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R. C J EBB, M.A, LL.D. 


^ f^ 





There is, perhaps, no extant work of Sophocles in which 
his power over crude material is better displayed than in the 
Ajax. No other exhibits higher skill in varying a story of few 
elements ; in untwisting rough strands of thought, and leading 
them into finer threads ; in relieving the breadth of epic colour- 
ing with new lights and shadows ; and this without breaking 
the contour, without marring the severity, of shapes long held 

It will be interesting to glance at the Ajacian legends as 
sketched by early poets; as dramatised by Aeschylus and 
others ; as dramatised by Sophocles. 

I. In. the Iliad, Ajax son of Telamon is second in 
distindtion only to Achilles^; but they are broadly contrasted. 

Achilles is the brilliant young hero, the perfe6l flower of 
Greek chivalry, unmatched in warlike spirit, but delighting 
not less in song and gaiety ; passionate, and capable of 
profound resentment, but not by nature sullen ; in council, if 
often rash, never dull ; a dazzling figure, of manifold energy 
and with no marked defe6t, claiming, and holding, a general 
ascendancy by virtue of a temperament in every part vivid and 

Ajax is a rugged giant, ' towering above the Greeks by his 
head and broad shoulders',' the representative of sinew, and, 
owing to his solid power of resistance, emphatically ' the bul- 

1 //. III. 229. '77, II. 768. 


wark*' of the Greeks; chara6lerised by sound good sense*, 
but apt to fare ill in a keen encounter of wits '. 

Achilles is the type of force ; Ajax, of strength. 

The story of the contest for the arms of Achilles, and of 
the suicide of Ajax, is not noticed in the Iliad. It appears 
for the first time in the Odyssey, where Odysseus, in the shades, 
is surrounded by the questioning spirits of the dead : 

* But alone the spirit of Ajax son of Telamon stood aloof, 
angry for the vi6tory which I won over him at the ships, on 
the issue touching the arms of Achilles : for his gracious 
mother Thetis set the arms for a prize, and the sons of the 
Trojans, and Pallas Athene, judged. Now would that I had 
not won in such a contest ; since thereby the ground closed 
over so good a man, over Ajax, perfedlest in beauty and in 
deeds of all the Greeks beside, next to the blameless son of 

It is here said that the arms were awarded, not by 
the Greeks, but by the Trojans. This will be explained 

In the interval between the Odyssey and Pindar, the episode 
of the contest for the arms was elaborated by two epic writers, 
of whom Proclus has preserved fragments; by Ardtinus of 
Miletus, circ. 780 B.C., in his Aethiopis ; and by Lesches of 
Lesbos, circ. 700 B.C., in his Ilias Minor. 

The Aethiopis was an epic in five books, deriving its title 
from the prominence of Memnon, king of the Aethiopians, 
and apparently designed to supplement the Homeric Iliad. 
At the funeral games of Achilles, Ajax and Odysseus enter as 
competitors for his arms. Agamemnon and his assessors, un- 
able to decide, appeal to their Trojan prisoners of war. Which, 
they ask, had done the most effedlive damage to Troy, — ^Ajax 
or Odysseus ? The captives reply, Odysseus. To him, there- 
fore, the arms are adjudged. Ajax withdraws to his tent, and 
at sunrise falls upon his sword. 

* n. III. 227. 2 TTivvrii. n. VII. 289. 

' //. XIII. 824, kXav afxapToevii, povyxll'e, rr<£oy ieiires; 


By Lesches, in his Lesser Iliad, the incident of the 
appeal to a Trojan verdidl is made still more pi6turesque. 
While the decision regarding the arms is pending, scouts are 
sent under the walls of Troy, in order to discover what com- 
ments the Trojans are making on the case at issue. They 
overhear a discussion between two Trojan maidens. One 
declares that Ajax deserves the prize ; for he carried the body 
of Achilles out of the melee^ while Odysseus was keeping the 
enemy at bay. The other replies that a woman can bear 
burdens; to fight is the proof of manly valour. On this 
dialogue being duly reported, the arms are awarded to Odys- 
seus. Ajax returns to his tent ; his indignation turns to mad- 
ness ; and in the morning he dies by his own hand. 

In the fifth Isthmian Ode, — dedicated to Phylacidas, an 
Aeginetan, descended from the Aeacidae of Salamis, — Pindar 
preserves a legend touching the birth of Ajax. When Hera- 
cles, levying war against Laomedori, went to seek the aid of 

' He found them all feasting. There stood he, in the lion's 
hide, Amphitryon's dauntless son : whom good Telamon bade 
pour the first offering of ne6lar, and tendered to him a broad 
wine-cup rough with gold. Then Heracles stretched to heaven 
his unconquerable hands, and uttered even such words as 
these : If ever, O Father Zeus, thou hast listened with willing 
heart to vow of mine, now with solemn prayers I beg from thee, 
for this man, a son of Eriboea's womb ; that, under favouring 
fates, my friend may gain a soft, — on the one hand, of frame 
stout as this skin that floats around my shoulders, {skin of the 
ivild beast that first of all my labours, I once slew at Nemea;) 
and of spirit to match. Then, at this his prayer, the god sent 
the king of birds, a great eagle ; and sweet pleasure touched 
the hero's soul, and he lifted up his voice, and spake prophet- 
like : Thou shall have the son thou askest, Telamon ; and call 
him, after the god-sent omen, Ajax^ of large might, terrible in 
the war-toils of the people.^ 

From this story came the post-Homeric tradition that 


Ajax was apprjiero^ <^W»'» — invulnerable save in the side, where 
the cleft lion-skin did not cover Heracles; — a tradition which 
Sophocles does not violate ; see v. 834, TrXevpdv StappiJ- 

For a special reason not difficult to conje(5ture, Ajax was 
rather a favourite with Pindar. Not a few of the great men 
whose praises Pindar sang must have had skeletons in their 
closets. The chariot-race, the foot-race, the boxing and wrest- 
ling matches might have gone well, on the whole, for them 
and for their forefathers. But every family which had fur- 
nished a long series of competitors at the great festivals 
would be likely to have its grievances ; its tradition of the 
ancestor who was beaten by a doubtful neck; its opinion 
about that recent award in which the judges had shewn such 
scandalous partiality for their fellow-townsman. In such cases 
it would be consoling to remember that a hero second only 
to Achilles had been defrauded by a corrupt tribunal of the 
prize which was his due. The complimentary poet might 
flatter his patron's self-complacency by comparing him to 
great and successful heroes; but he might also chance to 
soothe feelings of a less agreeable kind by the mention of 
Ajax, so unsuccessful and yet so great. Thrice in Pindar's 
Odes is the case of Ajax adduced to support the maxim that 
' Envy ever lays hold upon good men, but strives not against 
the worse*.' 

II. By Aeschylus the story of Ajax was made the subjedt 
of a regular trilogy, an Aiantis. It is probable that the titles 
and arguments of the pieces were as follows: — i. "OirXiov 
Kpio-is, the Contest for the arms of Achilles. A bench of 
Trojan captives are empanelled as jurors : Ajax states his 
case bluntly and curtly against the subtle, fluent Odysseus. 
2. 0p^o-o-at. A Chorus of Thracian women, war prisoners of 
Ajax, lament the award unfavourable to their master. His 
suicide is announced by a messenger. 3. SoAa/xiVtai. Teucer 

* Nem. VII, 34—44; VIII. 36—46; Isthm. m. 57-63. 


presents the orphan Eurysaces to Telamon ; who, embittered 
by the death of his son Ajax, drives the bastard forth. Teucer 
departs, to found a new Salamis in Cyprus. 

Several other dramas, Greek and Roman, on this subje(5t 
are known by their names or fragments. Such are, 

The Aias Matvofiei/os of Astydamas, a nephew of Aeschylus, 
and pupil of Isocrates. (Suidas, s. v. 'Ao-tvS.) 

The Atas of Theodedles (Arist. Rhet. ii. 23). He was 
a native of Pamphylia; flourished about 350 B.C.; and was 
a pupil of Isocrates. 

The Ajax of Livius Andronicus. No fragment of interest 

The Ajax and the Telamon of Ennius. Of the Telamon 
there remain some lines in which the bereaved father ex- 
presses a Roman fortitude : — 

Ego cum genui, turn morituros scivi, et ei rei sustuli : 
praeterea ad Troiam quom misi ob defendendam Graeciam, 
scibam me in mortiferum bellum, non in epulas mittere. 

Pacuvius wrote an Armorum Judicium and a Teucer. 

From the latter, Cicero {de Orat. 11. 46) quotes the lines 

in which Telamon upbraids Teucer with the death of 
Ajax : — 

Segregare abs te ausu's, aut sine illo Salamina ingredi? 

neque paternum aspedlum es veritus, quom aetate exa(5la indigem 

liberum lacerasti, orbasti, extinxti, neque fratris necis 

neque eius gnati parvi, qui tibi in tutelam est traditus, — ? 

Attius, in his Armorum Judicium^ appears to have closely 
followed Sophocles. The fragments, at least, bear witness to 
some curious coincidences of expression. For example, in 
Sophocles, Ajax says to his son (v. 550) : — 

<» TTai, yevoio trarpos euTi;;^ccrTepos, 

TO. d* aXX* oyi.oi.os' kcu yivoC av ov kukos. 

In Attius : — 

Virtuti sis par, dispar fortunae patris. . >' 


In Sophocles, Agamemnon says to Teucer (v. 1226) : — 

ae S17 TO. 8eiva fn^fiar dyyeWovtri fioi 
rXfjuai Kaff rjnav eoS' dpoifiaxTL xf^vclv; 

In Attius : — 

Hem, vereor plusquam fas est captivom hiscej-e. 

III. The Ajax of Sophocles does not include the contest 
for the arms. They have already been awarded to Odysseus. 
The resentment of Ajax has been turned to frenzy by the 
visitation of Athene, bent on punishing him for proud words 
spoken in former time. Under this frenzy, he has fallen by 
night on the flocks and herds of the army, thinking to slay the 
Greek chiefs. 

The first scene opens on the morning after this onslaught. 
Odysseus has come on a dete(5live errand to the tent of Ajax, 
whom he suspeds of the deed. Athene appears; confirms his 
surmise; and calls forth Ajax to speak with her, that Odysseus, 
witness to his ravings, may learn how the gods humble pride. 

After a dialogue between the Chorus and Tecmessa, the 
interior of the tent is disclosed, where Ajax is sitting among the 
slaughtered cattle. His frenzy is now past, leaving shame and 
anguish behind. His friends vainly combat his despair. Weary 
of their importunity, and feeling that such as they cannot 
understand why life has become hateful to him, he at length 
feigns resignation and repentance. He goes forth, nominally 
to propitiate Athene, and to * purge his stains:' in reality, to 
put off a life which no washings can make clean. In a lonely 
place by the sea-shore, he falls upon his sword. 

The Atreidae interfere to prevent the burial of the corpse. 
Teucer defies them. At last Odysseus appears as mediator, 
and extorts an ungracious consent from Agamemnon. 

In the concluding lines, Teucer urges forward the prepara- 
tions for the burial. 

The moral of the play is contained in the words of Aga- 
memnon to Teucer: *It is not the big, broadshouldered men 
that are safest: the wise conquer in every field.' Of the two 
main departments of apcriy, of manly excellence, </)pon7oris is 


better than dvBpeia. Ajax is the special representative of a 
courage, lofty, indeed, and heroic, but arrogantly self-reliant, — 
unchastened by any sense of dependence on the gods. By this 
insolence he incurs the anger of the gods : by this he loses the 
favour of men. The prize which he coveted is voted away 
from him by the Greek chiefs whom he has estranged; his 
anger at the award is turned to madness by Athene whom he 
has scorned. In this madness he does a thing of which the 
horror slowly fills his whole soul in the ghastly dawn of 
returning reason. The frenzy has passed: the first astonish- 
ment, the ecstasy of anguish, has passed also: but in their 
place has come what does not pass: a feeling which to the 
sympathy that tries to sound it gives back only sullen echoes 
from depths disturbed, not fathomed ; a profound, still despair. 
Ajax has seen all the error of his way; he feels the whole 
weight of his ignominy; it remains that he should * yield to 
the gods, and revere the Atreidae;' it remains that he should 
stand aside out of their path ; that he should die. 

Odysseus is the representative of that general moderation, 
that decently charitable temper, which results from intelligent 
selfishness. When Athene shews him the affli(5led Ajax, * I 
pity him,' Odysseus says, ' pondering my own case no less than 
his. For I see that all of us who breathe are nothing more 
than phantoms or fleeting shadows.' When Agamemnon asks, 
' Then thou biddest me to let them bury this corpse?' * Surely,' 
he replies : ' for I myself will some day need a grave.' This 
virtue, such as it is, secures him universal popularity and 
success. He is the favourite of gods and men ; the protege 
of Athene, and the winner of a great prize from a man whose 
better claims he himself allows'. Agamemnon, to whom 
Ajax was * most hateful,' counts Odysseus * his greatest friend'; 
the kinsman of Ajax closes, his imprecations on Agamemnon 
with a tribute to the generosity of Odysseus'. Thus it is 
that ot <f}povovvT€^ cu Kparovcn Trovra^ov. 

* V. 1340. = V. 1331. ' V. T399. 


It may be said that the Ajax of Sophocles in a manner 
gathers up the lessons of the Iliad and of the Odyssey. 
Over all the glorious vitality of Achilles in the Iliad broods 
the presage of an early death; he is, as he says himself, 
Travaii)pLo%\ * sure to die young;' a life of triumph so splendid, 
so unalloyed, must needs attradt the jealousy of fate. The 
nemesis diredtly incurred by Ajax is ever menacing Achilles ; 
for they were alike in this, that each gave free scope to a 
fearless mind. The theme of the Odyssey is the final triumph 
of a wise self-restraint. The ' patient ' hero, tried in so many 
and various chances, and surmounting all difficulties by a pliant 
prudence, is brought at last by well-pleased gods to the haven 
where he would be. 

Sophocles has wrought the moral of either epic into a 
single whole. The defeat of arrogance, the vi6tory of good 
sense, are brought into the same field of view, — into one 
circle of strong light, in which every trait of the contrast 
stands out clear. 

A few words must be said on an apparent anomaly in 
the construdlion of the Ajax. The hero dies at v. 865 ; the 
remaining 555 lines of the play are taken up with the lamen- 
tations of his friends, and with the dispute between Teucer 
and the Atreidae. It seems at first sight a breach of dramatic 
propriety that the adlion should be prolonged for so great 
a space after the exit of the principal character. Indeed, it 
would probably be difficult to find a really parallel instance ; 
the nearest, perhaps, is the same author's Antigone; in which 
the heroine finally quits the scene at v. 928, though the play 
extends to 1353 lines. But there the after-part is thronged 
with events of a terrible interest, the diredl consequences 
of Antigone's death ; with the solemn warnings of Teiresias, — 
the suicide of Haemon, — the suicide of Eurydice. There is 
no anticlimax : the impression of the main catastrophe is only 
made stronger by each new disaster that flows from it. In 
the Ajax, on the contrary, there does seem to be an anti- 

* //. XXIV. 54a 

TO THE AJAX. xiii 

climax. The tragic interest seems to culminate with the hero's 
death. Does anything which happens in the long sequel serve 
to deepen, or even to sustain, the pathos of that crisis ? An 
apology has been suggested for the alleged defedl. It is 
probable that in former plays on this subjed, — as in the 
"OttXwv KptVts of Aeschylus, — the pleadings of Odysseus and Ajax 
before the judges formed the chief interest. When Sophocles 
resolved to abandon the old conventional treatment, he may 
have found it desirable to propitiate the Athenian taste for de- 
bate by throwing in the altercation betwe^ Teucer and the 
Atreidae. The hypothesis is ingenious; but the fault of struc- 
ture which it seeks to excuse is perhaps more apparent than 
real The true subje6l of the play is, in modem phrase, 
* The Death and Burial of Ajax.' If the Atreidae had not 
interfered, the burial would have immediately followed the 
death. As it is, a dispute intervenes ; but the framework of 
the subject, though distended, is not broken : the play con- 
cludes with the preparations for the funeral. In the meantime, 
the delay involves no real anticlimax. To the Greek mind, 
due burial was a matter of supreme concern ; nothing could 
be more deeply, more painfully exciting than any uncertainty 
as to whether a hero with whom the spectators sympathised 
was, or was not, to receive funeral rites. 

Sophocles has well brought out the specially Athenian 
interest of his subje6l. Ajax bids farewell to 'famous Athens, 
and the race she fosters';' the Salaminian sailors are 'of Hneage 
sprung from the Erechtheidae of the soil';' they long to pass 
beneath Cape Sunium, 'that so they may greet sacred Athens'.' 

The island of Salamis appears to have been independent 
till about 620 B.C., when, after a struggle with the Athe- 
nians, the Megarians gained possession of it. In 600 B.C. 
the dispute broke out again, and was eventually referred to 
Spartan arbitration. On the part of Athens it was alleged that 
Philaeus and Eurysaces, sons of Ajax, had assigned the island 

* V. 861. * V. 202. • Y. lan. 


to the Athenians^; and Solon is said to have interpolated a 
line in the Iliad', representing Ajax as stationing his ships 
beside the Athenian contingent at Troy. The Spartans ad- 
judged Salamis to the Athenians, and it was thenceforth an 
Attic deme. 

With Ajax, in particular, Athens had many ties. When 
Cleisthenes was seledling the names of the Attic heroes, after 
whom the ten new tribes were to be called, he included 
Ajax, 'though a foreigner, yet as a neighbour to the city, 
and an ally^' After the vi6tory of Salamis, the Greeks 
dedicated three Phoenician triremes as a thank-offering of the 
spoil : one to Poseidon at the Isthmus ; one to Athene at 
Sunium; and one to Ajax at Salamis*. A festival* in his 
honour was annually celebrated in the island. Several distin- 
guished Athenians claimed descent from that great Aeacid 
house of which Ajax was the greatest name. Among these 
were, the family of the Cimonidae, — including Miltiades son of 
Cypselus", Miltiades tyrant of the Chersonese, and his son 
Cimon; Thucydides the historian'; and Alcibiades®. 

The date of the play cannot be fixed. But there are three 
reasons for placing it among the earliest of the works of So- 
phocles. I. The old-fashioned anapaestic parodos (vv. 134 — 
300) — found in the Supplices^ AgamemnoUy and Eumenides of 
Aeschylus — occurs in no other play of Sophocles. 2. In the 
Ajax, the tritagonist seems to be admitted only under the 
restri6lion of silence. In the first scene, Athene, Ajax, and 
Odysseus are on the stage together; but Odysseus is silent 
while Ajax is present (vv. 92 — 117). In the last scene, Aga- 
memnon, Odysseus, and Teucer are on the stage together; but 
Teucer is silent while Agamemnon is present (w. 1318 — 1373). 

1 Plut. Sol. c. 10. 
' Strabo IX. p. 394. Iliad II. 557, crr^o-e 5' ir^iiiv Xv' *A$rjvai(av Xaravra 

3 Her. v. 66. " Her. viii. lai. 5 Xiaureia, Hesych. s.v. 

« Her. VI, 35. 7 Marcellinus ViL Thuc. % 2. 

8 Plato Alcib. i. p. 121 b. 


~ In the oldest didascaliae, or lists of plays with their titles 
and dates, the Ajax stands first among the tragedies of So- 

The epithet Ma(rTtyo<^opo?, which Athenaeus, Zenobius, 
and Eustathius add to the title, is derived from the lash {hnrXrj 
fid(m^, V. 242) with which Ajax flogged the cattle, and with 
which he appears at v. 92. In the didascaliae, the play is 
simply Aias. Dicaearchus calls it Aiavros ©aVaros. The 
addition of Macmyo^opos would have been convenient as 
distinguishing the tragedy of Sophocles (i) from the Aias 
Matvo/x€vos of Astydamas: (2) from the Ata? of Theodedtes: 
(see above). 

Dindorf's text is followed in this edition, a few slight 
deviations being noticed where they occur. 




T6 Spa/xa rijs Tpwt/c^s iffTi irpayfiarelai, uicvep ol ANTHXOPIAAI koX 
ycup €v TTJ fidxv "^0^ 'AxtXX^ws iddKOVv Atas re Kal 'Odvaa-ei/s iK avrcp irXiov 
Tc apiareieiv irepl rrjv too aibfJ-aTOS KOfJudrjv' /cat Kpivo/xevuv irepl tup SttXuv 
KpaTet'OSvao-eiJS. Udev Kal 6 Afas, t^s Kpiaeus fir] ri'xwi', TrapaKeKiprjrat Kol 
di^<p6apTaL ttj;/ yvd>fir]u, uiare i^aiTTOfievos tQv troifxi/lwv boKiip roiii "EXXT/vas 
Siaxp^caa-Oai. Kal ra fih dvelXe rCou TeTpairddojv, ra bk dTrjaas aTrdyeL iiri 
Tr]u a-KTjv^v iv ots i<TTi ris Kal Kpibs ^^oxos, 5v (pero ehai 'Odvaaea, 6v 5^(ras 
ipLaarLyua-ev, 6dev Kal ry iinypaip-Q vpdaKeiTai MA2Tir0<i>0P0S, -^ Trpos 
dm-idiaffToXijv rov AOKPOT. AiKaiapxos dk AIANTOS GANATON^ ^tti- 
ypd<f>€i, ip S^ rats StSaa/caX^ats ^tXwj AIAS dpayiypairrai. 

Tavra ixh odp irpdrrei 6 Atas' KaraXap-^dpei 5^ 'AOrjvS, 'OSvffffia ivi rrjs 
CKrjPTis SiOTTTeioPTa tI irore &pa irpdrreL 6 Atas, Kal SrjXo? avrf rd TpaxdipTa, 
Kal TrpoKaXelrai eh rb ipLcpaph top Atavra ^tl efi/jLavrj 6pTa Kal iirLKopi.- 
ird^OPTa tJS rwp ix&p^v dpripTjfx^Pcop. Kal 6 jxkv daipx^TOLi ws eirl t(^ 
fiaariyovp rbp 'OSucrff^a* xapayiperai 5^ xo/)6s ^aXafiiplup pavrQp, elScos 
fxkp rb yeyopbs, 6ti iroifxpia iacpdyrjaap 'EXXTji/t/ca, dypoQp d^ rbp 5pd- 
capra. ?^et(7i 5^ Kal T^/c/XTjcra-a, rod AtaPTOS aixP-dXwTos iraXXaKis, eldvia 
ixkp rbp (r0a7^a tCjp iroip.vl(x}p 6tl Atas iarlp, dyvoovaa S^ tipos elep rd irol/xpia. 
ixdrepos odp Trap' iKar^pov fiadopres rb dypooifiepop, 6 x^/s^s P-^t' irapd TeK- 
fM-qaaTjs, 6ti 6 Atas ravra (dpaae, T^Kixr)<xaa Zk irapd rov xopoi^> ^t"* 'EXX17- 
viKd rd c<f>ayipTa TroifiPia, d-jroXo^^jpoPTat, Kal fidXiara 6 x°P^^- ^^^^ ^^ ^ 
Atas rrpoeXdujp ^fxtppcap yepbfiepos iavrbp diroXocpiperai.. Kal roirov rj THk- 
firja-aa Seirat iraiaaadai r^s dpyrjS' 6 5^ iiiroKpipbiiepos ireiravcrdaL ?|et(rt 
KadapaiuiP 'ipeKa Kal iavrbp diaxpvrai. elal 5^ Kal iwl rep xAet rod dpdfiaros 
X6701 rtvks Te^Kpov irpbs Mep^Xaop, ovk iu;pra ddirreip rb ffQixa. rb 6^ iripas, 
ddypas avrbp TevKpos dToXo<p6perai.. iraplarrjct. Sk 6 Xbyos rrjs rpayi^hlas 8ti 
i^ dpyrjs Kal (ptXoveiKlas oi dpOpcairoi rJKOiep iirl rd roiavra poariaara, cSa-Trep 
6 Afas Trpoa-boK-qcras iyKparrjs elpai rQp 6irXwp dTrorvx<^P ^ypco eavrbp dpeXeip. 
al dk roiavrat tpiXopeiKlai ovk eialp iirutpeXeis ovdk rots doKOvai p€PtKr\Kepai. 

Spa yap Kal Tap'' 'Ojx-fipifi to. wepi Trjs rJTTrji tov AtavTOS irdpv 5ta fipax^up Kal 
TrepnradJos' ('05. X, 542) 

oir} 5' AtauTos i^^XV TeXajitwi'taSao 

vbacpiv dcpeiar'qKei KexoXufi^vrj elVe/ca Tcvx^oiv. 
elra avToO &Kove toO KeKparriKOTos' (547) 

ojj 5t; /XT] 6(p€\ou VLKav T0i(^5^ iir' diOXu). 
oiK iXvcnriXrja-eu &pa aiiri^ 17 vIkt], toicOtov dvdpbs 5ih rrjv TjTTav diroda- 

'H aKTjVT] rod Spd/xaros iu t0 vavaTddfii^ irpbi t^ aKrjv^ tov Atavroi. 
dai/xjpi(x3s 5^ el(T(f>ipu vpoXoyL^ovcrau ttjv "Adrjvdy. diridapov yhp rbp Atapra 
TTpo'CopTa eliretp irepl tQp avri^ ireirpayixipwp, waircp e^eXiyxopra eaurop' 
ovdk fiTjP ^repos rts ijiricrTaTO to. Toiavra, h dTropp-qri^ koX PVKrbs rod AtaPTOS 
dpdaaPTOs. deoO oZp tjp t6 ravra diaaacpijaai, Kal ^Adrjpds vpoKrjdo/j.ipTj^ rod 
'05y<r(r^wy, 5i6 ^rjai' 

Kal irdXai <pvXa^ ^jSrjp 

T-§ arj irpodufios els 65bp Kvprjyig,. 
Ilepl 8i TOV dapdrov tov AiaPTos dtatpopus laTopifiKacrLP. ot fitp ydp (paatp 
8ti vto TLdpiSos Tpcodels "ijXdep els rds pads alfioppoQpy ol 5e Sti xPT^f^bs 
ibod-q Tpual TrrjXbp Kar' avTOV ^aXeip' <nd'/ip(j} yap oiK tjp TpwTos' Kal ovtco 
TcXevTq.. ol dk Sti aiTox^tp airrov yiyopep, Cop icxTi Kal So^okX^s. irepl Si 
TTJs TrXevpds, 8ti fiovTjp a&rrjp Tpwrrjp etxep, IffTopet Kal Tlipdapos, 8ti rd 
fih aufxa, Srrep iKoXv^ep i] Xeoprrj, drpuTOP tjp, t6 5k fir] KaXv<p6kp TpotjTbp 


^^^^' I played by the Protagonist, 
Teucer, \ ^ ^ ^ 

Odysseus, ^ ^ ^^^ Deuteragonist. 

Tecmessa, S ^ ^ 

Athene, \ 

Menelaus, I ,^ , , ^,^g Tritagonut. 

Agamemnon, ^ 

Messenger, > 

Chorus of Salaminian Sailors, 

Structure of the Play. 

I. irpoXcyos, vv. i — 133. ^ <» ^^-J^--"^--^*^ 

1, irapoSoS) vv. 134— -200. 

3. cireio-oStov irpwrov, vv. 201 — 595. 

4. oTTdo-ijAov irpwTOV, vv. 596 — 64K. 
c;, |ir€io-68iov 8cvT€pov, vv. 646— 692 . 

6. (rrao-ijiov 8evT£pov, vv. 693 — 718. 

7. liretcrdSiov rpCrov, vv. 719 — 1184. 

8. crrdcrinov rpirov, vv. 1185 — 1222. 

9. ^|o8os, vv. 1223 — end. 

*!. visX'>MU^ 



'AEI ^evy CO iral Aaprlov, BeSopKci ae 
irelpdv Tvv e-^Opwv apirdaai dr^pwixevov' 

I — 133. This passage forms the 
irpbXoyos, i. e. fjL^pos 8\ov TpaycpSias 
Td vpb x^pov irapdSov, ** all that part 
of a tragedy which precedes the first 
entrance of the chorus. " ( Arist. Foef. 
XII. 25.) 

Scene — the station of the Greek ships 
on the coast of the Troad, between 
Cape Sigeicm and Cape Rhoeteum. The 
back-scene {<TKr]vrj) represents the sea- 
side huts {^(paXoi KXiaiac, v. 192) of 
Ajax and his Salaminian followers. 
Odysseus is seen pausing before the 
tents^ and scanning marks upon the 
ground. Athene appears above the 
stage {on the deoXoyeiof). i — 88. — 
Ath. Ever thus, son of Laertes, I 
find thee busy on the track of thy 
foes ; and thy keen instindl has not 
failed thee here. Ajax has but now 
gone within, — the sweat streaming 
from his face, and from hands red 
with slaughter. Seek, then, no fur- 
ther, but tell me the motive of thy 
quest. — Od. Divine protecflress, 
clear- speaking even when dimly 
seen, I seek Ajax, on suspicion of 
a strange crime. This morning the 
herds, our spoil, were found butch- 
ered ; and one who had seen Ajax 
rushing over the plain with a reek- 
ing sword, put me on his track. 
Some of these footprints are his, but 
some baffle me ; and welcome is thy 
aid. — Ath. Know that Ajax has in- 
deed done this thing, purposing to 
take the lives of the Greek chiefs. 

He went forth by night alone — 
already he was at the quarters of 
the Atreidae — when I smote him 
with madness, and turned his rage 
against the flocks and herds. Part 
he slew : part he led captive to his 
tent, and is now tormenting the ani- 
mals like human foes. Behold, I 
will shew thee the man whom I have 
stricken, that thou mayest tell it 
abroad among the Greeks. — Od. 
Athene, spare to call him forth. — 
Ath. Fear not, he shall not see thee. 

I — 3 del \iiv. . . Kttl vuv.] Schneide- 
win quotes Lucian, Dial. Jlfort. viii. 
r, TrdXat ix^v rb t^s 'IvoOj Taidlov iirl 
rbv 'ladfibv iKOfxlaare, Kai vvv <n> 
rbv Ktdapcpdbv dvaXa^Cbv i^ev-^^u. 

I AaprCov.] In Homer, Aaiprrjs, 
The contradled form of Aa^prtos is 
used by Sophocles four times, here, 
v. 380 ; Phil. 401, and 1286 ; and by 
Eur. 7ro, 421. In Latin, Laertes 
is the proper name, Laertius the ad- 
je6live: Plaut. Bacch. IV. 9. 22, 
Ulixes Lartius (so Bothe, for Laer- 
tius). Priscian says however (vii. 7), 
Laertius pro Laertes dicebant, quo- 
modo et Graeci. The later gramma- 
rians wrote Adprtoj: and the coronis, 
though ' antiquioribus ignota,' has 
been retained by Lobeck, ' ne vete- 
ris scripturae memoria penitus exo- 

^ ir€ipav...9Tjp»n6vov.] * Seeking 
to snatch some occasion agfeinst thy 
foes,' i.e. watching eagerly and wari- 


Kal vvv hrl aKrjvah (re vavTLKal^ opoi 

A.lavTo<;, evda tcl^lv ea")(ar'r}v €%6t, 

TTokat KvvTjyerovvra Kal fjierpov/ievov 

iX^V "^^ Kelvov veoyapay& ^ ottw'^ thrj<; 

elr evhov elr ovjc evBov. €v Be a eKcj^epei •- i>»\^ '^ 


ly for any oversight on their part 
which may enable you to attack 
them at an advantage, irecpd res 
€xOpCov= 'some means of attacking 
enemies :' cf. v. 290, ri T-qvd' dcpop- 
fjL^s irelpav ; ' why preparest thou 
this attack (upon the Trojans) ?' For 
the genitive, cf. Diod. Sic, xiv. 80, 
iTrldecris tuv iroXe/jiiuv. Lobeck pre- 

, fers to understand irdpdv tlv' kyhpC^v 
dpTrdaai as meaning *quicquid ho- 
stes machinentur, praeripere,' 'to 
forestall each new stratagem of thy 
foes,' comparing Plat. J^ep. p. 334 A, 
ra Tuv TToXe/xiojp kX^^ul ^ovXerj/xara. 
But (i) it seems very doubtful whe- 
ther apirdaai could mean ^praeripe- 
re,' 'to anticipate,' to 'forestall.' 
(2) Teipd Tis ex^p^v, as Lobeck ad- 
mits, is an awkward substitute for 
S,Tt drjiroTe ol ix^pol TreipQurai. 
6t]P(u|i.€vov.] With the infinitive : 

( cf. Eur. Helen. 63, ^37/351 'yapi.dv fxe. 
It is unnecessary to suppose such a 
constru6lion as drfpdoixevov ireipav, 
(wad') dpirdaai {avTi)v.) 

3 (rKTivais...vavTiKais.]'The quar- 
ters of Ajax beside the ships.' aK-rivr] 
here = K\t(7/a, the Homeric wooden 

hut: //. XXIV. 449, {k\i<7'l7}) T7]V Mup- 

fii86v€s TToirjaav dvcLKTL, | hovp iXdTT}s 
K^paavres. <XK7)vai is probably the 
poetical plural for the singular, like 
jcXt(r/at for /cXtcria, //. XV. 478, XXIII. 

4 4<rx.dTi]v.] 'At the camp's ut- 
most verge.' Homer describes the 
Greek camp as formed semicircular- 
ly on the beach of a small bay, — 
Odysseus being stationed at the mid- 
point, 'that he might be heard in 
both diredlions, — to the tent of Ajax 
the son of Telamon, and to the tent 
of Achilles too ; for they it was who 
hauled up their even ships at the 
horns of the crescent, trusting to 

their valour and to the might of 
their hands.' (//. xi. 8 seg^.) 

5 KvvTj-yeTOvvTa.] ' Pausing on the 
trail,' — examining the ground with 
a hunter's skill and caution. 

(lerpoujJLevov.] 'Measuring (with 
the eyes),' i.e. scrutinizing, scanning 
closely. Schneidewin in his Criti- 
cal Appendix proposes to read tck- 
/j-apoOfievov | etr Ivdov, k.t. X., omit- 
ting V. 6 altogether. He contends 
that ixerpovixtvov could refer only to 
literal measurement, with a view to 
determining the shape and size of 
the footprints ; whereas Odysseus is 
merely examining their diredion. 
But the general notion of accurate 
comparison involved in /xeTpeiad at 
seems to justify its use here. Odys- 
seus is endeavouring, by a close 
scrutiny, to disentangle the line of 
tra^s leading towards the tent from 
the line of tracks leading away from 

6 veoxctpaKTa.] In the sandy soil 
around the ^0aXoi KXiaiai (v. 191). 
Ajax had sallied from his tent in the 
preceding night, and had returned 
before daybreak. The traces of his 
departure and of his return would 
alike be 'recent.' The question for 
Odysseus was, which were the more 

7 ilr gvSov dr ovk 'ivSov.] '(To 
find) whether he is within or absent.' 
In the second clause of an indirect 
question, either ov or yu^ may be 
used ; but they convey different 
shades of meaning : e.^. (i) CKoirQ- 
/nev el Trp4ir€t rj fi-q, ' let us consider 
the question of (this thing's) fitness,' 
— where the notion of abstradl dis- 
cussion is uppermost. (2) (xkottGi- 
fiev el trpiirei ij oH, 'let us consider 
whether it is fit or unfit,' — expres- 
sing inipatience to arrive at one dis- 

15] • AIM 

Kvucy; AaKalvTjg w? rt? evpuvo^ jSaaL^. 
evBov yap dvrjp apro TUY^ai^et, xdpa 
aTa^wv IBpwTC Kol %e/3a9 ^LCpoKTOvov^;. 
KUL cr ovh\v elaco rrjaSe iraiTTalveLv 7rvXr)<i 
€T epyov €<7tIvj evveireLV S' otov %apti/ 
aTTOvBrjv eOov Tr}vh\ oj? irap elSvla<; fjLd9rj<;. 

w <j)deyfjL ^Xddva<i (^tXTarr)^ ifiol Oewv^ 
w? evfiaOh crou, kclv aTTOTTTO^ ^9 o/xa)9, 



tindl, practical result, to the exclu- 
sion of the other. The difference 
is well illustrated by a passage of 
Antipho, decaed. Her. p. 131, 14 : ov 
Set vii.d.% iK tQv tov KaTrjySpov \6yojv 
roi>s p6/jlovs KarafxavdapeLv, el /caXws 
Kelvrai rj firj, dXX' iK tuv vbixojv roi/s 
TOV KaTTjydpov "Kdyovs, ei dpdus Kal 
vofxi/xu}^ vfxas SiSdaKovai to Trpay/xa 
7} oij : i. e. the prosecutor's speech 
should not lead you into an abstradl 
speculation on the theory of the 
laws: rather, the laws should indi- 
cate a practical conclusion as to the 
value of the prosecutor's arguments. 

€v %i 0-* €K(|>^p€t, K. T. X.] *And 
well doth it guide thee to his lair, 
thy course keen-scenting as a Spar- 
tan hound's.' iK(p^p€L, 'brings you 
out,' 'brings you safe through all 
difficulties to your goal.' Cf. Plato 
Phaedo p. (>(i B, Kivhvvtiei tol (JUairep 
irpaTos Tis iK<f>ipeiv ijfxas /xera tov 
\6yov iu Trj cKirpei, i. e. ' extricate 

8 AttKaCviis.] Pindar {frag. 73), 
in enumerating the specialties of 
various places, praises Scyros for its 
goats — Argosfor its shields — Thebes 
for its chariots — Sicily for its mule- 
cars — and Taygetus for its dogs: Act- 
KaLvav iirl drjpcl Kiva Tpex^i^v ttvki- 
vdjTaTov epirerSp. Cf. Hor. Epod. 6. 
5, aut Moloss7is atit fulvus Laco : 
Shakespeare Mids. Nighfs Dream 
IV. I, My hoimds are bred out of the 
Spartan kind... A cry more tunable 
Was fiever holla' d to 7ior cheered with 
horn In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thes- 
saly. The Laconian dogs seem to 

have been of a small breed {catulos, 
Virg. G. III. 405 : Kwidia, Arist. 
B. A. V. 2). 

6vpivos.] A nominative more pro- 
bably than a genitive. Cf. Eur. 
H.F. 450, ypaiai baauv -inriyai : Bacch. 


9TV7Xo^v€i.] Sc. Jv. Cf. ^/. 313, 
vvv 3' dypoLfft Tvyxo-vei.: Eur. Andr. 
116, Tvyxdvei 8' ev ifxinjpois. 

11 iraiTTa^veiv.] 'To urge thy 
wary quest,' — efcrw combining with 
iraiTTaiveip to give the notion of a 
timorous advance, Cf. Pind. P. III. 
37, 6s rts alax^fuv iir^X'^pia irairrai- 
pei TO. irSpau. 

12 84] = dXXci. Thuc. IV. 86, ovk 
iiri KaK(^, iif eXevdepuaei. 5^. 

15 <6s.] Exclamatory, 'how plain- 
ly...!' &c.; not 'since.' 

kSlv airoTTTOs "QS.] 'Though 
thy form be distant,' — though thou 
be seen (only) afar off. Cf. Phil. 

467, irXoUV fMI] '^ aTTOTTTOV fidWOP ^ 

'yydOcp aKoireip, 'not afar off, but 
beside the waves, must we watch 
the hour to sail.' Lobeck quotes 
Aristotle, Plutarch, &;c., for dTroTrroj 
in the sense of 'discernible/ 'seen 
in the distance.' But in such pas- 
sages the notion uppermost is not 
that of the objedl being distant, but 
of its being seen. Here the sense 
required is not — 'though thou art 
discernible,' but — 'though thou art 
barely discernible.' The passage in 
the Philodletes, where i^ dvbvTov is 
opposed to iyyidep, seems more to 
the point. The objedlions to ren- 
dering dTTOTTTos * unseen,' appear 

8 S0<I>pKAE0T2 

^(ovrjfi CLKOVO) KOL ^vvapird^co <f>pevv 
^aTucoarofiov K(tiB<ovo<; C09 Tvpa-r)vcKrj^, 
Kol vvv iireyvo)^ ev fi eV dvBpl Zvap^evel 
jBdacv kvkXovvTj Acavrt toJ aaKca^opo). 


strong. That the drama should 
have been opened by an invisible 
speaker would have been singular 
enough ; though this objedlion is 
not, perhaps, insuperable. But as 
the colloquy between Athene and 
Odysseus became more familiar and 
more animated, — especially in the 
stichomuthia just before Ajax ap- 
pears, when Odysseus exclaims, ri 
Spqii, 'A6dva; and she replies, oi) 
ff7y' avi^ei, k. t. X., — a mere voice 
could scarcely have sustained the 
vivid personality of the goddess. 
Again, the scene with Ajax would 
lose much of its dramatic force, 
if Athene were not present to the 
eyes of the spedlators, — first gazing 
on her vidlim, while the depths of 
his mental ruin are lit up by her 
irony, — then turning in more be- 
nignant majesty to point the moral 
for her favourite. The voice of an 
unseen god, startling mortals with a 
sudden warning or assurance, might 
well be a solemn incident. But if 
such a voice had to sustain a pro- 
minent part in a passage of some 
length, including a brisk dialogue 
and varying dramatic situations, the 
effedl must at last have become 
ludicrous. Schneidewin, rendering 
dwroTrros 'unseen,' quotes //. ii. 172 
seqq.^ Eur. /. T. 1447, as instances 
of a deity speaking but remaining 
unseen. On the other hand, in 
each of the following passages there 
is a distin(5l intimation that the 
divine personage appeared as well 
as spoke: (i) Philodletes, 1412 (Hera- 
cles to Philo(fletes) : (2) Ion, 1549 
(Athene to Ion): (3) Andromache 
1227 (Thetis to Peleus) : (4) Eur. 
Eledra, 1233 (the Dioscori to Ores- 
tes): (5) Hippolytus, 1440 (Artemis 
to Hippolytus). The words, ^O voice 
of Athene, ' prove nothing. In some 

passages where it is evident that 
the divinity was visibly present, 
the divine * voice ' or * divine fra- 
grance ' is prominently mentioned : 
see Eur. Hipp. v. 1391 compared 
with V. 1440 : Eur. El. v. 1292 com- 
pared with V. 1233: and cf. Soph. 
El. 1225: Fhil. 234, 141 1. 

i6|wap'n-atc«)<|>p€vi.] 'The instant 
that thy voice thrills upon my ear, 
I apprehend in spirit that the voice 
is thine, even before my eyes can be 
sure that the silver cloud above me 
does not float around some other 

17 K(u8b)vos.] Schol. adloc. : ij kw- 
S(i}p 6tj\vku)$ 'Arrt/cws* Kihhwv hk Ka- 
XeiToi t6 irXari) t^s adXirvyyos. The 
word is masculine in Thuc. , Strabo, 
Plutarch: feminine in Arist. deSens. 
VI. 446, 22 (ed. Bekker). 

Tvp(rTiviKT]s.] 'Tyrrhenian' was 
a standing epithet of the trumpet, of 
which the invention was ascribed 
to the Etruscans, — celebrated from 
early times as workers in bronze. 
Cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 526, Tyrrhe- 
nusque tubae mugire per aethera 
clangor: Eur. Phoen. 1377: Aesch. 

18 Ktti vvv.] Cf. vv. 1 — 3. This 
exordium has a certain Homeric 
symmetry with Athene's. As Athene 
had said, de2 ixkv S^dopKd <re...Kal 
vvv 6/)w, so Odysseus replies, dei 
fikv edfiadTjs el ... Kai vvv iiriyviaSy 
K. T. X. 

19 pdo-iv KVKXovvra, k.t.X.] ultra 
citroque obeuntem, ' doubling and re- 
doubling' on a foeman's trail. Cf. 
Eur. Or. 632, iro? ahv 7r65' knl aw- 
voif kvkXcls, I dnrXrjs fJi€pL/j.vr]s StTrriJ- 
Xovs iCjv 65oi/s ; 

(raKe<r({>6p(p. ] //. vii. 219, Afaj S' 
^77i;^e;' TJXde, <f)ipwv adKos: rjvTe irvp- 
yov, — the shield covered with seven 
layers of ox-hide and an eighth of 

27] AIA2:. 

Kelvov yap, ovBev aXKov, l')(yev(ti iraXaL, 
vvkt6<; yap r}iMa<; rrjcrBe irpdyo^ aaKoirov 
€^((£1 irepdva^^ eXirep eipyaaraL rahe' 
lafiev yap ovBev rpave^^ aX\' aXcofieda* 
Kayco ^6e\ovTrj<; toJS' VTre^vyrjv irovto, 
€<l>6apfM€va<; yap dpTLCi}<^ evplaKOfiev 
Xeia? dirdaa'; koI KaT7}vapi<r/jieva<; 
e/c ;^€tj009 avTOL<i irocp^vicov iinarTdTaL^, 




metal, — one of the marks which dis- 
tinguished him from Ajax son of 
Oileus, 'OlXtjos raxvs A fas. The 
imposing epithet caKea-cpSpos under 
which Ajax is here announced leads 
up to an effe(flive contrast at v. 91, 
when Ajax adlually appears, not as 
o-o/fe(T06pos, but as fiaaTiyo(p6pos, — 
no longer bearing the shield which 
was 'as a tower' against foemen, — 
bearing only a lash red with the 
blood of cattle. 

21 aoTKOTTov.] ' Inexplicable:' since 
it was difficult to conceive what could 
have been the motive of such an on- 
slaught (cf. V. 40). Athene presently 
explains (v. 43) that Ajax believed 
himself to be slaying the Greek chiefs. 

22 ctpYaoTai.] The form dpr^o.- 
cfiai has always an adlive sense in 
Sophocles: see O. 7". 279, 347; O. C. 
825; 7rac/i. 748; FM. 11 72; Ant. 
294. Cf. ^v/XTT^ippaa-fxac, Ant. 363 ; El. 54; y^ypap-fiaL, Dem. Mid. 
p. 557; TrapeaKe6a(,Xen.Cyr.\U. 
3. 14; dediKaafiai, Dem. Fantaen. p. 
g6'j, etc. 

23 rpa.vh] = T0p6y {rpdcj*, TLrpai- 
vu). The adjedlive is not extant 
elsewhere: the adverb rpavuis occurs 
twice in Aeschylus {Ag. 1 3, £um. 45), 
and in Eur, E/. 758. 

dXcSfieOa.] *We vaguely doubt.' 
So far, the only evidence against 
Ajax was the fao: that he had been 
seen hurrying alone over the plain of 
the Scamander with a reeking sword. 
Odysseus had accepted the task 
{■rrdvos, v. 24) of following as detec- 
tive in his track, and endeavouring 
to colledl evidence which should 

prove or disprove the surmise. 

24 *06XovTi]s.] Elmsley contends 
for OeXovT-^s instead of ideXovri/js. 
It is true that deXw, and not iOiXw, 
is always found in senarii ; but this 
proves nothing for derivatives. iOe- 
XovTiqi is supported by the analogy 
of ideXrjfxdi, ideX-fifiuiv, iOeXovri, &c. ; 
and, as Lobeck observes, * deX-^ficou, 
OeXrjrdi, deXex6p6s partim Atticis in- 
sueta sunt, partim Graecis in univer- 
sum.' He adds that diXeos in Aesch. 
Suppl. 841 (^Aeos a.diXto% — nolens 
volens) is a solitary exception, — the 
formula having probably been ex- 
temporised * oppositionis causa,' — 
for the sake of the antithesis. 

25 4({>6ap|X^vas...Kal KaTT|vapio-(ii- 
vas, K.T.X.] 'Dead, — yea, slaughtered 
with the hand, '...with the hand of a 
close- attacking enemy, — not by the 
stroke of pestilence from the high 
gods. The general term i<l>dapixiva% 
required further explanation; KaT7]va- 
pKTfihai is therefore added, — a word 
suggestive of deadly agency at close 
quarters^ — hapl^w properly meaning 
to strip a fallen foe. And to clench 
the force of KaTTjpapiafi^vaSy the 
words iK x^i-P^^ ^.re superadded, — 
deriving additional emphasis from 
their position at the beginning of the 

^ap.] Referring back to irpdyoi 
&aKoirop, V. 21. From ef7re/> cipyu' 
crai to irduq} is a parenthesis. 

27 Ik X*''P*^*] 'With the hand' 
(of man), — not by the agency of the 
gods, working in the stroke of light- 
ning or of pestilence, — not by the 
onset of fierce beasts. The phrase 


rr]vh^ ovv iKeivcp ira^ tl^ alrlav vifiec. 
Kai fiOL Tt9 oTTTTJp avTOv elaihuiv /jlovop 
TTTj^vra TreBia avv veoppcivrw ^Icpei 
(f>pd^€C T€ KaB^Xcoa-ep' et^ew? 8' iyco 
Kar t^i^o? aaaco, koI rd fiev cnj/juaLvofiai, 
rd B' eKireTrXrjy/jLac, kovk exoy fjLaOelu otov. 


e/c xetp6$ had also the technical mili- 
tary sense of comimis, *at close quar- 
ters:' see Xen. Hellen. vii. 2. 14, 
iv^^oKov Kai iK X'^'-P^^ e/xdxoPTO. But 
the technical sense appears less suit- 
able here. The marvel was not that 
the destroyer of the cattle had pre- 
ferred a sword to javelins or arrows. 
The marvel was that the destroyer 
should have been, not a god or a 
beast, but a man. 

■28 TTJvS* ovv.] 'Now, this crime 
all voices impute to him.' Odysseus 
has diverged into detail : odu serves 
to resume the thread of his state- 
ment. 'A crime has been commit- 
ted under such and such circumstan- 
ces... Well {odp), Ajax is the person 
suspecTted. ' The particles 5' odv are 
frequently used in the more strongly 
marked sense of ' however,' when a 
narrative is resumed after a paren- 
thesis or a discussion: e. ^. Her. vi. 
76; Thuc. II. 5; Aesch. 4^. 34, 217, 

29 dimjp.] One of the scouts 
posted at commanding points {(tko- 
TTial) on the slopes of Ida, to give 
notice of any sudden movement on 
the part of the Trojans. 

30 -jT^Bavra ireSia.] After his 
onslaught Ajax led back the sur- 
viving cattle to his tent (v. 62) ; and 
did not again leave it — except to 
speak with Athene — till he had re- 
gained his senses (vv. 296— 306). It 
must have been then, in a pause be- 
tween his onslaught and his return, 
that he was observed ' bounding 
alone over the plain with a reek- 
ing sword.' iredla, cognate accusa- 
tive, descriptive of the ground tra- 
versed: cf. Aesch. F. V. 725, ardx! 
di'r]p6Tovs yvas : Eur. Helen. 1 1 r8, 5? 

idpafxe podia : Callimachus hymn. 
Dian. 194, icpoira \ iraiiraXa /ecu 


31 ^pdlii T€ KdS-rjXwo-cv.] 'In- 
formed and instrudled me:' ^pd^ei, 
comes breathless to tell me that he 
has seen Ajax : iSriXioae, set forth 
the whole matter — described the 
reeking sword, — the wild haste of 
Ajax, — the point from which he 
came, — the dire6lion in which he 
was moving. — (ppdi^ei — iSi^Xucrev — 
q.(j<X(3}. The transition from the his- 
toric present to the aorist is often 
abrupt. See Track. 359 — 365, tivLk' 
ovK kveide — €Tri(XTpaTe6ei — /creiVft re 
— Kai 'iircpae. 

32 TO. H6V...0T0V.] rd fxiv...Ta o^ : 
sc. tx^V : ' sometimes I assure myself 
of the traces, — by some I am con- 
founded, and cannot tell whose they 
are. ' The strong word iKir^irXrjyfiai 
expresses his perplexity and astonish- 
ment at finding, mingled with human 
footprints, the confused and irregular 
tracks of the oxen and sheep which 
Ajax had brought home as prisoners 
to his tent. Tied together (vv. 6^, 
294) and driven or dragged by their 
frenzied captor, the animals might 
well have left puzzling tracks. 

(rT](JLakvo|j,ai.] As (nj/Maivca ti tiul 
= 'I indicate something to another,' 
a-rjfjialvofJial rt = * I indicate something 
to myself,' — assure myself of it by 
indications which I have observed. 
Compare TeK/xaipofiai. In this sense 
the rare middle ari/iaivofiaL may have 
been a technical term in hunting. 
See Oppiau Cyneg. i. 453, /xv^coTTjp- 
(XL K^es vavlxvca (TrdvT fx"'**-) <^V' 
fXTjuavTo, ' with noses down the dogs 
puzzled out the scent.' 

33 OTOV.] Schneidewin liirov (sc. 

39] AIAS. 

Kaipov 3' 6(f>riK6C^* iravTa yap rd r ovu irdpo^ 

TO. T elaiireLTa afj KvjSeppcofiai, %6p/. 

eyveov, ^OSvcrcrev, koX iraT^at (f)yXa^ c/Stju 
rrj arj irpoOvfjiOf; et? oSbu Kwayia. 

Tj Koi, ^l\rf SetTTTOLva, tt/jo? Kaipov ttovw ; 

c^9 ecTTiv dvBpb<; rovBe rdpya ravrd aoc. 



iffrl tA XotTTo, tQu ixvCjv), v/ith four 
MSS. and Suidas. brov, as explain- 
ed above, seems preferable. 

34 Kaipov 8' l(]>T]K€is.] 'And in 
season hast thou succoured.' Kaipbv 
for the more usual es Kaipov, — a sort 
of cognate accusative, — a bolder 
form of Kaipiav ddbu -^kcis. Cf. v. 
13 16: Eur. Heleji. 479, Kaiphv 701/3 
Gi)Mv TJXde^: Ar. AcAarn. 23, dw- 
p^ttf iJKovTes. 

irdvTa -ydp, rd t oiJv irdpos, 
K.T.X.] ' For in all things, — in the 
past as for the future, — I am guided 
by thy hand.' It would be difficult 
to find any special English equiva- 
lent for ovv which would not be 
cumbrous. The exadl meaning of 
the particle in this place seems to 
be, *m short.'' 'In all things, — 
things past, in short, as well as 
things future.' Compare oortsow, 
OTTwsoOi', &c., 'whoever, however, 
after all {ovv)'.'' and the phrase eiVe 
...(.tr' ovv. 

36 2'Yv«v...Kvva7£q,.] *I was 
aware' (of thy setting out,) 'and long 
since took my post upon the route 
(i^r\v els 656v), a watcher friendly to 
thy chase' — like the 0iJXa/ces who, 
when large game was driven, were 
stationed about to see which way it 
went. ^^r]v ets 656v appears to mean, 
* came into the path', — 'placed my- 
self on the route by which I knew 
that the oh']e6i of your chase would 
pass', — Athene having, in facft, 
watched Ajax into his tent (v. y). 

^^Tjv ets 686v could scarcely mean 
' went upon my errand'. 

37 irpoGvjjLos.] ' Friendly,' with 
a dative of the objedl. Cf. Xen. 
Hellen. II. 3. 40, ol Trp6dvfJi.0L rrj to- 
Xei yeyevrifiivoL. 

KvvayCt^. ] The Doric forms kvv- 
ay6$, Xoxci7<5s, iro8ay6i, ^€»'a76s, 
6ira56s are finnly established in At- 
tic. But the MSS. vary between 
Kwr^y^TTji, Kwayirris, — Kvvrjyla, kv- 
vayia. In Eur. Hec. 11 74 Porson 
left KvvrjyiT7j$, adducing the analogy 
of 'Addva, 'Xdfjvala. Lobeck, who 
reads Kw-qyla here, observes that in 
Eur. Hipp. 109 the MSS. agree 
upon KvvaylaLs, but in Bacch. 339 
upon Kwryyiais. 

38 tJ Kal.] 'Dare I hope, sweet 
queen, that I toil to purpose?' — 17 
Kai, 'ca7t it be'' that I am right? 
The formula ri Kal asks a question 
with surprise : here, it expresses 
tremulous excitement and joy. Cf. 
Aesch. Enm. 402, r\ Kal Toiairas 
T455' iircppoi^eTs <pvyds, * can it be 
that thou shrillest a doom so dread 
on this man's track?': Soph. £1. 


39 «s.] 'Know that in Ajax 
thou hast the doer of these deeds.' 
ws is sometimes used with an ellipse 
of IcrdL, ('be sure that,') in giving a 
peremptory ultimatum or a decisive 
assurance. See Eur. Phoeyt. 1662 — 
1664. Antigone is pleading with 
Creon for the burial of Polynices. 
Creon. 'The gods rule it other- 



Kal 7r/309 TL SvaXoyta-Tov wB' fj^ev X^P^'i 

p^oXo) fiapvvdeU rwv ^A^iWelcov oirXcov. 

^ tI Brjra Trolfivav<; ttjvB* iirefiTTLTTTei ^d<ri,v; 

BoKoov iv vfilv %et/?a -^^paLveadac (povo). 


wise.' — AnL 'The gods rule that 
we insult not the dead.' — Creon. a;s 
oi^Ttj d/i0i reps' vypav di^crei k6vip — 
*Know that...' where wj marks the 
dernier mot of the dispute. — Eur. 
Hec. 400, (is T^crS' ^yioye irai56s 06 

40 Kal irpos rC.'q^iv xipa;] 
*And wherefore thus darted he his 
senseless hand ?' — ataa-eiv is distincflly 
transitive in Eur. Or. 14 16, aifpav 
. . . k6k\(j} TTTepbcj}. . . atcrcruv, ' agitating 
the air with a round fan': and ap- 
parently in Eur. Bacch. 145, 6 Ba/c- 
Xej)s 8' ^xwi/ 0X670... ^/c vdpdyjKos 
dtcraet. Porson (aa^ (9n 1 42 7) quotes 
the passive atcrcrofiaL from Soph. 
6?. C 1261. But it may be ques- 
tioned whether alWerat in that place 
{KdfXT] Si aSpas atcraerat) is not rather 
one of those middle forms so much 
used by Aesch. and Soph., e. g. 
6py\v€t.aQb.i (Aesch. P. V. 43), k^av- 
ha.aBa.1. {Cho. 144), <r7rei/5eo-^ai {Etim. 
339), criveadai {Pers. 62), irpoaopa- 
ffdai (Soph. O. C. 244), ia-opdadaL 
{El. 1059). Porson loc. cit. com- 
pares at(T(T€iv X^P^ with ^aiveiv irdda 
(Eur. £1. 94 etc.), irdSa iTrq.(Taei.v, 
Hec. 1070. In the case of iirq.aa-eiv, 
as in dva^alveiv, iiri^aiueiv, the pre- 
position has to do with the transi- 
tive force. The case of ^aivetv irdda 
is discussed by Lobeck. He thus 
modifies Person's rule that ' verbs of 
motion regularly take an accusative 
of the instrument or member chiefly 
used'; — * To verbs denoting motion 

of the body may be added a dative 
or accusative of the part of the body 
in motion '. In ^alveiv (/cara) 7r65a, 
Xaiueiv (KaTo) (rrbfia, the verb is not 
really transitive. But in ataaeiv 
X^po-, the verb is truly transitive. 
ataauv belongs to a class of verbs 
which combine a trans, and intrans. 
sense : e.g. \'q9o} (to forget, or make 
to forget) : Trr'qcraw (to quail or 
scare), &c. In the case of aiaaeiu, 
the ambiguity is traceable to the 
root aw, from which come verbs 
and nouns of breathings blowing, 
flaming^ 8iQ.....e. g. aiduaa-u, irai- 
0dcr<raj, (both either trans, or in- 
trans.), — adpa, drip, atyXt], a.vyi\, — 
the idea of rapid vibration under- 
lying all these words. 

41 x.6\<j»...o'irX«v.] 'Anger touch- 
ing the arms'. Qi.Phil. 327, -riva 
. . . x^^op Kar avrCov iyKaXQu.. . ; Track. 
268, cSj* ix^^ X'^^^^i K.T.}\.: Thuc. ■ 
I. 140, t6 TU3V M-eydpeuv ^p'^cpiafia^ 

' the decree touching the Megarians'. 
Madv. Synt. § 48. 

42 Ttjv8€...pd<riv.] 'With such an 
onslaught'. So Track. 339, roxi fxe 
TT^vd^ icplaraaat. ^daiv, 'why dost 
thou approach me with such eager 

43 €V.] Havoc ^ ajnong^ — death 
inflidled ^upon^ you. Cf. v. 366, 
kv d(f)6^oi'i fie drjpal Seivov X^P^-^y 
' fierce-handed zi{/(?« cattle': v. 1092, 
iv dapovaiv v^pLcrTTjs : v. 1315, ej* i/xol 

SI] AIA2. 13 


1 y ■> 

ij Koi TO jSovXevfi <U9 iir 'A/yyetoi? toB* tjv; 

Kav i^ETTpa^ev, el KaTrifieXr^cr ijco, 45 

m-oiaKn T6\fiai<; raiaBe koI (fypevoov 6pa<r€t> ; 

vvKTcop i<l> vjia^s 86A.t09 opfidrac im6vo<;. 

17 KoX TrapecTTTj Kairl rep/jU a(j>LK6T0 ; 

KOI Brj VI hia-(TaL<s rjv cTTparrjyiaLV irvKai^;, 

Ka\ 7rco<; i'ire(T')(e ^etpa /xaL/xwa-av (f>6pov; 50 


5 » V 

iy(o acj) aTrelpycOy Bvcr^opov^i iir o/nfjuaai 

44 ■?[ KaL] Cf. V. 38, Jioife. side at the (TTpar-fiyLov {praetorium) 

1ws€'n-**Ap"y€tois.] 'Can this plot or head-quarters (v. 721) in mid- 
have been, in its first intention (ws), camp. 
a. plot against the Greeks?' /. e. 50 (laincSo-av. ] 'tingling': ges- 
*Can this plot have been aimed tientem. — 06j'ou evidently depends 
against the Greeks?' The mischief on iiriax^'- but Apollon. Rhod. ir. 
fe/I upon the herds; but it was us 269, has /xaifi^v idrjTvos. — Schol., 
iir' 'ApyeLois, since Ajax meant to ypd<p€Tai Kal dixl/Qaav. Ct frag. 
kill the Greeks, and believed him- adesp. ap. Athen. x. 433, tax^tv ks- 
self tO' be doing so. Xe«/w X"/^** 5i\pQ(rav (pdvov. 

45 Kclv iiiirpaJ^iv.] 'You ask if 51 €7(0.] Here, as at vv. 69, 85, 
he //^/te/ this against you? He had the emphatic pronoun conveys a 
e'en ai3«^ it, if my care had slept.' lofty assertion of divine power. 

46 iroCaio-k T6\)j.ais, k.t.X.] Sc. Translate : * I, even I, withheld 
ffieWev iKirpd^eiv. ' And what were him. ' 

his daring schemes, his rash hope?' o"4**'] ^^ Epic and Ionic Greek, 

49 Kal 8tj.] 'Already.' Ar. ^r'. atpe is usually the accus. ////r. (for 

175, HEI. l3\^\pov KaTu. EH. Kal (T(pds) of (r0ets, and has a reflexive 

4^ /SX^TTw, * I am looking.' ~* sense. The Attic poets use <r0c 

8i<r(rais.] The tents of the 5/(r- as accus. sing., — with no reflexive 

crapxai /Sao-iXcij, Agamemnon and meaning, but merely as equivalent 

Menelaus, would stand side by to uvtop, avri^v. 


jvco/JLa^ ^aXovaa Tri<; dvTjKeorrov X^P^^> 
teal 77/309 re iroiiMva^; ixTpiirco cv/jbfjLtKjd re 
Xe/a? oBaara ^ovkoXcov ^povp^/jLara' 
€pO' iaireacov eKeipe iroXvKepcov cjyovov 
kvkXo) pa^L^cov' KuBoKei fjuev ecr^' ore 



8v(r(t>dpovs Yvoiixas, k.t.X.] 'The 
vexing fantasies of his baneful joy,' 
— the illusions caused by the plague 
of madness, under which he believed 
himself to be destroying his foes; 
— dv(x<f>opoi, as pressing upon his 
brain, and goading him to fury ; 
'fantasies of joy,' since they wrapt 
his folly in the semblance of a 

52 dvT)K€(rTOu.] 'Baneful,' This 
epithet often designates states of 
mind which must lead to disastrous 
consequences,^.^, x'^^os (Hom.): 
TTovTjpia, pq,6vfiia (Xen.): avrfKecTOv 
TTvp, ' a baneful glow', said of a rash 
hope, Soph. £/. 888. 

53 irpos T€ TToCiJLvas] = TrpbsiroLfjivai 
re. Cf £/. 249, ^ppoL r civ alddis, 
K.T.X. for ^ppoi cLv aidcos re, k.t.X.: 
Thuc. IV. 10, Tjp ideXwfi^p T€ (letvai 
Kul fXT)...KaTaTrpobovvaL. 

iroffivas.] The flocks of sheep, 
as distinguished from the herds of 
oxen, ^ovk6Xo}v 4>povprjixaTa. Cf. vv. 
62, 297, 375. For woifivas used in 
a general sense, see vv. 42, 300, 
1 06 1. 

(rvp,(iiKTa T6 <f>povp'rj(jLaTa.] 

/. e. o-^fifiLKTa, &8a(XTa Xeias-ippovpi^- 
fiara ^ovKdXwv, the confused, un- 
shared, spoil- charges of the herds- 
men : * the confused droves, our un- 
shared spoil, still guarded by the 
herdsmen'. Lobeck places a comma 
after Xeias, understanding tol a^fi- 
fxiKTa Tri% Xeias. He objedls to the 
double genitive here. If, he says, 
(ppovprj/xaTa denoted the care be- 
stowed by the herdsmen, then Xeias 
might properly denote the object of 
the care: e.g. Thuc. ill. 115, ttj;/ 
ToO AdxV'o^ TWJ' veQv ^PX^^- -^^t 
§ovK, (ppovp. are the herds them- 
selves. Can they be called ^ovk. 
<t>povp, and Xetas (ppovp. in the same 

phrase? Pylades is walSev/xa Ult- 
dius, Eur. £/. 886, and flocks are 
iroi/xivcov poaK-rj/MaTa, Cycl. i8g. On 
the other hand, Tra/Swj' OpifiixaTa, 
Plat. Legg. VII. 789 B: ^oa-K-^/xaTa 
^Ltoo-xw, Eur. Bacch. 677. But could 
we say IlyXdSoi/ Traidev/xa HiTd^ui, 
or iroi/x4vu}u ^oaK-qixaTa /tt6<rxw»'; To 
this query of Lobeck's we may pro- 
bably reply in the affirmative. See 
Soph. jEI. 68 r, 'EWdSoy irpdcrxv/^O' 
dyQpoi, lit. 'the pride of Greece, 
consisting in a festival.' 

54 XcTas.] At V. 26 the term 
Xeia includes both flocks and herds: 
here, it is restridled to the herds. 
Cf. V. 145, /3oTa KalXeiav, 'the flocks 
and the spoil', — i. e. 'the flocks and 
the herds.' For the flocks were 
public property, kept as a common 
stock for the general maintenance. 
But the oxen, used for purposes 
of draught, were to be assigned 
as private property to individuals. 
Hence to the individual Greek the 
herds were 'booty' in a more imme- 
diate sense than the flocks. 

55 2Keip€...<}>6vov.] 'Dealt death 
among the horny throng'. With 
Kdpeiv <p6vov Schneidewin compares 
Eur. Suppl. 1205, p.T] Tpwa-ris <p6vov: 

Soph. O. C. 1400, 65o0 reXos 

difxapfurjOrffiep : Virg. Aen. XI. 82, 
sanguine caeso. 

•iroXvKcpwv.] Cf. Eur. Cycl. 5, 
777761/775 p-dxv'- H. F. 1272, Terpa.- 
(TKeXrjs TToXefxo^. — Accent. In the 
terminations ws and wv of the Attic 
2nd and 3rd declensions, when e im- 
mediately precedes w or is separated 
from it only by a liquid, w is consi- 
dered short, e. g. dvib-yewv, irdXecos, 
0iX67eXws, tXecos. So, also, in the 
Ionic genitive in eu, e. g. 8t€(>}. 

56 Kd86K€i...^X"V.] i. e. koX edS- 
Kei avTox^^P KTHvetv ?X'«"'> ^^'^'- 1^^'-' 

69] AIAS, 

Bc(T(rov<i 'AT/56i3a9 avT6')^€Lp KrelveLv e;^<wi', 
or aXKoT aXKov ifiiriTvcov arparrfkaToov. 
iyw Be <f)OiT(ovr avBpa fiavidatv voaoc^ 
wrpvvov, elcre^aXKov eh epKTj KaKa. 
KaireLT iireiBrj rovK iXcocfiTjaev irovov, 
roix; ^wvra^ av Beafiola-L (TVvBrjaa<; ^owv 
7roifjiva<; re 7rd(Ta<; e? S0//.0U9 /cofii^eraL, 
0)9 dpSpa<;, ov')^^ w? evKeptov a/ypav €')(coVjy 
'Koi vvv Kar olkov^; (ruvBerov^ alKL^erai. 
Bet^co Be Kol aol rrjvBe 7repL(pavj] voaov, 
w? iraaLV ^ApyeloLcriv elaiBoov 6poy<^. 
Oapawv Be fiifjbve fir)Be\^vfi(f>opav Se^ou^ 
rov dvBp' ey(ji) yap ofifidrcov d7ro(rTp6(f30v<; 



6're SiCcrot'S 'Arpeidas, {Icttl de) ore 
{riva) arpQ.TT]\aTU}v, AXXore AXXoj', 

59 4>oiTa»VTa. ] 'Raving.' He- 
sych. s. V. T7]v edpoUav jxaviav (poirou 
^Xeyov: ^'' '^ wandering' was a term 
for settled madness" — (to preserve 
the singularly infelicitous phrase of 
the original). 

voorois.] * The throes of frenzy. ' 
Cf. the plural voa-fifxacri, v. 338 : 
Aesch. P. V. 616, vr}<TTL<xiv aUiats, 
'the cruel paitgs of hunger': Ag. 
704, 'yoL(jTpo% dvdyKacs. 
'- 60 ^pKT] KaKoi.] 'The toils of 
doom'. Cf. Aesch. jPers. 100, <pt- 
\b(Ppwp yap TOTcaalvovaa rb trpCiTov 
Trapdyei ^porbu eh apK^crraT "Ara: 
Ag. 348, rJT iwl iripyoLS ?^aXcs 
CTeyavhv diKTVOV.../j.^ya dovXeias | 
ydyyafiov &tvs rravaXJjTov. — Erd- 
furdt, e's ipLvi>i> KaKrju : Wunder, &p- 
Kvv. Lobeck conj. ^pi.v. 

61 KaireiT* eirciSij.] Such juxta- 
positions, KaKb(f>u}va to us, are com- 
mon in Greek : e. g. ^fiev TJ/j-evot. 
(Eur. /. T. 1399), ?a>s iC^ai {Or. 238), 
i)u 7i;;/7j yhy {Helen. 1 312), and ^70; 
X^yu}, ovTios Sttojs, passim. 

62 Tovs twvTtts a5.] 'The sur- 
vivors in their ttirn\ — which had 
now arrived, though they had hi- 
therto escaped. 

64 «5s dvSpas] = ws d;/^pu)Troi;s. Cf. 

V. 244, oaifjLOjv, KOvSels dvdpQv: 0. T. 
l^^^,ha.lp.t>v()iv SeiKwai rts' ovdeh yap 
dvdpuiv: Ai. 300, yKl^ed^ were ^wtos. 

65 a-vv8€Tovs.] i. e. still bound to 
each other. The tying up of the 
separate vidlims, preparatory to 
punishment, is expressed by Sicr/xios, 
v. 299. 

66 Kal o-oi.] * To thee too,^ — since 
hitherto the frenzy of Ajax had been 
witnessed only by the herdsmen 
whom he slew, and by the watcher 
who had seen him TTT/Stufxa Tredia. 

TTJvSc ircpi(j>avi^ v6(rov.] 'This 
signal frenzy;' cf. v. 81, fiefxrjvdTa 
irepKpavCos. It seems less good to 
make irepicpavrj the predicate after 

67 6po^s.] ^Proclaim'' the impres- 
sive lesson. Cf. dpo€., v. 785, of the 
messenger's alarming news. 

68 (A-qS^ (rv|i(}>opdv, k. t. X.] ' Nor 
regard the man as a terror.' Cf. 
Eur. Or. 138, dXX' kp^ol \ rdvd' i$e- 
yeipai ^v/ji.<popd yevrja-erai, i.e. 'it 
will be ,a perilous matter for me :' 
Her. VI. 86, ot p.kv drj MiXriaioc ^vfi- 
(pop7]U iroievfievoL diraXXdacrouTO, 'so 
they went away aggrieved :^ II. xxr. 
39, ry 5' dp dvwl'aTov KaKbv ijXvOe 
5ios 'AxiXXeOs, ' on him, then, an im- 
looked-for bane, came divine Achil- 

69 lya.1 Cf. v. 51, note. 

i6 S04>OKAEOT2 

avya<; airelp^co arjv nrpoa-oy^iv elacBeip, 
ovTO^, <re TOP ra<; al')(jjLdhxiiTiha<^ %^pa9 
Bea/jLol^ direvOvvovTa irpoa-^oXelv koXw' 
AXavra <f)covoo' arel^e BtofMarcov irdpo^;, 


ov aly dve^eL firjBe BeiXlav dpel^; 



d'iro<rTp6<|>ovs.] Proleptic: *I will 
withhold and avert.' Cf. Aesch. Ag: 
i2s,8,ei5<f>rj/ioy...Koi/M'i](rov ffrdfia, 'hush 
thy lips into silence.' 

70 €l{ri8€iv.] Instead of the more 
usual fj.7j elaideiy. Cf. Plato J^e/>. x. 
p.6o8A,e^Xa)SoiJ/iCj'Oi TdXiu i/jLveasTv : 
Soph. 0. T. 129, KaKhv II voiov... 
€lpy€ TovT i^eidivai ; Phil. 1408, efp|cj 
•rreXdfetv. After Kuikieiv, p.'q is usu- 
ally omitted. Even ^ixiroZuiv elvai. 
and Karix'^Lv occur with the simple 
infinitive. — Madv. Syjtt. § 156. 3. 

71 OVTOS.] O. C. 1627, cJ OXJTOS, 

ovTOi, OtStTTous, rt fi^XXofiev...; Ar. 
Thesm. 6ro, avri] en), -kqI (TTpixpei; 
<r^, t6v...k. t. X.] a. Ant. 442, ah 
dr], ah TT}v veiovaav es irihov Kdpa — | 
017$ ij Karapvet; k.t.X.: El. 1445, ce 
rot., ah KplpUf val ah, ttjv hv ry Trdposj 
XP^fV Opaaeiav: Ai. 1227, ai toi, 
rbv iK Trjs aixi^o-Xwrlbo^ Xeyoj. 

72 8€(r)i.ots aircvBvvovra.] 'Bind- 
ing with cords the back-bent arms 
of thy captives.' dTrevdvveiv x^P°-^j 
'to straighten out the arms,' z. e. to 
tie a person's hands behind his back, 
— the arms being then extended 
downwards. Cf. Hor. Od. iii. 5. 
22, retorta tergo bracchia libera; Eur. 
Andr. 719, cS5', w /cct/cto-Te, t^ctS' e- 

\\}p.i\Vlj) X^P^^'t I /SoO;' 7] XioVT ijXTTl- 

fes iKTelvcLv ^pbxois; 'thoughtest 
thou that 'twas the limbs of lion or 
ox that thou wast straining with this 
cordage?' Ajax fancies himself to 
be tying the hands of human prison- 
ers behind them, when he ties the 
fore-feet of an ox or sheep to its 
hind-feet; cf. v. 299, tovs dh dea/Jil- 

ov$ I -jgd^eT <5aTe 0wraj. The in- 
terior of the tent is not disclosed to 
the spectators till v. 346; but mean- 
while the employment of Ajax is not 
hid from the all-seeing goddess. 

74 — 88. Odysseus naturally dis- 
likes the prospedl of being confront- 
ed with a strong man whom Athene 
herself has just described as labour- 
ing under 'a signal frenzy.* Since 
the recent award of the arms to 
Odysseus, Ajax had hated him (v. 
1 336). What sudden violence might 
not be apprehended from hatred 
working in a disordered brain, and 
supported by the strength of insani- 
ty? Odysseus is no coward. A brave 
man might consistently decline to 
place himself in the power of an in- 
censed maniac. On the other hand 
the reludlance of Odysseus to witness 
his enemy's abasement can scarcely 
be taken — as some critics have taken 
it — for a piece of pure magnanimity. 
It is true that, when Athene suggests 
the sweetness of exulting over the 
fallen, Odysseus replies that he is 
content to forego that pleasure. But, 
as the context intimates, his imme- 
diate motive for self-denial is a sense 
that the luxury is perilous. 

75 ov <ri7a...dp6ts;] ' Peace ! suffer 
not coward fears to rise.' ov /xr]... 
dpeU ; ' will you not not-raise ?' i. e. 
' do not raise :' p.T] negativing the 
notion of the verb, while ov has its 
usual sense of * nonne .?' The for- 
mula 01) p.-i] with fut. indie, — being 
thus interrogative in form, — could 
in stricflness be used only with the 


] AlAt. 

f] 7rpo9 OeooPj aW' evBov dpKetjay fjiivtav, 

rl firj yiurjTac ; irpoaOev ovk dvrjp oS* rjv ; 

e^Opo^ y€ TftJSe rdvBpl koI ravvv en. 

ouKovv yiXox; 7]SiaT0<; 6t9 e^^^/oou? yeXdv; 

eytiot //-ei' dpKel tovtov iv B6fjLoi<; fiivetv. 

fie/JLTjvoT avhpa Trepicfiavco^ oKveh IBetv; 

(jypovovvra yap vlv ovk dv i^eo-rrjv okvw. 



second person of the verb. But in 
pradlice it came to be used also with 
the first or third person, merely to 
convey a strong assertion; e.g. Soph. 
£/. 1052, O. C. 176. 

8€iXCav ctpcis. ] 'Raise your coward- 
ice,* i.e. 'allow your fears to awake, 
to start up.' Cf. O. T. 9 [4, \}y\)ov 
yhp atpei 6v/x6u Oldiirovs dyav : Eur. 
/.A. 1598, ddpaos alpe: Musaeus 
243, &\yos delpeiv. Schneidewin dpei, 
a van lecT;. in one MS. — Mpeadai 5et- 
Xfai' would mean 'to win cowardice,' 
i.e. the name of a coward; cf. Eur. 
I.T. 676, Kol 5eL\iav yap Kal KaKrjv 

76 ^i\ irpos Oewv.] ?^w KaXei. 

77 Tt (JLT^ 'YevTiTai, K. T. X.] ' For 
fear of what ? Was he never a man 
before ?V Athene, endeavouring to 
reassure Odysseus, affe<5ls to ignore 
the difference between Ajax mad 
and^ Ajax sane. 'What are you 
afraid of? Ajax is a strong man, no 
doubt. But have you not been face 
to face with him often enough before 
now ? And was he not a strong man 

then ?' dv^p emphatic, * a man, \ a 
good man and true; cf. 1238, oiJ/c 
S,p'A.xoLiot^&vdp€% e[al Tr\r]v 55e; 

78 €X0pos ye, K. T. X.] Odysseus, 
with charadleristic reticence, forbears 
tO" notice the fallacy in Athene's 
reasoning. He does not reply that 
Ajax has been altered by madness. 
He contents himself with saying, * I 
admit that in one respedl Ajax is 
probably unaltered. Without doubt 
he hates nie as much as before.' 

8 1 jj.£fJLTjv6Ta, K. T. X.] * Fearest 
thou to look upon the man in his 
raging madness?' Is it, then, not 
the man, but his madnesj^ that you 
fear? Schneidewin- understands, 
'Canst thou fear th€ presen-ce of one 
whom madness has- blinded, and 
who, even if he wished to harm thee, 
could not execute his own purpose?* 
But fx€/xr]v6Ta surely =/uriosum, a 
■violent madman. 

82 4)povouvTa, K.T.X.] 'Yes: were 
he sane, I had never shunned, him 
through fear. ' Cf. Dem. Lept. p. 460, 
2, qxjMvol TTUiiroTe Kiudvyop i^iarrjaavi 

18 SO^OKAEOTS [83 

dX)C ovBk vvv <7€ fiTJ irapbvT lBtj TreXa?. 

TTcS?, ecTrep 6^6aXfiol<^ ye to2<; avTOL<i opa; 

iyco crKordxTO) I3\i(j)apa kol BeBopKora, B$ 

fyevoLTO fxevTCLV irav 6eov reyvco/jiipov. 

alya vvv 6g-toi)<; koI fJbev to? KvpeU e'ycov. 

fiivoifi av TjOekov S' av i/cro^; cov TV')(elv, 

CO OUT09, Ala?, Bemepov ae irpog-KoXw. 
Tt jBaLOV ovTco<; ivrpeirei T/79 (tv/jl/jlol'^^^ov; 90 

c5 X'^^P 'A^ai/a, %at)3e Aioyeve^ tckpov, 

so Thuc. II. 88, tV &^i(>}(Tiv el\'q(p€' main,' ?'. e. 'I suppose I must re- 

ffap fi7}54va 6x>^oy i/TToxupecv'. Her.V. main'): 'but I would gladly have 

103, iird i^ijXdop TTjvIlepaida x^PV' stood clear.' 

Plat. Sym^. p. 183 B, iK^dpri rbv 89 ovtos.] Cf. v. 71, note. 

8pKov. Alas.] For this form of the voca- 

83 dXX* ov8^ vvv.] * Nay, e'en as tive, cf, v. 482, Aids, Ae^as : Bek- 
it is, he shall never see thee.,.;' oid^ ker Anecd. p. 11 83, oi 'AttikoI rds 
vvp, i. e. mad though he be. aiJrois elwdaai, iroieTv opdas koI kXtjti- 

84 6c{>6aX|JLOis yt.] His mind may /cds. So O. C. 1627, w ovtos, ovtos, 
have been deranged ; his eyesight at Oldiirovs. 

least (7e) is as good as ever. 90 o-vfijiaxov.] The insolence with 

86 -y^votTO fic'vTclv irdv, k. t. X. ] which on a former occasion Ajax had 

' 'Tis true that anything may be rejecfted the aid of Athene in battle 

done when a god plans. ' fiivToi is had been one of the causes of her 

said refle(ftively, — ' Well, after all.' anger against him (see vv. 771 — 775). 

9€ov T€xvft)n^vov.] Not ^eas Tex»'w- With bitter irony, she now calls her- 

nivtjs. Cf. Aesch. Etim. 286 (where self his atj/x^axos, — the aider of his 

Orestes is invoking Athene) : tKQoc triumphant revenge, — in the course 

Kkiii 8^ Kal irpb<Twdev uv de6s, * one of which she had appeared to him 

hears from afar when one is a god. ' and incited him to fresh efforts. See 

88 n^voifi* dv, K. T.X.] 'Remain I vv. 59, 115. 

must' (literally, 'I am likely to re- 91. Enter A] AX from the interior 



w? ev 'Trapearij's' Kai ae iray'^pvaoi<; eyco 




KOfjLTTO^ irapeaTL kovk airapvovp^ai to ^ir\. 

of the tent, carrying the heavy thong 
(v. 241) with which he has been 
scourging the cattle. {As protagonist, 
he comes upon the stage by the central 
door, ^aaiXeLos dipa.) Vv. 91 — 133. 
Ai. Hail, Athene, hail, kind ally : 
thou shalt have golden thank-offer- 
ings for this day's triumph. — Ath. 
And art thou revenged upon the 
Atreidae, — on Odysseus ? — Ai. The 
Atreidae are dead ; Odysseus is yet 
to die under the scourge. — Ath. Nay, 
torment him not so cruelly. — Ai. In 
all else, Athene, thy will be done; 
but Odysseus shall fare even thus. — 
Ath. To work, then, and take thy 
fill. — Ai. I go; and thou, goddess, 
help me ever as thou hast helped to- 
day. {Exit AjAX.) Ath. Odysseus, 
seest thou how the strong man has 
been humbled ? — Od. Yea, and pity 
him, though my foe : verily all men 
living are but shadows. — Ath. Then 
speak thou no proud word, nor vaunt 
thyself in strength or wealth ; for the 
gods love the wise, and abhor the 

Three acftors, — Ajax, Odysseus, 
Athene, — are before the audience at 
once: but while Ajax is present, 
Odysseus does not speak. Again, in 
the last scene (vv. 13 16 seqq.), Aga-. 
memnon, Teucer, Odysseus are on the 
stage together ; but Teucer is silent 
during the presence of Agamemnon. 
This seems to indicate that the Ajax 
was composed at a date when the 
introdudion of a third adlor— first 
due to Sophocles — was still a recent 

innovation, employed sparingly, and 
under particular restri<R:ions. 

cS x°'^P*> ^- '^' ^] The abrupt- 
ness and vehemence of Ajax in this 
dialogue is chara(5terised by Tec- 
messa — who overheard it from with- 
in — by the phrase X670VS iaiaairavy 
*to pluck forth' words — to jerk 
them out with spasmodic vehemence. 

92 irap^o-TTjs. ] Cf. vv. 59 seqq. 

93 <rT6'\|/a) <r€.] i.e. 'grace thee:* 
cf. Find. 0. 1. 162, creipavCoaai {tlvo) 
fioXir^. The word criipeiv also in- 
volves the notion of the offerings 
{Xdcpvpa, <TKv\€}jfMaTa) being suspend' 
ed on the walls of the temple: cf. 
Aesch. Theb. 266, iroXe/utluv d' iadi^ 
/xara | <TT^\pw...bovpiirr]xG' ayvois 56- 
/xois: Ag. 561, Oeois \6.<pvpa... \ S6' 
/J.01S iiraaadXevaap. Cf. vv. 176 — 8. 

94 €K€ivo.] "Tis well said. But 
tell me this,' &c. Since iKcipo indi- 
cates something more remote than 
rovTo, it serves better to mark the 
purposely sudden change of subject. 
Athene is shewing off the mental 
derangement of Ajax. She treats 
him as one whose thoughts may be 
turned in any new diredlion at plea- 
sure, without danger of his remark- 
ing the abruptness of the transition. 

95 ^YX°S-] Sword. So vv. 287, 
658, 907; but ^i0os, V. 1034; ^/0e- 
civ, V. 231; ^i<poKT6vavs, V. 10; and 
(pdayavov, w. 834, 899. 

irpos.] 'Upon,' * in the blood of,' 
the Greek host. Cf. v. 97. 

96 t6 fitj.] Sc. pdypai. Madv. 
Synt. § 156, 4. 




rj Koi 7r/oo9 ""ATpelSacaiv rj-^fMaaa^; %e/9a ; 



ovTTOT AlavO' OILS' aTijjidaova en. 


redvdaiv av^pe^, co9 to aov ^vvtjk iyoo. 


Bavome^ tJStj rafi a^aipela-Otov oirka. 

eleVf TL yap Brj Trat? o rev Aaeprtov, 
irov aoi TV'xrjf; ea-jrjKev ; r) Tre^ei/ye ce ; 


97 "^ KttC] Cf. V. 38, noU. 

^ KaC.x^pa;] 'And perchance 
turned thy armed hand upon the A- 
treidae?' alxp-dteiv, (i) properly to 
use a lance, a/xA*'^ : //• iv. 324, alx^as 
alxfidtovffi yedrepoi, 'lance-throwing 
is for younger men :' (2) generally, 
' to do deeds of arms:' Soph. Track. 
354, ip(j}% Zi vt.v...d4\^ei€y alxfidaai 
TctSe, 'to do these feats of arms.' 
So, alxp-d^^i-v x«/)a, * to use an arm- 
ed hand,' TTpb^ TLvi, '•upon'' an ene- 
my. Musgrave conjedlured yfxa^as, 
comparing v. 453. 

98 woTc] For cucrre thus used in 
a stichomuthia, see Aesch. ^g. 324, 
XO. ?/3ws 7raT/)(^as TTJcrSe yrjs a iyu- 
fivaaey; KH. wVt' iudaKp^/eiP 7' d/x- 
fidfftv xapas vtto: ib. 529, KH. tto- 
Qdv TTodovvra rijude yrjv aTparbv Xe- 
7eis; XO. ws (=wcrTe) ^6^' dfiavpas 
iK <ppev6% iM dvaar^ueiv. 

<iTi(j.d(rot)o-i. ] In the same phrase 
Orestes announces to Eledlra the 
death of Clytaemnestra, JS/. 1426, 
firjKiT iK<poPov I /x-qTp(^ov (Ss ffe X^/i' 
&Tifxd(T€L ttotL Ajax identified the 
Atreidae with the two rams, his 
treatment of which is described vv. 

99 t6 <r<5v. ] ' Thy words :' cf. v. 

I401, cT/4*, ivaipiffa^ rb aSu: but (2) 
' thy interest, ' v. 1313, 6pa fiij roi)- 
fioPf dXXd Kal rb cbv. 

100 0av6vT€s ...SirXa.] 'Let them 
steal my arms now, — if the dead can 
steal.' Cf. Anf. 308, where Creon 
threatens the supposed culprits with 
crucifixion, "?i'' e^Sorej rb K^pSoi iv- 
6ev olar^ov \ rb \oiirbv apird^rjTe," 
and ib. 715, 6<TTLS...v'jr€tKei pL-ribkv, 
vtttIols Karu \ arp^tpas rb irXoiov 
(T^Xfiaaiv vavrLWerai, continues his 
voyage with the boat's keel upper- 

rdfid.] Emphatic: 'the arms of 
Achilles, which, by all right, be- 
longed to me.' Cf.v. 44i,whereAjax 
expresses his confidence that Achil- 
les, if alive, would have decided in 
his favour. 

loi etev, t£ ^dp 81]...] Enough of 
this, (eTcj') — now {ydp) in the next 
place (SiJ) what of the son of Laer- 
tes — ? * So — and then the son of 
Laertes — in what plight hast thou 
left him placed ?' 

102 'irov...TvXT|S.] Cf. V. 314, ev 
T(p 'irpdyp.aTQ'i...\ Track. 375, trov 
iroT dpi TrpdypLaros; O.T. 1442, 'ip* 
^arapev \ xp^las: Ant. 1229, ip ry 
cvp,(popds ; 


MAX. 21 


P^ar/' ^OBvaa-rj top <tov iva-Tdrrjv Xeym, 

^Siaro^, (o Bea-TTOLva, Seo-yLtcor^? eaco I05 

daKcl' davelv yap avrop ov tI irco deXto. 

irplv av TL Bpaa-rj^ rj tl KepBavrj^ ifKeov, 

irplv av BeOeh Trpo? klov* epKeiov aTeyrj'i 

tI Bfjra TOP Bv(TTr)vov ipydaei kukop; 

/jLaamyi Trpoorop voora ^oLPL'x^SeU ddprj. IIO 

103 TOVTrfTpiiTTOv.] 'Accursed.' ro8 KCov'IpKciov (ttIytiS.] *Apil- 

Ar. F/uf. 619, avTT] fxh i)ixiv i) 'iri- lar in the court.' From w. ■233 — 

rpiTTos otxerat: Av. 1530, ivrevdev 242, 299 — 301, it is clear that this 

dpa TO'LiTnTpi^etrji iyivero : Andoc. pillar was within, the dwelling, and 

Myst. p. 13, cJ ffVKO(f>dvTa koI iiri- not before it in the outer aiJM, which, 

rpivTou Kiuabos. — Ar. F/tct. 6ig, in Homeric times, was a mere en- 

and the analogy of iircTpi^elrjs, are closure of palisades : see //. xxiv. 

against rendering iwiTpLTrroi *knav- 452, d/x<l)l d4 ol [ifydXrjp adXi^v irdij- 

ish ;' though tliat view is counte- aav &vaKTi | ffTavpotci irvKivoTat. The 

na.nced by TreplTpifji/j,a5i.KLov {At. Nud. epithet ipKeios suggests that Sopho- 

4i7),rpl/xfxa, and ij^Tpi^Tjs {'ipra.6iised cles imagined the /cXicrfa of Ajax as 

in'). built round an interior court, like 

KCvaSos.] Cf. V. 381, dXtj/xa. the ordinary Greek house in histori- 

104 *08v(r<rT],]Schneidewin quotes cal times; and used the expression 

the following examples of this con- ipKcTos cTiy-q to denote this interior 

trailed form,— 'OSwcro-^ ?m&.. Rhes. court, — the 'pillar' being one of 

708: 'AxtX^, Eur. ^/. 439: lepi],A/c. the columns of the peristyle or co- 

25: /SacrtX^, 'Euv./rao-. 781, 24: 0o- lonnade surrounding it. Cf. Plaut. 

V7], Lycophron 1038. On the other Bacch. iv. 6, 24, abducite hunc (the 

hand, the ea of the uncontracfled form slave who was to be flogged) intro, 

is frequently a monosyllable: e.g. atque astringiie ad cohimuamfortiter. 

Eur. Phoen. 913, cr^d^at Mci'oi/c^a 109 Ip-ydo-ei.] The future express- 

T6i'5e: au(ft. Rhes. 977, ^Trctr' 'Ax'X- es surprise and alarm more dire<5^1y 

X^a G^TiSos. and pointedly than ipydv-g would 

105 TJ8icPTos...8€(rn»Tns.] *Wel- have done, 

comest of captives.' 1 10 Qdv^.l Stri<5l accuracy of ex- 





^aipeiv, ^AOdvUf raW* iya> a e^iefjiaf 
Kelvo^ Be Tiaet rrjvBe kouk aXKT}v Blktjv. 

(TV S* ovv, eTreiB^ Tepyfrc^ ySe aoi to Spdv, 
^(pco %6t/3t, (peiSov fi7}hev wvirep ivvoel<;. 

X^pf^ 7rp09 epyov* tovto <toI S' i(f>iefjLai, 
ToidpS' del fJLOc avfifMa'^^ov irapea-rdvai. 

6/7a9, ^OhvaaeVy Tr]v Oewv l<T')(pv oarj ; 


pression required — Oavetv avrhv oH- 
iro) diXw, irplv Si,u, TrpSrepov too 6a- 
veiv, vQira <poivix6fj. Instead of this, 
we have — Oaveiv airrbv oiiir(o 6i\u, 
wplv hv vu)Ta (poLPtxdds ddvrj — an il- 
logical statement, but screened by 
the three verses which intervene be- 
tween 6av€LU and ddvy. 

112 Xtttp^'-v ... €<|>C<] 'In all 
else, Athene, I bid thee have thy 
will,' /'. e. in nothing else will I in- 
terfere with you. Cf. £1. 1456, -if 
TToWk xafpeti' fi eTwas, ' You have 
bidden me (authorised me) to rejoice 
much, ' z. e. * your news has made me 
very happy.' The formula xa'p^"' 
Kekeiiw Tivd usually means 'to say 
good-bye to a person, ' — often with an 
ironical sense. Here, as in El. 1456, 
Xatpeiv keeps its full literal import. 

o-c] The 'Attic' accus., instead 
of the usual dative ; cf. v. 584, ov 
yap fi apiffKH yXuxrad aov : El. 147, 
kp.i 7* d arovheaa Apapeu: Track. 
1 22 1, ToaouTOV StJ a eincTK'fiTrTw. 

114 <rv 8* o5v.] Cf. V. q6i, XO. 
...y€\q....ir6\vv yiXcora. TE. ol 5' 
oZv ye\djvTU}v, * Then /<?/ them mock:' 
Ar. AcA. 185, AM. oi 5' ediwKov Kd- 
pbuv. AI. oi 5' odv /3oc6yrw^, 'Then 

let them clamour.' Ajax has an- 
nounced his resolve to do his worst. 
'Then do it,' Athene answers. 

€ir€i8ij, K. T. X. ] * Since thus it 
pleases thee to do.' rb hpdv in ap- 
position with ripypLS rjde: ' since this 
is thy pleasure, even to do (thus).' 
Two modes of expression, — ripyj/is 
TJSe cot, and T^p\f/LS aoi t6 dpdv tS3e, 
— have been fused. For rip\pL$ ^Se, 
instead of rip\pL$ rdde, cf. Track. 483, 
ijpLapTov, et rt ri^vd' afxapriav vi/xeis. 
1 1 5 xp" X^'-P^' ] ' Use all violence.' 
(j>6£8ov [jL-qS^v. ] /. e. (pelZov fj.r)84v 
(abstain not at all) rovruy, couirep, 


117 T0idv8€.] Both Aeschylus and 
Sophocles were skilful in this verbal 
irony, when a word or phrase has a 
secondary meaning of which the 
speaker or the person addressed is 
unconscious, but which the audience 
understand. See Aesch. Ag: 881 — 
887; Soph. ^/. 684— 692 ; Fkil.'j'j6 
-884; £1. 1325. 

1 1 8 Tqv 06WV Icrxvv. ] The attri- 
butive genitive usually takes the ar- 
ticle when the word of which it is 
the attributive has the article, e. g. ij 
Tuv v6p.(jjv l(xx^^' But when the at- 

128] MAS. 

rovTov Tt? av (tol rai/Spo? rj rrpovovo-Tepo';, 

Tj Bpdv dfieli/cov rjvpidr] ra Kaipta; 

iycio fjL6V ovhev olS'' eTroi/cTelpco Be vlv 
BvcTTTjvov e/jL7ra<;, Kalirep ovra Bva/juevrj, 
odovveK ary o-iryKaTe^evKrac KaKy, 
ovBev TO TovTOv fiaXKov rj tovjjlov aKOTrwv, 
opoj yap T^/j,a<; ovBev 6vTa<; aXXo irXrjp 
ecBayX oaocirep ^cofiev rj kov^v (tklclv. ♦' 

TOiavTa Toivvv elaopwv virepKoirov 
firjBev TTOT* eLTrrjf! auro^ e? Oeoi)'; eiro^, 




tributive genitive is a proper name, 
the article is sometimes omitted, e.^. 
Her. II. 106, 6 AiyiiirTov /SacrtXei;?: 
and 0€ol, ^poTol, considered as pro- 
per names, came to have the same 
privilege ; e.g. v. 664, ^ ^poTwv irap- 

119 irpovovcTTcpos.] *More pru- 
dent;' not, indeed, iroK^/xrjris, intel- 
ledlually subtle, like Odysseus ; but 
distinguished by sound common 
sense and moderation. Cf. //. Vii. 
288, where Hecftor, proposing an ad- 
journment of combat, appeals to the 
good sense of Ajax :- — ATav, iwel roi 
5w/ce debs fiiyedSs re ^drju re, | Kal 
TivvTT^v — 'and understanding.' But 
in another place (//. xiii. 824) Hec- 
tor taunts him as Alau a/xapToeir^s, 
Povydl'e, * thou blunderer, — thou 
clumsy boaster.' Ajax was prudent; 
but he was not clever. 

122 l|xirasi Ka£ir€p, k.t.X.] * I pity 
him in his misery, for all that he is 
my eneijiy.' ^/xtras with ixoiKTelpu), 
'I pity him all the same...' Cf. //. 
XXIV. 523, dX7ea 5' ifiinj^ \ iu dvfii^ 
KaraKeta-dat iaaop-ev, axvvfi(vol irep: 
Find. A^. iv. 59, ^p.T:a, — KalTrep ( = 
K€l) ?xf* dXfid fx^aaov, — dvrlTeive. 

123 o-u-yKaT^cvKTai.] 'Seeing that 
he is bound fast to a fearful doom.' 
Eur. Andr. 98, crepphv Saifiov (^ 
avv€^uyr}v: Aesch. Ag. 221, iirel 5' 
dmyKas iSv Xiirabvov. 

124 ovS^v rh TOVTOV, k. t.X.] The 
pity of Odysseus for Ajax rests upon 
a broad sense of the uncertainty of 
human life, and of the possibility 
that he himself may one day stand 
in need of sympathy. Cf. vv. 1364 
seq. Ar. 6,v(j}ya$ odv fie rbv veKpbv 
doLTTTeiv iq.v; OA. ^yoiye' Koi yap 
aiirbs ivOdS' 1'^o/, ' I myself will 
some day need a grave.' It is to 
this (T <!}<(> po<Tivrj that Odysseus owes 
the favour of Athene : this is the 
quality to which, at the end of the 
play, even his enemy renders a tribute 
of admiration (vv. 1 38 1 — 1399). On 
the other hand, an overweening re- 
liance on his personal prowess and 
on the stability of his fortunes is the 
ruin of Ajax, bringing upon him the 
anger of gods and the hostility of men. 
The moral of the Ajax is the supe- 
riority of <pp6vr]<ns to mere dvdpeia. 

