the canal was made. Strange to 
say, it enters a pool named Bhcidrd near the town of Sirsdy and there loses 
itself. Wonderful stories are related regarding it. There are few rivers 
in this district, and wells have to be dug a considerable depth. 

Sahrind^ (Sirhind) is a city of note. Here are the gardens of Hdfix 
Eakhnah, the delight of all beholders. 

Thanesar is accounted one of the most sacred places of pilgrimage. 
The SarcuwaH flows near it for which the Hindus have great venera- 
tion. Near it is a lake called Kurukshetra,^ which pilgrims from distant 
parts come to visit and where they bathe, and bestow charitable offerings. 



^ On Saber's 5th inyasion of India in 
1525, ho hnneed the rbinooeros at Pesha- 
war and killed two on the 15th Deo. 
M he notes in his memoirs. In 1519 he 
mentions having started many of these 
ftnirgftlg to the wost of the Indus where 
none now exist. 

■ See p. 16 : note. 

• See Vol. I. 826, 689. 

^ Genl. Gnnningham says (p. 146) 
that the name of Sarhind or ' frontier of 
Hind ' was popularly given to the city at 
an early period when it was the boun- 
dary town between the Hindus and later 
Mu^^ammedan kingdoms of Ghazni and 
iMhore, but the name is probably much 
older as the astronomer Yar&ha Mihira 
mentions the Sairindhatt immediately 
alter the Kul4tas or people of Kullu and 

36 



just before Brahmapura which was the 
capital of the hill country N. of Hari- 
dwir. 

* It is an oblong sheet of water, 
8,546 feet in leugth by 1,900. During 
eclipses of the moon, the waters of all 
other tanks are believed to visit this, so 
that the bather is blessed by the concen- 
trated virtues of all other ablutions. 
The town has rapidly declined in pros- 
perity and is fast falling in ruins. The 
sanitary arrangements enforced during 
the pilgrimage have checked their popu- 
larity and perhaps diminished their 
merit. The right ankle of Durga is 
said to have fallen here on her being 
cut to pieces and her limbs scattered 
over the earth by Vishnu. This lake and 
the visit of other pools at the time of 



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282 

This was the scene of the war of the Mahihhdrat which took place in the 
latter end of the Dtodpar Yug. 

In the city of Hasiinapur reigned Bdjd Bharata who by his jnstice 
and consideration for his people gathered a fitting reward of happiness, 
and his virtues and good deeds confirmed for a long period the succession 
in his family, and fortune favoured son af t«r son. The eighth in lineal 
descent from him was JRdjd Kur from whom Kuru-Kshetra received its 
appellation. After six intermediate progenitors, an heir was bom named 
Vichitravirya,^ who had two sons, one of whom was Dhritardshtra. He was 
the father of 101 children, the eldest of whom was Bdjd Duryodhana, and they 
are called the Kauravas, The other was Pandu, Although the first men- 
tioned was the elder son yet on account of his blindness, the succession 
fell to his brother who obtained the sovereignty. His sons are called the 
Pdndavas, There were five, namely, Yudishtira, Bhtmsena^ Arjuna, Nakula 
and Sahadeva, On Pandu^s death the kingdom reverted to Dhritarashtra, 
but although the nominal sovereignty was his, the real power was possess- 
ed by Duryodhana. Since to crush their enemies is the way of the princes 
of the earth, Duryodhana was ever in fear of the Pandavas and sought their 
destruction. When Dhritardshtra observed the growing feud, he resolved 
to establish his nephews in the city of Yiranavatra, and sent skilled artisans 
with instructions to build their residences. The workmen at the instiga- 
tion of Duryodhana constructed a secret chamber of lac and pitch, in order 
that at a fitting opportunity the Pandavas might be destroyed in a flaming 
conflagration. But whom the Lord defends by his protection, what avails 
against him the striving of the impotent ? When the Pandavas accepting 
their exile, settled in this spot, they became aware of the design. By 
chance a woman with five sons dwelt hard by. The Pandavas set the house 
on fire and set out for the wilds with their mother, while their neighbours 
were consumed in the flames. 

Duryodhana believing that the Pandavas were destroyed, held a festival 
of rejoicing. The Pandavas after many adventures came forth from the 
wilds to the inhabited country and settled in the city of Bampild, In a 
short time, the fame of their valour, skill and open-handed munificence 
filled the world, but none knew their name or lineage, till Duryodhana 
himself awaking from his dream of security suspected that the burning of 
the Pandavas was a fable. After prosecuting inquiries, his suspicions 



an eclipse, are mentioned by Albirdni 
in bis India. 

* He died obildless, bnt at the reqnest 
of bifl mother Satja-vati, the Bishi 



Dwaip&jana raised np three children 
to him, viz., Dhritarashtra, Pandn and 
Vidnra. Viehna Parana. 



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283 

were confirmed, upon which he had recourse to eDtreaty, and recalled them 
with protestations of friendship, hoping thus to secure his aim. He be- 
stowed Delhi (Indraprastha) upon them with half his kingdom and retained 
Easiinapur with the other half. Yudishthira by his prudence and good 
fortune aided by the divine favour rose to greatness and his administra- 
tion advanced his power. The Kauravtis flocked to his service, and in a 
short space he acquired universal sway. The other brothers likewise re- 
daced many princes to their obedience. Duryodhana was beside himself 
at the sight of their sovereign splendour, and the pangs of envy drove 
him more distraught. With deceptive intent, he held a festival and invited 
|.he Pdndavas and proposed a game of chaupar^ playing himself, with 
cogged dice. By this means he won all they possessed. The laat stake 
was made on the condition that if the Pandavas won, they should recover 
all that they had lost, but if otherwise, they were to quit the royal domi- 
nions and wander in the wilds for twelve years in the garb of mendicants 
after which they might return to civilised life for a year, and so conduct 
themselves that none should know them. If this last particular were in- 
fringed, they would have to pass a similar period of twelve years in the 
forests. Unsuspecting foul pKy, their uprightness brought them to ruin. 
£lated by the success of his device, Duryodhana was lulled into the slumber 
of a false security while the Pandavas under the divine direction accompli- 
shed their part of the agreement. Duryodhana now began to treat them 
with severity. Much altercation followed till the Pandavas consented to ac- 
cept five villages if peacefully surrendered to them. Duryodhana in his 
pride refused and rose in arras. The scene of the conflict was in the vicinity 
of KurU'kshetra. But as the end of the fraudful is disaster, Duryodhana^ 
and his companions were totally destroyed and Yudishthira was victorious 
after eighteen days of successive engagements. 

Towards the close of the Dwdpur Yug^ 135 years before the beginning 
of the Kali Yug, and 4,831 years anterior to this the 40th of the Divine 
Era,^ this event rose into fame and was left to posterity as a record of por- 
tentous warning. 

It is said that in this mighty war, the army of the Kauravas consisted 
of 11 achliauhiniy and that of the Pandavas of 7. An achhauhini consists of 
21,870 men mounted on elephants, the same number in chariots, and 65,610' 
cavalry; and 109,350 infantry. Marvellous to relate but 11* individuals 



' See p. 15 where it is stated that 
from the •ra of lUja Tudhishthira to 
the 40ih of Akbar's reign (A. H. 1003, 
conunencing 5th Deo. 1594 and ending 
25th November, 1595 A. D.) there had 



elapsed 4,696 years, making the com- 
mencement of the Kali Yug 3,101 B, C. 
To this period an addition of 135 brings 
the figure to 4,831. 
« Var. 12. 



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28i 

of both armies survived this war. Four of the army of Duryodhanat 
escaping with their lives took refuge with Yudkishtiraf viz.^ Kripdckdra^a 
Br^lhman who had been preceptor to both families and was renowned for 
wisdom and valour; Ashwatthimdn who was celebrated for the same 
qualities ; Kritvarman Yadu, a brave champion ; and Saniaya who, together 
with his reputation for wisdom, acquired renown as the charioteer of 
Dhritardshtra, On the side of the Pandavas, eight survived,^ t»V., the 
5 brothers ; Satyaki Yadu famous for his bravery and sagacity ; Yuyutsa 
brother of Duryodhana by another mother, and Krishna. After thig 
Tudishtira reigned supreme for 36 years, and his happy destiny wad 
virtuous disposition discovering to him the vanity of mundane things, he 
sought retirement and resolutely forsook a world that oppresses the weak. 
Together with his brethren he chose the path of renunciation and played 
the last stake of his life. 

This great war has been related in the Mahdbhdrata with numerous 
episodes in a hundred thousand couplets, and has been translated into 
Persian by command of His Majesty under the title of Bazmndmah 
(History of the War). It is set forth in eighteen Parbh or books. The 
first part is an account of the KaiM'avas and Pandavas and a list of contents. 
The second ; Yud^shtira sends his brethren to conquest — his supreme mo- 
narchy — the gambling feast held by the Kauravas, &c. Third, the depar- 
ture of the Pandavas into the solitude of their exile and other events. 
Fourthy the coming of the Pandavas from the wilds to the city of Finito and 
remaining unknown. Fifth, the Pandavas discover themselves ; the media- 
tion of Krishna and his rejection; the gathering at Kuru-kshetra and 
disposition of the armies. Sixth, the opening of the combat, the wounding 
of Bhtshma, the slaughter of many of the sons of Dhritardshtra, and the 
events of the ten days* engagement. Seventh, the council of war held by 
Duryodhana ; the appointment of Drona^ to the general command, his 
death and other events during five days. Eighth, description of the two 
days' battle ; Duryodhana names Kama to the command, his exploits — the 
flight of Yudishtira before him — the death of Kama at the hand of Arjuna 
on the second day. Ninth, Shalya is appointed general on account of his 
heroism — his death — Duryodhana conceals himself in a tank — his end and 
that of many champions. Tenth, the conclusion of the war, the coming of 
Kritvarmdn, Ashwatthdmdn, and Kripachdraya to Duryodhana on the field 
of battle while still breathing and his advice of a night attack &o» 

* Var. 7. The text has chosen the ( • The fonnder according to tradition, 
wrong variant in taking 11 for 12. I of Dankanr in Balandshahar Dist L G. 



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285 



Eleventh, the lameniatdons of the women on both sides — O^udhiri mother 
of Duryodhana carses Kriihna. Twelfth, aooonnt of Tudishtira after the 
yictory — ^his desire to resign his kingdom. Byds and Krishna comfort him 
bj their oonnseL BhUhma delivera many admirable and instmctive 
maxims setting forth the duties of sovereign administration. Thirteenth, 
the advice tendered by Bh^hma, In my judgment, the 12th and 
13th books should be comprised in one as they both contain the counsels 
of Bkishma, and the 9th divided into two, the one dealing' with the episode 
of Bhalya and the other with the death of Yudishtira. Fourteenth^ the 
great horse-sacrifice (ashwa-medh). Fifteenth, the retirement to a hermi- 
tage of Dhriirardstra, Gfdndhdri, and Kunti mother of Yiidishtira, Sixteenth, 
the destruction of the Tadu tribe. Seventeenth, Bdja Yudishtira retires 
with his brethren who all perish in a snow-drift. Eighteenth, Yudishtira 
in his own body mounts to the upper world ; the dissolution of the mortal 
remains of his brethren. The conclusion called Harhans, contains the 
histoiy of the Yadus, 

In this work, although there are numerous extravagant tales and 
fictions of the imagination, yet it affords many instructive moral observa- 
tions, aod is an ample record of felicitous experience. 

This Subah contains 8 Sarkdrs subdivided into 232 parganahs — the 
measured land consists of 2 Mrs, 5 lakhs and 46,816 Bighas 16 Biswas. 
The revenue is 60 krors, 16 lakks 16,566 DAms (Rs. 16,040,388-14) of 
which 3 krors, 30 lakhs, 76,7.^9 are Suyurghal (Rs. 8,26,893-7 7). The 
local force is 31,490 Cavalry, 242,310 Infantry. 

Sarkdr of Delhi. 

Containing 4S Mahals, 7,126,107 Bighas, 17 Biswas. Revenue 
123,012,590 Dams., Suyurghdl 10,990,260 Ddms. Castes various. Cavalry, 
4000. In^ntry 28,980. 



IsUmib&d P&ka1,ha8 a stone 

fort on a hill, 
A'^hah, 
Pintpat, has a briok fort, ... 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



970,67-19 
14,912-8 
668,444 



Bevenne 
D. 



1,779,407 

51d,081 

10,766,647 



OQ 



31,462 

46,420 

8,640,632 



60 
20 
100 



I 



1000 

200 

2000 



Castes. 



R£jp(itSind. 
Ahir. 

Afgh&n, OS- 
jar, Rang- 
hap.» 



' This term is more strictly confined 
to Rijp^ts converted to IsUm, bnt in 
parts of Delhi, partionlarly Rohtak, it 



is indiscriminately applied to B&jpiits, 
whether Hindn or Mnhammadan. The 
probable derivation is from the Sansk. 



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286 



Palam, 

Baran, has a brick fort on 

the Kdli Nadi, 
B^bpat, on the Jnmna, 

between two streamB, ... 
Palwal, * has a brick fori; and 

it stands on a monnd, ... 

Bamilwah, 

Puth, has a brick fori/, 

B^ri Dobal^han, 

Tilpat, has a brick fori>, ... 

Tandah Bhagw£n (Tdndah 
Phnganah; on the Jnmna, 

Tilb^mpiir, 

Jhajhar, 

Jh^rsah, has a stone fori; in 
the village of Dhinah 
bnilt, by Sult^ Piroz on 
the banks of the av^M* ... 

J^war, 

Jhinjh&nah, 

Ohapranli, stands between 

two streams ... 
Jal&Ubiid, stands between 

two streams amid 

mnch forest ... 
Jalilpdr Barwat> much 

forest 



Bighas 
Biswas. 



245,240 

171,160 

200,616 

284,783 

146,000 

48,191 

119,002.19 
119,578 



61,669 
14,287-7 
128,417 



87,928 
188,746 

67,923-16 

82,201-12 

96,189 
42,061-17 



Revenne 
D. 



6,726,787 

8,907,928 

8,682,868 

1,769,498 

1,879,126 

621,749 

1,404,226 
8,077,913 



1,289,806 

870,874 

1,422,451 



8,606,228 
1,878,878 

1,700,250 

1,138,759 

1,833,711 

1,001,876 







1,231,880 
153,190 
180,259 
218,226 
60,769 
7,248 

92,583 



11,866 

15,764 

306,461 



176,079 
85,489 

100,250 

6,719 



1,775 



70 

20 

20 

26 

25 

60 

40 
40 



I 



1000 

800 

200 

600 

200 

600 

800 
400 



200 

100 

1000 



600 
400 

800 

800 

600 
400 



Castes. 



Jat. 



[Brilh: 
Chanh&n, 



Biijput., Gu. 

jar. 
Shaikhzi- 

dah. 
To^iwar 

(Tnar). 
Jat. 
Brihman, 

E£jp6t, 

Gdjar. 
Afghan,. 
Jat. 
Afgh&n, Jat 



Badgdjar. 
B£jpdt, 

Ghh6kar.* 
Jat. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



K^ ran, battle. See Elliot's Races, 
N.-W. P., I, p. 4. The Gnjars,'and Ran- 
gpars of Delhi are notorious as being 
among the few rural populations that rose 
against us in the Mutiny, p. 180. 

* This mound stands to this day consi- 
derably above the surrounding level and 
consists entirely of ancient remains 
crumbling to decay. It is a town of 
undoubted antiquity and supposed to 
figure in the earliest Aryan traditions 
under the name of Apelava, part of the 
Pandava Kingdom of Indraprasthra, 
I. G. 

' A note states that the maps mark a 



village called Ddhinah in the parganah 
of Sahntth near the confines of Jdrsah 
parganahj but no river is mentioned. 

* Claim descent from a Jadon lUjpdt. 
Elliot. I. 99. 

* T. and G. have 8er6t and Seroot 
respectively. The I. G. mentions one in 
Rae Bareli the other in Fyzabad Dist. 
the latter was a flourishing weaving 
town and an imdmbdrah was bnilt at a 
cost of £400 by a voluntary contribution 
of 4 of a pice for each piece of cloth 
from each weaver. The King of Oadh 
hearing of this, commended their libera- 
lity and piety and as an encouragement, 



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287 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenae 
D. 


I 


1 


1* 


Castes. 


The old sabnrban distriot, ... 


128,417 


1,422,451 


306,460 


10 


40 


Jat, Ohan- 

hin. 
G6jar, Jat, 


The new do. do. ... 


86,447 


3,685,315 


595,984 


25 


800 














Ahfr. 




971 


786,406 


18,783 


135 


1,500 




Dasnah, between Ganges 














and Jomna, ••• 


282,777 


4,933,310 


162,535 


60 


800 


Gheldt (here 
some illegi- 
ble words.) 


Didri TAh^ ..' 


179,789 


4,826,059 


118,577 


20 


400 


Afghin, Jat. 


Dankanr, on the Jnmna, ... 


128,523 


1,016,682 


4,340 


20 


200 


G6jar. 


Rohtak, has a brick fort, ... 


686,886 


8,599,270 


428,000 


100 


2,000 


Jat. 


Bonipat (Sonpat) has a briok 














fort, 


288,299 


7,727,828 


77M05 


70 


1,000 


Afghan, Jat, 


8afid(kn, has a brick fort, ... 


81,780 


1,975,696 


99,647 


60 


600 


Rijpdt Ran- 
ghar, Jat. 


Sikandarib&d, ... 


66,907-16 


1,259,190 


17,844 


50 


400 


Bhiti,G6jap. 


Sartwah, has a brick fort, ... 


42,887-12 


1,583,899 


31,914 


40 


300 


J(>*»Ac. 


Sentah* 


89,147-9 


854,191 


48,207 


80 


800 


Chanh&n. 


SiyAnah, between two 














streams 


166,407-17 


849,090 


4,959 


50 


400 


Taga.* 


8hakarp6r 


62,139 


2,111,996 


780,805 


70 


200 


Ohanhin. 


Karn41, the stream S&n- 














janii flows below the 














town 


540,444 


5,678,242 


207,999 


50 


800 


Banghar 

Ohanhiin. 
TagA. 


Ganaor, has a brick fort ... 


40,990-16 


1,718,792 


83,890 


20 


400 


Garh Hnktesar, has a brick 














fort on the Jumna, a 














Hinda place of pilgri- 














mage 


101,840-10 


1,591,492 


41.490 


40 


400 


RAjpnt,Mnsal 
man, Hindu. 














Katanah, 


91,706-13 


1,423,779 


892 


20 


150 


Jat. 


K4ndhlah, 


68,934-5 


1,874,430 


87,930 


20 


80 


G6jar. 


Kasnah, on the Jumna 


104,021-19 


1,622,315 


149,250 


40 


400 


dS. 


Kharkkandah, ... 


51,895-15 


1,105,856 


4,958 


50 


600 


Afghan, Jat. 



graciously desired its continuance, as a 
contribution to his private purse. It is 
not reported how the weavers received 
the royal message. 

' T. Sanhata, G. Sanyhet. 

' Sir H. Elliot has an interesting dis- 
ooflsion on the Gaur Tagas, an important 
tribe of Brahmincal descent in the N.-W. 
of India extending over a great part of 
upper Bohilkhand, the upper Do&b and 
the Delhi territory. Mr. Beames supple- 



ments his conclusions with a note which 
embodies without accepting the learned 
but unsafe deductions of General Cun- 
ningham. Tod's Bajasthiln furnishes 
additional matter if not imformation, 
regarding the obscurity of their origin. 
Sherring's Hindu Tribes and Castes 
should be consulted in elucidation of the 
doubtful readings of the text, a note on 
each of which would be impracticable. 



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288 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenue 


GQ 


1 


1 


Castes. 


Ganger Kb^rah, (E. Gang^ru 














has a brick fort between 














two streams ... 


11,062-16 


816,406 


13,880 


40 


300 


Sayyid. 


Ldni, has a briok fort be- 














tween two streams 


76,868 


8,278,878 


148,446 


20 


200 




Hirath (Meemt) has a briok 














fort between two streams. 


610,422 


4,391,996 


381,096 


100 


300 


Tag*, Bin- 
ShandriH. 














Mindintbi, the autumn har- 














vest abundant: near the 














town a tank with is never 














dry thooghout the year. 


90,464 


2,868,223 


2,934 


80 


600 


Jat. 


Hasfddabad, has an old 














briok fort 


89,478 


2,809,156 


269,319 


SO 


80 


Do. 


Hastinipdr, on the Ganges : 














an ancient Hindu settle- 














ment, 


176,340 


4,466,904 


36,291 


20 


300 


Tagi. 


H&piir, on the Ki\i Nadi 














between two streams, . . . 


239,846 


2,108,589 


6,229 


4 


300 


Do. 



Sarkdr of Baddon, 

ContaiDing 18 MahaU. 8,093,850 Btghaa, 10 Biswas. 
34,817,063 Dams. SuyurgMl. 457,181 Dams. Castes various. 
2,850. Infantry, ?6,700. 



Bevenae 
Cavalry, 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenue 
D. 


I 

1 


! 


f 


Castes. 


AJiop, 


82,467-17 


1,362,867 


... 


500 


3000 


Chauhan. 


Ao^lah, 


14,701 


690,620 


••• 


60 


400 


Kavwar.* 


Badao^ with suburban dis- 


» 












trict. 


668,820-6 


7,357,6''l 


287,986 


60 


6000 


Shiukhii- 
dah, Kiy- 
ath. 


Bar^li, 


661,227 


12,607,434 


91,820 


1000 


10,000 


Rijpdt. 


Barsar, 


196.700 


2,147,824 


6,764 


60 


600 


E&yath. 


Paund, (BlUot Pdnar.) 


6,749 


260,840 


••• 


60 


300 


Kah<$r! 


Talhi,* (BsOhati), 


26,982 


1,077,811 


1,605 


60 


1000 


Tagi, Brah- 
man. 


Bahiswan, 


263,120 


2,493,898 


16,444 


100 


2000 




Bands Mandeh, (B. Satdsi 














Mundiyd), ••• 


68,110 


796,316 


3,471 


60 


600 


Tagi, BWLh- 



* Var. Jandrdn. 

• Var. Tovwar (Tudr). 



• Vdr, Talhati. Elliot Balat 



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269 









^ 










Bfghas 
Biawaa. 


Raven ae 
D. 


t 

1 


1 


Castes, 








QQ 


o 
60 


a 
1-^ 




Snnej^, 


29,758 


1,81"5,725 




500 


Ulds.? 


K4nH. 


65,684 


2,489.869' 


48,444 


8.Q 


2000 


Bichhal. 


K6% Silbihan, has a fort : ... 


227,500-8 


1,219,165 


... 


60 


600 1 Ka^jwir." 


CWlah, 


24,640 


1,186,931 


4,267 


100 


1000 


Dewak/ 
BiohhaL 



8a/rkdr of Kwmdon, 

Coniaining 21 Mttkah. The revenue of 5 Mahals undetermined. 16 
Mahals, in money. 40,437,700 Ddme. Cmtm various. Cavalry, 3000. 
liifantry, 50,000. 





Eevenne 




Kevenua 




D. 


JakHLm, 


D. 


Aodan,» 


400,000 


5,000,000 


BhdksiandBhdkai, 2 Mahals,... 


400,000 


Jariyah, 


8,000,000 


Bastwah, 


200,000 


Jdwan, 


2,600,000 


Pachdtar, 


400,000 


Gfaaoli, Sahajgar* aazarpCir,* 




Bhikan Diwir, 


200,000 


Dwdrahk^, 




Bhakti, 


11,000,000 


Malwiirah,* 


2,500,000 


Bh6ri, andetermined. 




Mal£oh6r, Sitaoh<5r, K^mtia, 




RatiU» 


10,026,000 


8 Mahals, 


6,]37.700 


Chanki,* 


400,000 







Sarkdr of Sambhal, 

Containing 47 Mahals, 4,047,193 Bighas, 2 Biswas. 
66,941,431 Ddms. Suyurghdl 2,892,394 Dams. Castes, varioas. 
4,375. Infantry, 31,550. Elephants, 50. 



Reveuae. 
Cavalry, 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenne 
D. 




1 


i 


43 

1 

s 


Castes. 


Amsdhah, ... 
Aasampiir, ... 
laUunpdr Bharii, 


820,654 

66,467 

66,096 


6,342,000 
2,389,478 
1,870,640 


993,358 

187,644 

12,183 


1000 
80 
100 


5000 
800 
200 


60 


Sayyid. 

Tag<i. 

Baiahnavi. 



. * Tar. and T. Adon, O. Adown. 

' Tar. and O. Batila. 

• Var. Thanki. O. Thungy. T. 
IrtttgU.— Note "in the maps, Chanki, 

37 



now called Balahri and Sarbani.** 

* Now Jaspiir. 

* Now Ghidarp6rah. 

* Var. Talwirah. 



Digitized by 



Google 



200 





Bigbas 
Biswas. 


Reyenne 
D. 


1. 


1 


1 


i 


Castes. 








m 


o 


M 


S 




trjhiri, ... 


125,221 


697.600 


2,788 


20 


200 




Jat. 


Akbardbid, 


58,790-14 


640,264 


27,860 


50 


200 


... 




IsUmpdr Darg6, 


11,217-10 


429,675 


675 


20 


200 






iBUmib&d, .. 


26,26MO 


846,848 


6,894 


50 


500 


... 


Jat. 


Bijnanr, ... 


60,862 


8,865.465 


18.164 


60 


500 


... 


Tag*, Brah- 


BaobhaHU)?, 


115,226-12 


828,822 


8.632 


50 


800 




nan. 
Tagi, 


Bir<$i, 


16,027-12 


150,000 


... 


25 


100 


<•• 


K<$hi. 


Biiiix^, 


8,008-7 


200,000 


... 


25 


100 


... 


Kbasia.! 


Ch&ndp6r ... 


87,278 


481,071 


259,959 


50 


200 


... 


Tagi, Jat. 

Ao. 
Jat. 


Jal^Iibiid, ... 


49,893 


1,470.072 


12.268 


25 


100 


... 


Chauplab, (T. and var. 
















Chanp&lah), 


1.016,199 


1,840,812 


... 


100 


500 


... 


Gkmr. 


Jbild. 


26,795 


237,809 


84,916 


50 


400 


... 


Jat. 


Jadw4r, 


76,767-19 


828.846 


... 


50 


200 


... 


Ba^jar. 


Subarban distriot of 
















8ambbal» 


206,450 


8,822,448 


148,789 


100 


500 


... 


Tag^ BWLh. 
man, Ao, 


Deorab, 


96,965 


1.924,887 


... 


25 


200 


... 




Bbnkab (EUiot Dh^Ucah), 


180,158-16 


670,864 


6,487 


25 


200 


... 


Bab^ 


Dabhirsi, ... 


82,692-11 


280,806 


... 


25 


200 


... 




Bidflab, ... 


80,180-15 


210,000 


... 


20 


100 


... 


K6hi. 


Biljpdr, 


189,890 


700,000 


*•. 


50 


400 


... 


Rijpnt 


Bijabpiir, ... 


40,846-9 


612,977 


2,288 


25 


150 


•.. 


K<$kar. 
Sbaikba^dab. 


8ambbal» bas a briok 
















fort, 


46,400 


850,968 


68,404 


50 


400 


... 


Khokbar.* 


Beobirab, ... 


27,945 


1.888,782 


1.418 


60 


800 


... 


Tagl 


Sirai, 


52.400-11 


968,769 


152,814 


20 


200 


..* 


Sayyid, Ao. 


Bahantpdr, 


54,844-10 


944,804 


1.088 


50 


400 


... 


Tagi. 


S^rsiwab, ... 


87,608 


808,065 


• »• 


15 


400 


.«• 


Kaorawah. 


Bb^pkdt, ... 


19,870 


4.921,051 


218,157 


100 


1000 


... 




8b&bi. 


80,417 


900,496 


472 


20 


200 


... 


Ganr. 


Kundarki, ... 


86,164 


674,986 


74,936 


60 


400 


••« 


Kiyatb. 


Kiratp^, ... 


80,973 


2,410,609 


166,218 


100 


500 


... 


Tagi, Jat. 


Kaobb, 


99,868 


1,248,995 


5,766 


20 


200 


... 




Ganddar, ... 


18,676-17 


761,620 


84,270 


80 


200 




Taga. 


K&bar, 


88,282-7 


566,589 


16,019 


60 


400 


... 


CbanbfaL 


Ganaur, 


51.005-1 


267,919 


17,719 


10 


100 


«.. 


Musalmin. 


Kbinkari, ... 


81,546-7 


200,000 


... 


10 


100 






Lakbndr, ... 


246,440 


2,499,208 


82,988 


lOOC 


6000 


... 


Gaux^ 


Lfswab, 


1,871 


100,000 


... 


10 


100 


... 




Hagbalpor, 


168.874 


8,580.300 


80,800 


100 


500 


... 


Tag<, 


Hanjbanlab, (B. Ha- 
















jhaulah), 


142.461 


1,787,556 


6,970 


400 


8000 


... 


BiutetfjaF. 


Handiwar, .. 


65,710 


1,266.995 


20,465 


25 


800 


... 


Bais. 


Kadinab, (Elliot Nagf- 
















nah), 


99.288 


2,647,242 


284,868 


50 


500 


... 


Ahlr. 



1 Kbassiab is given in Elliot (Appen- 
dix, 0. 287, I.) as a brancb of tbe 
Budraa. 



> A Bijpdt clan, wbiob bas been oon- 
sidered to be tbe same as tbe Gbald»r. 
B. J. 99, 



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291 



Kahtanr, in this p<ir- 
ganahf the mnlberrj 
grows in great per- 
fectiofn of sise and 
sweetness — a span in 
iength)*^ ••• ••* 

Neodhanish, 

Nardil, 

Hatamnah, 



Bfghas 
Biswas. 



85,974.12 
209,620-10 
181,621 
6,706*14 



BeTenne 



1,788,160 
904,676 

1,408,098 
260,000 



f 



4,675 
48,212 



60 
100 
60 
60 



I 



800 
600 
400 
400 



Castes. 



Tagi. 
Oanr. 
Ba^g6jar. 
Kddar. 



Sarkdr of Sahdrcmpur, 

Mahals. 3,530,870 B{gka$^ 3 Biatoas. lUvenne, 

Castes, Yarions. Cavalry, 



Containing 36 
87,839,659 Dams. Suywrghal 4,991,485 Ddms 
3,955. Infantry, 22,270. 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


^Q 


i 


1 


I 


Castes. 








£ 


1 


2 


i_ 




Indri, has a brick fort 














near the Jnnina, 


148,900*28 


7,078,826 


691,908 


60 


1000 


... 


Ranghar, 

Tagi. 
G6jar, 

A9w£n.t 


Ambihtah, ... 


17,764 


824,560 


... 


ao 


800 


















Bndhinah,... 


155,688 


8,698,041 


181,780 


40 


800 




Tag4, Jat 


Bidauli, ... 


111,226 


8,115,125 


1,400,255 


... 


... 


... 


Sayyid. 


fiahatkanjiwar. 


178,471 


2,676,407 


146,749 


50 


500 


... 


Ta^ 


Bh6gp6r, has a brick 














B&rhah. 


fort on the Ganges, 
















a Hindi place of wor- 
















ship, 


94,428 


2,888,120 


6,941 


100 


1000 


... 


B£jp6tSar{r. 


P6rohap&p, 


86,940 


2,191,460 


120,488 


20 


200 


... 




Bh^nah, (EUiot Bh^- 
















mah), ... 


67,461 


2,185,496 


28,458 


2000 


7000 


.11 


Sayyid. 


Baghri, ... 


60,890 


1,918,196 


74,840 


80 


200 


... 


Jat. 


Bhanith, ... 


49,288 


1,821,4^ 


8,650 


20 


200 


... 


Tag6. 




281,877 


8,578,640 


817,860 


20 


500 


••• 


Rajpiit, 
Sadbiir. 



1 Probably, according to Dr. King, the 
JforiM laevigata, a long thin berry with a 
mawkiBh, sweet taste. 

t This word ( c)!^' ) signifies • aiders' 
or 'assistants.' Unless it be another 
form of Anfdri, I am nnable to explain 



it and the text g^ves it on the authority 
of all MSS. without comment. This 
town is the residence of the P£rz£dah 
family of Sayyids. It many be an 

error for wb^ for which see Yol. I, p, 
456, n. 2. 



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292 



Jaarisiy 
JauU, 



Gharthawal, 

Baburban distriot of 
Sahdranpur, has a 
brick fort olotbs of 
the kinds, Khdfah and 
Chautdr (Vol. 1, p. 
94) are here nade i& 
perfection, 

Deoband, has a briok 
fort, 

Bdmptir, ... 



Borki, 



Bdepfir TiUr, 
Sikri fihnkarh^ri) 
Sarsawah, has a briok 

fort, 
Sardt, 

Sirdhanah,... 
Bambalh^r^* 



Sdranpalri,... 
Khat4nli, ... 
KhcSdi, 
Kairdnnh, ... 
Gangoh, 
Lakhnanti,... 
>Inza£Farab&d, 
Manglaar, has 
fort. 



brick 



Halhaipur,... 

Nakdr, 
Kinautah, ... 



Bighafl 
Biswas. 



81,856 

211,761 

45,663 



85,916 



212,836-16 

836,861 
79,419 

2,768 



4,688-8 
183,211 

106,800 
90,617 

113,780 
31,963 



10,648 
104,747 
86,618 
71,246 
62,137 
79,694 
81,305-15 

60,987 

81,010 

65,612-10 
29,224 



BeTenoe 
D. 



222,277 
2,471,277 
1,810,067 



1,668^2 



6,951,646 

6,477,977 
1,777,908 

1,628,860 



869,060 
3,003,611 

2,616,125 

2,207,779 
1,690,606 
1,011,078 



674,320 
3,624,588 
2,614,673 
2,025,288 
2,029,032 
1,796;058 
4,074,064 

2,850,311 

2,244,070 

1,387,070 
724,168 



GQ 



128,863 

71,297 

152,396 



68,872 



706,448 

641,946 
78,697 

8,361 



110,611 

16,165 
53,571 
43,342 
11,078 



22,628 
190,919 

58,906 
223,579 
322,515 

76,602 

71,899 

197,266 
23,077 

26,104 
18,684 



20 



100 

60 
50 

25 



40 
40 
60 
20 
300 
300 
20 

^40 

»00 

40 
40 



80 

200 



200 



800 

300 
400 

200 



200 
200 

200 

1000 

300 



260 
800 
4C)0 
200 
200U 
2C00 
200 

300 

500 

300 
800 



Castes. 



Jat. 

Bidar. 

Sayyid, 

(Gayalry 

entered 

under Sar- 

<5t.) 
Ta«i. 



Afghan, 
KaUl, Tags, 
fitiiar. Tags. 
Sadb&r, 

Tagi. 
Rajput, 

Sadb4r,» 

Tagi, 

Brnhman. 
TagA. 
Jat. 

Tagi. 
Do. 

Tagi, Ahir. 
Sayyid (Car. 

entered 

ander 

Bhonah.) 
Jat. 

Tagm, Kolal. 
Jat, Taga 
Oujar. 
Tarkomin. 

Do. 
Ranghar, 

Sand^ • 
Brahman, 

Ba^gnjar. 
Afghin, 

Brahman. 
A^han, 

Brihman. 
Afghikn. 



1 Var. Sadar, 
3 Sanbaltar&. 



ft Yar. Sadri note suggests Pnudlr. 



Digitized by 



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298 



Sarkdr of ^Swdrt. 

Gentainmg 12 Mahals. 1,155,011 BigkaSy 10 Biswas. Snydrghal. 
789,268 Bdms, Revenue • • • ♦. Cavalry, 2,175. Infantry, 14,600. 





BiCgbas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


3 

So 


1 


1 


Oastes. 


Biwal, 


110,375 


4,114,763 


16,274 


100 


2001 


Eijpfit, 
Ah{r, Jat. 
Do. Do. 


P^tn&dfai, 


61,970 


2,270,080 


6,260 


60 


600 


BhiSharah, (E. Bhorab) ... 


38,647 


766,548 


846 


100 


leoo 


Abfr. 


•Korii, has a brick fort, ... 


36,868 


986,228 


61,673 


60 


600 


Mnsalmin, 
KbaildAr.* 


BewM with sob. dist. ; has a 














brick fort, 


405,108 


11,906,847 


404,100 


400 


2000 


Tbatbar, 
Abir, Jat. 


Batii Jatii, ... 


62,1«0 


269,608 


628 


• >• 


400 




E(5t l^asim Ali, 


80,410 


3,367,980 


110,880 


26 


400 


Rijpiit, 
Ahir. 


GheMt, 


27,270-10 


666,688 


... 


700 


2000 


Bijpiit Tha- 
tbar. 


Eohlmah, •.. 


16,264 


421,440 


... 


60 


600 


Do. Do. 


6iilmab, bas a stone fort on 














a bill ; here a bot spring 














and Hind^ shrinQ, 


261,738 


8,928,864 


160,668 


200 


2000 


Do. Do. 


Kimrinab, bas a stone fort 














on a bill, ... 


85,047 


682,269 


... 


600 


4000 


Various. 



8ark6/r of Hi§dr Firdxah^ (Hissdr), 

Containing 27 Mahals. 8,114,497 Bighas. Revenue, 52,554,905 
D6ms» Suyurghdly 1,406,519 Lams. Castes, various. Cavalry, 6,875, 
Infantry, 60,800. 





Bigbas 
Biswas. 


Bevenue 
D. 


1. 
1 


1 

200 
100 


1 

2000 
1000 


Castes. 


Agr(5wab (var. Agr<5hab). 

Game of idl kinds abounds. 

Sport chiefly bairking, ... 
Ahioni, 


46,717 
19,537 


1,748,970 
857,367 


6,664 
160,033 


JM6,' Jat. 
Gujar, Jat. 



> Yar. Kbald&n, Jald&z. 

* Called after the Emperor Fir6z 
Bbib Tngblak who founded the town of 
that name about 1864 A. D. 

* Yar. 9£t6, JM, J&^d is no doubt 



correct. It is anotber form of tbe word 
Jat, but also means a branch of the 
Cbam&r tribe, and is said to be a R4j. 
p6t tribe about Kam&l, chiefiy Mu^am- 
madans. 



Digitized by 



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294 





Bfgbaa 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


1 


i 


1 


Castes. 


A^kherah, has a briok fort, 














and a Hindu temple called 














Goyardhnn,'... 


82,991 


1,676,200 


... 


200 


2000 


Jat, To^wlr. 


Bhangiw&l, 


••• 


1,800,000 


..• 


200 


2000 


Jat, 
PAnya.* 


Pnniy£i>, 


... 


1,200,000 


**• 


160 


8000 


Jat, Ponvan. 


Bh&rangif ••• ••• 


*•* 


880,882 


... 


20C^ 


2000 


E6(bdr,Jat. 


BarwIUah, 


186,799 


1,097,807 


109,062 


100 


1600 


Maliks^dab, 
BalfWl. 


Bhafcd,* 


... 


440,280 


• at 


50 


1000 


Jat. 


Barwi, 


6,264 


64,680 


• *. 


26 


800 


J&tii,Jat. 


Bhatn^r baa a briok fort, ... 


15,688 


988,042 


••• 


500 


10,000 


B6^b6r, Baj* 
pdt. 


Tobinab, Do. 


180,744 


4,694,854 


160,680 


400 


8000 


Afgb£n, 
Lobani. 
Bi^b6r, Raj. 


Tosbfim, 


611,075 


1,068,548 


2,686 


200 


1000 














piit^ Jat. 


Jind) 8 miles from tbe town 














in tbe Tillage of Pandirab, 














is a Hind6 temple, 


281,684 


5,401,749 


128,080 


600 


4000 


Stiir, lUj. 
pdt, Ji^. 


Jam^lp^, tbe Gbaggar flows 














tbrongb several Tillages 














bere, 


142,465 


4,277,461 


81,461 


700 


400 


To^war, Jat. 


Hisir (Hissir) witb snb. 














dist. bas 2 forts, one of 














briok, one of stone, 


176,512.18 


4,089,895 


188,879 


600 


2000 


Ji^, Ban. 
gbar, 
Sowirin 


• 












(Sbeoran), 
Singw£n.« 


Db&tarat, bas a briok fort,... 


29,207-18 


978,027 


46,666 


100 


2000 


Jat, Afgbln. 


Sirsi, do. 


258,866 


4,861,868 


168,104 


600 


5000 


Jnnab (note 
Jobiya). 


Seor&n, 


... 


400,000 


... 


100 


1000 


Jat, Seorin 












(Sbeoram.) 



^ Goyardban (nonrisber of kine) name 
of a bill in Brind&ban, said to bave been 
lifted up and supported by Krisbna 
npon one finger for 7 days to shelter tbe 
cowberds from a storm of rain sent by 
Indra to test Krisbna's divinity. Henoe 
be is called Oovardhan dJuxr and Oin dhar 
tbe bill-supporter. A variant of A(kbe- 
rah is Ankharab. G. and T. Augharab. 



' A Jat clan. 

* At p. 106, Bba^. Tbese disore- 
pancies cannot always be noted and must 
be compared by reference to botb lists, 
See BUiot's Races N-W. P. Vol. II, p. 
188. 

^ Tbis and tbe Sbeoram are two of 
tbe cbief Jat clans of tbe Delhi territory. 



