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Full text of "AIR_POLLUTION_IN_THE_NATIONAL_CAPITAL_AREA"





U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 



,;/ 



AIR POLLUTION IN THE 

NATIONAL CAPITAL AREA 



An appraisal made at the request of the 

District of Columbia Department of Public Health 

with the cooperation of the 

Maryland State Department of Health and the 

Virginia Department of Health 



by 
Gene B. Welsh 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE 

Public Health Service 
Division of Air Pollution 
Technical Assistance Branch 
Washington 25, D. C. 



PHS Pub. No. 955 
July 1962 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents 



Table 



TABLES 



1 Population Growth and Densities in the Washington 
Metropolitan Area 



2 Washington Metropolitan Area Employment, 
October, 1959 



3 Employment in Manufacturing Industries 

Washington Metropolitan Area, October, 1958 

4 Seasonal Percent of Nighttime Cloud Cover and 

Wind Speed, Washington, D. C., 1950-1954 . . 



5 Normal Monthly Degree Days for Washington 

Metropolitan Area, 65 F Base (1921-1950) . . . 

6 Summary of Refuse Disposal Practices, Washington 

Metropolitan Area 



7 Summary of Metropolitan Washington Major Manu- 
facturing Industries and Their Contributions to 
the Air Pollution Problem . . . 



Concentrations of Oxidant and Sulfur Dioxide, 
1953-1954 Study 



9 Suspended Particulate Pollution in Washington, D. C. 
as Measured in the National Air Sampling Net- 
work 1953-1959 



10 Comparison of Suspended Particulate Pollutants for 
Several Urban Stations 1957-1958 



11 Seasonal Variation of Particulate Pollutants in 
Washington, D. C., 1953-1959 



12 Local Air Pollution Control Activities, Washington 
Metropolitan Area 



ir pollution, in the Washington Met- 
.tan Area may be expected to increase 
y, unless adequate control measures 
ken. The Washington Metropolitan 
anticipates rapid and continued pop- 
n. growth, particularly in the urban- 
,reas adjacent to the District of 
ibia, where sixty -two per cent of the 
s 2 million people already live. This 
h rate - Area population more than 
5d since 1940 - favors higher pollu- 
;vels in the future because of in- 
ing pollutant emissions. 

e spite topography and prevailing 
:onditions generally favorable to 
rsion of air pollutants, incidents of 
rritating smog, visibility reduction, 
.ant damage have been experienced 
Area evidence that photo -chemi- 
r pollution is becoming a serious 
;m. One or two prolonged periods 
gnating air masses, usually during 
ummer and fall, may be expected 
rear, with a subsequent accumula- 
f air pollutants. 

r aste disposal operations such as 
rators, backyard burning, open 
ig dumps, the burning of leaves and 
s of construction and demolition are 
ificant contribution to the total air 
ion problem, as are motor vehicle 
ions, the combustion of coal and 
r heating, power generation, and in- 
al processes. And the use of nat- 
as, although lesser in magnitude, 
.o emissions of certain gaseous 
ants present at levels higher than in 
other cities of similar population, 
though previous studies indicate 
ic atmospheric particulate loading 
shington is lower than in most 

of comparable size, excessively 
oadings do occur. All the named 
es add to the total atmospheric 
n and may be expected to become 
isingly important as the Area con- 

to grow. 

nforcement of zoning laws in the 
.ngton Metropolitan Area has not 
;d the inter mingling of residential, 
.ercial, and industrial land uses and 
nted some localized air pollution 



problems which otherwise would have oc- 
curred. This fact, along with the limited 
extent of manufacturing operations, has 
kept the industrial air pollution problem to 
a minimum. Nevertheless, each govern- 
mental jurisdiction has localized industrial 
areas that are significant from an air pol- 
lution standpoint. These small industrial 
areas are responsible for a large portion 
of the nuisance complaints made by the 
public to the respective governmental agen- 
cies, primarily concerning dusts, fumes, 
smoke, and odors from specific sources. 

Local interest in air pollution already 
exists among officials and the general 
populace and to judge by newspaper reports 
is steadily increasing. Except for limited 
smoke abatement activities, the air pol- 
lution control program in the various local 
governmental jurisdictions is directed 
primarily toward investigation of nuisances 
and complaints. At the request of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia Department of Public 
Health and with the cooperation of the Mary- 
land State Department of Health and the 
Virginia Department of Health, the Public 
Health Service conducted an appraisal of 
factors relating to air pollution in the Wash- 
ington Metropolitan Area. This appraisal 
was undertaken to determine the extent of 
the existing and potential air pollution 
problem and control activities, and to de- 
velop general recommendations for activi- 
ties to meet present and future air pollution 
problems. This report is an analysis of in- 
formation collected relating to sources of 
pollutants, indications of pollution levels, 
and status of local activities in the air 
pollution field. 

Recommendations 

The following recommendations are 
made on the basis of this appraisal and the 
general available knowledge relating to 
air pollution. A limited amount of data on 
atmospheric pollution levels was available 
from the National Air Sampling Network, 
from some limited studies conducted sev- 
eral years ago, and from a one -week pilot 
study that was recently conducted by the 
District of Columbia Department of Public 
Health and the Public Health Service. 



e adjacent to the District of Columbia. 



visions can be made. 



The District of Columbia 

1. Considering the nature and magni- 
le of the present and potential air pol- 
:ion problem within the District of Co- 
nbia, it is recommended that a com- 
ehensive air pollution control program 

established. Such a program should 
ovide not merely for smoke control, 

at present, but for comprehensive air 
Llution control. The program should 
:lude: 

a. Routine air quality monitoring to 
determine specifically the nature 
and extent of air pollution -within the 
District. 

b. An inventory of air pollution 
sources to provide current data on 
the quantity and types of air pollu- 
tion emissions. Detailed sampling 
and evaluation of certain sources 
may be necessary to fully define 
specific emissions. 

c. A public education program to 
disseminate complete and accurate 
information about the nature, effects, 
and costs of air pollution in the 
District. 

d. A permit or registration system 
for the identification and control of 
non-combustion sources of air pol- 
lution. (Such a system exists for 
combustion sources.) 

e. Investigation of air pollution 
complaints and, when indicated, in- 
itiation of appropriate abatement 
measures. 

f. Implementation of additional air 
pollution abatement programs when- 
ever new information indicates a need 
for them. 

2. Necessary budget, personnel, and 
oratory facilities should be provided to 
>port the comprehensive air pollution 
itrol program outlined above. 



4. Appropriate consideration should 
be given to planning and zoning activities 
to minimize the intermingling of industrial 
and residential areas. 

5. An interdepartmental committee or 
council should be organized to coordinate 
the total air pollution program within the 
District of Columbia. This group should 
include representation from all of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia governmental agencies 
directly concerned with air pollution 
control. 

6. A Metropolitan Air Pollution Ad- 
visory Board or Council should be organized 
to provide leadership and cooperation for 
the development of coordinated efforts 
toward the study or control of air pollution 
in the Washington Metropolitan Area. This 
advisory group should include at least one 
representative from the agency responsible 
for air pollution control in the District of 
Columbia, in each of Montgomery and Prince 
Georges Counties in Maryland, and in Arling- 
ton and Fairfax Counties and the city of 
Alexandria in Virginia. Representatives of 
interested Federal and State governmental 
agencies should also be included. 



The Suburban Areas 

1. In view of the present and potential 
air pollution problems in the suburban areas 
of Maryland and Virginia that are adjacent 
to the District of Columbia, it is recom- 
mended that modest air pollution control 
programs be developed within the local gov- 
ernmental agencies. These programs should 
initially consider the following: 

a. Investigation of air pollution com- 
plaints and initiation of abatement 
measures when indicated. 

b. Public education activities to dis- 
seminate complete and accurate in- 
formation about the nature, effects and 
costs of air pollution in the Washington 
suburbs . 

c. Surveillance of air pollution problems 



means of periodic air sampling 
.d identification of major air pol- 
tion sources. 

Implementation of additional air 
llution abatement programs when- 
er new information indicates a need 
r them. 

Collaboration with other local 
vernmental jurisdictions in the 
ganization of a Metropolitan Air 
Dilution Advisory Board or Council 
r the coordination of efforts toward 
e study and control of air pollution 
the Washington Metropolitan Area. 

It is recommended that the in- 
il programs develop long-range 
.ves for a comprehensive air pol- 
control program that would expand 
.ctivities to include: 

Routine air quality monitoring. 

Inventory and identification of air 
llution sources. 



c. Ordinances or regulations spe- 
cifically for air pollution control. 

d. Adequate budget, personnel, and 
laboratory facilities to support a com- 
prehensive air pollution control program. 

3. It is recommended that enabling leg- 
islation be obtained in Maryland and Virginia 
to allow the formation of inter juris dictional 
air pollution control districts. This would 
permit the establishment of a coordinated 
and unified air pollution control program in 
the Virginia portion of the "Washington Metro- 
politan Area and another in the Maryland 
portion. 

4. It is recommended that, contingent 
on the enactment of such legislation, the 
local governmental jurisdictions in Mary- 
land and Virginia that are a part of the 
Washington Metropolitan Area seriously 
consider the formation of air pollution 
control districts within their respective 
States. 



^ Area 

Washington, D. C., capital of the United 
tes and seat of the Federal Government, 
situated between Northern Virginia and 
.them Maryland on the east bank of the 
:omac River about 100 miles above its 
uth. The City of Washington is coexten- 
e with the District of Columbia and has 
ital area of about 69 square miles, of 
.ch approximately 8 square miles are 
ered by water. (1) The altitude ranges 
m about 10 to 500 feet above sea level. 

As defined by the U.S. Bureau of the 
isus, the Washington Standard Metropoli- 
Area consists of Washington, D. C., 
ntgomery and Prince Georges Counties 
vtaryland, Arlington and Fairfax Counties 
/irginia, and the independent Virginia 
.es of Alexandria and Falls Church. (2) 
z term Washington Metropolitan Area, as 
:d in this report, means the standard 
tropolitan area as defined above. Wash- 
ton, D. C., and the immediately adjacent 
ianized areas of Maryland and Virginia 
gure 1) comprise the area of particular 
srest because they contain practically all 
:he metropolitan area population and in- 
try. The outlying areas of Montgomery 
[ Prince Georges Counties in Maryland 
[ Fairfax County in Virginia are primarily 
al with a population density less than 1000 
square mile. 



established to promote the control of 
obnoxious noises, smoke, and fumes from 
automotive equipment operated within the 
Washington Metropolitan. Area. As a result 
of several committee meetings and other 
activities, the District of Columbia Board 
of Commissioners in July of I960 proposed 
that the District of Columbia Fuel Burning 
Equipment Regulations and the Traffic and 
Motor Vehicle Regulations be amended to 
require reduction of air pollution from 
certain sources. Following public hear- 
ings, the Traffic and Motor Vehicle Regu- 
lations were amended in September I960 
and the Fuel Burning Regulations were 
amended in April 1961. 

In July of I960 the District of Columbia 
Department of Public Health requested that 
the Public Health Service Regional Office 
in Charlotte sville, Virginia, conduct a study 
of the total environmental health problems 
and programs in the District of Columbia. 
The Technical Assistance Branch of the 
Division of Air Pollution completed that 
portion of the environmental health study 
pertaining to air pollution. It was later 
agreed that in addition to complying with 
the original request the air pollution study 
should be expanded to provide a general 
appraisal of the total air pollution problem 
in the Washington Metropolitan Area and 
general recommendations for the guidance 
of local officials. 



:al Interest in Air Pollution 

During June 1959 the Washington Metro - 
itan Area experienced a four day episode 
sye irritating smog. The following Decem- 
a local newspaper published a series of 
2 informative articles dealing with the air 
lution problem, especially that due to 
omobile exhaust, in the Washington Metro - 
itan Area. 

In May of I960, the Engineer Commis- 
ner for the District of Columbia and the 
tropolitan Area Traffic Council organized 
Automotive Nuisance Abatement Com- 
;tee of that Council. This Committee was 



The Study 

In accordance with the amended re- 
quest, this appraisal of air pollution prob- 
lems in the Metropolitan Washington Area 
had three objectives: 

1) To review and evaluate the existing 
and potential air pollution problems of the 
Metropolitan Area. 

2) To review briefly air pollution con- 
trol activities presently being conducted by 
the respective local governmental agencies. 



- 1 - 



WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA. 

- URBANIZED DISTRICTS AS OF 
I960 CENSUS* 2 ) 



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LEGEND 

Districts with population 
density of 1,000 persons or 
more per square mile shaded. 