126 €t8a)Xa...o-Kidv.] 'Phantoms, 
— fleeting shadows.' etSwXov and 
ffKia are nearly synonymous, — the 
notion of unreal being uppermost in 
the former, — the notion of unsub- 
stantial in the latter. Cf. Aesch. 
Ag. 812, et8(t)\ou (T/cias: Soph. FAil. 
946, KOLirvov CKidu, I etduXou aXXwj: 
Plut. de /rat. amor. § 3, <r/cia2 koL 
crSwXa 0tX/o$. 

128 avTos.] As Ajax did, — of 
whom two vtripKoira. iirrj are recorded 
in vv. 766 — 775. 


fiT)^ oyKov aprj jjLr}B6p\ eX Ttvo<i irkeov 
rj %ef/)t ffpideL^; rj jxaKpov irXovrov fidOei. 
W9 Tjfiepa Kkivet re Kavcvyei. iraXiv 
airavra ravOpwireLa' rov^ he aoo^povaf; 
6eoi <f>i\ov<7i Kol (TTvyovaL tou? KaKOV<i,^ 

TeXafjLoopie Trat, Trj<; dfjL<l>ipvTou 


129 |tt)8' o-yKov apxi, K.T.X.] 

*Nor assume pomp at any time.' 
The notion of Ap-gs (a var. le<5l.) 
would be slightly different : atfyeadai 
6yKov, to take up, assume pomp : 
aipeiy 6yK0Vf to lift up one's pride. 
Cf. V. 75, no^e.^ 

1 30 ^JLCucpov] = fi^dXov. Arist. 
Jiep. VI. 4. 3, fiuKpcl ovaiai : Empe- 
docles V. 420, fJL-^KiaTos irXovros. 

pdBcu] A change of metaphor 
from (iplBeti. Lobeck once proposed 
pdposy comparing Eur. -£/. 1287, ical 
SoTO) irXovTov ^dpos. But bolder 
changes of metaphor could be ad- 
duced : ^. ^. Eur. Med. 107, vi<f>o% 
olfiuy^s ws Tax a'^a^et (kindle). 

131 K\tv€t T€ Kovoiyti.] *A day 
can humble and can restore all hu- 
man things'. For avdyew, to bring 
up', 'exalt', cf. Eur. If. K 1333, 
('Hpa^cX^o) TLfJiiov dyctlct voLff 'AOrj- 
vaiup vdXis. 

134 — 200. The Parados, or en- 
trance-song — consisting of (i) the 
anapaestic march, 134 — 171 : (2) a 
strophe and antistrophe, 172 — 193: 
(3) the epode, 194—200. The 
Chorus usually entered the orchestra 
in a quasi-military array, disposed ei- 
ther Kara ^xr^d, in ranks, or jcaTa aroi- 
Xouy, in files. While entering, they 
chanted the anapaestic portion of the 
Parodos. This measure suited a slow 
step, and was used in the military 
marching songs (Miiller Eumen. 
§ 16). Three plays of Aeschylus 
have the anapaestic parodos — Suppl. 
I — 30: Ag. 40—103: Eum. 297 — 
310 (when the Furies, though seen 
on the stage before, first arrange 

themselves in the orchestra). After 
the time of Aeschylus the formal 
anapaestic parodos, without strophe 
or antistrophe, occurs less frequently. 
It is found in no play of Sophocles 
except the Ajax^ — probably one of 
his earliest. Cf. v. 91, note. 

{Enter the Chorus of Salami- 
NiAN Sailors, followers of Ajax, 
chanting the anapaestic march as 
they advance towards the thymele.) 
Vv. 134 — 200. Son of Telamon, 
lord of Salamis, we sympathise with 
thee in good or evil: and now the 
voices of the Greeks assail thee. 
Thou art charged with slaying in 
the past night the herds their spoil. 
These are tJhe calumnies of Odysseus, 
and he finds ready listeners^ Yes, 
the great man is a mark for envy, 
while the small is safe : yet ill would 
fare the small without the great. 
But the foolish people are blind to 
this : and what can w? do? If thou 
wert seen, the chattering slanderers 
would cower still and dumb. Or 
can it be that thou hast indeed done 
this thing under the curse of some 
angered deity? Thy own nature 
could never have so prompted. If 
the gods drove thee to the deed, 
there is no help for it: a heaven- 
sent plague will have its way. But 
if — as we believe — the Greeks slan- 
der thee, then up and refute their 

1 34 Tiis tt|Ju|)ipvTov, K.T.X.] * Hold- 
ing thy firm throne in the sea-girt*isle 
of Salamis.' &/M<fApvTQS, 'surrounded 
by water,' — from the spectator's 
point of view : 07x^0X05, 'on the sea,* 
from the islander's point of view. 

143] AIAS. 

^cCKaiMVo<; e^oyv /Sddpov cu^yiciXov, 
ae fJLev ev irpaaaovr eiTL'^aipco' 
(re S' orav irXTjyr) Ato? 17 ^afi€vr)<i 
X0709 €/c Aavacov KaKodpov^i eirt^y,^ 
jier^av okvov €')(co koX ire^o^'qfxaL 
irrrjvfj^; to? o/jb/iia ireXela^, 
W9 KoX T^9 vvv <j)6ifJLevr)^ vvkto<; 
fieydXoi OopvjSoi KaTe')(ov(T rjfJbd'i 
eVl ^vcTKkeia, ae top LTTTro/jLavrj 



* Sea-girt isle' will render the tauto- 
logy. Lobeck accounts for the epi- 
thet d7xtaXoj by the ia.6i of Salamis 
being irpdayeios, — so close to the 
mainland as to be considered part 
of the continental sea-board. But 
d7x^aXos, in poetiy, seems to have 
been a regular epithet for islands 
generally. See Aesch. I'ers. 876, 
Kal rdj ayxid\ov$ eKpdrvve /xeaaK- 
rous I Arjuvou 'iKoipov 6' ^5os | Kal 
'F6dov rjS^ KfiSov Kvirplas re TrdXeis, 
Ild<pov I "^5^ 26Xoys, XaXafuvd re. 

135 pdGpov.] * Thy firm throne.' 
Cf. F/it/. 1000, ^ws Slv 5 /ioi yijs t65' 
aliretvbu ^dOpou, — where §i.6pov gives 
the idea of rocky Lemnos rising 
sheer from the waters in which it 
stands fixed, — 'this steep isle plant- 
ed in the sea': Ai. 860, w irarpc^ov 
iarias ^adpov, *0 seat of my father's 

136 <r^...€irixaCp«;] Cf. Phil. 
1314, -^adrju iraripa rhv d/ibv ei)\o- 
yovi/rd ae: aucfl. J^hes. 390, xa/pw 
5^ a evTvxovm-a: 11. XIII. 352, i|f- 
xOero dafivafiiuovs : C f. Madv. Synt. 
§ 22. — As Schneidewin points out, 
the construdlion with the accus., in- 
stead of aoO trpdaffovToty was adopted 
'for the sake of closer symmetry 
with the second and more important 
clause of the sentence, ah b' SraVf 


137 irXTiYH Ai6s.] The Chorus 
learn for the first time from Tec- 
messa (v. 284) that the charge laid 
against Ajax is true. At present 
they try to think that it must be a 
malicious invention of his enemies. 

Of one thing, at least, they feel sure. 
If Ajax has done this thing, he was 
not a free agent (v. 183): he was 
driven to it by the special visitation 
of Zeus, — or of Artemis, — or of Ares 
(vv. 172 — 181). Indeed, the facfl of 
his long inad^ivity convinces them 
that he is labouring under some &t7j 
ovpavia (v. 196). As to his alleged 
onslaught, it is a dilemmai Either 
the hand of the gods was in it, or 
else the story of the Greeks is a;- 

138 cirip^.] With poetical accus. 
Cf. 0. T. 1300, ri% ce irpoai&ri fia- 
via] Eur. Andr. 491, iri (st...ii.tTa.-^, 
rpoirb. TU)v8' eireicni/ ipyuv. 

139 'n-c(|>6P'>])iai. ] *And am alU 
afraid.' The perfedl sometimes dcr 
notes the full existence of an esta- 
blished condition, of which the pre- 
sent tense denotes the beginning: 
e. g. K^Kpdya, I have set up a scream, 
— am screaming loudly : so XAd/ca, 
rirpiya, ^^^pvxa, SidoiKa, aia-qpa, 
T^dtjira, fi^fiova. 

140 6|i|xa.] 'Like a winged 
dove with troubled eye;' 

141 Tils VUV <|>9lH^VTlS WKTOS.] 

Referring in sense to iiri^dpT dXiaai, 
not to KaT^x^vm: 'Even thus, tell- 
ing of the night now spent, loud 
murmurs beset us to our shame, — 
telling how, &c.' 

143 iTrirojiavT] ] 'Wild with 
horses', — the horses of the Greek 
army being turned out to graze on 
the plains of the Scamander. Cf. 
Strabo p. 684, t4 TreSta vKofiavti: 
Theophrastus Hist. Flant.yiii. 7. 4, 

26 2;0$0KAE0TS 

Xetficov' iiTL^avT okeaai, Aavawv 

^ora Kol Xecav, 

r)7rep BopL\rj7rTO<; tr rjv XotTrrjf 

KTeivovT atOciiVL a-cB^pa). 

TOLOvaBe Xoyovi yjrcdvpovf; irXdaaayv 

et9 wra (j)ep€t iraatv ^OBuaq-eixi, 

KOL a<f)6Bpa ireldeL. irepl ^yap aov vvv 

evTTiara Xiyec, kol Tra? 6 kXvcov 

Tov Xi^avTO<; %a//oei fxaXXov 

Tol<i (Toc<; a')(e<TLV KaOvjSpi^wv. ■ 

Twv 'yap fjieyaXcov ylrv^oov /et? \, 



^vWofiapeiv: Soph./rag: 591 (Dind.), 
Kapiro/xav-qi. The analogy of these 
words, — especially of Kapirofiavq^ as 
used by Sophocles himself, — seems 
to favour the version of iTnTOfiav/js 
given above. Two others have been 
suggested — (r) Lobeck — *a plain on 
which horses rage :' — (2) Schol., 'a 
plain for which horses are mad.' 
"IiTTTOs Xeijxwyofiavrjs (like rim^ i]Xi- 
ofJLavTTis, Ar. Av. 1096), would have 
been a possible expression ; but 
scarcely Xei/idj?/ lirTofiavijs. 

145 PoToi Kttl Xc£av.] 'Flocks 
and spoir= 'flocks and herds:' see 
v. 54, note on \eiai. — ^orbv especi- 
ally of small stock, e. g. 2i sheep, — 
KTTjaiov ^oToO Xdxvrj, Track. 690 : 
a sucking-pig, vebdrikov ^orbv, Aesch. 
Eum. 428. 

146 Xoi"in]] = 58ao-Tos, v. 54. 

148 Xo-yovs »j/i0vpovs.] 'Whis- 
pered slanders'. So xpidvpia-T-^s, 
N.T. Cf luv. IV. no, tenui higii- 
los aperire susurro, 'to slit windpipes 
with the fine edge of slander.' 

150 vvv.] i. e. since the award 
of the arms of Achilles to Odys- 
seus, which supplied a possible mo- 
tive for the onslaught of Ajax upon 
the herds. In the absence of a dis- 
coverable motive, so strange an ac- 
cusation would have obtained no 

151 Kal irds o kXvW, k.t.X.] 
'And each new hearer revels more 
than his informant in insolent tri- 

umph at thy woes :' i. e. the slander 
Diobilitate viget viresque acquirit 
eundo {Aen. iv. 175). As the ru- 
mour spreads and gains in strength, 
the spiteful joy of each new hearer 
is louder and more confident. 

153 axco"tv.] Dative of the ob- 
jecfl at which triumph is felt : so xc"- 
pdv^ d6vfx.€Lv TiPL, K.T.X. : Madv. 
Synt. § 44 a. — Kudv^pl^eiv is also 
construed (r) with accus. of person 
or thing insulted : (2) with genitive 
of person. 

154 Twv 7dp iJte-ydXwv, k.t.X.] 
' Yes, let one point his shaft against 
a great spirit, and he will not miss : 
but were a man to say the like of 
me, he would gain no belief The 
contrast primarily, intended is not 
between a high-souled and a mean- 
spirited man, but simply between a 
chief, ^aatXetJs, and one of the Xa6L 
The designation of the chief as fie- 
ydXr] \pvxfi is, however, thoroughly 
Homeric. In an age of military 
aristocracies a lofty and somewhat 
arrogant courage was^considered the 
special attribute of Zeus -cherished 
chiefs. Thus in the poems of the 
oligarch Theognis (circ. 550 B. c.) 
the democrats of Megara are called, 
not merely kukoI, but deiXoL. 

154 Uls.] "With genitive of the 
thing aimed at; cf. Aut. 1234, to- 
^ever avSpbs Tovde. So (TT0xd^€<r6ai, 
and in Homer clkovtI^uv, dt'oreiJctj', 



ovK av dfidproi' Kara S' dv rt,<; ifiov 
Toiavra Xiycov ovk qv irelOoL 
7Tpb<; yap rov €^ov6^ 6 <^66vo^ epirei, \ 
kuItol o-fjiCKpol fieydXcov %ft)/3t? 
a<j)aK€pov irvpyov pvfia irikovTaL'- 
/lerd yap fieydXcov ^ato^ dpiar dv 
/cat /iieya<; opdolO^ viro fJUKporeposv. 
iikX ov Bvvarov tov<s dvorjTOv<i 
rovTcov yvwixa^ TrpohtZdaKeiv. 


'Xrjfiel^ ovhev adivofiev Trpo? ravT 
diraXi^aa-dac orov %ci)/9t9, dva^. 




155 duapTOi.] Sc. Tts, supplied 
from the next clause. The subjedl 
nught however have been supplied 
from the participle lets: cf. Hes. 
Of>p. 12 (quoted by Lobeck), e/o-t 
ouw (?piSes)' TT)v fiiv K€v ivaiw/iaeie 
vor](xas, \ ij 3' iTrt/xoj/J.rp-'i^. 

€(xou.] Sc. 6.i>5p6i drifidrov. 

157 rbv i\ovra.] 'The power- 
fid. ' Cf. Eur. Siippl. 240, ot 5' OVK 
lxovTi%..A% Toiii ix°^°-^ K^vrp d(f)id- 
atu KaKo.. 

<})96vos.] Cf. Find. N. viii. 21, 
^>\l>ov bk X6yoi (pdouepoicriu' fiTrrerat 5' 
taXQv del, x^^P^''^<^<^'- 5' oiK ipl^ei. 

159 <r<|>oiX€p6v irvpYov pv^a.] *A 
slippery garrison for the walls';— 
TTvpyot, the towers on city walls, Eur. 
/Ar. 1209, Tripi^ 5^ v^pyos elx' ^ri 
tt6\iv. This is better tlian taking 
ripyov pv/xa to mean ' a defending 
tower', like dairiSot ^pvp.a, Eur. 
/. A. 189. 

160 n€Td "ydp p,rYdX(ov, k.t.X.] 
'For best will prosper small leagued 
with great, and great served by less.' 
MCTtt — the grent men are to lend 
their countenance and protecting 
guidance; virb — the small men are 
to do the work. Schneidewin quotes 
Plat. Legg. X. p. 902 D, ovhevl xwpis 
rGiv dXLyujv Kal apuKpCiv iroWd •^ fie- 
ydXa' oiiSi yhp a/xiKpCov roi/s pieyd' 
Xovi (paaiu ol XiddXoyoi Xldovs e5 

163 -irpoStSdo-Kciv.] To teach ^ra- 

dually, — advancing from maxim to 
maxim: — "tis hopeless to lead the 
foolish from precept to precept of 
these truths.' The chorus have 
enunciated four7i't!;;Liat in succession, 
viz. (i) vv. 154—6: (2) v. 157: (3) 
vv. 158—9: (4) vv. 160 — I. The 
compound irpodLddffKeiu is appro- 
priate to this series of maxims. Cf. 
Plat. Gorg. p. 489 D, irpadrepdv fie 
Trpo5l5a<TKe, i.e. 'instrucft me more 
gently and gradually'*', id. Euthyd. 
p. 302 C, ei(j>7jipLei. T€ Kal fii] xaXeTTwj 
irpodiSatTKe : Soph. PAil. 538, iyu) 5' 
. dv&yKrj irpoC/xaOou cripyeiv KUKd, — 
/. e. ' necessity has slowly taught me 
to acquiesce in evils.' 

164 TOtOVTWV, K.T.X.] ^ So foolish 

are the voices that assail thee. ' Cf. 
v. -218, ToiaOr' av I'5ois...<r0a7ta, — 
(Ajax has gone mad) — */« proof of 
it, thou mayest see vidlims, ' &c. : 
v. 251, Toia% epiaaovaiv aTeiXds, 
K.T.X. : (it is time for flight): *so 
angry are the threats they ply,' &c.: 
v. 562, TO?oi'...0uXa/ca Xei^co, k.t.X. 
(thou wilt be safe), 'so trusty a 
guardian will I leave thee.' 

166 <rov x^P^^ ] Vexed by re- 
ports which they believe to be false, 
but cannot disprove, the Choms are 
anxious to draw forth Ajax from the 
sullen retirement in which he had 
remained since the award of the 
arms. , He, at any rate, could au- 
thoritatively deny the charge, and 


a\V oTe yap Brj rb abv o^fju airehpavy 
nrarcuyovaiv airep ttttjvwv o/yeKaC 
fier/av alyvTTibp S* virohela-avre^i 
Ta^ av i^al(j>vrj<;, el av (j^aveir/^, 
<yvyy nrTij^eiap aifxovoi. 

^ pa ere TavpoiroXa Ato? *'ApTefic<;, 



would overawe the slanderer by the 
majesty of his presence. 

167 dXX* <5t6 ydp Br\, k.t.X.] 
'But indeed (dXXd ydp) so soon as 
{6Te 5iJ) they have escaped thine eye, 
they chatter like flocking birds : but 
shouldst thou appear, that instant, 
awed by the mighty vulture, they 
would cower still and dumb.' The 
phrase dWd. yap is elliptical : — * But 
(dira\4^a<r6ai oi hvvarbv icrri) ; for 
they chatter, &c. Cf. Plat. Apol. 
p. 20 c, ^70) yovv i]Ppvp6fji.i]v B.V €t 
iiTiffTayLfiv Tavra' aXX ov yhp eTr/ora- 
/*at, — 'butthefadlisldon't:' i.e. dW 
(oux a^pivo/xai). Compare ai enim. 
Three other views of the passage 
require notice: — (i) Porson: — a 
ifTodeiaravTes, referring dXXd to ttti/- 
^eiav &p, and making 8t€ yap... 
vnjvwu d7Aat a parenthesis. — (2) 
Schneidewin, omitting the words S' 
VTTodeio-avTes : — dWd — 5re 7dp dr) 
rb <rbu 6p.fji' diriSpav TraTayovaiv &t€ 
TTTrjudv dyiXai p-^yav alyviribv {dvo- 
Spdffai) — TTTili'^eiav &v, k.t.X. — (3) 
Lobeck retains 5' iTroSdaavres, but 
refers dXXd to irri^^eiav hv, and re- 
gards 5^ as inserted * vel ad redordi- 
endum dWd, vel ob interpositum 
varayovaii' i.e. oKKo. — i^t yap Stj 
. . . dtrihpav. . . iraTayovffi, ) — fiiyav al- 
yviribv 5' (64 resuming dWd — ' but, I 
say') viroSeicravTes...irTri^€iav &v. 

171 <riYQ ... fi<j>«voi.] 'Still and 
dumb,' — (Tiyy implying hushed, mo- 
tionless awe. Cf. Pind. Z'. iv. 100, 
lirra^ap 5' dKlvqroi. ciuir^ (the 
heroes at Medea's words). 

172 — 181. Metres of the strophe :- 
V. 172. if pa (re \ Tavpoiro\\d 5tos| 
dpTifiis]: dadlylic tetrameter. 

V. 173. (J /x6ya\\d ^aTrjIw]: dac- 
tylic dimeter hypercatal. 
V. 1 74. fidrep I aiax^^lds ^jn\as\ : tro- 
chaic dimeter catal. 
V. 175. i5p/j,da-\e 7ra»'|5d)Ltlloi7s eiri\ 
^ovs d7eX I dta si: iambic penthe- 
mimer: dadlylic trimeter. 
V. 176. 9/ TToiJ I /c.T.X. Iambic trimeter. 
V. 177. 17 /od kKvtIuv ivdplojvW: dac- 
tylic dimeter hypercatal. 
V. 178. \}/€va6eT(r\d8u>p\oi.s\\€ZT €Xd<f>\ 
rj^o\lL\ais\: iambic penthemimer, 
— -dadlylic dimeter hypercatal. ; — 
forming together the verse called 
V. 179. if xdXK\o9u)p\a^\ K.T.X.: the 

Vv. 180, I. fxofM(f>dv 1 e^wj/ I K.T.X.: 

the same. 
V. 182. iJ,dxdu\ali ellrrcrdro [ Xw- 
/Sdv: trochaic dipodia: dadlylic 

172— 181. Hitherto the chorus 
have not even entertained the pos- 
sibility of the charge against Ajax 
being true. But now they begin to 
ask themselves if it is possible that 
Ajax may have been driven to such 
an adl by the wrath of some offended 
deity ? Of his own accord he would 
never have done it. But an irresist- 
ible doom may have coerced him. 

172 -if pd.] ' Can it be, after all 
{pa),' — 'can it be in truth,' — that a 
god impelled thee? — pa serving to 
give a thoughtful tone to the ques- 
tion, by suggesting a foregone train 
of refle(flion that has led up to it. 

TavpoiroXa Aiis "ApTcjits.] ' The 
Tauric Artemis, child of Zeus.' 
Tai;po7r6Xa ('managing, i.e. 'riding 
on,' a bull, as Artemis is represented 

178] AIA2. 

']) fxeyaXa ^aTt9, c5 
aarep alcr'xyva^; ifia<;, 

i'/ TTOV Tl,VO<i VLKa<; aKapTTCOTOV %a/9tj/, 

7/ pa kXvtoov ivdpcov 


J 75 

in some of the Tauric coins) here 
= TavpiK-ff. According to the ancient 
Attic legend, the orgiastic worship 
of the 'Tauric' Artemis was brought 
to Attica by Orestes and Iphigenia. 
They landed at Halae Araphenides 
on the E. coast, and there deposited 
[the ancient image {^6avoy) of the 
I goddess which they had brought 
' from the Chersonese. A temple of 
Artemis Tauropolos at Halae Ara- 
phenides is noticed by Strabo (ix. 
399). At the neighbouring Brauron 
the kindred worship of Artemis Brau- 
r Miia was established. The Tauri 
of the Chersonese had from ancient 
1 limes worshipped a virgin goddess 
[ called Oreiloche (Ammian. Marcell. 
i xxir.8, 34), to whom they sacrificed 
strangers landing on their shores. 
'I'his goddess they identified with 
I phigeneia (Her. iv. 103). The only 
liistorical evidence for the epithet 
' Taurica ' of Artemis being derived 
from the Tauri of the Chersonese 
refers to a comparatively late period. 
A Dorian colony from Heraclea in 
Pontus (itself founded in 550 B.C.) 
took possession (probably about 500 
B.C.) of the small peninsula, thence 
known as the ' Heracleotic, ' on the 
W. coast of the Tauric Chersonese. 
They identified the Tauric cult of 
Oreiloche with the worship of Arte- 
mis, to whom they gave the title 
* Taurica,' and built a temple on the 
headland thence called Parthenium 
(Strabo, p. 308). But in Attica 
and other ancient seats of this wor- 
ship the epithet ravpiKi) may ori- 
ginally have referred merely to the 
prominence of blood- offerings in an 
orgiastic ritual of Artemis. She is 
mentioned here as the possible insti- 
gator of the onslaught, since it had 

provided her with her favourite sacri- 
fice, — the blood of bulls (v. 297). 

TavpoTr6Xa.] For the form, cf. 
iro\v(f)6pj3r}, Hes. T/i^o^. 912; 'Itt- 
■jroa6a, Pind. O. III. 47 j Vopyo^dvrjf 
Eur. /(?//, 1478. 

Aios.] * (Daughter) of Zeus.' This 
was the usual form in legal or public 
documents, e.g: Arjfiocrd^yrjs Arj/xo- 
(xdivovt natavtei)s fxaprvpel, k.t.\ 
Cf. v. 952, Zrjvbi 7] deivT] debs. But 
vv. 401, 450, nr} Libs. 

173 cS (xe-yaJ^a <|>ctTis, k.t.X.] Pa- 
renthetical — (O the dread rumour, 
parent of my shame !) 

176 dKdpirwTOV xapiv.] Cf. Eur. 
/. T. 566, KaKTjS ywaiKds x^P"' &X°-P^^ 
cLTrdikeTO. — Schneidewin d/cdpTr&jros 
Xctpiv, comparing dv^/coos, i^apvos, 
^v^ifios with the accusative. 

177 t( pa.] *0r else—.' Her- 
mann suggested Tjpa { = h€Ka), on 
the ground that, though rj l>a is fre- 
quent in questions, no example can 
be found of rj pa in the second clause 
of a sentence. But at least the 
meaning of ^a affords no reason 
against its being so used. 

cvdpcDV.] The two clauses — vIkus 
dKdpTUTou X'^P'-^ 3,nd ivdpwv ^pev- 
a-deiaa, — contemplate two distindl 
cases. Ajax may have omitted after 
a vidlory to honour Artemis with 
sacrifice {vtKrp-'fipia 66eip) on behalf 
of those who had fought under his 
command. Or he may have broken 
a private compadl between himself 
and the goddess, — a vow of arms or 
other spoil, made on his own account 
when going into battle. 

178 firt.] -^...ehe: cf. Eur. ^/<r. 
114, 7} AvKias I dT iirl rds dv68povs\ 
' A/jLfiuvlSas ^8pas: Plat. Leg^. ix. 
p. 862 D, etre ^pyois rj \6yoi$. 

^\a<{>T)Po\{ais. ] Causal dative : 


rj 'XjoXKoOoopa^ rj tlv 'EvvoXlo^; 
l^ofK^av ex^^v ^vvoii Bopb<; ivvv^^oL^ 
fjLaxcivai<; iricraTo Xco^av ; 


ov TTore yap (I)p6v66ev y iir dpiarep^y 

iral TeXa/jioovo^, epa<; 

Toaaov ev iroifivaL^ itItvcov 

riKOi yap ap Oeia voao^' aXs! airepvKOL 




Thuc. III. 98, Tots Treirpayfiivois <po- 
^oO/xepos Toi/s ' Adrjpaiovs, fearing the 
Athenians on account of what had 
occurred. — Madv. Synf. §41. 

dSwpois.] '(Deer slain) without a 
thank-offering.' — Hermann: 'Con- 
sentiunt et libri et scholiastae in ledl. 
\l/€v<r6€c<ra ^wpoLs:' i.e. 'deceived by, 
through, — in the matter of, — gifts 
of spoils.' 

179 TJ...i^.] i.e. rj 'EvvdXios — 7J irl- 
ffaro', * or Eny alius — can he have...?' 
The ■)] is awkward and probably 
wrong. The sense would lead us to 
conje(5lure SiJ, — 'or was it t^en ' ( ' to 
make a last guess'). — Several reme- 
dies have been suggested: — (i) Lo- 
beck, 7JvTiva,=i]VTivaovv : cf. Y\2X.Hipp. 
Ma. p. 282 D, ir\iov iipyipiov airb 
<ro<f)ias etpyaarai 17 &\\oi SrjfXLOvpybs 
a(f> ^(TTivos T^x^V^- — (^) Hermann, 
Elmsley, Wunder, etrtp': i.e. fioficpap 
iX^^t ^^Tiva elxev. Cf. Xen. Anab. 
V. 3. 4, oi ok dXXoi iLtrdAovTO vto re 
Tuiv 'iro\efuuv...Kal et Tis v6<x(^. (3) 
Schol. i], distinguishing XaXKodupa^, 
Ares, from 'Ei'jJaXtos. (4) Schneide- 
win coL 

'EvvdXios.] From 'Epiw, Bellona, 
comes the adjedlive kpvaki.0^, — in 
Homer, sometimes an epithet of 
Ares, — sometimes another name for 
him (compare //. xx. 38 and 69). 
In later poets Enyalius is a distindl 
deity, son of Ares and Enyo. See 
Ar. Pax 457, "Apet hk}x.i]\.,.yi.yiV 'Ej'u- 
o\/<fj 7e; The oath of the ephebi ran 
in the names of "AypavXos, EpvoXios, 
'Aprjs, ZciJj. Here, Enyalius is spo- 
ken of as favouring the Greeks ; 
whereas the Homeric Ares inclined 
to the Trojans (//. xx. 38). In 

Salamis, the island of Ajax, a yearly 
sacrifice was offered by the Athe- 
nian archon polemarch to Artemis 
Agrotera, and to Enyalius in a 
chapel sacred to him (Plut. Fi^. Sol. 
c. 9). 

180 (i.o(Ji<}>dv...8op6s.] 'Resenting 
slight to his aiding spear:' i. e. having 
helped Ajax in battle, and received 
no sacrifice or offerings in return. 

^vvou.] Cf. Eur. Tro. 58, irpds ar)p 
atpty/xai dvpafxip, wj koiptjp Xd^Sw: 
Soph. 0. C. 632, dop{>^evos | Koivij... 

8op6s.] Angry ' about ' his spear : 
A7zL 1177, TTarpl /xTjplffas <p6vov. — 
Madv. Synt. % 61 6. i. 

€vwx^0is fiaxavais.] 'Nightly 
wiles, * i. e. subtle and malignant 
promptings, visiting Ajax at dead 
of night, and beguiling him into his 
fatal attempt. 

183 ov iroTC 'ydp...'7r£TV<«)V.] 'For 
never of thy own heart, son of 
Telamon, canst thou have gone so 
far astray as to fall upon the flocks. ' 
— <ppep6dep ye, sponte tua, — of your 
own unbiassed choice, — imstimulat- 
ed by solicitation or impulse from 
without. Others join (ppepbdev iv 
dpiaTepd, to the leftward of your 
mind: hnt <f>p€p66ep =, not 0/)ev6s,but 
iK (ppepos : and ye seems decisive for 
taking (f>p€p66ep alone. 

tir* dpi<rT€pd . . . ipas.] /. e. ovtcj 
(TKaibs B.P icpdpTjs. Aesch. P. V. 902, 
^^w 5^ SpdfJiov ^^po/ "Kiaaiqs \ irpei- 
/xari p-apyif. 

185 T6or<rov...'ir£Tv«v.]=r6(r(ro»'... 
ware irlrpeip. Cf. Ani. 752, ^ Kaira- 
TreiXwv u55' eire^^pxei dpaais'y 

186 TJKOi 7845 av...4>dTiv.] 'The 

193] AIA2. 

xal Zet9 KttKav Kol <l>otj5o9 ^Apyelcov ^driv. 

€L S* vTro^aWofievoL 

KXeTTTOVcrt fivOov^ ol fieydXoi fiacrtX7J<i, 

/xt) fi^ /jb\ dpa^j €0* cSS' i<pdXoi<; KXia[aL<i 
ofifjL e^cov KaKav (jidriv aprj. 



facl of your having slain the flocks 
would prove nothing against your 
native disposition: /or the visitation 
of madness must come, if the gods 
^o will it; and that can pervert the 
very best disposition. If, however, 
this story is a mere slander invented 
by the Greeks, then may both Zeus 
,ind Phoebus shield you from their 

TJKoi av.] ^Must come:' cf. v. 88, 
fj-tvoifi dV, ' remain I must.^ 

187 Zcvs.] Since from Zeus came 
0^/Aai, those mysterious rumours 
which originate no one can tell how 
. — xXTjSivej (Aesch. P. V. 494), omi- 
nous sounds — <5/x0a£, divine utter- 
ances or intimations. Cf. //. viii. 
250 (when, in answer to the prayer 
of Odysseus, Zeus has sent an eagle), 
i^vQa. JIavofji.<paic{} Zrjvl pi^eaKou 'Ax^i.- 
ol, 'to Zeus, who speaks in every 
sign.' Cf. V. 824 se(i^. 

4>oipos.] As ' AiroTpbiraiot — ^AXe- 
^•t'/ca/cos — YlpoaraTripios. 

[88 el 8^, K.T.X.] The chorus have 
briefly considered the possibility of 
Ajax having done the deed in mad- 
ness (w. 172 — 187). They now re- 
vert to their original belief that he 
has not done it at' all. This belief 
is implied by the use of el with in- 
dicative : — ' but seeing that they are 
only slandering thee... arise,' &c. 

viropdXXo|JLevoi.] 'Fathering their 
ownlies upon thee :' lit., 'substituting' 
(falsehood for truth) — suggesting 
false charges. Eur. Ale. 639, fia- 
(TT(^ -yvvaiKbs aijs vire^Xridrjy Xddpa : 
Soph. 0. C. 794, t6 abv 5' 6.<pLKTai 
8evp VTr6^\r}Tou arofxa, 'suborned.' 

189 kX-^tttovo-i |xvdovs.] 'Spread 
furtive rumours :' cf. £/. 37, KXixpai 
...ipdlKovi acpaydi, ' to snatch lawful 
vengeance by stealth.' 

Pao-iXTjs.] Old Attic for ^aaiXeis: 
cf. nXarairji (Thuc.) &c. 

190 TJ ... 7€V€ds.] i. e. /3curt\^j. 
Schneid. x'^ '"^s, k. t. X. 

2i<rv(|>i8dv.] Anticleia, the mother 
of Odysseus, was with child by Sisy- 
phus when she married Laertes ; cf. 
Phil. 417, where Odysseus is called 
ovfiirSXrjTos HiaOcpov Aaeprlip, * the 
son of Sisyphus, put off upon Laer- 
tes.' Sisyphus, king of Corinth — 
6 K^p5i(rTos yiver i.p5pQv (//. VI. 153) 
— appears in early legends as the 
son of Aeolus, but in later, as the 
son of Autolycus, 5s dvOpuirovs iKe- 
Kaaro | KXerrToavvr) 6' 8pK(p re. (Oct. 
XIX. 395.) Both Laertes and Auto- 
lycus traced their descent from Her- 
mes, — 6s ye (pTjXrjTLou &i/a^, a.u(Si.Phes. 
•217. According to the legend, the 
dynasty of the Sisyphids was over- 
thrown! by the Heraclid Aletes, 
shortly after the return of the He- 
racleidae, — when Corinth, previous- 
ly Aeolic, became Dorian. 

191 |XTJ (!€... c|>dTiv 5pti] 'Do not 
win an evil name to my reproach.' 
fii/l /xe KaKhv-(pdTiv-&pri=p:.ri jxe Sia/Sd- 
Xys, a^rds 8ia^aXX6fj.€vo$. Cf. £1. 
l22,TdK€is-olixct}ydv (= ot/Acifeis) 'Aya- 
Hip-vova: Aesch. Suppl. 528, yivo% 
vi(a<Tov-eii(f)pov -alvov^ = ev4>p6pu}$ atvei : 
ib. 627, fiiiTTOTe KTlaaL-poav p-dyXov 
'Apr}r=fji.7iTroTe pody''Ap'ij. Cf. Madv. 
Synt. § 26 d. Dindorf and Lobeck 
understand an elision of /xoi. It is 
improbable that such an elision was 
ever admitted, except in otfioi. The 
passage Phil. 782, SiSoiKa p-ri p? dre- 
Xtjs evx"^, is easily explained by the 
ellipse of a verb governing the accus., 
{e. g. yikv-Q or irpoXlvg, ) the abrupt- 
ness suiting the speaker's agitation. 

KXwrCais. ] Dative, since 6/i/*' ^X"" 
= iir^x'^^- 




oXX' ava i^ eBpdvayv, oirov fiaKpaicovL 
aT7jpl^€L 7roT€ Ta3' ar/avLO) (T')(o\a 
arav ovpaviav <j)\eyQ}v. i-^^Opoov S* vfipi^ 
drap^rj'fo^; opfiaTCU 


194 — 200. The ^ira)56s, or sequel, 
in a lyric passage, to the regular ySi^ 
of strophe and antistrophe. Diony- 
sius Halicam., Uepl avvdiaewt 6vo- 
fidrup, c. xix. : ii> irdcaiz dec Tois 
CTpoipais T€ Kol dvTia-Tp6<pocs raj av- 
Tcts dyurydi ('measures') ^vXctrretv 
...vcpl 5^ rds KaXovfiivas iircfdoi/s 
dfKpdrepa (jn^Xos and pvdfxbv) Kivelv 
ravr (^cffTi. 

Metres of the epode : — 

V. 194. ctXX aua \ e^ e5/)a»'|a>»'|| 

oirov I fiaKpdl | cJvF | : dadlylic 

dimeter hypercatal. : iambic tri- 


V. 195. ffTTjpZ^eT iroT^ \ Td8\\ dyu}p\ 

TcJ I ax^^"" I • ^^^ same. 
V. 196. drdp I ovpdvi\av\\(p\eyu}v\ 

€xGp<av 5 j v^pis I : the same. 
V. 197. ard^OjSiyr 1 s op/xdrai \ : 
bacchius : epitritus. (iirlTpiTos 
= ' in the ratio of 4 to 3 :' /. <?. 
made up of a spondee, = 4 me- 
trical 'times,' and a trochee or 
iambus, =3 'times.') — An 'anti- 
spastic' verse : {dpTlairaaTb^^ 
'drawn in opposite directions', 
— a foot compounded of an iambus 
and a trochee, e. g. dfidpTTJfia.) 
V. 198. €v I evdvifioTs I pdaaaTs \ : 
choriambus and spondee, pre- 
ceded by €v as dvdKpovais or 
'backstroke,' ^preparatory to the 
rhythm getting under weigh). 
cCTTdurdJi/ I Kaxd^oPTwp | : the same 

as V. 197. 
V. 199. y\c!}a-<r\aTi pdpvd\y\iqTU}s\: 
same as v. 198, cp \ evapcfiois 
V. 200. €fx,\oiddxos €<rT\dK€P \ : the 

194 (jTrov...iroT4.] tibicunque tan- 
dem: — /. e. in whatever part of the 
ifXtWa or its precindls. — It would 

be wrong to join CTi\piXei ttot^, in 
the sense 'You have long been 
brooding': for iror^ always refers to 
some particular point in time, and 
could not alone express indefinite 
duration: e.g. del irore means, 'at 
any given moment from time imme- 
morial' — as we say, 'any time these 
hundred years': fUdes vot^, 'release 
me sometime or other '—/. e. ' at last '. 
But (TTTjpi^et. irori could not stand 
for del Trore a-rrjpl^ei. 

195 dYwvio) crxoXqi.] 'This pause' 
of many days ' from battle ' : — Ajax 
having shewn his sense of injury as 
Achilles does in the /tiad — by ab- 
senting himself from the battlefield, 
and leaving the Greeks to repent at 

196 drav ovpaviav ^Xiyav.] 
' Inflaming the heaven-sent plague'. 
The Chorus, in using this phrase, do 
not assume that Ajax is labouring 
under a madness which has impelled 
him to slay the herds. But they re- 
gard the fa(5l of his prolonged seclu- 
sion and despondency as a proof 
that sonie malign influence is woi'k- 
ing upomhim. Some god is pre- 
paring hre ruin by inflaming his 
resentmen\. He must arise and 
shake off" tl^ spell. 

ovpavCav.j 'Heaven-sent'. Others 
render — * making the flame of ruin 
blaze z/p to heaven'' — like Aesch. 
Suppl. 788, Iv^e 5' dp-cpdv ovpaviap ; 
and perhaps Pers. 574, dfi^odaop 
ovpdpC &XV' On the other hand, in 
Soph. Ant. 418, ru0a;j deipas ckt}- 
irrbp, ovpdpiop dxos, — oup. &xosa.ppa.- 
rQnt\y = delay poctop just before (v. 

198 €vav£|JkOis Poio-a-ais.] 'Breezy 
glens.' Even as an epithet of the 





wao<i apayyot, rrj^i AiavTO<;, 
yeved^ ')(6ovL(ov air ^Ep€')(6ei>BwVf 

sea, or of a harbour (Eur. Andr. 
746), ei-^vefios was more than a mere 
equivalent for vque/ios. In Theocri- 
tus (xxviii. 5), 7r\6oj eii^vefjioi meaxis 
not *a voyage without wind,' but *a 
voyage with gentle winds.' And 
here the meaning must surely be 
*cool, breezy glens,' rather than (as 
others take it) 'windless glens.' 
Cf. Od. XIX. 432, Tcrix'^^ i}v€tib€<T(Tai. 
For /Sacro-ats, cf. //. xxi. 449, 15t;s 
iv Kvr)/xoi<rt iroKvirT^xov ■uXrjiaa'rjs. 

200 fo-TttK6V.] Stands fixed, — 
* passes not away.' Lucian Z>m 
Syria c. 6, Kal a^L<n fieyaka irivdea 
tffTarai, Cf. V. 1084, dXX' iardTW 
/Ml Kal debs. 

201 — 595. This passage forms 
the iireifflSiov irpCbrov. See Arist. 
Poet. 12. 25, iireiaddiov 5^ fxipos 
Skov Tpaycfdias rb /xera^i/ bXuw xopt- 
KMv fieXCov : * an episode is all that 
part of a tragedy which comes be- 
tween whole choric songs.' There 
are in the Aj'ax three iveKrbSia^ se- 
parated by three (TTaai/xa fxiXr) : (i) 
vpQrov, 201 — 595: CTaai/xov irpiSroVf 
596—645 : (2) be&repovy 646—692 ; 
ffrdaifMov be&repou, 693 — 718 : (3) 
rplrov, 719 — 1 184: ffTd(Ti/xop Tpirou, 
I185 — 1222. 

201—262. This passage forms a 
KOfifibs: see Arist. Poet. 12. 25, 
KOfifibs 5i dprjvos Kotvos xopov Kal dirb 
ffKrivys: 'the Commos is a joint 
dirge, by the chorus, and from the 
stage'—/, e. between the chorus at 
the dvfiiXt] and the adlor on the Xo- 


£fiterTECME.ssA/rom the interior 
of the tent.— Vv. 201 — 262, 7^ Ma- 
riners of Ajax, sons of the Erech- 


theidae, sorrow is our portion who 
love the house of Telamon : Ajax 
lies vext with a turbid storm of 
frenzy. — Ch. And what deed of his 
has thus troubled the stillness of the 
past night? — T. In his madness he 
has been disgraced forever: — heaped 
within the tent thou mayest see the 

vidlims he has butchered Ch. 

Then the Greeks say true — and he 
— what can save him? — will they 
spare the slaughterer of their flocks? 
— T. Alas — thence, then — from the 
public pastures — came the captives 

that he tormented scourged 

butchered! — Ch. Nothing remains 
for us but shame and flight — the 
Atreidae threaten us fiercely — we 
shall be stoned to death by our 
master's side, whom a dire fate 
sways. — T. It sways him no longer: 
like a south gale, keen and short, 
his rage abates. And now he has 
the anguish of looking upon his own 
wild work. 

201 — 233. Tecmessa comes to 
tell the Chorus that Ajax has gone 
mad, and has wreaked his madness 
on some cattle which he brought to 
the tent. But she does not know 
that he stands accused of an on- 
slaught on the public flocks and 
herds. The Chorus perceive from 
her tidings that the current rumour 
is true : and Tecmessa learns from 
them that Ajax has incurred — not 
merely the disgrace of fatuous vio- 
lence — but peril from the anger of 
the Greeks. 

201 apwYoC] 'Mariners' of the 
ship of Ajax. Cf. w. 356, 565. 

202 "Y€V€ds . . .' Epcx6«tS«v.] * Of 


e'^ofiev GTovaya^ ol KyBofiepoc 
rod T€XafjLcovo<; rrjXodev olkov. 
vvv yap 6 BeLVcx; fxeya^i cofioKpaTTj^; 
Ata? Odkepcp 
KulraL ')(ei,[JioivL voar)aa<;, 


ri 8' ivrjWafCTai t^? yp6fila<; 

vv^ TjBe fiapo<;; 

True Tov ^pvyioco TeXevravTo^j 




lineage sprung from {dirS, sc. 7]ko^- 
cr]s dTrd) the Eredlheidae of the soil.' 
For genitive 7ej'eas, cf. //. XIX. 104, 
dvrjp. ..Twv dvdpQp ycveijs : Plato J^rot. 
p. 316 B, 'ATToWoSwpov vibs, olKias 
/xeydXT)^. — Madv. Synt § 54 c. 

*Ep€X.0€i8aiv] = 'Adrjpaiwv, — like 
the titles KeKpoirldai, — -rraides 'H0at- 
(TTOV, — iraides Kpavaov, or Kpavaoi, 
— etc. Similarly the Thebans are 
KaS/Jieioi, the Argives 'IvaxISai. — 
'Epex^6i;s {ip^x^^f to rend) or 'Epi- 
xOovLos, was a name borne by two 
Attic heroes, first distinguished by 
Plato [Critias p. no A), — Kinpo- 
ir6s re /cat 'Ep^x^eojs Kol 'i^pixGovlov. 
Eredlheus I. figures in legend 
as the son of Hephaestus and 
Ge and father of Pandion : he 
was reared by Athene — instituted 
the Panathenaea in her honour— 
and built her temple on the Acro- 
polis. Ere6lheus II., his grandson, 
was represented as the father of 
Cecrops, and as having instituted 
the worship of Demeter. — Salamis 
was independent till about 620 B.C., ' 
when it became subjedt to Megara. 
In 600 B.C. a war for its possession 
broke out between the Megarians 
and Athenians. The belligerents i 
finally referred the question to 
Sparta, when Salamis was adjudged 
to Athens and became an Attic 

X0ovf«v] = airoxOdvuv. Cf. O. C. 
g4'j,'Ap€os...'irdyov | iyu ^vvydr) xOo- 
V1.0V tirr, — i. e. iyx^p^ou. Hesych. 

s. V. quotes x^oy^ous ^Ivax^^o-i from 
a tragic poet. 

204 TTi\606V.] 6 TrjXdOev oIkos = 
6 TrjXe oTkos: cf. Track. 315, yh- 
vtjixa rCov iKeXdeu^rQv iKei: ib. 60J, 

^05 vvv ydp, K.T.X.] t. e. 6 
Trpdade deiv6s, k.t.\., vOv...K€iTai. 

conoKpaTTis.] * Rugged, :' lit., 
* crude, untamed in strength.' Cf. 
V. 548, w/toi rpbiTQi: v. 931, (i/x6- 

106 6oX€p(3...voo-»]<ras.] 'Stricl^- 
en with a turbid storm of frenzy'. 
voa-qija^, in an announcement of the 
calamity, is more forcible than vo- 

208 T£8€'...pdpos.] 'And by what 
heavy chance has the night been 
varied from its wonted stillness?' 
The Chorus, informed that Ajax is 
mad, next inquire how that mad- 
ness has manifested itself. 'And 
by what adl, done in the frenzy that 
you speak of, has he caused so great 
a commotion? What is this deed 
of which the Greeks are talking?' 

tjpeixCas.] Hennann, Lobeck, 
and Wunder, tt)s d/xepias : i. e. rl r^s 
i]/j,eptas {dipas) 17 vvKTepivrj iv/jWa- 
/crat; Schneidewin, ev/j.apLas. 

209 Papos.] ivrjWaKTai ^dpos 
= iv'r]X\. ^apetav evaWay'f]v. Cf. 
Track. 982, |8apos dTrXerov i/mpipo- 
veu (ppTju = ^apVTdrT]v pt.epLpi.vav /AC- 

210 TeXcvravTos.] Called Teu- 
thras by later poets. Cf. v. 488. 

220] AIAS. 

\ey\ eirel ere Xe;)^09 BovpiaXcoTov 
arep^a^; ave-)(eL 6ovpto<; Ata9' 
coar ovK av aiBpc^ VTreliroi^. 


TTcG? hrjTa Xeyo) \6yov dpp7)rov; 
Oavdro) yap L<rov ira6o<i ixTrevaeL 
fiavLa yap a\ov<i tjijXv o K\eiv6<i 
vv/CT€po<i AlW direXco^rjOrj. 
TOiavT dv lhoi<^ aKr}vrj<; evhov . 
')(eLpohdlKra a-^cuyC alfio^acprj, 
Keivov ^p7](TTijpLa rdvhpo^. 



^pvyCoio.] Person [ad Hec. 120) 
quotes the verse as Trat rov ^pvyiov 
aij TeXeiraPTos. Lobeck and Wun- 
der read ^pvyiov TcXci/rajros (quasi 
TeWeOravTos) : cf. Aesch. TAed. 
542, UapOefSTraios 'ApKcis: ib, 483, 
iTTTOfi^dovTOi axwo-'- Soph. frag. 
785, 'AXcpeai^oiav. — Dindorf, on 
^pvyioLo, remarks that Euripides 
;;ses the Ionic termination even in 
cnarii-: frag. Archelai 2, 8s ^k fie- 
\aix^p()Toi.o 'irXr]povTai 04pei \ Aldid- 
ttlSos yrjs. 

211 \i\o^ 8ovpidX<i)Tov.] *A 
spear- won consort' — a prisoner of 
war, adjudged to the conqueror as a 
slave, {vOi' S* etfj-i dovXr], v. 489), 
and chosen by him to be his concu- 
bine (pfieOveTis, V. 501), as opposed to 
Kovpioii) &X0X0S. Cf. Eur. £/. 479, 
dvaKTa....?Kau€s....Tii'5api, \ aa Xi- 
Xea, — 'thy spouse.' 

212 cTT^plas cive'xci..] Literally, 
'having formed an attachment to 
tliee, upholds thee' — /. e. ^\% constant 
in his love to thee.' Cf. Od. xix. 
1 1 1, 5s evdiKla^ avlxV'^'- — '"maintains 
just judgments:' Eur. Hec. 123, 
jidKXV^ I dvix'^v XiKTp^ * Ay a/xifivuv, 
' constant to tlae bed of Casandra :' 
Soph. 0. C. 674, arjduv rbu olvCjir 
dpixovaa KLuabv, — lit., 'upholding,' 
i. e. 'steadily patronising,' — 'con- 
stant to,' the ivy. 

213 vircCirois. ] *Not therefore 

without insight wilt thou hint:' i. e. 
although it is not to be expe(fled 
that you should have witnessed the 
deed of Ajax, you can probably 
make a good guess at its characfler. 

216 "Hfi^v.] El. I'll, Tov avToiv- 
Tr)v i]fxLv tv koItti trarpos, — 'the 
murderer — (woe is me) — .' 

217 air€X«pTJ0Tj. ] 'Became a 
wreck' — was marred in mind and 
ruined in fame. Cf. v. 367, otfxot 
yeXuros, olov v^pLadr]u &pa, says 
Ajax — 'alas, the ridicule — how have 
I been disgraced.'' 

vvKTCpos.] We should have ex- 
pedled — 6 /cXeiX'OS Afas vvKTepo$ dire- 
Xoj^Tjdr}. Tecmessa's first intention 
was to designate Ajax merely as 
6 KXetvos, 'our famous hero:' Afas 
is added by an afterthought, and 
out of its right place. Cf. v. 573, 

218 Toiavra.] Cf. v. 164, note. 

<rKT]VTJs.] Not necessarily a can- 
vas tent : see Eur. /on 806, CKTjvdi 
e's Ipds (of a temple) : Thuc. i. 89, 
OLKLai...iif ah icKi^vrjaav. 

220 o-<{)a'Yia...xpTi<rTT)pia.] ^Wc- 
i\vc[%... immolated by no hand but His.' 
XpWT-fjpLa, — offerings madq on con- 
sulting an oracle — brings out more 
definitely the irony of <T0d7ta, — in 
itself a vagus word. Cf. Aesch. 
T/ieb. 219, <T4)dyi.a KoX xPV<^tVP*-^\ 
dcolaw ^pdeiy. 






oiav iBrfKcixra^: avSpo'i aX6ovo<; wyyeXlav arXarov ovBe 

Twv fjL€yaX(ov AavatZv vtto Kky^o/JLevav, 225 

rav 6 fieya^ /jlvOo^ de^ec. 

ocfJLov (jio^ov/iac TO TTpoa-ipiTov. 7repL(f)avT0<; avrjp 
Oavelrai, irapaifkrjicTCd %6pt (TvyKoraKTa'^ 230 

KekaLvol^ ^i<f)eaLV jSoTo. koI fioTrjpa<; lirTrovoofjuaf;. 

V. 12 


232. Metres of the strophe: — 
oTdv I e5^\||w<ras | dv5pos\\ 
arrows I dyye\t\dv || arXcfTJov oiJ| 
5e <p€VKT\av\ : iambic monometer: 
trochaic ditto: da<flylic dimeter 
hypercatal. : iambic dimeter ca- 

225. Tcjv fjt.eya\\d)v Aa,pd\(j}v 
vTo I AcX^^o/zej'|a»'|: dadlylic te- 
trameter hypercatal. 

V. 226. rdv fieyds \ fivOoi a.e^\€i\ : 
choriambic dimeter hypercatal. 

Vv. 227, 8. oT/xoL I <po^ov/ji,\\aT to 
Trpo<Tepir\ov 'n€pX(()dvT\\os dvrjp 
iambic monometer: choriambic 
dimeter: bacchius. 

Vv. 229, 30. dcivelT\\al TrapaTr\iJKT\ 
(p X'^P^ crvy\KdTdKTds \ iambus: 
choriambic dimeter : bacchius. 

V. 231. KiXaTv\\oLS ^X<pecr\iv /3ora|| 
jcai j3or|^pas | r7r7ro|i'aJ/ids|: iam- 
bus: dadlylic dimeter: trochaic 
221 dv8p6s ..dyycXCav.] 

VIII. 15, ^s 5^ Td$ 'Ae-nvas. 

XLa TTji "Kiov d<piKV€'iTai : 

d^cia ydp <xov /3d|is, k.t.X. 
aCOovos.] * Fiery.' Cf. 

77ted. 442, dvTjp 5' iir' aiirip. 

riraKTai Xrjfxa: audi. I^Aes, 

6(av ydp dv/ip. — Jufrm — atdovos for 

aiduvoi. Cf. Theognis v. 481, rd 

v-fj^ocFL ylyverai ahxP'^- I^i Hes. 

0/)p. 361, the reading atdova \ifx6v 

is supported by Epigr. op. Aeschin. 

C^es. p. 184, Xi/xdv T aWuiva KparepSu 

t' iirdyovTCi "Aprja. So Atcrup, Al- 

ffovoi, — 'AKTaiuv, 'AKTalovos (Eur.). 

Others, aWoiros : but see Eustath. p. 

862, 10: (piperai atduv ^ovsKal<rl5i^' 

V. 998, 

[22, af- 

poi (cf. V. T47), Kal &v6pu7ro$ Kal Xiwv. 
aidoyp 5^ ovSeU avrdv XiyoiT &v, 
dXXa Toijvofia oivip fx^Xavt iTriTlOerat. 

223 ovBl <{>€VKTdv.] ' But not to 
be evaded,' — i. e. incontestably true. 
For ohU=6Xti. oii, cf. //. xxiv. 25, 
ip6' dWois pikv irdciv €7]pSav€v, ovd^ 
irod' '"S-p-rj: Thuc. IV. 86, oiiK itrl 
KttKip, iir iXevdepdxxei di. 

225 Ta!vp.e-YdXci)v AavcuSv.] *The 
mighty Greeks' — not the chiefs as 
opposed to the army in general, — 
but the mass of the Greeks as con- 
trasted with the small band of Sala- 
minians, who now feel that they 
stand apart, and must bear the 
brunt of a terrible public indigna- 

229'ir€pC<j)avTos...6av€iTtti.] 'The 
man will die a signal death' — i.e. 
will be stoned to death in public : cf. 
V. 254. Some critics dete<5l an un- 
conscious prophecy of the hero's 
death before the eyes of the audi- 
ence ; but this seems both far-fetched 
and prosaic. 

230 X€pi...|i<}>€(riv. The part 
{^i<p€(xip) in apposition with the 
whole: cf. v. 310, 6pv^i avXXa^up 
Xe/>^. — For plural ^itpeaip cf. Pind. P. 
IV. 431, ^pi^ov /jidxatpai : Eur. lou 
192, dpirais (the scimitar of Perseus:) 
II. F, 108, ^aKTpa: Aesch. A^. 

12^6, CKTITTTpa. 

231 KcXaivots.] * Dark-gleaming.' 
Cf. V. 147, aWwp cridrjpos: v. 1025, 
afoXoy KPwTiwp : Hes. 0pp. r 50, x*^" 
Ki^ §' dpyd^ovTO, fiiXas 5' ovk k<yK€ 
crldT]pos : //. XXIII. 850, loipra aldrj- 
pov. Others, *dark with blood,' as 




wfjLor KeWev KeWev ap rj^lv 
BecTfiwTiv ar/cov rjXvde iroifivav 
wv TTJv fiev €(7(0 (r(f>d^^ eVl yauai;, 
ra he irkevpOKOTrwv Sl'^ aveppijyvv. 
Slo 3* dpyL7roBa<i Kpiov<; dveXoov 
rov fiev Ke^aXrjV kclv yXcocrarav aKpav 
piirreL Oepiaa^i, top 6' opdov dv(o 


KeXaivh Xdyxa (probably) in Track. 
856. ] * Guiding ' or • tend- 
ing' the horses of the Greek army 
on the plains of the Scamander, — 
tTTTTo/tai'T^j Xeifuvp, V. 144. The 
word usu. = ' guiding' horses in the 
sense of riding or driving, g. g. Ar. 
N7.ib. 571, TOP 6^ linrovdixap 5j.../car- 
^X« I 7^s iridov — Poseidon Hip- 
pius, who was represented riding, 
or in a chariot. The old reading 
iirxov6fxovs violates the metre of the 
antistrophe, v, 255, a|7rXaTos | Tax^t. 

233 KciOcv.] *Alas, thejice, then, 
— from those pastures,' — &c. Tec- 
messa now learns for the first time 
that Ajax had taken his vidlims from 
the public flocks and herds. 

234 7roC(ivav...<Sv.] Thuc. III. 4, 
rh Tup'Adrjvaiwp vavTiKbv, ot uipfiovv 
iv Ty Ma\4q.. 

235 ("yvv.] *0f 
part, he cut the throats on the floor 
within; others, hacking their sides 
he tore asunder.' — iTrlyaias — where 
they stood upon the floor : while the 
other sheep, after having their sides 
gashed and hacked with the sword, 
were caught up and torn asunder 
with his hands. 

TJiv \Uv.] Sc. TToifivav. Thuc. I. 
2, T'^s 7^y 7] dpiffTT]. 

I<r(i>.] i. e. in the tent, — referring 
to the whole series of incidents that 
followed his arrival. Schneidewin 
joins law ^atpa^e, 'stabbed to the 
heart' {ir^Tr\r]yiJLai...ia-u}, Aesch. Ag. 
1314). But <r0dfetj'='to cut the 
throat;' cf. v. 298, 

237 8uo...Kpiov«.] The repre- 
sentatives, for Ajax, of Agamemnon 
and Menelaus, whom he always 
mentions together (w. 57, 389, 
445 ). Already, in his first onslaught, 
lie believed himself to have slain 
them (v. 57); but a madman would 
not remember this. 'Odysseus' (v. 
105) escaped altogether: for beforfe 
he had been flogged, Ajax was sum- 
moned forth by Athene (w. 105 — 
1 10) ; and, after the dialogue, Ajax 
slowly recovered his senses (vv. 
305, 6). 

dpYfiroSas.] 'White-footed.' dp- 
76s comes from the root APr, s/>/en- 
deo: cf. O. C. 670, dpy^% KoXwi/ij, 
'the white (chalky) hills of Colo- 
nus :' dpyivbeaaa KiKaaroi, Kd/ieipoi 
( Homer), * bright ' — conspicuously 
placed: irdXis iv apydeuri fxa(j-T<p 
(Find. P. IV. 14), of Cj'refie on its 
tableland conspicuous from the sea : 
' Apycvov<ra-aiy ' the gleaming islands * 
(cf. nitentes Cyclades, Hor.i. 14, 20). 
In Homer, ir<S5as dpyb^^ dpylirovi, 
no doubt = 'with glancing (/. g. swift) 

238 7X<3<r<rav dKpav.] Before 
flinging down the severed head, he 
cut off" the tongue's end. 7Xu><r<ra 
&Kpa could scarcely mean, like xpv/j.- 
v^ yXQaa-a in Homer, 'the tongue 
from its roots'. 

239 pfiTTci.] Most of the MSS. 
have piTTTet. Hermann prefers fd- 
TTTet, a.s =jactt, wherezLS pivT€i=/ac- 
tat. Lobeck, however, shews at 
length that 'pi.TTe7v was used indiffer- 
ently with pltrreip, and cannot be 

38 20<l>OKAEOTS [240 

KLOVt hri(Ta<i 240 

/jbeyav iTrTroBerrjv pvrfjpa \a0cov 
iraUi Xiyvpa /laarLyi BiTrXrj, 
KUKCL Bevpd^cov f)r}/jba6\ a Saifiaiv 
KovBeh dvBpwv iBlBa^ev. 

wpa TCP tJSt] Kapa KaXvfjb/jLaat Kpvyjrdpevov ttoBoZu Kkorrav 

distinguished from it as meaning 
either ' to throw often ' or * to throw 
violently.' After examining three 
alleged instances of a similar differ- 
ence in meaning, — (pvpo:, (pvpdoj — 
Kvo), KvQ — tt'ltvo}, ttltvO), — Lobeck 
concludes that such variations of 
form probably corresponded to vary- 
ing shades of sense, but to shades 
which the extant evidence does not 
enable us to define. 

dv«.] &.U0} was required to rein- 
force opdbv, since a quadruped is in 
the ordinary sense dpOos, ' upright, ' 
when it has all four legs on the 
ground. But Ajax lashed ii/> the 
ram by its fore feet, as if he were 
dealing with a human prisoner. 

240 K^ovt.] 'Af a pillar' (local 
dative): not ' :fo a pillar,' which 
would be TT/aos Kiova (v. io8), or irpbs 
Kiovi (Aesch. P. V. 15). 

241 pvTTJpa.] Schol. dtirXiLaas 
Tbv xaXij'6f. 

242 |JLd(m"yi.] Hence the title 
Mas fiacTTiyocpopos, — (since Ajax ap- 
pears at V. Q2 with the lash in his 
hand,) — under which this play is 
mentioned by Athenaeus, Zenobius, 
and Eustathius. In the didascaliae 
it is simply Afas. Dicaearchus calls 
it AtavTos OduaTos. The addition of 
p.a<XTLyo<p6pos was convenient as dis- 
tinguishing the tragedy of Sophocles 
from dramas concerning the Locrian 
Ajax, and also from ( i ) the A fas fiai- 
v6/j.evoi of Astydamas, a pupil of 
Isocrates: (2) the Afas of Theodec- 
tes, circ. 350 B.C., mentioned by 

Arist. J^/ie^. II. 23. Similarly the 
Hippolytns of Euripides was some- 
times distinguished as ore^ain^^opos: 
see Hippol. 1425. 

243 8cvvdt<ov.] Her. ix. 107, 
Trapd S^ TToio-t n^/)(r|7(rt ''yvvaiKhs Ka- 
kIco' aKovaaL d^uvos fx^yiarbs fori. 
— Hesych. o€vvb% (adje(ftive) = /faKo- 

8a£|x(ov.] The first intimation 
that Tecmessa shares the belief of 
the Chorus (vv. 172 — 185), and sur- 
mises that a irXTjyT] ck 6eov has fallen. 
Cf. the remark of the messenger in 
O. T. 1258, when he relates the 
finding of locasta by Oedipus in his 
frenzy — \v(T<jCjvti 8' avT(p daip.6puv 
deUpvai ris, \ ovbels 7A/) dudpQv. 

244 KovSels dvSpwv.] For df- 
Spdv^dvdpdJTTbiv, cf. V. 64 jzotf. — 
Hermann understands daifiujp Koiideh 
dvopQiv as meaning, ovhtU Salficjp Kai 
ovdeis dvdpQu. But in such ellipses 
oiJre (or more rarely ovdi,} — not /cat 
ou, — conne6ls the words : <r. g. Find. 
P. III. 54, ^pyoLS oUre ^ovXols : Lu- 
cian Asin. c. 22, -xfivaiov ovBk dpyi' 
piou ov8^ aWo ovdiv. 

245 Kctpa. . . Kpv\{rd}X€vov.] Not in 
order to avoid recognition, but as 
a mark of grief and shame. The 
Chorus are overwhelmed with shame 
at hearing the details of their chief's 
frenzy. iyKoKvirTeadai, — to cover 
the face, — was an ordinary mark of 
shame or grief : e. g. Aeschin. de 
Fals. Legal, p. 42, t& ye 8i} Karayi- 
Xacrra Trai'TeXcDs, ^0' oh ol avfnrp^ff- 
/Seis iP€Ka\''"pavTo: Dem. £pp. p. 


26o] AIAS. 39 

■fj 6oov €lp€a-la<; ^vyov k^ofjuevov 

irovTOTTOpQ) vai' fieOecvaL. 250 

TOLa^; epeaa-ovaiv aTreCka^; ZiKpareh ^ArpelBai 

KaO* rjfjLwv* 7r€(f>6^7]/jLac XcOoXeva-rov "A/ot; 

^vaXyelv fiera rovBe rvireU, tov alcr airXaro^ '^(^X^'" ^SS 


ov/ceri' XafiTTpa^ yap arep (rT€po7ra<i 
afa? 6^v(; v6to<; 0)9 \^y€L, 
Koi vvv (j>p6vLfM0<; vkov aXyo(; 6'^ec. 
TO yap iaXevaaeLv ol/cela irdOjjf 



1485. 9, TTJS ' Api(TToyelTovoi Kpl- 
crews dva/xvrjaO^VTes iyKa\6\f/acr6€ : 
PlditoP/iaed.p. 118 A, iyKaXvrl/dfxevos 
diriKkaov ijxavTov. Cf. Liv. IV. 12. 
Alulti ex plebe spe amissa. . xapitibus 
obvoliitis se in Tiberim praecipitave- 

iroSoiv.] The dual brings out the 
notion of the individual. In this 
flight each man must be for himself; 
it is to be a saiive qui pait. 

KXoirdv.] Eur. Or. \it(^(), ^kkK^- 
irreiv irdda. 

dpiarQai.] Aucft. /^/les. 54, aipe- 
(jdai (pvyrjv, fugam capessere. 

249 tvy^v 6t6|X€Vov.] ^vyhv cog- 
nate accus.: cf. Eur. O?'. 956, rpi- 
iroSa KadL^wv: Aesch. Ag. 176, aiX- 

250 ncOeivai.] 'Give her way' to 
the sliip. Cf. Eur. /rag: Phacth. 
V, 7, Kpovcra'i Tr\€vpav...6xt)P-(iTO}v, ix€- 
OrjKev, i. c. 'gave the horses their 
heads:' Virg. Aat. vi. i, classique 
immitlit habaias. 

251 Toias.] Cf. v. 164, note. 
4p£(r(rov(riv.] 'Ply.' Ant. 159, 

iir\Tiv ip4<T(ru}v : Aesch. T/ieb. 849, 
y6(t}p...ipi(TaeTe ttLtvXov. 

252 Tr€(j>6pT)jiai.] Cf. V. 139, 

253 XiGoXcvcTTOv "Apt].] 'Death 
by stoning,' — the doom of public cri- 
minals in the heroic age: //. ill. 57, 
17^ Kiv 7)87} I XctlVoj/ ^(Tcro x'T'wi'a (ca- 
Kuiv ^v^x Saaa iopya%: Aesch. Ag. 

1594, oH (p7]fx aX6^€iv...Tb (xbv Kdpa 
d7]/j.oppi<f>e?s, (Td(f>' t(xdt, XevcrifjLovs dpds. 

"Apt].] Caedem. Pind. Z*. XI. 55, 
Xpov'n^ <xvv "Apet \ Tri(f>vev re p.a.Tip(i 
6t}k^ t' Aiyiadov eu <pouais. 

255 ator'dirXaTos.] 'A fate of lonely 
horror.' The epithet dirXaros — often 
used in the general sense of 'terrible' 
— is peculiarly suitable to this con- 
text. The doom of Ajax is one 
which isolates him. None may take 
their stand beside him without dan- 
ger of expiating their sympathy with 
their lives. 

257 ovKCTi.] Sc. 7] fiavta ^x" °-'^' 

XafJiirpas "yap ... X-q^ci.} 'Like a 
keen south-gale, when it has rushed 
up without the lightning's glare, his 
rage aba^tes.' Cf. Seneca de Ira I. 
1 6, ventorum instar qui sine perti- 
nacia vehenieittes stmt : Hor. Od. I. 
7. 16, Albus nt obsairo deterget nu- 
bila each Saepe Notus, etc. Schnei- 
dewin quotes \\iyc\xs, frag. i. 7, who 
compares obstinate passion to the 
Thracian Boreas^ ' raging amid light- 
nings,' inrb (xrepoTrds (pXiyuv. 

260 olKcia irctOT].] ' Self-inflicfled' 
woes — oUeios implying, not merely 
that the suffering is confined to one- 
self, but that it has originated with 
oneself. Cf. £/. 215, oUeLas eli 
dras I ifirriiTTets, 'you incur woes of 
your own making' — brought upon 
you by your own imprudence. 


fnjB€Vo^ aXXov irapaTTpa^avTO^, 
fjueyaXa^ oBvva^ viroreivei. 

aW' €t ireiravTai,, Kapr av evrv')(eLV SoKoa' 
(fypovBov fyap rjBrj tov kukov fietcov X6709. 

irorepa S' dv, el vifiot Tt9 acpeaiVj Xdffoi<;, 
<l>tKov<; dvtcov avro^; i^Bova<; ex^t-Vt 
rj Kot,vb<; iv Koivotai Xxmelcrdat ^uva)v\ '^ 



562 uiroTcCvct.] *Lays sharp pangs 
to the soul.' Dem. de Synt. p. 172. 
24, Tus AirfSos vixiv vTTordvcov. 

■263 — 347. CA. Nay, all will soon 
be well, if the frenzy has departed. 
— T. But with its departure has come 
a sense of his own plight. Is it a 
gain that he should suffer as much 
as we do ? — CA. If his spirits are still 
prostrate, this must indeed be a 
stroke of heaven. But on what wise 
did the madness first attack him ? — 
7^ It was midnight when he took his 
sword and sallied alone. He brought 
home a captive train of sheep and 
oxen, and fell to slaying and tor- 
menting them, — then, rushing out, 
spoke wild words to a phantom, — 
on coming in, flung himself down 
among the carcases, and there slowly 
regained his reason. And now he is 
plunged in a sullen despair, ominous 
of some dreadful deed. Help me, 
good friends— come in and speak to 
him. — CA. Ill news, indeed, Tec- 
messa. — T. And worse may be in 
store — ^heard ye his shrieks — he calls 
for my child — for his brother — what 
can he mean?— C/^. Open there ! — 
Perchance our presence will restrain 
him. — T. Lo, I throw wide the doors: 
behold the man,— his deeds, and his 
own plight. 

263 KctpT av ciJtvxciv 8ok«.] 'I 
have good hopes that all may be 
well:' lit. 'that we probably (dv) are 
prosperous:' but c^ri/x^o'ai dp, 'that 

we shall prosper.' For Slv with pres. 
infin., cf. Xen. Ana^. ii. 5. 18, el 
iifias i^ovXSfJieda d.Tr6\i<raL,...airopeiv 
&v a-oi doKovfiev ; ' if we wished to de- 
stroy you, think you that we should 
(now) be at a loss ?' "^hereas d-Tropi)- 
cat dv would properly have corre- 
sponded to i^ovXifjdrjfiev dv : Xen. 
Mem. IV. 3. 15, SoKei /ioi oiJ5' h.v efs... 
Toi>s ^eoi)j d^iios ... afxet^eadai, 'I 
think that probably no one can,'— 
(it seems an adlual impossibility in 
the nature of things) : but dfiei^aaOai 
dv, ' that no one could ' (if he tried — 
implying that the experiment is yet 
to be made). Cf. Madv. Syjzt. § 173. 

264 X670S.] ' Account.' Cf. X6- 
yov ^X'^'-^i iroieiadcU tivos : iv "Kdycp 
ehai, etc. Soph. frag. 345, fi6x6ov 
ydp oCiSels rod trapeKObvTos \6yos. 

265 — 268 ir6T€pa 8* &v...|vv«v.] 
* You think that we are in better case 
because the frenzy of Ajax has passed 
off. But compare the a(5lual with 
the recent state of things. Then, his 
madness was painful for his friends 
to witness j but he, at least, revelled 
in his delusions. Now, we his friends 
are still full of grief and anxiety; while 
he, restored to consciousness, shares 
our feelings. Thus the sum-total of 
suffering is increased. There is dis- 
tress on both sides, and not on one 

267 Koiv^s Iv Kotvoi<ri.] *0r to 
suffer in their company, share for 
shared iv koivois, unnecessary to the 

277] AIAS. 

TO Toi hnrXd^oVf w fyvvaiy /jlcc^ov Ka/c6v, 

i^fMcU ap ov voaovvT€<; droofieaOa vvv. 

7rc59 TovT eXefa?; ov KaroiB* ottco^ Xiyei^;; 

dvrjp iKeLVO<;, rjviic rjv ev rfj voato, 
avTO^ fiev rjheB' olcnv ft^er' ev KaKOL<;, 
r)fj,d^ he T0U9 <j>povovPTa^ rjvia ^vvwv 9 
vvv S' Qj? eXrj^e Kavkirvevcre Trj<! vbaov^ 
Kelvo^ re Xvrrr} ird^ ekrjXaTai KaKrj 
7]/jLec<; 0^ 6/JL0i(0<; ovBev rjcraov rj irdpo<^. 
dp €<TTL ravra Sl<; too-' ef dirkwv Kaxd; 




sense, is added to enforce the idea of 
reciprocity: cf. v. 620, d<f)i\a trap 
d0i\ots: Phil. 633, f(ros (^v la on dvrip, 
' an equal dealer with my kind ;' so 
eKup CKdvTa, &c. Other instances 
may be noticed, (1) where the repe- 
tition has no special significance, but 
gives a general emphasis: v. 467, 
.^v/jLireauv fidpot fxbvois: Track. 613, 
Ovrripa Kaivi^ Kaivbv iv ireTrXthfiaTi: 
Her. II. 173, ev dpbvip crepivip cepivbv', 
(2) where the epithet is not merely 
repeated rhetorically, but is predi- 
cated with a distinc5l emphasis in each 
case, e.g. 735, via^ \ /Soi/Xds vioiciv 
iyKaTa^e6^a% rpdirois, — (where the 
change of principles and the change 
of condndt alike deserved notice.) 

268 TO SiirXdtov.] 'The double 
evil,' i.e. the case in which pain is 
felt on both sides— by the sufferer as 
well as by his friends. Zutr\6.^ov in- 
trans. : cf. rh ped^ou, Track. 144. 
So ladXuv^ * to be equal ' (Plato, etc. ) : 
Kapvbs\a.(ria^(j)v tup ip aXXais 
Xc^patj, Diod. Sic. IV. 84. 

269 i^ixcis ap', K.T.X.] 'Then are 
we losers now, though the plague is 
past.' TipLeis — *Ajax and we his 

friends :' ou poaoOvrcs — * though the 
hero's madness, — our common afflic- 
tion, — is past.' While it lasted, Ajax 
ivoaei literally: his friends ipdaovv in 
the figurative sense in which poaeiv 
is so often used, e.g. O. C. 765, Ka- 
Koiis I vocovvra. — vOj', emphatic: ^nmu 
— by this very change, which at first 
sight appears so happy.' 

dT(o|i€(rda.] Damno afficimur. 
Aesch. Suppl. 438 (when property 
has been pillaged), y^poir B.p dWa... 
aTTjs T€ fieffw Kal /x^y cpLTrXijcrai yi- 
/Aos, 'new wealth may be won, — 
greater than the /^jj,' &c. 

275 irds] = irdiTT;, TrarreXws. //. 
XI. 65, Tras 6' dpa xd\i«p I Xdfiire, 
* from head to foot (Hedlor) blazed 
in bronze.' 

4Xij\aTai.] * Is siraigktway haras- 
sed.' The tense expresses the sud- 
denness of the change. No sooner 
has he regained consciousness than 
he is plunged in grief. Cf. Plato 
Pkcudo p. 80 D, 17 5^ V^^X^ dpa.,.. 
diraWaTTOfJLipr} rov auip-aroi evdis 
8ia-ire(p6<xriTai Kal dirdXuXep. 

277 dpa]= ap' oi) : the notion being, 
' are you satisfied that such and such 




^vfiKfyrjfjbL Bi] (TOL Kal hehoiKa firj V Oeov 
irXr^yrj Ti<i rjKrj. ttco? 7«/o, et ireiravfjievo's 
fjbrjBiv TL fiaXXov rj voawv evf^palverai ; 


Tt? yap iroT ap')(^ rov KaKov Trpoaiirraro ; 
B^Xcoaov^ r]iuv roh ^vvaXyoua-cv Tv^a^^. 

airav fiaO^aet, rovpyov, (W9 kolvcovo'^ wv. 
Kelvo<; yap aKpa<i vvkto(;^ W^X ^^'^^poi' 



is the case?' z. e. *is it not the case?' 
Cf. ^ satin T (Terence, &c.) for non- 
ne satis? 

279 TJKT|.] i7K6t, proposed by Elms- 
ley, seems slightly less suitable than 
i)Kri. 5^5oLKa fxri 7JK€i= ' I fear it /las 
come ' {i. e. * I fear there can be no 
mistake about it '). dedoiKa /m^ 17/C77, 
* I fear it may have come,' — express- 
ing apprehension, but no certainty. 
Vague dread, rather than a mere 
statement of convidlion, might be 
looked for from the chorus at this 

ircGs 'Yclp...€v<}>paiV£Tai;] Before 
their interview with Tecmessa, the 
Chorus had already conjecKired that 
Ajax might be suffering a divine 
judgment (vv. 172 — 186). That be- 
lief is confirmed by Tecmessa's ac- 
count of the prostration and despair 
which have succeeded to his deliri- 
um. If his mind has not recovered 
a natural and healthy tone, now that 
the access of disease is past, what 
can be the reason ? Must it not be 
because that visitation was merely 
the prelude to a fuller punishment, 
destined to be worked out to the 

281 (OS (58' lx,6vTa)v.] *Thou art 
to know that even thus it stands' 

(/. e. that this is indeed the stroke of 
a god) : lit. ' You are to form your 
conviction on the understanding that 
these things are so.' Eur. Med. 1 3 1 1, 
lis oiiK^T^ 6yT0}v cQv riKvwv <pp6vTi^e 
5??: Xen. A7iab. i. 3. 6, ws iixov lovroi 
Bttt) du Kal Vfieis, ovTca ttjv yvwfnju 
l^ere. — Madv. Sy7zt. § i8i a, 2. 

282 irpocrt'irTaTo. ] Tecmessa hav- 
ing just said that this affliction is in- 
deed from the gods, the Chorus ask, 
' And in what strange guise first 
sxuooped the curse?' — irpoceirTaTO ap- 
propriately describing the descent of 
a debavTov KaKbv, a sudden plague, 
winged by some god to its aim. Cf 
Aesch. P. V. 662, debaavTov x'^i-f^^va 
...l)9eu /xoi...Trpoa^TrTaTo (lo speak- 
ing of the madness inflidled on her 
by Hera) : Eur. Ale. 420, ovk d<pvo} 
KUKbf rbSe \ irpocriTTTaT, i. e. this is 
no sudden, unlooked-for visitation. 

283 Tvx°'S-] Governed by 5^Xw- 
aov. ^vvaXydif Tvxas would be a 
corredl expression ; but the rhythm 
of the verse alone would decide in 
favour of the more natural construc- 

285 Yap.] Prefacing the narrative. 
Plato Prot. p. 320 C, doKei rolvw... 
/xvdov vjXLv X^yeLv. rjv yap 'iroTe...K.r.\. 

(XKpas vvkt6s.] * At dead of night.' 


292] aias. 

i/iaL€T e<y^o<; i^6hov<; epirevv Kevd<;. 
Kor^co Vt7rX7;crcra) koI Xiyco, rl yprifia Spa<;, 
Ata?; Tt TijvS* aK\7]T0'i 01)0* vir dyyekwv 
Kkt^Oei^ d(j)op/JLa<i irelpav ovre tov Kkvcov 
adXTTLyyof; ; dWd vvv ye Tra? euBet drpaTO^;. 
6 8' elire irpo^i fie jSm, del 8* v/jLvovfieva' ^ 



In reference to time, aKpos appears 
to have been used with two different 
notions: (i) ' mid^ — when the season 
is spoken of as being at its acme: 
e.g. Theocr. XI. 36, rvphi 5' ov Xeiirei 
jx' oUt iv 6^p€i, oijT h diribpq., \ ov 
Xei/xCovos dVpw: and so probably Find. 
I*. XI. 16, cLKpqi (rOu ecnripq., 'at fall 
of eventide:' (2) ^ incipient^ ox ' wan- 
ing, ' — i. e. on the edge, threshold (of 
night, &c.), — or at its uttermost 
verge: e.g. Arist. H.A. ix. 23, i, ou 
iracroj/ viKra, aXKh. tjjv aKpicrirepcv 
Kal irepl 6pdpov, at the close of even- 
ing, and the dawn of day: Theo- 
phrastus (circ. 320 B. c.) De Sig7t. 
Pluv. II. 782, aKpSvuxoi CLParoXal, 
Srau &p.a OvopL^vcp dvaTiWij, the ris- 
ing (of the star) at nightfall, soon 
after sunset : Hippocrates (circ. 430 
B.C.) Aphor. p. 723, ToO idv r\po% 
Kal aKpov rod dipovs, aestaie nova; 
Bekker Anecd. p. 372, 6.Kpbvv^' olov 
dpxr) T175 vvktSs. 

286 XaixirTTipcs.] Braziers raised 
on stands, in which pine wood was 
burned, at once for light and heat 
(06ws ifih r)8^ Oipeadai, Od. XIX. 64). 
See <9rt'. XVIII. 307, avTlKaXafjLTTTTJpas 
rpels 'iarraaav iv fieydpocaLu, \ 6(ppa 
(paelvoiev irepl 5^ ^v\a KdyKUPa 6rj- 
Kav...Kal 5^5as fier^pnayov. Odys- 
seus {il^. V. 343) stands full in the 
light of these braziers — xap Xapt.Trrrjp- 
<TL (paelvwp — that all may see him. 
The Xi^x^oy, or oil-lamp with a wick 
(6pva\\l$), was a later invention : 
Athenaeus xv. p. 700, oi> irakaihv 
evprifxa "Kijxvos' <p\oyl 5' ol iraXaiol 
TTJs T€ 5^5os Kal tQv dXKcop ^yXwi' 
txfiCivTo. Cf. Her. Vll. 215, irepl 
\iL)Xviav d(pds, i.e. *at nightfall:' Pro- 
pert. Eleg III. 8. I, ad extremas fu- 

erat mihi rixa lucernas. 

287 2yx°5.] Cf. V. 95, note. 

e|o8ovs ?pir€iv.] Madv. Synt. 
§26 a. 

289 cikXtitos, K.T.X.] Aesch. Cho. 
821, oxjK aKXrjTos dW vir dyy^\u}v: 
Soph. Track. 391, ovk ep.Q)v vw^ dy- 
yiXuv I dXX' avTbKXrjros. 

OV0' vir d-yYeXwv, ovVe, k.t.X.] ti 
aKXrjTos — oUre K\r]dels vir' dyy^Xcov, 
oUre kXvuv crdXiriyyos — d(pop/j.^i 
TTupav ; ' uncalled — neither summon- 
ed by messenger, nor, &c.' But if 
ovM had preceded vir dyy^Xcju, the 
meaning would have been, 'uncalled, 
a7id not summoned,' &c. "When the 
same notion is expressed, first in a 
positive, then in a negative form, 
ovM, not oCre, is used : e.g. v^os ov5^ 
yipwv iari, 'he is young and not old :' 
but with oijTe, 'he is {neither) young 
nor old. 

290 a(f>op|i.q,s 'n-€ipav.] The verb 
is intransitive, ireipav being the cog- 
nate accus. Cf. Plato Partn. p. 1 35 D, 
Koky] 7] 6pp.r] rlv bpixq.% : Dem. de Fals. 
Legal, p. 392, dirrjpa/xev npia^eiav: 
Soph. Track. 159, iroXXovs dyuvas 


ireipav.] 'Attack.' Cf. v. 1, nole. 
Tecmessa imputed to Ajax the pur- 
pose of attacking the Trojans, as ap- 
pears from her mention of the adX- 

291 cvSci.] Ajax sallied irepl irpG)- 
Tov vTTvov (Thuc. II. 2). 

2g7 vii.vov\i.iva.] Decantata. Schol. 
del 6pvXo6/j.eva vnb irdvTcov dvdpdi- 
irwv. Cf. Plato Rep. p. 549 E, Kal AXXa 
87) Saa Kal ola ^iXovaiv al yvpaiKes 
irepl TUP T010VTU3V vfxpfip. Terent. 
Phorm. III. 2. 10, cantilenam ean- 
dem canis. 


^vvai^ yvvai^l Koa/iov rj cny^ (f>€p€L 
Kaydo fiaOova e\r]^\ 6 B* ia-a-vdrj fi6vo<;. 
KCLi Ta<i eKel fiev ovk e^o) Xiyeiv iraOa^i* 
€(Tco 5' iaijXOe <Tvv8eT0v<i ajcov ofjuov 
ravpovf;, Kvva^ ^OTrjpa<;, evepov r dypav, 
Kcu TOv<; fiev rjv')(^evi^€, tou? 8' avco rpeircov 
€(T<f)a^€ Kappdj^^L^Cf Toif^ Be Bea-fiLov*; V 
fjKL^eff ware ^oora<; iv 7rolfivac,<; ttltvcov. 
T6\o9 S' V7ra^a<; Bca 6vpoou (Tklo, tlvI 
\6yov<: dvicnra Tov<i fiev ^ATpeiBoov Kara, 




?93 7wai|l K^(r)iov, k.t.X.] Arist. 
/?<?/. I. 13, ua-irep 6 TroirjTrjs etprjKC, 
yvpai^l Kda/xov ^ ffiyr] 0^pei. 
Cf. //. VI. 490 (Hecftor to Androma- 
che), dW etj oTkov lov<ra to, ffavTTJs 
ipya Kdfii^e. 

294 |Jia0ou<ra] * on this hint': — 
/, e. ' having perceived ' that he 
was in no mood for being ques- 

295 TcLs iKti-.-iraOas.] Detailed by 
Athene (vv. 55 — 63), and first learn- 
ed (in outline) by Tecmessa from 
the chorus (v. 233). 

297 Kvvas Ponfjpas.] Schol. icf! 
iv dvayvuiar^ov, — roiis iroL/JLeviKods k6- 
var oil yap duaipei /card rriv o-ktjvtjv 

evepov.] Hermann, Lobeck, and 
Wunder eijKepwv. But this term is 
anticipated by raipovs: and some 
mention of the flocks appears to be 

298 i|vx^vi?6...?o-4>at€.] * Some of 
them be beheaded; of others, he cut 
the back-bent throat.' a^x^v is pro- 
perly the upper or hinder part of the 
neck: Find. P. Ii. 172, iTavx^f tov 
^vyhv. The adlion of cutting off the 
head by a descending blow is con- 
trasted with that of cutting the throat 
(properly <T<t)ayf}). rpaxv^os {co/- 
lum), the whole neck, includes au- 
X'fjv {cervix) and acpayri {iugulum). 

dv« Tp^irtov.] Jl. I. 459, aS ^pvaav 
jxiv irpCoTa Kol i<r<f>a^av Kal ^decpav. 
The words dvu rpiiruv belong to 

?<r0afe only, and do not apply to 

300 «5<rT€] = u>(r7rf/j. Aesch. /*. V, 
465, wVt d,Tfj<rvpoi ix\')pix7]Kes: Soph. 
O.C. 343, tiVre irapdipoi: ^«/. 1033, 
wfl-re To^drai. 

<j>(STas.] (p6i often = 'a mortal 
wight,' as opposed to a god: in this 
place it is opposed to dijp, just as 
dv-qp is, V. 64, note. 

iroCjAvats.] V. 53, note. 

301 v-irqllas.] virby in compound 
verbs of motion, sometimes expresses 
forward movement: e.g. {jirdyeiv, *to 
move <?/?;' cf //. xxi. 68, inr^dpafxe 
Kal X(£/3€ yoijvtvv, 'rushed forivard 
and clasped his knees :' Find. P. IV. 
360, elpeaia 5' v7r€X(^pv<^£i' ... iK ira- 
\a/xdv, 'the rowing went on beneath 
their strokes.' 

(TKi^ TivC] Tecmessa remained 
in the tent ; the summons of Athene 
to Ajax (v. 89) was not for her ears; 
and from the wild words which she 
overheard Ajax speaking, she natu- 
rally inferred that he was raving to 
some phantom of his brain. The 
expression <TKid obviously supplies 
no argument for diroirTO^ (v. 15) 
meaning 'unseen. 

302 XoYovs dv^o-ira.] 'Began to 
blurt out speeches ' to a phantom : lit., 
'plucked forth' words, — ^jerked them 
out with abrupt, spasmodic vehem- 
ence, — a phrase denoting the wild, 
gusty incoherence of the vaunts made 
by Ajax: see vv. 91 — 116. Cf. Plato 

312] AIA2. 

ToiN? ^' afjL<l> 'OSfcrcre?, avvrideh yi\(ov ttoXvv, 
oarjv Kar avrayv vfipiv i/crlcraLT Icov 
KaireiT €'Tra^a<; av6L<; e? ^6fiov<; ttclXiv 
6/jL(j)pcov fioXif; 7ra)9 ^vv Xpoz/oo Ka6i<TTaTai, 
Koi 7r\rjp6<; ar7j<; &? BioTrrevet trreyo?, 
iraiaa^ Kapa ^Owv^ev* iv 8' ipeLirioL'i 
pcKpSv ipeKpOeU efer apvelov <f)dvov, 
KO/XTjv airpl^ ovv^L avWajSwv %6/3t. 
Kol TOP fiev ^(TTO irXelarov d(j)doyyo<; 'xpovov 
eireiT ifiol ra Belv eTrTjireiXrja cttt;, 




Tkeaet. p. 180 A, ujTcp iK <f)ap^Tpa^ 
prjfiaria-Kca alpcyfiaTwdrj dvacnrQvres 
diroTo^eiovaL: Menanderyhr^. 'PaTrt- 
^ofiiuTjs 7, irbdev ro&rovs dveaTdKaciv 
ovTOL Toiis \6yovs; 

303 o-uvTi0€ls "Y^wv.] ^Mingling 
many a vaunt, ' &c. Cf. Aesch. Suppl. 
62, vevdeT vioiKTOv oTktov, ... ffvvri- 
Orjai 5^ TraiSbs fiSpov^ where Her- 
mann : "nove dicflum videtur, ut sit 
' addit' — quod dici poterat ivridTja-i." 
This seems better than to render, — 
* mvefi^ing matter for much triumph :' 
avvTidivat yiXcora would be a much 
harsher phrase than <rvvTi6^vai X6- 

7A.WV.] An Attic form, used by 
the Tragedians only 7ne^ro cogente. 
Cf. V. 382, y€Kij}Q\ 

304 €KTi<raiTO.] Musgrave's kKri- 
ffoiTo was adopted by Elmsley. But, 
as Lobeck says, * The v^pis of Ajax 
upon his imaginary foes began with 
their captivity. When he was speak- 
ing these words to Athene, most of 
his prisoners had already been de- 
spatched; all had suffered violent ill- 
usage,' The optative serves to re- 
mind that the boast was a figment. 
Cf Madv. Synf, § 132. 

Uav.] Adding for the sake of 
giving stir and animation to the in- 
cident described: cf. Eur. BaccA.S44, 
ov 1X7] irpoaolacii X"P"> /Sa/cxeuacij 
y Iwv; Soph. FAt/. 353, x^ XiS^os 
/coX6s irpoariv, \ el rdirl Tpolq. irip- 
-/a/x* alprjaoip! Id) v. 

305 cTTcjIas.] iTn,—back. Cf. v. 437, 

rhv avrhv is rbvov \ Tpoias iveKOiiv, 
^ hzymg followed (my father) to the 
same Trojan ground.' 

306 )i6Xis irws.] ' In painful wise.' 
Cf. //. XIV. 104, fidXa TrcOj /xe KadUeOf 
* thou hast touched me in near sort :' 
/3. XII. 211, del TTws, 'almost always.' 

307 arr]s.] * His wild work.' Cf. 
v. 269, note. 

308 IpciirCots ... 4>6vov.] pcKpuv- 
ipenrlois apvelov (pbvov — Tots TreTrrw- 
Kbcn pcKpoTs Twv tpovevdeiadu dpvQu. 
Both veKpCov and <t>bvov depend on 
ipeLirlois, but peKpuu more closely 
than (l)bpov. Cf VlsitoFAaedr. p. 267 c, 
IlibXov piov(Te2a-\byo3v, 'the trope- 
treasures of Polus :' Aesch. Cho, 1 75, 
KapSlas-KXvddiviov | x°^Vh * the heart- 
surge of bitterness.' 

310 ow|t...x€pf.] The dative of 
the immediate instrument, 6vv^i, in 
apposition with a dative of the gene- 
ral instrument, x^P^'- cf. v. 2 3 1, X^P^- • ■ 
(TvyKaraKTas ... ^l<f>e(Ttv : Eur. Helen. 
373, tvv^t. ...yh\}u\ll(vae tpovlaiat 

3 1 1 Kal rhv ]Uvf k. r. X.] * And 
first, for long while,' &c. The po- 
sition of the article is singular. The 
thought in the writer's mind proba- ' 
bly was, KolThv ixkv ^aro d<f>6oyyos 

tQv xP^"^^' "^^^ ^^ — ^^^ ^^ '"'^ 
time — for the ot/ier. irXeiaTov came 
in as an afterthought. 

312 Td8€ivd...?'irTi.] *i^/^J/dread- 
ful threats.' Cf. v. 650, iyCi yhp, 6s 
rd. 5elw' iKapr^povv rbre, 'erst so 
wondrous firm :' Eur. FAoen. 180, 


el fJLTj ^avoir)v irav ro avvrvx^v iraOc^, 
KovjiQ^j ip TG) irpdy/JLaro'; KvpoLTrore, 
Korywj (j)l\oL, helaacra rov^eLpyaa-fJuivop 
eKe^a irav oo-ovirep i^rjTna-rdfJbrjv, 
\~6 B' €v6v<; €^(j)iJL(t)^ev ol/jLcoyd<; Xvypd<;, 
a? oviroT avTOV rrrpocrOev elai^Kova iyco. 
TTpo? yap KaKov re ko), I3apvylrv')(pv y6ov<; 
TocovaS' del ttot dvBpoi i^Tjyelr ^€%6ij/* 
aW' dylr6(j)7jTO<; o^icov K(OKVfiaT<ov 
inreareva^e ravpo^ W9 ^pv^oiiixevof;. 




TToO 5', Sj to. Seivoi ryd* i^v^pi^ei irb- 
Xet, * who menaces the city with all 
horrors:^ Soph. Track. 476, 6 5et- 
vhs i/xepoi, 'mosi strong love.' In 
such cases to, deiva, etc. = * those ter- 
rors which I remember so vividly.' 
The speaker communes aloud, as it 
were, with his own recollecflions, for- 
getting that they are not shared by 
the person whom he addresses, 

313 ^avoii\v.] Attic fut. opt. for 
^avoifii. The Attic form of the fut. 
opt. is found only in verbs of which 
the charadleristic letter is X, fi, v, or 
p: e.g. ayyeXoirjv, ipoirjv. For the 
tense, cf. v. 727, apKcaoi: Ant. 414, 
Kivdv dv8p' avi]p... I KaKOiaiv, etris... 
d<p€i8ifi(Toi: Phil, 353, tl TdirlTpola 
Uipyap,^ alp'Tjcroip,'' ld)P: ib. 376, ct 
Tap.h, Keivos SirX d(paipri(yoiT6 p,e. 
Porson {ad [lec. 84-2) condemns <pa.- 
volr]v, but without assigning grounds ; 
and proposes (paveLrj. 

€V T(3 irpdYfJiaTos.] Ci. v. 102, iroO 
r^xv^i note. 

<^iXoi.] As Hermann remarks, 
there is something piteous and ap- 
pealing in ' (piKoi ' — as if Tecmessa 
would deprecate blame for the in- 
cautious recital which had plunged 
Ajax in such grief. 

Tov|€ip7ao-[ji€vov.] *What he had 
already done.' A fresh outbreak 
might be provoked by refusal to 
comply with his request. 

316 t|T]irt(rTa|xt]v.] Knew certain- 
ly. Ci. V. 295, Kal ras inec p.ev ovk 
?Xw \iyeiv irddas. 

319 Trpcs •yctp... ?x.€''V.] ciel yap 
TTore i^TjyeiTo roco^ade yoovs ^x^'** 
{— elvai) vpbi KaKoG dvdpbs, 'be- 
longed to...' Schol. iScnrep yap <pa- 
fi^f, ' TO. dlKaia iroieif koXoO dvdpbs 

iX^h' OVTO} Kal TOVTO, Cf. O. T. 

709, p-dQ* ovv€K icrrl col \ jSporeicv 
oiiS^u pavTiKTis ^x°^ '^^X^'O^t 'learn 
tliat you have nothing in human 
affairs dependent on (lit., 'belong- 
ing to ') the art of divination.' Her. 
VI. 19, TO is Apydovs ^xov, quod at- 
iinet ad Argivos. 

PapvxjnJxov.] * Low - hearted ' — 
spiritless. Plut. de Tranquill. p. 
477 E, kv ddvppois Kal §apv6vplaLS 
Kal p.epip.vaLS : and so ^apvOvpLuadai. 

320 I^TjYCLTo.] 'He taught.' The 
word i^rjyda-dai, which implied au- 
thoritative exposition (as of the sa- 
cred law by its docflors), seems to 
suggest the submissive reverence with 
which Tecmessa received the utter- 
ances of her lord. 

321 d\}/6<})TJT0S . . . K<OKV}JI,a,TO)V. ] 0. C. 

677, dvrjve.p,Qs xei/xoij'ajv: ib. 786, Ka- 
Kuv avaros : Eur. Phoen. 324, c^ttc- 
ttXos (papiwv. — Madv. Synt. § 63. i. 

322 Pp-u)(^(y[j.€vos.] Aloaning. Hes. 
Theog. 832 ravpos epi^pvxv^' Tri- 
clinius adopted pvKwpepos. The word 
pLVKaadai had a somewhat larger 
sense, and was applicable to the 
mere lozvi7ig of oxen ; while ^pvxd- 
adai always implied an angry roar. 
Lobeck quotes Nonnus (Greek epic 
poet, circ. 500 a.d.) xxix. 311, 
^pvxTt^hv ip.vK'fjaavTO. — ^pip(I}p.€vo1t 

332] AIA2. 

iLV B' iv roiaBe Kei[jsevo<i fcaKfj Tvyj^ 
aaiTO^ av^pj airoTO^, iv fi€a-ot<; fioTolf; 
aihrjpoKfJLTjaLV ^au^o? OaKel irecroiiv. 
KoX BrjX6<; icTTiv (w? tl Bpacreioov KaKov, 
roLavra yap Wo)? koI \ij6i, KooSvperaL. 
a\X\ (o (pikoL, TOVTCOv yap ovv6k ioTaXrjVy 
dprj^ar elcr€k66vTe<;, el BvvaaOi ti. 
(pLXoDV yap oi ToiolBe vlkoovtuc \6yoL<;» 

TeK/JLTjaa-a Beiva ttul T€\evTavTo<i Xey6L<; 
i)fuVj TOP ai/Bpa Bi,aTre(f>oij3aa6aL KaKol<;. 