Digitized by 



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396 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Reyenne 
D. 


1- 


i 

60 


1 


Castes. 


8f dhmiikh, soil mostly sand, 




171,872 




500 


IWjpfit, 














B&(h<5r,Jat. 


Bewftni, 


48,512 


76,750 


... 


100 


1000 


B4jp6t,J4^ 


Shinsdah Diliit (sixteen 






■ 








Tillages) ... 


29,740 


960,111 


12,586 


200 


1500 


B4jp6t, Tov- 


Fatb^b^, has a briok fort, 


88,661 


1,184^892 


81,867 


200 


8000 


Gdjar, Jat. 


GolUnab, 


68,961 


2,876,116 


16,146 


800 


8000 


Jat, a^ofd 
















in which the Hindds think 














it anspioions and holy to 














bathe, 


- 19,488 


1,119,864 


47,978 


100 


2000 


Jat, Gadi 
(var. Kan.) 


Mnhim, has a brick fort (an 














inegible sentence follows 














in one MS.) ... 


188,080 


4^968,618 


84,202 


700 


2000 


Riipdt, 
Tovwar, 
Jat. 


HInai, has a briok fort, ... 


886,115 


5,484,438 


180,056 


600 


7000 


Biljpdt, 
Unltim, 
Ji(u, Jat. 



Bark&r of Sirhind, 

Containing 33 MahdUy 7,729,466 Bighas, 7 Btswas. 
160,790,549 Ddjns. Suyurghdl, 11,698,330. Castes, varioas. 
9,225. Infentry, 55,700. 



Bevenne, 
Cavalry, 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenne 
D. 


1" 


1 


f 


Castes. 


AmbAlah, 
Ban6r, 

Pi^l, has a brick fort, 


164,769 
420,887 

626,932 


4,198,094 
12,649,958 

7,822,260 


821,488 
1.087,209 

162,267 


100 
700 

200 


1000 
8000 

2000 


Ranghar, 
AfgUn. 

Ranghar, 
Jat. 


Bb<$dar (Bhad<5r), 


86,877 


8,108,269 


1,406,106 


50 


700 


Jat, »IA 

Bhatti. 
Raoghar. 

Manj« (Var, 
Shaikh). 
Jat. 


Bba|andah, 
Pindri, 

Thifah, has a brick fort on 
theSntlej, ... 


84^190 
278,866 


8,126,000 
686,870 

7,860,809 


47,152 
2,869,841 


400 
20 

1500 


2000 
800 

1,000 















» See. Vol. I, p. 626, 



L 



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296 



1 


Bighaa 
Biswas. 


Berenus 
D. 




00 


i 

50 


f 


Gastea. 


Tbin^sar, has a brick fart. 288,988-17 


7,860,803 J 


2,069,841 


160& 


B*nghar, 
Jat. 


Chahat (T. and O. Jhet, 














Jhnt.) on th© Ghaggar. 1 


158,749 


760,994 


49,860 


860 


1100 


Afghin, 
Rijpdt. 
Jat. 


Chark (T. Djerk G. Jerk). 


63,683 


1,638,090 


21,619 


20 


300 


Khizr&Wid^ has a brick fort. 


88S,489 


12.069,918 


6a, 170 


200 


8^00 


Bh^t^, J«k. 


D<5rilah» 


66,768 


2,188,443 


86,710 


50 


300 


Ranghar. 


Dh6teh, 


71,357 


1,601,346 


1,346 


300 


1500 


Rijp^t. 


Deor^nah, 


12,339 


680,986 


17,385 


20 


200 


Jat. 


Eupar, has a brick fort, ... 


66,144 


6,006J649 


26,034 


200 


1000 


Rajput 4ft(v 


Birhind with smb. disi. has 














a brick fort, 

1 


828,468 


12,082,630 


603,636 


1700 


2000 


RAjp^t, 
Bar^h, 
Khanff^ 
D&dah 
(D^du?) 
Jat. 


Sam&nahy 


904,261 


12,822,270 


782.000 


70o| 2000 


BarAh. Jat. 


BunAm, has a brick fort, ... 


988,562 


7,007,696 


7,696 


500 2000 


RangYkar. 


Sadhdrah, has a brick fort. 


84,861 


4,298,064 


273,266 


400 


6000 


Chaahin, 
Rangbar. 


Bnlt^nfHir 6&rhah, 


13,736 


427,036 


3»,769 


20 


100 


Do. Rajpdt. 


Bhih&bRd, 


134,146 


6,761,468 


761,687 


200 


1600 


Chanhin, 
B4jp6t, 


Patl^pfir, 


60,931 


684,370 


15,440 


25 


400 


Rfijpdt, Pun- 

dir. 
Rangbar, 

Jat, Bar^h. 

(var. 


Karydt Hie Sam6, 


28,099 


1,220,090 


6,874 


40 


900 


























B&rah.) 


•Kethal, has a brick fort: 














here Hinda shrines, 


918,026 


10,638,630 


309,146 


20(» 


3000 


RAjpdt. 


Guhr^m, Do. 


188,674 


6,138,630 


1,058,982 


50 


100 


Rangbar, 
Jat, Khanri. 


Lndbiinah. has a brick fort 














on the Sntlej, 


43,469 


2,294,633 


44,633 


100 


700 


Awfin.' 
Khaari, 
Rangbar. 

Chauhin, 
Rangbar. 

Jat. 


Hnstafadb&d, 


271,399 


7,496,691 


570,976 


200 


1000 


Masengan, 


204,877 


7,058,259 


626.690 


200 


1000 


Mans^urptir, 


116,242 


1,830,. '25 


326,690 


200 


1000 


Raaghar. 


M£l^r, 


103,444 


260,683 


2(J,176 


100 


500 


• - • 
Mnnj. 


MiUshhiw&rah, has a brick 














fort. 


17,272 


250,662 


260,552 


100 


500 


Khauri, WAh 
(var 
Wirah). 














Hipari, 


98,756 


1,146,118 


... 


80 


800 


Rangbar, 
Jat. 



^ Bee Blliot, I. 113. Extract from 
Onnningham who g^ves the possession 
of Tazila to this people before Alexan- 



der's invasion. Also Vol. I, p. 466, of 
the present work. 



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307 

Sovereigns of Delhi. 



Twenty princes reigned 437 years 1 month 

Anangpil, T^o^war (Toar or Tenore of U. T.) 

Basdeva 

Ghangnn (var. Khanku, Khankdr, Kankeo, 

Kanakp&l Gangn. 
Pirtbimal (var. Pirthip41) ... 
Joideva ... ..» .#• 

Nirpal (var. Hirpdl) 

Adrah, (var. Andiraj and 26-8-15) 

Bichhraj 

Bik, (Anekpil, Anakpil) ... 

Baghnpal 

Nekpdl (Eekhpdl) 

Gop&l ... .•• •.• 

Solakban ... ... ... 

Jaipil 

Elai^warpdl 

Anekpil 

Bijaipdl, (var. Tajpdl) ... ••• 

Mahipdl (var. Muhetsil) ... 

Akn^pil ... ... ... 

Pirthiraj ••• ... .•• 



28 daye 


.i 




Tb. 


M. 


D. 


.. 18 








.. 19 


1 


18 


. 21 


3 


28 


.. 19 


6 


19 


.. 20 


7 


28 


.. 14 


4 


9 


. 26 


7 


II 


.. 21 


2 


13 


.. 22 


3 


16 


. 21 


6 


5 


. 20 


4 


4 


. 18 


3 


16 


. 25 


2 


2 


. 16 


4 


13 


. 29 


9 


11 


. 29 


6 


18 


. 24 


1 


6 


. 25 


2 


13 


. 21 


2 


15 


. 22 


3 


16 



* This number does not accord with 
the totals. It would be as unprofitable 
ms it is hopeless to attempt to digest or 
reconcile the order, number and lengpth 
of these reigns among various authori- 
ties, when dates are unknown or con- 
jectural, the names of the princes dis- 
puted and their existence xpythioal. 
After this, the minute exactness of their 
duration of reigns would be ridiculous 
enooj^h even were not the totals short 
of the number that heads the list, hy 
about 60 years. Tiefitenthaler begins 

38 



the series from Tudishthira, differing as 
widely from Wilford and Tod, as they 
do from each other, and follows with 
another series from " quelques ecrits 
persans" at variance with what has 
preceded, and continuing with a farther 
list of princes " rapport^s encore diff^re- 
ment " from a Persian history. The un- 
ravelling of this tangle will afford abun- 
dant occapation to those interested in 
these details. I suspect that they are 
not many. 



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208 



SeTen princes reigned 95^ years and 7 months. 

Ys. M. D. 

Bildeya (Baldeva) Gbanhin ... ... 61 4> 

Amr Gangd ... ... ••• ... 5 2 5 

Ehirpal ... ... ... ... 20 1 5 

Sdm6r ... ... ... ... 7 4 2 

Jdhir ... ... ,•• ... 4 4 8 

Kdgdeva ... ••. ••• ••• S 1 5 

Pithaura (Prithwi Bie) ... ..* ... 49 5 1 

III. 
Eleven princes of the Ohori dynasty reigned 96 years 6 months and 
20* days. 

AH. A. D. 
588 1192 Salt&n M^izzn'ddin^ Muf^ammad 

S6m Ghori ••• ... 14 

jj^ntbn'ddin Eibak ... 4 

Ar&m Sh&h, his son ... 1 

Shamsn'ddin Altmish ... 26 

Bnknn'ddin Fir<5z Sh&h, his 
son ••• ... ... 

Baziah, his sister, ... 3 

Muizzu'ddin Bahr&m Shdh, 
his brother ... ... 2 1 15 

^.Un'ddin Mas^dd Sh&h, his 

nephew ... ... 4 1 1 

Nd^irn'ddin Mat^niid Sh&h, 
his uncle ... ... 19 8 

Ghiya^u'ddiu Balban ... 20 and some 

months. 
Mnizzn'ddin Eaiknbid, his 
grandson ... ... 3 Do. 

IV. 

Thirteen princes of the Khilji dynasty reigned 129 years 10 months 
and 19 days. 

688 1289 Sultan Jalaln'ddin Khilji 7, — some months 



602 


1206 


607 


1210 „ 


607 


1210 „ 


633 


1285 „ 


631 


1236 „ 


637 


1239 „ 


640 


1242 „ 


643 


1246 „ 


664 


1265 


685 


1286 , 



























6 


28 


6 


6 



« Var. 78 and Gladwin 88. The total 
gives 94-7. Cf. Table XXIII of U. T. 
p. 104, and Table L of the Indian 



djnastieB taken from Ferishta, p. 124. 

• Var. 8. 

* Also oaUed Shahibn'ddin. 



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299 











Ys. 


M. D. 


695 


1295 


Snlt&i 


1 j^lda'ddin Kbilji his nepbew 


20, some months. 


716 


1316 


>» 


Shah&ba'ddin Omar, his son 





8 some 
days. 


717 


1817 


» 


^ntbu'ddin Mmb&rak Sh&h, 












bis elder brother 


141 


4 


721 


1321 


ft 


Nd^im'ddin Ebasran Eb&n, 





6 


721 


1321 


99 


Ghijd^a'ddin TughlaV Shib, 


4, some months. 


725 


1824 


99 


Mn^mmad, bis son, 


27 





752 


1351 


99 


Fir6z Sb&b, son of bis pater- 












nal uncle, 


88 some months. 


790 


1388 


n 


TagblaV Sb&b, his gprandson, 





6 8« 


791 


1889 


» 


Aba Bakr Sb&b, son of bis 












paternal uDole, 


1 


6 


793 


1391 


» 


Mnbammad Sb6b, bis pater- 












nal uDcle, 


6» 


7 


796 


1893 


)> 


j^la'addia Sikandar, bis son. 





1 11 


796 


1393 


It 


Ma^mud, bis brother, 

V. 
Eb4n* of the Sajyid Dynasty, 


20 


2 


817 


1414 


Eliizr 


7 


2 2 


824 


1421 


Mabirak Sbdb, 


13 


3 16 


837 


1433 


Muhammad Sbilh, „ 


10, some months. 


850 


1446 


BnHii 


L AlauMdin ^ilam Sh&b, 


7 


do. 


854 


1450 


ft 


Behl61 Lodi, ... 


38 


8 8 


894 


1488 


» 


Sikandar, his son, 


28 


5 


923 


1517 


9f 


Ibrahim, his son, ••• 


7, some months. 






ft 


BAber, 


5 









»> 


Humayilin, ... .,. 


9 


8 1 


947 


1540 


» 


Sh6r Kb&n S6r, ... 


5 





952 


1545 


l> 


Salim Elb&n, bis son, 


8 and odd. 



^ All the HSS. ooncnr in this glaring 
error, an erident slip of a copyist of 14 
for 4. He was wsed to the throne on 
the 7th Hoharram A. H. 717 (22nd Maroh 
1317) and was killed 6th Babii I, A. H. 
781 (6th Apnl 1821.) 

• Var. 8. 

* Thus in all MSB., but Ferishta dis- 
ooTors the method of computation bj 
^»ijjifg this reign from the abdication of 



his father Fir<5z Shih in his favour on 
the 6th Sh^b&n 789 A. H. (21st August 
1387) to his death on the I7th Rabii I 
796 (20th January 1898) disregarding the 
two intermediate reigns. 

^ I take the dates from the U. T. bui 
discrepancies arise from disputed succesi 
sions, and the state of anarchy which 
often existed in the interTaU of these 
reigns. 



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300 

Ys. M. D. 

960 1558 Saltin Mdbdris Khin Adali. 

961 1553 ^ Ibrahim, ••• ... some months. 

962 1554 „ Sikandar, ... ... ditto. 

„ Humiyte, ... ... 13 

In th« year 429 of the era of Bikramijit (A. D. 372) AnangpdP of the 
To^war tribe reigned with jostioe and founded Delhi. In the year 848 of 
the Bame lani-solar era (A. D. 791) in the vicinity of that renowned city, 
a hotly contested battle was fought between Prithirdj To^war and fiildeTS 
Ghanhdn, and the sovereignty was transferred to this latter tribe. During 
the reign of R4j& Pithanra (Prithwi Itdjd) Sal^n Maizzu'ddin S&m made 
several incursions into Hindustan without any materiid svccess. The 
Hindu chronicles narrate that the B&jd engaged and defeated the Sul^in^ 
in seven pitched battles. In the year 588 A. H. (A. D. 1192,) an eighth 
engagement took place near ThAnesar and the Bijd was taken prisoner. 
One hundred renowned champions (it is related) were among his special 
retainers. They were severally called Sdmant^ and their extraordinary 
exploits cannot be expressed in language nor reconciled to experience 
or reason. It is said that at this battle none of these champions was 
present, and that the Bijd kept to his palace in selfish indulgence, 
passing his time in unseemly pleasure, heedless of the administration of 
the state and of the welfare of his troops. 

The story runs that Rdja Jaichand Rath6r, who held the supremacy 
of Hindustan was at this time ruling at Kanauj, and the other Rdjas to 
some extent acknowledged his authority and he himself was so liberal- 
minded that many natives of Irdn and Turan were engaged in his servioe. 
He announced his intention of celebrating the great sacrifice symbolic of 



■ Another name for Raja-S^na. Wil- 
ford sajB that he was called Anangp41a 
or befriended by love probably for 
his snocess in his amonrs, which he 
displayed by carrying off his brother's 
wife. Teiffenthaler calls him Rasena 
and credits him with the bnildmg of 
Delhi, which is confirmed by the Agni^ 
por&na. Wilford's criticism of these 
dates and his emendations (Vol. IX. As, 
Res. p. 169) are based on the incorrect 
statement that Abol Fazl makes the 
1st year of Yikramaditya to correspond 
with the Ist of the Hijra. His oonoln- 
sions are consequently entirely wrong. 



' The text should hnve ^LkJLo in* 
stead of ^^UaJU as in the S. nl M. 

• I learn from Professor Cowell tha* 
the primary meaning attached to this 
term in the St. Petersburg Diet, ia 
* neighbonr,* and the second signification, 
' vassal/ in which sense it often ooeors 
in Sanskrit poetry. Monier Williams 
defines it as "a noighbonring king"* 
feudatory or tribotary prince " and adds 
a third meaning <a leader, genenli 
champion ' which applies to the text 



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301 

paramount supremacy and set about its prepamtions. One of its conditions 
is that all menial service should be performed bj princes alone, and that 
eren the duties of the royal scallery and the kindling of fires are directly 
a part of their office. He likewise promised to bestow his beautiful 
daughter on the bravest of the assembled chivalry. B>iji Pith aura had 
resolved to attend the festival, but a chance speech of some courtier that 
while the Chauhan sovereignty existed, the great sacrifice could not 
legitimately be performed by the Ra^hdr chief, inflamed his ancestral 
pride and he held back. Raj4 Jaichand proposed to lead an army against 
him, but his counsellors representing the duration of the war and the 
approach of the appointed assembly, dissuaded him from the enterprise. 
To carry out the integrity of the festival, a statue of Riji Pithaura was 
made in gold and placed in the office of porter at the royal gates. Roused 
to indignation at this news, Bajd Pithaura set out in disguise accompanied 
by 500 picked warriors and suddenly appeared at the gathering and carry- 
ing off the image, he put a great number to the sword and hastily returned. 
The daughter of Jaichand, who was betrothed to another prince, hearing of 
this adventurous deed, fell in love with Pithaura and refused her suitor. Her 
father, wroth at her conduct, expelled her from her chamber in the palace 
and assigned her a separate dwelling. Pithaura, distracted at the news, 
returned with a determination to espouse her, and it was arranged that 
Ghdndi a bard, a rival in skill of Babylonian^ minstrelsy, should proceed 
to the court of Jaichand on the pretence of chanting his praises, while the 
IUj4 himself with a body of chosen followers should accompany him as 
attendants. Love transformed the intention into act, and by this ingenious 
device and the spell of valour, he carried off his heart's desire, and after 
prodigies of bravery and heroism reached his own kingdom. The hundred 
Sdmanis (above mentioned) accompanied him under various disguises. 
One after the other they covered his retreat and defeated their pursuers. 
Gobind Rae Gehldt made the first stand and bravely fighting, fell. Seven 
thousand of the enemy sank engulfed in death before him. Next Narsim^h 
Deva, Chdnd^, Pundir, and S4rdh61* Solanki, and Pdlhan Deva Kaohhwdhah 
with his two brothers, during the first day's action, after performing feats 
of astonishing heroism sold their lives dearly, and all these heroes perished 
in the retreat. 



known proverbial expression for fasoina- 
tion and enchantment. I am not, how- 
ever, satisfied with the gloss but cannot 
amend it. 

• Var. Sadh61. 



* The words in the text ^^*^ji^ are 
meaningless, and the variants are not 
clearer, bnt to one MS. that reads ^ij^t, 
a marginal note explains it with the 
synonym 4/tt a Babylonian, a well- 



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302 

The Raj4, with the bard Ch^ndil and two of his brothers^ brought 
bis bride to Delhi amid the admiration of a wondering world. 

nnfortanatelj the prince was all engrossed bj his affection for his 
beantifal wife and neglected ail other affairs. After a year had thus 
passed, Saltan Shahabn'ddin by reason of the above events, formed an 
alliance with Bdjd Jaichand, and assembling an army, invaded the country 
and captured many places. But no one dared even to represent, not to say, 
remedy this state of affairs. At last, the principal nobles meeting 
together, introduced Chandi through the seven gates of the palace, who 
enteiing the women's apartments, by his representations somewhat 
disturbed the Rdj&'s mind. But in the pride of his former victories, he 
marched to battle with but a small army. As his brave champions were 
now no more, his kingdom fallen from its ancient renown, and Jaichand 
his former ally, reversing his past policy, in league with the enemy, the 
B&jd in this contest was taken prisoner and carried by the Sul^in to 
Ghazni. Chdndd in his fidelity and loyalty hastened to Ghttzni, entered 
the Sultan's service and gained his favour. By his address, he discovered 
the Raj 4 and comforted him in his prison. He proposed that he should 
praise his dexterity with the bow to the Sultan who would desire to wit- 
ness it, and that then he might use his opportunity. The proposal was 
carried out and the R^jd pierced the Snlfdn with an arrow. His re- 
tainers fell upon the Raj& and Ch&ad4 and out them to pieces. 

The Persian historians give a different account and state that the 
BdjA was killed in battle. 

Fate discloses many such events from its treasure-house of wonders. 
But where — and blessed is he — who will take warning thereby and act 
on the lesson ? 

When the Chauhdn dynasty fell, the choicest portion of Hindustan 
passed into the hands of Sul^dn Muizzu'ddin Ghori. Leaving Malik 
^u^bu'ddin (Eibak) who was one of his slaves, at the village Guhr^m,^ 
he himself returned to Ghazni, laying waste the hilly country on his 
northern march, ^u^bu'ddin in the same year possessed himself of Delhi 
and many other places and followed up his successes with remarkable 
ability. On the death of Mi?^izzu*ddin, Ghiyd^u'ddin Mahmud son of 
Ghiy^^u'ddin Mul^ammad sent from Firdzkoh (his capital) the um- 
brella and insignia of royalty io Malik J^utbu'ddin. ^utbu'ddin was 



* See list of towns in Sirhind Division, I it at 70 k6t from Delhi. The hilly oonntry 
p. 296. Ferishta writes riband places I he wasted was the Siwiliks. Feriahta. 



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803 

eniKroned at Lahore and exalted his repntatiou bj bis justice, mnnificencd 
ftnd valour. He lost bis life while playing at chaugdn.^ 

The nobles raised his son Aram Shdb to the throne, but a strong faction 
set up Malik Altmish, who had been a purchased slave, and was the son- 
in-law and adopted heir of ^utbu'ddin. Arim Sh&h was defeated and 
retired into obscurity, and Altmish assumed the title of Sharasu'ddin. 
It is said that his father was chief of some of the Turkish tribes. His 
brethren and cousins distracted by envy, sold, like Joseph, this nursling 
of intelligence, into slavery. Through the vicissitudes of fortune, he had 
various changes of masters until a merchant brought him to Ohazni. 
Saltan Muizzu'ddin S6m proposed to purchase him, but his owner chafEered 
for his value and placed an exorbitant price on him. The Sultan enraged, 
forbade any one to purchase him. IjCutbu'ddin on his return to Ghazni 
after the conquest of Gujarit, having obtained permission, bought him for 
a large sum and adopted him as a son. Khw&jah IjCutbu'ddin Ifshi* was 
his contemporary and edified the world by his outward demeanour and the 
sanctity of his interior life. When Altmish died, his son (Buknu*ddin 
Fir6z Shilh) succeeded him who regarded wealth as a means of self-indul- 
gence and thought little of winning the affections of his people. He 
made over the control of affairs to his mother Shdh Turkfin. The nobles 
withdrawing their allegiance raised Baziah the daughter of Sultan 
Shamsu'ddin to the throne. The Sultan himself had previously made her 



* He fell with his horse while playing 
at polo, the modern term for an ancient 
game, and the pommel of his saddle 
entered his chest and killed him. A. 
H. 007, (1210 A. D.) Ferishta. The 
Kntab Minar, a mosqne at Delhi still 
preserve his name, if not his memory. 
The old chaugdn or polo grounds still 
exist, sajs Cunningham, (Lad&k, p. 311) 
in every large town in the Panjab hills ; 
in BiUspor, Nadon, E^ng^, Haripor 
and Ohamba where the goal stones are 
still standing. The g^me is repeatedly 
mentioned by Baber, but became obso- 
lete gradually after bis time. 

* ITsh is in Transoziana and was his 
birthplace. He is also known as Kaki 
from the miraculous production of bread 
cakes of the kind called in the vernacu- 
lar }tdk supplied by the prophet Khizr 



for the needs of his family whose sus- 
tenance his meditations gave him no 
leisure or occasion to provide. These 
cakes were in Ferishta's day still baked 
and offered at his shrine. His mother 
was a woman of great and austere virtue, 
and his future sanctity was predicted 
by Khizr by whose personal apparition 
he was twice honoured. He was offered 
by Altmish the office of Shaikh u'l Isl&m 
which he declined. His intercourse 
with that monarch and the eminent 
saints of his day may be gathered from 
Ferishta's monograph of his life at the 
close of his history. He died on the 14th 
Eabai I, A. H. 634, (A. D. \236). A 
sketch of his life is given in Dorn's 
History of the Afghans, Book III, p. 2, 
and his death placed in A. U. 603. 



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804 

his heir. Some of his courtiers asked him the reason of his doing so while 
he had pons still living. He replied that his sons, addicted to drinMng 
were unfitted for the dignity. Daring the reign of Muizu'ddin Bahram 
Shdh, the Mughal troops devastated Lahore. A disloyal faction imprisoDod 
the king and put him to death. In the reign of Sultan 4^Uu*ddin Masaud 
Shdh occurred an eruption of the Mughals into Bengal, entering by way of 
China or Tibet, . but his troops defeated them. Another body advanced 
from Turkieht^n to ITch. The Saltan set out to engage them, but on reach* 
ing the banks of the Bidh, intelligence reached him that the enemy had 
retreated. He returned to Delhi and there afEected the company of low 
and base flatterers and ended his days in prison. 

Na^iru'ddin MeJ^mud ruled with capacity and munificence. In his 
time also, the Mughals entered the Panjdb but retreated on hearing of his 
approach. 

The " Tabal^&t i Nd^iri "^ takes its name from him. He had many 
excellent qualities. Ghiya^u'ddin Balban who had been the slave and son- 
in-law of his father, he raised to the vank of chief minister and gave him 
the title of IJlugh' Kh4n. This minister filled his high office worthily 
and sought the divine favour in watchfulness over his people. 

N^iru'ddin dying without children, the faithful minister was raised 
to the sovereignty. Clemency and solid gravity of character added fresh 
lustre to his dignity, and far from spending his precious hours in unworthy 
pursuits, he gladdened his kingdom by his appreciation of merit, his 
knowledge of men and his devotion to God. Those of ill repute and the 
wicked were banished into obscurity, and the good happily prospered under 
his encouragement. He conferred the government of the Panjdb on his 
eldest son Mul^ammad, commonly known as Khdn i Shahtdy^ through whose 
valour and vigilance the province rested in security. Mir Khusrau and 
Mir Hasan were in his suite. He was returning from a visit to his father 



^ A general history of Persia and 
India, down to the time of Saltan Kasfr- 
n'ddin of Delhi, A. D. 1252. The 
anther was Abn Omar Manhdj al Jor- 
j&ni. 

* C^ or kr^ as it is sometimes written 
is a Tartar word and signifies * great,' 
and ased often as a proper name [as in the 
case of Ulagh Beg grandson of Timur. 

• Or the martyred prince. See his 
death in Elphinstone, after his defeat of 



the Mughals under Tf mdr Kh&n, and in 
Ferishta under Ghiyasn'ddin Balban 
where Abnl Fazl's assertion of the 
prince's unpreparedness is not confirmed. 
It was in the pursuit of the fljiag 
Mughals that he was surprised by an 
ambush while he halted by the banks of 
a stream to drink and to return thanks 
to God for his victory. Mir Khusrau 
alludes to his escape in his well-knoim 
poem, the Khizr Khani. 



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305 

nnprepared for hostilities, when he enoountered some Mughal troops be- 
tween DipAlpdr and Lahor and lost his life in the action, Mir Khnsran 
was taken prisoner bat contrived to escape. The province of Bengal had 
been bestowed by Ghij^a'ddin on his youngest son Bughra Kh&n. 

On the death of Ghiya^u'ddin, the nobles despatched Kai Khasran 
the son of Khan i Shahid, who had been nominated heir, to (his father's 
government of) MuU^n, and bestowed the title of Sultan Maizzu'ddin 
Klaikab^d on the son of Bnghra Khdn who thus acquired the sovereignty 
of Delhi. His father in Bengal, assuming the title of Ni^ini'ddfn 
inarched to Delhi whence Kaikabdd advanced with a force to encounter 
him. The armies met on the banks of the Sarjd (Oogra) near the town 
of Ajodhya> and through the conspiracy of disloyal and evil counsellors, 
the father after the interview returned to Bengal and the supreme sove - 
reign ty rested with the son. It is strange that Amir Khusrau should have 
chosen such a subject as this interview for encomium in his poem the 
Kirdn u^s Sgtdain, The fortunes of this thankless unfilial son through his 
insobriety fell into decay. A faction set up his son, under the title of 
Shamsu'ddin to remedy the disorder, and the body of the wretched Kai- 
kubad was flung into the waters of the Jumna. Shamsu'ddin was set 
aside and the sovereignty, by assent of the ministers, conferred on the 
S^iiljis. 

Jaldln*ddin who was paymaster of the Imperial forces, ascended the 
throne and by his simplicity of character lent no favour to the designs of 
the factious. His nephew Malik ^^liu'ddin who had been brought up 
under his care, went from Karrah to the Deccan and having amassed great 
booty was inflated by its possession and proved rebellious. The Sult4n 
by the persuasion of intriguers advanced from Delhi to Karrah, where the 
traitor slew him and assumed the title of Sul^^n A^au'ddin. Thus by 
a marvel of Fate did the empire devolve on this miscreant, yet he accom- 
plished some excellent reforms. On several occasions he encountered and 
defeated the Mughals. Mir Khusrau dedicated to him his Khamsah^ and 
the story of Dewal* Rdni to his son Khizr Khdn. Unfortunately he aban- 



' Oryive poems, via., the HashtBihisht, 
Sikandar Ndmah, Panj Gauj, Laila wa 
Majn6s, Shirin wa Khasraa. 

• Known as Dewilde to western litera- 
ture. Moore in a note to the preface of 
Lalla Rookh alludes to this poem on the 
anthoritj of Ferishta as " the history 
of the lores of Dewilde and Chizer 

39 



the son of the Emperor Alia, written in 
an elegant poem by the noble Chnsero." 
The story will be found in Briggs, 
Vol. I, pp. 327-866. Kaui?la Devi her 
mother, tlie wife of Karan Rie of Nahr- 
w6la had been taken captire in the wars 
against that prince (1297) and placed in 
the royal harem. In 1806 an expedition 



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306 

daned his usual pmdenoe and fell under the inflaence of a eunuch (K&t6r) on 
whom he conferred the conduct of the administration. Through the sugge^ 
tions of that wretch, his three sons Ehizr Eh&n, Shddi Khin and Mubarak 
Khan were imprisoned, and on hia own death, by the same instrumentality 
the youngest son was raised to the throne under the title of Shahdbu'ddin. 
He destroyed the sight of two of his brothers, but Mubarak Khan 
providentially escaped. A few days later the wretch (KdfAr) was 
himself assassinated and Mubarak Kh4n wha was in prison became chief 
minister. 

Subsequently he deposed his younger brother, and assumed the title 
of Sul^n Kutbu'ddin. He reduced Gujar4t and the Deccan. Throngh 
his incapacity and licentious disposition he chose a favourite of the lower 
orders named Hasan for the comeliness of his person, and bestowed on him 
the title of Khusrau Khan. Although the faithful ministers of the Crown 
represented the man*s unworthiness and infamy, the king regarded their 
honest advice as the suggestions of envy, till Khusrau Khan, plotting 
secretly, dared to assassinate his master and assumed the sorereignty under 
the title of Na^irn'ddtn. He put to death the surviving members of the 
family of 4-l^a'cldin and perpetrated the greatest cruelties. Malik Qh&fi 
who was one of Alau'ddin'a chief nobles, defeated and slew him and with 
the concurrence of the nobles, ascended the throne with the title of Sul^n 
Ghiya^u'ddin Tughla^l Sh&h. After settling the affairs of Bengal, he 
returned to Delhi. His son Mnl^ammad Khan erected a pavilion at thb 
distance of 3 kos from Delhi, in the space of three days and with much 
entreaty invited the king to enter it. The roof of the building fell in and 
the king perished in the ruina. Althongh (Zidu'ddin) Bami^ endeavours 



proceeding to the Deocan imder E£fdr, 
Kaa^la Deri represented to the king that 
ehe had borne two daughters to her for- 
mer husband, that one had died, bat the 
other Dewal Devi was still alive and she 
desired to recover her. Passing throngh 
Mdlwah, Kitur demanded her of Karan 
Eae withont snooess. Shankan Deva 
Rile, prince of Deogarh had long songht 
to obtain her hand, but the proud Raj- 
pnt had hitherto refused his daughter to 
the npstart Mahratta. The desire to 
gain his aid in the war against the king's 
troops secnred his consent and he des- 



patched her nnder an escort which fell in 
accidentally with a body of Mu^^am- 
madan troops near the caves of EITora. 
An engagement resulted in the capture 
of the princess and her deapatch to her 
mother at Delhi. Her beauty won the 
heart of Khizr Khin the king's son and 
the rough course of their lore with its 
hapless termination is celebrated in the 
Khizr Kh&ni. When they first met 
these precocious Tovers were respective- 
ly ten and eight years of age. 

' The well-known author of the Tar^h 
% F&o» Shdhi, 



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307 

to sabstantiate the innocence of Ma|^mmad Khdn, the haste with which 
the pavilion was erected, and the eagerness to entertain the king therein, 
have all the appearance of guilt j design. 

When Snlfin Mul^mmad died, Fir6z the son of (S&ldr) Rajab his 
paternal ancle was, according to the will of Muhammad, raised to the throne. 
He ruled with capacity and prudence and left many useful works as 
memorials of his reign. At his death anarchy to some extent prevailed in 
the empire. A faction set up his grandson (Ghiyaffu'ddin) Taghlal^ Shah 
(11) but in a short space he was sent to his last sleep by the hands of 
traitors and Abu Bakr^ another grandson succeeded him. 

In the reign of Sul^n Mahmdd, the direction of affairs devolved on 
Mallu Khin who received the title of I^b^l Khan, but his incapacity and 
ill-fortune were unequal to the burden of state guidance. Internal dis- 
orders arose. A grandson of Fir6z Sh^h was acknowledged by some, 
uader the title of Na^rat Sh4h and increased the anai*chy. Constant strug- 
gles took place in the vicinity of Delhi till in the year 801 A. H. (A. D. 
1398) Timdr invaded the country. Sultan Mji^imdd fled to Q a jardt and 
every competitor for power was crushed. 

When Tiraiir was on his ret am march, he left Khizr Khdn, whom he 
had met during this invasion, in the government of Multan and Dipdlptir. 
For two months Delhi was a waste. Na^rat Shdh who had fled into the 
Dodb, took possession of the throne. Ilfhil Khin then marched on Dal hi 
and seized it and the other fled to Mew&t. Maljimtid Khdn now came from 
Gujardt and Ikbdl Khan f«igned acceptance of his service. One night the 
Sultan, in desperation of his affairs departed alone to the court of Saltan 
Ibrahim of the Sharki dynasty (of Jaunpiir) but met with no encourage- 
ment nor assistance. He was compelled therefore to return and Jl^bal Khdn 
DOW opposed him bat without success, and subsequently was taken prisoner 
in an action against Khizr Khan and was slain. Sultan Mahmud now 
took possession of Delhi, and was for some time occupied in hostilities, till 
he was carried ofE by an illness, and the Khilji dynasty terminated with 
him. 

For a short period allegiance was paid to Daulat Kban (Lodi) Khdsah 
Khaily till Khizr Khan marched from Multdn and took possession of Delhi. 
Malik Marddn Daulat Khan, one of the nobles of the Court of Sultan 
Firdz, had adopted Sulaiman the father of Khizr Kh&n as his son 
who subsequently, in default of recognised heirs, succeeded to his govem- 



^ Son of Zafar Khan son of Fir6i Bhih. 



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308 

ment.^ Khizr Khan in gratitude (to Timiir) did not* assame the regal 
title bat styled his Court " The Sublime Standards," and adorned the 
Khuibah with the name of that illustrious monarch and afterwards with 
that of Mirz4 Shih Rukh, but it concluded with a prayer for himself. 
His son Mubdrak Shih succeeded him in accordance with his will. Sul(4a 
Ibrahim Sharljii and Hoshang (of Mdlwah) bein^ engaged in hostilities, 
Mubarak intended an attack on Kdlpi and the adjacent territories, but he 
was perfidiously set upon by a band of traitors and slain.^ Mu^mmad 
Shah, who according to some was the son of Farid the sou of Khizr Khio, 
while another account makes him the son of Mubdrak, was raised to the 
throne. Sul^dn Alau'ddin (his son and successor) possessed no share of 
rectitude and abandoned himself to licentious gratification* Bahl61 (Lodi) 
now aspired to greatness. He was the nephew of Sul^dn Shdh Lodi of the 
Shahti Kh^l* tribe (of Afghans). His father Bahrdm in the time of 
Sul^dn Mat^mtid, came with five sons from the borders of Bal6t to Mul- 
tdn and subsisted with some difficulty^ by traffic. Sul^dn Shdh^ obtained 
service under Khizr Khdn. He received the title of Islam Khdn, and the 
reyennes of Sirhind were assigned to him. Bah 161, the son of his nephew 
on his brother's side was prospering ill in Sirhind, but was received into 
favour by him and adopted as a son. Bahl6i was born in Multan and 
during the month in which his birth was expected, a beam of the house 
fell and killed his mother. He was extracted by the Ceraarean operation 



* The obflonrity of this eentenoe in 
the original lies in the elliptical style 
of Abal Fazl. The sense I have g^ven 
is in acoordanoo with the facts of Ferish- 
ta who sajs that Malik Marwdn DanUt 
had adopted Sulaiman, and being him- 
self appointed to the goTomment of 
Moltdn, was succeeded at his death bj 
his own son Malik Shaikh. The latter 
dying, made way for Snlaiman who was 
in tarn saoceeded by his son Khizr 
Khdn. Ferishta makes the name Mar- 
wdn and not Marddn. 

* The MSS. omit thenegativOi bat the 
text sapplies it. Ferishta is clear on 
the point. " He did not take the name 
of king nor assame any regal epithet." 
The title in the text is not mentioned by 
him, which, however, is somewhat ana- 
logous to the Ottoman style of the * Babi 



i^&li ' or Snblime Porte, though io the 
latter it is absolute, and in the former 
▼icarions. 

' He had laid the foundations of the 
city of Mnbimkdbid on the Jonma and 
was in the habit of visiting it to inspect 
the progress of the baildings It was in 
one of these that he was assassinated 
at the instigation of the Wasir Sarwar 
nl Malk on the 9th Rajab 887 (A. D. 
1433). Ferishta. 

♦ See Vol. I, p. 502. 

• One MS. reads "^^ for ^ which 
woald alter the character of his mercan- 
tile specalations and substitnte opa- 
lence for distress. 

* His eldest son, the others were 
Malik KHi, Malik Fir<5z, Malik Ha- 
^mmad and Malik Khwijfth. 
Ferishta. 



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309 

and bis destiny proved fortunate. Although he allowed his sovereign 
(Alau'ddin) who lived in retirement (at Badaon) to retain nominal power, 
he boldly assumed the supreme authority^ His reign showed some capa- 
city aivd his conduct was marked by intelligence and recognition of merit. 
He was carried off by an illness in his 80th year. It is said that he once 
happened to meet with a darvesh, having at the time with him but a 
trifling sum of money. The spiritually enlightened recluse called out, 
" Who will buy the kingdom of Delhi for such a sum of money ? " His 
companions laughed in mockery at the man, but Bah Id I frankly gave him 
all he had, and paid him reverence and eventually fulfilled the prediction.* 
He carried on wars with the Sharl^i kings which continued with varying 
successes, until he took Jaunpdr and this dynasty was overthrown. He 
left his son, Bdrbak at Jaunpdr and returned to Delhi. As he was return- 
ing to Delhi from an expedition against Gwalior he died near the town 
of Saketh.^ His son Nizdm Khdn with the concurrence of the nobles, 
assumed the sovereignty and was styled Sultan Sikandar. He ruled with 
sagacity and appreciation of character and transferred the capital to Agra 
In the year A. H. 911 (A. D. 1505), a great earthquake occurred and 
many lofty buildings were levelled. Sikandar was of comely person and 
mild disposition and popular from his liberality and open-handedness. 

On his death, his son SuHdn Ibrahim ascended the throne of Delhi 
and his authority was recognised as far as the confines of Jaunpdr, the 
nobles conferring upon Jalal Kh4n another son of Sikandar's, the sovereign- 
ty of Jaunptir. Dissensions followed between the brothers, and Jalal 
Khdn abandoned his government and took refuge with the governor of 
Gwalior but meeting with no success, fled to the court of Suljdn Mahmdd 
of M^lwah, and succeeding as little there, he set out for Gondwanah. 
There the royal partisans^ seized him and carried him to the king by 
whom he was put to death. During his reign various chiefs revolted, such 
as Datyd Khdn Loh4ni viceroy of Behdr, and his son Bahddur Khdn had the 
Khutbah read and the coin minted in his own name. Daulat Khan Lodi fled 
to Kabul and sought protection at the court of Baber, whom he led to the 
conquest of Hindustdn while affairs resulted in a prosperous issue. 



* Bemoving the name of Al&a'ddin 
from the Khuthahf and assuming the 
insignia of royalty. Ferishta 

■ This story is also told in Ferishta. 

• " Near Bhad&wali, one of the depen- 
dencies of Saket/* Ferishta ; but Abnl 
Fazl places Bhadanli in the Sarkir of 
Bahir in the Agra Sdbah. It was on his 



retnm from Etawah that he was seized 
with illness. Suketa or Saketa ac- 
cording to the I. G. is one of the clas- 
sical names borne by Ajodhya, the 
ancient capital of Oadh. Abnl Fasl 
places 8ake(h in the Sarkdr of Eananj. 