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Figure 1 



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3) To develop recommendations for 
;uidance of local officials in meeting 
ing and future air pollution problems. 

The scope of the study was limited to 
ideration of available information re- 
ing air pollution, including: activities 
h cause pollution, evidence of pol- 
n. levels, meteorological and topo- 
hical influences on dispersion of 
:tants, local air pollution control 
Ity, and other relevant community 
acteristics. In view of these limita- 

this report should be considered a 
.minary appraisal of air pollution 
lems in the National Capital Area. 

An engineer from the Technical As- 
.nce Branch, Division of Air Pol- 
Q, collected the data and prepared 
report. Valuable assistance was 
i by personnel of various agencies 
e District of Columbia Government, 
.c health officials from suburban 
inia and Maryland, trade associa- 
, official and unofficial business and 
strial organizations, and interested 
cies of the Federal Government. 
Lfic acknowledgment is made to the 
ronmental Meteorological Research 
ects of the U.S. Weather Bureau 
heir assistance in preparing the 
orological and climatological data 
bis report. 



JENERAL FACTORS AFFECTING 
AIR POLLUTION 

Air pollution levels in any community 
cid principally on the quantity, type, 
rate of discharge of pollutants to the 
sphere and the ability of the atmos- 
e to disperse these pollutants. In 
ion, some air pollutants are the re- 
of reactions that occur between con- 
nants in the atmosphere. 

Population, general character of in- 
:y and employment, and land use are 
eneral factors that are directly re- 
. to the discharge of pollutants to the 
sphere. The ability of the atmosphere 
sperse the pollutants is directly re- 
. to certain meteorological and topo- 
hical factors. 



Population 

Daily activities of the general public 
are responsible for the emission of certain 
pollutants to the atmosphere. Activities 
such as combustion of fuels for space and 
water heating, cooking, transportation, and 
the burning of rubbish and other waste ma- 
terials contribute a significant amount of 
pollution each day. The amount of air pol- 
lution contributed by any one individual is 
very small, but collectively, the total emis- 
sions may reach enormous proportions. In 
sparsely settled areas these emissions are 
dispersed into the atmosphere and readily 
assimilated, but as the population density 
increases more pollutants are discharged 
and it becomes increasingly difficult for the 
atmosphere to disperse them. Population 
estimates are an index of future pollution 
levels, since a population increase is ac- 
companied by an increase in pollution 
emissions, both from the activities of the 
general public and the accompanying in- 
creased industrial -commercial activity. 

The I960 census reported the popula- 
tion of the Washington Standard Metropoli- 
tan Area as Z, 001, 897, a- net increase of 
537,808 over the 1950 census even though 
the population of the central city decreased 
about 5 percent. (2) Approximately 62 per- 
cent of the Metropolitan Area population 
lives outside of Washington, D. C. Popula- 
tion density for Washington, D. C., is high 
in comparison to other cities in the United 
States but the population densities for sub- 
urban Maryland and Virginia are relatively 
low. (Figure 1) 

The Washington Metropolitan Area has 
shown a consistent growth over the last 
thirty years. Since 1930 population has 
approximately tripled, a growth rate sur- 
passing all other metropolitan areas among 
the ten largest in the United States. (4) The 
growth of the Washington Metropolitan Area 
from 1940 to I960 is shown by Table 1. 

The suburban areas of Maryland and 
Virginia have shown tremendous growth in 
recent years. The population of Fairfax 
County, Virginia, has tripled in the last ten 
years and in Montgomery and Prince Georges 
Counties in Maryland the population has 
doubled in the last ten years. It is anticipated 



- 3 - 



1940 



I960 



(2) 



YEAR 


WASHINGTON 
D. C. 


SUBURBAN 
MARYLAND 


SUBURBAN 
VIRGINIA 


TOTAL 


1960A/ 


763,956 


698,323 


539,618 


2,001,897 


1950JL/ 


802,178 


358,583 


303,328 


1,464,089 


1940JL/ 


663,091 


173,402 


131,492 


967,985 



POPULATION DENSITY - I960 



Land Area - 


61 


979 


448 


1,488 


sq. miles 










Population 


12,525 


715 


1,205 


1,345 


density C/ 











A/ Final I960 Census Figures 

B/ U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of 1940 and 1950 

C/ People per square mile 



that practically all of the future growth in 
the Washington Metropolitan Area will oc- 
cur in the suburban areas of Maryland and 
Virginia. Estimates indicate a continued 
substantial growth for the Washington Met- 
ropolitan Area, with a population of about 
2,750,000 by 1970 and 3,500,000 by 1980. 
(4) Air pollution levels will increase ac- 
cordingly, unless steps are taken to con- 
trol the emission of pollutants, because the 
greater the population the greater the 
activities that contribute to air pollution. 



General Character of 
Employment and Industry 

The business life of the Washington 
Area is determined largely by the fact 
that it is the location of the nation's Capi- 
tol. Also, the area is fast becoming one 



- 4 - 



of the world's leading science centers with a 
larger portion of its population employed in 
scientific and professional effort than any 
other large metropolitan area in the United 
States. The area has limited manufacturing 
and other industry but does have a flourishin 
retail trade and ranks high as a retail tradin 
center. 

Table 2 shows the total employment in 
the Washington Metropolitan Area as of 
December I960. (4) The limited manufactur 
ing employment is offset by the high Federal 
Government employment in the area. The 
Federal, State, District of Columbia, and loc 
governments and the military services ac- 
counted for approximately 40 percent of the 
employment in the Washington Metropolitan 
Area as of December I960. As may be ex- 
pected, the second highest percentage of the 
total employment is directed toward providir 
necessary goods and services. 



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[n 1954 there were 854 manufacturing 
jlishrnents in the Washington Metro - 
an Area (5), and in October 1958 there 
944, as shown by Table 3. (6) Princi- 
ndustries are printing and publishing, 
irical machinery, and food and bever- 
. Based on the 1958 data these three 
stry classifications account for 52 per- 
of the industrial plants and 71 percent 
e industrial employees in the Wash- 
n Metropolitan Area. 



Use 

Most of the land in the Washington 
opolitan Area is useful. There is no 
t expanse of swampland or other 
e-land. The land use pattern for the 
opolitan area shows that the District 
jlumbia and the immediately adjacent 
ons of suburban Maryland and Vir- 
are primarily concentrated residen- 
ireas, with relatively large areas 
ted to parks and governmental uses, 
i 1955 more than 42 percent of the 
area in the District of Columbia was 
d by the Federal Government. (8) 
mgh the exact proportion has not been 
rmined, it appears that the Federal 
rnment land ownership in suburban 
s of Maryland and Virginia that are 
:ent to Washington, D. C., may also 
Dach this magnitude. In addition to 
arge areas of Federally owned land 
are devoted to parks and recreational 
the State and local governments have 
provided large areas of land for these 
DSes. 

The industrial sections of the Wash- 
n Metropolitan Area are located 
.arily along the Potomac and Ana- 
.a River water fronts, along the rail- 
tracks, and along the main North- 
i Highway. The main concentration 
dustries is located in the Alexandria - 
i Arlington area of Virginia and the 
heast sector of the District of Colum- 
A wide variety of industries is present 
e Washington Metropolitan Area, but 
neral they are classified as light 
stries. 

Several new industrial parks are being 
Loped in Suburban Maryland and Vir- 



of the new industrial parks. They range in 
size from several acres to several hundred 
acres, and are generally located in outlying 
suburban areas. (9) All of these sites are 
generally protected by adequate zoning reg- 
ulations as well as by restrictions and 
performance standards regarding the types 
of industries permitted. 

In general, the land use pattern of the 
Washington Metropolitan Area has not per- 
mitted the intermingling of industrial and 
residential areas. In some cases, the de- 
velopment of industrial areas adjacent to 
residential areas preceded the development 
and enforcement of adequate zoning and 
land use planning. This appears to be the 
case in some of the older sections of the 
metropolitan area such as Georgetown and 
Alexandria. A land use pattern that permits 
the intermingling of industrial and resi- 
dential areas promotes the occurrence of 
air pollution problems because it brings 
major pollution sources into close proximity 
with susceptible receptors. 



DISPERSION OF POLLUTANTS 
Topography 

The Washington Metropolitan Area is 
located at the western edge of the middle 
Atlantic Coastal Plain, 35 miles west of the 
Chesapeake Bay and far enough inland from 
the ocean to escape the sea breeze effects 
that normally occur along the coast during 
the warmer months. The Blue Ridge 
Mountains, rising to an elevation of 3,000 
feet or more, are about 50 miles west of the 
Washington Metropolitan Area, and the 
orographic effects of these mountains is one 
of warming and drying of westerly winds 
reaching the area. 

The terrain to the east of the Washington 
area is generally flat, with elevations being 
less than 100 feet above sea level. To the 
west, gently rolling hills, with elevations of 
200 to 500 feet above sea level, extend to the 
Blue Ridge Mountains. Consequently, the 
topography in the vicinity of the Washington 
area generally allows free air movement 
with little channeling effects. 

Meteorological Factors in Air Pollution 



WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA 



MARYLAND 




LEGEND 

.State Boundary Lines 
County Boundary Lines 
Railroads 
Highways 

New Industrial Areas 



Figure 2 



into which pollutants are emitted is directly 
proportional to wind speed and the concentra- 
tion of airborne pollutants is inversely pro- 
portional to wind speed. However, high winds 
are not always beneficial, since local inci- 
dences of high pollution can result from aero- 
dynamic downwash of stack effluents. In es- 
sence, wind speed and direction data yield 
an index to horizontal transport and diffusion 
of airbonre material, and thus indicate a 
rate of ventilation. 

Of equal importance is the extent of 
vertical mixing in the atmosphere, implied 
by the temperature distribution with height. 
When there exists a large decrease of tem- 
perature with an increase in height, the air 
is unstable, and turbulence and vertical ex- 
change of material occur readily; however, 
when there is a small decrease or increase 
(inversion) of temperature with an increase 
in height, the air is stable with little or no 
turbulence. The effect at the ground surface 
usually depends on whether the stable layer 
is at the surface or aloft. If aloft, pollutants 
may rise and accumulate under the temper- 
ature "lid," only to be brought to the ground 
surface in high concentrations when convec- 
tive heating processes occur in a vigorous 
mixing of the air between the surface and 
the elevated stable layer. Such "fumigation" 
processes usually occur shortly after sun- 
rise. If the stable layer extends from the 
ground surface upward, which is the usual 
situation for nocturnal inversions, diffusion 
of pollutants is restricted in the vertical 
so that they tend to spread horizontally. 
Such low -level stabilization is usually ac- 
companied by calm or light winds, thereby 
giving rise to a condition of poor ventilation 
and limited vertical mixing and thus to a 
limited volume of air for pollutant dispersion. 

In urban areas there are parameters to be 
considered which may promote some dilution. 
Heat sources such as buildings, automobiles, 
etc., can provide energy for convective mix- 
ing, and a light wind flow over the irregular 
surface of a metropolitan area can enhance 
vertical mixing. Hence, marked vertical 
stratification of polluted layers is probably 
more frequent in suburban and nearby rural 
areas than "downtown." Topographic fea- 
tures may influence diffusion processes; how- 
ever, such influences are not necessary in 
order for stagnant weather conditions to 
occur. This can be exemplified by the 
Greater London smog episode of December 



5-9, 1952. Because of their combined ef- 
fect on temperature profile, air drainage, 
and radiation, valleys may influence the 
diffusion processes. Some of the river 
valleys in the Washington area may have 
local effects on atmospheric diffusion. 

The effects of moisture content of the 
air and condensation processes on atmos- 
pheric pollution are not so direct. Since 
precipitation is usually associated with 
unstable weather regimes, and thus with 
good diffusion, the potential washout 
process is usually of no concern. The 
role of fog in air pollution is also indirect, 
since the meteorological circumstances 
which favor poor diffusion also favor the 
formation of radiation fog. To the extent 
that fog may attenuate solar radiation read 
ing the surface during daytime hours and 
thus restrict convective mixing processes, 
its presence may enhance poor diffusion. 