];as been conjedlured, on the ground 
iliat ^pvx(bix€vo% ('roaring') does 
not agree with u tt eo-r^j/afe ('groan- 
ed low''). But the leading notion 
of ppvxdifievos is that of </<?<?/, sullen 
tones, contrasted with d|^a KWKVixara. 
The fretful impatience which ^pifub- 
nepos ('snorting') implies, would 
;iiar the intended contrast. 

323 TonjSc] Emphatic: — such 
deep — such unprecedented adversity. 

324 doriTOS-.-airoTOS.] Od. iv. 788 
(Penelope anxious concerning the 
fate of Telemachus), K€it dp' dairos 
d-n-aaTOS idrjT^os ■^S^ ttottjos. 

PoTois-] 'Kine,' generally. Cf. 
V. 145, twU. 

325 <riST]pOK|XT|<riv.] Aesch. C/io. 
SfZiMc^' aXXv SovpiKfirjTi \a(f: Suppl. 
661, &p5poK/j.7]s X0170S. 

326 8t] Bpa<rd<av.] Ly- 
sias c. Eratosth. p. 128. 27, S^Xot 
^(reade ws dpyi^o/xeuoi : Xen. Anab. 
I. 5. 9, StJXos 171' KO/305 cIjj (Tirev^wv. 
In such cases ws is really redundant, 
and involves a confusion between 
two ways of speaking: (i) S^Xo's iari 
dpdffup, (2) Toiavra iroiei ws dpaauiv 
(with the ostensible intention of...). 

Spao-cicov.] Desideratives in aelu) 
are formed from the future of the 
original verb; e.^. yeXaaeiio, dypeiu, 
■To\€fjL7](Tel(j, Tv\pd(j3. (From these 
must be distinguished some verbs in 
-eluj which are not desideratives, but 

merely epic forms, e.g. Keiw, daXvelu}, 
oivo^apena, dKveiio, piyelu.) Deside- 
ratives in -aw are formed from sub- 
stantives, e. g. davaTaw, fiadijTidu}, 
aTparrjyi&u), tpovdu, &c. 

327 ToiavTa ircDS-] Taliafere: 
' to such vague purpose are his 
words — his sobs.' Xen. Cyr. iii. 3. 
7, ^Xe^ev S>M ir us €ls rb fiicov. Cf. 
V. 306, note. 

328 loTcCX-qv.] 'Such was my 
errand^'' — i.e. her self-imposed er- 

330 «j)£\wv -ydp, K.T.X.] 'When a 
man like Ajax is in grief, he will 
listen to the comrades who have 
shared his toils, though he would 
not brook advice from a Avoman or 
from a stranger.' Ct II. xi. 791 
(Nestor urging Patroclus to try if he 
can turn Achilles from his sullen 
anger), ris 5' olb' et Kfu ol ovv 5ai- 
fiovi dufibv dplvati I TrapeiiriLv ; dyadrj 
Si Tapaitpacrli iariv eralpov. 

331 TcXcvTttVTOs.] V. 210, nofe. 

332 8iairc<{>oipda-6ai.] * Has been 
demented' by his troubles. His frenzy 
has not proved to be a transient ma- 
lady, followed by a restoration to 
mental health. He has been taken 
possession of thoroughly and perma- 
nently (5ta7re0otj3o(rToi) by an evil 
influence, which is dire(5ling his 
thoughts to some fresh a(fl of vio- 
lence. It is these recent symptoms 


Ico flOl flOl, 




raxt ft'? eoLKCj fiaXXov* rj ovk r^Kovaare 
Alai/T09 oXav rrjv^e Owvaaeu ^orjv; 

l(t) fiol fioi. 



dv^p eoiKev rj vocretv, rj roh iraXat, 
voaijfJLacTL ^vvovac XvirelaOai irapcov. 




w/xot ToKaiv* 'EvpV(TaK6<;, d/jLcjn aol ^od. 
rl irore fjuevoLva ; irov ttot el ; raXaLv iyoo. 





— the gloom and despair in which 
Ajax is plunged — that shock the 
Chorus in Tecmessa's recital. The 
details of his frenzy were already 
known to them (233 — 244). Beyond 
this, they knew only that it had been 
succeeded by mental distress (v. 275). 
But now the particulars of that dis- 
tress confirm their worst fears. With- 
out doubt ' the stroke of a god has 
fallen' (see v. 278). — diair€<poL^dadat. 
From (poL^o^, 'bright,' 'pure,' come 
(i) <poL^a^(3), to prophesy, (rarely, 'to 
inspire,') <f>ot^ds, a prophetess (Eur.): 
di.a<t>OL^d^u}, to inspire with madness : 
(2) <poL^dw, to cleanse (0ot)3os, bright, 
pure) : d^oi^avroi, uncleansed, Aesch. 
£um. 228. 

334 |i.d\Xov.] So. 5ta0ot]3a(r^iJ(re- 

337 ttviip 2oiK€v...'irap(«v.] 'The 
man seems to be either mad, or vex- 
ed by the memories of madness, 
haunting him while he views its 
work :' lit., ' or vexed by his former 
frenzies, haunting him (luvoOcrt), while 

he is on the spot (irapdv) — in the 
presence of his own wild work — sur- 
rounded by his slaughtered vicSlims' 
(w. 351 — 2). The force of irapdjv 
is to express more vividly the close- 
ness of the confli(5l between Ajax 
and the thoughts with which he is 
wrestling, as it were, face to face. 
Compare V. 1131, toi)s davovras ovk 
iq.s ddtrreiv irapdiv, i. e. 'you are 
here in person — bodily present — to 
enforce your veto:' v. 11 56, dvhp 
ivovderei, irapdiv, 'thus chid he the 
man to his face.' 

340 Evpv<raK6s-] The first syl- 
lable of a dadlyl in the third place 
must ordinarily be either the last syl- 
lable of a word, or a monosyllable ; 
but the case of proper names is ex- 
cepted. Eurysaces was called after 
the same 'sevenfold shield' from 
which his father Ajax took the title 
of <ro/cecr06/3os : v. 576. 

341 irov iroT* et;] When Ajax 
returned to the tent in frenzy, Tec- 
messa had hastened to place the 




TevKpov koXq). ttov TevKpo^ ; rj rov elarael 
XeijXar^a-et ypovov ; iyco 8' dTroXXv/juac. 

dvrjp (f)povecu €OiK€V. aXX avoLyere. 
TCL-)^ av Tiv alhm koltt ifjuol /JXei^ra? Xa/Boi. 

ISoVy Bioiyco* 'TTpoa-pXeireLV 3' e^eari aoL 
TO, TOvBe TTpayr}, KavTO^ co? e^ft^v Kvpel. 


child out of his reach (v. 531), in the 
charge of attendants (v. 539). She 
is now terrified by the thought that 
Kurysaces may not have been re- 
moved to a safe distance. 

342 TcOKpov.] The half-brother 
of Ajax, being the son of Telamon 
hy Hesione, daughter of Laomedon 
(V. 1302). As Hesione had been the 
captive of Hercules, who gave her 
ta Telamon, Teucer is tauntingly 
called by Agamemnon 6 ^k t^s ai- 
X/J-aXiorLSos (v. 1228), * the son of the 
slave-woman.' The mother of Ajax 

IS Eriboea (v. 569). Ajax wished 
see Teucer, in order to commend 

nie child Eurysaces to his care: cf. 

V. 562. 

343 X€T]\aTTJ(r€i.] Teucer had gone 
on a foray among the uplands of the 
Mysian Olympus (v. 720); cf.v. 564, 
TrjXojirbs olxveT, dvafievCop d-qpav ^x^^- 
Thucydides (i. n) says of the Greeks 
at Troy, 'Even^after the arrival in 
the Troad they do not appear to have 
used the whole of their force, but to 
have engaged in tillage of the Cher- 
sonese and in forays {\ri(rTelai>), ow- 
ing to dearth of supplies.' 

344 (}>poveiv ?otK€v.] Since he re- 
members the cause of Teucer's ab- 
sence; and shews, by the words iyib 
5' airoWv/xai, a consciousness of his 
own situation. 

dvoiyfTf.] 'Open, there!' Cf. 
Ter. Adelph. iv. 4. 26, aperite, ali- 
quis: 'open, some one' (a person 
outside the door summoning the in- 


mates) : so Aesch. Cho. 862, dXV 
a.voi^ But as there is no one 
within but Ajax (too much excited 
to heed the summons), Tecmessa 
herself opens the door from the out- 

345 al8(o.] His wild cries for Eu- 
rysaces and Teucer led Tecmessa to 
fear some rash purpose, — rl irore /xe- 
voiv^; The Chorus hope to restrain 
and calm him. 

Kdir €p,ol p\et)/as.] 'E'en at the 
sight of me:' lit., 'e'en at me, on 
seeing me.' No example occurs of 
pXiireiv eiri tivl instead of vpo^ riva 
or e^s Tiva. 

347x0, TovSc irpd'YTi.] * The deeds 
of this man (the slaughtered cattle), 
and his own plight.' 

TAe interior of the tent is displayed 
by the eccyclema. A J AX is discovered 
amid the slaughtered cattle [Schol. 
evravda iKK^Kk-qixa. ri yiyverai. The 
eccyclema. was a semicircular stage, 
equal in diameter to the doorway in 
the back-scene through which it was 
swung forward, and to which it was 
attached at one side by hinges. The 
i^ibffTpa was probably a similar con- 
trivance for disclosing an upper cham- 
ber (uTrept^oj'). From V. 35 1 it appears 
certain that some stage-contrivance 
was employed to represent the havoc 
of which the tent had been the scene. 
Some attempt at indicating it would 
be essential to the effecfl of the tableau, 
and to the force of the opening lines.] 
Vv. 348 — 429. AJ. Alas, trusty 




<rTpo<pT] Cl • 


Im <f)L\oi vav/Sdrai, jjuovol ifioov (plXcoVy 
fjLovoL 6T e/jLfjLevovT6<; 6p6o) v6fl(p, 
iBeaOi fi olov apn Kv/JLa (1)olvui<; vtto ^d\r)<; 
dfjucpcBpofjiov KVKXelrai. 


OLfi do<; eoiKa? opOd fULpTvpelv ar/av. 
hrjkoZ Se Tovpyov 0)9 dcppovriaTco^ e;^€t. 



followers, in you alone I have a re- 
fuge from my miseries: come all and 
slay me. — C/ior. Hush, seek not to 
cure ill by ill. — Aj. See ye how the 
brave has been dishonoured — driven 
to rage against peaceful cattle ? — Tec. 
Ajax, my lord, speak not thus ! — Aj. 
Wretch that I am, who let villains 
escape, but fell on horned kine and 
goodly flocks ! Ah, son of Laertes, 
I warrant thou dost triumph. — CAor. 
As the god wills, each or triumphs 
or mourns. — Aj. O Zeus, grant me 
to be avenged, and die ! O thou 
darkness, my sole light, take me to 
dwell with thee : the daughter of 
Zeus, the strong goddess, torments 
me to the death. Paths by the 
waves and all old haunts around 
Troy, no more shall ye know Ajax, 
— once (for I will vaunt) first of the 
Greeks, — now prostrate in disho- 

348 — 429. This passage falls into 
3 pairs of strophe and antistrophe. 
In each, the lyrics belong to Ajax 
ifiiXr] dirb <TKr]VT]$, 'from the stage,' 
i.e. given by an adlor,— as opposed 
to xopiKot /jiiXr] from tlae orchestra) ; 
Tecmessa, or the Chorus, replying 
in trimeters. The regidar Commos, 
on the other hand, was a dialogue 
wholly lyrical: see v. 22 1, noU. 

348 — 355. Lyric metres of the 
first strophe : — 

Vv. 348, 9. ic5 {extra meirmn). 
<pX\ol vav^aral \ fiovoX e/jnov <pX- 

'\uv\ '. dochmiac dimeter. (The 
TTovs Sox/iios was properly an 
antispast with a long syllable - 
added, - — — : but admitted 
several varieties. ) 
V. 350. fiovoX €T ifx/xefovrlei opduj 

voix(^\ : the same. 
V. 351. XdeadX, K.T.X. iambic te- 
trameter. I 
V. 352. dfKpXdpofiov I KVKKeiTall : I 
choriambus : bacchius. 1 
350 6p0a) v6p,a).] *The law of 
lionesty,' — the upright rule of loyalty 
to friends. 

t8€<re€ ji* olov, K.T.X.] I e. tUadk 
f(.e, olov Kvfia /cu/cXetrat {fie). Aesch. 
F. V. 92, ideffd^ fji\ ola...Trd(TX^' 

4>oiv£as viro taX'HS'] ' Under 
stress of the deadly storm.' — i'dX?;, 
the tempestuous madness which has 
burst upon him like a storm ; — /cO/ta, 
— the blood shed under its influence, 
which has flowed around him and 
liemmed him in, leaving no escape 
but by death. — For ^a\r}, cf. Find. 
O. XII. 15, ol 5' aviapais dvriK^p- 
aavres ^ctXais | iaXbf ^adb irrjfiaTos 
iredafxeLxpav. — (poivia<s, ' deadly,' as in 
O. T. 23, 7r6Xis craXei/ei KavaKovtplaai 
Kdpa I §v9uiv ?r' oi'x ol'a re (poivlov- 
crdXov, * the deadly surge, ' i. e. the 
overwhelming pestilence. 
3!!;4 ^oiKas.] ct), TiKp.r}(r<Ta. 
355 SriXot Si, K.T.X.] ' The fadl 
proves that a wild hand was here :' 
lit., 'that it' (t6 ^pyov) 'is a case of 
madness,' id(ppovTl(TTws ix^h) "^^^ 




m yevo'i vata<; dpcoyov Te)(ya'i, . 

<Te TOL ae rot, fiovov BiBopxa tttj/jlovcov 
dKXd fj,6 a-vvBd'i^ov. 


€V(l>r)/jLa 9(wz/e4* firj kukov kukq) BcBov<^ 
clko<; irXiov to Trrj/jua Trj<; drrj^i rlOeL. 

er apKo<i ovt 



done in madness. — There are two 
obie<5lions to making Ajax the sub- 
je« to ?X"* (l) o.<pp6vTL<xTo$ is the 
epithet of the deed rather than of 
the doer: (2) Ajax is now sane; 
ojf^p ippovetv ioLKev, v. 344. 

TOiupYov.] Res ipsa, — as opposed 
to Tecmessa's fxapTvpla. Cf. Eur, 
Phoen. 501, vvv 5' ovQ'' S/xoiov oiiSh 
offr* i(rov ^poTocs | ttXtju ovofxda'ai 
(Pors. dpS/xaffLu), rb 6' '4pyov oix 
iffriv rbSe. 

356 'y^vos...dpa)7dv.] 'Ye mates 
staunch in seacraft.' Cf. v. 20T, 
vabs dpcjyol t'^s Atavros : (ret nauii- 
cae adtiiinistri :) Aesch. Pers. 380, 
TTos 6iVi:]p Ki!)Trr]s &va^ | ^s pavu exw- 
pei Tras 6' SirXuu ^TrtcrrctTTjs. 

357 7«voS"8s.] Cf. V. 235, 
'ir(Anvav...CI}v, and note. 

8$ oXtov ^pas.] The metre (v. 
350 pZvoX €T e/j.\/j.€vovT I ) requires 
either os aXidu \ e/3as ; or aXiov os 
fTJe/Say, — the reading adopted by 
Hermann, Lobeck, Schneidewin, 
Wimder, etc. — iir^lSas would mean 
conscendisti iiavcm. 

irXeCrav.] Palmidam renii, — the 
Odit-blade, — hence especially ivaXLa, 
oKla: O.C. 716: Eur. /Ar. 39, &c. 

360 Ht d'pKos OVT.] The word 
ApKOi (to) is used by Alcaeus, /ra^. 
• 5« 4 (Bergk.) M'dytttSe?, dpKos lax^' 
p<a /SAeus. — Two other readings de- 
serve remark : (1) ir-nixovav iwoLpKi- 
(roiT^,Wunder, Schneidewin. {2) ttoi- 
nhuv iirapKiaoPT. ' Schol. , /jlqvov tuv 
^fU ToifiaivdvTuu iirapKiaovra. But 
Lobeck renders — ' the destined helper 
o/tAy shepherd'' — icoLpAvtav meaning 

K'iavTo^, and k-KapKiaovra. standing 
for ^orjObv iabfievov, on the analogy 
of ol TrpocF-qKovrh twos, 17 rcKovci 
Tivos, etc. As Hermann, however, 
observes, the omission of the article 
makes an important difference ; and 
Lobeck allows that he can produce 
no instance exa(5lly analogous. 

361 ctXXd.] 'Come.' Find. O. 
VI. 38, c3 ^iiTts, dXXb. f^eD^ov ■fjSrj 
/iot adivos Tjp.ibvwv. 

362 KaKOv KaK(5...fiKos.] Seek 
not death as a remedy for misfor- 
tune — thereby bequeathing aggra- 
vated misfortune to your survivors. 
Cf Her. III. 53, ixT) Ti^ KaKQ rb 
KaKov IG), ( ' do not avenge your mo- 
ther's death by renouncing a throne'). 

363 TO inqfjLa rqs d'TTjs.] 'The 
bitterness of the doom.' Od. ill. 
152, iirl yap Zei>s -^prve Trrj/xa Ka- 
Koio : Soph. Phi/. 765, t6 ir^p-a 


364 — 374. Lyric metres of the 

second strophe : — 

V. 364. 6/3ds rov dpaavv \ rov ev- 
Kdpdiov I : dochmiac dimeter : 
see note at v. 348 on metre of 
vv. 348—9. 

V. 365. TQu tv ddioLS I arpearov 
/xaxaTs | : the same. 

V. 366. €u acpojioTs fit drjpali Seu>dy 
Xf pas I : . the same. 

V. 372. cj I dvapiopos I OS x^P''^ /^^"W 
fJL66iJK\d Tovs I dXdjT\opas \ : 
dadlylic dimeter hypercatal., with 
anacrusis {uoU at v. 172 on me- 
tre of V. 175) : iambic dimeter. 

^^' 374> 5' f'' 3 €\LK€<Ta\\X Pov(r\i Kai\ 
kXvtoTs I ireauv \\ aiTroXioTs\ : cho- 





O^p0(pT| p . 

opoi'; TOP Opaavv, rov evKapZiov, 

TOP iv BatoL<; arpearov iJLa')(av<^f 365 

iv a<p6j3oL<^ fie Orjpa-l Becvbv %e^<x9 ; 
Wfioi, 76\a)T09, olov vppLaOrjv apa. 
jjirjj hecTTTOT AtdX?, Xiaaofjuai a, avha raBe. 

ovK eKTo^; ; ovk a\jroppov i/cve/jbel iroBa ; 

alal alal. 370 


o3 7rpo9 Oeoov VTrecKe koX (f>p6vr)aov ev^ 

w Bva/jLopo';, 09 %6j0t yu-ez/ fJLeOrJKa tov<; aXd(7Topa<;, 


riambus : iambic dimeter : cho- 
V. 376. €p€iJ.v\ov aT/M\€d€va\a\ : iam- 
bic dimeter catal. 
364 6paorvv....€VKap8iov....dTp£- 
(TTOV.] 'Bold' in going to meet dan- 
ger; 'stout-hearted' when it looms 
near; 'intrepid' in its pi-esence. 

366 Iv.] Cf. V. 43, iv v/Miy, note: 
vv. 1092, 1315. 

a<j>6pois 6T]p(r£.] ' Unsuspedling' 
('peaceful') 'cattle.' — Others un- 
derstand &(po^oL dijpes to mean, 
' wild beasts which are not formida- 
ble,' — a sort of oxymoron, — 'wild 
beasts that are not wild or fierce ' — 
cicures bestiae. A lion might of course 
vbe called Q-t]p as opposed to a sheep. 
But any animal might be called drip 
as opposed to a human being. vSee . 
Aesch. Enm. 69, ah ou fiiypvTat | 
dewu Tis, OVK duOpuTTOi, ov8^ 6i]p troTe : 
Soph. /rag. 678, iv drjpaiv, iv ^po- 
Toia-iv, iv deoLs dvu). The contrast 
in question here is not between wild 
beasts and tame, but between brutes 
and men. Cf. v. 64, ws &vdpa$, oix 
ws efjKepcjv &ypav ^x^" • ^^''^ v. 300. 

367 'Ppior0T]v.] ' How then have 
I been disgraced !' Cf. v. 217, ttote. 

369 OVK Iktos ; OVK K.T.X.] In the 

corresponding verse of the anti- 
strophe (384), the'MSS. have 'ilSoipii 
vLv, Kai-rrep, k.t.\. correcfled by Din- 
dorf to tdoifMi fjt.7jv VLV, Kaiirep, k.t.X. 
Schneidewin, reading tbotfiiviv there, 
has OVK iKTbs dipoppov iKvept-ei Tooa 

dv{roppov.] Adverb. Cf. Track. 
go2, OTTOJS &.\poppov dvTcpr] Trarpi. 

€KV€ji€i irdSa.] Lit., 'guide your 
foot out of the way :' iKvefxeadai 
would naturally mean, 'to pasture 
upon (land) to the full,' — depasci : 
but is used here in that sense of 
'guiding' (away), which is proper to 
the a6live vip.eiv. Cf Find., 
iv txv€<nv...ibv irdda vi/xojv. For the 
poetical middle form, cf. O. C. 244, 
TrpoaopdaOai : El. 1059, icropdcrdai : 
ib. 892, KaTiUadai : Aesch. P. K 
43, dprjvetadaL : Pers. 62, ariveaOac : 
Bum. 357, auSao-^ai : ib. 339, a-Kti- 
Sea-dai : etc. 

372 ft*.] (S — like our O/i! — is an 
exclamation expressing surprise or 
joy or pain : w, a mere sign of the 
vocative, less emphatic than O/i!; 
also in the phrase t3 tt/jos deQv, in 
questions or with the imperative. 

379] ^ AIAt 

iv S' e\U€(7(n jSoval koI kXvtoU ireadbv aliroXloLs 

ipefivov alfi eSevaa, 


TL BrJT av aXyoir)<; iir i^€Cp<yaa/jL€V0L<i ; 

ov yap yevoLT av Tav0* 07r&)9 ov^ wB' €^€iy. 

itt> Trav& opwv, aTravTcov r del 


8vo-|iopos, 8s...] Miser, qui omi- 
seritn. 6s sometimes = Scrrts, just as 
t/ui with indie, sometimes occurs 
where we should have expected qui 
with eonjuncflive : Xen. Mem, iii. 5, 
1 5 (when will Athenians, like Spar- 
tans,) ■^ irpetx^uTipovs ald^aovTUL — ot 
dird Twv Trar^puu dpxouTaL Kara^po- 
veiv tQv yepatTepcjv — rj a-wfxacrKrjaov- 
aiv oiiTbis, ot ov fibvov eve^ias avrol 
afieXovciv, dXXct, k.t.X. : Cic. PJiil. 
IV. 5, Virtus est wia altissimis de- 
fixa radieibus, quae nunquam ulla 
vi labefatflari potest, nunquam de- 
moveri loco. 

X€pl |i^v. ] The iih at first sight 
appears misplaced. "We should have 
expelled — rot's n.kv a\A<jropa% x^pt 
fiedrJKa, roh 5^ ^oualu iviireaov. But 
the first thought in the speaker's 
mind perhaps was — toi>s aXdcrropas 
X^P^ f-^^ IJ-^SriKa, iroi/JLvwv 8^ Sia- 
^dopq, i^T]fx.iu3(ra : ' let off the Greeks 
in respedl of personal chastisement, 
and merely damaged them in pro- 
perty.^ He first intended to con- 
trast two modes of punishing the 
Greeks, but is led on to contrast 
vengeance on men with violence 
against cattle. 

375 kXvtois.] 'Goodly:' Od. ix. 
308, /cXuTtt /i^Xa. The epithet is 
not ironical. Like eOKepui in v. 64, 
it serves two purposes — to empha- 
size the insensate character of an 
outrage upon valuable property — 
and to suggest sympathy for the fate 
of fine animals. 

376 mva-a.] Cf. Find. .V. x. 
l^j, T^yyciv 5dKpva: Eur./. T. 160, 

fiiWo) Kparrjpa vdpalveip irrjyds 

re: Lycophron v. 1185, ^alvei xois : 
Liv. V. 16, aquam Albanam...emis' 

sam per agros rigabis. 

377 4ir' ^IcipYao-iievois.] (Why 
grieve) 'when the deed is past re- 
call?' Aesch. Ag. 1350, ^arrjKa S' 
^ifd' ?7rat(r' eV i^eipyacrfievois. iwi 
here does not mean * a/ter all is done,' 
'but 7i/it/t all done,' — denoting a 
present condition of the acflion dX- 
70177? &v. See Mr Paley's note to 
Aesch. Pers. 527, where he quotes 
Soph. Ant. 556, dXX' o6k iic'' dpprj- 
Tois ye Toii ifiois \6yois, (you shall 
not do so) ' witA my words unsaid :' 
Eur. Ion 228, iirl 5' d<y<pdKTot.s \ fi-fj- 
Xoi<ri..../U7j irdpire — 'enter not witA 
the vidhms unslain.' 

378 ov ydp Y^voiT &v...i\£iv.] 
A mixed construdlion compounded 
of (i) ovK Slv yivoLTO, Sttwj TttOra ovx 
w5e ^^ei: like O. T. 1058, o\)k Kv 
yivQiTo Tovd^ 8ir(i3S...ov cfyavQ Tovfxbv 
yivos : (2) ovk hv yivoiTo, ravra oux- 
c35e {d\\w%) ^x""-— Cf O. C. 385, 
^St; yap ^ax^^ i\ir[5' w s ifiou deoi/s | 
uSpav TLv' ^^eiv ; 

379 irdvG' 6p«v.] * All-observing,' 
— ever on the alert 'to snatch an 
occasion against his foes' (v. 2). — 
Morstadt (followed by Schneidewin) 
Trdvra dpuiv, i. e. iravovpyos. 

. dirdvTwv T6. ] dirdvTuv rc.KaKO- 
TTiviaTarbv re. — Elmsley contended 
that Greek idiom requires either irdu 
6' 6pQp...dTrdvTCi}u re: or irdvd^ bpdp 
...dirdvTiau 8L But irdv 6pu)v would 
naturally mean 'looking at ^///tiling' 
— not 'all-seeing.' And though 5^ 
was often used with a word repeated, 
{kiv€l Kpa8ir]p, KiveT 5^ X^^'^^t 'Unv. 
Med. 99,) it would be difficult to 
shew that it was indispensable in 
such cases. 


54 XO^OKAEOT^ [3 

KaKU)v opyavov, reKvov Aapriov, 3 

KaKOTTiveaTarov r aXTj/xa (rrparov, 
^ TTov TToXvv yeXcod^ v<f> i^8oprj<; ay€L<:, 

^vv To3 ^6&5 Tra? Kal 7eXa KcoBvpeTac, 

Xhoifxi firjv vcv, Kalirep twS' drwfievo^, 
1(6 fJLoi fioi. 385 

firjBev fJbiy etTrrj^. ovx opa^ Xv el kukov; 

0) Zeuj TTpoyopcov TTpoTrdrtop, ttcw? dv rbu aifJuvXooTaTov, 

380 Aaprfou.] V. i, nofe. 

381 aXriita.] « Knave.' Cf. v. 
103, Ktvados. Ant. 320, ot)tt' ds 
&\r)/j.a (alii X<£X'j/Aia) StjXoj' eKirecpVKos 
et As &kr}fAa from dAew ' to grind' 
com, so irai.TrdXrjft.a from xaiTrdXr^ 
(TrdWw), ' fine meal ' — the notion of 

finesse underlying both words. Aes- 
chin. de Fals. Legat. p. 33. 24, o, rt 
ii.y oZv 7]u irod' 6 KepKOj^ ij to jca- 
\o6fi€vov TranrdXTjfjt.a i^ to TraXlfx- 
/SoXoi' 7) TCL TOLavTa p-qixara, ovk 
ydcLV Trpbrepov : "I never knew be- 
fore what 'knave,' or 'shuffler,' or 
'weathercock,' or any such terms 

382 ifirov.] "I warrant.' Trach. 
846, ^ Trow 6Xo4 CTevet : Phil. 1 1 30, 
^ irov iXeLfov 6pq.z. 

iroXvv ^eXwTtt. . . fi-ycis. ] ' Laugh- 
est loud and loizg^ — &yeL^ implying 
sustained triumph. Cf. Eur. Or. 
182 (Eledtra to the Chorus) ktjJjtoj' 
yj-ydyeT'- oCx^ (nya...; &c. — Lit., 
' you have ^ept tip a noise ' (she had 
once before enjoined silence, v. 170). 

'Y^XwG'.] Suidas and one MS. 
yikoiv. But the 'Attic' form was 
used by the Tragedians only when 
metre compelled : cf. v. 303. 

383 ^w T<S Ocw.] ^iv Tot dei^ has 
been conjedlured, since the usual 
phrase is ^tii> 6eQ, ^i>v Beoh. On the 
other hand, 6 debs is sometimes used 
where no particular god is meant, 

but merely 'the god, whatever his 
name, who is always influencing a 
man's destiny at any given moment'; 
e. g. Eur. Helen. 7 1 r , c5 OiyaTcp, 6 
debs us i<pv Ti TTOiKiKov 1 Kal bvoTiK- 

384 tSoip [i-nv viv.] The MSS. 
give simply 1^ol[xI vlv: and in the 
strophe (v. 369) some editors omit • 
the second ovk : see v. 369, note. — 
Hermann, Woiijd vw vvv : Triclinius, 
5tJ vvv : Dindorf (1832) Uoiix\ l8oifii. 
Either fiTjv {'yet') or ftev suits the 
context better than vvv or S^. 

KaCircp cS8* dTtw(i,€vos.] Shattered 
as I am — (and I do not dispute that 
this is the will of the gods) — let me 
but have a chance of revenge. 

386 fjLTiSev ji^y' t^'^DS- Od. xxil. 
287, /A;/ iTOT€ 7rdfj.irav \ etKUV d(f>pa- 
Sltjs fieya fiVea', dXXd deoccn \ fivBov 
€TriTp4\fai: The9cr. x. 20, fi-qd^v /xiya 
fxvded: Flato P/iaedo p. 95 B, /utj p-iya 
X^7e, (referring to the words av p.01 
doKeis i^cvp-qcruv) fii] tis "ijpiv ^aaKa- 
vLa TrepiTp^xpTj tov Xdyov: 'say nothing 
presumptuous, lest some malign in- 
fluence render our discussion futile:' 
Soph. JSl. 830, fir}d^v p-iy* dvajis : 
Virg. A en. x. 547, Dixerat ilk ali- 
quid TCidignVim. 

Iv' d KaKoO.] Cf. V. 102, TToG tiJ- 
X^ys, note. 

387 irpoY^vwv wpoirdTwp.] Tela- 
mon, father of Ajax, was the son of 

395] AIA2. 

i^xPpov a\r)/iia, T01/9 re Bc(Tadp')(^a^ oXeaaa^ ^aatXrj^, 

riXo'i OdvocfML KavT6<;. 


orav KaT6V)(r) Tav6\ ojjlov Kaybol Oavelv 
&Lr)(pv' ri yap Bel ^rjv fjue crov reOvrjKoroii ; 

crTpO(f>i) y', 

Iw aKOTO^, ifxov (j)do<;, 
€p6^o<i CO (paevvoTarov, to? ifiol, 



Aeacus and Ende'is. Aeacus was 
the son of Zeus and Aegina. Cf. 
Alcaeus /rag. 48 (Bergk I'oe^. Lyr. 
p. 718), Kpovida PaaiXrjos yhoi ATav. 
— Cf.^«/.937, w 775s Qrj^rjs &JTV ira- 
rpi^ov I KoL 6eol irpoyeveis (Ares and 
Aphrodite, the parents of Harmonia, 
wife of Cadmus). 

iTiCsdv.] utinam. Cf. 0. C. 1099, 
(3 irdrep, Trdrep, | ris Slp BeOiv col 
t6v5^ dpiarop dV5p' ISeXu | 5oIt]; Phil. 
794, TTwj a.v a.vT ifioG \ rbv taou XP^' 
vop Tpi(f)Oi.Te TTjvSe tt]v vbaov; 

390 8io-o-dpxas.] Cf. V. 251, Zi- 
Kpareh. These epithets ought in 
stridlness to mean 'diversely ruling,' 
but hacapxci. ^aaiXeis is used merely 
in the sense of diaaol ^acrikels. — Cf. 
O. C. 1055, dta-rdXovs d5eX0ds, not — 
'sisters diversely journeying,' but 
* two sisters journeying (together) :' 
Eur. PJweii. 683, 8ii!}vu/j.oi deal, Hep- 
ffi<t>aa<xa Kal (p'Ckrj AafxdTrjpded, where 
the meaning is not — * two goddesses 
with contrasting names,' but simply, 
'two goddesses, each of whom is 
invoked.' Similarly in O. C. 718, 
iKaTdfxvoSes 'Nrjprjtdes, not ' the cen- 
tipede Nereids,' but 'the feet of a 
hundred Nereids.' 

391 6Xc<r(ras...0dvoip,i.] Aesch. 
CAo.4^0, iireiT iyCd vocrcpiaas dXai/xav. 

304 — 411. Lyric metres of the 
third strophe : — 
V. 394. i(d {extra metrum), 
ffKOTos epLov <pdds | : dochmiac mo- 
nometer : see note at v. 348 on 

metre of vv. 348, 9. 

V. 395. tpe^oi (J ^deuv\oTaTov (Js 
tfiol I : dochmiac dimeter. 

V. 396. eXead \ e\e<r^|| e fjLotKrJTopa \ : 
iambic monometer : dochmius. 

Vv. 397, 8. eXead\€ fiovT\e ydp\\ 
dewp yevos odd \ dp.epX(av \ : iambic 
tripodia : choriambic dimeter. 

Vv. 399, 400. €T d^l tbs I ^XZirelv \ tXv 
els I ovdcr \ Xv dvdp || coiruv | : iambic 
trimeter, followed by a trochee : 
'qui in fine trimetri additus est 
pes, numero videtur trochams 
semantus esse,' (Herm. Oed. Tyr. 
1328) — i.e. a-rj/xaPTos, 'marked,' 
' emphatic' 

Vv. 401, 2. dXXd ] fid AX\os\ : tro- 
chaic monometer hypercatal. 

dX/cri/id ^elos| : the same. 

bXedpX I aiKi^el \ : tribrach and mo- 
lossus, forming a dochmiac metre. 
(In the antistr. v. 420, a dacflyl, 
€V(f)popes, replaces the tribrach). 

V. 403. TTol tXs I ovp ^uvJT? I : tro- 
chaic monometer hypercatal. 

V. 404. The same. 

V. 405. €i rd I flip ^6Xp\\€T ^XX\oT 
TX(r\tt d\: trochaic monometer: 
trochaic penthemimer. 

V. 406. ofjLov I TreXeri , k.t.X. Iam- 
bic trimeter. 

Vv. 407, 8. Trdj 5e | crr/)aTos||5r7rdX- 
t|os du \ fie\ : iambic dimeter 

V. 409 x^^P'^ 001*1 euor: da(flyl and 
spondee {^Adwpiop fiirpop). 
395 «p«Pos.] 'Nether darkness.' 

56 SO^OKAEOTS [39^ 

eX^o-Q^ eXeaOi fi olKrjropa, 

ekeaOe /jl' ovre ^yap OeSv 761/09 ovd^ afxepLwD 

€T a^io<; pXeireLV tiv eU ovaavv dvOpcoircov, 

aWd fjb a Ato? 

akKCfxa 6eo<; 

oXeOpC aLKL^er 

nrol Tt9 ovv <pvyu; 

irol fioXoop fjLCvco \ 

el rd fiev (fyOlvei, (plXot, Ticrt? S 405 

In the ///ad and Odyssey "Epe/Sos is 
a general term for the nether gloom, 
— but distinguishable from dofios "Ai- 
00s, the adlual abode of the dead: 
(//. VIII. 367, eDr^ fjiiv eh 'AtSao 
TTvXdpTao TrpoHirefx^l/eu \ d^ovr'' i^ 'Ep^- 
^evi K^rva): — while Tdprapos is a 
lower abyss, Toaaou ^vepd' 'Atdeca 6<xov 
ovpav6$ i(TT^ dirb yairjs, 11. VIII. i6. — 
Later poets used the word in a gene- 
ral sense, e. g. ^pe^oi v<paKov, the 
darkness of the deep, Ant. 589. 

«S ^p.o£.] quo in loco res ineae 
sunt. — O. C. 10, /xaKpau yap, cos 
yipovTL, irpoV'JTdXrjs odou : Cic. Brut. 
10. 41, Themistocles insecutus est, — 
ut apud nos, perantiquus. 

396 olKtJTopa. Cf. V. 517. 

399 ovT€Ycip...dv0pco'n-<ov.] Ovk^tl 
yap cl'^ios {ei/xc) ^Xiireiu oiire (et's) deCov 
yiuos oCre els Suaalu riva ajxepLuiv dv- 
dpdiiruv. For the place of the pre; 
position, which governs 7^1^05 as well 
as 8va(Tiv, cf. Ant. 1 1 76, irdrepa ira- 
7-pyas ^ irphs o'lKeias xe/)6s ; Eur. Her. 
75 5» IJ-^XXu tSj iraTpLU}Tt.8os yds, \ 
/iAXw irepl tCjv do/xuv \ ...Kivbvvov re- 
ixeiv. — Hermann places a comma at 
^X^irecv, taking it as governing yivos, ' 
and making riv^ els 6va<Tiv dvOpdjiruu 
a separate clause. But d/xepicov surely 
agrees with dvdpdnrwv : cf. Ant. 790, 
d/xepluv iir^ dvOpuwiM'. — For the form 
of the sentence, Schneidewin com- 
pares Liv. XXII. 1 4, saepius nos 
quam deorum invocantium opem. 

401 aXXa |i.* a Ai6s.] Recalling 
the encouragement which Athene 
had given him in his onslaught, and 
for which he had expressed so much 

gratitude (vv. 92, 117), he now sees 
that this visitation is from her : cf. 
V. 451.^ 

d Aios.] Cf. V. 172, note. 

403 <})VYI1-] Conjuncft. delibera- 
tive, — usu. aorist, as here : Eur. Hec. 
I057> ""^ /3'^> "^^ gtQ, Tra kActcj; 
sometimes present, as //. i. 150, 
TTcGs tIs tol irpbcppwv ^Tre<np TreidrjTai 
'Axaiuv; aorist and present com- 
bined, Eur. Ion 758, etirunev if <Tt- 
y(2ixev ; 

404 fxoXwv.] O. C. 1747, atoii, 
VOL ixbXuifiev, cJ ZeO; El. 812, vvv bk 
TTOi fxe XPV l^oXeLv ; Virg. Georg. iv. 
504, Quid faceret? quo se rapta bis 
coniuge ferret ? 

405 €L rd |i^v...<|)OV€voi.] *For 
the old things {to. fiiv — my former 
name and fame) fade, my friends, — ' 
and therewith comes retribution 
{i. e. I have not only lost my old 
prestige, but at the same time in- 
currefl the vengeance of the Greeks); 
and I am the dupe of shadowy con- 
quests (his visionary triumphs over 
his enemies), — and all the host is 
ready to slay me with both arms.' 
Dindorf's text, thus rendered, falls 
into parallel clauses : — rh. \i.h> <p6ip€t 
('my old honours perish') answers 
to fidjpaLS dypais trpodKelfxeda : — rtcris 
iriXei ('vengeance is at hand') an- 
swers to (TTparbs du jxe <f>ove6oi. — 
Among the other readings, three may 
be noticed: — (i) Brunck, Lobeck, 
Schneidewin, Wunder, instead of tI' 
cTis 5' ofJLOv TT^Xei, read ro^ad* ofiov rri- 
Xas, i.e. '(my honours perish) along 
with these creatures near me' (the 

414] AIAS. 

o^jLov ireXec, fjboopac<; 5' aypaif; TrpoaKelfieda, 

TTu^ Be crrparo^ 8t7ra\To? dv fie 

;^ft/jl <f)OvevoL* 


w SvaraXaiva, Tolas' dvBpa '^(p^at/jLov 
(pcoveiVf a irpoaBev ovto<; ovk ctXt] ttot av, 


uc TTOpoi aXlppoOoc 

'jrapakd r dvrpa Kol vefjLO<i iiraiCTLOV, 

iTokvv TroXvv fie Bapcv re Brj v "- 



slain cattle). But roiad' leaves a 

syllable wanting, since el ra ixev 

(pdlv I et" xpXkol Tio-fs S 1 corresponds to 

\-. 423, e^tpeui fxey \ oTov ovTivd | . 

1 Icrmann's roioTad \ is on this ground 

jMcferable to rotas' . — (2) Ahrens, 

rots 56/AOU irAas, — /. e. to?s iyyvrara 

'i^vovi, To?s ffvyy6uoi$: '(old honours 

ae perishing) for the members of 

ny house.' — (3) Thiersch: rois 5' 

oO -yAws (for TrAas) fidjpais y 

i>ats TT p Kei/j-eda, — ' while to them 

\- enemies) I am a mark for scorn 

')ugh my folly,' &c. 

406 irpo(rK€C(i€6a.] Her. III. 34, 

TTj oe (pCkoivlri <ji <paaL irXeducos irpocT- 

Keeadai. The word was sometimes 

I'sed, like iyK€?/, of an engrossing 

trouble: e.g: El. 1040, y <ri> irpba- 

-iTai KaK(?. Cf. Eur. Helen. 269, 

rpopaU iyKclfxeda, incumbimus (i.e. 

amur in) malis. 

,08 8£ira\Tos.] 'With the force 
l)0th arms' — with all their might 
and main. Cf. Eur. /. T. 323, ws 
5' etSojLtey S^TraXra iroXe/xiuv ^l<i>-n, i. e. 
f -i:'o- handed sviox As. Others render — 
"hurling each two spears,' and un- 
rlerstand a diredl allusion to the 
Homeric custom of carrying a second 
spear (^X'^*' ^^<^ Sovpe, Od. I. 256). 
But the words xetpl ^ove^oi rather 
suggest the notion of death dealt at 
close quarters; andS^TraXroj express- 
es that the strength of both arms is 
]nit into the blow. — Cf. Aesch. Theb. 
D^^,TplTra\Ta Trifxara, 'woes hurled 

on us with triple force.' For the 
atflive sense of UttoKtos, cf. Ag. 1 1 5, 
Xep6s ^K SopiTaXTov. 

410 dvSpa xP'n<ri'H-o^*] 'A good 
man and true.' The epithet xpT7<ri/io»', 
weak at first sight, is in fadl most 
appropriate to the context. *How 
piteous to hear a man who never yet 
llinched at his post invoking death to 
release him — a good soldier appre- 
hending death from the comrades 
with whom he has served !' Cf. v. 
963 (Tecmessa anticipating how the 
Greeks will miss Ajax), faws rot,... 
OavbvT Slv olfJi(J!}^eiap iv XP^^V- Sop6s. — 
XprjO'ifios, x/o'JCTos, beyond their im- 
mediate sense of 'serviceable,' in- 
volved the notion of genuine worth 
and nobleness : cf. Eur. Phoen. 1741, 
rh xP'^<J't/J'-ov <pp€PcSv...€iK\€afi€ O-qaei. 
On the other hand axpi^i'os avijp 
(Hes. 0pp. 295) is opposed to iadXdi. 

411 ^oivilv.] Xen. Cyr. ii. 2. 3, 
TTJs T^xv^i ''■^ ^A'^ ^^^ K\r]6ivTa devpo 
Tvx^tvl Soph. Fh'l. 234, (pev, t6 
Kai Xa^eip | irpb<T<pd€yna roiovd' dv- 
5p6s... I— Madv. Synt. § 168 a 3. 

412 ir^potaXCppoeoi ] 'Paths by 
the wild waves' — not oz'er them, as 
in Aesch. Fers. 369, ^/cttXovj <pvXd<r' 
aecv Kal irdpovs aXtppodovs. 

414 8ap6v T6 St].] 'And very 
weary.' Plaut. M/l. 11. 6. 28 {supplt' 
cium) longiim diiitinurnqtie a mane 
ad vespernvi. — For 5?;, cf. //, XIX. 
85, -KoXXdKi H, 'full oh-: ib. vii. 
94, ^k U 5^, 'quite late:' Plato 

58 i:0<E)0KAE0T2 

KaTei')(eT djjL^l Tpolav '^popov aXX ov/ceTC fi\ ovk 

€T dfMirvoa'i e'^ovTa' tovto ti.^ <j>povQ}v lo-tco. 

to XKa/jbdvBpioL 

y6LT0V6<; poaX, 

€V(f>pove^ *Apy6L0i^, 

ov/cer avopa (jltj 

TovS* iBijr, eiTO'i 

e^epeco fiiy , olov ovriva 

Tpoia arpaTov Bep^dr] ')(6ovo^ fiokovT dirb 

'EiWavlSo<;' ravvv B' dTijMo^; 

cSSe TTpOKeLfiac. 


ovTot (T direlpyeiv ovB* ottco^ ew Xeyeiv 




Jiep. p. 338 B, avTiKa StJ /*a\a, * on 
the very spot.' 

415 OVKCTl (!,€.] Sc. Kadi^€T€. 

417 <J)povfiv.] Hor. Sai. 1. 5. 44, 
Nil ego contulerim iucundo sanus 

420 €v<]>pov€s'ApY£Cois<] 'Kindly 
to the Greeks' — as having so long 
refreshed their thirsty toils, and kept 
the plains green and cool around 
them. Cf. V. 862 (where Ajax is 
saying farewell to the landscape 
around him), — Kpr\va.l re iroranol 6' 
o'ide...xci.ipeT\ (S rpo^Tjs ifiol, 'fare- 
well, nourishers of my life.' — Two 
other meanings have been put on 
the phrase : — ( i ) ' Kindly to the 
Greeks my enemies, and therefore 
hostile to me,' — the fatal onslaught 
on the herds having been made on 
the plain of the Scamander. But 
this circumstance would have been 
a slender reason for quarrelling with 
the river itself, or assuming it to 
be the confederate of the Atreidae. 
— (2) 'No more, the allies of the 
Greeks, will ye see me'— /. <?. 'you 
will no more see me vidlorious be- 
side your favouring stream' — vidlo- 
rious by your favour. For this sense 
the comma at 'Apyelois should be 
removed ; but the explanation ap- 
pears farfetched. 

424 2iros l^cpcco n^-ya.] The boast 

recalls that of Achilles, //. xviii. 
104, dW r,fiai irapd. p-qvalv, irwaiov 
&xdo% dpoijprjs, I Toios iLov olos oihis 
'Axatwj' xaXKOxtrctij'w;' | eu ToKincp. 
But the apologetic phrase — iiros i^e- 
pi(j} fii'ya. — which modifies the boast 
of Ajax, shews that the chastening 
discipline of Athene has already 
begun to tell. 

427 irpoKCiixai.] Lie prostrate. 
Cf. vv. 323 — 5 : 1059, dapSvTes dv 
TrpoiiKelfMed^ atVxtory iu.6p({}. 

428 ovTOt...ov8€.] Dindorf and 
Elmsley, ov8i. Hermann, Lobeck, 
and most other editors oC re, with' 
the MSS. Elmsley {Edin. Reviexv 
vol. 18 p. 492) maintained that oi)5^, 
not oiJrc, always follows oijToi. Now, 
o\)K...ovM^ —, nor — are pro- 
perly used where the second clause 
is emphasized as stronger than the 
first, — e. g. Eur. H. F. 316, oUrot to 
deiXov, ou5^ ToO ^lov irddos, — 'not 
cowardice, no, nor desire of life:' 
//e/'. 64, oOtol ^Iq. y4 /t' o{/5^ to6<t8^ 
d^eis \a!3u}v — 'you shall not take 
me, — nor these either^ But where 
two clauses are stridtly on a par as 
regards emphasis, then o^Te...o^Te is 
used : and for this, in poetry, ov (or 
o^ToC) ... of/re is sometimes found : e. g. 
Od. IV. 566, o\) vi^erdi oUt dp x«i* 
/*d.i' 7roXi)s oOn TTor' 6p.^po%. 

434] AIA2. 

e)(0) KaKol^ TOLolahe o-v/jLTreTrrcjKora. 



aiar Tt9 av ttot weo coo eTrcovv/JLOv 
rov/jLcv ^vvolaeiv ovofia roi? e/ioi? KaKol<;; 
vvv yap TrdpecTTi koX ^t? ala^eiv efxpl 
KoX Tpi^' rocovTOL^ yap kukoU ivrvy^avco' 
OTOU iraTrjp puev ttJctS^ air 'ISata? ')^Qovo<^ 


430 — 524. Aj. Who could have 
foreseen that my name, formed from 
the accents of woe, was to be match- 
ed with a fate so woful ? Well may 
I repeat twice and three times these 
mournful syllables ; I, whose father 
from this land of Troy brought away 
tlie first meed of valour; but I his 
son, having wrought on the same 
field deeds not less, thus perisli dis- 
honoured by the Greeks. Had 
Achilles lived, his own lips would 
have adjudged the arms to none but 
me : but the Atreidae have juggled 
them into the hands of a villain. 
And bitterly should they have rued 
it, if sight and mind had not played 
me false,— if I had not been foiled 
and maddened by the stem-eyed, 
unconquered goddess. And now 
what am I to do ? return crestfallen 
to my father's presence ? rush alone 
to meet death among the Trojans? 
No, it rests for me to prove that at 
least in spirit I am a hero. One of 
two things the brave man seeks — 
a life of glory, or a glorious death. — 
Teem. O Ajax, my lord, in me also 
thou seest the force of destiny; but 
the fate that has made me thine has 
taught me to wish thee well ; and by 
the Zeus of our hearth, by the union 
that has joined thee and me, I im- 
plore thee not to leave me desolate. 
The last day of thy life will be the 
last of my freedom and of thy child's. 
And have pity on thy father's dreary 
age, — on thy mother, who prays 
often for thy return. Pity the son 
whom thou wilt leave to unloving 
guardians; pity me also, friendless 

but for thee. A noble nature holds 
to the memories of love. 

431 |vvoC(r€tv.] ^vfi^-qcreffdai — 
^wdpafxelu. Ar. ^^. 1232, Kal ixt]v 
c iX^y^ai ^oOXo/xat TeKfirjp'n^, \ et ti 
^vvoiaeLS toG 6eov rots decrcpdrois ; 
i. e. ' answer to the description in 
the oracle.' 

432 vvv *{t€iv..] 'For 
well may I now mourn — yea, twice 
and three times mourn — in the plain- 
tive syllables that shape my name.' 
The Greek pun could hardly be ren- 
dered with tragic effedl in Eng- 
lish. — Cf. Ant. no, Y[.o\vvdKov%\ 
dpdeh veiKiiav e^ d/jLcpcXoyuu : Soph. 

/ra^. 877, opdQs 5' 'Odvacreds €i,u'.i- 
TTivuvfios KaKois' \ TToWol jap wdv- 
aavTO Zvaix€veh ifjioi, — {ddv(r<Tofiai, — 
* have been wroth at me.' Plutarch 
{7jit. Nieiae r.) ridicules the notion 
of Timaeus (historian 280 B.C.) that 
the mutilation of the Hermae pre- 
figured the influence of the Syracu- 
san statesman Hermocrates in the 
fortunes of the Sicilian expedition — 
(t^ TrepcKOiry Tuiv^Epp-Qv Trpoa-r]fiaiv€iv 
rb daifioi'iov ws i;7r6 '^pfMOKparovs 
TrXeLffra rreiaovTai). 

433 TOIOVTOIS.] Cf. v. 164, 


434 Tranjp.] Telamon — Svhom 
a willing comrade, with the warriors 
of Tiryns, Alcmene's son brought 
over the sea to the tumult of bright 
arms at Troy, to punish the falseness 
of Laomedon' (Find. /. v. 38—42). 
For his services at Troy Tela- 
mon received the hand of Hesione, 
daughter of Laomedon, — bestowed 
upon him by Hercules as * a special 

6o 20<J)0KAE0TS 

Ta nrpwra KaWLareV apiarevaa^; a-rparov 
irpo'i oIkov TjXde iraa-av evKkeiccv (f>epcov' 
iya> S' 6 Kelvov iraU, tov avrov i<; tottov 
TpoLa<i iirekOwv ovk iXdacrovc aOevei, 
ovS" epya fielco %etpo? apKeaa<; i/J^rj';, 
arifio<; ^Apyeloccriv c58' aTroWvfMat. 
Kalroi Toaovrov y i^eirlo'Taa-dat Bokco, 
el ^cov 'A^^XXey? twp ottXcov toov wv Trepo 
/cplveiv efieWe KpdTO<i dpio-rela^ Ttvly 
OVK dp TC<; avT efiap'xjrev dWo<; dvT ifjiov. 
vvv S' avT ^ArpelSac cjicorl iravrovpyw <f)peva<i 
eirpa^av, dvBpb<; rods' dircocravTe'; Kpdrr], 




meed of honour' {^KKpiTov dcdprjixa, v. 

435 KaXXi(rT6i* dpicTTCuo-as.]' Hav- 
ing won the first prize for valour in 
all the host' — /caXXioreta cognate ac- 
cus. Cf. Her. ix. 33, viKg,p 'OXv/j.- 
TTidda {viKq^i/'OXiifXTta, Thuc. I. 126) 
* to Se winner in an Olympic contest' 
(instead of 'OXv/ttTridSa dveX^adai, 
Her. VI. 36) : and so dpfia vLKq.v, 
Pind. /. IV. 43 : Bockh Corp. Inscr. 
III. 193, a-T€(pd€ls vaypdrcov (cf. Hor. 
JSp/>. I. I. 50, coronari Olympia). 
We should have expedled either 
(i) T(i Trptor' dpiarevaas simply, as 
in V. 1300, or (2) ra /caXXtcrTCta dpd- 

437 T6irov...TpoCas.] 'The same 
place 0/ Troy,' — i.e. *the same 
place, viz. Troy.' Cf. O. T. 1134, 


438 eircXGwv.] Cf. v. 305 eira^as, 

439 cipK^o-as.] * Having done 
with this right ha.nd services not less:' 
dpKeiv here = iirapKe'ip [tcvL ti) , aliquid 
aliciii praestare. 

44 1 TOO-ovTov.] The forms Toaoxi- 
To, TOLOVTO are rare in tragedy : but 
see Aesch. P. V. 820, toiovto ixiv col 
TovTo (ppovpiop X^yw : and in Eum. 
182 TocoxJTo is usually read. 

443 ^p.€XX€v...^|i.ap\]/€V.] Theim- 
perfedl ifiapTrrep ought in stri(5lness 
to have followed ^/xeXXep: — 'If A- 

chilles were alive and about to ad- 
judge the prize, no one would get it 
{^fiapiTTep dp) before me.' Instead 
of this we have : — ' If Achilles were 
alive and about to adjudge the prize, 
no one would have got it {^^jxap^pcp 
dip) before me:' for Achilles being 
dead, the whole hypothesis belongs 
to the past. ' If he were alive and 
about to adjudge' is, in fact, merely 
a poetical way of saying, * If in his 
lifetime he had been called upon to 

442 Tcov ottXwv twv «5v.] De suis 
ipsius aj'jjiis, — concerning the right 
succession to which he might be 
fairly considered the best autho- 
rity. — <Zp. The possessive 6's (Epic 
eo's), never found in Attic prose, 
occurs a few times in tragedy ; e. g. 
Eur. Med. 955, eKyopoKXiP ofs, poste- 
ris suis: Soph. O. T. 1248, rors olaiv 
avTov, sins ipsius {natis). 

444 avT*€Hov.] So Aesch. /*. V. 
475, oijTLS dXXos air' kp-ov'. Soph. 
O. C. 488, Afet TiS aXXos dpTl gov. 

446 '^irpa^av <j>a)Ti.] 'Have 

compassed them for an all-daring 
schemer.' Literally 'have managed 
them' for him, — irpdaaeip conveying 
the idea of intrigue, ^f Thuc. i. 
57, ^TTpaacrop ottojs Tr6Xep.os yiptjTai: 
Soph, O. T. 125, dTip.T] Ixjp dpyO- 
pip I iirpdaaer' ipdipd': Her. III. 61, 
dpaypdoaas . . . COS oi aurbs irdpTa 8ia- 

455] • ^ AIM 

Kel fi-q To8' o/jL/jia Kal (j>piv6<; ^Laarpo^oL 
yvc6fjL7)<i aTrfj^av T779 e/x^?, ovfc av Trore 
Bt/C7]v Kar aWov (j>coTO<; wS' iyfr^cpiaav. 
vvv S' 77 A to? 'yopyci)7rc<; aZd^aro^ Oea 

€(7(p7)\ev ifjL/3a\ovo-a XvaaooBr} v6(T0Vj 
(ocTT fcV ToiotaBe '^elpa^; alfxa^au ^oToZ<i* 
KelvoL 8' eTreyyeXwaiv eKTre^euyore^, 
ifjLov fjLev ov')(^ e/c6vro<;' el Be Ti9 deoov 




Trprj^ei, 'having persuaded (Smerdis) 
that he will himself manage every- 
thing for him' (/. e. carry through 
the plot for placing him on the Per- 
sian throne). 

dir<o<ravT€S Kpdrrj. ] ' And have 
disallowed the high deeds' of Ajax. 
— KpaTT}, like the plural laudes: Cic. 
Off. I. 22, abiindans bellicis latidibus. 
l*or other senses of KpaTTj, cf. Ai. 
roi6, Kp6.Tr}...Kai ddfj-ov^, '(royal) 
^Prerogatives and palace': Ant. 485, 
d TttOr' dvart T^5e Keicrerai Kpdrri, — 
' these high-handed deeds. ' 

448 7V«|JLT]s dirfilav.] 'Swerved 
from my true purpose,' — r^j ^/*^s, 
'my own, my true purpose' — op- 
]X)sedtothe dv(y<popoi yvQ/xai (v. 51), 
'the vexing fantasies,' with which 
Athene had mocked his sight and 
foiled his plans, — 'turning his rage 
aside' {iKTp^iru}, v. 53) on the 

449 KttT dXXov cfwoTos.] Cf. //. 
I. 232, eTrei o{iTLSapo?<riv dvdcraeis' y 
y^p Slv, 'Arpeidr], vvv varara Xw- 

8£KT|v...€\|n]<j>i{rav.] ' Have given 
sentence.' The adlive \l/7]<pl^eiv 
usually means to reckon, calcu- 
late: e.g. Polyb. V. 26. 13, ('the 
value of pieces on a draught-board 
can be changed') /card Tr]v rov \}/7}- 
(pi^ovTos ^ovkr)<nv, 'at the pleasure 
of the reckoner.' But here, as some- 
times in late Greek, \pt}(f)i^€(.v=\pr}- 
<pil^€<rdai, to give a vote or sentence. 
The simple verb could hardly stand 
for ^TTixpriipl^dv, 'to put the ques- 

tion to the vote,' — (said of the pre- 
siding magistrate, riyefiCov diKaarr)- 
piov). — For dlKTjv ^rj(p., cf. Isaeus de 
Pyrrhihered. p. 38. 32, tois trepX av- 
Tov toCtov Tr)v 5iKr]v fi^Wovcri \{/r]^i- 

450 vvv 8*.] 'As it was' — con- 
trasting the actual case with what 
might have been. Cf. O. T. 984, 
KttXws ciiravTa tuut'' Slv e^eiprjrd /xoi,\ 
el /XT} 'Kvpei ^Coa' t) reKOvaa' vvv 6', 
eTrei \ ^y, ttSct' dvdyKT]...6Kvetv. 

1] Aios.] Cf. V. 172, note. 

d8d)j,aT0S.] Cf. v. 952, r/ deivi] 
deSs : V. 401, aXKLfia 6e6s. — dSd/idros. 
In verbal adjedlives, the Ionic and 
Attic dialecfls sometimes drop the <r 
of the I St aorist: e. g. dya.Tb% for 
dya<jT()%y Homer, hymn. Apoll. 515; 
Oav/xdrds, Find. O. I. 43 : ivKTiroi, 
II. II. 592 : K\a.vTb% (See Lobeck, 
Ajax^ V. 704) : <5>'ot(5s, Pind. /. iv. 


451 eirevTvvovTa.] 'Making rea- 
dy' my hand. Oppian Hal. v. 562, 
^5?; ydp beK((H<nv iTrevTvvovaLV dprja. — 
Valcknar, eTrevdvvovra: others CTre/c- 
Teivovra or iTrevTeivovra. 

453 €V.] Cf. V. 43, note. 

TOtoio-Sc.poTots.] 'These poor 
cattle:' cf. v. 336, d06/Sots dTjpai, 
note. — ^oTois in a general sense, as 
V. 324. Cf. V. 145, note. 

455 €|xov ^iiv] = ifJiov yovv. Cf. v. 
l2i,(Tts &v aoL...TrpovovaTepos...7)bpi- 
6t];) — OA. iyu fx^v ovdiv^ ol8\ Ant. 
634 (Creon to his son Haemon — 
^ zxQ you angry with me too?') — ^ 
<Toi fxiv Tj/xeU vavraxv SpQvres <pL\oi; 


/SXaTTTOt, <^vyoi rav ')((£> KaK6<; rov Kpelaa-ova. 
KoX vvv ri ypr\ Bpdv ; ocrrt? ifi^avco<i 6€ol<; 
i')^9aipojJLat, iMLcrel Be /jl ^KXXrjvcov <npaTo<;, 
e')(6eL Be Tpola iraaa koX ireBia rdBe. 
TTorepa Trpo? oIkov^^ vavk6-)(ov^ Xlttcov eSpa? 
fxovov^ T ^ArpelBa^, iTe\a^o<; Alyalov irepco J 
Kol TTolov ofjL/jLa TTarpl BrjXaxTO) (paveU 
Te\a/jLoovc; ttoo? /^e TkrjaeTai ttot elcnBelv 
yvfivov (f)avevTa rociv dptarelcov drep, 


460 i 

4 56 €1 8€ . . . pXdiTTOi. ] ' But if the 
hand of a god should arrest.'' Cf. 
EL 696, orav M Tis deQff | ^XdirTrj, 
dvvcuT^ S.J' oyS' B.U tcrxi^wf <f)vyeiv. — 
^-XdiTTOi}, (AAB, XafJL^dvo},) = ' to lay 
hold upon :' ' to retard, impede :' 
<?. ^. 11. VI. 39, 5fv kvl ^\a(pd^vT€ 
fivpiKlvcp, (the two horses) caught in 
a tamarisk bough: Aesch. Ag. 119 
(a hare) ^Xa^ivra XoiadLuv bpbjxwv, 
stopped from its swiftness for ever. 

457 t£ xPT Spdv; ^o-ns, k.t.X.] 
So. efii, 6aTis. Cf. O. C. 26^, Kafioi 
ye TTOV ravT^ iariv; otrive^ ^ddpu}v\ 
iK TU}vd4 At' i^dpavres elr' iXavfcre; 
i. e. Kal ifx^ye tL Vfiets (hcpeXeiTe, ot- 
Tives, K.T.X. 

458lx.0aipo|Jiai...(j.i(rei 8e fi,] Plato 
Euthyd. p. 301 E, a/9' olv...Ta.vTa. 
ijyei (TO. eluai <Su Siu dp^V^ ical i^y 
coi avToh xpW^^'-'i — Madv. Synt. 
§ 104 b. 

459 Tpofa irS.cra. Kal TrcSCa.] 

*A11 Troy and all these plains:' 
Tpola Ta(Ta = Trdi'T€s ol TpCoes: — 7re- 
dia rdde, the soil itself, — the Earth, 
— regarded as resenting the mad 
violence which had poured the blood 
of harmless vidlims into her bosom. 
— As to the tribrach in the 5 th foot, 
cf. /%//. 1303, tL pi' &u8p\a 7roXep.\Lov\\ 
ixdpdv T d<peiXov ; Eur. Helen. 995, 
es rh Qy\k\v TpX-Kop\evo%\^'. Jon 1541, 
Toxi deov 1 de XeyopileuosW. 

460 ?8pas.] In the bay between 
Cape Sigeum and Cape Rhoeteum. 
Cf. v. 4, note. 

461 jaovovst'.] * And the forlorn 
Atreida^:' lit., (leaving the station 


of the fleet) and (leaving) the Atrei- 
dae forlorn.' 

ircpw.] Deliberative conjundive, 
— usually the aorist; but cf. //. i. 
150, TTtDs r/s TOi irpbippoiv ^T€<rtv ttci- 
Oi]Tai 'Axaiuv; Eur. /on 758, eliru- 
/xev T] aiyQpLev, 

462 KaC.] And (supposing I do 
go home).— Cf. Phil. 124^, NE. 
dW et SiKaia, tGsv ao(f)Qv Kpeiacu) 
rdSe. — OA. /cat ttcDs dUaiov; El. 236, 
KoX tI fiirpov KaKdrrjTos ^(pv ; 

6p,(jLa.] O. T. 1 37 1, ky^ y&p oi>K 
oIS' 6pLpia(nv ttoIois pX^iruv J Traripa 
ttot'' hv irpoaeibov '. Phil, no, ttujj 
oZu fiXiwuv TLs (with what face ?) 
ravTa roX/xi^aei XaXeiv ; 

463 TeXajiwvi.] The positiofi of 
the proper name seems emphatic. 
' And what face shall I shew to my 
father on my arrival — to Telamon T 
— to the veteran hero whose own 
return from Troy was so different ? 

irciis (A€ TXi]<r€Tai, k.t.X.] Ajax 
— the trueborn heir of Telamon's 
honours — shrinks from the thought 
of his father's grief and shame. 
How, he asks, will Telamon find 
heart to look at him? Teucer — 
'the son of the slave-woman' (v. 
1228), — when he is anticipating a 
similar interview (v. 1012), — quails 
at the thought of his father's vio- 
lence. He wonders how he will be 
able to face Telamon. 

464 7v[i,v6v....dpi<rT€Ca>v drcp.] 
*Ungraced, — without the meed of 
valour.' Schneidewin quotes Ajtt. 
445> ^^w Po.pda.% ahias, iXeCdepov: 

472] aia:s. 63 

(Li^ avTo^ ea-'xe CTe^avov evKkeia^ /jiiyav; 4#5 

ovK earc Tovpyov tXtjtov, aXkct Bfjr la>v 

7rp6<; epvfia Tpwcov, ^v/iiTrecroov /jlovo'^ /jl6voc<; 

Kol Bpwv TL y^pr^dToVy elra XoiaOiov Odvco ; 

aXX* wSe 7' ^KTpeiha<i av ev^pavaLfxl ttov, 

OVK €<TTi ravTa. Treipd Tt9 ^rjTrjria 47* 

ToiaZ' a^' ^9 yepovTL BtjXojo-co irarpX 

fiTj TOL <^v<TLV 7' aa-7r\ay)(yo^ eic Keivov 767^9. 

Phil. 31, Kiv^v otKTjaiv, dvdpuTtov 
Si'xa: Lucret. V. 841 {portenta) inuta 
sine ore etiam, sine voltu caeca. 

465 c3v IvKXeCas.] Literally, *of 
which he had a great glory- crown/ 
—both genitives depending on ari- 
(pavov, but euK\das more closely. 
Cf. V. 309, ip€€lov (pbvov, 

466 dXXd ST^Ta...] 'But then 
shall I go...?' 5?7Ta, ^ then,'' sug- 
gests that transition to a fresh alter- 
native which would properly have 
!)een made by ^, corresponding to 
r&repa at v. 460. — Xen. Anad. v. 8, 
4, Ttbrepov -qtovv rl ae, (k.t.X.); 
a XX' diTTjTovv... ; * JVas it that I 
asked...? or perhaps I demanded 

467 |i.6vo9 jJiovois.] (Attacking) 
'alone, where all are foes.' Eur. 
Andr. 122 1, )u6vos p.6voL(nv iv 56/xois 
dva(TTpi<f)u. Cf. v. 267, note. 

468 8pei)v.] Not Spao-ay. He 
wishes to be taken by death in the 
midst of effort which will drown re- 

6dva>.] Cf. 403, note. 

469 €V(f>pavai|j.i. ] The leaders 
of the besieging army would be well 
pleased that their personal foe should 
sacrifice himself in doing service 
against the public enemy. His de- 
liberate suicide would not afford 
them this double gratification. It 
would rid them of him, certainly ; 
but the injustice which had goaded 
him to the adl would be exposed to 
invidious comment. 

470 ireipa tis.] Inceptum ali- 
quod — 'some emprize' — the project 

of suicide, already hinted at (v. 416), 
and now beginning to form itself 
definitely in his mind. — It may be 
asked, — Why should the heroism of 
Ajax be proved by suicide better 
than by rushing on death in battle ? 
Because, according to the stridlest 
code of ancient chivalry, a soldier 
once disgraced had thenceforth no 
place in life: its opportunities were, 
for him, at an end. His sole duty 
was to die quietly — and at once. 
He was not justified in leaving his 
death to hazard, or in hoping that 
its splendour could palliate a tar- 
nished life. Two traditional instan- 
ces illustrate this view. Othryades 
found himself the sole survivor of 
the 300 Spartans whose combat 
with 300 Argives was to decide the 
possession of Cynuria : like Ajax, 
he fell upon his sword. Aristode- 
mus was the sole survivor of the 
Spartans who fell at Thermopylae. 
A year later he stepped from the 
ranks at Plataea, to seek, and to 
find, death among the enemy. But 
his former disgrace was not held to 
have been cancelled by recklessness ' 
in a later field. Alone of all who 
fell at Plataea, Aristodemus was 
denied funeral honours (Her. ix. 


472 |iT]Toi 'Y€'Y«s.] 'That at 

least (rot) his son is no coward at 
heart {<pi<TLv 7?).' For toi = '^o\)v^ 
cf. El. 1469, Sttws I Th (Tvyyevh rot, 
Kdir' ifiov dp-fivuv T&x.V> — ' the tie of 
blood at least,^ (albeit there were no 
other ties between us). 

64 S0<E)0KAE0T2 

ala-y^pov yap avBpa rov fiaKpov ')(^pr}^eLV ^iov, 
•KaKolaiv oan^ jxr^Zev i^aWao-o-erai. 
TL yap Trap* rjfjiap i^fiepa repTreiv eyei 

, nrpoaOelaa KavaOelaa rov ye KarOavelv ; 

^ OVK av TrpLalfiTjV ouSei^o? \6yov jSporcv 



473 Tov (jiaKpoil.] *The' longer 
span, — to which the generality of 
men may look forward. Cf. O. T. 
518, oijToi piov fioi TOV fiaxpaluvos 
IT 66 OS. 

474 }jiT]8^V£|aXXa(ro-€Tau] Schol. 
So-Tts SiaWayrjv ov Sexe^at. — KaKoh, 
dative of the circumstance or respedl 
in which : Madv. Syn^. § 39. 

475 Ti yap KaT0av€iv ;] 'For 

what power to please hath day by 
day, with its dooming, or delaying, 
— just of death?' z.e. irpocrOeia-a rj/xas 
T(^ KarOaveLV, koI avaOetaa 7]fias rod 
Kardaveiv, ' when it has brought us 
close up to death, and then with- 
drawn us from death.' 'It is a 
weary thing to drag out existence 
daily fearing, and daily escaping, 
that death which must come at last. 
For all men each succeeding day is 
fraught with countless possibilities 
of death ; and if today the blow does 
not fall, who can tell that it will not 
fall tomorrow? Glory alone can 
mitigate the conditions of human 
life. And if life cannot be glorious, 
it then remains to grapple gloriously 
with this ever impending, ever de- 
laying, but still inevitable death.' 

Trap* 'Hp.ap ij|JL^pa.] Not, 'alter- 
nate days,' iDut 'day dy day,' — 'the 
successive days,' z. e. literally, 'one 
day taken (or compared) with ano- 
ther.' Each day both menaces and 
reprieves us. We are not menaced 
one day, and reprieved the next, — 
'ut de nobis dici possit, quod de 
Dioscuris, 6'ri Trap' rjfiipav i^Co/xev /cat 
airo6u7ja-KO/j,€v^ (Lobeck). 

476 irpoo-Oeio-a.] Sc. rj/jids rtp 
Kardavetv. Cf. Eur. /. A. 540, irplv 
AlBt} 7ra?5' ^^u^ irpoadG) "KaPuv, i. c. 
'make over to/ 'devote.' — Hermann 
and Dindorf render: 'adding, or 

delaying, (somewhat) of death,' 
i.e. 'making the necessity of death, 
a degree nearer, or the reprief a 
degree longer :' ' quom nihil nisi dt 
moriendi necessitate aut addat ah- 
quid aut differat. ' In this view, roxt 
KarQavitv is a partitive genitive. As 
Lobeck observes, irpoaOdad {tl) tqv^ 
KaTdaveiv is a conceivable expression; 
but scarcely avadeiad (ri) rod Kar- 
6av€Lv. He therefore regards dva^ 
detca as governing t6 Kardavetv un- 
derstood. But, in that case, the in- 
sertion of dvadelaa between irpoiT- 
Oeiaa and rod KardaveTu would be 
intolerably harsh. The clause rrpoff- 
9e1(Ta...KaT6avdv is too short and 
compadl to admit of the syntax 
being interrupted by a parenthesis. 
dvaOeicra.] Sc, i]p.d$. Cf. Pind. 
O. VII. 100, dvaOe/xev { = dva6€7vai) 
TrdXov, * to recall (annul) the lot, ' — 
dvaOicrdai (Suidas s. v. ) being used 
of recalling a move at draughts. So 
Plato Legg. p. 935 E dvaderiov, * one 
must put off, defer.' Some MSS. 
have dvedetixa, i.e. 'reprieved from:' 
Schol. T-pocdetaa eavrrju Kal diroXv- 
deiaa tov KaT0. 

TOV yi KaT0av€iv.] 'j^ust from 
death,' — 'from death after all.' Let 
a man's dangers and escapes be what 
they may, the end of all must be the 
same, — neither more nor less than 
{ye) death. \ 

477 ovK dv irpiaCii-qv, k.t.X.] 'I 
hold that man below the vilest rate, 
who,' &c. Cf. Ant. 1 1 71, TdW 
eyw Kairvov cklS.s \ ovk Slv wpiai/XTjv. 
— TTpiaipLTjp is often used figuratively, 
in the sense of hexo'ip^-qv &v : e. g. 
Xen. Cyr. VIII. 4. 23, ovk hf irplai6 
ye Tra/jLTr6X\ov wore, crol tuvt^ eip^- 
cdai ; — X670U, ' rate,' ' valuation :' 
cf irXelcTov, iXaxtcfTOV 'K6yov ehac : 

48S]: AIA2. 

ocrrt? Kevalaiv ekiriaLv Oepfiaiverai. 

(iXk! rj Ka\co<; ^rjv rj KaXo^'i reOvrjKevai U*^ 

TOP evyevT] XP^' '^^^'^ aKr]Koa<i \oyov* 


ovBeU epel iroO^ w? vtto^tjtov XojoVy 
Ata?, eXefa?, dWd ttJ? aavrov <f)p€v6<;. 
iravaal ye /Jbivroi, koI 809 dvBpdcrcv cj>LXoi,<i 
yvcofjLTjf; Kparrjo-at rdcrBe (j>povTiBa<i fi€66L<i. 


M SiaTTOT At<x?, T^? dvayKaia<i rvxV^ 
ov/c ecTTLv ovSev /jbel^ov dvOpamoL^ Ka/cop. 
iyco 3' ekevdepov fiev i^e(f>vv Trar/ao?, 
etTrep TLv6<i aOevovTO^ iv TrXovro) ^pvywv* 



;iiul the two phrases in Her. III. 50, 
tiro^....iu oi/devl \6y(p iiron^traTO — 
iaropeovTi \6yov ov84va i5iSov. 

479 T] KoXcSs T€6vT]K^vai.] Or ai 
o)iie nobly die. On the force of the 
I'L-rfedl, cf. V. 275, note. 

480 iravT ciKi]Koas Xoyov.] One 
of the regular formulas in closing a 
set speech. Cf. Aesch. Enm. 680, 
etprjTat \6yos : A£. 565, Trdi/r' ?xets 
\6you : Soph. Ant. 402, Trd/r' iirl- 
aracrai : I^/ii/. 24 1, olada Srj rb irav. 

481 viropXtiTov.] Eustathius p. 
106, 7 : 2o0o/cX'^s VTTo^oXcfialovs 
elire \6yov$ Toi>s fXT] yvrjalovs. Cf. 

V. 138, VTTo^aWofxepoi, note. In 

0. C. 794, rb abv 8' dc/HKrai Sevp^ 
vTrb^\r)Tov arbfia, the sense is rather 
(Uiferent — ' thy suborned mouth. ' 

484 Kpa-rijo-au] Cf. v. 1353, 
TraOfl-at* KpareU rot tQu (plXwu viku}- 

485 — 521. Compare with the 
whole of this speech the passage in 
the I/iad (vi. 407 — 465), in which 
Andromache pleads with Hedloron 
hehalf of herself and his son. 

485 TTJs dva-yKaCas tvxt]s.] 'The 
fate-doomed lot.' So v. 803, irpb- 
crrr)T^ dvayKoiat T&x.V^f 'shelter my 
hard fate:' //. xvi. 835, (Hedor 

says) Tpual (pi\oTrTo\4p.oi(Ti puTairpi- 
TTb), 8s <T<p(,u d/jt.Ov(v I -^fiap dvayKoiov, 
— 'the day of doom.' Two other 
slightly different applications of the 
phrase dvajKata rdxn i^ay be no- 
ticed :— (i) Soph. El. 48, TiOu-nK' '0- 
p^ffTTjs i^ dvayKalas T^rjs, ' has been 
ViW^dihy 3. fatal accident'' : (2) Plato 
Z^^.Vll.p.8o6A, cl dLafidxe<r6at wepl 
irbXews dvayKala tijxv yiyvoLTO, ' if 
/lap/y a necessity should arise. ' — The 
vicissitudes of her life had made 
Tecmessa a fatalist. This charac- 
teristic is repeatedly brought out: 
see V. 950, XO. ctW direlpyoi 6e6s. — 
TE. oi5k kv TciS' ^arr] rrjde fir} 6euv 
fxira: v. 970, deols T^OvrjKCP ovros, 
ov KdpoKxiv, oH: and cf. v. 516, note 
on fjLoipa. 

487 c-yoj 8^.] Answering to (iroffi 
fxh) dv6pd}irois, in the general state- 
ment which has preceded. 

irarpds.] Teleutas: v. 210, note. 

488 etircp Tivos <r0€VovTos] = 0"^^- 
vovTOS, direp ris ladevev. Cf. O. C. 
734, 7r6Xi;' 5' iirlaTa/JLai \ cdhovaav 
jJKwv, et TtJ'"EXXd5os, fi^a : Kx.Plut, 
655, vvv S', cfrtJ'' HXKov^ fiaKdpiov... 
avrbv ijyop.ev. 

iv irXovTtj).] In classical Greek 
TrXoyry (rQiviof (without the prepo- 



vvp B* elfu BovXrj. 6eol<i ^ap cSS' eSofe irov 
KCii arj ^aKiara xeipL Toiyapovv, cTrel 
TO (Tov X6;^09 ^vvrjXdoVj €v (j)povw ra era, 
Kai a dvTid^co 7rpo9 r i(j>6crTLov Ato? 

€vvrj<: T€ T^9 <T^9, ^ 0-VVTjWd)(d7J<; ifjLol, 

fiTj fjL d^ic6(rrj<; ^d^Lv dXyeivrjv Xaffeiv 
T&v Gtov vir exOpoiv, ')(eLpiav i<j)el<; rhi 
5 yap Odpyf; av koI Te\6VTriaa<; d(j>^<;, 



sition) would correspond to our 
* strong /';/ wealth :' iy irXoi^riy ad^- 
v€ip meaning rather, *to flourish 
amid wealth.' adivwv iv vKoiri^ 
really means, 'powerful a«df rich.' 

489 8ovXt].] Cf. V. 211, note. 
irov.] *I ween' — expressing the 

vague acquiescence of a fatalist in 
the decrees of destiny. 

490 Kal <rg {idXio-ra X^i-P^-] A*a- 
Xi<rra, * chiefly :' i. e. Ajax was the 
immediate, as destiny was the ulti- 
mate, cause. 

491 Xt'xos |vvTi\0ov.] Cf. Eur. 
Phoen. 817, 17VC ^vvaifAOv X^x^^ V^' 
dev. In these cases the accus, (with- 
out a preposition) follows the verb 
as denoting motion to a place. In 
some other cases, apparently similar, 
the accus. is a cognate accus. : e. g. 
Soph. Track. 28, \kx°% 'UpuKXei 
ffVffTciaa : Thuc. i. 3, ra^JTijv ttjv 
ffTpdrelav ^vvijXOov. 

492 irpos T€.] For re misplaced 
cf. V. 53, Kul irpds T€ iroi/xvas, k.t.X., 

l4)€<rTCov Ai«5s.] 'The Zeus of 
our hearth,' the god who presided 
over family and household life. Cf. 
Her. I. 44, (Croesus invokes the 
vengeance of heaven upon Adrastus, 
— the guest to whom he had admi- 
nistered absolution and hospitality, 
and who had afterwards caused the 
death of the king's son :) e/cdXec Zl 
fihf Aia Kaddpatov, fiaprvpofievos 
ra VTo TOV ^elvov TretrovdCo'i etr]' iKd- 
XeeS^ ^EiriaTLdvTe Kal'Eratp'^i'ov, 
rbv avTov tovtop 6vop.d^(»}v 6e6v rbv 
likv ^EirlcTiov Kokiwv di6Tf, d}] oM- 
otCL virode^d/xevos rhv ^eipov (povia 

TOV vaidbi e\dv9ave ^6(tkwv' t6v Si 
'EraipTfjiov, ws ^{iXaKa <ri»/i7r^/i^os 
ai/rbv evpifiKOi iroXe/XKaTaTov. The 
distindlion between Ze«)s ^evioi and 
Ze^s 'E0e<j-rtos is plain here. Adras- 
tus had been treated, not merely as 
a guest, but as a member of the fa- 
mily; — not only received, but do- 

493 «rvviiWdx^^5-] The word is 
specially appropriate in connexion 
with Tecmessa's reference to dj'a7- 
Kaia TijxVt since a-waXXdaaeiv fre- 
quently denotes fortuitous or arbi- 
trary association : e. g. Aesch. Theb. 
593, 0eO TOV ^vvaXXdo'covTos 6pvi.6os 
^poTois I SiKaiou dydpa toIcl 5y<r(rc- 

494 pd|iv dX-yeivriv.] i. e. the 
harsh and scornful allusions which 
would be made to her as the ' con- 
cubine' of Ajax, — as a mere slave, 
temporarily fortunate through his 
caprice, but now reduced to her 
proper condition by his death. Bd- 
\€Lv is often used of ill-natured ru- 
mour : e. g. Hes. 0pp. 1 84, roll's 6' 
dpa p.e/j,\l/ovTac, X'^^^'roFs ^dfouTes 
^irea-crt : audi. J^/ies. 7 1 8, iariav 'A- 
TpeiSdv KaKU)$ | ^jSa^e. 

495 X'^^'P^^^] — i'Toxelpiou. Eur. 
Andr. 411, /Soi>, irpoXdiro} ^ufibv ^'5e 
X«/ota I crcpd^eiVj (poveveiv, Seiv, — 'at 
your mercy to slaughter, murder, 

496 ^] = 27 ^v. O. C. 395, yjpovra 
3' dpdovu (p'Kavpov, 6s reos Trea-g. — 
Madv. Synt. § 126 R 2. 

Kttl TcXcvTTJcras d<j)^s.] 'Part me 
from thee by thy death :' lit. ' dis- 
miss me at thy death.' It has been 

-05] AIAS. 

ravrrj vofii^e Kafie rfj roO* VM'ipa 

Sla ^vvapiraadelaav ^Apyelav inro 

^vv TraiBl Tco croS BovXlav e^etv Tpo(f>ijv. 

•cal Tt? TTLKpcv 7rp6<T<l)6ey/jLa Bea-iroTwv ipel 

\6yoi<; laTTTcov, cSere rrjv ofievveTtv 

Ai'arro?, 09 fieytcrrov l'(7^uo"€ arparov, 

bta? "karpeia^ dv6* caov i^rfkov rpe^cL. 

TOLavT ipel Tt9. Kafie fxev halfjutov eka, 

aol 8* al(T')(^pa raTrrj raZra koI to) aw yeveu 




jljjecled to d<l>rjs that it must mean 
ito ' release,' and could not stand for 
\Trpo\LTris or irpodc^i: and ^avfj, or 
'reXevTrja-ris Sl <pr{S, has been proposed. 
liut a^s, rightly understood, has a 
})eculiar pathos. Tecmessa speaks 
of Ajax as about, not to ^mi her, 
but to put her away from him. When 
he expired, it was she, not Ajax, 
who would go forth into a region 
cold, dark, and unexplored, — * dis- 
missed' by his death into slavery. 
For d<f>ihai of divorcing a wife, see 
Her. V. 39, TT]v ^x^t 'iVvalKOL, Tainrjv 
dtrevTa dWrju icrayayiadai. 

498 ^vvapirao-OciCT-av.] Tecmessa, 
as a slave (v. 489), would be sold 
with the other property of Ajax by 
jorder of the Atreidae, — not as an 
adl of revenge, but in the ordinary 
exercise of their patriarchal author- 
ity as chieftains. The child Eury- 
saces would count as a slave also, 
his mother having been one : see 
V. 1235, where Agamemnon calls 
Teucer a ' slave,' as being the son of 
Telamon by the captive Hesione. 

499 Tpo<j>t]v] = diairav, ^lov. El. 
1 1 83, 0ei! T^s dv6fX(f>ov Svafxdpov re 
a^s Tpo(f>T]s: cf. Eur. Ale. 1, ^tXtjv 
iyCt) I dijcraai' rpdire^av alv4<rai, 
deds Trep lou. 

500 Kai Tis, K.T.X.] //. VI. 459 
(Hedor to Andromache), Kal rori 
Tis etwyaiv, ISwv Kard hdKpv x^ovaap, \ 
"E/CT0/90S ijde yvv^, 8s dpiffreti- 
fffKC fidx^ffdai I Tpduv Ittwo- 
ddfitop, 8Te''l\iov dfJi.<p€fJi.dxovTO. 

irp6(r<}>9€'y(jLa.] ' Will name me 
in bitter phrase,' — irpbc^diyixa, not 

as accosting Tccmess^ but as speak- 
ing of her by the title 6/j.€vi>^tis. Cf. 
Find. O. X. 59, Kal trdyov KpSpov 
Trpo(r€<p6^y^aTO' rrpbcde yap \ vdi- 
i'v/j,vos...Pp^X^To TToXK^ vi<f>ddi: 'and 
lie called it the hill of Cronos : for 
in olden time the snow-topped hill 
bore no name:' Xen.Mem. ill. 2, i, 
Tov iveK€v "OfiTjpop otei rbv 'A7a- 
fxcfivova irpoffayopevaai ' Toifikva 

501 Xo-yois laiTTwv.] 'Levelling 
taunts:' lit., * shooting with words. ' 
Cf. V. 724, dveldeaiv \ ijpaaffov ivdev 
K&vdev, 'assailed him...:' v. 1244, 
KaKois ^aXecTe, * pelt with abuse :' 
Aesch. Theb. ^11, ddvei r dpeldei 
fidpTip, 'lashes with reproach.' 

502 to-xv<r€.] ' Once most pow- 
erful.' The aorist speaks of the 
power attained by Ajax simply as 
a past fadt, without reference to its 
duration, — as a thing which is over. 
The imperfecfl would have been 
more suitable in the mouth of one 
who was fondly recalling how long 
that power had lasted. 

503 t'nXov.] Dem. c. Aristocr. 
p. 641. 8, ^r}Xov Kal Ti/AT}p (pepet: de 
Coron. p. 300. 23, ^^\os Kal xapo. 

Tp^4)€t.] Cf. v. 643, dTap...h» 
oCiruj Tij ^6p€\f/€P: Phil. 795, rpk- 
(poire TTipSe tt]p pocop. 

504 aqt.] Vexabit. O. Z 28, 
6 vvp<f>6pos debs \ aKrj\{/as ^Xavpei, 
Xoifibs ^x^L<TTos, irbXtP. Cf. V. 275, 

505 al<rxpcu] Ajax held that 
honour required him to die (v. 473); 
Tecmessa endeavours to enlist that 


es 20^0KAEOT2 

aX)C aiBeaac jjuev "trarepa rov aov ev XvypM 
yrjpa TTpoXeiircov, aXheaai Se fMTjrepa 
TToWoov irwv Kkrjpovyov, rj a-e TroWa/ct? 
^€0*9 aparai ^oovra tt/jo? Bo/jlov^ p^okelv 
OLKTeipe h\ wva^j TralBa top aov, el vewi 
Tpo<j>^<; aTeprjOeh aov Biolaerai, fjbcvo<; 
VTT 6p<f)aviaTWV firj (jytXcav, oaov kukov 



motive on the other side. But Ajax 
believed that he had guarded against 
the consequences which she fears : 
see V. 560. 

507 at86<rat...'n'poX6iira)V.] The 
verbs alcrx^veadai and al5e'i<rdai take 
the infinitive when a feeling of shame 
prevents the person from adling ; a 
participle, when the person is doing, 
or has done, something which causes 
shame: e.g. Xen. Cyr. v. i. 10, Kal 
TovTo ix^v (the fact that he had hi- 
therto been unable to prove his gra- 
titude) ovK aiax^fofiai XiywV rb be 
"ectv fJiivTjTe Trap ifiol, {xdpiv) diro- 
Swcw," alax^yo^M^ ^'' ^liretv. Ct. 
Thuc. II. 20, (Archidamus) rois 'A- 
drivalovs iP\.iri^€ tt]u yijv ovk diu vepu- 
deip TfiTjdTJvaf. (the land being still 
intadl : but TcixvoiMivrjv, if the devas- 
tation had commenced). Similarly, 
GLpxotJLO.1. irouiv, ' I set about doing a 
thing,' (begin to think of doing it :) 
dpxo/Jiai iroiuiv, begin adlual work. — 
Ajax having distincflly intimated a 
purpose of self-destrudlion (vv. 473 
— 479), Tecmessa dissuades him 
from a course which she considers 
as a6lually commenced. Atdeaai 
irpoXeiireiv would have been appro- 
priate only if the intention of Ajax 
had been less definite and certain. 

509 oLpdrai.] In Attic dpaadat 
has usually a bad sense, — 'to im- 
precate' {tivL Tt) : but cf. //. IX. 240, 
dparai di rdxto'Ta 4>avr}p.€vai 7]u) diav: 
Her. I. 132, ov oi eyyiyveTat dpaadai 

510 ol!KT6ip€...€l.] Cf. Aeschin. 
in Cies. p. 74, ovk dyair^ et fxrj 
dlKTjv S^Sw/cev, 'he is not content 
witA having escaped :' Dem. in 
A^hob. I. p. 834, 01/5' JiiCix^vQ'qaa.v ei 

bvotv Ta\dpToiv...d^nodeiaa firjSevbs 
T6u|erai : ' they were not ashamed 
^not pitying hery^;' being doomed 
to get nothing.' — Madv. Syut. § 194^. 

511 <rov...(JL6vos] = (rou fMOvudeis. 
Cf. Eur. A/c. 407, vtoi iyui, irdrep, 
Xelirofiai, \ (plXas (jlovocttoXos re /*a- 
Tp6i: and so perhaps Med. 51, ttwj 
a-ov fJLQvr) Mr)8eia Xeiireadai deXet ; 

8io£o-CTai.] Sc. /Stov: 'will live.' 
Hesych. : did^ei, ^nbaerai. Cf. audi. 
Rhes. 980, c5 7r6j'ot,...djs Sorts uyctaj 
/A7J Ka/ccDs Xoyl^erai. \ &Tai$ dioiffei. 
For the poetical middle form, cf. 
Aesch. P. V. 43, dpriveCadai : Pers. 
62, aTeveoQai: Eum. 357, auSaor^ai: 
ib. 339, (TTreuSeo-^at : Suppl. 999, val- 
eaOaL ; Soph. O. C. 244, irpoffopd- 
adai : £1. 892, KanSeaOai : O. C. 
1 26 1, q.a(xeadcu — Lobeck takes Sioi- 
crerat as meaning, 'vexabitzir male- 
que tradabitur, ' and quotes (a) Dion 
Chrysost. Oraf. XLI, p. 506 C, vir' 
dpcpaviffTuiv StaaTraadi^aeTaL, (where 
the word clearly refers to the pi/- 
laging of the ward's property:) 
(b) Plut. Timol. c. 13, ^TT] 5d}deKa iv 
dyuxn Kal ttoXc/jliols die^opT^Or], — 'was 
tossed about.' But this sense, though 
proper for diacpope'ia-dai, does not be- 
long to 5ta<pep€0-6ai. 

512 vir* dp(j>avicrTcov, k. t. X.] 
Compare the passage in which An- 
dromache, on seeing Hector's corpse, 
bewails the lot that is in store for 
their child (//. xxii. 490—498) : — 
'The day of orphanhood makes a 
' child companionless ; his eyes are 
' ever downcast, his cheeks ever wet 
' with tears. And in his need the 
' boy will betake him to his father's 
' friends, plucking one by the mantle 

517] MAS. 

KeLV(p re Ka/nol' tov6\ orav 6avr)<;, vefiec^, 

ifiol yap ovKer iarlv eh o tl ^XeTrco 

TfXrjp aov. (TV yap fioi iraTpiK yarwaa^ Bopet^ 

Kul fi7)Tep aWrj fiolpa top (fyvaavrd t€ 

KaOeTkev ' Kihov Oavaaifxov^ olKr)TOpa^, 



' and another by the tunic ; and in 

■ their pity one of them will hold a 
• cup for a moment to the ^orphan ; 
' will moisten his lips, but scarce 
' make his palate moist. Yes, and 
' he to whose home death has not 
' come will jostle the orphan from 

the feast, with blows of his hands, 

ering him with taunts : There, 

■^one: \hy father feasts not among 

' us. ' (v. 496, aix(f)ida\ri^, * one 

wliose parents are both alive,' pa- 

trimus et mairinms. ) 

(XT] <j)£X«v.] The iiA\ depends on 
d, V. 510. 

oo-ov, K.T.X.] ' (Think) how great 

: n evil,' &c. — For 6aov depending 

oiKTcipe, cf Her. I. 31, at d^ 'A/a- 

at (i/xaKapi^ou) ttju /xrjTepa airruu, 

•-■L-^v T€KPUv iKvprjce. 

5 14—5 19. Compare the language 
' r Andromache to Hedlor (//, vi. 
4 10, ff.): — *But for me it were bet- 
ter, having lost thee, to pass be- 

■ iieath the earth ; for there will be 
' 110 more comfort, when thou hast 

■ met thy doom, but only sorrows ; 
Dor have I a father or gracious 
' mother ; for in truth divine Achilles 
' >\c\v my father, and sacked the fair- 
' set town of the Cilicians, Thebe 

■ \N ith high gates ; and he slew Ee- 
" lion... And the seven brothers who 

■ w ere in my home, they all in one 
>liy went to the house of Hades; 

■ lor swift-footed divine Achilles slew 
'them all... But my mother, who 
' was queen under woody Placus, ... 
' her he ransomed; but in her father's 
' halls she was stricken by Artemis 
' whom arrows make glad. Nay, 
' Heclor — thou art my father and 
* gracious mother, thou my brother, 
' and thou art the husband of my 

514 els 6 Ti pX^iTb).] Quo spec- 

tern: (but /SXcttw is the indicative). 
Cf. V. 400, ^\iirety...eii dvaaiv: El, 
998, hrW AttiSwi' j j8\^^oo-a...; 

515 iraTp£8a.l Cf. v. 210, ttcu 
Tov ^pvyioio TeXeifrai'Tos. 

516 oIXXt] (jLotpa.] 'Another 
doom,' — z. <?., 'another stroke of 
fate.' Two calamities are spoken 
of — the devastation of Tecmessa's 
country — and the death of her pa- 
rents. It was Mdipa, Fate, working 
by the hand of Ajax, which wrought 
the first. It was Molpa in some other 
shape, or working by some other 
hand, which wrought the second 
also. — Other explanations have been 
given: — (i) the Scholiast's, followed 
byWunder:-fiXXo Ti, driXdvoTiMoipa: 

' another destroyer, viz. Fate, ' — dWrf 
being used as in Od. VI. 84, dfia. 
T-^ye Kal dfji,(pLTroXoi kLov dXXai, 'with 
(Penelope) went her handmaids be- 
side.^ But a fatalist like Tecmessa 
would scarcely make so pointed a 
distin(51;ion between the agency which 
destroyed her country and the des- 
tiny which carried off her parents. 
In her view both calamities were 
alike fidpai/xa. Cf. v. 485, note. — 
(2) Lobeck : — 'an untoward fate,' 
like ?re/)oj baifnav in Find. F. III. 62. 
But it does not appear that fiXXo? 
could have this sense. In the Rhesus, 
884, TL iroTe... I Tpolap avdyei irdXiv 
es irivdrj \ Saifiojv &\\os, dXXos — 
deOrepos, and merely reinforces wd- 
\iv. And in Thuc. vii. 64, el (tv/x- 
^T^aeraL ti dWo... the words ^ rb 
Kpareiu iffids (which Lobeck omits 
to quote) explain ti dWo. 

517 KaQciXcv olKTJTOpas.] 

'Brought them low, to dwell iq 
Hades in their death.' — 6auaal/xovs^ 
K.T.X., proleptic: cf. Find. R I. 100, 
cri>j' 5' dudyKqi. pnv <pl\ov faavev,...:'. e. 
courted him, to make him a friend : 

;o S04>OKAEOT2 

Ti? ^fJT ifjioi yevoiT av avri aov Trarpt?; 
Tt9 TrXovTo?; iv aol ircUr eyayye (Too^ofiai. 
dVC lax^ Kafiov fivrjariv. auhpi tol xpewi/ 
fivrjfirjv irpoaeivaif repirvov et tl ttov irddou 
X^/o*? X^P^^ y^P ^^'^**' V Tt/CTouo' act* 
oTov S' aTToppei fivrjari^i €v irerrovOoro'iy 
ouK av yivoiT eO' ovto9 evyevr/s avrjp. 

AXa^^ ex^tv a* av oIktov «u9 Kayti) ^pevl 




Aesch. j4^. 1258, €&<prffioi^...Koifirf' 
cov arbfxa, *hush thy lips... into si- 
lence.* — For k'Lhov olK7}Topas, cf. v. 
396: Track. 282, auToi ii.kv A'l'Sou 
xdyrcs e?<r' ot/cT]rope$. 

519 4v <ro£...o-»5o|jtai.] *On thee 
depends all my welfare.' Cf. O. C. 
248, h vfuv (US ^e^i | KeLfieda rXdifict- 
yes : /%//. 963, ^v iroi /ecu rd 7rXeti» 
i7/ua5, fij'af ('on thee depends...'). 

520 Kd(JLOv.] * Not only of Tela- 
mon and thy mother ; not only of 
thy son ; but of me also.* 

avSpC] Emphatic: 'a true man.' 
Cf. V. 1238, OUK dp' 'Axcito?s &v5pes 
fl<rl irX^v ilSe; v. 77, vpoffdev oiiK 
ivT]p S5' ^v ; 

521 Tcptrvdv ct Tt iron vaOoL.] 
' If anywhere he chance to reap a 
joy. ' Ordinary usage required either 
€l vivovdt or \v vddy. But where a 
general abstradl case is put, a pro- 
tasis with el and the optative is 
sometimes followed by an apodosis 
in the pres. indie: e. g. v. 1344, 

^J/hpOL d' 01^ hUcLLOVy (.1 Q6lvol^ I ^\d- 

vniv rhv kaQ\bt\ Ant. 666, dXX' hv 
t6\i$ aT'q<Tefiey roOSe XPV xXveiv: 
Xen. Cyr. I. 6. 19, toC ai/rbv \4yeiv, 
A /iij <ra0ws eideL-r), 0eiSc(r^ai Set, 
a man should abstain from vouching 
for things which (we will suppose) 
he is not sure about. — Madv. Synt. 
§ 132. R. 2, note. 