* He was captured by a body of Gonds. 
Ferishta. 



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310 

Subah of Ldhor, 

It is situated in the third climate. Its length from the river ScUlaj 
(Sntlej) to the Sind river is 180 k^s. Its breadth from Bhimbar to 
Chauhhandi one of the dependencies of Satgarah} 86 kSs. It is bonnded 
on the east by Sirhind ; on the north by Kashmir ; on the south by BikanSr 
and Ajmer ; on the west by Multdn. It has six principal rivers which all 
flow from the northern mountains. 

(1.) The SutleJ the ancient name of which is Shattudat* and whose 
source is in the Kdhlor hills. Rupar^ Mdchhtiodrah and L4dhidnah are 
situated on its banks, and it receives the Bidh at the Bauh^ ferry. 

(2.) The Bidh (Beds) was anciently called Bipasha^ (Sansk. Yipasa 
Gr. Hyphasis). Its source is named Biahhund in the Kullu mountains 
in the vicinity of which the town of Salfdnpur^ stands above the river. 

(3.) The Bavif the ancient frawati,^ rises in the Bhadrdfi hills. 
Labor the capital, is situated on its bauks. 

(4.) The Chendbf ancieotly Ghandarhhdgd, From the summit of the 
Khatwdr^ range issue two sweet water streams, the one called Chandar, the 



* Satgarha is sitnated 13 miles east of 
Oogaira on one of the projecting points 
of the high- bank whioh marks the 
limits of the windings of the Bavi on the 
east. The name means * seven castles' 
but these no longer exist. There is an 
old briok fort and several isolated 
monnds which mark the site of an an- 
cient citj. Cnnningham, p. 212. 

' Zapaiof ( various reading ZapaZftfis) of 
Ptolemy : the Sjdrus or better reading, 
Hesidms of Pliny. It rises like the Indus 
on the slopes of the Eailis mountains, 
the Siva's paradise of ancient Sanskrit 
literature, with peaks 22,000 feet high. 
The twin lakes of M4nasarowar and 
Kakas-tal, united with each other, are 
its direct source. See I. G. 

* In the maps, according to the text 
note, Baupur, The junction is at the 
south boundary of the Kaparthala state. 

* It is in Kullu proper on the right 
bank of the Beas in lat. 81'' 68' N., and 
long 77*7' B, at an elevation of 4,092 
feet above sea level. It is perched on a 



natural eminence, once surrounded by a 
wall. Only two gateways remain of the 
ancient fortifications. I. G. 

5 Hydraotes of Arrian. 

^ Var. Bhadri It rises in the northern 
half of the Bang£hal valley in Kangra 
dist. 

* Yar. Ehatwfidlh. Another variant 
is Kishtwdrah and undoubtedly the true 
reading. The I. G. places Kistawdr in 
the Kashmir state, lat. 33** 18' 30" N., 
long 75'' 48' E. near the left bank of the 
Chenab which here forces its way through 
a gorge with precipitous cliffs 1000 feet 
high. The course of this river and 
details of its volume will be found in 
Genl. Cunningham's Ladak and in 
Drew's 'Jummoo and Kashmir' where 
the history of Kishtw4r is briefly 
sketched. Jr<f«/iiut;<{ra is siud.by Gunning- 
ham to signify 'abounding in wood.' 
The Chenib is called Sandabad by Ptole- 
my but the Greek historians of Alex- 
ander named it Akesines because its 
proper name was of ill omen, from its 



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311 

oihefr Bhdgd which unite near Khatwdr and are known hj the above namei 
whence thej flow by BahlSlpur, Sudharah and Hazdrah. 

(5.) The Bihaty^ anciently called Bidasta, has its rise in a lake in the 
parganah of VSr in Kashmir, flows through Srinagar and enters Hindu' 
Stan. Bhdrdh^ lies on its (left) bank. 

(6.) The source of the Sindh (Indus) is placed by some between 
Kashmir and Kdshghar, while others locate it in China. It flows along the 
borders of the Sawdd territory by Afak Benareifi and Ohaupdrah into 
Baluchistdn. 

His Majesty has given the name of BSth Jdlandhar to the valley 
between the Bidh and the Satlaj ; of Bdri, to that between the Bidh and 
the Bdvi ; of Bechna to that between the Bidvi and the Ohendb ; of Jenhat* 
to the valley of the Ohendb and the Bihat, and Sindh Sdgar to that of the 



limilarity thinks Bishop Thirhrall to 
AKtfat^Zpav^ayof 'devoarer of Alex- 
ander.' Ladak, pp. 118, 352. The deri- 
Tation of Ohendb from Oh^-db is 
obyions, and is supposed to hare been 
given from the notion of its rise in 
Chinese territory, a supposition within 
approximate lUnge of faot. 

' For the taxation fixed by Akbar on 
the districts bordering on the Jhelum, 
see Vol. I, p. 346, under Bihat. Bidasta 
and Bihat are corruptions of the Sansk^ 
Vitasta, the Hydaspes of Horace, and 
the mom correct Bida^pes of Ptolemy. 
The pool of Vira N^ was walled round 
by Jahangir, but the true source of the 
river is more to the S.-W. in N. lat. 88** 
SC and E. long. 75^ 25^ Cunningham's 
Ladik, p. 112. 

' In Sh&hp^r dist. lat. 82° 29^ N., 
long. 72° 67' B. The old town was 
destroyed by hill tribes, the new was 
founded about 1640, and was the centre 
of a mahal under Akbar. The ruins of 
the oi:^na1 city known as Jobn^hnagar 
are identified by Genl. Cunningham with 
the capital of Sopheites, contemporary of 
Alexander the Great. 



* It is so called by the Mn^ammadan 
historians in contradistinction to Katak 
Benares in Orissa at the opposite ex« 
tremity of the empire I. G. On his 
return from K&bul, on the 14th Safar 
989 A. H. (20th March 1581), Akbar 
crossed the Indus at Attook and ordered 
the building of the fort, of mortar and 
stone in order to control that part of 
the country and called it A^ak which 
signifies in the remacular 'hindrance' 
or ' prohibition,' it being forbidden to 
the Hindus to cross the Indus. Ferishta. 
The Sw£t territory is here meant, the 
riyer of that name, the Suastos of the 
Greeks (Sansk. Snyastn) rising on the 
east slopes of the mountains which divide 
Panjakora from the Swat country, re- 
ceives the drainage of the Sw&t valley 
and entering the Peshawar dist. north of 
Mlchni, joins the Kdbul river at Nisatha. 
The course of the Indus has there a 
somewhat parallel direction. 

^ Var. Jhat and Chhat, (under list of 
Sarkdrs Chenhat) more commonly known 
as the Jeeh or Jechna Doab. 



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312 

Bihat and Stndh. The distanoe^ 

between the Satlaj and the Bi&h is 50 k6s. 

„ BiAh „ Bivi „ 17 „ 

„ „ RAvi „ ChenAb „ 30 „ 

„ „ Chenab „ Bihat „ 20 „ 

„ „ Bihat „ Sindh „ 68 „ 

This province is populous, its climate healthy and its agricuUaral 
fertility rarely equalled. The irrigation is chiefly from wells. The winter 
though not as rigorous as in Persia and TnrkestAn, is more severe than is 
any other part of India. Through the encouragement given by Hia 
Majesty, the choicest productions of TurkestAn, Persia and Hindustan are 
to be found here. Musk-melons are to be had throughout the whole year. 
They come first in season when the sun is in Taurus and Gemini, (April, 
May, June,) and a later crop when he is in Cancer and Leo (June, July, 
August). When the season is over, they are imported from Kashmir 
and from K&bul, Badaksh&n and Turkestan. Snow is brought down every 
year from the northern mountains. The horses resemble the . Ir^k breed 
and are of excellent mettle. In some parts of the country, they employ 
themselves in washing the soil whence gold, silver, copper, rwi,* zinc, brass 
and lead are obtained. There are skilful handicraftsmen of various kinds. 

Ldhor is a large city in the Bari Dotib. In size and population it is 
among the first. In ancient astronomical tables it is recorded as Lohdwar. 
Its longitude is lOQ"" 22', lat. 31 "* 50'.» During the present reign the forti- 
fications and citadel have been strengthened with brick masonry and as it 
was on several occasions the seat of government, many splendid buildings 
have been erected and delightful gardens have lent it additional beauty. 
It is the resort of people of all countries whose manufactures present an 
astonishing display and it is beyond measure remarkable in populousness 
and extent. 

NagarkSt is a city situated on a hill : its fort is called Kdngrah. Near 
the town is the shrine of Mahamdyd^ which is considered as a manifestation 



* Tieffentbaler qnotes other measure- 
mentB besides these, giving the reason 
for the variations in the differences of 
roate, the incapacity of travellers and 
the universal ignorance of geometry. 

' This metal is defined at p. 41 Vol. I. 
as be composed of 4 a^rs of copper to J 
of lead, and in India called Bhangdr. 

■ Properly, lat. 81" 84' 6" N., long. 
74*^ 21' E. 



* The Great Illasion, or the illusory 
nature of worldly objects divinely per- 
sonified, an spithet of the goddess 
Dargi. The earlier name of Hardwir, 
Mayap^ir, represents the ancient wor* 
ship of this supreme energy and ' "bj her, 
whose name is Maya,' says the Bhaga* 
vata the Lord made the universe. His 
temple still exists in Hard war, and is 
described in Cunningham's Anot. Geog. 



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313 



of the divinity. Pilgrims from distant parts visit it and obtain their de- 
sires. Strange it is that in order that their prayers may be favourably heard, 
they cat out their tongues : with some it grows again on the spot, with others 
after one or two days. Although the medical faculty allow the possibility of 
growth in the tongue, yet in so short space of time it is sufficiently amazing. 
In the Hindu mythology, Mdhamaya is said to be the wife of Mahddeva, and 
the learned of this creed represent by this name the energizing power of the 
deity. It is said that on beholding the disi'espect (shown to her husband, 
STiva) she cut herself in pieces and her body fell in four places ; her head and 
some of her limbs in the northern mountains of Kashmir near Kamrdj\ and 
these relics are called Sharadd : other parts fell near Bijdpur in the Deccan 
and are known as TuJjd (Turja) Bhatodni, Such portions as reached the 
eastern quarter near Kamrup are called Kdmdkhya^^ and the remnant 
that kept its place is celebrated as Jdla*idhari which is this particular 
spot.* 



1 The names in the text are incorrectly 
transliterated. 

9 The erndition of Professor Cowell 
has directed me to the sonrce of this 
legend which may be read with varia- 
tion of detail in the preface to the Gopa- 
tha Bdlhmana published in Nos. 215-252 
of the Bibl. Ind. pp. 30-35. It occurs in 
the 2nd Book in the germ which after- 
wards developed into the Pauranic tale 
of Daksha's gpreat sacrifice. This mind- 
horn son of Brahmfi and father of Uma or 
Darga assisted at a Yisrasrig sacrifice 
celebrated by his father in which discour- 
tesy was shown to S'iva. A quarrel broke 
out between Daksha and S'iva, resulting 
in the exclusion of the latter from the 
great sacrifice to which the whole Hindu 
pantheon was bid. Uma seated in her 
blissful mansion on the crest of the 
Kail^ mountain, saw the crowds pro- 
ceeding to her father's court to which 
she repaired and learning the exclusion 
of her husband, upbraided her father for 
hv injustice and refused to retain the 
body she had inherited from him. 
Covering herself up with her robe, she 

4,0 



gave up her life in a trance of medita- 
tion. The wrath of S'iva incarnate in a 
giant form pursued the feasters and 
created stupendous havoc. Vishnu un- 
able to pacify S'iva and knowing that 
his fury was kindled by the sight of his 
dead wife, cut the body to pieces bit by 
bit with his discus and threw it about 
the earth and thus calmed the irate and 
oblivious deity who thereupon restored 
the killed and wounded to life and sound- 
ness. Dakslia's head having been burnt 
in the mel^e, it was replaced by that of 
a goat which happened to be at hand, 
apparently without remonstrance from 
the reanimated demigod or oven his 
consciousness of the substitution. The 
Tantra Ghuddmani is able fortunately 
to detail the portions of the body and to 
identify the places where they fell. 
As these are said to be still held in 
high veneration, I record them for 
the instruction of the curious or the 
devout. 

1. The crown of the head at Hinguld 
(Hinglaj). 2. The three eyes at Sarka- 
rara. 3. The nose at Sugandhfi. 4. 



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314 

In the vicinifcy torch-like flames issue from the ground in some places, 
and others resemble the blaze of lamps.^ There is a concourse of pilgrims 
and various things are cast into the flames with the expectation of obtain- 
ing temporal blessings. Over them a domed temple has been erected aud 
au astonishing crowd assembles therein. The vulgar impute to miraculons 
agency what is simply the efEect of a mine of brimstone. 



The top of the neck at KiLsmira. 5. 
The tongue at Jwalamakhi. 6. Right 
breast at Jalandhara. 7. Heart at Vai- 
dyan&tha. 8. Knees at Nep^la. 9. 
Right hand at Minasa. 10. Kavel at 
Ukala. 11. Eight cheek at Ooi^daki. 
12. Left arm at Vahula. 13. Elbow 
at Ujjayani. 14. Right arm at Chat- 
t6la, Chandra^ekhara. 15. Right foot 
at Tripura. 16. Left foot at Tn>rota. 

17. rh alBoia at Eamagiri (K^mdkhya). 

18. Right great toe at Yug&djL 19. 
Other right toes at Kdlipi^ha (Kalighdt). 
20. Fingers at Pray&ga. 21. Thighs 
at Jajanti. 22. Earrings at Yar^nasi. 
23. Back of the trunk at Eamyi^rama. 
84. Right ankle at Ennikshetra. 25 
Wrists at Manivedaka. 26. Back of the 
neck at Srisaila. 27. Backbone at K^nchi. 
28. One hip at Kdlam&dhara. 29. Other 
hip at Narmadi. 80. Left breast at 
Ramag^ri. 31. Hairs of the head at 
Yrind&yana. 32. Upper row of teeth at 
$uchi. 83. Lower ditto at Panohasiga- 
ra. 34. Left talpa (shoalder-blade) at 
Earatoy^. 35. Right ditto at ^ripir. 
yatta. 36. Left ankle at Yibh^ha. 37. 
Belly at Prabasha. 88. Upper lip at 
Bhairavaparvata. 89. Chin at Jala- 
Bthata. 40. Left cheek at Qodavari. 41. 
Right shoulder at Ratndvali. 42. Left 
shonlder at Mithila. 43. Legbone at 
NaUp^ti. 44. Ears at Earmata. 45. 
Mind (?) at Yakre^vara. 46. Palm at 
Jasora. 47. Lower lip at A^^ahasa. 
48. Necklace at Nandipnra. 49. An- 
klets at Lanka. 50. Toes of left foot 
at Ylrdta. 51. Right leg at Magadha. 



• See Hugel's Travels in Eashmfr 
p. 42, for th is phenomenon. The text ha« 

JLr^t*^ for3.r*** ^ which is a lamp in the 
shape of a platter, three feet in height 
from the base, and about 6 inches 
diameter at the top; having in the 
middle a small tube with two holes 
through which the wick is fed by 

oil or grease ( *V ) kept in liquefao- 
tion by tl^e flame. This shrine is the 
famous Jwdldmukhi (mouth of Flame) 
distant two days' journey from Eangra* 
It is thus described by Tieffenthaler or 
Bernoulli for him. "Au milieu da 
temple, qui est entierement oeint de 
murailles, est un creuz long de li anne, 
de la memo largeur et de la meme pro- 
fondeur, d'ou s'elancent des flammes. 
On y jette du bois de Sandal, du riz, de 
I'huile, du beurre, du I'esprit de yin, des 
amandes et d'autres ohoses que le feu 
sduterrain consume et r^uit en cendres : 
les Gentils prennent eusuite ces oondrea, 
s'en frottent doucement les yeux et le 
front et les conservent dans leurs mu- 
Bons oomme des reliques sacr^s. De 
trois autres endroits creus^s dans le mar 
sortent encore des flammes brillantes ; 
le peuple superstitieux se prostement 
k la vue de ces flammes et adorent en 
suppliant la divinity qu'il oroit caohte 
sous la forme du feu. Autre fois il 
offroit k cette idole qui yomit des flam- 
mes, une tete coupee aveo nne serpe de 
yendangeur ; malt oela se pratique rare- 
ment aujourdhui. On monte i oe tarn- 



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316 

In the middle of Sindh Sdgar near Bhamsdhad is the cell of Bdln^th 
Jogi which they call Tilah Bdlndt\,^ Devotees of Hindastan regard it 
with yeneratioQ and Jogis especially make pilgrimage to it. Rock-salt is 
found in this neighhourhood. There is a mountain 20 kSs in length from 
which they excavate it, and some of the workmen carry it out. Of what is 
ohi4uned, three-fourt.hs is the share of those that excavate and one-fourth 
is allotted to the carriers. Merchants purchase it at from half to two 
ddiiM a man and transport it to distant countries. The landowner takes 
10 ddms for every carrier and the merchant pays a duty of one rupee for 
every 17 man to the state. From this salt artificers make dishes, dish- 
covers, plates and lamp-stands. 

The five Bodha of this province are subdivided into 234» parganahs. 
The measured land is one Wr, 61 lakhs, 55,643 Bighas, and 3 Biswas* 
The gross revenue is 55 hrdrs, 94 lahhs, 58,423 ddms, (Rs. 1,398,646-9-2), 
Of this 98 lakhs, 65,594 irfm^. (Rs. 246,639-13-7) are Suyurghdl. The 
local force consists of 54,480 Cavalry and 426,086 Infantry. 

Sarkdr of the Befl Jdlandhar Dodh. 

Containing 60 Mahals, 3,279,302 Bighas, 17 Biswas. Revenue 124,365,- 
212 Ddms in money. Suyurghdl 2,651,788 Ddms, Castes, various. Caval- 
ry, 4,155. Infantry 79,536. 



pie par an esoalier d*cnviroii 100 
inarches. Da sommet de la montagne 
ooale on raisaeaa qai se jette dans an 
bassin A pea de distance dn temple. Le 
troa par leqael la soaroe s'elanoe se 
nomne Qoree J>ebbi, oe qni signifie : la 
boStede Goreondt, parceqiiil s'asseyoit 
en oet endroit poor se Uvrer i la con- 
templation. La oontr^e dans laqnelle le 
temple est sita^ se nomme Radjcob^r 
et I'endroit a le nom de Tagrdta." See 
the I. G. nnder Jalandhar for the Jaw&la 
Mnkhi legend. 

^ General Canningham (Ancient Geog. 
of India, p. 164) says that the Tila range, 
30 miles in length, occupies the west 
tank of the Jhelam from the east bend 
of the river below Mangala to the bed 
of the Bonhar river, 12 miles north of 
JsUUpor. The full name is Gorakndth 
to Tila, the more ancient, Bdlnath lea Tila, 



both derived from the temple on the 
sammit dedicated to the Ban as Bilnnth, 
bat now devoted to the worship of 
Goraknath, a form of Siva. The name 
Bdlnath, he oonsiders older than the 
time of Alexander identical with Pin- 
taroh's Hill of the Elephant, but his 
inferences are more plausible than 
secure. 

* The spelling of this word has several 
variants, but its true orthography seems 
to be *^ "be^h." Sandy unpro- 
ductive soil. The I. G. interprets it 
equivalent to khddar, low alluvial soil 
and prodactive, but its fertility depends 
on the deposit of silt during inunda- 
tions, and thus both significations may 
hold good. General Canningham derives 
it from the " back " {pah) of the Daitya 
King Jalandhara who was crashed under 
Jawala Mukhi by Siva and whose torso 



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316 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Rerenne 
D. 


& 


i 


1 


Castes. 


Isllm^b&d, 


8,735 


458,122 




15 


200 


Afghin. 


Pafci Dhin<5V ... 


67,866 


8,601,678 


mfim 


80 


400 


N£r6, (Tar. 
M£rd.) 


Bhiingi, 


51,089-18 


2,760,580 


10,282 


20 


800 


Do. (yar. 

B4rad.) 
Kh6ri 


Bajwirah» 


12,868 


2,425,818 


689 


80 


200 














Wihah. 


Bhal<5ii, has a stone fort, ... 


82,761 


1,805,006 


• •• 


70 


1000 


DhAdwil 
(Tar. D<$al.) 


Barwab, 


18,611 


668,000 


• •• 


... 


••* 




P^Iakwih,' 


4,582 


200,000 


• .• 


... 


... 




BachhritV 


4,215 


160,000 




••• 


•(• 




Besili and Khat^h, 2 














Mahids,'^ 


11,405 


566,866 


.*• 


... 


•*• 




Taiwan, 


201,460 


6,780,887 


804,889 


70 


700 


Main.* 


Tatilrp^r, has a stone fort,... 


8,458 


170,388 


... 


... 


... 




JMandhar, has a briok fort, 


474,808 


14,751,626 


778,167 


100 


1000 


Afghin 
Lodhi, and 
Lobini, and 
Bangbar 
tribe. 


ChanWisi. 


96,880 


5,468,918 


255,516 


50 


1000 


Afghan. 


Jeort^ 


48,124 


2,474,854 


28,527 


50 


800 


BhattL 


Jas<5n B&Ukdti, has a stone 














fort, 


15,054 


600,000 


... 


50O 


8000 


Jaswil, 
called also 
Bikan^r. 


Chit<Sr or Chit<5r ,• 


•«. 


818,000 


... 


100 


2000 


SombansL 


Hajipdr Sdriyiinah, 


59,255 


2,698,874 


... 


... 


.*• 




Dddrak/ 


497,202.11 


9,707,993 


92ii58 


150 


4000 


Ebdri 

Wihah. 
Khokbai.* 


Desdbah, has a brick fort, ... 


157,962 


4,474,950 


67,249 




... 


Pa^jil, has a stone fort, ... 


84,150 


1,650,000 




800 


4000 


SastOiwiL 


Pifjlah, Do. 


80,218 


1,200,000 


... 


... 


„ 




Darparah, 


26,444 


900,000 




••. 


... 




Dardhi, 


15,054 


600,000 


••• 


100 


1000 


SombansL 


Ddnn&g<5r, 


11,490 


455,870 




• •• 


... 




Dhankali, 


1.880 


72,000 


••. 


... 


... 




Ba^m&b^d, ... 


8,750 


2,480,689 


18,681 


80 


200 


Eh6ri 
W4ah. 



lies nnder the npper part of the Doilb, 
and oonclndes characteristically that 
Akbar accepted this version by his ap- 
plication of the name. Andent G^eog. 
of India, p. 138. 

' Yar. Dhaniy&t. Compare these 
names, with the nominal list of Sarkdrs 
and Mahals of Labor nnder the ten 
years' rates. 

• Yar. Balnkw&h. PalkwArah. (T. 
do.). Bilkw&rah. Text-note says 
Pilakwih in maps is north of M4nsaw&l. 



* Text-note. In maps Baohhertd and 
in one MS. local force, 2 Cavalry, 10,000 
Infantry 

« Yar. BeUUi and Eb^sah. Bilssti 
and Eanab. 

* See Yol. I, p. 526, a snbdiv of 
Bangbar Eijputs. 

A Text note: in maps Chan^r near 
the B^. 
T At p. 110 Dirdak. 
» See Vol. I, p. 456. 



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317 





Bighas, 
Biswas. 


Beyenne 
D. 


& 


! 


s 


Castes. 


Bijp&rpatan, has a stone 














fort, 


... 


1.800,000 


.,, 




... 




Snl^iaptir, has a briok fort, 


101,865 


4,020,282 


405,830 


200 


1000 


Bhatti ' 




59,952 


2,538,225 


16,485 


50 


500 


Khdri 
Wdhah. 


Sakhet' Mandawi, has 














copper and iron mines, ... 


42,150 


1,680,000 


... 


100 


8000 


Sombansi. 


Sopftr, ... ••• 


24,588 


1,000,000 


... 


... 


2000 


Sasahwdl.* 


Sibah, has a stone fort, ... 


8,114.18 


800,000 


••• 


200 


2000 


Do. 


Soiiu, 


218,383* 


... 


••. 




... 




8haikhp6r, 


97,178 


4,722,604 


62,689 


150 


2000 


Bhaiiir 


Sher^h, 


8,640 


194,294 


... 


.•• 


... 




Iiupiir, ••. •.. 


... 


846,667 




... 


... 




K6thf, 


116,286 


5,546,661 


86;670 


80 


400 


Jat. 


GarhIKimb£hih.« 


58,088 


2,670,087 


4,580 


20 


200 


Jat. 


Ko|lah, 


42,152 


1,680,000 


•*. 


800 


4000 


Jasro^ah. 


Kotlahar, has a stone fort. 


82,982-16 


1,810,847 


... 


200 


8000 


Kotlahariah. 


Ehflo^dh&r, 


42,048-12 


48 ,000 


•*. 


..* 


... 


... .. 


Kh^6nkh^ri» has a stone 








under 




fort, 


6.021-16 


240,000 


..• 


Nakr6h 


Jasw&l. 


Oangd^ has a stone fort, 


6,021-16 


240,000 


... 


... 


... 


Do. 


Kh^rah, 


6»021.16 


240,000 


... 


20 


4000 


Sdrajbansi. 


Qhaw^n (var and G. 














Ghaw^s.) 


14,742-14 


586,906 


... 


... 


... 


•*. ».. 


Ufdhto, 


15,959-8 


536,414 


17,810 


... 


... 




Ulsangi, 


5,937 


236,850 


... 


... 


... 


... ••• 


Mitni Niiriah,* 


68,229 


21,061,665 


6,156 


20 


400 


Bhani- 


M^lsi. 


54,653-17 


1,828,559 


1,217 


20 


8000 


Baoghar, 

Jat. 
Banghar, 


Hi^ammadptir, 


88,281 


1,802,558 


10,558 


100 


lOOO 














Mafn.« 


Hinsawil, 


6,668 


286,667 


•>• 


... 


... 




MaMfe,' 


6,412 


4,603,620 


... 


... 


... 


... *. 


Han^hdfcah, ... 


18,280 


426,367 


... 


... 


... 


...«•• 


Nak<5dar, 


78,731 


8,710,796 


9,757 


20 


1000 


Main. 


Nankal, 


4,808 


267,270 


... 


... 


... 


... ... 


NaknSh,* 


82,642 


1,800,061 


... 


500 


6000 


Jaswil. 


Konangal, 


46,180 


2,315,868 


••• 


30 


300 


Balooh, Jat. 


Kand6n, 


188,439 


5,300,000 


... 


100 


1500 


Nagarkotiah. 


Harhanah with AkbardbM, 














2MahaU, 


626,889 


6,032,082 


49,650 


40 


406 


N&rii. 


Hadidbad, 


17,126 


619,467 


2,067 


... 


... 





' Yar. Saket, Text-note : in maps 
Sakefc and Mandl. 

' Yar. Sanahw&l, Sasnahw^l, Sinah- 
wti. 

* One MS. gives fchis as the revenue. 

* So in the MSS. bat text-note gives 
Garh Diwslah in maps: also in I. G. 
in Hoshlarpdr Dist 



• Var. Norbah, Nnrtah, Nurinah. 

• See Yol. 1, 526. 

^ Yar. Alhipdr Mal<5t. 

• Yar. Nakrddah: in the maps 
Nakrotah. 



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318 



Sarkdr of the Bdri Dodb, 

Gotitaining 52 Mahals. 4,5S0,002 Btghas, 18 Bisuhu. Revenue 
142,808,183 Ddma revenue in cash from crops charged at special rates 
and from land paying the general htgdh rate. SuyurghAl, 8,923,922 Dams. 
Castes, various. Cavalry, 31,055. Infantry, 129,800. 





Bighas, 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 




i 


f 


Castes. 


Anohharah, 




600,000 


60 


600 


Khokhar. 


Aiid6rah, 


26i781 


1,198,789 


7,6*24 


.•• 


••• 


— ... 


Abhipdr, 


•.. 


168,000 


«.. 


... 


... 


a...*. 


U'dar, 


•.• 


9,600 


••• 


... 


... 


..*..« 


Lahore city Baldah see Blliot 














p. 88* ••• ... 


••• 


8,912,600 


... 


6000 


4000 




PhnlwAri, 


4,727-10 


452,f>94 


143,956 


20 


100 


...... 


Ph6W, 


106,i63 


2,413,268 


18,268 


20 


100 


Sadh^I,* 
Bhalar. 
Khokhar. 


Panchgrimi, ••• 


65,657 


1,461,680 


78,177 


16 


1000 


Bbarli,' 


17,967 


4.060,607 


209,789 


... 


... 




Bhelwal, 


62,876 


8,181,699 


226,408 


20 


400 


Jat. 


Pati Haibatpdr,* 


1,676,633 


28,896,880 


284,647 


700 


10,000 


Jat. 


Batdlah, 


616,479 


16,820,998 


266,863 


200 


6000 


BhaUl.Jat. 


Pa(b4n, has a briok fort. ... 


199,872 


7,297,016 


97,016 


250 


2000 


Brihmaii. 


Panitt, 


66,789 


4,266,000 


276,091 


160 


400 


Jat Khatiib. 


Bi6b, 


60,623 


3,822,266 


8,976 


200 


2000 


Bhatti. 


Babidnrpiir, 


11,489 


447,760 


... 


... 




.. ..• 


Talwirah, 


6,384 


614,666 


10,864 


20 


200 


Ba^^Wl. 


Thandd^ 


26,222 


610,064 


8,284 


20 


600 


Afghin. 


OhandWin, 


7,194-10 


863,668 


... 


20 


100 


Jat, Sindhl 


Oh&rb^h Barhi, 


218 


68,602 


.*• 


... 




....•• 


Jamftri (Tar. ChanUri), 


260,614 


8,813.140 


809,090 


200 


2000 


Khokhar. 


JaUlibdd, 


162,068 


6,168,119 


80,466 


800 


4000 


Afghin, Jat, 
Bhatti. 


Ghbat and Amb^lah, 2 














MahaU, 


... 


2,800,000 


•*• 


60 


500 


BijpiLt S<$m. 
bansi. 


Jafgar,* 


..» 


46,600 


••• 


*.. 


..• 


*•.... 


KhiDpiir, 


... 


280.088 


t.t 


80 


600 


Khokhar. 


Dibbawttah, ... 


121,496 


6,282,189 


67,674 


100 


8000 


Jat. 


Dahm6rf,» 


... 


1,600,000 


••• 


60 


1300 




Darwab, 


... 


240,000 


... 


60 


600 B&jp6t Som. 
bo^si. 



* Text-note suggests 8%ndhu, as that 
and Bhalar are two among the very 
nnmsrons septs of the Jat tribe. 

* Yar. Kharli in nominal list of Mahals 
of this Subah under ten jears Rates 
which ee. 

' See Cnnningham, Ano. Geog. of 
liidia, p. 201. 



* Yar. Jafkar, Hankar, Chankar. 
G. Jntker. 

' Now known as N6rp6r, according to 
a text-note, having been so called in the 
reign of the Emperor Jah&ngir. 



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319 





Blgbas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


CQ 


1 


f 


Castes. 


Darwah, Digar,* 




24,000 




.•• 




■ 


Sankhi Arwal, ... 


10,874 


544,146 


19,418 


10 


ioo 


Arwal. 


Biadh6w&ii, 


263,402 


5,854,649 


12,700 


200 


400 


Jat Sindhfi. 


Lahore anbnrbs, 


11,401 


674,053 


202,800 


•.• 


• •* 


...... 


Shibpttr, 


42,899 


8,882,285 


126,720 




... 


*•• ... 


Sh&T)dr, 


... 


480,000 


... 


... 




...... 


Ghnrbatriwan," 


7,891.18 


411,986 


68,108 


20 


100 


Jat Sindhii 


Kastir, 


269,466 


8,916,606 


28,124 


800 


4000 


Bhatti. 


Kalinfir, 


286,082 


8,829,111 


447,639 


150 


1500 


Jat, Ba]^lcti. 


Kao!» Wihan, ... 


68,608 


8,611,499 


127,666 


50 


600 


Khokhar, 
Bakh&i.* 


Khokhowfl,* ... 


75,194 


8,475,610 


8,510 


20 


500 


Jat. 


Gwtiijar, 


66,289 


2,648,000 


8,000 


100 


8000 


Rajptit 
Sombansi. 














E&Dgr&li> has a stone fort, ... 


... 


2,400,000 


... 


2400 


29,000 


S6mbansi. 


Eotlah, 


•.. 


182,618 


•*• 


••. 


•*• 




Kark&rion, ... ... 




16,000 


... 


... 


... 


• .... 


Malik Shih, .. 


28,684-9 


1,476,662 


52,288 


10 


100 


Bhandil, 
(Tar. Bba« 


Han and Kab4k,« 2 MaJuHs. 




2,400,000 


.•• 


800 




d&I.) 
B4ipdt. 


Mahr<$r, 


... 


24,000 


... 


... 


• •• 




Hoehiir Karnilah,* 


22,225 


489,872 


... 


20 


400 


Jat. 


Palam, > 
Patiy^, 
Bhatti, 
JarjiyaV ^ 


These fonr par- 
gnnaks, are now 
abandoned. 


... 
••• 


9,600 
... 


••• 
••• 

••• 


... 


... 


... ... 



SarJcdr of the Bechndu Dodh. 

Gontainii^ 57 Mahals. 4,253,148 Bighas^ 3 Bitwas, Beyenne, 
172,047,691 Dams. Suyurghdl, 2,684,134 Bdms, Castes, various. Cavalry, 
6,795. Infantry, 99,652. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenne 
D. 


2 


f 

50 
500 


1 

a 

1000 
5000 


Castes. 


Amriki Bhatti, 

Lands of Biigh Rae Bochah. 

Uminib&d, has a brick fort. 


70,752-8 

2,683 
616,676-4 


1,942,606 

62,887 

24,868,006 


8,678 
498i480 


BhatKi. 

Khokh^, 
Chimah* 
&o. 



' Yar. D^ar, Darodah Digar. 
■ Var. Gharibrawan. 
' Text-note, suggests Baghela. 
♦ Var. and G. Qhoghowtt. 



' Yar. Dhanah, Banah, in map Ombah 
sonth of N6rp<ir. 
« Yar. Kariilah, Karbdlah. 
' Yar. Jarjar. 
• See 7ol. I, 456, n. 2. 



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820 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 




1 


i 


Castes. 


Panohnagar/ ... 


81,741 


1,181,266 


27,879 


60 


500 


Jat. 


Parsardr, (I. G. Paerdr), ... 


609,858.4 


27,978,588 


486,551 


20C 


4000 


Jat. B&j<$h^ 
T^lah&a 


Badilbhandil* ... 


28,752-18 


1,611,882 


46,979 


... 


... 





Pati Zafarw&l, has a fort, ... 


6,108,148 


8,697,888 


160,865 


60 


2000 


Jat, Bhdl. 

«5n.* 
K6irL 


Pati Tarmali,* 


29,066 


526,968 


... 


20 


400 


Bhaldfc, 


20,812.10 


818,182 


••• 


100 


2000 


Manhis.t 


Bhadrin,7 situate on a hiU, 


... 


240,000 


... 


60 


4000 


Do. 


BaUwarahy 


6,021.6 


240,000 


... 


60 


3000 


BaliwaHah. 


Bh^tiyal, 


2,407-18 


96,000 


••• 


80 


1000 


Bhfitiyttah. 


Ban, 


1,846-19 


48,000 


„ 


100 


4000 


Manh^ 


T4ral, 


88,669-8 


2,144,946 


8,400 


160 


2000 


Jat,TiraL 


Tal6ndi, 


96,698-17 


1,678,207 


8,792 


80 


800 


Jat 


Chimah Ghatah, 


96,698 


5,878,691 


26,489 


100 


1000 


Ohimah 
Ghatah. 


Gbandanwarak, (var. 














darak), 


81,426-6 


4,128,881 


80,671 


60 


160 


Jat.Warak. 


Ohho^4liAr> 


22,858-5 


1,891,692 


••• 


«.. 


... 




JaH4ha4i,S ... 


12,474 


815,687 


81,135 


... 


... 




Ghanfwat, has a brick^ fort. 


154,164 


2,806,869 


190,062 


500 


6000 


Jat, 

Jab6har.'« 


Jammii, situate at the foot 














of a hill, and a stone fort, 














above it,ll ... 


19,829-11 


3,966,000 


••• 


1000 


20,000 


Manhls. 


Jasr6t^ (in one MS)) 
in another j 


150,480 


\ 
1,150,000/ 


... 


400 


6000 




480-19 


... 


... 


... 


... ••• 


Chari Champ&,«* 


6,021-6 


240,000 


... 


100 


1000 


Gwil^rL 


H&fiz&bild, 


169,499 


4,548,000 


48,000 


160 


160 


Jat Balhant 
(Bhalar.) 


The lands of Ehinpdr, 


402 


27,028 


... 


... 


••• 


•••••• 


Danlatpiir, 


4,779-10 


115,050 


... 


... 


... 


..•••a 


D&dd Bhandill Barhi, 


28,142 


1,725,089 


287,082 




... 


.. ... 


DanlatiblMl, ... 


14v868 


241,740 


••• 


io 


100 


JatSaUh, 
(▼ar.Sad.) 


Btipnagar, 


6,706 


410,618 


... 


••. 


... 


...a.. 


Binhi, 


58,850-8 


276,650 


6,461 


... 


... 


Brihman, 
B&ghbfiaa 


Reohni, 


180,207 


8,680,742 


442,082 


700 


7000 


S&hiimali, 


152,891 


5,574,764 


18,853 


40 


1200 


...... 


Sidhpfir, 


108,923 


8,127,212 


76,972 


100 


2000 


Jat, Marili. 



1 Yar. and G. Bijnagar. 
8 Yar. Bijrah and BeUh, Mah6d and 
Salah. 
» Yar. Bad6bindM. 
4 Yar. Bholrin, Bhodwan. 

6 Yar. Barmali. 

« Yar. Balinis, Balihis, Malhis. 

7 Yar. Bhadin. 

« Yar. Jtti4ha4i, Jlfidhary, Habddhadi, 
G. Jeodherj. 



9 Yar. Stone. 

10 Yar. Janbiihar, Habdhar. 

11 The town and palaoe stand on the 
sonth bank of tke river T&yi a tribataiy 
of the Ghenab ; the fort overhangs the 
left or east shore at an elevation of 160 
feet above the stream, I. G. 

18 Yar. and G. Charijini. 



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321 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Beyenne 
D. 


1' 


! 


1 


Castes. 


8i£Ik<5|, is sitnate on the 














edge of a ridge on the 














banks of the Aik torrent, 














has a brick fort, 


102,085 


82,090,792 


184,806 


600 


7000 


Jat, Gha- 
manL and 
Chimah. 


Sahajrio,^ 


6,627-7 


862,826 


4,808 


100 


1000 


Ohimah. 


86dharah, on the Ghenilb, 














has a high briok minaret, 


121,721.1 


7,096,710 


99,781 


too 


1000 


Do.» 


Shinzdah Hinjrio,^ 


64,140 


1,636,480 




60 


1000 


Jat. HinjWLo.l> 


§h6r, 


107,347 


2,278,940 


6i061 


1000 


6000 


Jat, Lang&h, 
Saniwal 
(Sahiwal). 


Patt^ Bhandal Barhi, 


7,826-7 


618,917 


6,842 


... 


... 




Fa«Ub4d, 


2,116-7 


186,628 


... 


... 


... 




GobindwAl, 


66,069 


1,268,957 


194,622 


60 


800 


Orak and 

Jat. 
K4mw*l (var. 


K£thoh4h, 


126,698-12 


5,888,264 


... 


20 


10,000 














Kihwil.) 


Gnjrin Barhi, ... 


2,681-14 


670,986 


11,787 


••. 


••* 




5»%ind 


2,801-19 


208,964 


21,702 


... 


••• 




Kamari,^ commonly called 














Sanii, 


27,666-4 


1,600,000 


••* 


100 


800 




Kharli Tarli, ... 


... 


768,000 


••• 


*•• 


... 




Lakhn<5r, 


17,169-1 


681,818 


... 




... 




Manga|wilah, ... 


181.688 


8,819,690 


67,788 


60 


800 


Jat. 


Mn^ammad Ban Ddkr&o, ... 


16,661-6 


1,127.908 


8,367 


... 


.. 


Jat. 


Mahrdr, 


102,686-4 


8,005.602 


6,602 


6 


500 


Brahman. 


Mcngn, 


62,293 


1,476,225 


6,748 


20 


1000 


SilhAriya and 


Mank<5(, inclndes 4 towns 












G6jar. 


each with a stone fort, ... 


1,312 


85,119 


... 


80 


1200 


Manhas. 


Wan, 


140,234 


871,653 


20,278 


50 


1000 


Jarak7Silhar. 


Haminagar, 


141,063 


8,391,087 


59,641 


80 


1000 


Jat. 


Hantiy£l, (var. Hatiyal;, ... 


6,201-6 


240.000 


... 


80 


200 


Hatiyilah. 



Ohenhat {JecK) Dodb. 