Stagnant Weather Conditions 

While short -duration diffusion anomali 
are common to most areas and can cause 
pollution problems, the most dramatic and 
by far the most insidious community prob- 
lems involving atmospheric pollution are 
those resulting from prolonged stagnant 
weather regimes, which are usually en- 
hanced by topographic influences. Large 
scale atmospheric stagnation was respon- 
sible for most of the well-known disastrous 
episodes, such as those of the Meuse Valley 
Donora, and Greater London. Although the 
simultaneous occurrence of light and vari- 
able winds, great stability in the lower at- 
mosphere, and often fog, causing a build-uj 
of high pollutant concentrations, is not un- 
usual, the persistence of such weather con- 
ditions for several consecutive days rarely 
occurs in most areas, other than those 
dominated by semi -permanent high pres- 
sure systems, such as the Pacific High off 
the California coast. 

In the United States, east of the Rocky 
Mountains, stagnation periods lasting for 
several consecutive days are generally as- 
sociated with slowly moving or quasi-sta- 
tionary high pressure systems. Subsiding 
air from aloft, associated with these high 
pressure systems, causes a warming of th< 
air in its descent and an inversion is estab 
lished at levels from about 800 to 3,000 fee 



- 9 - 



above the surface. This "subsidence inver- 
sion" persists throughout the day and night 
and acts as a lid to vertical mixing during 
daylight hours. The combination of light 
wind speeds at the ground and aloft gives 
rise to a low rate of ventilation and restric- 
ted vertical mixing. This results in a 
greatly reduced volume of air into which 
pollutants are emitted, causing pollution 
concentrations higher than usual. 

Recent studies (10,11) of these stag- 
nant episodes show that over a 21 -year 
period the Washington area experienced 144 
days of stagnation and 30 stagnation epi- 
sodes with at least 4 consecutive days of 
stagnation. This averages about 7 stagna- 
tion days and 1.5 stagnation episodes per 
year. Such stagnation periods usually oc- 
cur during the summer or fall months, with 
August, September, and October the months 
having the highest frequency in the "Washing- 
ton area. 



General Climatology 

The Washington area climate has the 
seasonal and daily variations characteristic 
of the eastern seaboard, with moderate 
winters and frequent intervals of high hu- 
midity and oppressive heat in the summer. 
The winter season is generally shorter and 
milder than in cities located to the north and 
west. This affords reduced heating require- 
ment during the winter. During the summer, 
high temperatures may average in the upper 
eighties, but temperatures of 90 F to 100 
F are not uncommon. (12,13) 

The average annual precipitation is 
about 41 inches, with no pronounced wet or 
dry season. While the annual snowfall aver- 
ages about 20 inches, greater amounts can 
be expected in nearby western and northern 
suburban areas. 

Surface wind roses by months are shown 
in Figure 3. During the colder months of 
the year, winds from the northwest quadrant 
are most frequent, while winds from the 
south and southwest prevail during the sum- 
mer season. 

The frequent movement of cold polar 
and Arctic air masses into the Middle At- 
lantic States from Canada result in a pre- 
vailing northwest flow of unstable air in 



Washington from late November through 
April. The unstableness and relatively 
high wind speeds attending these air 
masses result in good atmospheric dilution 
conditions. These good diffusion regimes 
are interrupted for only brief periods, oc- 
casioned by nocturnal radiation inversions 
when skies are clear and winds subside, or 
by light southerly flow which brings warm 
moist air into the region preceding cold 
frontal passages. In general, the winter 
and spring months constitute the period 
of most frequent unstable weather in 
Washington, i.e., storminess and high 
winds, and thus result in good atmospheric 
dilution and good ventilation in the lower 
atmosphere. 

The summer and fall months are 
characterized by a reduction of wind 
speed and the prevalance of southerly 
winds. These months also have a higher 
frequency of cloudless and light wind con- 
ditions during nocturnal hours, permitting 
a higher frequency of radiational surface - 
based inversions to form. This is shown 
by the cloudcover and wind speed data for 
nighttime hours in Table 4. Consequently, 
the summer and fall seasons constitute the 
periods of lowest ventilation and highest 
potential for atmospheric stagnation for 
the Washington area. 

As pointed out previously, atmospheric 
stability is an important aspect of air pol- 
lution. Vertical temperature gradient data, 
obtained from upper air soundings made 
twice daily at nearby Silver Hill, Mary- 
land, give percent frequency values of in- 
versions based below 500 feet above ground 
that are compatible with other stations in 
the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain. In gen- 
eral, the Washington area has low -level 
stability on about 40-60 percent of the 
nights in any season, a frequency similar 
to most inland areas of the eastern United 
States. 

The potential for atmospheric disper- 
sion of pollutants can be generalized as 
follows: 1) The Washington area topography 
does not restrict the dispersion of airborne 
pollutants; 2) The area is too far inland to 
be directly influenced by the sea breeze 
effect; 3) The Washington area may exper- 
ience several stagnant weather episodes a 
year, which may contribute to the buildup 
of airborne pollutants; 4) Stagnant weather 



- 10 - 



JAN 



WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA 



SURFACE WIND ROSES BY MONTHS 



FEB MAR. APR 




MAY 







AUG. 





LEGEND 

The solid radial bars :maseaa show the average percentage of time the win< 
blows from each direction; the figure in the center shows the average per- 
cent of the time the wind is calm. The hatched radial bars: \YYV\ show the 
average wind speed from each direction, in miles per hour. 



Figure 



TABLE 4 



SEASONAL PERCENT OF NIGHTTIME CLOUD COVER 

AND WIND SPEED ( 13 > 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 1950-1954 



WINTER 



SPRING 



SUMMER 



FALL 



LOCAL STANDARD TIME 
Cloud Cover 

(0.3 or less of sky 
covered by clouds) 



1600-0600 1800-0500 2000-0400 



42.7 



37.7 



48.7 



1800-0500 



53.3 



Wind Speed 

0-3 mph 
0-7 mph 



14.0 
37.3 



13.3 
37.3 



21.7 
58.3 



21.3 

54.0 



conditions, persisting 3 to 5 consecutive 
days, are most likely to occur during the 
summer and fall; 5) Unstable weather, and 
thus good atmospheric dispersion condi- 
tions, prevails much of the time during 
winter and spring; 6} Low-level nocturnal 
inversions occur on most nights having rela- 
tively clear skies and light winds, with higher 
frequency in the suburban and rural areas 
than over the central city. In general there 
is nothing particularly adverse about the 
diffusion climate of the Washington Metro- 
politan Area. 



SOURCES OF POLLUTION 
Pollution From Fuel Usage 

Pollutants in the form of gases, solid 
particulates , and liquid droplets are released 
to the atmosphere by the combustion of fuel 
for heating, power generation, transportation, 
and industrial process needs. The type and 
quantity of pollutants are related to the type 
of fuels used, condition of the firing equip- 
ment, firing practices, load demands, and 
the use of pollution control measures. 

Typical pollution rates from various 
fuel uses are given in the Appendix. 

Coal During I960, about 2,800,000 
tons of coal were consumed in the Washing- 
ton Metropolitan Area, broken down as fol- 
lows: 1) about 2,190,000 tons for steam- 



electric generation; 2) about 360,000 tons 
used by the Federal Government primarily 
at central plants for space heating of Fed- 
eral Buildings; and 3) about 250,000 tons 
for residential space heating and other com 
mercial and industrial uses. (14) 

Practically all of the coal is obtained 
from the bituminous coal regions of West 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. This 
coal generally contains about 20 to 40 per- 
cent volatile matter, 5 to 1 percent ash anc 
0.9 to 3 percent sulfur. (15,16) The two 
central heating plants operated by the Fed- 
eral Government are equipped with under- 
feed stokers. Electrostatic precipitators 
and mechanical collectors are used to pre- 
vent dust emission. The Capitol Power 
Plant is equipped with spreader stokers 
and electrostatic precipitators for dust col- 
lection. The Naval Weapons Plant has both 
underfeed and spreader stokers with elec- 
trostatic precipitators provided on the 
spreader stoker units. (16) 

The four steam-electric plants oper- 
ated by the local utility company all feed 
pulverized coal. (15) Three of the plants 
are equipped with electrostatic precipita- 
tors and mechanical collectors. The fourth 
plant has only mechanical collectors. 

The total coal consumption in the Wash- 
ington Metropolitan Area should remain at 
about the same level in the future. The 
amount of coal used for space heating and 



ijmmercial and industrial purposes is 
lasing but this is offset by increases 
! amount used for steam-electric 
ation. 

Hscharge of particulate matter from 
jmbustion of coal may be reduced by 
low volatile coal, changing combus- 
: quipment and firing practices, or by 
ling high efficiency collection systems. 
r dioxide, a major gaseous pollutant 
the combustion of coal, can be effec- 
reduced by using low sulfur content 
Because most of the coal is consumed 
/eral large installations, control of 
sions should be easier than if there 
a multitude of smaller plants. 

)U. Consumption of fuel oil in the 
ict of Columbia has been reported as 
00,000 gallons for I960, about evenly 
sd between distillate fuel oil and resi- 
!uel oil. (17) It has been estimated 
he suburban areas consumed about 
00,000 gallons of fuel oil during I960. 
This would indicate a total fuel oil 
.mption of about 307,100,000 gallons 
:>0 for the Washington Metropolitan 



?he combustion of fuel oil releases 
ydes, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur ox- 
organic acids, other organic mate- 
and ash. For the practically smoke - 
operation of oil burning equipment it 
>ential that the equipment be properly 
ned, adjusted, maintained, and oper- 



n he use of fuel oil in the Washington 
)politan Area is gradually increasing, 
irily in the residual fuel oils that are 
for space heating in the larger office 
.ngs, hotels, and apartments. (18) 
oil consumption in this area is not 
dered a major smoke problem, but it 
be considered as a source of air pol- 
. in the form of organic substances 
ulfur and nitrogen oxides. 

jas Gas usage during I960 amounted 
800,000 thousand cubic feet (MCF) (19) 
jd by general usage as follows: 

residential & Commercial 

with Heating 38,400,000 MCF 

residential & Commercial 



Public Authorities 



1,250,000 MCF 



\x/iH-irmt W^atnnrr 



000 



Industry uses practically no gas except 
for certain limited space heating require- 
ments. About 55 percent of the total volume 
of gas used during I960 was used solely for 
residential and commercial space heating 
purposes. (19) Nearly all new homes being 
built in the Washington Metropolitan Area 
are equipped for both gas space and gas hot 
water heating. In addition, gas cooking 
equipment is predominant in newly con- 
structed homes and apartments. Since 1950 
the total gas consumption in the Washington 
Metropolitan Area has increased by almost 
250 percent. (19) It is anticipated that with 
the continued population increase and the 
availability of gas in the growing suburban 
areas the total gas consumption will continue 
to increase at the rate of about 20 percent 
per year. 

The combustion of gas does not produce 
visible smoke, but it does produce pollutants 
such as aldehydes, nitrogen oxides, organic 
acids, and other organics which add to the 
total atmospheric pollution. 

Residential Use of Fuel In 1950 the 
predominant fuels for residential heating in 
the Washington Metropolitan Area were oil 
37.8 percent, coal 30.8 percent, and natural 
gas 25.5 percent. (20) Since 1950 the use 
of coal has declined and the use of gas has 
greatly increased until present estimates 
indicate that fuel usage, excluding coal for 
steam-electric generation and that used by 
the Federal Government principally for 
central heating plant operation, may be sum- 
marized as approximately 59 percent natural 
gas, 39 percent oil, and 2 percent coal (on a 
potential BTU basis). The general trend has 
been toward the use of fuel oil for heating 
the larger apartment buildings and gas for 
the individual residences, along with the 
conversion in older buildings from coal to 
either fuel oil or natural gas. 

It is not expected that the increased 
use of gas and oil for residential fuel will 
create a major smoke problem. It should 
be realized that the use of fuel oil at the 
larger apartments, office, and hotel buildings 
may create a smoke problem unless the firing 
equipment is properly maintained and operated. 
The principal air pollution contribution from 
gas and oil is in the form of organic sub- 

st.PmrfS anrl nviHpc; nf siil-fny anrl -m' f- r r\ n o n 



Seasonal Variation in Fuel Consump- 
tion -- The use of fuel for space heating 
purposes is related to the heating degree 
dayc {Table 5). Approximately 73 percent 
of the space heating contribution to air pol- 
lution occurs during a four month period, 
December tnroagh March. 

Because a large percentage of the gas 
is used for heating purposes the monthly 
consumption varies markedly. During 
August I960, 1,510,000 MCF of gas were 
used, primarily for cooking, hot water 
heating, air conditioning, and commercial 
uses. (21) During December I960, 8,700,000 
MCF of gas were used, largely for heating 
purposes. (21) 

Because of its fuel use pattern, the 
Washington Metropolitan Area does not 
have a great problem of smoke and fly ash 
such as is normally associated with the 
widespread use of coal for heat and power. 
This does not mean that the combustion of 
oil and gas for heating purposes is not a 
part of the community air pollution prob- 
lem, on the contrary, it must be considered 
a significant part of the total air pollution 
problem. 