523 diroppct.] Cf. V. 1266, xa/5t$ 
Jtappfi: O. C, 259, 56^ij$...iiidTij»> 

524 ovK eCv 'y^voiT...€V'y€V7Js.] 

' Can no more rank as noble :' can 
never— after such a fault — * amount' 

to a generous man. — evy€nqs=yep' 
yatos, as often in the Tragedians: 
conversely yevpaios for eiryevifii in 
the narrower sense, Pind. P. viii. 
63, 01;^ rd yevvalov ivLTrp^Trei \ iK 
raripiovy irot, crol X^/xa, According 
to Aristotle {J^/iet. ii. 15. 3), iaui^ 
evyevks p.h kutcl ttjv rod yivovs ape- 
rT]v, yevvalw d^ Kara t6 fxr) i^lara- 
adai T^% (piaecos' ' the nod/e consists 
in distindiion of birth, — the generous 
in maintaining the attributes of race.' 
— In the didlum which concludes her | 
speech Tecmessa alludes to the word>- i 
with which Ajax ended his (v. 479) 
525 — 595. C/io. Would that he! 
words could move thee. — Aj. She 
shall have my praise, if she will but 
do my "bidding : — bring me my son 
— Tec. When the frenzy was upoi 
thee, I sent the child from me in ni\ 
fears; but he is near: he shall be 
brought: {beckoning to the attendant 
in charge of Eu RYS ACES).— Aj. Give 
me the child: give him into my 
arms: he will not shrink from this 
reeking sword, if he is true son of 
mine. Ah, boy, dream awhile amid 
the light airs of childhood : the hour 
comes when thou must vindicate thy 
father among his foes. Nor shall 
they vex thy tender years when I am 
gone : in Teucer thou wilt have a 
trusty guardian. He shall take thee 
to my father's house in Salamis ; he 
shall see that my armour pass not t- 
the Greeks, but be buried at my side. 
All save this shield ; that keep thou, 
my son, — the broad shield from 
which thou hast thy name. — {1j 

531] AIA2. 

6eXocjJL av* alvoiTj'^ yap av Tci rrjaS' eTTij. 


KoX KapT iiraivov rev^erau Trpo? yovv ifiov, 
eav fJLOvov to Ta-)(6ev ev rokfia rekelv. 

aSX, w ^/V Aia?, irdvT eycoye irelaofjuaL, 

Ko/jLi^e vvv fioL TTolBa Tov ifiov, a><; cBco. 

Kot firjv (po^oLai y avrov i^eXvadfiyv. 



Tecmessa.) Come, take the child, 
and close these doors, and make no 
lamentation before the house ; a skil- 
ful healer will not drone channs over 
a sore that craves the knife. — Tec. 
O Ajax, my lord, what dost thou 
purpose? desert us not, I implore 
thee : for the gods' love, be softened ! 
hear me ! — AJ. Methinks thy wit is 
small, if thy new hope is to school 
my purpose. {Exit Tecmessa.) 

525 «s Ka^w.] Sc. ^x'"'' Cf. 
Plato Phaedo p. in A, {\^7erat)... 
...eli'at avdpthirovs rovs fxkv ev /xeco- 
70/77 olKouuTas, Toi)s 5^ irepl rhv dipa, 
{S<nrep ijiieis irepl tt]v ddXarTav: Ar. 
/^an. 303, i^e<XTL S', Cliairep '£[7^X0- 
Xos, i]ixtv \4yeiv. 

527 Kal KoLpra.] 'And verily...' 
Often used in emphatic assent, e. g. 
O. C. 64, 01. Tf yap rives valovai 
TOj5<r5e toi)s rdirovs ; — TE. /cai Kcipra, 
K.T.\., 'aye surely.' 

528 TO Tttx^^v.] The Chorus 
had hoped that Ajax would approve 
Tecmessa's advice (^ttt;). He an- 
swers, with cold irony, that he is 
prepared to commend her obedience. 
— The alliteration, t6 raxd^v eD toK- 
lt4 reXeiv, gives a certain bitter em- 
phasis, as often in the Tragedians : 
e. g-. O. T. 425, & cr' i^c<xd}<Tei. aol re 
KoX Tois (Tois T^Kvots: Eur. Med. 476, 
iffcaad <t\ u>s Uaatv 'EXXt^vwi' 6<toi, 

K.T.X., where Person: — *hic locus 
ab antiquis ob sigmatismum notatus 
est ; quanquam saepius repetitur in 
//>A. T. 772, t6 (j-cD/itt cihca% to«)j 
\oyo\)% adoffeis ifioU — Cf. Ennius 
Ann. 113, O Tite, tutCy Tati, tibi 
tatita^ iyranne, tulisti. 

ToXji^.] Cf. O. C. 184, rl>\fia... 
6', Ti Kol iriXts I T^po<f>€v &<pi\ov, 

diroaTvyeiv, /. e. make up your 

mind, 'resolve' to: /'-^/7. 481, (Phi- 
lodletes imploring Neoptolemus to 
take him on board,) roXfirjaov, i/x- 
/SaXoO fie : i. e, * consent. ' 

530 «s tSo).] The words ws fSw 
help to express the father's eager, 
impatient yearning : cf. v. 538. 

531 KalfM]v...lf6\v<rdni]v.] 'Yes, 
but (koX ix-f)v) in my poor fears {<t>6- 
j3oia-i ye) I let him quit me.' Three 
points in this line require notice, 
(i) Kal fi-qv, literally 'however,' — 
serves gently to preface an objec- 
tion, — to introduce a reason why the 
request of Ajax cannot be immedi- 
ately complied with. Cf. v. 539, 
note. — (2) (po^oiai ye, 'just in my 
fears,' 'in my weak fears,' — ye apo- 
logizing for 0o/3ots. Cf. PAi/. 584, 
('do not speak ill of me to the 
Greeks,' pleads the pretended mer- 
chant with Neoptolemus) — iroW^iydi 
Kelvuv VTro | SpQv 6.vTiTd(TX<^ XPV- 
<rrd 7', oV dvT^p xivijs: 'many good 



h) Tota^€ To?9 /caKola-iv, rj rl fiOL XeyeLs; 

firj aoi fie TTOV hvarqvo^; avTr}a-a<i Odvoc, 

TTpiirov 76 rav rjv 8aifiovo<; tov/jlov roSe. 

a\V ovv €y(o ^<l>v\a^a tovto y apxiaai. 


turns I do them and reap from tbem, 
— good turns enough (ye), for a poor 
man' — where the 76 gives a humble, 
apologetic tone to -xp-qcTa. — (3) ^|e- 
\vadnxriv, * allowed to go from me,' — 
suffered the child to go out of my 
own keeping into the charge of ser- 
vants (v. 539). The Scholiast — 5ta 
Toi/s (po^ovs i^ifiyayov 64Xovcra pijaa- 
adai : whence Hermann (followed 
by Schneidewin) i^€ppv<yiti-qv, 're- 
scued.' But the timid and cautious 
Tecmessa would scarcely have used 
a word referring so diredlly to the 
recent violence of Ajax. It is only 
his impatient query, ev roicrde rots 
KaKoiai; that elicits a plain avowal 
of her meaning. — (Another possible 
version of the line should be noticed : 
— Aj. 'Bring me my son...' 'Oh, 
for that matter, {kuI fi'/iv,) it was only 
(76) in my /ears that I sent him from 
me :' /'. e. ' my only motive for send- 
ing him out of the way was fear of 
your violence; and that fear is past, 
now that you are restored to reason.' 
The chief obje(5lion to this view is 
that it lays greater stress on (pd^oiaL 
7€ than the words will easily bear.) 

532 Toio-8€ Tois KaKoio-iv.] He 
cannot bring himself to speak of his 
recent madness except in general 

533 H-i\ foC -yc, k.t.X.] *Even 
so, — lest meeting thee/ &c. The 7c 
= 'yes,' and refers to the whole pre- 
ceding question. It does not go 
with aol, — though the pronoun has, 
by position, an emphasis of its own. 

— Ajax, stung by the allusion to his 
frenzy, had spoken with sharp impa- 
tience : Tecmessa is startled into the 
plainest confession. 

534 irpcTrov 7€...t68€.] 'Aye truly 
(76 Tot), that would have matched 
well with my fortune. ' Supposing 
I /tad murdered my child, it would 
only have been of a piece with the 
rest of my calamities. 

8aC|iovos.] Genitive depending 
on irpiirov a.s=&^iov. The partici- 
ple irpiirwv is not found with a geni- 
tive elsewhere : but Plato {Menex. 
p. 239 c) has irpeirbvTiai tQv 'irpa^6»- 
T03V. Compare the use of oiKeios, 
tdios with genitive, Madv. Synf. § 62. 

535 d\X' ovv...dpK4o-di.] 'Nay, 
then, I watched to avert tAat woe.' 
Tecmessa appears not to have caught 
the tone of bitter irony and self- 
reproach in the last words of Ajax ; 
she takes them as a statement of 
fadl, and hastens with irritating 
complacency to claim merit for her 
foresight, — thereby earning the sar- 
castic compliment, iiryuea' ipyop, 


4<j)vXa|a.] *I kept watch, (in 
order) to avert that :' dpKiaat, infini- 
tive denoting the intent of the acflion 
(Madv. SyuL % 148 a). Cf. Thuc. 
II. 69, <^opfxi(i3v <pv\aKT]v eTxe {=i<p6- 
Xarre), yitT^r' iKirXdu e/c Koplpdov /xt^t* 
iffTXeiv fi-pMva. — This seems better 
than making tovto depend immedi- 
ately on i^vXa^a, and regarding dp- 
K^ffai as epexegetical : — ' I attended 
closely to this' (like ^vXdTTeiv Toi/s rd 





€7ryv6<r epyov Kat, irpovotav rjv eOov, 

T* BrJT av (W9 eV tcoj/S* av cd<f>e\olfii <7e; 


809 /liot irpoa-wrrelv avrov ifi<l)avrj r IBetv. 

ical /JLrjv TreXa? ye irpoairoXov^ (f)v\daa€Tac, 

vtLpdpo/JLa ypdipovrai, Dem. in Theo- 
crin. p. 1333. 6: not 'guarded against 
it,' which would be i<pv\a^dfM7]v), * so 
as to avert it.' 

dpK^crai.] Defendere (cf. arcere). 
n. XX. 289, ^ KhfivG" ilk cdKos, rb oi 
ijpKiffe \vypbu 6\edpov : Eur. £/. 
1298, TTtDs 6vT€ 6ed}...oiK iipKiaaTov 
KTjpas fxeXddpocs, 'why were ye not 
averters of the Fates for the house?' 
— For dpKciv Ti in another sense (' to 
render a service'), see v. 439. 

536 4iq^v€<ra.] 'I praise thy a(ft.' 
riie Greek aorist, in some cases 
where it must be rendered by the 
1 -nglish present, has the force of re- 
verting to the very instant, just pass- 
ed, at which the adlion commenced, 
— thus placing the adlion more vi- 
vidly in connexion with its occasion. 
• riie instant you said what you had 
(lone, my judgment approved it.' 
Cf. Eur. Hec. 1275, IIOA. koI <jt\v 7' 
avdyKT) iraiSa Kaadvdpav davelv. — 
EK. dTT^TTTUcr'* airt^ ravrd ffoi 
Si5a»/i' ^x^tv : * You had scarcely ut- 

ed your words, when my whole 

lure revolted against them.' So 

(Of^dfirju, 'I hail the omen,' £/. 668 : 

dvo}\6fxr]v, id. 677 : (pfiu^a, Eur. £/. 

248 : and ^vvijKa, -qadrjv passim. 

537 «s €K TwvSc] *How then, 
as the matter stands^ can I serve thee ?' 
— ws kK Twi/Se, pro eo quod iam fac- 
tum ^j/, — 'remembering that these 
conditions pre-exist ;' — * remember- 
ing that the child Eurysaces is, as I 
have explained, no longer in my 
keeping ; and that therefore I can- 

not gratify you by producing him.' 
Tecmessa no longer fears, as she 
did formerly (v. 340), that Ajax may 
harm the child. But she has a vague 
sense that his desire to see his son 
is connedled with preparations for 
death. She therefore endeavours to 
evade his request, and to change the 
subject, by asking ' what, that is in 
her poxver, she shall do for him ?' — 
In the form Ik rcDvSe, ix means 
' after ' — i. e. * presupposing ' — 'these 
things.' Eur. Med. 459, 5/icjs 5^ xd/c 
tcDj/S' (in spite of all these discourage- 
ments) oi}K dveiprjKus tpiXois \ -^kio : 
Thuc. IV. 17, (jj$ iK Tu>v irapSvTCJv. 
&v...dv.} In conditional sentences 
with &v, the particle is usually placed 
immediately after the most emphatic 
word ; and where it is desired to 
emphasize several distin(5l points in 
the hypothesis, &v may be repeated 
once or more after important words. 
Thus here : ' what then, under these 
circumstances, — can I do?* The first 
oj/ follows 5rJTa, ^ then' — emphatic 
as implying conditions which limit 
the offer. But it is desired to draw 
attention still more pointedly to those 
conditions. Therefore dv is repeated 
after iK rCivde. Cf. Eur. Andr. 916, 

OVK hv ^U 7' ipLols SSflOlS I /SX^TTOUff' 

du air/ds rd/x' iKapvovr' du \txv '■ 
' never in my house a/ive should she 
usurp my bed:' Heracl. 721, (^dd- 
j/ots 5' dv OVK Aj': 'too soon you could 
not be.' 

539 Kal p.i)v YC, k.t.X.] 'Oh, 
(/cai jx-fiv) he is quite (7e) near, in the 

^(/^UjA ^^ 



Tt BrJTa fiiWei fJLrj ov irapovaiav ex^tv; 

w Trat, iraTrjp xaXet ae, Bevpo irpoa-'rrdkwv 
ay avTov oairep xe/jo-li/ evOvvoav KvpeU. 

epTTOvri ^coveh, rj XeKeifJLiMevco Xoycov, 

Kol Brj KOfiL^et, irpocnrokcov oS' iyyvOev. 


attendants' charge.' Ajax having 
pressed his first demand, Tecmessa 
is compelled to yield, and does so 
with assumed cheerfulness. The 
notion of Kal [x-qv is, — ' oh, if that is 
all, — if your request is so simple, 
— there need be no difficulty.' Cf. 
£i' 554> a^^' ^i* ^0i7S fji.oi,...\i^aifji! 
&u: 'if you will permit me, I should 
like to speak...' Clytaemnestra re- 
plies, Kal firjv €<f)Lr)ixi. — ^OA, you 
have my leave,' — /. <?. 'oh, if that 
is all, — if you are only waiting for 
my permission :' O. T. 344, TEI. Bv- 
fiov 5i dpyijs iJTLS aypuaTdrrj. — 01. 
Kal /xT]v irap-^au} y ovdiv, {i. e. you 
have given me carte blanche: well: 
I shall use it.) 

irpo<nr6Xots. ] A dative of the 
agent, instead of virl> with genitive, 
sometimes follows passive verbs even 
in good prose : e. g. Dem. de Fals. 
Legal, p. 434, rOiv aol Tmrpayn^vuiv 
KaTrjy6pet. — Madvig. Synl. § 38^. 

540 tC Sr\Ta. (Ji^XXei, \t.'f\ ov, k.t.X.] 
So Aesch. jP. V. 645, tL S^ra fiiX- 
Xets fiT] oil yeyuvlaKeiv rb irav\ — p.-fi 
oi), with the infinitive, follows verbs 
of preventing, denying, hesitating, 
distrusting, — but under the same li- 
mitation which restridls the use of 
quin in Latin, — viz. that a negative 
must be joined with the principal 
verb. Here, rl fxiWei is virtually 
equivalent to /at/ fieW^Tu. But it 
would not be Greek to say, fiiWeu 
fiT] ov Trapeivai. Cf. Plato Gorg. 

p. 461 C, Tiva oiet dirapp-qaeadai 
/i^ ov-xl eiriaTaffdac tcl 5i/cato ; /'. e. 
ovSeU dirapvTiffeTac : Her. VI. 88, 
oiiK^Ti ave^aXKovTO fir) 06 rb irdv fir]- 
Xavqffaffdai, nihil iam dubitabant 
quin omnia experirentur. 

irapov(r£av ^xciv] = Trapeij'ai. Cf. 
V. 564, QT]pav (^x'^v = drjpufievos : 
Aesch. Theb. 1032, oi)5' aiax^vofxatl 
IXoi;<r' diriaTOv T7}v5' dvapxi-o-v "'6- 
\ei= djretdovaa. 

543 ^pTrovTi...X67wv.] 'Moves 
he at thy bidding, or lags behind 
thy sense?' — 'is le/t behind by thy 
words — fails to comprehend them.' 
Ajax, at the back of the stage, 
has no view of the side passage by 
which the attendant approaches: 
hence his impatient question to Tec- 
messa. Cf. Eur. Or. 1085, ^ ttoXi) 
XAeti/'at TU)v ifJLUP ^ovXevfidruv, 'you 
are far behind my plans' (/. e. you do 
not understand them) : Helen. 1262, 
X^Xeififiai tQv iv "EWrjaiu vbfiwv, ' I 
am not versed in the laws of Greece.' 

544 Kttt 8tj.] lamiam-. 'even 
now.' Cf. Ar. Av. 175, RET. ^X^- 
y\iov Kdrw. — EH. Kal hy\ jSX^ttW 'I 
am looking. ' 

545 atpc] It seems unnecessary 
to understand alpt with reference to 
the higher level — the raised stage of 
the eccyclema (v. 348) — on which 
Ajax stood. The word seems sim- 
ply to mean that the child was to be 
lifted from the ground to his father's 



alp avTov, alpe Zevpo. Tap^rjaeL yap ov 
veo(r(l>ayrj irov rovSe irpoaXevao-cov cfyovoVj 
eXirep hiKaleo^; ear i/jL6<; Ta irarpodev, 
a\V avTLK wfjLol^ avrov iv v6/jlol<; Trarpb^ 
Bet TTcoXoBafiveLP Ka^op^oiovaOai <f>v<r(,v. 
c3 Trat, yivoio Trarpo^ evTi;;^e(rT€/0O9, 




546 V60<r<|>a'yTi 4>ovov.] Cf.v.253, 

\i66\€v<TTov 'Apr]: Eur. £1. 1172, 
V€0(p6voLs iv atfiaai. 

547 SiKaiCDs] = d,Kpi^u3S, aXrjdiHs. 
Lucian de Hist. Conscrib. c. 39, dW 
oiJ 'Sevo<puv aiirb voi^aei, SiKaios 
avyypatpeii, oi/S^ QovKv5idr]S' {qui 
iustus est historicus : *a legitimate 
historian':) Soph. Track. 61 r, e? 
TOT a.vTov...thoL^i auOivr' 17 KXioifii 
Trav8lKU}s = 'rravTe\(2s. 

rd trarpoQiv.] * On the father's 
side. ' The words etirep SiKalus iar 
ifids would have expressed the mean- 
ing sufficiently without the addition 
of rA irarpbdev. But the added words 
have a special point, — not, perhaps, 
without irony. 'The child who is 
Tecmessa's rd inp-pbdev may have 
derived from his mother certain qua- 
lities which would make him shrink 
at the sight of blood. But if Ajax 
has been his father, the tempera- 
ment of the other parent matters 
little. The inherited nature of Ajax 
will vanquish all meaner elements.' 

548 dX\d...<j>i5o-iv.] ('He will 
not shrink from this sight, though 
unused to it.) But he must at once 
be broken into his father's rugged 
school, and moulded to the likeness 
of his nature.' — wfiolpSfMoi — habits of 
hardy indifference to the sight of 
things which unnerve slighter na- 
tures: cf. the epithets of Ajax, cJ/jlo- 
KpaT7is,\. 205, u>fJL6<pp(>}v, V. 931. — Not 
rpbTToi, but, with a certain heroic 
arrogance, vbixoL, — a term implying 
that his peculiar system of usages has 
a higher unity, a deeper and more 
earnest meaning, than any set of 
habits arbitrarily formed. It is a 

distin(5l and authoritative code, car- 
rying the sandlion of a great exam- 
ple. Cf Hor. Od. II. 15, II, non 
ita Romuli Praescriptum et intonsi 
Catofiis Auspiciis vetenimque norma. 
549 TTwXoSanvciv.] Properly, to 
break in a young horse: cf Plut. 
Them. Z.I, roiis Tpaxvrdrovs iruXovs 
dpicTTOVi Xttttovs yiyveadai (f>d<TKU}v, 
Srav, Tjs Trpoff'fiKH, t^tx^ojctl iraidetas 
Kai KarapT^aeus. Lucian employs 
the same metaphor, Amor. c. 45, 
Kal Ppaxi> TT]u pedTrjra TU)\o5ap.u^(Tas 
('having broken in his youthful 
strength') iv elp-qvrj picXer^ rd iroXe- 
pLiKd. For the structure of the phrase 
Trci}Xodapi.v€?v dvOptairov, compare raV' 
poKToveiv /Sous, Track. 760 : ^ovko- 
Xeiv iirvovs, II. XX. 221 : viKrap oivo- 
Xoeiv, id. IV. 3. 

^^o(JLOiov(r6ai.] Passive : airdv 
being the accusative a/ter TrwXoSa- 
p,veiv, but de/ore i^opt.oi.oO<rdai, Cf 
V. 689, note. 

550 « irai, -ylvoio, k.t.X.] Cf 
Attius (circ. 140 B.C.) Armorum 
Judicium (a tragedy on the subject 
of the contest for the arms of Achil- 
les), frag. 109, Virttite sis par, 
dispar fortunae patris: Virg. Aen. 
XII. 435 (Aeneas to Ascanius), Z>/Vr<f, 
puer, virtutem ex me verumque labo- 
rem, Fortunain ex aliis. Eur. Ale. 
181, (the depd-TTov to Admetus) — ci 
5' fiXXi? Tis yvvi] K€KTr](T€Tai, \ <T(Jj- 
(ppuv p.iv ovK Siv pdXXov, evTvxvs 5' 
fo-ws. — Compare Heclor's prayer for 
his son (//. VI. 476): 'Zeus and 
' ye other gods, grant, I pray you, 
•that this my son also may become, 
'like me, illustrious among the Tro- 
*jans... And may sorne one say of him 



155 1 

TO. S' aXX' ofioco<;' Kai yevoi av ov KaKOf;, 
KaiTOL (re koX vvv tovto ye ^tjXovv €X<^i 
660VV6IC ovZev Twvh^ iiraLaOavet, icaKSiV, 
iv Tft) (ppovelv yap fiyBev i]Bc(rTO<; filof;, 
[to fjur) (f>povelv yap Kapr avcoBvvov KaKov."] 
eft)9 TO yaCpeiv kclI to XvirelaOaL p,d6rj<^. 
OTav S' Xk^ irpo^i tovto, Set a otto)? iraTpo'i 
5etfet9 eV ix^poh o«)9 ef o'lov \pa<^<;. 
T€a)9 he Kov(f)ot,<; irvevfjuacriv ^oaKov, veav 


*some day, as he comes back from 
'battle, Now this man is much better 
'■than his father!' 

552 Kal viiv.] * Even now,' — be- 
fore the prosperity which I invoke 
for you has had time to unfold 

553 ovSe'v.] Probably the accusa- 
tive: cf. V. 996, and Aesch. Ag. 85, ri 
V iTraicdofiifr)...; But oiid^v might 
be adverbial; cf. v. 115, <peldov /xrjdkv 
wvTrep ivvoeis. 

554 €v T(5 4>poveiv yap [Lr\Ziv.] 
* Yes, in the slumber of the feelings 
is life sweetest.' — rb firj ippoveXv, 'to 
be without understanding ;' meaning 
here, to have as yet no developed 
moral sense ; as Mimnermus (quoted 
by Schneidewin) says,_/r«^. 2. 4, tt^- 
Xvtoj' iirl -xpbvov &v6e(Tcv ^^rjs | repwo- 
jxeda irpbs BeQv, elddres o&re Ka- 
Kbv\o{jT^ dyadov. — The following 
line — rb fiT] (ppoveiv yap /cd/jx' dvibdv- 
vov KaKov — is rejecfled as spurious 
by Dindorf and most other editors, 
but is defended by Hermann. The 
meaning at least, is intelligible: — 
'insensibility, though an evil, is a 
painless evil :' — an evil, as precluding 
rb xa^P"" : a painless evil, because 
exempt from rb Xviretadat. The 
praise of unconscious childhood leads 
the speaker to a bitter refledlion on . 
his own experience, — that the pains 
of moral consciousness outbalance 
its pleasures. But the bracketed 
verse is certainly an awkward inter- 
ruption to the coherence of the lines 
before and after it. 

555 ^«S...|Ad0x|S.] ^ws is used (i) 
with aor. indie, of a definite event 

in past time : eiroXifirjaap ?ajs iviK-rj- 
aav. Madvig Sy7it. % 114 c R. i. — 
(2) with subjunctive and &v, of an 
uncertain event in future time: ttoXc- 
fjLTjffovaw ^ojs Slp uiK'/ja-uaiv. In poetry 1 
the &v is sometimes omitted, as here: ' 
cf. Trach. 147, B.p.Qx'^ov i^aipet ^iov 
..J(t}s...yvprj I K\T)dy: Madv. Synt. 
§ 127 R. 2. — (3) with optative and dv, 
of an uncertain event in past time {&v 
being sometimes omitted in poetry) : 
iToK^liTjaav 'iuis dv vcKTjaaiev, 'until 
they should conquer:' or when an 
abstradl case is put in the opt. with 
dv : ovK dTTOKpivaio dv, ews dv aK^- 
xpaio, 'you wou/d not answer, until...' 
(Plato Phaedo p. 10 1 d). 

556 irpos TOVTO.] sc. rb iiaOeiv rb 
XOilpeLV Kal rb Xvireladai. 
J Set o-€...oir<i)s 8ei|€is.] This con- 
strudlion is usually explained by an 
ellipse of bpdu or aKoirelv: dei ae cko- 
trtiv oTTws Set'^eis. It is perhaps 
simpler to say that the usual infini- 
tive after bei is resolved into Sirws 
with fut. indie. A somewhat ana- 
logous construdlion is found in Ar. 
Eq. 926, et's roi)s irXovcjiovs \ (rireiaco 
a Sttws dv iyypa(f>^s, instead of 
awevau) ce eyypacpijpai. — Cf. /%//. 
55> "^V" ^tXoKrrjTOv ae hd \ rpvxrjv 
oTrws Xbyoiaiv €KK\^\f/ecs : Cratinus 
ap. Athen. IX. p. 373, dei cr' fiTrws 
dXeKrp^oPOS \ /tiyScf dioiaets roiis rpb- 


558 T^ws.] 'Awhile:' ricas, ^ws 
dp fiddys rb x^'pc"'* K- '^- ^' The 
word T^ws is used, (i) stridlly as 
correlative to ^ws: e.g. Od. iv. 90, 
^0)5 iydb... I rfKdjjxrjp, relus /J.oi dSeX- 
4>ebp dXKos iirecppep : but rbcppa was 

564I AIA2. 

^V')(r}v araWwVj jXT^rpX ryhe '^ap^ovr)v. 
ovTOi, a 'A^atoSi/, olBa, /xt; ti^ v^piarrj 

rolop TTvXcopov (pvXaKa TevKpov dfi(j>l (toc 
\€Ly]ra) Tpo(f)7]<i (ioKvov e/JLira, kcl ravvv 
TT/XtwTTo? ol-^veL, BvoTfievoov dijpav excov. 


often used instead. — (2) Absolutely 
— 'for a while:' Herod, i. 82, rius 
lj.iv...Ti\oi M. — (3) In the Attic ora- 
tors T^«j sometimes has the pecu- 
liar sense of * hitherto:^ e.g. Lysias 
ni Epicr. p. 179. 13, wawep iv T<p 
Tews XP^^V ddia/jL^uoL earL 

Kov^ois irvcvjiao-iv.] 'Feed on 
light airs'— as a tender plant, shel- 
tered from storms, is nourished only 
liy gentle breezes. Ko6(pois — 'airily- 
lloating,' * softly-breathing': — with 
tlie further notion of childhood's 
light, careless gaiety. For a time 
childhood may shun the rude winds 
of the world, and live apart * in a re- 
gion of its own, where neither the 
( lay-god's heat, nor rain, norany tem- 
pest troubles it' {Track. 144 — 6). 
Cf. Dion Chrysostomus Orat. xii. 30 
(quoted by Schneidewin) : — (plants) 
Ti)e(f>6^cvoL rfi 8ir]veKeT tov Trvevfiaros 
iirippoy, d^pa vypbv ^Xkovtcs, wore 
p-qwioi iraides. — Orphica 67. 6, oJbpa.i. 

, \l/\}xoTpb(t>ot. 

^^ Poo-Kov.] Lucr. V. 885, vesci vi- 
talibiis auris. 

559 liTlTpl TipSe xo-PH-ovTiv.] This 
is the only place in which Ajax 
shews any tenderness for Tecmessa 
(for his language at v. 652 is mere 
artifice, employed to quiet the fears 
of the Chorus) : and even this hint 
of affedlion is elicited by her nearness 
to the child in whom his interest is 
centered. The words themselves 
recall Hedlor's in the Iliad {\i. 479), 
Kal irori tc$ etirrjac, Harp 6s ybye 
TToWbv dfxeivuy, | e/c TroX^/xov dviov- 
Ta' (fif.poi 6' ^vapa ^poToeura, \ Kreivas 
S-jfjiov dvdpa' xapetTj S^ (pp^va pt.-q- 

\\ Trip. — x'l/'A'O''^''. accus. in apposition 
to the sentence: Eur. Or. iio5,'EX^- 

yyjv KTduufieVy—Mev^\€(fi Xjjttijv iri- 

560 ovTot <r 'Axatwv, k. t. \.] 

A reply to Tecmessa's forebodings, 
(vv. 510 ff.) — oUtoi fiT^...vPplajj: 
Madvig Syfif. § 1 24 a r. 3. Cf. v. 83. 

562 Toiov.] Cf. V. 164, noU. 
iruXwpiv 4>vXaKa.] *A trusty 

warder,' — irvXiopos implying watch- 
ful, jealous care. Cerberus is A'idoo 
irvXojpbs Kiu)v (Eur. H. F. i^-j-j). 

563 Tpo4>TJs doKvov ^(iira, k.t.X.] 
'Who will not flag in care, albeit 
now he is following a far path, busied 
with chase of foes.' rpofprjs de- 
pends on doKvov, considered as an 
adjedlive of fulness: Madvig Synt. 
§630!. — (pLira -with. AoKvof : 'assidu- 
ous all the same, although,' &c. 
Cf. V. 122, 9iole. The form i/MirdC is 
found also in Find. JV. iv. 58. 

K€l.] The usual distindlion between 
el Kal and koL el is that the former 
states an adlual, the latter an imagi- 
nary case : dvdpwiros, el Kal dvTjrdi 
i(TTi : dpdpuTos, Kal el dddvaros rjv. 
But /ecu el sometimes admits an ex- 
isting fadl which the speaker con- 
cedes with rclu(flance, or wishes to 
make light of: e.g. Aesch. CAo. 290, 
Kcl fi}] v^TTOida, ToUpyov ^or' epyaa- 
T^ov: 'though (perhaps) I do not 
feel confident, the deed must be 

564 olxv€i.] The word implies a 
lonely or remote path: 'maestae 
oberrationis vim habet,' EUendt s.v. 
Cf. El. i6z, Td\at.v\ dv6/x<pevT0S aUy 

Bijpav ^X"V'] Cf- ^* 543» irapov- 
alav ^X'^iv, note. — Teucer had gone 
on a foray (v. 343) among the up- 
lands of the Mysian Olympus (v. 720). 


a\\*, avZpe^ aairia-TTJpe^, ivaXio^ \ecw9, 
vfilv re KOivrjv Tr]vK iTnaKijirroi) j^apiv, 
Keiv(p r ifirjv dyyetXaT ivToXrjv, ottcck; 
TOP iralha rovBe tt/jo? B6/iiov<; €/jlov<; ayayv 
Tekafiwvi Zei^ei firjTpl t, ^Epl/Soiav Xiyco, 
ft)? <7<l>iv yivrjTai yrjpo/Boa-KOf; elaaeU 
[/Ltep^i? ov fjL vyoiK ; Ki^(oav rod Kara) Oeovj^ 
KoX Tcifia reif^T] fir/r ay(avdp')(aL rivh 
Br)(7ova 'Ap^atoi? firjd* 6 X pfiew v ifi6<;, 
aW' avTo fjLOL <rVf iraCy Xafiwv iiroovvfiov. 



565 d(nnorTT|p€S.] Cf. v. 11 86, 

where the Salaminian sailors com- 
plain of their * sore burden of mar- 
Hal toils' {SopvaffOT^Tuv fi6x0(ov). 

566 'nfv8€...xapiv.] 'This task of 
love'— care for Eurysaces. 

567 av^cfXare.] Cf. v. 990. 

569 'EpCpoiav X^7«.] Added to 
shew that he does not mean Teucer's 
mother, Hesione (v. 1300). Eriboea 
was the daughter of Alcathous, king 
of Megara, — 'a territory which the 
Athenians regarded as originally 
Attic, since, as a portion of the 
ancient Ionia, it had been subjecfl 
to Theseus.' (Schneidewin.) — Her- 
mann, Lobeck, and others, 'Epifiolq. 
X^7w. Cf. Aesch. /rag. 169, dXX' 
'Arrt/cXefas acffov ^Xde Xlavcpos, | 

T7JS <T7JS X^yU) TOL IJ.r]Tp6i. 

571 (K'xpi'S oiu, K.T.X.] Elms- 
ley and Dindorf agree in rejedling 
this verse, as inserted by a commen- 
tator for the purpose of limiting 
elffaei. As Lobeck says, * fi^xP'-^ 
et <£x/3ts apud Tragicos non legun- 
tur.' Hermann once conje<5lured 
?<rr' ai/, but afterwards read p.^xP'-^ 


572 Kal (it]T€..,|X'rjTC.] Depending 
on Sttws, v. 567. 

aY(uvdpxci<>- ] * S tewards of games, ' 
— acting at once as presidents and 
judges : the prose word was dyuvo- 
Oirrji. The mere fundlion of judge 
was also expressed by ^pa^eOs [El. 
690). At the Olympic festival the 
judges were called 'WKXavoUKai. 

573 6Ti<rovo-i,] Propose as prizes. 

Cf. Od. XI. 545, SiKa^ofifvos iraph. 
vrivalv I Tevx^aLv ap.<p^ ^AxiXrjos' idrj- 
/ce hk ir&rvta p-i^Tijp, \ iraxdes d^ Tpib- 
b}v dtKaaav koX IlaXXds "'AOt^pt). 

6 Xv}ji€(uv c|Ji.6s.] The position of 
the article is singular. Ordinary 
usage required either 6 ifibs Xvp-ewv, 
or Xvfieuiv 6 ifios: 6 Xv/xedov ifidi ought 
to mean, * the destroyer is mine.' It 
has been proposed to read 6 Xvfiewv 
i/j-ol : Schaefer reads /f^re Xvfieuv 
ifjidi. — Only three parallel cases have 
been adduced: (i) InEur. /i'z/^/. 683, 
the received reading is Zeus <r' 6 
yevyrjTUjp iiuoi | trpoppi^ov iKTpl\j/eLf.v. 
— (2) An Elean inscription in Bo- 
eckh's Corp. Inscrip. I. p. 26, r(p LI 
'OXv/xiri(p: (3) Athenaeus vii. p. 725, 
-y 'EkcLttj rpiyXapdlvy. — In the two 
latter cases, however, the words 
Zevs-' OX y/iTTtos — ^'EKdrrj-TpiyXavdivrj 
— may be regarded as forming single 

574 dXX* avT6...<rdKos.] *No — 
//^/j- take thou, my son, — the broad 
shield from which thou hast thy 
name; — hold, wielding it by the 
bulky armlet, that sevenfold, spear- 
proof targe!' 

€Tr«vvp,ov.] The child of ' shield- 
bearing' Ajax (v. 19) had received 
the surname of Eurysaces, just as 
Hecflor's son, whose proper name 
was Scamandrius, received from the 
Trojans the surname of Astyanax 
(//. VI. 402) — Tov p' "Ektuip KaXhaKe 
'LKap.dvhpi.op, aiirdp ol dXXoi \ 'A(r- 
TvdvaKT' oTos yap ipvtro "iXiop 


58o] AIA2. 

^vpv<TaK€<ii t(r)(€ Bca 7ro\vppd(f)ov (rrpii^cDv 
7r6p'TraKo<i eTrrd/Soiov clpprj/CTOv ad/co^' 
rd 8' dXXa T€V')(7j kolv ifiol reOdy^erat. 
aXS! ft)9 Ta^o? Tov iralha toi/S' r^hri Se^j^oy, 
Koi hatfjua iraKTOV, firjB^ i'm<TKrjVOV<i ^6ov<; 
SaKpve, KapTU tov <f>CKoiKTt>(TTOV 71/1/77. 




576 ir6piraKos.] Here, apparently 
a handle formed by twisted thongs, 
through which the arm was passed j 
.usually a metal ring (otherwise Kpl' 
Kos) for the same purpose, which was 
taken out when the shield was not 
required for use. Thus in the 
Knights (v. 848) the Sausage-seller 
makes it a charge against Cleon 
tliat he had dedicated shields in the 
icropolis, airoiai rotj trbpira^Lv — as 
if ready for immediate use against 
the people. In Homer the handle 
of the heavy shield {6vpe6s) is formed 
by cross-pieces of wood {Kavdve^, II. 
VIII. 193) : to these succeeded the 
later invention of the irdpira^: and 
later still, the 6xavov, a handle of 
cross-bands, — invented, according to 
Her. 1. 171, by the Carians. 

cirrdpoiov. ] The shield made for 
Ajax by Tychius, (TKirroTd/xup Bx' 
Apiaros: who covered it with seven 
layers of bull's-hide, and an eighth 
of brass, — iirl 5' 6ydoov i^Xao-e x^X- 
k6v, II. VII. 220. 

577 rd 8* dXXa tcv'xi].] When 
Achilles slew Eetion, the father of 
Andromache, he forebore to despoil 
the corpse — dXX* 6.po. /xiv Kar^Kye 
aiiv (vre<ri SaiSaX^oiaiy (//. VI. 418). 
Again, in the Odyssey (xi. 74), the 
shade of the unburied Elpenor pleads 
with Odysseus — dWd /te KaKKrjai oiiv 
Tc^xeffLP, daaa /xoi iariv. The body- 
armour is termed vtracnrlZiOi Kda/xos : 
see v. 1 408. 

KoCv €jJio£.] Anf. 546, fi-^ fxot Bd- 
vrji <ri> Koi.vd. 

T«0di|/€Tai.] Interment was the 
rule in historical times; cremation 
in the Homeric age {irvpal veKiuv 
KalouTo ea/j.€iat, II. I. 52). Aga- 

memnon's tomb is called wpd in 
Soph. El. 901: and the pretended 
remains of Orestes are Uiia% \ ^Xo- 
yiarbv ij5r} Kal KarrjudpaKU/jL^vop 
{ib. 58). On the other hand more 
than one disinterment of the so- 
called relics of some ancient hero 
is recorded in historical times: e.g. 
of Orestes at Tegea, circ. 560 B.C. 
{vcKpbp /tij/cct tffoy i6in-a r-g <rop<fi, Her. 
I. 68 :) and of Theseus at Scyros, circ. 
476 B. c. (Plut. T/ies. c. 36, eip^drf 
di d-fjKTj re /jLeydXov awfiaros alx/J-'^ 
re irapaKei/nipr] xaXx?) Kal ^/0os.) 

579'irdKTov.] 'Make fast,' 'close.' 
Ar. Lys. 264, fioxKois S^ Kal K\y6poi- 
(Tiv rd xpoirvKaia iraKTouv, The verb 
iraKTbuj is from 7ra/cr6s, Doric for 
TTTjKTbs. The expression in Ar. Ack. 
479, icXete iraKTa dufidTcov, 'close the 
barriers (doors) of the house' — is 
parodied from Euripides. — Ajax now 
wishes to be left alone in the tent, 
and desires Tecmessa to shut him 
in : she is then to withdraw to the 
apartment of the women. 

€iri<rKt]vovs.] *At,' i.e. 'before' — 
'the tent.' Cf. O. T. 184, dxdv irapa- 

580 <|>iXoCKTi<rTOV.] *In good 

truth a woman is a plaintive thing.' 
Cf. Eur. H. F. 536, rd dr)\v ydp irwj 
IxdWov oUrphv dpaivwv, 'women are 
somehow quicker to utter their 
grief than men :' Schol. ad II. XXII. 
88, (ftiKoLKTov xPVf^^ V yvv-ff. The 
adj. (piXoiKTiaroi is formed from oIk- 
rltta (adlive voice, *to pity:' midd., 
*to lament'). Hermann distinguishes 
(plXoiKTos, 'given to laments,' from 
(piXotKTiaTos, ' pitiable ;' but Lobeck 
observes — '0/\ot/croj a 0iXoiKrt(rroy, 
pro quo Aeschylus <pi\65vpTos dixit, 


irma^e Odaaov. ov Trpo? larpov cro<f>ov 

BeBoiK aKouoyv rrjvBe rrjp Trpodvfiiav. 
ov ^dp yH dpkaKU ^Xwcrad aov redvyub ^vv. 

w ZeairoT Ata?, tl ttotc Bpaaeiec^ (f)pevi; 

firj Kp2v€, fir} '^eTa^e. cr(o<^povelv koXov. 



dubito an distingui non magis possit 
quam <pl\epi% et tpLXipiaros similia- 
que, si de person! s dicuntur.' The 
neuter adjedlive is contemptuous: 
cf. Ar. Eccl. 236, xP'ni^°-'''°- "fopi^euf 
eiiropuTaTov yvvq'. Eur. EI. 1035, 
/xQpov fi^v oZv yvvaiKcs. 

581 ov irpos larpov... mjiittTi.] 
* 'Tis not for a skilful leech to drone 
charms over a sore that craves the 
knife.' Lamentation can do no 
good when a man's whole life is 
incurably tainted with dishonour. 
There remains but one resource — 
his own sword. Cf. Ovid Met. i. 
1 90, Cundia prius tejitata : sed imme- 
dicabile vulmis Ense reddendum est, 
ne pars sincera trahatur. — Incanta- 
tions, iiTi^hai, held a recognised place 
in the pharmacy of early Greece. 
When patients applied to the cen- 
taur Chiron, says Pindar (/*. ill. 90), 
' he loosed and delivered them from 
'various ills, — treating some with 
'gentle spells, (tous p.b> /xaXaKcus iva- 
otSah dfj.<p4ir(i}i',) 'some with soothing 
'draughts, or by hanging charms 
' about them ; and some by surgery 
' he restored to health.' The incan- 
tation was usually employed in con- 
nedlion with some specific, to aid its 
working: see Plato Charm, p. 155E 
(Socrates is speaking ironically), 'I 
said that the thing itself was a mere 
leaf; but that there was an incanta- 
tion for use with the charm (^tt^Stj 
W Ttj ^Tri tQ <(>apfJi.dK(p efrj), which 
if it should be sung when the charm 

was applied, a cure was certain; but 
without the incantation there would, 
I added, be no use in the leaf.'— 
Already in the time of Demosthe- 
nes such arts were generally ridi- 
culed: Dem. m Arista^. I. p. 793, 
rauTa Xa/3wv rd. (pdpixaKa Kal rds 
iinpZa^...p.ayyaveveL Kal <}>eva.Kl- 
^et KoX Toi)% iirCKi}TrTOV% (prjaif la.- 

582 TOjiwVTi.] 'That craves the 
knife,' — lit., 'desiring to use the 
knife' (for its own relief). Deside- 
rative verbs in ctw or i(£w are formed 
from substantives. The following 
occur: — ^avarciwCI longtodie' — dd- 
varos) : KKavaidoj (/cXaucrts) : fiadrjTidbj: 
CTpaTrjyidu : Tupawictw: <povdi>i: w- 

583'jrpoOunCav.] 'This eager haste,' 
— the impatience of Ajax to be alone; 
cf.v.58i,7riy/ca^e dacaov. 

584 OV -yap p.* dplo-K€i.] For the 
'Attic' accus., cf. v. 112, note. 

585 Spao-cCcis-] Cf. V. 326, note. 

586 p.!] Kpivc] 'Ask not.' Ant. 
398, TTfvb^ airrbs XajScoj' | koI Kplve 
KOi^^Xeyxe, 'question — examine her:' 
Track. 314, Tt 6' olV iyci; ri 5' dv 
ue Kal Kpbois; The use of KpLveiv 
for dvaKpivekv is peculiar to Sopho- 

o-(t>(f>pov€iv KoXdv.] 'To be dis- 
creet is good.' Hecftor, importuned 
by Andromache, bids her 'go into 
the house, and mind her proper 
tasks' (rd o-aur^s ipya Kbp-i^e^ II. VI. 

592] AIA2. 

oi^ W9 dOvfiw' Kal ere irpo^ tov aov rikvov 
Kol 6e6op Uvov/Mai, firj 7rpoBov<; rffia^i jivrj. 

aryav 76 XuTreZ?. ou KaroiaO* iyco Oeoi^ 
w? tivBev dpKelv etfi ocfyeLXirrj^ eri; 


^^ ^ AIAS 




ai) 8' ov')(l irelaev 

irolOC dyav tJBtj Opoeh, 


rap^w yap, coz/af. 

588 |JiT| irpo8ovs...7iiT].] Ne com- 
mittas tit nos destituas. *Be not 
guilty of forsaking us.' Cf. Phil. 772, 
/XT/ aavTov 6^ d/xa \ Kd(x\ 6vTa <ravrov 
TpdarpoTTov, Kreivas y^vri: *lest 
thou become the murderer of:' Plato 
Soph. p. 2 1 7 C, fiT], w ^ive, rjjuv ttju ye 
TpdjTTjv alrrjaduTwu X^P'-^ dirapvTj- 
dels yivTQ, — 'do not be guilty of re- 
fusing — :' Her. ill. 64, fxadthv bk tlis 
HaT-qv dTToXwXe/cwj et-rj tov dSeX- 
(}>€bv, diriKXaie rbv 2fji.ip5tv. 

589 dyav 76 Xvircis.] *0, 'tis 
too much !' Cf. Ajtf. 572, IS. w 
<f>l\Tad' Mfiwv, ci's (t' aTL/xd^ei TraT'/jp. 
KP. dyav ye XvireXs Kal ai> Kal rb cbv 

6cois...6(j>€i\^TT|s>] Ajax regards 
himself as the victim of Athene's 
displeasure (v. 401;, — with no hope 
of succour from other deities (v. 399) 
— nay, 'manifestly hated by the 
gods' (v. 457). Why adjure him by 
'their name ? What duty or service 
did he longer owe them ? They had • 
cast him off: what motive remained 
for wishing to please them ? This 
view of the give-and-take relation 


between gods and men is highly' 
chara(5leristic of ancient paganisni 
See Virg. Aen. xi. 51, Nos iicvene^ 
exanimum et nil iam coelestibus 
ullis Debentem vano moesti comita- 
mur honore. He was dead, and so 
his account with the gods was closed: 
he was quits with them; they had 
done their worst. Maximian (circ. 
^00 K.Ti.TjEleg.y. 231, (the speaker 
is an old va.z.u,) nil inihi aim superis : 
explevi viunera vitae: *I have no 
more to do with the gods; I have 
fulfilled the duties of life :' /. e. 'they 
have no further claim upon me, and 
I have little more to hope or fear 
from them^ 

o\)%\v apK€iv.] Nihil praestare 
officii. Cf. v. 43p. 

591 Tots aKovovo-iv X^7€.] Cf. 
Eur. H.F. 1 1 85 (AM. ewddofiev vd- 
6ea fx^Xea irpbs deuiv). — 6H. eCcprj/ia 
(pivpei. — AM. ^ovKofi^foiaiu ivayyiX- 
Xet ('your admonition meets willing 
ears,' i.e. 'I wish I could ei}<pT}fia 
(fxavetv-!) Aesch. Ag. 1631, Sexo/i^- 
voii X^7ets dapeiv ae. 





7rpo9 ^ecui/, fiaXdaa-ov. 


fiSpd fioL hoKet<: (ppovetv, 
el TOvfJLOv rj6o<; dpTi iraiheveiv voeU. 

o-Tpo({>T) a. 


593 ov 5w^pl*T€;] Schol. oiJ 
(riry/cXefo-ere ; xeXeiJet 5^ rots depdwov- 
<raf avT^v diroKXeieiu. 

595 d'pTi. ] * If thy new hope is 
to school my bent'— a hope of which 
long experience might have taught 
you the futility. At v. 346 Ajax 
was brought on the stage by the ec- 
cyclema. Upon his reiterated com- 
mand ' to close the doors,' it is now 
rolled back, — he is removed from 
the stage,— and the central door in 
the (TKrivT^ is closed. At the same 
time Tecmessa, with Eurysaces, 
leaves the stage by another door in 
the back- scene, supposed to lead to 
the ywouK(2v. It was fitting that 
Ajax should have a space of solitude 
in the tent, to mature his prepara- 
tions for death. At v. 820 his sword 
is described as 'newly- whetted.' 

596 — 645. The first ardaiixov 
{fUXoi), or ode by the entire Chorus 
after taking up their position at the 
th)rmele. The parode or ' entrance- 
chant' (vv. 134—200) was sung on 
their way thither. Aristotle iJF'oet. 
XII. 23) describes the stasimon as 
ti^Koi xopo^ T^ a^cw dvaTcUarov Kal 
Tpoxatov, The term itself appears 
to involve two notions,— that of the 
Chorus in position at the thymele, — 
and that of an ode unbroken by dia- 
logue or anapaests. 

Cho. O famous Salamis, thou, I 
think, dwellest sea-lashed, happy; 
but I on the plains of Troy wait 

wearily for the guerdon of my toils, 
with the fear of sullen Hades at my 
heart. And to crown my sorrows 
Ajax is vext with a sore malady, — 
Ajax, once dominant in war, — now 
a cherisher of lonely thoughts, and 
dishonoured by the ungenerous A- 
treidae. Sharp will be his mother's 
cry when she hears these tidings; 
and well for him also that he should 
pass to the shelter of the grave. 
Alas, Telamon, there is heavy news 
for thee to hear, — of a curse which 
has never rested on any life of the 
Aeacidae save his. 

596 — 608. Metres of the first 
strophe: — 

V. 596. tJ AcXeo'ld croLKaius \ av fiev 
rrov I : spondee, choriambus, bac- 
V. 597. ^'ar I €LS a\rirXa/cr|oj ev- 
daTfiuf I : anacrusis : choriambus, 
V. 598. Trd(T\Tv vept^duTlos der| : 
anacrusis : choriambus, bacchius. 
These three verses are *Gly- 
Vv. 599—600. eycoS \ T\dfi\\c3v 
Trd\\aios d(pov \ xpofos] : iambic 
dipodia, followed by a Glyconic 
verse of trochee, choriambus- 
Vv. 601, 602. TSdi\a fxlpLvWcd Xet] 
/xuivi dTroTp\ci /jl-^vcSu | : iambic di- 
podia, followed by a Glyconic 
verse of spondee, choriambus, 

6oo] MAX. 

vaL6L<; aXlirXaKTOf;, evBaifKav, 

iraaLv irepi<f>avTO<i del' 

iyo) 3' o rXdfKov iraXaLo^; d(f> ov ')(^p6vo^ 



Vv. 603, 4. a.v\iipXOfxui arjev eiJ- 
vd5p.d\ : same as v. 597. 

V. 605. xpovdi I Tpvxofievos \ : iam- 
bus, choriambus. 

V. 606. KCLKdv j eXiriS exwj/ | : 

V. 607. €tX fxe iroT aviffffiv \ : a 
dochmiac monometer. (The 
normal dochmiac is ^ — ^- : 
here, two of the long syllables 
are resolved into four short 

y. 608. Tou aTTOTpowou a\\i87i\\ov 
aZdlau | : ' antispastic ' mono- 
meter, (properly ^ ' : but 

each of the long syllables is here 
resolved into two short ones,) — 
followed by an iambic penthe- 

597 vaias.] Cf. //. II. 625, 'Ext- 
pd(jv 8' lepduv I vT^auu, at paLovai 
TvipTjv dXos: id. 648, irdXeis ei/uaie- 

dXCirXaKTOS.] .Aesch. Pers. 309, 
OaXaaadirXrjKTQU vrjaov Atavros. — Lo- 
beck in his 2nd edition follows a 
majority of the MSS. (and Suidas) 
in reading aXiirXayKTOS, — but thinks 
that it might be equivalent in sense 
to oXiirXaKTOs, — TrX'^ccrw and ttXci^w 
j being as intimately connedled in 
meaning as schlagen and verschla- 

598 irdo-tv 'ir€pi4>avT0s dci] As 
the illustrious seat of the Aeacidae. 
The epithet Trepl<pavTo% serves merely 
to heighten the picture suggested by 
Kkeivd and evbalfujjv, — of Salamis 
basking in peaceful and admired 
prosperity, while her children on 

' the plains of Troy are weary, unre- 
; garded sufferers. Some critics have 
j needlessly charged the poet with 
j an allusion to the vidlory of Salamis. 
I He was not careful of such anachro- 
i nisms. Thus one of the competi- 
tors in the Pythian games at which 
Orestes was killed is represented as 
coming from Barca, a city founded 

in 560 B.C. {EL 727). But no ana- 
chronism need be supposed here. 

600 l-yci 8€...Tpvxoji€VOS.] 'But 
I, sufferer, 'tis long time Jhat I wait 
my reward for camping under Ida, 
— through endless months ever worn 
by the steady march of time.' — ^"ISoTa 
Xeifuavta &irou/a, Idaea pratensia 
praemia, — 'a reward (vi(flory) for (a 

* long campaign upon) the meadows 

* of Ida.' — (Hermann's conjedlure, 
adopted by Dindorf.) But the ex- 
pression appears too strained for 
Sophocles . — €ivi!)/jur]s "Xfi^vo^ = €vkI- 
vTjTOi: 'ceaselessly-moving' time, — 
the steady march of the years with 
no pause or respite from monotony 
in their inexorable routine. The 
form evvdfjLTjs is defensible by iirirovd- 
/AT7S and j'e/cpoj'wytw/y (* a corpse-bearer :' 
Manetho, circ. 300 B.C.). But if cu- 
pu}IJi.Tjs = evKlpr)Tos, its natural sense 
would be — not * remorselessly ad- 
vancing,' but — 'swiftly moving' — 
precisely what the time at Troy was 
noL No satisfactory restoration of 
this corrupt passage has yet been 
made. The best may perhaps be 
found in a combination of Bergk's 
eiJj/w/xat with Lobeck's iiravXa: — 

TSaia fdfivcov Xet/xupt ^iravXa, 

dvifipidfxos, alhf evvufMai, 

XP6VI^ TpVx6p.€V0S, K.T.X. 

'Tarrying through countless months, 
' I ever make my couch in the quar- 

* ters (^TravXa) on the plains of Troy.' 
Three points require notice: (i) 
^iravXa. A variant for firjpup is fi-^- 
Xu}p. Now firjXup may originally 
have been a gloss on ^wavXa by an 
annotator who remembered that 
word in the sense of ' s^e^pfold ' in 
O. T. 1 138. — (2> The phrase cuva- 
gQixi ^TavXa, ' to sleep in quarters,' 
is not, perhaps, harsher than that in 
Aesch. Ag. 176 {8aifx6uu}v)...ff{Xfjia 
aefjLvbv ijfiiuuv. The MSS. are agreed 
on pkipu/u) or ixifxyuv: else it would 


84 S04)OKAEOT2 

avr]pL6fio^ alev evvu/Mjt' 

'XpOVCp TpV^6fl€V0(;, 

€Ti fie iroT avvaeiv 

TCI/ aTTOTpOTTOV dtBrjXov " Kihav, 

have been desirable to replace it, if 
possible, by a participle in the sense 
of 'occupying.' — (3) evpu/xai. In 
passages of this kind, the misery of 
bivouacking in the open air {dvffav- 
Xia) is usually a prominent topic: 
see Aesch. Ag. 542 — 545, and vv. 
1206 — 1 2 10 of this play. 

It remains to notice [a) Bergk's 
conjecture, adopted in the 5th edi- 
tion of Schneidewin: — 'IS^St ixifivwv 
XeifJLuvL trbq. re, fi-qvuif \ du-fipLdfios, 
aUvevvQfJiai \ irovif rpvxofMevoi, 'abid- 
'ing in the land of Ida,' (IdaSi — iv 
yy'lSy.St) 'in winter and grass-time 
' (summer), I ever bivouac oppressed 
' by toil, ' &c. Cf. Rhianus (of Crete, 
author of epic Mea-ffriviKd, circ. 222 
B.C.) a/>. Paus. IV. 17. 6, iarparo- 
UVTO I x^^/*ttT(i re Troi'as re Si^w 
KoX etKoai TTctcras. — {d) Schneidewin's 
former conjecture : — 'Idaia fil/jLvup 
XcL/jLuvia Triae, dXyicov | avqpLd/xos, 
alkv evviSfiai \ 5p6a(^ Tpvxop-evos : 
'bearing up against (the hardships 
of) Ida's meadoM^-plains, amid count- 
less miseries I bivouac,' &c. (//. xx. 
9, ir/crea iroi-^euTa, 'grassy mea- 
dows.') But p-ifjiveiv iriaea, 'to with- 
stand (endure) meadows,' is a sin- 
gular phrase. 

604 |XT]V(3v dvT{pi6(ios.] Geni- 
tive of fulness: cf. v. 563, Tpo(prjs 
AoKvos: El. 232, 6.vdpi0piOi...6p-qvo}v. 
— Madv. Synt. § 6^ a. 

606 eXmSa.] Cf. v. 799: Her. 
VIII. 12, ^s <p6^ov KaTiariaTO iXiri- 
fov/ej irdyx^ diroX^eadai: ^ lookitig 

forward to utter destrudlion :' Lucan 
V. 4^5, Naufragii spes omnis abit. 

607 ?Ti |i6 ..avvo-eiv.] The Latin 
construdlion kXirl^wv fie dvdaeiv gives 
a stronger emphasis to the speaker's 
self- commiseration. Cf. El. 471, 

TTLKpav \ ZokQ) fie ireipav r-qv^e ToXfi-fi' 
aeiv iri. And so El. 65, Track. 706. 
In most cases where this full con- 
strudlion is used the subjedl to the 
principal verb is dire(5lly contrasted 
with some other person : e. g. Od. 
VIII. 221, tQ)v S* 6XK(jiv iix.k 077/it 
TToXi) -Kpo^epkoT^pov elvai. In other 
instances — frequently in Plato's dia- 
logues — the enclitic fie occurs in 
this construdlion without such defi- 
nite emphasis, — serving, however, 
to mark lightly the separate person- 
ality of the speaker: e.g. Plato Symp. 
p. 175 E,, ydp pie irapd aov... 
<70<pidi TrXrjpudrjaea-dai : id. Rep. p. 
400 B, ol/iat hk p.e dKt]Kohai.. 

dvuo-civ.] 'Reach:' 'pass to:' 
O. C. 1562, k^avv<jai...Th.v Tia.yKivQri 
Kdrco I veKpdv irXdKO. : Eur. SuppL 
1142, TToravol 5' ijvvaav rhv At8av. 

60S d'ir6Tpo'Trov...dt8T]\ov.] 'The 
direful, the gloom-wrapt Hades.'— 
diriiTpoTrov — olov dv tis dTTOTpiirotTo : 
' horrible. ' That Sophocles used the 
word in this sense appears certain 
from O. T. 13 12, ICo aKdrov I 
vi<pos dirbrpoTrov, (Oedipus exclaims,) 
— 'Oh darkness enshrouding me, 
from which all men turn:'' (the Cho- 
rus had just been expressing their 
horror. ) Otherwise diroTpoiros Ai5r)s 
might well mean 'remote, aloof from 
men and gods,' 'sullen:' cf. Eur. 
//ec. 2, IV AXStjs xwp2s (^Kiarai deuiv. 
See Bion idyll. 11. 2, iv aXcrel" dev- 
5pdevTi\ . ..rbv aTrdTpoirou eld€u"Epo}Ta., 
e(T56p.evov tt^^olo ttotI KXdSov : ' Love, 
the solitary.' — didrjXos Atdrjs, — two 
words of the same origin : cf. O. T. 
603, IIu^u) S' ttbi/ I irevdov : (Strabo 
mentions the derivation of IIu^w 
from irvd^adai, ix. p. 419:) Horn. 
//. II. 758, npddooi 6obs ijye/ibvfvev. 

6 1 6] AIAS. 85 

dvTi<rTpo<J«] a. 

Kai fioL hvaOepdirevTo^; At'a? 

^vveoTTLv €<l>eBpo<;^d)/jLOL fioi, 610 

Oela fiavLa ^vvavko<;* 

ov i^€7r6fjLyfr(o Trplv hr] wore Oovplt^ 

KparovvT ip "Apet* vvv S' av (ppevo^; olojScoTa^ 

(pL\oi<; fjiiya irevOo^ rjuprjTai. 615 

ra TTplv. 8* €pya '^epolv 

610 ?<j)€8pos.] ' A fresh trouble in 
serve:' lit., 'reserve champion,' — 

if, when other adversities abated, 
iax stepped into their place and 
ok his turn at harassing the suffer- 
s. The ^(peSpos was a third com- 
itant, — 'sitting by' to fight the 
winning pugilist or wrestler. See 
Ar. jRau. 791, (Aeschylus and Eu- 
lipides are contesting the tragic 
throne : Sophocles waived his pre- 
tensions, and) ?/teXXej'...?0e5poj Kade- 
Seiadai,' kSlv fiev Atax^^os Kpary, j 
^^eiv Kara xcipaj*' et 5^ fxr], irepl r^y 
T^X^V^ I SLayuivieiffd^ icpatrKe irpds 7' 
Eupnri5T]v. — Martial V. 24. 8, Hermes 
(an invincible gladiator) szippositicius 
sibiipse, * his own reserve champion,' 
i. e. needing none to back him, — an 
imitation of Aesch. Cho. 851, e^e- 
8/Jos I p.bvo% (av dL<rao?s deioi ^Op^crTrji. 

611 ^VVav\os] = (TVVOIKOS, (TVV(bv. 

Cf. Phil. 1 168 ax^os V ^vvoiKet: 
0. T. 337, 6pyr]v..,T7]y ar]v o/moO \ 
valouaav ov Kareide^, i.e. 'dwelling 
in thy bosom.' — ^e^^ : cf. vv. 176, 278. 

612 e|cir^|j,\{;(i).] 'Sentest forth 
from thee'' (middle voice)— ' sentest 

forth on thy own behalf,' as a che- 
rished son and representative. For 
the force of the middle cf. Her. ii. 
25, hoKiu 84 fioi ov5^ vav rb ilSup 
rb iir^Teioy iKdaroTe dwoir^fiirecdai 
ToO NcfXou 6 07X10$ : ' Moreover I do 
not think that the sun thr(nvs off all 
the water annually absorbed from 
the Nile:' and so airow^ixireadaL of 
putting away a wife, id. vr. 63 : 
Aesch. Theb. 664, (neither in his 
youth nor in his manhood) AiKijirpoa-' 
iiTre Kal KarTj^nJjaaTO, — * did Jus- 

tice greet him and acknowledge him 
^/or her own' — deem him worthy of 
Jierself. Cf. i^eXva-d/xij v, v. 531. 

irplv St] TTOTfe] 'In some Dygone 
day:'— lit., 'formerly {irpiv\ I sup- 
pose (5^), at some time or other 
(ttot^).' In such phrases SiJ adds a 
certain vagueness, — contemptuous or 
pathetic, — to the particle with which 
it is joined ; e. g. dXXoj Zt], alius tie- 
scio quis: fi^pv-rfade Z-fj irov, 'you pre- 
serve a memory somewhere or other, ^ 
i. e. ' I presume you remember :' Hkt- 
Tii S^, * whoever it was,' &c. — Cf. 
Eur. Suppl. 1130, CTfobov irXijdos... 
&vtI crufMaTUv \ evdoKl/xuv St^itot iv 
MuKiJi/atj, 'once {8-q) of yore famous :' 
Aesch. Ag. 560, Tpolav eXdvrei 5iJ- 
TTore, tandem aliquando. 

614 <{>p€v6s olopcoras.] 'A lonely 
liasturer of his thoughts :' i. e. ' a 
nurser of lonely thoughts,' — one 
who broods sullenly apart, as did 
Ajax ' in his pause of many days 
from battle' (v. 195) before the out- 
break of his frenzy, — ^and after it, in 
that gloomy despair which augured 
his purpose 'to do some evil deed' 
(v. 326),— like Bellerophon in Ho- 
mer, 'devouring his own soul, — 
avoiding the path of men ' (//. vi. 
202). — Cf. Aesch. Ag. 652, i^ovKo- 
Xoufiev (ppouriaiv viov trddos : Theocr. 
XL 80, iirolfxaivep rbv ^porra. 

615 tjvpTjTttt.] yeyhrjTau The 
passive form rjvprj/jLai does not appear 
to have been used as a deponent. 

616 ?pYa x«po^v.] Cf. V. 439. — 
epya x^/'O'" dperTji = x^^po^Py^/^ftt 
dpeTTJs : for the double genitive cf. 
V. 309, HJte. 




dcpcXa Trap* d^L\oL<; 

eirea eireae /xeXeot? 'ArpetSat?. 

<rTpO<pT] p ■ 

^ irov TraXaia fiev evrpo(^o<i dfjuepOf 

XevKot Se yripa fJ^dT7)p viv orav voaovvra 

^pevofjL6p(o<; dKOvarrjy 

cuKiVGv aiXtvov 

ovB* OLKTpdf; lyoov 6pviOo<; dr)8ov<? 


620 a4>iXa...*ATp€£8ais.] 'Have 
fallen dead, nor lit a spark of love 
in the loveless, the miserable Atrei- 
dae.' — iirecrev &<pt.\a 'have turned 
out unprodu(flive of gratitude* rrap' 
'ArpeLdais 'in the minds of the A- 
treidae.' Cf Pind. O. xii. 14, iroX- 
Xd 5' dvdpdjwois iraph. yvdjfxav eirecrev, 
tnulta praeter spent solent cadere {ene 
nire).—Yox Trapd cf. Dem. Olynth. 
ir. p. t8, 3, TocroiJrffj davfiaardTepos 
iraph irdffi vofAi^fTat. 

622 — 634. Metres of the second 
strophe : — 

Vv. 622, 3. 7} irov I Tra\aX\\d fxev] 
ivTpo<p6s d\ij.€pd\ : iambic dipo- 
dia ; followed by Glyconic verse 
of trochee, choriambus, iambus. 
Vv. 624, 5. Xeu/cw 5c yrjpWd fidT\iip 
vXv ordv I vo(TO\>vTd\: iambic dipo- 
dia; followed by Glyconic verse of 
spondee, choriambus, bacchius. 
V. 626. <j>ptvonop\(S}s diK\ov(Ty\\ : tro- 
chaic tripodia. 
V. 627. fukXvov I aiTvo'OJ'l : dacflylic 

V. 628. oGS orccrplds yoov op\vWos 
a^5|oi;s|: spondee; choriambic 
dimeter hypercatal. 
Vv. 629, 30. TjaiL I dva-fiopos d\\\ 
o^vTovovs I p.ev wdds \ : spondee 
choriambic dimeter : bacchius. 
V. 631. dprjvTJffleT x?/>olT\^KTor 5| 

dadlylic trimeter. 
V. 632. t> <rTipv\oT<rL Tiff\ovvTai | 


Vv. 633,4. 8ou7ror| icat iroXTds \\ a 

fivy/x\d xat'TlttsI: spondee, cho 

riambus : iambic penthemimer, 

622 iroXAiqi [liv ^VTpo(j>os d\Up<^.] 

* Surely his mother, — as she spends 

her declining day and white old age, 
— when she hears,' &c. The parti- 
cles fiiv — 5^ often point a merely rhe- 
torical antithesis: e.g: Hes. Theog, 
655, Trepi p.kv TrpaTTidas tnpl 5' ^<j(n 
voTjfjia: Her. VII. 9, ruu iwiard- 
(leda jjikv TTjv ixdxfiv, iTri(TTdp.eda. di 

627 alXivov, K.T.\.] 'Will cry 

A /as, alas, — nor vent her sorrow in 
the nightingale's plaintive note, but 
raise the dirge in shrill-toned strains.' 
Philomela's low- voiced dirge for the 
long-lost Itys, — that strain in which 
Eledlra found an echo of her regret 
for the long-dead Agamemnon {El. 
147), — will not serve to interpret 
Eriboea's recent sorrow. Her grief 
will first find voice, — not in a plain- 
tive lament, — but in a cry of sharp, 
shrill anguish. — Hermann . under- 
stands — {ovhk) oXKivov, ovhk ybov d??- 
5o0s — dWd K.T.X. But the words 
atXivoif, aiXivov — so prominently pla- 
ced, so emphatically repeated — must 
surely represent what Eriboea wm- 
likely to utter. 

a1^ivov...ov8^ 'y6ov...dXXa a>8ds.] 
The resumption of atXivou by the 
third clause, dXXd...<^5d9, is pecu- 
liarly Sophoclean : cf. v. iiii, ov 
yap rt t^s cttjs ouve/c' icyrpaTeveTO 
\ yvvaiK6s...dXX' ovvex' SpKuxf... 
croC 6' ov5^y. O. T. 337, 6py'^v 
ifx^fixpio rrjv i/JLTfir t^v (tt)v S'6/ioi/| 
valovaav oO Kareides' dXX' ifii -^i- 

629 dtjSovs.] In apposition with 
6pui6os. Cf. Eur. //. F. 465, cto- 
Xt]v hk Orjpbs d/A^^/3aXXe ff(fi Kdp(}\ 


636] AIAS. 

7](7eL Bu<Tf/,opo<;, aXX o^vrovov^i fiev wSo? 
6prfvr](reCj x^pcnrkrjKToc 5* 
eV (TTeppoLac ireaovvTac 

eLvTwrrpocJ)!] P'. 
SovTTpt, Koi TToXta? dfjbvyiJLa yaiTa^, 
Kpeiaacov irap *' KiZa Kevd(ov b vocratv fiarav, 
0? Sk '7raTpa>a<; ^kcov yeved<; dpiaTO^ 



631 x^P'^'^'^'H*^''''*"' Soviroi.] Cf. 
Aesch. Cho. 417, diTpiydd'jrXrjKTa to- 
XvirXdvrjTa S' ■^v ISeiv \ ixaffcrvTepo- 
Tpi^T] TO. x^P^^ dpiyixara \ Avudev, 
avinadiV ktOttl^ 5' iirippodel Kporyp-- 
bv CLfibv Kal iravddXiov Kdpa. — For 
the strudlure of the phrase cf. v. 
546, v€ocr<f>ay7}i (pbvot : Track. 756, 
TToKvOvTov^ cr(paydi. 

634 dfiv-yna,] Sc. 7ei'Tj(reTat, sup- 
plied from TreaouuTai. 

635 Kp€£o-cra)v...}idTav.] 'Better 
hid with Hades were the idly vext.' 
When Ajax, just recovered from 
frenzy, called upon his Salaminian 
followers to slay him, they reproved 
him for wishing *to cure ill by ill;' 
they implored him to 'control him- 
self and be sane' (w. 361 — 371). 
But slowly, while they listened to 
him, the truth of his profound an- 
guish sank into their minds. They 
began to feel that life had small worth 
for one thus heart-broken by disho- 

1 nour. * We know not how to check 
thee' — is their next response to his 
yearnings for death — ' who hast fallen 
in with woes so piteous' (v. 438). 
And while Tecmessa has been com- 
bating his purpose of self-destruc- 
tion (w. 485 — 595), ^key have re- 
mained passive. Once, indeed, they 
invoke his pity for ker (v. 525). But 
they appeal to no other motive in 
arrest of his self-decreed doom. For 
herself and for her son, Tecmessa 
would have Ajax cling to life. His 
fellow-soldiers are content that he 
should find his own peace in death. 
Kp€£o-(r(>)v...Kev6cov.] For Kpeia- 
ffw Kevd(j]v iarb, instead of KpciacrSy 
i<TTi Kevdeiv ainbu, cf. O. T. 1368, 
Kpeiffffoiif yhp rjcda ix7]k4t wp fj ^Cbv 
rv<p\b%: Lysias de Evandr. docim. 

p. T75. 4, KpeiTTWV 7]tf 6 TaTT)p fJLOV 

fiT] XeiTovpy-^aas rj ToaaOra tQu iav- 
rod dvaXibaat. Similarly v. 76, ft*- 
Sop dpKelrca fiivojv: dijXSi elpn itoiCov^ 
&c. — Madv. Synt. § 177 ^ r 4. 

•irap''At8<j.] Elmsley's emenda- 
tion for Kpdaauv ydp Atdq.. But 
the dative might be supported by //. 
XXIII. 244, €1(t6k€v airrbs \ "AtSt Keij- 
dcjfiai {i.e, ip atS-u): Hes. 0/>/>. 8, 
aW^pi vaiuv : Find. JV. X. 58, oIkcTp 

6 voo-wv iiarav.] Lit., 'the dis- 
tempered /7<7/w'/5/j/,' i.e. with mad- 
ness. Cf Ar. Pax 95, rl irirei ; tI 
/xaTTjv oiJx-y7ta^''«s ; 'why are you 
flying ; why so foolishly insane?' — 
For 6 voffup /x6lt7}p instead of 6 fid- 
T-qv poaCjp, cf. Aesch. P. V. 1013, rQ 
(ppopovvTi fiTj KaXQs : Eur. Med. 874, 
TOLcri ^ovX^iovaip eu : Soph. El. 792, 
Tov 6ap6pTOS dprlus. 

636 €K iraTp^as fipwrros.] 

'Who, by paternal lineage noblest 
in descent/ &c The phrase is some- 
what peculiar. One would have ex- 
pedled either (i) Trarpibg. yepeq! (or 
irarpi^as 7ej'eas) rJKUP dpiaros, 'no- 
bly descended in respedl of paternal 
lineage :' or (2) e/c 7ej'eas dplarrji 
-rJKWP, ' descended/r(7W a noble line.' [ 
In regard to genealogy dirb some-1 
times denotes remote, while ^k de-I 
notes immediate, descent : Isocr. 
Panathen. p. 249 B, rob% flip dirb 
deuiPf rods 5' i^ avrup tup 6eu)p yeyo- 
pbras. Cf. v. 202. — Bergk proposed 
5s €5 TTttT/) v'as iJKWP yepeds, lit. 'well 
off in respe(5l of lineage,' — like XPV- 
fidrcap eS iJKOPTes, Her. V. 62, — be- 
lieving that a substantive in the sense 
of ' chief ought to replace ApiaTos, 
which is found only in two MSS. 
The other MSS. leave a lacuna. 


OVKCTl <TVVTp6^0L<i 

6pyal(; e/i-TreSo?, dW* €^709 ofJbCKel. 

m rXdfiov irdrepj oiav ae /nivei irvOkaOaL 

Traihof; hva<f>opov arav, 

dv oviro) TL<; eOpe-^ev 

aloov AlaKcBap drepQe rovSe, 

airavff 6 fiaKpo<s KdvapldfiTjTo^; ')(^p6vo<i 


639 ouK^Ti...6|iiX€t.] *Is no 
more constant to the old promptings 
of his nature, but consorts with 
strange emotions.' — <ri5vT/3o0ot dpyai, 
= oUeloi TpdTToi, the dispositions which 
have grown with his growth ; cf. Ani. 
355, d<TTw6fiovs dpyds, * the instin(5ls 
of social life.' — ifiireSos dpyais, 'con- 
stant in regard to^ — dative of part 
aflfedled, like ^iaci /ca/c6s : Madv. 
Synt § 40. 

Iktos o^LiXci.] *Is conversant 
(with thoughts, impulses) outside 
(the sphere of his mind's normal ac- 
tion).' Similarly an insane person 
was said CKaTTJvai ^pevQv, iKffTijvai 
iavTov. — For bfiiXeii/ cf. the phrase 
dfuKeip <pCko(ro<plq., yvfivaffrtKy (Pla- 
to), &c.^ 

644 av owTTO), K. T. X.] 'A curse 
which never yet has clung to any life 
of the Aeacidae save his.' — The 
phrase aldjv rts AlaKLSdv, instead 
of iKyovds Tts AlaKtddv, may be 
defended as having a certain special 
fitness here. It seems to speak of 
a dynasty in whose fortunate annals 
prince after prince had lived out his 
span, and gone to the grave full of 
years and honours. Hitherto each 
successive Aeacid * life ' had enrich- 
ed the chronicle of the house with . 
another ample and triumphant chap- ' f ' 
ter. At last that fair series will be 
marred. The glory of Ajax has 
been overcast in its meridian ; he 
will perish in his prime. Schneide- 
win conjedlured Siuv, explaining it 
as Twy iK Atos, — Zeus being the au- 

thor of the Aeacid line : cf. v. 385. 
The emendation is tempting; but 
rather in the general sense of 5?o5, 
— 'godlike,' — ' illustrious.' 

^6pc4f€V.] Cf. V. 503, otas Xarpctas 
...rp^^ei, and no^e. 

645 TOvSc] Sc. AtavTos, — not alu)- 
voi. The Greek idiom is, not odrts 
ali}P &T€p6€ ToO Alaurdov alQvos, but 
simply drepde Atavros. Cf. //. XXI. 
191, Kpeiaauv 8' a!rr€ Aibs yeue^ Ho- 
TOLfiolo rirvKTaL, — instead of t^s 
ToO HoTafjLoio yeviT}i : Xen. Cyr. III. 

3. 41, X^P'^^ ^X^'''^ Ovdev 7JTT0V 7)- 

ixdv hfTLfiov, — instead of t^s TjyLeri- 
pas. '- 

646 — 692. The iireLffdSiov Scire- 
pov: cf. V. 201, no^e. — AjAX issues 
from his tent {by the middle door of the 
back-scene which represents it), carry- 
ing his sword (v. 658). Tecmessa, 
with EURYSACES, at the same time 
enters by the door in the back-scene on 
the spedlator's right, from the gynae- 
ceum. — Ajax. * The long years bring 
change to all things, — even to such 
a stubborn will as mine. 1 shrink 
from leaving this woman desolate, 
and my child an orphan. But I will 
go and cleanse my stains, that I may 
escape the heavy anger of the god- 
dess ; and I will bury this sword, the 
*gift of an enemy, — a gift that has 
brought me nothing but ill. Hence- 
forth I shall know how to bear my- 
self towards the gods, — towards the 
Atreidae. Do not all things pay 
homage to authority ? Winter makes 
way for summer, night for day : the 

648] AIAS. 

<f>v€t T aSijXa Kol ^avevra KptnTreraf 
KovK ear aekirrov ovBev, oXX,' aXicTKeTat 


v/inds relax their fury, — sleep, his 
grasp. And shall I not learn discre- 
tion, knowing that neither friendship 
nor enmity is for ever ? But thou, 
woman, go within and pray to the 
gods in my behalf; and do ye, also, 
friends, aid my wishes. Perchance, 
though now I suffer, ye will soon 
hear that I am at peace.' — It is diffi- 
cult to accept the view of Welcker 
(Kleine Schriften, I v. pp. 225 ff.) 
and other critics, that in this speech 
Ajax does not intentionally mislead 
his hearers, — that he merely speaks 
of his approaching death in a strain 
of unstudied irony, which they, 
blinded by their own wish, misinter- 
pret as a renunciation of his resolve. 
A more natural view of the passage 
is, that Ajax desires, half in pity, 
half in scorn, to disguise from his 
listeners a purpose too great for their 
sympathy. The language throughout 
can, indeed, be stretched to fit his 
real design. But its ambiguity passes 
tlie bounds of irony; it amounts t a_ 
studied artifice^ Thus when he says 
(v. 55^8), Kpvx}/<jj r 65' ^7X0 J ToiifJidv... 
■yaias dpv^as, k.t.\. — the words 
]iave an inner agreement with his 
aiflual purpose — to plant his sword 
in the ground, and to * bury' it m his 
oiun body. But who can doubt that 
liis hearers were intended to think 
of the sword being buried in the 
earth? Again he might, perhaps, 
liave described death as t6 ayviaai 
TO, Xifxara (v. 65 5), without intending 
to mislead. But, unless he had wish- 
ed those words to be taken literally, 
would he have said el/tti irpb% XovTpk 
KoX TrapaKTiovs Xeifiuivas ? When he 
N peaks of having learnt the lesson of 
.sul)mission, would he have said (v. 
666), t6 Xonrbp elaSfieada, k.t.X., if 
lie had not meant to suggest the be- 
lief that his life was to be prolonged? 
The aeau}<Tixivov in v. 692 need not 
be pressed: Ajax would naturally 
sj^eak of death as a * deliverance.' 
But the other expressions appear to 

shew that, partly in compassion, . 
partly with the reserve of a proud 
spirit conscious of isolation, he had ' 
resolved to veil the significance of_^ 
his farewell. 

646 6 |jLaKpis...xp6vos.] For the 
article, cf. v. 473, nole. 

<}>v'6i ... KpvirT€Tai.] 'All things 
the long and countless years first 
draw from darkness, then bury from 
light' Things unknown before are 
brought forth, developed, by the 
process of years, — to decay and dis- 
appear in their turn. It is the de- 
stru(flive — not the productive — ener- 
gy of time which is uppermost in 
the speaker's thought: but 0i5ei AStj- 
Xa serves as a foil for (jiavivra Kp*'>- 
Trrerat. Cf. Ant. 1112 (Creon re- 
solves to liberate Haemon) — iyta S' 
...aur6j t' H7j(ra Kal wapwv e/cXO- 

KpviTTCTai.] Reabsorbs info itself. 
Cf. Aesch. CJw. 120, koX VaXav ai>- 
TT\v, 7} TO. IT dura r^/crerat, — ' which 
produces all things from herself.' In 
Track. 474, however, Kpi^ofxai. is 
merely poetical for Kpv^u (cf. Ai. 
V. 511, note). 

648d€X'7rTOV.] Schneidewin.quotes 
Archilochusyr^^. 76, xPW''T<^'' ^«^- 
TTToy oi^h iffTiu oi)5' aTruj/jLOTou: Soph. 
Ant. 388, 6pa' ^pordtaiv ovMv iar^ 

dXX* dXCo-K€Tai, k.t.X.] * There is 
confusion e'en {kuL) for the dreadful 
oath and for the stubborn will.' — 
d\ia-K€Tai, *is caught tripping,' — 'is 
put to rebuke:' SchoL, i^eX^yxerat, 
(pupdrai. Ajax intends his hearers 
to understand aXiV/cerai in the strong 
sense of ' overthrown :' in his inner 
thought it means merely ' troubled, 
shaken.' His resolve held its ground 
— not undismayed, however, by true 
pity for Tecmessa and Eurysaces. — 
8€iu6s, 'strong,' 'binding:' Aesch. 
P. V. 39, rb avyyevis rot deivbv -^ 0* 
ofjLiXLa. 'The strong oath' alludes 
to the protestations of Ajax that he 
could bear life no longer, — ^w. 412 


yw Beivb<i op/co<; ')(al irepi(TK6kel<^ (j)p6ve<;. 
Kayoj yap, 09 ret heiv eKaprepovv Tore, 

IjSa^TJ aihr]po<i w? iOrfkvvOrjv crTOfia 
7rp6<; rrjaSe t^9 yvvaiKO^;' olKrelpco Be viv 
^fjC^av irap exOpoU TralEd r epcj^apov Xiiretv. 
la)OC elfii 7rp6<i re Xovrpa Kal irapaKriov^ 
\€ifjioopa<;, CO? av Xvfiad^ ayviaa'^ ifia 



jl — 480. irepia-KeXeis, * dried and har- 
dened all around' ((t/cAXw, torrere, 
cf. retorridus)y esp. of iron tempered 
in the furnace: Ant. 471, <ri5r]poi/ 
dirrbv e/c irvpbs irepLaKeKrj. 

650 TO, Seivct.] ^ So wondrous firm:' 
cf. V. 312, note. eKapripovv, his ob- 
duracy to the prayers of Tecmessa, 
espedally vv. 585—595- 

t6t€.] Olim, erst: El. 907, koI 
vvv 6' ofioius Kal rdre, = vvv re Kal ird- 
Xat: Eur. I. A. 46, a^ ydp /i' d\6xy 
t6t€ Tvvddpecos \ TrifXTret (pepvqv. 

651 Pa<j)fj cr£8T]pos «S, K. T. \.] 
'Like iron in the dipping, had my 
keen edge softened by yon woman's 
words:' cf. v. 594, TEK. 7rp6s dedv, • 
fiaXdaaov. — arbiia^acies, the edge of a 
weapon, — //. xv. 389 {^vard, spears) 
KaTb.-fT6pi.a dp.iva x^X/ftfJ. Cf. v. 
584, and Aesch. Theb. 712, Tedriy- 
fji^op Toi p,' ovK dirap.^\vv€is \6yq}, 

I ' Oh, my purpose is too keen for thy 
^ words to dull.' When iron had been 
wrougTit on the anvil, immersion in 
cold water was used to temper it. 
For the finer sorts of iron work, such 
as large pins or skewers {irbpirai, /3e- 
"Xbvai), a bath of oil was used (Plu- 
tarch de Prinio Frigore 13. p. 109), 
lest the roughness of cold water 
should warp them or render them 
brittle. Difficulties have been made 
about the fa6l that immersion was 
the hardening process, used to cool 
and brace the metal after it had 
passed through the forge : whereas 
the context requires an image for 
the process by which the obduracy 
of Ajax was softened. But this is 
pressing the metaphor too hard. It 
is true that the bracing immersion, 
/3«:0^, might in a narrow sense be 

contrasted with the shaping on the 
anvil. Plutarch {de Discr. Amic. 
et Adulat. p. 73 c) does in fa(5l so 
contrast them, — comparing praise to 
the heat which softens iron, — after 
which good advice may be admi- 
nistered ' as a tonic ' {uairep §a<f>'ijp). 
But /3a07j criS-^pov may also be spo- 
ken of in a less special sense, — as 
one part of the general process by 
which crude, harsh metal is tem- 
pered, and receives that elastic tone 
which fits it for the uses of life. Cf. 
Plato J^ep. Ill, p. 411 A, et ri (fvfio- 
ei5h etx^v, da-Jrep cridripop €p.d\a^€ 
Kal xpV<^''f^ov i^ dxpT^cTTOv Kal ckXt}- 
pod eirolTicrev: Plut. Fit. Num. c. 8, 
T^v ttoKlv KaOdirep (xldripov ck (TkXt]- 
pas fiaXaKuripav TroLTJaai. 

652 olKT6ipw...Xi'ir€iv.] oiKTelpu, 
d Xelipcj, would have been more 
usual: cf. v. 510. But the infinitive 
has the advantage of ambiguity, — 
' I shrink from leaving her,' z. e. 
either ' I leave her with pain,' or 
* I have not the heart to leave her.' 
— Cf. Od. XX. 202, oiJ/c cXeaipeis | 
&v5pas pnayipievaL KaKbrrjTi: II. 
XVII. 272, p.[ct]cev S' dpa pnv dijtojp 
Kval K^pfia yevicdai'. Soph. Fkil. 
87, TTpdcraeiv arvyCo. 

654 irpos 1 T6 XovTpa] = 7rp6s Xov- 
rpd re : cf. v. 53, note. The men- 
tion of 'the bathing-place and the 
meadows by the shore ' helps to fix 
a literal sense on Xiixara dyvicras. 
Cf. V, 412, ioj Trbpoi dXippodoL \ irdp- 
aXd t' duTpa Kal vefxos iwdKTiop. 

655 XvjxaQ* dYvto-as.] The first 
step towards the propitiation (tXa- 
cryLi6s) of an offended deity was purifi- 
cation (Kadapfios) — the typical cleans- 
ing with lustral water {x^ppi^) of the 

665] AIAX. 

firjviv ^apetav i^aXv^cDfiai, Oea^* 

fwKwv re %a)/30i^ evd' av dari^rj Kiy(a 

Kpvyjrci) ToB' 67;^o9 rovfiov, exOicrrov ySeXcSz/, 

yaia^; 6pv^a<s evda fxr) rt^ oyfreraL' 

dX)C avTo vv^ "AtS?79 re aco^ovTcov Karco. 

iyof yap ef ov %eipt tout' iBe^djLLrjv 

Trap ''lEiKTopo<; 8(opr)/jLa Svafieveardrov, 

ovTro) TL KeBvov ea-yov *Apy€La>v irdpa. 

dXfC ear dXlj6rJ9 rj ^porwv irapocfjLia, 

i')(6pa)P dBoDpa Bwpa kovk ovrjat/jba. 




guilty person, and, when needful, 
of the guilty house — preparatory to 
atoning sacrifice. Thus in //. I. 3 14, 
before the sacrifice to Apollo, Aga- 
memnon enjoins the Greeks 'to 
cleanse themselves' — ol 5' direXvuaL- 
vovTo Kal els aXa Xvfxar'' ^jSaXXor. 
Orestes, seeking asylum with Athe- 
ne, first assures her that his guilty 
hand has been cleansed ' with run- 
ning streams,' Aesch. Eutn. 479. 
See the description of a lustral cere- 
mony in Eur. H. F. 922 ff, Cf. 
Eur. I.T. 1 193, doKaaaa k\{>^€i trap- 
Ttt T&vdpdiirwv KaKd. — In the mind 
of Ajax himself the * purging of his 
stains ' means the atonement of death, 
— the putting off of his stained life ; 
— ''avoiding the anger of the god- 
dess ' means — not averting it, but — 
escaping beyond its reach. 

656 e|aXv^a)|] On the poetical 
middle form cf. v. 511, note. Lo- 
beck, with most of the MSS., ^^a- 

658 Kpvi)/a).] The sword was in- 
deed to be buried — in his body : v. 
899, /ceirat Kpvcpalc^ <paaydvi^ irepc- 

I^XOs.] Gladius. Cf. v. 95, note. 

659 -yaias.] Lit., 'having dug of 
the earth, ' — a partitive genitive. C f. 
Thuc. II. 56, rri%^r\<i ^re/xov. — Madv. 
Synt. § 5 1 d. — This seems preferable 
to making yaias depend on ^v6a, 

4pv|as.] Cf. v. 819, -rr^irrrye S' iu 
yy iroXefxiq. ry TpqjdSi [rb ^i<pos). 

IvOajJiij.] O. T. 141 2, iKpi^ar' li>6a 

fi-qiroT' do6yp€<Td' in: El. 380, kvrav- 
da irifixpeiv ivda fi-qirod' ijXiov \ <p^y- 
yos TrpoffSipei: ?^. v. 436: TracA. 800. 

660 vv^ "Ai8t)s t€ <r«t6vTwv.] 
Thus Elecflra (Soph. E/. 438) ex- 
horts Chrysothemis to bury the of- 
ferings of Clytaemnestra *in the 
deep-dug soil,' far from Agamem- 
non's grave: — 'let these possessions 
lie stored up for her in the under- 
world at her death'— Sraj/ dduy, \ 
KeifirjXi' airfj raOra <xu)^i<xd(a Kdru. 
Even here the strain of equivocation 
is kept up. Since the bodies of the 
dead were regarded as the pro- 
perty of the gods infernal (see Ant. 
1070), the sword sheathed in the 
corpse of Ajax would pass into their 
keeping along with it. 

661 x^'-P^-] Added for the sake of 
giving a certain precision and em- 
phasis to the fa(^ mentioned. Cf. 
Eur. //ec. 527, irXTJpes 5' iv x^pot" ^a- 
pdv S^iras I Trdyxpvaov ^ppei X^'-P^ 
irais ^AxiXXicos \ xo*^?, — where X"P^ 
is not wanted, yet adds something 
of life to the pidlure. 

664 1] ppoTuv irapoinCa.] On the 
omission of the article before fiporuv 
see v. 118, note. 

665 kyjipuv aSwpa 8<upa.] Virg. 
Aen. II. 49, timeo Danaos et dona fe- 
rentes. As Teucer observes (v. 1 029), 
the proverb was doubly illustrated in 
this case, — since Hedlor was lashed 
to the chariot-rail of Achilles with 
the girdle which had been given to 
him by Ajax. For ddupa dupa cf. 


TOtyap t6 "KoLirov elacfxeada fxev Oeol^ 
€LK€tv, fiaOrja-ofiecrOa S' 'Ar/oetSa? ae^etv, 
ap^ovT6<; elatv, loaO* vireiKTeov, tl firj ; 
Kol yap TO, BeLva koX to, KapTepoorara 
Tifiai<! inreLKer tovto fiev vccpoaTcfiel^ 



Aesch./*. F.sss, axop'sxt^pts* Soph. 
O.T. 1214, dyafios ydfios: ^/. 1154, 

666 t6 Xoi'ir6v.] Meaning osten- 
sibly, 'henceforth' (as if he were re- 
conciled to life) — but implicitly, — 
'for the rest,' ^uod superest^ — 'as 
the only thing which now remains 
for me to do.' 

cUr6|ji€<r9ar. . . o-^Peiv. ] ' I shall know 
how to yield to the gods, and learn 
to revere the Atreidae.' As applied 
to his death, 'revering the Atreidae' 
would mean getting out of their way 
— retiring from the contest of pride 
and place. — dabfi^ada^ ' I shall know, 
by the bitter experience of this visi- 
tation:' fiaOriabixtada, 'I shall study 
that other and more difficult lesson, 
in which I am yet but so imperfedlly 
versed.' For the ironical sense of 
fiavOdveiv, cf. Eur. JI//>p. 730, ttjs 
v6<rov 5^ TTJcrd^ fioi \ Koivfj iieraax^" 
<ru<ppoveiv /xaOi^aeTai. The particles 
lxh...M here are somewhat, but not 
much, stronger than re... re, or re.., 
Koi: see v. 622, note. There is not 
much in the Scholiast's remark that 
ef/cetj/ and ci^eiv are transposed iv 
clpuveiq,. The word etKeiv suggests 
the closely-felt pressure of the divine 
hand : ff^^eiv, mere distant respedl. 
668 d'pxovT^S «l<riv.] This doc- 
trine is concisely embodied in Solon's 
maxim — apxCov aKove Kal SlKaia Kci- 
8iKa. It is preached in its strongest 
form by the despot Creon in the 
Antigone, w. 666 ff. ; in a more 
temperate form by Menelaus in this 
play, v. 1073. 

t£ [11] ;] ' Of course.' Literally, 

rl fiT] vireUcafJiey ; * why should we 

not yield?' When a negative is 

I joined with the deliberative conjunc- 

' / tive, it is /xij, not 01), since the case 

is hypothetical: Xen. Oeconom. iv. 

4, dpa.../i^ al<TXVv6ibfj.ey rhv Uepffup 
^aaCkia pu/jL-ZjaaadaL; Madv. Synt. 
669 Kal -yap toL Scivd.] 'For 

dread things and things most potent 
bow to office.' — TO. deivd — the most 
awful powers in external nature: 
winter — night — tempest. — rifiais, ho- [I 
noribus, muneribus, constitutional 
offices : Her. i. 59, ivda Srj 6 Ileto-/- 
arparos ripx^ Tuiv'AdTjvaiwv, oUre ri- 
fjt. as Tcts ioijcas cvvrapd^as, oUre 64- 
cpLia pi.eToKXd^as, 'without either 
deranging existent civil funcflions or 
altering the laws.' So ol ^vti/jloi {ol , 
iv Tipt.y drrci), honorati, men in office, ' 
Plato Rep. p. 564 D. Here rip.aX de- 
note the provinces of light and dark- 
ness, heat and cold, storm and calm, 
as defined in the economy of the 
physical world. Compare Troilus 
and Cressida K€t I. Sc. 3, (Ulysses 
tracing the ill-success of the siege to 
the bad discipline of the Greek 
camp,) — Degree beijtg vizarded. The 
nnworthiest shews as fairly in the 
mask. The heavens theinselves, the 
planets, and this centre. Observe de- 
gree, priority, and place, Insisture, 
course, proportion, season, form, Office 
and custom, in all line of order. 

670 TOVTO (J.^v.] In stri(51;ness 
TOVTO iikv should be followed by tov- 
to Si—* on the one hand' — ' on the 
other hand :' — e.g. Her. i. 161, tov- 
to [xkv, Y[pn]vias i^rjvSpairoSlffaTO' 
tovto 8^, M.aidv5pov ireSiov irav iiri- 
dpapie. Here tovto p.iv is followed 
merely by 5^. Translate: — ^thiis it 
wthat...;' 'and thus...: Cf. O. C. 
441, tovto jxiv, irdXis ^ig. \ ifkavvi (jl 
€K yrjs XP^'"'0^' ol S' iiriotp^Kdv . . .ovk 
■fjdiXrjaav. In Ant. 61, tovto jxiv is 
followed by iTreira 5^. 

vi<|>o(mPeis x*''H''"V€S.] * The 
snow-strewn winters.' — yi(po<TTi^r}s, 

|l;5] AIA2. 

Lei/icGi/e? eK')((i)pov<Tiv evKapTrq) OepeC 
t^ia-Tarat Be vvkt6<; alavrjf; /ci;«Xo9 
rfi XevK07ra)\a> ^iyyo^; rjiJ'epa (f)X6yetv* 
hetvcop T arjfjLa Trvevfjuarcov eKoifJULae 
(Trevovra irovrov' iv 8' 6 TrajKpaT'^f; inrvo<i 



* with snowy paths :' cf. irXauotxTipi^i, 
' trodden by wanderers ' — /lovoari^'^s, 
' walking alone, ' x^ovoaTifiifis, ' walk- 
ing the earth.' The analogy of these 
words seems against rendering x^i- 
/iwi/ej </i0o<rT£jSeis ' storms dense with 
snow' — from arel^bi in the sense of 
'pressing down closely,' 'packing,' 

672 vvKTOs alavTis kv'kXos.] ' The 
vault of weary night :' ki5/cXoj, the 
vault of the night-sky, like Eur. Ion 
ii^T, aidipos kijk\({}. It is difficult 
to decide between this and the other 
sense possible for k6k\os, — 'orbit,' — 
'period,' like eviadaios k6k\os, Eur. 
Phoen. 544. But * vault' seems best 
Winter and summer have been con- 
trasted under their most obvious 
material aspedls — the snow and the 
fruit. Day and night are similarly 
contrasted as a vault of sunshine and 
a vault of darkness. 

alavTJs.] So Dindorf and Lobeck: 
lleiTnann, Schneidewin (5th edit.) 
and Wunder, alavrjs. The form al- 
av6i, mentioned by Hesychius and 
other grammarians, is of less author- 
ity than alavT^s : but it is usually 
read in two places ; (1) Aesch. £um. 
394, vvKTbs alaviis r^Kva : (2) Soph. 
EL 506, lTnrela...alavi) {^disastrous 
chariot-race'). — The derivation from 
ad is favoured by Aesch. Eum. 542, 
^s rbv alavrj xp^^ov, and ib. 642, rctS* 
ataj'ws fiivoi. — The Scholiast's para- 
phrase, c K0T€Lv6s, points to a the- 
ory connedling alavrjs with alvSs, — 
'terrible,' and thence 'gloomy.' 

673 XcvKoirwXw.] The phrase of 
Aeschylus, Fers. 388. 

«J)\eY€iv.] Depending on i^hra- 
rat : — conceditdiei tit accendat lucem. 
So 7rapaxa>/9w rivL iroieiv ti (Plato 
Polit. p. 260 e). 