ContainiDg 21 Mahals, 2,633,210 Btghas, 5 Bistoas. Revenue, 04,502,- 
394 Ddms. Suyurghdl 511,070 Ddms. Castes, various. Cavalry, 3,730. 
Infantry, 44,200. 



1 Tar. Khams, Kiman, 
• Var. Sajhrio, Sanjr&o. 
3 Var. Jat. Mahjriio. 
^ Var. Shihz^dah Sanjr&r, Shihzadah 
Hinirio, Shanzdah Sinjr&o, (Do. G.). 

41 



^ Var. MahjdU), Sinjr&o, Hijr^o. 

6 Var. Karbari, called Sanibil, Saniir 
S^si. 

7 Khirak Sihari4, Hirak. 



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322 





Bigbas 
Biswas. 


Berenoe 
D. 


OQ 


! 


1 

t-H 


Castes. 


Andarhal, 


81,070 


485,418 


... 




... 


Gakkbar(Bee 
Vol.I.466l. 


Akhand6r Amb^an, 


9,866.5 


892,000 


.*• 


800 


3000 


Manhis. 


Bb^rah, on tbe banks of the 














Bhimbar,! ... 


912,107-7 


19,910,000 


53,560 


700 


10,000 




Bahl61pdr, on tbe banks of 














tbe rirer Ohenab, 


170,607 


3,830,575 


10,583 


100 


500 


Jat. 


B61e't, 


8,748 


400,080 


... 


60 


300 




Bbimbar, sitnated on tbe 














banks of the stream, 


28,668 


1,200,000 


... 


... 


•** 




Bhadd, 


4,717 


192,000 


••• 


80 


1200 


Jat, Bband. 


Biibati, 


2,874 


57,222 


... 


10 


100 


Manghar- 
Khokhar. 


Bdadand Dndiy&l,* 2 MahaU, 


27,421 


735,741 


... 


200 


800 


Shdrpdr, 


169,874 


8,121,646 


8,497 


100 


1000 


Jat,Khokar, 
Jand^r. 


fihakarpAr, 


7,684 


1,050,819 




... 




Gnjrit, 


285,094 


8,266,150 


... 


120 


icioO 




KaHydli, 


67,818 


2,643,270 


6.633 


100 


2000 




Khokhar, has a briok fort ... 


92,826 


2,820,594 


58,410 


100 


1000 


Kbokar. 


Ghari, on the rirer Bihat, ... 


20,176 


1,506,241 


... 


20 


2000 


Do. 


L<516r, separated from Khu- 














shib, 


192,268 


8,746,166 


11,290 


200 


2000 


Khokhar and 

Mikan.fr 
Manblb. 


Manrfi, 

Mal6( Rl(e Eed&ri, situate 


2,839 


432,000 




400 


2000 














on a bill, 


17,007 


370,549 


... 


40 


400 


Mangfaar- 


Hareo, 


247,878 


9,150,828 


76,321 


300 


3000 


Tat, Bar. 
wanij. P 


Haziirah, has a brick fort, ... 


270,892 


4,689,136 


219,636 


700 


3000 


Jat, Khokar 
Baranij? 



Sindh Sdgar Bodh. 

Containing 42 Mahals, 1,409,929 Bighas, Revenne, 51,912,201 B6m», 
Swyurghdl, 4,680 Ddms, Castes, varions. Cavalry, 8,553. Infantry, 69,700. 



1 See p. 180, Bberab is on the left 
bank of the Jbelom. The Bhimbar 
torrent rising in the second Himalayan 
range flows within 4 miles N. W. of 
Gujr&t and e^entnally joins the Jaldlia 
ndld a branch of tbe Cbenab. I. G. 



S Var. Bh^w^, Bhadw^L 

8 Var. Sakkarwil. 

4 Var. DndwAl. 

^ Var. Sakan, Masin. 



Digitized by 



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823 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Berenve 
D. 


}' 


1 

5 


^ 


Castes. 


AkbarfWid Tarkhiri,* 


204,881 


5,491,738 


»»• 


2000 


16,000 


Gakkhar. 


Atak Ben&res (Attook), ... 


6,418 


3,202,216* 


••• 


1000 


6000 


Ehatar, 
called also 
SaUsah.* 


Aw6n, here are hones of good 














breed,* 


10,096 


415,970 


».. 


60 


600 


Awfcn. (See 
Vol. I. 466, 
n. and I. GK 
under 


Paharh&lab, baa a stone fort, 












Haz&ra). 


below the fort rans the 














river Sowiri* (Sohin), ... 


192.247 


6,158,109 


•»• 


... 


... 




Ba GhiMi Khio, 


^7,426 


820,000 


«•• 


100 


1600 


Jindbah 
(Janjiiah, 
see Vol. I, 
456) 


B&laKbanar, ... 


5,825 


1,000,040 


•*. 


20 


100 


Kha^tar. 


Para« Khat^ar, ... 


1,196 


48,000 


,,, 


.1. 


... 




BaWkidban, 


7,679 


1,316,801 


... 


100 


600 


Gakkhar. 


Tbarohak' D6mi, 


6,082 


260,676 


• ». 


100 


1000 


Do. 


Saborban district of Rohtas, 














has a stone fort, beneath 














wbioh flows the Knhin 














8tream,8 


120,884 


60,403,140 


67,062 


600 


3000 


Gakkhar, 


Ehnshib, sitaate near the 












Bagiy&I. 


riyer Bihat (Jhelnm) the 














greater part is jungle, ... 


73,086 


2,702,609 


.*• 


600 


7000 


AfghAn 
Niyazi* and 
Isii Kh^l. 


Din Gari, 


147,647 


8,801,201 


••* 


1600 


10,000 


Gakkhar. 


Dbanko^ sitoato on the banks 














of the riyer Mihran, vit., 














Indos, has a salt mine, ... 


8,927 


480,000 


••• 


160 


4000 


Awlm. 



1 Var. Barkheri. In maps Tark Pari. 

• Ferry receipts. 

* Tar. Karaa called HaUsah, Salisah, 
Salanah. For Khatar, see Vol. I, 466. 

* The text has ic^^ marked as doubt- 
fol bat the variants incorrect and un- 
meaiiiBg as they are, confirm Tieffentha- 
ler*8 reading of ^3 *T**** " ohevanx de 
bonne race." 

^ Var. Sowli. T. Soi hat there can be 
no doaht the Soh^n is meant which rising 
in the Mnrree Hills passes, according 
to the I. G. '* near the mined Ghakkar 
fortress at Pharwala.** 

• Var. Para, Bhiro, Text note. " Khd- 



tar " now comprises Harri Kba^^r and 
NAla Khatlar. 

• Var. Bharchak. 

• The fort boilt by Sh^ Shih as a 
check on the Gakkhar tribes, now in 
picturesque ruin. It is situated in the 
Salt Bangre on a gorge overlooking the 
Kuhin Nadi 11 miles north-west of 
Jhelum town. The walls extend for 
three miles and encircle the rooks which 
command the entrance of the pass. 
Some parts have a thickness of from 80 
to 40 feet. One gateway still remains 
in excellent preservation. I. G. 

• See Vol. I, p. 484, and under Kibol 
of this volume. 



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324 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenae 
D. 


1 


1 


1 


Castes. 


Darband, (here two nnintel- 














ligible words), 


... 


8,100,000 
in money. 


... 


20 


600 


J£n6hah 
(Janj^ah). 


DhadLb, 


2,880 


96,000 


... 


20 


160 


Do. 


Diidwat, 


2,830 


96,000 


... 


20 


300 


Do. 


Reshin, 


1,196 


92,496 


... 


10 


200 


Awan. 


Shamaabdd, ... 


24,664 


7,084,608 


... 


60 


600 


Gakkhar, 
(var. Kho- 


Patau fvar. Bat4U, MiHi, 












khar). 


Shambdla), ... 


11,146 


624,000 


... 


100 


1600 


Jindhah. 


Fatebpur Eilaari (yar. Ka- 














nanri and T.), 


167,042 


4,261,881 


... 


600 


10,000 


Gakkhar. 


Knlbhalak, 


40,918 


2,888,268 


♦ 18,176 


80 


200 


Balooh 


Gh^b (var. Kh^t, Kh^a, 














Khep), 


16,961 


984,161 


... 


800 


1200 


Kha^tar(aio). 


Khir Darwizah, 


4,816 


24,641 


... 


60 


800 


Jin<5hah. 


Kirjhdk/ 


21,491 


961,766 


*•• 


100 


1500 


Do. 


Kach^kof, one hds distant 














from this parganah is the 
















6,826 


840,000 


••• 


60 


2000 


Rliwalah 
Tarin 
Aff?hin. 


K&hwan, has a stone fort, ... 


4,660 


192,000 


... 


10 


200 


Jindhah. 


Kambat, 


2,880 


96,000 


... 








Langahtiydr, (var. G. SiyAr). 


2,380 


96,000 


... 


io 


100 




Mdkhiillah, has a stone fort 














on a hill— there is scarcity 














of water — has a salt mine 














and a shrine, 


9,820 


834,000 


*" 


100 


1600 


J&n<5hah. 



* Said by Cunningham, (Anct. Geog., 
p. 168 and prononnoed Qirjhah) to be 
the Hindu name for Jaldlpiir, the pro- 
bable site of the famous oity of Bokephala 
built in memory of Alexander's horse. 

* This well-known village lies on the 
road between Rawal Pindi and Peshawar 
which with its ruins, says the I. Q., 
forms part of a group of ancient oities 
lying round the site of the ancient 
Taxila. Hwen Thsang the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrim of the 7th Century A. D. 
visited the tank of the Serpent King, 
Elapatra, identified with the spring of 
Bilb& WaU (£andah4ri) or Panja Sahib. 
The fountain is hallowed by legends of 
Buddhist, Brahman, Moslem and Sikh. 



The shrine of Panja S&hib crowns a 
precipitous hill about one mile east of the 
town, and at its foot is the holy tank, a 
small square reservoir, full of fish. De- 
lapidated briok temples surround the 
edge and on the west side the water 
gushes out from beneath a rock made 
with the representation of a baud, 
ascribed by the Sikhs to their founder 
Bihi N&nak. The scenery is extremely 
picturesque ; the river Haroh hard by 
affords excellent fishing, and on its near 
shore two ancient cypresses are the 
only epitaph above the tomb of one of 
Akbar*s wives. For KachakSt^ see Cun- 
ningham, Anot. Geog., p. 116. 



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325 









9 




1 
1 




Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 




! 


s 


Castes. 


Marfi], at the foot of a 












moantain, 


6,826 


240,000 


••• 


16 


600 




Maldt, has a stone fort on a 














hill. 


3,286 


183,238 


... 


10 


200 


Janohah. 


Nandanpur, has a brick fort 














on a hill, 


40,997 


24,110 


4,110 


20 


160 


Do. 


Nil&b, (Indos) land included 














under (Attock) Benares.... 


8,787 


481,306 


,, 


... 


,,, 












under 




N£rwi, on the Sind, 


997 


38,' 91 


• •* 


Akbarabid. 


Gakkhar. 


K6k<58ira1 Khat^ar, 


926 


38,096 


*•> 


10 


60 


Kha^tar. 


Hazirah JS^arla)^/ 


214,932 


1,806,312 


6,342 


100 


600 


Afghan. 


HatijIffLang, ... 


7,281 


800,000 


•*• 




••• 


Bhakar bar- 
khatri (with 
illegible 
variants.) 


HazArah G^idkn, 


6,676 


280,890 




under 












Akbaribid. 




Himmat Khin Karmun, ... 


166 


48,000 


... 


Do. 


Gakkhar. 



Beyond the Five rivers (Birun i Panjnad^). 



Bel6t, 
Sahldr, 

Kahl6r, (Punjdb Hill State), 



Bfghas 
Biswas. 



Revenue 
D. 



822,740 
1,700,000 

1,800,000 



1= 



100 

40 

50 



I 



10,000 
700 

1000 



Castes. 



Baloch. 
Chandel and 
others. 
Do. 



Suhah of MuUdn, 

It is situated in the first, second and third climates simultaneously. 
Before Tattah was comprised in this province, its len^^fth from Firozpur 



» Var. and G. FariV- Var. and T. 
^ara^. 

* The valley of the Jhelum takes the 
name of THindh (Three rivers) after 
its junction with the Chen&b and the 
R&vi and that of Panjnad (Five rivers) 
after receiving the united waters of the 
Beas and Sutlej. I. G. This restricted 
signification cannot here apply. Certain 



outlying portions beyond the limits of 
the Punjab Proper were evidently 
attached to the S'&bahs of Labor and 
Mult6n and to the aarkar of Dipalpur 
and were denominated — Bird/n i Panjnad. 
Their position may be surmised but 
assurance is perhaps beyond reach. The 
first two of these three names I cannot 
satisfactorily trace. 



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326 



and Sewistdn, was 403 kos and its breadth from B^atpur^ to JaiscUmtr, 108 
kos, but since its inclusion, it measures to Kkach (Qanddv&) and Mekrdn, 
660 kos. On the east, it marches with the Sa^hdr of Sirhind ; on the 
north with Sh6r ; on the south, with the 8ibah of Ajmer^ and on the west, 
with Khach and Mekrdn. For &cility of reference, the two territories are 
separately described. Its principal rivers are the six already mentioned. 
The Bihat (Jhelum) Joins the Ohendh near the parganah of Shor and after 
a course of 27 kSs, they unite with the Bayi at Zafarpur and the three 
flowing collectively in one stream for 60 kos, enter the Indus near Ifch, 
Within 12 kos oi Firozpi^r, the Bidh joins the Sutlej which then bears several 
names, w., -Har, Hor*, Dand, Numi,* and in the neighbourhood of 



1 Khatpiir is placed by Abal Faal in 
the Baohna Doib and by Tieffenthaler 
aa the first stage in a journey from 
Labor to Multdn. " On passe en venant 
de Lahore par Kabpur, Gazafsaray, 
Kosohhara, Satghara, Harpam, Mak- 
tonnpour, Kanpour d'on Ton se rend tout 
droit a Houltan/' 

« The text diffidently forms two name? 
of these four, vi»., Harhiri, Dandnumi 
but the authority of the two best MSS* 
(relegated to the notes) divideathem. 
One at least of these names, Dand, still 
lives in the local designation of a former 
bank of the Sutlej, whose shifting course 
has modified the a«pect of the ^country. 
One ancient bed, forming the base of the 
segment where the Sutlej after its junc- 
tion with the Beis curves round to the 
south-west is called the Sukhar Nai (I. 
G.) which crotaes the district east to west 
and joins the modefn channel near the 
borders of Sirsa. The Danda bank points 
to a still more ancient course crossing 
the south-west comer 35 miles east of 
the present stream, traceable as far as 
Moodkee and thence at intervals to the 
Sutlej 15 miles farther north. The old 
beds of the Bdvi and BeAs which former- 
ly united their waters much lower down, 
at present may be traced through a 
great part of the BAri Doib. (I. G.) 
Tieifenthaler transforms the whole river 



system locating the eonfluenoe of tfae 
Bivi and the Galongara (his local name 
for the Sutlej augmented by the Befis) 
within 8 miles of Uoh and that of the 
Ghenib and B^vi at a town named " SoK 
tanpour," otherwise called ** Noschahra," 
near which the B&vi, joined by the Sutlej 
and Be&s falls into and loses its name 
in the Chenib, and this river, now hold- 
ing the Jhelum, B&vi, Sutlej and Beis, 
continues to retain its own. See the 
ancient courses of these rivers in Can* 
ningham's Ancient Geography of India, 
p. 220, et aeq. General Cunningham bases 
bis discussion on Gladwin's translatioa, 
vit., * For the distance of 17 h6s from 
Feerozpoor, the rivers Bey ah and Sete* 
Inj unite : aod then again as they pass 
along, divide into 4 streams, vi>., the 
Hur, Haray, Dund and the Noomy: 
and near the city of Multin these 4 
branches join again," and says that these 
beds still exist but their names are lost* 
Now Abul Fazl does not say that the 
Sutlej divides into 4 streams, but that 
it bears several names. I have been 
careful to be exactly literal in my ver- 
sion. The difficulty lies in the meaning 

of the words *^***' j^ Vi)T«^, " nnites 
with those four** Gladwin understands 
the four which he divides, but there is 
no other tradition of their uniting near 
MultAn, and the Danda and the Sukhar 



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327 

MuUdn, confluent with the former four, thoir aocnmalated waters unite. 
Erery river that discharges itself into the Indus takes its name of Sindh, 
In Tattah, they call it Mihran.^ 

To the north are the mountains. Its climate is similar to that of 
Lahor which it resembles in many aspects, but in Mult&n, the rainfall is 
l«gs and the heat excessive. 

Multdn is one of the oldest cities of India : Long. 107'' 35' ; Lat. 29'' 52'*. 
U has a brick fort and a lofty minaret adds to its beauty. Shaikh Bahd- 
u^dcUn ZakaHyd and many other saints here repose. 

Bhakkar (Bhukkur) is a notable fortress ; in ancient chronicles it is 
oalled Manfurah.^ The six rivers united roll beneath it, one channel 



Nai oertunly do not, for they strike the 
riYer at different points moch higher up. 
Abnl Fazl is describing the rivers water- 
ing the liolt&n Sdbah. He says they 
are the six previously mentioned, vm.» 
under Lahor. He first speaks of the 
Jhelum and the Ohen&b and follows them 
to their jonotion with the SHvi and then 
to their meeting with the Indus. Here 
are four. He now turns to the Beds and 
Sutlej which join near Firozpur and the 
stream after bearing several names be- 
comes confluent with " those four'' near 
Multiuif not, I consider, with the four local 
names, even were they separate beds, 
bat with the four that complete the six. 
The doubt arises why he should place 
the junction near Mult&n instead of Uch, 
bat this is not surprising to any one ac- 
oostomed to his obscure and vague style 
of narrative. Moreover the passage in 
the toxt resembles a notice of these six 
rivers in Saber's Memoirs to which Abul 
Facl was much indebted in the prepara- 
tion of this third book of the Ain. The 
passage is as follows : I use the trans- 
lation of Erskine. "To the north of 
Behrend, six rivers, the Bind, the Behat, 
the Ohenftb, the lUlvi, the Biih, and 
the Setlej, take their rise in these moun. 
tains, and all uniting with the Sind in 
the ten%U>ry of Multdn, take the com- 
mon name of Sind, which flowing down 



to the west, passes through the country 
of Tatta, and disembogues into the 
sea of Oman." Further the division of 
the Sutlej into the four local streams does 
not alter its point of junction with the 
Ghen4b for at p. 222, Cunningham says 
that Abul Fasl's measurements of dis- 
tances from the confluence of the Ohen^b 
and Jhelum to that of the Chen^b and 
Bdvi and the Ghen&b and Indus agree 
with the later state of these rivers. 

1 The main stream of the Indus. 
See its course and the names of its chan- 
nels in Cunningham's Ancient Geography 
of India, pp. 252, 272, 286, 298, &o. The 
Indus is called the Mihr^ by Ibn 
Haukal but his information leads him 
to believe that its source is the Oxus 
from whence passing Multlin and being 
joined by the Sind ! at three marches 
from that town falls into the sea at 
Dambal (Debal;. Ousely, p. 165. 

« Properly 80** 12' N. Long. 71** 80* 
W. Tieff . gives the longitude from the 
Fortunate Islands at 108° but this he 
considers excessive. Bah^u'ddin is 
mentioned in Vol. I, 899, and Ferishta's 
monograph of the saint will probably 
satisfy his modem disciples. 

8 After the decline of the Arab power 
in Sind about A. D. 871, two native 
kingdoms raised themselves at Multiin 
and Mansurah. The former comprised 



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328 



passing the southern face of the fort, the other the northern. The rainfall 
is inconsiderable, the fruits excellent. 

Between Siwi^ and Bhakkar is a vast desert, over which for three 
months of the hot season the simoom blows. 

The river 8%nd (Indus) inclines every few years alternately to its 
southern and northern banks and the village cultivation follows its course. 
For this reason the houses are constructed of wood and grass. 

This Suhah comprises three Sarkdrs of 88 parganahs, all under assess- 
ment for crops paying special rates. The measured land is 3,273,932 
big has, 4 biswas. The gross revenue is 15 krorSf 14 lakhs, 3,619 dams, 
(as. 378,590-8-0), of which 30 lakhs, 59,948 dams (Rs. 76,498-11-2), are 
Suyurghdl. The local Militia consists of 18,785 Cavalry and 165,650 
Infantry. 

Sarkdr of Multdn. Four Dodbs. 

Containing 47 Mahals, 558,649 Btghas, 4 Biswas. Revenue, 53,916,318 
Ddms. Suyurghdl, 6,494,236 Dams. Cavalry, 8,965. Infantry, 90,650. 

Bet Jdlandhar Bodb. 
Containing 9 Mahals, 52,090 Btghas. Revenue, 17,240,147 Ddms. 



Cavalry, 1,410. 


Infantry, 17,100. 














••> 


Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenae 
D. 




! 

o 

80 
10 


1 

t-H 


Castes. 


Adamwihan,* ... 
JaUldbdd, 


5,886 
5,000 


869,445 
299,798 


... 


700 
200 


Qasar.S 
Bhim. 



the apper valley of the Indus as far as 
Alor; the latter extended from that 
town to the sea and nearly coincided 
with the modem province of Sind. 
Alor, or Aror, the capital, almost rivalled 
Malt6n and had an extensive commerce. 
I. G. Genl. Cunningham (Ancient Geog.) 
gives the name of Man^iarah to the 
town fonnded, according to Masaddi, by 
Jamhur, the Moslem governor of Sindh, 
and named after his own father Man^iir, 
so close to Brahman&bid as to be regard- 
ed as the same place. His learned dis- 
onssion depends too much on analogies 
of sound iu names, to be quite convincing. 



See, also, Mansiira in Elliot's Arabs in 
Sind, p. 50, et seq. 

1 Siwi, Sewist&n, and Sehwin ate 
constantly confounded or mistaken as 
Elliot remarks without, however, him- 
self determining the position of the 
first which is a town or the geog^phical 
limits of the second which is a pro- 
vince. Siwi is somewhat south of the 
direct line between Dera Ghaxi Khia 
and Quetta, now well known as Sibi. 
Vol. I, p. 862, 84we. 

2 Var. and G. D&man. 

3 Var. Jhhar, Chhar. 



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32d 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


BeTenue 
D. 


1 
1 


1 


1 

t-H 

400 


Castes. 


bunyapdr. 


27,889 


1,876,862 


11,998 


50 


irki,» Rind. 


RAjp6r, 


1,368 


90,397 


... 


20 


300 


Jdnah. 


^hhg0fh, 


75,000 


6,741,200 


... 


400 


4000 


Kacbhi, 
Jdnah, 
Bik^nah/ 


























MaUb. 


Pattpfip, 


61,797 


4,008,661 


24,696 


500 


5000 


J(inah. 


Kahrdr,* 


47,695 


806,866 


40,981 


100 


8000 


Jdnah. 


Kliaibul^,^ ... 


80,411 


594,288 


... 


200 


... 


Jat and an- 
other name 
illegible. 


Ghalu* Kb£rah, 


18,810 


1,201,086 


*•. 


100 


2000 


Kaln, Jat. 



Bdri Dodb. 

Containing 11 Mahals, 137,629 Btghas, 13 Biswas. Bevenue, 
9,863,341 Bdias, Suyirghdl, 207,382 Bdms, Cavalry, V75. Infantry, 
14,650. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


BeYenne 
D. 


1. 

s 


I 


1 

1-4 


Castes. 


IslAmpdr, has a briok fori,... 


28,086 


1,650,896 


60,394 


1000 


8000 


Bh(m,Maral. 


Tsmailpur, 


900 


49>982 


«.. 


5 


50 


Maral. 


Maltan town, has a briok 














fort. 


8,824 


1,719,168 


88,980 


50 


1000 


Bhim.Shaikh- 
z&dab. 


Tnlambab, 


19,310 


1,200,778 


15,766 


800 


5000 


8<5h<i. 


Villages of the parganah of 














Chankhandi, 


2,927 


191,054 


... 


,,, 


.«. 




Babarban district of Mnltin, 


85,925 


2,288,854 


87»468 


• ». 


... 


Bhim. 


Tillaffes of parganah of Khat- 














piir. 


2,487 


149,578 


... 


... 


... 




Do. Do. Deg» Rfivi, 


897-14 


50,146 


... 


... 


... 




8hah Aalampdr, 


24,121 


1,555,563 


1,180 


200 


4000 




Villages of pargariah of Eh&i- 














bdldi, 


7,584-19 


490,664 




••. 


... 




Hatilah, 


2,068 


608,418 


8,598 


20 


600 


Jat. 



» Tar. irti. 

* Among some illegible variants, 
Thinah. 

• Var. and G. Khardar, bnt Kahror is 
well-known in MnlULn District. See 
I. G. and Cunningham, p. 241. 

♦ Var. and T. Khailiildi. 

42 



» T. and G. Kheln. 

• The Degh (I. G.) is the chief tribu- 
tary of the RAti, which it receives after 
entering Montgomery District on its 
north-west bank and then passes into 
liult&n District. 



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330 

Bechndu Dodb. 

Containing 6 Mahah, 83,229 Bighas, 18 Btswas. Revenue, 5,113,383 
Ddms. Cavalry, 770. Infantry, 9,600. 









a 










Bigbas 
Biswas. 


Berenne 
D. 


& 


1 


1 

1^ 


Castes. 


Irajp6r and D^g B£vi, 


87,230 


2,877,800 


••• 


100 


2000 


Kbaral. 


Ghankhandi, ... 


7,620 


216,880 




M« 


100 


2000 


Do. 


Kbatpdr, 


8,887 


606,898 




!•• 


600 


8000 


Jafc, Sindh. 


DaUbhati, 


8,768.18 


266,669 




,,, 


20 


600 


Kbaral.' 


Ealbah, 


16,208 


968,786 


••• 


60 


2000 


Jai, S6b6. 



8ind 8dgar Ddah, 

Containing 4 MahaU, 34,812 Bighas. Revenue, 2,178,192 Bami. 
Suyurghdl, 13,399 Dams. Cavalry, 220. Infantry, 2,000. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


02 


i 

200 
20 


5 
1 

20<)0 
600 


Castes. 


Villages of IsUmpdr, 
Bangpfir, .*. 
Ka^pnr Kanki, ... 
MiBcellaneous villages, 1 
Mahal, 


6,776 

22,907 

6,600 

600 


873,867 

1,410,787 

806,068 

88,080 


l6;787 
2,662 

••• 


Jat. 
Bhim. 



Beyond the Five^ Bivers, (JBirun % Panjnad.) 

Containing 17 Mahals,^ 205,893 Btghds, 13 Biswas. Revenne, 
18,820,265 Dams. Suyurghal, 38,688 Dams. Cavalry, 5,800. Infantry, 
57,600. 



' A sligbt notice of tbe Kbarals oocnrs 
in tbe description of tbe Montgomery 
District. I. Q. 

' Of tbeae Cunningbam can identify 
bat Ucb, Dir&wal, Moj and Marot, wbioh 
be places, east of tbe Sntlej. Tbe limits 
of tbe province of Mnltin in the time of 
Hwen Tbsang incladed tbe north half 
of the Bbawalpnr territory in addition 



to the tract lying between the ri?er8, 
the north frontier extending from 
Derah Din Pan&h on the Indus to Pik 
Pattan, a distance of 160 miles ; on the 
west, tbe frontier line of tbe Indus to 
Kk&npdr, 160 miles ; on tbe east from P^ 
Pattan to tbe old bed of tbe Ghagar, 
80 miles : on the south from Kh6np&r 
to the Qbagar, 220 miles, p. 220. 



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331 





Bfghas 
Biswas. 


Bevenne 
D. 


!' 


t 


6 
1 


Castes. 


Ubanrah, 


11,820 


915,256 


4,684 


80 


500 


Dhar. 


ITch, 


29,056 


1,910,140 


••• 


100 


400 


Shaikzadah, 
Bnkhari 
Bayyid. 














Bhnrtiwihan, (rar. and G. 














Diman), 


16,696 


1,836,029 


18,564 


200 


2000 


Rijpiifc, 

Lodhi. 

Balooh, 


Jamsh^r, •«. 


4,334 


848,087 


... 


150 


2000 














Bholdi and 














Nardi.^ 


Dadai, has a brick forfc, 


40,620-11 


2,400,000 


••• 


4000 


30,000 


DddAi.« 


Diwari Awiral, (Cnnniog- 














bam. Dirawal), 


2,718 


140,000 


••• 


50 


500 


R&ipnt, Eot- 
w&l. 


D6d Kh£n, 


17,890 


1,440.000 


... 


... 


••• 


Villages of BAjpup, 


452 


29,854 


... 


... 






Rapari, 


12,075 


1,080,000 


..* 




... 




Sitpur, 


44,538-8 


4,608,000 


••• 


1000 


20,000 


Afghin. 


Seorihi, 


5.124 


28,800 


.•• 


20 


100 


Dhar. 


Villages of Fate^piir, 


5,224 


880,779 


*•• 


,,, 


••• 




fj „ Kahardr, 


1,384 


87,289 


••« 


... 


... 




Majlol» Ghixipdr, 


40,521 


2,400,000 


••• 


••* 


,,, 




Maah, has a brick forfc. 














(Cmmingham Moj.) 


9,083 


707,069 


20,440 


50 


1000 


Koraishi. 


Mardt, do. 


5,456 


204,000 


•«• 


200 


1000 


Bhat(L 


Mahand 


9,336-12 


8,014,000 


... 


200 


1000 





Sarkdr of Dipdlpur,^ 

Containing 29 Mahals^ 1,433,767 Bighas, 8 Butoas. Revenue, 
129,331,153 D(i»w. Suyurghdl, 2fi79,l70 Ddms. Cavalry, 6,210. Infantry. 
53,300. 

B^t Jdlandhar Dodh. 

Containing 10 Mahals, 710,946 Btghas, 10 Biswas, ^.evenae, 88,808,855 
Dams, Suyurghdl^ 1,481,564 Dims. Castes, various. Cavalry, 2,400. 
Infantry, 20,400. 



* Var. Narwi Barwi. 
■ Var. Daw4i, Dadai. 

* Var. and G. Maldfc. 



^ See Cnnningham, Ancient Geo- 
g^phy. India, p. 218, et tieq for this 
Sarkdr. 



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332 





Bighas 
^ Biswas. 


Revenae 
D. 


1- 


! 


1 


Castes. 


Pa^^n, (Pik Pattan) has a 














briok fort, 


49,014 


2,628,928 


599,989 


100 


2000 


Bh£l,Dhdkar 


Dipilpar Lakhi, has a briok 














fort, 


242,844-11 


18,614,069 


499,636 


600 


7000 


Ja^Kho- 
khar,Ka8o,' 


Dhanakshilh,* has a Inriok 












Bhani. 


fort, 


60,676-1 


8,484,876 


87,162 


•.• 


400 




Deotir, 


40,730 


2,489,860 


23,400 


60 


1000 


Jat. 


Ba^matdb&d, ... 


88,286 


1,825,009 


... 


100 


2000 


Balooh, 
Ehokhar. 


Kabulah/ has a briok fort,... 


86,616-12 


4,803,817 


... 


1000 


2000 


JiUah*Rdiiu. 


(iyimpdr Lakhi, has a brick 














fort, 


64,678-19 


2,008,274 


88,866 


800 


2000 


Bhatii, Jat. 


Kalntki Lakhi,... 


65,248-8 


2,885,969 


98,809 


60 


1000 


Do. do. 


Khokar&in Lakhi, 


21,180 


1,011,716 


36,388 


160 


1000 


Khokhar. 


Lakhi Los^ni,* ••• 


61,619-16 


8,166,769 


6,940 


100 


2000 


Bha^ 
Khilji. 



Bart Dodh^ 

Containing 6 Mahals, 193,495 Btghas, 9 Biswas. Bev^nne, 1,175,393 
Ddins. Castes, various. Cavalry, 1,100. Infantry, 14,000. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Bevenae 
D. 




! 


1 

1^ 


Castes. 


Bahr«hpdl,« ... 


18,717-9 


1,176,898 




60 


600 


• 
Bha^^. 


Bab4 Bhoj, has a fort. 


89,385 


2,020,256 


20,256 


150 


2000 


Sa/yid, Jat. 


Chahni,' 


25,993 


1,200,600 


600 


60 


2000 


Sayyid, Ao. 


Ba\^mib£d, 


24,329 


1,182,714 


... 


60 


600 


Kharal, 
Balooh. 


§adkharah,» ... 


69.447 


8,651,630 


20,976 


800 


4000 


Do. 


Mandh^, ... • ... 


25,6^4 


2,703,429 


... 


500 


5000 


Bhim. 



* Var. Keadthi. 

* Var. and G. Dhanshlih. 

• Var. and G. Lakhi ];f:ab<ilah. 

• Var. Jdijah, see Johiya nnder 
Montgomery Dist. in I. G. with other 



TBLiyi tribes. Also Oanningham, p. 246. 

• Var. TdslMUii, Losfani. G. YusVini^ 

• Var. Bhirahpal. 
' Var. Jahni. 

• At p. 113, Sadkarah, 



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333 

Bechndu Bdah. 
Containing 7 MahaU^ 142,856 Bighas^ 2 Biswas. Revenue, 8,534,915 



Bams, Suyurghdl, 5,808 Ddms. 
try, 6,300. 



Castes, various. Cavalry, 710. Infan- 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenae 
D. 


V0 


! 


1 

1-^ 


Castes. 


Kli£np6r, 


19,699-18 


1,286,740 


80,380 


30 


600 


Kbaral. 


Dalchi Chandhar, 


9,158-12 


606,657 


1,620 


60 


1000 


Ghaudhar. 


Shabzidah Balooh, 


12,749-12 


789,742 


... 


100 


1000 


Baloch. 


4Abidi Abad, ... 


6,976 


843,932 


... 


10 


300 


Jat. 


FaryjLdaWld, ... 


18,708 


1,098,694 


... 


20 


1000 


Jat. 


Kharal, 


83,732 


1,907,069 


2,800 


300 


2000 


Khari. 


Mahes, 


42,944 


2,609,182 


... 


200 


600 





Beyond the Five Rivers {Birun i Panjnad). 

Containing 6 Mahals, 386,470 Btghas, 7 Biswas. Revenue, 20,580,771 
Bams. Snytirghdl, 549,972 Ddms. Cavalry, 1,000. Infantry, 12,300. 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 




! 


1 


Castes. 


JalaUbid, 


34,476-7 


1,739,289 


... 


50 


1000 


Ranghar, 
Bhatti.l 
Jat. 


Jan^l, 


18,012 


663,616 


... 


300 


4000 


Bhatti. 


Ailampdr, 


31,008-10 


1,579,668 


... 


60 


1000 


Ranghar, 
Jat. 


Fir6zp6r, 


217,710-17 


11,479,404 


199,404 


600 


8000 


Afghdn, 
Ranghar. 


Villages of Lakhi Kabiilah, 


29,186 


1,636,660 




. 


... 






66,614-13 


3,492,454 


360,668 


100 


3600 


BhaUi, Kho- 














khar. 



Sarkar of Bhakkar {Bukkur) . 

Containing 12 Mahals, 282,013 Bighas. Revenue, 18,424,947 Ddww. 
Suy^ghdl, 600,419 Ddms. Cavalry, 4,600. Infantry, 11,100. 



* Text note soggests Lat^i as the 
proper reading. As there are abont 300 
dans of Sindhis, besides the tribes and 
of Hindost&n proper, that may 



be located in or abont this region, their 
identification is almost as hopeless as 
their orthography. 



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884 





Bighas 
Biswas. 


Revenue 
D. 


1. 

r 

02 


! 


i 
1 


Castes. 


Alor, has a fort, 


143,700 


1,132,160 


20,560 


200 


600 


Dharejah.1 


Bhakkar, has a strong forti 


... 


74,362 


... 


200 


1000 


Mehar and 
Kahir. 


Jindolah, 


67,847 


3,102,709 


85,064 


400 


800 


Jahna.S 


Jat6i', 


179,821-14 


2,346,873 


156,841 


400 


800 




Darb^ah, 


121,146 


1,262,761 


68,872 


200 


600 


Bha^ti. 


Sankar, 


100,818 


1,808,628 


82,332 


500 


1000 


Sah^jah.8 


Sewi, 




1,381,930 


.*• 


500 


1500 




Fatbp6r, 


8,050-10 


477,869 


... 


200 


1000 


Saheiah, 
Dhir^jafa. 














Khaj6nah> 


10,063 


645,205 


• .. 


200 


ICOO 


J4man. 


Ehdra Edkan, ... 


154,151 


2,732,331 


188,608 


500 


1000 Dh4r6jah. 


K4khari, (var. K^kri), 


178,838-16 


2,106,431 


63,208 


500 


1000 


Manki^rah. 


Mdnhalah, 


128,078 


1,363,713 


28,944 


500 


1000 


Dhar^jah 
(var. Hiire- 
jah). 



Kings of Mid tan .^ 

Shaikh Ydsnf, reigned... 

Saltan Mal^mad^ (var. Muhammad Sh&h) 

„ Kutbu'ddin, his son 

„ Hnsain, his son 



Years. 

2 

17 

16 

30 



• Var. Saranjah. The Dharejah forest 
is in Shikarpnr District I. G. under Bind. 

• Var. Janah or Jatah. 

• Var. Sahechah, Sahja, Samjah. 

• Var. and G. Gharjdnah. 

^ This province, says the U. T., was 
first conqnered hj Mahomed E^sim at 
the end of the first centary Hejira. It 
was recovered by the Hindus on the 
decline of the Ghazni power. After 
Mahomed Ghori's snbjngation it remained 
tributary to Delhi until 
A. H. A. D. 

847. 1443. Shaikh Ydsuf estab- 
lished an independ- 
ent monarchy. 
849. 1445. Ray Sehra, or ]^ii^bu'd- 
din Hosen Langa I 
expelled the Shaikh. 



A. H. 
908. 



A.D. 
1502. 



Mahmud Khin Langa ; 
his minister Jam 
Bayezid. 
931. 1524. Hosen Langa 11, over- 
come by Sh&h Hosen 
Arghun. Under Ha- 
mayun, becomes a 
province of the em- 
pire. 
' This name is altogether omitted by 
Ferishta who describes Ka^bu'ddin's in- 
trigue and succession, in his history of 
Mult&n. The name of l^utbn'ddin was 
Rae Sahra and he was governor of SsTri 
and the adjacent territory and the hesd 
of the Afghan clan of Lang&h. He died 
in A. H. 874 (A. D 1469), ^asain Shih 
in 904 or 908 (1498 or 1502) and Mahmud 
in 931 (1524). 



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335 



Tears. 

Salfin Fir6z, his son ... ... ... ... 1 

„ Husain, a second time. 

„ Mahmiid, son of Sult^Ln Fir6z ... ... 27 

„ Hasain, son of Snl^dn Firdz .. ... 1 

Slidh J^nsain, (Argbdn), roler of Sind. 

Mirzd Kamrin. 

Sher Khan. 

Salim Kh^n. 

Sikandar £h4n. 

At one period the province was subject to the sovereigns of Delhi : at 
another it was under the control of the rulers of Sind, and for a time was 
held by the princes of Qhazni. After its conquest hy Muizzu'ddin Sam 
(Ghori), it continued to pay tribute to Delhi. In the year A. H. 847 
(A. D. 1443) when Sultan Alau'ddfn reigned at Delhi, and constituted 
authority fell into contempt, every chief in possession of power, set up a 
pretension to independence. A noisy faction raised Shaikh Ydsuf 
Kuraishi, a disciple of Shaikh Bahdu'ddfn Zakariya, to supremacy. Ho 
was subsequently deposed and proceeded with haste to the court of Sul^dn 
Bahldl at Delhi. The sovereignty now devolved upon one of the Langdh 
&mi1y, who assumed the title of Sul^dn Mahmud Shdh. It is related that 
this chief had given his daughter in marriage to Shaikh Ydsuf, and on the 
strength of this connection, used frequently to visit her alone, till one 
night by a successful intrigue he accomplished his design on the throne. 
Daring the reign of Sul^in ^u^bu'ddin, Sul^dn Mal^mlid Khiiji advanced 
fiom Malwah against Mult^n but returned without effecting anything. 
Some maintain that the fii%t of the Langdh family who was raised to the 
throne was Kutbu'ddin. In the reign of Sultan Husain, Bahldl sent (his 
son) Barbak Shdh with a force to reinstate Shaikh Ydsuf, but they re- 
turned unsuccessful. SuHan Husain becoming old and doting, placed his 
eldest son upon the throne under the title of Fir6z Shah, and withdrew 
into retirement. His Wazir Imadu'l Mulk, poisoned him in revenge for 
the murder of his own son and Sult&n Husain a second time resumed the 
sceptre and appointed Mahmdd Khan, son of Sultan Firdz, his heir. On 
the death of Sultan Husain, after a reign of 30 or 34 years,i Sultan Mahmdd 
ascended the throne. During his reign several incursions were made 
by the Mughals who, however, retired discomfited. Some malicious intri- 



' Ferishta gives bis death on the 26th 
of Safar A. H. 908 (I5Q2) bat adds that 
another account makes it 4 years earlier. 



The whole of this narrative in mnoh 
greater detail will be found in that 
historian. 