Pollution from Transportation 

Motor Vehicles Motor vehicles are 
considered a very significant source of ain 
pollution in large communities throughout 
the country. Motor vehicles discharge 
significant quantities of hydrocarbons, 
carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides and 
relatively smaller quantities of aerosols, 
oxides of sulfur 1 , aldehydes, ammonia, or- 
ganic acids, and other organic compounds. 
Gasoline additives such as tetraethyl lead, 
boron, and phosphorous compounds as well 
as motor oil and their additives also cause 
specific air pollutants. (See Appendix.) 

In I960 there were about 185,000 auto- 
mobiles, 19,000 trucks, and 1,800 buses 
registered in the District of Columbia. In 
addition, it is estimated that about 24,000 
automobiles, owned by military personnel 
and other Federal employees, are located 
and operated in the District of Columbia 
but are registered in other States. This 
indicates a total of about 230,000 motor 
vehicles owned and operated by people liv- 
ing in the District of Columbia. (24) 

In I960 there were about 280,000 moto 



TABLE 5 



NORMAL MONTHLY AND ANNUAL DEGREE DAYS FOR 
WASHINGTON METROPOLITAN AREA, 65 F BASE 
(1921-1950) ( 22 > 



Month 



J anua ry 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Degree Days 

871 
762 
626 
288 
74 







33 
271 
519 
834 



Percent of 
Heating Load 

20.6 

18.0 

14.8 

6.8 

1.8 







0.8 

5.2 

12.2 

19-8 



Total 



4,224 



100.0 



.cles owned and operated in suburban 
yland and about 175,000 in suburban 
;inia. (25) This indicates that a total 
bout 685,000 motor vehicles are owned 
operated in the Washington Metropolitan 



A 1959 traffic survey indicated that 
it 667,000 motor vehicles entered or 
the District of Columbia during an 
rage 24 -hour period, 263,000 going to 
rom Virginia and 404,000 going to or 
n Maryland. It has been estimated that 
number of motor vehicles entering or 
ing the District of Columbia has more 
. doubled in the last 10 years. A certain 
:entage of the motor vehicles entering 
eaving the area is due to through traffic 
F.S. Highways 1, 29, 50 and 240, especially 
F.S. Highway 1, a main north -south truck 
e, passing directly through the District 
olumbia. Of the motor vehicles oper- 
g in the District of Columbia on an 
rage day, about 49 percent are regis- 
d in the District of Columbia, 24 per- 
: are registered in Maryland, 19 percent 
stered in Virginia and 8 percent regis- 
d in other States, including through truck 
tourist travel. (25) 

The movement of more than half a mil- 
motor vehicles per day into and out of 
District of Columbia emphasizes the 
1 for a metropolitan area approach for 
reduction of emissions from motor 
.cles. Improvement of highways and 
.ges, along with continual population 
vth, will certainly increase the volume 
lotor vehicle movements in the Washing - 
Metropolitan Area. Because of the many 
irnmental jurisdictions involved, how- 
r, reduction of motor vehicle emissions 

prove difficult. 

In the District of Columbia, motor ve- 
e registrations have shown an increase 
n 195,000 in 1950 to 206,000 in I960. (26) 
ing the same period of time motor 
cle registrations in suburban Virginia 
j increased from 100,000 to 175,000 and 
uburban Maryland motor vehicle regis- 
Lons have increased from 190,000 in 
5 to 280,000 in I960. (24) It is antici- 
d that the number of motor vehicle 
strations in the Washington Metropolitan 
a. will continue to increase, probably at 
latively slow rate in the District of 
imbia and at a rapid rate in the suburban 



areas of Maryland and Virginia. This of 
course will increase air pollution in the 
Washington Metropolitan Area. It is cer- 
tainly possibi->. that the number of motor 
vehicles operated in the Washington Metro- 
politan Area will approach 1,000,000 by 
1970. 

Approximately 195,307,000 gallons of 
gasoline were sold in the District' of Colum- 
bia and about 295,500,000 gallons were sold 
in suburban Maryland and Virginia during 
I960. (23) This indicates that a total of 
about 490,807,000 gallons of gasoline were 
sold in the Washington Metropolitan Area 
during I960. 

About 15,500,000 gallons' of diesel fuel 
were sold in the District of Columbia during 
I960, about 6,200,000 gallons were for on 
highway use and the remainder for railroade 
vessels, military and other miscellaneous 
uses. (17) Actual figures for diesel fuel 
sales in suburban Maryland and Virginia 
were not readily obtainable but it has been 
estimated that they are at least equal to 
those reported for the District of Colombia. 
This would indicate that approximately 
30,000,000 gallons of diesel fuel were sold 
in the Washington Metropolitan Area during 
I960. 

Internal combustion engines make a 
significant contribution to the overall air 
pollution problem in the Washington Metro- 
politan Area. While emissions from motor 
vehicles and other pollution sources may 
not create a condition as severe as exists 
in Los Angeles, it should be recognized 
that the potential for a problem of that 
type but of lesser intensity does exist in 
the Washington Metropolitan Area. In fact, 
past episodes of eye irritation and photo- 
chemical smog in the Washington Metro- 
politan Area have shown that the problem 
may already exist to a limited degree. 

Based on limited observations and 
spot checks, about 5 to 15 percent of the 
motor vehicles operated within the District 
of Columbia emit excessive visible exhaust 
smoke. (23) This is evidence that the 
engines are in bad adjustment or a poor 
state of repair. In either case, these 
engines emit more unburned hydrocarbons, 
carbon monoxide, and visible smoke than 
engines that are properly adjusted and 
maintained. 



- 15 - 



Odorous materials emitted from diesel 
powered trucks and buses are a cause of 
public complaints. The increasing use of 
diesel fuel will lead to more complaints 
regarding the odors created. This will be 
especially true at bus terminals and along 
heavily used bus and truck routes. 

Shipping The port of Washington, D. C. 
handles about 2,000,000 tons of freight per 
year and the port of Alexandria, Virginia, 
handles about 330,000 tons per year. (27) 
In addition, a number of U. S. Navy ships 
ply the waters adjacent to the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. Most of these ships 
are oil fired and, considering the overall 
air pollution picture, the total contribution 
from shipping is believed to be relatively 
minor. 

Rail Seven railroads serve the Wash- 



ington Metropolitan Area. About 145 daily 
passenger trains carry an estimated 35,000 
passengers per day to and from the Nation's 
Capital. (3) In addition a great number of 
freight trains operate through Washington, 
which is a strategic rail crossing of the 
Potomac, to provide direct service between 
the Northeast and Southeast. Most of the 
trains are diesel powered, although some 
are electric powered. A diesel unit (usually 
3 or 4 units are used per train) burns about 
2 gallons of fuel per mile, while diesel 
switch units burn about 8 gallons of fuel 
per hour of operation. While diesel loco- 
motives do not contribute significantly to 
the dust fall problem, the combustion of 
diesel fuel does release pollutants to the 
atmosphere (Appendix). Proper operation, 
maintenance, and adjustment of diesel units 
is essential to prevent smoke. The contri- 
bution of diesel locomotives to the overall 
air pollution loading in the Washington Metro- 
politan Area is considered to be minor. 

Airlines Washington, D. C. ranks 
third among United States cities in the 
number of air passengers. National Air- 
port, which is located across the Potomac 
River, about four miles from the heart of 
the city, handles over 20,000 passengers 
per day, with an average of about 800 ar- 
riving and departing flights per day. (3) 
Dne of the world's largest and finest air- 
ports is scheduled to open in late 1962, 20 
miles west of Washington. It is anticipated 
that this new airport will be handling 4 mil- 
Lion passengers per year by 1965 and 7 million 



by 1970. There are also three military aii 
fields; Andrews Air Force Base, Boiling 
Air Force Base, and Anacostia Naval Air 
Station. Emissions from all of these sourc 
are considered a minor portion of the total 
air pollution problem of the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. 



Pollution From Waste Disposal Operations 

Refuse Disposal The method used fc 
refuse disposal is an important factor in 
controlling air pollution. The burning of 
refuse on open dumps or on private premis 
is the poorest method of disposal. Incom- 
plete combustion of refuse results in pro- 
duction of a wide variety of gaseous and 
particulate matter including odors, smoke, 
aerosols, aldehydes, organic acids and 
other pollutants (Appendix). 

The District of Columbia Division of 
Sanitation burns about 1600 tons of rubbish 
each day, about 1200 tons at three incinera 
tors and about 400 tons at an open dump. (2 
The open dump burning operation has been 
used for quite a few years, due to inadequal 
incinerator capacity. It is anticipated that 
a new 500 ton per day incinerator will be 
operated during 1962; this will provide 
adequate capacity so that operation of the 
open burning dump may not be necessary. 

Some problems were encountered 
several years ago with the Georgetown 
incinerator, due to fly ash and other emis- 
sions. This particular incinerator is 
located lower than, but very near to, resi- 
dential areas so that the top of the stack is 
at about the same elevation as the surround 
ing residential areas. Through a very care 
fully controlled operating procedure the fly 
ash and other emissions have been reduced 
until practically no complaints are receivec 

Most of the garbage from within the 
District of Columbia is used for hog feed- 
ing. Some of the garbage, which is not suit 
able for hog feeding, along with incinerator 
residue, street sweepings, ashes, and other 
non-combustibles is hauled to a transfer 
station, located a few thousand feet from 
the Capitol Building, where it is loaded in 
large tractor -trailer units and gondola 
railroad cars for transport to sanitary 
landfills. In passing enabling legislation 
authorizing this installation, Congress wrot 



>viso into the law that the structure be 
>ped for odor and dust control because 
> proximity to the Capitol. This resulted 
system of cyclones, fiberglass filters, 
:arbon absorption canisters which has 
reported as 95 percent efficient in re- 
ng odors and very effective in control - 
;he dust problem. (29) 

in the suburban areas of Maryland that 
. part of the Washington Metropolitan 
approximately 100 tons of refuse are 
erated per day. The only incinerator 
.s area is operated by the Washington 
rban Sanitary Commission and serves 
; 60,000 people. (30) Most of the other 
Lential, commercial, and industrial re- 
is disposed of at sanitary landfills 
ed at various sites in Montgomery and 
;e Georges Counties and operated by 
active towns, cities, special taxing 
icts and the county. (31) These oper- 
s are periodically inspected by the 
:y health agencies to enforce the re- 
ive county regulations that prohibit 
.ng at open dumps or landfills. 

'.n the suburban areas of Virginia that 
. part of the Washington Metropolitan 
approximately 400 tons of refuse are 
erated each day (300 in Arlington 
ty and 100 in the City of Alexandria). 
In addition, some refuse from Arling- 
lounty and the City of Alexandria, as 
as all of the refuse from Fairfax 
ty and the independent City of Falls 
ch, is disposed of at sanitary landfills 
ed within their respective areas. (32, 
'.n all of these areas, close supervision 
ninimized the amount of burning -at the 
ill sites. 

Burning of combustible refuse in indi- 
,1 backyard trash burners has been 
.bited in the District of Columbia for 
5. This practice, which results in the 
targe of large quantities of gaseous 
(articulate pollutants to the atmosphere, 
rrnitted in the suburban areas of Mary- 
and Virginia. Backyard burning is 
icted to after 4 p.m. in Prince Georges 
n airfax Counties during the spring 
hs and in Montgomery and Prince 
ges Counties during the fall months, 
pt as indicated above, open burning in 
uburban areas of Maryland and Virginia 
rmitted during the daylight hours. Al- 



the hours after 4 p.m. may be desirable for 
fire prevention, this is the normal period of 
light wind speed and poor ventilation during 
the fall months, hence the least desirable 
period for burning from an air pollution 
standpoint. 

The many trees in the Washington Metro- 
politan Area produce great quantities of 
leaves that are usually disposed of by open 
burning. This results in the discharge of 
large quantities of gaseous and particulate 
pollutants to the atmosphere during the 
season of the year in which most air stag- 
nation episodes are experienced. The open 
burning of a single pile of leaves is, not of 
course, a major source of air pollution. 
However, this practice should be seriously 
questioned when it is conducted on a large 
scale. Even though the burning of leaves 
is prohibited in the District of Columbia 
and restricted to certain daylight or even- 
ing hours in other areas, dense smoke from 
burning leaves may be experienced through- 
out the entire Washington Metropolitan Area 
during the fall months. 