674 Scivwv T ai\\t.a irveuiidrtov, 
K.T.X.] ' And the breath of dreadful 

winds evermore gives slumber to the 
groaning sea.' In the idiom of Greek 
and Roman poetry physical causes 
are often spoken of as personal 
agents endued with will and choice, 
— able either to produce or to repress 
a particular effeCl. Thus the winds 
are powers which can trouble, or 
can calm, the sea. Cf. Virg. ken. 
III. 69, placataqueventi Dant maria: 
ib. V. 763, placidi straverunt aequora 
venti. Pind. /. Ii. 39, ovlk ttotc (e- 
vloLV I otposiinrveiaai^viriiTTeCSJ lariov 
dfx<pl rpdire^av : ' nor did the favour- 
ing breeze which blew around his 
hospitable table ever force him to 
strike sail' — ever cease to fill his 
sail : Hor. Od. i. 3. 16, Quo non ar- 
biter Hadriae Maior, iollere seu po- 
nere vult freta (the south wind), 
' than whom no power is mightier on 
the Adrian deep, whether to raise 
or to allay its waters :' Hom. Od. n. 
69 (Q^fjLcs) ijT dvdpuiv 6.yopd.s Tjfxiv Met 
ijdk Kudl^ei, ' the goddess who breaks 
up or seats the gatherings of men.' — 
For deivQVf Musgrave wished to read 
\eiwv, {rrvev/ia \eiov Kal KadearjjKds, 
At. Ran. 1002). 

lKOi|i,wr€.] Gnomic aorist, pre- 
ceded and followed by present tenses: 
cf. Plato Rep. p. 566 D, 6 rOpavvoi rais 
jxh irptJTais 7]fi^pais TrpoayeKq. re Kal 
d(77rd^erat 7rcli'ras...x/>ewv re -^Xev- 
dipwcre Kal yrjudi^veifMCKal irpq.o% 
dvat, irpoairoieLTai. — Madv. Synt. § 
III. Ka. 

675 Iv 81.] 'And like the rest...' U 
Literally, * and among them.' Cf. ' 
Her. III. 39, TToXXd ttjs ijirelpou 
Affrea — iv 5^ dr) Kal A6(7/3i'ouj...«rXe. 
In later poetry the phrase iv 54 
means simply * and moreover :' e. g. 
0. T. 180, ptjKia 8i yivedXa irpds 
Tri5(p...K€TTai...iu 5' dXoxoi ToXialr^ 
(in /iaTipes...i7riffT€vdxovaiy: ib. 17, 


Xv€i 7r€S?7<ra9, ovB* ael Xa^wv ep^ef. 
i^fi€l<i Be 7ra)9 ov yvcoaofieada (Tco<ppov€iv'y^y' 
iyo^ S*, eTTurTa/jLai yap aprixo^ otv 
T ix^po^ VM'^^ ^^ ToaopB' ixOapreof; 
w? Kol <f)i\r}(TOi>v avdc<;, e? re rov <f)l\ov 
TO€ravO' virovpyoov oocpeXelp /SovXrjao/jLaL 
W9 aiev ov fjuevovvra. rot? ttoWoIo'i, yap 
PpOTwv aiTLdTO'^ iaO* eTaipeia^ XifJbrjv. 
aXX dfjb(j)l fiev TOVTocatv ev arxr}a-eC aif Be 
eta-ay Beols ekOovaa Bi,a TiXov<;, yvvai, 




iv 5^ (and beside other ills) 6 Tvp<p6- 
pos 6€6s...i\aivei : Track. 202, &.vo- 

vu}v I trw KKayyd. 

677 l||16lS.] ol ^poTol. 

678 ky<a 8', lirCarTa)Jiai 7ap.] *I 

chiefly {sc. yvdxrofiai (TuxppoveTv) : for 
I know by recent proof,' &c. The 
regular construdlion would have been 
— fycb Si, — iiricTa/xai yhp dpricos 
TouTo, — t6v re ix^P^f ^s roadvde 
iX^o.P^ '^s ti^^'' oiJ fievovvra, is re 
Tbv^l\ov...^ov\-/j(XOfiai, k.t.X, The 
first clause, 8 t ix^phs rjfuif, k.t.X., 
has been made dependent on iwi- 
ara/iat : while the second clause, ?s 
re t6p <pi\ov, k.t.X., remains as if t6p 
T ^x'^phv ixdapu) had preceded. 

679 6 T Ix6p6s TJlxtv, K.T.X.] A 

maxim ascribed to Bias of Priene 
(circ. 550 B.C.) one of the seven 
sages of Greece. Cf. Arist. J^kei. ii. 
13, (01 irpea^&repoi) oUre <pi\ovai (r(p6- 
Spa oUre pna-ovai Sib, ravra, dXXA 
Kara tt]v Ulavros virod'qKriv ('coun- 
sel') Kai <f)L\ov(jiv C}S p.KT'fiaovTet 
Kal fxiaoOaiy ws ^iXiJcroj/rej. 
Cic. de Amic. xvi. 59, \Scipio) nega- 
bat ullam vocem inimiciorem amici- 
tiae potttisse reperiri qimm eitis qui 
dixissei, ita amare oportere ut si ali- 
guando esset osurus. Gellius N. A. 
XVII. 14, ita amiaim habeas posse ut 
fieri hunc inimicumputes. 

680 ^s T€ T^v <j»CXov.] * And to- 
wards my friend I would wish so far 
to shew aid and service, as knowing 
that he will not always be a friend.' 

^j rhv <f>l\oVf 'towards my friend:' 
locpeXeiv absolute — ' to be of use.' 

681 PovXTJo-ofiau] The present 
/SoiJXo/iat ii<p€\eiv, implies w^eXi;- 
aci}. A present purpose and an anti- 
cipated result are confused in the 
phrase ia<p^\^v ^ovki]aop.o.u Cf. Find. 
O. VII. 37, iQ€kr\(j(j3 Siop6Q<xai XSyov ; 
Soph, 0. T. 1076, Toiixhv S' ^70), I 
K€l cfUKpbv iari, (nripjj.'' t'Sciv j3oi;X^- 

682 TOis iroXXoio-i ^ap.] Bias 
ap. Diog. Laert. I. 82 gives a 
similar reason for the maxim (cf. 
V. 679, note) — ' Toifs yap TrXeiVrous 
ehai KaKois.'' — Cf. O. C. 612, koL 
TTvevfia ravrbv oUttot ovS' iv dvSpd- 
aiv I 0^XoiS pi^T]Kev, oio^ irpbs iroXiP 

683 craipefas.] Lobeck andWun- 
der have eraiplas. See Porson ad Or. 
1070, — "Scripsi iracpelas hie et infra 
V. I o 7 7 cum diphth ongo . . . , quanquam 
bene scio nihil praesidii MSS. in ta- 
libus habere.' 

684 TovTowriv.] i. e. 'On my 
part these duties (of piety towards 
the gods and submission to my 
superiors) will not be neglecfted. 
Let your part be equally well per- 
formed. ' 

685 SidT^Xovs.-.TcXeio-Gai.] *Be 
fulfilled in all fulness.' Cf. Aesch. 
P. K 281, ws fxddr]T€ 5toi tAous t6 
irdu. Usually Sid Ti\ovs = 8Ld irav- 
t6s, * for ever :' e. g. Aesch. Eum. 
64. Cf. Ag. 946, Zey, ZeO rAete, 
Tas kp.hjs ciJxas ri\u. 

693] AIAS. 

ev')(pv TekelaOai, tov/jlov wv ipa Keap. 
vfji/€L^ d\ eralpoLy ravra TfjBi fioc roBe 
TL/JLaT€y TevKpQ) T, Tjv fioky, ar)[xr)vaTe 
fiiXecp p,6V rjfiwv, evvoelv S' vfitv afui. 
iyco yap elp! CKela oiroi iropevriov' 
v/LL€L'; S' a (f>pd^co Spare, Kal rd)^ av pH 
TTvdoL^Oe, Kel vvv Bvcrrv^Q), ccaaxrpLevov. 





i<j>pi^ epcoTL 'jrepi')(api)<i 5' dveiTTopbav, 

687 Tavrd TTi8€...Ti|i,dT€.] *Re- 

spe(5l for me these same wishes that 
she does,' — ravra. Trj5€ = TavTdi. direp 
ride (TiKfXTjcraa) Tifiq.. — riixSiv tivL ti, 
'to respe(5l, observe a wish or re- 
quest in honour of % person' (dat. 
commodi) : of. Ant. 514, ttws Hit 
(Kclvif dvacre^rj rifiqis x^pf-^y 'why 
(lost thou grace Polyneices with a 
t ribute insulting (to Eteocles) ?' 

689 [Ji^Xeiv jxiv ii(i.wv.] With the 
inner meaning that Teucer is to pay 
the last offices to his brother's corpse, 
TreTrrwra crvyKaOapixbaai, v. 922. — 
I.U\eiv p.ku (oi^ry) rnxdv, evvoeiu 6^ 
{avrbv) ijfjuv : cf. v. 549. 

691 Tttx' av...l'<ra)s.] Thuc. vi. 
34, rdx<ro3S...ede\T]aeLav...afi\jvat.'. 
Ax. Nub. 1320, ifcrws 5' fo-ws ^ovX-q- 
cerai... Cf. aS^is (or aWn aC) ird- 

692 o-€<rco(r|i,^vov.] 'That all is 
well with me :' meaning ostensibly, 
— that I have made my peace with 
Athene' (v. 656) : but really— 'that 
I have found my peace in death.' 
The irony gains force from the usual 
contrast between OvrjaKei.v and <7(h- 
i'etr^ai, — e. g. El. 59, ^Tav Xoycp da- 
vuv \ fpyoiai <tu9Q: id. 1228, p.7]- 
Xo.va7aL ixlv \ davdwa^ pvu 5^ firj- 
Xavous ceao3(Tix^vov. Exit A J AX 
by the side door on the right of the 
spe(flators, — as if going to the sea- 
shore in the neighbourhood of his tent 
(V. 654). Exit Tecmessa by the 
door in the back-scene on the speda- 

tors' rights to the gynaeceum. 

693 — 7 1 8 a-Ta<ri(jLOv Seurcpov.] 
Cf. V. 596, note. — Chorus. * I thrill 
with joy : O Pan, appear, sea-roam- 
ing Pan, from Cyllene's snow-beaten 
crag, and join with us in the dances 
of Nysa and Cnossus : come, Delian 
Apollo, over the Icarian waters, a 
visible and kindly presence. The 
death-god has lifted the gloom of 
sorrow from our eyes. Now may 
the white glory of happy days once 
more come near the sea-cleaving 
ships ; since Ajax forgets sorrow, 
and once more reveres the gods, — 
once more is at peace with the A- 
treidae.' — Convinced that Ajax has 
shaken off that sullen and morbid 
despondency which they regarded as 
a part of his visitation (v. 280), the 
Chorus give vent to boundless joy. 
The ecstasies of this ode contrast ef- 
fe(5lively with the despairing tone 
of the first stasimon (vv. 596—645) 
— still fresh in the minds of the au- 

693 — 705. Metres of the stro- 
phe : — 

V. 693. €<f>pl^ I epuT\i, K.T.\. iam- 
bic trimeter. 
V. 694. w iw irdu Trayl : a variety 
of dochmiac, (properly - — ■ — ). 

V. 695. w Trdv I irdf aXr7rXa7/fT|c- 
KuWIIa^/rids X'oi'o/crli/Troul :' two 
Glyconic verses of spondee (or 
trochee) — choriambus — iambus. 

V. 696. TreTpai\ds airo 5er/3||a66$] 



la> l(o Uav Uav, 

0) Ilav Uav dXL7r\aryKT€f Kv\\avia<; xiovoktvttov 69 « 

(f>avri\d (J|: iambus and choriam- 
bus, followed by an iambic pen- 
Vv. 697, 8. detav xopoTTor | avd^ | 
oTrdJs I /AOil: choriambus: iambic 
Vv. 699, 700. vvaXa KvG3ff\X opxW 
ijfjLaT I avToSa'^ \\ ^vpuv \ Xdyp 1 17s | : 
choriambus, iambus : trochee, 
choriambus: and iambic penthe- 
V. 701. vxjv yap efiolW ixtXei \ xo- 
p€v<T\ai\: choriambus: iambic pen- 
Vv. 702, 3. iKoipXdJv 5|i;7re/) II TreXa- 
yeuv pjoKwv\\dvd^ j d7roXX|u5;' | : 
choriambus, iambus: dochmiac: 
iambic penthemimer. 
V. 704. I SdXios ci5J7j'dJcrTos|: ana- 
crusis: choriambus, spondee. 
V. 705. tfiol 1 ^vvei\TJ II bXa Trdj'TJoj 
€v<p\pC}v\: two iambic penthemi- 
693 ?<|)pi|a, K. T. X.] • I thrill with 
sudden rapture, I flutter overjoyed ' 
('sudden,' to render the aorist: cf. 
V. 536, note). — (ppiaaeiv, 'to shiver' 
with a strong emotion: cf. Lucr. iii. 
29, His ibi me rebus quaedam divina 
voluntas Percipit atqtie horror. 

^pwTi.] Cf Aesch./ro;^. 373, ?0/)t^' 
ipojTi Tovde fivariKov riKovs. 

dv€irT<5jjLav.] Cf Ar. Av. 1445, — 
where, Peisthetaerus having quoted 
the phrase ' dueirTepQa-Oai kuI Treiro- 
TTJadai rds <ppivas,^ the Sycophant 
asks — XoyoiffL r&pa /cat TrrepovvTai ; 
IIEI. ^Tj/Ji' iyib' \ virb yap \6yuv 6 
voOs T€ pLeTewpli^erat \ iiraipeTai 
t' dvdpuiros. Eur. Suppl. 89, 06/3os 
At' dvaimpoi: Soph. O. T. 487, -nk- 5' iXwiaLv : Apoll. Rhod. III. 
724,dj'^7rraro xap/^aTt dvfi6s. — Form. 
Some editors give dveirrd piav: cf v. 
2S2, vpoaiiTTaTO. Torson {ad Med. 
1) observes that Attic writers used 
both Trkrop-ai. and Trkraixai, — both 
iirT6fir)v and iTTTafxrjv, — the authority 
of MSS. forming the only standard of 
appeal: — 'redleigitur dvewrbpLav edi- 
dit Brunckius in Soph. Ai. 693 (ubi 

dveirTbfx'qv Suid., MS. C.C.C.Ox.J 
in V. l<ppt^a) male vpoaiirTeTo ibidJ 

694 ndv.] Pan is invoked to come 
from his favourite Arcadian home ; 
but he had also a special connexion 
with the home of the Salaminians 
who invoke him. The little island 
of Psyttalea (now Lipsokoutali), be- 
tween Salamis and the mainland, was 
regarded as one of his chosen haunts 
— r]p 6 <pCk6xopos \ Hdv ifx^are^ei irov- 
rlas aKTTJs iiri (Aesch. Pers. 450) — 
and on which the traveller Pausa- 
nias met with numerous images of 
the god, rudely carved in wood {us 
^Kaarou ^rvxe ^6apa Treironjfxiva, I. 
36. 2). To Salaminians, therefore, 
he was an almost domestic deity. 
He was also the steady friend and 
ally of their kinsmen (vv. 202, 861) 
the Athenians. Herodotus narrates 
his encouraging appearance to the 
Athenian courier Pheiddipides short- 
ly before the battle of Marathon {Vi. 
105) ; and a statue of Pan, dedicated 
after the vidlory, bore this couplet 
by Simonides {/ra^: 136, ed. Bergk): 
— rbp rpaybirovv ifxk Hdva, rbv 
'ApKada, rbv Kard M-rjdwv, \ rbv 
/xer 'AdTjvaluv, aTT^aaro MtXrict- 

695 dXCirXa-yKTe.] * Sea-roaming.' 
Pan was not a sea deity, but might 
fitly be called oXiTrXayKTOs in his 
charadler of a roving god, who often 
startled men by his sudden appear- 
ing: cf Nonnus (circ. 500 a.d,, au- 
thor of the epic AiowaiaKa) XLViii. 
214, (Ildj') d^droiaiv i(p'' v8a<Ti kov- 
(pos b8LT7]s. — Hermann and others 
join dXiirXayKTe (pdvrjOi, z. e. 'come 
to us over the sea,' — like 6X^ie Kwpe 
yivoLO, Theocr. xvil. 66, venias ho- 
dierne, Tibull. I. 7. 53. But the 
rhythm of the verse, which demands 
a slight pause after dXiwXayKTe, — 
and the length of the interval which 
separates it from <pdvr)6i, — appear 
against this view. 
KvXXavCas.-.ScipdSos.] Hor. Od. 



ireTpaia^ dirb Bei,pdBo<; ^dp7j6\ w 

6ewv ')(opo7roC dva^^ ottcd? jjlol 

^vaLa 'KvwaC op^ilfJ^CLT avToharj ^vvoov Id-y^rj^. 

vifv yap ifiol jxekei ')(opevaaL, 

^\Kapi(ov S' virep TreXar/icov /jloXwv dva^ ^AttoXXcov 



IV. 12. 11, (Pan) cui pecus et nigri 
[i.e. 'pine-clad') Colles Arcadiae 
placenta — Cyllene, Maenalus, Ly- 

699 OeeDv xopoiroC'dva?.] *0 dance- 
making king of the gods,' — i. e. ' su- 
preme among the gods in dancing,* 
— as Pindar {frag. 67) calls Pan 
XopevTTjv TeXedbrarov deQv. The poets 
often greeted the particular god 
whom they were addressing as su- 
preme among the gods : e.g. Eur. /. 
A. lS'2'2, "Apreixiv, deQv dvaaaav. 
"•Apollinem Theocritus (xxv. 21) re- 
\nbra.rQv BeCsv, — Virgilius, summtim 
deoruvi, — Homerus d^Qv dpurrov 
praedicat' (Lobeck). The invoca- 
tion of Pan as dva^ deCiv harmonises 
so well with the enthusiasm of the 
ode, that the version just given seems 
better than taking deuv xoporoids 
to mean 6 deiav x^po^^ trotCov, — /'. e. 
fellow-dancer with the Nymphs and 
Satyrs, as an old Attic (tk6\iov greets 
Pan, * 6pxv<^T^i Bpofj-lais oirad^ TSv/jl- 
0aij' (Bergk FoeL Lyr. p. 10 18). 

OTTws ... loL'I'tlS.] 'That in my 
company thou mayest fling fancy 
measures of Nysa or of Cnosus,' — 
measures lively as those danced in 
honour of Bacchus at Nysa or at Cno- 
sus, — but airrobari, * self-taught,' — 
'prompted by the fancy of the mo- 
ment,' — as opposed to the vbixLixa. 
dpx'^/J.ara of the solemn Dionysiac 
ritual. — The epithet ain-oSaij quali- 
fies and restridls the epithets Ni;a-ia 
and KvdxTia by an idiom frequent in 
Greek poetry: e.g. Eur. Or. 621, 
ixprjif/e hwfi' dpTjcpaia-Tip irvpl, 'she 
kindled the house with a fire, — but 
not of Hephaestus,' — z. e. the fire of 
passion: Aesch. P. V. 899, dirvpos 
dpSis, — 'a goad — but forged on no 
anvil' {i.e. the gadfly's sting). 

700 Nvo-ia.] 'The dances of Ny- 


sa' — such measures as the Satyrs 
and Nymphs dance with Dionysus 
on the ivy-clad slopes of Nysa his 
birthplace: cf. An^. 11 30, kuI ae, 
(BaKX^Vy) Nuo-aW dpiwv \ Kiaaifipeis 
6x^at X\o}pa r aKTb. { TroXucrd^i/Xos 
Tri/xTret. The mythical name Nysa 
was given to several different locali- 
ties associated with the Dionysiac 
worship. There was a Nysa in the 
Penj^b — in Aethiopia — in Caria — if 
Thessaly — and in Boeotia. 

Kvcuo-ia.] 'The dances of Cno- 
sus,' — such measures as are danced 
in honour of Dionysus at Cnosus in 
Crete, — - an island associated with 
his worship through his bride Ari- 
adne, daughter of Minos, Cf. //. 
XVIII. 590, iif 8i (on the shield of 
Achilles) x^P^^ iroiKiWe irepiKXvrbs 
'Afxtpiyvrjeis, | t^J tKeXov oXbv ttot' ivl 
Kywcro-y evpelrj \ AatSaXos rjaKijae 
KoXXiTrXoKa/jiiji ^Apiddvy, — ' a place 
for dances,' such as Daedalus had 
prepared for the dances in honour 
of Ariadne. 

ldt|rns.] loLTTTeiv opx'fiP^o-TOi, iadlare 
saltatioiies, 'to fling measures' — a 
compressed phrase for lawreiv v68as 
h dpx'fjp-aaiv. This — the view of 
Hermann and Schneidewin — seems 
better than to render ( i ) ' impel ' the 
dances — 'set them going:' (2) or 
'join' — 'weave the dance' — as Lo- 
beck takes it, — regarding laTrru as 
a collateral form of aTrrw, and com- 
paring di5a>, la^LXj), — oCXos, fouXos. 

702 'iKapCwv ... ircXttY^wv.] The 
sea between Samos and Icaros (an 
island to the W. of Samos) was 
named 'Icarian' as early as Homer's 
time {irovTos 'iKapios, II. II. i44)« 

'Air6XX«v.] Apollo — invoked by 
the Chorus in their trouble (y. 187) 
as the Averter of evil (dTror/xinratos) 
— is now to share in their joy as 

98 SO^OKAEOTS [704 

6 Aa\f09 evyvcoa-TO^ 

efjLol ^vveii] Bia iravTo^ €v(f)pci)v. 7^5 

eXvaev alvov d)(o<; air ofjuficntov "Kpr}^. 
tO) iw. vvv av. 

vvv, cS ZeO, irapa \evKov evafiepov iriKaaai ^009 
^oai/ wKvaXwv veoov, or Ala? 7 10 

XaOiirovo'i iraXiv, Oewv 8' av 
iravdvTa 6k(T\iC i^i]vva evvofxiq ai^wv fieyla-ra. 

' the lord of festal mirth ' (07X0105 
ivda-crojv, Tind. /rag. 115). 

704 6 AaXiosO Hor. Od. III. 4. 
64, Delius et Patareus Apollo. 

tv-yvwo-TOS.] * In visible presence,' 
Cf. //. XX. 131, x^^^T^'^^ S^ diol <i>ai- 
peadai ivapyets. — The Scholiast is 
wrong in taking eijyvuaTOS ^weir} ef/- 
<pp(av to mean ^vveirj <f)avepC)% eii- 
(ppup, favoris manifestus. — Form. 
cSyvuTOi is another reading. Lobeck 
agrees with Hermann {adO.C. 1360) 
that KkavTOi, defletus, may be dis- 
tinguished from KXavaros, lacrima- 
biliSy — acwTos, perditus, from acroj- 
OTos (^XvX.Alcib. c. 3) 6 a-di^eadai ov du- 
pcLfievos. Similarly, 7J'wros, 'known,' 
yvuaros, ' knowable,' But the com- 
pound c£l7J'a;ros would pra<5lically 
mean the same thing as edyvuaTos. 

706 ^\vo-€v..."ApT]s.] 'The death- 
god has lifted the horror of despair 
from our eyes.' Ares was not only 
the god of war, but, in general, the 
power who deals sudden and violent 
death. While Ajax was at feud with 
gods and men, his Salaminian fol- 
lowers were not merely in sorrow on 
his account, but in fear for their own 
lives (v. 252). A horror of great dark- 
ness fell upon them ; the shadow of 
the death-god took away the sun- 
light. But now Ares, who menaced, 
has released them (cf. v. 674); 'the 
white glory of good days' may re- 

709 <S Zcv.] Zeus is not invited, 
like Pan and Apollo, to vouchsafe his 
presence; the king of gods and men 

looks down from his distant heaven. 

cvd|Acpov <})dos.] Cf. O. C. 716, 
ei-fiperixoi TrXctra: Eur. Suppl. 960, 
dv<xaLwv jStos. 

ir6Xdo-at...V€c5v.] For the genitive, 
cf. F/iil. 1327, ireXaadels (puXaKos: 
Track. 17, vplv r-Qo-Se KoiTr\% ^/attc- 
\a.<jOrivaX rrore. 

710 0odv MKvdXwv v€ft»v.] 
34, vrjval Oo'yai. TreiroiOoTes (bKclyai: 
Hes. T/ieog.'jSg, iK irirp-qs KaTaXei^e- 
Tai rjXipaToio, | u^tjXtJs: Theocr. 
VII. 15, Xactoto, Sacurpixos . . 
rpdyoio. — 60^ vaOs, velox navis, 
speaks of the ship as a thing of 
life, — darting over the sea : ci/ceta 
vavs, celeris navis^ speaks of it rather 
as an expeditious conveyance, tra- 
velling so many knots an hour. It 
is in the epic manner to give these 
'constant' epithets to the stationary 

711 XaOCirovos.] i.e. forgets his 
grief respedting the award of the 
arms, the trouble on which he had 
' brooded in his pause of many days 
from battle' (v. 195). 

712 irdvOiiTa 0€<r(j.t* €|T]VW<r€.] 
'Has fulfilled the exa6l ritual of the 
gods ' — lit., ' has performed the or- 
dinances of the gods with all the due 
rites' — oi Kadapix6% and iXacrfws: see 
V- 655, note. — i^Tjvva-ev is a hasty pre- 
sumption from the facft that Ajax 
had departed <is i^avva-cau (v. 692). 

€vvo[i.C(^.] 'Conformity,' — atten- 
tion to all the ceremonies which y6- 
fMOi, sacred usage, enjoined, ' 

719] AIAS. 99 

irdvO' 6 fi€ya<; y^povo^^ fiapalvei, 

KOvBev dvavSarov (f)aTla-acfi dv, evre y ef deXincov 715 
\Aia<; fieraveyvwaOr] 

ufiov T ^ArpelSaifi fieydXcov re veiKeoov, 


dpSpef; (plXoi, to irpwTOv dyyeTkat. 6eK(0y 

714 irav8* 6 ^iyti% xp6vo<i |j.apa£- 
V€i..] An echo of the refledlion with 
which Ajax had opened his speech, 
V. 646. — Hermann and Lobeck give 
fiapabei re Kal 0X^7ei, and assume 
that in the corresponding verse of 
the strophe (701) something has 
dropped out after xo/>eOc-ai. A scho- 
lium on V. 713 says — to. inrb Aiauros 
8ia iroXKwu elp-q^iiva (vv. 646, 7) hih 
ppax^ojy i^rjXdev. Hence, according 
to Lobeck, * patet in antiquis exem- 
plaribus utrumque verbum (/. <•. /j-a- 
paivet re Kal (pX^ya) scriptum 
fuisse' — since otherwise the epitome 
of 01/et T€...Kal...KpvTrTeTai (v. 647) 
would be incomplete. But the scho' 
Hum seems too vague to be cited as 
definite evidence for the text: and 
the words irdvO^ 6 p-iyai xp^^o^ p.apal- 
v€i may fairly be termed an epitome 
of vv. 646, 7, since Ajax was dwell- 
ing more on Time the destroyer than 
on Time the revealer. 

71^6^ dcXTTTtov.] Exinsperato: 
usually, k^ aiXvTov. Cf. eV rod irpo- 
(pavovs, ' openly :' i^ airpoa-doKTjTov, 
' unexpedledly, ' &c. 

716 (i€Tav€7V(O(r0T].] A deponent 
form : cf. ^p.ep.(f)d'f)v, hedvpiriOrjv. 

717 'ArpefSais.] For the dative 
cf. //. I. 283, Xicraop.^ 'AxiXXiji p-ed^- 
fiev x^^ou, 'I entreat (thee) to for- 
give Achilles thy grudge. ' Od. XXI. 
377, Kai 87] p.€&L€v xaXcTTOio x<^Xo'o| 

719 — 1 1 84. The iireicrdSiov rpl- 
rov '. cf. V. -zoi, noie. — Enter a 
Messenger/^jw the Greek camp. — 
[He comes on the stage by the 
side-door on the left hand of the 
spe(5lators, — Ajax having made his 
exit (v. 692} by the side-door on 

their right. These entrances, ac- 
cording to the usage of the Greek 
theatre, were respedlively assigned 
to arrivals from a distance and to 
arrivals from the neighbourhood of 
the scene. Ajax was going to the 
seashore close by; the Messenger 
comes from the more distant camp. 
— See Donaldson's Theatre of the 
Greeks, p. 233: cf. p. 291.] 

719 — 814. Messenger. Friends, 
I would first announce that Teucer 
has come from his Mysian foray : — 
on approaching the chiefs' tent he 
was surrounded and upbraided by 
all the Greeks in concert, as the 
kinsman of the public enemy : — 
only the intercession of the elders 
restored peace. But say — where is 
Ajax? — Cho. Gone forth, obedient 
to a good impulse, to make his peace 
with the gods. — M. Then I am too 
late ! Calchas has straitly charged 
Teucer that Ajax be not suffered to 
go abroad this day : during this day 
alone is Ajax threatened by the an- 
ger of Athene, — anger provoked by 
former words of pride. But if the 
man is gone from us, he lives not, 
or Calchas is not wise. — Cho. O un- 
happy Tecmessa, come and hear 
what things this man speaks. — {Eft- 
ter Tecmessa.) — M. Teucer charges 
thee to restrain Ajax under shelter 
of the roof, nor to suffer that he go 
forth alone. — 7>r. And where is 
Teucer, and wherefore bids he thus? 
— M. He is newly-returned; and 
forebodes that Ajax, if he thus go 
forth, will die. — 7Jr. Alas, whence 
the warning? — M. From Nestor's 
prescient son, who in this day's 
course portends life or death for 


lOo 2000KAE0TS 

TevKpo<; TTopea-Tiv apTi '^ivcrmv diro 
Kp7}fiva)v' fiecTov Be Trpoa/jLoXdiv o-Tpar^yLov 
KvSa^erai roh iraaLv ^ApyeioL^; 6p,ov. 
(TTel')(pVTa yap TrpoacoOev avrov iv kvkXw 
fia66vTe<; d/ii<f>e(TT7jaav, elr oveiheo-LV 
ypaaaov evBev KavOev ovTL<i eaO* o? ov, 
TOP Tov fiavivTo^ KCLTn^ovXevTov arparov 
^vpaL/JLov diroKcCKovPTe^y 009 ovk dpKeaoi, 



Ajax. — Tec. Help me, friends, shel- 
ter my cruel fate, — away — some to 
bring Teucer, some to the western 
or to the eastward bays — seek out 
the steps of a man who is in haste to 

720 Mvo-C«v Kpt](jLvcuv.] The 

Mysian Olympus or its neighbour- 
hood, whither Teucer had gone on 
a foray (vv. 343, 564). Cf. Strabo 
XII. 4, ot irepl TOV "OXv/nirou MvaoL 
The Mvaol of Homer dwell only 
on the coast of the Hellespont, 
in what was afterwards Mvaia ij fxi- 

Kpd {II. 11.858: X. 430: XIII. 5). 

In later times, *Mysia' included the 
Troad, extending on the S. to the 
borders of Lydia, — on the E. to 
those of Bithynia and Phrygia, on 
which side the chain of Olympus 
formed part of its boundary. 

721 [i^o-ov o-TpaTTJ-yiov. ] Prae- 
torium, — aKrjvi] aTparrjyis (Paus. IV. 
9) — the tent of Agamemnon, with 
that of Menelaus beside it (v. 49), 
in mid-camp [n^aov). In the space 
around it {wepiffTacris (rTparrjyiov, 
Polyb.) the council (/SouXiJ) of 
chiefs was now sitting to discuss the 
crime of Ajax (v. 749), — while the 
"Kaol were gathered around (dyopd). 
Cf. //. VII. 382, Toi>s 5' €vp' eiv 
dyopy Aavaoiis depdirovras "Apijoi, \ 
vr]t irapd irpifivrj 'Aya/j.^fjLvovos. 

722 KvSdtcTai.] 'Is reviled,'— 
from /cCSos, 6, 'reproach,' — a word 
mentioned by the Schol. ad /oc. Cf. 
Aesch. /ra^. 89, oUtoi yvvai^l Set 

723 irp6(rci>0€v.] The adverb ap- 
pears to belong to (TTelxovra: — 'while 

he approached afar off.' The inter- 
position of the words iu KiJ/cXy seems 
against taking irpd^rudeu with fia- 


724 6v€{8€(riv...i^pa<r<rov.] 'As- 
sailed' him with reproaches. Cf. 
V. 501, X6701S idiTTwv, note: Phil. 
374, Kdyu3 xoXw^eis €\)6v% ijpaaaov 
KaKois I Tots Tcicnv. — Schneidewin 
quotes Virg, Aen. IV, 447, ambiguis 
hinc algue hinc vocibiis heros Tun- 

725 ovTis ^o-G' OS ov.] Thuc. 
VII. 87, KO.I iref6s KoX j/^es ko.1 ov8^v 
6' TL OVK d-JTibXeTO. When ovdeh- 
6(TTis-o6 had come to be regarded as 
a single word, ovdeis sometimes con- 
formed itself to the case of 6(Ttis: 
e. g. Plato Phaedo p. n 7 D, 'AttoX- 
Xddupos KKaloov Kal dyavaKTdv ov- 
diua 6vTiva ov KoriKkaae ruiu 
■rrapouTuv, unumquei7ique. — Madvig 
Synt. § 105 <5 R. 

726 t6v |uvaip.ov...c£'iroKaXovv- 
T€S.] 'Terming him the kinsman 
of the maniac ' — rbv being used, 
because the adlual words of the 
Greeks were, ' 6 rov fxavivros ^i^vai- 
fios.' Eur. Heracl. 978, irph^ ravra 
'tt]v dpatreiav^ Sans dv 6i\-Q\ 

oTparov.] Depending on the 
genitive iirt^ovXevToO. Cf. Thuc. i. 
145, oXiyiov 'evcKa riixepwu fiLaOov d6- 
trews. — Elmsley, arpari^, — like Eur. 
Med, 478, raOpuju Trvpirvouv eiriffrd- 
Tr]v I ^eOyXaiai. 

727 diroKaXoCvT€s. ] Calling r^«- 
temptuously. Plato Gorg. p. 512 C, 
KoX tl>s iv ovdbu aTTOKoXicrais dv firj- 
xavovoibv : Dem. de Fals. Legat. p. 



TO firj ov irerpotai. tto^ Kara^avOel^ Oavelv. 
war €9 ToaovTOV rjXOov wcne koX ')(epolv 
KoXewv ipvara BteirepaLooOr} ^i^r). 
\T]y€t S' epc<; Bpa/jLova-a rov TrpoacoTaTa) 
avhpwv f^epovTWV iv ^vi/aWayfj \6yov. 
aX)C rjfuv Ata^ irov ^cttlv, (6<; (f>pd(TG) roBe; 
Tot9 Kvpioi<; yap iravra '^rj BtjXovv \6yov. 

ovic evBoVy dWa <f>povBo<; dprico^y vea<i 




439, fidp^ap&v re yit.p iroWdKii Kal 
dXdffTopa Tbp ^iXiwirov diroKoKCov 
i5r]/j.riy6p€i. See Mr Shilleto's note 
in his edition of this Speech, p. 4 18, 
§ 274: — *I am only aware of two 
passages where diroKoKwv is used in 
a good sense : one furnished by Len- 
nep (who on Phalar. p. 198, 199. 
has discussed the word) from Plu- 
tarch T. II. p. 776 E, — the other 
occurs in AristoL ii. Nic. Ethic. 9. 
= 9, 7. Kal ydp ^/xets 6t^ fikv roi/s 
eWeitrouras iTraLwoD/xev Kod irpdovs 
(pafi^v 6t^ 5i rods x'*^^'^'"''0''''"<*s 
dvdpudeis diroKoKovp-ev. ' 

«s 01UK apKc'o-oi.] * (Saying) that 
he should not save himself from dy- 
ing,* &c. The clause (is ovk dpKi- 
coi depends on oveldeaw -^paaaov, = 
oveidi^ouTes iXeyov. For the tense 
of dpKiaoL cf. V. 313, (pauolrjv, note. 

728 TO ^r\ ov.] Cf. V. 540, note. 
— Madvig Synt. § 156 R 4. 

ir^rpoio-i. ] Cf. V. 252, \i6b\ev- 
aTov'Kpri, note. 

irds.] Cf. V. 275, note. 

729 wctt' ^s too-ovtov i|X0ov, 
K.T.X.] Thus in the Iliad (i. 190) 
the quarrel between Agamemnon 
and Achilles had reached the point 
when Achilles was doubting — ^ 6y€ 
<pd<ryapoi> 6(d ipvcradp-evo^ irapb. firjpov 
rods fiiv dvaaTTjaeiei', 6 5' 'Arpelbriv 
ivapL^oi, I 17^ x^^o^ ira6<r€i€ — when 
Athene interposed to restrain A- 
chilles, and Nestor (vv. 254 — 285) 
to pacify Agamemnon. 

730 Ko\€(5v £^<{>'n] 'Swords 

plucked from sheaths were drawn 

in men's hands.' — The swords 5tc- 
rrepanbdij KoKeCJv, * were drawn 
through (and out of) their sheaths,' 
ipvard 'by a quick, sharp pull.' 
Swords drawn leisurely from the 
scabbard might be said BtaTrepaiov- 
adcu : the angry hastiness of the ac- 
tion is brought out by ipvard. 

731 8pa)jiovo-a tov arpo<rci>TaTa>. ] 
The genitive is partitive, — lit. ' hav- 
ing trespassed upon the domain of 
what is extreme,' /. e. 'having run 
somewhat to the furthest.' Cf. /^cai 
TOV vp6<rof (Xen. Ana/f. I. 3. i), lit. 
'to enter upon the ground before 
one,' z. e. ' to go forwards.' Madvig 

732 dv8p(uv...X<S70v.] ^vi'aXXa7^- 
\6yov dudpCovy lit. ' the word-media- 
tion' (reconciling words) of the el- 
ders. For the double genitive cf. 
v. 309, note. 

€V.] 'By means of.' FM. 602, 
t[ 5' iy d6\(p del fidWou ij ireiaavr 
&y€iu; Eur. //e/en. 1132, iv dopi Kal 
irerpitfais | ^nrataiv iKirvevcavrts. 

733 'in-'*'-] "^^^ *^^ dative cL 
V. 39- 

734 TOis Kvp£ois. ] The plural 
for the singular is sometimes used 
when the reference is general or mys- 
terious : e. g. Aesch. Cho. 47, 5c- 
airoTwv dapdroiaiy, — (alluding to the 
death of Agamemnon :) Eur. I/ec. 
403, x«iXo TOKevaiv eUirus Ovfiov- 
p^fois, — /. e. tirjTpL. 

735 v^as povXds, K.T.X.] 'Hav- 
ing married gentler thoughts to wiser 
ways.'— y^ai fiovXat, the n^yf princi- 

102 SO^OKAEOTS [736 

^ov\a^ viotatv iyKaTa^€v^a<; rpOTTot?. 

> \ » / 

lOV lOV. 

fipoBelav ri^a<i ap 6 rijvBe rrjv 6S6i/ 
irefMircdV errefiylrev, rj '^vtjv iyca l3paBv<;. 

Tt 8' €<rTi %p€ia9 rrjaB* v7r6(r7ravL(Tfi€vov ; 740 


rbv avZp dinjvBa TevKpo<; evhoOev trreyrj^; 
p,7} '^o) irapijKeiv, irplv irapoov avTo<; Tvyoi, 

q}OC oiX'^O'^ TO*, iirpiyi TO KepBicTTOv rpaireif; 
f^v(Ofir)<:, Oeolaiv w? KaTaXKa')(6y ')(okov, 

TavT earl rainj fxaipia^ iroXXrj'^ irXectj 745 

p/es of piety towards the gods and XP^^<^^-] ^^ XP^^"'- the literal sense 

deference to rulers which Ajax has of 'need' is more prominent than in 

adopted (v. 666) : vioi rpbtroiy the xp^os, xPVf^^t which often mean 

new conduct on which he seems to merely negothtm, a matter of busi- 

have entered, in setting forth to pro- ness. 

pitiate Athene. For the form of the 741 dirr|v8a {ti)...irapiiK€tv.] /. ^. 

phrase cf. Cic. ad Fam. IV. 6, ad gave him a prohibitory command 

ttovos casjts temporum novas consili- (dxT^uSa) not to come out. Cf. O. T. 

orum raticnies accommodare. 236, top &v5p' diravdQ T6v5€...fx.7jT 

736 €-yKaTat€ij|as.] Cf. Find. JV. eiad^x^adat fA-fp-e trpofftfibjvHv rivd : 

I. 7, ^pynaciv viKa^Spois iyKiL/xiov 'Ken. Oyr. 1.4. 14^ 'Affrvd'yrjs avTyy 6- 

^ev^at /iAoy, * to marry strains of peve. fnjd^va ^dWeiv. — Madvig S}'7tf. 

praise to deeds of fame.' § 210. 

738 PpaSeiav.-.PpaSvs.] /. e. 742 ?|a> iraptiKCiv.] * Pass forth 

Either it was already too late when abroad.' In irapipxafJiai, vapiimi, 

I was sent on this mission, or I have irapiQKeiv, irapd conveys the notion of 

arrived too late. going into the presence of others : 

■qiias ir^p.irwv 686v.] Eur, hence either 'to enter' (a house), or 

Bacch. 827, AI. kyui areXQ (re...IIE. * to go forth into public' 

rba flToXi?*';— Madvig Synf. § 25. 743 ol'xcTai.] ' He is gone.* The 

740 rC 8' vTreoTravKTiwvov ;] speaker unconsciously uses an omi- 

*And wherein has thy urgent mis- nous word. 

sion been disappointed V lit. ' what 744 KaToXXaxGri x<^^°^-] ^^^ 

part of this need (this urgent busi- the genitive depending on the notion 

ness) has been stinted (scantily per- of desisting from, cf. Eur. Med. 896, 

formed)?'' Cf. Aesch. Fers, 491, dia\\dxOv&' &fia \ tt]s irpbadtv ix' 

inr^avwi<rixfydv» \ /3opas. ^pas.— Madvig Synt. § 57 ^. 

754] AIAS. 103 

ehrep to KaX^a? ev <^povu)v fMavreverai. 

irotov; rl S* etScw? rovhe 7rpar//jLaT0<; irepc; 


ToaovTOV olBa koI irapoop irvy^^^avov. 

ix yap crvvehpov koX rvpavvLicov kv/c\ov ^ 

KaX;!^a? iJbeTa(TTa<^ olof; ^ArpeiBcop Bl-^a <^p^ 750 

€9 %e?/)a TevKpov Se^tap (piXo^popco^; 

6ei^ elire KaTrecrKrjyJre irapToCa re^py 

elp^at Kar yfiap rovfi(f)ap6<; to pvp roSe 

PiXapO' VTTO a-Krjpalcri, /MrjS' d^ePT iap^ 

746 €u «}>pov«v] = 6pdC)$ <ppovCbp : 
cf. V. 1252, ol yap (ppoyovvres eO Kpa- 
Tovai iravraxov : Aesch. P. V. 395, 
Kipdiarov eS (ppovovvra. fiT} 8oK€tu <ppo- 
P€ty, * it is best to be thought foolish 
when, one is really wise.' But in a 
different sense in //, i. 73 (Calchas), 
iv <l>povi(ay ajyopTiaaro, * spoke with 
kindly purpose. ' 

747 TovS* irpaYfJiaros irepi ;] i. e. 
* What special knowledge authorised 
Calchas to deny that a present re- 
conciliation with Athene is rd K^p- 
diffTov for Ajax?' The question is 
answered at v. 756. Schneidewin 
conje(5lured vdpei, — referring irpdy- 
fiaros to the predidlion of Calchas. 

748TocrovTOV...€TV'yx.a-yoV'3 'Thus 
much I know, and to thus much was 
witness:' — Toaovrov, in the sense of 
fi^XP*- toOtov, belonging to Trapuiu 
irvyxoj'op as well as to ol8a. 

749 •yap.] Cf. V. 285, nof/r. 

o-vv^opov Kttl TvpavviKov.] 'The 
circle of councillors and chiefs ' = /cy- 
K\oi TUP ffvpedpevdvTUP /ScwiX^wi', — 
the Homeric jSouXtJ. Homer repre- 
sents the Greek fleet as drawn up 
semicircularly on the strand of a 
small bay. Over against the ships 
of Odysseus, which were stationed 
at the middle point (//. xi. 8), a space 
was kept clear for assemblies and for 
the administration of justice; here 
also stood the public altars of the 

camp : //. XI. 805, Karii prjas ^OSva- 
(TTjos 6eioio...tvaL a<^ dyop-fi tc O^im rc| 
'?'?''» Ty S^ KdL ff<f>i QgQp irerei^aTo 

750 olos 'ArpciSiiy S^x**] ^^' ^* 

752 iravToCg, Tc'xvtj.] To be taken 
with e^^at, rather than with iiri- 
(rKTj\ff€: see Her. i. 112, ixPVt^ p-fj- 
depdji rix^H indeipai fitp. 

753 «ip|a>i-] According to the 
usual distindlion that etpy€iv='to shut 
out,' dpyeof * to shut in,' Hermann 
and Lobeck are right in giving dp^ai 
here, Lobeck shews at length that 
etpyetp and eXpyeip are pretty regu- 
larly distinguished in good Greek. 
Thus in Philip's Letter a/>. De- 
raosth. p. 159. 2, TOP dZi.Koip.iPOv 
el'/j^are UKa /xrjvas- but presently, 
p. 159. 4, uiare p.v(TTi)piwp p.kv etp- 
ye LP avTois. In Eur. Helen. 288, 
rh 5' i^xo-TOP tovt\ el ixdXoipiep ii 
rdrpap \ KX-^dpoti Slp elpyolp.ecda, — 
the sense is, * barred out of every 
house,'— not * imprisoned.' And so 
elpyp-bs always: elpKT-fi rarely, and 
not in good writers. 

i^)j.ap T0vp.4)avis, K. T. X.] 'This 
present day that shines :' cf. v. 856, 
r]fx4pa$ rh vvp <T^\ai. The explicit 
phrase marks an anxious warning: 
cf V. 741, d7n7i55a — Ipdodep ffriyris\ 
firi '|w vap^KCiy. 

304 X04>OKAEOTX 

el t^wvT eKewov elatBew OeKov ttotL 
i\a yap avrov rfjBe OTjfiepa fiovrj 
Bia<; 'A6ava<; ^vl^^ m e^r) \e<ycov. 
TO. yap irepLcaa Kavovr^ra (rco/iiaTa 
iriTTTeiv ^apeiai^ 'irp6<; Oecov hvairpa^lat^ 
eSaay o ^avri^, ocrri? dvdpcoTTov (jyvaLv 
/SXaaroov eireiTa fi^ Kar avQpoairov <t>povy. 
K€a/o<; S' dir oXkcov €vdv<; i^opfico/uLevof; 
avov<; Kokm Xiyovro^; rjvpeOr] irarpo^. 
fiev yap avTOv ivveirety t€kvov, Bopec 



756 tq8€ &i||jip(2~] The only other 
example in the Tragedians of this 
crasis is 0. T. 1283, vvv hk rySe drj- 
fiip^ I CTevayfxds. It also occurs 
once in Ar. Av. 107 1, r^ 5^ fiiuToi 
drjfJiipq.. — T^5' iu W^pg- -ryd' id' 
il/xepg. have been conjedlured. 

757 «s ^<|>Tl X^-ywv. 1 ' As he re- 
hearsed:' lit., *as he said in the 
course of his statement.' Cf. Her. 
III. 1 56 (where Zopyrus presents him- 
self to the Babylonians and relates 
his ill-treatment by Darius), — ^vvv 
re,' i(f>r] "Xkywv ('his story ran'), 'iyib 
vfxlv rJKOi /xiyiffTov ayadov.' Again 
Her. V. 36 (Hecataeus has been giv- 
ing an exposition of his views to the 
Ionian leaders), fiXXws fiev vvv oiSa- 
IJ.(2s i<t>-ri \ky(av (*he went on to say') 
ivopav iaSiievov tovto. Such phrases 
as elTre (poivuv (Aesch. Ag. ig6, *he 
lifted up his voice and said ')— ?0^ 
dTjuTjy opQpy K.T.X., — are evidently 
different from 101; \iyuy. 

758 ir€pur<rd Kd.v6vT\rai o-(a)iaTa.] 
* Luxuriant and unprofitable lives:' 
cf. V. 1077, Kov Tis (Tujfia yevvrjayj 
ILcya^ K.T.X. : v. 129, /i^5' 6yKov 
dpT]. — Tepicady 'overgrown,' 'swoln 
with too much prosperity :' dvdvT^Ta, 
'lost, through pride, to the service 
of the gods and to helpful relations 
with men.' Cf. Her. vii. 10, op^s 
ri vvepexovra fwa ws Kcpavuoi 6 Beds ; 
The van ledl. dvdriTa is appropriate, 
but less forcible than 6.v6vr]Ta, which 
gives the reason why overgrown 
greatness is struck down by the gods. 

Schneidewin's conjedlure X^/iaro for 
adopLora appears unnecessary. 

760 60TIS, K.T.X.] The antecedent 
to 6'(TTt5 is ^KacrSv tlvo^ implied in 
a-wpLara. Cf. Ant. 705, 6<rTis <ppov€'iv 
. ..p.bvos SoKcX. . . , ovToi... iS(f>drj(Tav kc- 
p'oi: Xen. Cj/r. VII. 4. 5, T]v...ddiKeiu 
Tts iirixeipyy to6tois Kvpds re Kal 
i]pi€is irokip.Loi iaopteda. — M.Sid\.Synt. 

§ 99/. 

4iv<rtv.] Cognate accus., = ^Xa- 
a-Trjv /3Xa<rT<!5i/. Cf. Track. 1062, Br^- 
Xus 0O(ra KcyvK dvSpbs (pijatv : //. XI. 
241, KoipLT^craro xd^eov vtvov: Arist. 
R/iet. I. 2. 9, x^l-P^i-^ rjdovriu. 

761 4>povTa.] Cf. O. C. 395, yipov- 
ra S' dpdoCu <p\avpov 6s p4os iriarj: 
Eur. ion 855, SoOXos Sorts i<xd\6s 
y. — Madv. Synt. § 125 r 2, 

762 — 779. The Messenger is now 
reporting the adlual words of Cal- 
chas: cf. v. 780, roaavd' 6 piduTis elire. 

763 dvovs^.TraTpos.] irarpbs Ka- 
Xws XiyovTos (genitive absolute) ^/oys 

764 atiriv Ivv^irct.] The accusa- 
tive, since ivviireu = irpoa-cpupei : cf. 
//. XII. 210, Atj Tore IlovXvddfias 
dpaabv "EKTopa elire irapacTTds : Pki7. 
1065^ /atJ pC dpTi(pu}P€L pi.r]Sip. 

TCKvoV) 86pEk, K.T.X,] Odysscus, in 
the Iliad (ix. 252), reminds Achilles 
of the parting advice of Peleus, ' Sre 
a* iK ^dlrjs ''Aya.p.^p.voPL Tripiire:' — 
T4kpop ipibp, Kdpros p-kp 'Adrivalij re 
Kol " I SaJflToucr' atx' ed^Xuaf at) 
5k p.€ya\rjTopa dvp.bp \ faxff ^^ (TttJ- 
6c<r<Ti' <piXo^po(TVPrj ydp dpLeipur. 

771] MAS. 

Povkov Kparecv fiev, avv deS 5' del Kpareiv, 
6 8' vylnKo/jLTTco'; Kd<f)p6v(t}<; rujueu^aro, 
irdrepy Oeol<; fiev kclv 6 /xrjbev wv o/jlov 
Kpdro^ KaraKT^aacT ' iydo Be kol Bl'^a 
Keivwv ireTroida tovt eirKTirdaeLV K\eo<;. 
Toa-ovS' eKOfiTrei fivdov. elra BevTepov 
Bia<i ^K6dva<;, r^viic OTpvvovad viv 



86p€i. ] The usual form in the At- 
tic poets, e.g. Ar. Fax 357, ^j Ai- 
K€iov kolk AvKelou ffiiu dSpei <Ti)v dffirl' 
St: but dopi is admitted in lyric pas- 
sages, e.g-. Aesch. Ag. in, tr^/xirei 
^dv 8opl Kal x^P^ irpoLKTopi. 

765 <rvv 0€t5.] 'With the help of 
the god.' Cf. V. 779. The phrase 
adu 6e<$ or deois often means in a 
general sense, 'with the gods on one's 
side,* — 'under favour of the gods.' 
Cf. //. XXIV. 430, iriixypov 54 jxe, aOv 
ye deoiffLv, — 'escort me, — that is, if 
the gods are willing: ' Eur. Med. 625, 
|i)y de(^ 5' elpijaerai, — 'under favour 
of the gods be it said.' 

767 6€ois 6(j,oii] = <riI'i' OeoTs. 

6 \ir\Skv to v.] Cf. V. I28r, SroiS^v 
tav Tov ixfj^h duT^arrji virep. — Two 
other forms of the phrase occur: 
(1) 6 /tr/Seis: v. 1114, oif yap rj^lov 
Toiis firjd^vas. — (2) t6 fjt.7}5iv (of a 
person): Track. 1 107, ko.v rh firjd^v w. 
. 768 Kal Si\a Ke(vft)v.] Homer, too, 
ascribes to Ajax this vein of self- 
confidence, — but under a different 
aspe(5l. It is not, as here, the im- 
pious presumption which scorns to 
invoke the divine favour. Rather it 
is the courageous self-reliance of one 
who regards Zeus as the declared 
enemy of the Greeks, and exhorts 
them, since the gods refuse aid, to 
aid themselves: — //. xvii. 629, 'by 
this time a fool might see that father 
Zeus gives the triumph to the Tro- 
jans: — dXX* dyer, airoi irep <ppa- 
^(i/xeda firJTiv dpiaTrjv.' — The pagan 
ideal of consummate arrogance com- 
prised outspoken defiance of the gods. 
Thus the Locrian Ajax 0^ p' d^KrjTi 
deCjv (pvyieiv fiiya Xairfxa daXdcrcrrjs 
(Oc/.iY.c^o^). Thus Capaneus boast- 

ed that he would take Thebes, Aios 
re 6i\ovTos Kal /xt] d^XovTos (Aesch. 
TAed. 422). Thus Mezentius was 
the declared Contemptor divom (A en. 
VII. 648). 

769 4iri<nrd<r€iv kX^os.] *To bring 
this glory upon my head.' Aesch. 
{Pers. 479) has the adlive iTriffirdu in 
the sense of 'bringing' on, — roadvde 
TrXijdoi irrjfidTwv iiriairaaev. In the 
sense oi gaining, the middle iiriaird 
adai is usual: Her. ill. 72, hari.. 
iTTiffTrdauvTai K^pdoi: Polyb. III. 98 
20, ^(pr}...Tr]u Trap* avrwv eHvoiav iirt- 
(Tirdffeadau Cf. Plato Gorg. p. 465 B 
dWdrpiov KaWos itpeXKOfiivovi 

' striving to acquire ' artificial beauty, 

770 (I.V0OV.] Often in a contemp- 
tuous sense : cf. Eur. Andr. 744, 
roi)s (roi)s S^ fivdovi pq-diuis iyu <f>4p(a. 

771 8Cas'A0dvas, K.T.X.] 'Then 
once again, in answer to divine 
Athene, — what time she bade him, 
&c., — spake he in that hour a dread 
speech...' It has just been related 
how Ajax slighted the counsel 0/ 
his father. The second instance of 
his pride was intended to have been 
prefaced by a sentence in this form, 
— elra Sevrepov bias ^Addpas {tSa- 
irep irporepov varpSs) — TjvlKa drpv- 
vovad VLU 7)vddTo, k.t.X., — ijTi/jLaffe 
TT]u irapalveaLv. But for i7r//xa<rc 
r'iiv Tapalveaiv is substituted dpTKpu- 
vet deivdv iiros, — equivalent in sense, 
but leaving Sias 'Addvas without a 
definite syntax. This view seems 
more probable than (i) that of 
Hermann, Lobeck, and Schneide- 
win, who make 'Addvas, ijvLKa rjv- 
8dT0 an anacolouthon for 'A^Ams 
aiSwfx^vrjs: (2) Bernhardy's, who 
makes 'Addvas depend on iiros, 'a 

io6 20<I)OKAEOT2 

f)vBdT eir ix^poh ^etpa <f)ocvlav rpeTrecv, 
TOT duTLcfxovel heivov dpprjrov t eiro^i' 
dvacraa, tol<; aXKoLcnv ^Apyeccou TreXa? 
laTco, KaO* r)^d<i K oviroT eKpri^et fJ'dxV- 
TOLOL(TBe TOL \6yoLaiv daT€pyrj 6ed<; 
iKTr}<TaT opyr/Vf ov KaT dvOpwirov <f>povSv. 
a\V ecTrep eaTi TjjBe OrjfjLepa, Ta^ ^^ 



speech about Athene,' like v/xvoi 
dedv: {3) the view that 'kdava$ de- 
pends on dyTicpuvei a.s = ivavrlov 

772 TjvSdro.] For the middle ai- 
Saadai, cf. PAil, 130, Aesch. £um. 
357: CAo. 144, i^av8u}fiepos: and see 
V. 511, nofe. 

773 TOT6.] *In that hour,' — em- 
phatic, claiming attention for the 
coming iiros: cf. £/. 35, XPV A*o* "^oi- 
avd^ 6 ^oT^os cou irevaei rdxo-' — * ^- 
axevov avrSp,' k. t.\.: Phil. 465, 
OTrrjvlK av debi \ ...ef/cTj, rrjuiKavd^ 
6p/x(J!)fxe0a: O. C. 437, or ijSri ttSs 6 
fxdxdos TJv Tr4Trci}v,...Tb TrjpLk* TJdT}... 
rfKavv4 fx iK yrjs. 

'j'j^. Tois dXXoicriv 'Apyeiav-I Ei- 
ther TOis d'XXots ^Apyeiois or toTs aX- 
\oLS tQv ^kpyelwv would have been 
more usual. Cf Phil. 304, rdiffi 
<r(b(f>po<nv ^poTwv. — It would be pos- 
sible to render, — * stand near the 
Greeks, in the interest of the rest' 
(rots (2XXois being a dat. commodi) : 
but the meaning is clearly rots aX- 
Xots T<2v 'ApyeLup. For TriXas (like 
^77i;s) with dat. instead of genitive, 
cf. Aesch. Suppl. 204, di\oip! o.p ij8r) 
crol TreXas 6p6vovs ^x^*''' 

775 KaG* ii('n] 'Where 
stand I and mine, the storm of fight 
can never burst:' i.e. 'on that part 
of the Greek line where I and my 
Salaminians are posted the fury of 
battle can never break forth. No 
opposition which the enemy can 
offer to z(s will suffice to occasion 
serious fighting.' This — the only 
sense which the words will bear- 
is scarcely satisfactory. We might 
conjedture icrp-fj^ei, nunquam irrum- 
pent hostes.—kKpy\^u\ the metaphor 

is from a storm bursting in fury : cf. 
Arist. Meteor. II. 18. 14, eKpi^^as 
dpcfios: II. XX. 55, av/xBaXop, kp 5' 
a^Tots ^/3t5a pTjypvPTo ^apeiav. — It is 
impossible that oijiror* ^Kprj^ei fiaxv 
should mean, as Lobeck takes it, — 
'the enemy will never break our 
line.' The use, in that sense, of 
prj^ai passim and of Trapapprjypvpac 
in Thuc. IV. 96 proves nothing for 
iKp-ij^ei, which can mean nothing but 
eruntpet. — (The proposed emenda- 
tion ofJrt co\j XPV^^'- ^s ^ more violent 
remedy than the difficulty of the 
vulgate warrants.) 

Ka0* ijixas.] 'Over against us,' 
' on our part of the line.' Cf. Xen. 
Cyr. VII. I. 16 (the commander of 
a battalion reporting to Cyrus, whose 
army is drawn up for battle), rdfi^p 
Kad' Tifjids ^fxoiye doKcT, w Kvpe, na- 
Xws ^xctV dXXa ra irKdyia Xvire'i fxe: 
' as regards our own part of the line, 
I am satisfied; but I feel uneasy 
about our flanks:' Dionys. Hal. 
Anfl. III. 24. 483, ol Kard ^idrjpaiovs 
raxdePTes, qui in acie Fidenatibus 
oppositi erant. 

776x01010-84 Toi.] ' By such vaunts 
it was...' Hermann has restored 
Tot for Tots both here and in EL 

608, dXX' ikp TOL KUKols. 

777 otJ Kar dv0pa)irov.] Cf. Anf. 
768, (ppopeiTU} ixe2\ov rj Kar'' dpdp^ 
lup. — The phrase ov Kard always 
means, 'greater, higher than:' cf. 
Thuc. II. 62, Ol}, Kara ttjp tup ol' 
ki<3p Kal Trjs yfjs xP^'^^^f '^^ fieyd- 
\(i}p pofii^ere i<XTeprjcrdai, avTT) i] 8v- 
pafiis (paipeTat, ' this power appears 
incomparably more precious than the 
enjoyment of your houses and land.' 

778 'ifm]=^^: cf. v. 783. 




r^evoviMeO* avTov avv Oeoi <TCOTi]pLoi. 

Trifzirec /ze aol (jyepovra rdcrh* eTriaToXa^i 
TevKpot; (fjvXa(To-€Lv. el 8' aTrea-reprifjLeOa, 
ovK eaTtp avTjp Kelvo^;, el Ka\;^a9 (70(f)6^. 

w Bata T!eK/jL7j(Ta'a, Bvcr/jLopop yevo<;, 
opa /iioXovaa TOPS' oiroV CTrr} Opoel. 



779 <rvv 6c<3.] Calchas, priest 
and seer, is careful himself to shun 
the impiety which he had recorded 
of Ajax. Cf. V. 765, note. 

780 6 84...TevKpos.] Phil. 371, 
6 5' cTtt', ('OSucro-ei)?, irXrjcriov yap tju 
Kvpuu,) — val iraT, k.t.X. 

€v0Os €| ?8pas.] 'Quitting the 
council straightway.' Calchas, in 
order to speak with Teucer, with- 
drew from the circle of the council 
(v. 750) ; and they were now stand- 
ing apart from it. In the literal 
sense, therefore, Teucer did not go 
i^ ^Spai. Still, as a member of the 
council, he might be said to go i^ 
idpas when, in order to find a 
messenger, he left the neighbour- 
hood of the spot where it was sit- 
ting. But why did he not carry the 
message himself ? He probably re- 
turned to the council in order to 
defend Ajax. When it rose, he be- 
gan a personal search for him, and 
while thus engaged leanit the tidings 
of his death (v. 995). Teucer ap- 
prehended, — not the suicide of 
Ajax, — but a collision between his 
kinsmen and the Greeks : to prevent 
this, the message would suffice. The 
dramatic interest gains by the re- 
cital, at full length and in a formal 
dyy^Xov p7jat.$, of the prophet's hopes 
and fears. — The words evdds i^ 'idpas 
might also mean — 'immediately after 
the sitting' — 'as soon as the coun- 
cil rose.' But it is inconceivable 
that Teucer should have awaited 
that event before sending a message 
fraught with life or death. 

782 <^vXd<r<r€iv.] (/faec man- 
data) observanda. For the infin., 
cf. Thuc. II. 4, {ol Qrj^aioi) nrap^do- 
aav (T<pds avroi/s ToTsUXaTaicvffi XPV' 
aavOai 6, ti B.v /SojJXwjrat : Ar. 
JVu5. 440, tovtI t6 y ifibv (tQ/a ai' 
Tolaiv I ira/j^xw TyTFTCtJ'. — Madvig 
Synt. § 148 <5. 

dirco-TepT)fJi€Oa.] Schol., ruv iv- 
ToXwv drjXovoTiy ijyovv t^s (pvXaKTJs 
Tov AtaPTos : i. e. *if we have been 
robbed of our charge.' — (Wakefield 
conj. a(f>V(TTep'qixeda.) 

783 €1 KdXxas o-o<^os.] Cf. v. 
746. For the double protasis, ei 
air€(TT€pTfj/xeda...€l KdXxas <T0(f>6s, cf. 
Plato Pkaedo p. 67 e, d yb.p Sia^^- 
^Xrjyrai fi^u wauraxv t<^ (Tci/iOTt, . . . 
tq{)tov 5k yiyvo/j,4pov el <f>o^otvTO koX 
dyavuKTouv, ov toXXtj B.v dXoyia etri, 
€1 fiT] Ao-fievoi iKeiae toiev; So Soph. 

£1 583. 

784 Sato.] The Doric and Attic 
form Sdtos, and not the Epic Sijtoj, 
was probably always used by the 
Tragedians. In Aesch. A^. 542 
d7]to}u, in the sense of 'enemies,' is 
usually read, but is not certain. 
There is no other instance of the 
word, as meaning 'hostile,' in sena- 
rii; for in Aesch. T/ied. 267, ar^ypu) 
irpb vawu is now read in place of Xd- 
(pvpa 8q.Qv. 

8vo-p.opov Y^vos. ] 'Ill-fated be- 
ing.' Cf. //. vr. 180, T] 5' dp' l^-qv 
deiou yivos, ovd' dvBpuircjv: Find A'. 
v. 80, Kelvov o/xoairopou idvos, ' his 
blood-relation' (Pytheas): Catullus 
61. 2, Uraniae gentiSy Hymen. 

785 epoci.] Cf. V. 67, note. 


^vpei fyap iv XP^ tovto firj ')(aipeLV riva. 

Tt fi av raXatvav, dpTL(o<; TreTravfiiwjv 
tcaKoov cLTpvTcov, 6^ eBpa^ avia-Tare', 

Tovh^ ela-cLKOve rdvBpb^, m r)K€L (pipcov 

ot/JiOLj Ti ^"79, oov6p(07r6; fMwv okcoXafiev ; 

ovK olBa T^v GTjv nrpd^LVy Atai/ro? S* oriy 
dvpalo^ eiirep icrrlv, ov Oapaco irepi. 



786 Ivpct Iv XP^-] 'Touches in 
the quick;' — irapoifiia iirl twu iiri- 
Kivhivwv irpayixdrwv, according to the 
Scholiast. Cf. Her. IV. 175, /ce^ 
pouresivxP^t 'shaving close:' Thuc. 
II. 84, iu XPV ^^^ irapairX^oPTCS. — 
For the form XPV instead of xp^r^, 
cf. y^v, Od. XVIII. too: ^pv, ib. 
212: kv 0(p, (for 0wt/, dat. of 0(3s, 
'light,') Y^MX. frag. Meleagr. (quoted 
in the Etym. Magn. p. 803. 46). 
Lobeck observes that all such forms 
should be written with the iota sub- 
script, as they represent an old mode 
of declension which omitted the con- 
sonant r. 

|ii^ X^^P^*-^ Ttvct] = W(rTe jxi], — 
the infin. expressing the result: cf. 
Thuc. II. 69, ^opixiwv <f)vKaK7]u elxe, 
firjT' iKirXeiv iK Kopivdov firiMva /xi^t^ 
ehirKeiv. — Madvig Synt. § 164. 

787 tC ji av, K.T.X.] Tecmessa, 
— who at the desire of Ajax {684) 
had withdrawn into the tent (v. 692), 
— now returns, with Eurysaces (v. 

788 eJrpvTwv.] Cf. Aesch. Cho. 
330, irpiaKTOS &Ta. 

790 irpo^iv.] 'Plight.' Trac/i. 
294, dpdpbs evTVxv \ Kkvovaa irpa^iv. 

Aesch. P. V. 714, Ti(f)piK €l(nSov<ra 
irpa^iu 'Ivovs. 
TiX-yTjo-a.] Cf. V. 536, no^e: v. 


792 OVK ol8a, K.T.X.] Tecmessa 
had inquired — as if she were speak- 
ing to the friendly Chorus — ' can it 
be that "we" are lost?' — the first 
person plural (as at v. 269) express- 
ing the identity of interests between 
Ajax and his friends. But the stran- 
ger, who does not enter into the 
meaning of the 'we,' coldly replies: 
' I know not of ^/ijf case, but only 
that, if Ajax be abroad, I am ill at 
ease for Aim. ' 

Al'avTos 8e, k.t.X.] The con- 
stn^rtion first intended was A\!avTos 
S^ irpa^Lv olda, 6ti KaKrj iarai. But 
for KCLK^fj ^(TTai is substituted oi dapcrc^ 
iripi, — the preposition governing 
AtavTos. Schneidewin construes, — 
Afaj/ros 5^, — 6'ri {IttuZt]) dvpaios 
{ecTTiu), — etwep ^cttlv, — ov dapaCj 
TT^pi: i.e. 'But since Ajax is abroad, 
even supposing he yet lives, I have 
no confidence (that he will live 
much longer)' — an ingenious, but 
too elaborate, version. 






ifcelvov eipyeip Tevfcpo<i i^ecjyLerac 
(TKriVTJ^s viravkov firjB^ dcpcevai fjLOVOV, 


TTOV 8' i<TTl TeuArpo?, Kairl Ta> Xeyei rdBe; 


7rdp€(TT €K6lvO<; dpTC' T'^vSc 8' e^oBoV 

oXeOpiav KXavTO^ iXirl^eL ^epeiv. 

ollfJLOC Tokaiva, rod ttot dvdpcoircov /juadcop ; 

Tov Sea-Topeiov fidvTecD^, fcad' rjjjuepav 
Trjv vvv, 09 avTw Odvarov rj fiiov (pipeL 



704 Kal uifv.] Cf. V. 539, nofe. 

cuoiveiv Ti (f-flS-] ' (Abroad he is,) 
so that thy dark words rack me :' — 
ihUv€LV—beiaaaav airopeiv 6, ti \iyeLs. 
For Tt = 6', TL, cf. Aesch. Cko. 84, 
ovb' ^x^ ''''' ^^' Eur, Hec. 185, 5et- 
fialvco, fxarep, \ ri ttot'' dvaarivecs. 

795 €|€<j>ieTai, ] The compound 
verb has reference to the explicit and 
urgent chara6ler of the injunction : 
cf. w. 741, 753. 

796 a-KTivTJs iiiravXov.] The ge- 
nitive depends on av\-^ in viravKos : 
cf. £/. 1386, dojixdruv vTroffTeyos. — 
Madv. Synt. § 63 d. 

jiovov.] z. e. Until Teucer him- 
self should arrive; v. 742. 

798 TTJvSc 8' ^|o8ov <(>^p€lV.] 

* He forebodes that this going forth 
is of fatal tendency for Ajax.'— A- 
TT^fet, atcgiiratur^ cf. v. 606, note. — 
dXedplav (p^peiv is a mixture of 6\e- 
dplav eXvai and eZj bXedpov <pepeiv. 
Cf. the phrases els ahx^jurjv, eli jSXci- 
jSi/v 0^pet Ti. — Two other versions 
d eserve not ice : — ( i ) I-,obeck's ; — 

'Teucer fears that he has to announce 
{(p^peiu) this going forth as fatal to 
Ajax.' (2) Hermann:— 'Teucer 
Aopes to announce (/. e. to announce 
in time) that this going forth is 
fraught with death for Ajax.' — (Bothe 
proposed iXirl^eiv (p^pei, 'tends to 
make us forebode...:' Badham, A- 
TTt'^et <p6dueiv : Enger, Kvpecv : F. W. 
Schmidt, p^ireiv.) 

801 Qifrropdov.] II. I. 69, KdX- 
Xcts Qea-ToplSrjs, oiuvoiroXuif 6x^ &pi- 
(TTOJ. For the form cf. v. 134, Te- 
Xafiwvie irai : Eur. //er. 229, Toi/s 
'RpaKXeiovs TratSas. 

802 Ss.] So Dindorf. Others 
8t, i. e. 6're. The t of Srt is never 
elided in Attic. 

<}>^pci.] 'Portends,' 'announces.' 
Cf. Aesch. Pers. 249, koX <pipei (6 
d77cXos) (xacpis ti irpdyos iffdXbv 1) 
KaKbv kXv€ip. — WithilTc instead of 6s. 
the subjedl to <f>4pei would be either 
(i) ';7^^o5os,— deadly, if permitted, — 
but abstinence from which would be 
the saving of Ajax: c£ v. 674, note: 





ot 'ywy <l>l\oi, irpoa-TfjT avwyKaia<i tu^^?, 

Kal airevaa6\ oi fiev TevKpov ev raxec p.o\£lv, 

oi S' kairepov^ ar/Kwva^j ol 8' avTrfklov^; 

^rjTeiT l6vT€<i rdvSpo^ e^oSov KaKrjv. 

€yv(OKa yap Brj </)G)to9 rJTraTrjfiivrj 

Kal Trj<i 7ra\aLa<; x^P'''^^^ iK/Se^rjfiivr). 

OLfioi, TL hpaawy reKvov; ov^ l^pvreov. 

dW* elfJLL Koryco Kelcr oironrep av adiveo, 

^ft)/)c3yw,ei/, iyKovoofJi€V, ov% eSpa? aKfMrj. 

[aw^ecp 6e\ovT6<; avBpa y 09 (nrevhei 6avelv.~\ 



—or (2) Tj wipa, — as Hemiann takes 
it. But Kad' rjfi^pav, 8t€ (p^pei, instead 
of 7] (p^pei, seems too harsh. 

803 irpocTTTiTe.] 'Shelter.' Schol. 
^07]6ol, irpocxTdTai yeviade. Cf. Aes- 
chin. de Fals. Legal, p. 49. 41, Ti/iw- 
p-qaovTaf, rbv irpoaTdpra rrjs elpTjvrji, 
* the champion of the peace. ' 

dvaYKaCas tvx'HS-] 'My hard 
fate :' cf. v. 485, note. 

804 a-mva-aQ'f 01 [liv, k.t. X.] 
The regular construdlion would have 
been: — <x7re6(raT€, ol fxkv (the ser- 
vants of Tecmessa, v. 539, and the 
Messenger) TevKpou fxoXeiw oi S^ 
(the Chorus) ^rp-eiu Aiavra, — IdvTei 
dXXoi /xh irpbs iarripavy &X\oi 5^ 
TTpbi dvToXds. The first ol 54 an- 
swers to ol fiivy and distinguishes the 
seekers for Ajax from the seekers for 
Teucer. The second ol 34 distin- 
guishes the eastward from the west- 
ward party of seekers for Ajax. For 
the new finite verb ^rjTeire instead 
of fr/re?*', cf. Track. 676, rovr' -qcpd- 
viffrai, did^opov irpbs ouSevbs \ tuv 
ivbov, dXX' idearbv i^ avrov <pdipec: 
//. XX. 48, ave 5' ''Xd-qv-q \ crda'' brk 
jxkv irapd Td(ppov...d\\oT^ eir' dKrdwv 
ipiboiJTrojv fiaKpbv dvrei. 

TruKpov jioXeiv.] For <nre{>5eiv 
with accus. and infin., cf. Her. i. 74, 
(<Tvev<rav. , .€lpil}V7]v iuvroiai y€u4<xdai. 
— Teucer eventually learnt the tid- 
ings not from these special messen- 
gers, but from genefal rumours (v. 

998), in the course of his search for 

805 dYKwvas. ] * Bays,' curves of 
the shore,— Ajax having said that he 
was going to the irapaKriovs \eifiu>- 
vas^{y. 654). 

dvTT]X£ovs.] An Ionic form, ad- 
mitted in Attic: e.g. Aesch. Ag". 502, 
Eur. Ion 1550 (where dvd-qXiop was 
formerly read). Cf. Ar. Av. 109, 
/xwj' riki.aaTd; — /itt dXXd daripov rpb- 
Tov, I dTri/Xtao-rd: and so dirrjXiu- 
Tr)s {ventus) subsolanus. 

807 <j>(i>T&s i]xaTT]|i^t].] * Deceiv- 
ed by the man:' — who had succeed- 
ed (vv. 646 — 692) in persuading her 
that he had no longer any thoughts 
of self-destrudlion. But now, remem- 
bering his former purpose, she can- 
not doubt how to interpret the warn- 
ing of Calchas. — For the genitive 
cf. Eur. EL 173, Keio-ot o-as dXbxov 
(T<f>ay€is : id. Or. 496, irXrjyels ^1/70- 

Tpbs TTJS ifl7]S. 

809 rC Spdo-d), T6KV0V ;] Tecmes- 
sa, about to join in the search, leaves 
Eurysaces at the tent with a vai- 
dayu)y6s. At v. 973 she returns to 

8ro Biroiircp av cr0€v«.] Tecmes- 
sa, faint with grief or fear, had not 
gone far from the tent before she 
discovered the body of Ajax. Mean- 
while the chorus had searched far 
and wide [fxaKpol irSvoi, v. 888). 

81 r ovx ?8pas aKjiT].] //. xxiii. 





X^P^^v eroL/JLO^f Kov Xoya hel^ca fiovov. 
Ta;^09 f^ap epyov kol ttoBcov a/x^ eyjreTaL. 

a fiev o-(f>ar^6v<; earrjKev y ro/xcoTaTOf; 


205, ovx ^5 OS' etfii 7A/> avdii iir^ 
'ilKeavoio phdpa : Bacchylides ffag. 
11, ovx ^5pas ^pyou: Eur. Or. i'2-gi, 
oix ^Spas dyu>v. 

812 crdiliw 0€XovT6s, K.T.X.] This 
verse is reje<5led as spurious by Din- 
dorf, Schneidewin, and other editors. 
But its alleged feebleness is not so 
very clear. In the first place it has 
a real force and significance in re- 
minding us distindlly what it v^as 
that Tecmessa dreaded — the purpose 
of Ajax to destroy himself. This 
fear had haunted her from the first 
moment of his returning sanity (v. 
326),— had been lulled by the reas- 
suring language of Ajax, — but had 
revived with the warning of Calchas, 
which convinced her that that lan- 
guage had been delusive (v. 807). 
Again, the words 8s aireijdei daveiv 
give a hint to the spedlators which 
aptly introduces the succeeding ta- 
bleau — Ajax standing before his 
planted sword. 

814 ^pYot) Kal TToScav.] ' Speed of 
a(fl and foot,' — ttoSwj/ being added 
to define ipyov, opposed in conven- 
tional antithesis to \6yi^. 

Exit Tecmessa by the side-door 
on the right of the spedlators {leading 
to the seashore) ; the Messenger, 
with Attendants, by the left side-door^ 
leading to the Greek camp (see v. 719, 
note).— The Chorus, breaking up 
into two hemichoria, leave the orches- 
tra by the right and left parodi. — 
[Other instances of the Chorus mak- 
ing an exit in the course of the dra- 
ma, are: — Aesch. Eum. 225 — 235: 
Eur. Ale, 'jj^6 — 872: id. Helen. 386 


815. The scene changes from the 
tent of Ajax and its vicinity, to a 
lonely place, near the shore, bordered 
by a xvood (v. 892). AjAX is dis- 

covered standing near his nvord, 
whi(h is planted in the earth by its 
hilt. — [This is the only example in 
the extant plays of Sophocles of a 
complete change of scene. It would 
be effedled, — Srst, by turning the 
TreptaKTOi, sc. 66pai, or ' revolving 
doors,' — triangular prisms, turning 
on a pivot, which stood before the 
side-doors of the stage: — secondly, 
by substituting a fresh pi(5lorial back- 
ground (o-fCTjj'Tj) for that representing 
the tent of Ajax. In order to con- 
ceal this operation a curtain (a^- 
\aia) was probably drawn up (not 
dropped, as with us) for a few mo- 
ments, when the stage was cleared 
at V. 814. (See Donaldson, Theatre 
of the Greeks, pp. 240, 292.) — Aes- 
chylus has a complete change of 
scene only in the Eumenides (v. 225) 
and (as some think) in the Choepho- 
roe (v. 640) : Euripides, in no in- 
stance : Aristophanes, in five plays 
— the Aves (v. 1565) — the Ecclesia- 
zicsae (v. 877) — the /^anae (v. 270) — 
the Thesmophoriaziisae (v. 279) — and 
the Lysistrata (v. 253).] 

815 — 865. Ajax. 'The slayer is 
placed so that best he may slay, — 
that sword, a foeman's gift, and 
planted in a hostile soil. All things 
are ready. Hear me, O Zeus, and 
let some quick rumour summon Teu- 
cer to raise my corpse; hear me, 
Hermes, and grant me an easy tran- 
sit to the shades; and ye, vengeful 
Furies, mark ye how I fall by the 
guile of the Atreidae. Thou who 
climbest the steep sky with thy 
wheels, thou Sun, when thou lookest 
upon Salamis, draw thy spangled 
rein, and tell my fate to aged Tela- 
mon and to my mother. O Death, 
delay not thy visit. Farewell, bright 
sunlight, — farewell, sacred soil of 


yevoLT av, ec tqj kol Xoyl^eaOac cr^oX?), 
^(opov /juev dvSp6<; "RKropo<; ^evcov i/nol 
jxaKicrTa fxiarjOevTo^i e^^iVrou 6* opaV 
irkirriye 8' eV yrj nro\ep,La rfj TpwdSi, 
aiBrjpo^pcoTL Orjfydvr) veaKOvrj^i' 
eirrj^a S' avrov ev iTepL(TTei\a<i i'yw, 
evvovaTarov roSS' dvhpl hid rd'^ov^ Baveiv. 
ovT(o jJLev 6vaK6vovfJL6V' CK Be TwvBe flOt 
(TV irpwTO^i, « ZeO, koX yap 6i/co9, apKcaov, 
alrrja-otiaL Be a ov fiaKpov <yepa^ Xa^elv, 




Salamis; farewell, waters and plains 
of Troy. This is the last word that 
Ajax speaks to you ; the rest he will 
speak to Hades and to the dead.' 

815 <r4>aY€vs.] i- e. ^l(pos. Cf. Eur. 
Andr. II z^, dfi^iv^oXot crcpayets §ov- 
irdpoi, 'javelins with double point, 
fit to pierce an ox's throat.' 

TOjJiwTaTOS.] "With the form to/x6s, 
Lobeck compares (pop6s {secundtis^ of 
winds, or 'fertile') — rpo(l>b$—^op6i. 

816 XoyCtco-eai.] 'If, indeed, a 
man has time to think,' — when it is 
ipyov Ak/j,-!^. He refledls, Xo-yi^erai, 
that the sword will do its work well 
for three reasons : — ^because it is the 
ill-omened gift of an enemy: because 
it is planted, newly sharpened, in the 
soil of a hostile land : and because 
he himself has taken pains to aid it 
in its task. 

817 dvSpos "EKTOpos.] dvvp is 
sometimes prefixed to a name which, 
as being mentioned for the first 
time, requires an introdudlion : e. g. 
Her. VI I r. 82, t^j 'hpX'^ ^^^P ^avai- 
Tios (more courteous than llavaiTids 
Tts): //. II. 92, ^Xe 6' dvdpa Bi-^vopa. 
— Here the dvdpos gives a certain 
tone of distance and aversion to the 
mention of a well-known but hated 

|4v«v.] 'Guest-friends.' Ajax and 
Hedlor were ^ivoi in virtue of a com- 
padl ratified by the exchange of |e- 
pia, — the sword and the girdle (//. 
vir. 302). A similar relation sub- 
sisted between the Argive Diomede 
and the Lycian Glaucus, who fought 

on the Trojan side (//. VI. 215). 

819 €V 7-5 iroXe^f^i.] Cf. v. 459, 

820 vcaKovTJs.] The Doric form, 
as in V. 37 Kwayig,, is retained here 
by Dindorf, against a majority of 
the editors. 

822 cvvovorraTOV.] Though its 
master was ^x^*o"'"os (v. 817), and 
though his gift had hitherto been 
ovK dvi^a-ifiov (v. 665), 

Saveiv.] z. e. uiare davuv {airbv). 
Cf. V. 786, note. 

823 eK...T<3v8e.] 'In the next 
place.' Cf V. 537, note. 

824 Kttl Yap €ik6s.] Since Zeus 
was the founder of the Aeacid line, 
— irpoyovwv irpoirdTwp, v. 387. 

825 alnj(ro|i,ai Be, k.t.X.] To 
Zeus Panomphaeus (//. viii. 250) — 
the source of all rumours, of all 
signs that guide or warn men, — Ajax 
prays that swift tidings of his death 
may come to Teucer, and summon 
him to raise a kinsman's corpse. 
The prayer was heard ; for while 
Teucer was pursuing his search, ' a 
quick rumour, even as the whisper 
of a god, spread through all the 
Greeks,' (999), telling that Ajax was 
dead. It was the message of Zeus, 
not of Tecmessa (v. 804), that first 
brought the news to Teucer. — Cf. v. 
187, note. 

ov naKp6v] = ou //^7a: cf. v. 130, 
note. Cf Theognis 13: "Apre/xi, ... 
...euxophcj} /xoi kXCBl, /ca/cds 5' otto 
KTJpas dXaXKC \ aol p.h tovto, ded, 
fiiKpbUj i/xol dk fji^ya. 

836] MAS. 113 

7r6iJb'\frov riv rjfuv ayyeXov, KaKrjv (paTLV 

TevKpo) ^epovra, irpwro^ (w? fie ^aaTaay 

TreiTTcora rcSSe Trepl veoppdvTO) ^l(j)eL, 

Kai firj 7rp6<; i'^Opcop rov KaroTTTevOeh Trdpo'i 

pL<j>6(o Kvalv TrpopXrjTo^i oIcovol<; 6^ eXcop. 830 

'toa-avTCL <r\ cS ZeO, TrpoaTpiirco' koXo) 0^ d/xa 

TTOfjLTraiov ^YipfJLTjV '^Qoviov eZ yLte KOiyuiGai 

^i/p da<f>aBd(7T(p Kol Ta-^el irrjhrjiJLaTi 

irXevpdp hiapp-q^apra rcSBe (pacrydpo), 

KaX(o B* dpcoyov<; ra? del re irapOepov; 835 

dei ff optLara^ irdpTa rdp fipoToh TrdOrj, 

827 irpwTOS.] When the corpse is 
found, Tecmessa abstains from hav- 
ing it lifted from the ground until 
Teucer arrives (v. 921). 

PaoTdoT].] 'Raise me.' Cf. v. 
920: £1. 1 129 (Eledlra receiving 
the urn supposed to contain the 
ashes of Orestes) — vvj> fikv yap ov8iv 
^yra ^aard^u} x^poiv. 

828 ircTTTcoTa irepl |£4)€t.] Cf. v. 
899, ^aaydu({) TrepiTTvx'H^ • Pind. AT. 
VIII. 23, (0^6fos) Kul TeXa/Awyos 5a- 
\pey viby 4>a<Tydvij3 dp.<f>CKvXiaaLS, * by 
wrapping him around his sword.' 

830 pi<j)0«...^o)p.] //. I. 4, ai- 
Tois di iXiJjpia T€vx^ Kiveaaiv \ oloi- 
voiaL T€ Tciai.: ib. xxii. 338 (the dy- 
ing prayer of Hedlor to Achilles), 
p.-}] pie ia irapa Ptjval KiJvai Karaddxpai 
'Axaiwi': Anf. 205 (the corpse of 
Polynices) Kal irpbs olwvQv \ 
Kal irpbs KvvCov ibearbv. For irpb- 
pXriTos cf. Hor. Epod. 6. 10 {canis) 
proiedlum odoraris cibum. 

83 1 Trpoo-Tpcirw.] The adlive in- 
stead of the more usual trpoaTpiiro- 
pi.a.1.^ as in O. C. 50: Eur. Suppl. 
1 195, KaKm dXiadai irpdarpeir^ 'Ap- 
yeibjv x^^fC-, 'pray that...' Cf. v. 
769, iiria-Tda-eip, and no^e. 

832 •iro[i'n'aiov...x0oviov.] The 
epithet x^<^»''<"' is added to define 
wopiraiop, — since the title irofiiraTos 
belonged in its most general sense 
to Hermes, as the god who piloted 
all travellers needing wary guidance. 
Thus he is commissioned by Apollo 


to protedl the flight of Orestes from 
Delphi to Athens ( Aesch. £ttfn. 91): 
in the Elet^ra of Sophocles he con- 
dudls the stealthy steps of the aven- 
gers into the palace (v. 1395) : and in 
the Philodletes (v. 133) he is invoked 
by Odysseus to speed the enterprise 
of the conspirators: — ^YippJq% 5' 6 
irkp-Tcwv S6X10S ijyriaaiTO v($v. But 
he was especially y}/v xbTop.iro s : Hor. 
Od. I, TO, 17, Tu pias laelis animas 
reponis Sedibus. 

833 d<r<j>a8d<rTa>.] 'Without Sk 
struggle, — at one quick bound.' The 
raxi) TrjST]p,a is the one convulsive 
spring upwards when the sword 
pierces the heart, — opposed to <r0a- 
8a<rp.6s, — a prolonged death-struggle. 
Photius, (r<paddi^€LV' hvcdavaTelv. Cf. 
Aesch. Ag. 1263, iirevxopai S^ kui- 
plas TrXrjyrjs rvx'^^v, \ ws dacpdhaarot, 
aip.dTOiv €v0yr}aipu}P | diroppvivruv, 
6pp.a (rvp^dXw rb^e : Silius Italicus 
VII. 140 (Dido, about to mount the 
pyre, prays to the gods infernal), 
precor, inquit^ adeste, Et placidi 
vidlos ardore admittite manes. 

835 Ttts deC] Sc. oucras. Cf. 
Aesch. Ettm. 69, ypalac, waXaial irax- 
5ej: ib. 833, ipi rdv TraXaib<ppoi>a. 

836 dd 0* 6pft)<ras.] Hermann, 
followed by other editors, gives &ei 
5', contending that, since 84 was re- 
gularly used with a repeated word 
(Eur. Afed. 99, Kivei KpaSiav, kivci Si 
X^Xop), its insertion after the second 
del would be excused by the familiar 



a-€/JLpa<; ^EpLvv^ ravvTroBa^, iiaOelv ifie 
irp6<; rodv ^Krpevhwv w<i BioWv/Jbai ToXa^, 
[xal a-(j)a<i KaKoix; KaKiara Koi iravoShAOpov^ 
^vvapiraaeiavy coairep tlaopwa- ifxe 
avToa-<j)ayfj TriTrrovTa, Tcy? avToarcpayeh 
Trpo^ Twv ^LKlcTTtav iKyopav oXotWo.] 
IT, cS Ttt'^etaL TTomfjLol T 'E/9ti^ue9, 
yeveaOe, firj ^elheade TravBrjfiov arparov. 



idiom, even though Tc had preceded. 
Similarly in £i. 1098 he would read, 
opdd t' €lffr)Kov<rafx.€v, \ 6pdu>i 5' 65ot- 
iropovfxei'. In both cases the usual 
T€...r€ appears better. 
6pcSa-as irdvra.] Cf. O. C. 42, 

837 ctjtvds.] The special title 
of the Erinyes at Athens was 2e/xvo2 
deal, or Zc/xva/ : at Sicyon, E^^ei'/Ses 
("Paus. II. II. 4: Miiller Eumen. 
% 80). Cf. O. C. 90, 459 : Thuc. i. 
126, Kadel^ofiivovs 5^ riuas Koi iiri 
T(2v ^e/j.vwv 6eti}v...8iexPV(y^avTO. 

TttvviroSas.] * Far-striding :' pur- 
suing the guilty with long, rapid 
strides. Cf. Aesch. Eum. 349, <r0a- 
Xepii Kal TavvSp6/Mots icwXa, — the 
feet (of the Erinys) overtaking and 
tripping the fugitive in his stride : 
.Soph. O. C. 410, SfiPoirovs'Apd: El. 
491, xo^f*^""©!^? 'Ejoti'us. 

839 — 842. Dindorf places these 
four verses in brackets. Hermann 
defends the genuineness of vv. 839, 
40 {Koi c(pa% KaKovs...daopwa'' i/x^), 
on what appears a just ground, — 
viz. that the imprecation upon the 
TravSrjfios CTparos (v, 844) would 
otherwise follow too abruptly on the 
mention of the Atreidae. We should 
naturally expedl in the first instance 
an imprecation upon the Atreidae 
themselves. But against the authen- 
ticity of the two following verses 
{aiTo<T<payr]...6\olaTo) several consi- 
derations may be urged: — (r) The 
non-fulfilment, mythologically speak- 
ing, of the doom denounced. Mene- 
laus did not die a violent death. A- 
gamemnon was not killed by his son. 
{2) The Epic rtij is used once or 

twice by Aeschylus, but occurs no- 
where else in Sophocles or Euripi- 
des. — (3) ^tXiffTos does not occur 
elsewhere.— The verses may have 
been added in an attempt to supply 
a supposed lacuna after elaopcSa^ ijxi, 
— {i. e. Tapd}\e6pov ^vvapTraffdivTo). 
Cf. v. 571, note. 

839 KaKiorra Kal irav(i>Xc9povs.] 
For the combination of adverb and 
adverbial adjective, cf. Aesch. Theb. 
.S47> V T^f' rravdiXeis TayKoiKOis r' 

841 a'UT0<r<|)a7€is.] Alluding to 
the double sense of the word, — 
* slain by one's own hand, ' or * slain 
by a kinsman.' Cf. £1. 272, t^v 
aiTo^vTTjv {i.e. Aegisthus, who had 
murdered Agamemnon his first cou- 
sin :) Aesch. A^". 1059, airoipova 
KaKo.: id. Eum. 321, avTovpylai fid- 
Taioi, 'rash murders of kinsfolk.' The 
clause, Tws airroa-cpayeis, k.t.X., forms 
a second apodosis, the regular apo- 
dosis being ^vvapirdaeidv <r<pas: cf. 
V. 630, note. 

844 irav8T{|i,ov o-Tparov.] Ajax 
was incensed against the Greek army 
generally for the injuries which he 
had suffered from the Atreidae : cf. 
V. 384, drifios 'Apyeloiaiv cS5' dTroX- 
"Kvfxai. He adopts, but applies less 
mercifully, the principle enunciated 
by Philodetes, irbXis y&p ia-ri irdaa 
T(Sv riyovfiiuiov, | arpaTOi re aijfnras 
{Phil. V. 385). Here, — as in the 
Iliad (i. 10) where Agamemnon's 
disrespedl to Chryses is visited on 
all his host, — 'quicquid delirant 
reges, plecluntur Achivi.* Simi- 
larly the crime of Creon {Antig. 
1141) and of Oedipus {O. T. 22) 

858] AIA2. 

aif B\ w TOP aliriiv ovpavbp BtcpprjXarwv 
"H\/€, irarpfLav rrjv efirjv orav '^66va 
tBr)<;, i'm(T')(wv '^va-ovcorov rjviav 
ayyetXop aTa<; Ta<i ifxa<; fjuopov t ifibif 
yipovTi irarpl ttj t6 Bvo-Trjvq) Tpo<f)(£t, 
rj TTOV raXaiva, rijvB^ orav Kkvy ^drcv, 
rja-ei fieyav kcokvtov ev iraarj nroXei, 
a\V ovBkv epyov ravra OprjvelaOai fiaTrjv, 
dW* apKreov to Trpayfia avv rd'^ec nvL 
w %dvaTe, Sdvare, vvv fju iTria-KeyjraL fioXwv' 

KaLTOl (76 fieV KCLKel 7rpO(J-avB/j(T(0 ^vvcov. 

ce B\ (v (f>aevprj<i i^fiepw^ to vvv creXa^, 
KoL Tov Bi,<j>pevTr)v "UXtov irpoaevveTra) 
iravvaTaTov Brj kovttot avOc<; vcrrepov. 




entails a divine judgment on the 
whole population of Thebes, 

845 ovpavov 8i4>pT]\aT<ov.] Cf. 
V. 30, TnySwjTa TreS/a, note. 

847 xpv(r6v(aTOV.] 'Overlaid 
with gold,'^ — having the upper sur- 
face spread with gold leaf, (xpvao- 
TTttcrros — vapaireTaXos), — ' bradleis 
aureis superne ornatam' (Lobeck), 
Cf. O. C. 693, XP'^<^'^''to5 ^Acppodira. 
When Suidas says, 'cv novov xpvao- 
ViJiTQi. irapa Toh vaXaioTs rivlai dWa 
nal Ae0af TOJ'WTOt, ' he refers to reins 
studded with ivory, — like the gem- 
med bridles and trappings (ei;Xat77es 
Xa\i-J'oi, (poKapa XiOoKoWTjTa) men- 
tioned by late Greek writers: The 
sense of xp^^^^^^^o^f however, must 
be * spread, plated ' — rather than 
'studded' — with gold. 

850 TJ irov TCtXaiva, k.t.X.] Cf. 
V. 625. 

853 <rvv Tdx€i rivC] (The deed 
must be begun) 'with what speed it 
may.' — Schneidewin proposes, cdv 
rvxy TLvl, i. e. 'with some happy 
fortune:' cf. Aesch. Cho. 131, ^A- 
Odv S' ^OpijTT]u devpo avv t^xv rivL | 
Kare^xofiai aoi. But there appears 
10 be no good cause for objedling to 
the expression cdv rdxci tlvI. The 
efifedl of TLvL is merely to add a 

certain irony. 

854 (2 ©cCvarc, K.T.X.] A similar 
apostrophe to Death occurs in the 
Philodletes (v. 797)— c5, Qd- 
pare, ttus del KaXov/xevos | ovtcj kut' 
VM-ap oi) Zdvq. /xoXeiv irori; Cf. //. 
XIV. 231, hd' "Tirvv ^v/uip\7]To, Kaai- 
yvriTU) Qavdroio. Thanatos is one 
of the dramatis personae in the Al' 
cestis of Euripides. 

vuv.] Now — now that the time 
for lamentation is past, and the time 
for adlion come. He is about to in- 
voke Death at greater length, — but 
checks himself with the refledlion 
that in the dark realm to which he 
is passing he will commune for ever 
with its king. His last words shall 
be spoken to the god whose face he 
shall see no more. 

855 KdK€i]=/cai iv AIlSov. Eur. 
I/er. 594, el yap 'i^ofxev j /cd/cet /xe- 
pifxvas oi Oavo^fxevoi ^porCjv, \ oOk 
oip' owoi Tis Tpi^erat.. Cf. Soph. 
A7tt. 75, TrXeiuv xp^fos \ 8v dei /jl' 
dp^aKeiv ToTs /cctrw tC)v ivddSe 
{i.e. 7] Toij ivOdde). 

858 iraviio-TaTOV Brj.] For St? cf. 
v. 992, c3 Tu>v dirdvTUV 67/ deafxdruv 
...dXyiarov: Thuc. I. 50, vau/xaxla. 
yap aiiTr]...fieyiaT7) 6r; twv irpb iav- 
TTJs iyivcTO. 



w ^67709, eS 7^9 t/ooi' OLKeia'; TriBov 
Xa\afjLLVO<;, w 'irarpMOV ia-rla^ /SadpoVj 
xXeival T ^AOrjvai, koI to crvvTpo(f>ov fyipo^, 
Kprjval T€ TTOTafjLOL & olSe, Kol Ta Tpa)LKa 
TreBla TrpocravBoOy )(^aLper\ w Tpo(t>rj<; ifioi 
TovO* vfxlv Ata9 Toviro^ varaTOV Opoel' 
TO. S' aX}C iv "AiBov ToU Karco fjUvOrjaofiai. 



859 Ipov.] With reference to the 
tutelary gods, iroXiaffovxoi, eyxf^pt- 
ot,— in the case of Salamis, especial- 
ly Zeus, author of the Aeacid line, 
— whose protedlion consecrated it. 
Thus in Homer, Tpoiijs Upov ttto- 
\U6pov, ''Adijvai lepai, iepd. 677/377, 

SoiJi'lOJ' lp6v, K.T.X. 

860 iraTpcSov IcrrCas pdOpov] = 

vaTpi^as icTTiai ^ddpov. In such 
cases the two substantives are to be 
considered as forming a single word : 
e.g. Ant. 794, vdKo%-a.vhpC3v ^\jvaifji.ov: 
Track. 817, 6yKov ...6v6/xaTos...fir)- 
rpt^ov. Cf. V. 8, jzoU. For ^ddpov 
cf. v. 135, note. 

861 KXeivai.] Find. frag. 46, a'i 
re Xitrapal Kal loar^^avoi Kal doldi- 
fioi, 'EXXctSoj l^pcicp-a, nKeival 'Add- 
vai, dai/xdvioy TToXiedpov. Cf. v. 
1 22 1, rds iepds \ 'Ad/jyas: O.C. 108, 
Trao'cDj' 'Adijvai, TifxiuirdTT] irdXis: ib. 
■283, rds ci55of/tovas ' ABiivas: jS"/. 707, 
^Adrjvwv rdv Oeo^p.'qTWV. 

rh <ruvTpo<j)ov ■yevos.] i.e. ol ^AOtj- 
vaioi : cf. v. 202. 