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336 

gners throngb jealouRjr created a misunderstanding between tbe Sultan anj 
Jam Bajazid wbo bad long beld tbe office of prime minister, and misre- 
presentations oanningly made in a ronndaboat waj, brongbt tbem into open 
conflict. Tbe minister withdrew from Mnltan to Sb6r and read tbe 
khufbah in tbe name of Snlfdn Sikandar L<5di. On tbe death of Sn1(in 
Mahratid, bis infant son was raised to tbe throne as Snl(^n Hnsain (II). 
Mirza Shah ](Jusain (Argbdn) marched from Tattah and took Mnltin and 
entrusted its charge to Langar Khin. Mirza Omr^n dispossessed him of 
it and after him Sber Kh4n, Salim Kb4n and Sikandar successively beld 
it till the splendour of Humajdn's equal administration filled Hindast^a 
with its bngbtness and secured its peace. At tbe present day under tbe 
just sway of His Majesty bis subjects find there an undisturbed repose. 

Sarhdr of Tattah, 

Daring a long period this was an independent terntory but now forma 
part of tbe imperial dominions. Its length from Bhakkar to Kach and 
Mekrdn is 257 hde, its breadth from tbe town of Budtn to Bandar Ldhari} 
100 kds^ and again from tbe town of Ohdndo one of the dependencies of 
Bhakkar f to Bikaner is 60 kds. On tbe east lies Oujardt : to the north 
Bhakkar and SSwi :* to the south, the ocban, and to the west Kach and 
Mekrdn, It is situated in the second climate and lies in Longitude 102^ 
30' ; Lat. 24° lO'.s 

The ancient capital was Brdhmandbdd,^ a large city. Its citadel bad 
1,400 towers, at an interval of a tandhf^ and to this day there are many 



*■ See this name in the I. G. (Index), 
Bnder *' Lahari Bandar," and in Onnning- 
ham in his account of Sindh. (Andent 
Geography). 

' The text is, I thiok, here in error 
in transforming this name into the 
Persian y* with the itidfat, which the 
constmction of the sentence does not 
properly admit. I am in concurrence 
with Gladwin and Tieffenthaler. 

• The town lies in Lat. 24° 44' N. 
aad Long. 68"" B. 

* Identified by Cunningham with 
Harmatelia, (a softer pronunciation of 
Br&hmathala, or Brahmanasthala) of 
Diodorus and placed on the east branch 
of the Mihr&n or Indus, 47 miles north- 



east of Haidaribad, 28 miles east of 
Hflla and 20 miles west of the eastern 
channel of the Indus known as Nibm. 
He giYes the number of bastions as 140 
on the authority of the MSS. but both 
Gladwin and Blochmann concur in 1,400, 
and there is no variant reading. His 
conclnsion is, that the place known now 
as Bambhra ha thiU represents the min- 
ed city of Mansura and the neighbour- 
ing mound now called Dilnra, Brahmani- 
biUl. They certainly attest his industry 
and research if not his conclnanon which 
the absence of local coins of Hindd 
origin, though many of Arab c^T^noES 
are found, somewhat impug^. 
• See p. 61. 



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387 

traces of its fortifications. Alor^ next became tbe metropolis and at the 
present day it is Tattahf also called DehaL The monatains to the north 
form several branches. One of them trends towards Kandahdr^ and another 
rising from the sea coast extends to the town of Kohbdr, called Bdmgar^ 
and terminates in Sewistdn and ia there known as Lakkhi.^ This tract is 
inhabited by an important Baloch tribe called Kalmdniy^ consisting of twenty 
thonsand cavalry. A fine breed of camels is here indigenous. A third 
range mns from 86hwdn to S6wi and is called KkcUtar^ where dwells a tribe 
named Nohmardi that can raise a force of 300 horse and 7,000 foot. Below 
this tribe, there is another clan of the Baloch known as Nazhari with a force 
of a thousand men. A good breed of horses comes from this tract. A fourth 
mountain chain touches Kach (Gtinddvd) on one side, and on the other the 
Kahndni territory, and is called Kdrah inhabited by 4,000 Balochis. 

In the winter season there is no need of poshtins ffur-lioed coats) and 



1 The rnina of Alor, or more correctly 
Aror, are dtoated to the sonth of a gap 
in the low range of limebtone hilli 
stretching from Bhakar to the sonth for 
about 20 miles nntil it is lost in the 
broad belt of sand hills bounding the 
"Sin, or old bed of the Indos. On the west, 
Cunningham reg^ards it as the capital of 
the Musicani of Gurtius. He disputes 
the assertion of Abul Fazl that Debal 
and Tattah are the same. Bir H. Elliot 
places Debal at Kar&chi. General Oun- 
ningham prefers a site between Karachi 
and Tattah and is "almost <3ertain" 
that it must be the Indian city in which 
Zobeide in the Arabian Nights found all 
the people turned to stone. This certi- 
tude on such a point is striking and 
originaL 

t The Lakhi range (the text duplicates 
the k.) is an offshoot from the Kirthar 
which separates Sind from Beluchistin. 
I. G. Kohbdr has a variant Eorahyir, 
but I do not trace it ; the Msk^sir 'ul 
Umara has Kohbdr but as its description 
of Sindh is taken from Abul Fazl, its 
authority is of no independent value. 

8 The Baloch and the Brahui are the 
two great races of Baloohistan, each 

43 



subdivided into an infinite number of 
tribes. Of these the Kumberani is said 
to take precedence of all others. The 
name in the text is not mentioned in 
the works I have consulted. Sherring 
mentions Kirmani. 

^ No doubt the Kirthar range of the 
I. G., an off shoot of which, the Lakhi, 
terminates abruptly a few miles south of 
Sehw&n. Nafhari has a variant T<^2ari 
adopted by Gladwin. The plain country 
to the east of the mountain mass that 
intervenes between it and EheUt ia 
called Eachhi or Kachh Gandivd and 
Kdrah seems to be a spur that strikes 
thence to the Lakhi chain. North of 
the Bol&n, confused ranges of mountains 
extend to east with a strike nearly 
east and west to the Sulaim&n range. 
This tract inhabited by Marris, Bngtis 
and other Baloch tribes is bounded on 
the north by the province of Sewisfc&n 
(I. G.) General Onnningham states 
that Sehw&n is snid to be a contraction 
of Sewistin and rejects it as a juodem 
innovation of the Hindus, but he could 
scarcely have seen the text of Abul Fazl 
whose account does not admit of this 



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338 

the sammer heats are moderate except in Sewistdn. Fmits are of varionB 
kinds and mangoes are especially fine. In the desert tracts, a small kind 
of melon grows wild. Flowers are plentiful and camels are nnmerons 'and 
of a good breed. The means of locomotion is bj boats of which there are 
many kinds, large and small, to the number of 40,000. The wild ass is 
hunted, and game, such as, hares, the kotah pdchah^ and wild boars; 
fishing likewise is much pursued. 

The assessment of the country is made on the system of division of 
crops,* a third being taken from the husbandman. Here are salt-pits and 
iron mines. Shdli rice is abundant and of good quality. Six kds from 
Tattah is a mine of yellow stone, large and small slabs of which are 
quarried and used for building. The staple food consists of rice and fish. 
The latter is smoked and loaded in boats, and exported to the ports and 
other cities, afEording a considerable profit. Fish-oil is also extracted and 
used in boat building. There is a kind of fish called palwah which comes 
up into the Indus from the sea, unrivalled for its fine and exquisite flavour. 
Milk-curds of excellent quality are made and keep for four months. 

Near Sehtodn is a large lake, two days' journey in length called 
MancMr, in which artificial islands have been made by fishermen who 
dwell on them. 

But the greatest of all wonders is the Liver-Eater (Jigar Khwdr), an 
individual who by glances and incantations can abstract a man's liver. 
Some aver that under certain conditions and at certain times, he renders 
the person senseless upon whom he looks, and then takes from him what 
resembles the seed of a pomegranate, which he conceals for a time in the 



1 Literally ' short legged.' It is 
znentioDed bj Baber in his Memoirs 
among the fauna of K&bul and India 
and is thus described in firsldne's 
translation. ''Its size may be equal 
to that of the white deer. Its two 
fore-legs as well as its thighs are 
short, whence its name. Its horns are 
branching like those of the g^wezin 
but less. Every year too it casta its 
horns like the stag. It is a bad runner 
and therefore never leaves the jungle." 
These characteristics seem to point to 
the hog-deer. {Cervus porcintu,) 

S I believe this to be the proper trans- 



lation of LT^ ^ and not *oom bear- 
ing' as I have construed it at p. 44, 
(final word of the page). According to 
the I. G. in Haidarabad District Sind, 
the Government assessment was former- 
ly levied in kind (hhasffi) but on a 
petition from the ZamCndars, the pay- 
ment has since been made in cash. They 
are paid by the tenants in kind at the 
following rates : On land under eharkhi 
(Persian wheel) cultivation, one- third of 
produce : on aaUdbi (canal flooding) lands, 
two-thirds ; in the case of the best lands, 
yielding cotton, tobacco and sngurcane, 
as a rule in cash. 



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339 



calf of bis leg. Daring this interval the person whose liver is stolen re« 
mains nnconscions, and when thns helpless, the other throws the seed on 
the fire which spreads out like a plate. Of this he partakes with his fellows 
and the onoooscioas yictim dies. He can convey a knowledge of his art to 
whomsoever he wills, by giving him a portion of this food to eat and teach- 
ing him the incantation. If he is oanght in the act and his calf be out 
open and the seed extracted and given to his victim, the latter will recover. 
The followers of this art are mostly women. 

They can convey intelligence from long distances in a brief space of 
time and if they be thrown into the river with a stone tied to them, they 
will not sink. When it is desired to deprive one of these of this power, 
they brand both sides of his head and his joints, fill his eyes with salt, 
suspend him for forty days in a subterraneoos chamber, and give him food 
without salt, and some of them recite incantations over him. During this 
period he is called Dhachrah, Although his power then no longer exists, 
he is still able to recognize a Inver-Eater, and these pests are captured 
through his detection. He can also restore people to health by incantation 
or administering a certain drug. Extraordinary tales are told of these 
people that are beyond measure astonishing. 

This country is the fourth Sarkdr of the Stibah of Mult&n. From the 
confines of Uch to Tattah towards the north are rocky mountain ranges 
inhabited by various Baloch tribes, and on the south from Uch to Oujardt 
are sandhills in which region are the AhsMm bhcUti^ and other numerous 
clans. From Bhakkar to Nofirpdr and UmarkSf are the Sodah, Jdrejah and 
other tribes. This Suhah contains 5 Sarkdrs subdivided into 53 parganahs. 
The revenue is 6,615,393^ dams, (Bs. 165,383-13-2.) 

Barkdr of Tattah. 
Containing 18 Mahah. Revenue, 25,999,991 Ddms. 



Uhari Bandar, 
Batori,* 



Beyenne 
D. 



6,621,419 
4,982,286 



6ahrimp6r, 
B<5ri, ... 



Bevenne 
D. 



1,811,612 
434,305 



* According to Ounningham, the early 
Arab geographers place a Btrong*fort 
called Bhitia between Halt&n and Alor, 
which, from its position has a claim to 
be identified with the city boilt by 
Alexander among the Sogdi, but he 
mentions no tribe of the name, neither 



have any of the Bhat^i Bajpnts men- 
tioned by Elliot any such prefix as 
Ah8hdm, The Sodahs have been identi- 
fied by Tod with the Sogdoi. Ancient 
Geography, pp. 253-254. 

• Var. 6,615,293. 

3 Var. Fatora, Batwir, Banwir. 






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840 





Revenue 




BeTenne 




D. 


Sirsi J&m, ... ... 


0. 


Jak4r/ 


848,462 


142,641 


^«. 


82,890 


Karhar, (yar. and G. Karkar). 


8,328,476 


Darak, (rar. Dnrg), 
Dankari, (rar. Dikri), 


2,970,441 


Lekln Kh^n^h, ... 


636,796 


815,921 


Maljah, 


1,106,606 


Batnah, 


842,144 


Minjar, 


i;821,75a 


Bankiirah,' 


2,108,097 


Nif&mpiir, 


362,724 



Sarkdr of Edjkdn. 
Gontaining 11 MahdU. Berenne, 11,784,586 Dims, 



, 


Revenue 




Bevenne 




D. 


Kar6ri, 


D. 


B^h Fatt^ 


840,178 


629,987 


B^lah,... 


666,817 


Laandi, 


1,119,978 


Hajkto, 


655,699 


Mandni, (var. and O. Mandri). 


694,269 


Jann, ... 


8,166,418 


Maddi, 


2,852,605 


Bahb^n 


742,978 


Nubiyir, (rar. and G. Napiy^r). 


1,280,489 


Detached villageaR... 


486,788 







Sarkdr of Seunstdn. 
9 Mahals. Bevenne, 15,54.6,808 Dams. 



B&tar, (var. Pitar G. Palar) ... 

Baghb^to, 

Batan (var. and T. Patau), ... 

B^ik^ (var. and G. Bdstkin, 

T. LuBigin), 
Janjah, 



Revenue 
D. 



2,020,884 
1,948,152 
1,902,083 

1,825,190 
1,978,958 



Kha^, .. 

Sub. dist. of Sewistin, has a 

strong fort, 
KAhin, 
Lakhiwat (var. Lakiiwat), ... 



Revenue 
D. 



1,829,923 

1,669,732 
1,640,764 
1,231,776 



1 Though there is no variant to this 
name, I suspect that there has been a 
transposition of the K and R, and that 
it is meant for the town of Jarak 
situated midway between Haidar4bad 
and Tattah. 

' See Elliot, Arabs in Sind, p. 280. 

• So I have translated j/^ *a»^^, 
the term mosk^ri, being applied in old 
revenue accounts to small and scattered 



estates not included in the acoounta of 
the districts in which they were situated 
and of which the assessments were paid 
direct to Government. The word occurs 
as Ma»Hrin in the list of parganaha 
under the Sarkdrs of Tindah and 
FatUb^d, 84Jtbah Orissa. It may also 
signify the villages dependent on the 
preceding (maekdr) Mahalt vi»., Rahb&n, 
and thus Gladwin takes it. 



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341 

Sarhdr of Nasirjdr. 
7 MahdU. Beyenne, 7,834,600 Ddms. 



Uinarkd^ 

Samiwdni, (rar. and G. 

Sam&dini), 
Kidil, (yar. Eandil), 



Beyenne 
D. 



1,057,802 
826,104 

8,081,680 
615,904 



Kiair, 

Mirkandan, 

Nafirpfir, 



Revenne 
D. 



401,788 

628,896 

1,878,126 



$arkdr of OhakarTidlah. 
8 MdhaU. Revenue, 5,085,408 Ddms. 



Arp^r,... 
Ohakarh&lah, 
Biyir,... 
Gh&zipiir, 



Beyenae 
D. 



781,190 
747,176 
719,207 
988,656 



Tew4ri, (var. Law&ri), 
Ehari Jiinah, 
Bnrkah ManlLwali, 
Barhi,... 



Beyenne 
D. 



571,073 
508,162 
490,868 
883,688 



Princei of Tattah.^ 

1. The family of Tamim An^dri during the ascendancy of the House 
of Umayyah. 

2. The Sumra (Ildjptit) line of 36 princes, reigned 500 years, (ac- 
cording to Ferishta— 100 — their names unrecorded). 



^ The following li«t is from the U. T. 
A. H. A. D. 
87. 706. B^lochiflt&n inyaded by 
Hijaj, goyemor of 
Bassora, and Md. 
E&sim. 
The ^iMoriM, the Bumeraa^ and the 
OwnoMLB or Jama^ Bncoesfliyely gain the 
aacendanpy, then a Delhi, goyemor 
1208 ? Nasir nd din Kabbacha, beoomea 
independent, drowned. 

The Jami Dynasty of BwnanOf ori- 
ginally R4jpnt8. 
A.H. A.D. 

787. 1886. J&m Afra; tributary 
to Toghlak 

Shilh. 



A. H. 


A.D. 






740. 


1889. 


Jim 


Choban. 


754. 


1888. 


i> 


Bang { asserted 
his indepen- 
dence. 


782. 


1867. 


*» 


Timaji, his bro- 
ther. 


782. 


1880. 


i> 


SaUhn'ddin, con- 
yert to Islfon. 


798. 


1891. 


i> 


Nizamn'ddin. 


796. 


1898. 


>» 


Ally Sher. 


812. 


1409. 


1) 


Giran, son of 
Timaji. 


812. 


1409. 


>t 


Fatteh Eh6n. 


827. 


1428. 


$9 


Toghlak, inyaded 
Gajerat. 


864. 


1460. 


}> 


Sikandar. 


866. 


1462. 


» 


Sangar, elected. 



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342 



3. Of the Samma dynasty. 

Jim Unar, reigned, ... 
„ Jdni, his brotheri 
y, Banhatijah, ••• 
y, Tamichi, his brother, 
,1 Sald^n'ddin, ... 
„ Niz&mu*ddin, his son, 
,, ^li Sh6r Tamdchi, 
„ Kar&n, son of Tam^hi, 
Fateh Kh&n, son of Sikandar, 
Tnghlak, his brother, 
Mub&rak, the ehambeiiain, 
Sikandar, b. Fat]^ Kh&n, 



••• 
••• 



Years Months D. 

3 6 

4 
15 
13 and some months. 
11 and do. 

2 and a fraction. 

6 and some months. 

1| 

11 and some months. 
28 

3 

16 



A. H. A.D. 

864. 1460. J&m Nandi or Niz^m- 
u'ddin, oot. of 
Hasan Langa. 
894. 1492. „ Ferozj the Tor- 
khan family be- 
came powerfnli 
1520. 
927. 1620. Sh&h Beg Arghnn, oo- 

cnpiee Bind. 
980. 1528. Sh&h Hosein Arghnn. 
962. 1554. Mal^mdd of Bhakar. 
982. 1672. Akbar annexes Bind. 
(Feriflhta, 1001 » 
1692.) 
Tieffenthaler's list except in the first 8 
names is in accordance with these, allow- 
ing for his erratic spelling: Elliot's 
taken from the Tarikh i Masiimi, changes 
the third name only. Ferishta giyes the 
1st and 8rd names Afz&h and Mini ; 
Briggs, Afr& and Bany. Ferishta makes 
Tamdji son of Mini i Briggs, his brother, 
Ferishta allots 62 years to the reign of 
Kizima'ddin Nandi ; Briggs, 82, and 
his dates are not taken from Ferishta 
who gives none except to the last 8 on 
the U. T. list and in accordance with it. 
I have to note that Ferishta gives the 
duration of the Somra dynasty, as 100 



years and not 600 as Briggs records and 
the name of the sncceeding race, Satmah 

or Sntmah (o'*****) and not Soomnna. 
The title of Jim, Ferishta prononnoes a 
boast of their supposed descent from 
Jamshid, but commonly given to their 
head or chief to preserve the tradition 
of this fabnions lineage. The lineage 
of the Snmra and Samma dynasties is 
discussed in Appendix P. of Blliof s 
Arabs in Bind. The latter name may be 
traced in the Sambast» and Sambus of 
Alexander's historians. Sambus ooonrs 
as Babbas in Plutarch, Saboutas in 
Strabo, Ambigarus in Justin and 
Ambiras in Orosius. These variations 
are not surprising and we have an 
analogous instance in the name of the 
famous English Free Lanoe of the Middle 
Ages, Sir John Hawkwood, whi^ ooouis 
frequently in the Italian writers of that 
time under the following disguises i 
Auguto, Aguto, Acute, Haukennod, Eau 
Kennode, Hau Kebbode, Haucatos^ 
Aucobedda, and Falcon del Bosco. Jdm» 
shed is formed, according to Elliot's 
authorities, from Jim * king ' and Bh6d 
* sun ' (p. 195) but he modestly leaves 
the etymology of Jim undecided. 



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343 



Years Months D. 



8 and some months. 



60 and some months. 



Sanjar, oommonly called Bddhan (yar. and G. 

Rddmany ••• ••• .•• 

Jim Nizdma*ddin, kno?ni as Jim Nandi, (see 

Vol. I, p. 362), ... 
Jim FinSz, his son. 

„ ^il^u'ddin, a relation of Firtfz, 

„ Fir6z, a second time. 

In former times, there lived a Biji named Siharas^ whose capital was 
Al<5r. His sway extended eastwards, as far as Kashmir and towards the 
west to Mekrin, while the sea confined it on the south and the mountains 
on the north. An inyading army entered the country from Persia, in 
opposing which the Biji lost his life. The invaders contenting themselves 
with devastating part of the territory, returned. Bie Sihi, the Biji's 
son, succeeded his father, by whose enlightened wisdom and the aid of hi« 
intelligent minister BdrHf justice was universally administered and the 
repose of the country secured. A Brihman named Jach^ of an obscure 
station in life, attached himself to the minister's service and by flattery 
and address made himself of much consequence and was advanced to a post 
of dignity, and on the death of the minister, was chosen to succeed him. 
He basely and dishcmourably carried on an intrigue with the Biji's wife> 
which the Biji, notwithstanding its disclosure to him by the ministers 
of State, refused to credit. During the Biji's illness, the wicked wretch, 
in collusion with this shameless paramour, sent for the generals of the 
army separately, on pretence of consulting them and set them apart, and by 
seductive promises won over the several enemies of each to accomplish 
their death. WTien they were put out of the way and the Biji too bad 
breathed his last, he assumed the sovereignty. 



' Of the Bai dynasty whose capital 
was Alor. The Tuhfat4l Kirdm makes 
8iKara8 the son and snooessor of £d% 
Dkodijf followed by Rdi adhoii, the 
first, second and third of that name. 
It was nnder the latter that Ohach rose 
to power. The names are differently 
given by Postans. The same Persian 
work distributes 187 years over the 
reigns of these 3 Biis. The accession 
of Ohach and the extinction of the 
Bii dynasty is placed by Elliot in the 



year 10 A. H. Arabs in Sind, pp. 169- 
178. See also Ohacknamah. Elliot's 
Hist, of India. Vol. I. p. 188. 

' So the text, bat a note amends it 
" Ohach." The orthography is doubtful. 
Two MSS. in the Bibliotheqne Boyale 
have Hoj : Beinand spells the name 
Tchotch : Benonard leans to Jaj as he 
considers it a cormption of Yajnya. De 
Sacy favours Hajij. Pottinger writes 
Ohach and is followed by all fingh'sh 
authors. Elliot, Arabs in Sind, p. 174. 



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344 

The parsaers of worldly iafcerests attached themselves to his cause and 
he took the Bdni to wife, thns garnering eternal pefdition, bnt he labonred 
for the prosperity and increase of his dominions and seized upon Koch 
(Ghuiddv&), and Mekrdn. 

Daring the Caliphate of Omar (b. u'l) Kha^^ab, Maghirah Abn'l 4^^ 
advanced by way of Bahrain to Debal, bat the troops there opposed him 
and he was killed in the engagement. In the Caliphate of Othman an 
intelligent ezplorei'* was sent to ascertain the condition of Sind, and an 
army of invasion was ander orders. The messenger, however, reported 
that if a large force were sent, supplies would fail, and a small one would 
effect nothing and he added many dissuasive representations. The Prince 
of the Faithful, Ali, despatched troops that occupied the borders of Debal 
but on hearing of the death of the Caliph they withdrew in haste to 
Mekrdn. Muawiyah twice despatched an army to Sind and on both occa- 
sions many of the troops perished. 

Ohach died after a prosperous reign of 40 years, and his youngest son 
Ddhir succeeded him on the throne. In the caliphate of Walid. b. Abda'i 
Malik, when Hajjdj was governor of Ir&V» he despatched on his own autho- 
rity Ma]{;iammad K&sim his cousin and son-iu-law to Sind who fought 
Dahir in several engagements.* On Thursday the 10th of Ramaz&n A. H. 
99, (17th April 717) the Baj4 was killed in action and the territory of 



* See EUiot'B Arabs in Sind, p. 3. 

* Hikim. b. Jabala al Abdi was sent 
to explore Sejistin and MekrAn and the 
oonntries bordering on the Indus valley 
by Abdu'Uah 4^mar, a ooosin of the 
Ciliph, who had suoceeded Abu Miisa 
Ashari in the government of Basra. His 
report was as follows : " Water in 
that country is of a dark colour, flow- 
ing only drop by drop, the fruits are 
sour and unwholesome, rocks abound 
and the soil is brackish. The thieves 
are intrepid warriors, and the bulk of 
the population dishonest and treacher- 
ous. If the troops sent there are few 
in number, they will be exterminated, 
if they are numerous, they will perish of 
hunger." Ihid. pp. 9 and 10. The 
expeditions of AU and Mu&wiyah and the 
progress of the Arab conquests in Sind 



may be read in the succeeding pages. 
Elliot's conclusion that Debal was taken 
in A. H. 93 is conflrmed by As 6ay6ti 
in the biog^phy of Al Walid, b. Abdu'l 
Malik, in which year Kirakh, or Kiraj 
as Ibn ul Athir calls it, was also captur- 
ed. (See my translation of As Say6ti's 
History of the Oaliphs, p. 229.) Elliot 
thinks this probably situated in, if not 
named from Kachh. I supposed it to be 
Karilchi which he identifies with the 
ancient Krokala of Arrian, but this does 
not alter its possible metathesis among 
the Arabs, into Eliraj. The pursuit 
of these analogies may be interesting 
but the result is conjecture. 

* Described in Elphinstone (Ed. 66) 
p. 308, and in Brigg's Ferishta, lY, p« 
417. 



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345 

Tatlah became subject to the invaders. The two daughters of Biji 
Dihir, who had been made captive were sent with some valnable presents 
to the Caliph. In a sjHrit of revenge, they deceitfully represented to the 
Oaliph that Mutiammad J^dsim had dishonom^ them. He therefore ab* 
stained from visiting them, and in a fit of fnry gave orders that ]j|[asim 
should be stnffed into a raw hide and despatched to his presence. The 
ocmimands oi the Gali{^ reached him when he was abont to march against 
Hari Chand, king of Kanauj, and he obediently submitted to them. When 
be was thus carried to the court, the Caliph exhibited the spectacle to the 
two princesses who expressed their gratification in viewing the slayer of 
their father in this condition. This decision of the Caliph excites astonish* 
ment inasmuch as it was pronounced without deliberate investigation. It 
is the duty of just princes not to be swayed by the representation of any one 
individual, but to be circumspect in their inquiries, since truth is rare and 
falsehood prevalent, and more especially in regard to the recipients of their 
fiivour, towards whom the world bums with envy without just cause of 
resentment. Against the outwardly plausible and inwardly vicious they 
should be particularly on their guard, for many are the wicked and factious 
who speciously impose by their affected merit and by their misrepresenta- 
tions bring ruin on the innocent. 

After Muhammad ^dsim's death, the sovereignty of this country 
devolved on the descendants of the Banu Tamim Anyiri.^ They were 
succeeded by the 8umrah race who established their rule and were 
followed by the Sammas who asserted their descent from Jamshtdy and each 
of them assumed the name of Jam, In the reign of Jdm Bdnhatiyah^ 



I Sereral of this tribe were at varions 
perioda sent to Bind. Under the Oali- 
pliateof Yasid b. ^bd a'l Malik, Hal&l 
a't Tamimi was sent in pnrsnit of the 
fiann Mnhallab. About 107 A. H. 
Tamim b. Zaid al Vtbi snooeeded Jnnaid 
in the government of that province 
and died near Debal. Under the 
Abbaasidee M&sa b. K^b a't Tamimi, 
drove out ICanydr b. Jamhtir the Umay- 
yad goyemor. ^bdn'r Baxz&k the first 
Ohameyide governor of Sind, aboat 
A H. 417, (1026) found the de. 
toendants of old Arab aettlers of the 
tribes of Thakift, Tamimi, Asad and 



many other familief. The length of 
the Tamimi ooonpation ia unknown or 
disputed, and the obsouritj of the annals 
of the time precludes the possibility of 
decision. 

S Mini according to Ferishta who 
says that the expedition of Firds Tngh- 
lak took place in 768 A. H. (A. D. 1820) 
and was unsuccessful owing to want of 
supplies and forage which Mini had out 
off by deyastating the country. He re- 
tired to Gujarat and after the rains and 
on the approach of winter, the second 
invasion occurred which led to the sob* 
mission of AI4ui. 



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346 

Saltan Fir6z Sb&h on three occasions led an army from Delhi against that 
prince, and obtcdned some conspicnons successes. On the third occa- 
sion, he took him prisoner and carried him to Delhi, leaving Sind nnder 
charge of his own officials. Snbseqaently being satisfied with his good 
will and capacity he reinstated bim in his goyernment. On the death of 
Jdm Tughlak, tbe chamberlain Mubdrak succeeded him throagh the efforts 
of a vain and seditious &ction, and was followed by Sikandar the son 
of Jdm Fat^ Khdn. 

During the reign of Jdm Nandd, Shdh Beg Arghun made a descent 
from ^andahdr and took SStoi and leaving the command of it to his 
brother Sul^dn MuJ^tammad, returned to ^andahar. The Jam marched a 
force against Muhammad who was killed in action. Sh^h Beg made a 
second incursion and took possession of Sehwdn and a considerable part of 
Sind and leaving his conquests in charge of his own people, withdrew. 

In the reign of Jdm Firdz, a relative of his named Salal^u'ddin rose in 
rebellion and failing in his attempt, took refuge with Sul(dn Ma^mtid of 
Gujardb who received him graciously and assisted him with an army ; 
Darya Khan the prime minister of Jam Firdz espoused his cause and the 
kingdom of Sind fell under his power without a blow. Subsequently the 
said Daryd Khdn determined to restore Jam Fir6z who had withdrawn 
into private life, but who thus recovered his kingdom. Saldhu'ddiu a 
second time advanced from Gujardt with a force furnished by the Sul^dn 
and occupied Sind. Fir6z retired to ^andahdr and Shdh Beg supplied him 
with troops, and an engagement took place near Sehwdn in which Saldhu'd- 
din and his son were slain. Thus Firdz was again established in his 
kingdom. In the year A. H. 929* (A. D. 1522-3) Shdh Beg took possession 
of Sind and Jdm Fir6z retired to Gujardt, gave his daughter in marriage 
to SuHdn Bahddur and was attached to the Court in the ranks of its nobles. 
Sind was now subject to Shah Beg. This prince was the son of Mir Zu'n 
Nun Beg, the commander-in-chief of Sul^a Husain Mirzd,^ who received 
the government of Kandahdr. He fell fighting bravely against Shaibak 
Khdn Uzbek who was engaged in hostilities with the sons of Sul^n Husain 
Mirzd. His eldest son succeeded to the government of ICandahdr, a prince 
of distinguished valour and versed in the learning of his age. At his 
death, his son Shdh Husain ascended the thi*one and wrested Multdn from 
Sultan Matmdd. After him Mirzd Isd son of Abdn'l Ali Tarkhdn^ succeed- 



1 Ferishta says, 927 A H. 
8 See Note 6, p. 220. 
S Tarkhdn was originallj a rank among 
the Maghala and Turks, bat in the time 



of Baber it had come to belong to a 
parti cnlar family. The ancient Tarkhin 
was exempt from all duties and conld 
enter the royal presence without asking 



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347 

ed, followed by Mul^ammad Payandah^ bat this prince being sabject to fiti 
of menial estrangement, did not personally administer the government. 
Mirzi J6ni Beg, his son assumed the direction of affairs till His Majesty's 
victorious troops advanced into the country and reduced it to order, and 
Mirza Jdui Beg was enrolled in the ranks of his nobility. 

Suhaho/Kdhul 

It is situated in the third and fonrth climates, and comprises Kashmir^ 
Pahli, Bimhar, Stvdt, Bajaur^ Kandahdr and Zdbulistdn, Its capital was 
formerly Ghaznah^ but now Kabul. 

Sarkdr of Kashmir, 

It lies in the third and fourth climates. Its length from famhar Ver 
to KUhan Oanga is 120 Icds, and its breadth from 10 to 25 kSs. On the 
east are Paristdn and the river Chendb : on the south-east Bdnihdl and the 
Jammu mountains : on the north-east, Great Tibet : on the west, Pakli 
and the Kishen Ganga river : on the soath-west, the Gkkkkhar country : on 
the north-west. Little Tibet. It is encompassed on all sides by the 
Himalayan ranges. Twenty. six different roads lead into Hindustdn but 
those by Bhimhhar^ and Pahli are the best and are generally practicable on 
horseback. The first mentioned is the nearest and it has several routes of 
which three are good, viz., (1) Uasli Bhanp which was the former route for 



loaTO and was to be pardoned nine 
times be the fanlt what it woald. He 
had perfect liberty of speech and might 
say what he pleased before royalty. 
The name constantly ocoars in the 
early portion of Baber's Memoirs. 

1 He has omitted the succession of 
Ho^ammad Bal^i son of Is^ Tarkb&n to 
whom Eerishta gives a prosperoas reign 
of 18 years. The genealogical tree of 
Mirsi Jini Beg and the subsequent 
history of this family will be found at 
pp. 861-2, Vol. I of this work. Ferishta 
altogether omits Mu^mmad Payandah 
and g^ves the succession to Jdni Beg 
immediately after Mu^mmad Bi^i. 

> The spelling is that of the text and 
varies from the same name given a 
lilUe above. According to Cunningham, 



the name of '* Bhimbhar " was little used, 
the common appellation being Chibhdn 
which is found in Sharfu'ddin's History 
of Timtir under the form of Jibh&l. 

8 The text has " Hasti Watar," but 
the present Governor of Jammu, Pandit 
Radha Kishan Kaul, with whom it has 
been my good fortune to be placed 
in communication, and whose courtesy 
adds a grace to his learning, has proved 
its inaccuracy and has suggested the 
emendation. Tho name with its deriva- 
tion occurs later on and will be noticed 
in its place. The three different routes 
into Kashmir arc thus described by the 
Pandit. 

The first runs almost in a straight 
line passing through Nowsherah, Rajori, 
the Fir Panj&l pass and Shopiyon. The 



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the march of troops ; (2) Pir Fanjdl} which His Majesty has thrice traverf* 
ed on his waj to the rose garden of Kashmir. If on these hills an ox or a 
horse be killed, storm clouds and wind arise with a fall of snow and rain ; 
(3) Tangtalah. 

The country is enchanting, and might be fittingly called a garden of 
perpetual spring surrounding a citadel terraced to the skies, and deserredlj 
appropriate to be either the delight of the worldling or the retired abode 
of the recluse. Its streams are sweet to the taste, its water&dl» music to 
the ear, and its climate is invigorating. The rain and snowfall are similar 
to that of Turkest^ and Persia and its periodical rains occur at the same 
season as in Hindust&n. The lands are artificially watered* or dependent 



second deviating ftom Bajori mna to 
the Fiinoli river and on to Piinoh and 
oroflsing the Hdji Pir, joins the l(nrree 
road near Uri. The third, parting ftngxk 
Samani Sarai, passes through Kotli and 
Sera to Piinch and nnites with the 
second. The route by Bhnpiyon is the 
Pir Panj&l. The second is Tangtalah 
which name, however, is no longer known 
and is probably a misscript. The third 
is believed hy the Pandit to be the 
Hasti Bhanj, for it is the only one by 
which elephants can travel, and to this 
day elephants from Jamma must be sent 
bj Kotli to P6noh and across H&ji Pir 
to Uri. Cf. Yigne's Kashmir and Ladik, 
I. 147 in which 20 passes into Kashmir 
are mentioned and described. 

1 Panchal in most of the MSS. which 
Gnnningham asserts is the pronunciation 
of the Punj&bis, and Pantsil of the 
Kashmiris, p. 12d. The superstition 
regarding the tempest 6t wind and snow 
and rain, appears to be connected with 
that of the Yedeh or rain- stone frequently 
alluded to by Baber, the history of which 
is given by lyHerbelot. It is of Tartar 
origin and the virtues of the stone are 
celebrated in Tarkand and attested by 
authorities who have never vritnessed 
them. It is said to be found in the head 
of a horse or a cow, and if steeped in blood 
of an animal with certain oeremonies, a 



wind arises followed by snow and nun. 
See the introduction to Baber's memdrs 
by Brskine, p. xlviL The word Pir, 
according to Drew (Jommoo and 
Kashmir) has come to be used more or 
less generally in Kashmir for "pass," 
protiably from the "pir" or ttSkix who 
often sitablished himself upon it to 
maintain oraoquire the reputation of 
sanctity. Pir Pan j4l has oome to mean 
the pass of the Great Eange, Panjil 
being applied to a great nurantain ridge. 
There was once VkfakCr who lived cat it 
and bore the title of *'p6^," Bemier who 
crossed in Aurangzeb^s time mentions a 
hermit on the pass who had lived there 
since the reign of Jahangir. The creed 
he professed was not known, but his 
powers were said to be miraculous and 
the elements were nnder his control, 
rain, hail, storm and wind rising or 
ceasing at his bidding. He demanded 
alms in a tone of authority, and forbade 
any noise being made lest a tempeit 
should be the consequence, an ezpeiienee 
which Jahingir incurred to his extreme 
peril through disobedience of this in- 
junction. Voyages, II, 290. 

S The terms are Abi, Zalmi. The 
first signifies in the N.-W. P., land 
watered from ponds, tanks, lakes and 
watercourses, in distinction to thai 
watered from wells, and as being liable 



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349 

on rain for irrigation. The flowers are enchanting fill the heart with delight* 
YioletS) the red rose and wild nai'cissos cover the plains. To enumerate its 
flora would be impossible. Its spring and autumn are extremely beautiful. 
The houses are all of wood and are of four stories and some of more, but it is 
not the custom U> enclose them. Tulips^ are grown on the roofs which pre- 
sent a lovely sight in the spring time. Cattle and sundry stores are kept in 
Uie lower storey, the second contains the family apartments, and in the third 
and fourth are the household chattels. On account of the abundance of 
wood and the constant earthquakes, houses of stone and brick are not 
built, but the ancient temples inspire astonishment. At the present day 
many of them are in luins. Woollen fabrics are made in high perfection, 
especially shawls which are sent as valuable gifts to every clime. But 
the bane of this country is its people* yet strange to say, notwiih* 
standing its numerous population and the scantiness of the means of 
subsistence, thieving and begging are rare. Besides plums and mulberries, 
the fruits are numerous. Melons, apples, peaches, apricots are excellent. 
Although grapes are in plenty, the finer qualities are rare and the 
vines bear on mulberry trees. The mulberry is little eaten, its leaves being 
reserved for the silkworm. The eggs are brought from Oilgit and Little 



to fail in the hot aeason, is assessed at a 
lower rate. The second is a Poshtii 
word (Baverty) and means growiog 
■pontaneonslj and applied to crops 
wholly dependent on rain for irrigation 
or spring crops. The next term ChaU 
hhai in the text I have ventnred to 
amend as iJf^ which oconrs in a MS. 
helonging to the Governor of Jammn. 
ThoQi^h a variant ic^^ ™^y Btand 
for Jidkh4^a sigpufying parched land 
that has absorbed its moisture, yet the 
absence of a conjoneiion between it and 
Lalmi evidences a disoomection in the 
■entence. Another variant ^UJja. 
sapports this view bnt the reading of 
the Jamma MS. is the best and fitting- 
ly precedes the sentence that follows. 

1 Dr. King takes this to be probably 
the FritiUaria Imperialiaf though there 
is nothing against the plant being a real 



tnlip, The 7. stellatcF^ iu common in 
many parts of the N. W. Himalayas, so 
common as to be a tronblesome weed 
in the fields. The European tulip is 
only one of a large genus and is not 
likely to be the plant referred to. Moor- 
croft says that the roofs are formed of 
layers of birch bark covered by a coating 
of earth in which seeds dropped by birds 
or wafted by the wind have vegetated 
and they are constantly overrun with 
grass and flowers. 

S All travellers from Hwen Thsang 
downwards concur in this opinion, but 
Moorcroft almost alone has realised that 
the vices of the Kashmirian are due to 
the effects of his politioU condition rather 
than his nature^ and that the transforma- 
tion of his character is possible to a 
better government and a purer faith. 
Mendicancy has lacgely developed since 
Abul Fazl's day. 



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850 

Tibet, in the former of which they are procnred in greater abundance 
and are more choice. The food of the people ia chiefly rice, wine, 
fish and yarioas vegetables, and the last mentioned they dry and preserve. 
Bice is cooked and kept over night to be eaten. Though shdli rioe is 
plentiful, the finest quality is not obtainable. Wheat is small in grain and 
black in colour, and there is little of it, and^ little consumed. Gram' 
and barley are nowhere found. They have a species of sheep^ which they 
call Hdndu delicate and sweet in flavour and wholesome. Apparel is 
generally of wool, a coat of which will last for some years. The horses 
are small, strong, and traverse difficult ground. There are neither ele- 
phants nor camels. The cows are black and ill-shaped, but give excellent 
milk and butter. There are artificers of various kinds who might be 
deservedly employed in the greatest cities. The bazdr system is little 
in use, as a brisk traffic is carried on at their own places of business. 
Snakes, scorpions and other venomoas reptiles are not found in the cities. 
There is a mountain called Mahddeva and in any spot whence its summit can 



I Gladwin and the S. nl M. have here 
' ma'ng/ the palse, Thaseolus munjo, 
8 The chick-pea, Cicer arietinum. 