Practically all new apartment houses 
in the Washington Metropolitan Area are 
equipped with single- or multi -chamber 
incinerators for the disposal of combus- 
tible rubbish. In addition, many of the 
newer commercial and industrial establish- 
ments are also equipped with single- or 
multi -chamber incinerators. Recent amend- 
ments to the District of Columbia Fuel Burn- 
ing Regulations require that multi -chamber 
incinerators be installed in the District of 
Columbia after October 1961. Single -chamber 
incinerators, which produce greater quantities 
of air pollutants per pound of material burned 
than multi -chamber units, are still permitted 
in other portions of the Washington Metro- 
politan Area. 

Because of the many construction proj- 
ects for new buildings, highways, and resi- 
dential areas the quantity of waste materials 
from construction and demolition activities 
in the Washington Metropolitan Area has 
reached enormous proportions. Most of 
these waste materials are disposed of by 
opening burning. This produces significant 
quantities of gaseous and particulate air 
pollutants. Open burning of construction 
and demolition wastes in Alexandria is done 
under a permit system; however, this does 



prohibit open bu] ning unless a very definite 
need ..a.i be established and there is no other 
practical method of disposal available. In 
such cases a permit may be issued. These 
new restrictions should greatly reduce, if 
not eliminate, open burning of construction 
and demolition wastes in the District of 
Columbia. 

The District of Columbia Department of 
Highways burns dead, diseased trees, and 
trimmings from its own activities and for 
the National Capital Parks at the Poplar 
Point Nursery grounds. Even though dis- 
eased elm trees must be burned as a part of 
the disease eradication program this activity 
must be considered as contributing to the 
total air pollution problem. 

In summary, the Washington Metropoli- 
tan Area disposes of about 1700 tons of 
refuse per day at municipal incinerators and 
about 400 tons per day at an open burning 
dump. The remainder of the Metropolitan 
Area refuse, consisting of several hundred 
tons per day, is disposed of by back -yard 
burning, apartment house incineration, and 
sanitary landfills. In addition, quantities of 
leaves, trees and waste materials from con- 
struction and demolition activities are dis- 
posed of by open burning in the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. These activities result 
in the discharge of a considerable amount of 
atmospheric pollutants each day and are con- 
sidered a significant contribution to air 
pollution in this area. Table 6 shows a 
general summary of the waste disposal 
practices. 

Sewage Disposal Complaints of odors 
have come from the immediate vicinity of 
some sewage treatment plants, especially 
during the summer months when the day- 
time temperatures and relative humidity are 
quite high and there is little or no air move- 
ment. In most cases, these odor problems 
are experienced only in areas immediately 
adjacent to the sewage treatment plants. 

About 1,000,000 cubic feet of sewage 
sludge gas is produced each day by the va- 
rious sewage treatment plants in the Wash- 
ington Metropolitan Area. (34) This gas is 
used as fuel for certain types of engines or 
for heating purposes, or is wasted by flaring. 
The combustion or burning of the sludge gas 



tants that contribute to the total community 
air pollution problem. 

Sewage disposal operations in the 
Washington Metropolitan Area are con- 
sidered a contributor to the total air pollu- 
tion problem, but they are not considered 
of major importance. 



Industrial and Commercial Emissions 

Emissions to the Washington Metro- 
politan Area atmosphere from industrial 
processes contribute to the total air pollu- 
tion situation. Metropolitan Washington is 
not a heavy industrial area and the emis- 
sions from industrial operations are of the 
type and quantity generally associated with 
light industry and manufacturing and serv- 
ice operations. Because exhaust stack 
sampling and plant inspections were not 
undertaken as a part of this evaluation, the 
following discussion and Table 7 are of a 
general nature. However, air pollution 
problems normally associated with specif i< 
types of industry are indicated. 

Table 7 gives a summary of the major 
industries and their contributions to the 
community air pollution problem. Some 
are of minor significance, some are of a 
localized nature, and others are considerec 
significant contributors. This indicates 
that industries in the Metropolitan Wash- 
ington Area are an important part of the 
total air pollution problem even though the^ 
are not the most significant group of pollu- 
tion sources. 

Dust arising from construction opera- 
tions, particularly highway construction, is 
a frequent source of public complaint. 
Complaints about commercial operations 
are usually associated with emissions such 
as hydrocarbons from petroleum bulk stor^ 
age and retail filling stations, smoke and 
odors from scrap or salvage yards, odors 
from restaurants and markets, and smoke 
and odors due to laundries and dry clean- 
ing establishments. The last are especial! 
important in the Washington area because 
of the great number of small laundry and 
dry cleaning plants. Hydrocarbon losses 
from petroleum handling and storage also 
contribute to the overall pollution load on 



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- 19 - 



INDUSTRIES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS 
TO THE AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM 



Industry 


Total 
Plants 


Contributions to Air Pollution Pro 


Food & Kindred Products 


107 


Odors - coffee roasting and anima 
rendering plants - localized com- 
plaints - minor contribution 


Lumber & Wood Products 


62 


Burning wood wastes, saw dust, sp 
paint mist, and creosote odors - n 
work, prefabrication, and containe 
manufacturing - localized complai 
minor contribution 


Printing & Publishing 


339 


Solvent odors - printing processes 
localized complaints - minor 
contribution 


Chemical & Allied Products 


32 


Dusts, sulfuric acid mists, fluorid 
and odors - fertilizer, insecticide, 
paint manufacturing - localized co 
plaints - significant contribution 


Petroleum & Coal Products 


11 


Dust and oil fumes - asphalt pavin 
plants - many localized complaints 
significant contribution 


Stone, Clay & Glass Products 


81 


Dusts - ready -mixed concrete and 
concrete or allied products - loca] 
complaints - significant contributi 


Fabricated Metal Products 


78 


Gases and dusts - spray painting, 
degr easing, and grinding - alumlm 
doors & windows, structural and 
ornamental steel products - no coi 
plaints - minor contribution 


Electrical Machinery 


43 


Gases and dusts - spray painting, 
degreasing and grinding - no comp 
minor contribution 


Primary Metals 


4 


Gases and particulates - steel tube 
production and gray iron castings 
localized complaints - minor con- 
tribution 



- 20 - 



Certain j? eaerai uovernment operations 
as the Naval Weapons Plant, Govern- 
Printing Office, and the Bureau of 
ing and Engraving are considered as 
trial operations. Several years ago 
were emissions from the Naval Weap- 
lant due to metal plating and forging, 
int emissions from the plant are due to 
i electric generation, incineration of 
ustible wastes and occasional open 
ng of certain scrap products. The Gov- 
ent Printing Office and the Bureau of 
ing and Engraving are basically print - 
ngraving and publishing operations. 
; activities generally do not produce 
leant quantities of air pollutants, other 
some solvent odors. Altogether, the 
trial type activities conducted by the 
al Government in the Washington 
ipolitan Area contribute to the total air 
Ion problem, but they are considered 
nor significance. 

[iscellaneous sources of air pollution 
Dmmon to most metropolitan areas 
D attempt was made to evaluate their 
dual contributions to the Washington 
air pollution problem. Their total 
Lbution is considered of minor sig- 
nce in the total air pollution problem. 



:aphic Distribution of Industrial Sources 

'he Metropolitan Washington Area is 
vely free of major industrial air pollu- 
ources. The problems encountered 
sually due to nuisances from specific 

or dusts in limited areas. Most of the 
tries are located along the Potomac and 
>stia Rivers, and along the railroad 
s and major highways. The industrial 

are dispersed and generally separated 
residential sections. These factors, 
with the nature and limited extent of 
dustries help to minimize the effect of 
:rial pollutants on the total air pollu- 
roblem. 



In 1931-1933, atmospheric pollution 
was studied in 14 of the largest cities of 
the United States, including Washington, 
D. C. (35) This study reported dustfall 
rates for Washington, D. C. as 26 tons per 
square mile per month during the winter, 
24 tons per square mile per month during 
the summer, and 24 tons per square mile 
per month for the entire year. The study 
also reported that the average amount of 
suspended matter in the air during the 
winter months in the 14 cities was 510 
micrograms per cubic meter of air. The 
Group III cities, which included Washington, 
D. C., averaged 350 micrograms per cubic 
meter. The study indicated that if the de- 
gree of atmospheric pollution during the 
winter months for all of the cities com- 
bined was taken as 100, the Group III 
cities would have a value of 56. Thus it 
would appear that in 1931-1933 the air 
pollution situation in Washington, D. C., 
was better than that in many other large 
cities in the United States. 

During 1953-54, oxidant and sulfur 
dioxide were measured in 10 cities, in- 
cluding Washington, D. C. (36) Sampling 
was done for only a few days in each city, 
but a variety of weather conditions oc- 
curred, including a few days of smog. The 
Washington, D. C. oxidant level, as mea- 
sured by the potassium iodide method, 
ranged from a high of 0.078 ppm (parts per 
million parts of air) to a low of 0.003 ppm, 
with an average of 0.039 ppm. Although 
atmospheric oxidant measurements usually 
include all oxidizing substances, ozone is 
one of the most important oxidants found in 
the air. Ozone is a highly reactive, unique 
form of oxygen that may be produced in the 
atmosphere by the action of sunlight on 
organic material in the presence of nitro- 
gen dioxide. Sulfur dioxide concentrations 
ranged from a high of 0.12 ppm to a low of 
less than 0.01 ppm, with an average of 0.04 
ppm as measured using the alkaline iodine 



- 21 - 



D. C. and the maximum and minimum values 
for all 10 cities included in the study. The 
resu h s indicate that oxidant concentrations 
in Washington were higher than the average 
for the 10 cities, in fact Washington was 
third highest in this respect, and the sulfur 
dioxide values were about average. 

Plant Damage 

As is true with many large metropolitan 
areas, symptoms of smog injury to vegeta- 
tion have been found in the Metropolitan 
Washington Area. Such occurrences indicate 
the existence of an air pollution problem. 
Although estimates of economic losses in the 
Washington area due to plant damage by 
smog have not been made, it is known that 
economic losses in tens of millions of dollars 
have been experienced in other areas . No 
attempt has been made to complete a fre- 
quency-severity survey of plant damage in 
the Washington area. 

The occurrence of plant damage in the 
Washington Metropolitan Area has received 
considerable attention in the last few years. 
It has been shown that the "weather fleck" 
injury to tobacco plants at the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Plant Industry Station, 
Beltsville, Maryland, was probably the re- 
sult of atmospheric ozone, which is one of 
the most important atmospheric oxidants. 
(37) It has also been postulated that the high 
ozone levels (peak values of 0.31 to 0.50 ppm 
as measured by the buffered potassium io- 
dide method) observed at Beltsville, which 
may have caused the plant damage, were the 
result of air pollution from the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. (38) Studies of the ozone 
injury problem are continuing and the sever- 
ity of fleck in the tobacco at Beltsville con- 
tinues to correlate with atmospheric ozone 
levels. Studies done in fumigation chambers 
at Beltsville using known ozone concentra- 
tions have confirmed the idea that fleck can 
be caused by ozone. Ozone levels required 
to produce the injury correlate with the at- 
mospheric ozone concentrations found on 
days when flecking of tobacco occurs in 
plants exposed to ambient air. 

The general symptoms of ozone injury 
on other crops has been reported. (39) 
Studies at Beltsville indicate that ozone 



There is little doubt that the Wash 
ton Metropolitan Area is the source of 
least one phytotoxicant with a potential 
inducing serious economic loss in vege 
tion. While a complete assessment hai 
been made, it is evident that vegetatior 
damage does occur and deserves serio 
attention. 

The National Air Sampling Network 

Washington, D. C. has participated 
the National Air Sampling Network of t 
Public Health Service since 1953. Sarr 
of air are collected for a 24 hour peric 
using a high-volume sampler, on a pre 
termined schedule, by representatives 
the District of Columbia Department oj 
Public Health. The samples are sent t 
Public Health Service's Sanitary Engin 
ing Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, where t 
are analyzed. Data are available from 
through 1959 for suspended particulate 
matter, organic pollutants, reflectance 
radio activity, and certain inorganic pc 
tants. (40,41) 

Since 1953 four separate sampling 
cations have been used, including area: 
classified as commercial, residential, 
a combination of commercial-resident] 
(Table 9). The results reflect conditio 
in the different areas. 