862 KpTJvaC T€, K.T.X.] Cf. V. 4X7. 

Kal Td,...irc8Ca orpocavSw.] Two 
forms of invocation — diredl ad- 
dress by the vocative, and /caXw or 
Trpoaevviirw with the accusative — 
have been mingled throughout the 
speech. In this instance a clause in 
the second form is inserted between 
the vocatives and their verb. Pro- 
bably rk Tpco'i'Kb. ireS/a was first 
meant to be a vocative like the rest ; 
then irpoaavhQ) was added as an im- 
pressive conclusion to the long list 
of things invoked. 

863 Tpo<{n]s.] Cf. V. 420: Ar. 
Thcsni. 299, KoX T-g KovpoTp6(p(f, rfj 
yy: Aesch. T/ied. 472, dapujv rpo- 

(p€ca TrXrjpwcrei x^ovl: id. C/io. 7, 
0^pw 5^ irXoKapiov 'Ivax^^ OpewTri- 
pioy (Orestes bringing the tribute 
of a lock of hair to the river-god 
whose stream had refreshed his 
youth). — For the form Tpo<p-^s cf 
V. 189, /SocrtX^s, note. 

864 A\:as...0po€i.] Cf. V. 98, d)s 
oUttot' a tap 6' oi5' drt/xcto-ova' in. 

©poet.] Cf. V. 67, note. 

6po6t |iv6i^(rop,ai.] The figure 

of speech by which the third per- 
son is substituted for the first was 
used very sparingly by Greek and 
Latin writers, and with a constant 
tendency to revert as soon as pos- 
sible to the diredl mode of expres- 
sion. Cf. //. XXIV. 520, (Achilles to 
Priam — * How hast thou endured to 
come') dvSpbi is 6<p6aX/xov$, 6's rot 
TToXias re kuI iaOXovs \ uie'as e^evd- 
pt|a; O. T. 534, <l>oveij% wv roCSe 
Tdv5pb% ifKpaviSs, | XrjCTTrjST ivapyT]s 
TTJs ifiijs Tvpavvidos: O. C. 284, dXX' 
(Sairep iXa^es rbv Ik^tt^v €xiyyvov,\ 
piov fx € KdK<f)vXa<rae : Dem. de Coron. 
p. 251, o\}ha.p.o\} Arj/xoaOevT] yiypa- 
<p€v, oi)5' aWLav ovS^s^lav Kar^ ip.ov, 

AjAX/a//s upon his sword. — Achil- 
les Tatius (ill. 20. 77) mentions the 
stage-sword used irpos rds Kip8rj\ovs 
a<payds, — ov 6 cridrjpoi els rr]v /cci- 
TTTjv duarpix^i. Hesychiussays: 'Sv- 
(^7^ao■r6J'' Tuv rpayiKWP ti e7X"/>^- 
diop eKaXeiTO, ...rb avvrpexcv iv At- 
avTQs VTTOKpiaet. — Ajax falls in such 
a manner that his prostrate body is 
concealed by the underwood of the 
pd-rros, v. 892. The Scholiast ad 
loc. mentions that the a(5lor Tiojo- 
theus of Zacynthus was especially 
celebrated in this scene, — m c<pa.- 
yia aiWbp KXrjdTjvai. 

^] AlAX. 

ir6vo<; irovG) irovov (pepeu, 
ira ira 

ira 'yap ovic efiav eyw; 
Kouhel'i iirlaTarai iJbe^avjijigS.etv roirofi. '^ 

hovirov av kKvco riva. 



866. [T/z^r Chorus maj^e their 
second entrance (^7ri7rc£po5os) into the 
orchestra in two divisions^ — one by 
the side-entrance (Trdpodos) on the left 
of the spetflators^ as coming from the 
west, — i. e. from the diredlion of the 
Greek camp: the other on the right, 
as coming from the eastward coast.'\ 

866—976. ' Cho. O that some 
sleepless roamer of the coasts, or 
some goddess, or the spirits of some 
far-spreading river, would give me 
tidings of the wanderer who mocks 
my quest ! But whose ciy burst 
from the shelter of that dell? I see 
Tecmessa, overwhelmed with a new 
grief. — Teem. I have found Ajax 
newly-slain, with a sword buried and 
sheathed in his body. — Cho. Alas 
for my blind folly 1 What an end 
hast thou found, unwatched by 
friends ! Where lies the man of ill- 
omened name ? — Teem. He is not to 
be looked on: neither foe nor friend 
shall see the dark blood gushing 
from the self-dealt wound. Would 
that Teucer were here to compose 
the corpse of this his kinsman ! O 
hapless Ajax, how hast thou fallen, 
pitiable even to thy foes!— C7z^. 
Doubtless Odysseus exults in his 
dark soul, and with him the Atrid 
chiefs. — Tec. Then let them exult ; 
it may be that though in life they 
scorned him, they shall bewail him 
dead. Not by their hand, but by 
the will of the gods, has this man 
fallen: he has found the rest he 
craved, and left sorrow to me. — Cho. 
Hush : methinks I hear the voice of 

866 — 878. These verses form 
two strophes and antistrophes, with 

an epode, viz. :— (i) ist strophe, w. 
867 — 869, Tra ttS — ffvixfiaddv Tdiroi: 
(2) 2nd strophe, vv. 873, 4, tI oh> 
Zi\\...viGiv\ {3) epode, vv. 877, 8. — 
V. 866, irhvot irbvi^ vbvov (p^pei, has 
nothing corresponding to it in the 
antistrophe- Hermann calls it a 
irpo({}56s: others suppose the corre- 
sponding line to have been lost. 

866 irovos irovo) irovov.] Cf. 
Aesch, Pers. 1020, 56aiu kukclu KaKQiv 
KaKois : Plato Menex. p. 249 C, irS- 
cav irdvTCjv trapk irdura i7rifi.4\uar 
iroLovfiivri: id. Farm. p. 160 B, ov- 
5ei/i ovSajXTJ o^Sa/cws ovSefilav koivu- 
vlau Ixet: Lucret. I. 814, multimodis 
comtntinia multis Multarum rerum 
in rebus primordia multa (Lobeck 
ad loc). 

869 KouScCs ...TOTTOs.] 'And no 
spot is conscious that I share its se- 
cret :' avfifiadetu, ' that I have learned 
what it has learned.' For <rvfi/xav- 
6d»€iv, in the sense of * learning with 
another,' see Xen. Symp. 2. 21. 
And for iTrl<TTarcd fie <Tvp.p.adeLv, in- 
stead of the usual MararaL fie <rvfi- 
fiadbvTa, cf. El. 616, eS vvv iwlaTta 
tQvB^ fx alax^i'V'^ ^X^"'* — This ver- 
sion appears less strained than Elms- 
ley's, adopted by Hermann -.—ivi- 
aTarai, uiffre fie aufifiadecv, ' so that I 
may learn thoroughly.' Hermann's 
remark that the other view ' a com- 
posito verbo avfiiiadelv erroris ar- 
guitur,' appears to be too strong. It 
is true that * to grasp, comprehend,' 
is the more usual sense of avfifiav- 
ddveiv. But, even if such instances 
as Xen. Symp. 2. 21 were not forth- 
coming, it could scarcely be main- 
tained that the word is incapable of 
meaning ' to learn with another.' 




Tjfiwv ye vao^ KOivoirXovv ofitXiav. 

Tt ovif 8?5; 

irap eaTLpifjTat, irXevpop ecnrepov vewv. 





TTovov ye 7rXr]6o<;, KovBev eh oyfriv ifKeov. 


oKlC ovBe fiev B^ r^v d^ r)\ 
I Kekevdov avrjp ovBafiov Btj'Koi 

872 1](1<0V 7€, K.T.X.] TJflQv ofiiXiav 

= 7)fxds oniXovs. For the double ge- 
nitive, 7//XWJ/ vabso/xiXiav, cf. v. 309, 
no/e: and for the periphrasis, £/. 
1104, ■r]fxu}y Tro6nvT)v Koivdirovv irap- 
ovalay. Aesch. £tim. 517, |ci'OTt>oi/s 
iTTtarpocpas dufiaTiav { = TifjLlovs ^evovs 
dufiara €intjTpe<f>oixtvovs.). 

874 tI ovv 81] ;J The few places 
in the Tragedians where this hiatus 
seems to occur were regarded by 
Porson as probably corrupt : e. g. 
Track. 1203, of/iot irdrep, ri eZTras ; 
old fx dp-^aaai: Phil. 733, 753, ri 
iariv ; 

875 ^X€is o^v;] 'Hast found 
then?' — Schneidewin compares Eur. 
Siippl. 818, (Adrastus:) ?x"5 oZv (sc. 
rb. T^Kva); — XOP. Trrj/xdruv 7' d\is 

876 Kov8^vels84»ivirX^ov.] 'And 
nothing more to see.' — ovoii/ ttX^uv 
(X^ ft's 6'^iv = ovhkv trXiov ?x^ ^ ''''■ 
l\f/otiai. The words could not mean : 
— 'nothing more in respcd to disco- 
very,' — 'in the way of having seen 
anything.' — Schneidewin adopts his 
own coniedlure d$ 6\piv /aoX>. 

877 etXX* ovh\ y.\v 8ij.] A for- 

iov pokwv 
(paveh. ^ 

miila often used in reje<fi;ing the se- 
cdnd of two alternatives or hypo- 
theses: e.g. Track. 11 2 7, HP. 01) 
5^ra, TOiS 76 irpbcdev 7]p.apTT]/x^voi^ : 
(Deianeira does not deserve to be 
spared reproach on the score of her 
J^rmer deeds:) TA. dW ov8^ fxkv 
S'jj Toh 7' ^0' 7]ixipav, neqne vero oh 
hodierna qnidcm fada. 
. ^ 878 K^XcuOov. .^avcCs.] The expres- 
sion in FA. 1274, (piXTdTrjv odbv 0a- 
j'Tjj'ai, is not stridily similar, since 
there 636;' denotes a journey SL6im.\\y 
performed, and odbv (pavTJvai = &<pi^iu 
d<piKea6ai. But here tt]v acp' •^X. 
jSoX. KcXevdov merely denotes the re- 
gion, quarter, in which Ajax was 
expedled to be found. The accusa- 
tive is cognate to the notion oi posi- 
tion in (pavTJuai: cf. Thuc. I. 37, 
(KepKvpa) avTapKTJ 6i<Tiv Keifx^vrj: 
Soph. /Vi/7. 145, TOTTou. . .ovTiua Kcirai: 
Eur. /.A. 141, t^ov Kp-ovas: id. Or. 
1251, <TTr}0^ al ixkv vfxwv topS'' dfui' 
^rjprj T pi^ov, \ al 5' ivddd^ &X\ov ol- 

8T]\ot] = 5'^X6s iffTL. Ant. '20, 
hrfKolt yap Tt koKxcUvovc' evros. 



<rTpo^ a'. 
Tt9 av Brjrd fioi, 7/9 av ^iKoir6v(ov 
aXiaodu C'^^cov afi<f> dvTTPov^ dypa^y 
•^ Tif; ^OXvfJLinaZwv Oedp, rj pvrcov 
'Bo<nropL(op iroTafjuwVy tov atiMoOvjMOV 



879—960. The passage forms a 
Commos (v. 201, note) divisible into 
strophe and antistrophe as follows : — 
(i) strophe, vv. 879 — 914, — Ws hv 
Sijrd fj.oi...8v(T(t)vvfios Alai: {2) anti- 
strophe, vv. 925 — 960, — l/x€\\ei... 
K\6oyTes 'ArpeiSat. — Vv. 915 — 924 
form a parenthesis. 

879 — 914. Lyrical metres of the 
strophe : — 

V. 879. tXs etc drJTa fiol \ rfy dv <f>i- 
\o7roj'aJi/| : dochmiac dimeter : cf. 
vv. 607, 694. 
Vv. 880, r. aXtaSdv ex|w»' avirvoTt 
aypds I : antispast (properly 
- — -) : dochmiac. 
Vv. 882, 3. Tj Tts o\\vfnrTa5\u}v \\ 
deujv ij pvT(j}v\ : da(5lylic dimeter 
hypercatal. : dochmiac. 
Vv. 884, 5. po<nropi\i5v 7roTa/j.\uiv\\ 
TOV w/j.\odvfji,\oi'\\: da6lylic dimeter 
hypercatal. : iambic penthemi- 
V. 886. er 7ro^r(cf. Qixo<ppwv, v. 93 i)l| 
irXd^ofxevov \evaauv \ : cretic : 
dochmiac monometer. 
V. 887. dirvoi I (TxeTXta yap \ : 
cretic dimeter; (the third syllable 
of the 2nd cretic being resolved 
into two short syllables). 
V, 888. tp-e yt TOV jxaKpCov \ aXa- 
Tdv irovCov j : dochmiac dimeter : 
cf. V. 886. 
V. 889. ovpiu) I fiTJ irtXaaai Spo/icDl : 
cretic : dochmiac monometer : 
cf. V. 886. 
V. 890. dXX ap.6V7Jvov dv5p\\a pi.rj\ 
Xevffffeiv I oTrov\ : dochmiac mo- 
nometer : iambic tripodia. 
V. 89 1 . 1(3 pLol fioi I : epitrKtus. 
V. 897. Ti'S'eo-rri'l : bacchius. 
V. 900. dj/ttoi €p.u)v vdcTwv 1 : doch- 
miac monometer : cf. v. 886. 
V. 901. u\fjt,oT KaTclire^ves a»'|d^I 

(cf. v. 947) : da<5lylic trimeter, 
with anacrusis. 
V. 902. Tovbe <Tvv I vavTdv u ra- 
Xds| : cretic ; dochmiac monome- 
V. 903. (J Ta.\ai\<pp6v 7i;»'ar| : 

cretic dimeter. 
V. 905. TLVos I iror op \ e/)$||e x^vl* 
8vcr\fi6pos I : iambic penthemimer; 
iambic tripodia. 
Vv. 909, 10. (J/toi €/xds drds | otoj 
ap aTfxdxOv^ \ a<pdpKTos ^tXur \ : 
dochmiac trimeter. 
Vv. 911, 12. eyu) 5 | rdvT\a II *ccJ- 
tpos I irdvT aXdpliS \\ Acar|'^/ieX| 
Tjad I vd ird\ : iambic penthe- 
mimer : trochaic tripodia with 
Vv. 913, 14. Kerrai | SvaTpatreK] 
OS II dv<r\ii}vvpi.os I Aras | : dadlylic 
dimeter hypercatal. : dadlylic 
dimeter with anacrusis. 
880 dXiaSdv.] 'Children of the 
deep,' — seamen: lit., vdides dXi^wv 
{aXievs, a seaman or fisher). For the 
form, cf. Anf. 940, Qifj^rjs oi Koipavi- 
dai: Eur. Phoen. 833, ovpavi5ai. — 
Such words are fiequent in Comedy, 
<?. g: p.iadapxi5T]S, cirovdapxiSrjs, (rrpa- 
Ti>}vidr]s (Ar. :) — Yik.^ pultiphagonides, 
Plant. Poeii. prol. v. 54. 

883 *0XwfMrid8«v ecav.] The 
'OXu/i7rtd5es Q^aX are the Oreads and 
Dryads of the Mysian Olympus, — 
4 chain belonging chiefly to the N. E. 
region of Mysia, as Ida to the S. W. 
(Cfv. 7 20, ;/^/<r). —The old reading be- 
ing Q^Oiv (and not ^eav), Elmsley pro- 
posed to alter 'OXuyttTrtdSwj' to 'OXufi- 
irtaSwi'. Lobeck objedts that the 
form 'OXu/iTTtdSTjs was never used. 

^ iroTaiAwv.] i' e. ^ tIs {Q^dv) 
troTapiCjv, — some Naiad. Cf v. 189, 
ol /leydXoi /SourtX^s, ^ Tdi...1ia\Mpou 


€L TToOc TrXa^Sfievov Xevaacov 

airvoi ; <T')(iT\ia rydp 

ifii 76 Tov /jLaKpojp akarav ttovcov 

ovpicp jjirj ireKcLGai opo/Jba), 

a)OC d/JLevTjvov avhpa fjurj Xevaaetv oirov. 




Ico flOl flOl. 

7ti'eos (sc. /SofftXeus). — Hermann 
and Lobeck retain after iroTafiCiif 
the word %ts,— first omitted by 
Erdfurdt on the authority of two 
MSS. (Its insertion creates, how- 
ever, the defe(5l of an iambus in 
the corresponding verse of the anti- 
strophe, V. 930.) Lobeck joins tto- 
TUfiuv fSpts, accola fluvioriim (cf. 
(:^ens conscia Nilo) : Hermann places 
a comma after iroTa/iuv. 

885 Bo<nropW.] i.e. flowing into 
the Hellespont, — sometimes desig- 
nated in poetry under the general 
term Bosporus: e. g. Aesch. Fers. 
719, Kal r65' i^eirpa^eu, ware BdarrO' 
pw KK^aai. fiiyav; — alluding to the 
floating bridge carried across the 
Hellespont from Abydos to a point 
near Sestos. 

topi66v|jLov.] Cf. V. 205, note. 

886 €t iroOi.^.Xcvo-o-wv.] Seeing 
him * somewhere ' roaming : lit., 
* seeing him, if anywhere he sees 
him :' — t/s fty, irXa^oiievov Xeiaffcov, — 
e( irodi (Xei5<ro-ei), — d7ri;oi ; Cf. F/u'l. 
1204, ^i<pos, et iroOev, \ fj yivvv ij ^e- 
\4u}v TL TrpoTrifji.\f/aT€ : Plut. Ci'c. c, 8, 
<ru(f»p6v(vs 5i-T]y€, ffirdviov, etrroTe, irpb 
Sv<j!/xu)v ijXiov KaraKXivS/iievo^. 

887 o^erXia.] Plural for singu- 
lar: Thuc. I. 86, ous ou irapadoT^a 
TOLS 'A6r)vaioLS iarivy oii5^ SiKats Kal 
\070ts SiaKpiria, dXXa TifiuiprjTea iu 
rdx^t : and so ddwara, alaxpd, 5et- 
vd, diKatUy 5^Xa, oiiK-dvaax^rd, tti- 
ard, K.T.X. 

888 naKpdJv dXcCrav 'ir6vMv] = 
fiaKpoTTovov dX'QTrjv, — the genitive 

.describing a quality or property of 
the objedl; cf. Xen. Hellen. ill. i. 
14, Ma^'ia ijv iri^v irXiov ^ Ti.rTOLpd-. 

Kovra. (Madvig Synt. § 54 d.) — Lo- 
beck takes aXdrav vovuv zs = TXavi^- 
TTjv irXavrjixdrwu, and compares d- 
6X7]T7}s dywvos (Plato A'<^. IIi.p.403). 
But dXdaOac irdvov would be a 
harsher phrase than dQXuv dyQva. 

889 ovpCw |ti] ireXd<rai 8pd)juo.] 
fXT) ovpii^ SpSfJiU} TreXctcat T(p Afavrt, — 
'cannot come near him with pro- 
spered course.' — Lobeck makes Sp6- 
fi(p the dative governed by ireXdffat, 
* cannot attain (strike into) a pro- 
sperous track.' Pindar's Kpdrei ir4- 
Xaaov {0. I. 1 26), * place me in the 
arms of vi(5lory,' — might be quoted 
for this view : but still TreXdcras hpb- 
fi(p, 'having attained to a (right) 
course,' is a strange expression. — 
Schneidewin, ovpiuv bpbpiwv, go- 
verned by iriXdaai in Lobeck's 
sense: for the genitive, cf. v. 710, 
note. — The metaphor ovplio Bpofxip is 
appropriate in the mouth of the Sa- 
laminian sailors: cf. v. 251, ipia- 
cov(nv: v. 351. 

890 d|j,cvi]vov dvSpa.] 'The sick 
man,' — physically weak from the 
exhausting paroxysms of the dda 
vb<T0Sy and still infirm in mental 
health. — Schneidewin, — deriving d- 
fi€V7]v6s from a and fiivca (instead of 
lxivo%), — paraphrases it by *vagans, 
manum apprehensuri eludens, depre- 
hensu difficilis,' — comparing the ap- 
plication of the word to dreams or 
to shades of the dead. But the no- 
tion of vcKTJuv dfJL€vr]vd Kdprjva, dfie- 
vrjvbv 6v€Lpov is 'unsubstantial' ra- 
ther than 'unstable.' Hermann's 
inorbo debilitatus, — ' unnerved by tl>e 
distemper of frenzy,' — is the true 




T1V09 po^ 'irapavko<; i^e^rj vairov; ; 


TTJv BovplXiTirTov Bvcr/iiopov vvfMcjiTjv ops 
Ti/cfiTjaaav olkto) raJSe (TvyKeKpafievrjv, 

a^coK, oXcoXa, BiaTreTropOrjfMac, (plXoi, 


t p.* if 


Atflt? oS' ^/^tz^ dpTiQ3<i veoacpayrji} 
Kelrai, /cpv^alcp (paayavrp TrepLTrrvxV'^' 


o-irov.] Sc. Ifl-Ttj/ : cf. v. 33, «t?/^. 
892 irdpavXos cl^^i) vctirovs.] 

* Whose cry, sheltered near us (7ra/j- 
avXoi), burst from the wood?' z. e. 

* burst from the covert of the wood 
beside us?'— Cf. O. C 784, o^x i'"' es 
Sofxovs dyyi, | ctW ws TrdpauXoi' 
oUiar]^ (i/x^), i. e. establish me in 
your neighbourhood. If TrapauXos 
vciTroy? were taken together (like 
(TKi^vijs UTTauXos, V, 796), the meaning 
would be— not ' from the covert of 
the wood hard by,' (the sense in- 
tended,) but— 'from a covert hard 
by the wood. ' 

894 8ovpCXt]'jrTOV...vuji.<|>i]V.] Cf. 
V. 211, no/e. — The Ionic form 8ovpl- 
XrjiTTos was admitted by the Trage- 
dians in senarii, — as also SoOpetos, 
{8o6paTa, dovpari occur only in lyric 
passages :) fiovuos often in Sophocles: 
yovvara, O. C. 1607: ^eti/os, (but 
always vietro cogente, except in Eur. 
/. T. 798:) — Kovpos, Kovpr] in lyrics 

895 oiKTO) <TvyKiKpa)Livr]V.'i 

' Steeped in the flow of a new grief.' 
(rvyK€Kpafj.^ur)v = avfifxefiiy/xii^rju, with 
the notion of being steeped, plunged 
in grief. Cf. Ant. 1311, dei\ai(^ 8^ 
(T\)yKiKpafia,L 8vq.: Ar. Fhit. 853, ov- 
Til) 7ro\v(p6p(i} ovyK^Kpaixai, Saifioyi. — 

OLKT(^ T(fi8e, — lit. *in yonder la- 
mentation,' — instead of the more 
usual mode of expression, TiK/Jiijaffav 
TTJV 8 e 6p(2. 

896 SiairciropOTjfiai.] Track. 1 104, 
tu0Xt7S uir' dtTTys iKireirdpOrj/JLai rctXas. 

898 "nixiv.] For the dative cf. 
vv. 39, 216. 

dpritos V€o<r<|)aY»f s. ] 'But this 
moment slain,' — apricot, (='just,') 
serving to give precision to veoa<pa- 
7^s. Track. 11 30, ridvrjKeu dprluis 
veoaipay-qi : Ant. 1283, ridvrjKev dpri 
veoTo/xoLcri ir\-qyna(n.v : Plato Legg. 
p. 792 E, dprius peoyfvris. 

899 Kpu<faCa).] Cf. v. 658. 
'ir€pnrru)(T]s. ] Cf. v. 828, note. 

Virg. Aen. x. 681, An sese mu- 
crone ob tantuin dedecus amens In- 
dnat. — Neither the Chorus, (who 
are in the Orchestra, somewhat be- 
low the level of the stage,) nor the 
spedators, see the corpse of Ajax, 
screened by the underwood amid 
which he had fallen. They only see 
Tecmessa standing over the spot, 
and at v. 915 making the movement 
of covering it with a robe. This ar- 
rangement permits the withdrawal 
of the adlor who had played Ajax, 
and who has now to play Teucer. 




(Ofioif KaTe7r6<l>V6<;, ava^, * 
Tovhe avvvavrav, c5 TaKa<:' 
oj rdkalcppov ywai, 

«9 wSe TovB' €^ovTo<; ald^ecv irdpa, 

rivo^ TTor dp' ep^e %et/Dl hva-jjuopof; ; 



900 voo-Twv.] The Salaminians 
lament the death of Ajax as blight- 
ing their hope of a prosperous return 
to Greece. They have lost the lea- 
der who would have organized that 
return, and with whom they would 
have sailed as a united band. It was, 
indeed, part of Teucer's charge * to 
be kind' to them (v. 689). But he 
could not replace Ajax, — their 'shel- 
ter from fear by night and shafts by 
day' (v. 121 1). Teucer's influence- 
would not suffice to prevent them 
from being drafted into the retinues 
of unfriendly princes, with the pro- 
specTb of a late and straggling return 
to Salamis. — For the plural, cf. El. 
V. 193, oUrph. tikv vocTTOis av5d, — 
* there was a voice of wailing at the 
return (from Troy).' An epic poem 
by Agias of Troezen (circ. 740 B.C.) 
bore the title of l^oaroi, — 'Passages 
in the Return.'— -For the genitive, 
cf. Eur. Here. 1374, of/xot ddfiapros 
Kal TiKVwv, ot/xoi 5' i/xou. 

901 KaTeVc^ves.] Cf. Ant 870, 
6av(jv ?r' oZaav Korrivaph fie : Eur. 
Hi/)/). 838, T7]$ arjs (TTeprjdels ^tXra- 
TTjs ofiiXias, I dirtoXeaas yap fidWov 
fl KaTi<f> 

dvo^.] Compared with the cor- 
responding place of the antistrophe, 
y. 947, ^i.aaC)v idporjaas dvavdov, this 
verse wants a syllable. Hermann sug- 
gested aoy or Kal. He had previously 
conje6lured, Id /mi, &va^, Kariire^ves: 

but recalled it, both because Id) noi is 
somewhat awkward after w/xoi, and 
because, for due emphasis, /care- 
irecpves should precede dva^. — Schnei- 
dewin meets the difficulty by reading 
dvavd' I ?/J7' in the antistrophe. 

904 «s w8€ Tov8* ^x^v'os.] Cf. v. 
281, note. 

905 tCvos, k.t. X.] 'By whose 
hand, then, can the wretched man 
have done it ?' — In his first despair 
Ajax had prayed the Chorus to per- 
form the merciful office of killing 
him: — <r4 roi, ai tol fxovov d^SopKu 
Trr}fXQv(av ?r* &pKos 6vt ' dWd fie 
a-vv8d'C^ov (v. 360). Whom can 
he now have found to grant the re- 
quest at which they had shuddered ? 
— For the aorist ?p|e cf. Aesch. 
Tked.gie,, ip^dTrjp. — Brunck and Lo- 
beck, dp' iirpa^e, — making it neces- 
sary to read virep^ptd^s r65' &x6oi 
(with Brunck) or &yav ye, xi!"re/)^/)t- 
^^s (with Elmsley) in the antistro- 
phe, V. 951. [Schneidewin is pro- 
bably right in thinking that the text 
is faulty, — the idea of diridavev, He- 
aev, — not oHirpa^ev, — being requir- 
ed. He proposed tIvos ttot dp ip^e 
Xelp rb dva/jLopov ; We might con- 
jed^ure : — rivos ttot' dp' eX^e x^'-P^ 
diLKXixopos ; — 'to whose hand has he 
succumbed ?' The d/xevTjvbs dvrip 
(v. 890) would have been an easy 




ai/T09 irpcx; avrov' SrjXov. ev yap 01 yOovX 
wTjKTOv ToS* ey')(o^ irepLirerh Karrjyopel. 


w\ioi €/jLa<; ara?, olo^ dp* alp.aj(67)<;j a<l)ap/CTO<! (fyiXmv 9 10 
eyo) S' 6 TTCLVTa KeD(j)b<;, 6 iravr diBpL^;, KaTTjfieXrjaa, ira ira 
Kelrai 6 ZvarpaireXo^i, Bva-a>vvfio<i Ala?; 

ovroi 6€aT6<;' a\Xd vlv TreptTrrvx^t 
(pdp6i KaXvyfro) raJSe TrafjLwriSrjVj iwel 
ovSeU av, o(TTi<; koX <^tX,09, Tkalrj pKeireiv 


906 €V -Yttp ot X^®*'^ iniKTOV. ] /• ^•. 

vriKTov ol iu x^ov/, * fixed in the 
ground by him. ' For the dative, in- 
stead of the genitive with vtrb, of the 
agent, of. Madvig Sy 77 1. § 38 ^, 
For tV separated from its case x^^^'-^ 
cf. Her. VI. 69, iv yap ere ry pvktI 
ravrri dvaipio/xai. The sword re- 
mained planted in the ground by 
its hilt, (having passed completely 
through the body of Ajax, v. 1025, 
when he threw himself upon it,) 
— thus proving that he had been 
neither assisted in his suicide nor 
murdered. Quin<5lilian {Instit. Or. 
IV. 2. 13, quoted by Schneidewin) 
speaks of a different treatment of 
this subject, by which Teucer was 
made to press the circumstantial 
evidence against Odysseus — inven- 
tum eum in solitiidine iuxta exanime 
corpus inimici cum gladio cruento. 

907 ^Txos.] Cf. v. 95, note. Eu- 
stathius p. 644. 47, 2o0o/cX^s ?7Xos 
Tre/JiTrer^s elweiif iTdXfirja-ev, y Tre- 
piv^TTTcjKeu Atas. Lobeck quotes Ae- 
lian //is/. Anim. XV. c. 10, dyKiarpa 
nepLTrayiuTa Toicrtv Ixdixn, — i.c.irepi- 
Tay^yras ^x'^'^°- "'"'"^^ IxOvo-s: Chry- 
sostom 0/>p. T. III. p. 85 A, iavT(fi rb 
$i4)os TrepJrreipe, 'he spitted his sword 
in his body,' i. e. ' made his sword a 
spit for his body.' — Musgrave, vepi.- 

K(x.rr\>iopil.] Arguii, AescK Ag. 
162, ed yap (ppovovvTos 6fifia <tov Kar- 

909 olos] = ot'a>s.— Lobeck, Schnei- 
dewin, and others, olos. 

910 d<j>apKTos ^iXoiv.] For thev 
genitive cf. v. 321, note. — &<papKTOs, 
the older Attic form for &(ppaKTos. In 
Anf. 958 Dindorf gives KaTd<papKTos, 
and in Ar. Ac/i. 95, va6<papKT0iy * ut 
(veterum) Atticorum mos postulat.' 

911 6 iravra ku>(}>6s.] 'The all- 
fatuous.' Cf. v. 1415, T<p Trd^r' 070- 
6(p : O.T. 1 196, Tov TrdvT^ evSalfxovoi 
dX^ov. — K(t)4>6s (Kdrrru)), properly 
'obtuse:' cf. Pind. P. ix. i5i,/cw^6s 
dvTjp Tis, 6s 'HpaxXei ardfia p.^ irapa- 
/SctXXet, 'a (/////man is he, who lends 
not his lips to the praise of Hera- 
cles.' The Chorus now take them- 
selves to task for not having divined 
the true significance of the hero's 
farewell words (vv. 646—692). 

913 Svo-rpdireXos.] 'Froward,' — 
difficult to manage : cf. v. 609, 5i;<r- 
depd-rrevTos : and v. 594, pt,Cipd pLoi 
doKeis <f>povHv, I el Tovixbv rjdos Apri 
iraibeveu/ voeis. — (In //. XXI II. 484, 
whence Schneidewin quotes 1*605 
dirrjv-^s, it is the Locrian, not the 
Telamonian Ajax, who is in question. ) 

8v(r(avv|X0S>] Cf. vv. 430 ff. 

917 ooTTis Kttl <|>£Xos.] 'Though 
he should be a friend.' Brunck sug- 

124 5:0$0KAE0TS 

<j>v<7-(0VT avco 7rp09 ptva<; €K re (j)OLvla<; 
irXrjyrjf; /meXavdev alfi anr olKeim (T<j)ayr]<;. 
oifioi, TL Bpda-o)', TL<^ ae ^aarrdcreL ^lXojv; 
irov TevKpo^i; tw9 aKfial 'av, el fialrj, fJuoXoc, 
TreTFTcoT dSe\(f>ou rovBe orvyKadapfJuoaaL 
w hvafxop Ata?, olo<^ wv otct)? e%ei9, 
0)9 KoX irap ixOpol^ a^LO<i dprjvcov T\r)(dv, 



gested Koi) <pl\os: but, as Lobeck 
points out, Kai is right: — * quid enim 
miserabilius eo, cuius aspedlum ne 
amici quidem ferre possunt ?' 

918 4)v<rft»VTa...o-4)aYrjs.] 'Spirt- 
ing up, at nostril and from red gash, 
the darkened blood from the self- 
dealt wound.' — dvo), from the deep 
wound to the surface: cf. v. 1411, ?rt 
yhp depnal \ cipL-yye^ dvu (pva-Qai jxi- 
\av\pLevos. — Tpbs pLvas, lit., 'forcing 
the blood up fo the nostrils.' — oUei- 
OS, self-infli(5led: cf. v. 260, no^e, 

920 Pao-rdo-ei.] Cf. v. 827, nofe. 

921 {os...(Ji6\oi.] 'For he would 
arrive seasonably, if he came.'— ei 
^alr], — 'if he came,' — /, e. 'if he 
were to come,' — Tecmessa having 
sent for Teucer, but being uncer- 
tain when he may arrive. [The 
emendation'' &v, adopted by 
Dindorf, was proposed (as a conjec- 
ture) by both Hermann and Porson. 
—But the old reading aK/xatos, sup- 
ported by the MS S., is retained in 
the editions of Hermann, Lobeck, 
Schneidewin, and others. With clk- 
jxcuos, translate still as above: — ' For 
he would arrive in season, if he 
came,' — ixoXoi standing for nb\oi &v. 
This usage, denied by Hermann, 
can be supported from Homer, Pin- 
dar, Theocritus, Moschus (see Do- 
naldson Gram. § 513); and appears 
consonant with the essential idea of 
the optative mood, — that of abstradl 
possibility. The words tbs d/f/^atos, 
el pair}, fioXoi, have been translated 
in three other ways: — (i) Hermann: 
— ' nam (ws) iitinam^ si vejiiat, tem- 
pori veniat,^ — making ws= ' for,' and 
p.b\oi — ' may he come !' — (2) Schnei- 
dewin: — 'would that (ws) he might 

come in time, since he is coming,'' — 
el (ialfj standing for el ^^alvei by a 
sort of attradlion to the optative fib- 
Xoi : but this seems impossible.— 
(3) Elmsley:— 'Would that (ws) he 
might come in time, if/ic is coming 
at allf^ — a sense which cannot be 
got out of the optative ei ^air].] 

922 (n)-yKa6app.da-ai.] 'To com- 
pose' the corpse. The word in- 
cludes all the preliminaries to the 
Trpbdeais, or laying out of the dead ; 
— the decorous adjustment of the 
limbs, the washing, anointing, and 
dressing of the corpse. These offices 
were usually denoted by irepiaTiX- 
\eiv : Od. XXIV. 292, ovU i ix-qr-qp | 
AcXauo-e wepicTTelXaaa irar-qp d\ o'l fiiv 
reKofiea-Oa: Ovid M. IX. 503, per- 
eam, precor, ante, toroque Mortua 
componar.— For the infinitive de- 
pending on the notion oi fitness in 
the adverb aK/xaia, cf. Plato Symp. 
p. 173B, 656s eTnT7]5ela Kal XeyeLv Kai 
aKovcai: Madvig Synt. § 150 ^. 

923 ol'ws.] A rare form of the ad- 
verb (usually olov or oXa), but found 
in Phil. 1007, ol'ws /a' inrTJXdes : Ar. 
Vesp. 1363, tv' avTov Tcoddaci} ... o'icos 
TTo^' ouTos ifi4. — Schneidewin pro- 
poses otuv Kvpeh. 

924 tus a|tos...TVX6iv.] Lit., 'as 
(being) worthy, even in the sight of 
foes, to evoke laments:' '(How is 
the mighty fallen !) — so low, as even 
in the sight of foes to claim the meed 
of sorrow.' If d^tws could replace 
A^tos, cos would naturally mean wVre, 
'so as worthily to evoke grief,' &c. 
But ws (for ciVre) d|ios {elvai) tv- 
Xeiv would be too harsh an ellipse. 
— For Tra/)' ix^pol%, cf. v. 620, 



€fieW€<;, raXa?, e/i-eXXe? ypovw 
aTepe6j)p(i3v dp cwS' e^avvaeiv KaKov 
\iolpav dTrecpeaicov ttovcov, rold fxoc 
'Trdvvv)(a kol (paidovr dp6(TT6Pa^e<; 
(jdfioc^pwv i'^OoBoTT 'Arpe/Sat? 
ov\l(p avv irddeL. 

fieya<; dp* tjv eKelvo'^ dp'^cov ')(p6vo<i 
TTrjfjbdToav, rjfjLO^ dpLaT&)(eLp 
-%■ * * * oifkoiv €KecT dywv irepi. I 


loj jJLOL flOi. 

%a;pet TTyoo? Tjirap, olBaj yevi/aia Bvrj. 



925 XP'^V'P-] '-^t last,' — hinting 
at an interval of some length be- 
tween the award of the arms and 
tlie catastrophe of Ajax. Cf. vv. 
1356, 7, where the tone of the pas- 
sage suggests a like inference. 

926 dpa.] ('I see it now.') Track. 
iiyr, K6.hbKovv irpd^eiu koXws' | t6 
5' ■^v &p^ ovdh dWo TrXrjv 6aveiv ifxL 

929 Tota.] Cf. V. 164, note. 

930 irdvvux* Kai <})(U0ovt*.] 
'Through the hours of darkness, and 
in the light.' Cf. v. 217, v^Krepos 
ATos direXw^ridr] : 11. I. 497, i\^p[-i] V 
auiprj ixiyav ovpavbv (G^rts), — in- 
stead of rtpL, 'early.' — The imper- 

I fedl dfea-T^va^es, — as well as the ex- 

j pression xP^^Vi v. 925, — shews that 

I the meaning must not be confined 

[ to complaints uttered by Ajax in the 

interval between his madness and 

his death. He had formed a habit 

of complaining against the Atreidae. 

931 «n6(J>pwv.] Cf. vv. -205, 547, 

932 irdOei.] 'Passion,' — a very 
rare sense for vados before Plato: 
but cf. Mi/. 897, NE. oi/K old' 6vol 

XP^ T&TOpOV TpixeiV ItTOS. #. dTTO- 

pets 6^ ToO at5; /ttrj X^7', w t^kvov, 
TdSe. — NE. oXX' ivddb' IjSr] rovde 

rod irddovs Kvpu, — *nay,Iameven 
thus deep in the feeling (of diropia).'' 
Thuc. III. 84, 5{d irddovs, 'passion- 
ately;' (but the genuineness of the 
chapter is questioned by Goeller 
and others.) 

934 |i.4Yas...ifv...fipx«v.] Her. 
IX. 91, troWbs 7jv Xia<r6/x€vos, multus 
erat in precando. The participle dp- 
Xwv is virtually a substantive, — kKd- 
VQ% x/"^''<'S li^ydXyj dpxv irr]p.dT(av rjv. 
— Cf. Thuc. II. 12, TJSe 7} 7]/x^pa tols 
"EXXrjai /xeydXuv KaKuip dp^ei. 

935 dpwTTOxeip a-ywv.] Cf. £/. 
699, w/ci^TToi's dyii}v : Phil. 207, aySd 
rpvadvujp: O.C. {>ifi<}>dpfiaToi, dfxCXXai. 
— 'Adje(5liva a superlativo compo- 
sita Latinus sermo respuit, poetae 
Graeci frequentant : — dpiarbToXis, 
fieyiardTifios, TrXeiarb/iPpoTOiy irXet- 
<XT6(popos' {Lobeck). 

936 6irXo>v.] Compared with the 
strophe, v. 890, this verse is defec- 
tive in syllables corresponding with 
dXXa/xevrjv | . Musgrave, with Her- 
mann's approval, proposed xpv<^o5^- 
Twv (as Homer says of the arms 
of Achilles, — xpmb^ ydp ipOKUKC, 
Sw/ja dedio.) — Thiersch, oiiXofxivuv. — 
Brunck (after Triclinius), 'AxtXX^ws 
(contra metrum). 

126 20<1>0KAE0TS [939 

1(6 fiol fWL 

ovBiv (T airicTTW koX St? olfico^ai, yvvaiy 94O 

roiovB' d7ro^\a(j)6eL<rav apTLco<; (plXov. 

aol fiev hoicelv Tavr ear, ifiol 5' ar/av ^povelv. 


OL/jLotf TeKvov, 7r/309 ola 8ov\€ui<; ^vja 
'^copovfieVf oloL vu>v icpearaac (tkottoL 945 

wfxoL^ avaXyr}7(cv 
Blcccov e6p6r)(ra<; avavBov 
epyov ^ArpeiBav rwS* a')(ei. 

938 irpos T^irap.] Sc. rb cbv. 

940 Kal 8£s.] Cf. V. 432. 

941 d'7ropXa<j>6€t<rav.] 'Reft of...* 
The verb ^Xdirretv, — properly *to 
lay hold upon,' 'arrest,' — may take 
a genitive of that from which a per- 
son so arrested is cut off: ^.^. Aesch. 
A^. iig (XayCjv) ^Xafiivra \oicr6iuv 
opdfiuv, * checked from its swiftness 
for ever:' Tyrtaeus 12. 39, aaroTai 
lieTairp^irei, oihi tls airop | /SXct- 
vreiv qHt' aldovs oUre BIktjs e- 

942 <rol (1.6V SoKctv, K.T.X.] "Tis 
for thee to imagine these things,— 
for me, to feel them but too sorely,' 
— replies Tecmessa in her bitterness, 
— 5oK€Lv referring to the sympathe- 
tic expressions of the Chorus, — oTSo, 

OvSkv dTTiCTTo). 

944 8ovX€£astvYa.] She reverts to 
the fears which she had before ex- 
pressed to Ajax (vv. 496 ff.), and 
which he had endeavoured to allay 
(vv. 560 ff.) — See V. 498, no^e. 

945 oloi] = 6ti TototSe. Cf. //. 
XVI n. 262, ofos iKcivov dvfibs iir^p- 

^t^ae eius est atrocitas, nolet, &c. 

o-KoiroC] 'Jealous masters ' — (5c(t- 
7r6rai, v. 500) — who will prove ri- 
gorous and exad^ing overseers of our 
servile tasks (Xarpe/ay, v. 503). The 
word (TKoirbs often = 'ruler,' * guar- 
dian,' in a good sense: e.£: Pindar 
(O. VI. 101) calls Apollo To^o(}>bpov 
AdXou deodfxaTas OKOirbv. But the 
notion o{ jealotu supervision comes 
out in Aesch. Suppl. 374, rbv vxpbOev 
CKOirbv iiriaKbTrei, \ cpijXaKa iroXvirbvuv 
[3poT(Ji}V...fJi.iv€i Toi Zr]vbi 'I/craiou Kb- 


946 co'jioi, avaXyn'Twv, k.t.X.] *In 

this afflidion (rySe &xei, lit. ' djf 
this afflidlion,' 'by the mention of 
this afflidion' of dovXeia) 'thou hast 
named an adl of the twa Atreidae 
that is not to be spoken of, — that 
makes them ruthless ;' dvaXyi^TbiP 
being a predicate, — 'the Atreidae of 
whom you mention such a deed are 
ruthless' — 'your supposition makes 
them ruthless.' 

948 T«8' d'xci.] This difficult 
dative admits of three explanations: 
(i) 'by' (or 'in') 'the mention of this 

954] AIA2. 127 

a\\' oTrelpyoi. Oeo^. 

ovK av ra^ ecrrrj Trj^e fir) 6ewv fiera. 950 

ayav v'jr€pl3pide<; a^do<; rjvvaav. 

TOtovBe fievTOi Zrjvb^ rj Beivrj ^eo? . 

naWa9 <i>VTeveL irTJfi '05ua-<7€a)9 %4^2a?* -^.- Z-^* ^.- 7 ' 


r/ pa KeXaLvooTrav Ovfibv i<l)v^pL^€i TToXvrKaf; avrjp, 954 

sorrow :' — r<fS€ fix^'» Ti^Se Tipl 5ou- 
Xet'as X67y, idpb-qcas &vav5ov ipyov. 
I'his view, accepted by Schneidewin, 
eems on the whole the least unsa- 
tisfadlory. — (2) *In our present trou- 
ble, ' Schol. (eV) ttJ irapovari cvjx- 
rpopq., — the words r^pSe S-x^i- going 
' losely with &vavhov, — *an act not 
:<) be breathed of in our present sor- 
low.' — (3) *in this lament of yours,* 
— T<p5e &xeL being equivalent to Iv 
T(^8e dpT^vif), and going with idp6- 

950 TctSc TYJSc] Cf. Aesch. 

/*. y, 5x9, oi) ravra raiJTr] 'M.otpd 
rru Te\€a(p6pos \ Kpavai viTrpuTai. 

|jtT] 0€«v fwra.] deQv firj jxera- 
ffXovTuv, nisi diis interadentibus : cf. 
Xen. Cyr. iii. i. 16, rl xp^jo-atr' dv 
Tts IffX^PV ^ &u5pei(fi, fjLr] cdicppovt ; 
O. T. 1457, oy 701/3 fi;/ ttotc | ^i/'^- 
(SKbiv iaudrjv, fir) eiri ry Seivt^ KaK<^. 

951 d-yav.] Hermann and Lo- 
beck give &yav 7'. On Brunck's 
4701' 6' Hermann remarks that it 
suits the view which makes ol 'Arpei- 
5at, not 6€ol, the subjedl to ijvvaav : 
— ' esto ut id diis au(5loribus fecerint ; 
af nimis grave malum effedlum de- 
derunt.' — Cf. v. 905, note. 

952 jx^vToi.] 'However,' — al- 
though, as you say, it is vir^p- 


Z-qvis "H 8€tvi] Oeos.] * (the daugh- 
ter of) Zeus, the terrible goddess.' 
Cf. Ant. 825, rh> ^pvyiav ^^vav, — 
TavraXov (daughter of Tantalus). 
Cf. V. 172, Aids "Apre/iis, note. — The 
case is different when the article 
agreeing with the subje(5l precedes 
rtie genitive, as in v. 401, d Aids, dX- 
Kifia $€6$: v. 450, i) Ai6s, yopyQxis 
dddfxaTOS ded. 

953 <j)VT€ii€t.] 'Engenders.' Cf. 
£/. 191, 0€iudv deLVios irpocpvTeij- 
<ravT€s I fxop4>dv, (Passion and Guile) 
having bodied forth a ghastly form 
(of crime) : O. T. 347, tadi yap 5ok<3v 
ifjLol I fJLT] ^vfJL(pvT€V(Tai ToCpyou, — 
* know that I hold thee to be more 
than an accomplice in the deed. ' 

irijiia,] The madness infli(5led 
by Athene (vv.401, 757) and result- 
ing in the death of Ajax. 

954 7^ pa.] Cf v.^ 1 77, note. 
KcXaivftiirav 0v(i6v l<|>vPp£tet.] 

'Exults in his saturnine soul:' 6m- 
ix6v, accus. of the part affedled, 
(Madvig Synt. § 31 a.)— Schneide- 
win: 'Exults over the troubled 

(deranged) mind of Ajax,'— quoting 
Eur. Heracl. 947 for i(pv^pii€iv go- 
verning the accus. But this is clearly 

KcXaivwirav. ] (i) Sense. — 'Sa- 
turnine, ' — with the notion of gloomy, 

128 :S04>OKAEOT2 [95c 

yeka Be roccrBe fiatvofievoi^; a')(ecnv irokvv yiXwra, <^ei), (fyev, 
^vv T6 BcTrXol fiacriXrjs k\vovt6<; 'ATpelBau 96c 

ol 8* ovv yeXcovTcov Ka'iTL')(aip6vTcov KaKol<i 
Tot9 TovB\ iVo)? TOL, Kei fiXeTTOVTa firj ^ttoOovv, 
OavbvT av olixd^^eiav eV %/3e/a Bopo^. 
ol yap KUKol yvcofiaKTi, rdyadov ')(^epoiu 
e^oi/T69 ovK Lcraat, irplv ti<; iKJSaXy. 965 

ifiol 7riKp6<; redvqKev rj k6lvol<; yXvKv<;, ^ 

avT^ Be repiTvo^. wv yap T/jpaaOrj rv^^elv ^ Z^'^/'*' 
efCT^aaO^ avrS, Oavarov ovirep rjdeXev, 
tI Bfjra TOvS' iireyyeX^ev av Kara ; 

sullen malevolence peering from its 
place of espial and gloating over its 
success. Cf. V. 377 (of Odysseus), 
l(ji trdvd^ opQv, aTrdvTWv t' dei | Ka- 
Kcov 6pyavov: Phil. 1013 (Philodle- 
tes to Odysseus), dW ^ KaKrj ct] dia 
livx^v jSX^TTOucr' ael \ \pvxn vlv... 
et) Trpov5ida^€v. It is true that such 
compounds as Ke\aivuirr]$ were some- 
times merely synonyms for the sim- 
ple adje6live, — e. ^. Phil, 216, T17- 
XwTTos l(j)i]\ Ti'ach. 1050, SoXcSttis 
Kftpti. But it can scarcely be doubt- 
ed that keen, watchful espionage 
upon enemies — so marked a charac- 
teristic of the Sophoclean Odysseus 
— Is intended by KeXaiyJjTrrjs 6v/x6s. — 
(2) Form. Lobeck shews that com- 
pounds of wi/' admit five forms, — 
e.g. aripox}/, otuuyj/, KVvdjTnjs, At<xu- 

ttoXvtXxis avTJp.] 'The patient 
hero,' — a bitter allusion to the pa- 
tient malignity of Odysseus, who 
knew so well how to work and wait. 

958 yfXq. hi dxetriv.] Cf. v. 

382. — For the dative, cf. Eur. Tro. 
406, KaKoifftv oIkcIois yeXq^s. So x^^ 
peiv, "qbeaOai, dyairav, k.t.X. 

959 t"'v T€.] Cf. V. 1288, S5' ijv 
6 irpdacruv ravra, ci)V S' ^70; irapdiv : 
Ant. 85, Kpv(p7] Si KeOde, ci/v 5' aurws 

Pao-iXTJs.] Cf. V. 189, note. 

961 ol 8' ovv.] Cf. V. 114, note. 

962 Kcl.] Cf. V. 563, note. 

963 ev xpeiqi 8op6s.] * In the 
straits of war.' Cf. v. 1275, ^j' Tpoirfi 
5op&i. — Not : — * in need of >^/j- spear,' 
(Schneidewin:) — nor: — *in the mat- 
ter of the spear' (Musgrave). 

964 01 ■yctp KaKof, K.T.X.] Hor, 
Od. III. 24. 31, Virttitem incoliitnem 
odimus, Stiklatam ex oculis qiiaeri- 
musitividi: Menandri/nz^. (in Bach's 
Mimnermus, p. 52), h^KvoX dp8pi 
'TdvTes efffJih cu/cXce? | l^uvTi <p6oyrj- 
crat, KorOavovTa 5' aiviffai. 

965 TrpCv Tis ckPciXt).] Sc. X"/"2»', 
' until one strike it out of their hands.' 
Cf. Od. II. 396, TrXd^e 5^ irivovras, 
X^i-p(2v 5' ^K^aWe KvireWa. — Others 
render, 'until one lose it,' — eK^dXrj 
Tij being substituted for iK^dXcocriv. 
But iK^dXXeiv ti could not mean, like 
diro^dXXuv, iadluratn facere rei. In 
Ant. 648, p.-i] vvi'...(/>p4va^...yvt'aiKbt 
ovvek' iK^dXrjs, the sense is — (not 
* lose your reason,' but) — 'drive out, 
expel reason' — 'refuse to hear the 
pleadings of your better judgment.' 
In Ar. £q. 404, eiOe 0au\ws, iSa-irep 
evpes, iK^dXois rT]v iydeaiv, — iK^dr 
Xots = (not ' lose, ' but) ' disgorge. ' 

966 '^.] i. e. fiaXXov ij. Cf. //. 
II. 117, j8oi;Xo/i' eyu Xabv abov ^/xfievai 
17 diroXeadai : Her. IX. 26, ovtu odv 
r}fids dlKaiov ^xf* '''^ 'irepov Kipas 

ijirep 'Adrjvalovs. (Schneidewin, 

with Eustathius, y, — /. e. ' even as.') 

969 lircyyeX^v.] In this line, 
the 'penthemimeral' caesura, — i.e. 



OeoL'i riOvTjKev ovto<;, ov KeivoLcnv, ov. 
7rpo9 ravr ^OBvaaeix; iv Kevol^i vfipi^erco. 
Aia? yap avroU ovk6t iarlvj dXX i^iol 
Xiirwv dvia<i fcal yoov*; Scol'^^^eTaL. 




aiy7](Tov. avBrjv yap Bokw TevKpov KXveiv 
(3ooovTo<; iiT7]<; r^crS' eirlaKOTrov fieXo^. 


ttie caesura dividing the third foot, — 
is wanting. (Cf. v. 1091.) Porson 
{Sicpplem. ad Praefat. p. xxviii.) pro- 
posed to remedy the defe6l by read- 
ing ToC5^ 7' iyyekQev, and compares 
O. C. 1339, KOiP^ Kad^ ij/xuv iyyeXuv 

970 Ocois.] 'By the sentence of 
the gods:' literally, 'in relation to 
the gods.' The force of the dative 
is to express that the death of Ajax 
is something between himself and 
the gods, — something in which his 
human enemies have neither part nor 
lot. The unjust award of the arms, 
which was the proximate cause of 
his death, was but part of a scheme 
of divine vengeance. Thus in the 
Odyssey (xi. 547) Athene is spoken 
of as accessory to the verdidl, — irai- 
Ses 5^ Tpciw*/ diKacraf Kal IlaXXds 'A- 
6-^v7j. — The words in £1. 1152, ri- 
dv-qK* iyd} (Toi, ' I am dead in all my 
relations to you,' — shew the dative 
in a different modification of the 
same sense. 

971 €v K€vois.] 'With empty 
taunts, ' — lit. , ' amid empty things, ' 
— i. e. in a case which affords no 
substantial matter of triumph. For 
the neuter plural, cf O. T. 287, ctXX' 
OVK iv dpyols oid^ tovt^ iirpa^dfxrjp, 
lit., 'Not even this have I made to 
be among things unperformed,' — /. e. 
' This too I have been careful not to 
leave undone:' Xen. Anab. vii. 6. 
\\y kv CLTrdpoii etuai. 

972 Alas -ydp, k. t. X.] The 
enemies of Ajax have no cause to 


exult. For (ydp) 'they have Ajax 
no longer' — his death means, for 
them, not a purpose accomplished, 
but simply a loss sustained. 

d\Xd... 8 10 iX£Tai.] There is no 
real antithesis between avrols and 
efxol, — between the state of the Greek 
chiefs, bereft of Ajax, and the state 
of Tecmessa, to whom he had be- 
queathed sorrow. For both parties 
his death was a misfortune. 'AXXd 
does not contrast airrois with ifioi, 
but ^t' ia-rlv with Sioix^Tai. ' He is 
with them no longer, luf has passed 
away, — leaving anguish and lamen- 
tation' (she adds) 'to me.' 

973. £xi^ Tecmessa, djy the 
side door on the spectator s"" right. 
(She goes to seek Eurysaces, left be- 
hind at the tent, v. 809, and re 
appears at v. T168, but only as a 
K(3(pov irpbaujirov.) — Teucer's voice 
is heard behind the sceties. 

975 o-C-ytio-ov.] The Coryphaeus 
addresses his fellow choreutae. 

976 lirCo-KOirov.] ' A strain respec- 
tive of this woe.'— ^Tr/cr/coTTOj', ' con- 
templating,' ' having regard to ' (this 
woe) : cf. Aesch. Eum. 862, XO. ri 
ovv IX dpuyas t^5' iipu/xprjaai x^oi*^ ; 
— A0. OTTota vIktjs /x^ kuktjs iiriffKO- 
TTo, ' such prayers as have in view 
no dishonourable vi<flory:' id. Cho. 
119, eiJxois iraTpcfjup dwfjidTcov iiriaKb- 
irovs, ' prayers which have reference 
to my father's house.' — Others un- 
derstand : — ' a strain on the mark of 
this woe,' — i.e. 'which hits the point 
of it;' — and so the Schojiast, ovx 





ap •q^TToK'qKd a coawep r) (pdri^ Kparel', 

oSxoXev dvrjp, Tev/cpe, tout iTriaToao, 

wfioi Papeta^ apa rrjq e//.^9 tv^t??. 


i]fiapTT]Kbi TTJs ffvfi^opas, dX\' e<XTo- 
Xao-fJiifoy. Cf. Her. III. 35, iirlaKO- 
tra To^eijetv, * to shoot on the mark.' 
Lobeck quotes ro^drrjs eiriffKotros 
from Himerius, and oi'croi iirtcrKoiroc 
from Themistius (both writers of the 
4th cent. A. D.). But the former view 
is clearly preferable. 

£nfer Teucer, zuitA Attendants, 
at the side door on the spetflators* left, 
from the Greek camp. — (Cf. v. 719, 
note) — Vv. 977 — 1046. Teiicer. 
'Alas, Ajax, is it even as I have 
heard ? O cruel and sudden blow ! 
— Cho. Yea, Teucer, — too cruel. — 
Teu. Woe is me — and where is this 
man's son ? — Cho. Alone, beside the 
tent. — Teu. Bring him hither, lest 
some enemy snatch the dead lion's 
whelp. Over the dead all love to 
triumph. O sight of all sights that 
I have looked on, most grievous ! 
O most painful tidings that brought 
me hither, to find yet sharper pain ! 
O rash in thy death, what sorrow 
hast thou left me ! How shall I 
meet Telamon's reproaches, and the 
anger that will drive me into exile ? 
How withstand my foes at Troy? 
Strange fate — that thou shouldest 
have perished by Hedlor's gift, as 
he by thine ! — Cho^ Bethink thee 
how to bury the man, and what to 
say anon : for Menelaus draws near 
in evil triumph.' 

977 |vvai|iov 6'|X|ia.] 'Form of my 
kinsman.' Cf. v. 1004: Aesch. Cho. 
730 (Ele(5lra to Orestes), w r^p-Kvhv 
hfxfxa (others, bvofxa) : Soph. Phil. 
171, i<ivTpo<pov dl/i/ia, ' the form of a 

companion:' Ei. 203, ^^tjdt^ Sfi/xa, 
' familiar image ' (of Orestes). — In 
Eur. Or. 1082, Ifec. 435, dvo/ia for 
6fifxa is now usually read (with Per- 

978 TJixiroXfiKct 0-6.] ' Have I found 
thee in such a plight as rumour 
noises?' If rj/xiroXijKd ae is read, 
the sense must be, 'got thee,' 'had 
thee restored to me:' — not 'betray- 
ed thee,' as others render, — a sense 
which the word would not bear, 
and to which the 0drts did not 
point. — But there can be no ques- 
tion that r]fj.ir6\r)Ka$, the reading 
of Hermann, Lobeck, Schneidewin, 
Wunder, and of Dindorf in his edi- 
tion of 1832, — is far preferable. 
7]fnr6\r]Kai — iriirpayas, ' hast thou 
fared ?' Cf. Hippocr. de Morb. IV. 
12. p. 608, ^v Kpark-Q fjla tCjv SXKoiv 
iKfias, KaWiov i/xvoX'^aei 6 Av- 
dpuiros, 'the patient will find him- 
self better:' Aesch. jEum. 601, ijfi- 
TrdXrjKtos ra TrXeiora, 'having had 
the most glorious success.' ipLirokav, 
— 'to buy,' — to make a bargain, 
good or bad, in the traffic of Vanity 
Fair : to profit or to lose. The me- 
taphor is brought out in Trach. 537: 
— Tapeadideyfiai, (pbpjov cSffTe vavrt- 
Xos, I 'Kw^-qTov iiMTTokriixa ttJs efiTJi 
(f>pevbs, — 'a bargain ruinous to my 
peace' — (Deianira speaking of lole's 
introdudlion into her home). 

980 &pa.] This passage, and El. 
1 1 79, oXfioL ToKaLvfjs apa rriabe cvfi- 
(popas, — disprove Hermann's view 
{praefat. ad O. C.) that apa is al- 
ways an ' exdamatoria interrogaUo* 


AIA^. . 

W9 w3' 





€70), Ta\a9. 



o) irepiaTrep'^e^ 7rd6o<;. 

r/yaz/ 76, TevKpe. 

^ei) ToXa^. tl fydp TGKvoif 
TO TOvSe, TTOV fioc yrj(; Kvpel Trj<^ TpwaSo? ; 

iiovo^ irapd aKrjvalcnv, 

oi5^ oaov Tdy^o<; 985 

orjT avTov d^6L<i Sevpo, fjirj tl<^ co? Kevrj^ 

JN-ather, as Ellendt says, apa is some- 985 |x6vos Trapd <rKT]vaioriv. ] 

limes merely a stronger fipa, in ex- Where Tecmessa had left him when, 

prcssions of indignation or surprise. on receiving the message of Teucer, 

981 «s toS* €XovT<ov.] Cf. V. 281, she had gone in search of Ajax, v. 
itok'. 809. — For T^Kvov — fiovos, cf. Eur. 

982 Trepi<nr€px,«'s.] ' O fierce, sud- Andr. 570, riKvov re tqv5\ 6v oi- 
(len blow.' The notions of 'vehe- 8iu atriov \ fji4X\ovai...KT€V€Lu. Ho- 
ment' and 'sudden' are combined mer (7/. XXII. 84) has even <piXe 
in TrepKnrepxvSy — the vddos being t^kvou. 

^ro^cxly sudden, A]^.xvekeme7it. a. 986 Stjt.] 'Then' — ' if that is 

Eustathius p. 442. 9, dcxTrepx^s, the case' — expressing some impa- 

('hotly,' Horn.) to it oXva-Kovha.- tience. The position of S^ra at the 

CTov, 8 irepccrirepx^s X^yei 6 So- beginning of the verse is peculiar: 

00/cXtjs. Plut. de Disa: Aviic. but cf. Ar. Niib. 399, koX TrQs...etir€p 

C. 24, TTiKpos Kal aTTapaiTTjTOi Kul ^ctXXet rods iTriSpKOvs, \ drjT^ ovx^ S/- 

Treptairepxris. ixujv iviirp-qcrev, Soph. C>. 7^ 1085, oiiK 

983 Tl •yap...'iroO Kvpet;] Cf. v. dv ^^A0oi/a' ^rt j ttot' fiXXos: ^/'.loSg, 
loi, Ti -yap Stj Trats 6 rod Aaepriou,] Sttws | /atj Tbvbe OdiTTWv (where the 
—TTOV (TOL Tvxv^ ^o-r7)K€u; /%//. 421, closcly cohcriug particles, 6iru}$-fMT^, 
tL S', 6j TraXatos KayaOos ^tXos r' ^- are divided). 

fibs, I Neo-Twp 6 Ili^Xtoj, — fffTtv; oJs K€vfjs, k. t. X.] 'As a whelp 

984 jioi.] Cf. v. 39. from a lioness robbed of young.* 



(TKVixvov 'ksaivr}<; Bva/jbevoov dvapiraar]] 
i6\ i<yK6vei, o-v^Ka/jLve. to2<; Oavovai too 
^tXovaL 7rdvTe<; Kei/ievoif; eTreyyekdv, 


\Kal fjirjv en ^coPj TeuKpe, rovSi crot, fiiXeiv 
e(f>ie6* dvrjp kclvo^j (oairep ovv jieKeL. 

CO TOiV diravTcov hrj Oeafjudrwv i/JLol 
aXjcarov Sv TrpocrelBov 6(f)9dkfjLOL^ iyco, 
0S09 0^ 68q)V Traacov dvidaaaa Br) 
fjLaXLCTTa rovfiov o-TrXdy^vov, r]v Brj vvv e^rjv, 
(o (f>l\TaT Ata?, TOP crop ©9 i7rr)o-d6fjLr}P 





For Kcj'^s, forlorn, cf. Bion Idyll. 
!• 59> X^po- S' a Kvdipcia, kcpoI 5' 
dcA KcLirov "E/JWTCs. For the pro- 
leptic force of kcvtjs {&vap7ra<xy ckij- 
ixvov Xealurjs cSare Kevr)v elvai avT^ip), 
cf. V. 5 1 7, note. — Lobeck understands 
* widowed ' (by the death of Ajax) : 
Hermann, ' lonely,' — /. e. separated, 
as Tecmessa temporarily was, from 
her child. 

988 Tois 0avov<r£ rot.] Aesch.^^. 

857, olcrre CTLr^'^ovov [ ^poToicn rbv ire- 
abvTa XaKTiaai vXiov. Cf. v. 1385. 

991 €<J)Uto.] In the message for 
Teucer which he gave to the Chorus, 
V. 567. 

<J»(nr€p ovv fieXcu.] *As indeed 
thou dost care:' odu, in/aifl. Plato 
Phaedr. p. 242 E, d 8' iaxLv, — uiairep 
oSv i(TTL, — d€h$ ij Ti 6hov "Epws. 

992 Twv airavTwv 8tj.] Cf. v. 

858, note. 

994 880s 6* 68«v.] Brunck's con- 
iea;ure, bhCiv 6' airaaCov o56s avid- 
aaaa 8-fi, has been adopted in the 
last edition of Schneidewin. — Cf. 
Ant. 12 12 (Creon approaching the 
scene of Antigone's death), dpa dva- 
rvxe<rTdT7]v | KiXevdov ^piru) rCop irap- 
e\6ov<Ti3v oSuv ; 

8ifj.] z, e. iraaQu 8?J, as in v. 992, 

995 ^v 8i] viJv ^Ptjv.J *£ven this 

which I have now trod.' — -^v vvv Sr] 
i^riv, ' which even no7u I have trod, ' 
is rather the sense demanded by the 
context. But it is impossible to 
suppose, with Lobeck {ad vv. 994, 
1332), that vvv 5?7 and 67; vvv were 
used indifferently. The particle 5?? 
of necessity emphasises the word 
before it, and can have nothing to 
do with the word after it. In Galen 
de Sanit. Tuend. I. 6, 29, ^v 677 vvv 
TT^xavfiai \4yuv, the occurrence of 
T]v 8r] vvv where ijv vvv hr) would have 
been suitable is, as in this place, a 
mere coincidence. In Plato Theaet. 
p. 162 A, Phaedo 61 E, where Lo- 
beck reads 5rj vvv itpalvero, 6irep 
drj vvv ■ffpov, Stallbaum has vvv StJ. 
997 SicuKuv.] ' While seeking and 
tracking (thee) out.' — After sending 
the messenger wh» was to convey 
the warning of Calchas (v. 780), 
Teucer returned to plead the cause 
of Ajax in the council of the Greek 
chiefs. When the council broke up, 
he commenced a personal search for 
his kinsman, — at that time fearing 
nothing more serious for him than 
a brawl in the camp : but in the 
course of his quest he learned that 
Ajax was dead. — Hermann places 
a comma after ff6v, and another after 

1004] AIA2. 

of eta yap <Jov ^a^L<i (M9 Oeov Tivo<i 
SiTJXd' 'A;^afcou9 7rdvTa<; qj? ot^et dav(6p, 
ay a) kXvcov SetX^to? iKiroScov fjuev wv 
virecTTeva^ov, vvv K opwv airoWvfjiaL. 


td\ eKicaXvy^oVy cw9 tSo) to irav kolkov. 
w BvaOearov ofifia Koi toX/jltjs: 7rt/cy3a9, 



(Tr'r]<j-66/x7]v: — 'seeking and tracking 
out (the place of) thy death, as soon 
as the news reached me. ' This ver- 
sion implies that Teucer had learned 
the death of A j ax before he began 
to look for him, — a supposition 
which hardly suits the case. Cf. v. 
780, no^e. A var. le(ft. for fiopov is 


998 o|€ttt Yap <rov Pa|is.] *A 

c]uick rumour about thee, like the 
whisper of a god,' — aov, genitive of 
the objecft : cf. v. 222, dvdpbs aidovos 
dyyeXiav, note: deoO, attributive ge- 
nitive, — pd^cs ws 6€o0 {^d^ovTot). 
Thus was the prayer of Ajax grant- 
ed by Zeus : cf. v. 826, note. — Elms- 
ley, d^Qv Tivoi, — maintaining that 
Oewv TLS is better Attic than Beds 
Tts. But, as Hermann points out, 
tlie phrases apply to distincft cases. 
When the presence of a god is a mat- 
ter of course, and only t/ie god is in 
doubt, OetSv tis is used : e. g. dvalai 
Oei2v TLvl dwoTeXoiJfxeuai. When di- 
vine is contrasted with human agen- 
cy, 6e6s Tis is used : e. g. Aesch. Ag. 
646, deSs Tis, ovK dudpuiros. 

999 SiTJXG* 'Axaiou's.] Herodotus 
relates that, when the Greeks at 
Mycale were going into adlion, a 

j mysterious rumour spread through 
the ranks, of a vidlory gained by 

[ their countrymen over the army of 
Mardonius: — lovai di <70i 'pvP'-V ^<^^- 
irraTQ is t6 cTTpaToweSov ira.v...7} bk 
^"fllirj dirjXdi a (pi c35e, ws ol "EX- 
\Tlve% TTjv MapSoviov a-TpaTirjv vLKi^ev 

I iv BotwrortTt p-ax^l^^vot. 

I 100 1 vir€crTivaXov.] ' Moaned low,' 
— before the sight of the corpse evok- 
ed a full burst of grief: cf. v. 322, 
1003 iQ*, li<KdXu«j/ov.j This is said 

to an attendant, — TecmcBsa having 
left the stage at v. 973. Similarly in 
the Eledra (v. 1468) Aegisthus de- 
sires the Phocian strangers to lift the 
face-cloth from the sheeted corpse of 
Orestes, — x'^^-'^^ tSi' Kd\vp.p.^ dTr' 
6(pd(iKp.Qv^ 6'7rws | rb <xvyyev4s roi 
Kair ipLov Opyjvwv t^xV- 

1004 & 8v(r0^aTov...iriKpas.] *0 
ghastly sight, and full of cruel rash- 
ness,' — /. e. implying cruel rashness 
as its cause. "When Lobeck obje<5ls to 
this interpretation on the ground 
that iriKpoToXfiov 6p,pia (or dia/xa) is 
a questionable phrase, his analysis 
appears scarcely just. The words 
TTiKpds TbXfirjs cannot fairly be re- 
solved into irLKp6To\p.ov. For the 
genitive does not necessarily mean 
more than * conne<fled with, involv- 
ing, cruel rashness :' the adjedlive 
means * cruelly rash. ' A splendid 
and costly public building might be 
described as iJ.€ya\oirpeir7]s koX iro\- 
X^s da.irdvr]s 6ia. But it does not 
follow that it could be properly 
termed dairavqpd dia. The latter 
phrase would apply to a show or 
spe(flacle, the price of admission to 
which was large. — Hermann, Lo- 
beck, Dindorf, Wunder, and Schnei- 
dewin render: — 'O ghastly sight! 
and alas for the cruel daring !' But 
if there are two separate exclama- 
tions, — w SvcrOiaTov 6pLp.a — (3 rbX/xTis 
TTiKpcLs, — the Kai is intolerable. If 
Sophocles had meant this, would he 
not have written c3 dvcdecLxov bp-ixa.' 
^€u rdXfjLTjs irLKpds' ? 

6'fj,(ia.] The 'form' of Ajax: cf. 
V. 977, note. It is convenient here 
to translate 5/i^ta as if it were d^afia: 
but of course a landscape or a build- 

134 SOcI)OKAEOTS [1005 

oaa^ dvla<; fiov Karaaireipa'^ <^6iveL<;. 1005 

irol 'yap fioXelv fiov hwarov, €9 ttolov^ ^poTov^, 

Tot? o-ot? apr)^avT ev irovoLcn /jbTjSa/jLov ; 

rf irov fie TeXa/JLcoUj cro^ irarrip ifi6<^ 6* afia, 

Be^aiT av evirpoo-oi'jro^ X\em t I'o-ft)? 

j(copovvT avev aov. ttcS? yap oup^; oro) irapa lOlO 

/X77S' evTVXOv't^TL fjbTjEev rjhiov yeXdv. 

0UT09 Ti Kpinjret'j irolov ovk epel KaKcv 

ing could not be called tfiixa. In 
Plato Phaedr. p. 253 E, ib^v to 
ipuyrt,K6u 5/i/Aa= 'having beheld the 
^uman) fonn which inspires love.' 

1005 KaTa<nr€Cpas.] Cf. v. 953, 
ipvrevcLv, note: Gorgias ap. Arist. 
Rhet. II. 3. 4, aX(rxpQ% fiiv iaireipas, 
KUKus d^ id^ptaas: Plant. MostelL 
V. I. 51, quid tit porrx> severe vis ne- 
gotium ? 

1006 jxot...apT]|avTa.] Theaccus. 
depends on /xoXeiv i—iroi (xoXeTv {ifie) 
dpii^avTay k.t.X.^ dwardy iffri fiot; 
Cf. Eur. Med. 8ro, (rol S^ a-VYyvdj/Mrj 
Xiyeiv I TctS' earl, fir] irdaxovaciy, 
ws iyoj, KUKOJS. For a similar, but 
bolder, construdion, cf. £/. 479, 
virearL /jlol Opd<ros...K\vovcrav 6vu- 
pdruv, — where theaccus. stands Kara 
ffOi/ecnv for the dative, as if ixp^pTrec 
/xe had preceded. 

1008 t| irov n€ TcXaiiuv, k.t.X.] 
Cic. de Orat. 11. 46. 193 (quoting 
from the 7^«r<rrof Pacuvius), Segre- 
gare abs te ausu's aut sine illo 
Salamina ingredi ? Neque pater- 
Hum aspecflum es veritus? — Nu7t- 
quam ilium aspedlum dicebat^ qttin 
mihi Telamo irattis furere luhufilii 

<r6s iraTi\p Ijxos 6* a)ta.] Teucer 
was the son of the concubine ; Ajax 
of the wife. But to Telamon, at 
least, Teucer and Ajax stood in 
the same relation: from Telamon, 
under ordinary circumstances, Teu- 
cer, as well as Ajax, might have 
looked for the welcome due to a 
son. — Schneidewin follows Suidas 
and a few MSS. in reading ^/a6s t' 
J!<rws...(!Xewj, ihi^v. The use of fcws 

in the sense of l^ tcrov, * equally,' is 
extremely rare: Isut Plato Legg. p. 
805 A so uses it. In Soph. Phil. 758, 
also, Hermann so takes it ; but there 
fo-ws appears rather to mean, ' I 
suppose,' — *as it seems.' 

lOio OTw Trdpa...'Y€\dv.] Lite- 
rally, — 'whose wont it is to smile 
not at all more pleasantly (firjdiv 
rj5t.oy), even when prosperous :' — 'he 
who, even when things go well, can 
summon no brighter smile.' — In Srtp 
irdpeaTL fzrjdh yeXdv, the use of fii^ 
instead of oii is due simply to the in- 
finitive : for the same reason, fi-qSi 
instead of ovde in the dependent 
clause /Jir]5' evrvxovPTi. — Schneide- 
win takes /jL7]5iuy not with yeXdv^ but 
with evTVXovyTi: — 6't^, /j.r]8' evrv- 
XovvTL fx.r]5ev, Tcdpecmv -^Siov yekdv : 
'not even in any case of good for- 
tune.' In this view the /xij qualifies 
oTip, — cui ne in pros per is quidem 
adsit ristis (instead of adest). — For 
irdpeariv denoting a disposition or 
habit, cf. Eur. Med. 658, dxdpic- 
Tos 6XolO* oTcp irdpeart \ fji.7} ^IXovs 

1012 tC Kpv\[rei;] Sc. Kandv. 
Schol. TL CLyrjaet; 

iroiov ou'ic cpei KaKov.] Dindorf 
places a comma at KaKbv, — as if the 
phrases tov ck dopbs yeyQTa,...rbv 
irpobovTa, K.T.X., — were in apposi- 
tion with KaK6v, and placed, as it 
were, between inverted commas. 
But it appears simpler to dispense 
with the comma at kukSu, and to re- 
gard ipec as governing a double ac- 
cusative (Madv. Synt. § 25 r 3). 

1020] AIA2. 

TOP €K Bopoi yeywTa iroXefilov v69ov, 
Tov BeiXia 'jrpoBopTa kol KaKavBpia 
ae, (f)t\.rar Ata?, rj BoXoccriv, w9 ra aa 

KpCLTT] 6av6vTO<i Kol B6flOV<; V6/JK)L/JLC <TOV<i, 

roiavr avrjp Bvaopyo<;, iv yrjpa ^aph<i, 
epel, 7r/309 ovBev €i? epiv dvfJLOvfi6vo<;. 
T6A.0? S^ airoaaro^; 7^? anroppi^Orjaofiaiy 
hov\o<i Xir/OKTLV avr iXevOipov <^avel<s. 




1013 tovIk SoposiroXejiCov.] * Be- 
gotten from the spoils of war,' — i. e. 
e/c rri% 5opiXT]irTov 'Ho-tiviyy. Cf. vv. 
1228, 1300. 

voGov.] Cf. //. VIII. 283, where 
Teucer is exhorted to remember Te- 
lamon, — <r' ^rpecpe tvt66p iSvra, \ 
Kdi ce, vbdov vep iovTcu, KoixlaaaTO 
(^ evl otK({3. In the Homeric sense a 
I'dOos is the son of a concubine (raX- 
Xa^iJ), as opposed to children of the 
lawful wife, Kovpidiij dXoxos. The 
issue of the latter were idayeveU 
(Wvs, honest-born) : see Od. xiv. 
202, e/x^ 5' djyrp-T] rhe firjfnjp \ ttoX- 
XukIs' dWd fie l<xov iOacyevieao'iv 
erifia {traT-qp). — At Athens the term 
vbOos included persons, one of whose 
parents was not an Athenian citizen. 

1015 Al'as.] Cf. V. 89, Hoie. 

\oi6 KpoLTT].] ' Prerogatives.' O, 
T. 237, 7^s 1 TTJadi' ijs eyu Kpari] re 
Kal 6p6vovs v^.p.(i). QL v. 446, note. 

86}Lovs.] ^/, 651, 56yCious 'AT/)et- 
3wy aKTJTTTpd r' diKpiireiv rdSe. 

1017 Suo-op"yos...papvs.] He was 
by nature 'passionate' — liable on 
occasion to violent bursts of anger : 
and now, in old age, he is also ' pee- 
vish' (/3a/)i5s) — easily provoked to such 
outbursts. For this sense of ^apvs 
cf. O. T. 673, (TTvyvbi jnh eUwv 5^- 
Xos el, papi/t 8\ Srav \ 6vp,od irepd- 
ayi, i. e. * even in yielding thou art 
seen to be malignant, — even when 
thou hast quitted displeasure, still full 
of spleen,' (Pap6s). But in O. T. 
17, ai)Y yfjpq. ^ape^s^ * heavy, infirm, 
under the load of age.' 

1018 «ls ?ptv 0v}iov|i,€vos.] Wax- 
ing angry *unto strife,' — dvixovp-ai 
els ipiy being equivalent to 6v(iovp.e- 

voi 6pfiQ/iai els (ptv, *rush angrily 
tufa strife.' This seems better than 
to take els epiv as merely a periphra- 
sis for the adverb epiarcKus, — (like 
els rdxos, els eiir^Keiav for rax^wj, 
evTe\Qs, &.C.), — although the words 
happen to be so used in Eur. CycL 
328, Atbs jSpoyToiaiv els iptp ktv- 
TTUPy 'resounding in rivalry with the 
thunders of Zeus.' 

10 1 9 dirwoTos Y^S.] Driven 
from Salamis by Telamon, Teucer 
was led by * Fortune kinder than 
his father,' and by the promises of 
Apollo^(Hor. Od. i. 7. 25), to Cy- 
prus — evdaTevKpos aTrapx^t TeXa- 
fx(avid8as (Find. N. IV. 75, * reigns 
farixom. his fatherland'), — and where 

he founded the new Salamis. In the 
Helena of Euripides he is introduced 
visiting Egypt on his way, in order 
to consult Theonoe daughter of Pro- 
teus {Helen. 144). 

1020 <|>avcis-] * Made out in 
taunts to be a slave.' — Since his mo- 
ther had been a concubine, Teucer 
was in stridlness v'oQos : since his 
mother had been a captive, he might 
invidiously be termed loxJKos. Aga- 
memnon adlually employs this taunt 
(v. 1234). But Hesione, if a cap- 
tive, was a princess : if a concubine, 
still no (hvrjT^ raXXa/c/s. Her hand 
had been bestowed on Telamon 
by Hercules as a 'special meed 
of honour' (v. 1302). Teucer might 
fairly say that he was * sprung from 
two noble houses' (v. 1305). Still, 
according to stri(5l usage, Telamon 
was under no obligation to afford 
a home to the vodos: that he had 
done so hitherto, was a matter for 

^cf^^ f^^^x-v/J- ^ 

136 "'^^^ 20<I>0KAE0TS 

I Toiavra fiev Kar oIkoV eV Tpoia hi fioi 
iroWol fJbev ixOpol, iravpa 3' (io<j)e\rjacfia. 
Koi ravra iravra aov Oavovro^i Tjvpofjirjv. 

OLjJLOt, TL BpdcTQ) ] irW<i <T aiTOd'KCKKJii TTCKpOV 

TOvB' alokov KV(iohovTO<;, co rd\a<;, v<f> ov 
(j)oveco<^ ap e^eirvevcra'i ; eZSe? «? XP^^ 
eiieWi a "EiKTcop koI Oavoov dTrocpOielv ; 



gratitude (//. viii. 283). On pro- 
vocation he might cast off Teucer at 
pleasure, and describe him — if un- 
fairly, still with literal justice — as 'a 
slave and no freeman.' — For Ravels, 
cf. Aesch. A^. e^'j6, \6yois toiovtocs 
vXayKTO^ o^cr' i^aLu6/x7]j/, * By such 
arguments they would fain have 
proved me wrong ;' Soph. ^/. 1241, 
el iravraxov qyavovfieO* e/c TevKpov 
KaKol, 'if, come what will, we are 
to be made out base by Teucer.' — 
Instead of \oyoL<TLv^ Morstadt pro- 
posed yovevcTLV, F. W. Schmidt ^0- 
yot<nv : but no change seems needed. 

1023 T)vp6|XT|v.] Not 'found' 
{rivpov), but ' gained :' — ironical. Cf. 
Aesch. P. V. 275, Bvtjrdt^ S' ap-ffyo^v 
avrbs rjvpo/xrjv irovovs. — 'Enr.j/e/en. 
94 (Teucer speaking), Afas /t' ddeX- 
0ds w\e<r^ ev Tpoig. Oavwv. 

1025 aloXov KV(o8ovTos.] 'This 
gleaming spike.' — k^'wSwv seems to 
have meant a 'spike,' 'prong,' or 
'tooth:' see Xen. Cyneg. 10. 3, ra. 
hk TTpo^oXia, irpQTov jxkv \byxas 
ixo'^T^"- T^ /"■^'^ fiiyeOos ireurairdXai- 
ffTovs, Kara 8^ fi^crov rbv ai\bv Kvib- 
dovrai aTroKexaXfcy/i^foi's CTi(f)povs, 
— * the boar-spears are to be provid- 
ed in the first place with heads five 
hand-breadths long, and also, half 
way up the socket {avKos, the socket 
of the Xoyx»?)> with stout teelk {kvJj- 
8ovT€s) of forged copper.' Cf. Soph, 
Ant. 1233, ^l-tpovs I €\k€i SiTrXoCs kpui- 
Sovran, 'his cross-hilted sword.' Lo- 
beck quotes Silius Italicus Fim. i. 
^i^, pressjimqice ira swiul exigit e.n- 
sem. Qua capuli statuere morae (or 
remorae), the cross- spikes, xvibdov- 
res, of the hilt. — Here, kvuSwv 
describes the end of the blade pro- 

je(5ling through the body of Ajax,— 
a short, gleaming spike. Cf. v. 

1026 6£ptt.] (By which) *t/iou 
scemest'' to have died. Cf. v. 926, 
note. — (pofioii: cf. ccpayevs, v. 817. 

etScs.] 'Seest thou now...?'— a 
mere rhetorical apostrophe to the 
corpse. (Not — ' didst thou discover 
before thy death?') 

1027 Oavcov d'iro4>0«iv.] Cf. v. 
901, note. 

aTro<f>9t€iv.] Dindorf's conje(5lure 
for diro^dicreLv, the reading of the 
MSS. and of Suidas. Dindorf re- 
marks that in FM. 1427, 0. 7:538, 
the MSS. give voatpiaeis instead of 
voa^ieis, yuiopiffoifiL instead of yi'w- 
ptoTfxt. Lobeck retains d7ro<f>di<retp, — 
doubting whether any example can 
be found of the Attic future in a di- 
syllabic verb. But neither Dindorf 
nor Lobeck notices the question 
whether the Attic contradlion was 
applicable to any Futures except 
those in -ecw, -acra;, and -uro;, from 
verbs in -ew, >afw, and -tfw. (See 
Donaldson Cramjn. § 302. Obs. 3.) 
Altogether, the form a7ro<^0tetj' seems 
very doubtful. — Hermann, dTro<pOX- 
<rai, — conjedluring from the Scholi- 
ast's dveXetv, davarcoaai, that 
diro(j>diaai was changed to diro</)Oi- 
ceLv by grammarians who supposed 
fi^XKeij/ to require the future. The 
causal aorist of (pdiuio {icpdiaa. in 
Homer; ecpdiaa in Attic) occurs in 
Aesch. £zwi. 165, etc.: Soph. Track. 
709 {diro(p6L(rac) : 0. T. 202, 1 198, 
etc. On the other hand the future 
of (^Blv(a {(pdl(ru, in Homer, with 
aclive sense) is nowhere found in 

1 031] AIAX. 

dKe\jraa6€y Trpo^ 6eoov, ttjv tv^tjv hvolv ^poTolv. 
'EKTCOp jMeVf o) Br] rovB^ iScaprjOrj irapa^ 
^(oarjjpi irpiaOel^ lttttikcciv i^ dvrvycov 
eKvaineT alkv, €9 t dTriyjrv^ep ^lov 



1028 — 1039 <rK€\Ifa(r0€ Kixybt 

Ta8€.] In the latest edition of 
Schneidewin's u4jax, revised by 
Xauck, these twelve verses are 
placed within brackets. Their ge- 
nuineness had already been denied 
by Morstadt, on these grounds : ( i ) 
That there is no satisfactory analogy 
between the cases of Ajax and 
llecflor: (2) That this analogy, such 
as it is, is made out only by represent- 
ing He6lor as tortured to death, the 
common version being that his corpse 
was dragged: (3) That vv. 1036 — 7 
are flat, and v. 1039 absurd : (4) 
That the word irpLcOeis is unin- 
telligible, and firixavciv (instead of 
rixaudadat) wrong. In reply to these 
i jecflions, it may be suggested (i) 
That the desire to moralise pic- 
turesquely, — to illustrate a yvufjLtj 
or irapoifila incisively, — was always 
jiresent to the Greek mind. The 
^.word, Hecflor's gift, had something 
to do with the death of Ajax : the 
girdle, a gift from Ajax, had some- 
thing to do with the death of Hecflor, 
This was enough for a poet's purpose. 
(i) Even assuming v. 103 1 to be 
I ight as it stands, the deviation from 
Homer does not exceed the limits of 
poetic licence. Cf. v. 1031. (3) Vv. 
1036—7 are no doubt flat: so are 
many of the yvco/jt,ai with which 
Greek tragedy abounds. But it is 
difficult to see why v. T039 should 
be termed 'absurd.' Cf. no^e ad 
loc. (4) irpiadeis and ix-qx^-vdv are 
discussed in their places. It may be 
added (5) that the Chorus would 
scarcely have said to Teucer (v. 1040), 
firj Teive jxaKpdv, if he had left off 
at v. 1027, Teucer's speech would 
then have ended abruptly. 

1028 Ti^v Tvx'nv.] Most of the 
MSS. omit Ttfv, which Suidas, how- 
ever, reads and which Brunck first 

1029 cScopTJGTi.] Hecftor having 
challenged a Greek champion to 
single combat (//. vii. 53), the lot 
fell to Ajax. After fighting till night- 
fall, they were separated by the 
heralds Talthybius and Idaeus, and 
exchanged presents, in sign that, 
after deadly combat, 'they parted in 
amity and at one,' — iv (piXorrjTi 8ii- 
T/xayeu dpOixyjaavre, Then to Ajax 
Hector Sw/ce ^i0os dpyvporjXov, | ai/v 
Ko\€(^ re <f)^po)v Kal ivTp.ijTij} reXa- 
IxQvL' I Mas 8k ^cjcTTTJpa 8ldov (poLviKt, 
^aeiuov. {II. VII. 303.) 

1030 irpicrOels c| dvTv-ywv] 'grip- 
ped to the chariot-rail;' i^acpdels, 
dea-fievdecs. The ordinary sense of 
Trpleiv, 'to saw,' appears to have 
been derived from a primary sense 
of gripping^ clutching: e.g. rpieiu 
odowTas, 'to gnash the teeth,' is to 
bring them sharply and closely to- 
gether: irpUiv dvfxov (Oppian Cyneg. 
IV. 138), like 8dKViLv dvp-ov, to 
'bite' one's anger, — {i.e. to sup- 
press it sternly). Cf. Oppian Hal. 
i^' 375 (quoted by Lobeck), ivda pnv 
dfKpi^aXu))/ TTepLrjyi'i iravTodev oX/c^il 
f<rxet T ifJLtrpiei re, 'imprisons 
and closes upon the fish,' — where, 
i/j.'irpi€i, = in^^€i, — 'keeps narrowing 
his bounds,' by tightening the net. 
Cf. //. XXII. 395 ff. 'He spake; 

* and then he contrived cruel things 

* against (the corpse) of glorious Hec- 
' tor : at the hind part of both feet he 
'bored through the tendons, from 
' heel to ankle, and attached thongs of 

* ox hide, and bound them to his cha- 
' riot, but the head he suffered to trail.' 

103 1 €Kvd'irT€TO.,.piov.] In the 
Iliail Hector is slain by Achilles in 
combat (XX II. 360) : only his corpse 
is dragged behind the chariot. In 
order to reconcile Sophocles and Ho- 
mer, several emendations of this line 
have been proposed : — (i) evre {post- 
qwy^iS for ^ore, — the simplest and 


odTO<; B* eKeivov rrjvBe Bcopeav €')(^cou 
w/30? TovS' 6\co\€ Oavaalfjua) irea'^/JLaTL 
ap ovK 'Eptj't'9 rovT ixaXfcevcre f/^09 
KCLKelvov "AlB7j<;, Brj/jLCOvpyo^i ar/pLo^ ; 
iya> fiev av koX ravra koX to, itclvt aei 
^cLdKoip! av avOpcLiroLo-L firj^avap Oeov<i* 
'6t(o Be fjurj raS' earlv iv yvcofiy <^i\a, 
Kelp6<; T eKelva aTepyira) Kayco roBe. 

fjL'^ reive fjLaKpap, aX)C ottoj? Kpif^frec^ racfyo) 




best. (2) Hermann, besides altering 
fare to evre, would change aUv to 
aiuv. But aiu)u ^iov ought to mean 
tempiis vitae rather than spiritus vitae. 
(3) E. Hoffmann, alavh r aTr^rpv^ev 
^lov, misereqiie exhalavit vitam: 
bad. — Homer's version of the case 
would not exclude the analogy upon 
which Teucer is insisting. The gift 
of Ajax would have been instrumen- 
tal in inflicting upon Hecflor that 
misfortune so terrible to the Greek 
mind, — the dishonouring of the 

1033 irpos TOvSe.] Sc. roxi kvu- 
dovTos, V. 1025. 

1034 'Epivvs...lxciXK€vcr€.] Cf 
Aesch. C/io. 628 (the avenging 
sword) diavTaLav,..ovTgi | Seal At'/ca?, 
* will deal a homethrust by the will 
of Justice ;' — Ai'/cas 5' epeideTai irv- 
dfiTju, *and the afzvil of Justice is 
firmly set,' TrpoxaXKevei 8' Alaa 
<f)a<7yavovpy6s, ' and Fate the Arm- 
ourer forges it beforehand' {z.e. to 
be i-eady for the hand of Justice). 
Cf. J^. 1513, SiK-qu 5' err dXXo 
irpayfia Orjyavei ^Xd^rjs \ irpos &\- 
\ais Orjydvaicn Motpa : ' Fate whets 
(the sword of) Justice on another 
whetstone, for a new deed of retri- 

1035 kcIkcivov.] Sc. ^uarijpa. 
From the special verb ixaXKcvaeu a 
general verb, elpydaaTo, is to be sup- 
plied. Cf. El. 71, Kal fxrj fi driixov 
TTjab' cLTrocrTeiXrp-e yijs, \ dXK dpx^- 
vXovTov (sc. KaraaTTjcnqTe). 

1036 4-yt^ Y.\v dv.] For the double 

&v cf. v. 525, note. — Lobeck, Schnei- 
dewin, and Wunder, iyCj ixh oSv. 

1037 ixTjxavdv.] The adlive form 
does not occur elsewhere, except in 
the participle, drda-OaXa firjxavdujv- 
res, Od. XVIII. 143, etc. But its rarity 
cannot justly be urged as an argu- 
ment against the genuineness of the 
passage. Several verbs, usually de- 
ponent, have also a rarer active 
form; e. ^. duipeTcrdai, dupelu : doLvoL- 
adai, OoLvdv : ireipdadai, ireipdv : tr^- 
^eadat, ci^ew. In Bekker's Anecd. 
95, icovTjKivs (for icdVTjfjL^uos) is quoted 
from Lysias: dirl^wv for dTri^bixevos 
occurs in an epigram in the Anthol. 
Palat., Appendix, 223. 

1038 €v TytojAT) <j>£\a.] 'Accepta- 
ble in his judgment^'' i. e. *if there 
be any whose judgment this doth 
not meet.' Not : — Sry fiT) rdS' ecrrlv 
iv yvibixTj (' in high estimation'), (/cat) 
0tXa: though the phrase iv yvufi-g 
ehat occurs in Her. VI. 37, t]v SI 
d MtXrtaS?;? 'Kpolai^ rdp AuSy iv 
yvdbfxrj yeyovus, * had won the es- 
teem of Croesus.' 

1039 K6iv6s r €K€iva, K.T.X.] Lo- 
beck compares Eur. Suppl. 466, aol 
likv doKeirb) TavT\ i/xoi 5^ rdvria : 
'Eyenns /rag. 1. 3 (Bergk p. 474), 
Kal Trpbs ixkv roirovs dpKei X6yos eh 
6 iraXaiSs, \ aol (xiv ravra '80- 
kovvt'' i(XTO}, ifiol 8^ TctSe. 

1040 fiT] T€iv€ |j.aKpdv.] ' Speak 
not at length :' do not extend (your 
words) far {/xaKpav). So Aesch. •^^. 
1267, ixaKpdv ^reivas : id. 889, fianpciv 
fxkv i^ireivas, — where Blomfield says 

1047] AIAS. 

(f)pd^ov TOP avhfig,.J)(^^L^XL.4idl!BJ^ttr-Tax(i' 
^Xeirco yap e)(j9pbv (jxSra, Kal tcl')^ av xaKoh 
yekwv a ^r) KaKOvpyo^ I^lkoit avrjp, 

T69 ^ iarlv ovTLV avSpa irpoa-Xeva-areL^; arparov ; 


yieveKao^, a> hr) rovBe ifkovv iarevKafiev. 

bpu)' fJLaOetv yap iyyv^ a>v ov BvaireTrj';, 

ouTO'^, <J6 <f)cov(jo rovEe rbv veKpov ^epoti/ 


•subaudi prjaiv :' but it seems simpler 
to take /jLUKpoiy as an adverb. The 
j)hrase/Aa/fpaj' X^Yeti' occurs only in 
Soph. £/. 1259. 

1042 KttKois veXcSv.] Cf. V. 957, 

1043 ^ S'i*] 'Just like' a bad man. 
Cf. Plato Phaedr. p. 244 E, dWa yJi\v 
vd(T03u ye Kal irbvwv tCov [xeyltXTOiVj 
— 4 5'f? iraXaiCsv iK firjvi.ixa.Tiov 
irbdev ^v Ti(7L Tuv yev(2v, — 7} fia- 
via iyy€vofJi.'ev7]...diraX\ayr]v evpero, 
'supplied a release from the worst 
' plagues and afflidlions, — sucA as no- 
' toriously (A 5^) arise, ' &c. : Simon- 
ides Amorginus frag. i. 3, vom 5' 
ovK kii avOpuiroicriv, dXX' icpi^/xepot \ 
a di] ^OT aiel ^(2/xev. 

1044 t£s 8* ia-rCv, Svtiv* d'vSpo.] 
A species of inverse attradlion, — the 
substantive being transposed from 
the principal into the relative clause. 
Cf. //. IX. 131, Toiy fj.ev ol dd}<ru}, 
fieTci S' ^craerai, tjv tot* dwrjvpuv | 
Kovprjv Bptcr^os: Cic. de Legg. III. 
5. 12, haec est enivi, quam Scipio 
latidat in libris etquam 7naxiine pi'o- 
bat temperationem reiptiblicae. 

1046 |iad£iv...o'u Svo-ircTqs-] Cf. 
Eur. Aled. 1196, tr\r\v ti^ t€k6vti, 
Kapra dvafiadrjs idelv. — Menelaus, 
king of Lacedaemon (Od. xi. 460), 
is for the Attic Tragedians the re- 
iuesentative of ultra-Spartan man- 
ners and sentiment. It is to Me- 

nelaus that the Andromache of 
Euripides addresses her invedlive 
against Sparta, — c3 irdciv dvdpuTroi- 
aiv ^x^ia-Toi ^poTuVy k.t.X. {Androm. 
445 ff.). In that speech (v. 458) he 
is called yopyos OTrXiTrjs, 'grim.* 
Scow^ling looks and an air of pomp- 
ous austerity were supposed to mark 
the Spartan abroad. Describing an 
Athenian who affedled Spartan man- 
ners, Plutarch says {Phoc. 10): — 
'There was one Archibiades, sur- 
named the Laconiser, with a flowing 
beard of enormous size, — a cloak 
always shabby, — and a sulky face' 
{<TKvd pbiird^wv). 

Enter Menelaus, _/>-^;// the Greek 
camp, by the side-entrance on the left 
of the speculators. (Cf. v. 719, note.') 
He is attended by a herald. (Cf. v. 
1 1 14. The presence of the herald 
serves to mark the official charadler 
of the protest, v. 1050.) 