8 Here follow two words, ^^ iS 
" like the KadV A marginal gloss to 
two MSS. defines these words as re- 
sembling in size and statnre the female 
of the * kharmi,* Another gloss ex- 
plaining * kharmi * is unhappily wanting. 
According to Cnnningham (Ladak, p. 
210) the Ladaki sheep are of two kinds, 
the tall black-faced Huniya nsed chief- 
ly for carrying bnrdens and the pretty 
diminativ^e sheep of Purtfc nsed only for 
food. The common sheep is the Huniya 
which with the exception of the Turik 
breed is almost the only kind of sheep 
to be found throughout Tibet. It is 
much larger than any of the Indian 
breeds, the height averaging from 27 to 
30 inches. Nearly the whole of the 
traffic is transported on these sheep 
which are food, clothing and carriage 
and are the principal wealth of the 
country. Drew ( Jummoo and Kashmir 
p. 288j gives the average weight carried 



by them at from 24 to 32 lbs. The 
Purik sheep when full g^rown is not 
larger than a south-down lamb of 5 or 
6 months^ and is said by Moorcroft to 
equal in the fineness and weight of its 
fleeoe and fiavour of its mutton any race 
hitherto discovered. The oxen are the 
y^k or chauri- tailed bull and the yak 
cow, Brimo or Dimo, and their prodnce 
with the common cattle. The yak is 
kept chiefly for loads, being generally 
too intractable for the plongh. The cow 
is kept only for milk. The most valu- 
able hybrids are the Dso bull and Dtotno 
cow, the produce of the male yik and 
common cow. Other hybrids are the 
Dtepo or Drelpo, the male produce be- 
tween the common bull and the Dsoim 
and the Dremo or female. The Governor 
of Jammu whose considerable attain- 
ments are always at the service of those 
who seek his aid, informs me that 
Handu is a pure Kashmiri word and 
sigpiifies an ordinary domestic rani, 
generally well fed and taken care of for 
the purposes of fighting or sacrifice. 



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be seen, no snake exists, bnt fleas,^ lice, gnats and flies are very common* 
From the general use of pellet-bows which are fitted with bow-strings, 
sparrows are very scarce. The people take their pleasure in skiffs apon 
the lakes, and their hawks strike the wild-fowl in mid-air and bring them 
to the boats, and sometimes they hold them down in the water in their 
talons, and stand on them, presenting an exciting spectacle. 

Stags and partridges likewise afford sport and the leopard too is 
tracked. The carriage of goods is effected by boat, bat men also carry 
great loads oyer the most difficult country. Boatmen and carpenters 
drive a thriving trade. The Brahman class is very numerous. 

Although Kashmir has a dialect^ of its own, their learned books are 
in the Sanskrit language. They have a separate character which they use 
for manuscript work, and they write chiefly on Tuz which is the bark of a 
tree,^ worked into sheets with some rude art and which keeps for years. 
All their ancient documents are written on this. Their ink is so prepared 
as to be indelible by washing. Although, in ancient times, the learning 
of the Hindds was in vogue, at the present day, various sciences are studied 
and their knowledge is of a more general character. Their astrological 



1 The text has ^ for ^ 
S The languages of Kashmir are dirid- 
ed into 13 sepcurate dialects. Of these 
Dogri and Ghibali which do not differ 
maoh frou) Hindustani and Panj&bi are 
spoken on the hills and the Pdnoh and 
Jammn country. Kashmiri is mostly 
used in Kashmir proper and is corionsly 
and closely related to Sanskrit. Fire 
dialects are included in the term Fahdri : 
two are Tibetan spoken in Baltiatdn, 
Ladakh and Champas) and three or four 
varieties of the Dard dialects of Aryan 
origin in the North -West. The thirteen 
dialects are enumerated and discussed 
by Drew (Jummoo and Kashmir) and a 
Language map defines the groups that 
are mutually incomprehensible, classify- 
ing the dialects under five languages. 
Cunningham says that the Devanagari 
alphabet of India was introduced into 
Tibet from Kashmir in the first half of 
the 7th century of our era. Thumi 
Sambhota was the first who taught the 



Tibetans the use of the Kashmirian 
characters which remain unchanged to 
this day. Ladik, p. 5. 

" Tim in the Burh^ i 1f.i\\ is said to 
be the bark of a tree used to wrap round 
saddles and bows. According to Dozy» 
Ibn Bait^ makes it synonymous with 
*^^) jl^> the white poplar, a meaning 
confirmed by Hamza Ispahdni who calls 
it the «J!]<x^, a name of similar import. 
Dr. King identifies it with the well- 
known birch, Betula Bhojpattra, Wall. 
Bhojpattra he states is the current ver- 
nacular name, but in the N. W Himalayas 
it is known in yarious localities as 
Barj, Burzal, Sh^ &c. Its bark splits 
into very thin layers and is largely used 
even now for writing upon, and many of 
the oldest Sanskrit MSS. are written 
on it. It is also used nowadays, to make 
umbrellas, for wrapping up parcels and 
to roll up as tubes for flexible hookah- 
stems. The etymology of Tun is not 
dear. 



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352 

art and astronomy are after the manner of the Hindus. The majority of 
the narrow-minded oonservatives of blind tradition are Sunnis, and there are 
some Imdmii and Nur Bakshisy^ all perpetually at strife with each other. 
These are chiefly from Persia and Tnrkestdn. Their musicians are exceeding 
many and all equally monotonous, and with each note they seem to dig 



^ Ab the aoooant of thia sect in 
Ferishta has been almost entirely passed 
oyer bj Briggs in his translation, the 
omission may be here made good and 
will serve the doable porpose of supple- 
menting his version and elucidating the 
present text. With the following note 
may be compared a monograph on the 
Boshaniyah sect by Dr. Leyden in the 
Xlth Vol. Asiatic Researohes. 

Mini Haidar (Doghlit) in his work 
the Satab i Bashidi says that formerly 
all the inhabitants of Kashmir were of 
the 9anifL sect. In the time of Fatb 
Shiih, a man named Shamsu'ddfn came 
from Iri^ and declared himself to be a 
follower of Mir Mu^mmad Ndr Baksh. 
He introduced a new form of religion 
which he called Niirbakshi and promul- 
gated various heretic and impious 
opinions and circulated among the repro- 
bate a book of theology named Uhiktah 
which accords neither with the Sunni or 
Bhi^ belief. And the followers of this 
sect, like heretics, consider it their duty 
to revile and abuse the three Oaliphs and 
Ayesha, but unlike the Shi^hs, they re- 
gard Amir Sayyid Muhammad N^ Baksh 
as the Mahdi and Apostle of his time, 
and they do not believe as the Shi^hs do 
in saints and holy persons, but consider 
them to be Sunnis. He thus introduced 
innovations in religious worship as well 
as in worldly transactions, and styled his 
creed N^bakshi. Mirzi Haidar adds, ' I 
have seen many elders of this sect in 
Badaksh&n who have shared in my 
literary and scientific pursuits. They 
all outwardly observe the various religi- 



ous obligations and follow the instmo* 
tions of the Prophet, and their belief is 
in conformity with that of the Sunnis. 
One of the sons of Amir Sayyid Md. 
Ndr Baksh showed me his work. Thers 
was a striking passage in it which runs 
thus: "Kings and the rich and the 
ignorant are of opinion that worldly 
power cannot be combined with piety and 
purity of heart in any one person. This 
idea is altogether false, for the great 
prophets and apostles, notwithstanding 
their divine legation ruled kingdoms 
and strove likewise for purity of heart, 
such as Joseph, Solomon, David, Moses 
and our Prophet." This opinion is 
opposed to the belief of the Ndrbakahi 
sect but is in accord with that of the 
Sunnis. I sent the theological work 
UMUah which was well known in those 
days in Kashmir to the learned men of 
India. Their judgment on it was as 
follows : ' Gk>d, show unto ns the truth 
in its reality and the false wherein it is 
void, and show unto us things as they 
verily are.' After a sfcudions and oarefol 
consideration of this work, it appears to 
ns that its author believes in a false 
religion, has forsaken the divine com- 
mands and prohibitions and has ezdnded 
himself from the congregation of the 
Sunnis. In his pretension that God 
hath commanded him to do away witk 
all differences, firstly, in the develop- 
ments of the religious teaching of Islam 
that have arisen among the followers of 
the Prophet and to restore it to the 
form it held in his time without addition 
or diminution^ and secondly, in its fimda* 



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353 

iheir nails into jour liver. The most respectable class in this country is 
that of the BdLhmans, who notwithstanding their need of freedom from 
the bonds of tradition and custom, are true worshippers of God. 

They do not loosen the tongue of calumny against those not of their 
faith, nor beg nor importune. They employ themselves in planting fruit 
trees, and are geaerally a source of benefit to the people. They abstain 



menial prisoiples among the secta and 
among all peoples with certainty of 
belief, he is false and inclined to the 
doctrine of heretics and perverts. It is 
the religions duty of those who have the 
power, to destroy this book and efface it 
from the earth, and to extirpate this 
religion, root and branch) and to prohibit 
p^ersons from following it and acting 
according to its dog^nas. And if they 
persist in their belief and abandon not 
their false creed, it is necessary for the 
secuity of the Mnslims from their ill 
example, to chastise and even slay them. 
But if thej abandon it and repent of 
their past condact, thej should be 
directed to follow the teaching of Abu 
Qanifa to whom onr Prophet alladed in 
his saying, * Lamp of my followers.* 
When this declaration reached me, I 
compelled many men of Kashmir who 
were much disposed to this heresy, to 
accept willingly or otherwise the trne 
religion (and I pnt others to death. 
Borne of these men saved themselves by 
adopting mystic doctrines and called 
themselves Sufis. In reality they are 
not sincere S^s, but are a sprinkling 
of heretics and atheists who lead men 
astray, do not know what is lawful or 
unlawful, consider night watching and 
abstinence in food, acts of piety and 
purity, eat whatever is put before them, 
ire avaricious and greedy to an extreme ; 
sedulously employ themselves in the 
interpretation of dreams, fortune-telling 
ftAd disclosing events, past and future ; 
ptostrate themselves before one another, 

45 



and together with siich disgraceful acts, 
observe the forty days of retirement ; 
are averse from the pursuits of the 
learned, walk proudly in the way of 
interior holiness, omitting the obser- 
vance of religious forms and ceremonies, 
and maintain that the former is indepen- 
dent of the latter. In short, such here* 
tics and atheists are not to be found 
elsewhere in the world. May God pre- 
serve us, and take the people of Islam 
Under His protection, and sare them 
from such calamities and misfortunes in 
the name of Muhammad and his descen- 
dants." Before these people, there lived 
in Kashmir a sect of Sun-worshippers 
who were called Shamm&ssin. Their 
creed was that the sun's light owed its 
existence to their purity of faith, and 
that they themselves existed through 
the light of the sun, and that if they 
rendered their faith impure, the sua 
would cease to be. On the other hand 
if the sun ceased to shine they would 
not live ; thus they owed their existence 
to the sun and without them it could 
not endure. When the sun is present, 
that is in the day-time they ore bound to 
act virtuously, as he sees their actions, 
but when it is night and the sun neither 
sees them nor has knowledge of what 
they do, their moral responsibility for 
their deeds ceases. This sect called 
themselves " Sharasu'ddin (Sun of Reli- 
gion) pretending to receive the delivery 
of the title from heaven. The Kashmiris 
abbreviated it into Shammdsi.'' 



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from flesh-meat and do not marry. There are ahont two thousand of thii 
class. 

The Toldh^ in this oonntry ia 16 mouihasy each mcuhd being equal to 
6 surJchs. The gold mohnr weighs 16 ddnis, each ddni equalling 6 mrhhs^ 
being 4 surkks more than the ordinary mohnrs of Delhi. Bop Sitwd^ is a 
silver coin of 9 mdshas. The panchhu is of copper, eqnal to the fourth of 
a dam and is called kasSrah, One-foarth of this is the hahgagnij of 
which again one-fourth ia called shakri. 
4 kasirahs^l rdhat. 
40 kasSrahs^l sdsnti 
1^ sdmu 3sl sikkah, 

100 sikkahs =1 lakh which, according to the imperial estimate, is 
equal to one thousand ddmg. 

The whole country is regarded as holy ground by the Hind^ sages. 
Forty-five shrines are dedicated to Mahadeva, sixty-four to Vishnu, three to 
Brahma, and twenty -two to JDurga, In seveu hundred places there are 
graven images of snakes which they worship and regarding which wonder^ 
f ul legends are told.^ 



i Cf. Vol. I, p. 16, n. 86, and 87. 
The Surkh is the oommon red and 
blaok bead, Abras freaatoriuSf and if equal 
to a Rati in weight. For Ddni^ the S. 
nl M. has D6nak O^^^ the Arabioised 
form of D&ng (»-^l«^) probably the 
correct reading as it certainly is almost 
the corresponding weight, 6 aurkha being 
equal to a mdsha with the Kashmfris, 
and 8 in India. Bnt every denominati(Hi 
of weight has local yariations. At p. 
32, Vol. I, the weights of two current 
mohnrs of pure gold are g^ven, vi%., L&l i 
Jalili-1 tola y «urA;?w -97i surhha. 

The other » 11 mdahas - 88 do. 
The Kashmiri 

mohur « 16 ddni or \ 

ddndka > » 96 aurkhs. 
1D-6S ) 
The 96 ratia or aurkha in a tolah 
exactly represent the 96 carat grains in 
the gold assay pound. 

S The faultiness of the text has been 
oorreted by the learning of the Gover- 



nor of Jammu who tells me that " rop" 
signifies silver, and " sis " a thousand, 
in Kashmiri. In tormer times ordinary 
money transactions were conducted in 
Kashmir by means of copper coins, for 
the great majority of payments were 
made in grain which has always been 
abundant there^ bnt from its monc^wly 
by the State, difficult to obtain. One 
copper coin was called a hundred, and 
two colors two hundred, and so on. A 
thousand, represented 10 coppers which 
was probably the only silver coin of 
early times. Its valoe now would be 
about 2} annas, but as Abul Fail gives 
its weight as 9 mdahua, its value would 
then have been about 10 annas. This 
coin is now unknown. The text has 
panchuhu and hdrahkdni. 

ft Serpent- worship, according to Genl. 
Cunningham, has been the prevailing 
religion in Kashmir from time immemo- 
rial. The reigning sovereign who at the 
time of Hwen Thsang's arrival in Kash- 



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856 

Srinagar is the capital and is 4 farsaths in length. The rivers 
Bihaty Mdr^ and Laehmahhul^ flow through it. The last-mentioned runs 
oooasionallj dry : the second, at times, becomes so shallow that boats can- 
not pass. This has been a flourishing city from ancient times* and the 
home of artificers of varions kinds. Beantifnl shawls are woven, and they 
mannfactnre woollen stnffs^ extremely soft. Durmah, paffu and other 
woollen materials are prepared bat the best are brought from Tibet. Mir 
Sayyid Alt Hamaddni* resided for some time in this city, and a monastery 
founded by him still preserves his memory. To the east is a high hill 
known as the Koh % Sttlaimdn^ and adjoining the city are two large lakes 
always full of water, and it is remarkable that their water vrill not de- 
teriorate in good savour and wholesomeness for any length of time pro- 
vided that their free exit is undisturbed* 

Near the town of Brang is a long defile in which is a pool seven yards 
square and as deep as a man's stature. It is regarded as a place of great 
sanctity. Strange to say it is dry during eleven months, but in the Divine 
month of TJrdi-bihisht (April), water bubbles forth from two springs. 



mlr in A. D. 631, was Dnrlabha, is said 
to have been the son of a Niiga or 
Dragon, and the dynasty he foonded is 
oalled the N£ga or Karkola. Ancient 
Geography of India, p. 92. 

1 The Jhelam, which nearly intersects 
the valley is formed, says the I. G., by 
the junction of three streams, the Arpat, 
Bring and Sandaram, and receives in 
its course namerons tributaries. It men- 
tions the TsoHt i Kul, or apple-tree canal 
connecting the Dal or city lake, with 
the Jhelum which it enters opposite 
the palace and the Nalli Mdr which flows 
into the Bind near Shidipdr connecting 
the Auehar with the Dal, The Dud- 
gangs, a stream of good volume joins 
the river on the left bank at the city of 
Brinagar. 

t Srinagari, the old capital, prior to the 
erection of Pravarasenapura is stated in 
the Baja TarangirU to have been founded 
by AK>ka, who reigned between B. 0. 
188 — 866. It stood on the site of the 
imsent Pandrethin, and is said to have 



extended along the bank of the river 
from the foot of the Takt i Sulaimdn to 
Pdntasok, a distance of more than three 
miles. 

» The word istP^^, the same word 
as at page 110 of the text, with a differ- 
ent in the final t, translated. Vol. I, p. 96. 
"Scarlet broad-doth." In Wilson's 
Glossary, it is translated woollen or 
broad-cloth, derived apparently from the 
English 'scarlet.' For Durmah and 
FaU4, see Vol. I, p. 95. 

* This monastery is built entirely of 
wood. Pandit Badba Kishan, Governor of 
Jammu tells me that it is still extant and 
known as the Kh&nl^&h i Muiilla, on the 
right bank of the Bihat above Zenu 
Kadal the fourth bridge of the town of 
Srinagar. An illustration of it will be 
found in the title page of Drew's Jammu 
and Kashmir, where it is called the 
mosque of Shih Hamad^n. His story is 
griven in Vigne II. 82 and in Hiigel's 
Travels, p. 117. 



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356 

First in one comer of it is a cavitj like a mortar called Sendh hrdri : 
when this becomes full, the spring rises in another, comer called Sai 
rishi. From these two sources the pool runs over. Sometimes it boils np 
for three hours, and at times for only a second. Then it begins to decrease 
till not a drop remains. At threo periods of the daj, viz.^ morning, noon 
and evening, this rise occurs. Various flowers are thrown in as offerings 
to either spring, and after the reflux of the water, the flowers of each 
Totarj are found in their respectiye springs.^ 

But this, like the divining cup is a contrivance of the ancients to se* 
cure the devotion of the simple. 

In this vicinity also is a spring, which during six months is dry. On 
a stated day, the peasants flock to worship and make appropriatory offer- 
ings of a sheep or a goat. Water then flows forth and irrigates the cultiva- 
tion of five villages. If the flush is in excess, they resort to the same 
supplications, and the stream subsides of its own accord. There is also 
another spring called Kokar Ndg^ the water of which is limpid, cold and 
wholesome. Should a hungry person drink of it, his hunger will be ap- 
peased,* and its satisfaction in turn renews appetite. At a little distance, 
in the midst of a beautiful temple, seven fountains excite the wonderment 
of the beholder. In the summer time self-immolating ascetics here heap ap 
a large fire around themselves, and with the utmost fortitude suffer them- 
selves to be burnt to ashes. This they consider a means of union with the 
Deity. There is also a spring which produces touchstone, and to the 
north of it a lofty hill which contains an iron mine. 

The village of Vej Brdra, one of the dependencies of rneh is a place 
of great sanctity. It was formerly a large city* and contained wonderfol 



1 Tieffenthaler ascribes the oanse of 
the phenomenon to the meltmg of the 
mountain snows under the inflaence 
of the san which descending along 
hollows or by snbterranean passages 
reach this cavern and boil np within 
it. The later ebnllitions he conceives, 
are dne either to the shade of the trees 
or the declining force of the sun on 
the snows. Bemier's opinion is some- 
what the same. Voyages, II, 293. 

S Yigne (I. 889) on the contrary bears 
testimony to its being provocative of 
appetite. The spring, situated aboat 



2| miles from the iron works at Sof 
Ahan, forms a stream eqaal in volume 
to that of Yemag and f ar snperior in 
the quality of its water. 

* The principal ancient cities of 
Kashmir are the old capital of Srinagari 
and the new, Pravaraaenapdra which was 
lost in the former name : Ehagendra- 
pura and Khanamusha, identified with 
KiUcapur on the left bank of the Bihat, 
ten miles to the south of the Takht 
i Sulaimlin, and Khnnamoh, four miles 
north-east of Pdrapnr: Tijipara and 
Pantasdk. The former twenty -five miles 



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357 

temples. In the vicinitj is an upland meadow called Nandimargy of which 
I know not whether most to praise its level sweep of mead, the loveliness 
of its verdure and flowers, or the bountiful virtues of its streams and its 
air. In the village of Pampur one of the dependencies of Vihi, there are 
fields of saffron to the extent of ten or twelve thousand bighasy a sight that 
would enchant the most fastidious. At the close of the month of March 
and during all April, which is the season of cultivation,^ the land is plough- 
ed up and rendered soft, and each portion is prepared with the spade for 
planting, and the saffron bulbs are hard in the ground. In a month's time 
they sprout and at the close of September, it is at its full growth, 
shooting up somewhat over a span. The stalk is white, and when it has 
sprouted to the height of a finger, it begins to flower one bud after 
another in succession till there are eight flowers in bloom. It has six 
lilac-tinted petals. IJsuallj among six' filaments, three are yellow and three 
mddj. The last three yield the saffron. When the flowers are over, leaves 
appear upon the stalk. Once planted it will flower for six years in succession. 



aonfch-east of the oapital : the latter throe 
milee from the Takht i Snlaimin ; Sara- 
pnra the modem Sopnr, mentioned in the 
Kashmir chronicloB as Kambuya: E^nish- 
kap^ira, oormpted to Eirnpnr : Hnshka- 
para probably Baramnla: Joshkapiira 
now Zakra or Zakar four miles north of 
the capital : Parihasapfiraboilt by Lalita* 
ditya (A. D. 723—760} : Sadmapora, now 
Pampor: and Avanlipdra, now only a 
small village, Wantipnr, seventeen miles 
south-east of the present oapital. Can- 
ningham, pp. 95, 108. The text has 
Panjbr^rah, Yig^e, and Moororoft Bij 
Beara, I follow the spelling of the 
Governor of Jammn. 

1 See Vol. I, p. 84 where the method 
of cultivation of this plant is explained 
somewhat differently, and the Wdlqdt i 
Jahlngiri, in Elliot's Hist. India, Yl, 375. 

S I am indebted to Dr. King for the 
following note : 

" There are three stamens and three 
stigmas in each flower. The latter 
jield the saffron. The style divides at 
the level of the anthers into three yellow 



drooping branches which hang out of 
the flower and become gradoally thicken- 
ed and tabular upward, stigmas dilated, 
notched and often split down one side, 
dark orange coloured. The mode of 
collection and preparation of safiFron 
varies in different countries, but it con- 
sists essentially in removing the stigmas 
with the upper part of the style from 
the other parts of the flower and after- 
wards drying the parts detached. A 
not uncommon adulteration of saffron is 
made by intermixing the dyed stamens 
of the saffron crocus. It takes from 
7000 to 8000 flowers to yield 17} ounces 
of fresh saffron which by drying is re- 
duced to 8|." Medicinal Plants. Bentley 
and Trimen, IV, 274. In the Wa^jit 
i Jehangiri, it is asserted that in an ordi- 
nary year, 400 maunds or 3,200 Khora- 
s&ni maunds are produced. Half belongs 
to Government, half to the cultivators 
and a sir sells for about 10 Bs. A note 
states that one good grain of saffron 
contains the stigmata and styles of 9 
flowers i hence 4,329 flowers yield one oz. 



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S5S 

The first year, the yield is small : in the second as 30 to 10. In the third 
year it reaches its highest point and the balbs are dug up. If left in the 
same soil, they gradually deteriorate, but if taken up they may be profit- 
ably transplanted. 

In the village of ZdMoan are a spring and a reservoir which are con- 
sidered sacred, and it is thought that the safEron seed came from this 
spring. When the cultivation begins, they worship at this fount and poor 
cow's milk into it. If as it &tlls it sinks into the water, it is accounted a 
good omen and the saffron crop will be plentiful, but if it floats on the sur- 
face, it will be otherwise. 

In the village of E%r%u 360 springs refresh the eye and each of these 
is accounted a means of divine worship. Near this is an iron mine. 

Maru Adwin adjoins Qreat Tibet where the Handu is found of the 
best breed and large in size, and carries heavy burdens. Near this is a hill 
called Ohatar Kot on the summit of which snakes are so numerous that no 
one can approach it. There is also a high hill difficult of ascent, on which^ 
is a large lake. It is not every one that can find his way to it, for it often 
disappears from sight. At the foot of the mountain in different places 
images of MaMdeva fashioned of a stone like crystal are found and are a 
source of wonder. 

In the neighbourhood of Achh Dal, one of the dependencies of 
Khatt<^r is a fountain which shoots up to the height of a cubit, and is 
scarce equalled for its coldness, limpidity and refreshing qualiUes. The 
sick that drink of it and persevere in a course of its waters, recover their 
health. 

In the village of KoHhdr^ is a deep spring, surrounded by stone tem- 
ples. When its water decreases, an image of Mahddeva in sandal-wood 
appears. The quality of this spring does not alter. 

In the vicinity of Wular is a lofty mountain, containing a salt spring. 
The Kashmir stag^ is here found in numbers. 

Matan* stands upon a hill and once possessed a large temple. There 



i I conceive the text would be amend- 
ed by a different punctuation, via,, 

^y^ 3^ji 'hi )^^^. This retains the 
reading and the sense, which the text 
confuses. The name above is Mam 
Wurdwfin according to Vigne. 

S Kotih&ris a perg^ah according to 
Vigne and produces the beet silk in 
Kashmir. 



8 The Bard Singha or' Kashmir stag. 
{Cervua Cashmerianus), It is known 
in Kashmir as the Hanglu, and Vigne de- 
scribes it aa most numerous in Dachhin- 
p4rah. 

4 This name is retained by Hiigel 
(Travels, p. 135), through apparently not 
familiar to Vigne (I, 381), who gives it 
the bettor known appellation of Mar* 



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359 

is a small pool on tlie Bammii, the water of wbich never decreases. Some 
suppose this to be the Well of Babylon^ but at the present day there is no 
traoe of anything but an ordinary pit. 

On the slope of the hill is a spring, at the head of whioh a reservoir 
has been constmcted, fall of fish. The sanctity of the place preserves 
tbem from being touched. By the side of it is a cave, the depth of which 
cannot be ascertained. 

In Khdfwarpdrah is a source, whose waters tumble headlong with a 
mighty roar. 

In the village of Aisk^ is the cell of Bdh& Zainu^ddin Bishi, It is in 
the tide of a hill. It is said that in ancient times the hill held no water, 
but when he took up his abode there, a spring began to flow. For twelve 
years he occupied this cell and at length oloeed its mouth with a large 
stone and never went forth again, and none has ever found trace of him. 

The town of Dachchhinpdrak^ is on the side of a mountain bordering 



tand, Bitaated on the highest part of the 
KtrBwah or raised plain between IsUm^- 
bad and the higher mountains. The 
temple is described by Hugel as 
** Koran Pandau/' the beautiful ruins 
of which are the finest in Kashmir. 
Tigne inrerts the order as Pandu Koru. 
At J 50 yards distance as the Oh&h i 
Balul or well of HArdt and Mar6t whose 
story does not need repetition. The 
spring referred to in the following para- 
graph is that of Bawan, one of the holiest 
in Kashmir, swarming, says Yigne, (I, 
859) with Himalayan trout. Hiigel gives 
the legend of the oayes one of whioh he 
was assured extended 10 k<Ss, and that no 
one who ever entered, had been known 
to return. He penetrated to the end of 
it in a few minutes. Hatan is the name 
of the Karmomh at the end of which, 
aooording to Moororoft, the Martand 
temple stands (II, 255) ascribed like 
most of the architectural remains to the 
Pindns. 

* The Tillage of Aish Ma^6m or the 
abode of pleasure, holds in a long 
building situated conspicuously on the 
left bank ol the Lidar, the shrine of 



the saint. He directed that a tomb 
should be erected where his stnff should 
be found, as his body would disappear. 
It is stai missing. Bee Vigne, II, 6. 
The text has Ash with a variant Aish, 

* With reference to this name and 
that of Khdwarpdrah Cunningham in- 
stances an effect on the nomenclature of 
the points of the compass caused by 
difference of creed. By the Hindu who 
worships the sun, the cardinal points are 
named with reference to the East, as 
para, the * front * or earth, to whioh he 
turns in his daily morning worship ; 
apara, * behind* or the West, Vdma, the 
•left' hand or North, And dakahina, the 
'right' hand or the South. By the 
Mul^ammadan who turns to the West or 
Mecca, these terms are reversed, and 
* Dachin * which still means the * right ' 
hand in Kashmiri, is now used to denote 
the North and Kdwar on the * left ' to 
denote the South Thus on the Lidar, 
there is the subdivision of Dachinpdra 
to the west of the stream, and Kdwar- 
pdra to the south. On the Behat river 
also, below Bardhmulaf the subdivision 
of Dachin lies to the north, and that of 



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360 

Oreat Tibet and is fed by the waters of the above-mentioned spring. 
Between Oreat Tibet and the above-mentioned parganah is a cave in which 
is an image in ice called Amar Nat, It is considered a shrine of great 
sanctity. When the new moon rises from her throne of rajs, a babble as 
it were of ice is formed in the cave which daily increases little by little 
for fifteen days till it is somewhat higher than two yards, of the measure of 
the yard determined by His Majesty ; with the waning moon, the image 
likewise begins to decrease, till no trace of it remains when the moon disap- 
pears. They believe it to be the image of Mahddeoa and regard it as a means 
(throngh supplication) of the fulfilment of their desires. Near the cave 
is a rill called Amrdoti, the clay of which is extremely white. They account 
it auspicious and smear themselves with it. The snows of this mountain- 
ous tract nowhere melt, and from the extreme cold, the straitness of the 
defiles and the rough inequalities of the road, they are surmounted with 
great toil. 

In the village of DakMrnAn is a spring, and whenever its water boils 
up and becomes turbid its sur^e is covered with particles of straw and 
rubbish, the dust of dissension arises in the country. A quarry of Solo^ 
men's stone^ is in the vicinity of which utensils are &,shioned. 

About the pargatuih of Phdk grow a variety of herbs and plants. Ad- 
joining is a large lake called Dal, One side of it is contiguous to the city 
and on its surface a number of floating islands* are constructed which 
are cultivated, and fraudulent people will at times cut o£E a piece and carry 
it away to a difEerent position. Sulfdn Zainu'l 4^bidtn constructed in 
this lake a causeway (sad) of clay and stone one kos in length from the 



Kdwar to the soatb of the stream. This 
change in the meaning of Dachin from 
south to north mast have taken place 
before the time of Akbar as Abol Fazl 
describes Dachinpdra as situated at the 
pool of a mountain on the side of Great 
Tibet, that is to the north of the Lidar. 
Ancient Geography, India, p. 94. 

The Amam&th cave is marked in 
Drew's map, soath-east of Baltal and 
Sonamarg, near the sources of the 
Bind river. Its history and ceremonies 
are told by Vigne, II, 8. The ice bubble 
was doubtless a stalactite. See Moor- 
croft, II, 262. 

* Applied indiscriminately to both 



agate and onyx. Tieffenthaler describes 
a stone of their country, as green with 
white streaks which is worked with 
diamond powder and made into phials, 
saucers, hafts of daggers and the Uke. 
It is probably a kind of jade. 

' Cucumbers and melons are com- 
monly grown on them. Their cons&ruc* 
tion is described by Moorcroft (II, 138) 
with the thoroughness which characterises 
his obsenrations. The causeway is called 
by Vigne, (II, 99) Sad i Chodri and is 
carried entirely throngh the lake to the 
village of Isha Bryri, four miles on the 
opposite side. It more resembled a line 
of rashes than a causeway in his day. 



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861 

city to this parganah. In the vioinify also is a spring of which the sick 

drink and are restored to health. 

In the village of Thtd^^ is a delightful spot where seven springs 

unite : around them are stone buildings, memorials of bygone times. 

There is also a source which in winter is warm and in summer cold. 

In the village of BdzwaL is a waterfall from the crest of 8hdhk6t. It 

is called Shdlahmdr, Here fish are caught in numbers. A streamlet 

is caged at two ends and when the water is carried off, the fish between are 

taken. 

In Ishibdrfl is a spring held sacred by the people of Hindustan, 

called Surycuar, surrounded by stone temples. Shakamdg is a spring 

which is dry all the year, but should the 9bh of any month happen to 

fall on a Friday, it bubbles up and flows from mom till eve, and people 

flock to partake of its blessings. 

In the village of Bambal^ are a spring and a pool. Those who have 

special needs throw in a nut, if it floats, it is an augury of success ; if it 

sinks, it is considered adverse. 

In Bdnihal is a temple dedicated to Durgah, If any one desires to learn 

the issue of a strife between himself and his enemy, he fills two vessels 
with boiled rice, the one representing his own fortunes, the other those of 
his foe, and places them in the temple and closes the doors. On the fol- 
lowing day the devotees present themselves to learn the result. In whose 
vessel roses and saffron are found, his undertaking will prosper, and that 
which is full of straws and dirt, portends the ruin of the person it repre- 
sents. Stmnger still, in a dispute where it is difficult to discover the 
truth, each party is given a fowl or a goat and sent to the temple. They 
then poison each of these animals and severally rub them with their hands. 
His animal whose cause is just recovers, and the other dies. 

In the Ver tract of country is the source of the Bihat, It is a pool 
measuring Skjarib which tosses in foam with an astonishing roar, and its 
depth is unfathomable. It goes by the name of Vemdg^ and is surrounded 
by a stone embankment and to its east are temples of stone. In the 
village of I^amhar is a spring called Bawan Bendh^ which during two 



' Thad, in the text. 

* In the text Isha haUri. I am guid- 
ed on the«e name« by the Qoyemor of 
Jammo. 

• Yar. Zambfl, Zfmbal, Ratil. 

^ Ver. is the old name for ShahAb&d. 

4^ 



A desoription of this celebrated fountain 
may be read in Vigne's Kashmir, I, 832, 
and in Hoorcroft, II, 26a 

* Yar. Bhawan Send, Biun Send, Bhu 
Sendh, Pawan Sendhi 



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362 

months of the epring-time is in agitation. It is always full and its water 
never decreases. 

In Devsar in the village of Balaa is a pool called Balan Nilg 20 
yards square in which the water is agitated : it is embosomed in delightful 
verdure and canopied bj shady trees. Whosoever is desirous of knowing^ 
the prospects of the harvest, or whether his own circumstances are to be 
prosperous or unfavourable, fills an earthen vessel with rice, writes his name 
on its rim, and closing its mouth, casts it into the spring. After a time the 
vessel of its own accord floats on the surface, and he then opens it and if 
the rice be fragrant and warm, the year will be prosperous and his under- 
takings successful, but if it be filled with clay or mud and rubbish, the 
reverse will be the case.* 

Veshau^ is the name of a stream which issues picturesquely from an 
orifice in a mountain, and at the same place is a declivity down which the 
waters tumble from a height of 20 yards with a thundering roar. Hinda 
devotees throw themselves down from its summit and with the utmost 
fortitude sacrifice their lives, in the belief that it is a means of securing 
their spiritual welfare. 

Kuthdr^ is a spring which remains dry for eleven years, and when the 
planet Jupiter enters the sign of Leo, it flows on the following Thursday 
and during the succeeding seven days is again dry and once more fills on 
the Thursday next following, and so continues for a year. 

In the village of Matalhdmah is a wood in which is a heronry,^ the 
feathers are taken for plumes, and the birds are here regularly fed. 

Near Shukroh^ is a low hill on the summit of which is a fountain which 
flows throughout the year and is a place of pilgrimage for the devout. The 
snow does not fall on this spur. 



* This is also mentioned bj Ferishta. 

' Yigne calls the cataract, Arabal or 
Haribal. 

* This appears to be the Eosah Nig 
of Yigne which he says is pronoanced 
Eaosar or Kantsar by the Mn^ammadans 
after the fountain in Paradise. 

^ The text has relegated jfv^ to a note 
as doabtful and snbstitnted the conjec- 
tural emendation of V^> ©•glo* which is 
wrong. The learned Pandit JELadha 
Kishan, to whom • I am indebted for so 
mach regarding Kashmir, tells me that 



the word is pronoanced Onkar or Okar 
and signifies a heron. See Vigne, I, 
806. The heronries are striotlj guarded 
and in the spring when their long fea- 
thers fall from their necks, there is a 
watchman in attendance to pick them 
np. 

* The Brihmans of Kashmir identify 
this place which Cunningham supposes 
to be Zukru or Zukur still a considerable 
village four miles north of the capital, 
with Jushkapura founded by the Indo- 
Scythian prince Jushka, a brother (^ 
Kanishka and HiMhka, p 101. 



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863 

In Ifdgdm is a spring called N^h Ndg,^ the basin of which measureB 
40 bigahs. Its waters are exquisitely clear and it is considered a sacred spot, 
and xnanj volantarily perish by 6re aboat its border. Strange to relate 
omens are taken by its means. A nnt is divided into four parts and thrown 
in, and if an odd number fioats, the angui'y is favourable, if otherwise, the 
reverse. In the same way if milk (thrown in) sinks, it is a good omen, 
and if not, it is unpropitious. In ancient times a volume, which they call 
NUmctt^ arose from its depths, which contained a detailed descrip- 
tion of Kashmir and the history and particulars of its temples. They say 
that a flourishing city with lofty buildings is underneath its waters, and 
that in the time of Badu Shdh,^ a Brdhman descended into it and returned 
after three days, bringing back some of its rarities and narrated his ex- 
periences. 

In the village of Btrutod is a spring and in its wat-er lepers bathe early 
on the first day of the week and are restored to health. In the vicinity is a 
plateau, a pasture ground for cattle, the grass of which has peculiar fatten* 
ing properties. 

In the village of Salthal of the parganah of ftehh is found a quivering 
tree.^ If the smallest branch of it be shaken, the whole tree becomes 
tremulous. 

Ldr borders on the mountains of Cheat Tibet, To its north is a lofty 
mountain which dominates all the surrounding country, and the ascent of 
which is arduous. At its foot are two springs, two yards distant from each 
other, the waters of one being extremely cold and those of the other 
exceedingly hot. They are considered sacred and the bones of bodies are 
here reduced to ashes : the bones and ashes of the dead are cast into a 
large lake on the mountain and this ceremony is regarded as a means of 
union with the Divinity. If the flesh of an animal fall into it, a heavy fall 



* There are two of thia name; one 
motioned by Vigne, (II, 170) near 
Drabog&m, the oapitAl of the parganah 
of Shnkm, which \b nothing more than 
a large pond in the forest. He heard 
nothing of Abnl FaxVs legend, on the 
spot ; the other hy Moorcroft, (II, 283) 
who did not actnally visit it as it lay ont 
of his ronte, bat describes it as the 
Bdoroe of two streams, one taking the 
direction of the Lala-Koal or Fohrn in 
Kaehmfr, the other that of Kathae in 
the Baramnla pass. 



* Badn Shah isZainu'l^Adbidin (Vigne, 
II. 73). 

' Dr. King informs me that the Aspen 
{IPopvlus trBmula) ooonrs wild in the 
N. W. Himalaya. The P. Enyhratica of 
which the leaves are as tremnlons as the 
aspen, is also common in many parts. 
The former has a more northern range 
and is fonnd in Siberia and may have 
been introduced into Kashmir. For the 
proper names in the text I follow the 
guidance of the Governor of Jammu. 



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364 

of snow and rain ensues. The riyer called Bind wbich rises in Tibet ^ in 
wholesome to drink, and is so clear that the fish in it are visible. Thej 
strike them with iron spears and catch them also in other ways. Shahdb* 
u'ddinptir is on the banks of the Bihat^ and abont it are large plane trees 
which is a favotirite resort. The Bind joins the Bihat at this point. 

In Tulmuld is an area of abont 100 higlias in extent which is flooded 
during the rains, and remains somewhat moist even after the waters have 
dried up. The people plunge in sticks of a jard in length, more or less, 
and work them about, and thrusting their hands into the holes pull out 
fish of four pounds weight and more, but commonly of small size. 

In Satpur is a pool, the depth of which cannot bo fathomed. It 
is held in great veneration and is a place of worship. Bhuieaar is a temple 
dedicated to Mahddeva, Whoever approaches to pay his devotions, hears 
the sounds of ceremonial worship and no one can tell whence they proceed. 

In Khoihdma which adjoins Little Tibet is a large lake called the 
Wular twenty-eight kSs in circumference. The BihcU flows into it and its 
course is somewhat lost to the eye.^ Here Sultan Zainu'l Adbidin built 
a large palace called Zain Lanka, Boats full of stones and branches of trees 
are sunk in the lake and pulled up by ropes after the lapse of three or four 
months, and many fish are taken that have homed there. The capture 
of water-fowl here affords considerable sport, and in the village of Ajas^ 
stags are chased down to the lake and taken. Near Mdehhdmu is an 
island covered with trees which when shaken by the wind, cause the island 
also to quake. 

Saffron is also cultivated in Paraspur. It formerly held a lofty temple 
which when destroyed by Sikandar father of Sul^n Zainu*l Adbidin^ 
a copper tablet was discovered on which was inscribed in Sanskrity that after 
the lapse of eleven hundred years, one Sikandar, would destroy it and 
gather for himself exceeding great chastisement.^ 



^ See Yigne, IT, 158. The legend of 
the Lanka islet is given in MiL[^am- 
mad Aazam's Hist of Eashmfr transla- 
ted by me in the A. 8. Journal, XLIX, 
Part 1, 1880. 

■ Var, Ahsan. 