Particulate Matter - Washington, J 
had an average particulate pollution lo; 
of 132 micrograms per cubic meter of 
during the period of 1953-1959. Table 
shows the results for the four separate 
sampling sites that have been used dur 
the six-year period and the total resull 
for this period. The values obtained di 
ing 1955-1956, which are higher than f< 
other years, were probably influenced 
dusty play fields and other activities a1 
high school, public recreation center, i 
versity, and large stadium that are all 
cated nearby. Table 10 shows a comp^ 
of suspended particulate matter concer 
tions results for Washington, D. C. anc 
several other large cities. These rest 
indicate that Washington's particulate ] 
lution levels are less than the national 
average but higher than some other lai 
cities; however, it also shows that the 



- 22 - 



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Reflectance - The average light re- 
flectance value of the Washington, D. C. high 
volume filter samples is 16 percent. Re- 
flectance is used as a measure of the soiling 
properties of the collected pollutants. The 
lower the reflectance value the dirtier or 
grimier is the particulate matter in the air. 
Variation in reflectance readings can occur 
due to variations in composition of the par- 
ticulate matter collected on the sample as 
well as variations in the amount of material. 

Inorganic Pollutants - The National Air 
Sampling Network samples have been ana- 
lyzed for a wide variety of inorganic solids. 
Many of these inorganic materials can be 
related to specific industrial processes and 
operations and they can sometimes be used 
to determine sources of pollution. The re- 
sults of these analyses pertaining to Wash- 
ington, D. C. for 1953-1957 have been pub- 
lished and, therefore, a detailed review will 
not be undertaken in this report. (40) Aver- 
age values for specific inorganic solids found 
in the Washington air samples are about the 
same as the national average values. 

Seasonal Variation - If the year is 
divided into a "heating season" (November 
through April) and a "non-heating season" 
(May through October) a significant differ- 
ence is noted in the atmospheric pollutants 
measured at the network station (Table 12). 
The primary reason for this difference is 
ascribed to the increased use of fuel for 
space heating. Pollution levels are higher 
in winter even though, as previously pointed 
out, the meteorological conditions are gen- 
erally more favorable for atmospheric dis- 
persion of pollutants during the November - 
April period. 

Pilot Sampling Project 

In December I960 a seven day pilot air 
sampling project was completed by the Dis- 
trict of Columbia Department of Public Health 
and the Public Health Service. The maximum 
values obtained during this period were: 0.25 
ppm oxidant (which includes ozone), 0.40 ppm 
nitrogen dioxide, 0.70 ppm nitric oxide, 6.7 
ppm carbon monoxide, 5.5 Cohs per 1000 
linear feet for "smoke" (small sized par- 
ticles, largely from combustion operations), 
and 445 micrograms per cubic meter for 



nitrogen dioxide, and nitric oxide indicate 
that photochemical smog is a problem in 
Washington. The values obtained for 
"smoke" and suspended particulate mate- 
rial were also significant. The maximum 
oxidant level of 0.25 ppm equalled the leve 
at which some people experience eye irri- 
tation; in fact, several cases of eye irrita- 
tion were reported during the study. This 
study indicates that among others, "smoke 
and motor vehicle emissions are two majo 
factors in the Washington air pollution 
problem. 

Past Episodes 

Photochemical air pollution is char- 
acterized by eye irritation, visibility re- 
duction, cracking of rubber products, and 
results from the oxidation of hydrocarbons 
(primarily gasoline vapors) in the presenc 
of nitrogen dioxide and sunlight. 

The Washington Metropolitan Area hai 
recently experienced three separate epi- 
sodes of eye -irritating smog, June 8-11, 
1959, September 23-27 , I960, and Decem- 
ber 5-6, I960. The 1959 episode occurred 
when a high pressure air mass existed 
and the I960 episodes during atmospheric 
temperature inversions. A portion of the 
population experienced eye -irritation and 
other discomforts during these episodes, 
visibility was noticeably reduced, and nu- 
merous complaints were made to local 
governmental agencies. These recorded 
eye-irritating, visibility reducing, smog 
episodes are a definite manifestation of 
the photochemical air pollution problem of 
the Washington Metropolitan Area and war 
of more serious future problems. 

Complaints 

The public certainly is not without 
cause for complaints concerning odors, 
smoke, and dusts from certain industrial 
operations which cause nuisance condi- 
tions. Some complaints regarding vegeta- 
tion damage and glass etching have been 
received in certain areas of the Washingto 
Metropolitan Area. To a great extent the 
complaints involve air pollution due to 
odors, dust, fumes, or smoke in the area 
immediately adjacent to a specific source 
of the air pollutant. 



- 26 - 



e Police Department recently entered 
i of air pollution control through en- 
ent of amendments to the Traffic and 
/chicle Regulations. These regula- 
rohibit motor vehicle exhaust emis- 
arker than Ringelmann No. 2. Opera- 
motor vehicles producing excessive 
are given a police notice to appear at 
he Department of Motor Vehicle In- 
n Stations for further observation. 
bund in violation of the regulation 
en 10 days to obtain necessary repairs 
court action. In addition, the Depart - 
Motor Vehicle Inspection Stations 
or excessive exhaust smoke as a part 
equired annual inspection of all motor 
s registered in the District of Colum- 
icse combined activities should tend 
ce the number of motor vehicles that 
cessive exhaust smoke and thus con- 
more than their proportionate share 
Dtal air pollution load. 

ier Reorganization Plan No. 5 of 
s amended, the District Department 
Lc Health was given responsibility 
srvising- adherence to proper stand- 
hygiene for occupations, work places, 
aterial, work conditions, and related 
i concerning city planning; heating, 
, ventilation, aerial pollution, noise, 
lie health nuisances related to vacant 
:cupations, and work places; and 
Lazards associated with work mate- 
L conditions. In addition, under vari- 
tions of the amended Health Ordi- 
the District Department of Public 
aas authority to investigate and have 
ed nuisances due to noisome odors 
DUS gases . 

3 District Health Department is re- 
le for (1) the investigation of air 
n complaints of a non-combustion 
(2) operation of the Public Health 
National Air Sampling Station; and 
Issuance of permits for the fumiga- 
Duildings and facilities. This pro- 
; handled on a part-time basis by 
employees who are primarily re- 
le for other activities. The National 
ipling Network Station activity con- 
periodically collecting samples of 
Late and gaseous materials and for- 
j them to the PHS Sanitary Engineer - 
ter at Cincinnati for analysis and 
on. Complaint investigations are 



source and in past years have numbered 
about 5 to 10 per year. The fumigation 
permit issuance activity requires periodic 
inspections but does not require any ap- 
preciable professional time. 

The District of Columbia Commis- 
sioners recently delegated authority to the 
Department of Public Health for developing 
an air survey and monitoring program to 
determine the extent and causes of air 
pollution. The D. C. Health Department 
was also directed to work with other de- 
partments in preparing specific proposals 
that will provide the necessary organiza- 
tion and budgetary arrangements to effect 
a sound air survey and monitoring program 
that would lead to an air pollution control 
program for the District of Columbia. 

Suburban Maryland 

In Montgomery County, air pollution 
control activity is handled by the health 
department and primarily consists of in- 
vestigation of complaints. If possible, the 
complaints are handled by the health de- 
partment staff but, if complex problems 
are encountered, assistance may be ob- 
tained from the Maryland State Department 
of Health. It was reported that about 20 air 
pollution complaints are investigated each 
year. The County does not have a smoke 
abatement program but the County ordi- 
nances and regulations establish perform- 
ance standards for all incinerators and 
prohibit open burning of leaves and other 
combustibles during certain hours of the 
day. 

In Prince Georges County a very 
limited air pollution control program is 
conducted by the health department. This 
program primarily consists of investigat- 
ing complaints. It was reported that about 
20 complaints are investigated each year, 
excluding numerous complaints pertaining 
to the open burning of leaves and rubbish. 
The health department normally handles 
the air pollution complaint investigations 
but may obtain assistance from the Mary- 
land State Department of Health on special 
studies or complex complaints. The County 
does not have a smoke abatement program 
but county regulations establish perform- 
ance standards for all incinerators and 
prohibit open burning at dumps and sani- 



Potential Health Effects 

Apart from the specific findings of this 
survey, continuing research conducted or 
sponsored by the Public Health Service is 
adding steadily to the body of circumstantial 
evidence which links air pollution to certain 
cardio-respiratory diseases such as chronic 
bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and lung 
cancer. For example, close correlations 
have been found very recently between at- 
mospheric levels of sulfur dioxide and the 
frequency and severity of asthmatic attacks. 
Of course, the avoidance of needless risks 
to human health adds a most cogent reason 
to those developed in this report for a more 
efficient and more comprehensive air pollu- 
tion control program in the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. 

STATUS OF LOCAL ACTIVITY 
IN AIR POLLUTION 

District of Columbia 

In 1935 Congress enacted Public Law 
279 > District of Columbia Smoke Law, which 
prohibits the discharge of dense smoke from 
any building, stationary or locomotive en- 
gine, or motor vehicle, place or premises 
within the District of Columbia. This law 
also requires that all ashes, cinders, rub- 
bish, dirt, and refuse be removed to a proper 
place and that cinders, dust, gas, steam, or 
offensive or noisome odors shall not be dis- 
charged from any building or place to the 
detriment or annoyance of other persons. 
The law further authorized the Commis- 
sioners of the District of Columbia to prom- 
ulgate, alter, amend, or rescind regulations 
as they deem necessary. Enforcement of 
the law was made the responsibility of the 
Commissioners of the District of Columbia. 
They may direct the police department, 
health department, or any other officer or 
employee of the government of the District 
of Columbia to perform such services as 
necessary for enforcement of the smoke 
law. Limited modifications and revisions 
have been made to the smoke law, but for 
the most part it is basically the same as it 
was when originally enacted. 

The Department of Licenses and In- 
spections is responsible for administration 
of the Smoke Law. This responsibility 
includes: (1) Examination of building plans 
for the construction, installation, recon- 
struction, alteration or repair of stacks, 



incinerators, boilers or furnaces; (Z) is- 
suance of permits and certificates for in- 
stallations; (3) maintenance of records 
regarding applications, permits, plans, 
violations and complaints; and (4) investi- 
gation of complaints, observation of smoke 
conditions, and inspection of all equipment 
for which a permit has been issued. In 
general, single family homes are about the 
only installations that are not covered by t 
regulations. 

The smoke abatement activities of this 
department are conducted by two different 
sections. The plan review portion is han- 
dled by the Engineering Branch of the de- 
partment and all of the field inspections 
are handled by the Smoke and Boiler Sec- 
tion. Only three smoke inspectors are 
presently employed although authority exis 
for five smoke inspectors. Because of buc 
get limitations, the low starting salary, an 
the lack of available candidates, difficultie 
have been experienced in hiring and retain 
ing competent smoke inspectors. This has 
resulted in fewer smoke observations and 
inspections being made, thus reducing the 
effectiveness of the smoke abatement 
program. 

During 1959 three smoke inspectors 
made 6,379 smoke inspections and 771 ob- 
servations of smoke, and handled 237 com 
plaints and 322 smoke violations. Insofar 
as possible, complaints are given priority 
and are followed up, by the smoke inspectc 
who personally contacts the individual who 
made the complaint. Most of the smoke 
violations are due to improper operating 
procedures. Necessary corrections are 
usually brought about by a discussion be- 
tween the smoke inspector and the equip- 
ment owner or operator of the reasons for 
the violation. 

Since 1936, this program, through its 
inspection of plans and issuance of permit; 
for fuel burning equipment, has had a grea 
influence on the abatement of smoke and 
improvement of conditions which might 
cause nuisances. Through its adherence 
to proper engineering design and installa- 
tion practices, the smoke abatement pro- 
gram has assured that, with proper opera- 
tion, fuel burning equipment installations 
would not create nuisances or violate the 
smoke law. This has been very important 
during the past 25 years, when thousands 
of new or modified installations have been 
completed. 



- 28 - 



adding steadily to the body of circumstantial 
evidence which links air pollution to certain 
cardio-respiratory diseases such as chronic 
bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, and lung 
cancer. For example, close correlations 
have been found very recently between at- 
mospheric levels of sulfur dioxide and the 
frequency and severity of asthmatic attacks. 
Of course, the avoidance of needless risks 
to human health adds a most cogent reason 
to those developed in this report for a more 
efficient and more comprehensive air pollu- 
tion control program in the Washington 
Metropolitan Area. 