1047 — 1 1 84. Men. * I forbid thee 
to bury this corpse. — Teu. And 
wherefore?— -/!/<?;/. As the corpse of 
a public enemy; of one whom we 
brought from Greece to be our 
helper, and found a more than 
Phrygian foe. Therefore no man 
shall lay him in the grave ; he shall 
lie on the pale sand, food for birds 
beside the sea. In life he scorned 
our rule; at least we shall have 
power over his corpse. Unruliness 

140 XO^OKAEOTS [1048 

TLVO'i ycLpLV roaov^ avdXcoo'af; XoyoVf 

hoKovvT ifJLol, hoKovvra S' 09 Kpalvei, crrparov. 1050 

ovKovv av eliroL^ tjvtlv ahiav 'n'po6ei<;\ 

oOovveic avTov iXiriaavref; olKoOev 

in the subject; is the mark of a base 
spirit : where the laws are not fear- 
ed, the city prospers ill. — Teu. Ajax 
f/iy subjedl; ? responsible to thee or 
to thy brother ? Not as your liege- 
man came he to the war, but for the 
oaths that bound him. No: keep 
such threats and mandates for thy 
own subjeds : Ajax shall be buried 
by my hands. — Men. Deeds, not 
words, shall support our power. 
(Exif Menelaus.) — C/zo. A strug- 
gle is at hand : haste, Teucer, to 
find a resting-place for the dead. 
— (^;//^r Tecmessa wi^/i Eurysa- 
CES.) — Teti. Behold in meet season 
the man's wife and child ! Come 
hither, boy, and take thy suppliant 
place beside the corpse; perish he 
who tears thee from it ! And you, 
friends, stand by to help, while 
I go to make ready a tomb for 

1047 ^^ 4>ti)vw...}ji't] (rvyKO[i,lXtiv.] 
A mere verb of speaking often does 
duty for a verb of cojumanding : 
e.g. Phil. 101, X^7w o-' ^7(1; SoXiy ^i- 
XoKTqT-qv Xa/SetJ' (^Xeyw, * cri> 56X(f> 
^tXoKT-^Tju Xa^i ) : O.C. 933, cIttou 
fikv ovp Koi irpoadev, ivv^iria bk vvv, \ 
rds TTtttSas ws Tdxi.(rTa deCp' dyetv 

1048 OM'^KOY.LXli.X.v] = (TVVeK<l)ip€lV. 

Cf. V. 1397. Eur. Aftdr. 1264, pe- 
Kphv KOfii^uv Tovde Kal Kpv\pas x^ovl. 

1049 Too-<5v8€...X^70v.] Not *so 

many^ but * so great^ ' i. e. ' such im- 
perious,' words. 

ava\(o<ras.] So Dindorf and 
Brunck, with two MSS. 'AvdXcja-e, 
not dvrjXwae, is the reading in Eur. 
Hipp. 1336, Lysias de Arist. bonis 
p. 153. 18, in Nicovi. p. 185. 21: 
dvaXdbdrj in Eur. Andr, 456, dvd- 
XojTat ib. 1 155, Phoen. 591. — (Elms- 
ley, reading dvrjXwae with Hermann 
and Lobeck, quotes the statement 
of the grammarian Philemon that, 
in the perfe(5l tense, dvrjXcoKa or 
T/VaXw/ca was the Attic form, dvd- 
Xu}Ka that of the common dialedl. ) 

1050 Sokouvt' IjJioC, K.T.X.] luv. 
6. 223, hoc volo, SIC iubeo : sit pro 
ratione voluntas.— doKovvr a. 5' 6's sc. 
iK€b({}, 6's. Cf. Phil. 957, daviov trap- 
i^w 5atr' d0' (^v €(peppofir]v, — i.e. tov- 
TOis, d(f>' uu. — For 6e with the re- 
peated word, cf. Eur. Afed. 99, kiv^ 
Kpadiav, Kivel d^ x^^°^- 

Kpa£v6i o-rpttTOv.] Kpabeiv, *tO 
exercise sway,' is construed by So- 
phocles with a genitive depending 
on the implied notion of apxeiv : cf. 
//. XIV. 84, arparov... a- 7} fi at v€ IP : 
Od. IX. 114, defiicTTeveL 5^ 'eica- 
(XTOS I iraiScniP ijd' dX6x<^v: Eur. Afed. 
19, OS alcrvpLPq, x^oj'os: Aesch. 
Pers. 7, x^P°^^ €<pop€V€tp. 

1051 TTpoGeCs-] i.e. TJPTipa alriaif 
irpodeis {TouTO /ceXeiJeis). 

1065] ataS. 141 

e^rivpofiev ^rjTovvre^ e'^Olo) ^ptr/cov* 

oj-Ti^ CTparo) ^VfjLTTavTL fiov\6vara<; (f)6voP 1055 

vvKTcop iirearpdreva-eVy w? eXoL h6p6t\ 

Kel fir] Oewv rt? Trjv^e irelpav eo-^ecrev^ 

^]fjL6L<; fjL€v av Trjvh\ rjv oS* etKr]j(ev TV'xrjv, 

6av6vT€<; av TrpovKei/JueO^ ala')^lcrTa) fiopoyj 

ovTo<; S' av ef^. vvv S* ivijWa^ev ^eo? IO60 

rrjv TovB' v^piv T Tpo? fiTJXa kclI iroifiva'^ irea-elv, 

u)V ovveK avTov ovtl'^ ear avrjp aOevcov \ .^X'CPtvc^ 

ToaovTOV (La-re a(£)fjLa rvfi^evaaL rd(j)a), *^ ^ 

aXV djuL<f)l 'x Xxopd v '^dfjiaOov eK^ej3\T}fjbevo<; 
opviaL jpop^rj irapaXloL^ jevrjaerai. 


1054 ^TiTovvTcs.] ' On trial:' Schol. 
i^erd^ovTes. Cf. Ar. /*/«/. 104, 01) 
yap evp-j^creis ifioO \ ^rjruv ?t' dvdpa 
Tous rpoTTovs ^eXrioua. — Hermann : 
explorato illo facinore. But ^'r]rovv- 
T€s could hardly refer to the special 
inquiry into the onslaught on the 
cattle. Menelaus, ignoring the for- 
mer services of Ajax, pretends that 
the Greeks had been disappointed 
in their general experience of him. 

^pv-yoiv] = Tpciwj'. In Homer 
the Trojans and Phrygians appear 
as distin<5l but closely allied peoples: 
tlius Priam assists the Phrygians 
ai^ainst the Amazons {11. III. 184); 
Hecuba is the daughter of a Phry- 
gian prince (xvi. 718). But the use 
of 'Phrygian' as a synonymn for 
'Trojan' is post-Homeric: <f.^. Eur. 
Ilec. 4, ^pxr^Qv ir6\iv = Tpoiav: Or. 
1480, "E/CTW/j d $pi;7ios. 

1056 86p€i.] Cf. V. 515, note. 
Lobeck and Hermann, hopi. Her- 
mann however observes that though 
5o/9ei, ^opi were used indifferently in 
lyrical passages, there is no instance 
in the trimeters of Aeschylus or 
Sophocles where h'opei would not be 
admissible. But Euripides, at least, 
used 5o/)i in trimeters : Hec. 4, kIvBv- 
vos ?(rxe 5opl ireaeiv ' 'E\\t]vlk(^. 

1058 T]|JLCIS Jl^V &V, K.T.X.] A 

mixture of (i) ri^vde rvxWi ^^ 0^' 
d\7)X^.v, Xaxoures, and (2) Trjvde rv- 
XWi V" ode H6yriK€y, davomes. For 

the cognate accus. in davciv (KaKrjv) 
riixW) cf. //. III. 417, KaKOV dlrov 
oK^adai: Od. I. 166, ctTroXwXe kukov 

1059 Txpo^KeCucGa.] Cf. v. 427. 

1060 vvv 8^.] *As it is:' v. 445, 

lvTJXXa|€V.] ^J'jJXXa^ej' tt/v v^piv, 
((iVre) ir^cjfiv avrriv, k.t.\. 'hath di- 
verted the outrage, so that it should 
fall...' Cf. V. 53, Kol irpos re -rrolfivas 
^KTpitrtj}, K.T.X. For the infin. 
ireaeiv, cf. v. 821, iirtj^a 5' avTov... 
evvoiararov t(^8' dv8pl, 5iA rdxovs 
OaveLv: where see note. 

106 1 (JiTJXa Kal iroi(i.vas.] 'Sheep 
and flocks.' firjXa, the special term, 
has a contemptuous emphasis: ttoI- 
fivas is added in a general sense, 
' cattle :' cf. v. 34. But in v. 53, 
Tolfivcu are the sheep as opposed to 
the oxen (/SoGj dyeXaiai, v. 175). 

1062 aiT6v...cra»(xa,] The accus. 
avToi', — placed at the beginning of 
the sentence to give notice, as it 
were, of the objedl referred to, — is 
resumed and defined by the accus. 
(rw/xa : cf. £t. 709, aravrei 5' 86' 
avTOVS ol rerayixhoL ^pa^rjs \ kXtJ- 
povs ^TTTJXau Kal KariaTTjaav 5i</)povi: 
O.T. 819, KoX rd^ o{yri9 aXXos ^f\ 
Tj 'yid iir ifxavT(^ rdad' dpds 6 

1065 6pvio-i <t>opP'rj.] Cf. v. 830, 


irpo^i ravra fujEev Becvov i^apr](; p,evo<;. 
ei yap p\i'7rovTO<; /Jbrj ''hvvr)6r)^ev KpaTelv^ 
irdvTQ}<; OavovTo^i j ap^ojieVy kolv ^rj Oekrj^;, 
'^(epalv iTapev6vvovTe<i. ov yap eaO' oirov 
Xoycov cLKovaaL ^wv iror rjdekricT i/iicop, 
KaiTot, KaKov Trpo? dpBpo<i dvBpa BrjfMorrjv .^ 
fiTjBev BiKaiovv tcov icpecrrcorcov Kkveiv, "IH 
ov yap iroT ovt dv iu iroKei, vofioL KcCKodk 
^epoLVT dv, 6v6a firj KaOearrjKr] Seo?, 
OVT dv <TTpaT6<; ye (rcocppovcof; dp-)(piT ere 
firjhev (j>6/3ov irpo^XTjfjba firj^ alBov^ C'X^cov. 
dX)C dvBpa XPV> f^^^ awyia yevvrjorri [jbeya. 




1066 l^dpTjs.] 'Uplift' no stormy 
anger : cf. v. 75, note. 

1069 yji^fTiv irapcvQvvovTCS.] '(We 

shall rule over him dead, and) im- 
perioiisly direct his Jate:' literally, 
*dire6ling, constraining him by main 
force,' — taking into our own hands 
the disposition of the corpse, and 
authoritatively deciding where it 
shall be laid. (Cf. v, 542, x^P'^"'-^ 
evdvvcav, — guiding the steps of a 
child that can barely walk.) In life, 
Ajax was stubborn and fro ward : he 
would not be driven: he took his 
own way. But now, says Menelaus, 
he will be quiet in our hands; 
we may dispose of him as we 
please, and he will not be restive. 
The same idea — that of a creature 
docile in the hands of those who 
guide it with absolute power — is 
worked out by Agamemnon at vv. 
1250 ff., when he says that the 
strong are controlled by the wise, as 
*a large-ribbed ox is kept straight 
on the road with a small whip.' — It 
has been proposed (very needlessly) 
to arrange the verses in this order: — 
1067, 1069, 1070, 1068. 

1071 Ka^TOk KaKov irpi)? dvSpos, 
K.T.\.] On the political docftrine of 
the passage cf. v. 669, note. 

1073 KaXus <j>€poivT' dv.] *Go 
well.' cu (jiipccdai, bene siiccedere, 
* to have prosperous course :' Thuc. 
V. 16, ey 0e/)6yLt€J'OS h (TTpaTr]yLai,s : 

Xen. Hellen. III. 4. 25, to. rrpay- 
fxara Ka/ccjs (piperat. 

1074 KaGco-TTJKTj.] Wunder, Kade- 
(TTrjKoi: see v. 521, d Ti...'irddot, 

1075 otJ't* av crrpaTOS 7c.] i.e. 
' And an army too {ye — as well as 
a city) cannot,' &c. In an English 
translation it will scarcely be neces- 
sary to provide any special equiva- 
lent for this ye : it will be repre- 
sented by an inevitable emphasis : — 
* For neither in a city can the laws 
ever go well... Nor can an army he 
discreetly governed,' etc. 

T076 (j>6pov irp6pXT]}jLa. ] 'A pro- 
tedlion in (consisting of) fear.' Geni- 
tive of material : cf. Thuc. I. 93, 
Oefi^XioL Xidcov: Madvig Synt. § 54<r. — 
In Plato's Euthyphro (p. 12 b) So- 
crates disputes the justice of an 
old poetic adage, IVa yap S^os, ivOa 
ical aldu)$. Rather, he says, tVa 
fih al8u}s ^vOa koI Sios. But it is 
a truly Spartan instin(ft which, in 
the mouth of Menelaus, gives to 
06/3os, d^os, the precedence over 
al5u>s, alaxvPT]; which regards bodily 
fear as the basis of a moral feeling 
of reverence. The- Athenian in- 
stindl was to reverse that order: 
Aeschin. in Tim. p. •26, yepbvrujv, 
ovs iKe?voi. Kal alax^vovraL Kal 
deSiaac: Aesch. £tem. 660, ai^ai\ 
d<XT(2v (po^os re cxryyevriS. 

1077 K&v o-»p,a "ycvvTJOTi p-^Ya.] 



hoKelv irea-elv av Kav airo o-fjLiKpov KaKov. 

Seo? yap (p irpoaearLv al<T')(yvrj 6^ 6/jlov, 

acoTrjplav €')(0VTa TOPS' iiriaracro' 

oirov ^ v^pi^eLv Bpdv 6^ a ^ovXcTai irapy, 

TavT7]v vofiL^e rrjv iroXiv %/30j^ft> ttotc 

ef ovpLcov BpafMovaav e? fivOov ireaelv, 

aXX.' karcLTfo fMoc koI Seo? rt Kaiptov, 



'Though he have waxed to great 
proportions.' — aiofia fi^ya conveys 
the general notion of 6u/k, import- 
ance. So V. 758, TTcpLCad aw/xara, 
' lives swoln with too much pride ' 
(a phrase explained at v. 726 by 
offTis firj Kar dvdpuirov <ppoi/y). Cf. 
Junius Caesar i. ii. Ife doth bestride 
the world like a colossus, and we petty 
men Walk ujider his huge legs. — 
For yevvdu cwfiay cf. 0. C. 804, 
(f)va-as...<pp^vas: Her. v, gi, 7]fx^a$... 
i^ifiaXe, do^av 5^ <pv<ras av^dverat. 

1078 KOLV.] 'Even.' /coi dv, Kav, 
comes to mean * if only, ' * at least, ' 
^even,' by this process: — (i) Instead 
of et TOVTO TTOioirjv, ev dv ttoloLtjv, 
the Greeks usually said /cat dv, et 
TOVTO iroioirjv, ev ttoloItjv. — {2) From 
its position in such sentences be- 
tween Kai and el, dv came to be 
regarded as an integral part of the 
formula Kal el. Hence, Kav el was 
used (ungrammatically) for Kal el: 
Plato Meno p. 72 C, Kav el iroWai 
{al dpeTai) elacv, h ye tl eZ5os...^x<"^" 
cw. (3) Kav el having come to be 
used for koL el, eiiamsi, it was but 
another step to use Kav alone for 
Koi, etiam: e.g. Soph. El. 1483, 
aXXa ixoL trdpe% \ kSlv crfjt,iKp6v elire^v. 
This usage Ijelongs chiefly to later 
Greek: e.g. Theocr. XXIII. 35, aXXa 
TV, irai, kB.v tovto TravvcTOTOv dbv 
Tl. ^^ov : Lucian Timon c. 20, a4>vw 
...iroXvreXeis ... , ols ov8^ kSlv ovos 
iirijp^e irdoTrore. 

1 08 1 oirov...TavTT]v.] Phil. 458, 
&Trov d' 6 xei'yowi/ Tayadov fiei^ov 
cdivei, I ...TovTOv% iyu) Tovs dvbpas 


a povXerai.] Sc. tls. The el- 
lipsis of Tts is especially frequent 
in Plato; e.g. Gorg. p. 456 D, /cot 

yap T^ oXXt; dyuvlqL ov tovtov 'iveKa 
5ei irpos 8.TravTa% x/'^o'^ai dvOpuirovi, 
on (/Made (sc. Ti's) xvKreveiv, /c.t.X. ; 
Crito p. 49 C, cure dpa dvradiKeiv 
5e?...ovdeva dvdptiiruv, ou5* dv otiow 
"■acx?? (sc. Tts) tiir' avruv : Apol. 
p. 29 B, 17 Tov oteaQai elUvai (dfiadla) 
d ovK ol8ev. So the plural, Thuc. 
VII. 69, 6 "SiKlas ... vofMiaas — 8irep 
Trdffxovffiv ev rots fxeydXois dyuiffi 
— irdvTa T€ (pyv ^tl a<pi<nv ivSed 
elvai, K.T.X. 

irapTJ.] For the subjundlive, cf. v. 
761, note. 

1083 e^ ovpW.] Cf. Ar. Lys. 550, 
X(>}p(tT' opyy Kal fnj Tcyyead'' (ti 
ydp vvv oijpia delre, 'you run a 
prosperous course :' Polyb. i. 47. 2, 
TXelv e'l ovpias. — P'or the neuter 
plural, cf. v. 971, iv Kevots, note. 

ir€<r€tv.] 'Will fall.' The simple 
aorist is sometimes found where the 
aorist with dv, or the future, might 
have been expecfled : e.g. Aesch. 
Theb. 4 24, kK-nipaeiv. . (prjaiv, ov8k ttJi' 
Atos I ^oXr)v...<Tx^deiv, ' he says that 
he will sack the city, and that the 
thunderbolt of Zeus sliall not stop 
him:' Ag. 1631, Sexo/i^vois Xiyen 
davelv ae : Eur. Or. iS'2'j, p-Qpos, 
el doKels fie TXijvai a-ijv Kadaifid^ai 
biprjv, — ' if you think of my enduring 
to...' (if you expecft me to...). Cf. 
Madvig Synt. § 172 a R. Such in- 
stances (and they might easily be 
multiplied) shew that the simple 
aorist infin. often had a future sense 
after verbs of thinking, expeding, 
and the like. It is unnecessary, 
therefore, to regard veaeXv as the 
gnomic aorist (ireaev thrown into the 
infinitive:— a view which would re- 
quire to be supported by examples. 

1084 lo-TOLTO) [101 Kal S^os.j At 


Kot /jLTj BoKoo/xev hpouVT6^ civ yBcoficda 
ovK avTLTLG-eiV avdi^i av Xvirco/jLeda. X, 
epTTfL irapaWa^ ravra. irpocrOev ovto^ tjv 
aWcov vPpLo-TTi^, vvv K iya> fjuiy av (f>pov(a, 
Kai (Toi 7rpo<pa)voo TovBe /jLtj daiTTeiv, otto^ 
fiTJ TOvBe BaTTTap avro^; e? Ta(j>a<; irecrrj^.\ 

Mez/eXae, ^irj yv(i>p.a<i viroa-Trjaa^ (TO(f>a^ 
elr avTo^ Iv Oavovaiv vl3pLaT7j<; yevrj. 

OVK av ttot'j avBpe^i, avSpa Oavpuaaavfi en, 
09 fiTjBev wv yovaldiv elB' dfiapTavei, 
W* ol BoKovvT€9 evyevel<i ire^vKevai, 
ToiavO^ dfiaprdvovacv iv \6yoL<; eirrj. 




Sparta, near the court-house of the 
Ephors {^(popetov), stood the tem- 
ple of Fear, — memorable as the re- 
fuge of the ephor Agesilaus, when 
his colleagues were massacred by 
Cleomenes III. in the neighbouring 
Ephoreum {b.c.'226). The Spartans 
worshipped Fear, says Plutarch, ttiv 
TTokiTelav fMoKiffTa cvvix'^aOat, ^o^cp 
vofil^ovres {vit. Cleo7?i. c. 9). Simi- 
larly in the Eumenides — an utterance 
of Athenian conservatism — Athene 
counsels her citizens, /at; rh deiuov 
trav TToXews ^^w jSaXetv ' \ ris yap, 
dedoiKus fiTjd^v, ^uSiKOS ^porcou; (v. 

1085 111] 8oKcG|xev.] fiTj KXiTrrrjs is 
wrong; but there is no objedlion to/iiy 
kX^ttto) or /i^ KXiTTTU/xev. Cf //. II. 
435, fiTjK^TL vvv diJT avdt XeydofxeOai 
Aesch. Stippl. 1002, /i7?5' iri. NelXov 
irpoxods cr0o}fi€v. To the other rule, 
— that ^117 KXi-ipov is wrong, — excep- 
tions are common in the third'^&rson : 
e.g. Oa'. XVI. 301: Aesch. P. K 1023, 
TTieb. 1039 • (m ^evcroj'in Ar. Thesm. 
870, is a very rare instance.) 

SpttvTCs dvTiTCoreiv. ] Schneidewin 
quotes Hes. 0pp. 721, d Se kolkov 
etTrTjj, Tcixct k auros piet^ov d/covtrats : 
Libanius Declam. T. n. p. 84, 

dptovres drra id^ovffc Tturx^tv 8v- 
vaivT B.V oLTTa hv ovk ediXoiev: Terent. 
Andr. v. iv. 17, si mihi pergit quae 
volt dicere, ea quae non volt audiet. 

1086 ouK dvTiTC<r€iv.] After verbs 
of asserting or thinking {4>'np.l, aKovu, 
dlfxai, 7]yovp.aL, vofii^o}, VTToXafijSdvio, 
8oK(2) ov and not piij is generally 
used with the infinitive : <?. g. ravra 
vpLas vop.l^(i3 OVK dyvoe?v (but ravra 
vfids ^ovXopLaL /i?3 ay voeiv). Mad- 
vig Synt. § 205. 

1088 aXQoiv.] Cf. V. 221, note. 

1089 8ir«s (A"*].] For 6ir(as-pi,i] 
divided between two verses, cf.v.986, 
note on drjra. 

€S Ta<j>ds ire'crns.] ' Come to bu- 
rial,' die. For the alliteration, 6d- 
irreLv — ddirrwv — racpds, cf. v. 528, 

109 1 -yvwjJLas... o-o<j)as.] i. e. You 
have been condemning the insolence 
which defies human laws. Do not 
yourself insult the laws of the gods 
(v. II 30). 

1092 Iv 0avovo-iv.] For iv cf. v. 
43, note. 

1094 \i.r\Skv ciV.] Cf. V. 767, note. 
6 [xrith wv yovah = 5v<7yevris, dyiv- 

1096 row.vra...(i'in\.] * Make such 

1 104] AIAX. 

07', elir air dp^rj<; avOtf;^ 17 av </>^9 ar/eiv 
TOP dv^p ^A^^aioh Bevpo o-vfju^a^ov Xa^cov; 
OVK avTO<; e^eifKevaev (£><; avTOv Kparoou; 
TTOU cru a-TpaT7jy6t<; rovBe; irov he crol \ewv 
e^ear avdaaetv o5i/ oS' rjr^wy OLKoOev ; 
XTrdpTTjf; dvacro-cov i^X-^e?, oi5;^ tJ/xoSi/ Kparwp, 
ovB^ €<t6' ottov crol rovBe Koa/jurja-ai irXeov 
dpXV'* €K€(,T0 d€(Tfio<i rj KaX rcpZe orL 


1 100 

false statements (^ttt;) in their speech 
(X0701S) :' iinj, didla, — the special 
statements in the speech of Mene- 
laus which had most offended Teucer, 
—e.g. the dodtrine that Ajax had 
been brought to Troy by the Atrei- 
dae, — that, having come, he was 
subjedl to them, — etc. Cf. Thuc. iii. 
47, {ipyo>v) ayadQp jjihv Bvtuv /Spa- 
X«o T] dirayyeXia dpKei' a/xapTavofxi- 
v(t)v 8k, \6yoL iireai. Koafi-ridivTcs 
TrpoKakvuixara ylyvovrat., 'speeches 
embellished with epigrams.' — For 
&fiapTdveiv ^irtj, cf. v. 1107, rd 
cijxv' iiTT] I KoKat' CKelvovs : v. 1059, 
TuxV-'^c-^ouTes, note. 

1097 a-yciv . . . <rii|XfjLaxov XaP«v.] 
Xa/Swy, as well as dyeuv, is empha- 
tic : * sayest thou that thou brotightest 
the man hither, as an ally found by 
thee ?^ —ay €i.v is opposed to air 6$ 
{sponte sua) i^^irXeva-ev : XajSdiv, 'in 
thy hands,' is opposed to avrov Kpa- 
Tuv {'his own master'). - 

1099 avTOs] = avTOfiaros. II. XVI I. 
254, dpyaXiov 84 fxoi iarl 8ia<TK0Tn- 
aadaL ^Kaarop \ rjyefio'viop' . . .dXXd tis 
avrbs Ito) : ' it is a hard matter for 
me to spy out each one of the leaders 
...Rather let each go of his own ac- 
cord:' Theocr. XI. 1-2, iroXXaKi rai 
6tes ttotI TOidXiov avral dirijvdov: 
and so probably Soph. O. T. 341, 
i7^et ydp ajJrd, Ka,v kyui <ny% Gri- 
yw. '(these things) will come of 
their own accord, even if I wrap 
them in silence.' — Virg. Ed. IV. 21, 
Ipsae la(fle domum r^erent distenta 
capellae Ubera. 

1 100 irov.] 'On what ground?" 
0. T. 390, irov <rd fidvris et ca<p-fi% ; 


Eur. Her. 510, vov rdS^ iv xpv<TToh 
irpiirei ; So too in prose, Dem. adv. 
Patitaen. p. 978. 24, irov ydp kari 
8lKa.iov...8\)o u)(pXr]Kiiifai TaXavTa...; 


iioi ^'-ya-y*.] Dindorf' s ^076 is 
found in only one MS. Most have 
ijyeiT', retained by Lobeck, Her- 
mann, and Wunder. The violation 
of metre can be defended only on 
the ground that rfyelr' oUodev form 
a single word. Porson proposed 
^761', comparing //. II. 567, Afas 5' 
^K "LaXapXvos dye 8voKcu8€Ka yijas 
(i. e. ' was the leader of). Elmsley 
(d!^Eur. Her. 371) proposed i]y€T\ 

1 103 ov8* go-e* OTTOV.] Cf. V. 1069: 
O. T. 448, ov ydp icd^ 8irov /*' 6Xei$: 
Eur. H.F. 186, ov ydp iad' Sirovl 
iadXop Ti 8pda-as fidprvp' d.v Xdfiois 

Koo-iiTJo-ai.] 'To didate' to this 
man. Cf. Her. i. 59, M re tois 
KaT€(TTe(2ai he/xe ttjv iroXiv, Koafiiup 
/caXtSs T€ Kul ev, 'governing' well. 
The adlive Koa-fxeTv is rare in this 
sense,— which in Attic belongs chief- 
ly to the perfedl passive K€Koa-p,rj(T6ai. 
In Soph. Ant. 6TT,Td Koa/xovp.€Pa = 
* ordinances,' ' the cause of order.'— 
Homer has Koa/x-^wp, 'marshal.' 
At Crete the chief magistrates, ten 
in number, were called Koa/Moi (Arist. 
J?ep. II. 10. 15). 

1104 apx^is- -Oeo-iJios] An ordi- 
nance — an established right — of 
command: 'an imperial prerogative.' 

•fj Kal TjeBc] The Kcd really 
involves a confusion between two 
modes of expression: — i. ov aoi ?/cet- 
To defffios TXiov ii T^5e : 2. ov vol 




VTrapxo^ aXKcov Zevp eirXevcra^, ovx oXcov 
crTpaTr)<yo<i, war AllavTO<; rj^elaOai irore. 
aXX wvirep apx€i'<s apxe, kol ra ae^iv eirrj 
Koka^^ iKeivovr TopBe B\ ehe /jurj av ^^79 
eXff aTepo<; (TTparrj'yoq, €9 Ta(f>a<; iyd> 
dr)<T(o BiKauo^, ov 10 <tov heiaa<; (TTOfia. 
ov yap TL TTJ<i <T7J<; ovvck icTTpaTevaaro 
yvvaiKO^j (hcTirep ol nrovov iroXKov TrXew, 
aXV ovvex opKcop olaiv rjv iva>fioTO<;, 

[1 105 
1 105 

1 1 10 

/tovy iKiLTo deafxos, dWd kuI r^Se. 
Cf. £/. 1145,0(5x6 yap iroTe] firirpos 
ffiy ^cda pLoXKov 7) Ka/ioO ^LXos. 

1 105 oXft)V.] Masculine, = avp.irdv- 
rcav, cundlorum, — a late usage. Cf. 
Nonnus (circ. 500 A.D.) Dionysiaca 
XLVII. 482, fiXas ot(TTpr}(r€ yvvouKas. 
Lobeck, however, who quotes this 
passage, agrees with Schneidewin 
and Wunder in making SKcav neuter, 
— summae rerum. To this there are 
two objedlions: (i) the neuter 6\w»' 
in immediate contrast with the mas- 
culine dWoiv would be harsh: (2) in 
this sense rd 8\a, not HXa, is always 
found: e.g: Dem. de Fals. Legat. p. 
388. ir, imhp tQv Skwv ireiadeis el- 
p-qurjv dyeiv, 'for the general inter- 
ests:' id. Androt. p. 598. 13, ttjj/ 
Tuv 6\(j)v a-uTTjpiav: Lucian deLueUu 
c 6, TTjz/ ruu 6\(i3v deffTTOTelav: Xen. 
Cyr. VIII. 7. 22. 

1 107 cSvircp apxcis apx*-] -^^* I- 
180, MvppLtSovea-aLV dvaaae- ffiOev 5' 
eyo) ovK dXeyl^w : Aesch. £um. 544, 
<2v ?X"5 avTos Kparei. 

itn) K6\a%' cKcCvovs.] (tij accus. 
of cognate notion {tt]p are/uLvoXoyou 
KoXacLv KoXa^e). Cf. Aesch. Eiun. 
221, 5i/cas I yu^ret/ti Tov^t ^(Sra: An- 
tipho p. 127. 9, Tov dvdpa opLoXoyQv 
T&iTTeu/ rds TrXrjyds. 

1 108 el'rc (jiT| cri) 4>^S.] i.e. eire ci> 
fi^ (pys, etr* 'Ayaixijxvuv fxi} (prjaiv 
{ipL^ 6d\p€iv TOV dv8pa): sive tic neges, 
sive Agamemnon, me illi iusta latu- 
rum: oUtpTipn, nego, becoming /*■>) 
077/Ai on account of e^ 

mo t6 <riv...<rTd|ia] = Toi)s <roi)s 
Xoyovi. Cf. V. 1 147 : O. T. 672, to 

aov ydp, ov rb tovS*, ivoiKTeipcj aro- 
ixa. I kXit-vdv. 

1 1 12 01 irovov iroWov irXc'tj).] 
'Like some toil-bowed serf:' — 'like 
men whose lives are full of much 
toil,' — like the Xo.oi, dvdpei drj/xoTai 
(V. 107 1), whose portion it is drjreve- 
,aev dXX(p (Od. II. 489), and to follow 
their chief to any war in which he 
may choose to engage. — For the 
contemptuous alliteration, cf. v. 528, 
note. — Hermann and Schneidewin 
render, — 'like men overbusy^ iroXv- 
TrpayfiovovuTes, — ' busy adventurers, ' 
ready to take part in any expedition, 
however little it may concern them. 
But (i) TTOvov ttX^ws can scarcely 
mean iroXvirpdyfiuv. The words 
suggest oppressive toil rather than 
mere restlessness. {2) The antithe- 
sis intended is not between those 
who came to Troy from love of ad- 
venture and those who came from a 
sense of duty. Rather it is between 
those who came under compulsion, 
and those who, like Ajax, came 
eauTcS*' KpuTOvvTes. 

1 1 13 SpKwv.] Tyndareus, the father 
of Helen, embarrassed by the num- 
ber of suitors for his daughter's hand, 
proposed ' that the suitors should ex- 
' change oaths and pledge their troth, 
'and with burnt-sacrifice pour liba- 
* tions, and at the altar swear to this, 
' — That of whomsoever the daughter 
*'of Tyndareus should become the 
' wife, that man they would join in 
' aiding, if any one should carry off 
' Helen from her home' (pseudo-Eur. 
/.A. 58—63). Thucydides records, 

1 1 20] AlAZ. 

aov B* ovBiv ov yap tj^lov tov<; /jL7]B6va<;. 
7r/309 rauTa irXeiovi Beupo K^pvKWi Xa^wv 
Kal Tov (TTpaTrjyov rjKe' rod he aov yjrocpov 
ovK av arpacpeirjv, co9 av ^9 0*69 Trep el. 

ovB' av TOiavTTjv yXwaaav ev KaKol^ (j)iA.(o, 
TO, crKk-qpa yap roCj kuv virepBiic fj^ BaKveu 

6 70^67779 eoLKev oil a-fjuLKpov (jtpovelp. 



in reje(fl:ing, this account (i. 9) : — 
' Agamemnon appears to me to have 
' levied the expedition in virtue of a 
' power predominant among his con- 
' temporaries, rather than as the lead- 
'erof Helen's suitors bound by their 
' oaths to Tyndareus.' — Cf. Soph. 
Phil. 72 (Odysseus to Neoptolemus) 
ci) [ikv ir^irXevKas oCt^ ^vopKos ov- 
5evi (as / was to Tyndareus), 

1 1 14 Toiis (ii]8tvas.] Cf. v. 767, 
note. 6 firjd^u is the usual phrase, 
not /xTjdds: but. cf. Ant. "1325, row 
OVK 6vTa fiaWov i) fxriSiva. — Eur. 
Andr. 700, drjixov (ppovovo-i fiei^op, 
6uT€S ov8^v€s: id. /07i 594, d fir)- 
8iv wv Koi^ ovdivoiv KeKXtjao/jLai.. 

1 1 15 KTJpvKas.] On the Greek 
stage princes had usually a mute 
escort of 8opv<f)6pot, (/cc50a Sopv(f)op-q- 
fiara, Plutarch p. 791:) e.g. Theseus 
(Eur. m/>p.): Thoas (id. /. T.) : 
Theoclymenus (id. Helen). But in 
this instance the herald who fol- 
lows Menelaus is more than a mere 
attendant. His presence marks the 
official charadler of the protest made 
in the name of the Greek army. 

1 116 tI/6<|>ov...<rTpa4)€{T)V.] 'Thy 
noise I will never heed :' <jt pa<l>d-r\v 
{or iiTLcrTpacpeiTju. Cf. v. 90, ivrp^- 
irei (2nd pers.) rrjs avfifxaxov : Phil. 
599, Toude ... iireo-rp^cpouTo ('re- 
garded' this man): Eur. //i/>p. 1224, 
oihre vavKk-qpov x^P°^ I oi*^' Itttto- 
hiffp.wv oUtc /coXXt/tcGv 6'xwj' J fie- 
Ta<XTpi(pov(rai. (sc. iTrTrot). 

wsav'^s.] 'So long as you are... ^ 
literally, 'provided that you are... :' 

dummodo sis qualis es. Cf. Phil. 1329, 
KoX iravXav laOi r^aSe pL-fproT^ ivTv 
Xety I i/6(Tov ^apelas, w$ ay avrus 
?7AiOJ I ravry p.h atprj, Trjdi t' au 
dvi^-g irdXtv. (Eur. Phoen. 90, iiri- 
(Txej, 6s div irpov^epevvyjffu} ari^ov, is 
different, — since there W5 &v is dis- 
tindlly final, expressing the objedl of 
eTTiVxes.)— Hermann renders wy dv 
' however much:'' ' utcunque sis qua- 
lis es,'— /.<?. 'quantumlibetferocias:' 
but Phil. 1329 strongly favours the 
other view.— (In all three places, — 
this, Phil. 1329 and Phoen. 90, — 
Brunck reads lar' dv : Schneidewin 
follows him here. — ^ws is superscript 
in some MSS. : cf. Plato Phaedr. p. 
243 E, ^ua-irep dv ys 8s el.) 

1 1 1 8 tv KaKois.] ' In adversi- 
ty.' Teucer is ev KaKo?s, since the 
Atreidae have might on their side. 
The Chorus urge that under these 
circumstances it is imprudent to em- 
ploy rd cTKXripd, ' harsh words,' even 
in supporting a righteous cause. 

1 1 20 6 to56tt]s.] 'The bowman.' 
— Skill with the bow was an attri- 
bute of several renowned heroes, — 
— Philodetes, Heracles, Meriones 
(//. XXIII. 870). The term 'bow- 
man' was a reproach only when so 
used as to imply that the archer was 
a mere archer, and shrank from close 
fight. Thus when Teucer (//. Xlil. 
313) is pronounced dpiffros 'Axaiw»'| 
To^offvvri, the poet is careful to add, 
— dyaObs 8^ Kal iv <rTa8iTj vcp-lvrj. 
On the other hand Diomedes calls 
Paris a to^otijs, as implying that he 

i 10—2 

148 S0<I>0KAE0T2 

ov yap Pavavaov rrjv Texvr)V i/cTTjaafji/rjv. 

fiey dv TL KOfiTraaeia^, acnrih^ ei Xd^oiq. 

•i^<5^^/ /TETKPOS 
xdv '\jn\o<; daKiaauLC (toL 7' (W7rXtcr/xez/ft>. 

r, fyXwaad crov tov Ovfiov f»9 Seivov Tpe(f)€i. 

^vv TU> BiKalcp yap fiiy e^ea-Tiv <l)povelv, 

ZiKaia yap rovh' evTV^^^v Kreivavrd /xe; 



would not trust himself to an en- 
counter with the spear: //. xi. 385, 
ro^ora, Xu^rjrrjp, K^pq. dy\a^, irap- 
devoTTiTra. Similarly Lycus (in Eur. 
If. F. 159 ff.) complains of Heracles 
that * he never had a shield on his 
left arm, or came within range of 
the spear,' — aXXa rb^ ^X '*'''> I 'fctfi- 
<XTov SttXov, Ty (pvyy vpox^ipos yjv. 
In historical times the To^orai were 
usually of an inferior social grade, 
— ^t Athens, Scythians, or poorer 
citizens (Bockh, Corp. Inscript. i, 
165) : — at Sparta, Helots who attend- 
ed the citizens or Perioeci to the 
field (Xen. Hellen, iv. 5). 

1 122 d<nr£8a.] The do-ir/s was 
properly a large round shield (eOVu- 
AfXos, //. XIV. 428), clipeus ; as dis- 
tinguished from the oblong shield, 
o-oKos in Homer, — SirXov, or, later, 
^i//)eoj, in prose, — 'La.t. scutum. The 
heavy-armed soldier carried the ob- 
long shield, SirXov. But dairis, as a 
general term, was often applied to 
the hoplite's shield, — e. g. in the 
phrase dcTTr/Sa diro^aXeiv. 

1 123 4"'^os...wirXi<rp.^vo>.] The 
hoplite wore a helmet and breast- 
plate, and carried a large oblong 

shield (6'7rXoi') and a pike (56pv). 
The light- armed soldier (i^tXos) had 
no defensive armour, but wore mere- 
ly a light uniform and carried a 
sling or bow. Intermediate between 
the oTrXirai and the r^/iXol (or yvfiv^- 
res) were the ireXTaaTaL. These 
carried a small leathern shield (ttA- 
T7]) and a lance (X67X77).^The sin- 
gular birXov in the sense of ' shield ' 
is rare : but cf. Bockh Corp. Inscript. 
I. 664, tUdiv ypaTTTT] if S'lrXcp. 

1 1 24 ij-yXwo-o-ao-ov^K.T.X.] 'How 
terrible the courage that inspires thy 
tongue !' — implying that his courage 
resides in his tongue alone. 

1 1 25 |vv Tw 8iKa£(d.] /. e. with 
justice on one's side : cf. v. 765, ^iv 
d€<p: Phil. 1 25 1, ii]V T(^ diKcU(p rbv 
aov oi rap^Q <p6^ov. 

1 1 26 S^Kaia.] For the plural, cf. 
v. 887, (Tx^T^i-t^f i^ote. 

KTcCvavTtt.] Elmsley's Krebovra 
would spoil the point of the pas- 
sage. Hermann compares Eur, Ion 
1500 (Creusa telling her living son 
how she had exposed him in in- 
fancy to perish), ^Kreivd <r' dKova' 
— /. <f., 'unwittingly doomed thee to 

^^3^] AIAX. 

X^ /,TETKPOS _ ^^. , 
KTepjavra; Beivov y eATra?, el koI ^fjq davdov. 



^€09 7^/0 €K<rco^ei fie, raJSe S' ot')(oiiat.. 

' .:. , i/ TETKPOS - ,^^ 

/(tJ; M/;/ drliUL 6€ov<;, 6€ol<^ (T€(Ta)ajii6P0<;. 

€70) yap av '^e^aifii Zatfjuovcov vofiov^) fI30 

€i Toi/9 oavovra^ ovk ea<; uairreiv irapcov. 



T0U9 7' auT09 auToO 7ro\efjbioy<i' ov yap koKov. 

1128 TwSc] * To this man :' from 
his point of view, — as far as his in- 
tention was concerned. Cf. v. 970, 
deoXi T^dyrjKev, note. In an epigram 
quoted by Lobeck from the Anthol. 
Palat. 276 Arion says, KreLvofxed'' 
avdptiiroL^, lxdiJ<TL cw^bfieda. For a 
clearer expression of the thought, 
see Eur. Ale. 666, T^dvrjKc rovirl 
ai: Xen. Cyr. v. 4. 11, t6 iir' e/Jiol 
oixoixai, rh hk iirl <toI ciawcrixai. 

1 129 |iij vvv dTt|ia.] To refuse 
the rites of sepulture to a corpse was 
to dishonour the x^oviot 6eoi, who 
claimed it, and who resented a de- 
lay which detained the dead, their 
lawful charge, in the realm of the 
Oeol ovpdvLoi. See Ant. 1070, where 
Teiresias charges Creon with the 
double impiety, (i) of having buried 
the living, (2) of having denied burial 
to the dead: — ?X"5 ^^ "^^^ koltu- 
Oev ivOaS' av decSv \ d/xoipov, aK- 
ripiarotf^ avoaiov v^kvv. vvv, nunc, is 
always long: vvv, igitur, is in the 
Tragedians either long or short- 
Sophocles makes it long in five 
other places: — El. 616: O. T. 64^, 
658: PM. 1240: Ant. 705. 

9cois]=y7r6 t(Sv deuv. — Madvig 
Synt. §38^. 

1130 iyd) 'ydp c!v x|/^|ai|Jit...;] 

* What, / quarrel with the laws of 
heaven?' For ydp in indignant 
questions cf. Ar. Ves^. 1159, iyta 
yap &v T\air]v...; Aesch. CAo. 895, 
TTarpoKTOvovaa ybtp ^vvoiKT^cren i/xol ; 

1 131 €t...ovK €qis-] Sc. \//4y€is 
Saifiovuv vofjLovs. — e/...oi//c-epy, and 
not fJLT) i^s, since ovK-eq^s coalesce 
into the single notion of KuXien. 
Cf. //. XXIV. 296, et 5^ Tot ov-du)<Tet : 
Lysias p. 13. 72, el (xh oZv ov-iroWol 

irapwv.] Cf. V. 338, note. The 
addition of irapwv here conveys a 
certain tone of impatience and in- 
dignation: — 'you come and forbid 
me to bury the dead.' 

1132 Tovs 7* airbs avrov.] Cf. 
Aesch. Again, rots r al^ros airrov 
iriiixaaLV : P. V. 942, kir ayros avry: 
Aeschin. in Ctes. p. 87, KaraX^XvKc 
TT]v avrbs avToO SvvaffTeiav. For av- 
Tov = i/xavTov, cf. £1. 283, kXo/w... 
avTij irpbs airrifv-. and so O. T. 138, 
Aesch, Cho. 213. Also = <rf avroC, 
&c., O. C. 929, etc. 

ou Yolp KoXdv.] A public enemy, 
Trokip.10%, was hostile not only to the 
citizens of the country with which 
he was at war, but to its gods. la 

I50 2000KAE0TS [ii33 

rj aoi yap Aia^ 'iro\e/jLOL<; rrpovo-TTj irore ; 

{WTovvT ifjilaei' kcu av tovt rjiricnaao. Qf^n^*- 

, ga a/So.' 

. TETKPQS . ^^ 
K\e7rTr)<i yap avTov '^j>OTroio<; 7]vp69r)(i. 1 1 35 

^H.f Arf// MENEAAOS 
Iv Toui hLKacrraZ<^/Kovic e/juol toS* ea(f)aKrj, 

the event of a successful invasion, 
the temples of the local gods would 
share the fate of the citizens' homes. 
Religious sentiment therefore dic- 
tated that TTokip-Loi should be left 
nnburied, since they lay under the 
curse of the gods whom they had me- 
naced. It is by this reasoning that 
Creon, in the AntigonCy defends his 
refusal of burial to Polyneices. Cf. 
Aesch. Theb. 1020, d70s 5^ koX 
6avu}v KeKT-qaerai j deuiv irarpipuv : 
*even in death will Polyneices lie 
under the ban of his country's gods.' 
Teucer does not contend that woX^- 
fiioi should be buried. He only con- 
tends that Ajax was not iroki/xtos 
(though perhaps ixdpos) to Mene- 

1 133 <roC TrpoiicTTij.] 'Con- 
fronted thee ' (<rot is emphatic — thee, 
a Greek chief) Cf. Her. i. 129, 
iovti S^ alxjJiaKdciTi^ ry ' A.crrvd.'y^'C 
rrpoaToLs 6 "Apwayos KaT^x^^^P^* — 
'placed himself before him and 
mocked him.' In the difficult line, 
Aesch. jP. V. 362, irdaiv os dviaTr) 
deois, Lobeck proposed TcpoHaT-r) {ad 
Aiac. v. 803). 

1 1 34 (iwroiivT' c)iCo-€i] ' No love 
was lost between us.' Schneidewin 
remarks that the chief emphasis is 
upon /uaovvra: *it was one who 
hated him that he hated.' This 
seems hardly true. The words state 
simply that the feeling was recipro- 
cal. Neither word more emphatic 
than the other. 

1 135 KX^imis >|rT]<{Knroi6s.] 

• Aye, thou didst prove his despoiler 

by suborning votes.* — /cXea-rijj rivoTy 

* the defrauder of a person, ' would 
not ordinarily be an admissible 
phrase: but here K\^irTr]i,..xj/r}<}>o- 
voios is merely a rhetorical periphra- 
sis for airoo-repTjrlJs, Xoj^rp-ris. — ^7}<po- 
TTOLos, *■ viaking votes:' obtaining 
them by an underhand canvass among 
the chiefs who formed the tribunal. 
Cf. V. 446, iirpa^ay, the Atreidae 

* gained the arms by i77trigtie^ for 
Odysseus: Pind. N. viii. 45, Kpv- 
<f)iaL<n yap iu xpaicpoti 'Odva-aTJ Aavaol 
BepdirevaaVf 'by underhand voting 
the Greeks paid court to Odysseus,' 
— Kpv<plaii, because hidden influences 
had been at work. — Schneidewin 
renders \j/r)<poTroL6s '■juggling with the 
votes,' — with an allusion to the \p7)- 
<PoK6yoi or ^Ty^oraiKxat who made 
pebbles or balls change place by 
sleight of hand,— as if the Atreidae 
had counted the votes dishonestly, 
shifting to the side of Odysseus votes 
which had been given for Ajax. 
But (i) it does not appear what i/'?/- 
0o7rot6s 'making' ipT}4'°h ^^s to do 
with \f/r)(po\6yos or \f/7)<poiircdKT7is. — 
(2) Ajax nowhere speaJcs as if the 
decision against him were a sham 
result, due to adliial tampering with 
the voting urn. A majority of votes 
was in truth against him. What he 
complained of was that such a state 
of opinion among the chiefs should 
have been brought about by the cai> 
vass of the Atreidae. Cf. v. 44c, 
&TCfios ' Apyeioiait^ t35' diroXXu^uat. 

1136 €V.] Cf Her. ix. 48, irX«- 
(XTw Stj ev iffuv i\p€v<y6r}nevy — not. 

1 142] 



iroKK av icaicm XaOpa av KXiyjreia^; xaxd, 

TOVT eU dviav Tov7ro<i ep^ereu tlvL 

oif fiaXKov, 0)9 eocKCV, rj XvTr^aofiep, 

€v <roi iftpaa-Q}' rovK iarlv ov^i Oairreov. 

aXV dvTaK0V(T6L tovtov w? TeOd-y^eTaL. ,"' ^ 

^^ . . MENEAAOS 

rfhrj iroT elSov av^p iyco jXccxrarrj dpaavv 

1 140 

'disappointed in you :' but/ by you,' 
•at your hands.' 

1137 iroXX* d'v. . . KaK(i.] /. e. You 
are knave enough to have a secret 
hand in many a transadlion that out- 
wardly looks fair. For KXiirreiv 
KaKci, ' to commit furtive knaveries,' 
cf. V. 189, JwU. — Schneidewin, 
Ka\(3s, i. e. * cleverly enough,' ifxirei- 
pus. But the repetition KaKws... 
Kani suits the bitterness of Teucer's 

1138 TOUT els dvtav.] *That 
saying tends to pain for some one' 
(/'. e. for thee), — Teu. *Not to greater 
pain, methinks, than he will inflid :' 
i. e. if you use force against me, you 
will do so at your peril. — For this 
sinister meaning of ns, cf. Ant. 751 
(Haemon says), ^'5' ovv Oaveirac, koL 
Oavova' oXel Tivd. — Creon: — rj ko.- 
iraireWGv (35' iwe^ipxci 6pa<rvs; 
'dost thou threaten me?' — shewing 
that by riva. he supposed Haemon to 
mean a^. — Ar. Ran. 552 (Xanthias, 
who thinks that his theft is about 
to be exposed.) — KaKov iJKeL tlvL — 
IIANA Kol Kp^a ye irpbi rovroiai... 
XAN. dwaet ns SIktjv : {z. e. i/iol, 

iyo).) Here v. 1138 might well 

mean, * some one (/. e. I) am getting 

angry:' but the next verse shews 
that Tivi = (joL. 

1 139 X\rnTJ<ro|i6V-] ov fmWov eh 
avlav ifiol tovto ^px^Tai (t. e. Xkttt;- 
dTjaopieda) rj \vir-q<7oixev. 

1 1 40 T6v8*...0airTcov.] This con- 
strudlion sometimes admits a second 
accus. of the agent: e.f^. cr^ ov da- 
TT^ov TovSe-ov del ff€ ddirreiv TovSe : 
Plato Gor^s;^. p. 507 D, tov povXbfxeyov 
evSaifxova clrai <T(a(f)po(Tvvqv Siukt^ov. 

1141 avTaKovcei tovtov <os.] 
Xen, Mem. IV. 2. 33, rov AaidaXov 
ovK aKTjKoas OTi TivayKci^eTO 801 ■ 
Xeveiv ; 

1 142 — 1 149. His rough veto hav- 
ing been met by a retort, Menelaus 
changes his tone. He endeavours 
to give sarcastic point to his final 
menace by couching it in an apo- 
logue, — an attempt of which the 
effe(fl is injured by the anger which 
breaks out in the last three lines. 
Teucer replies with an apologue 
parodied from his adversary's, and 
more forcible owing to the speaker's 
bettercommand of temper. Illustra- 
tions of this kind were atuoi: Hes. 
0/>p. 200, pvy 5' alvov ^acCKevif ipiu 
<f)poviov<ri Kal avrdis' \ <55' tp'^^ rpoc- 
ieiirev aT^Sova, k.t.\. 

152 S04)OKAEOT2 [1 143 

vavTa<i i^pfirjaavTa ^€ifioopo<; to irXeiu, 

ct) (pdeyfM av ovK av rjvpe^i, rjvL/c ev KaK(p ^ -vv rr^^-'^-' 

^et/AcSz^o? eX^eTy aX)C v<f) €ifiaTo<; /cpv^€l<; 1 145 

irarelv irapei^e rw OeKovrt, pavrlXcov. 

ouTO) Be Kol ae koI to aov Xd^pov arofjta 

G-fiLKpov ve<f>ov^ rd^ dv tl<; eKirveva-a^ fieya^ 

'^eLfioov Karao-fie(T€i6 rrjV TroWrjp fiorjv. 

1 143 €((>op|ii]<ravTa ... T& wXctv.] 

* Having urged them on io sail:'' lite- 
rally *in regard to sailing. ' Cf. Plato, 
Loch. p. 190 E, ^7W atnos to ae 
diroKplvaadaL, 1 am responsible as 
to (for) your having answered :' Xen. 
Anab. ii. 5, 22, 6 ip.ds (peas tovtov 
ofrtos, TO Tols "EXKrjcriv i/x^ inaTOv 
yeviadai.. This constru(5lion is more 
common in the negative form, to /xt/, 
{etpyu TO fiTj irotei*'). — Cf. Madvig 
Synt. 154 d R. 

Xci|Ji«»vos.] * In time of storm:' 
so cuSi'as, *in fine weather,' Arist. 
//.A, 12. 10. Madvig Synt. p. 
66 a. 

1 144 <p.] ' In whom :' stridlly, *on 
whose part, ' ' in regard to whom :' 
cf. PAi7. 98, 6p(S PpoTOLs I TT^v y\(3ar- 
(rav...'irdvTa riyovixivriv , (where the 
dative might depend on 7}yoviJ.^pi]v, 
but probably means rather 'for men,' 
'among men:') O.C. 966, ovk Slv 
f^evpois ifiol (on my part, in my 
adlions) dfiapTias oveLdoi. 

d'v...dv.] Cf. v. 525, nofe. 

OVK dv Tjvpes-] The imperfe(5l 
with dp often denotes what was wont 
to happen: the use of the aorist 
with dp in this sense is rarer. Cf. 
Xen. Cyr. vil. i. 10, Kupos, ... 
OTTore Trpoa^\i\pei^ tipus tup ip tois 
Ta^eat, Tork fikp etirep dp' w dpdpes 
ws i]5v iifxiop Ta Trpoauira Oedaaadai • 
Tork 5' av ip aXXots ^e^ep ' dpa ip- 
po€iT€, K.T.X. — Madvig Synt. § 117 3 

Iv KttK^ XClfittVOS.] Cf. v. 363, 

TO rrijixa Trjs aTijs. 

1 145 v4>' etfxaTos.] viro with the 
genitive properly = '/rojn under' {e.^. 
ptoaaop t6p5' inro tttc/swv airdaas, 

Eur. Andr. 442). But the idea of 
motion often disappears, t.g. Plato 
Fhaedr. p. 249 A, ra utto 7^5 5t/ca- 
cTT]pLo.'. Eur. Hec. 346, h^^idp v0' 
eifiaTos I KpxjiTTOPTa. This is some- 
times called the * Attic' genitive. 

1146 iraTCiv irapcixc] Sc. iav- 
t6p. Ar. Nub. 422, dfjiiXei Oappujp 
ovpcKa tovtup iTnxoy<^K£V€iP irapixoi-fx 
dp, ' I would allow them to make an 
anvil of me :' Plato Gorg. 497 B, oXX' 
UTTOdx^s "LojKpdTei i^eX^y^ou Sttwj 
Slp /SoyXT/rat : id. Phaedr. p. 250 E, 
t)5oj'^ irapadovs. Cf. Plato Theaet. 
p. 191 A, kdp hk TrdpTTj dirop'^<y(t}p.€P 
TaireiPud^PTCs, olfxaL, t<^ \6y(p irapi- 
^ofji.€P us vavTiuPTCS iraTeip re Kod 
XP^c^ai TL B.P ^oxAtjtoj.'. where 
.Stallbaum quotes Synesius Epp. iv. 
p. 163 D, fxedrJKep 6 Kv^epPTjTTjS to 
irrjddXLOP, kcu Kara^aXup eavTOP va- 
T€LP irapeixe ry BiXoPTi pavTiXup. 

T(p Ofi'XovTt vavrtXcov.] For the 
omission of the article with pavTtXwp, 
cf. v. 774, note. So often with ^^- 
Xup: Eur. /.yi.340, ry 6iXoPTi drj/xo- 
t(2p: Ion 1167, top diXopr iyx^- 

1 1 47 Kttl a-l Kttl TO o-ov.] Anf. 
573, dyap ye Xvirels kuI <rv Kal to 
COP X^xo5. 

1 148 o-)iiKpov v€<j>ovs.] 'The 
danger which now seems to you 
slight and distant— a mere cloud- 
speck on the horizon — may yet burst 
in fury upon your head.' 

1 149 Tqv TroXXTjv Poijv.] The 
fresh accusative serves to resume ai, 
TO (TOP ffTofJLa, at the end of a long 
clause: cf. v. 1062, aiiTOP ...aQfia, 



ii63] AIAS. y^ 

^ ,^/%*«o-(/ ^/ TETKPOjr^ 
eyw Se 7* avSp* oirwrra ficoplas; TrXicov, , 

^^ar' ai^TOi/ elacBcov rt? ifjL(j)€prj<i ifiol (Y 

J opyrjv u ofiOLo<; eiire tolovtov Xoyov, 

dvdpanre, firj Bpa tov<; redprjKora^i Kaxm* 

el fyap Trotrjaet^;, XctOl 7njfjLavov/j,€vo<;. 

TOiavr avoX^ov avKp' evovOerei •jrapwv. UrM ' i 

OpOD 06 TOL VLV, Ka<TTtV, to? Cfiol COKeL, ^^ ~ I \^ 

ovv6{<i iroT aXKo<^ rj av. fjuwv yvL^afjLTjv j 

airufjui" KoL yap alcr'x^pov, el ttvOolto rt? 
X6yoi<; KoXa^&v o5 ^la^eaOat, Trapfj. I160 


a^epTre vvv, Kafiol yap aiayidTov kXvuv 
dvBp6<; fiaraiov <f>Xavp eirrj fivOov/iipov, , 

V- a 

eaTat, /jL€yaXr}<; eptSo? tl<; dr/cov. 


1 1 53 6pyriv.] * Temper, ' disposi- 
tion. Cf. V. 640, not£. 

1^55 •n-oiijoras. ] Si feceris, 'If 
thou so doest :' cf. v. 1324, note. 

irr|navov(i.€vos.] Middle form with 
passive sense: so Phil. 48, ^uXct- 
lerai, — where Schneidewin quotes 
Phil. 303, ^evibaerac, 954, avavov/xai : 
0. T. 672, <rTvy7]a-€Tai, 1500, oveiSt- 
dffde: O. C. 581, ZiikwaeTai, 1186, 
Xi^erat.: Ant. 210, TLfi'fi(reTaiy 637, 
oftcio-erat. Add to these Eur. Or. 
440, otaerai (^ij^os): Thuc. VI. 64, 
pXd^ovTai: Xen. Cyr. I. 6. 9, Kara- 
Xvaerai: Plato Crit. p. 54 A, 6p^- 
rpovTai Kal TratSevaovrai : and ctSt/ciy- 
arofiai, f?7/AiW(T0/iat, /iaoTtycicro/xat, 
(TTepTja-ofJiat, dxpeXi^a-ofiaL passim. 

1 156 dvoXpov dvSpa.] * The un- 
happy man.' duoX^os often means 
* perverse, misguided,' — with some- 
i thing of the contemptuous sense of 
; HiXeos (v. 621). Cf Ant. 1025, iirel 
j 5' dfidpr-^, Kdvos ovk^t lar dvrjp \ 
u^ovXos oijT dvoX^o^f ocrris is 

KUKov I Treffwv aKrjTai. 

irapwv.] Cf. vv. 338, note; 1131. 
In this place irapdiv has no special 
force; that is, no antithesis is in- 
tended between an oral warning 
and a warning by message. But in 
a general way it makes the descrip- 
tion more graphic and vivid ; it helps 
to dramatise the incident. ' In such 
sort he warned the unhappy man 
before him.' 

1 158 n«v -QVildftHv;] * I have not 
spoken in riddles ?' I hope that I have 
made my meaning sufficiently clear? 
Ant. 403, KP. 17 Kol ^vpirjs Kal X^7eij 
opdQi A 4'V^f — ^'^- Tavrriv y ISiby 
OdiTTOvaav ov <tv top veKpov \ direi- 
TTtts- dp ivbrjXa. Kal aaipi} Xiyu; 
Aesch. A^. 259, XO. vus 0^j; W- 
(pevye tovttos i^ dirKXTlas. KA. Tpolav 
'Axaiwu ovaav' rj ropws Xiyta; 

1 1 60. £xit M EN ELAUS rt/ //4<r side 
door on the spedaiors' left. 

1163 lpt8os...d7wv.] ?/3t5o J quali- 
fies dyihv, — a word of general ap- 




aXV oj? Suvaa-at, TevKpe^ Ta')(yva<i 
(Tirevaov kolXtjv KaTreroy tlv IBeiv k-*^*^ ^ 

Td<j)ov evpooevTa Kade^ei. Y^ ,,^s.r»«iUU/'w^ t^ ^ 

Kol firjV €9 avrov Kaipov oXhe TrXrja-iot ^^j^/a/J^^^^ 

Trapeiaiv dvBpb^ rovBe iral^ t€ koX ^vvrj, 

Td(j)ov TTepLareXovpre Bvari^vov veKpov. II70 

CO Trat, TTpoaekOe Sevpo, koX (Tra6e\<i ireKa<^ 

lKerr)<; €(l)a-\lrai, irarpo^^ 09 a iyeivaro. 

plication, e.^. Slktjs dyuv. El. 144 1, 
\b^(i3v d^ctJi', Eur. Phoen. 930, /ict- 
X17S d7Ct»>', id. Andr. 725. 

Tis.] The position of the enclitic 
before ar^<hv may be accounted for 
on the ground that /xeydXrjs ipi.5os= 
iroXuj'et/cT/j. "When tis precedes its 
substantive, some emphatic word 
has gone before to which it may be 
joined : e.g: Dem. /%z7. p. 123, ^<TTt 
Toivvv TLS evy]9ri$: Plato Phileb. p, 
43 A, oijd' ■r]lovri oUt &v tis Xvittj. 

1 1 65 IBciv] = €{/pe?v. Od. VIII. 
443, avTos vvv tde irajfia'. Theocr. 
XV. 2, 6p7} 8i<ppov, Euj'oa, avry (a 
chair, Eunoe!): Cic. ad Att. v. i, 
antecesserat Statins ut prandium no- 
bis videret. 

1 1 66 PpoTois t6v acfjivTjo-Tov] 
= t6v ^poTois delp-vriaTov. Cf. 0. T. 
139, iKcivov 6 KTavuv: El. i486, 
dvijffKeLv 6 ixiWwv. 

1 167 Ta4>ov €vp(o€VTa,] 'His 
dark, dank tomb.' ei5/)t6ei5, from 
e^/jtis, mould {situs, squalor), is 
an Homeric epithet of the nether 
world, — a region where there is no 
play of sunlight or stir of life, — 
where all things moulder in a damp, 
lonely gloom. //. xx. 65, oUia 
{At8ov)...a/xepSa\i\ eipiJjevTa, rd re 
CTvyiovffL deol irep: Od. X. 512, ets 
'AWew 86fxov eipdjevra : Virg. Aen. vi. 
462, loca sejita situ, the 'rough 
and mouldering wilderness' of the 
nether world. In the phrase c^/)t6ets 
Td4>o% the thought is of Ajax rather 
as a dweller in the shades than as 

a tenant of the tomb. — The gram- 
marians who explained cupweu by 
cKoreivos probably confused it with 
'^e/36e{s,— unless their interpretation 
was a mere guess. 

1 1 68. Enter Tecmessa with 
EURYSACES at the side door on the 
speculators' right. — At v. 973 Tec- 
messa had returned to the tent to 
seek Eurysaces. Teucer on arriv- 
ing had sent to fetch them, in order 
that they might be under the pro- 
te(flion of the Salaminians (v. 985). 

Kal p.i]V. ] ' And lo !' — The phrase 
KoX p.T]v is regularly used in drawing 
attention to a new comer. In such 
cases ii-r]v, 'however,' retains just so 
much of its usual adversative force J 
as is implied in starting a new topic. 
Cf. El. 78, KoX p.if]v . . . ^8o^a . . . viro- 
<rT€uov<T7)s ivhov aladiffdai, — *' Ncm> 
methought I heard.' 

avTov Kaipov.] 'The fittest' mo- 
ment. //. XIII. 615, Kopvdos (pdXov 
"^acev linrodacretrjs \ dKpbv, virb X6- 
<pov avrov, 'struck the forepiece of 
the helmet just under the plume :' 
Thuc. II. 3, <pv\d^avT€S ?rt vvicra 
Kol avTo TO treplopdpov, 'the moment 
of dawn.' 

1170 ircpto-TcXovvTe,] Cf. v. 922, 
(TvyKa6(tpix6aat., note. 

1172 iK6TT]s.] As a suppliant to 
the Greeks, — in the name and under 
the protedlion of Zei>s 'I/c^o-tos, — to 
permit the burial. While Eury- 
saces knelt in suppliant posture be- 
side the body, and clung to it, it 

1177] AIAS. 

OaK€L Se irpoarpoiraLo^i ev %e/DQti/ e^toz/ 
KOfia^; ifia^ koX rrjahe koI aavrov rplroUt 
iKTtjptov Orjaavpov, el he rc<i arparov 
jSla a a'TroGirdaeie rovhe rod veKpov, 
KaKc<; KaKm adairro^ eKiriaot ;!^^oi/o?, 



could not without impiety be mal- 
treated ; for that would involve the 
forcible removal of the Ik^ttjs. In 
the Hecuba, Odysseus, intent on 
carrying away Polyxena to her death, 
contrives that she shall not formally 
supplicate him, and thus avoids a 
sacrilege: — *I see thee, Odysseus, 
hiding thy right hand under thy robe, 
and turning away thy face, that I 
may not touch thy beard: Be of good 
cheer, thou hast escaped the god of my 
supplication^ {i.e. whose anger would 
have visited thy rejedlion of it,) — 
Odpcrei' Tri(f>€vyai tov i/xov '\Kiaiov 
Ala. (v. 345.) 

8s <r €"y€£vaTO.] Cf. v. 1296 : £1. 
261, rd. ixriTpds, ij /a iyeiparo, j ?X^*' 
era crvfji^^^rjKev. 

1173 0c{K6t...'rrpo(rTpo'iraios.] Cf. 
Aesch. £nm. 41, where Orestes is 
discovered at the altar in the Del- 
phian san(Sluary, * ^dpav ?xw "Tpoa- 
rpbiraiov,^ — /. e. kneeling, and hold- 
ing in his left hand * a tall bough of 
olive, piously crowned with an am- 
ple fillet of white wool.' The Xcy- 
KO<rT€(pT)^, ipi6(XT€TrTo$ iKeTTjpia was 
always held in the /eft hand : cf. 
Aesch. Suppl. 192 : the right hand 
was raised in prayer. Here the of- 
ferings of hair replace the usual sym- 
bols of supplication. 

1 1 74 K6p,as.] An offering, not 
to Zeiys'lK^trtos, but to the dead man's 
spirit, which is thus invoked to as- 
sist in protedling the body, its recent 
home. Cf. //. xxiii. 135, dpi^l U 
Tavra viKvv Karaelvvov, &s iiripaX- 
\ov I K€ip6/j.€voi : EL 448, ab hk \ re- 
fJLodaa Kpards ^ocrTpiJXUV &Kpas </>&• 
/3as, I K&iJ.oOTa\alj'r]iy...86iaiT(^{'to 
our father's spirit.') 

Tpfrov.] Three being a lucky 
number, rpiros is often added to 
note the completion of that num- 

ber, as a happy omen : e. g: O. C. 7, 
al •n-d9ai...x<^ xP^^^^---'^^^'- "^^ yevvaiov 
rplTov: Aesch. JSum. 728, IlaXXaSos 
Kal Ao^iov I 'iKari, Kal tov irivra 
KpalvovTos rpirov \ ^uxrijpos. (Me- 
nander ironically. Sent. 231, 6d\a<r- 
aa Kal irvp Kal yvvr} rpirov KaKdv. ) 

1 1 75 6T]o-avpov.] 'The symbol 
of the suppliant :' drjcravpds, insigne, 
the distinctive attribute and badge 
of the suppliant, — that on which 
he relies to proclaim his quality. 
Cf. Eur. Suppl. loio, TTvphv, A165 
6r](xavp6y, 'the bed oijire, mystery oi 

1 1 76 ciiro<r7rd<r€ie.] For the op- 
tative cf. V. 521 note. 

1 1 77 dGairTOS lKir4<roi x^o^os-] 
* perish out of the land, and find no 
grave.' — kK-wkcoi — disappear by an 
abrupt and violent death ; (ciVre) 
ddairros (eZvai) : cf. v. 517. The 
phrase iKirlirreiP x^ovbs ddairros may 
have been suggested by the Athe- 
nian custom of denying to persons 
executed for treason a burial within 
the confines of Attica. Thus Pho- 
cion — executed for treason in 3 1 7 B.C. 
— i^iireaev x^oj/os ddawros : his body 
was carried out of Attica and burned 
in the Megarid (Plut. Fhoc. c. 36). 
With this thought in his mind, So- 
phocles appears to have written 
words applicable only in a figurative 
sense to the case of a Greek fighting 
far from home in the Troad : in such 
a case, ^KTrlirreiv x^oi'os could mean 
only, ' to pass abruptly (by a violent 
death) out of the land. ' — There are 
two other versions : — { i) * Be driven 
vanquished out of the Troad, and 
(eventually) find no grave.' But 
though ddairro% be proleptic, we 
cannot suppose an ifiterval between 
the occurrence denoted by iKHaoi 
and the state denoted by ddarros.— 

[1 178 

1 1 80 

156 20(|>okaeot:S 

avTco<; oTTCoairep rovS" iyw reixvoa irXoKov. 
ey avTOVf (o iral, kol (jiiiKacrae^ firjBe ae 
KLvrjacLTQ) Ti^i aXKa Trpoaireacjov e^oy. 
uftet? re fxrj fyvvalice<; avr dvhpwv 7re\a9 
TrapiaraT, dX)C dpr/yeT, ear iy(a fioXo) 
Td<l>ov fiekrjdeU raJSe, Kciv fJLTjSeU ia. 

Ti9 dpa vkaro^, 6*9 Trore \?}fet irdXvirXarfiCTGsv iremv dpc6/j,b<; 

(2) * Receive no burial, and be de- 
prived of rest in the soil:' so that 

eXvai. But a person can be said 
iKirlirreip Tiv6i only when he has 
once possessed it. Nor could x^o^^^ 
stand for Td<pov. 

1178 yivovs airavTOS.] Andoc. 
dg Myster. p. 13. i^ (extract from a 
law) — KoX eTTCi^xctr^ai evopKovvri ixev 
dvai iroXKcL Kai ayadh, iirtopKovyTi 
6' i^d}\r] etvai airbv Kal to 

pCCflv lltifiTju^vos.] Accus. de- 
noting the part affe(5led, (or the 
form taken by the affedlion :) e. g. 
Her. VII. 69, AldioTr€S...'jrapSa\^a$ 
t:aX Xeoj/T^as ivafifxivoi : Xen. Anab. 

IV. 5. 12, vwb rod xpjjxovs roi/s baKTij- 
Xoi/j Twv TroScDj/ dTToaecrTjTrires : ib. 

V. 4. 32, icTiynivoi dvOifiia. For 
i^rjfirjfx^pos cf. ^«if. 6oi, /car' a5 »'t»' 
ipowia dewu tuu \ uepr^puu d/xqi kottis. 

1 1 79 8Tr«<rirep...T€(iv« irXoKOV.] 
Cf. //. III. 299, (where a truce is 
solemnized with libations, <Tirov5al— 
the penalty imprecated on a breach 
of the terms being that cS5^ acp' iyK4- 
0aXos x^f^^^''^ P^ot cos 85e olvos:) 
Theocr. 11. 28, ws tovtov tov Kapov 
(the wax effigy) iyCo toLku}, — wj rd- 
KOLT* un-' ^pooTos MwStos avrUa 
Ad(f)VLs: Liv. I. 24, si prior defexit, 
turn tu ille Diespiter popuhim Roma- 
num sic ferito^ tit ego hunc porcnm 
hie hodieferiam. 

1182 dvT* dvSpuv.] Cf. V. 1020, 
60GX0S dvr i\evd4pov, 

1 183 g<rT6...iJi6\«.] Cf V. 555, 

?ws fJidOris, note. — Madvig Synt. 

§ 127 R 2. 

T184. Exit Teucer. — End of 
the 3rd e7reio-65ioj', which began at 
V. 719. 

1185 — 1222. ffrdaifiov Tplrov. Cf, 
V. 596, note. — CAo. 'When are they 
to cease, — the weary years of toil 
before Troy? Accursed be he who 
first taught Greeks to war! Yes,i 
that man made desolate the life of 
men: he it was who took from me 
the joy of garlands, the deep joy of 
the wine-cup, the sweet noise of 
flutes, the softness of nightly rest 
So I lie uncared for, my hair dank 
with night-dews, whereby to remem- 
ber dreary Troy. And once I had 
a champion in Ajax ; but now he has 
become the vidlim of a dark fate. 
Oh to stand beneath Sunium's cliff, 
and waft a greeting to sacred 
Athens !' 

1 185 — 1 191. Metres of the first 
strophe : — 

Vv. 1 185, 6. tXs apa vearos | e$ 
'iroT€ Xrj^lei -TroXvTrXdyKTluu ere- 
<av I apidiioi\ : three choriambi 
(the first resolved) : bacchius. 
Vv. 1 187, 8. rdv d\TravarTov \\ aXev 
e/xol I Sopij\aa-oriT\d5v\ : trochaic 
dipodia : choriambus : iambic 

1 1 89. fioxGi^v drdv eirdywv: 
Glyconic verse of molossus and 

1 190. dvevpC5b\T} Tpoiav\: Gly- 
conic verse of bacchius and cho- 



'[192] MAS. 

ap airavaTOV alev ijioX Bopvcrao^Tcov 

iv evpcohrj Tpotav, 

Ivaravov oveuho^ 'EWaz/wi^; 

oj>ek€ TTpOTepov aWepa Bvvai fiiyav rj tov itoXvkolvov "Kihav 



V". 1 191. 5va-\Tdvov ouTi5\oi eWd- 
vu}p\ : anacrusis : choriambus : 

1 185 tCs dpie^os.] 'When, I 
wonder, will it be completed — at 
what period cease — this series of un- 
quiet years ?' The same question is 
asked in two different forms succes- 
sively: — viz. (i) rii viaros dptdfioi 
XiJ^ei; 'What will be the final and 
concluding number?' What number 
of years is yet to run ? (2) e/s 7r6Te 
ipLdfxos "Kri^et; *at what period will 
the series end ?' Cf. Eur. Helen. 
1627, TTot aov 7r6S' atpeis, S^ctttot', — 
^s iroLov <p6vop; — Others regard n's 
vdre Xri^ei, not as two distin<ft ques- 
tions, but as two questions fused 
into one; like Homer's rls irbdev els 
dydpwv; II. XXI. 150. 

1 1 86 iroXvirXdYKTWv.] Fraught 
with restless toil, — sallies against 
the Trojans, or forays in the neigh- 
bouring country. — Not (as others 
take it) 'oft returning,' 'oft-revolv- 
ing,' years. 

1 187 Tolv airavoTov.] For the 
article cf. El. 166, rhv dvrivvTou 
oItov ^xofca KaKuv: VXoXo Apol.^. 18 
C, ovToc...raiJTT]v TT]v (p-fi/xrjv KaraaKc- 
8d<TavTes oi deivoi elcri fxov Kar't}- 
yopot. In the last edition of Schnei- 
dewin diravarov is altered to the 
poetical form dira-u<XTav (cf. ddavdrr]. 
'koytfiT], K.T.X.), which corresponds 
more exadlly with the antistrophe, 
Kelfos dv-qp, V. 1 195, but is not neces- 
sary to the trochaic monometer 

Sopvcro-otJTwv.] (i) Soyoucr aiT/s, form- 
ed as if from a verb bopvcraoiw, is read 
by Dindorf in Eur. Her. yy^, rgid' 
iirdyoyTa dopvffoSrp-a | aTparbv 'Ap- 
y66ep, = (where the old reading 5op6a- 
aovra violates the metre of the anti- 
strophe, v. 78 r, dvcpMcvn dk yds 
iv' 6x0v). — (2) Lobeck, iopvacbv- 

Tuv, reading ^Sei^' SirXuv for iSei^ep 
SttXiov in V. 1 195. (3) Nauck, in 
Schneid. 5th edit., conjedlures 8opv<r- 
ffuv, and in v. 1195 SirXuv 'EWaaiv 
'Aprj, omitting koiv6v. For the 
phrase dopva-adrp-es fJ.6xOoi, cf. Eur. 
£1. 444, do-TTtards /xdxdovi: Aesch. 
^^- 394> kXSvovs dairiaropas : Theog- 
nis 987, (iTTTrot) aire dvuKra tpipovai 
dopvffabov is irbvov dvSpQv. 

1 190 dv* €vp»8t] Tpotav.] 'The 
wide (plains of) Troy J evpdbdrjs from 
eiipis, as rpaxii^Sris (a var. \e6i. in 
Arist. H.A. v. 17.8), from rpaxvs, — 
and Ppax(^87]s (quoted by Lobeck) 
from ^paxii. The Scholiast de- 
rives it from evpds' * <tkothv^v koX 
€vp(I)87i Tots "E\\r](riv* (cf. v. 1167, 
evpueura, note), i. e. *a seat of gloomy, 
mouldering ina(5livity :' but this view 
hardly needs discussion. — There are 
several readings of this verses (i) 
Lobeck, and Schneidewin (5th edit.) 
with the MSS., ava rdv | eiJpoJSi?! 
Tpoidv: in v. 1197, tw topIoI irpoyo- 
vot I TTovQv: — an amphibrach, tlw- 
TTov in V. 1 197, answering to an 
anapaest, dvd rdv in v. 1190, and 
the middle syllable of evptoSij an- 
swering to the two short syllables 
irpoyov. — (2) Ahrens, formerly fol- 
lowed by Schneidewin: — dv rdv evp\ 
wSedf I TpQXdv: in v. 1197^ TaJ Trov\oi 
irpoyov\oL irovujv. Here the metre is 
inexa(5l, dv rdv evp \ answering to 
Tw TToi'l. (3) Hermann's conjedlure, 
dv I aldv I dep\u}5ed | rputdv] : in v. 
1 197, r|cJ irov\oT 7rpoyov\oT vovuv]. 
a6/)U)5i7J=Homer's riepoeidT^s, 'cloudy,' 
'murky.' (4) Lobeck's conjedlure, 
raj's dv \ evpvtdij | Tpoidv\ : in v. 
1 197, a Trov\oT irpoyovoT\ vov<av. 
(evpvedi^s, ' spacious.') 

1 191 ov6ioos*EXXc£v«v.] Accus. 
in apposition with the sentence: cf. 
V. 559> XO'Pf^ovTiv, note. 

1 192 alO^pa 8vvai fiifyav.] 'Had 

158 X04>OKAEOT2 

/cetz/09 dvrjp, 09 arvyepoop eSei^ev oirXeov 
"EXkaa-L KOLVov "Apr]. 


K€lvo<; yap eirepaev avOpa>7rov<;, 
eKelvo^ ovre o'T€(f)av(i)v 
ovre fiaOecdv kvXlkcov 





passed into the wide air,' — had been 
snatched from earth into the clouds, 
— avapiraarbv yeviadaL, a.(f>avi.<Tdr]vaL. 
— Svvai., had plunged into the deeps 
of the sky: cf. Eur. Med. 1296, Set 
yap VLV "qroi. yrjs acpe Kpvfpdrjvai 
KarCo, I 17 TTTrjvbv dpai (rQp! es aldi- 
pos^ddos, I el fjLTj Tvpdvvuu dd}fji.a<riy 
diiaei BIktjv. 

iroXvKoivov.] * Universal :' Aesch. 
T/ied. 854, (the Acheron is crossed) 
TrdvdoKov els dcpaurj re x^P^^^ '- 
Soph. JEl. 137, oUtoi. rbv 7' e^ 'Ai5a| 
irayKoLvov \ip.uas irarip dvard- 

1 195 Keivos civiip.] Not Paris, but 
an indefinite person, the inventor of 
public wars. This appears from dv- 
Opdjirovs, 'mankind,' in v. 1198. 
Cf. Hor. Od. I. 3. 9, Illi ro^ur et 
ties triplex \ Circa peiflus erat, qui fra- 
gilem truci \ Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus. ,:;j \ 

I8CII6V.T Taught. Aesch. P. V. 
46^^"Uf6jo yvibfxris rb irdv \ i^irpaaaov, 
^are brf C(piv duTciXds iyw | ^dei^a. 

TI96 KOIVOV.] ThuC. I. 3, d7}\0L 8^ 

ixoi Kol rbde tu)v irdKatQv daOiveiav 
oix rJKiara' irpb yap tCjv TpoiiKQv 
ovd^v (paherat irpoTepov KOtvy 
ipyaaa/jL^uTj rf 'EXXds. 

1197 irovoi Trpoirovoi.] 'Toils be- 
yond alLtoils:' irpdirovos, 'prominent 
among toils.' Cf. Aesch. Pers. 967, 
KaKd irpbKaKa, ' evils conspicuous 
among evils:' id. Siippl. 843, Pers. 
970, dXaara arvyvd irpbKaKa. For 
irpo, in compounds, meaning inten- 
sity, cf. irpbirat, TrpbwaXai. 

1 199— 1 2 10. Metres of the se- 
cond strophe : — 

V. 1 199. €K€iv\os ov\\t€ <TT€(paVU}v\: 

iambic monometer: choriambus. 

V. 1200. oiTre padel[di' Kv\XKciiy\: 

choriambic dimeter. 

V. 1 20 1, pel/xeu e/JioT \ repxpTv o/miX 
€iv\ : the same, hypercatal. 

V. 1202. ov\Ti yXvKvu av\\u}u oto- 
^op\ : the same, with anacrusis. 

V. 1203. dva-pLopos oiJr I e wi7x«xj» I , 
choriambic dimeter. 

V. 1204. Tep\pXv r|aye«'j: dadlylic 

V. r 205. epuTwi/S epwT | oiu aire" 
Trav(r\ev o}fioT\: dochmiac (cf. note 
at V. 596 on metre of v. 607): 
choriambus: bacchius. 

V. 1207. KeiiJi.\aTddfji.epijj,v\os oi7ra>$|: 
anacrusis: choriambus: bacchius. 

V. 1208. diet irvKtuaTs | dpbaois\ : ana- 
crusis : choriambus : iambus. 

V. 1209. reyyofievos | Aco/<cas|: cho- 
riambus: iambus. 

V. 1 2 10. Xifypds I fivrj/xaTa { rpoi* 
ds|: dadlylic trimeter. 

1199 o-T6<^dv«v.] At Athenian 
dinner-parties, the chaplets, — usually 
of myrtle, fivppivai, — were distributed 
at dessert, just before the libation 
was made. Cf. Athenaeus XV. p. 
685» V S^ '''^'^ aT€(pduo}u Kal fxipcov 
irpbrepov ei<Todos els to. avfj,Tr6<na ij- 
yeiTO TTJs devT^pas rpatri^ai. 
Ar. Ach. 1 145, iripeiv (jTe<pav(j}(Tap.ivifi. 

1200 PaOeiav.] Largartwi. Pind. 
(9. XIII. 83,j8a^i!'s nXapos, an 'ample' 
inheritance. Cf. v. 130. 

KvXiKcov.] The K^Xi^ {ea/ix) was 
a broad, shallow goblet with two 
handles. Z>/??. ofAniiqq. See s. v. 
Symposium, for an engraving of a 
drinking-scene from an ancient vase .' 
one of the guests holds a pvrbv 
(drinking-horn), — another a ^tctXi; 
(sauc6r), — and three are dangling 
empty /ci5Xi/ces, suspended by one of 
the handles to the fore-finger. 

12 14] AIAS. 

velfiev ifjiol TepyjrLv o^iCkeiv, 


Bvafiopo<i ovT evvv)(^iav 

Tepyjnv laveiv. 

€pWT(ov S' ipciOTCov d7re7rav<r€v, wfioi. 

Kelfiac 8' dfiepLfivo^; ovrco^, ' 

del 7rvKLval<; Sp6croL<s 

T6yj6fjL€vo<; /coyLta?, 

\irypdf; fiPTj/juara Tpoia^, 

Koi irplv fiev ef ivvv^lov 

BelfJLaro^ rjv fioL irpo^oXd 

KoX fieXicov Oovpio^ Ala?* - 

ivv 8' ovTo^ dvelrai o-Tvyepoj 

J 59 



1201 6[j,tX€iv.] i.e. (wVre) 6/xi\etp 
(a^TTjf iuoi), — not ifi^ avry. Find. 
tV". X. 72, x^-^^'"'^ S' ^P'-^ avdpibirois 
bfiCKHv Kpeaaduuv, *the animosity of 
their betters is a troublesome visi- 
tor for men.' — When the infinitive 
added like ofiiXetv here is that of a 
verb vi^hich governs the acaisaiive 
case, then the accusative governed 
by the principal verb may be taken 
either before or after the infinitive : 
e.g. IdoiKe T^ 7r6Xet pS/xovs ad^^Hv 
might mean either, * he gave the city 
laws to pre'serve it,' or, ' laws for it 
to keep.' But when the epexegeti- 
cal infinitive is that of a verb which 
governs the genitive or dative, then 
the accusative governed by the prin- 
cipal verb is usually the accusative 
before the infinitive: e.g. ibwKe ry 
ir6Xei vo/uLovs iirifieXeiadac, *he gave 
the city laws to take care of it;' not, 

* for it to take care of.' 

1202 avXwv 6'toPov.] The music 
supplied at banquets by the avXij- 

1206 dixifpiiivos ovTCDS.] ^AUmtx- 
cared for.' Plato Phaedr. p. 235 c, 
vOj' ovTOis ovK ix^ etTTCij', ^j'ust 
at this moment :' id. Gorg. p. 464 B, 
T^v bh iirl aih/xari fxlav jxkv ovt(j}$ 
ivofidaai ovk ix<^, *I cannot ^uiie 
describe it by any one name.' 

1207 8p6(roi$.] The Suo-avX/at, or 

comfortless bivouacs, are dwelt upon 
also in Aesch. Ag. 542 ff., evvaX -yap 
■tjaav drjtdjv -rrpbs reixeaiv | i^ ovpa- 
poO yap Kairb 7^$ Xeifiwpiai | dpoaoi 

1210 (ivrJixaTcu] Accus. in oppo- 
sition to the sentence: cf. v. 559, 
;/<?/,?.— Schneide win compares Simo- 
nides yhz^. loi. 3 (Bergk, p. 902), 
Iiip(rai% dk irepl <pp€<xl ir^/iara ttolp- 
Ttt I -qxl/afiep, &pya\iTjs fiPTq/xaTa pav- 

12 IT ^|.] Triclinius, kqX it pip /x^p 
odp eppvxiov : Wolff, koI irplp fi^u. 
alkp wxiov. With Dindorf s i^, irpo- 
l3o\r) iK dei/xuTos is a rather harsh 
phrase for KaTa<puyri €k Sei/xaros. 

ivvv\Cov 8eC|xaTos>] Scliol. rrji 
rVKTepiPT]$ i(p68ov tup irdXe/xiwp. II. 
ir. 23, ei/Sets, 'Arpios vi4;...ov XP^ 
irappi^xi-op ev5eip ^ovXtjcphpop Sivbpa,\ 
y \aol T* iTnT€Tpd(paTai, Kal rbaca 


1 2 14 dvctrai.] * Has become the 
sacrifice of a malignant fate,'— has 
been devoted, given up, to a destiny 
which has worked its will with him. 
dpeirac, because animals dedicated 
to a god were allowed to range at 
large in pastures set apart for them ; 
and were then said to be dperd, dpei- 
fxipa. Her. II. 65, twp 8i etpcKey 
dpeirai rd Ipd {Orjpia) el Xiyoi/xt, Ka- 
Ta^aX-qp Slp is t4 dela Trpdyfiara : 


haifiovi, Tt9 ytiot, t/? €t ovv 

ryevol/jLav Xv v'^ev eirearTi irovrov 
TTpo^Xrj/jL aXUXvo-Tov, cuKpav 
VTTO irXoLKa 'Zovvlov, 
ra<; lepa<; ottw? 
'TrpoaelTTolfiev 'A^ai/a?. 

Kol firjv Ihoov eaireva-a top GTparrjkaTrjv 
^ Ar^aixefJbvov y/iilv Bevpo rovS' opficofievoV 
Brj\o^ Be fJLovarl GKaiov 6k\vo-(ov arofia, \ 




Tac. G^rm. x. (the sacred horses of 
the German tribes), Publice aluntiir 
iisdem nemoribiis ac hicis, candidly 
et nulla mortali opere contadli. 

12 18 ^irccTi.] ^Treari, {irovTip) irbv- 
Tov irpb^Xfjixa, 'where a sea- cape 
juts upon the deep.' 

1219 d'Kpav VTTO orXoiKa 2ovvCov.] 
'Level top:' lit., 'topmost level:' 
so Phil. 1430, Otrrji TrXct/ca: Eur. 
Bacch. 307, TTjdQvTa <ji)V ire^Kuci 
5iK6pv(f)ov vXdKa (of Parnassus). 

SovvCov. ] Voyagers from the east 
could first descry from Sunium the' 
spear-point and helmet- crest of A- 
thene Promachus, — the bronze sta- 
tue (upwards of 60 feet high) on 
the Acropolis : Pans. I. 28. Cf. Od. 
III. 278, 'Zio6viov ip'ov...aKphv ^Adrj- 
j'^wj', 'promontory of Attica.' There 
was a chapel at Sunium to ''kdrjvS. 
Soi/wds, and also to Poseidon, — in- 
voked here, as at Geraestus, the S. 
promontory of Euboea, — by voyag- 
ers : Ar. Eq. 560, IlowtdpaTe, c3 Te- 
pcUarie irac Kpovov. 

1222 irpoo-eCTroinev.] irpoaeltrbjixev 
might have been expedled ; but the 
optative is used on account of the 
preceding optative yevoifirjv. Cf. 
P/itl. 324, dvfibp yivoLTO x^i-P^ TrKiri- 
pQaai irore, \ Xv* at MvKTJvai yvoiev, 
/c.T.X. : Aesch. Eum. 288, ^\6oi (may 
she come !) . . . Sttws yivono rwvb' 
ifi-cl XvT-^pios. — For the custom of 

greeting the land to which one re- 
turns, cf. Aesch. Ag. 486 (the herald), 
/(b TraTpi^ov ov5as 'Apyeias x^oj'os... 

<pd0S, K.T.X. 

1223 — 14^0. This passage forms 
the ?^o5os, = fi^pos 8\ov rpayc^dlas 
fied' d oi/K ^a-TL x°P°^ p-iXos, Arist. 
Poet. 12. 25. 

1223. Teucer — who left the stage 
at V. 1 184 to take steps for the burial 
of Ajax — now reenters, having hur- 
ried back on seeing Agamemnon 
advancing in angry haste to the 
spot where Eurysaces and Teucer 
were kneeling beside the body of 

Kal jiTJv.] Cf. v. 1 168, iiote. 

1224 T\|] 'To our danger.' — 
opfidifievoi iifitv could not stand for 
dp/xd}fj.evos TTpos i]/xas. The dative = 
'for us,' i.e. 'for our embarrassment.' 
Cf. El. 271, tdci)...Tbp avToivTyjv 
Tjfjilp iv KoiriQ Trarpbs. 
^1225 fiova-rC.} fioi iari: so oufioi 
= ol efioi. 

<rKa.i6v. ] * Perverse, ' — full of pre- 
judice and narrow animosity. Cf. 
V. 1272. 

IkXvktwv o-TOjia.] Isocr. Panath,. 
p. 252. 96, ^7rei5777re/) eireX-^Xvd^ fidA 
rb irapp-naid^eadai Kal X^XvKa TO 
(TTo/xa. Ovid M. ill. 261, turn lin- 
guam ad iurgia solvit. 

1232] AIAS. 

ae 8?) Tci Seiva prj/juar cuyyeXkovai fiot 

ae Totj Tov CK r^? al)(jj.aXcoTlBof; Xiyco, 
^ TTOV rpa(f>eU av fi7jTp6<; €vyevov<: diro 7^ 
vyjrrjTC e/co/xTTet? fcarir axpcov coBoL7r6p6C<;,\^ 
OT ovBep wp Tov fiTjBev dvTeaT7)<i vnrep, \ 
kovre aTpaTrjyoi)^ ovre vavdp'^ov<i jioXelv V 



1226 — T315. Enter Agam-em- 
HON.— Agam. 'And is it thou of 
whom I hear this insolence — thou, — 
the son of the slave woman, — ^who 
deniest that Ajax was subjedl to my 
rule? And who was Ajax ? Because 
the arms of Achilles were awarded 
to Odysseus, we are ever to be as- 
sailed by Teucer's clamours, or stab- 
bed by Teucer's slanders ! This 
shall not be : learn to know thy 
place. Bring a free man to plead 
thy cause : I know not thy outlandish 
j'argon. — Teu. O shame that such 
services as thine, Ajax, should be 
slighted thus ! O reckless braggart, 
when the flames were wrapping our 
ships and when the Trojans were in 
our camp, who saved us then? When 
an opponent for Hedlor had to be 
found, who was it that confronted 
him in single fight? And at the 
side of Ajax stood I, the slave,— if 
the son of Telamon and Hesione 
may be called a slave by the son of 
the Phrygian stranger Pelops and a 
false Cretan woman. — Know that 
thou wilt touch this corpse at thy 
peril ; better for me to die in such a 
cause than for the sake of thy bro- 
ther's wife. Then look to thyself: 
if thou meddlest with me, thou wilt 
repent thy rashness.' 

1226 Tct Scivd piljAaTa.] ' T/iese 
blustering words' (of which I have 
heard) ; — not like to. Seipd at v. 312. 

1227 xctveiv. ] For xa'i'etJ' prifMara, 
of. V. 1096, afjLaprdvovcnu Itttj, note. 
•^Xa""'' ' Lobeck compares Attius, 
frag. Armorum ludic,^ Hem vereor 
plusquamfas est captivom hiscere. 

1228 vi TOi, K.T.X.] Ant. 442, 


ak Stj, ak T^\v ve6ov<rav is iriZov Kdpa: 

El. 1445, Ck TOl, C^ Kplvu, vol 0-^, 

T^v h Tifi vdpos I ^p6v({} 6pa<X€Lav. 

rhv 6K TTJs alxnaXwrfSos.] Cf. 
w. 1013, 1020, notes. 

1230 4ir* dKpwv.] Sc. iir &Kpuv 
8aKTij\wv. Libanius £)ed. T. iv. 
p. 162, iir^ aKpup iropeHeadai: Philo 
deSomn. Lib. i, p. 60, aKpo^aTctv, *to 
strut.' (Lobeck.) 

1231 i^Te] = iireid-^. At. Nub. 34, 
i^TiXiKas ifiiy* ix rwv ificSy, \ 6t€ /col 
BiKas d}<p\7}Ka, K.T.X. In this sense 
6t€ is usually followed by the per- 
fedl : but also by the aorist in sense 
of perf., E/. 38, Ant. 170. 

ovS^v WV...TOV )i.T]8^v.] *When, 
being naught, (ill-born, cf. v. 1094,) 
thou hast stood up for him who is as 
nothing' (dead). Cf. v. 767, note. 
The phrase 6 fiTjdiv {El. 1 166) is used 
indifferently with 6 oiMv (Eur. Phoen. 
598) ; but, while the latter is a blunt, 
diredi expression, 6 y.r\6h has always 
a bitter, derisive tone ; — 'he who is 
as nothing,' ^no better than a cipher.' 
For ix.f]Uv ehai of the dead (or the 
doomed to death), cf. v. 1275: El. 
1 166: Eur. ^«^r. 1077, <"^5^'' *^A*'' 

1232 KOVTC crrparriYOvs, k.t.X.] 
This is an exaggeration. Teucer 
had not, in fadt, denied the general 
headship of Agamemnon over the 
independent princes who joined the 
expedition. He had merely denied 
the claim of Menelaus to any au- 
thority over Ajax. ' Thou didst sail 
' hither' (he said to Menelaus, v. 1 105) 
* under the command of others,' (/. e. 
of Agamemnon,)— ' not (like him) as 
' universal chiet' The statement of 




r)im<i ^A'Xjaiwv ovt€ crov Siayfjuoacoy 
oXX' avTOf; ap)(cov, «? <n) ^^9, Ata? cTrXet. 
ravT ovK aKovcLV fieyaXa irpof; EovXcov KaKO, ; 
iroLOv KeKpcvya^ dv8p6<i wS' vireptfipova ; 
TTO? ^dvTO<; rj irov <TTdvro<; ovirep ovk iyoo ; 
o^K dp 'A%atot9 dvSpe^ elal irXrjV cSe; 



Teucer that Ajax came out airroO 
KparQv (v. 1099) was not inconsis- 
tent with recognition of Agamemnon 
as president of the expedition. Each 
of the Greek princes, while acknow- 
ledging a common head, was at the 
same time an independent chief. 

1233 'AxawSv 0VT€ erov.] /. e. 
oUre 'Axacui' oUre <roO. Aesch. Ag: 
515, Ildpis yhp oiSre awTeXijs ir6\ii\ 
e^e&x.^Tai, k.t.\.: Cho. 286, S^x^' 
o-^ai V oiire a-vWicLv rwd. — The el- 
lipse of the first negative, when ovS4 
follows, is rarer in good writers. 'A- 
XaiCHv ouS^ (ToO would usually mean 
' of the Greeks, and not of you.' See, 
however, Thuc. viir. 99, ai ^olvia- 
cai vrjes ov5i 6 Ti,<T(ra<p^pvr]^...'^KOv. 
In Lucian this use of ov5^ is frequent, 
e.^. Var. Hist. i. 655, ir. 682.— Cf. 
V. 244, daifiwv KovSeis avSpuv, note. 

1234 avrds apx^'v.] Teucer had 
only said, abrov Kparuv (v. 1099). 
Cf. V. 1232, 7iote. 

1235 8ovXft)v.] For the term 5c v- 
Xos applied to Teucer, cf. v. 1020, 
note. For the plural cf. v. 734, note. 

1236 iroiov K^Kpa-yas, k. t. X.] 
' JVAat (not tIvos, who) was the man 
* about whom thou art so loud and 
' insolent?' — KiKpayat 'hast set up a 
'cry,' * art loud:' so, with present 
sense, p^fipvxa, K^KXayya, XAdfca, 
fxifirjKa, fii/MVKa. — 6.vdp6s, 'concern- 
ing,' (a sort of partitive genitive, 
Madvig Synt. § 53:) cf. /%//. 339, 
dva^lov iih <f)(t}Tbs i^ep-i^ao/iai, * I will 
' ask (not from, but) adont him :' £1. 
3 1 7, TOV KaaiyvfjTov ri (f>ri$...; Od. XI. 
1 74, dirk 8i /xoi Trarpds re Kal vUos 
ov Kar^Xeiirov. 

1237 irot PavTOS oSircp ovk l-yw;] 
' Whither went he, or where stood, 
' that I did not?' * In what service 
' did Ajax take part, — at what post of 

* danger was he found, — from which 
'I was absent?' Agamemnon assumes 
that his own original claim to su- 
premacy could be invalidated only 
by proved superiority on the part 
of Ajax. * The presumption is that 
' I am commander-in-chief. It rests 

* with you to shew that my preemi- 

* nence has been forfeited by marked 

* inferiority to Ajax. Can you point 
' to any instance in which he eclipsed 

* me ?' When, at v. 1 2 8 r , Agamemnon 
is accused of having denied that 
Ajax had ever stood on the same 
battle-field with him, Teucer is 
misrepresenting Agamemnon just as 
Agamemnon (v. 1234) misrepresent- 
ed Teucer. — Hermann : — * where 
did he go,' &c. * where it was not 
' / that went?' i. e. * where did he 
' go, and not rather IV i. e. ' He 
' shared in no service of danger; I, 
'in all.' Hermann lays stress on 
V. 1281 : but see above. 

irot PavTOs.] Lobeck and Schnei- 
dewin, ttov ^avros. But cf. Porson 
ad Eur. Hec. 1062, ird ctw, tS 
Kd/M\f/b}, ird j8w : — ' Haec verba iunxit 
etiam Sophocles, At. 1237, irov 
pdvTos ij TTOv cravToz ; ubi iroZ ^dvTOi 
redle habere videtur Brunckii codex, 
licet ceteri et Schol. ad J 2 73 irov 
dent... Hoi; enim quietem notat; ttol 
motum ; irq. in utramvis partem sumi- 
tur.' — TTOV for xo? is common in late 
Greek: but where it is found in this 
sense in good writers, it is often pro- 
bably due to the fault of copyists: 
see Liddell and Scott s. v. wov, where 
is quoted a remark by the grammarian 
Phrynichus : — tt ov direi; afidpTrjfia, 

PavTos o-ravTOS.] JRhtt. 833, 

TTOV ardcrei, iroc 5^ ^daei; Eur. Ale. 
863, rroi /So?, TTci cttco ; 

1 238 dvSpes.] Emphatic : cf. v. 77. 