* Cunningham alludes to this at p. 
102 and adds, * The same story is told 
by Fenshta with the addition of the 
name of the B&ja whom the translator 
oalls Balndt probably a mistake for 



Ldldit, the contracted form of Lalitmdi* 
tya among the Kashmiris. As the 
difference of time between this prince 
and Sikandar is barely 700 years, it is 
strange that the tradition should pre- 
senre a date so much at ▼ariance with 
the chronology of their own natire ohro- 
nioles.' His inference of the inaoouraoy 
of the translation is correct. Feriahta 
has distinctly TtolUadit, and not Balndt^ 
and he places the temple at Tdra$pwr, 



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365 

In the Parganah of Kamraj^ at the village of Trahgdm the residence 
of the Chahs is a foantain of sweet water called Ohatamdg and in the middle 
is a stone building of great age. The fish grow to great size bat who- 
soever teaches them, is afflicted by some calamity. 

Near Kargon is a defile called Sdyam^ where an area of ten jarihs of 
land becomes so hot at the time of the conjunction of Jupiter and Leo that 
trees are burnt up and a vessel of water if left on the ground will boil. 
A flourishing IMtle town stands here. From Kamrdj is a defile, one end 
of which touches Kdshghar and on the west lies Fakliy where gold is ob- 
tained in the following manner. The skins of long-haired goats are spread 
in the fords of the river, with stones placed round them that the current 
may not bear them away. They are taken up after three days and lef fc in 
the sun. When dry, they are shaken, yielding their three tolahs weight of 
gold dust. CKlgit is the name of another pass which leads to Kdshghar. 
Gold is there obtained by soil washings. 

At two days' distance from Hdehdmun is the river named Padmati 
which flows from the Ddrdu^ country. Gold is also found in this river. 



bat P. IB the right initial and pronounced 
by the Kashmiris PoruMjdr, (Yigne, 
n, 148). Farihdsapura was built by 
Baja Lalitaditya who reigned A. D. 
723—760. It was, writes Cunningham, 
situated on the river bank of the 
Jhelum near the present village of 
Sumbal. The names in Briggs are 
frequently incorrect and his version 
skips whole passages of his author. See 
also p. 85, Vol. I. 

* Kamrij and Mer^j were two large 
districts into which Kashmir was divided 
from the earliest times, the former 
being the north half of the valley below 
the junction of the Sind with the Jhelum, 
and the latter the south half, above that 
junction. Cunningham, p. 94. Yigne 
calls the village T^u*agdon (II, 139) 
the villagre of the stars. The remains 
of ancient masonry a fine spring were 
■till to be seen, some of the blocks little 
inferior in size to those of Martand. 

* Snhoyum in Vigne, (II, 281,) who 
that it lies near the village of 



Nichi Hama in the Parganah of Machia- 
pora at the north-west end of the valley, 
and that 36 years before his visit an 
intense heat was found to issue from the 
spot. The phenomenon has several times 
occurred, a white smoke being occasion- 
ally seen to issue from the ground, but 
without sulphurous smell or fissures 
in the soil. 

• Few people can be traced through 
so long a period in the same place as 
these whom H. H. Wilson (Moorcroft, 
II, 266, n.) identifies as the Ddradas of 
Sanskrit geography, and Daradrss or 
Darad» of Strabo. He supposes them 
to be the Kafirs of the Mu^mmadans, 
though now nominally converted to 
Islam. The auriferous region of the 
DiUradas is mentioned by Humboldt 
(Cosmos II. p. 513. B. C. Ott^) who 
places it either in the Thibetian highlands 
east of the Bolor chain, west of Iskardo, 
or towards the desert of Gobi described 
also as auriferous by Hewen Thsang. 



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36^ 

On its banks is a stone temple called 8drada\ dedicated to Durgd, and 
regarded with great veneration. On every eighth Hthi of Shuhlapaeheh,^ 
it begins to shake and prodnoes the most extraordinary effect. 

The system of revenue collection is by appraisement and division of 
crops, assessments for crops paying special rates and cash transactions not 
being the cnstom of the country. Some part of the Satr Jxhii^ cesses, 
however, are taken in cash. Payments in coin and kind were estimated in 
kharwdra of (Shdli) rice. Although one-third* had been f©r a long time 
past the nominal share of the State, more than two shares was actually 
taken but through His Majesty's justice, it has been reduced to one half. 
According to the assessment of J^dzi^ (AH) the revenue was fixed at 30 
lakhs, 63,050 kharwdrs, II taraks, each kharwdr being 3 man, 8 sSrs Ak^ 
harshdhi. A weight of two dams is called a pal, and ^ and ^ of this weight 
are also in use. 

Seven and a half pals are considered equivalent to one sSr, two sirs 
are equal to half a man, and four sSrs to a tarak, and sixteen taraks to one 
kJiarwdr. A taraJc, according to the royal weights (of Akbar) is eight sirs. 
Taking the prices current for several years, the Kdzi struck an average of 



^ A name of Dorg^ as well as of 
Saraswati. See this name in the de- 
scription of E&ngra nnder Sdbah of 
Lahore. 

• See p. 17 of this Volnme. 

• See p. 68, n. 

• The immemorial tradition in Kash- 
mir considered the whole of the land as 
the property of the niler. Of some 
portions of the Ichdlsah lands the sover- 
eigns divested themselves by grants in 
jagir for varions periods. The Sikhs 
made a general resumption, ousted the 
possessors of grants and reduced thou- 
sands to destitution. In Moorcroft's 
time (II, 125) the kh^lsa lands were let 
out for cultivation. Those near the city 
as Sar Kishti, head or upper cultivation, 
those more remote Pai- Kishti, or foot 
and lower. When the grain was trod- 
den out, an equal division took place 
formerly between the farmer and the 
government, but the latter advanced its 
demands like it appropriated | of the 



Sar-Kishti and f of the P. K. crop. 
The straw fell generously to the share 
of the cultivator who was also permitted 
to steal a portion of his own produce by 
the overseer, — for a consideration. In 
the time of Zainu'l Anbidfn, the rice 
crop (the staple) is said to have been 77 
lakhs of hha9•^JodT8, In Moorcroft's day 
it was 20, at from 2} to 6} Rs. a kharwdr. 
His weight- measures diifer from those 
of Abul Fazl, a Jcharwdr being 16 taraks, 
a taralc 6 s^ra, a sSr iO pala^ a pal 3^ 
Mahomed Shahi rupees, which (the 
rupee being 178'3 grains) should make 
the tSr nearly 2 pounds. The actual 
84r was, however, not above one pound 
avoirdupois, and a kharwdr or ass-load 
was therefore 96 pounds. A horse-load 
equalled 22 tarths. 

• See pp. 847 and 411 of Vol. I, where 
further information is given regarding 
the revenue system, its exactions and the 
disturbances which led to the l^&zi's 
murder. 



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867 

the aggregate, and the kJharwdr (in kind) was ascertained to be 29 ddiMf 
and the khanvdr in monej, was fixed according to the former rate of 13^ 
dams. The revenne, therefore, amounted to 7 hr&rs, 46 lakhs, 70,411 dams. 
(Rs. 1,866,760-4-5), out of which 9 lakhs, 1,663 kharwdrs and 8 taraks were 
paid in money, equivalent to 1 kr&Ty 20 lakhs, 22, 183 ddms. (Rs. 300,554-9-2.) 
The revenue fixed by Apaf Khan,^ was 30 lakhs, 79,443 kharwdrs, of which 
10 lakhs, 11,330^* kharwdrs were in money. The cesses bdj and tamghd,^ 
"w&ce altogether jremitted by His Majesty, which produced a reduction of 
67,824^ kharwdrs, equivalent to 898,400 ddms. (Rs. 22,460.) For the 
additional relief of the husbandman, five ddms on the price of a kharwdr, 
were thrown in. Although the revenue, in kharwdrs, of A§af Khdn was 
in excess of that of K4zi ^.li by 16,392 kharwdrs, yet calculated in money 
the receipts are less, after deducting the remissions, by 860,034^ ddms 
(Rs. 21,500-13-7), because he estimated the kharwdr in money which is of 
lower relative worth, above its value. 

In the revenue returns forwarded by ^dzi AH to the Imperial Exche- 
quer, forty-one parganahs are taken while the return submitted by Asaf 
Khdn contains but thirty-eight, there being but thirty-eight in point of 
fact. For ]^azi Ali on a review of the question separated the two villages 
Maaifid and Ddrdu, of the parganah of Kamrdj, and dividing the parganah 
of 8d%r % Mawdzi into two, constituted these into two parganahs. In 
former times certain selected towns of ewih parganah were denominated 
Sdiru'l Mawdzi (village-group) and were held as Khdlisah.* Kdzi Ali 



» Vol. I, p. 411. 

• Var. 15,380i. 

' I have retained these expressions as 
ibej may serve to throw some h'ght on 
their exact natnre. Tamghd has been 
already defined at p. 67 of this Yolnme, 
aa being a demand in excess of the land 
reyenae and hdj is simply a toll or tax 
and must here have a somewhat similar 
application, bat there were various other 
taxes in excess of land revenue, such as 
Jihdtt Bdir Jihdt, Farua'dt and others 
whose nature is defined at p. 58. Elliot 
discusses the value of the terms at p. 6, 
VoLlI, of his Races of the North- West 
^rovijicee, but he arrives at no determi- 
nation of their special fiscal significance. 
The two are, in several instances, found 



coupled together when remissions of 
taxation are mentioned and perhaps they 
were thus employed to express all cesses 
of whatever kind over and above the 
land revenue. Tamgha occurs later 
under Kabul, signifying inland tolls. 

* Lands of which the revenue was the 
property of the government, not being 
made over in grants or gifts, JdgCr or 
Indm to any other parties. Also to 
lands and villages held immediately of 
gfovemment and of which the State is 
the manager or holder. More generally 
it was applied to the exchequer under 
the Mu|;^l.mmadan administration. It is 
more usually pronounced Khdlsah* 
Wilson's Gloss. 



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368 



tLTiiied forty villages of the Marrdj^ side nnder the name of Parganaht 
Hdveli and retained eighty-eight* villages of KcLmrdj according to the for 
mer distribntion, as pargandh of Sdiru'l Mawdzi, 

The whole kingdom was divided nnder its anoient rnlers into two 
divisions, Marrdj on the east, and Kamrdj on the west. 

At the present day that a great part of the army in Kashmir has been 
withdrawn, the local militia consists of 4,892 cavalry and 92,400 infantry. 

Sarkdr of Kashmir, 

Containing 88 Mahals, Revenue 8,011,618 kharwdrs, 12 taraJks, being 
equivalent to 62,113,040J ddms. (Rs. 1,652,826) ; out of which 9,435,006 
kharwdrSf 14 taraks is paid in money, equivalent to 12,501,880 ddms, 
(Rs. 312,547.) Castes, various. Cavalry, 3,202. Infantry, 27,725. 

The Marrdj Tract, 

Containing 22 Mahals. Revenue 1,7.02,819 kharwdrs, equivalent to 
35,796,122^ ddms, (Rs. 894,903), of wliich 670,651 kharwdrs, 12 taraks ^re 
paid in money, equivalent to 8,885,248 ddms, (Rs. 222,131-3-2). Cavalry, 
1,620. Infantry, 4,600. 

City of 8'rinagar, Revenue 342,694 kharwdrs, 12 taraks, in money, 
342,996 kharwdrs, 8 taraks; in kind, 1,698 kharwdrs^ 4 taraks. 

Parganahs east of 8'rxnagar, 3 Mahals, 



ffcohh, 
Brang, 

Vihi, 



In kind. 



wdrs. 



Taraks, 



144,102 
78,834 4 

209,632 8 



In money. 



Khar- 



Taraks. 



62,034 4 
8,769 8 

161,968 8 







50 
1000 

400 



Castes. 



Khamasli* 
and Zinalu 

Bat,* t. e., 
Br&hman. 



» Abul Fazl dnplioates the r, but at p. 
98 of the text, one MS. giyes Mardj 
which is the usual spelling. The Gover- 
nor of Jammu says that both fonns are 
in use. Vigne, (I. 272) and Moororoft, (II. 
113) give a list of 36 parganahs. H. H. 
Wilson the editor of Moorcroft's trayels 
notices that he has omitted some names. 



• Var. eight. 

• Var. Kashmah, and unintelUgible 
variants of Zinah. 

• Further on, a variant g^ves Bh/U, 
which in Blliot, I, 151, is one of the 
classifications of Brahmana in the Censoa 
N.-W. P. for 1866. 



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360 

ParganahSf nortk-easif 7 Mahals. 





In kind. 


In money. 


! 


^ 


Oaates. 




^y-raU. 


^: '-<*•• 








Wttlar, 


188,666 4 


12,608 8 


20 


200 


Dardah and 
Shil. 


Fiimc, ... ••. ••. 


7,1111 12 


17,402 8 


... 


.*• 




Daohhinpirah, 


76,158 


6,902 12 


20 


100 


Khia^ 


Khiwarp&rah, 


45,226 8 


8,676 8 


100 


500 


Khiwar." 


Khatt^*-* 


87,479 4 


8,221 12 


16 


800 


Dard. 


Mani A4wm (Mara Wardw6n, 




i,041 


200 


200 




Vigno), 






balf 
bow- 
men 






Maton, ... 


190,481 


18,621 


20 


100 


Bal. 



Parganahsy touth^easty 11 Ma^U, 





In kind. 


In monej. 


1 


s 


Oa0te9. 




^I"^--^- 


^:- '--»•• 




A^irin, ... ••• 


101,482 4 


14,816 16» 


1 


100 


Dard. 


rtchh, ... 


98,869 


14,877 4 


6 


80 


Brihman. 


Banihil, ... 


6,485 
401ior8eload8^ 





400 


4000 


Sihar. 


BIA ... 


8,515 
besides trans- 
it duties re. 
mitted. 


4,286 8 


50 


800 


N^.« 


IWTBar, ... 


85,644 8 


822 8 


800 


•000 


Zlnah.» 


Zinahp^r, 


15,876 4 


1,790 1 


20 






8<5paraaman,* 


6,183 besides 
does on fire- 
wood. 


2,008 4 


70 


200 


Kambah. 


Shidarah, 


89,167 


8,550 12 


... 


... 


Thakar.» 



* Var. mwBh or Qidah. 

* Var. Kih6. 

* This most be a mistake for 12, as 
16 tarahB make a khanodr : in the Arabic 
nomerali the 2 (r) and 6 (l) wre easily 
oonfoanded. 

* A horse load is 22 taraka, 

47 



* Tar. Talk. The Niik are olassiied 
in Elliot 1, 152, as Brihmans. 

* Nnmeral omitted. 

^ Var. Basah, Binhah, Batiah. 

* So^rsaman, S4r9aman. 

* Var. Bhakar. Drew oonfirms the 
reading Thakor, which is the chief 
cnltiTating oaaie in th* hilli. 



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S70 





In kind. 


In money. 


1 


1 


Castes. 








Ss 
o 






^sy-raU 


^- '•'-»•• 








Shukrdh,... 


46,224 


12,767 8 


20 


... 


Ashw£r. 


JS&gim, ... 


189.770 12 


22,676 4 


16 


100 


Bat. 


Vdr, 


12,270 8 


888 


600 


6000 


Sahsali.' 



Kamvr6j Tract. 

Containing 16 Mahals, Bevenne 1,218,799 khartodrs, 12 taraki, 
equivalent to 26,316,918 dams, (Bs. 657,922-15-2.) In money, 272,954$ 
kharwdra, equivalent to 3,616,632 ddins, (Rs. 90,415-12-9.) Cavalry, 
1,590. Infantry, 16,965. 

ParganahSy north-west. 





In kind. 


In money. 


I 


! 


Ga8te& 


Zinahkar, 
Khoihima, 


18,268 
88,670 12 


82,56i 
16,622 


60 
60 


100 
1000 


Bat, Masai- 

m£n. 
Zinah.« 



ParganahSf south-west. 





In kind. 


In money. 


! 


1 


Castes. 


Indarkdl, 
Paraspdr, 


9,668 4 
18,880 12 


7.288 
8,862 8 


... 


... 


Bat. 
SiyAhi. 



* Yar. Sahah, Sansah, Nakhah. 



I • Var. Ahir. 



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871 





In kind. 


In monej. 


i 

! 


1 


Oaates. 




^:^-»- 


^r^-«*- 








Patan, ... 


4»799 4 


628 


80 


110 


Bhat. 
Mnsnlm&n. 


B4nkal, ... 


116.288 12 


20.280 4 


200 


600 


Bikri.* 


Barwi, ... 


67,098 12 


18.888 


85 


80 


Khio.* 


Telkim, ... 


16,416 12 


4.486 4 


... 


80 


Pandit. 


Dinad,* . 


6d,219i 


17.088* 


160 


400 


D<5ni. 


Daohhin KMwarali, ... 


86,222 4 


20.668 


26 


800 


Khasi, 
Kankn.* 
Zinah. 


Sair Q'l Maw^, 


192.641 4 


18.668 12 


... 


... 




Kh<5i, ... 


12.946 


870 


... 


16 


Raw^r. 


Kamrij, ... 


842.844 4 


108.726 4 


1000 


10,000 


Chak. 


Kar^han/ 


116,474 


29,779 12 


- 


110 





Sovereigns of Kashmir, 
Fifty-three princes reigned daring a period of 1266 years. 



Ugnand. 

Dam6dar,|^i^ 

Bal, 5 

Thirty-five princes succeeded whose names are unknown.* 

n. 

Layah, (var. Lava.) 
Kishen, his son (yar. Kish.) 



* Yar. Akbari, Khas^ri. 

* Var. Kahlu'. • 

* Var. Daneo. Dans^o. 

^Ytfr. Khakar. Binah, Kahikankn 
Dinah, Eahki Kahkn. 

* Gardhan, and Kardhan, in the 
Onlzir i Kashmir. 

* Ab some of these names are snpplied 
by the U. T., I append the series in ap- 
position to the dynasties in the text. 
The series in Tieilenthaler corresponds, 
and is taken (sajs a note, apparently by 
Anqnetil dn Perron) from a history of 
Cashmir written by Haidar Maler, A. H. 
1027 (A. D. 1607). 



Bajas of Oashmir of the line of G-wru 
in the Innar race worshippers of 
Niigas or snakes. 
The Big4 Tarangini whence this line 
is taken, commences with an account of 
the dessication of the yalley by Casyapa 
Mxmiy supposed to allude to the deluge. 
Wilson, As. Es. XV. 1. 
First period. Caurara race 1266 years. 
B. 0. 8714. Cashmir colonised by 
Casyapa. B. 0. 2666. 
W. 
Fifty-three princes, names 
omitted by Hindu writerii 



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872 

Kahgftndra, his don. 

Snrandra, bis son. 

Godharai of another tribe. 

Stiran, bis son. 

JanakSy bis son. 

Shachinar, (var. Hashka^ Bishka). 

Agdha^ son of Janaka's paternal uncle. 

Jal<5ka, his son. 

Damddar, descendant of Asdka. 

Hasbka, \ 

Zashka. C three brothers. Buddhists. 

Kaniska, \ 

Abhiman. 



bat partly anpplied by 






SannlEh^. 


Mnlj^ammadan autho- 






Akber Ehin. 


rity as follows t 






Jaber Ehlln. 


Snllm&ii. 






Nandor Eh&n. 


Cassalgham. 






Banker Eh&n, slain by. 


Maherkaz. 






Bakra R4jl 


Bandn Ehin, (Panda of 






An interval ensoes and 


the lunar line.) 






aothentio history ooo^- 


L<5di Ehin. 






mences with 


Ledder Kh&n. 


B. C. 2448. 


Gonerda," I, Kali Yoga 


Sunder Khin, Hind6 






658. Qonanda or Ag^ 


worship established. 






nand, a relation of 


Cnnder KhlLn. 






Jarasondha^ 1400. Vf il- 


Snnder Ehin. 






son. 


Tnndn Khin, 






Damodara, I. 


Beddn Kh&n. 






Gonerda, II. 


Mahand Eh&n. 






Thirty-five prinoss } 


Dorbinash Kh4n. 






names forgotten. 


Deosir Eb&n. 


>» 


1709. 


Lava (BaMava) Loo of 


Tehab Ehin, dethroned 








by king of Cabul. 






torians. 


Cfljn Eh£n. 


it 


1664. 


Gaos^saya. 


LuTkhab Eh&n. 


t» 


1660. 


Ehagendra. 


Bhermayaran Eh&n. 


» 


1600. 


Sorendra, oot. with Bah* 


Kanreng Khia, oonqner- 






man of Persia. 


ed China. 


}> 


1576. 


Godhara. 


Barigh Eh&n. 


1) 


1687. 


Snvarna. 


Oowasheh Eh&n. 


»> 


1477. 


Janaoa. 


Panda Ehanll, extended 


tt 


1471. 


Saohinara. 


empire to the sea. 


II 


1894. 


Atoca, established Bud* 


Haris Ehin. 






dhism. 



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873 

III. 

lUjd Ganand (Qonerda III) reigned, 

„ Bhikan (Vibliishana,) his son, ... 

„ Indrajita, his son, ... 

„ Biwana, his son, 

„ Bhikan II, his son, ... 

„ Nara, (also called Khar),' his son, 

„ Sidha, his son, 

„ Utpalachah, his son, 

„ Hiranya, his son, ... 

„ Hirankal, his son, ... 

„ Abaskaha, his son, ... 

„ Mihirkal, his son, ... 

„ Baka (Vaka), his son, 

„ Khatnanda, his son, 

„ Yasnnanda, his son, 

„ Nara, his son, 

„ Aja, (Aksha), his son, 

„ Gopdditja, his son, (MSS. E6parat), 

„ Karan, his son, 

„ Narendraditja, his son, 

„ Yndishfc'hira, his son, 



T. 

36 
53 
35 

30 
35 
39 
60 
30 
37 
60 
60 
70 
63 
30 
52 
60 
60 
60 
67 
36 
48 



M. D. 


















13 





2 






11 
3 10 
10 



B. O. 1882. Jalooa, adopted oastes. 
„ 1302. Damodara, II, a Saiya; 
transformed into a 
snake. 

prin- 



1277. Huskha, 



1217. 



"^ Tartar 

Jushca. I ^"» ^•^*- 
^ . , I blished 
Canishoa, 

J Bnddhism. 

Abhimanyn, an orthodox 
Hinda. B. C. 423 W. 
Second Period, Gonerdiya dynasty, 
1013 years, or 878 years after adjust- 
ment. (Wilson.) For all these dynas- 
ties see Wilson's Essay on the Hinda 
Bistory of Cashmere, As. Res. XY. 
B.C. 
1182 Qonerda III, Nilga 

worship resnmed, B. C. 888 W. 
1147 Vibishana, „ 870 



B.C. 

1096 Indrajita, 
1060-6 Bdvana, 
1080.6 Vfbishana II, 
993 Nara (Kinnara^ per- 

secnted Buddhists, 
953-3 Siddha, 
893.3 Utpaliiza, 
862-9 Hirany&za, 
825-2 Hiranydcula, 
765-2 Viilucula, 
705-2 Mihir&oula, inraded 

Lanka or Ceylon, 
635-2 Yaoa, 
572-2 Xitinanda, 
542-2 Yasunanda, 
490 Nara II, or Bara, 
430 Aza (by some said 

to have built the 



B. C. 852 

„ 834 

„ 816 

„ 298 

„ 280 

„ 262 

„ 244 

„ 226 

„ 218 

„ 200 

„ 182 

„ 164 

„ 146 

« 128 



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374 



IV. 



Six princes reigned 192 years. 
Pratapaditya, said to be a descendant of Vikramd- 

ditja, ... 
Jal6ka, bis son, 
Tanjir, (Tanjfna) his son, (T. Tanzar G. and var 

Banjlr), ... 
Bijai, relation of above, ... 
Jayandra, (var. Chandra), his son, ... 

Arya Uij, 

V. 
Ten princes reigned 592 years, 2 months, 1 day. 
Meghavdhana, a descendant of Judisht'hira, 
Srishtas6na, his son, 
Hiran, his son, 
Mdtrignpfca, Brdhman, ... 
Pravara86na, a descendant of Meghavdhana, 
Jndisht'hira, his son, 
Lakshman, called also Nandradit, ... 
RanAditya, his younger brother, 
Vikramaditya, his son, ... 
BAlAditya, his younger brother, no issue. 



Y. M. D. 



32 
32 

36 
8 

37 
47 



34 
30 
30 
4 
63 
39 
13 
30 
42 
36 



















2 
9 

3 












temple on the 








TakhtiSulaimto, 








by others, the 








following mon- 








arch, T.), 


B.C. 


100 


B.C. 








870 


Gopaditya, a pious 








br&hmanlBt, 


M 


82 


810 


Gokema, 


>» 


64 


258 


Narendraditya, 


»» 


46 


216-9 


Yndhisht'hira, sur- 








named the Blind, 


)> 


28 




Aditya Dynasty, 192 


years 


. 


168-9 Pratfipaditya, kins- 








man of Viorama- 








ditya, 


a 


10 


136-9 


Jalanoas, 


a 


22 


104-9 


Tnnjina, a great 








famine, 


}» 


64 


66-9 


Vijaya, 


>i 


90 


60-9 


Jayendra, 


II 


93 



B.C. 
23-9 Ary& R^]A, of mira- 

cnlons aooession, B. C. 135 
Gonerdlya line restored, 692 years, or 

438, adjusted. 
A. D. 
23-3 M^ghavidhana, inyiied Baaddhas 

and iilyaded Ceylon. 
57-2 Sreshtad^na, or Pravaras^na. 
87-3 HiranyA, contention with Toro- 
m&na Ta'Oataja^ connected with 
Vioramaditya. 
ll7-5 M^trigupta, Brihman f rem tTjjain 
succeeded by election, 471 W. 
122-2 Pravaras^na, invaded 

Siladitya of Gnjer&t, 476 

185-2 Yndhisht'hira II, 499 

224-5 Nandravat, Narendrl- 

ditya, or Lakshmani, 622 
237-5 Ratkdditya, married 

daughter of Ohola B£ja, 545 



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375 



Seventeen princes reigned 257 years, 5 months, 20 

Dnrlabhavardan, son-in-law of Bdlidit, 

Pratapaditja, grandson of his daughter, 

Ghandrapifa,^ his eldest son, 

Tdrapifa, his brother, 

Lalitdditya, another brother, 

Kayalaj&pir^, his son, 

Vajrdditya, his brother, .„ 

Prithivyapff4, his son, ... 

Sangr&pir4, grandson of Lalitaditya by a son, ... 

Jayapifa ditto, ••• ••• 

Jaj, his brother-in-law, ... 

Lalitdpifa, his son, ..• 

Sangrdmapifa, his brother, 

Brihaspati, son of Lalitipifa, 

Ajit^pfa, or Ajaydpifa, son of Prabhabipifa, 

Anangipifa, son of Sangrdmdpifa, ... 

ntpaUpifa, son of Ajaydpifa. 



days 


, 




T. 


M. 


D. 


36 








50 








8 





8 


4, 


24 


36 


7 11 




15 












1 













31 








some months 


12 








37 








12 








36 








3 









A, D. 

537-5 Yikramaditya, supposed 

an interpolation, 568 

579-5 Bildditya, last of the 

Gonerda race, 592 

N^ or Carcota dynasty, 260 

years, 6 months. 

615-5 Dorlabhaverddhana, oonneoted 

with Yezdijird. [pdr. 

651-5 PratiLpaditya, founded Pratapa- 

Durlabhaca. 
701-5 Chanddlpfra, or Chandranand, a 

Tirtnons prince. 
710-1 T^rapira, a tyrant. 
714-1 Lalit^tya, conquered Yasoyama 
of Kanauj (Yasovigraha of 
inscriptions) and overran India. 
750-8 Ouvalayipfpa. 
751-8 Vajriditya. 
758-8 Prithivyipira. 
762-10 SangramapifCk. 
769-10 Jajja, an usurper, deposed by 



A. D. 

772-10 Jayipfra, married daughter of 
Jayanta of Gaur, encouraged 
learning, invaded Bhima S^naof 
Gujerat; 841. 

808-10 LaliUlpfra. 

815-10 Sangrimipfra, II or Prithivyi- 
pfra. 

822-10 Vrihaspati, or Ohippatajaya, son 
of a prostitute whose five bro- 
thers governed in his name. 

884-10 Ajitipira, set up by the same 
usurpers. 

870-10 Anang^pira, restored to sucoes' 
sion. 

873-10 Utpalapfra, last of the Carcota 
race. 
^ The text has the 4^-1tdr or hard 4 

which is convertible with the Hindi 

hard r, to which I have ventured to 

alter it in correspondence with the 

Hindi pronunciation of these names. 



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876 



VI. 

Fifteen princes reigned 89 years^ 1 month, 15 days. 

Avanti VarmA, of the Chamar easte, 

S^ankar Yarmd, hid son, .. 

Gopdl Varmi, 

Sankat, said to be his brother, 

Sngandh^ Rdiii, mother of abOVe-mentioned Gopdl, 

Partha; son of Narjit Varma, son of Sukh Varma, 

Ndrjit Varmd, son of Sukh Varmd, his brother, ... 

ChakraTarmA, 

Sdra Varmd, his brother, 

Pdi-thd, son of Ndrjit, 

Chakra Varmd, second time, 

Sankar Vardhana, son of Mir Vardhana, 

Chakra Varmd, third time, 

Unmatti Avanti Varmd, son of Rdja Pdrthd, 

Snrma (S^nra) Varmd, second time, last of the 

Chamdr princes, ,., ... ... 6 

VII. 

Ten princes reigned 64 years, 3 months, 14 days. 

Jasasra (Jasaskar) Dev, a peasant, ... 9 

Bdranit, an uncle's descendant, ... ... 1 

Sangrdma Deva, son of Jasaskar, ... ... 6 7 



T. 


M. D. 


28 


3 3 


18 


7 19 


2 








10 


2 





15 


10 


1 


1 


10 


15 


I 





1 


4 





6 


3 





8 





2 


2 



Utpala Dynaity, 84 years, 5 months. 
A. D. 
875-10 Aditya Varmd, or Avanti Varmi, 

a severe famine. 
904-1 Sankara Varmd, invaded Gujjara 

and Bdjd Bhoja, Elashmir cycle 

brongbt into use. 
922-9 Gopdla Varmd, killed youth. 

Sankata, last of the Varmd race. 
924-9 Sngandhd Rdni, recommended 

election of 
926-9 Pdrthd. TheTatrisand Eoangas 

powerfnL 
941-9 Nirjita Varmd, also called Pan^t», 

the Cripple. 
942-9 Ohakra Varmd, civil wars. 



A.D. 

952-9 Snra Varma. 

953-9 Partbd, a second time 

954-3 Chakra Varmd, do. 

954-9 Sanoara Vardhana. 

956-3 Chaora Varmd, third time. 

957-7 Unmatti Varmd 

955-9 Sfara Varmd, II. 

Last or mixed Djuasty 64 jears, 
4 months. 

960-3 Yasascara D^va, elected sover- 
eign. 

969-8 Sang^ma D^va, dethroned and 
killed by 

969-7 Parvagupta, slain at Sar^wari 
Ketra. 



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377 



Parva Gupta, one of his subjects, 

Khema (Ksb^ma) Oupta, 

Abbimau, bis son, 

Nanda Gupta, bis son, ••» 

Tribbiivana, ... 

Bbima Gupta, son of Abbiman, 

Dida Rani, motber of Abbiman, 

Twenty-seven princes reigned 351 years, 6 months, 17 days. 
Sangi-ama, son of Adiraj, nephew of the Bdui, ... 24 2 
Harir^ja, bis son, .., ,,. .,, 22 

Ananta, bis son, .«« ... ... 5 5 

Kalasa D^va, bis son, ... ... .«. 2G 



T. 


M. D 


1 


4 


8 


6 


14 





1 


1 9 


2 


7 


4 


3 20 


23 


6 



A. D. 

971-8 Xema Gapta, destroyed many 

Yihorae of Baddhists. 
979-9 AbhimanyTi,iDtrigaefl and tamalt. 
993-9 Nandi Qngtet, pab to death bj his 

grandmother Diddi. 
994-10 Tribhiiyana, shared the same 

fate. 
996-10 Bhimi Gupta, ditto. 

1001-1 Did& Bilni, assumed the throne, 

adopts. 
1024-7 Sangrima Deva II. with whom 

Wilson's list closes. 
10S2 Harir^ji and Ananta D^va, his 

sons (continued from printed 

Taringini.)* 
1054 Kalasa. 
1062 UtkarSi, and Harsha D^va. 

* The lengths of reigns only are given 
in the original ; oa^culating backwards 
from AUu'ddin, it becomes necessary to 
curtail the reign of Hariri ja (52 years) 
by about 80 years to form a natural 
link with Wilson's date of Sangr&ma 
D^va. — Prinsep. I add that the conclu- 
sion of this series is incompatible with 
the fictions even of Hindu Chronology, 
and though the intervention of 18 
Mahammadan kings be conceded, the 

48 



term of four years is an extremely undig- 
nified allowance for this royal proces- 
sion. The dates of the Mul^ammadan 
kings is continued from Table LXXV 
of the U. T, taken apparently from 
Briggs whose calculations are based on 
two dates given by Ferishta, viz , that of 
Shah MiVs arrival in Knshmfr under 
Sinha D^a, in 715 (A. D. 1815) and 
the death of lUja Adin in 747 (1846). 
According to Ferishta, the latter was 
succeeded by Koiahdevi who, after a 
brief opposition to Shah Mir, espoused 
him. She was imprisoned the following 
day and her husband ascended the 
throne and died after a reign of tliree 
years. To his son Jamshid is allotted 
1 year and 2 months. Allowing a year 
for the brief reign of the Rani, this 
would give the accession of Alaa'ddin 
about A. D. 1851. Ferishta docs not 
give separate dates to each reign as 
might be inferred from Briggs' digest 
of his pages.. He places the death of 
^u^bu'ddm in 796 (A. D. 1393) ; that 
of Sikandar the Iconoclast in 819 ( 1416). 
AU Sh&h in 826 (1422) and Zuin u*l 
Aibidln in 877 (1472). 



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878 



Utkatia, his son, 

Hara^, son of Kalasa, 

Uchal, grandfather of Hara^, 

Riddha, son of Siddha, one of the murderers 

of Uchal. 
Salhan, brother of Uchal, 
Sasalha, brother of Salhan, 
Bhekhj4jar, son of Harad, 
Rijd Susalha, second time, 
Jaja Singh, son of Snsalha, 
Parm&nak, son of above ... ... 

Dati (var. and G. Danji D^va), his son, 

Jas D6va, his younger brother, 

Chag (Jag) D^va, son of above, 

Bdjd D^va, his son, 

Sangr^ma D^va, his son, 

Bama D^va, his son, 

Lachhman (Lakshman) D^va, son of a Brahman, 

8inha D6va, chief of Labdar of Daskhinparah, ... ' 

Binha D6va, brother of above, ••• 

Binjan of Tibet, a native of that country, 

Adin D6va, relation of Sinha D6va, 
Bani Kot4 D6vi, wife of Adin D6va,... 



T. 


M. D. 





22 


12 





10 


4, 2 


one 


night and 


3 hours. 





3 27 


7 10 





6 12 


2 


3 


27 





9 


6 10 


9 


i 17 


18 


13 


14 


2 


23 


3 7 


16 


10 


21 


1 13 


13 


3 12 


14 


5 27 


19 


3 26 


10 


some 


months. 


15 


2 10 





6 15 



A. D. 

1062 

1072 
1002 
1072 
1088 

1088 

1110 
1119 
1126 
1135 

1163 



Udayama Yikrama, son of the 

latter. 
Sankha B4j&. 

Salha, grandson of Udayama. 
Snaalha, nsorper, ditto. 

Mallina, hia brother, (end of 

Kalhana Pandit'R list). 
Jaya Sinh, son of Susalha (Jona 

Bajd's list). 
Paramdna. 
Bandi Deva. 
Bopya D^va. 
Jassa D^va, his brother, an im- 

beoile. 
Jag^ D^ya, son of Bopyf^. 



A. D. 
1167 
1190 
1206 
1227 
1261 

1276 



1294 
1294 



Sangr&ma D^ra, III. 

Rima D^ya. 

Lakhana D^va, adopted. 

Sinha D6va, new line i killed by 

brother-in-law 
Sinha D^va, II, nsnrper, himself 

deposed and killed by the Mlech.- 

obHs under E&j4 Dnllaoh ? 
The Bhota Dynasty. 
Sri Binchana, obtained throne by 

conquest. 
Kota Bani, his wife. 
Udyana D^va, second husband. 
Their minister, Shih Amir killed 



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379 





Thirty- 


A.H. 


A. D. 


715 


1315 


750 


1349 


752 


1351 


765 


1363 


785 


1386 


7991 


1396 


819 


1416 


826 


1422 


877 


1472 


878 


1473 


891 


1486 


902» 


1496 



911 1505 



942 1535 



two princes reigned 282 years, 5 months, 1 day. 

Sultan Shamsn'ddin, minister of Sinha D^va, 
„ Jamshid, his son, ... ... 

„ Alan'ddin, son of Shamsa'ddin, 

„ Shahibu'ddin, 

„ ¥^utbu*ddin, son of Hasann*ddin, 

„ Sikandar, his son whose name was 

Sankdr, 
„ ^li Shdh, liis son, 
„ Zainu'l A^bidin, younger brother of 

41iShdh, ... 
„ Hdji Haidar Shah, his son, 
„ Hasan Khdn,* his son, ... 
„ Muhammad Sh&h, lus son, ..• 

„ Fait Sh&h, son of Adam Khin, son 

of Sult&n Zainu'l 4&bidfn, 
„ Muhammad Shdh, a second time, ••• 
„ Fatb Shiih, a second time, 
„ Muhammad Shuh, a third time, 
„ Ibrahim, his son, 
„ Ndzak Sh4h, son of Fath ShAh, (Fe- 

rishta, *^ son of Ibrahim, son of 

Muhammad Sh&h)," ... ••• 

„ Muhammad Shdh,* a fourtli time, 
„ Shamsi, son of Muhammad Shdh, 
„ Ismail Sh4h, his brother. 



T. 


M. 


D. 


2 


11 25 


1 


10 





12 18 13 


20 








15 


5 


2 


22 


9 


6 


6 


9 





52 








1 


2 





12 





5 


2 


7 





9 


1 








9 


9 


1 


1 





11 


11 


11 





8 25 


1 








34 


8 10 





2 





2 


9 






the whole family and succeeded 
9£ Sri Shamsa'ddin. 
18 MalM^mm&dan princes snooeeded. 
Names not recorded. 
Vikhjaaa Bhatt, oyercame the 
last of these. 
1298 ? Jayansera, his son oTerooiae by 

Snlt&n. 
1300 Alla'addin, Mnl^ammad Sh6h. 
» Death of Kutbu'ddfn 798. Ferishta. 
* Of the length of this reig^, Ferishta 
states he is ignorant, hut Briggs makes 
kim * led to believe ' that it " mast have 
been nineteen years." 



• Ferishta, 894r— (1488-9). 

* Ferishta gives fifty years for the 
whole reign of Ma^ammad ShUh, which 
wonld place the date of his son Shams- 
a'ddin's accession in 941, (1584) ; Ferishta 
is nnable to give the length of his 
reign and omitting mention of IsmaO, 
follows it with the accession of Nazuk 
who, after six months gives place to 
Mirza Haidar. The Shamsu'ddm of 
Ferishta, is the father of Niizak, t;i«., 
Ibrahim. The series and dates of Fe- 
rishta contiuao in the following order : 



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S80 



Y. 1 


U.I 


0. 


13 


9 





1 


5 





10 








1 








10 


6 





6 


10 





8 


9 





1 


020 





1 25 


I 


2 





5 


3 





1 









A. H. A. D. 

Sul(dn Ndzak Shdh, a second time, 
„ Ismfiil-Sbdh, a second time, 
948 1641 Mirzd flaidar Gurgin, 

Snlt^n Ndznk Shah, a third time, 
Gbdzi Khdn, son of Kdji Chak, ... 
971 1563 HiLsain Chik, his brother, 

41i Chak, brother of Hasain Chak, 
986 1578 YusnfSh4h, his son, 

Sayyid Mubarak Sh4h, one of his nobles, ... 
Lobar Chak, son of Sikandar, son of Kaji Chak, 
Yusuf Shdh, a second time, 
YdVub Kh&n, his son. 
Thus this series of 191 princes, reigning throughout a period of 4,109 
years, 11 months and 9 days, passed away. 

When the Imperial standards were for the first time borne aloft in 
this garden of perpetual spring, a book called Bdj Tarangini written in the 
Sanskrit tongue containing an account of the princes of Kashmir during a 
period of some four thousand years, was presented to His Majesty. It 
had been the custom in that country for its rulers to employ certain learned 
men in writing its annals. His Majesty who was desirous of extending 
the bounds of knowledge appointed capable interpreters in its translation 
which in a short time was happily accomplished. In this work it is stated 
that the whole of this mountainous region was submerged under water 
and called Sati Sar, 8ati is the name of the wife of MaMdeva, and Sar 
signifies a lake. One day of Brdhmd comprises 14 manvantarcis.^ Up to 
the 40th year of the Divine Era, of the seventh manvantara, at which 
time Kashmir began to be inhabited, 27 (kalpas) each of four cycles (y^) 







Y. M. 


D. 