STATUS OF LOCAL ACTIVITY 
IN AIR POLLUTION 

District of Columbia 

In 1935 Congress enacted Public Law 
279, District of Columbia Smoke Law, which 
prohibits the discharge of dense smoke from 
any building, stationary or locomotive en- 
gine, or motor vehicle, place or premises 
within the District of Columbia. This law 
also requires that all ashes, cinders, rub- 
bish, dirt, and refuse be removed to a proper 
place and that cinders, dust, gas, steam, or 
offensive or noisome odors shall not be dis - 
charged from any building or place to the 
detriment or annoyance of other persons. 
The law further authorized the Commis- 
sioners of the District of Columbia to prom- 
ulgate, alter, amend, or rescind regulations 
as they deem necessary. Enforcement of 
the law was made the responsibility of the 
Commissioners of the District of Columbia. 
They may direct the police department, 
health department, or any other officer or 
employee of the government of the District 
of Columbia to perform such services as 
necessary for enforcement of the smoke 
law. Limited modifications and revisions 
have been made to the smoke law, but for 
the most part it is basically the same as it 
was when originally enacted. 

The Department of Licenses and In- 
spections is responsible for administration 
of the Smoke Law. This responsibility 
includes: (1) Examination of building plans 
for the construction, installation, recon- 
struction, alteration or repair of stacks, 



gation of complaints, observation of smc 
conditions, and inspection of all equipme 
for which a permit has been issued. In 
general, single family homes are about 1 
only installations that are not covered b] 
regulations . 

The smoke abatement activities of t 
department are conducted by two differe 
sections. The plan review portion is hai 
died by the Engineering Branch of the de 
partment and all of the field inspections 
are handled by the Smoke and Boiler Sec 
tion. Only three smoke inspectors are 
presently employed although authority e: 
for five smoke inspectors. Because of I 
get limitations, the low starting salary, 
the lack of available candidates, difficull 
have been experienced in hiring and retc 
ing competent smoke inspectors. This t 
resulted in fewer smoke observations ar 
inspections being made, thus reducing tt 
effectiveness of the smoke abatement 
program. 

During 1959 three smoke inspectors 
made 6,379 smoke inspections and 771 o 
servations of smoke, and handled 237 co 
plaints and 322 smoke violations. Ins of c 
as possible, complaints are given priori 
and are followed up, by the smoke inspei 
who personally contacts the individual w 
made the complaint. Most of the smoke 
violations are due to improper operating 
procedures. Necessary corrections are 
usually brought about by a discussion be 
tween the smoke inspector and the equip 
ment owner or operator of the reasons f 
the violation. 

Since 1936, this program, through ii 
inspection of plans and issuance of perrr 
for fuel burning equipment, has had a gr 
influence on the abatement of smoke and 
improvement of conditions which might 
cause nuisances. Through its adherence 
to proper engineering design and instalL 
tion practices, the srnoke abatement pro 
gram has assured that, with proper ope: 
tion, fuel burning equipment installation 
would not create nuisances or violate th 
smoke law. This has been very importa 
during the past 25 years, when thousand 
of new or modified installations have be 
completed. 



- 28 - 



The Police Department recently entered 
the field of air pollution control through en- 
forcement of amendments to the Traffic and 
Motor Vehicle Regulations. These regula- 
tions prohibit motor vehicle exhaust emis- 
sions darker than Ringelmann No. 2. Opera- 
tors of motor vehicles producing excessive 
smoke are given a police notice to appear at 
one of the Department of Motor Vehicle In- 
spection Stations for further observation. 
Those found in violation of the regulation 
are given 10 days to obtain necessary repairs 
or face court action. In addition, the Depart- 
ment of Motor Vehicle Inspection Stations 
check for excessive exhaust smoke as a part 
of the required annual inspection of all motor 
vehicles registered in the District of Colum- 
bia. These combined activities should tend 
to reduce the number of motor vehicles that 
emit excessive exhaust smoke and thus con- 
tribute more than their proportionate share 
of the total air pollution load. 

Under Reorganization Plan No. 5 of 
1952, as amended, the District Department 
of Public Health was given responsibility 
for supervising' adherence to proper stand- 
ards of hygiene for occupations, work places, 
work material, work conditions, and related 
matters concerning city planning; heating, 
lighting, ventilation, aerial pollution, noise, 
and public health nuisances related to vacant 
land, occupations, and work places; and 
health hazards associated with work mate- 
rial and conditions. In addition, under vari- 
ous sections of the amended Health Ordi- 
nances, the District Department of Public 
Health has authority to investigate and have 
corrected nuisances due to noisome odors 
or noxious gases. 

The District Health Department is re- 
sponsible for (1) the investigation of air 
pollution complaints of a non-combustion 
nature; (2) operation of the Public Health 
Service National Air Sampling Station; and 
(3) the issuance of permits for the fumiga- 
tion of buildings and facilities. This pro- 
gram is handled on a part-time basis by 
regular employees who are primarily re- 
sponsible for other activities. The National 
Air Sampling Network Station activity con- 
sists of periodically collecting samples of 
particulate and gaseous materials and for- 
warding them to the PHS Sanitary Engineer- 
ing Center at Cincinnati for analysis and 
tabulation. Complaint investigations are 
primarily concerned with localized situations 
that involve odors or dusts from a specific 



source and in past years have numbered 
about 5 to 10 per year. The fumigation 
permit issuance activity requires periodic 
inspections but does not require any ap- 
preciable professional time. 

The District of Columbia Commis- 
sioners recently delegated authority to the 
Department of Public Health for developing 
an air survey and monitoring program to 
determine the extent and causes of air 
pollution. The D. C. Health Department 
was also directed to work with other de- 
partments in preparing specific proposals 
that will provide the necessary organiza- 
tion and budgetary arrangements to effect 
a sound air survey and monitoring progran 
that would lead to an air pollution control 
program for the District of Columbia. 

Suburban Maryland 

In Montgomery County, air pollution 
control activity is handled by the health 
department and primarily consists of in- 
vestigation of complaints. If possible, the 
complaints are handled by the health de- 
partment staff but, if complex problems 
are encountered, assistance may be ob- 
tained from the Maryland State Departmenl 
of Health. It was reported that about 20 ai: 
pollution complaints are investigated each 
year. The County does not have a smoke 
abatement program but the County ordi- 
nances and regulations establish perform- 
ance standards for all incinerators and 
prohibit open burning of leaves and other 
combustibles during certain hours of the 
day. 

In Prince Georges County a very 
limited air pollution control program is 
conducted by the health department. This 
program primarily consists of investigat- 
ing complaints. It was reported that about 
20 complaints are investigated each year, 
excluding numerous complaints pertaining 
to the open burning of leaves and rubbish. 
The health department normally handles 
the air pollution complaint investigations 
but may obtain assistance from the Mary- 
land State Department of Health on special 
studies or complex complaints. The Count 
does not have a smoke abatement program 
but county regulations establish perform- 
ance standards for all incinerators and 
prohibit open burning at dumps and sani- 
tary landfills. 



- 29 - 



Lution activities are handled by the Depart- 
ment of Inspections. These activities are 
primarily directed toward the inspection and 
Licensing of boilers and incinerators. It was 
reported that one or two air pollution com- 
plaints are received each year and they are 
referred to the Virginia Department of 
Health for investigation. Reports are sent 
back to the local department. County regu- 
lations limit the times when leaves and other 
combustibles may be burned in the open. 

In Fairfax County and the City of Falls 
Church all the air pollution control activities 
are under the supervision of the Virginia 
Department of Health. It has been reported 
bhat no complaints regarding air pollution 
have been received in years. The County 
recently passed a zoning ordinance which 
established performance standards for the 
emission of smoke and other air pollutants. 

In Alexandria, the local health depart- 
ment investigates complaints and makes 
some limited investigations of specific 
problems, with assistance from the Virginia 
Department of Health. It was reported that 
about 5 air pollution complaints are investi- 
gated each year. The smoke abatement 
activities are handled by the smoke and 
boiler inspector. Activities include plan 
review and inspection of boilers, stokers, 
and incinerators. Individual backyard in- 
cinerators are permitted and private open 
burning of leaves and other combustibles is 
allowed. Disposal methods for construction 
and demolition wastes is controlled by a 
permit system. 

Table No. 12 gives a summary of local 
air pollution control activities in the Wash- 
ington Metropolitan Area, The lack of air 



Zoning Regulations 

Zoning provisions are often used as a 
means of controlling air pollution, either 
by establishing performance standards or 
by separation of industrial and residential 
areas. In general, the respective zoning 
ordinances in the "Washington Metropolitar 
Area have prevented many major air pol- 
lution problems. In some of the older are 
of Washington, and to some extent Alexan- 
dria and Arlington, the industrial areas 
were developed adjacent to residential 
areas prior to the establishment of effecti 
zoning requirements. These situations ac 
count for a large proportion of the air 
pollution complaints received in the spe- 
cific areas. The zoning regulations in ef- 
fect in the various local governmental 
areas, through the use of performance 
standards and the separation of major air 
pollution sources and residential areas, 
have minimized the extension of air pollu- 
tion problems into rural areas and pre- 
vented the intermingling of industrial and 
residential properties. 

The District of Columbia Zoning Regu 
lations prohibit the discharge of objection- 
able amounts of cinders, dust, fly ash, or 
noxious, toxic, or corrosive fumes or 
gases from buildings or structures locatec 
in manufacturing districts. Periodic sur- 
veys of commercial and industrial areas 
are conducted by the Department of Liceni 
and Inspections to determine compliance 
with provisions of the zoning regulations 
that pertain to external effects and the dis 
charge of objectionable materials. This 
has tended to eliminate some potential air 
pollution problems. 



- 30 - 







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- 31 - 



2) U. S. Bureau of the Census, "Final 
I960 Census Figures". 

3) Washington Board of Trade, "It's a 
Capital Idea", Sixth Edition, March 
1961. 

4} Personal correspondence with the Eco- 
nomic Development Committee, Wash- 
ington Board of Trade, June I960. 

5) U. S. Bureau of the Census: "1954 
Census of Manufacturers" Volume II. 

6) Industrial Directory of Washington 
Metropolitan Area, Washington Board 
of Trade, February 1959. 

7) National Capital Planning Commission, 
Land Use, 1955. 

8) Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 9, 1958. 

9) Potomac Electric Power Company, 
"Profit by the Prestige of a Capital 
Plant Location". 

0) Korshover, Julius, "Synoptic Climatol- 
ogy of Stagnating Anticyclones East of 
the Rocky Mountains in the United 
States for the Period 1936-1956". 
Tech. Rep. A 60-7, Public Health Serv- 
ice, Sanitary Eng. Cen., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

1) Nierneyer, L. E., "Forecasting Air 
Pollution Potential," Monthly Weather 
Review, 88, No. 3, U. S. Weather Bu- 
reau, March I960. 

2) U. S. Weather Bureau, "The Climatic 
Handbook for Washington, D. C.," 
Weather Bureau Technical Paper No. 
8, Washington, D. C., 1949- 

3) U. S. Weather Bureau, "Local Clima- 
tological Data with Comparative Date 
for Washington, D. C.," National Air- 
port, 1953. 

4) Personal correspondence with Potomac 
Electric Power Company, U. S. Gov- 
ernment General Services Adminis - 



facturers Association. 

(15) Personal correspondence with Po- 
tomac Electric Power Company. 

(16) Personal correspondence with Gov- 
ernment Fuel Yard, General Services 
Administration. 

(17) Personal correspondence with Min- 
eral Industry Surveys, Bureau of 
Mines, U.S. Department of the 
Interior. 

(18) Personal correspondence with the 
Oil Heat Institute and the American 
Petroleum Institute. 

(19) Washington Gas Light Company, An- 
nual Operating Report, I960. 

(20) U. S. Bureau of the Census: "1950 
Census of Housing," Vol. 1, Part 2. 

(21) Personal correspondence with Wash- 
ington Gas Light Company. 

(22) Personal correspondence with the 
Office of Climatology, U.S. Weather 
Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

(23) Personal correspondence with Dis- 
trict of Columbia Department of 
Motor Vehicles. 

(24) Personal correspondence with Mary- 
land Department of Motor Vehicles 
and Virginia Division of Motor 
Vehicles. 

(25) Personal correspondence with Dis- 
trict of Columbia Department of 
Highways and Traffic. 

(26) U. S. Bureau of the Census: "Statis- 
tical Abstract of the United States, 
I960." 

(27) The World Almanac, I960, New York 
Wo rid -Telegram. 

(28) Personal correspondence with Dis- 
trict of Columbia Department of 
Sanitation. 