1249] AIA2. 

TTiKpovi eocyfiev rwv ^A^^iXXeioyi/ oirXayv T 

dyoova^ ^ApyeiotaL icrjpv^at, rore, 

el iravra^ov <j>avovfjLe6* ifc TevKpov KaKol, 

Kov/c apKecret irod^ vfiXv ovh^ T^crarj/jbevoLf; 

ettceiv a rot? TroWolaiv rjpecTKev KpLral^;, 

aXX alev rj/jid<i rj /caKol<; /SaXelri irov 

fj avv B6X(p KevTrjo-eO' ol XeXec/nfiivoc, 

ifc ToovBe fiivToi, rwv rpcircov oik av ttotc 

Karaa-raaL^i yipoir av ovSev6<i p6/ioVf 

el Tou? BUr) vLKwvraf; i^coO^aofjuev 

Kol Toix: oirtaOev e? to irpoa-dev d^ofiev. 



1239 'Ti'Kpovs.] 'To our cost.' 
Cf. Eur. Bacc/i. 357 (Sttws) 6dpT], 
viKpav- ^aKx^vatv iv 0^/3ois Ihiiiv : 
/. A. r3t5, w dv<TTd\aiu iycj, iriKpav,\ 
TTLKpoLv Idova-a bvaekivav. 

2oi-y)icv.] By syncope for ^otVa- 
fiev. So K^Kpayixev for K€Kpdya/x€v : 
iir4iridfX€v (//. II. 34 1 ) plpf, for ^Tre- 
TrLOeifxeu, of iTrnreido/Mai. 

1240 t6t€.] Cf. V. 650, nof^. 

1241 Travraxou.] 'Come what 
will,' — 'in any case:' t. e. if any 
one, save the candidate in whom 
Teucer is interested, wins. Cf. Ant. 
634, Travraxv Spupres, ' a(5l how we 
may:' Aesch. £um. 447, wpd^as... 
vavTaxv, 'fare I as I may.' 

(j>avov)i€9a.] ' Be made out ' base: 
cf. V. 1020, uofe. 

1243 £l'K€iv.] 'To acquiesce in...' 
In poetry eiKeiv takes an accus. of the 
concession made : e. g. Phil. 465, 
Qf.h% I iv\o\Jv ij/xlu dK-Q. But here, in 
dKHv {€K€iua) a, ijpecrKev, e^Kciu to. 56- 
^aura roiis Kpirais, the accus. is ra- 
ther a species of cognate accus., — 
'to yield in accordance with what 
the judges have decided :' cf. 0. C 
172, dKovTa.% a Se?. Schneidewin 
understands the dative iKfhois after 
eheiv, comparing v. 1050: but this 
seems too harsh. 

1244 KaKois PaXeiTc] Cf. v. 501, 
IdiTTuiu, note. 

1245 <rvv SoXtp K6VTt]<reT*.] 'Prick 
me by stealth,' with whispered slan- 
ders; opposed to KaKoh ^dWeiu, open 

reviling: 'pelt me with abuse, or 
' stad me in the dark. ' There is also 
an allusion to the nodlurnal on- 
slaught of Ajax: cf. v. 47, viKTup 
i(p' v/xcii S6\ios opfiarai /xdvoi. 

<rvv 8<JXa).] With the help of, by 
means of, fraud : cf. Phi/. 84 2, KOfjt.- 
TreLy...dT€\7) ciiv rf^e^Seatv : id. 1334, 
irplv 6.v...rbi. iripya-ixa \ ^i/v ToiffSe t6- 
^OiJ ^vy <?' ificl T^pcras ^avfjs. 

01 XcXci)Ji|X€Voi.] ' The losers of 
the race,' — left behind and distanced. 
Cf. V. 543, note. 

1247 KaTd<rTa<ris.] Here, the 
^rm establishing^ as opposed to the 
initial vofiodeala. 

1248 Tovs...viKa»vTas.] NotptfciJ- 
(ravras. The pres. of wk<£w, often 
used as a perf., serves here to em- 
phasize the /<r««f-<f of vi(5lor's place by 
him who has won it, and who cannot 
justly be dispossessed. Cf. Pind. O, 
IX. 167, uiKUif iire<rT€<p6.ucjae ^oi/xSv. 
So £1. 342, TTJs TiKTova-r]s, parentis 
tuae, for rrji TeKoiJcrrjs. — For the plur., 
cf. v. 734, note. 

1249 Tovs SirierGcv, k.t.X.] The 
strategus Agamemnon borrows a 
metaphor from the disposition of 
an army. Can good order be 
maintained, if rear and van are 
to be constantly changing places? 
Cf. Her. VIII. 89 (describing the 
confusion in the Persian fleet at 
Salamis), oi 6iri(r0e Teray/i^voi is 
TO TTpSade ryai prjvffl napUvai Treipti- 

II — 2 


a)OC elpfcreov raK iariv* oif yap ol TrXaret? 
ov^ evpvvcoToi ^d;T€9 aa^aXeo'TaTOij 
dW* ol (j)povovvT6<i €V KpaTovat, 'jramayox). 
p>eya<i he irXevpd ^ov<; viro (TfJUKpas ofxoyi 
pkCUTTiyo'^ 6p6o<; els oBov iropeveTac, 
Kol <Tol irpoarepTTOv tovt iy(o to (jxipfiaKoi/ 
opof ■ Ta^', el fiTj vovv KaraKTrjaei TLva* 
0? dvBp6<s ovKer oino<;, aXX' 17^1? a-Kid^j 
Oapaoov vfipl^€c<; Ka^eKevOepoaToiieh. 
ov caxfypovrjcreLf; ; ov fjuaOwv 09 ei ^vcflv 
akXov Tiv a^€t<i avBpa Bevp' ekevOepov, 
0(ms irpos yfidfi dvrl aov Xefet ra ad; 




I25O€lpKT€'0V.] Cf. V. 1 I4O, ttffU. 

TrXaTcts.-.evpwvcoTOi.] *Burly'... 
' broad-shonldered. * ttXotuj, — sug^- 
gCvSting especially breadth of chest, 
— is used here in a general sense, — 
* broad and big.' In the I/iad Ajax 
is ireXthptoi (il. 229), — ^^oxos 'Ap- 
yelcov KecpaXrjv ^S' eipias <S/xovs {ib. 

1251 do'([KiXi(rTaTOi.] Cf. vv. 

1252 ot (}>povovvTCS cu.] For the 

position of tv, cf. Aesch. Etim. 87, 
ad^poi dk TToielv-ev ^cpeyyvov rb cbv. 
— This sentiment soon receives an 
illustration by the success of Odys- 
seus in gaining the good-will of both 
parties, and in adding a moral tri- 
umph to his vidlory in the prize- 
contest. Cf. V. 124, note. 

1253 (TfiiiKpas.] As compared with 
the * large ribs' on which it falls: 
ci.Ant. 477, a-ftiKp(^ xaXty^ 5' otda 
Toi)s dvixovpiivov^ \ tinrovs Karaprv- 

1254 dpO&s €ls 686v iropevcTai.] 

'Travels (is brought) straight into 
the road,' — upon any attempt to turn 
aside into tempting pastures. — 6pdbi, 
moving forward ^in a straight line. 
Cf. Eur. Helen. 1555, raupetos Zk 
vov% I ovK ijOeX' 6p6d$ aaviSa Trpoa- 
^ijuai Kdra, 'would not go forward 
(into the ship) over the plank.' 

1255 <|>dp|MXKOv.] 'Corredive.'sc. 

rV fid<mya. — Pindar calls a warm 
cloak rj/vxpav . . . €v8iayby (pdpfxaKov 
avpdv {O. IX. 146): cf. Kur. /rag. 
59. 2, 'K6yosia9'\bs...(f>dpfJiaKoy<p6^ov. 

1256 Ttvd.] Ironical. Cf. /%//. 
1 1 30, (3 t6^ov, ^irou iXeivbv bp^s, (ppi- 
vas et Tivas ^x^is. 

1257 dvSpcs: ovKir wtos.] Gen. 
absolute. — -For CKtas, cf. £1. 1159, 
where Eledlra speaks of the relics 
of Orestes as o-irodov re Kal cKiav 
dvcotpeXi}. Eur. Meleag. frag. 15.2, 
TTcis dvr\p '^r\ ko.\ CKid. Hor. Od. 
IV. 7. 16, pulvis et tcmbra sumus. 

i259os] = oios, sc. 5oOXo? (v. T235). 
Plato Euthyd. p. 283 d, ^o'uKeaBe 
airbv yeviadai ao(f>bv, dfxadij 5i fiT] 
etvai; ovkovv 5s ovk iari, ^ov- 
XeaOe avrbv yeviadai, 5s 5' iaTi vvv, 
IXTjK^Ti dvai. 

1260 dXXov Tiv'...€X€v0£pov.] i.e. 
dXKov Tivd 0$ iXeddepSs iariy. Cf. 
Od. VI. 84, &/J.a Tjjye Kal dp.(})'nroXoL 
kLov dXXai, * with their mistress went 
her handmaids beside. ' 

1 261 ocTTts irpos TJjiaS, K. T. X.] 
Agamemnon affedls to treat Teucer 
as a slave (cf. v. 1020, note), — dis- 
qualified by his condition for giving 
evidence in person on the matter in 
dispute. The testimony of a slave 
was not admitted in the Athenian 
courts of law, unless given under 
torture {^daavoi). Cf. Ter. Pkorm. 
Ti. I. 62 (the play is a falliata. r/^^ 

1268] MAS. 

<TOV yap XiyovTO<; ovk6T av ybaQoi^ iyw' 

TTJv f^ap^apov yap y\a>aaav ou/c eiratio, 

€l6* Vfilv dfK^lv vov<; yevotro aw^povelir 
TOVTOV yap ovSev o-(l)a>v ej^o) XSov <^paaau 

^ev' rod Oav6vTO<; w? ra^eca. tl^ Pporol^ 
'\apL<; Siappel koI Trpo^ova oXlaKerai, 
el aov y oS* aprjp ovB^ iirl afiLKpwv \6ycav, 



the scene is laid at Athens) : Servom 
homlnem caiisam orare leges non si- 
nunt, Neque testimoni didlio est. 

1262 (FOV...|id6oi}J,u] /xavOdvu) ce, 

* I perceive you :' ^avddvoi aov, * I 

* understand you.' Plato Phileb. p. 
51 C, tiiQi TL \iy(j3, <f)rjcrlv 6 X670S,.. 
et fiov fiapdavets: id. Gorg. p. 463 D, 
a/)* o^y B.V iiddoiS diroKpiva/xhov ; 'will 
you understand my answer?' — Cf. 
Gorg. p. 517 C, or^voovvTei Q.Wi\- 
\(tiv^ o Ti X^yoficy : Apol. p, 27 -^j 
apa yvu^ceraL "ZtaKpdTTjs ...ijj.o0 ^a- 
pievTi^ofj-ivov ; 

1263 pdppapov.] Since his mo- 
ther, Hesione, was of Troy. At 
Athens, according to a law passed 
on the proposal of Pericles, the son 
of a citizen by a foreign woman 
was himself ^ipos, and did not enjoy 
the franchise. (Plut. Per. c. 37.) 
In V. 1291 ff. Teucer retorts the^ 

1266 tus ra\€id, Tis] = uis rax^ws 
xws, *in what quick sort.' The use 
of the adjedlive for the adverb is 

frequent, e.g. Phil. 808 {vbaoi) 

o^eta (potrg, kuI rax^^* dir^px^Tai. 
The peculiarity here is the addition 
to it of rts in the sense of irias : for, 
though 6 oPTjp Tax'us ipx^Tcu is an 
ordinary phrase, it would be difficult 
to find anything like 6 aurjp TaxiJS tis 
ipXerai. Nor can the words us ra- 
X«ct TIS xi/Ois Siappci be resolved into 
tijs Tox€td TLS x°'P'-^ iaTLV, 17 Siappec 
(like oia XpuaSdefxis ^wei, for ota Xp. 
cffTLv, 17 iioet, El. 159); since Tax^'ia 
could not by itself stand for ^pax^ia 

or i^iTiiXos, 'fugitive.' Schneide- 

win compares Ant. 95 1, d /xoipiSia tis 
dijpcuns Setrd, — a passage in no way 
like this, but meaning simply, a/ioipi- 
8ia (dupaais) deivd tis diva/jiis isTip. 

ic67'irpo8ov<r*dXto-K€Tca.] 'Stands 
approved a traitor 'to thedead. False- 
ness to the dead would properly be 
predicated of the persons who forget 
him: here it is poetically predicated 
of the gratitude which fades out of 
their minds. 

1268 el...ov8l.] When cZ is equi- . 
valent to ^Ti, and introduces, not an \\ 
hypothesis, but a fadl, it is followed 
by ow: e.g. Dem. Olynth. I. p. 15. 
23, elr' oi)K al<rxpbp...el t6 p,h ^Ap- 
yeiop vkrjdos ovk i(f>o^ridij,...vfieis di 
^o^-ndi^aeaOe ; Madvig Synt. 202 aR. 
— Cf. v. 1131, note. 

ov8* lirl (TfUKpwy X6-y<DV.] 'Not 
even in slight respedls,' 'on slight 
accounts;' — ' not only does he ignore 
'the great and signal instances (w. 
* 1273, 1283) in which Ajax was the 
' preserver of the Greeks, but re- 
' fuses to give him credit for even 
'moderate merits.' For \6ywp, cf. 
Plato Pep. p. 366 B, /card Hva otv in 
\byop SiKaioff6pT]p Slp irpb fieylaTrjs 
d5ucias alpolp.ed' &p ; — 'on what 
'ground — inwhatrespedl ?' — Schnei- 
dewin renders : — * remembers him 
'not even with paltry words,' 'with 
'the cheap requital of words :' com- 
paring, for a/xiKpQPf O. C. 443, 

?7rous /xiKpoO x^-P^" I 0^705 <''0"' 

i]\u)fxr]p, ' they let me go into banish- 
ment for (want of) one little word 

i66 20<I>OKAEOT^ 

Afa?, €T ^(Tyei, fivrjanv, ov av iToWaKi<i 
Trjp (Trjv 7rpoT€Lva>v 7rpov/ca/JL€<; '^V'^rjv Sopef 
dW* oX')(eTaL hrj iravTa ravr ippLfJLfiiva. 
w TToWa Xefa? aprt Kav6v7}T cjnjf 
ov fivriiJbovevei^ ovkct ovBeVy rfvUa 
kpKecov 1T0& i5/i.a9 ovro';; h^KeKKripik.vov^y 
17877 TO fi7)8ev ovra'i iv rpoTrfj Sopo^, 
ippvaar ikOwv (movvo^, d/j.(j>l fiev vewv 



(sp>oken in my favour) :' — and for 
€vL, O. C. 746, k-wl irpoaTrbXov /xias 
Xwp«»'. But though fffUKpoy irros, 
in the sing., might mean *« little 
(i. e. easily- spoken) word/ the mere 
use of the plural would mar the fit- 
ness of the phrase. "ZfiiKpol \6yoi, 
^z. series of little words,' would be an 
almost comic parody oiofxiKphv iiros. 

1269 Alias.] Cf. V. 89, note. 
01J.] Depending on irpoi}Kafi€s= 

ivepiKU/JLes. So TpoKivdwe^eiy, irpo- 
/icixeo-^cu Tivos. 

1270 Sopeu] Depending on vpo- 
relvdiv. For the form cf. v. 515, 
note. — In //. ix. 322 Achilles says, — 
* I no longer hold myself bound, as 
formerly,' aid ijx^v ^vx^v irapa- 
^aWdfjLevos iroXe/ud^eiv. 

1271 lppi[j,p.£va.] *Flimg aside.' 
Cf. Aesch. £t(m. 206, K&irpis 8' ctVt- 
1*05 reps' 6.Tr4ppnrTai X^^y, 'is dis- 
honoured and spurned. ' 

1273 (i.vT]p.ovev€is ovS^v . . . iiv^Ka.] 
ovdiv adverbial: ijpiKa, 'when,' in- 
stead of 6ti or d)s. Thuc. ii. 21, 
fiefiirrj/j,^voi Kal H\€i<rTodvaKTay...6Te 
ia^aXLov . . . du'cxc^piycre TrdXtv : Eur. 
Tro. 70, oIS' tjvIk' Atas elX/ce Ka- 
irdvSpav ^iq.. 

1274 CpK^V €"YK«cXxiH€VOVS. ] 

*Shut within your lines:' — the geni- 
tive depending on the notion of iv- 
dov contained in iyK€KXr}fx&ov^. Cf. 
Eur. Phoen. 451, rbvV eiaede^cd rei- 
X^i^v = etau) Teix^u};^ ide^to. — ipKeuv, 
the rampart, surrounded by a fosse, 
which protecSled the Greek ships 
drawn up on the beach : //. xii. 4, 
Tcixos virepdev \ evpi;, rb iroi-^ffavTO 
PfQu vwep, a/JL^l di rdtppoy \ -ffXaaav. 
— The I ith book of the Iliad (vv. 

283 ff.) relates the success of the 
Trojans in driving the Greeks within 
their entrenchments. In the 12th 
book (the ^Teixop-axla*), the Tro- 
jans attack the rampart, and the 
Greeks defend it from within. In 
the 13th book (y. 87) the Trojans at 
length effect an entrance : but on 
Hedlor being wounded, retreat (xiv. 
506). A second irruption of the Tro- 
jans, — in repelling which Patroclus 
was the prominent Greek hero, — 
is related in the 15th and i6th 
books (xv. 342 — XVI. 644). 

1275 TO (JLT|8h^ ovras.] Cf. w. 
767, 1 23 1, notes. 

€V Tpoirg Sopos.] 'On that day of 
rout :' (not with ippmaro, ' turning 
back, rallying your forces'). Cf. v. 
963, note. 

1276 €X0wv.] i.e. coming forward, 
— coming into the van of fight. On 
the day when the Greeks were dis- 
comfited and driven within their 
lines, Ajax was among the last to 
retreat, but yielded at length to a 
panic inspired in him by Zeus (//. 
XI. 543). Both the ' great * and the 
'lesser' Ajax were a<ftive in encou- 
raging the Greeks to defend the 
wall (//. XII. 265); and when, at 
last, the Trojans came pouring over 
it {virepKarf^rjcrav o/xtXy, //. XIII. 
87), and the defenders had retreated 
to their ships, it was Ajax who, with 
his namesake, was inspired by Po- 
seidon to retrieve the fortunes of 
the day (//. XIV. 410). The turning- 
point of the struggle was the wound- 
ing of Hedlor by Ajax (//. XI v. 410) ; 
— soon afterwards the Trojans re- 
treated [ik 506). 

1281] AIA2. 

OKpoKTLv TjEfj vavTiKoh eSwXtofc? 

TTupo? <t)\eyovro<;f e? Be vavriKu (TKoxfyq 

ir7]h(ovTO<i apBrfv "^Kropo^ Ta<j>pa)v virep ; 

t/? ravT direlp^ev; ov^ oS* rjv 6 Bpoop rdBei, 

OP ovBafWv </)^? ovBe a-vfi^rjvai, ttoBi; 



|iOvvos.] fiovvos for fi6voi occurs 
twelve times in dialogue in the ex- 
tant plays of Sophocles, and once 
besides vcifrag. 426. Aeschylus has 
fioivij}^ in senarii {P. V. 823) : audi. 
Rhes. 31 /*0J/j'a/3X0t (in lyrics). — For 
Other Ionic forms in tragic senarii 
of. V. 894, note. 

d|ji<|>l ji^v vc«v, K. T. X.] So- 
phocles here blends two episodes of 
the Iliad. Homer speaks of two oc- 
casions on which the Trojans storm- 
ed the Greek rampart. On the first 
occasion, of which Ajax was the hero 
(//. XI. 283— XIV. 506), the ships 
were not fired, though the contest 
raged close to them (xiv. 65), and 
Agamemnon thought of launching 
them and flying. On the second 
occasion (//, xv. 342 — xvi. 644), 
the ships were fired : but Patroclus, 
and not Ajax, was the prominent 
hero in the rally of the Greeks. It 
was Patroclus who c/c vrjQp iXcurev, 
Karh. 6' ((T^eaeir aW&fievov irvp {11. 
XVI. 293).^ 

1277 oLKpoicriv.] The torches 
thrown into the ships had not only 
kindled the lower timbers, but had 
sent flames up to the rowers' seats, — 
called 6.Kpoit, ' topmost,' with respedl 
to the planks lining the bottom and 
the sides of the vessel. An ana- 
chronism would be involved in ren- 
dering oLKpoU iduXioii ' the topmost 
row of seats,' — (/, e. the benches of 
the Opojurai as opposed to those of 
the fvYtrcu and daXapiTai): for the 
Homeric ships have only one bank 
of oars. The introdu(flion of biremes 
{di-^peis, dlKpora) is ascribed by Pliny 
to the people of Erythrae in Ionia 
{JI. N. VII. 57). Triremes, accord- 
ing to Thucydides (i, 13) were first 
built by the Corinthians. 

vavTiKots cSttXCois-] The expres- 
sion veCbv vavTLKo. iSuXia — 'the seats 
of the sailors in the ships' — is not 
tautological. Nai/rt/cd goes closely 
with iSuiXiUy defining the ^ind of 
seat, — viz., a rowing bench. In 
Homer the seats of the rowers are 
KXi^ides, — or jyyd {trafzstra). The 
latter is the usual word in prose. 

1278 vavTiKcl <rKa4>T].] *The 
'hulls of the ships,' — the 'vessels' 
themselves, as opposed to their fur- 
niture of benches, &c. Not only had 
the ships been fired by torches thrown 
from a distance, but Hedlor with his 
Trojans was rushing on to board 

1279 iTTjSwvTOS dpSr\v.] Cf. I/. 
XIII. 53, where Poseidon, in the 
guise of Calchas, tells Ajax and his 
namesake that the Trojans '/tfya 
retxos vvepKar^^Tjaav op-iXip,^ and 
adds : — ^ p' 67' 6 Xva(ri!l)8r]s, 0X074 
ef/ceXos, ijyefioveijei, | "Ektw/j. — In 
the I/iad, Hedtor twice passes be- 
yond the Greek rampart. On the 
first occasion (//• xiii. 53) he mounts 
it by storm, when its defenders have 
been driven in. On the second oc- 
casion (//. XV. 351—366) Apollo 
went before, — choked up the fosse, 
and made a breach in the rampart, — 
so that Hedlor could drive through. 
In writing irrjduifTOi Sophocles evi- 
dently had in view the first of these 
two Homeric incidents. 

1281 Sv ovSafiov orv(jipi)vai 

iro8i;] * Who nowhere, thou sayest, 
* so much as stood uj> beside th^ef — 
who failed, — not only /3oi7^^(j-at x^P^ 
but even ovp.^'qvax iro5L, to appear in 
his place on the field of danger. Thus 
Hermann; git^m nusquani adstitisse 
tibi diets. Cf. Eur. Helen. 1006, ij 
Kirpis U fioi I iXetat p-l* ft^t <rvfi- 


ap vfilv ovro<; ravr ehpaaev evBcxa; 
yy>T avBi^ auT09 'E/cropo? ix6vo<; fiovov, 
Xa'^wv T€ KdKeXeva-To<;, rfkO* ivavTLOf;^ 
ov BpaireTTjv top Kkrjpov h fieaov KaOeU, 



j8^/Si7K€ 5' oiSafiov, *hath never 
•come nigh me.' — Teucer here mis- 
represents Agamemnon, who said 
merely that he had been wherever 
Ajax had been: (v. 1237, no/e). — 
Brunck understands ffvfx^rjvai tois 
voXefdois, nusquatn hosti contulisse 
pedem : and so Lobeck, Wunder, 
Schneidewin (who compares con- 
gredi). In Polyb. XI. ^24. 6, (rvfi^e- 
^ly/c^mt seems to mean 'having joined 

* battle :' but there, as Lobeck re- 
marks, the true reading is ffv/x^e^Xr]- 

128^ 5pa.] Cf. V. 277, note. 

dp' v|Jttv ^vSiKa;] ^Vf ill you 

*deny that he did his duty f/iere?' 

* Did he do iAese things rightly (even) 

* inyour opinion ?' There is an em- 
phasis on v/juu as well as on raOra : 
'even enemies can scarcely quarrel 

* with his condudl here.' For the da- 
tive ifdv, vestro iudicio, cf. v. 1358: 
Eur. Hec. 309, i)iMv 5' 'AxtXXei>s 
fi^tos Tt/i^s Xax^iv : Ar. I^ax 1 1 86, 
dediaiv ovtol Kaudpdaiv pi^dcnrides, 

* in the sight of gods and men.' 

1283 x*^"^*-] ^- ^- '^"■^ °'^'* lv8iKa 
iSpaaep, Src, k.t.X....; The 8t€ can 
scarcely be referred back to oi fivrj- 
Hove^eis; in v. 1273. — For the com- 
bat between Hedlor and Ajax, see 
//. VII. 53—328. Hedor having 
challenged a Greek champion to 
single fight (v. 73), nine chiefs of- 
fered themselves (v. 161); at Nes- 
tor's instance lots were cast ; and the 
lot fell to Ajax (v. 182). Hedlor 
and Ajax fought till nightfall, when 
they were parted by heralds from 
either camp — exchanged gifts in to- 
ken of goodwill — and were received 
back with honour by the respedlive 
armies (w. 306 — 322). 

avTos (Jiovos (lovov.] 'When 

'alone[avT6s) he met Hedlor in sittgle 
' fight.' AiJt6s, solus j is reinforced by 
fiAvos, because Teucer wishes to em- 

phasize the fa<fl that in this achieve- 
ment no Greek but Ajax had any 
share. Agamemnon had asked, 
'what has Ajax done, that I did not 
'do?' (v. 1237). This is an answer. — 
For avTb$ fiovos, cf. Od. xiv. 450, 
aiTov...8v pa <rv^(I}Ti]s \ airbs kt-^- 
aaro oTos. Empedocles v. 328, av- 
rb [xbvov ir€t<rd4vT€s 6t(p irpoaiKvpffav 
'dKaaros: for ai/ros, Ar. AcA. 504, 
avTol ydp iap-ev ('we are by our- 
selves ')...Ko£'7rw ^hoL irdpeia-iv. 

1285 ov SpaireTTiv t&v kXtjpov.] 
' For the lot he cast in was no sAirk- 
'm^lot, no lump of crumbling glebe.' 
The usual KXrjpos was a stone or a 
potsherd, which its owner marked 
so that he might know it again : //. 
VII. 175, KXrjpov e(T7]ixrtvavTo '^Kaaros. 
If for this a lump of damp earth 
were substituted by fraud, it would 
crumble to pieces when the helmet 
was shaken, and its owner would 
run no risk of being chosen for a ser- 
vice of danger by his lot coming out 
first. After the Dorian conquest of 
Peloponnesus (said the legend), it was 
arranged that the Heraclid chiefs, — 
T^menus, Cresphontes, and of Aris- 
todemus (represented by his heirs) — 
should divide the territory by lot. 
He whose lot came out first was 
to have Argos ; the second, Sparta ; 
the third, Messenia. Cresphontes 
wished to get Messenia. He there- 
fore cast into the urn a lump of 
clay instead of a stone, and through 
this fraud was drawn third. (Apol- 
lodorus Biblioth. II. 8.) According 
to Pausanias (iv. 3) the lot which 
crumbled in the urn was that of 
the sons of Aristodemus. Plautus 
seems to follow the latter version, 
Cas. II. 2. 46 : — utinam tua quidem 
ista, sicut Herculeis praedicant quon- 
dam prognatis, in sortiendo sors 
delicuerit, — Ch. tu ut liquescas ipse! 

1294] A IAS. 

vypa<; dpovpa<; fiwXov, a\V 09 evXocftov 
KVV7J<; efieXke 7rpcoTo<: akpua Kovcpieiv ; 

05 r)V o TTpdaacoi/ ravra, avv 8' €700 irapwv, 

6 8oi}Xo9, ovK T7J<i fiupfidpov /jLrjTpbf; 7670)9. 
8v<TTr)V€, TTol pkeircav iror avrd koX dpoel^; 
OVK OLaOa aov iraTph^ fiev 09 irpovcpv irarrip 
dp^acov ovra YUkoira ^dp^apov ^pvya ; 
Arpea S\ 09 av a eaireipe hva-a-efBeaTaTov, 

TTpodevr dhek^w Belirvop OLKeicov reKvoyv; 



1286 dXX* os«5X6<|>ov, K.T.X.] //. 

VII. 182, e/c 5' idopev KXijpos Kvv^rjs 
5c dp' ijdeXov avTol, \ A^avros. 

1287 dX|JLa Kovcfiieiv] = Kov(f>ov 
akfia aXeiadat: (Eur. £/. 861, ovpd- 

VIOV I TTT^dTJ/xa KOV<f>l^OV(Ta.) Ct O. T. 

193, 5pd/in]p.a vci}TL(Tai = dpdiJ.r]iJia dpa- 
ixeiv vwrlaavra: Bion idyll. 15. I, 
/ie'Xos Xiyaivecu = \cyd fi^Xo9 q.deLV. 

1288 <rv»v 8' €7w] Cf. V. 959, 
note. Teucer often appears in the 
Iliad as the companion of his half- 
brother: cf. //. VII. 266: — 'Ninth 
' came Teucer, drawing his back- 

* bent bow ; and he took his place 

* under the shield of Ajax son of 
' Telamon. Then Ajax would a little 
' lift his shield : and when the hero 
' Teucer, having glanced around, had 
' shot his arrow and struck some one 
' in the throng of battle, that man 
' fell upon the spot and gave up his 
' life ; but Teucer retreating, as a 
' child to his mother, would seek 
' shelter with Ajax ; and Ajax would 

* cover him with his bright shield.' 

1289 ® SovXos.] Cf. V. 1020, 

1290 Kal 0po€is;] 'With what 
' face can'st thou utter the words ?' 
Cf. O. T. irdiov dvSpa Kal Xiyeis; 
Track. 314, tI 5' ctV /x,e kclI Kplvois; 
Aesch. A^. 269, TTOi'ou xpocoy 5i Kal 
TreTTopOrjTai ttoXis; 'at what time 

* was the city captured ?' Eur. Hipp. 
1171, TTcSs Kal dLivXer'j dirL — For 
6 poets, cf. V. 67, note. 

1291 ouK ota-0a, K.T.X.] OVK otffda 
dpxalov IIAoTra, 6s aov iraTpbs irarrjp 
Trpoij4>v, 6vTa fidp^apov, — 4>pi>ya; — 

Agamemnon had taunted Teucer 
with being the son of a captive, 
Hesione. Teucer retorts that (i) 
Pelops, the grandfather of Agamem- 
non, was a barbarian: (2) Atreus, 
the father of Agamemnon, an im- 
pious murderer: (3) Aerope, the 
wife of Atreus, an adulteress. 

1292 dpxaiov n^Xoiro.] 'Pelops of 
'old. The epithet c/3xatoi' emphasizes 
the fadl that a barbarian, — a Phry- 
gian, — W3is founder of the Atrid dy- 
nasty, — the highest source to which 
they could trace back their lineage ; 
— in contrast with those great houses 
of Greece which claimed a diredl 
descent from a hero or a god, — as 
the Aeacidae (v. 387) from Zeus him- 

4»pv7a.] Pelops, king of the 
Maeonians, a Phrygian tribe, was 
said to have been driven from his 
capital on Mt. Sipylus, S. of the 
Hermus in Lydia, by Ilus, king of 
Troy (Pans. il. 22). He migrated 
to Pisa in Elis ; and his son Atreus 
afterwards became king of Mycenae. 
The term 'Phrygian' included seve- 
ral cognate peoples beyond the limits 
of Phrygia proper,— ^.^. the Trojans, 
the Mysians, the Maeonians of Lydia, 
the Mygdonians of Bithynia, the Do- 
lionians of Cyzicus. Cf. v. 1 054, note. 

1293 8v<r<r€p^<rTaTov.] It seems 
better to take bvaae^iaraTov with ai 
than with 'Arpia or with detirvov. 
The simple emphasis of 1 294 would 
be weakened rather than pointed by 
an epithet. 

1294 d8€X4>^.] Gi^oTU. Cf. Aesch. 



\a^(ov eiraKTOv dvhp o <j>LTV(Ta^ irarrjp 
e(f}TJfceu iXkoU IxOvcnv Bcacjidopav, 

TOLOVTO<i WV rOLwB^ 6v€cBl^€L<i CTTTOpaV ', 

09 €/c Trarpb^ fiiv elfic TeXa/icSj^o? 767^^9, 
oaTC^i arparov ra irpwT dpicrT6va-a<; ifM-qi; 
t<7p^€i ^vvevvov fi7)Tep\ ^ <j)v<r€L fiev rjp 



A^. 1569, 'Arpei^s TrpoOvfjLus /jlcLWov 
fj 0tXws Trarpl | t^ 'yUV> Kpeovpyov 
^fiap eidijficos dyecp \ 5oKi2v, irapia-xe 
taira -jraideioiv KpeQv. Hor. A. F. 
Qf, coe7ia Thyestae. 

1295 Kpii<r<rT)s. ] Aerope, daughter 
of Catreus, king of Crete, and grand- 
daughter of Minos. The term ' Cre- 
tan' is in itself a reproach. Cf. Epi- 
menides (? circ. 600 B.C.), ap. St 
Paul, Ep. to Titus i. 12, K/3:7res &.ex 
\l/€v(rTai^ KUKo. BripLa, yacTT^pes dpyal. 
The , popularity of the Cretans pro- 
bably had not been increased by their 
failure to aid the national cause on 
the eve of the Persian invasion 
(Her. VII. 169 ff.). _ 

1296 liraKTov dv8pa.] *A para- 
mour:' 'a lover imported {i-rraKTbv) 
* into the bed of her lawful husband.' 
Cf. Eur. Ion 592, irarp6s t iiraKTOv 
Kairbs uv vodayeprjs, 'the son of a 
'false father (of an adulterer), and 
himself a bastard.' According to 
the legend followed by Euripides jh' 
his Kprj(T(rai, Catreus, father of Ae- 
rope, on detedling her guilty love 
for a slave, consigned her to Nau- 
plius, king of Euboea, to be drowned. 
But Nauplius spared her life, and 
she afterwards married Atreus. Ac- 
cording to another version of the 
story, followed by Sophocles in his 
Atreus (Schol. ad Eur. Or. 802), 
it was Atreus who caught his wife 
in adultery with his brother Thy- 
estes: cf. Ovid Trist. 11, 391, Si 
non Aeropen f rater sceleratus amasset. 
The words 6 ^triJcras irariip here must 
mean Aerope's father Catreus, and 
are therefore decisive for the former 
version of the legend. But Schneide- 
win appears wrong in saying that 

eiraKTov &v5pa = ^€vov, ' a foreigner, ' 
and could not apply to Thyestes. 
ivaKT6v = simply 'adventitious,' — 
' brought in as a paramour, ' in con- 
trast with the lawful husband. 

1297 €({>T]KEV...8ia(f>6opdv.] ' Con- 
' signed her as a prey to the dumb 
* fishes.' i<pr]K€, since he gave her to 
Nauplius, charging him to drown 
her. I'his charge was not, in fa(ft, 
executed : but i<p7]K€ implies only 
that it was given. 

IXXois.j eXX6s, a rare form for the 
epic IWoyj/: Hes. Scut. 212, AXo- 
TTtts Ix^Os. The etymology is un- 
known. Some derive it from ?XXe- 
(rdai. {quasi tWo^p) in the sense of 
eipyeadai, 'debarred from utterance :' 
(Buttm. LexiL p. 265, note). Cf. 
Aesch. Fers. 579, (XKuWovTai irpb^ 
avaiduv, irj, \ Traiduv ras dfudpTOv, 
' voiceless children of the stainless,' 
dumb fishes of the sea. 

8ta4>6opdv. ] ' A prey.' Eur. H.K 

458, ^T€KOV fxkv V/JLOiS, TTokefdois 8* 
edpe^l/dfirju j v^pia/ia k&tIxo-P/J'O. koI 

1299 6K irarpos |x^v.] The second 
clause, e/c 5^ AtT/rpos, which ought 
properly to have followed, is lost in 
the change of construdlion, — Bans 
ifMTju fcrxet fJ.y]T4pa. 

1 301 l'crx.€i ^vvevvov.] ' TVon my 
'mother for his bride:' ?(rx«, historic 
present; not, 'has to wife.' 

4>vcr€i,] 'By birth.' Cf. £/. 1125, 
dXX' ^ (piXuu Tts, ^ Trpds aifiaros 
(pvaiv, 'or a relation {irpos aifiaTos) 
'hy birth: 

1 302 Aaojx^SovTos.] For the geni- 
tive cf. V. 172, Aids^Aprefiis, note. — 
Apollo and Poseidon having been 
defrauded by Laomedon of their 


^aa-lXeia, Aao/jbeBovTO<;' CKKptrov Be viv 
Booprj/ju eK6LV(p 'Bcokcv *A\KfJL^vr}(; y6vo<i. 
ap c5S' apL(TTO<i e'f apiareoiv Bvoip 
^Xaarcov gov ala^vvocfii rot)? Trpo? aifiaro^f 
oi)<? vvu (TV TOtolcrB' iv irovocac KeLfievov<i 
wO€L<; adcLTTTOv^;, ovB^ eTraLayyvet Xeycov; 
6V vvv ToS' taOiy TovTov cl jSaXecTe iroVf 
^aXelre XVM'^^ Tpel^; o/jlov axryKeifxevov^. 
eirel koXov /j,oo tovB* virepirovoviievw 
Oavelv irpoBrjXm^ fJuaXkov rj Tfj<i o"^? virep 




wages for building the walls of 
Troy, the seagod sent a dragon into 
the Trojan territory. Hesione, 
daughter of Laomedon, was doomed 
to be sacrificed to the monster, when 
Heracles slew it, and saved her. 
Cheated of his promised reward — 
the horses given to Tros by Zeus — 
Heracles levied war against Troy, 
sacked the city, and gave Hesione 
to Telamon. (//. v. 638 : Find. /. 
V. 41 ff.) 

iKKpiTOv] = i^alperov, exsors — 
something reserved, — when the rest 
of the booty is apportioned by lot, 
— as a gift of honour for a specially 
distinguished person. Cf. Aesch. 
Eum. 378, tO)v alxiJ-oX^tav xPVf^^- 
TUM Xdxos fiiycL, I i^alperov 5w- 
pV/J-o- Q-qaiws tSkols \i. e. Sigeum, 
specially assigned to the Athenians 
after the conquest of the Troad). 
Virg. Aen. Viii. 551, Dantur equi 
Teucris ...Ducunt exsortem (equom) 

1304 apwTTOS k\ dpwTT^oiv 8votv.] 
' Born to the nobleness of two noble 
'parents' — the heir of their noble- 
ness, though not of their nobility. 
The Homeric term apiartm involves 
the notions both of valour and of 
good birth. But dpiaros could 
scarcely include the notion of eiJ- 
yev^araros, although the positive 
dyados sometimes stands for eiryevTjy, 
e.g. Find. O. VII. 166, iraTipiav i\ 
dyadOiv. Teucer predicates both 
nobility and nobleness of his parents: 
but conscious that technically he 

is v6do%, he is content to claim for 
himself to yevvaiov rather than to 

8voiv.] Whereas only one of Aga- 
memnon's parents could be called 
in any just sense 'noble.' Aerope, 
a princess by birth, was by her ads 

1305 Tovs irpos atfiaros.] 'My 
'kinsman' Aj ax: (for the plural, cf. 
v. 734, note). Agamemnon had 
tauntingly desired Teucer to find a 
freeborn advocate to plead the cause 
of Ajax (v. 1260). 'It can be no 
'dishonour to Ajax,' Teucer replies, 
' that his cause should be pleaded 
'by the son of Telamon and Hesione.' 
For the phrase oi irph% at/xaros, 
'those appertaining to, connedled 
'with, one's blood,' cf. £1. 1125, ^ 
<t>l\(av Tts fj Trpos atfiUTOs, * a friend 
or a blood-relation.' 

1307 wGcis dOairrovs.] ' Seekest 

* to repulse from burial :' dddirrovs 
proleptic: v. 517, note. 

X^^wv.] OTi iidels. 

1308 irov] = 7rot: v. 1237, note. 

1309 rpeis ip-oC <rvYK€ipivovs.] 

* Ye will cast forth along with him 
'our three corpses also :' i.e. 'While 
*I have life, I will never permit you 
' to lay hands on the corpse: while 

* Tecmessa and Eurysaces live, they 
' will never cease to cling to it. ' The 
mother and child were still kneeling 
as suppliants beside the body: cf. v. 
1 1 7 1 ff. HjvyKeifxAvovs is explained by 
i-jrel KaXov /j.oi,...6ay€iy, k.t.X. 

13 1 1 irpoSijXws-] 'In the sight of 


yvvaLK6<i, rj tov <rovy ofialfiovof; Xejco; 
7r/}09 ravd^ opa firj rovfiov, olXKa. koX to (TOV. 
w? a, /JL€ TrrjfiaveL^ tl, ^ou\ri<rei iroTe 
KoX heCko^ elvai, fiaWov rj V ifiol 6paau<;, 

ava^ ^OSvaa-ev, Kaipov XaO^ i\,7j\vd(Jb<;, 
el firj ^vvdyjrcov aXKa avKKvawv irapeL. 


'all men:' 'publicly.' His death 
would be a public protest against 
the cruel insult put upon his kins- 
man. Whereas, if he fell in battle, 
his loss would be scarce heeded 
among the multitude of vidlims slain 
in the cause of a worthless woman. 

1 3 12 TOV o-ov-y*.] * Or rather {ye) 
' thy brother's (wife), I mean.' rod 
covy is Hermann's conjedlure for 
the TOV (TOV 6' of the MSS. He sug- 
gests that when V had been cor- 
rupted into T, T was altered into 
8 before the aspirate. Brunck de- 
fends TOV <rov 6\ taking re d.s=etiam: 
but this will not stand in Attic. 
Dindorf conjedlures rov <rov ^wal- 
fiovos. Martin (a/>. Donaldson 
Greek Theatre^ p. 292), cov tov5' — 
inferring from vv. 11 16, 13 19, that 
Menelaus is prese7it as a K(2(pov irp'oa- 
wirov: but see v. 1319, nofe on 

1313 TOTJUOV.] *My interest:' cf. 
V. 124. 

13 15 Iv cuoC] 'To play the bully 
with me :' lit. ' upon me.' Cf. v. 43, 

1315 — 1375. £nfer ODYSSEVSdy 
the side door on the spedlators^ lefty 
asfrom thecamp. — Cho. 'KingOdys- 
seus, thou hast come in season, if 
thou wilt but mediate. — Od. And 
what is it, friends? Afar I heard 
the voices of the Atreidae loud over 
this brave man's corpse. — Ag. King 
Odysseus, this man would bury Ajax 
in my despite. — Od. May a friend 
speak the truth without a breach of 
friendship ? For the love of the 
gods, cast not forth this man un- 
buried ! Hate not so fiercely as to 

tread Justice under foot. He was 
my foe too : but never will I con- 
ceal this, — that of all the Greeks at 
Troy, Ajax was second only to 
x\chilles. Therefore with no fair- 
ness canst thou slight him. 'Tis 
not the dead man, it is the laws of 
heaven that thou wouldest wrong. — 
Ag. Thou the champion of Ajax? 
thou eager to grace a dead enemy ? — 
Od. I hated him when it was the 
time to hate : in the dead man's 
worth I now forget his enmity. — Ag, 
And thou biddest me bury this 
corpse? — Od. Surely: I myself will 
some day need a grave. — Ag. Thine, 
then, not mine, shall the deed be 
called. To thee I would grant a 
larger boon; but Ajax in death as 
in life is to me most hateful.' {Exit 
Agamemnon, v. 1373.) — There are 
now (v. 1 3 r 5 ) three adlors on the stage 
at once, — Teucer, Agamemnon, 
Odysseus: but Teucer is mute till 
Agamemnon departs (v. 1373). Simi- 
larly in vv. 91 — 117 Odysseus is 
mute while Ajax is present. It seems 
probable that when the Ajax was 
composed the tritagonist was a re- 
cent innovation, admitted only under 
this restri<5lion. 

1316 Kaip6v . . . IXtjXvBcos. ] Ct v. 
34, note. 

1 31 7 |vvJixj/a)v ... <rvWi5o-ci)v.] * If 
' not to embroil, but to mediate, thou 
' art here:' * to help, not in tighten- 
' ing, but in loosing, the knot. ' dirreiv, 
* to tie, fasten,' d/xfia, a knot : aw- 
dirT€LVy here 'to help in tying,' op- 
posed to <7v\Km(jiv. But o-wdirreip 
usually = ' to join together {aiv) :' cf. 
Eur. Suppl. 479, k\-Kl% PpoTo7s xd- 





Tt 8' eariVj avZpe<i ; rrfKoOev yap 'pa-Oofirjp 
l3or)v ^Arpeihwv toSS' eV aXKc/jLO) vcKpo). 

ov yap K\vovT€<i icr/juev ala-'x^larov^; \6yov<;, 
dva^ ^Ohvcra-ev, tovS* vtt dvSp6<; dpTuof; ; 


7roLov<; ; iyoj yap dvBpl o-vyyvco/jLijv e)(^co 
KkvovTi (f)Kavpa avjx^dkelv eirr) KaKa, 

KKTTov, 17 TToXXas 7r6Xets I ^vyrj^e, 
' brings into collision,' — a use of the 
word which must not be confused 
with that in the text. — Cf. Anf. 39 
(Ismene to Antigone), tI dL..\iov<r' 
Siy ^ '(pdiTTovaa TrpoaOeifnjy irXiov, 
'(if Creon's command is absolute), 
* what can I vantage thee by seeking 
' to loose or tighten it ?' Can I make 
it either less or more stringent ? 

1318 civSpcs.] The courteous form 
of address, dvdpes — the honourable 
patronymic, 'ArpeidQy — the desig- 
nation of Ajax as &\Kifios — pro- 
claim at the outset that Odysseus 
has come as a mediator. 

1 319 'ArpciSoiv.] The voice of 
Menelaus, raised in angry alterca- 
tion, had first met the ear of Odys- 
seus. After an interval (=vv. 1160 
— 1226) his attention had again been 
attra6led by the angry tones of Aga- 
memnon. This time his curiosity 
was roused, and he came to see 
what was the matter.— The conjec- 
ture aoO To05' in V. 1312 assumes 
that Menelaus was now present. 
But, if he was present, at any rate 
he was silent : the words /80V 'Ar^ei- 
dQv therefore prove nothing. It is 
true that at v. 11 16 Teucer bids 
Menelaus to go and 3m/^ Agamem- 
non: but it cannot be assumed on 
such slender evidence that Mene- 
laus did in fa(5l return. At a time 

when a third adlor was tolerated 
only as a mute person (v. 131 5, note), 
it is improbable that a fourth adlor 
would have been tolerated at all. 

1320 kXv'ovt^s €<r|i6v. ] Cf. v. 588, 
irpoSovi y^vrj, note. 

132 1 dvoi '08v<r<r€v.] The cour- 
tesy of Odysseus to the disputants 
made his mediatory purpose clear: 
the courtesy of Agamemnon to Odys- 
seus makes it hopeful. 

1322 <rvyyvto|JiTjv ^cd arv|ipa- 

Xeiv.] The infinitive depends on 
cxrfyvibfxriv ^xw as = iraplrj/jn, ffvyx^- 
pQ. Cf. Her. III. 53, aweyivuffKeTo 

fiara iiropdv. — The phrase avyyvu}- 
fx.rji' ^civ occurs also in another 
sense, *to admit of excuse:' Thuc. 
III. 44, iju T€...&wo<f>T^v(a irdvv ddi- 
KoOyras avToiis' ...ijvTe Koi ^x<"^^s Tt 
ffvyyvdj/iiji elev. 

1323 «})Xavpa.] Lobeck shews by 
quotation that <p\avpos was preferred 
to 0aGXos in such phrases as <f>\a\ip6v 
Tt. e'nretf/ irepL tivos, tpXavpus aKOveiv. 

(Tu^iPoXciv ?irT] KaKa.] *To join 
* wordy war:' conviciorum quasi pug- 
nam cojnmittere. Eur. /. A. 830, al- 
axpbv 5i fioi yvvaid ffvpL^dWetv \6- 
yovs : Med. 522, (frav <pl\oi (piXoiat 
ffVfx^dXua' ipiv. Cf. id. Heracl. 458, 
TO? J ffO(f>ois...(x^P°-'' (^vvdirreiy (but 
X67oyj avpdiTTeiv in z. friendly sense, 
id. Suppl. 566). 




rJKOvcrev alaxpa' hpwv fyap ^p rotavTa fie. 

Ti yap a 

ehpaaeVj ware koI pXa^r^v cx^i'P J 


ou <f>7ja iaaeLv rovhe top vcKpov ra^rj<i 
dfwipoVy aXXa irpo^ ^iav Bd'^^eLV efjLov, 

e^eariv ovv elirovri rdXTjOrj (pcXo) 
aol firj^ev rjaaov rj irdpo^ ^vvrjpeT/Jielv; 

1 324 Spwv. . .Toiavra |ic.] * He was 
* doing the like to me,' — z. e. abusing 
me. — iroiew, Spav, like facere, are 
often used to avoid repeating a verb 
of more special sense: cf. v. 11 55, 
Dem. de Cor. p. 242. 28, ipd/rrja-ov 
avTovi' /MaWoy 5' ^70) tovO'' virkp crov 
TTOi'^ffu. Here i^Kovaev alffxpd= 
iydj aiaxpa iXe^a avTOV ^v ykp dpuy 
Toiavra {i.e. al^xp^ X^yup) ip-L 

1325 t£ 7dp pXdpriv ixiwi\ 

' What then hath he done to thee so 
'grievous that (Jo-re KaL) thou art 
' injured ?' ^Xa^rjv ^x^ = /3^/3Xa;i;icat : 
Aesch. £um. 766, us raur' ''Op^a-Trjv 
bpQvTo. pLTf /SXd^aj ^X"''> *so that 
' Orestes for doing this should take 
' no harm.' This seems better than 
to render: — (i) 'What thing hath 
'he done to thee so bad that it is 
'fraught with injury?' — Eur. Ion 
1350, Ix^* S^ Atot tL Kipdos fj rlva 
pxd^rjv; (2) 'What hath he done so 
' bad that he deserves to suffer for it ?' 

1 326 ov 4>T]<riv . . . Idoreiv . . . ctXXd 
Od\|/€LV.] Her. VII. 104, ovK-iuv 
(pevyeiv { = K€\€Vb)v firj (/ievyeip) dXV 
iTriKparieiu: Soph. £/. 71, /iij /a' 
dnpiov dTroaTeL\r]T€ ( = yttij /ne 
p.T)-U^7]<ydi) dXX' dpx^TTKovTOv (sc. 

1329 4vvTip€TH€iv.] Cf. Aesch. Thek 

1^2, dvTtiph-ai ^x^potiTt, 'opponents 

* for their foes :' innjpeTeTv, 'to row 

* obediently,' to ' render service. ' Eur. 
/. T. 599, 6 vax'ffToKwu yap el/x iytb 
rds ^v/ji.<popds, | ovtos 8i avpLirKci : 
Soph. Ant. 541, ^vfiirXovv i/xavTi]v 
ToO irddovs 7roiovp,iv7). In Aesch. 
A^^. 814 the good accord between 
Odysseus and Agamemnon is de- 
scribed by the latter in a different 
metaphor: — /xSvos 8' *OSv(r(revs, oa- 
Trep oy'x cku}v iirXei, | ^evx^eU 'iroi- 
p.os Tjv ifjLol a-€ipa(p6pos, ' when once 
' in harness, worked pleasantly at my 
'side.' — Form. Dindorf keeps the 
vulgate ^wrjpeTfMeiK Lobeck (whom 
Schneidewin follows) ^wrjpeTeiv. He 
observes: — '■'^vvrjpeTp.eiv is nowhere 
' found, except that Dindorf has re- 
' stored it from two MSS. in the 
' verses of Euripides ap. Athen. x. 
'p. 473 D, — in which place i^vTnjpe- 
'reiv (preferred by Matthiaedi^/ra^. 
'p. 101) seems more suitable. Nor 
' is there any other instance of a verb 
' derived from the adjedlive, though 
'of these there is good store, — iirifi- 
' peTp.cs, evifjp€Tp.os, lariperpLos, ^tXi}- 
' perp-os, \evKr]peTp.os, — some of them 
' capable by their meanings of origi- 
'nating verbs. Svvr}p€Tp.€iv is no 
'more Greek than VTrr]p€Tp.€iv.' 




6t7r'' 7) yap etrjv ovk av ev <j)pov<Spf iirel 
^i\ov a iyo) fieyi<TTOv ^Kpyelwv vefica. 

uKOve vvv. TOP avhpa rovhe irpo^ Oeatv 
firj tX^? aOaiTTov wB^ ava\yrjro)<; ^aXecv 
fiTjB* 7] ySta o-£ fi7)Safioo<; piKrjo-drco 

T0<t6vB€ ^Ldeiv CO<TT€ TTjV BlKtJV TTaTclp, 

lulfwl yap ^v 1700* ovro<; €')(dL(no<; arparov, 
i^ ov ^Kparrjaa twv ^A^iXXeLcov lifKcav, 
cX>C avTov e/xTra? ovt iydo tolovB* ifiol 
ovTCLV dri/jLaaaifM av, wa-re firj Xiyctv 
€v avop L06LV apccTTOV Apyeicov, oaoL 
Tpolav d^iKOfieada, TrXrjv 'A^£XA,ea)9. 




1330 6ltt]V OVK &v c5 <{>povwv.] Sc. 
ei/f); dKov<TaifJLi. Cf. O. T. 318, raD- 
ra yap koXQs iyCo | eldCjs St(iXecr'' 
ov yap hv 5e0p' iKdfXTjv, — sc. el fiT] 
didjXeaa. Thuc. I. 68, 6paT€...iTn- 

Pov\e{>ouTas avrois • o'u yap &v 

■nrore K^pKvpdu re viro\ap6irres elxov 
Koi UoTidaiav €To\i6pKovu, — sc. el 
fii] iire^ovXevou. 

1 33 1 <(>CXov ji^YwrTOV.] Aga- 
memnon, to whom Ajax was * most 
hateful' (v. 1373), recognises his 
'greatest friend' in Odysseus— in 
the same man whom the champion 
of Ajax addresses as ' Apia-re ' (v. 
1 381). Thus ol (f>popoOvTei ev Kpa- 
Tovai iravTaxoO (v. 1252); — good 
sense, (pp6yria-Ls, gains every voice, 
while mere dvSpeia, the arrogance of 
physical force, only makes enemies. 
Cf. V. 124, no^e. 

1333 PoXciv] = TT/aojSoXetj' : cf. v. 

1334 TJ pia.] ' Thy vehemence,' 
the stress of thy passion. Cf. Find. 
O. IX. 115, nar/36/fXow jStarctj' vSou, 
''his violent mind.' But in EL 256, 
cXX', 7) ^ia yhp ravr^ dvayKoi^ei fie 
Spdv = T) dvdyKT], ' the force of cir- 

1336 irorl] For Odysseus, the 
death of Ajax, although so recent, 
makes a gulf between the present 
and the past. 

IxOwTTOs.] ' My worst foe :' ' most 
'hostile to me and most hated by 
'me,' — the acflive and passive senses 
being combined. By rendering the 
word infensissimtis, Schneidewin 
imduly excludes the passive sense. 
Cf. v. 1 134 (Menelaus speaking of 
Ajax), fnaovvT' ifilffei. 

1338 ^|xiras.] {Koiirep) 6vTa roihv- 
de, ^/iTTOS ( = 6/ta;s) oi>K Ac drifidffai' 
/it: cf. V. 122. 

1339 ovTci'v.] Elmsley's emenda- 
tion, (i) A majority of the MSS. 
have OVK &v, as in Aesch. T/ieb. 557, 
deGiv 6e\6vTuv av dXrjde^ffaip.'' fyti 
(Mr Paley, &p). In both places Din- 
dorf defends dv. (2) Hermann, ovk 
dv y\ (3) Brunck, oHkovv. (4) 
Schneidewin, ov Kdv. (5) Bothe, 
OVK dvraTifjt.da-aifi' dv. — For the 
double dv cf. v. 537, note: v. 155. 

1 340 %v' av8p* d'pwrrov.] Eur. //er. 
8, Trdvuv I irXelaruiV /ier^axof (U i- 
v^p: Virg. j4en. ii. 426, Rhipats, 
iustissimus units Quifuit in Teucris. 

1 34 1 irXi)v 'AxiXXws.] //. 11. 768, 


waT ovK av eVStVft)? 7* drifia^oLTo (tov 
ov r^dp Ti rovrov, dXkd tou? Oewv v6/jlov^ 
^OeipoL^ dp. dvhpa 3' ov BUacov, el Odvoc, 
^\dnneiv rov icr$X6v, ovS" idv fiicroov Kvpy<i. 

av ravT, ^Ocvo-aeVj tovB^ v7reppba')(eU ifioi; 

eycoy' ifxlaovv B\ rjviic rjv ixiaelv koKov. 

OV yap davovTL kol TrpoaefjL^rjval ere '^^pij ; 

f^V X^^P* 'Ar/oe/Si?, KepBecrcv rot? firj koKoX^. 

Tov TOL Tvpavvov €va€^elv ov paBiov. 





fi4y^ dpia-Tos irjv ^ekaiuSivioi Atas j 
i0/o' *A%tXei/s fj.-fivicv 6 yap 
('AxtX«)s) TToXi) ^epraros ijey. Al- 
caeus {frag. 48) calls Ajax apiarov 
irid' 'Ax^XXea, — Pindar {JV. Vii. 27) 
KpariaTOv ^kxi^^os drep. Hor. Sa^. 
II. 3. 193, -(42a;r ^^^j «^ Achille se- 

1343 TOVS 0€»V VOJIOVS.] Cf. V. 

1 1 29, note. — For the omission of the 
article before deCov, cf. v. 118, ttiv 
0€u)y la^xvf, note: v. 664. 

1344 €1 Gctvot.] For the optative, 
cf. V. 521, €? Ti irdOoi, note. 

1345 riv l<rOX6v.] Agreeing with 
dvdpa. The qualifying epithet gains 
in emphasis by its postponement. 
Schneidewin makes top i<Td\6v the 
subjedl: 6 ia-dXbs ov jSXctTrrei dvSpa 
davbvTa. But Odysseus is arguing 
that, whatever may be the pradlice 
in ordinary cases, a generous foe 
should be respedled after death. Cf. 
vv. 1 3 19. 1 355, I.S57. 

1346 TavTtt.] For the accus., cf. 
6.Hafyrd.vovaiv...iTrr], v. 1096, note. 

1347 ^Ywy.] Cf. V. 104. 

1 348 irpo(r€|JiPi]vai. ] ' Then 
'shouldst thou not do more, and 
'trample upon him dead?' irpoa- 
€fx§^vai, trample upon him in addi- 
tion to overthrowing him. Cf, El. 
455, Kal TToid' 'OpicTTTju i^ vTrepr^pa^ 

vac irodi. 

1349 *Atp€£8t|.] Propitiatory, as 
in V. 1319. 

K^pSco-iv Tots p.11 KaXots.] Odysr 
seus — himself K^pSea eiSws (//. XXill. 
709) — reminds Agamemnon that ovk 
i^ dirapTos 5e? t6 KcpdcUpeiv ^iXeip 
{Ant. 312). Cf. id. 326, TO. deiKd 
Kipdrj TrrifiopcLS ipyd^erat. 

1350 TOV Toi Tvpavvov.] It is not 
easy, Agamemnon says, for a mon- 
arch to maintain order, and at the 
same time to avoid a breach of spe- 
cial duties towards the gods. In the 
interests of good government the 
king is bound to make an example 
of lawless offenders. If the trans- 
gressor has been placed by death be- 
yond the reach of adlual punishment, 
it must be symbolized by indignities 

1357] A1A2:. 

aXX ev Xiyovcri T0t9 <f>l\oi<: Ti,/j,a<! ve/j,€iv. 

KXveiv rhv ia&kov avhpa ^t) tcSi/ iv reXei, 

iravaai* KpaTe2<; tol twv <f>l\(ov viKoofievo^. 

/.i^fimja OTTola (fxorl Tr}V %a/3ii/ 5iScr)9. 

00 ix^po^ avrjpj dXXa yevvaio^ ttot tjv, 


vtKo, yap aperrj fie Trj<; ^^(Opa^ iroXv, 



inflicfled upon his corpse. (See Cre- 
on's speech, in which he reasons thus, 
Ant. 182 — 210, and ib. v. 677, ovtw% 
d/xvvT^^ ia-rl tols Koa/Jt-ovfiiuois.) On 
the other hand evai^eia towards 
Hades and Persephone demands the 
burial of the dead : cf. v. 1 1 29, note. 
— Stage-epigrams upon the evils of 
the Tvpapvis were always popular at 
Athens, where the tyranny of the 
Pjisistratidae had left bitter me- 
mories. Thus Aesch. P. V. 232, 
^oeari yap Trws rovro ry Tvpavvldi \ 
v6(Tr}/xa, rots (piXoiai. htj ireroidhat. 
Soph. Ant. 506, 7) ykp rvpavvU 
iroWd t' dX\' eidaifiovei, | KcL^ecTtv 
Jii)r^ 5pS.v X^yeiv 6^ a ^oOXerac. 

1 35 2 k\v€iv, K.T.X.] Cf. V. 668, note. 

^^353 KpttTcisTot, K.T.X.] 'Know 
that it is a vidlory to be overcome by 
friends.' To be overruled by those 
who are identified with one in sym- 
pathy and interest is no defeat at all; 
their cause is one's own. In Aesch. 
7'Ael>. 713, the phrase n::i) acoktJ is 
explained to mean, 'a vi(5lory con- 
sisting in- defeat,'— a wise deference 


to the judgment of friends. Cf. v. 
484, Sbs duSpdffiv 0/Xois | yyiafirji 
KpaT7]<rai. — For the genitive after 
viKcia-dat, as implying inferiority and 
therefore comparison, cf. Eur. Mai. 
315, (nyT}<T6pL€(Tda, KpeiaaSvuy viKib/xe- 
vol ( = "^(Tcoves 6yT€s) : so TjTrdffdai, 
iXarrovadai, Kpareiffdai, fieiovffdaiy 

1356 ^x6p6v.] Menelaus had 
maintained the impropriety of grant- 
ing burial to TroX^/wot (v. 11 32), — a 
view partly sanctioned by the reli- 
gious sentiment of Greece. The ran- 
cour of Agamemnon declares itself 
in a plainer and more repulsive form. 
He openly advocates the mainte- 
nance towards the dead of private 

1357 viK$ -ydp, K.T.X.] 'Yes: 
with me his worth far outweighs his 
enmity. ' Properly— y] dper^ yiKq! /*e 
/xaXKoit TJ i] (x^pa. But since wic^i 
involves the notion of comparison, 
it is followed by a genitive, as if we 
had — T] dp€T^ irap'ifiol wo\i> Kptiff* 
awv icrl T^s ix^P°-^' 


178 2000KAEOT2 

TOLolBe fiivTOt. ^cSre? efiifXTjKToi, fipoToU. 

r) Kapra iroXKol vvv <I>lKoi Kav6t><; iriKpoL 

TOlovaB^ eTTaivei^ Brjra av KTciaOai (j>iXov<i; 

cTKXrjpav eiraivelv ov ^tXc3 '^v^rjv iyw. 

^/Aa9 (Tif B€iXov<; T^Be Orjfiepa ^aveU. 

avBpa<; /juev ovv "FtWrjac irdcnv ivBUov;. 



1358 ToiofSc, K.T.X.] 'Nay, men 
of thy sort the world calls unstable.' 
(pltXtjictoi,' dcTTaroi xal evfAerdpoKoi. 
Thuc. II. 82, t6 ifiirXifjKrus o^iJ, 'im- 
pulsive vehemence, ' — opposed to true 
dpdpda. Aeschin. </<? Fals. I^gat. 
p. 50. 10, (hveldiffas Si fioi koL voXt- 
relas e/xirXv^iav ('inconstancy,') 
el Teirpea^evKCJs Tpoi ^IXnrwov irpb- 
repov irapeKdXovv iir^ iKdvov roiii 
"BXXrjvas. — jSporots, 'in the sight of 
men:' for the dative cf. v. 1282, 
vplv, note. — Schneidewin, ^porrdv. 
and this is preferred by Lobeck, 
though he reads Pporoh with the 
MSS. Cf. Eur. /. ^,922, XeXoyia-p.^- 
voi yap ol Toiold^ elalv ^porwv. But 
no instance is produced of such a 
pleonasm as ol roLoide <pwT€s ^po- 
rCov. Or if taken with the predi- 
cate ^fjLTrXrjKToi, (pures is weak. 

1359 vi5v KttiSGis.] 'Now... 

and anon.' vvv p.h...vvv S4 are not 
used like nunc — mmc. The vvv 
must therefore be taken literally. 

iriKpoL ] Infensi. Aesch. Cho. 
226, rot's (piXTaTovs yhp otda v^v 
vvTas irtKpods. ' We call a man un- 
stable who veers from hate to love.' 
— 'And yet there are enough who 
veer from love to hate. ' The irony 
is more covert than in v. 1361 ; but 

there is a reference to v. 133 1. A- 
gamemnon — recently so cordial in 
liis protestations — was already suffi- 
ciently TTiKpos to use the sneering 
word * l/xTrXrjKTOL.^ 

1360 TOiovo-Se] i. e. roiis ev/Ac- 
ra/SoXoi/s : — with the implied sarcasm 
that Odysseus himself was a friend 
of this sort. Cf. v. 1346. 

1 36 1 orKXripdv liraivciv, k. t. X.] 
Instead of making a dire<5l reply, 
and so embittering the altercation, 
Odysseus borrows the other's phrase 
only in order to turn aside his ques- 
tion. The same adroitness was exer- 
cised more than once in his dialogue 
with Athene : w. 78, 80. 

1362 8€iXovs...4>aveis.] 'Thou 
wilt make us (Menelaus and me) 
seem cowards;' — 'it will be said 
that Teucer's threats (w. 1155: 
1 3 1 3 — 1 3 1 5 ) frightened us into yield- 
ing.' — (paveis i)iu,ds = TroLrjaeis ^aive- 
cdaL 7]fias: cf. v. 1020, <f>aveis, note. 

TfSe Giiix^pcj.] • This day '—/. ^. 
'ere thou hast done:'— a mode of 
giving emphasis to the assertion. 
Cf. Plant. Asin. III. 3. 40, hodie 
nunquam ad vesperum vivam. For 
the crasis cf. v. 778, note. Schnei- 
dewin, as there, rriZ^ kv "h/i^pg.. 

1363 n^v o€v.] Immovero. Plato 

1370] MAS. 

dv<a^a^ ovv fi€ tov veKpov dairreLv idp; 

eycoye* koI yap avTO^ evOdS' L^ofiat. 



Tc3 yap fie fiaWop cIko'S rj ^fiavTO) irovelv; 

aov apa rovpyov, ovk ifiop KeKXtja-erai. 

g59 av TTOirja-rj^j iravraxv p^^o"T09 7* ecei, 

a\X' ev ye fievTOC tovt eirLOTaa, co? iyda 




Phaedr. p. 230 A, 20. a/j' ov roSe 
ijv TO dipSpojf i(j>* 6irep ^yes rjfjkas; 
$AI. TOVTO fjih odu avTO. 

"EXXijo-i.] For the dative cf, v. 
1282, no^^. 

1365 ^tt-ye.] Cf. vv. 104, 1346. 

Kttl 7dp avTo's, K.T.X J ' For I 
myself will come to that,' — sc. tls to 
daTTTeadau Here, — as in a former 
case, — the merciful dispositions of 
Odysseus spring from a sense that he 
himself is liable to the same ills for 
which he pities others. Cf. v. 124, 
*I pity (Ajax) in his misery..., con- 
sidering my own case no less than 
his. For I see that all of us who 
breathe are nothing more than phan- 
toms or fleeting shadows.' For ?|o- 
M-aCy cf. 0. C. 273, vvv <5' ovBh c/Scbs 
Iko/itjv W Ikoimtjv, — i.e. 'have come 
into my present plight.' 

1360 H irdvv (((Jioia, k. r. X.] 

* Truly in all things alike each man 

* works for himself,' — iaifTip^ *in his 
*own interest.' Cf. Eur. //. F. 387, 
(Heracles) i^^irpacffe fiox^oyy | Mv- 
Ktjyaltf} Topup Tvpivycp, — 'working 

/or Eurystheus.' That airrt^ is the 
dat. commodi, is shewn by v. 1366, — 

'And for whom should I work more 
fitly than for myself?' But Dindorf, 
Hermann, Lobeck, Schneidewin 
make avT<^ depend on Sfiota: * truly 
every man does all things like 
himself,' — consistently with his own 
chara(fler;— meaning that Odysseus 
is consistently regardful of his own 
interest. To this version there are 
at least two objedlions: — (i) Its 
incongruity with the next verse, in 
which ry, i/xavT<f are manifestly 
dativi commodi. (2) iroret loses its 
special force, and is reduced to a 
mere equivalent for wotct. But the 
true meaning is: — *When a man 
takes trouble^ it is always for some 
selfish end.' 

1369 iravTaxTi.] *In any case,' 
—'whether you take an a(5live part in 
the burial of Ajax, or merely abstain 
from hindering it,' Cf. v. 1241, 
•jTcwraxoG, tiote. Hermann and Lo- 
beck read ircwToxoi;. Here it would 
mean *on all grounds,' rather than 
*in any case.' 

Xfn]o-T6s.] Cf. 410, -XjprhailUiVy 

1370 dXX* €i5 -yj |i^VTOi, K.T.X.] 

12 — 2 




(Tol fiev ve/ioi/Jb av rrjcrBe koI fiei^co xapiV 
ovTOf; Be Kci/cel KavdaS' wv cfxoL'y 6/jLoo<; 
e^dcaTO^ ecrrai. aol Be Bpdv e^eaO" a XPV'>' 

0OTt9 a\ ^OBva-aev, firj \eyei yvwfJLy o-o^ov 
<j)vvai, TOiovTOV opra, fJuSpo^ ear avr}p. 

KCLi vvv ye TevKprn raTro TODS' ar/yeWofjLat 
oaov TOT e^Ppo^ ^, Toaovh^ elvac ^t\o9. 
KOL TOP OavovTa TovBe avvddirTeLv OiXco, 
KoX ^v/iTToveiv Koi fiTjBev iWetireiv oaov 

*Nay, (dXXa) but {fUvTw.) of this be 
very sure,' — ye emphasizing eC. Cf. 
Track. 1 107, dW eD 7^ tol t65' i<sQi\ 
Ant. 1064, dXV c5 7^ roi Kdriadi. 

1372 ouTos] A?as. 
KaKCk KavOdS' (l»v.] 'As on earth, 

(^i'^ci5e uv), so likewise in the shades 
(e/c6t):' cf. V. 855, noU. 

1373 ^ XFQ5-] The short forms 
XP^s, XP5, = XPT7f«s,X/>!/f«, are read 
in Soph. £/. 1373, ctre x/>?7S 6apetv: 
Ant. 887, c?re xp^ Qdvelv (Dindorf): 
Cratinus ap. Suid. s. v., vvv yhp hi] 
vol Trapd ixh' decr/xol \ ruv rfneripcoy, 
irapd. 6' dXX' 6 ti xPV^- ^^ Enr.//ipp. 
345, Ar. Ack. 659, instead of XPV^, 
XPVf Dindorf now reads XP"^- 

Exit Agamemnon. 

1376 — 1420. Odysseus. * And now 
I offer to Teucer a friendship as 
thorough as our former enmity; and 
I would bear part in honouring the 
brave dead. — Teucer. Brave Odys- 
seus, thou hast earned my fullest 
thanks ; and hast deceived my reck- 
oning much. For though thou wert 
this man's bitterest foe, thou alone 
hast taken his part against those 
who would have exulted over the 
dead. May Zeus, may the avenging 
Fury and effedtual Justice give them 
their reward ! But in these rites I 
"fear to let thee share, lest so I grieve 
the dead. In all else work with us; 
and know that we count thee a true 
friend.— 6>^. As thou wilt; I obey 
thee, and depart. [^Exit Odys&eus) 


— Teucer {to />4^ Chorus and Attend- 
ants), Enough, — let us delay no 
more. Haste, some to dig the grave, 
— some, to place the caldron for 
ablution, — let others bring the war- 
rior's armour from his tent. And 
thou, child, help me to raise this 
prostrate form, from which the dark 
tide still gushes. Help each and ail 
in the service of the dead man, than 
whom a better was never served on 

1376 dYy^XXo| 4>^O90 
* I announce myself to be a friend ;' 
/. e. * I offer friendship.' In this 
sense, usu. iirayyi\\o/j,ai (projiteor): 
Dem. Laerit. p. 938, rama yh.p kie- 
ayykWer a.1 Scti^y cZ^at, — *in these 
things he professes to be clever :* cf. 
Soph. 0. T. 147, TwvSe yb.p xd/>u*| 
KoX devp' ^^Tjixev, (Lv 35' i^ayyiXKerai, 
i. e. ' the matters which e'en brought 
us hither were those which this man 
broaches ofkis oton accord'' — (before 
our petition has been made). 

1377 TOT*.} Olim. Cf. V. 650, 

tj.] An old Attic form, from the 
Ionic ia, for the first person of the 
imperf.; in Homer lengthened ^a. 
It occurs also in O.T. 1123. — Her- 
mann, Lobeck, Wunder, rjv. 

1379 |j,T]8^ cXXefirekv.] 'Omit no- 
thing* {ix-qhiv, the accusative; not aii 
adverb). Cf. Plato Phaedr. p. 2 72 B, 
6 Ti Stv aiiTwu Tij iWeiwri X^ywv. 

&(rov'.] SaMf, the can_jedlure of 

1389] AIAl 181 

j^rj To?9 apL(TTOi,<; dpBpaacv irovelv ffporov^. 1380 

apuTT Oov(rarev, irdvr e^oj a iiraLveaaL 
Xoyoiar Kai yH 6\lreu(7a<; iXTrlSo^ ttoXv. 
TOVTtp yap wj/ exOcaro^ ^Apyelcov dvrjp 
fi6vo<i 7rape(rT7)<: ')(ep(Tlv, ovh^ erkri^ irapwv ff J^^ 
davovTL TftJSe fc3i/ €^i>/3^tcrat fjuiya^ 1 385 

W9 o (j-TpaTrjyo^ 0V7nl3p6vT7)T0<i /jLoXdoVy 
avTO^: T€ ')((o ^vvat,fio<i rjOeXTjadrrjv 
Xay^TjTOV avTov eK^aXetv Ta(j)rj<; drep. 
TOiydp a(f) ^OXvfjuTTov rovB^ 6 irpecr^evwv iraT^p 

Person and Elmsley, is adopted by 

1382 XoYowri.] *I can wholly 
praise thee in words:'' i.e. *I can 
offer thee the fullest tribute of my 
thanks^ — although it is not in my 
power ?/)7otj ce njxav, by allowing 
thee to take part in the funeral rites 
of Ajax (v. 1394). 

KttC ji.* ^xjrewas IXirCBos.] 'And 
thou hast deceived my reckoning 
much:' lit., 'cheated me of my ex- 
pe(ftation:' \f/eij5eip taking a genitive, 
since it has the general sense of de- 
priving. - Cf. Ar. Thesm. 870, /trj 
^peOaov, <5 ZeO, riji iviovaijs iXviSos. 
In this sense usu. the passive, like 
a<pd\\e<r6ai (56^7??, etc.); cf. v. 177, 
ivdpuv \ Tpevjdeiaa. — Madv. Syn^. 
57 b. — For iXTTiSos, cf. v. 606, nofe. 

1384 x€po"£v.] * With staunch help,' 
— lp7V Kal oi \6y(f. While others, 
X67V ^tXoDj'res, did not venture to 
stir in the cause of Ajax, Odysseus 
took a.n active Y>a.rt, x^P<^^v irapiaTrj, 
—gave a pracftical proof of goodwill 
by coming to the spot, and protest- 
ing in person against the sentence of 
the Atreidae. 

irapwv.] *In this presence,'— in 
the presence of the dead. Cf. v. 
1 1 56, Jtote. 

1385 6av6vTi t«v.] O. C. 13, ^e- 
vol rrpbs Aardv: ib. 148, k6.ttX <Tf-u- 
Kpo2s fiiyas upfiovv. ib. 622, ^//vxp^s 
Tror' avTuv dep/ibu dtfia Trlerai. 

1386 »s...i^0eXT)<raTriv.] A com- 
pressed phrase for w? irXi^rjv iKelvu 
{i<t>v^pi(Tai)y idikovT€y k. r. X. For 6 
ffTparrjybs, aMs re koI & ^ivaifio^ 
(instead of 6 re aTparrjybs koI 6 ^w- 
ai/jLos), cf. 0. C. 462, ivd^ioi fih Ot- 
Slirovs KaTOiKTlaaiy \ airrbs re ira?5J; 
6' aUe. For the sing, participle, — 
fioXuv 6 (XT p. KoL 6 ^iv. ijdtkqad.- 
TTjVf — Schneidewin compares Eur. 
Ale. 734, ippujv vvv aiirds XV <f^' 
oiKT^aaad (roi...yr]pd<rK€T€. 

oviriPpdvTtjTOS.] 'Crazy:' infa- 
tuated with self-importance. Cf. v. 
1272. Usually ^Ai/3/)6i^r77Toj, attonitus, 
'thunderstruck,' — stupefied by the 
visitation of Zeus : see Xen. Anab. 
III. 4. 12, TaiTTjy 8^ TTjv vdXiv toXl- 
opKuv 6 Hepadv ^aaiXeds ovk iSiJi/aro 
oUrt XP^^'V ^Xetv o&re ^Iq.' Zciis 5^ 
in^povT-^TOVi iroiec Toi>s ivoiKoutnas, 
Kal oxjTwt kdXb). Cf. Aesch. P. V. 
367 ff., K€pavvbi...ti ai)Tbv e^^irXt]- 
fe Twu i\{/7}y6puu \ KOfiiraafidTuv ' 
<Pphai yhp eli auros rvirels \ i<p€' 
\f/aXiJ!}d7j K&^e^povT-fjdt] (rdivoi. 

1389 'OXviiwrou Tov8'.] 'The 
heaven above us :' "OXu/xtoi, in a 
general sense, the abode of the gods, 
— not Mount Olympus in Mysia (v. 
881). Cf. ^«/. 758, dXX* 01) Tbpy 
'OXvfiTOv t<rd' 6ti \ xa^pwi* ivl f6- 
yoiffi Sewdaeti ifi^: O.C. 1564, yij* 
re irpoffKvvovvd' &fia, \ Kal rbv deup 

i82 XO^OKAEOTS [1390 

fMvr]fi(ov T 'Eptw? /cat Te\e(7<\>6po<i Alktj 1390 

KaKoix; KaKm (jyOelpeiav, oxrirep rjdeXou 

rhv avhpa Xcofiat^ eK^aXelv ava^lco^. 

ae B\ c5 yepatov cnripfjLa AaepTov Trarpo^^ 

Td(j)Ov fi€V OKVQ) Tovh* iiTL-^^aveLV eav, 

firj T(p BavovTV tovto Bvax^ph irom' 1 395 

TCL S' dXKa Koi ^vfiTrpaaae, Kel Tiva arpaTov 

1390 *Epivvs...A£Kti.] The Fury, 
'mindful,' patient, follows in the 
track of guilt: Justice at length 
* brings the end,' — deals the decisive 
blow. — ^Justice, Dike, represents the 
abstrad principle : the Fury repre- 
sents rather the craving of the in- 
jured dead for revenge. In Aesch. 
£um. 468—535 the Erinys argues 
at length for the identity of her in- 
terests with those of Justice, — shew- 
ing that, closely as the two avenging 
powers are often associated, they 
were regarded as embodying distino: 
ideas. Cf. Aesch. A^. 1407, fid. t^v 
T^Xciov TTJs ifirjs iraibbs AlKr]v,\ 
"Attjv t\ ^EpLvvy d\ atai r6v5' I- 
(r(Pa^^ iyu. 

1393 Aa^pTOv.] Cf. V. I, Aap- 
rioVf note. 'The son of Laertes' 
was the ordinary designation for 
Odysseus, vv. 1, loi, 380: his ene- 
mies loved to call him 6 Xiaicpov 
(v. 190). Hermann points out that 
AaipTov is more effe<5live in this 
place in the senarius than Aaprlov 
would have been : and thus /%z7. 
614, d Aaiprov tokos: id, 366, Eur. 
I.T. 533, 6 Aaiprov ydvoi. 

1394 Td<j>ov] = Ta0^s, 'these rites.* 
//. XXIII. 679, 6s TTore GiJ/SacrS' ^Xde 
SedovirdTOS Ol8i.ir68ao | ^s rdtpov, — 
not, 'to the tomb,' — but, 'for the 
burial :' and so Thuc. II. 47, roidade 
6 rd(f>os iyivero. 

4m\|/aveiv.] ' To meddle with.' Cf. 
'E.vs. Suppl. 317, <l7w»'05 17 ^a>. 

1395 (11] T^ OavovTt, K.T.X.] The 
dead man's spirit would be vexed if 
one hostile to him in life were suf- 
fered to bear part in the funeral rites. 
Cf. El. 439 — 447, where Eledtra 
comments on the hardihood of Cly- 

taemnestra in sending offerings to 
the tomb of the husband whom she 
had murdered, — such offerings being 
dva-p,eveis xoai {td, 440). Simi- 
larly in Eur. If. F. 1360, Heracles, 
having slain his children, bids the 
Theban elders bury them: — 56s roia- 
de T6p.^(f\..ip.^ ykp oiK i^ v6/j,os. 

1396, 7 rd 8' dXXa il|o(i€v.] 

Schneidewin enclosed vv. 1396, 7 
in brackets, as spurious. The only 
reason which he assigns in his criti- 
cal note ad loc. is that Odysseus 
would not have replied dW ■fiQ^Xov 
likv (sc. iiri^f/aj^eiv toO rdtpov), if ^ijp.- 
irpaaa-e had intervened. This diffi- 
culty seems imaginary. No real am- 
biguity is caused by \ip.irpa<T(Te com- 
ing between iTri\l/a6€iv and ijdeXov: 
for no one could doubt that ijdeXov 
referred to the immediate service 
which Odysseus had offered, and the 
reje(5lion of which made it necessary 
that he should withdraw for the pre- 
sent. Schneidewin conceived the 
connexion of vv. 1393 — 99 (omitting 
96, 7) to be as follows: — 'Thee, son 
of Laertes, I cannot indeed {p.h) per- 
mit to assist at the burial, lest I 
grieve the dead ; (no — thou hast got 
permission for it) ; — I will do all the 
rest: — yet (5^, answering to y.h in 
*394) be sure that we esteem thee.' 
But the genuineness of vv. 1396, 7 
appears defensible on three grounds. 
( I ) The general context. If the verses 
are omitted, Teucer's words are left 
singularly curt and ungracious. O- 
dysseus had offered his services and 
sympathy in the largest sense: in 
this particular instance Teucer can- 
not accept them : but it seems unfit- 
ting that he should rejedl them alto* 

1400] AIAS. 

deT^iff KOfiL^€iVf ovBev 0X709 e^ofieu* 
iydo Be rdXXa Trdvra Tropavvoo' cv 8^ 
dvTjp Kaff rjixdf; iaOXo^ wv iirlaraao, 

aXX rjdeXov fiiv el Be firj ^<ttI aoi (j)l\ov 



{jether. (2) The correspondence of 
the words to. 5' &\\a Kal ffv/Mirpaaffe 
with the terms of the offer made by 
Odysseus. He wished (v. 1378) <tw- 
darrreiv Kal cv/nroveiv. The reply 
is that he cannot aw6dirr€iVy but is 
welcome cvfiiroveiy, — to assist them 
in other ways, — as by providing for 
the safety of Tecmessa and Eurysa- 
ces. (3) The awkwardness of the 
parenthesis iyCj Sk rAXXa Trdvra irop- 
ffvvu, if w. 1396, 7 are omitted. In 
Schneidewin's view the correlative 
to fi4u in V. 1394 would then be the 
S^ after o-v in v. 1398 : but it ought 
rather to be the 64 after iyd. 

1396 Tci 8* aXXcu] i. e. in execut- 
ing the other mandates — ^beside di- 
re(5lions as to his burial — which Ajax 
had left for Teucer (vv. 565 — 570: 
v. 689:) viz., care for Tecmessa and 
for the Salaminians, and the charge 
to take Eurysaces to Telamon. 

Kal Ivjjnrpao-crc.] * In all else e^en 
(kuI) work with us.' Cf. v. 1290, 
Kal 6poecs, note. (This seems better 
than taking Kal...Kai as both. ..and.) 

K€t Tiva o-Tparov.] * And whomso 
else in all the camp thou wouldst 
bury, we will make thee welcome.' 
Teucer's charadler, as portrayed in 
the Ajax^ is that of an honest, im- 
pulsive man, — vehement in express- 
ing his animosities, and not very 
adroit in turning compliments. In 
the first plenitude of his gratitude to 
Odysseus he began by saying that he 
had not expedled anjrthing so good 
from him (v. 1382). And here he 
employs a phrase which looks very 
much like a sneer. What he means 
to say is, — *the reason why you 
cannot assist on this occasion is a 
special reason, — a matter over which 
I have no control. I recognise the 
honour which would be conferred 

by your presence at the grave of any 
man in all the camp.' 

1397 KO|i£t€iv.] Properly, /i7 /a/f^ 
up for burial (cf. El. 1 1 14) : then in 
the general sense of * honouring with 
burial rites.' Eur. Andr. 1264, y6- 
Kphv KOfil^bjv rSpde Kal Kpv\pat x^ovL 

i398TaXXa ■jtovto.] i.e. the fune- 
ral. In the 5th edit, of Schneide- 
win, Nauck places this verse, as 
well as the two preceding ones, in 
brackets, on the ground that r&Wa 
wdvTa is unintelligible. Wolff pro- 
posed T&/xd irdvra: Morstadt ravra 
irdvra. In the next line Nauck pro- 
poses to change dvfip into drdp. 

1399 Ka6* TjiJids.] *In our regard,* 
—in relation to us. Cf Her. vii. 
158, t6 5^ Kar* vfiiai, *as far as you 
are concerned:' Eur. Andr. 740, kh» 
rh \ovKhv y I ordj^pwp Kad^ rjfias (to 
usward), (r(i(f>pov^ dvTi\i^^f/eTai. 

1400 dU* V(0€Xov v.iv.] 'Well, I 
had the wish.' Cf Ar. J?an. 866, 
i^ovXSfjLijv fihv ovK ipi^eiv ivddS€'\ 
oiiK i^ iaov ydp iariu dywp vfv, i.e. 
' my first inclination was not to con- 
tend.' This idea is more usually 
expressed by ijdeXou &v : e.g. v. 88. 
But it appears inaccurate to say that 
where ijdeXov is found alone there is 
an ellipse of &p. The simple imper- 
fe6l states the preexisting wish as a 
fa/l. The imperfedl with dv states 
merely that, if circumstances were 
propitious, the wish would have been 
formed. Similarly ?5et instead of Wet 
dv. e.g. Dem. Olynth. I. p. 9, d &- 
vavres wfioXoyov/xev 4>i\nnrov ttjv d- 
p-fivypf irapa^alveiv, oCiSiv aXXo ^5et t6» 
vapibvra \4yeiv : i. e. * on that suppo- 
sition, it was a duty for the orator, 
&c.' (whether any one performed it 
or not) : #3et dv, ' it would be the 
duty of any particular orator who 
cameforward.' — Madvig.S)'«/.§i i8a. 

i84 2:04>OKAEOTE 

irpcurtretv rdB^ ^fid^, eifi, e'7raiveaa<; to aop, 

a\t?* rjZrj yap ttoXu? eKTeTarat, 
')(p6vo^. aW' ol fiev KoiXfjv KaireTov 
^epct ra'^vvere, rol 3' vyjrljSaTov 


6ear6' eiriicaLpov* 

fiia S' e/c kXictuv; dvZpwif tXi] 



1 40 1 eiraiv^o-as to cdv.] 'Ac- 
quiescent in thy will :' t6 cbv, * thy 
did;um:' cf. v. 99, note. In the 
sense of iyaTrap, *to be content 
with,' alvelv is more usual than 
iwaiveip: e.g. Eur. Ale. 1, drjffffav 
Tpdirel^av aiviffai. Hor. Od. III. 29. 
53, {Fortunam) Laudo ntanentem: si 
celeres quatit Pennas, resigno quae 

Exit Odysseus. 

1402 dXis' ii'Stj Yap, k.t.X.] Nauck 
(in Schneidewin, edit. 5) suggests 
that w. 1403 — 1408 were interpo- 
lated by a later hand. He objedls 
(i) to the phrase iKriraTai xpo^o^i 
— proposing to read &\ls' ijSrj yap 
pSkvs iKT^Tarai: (2) to the mention 
of the KoLXrj KoiireTos, — borrowed, as 
he thinks, from v. 11 65: (3) to the 
Doric ToL for ol. Of these objec- 
tions the last is the only one which 
has any weight. See the notes. 

CKTCTarai.] ' The delay has been 
long drawn out.' Morstadt, objedl- 
ing, as Nauck does, to the phrase 
e/cr^Torai XP^^o^t proposed X670S. 
liUt if we can say iKreiveiv ^lov, alQ- 
va, why not iKrelvetu xp^^^ov 1 

1403 01 fi^v.] The attendants who 
came on the stage with Teucer (v. 
977) are desired to go and prepare 
' the hollow bed' at the spot already 
chosen by Teucer. At v. 1165 the 
Chorus had said to him — (nrevaov 
KoiXrjv Kairerov riv' Ideiv. At v. 
1 1 83 he went to seek a place for 
the grave,— attended by the Trpda- 
TToXoi who are now to dig it. 

1404 Taxvv€T€.] Properate. raxo- 

viiv Ti, for ffirev^eiv ri, does not 
seem to occur elsewhere ; but Taxi- 
v€iv Tivd, 'to hurry' a person, Eur. 
A/r. 255. Cf. Solon/rag. 39 (Bergk 
Poet.Lyr. p. 351) a-K^yhovai 5' ol 
p.kv tydiv, ol di (rl\<piov, j ol S' 6^oi. 

rol.] Doric for ol (and also for 
ot). Elmsley denied the admissi- 
bility of Toi, except in lyrics other 
than anapaests ; and proposed t6v 6': 
*quod lure ab Hermanno reiicitur ob 
eam causam quod nullus certus sig- 
nificatur tripus.' (Lobeck,) But rol 
is read in a senarius in Aesch. Pers. 
425, Tol 6', ciVre dOvvovs, k.t.X. 

v^i^arov.] * High-set, ' — sin ce 
the three legs of the caldron formed 
a high stand. Find. N. x. 88, 'A- 
XttitDv vxpl^aToi 7r6Xt€j, * high-placed.' 

1405 dn<j>C'irvpov.] diffde d/x(p[- 
irvpov: 'place the high-set caldron 
amid wreathing flames.' Cf. //. 
XXVIII. 702, fx^yav TpLiroS' ifiirvpi- 


XovTpwv.] //. XVIII. 343, erdpoi- 
CLV iKiKKero 5?os 'AxiXXej)s | djut-cpi 
TTupl (TTrja-ac Tpiiroda ptiyav, 6(ppa rd- 
Xtcrra | lidTpoKKov Xoiaetav aTrb ^p6- 
rov alp-aToevTO. Lucian de Ludlu 1 1, 
/Aerct ravra S^ (after placing the vav- 
\ov in the dead man's mouth) Xoi- 
aavres avToiis {roi/s vcKpoi/s), ws ovx 
Uavijs TTJs Kdro} Xlfivrji Xovrpbv elvai 
Toh iK€i, Kal p.TL)pi^ Tip KaXXi<TT({} xp'- 
aavres rb cQ)ixa...KaX ffTeipapuaavm 
To7s (hpaiois dudecri, TrporldePTai Xap.- 
irpm dfiipiicraPTei. 

1406 liriKaipov.] Governing the 
genitive XovTpQp: so oUeios, a\X6- 
Tpt6s Tipos, Madvig Synt. § 62 R. 

141 5] AIA2. 

Tov VTraaTTiBiov k6(t/jlov (j>ep€Tco. 
TTol, av Be irarpo^ 7', oaov lo-')(yei<;, 
(J)iK6t7jtc Oljwv 'jfkevpa'; avv ifiol 
raaS' eiriKov^L^^' ere yap Oepjial 
(7vpLyye<; avco (pvacocTi fiekav 
/xez/09. aSX aye ird'^, <^l\o<; oaTi<i dvrjp 
(f>7}al Trapelvaty (Tovadco, ^drco, 

To58' dvBpl TTOVOOV TO) TTCLVT dp^aOu) 




1408 vira<nrC8iov K6<r|jLov.] The 
armour worn under the shield : 'the 
body-armour.' In bequeathing his 
shield to his son, Ajax had dire(5led 
that the rest of his armour should be 
buried with him (w. 574 — 577). 
The word itraairl^Los does not occur 
elsewhere in this technical sense. It 
usually means simply ' under arms :' 
e. ^. audi. Rhes. 740, uTracnrfStoj 
KoiTos, ' sleep in armour. ' 

1409 irai, <rv 8«.] *Cum subito 
sermonem ad alium ab alio conver- 
timus, primo nonun ponimus, deinde 
projtovien, deinde particulam,'' Per- 
son ad Eur. Or. 614. QL 0. T. 
T096, lij} ^oi^€, col S^ TcuJr' dpiar^ 

irarpos y.] If the ye is right, it 
belongs to ai/ 5i: * and do thou too.' 
Dindorf suggests that it might be 
got rid of by transposing &tov Urx^^i-'i 
and TrXevpoij ciip ifioi. 

1 4 10 irXcvpds.] So Hermann, 
Lobeck, Schneidewin. Some MSS- 
have irXevpas ra/rde. Elmsley {ad 
Heracl. 824) "rrXevphv rovde, on the 
ground that the neuter irXevpd, not 
vXevpai, is used by the Tragedians. 
The neuter wXevpai certainly appears 
to have been preferred : cf. v. 1253 ; 
Eur. Or. 223, 800; Ale. 366; Bacch. 
740. Porson ad Hic. 814 adopts irp6^ 
(Toio-i irXevpois in place of vpbs ff'ytri 
vXevpys. But the fem- plur. is found 
in //. XX. 170, xxiiL 716, XXIV. 19 ; 
Aesch- Eum. 837, ris pC virodierai 
x\€vpa.% iSiiya ; 

141 1 in ^olp Ocp)ia£ |i^os-] 

* For still the warm channels spout 
up their dark tide.' The blood 
from the wound was still welling up 

through the dead man's veins, and 
issuing at the nostrils (v. 918, 0i/- 
cCjvt'' &v(a irpbs pivas): this hemor- 
rhage would be stopped by raising 
the body upright. — (r^jpcyyes, 0X^/3«s, 
the veins : Lobeck quotes Empedo- 
cles V. 250, a-apKuy aijpiyyes: cf. Ot/. 
XXII. 18, avXbs dvi. pivas iraxir 
■^X0€v I a't'/ittTos. — /i^wy, the strong 
gush of blood : Aesch. A^. 1034, 
Trpiu ai/xaTTjpbu i^acppi^^eadai p.ivos. 

1414 <j)Ti<rl irapetvou.] Od. v. 450, 
UiTTis hi Toc cUxoixai ehai: Soph. 
£■/. 9, <pdffK€iv MvKifjvas ray iro- 
Xvxpijcovs bpdv. Theocr. xxii. 56, 
I^LTfT dSlKOVs p-'^t' i^ iZ'iKiav (pddi 
Xevac-etp : Catull. iv. i, Phaselus 
ilk quern videiis^ hospites, Kit/uisse 
navium celerrimus. 

1415 T^8' dvSpl irovtSv.] For the 
dative cf. v. 1360, note. 

T^ irdvT d-yaO^.] Cf v. 910, 
6 Trdvra. K(a<p6s, 6 Trdrr' d'CSpis: El. 
301, 6 irdvr' dvaXKLS'. Plato TJuaet. 

p. 194 E, 6 vdvTO. 00^0% irOI.'tJTT^S. 

1416 KovSevC iro) X^ovi 6vtit<3v.] 

* (Serving Ajax, ) and (having served) 
no better man upon earth :' t^5' dvSpl 
irorup, Kcd oiderL irw Xyow (iroi'Tjfras), 
— * serving this all-brave man, than 
whom better was never served on 
earth-* — The verse Atavros, St* ^i', 
K.T.X.J rejc(5led by Dindorf, is re- 
tained by Hermann and Lobeck. 
( i) Hermann gives '.—KovSewl 7' yrtn 
Xifori dfip-wp \ AtavTOi, «c.r.X., — be- 
lieving that Sophocles first meant to 
write — TV vdvT* &ya6<^, \ Kal oS ov- 
5eis X(fuv 6vrfTur, — altered it, by at- 
tra(5lion, to icovSepL 7' (^rivi X<povi 
dvrrrojv, — and then, to replace ou, 
added AlcwTos. (t) Lobeck: — kov-^ 



KovSevL TTft) \(povi Ovrjrcov. 
[Ataz^TO?, OT 7}v, Tore <f>covcoJ] 

yvcovai' irpiv IBelv 8' ouSet? fidvri^ 


6ew irwTroTe "Kt^ovi 6v7)T(Sv \ Atavros, 
K.T.\.y — sc. vovr}(ras. He infers the 
genuineness of the verse Atavros... 
^(av<2 from the fadl that it is unne- 
cessary to the completeness of the 
sense, and would not, therefore, have 
been supplied by a grammarian; 
while at the same time the conclud- 
ing mention of Ajax by name has a 
propriety to which a poet would at- 
tend. Hie vera Aiacis mentio ad ver- 
borum constrttdlionem iam superva- 
canea, ad emphasin vero tarn prope 
necessaria videtur, tit earn neque a 
Grammatico valde desideratam, neque 
a poeta in exitu paene totius fahdae 
praetermissam putem. 

1 41 7 8t* i^v, t6t6 <|>(i)v«.] *I 
speak of the time when he still lived.* 
Meleager Epigr. XXII., r\v Ka\6% 

'H/jdicXeiTos, 5r' 7]v tot 4. 

14 1 8 ISovo-iv.] Almost = Tra^oG- 
(riv: cf. £1. 205, roiis ifibs tde ira- 
T^p I davdrovs abceZs: Eur. Bacch, 
357, TTiKphv pdKXfvciv iv 6ijj8ais 

1419 jJLclvTis.] Praesagus. Cf. 
Ant, 1 1 60, KoX fxdvTLS oidels tQv icpe- 
<TT(hTtav ^poTocs. Track. 1270, ra 
yjkv oZv fx^WovT^ ovSels i<popq^. 

1420 8 Tuirpalet.] Soph. Tereus, 
frag. V. 3, us oi>K ^(TTiu xXJji' Aids 
ovdels \ tQv fieWduTCxJv | rafdas 8 tl 

Xpr) T€Te\^a-6ai. The concluding 

yvfbiMT} fitly sums ixp the moral of the 
play. That moderation by which 
Odysseus prospered, and through 
want of which Ajax fell, depends 
mainly on a just sense of the uncer- 
tainty of human life. 







PA Sophocles 

'»413 The Ajax