Ndznlj 


:, second time, 


6 





Mirza Haidar, 


10 





Ndznk, third time, 


10 





960-1552. 


Ibrahim, son of Nazuk (Briggs, 




brother). 






963-1555. 


Ism^fl, brother of 








Ibrahim, 


2 





964.1556. 


Habib, Bon of Ismail, 
Gh^zi Shah (Ghizi 


6 







Khan Chak), ... 


4 





971-1563. 


Hnsain, brother of Ghdzi. 




977-1569. 


41i Sh4h Chak. 







985-1677. Yusuf Sh£h, son of Ali Sh^h 
who abdicated in 995 (1586) 
in favour of his son Y63^ab, 
and in the same year Kash- 
mir was occupied hj Akbar 
and shortly after formally 
annexed. 
^ A manvantara is the period or age of 
a Manu, being equal to 12,000 years of 
the gods, or 4,320,000 years of mortalB. 
Its nature and duration are fully de- 
scribed in H. H. Wilson's Vishnu Purina. 



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381 



as before mentioned,^ have elapsed and of the twenty-eighth three cyeletf^ 
and of the fourth cycle 4J01 solar years. And when, according to the 
legend which they relate, the waters had somewhat subsided, Kasyapa who 
is regarded as one of the most sublime amongst ascetics, brought in the 
Brahmans to inhabit the new region.* When men began to multiply they 
sought to have a just ruler over them, and experienced elders, solicitous 
of the public weal met together in council and elected to the supreme 
authority one who was distinguished for his wisdom, his large understand- 
ing, his comprehensive benevolence and his personal courage. From this 
period dates the origin of their monarchical government which proceeded 
thus to the time of Ugnand 4,044 years prior to this the 40th year 
of the Divine Era.^ Ugnand fell by the hand of Balbhadra, the elder 
brotber of Kishan in the battle fought at Mathura betweau Kishan and 
JarasandTia rajd of Beh^r. Bamddara (his son), to revenge his death march- 
ed against some of the relations of Kishan who were hastening to a marriage 
festival in l^andahdr, and was killed fighting on the banks of the 8ind, 
His wife being then pregnant and the astrologers foretelling that it would 
prove a son, Kishan bestowed on him the government of the province. 
Thirty-five princes succeeded, but through their tyranny their names are 
no more remembered. When Lavah ascended the throne, justice was uni- 
versally administered and deeds met their just recognition. He founded in 
Kdmraj the great city of Lavapur the ruins of which are still to be traced 
It is said to have held 800,000,000 houses. As the sage* of Oanjah well says : 

Hoase linked to hoase fnom Ispahan to Rai 

Like jointed canes, I've hoard, stretch ooantlessly. 

So that a oat might trace the distant span 

Prom roof to roof twixt Rai and Ispahan j 

Bnt if the tale my credit dofch belio, 

The teller is its surety, faith not I. 



» See p. 15 of this Vol. 

• According to TieffoTithaler, he was 
called " Cashapmir, from Cashapa grand- 
son of Brahma and -m^r, a mountain or 
hahitation." Baber mentions in his Me- 
moirs that the hill country along the 
opper course of the Indus was formerly 
inhabited by a race called Kds from whom 
he conjectures that Kashmir received its 
name. The Kaaia regio of Plolemy ap- 
plies to the race and seems to confirm 
his oonjecture. Kasyapa was the son 
of Marichi the sou of Brahmi, and was 



father of Vivaswat the father of Mann. 
His name signifies a tortoise which 
form he assumed as Prajapati, the 
father of all, and had a large share in 
the work of creation. He was one of 
the seven great Rishis Dowson. 

• Ah the 40th year of Akbar's reign 
IS A. H. 1003, commencing 5th Deo. 
J 594 and ending 25th Nov. 1595 A. D. 
the date of Ugnand would be B. C. 
2449. 

* Shaikh Niz6mi, who was bom in 
that town. The lines occur in the Haft 



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382 



When the succession devoWed on Asoka the son of Janaka*s paternal 
nncle, he abolished the Brahminical religion and .established the Jain &ith.^ 
His personal virtues adorned his reign, and his son Bdjd Jaloka was 
distinguished for his justice, and his conquests were limited only by the 
ocean. On his return from Kanauj^ then the capital of Hindustan, he 
brought with him a number of learned and enlightened men and of these 
his sagacity and perception of worth selected seven individuals. To one 
of them he entrusted the administration of justice; to another the revenue 
department ; to a third the finances ; to a fourth the superintendence of th« 
troops ; the fifth took charge of the department of commerce ; the sixth 
controlled the material resources of the state, and the seventh interpreted 
the mysteries of the stars. He had also a knowledge of alchemy. It is 
said that a huge serpent ministered to his commands, mounted upon which 
be could descend below water for a long space. Sometimes he appeared as 
an old man, and at other times, as a youth, and marvellous tales are related 
of him. Buddhism became prevalent about this time. 

Damodar (II) is said by some to have been one of the descendants of 
Asoka. He was a pious devout prince but was transformed into a snake 
through the curse of an ascetic. In the reign of Bdjd Nara the Br^hmans 
prevailed over the Buddhists and levelled their temples to the ground. 
Bdjd Mihirkal was a shameless tyrant, but by the strange freaks of for- 
tune he made extensive conquests. As he was once returning homevrards 
by the pass of Hastibhanj, an elephant lost its footing, and its screama and 



Taikar, one of the Khamsah or Five poems 
of Nizimi. The other four are the 
Makhzani Asrdr, JTAusrau tea Bhirin^ 
Zaila wa Majnitn, and the Sikandar 
Ndmah, Some copies have the Khirad 
Nimah (Aristotle's instmctions to Alex- 
ander) instead of the Haft Faihar. 

I The origin, history and sects of the 
Jains are sketched in H. G. Briggs' Cities 
of Gujarashtara. Prof. Wilson remarks 
that their faith was introduced into the 
peninsula about the 7th century A. D. ; 
Col.- Sykes thinks about the 4th. It is 
closely allied to Buddhism, though the 
Jains assert it to be long anterior. Sir 
W. Hunter defines Jainism as Buddhism 
equipped with a mythology of saints and 
narrowed in its practical aspects from a 



national religion to suit the exclusive 
requirements of a sect. According to 
one view, the Jains are a remnant of the 
Indian Buddhists who saved themselves 
from extinction by oompromises with 
Hinduism and erected themselves into 
a separate caste. Another view repre- 
sents them as the unbroken succession 
of the Nigantha sect of the Asoka 
edicts. The Buddhism of Asoka (244 
B. C.) is said to be a later product than 
the Jain doctrines. The I. G. refers to 
the modem literature of the snbjeot in 
Mr. Ed. Thomas' Jainism or the Earlp 
faith of Asoka, Mr. Bhys David's article 
in The Academy of 18th Sept. 1879 ; and 
Numismata Oi-ientala (Ceylon fasoioalas) 
pp. 66, 60. (Trftbner, 1877.) 



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383 

manner of &lling caused him such amusement that he ordered a handred ele- 
phants to be precipitated in a similar manner. From this circumstance the 
pass received its name hasti signifying elephant, and bhanj,^ injury. Daring 
his reign, a large rook blocked up the ferry of a river, and, however much 
it was cut away, it yet increased again during the night to its ordinary 
dimensioos. Remedies were proposed in vain. At length a voice came 
forth intimating that if touched by the hand of a chaste woman, the rock 
would displace itself. Time after time it was touched by women in soc- 
ceasion, and when no effect was produced, he ordered the women to be put 
to death for incontinence, the children for bastardy, and the husbands for 
consenting to the evil, until three krors of human beings were massacred. 
The miracle was at length effected by the hand of a chaste woman, a potter 
by trade and caused great wonder. The Bajd being afflicted by various 
diseases, burnt himself to death. 

Bdjd QopaMt possessed considerable learning and his justice in- 
creased the extent of his sway. The slaughtering of animals was forbidden 
throughout his domiuions and high and low abstained from eating flesh. 
The temple which now stands on Solomon^s Hill was built by his minister. 

Bdjd Jf4di$hthira in the beginning of his rule administered the state 
with an impartial hand, but in a short space through his licentious con- 
duct and intimacy with base associates, his subjects became extranged from 
him, and the kings of Hindust&n and Tibet were arrayed against him. 
The chiefs of Kashmir threw him into prison. 

During the reign of Bdjd Tanjir (Banjir) snow fell when the sun was 
in Leo (July, August). The crops were destroyed and a terrible famine 
threw the country into disorder. 

Bdjd Jayandra possessed a minister wise, loyal and virtuous, and 
Toid of levity and dissimulation. His equals bore him envy and the wick- 
ed at heart but specious in appearance sought his ruin and undermined his 
influence bj underhand misrepresentations. As princes are on these occa- 
sions apt to eiT and do not investigate closely, forgetful of former ex- 
periences of what envy can effect, the minister was overthrown, and 



* In Sanskrit vi[ or ^Y— deBtmction, 
loss, injury. See p. 847 — The Governor 
of Jammn informs me that this word does 
not occur in the body of the Bdj Taran- 
gini, as Br. Stein who is editing the 
Sanskrit text has shown him, but where 
the mention of this elephant story is 



mado, there is a margfinal gloss in Dr. 
Stein's MS. in which it is stated that 
the spot where the accident took place 
is still known by the name of Hasti- 
bhanj or bhenj. There is no doubt 
therefore that the Hasti Watar of the 
text is incorrect. 



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384 

baDished iu disgrace. His strange destiny, however, did not deprive him 
of his composure. He allowed not grief to encompass him, but gladdened 
his days with cheerfulness of heai't. His wicked enemies represented him 
as aiming at the throne, and the Bdjd, ignorant of the real facts, ordered 
him to be impaled. After some time had elapsed, his spiritual preceptor 
happened to pass that way and read on the frontal bone of his skull that 
he was destined to disgrace and imprisonment and to be impaled, but that 
he should again come to life and obtain the sovereignty. Amazed at learn- 
ing this, he took down the body and secretly kept it and continued in 
supplication to the Almighty. One night the spirits gathered round and 
by their incantations restored the corpse to life. In a short time he sue- • 
ceeded to the throne, but his experience of life soon induced him to with- 
draw into retirement. 

Megavdhan was renowned for his virtues and gave peace and security 
to Hindustan as far as the borders of the ocean. After the death of Riijd 
Hiran without issue, the chiefs of Kashmir paid allegiance to Rdjd 
Btkramdjit the ruler of Hindustan. Mujd Matrigupta was a learned 
Kashmiri Brdhman. Bikramdjit profited by his wisdom but did not advance 
his temporal interests. He, however, gave him a sealed letter to convey 
to Kashmir and furnishing him with a small sum of money for his expenses 
as he started, despatched him on his mission. The Brahman set out with 
a heavy heart. On his arrival in Kashmir, the letter was opened. It ran 
thus. * The bearer has rendered important services at my Court and has 
experienced many reverses of fortune. On the receipt of this letter, let 
the government of the country be entrusted to him, and be this mandate 
obeyed under fear of the royal displeasure.' The chiefs met in council and 
.yielded their submission. 

B'ijd Pravarasina had withdrawn from the country and lived in re- 
tirement in Hindustan. A devout and enlightened servant of God pre- 
dicted to him the good tidings of his future elevation to a throne. On 
the faith of this, he went to Nagarkdt and possessed himself of that place. 
On hearing of the death of Bikramdjit, Matrigupta abdicated and setting out 
for Benares lived in seclusion. PravarasSna was universally distinguished 
for his justice and liberality. He founded Sriuagar^ the capital of the 



* The old capital previous to the 
erection of Pravaras^napnra ia stated to 
have been founded by Asoka (Rdj 
Tarangini, i, 104,) (B 0. 268—226). It 
stood on the site of the present Pdndre- 
than and is said to have extended along 



the bank of the river from the foot of 
the TuJcht i Sulaimdn to Fdntusok, a dis- 
tance of more than three miles. It was 
still the capital iu the reign of Pravara- 
s^na J, towards the end of the 5th century 
when the king erected a famous symbol 



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385 

country and rendered it populous during his reign with 600,000 houses. 
With surpassing munificence he sent to Mdtrigupta the aggregate of eleven 
years' revenue of Kashmir which that personage bestowed upon the indigent. 
Bdjd Randdilya was a just prince and made many conquests. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Kishtawiir near the river Ohenab, he entered a cave with all 
his family and many of his courtiers, and was seen no more ; many strange 
legends are related regarding him. Bdjd Bdldditya invaded Hindustan and 
extended his dominions to > the borders of the sea. 

In the reign of Itdjd Ghandrajpifa the wife of a Brdhman appeared 
to him claiming justice, saying, that her husband had been killed and the 
murderer was undiscovered. He asked her if she suspected any ono, to 
wliich she replied that her husband was of an amiable disposition and had 
no enemy, but that he often had disputations on points of philosophy 
with a certain person This man was brought up but strenuously denied 
the accusation, and the complainant would not accept an ordeal by fire or 
water lest the man should employ some supernatural means of escaping it. 
The R^ja in his perplexity could neither eat nor sleep. An enlightened 
eage appearing to him in a vision taught him an incantation to be uttered 
over rice- meal scattered about, upon which the suspected person was to 
walk. If the footsteps of two people were observed as he passed over it, he 
was not to be suffered to escape. Through this suggestion the truth was 
discovered and punishment duly meted out. But as a Brdhman could not 
be put to death, an iron image of a man without a head was made and his 
forehead branded therewith. 

Rdjd LcUitdditya devoted himself to the prosperity of his kingdom and 
in the strength of the divine aid overran Irdn, Turan, Fars, Hindustan, 
Eha^a, and the whole habitable globe, and administered his dominions with 
justice. He died in the mountains of the north, and it is said that he was 
turned into stone by the curse of an ascetic, but others relate the story 
differently. 

Bdjd Jaydpira reached a lofty pitch of glory and his conquests were 
extensive. Ninety-nino thousand nine hundred and ninety- nine horses 
were bestowed by him in charity at Benares, and liis gifts to the poor were 
on the same munificent scale. He asked of the elders whether the army of 
his grandfather Lalitaditya or his own were the larger. They answered that 



of the god Siva, named after himself 
Pravareswara, The new capital was built 
by Pravaras^na, II, in the beginning of 
the 6th century. Anct. Gcog. India, 
p. 97. Neither the text nor the U. T. 

49 



mention two homonymous monarohs; 
This epoch given by Cunningham shows 
that they must have followed in close 
succession, and a single name has 
possibly been by error duplicated. 



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886 

his contained bat 80,000 litters, whereas 126,000 of such conveyances were 
arrayed under his grandfather's standard, by which proportion he might 
judge of the numerical strength of his other retinue. When he had pro- 
ceeded some distance on his march of conquest, his brother-in-law, Jajja^ 
who was in Kashmir disputed the throne. The nobles of the king, in 
anxious fear for their wives and children, betrayed him and preferred 
their outward reputation before their true honour. The Rdja hastened 
alone to Bengal, and with the aid of troops from that country, repossessed 
himself of his kingdom, Jajja being slain in battle. 

Bdjd Lalitdpifa took low companions into favour and associated with 
buffoons, and his wise councillors withdrew from the court. His minister 
finding remonstrance of no avail, retired from office. 

Bdjd Sankar Vantid conquered Gujardt and Sind, and overran the 
Deccan, but left it in the possession of its ruler. Although in the begin- 
ning of his reign he followed a virtuous course, he lacked perseverance. 
The intoxication of worldly prosperity plunged him into every vice. 

During the reign of Bdjd Jasaskardeva, a Bi'dhman lost a purse of a 
hundred gold mohurs. Under the impulse of violent grief he resolved to 
make away with himself. The thief hearing of this, asked him how much 
he would be satisfied to take, if he discovered the purse. The Brahman 
answered, " Whatever you please." The thief ofEered him ten mohurs. The 
Br&hman, sore at heart, appealed to the Braja who inquired into the case, 
and sending for the thief ordered him to restore ninety mohurs^ intending 
by this, that the amount the thief desired to keep for himself, should be the 
portion of the Br&hman. 

In the reign of " Sinhadeva^ a Mu^mmadan named Shih Amir who 
traced his descent to Arjnn the Pandava was in the royal service. About 
this time Dalju the chief commander under the king of ^andah&r, 
attacked and plundered the kingdom. The Bdjd took refuge in the 
mountain passes and levied forcible contributions on the people, and sent 
them to him and entreated him as a supplicant. The invader withdrew, 
dreading the severity of the weather, and many of his troops perished 
in the snow. About the same time also, Binjan^ the son of the ruler of 
Tibet invaded the country which was reduced to great distress. On the 
death of the Bij4, the sovereignty devolved on Binjan who was distin- 
guished for his munificence. He appointed Shah Mir his minister whose 
religion, through intimacy and association with him, he eventually 
adopted. 

When Bdjd Adindeva died, the aforesaid Sh&h Mir by specious flat- 
tery and intriguing, married his widow. In the year 742, A H. (1341-2, 



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887 

A. D.) he caused the hhuthah to be read, and the coin to be minted in 
his own name and assumed the title of Shamsu^ddin and levied a tax of 
one-sixth on all imports into Kashmir. It had been revealed to him in a 
dream that he would obtain the sovereignty of the kingdom.^ 

Salfdn Aldu'ddln issued an ordinance that an unchaste woman should 
not inherit of her husband. 

Stdfdn Shahdbuddin encouraged learning and proclaimed an equal 
administration of the laws. Nagarkdt, Tibet and other places were over- 
mn by him. 

During the reign of Sulfdn Kuthu*dd(n Mir Sayyid iJLli Hamaddni 
arrived in Kashmir and was received with great favour. 

Sulfdn Bikcmdar was a rigid follower of religious tradition and a bi- 
got. He overthrew idolatrous shrines and persecuted people not of his 
faith. During his reign, Timdr invaded Hindustdn and sent him two 
elephants. Sikandar desired to pay his homage to that conqueror, but on 
his road to the interview he learnt that it was reported in Tlmtir's camp 
that the sovereign of Kashmir was bringing with him a present of a thou- 
sand horses. Concerned at the untruthfulness of this rumour he returned 
and sent his excuses.* AH Sh6h appointed (his brother) Zainu'l Adbidin 
regent in his stead and set out for Hijdz. By the persuasion of foolish 
B^nd evil advi6ers^ and through inconstancy of purpose, he returned with 
the view of recovering his authority in Kashmir and aided by the Rajd 
of Jammu he took possession of the kingdom. Zainu'l A^bidin set out for 



* Saoh is the literal translation ac- 
cording to the panctaation of the text 
which I Buspect is in error. Ferishta 
states that Shamsu'ddin abolished the 
exactions of his predecessors and having 
repaired the ruin, caused by the inva- 
sion and exactions of DaljUf by written 
orders fixed the revenue at Jth of the 
produce. The readings of Gladwin and 
the 8. al M. here complete the sentence 
and continue, that before he came to 
Kashmir, it was revealed to him in a 
dream that he should obtain the king- 
dom. I have little doubt that this is the 
correct division of the sentences. A full 
stop should follow •i^ and ^^1j\ 
should be preceded by the word U^ 
inadvertently omitted, but retained by 



Gladwin and S. ul M. The text would 
then run as follows *' Assumed the title 
of Shamsu'ddin and fixed the revenue 
at one-sixth of the produce. Before his 
arrival in Kashmir, it had boea revealed 
to him in a dream that he would obtain 
Ac." 

• Ferishta relates this circumstance 
with detail, somewhat curtailed by 
Briggs. 

• These, states Ferishta, were his 
father-in-law the Jammu Rdjd, and the 
chief of Rm'auri, who dissuaded him from 
abandoning his authority and abdicating 
in favour of his brother. Finding that 
without their help, his restoration could 
not be effected thoy reinstated him by 
force. 



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388 

the Punjab and joined Jasrat; of the Khokhar^ tribe Ah' Shah collecting 
a large armj advanced into the Pnnjdb and a great battle took place in 
which i^li Shah was defeated and fell into obscurity while Zainul Adbidin 
recovered the sovereignty of Kashmir. Jasrat leaving Kashmir advanced 
against Delhi but defeated by Sul^n Bahlol Lodi retreated to Kashmir 
and with the assistance of an ai*my from its monarch, conqaered the 
Panjab. 

Zainn*l Adbidin overran Tibet and Sind. He was a wise prince, 
devoted to philosophical studies and it was his fortune to enjoy universal 
peace. He was regarded by high and low as a special servant of Qod and 
venerated as a saint. He was credited with the power of divesting himself 
of his corporeal form, and he foretold that under the dynaaty of the Chdks^ 
the sovereignty of Kashmir would be transferred from that fiamily to the 
monarchs of Hindustan, which prediction after a period of years was ac- 
complished. His benevolence and love of his people induced him to abo- 
lish the capitation tax {levied on other than Muslims) and to prohibit the 
slaughtering of cows, as well as penalties and presents of all kinds. He 
added somewhat to the measure of the Jarib. His private revenues were 
drawn from copper mines. He often personally administered medicinal 
remedies* and resolved all difficult undertakings with ease. Robbers were 
employed in chained gangs on public works. His gentleness of disposition 
dissuaded men from the pursuit of game, and he himself eat no flesh meat. 
He caused many works to be translated from the Arabic, Persian, 
Kashmiri and Sanskrit languages. During his reign musicians from Persia 
and Turkestan flocked to his court ; among them Mulla IJudi the imme- 



^ According to FeriBhtti Jasrat Shaikha 
OhaJcar imprisoned by Timor in Samar- 
kand, oscoped and fonnded or acqnired 
a principality in tho Panjab. Zaina'l 
Aabidfn with his aid defeated ^\i Shdh 
who, according to one account was taken 
prisoner by Jasrat, and to another was 
expelled from Kashmir by his snccessfnl 
brother. Mention of Jasrat oocars in 
Ferishta nnder Bahlol Lodi, and Zainn'l 
Ailbidfn, he says, on his accession fitted 
oat an army nnder Jasrat for the con- 
quest of Delhi and the Punjdb. Unable 
to cope with Bahlol Lodi at Delhi, he, 
however, possessed himself of the 
Punjab. This freebooter g^ave consider- 
able trouble to the Sayyid dynasty and 



held his own against Bahlol Lodi when 
that chief governed Multan under Sayyid 
Muhammad. See Vol. I, 456, n. for the 
Gakkhars (as it is there spelt) and the 
reference to Delmerick's history of this 
tribe. 

• Ferishta says that for the en- 
couragement of the study of medicine, 
he specially favoured Sri Bhat an emi- 
nent physician, by whose advice, the 
Br&hmans, expelled under Sikander the 
Ironoclast, were recalled. Briggs has 
been too sparing in his extracts of this 
reign of the most celebrated among Mos- 
lem monarchs of Kashmir. Wearied 
with his long task, the gaps are greater 
as he approaches its completion. 



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399 

diate pupil of tlie faraons Khw^jah Abdn'l ^Cadir arrived from Khnrds.'iit, 
and Mulla Jamil who in singing and painting was preeminent among his 
contemporanes. Saltan Aba S^id Mirza sent him presents of Arab horses 
and dromedaries from Kharasan and Bahlol Lodi king of Delhi and Sultan 
Mahmtid of Gujarat were in friendly alliance with him. 

Stdfdn Hasan, collecting an army invaded the Punjab and encounter- 
ing Tatar^ Khdn (Lodi) in several actions devastated the country. 

In the reign of Fath Shdh, Mir Shamsu'ddin one of the disciples of 
Shdh Kasim Anwar,* came from Irdk and promulgated the Nur Bakshi 
doctrines, from which period date the dissensions between Sunnis and 
Shi{is in this country. 

During the third reign of Muhammad 8hdh when he recovered the 
kingdom by the help of Sul^dn Sikandar (Lodi of Delhi), B4ber invaded 
Hindustan. 

During Sulfdn Ibrahim*8 domination, Abdul Mdkri^ represented to 
Sultan B^ber that Kashmir might be conquered with little diflficulty. 
Shaikh ^^li Beg, Mul^ammad Khdn and Mahmtid Khdn were therefore 
despatched to that country and obtained some success but the inti-igues of 
the people prevented a settlement and they returned with gifts and pi'e- 
sents and Ndzuk Shah succeeded to the government. Under the reign of 



* The Delhi governor of the Panjdb 
and the conntry nt the foot of the hills. 
Briggs mistranslates his anthor here, 
and makes Tdtar Khnn penetrate into 
Jarama and sack Sinlkot, whereas 
Ferishta snjs that the Kashmir troops, 
under Malik Bari Bhat fonght Tatar 
Khan, ravaged his country and pinnder- 
ed Siilkdt. 

' Ferishta places the accession of 
Fat^^ Shah in A. H. 894 (A. D. 1488-9), 
about which time occurred the arrival 
of Shah Kasim son of Sayyid Muhammad 
2fur Bahshy and the estubliahmont of his 
doctrines as the prevailing creed. All 
religioaa grants and places of worship 
^ere made over to this sect, among the 
most iilnstrions converts to which were 
the Chak tribe. Their proselytes were 
very numerous, but the esoteric doctrines 
of Mir Shamsn'ddin being beyond the 
oomprehension of some of them, on the 



death of this apostle, they fell into 
heresy or reverted to paganism. Briggs 
ornaments his page with the ceremony 
and explanation of the " cup of gpraoo *' 
given to the proselytes. It may be 
trne, but Ferishta does not allude to it. 

• He was the son of Ibrahim Mikri 
who was minister in chief to Mnl^ammad 
Shdh during his second reign. Abd&l 
Makri his son played a considerable part 
in the stirring events of this time and 
was eventually driven from court by the 
intrigues of the minister Malik K^ji. 
llo wont to India and incited Baber to 
the conquest of Kashmir. Fearing that 
the inhabitants would be opposed to the 
foreign rule of the Mughals, the en- 
thronement of N^zuk the son of Ibrahim 
was adopted as a pretext to conciliate 
the Kashmiris, who, on his instalment in 
authority, dismissed the troops of Bdber 
with conciliatory gifts. 



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390 

Muhammad Shnh for the fonrth time, the emperor Hamiytjn ascended 
the throne of Delhi, and when Mirzd Kdrndln^ was at Lahor, the officers 
formerly despatched to Kashmir (AH Beg and Muhammad Eh4n) per- 
suaded him that Kashmir could be taken with little trouble.* The Mirzi 
therefore, despatched Marram (Beg) Kpkah with a body of troops to that 
country which they occupied. Massacres were frequent and their intolera- 
ble tyranny drove the people to rise till the Mughal chiefs sued for terms 
and withdrew. In the year A. H. 930, (1523-4) by command of Sultan 
Said Khdn of Kdshghar, his son Sikandar Khin and Mirz4 Haidar* ad- 
vanced into Kashmir at the head of 10,000 troops by way of Tibet and Lar, 
and taking an enormous booty retired after a short time under terms of 
peace. In the year A. H. 948 (1541-2) Mirza Haidar, by command of Ha- 
mdytin a second time entered Kashmir, guided by some of the natives of that 
country, as has been related in former accounts, and took possession of a 
part of Great Tibet. K4ji Cbak came to Hindustan and bringing with 
him the aid of an army from Sher Khdn, engaged Mirz^ Haidar but was 
defeated. The Mirz^ won over the Kashmiris by peaceful and conciliatory 
measures, so that he succeeded in having the Khuthah read and the coin 
minted in the name of Humiiytin, the Kashmiris having previously read 
the Khuthah in the name of Ndzuk Sh&h. 

At the present time under the sway of His Imperial Majesty it is the 
secure and happy abode of many nationalities, including natives of Persia 
and Turkestan as well as of Kashmir. 

Sarhdr of PaklL 
Its length is 35 and its breadth 25 kos. It is bounded on the east by 
Kashmir^ on the north by Katdr,^ on the south by the territory of the 
GakharSj* and on the west by Afak Bendres. Timur left a few troops to 



• Brother of the Emperor, governor 
of Kabul and Kandahir, to whom 
Hamaytin had ceded the government of 
the Pnnjdb and the Indos frontier. 

• See Vol. I, pp 460-1, for a slight 
notice of this historian, poet, and prince 
who governed Kashmir for ten years. 
The events of his reign are condensed 
by Briggs under the name of the im- 
potent Ndzuk, who is as unworthy of 
the preference as are the reasons by 
which Briggs, fegainst the authority of 
Terishta, supports it. 

• Var. Ki(5r, Kan6r. T. Katour. G. 



Kinore. Erskine says (p. 144) that 
Eattor or Kat6r is a place of note in the 
Kafirist&n country, but in the maps 
Kunar occupies a corresponding position. 
♦ " The Gakar chiefs hold the lower 
valley of the Jhelum and the upper 
course of the Haro river to the S. W. of 
Kashmir. They are all Muharamadans, 
but their conversion is comparatively 
recent as their names were Indian down 
to the invasion of Timnr. Their occu- 
pation of these districts is of very early 
date ; but they are Turanians and not 
Arians, as none but a Gakar will inter- 



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801 

hold this tract, and their descendants remain there to this day. Snow lies 
perpetually on these mountains and at times falls on the plaius.^ The 
period of winter is longer than the summer. The rainfall is somewhat 
similar to Hindustan. It is watered by three rivers, the Kishan Oanga^ 
the Bihat and the Sindh, The language of the country dilEers from that 
of Kashmir, Hindustan or Zdbulistdn. Vetches and barley are the princi- 
pal crops. Apricots, peaches and walnuts g^ow wild, it not being the custom 
to plant fruit trees. Game and horses, camels and buffaloes are of middling 
account : goats and poultry, plentiful. The rulers of this district generally 
paid tribute to EZashmir. 

Sarkdrof Satvdd (Siodt). 

It comprises three districts, those of Bimbar, Stodt and Bajaur, The 
first is 16 kos long by 12 broad and is bounded by Pakli on the east, Kator 
and Kdshghar^ on the north, Afak Benares on the south and 8wdt on the 
west. Two roads approach it from Hindustan, viz.f the Sherkhdnt^ pass 
and the Balandart* Kotal ; although both routes are difficult to traverse, 
the first is the more rugged. 

The second district (Sw^t) is 40 Jeds in length by 5 to 15 in breadth. 
On the east lies Bimhar ; to the north Katdr (Kunar) and Kdshghar ; 
to the south Bigrdm^ and on the west Bajaur, It possesses many defiles. 
Near the Damghdr^ pass which leads to Kdshghar is the town of Mangldr^ 



many with a Oakar, a practice repog- 
naot to HindoiBin which permits no man 
to marry one of his own tribe. They 
also oocnpj several portions of the E. 
Dodb, as Goliilna near Gnjar Kh&n, and 
Bogiil nnder the lofty hill of Balnith. 
Bat these districts do not properly be- 
long to the hills, although they were 
snbject to Kashmir at the time of Hwen 
Thsang's visit in the seventh century." 
Anct. Geog. Ind. p. 132. 

* I would amend the punctuation of 
the text, placing a stop after *l^ *l^. 

' By Kisbghar cannot be meant the 
well-known town of E. Tarkestiln which 
is too far removed, but Chitral or 
Kishkar, which, according to Erskine, 
( Biter's Memoirs) is a corruption of 
Kashghar with the territory of which it 
was long included, the name having 



survived the dominion. The Kaaia or 
Ahhasaa regio of Ptolemy beyond Mount 
Imaus has perhaps given its name to 
both KAshghar and Kashmir. 

• Var. Sarjani, Sarkhani. 

• Var. Malandari, Makandari ; a mar- 
ginal gloss has Bulandi. VoL I, p. 344, 
Balandri. Kotal signifies the crest of a 
defile. 

• This name is said by Cunningham 
(p. 29) to signify " the city " par ex- 
cellence and is applied to 3 other ancient 
sites near Kabul, Jal^Ub&d and Pesha- 
war. Masson derives the name from tho 
Turki 6i or 60 "chief" and the Hind 
grdrrif a hybrid to which Cunningham 
prefers the simpler Sanscrit prefix in 
vijrdtna. 

• Var. *^^ ^J^ or ^jiMj »j^. 

^ This was the capital of Udyana, the 



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392 



the residence of the governor. It is entered by two rontes from Hindastan, 
tiz., the passes of Malkand Baj^ and Sherkhdnah. It has no extremes of 
heat or cold, and though snow falls, it does not lie in the plains for more 
than three or four days ; in the mountains it is perpetual. It is spring- 
time here during the peiiodical rains of Hindustan. Rainfall occurs and 
the spring and autumn are very delightful. Its flora are those of Tur- 
kestan and India, wild violets and narcissus covering the meadows, and 
various kinds of fruit trees grow wild. Peaches and pears are excellent, 
and fine hawks and falcons are obtained. It also possesses an iron mine. 

The third district (Bajaur) is 25 kos in length by 5 to 10 in breadth. 
On the east lies 8wdt, on the north Kator and Kdshghar, on the south 
Bigrdmy and on the west Kuner (and) Ndrkil.^ Numerous passes lead from 

Kabul. 

An ancient mausoleum* exists here, and there is a strong fortress 
which is said to be the residence of the governor. Amir Sayyid Ali 
HamadAni died here and his body was conveyed to Kkutldn* by his last 
testament. Its climate is similar to that of Swat, bat the extremes of cold 
and heat are gi-eater. It has only three roads, one from Hindustan 
called Ddnishkoh and two from Kabul, one called Samaj and the other 
Kuner and Nurkil, the easiest of these being Bdnishkol. Adjoining this 
and between the mountains and the Indus and Kabul rivers, is a plain, 30 
kos in length by 20 to 25 kos in breadth. 

The whole of this tract of hill and plain is the domain of the Yusufzai 
clan. In the time of Mirzd Ulugh Beg of Kabul, they migrated from 



Sanskrit name for the modem districts 
of Panjkora, Bajaur, Swdt and Buu^r. 
It is mentioned by Hwen Thsang as 
Mung-kie-li or Mangala, probably the 
Mangora of Wilford*s surveyor and the 
Manglora of General Court's map. It 
^as about 24 miles in circuit and very 
populous. Anct. Geog. Ind. p. 82. 

» Var. Malkand, Sher Kh6n; MaUk 
Ranj or Rfkh. 

• Erskine states that K^ner and Mrgil 
form another Tuman situated in the 
midst of Kafiristdn which forms its 
boundary. Niirgil, says Bdber, lies on 
the west and Kuner on the east of the 
Chegh&n sardi or Kamoh river, p. U3. 

• The text is here in the hesitancy of 



uncertain readings and makes fact or 
sense of none. Baler removes the 
doubt. The word Jt)«> should be trans- 
ferred from the bottom of p. 585 to the 
top of p. 586, and a stop placed after 
fj^^^^. The word *^ according to 
the Burhdn i ICdti is equivalent to the 

arabicized form ^- 

* Var. Jilan, but Bfiber confirms 
Khutlan. Hamaddni, he says, died one 
farsang higher up than Kuner, and his 
disciples carried him to Khutldn. A 
mausoleum is erected on the spot where 
he died and in the year 920 (15U) 
Baber ciroumambulatod his tomb, near 
which are groves of orange and citron, 
p. 14.4. 



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893 

EAbul to this territory and wrested it from the Snlt^^ns who affected to be 
descended from a daughter of Alexander Bicomntns. It is said that this 
monarch left some of his treasures in these parts with a few of his kindred 
and to this day the descendants of this band dwell in these moontains and 
affect to show their genealogical descent from Alexander.^ 

Under the |»resent OTer-during Imperial sway, of the lawless inhabi*- 
tants of this country, some have been put to deaths others imprisoned, while 
some happily dwell under their tribal rule. 

Sarkdr of Dattr, Banu^ and Isakhel. 

This territory is to the south-east of Kdbulf and is inhabited entirely 
by Afghans. It is the principal settlement of the Shir4ni| EaradLni and 
Waziri tribes. 

Sarkdr of ^andahdr. 

It is situated in the thixd climate. Its length from Kaldt Banjdrah to 
(?W and Oharjistdrfi is 300 hos : its breadth from Sind to Farah is 260 kos. 
On its east lies Sind ; to the north Qhdr and QharjUtdn ; on the south Siwi^ 
and on the west Farah; Kdbul and Ohaznin on the north-east. Its 
mountains are covered with perpetual snow Which seldom falls in the 
city. 

Eighteen dtndrs^ make a tumdn^ and each iumdn is equivalent to 800 



* See Slphinsione'B Cabal. App. 0. 
p. 617. 

* I am indebted to the critical aon- 
men of Pandit Badha Kishan, governor 
of Jammn, for hia ingenions emendation 
of the faulty text. The two first names 
ef the three are jumbled together into 
one with a misplaoement of the diaori- 
tioal points in all the variants. The 
alteration required to clear the diffionlty 
was simple, bat its simplicity anobserved» 
as is osoallj the case, antil after the 
disooyery. Isakhail is still a tahail of 
Bana district, and Daar is independent 
territory. The ooantry which the 
Isakhail, according to Baber, shared with 
the Kerani, Kivi, Siir andNidzi Afghins, 
has Chanp&rali and the Indus to the southy 
Dinkdt on the east, and on the west the 
Desht, called also Bdzdr and T&k. After 

50 



the sack of Koh^t, Baber attacked the 
Isakhails who fled to the Chanpdrah 
hills, and following them ap stormed 
their songart. Seep. 160. But all through 
his operations in Bana, Biber nses W. 
for S. and the other points of the com- 
pass aooordii^ly. Hence we have oil 
the B. Ohanp&rah and Sind, Dinkot on 
the N. and Desht or Dam^ on the S. 
Brskine. 

* See Vol. I, p. 881. Its Umits are 
defined by Brskine, (p. 152), within 
Herat on the west^ Farah on the south 
and Qhor on the east, and the reader is 
referred to Silvestre de Saci's Mines de 
I'Orient., Vol. I, p. 821 for a learned 
dissertation on its position. 

^ See Yol. I, p. Si. Brskine's note on 
the tumdn (p. 61} is at fault through his 
not knowing its varying ieooi values 



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394 

dams. The tumdn of Khar&s4n is equal in value to 30 rupees and the 
^wmin of WV to 40. 

Grain is for the most part taken in kharwdrs, the kharwdr being 
equivalent to 40 ^andahiri man, or 10 of Hindustan. 

The capital of the district is Eiandahdr. Its longitude is 107^^ 40', 
and the latitude 33^ 40'. It has two forts. The summer heats are ex- 
treme and the cold in winter is inconsiderable, but the ice-pits are filled in 
December and January. Once in three or four years a fall of snow occurs 
and is hailed with delight. Flowers and fruits are in abundance. Its 
wheat is extremely white, and is sent as a present of value to distant 
countries. At a distance of five hSs is a hill called Aehdarkoh (the Dragon 
Hill) in which is a wonderful cave known as the Cave of Jamshtd, People 
enter with lighted lamps, but the oppression of its atmosphere prevents ex- 
ploration of its extent. Eight kSs from Kdldt is a large mountain in the 
side of which is a huge cave called Ohdr % Shdh (the King's Cave). 
Within it are two natural columns, one of which touches the roof of the 
cave and is 30 yards high. Water flows down it and enters a basin at its 
foot. The other is 11 yards in height. The waters of the Hirmand 
(Helmand) which rises between Balkh, and Kabul, flow in this direction 
along the skirts* of the mountains. The meaning of Hirmand is ' abound- 
ing in blessings.' Mauldnd Mtdnu*ddtn in his history of Khur£s&n records 
that it feeds a thousand streams. At a distance of 16 kos is a mountain, 
at the base of which is an area of land called Nattl^^ formerly full of water- 
courses, where melons are grown in great quantity and perfection. The 
mountain has sevei^al clear springs. There is also an iron-mine, and at the 
foot of the mountain is an iron-foundry for the smelting of the ore, a work 
of ancient times. 

West of Kandahar is a long torrid tract of country, {Oarms(r) 
through which flows the Hirmand. One side of it touches the Ddtoar^ 



wbioh would aoooont for the diverse 
reckonings of Tavernier, Ohardin and 
Delia Yalle. Mandelsloe mnst be wrong 
in making the zecchin ^ 9 rnpees, near- 
ly doable its gold value in silver at a 
time when the rate for the conversion 
of the rupee was as in Akbar's day, 8 or 
9 to the £. 

» Var. 170. Properly, long. 66^ SC 
B., lat. 81^37' N. 

' ^andah&r is in a plain on the left 



bank of the Arghand^b which falls into 
the Don, a tributary of the Helmund. 
It is separated from the Arghandib by 
a rang^ of mountains. 

* Yar. TauU, Tabsal, Batsal, Bansanil, 
Bambal. 

* See Vol. I, Geog. Index for this tract 
as Gfarmstr and under Ddwar, and Elphin- 
Btone. Cihal. pp. 186-187. 

Zamin Ddwar lies west of the Hel- 
mand below the hills or as firskine 



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8d5 

territory, and on the other Sistdn. There are many forts and much cultiva- 
tion on both sides of the river. In this neighbourhood once stood a large 
City, the residence of the Sultans of Ghor, and many ruins still exist of 
the palaces of its ancient kings. 

Between the Hirmand and ](Candah4r is the welh known city of Mai" 
mandy described in old astronomical tables. 

Wheat and barley are called SafSdbariA The jar{b of sixty (square) 
yards is used for measurements, but they reckon 30 yards of this according 
to the Hijdii jarib, each yard of 24J digits, the gaz there in use ; equal 
altogether to 54 gaz of ^andahdr. In the exchequer, out of every ten 
hhanvdrs, two are taken for