- 33 - 



(29) Xanten, W. A., Superintendent, Division 
of Sanitation, Washington, D. C., "D.C. 
Refuse Transfer Station A New De- 
velopment in Large -Scale Odor and 
Dust Control Produces Nuisance - 

Free Refuse Handling Station." (41) 

(30) Personal correspondence with Wash- 
ington Suburban Sanitary Commission. 

(31) Personal correspondence with Mont- (42) 
gomery County and Prince Georges 

County Health Departments. 

(32) Personal correspondence with Alex- 
andria City Health Department and 
Arlington County Health Department. 

(33) Personal correspondence with Fairfax 
County Health Department. 

(34) District of Columbia Department of 
Sanitary Engineering, Report of Sew- 
age Treatment Plant Operation, Fiscal 
Year I960. 

(35) Ives, J. E.,t_aJL: "Atmospheric Pol- 
lution of American Cities for Years 
1931 to 1933," U.S. Public Health Bul- 
letin No. 224, 1936. 

(36) Cholak, J., _et ajL: "Air Pollution in a 
Number of American Cities", Archives 

of Industrial Health U, 280, (1955). (46) 

(37) Heggestad, H. E., and Middleton, J. T.,: 
"Ozone in High Concentrations as 
Cause of Tobacco Leaf Injury," Sci- 
ence, 129, 208, (1959). 

(47) 

(38) Wanta, R. C., and Heggestad, H. E.,: 
"Occurrence of High Ozone Concentra- 
tions in the Air Near Metropolitan 
Washington," Science, 130, 103 (1959). 

(39) Ledbetler, M. C., Zimmerman, P. W., (48) 
and Hitchcock, A. E., Contributions of 

Boyce Thompson Institute, 20, 275, 
(1959). 

(40) "Air Pollution Measurements of the 
National Air Sampling Network, 1953- 
57." Public Health Service Publication 



(43) 



(44) 



(45) 



No. 637, United States Governr 
Printing Office, Nov. 1958; 25S 
Supt. of Documents, Washingto 
D. C., $2.00. 

Unpublished Data, National Air 
pling Network, U. S. Departme: 
Health, Education, and Welfare 
lie Health Service. 

Department of Public Health, I 
of Columbia and U.S. Departm 
Health, Education, and Welfare 
lie Health Service,: "A Pilot S 
of Air Pollution in Washington, 
December 2-8, I960." 

U.S. Department of Health, Edi 
and Welfare, Public Health Ser 
"The Louisville Air Pollution S 
I960." (unpublished as of this 

Chass, R. L., _et al_.: "Total Ai 
lution Emissions in Los Angelt 
County." J. Air Pollution Cont 
Association, Vol. 10, No. 5,Oc1 

Wohlers, H. C. and Bell, G. B. : 
"Literature Review of Metropo 
Air Pollutant Concentrations", 
ford Research Inst., Menlo Pai 
Calif., Nov. 1956. 

Yocum, J. E., Gein, G. M. and 
H. W.,: "A Study of Effluents I 
Backyard Incinerators," J. Air 
lution Control Association, Vol 
No. 2, Aug. 1956. 

Williamson, J. E. and Twiss, H 
"Multiple Incinerator Design St 
ards for Los Angeles County," 
Angeles County Air Pollution C 
District, Los Angeles, Calif., c. 

Eliassen, R.: "Domestic and IV 
pal Sources of Air Pollution", i 
Proceedings - National Confere 
on Air Pollution, Nov. 18-20, 1 
Public Health Service Publicati 
654, United States Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, 
1959. 



- 34 - 



Examples of Pollution Emission Rates 

:a. presented in this appendix are of value only as general information on the 

L and magnitude of pollution from several activities. They should not be applied 

Lfic situation without due consideration of the many factors which affect pollution 



- 35 - 







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O 



IT) 

m 
q 
o 





i i 

rH 
O 

r 1 



a 

CO 

bO 






MH 


i-H 

rd 




<L> 


O* 


1 




rri 


^ 


^ 


CD 


i i 

H 

rd 


O 


O 


1 1 

5 


> 


jH 


"g 


bO 


rd 


bo 


DO 


H 

rt 


t> 


tH 

CU 




H 
0) 


ofi 
<u 





* 


-Jf- 
















CQ 




<3 


<J 


<J 


<; 


<j 






r-H 

O 
CO 


m 
i i 

o 


in 
o 


m 

II 





o 

rH 


o 

.vO 

o 


in 
o 




W) 


















rt 


















'3 


















PQ ^" 


















r-l CO 


















rt to 


















O -H 


















ro" __, 


















"rti- 


















fn T) [34 


















S ^ "rl 


















P 4-> O 


















T3 CD 


















abD 
d >-i 












a 






O -rt 



















M M rt 












H 






"+-) -r-t f^ 1 










ti 


4-> 

O 






CD* 










o 

rt 


0) 






rt i 1 










4-> 

o 


? 






O -H <H 










'5 1 

-H 


cu 

Pd 




cu 

3 
MH 


S ? CO 

. H rt 


TJ 








0) 
t*s 


4-1 
CO 






es of Pa3 
Acco: 
Emissior 




cu 

M 
d 


M 


cu 


cu 


- Dust I 


Q 

o 

1 




T i o 
(U 

<4H rQ 

S 

ti O 

fi 0. 


"rt *"" 
fi 


rl 

fn 

H 


CU 
^ 


4-> 

CO 


rt 
^ 

O 


trnac 


CU 

o 


cu 

o 


"rt 
o 
U 


^^ 

'S m 

g cti 


CO 

w 




T) 
CU 


S 


to 


CO 
!-) 


CO 


TJ 
CO 
tO 


nd to 






CU 


r 1 


cu 


CU 


co 


*r-t 


h-l 






t" 1 




CJ 


n 






i-Cl 






'"1 


CU 


o 


rd 


rti 


co 


CO 






T) 


Oj 


1 1 

o 


CU 


cu 


r-H 


<J <J 






fl 


fn 

H 


U 


a, 

CO 


PH 

CO 


(2 


3fr Jf- 



- 37 - 



nS 
O 

O 



CO W 

0) o g 

a .2 



CO 

w 






o 
A 

-*-> 

<u 

2 

bo 
PS 



in 

r-H 
O 



in 
N) 

o i o 
o 






rt 
W 



O 

5f 



- 38 - 





ti 


^1 




















o 


CQ <P. 








ii. 












i f 

r 1 


H-H 


00 


rH 


9 


vQ 


o 


^ 


rH 




Cfl 


nj 


QbO 


rH 


O 


cd 


O 




O 


rH 




CD 




_j 
CD 


O 


o 


ti 


O 


o 


o 


O 




_ti 


CD 






















PH rrj 




















W 


CO 

d 


















CQ 

CD 


r- 1 


ti s* 


















CQ 


CD 


i i 


















CQ 


CO 


O 


















o 


CD 


PJ B 




















tH 

Q 


ti ^ 


















ti 


. 


' H 


"<? 
















rl 


w 


CO 


S^ ,* 


















ti 


ti 


















nJ 


n) 





<D ^J* 
















M 


... "Tr* 


H 


fj ^ 



















si 


to 

CO 

rH 

a 


i I 


CM 

m 
ro 


o 
o 


ID 
o 
o 


rH 


CO 

rH 




o 


rH 

rH 

O 


r 

CD 


CO rH 

rt rt 

o > 


M 

w 


O 'H 
M 
ti 
CD 


O 





o 


N 


O 


o 


o 


"o 

ti 


a^ 

rti 




















1 


MH 'd 




















CQ 
























CO - 






















ti 




















H 


O 




















CQ 


CO 




















CQ 
H 


CO 




















s 


ti 




















CD 


w 










CO 

nt 










In- 


Pollution 


1 

. 

r- 

c 

p 


3 

3 

-i 

H 

4 


'Carbons 


ydes ketones 


organic gas< 


n monoxide 


ti 

CD 
O 

H-> 
CQ 


dioxide 


CQ 

3 


cludes blowb 








o 


Aldeh; 


Other 


Carbo 


0) 


Sulfur 


Aeros 






T) 
0) 
CQ 



- 39 



Pollution Emissions from Single and Multiple 
Chamber Incinerators 



Gaseous compound 
or group 


Pollution emission in pounds 
per ton of refuse burned 


Single 
chamber 
incinerator(46) 


Multiple 
chamber 
incinerator* 


Methanol 


9-23 


< 0.05 


Ethyl en e 


8-61 


< 0.05 


Acetone 


>8 


<0.05 


Methane 


23-150 


< 0.05 


Acetylene 


<4-73 


<0.05 


Alpha olefins (as propylene) 


<6 


< 0.05 


Carbonyl sulfide 


>3 


<0.05 


Benezene 


>3 


< 0.05 


Acids (as acetic) 


>4 


<0.05 


Phenols (as phenols) 


>8 


<0.05 


Aldehydes (as formaldehydes) 


5-64 


^>0.3 


Ammonia 


0.9-4 


< 0.05 


Oxides of nitrogen (as NOz) 


<0.1 


^> 2.1 


Carbon monoxide 


197-990 


< 0.05 


Solid and liquid 
emissions 


Single 
chamber 
incinerator'"*'' 


Multiple 
chamber 
incinerator^' 


Solids, gr./SCF, @ 12% COz 


0.9 


0.11 


Volatile s, gr./SCF, @ 12% COz 


0.5 


0.07 


Total, gr./SCF, @ 12% COz 


1.4 


0.19 


Total, Ibs./ton of refuse burned 


23.8 


3.5 



^Losses listed as < 0.05 Ibs./ton were below the detectable limit. 





o cd 




















O CQ 




















o o 


















00* 


g- 




















O -H 

1 t ^J 


















CQ 


h co 


















a. 


CO CQ 


















| 


a, d 

M-l 
t^ CD 


o 

00 


o 


if) 


o 






o 


CM 


O 

o 


o 
o 







FH 




m 


s- 


o 


CM 


o 


"^1 


M 


113 bo 










CM 




>- 





a 


^ fl 










N 1 






in 


H 


CO 'H 


















a 


ex. ra 


















j 


CQ 


















fQ 


d 


















w 


ti s 


















a 


o M 





















OH S 


















<+H 


o, 


















"d 




















0) 




















00 




















fH 




















cd 




















o 




















CQ 




















H 




















Q 




















CO 


















i i 

rd 


i 


















-4-* 

o 


fl 




















1 




















Is 




















o 




















u 


























CQ 














id 






CO 














Estimate 


Pollutants 


Sulfur Oxides 


Nitrogen Oxid 


Ammonia 


Aldehydes 


CQ 
O 
rt 
fl 

cd 
00 
M 

o 


CO 

'd 
o 

H 

a 

cd 
bo 

O 


Solids 





- 41 - 





O 

o 


CM 

in 

T 1 


CO 


1 1 

r 1 


vD 




* 
o 




o 

i-H 










rH 




fc 


O 




1 1 


O 


00 








CM 

l-H 


r- 





CO 

in 


, 1 

00 




o 
o 


00 


r- 


co 

sO 


CO 

o 
co 


r- 



xO 




CO 












CD 
















h 


t 


CO 




^ 


co 


M 
CD 


o 

o 


vO 




n 


CM 


m 


ft 


f"~ 












g 














M 
d) 

EH 


to 


o 


CM 


00 


CM 


CM 




o 
o 


m 


CO 


CO 


CM 
CM 


CO 




NO 














to 
o 
o 


CO 


s 


00 


CO 

-0 

rH 


CM 
CM 




in 














o 
o 


00 
CM 


CO 

i i 


CM 


CM 

i i 


i i 
i i 






a 




to 








o 




"3 o 


CO 

rH 






4-> 




<^ *"? 


cd 






ri 


CO 


vU 




rt 


4-1 




CO 

CD 
O 


ci 
ri 
H 


a S 

,0 
14 fn 
m nj 


"o 

EH 


cd 


rO- 


'> 


O 


flU 




CD 
O 


bO 

rt 

H 

CD 


0) 
CO 

ofl 

. s 


rt 


.2-d 

1 s 

O co 






^i 


'<-* ri 


i < 


cd rt 






rt 


r^j nj 


F 1 

H 


> cd 






2 


h EH 


to 


W H 





CO 
CO 
CD 

ft 



rd 
bJO 



co 
CD 

rH 

JH 
O 

% 



I 
cd CD 



X Z 

O .. 
M 

ft S 
ft E 

cd p. 



ft 



O 

CO 

cd 

OJO 



bfl 






OB 
rt 



Public Health Service Publication No. 955